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Full text of "A short guide for the use of visitors"

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SKANSEN 



The red line on this map show - th< <4ion..-! v;i\ w ilu 
most remarkable things of Skanseu. >X"-iIk in tlu din c- 
tion of the arrow. 'The arrows, w'nie'n aie put np at 
the ero-^roads, make it easier to find the ri»ht wav. 



1 fW/t&TL* 



GUIDE TO SKANSEN. I. 



THE HISTORICAL AND ETNOGRAPHICAL 

DEPARTMENT OF SKANSEN 




A SHORT GUIDE FOR THE USE OF VISITORS 

BY 

AXEL NILSSON 



TRANSLATED FROM SWEDISH BY NILS KEYLAND 

THIRD EDITION 



PUBLISHED BY THE NORTHERN MUSEUM, STOCKHOLM 



Gti 

3 1 
AH 3 

iiii 



PRINTED BY 
IVAR H^GGSTROMS AKTIEBOLAG 

STOCKHOLM 1911 



THE HISTORICAL AND ETNOGRAPHICAL 
DEPARTMENT OF SKANSEN 



Such objects of culture in Skansen, as are marked by a 

number within a ring, are to be found under 

the corresponding number 

in this guide. 



7 ~ fb --f^ 



I am particularly obliged to Doctor William Evans 
Hoyle, Director of the National Museum of Wales, 
for kindly revising the last edition of this guide (excepting 
The blacksmith's shop and The cow-house from Smaland), 
and I take the opportunity of expressing to him my most 
grateful thanks. 

Skansen, August 1911. 

Bernhard Salin. 



Fabodvallen. "The Summer-seat or somerset".®—© 

Erected in Skansen in 1891 as a copy of a somerset from the parish 
of Morsil in Jamtland. The timber was given by G. Eriksson of Morsil 
member of the Parliament. 

The »somerset» or »somerseat», known in Swedish as the 
fdbodvall, (fig. 1), is a sort of summer residence in the wood* 
land, temporarily occupied for cattle^grazing. 1 Agriculture, 
though practised on a small scale, was originally of only inferior 
importance there; and the cultivated ground was not in the 
first place used for production of fodder for the animals. 
But the selfsown pasture*lands give a scanty produce in 
this northern climate. The pasteurs consequently must be 
the more extensive for the feeding of a growing stock of 
cattle. If moreover, as is usually the case, the ground near 
the farm is more and more required for the cultivation of 
new fields, it is, in order to spare the produce of the con* 
tigous land for wintering, necessary to find pastures or 
»summer*gangs» still further from the farm, often miles away 
in the forests. It then, of course, becomes impossible to 

1 It was in former times with many nations and is still in some parts 
of the world a custom to divide the year between the »winter*houses» 
and the »summer=houses». 

As to the ancient occurrence of the latter form of house in Great 
Britain such names as Somerguage, Somerby, Somersal, Somerset, 
Sommerley, and others afford plenty of evidence. 

The name for a mountain dairy*farm of this temporary kind was »set» 
and »seat» as may be deduced from a number of examples, as Somerset, 
before mentioned, Moorseat, Outseats, Woodseats, Thornsett, Runsett, 
Lord's Seat and others, all of which are proved to be of a pastoral origin. 

Translator's note. 



- 7 - ®-© 

carry the milk there everey day. That is the reason why 
the peasants build a sheal or booth in the outlying district 
for which the young maid, sdterjdntan, bujdntan, bustdrsan, 
leaves in the early summer with the cows and goats. 
There she stays till the autumn, when the men of the 
hamlet arrive to bring home on pack-horses the cheese 
and other milk products that she has prepared during the 
summer. 

It often happens that they break the land around the 
»set», which gradually becomes a real farmstead or, since 
the peasants of a hamlet usually have their abodes lying 
close together, develops into a new hamlet. This in its turn 
causes more somersets to be constructed further away 
in the wilderness. The summer-houses have thus been 
from times of yore the outposts of culture. Of such houses, 
which are called in Swedish fdbodar and sdterbodar, we 
may still trace reminiscences in names of places ending in 
=bod, tboda 1 and =sdter, which are still to be met with in 
provinces where the use of fdbodar has vanished long ago. 

These summer*abodes have, in their method of construe* 
tion, maintained exceptionally old forms, owing to the fact 
that they are used only as temporary dwellings during the 
summer. The desire for comfort which has gradually 
asserted itself in rural communities has left the somersets 
unaffected, and we therefore find in them architectural 
features preserved which were characteristic of a farmyard 
of the North long before the close of the heathen period. 
The buildings lay irregularly dispersed within an enclosure, 
each containing only a single room. The »somerset*maid»,(l) 
fdbodjdntan, lives in the »fire*house» 2 , stdrriset (fig. 2), 

1 We should notice the resemblance between The English word 
»booth» and the Swedish bod. In the Welsh laws »booth» is also men* 
tioned in the sense of »summer4iouse» = Swedish fdbod. 

Translator's note. 

2 Compare the »fire4iouse». Pag. 12. 



<D— © 



which corresponds to the winter^abode in the walley. She 
has her bed on a shelf fastened to the inner gable and 
cooks her food over the open hearth in the middle of the floor. 
There is no chimney the smoke finding its way out through 
a hole in the roof, Ijore, which at the same time serves for 
a window. A »hood», huf, consisting of split logs which 
incline towards the apex, is placed over the Ijore to prevent 
the rain and snow from falling into the fire. That hood, 




Fig. 2. Stdrriset The fire*house. 

however, is usually wanting. There are fixed settles at the 
sides of the room. The door is in one of the gable*ends 
and is protected by a kind of porch formed by the pro* 
jection of the roof and the side^walls. The walls are con* 
structed of round timbers » crosscut » 1 at the corners. The 
roof which rests on round ridges consists of split logs, 
takved, laid alternately in two layers. 

1 »Cross*cut», a word often occurring in this book, is used here as 
a term to signify a special sort of simpler dovetailing. The figure on 
p. 19 shows the arrangement. Translator's note. 



- 9 - ®— ® 

The storehouse, boden or bun, in plan and construction® 
resembles the fire^house, save that there is no fireplace 
nor smoke*hole in the former and that the roof is covered 
with turf instead of split logs. The fixtures consist of 
shelves on which the cheeses, the milk>vessels and other 
household stores have their places. 

The »kitchen*hut» koksskalen, (fig. 3), is intended for® 
the making of cheese and butter. It is shaped like a cone 
and erected of numerous round poles around a skeleton of 
some twelve special main poles, the tops of which are 
bound together by an osier4ie. The lowest third of the 
hut is externally covered with spruce*bark, the rest being 
uncovered so as to allow the smoke from the fireplace to 
escape. The latter, which is situated in the centre of the 
hut, is nearly square and enclosed on three sides by a row 
of low stones. The pan in which the milk is cooked hangs 
on a notched »pole», suspended above the hearth. The 
round shape of the kitchen*hut is noticeable; either we have 
therein a survival of a method of construction which in this 
country preceded the architecture of the rectangular house, 
or we can discern the influence of Finnish immigrants in 
whose native country such huts are still common. 

The drove extends along one side of the enclosure ; and 
it is bordered on the other side by the cattle-pen in which 
the cow-house fdhuset is situated. The cows are milked in® 
the pen in the mornings and evenings. 

The resemblance of the somerset to an old Norse 1 farmer's 
home in its simplest form, such as is known by the de* 
scriptions in the Icelandic sagas, is to apparent and of too 
great interest to be omitted here. The more important build* 
ings lay dispersed within the enclosed courtyard even in 

1 »01d Norse » is here and subsequently used in its widest senee 
expressing what was anciently commonly found in the Scandinavian 
countries. Translator's note. 



OMD 



— 10 — 



the old Norse farmer's house, and each of them was made 
for its own particular purpose and had only a single room. 
There were three buildings at least: the living*house, the 
cookinghouse, and the storehouse. The living*house, in 




Fig. 3. Koksskdlen. The kitchen*hut. 



- ii - CD—® 

which the family lodged and slept, in its whole plan and 
construction resembled the fire^house, stdrriset, in the 
somerset. In the middle of the floor lay the open hearth, 
from which the smoke escaped through a hole in the roof, 
which was the only window in the room. Fixed benches, 
which were used at night for sleeping^places, ran along 
the walls. There was an open entrance^flor, svale, outside 
the doorway in one gable*end. The living^house was cer* 
tainly also used in part for the cooking in smaller farm* 
yards. The cooking^house was intended for baking, brewing, 
cheese*making, and the like. The storehouse, buren, was 
the farmer's larder. Outside the real building site lay the 
outhouses; the stables and the barns. By evolution and 
combination of those primitive buildings the peasant's houses, 
which are still peculiar to different parts of our country, 
have since arisen. 

Eldhuset. The fire-house. 1 ® 

This building previously stood in the somerset of Hjarpesbodar on 
Solleron in Dalecarlia and was given by Mr Oskar Schollin to Skansen 
where it was rejected in the spring of 1905. 

There was originally on an old Norse farmer's premises a 
hearth in only one of the buildings which hence acquired 

1 The name fire^house often met with in old English documents is 
analogous to the old Norse eld*hus. In an English vocabulary of the 
eleventh century it is called »fyr4ius», a form of word that might just 
as well be used in Swedish. Fyr is still in many places in this country 
used in the sense of fire. In historic times in England the name of 
fireshouse was often used to signify the central part of the dwelling* 
house and was then synonymous with the »hall», the »house*part» or 
»house*place», forms which we shall later have occassion to refer to. 

Notwithstanding the difference between the fire*house described here 
and the old English »hall» or »house*place», we take the liberty of 
using a translation, which no doubt corresponds to the original meaning 
of the English word. Translator's note. 



© 



— 12 — 



the name of the »fire*house». The latter was used then 
both as family*room and kitchen. In later times, when 
people began to erect more elaborate dwelling-houses, the 
fire*house would have to remain on its site as a cooking* 
house, and was used for the coarser dressing of food as 
baking, brewing, and cheese*making, retaining its old name 
in many places. 

The somersets in many points reflect an exceedingly 
old-fashioned arrangement of building, and the word eldhus, 
or j eld' us (fire*house) is still used as a name for the living* 






^*fi- 



Fig. 4. Eldhuset The fire*house. From Solleron in Darlecarlia. 



house in some places, as for instance in the north of Dale* 
carlia. In the somersets of other provinces it is called stdrris 
or stores denoting its exterior resemblance to the cooking* 
house; the form of this latter building having no doubt 
been copied in past times from earlier fire*houses which 
were intended for dwelling*houses as well as for kitchens. 
The fire*house from Hjarpesbodar in many respects 



13 — 



©— © 



resembles the stdrris in the somerset from Morsil (com* 
pare page 7). The open hearth in the centre of the floor 
is to be found here also as well as the smoke^hole, Ijoren, 
in the roof above and the fixed benches or bed^shelves 
at the sides. The doorway is in one gable*end, but the 
porch is reduced merely to a short projection of the roof. 
The storehouse, which is usually a separate building, is 
here united with the fire^house at its inner gable— a result 
of the same tendency to combine the various buildings 
that permeates all the history of the evolution of the old 
Norse farmyard. 




Fig. 5. Morastugan. The Mora4iouse. 

Morastugan. The Mora-house. 

This building, which previously stood in Ostnor in the parish of 
Mora in Dalecarlia, was bought by Dr Arthur Hazelius in 1885 for a 
proposed open-air museum. It was erected in Skansen 1891. 

The most primitive form of house, to which we may 
with certainty liken all our peasant structures and which we 



© 



© 



14 



1 

1 


Fig. 6. 

1 s 


i i 
i i 



Fig. 7. 



still find almost unaltered in such buildings as the fire* 

house of the somerset (fig. 6), was early developed so far 

that the open porch was transformed into an enclosed 
entrance hall. The latter was then fur* 
nished with a door in the gable oppo* 
site the doorway of the living-room or 
»house*part» (fig. 7). That position of 
the doors however, one opposite the 
other, did not prevent wind and rain 
from easily beating into the house, when 
they were opened. The outer door had 
therefore, by the close of the heathen 
time, in many places been moved to one 
side of the building and placed at right 

angles to the »house*door». If the inner part of the entrance 

floor is shut off as a separate little room, kove, we have the 

ground*plan which is 

found in the Mora* 

house (fig. 8) and 

in its main outlines, 

is met with in all the 

country livinghouses 

of recent times. The 

Morastuga of Skan* 

sen is built of pine 

timbers, flet*hewn 

with the broadaxe 

and cross-cut 1 at the 

corners. A small 

porch*roof protects the outer door from rain and eaves* 

drop. In the northern provinces, for example in Dalecarlia, 

Halsingland, Harjedalen, and Jamtland, the porch is known 

as barf re (= the German Burgfried). The roof rests on a 




Fig. 8. Plan of the Mora*house. 



1 Compare the note page 8. 



15 



© 



large ridge from which the rafters extend in pairs down to 
the wall*plates or »pans», vdggbanden,. i. e. the uppermost 
timbers of the side^walls. 1 The boards lying on the rafters 
are covered by a layer of birch*bark, which is kept in posi* 
tion by half-round cleavings, the takved. Transverse planks, 
tdckjor, extending one on each side along the bases of the 
slopes, prevent the roofing from sliding down. 




Fig. 9. Longitudinal section of the Mora^house. 

The interior of the house presents several old-fashioned 
features. It is true that the open central hearth has been 
replaced by an ordinary fireplace, lying in the right hand 
corner inside the door, and that the skylight has been 
succeeded by lead4ights in the walls, but the »house=place» 
is still open to the ridge-pole. Such a house is therefore 
called hogstuga (»high*house»). The elaborately carved 



1 The »pans», or »pons», in modern English known as the wall^plates, 
occupied the same place as the vdggband in a Swedish building. 

Translator's note. 



© 



— 16 — 

clothesrails hang from the roof, one at the projecting cor. 
ner of the fireplace, the other further in, dividing the room 
into three parts. In the Swedish provincial laws we find 
various enactments for violations of domicile within those 
limits. The crime was leniently punished if committed be. 
tween the treshold and the fireplace, more rigorously if at 
the fireplace, and most so, if between this and the gable. 




Fig. 10. Interior of the Mora=house. 

One side.wall, viz. that between the fireplace an the gable, 
is occupied by two enclosed bedsteads with elaborately 
woven curtains. Eeach bedstead has two sleeping-places, 
one over the other. The upper place is called trallen. The 
wall.clock, which is of the housefather's own make, stands 
between the bedsteads. The men of Mora practised the 
manufacture of clocks, moraklockor, as a domestic art. 
That is the reason why the »long table», which otherwise 



- 17 - 0_© 

always has its place at the inner gable, has been moved 
to the side opposite the beds so as to make room for a 
clockmaker's bench and a turning*lathe at the fore window. 
Another bedstead is placed in the corner next to that. 
A piece of skin, bejen, which was used as a cradle, hangs 
down from the roof. The part of the room next to the 
door forms, as it were, the kitchen of the house. The 
fireplace stands there bricked together with the baker's 
oven, the chimney, skroiven, serving for both and terminal 
ting at the top in a coroniform superstructure. An upright 
iron*bar, stopen, is found in the fireplace furnished with 
a reversible arm, ringor, on which the pot is hung. A cup* 
board with shelves for the kitchen utensils, made of un* 
painted deal*boards like the other furniture of the house, 
stands in the corner on the left side of the door. The 
towel is hung on the post between the »housedoor» and 
the »chamber door». The »chamber», koven, usually serves 
the same purpose as a storehouse for keeping clothes 
and other things in. As the storehouse is often used for 
nightlodgings, so the chamber, when occasion requires, also 
has to serve for a guest-room. It is covered by its own 
little ceiling which is slanting an lower than the outer roof. 
Under the latter is consequently formed a loft, which is 
reached from the entry by a »stee» or ladder, stikon. 
The Mora*house is only one of the buildings that belong 
to a Dalecarlia yard; the others, such as storehouses, 
stables, and barns, will be erected as soon as possible. 

Moraharbret. The "Mora-harbour". © 

Previously situated in Farnas in the parish of Mora, Dalecarlia. 
Transported to Skansen in 1897. 

Besides the living^house and outhouses there belong to 
every Mora farm, as to every old Norse yard one or more 

Guide to Skansen. I. 2 



© 



— 18 -- 

storehouses, in which victuals, clothes, and other things 
were preserved. When occasion required, the storehouse, 
boden, also had to serve for a guest-room and was there* 
fore, (even) in the Middle Ages, called hdrbdrge, i. e. lod* 
gings or a »harbour». That name we still find preserved 
in the south Swedish words hdbbare, hdbbre or hdbba, 




Fig. 11 a. Morahdrbret The Mora*harbour. 

and in the north Swedish hdbbre or harbur 1 , even if the 
harbour, like that from Mora, is used nowadays only as 
a storehouse. 



1 The resemblance especially of this last form to the English word 
»harbour» will be noticed. The double meaning of the Swedish hdrbre 
or harbour makes it convenient to adopt the word »harbour» as transla* 

tion of hdrbre. „ t t , 

Translator's note. 



— 19 



® 



The Mora=harbour of Skansen is of a type that is very 
common in Mora. It is found, however, in other parts of 
the country also, particularly in the Dalecarlia parishes 
north of Siljan, in Jamtland, and Harjedalen. 

Four pillars, each one yard high, stand over the corners 
of a substructure, which is farmed of four cross-cut tim* 
bers. They support the sill*frame on wich the »cross*cut» 
walls are erected. The sills of the gable^ends consist of 




Fig. 11 b. The Mora=harbour. 

Corner*prop whith mouse*shelf. 

immense half-round cleavings laid flat side down and pro* 
jecting with the edges beyond the pillars so as to prevent 
rats and mice from forcing their way up into the harbour. 
Such a sill is therefore often called »mouse*shelf», mushilla. 
The timbers of the gable*ends project a little from the 
fore*side of the building forming an open entrance to which 
access is gained by steps, cut out of a wooden block and 
placed so far from the edge of the entrance*floor that the 
mice would not be able to get across. The entrance is 
covered by an additional little roof standing out from 



®— 



— 20 — 

beneath the eaves. The date 1595 is carved above the 
door. That is the earliest year with which we can with 
any degree of certainty connect any of the houses in Skan* 
sen, though in all likelihood some of them are older. The 
method of construction, which they represent, in any case 
often dates much further back. The harbour is interiorly 
divided into a ground*floor and a loft to which access is 
obtained by a stair cut out of a split piece of timber. The 
loft is used for keeping clothes, textiles, and other things; 
and the supply of grain, flour, meat, and other victuals 
for the use of the house is stored on the ground*floor. 

© Blekingsstugan. The "Bleking-house". 

Previosly situated in Lilla Brothult, in the parish of Kyrkhult, 
Blekinge. Erected in Skansen in 1891. 

The old Norse farmer's home consisted, as above men* 
tioned, of a great many separate houses which, as their 
size depended upon the length of the timber, generally 




Fig. 12. Blekingsstugan. The Bleking^house. 

contained only one room each. The location of the build* 
ings and their relative situation had occasionally to be 
accommodated to the conditions of the site. In the beginn* 
ing of the Middle Ages the attempt was made to over* 
come the difficulties met with in flaming the premises 



-21- © 

by a more methodical allocation and concentration of the 
buildings. The storehouse or harbour was united at one 
gable with the living*house, which had hitherto consisted 
of a separate building with a ground*plan resembling, for 
instance, that of the Mora*house in Skansen (fig. 8); and 
it soon became common in larger farms to add a similar 
even to the opposite gable. When the later West*Gothic 
law, which dates from the thirteenth century, mentions 
bakhdrbdrgi, i. e. a »back*harbour», amongst the build* 
ings that ought to be on a parsonage, then the existence 
of a »fore s: harbour» must be presupposed; hence we should 




Fig. 13. Longitudinal section of the Bleking^house. 

Along the line A. B. in fig. 14. 

have a house, to the fore* and back*gable of which there 
was annexed a harbour*building or bod. Those adjuncts are 
even today called framhdbbaret and bakhdbbaret in some 
places in southern Sweden; and we know that such har* 
bours were built with lofts, i. e. in two stories, even at 
the times of the West*Gothic law. It is accordingly beyond 
doubt that buildings like the Bleking*house were in use 
as early as that. In Sweden this type of building seems 
to have been limited, at least in later centuries to the 
southern and western parts: Scania, Bleking, Halland, Sma* 
land, Bohuslan, and West*Gothland and, in the north* 
west, to the neighbourhood of Kinnekulle. 



® 



— 22 



The Bleking.house consists of a lower middle part, the 
living.house, and of a harbour.house, with loft, attached 
to each of its two gables. These loft.buildings are origin, 
ally nothing but storehouses, which have received their 
names from their having occasionally served as guest, 
rooms. They are built in two stories in opposition to the 
dwelling-house, which is built in only one. They conse. 
quently rise above the latter like two wing.towers. The 
upper stories are used as granaries and larders. The 
ground.floor of one harbour is occupied by kistekammaren, 
the »box.room» or »summerchamber», that of the other 




Fig. 14. Plan of the Bleking=house. 



a) Entrance. 

b) »Fore*harbour» (box*room wift lott). 

c) Chamber used as laundry. 



d) Living-room or house*part. 
/) »Back*harbour» (here weaving*closet 
with loft). 



by the weaving.closet. There are bedsteads in both. The 
upper story of the smaller loft projects a little beyond 
the lower story at the front, and back.side indicating the 
relationship of these loft.buildings to the common »pas* 
sage.harbours» (compare the Virserum.harbour, p. 54). 

The house.part is known as hogstuga or ryggdsstuga, 
that is to say, it lacks a ceiling and is open as far up. 
wards as the main ridge, which with the two side.trees 
supports the narrow rafters. A layer of boards covered 
with birch.bark is placed on these; and above all are two 



23 — 







layers of sods laid with the roots towards each other. A 
log, known as the »mould*ridge», mullasen, which is held 
up by the »roof*hooks», takkrokarne, prevents the turf 
from sliding down. The skylight, vindogat, is found on 
the south side of the roof reminding one of the times 
when the fireplace was still an open hearth in the middle of 
the flor and when the smoke had no other outlet than a 
hole, Ijore, in the roof. It is worthy of note that this remnant 



J«^i 










^^S 


"j^^^^flllll^^^^^^^^^^^^HMP^fr^^HM^H 










■t T^^^^H 






H^^H^^B m H[ 


■J^BI 














HP^^ V'\ ^ -, v : ^^^^^^| 




P? 


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; :T.l^>^^iSs 





Fig. 15. Interior of the Blekinghouse. 

of the ancient vent-hole has been retained even after wall* 
windows (in the beginning of the 19 th century) had come 
into use in that neighbourhood, and after the hearth had 
been moved to one corner of the room as a fire-place 
with flue and chimney. An iron^stove stands by the fire* 
place into which the embers from the fire-place are put 
so as to produce more even and lasting heat. These sto* 
ves first became common i Sweden in the middle of the 
sixteenth century. In earlier stoves, such as that of the 



© 



— 24 — 

Bleking*house, fire was, in fact, never made in the stove 
itself. They are to be regarded only as a sort of warm* 
ing^pans or braziers, as were the oldest earthenware 
stoves which were merely supplementary to an open fire* 
place situated either in the same or in the adjacent room. 
The baker's oven is built in with the fireplace and has a 
fire*shelf, fyren, lying in front of it. The baker's oven was 



mil 





'■\v>: 


*'"'.>''*' ^ 






i 


0r^ *^*m 


jHSHHT '• 


... '/ 


/ ■ 

-•■/- 


• ■*":*' 'i 




'J' 

'4 





Fig. 16. Interior of the Bleking^house. 

in earlier times situated in a separate house, the cooking* 
house, as is still the case in many places in Sweden. But 
even after the cooking*house or kitchen has been moved 
into the living-room, as for instance in the Bleking*house, 
one may plainly distinguish the various parts, of which 
this room is composed, viz. the »house*part», the fire* 
place of which is the hearth with the iron^stove, and the 
kitchen*part, the fireplace of which consists of the baker's 
oven with the fire=shelf. 



- 25 - 0—0 

The boundary betwen these two parts is shown by the 
suspended »crown*bar», bjelken, which extends from the 
corner of the fireplace across the room. The kitchen*part 
is often paved, even if the rest of the room has a wooden 
floor. A table used for the dressing of food is found there 
and the »goose*bench», gdsabdnken y has its place under 
the table; and there are shelves for the kitchen utensils 
at the gableend. The fitting^up of the house^part is simple. 
Fixed »chestbenches» kistebdnkar, filled with straw for 
the children and servants to sleep in and covered with 
worsted counterpanes stand around the walls. 

The »enclosed» bedstead of the master and his wife 
stands in the inner corner at the south wall. The house* 
father has his place at the head of the »grand4able», 
stora bordet, which extends along the gable^bench. He 
keeps his valuables in the corner^closet placed next to that. 
The walls and the ceiling in the house^part are dressed 
at festivals with sewn or woven linen hanging*clothes, charac* 
teristic of Bleking, or with painted hangings of linen mate* 
rial, usually made in Smaland. 1 (The triangular hanging 
at the gable4op is of a make that is characteristic to the 
parish of Knared in Halland.) 

A little bee-garden is found in front of the house. The 
hives stand there on a bench amongst ornamental plants 
of the species that are appropriate to a south Swedish 
country flower-bed or rosenland. The hop-garden is behind 
the house. 

Stenstugan. The Stone-cabin. 

Erected in Skansen after the model of a stone^cabin or stone*cottage 
from the parish of Jamshog in Bleking. 

In the poor districts of south Sweden we sometimes 
still find these buildings, the whole appearance of which 

1 A borderland of Bleking. 



© 



— 26 — 

bears witness to the poverty of their inhabitants. They 
generally lie out of the way of cultivated regions and are 
often inhabited by people af most irregular life, as gipsies 
and their kind. In north-eastern Scania they represent a 
very common type of habitations occupied by the labour* 
ers at the small glass-works. 

Although the stone cottage, by its being half buried in 
the ground, takes us back to pikdwelling of the kind to 
which men in a low state of culture have often been reduced, 




Fig. 17. Stenstugan. The stone^cabin. 

we may still recognize in it a form of our erarlier tim* 
bered country houses defaced by poverty. The walls are 
for want of timber erected of large stone blocks, but the 
roof is built in the same manner as that of the timbered 
houses. It rests on three ridges which hold up a wainscot 
of boards. Birch*bark lies upon this, the uppermost mate* 
rial consisting of turf. The cottage like log*cabins of an 
earlier date is lighted by a small sky*ligt in the roof. The 
fireplace with the baker's oven, which is otherwise usually 
situated in the corner inside the door, is placed in this 



27 — 




© 



Fig. 18. Plan of the stone^cabin. 




Fig. 19. The stone*cabin (transverse section). 



®— © 



— 28 — 

house in the inner gable*end. By this means a certain 
amount of wall^building was saved, and the fire-place and 
the oven had only to be excavated out of the earth. 

The furniture is of the meanest description. A bedstead, 
a table, and, in front of this, a seat standing under the 
window, a chest, a corner^closet, some chairs, and a shelf 
for dishes at the inner gable^wall, comprise almost all. A 




Fig. 20. Oktorpsgarden. The Oktorp=farm. 



wooden bloch, with a vice and a fragment of anvil, stand* 
ing in the centre of the floor, shows that the former 
owner of this cottage was a smith or a tinker. 

© Oktorpsgarden. The Oktorp-farm. 

Formerly situated in Oktorp in the parish of Sloinge, Halland. 
Rejected in Skansen in 1896 by contributions from Mr J. Anderson 
and Mr I. Hirsch, Stockholm. 

The South*Swedish enclosed yard forms the last stage 
of the evolution that the old Norse yard has gone through 
and still is undergoing in some places towards the concen* 



29 



© 



tration of the buildings around a foursided courtyard. In 
earlier times, as is still the case in many woodland di* 
stricts, the different houses lay apart without any definite 
relation to one another. 

The buildings gradually begin to arrange themselves 
around the sides of the plot but without being really built 
together. As long as the building was done in the old 
manner by cross*cutting * the timbers at the corners, the 
houses had, of course, to be built each for itself to a size 
limited by the length of the timbers. Only since the scar* 
city of timber has necessitated the expedient of building 
in skiftesverk or ladfore, i. e. of split logs or deals ton* 
gued into a frame*work of upright posts (fig. 21), a real 



Fig. 21. Wall, erected in »skiftesverk». 

The figure A shows how the planks are tongued into the woodenposts. 

and not only a seeming combination of the houses in an 
unbroken succession has been possible. The enclosed 
yard accordingly appears in the first place on the wood* 
less plains, even if other causes, such as comfort, protec* 
tion against the wind, and even against disturbers of the 
peace, have helped to bring about the fortified building 
round the yard. 

The Oktorp*yard lay in a neighbourhood that is neither 
pronounced woodland nor plain country, but a mixture 
of the two. The living*house, with its two lofts, is built 
of timbers that are cross-cut 1 and flat*hewn with the broad* 
axe, and it lies separate, not being joined together at the 

1 Compare the note, page 8. 



® 



30 





Fig. 22. Plan of the Oktorp*farm. 



A. »House*place» or »house*part». B. Entrance (»traunce»). C. »Fore*harbour». 
D, E. »Back*harbour». F, G. Gateways, »carriage*gates». H. Manservant's room 
/, K. Hay*barns. O, R. Corn*barns. L, M, N. Horse* and cow*stables. P. Thresh* 
ing*barn. S. Forage*store (»gulf of straw*). T, U, V. Pigsty and sheep*pen. 
X. Wood-shed. Y. Well. Z. Brewery and -distillery*. 



- 31 - @ 

corners with the other houses. These, on the other hand, 
are erected of oak*planks, tongued into a framework of 
upright posts, and form in a running course the three 
remaining sides of the yard. 

If we look at the location of the different houses of the 
yard, we shall notice an adherence to the old fashion. Dur* 
ing the mediaeval times and certainly far earlier one could 
distinguish between invistarhus } and utvistarhus, » indoor* » 
and »outdoor*houses»; these two groups of buildings were 
also placed in close proximity to each other (compare the 
somerset), the former sometimes even within .a special en* 
closure. The »outdoon : houses» consisted of barn, cow*house, 
and stable; and these we may meet again in the combined 
ranges of outhouses in the Oktorp*yard. Among the »in* 
door*houses» were reckoned the dwelling house, the har* 
bours and probably also the fire*house or cooking*house. 
As early as the thirteenth century it became customary, at 
least in Westgothland, to build the »harbours» or store* 
houses close up to the gables of the living*hous (compare 
the Bleking*house); and since we know that these were at 
that time often built up in two stories, we conclude that the 
Oktorp*house with its two harbours rising at the gables 
must be of very old origin. The house is entered by the 
frontdoor of one harbour, which for that reason is called 
the »entrance*harbour» or » fo re*harbour », framhdbbaret. 

This contains besides the entrance*hall or entry the 
weaving*room in which we find two enclosed bedsteads for 
the use of guests. A door leads from the entry 1 into the 
»house*part». It is low and has a high treshold that a 
man can get through only by stooping down — an arrange* 
ment that was very appropriate in troubled times, when 
the enemies' approach had to be made as difficult as 

1 The entrance forms here a regular »trance» or »traunce» (transitus) 
leading right through the house as a passage. Translator's note. 



possible. The house^part is known as a » high*house», hog= 
stuga, open as far upwards as the ridge*tree, ryggdsen. 
This together with the two »side4rees», sidodsarne, bears 
up the »roof*boards» on which rests a layer of earth and 
moss. The somewhat steeper straw^roof rises above this 
and the apex or ridge is thatched with »ridge*straw», 
rygghalm, held in position by »ridge*poles», fastened 
together in pairs by sticks. The bottom timbers of the 




Fig. 23. Oktorpsgdrden. The Oktorp^house. 

Interior of the house*part seen from the entrance*door. 

side*walls are called the sills, syllarna, those of the gable* 
walls the »foot4rees», fottrdna. The wall^plates, i. e. the 
topmost timbers of the sides, are named lejderna or 
bandtrdna. These are generally somewhat bigger than the 
rest of the side^imbers and project into the house like 
narrow shelves. They are then called varremmarna (in 



-33 - @ 

northern Scania vallr*dsarne, i. e. the »great timbers»). The 
open, walled fireplace stands to the right inside the door 
facing the room of which it covers a good part. The 
baker's oven is close to the entrance*gable. The mantel* 
piece is called bricken or fyrbricken; on it is usually 
placed the tinderbox, fyrskrdllet or skorasken, containing 
the flint and steel. A beam extends from the projecting 
corner of the fireplace on a level with the mantelpiece, 
bearing the name of »the poor man's beam», stackare* 
bjdlken, thus named because it indicated the limit beyond 
which the beggar was not allowed to tread. The »poor 
man's beam» also divides the house*part into the real 
living-room and the kitchen, i. e. the place right before 
the baker's oven between the beam and the entrance 
(compare the Bleking*house). The ground is often paved 
here, even if the rest of the room has a wood*floor. There 
are shelves and cupboards for the kitchen utensils around 
the walls. This portion is also called the »fold», kdtten, 
because the newborn calves and other small domestic ani* 
mals were housed there. The south wall inside the beam 
in the real living-room is occupied by two large, fixed 
bedsteads, before which linen bed*curtains are hung. The 
husband and his wife slept together here with the babies. 
The »bed*closet», sdngskdpet, is placed between the bed* 
steads. It has a little space underneath closed by a wooden 
grate. The chickens and the ducks were enclosed there 
during the winter. The skylight is placed over the bed* 
frieze, which is fitted up with small cupboards furnished 
with doors. It reminds us of the smoke*hole in earlier 
houses, when the fireplace still lay in the centre of the 
floor as an open hearth without chimney. Another remi* 
niscence of those times we also find in the »stick*saver», 
locally known as stickedallan or lyskdringen, a stick a yard 
long stuck into a wooden block and furnished at the top 

Guide to Skansen. I. 3 



@ -34- 

with a fork for holding the torch of thin wood. In the 
evening this is put in the middle of the floor, where there 
was in many houses a hollow lined with clay and filled 
with water for the extinction of the sparks that fell down 
from the torch — a wise arrangement, especially at Christ* 
mas when the whole floor was covered with straw. A 
bench called »the northbench», norra bdnken, is fixed to 
the north side^wall opposite the bedsteads; and the » gable* 
bench », gafvelbdnken, is placed at right angles to it in 
the inner gable. They are made like chests with reversible 
wooden lids. The remaining bread*crusts were thrown 
down into the bench*chest after the meals; and the »bench* 
porridge», bdnkvdllingen, was afterwards cooked on them. 
The corner*closet, in which the husband kept his papers 
and money, is placed in the corner between the »north* 
bench» and the »gable*bench». The »high*seat», hogsdtet, 
which was exclusively reserved for him, is found at the 
head of the »grand table» standing along the »gable*bench». 
A loose seat, the »foreseat», forsdtet, is placed before the 
table. A couple of chairs and a wall*clock complete the 
furniture. The inner end*wall opposite the doorway has, 
on a level with the sides, a rack, bricken, on which dishes, 
pewter pots, and glazed earthenware are displayed in a 
row. The three*sided gable compartment above is called 
bjdlken; on it smaller racks are fastened. The walls and 
the roof in the house*part are decorated at feasts with 
hangings. These consisted long ago of skins or tick woollen 
textiles so as to protect the room from draught and cold. 
After more closely built walls and better fire-places had 
been introduced these hangings were replaced by paintings 
executed on thin linen*cloth or paper. Usually they were 
scenes from sacred history, less often worldly motives, as 
wedding*processions, hunting or the like. They were 
always furnished with illustrative texts, and were drawn 



- 35 - @— © 

by professional painters, each of whom had a few themes 
that he incessantly repeated. The hangings are taken down 
in every day life and put into chests. Instead of these, 
the house^part is then scantily adorned along the side* 
trees with narrow linen hanging^cloths, woven in a plain 
pattern of red or blue stripes. The edges of the racks are 
trimmed with netted linen lace, trd. From the house^part 
we go through a doorway in the inner end^wall into the 
»back*harbour», bakhdbbaret or krobbehdbbaret, on the 
groundfloor of which we find the »box*room», kistekam- 
maren, and the »summer*chamber» sommarstugan. A 
stair leads to the upper story, which is the corn^loft, 
kornloftet. 

A separate little building is erected at the north side of 
the premises: the brew^house, which before home^distilla* 
tion was prohibited was also used for the making of 
corn^brandy. 

A small water-mill, »skvaltkvarn», from Halland is 
found in the vicinity of the Oktorp^premises (compare the 
brook^mill). 

A country bath-house (= » Russian bath*house»), bastu, 
also belonged to a complete Halland farmstead. It was 
generally used in common by the villagers. 

Bollnasstugan. The Bollnas-house. © 

Formerly situated on the farm number 11, at Herte in the parish 
of Bollnas, Halsingland. The yard of which this building formed the 
livingshouse originally lay in another place in the village close by the 
so-called Bybdcken. As the adjacent lake Herte often rose so high 
»that one could row in the barns», the proprietor, Anders Andersson, 
with the other villager's permission moved the house up to Knubbacken, 
a place situated near by the village, where it stood till it was moved 
to Skansen in the summer of 1892. 

This house, which was named Knubbstugan after the 
place where it was last situated, is built up to timbers that 



© - 36 - 

are cross-cut at the corners and flattened with the broad* 
axe. The roof rests on rafters which are supported below 
by the wall^plates or »pans» and at the apex by a large 
round ridgepole. Boards lie horizontally on the rafters, 




: ^^^^^&^^w. 



Fig. 24. Bollndsstugan. The Bollnas^house. 

and a layer of birch*bark is laid on these. The birch*bark 
is kept in position by the wood*roofage, takveden, which 
consists of logs split by wedges and threaded at the apex, 
two and two, on sticks so that they cannot slide down. 
If we look at the accompanying plan, fig. 25, we shall 
find the same arrangement as in all later Swedish living* 
houses: an entrance hall, a, from which a chamber, c, 
kaven, is shut off (here called the » middle chamber », 
mellankammareri), and the » every day *room» or house*part, 
dagligstugan, d, (compare the Mora*house). And additio* 
nal room is annexed to this at each end. We see on the 
right hand side of the entrance hall a »holiday*room», 
helgdagsrum or harrstuga, b, and at the opposite gable 
inside the house*part a smaller chamber, the »fore*cham* 
ber», framkammaren, e, which serves as a guest-room. 
Both these rooms ware originally nothing but store*houses» 
as were also the »harbours» or »loftbuildungs» annexed 
to the gables of the Bleking^house (compare the Bleking* 
house). The difference is that the »harbours» of the Bollnas* 
house are only one story high, that their roofs are level 



37 



© 




Fig. 25. Plan of the Bollnas^house 

Entrance. d. 



»Holiday=room». 
»Middle*chamber. 



Housepart* (»every=day room»). 
Fore*chamber». 



with the living*house, and that they have been fitted up 
with fireplaces like ordinary living-rooms. 

The interior of the Bollnas*house, differs in many re* 
spects from our simpler and more old-fashioned farm* 
houses. The rooms are furnished with an inner wainscot* 
roof or ceiling lying horizontally on the same level 
with the walls of the entrance*hall, of the »middle*cham* 
ber», and of the house*part. One survival of the older, 
open type we still have in the »holiday*room», where 
the wainscot follows the slopes of the roof up towards 
the ridge*pole and is broken by a flat »halfceiling», 




Fig. 26. The Bollnas^house. Longitudinal section, along the line A— B. 



© 



— 38 — 

half panel, resting on the two side4rees: for another 
thing in the »fore*chamber», which has a lower broken 
wainscot on three ridges. 

With the introduction of ceilings there also followed the 
necessity of fitting windows into the walls instead of the 
rooWights, which we still find in places where architecture 
has remained untouched by the influence of the towns and 
the manors (compare theBleking=houseandthe Oktorp*yard). 




Fig. 27. The Bollnas4iouse. 

The »house*part», seen from the entrance door. 



The house*part, or » every day*room», shows an arrange* 
ment still existing in northern Sweden, where the cooking* 
house or kitchen is not moved into the living*house (com* 
pare the Mora*house, the Bleking*house and the Oktorp* 
yard). The open fireplace of the house*part was certainly 
used for the cooking of the daily meals, but all prepara* 
tion of food on a larger scale, as baking, brewing, and 
cheese*making, was done in a separate cooking*house or 



- 39 - @ 

kitchen, where also the oven, characteristic of this building, 
had its place. 

The proprietor of this house, a peasant Per Olsson, in 
1786 ordered the painter Jonas Hertman from Bjorktjara 
in Bollnas to carry out the paintings that still adorn the 
walls and ceilings of the rooms. The wall*decorations, 
which for the most part are painted direct on the withe* 
washed wall4imbers, represent Biblical scenes, landscapes, 




Fig. 28. The Bollnas^house. 

The house*part seen from the inner gable. 

and other things within ornamental frames in rococo, pro* 
bably after the prototypes of old copperplate prints. The 
porch before the doorway of the house has been replaced 
by a similar one from another equally old house in the 
same village, as this proved to be more characteristic of 
the neighbourhood. 



© 



— 40 



Laxbrostugan. The Laxbro-house. 

Formerly situated at Laxbro, in the parish of Ljusnarsberg in the 
mining district of Nya Kopparberg. The propietor Mr J. Westholm in 
Laxbro gave it to Skansen, where it was set up in 1896. 

The Laxbro-house, which was built in the middle of the 
seventeenth century by Michael Hindersson, miner, was 
not strictly speaking a peasant's home. Its first owner 
was a powerful miner, united by his two marriages to 
ladies of noble families and progenitor of a still living, 
distinguished miner's family. Even if the house, on that 
account, in some respects, as in the arrangement of the 
windows and in the shapes of the fireplaces which are 
characterized by the taste of the baroque time, reminds 
one of a gentleman's residence during the seventeenth 
century, it still proves in its whole ground^plan and con* 
struction to agree with the contemporary popular dwellings 
of central and northern Sweden (compare the Bollnas* 
house). The walls are built of timbers which are cross-cut 
at the corners and flakhewn with the broad*axe. The 
exterior covering of the roof, which rests on three large 
ridge-poles, consists of turf. From the porch which is 
combined with a small outhouse one enters, on the left, 
the house^part. Two small chambers lie inside this at one 
side. Another little room, which corresponds to the kdve 
still common in the peasants' living*houses, is found at the 
opposite side. It has been converted into a kind of kitchen 
and furnished with an open fireplace and with shelves for 
the kitchen utensils around the walls. A baker's oven is 
wanting, however, which seems to indicate that the food* 
dressing was originally done in a special building as is 
still usual in many places in northern Sweden. The »grand* 



— 41 



@ 



room» or »feast*room» is situated on the other side of 
the entrance hall. It is called the »judgment*hall», tings= 
salen, since the mining court of justice held its sessions 
there for a long time. The judgment hall has like the house* 
part, an inner broken wainscot*roof or ceiling, which rests 
on rafters supported by two large round ridges. It is 
bountifully adorned with paintings representing birds and 
flowers on a whitewashed ground. 



•W'^^-m' ^mm 



CUD I fll». kill! 






Fig. 29. Laxbrostugan. The Laxbro^house. 

We see on one gable*wall within a wreath of flowers 
the names of the first proprietor of the building, Mickel 
Hindersson, and his second wife, Maria van Gent. The 
date 1673 indicating the year, when the judgment*hall was 
painted, is to be read within a similar frame on the other 
side of the entrance. 

Of the original furniture there were only the kitchen 
shelves, a cabinet, and a couple of corner^cupboards left. 
Until proper house*stuf¥ from a miner's home can be pro* 
cured, furniture and other things of the taste of the seven* 
teenth century selected from the collections of the Museum 
are exhibited in the house. 



A little garden is arranged at the backside of the house, 
showing specimens of the ornamental plants, which were 
common in a Swedish garden during the time this house 
was built. 



@ Hornborgastugan. The Hornborga-house. 

From the village of Hornborga in the parish of the same name, 
WestsGothland, where it belonged to Deragarden and was inhabited 
by a fisherman's widow, Slojdalska. In 1898 it was moved to Skansen 
as the gift of Director E. Rosenlind of Stockholm. 

In many Swedish districts, where the large farmsteads 
have long ago been changed according to the fashion of 
later times, an obsolete method of construction has often 
been maintained in smaller houses. Ridged living*houses 
are rarely found on the peasants' farms on the fertile 
plain of West=Gothland, but they are still not uncommon 
on the crofters' holdings. The Hornborga-house is a very 
good example of those West*Gothland cottages of earlier 
construction, all of which, on the whole, resemble one 
another closely. The building contains a living-room, a 
small cattle^house, and a barn built at right angles to the 
latter. The living^house is built of timbers planed by the 
broad*axe and cross-cut at the corners; other parts of the 
building being probably for reason of economy and for 
want of large timber erected partly of thin planks tongued 
into a framework of upright posts, partly of large rough 
stones loosely laid on one another without mortar. The 
roof of the house is thatched with straw which is kept 
in position by a layer of turf. The thatching of the barn 
is held only by long stakes, poller. The living*house is 
in its ground*plan comformable to the ground*plan of such 



43 



@ 




Fig. 30. Hornborgastugan. The Hornborga=house. 




D 



Iffigffil 



7 » 9 



=F=F 



fe==[ 



Fig. 31. Plan of the Hornborga^house. 



© 



44 



dwelling*structures as were common in earlier times all over 
Sweden. It consists accordingly of an entrance-hall, a chamber, 
have, and a single living-room, »house*part». The latter is 




;%t\Tiors-i c-D 



7 * 5> 1 10 



Fig. 32. The Hornborga^house. Longitudinal section, 
along the line C— D. 



open upwards as far as the ridge*tree, from which rafters extend 
to the wall*plates, constituting the bearing substructure 
for the boards on which the 
exterior roofing is placed. 

We may still trace in the 
scanty fixtures the same 
arrangement that was com* 
mon in the earlier houses 
of larger farms. The open 
fireplace in the right hand 
corner is built together with 
the baker's oven. The part of olwiohi a-o 

the room, lying next to the Fig. 33. The Hornborga=house. 
doorway infrontofthebaker's Transverse section along the line A-B. 

oven, forms the »kitchen» of the house and is paved. It 
contains the hen-coop and a shelf far the kitchen uten* 




-45- ®— @ 

sils. Two thin boards, somewhat carved, are fastened to the 
rafters and extend transversely. The one next to the coping 
corresponds to the »crown=bar», bjdlken, indicating the 
boundary between the kitchen and the house^part (com* 
pare the Bleking.house, page 20). Only the enclosed bed* 
stead reminds one of the fixed furniture of olden times. 
The fixed benches are replaced by a settle*bed. There 
are two windows instead of the skylight, one in the side* 
wall and one in the gableend. The only table of the house 
stands before the latter. A damper is placed over the 
chimney*shaft, consisting of a stone*slab that can be shut 
only from the outside; it is opened by means of a pole. 

Soldattorpet. The "tenement" soldier's house.® 

Formerly located at Saldefall and belonging to Hogaskog in the 
country parish of Eksjo, Smaland. Erected in Skansen in 1905. The 
expenses were defrayed by voluntary contributions from the Swedish 
tenemented regiments. 

The soldier's house was erected at Skansen in comme* 
moration of the Swedish method of military tenure which, 
organised by Charles XI and in the main unchanged to 
the present day, has formed the basis on which the stand* 
ing army of Sweden has principally rested. The »tene* 
ment» soldier's, the horseman's, or the mariner's 1 wages 
were for the most part paid in the form of a small farm 
or allotment, torp, appertaining to which was »half a tunn= 
land (= 5,904,26 square yards = I acre I rood) of culti* 
vated land and a cabbage*garden with meadow^ground for 
two car-loads of hay». He therefore became a farmer in 
time of peace; and »the life on the rote» 2 became for 

1 Viz. a member of the naval force. 

2 A district charged with the maintenance of a tenement soldier. 



© 



— 46 — 

him very much like life in our cottages, though perhaps 
with the difference that he enjoyed a greater reputation 
as a warrior. 

As the number^board on the gables depicts, the soldier's 
residence now in Skansen was granted to Private n:o 91, 
Vedbo Company of the Kalmar regiment. It consists of 





■ !/ A 




v 1 


\m 




J ;p 




IB™ 




Ml 


■ ■•<■ ■ '-.* 


HHWH 


[•* . ' ■:■*"■ :\„. , . 









Fig. 34. Soldattorpet The soldier's house. 

an entrancehall, a »house*part», and a chamber, which, 
however, has been converted into a kitchen in later times; 
it is built according to the custom of the neighbourhood 
and has the legal measurements. The walls are cross-cut 
at the corners and planed by the broad^axe. The roof is 
an ordinary ridge roof, covered with turf. It is, however, 
provided internally with a broken wainscot or »half*ceiling». 
This is wanting in the kitchen, which is open as far up 
as the ridge-pole. The entrance has its own little roof 
provided with a ridge-pole. 



- 47 - @— @> 

The house^part has a large, open fireplace projecting 
right to the centre of the room, because the baker's oven, 
which opens into the kitchen, is walled up in the chimney. 
This oven had its outlet into the house*part before the 
chamber was transformed into a kitchen. 

The thatched farm*building belonging to the soldier's® 
house stands at the usual distance from the living*house. 
The left door opens into the real cow-house, which is 
furnished with stalls. The other opens into the threshing* 
barn. The space to the right of the threshing^barn was used 
for storing the harvest. The straw after being threshed on the 
barn^floor was thrown into the room on the opposite side. 

A storehouse also belonged to the soldier's home be* 
sides the mentioned cow*house. The storehouses found 
on allotments of a more recent date are often built close 
to or upon the living^house. _ 

Kolarkojor. Charcoal burners' huts. 

Erected in Skansen in 1891. The material was given by Berggrens' 
Transport Compani Limited, Stockholm. 

We may trace in huts like these, put up for a short 
temporary stay, several features of such simple methods 
of construction as the men of the North have been redu* 
ced to, ere they learnt to make buildings of »cross*cut» 
timber. It is true that the hearth of our charcoal burners' 
huts is arranged nowadays not in the middle of the floor, 
but by a wall as an ordinary fireplace with a flue on the 
outside, and must consequently, be considered as an ex* 
ceedingly simple imitation of the common fireplace of the 
living^houses; but the buildings are, as to the rest of their 
construction, of a very primitive shape. 

The charcoal burner's hut from Smaland (fig. 35) shows© 
even in its ground^plan the same round shape, that we 
know from the remains of the stone^age huts. The wood* 



(15) 



48 




Fig. 35. Charcoal burners' hut from Smaland. 

work in composed of split logs which incline towards the 
summit, forming a conical room hardly more than the 
height of a man. The external covering consists of earth 

C 



A-' 




B 



Fig. 36. Charcoal burners' hut from Westmanland. 



Horizontal section. 



- 49 - (Ig 

and sods. 1 A loose wooden door or shutter closes the 
doorway; and the fireplace, which is erected of big boul* 
ders, is found on the opposite side. The charcoal-burners 
have their bed*places at each side of to door. The beds 
consist of some sprucetwigs spread on the bare ground. 







^i|y:S^V'-.-c.' 



Fig. 37. Charcoal burners hut from Westmanland. 

End=wall. 

The charcoaUburner's hut from Westmanland repre*© 
sents a type which frequently occurs in the mining di* 
stricts of central Sweden. It is rectangular in ground* 



1 The charcoal-burners' huts used in England are described by T. 
Winder in the Builder's Journal in the following manner: »They are 
composed of a number of thin poles laid together in the form of a cone. 
The feet are placed about nine inches apart and they are interlaced 
with brushwood. A doorway is formed by laying a lintel from fork to 
fork and the whole is covered with sods laid with the grass towards the 
hut. A lair of grass and brushwood is formed upon one side, and a 
fire, often of charcoal, is lighted upon the hearth in the thresholds 

It is to be remarked that this description tallies exactly almost with 
what we know of the conical charcoal burners' huts used in other 
parts of Sweden. For very often the hearth is placed, not opposite the 
door, but close beside the threshold, the hut being composed of thin 
poles meeting towards the summit and of brushwood and sods covering 
he poles. Translator's note. 

4 

G uide to Skansen. I. 



50 — 



plan and has a doorway in one longside. The bulky fire* 
place is built up of blocks of stone and constitutes one 
gable*end; the other end is piled up of split logs kept in 
position by a pair of stakes which are driven into the 
ground and bound together with osier4ies. The sides con* 




Fig. 38. Charcoal burners' hut from Westmanland. 

Front. 

sist of half-round, split logs sloping towards the apex and 
leaning against a ridge which rests on the gables. The two 
slopes in this way form a ridged roof standing on the 
ground and covered with earth and sods. The greater 
part of the floor is covered by a low wooden ledge spread 
ower with spruce4wigs and serving for a lair or sleeping* 
place. 



Nyingen. The "iog-fire' 



As timber^cutters and floaters often have to reside far 
away in the wilderness but do not stay in the same place 
long enough to make it worth while to erect a real hut, 



- 51 - ©— ( 

they make their bed for the night near a log*fire, called 
nying. A lair of spruce4wigs is arranged on the ground; 
and two large timbers are placed to the windward side 
of it, the upper being wedged up somewhat above the 
lower so as to form a slit between them. The slit is filled 
with chips and splinters of light^wood which, after being 
lighthed, set the logs aglowing. The wind carries the heat 
ower the brushwood bed, where the men lie with their 
feet stretched towards the fire. In this manner they are 
able to spend a night in the open air even in the most 
severe cold. 



The lumberers' cabin. (The wood-camp). © 

Erected in Skansen in the summer of 1906. Given by the Koppar* 
berg and Hofors Sawing Mill Company Limited. 

This cabin was built by a lumberer from Helsingland 
after the pattern of the temporary dwellings which lum* 
berers still use in the Northland forests. It is cross-cut at 
the corners and consists of round logs. It has a single 
room, and the doorway is in the centre of one gable. An 
open porch is found outside the door, formed by the pro* 
jection of the side^walls and the roof. Inside we find the 
hearth, eldpallen, in the middle of the floor. It is con* 
structed of dovetailed timbers in the shape of a square 
box, filled with stones and gravel. There is a vent-hole 
in the roof over the hart to let the smoke out of the 
room, and a four*sided, tapering wooden flue is put up 
through the hole. It rises like a chimney*shaft over the 
apex and stretches inside a good way down below the 
roof so as to receive the smoke from the fire-place, with 
which it does not communicate directly as is the case in 
our common fire-places. Fixed wooden camp=beds, breskar, 



$ - 52 - 

on which the lumberers have their sleeping*places, five 
on each side, extend along the main walls level with the 
hearth. They sleep with their feet towards the fire and 
their head against the wall. 

A small window is found in the inner gable and a table 
below that. 

The lower roof forms an angle. It consists of split logs, 
the lower ends of which rest on the main walls, the upper 
on two ridges. The roofing, which is composed of split 
logs, and the soddayer placed on that are prevented from 
sliding down by a log outside the walkplate. A shingle 
roof on rafters covers the lower roof. 

The resemblance of this Northland wood^camp to the 
fire^houses found in the somersets 1 is unmistakable. Even 
though the former has not directly received its shape from 
the latter, still both may be referred to a very primitive 
mode of construction. 



© Slogboden. The mowing-booth. 

In those parts of the country, where agriculture still 
occupies such a place that stock-raising is the principal 
occupation and is dependent on the supply of natural 
pastures, it is often necessary to bring winter supplies for 
the cattle from distant meadows. As this may necessitate 
absence from home for several days, the mowers erect 
temporary booths or sheds for themselves in which they seek 
shelter against storm and rain, prepare their food, and 
make a simple sleepingplace for the night. The » mowing* 
booth» is a specimen of such a temporary dwelling from 
Dalecarlia. It is built of split, cross-cut logs and its three 

1 Compare the somerset, pag. 5. 



53 



@ 



sides form a room, the fourth side being open and closed 
only by poles to bar out the cattle and other animals. 
The roof, which rests on four large rafters, is made of 
thin round spruce^stakes and is covered by a layer of 
birch^bark kept in position by superimposed, split logs. 
There is a simple bed of boards in the room and a rack 
on the inner wall for such necessaries as may have been 




Fig. 39. Slogboden. »Mowing*booth» from Dalecarlia. 

brought from home. A sloping roof resting on two posts 
projects beyond the open side of the booth. Below that, 
on the bare ground, they make a fire over which the pot 
is hung by an osier4ie. The grindstone, on which the 
scythes are sharpened, is placed outside one gable. 

Shelters like this are erected by the roads in the mU 
derness for the use of the peasants during the time they 
are out repairing the highways, as for instance by the road 
between Elfdalen and Sarna in Dalecarlia. 



019) 



54 



Virserumsboden. The "Virserum-harbour". 



Formerly situated in the Hvensjogle estate in the parish of Virse* 
rum, Smaland. Erected in Skansen in 1899. 

The most old-fashioned type of storehouse yet met 
with in our country consists of a small one storied, rid* 
ged building, built of cross-cut timbers and furnished with 




Fig. 40. Virserumsboden. The Virserum-harbour. 

a doorway in one gable end. There is an open »floor» 
or kind of porch outside the doorway formed by the pro* 
jection of the roof and the sidewalls. 1 The house is often 

1 Compare the somerset. 



- 55 - (g) 

built in two stories, and it then has an »outhot» utskott 
projecting over the »floor». 1 The same is the case with 
the storehouses of certainly younger shape which have 
an entrance*floor along one side and a doorway in that. 2 
The entrance is then formed by the projecting gables. 
This projection is nowadays missing in the lower story 
of two-storied harbours. The »harbour»*type then arises, 
which is the most common in Sweden, and which we 
find again in the storehouse from Virserum. 

The Virserum*harbour is built mostly of round, cross* 
cut timbers. The roof, which is supported by round ridge* 
poles, consists of split logs, known as troer, and of a 
layer of birch*bark kept in position by an outer covering 
of turf. 

Access is gained by a ladder cut out from a piece of 
timber up to the projecting gallery or »aisle», from which 
a doorway opens into the loft. The loft is intended for 
the storage of grain, the lower story being a provision* 
room for flour, meat, and other victuals. 

Storehouses of this shape certainly date from very 
olden times. During the troubled conditions of the Middle 
Ages, when the peasant himself had to defend his pre* 
mises and property against the foes' assaults or against 
cavalcades of gentry exacting hospitality, the »gallery*har* 
bour» was to serve for the fortified cover the which the 
inhabitants might retire during the attack. 3 It was more 

1 The English word »outshot» and the Swedish utskott are forms 
etymologically related. Utskott is the name given to any projection of 
the roof or the walls covering or including a space outside the house, 
open or enclosed. Compare fig. 2, 4, 11, 40 and 47. 

Translator's note. 

2 Compare the Mora*harbour. 

3 Compare the mediaeval burghers' castle<towers, which were pro* 
vided with a projecting shooting^passage (German Burgfried, Swedish 
barf red, which name was used still for the gallery in the sixteenth 



® - 56 ~ 

fit for that purpose than the other buildings since the 
basement floor had no special entrance from the outside 
and was accessible only by and interior stair or ladder 
leading down from the loft. The outside ladder could also 
be pulled up for the purpose of rendering access still 
more difficult. 

That it was the harbour which was thus fitted out for 
defence was quite natural, since the people's stores of 
valuables, victuals, clothes, and other things were kept in 
it. It was therefore called fataburen, 1 that is the » clothes* 
bower ». The old*country*ballads tell us that the women 
used to sit at their work in the upper story, hoganlofts* 
sal, and the maids had their sleeping^room there in sum* 
mer. Hence the name jungfrubur, 2 which means a maiden's 
bower. It even happened that the jungfrubur was used by 
the lads, the unmarried men, as a living-room. It is told 
from the later Middle Ages that a person enjoyed so 
freely the king's favour, that he permitted him to sleep 
in the harbour (or storehouse) with the »bower*lads». 
When occasion required, the storehouse also had to serve 
instead of a guest*harbour. It has therefore kept the names 
harbur, hdrbe, hdbbare or hdbba, in many places up to 
these days; and this even after the building, as is often 
the case in South and West Sweden, has been adapted 
to form an appendage to one gable of the house. 3 



century. In Dalecarlia it is to be met with in the name barfre, the 
porch*roof projecting beyond the house^door. In other provinces af 
North Sweden the whole of the porch is still generally named barfre). 

1 Compare the »Highloft*bower». 

2 The English »bower» and the Swedish bur, etymologically related, 
seem to have in any case served closely similar purposes, viz. those 
of being a living? or sleeping*apartment, especially for the women, and 
of being a buttery or some other kind of room to keep such things 
as clothes and victuals in. Translators note. 

3 Compare the Bleking=house. 



57 — 



C20) 



Hoganloftburen or fatburen. 
The "highloft-bower 44 or "clothes-bower 44 . 

A careful reproduction of the »highloft*bower» which stands at the 
Bjorkvik estate in the parish of 6stra*Ryd, Ostergotland. Erected in 
Skansen in 1893. 

The gallery*harbour, i. e. the »highloft»* or »clothes* 
bower* 1 known already during an earlier period of the 




Fig. 41. The fatbur from Bjorkvik. 

Middle Ages, was finally changed so that the gallery em* 
braced all the four sides of the upper story; this being 



1 Compare the notes under the Virserum^harbour. 



@— © - 58 - 

done probably in order to increase further its availability 
for defence. It then acquired the exterior shown by the 
»bower» from Bjorkvik, reminding us very plainly of the 
towers of the mediaeval knights' castles, which were pro? 
vided with »shooting*passages». 

How old the fatbur from Bjorkvik is, cannot for cer? 
tain be decided now. Some details of the architecture 
indicate however that it had not been erected before the 
sixteenth century, though in general it is of a shape 
known far back in the Middle Ages. 

It is built of large timbers, smoothed with the broad? 
axe and cross-cut at the corners. A stair leads to the 
upper story from the ground^floor, which was originally 
a larder. The upper story was intended for the preserva* 
tion of clothes and other things (hence the name of faU 
bur, which means »clothes?bower»). The floor of this 
room rests on large, crossed beams, the projecting ends 
of which support the gallery*passage which is furnished 
with wide ligt*openings. Access is gained by a steep stair 
from the second floor into a garret which is lighted by 
four small dormer-windows. The roof is covered with 
shingles. 

The highloft?bower is used at Skansen for the exhibition 
of ancient agricultural implements. 



©Vastveitloftet. The loft-bower from Vastveit. 

Formely situated at Vastveit in Telemarken, Norway. Erected in 
Skansen in the summer of 1901. 

The »Vastveit*bower» is a two-storied gallery harbour 
on pillars, a stabbur, about which all that has been said 
of the Virserum^harbour and the Bjorkvik*bower holds 



- 59 - ^ 

good in this case also. Its recemblance to the latter especi* 
ally is evident. Here in the »Vastveit*bower» we see still 
more clearly that such buildings have served the purpose 
of possible defence against the foes' attacks. 

Entrance is rendered highly difficult, for the stair, that 
leads to the upper story, is so placed as to make it 




Fig. 42. The »Vastveit=bower». 

necessary to walk around the house in the gallery before 
access is gained to the room of the upper story. The 
lower story is used as a repository for victuals, the upper 
for clothes and the like, but was also intended to do duty 
for a guest-room or harbour. When Dr Artur Hazelius 
during one of his first travels in Norway saw the Vast* 
veitloft, there stood in it a fixed, strangely carved bed* 
stead which afterwards found its place in a Norwegian 
museum. 



©— (§) - eo - 

The Vastveit*bower is particulary well built of cross* 
cut, »oval*cut» timbers. The gallery passage is built in 
resvirke, i. e. of upright planks tongued into a framework 
of logs. The »entrance*passage» is constructed in the 
same way. The latter, originally wanting in storehouses 
of the Vastveit*type, also shows by the manner in which 
it is built that it is a more recent addition. The planks 
in the front^side of the loft prove by the form of the 
carvings, that they are no older than the eighteenth 
century. 

A number of crosses are carved above the upper door 
probably in order to protect against sorcery and evil 
powers. Numerous slashes of knifves and marks of arrow 
heads are seen over the door inside the loft. In Tele* 
marken, as elsewhere in the North, it was formely belie* 
ved that the evil powers could not force their way in, 
since steel had been fixed above the door. 



Hackstugan. The "chopping-house". 

Moved to Skansen in 1891 from the parish of Orsa in Dalecarlia. 

During the long winters, when the care and manage* 
ment of the farm left plenty of time to spare, the country 
people formerly employed themselves more than they do 
now with the manufacture of implements and household* 
stuff, partly for their own use, partly also for sale. The 
men of Mora until a few years ago practised the manu* 
facture of wall*clocks, moraklockor, as a domestic art; 
and the peasants of Orsa still make grindstones, mill* 
stones, and also, for building purposes, ashlars of the 
noted, red »Orsa*sandstone». As such work could not 



61 — 




Fig. 43. Hackstugan. »Chopping=house» from Orsa. 

very well be accomplished in the living*house, a special 
little shed, known as hackstugan, was erected for the 
purpose and furnished with a fireplace. 



Frammestadskvarnen. The "Fram- § 
mestad-mill". 

From the parish of Frammestad in West^Gothland. Erected in 
Skansen in 1900. 

The oldest mills known in Sweden are some querns or 
hand-mills very likely dating from the younger stone age. 
They consist of a bedstone with a shallow cavity in 
which the grain was brayed by help of a smaller stone 



§) -62- 

of round shape. The cavity found in more recent hand* 
mills is more regularly circular, and the runner or upper 
stone shaped so as to fit it precisely. The grinding is 
accomplished by turning the runner around with a peg 
which is fitted into a hole at the edge by way of a handle. 
There is a wider hole in the centre of the runner into 
which the grain is poured. 




Fig. 44. The »Frammestad?mill». 

The ancient place for the hand-mill was outside the 
door of the living*house in an open space called the 
» threshing* floor » or the »threshold». Even after the» thre* 
shold» was transformed into an enclosed porch, the hand* 
mill often kept its place there up to the present day. 



- 63 - ^ 

When the use of a special corn^barn had been adopted, 
it was found more suitable to place the mill in the »en* 
trance^door found outside the door of that bulding. When 
space required two barns, those were put up with the 
entrances against each other. The whole then came to 
form a house of considerable length, and a carriage^gate 
was arranged right through the transept, which had to 
serve at the same time for a threshing-floor. As that buil* 
ding in more recent times came to form one side of a 
rectangular, enclosed yard, we often find the carriage^gate 
running right through the barn into the yard and the 
handmill standing in the passage. When the corn^harvests 
grew larger, even larger mills were required, such as could 
no longer be turned by hand. They then constructed 
vanes or sails upon the roof which by a gearing through 
the roof were put in connection with the runner, turning 
it around. At last this machinery became so large that a 
special house was needed for its accommodation. Then 
it was that wind^mills with an exterior like that of the 
»Frammestad*mill» arose. If there was a sufficient supply 
of running water, they preferred to build a little water* 
mill, skvalU or enfotakvarn, (compare the brook^mill). 

Wind*mills like that from Frammestad are known in 
West^Gothland as skrulh or holkekvarnar. They are still 
found here and there in West^Gothland and Bohuslan. 
In Erik Dahlberg's Suecia antiqua et hodierna they are 
often seen on pictures from those provinces. 

Various hand-mills are exhibited inside the house and 
in the entrance. 



<§> 



64 



Skvaltkvarn. The "brook-mill". 

This house belonged to farm n:o 2 in Stengardshult, the parish of 
As in Halland; and waa moved to Skansen in the autumn of 1905. 

The brook*mill has found its place close to the Oktorp* 
yard so as to make the set of houses belonging to an 
old Halland farm complete there. The mill originally be* 
longing to the Oktorp*farm in Halland no longer existed 
when the buildings were moved to Skansen. It was con* 
sequently necessary to get another from the same neigh* 
bourhood. 

Another mill of similar construction but of considerably 
less antiquity was found in the same village, where the 
mill formerly stood, and at the same brook, which falls 
into Viskan just below there. The date 1768 was carved 
in a log over the door. 

Small brook*mills of this kind are not rarely found 
even in other parts of Sweden. One often sees them 
placed in a row along some brooklet in the vicinity of a 
village. Each farmer in the village then keeps his own mill. 

As in days of old all the peasants of a village had to 
start plowing, sowing, harvesting or doing other work 
belonging to the farm on the same day, so they also had 
to start grinding at the same time. This latter custom has 
been retained in many places until now, at least where 
the mills are located successively along a course so small 
that the whater*body must be gathered up in a higher 
pond for the running of the mills. For if any peasant 
does not take the opportunity of grinding when the water 
is let out from the mill*pond, it flows by his mill unused, 
and afterwards it may take many weeks before sufficient 
water has gathered again. 



- 65 - @ (g 

Those mills are called sporrekvarnar in north Halland; 
in other districts they are popularly termed fotkvarnar 
or enfotakvarnar, skvaltekvarnar, skvaltor. They repre* 
sent the most primitive form of a mill run by mechanical 
power, and are in fact only large hand-mills run by water. 

The water presses against the slanting floats of an sim* 
pie paddle-wheel or turbine of wood, sporren, causing it 
to rotate. The perpendicular shaft directly transfers the 
spinning motion without a gear to the upper stone, the 
runner, by a transverse piece of iron, seglet, which is 
fastened to the top of the shaft. The pressure of the 
runner, on the amount of which the fineness of the flour 
depends, is regulated by the latteverk, an arrangement for 
raising and lowering the runner. 

When the mill is to be stopped, the wather is conducted 
out of the way by moving aside the wooden race, kvarn* 
hon, through which the water is directed against the tur* 
binefloats or by stemming the water in the race by a wood* 
en sluice-gate, stdmmeluckan. 

The mill^house is built in skiftesverk; 1 it is made of 
oakplanks tongued into grooves, humlingar, carved in four 
large corner^posts of oak. The floor is composed of split 
deals. The roof projects a little over the entrance*gable in 
accordance with an ancient construction found in plan 
logbuildings of earlier date. It is thatched with straw, 
which is fastened with osier4ies and held by ridge poles 
at the apex. 

The pigsty. © 

From Neder Soderby in the parish of Sorunda, Sodermanland. 
Moved to Skansen in the spring of 1907. 

As our rustic living=house, stugan, gradually evolved from 
a building with cross-cut corners, a single room and an 

1 Compare the Oktorp*yard, page 29. 

Guide to Skansen. I. 5 



@— (§) - 66 - 

open entrance*floor at one gable^end, such was the case 
also with the other buildings in the yard. Storehouses 
(harbours), barns and stables, constructed in that primi* 
tive way, are still found in many places. But just as for 
instance the storehouses have attained the proportions of 
two-storied buildings with a gallery on one or more sides, 
so also have the stables every here and there. The pigsty 
from Sorunda shows a type of that kind. It has an open 
gallery at one gable and at both sides, formed by a pro* 
jection of the low loft>story. 

<§) Tjardalen. The tar-furnace. 

An imitation of the arrangement for tar^distillation used 
in Smaland. In the wide funnel, which is coated internally 
with clay, roots and stumps of pine are burnt, covered 
with earth and ashes, lest the fire should become hotter 
than necessary for the extraction of the tar from the wood. 
The tar runs out through a hole in the bottom of the funnel 
into a trough and is put into barrels. 

The name tjardal, »tar*valley», may have arisen from 
the fact that originally a natural hollow or small valley 
in the ground was used for the tar^distillation as is still 
common in some places. 

% Holada. Hay-barn. 

From the parish of Neder Kalix in Norrbotten. Erected in Skansen 
in 1894. Given by Mr. E. Berggren, Bjorkfors. 

This barn is of a shape frequently met with near rivers 
and mowing^bogs within the Finnish districts of Norr* 
botten and also on the Finnish border, but is now practi* 
cally unknown in other parts of Sweden. 

A form of building like this, decreasing from the top 



- 67 - (§)_ (§) 

downwards, is intended to protect the walls against humi* 
dity and to prevent the hay from packing too closely, 
as it may often have to remain till later on in the winter. 



Smedja. The Blacksmith's shop. $ 

From the old mining districts of northwestern Upland, Bruskebo in 
the parish of Vaster^Lofsta. Erected in Skansen 1910. The expences 
were defrayed by Consul A. J. Norberg of Harnosand. 

The Swedish peasant smithy belongs to those buildings 
which have most generally retained the primitive form. 
The door is. in one gable*end, and the roof and the side* 
walls project so as to form a simple porch (like that in 
fig. 2). The open place under the projection, utskottet, is 
often used for the keeping of forge*coal, and a bin of 
boards is sometimes arranged for that purpose at the 
side of the door. The smithy from Upland shows a pe* 
culiarity as to that arrangement, the coabbin being con* 
structed of timber and forming a front corner of the build* 
ing. 

A village tradition tells that this shop was erected by 
the Reverend Abraham, 1 who devoted much of his time 
to forgery. »He wished to have the coal*bin so lest he 
should be like the peasants». 

According to another tradition the smithy was built by 
the last owner's grandfather. His son Lars Ersson was 
born in 1822, and it is told about him that he was a 
clever smith, that he built saw* and threshing*mills, made 



1 Fant's Diocesan Annals tell that two churchmen of Vaster*L6fsta 
have borne that name, viz. Abraham Benedicti, curate ibidem to 1624 
and his son Johan Abraham Aim, curate from 1656, perished by drown? 
ing in Lake Hallaren 1661. The tradition probably refers to this latter 
Abraham. 



%— © - 68 - 

edge4ools and other things. Some specimens of his craft 
form part of the smithy movables, for instance an iron 
for the modelling of axe^handle holes, a half finished 
scythe, and a wooden model for saw*mill blades. He spent 
all his time in the smithy to the detriment of the big 
farm, which was managed by the man-servant and suffer* 
ed to fall into decay. Lars Larsson had changed the 
chimney at the least on two occasions, and in doing so 
he one time had walled it up to the right inside the door. 
The window is supposed to be from the curate*house. 

Much goes to prove that the former tradition about 
the origin of the smithy has a ground, that it was built 
by the Rev. Abraham, but in later times passed over into 
the possession of the above-mentioned family. Certain 
features indicate in any case a higher antiquity than that 
which the latter tradition suggests. 

The old fixtures and the old tools were included in the 
purchase and are found in the smithy. 



(§) Finngarden. The Fin-houses. 

From the Finnishdistricts of Wermland. Erected in Skansen in 1902 
— 1904. The expenses were defrayed partly through a collection by 
Engineer A. Pilgren of Malmo, partly through a donation from Countess 
Anna Morner, Karlstad, and by the Fredriksshald Timber Company 
through the medium of Mr Erik Edgren, Vagsjofors. 

From the time of Gustavus Vasa till at all events about 
the close of the seventeenth century a great immigration 
of Fins into different parts of central and nothern Sweden 
took place. Great numbers of immigrants are stated to 
have settled especially in Wermland in the years of 1530, 
1608 and 1650. The parts of Finland from which most 
Fins came were the east borderlands, Savolaks and Karelen, 
which were most exposed to devastation during the in* 



69 



cessant disturbances of war. The Swedish Government 
encouraged the immigration, as the Fins were known for 
their ability in opening up new ground. The therefore 
obtained their quarters in distant back>woods, principally 
in the mining districts where they might be of use at the 
same time to the mining business by making charcoal. 
In some places these Finnish immigrants have maintained 
their old language and their ancient customs till the pre* 
sent day with a tenacity characteristic of their nation. 

The »smoke*cabin», or kiln, rokstarian or rokstubastun, 
formerly stood at Rorkullen in the parish of Lekvattnet 
in the county of Fryksdal, close by Rottna river in Werm* 
land. Tradition informs us, that it had been originally built 
by two female octogenarians »so long ago that nobody 
remembers it». That, however, must have been done in 
another place than where the building last stood, for a 
numbering of the timbers, cut in with an axe, indicates 
that it has been marked and moved once before. 

A building of this type deserves the appellation and 
more than that; for it was used not only as a living*house 
and kiln, but also as a house for taking vapour^baths in. 
When the immigrated Fins settled in the wilderness and 
commenced cultivating — which was almost exclusively 
done by clearing the woodland with fire — they, at first, 
had to settle themselves with as much simplicity as pos* 
sible. They could not at once build separate houses for 
different purposes; and so they adopted this special sort 
of smoke-house, in which they lived, dried the rye grown 
on the burnt woodland, and in which, finally, the might 
take the vapour^baths so indispensable to the Fins. Later 
on, when they had made themselves more comfortable, 
they erected other buildings, above all a special living* 
house, porte; and the cabin, mentioned before, usually 
had then to serve only as a »bath*house» and kiln. 



I - 70 - 

The smoke*cabin from Rorkullen is built of round tim* 
bers cross-cut at the corners. It consists of a single room 
having the door in one gable*end without a porch. The 
walls, whose undermost timbers rest on the founda* 
tionstones, are rough^hewn with the broad^axe inside up 
to the height of a man. Windows are lacking, but there 
are three small loop-holes with slide^boards instead of them. 
The floor consists of large, split logs, golfklofter\ which 
repose on a bolster of transverse joists. A ceiling, flat=tak 
made of mixed round and split timbers and covered by 
moss and earth, is placed in the same plane with the upper 
edge of the walls. The roof, vasstaket, 2 rests on a ridge* 
timber and four side4rees, two on each side. On these 
lie round spruce^poles, su, six of which are lengthened 
outwardly on each side so as to form hooks, utbolskro* 
kar. The latter are intended for the retention of the laths, 
utbolen, which prevent the outer covering of the roof, 
farjen from sliding down. The farj consists of mixed wood* 
material, round and split poles, farjtrdn, which serve to 
retain the birch^bark covering the su (the inner roofing). 
The topmost part of the roof, where all the ends of the 
»roofing*trees» meet, as it were, in a crest, is called farj* 
kammen. 

The fireplace, from which the whole building acquires 
its strange character, is a »smoke*oven». 

The peculiarity of the oven is due to the absence of a 
chimney*flue standing in direct communication with the 
fireplace. It is built of rough stones. When the fire is light* 
ed the smoke spreads thence through the whole room, 
settling like a thick cloud beneath the ceiling. In older 



1 The Swedish names applied to the several parts of these buildings 
are derived from the dialect which is current in Wermland. 

2 Vasstaket = vattentaket. The literal translation of the word is the 
» Waterproof » i. e. the outer roof. Translator's notes. 



- 71 - d 

houses, after the fire was burnt out, one had to clear out 
the smoke through the door and the small loopholes in 
the walls. The expedient of making a smoke^hole in the 
ceiling and of covering that with a wooden lid, as in the 
house from Rorkullen, was only later hit upon. A regular 
»smoke4runk» 1 is still lacking here, for after the smoke 
has comme up through the hole in the ceiling into the 
garret, it has to find its way thence through fissures be* 
tween the gable4imbers and any which may be in the 
roof. 

The fireplace rests on a framework, which is composed 
of logs planed with the broad^axe and dovetail^jointed at 
the corners. This structure projects from the fore^side in 
the manner of a bench, called omsbdnken. A cavity, grup 
van, which is lined with flat stones, is found in the middle, 
exactly before the mouth of the oven, and the embers 
and ashes are raked out into it after firing. The part of 
the »oven*bench», which extends from the »ash*pit» to 
the corner, as also sometimes the upper side of the arch, 
is considered to be the best place in the house to sleep 
in especially by old persons suffering from the cold. 

A large pillar, known as pahas or the »pata*log (pata* 
stocken) which supports a beam lying beneath the roof, 
stands at the inner corner of the oven. 2 That beam bears 
the poles on which the rye, mown on the burnt land, was 
put up for drying. A platform, known as lave, composed of 
large, half logs, is fitted up in the other corner beneath 
the roof. When taking their baths the Finns climbed up 
there so as better to enjoy the hot vapour formed by 
pouring water over the heated oven. The platform was 
used at other times as a bed^shelf; and it was reached 
by means of a ladder with steps h^wn out from the log. 

1 Compare, page 73. 

2 For this beam, compare the Bleking^house, page 20. 



S) -12- 

An apparatus, vdffat, arranged on the inner gable*wall, 
may also be reckoned among the fixed furniture. It simply 
consists of some pegs put into the wall. Those pegs, on 
which the warping of the yarn was accomplished, was in 
its way a substitute for the warping^mill. 

The rest of the furniture is extremely simple. The floor 
might sometimes have served for a sleeping^place, as did 
the bathing^platform and the oven. Bedsteads were very 
likely not used in primeval smoke*cabins. 

A settle is placed along the right hand side of the room; 
and we see in front of that a massive table clumsily cut 
out with the axe. Hollows due to the cutting of tobacco 
and the crushing of salt are seen at the corners of the 
table. A »cupboard», hollowed out from a single wooden 
block, is hung on the wall over the settle. The simple furni* 
ture is completed by a couple of footstools, krackstolar, 
made in one piece of logs with the legs naturally growing 
out from them 1 and a chopping=block, on which the 
sticks used for lighting were split, was placed beside the 
door. The sticks, thus split with the knife, were laid on 
the oven or on the poles above to dry. When lighted and 
put into the light holder, lyskdring, 2 fixed to the pahas, 
they would spread their pale, magic light through the 
blackened room. 

P The porte (fig. 45) from Ortjarnshojden in the parish 
of Lekvattnet in Wermland was known as Damstugan in 
the place where it previously stood and was owned by 
Olof Olsson in Bratarne. 

Damstugan is a porte or »srnoke*cabin» in the true 
sense of the word, as it was exclusively intended for a 
living*house in opposition to the house from Rorkullen. 

1 Sjdlfvuxna, i. e. of spontaneous growth. 

2 Literally »lighting old woman», a notched piece of iron or wood 
used for holding the sticks. Translator's note. 



- 73 - (* 

It agrees with the form of porte formerly used in Finland. 
The first hard years being over, the Finnish immigrants 
resumed the old style of building here. 

The porte has a »smoke*cabin oven», rokstu*om, like 
that of the kiln; but the construction of the oven as well 
as that of the whole building and of the furniture, is no 
longer so ^extremely primitive. The oven is coated with 
clay and white washed on the front. A vent or conduit 




Fig. 45. Damstugan, smoke^cabin from Wermland. 

coming out over the mouth of the oven as an opening, 
known as the »flamehole», laghdlet, is adjusted in the 
arch for bringing about the necessary draught when firing. 
For letting the smoke out of the room, a hollow trunk 
of a tree, takhalskistan, 1 taktuten, is set over the hole in 



1 Literally »the roof*hole*chest». This was in later times usually 
made of boards. Translator's note. 



\ - 74 — 

the ceiling. The smoke is conveyed by that flue through 
the roof into the open air without any communication 
with the oven. 

The walls are built up of round timbers which are cross= 
cut at the corners. The simple loopholes are replaced by 
two wide, light windows; and the furniture will at all 
events satisfy moderate claims to comfort. The long settle, 
with its table in front, is to be found also here; but these 




Fig. 46. »Cooking*house» belonging to Damstugan. 



pieces of furniture are not blocked out so roughly as those 
in the house from Rorkullen. A comfortable chair, stabb* 
stol or kdrstol, and a spinning-wheel stand at the window; and 
an ordinary bedstead has its place in the karsina= nook bet* 
ween the oven and the inner gable^wall. Amongst the 
furniture we may here, as well as in Rorkullen, count the 
ndfverkont, a wallet plaited of birch^bark, and the »birch* 
bark shoes», ndfverskorna. The illumination is here also 
effected by sticks, pertstickor, which are put into a not* 
ched chip of wood, ly stand, affixed to the pahas. 

The construction of the roof is essentially the same as 
in the house from Rorkullen; but the side4rees are four 



75 



@— @ 



on each side, and the roof forms a considerable porch or 
»outshot», 1 utskott, projecting over the entrance gable. A 
kind of primitive penthouse, smock, composed of spruce* 
poles slanting towards the wall, resvirke, is set up by the 
side of the door. It is the place for a chopping*block 
and generally also for an »osier*bag», barter, used as a »back- 
basket» or knapsack for the carrying of miscellaneous ar* 




Fig. 47. Stolpbod. »Pillar=harbour». 

tides. Even the »snowshoes», trygorna, which like the 
barter are made of withes, generally have their place 
there, either hung on the wall or put in the smock. 

The cook-house, kokhuset (fig. 46), is the »kitchen» and(§) 
always belonged to the Damstugan, whereas the two other 
buildings in the yard are taken from other places. 



1 Compare the Virserurrvharbour. 



(§(— @) - 76 - 

(g) The »pillar*harbour»\ stolpboden, stolpharburet (fig. 47), 
is from Honkamak in Langnas, in the parish of Grasmark 
in Wermland; and 
(g) the barn, logen, which bears the date 1671, is from 
Pojkansana in Hvitkarn in the parish of Lekvattnet in 
Wermland. 

The Hemtobakspallen is a small plot found behind the 
porte Damstugan. It is annually sown with green tobacco 
seed (Nicotiana rustica). 

The Finns' chief plants, besides tobacco, were turnips 
and (»wood»*) rye (= skogsrdg, fallrdg), both grown on 
the burnt woodland. We also see in the yard a field in* 
tended for the growing of potatoes, a plant which first 
came into use in that district in 1789. 



(g)_(§) Lapplagret. The Laplander's camp. 

The Laplanders form a tribe which belongs to the great 
High*Asiatic or Mongolian race of people, being by their 
language nearest in relation to the Finns. They are spread 
in Russia and Finland north of the 66 th degree of latitude, 
in Sweden and Norway north of the 63 rd . Into the North 
they have immigrated at a time belonging to the pre* 
historic period. At that time they lived in a ,stone*age 
which, however, differs from the stone*age of our old 
Norse ancestors, especially inasmuch as they chiefly used 
slate besides bones and antlers for their edge-tools. They 
first learnt the use of metals through contact with the 
Northerners. 

Although the Lapps, as far as their racial characteristics 
and language are concerned, constitute one people, we 

1 Compare the notes under the »Virserum*harbour» and the »Mora* 
harbour». 



77 



©— ® 



usually divide them according to their mode of living into 
two principal groups: »mountain* or wood*Lapps», and 
»sea= or fishing Lapps». The former still live as a no* 
madic people having most conspicuously retained the sin* 
gularities of their tribe. The reindeer is their domestic 
animal; and only its ability to find a scanty food of rein* 
deer*moss under the snow in the winter makes it possible 
for them to get their living in that hard climate. But for 
the subsistence of a family a great herd of reindeers is 
required. Poor is the Lapp, who owns less than one or 




Fig. 48. The Laplanders' camp. 

two hundred heads. The meat and the milk of the rein* 
deer is the Lapp's main food ; the hide is tanned for skins 
and clothes, and many of the smaller household requisites 
are made of the antlers, sinews and bones. The Lap* 
landers obtain in exchange for the products of the rein* 
deer cloth, salt, coffee, tobacco, and flour. The prepare 
from the last a kind of unfermented bread. 

The mountain*Lapp assisted by his dogs, who keep the 
herd together, drives his reindeer around on the mount* 
ains above the wood*border in the summer. He moves 
downwards towards the close of the summer and arrives 



®— ® 



78 



at the border of the forests in the beginning of Septem* 
ber. Here at the hostviste, the autumn residence, he is 
to stay till the middle of November. The butchering is 
done in the beginning of October. The Lapp usually has 
his winter quarters down in the forests, following his herd 
from pasture to pasture and encamping only for short 




Fig. 49. Torfkdta. »Torf=hut». 

periods. When the Lapps »roam», gdjsa, from one place 
to another, male reindeer are used as beasts of burden or 
drawers of the boat^shaped sleighs, pulkorna or akjorna. 
The return to the mountains takes place early in the 
spring, when the sun commences to melt away the surface 
of the snow and the nightfrost forms a sufficient crust. 
They come back to the autumn residence again in the 



79 



©— @ 



beginning of May. The reindeer having calved, the march 
is continued into the mountains through the summer. 

The Laplanders' huts, kdtorna, are, except the timbered 
ones belonging to the more stationary wood* and fishing 
Lapps, erected round a wooden skeleton, which is always 
of the same shape in its outlines. It is made up of four 
main posts, dtndrisa, the feet of which are placed at the 





Fig. 50. Njalla, 

frontsview, side*view, and plan. 

angles of a square, their upper, somewhat curved ends 
intersecting each other in pairs. A ridge-pole, called aule= 
muora, is put through the auger^holes bored through the 
sections, both ends projecting a little on each side. The 
jambs, uksa tjakke, are afterwards threaded on the fore* 
most of these ends; they incline upwards and intersect 
each other at the top. A pole, known as pdssjotjagge, 
placed aslant against the ground, buttresses the hindmost 
end. Usually both pairs of mainpoles, i. e. the »crucks» 
or »crutches», are connected by an additional cross-piece, 



<g)_ <§) - 80 - 

vuodjem, a little above the middle. The poles, which 
support the outer covering, lean against the vuodjem. 
According to the material used for covering distinction is 
made between tent*, bark*, turf*, and brushwood*huts. The 
door of the tent*huts generally consists of a piece of cloth; 
those of the others of a wooden lid, swinging on wooden 
hinges or fastened to one jamb by osier*ties. 

On entering the hut one usually has to stride over a 
heap of fuel lying to dry just inside the door. The hearth, 
aran, lies in the centre of the floor on the bare ground, 
bordered at the most by some stones placed in a circle. 
The pot is suspended from a withe or an iron*chain above. 
The smoke from the fire escaps by a hole at the summit, 
left open when the hut was being covered. The ground 
is covered with spruce*twigs on both sides of the hearth, 
the occupants of the hut having their sitting*places there 
in the day*time and their sleeping*places at night. The 
right hand side is regarded the most esteemed. It is the 
master's and his wife's place. There also an honoured 
guest is invited. The valuables, such as trinkets and other 
house*stuff, are kept in a box at the side opposite the 
door. That place was anciently considered to be sacred. 

(^ Turf=hut (fig. 49) from an autumn residence in the Lapp* 

district of Lule. 

Given by C. O. Bergman, Lieutenantecolonel, in Gellivare. 

(§§) TenUhut from Gellivare in the Lapp*district of Lule. 

(Sg) TenUhut, showing the skeleton of a hut after the remo* 
val of the tentcloth. 

(g) Tookhouse, luove, for seines and nets, clothes, snow* 
shoes, sleighs, and other things. From the autumn resi* 
dence in Gellivare, in the Lapp*district of Lule. 

(SB) »Cheese=drying hut», mosta*koikom=luove, used for 
drying cheeses, for holding milk*vessels, cheese*moulds, 



- 81 - (§) 

strainers, and so forth. From the autumn residence in 
Gellivare, in the Lappdistrict of Lule. 

»Pillanbooth» } nfalla, in which the Lapp at starting from@ 
the autumn residence leaves behind some victuals, clothes, 
and other things to remain till his return. From Gellivare 
in the Lapp=district of Lule. 

»Food=stand», suongero, for drying paunches filled with(g) 
blood, fish, meat, and other things. From Gellivare in the 
Lapp^district of Lule. 

Log'hut, such as the wood* and fishing*Lapps build. ($ 

Swedenborg's lusthus. Swedenborg's ® 
summer-house. 

Formerly situated on the lot number 45, Hornsgatan in Stockholm. 
Erected in Skansen in 1896 by means of contributions from captains 
O. V. Nordenskjold and N. G. Sundstrom. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the weal* 
thier citizens of Stockholm generally had their villa*resi* 
dences at Soder 1 , to which they removed for the summer 
to enjoy the comfort of a dwelling-place unaffected by the 
closeness of town and surrounded by a garden. As the 
city expanded in that direction, these suburban houses, 
malmgdrdarne, became by degrees real city^houses, inhab* 
ited the whole year round. Emanuel Swedenborg 2 had 



1 Soder, part of Stockholm, forming at that time the south outskirts 
of the town. 

2 Emanuel Swedenborg, son of Jesper Swedberg, Bishop of Skara, was 
born in Stockholm on Jan. 29th, 1688, and died in London March 29* h , 
1772. He was a celebrated natural philosopher, inventor, mathematician, 
and poet; but known, however, by his religious philosophy which is 
written with a tendency towards mysticism and naturalism. His religious 
works, after his death, gave birth to the religious society »The New 
church» or »New Jerusalem», which has numerous adherents, especi* 
ally in England and America. 

Guide to Skansen. I. 6 



82 



his residence in Hornsgatan close by Adolf Fredrik's square. 
The little summer-house, to which he would withdraw 
especially at night, to devote himself undisturbed to studies 
and contemplations, was situated in the garden belonging 




Fig. 51. Swedenborg's summer-house. 

to his property. It is said, that he received most, if not 
all, of his spiritual revelations there. The house at the 
present contains a 'little Swedenborg museum. His organ 
stands on the right hand side ; and portraits, copperplate 
prints, and medals, stamped in memory of him, hang 



- 83 - <§)— © 

on the walls. A collection of his printed works on natural 
science and ology is also exhibited as well as: »The 
motion of the earth and the planets», »On the stratifica* 
tions of the- mountains», »Arcana caelestia», »De cselo et 
inferno», »De ultimo Judicio,» and others. 



® 

"Gunilla Bjelke's summer-house". 

Previously situated in Soderkoping on the plot which is bordered 
by Hasttorgsgatan, Garfvaregrand and Lilian. Given by Consul G. S. 
Arwidson to Skansen, where it was erected in 1903. 

This house, when in Soderkoping, was popularly called 
Gunilla Bjelke's summer-house or chapel. It is, however, 
certain that it never was a chapel, but a summer-house 
of the kind that was usual in the baroque period. It very 
likely formed one of the two wings facing the garden of 
a court, the mansion belonging to which, now destroyed, 
was situated along Hasttorgsgatan. No fragments are left 
of the other wing but the cellar, on which it was built. 
That cellar, which is now enclosed in a larger outhouse 
built up in later times, forms a complete duplicate of the 
one situated under the summer-house, that was removed 
to Skansen. Both are covered by barrel*vaults and seem 
to have been used for keeping victuals. Whether Queen 
Gunilla really erected the house herself, is not known 
with any certainty and the tradition needs more careful 
research. She might possibly have inherited the plot on 
which the house stood, from her father, Johan Axelson 
Bielke of Haradshammar and Rafvelstad, a knight and 
privy councillor. All trade in olden times was confined 
to the towns, it being then necessary to transport the 



© 



84 



products of the farms there by the highway. Then it 
happened of course that a carter had to stay in town for 
quite a time, before all his goods were sold and other 




Fig. 52. Gunilla Bielkes summer-house. 



things purchased for the needs of the farm. It was there* 
fore usual for every farm or landed estate to have a house 
in the nearest town. Gunilla is said to have built this 



— 85 



© 



house in Soderkoping or at least the summer-house, since 
she, after the death of King johan, had fixed her residence 
at Braborg, situated a couple of miles from the town. 
Three of the four wooden vaultcopings, which form the 




e 

3 



DQ 



3 

o 






inner roof of the pavilion, are adorned with paintings 
which are direct imitations of three known, old copper* 
plates. Those plates, which now belong to a series of 52 
pictures, illustrating the Metamorphoses of Ovid, were 



© 



86 



executed under the guidance of the Haarlem^master Hein* 
rich Goltzius by his pupils in 1589 — 90. If the tradition 
that this pavilion was built for Queen Gunilla is really 



31 

CfQ* 



o 



5 



c 
3 
3 

o 




true, it must consequently have been constructed between 
the years of 1590 and 1597. The Queen died on the 19 th 
of July in the latter year. 
The pavilion or summer-house has been re^erected at 



87 - 



© 



Lower Solliden in surroundings corresponding as closely 
as possible to those, in which it formerly stood. The 
walled foundation has, outwardly, been carefully built 
of the same sort of brick as was the original. The 




ca 



c 
O 









roof which consisted of sheeteiron applied in more recent 
times and destroyed by rust, is now replaced by oak* 
shingles. 



©— <§> 




/JJ\ Fig. 56. Summer-house (pavilion) 

from no. 30 Bellmansgatan in Stockholm. 

Gift to the Northern Museum by the will of Mr. G. C. Lehnberg. 



<§) 



"Petissan." 



»Petissan» is a popular name given to this old Stock* 
holm house in recent times after it came into use as a 
cafe. Originally it was an office*building and belonged 
to »The haunted castle» (»spokslottet», Drottninggatan 112), 
which was built towards the close of the seventeenth 
century. 



- 89 - ©— @> 

Klockstaplar. Detached bell-towers. 

Cast churchbells were already common in Europe at 
the time of the introduction of Christianity into Sweden. 
They also frequently came into fashion in this country, 
with the clang of their metallic tongues calling out the 
declaration of war of the new faith against the heathen 
gods. A bell in the church of Hemsjo in Smaland bears 
the following inscription: » Mortem clamo deum fortem 
populum voco. Festaque sanctorum orno vim fugo de* 
moniorum.» Their tones were supposed to have the power 
of scaring away giants and ogres ; and in order to increase 
that power the bells were blessed and consecrated. Lau* 
rence Petri mentions that »the papists christen and anoint 
bells, using sponsors for that purpose». When the bell 
was christened it received a name being usually called 
after some saint. 

Our oldest country churches were, no doubt built of 
wood, except possibly those in the least wooded districts. 
They had generally no towers. The bells hung in a separate 
cloccnahus, i. e. a »bell*house» or belfry of wood, situated 
close by the church as is still usual in many parts of our 
country. A steeple from the Middle Ages is very unlikely 
to be preserved to the present day. Structures of that 
kind, destroyed by fire and decay, have been rebuilt, main* 
taining, however, a very primitive mqde of construction. 

Hallestadsstapeln. The Hallestad-steeple. (§) 

Formerly situated by the church of Hallestad in the county of 
Finspangalan in Ostergotland. Sent to Skansen in 1894 as a gift 
from the parish of Hallestad. In the autumn of the same year the 
steeple stood rejected at Skansen. The church of Hallestad was 
burnt down in the preceding year; and the steeple was saved only by 
the vigorous efforts of the parishioners. 



® 



— 90 — 

A tradition is current in Hallestad that the steeple was 
erected in 1732. We can, however, only say positively 
that it must have been built after 1726, when the old 
steeple was destroyed by fire. The Hallestad^steeple is of 

a form peculiar to 
that neighbourhood. 
Though exhibiting in 
its framing a very 
oldfashioned method 
of construction it still 
bears in many re* 
spects features charac* 
teristic of the taste of 
the baroque period. 
This holds true espe* 
daily of the helmet 
of the belfrey, which 
is supplied with ar* 
ched sound^holes; 
from a square sub* 
structure with broken 
and inclined corners 
it suddenly changes 
into an octagonal cu* 
pola. The latter is 
continued upwards as 
a lantern, above which 
rises a lofty spire the 
summit beingcrowned 




Fig. 57. The »Hallestad*steeple» 



by the symbols of the cross and the cock. The structure 
measures 42 metres in height above the ground. 

The two bells, hung in the Hallestad steeple and bearing 
the name af Konung Oscars klockor, were given by Mrs 
Lotten Nordlund (nee Hertzer), and Mrs Maria Ekman 



- 91 - ©— @ 

(nee Lavonius). They were rung for the first time by the 
King on the 3 rd of December in 1899, in the presence of 
the Crown*prince, the Crown*princess and Prince Eugen. 
The dawn of the twentieth century was hailed by their 
clang; and it was ordained that they should thereafter be 
tolled in commemoration of the death of eminent Swedish 
men and women. 



Hasjostapeln. The Hasjo-steeple. ^ 

A careful reconstruction of the belMower which stands by the church 
of Hasjo in East Jamtland. Erected in Skansen in 1892, the expenses 
being partly defrayed by Prince Karl. 

The Hasjo-steeple is of a shape which in its leading 
features is met with in quite a number of Northland bell* 
towers. When the older steeple, rebuilt in 1684, had been 
destroyed according to a memoir found in the chronicles 
of the Hasjo church, the present one was erected between 
1778—79 by a peasant, Pal Persson, from Stugun in Jamt* 
land, who received 1 1 rix*dollars and 5 skilling banco in 
salary for his work. The original drawing is kept now 
in the church of his native place; which he built up for 
his community without receiving any fee for his services. 
A diary note from the year 1815, found in the Stugun 
parish register of » Deaths and Burials in the Parish of 
Stugun from 1798», states: The late Peasant, the church* 
warden and sacristan Pal Persson in Stugun expired on 
January the 22 nd and was buried on February the 19 th , 
he having during his lifetime in the capacity of Master* 
builder erected the Helgum*church of stone; 7 churches 
of Wood, of which 6 with Towers, and, besides that, 6 
steeples, besides several smaller Public Buildings. — 
Been well informed upon Christianity, and a good steady 
man. Illness: Pain in the chest. Aged 83». He was 



© 



— 92 



consequently born in 1732. A monument, found in the 
churchyard of Stugun and furnished with an inscription 
engraved on a copperplate, marked his grave till a few 
years ago. Where Pal Persson learnt his art is not known, 




Fig. 58. Hasjostapeln. The »Hasjo*steeple». 

but in all probability he was a self4aught man, who deve* 
loped a sort of architecture prevalent in the neighbourhood, 
adhering to forms characteristic of the art of building of 
the baroque period. This is most conspicuously shown 



— 93 — 

by the outlines of the roof and by the arrangement of the 
»belfrye», which consists of an open gallery furnished with 
a balustrade of turned columns. Two bells are now hung 
in this belfrye, which were made by the noted beMounder 
Gerhard Meijer of Stockholm and belonged formerly to 
the] chapel of the Queen Dowager Hedvig Eleonora at 
Ulriksdal. They are a gift to Skansen from King Oscar II. 
The height of the tower over the ground is somewhat 
more than 21 metres (about 69 feet). 



<§)— © 



Grafvardar. Sepulchral monuments. © 

Some sepulchral monuments of various forms, found in 
different parts of our country, are exhibited close to the 
Hasjosteeple. Some of them, 
though belongingtothelatestcen* 
turies, show a very old-fashioned 
appearance. The stone^crosses 
from the parish of Rackeby in 
WeskGothland for example 
differ but slightly from those 
used during the Middle Ages. 
On many of the stone*monu- 
ments as well as on the iron 
monuments we find the cross 
encircled within a ring, origin* 
ally signifying the sun wheel, 
i. e. the symbol of the »Sun* 
God», which was afterwards 
absorbed into Christian sym* 
bolism. 




Fig. 59. Grave*cross 

from Rackeby. in West*Gothland. 



©— © - 94 - 

Runstenar, Runic monuments, rune-stones. 

The runes are alphabetic signs which were developed, 
probably in the second century A. D., by the Teutons 
living north of the Black Sea, after the Grecian italics, 
which writing that people used in daily life. In order to 
represent those Teutonic sounds, which were missing in 
the Grecian language, they supplemented the above men* 
tioned italics with characters borrowed from the Roman 
alphabet. The runic forms, however, differed essentially 
from the above mentioned prototypes; and the change 
was called for by the fact that they were mostly produ* 
ced in wood, in which material curved lines would have 
been difficult to carve; and lines running parallel with 
the grain of the wood would have become indistinct. 

The runes spread rapidly to most of the Teutonic tri* 
bes, and they were found in Gothland as early as the 
4 th century. The oldest common Teutonic »rune*line» 
(runic alphabet), consisted of 24 runes: 
rhl>FK<X!>:H + Ul,fiY*:tBMPU<>M* 

futharkgw hnijepRS tbemlngdo 
t> = English th; p = English w; $ sometimes signified e, 
sometimes i. Y at first signified sonorous s, but later an 
(i4inged) resound, usually represented by R; it is almost 
exclusively found at the end of the words. 

The oldest runic inscriptions are read from right to 
left. Later inscriptions are generally read from left to 
right. 

The runes evolved differently in different territories 
just as the dialects did. A new runic line, consisting of 
16 signs, was developed in the North as early as the 
9 th century. It presents two separate readings, viz. one 
northern, Swedish*Norwegian, consisting of the following 
characters: 



- 95 - ©— <§) 

futhark hnias t b m l *r 
This reading was used in Gothland and East*Gothland, in 
the Malar*valley, in Norway and the Norwegian colonies 
in the British Islands. 

The custom of raising rune*stones increased in the II th 
century; and the rune*line above mentioned was displaced 
then by the southern Danish or ordinary line in all 
those provinces, excepting in the British Islands, where 
the use of the old one was continuously kept up. Danish 
or ordinary line: 

r h I* fc K : * + I + H : T fcYh/k 
futhark hnias t b m l *r 

The rune A = r at the end of words; within a word 
it usually signifies y, 6, e or ce; a denotes a nasal a y ce. 

The » dotted runes» were gradually brought into fashion 
during the earliest period of the Middle Ages for the re* 
production of all Roman characters introduced with 
Christian culture: \ =■■ e, Y = g, P) == y 4 = d, and % = p. 
A signified a, 1 o y \ a, 4 s o, and v z in this rune*line. 
In Gothland and Dalecarlia the last runic alphabet, added 
to signs from the Roman alphabet, survived almost to the 
present time. 

The custom of raising runic monuments became very 
common, especially during the first centuries after the in* 
troduction of Christianity. The stone was then usually 
raised either in commemoration of some kinsman with a 
prayer for the happiness of his soul, or in order to con* 
secrate the memory of a martial deed or a peaceful 
achievement. A great number of runic monuments, origi* 
nating mostly from the eleventh century, tell that the 
stone was erected in remembrance of the construction of 
a road, or bridge, carried out by someone for the pur* 



<§)— © - 96 - 

pose of gaining salvation for his own soul, or for the 
souls of his kinsmen. 

© Rune*stone from Norslunda, the parish of Norrsunda 
in the county of Erlinghundra, Upland. The inscription, 
in part much damaged, has by aid of older drawings 
been interpreted in the following manner: 

Mh+ . KIWIhKR i +[\K Ht[l]hriUI>K i HftK . h[IKNhTK] 
Nth . fc[+IM . ] HTIh [ . ] Mh^ni/k . HIWHI[> . ] KIMi+fc] 
Hh[h]H [ • 1 Htl . l\[M?]<i Kht> *Mhfcl [*]hh[hlNY] 

The inscription in translation is thought to run thus: 1 
»Kylving and Stenfrid and Sigfast let raise this stone 
over Osten, Gunnar's son, who owned Harg? God help 
his soul.» 

© Rune*stone from Hagerstalund, formerly called Hansta, 
in the parish of Spanga in the county of Sollentuna, Up* 
land. Inscription: 

. nm+fc x +hK x iMtnm . nn x k+ih+ . mm- 

H14IW • trtR . HPlHthR: . *ilYH . hl++ . ♦MTlYtt . *Mi 
IKIIWT x 

Translation: 1 »Gardar and Jorund let raise this stone 
after their sister's sons Ernmund and Ingemund». Accor* 
ding to the inscription on another monument, formerly 
situated in the vicinity of this one, Gerdar and Jorund 
died in Greece. 
© Rune«stone from Olstad, the parish of Gryta in the 
county of Hagunda, Upland. Inscription: 

*Mltt i +I\I>IMTR; . KhM* i *MTtlH i Nth Wt* htlh 
MM 8 . irtl/k . IMT « NhMIVM/k *MMM . Ih NhYhhtK *lh 



1 Literal translation. 



97 — 



cm— m 




Fig. 60. Runic monument from Linga, 

in the parish of Ofverjarna 

in Sodermanland. 



Translation: 1 »Bjorn, 
Odulf, Gunnar, and 
Holmdis let raise this 
stone after Ulf, Ginlog's 
husband, but Asmund 
hewed» (the runes). 

This Asmund carved 
a score of inscriptions 
in the middle of Upland 
and in Gestrikland. 

Rune*stone from© 
Linga, the parish of 
Ofvenjarna in Soder* 
manland. It bears an 
inscription on the front 
and on the top as well, 
as on the back. The 
inscription found on 
the front and the top 
runs: 



: -HhKhf/k : fc+IHDI : HH+ : Dtthl : +t : DIW+HT : Y+K : 
Hit TIH+ : +T m\\>t\k HI+ 

Contents: 1 »Helgulf raised this stone after Trofast, his 
brother in law, Disa after her brother. The inscription on 
the back: 

Hh+ N+RI>[I] irT[Lk] — HI++ 

Translation: 1 »Disa made (the monument) after her...» 

The Linga^monument is singular in the respect that it 

bears tie*runes and secret runes besides common runes. 



Literal translation. 



Guide to Skanseti. I. 



©— © 



— 98 



Milstolpar. Mile-posts. 



Our heathen ancestors mostly travelled on foot or on 
horseback. Burdens were transported on pack-horses. In 
spite of the fact that man, even in the bronze age as 
shown by the stone^engraved figures from that period, 
knew both two*wheeled*carts and four-wheeled carriages, 
such conveyances were not used for long journeys before 
the Middle Ages, because the roads were too bad. If 
possible, one rather went by sea, or one went sleighing 
in the winter. Interest in the improvement of the roads 
only awoke under the influence of the clergy after the 
introduction of Christianity. Many runic monuments bear 
witness to this fact, the inscriptions telling us that they 
were erected by him or those, who had made a road or 
a »bridge» 1 in the hope of salvation for their own soul 
or the souls of their kinsmen. 

From a later period of the Middle Ages we find enact* 
ments as to the keeping the roads in repair. Distinction 
is made between high-roads, village roads, and private 
roads. In the EaskGothic Law we read: »Now is to be 
'thing*road' (courkroad), and people's road, man's road, 
and king's road, ten yards in width. » » Magnus Erikson's 
public country law» prescribes that a bridge^survey was 
to be held twice a year, one at the beltane (May I st ), the 
second at Michaelmas (Sept. 29 th ). Nevertheless the roads 
were even so miserable in the middle of the sixteenth 
century that a German traveller, who was to pass from 
Stockholm to Malmo, rather continued sleighing even after 
the snow had melted, than expose himself to being shaken 



1 Here of course in the sense of a rustic bridge of the old sort, 
a causeway. 



- 99 - @ 

to pieces in a cart. Finally he had to leave the sledge 
and to continue travelling on horseback. 

Great improvements in the public roads were under* 
taken in the middle of the seventeenth century. They 
were measured, and mile-posts were put up for every 
whole or half mile or fpr every quarter of a mile. These 
were generally cut out of stone and erected in the middle 
of cairns built up by the roadside. New measurings and 
divisions of the roads have taken place in recent times. 
Mile-posts were often cast of iron in the eighteenth cen* 
tury. The name mile*post, milstolpe, shows, howerer, that 
the oldest were made of wood, as some extant examples 
still show. 

Milestone (mile-post of stone), dated 1663; from the© 
parish of Njurunda in Medelpad. 





Fig. 61. Milestone 

from Halland. 



3 «*^'^*<* a WJ9n , 2»* 



Fig. 62. Milestone 

from Blekinge. 



(fifo Mile-stone, dated 1663; from the parish of Enanger in 
Helsingland. 

@ Milestone, dated 1663. Formerly situated at Oringarne, 
a short distance north of Hernosand. 

/Qv Milestone, dated 1666. Formerly situated at Nissastigen 
between Halmstad and the inn of Drahered in Halland 
(fig. 61), 

(g) Milestone, dated 1666; from the parish of Sloinge in 
Halland. 

(gg) Milestone, dated 1671; from the parish of Nettraby 
in Blekinge (fig. 62). 

/ggv Milestone, dated 1674. Formerly situated at Nissastigen 
close south of the inn of Unnaryd in Smaland. 

(57) Milestone, dated 1675; from the parish of Saby, 
Smaland. 

(5^) Milestone, dated 1707; from the parish of Leksberg 
in West*Gothland. 

(gj) Milestone, dated 1737; from the parish of Ucklum, 
Bohuslan. 

(§d) Mile-post of iron; from the time of Adolf Fredrik. 
From the parish of Ramsberg, Westmanland. 

(g) Mile*post of iron, dated 1764; from the county of 
Holebo, in Sodermanland. 

^2) Mile*post of iron, dated 1766; from the parish of 
Ramsberg, Westmanland. 

^ Mile-post of iron, dated 1777; from the county of 
Holebo in Sodermanland. 

(g) Milestone, dated 1779; from the paris of Hvetlanda, 
Smaland. 



101 - <§)—(§) 

Milestone, made in 1781 at Yxhult, then Hallebraten,<§) 
in Narike, as a sample for the State. 

Mile-post of iron, dated 181 1 ; from South Angermanland.<§) 
Mile-post of iron from Siljord in Telemarken, Norway.© 



Boundary-stones, 



One bearing the arms of East* 
Gothland, the other those of 
Sodermanland, showing under* 
neath an inscription to the follow* 
ing effect: 

OSTERGOTLAND COMMENCES AT 
THIS BROOK AND THIS STONE IS ERECT* 
ED IN 1684 BY LORDLIEUTENANT AXEL 
STAHLARM. 

These stones originally formed 
the boundary marks between East* 
Gothland and Sodermanland at 
the road, now spoilt, between 
Norrkoping and Nykoping. They 
have not served their original 
purpose in later times, because 
the provincial boundary through 
the reconstruction of the road 
and through exchange of ground 
between the inn of Krokek and adjacent villages is at the 
precent day quite different from what it was in 1684. 




Fig. 63. Boundary*stone, 

from the boundary of Sodermanland 
and EastsGothland. 



§|) © - 102 - 

I 

© Majstang. May-pole. 

From the village of Gardsjo in the parish of Rattvik, 
Dalecarlia. Poles of this kind, decorated with leaves, flowers, 
egg-shells, and other things, are still put up in many 
places in Sweden. It is difficult to decide, how long the 
May*poles of the North have had the appearance shown 
by this specimen. The oldest existing reproductions of 
May^poles are probably those seen in some of the plates 
found in Erik Dahlberg's »Svecia antiqua et hodierna». 
In German woodcuts and copperplate prints from the 
Renaissance we not seldom see poles, rather resembling 
this one, erected near the dwelling-houses. It is possible 
that with us the May*po!e is a relatively late form of the 
ancient »spring* or summer4ree» which in the Middle 
Ages, generally on the beltane May 1 st was carried into 
the village or town with pomp and splendour. In this 
ceremony of »carrying May or summer into the village» 
we have undoubtedly a survival of a treecult preserved 
by the northerners as well as by many other nations 
from a very remote past. 



9 ® Elfkvarnar. Sacrificial stones. 

That our ancestors, even as far back as the stone^age, 
had an idea about a life to come is shown amongst 
other things by the fact that weapons, household goods, 
victuals and other things are found deposited in graves 
dating from that period. It was evidently believed that 
the dead man might have use for them. Even as early 
as that it was very likely a custom to sacrifice to the 



- 103 - @— © 

spirits of the deceased. Small cavities are found on the 
rookstones in graves of the stone*age and sometimes also 
inside the graves. That these were intended for sacrificing 
is, amongst other circumstances, rendered probable by 
the fact that people have sacrificed in them still up to 
the latest times. They are popularly called »Elfkvarnar»; 
and this word also refers to a death^cult. »Elf», in Swe* 
dish named elfva or alf y was formerly a common name 
for the soul of a dead man. 1 

In the »sacrificial stones» exhibited at Skansen, all of 
which are from Upland, sacrifices were made even in the 
eighties, and were carried out in the following manner. 
Cavities were greased with unsalted lard or butter. Copper* 
coins or pins, newer things made of steel or iron, were 
afterwards laid in them during profound silence. 

Sacrificial stone from Kymlinge in the parish of Spanga,@) 
Upland. 

Sacrificial stone from the village of Harsta in the® 
parish of Norrby, Upland. 

Sacrificial stone from the parish of Enanger, Upland.© 

Sacrificial stone from Bjorklund in the parish of En*@ 
anger, Upland. 

Flagstone with cup^shaped cavities resembling those@ 
of the »elfquerns». From a bronze age grave in Tuna 
gard, in the parish of Ytterhorna, Sodermanland. 



Sacrificial pile, »offerstack», from Dalecarlia. In some© 
places it was formerly and is perhaps still a custom, for 



The literal translation of elfkvarn is »elf*quern». 



those, passing by a place where a murder 1 had been 
committed, to throw twigs or stones upon a pile there. 
Every time the pile grew too high it was set on fire and 
partly burnt. 



@) Whet*stone from the stone^age. Used for whelting axes 
and chisels of stone. From the parish of Etelhem, Goth* 
land. 

© Whetstone from the stonage. From the parish of Lye, 
Gothland. 



(jg) Poorsbox (alms*box) from Grisslehamn in the parish of 
Vaddo, Upland. 

© Stocks from the parish of Ukna, Smaland. 

@ Whippingpost from the parish of Ilsbo, Helsingland. 

(§2) Salutesbattery, concisting of six smooth^bored six* 
pounders with appertaining carriages from the docks of 
the Royal Navy in Karlskrona; sent to Skansen as a gift 
of the Admiralty. 

1 Or adultery. Sacrifices were made for this kind of crime in the 
parish of Mangskog, Wermland, even in 1890. Translator's note. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Alms*box, see poor-box 104 (jg) 

Barns : 

from the Finnish district of Wermland 76 @ 

from Nederkalix * 66 (2§) 

BelMowers (Detached) 89 @ @ 

Bleking?house 20 Qy 

Bollnas*house (Helsingland) 35 Ql) 

Boundary stones 101 (|g) 

Brook^mill 64 @ 

Cattle-shed in the somerset 9 @ 

Charcoal burners' huts 47 (j|) (lg) 

Cheese*drying hut in the Laplanders camp 80 (3g) 

Chopping*house from Dalecarlia 60 (22) 

Cook-house in the Finn-yard 75 (2g) 

Cow-house from Smaland 47 @ 

Finnhouses from Wermland 68 (S>) @) 

Fire^house in the somerset 7 Q) 

Fire^house from Dalecarlia 11 Qy 

Food^stand in the Laplanders' camp 81 @ 

Frammestad*mill (West*Gothland) 61 @) 

Hay*barn from Nederkalix 66 Q§) 

Highloft*bower from Bjorkvik (East*Gothland) 57 @ 

Hornborga*house (West*Gothland) 42 @ 

Hasjo*steeple (Jamtland) 9i © 



- 106 - 

Page 

Hallestad*steeple (East*Gothland) 89 @ 

Kitchen^hut in the somerset 9 ^y 

Laplanders' camp 76 m)« 

Laplanders' huts 79 (S) Q£) 

Laxbro^house (Westmanland) 40 (12) 

Loftebower from Vastveit in Norway 58 @ 

Log*fire 50 (g) 

Log*hut in the Laplanders' camp 81 (3w 

Lumberers' cabin 51 (^ 

May^pole from Dalecarlia 102 (§§) 

Mile-posts 98 @ @ 

Mora*harbour (Dalecarlia) , 17 (fy 

Mora^house (Dalecarlia) 13 ^y 

Mowing*booth from Dalecarlia 52 Q8) 

Oktorp.yard (Halland) 28 @ 

»Petissan» . 88 @) 

Pigsty 65 @ 

Pillar^booth in the Laplanders' camp 81 (|§) 

Pillar*harbour in the Finn*yard 76 (ffi) 

Poor-box 104 (j|) 

Whetstones 104 @ @ 

Rune*stones 94 @ (§) 

Sacrificial pile 103 (j§) 

Sacrificial stones 103 @) @ 

Salute*battery 104 (^2) 

Sepulchral monuments 93 fi|) 

Smoke*cabin in the Finn*yard 68 (|§) 

72 6?) 



107 



Page 

Soldier's house (tenement) from Smaland 45 (||) 

Somerset from Jamtland 5 (l)— (i) 

Stocks 104 @ 

Stone^cabin from Bleking 25 Qy 

Storehouse in the somerset 9 (2) 

Summer houses: 

Swedenborg's 81 @) 

Gunilla Bielke's 83 @ 

from no 30 Bellmansgatan, Stockholm 88 (§) 

Tar*furnace from Smaland 66 ^) 

Tent^huts in the Laplanders' camp 80 @ @ 

Tool*house » » » » 80 (g) 

Turfchut in the Laplanders' camp 80 (3l) 

Virserum=harbour (Smaland) 54 (lg) 

Whippingpost 104 @) 

Wood^camp (see lumberers' cabin). 



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