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England and Wales : 







AHD. * 



Heavens ! what a goodly prospect smiles aronnd, 
or hi lis, and dales, and woods, and lawns, and spires. 
And glittering towers, and gilded streams, till all 
The stretching landscape into smoke decays- 
Happy Britannia ! Thomson. 





lEum sTAt^FORD jp. u^imRBm, 

OCT 1 1900 




Cnglaitb anb WMtsf. 


X HE county of Northumberland was andently included 
in that divkion of Britain, which» Camden conjectures, horn 
Its irtuation beyond the Tyne, was called Ottadini^ or Otia* 
HnL The Brigrantes lived on the southern »ide of the waD. 
The Ottadinl were a part of tlie Meatas, a people who, according 
to Dio^ lived near tlie great wall which divideth the island in 
rsrain.^ They were more to the south than the Gadeni, and 
their chief cities were Curia and Bremcnium.f The regions 
iphich the Meats possess, says another author^ are the follow 
rug'; Ottadinia^ in tlie east^ then Gadenia, behind this $eIgovia« 
tliefi Novantia, and also behind these Damnia* The Gadenii 
whose metropolis is Curia, live nearest to the wall, Tlie O/fn- 
f are nearer the ^ea ; their head city is Bremenium^ and their 
lef rivera the Tueda^ the Alauna, and both the T^ncs^ which 
ran within the walL|| The country of the Ottadini, perhaps, 
stretched along the whole length of the Roman province Ya* 
^E3tTfA, from Tynemouth to the Firtl* of Forth; and the 
HI seem to have been an inland people, adjoining the 
Vol,. XIL B Ottadini 

* iCiphl. U U%\% t Pto. Geo. | Ric. Corin. K t. c. 6. $ 57. 

11 Ibid, i n. 


Otudmi on the west, from the wall in the high pnf of Nortln 
tunberland to the waU b Scotland. The real g itu atfcm of Curia 
has not been accurately ascertained. Bremenium was one of 
the twelve urhes stipendaris in Britain, and its Uirge ndnt and 
chequered walls are still to be seen at Rochester, in Reedsdale. 

Besides the numerous remains of camps and castlei, scattered 
through all parts of Northumberland, the Romans had fourteen 
cities in it, and it was crossed by that celebrated barrier, wbidi 
in Latin was called Vallum Barbaricum ; by Greek authoia, 
^»aif»x*^fA« And Euu,*; by the Britons, Gual Sever and Mur 
Sever ; by the Scots, Scottinwaith ; and by the English, the 
Pict's Wall and the Keep Wall* 

Though it is generaUy allowed that Agricola in his second 
or third campaign built several of these cities, or stations, yet 
the argument in favour of the presumption Lb drawn from pro- 
bable inferences, rather than conclusive evidence. The Benwell 
altar, which rcems to mention Senicio,f who was consul with 
Palma, in A. D. 99, and twelve years after Agricola left Bri- 
tain, is perhaps too much obliterated to prove that it belongs 
to that time ; and it may savour too much of conjecture, to 
suppose the prefect JElius Atticus, who has left his name on an 
altar at Lanchcster,^ about twelve miles from the wall, was the 
same as the prefect Aulus Atticus, who, being mounted on a 
young and fiery horse, was carried among the enemy, and 
perished with the three hundred and forty Romans who fell in 
Agricohi's battle with Galgacu8.|| An inscription, found at 
(/reat ('hesters, records the rebuilding of a granary, which had 
fallen down through age, about A. D. 220 ;f and a similar do- 
cimient proves that tlie armamentaria and principia, which had 
fallen down at Lanchester, were repaired in the year 238.^ 
Had these buildings been coeval with the third summer of 
Agricola's lieutenancy, the granary had only lasted one hundred 


• Camden. t Bax. Glos. X Bcautiea, ficc. Vol. V. p. 209. 

!! Tac. in Vit. Jul. Afi;ric. § BrancTs Newc. I. 611. 

t Beautie*, fltc V. 209. Hors. Chron. Tab. 

ud br^-ope yeiird, and it was so ruinous as to require the 
pfcttsc • veiuetate conlajjsa* to describe its state ; and the 
buildingi» at Lanchester had * conlapsed ' in one hundred and 
ft"tv-four years. It is certain, that after he conquered the 
Meataj, a great i>art of hLs fourth summer wui employed in se- 
curing his conquests with a chain of forts between the Firths 
«f Fmh and Clyde. The close of his second campaign was 
^ ttken up in surrounding the enemy with castles and for- 
tP^ssea, and in the winter of that year, he erected temples, 
iDirkets, and private buildings ; and thus, by little and little, 
cwiDed the rugged vices of the natives to such a degree, that 
ifcere was great emulation among them to learn the Roman 
tongtie, and assume the Uonian habit, and they began to enjoy 
the luxuries of arched walks, and baths, and the elegance of 
^endid entertainments* The third year, continues Tacitus, 
presented new people, and the country was devastated as far 
u the estuary Taus : and though the soldiers had to coDtend 
^lih »evere tempests, there was no murmuring, and time was 
found to fortify their conquests with castella.* From all this, 
I (hink, there arises a strong presumptive evidence that the 
cbAia of stations from Sol way Firth towards the mouth of thu 
l/oe, was built under the direction of Ai^icola, and that the 
ancietit inhabitants of this county iirst yielded to the Roman 
irms in the eighteenth year after the birth of Jesus Chri^^t. 

Uahkian's Vallvm consists of a mound of eartfi thirty 
feet at the base, and ten feet high ; a ditch ten feet deep, and 
ifieen feet broad ; a second mound, three feet high, and six 
feel m the base ; another ditch, twelve feet deep, and twenty* 
iour feet over ; and north of this, about seventy f«et, another 
Douad, thirty feet broad at the base, and ten feet high. The 
ads are all semicircular, and the ditches slope from the sur- 
to the bottom, at an angle of about eighty degrees. f 
ITiere arc large remains of this work on Tippermoor. Tlie 
three mounds, and the immense fragments of basalt, hewn out 
B 2 of 

• Vit, Jul. Atric. t Hutt. Ro. Wall, IT o. 


o4* the great cUtcbt and tjbrawn confusedly on each tide of i 
exhibit, to this day, strong proofs of the industry aaxd mecbi 
uical skill of the Iloiuaxi people. Hadrian came into 6r 
A. D- 120, where, according to Spartian, he corrected ma 
things, and miule a wall fmnntrnj eighty miles in lengtk^ to 
divide the Romans from the barbarians.* 

The truth of this assertion may be inferred from asiother 
passage in the Augustine histor}', where it ia said that ** L. 
Urbicus, the lieutenant of Antoninus Pius (A. D. 140} co 
4|uered the Britalns, and drew anoiker voaU of turf across 

Thia^vall wm between tlie Firths of Forth and Clyde* Seve- 
ral inscriptions relating to it have been found in its ruins. One 
uf them mentions Uie name of L, Urbicus^ and tlie rest not oiiljj 
point out the legions employed about it, but the number of pac 
built by each legion. 

Ssvi:Ri^ii died at York, in the year 210. Herodi^il says, 
ntkade road^ and bridges, and passed die rivers and dkckm that 
were the boundaries of the onpirew Dion Cassius sa^^s he died 
in the third year afler he came into Dritaln. He mstrtLong the 
l^reat barrier that diWdes the bland into tvr^o parts, m a tiling 
existing when Severus undertook his expedition ; and asserts 
that tliis emperor, in the skirmishing warfare that the natives 
used against him^ and in clearing mray forests, levelling hiils^ 
draining moriuses, and building bridges^ lost at least fiiXy thou- 
sand men, and yet persisted in his design* These historians 
lived in the time of Sevenis, and are, by far, the most copious 
detailer!! of Im actions ; but neitlier of them hint a word about 
any wall tltat he built. About sixty-five years after his death* 
8partian, however, not only asserts, that he built a wall eighty 
miles in lengthy across the island^ but that it was the chief glory 
of his reign. Aurelius Victor says« it was thirty-three miles 
long; Eutropius has it thirty- two; and Ossorius and Casaio^ 
dorus make it one hundred and thirty*tH*o, All that mention hk 

• Script H4»l» Aug. p. 51. t Ibid. 13f . 



ftgtn that it pftssed from tea to sea. Spartian calls it mums 
M fillum; Victor has niurus in hk large work, and valhim 
ii Us ftbridgment. Eutropius has Galium. Orosiufi 8ftyf» 
ou^um fossian finnittimumque vallmn. Cassiodorus, too, haa 
Talliun. Antoninus, and the author of the Nolitia, both of whom 
rrotebdure A* D. 4 J 6, use the phrases ad vallum, and per 
KoettD valli. Gildas quotes the word* of Orosius, and Bede not 
^fme$ the tame terms, but defines them : ** A murus,*' sayi 

^ ^'ifl made ol' stones ; but a vallum, b}' which camps, intended 
t0 repd tlte force of an enemy, are defended, U made of turf 
and earth, piled up high, like a murus, above the ground, W9 

tin the front, tlie place whence the earth wsB^ raised, forms a 
and upon this are fixed stakes made of very strung beams 
of wood** In Alfred's translaiion of this diaptcTj tlie words are 

•] hit bejypbe -j jcpaeftrTObe mib bice ^ mib 
eoji^pealle pjiam|-ffi roj^ pjiam oJ?pam elpeop- 

oUm oerobum f . BoethJus mentions Severus as repairing Ha- 
drian^B vallum ;Suritia, as fimshing Hadrian*^ vallum; and Panct- 
roHas as repairing Hadrian's vallum, Tvhich had fallen down. Last 
af •&, that penetrating and judicious ontiquary, Richard of Ci* 
rcDcester, says, that " Uie unconquerable Severus, having rapidly 
dnVen back the enemy, repaired the vallum of Hadrian, which 
UBS now ruinous, and gave It its greatest perfection |. 

Speaking of the Romans, in the year 409, Bede also says, 
** we have before related that they dwelt with hi the vallum 
vliich Sererufi made across the island; and this is abundantly 
eridecit, by the cities, courts, bridges, and high roads, still to be 
leeq on its southern side.y 

In 414, a Roman legion, under Gallio of Havenka,^ 
assisted the Britons in driving back their enemies. It exhorted 
diem also to build a stone xvaU^ to defend them against future in* 
foadt, and then returned home in triumph. But the islanders 
being de^cient in artificers they composed the wall more of 

B 3 earth 

* £cc Hist I. i. c. 5* t Smttiii Eedc, p« 476. 

t I., fi, e. V. f t^* II Ece, Hiit. L i. c, U, i Codcii TbeodosIL 


earth than of stone, ai>d on that account it availed noth 
This work extended from the city Guidi, on the east, to Al- 
claith on the west ; 50 that where a barrier of waters was want- 
ing, the borders were secure from the irruptions of the enemy, 
under the shelter of the wall. Very high and broad vestiges of 
thtfi wall are still discernible. It commences about two miles 
from the mona«tery of iEbercumig, and terminates at Akluith^f 
Ai Bede no where mentions the wail of L. Urblcus, it is fihm 
that this passage involves a mistake. The Britons might at 
this time repair the northern barritr ; it is certain they were 
not the first to rear it. 

In 416 the assistance of Rome was again implored by the' 
Britons ; another legion, coming over unexpectedly^ made ter- 
rible havoc among the enemy, and drove them into their own 
co^ntr^^ But that this their last visit to Britain might be of 
real advantage, they exhorted the natives to emulate the valour 
of their enemies, and assisted them in building a Jirm stone ivaH, 
from the one sea to the other, between those cities which had 
been erected there through fear of the enemy, and where Seve- 
rus had fornierly made a vallum* Tliis hitherto famous and con- 
spicuous wall, built at public and private expence, witli such 
assistance as the Britons could contribute, ranged in a right line 
from east to west, and was eight feet broad and twelve feet high, 
as is evident to this day*|: 

Bede copied this account from Gildas, Abbot of Bangor, who 
finished his history in his fiftieth year> and ninety-six years after 
the Romans finally quitted the island, Bede was born at Monk- 
ton, about two miles from the eastern extremity of the wall, 
and educated at Hexham, wliich is near the middle of it. Each 
of the rampires would exhibit much of their original appearance 
in his time. The timber he mentions in the vallum might, it is 
probable, still be seen ; and the stations, castella, and turrets of 
the Theodosian wall, could not be more in ruins tlian the reli- 
gious houses deserted in the reign of King Henry the Eighth 

» B«d*HiH. Ecf*Li. c. 1«. 

f Ibid. 


»re It present. His writings prove that be was a person fur 

from incurious, and it is no improbable coTijecture> that he corn- 
Jiredthe books and traditions of his time, with inscriptions 
WMog the va^t ruins of cities, towers, streets, and bridges, he 
tneniions as still existing in his day. When to all this we add 
the adrice Ammianus Marcellinus, a little before the building 
of this wall, gave to the Emperor Th eg dosi us, and his son, 
** tolraild castles on the frontier of the empire, a mile asunder, 
<od joiaed with a firm wall and strong towers, and that these 
iorfniiet be garrisoned by the landholders adjoining;'* when 
all this evidence is laid together it seems past alt doubt, bat that 
the wall, usually attributed to Severus,was built sometime about 
the serenth consulship of Theodoslus the Younger, and that if 
^mig did any thing to these barriers, it consisted in nothing 
more than repairing or improving tlie vallum of Hadrian. 

Hutton, in his account of the Roman Wall, in manifest con- 
tradiction to history, and all good criticism, has endeavoured to 
prove that one part of the vallum was raised by Agricola, and 
the rest of it by Hadrian. Agricola's fortresses were all In the 
wtj" of castramentation. If Hadrian had a partner in this work 
it WIS certainly Severus. 
A Roman Road accompanied these works, from Wallsend 
Iwick Chesters, where it branched off towards the south, 
ing through Little Chesters, joined them again at Caer- 
Forran. The Mmden-xmy extended from Caervorran to Whit- 
ley Castle, and from thence to Wliellop Castle, in Wi^stmore* 
land. The country people in South Tindalc call it the Made- 
way, a term applied to it before there were any other made 
wny% in its neighbourhood. Over Ridpath Moor, in the parish 
of Hdtwhistie, the pavement of this road has been lately raised, 
to ossist in making a new road, from Blenkinsop to Featlierstone- 
haugh Castle. WatUng Street enters the county at Ebcliester, 
crones the Tyne at Cor bridge, and divides into two branches 
•t fiewciay, a short distance north of the wall. Tlie western 
B 4 hranch 


branch p^ses through Ree4|idale into Scotland, md fats itpta 
it the two celebrated staticms, lUsingham ami Rochester, and 
the fine camp at Makeaden ; the other brunch is umiUy caUed 
the Devil^s CofiseuMi/, It has at first an eastern dir€«:tion pset 
Ryal, towards Bolara, and from thence sweeping away by Nether- 
witton, and over Rimfiide Moor, it bears due north, and entera 
Scotland west of Berwick upo^n Tweed. We have ako traced a 
Rotnan paved avzy, from the eastern gate of the station at Ro* 
Chester, over Boleyard Leae, Braioshaw, and Yardhope, past 
Hallystone to Sharperton, and were told, on good authority, 
that it extended from thence to the DevU'd Causeway* On the 
moor on the north side of Hallystone Burn ; it \% ten feet wide, 
and still remarkably perfect. 

The Roman history of Britain closes in 446* Yortigem, 
ambitiQus enough, but too ieeble-miuded and Ite^ntloua, to 
manage a kingdom in desperate circumstances, wa« nt tliat thne 
its ruler. At bis requeitt Hengist, a young Soaton, brad in tlie 
Roman armieS| and of great wi&dom and courage, brougbt ovor 
an army of his countrymen to asalst the Britons in reatraining the 
ravages of tiie Picts. The 6r8t object of their miasion being 
successful ly effected, the Saxons began to turn thdr anna 
against their employers ; and after a etruggle of about one hun* 
dred and thirty years finally completed the conquest of Britain^ 
Octa, the brother of Hengistj and Ebussa, Octa's son, in 4<52» 
settled on the north side of the Tyne, and then cleared the 
country of the Britons as for as the H umber. They and their 
successors were styled Ealdormen, and held their conquest as a 
fee of the crown of Kent.* There were no kings in Northum- 
berland till tlie time of the heptarchy, when Ida* in 547, as- 
sumed the sovereignty over all that tract of country, virhlch lies 
between the two seas, north of the Humbtr^ to the rivers Forth 
nd Clyde.f It was divided into two provinces. — Deira^ south of 
ffhe Tync, and Bernkia^ north of it; each province having at 

• R«pin, r. 149. Setden. Tit. Hon. 511. 
t Smitb'i Bed, pp, 55, 87, <Ji4, Gougli*5 Cajudca, III. t?4S. 

tknai jtf ftparate kiog. The dynasty of Nortljumlman kitigg 
eodod mith Eanred^ whp l^ecame tributary to Egbert, king of 
Vmmxt mad died m 84L '' Thb kingaam/' mys Milton^ 
^ uti pQw iiiUeii to diiire^rs; their kings, on^ aflcr anatlier, so 
often (tftoi by the people, no man Uuriiig, though never so am* 
lutioua,lo tflkc iip a sceptre, wiuch uiany had found so hot,"* 

Taking ^vtuitagu pf the^ trouble the Danes made several 
de^erate inroads into it ; and, in B7C, the kingdom of Korthum- 
hcslMd, nrhich had tiiHtcd three hoi^dred and thirty years, *^was 
famJad out moong Danish officers^^f who now, as possessors of 
the aoti, began to plough and sou 4 From ti)is period to the 
^e of Ed«rard the Conit^ssor, its laws Mere Dnnisth, wlien tliejf 
were incorporated with the West Saxoo and Mercian codes^ 
oddie whole made common to England, under the name of th(t 
lavs of Edward. Though the governors of Northumberland 
mere sometimes styled kings atler tliu heptarchy, their province 
was dependeol, and their most usual titie wa.s tliat of earl. In 
970p the b^tediHsTf governnient of the whole appearing an ele* 
maDO too liigh for a subject, Edgar created Oslaeh, earl of the 
CMBaUfy, between the H umber and tlie Tees; and conferred ike 
fame dignity on Eadulf En ilthid, with the country from the 
Tees to the Forth. $ Continual wars, new colonies of people, 
aaii Uie incessant il actuation of power, from one people or 
fittnilj to another, from tlie lull of Rome to the Norman con- 
fftteat, caused all kinds of boundaries to be very unsettled* 
Mqrfkngnhprknd was abridged of its extent by d«»grees. All 
Am distrott from the Tweed to Edinburgh, was granted I9 
K^mttli, King of Scotlimd, by Edgar, soon after his accessioa 
tolliewlLole English monarciiy.jt To the fnrmer pcsscssions 
if tkc sew of Lindisfurne, Gutted, in $04, had granted the 
wlbole qf tibe present county of Duiham ;f Alfred confirmed the 
gaatf and the bishops of Dudiam ka«Q-hitherto kept possessiDH 

^ • Hift, Efig. 5C0. t Kapiii, I. til. HolL Chi on* b. vi. c, t5. 

t 8m., Cltro«. |i, eS. Mnilros Chron* f Sim. Donel. S04- 

I RitlpsUi'ft Bord. Hist p* 50. f Siin, DirncL p, ^t. 


of that territory without many deprivations. Ranulplm§ de 
Meschinefi had a grant of Cumberlaiad, from William the Con- 
queror;* and Robert Mowbray, who rebelled against RufuSf 
and died in Windsor Castle, after ao imprisonment of thirty 
years, was the last that bore the official title of Earl of Northum- 
berland.f ** After that acra, it had its vice-conies^ or high- 
sheriff, and was distinguished by wards and baronies, except 
when it was in the hands of the Bislmp of Durham/'f 

From the time of King Stephen, to the union of the crowns 
of England and Scotland, in James, this county formed a con- 
spicuous part of the theatre of the border wars ; the people 
of Tindale and Reedsdale, in common with the borderers in 
Cumberland and Scotland, being in these times nothing less 
than clans of lawless banditti. As these two Northumbrian 
dales were not subdued by the Conqueror, " they have re- 
tained," says Grey, in his Chorographia, ** to this day, the 
ancient laws and customs, according to the county of Kent, 
whereby the lands of the father is equally divided, at his death, 
amongst all his sonnes/*— " There is many every* year brought 
in of them, and at the assizes are condemned and hanged, 
sometimes twenty or thirty. They forfeit not tJieir iands, ac- 
cording to the tenure of Gavel kind, the father to bough» the 
Sonne to the plough.** — ** If any two be displeased, they ex- 
pect no law, but hang it out bravely^ one and his kindred, tbe 
other and his.'* — " This fighting they call feides, or deadly 
fttde^ Since the union, this heathenish bloody custome is 
feprei«edi^" " Both these valleys," says Camden, || ** pro- 
duce notable bog-trotters ; and both have their hills so swampy 
on the top, as to be inaccessible to cavalry. All over these 
wastes one sees a set of people, like the ancient Nomades, of 
a warlike disposition, wlio watcli here, with their flocks, from 
April to August, in scattered huts, called Sheales." ** Sucli 
adepts were they in the art of thieving, that they could twist 

a cow*s 
• Goiigh'f Ciiftid. III. 209. ♦ Witkin'i I^^. Aof. S». U&. 

t Wtaiis, I. xiv* i P. aa. umo 1649. jj Gough, IT). ftSJ. 


A cow^'i bomv or mark a hors.» so that its owner could not know 
it- A person telling King James a surprising fitory of n cow 
thst h&d been tiriven from the north of Scotland into the south 
aT Engiandf and, escaping from the herd, had found her way 
boroei 'the most surprising p&rt of tlie story,' the king re* 
plied, * you lay least stress on, that she pas&ed unstolen through 
the debateable land^*' " 

By statutes of the second and ninth of Henry the Fifth, on 
complaint of murder and violent outrages committed in the 
franchises of Tindale, Reedsdale, and Hexhamshire, into which 
diftricts the king's writ did not extend, it was enacted, that all 
persons committing murders within these iranchiseB shall be 
proceeded against by commoo law, till they be outlawed ; and 
that tlieir lands be forfeited to the liberties they belong, or to 
the king, as tliey happen within their respective limits.f The 
** Northe Tyne devidethe Tyndale frome Northeum bar land. 
For Tyndall, thowghe it be a parte of Northumberland, yet it 
k a parte privilegyd within it selfe.j: " 

Harrison, with his usual plainness, says, " men have doubted 
vhetlier thieves or true men doo most abound iti these dales* 
Nevertheless, wthens that by tlie diligence cheefelie of Mais- 
tcr GUpiD, and finalUe of other learned preachers, the grace of 
God working with them, they have beene called unto some 
obedience and zeal unto the Word, it is found that they have 
fo well profited by the same, that at this present their former 
lanage demeanour is very much abated, and their barbarous 
vtldnesse, and fiercesse so qualified, that there is great Iiope 
kk of ilieir reduction unto ciuilitie, and better order of be- 
Iiauiour, than hitlierto tltey have beene acquninted withatl." f 
'* In thin dreadful country, where no man would even travel 
diat could help it, Mr, (ill pin never failed to spend some part 
of the year. He had set places for preaching, which were as 
legularly attended as the assize towns of a circuit. The dis- 
Gn|t. Life of Gitp. 175, t Krble^f Stat, at Large. rp.«l3, 470. 

t UL If, Vol. VII. pt. i, fol. 75. i De«r. of Brit, T*. u c. 14, 

mt^esteil pains he thus took among Uiese barbarous people, 
W)d the good office* he wbb always ready to do them, drew 
from them the siocerest expressions of gratitude. How well 
his nttrae was revered amongst them, one metODce wiU diew: — 
By the carelessness of his servants^ biii horios were one daj 
fitolen. The oews was quickly spread, and every one ex* 
pressed the highest mdignation at the faet. The thief was re- 
joicing over his prUe, when, by the report of tJie country, he 
found whose horses he had taken. Terrified at wliat he had 
done, he instanUy came trembling back, confessed the iactt 
restored the horses^ and declared he believed the devil wtmld 
have seized him directly, Imd he carried ihom oS** knowing 
them to be Mr, Gilpin's/** 

The progress of goad principle and civilizatbn waa, however^ 
but s!ow amongst them, for in the preamble of a border treaty^ 
made in 1596, mention occurs ** of tlie lamentable effects 
which the lawless and disobedient disposition of tho most of ibe 
inhabitants thereof, emboldened witli long impunity^ and lol«« 
ration of careless ofHcera, hath wrought between the marches, 
to die offence of Ciod*s most holy majesty, and tlte great dis- 
honour of the princes, and pitiful desolation of both tlie bor- 
ders, exhausted by these means both of inhabitants and goods." 
In this treaty it was also recommended, ** that the princes bd 
most humbly and earnestly solicited to cause God's ministera 
of the word to be planted in every border church, to inform 
the lawless people of their duty, and to watch over their man* 
ners ; and that the principal inhabitants q£ each parish be put 
in surety to their prince, for due reverence to be used towards 
their pastorB in ibeir ofBccs, and the safety of their persons ; 
and thai^ to this effect, order may be timely taken for repara- 
tian of the decayed churches within tlie bounds.f ** 

** In wto a wretched condition our English bordert were 
before the union of the cro^Tis (nor were the Scotch in any 
better) appears from that amazing list that we have of the 

* Gilp. Lifcaf Gilp. 179» 18 1. i Bp, Nicb, Bofd*Law«, 1(M. 


Mitfiy hujtdrecb diai were cotitmually employed in night* 
wmchcB I the rest of the neighbourliood being obliged, aC all 
kiUi% to fise attd follow the fray : and the latter [ynrt of the 
border service reached as far m the county of Lanoj^ier* 
dioiigb the chief of iu terrors were marc confined.*' ^ To pre* 
vmiiL ^bem crik^ Lord Wharton, in his letter to the conunis- 
iionftn bt mp^mJUd for the division of land^ in the east and 
maiih mtrches, »ys» nothing better could be done ** thiUi 
mren^wa^ the county with enclofiures, hedges^ aiid ditch68; 
isd I aiiilMriae and command you, in the klng^tt highnctt* 
MBMit tv laus^ ftfl Mich portions thereof as be convenieiit fat 
ttiigi^ ■■mdiaurr, or grassings^ to be enclosed with ditchi3% 
fiv^ quarters in breadth, and six quarters in depths and i# b& 
dosUe set witli quick *^rood| and hedged above three quartei* 

m MAftcit I» the same as mark ; it fiignifie« a boundary. Th© 

p cillt if Bttc^uis origLQated in- thi3 ofBce of warden of marchies. 

"Die Englcsh bordert were divided into three of these marched* 

The wtntem march extended &om tlie westera sem to Tindale. 

The middle march comprised Tindale and Reedsdale; and the 

dttem march reached frem Reedsdale to Tweedmouth* The 

office of lord warden -general being of a Diilitary nature^ ira0 

fvied witli burge authortties, and usually bestowed tm the 

tithes or eiiHs of Northumberland. The executive part of the 

office was> however, mostly put into the hands of a deputy, 

under whom were tliree deputy wardens^ One o£ the^te officers, 

by the king's^ oomniiBHioa, sat as judge in the mardi-courts, 

^^^ and 

^^^K * Bp* Nich. Bord. littws, Pref* xxxiti. 

^^^^ Ibiif. p, ftO, " Wadv/* says G-trdiiicr, **liavc ailiHjrcd ttrcporerty 
^^^^r Kortkumbcrbtid, as welt they may ^ fur what with t]je bloody tyrants, 
H the Scotftf on tlic north of that poor coiuny, and oppre^ive corpora- 
H tfen o# K«wca&tk on the* ^utU tlit^«of» bounded in with hiefh land?^ on the 
V w€ft« and tbenea i>t) ilie ea^f, it can get notlutu^ but strokes, aixl woriied 
ant of what they tiave, aad uot being tolMated to make use of tht'ir owo^ 
and cold blast i froai the lea, &c. £ng. Oriev. Dis. p. i'i9. 


%mi Jtiifft^ i^ ttuUng treaties with Scotlandt and in 

Most of the lands of the county were held of the king, 
knights* service. The barons^ and people of quality, dwek 
strong casdes« or moated towers. The middle classes of cbe 
people held their lands of the barons, chieHy in soccage ti 
and hved in buildings called peels, or piles, in the ground 
of which their cattle were kept in the nights, and the 
rooms reserved for the use of the family* The lowest sort, in 
common with the middle class, were subject to a most grievous 
service, in keeping night-watches at all the fords, passes, smd 
Inlets of valleys, to guard against the incursions, and spread 
alarm at the approach of the enemy. When the opposite bor- 
derers made their appearance, every man Within hearing of th« 
blowing of the horn, was obliged, on pain of death, to rise 
and follow the fray. The pursuit of hot*trode is thus men- 
tioned in the treaty of 1563 : ** The parties grieved to follow 
their lawful trode with hound and horn, hue and cry, and all 
other accustomed manner of fresh pursuit, for the recovery of 
their goods spoiled,"* 

This slavery, and all this barbarism and conteDtion, have 
happily, since the union, been gradually disappearing. The 
country has been enclosed far up the valleys of Tindale and 
Reedsdale, and the refinements of great civilization now pre- 
vail, where less than two centuries since robbery was a trade 
aind if the inhabitants were not pursuing a horde of Scotch 
banditti, with blazing faggots, blood* hounds,f and savage cries, 
they were employed in burning the villages, or plundering the 
tamis of Liddesdale. 

Tins county lies between 54* 5l' and 55** 51' of latitude, and 

• Leg, Match, itfZ. 

t A Mil e tvuy of flopping llic dog was t{> spill blood ujiOD tltc track, 
whitti dcitroycd tlie dbcdmioatiag 6oeiiess uf bis sceiit. A captive wa* 
mmctmeA sacrificed on facb occasions. Lay of Last Miiistrd» caato i. 


irOltrnUMBERLANB. 1$ 

ftom J* to 2^ ^3' of longitude, west of Londoo. It hss the 
C(w»fjr of Durham on the south, Cumberland on the west, 
ScDtknd on the north, and the Gentian Ocean on the east. 
BedHogtooshire^ Islandshire, Norhamshire, are in the county, 
and subject to the courts of Durham ; but the liberties of Hex- 
Inn, Tindale, and Reedsdale, liave been annexed to the county 
of Northumberland,* 

In civil matters, Northumberland is divided into six wards, 
and six hundred and thirty-five constableries ; and in charch 
a&irt into five deanries, and seventy-three parishes.f The 
names of the wards are Tindale^ Morpeth, Castle, Glendale, 
Bahnborough, and Coquetdale ; and of the deanries^ New- 
OBtJe, Corbridge, Bamburgh, Alnwick, and Morpeth, all of 
wiach are in the a^^chdeacoury of Northumberland and diocese 
of Durham. The churches of Hexhani, AUondale^ and St* 
Johnlee, with their respective chapelsi, are peculiars of the see 
of York ; and Throckington is a peculiar of the church of York. 
According to the returns of popuiation made to parliament in 
1801, this county, with Berwick-upon-Tweed, contained 
26|518 inhabited houses, 35,503 families, and 157,101 persons; 
of whom 73,357 were males, 83,744' females, 25,738 employed 
iQ tmde and manufactures, and 23,190 in agriculture. By tlie 
lecoilDt given to the House of Lords, in 1805, it contains 1809 
itttole miles, or 1,157,7()0 statute acres ; each (square mile, of 
910 acres, having eighty-seven persons, and the total number 
of persons 157,383, 

By the returns made for the county, exclusive of Berwick- 
upon-Tweed, under the delencc and security act| October the 
ihitli, 1601, It appears that t24t741 persons ofiered their ser- 
vices in various capacities against the enemy, in case of inva- 
iioo ; one hundred and forty refused to serve in any capacity 
irhalevcr; there weos also sixty-five aliens* sixty-five qiiakers, 


• PaltonS Stiitnt<?s, p* 970. 

f loclottve of the parishes of HeilUn^toii^ Burvijck, Holy Islaadj oa^ 
^Mbm, whick are in Uie county ofDmlj&ut* <Jaai|u to Armbt. Map, p. 1^, 

10 KORTItVMHintJtStW ^ 

aiHl in all 99,231 persons returned. The ddlSct In thef ttHal 
number ocoarred in the Hste of infirm pertans^ wdtnen, anti 

The pit Goal of this county i» th« gr^at iUplc of its trade. 
It is found in the greatest abundtnce» and of the best (faallty, 
where the strata which a<:compflny it are unconiiected witli 
limestone. When it burns to a hard cinder^ and learres feir 
ashes, it is best suited, both on accout^t of heirt and cleanliness, 
for domestic purposes. It is fortunate, lio^ever, that cowl ^und 
near iimestone answers bc^t for burning it. A line drawn front 
Alnemouth^ by the sea coasts t6 Tynemouth>; ^om thence by 
the southern bounilsRry o^the county, into the parish of Bywell, 
and from Bywell eo Alrtemoath, nearly ejccludes all the lime- 
sCdArarraid, and inclosot die vamt v&lmable of the coal*^ Thiv 
di^Cricti as ftktf aa iv ha» been pieffocdr into, ts found to consiEt o^ 
strata #f vavioua Idnda of Ailodow stone, schiitus^ and coaT* 
Bedg of tfdIIMCto iMAialiy iki bdt1> §tme md beneath the coal- 
fffinifi^ OAd af^ o^en ctifckly and beauti^lly impressed with ve- 
gecabla tWm*?, such as fetfoev vetches, and grasses ; we have 
seen^ ems of barley, ai*d the leaves of pine apples, taken from 
them, f in the«e btids are also found layers of iron-stones, some- 
times in nodulee^; more fa*quently in rhoinbords,^ with the cor- 
ner? rounded o^ Sometimes large trees are found, extending' 
out of the clay into the stone strata, as at Kenton, where arc 
seats of i^oite, hewn frotn one of the<;e remarkable fossils, that 
chew the yearly rings ot the tree, and the roughness of its bark. 
Pieces of half c^lrboOated wood, apparently of the pine tribe, 
have also been fouiUl amortg^ft Che coal— wHich seems to establtsh 
an opinion entertained by jfieteral vefy able and inquisitive men, 
that coal is a vegetable f^tib<iiftrfC0 J-*-the i^omains of fiw^ts over- 
^4ielmed\v extraordirtarj.- inundaiions of the ocean. 

In e*very coal district the ^trfttfHcatioii which attends the fossil 

* Oen. Mew, p* !>0, 
f «#e Wlitlrlmr»rs Oriff, and Faim, p. 5K)3. Iliittoflrs Ed, 17?S, 
I Bt and* Newc, Tl. Q4S. 

VORTtlirMBEltANl). 17 

tmuiniites, and is iUKlefined and disordered^ as it ap- 
\ to moimtauiB compoeetl of granite or porphyry ; a cir- 
cusiitaiice which vrould induce the belief that substaoccjs of tins 
Icaifl rise from beneath the coaJ, and that the coal itself never 
Uam fiir from the suriace;* The atrata in Northumberland gene* 
filly dips or incJinea towards the east; each stratum, too, in 
dli0 tHne dialricty usually keeps its parallelism, with respect to 
tlioee nunediately above and below it,« through all the confu- 
mm ^thoae perpendicular rents and chasms, which, in mining 
tlfflgiM ge, are termcil dikes^ sUps^ hitches^ and troubles* Some of 
AnebliaHnB are tilled up with substances awept into them, as 
H wvM seem* from the surface, such as clay, sand, and round 
rtmtfw Some of them are the receptacles of metals and beau* 
tUU w^%J%f and others are composed of basalt, a substanc«i bear- 
ing » stnmg resemblance to lava, and which seems to have 
bMMd but ftmai the interior paru of the earth. The biutilt dilce 
la tte c^ mine at Walker is cased with the cinder of no^^* 
Tlie proceases of nature haive, however, been carried oa in ao 
large « aolet that we can seldom comprehend tho principles she 
acta vpoii. These dikes vary much, both in their wideness and 
^mwcAmt they frequently break the untfortfi iticlinatioii of the 
Hata ta fio great a degree, that on each side uf them the part* 
faipi of the same seam are often elevated or depressed several 
hH 6rocD each other* 

r. Biac Nab eatunated ihe e^ctent of the coal fields (n Kor- 
and DurhAm at twenty miles by dlYt^en, or three 
hundred square miles ; and computed thai one square mile waa 
efud to tJie consumption of one year. Supposing lus caicula- 
IM tnie, and tlic consumption on thb proportion, the coal 
w«aid last three hundred and seventy years* But large tracts of 
^km diatrict liave bocn already excavated, and, unless other 
lemt be discovered than have been brought into the doctor^s 
acoowil, the trade cannot possibly exist to the extent of hit cal* 
orisilk»i»* Messrs* Bailey and Cully Iiave estimated its dura^ 
tiou at eight hundred and twenty^five years.* 
Vat. XIL C Priov 

• Gen, View, 19. 



Prior to Mr. Newcommon'a application of steam to raising: 
water from coal mines, both the water and coal were usually 
raised by engines, xcrougkt by horses^ a method stiU in use among 
the land-sale collieries. Two centuries ago, however, we find 
a patent granted by James the Sixtli, of Scotland, for the disco- 
very of an engine for raising water from coai mines. ♦ In 1630 
a charter was also given to a person called David Ramsay for 
a similar invention, f Master Beaunoonl brought with him 
*• rare engines to draw water out of pits.'*f At the coUierlei 
at Luroley, about 1676, '^ the engines ivere placed in the lowest 
place^f that there may be the less way for the water to rise ; and 
if there be a running stream to work the engines it is happy* 
Chain pumps are the best engines, for they draw constant and 
even: but they can have but two stories of them; the second 
being with an axle-tree of seven or eight fathoms, and the 
deepest etory is wrought by buckets, and a wheel and ropes, with 
the force at the top." § Though the power of steam, as appli- 
cable to mechanics, was known so early ai 1655, as is evident 
from the Marquis of Worcester's Century of Inventions, we 
have no account of steam engines in these collieries before the 
beginning of the 'last century. The first in Northumberland 
was erected at Bykcr, in 17 14-, by the son of a Swedish noble- 
man, who taught mathematics in Newcastle. This powerful en- 
gine is now in common use in all the large cotlieries. As sim- 
plifiers of it the names of Messrs. Bolton and Watt, as well as 
that of the ingenious builder of the Eddystone light-house^ will 
be long remembered, 

The shaft of the coal mine at St, Anthony's, near Newcastle, 
was two hundred and seventy yards deep, and passed through 
sixteen seams of coal. The seam called the High Main was six 
feet, the Low Main six feet and a half, the tenth seam three 
feet, the thirteenth three feet tliree inches, and the fourteenth 
three feet two inches deep, making in all twenty-two feet of 
workable coal. The shafl of Montague Main, three miles west 

• Am. Hiic. of Edinij. 66. t Rym. Feed. L xix* f, 189* 

\Onf§ Cboro. 26. j Kertli'i Life of Guilibnl, p. 1 J7; Urand. 


of Kewciiille» was two hundred and forty-five yards, had (liieQn 
co^ aeama^ four of which were workable* and measured thirteen 
kei and a half. The Low Main at WiUington, about five mile» 
list of Newcastle! is two hundred and eighty yards below the 

Theophrastus^ tn his History of Stones, has described coal m 
t tiiati of au earthy nature, that kindles and burns like char- 
cool, and is used by smitlis. The Britons had a primitive i^rm 
(or it; and a oelt, or axe of flint, vms found in a coal vein ex- 
poied lo the day in Craig-y-Parc, in Monmoathsliirc, f circnm- 
Hances which favour the conjecture that the early Britons used 
Goftl. The Komans evidently made use of them. Siculu^ 
flaccus says they were one of the things made use of fur land- 
tnarks; and St- Augustine describes them as applied to that pur- 
pose from their imperishable nature : " They who pitch land- 
marks are wont to throw them underneath, to convince any 
lit^tous pereoni who should afiirmy though ever 6o long aBer» 
that no land -mark was there." X Ho man coins were found in a 
large heap of coal dndi^rs at North Bierly, in Yorki*J)ire» J 
** There is a coalry not far from Benwell, a part of which is 
Judged, by those who arc best skilled in such affairs, to have heen 
wroagltt by the Romans." || Small coals and cinders have been 
Vttsed with the lime used in several of tlie Roman stations ; and 
•* in digging up some of the foundations of their walled city 
Magna, or Caenorran, in 176^2, coal cinders, some very large, 
were turned up^ glowed in the fire like other cinders^ and not 
|o be known from tlicm nhen taken ouL*'^ 

Though, by a grant dated A, D. S52, twelve cart loads of fossil 
coiiJ Crpselp po^ Vp jpi^j^atl**) were to be yearly paid to the 
^bbcy of Peterborough, yet, during the Saxon and Banish agea 
W thlfi country, and for upwards of one hundred years after the 
€»nf{uest, coab are never mentioned. Henry the Third granted 

C 2 a charter 

• GcD. View, pp. 1^, 17. t Pcunanl'rt Wales, 17, 

iUb. d. cif. Dei. 21. c. 4. $ Whit. Mauc [1 Huis. Brit. Rom* va«- 
f WM*, IL p» 119. •• 8»i* Chroa. 


k charter to Newcastle, December the first, 1259, *'IQ digcoab 

knd stones, on the common soil of that town, witliout the wallt 
thereof, in a place calJed the Castle-iield and the Forth/' • In 
an in<]U]sitioB, dated 1245, it Is calJed carbo maris i and, thir^* 
six years after, the coal trade had increased so much aa to doubit 
the worth of the town of Newcastle. 

The use of this articJe was so great amongst the artificers in 
London in 1306, that it was considered a public nuisance, and 
prohibited under fcvcre penalties, f Soon after they were, 
however, in use in the king's palace. % -^neas Sylviua § says, 
that when he visited Scotland the poor people were content t0 
receive, as alms, pieces of stone, impregnated with tnilammabie 
sub8tancei, which they bum instead of wood, of which their 
country is destiitde, *• Colys will not byrne withowte wodd." H 
** Their greatest trade beginnetli now to grow from the forge 
to the kitchen and hall, as may appeare alreadie in most cities 
and townes that lie about the coast, where they have but little 
other fewel!, except it be turffe or hassocke, I tnaruell not a 
little that there is no trade of these into Sussex and Southamp- 
ton shire, for want whereof the smiths doo worke their iron with 
charcoale*'* ^ " Within thirty j^'cares last the nice dams of Lon- 
don would not come into any house or roome where sea coales 
were burned ; nor willingly eat of the meat that was either eo4 or 
roasted with sea coal fire/* ♦♦ 

Tinmouth priory had a colliery at El wick, which in 1330 wag 
let at the yearly rent of five pounds ; in 1530 it was let for 
twenty pounds a year, on condition that not more than twent|r 
chaldron should be drawn in a day ; and eight years after at 
fifly pounds a year, without restriction on the quantity to be 
wrought* ft In Richard the Second^s time Newcastle coak 


•Gurd. Ettg. Griev. p, ^t 

♦ Pryaw, 4 Tt»t. 18/. Stow^ Aua, f, 1025. An. 1633, 

f Braod'A Newc. II* tM, § Opera, p. 445. 

II NDrtbiim. House BkC Anuo. 151^* 

f HarmuD't Dctc of £ns* p- ^^^' Ett, 1807. *• 9tow*f Ami. nl f4i|^ 

ft Brand's Kewc. IL fB5, f M. 


^^llrere aold at \Vliitby at three shiUiogs and fotirpeoce per ckal- 

■ dim : * and in the time of Henry the Eighth their price wa| 

' iw^repmce* a chaldron in NewcastJe; in London < about tour 

I^tiiUings;' and ' b France they sold for thirteen noble!» per 
By statute of the nintli of Henry the Fifth, chap, 10^ conunii- 
atoners were appointed to measure the portaj^e of keeU or vesflek 
which conveyed the coals 6rom the «iathei to the ships. Theso 
keels had usually contained twenty chaldrona a piece ; but as 
not fritfichised of Newcastle paid a duty of twopence 
obaldfon to tJie king, in order to evade a part 6f it, they in- 
ihe portage of their keels, without the knowledge of the 
officers of die customs, f 

Queen Elisabeth obtained a lease of the manoiB and coal- 
iaii»a of Gateahead and \Miickham^ which she aoon transferred 
to the Earl of Leicester. He assigned it to his secretary 
Sutton, tJ»e founder of the Charter House, who also made assiga* 
nent of it to Sir W, Riddell and others for the use of tlie mayor 
and biflrgesses of Newcastle, This circumstance was much 
of in London, as a scandalous monopoly, which had 
coals to rise to the rate of nine shillings a chaldron* 
Otber grierances were odded< The company of ho$tmen, in 
Mewcasde, granted to the queen, in ItKK), a duty of twelvepenca 
pff chaldron; and two years ader the hostmen^ by a private 
■|ifwiin lit among themselves, fixed the price at ten shillings 
far the besty for the second sort nine shtlliogs, and for tha 
' meane coles' eight shillings per chaldron* 

This trade had now advanced to great importance. In th% 
latter end of Queen Elizabeth's reign the duty of fuur{)ence a 
ciialdron produced 10,0001. a year. Upwards of 400 ships 
irtre constantly employed in it, and a deet of Biiy sm\ wcni 
Uden from Newcastle to different ports of France, wlule the 
Dutch and Danes supplied the Flennish ports. ;[ A year afler 
'5,675 tons of coals were shipped irom the port of Newcastle, 

C 3 The 

' Ui4rUon J Whitby, p, SSO. t Eebk*t SUt. at JUrgt, p. 134>. • An. 1 61 V 


Hie arbitrary taxes Imposed on tliis trade, fttid the shai-nefiil 
tnonopolies he authorised in it, contributed greatly to induce 
the dov^Tifal of Charles. After the Scottish armies took New- 
castle, tlie House of Commons began to direct the coal trade, 
and govern the town ; by which step, they were enabled to 
send, for the use of the poor of London, large supplies of coals, 
m*hich had ** risen to the price of four pound per chaldron." • 
But these patriots were not always successful in their schemes; 
for in 1648, even under the sunshine of the commonwealth, 
coals were so oppressively dear in London, that many of the 
poor were miserably starved to death ; a circumRtance which 
was charged on the governor of Newcastle for the severe im^ \ 
position of four shillings per chaldron upon them,' 

" Many thousand peopli^ are employed rn this trade of coales: 
many live by working ^^(^ thetn in the pits: many live by con- 
veying them in waggons and waines to the river Tine; manjT , 
men are employed in conveying the coales in keels from the 
Ftathes aboard the ships; one coal merchant employed fivs 
hundred or a thousand in hJs work of coals; yet for all his la- 
bour, care, and cost, can scarce live of his trade; nay, many of 
them hath consumed and spent great estates, and dyed beggars* 
,1 can remember one of many that raysed his estate by coale 
trade: many, I remeniher, that hath wasted great estates. 

** Some south gentlemen have, upon great hope of benefit^ 
come into this country to hazard their monies in coale-piis,-— 
Master Beaumont, a prentleman of great ingenuity, and rara 
parts, adventured into our mines with his thirty thousand 
pounds ; who brought with him many rare engines, not known 
;hen in these parts — as the art to bore with iron rods, to try the 
deepnesse and thicknesse of the coaJe, rare engines to draw 
water out of the pits, waggons with one horse, to carry down 
coales from the pits, to the stathes to the river, &c. Within few 
years he consumed all his moneys and rode home upon his light 
horse-*' f 

• Boarne's Newc. 154. ♦ Gri^y's CItoro. p. «4. 


^Tbe coeJe trade began not past four-score years since: coales 
is fonner tinies was only usetl by smiths^ and for burning of 
p.iuoe : woods in the south parts of England decaying, and the 
kj of Loadotif and odier great cities and lotrnes growing po- 
pulous, made the trade for coale increase yearly, and many 
' s of bnrthen built, so that tliere was raore coales 
one year, than was in seven, focty years by past: tlm 
great traie hath made this towne to Eourish in all trades.** 

Duties were laid upon this article to assist in building Su 
J'aul's churcii, and fifiy parish churches in London alter the 
Kt tire in that city, and ia 1677, Charles the Second granted 
to his DQtural son, Charles Lenox, Duke of Richmond, and hk 
h€in^ a duty of one shilling a chaldron on cods,* which con- 
tinued in the family till it was purchased by government in 
IHOO, ibr the annual pa)ineQt of 19,0CK)L This du^ .pro- 
duces upwards of 25,0001- a year at presofit* 

In I699t Newcastle had two thirds of the coal trade, and 
300,000 chaldrons, in all, went annually to London. The 
oversea trade employed 900,000 tons of shipping. Coals about 
Jhat time sold in London for eighteen gliiUings a chaldron, ou(t 
'which five shillings were paid to the King, one shilling 
and sixpence to St. Paul's, and one shiliiug and sixpence 
metilge* It was then also stated to the House of Commons 
thai «ix hundred ships, one with another, of the burden of 
ei^lij Newcastle chaldron, with 4,500 men, were requisite 
for carrying on this trade. There were also then employed 
on the Tyne, four hundred keels, and betwet^n iiileen and 
16,000 keelmen.t 

The increase of this trade has hitherto continued progressive. 
In eight years, from January the -first, 1802, to December the 
thirtieth, 1809* it appears, that 4,713,476 Newcastle chaldrons, 
or 12,490,707 tons of coals, were exported Irosi the Tyne, 

Sir Robert Mansell, knight, Vice Admiral of England, esta^ 
blkhed gloit ttiorks on the Tyne, in 1619, in which year we 

Ci find 

* Brsnil't Kew«. U. If96, nm t Ibii!, SOS, ZiH, 

^ NOIlTltt7M8£atA^'D. 

patched with heath, and are spongy and barren towards their 
heads, are, upon tlie whole, remarkably fertile. The ridges 
and furrows, apparent in various parts of Kidtaiid, plainly &how 
that the feet and sloping sides of these tinely-fomied hills have, 
at one time, been more accustomed to cultivation than at pre 
sent. As the population here has lessened by increasing 
size of the farms, and the farmers j^ettling lower down in I 
country, the plough*&hare has been disused and grazing pre* 
vaiied. llils district is wholly occupied by shepherds* Froiii 
Whittingham to tlie Tweed, the soil is of a sharp gravelly na- 
ture, and in a high state of cultivation. The undulating hills 
about IJderton, and in the neighbourhood of Branxton, Wark, 
and Carham, exhibit, in harvest, one of the finest cultivated 
prospects in Britain. From Doddington to Berwickt nearly 
along the line of the Devil* s Causeway, the country is traversed 
with a chain of low moory hilJs. The plains about Rellord are 
extremely rich and beautiful ; and from the whin rocks of Bam- 
borough, along the sea coast as Jar as the \Vans-beck| tlie soil 
is of a strong grateful quality. Between Shillbottle and tlie 
sea it is uncommonly productive* All that tract which lies be- 
tween the Wans-beck and the Tyne, and stretches in a westerly 
direction from the sea through the manor of OgIe# towards 
Kirkheaton, lies upon sub-strata, retentive of moisture, and is of 
a cold clayey quality. The valley of Hexham, including South 
Tyne as far as Haltwhistle, and the North Tyne as far as Belling- 
ham, is a tine ^harp loam, which rises up the sloping sides of the 
hills, till il meets with thin soils covered with poor grasses, and 
in many places with heatlu The harvests in this valley are the 
earliest, its tree^ have the richest foliage, and its landscape is 
the moi^t di%'ersilit:d and interesting of any in Northumberland. 

Cold and pining easterly winds prevail here during the montlis 
of March, April, and frequently the greater part of May. \\Tien 
the western breezes set in, the progress of vegetation is rapid. 
It is not uncommon to see the trees in the beginning of May aa 
arid and leafless as in December ; and, through the influence of 




ttuld wmiterly winds, and kind rains, in the course of eight or ten 
4&a3FV not a branch to be seen. When these westerly breezes in* 
cjcie into hurricanes it is a sure indication of a deluge of 
ram being faliiag at the time in the western counties of Eng- 
land and Scotland. The autumn of the year is the summer of 
Northianberland. The months of Septeniber and October are 
usually fine settled weather. From the middle of November to 
the latter end of March the winter tpanlses aevere)y. The 
largest fails of snow are brought by winds ihat sweep over the 
loogeit tracts of land. Wherever the countrj' is dry and well 
cultivated^ the air is most salubrious. 

. In M> great diversity of soil and climate^ a corresponding di* 
vertiiy of produce and management is to be expected. The 
twoil ratation of crops ^ on dry soils, is, turnips, barley, or 
whmlf clover for one or tut o years, oats^ or where barley haa 
been grown after turnips, wheat is sometimes sown. Upon 
^ strong loams, fiiUow wheats clover, for one or two years, beans 
I or oatap Upon moist thin loams or ochrey clays, fallow, wheat, 
clorer^ and grass seeds for two years ; and, upon moory soils, 

I&llow, oats, clover, and gratis seeds two years, oats. ♦ Near 
Woolrr it has been found, that, on ground properly prepared for 
compEiritive experiment, the difference in favour of drill ridges, 
at lODe inches asunder, over the broad cast way, is in the pro* 
portioD af tliirty-six bushels of wheat, each weiglung iifty* 
nine poond, to thirty*four bushels, each fifty-eight pound ; and, 
by another experiment, as forty-two bushels and a half, each 
lijtty pound, is to forty bushels, each filly-nine pound, f At 
the same place in was also discovered, from two experiments^ 
that the weight of drilled turnips, were to Uiose of the broad- 
oat husbandry, in the rates of four to three, ^ Some of the 
moit intelligent farmers in the same neighbourhood find, that 
a course of three year^ tillage and three years grass, is a much 
iQortt profitable system than one year clover, or any other sys- 

ttax they have tried. 


* B»iIr/« Darham* 

t lb. p* jir. 

t lb. p. 161. 

18 KOKTHCnc&B|tLAV9« 

Independenc of the produce of the Mi'j$Jtd, the wumiires^ 
chiefly in use, ere lime, maxia^ and Mtpweed. Lime ia pl«iu^ 
fol in ahnost ell parts of the oounty, except in ih^ porphyrj 
district of the Chenot HiUs, and the coal-field in Castle Ward« 
Stone marie ' abounds in many places near the Tweed side.' * 
Large siq>plies of excellent sheH'mmie are drawn from boggs in 
the parishes of Branxton and Carham, and have been employed 
on the grass lands about Wark and Learmouth with great effect* 
Clayey marles, that effervesce in nitrous acid, are found at Ilder* 
ton^ ChilUngham^ and Westweod, near Hexham, f The marina 
xmedSf collected firom rocks» or washed ashore by heavy sees, are 
much esteemed along the coast ; and a considerable supply of 
manure is also annually brought as ballast from London in the 
ships employed in the coal trade. 

The TYHBs of this county have, perhaps, no peculiar feature. 
Out of the seventy-three parishes contained within its boundaries^ 
only thirteen are rectories ; the tjrthes of hay and com are con- 
sequently in the hands of opulent laymen, a cause which, more 
than any other, operates against their bdng exchanged for a 
fair equivalent. 

As an increase botli of knowledge and capital has of late 
years been employed in agriculture, the rental of the county has 
rapidly advanced. In 1809 it amounted to 916,8571. 188. ll^d. 
The annual value of estates, rise from the smallest sums to up« 
wards of 30,0001. — one estate is said to be more than 80,0001. 
a year. In some of the mountainous districts, especially towards 
the sources of the Tyne, there are several small estates, from 
thirty to three hundred a jrear, farmed by their proprietors. As 
most of these have been handed down from father to son, through 
successions of several generations, strong attachments to ancient 
methods of husbandry have descended with them, and new im* 
provements have been slowly countenanced. The farms, in 
general, are largest in Glendale and Bamborough Wards. ** In 
the other parts of the county they are from My to three hun- 
• Geo. View, to. t Wallis, I. d3. ^5. 






^ed 1 y^ ; some tenants, in tlie northern parts of the caunty, 
fkroQ htm 20001. to 40001. a year and upwards. In 180l», 
dry fertile loams let for fitfy to fiily-five shilUngs per acre ; and 
UMtd rich old grazing pastures for sixty to seventy shillings per 
mcrCf Cjthe free." ^ A large farm in the parish of Carham ii 

let for twenty-one yeare, at upwards of sixty shillings per 
The whole of the rents are paid in money, and four or 
fire liionths credit usually given to the farmers. 

Gf«at attention has been paid to rearing stock. The short* 
homed cattle, usually called the Duich breeds on account of 
their rapid growth, become favourites among the graziers* 
•* They are now sold fat to the butchers at three years and a half 
#)d, and a carcase in general weiglis from sixty to eighty stone*" 
The CArmH aheep are a very bcautilu] breed, which weigh, when 
fkt, froRi twehe to eighteen pounds a quarter. The Heath iheep^ 
m <a1M from their being peculiarly adapted to bleak and heathy 
fUMoitatiKf afford a fine flavoured mutton, and weigh from twelve 
t© aolseii pounds a quarter. Tlie long tmokd shetp^ a breed 
frmly improved by the enterprizing spirit of Mr. Cully, are re- 
ntrfcable for fatting at an early age. They are frequently called 
the Dwhiy breed, and were first iutroduced into this country in the 
yiar 1766* f They weigh finom eighteen to twenty-ttx pound per 
^mrteTt and their fleeces average seven pound and a half a piece, 
the year 17^8, upi**ai'ds of 134,000 acres of waste 

hare bee*i divided and inclosed : and though thero are alii! 
fwy large tracts of open ground in the sheep-walks, very Httle 
of It is common. Most o4' the moors are private property, di- 
tided by casts of heath, ridges of htlis, or by streams. These 
boimdafies of property are called marckeih The tenure is mostly 
ftiriiold. •* Tl^ere are some small parcels of copyhold ; and in 

districts which belong to the county of Durham, smne 
for lives, or years, held under the church. There arc 
aNo two or three manors of eustomary tenure towards the hmi 
South Tyne^" % 


The peasantry here, have been supposed to be stitl uftdeV 
a species of vasaalage, * The farmers retain few servants in 
their bouses : their labourers are called hinds, and, like their 
shepherds, are mostly married men and live in cottages upon the 
farms. In addition to their annual wages, they have certain 
quantities of provisions and fuel allowed, them at stipulated 
prices. They have also the privilege of keeping two cows, or re- 
oeiving three pounds a year in lieu of each. Their condition it 
much better than that of small farmers, who, in addition to ex- 
treme hard labour, have their sleep disturbed by rent-day 

Canals.— Application was made to parliament in 1709, and 
leave obtained to bring in a bill to make the river Tyne naviga- 
ble from Newburne to Hexham ; but the corporation of New- 
castle opposed the measure, as likely to be rumoiis to their 
port, f Similar projects were revived in 1795* but they ended 
with no better success. Though tlie ultimate object of the spe- 
cuialors on this occasion, was to connect the eastern and wes- 
tern seas, by means of a navigable canal, their first attention 
'uras only directed up the Tyne as far as Haydon bridge. Five 
engineers were employed — Messrs. Chapman, Jessop^ Doddy 
Sutcliffe, and Wliitworth* 

Mr. Chapman proposed to carry a canal on the north -side of 
the Tyne, from the upper part of Newcastle to Haydon bridge, 
a distance of thirty -one miles and three qmirters, on one level, 
and to connect it with the Tyne at its east end, by means of a 
staircase of locks. The rise here from high-water, at neap tides, 
to the level of the canal, would have been about two hundred 
feet. It was thought that the final out-let of it would be best in 
th^ neighbourhood of StockbridgCi in Fandon^ These locks, 
and ** the projecting steep land," near the churcli oi* St, John- 
lee, were the main difficulties he had to contend with, Mr. 
Jc«Bop and himself decidedly preferred tliis hne, and calculated 

• Man1tair» Rc^vicw, p, 51* 

t Jovr. of tlie Uoutc of Cvtii. VoU XVL Brtxid Vol. I. p. 30, 

the eafpence of executing it at 129,494*. The total expence 
of extendiDg it to Maryport, in Cumberltind, they thought 
would not exceed 355»0671« ; and would bring in an average 
rent of 30,0001 a year.* 

Mr. D odd's plan was to carry a canal on the south-side of the 
Tyne, from Stella to Hexham ; and to form totcing paths of 
ballast from Stella to Newcastle, by the river side. From 
SteUa •* I propose," says he, " a rise of eight feet eight inches 
•S each lock, twelve of which will carry us through the whole 
line to Hexham." The expence of making this line he calcu- 
lated at 35,71 Si. 10s. 2d. and its annual profit at 9,9251. 15s. 2d.t 
In Mesars. Chapman and Jessop's survey of tliis line, the es- 
penoe of forming a canal on it is estimated at 69,081). 

Mr« Sutcliffe agreed with Mr. Dodd in commencing the canal 
at Stella, but diifered widely from him respecting the course it 
iUould take, and the expence of finishing it. His cidculation 
of its cost from Stella to Hexhum, is 89,7951. 7». ; and for 
making it complete between Newcastle and Hay don Bridge, 
1^2,0591 1 4s, 6d4 

Mr. Whitworth was requt sted by the promoters of the aflair 
to survey both lines^ and candidly to report to which he gave 
the preference. His words are, ** the line upon tlie south-side 
has certainly very much the advantage. But I think that 
oeiUier Mr, Chapman's nor Mr. Dodd's is eligible ; indeed^ 1 
think they are scarcely practicable. Mr. SutcliiFe has set down 
plenty of money to do it welL"$ SutclifFe estimated the ex- 
pence of a canal on the north side at 183,4501, 15s. 6d, '* But 
he is rather extravagant in his ideas, and may be a little par- 
lid to the line on the soutli of the Tync, as IMr. Chapman may 
be to that on the nortli of the rivcr."l| 

Mr. Thompson, of Sheepwaali, published ** Observations on 


Chsp. Btid Jef top's Report*. t Dodd^ R'^ports^ \^p. ^8, Si , 4S, <i4. 
I SutcK Fh^t Rep. p, 45. Secoii«l Rep. p. 35* 
f WLit. N. Rep. pp. *, 9, B M'Wt, S. Rej»* p. H. 


tittifioit Advantageous Line," wliJch he contended would be oli^ 
tained by proceeding from Barras bridge to the third mUe^toney 
on Newcastle town-moor, and there to branch eastward to North 
Shields, and northward to Prestwlck. From Prestwick he re- 
commended the h'ne to proceed by Ponteiand, Stamfordham, 
Hyal| Bingfield, Chollerton, over North T}T»e to Humshaugh, 
till it join the branch recommended by Mr, Chapman near War- 
den, He alM> proposed to make a canaJ from Prestwick, down 
the Blythe to the sea ; and from Hartford bridge to Morpeth, 
and from thence by the Till to the Tweed** 

Mr. Chapman^s nortJi side plan fimilly met with the largest 
patronage, and a bill was brought forward in parliament, for 
authority to put it into execution : but as there had been ao 
much di^erence of opinion about the matter amongst tlie engi- 
neersy and petitions gainst it were presented by four gentle- 
men, neai' whose family seats it would Iiave passed, by fiixtti 
other proprietx)rs of land, and by the mint*^ter, and eighty- 
inhabitants of the parish of St/ Johnlee, the bill was withdrawn^ 
AAer a repose of fifteen years Mr. Dodd*s plan waa revived 
in IBIO. Preparations have been again made for approaching 
parliament with a bill, for authority to make a canal from Stella 
to Hexham ; but we fear tlie commerce of the country is still 
too confined to allow that ample and vigorous patronage, which 
go large an undertaking demands. Mr. Dodd's present propo- 
sition is to raise a capital, by shares of one hundred pounds each, 
of 106,CKK)L The greatest possible cost ho e!$timate« Hi 
J05,8(X)h; and the annual produce of the canal, he supposes, 
i -frannotlye less than 22,^71. 9b* lOd. 


Rivers*— St. Bede is the first author that mentions itie rircr 
TYNE.f The origin and meaning of it^ name have been tnuch 
disputed. La Tyne, riviere formee de deux rivitres — Ty^ 
deux ; 2y;t, doble* On a etendu par abas le nom Tine 4 cha- 

* TUonip. OlMer* [kp* 1^i i^i ^<^' * ^* Hitt. Smith> Fil. [i. IB n 


Cisne im riViere* qui la formenL^ ** Tlte iwo Tynes ore rivefs 

of tht OttudtDi.'*! HarrboKi tliioks it was in old time called the 

^ AJi»), bat does not mention his authority 4 

H Tl»e South Tyne f\s^3 behind Cross-Fdl, and in its course 

HrecciTOft th« Nenl, the Tippal» and the Allen* The North Tyne 

^ooniaieftoet on llie borders of Scotland, and receives the Reetl 

bdov BeUiiighain* The two branches join near Nether \V ar- 

deo, and are aAerwardg augmentefl by the Dill or Devib-beclCy 

aear Corbridge, by the Derwent (which rises alwve the Abbey 

of B&inchland) near Lemmington, and by several smaller 

aCfemu^ In the time of William Rufus it was proved that this 

m«lMd,ab omnl tempore, been the march between the county 

of Northtsmberland and the btsbopnc of Durham ; and that a 

■loie^ of it belonged to each t;ounty» while the middle of it waa 

0MU&0D to all ships and boata. Ita fisheries are mentioned 

«nA6r t! ' ' *' , the First, and were long celebrated 

Ibriliei salmon ; so late as the year 1761, not 

less tlttn two hundred and sixty were caught at one draught 

at Newbume; and in I7t5, two hundretl and seventy-five were 

^ landed at one draught at the Low Lights, near the mouth of the 

H liter* The iiAheries are now nearly destrcyetl, a circumstance 

•^ to be attributed entirely to the locks at B>t* ell, which prevent 

Aa aatuMMi passing up to the shallow streams in the breeding 

The Canvcnatarsliip of the Ti/ne appears to liave been invested 
b the corporation of Ni n-ai^tlei since the time of Edward the 
Sec«iid« though repeated commi*.M"ons have since been granted 
ta itrcngthen that power. Their jurisdiction extends tothigh- 
water mark on both sides of the river, from *he sea to Hcdwin 
Krcami, above Newbume, which distance is annually surveyed, 
«i Ascmsion Dayi by the mayor and river jury, in their barges. 
The apriag tides rbe about eighteen feet at the mouth of the 
trrcr, ami about eleven feet and a half at Newcastle* 
\oL. XIL D Camden 

* BttllerH Met». sor la Lang Celt. Vot L p.SI6, 
t 0csc.of EnfTaDd^ Fn-f. to Hull* CUroa* p. t5f, t Hie. Cor. ^ 


Cumden thought that the Tweed waa the Taum estuarium of 
Tacitus;* arid Mr. Horslcy says, ** between the Humber and 
tlie Firth of Forth, no rivers arc nicntioiitd by Ptolomy but \c» 
dra and AlaunuB. The latter of ^rhich I take to be the Tweed, 
into which river Allon, in Scotlajxd, does run ; and the other is 
most probably the T}iic, whose skuation answers exactly*' ^f 
The names of British rivers have great affinity, and are com- 
monly descriptive of the colour or properties of tlieir waters 
Derwent, Allen, &c* from tlje frequency of their occurrencet 
were certainly Fignificant epithets. It is abj?urd to suppose that 
either of these rivers lost iu nmne while the British language 
was spoken by the people that inlublttd their extensive baaks ; 
and more absurd to suppose tliat the Saxons shoiiJd change their 
names from one British term to another. This river rises la 
Tweedale^ h\ Scotland, at a place called Tweed's Cross, J ** out 
of a faire well standing in the inDs>e of an hill calJed Airstane, 
or Halrstane."^ It receives the Ettrick, Leader, and Tiviot, 
in its progress through Scotland, " At a litle broke, cawlyd 
Ryden Burne, the whiche parlithe England and Scotland by 
este and west, and comithc in to Twede, the great streame of 
Th ede towchitho on the Englyshe grownde as a limes betwenc 
Scotland and it.** The Till i^ the last stream of importance 
diat enters it. It is an ciituary at Korhom, about seven tnile* 
troTU tlie sea* Its banks are exceedingly fertile, and it may witU 
great truth be ftyled — " fair river, broad and deep," 

The yearly rental of tlie sahnon fisheries o» the Tweed is 
15,7661. The average number of boxes of raw salmon sent ta 
Loudon, packed in ice, in the years 1806 and I807» was 
8,415, of eight stone each, which, at sixteen pounds per stone, 
is ^^i-jWlO pounds. If tliere be added the value of what is kitted 
for exportation, and what is sold fresh or dried in the neighbour- 
hood, the amount cannot be less than 60,000 pounds a year^U 

* RriL Ed. 1590, p. Ci6. f Brit. Rom. 

I FuUer'a Hist, of Berw. p. 41 9. $ LeL quoted by Harrison, p. 1 5<l» 
I BaiJcy*! Sar. of Parh. p, 47. 



rerc erected here, as on the T)Tie and other rivers^ the 

supply would gradually cease. 

* The Till risL'th not farre from the liead of Uswaie, in the 
Cheriot Hilles, where it is called Brennkh^ w^hereof the king- 
dom of Bemicia did some time take the naroe**^ It keeps tlie 
oame of Breniish till it has passed by Wooler. The Bovenf^ 
celebrated for its beautiful pebble$,f joins the Glen near Kirk- 
newtoii; and, after passing through Glendale^ by Copeland 
Castle, their united streams join the TilL This river, to the heada 
of Its smallest bronehes, but especially between the Glen and 
the Tweed, swarms with trout. 

Harrison sap, " the Alnb if a pretie riueret, the head 
whereof riseth in the hills west of Alnham towne^ and k called by 
Ptoloraie Celnius. Between Ailmoutli and Wooden it swcepeth 
into the ooean-*^ Richard of Cirencester mentions Alauna as 
mie of the Ottadlne rtvers ; and Ahiham, Hulne, Alnwick, Aln- 
lOMtdt^ places on its banks, derive their names from it. 

Tlie CuatJET rises amongst the Cheviot Hills. " For acertea 
*pace of miles it dividith Cuquedale and Ridesdale." J Near Al- 
laiton church it is joined by the Allen, which issues out of Kid- 
land. ** The Hoc, as I think it is called, coraeth from the 
woodland and hilly soil, by Allington^ and falleth into the same, 
west of Parkcnd/* j» This river enters tlie sea near Warkworth, 
where there i& a fishery for salmon-trout and gilse. By a re- 
cent alteration of its channel, it seems to be preparing itself for 
being a harbour for ships of light tonnage. Its banks, espe* 
dally from Rothbury to the sea, are well wooded, and afford 
« great variety of interesting landscape. It is much irequented 
by anglers ; and its sand-beds have been celebrated for their 
bcautiiy pebble-crjstals, pale carnelians, chrysolithes, and 
agates. Bremenium, Cocudena, or Coqueda, and Alauna, occur 
together in Ravenna's Ch orography. 

The Wans, "a praty ryvcr,** vulgarly called Wants-becl^, 
• Mif. D«*c. of En^. p. 152* 
I td, lOo, VaL VII, pt i, fol 7.1. 


f Wallis, 1. 9a 

iHar, Disc. ofEof. p. ISU 


rides near Sweethope, above Kirkwhelpmgton. At Mitfordtt 
meets the Font, and passing through the fine meadows o€ the 
valley of Newniinster and the old woods of Bothal, it enters the 
«ed at Cambob. The tide flows up it to the bridge of Sheep- 
W8sh. Dr. Akenside wrote the first copy of his Pleasures of 
Imagination at ^lorpcth, and in the edition of that poeiii» im 
1770, complrments this river with this apostrophe;— 

" Of yc NorthiiiuUriiiti sltadei, which overlook 
« The rocky pitvcment and ilie mouy fillip 
Ofsolifary WmiS'bcck, limpid ^ttream ; 
Hdw gladly 1 iical) your MfUkuov^n ^cats* 
Belovcci ofetd, aud iLdt dpLic^hirol time 
M'heii dt alone, Ibr many a »uiiimci*s clrtVt 
I waiidiM-ed tlirough your calm ^^ces^t«, led 
In silence^ by i^oinc jiowtiful baud ujisccil* 


The proofs that Newcastle was aBoman station are conclusive. 
Coins of Trajan, Hadrian, Faustina, Lucius Verus, and Antoninuj 
Pius, were found in the piers of the bridge here> after it wag 
thrown down by the great flood, in 177 L* In digging the 
foundations of the new county court -house, in 1810, a well of 
Koman maaonary wag discovered oa tlie edge of the hank. It 
is near the centre of tl\G court-house. To raise it to the desired 
level, a very strong walJ, in the form of a trapezium, and en- 
cloalng about ten square yards, had been constructed on frame- 
work, of beams of oak, fixed perpendicularly and horizontally 
into the river bank, and filled up, within and without, wi^ 
clean blue clay. The beaius of oak were remarkably fresh, and 
near the bottom of two of them, th«t were placed perpendicu- 
larly» stags horns, of great size and thickness, were found* Be* 
tw^^en the factitious and original bank was a thick layer of 
ferns, grasses, brambles, and twigs of birch and oak, iirmlj 

* Fconatirt NorC Tour. III. SiX Brtnd* I. 58. 


wiitted together. Near die north-east comer of the court* 
iMMue were found two Rom ad altars, one bearing an iUegiblit 
iwcriptJon, the otlier plain. There were also large qiuntitica 
«f Roman pottery, two copper coins of Antoninus Pius, and a 
put of the shnil of a Corinthian pillar, richly fluted and of ex- 
quisite workmanship. Near the altars too were found a small 
uep a concave stone » bearing marks of fire^ splits and with 
thin fiakes of lead in the iissures ; also fragments of miM-stones, 
and foundations of walls, firm and impenetrable as the harden 
rock. With one of these walls the eastern v^-all of the late Moot 
Ihll has the same breadth, Tx;anng, and manner of building ; 
It htti also in it a low semicircular do4^r-way» walled up, and 
tli« outside of it is faced with te^slUted asldar-work| bearing 
r mark of Roman masonry* 
I end of Hadrian's Vallum was here, and the bridge and 
^phce called after him, Pom j^Uiy or the i^lian Bridge. He 
bdooged to the /EUan family, and thence was named ililiua 
Hftdfianus. He rebuilt Jerusidem, and styled it /HUa Capito- 
liaa; and called tlie games he instituted at Pincum, in Mi^sia^ 
Sim, Pincensia. On Sohvay Firth » at tlic other cxtremhy nf 
UiTallunit were stationed the first cohort of /Elian mnrines; at 
Banlofwald the first i^ian cohort of Daciana ; and at Halton 
Chcsters the Sabinian wing, named so from Sabinia, Hadrian's 
wife. Two coins were aliio struck in his reign, to commemorate 
the building of two bridges ; one of which had seven ^ the other 
Ite arches. The Pons .^Jius at Rome has exactly five arches, 
tad for that with seven no place can be so well assigned as this** 

* Tlie Pict's Wall,' says Grey,f • Ciime over Neathcr Deane 
Mdge, and so along Into Pandon.* Mr. Horsley was of opinion, 
liMt the east wall of the Roman station here ran at right angles 
^fom this wall, through St« George's porcli in St* Nicholas* 
church ; that each side of the station mea^iured six chains, and 
D 3 tliat 

^ Piraaesi'i Collection; and V&illunr^ tom. I, p« 68^ ijuoted by liruiu! 
• t Oior* p. 9. 


fhat the vallum of Hadrian was Its southern rampirc* It ha«, 
however, been found that the Pict's Wall passed near tlie great 
west tloor of St. Nicholas' church ; and the recent discoveries 
about the castle prove Uiat the station extended 35 far as the 
brink of the river, and that tbe east wall of the late Moot Hall 
is beyond all doubt the eastern wall of the station. 

From the desertion of Britain by the Romans, to the time of 
the Norman Conquest, there is no certain mention of this place 
under any other name than Monkcheste^, and under that 
only once, ** In the year 1074', three monks, providentially 
sent out of the province of Mercia into that of Nortliumbcr- 
land, came to York, and besought Hugh, the son of Baldric, 
who was then viscount, to *ive them a guide to a place called 
Munkcccastre, that is, the City of the Monks, which is now 
called Newcastle. Being conducted to this place, they stayed 
at it for a time ; but when they could fmd there no vettiges of 
the ancient church of Christ, they n cnt to Jarrow, then retain- 
ing Httle of its former splendour, and, after inspecting its nu- 
merous mouastic edi6ces, anil half-ruined churches, they began 
to repair it, under the liberal patronage of Walcher, Bishop of 
Durham. The name of the oldest was Aldwin, of the second 
Eaffwin, and of the tlu'rd Kinfrid. By these three persons tlie 
monasteries of Northumberland were restored."f 

** The town of Pampedon is very antient^ I find of the 
lungs of Northumberland that had a house in it, which we now 
call Pandon Hall.'*J This place was undoubtedly coeval with 
Monkchester. It was in the manor of Byker, and the inherit- 
ance of Ladararia, wifb of Robert dc Byker, who conceded it 
to the crown prior to 1^99 ; in which year Edward the First 
granted it to tlie town of Newcastle, for its increase, improve- 
ment, and security. About this time Newcastle began to be 
invested with waUs; and on the nortli side of Pandon the Koman 
wall appears to have been repaired for that purpose ; for, says 


« 3nt, R9m* p. 133. Warbt Vail, Rom. p, 30. t Sim, Don. p. «0<5* 
^ Grey's Chor, 

Gfe^, a tofreri »iimlar to tliose of the Roman wall, remaineUt 
•Weill the town^wall in Pampdon, older than ihe rest of the 
farerf, and after auother fashion, standing out of the wall. * As 
old iis Patidon Gate,* was a proverb here, in Leland's time. A 
conmis antique signet ring was found near Pandon Hall ;♦ and 
Romati coins were lately taken out of an old wall near Stock* 
bndge, m tlits place. 

In the aututnn of the year 1080, King William sent his son 
Robert into Scotland against Malcolm. He marched as for as 
%gled)reth, but finding no opposition, he returned^ and in 
ha way built the New Castf€ upon Tyne.f Though there h 
lome difference among the hiKtorians concerning the precise 
date of the building of tliis castle, it is generally allowed that it 
was done by Curthose, at the command of Ins father, and tliat 
il wafl erected upon the site of some ancient fort, which caused 
it to be called the ^ew Castle, by which name both itself and 
the town that surrounds it have ever since been denominated. 
Rnitteen years had scarcely elapsed after its building, till Ku- 
ftti had his arms to employ against it ; for, in tlie memorable re- 
Tok of Mowbray, tlie last of the ancient line of the Earls of 
Northumberland, is was one of the fortresses seized by the re- 
be!i.| Many of the roost powerful adlierents of the earl were 
taken licre ;§ and himself, with thirty soldiers, who had escaped 
tma Bamborough, under promise of assistance from the garri- 
•oa of Newcastle, were betrayed and seized by the king. 

The great tower was rq)aired by Henry the Second, at the 
txpente of 12ol. 13s, 6d. King John made a fpsse round its 
valli« and strengthened it with certain new works on the brink 
cf the rhrer^ and, as appeai*s ft-om his charter, indemnified 
\ whose houses stood in the way of these imprme- 
a remittance of 100 shillings from tljc tscheat rents 
lit! httd in the town. The crown alsot in ISId^ expended 
514L 1 Ji* lid, in building a new gate; and two years after laid 

Dl* out 

• Stttkc1y*s It. Bor. p, CI t Sim- Dwo, ill. 

I ta tiri. Brand T. I4f . i Bourne, p. 117* 


0ut thirty-six paundfi and eight-] 

e in repairing another ] 
" At the time of the battle of Gannonkburn the cai^tle and all tlie 
edifices about it were lu good repair ;** but in the coune of 
twenty-one years *^ the great tower, and all the leiser tues of 
the said castle, the great hall» wltl) the king's clmniber adjoin^* 
ing it, together with divers other chambers below, in tha 
queen's mantle and the buttry-ccllar and pantry, the king^A 
chapel within tlie castle^ a certain house beyond the gate, which 
u called the Checker House, with the bridges witliin and with- 
out the gate, with thiee gates and one postern, are 3001. worse 
than they were. They say alsju>, that there are In tlie custody 
of Roger Manduit, latt- high-^lieriff; 420 fother of l*ad. They 
say also, tliat it was thought Iilghly necessary that the Baroi:^ 
Meron, of Haddeston, the Baron of Will ton. Lord Robert of 
CliObrd, of the New Place, diief lord of the barony of Gaugie, 
the lords of the barony of and Delviston^ that the 

Lord of Werk upon Tweed, the lord of the barony of Bolbeck, 
alias Bywell, the Baron of Bothal, and lastly, the Baron of 
Delaval, should build each of them a house witlitn the liberties 
of the castle, for the defeuce of it. The house of the Baron 
of Werk was built over the po*itern/* • 

In the hall of tills cagtlc John Baliol did homage to Edward 
the First for the cro>vn of Scu>land;f and David Bruce was s 
prisoner here under John Copeknd.| Though it was In the 
possession of the incorporated company of taylors Irom the 
year 1G05 to IGl^, yet it had not entirely lost its ancient 
strength under their auspices; for by a few rep^uri:, and by 
plantbg cannon on the top of the tower, it was enabled, under 
tJie gallant Sir John Marley, tlien mayor of Newcastle, to 
hold out several days after the town surrendered to tlie Scots, 

in 16U. § 

• Bourne, p. iia. t Kjai^Mou, p, i*469. 

I Rymer, VoL V* p. 7ST. 
§ Tlie ScotcJi army sunimuncil Nevv castle to siiiTtnder m Fehinaiy^ 
16i4^ but afler three weeks frmUcfn atay it ciusdcd tlie T^ne uid 



Twelve of the ancient barons of Nortbtimberland paid caxtle- 
g«iard rents and comage to this castle* These payments origi* 
in the tenures of their e^^tatea, wliich were granted to 
by the Conqueror and other kings, on the condition of 
their perfonzung castle-guard with a certain number of men^ 
for isome ftp ^ 'me* When the«e services became unneces- 

aarj they v^ uutcd for annual rents;* which, togetlier 

with the tenure by knights' senhce, wece abdialted ia tha 
time of Charles die Second. 

Alexander Stevenson, Esq. a page of the king** bed-chamber, 
in 1618, obtained a lease of tifiy ycfars, at fiHrty shillinga a yeaf, 
** of all that old casUe of the t^ivm of NewcailU upon Tyne, 
\ «cyte atid herbage of the aaid caatle, as well within the 


ai4rdied to Sundrrlnnd. Dnrrnit ^'^ attacki Sandj^ate and fhe otbet^ 
n^bnrbi Wf re let on fire by the be^tegfil. The rombttied mmic* of the 
Eifl of Callendef ami General Levm, however, comineiieefl tlie Megc to 
9D*d f»rucf»l on tbe IbiirteentU of Au^ost^ ia the same yeir* Calleaidei% 
I quiutert were at Uhia orth^ but hh cpeiatiooi carried oa lo Gatea^ 
d, and )m attacks iippo^rd iVom a buttery cooiitnicted on tlie brow of 
ttif' Cdittte Gaith, and atlcrvvatds colled the Halfnioon battery, Ll'tui had 
^Oaitxin at El^wicJi, the collicfs of which place and of Benwell^ with 
\ eomttry people, to the number of 3(H)0, were employed in undei^ 
* the waiU» The rccl»tanc« from tlie town maa tong and obttiaat* ; 
Inu ilk«r tiie mines were ready fur «fiiplodin;r« awd n*peate<i suDimooi to 
er were proudly refn&ed^ oa the nuietrcnth of October the b«« 
eis opeiied all their batteries, and, with a tut ious and general as^nlt, 
to the breaches, upon which the gairi^n in the cfbtle played ior 
iil!y wftb teatteTed ^lJOt> Ttiou^h die toss of the Scotch was great 
fkff rftaolotely advanced, and qftrr two hmiri of lierce contention npoa 
Ae braacbea, iliey forre<i thetr tir*t entry near ihe C'lote Gate, The di*. 
ftta couUniied fur some tmi« in tlie^ticet*^ hut the aatajlantfi ponriag ia 
ao an ftidcj, they ftoon l>ecanie masters of the walli and Lhje town, Tha 
MMyut and A ft^w of hi« a«40C)atrji retreated to the castle, which, with an 
•tjtial »|iarc of obstinacy and gallantry, tbcy defended to the twenty -second 
of Oct<»ba'4 when they capitulated, and inrTtLMlered themselves pnsonen 
•f war. BoonM, p. «3f. Ruihw. CdL Pt. tii. Vol 11, p. 546. Thnr, 
State l^ap. VoL 1. p. ift ^t^ 

• Grose's Aut pref, p. 3* 

41' noktiicmberi-akb; 

wails of the same as withoiiL** This lease fell, bj purdtase^ 
into the Iiands of the coqyoratlon. ^\^^e^ iht-y petitioned the 
king for its reneival a counter-petition was presented by the 
magUt rates of Northumberland, under the plea that a grant of 
it would be more proper to be given to that county than to 
Newcastle, Tn the midst of tlie di5|7ute, Lord Gerrard had 
access to the king, and, on August thirds 1664, obtained a leaso 
of it for ninety-nine years, in revention, determfnable on three 
lives, and at the old rent. After a great struggle, and at the 
expence of six hundred pounds^ tlje corporation, in 1683^ 
by the king's warrant, succeeded in tlieir object. Lord Ger- 
card, then Earl of Macclesfield, however, commenced a suit 
against thera, which concluded in an abrogation of this warranty 
md an injunction awarded to stay the proceedings of the cor- 
porution against tlie earl and his tenants* For a fine of ono 
hundred and fifty pounds, and an annual payment of one hun* , 
drod chaldron of coals to Chelsea hospital, a fifty years* lease i 
•f these premises was granted, July the secondi 1736, to 
George Liddell, Esq.; and in 1777, they were demised from the 
crown to Henry, Lord Ravens\?ortJ^ for the term of forty year* 
and a half, from July thirteen* 1786, on the same terms aa 
they had been enjoyed by Colonel LiddelL They were sold bj 
the llavcnswortli family, in 1779, to J, C. Turner, Esq. 

Henry the Fourth made Newcastle a county of itself; and, 
though \m charter on this occasion makes no reservation of the 
emtio to the county of North umhcrland, it appears to have 
been considered, in 1417, in a i>imilar situation with the castles 
of ClicstGr» Cokht^ter, Norwich, Worcester, and tlie Tower of 
London, independent of the corporation of its own town* By 
a charter of the thirty-first of Elizabeth, on account of tins 
•• old and ruined castle being** a refuge for wicked and disor* 
4|rly people fiying from the justice of the magistrates of New* 
ifiStlet it was placed under their jurisdiction in matters of' 
on laW| and in this situation it still continues. As persona 
of this town exercised their trades w ithin its precincts, 


fmij attempts \rere made by the corporation to detach it 
wAflWy from the county of Northumberland, and subject it to 
ttei'uU rigour of their charters; but in thh tlicy never suc- 

Though repairs nnd alterations, occaiiioned by sieges, changet 
m rauiles of warfare, and common decay, have robbed \l\k edi- 
fice of idl the delicacy of its infant features, it is sliU stronglj 
ifittrked with Uie character of Norman architecture. It an- 
ciently consisted of a gqimre tower, and other necetsary build* 
ings, surrounded by an omt.»r and an inner wall ; its whole site 
occupying little more than lliree acres. 

Nothing remainii of the outer wall but the main entrance^ 
called the Black Gate, a postern at the head of the castle stairs, 
ind c£!tain fragments by which ks site can only be imperfectly 
traced. It hud two other posterns, one facing the side, and 
the other opening into Bailey Gate, both of which have been 
de?ttroycth The Black Gate was built, as wc have seen, in the 
time of Henry the Third, and cost upwards of 514L Its arch, 
GCtimding to the gloomy length of thirty-six feet, is low and 
narrow^ and flanked by two lofty circular towers* Besides itA 
iron doom it had two portcullises, and a draw*-bridge witttin and 
The eastern tower is still very perfect towards its base; 
: the rest of tliisi structure is either shut -up witli confused 
mmmea of buildings or mucli defonned by conversion into 

The inner wall extended from the Black Gate around the 
great tower, and again joined the outer wall north of Bailej 
Gaie< It bad a large gateway tlirough it in the west, and two 
pCMterns, walled up, in the south side ; all of whiclt were pulled 
down in 1811. The Great Tower is about eighty feet high, 
sixty-two by fifty-four feet square on the outside, and its walla 
nearly fourteen feet thick. The great door on the east is ap- 
proached by a flight of Kteps to the second story : this door and 
Bev€tal of tlie windows have been tastefully ornamented wttli 
;iig'zag work. In the Kides of the tower, where no windows 



have interfered, rooms have been gaitied out of the walls, or gat 
lerit^s have passed from one aide, or Btory, to another. There is 
no appearance of fire-places in any part of it, but in the roonis in 
the walls. The dungeon^ time out of mind, has hecn used as ihe 
county prison for Northumberland, during the time of the aau268. 
It has two doors, a triple-grated loop-hole, and measures twenty- 
five feet and a half by twenty feet tlireii quarters. Its arch if 
sprung from a hollow pillar, which has conveyed water from a 
well in the south-east comer of the tower, and twenty -one feet 
from tlic ground. Adjoining the dungeon, on the east side, is 
a chapel of most beautiful and exquisite architecture; and 
above it, at the head of tlic outer stairs, h a small room, about 
thirteen feet by twelve, which, from its style of building, seema 
to have been used as an orator if, A very bold and spacioua 
circular staircase aj»cends from the dungeon to the top of Ihe 
tower. Above the dungeon there appears to have beeo five 
stories, from the fourth oi' which the tower has been raised 
from its original to its present height. The corporation pur- 
chased this building in 1810, and intend to throw an arched 
Toof over it^ and tx» pull down all the old houses built 
against it. 

The assizes for Northumberland, prior to 164-4, were held in 
the Common or Moot Hall, " within tlie inner wall of the Castle 
Garth/* ♦ The building lately occupied for that purpose had 
been the chapel of tlte garrison before the castle was dia* 
mantled. Its eastern wall was of strong Roman masonry; 
another part of it was purely Norman ; its roof was supported 
with two rows of heavy Gothic arches ; and its front had square 
windows, with stone niullions ; and the arms of England quar- 
tered with those of Scotland were cut in a stone over ita 

The design for the Nerv Courts was furnished by Mr* Stokoe, 
ef Newcastle, urthltect, and is now executing under his di- 
rection. Their foundation stone was kid by Earl Percy, in 

• Urand, Vol. T. pp, l5d, 158| notes. 


July, ISIO, at which time his father the Dufcc of Northnra- 
bedHidi presenled the county with three thousand poundi 
fowndi expences in building them. Hieir figure is a doublo 
tBkmg square^ forty-eight yarda long, and twenty-four wide. 
The ground-floor is partly below the surface, and consists of 
ceQa mnd other apartments for the criminals during the time of 
die ttttizes : the«e are all covered with strong Homan arches. 
Above ihem, in the centre of the buildiag, is an entrance-hal), 
wnd grand-jury room, on each side of which are the courts, 
eaxh arcasuring sixty feet by thirty*iive, and behind them 
ipftrtmenti for the judges* juries, witnesses, &c. Over theso 
are offices for the gaoler, clerk of the peace, and other officers ; 
and ovei' the grand-jury room, an apartment for the councih The 
ftorth elevation has a Grecian Doric portico of four pillars^ 
where i& the door to the common hall that leads to the courts 
nd'juT}' room : at die extremities on this side are the 
es for the public, who stand on vows of steps rising be* 
kind each other. The soutfi elevation is taken from the Par- 
tbenoii in Athens, having a Grecian Doric portico of six pillars, 
mA five feet in diameter, and twenty*eight feet high. The 
feundations are laid on strong clay, and constructed of very 
fcrgc blocks of freestone. The whole of the masonry is indeed 
of a very superior kind, the centre of the walls bprng executed 
with stjuared ashlars, and their outside finely polished. 

Pram Harding** Chronicle and the charter of King John, it 
tppesrs, that the town had been defended with ivalls hcforo 
the time (sC Edward the Tirjiit, and their testimony is strength- 
ened by the remains of a strong barrier of earth remaining to 
this day behind the priory of the Black Friars. 

Iceland, and a manuscript in the Cotton Library, cited by 
Mr, ilrand, assign their origin to the following circumstance : 
*• III the rdgn of Edward the First, a very rich citizen of New^- 
Cttlte was earned off from that town into Scotland, and being 
tn last rpinsomcd, he began to enclose Newcastle with a very 
inn wati ; and the rest of the inhabitants following his example, 


lie finishetl the untlcrUikmg in the reign of Edward the Third."* 
In 1280, the Bluck Friars obtained royal pprniissron to have a 
posiern through the • new wall* which passed through the mid- 
dJe of their garden ; and in 1307, the Carmehtes on WollknoUt 
got a grant to remove to the house of the order of the Penance 
of JesuSy because * die wsill newly built* passed dirough a part 
of their premises. As soon as they were couipleted the town 
was divided into twenty-four wards, according to tha number 
of gates and r9uud towers upon them* Tiie free burgesses at 
tliat time were aJl soldiers, A night watoli of one hundred 
persons was constantly traversing these bulwarks in the reign of 
Henry die Fourth* " The strength and magnificcns of the 
waulling of diis towne far pa£sith all the waullcB of the cities of 
England, and most of the townes of Europa."f They are said 
to have borne a striking hkeness to the walls of Avignon. We 
wonder not at Leland*s aihni ration of tliis place, when we con- 
sider the strength and beauty of the ca&tle, the fine Gothic ar- 
chitecture of tho walls, die feudal splendour of the noblenien'i 
houses, the number and beauty of the monasteries and churches, 
and the \veaith uf die corporation, and all these in the full glory 
of their perfection. The whole circumference of the walls is 
2740 yards*J: The fosse arouud them is called the King's 
Dykes ; it was sixty-six feet broad, but is now 61led up. 

These walls had seven tremendous gates, and serenteea round 
iowcn ; ** between every one of which were, for the most part« 
two watch towers, made square with the effigies of men cut in 
itone upon the tops of them, as though they were watching,**^ , 
The names of the gates were in order as follows :— Close Gat^^H 
Postern Gate, West Gate, New Gate, Pilgrim-street Gate, Paii^^ 
don Gate, and Sand Gate. There was also a gate in Carpenter'^i 
Tower, another at the north end of the Tyne bridge, &i4^| 
leveral posterns and water gates; None of them remain at 
present but West Gate and New Gate. Leland calls the West 


• Cot. 34S, translated, LcK It. Vol. V, fol. 103. f lb. f. lOi, 

) Huttoti'3 plin^ § Bourne, p. ITr 




(iaie '< A miglule gtrong dilnge of four wards and an iron gaieJ* 
h u faid to Uave been built l>y the niuniticcnt Roger Tligrnton, 
** who at the ^Tst was very poore, and, ns the people report, 
wm a pedlar ; and of him to this day they rehcrsc this ryme i^ 

In the WefttgAte came Thornton 10* 
WiUi 41 hap|fen liapt In a raui*s skyon."* 

^ part of it has been pulled douji, and the rept h under sen- 
tence to suffer a« soon as the company, who have their IialJ 
iboire ttt can be accommodated with a new situation. New Gate 
k used as tlie town's prison. 

In our account of the station Poii* j^lii, we Iiave hinted that 
Kfwciutle bridge was buLIt by Hadrian. Several of the piers 
of tJie old bridge were so strong that they could not be 
taken down w ithout tlie aid of gunpowder. ITiey had hacn 
built, as Mr- Pennant observes,^ without springs for arches, a 
maimer of building used by the Romans : witness the bridge 
built over tlie Drinube at Severin, This mode of building vvaa 
well calculated for eKpedition. After projections of stone had 
been made over the piers as far as wns consistent wltlx strength^ 
the remaining space was traversed with beams of timber and 
p&vcd upon. In one of these piers a parchment was discovered, 
%lth old characters upon it very fresh ; but on being exposed 
to the air they disappeared, and the parchment mouldered 
away. Brand and Pennant have inentioried several Roman 
cohu that were found in them, to which ma}- be added, one in- 
scribed round the head, IMP. CAE. NERVAE TRAL\NO. 
AVG. GER. DAC. P. M. TR. P. COS, V. P.P. ; and another, 

A bridge existed here in the time of Henry the Second ; it 
was burnt down in IS^S, After this, lands were granted to be 
bcld by the paj^nent of one plank annually to Tyne bridge. A 
^reat flood swept a part of it away^ in 1339, which occasioned 
ISO persons to be drowned. Grey says it had many houses 


L* UcVR-i LeK il. Vol. V, p. il4. t Tour is Scot, Vol. III. p. 315, 

iB KORTftUMI!S]ILA??l>. 

and Ao^f BXiA three towers upon it ; " one tower on the souA 
flide» the second in the middle, and the third in Newcastle 
*ide» lately built upon mi arch in the bridge, used for a magsi- 
«me for the tovn?e,"* In 1770, Bishop Trevor repaired with 
stone one of the south arches, which had anciently been a 
draw-bridge, and was at that time constructed of large be 
of timber covertd witli planks and puved upon. The arches 
this bridge wtre some of them Gothic and others scheme arches'; 
they had no regular decrease from the middle to the end^ ; and 
the passage over them was very narrow and crowded wit 

On Saturday, September seventeen, 177Iiatlclugeof rain fell 
in the western mountains. The Tyne suddenly overflowed its 
banks, and marked its progress with most terrible devastation. It 
btfgan to rifle at Newcastle about eleven o'clock in the night, 
and at seven in the morning was at its Iieight* At three 
o'clock tlie arches of this bridge were filled up, and, about 
four, three oT them on the Gateshead side were forced dowit^ 
and seven persons were drowned. Above the bridge the river 
was scvea feet four inclies higher than it usually is at good 
spring tides ; but at Shicldsj though great damage was done to 
the j^hipping there, the sea being kept at a low level by the 
neap tides, this flood did not exceed the common height of 
spring tides. A vessel took up at sea, near Tinmauth, a woodea 
cradlei with a child in it, which was alive and well * Tliree 
•hips were stranded on Newcastle quay- 

Tlie nrj) Irrhlgc is three hundred feet long, luis nine archcF^ 
and cost upwards of thirty thousand pounds. The architects 
consulted in building it were Messrs, Smeaton, Wooler, and 
Mylne, the Er^t of whom built the Eddystone light-house, 
and tlie last tlie bridge at Blackfriars, London. It was finished 
in 1781. But as it was unfortunately built too narrow, its 
widtli has since that time been extended to twenty-four feet, 
by an ingenious contrivance^ of Mr. Stephenson, architect. He 

• Ckofog. p, 9, t Hdttoti!! plan. 



uctetl Ms additional width to the arches, Ott each side#' 
~^m the buttresses of the piers, and cramped them ta the 

ftirmer work with large bars of iron, reaching from one side to 
the other. It is at present a structure of great strengtii, cofive- 
ttienee, and hrmxty* 

On the revival of the monastic life in these parts^ Newcastle 
iwn became famous for it« convents. There was a Bcncdic-' 
tfltt nunnery here so early as 1086, in which» according to 
ferdun^ afler Malcolm and liiji son were slatn before the castle 
of Alnwick, Agus, the mother of the Queen of Scotland^ and 
Chrtstiaiia, her sj«ter, took the veil^ 

While some of the Scotch historians assign tht origin of the 
ikmertf oi St. Bartholomevr to David, King of Scotland, 
Speed contends that it was founded by Henry the Second, and 
as lutkortty in the Bodlcan Library ascribes it to a Baron de 
liiHtoti,* In the time of Bishop Katficld it was mfierably poor, 
r in money and morals, on which account it was put under 
Ae direction of the priest of the church of St, Nicholas. It 
Ton the thir<! of January, 1510, when its annual value 
4«- 2d*f It was situated in the field behind the Nun 
Gate*, about which some remains of it may still be traced. 

The house of the Black Frian was fo untied about A. D. 
1251, by Sir Peter Scott, the first mayor of Ncs\ castle, and 
kis 800^ Sir Nicholas, who had been tliree times a bailiff of the 
^mtu It was in the church of this house that Edward Baliol 
M homage to Edward the Till rd, f and alienated to liim the 
^^ Scottish counties next adjoining to the borde^rs of Knghnid. 
At the dlasolution this house consisted of a prior and twelve 
^Tirt, and had a yearly income of 51. 19s, 4d. It w:is granted 

*o the mayor and burgesses of Ne^vcastle, and by them, in 
V0L.XIL E 1552, 

* Bnmd, I. tOU t Stev. Cunt, of Dug. Mou. Vol. IL p, ifd. 

S"Ryin. Focd. T» IV. 616. Ypod. Neuat- p. all. Wdu H"mniifig- 
'*'d, V.iU II. p. «77, ^-c. fltc/* Bmnd, II. 40in Kni|;hton f•T^ Ed- 
^1! Md a pirliutnt'fit at York, U which pUcv BiiUol caaie iu)il diri 
^4ni|i to tiifi £ngli»h king, p. i5C^. 


155'i, te time of the mysteries, or ancient trades of the towOt 
•even of whom have their halls in it to this day. Enough af it 
remains to give a suilicient idea af it< original state* 

The priory o£ Augustine Frian is supposed to have been 
fountk'il by Wilham Lord Ross, Baron of Work upon Tweedy 
sometime before the year 1291. Margaret, the eldest daughter 
df Henry the Seventh, being affianced to the King of Scotland, 
and on her way thither ** was brought and conveyed to tlie 
1 Veres Austyns, where she was lodged, and honnestJy re- 
ceivcil by those revested with the crosse.'** ** The kings of 
England kept house in it when they came with an army royal! 
against Scotland ; and since tlie suppression of the monasteries, 
made a magazine and storeboufte for the north parts* Now of 
late thcit princely fabrick is demolished, and laid level with the 
groimd/'f It was surrendered on tlie ninth of January, 1559, 
when it consisted of a prior, seven brethren, and three novices, 
A few door-ways and old wa!b of it may still be seen in the 
workhouse for All-Saints* parish ; and its whole site is occupied 
by hospitals, scliools, and other pub he buildings. Some re- 
mains of it are still visible in tJie general hospital or workhouse 
of the town* 

The priory of the Franciscan^ or Grey Friars, owed it» 
foundation to the Carliols, a family of wealthy merchants, be- 
fore the year 1300, The English province had seven custo* 
dies of this order, whereof the custody of Newcastle, containing 
nine convents, was one. At the dissolution this house con- 
sisted of a prior, eight friars, and two novices. " It was a 
very fair tlnDg, and was granted, in the thirty-sixth of King 
Henry the Eighth, to the Earl of Essex and James Rockby."J 

Hugh of Newcastle flourished in this convent ; and the cele- 
brated Duns Scoitts took the order of St. Francis here, as did 
also Fnar Martin^ of Alnw*ick. Hugh was a zealous defender 
of Scotus against Aquinas, and one of the fourteen about his 
tomb.$ Martin acquired notable knowledge in philosophy and 

• Brand, 11. 435» ♦ Greys Chor, 15. I Tan. Not, % Bale, 



^rioltjr al Oxford. He resided chtefly in thia momfitery, and 
died and wta buried in it. The houses of this order» fn the 
mirdenflhip of Newcastle, were Dundee, Dumfries, Hadding- 
ton, Berwick, Roxburgh, Richmond, in Yorkshire^ Carlisle^ 
Hartlapool/ Newcastle.* 

The Carmelites had their first house in tliis town on Wall 
Koo]), from which they removed in 1507, on the pica of en- 
croachment made upon their premises by the new wall of the 
town. They obtdined^ on this occasion, a grant from Edward 
the Third, of the house of the Friars of the Penance of Jesu^^f 
on condition that they supported Walter de Carlton, the only 
funriviiig brother of that order, as became bis rank, and for 
the remainder of his life. This house was at the foot of West- 
gate Street, John Dynley, bom of a good family in Newcastlei 
and a learned writer, Bourished in it about the year 1450. At 
tiie suppression, there were in it a prior, seven brethren, and 
two novices; and it was then valued at 91. lis. ^d. Its clmreh 
was dedicated to St, Mary. The whole of its premises were 
pinied, in 1546, to Sir Richard Gresham and Richard Bil* 
Vi^gfiird. Some remains of windows and arched door-waya 
Siay still be seen in the houses erected on its site, 

The Hospital of the Trimtaruim^ on Wall Knoll, was 
liunded by William de Acton, a burgess of Newcastle, in 
136K He purchased the situation of the White Friars, who 
hid deserted it for several yean. The revenues of this society 
were divided into three portions, one of which was appro- 
priated to their own use, another given to the poor, and the 
third expended in the liberation of Christians in captivity 
iiDongst infidels. They were visited by the master of St, Ro- 
bert's, at Knaresborough, every year, on Trinity Sunday, on 
which occa»on they were bound to present him with a horse^ 
load of fiafa ; failing htm, tlie mayor and bailiffs of Newcastle 

E 2 were 

• 8Uv. Cont. of Dag. Mon. Vol. L pp. 9t>, 98, <>9, 

t Tb^ were nfttmily fttyled Frisn c^f tlie Stc, sad wero i^tilrU Uere ia 
ttsa, Bnod, T. sa. 


^ere their visitors- According to their foundation charter^ 
they were bound ** to Imve ready, at all times^ three comp€« 
' lent beds tor the use of stranger* resorting to their house," * 
Tlie possessions of this house were granted to Sir. R, Gresham 
and R, Billingford, Gent, in 151-6; and thirty-six years after 
they weru conveyed to the corporation of Newcastle, in whoic 
I possession they have continued ever since. 

The Hospital of St, I^Fary, in Westgate Street^ was founded 
in Henry the Second's time, by Aselack, of Killinghowe» on a 
parcel of hig ov^ni ground, for two friars regular, and a chaplain, 
to sei-ve God and the poor. Provision was also made in it for 
Ihe entertainment of poor clergymen and strangers that were 
' traveliing.f It appears to liave been a cell to the nunnery of 
St Bartholomew, and to have liad a second foundation^ by i 
charter of Ridiard the Firsts at which time its first founder 
was alive. 

An authority, :t dated A. D* 1 546, reports it to have been 
founded for a master to be continually resident, for a chaplain 
to say divine service* for six ' bedefolks' in the alms-house, 
and to lodge poor and buy-faring people, and to bury such m 
fortuned to die there. Nine cliaJdron of coals were also to be 
distributed among poor pe^ple^ and ten shillings to be given 
yearly among the bede folks * which order is not observed at 
presenL^ — Clear yearly value, twenty-nine pounds nine shillings 
and fourpence« Dr. Davel was master at that time, but not re-* , 
sident; and a priest, who kept the house and orchards, aod bad^l 
five pounds yearly^ was the only one ^ in hospitalite* at it. ■ Dr* 
Davel supplied Leland with considerable information re^peetiiif 
this town and its neighbourhoods 

Though this house came under the statute for the dissoluttoa 
I irf* religious houses, the community of Newcastle continued ta 
i present a master to the Bishop of Durham, and its revenues wer0 
i enjoyed^ till the time of James tbe First, who, in consequence 

^ Botuney sppeadiji* 

I la tlie Aa?* OC 

f Asrkek*ft cfairter* 


[ charter being lost, granted a new one m 1611. Tim 
ctertir decreed^ that it should consist of a master* and m% ull- 
married poor old men, conetttuting together a body poh^ic in 
law, axid having a cojiimon seal* 

As the mayor and officers of the town, had, by very ancient 
IM^, been chosen in this hospital, the chancel of its church 
wmt coaverted into the corporation's election room, soon after 
the year 1585* When the grammar -scliool of Newcastle waa 
incorporated by Elizabeth^ it was removed from a buiidtng on 
the north side of St. Nicholas* churchyard to the hospital of St, 
Mary, in West Gate, the premises of wliich continue to this day to 
be occupied by this seminary of learning and its diiferent masters, 

The hospital of Sl Mary Magdalen, stood between Vine 
Lane and Barra^ bridge, where many vestiges of it remain. It 
WM founded by Henry the First, for a master, brethren, and 
listiers, who were to receive persons aiflictt-d with the Iqirosy. 
** It WBB founded by reporte, to th' entent ther shoulde be a 
master, brevbeme, and systers, to receyve all suche leproso 
folks as should fortune to be diseased of that kynde of sickness, 
and syns that kind of sickeness k abated, it ii used for ttie 
corofortc and heJpc of the poore folks of the towne that 
chaimcetli to fall sycke in time of pestilence-* — Yerely valew, 
niae poundti e]e%'en ahilllngs and fourpence*^*f According to 

E 3 Bourne, 

• ♦* Tq 1717, Newcastle &ppcArf 1o Imve beea rxKited by a grcitoiit 
ftniinc and morizirity, iriMorimcli, &ays }lniinic» thut the (|iiick coiiJtl 
httftfty bury U»e dfad ; aud a great cnrruption of rattle and zrs^, Soma 
ilr llir flmti of tlivir own dii1dr«a; iind liiicvesf in prison, devoured tlrr^e 
fbot were Dc>*!y broitj^ltl in, and ^ecdily ate tljcm Imlf alive/* Tlie plai^tic 
tktt ratted licrc in lr/^5 ; but its ctlecU were moderate at tlmt tinu', rotOz 
pvetl witb the mcrcUe^ desolatiun it made in 16:16. From May tiie 
Aernttb, ia tbal year, to Deeendier tiie tltirty-iir^t, h037 pt.r»on» died in 
Iftb town, of tbift ' trcmendons visitation.' It eanic from Hallmid, and 
North Shields to Ncwcaitle. JeiintMson*^ Newe. Call, ^e. 

t Certif, in tJie Angni. Office. Bi^mt, I. iMT. 


BoumCt 'fourteen persons within the hous^ were iilIow«<| 
a room^ coals^ and eight shillings per month; and fifteen wlth'«* 
out, some eight shillings per month, some five sliilUngs, and 
gome two shillings and aixpence/* 

King James, in 1611, incorporated this hospital with th« 
chapel of St Thomaa k Becket^ on Tjne-bridge, when it wi 
decreed that they should in future consist of a master an^ 
three poor and aged unmarried burgesses of Newcaatle; thai' 
the master should receive one third of their revenues and ths 
remainder be divided amongst the brethren; and that the may* 
aod common council ahould be patrons. 

The Maiiion de Dicy, i« the only public buihling marked 
upon Sandhjll, in Speed's plan of Newcastle, It was founded 
by Roger Thornton, in 140i{, for one chaplain, who should 
also be wardun> nine poor men and four women, under the 
name of the hospital of St. Catharine, called Thornton's hosprtaLf 
The son of its founder granted the use of its hall and kitchen 
•* for a young couple when they were married, to muke tlicir wed- 
ding dinner in, and receive t!ie gills and o0erings of their friends, 
for at that time houses were not large," It5 clear yearly value, 
in 15S5, was eight pounds one penny. Sir Richard Lumley, 
one of the Thornton family, by the female line, conveyed it to 
the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle, June die first, 1624-. It 
is occupied as a warehouse* 

On the authority of Fordun* and other Scottish historians, it 
is believed that a monastery for Pr je mon s t ra t t^n si ans was founded 
iiere, by David, King of Scotland. This order had lands at 
Fenham ; and an ancient-looking house in Grindon Chare» 
traditionally called tlie chapel of St. John, and strongly built 
of stone, and vaulted ; it ia .supposed to have been their con- 
vent. There was also a chapel below the Ousebtirni in the 
parish of All-Saints, dedicated to St, LawTcnce, and founded 
by one of the Percys, which is said to have been dependent 

• HtiL p* 151. t MonasL Angl, 11. 474. Tram. p. 170. 



m the priory of St, John of Jerusalem. This chapel and its 
fmaemons were granted, in 1 54*9, to the corporation* 

A grant was also obtained, in 136Kfor founding here a fra* 
lemity in honour of the nativity and resurrection of our Lord ; 
' but it was repealed in the following year. Authority, too, was 
I ^veUt in 1104, for founding a gutld, or fraternity, in honour of 
^ Sl John the Baptist and St. John the Apostle ; but its history 
^ is Tcry obscure. 

Near Barras bridge, there are remains of a chapet, dedicated 
^ to Su James, and supposed to have had connection with ' the 
' laser-house neighe adjoining/ One of the Earls of Northum« 
^bcrland founded a chapel in honour of St* Lawrence, some 
part of the ruins of which, may still be seen on St* Lawrence** 
I quay. It was valued at sixty shillings a year, and granted to 
I the corporation by Edward the Sixth. There was also, before 
[ the dissolution, a chapel, or oratory, in one of the towers of 
^ Newcastle bridge ; and in another part of it a hermitage, te- 
nanted by a recluse, who was one of the thirty priests to 
whom Roger Thornton^ by will, gave six marks a year, for 
ftnging masses for hus soul* 

Newcastle ie supposed to liave anciently been contained within 
the parish of Gosforth. At present the churches and chapek 
within it, as well as the chapels of Gosforth and Craronngtonj 
are tubject to the mother church of St. Nicholas. The respec- 
tive limits of the four parishes, into w^hich the town is divided, 
^ were marked out in 12^0 : in 180], they contained 5276 houses, 
and 28,924 inhabitants; and in ISl 1 , there were, in the same dis- 
I irtct, 314^ houses, ilihabited hy6i61 families, and 27,587 persons, 
llie church of St* Nicholas was founded by St, Ossmundt 
Bisbop of Salisbu^, in the time of the Conqueror, Henry the 
Fim granted it to the canons of St, Mary^ Carlisle ; and Hugh 
PudKy confirmed the grant, rest?rvjng all fruit?, ohlation^i, S:l\ 
except the great tythes, to the vicar. It was burnt down in 
1216* Its revenues in 1296, amounted to 1051. lis. 8d.; of 
rhjch S8L 1 3s. ^d. was paid to its rector, the Bishop of Carlisle : 

E I the 


the like sum to the prior of Carlisle, 81. to the prior of Tyne-^ 
mouth, and 201. 5s. to iu vicar, who had to deduct from I ui 
portion a pension of thirteen marks to his rector. The siruc 
^ lure, ns it stands at present, is supposed to have been r^^^d in 
^1359. On like suppression of the priorv, and the cxeattOD of 
v^hc dean and chapter of Carlisle, by Henry tho EigUtbp 
rnoiety of the rectory of Newcastle was given to that institution,! 
The furniture of this church being in exceeding bad repair a 
•large sum was raided by voluntary contribution, in 17J53, to de- 
fray the expence of fitting up the cliancel with pew5. TliisI 
alteration was necessary : hut as IMr. Brand observes, tire anti- 
. fjuary must for ever lament the havoc made on this occasion 
,among tlie funeral monmneuts. The porch of St. Mary is hand* 
[ , somely fitted up with oak stall^s, and till lately was used at ma^l 
^tins* St. George's porch, in which the festival of that saint wai] 
^^celebratedf in 161 7» was repaired %b out a century ago by the 
corporation. There were nine or ten oratories here, the united 
revenues of which, at the dissolution, were valued at 4-^1* 4&. 6d. 
a year. The assizes for Northumberland were held here in 1810 
and 1811. 

The steeple of this church is very lolly, and its top, which 111 
built in tlie form of an imperial crown, in a work of adinirabla J 
lightness and elegance. Its arches and knotted pinnacles 
every direction arc thrown into hnes of great delicacy ; "and, at ' 
four points of view, tlie light through its centre assumes the forpa 
of a well-proportioned w heat-sheaf. Thi^ purt h supposed In have 
been added in the time of Henry the Sixth; but its history is 
very obscure. Tliere is a tradition, ttiat during the siege la 
164K the Scottish general tlireatened to demohsh this steeple^" 
unless the keys of the town were iinniediately surrendered. 
The mayor ordered the chief of the Scotch pmoners in the j 
town to he taken to the top of it, and then replied, " our ene- 
mies shall either preserve it or be buried in its ruins." This 
answer had the desired elFcct. 
John CouMnS| an aldernian of Newcastle^ in 166 1» be- 



ijucathed sixty folios and forty quartos to the library of this 
dturdu In a rcwm calkd tliu old library there arc several 
aiued booksi covered with dust, ami in wTetclied repair; 
QOBg&t which is the bible of Hexliam abbey, beautifully ill^- 
minated^ and upwards of 60*) yeats old, with a few other uiaiui- 
scripts. In 1763, Widur Blackett, Euq. built a library against 
llie south wall of the chancel, to contain the Iwoks of tiie Uev, 
Dr. Tomlinson, and other benefactors* This colkctiav la every 
day open to the public. It is large and valuable, and super* 
intended by a librarian, who hai» a e>alary of t25l. a year. 

** In tJ»e north part of thi« church,** says Grey, ** la a shrine 
of Henry, the Fourth Percy Earlc of Nortliumberland, who w^a§ 
killed by the hands of the rebels, in Yorkshire, gutlierii>g up a 
iubsidy; be was buried at Beverly, and this made in memory of 
lain in liis owne couatrey, he having a house in this towne^ and 
Ji, aiid other noblemen and gentry in tliose days. ' Ornic^fO 
ima Hcitrki Perctf k Northtmbria\ qui per Rehcllium manus 
Gunhiii^ See J" This, with many other funeral monuments, 
ma destroyed by the alterations made iu pewiug the chancel in 
ITS3 ; they have, however, been replaced by several elegant 
productions of art, erected to the memory of North uralierland 
^Tlie origin of the Ciiaptl of Ht, Thomas h BickHi^ at the 
fidge-cnd, i» unknown. It existed in 1218. It had two chan- 
m it* By charter of James the Firj^t it was incorporated 
With tlie hospital of St. Mary MagduJen ; aud in 17^'i, it was 
repaired, and fitted up, as a chapel of ease to St. Nicholas. ** In 
^% tli<^ outside of it was hewn over, and a new steeple built, 
the old one being taken da\^ n to make the passage on to the 
bridge more spaeio us/ * * 

Sf. Andrrxv^s Church lias so wdl escaped the ravages of 
timr, war, and fanaticism, as to retain much of its original ma- 
•onry. The chancel arch is semicircular and ornamented with 
iig-xag work, in the Norman st}k\ Tliis church is mentioned 

• Account of Newca&Oe, in irsr, p> 15. 



in the TjTianouth chartulary, under the year 1219; and Bouroe 
8uppOfi€8 it was founded by the tovmsmen and religious houses. 
There were three chantries in it before the reformation. The 
chantry dedicated to the Holy Trinity was probably founded 
by Sir Adam de Athol, who was sherifi* of Northumberland in 
1S8S, and was buried in this place under a stone, bearing this 
^inscription: "Hie jacent donunus Adamarus de Atholl milea 
et domina Maria uxor ejus quae oblit quarto ded mo die mensis 

* — anno domini millesimo tricentesJmo -Animarum propi* 

tietur.** The altar-pieccg a high effort of the pencil of Luca 
Crkmlana, was presented by Major Anderson* 

The date and founder of St, John*s Vhiirch are unknown. 
ill exiited in 1286. Though it* walls are strongly marked by 
• the hand of time, its architecture evinces no high antiquity* 
Its windows, and especially the great eastern window, abound 
with curious specimens of painted glass* It had one chantry 
dedicated to St* Thomas the Martyr, a second to the Virgin 
Mary, and a third to the Holy Trinity. — '* This," says Grey, 
** is a pretty little church, commciided by an archprelate of this 
kingdome, because it resembkih much a cross." The wooden 
spout down which the dove on the day of Pentecost was let 
to represent the descent of the Holy Ghost, remained here in 
the beginning of last century. In the cemetry here is a stone 
inscribed as follows :^ 

'* Here liei the remains of Joliu Cunningham. Of bb excellence m a 
pastoral poet, hit works will remain a mcmnmeut for agci, aficr lhi« trm- 
porai^* tribute of ettcefn ia in dust forgotten* He died at Newcaatle, Sept. 
18, 177.S, aged 44." 

AH-Sainis* Church* — ** I met with an account of the 
churchyard of All-Hallows, in 1286, which is a plain proof 
that the church was then in being."* The date of its founda- 
tion is, however, extremely uncertain, and its records are few, 
and no way curious. It had seven chantries at the dissolution. 
The old building was 167 feet long, and 77 feet wide. Ita 

• Bouruep p, 88* 





vhancel was built upon a square and spacious crypt, supported 
by one pillar id the centre, and had been lighted by windowg, 
which, when Mr. Brand visited it, in 1783, w ere walled up and 
greatly below the level of the floor of the late church. Its bells 
were cast In 1696, out of an equestrian statue of James the Se« 
cond, which stood upon SandliiU. ** This statue was the work 
rf Mr. William Larson, was approved of by Sir Christopher 
WreOt *od cost the town 8001, It was throtvn into the Tyne 
bj the mob, in 1688. 

The present structure was built by authority of an act of par* 
liament, passed in 1 783, and afler a design of Mr. Stephenson, 
architect. It is in truth a most magniiiccnt edifice. Its form 
is circular, and its pew a and galleries all of mahogany. The 
portico on the south is adorned with five Ionic columns ; and the 
Bpire is lolly and elegant. It must, however, be confessed that 
tikis style of architecture is unsuitable to houses dedicated to 
rdigtous purposes ; and that it shrinks into insignificance, when 
compared witli the solemn regularity and granducr of the Gothic 
style- The whole expence of rebuilding this church is said to 
have exceeded 27»000h 

The Chapel of >St, Anne^ which is dependent upon All- 
Saints* church, was neglected for several years afler the re- 
fitroiation ; but repaired by tlie town in J 682. The present 
degasit structure was built by Mr. Newton, at tlie expence of 
the corporation, and consecrated in 1768. 

Tlic houses of religious assembly for dissenters are more rc- 
mariiablo for their number than for splendour of establishment, 
tntiquity, or beautiful architecture* Witliin the limits of this 
town there are two Roman Catholic chapels ; six meeting-houses 
for presbyterians, in communion with the church of Scotland; 
the burghers, the anti-burgliers, the Calvinistic baptists, and 
the independents, each have one. The Weslean metliodists 
have their orphan-house, and their Ebeuizer : and the new 
cooncctJODf or KiibamiteSi assemble at Bethel^ in Manor Chare, 



The house of the Uiiitarians is in Hanover Square, and has m I 
library^ There is also a small congregation of Glassites* 

The Grammar *8chool was founded by Thouia* Horsley^ wha 
was mayor of NewenstJe in 1525. Queen Ehzabetli rcfoundcd 
it in 1 599. Its master has usually been ap|iotnled to the mas«^ i 
tership of St. Mary'^ HospitaJ, the preniisen of which, since tlie' 
refoundation, have been converted into school-rooms and dwel* 
lings for the masters of this institution. Bishop Tlidiej^ the mar- 
tyr, Colonel Lilbuniej Mr, Hori^lcy, autlior of Uie Britannia Ho^ . 
mana, and Dr, Akenside, were scholars here ; Mr. Dawes, the 
fiuthor of Miscellanea Critica, wan master from 1738 lo 1750L ] 
Lords CoUingwood and Eldon, Sir William Scott, and several 
other di^tinguiiibed cliaracters received the rudiments of their ] 
education here, under the Reverend Hugh Moises, This valua* 
ble man died in 1806, aged eighty-five^ A monument finely 9%*^ 
ei'Uted by Flaxman, at theexpence of several of hig pupils^ audi 
the corporation of Newcastle, has been erected to his memory 
in St, Nicholas' church. 

The town is well provided witli institutions for instructing the I 
children of the poor. Each of the four churches has a charity 
«chooh hberally endowed. Tliere is another attached to the cha- 
pel of St. Anne ; and the Sunday schools are nearly as nume- 
rous us the several places of religious worship. A very hand- 
some and capacious structure was also erected in 1810, for the 
general reception of poor children of all sects and denomina^ 
tionn, to be educated on the mctliod of ^Ir. Lancaster. It waa 
built to commemorate his Majesty's entry into the hflieth yenr 
of his reign, and therefore named the Rot/ai Jtdniee SchooL 

The Iniirniary stands on the west side of the town and over* 
looks the Tyne, This charity was first established in 1731, and 
the edifice commenced in the same and finished in the ensuing 
year. Its situation, prospect, and external plan of architecture, 
were well chosen, but its wards were large and crowded, and the 
whole house badiy ventilated. These iuconveniencce were re- 



pnmvted to the public in IBOl, and bernefactionfl, amounting to 
liearSOOOL were procured to remove tbein. In 1803, thi* neces- 
9»y additions and improvements were completed. The revenue* 
of tlie institution partly arise from funded property, but chiefly 
from annual voluntary contnbutiuns. '* From April the firal 
1809* to March thirty-one, 1810, it restored, under the bles- 
mbg of Providence, to their friends and the community, 1117 
poor pcfBODS, vrboUy freed from their respective complaints. la 
tldi institution, since lU commencement to the present tmm^ 
4§,712 cures have been performed ; and it is matter of 8atisfiM> 
Ittrjr reflection, that the cures, during each of the years from 
1803 inclusive, have been, fortunately, in progressive increaae/' 
Id the governor*a room is a very fine full lengtli portrait of Sir 
Walter Blackett, by Re}^oldB ; one of Matthew Ridley, Esq. 
by Webb ; one of Dr. Butler, Bishop of Durham ; and one of 
Dr. Bemion, Bishop of Gloucester ; all of whom were great be- 
nc&ctors to the charity. 

A DUpauar^ was established in Pilgrim Street, in this 
town, 1777- It has since been removed into Low-triar Street, 
where a suitable building has been purchased, and iitted up by 
the goYemors of the institution* *• In 1801, there were ad- 
miUcd to the benefits of this charity, four hundred and twenty- 
five persons afflicted with fevers. The hardest in 1 800 was late, 
the grain and potatoes damaged, and theretbre Uie food of the 
poor was not only scanty, but afforded little nutriment. The 
fever, however, was tractable, and from the exertion of this cha- 
rity few died.** In 1810 it appeared, that " 56,285 had been 
admitted to the benefit of the dispensary, of whom 52,572 had 
taeti cured^" Vaccination is performed liere gratis to the poor. 

Ifllien the Infirmary was enlarged, an attempt was made to fit 
up a part of it iovjever wdfts, but this was over-ruled ; and, in 
13(H, a Homeoi Recox^rt^ was built, near the west gate, by. vo- 
Imtary subscription. It was instituted for the cure and preven- 
tiao of contagious diseases, and has its medical establL^lunent 



from tlie dispensary. " Fifteen patienta were admitted into t!i» 
hospital in ISOOi and those mostly taken out of numerous &- 
milies ill the close and crouded parts of the town.*' ♦ 

Dr. Hdl, an eminent physician in this town, soxiie yean since 
erected, on the outside of the West Gate, a set of very handsome 
baths. Their design was furnished by Win* Craneson, architect. 
Considerable medical skill has been employed here in tlie appll* 
cation of the gaseous fluids ; and we imagine we see the com* 
fort and elegance of the Roman age revived in the use of the 
vapour, hot, and tepid battis, the swimming hasiiu, and the 
cold enclosed baths of these edifices. They are situated in a 
garden very tastefully laid out ; the wsklka fringed ivitli curious 
shrubs ; and the whole somewhat in the style of the baths, the 
younger Pliny had in his pleasure grounds. 

Hospitals.— The hoispital of Holy JesuaJ, usually called the 
FVeemen's hospital, is situated in the Manors, and was founded, 
erected, and endowed, at the charge of the corporation, A* D* 
168L Its founders laid out 50CX)L of its property in purchasing 
the Walker estate, in the parish of Longbenton. It consists of 
a master and forty-one brethren, or sisterf, being freemen, or 
widows of freemen, or unmarried sons and daughters of free- 
men. Contiguous to this is the hospital of Mrs. Anne Davison, 
founded in 1725, for a governor and five sisters, to be widows 
of clergymen, merchants, or freemen of Newcastle ; also the 
hospital of Sir Walter Blackett, for f^'ix poor unmarried bur- 
gesses, endowed by its founder with 1200L ; and the hospital of 
Thomas Davison of Fcrryhill, in the county of Durham, Esq* 
founded for six unmarried women, daughters or widows of bur- 
gesses. The edifices of these three charities were built at ll»e 
charge of the corporation, in 1754-, in w^hich year the two last 
were founded. By a resolution of the common council at the 
guild, January the fourteen, 1811, it was ordered that the sixty 
poor members in these hospitals should, in future, receive twa 

• KepoTt tlie ?i\llr, 


hundred a month. The Keelman*6 Hospital^ hmit at their own 
charge^ A. D. 1701, contains a great hall and fifty-two other 
roomi, and cost upwards of 2000). It is an institution much iu 
the nature of a benefit society. Iti revenues are levied upon the 
earnings of its members. After many ineiFectual attempts to 
lay it under wholesome and practical regulations, an act of par- 
liament was obtained, In 1788, by which its funds should in fu* 
ture be managed. It was remarked by Dn Moor, Bishop of 
£ly, " that he had heard of, and seen many hospitals the 
works of rich men, but this was the hrst he ever saw or heard 
oft which had been built by the poor." * 

Besides these should be enumerated the Lying-in Hospital, 
fbundedin Roaemary Lane in 1760» and liberally supported bj 
voluntary subscription* And a similar institution begun in the 
fbllowing year for the poor lying-in women at tlieir own houses, 
in Newcastle and Gateshead. The Society for the relief of the 
firicndless poor was commenced, in 1797, and has its meetings at 
the baptist chapel, Tuthil*&tair$. The Asylum for lunatics, be- 
longing to the counties of Durham, Newcastle, and Noi thum- 
beriand, is in an airy and retired situation, and is a handsome 
and spacious building. In digging its foundation in 1765, a 
braia teal, inscribed ' Vis et Deus noster', was discovered ; and 
the field in which it is built is remarkable for its deep intrench- 
inents and breastworks, from which it probably derived the name 
of the Warden's Close, and which, as we have elsewhere liinted, 
mum to have been a part of the ancient fortifications of tlie town. 

In Leland's time, " a square haul place of the townc'* stood 
upon Sandhill. Tlte present Exchange and Town-Court were fi- 
Qiahed in 1658* Robert Trollop, of York, was the architect of 
thii atructure. He agreed to build it for 20001 ;t but Bourne 
informed that it cost above 10,0001. of which Alderman 
Weymouth gave, by will, 12001. and the corporation contributed 
tlie rest. It has undergone many external aUerations since that 
time^ e^cially in having its fronts cased with freestone, and its 

* Boumei p« 15K t Braad I, ^0* 

M^ NOBTinnkrBEitr.AyD. 

If oof covered witti bJue slate. In 1785, and for several reasons 
after, a pair of crows built their nest and reared tlieir youngs ^ 
ariiong the spikes of a weatli<?rcoek upon the steeple of this 
[building* It« lower story iig occupied by offices of the town- 
Iclcrky the merchants' coffee-room, and the piazzas of the Ex- 
I change. At tlie foot of the stair-case i& a bronze statue of 
[Charles the Second, in a Roman liabrt. On the second floor 
the Town-Couti, or Guildhall, the mayor's chamber, the 
ttcrc!iant*s court, the revenue office, and the archives of the 
*toim. The assizes, quarter-sessions, and other courts of the 
town and county of Newcastle arc held in the Guildhall, the 
I fl#or of which is laid witli black and white marble, and its walls 
I omamented witli full length portraits of Charles tlie Second 
and Jiimes the Second ; as also one of George the Tlnrd, paint- 
I ed by Ramsay, in 1T60. Tlie merchant's court is over a part 
I of Thornton's tlospita) : it is a spacious room, and has a very 
curious and noble chimney-piece, of carved oak. Tlie common 
cx>unci1 is held, and the daily business of the magistracy is 
transacted, in the mayor's chamber ; in which is to be seen an 
engine, called tl»e branks, and concerning winch Is the follow- 
ing remarkable anecdote in Gardener's England's Grievances« 
printed in 1 655 : — 

"John Willis, of Ipswldi, upon his oath, said that he, this 
deponent, was in Newcastle, six months ago, and there he saw 
one Anne Bidlestone drove through the streets, by an officer of 
the corporation, holding a rope in his hand, the other end 
fastened to an engine, called tlie branks, which is like a crown, 
jt being of iron, w^hich was musled over the head and face, with 
a great gap,* or tongue, of iron, forced into her mouth, which 
forced the blood out ; and that is the punishment which the 
magistrates do inflict upon chiding and scolding women, and 
that he liatli often seen the like done upon others*'* f This 
punishment is still applied to scolds that presume to exercise 
their taleat in exajninations or trials before the magistrates. 

«Lcgc,fffl^. t Page 17. 


Tile Mansion-house was rebuilt in 1691> at the cost of 600(^. 
beudes the furniture. "It U a building, saja Bourne, grand 
aad stately ; and, considering the place it stands in, is very 
ornamentaL*' The saloon it furnished witli halberts, and other 
kinds of armour, and the whole of the interior fitted up in ft 
m&nner suitable for the dwelling of the chief magistrate of this 
opulent corporation. Among other allowances, the mayor has 
a state-coach, a bai^, coals for the tnanision-house, and 1 30(A, 
a*year towards expenees in house-keeping. Great hospitality 
k kept up in this house through the whole of the year, and the 
judges of assi^ and their attendants are lodged and enter- 
tained in it, during their sessions ; at which, if no criminal be 
capitally convicted, they are each of them presented, by the 
mayor^ according to ancient custom, with a pair of white gloves. 
It if uncertain at what time the " guild or fraternity of tho 
blened Trinity** were licensed. They purchased the site of 
their present house in 1492: and in 1505 ordered that a haJl» 
chapel* and lodgings for their poor brethren, should be erected 
upon it at their common expence. Some privileges were pro* 
bably granted them in 1530, for under that year, in their book 
of expenees, are these entries ; "for ray lorde admyrall seyll, 
toftj six shillings and eight-pence ; for sygnet and prevye seyll^ 
four pounds six shillings and eight-pence ; to kynge's grayce 
for tiie great seayll, eight pounds two shillings." They had 
diaiters granted them by Henry the Eighth, Queen Elizabeth^ 
Jttiies the Firsts Charles the Second, and James the Second. 
Tlie charter pf Henry the Eighth represents them as incorpo- 
nted for the encouragement of the art of navigation, and with 
liceme to build and embattle two towers, one at the mouth of 
the haven of Tyne, the other on the adjoining hill, in which 
lights were to be kept every night, and fourpence to be paid to 
them by ev^ry foreign ship, and twopence by every English 
•h^ that entered the port. The other charters, though they 
altered the private regulationa of the society, concerning the 
Vol. XIL F choice 


choice of a master, the nomber of their irardens, &c. and en- 
larged their marine jurisdiction, in no degree infringed upon the 
main intentions of the first. Within the circuit of their pre- 
mises they have a free school, erected in 1712, for the instruc- 
tion of the children of their brethren in writing and mathe- 
matics, llieir chapel was fitted up in its present neat style- in 
1634. They have rooms for eight poor brethren, and twelve 
widows, who, with several other of their own poor, have com- 
fortable allowances from their funds. 

The first account we have found of a * cockettum,* or cus- 
tom-house, in this town, is in 1*281, when a duty of six shillings 
and eightpence was charged upon ^500 wooled skins ; the same 
sum upon a sack of wool ; and thirteen shillings and four pence 
upon a last of leather.* Hoberi HhodeSt a great benefactor to 
tlie churches of Newcastle, was appointed to tlie office of 
** countrouller de« custumes et subsidies le roi en le port de 
Novel Castell eur Tyne/' in M'4-O.t In Queen Elizabeth's 
time ** the customer here had a fee of sixteen poundj^ thirteen 
shillings and fourpence, and a reward of twenty-six poundjb 
thirteen shillings and fourpencr per annum; the controler, fee 
four pounds, reward ten pounds ; weighters, four pounds, re- 
ward among them, four pounds.^ 

There was an act of parliament, fourteenll^ George the Third, 
to enable Dr* Fawcet, Vicar of Newcastle, to grant a lease of a 
part of the vicarage garden, for 999 years, and on a rent of 
twenty pounds a year, for the purpose of building a Home ofAs* 
nembly upon. The structure was raised from a design and under 
the direction of Mr, Newton, architect, in 1776, and cost 6701 K 
The rooms ore said to be the most elegant and commodious of 
the kind of any in the kingdom, except those in Bath* There 
is a large and very good picture of Sir John Falstaff and Mrs. 
Ford, by Downman, in the tea-room. Part of the lower rooms 

* Maitox's HiAt. of the Excln ]>. 634. t Bourne^ p. Sin 

; IVck's Desitlrtata Cirriosa^ VoL L lib, ii* anno 173?. 

are \tted as a coffee-house, which is furnished with a Ubrar^'^ 
cottbting of works on political economy, and other gubjecti 
bie to the situationi 
The Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle was in- 
•tituted in 1793» Its tirst meetings were in a room in 8t. Ni- 
cholas' churchyard- While it propofied the discussion of the 
several branches of polite hterature, its Jeading objects appear 
to have been the investigation of the situation and properties of 
the mineral productions of this neighbourhood,^ atid the elucida- 
tion of the sciences applicable to commerce. Its hbrary wai 
eommenced in 1795> and three years after the whole of its pro- 
perty was removed to the old assembly rooms in the Groat 
Market, of which the society procured a lease. It is governed 
by a president, four vice-presidents, two secretaries, and eight 
comndttee-men, all of whom are annually chosen out of its 
ordinary members^ and vested witli the management of its fundb 
Out of its honorary members four are aUowed the priviJeges of 
ordtnar)' ones. Ladies are admitted to the use of the library » 
bat cannot attend general meetings, or vote in the choice of 
iiienil>eT8. The annual payment to it is a guinea, and its re- 
ireoues are upwards of 5251. a year. In 1802, a kindred branch, 
called the New Institution^ was engrafted upon it, and a part 
of its funds appropriated to the maintenance of that meretorious 
estidilishment^ which consists of a permanent lectureship on the 
peverul branches of natural and experimental philosophy, che- 
mistry, flrc; and for which a large and very valuable apparatus 
luis been purchased* 

The old Play-Home was built in 1T4B, upon a part of the 
I of St, Bartholomew's churchy and has lately been occupied 
m a concert-room, The Theatre Royal originated at the time 
that MosJey and Dean Streets ^ ere buiJt, nnd wa^ opened by the 
authority of an act of parliament in 17S8, It was built by Mr. 
phenson, and is estcremed a handtiome and commodious edi- 
ce, by tlie lovers of the drama. 
Amidst the broils and insecurity of the feudal ages, many of 
F 2 the 


the Korthumbrian barons foimd it necessary to have i 
within the strong walb of Kewca«tJe. Few vestiges, bcfwever^ 
remain at present to point out their situatton Of t]i£trgraiidear«i 
The Earl of NorthumherlantPi haiae was in the Cloie. It i 
that, says Bourne, which has aa its entrance a great ga^ i 
a large round ball of atone ; and in Uie lower part of it, towi 
the river, shews manifest signs of antiquity. Botbeck Hall, a 
it was called af^r Ralph Nevil was created an eari, We$i* 
.moreland Pkce^ is situate in We^tgate Street, nearly < 
CoUingwood Street l*hough the building upon its dte 
ancle Dt appearancei nothing of the original stnictore i 
except a remarkable wall, about eight feet broad, which ] 
the garden. This wall has been converted into a terrace : under | 
it is a vaulted passage, made of very old bricks^, and leading w? 
Nevil Tower. Lord Scrape had a house in Pilgrim Street. The 
Scotch Arms^ near Nun Gate, is traditionally held to have been 
the lodgings of the kings and nobility of Scotland, in ttmei of 
truce with England. ''It ia an ancient building, with a bu^ 
gate, and has been a piece of stately workmanship.**^ There ^ 
an inn in Pilgrim Street^ at which the devotees, in their vi 
to the shrine of St. Mary, at Jesmond, are said to have lodged*^ 
Near the head of tliis street is also a noble mansion, bulk In 
1 580, by Robert Anderson, out of the ofBces, and nearly upOflli 
the site of the Franciscan Priory. V\' e take it to have been i 
kinsman of dm gentleman, who is recorded to have dropped 
his ring over Newcastle bridge, and whose servant purchased \ 
aalmon some short time after, in which the same ring 
found, f This circumstance happened about 1559. The ring 
is still in this family of Andersons, and has a fish engraven 
under the signet, the stone of which, Mr. Brand supposed to 
be a Roman antique. Sir Francis Anderson, Knight, con* 
veyed this mansion, in 1675, to Sir William Blackett, of Mal- 

• Bourne, p. 51. 

tSe« a Minitar tak in Littl«bar> s Hcroditttf, Vol, I. p, tTti and n 
CollicfB Diclioaar>'i iioder Kentif em. 



fen. Baronet, who added the two wings to it. It came into 
the possession of Sir Walter Blackett by his marriage wiUi 
the grand-daughter of Sir William, and in 17SS was sold to 
Mr. George Anderson^ whose son. Major Anderson, by reason 
of its being at two distant periods in the possession of two fami- 
lies of the same name, has styled it Anderson Place* Grey 
calla it a princely building ; and ** indeed,*' gays Bourne, '* it 
» no less than very stately and magnificent, being supposed 
the most so of any house in the whole kingdom, within a 
walled town. It is surrounded by a vast quantity of ground ; 
thftt part of it which faces the street is thrown into walks and 
gran plats, beautified with images, and beset with trees, which 
i£>rd a very pleasing shade r tlie other part of the ground, on 
the west side of it, is all a garden, exceedingly neat and curious, 
adorned with many and the most beautiful statues^ and se- 
veral other cariosities." The statues have been removed ; but 
the rest of this description is still, in a measure, applicable to 
the place* A subterraneous passage, pointing towards the 
ManorSf was discovered iji the garden here a few years since, 
and ooillf of Edward the Third and Henry the Fourtli taken out 
of it. The parents of Durant, the colleague of Cuthbert Syden- 
ham • in the lectureship of St. Nicholas, were buried in the 
garden here, as appears from a marble tombstone remaining 
10 the stable-yard* This house also is remarkable for being 
the head-quarters of General Levin during the captivity of 
King Charles in Newcastle. That monarch is said to have 
entered the town guarded by 300 Scottish horsemen, those near 
hhn bare-h«aded. He passed throLigh a lane of pikes and 
muskets from Gateshead to the general's quarters. He wrt<t 
caressed with bonefires, peals of ordnance, and other marks of 
rejotctng: and, according to his own confession, was no where 
treated with more honour than here. Himinelf and train had 
liberty to go abroad every day, and to play at ^olf in the Shield 
Field^ without the walls, till a design for hm i^cape was dis- 
F S covered, 

• Ser Wood'f Afh^ttir. VM. Up j:o. 


covered, which occasioned stricter orders to be sent down 
respecting his person.* There is a traditional account, that 
he attempted his escape by a fiub terraneous passage from a 
cellar in this house to the Lortburn, but that he could not 
effect the opening of an iron door at the outlet of this pa 
but tales respecting these under-ground ways are seldom 
listened to. Soon after the king's arrival at Newcastle, 
Scotch minister preached very boldly before him ; and wheii" 
hk semion was done, called for the lifly-second psalm, whic 
begins — 

Why dost thoitt tyrant^ booAl lliyself, 
Tliy wicked wurk» to praise ? 

Whereupon his majesty stood up, and called for tlie fifty-six 
pBalm, which begins — 

Have mercy, Lord, on me, I pray. 
For men would roc devour. 

The people waved the minister's psalm, and sung that whicli 
the king called for,f The king liaviiig an antipathy to tobacco, 
was much disturbed by their bold and continual smoking in bis 
presence.^ When the news reached him of the ill success of 
hfsarmy in Scotland he took no notice of it» but continued in 
t game of chess, as cheerful as before. 

From the time of William Rufus to the reign of King Jame 
th»!» town was constantly gathering an accumulation of power. 
Rufus gave to its inhabitants 

^rouptl and goJd ful great to spend, 

To bnllde it w<^ll, and wall it all *iboute, 
AitdfruunehUed theim to pay a/m- rcnU oat 

Henry the First and his successor exempted it from various 
dens ; and John, after raising its * antient fee ferm' from fifty 

*^> 4 

• Bourne, p. fS5. Brand, VoK IL p. 471. 

t Wliiilock's Memoit»>, p, 256, 
t iJotirnp, ut sup. Burnett*! Hume of Hamikoo, p» 306. 

■ m\\ 


to doe hundred pounds a year, enlarged itf privileges* Its first 

officers werebailif&» to whom a mayor wiis added in 1251. In 

1400 tt was consLituted a county of itself, and the direction of 

it entrusted to Roger Thornton, mayor, William RedmaxshalJ, 

itf first sheriff, and, instead of the four bailiffs, six aldermen, 

who were vested with the power of justices of the peace. A 

recorder, eight ch amber liiintj, two coroners, a sword-bearer, a 

common -clerk^ and eight Serjeants of mace, were added in 

151 Q- The aldermen were increased to ten in 1557, and the 

twenty -four electors, who were to be equally chosen Irom the 

twelve crafts of the town, were made a common-council. The 

great charter of Elizabeth ordains, that the mayor, the ten 

aldermen, and recorder, should be jointly and severally keepers 

of the peace within the town ; and that the common^council 

should consist of the mayor, aldermen, and twenty-four other 

burgesses. It was, however, the charter of James that finally 

and solidly established to this opulent body its large immunities: 

Uiat fully defined the time and manner of electing Its mayor, 

sheriff, chamberlains, &c, the duration and offices of electors 

ind fddermen ; and that clearly pointed out the nature and 

extent of the jurisdiction of its magistrates, the privileges of 

the freemen, and the liberties of Uxv town. This borough has 

cofitinued to send iwo fuembers to parUamctU since the year 

1283, except in the sixth and eifjhth years of Edward the 

Second, and first of Edward the Third, when the burgessei; 

omitted to send the representatives, on account of the perilous 

litoaCion tliey were placed in by the Scots. Its markets are on . 

Tuesdays and Saturdays; and its annual ^iV^ August twelfth, 

ober twenty-ninth, and November twenty-secoud, the last 

which only continues one day, and the two other nine days* 

Iti annual revenues, in 1809, amounted to 35,5011. 58. 2d. 

L«rge sums have been expended in widening the streets, and 

wrious other improvements in the town* A butcher-market, on 

ivery handsome and convenient plan, has lately been finished 

tt the expence of this body ; and we may fairly prophecy, that 

F 4 the 


the liberal md judicioua management of their purse mJH mqou 
place Newcastle on a level, in convenience, in elegance, and. 
commercial advantages, with the first towns of the Briti 

Elswick, in the parish of St. John, Newcastle, was one 
of the posftessions of Tynemonth prior)* There were collieriet 
at Hejgrove, Westfeld^ and Gallowflat, near Elswick, ia 
ISM.* Soon after the reformation, it was purchased by WO- 
liam Jenninson, Esq. in whose family it continued till the be- 
ginning of the last century, when it was sold to the grandfather 
of its present possee^or, John Hodgson, Esq. who has lately 
rebuilt the house on a large and elegant plan. Its site is higk 
and bokl, and the prospect from it, over the busy scene of the 
Tyne and the vale of Ravensworth, renders it a very interesting 
situation^ An exten&ive laboratory for coperas was commenced 
on this estate in 1808: tlic apparatus for tlie preparation of 
prusiate of iron was removed from this neighbourhood, in IS 10, 
to the south side of the river, at Heworth Shore. 

Fenham, in this parish, belonged to the Knights Templarig 
and, with the rest of ttieir property was granted by parlia»< 
ment, in i324| to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of 
Jerusalem. It was annexed to the crown at the dissolution^ 
but afterwards came to the Riddels of Swinburne Castle. 
Thomas Riddel obtmioed an act of parliament to sell it to Jahn 
Ord, attorney-at'law, in Newcastle. The mines j in this sale, 
were reserved ; but, in 1 770, sold to the Orda, in which family 
it still continues. From its east Iront is a 6ne open prospect 
of the river Tyne» to the haven of Shields, and the ruins of 
Tynemouth priory- 

Benwell, the Cofidercum of the Notltiat and the station of 
the Ala Astorum, is situated on an eminence, near two mil^ 
west of Newcastle. A stone was discovered here, in 166% 
which Baxter supposes to have been inscribed in the consul- 
ship of Senicio and Pakna ; but Horsley says,f ^* I take it to 

• Tinni. Cliartulaiyi fol. 163. BmDd. t Brit, Rom. 21?. 




have been erected to the honour of the emperort Marcus Aure- 
liuft and Licius Verus, upon occasion of some victory they had 
gained over the Northern Britonfl, by Calpurnius Agricola, 
their legate, in which thli Felix Seniclo had the command of 
the first wing of the Asti." The original is partly obliterated.* 
Sereral other inscriptions have been found here, the most re- 
oarkable of which is a fine altar, dedicated to Jupiter Dolt* 
chentiA, a deity worshipped by miners.f It was lately pur- 
chased, with the rest of Mr. Brand's collection of Roman an* 
tiqujttes, by the Rev, Charles Thorpe, and is at pretent in the 
lodl of the rectory of Ryton. The inscription^ though partly 
injured, is in the same state as it was in Horsley's time, who 
read it in ihls manner : — 

J4»vt Optimo maiximo Dulkheno et uuminbui AiigitKti pro statute impe* 
mmtom Gssarii Titi JElii Hadriani Antonini Augiuti Pil patri« patrae et 
tef;t<siiii secnnds Auguste Marcus Libumiiis Froiito centuHo Icgtooii ejtu* 

SiBce Horsley's time, coins of Trajan, Hadrian, and several 

otlier emperors, have been found here ; five inscriptions, but 

none of them of much interest; a great conduit, made of large 

liewn atones ; also, in 1752, a hypocaustum, about 300 yards 

aouth-west of the station, and of which an accurate drawing, 

taken at the time by Robert Shaftoe, Esq. is given in Mr* 

Brand's History of Newcastle,}: The fine urn in the library at 

Durham came from hence. The foundations of an exploratory 

tower were found opposite the second milestone. An iron rail- 

wty was made through the north side of the station in 181 0» 


• Baxter's reading :— Victoria qiiind*?cimap cohortit Gilbram feccntnt 
trjii^ Konto ^enodone eomnl^, feU\ aU L Afltomm multii prwilta. 
Hon1f^*t reading : — Victortsp Au^^tittoruin nosiromm fecit nepoi So«i} 
ItiecuMin consulis Felix al^ primo! A^tortun pi j^fectus, 

t Vide Reinesii Symt. fuse. Ant. p. 4iiftm. 

t Vol* L p, 607. Bovme, p. Hi. coibi. WaUis, Val. I* p« 17f, 
FhU. Tran. No. 130. 

7* horthumeehlaku* 

which laid bare a part of its wall«» and the fouiidationi of ««- 
▼era! buildings. 

A coal mine, near this place, took fire at a candle, in the 
beginning of last century, and burned near thirty yeanu Its 
progress was small at first ; but it afterguards acquired so great 
fitretigth, a5 to ^spread into the Fenham grounds^ and burst out 
in the manner of a volcano, in near twenty places. It covered 
the furze in its way with flowers of sulphur, and cast up pieces 
of sal-ammoniac six inches broad* 

Jn 1272 Richard de Ben well held one moiety of the villa 
of Benwell, and Robert de Whitchester and Henry Dtlaval 
the othi^r, by sendee of each a fourth part of a knight's fee, 
of the barony of Bolbeck* The Delavals had possessions here 
in 1435. " The old tower of Benwell was the place where the 
prior of Tynemouth had his summer's residence, and the cha- 
pel which Mr. Shaftoe opens for the good of the people of his 
village, was the prioHs domestic chapel.'** The Shaftoes here 
were a branch of the Bavington family. Their mansion was 
joined to the old tower, but the whole edifice has been several 
years untenanted, and is now in ruins. The register of the' 
chapel ends in 1742; its Ibondations have been raised; and 
nothing remains to point out its site, except a few grave* 

With nettles skirted, and with moss o'crgrown. 

The village contains a few neat houses ; the ground about it ia 
very fertile ; and the view from it, over the island called the 
King's Meadows,f to Axweli Park, and the woods of Gibside, 
is truly charming. 
Jesmono, about two miles north-east of Newcastle, and in 


* fiournc; p. Its. 
f A note written in tlie time of the crnnmonwcalth, in an inteiiea? ed 
copy of Grey's Choro^rrapiiia, and in the Library at Hebburn Hall, in the 
county of Durham, says, this island was called the Kin^^'s Meadow.s, be* 
raiijc hay was procured vpon it for the kin^s hot^ea, when lie cam* to 


the parish of $L Andrews^ k said to have derived its naiiM! 
from a rood tliat stood upon a mound of earth at the entrance 
ci* Uie village. It uppertained to the barony of Gaugy, in the 
time of Henry the Third. One Hilton was possessed of a third 
part of it in 1368; and in 1383, Adam de Atijol, who founded 
the chantry of Holy Trinity, in which, himself and wife were 
buried^ in St« Andrew's church, resided in this vilhtge* A third 
part of the manor of Jessemuth, and of the advowson of the 
church there, belonged to John Styneley in the reign of Rich- 
ard tJie Second** Sir Robert Stotte came to live* here in 
]65S» and his mansion to this day^ is called Stotte's HaU» Sir 
Francis Anderson, Knight, and others, sold possessions here 

163B, to WiUiam Coulson, Esq. whose descendants resided 
Jenmmd House^ till it was sold In 1 809, to Jolm Anderson, 

. of Newcastle. Tlie //o(y Well of Jesmund, was anciently 
in liigh estimation, and hither ** witli great confluence and de- 
votion, people came from aJl parts of this ietund, to the shrine 
of the Virgin Mary.'*f The Chapel and Hmpiial^ with their 
povessions, were granted by Edward the Sixth, to tlie cor- 
pmLion o£ Newcastle, who sold them to Sir Robert Brandling, 
The chapel had been long occupied as a barn and a stable 
and the hospital has been rebuilt, and converted into a dweU 
iing house. 

HcATOK Hall, in the parish of All-Saints, Newcastle, and 
delightfolly situated upon the steep and woody banks of Onse* 
bum, is the seat of Matthew White Ridley, Esq* eldest son of 
Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart* whose father, from designs 

nished by Mr. Newton, architect, gave the building it< present 
nt appearance, by adding the two towers, and facing the 
ont with stone. This house was byilt in 171*^, about which 
time the ^mily had several extensive collieries in its neighbour- 

• Iawsoh^s M.S* U 7, ^* Jaeoba que fnii uxor Joliumb Stryndlyn obtit 
*eittU&c," £^li€ati,am* Ric. e. Fraud, I. 1 97. 
f Grey^ Cbor. trb. viii* 


hood.* There was a chapel here at which Edward the Fir«t 
attended to hear a idshop of boys perform the vespers of St* 
Nicholas.f Tradition relates that King John made this one of 
the places of his retreat. Robert de Gaugy was greatly in the 
confidence of thi^ monarch, and this village was held of his 
barony* Ruins of an old building, fortified on the north, stilJ 
carry the name of King John*s Palace, The manor of Heaton 
belonged to the Bahhingtons of Hamham for many years ; and 
wa« the ieat of Sir Henry Bnbhington in 1628. A descendant 
of this family, in a low situation, recovered a share of Heaton 
colliery in 1796, 

Near Heaton, on an elevated situation, Is the ancient vill 
of BvKER, which with its park, was held hy Nicholas de Biker,' 
in grand serjeancyt in 1234. Robert de Biker dledt seized 
of two parts of Byker and Pampedon, fifteenth of Edward the 
First. The Fercys had it in Henry the Sixth's time, and Ed- 
ward tlie Fourth granted it to his brother Clarence. Sir Ralph 
Lawaon held it in I567» and it still continues in the same 
mily. The Roman wall passed on the north side of this pj 
The mock ruins were built as ornamental objects from Heat 
HaU* The free-stone quarries here, have furnished immense quan 
titles of ashlars to Neipcastle, and the neighbouring collieries. 

GospoRTH parish formerly contained two chapels, subject 
to St, Nicholas, in Newcastle. North Gasforth chapel began 
to be disused in the early part of last century, and no vestige 
at present remains of it, but a few grave stones in its burial 
ground. The village and b<irony were held of the crown, by 
the ancient family of Surtees, from the time of Henry the First, 
to the latter end of the reign of Henry the Sixth4 At^erwards 
jt came to the Brandlings. There are no remains of this vil- 
lage. Smith Ga^rth chapel was in existence in Henry the 

• Univ. Mftgt2« VoK LXXXt p. 8t. Bourne, p. 114. 
♦ Wardrobe, Accmint of the twenty-eigbtJi ot Edward the First. 
I Twta Jc Ncvilt, p, 39f, Walli*, Vol. Ih p. t6B. 







Second's time* It has been lately rebuilt ; and is remarkablo 
for nothing but its neatness. Though the Te«U de Nevill de- 
scribes South Gosforth as in the possession of the Surtees family, 
yet firoin the &ame record, and other good authority, it appears 
to have been a member of the barony of Whalton, of which it 
was held in the time of Henry tlie Thirds by Otwel Lisle, by 
ward serrice.* The Lisles obtained it by marriage, of Robert 
Xifile to the daughter of Richard Caovil, about the year 1 170. 
This manor, and that of Coxlodge, belonged to the Lisles of Fel* 
ton, ID 1567; in which year North Gosforth, among other pos- 
iesnone, belonged to Robert Brandling, Esq. who was created a 
knight banneret, after the battle of M usselburg.f This family 
resided at Alnwick Abbey soon after the dissolution, and after- 
wards at Felling Hally in the county of Durham. Gosforth 
Hotise, the seat of C. J. Brandling, Esq. M, P* was built by 
Iiti father, from designs by Pain. Among the paintings her€^ 
•re several family portraitis, and a fine portrait of Rembrandt by 
himself. Since tlie building of this mansion the grounds around 
ire been circled with a broad girdle of wood, and their uni* 
features broken with pbntations and slieets of water. 

Cramlingtox is a village pleasantly situated on a rising 
ground. In itjs chapel is a marble slab, inscribed •• Orate pro 
antma, Thoniae Lavv.-on, generosi qui obiit 2':' die mensis Julii, 
A. B, 1469. Cujus animus propietur Deus." Adam Ribaud, 
held six ox gangs here of the barony of Gaugy ;| and the place 
bae had for tenants the families of Trewycke, Ribblesworth^ 
Hftrbottle, Hall, and Cramlington, which last, from *mall be* 
ginnings, had amassed considerable possessions heie, in 1385. 
The Lawsons obtained this pJace by marriage in the reign of 
Henry the Sixth, and have been possessors of it ever since. 

The parish Church of Long Benton is dedicated to St* Bar- 
tholomew, and, with certain lands in this pari«;h, was given by 
Sir Philip Somervilie, of Wickmore, in Staffordshire, to Baliol 


• ^mk^t K«wc. Vol, L p. 3«f. f HolL Chron. Vol H, p. 991. 

t Teit* de NevBI, p. 387. 


College, in Oxfordi for the mEuntenance of six sehokrs. Tti« 
Benton Magna, South KiLllngwonh, Walker, and the two 
Weetslctg, were manors of Roger de Merlay, Baron of Mor- 
peth^ from whom they came by regular descent to the prefient 
Earl of Carligle, who sold them, in 1 800, to the Brandlings of 
Gosforth, and Brow^as of Long Benton, The Griffiths had pos- 
sessions here in 1356 ; and hulf the ville belonged to the Thorn- 
tons of Nether Witteo, in 1429. The bas&h dike in Walker 
colliery, in tins parish, is pure stone in its centre, and on each 
side gradually falls into carbonated coaL 

Little Bekton, or Benton Parva, in Henry the Third'* 
time, was held under the baronies of Heron and Heppeh Idt^^d 
1282, it was tlio Lordship of Jeffry Scrope, of Masham, in^B 
Yorkshire, one of whose family founded the chantry of the Vir- 
gin Mary, in Long Benton church* It afterwards belonged to 
«vHalph, Lord Greystoke, and in Henry the Sixth's reign to 
William Fitz-Hugh. Thomas Bigge, Esq. by his marriage with 
a co-hdreas of John Hindmarsh, Esq* was in possesaton of 
in 1730, and the two mansion houses here are the propertjj*i 
this family. 

Wallsend, the Segedunum of the Romans, was the station of 
the first cohort of the Lergi, and has its modem name from 
tlie great stone barrier terminating here. The fort has been 
about six chains square, and the field in which it stands is called 
the Well^ or the Wall-Laws, A wall has led from the south 
end of its eastern rampart to the Tyne, on tlie brink of which 
heaps of ruins are still discernable. " The south rampart," 
says Horsley, ** has run along the brow of the hill, or at the 
head of the descent towards the river ; and the out-buildings or 
town (as appears by the hillocks of stones and rubbish) has 
•tood upon the descent open to the southern sun, and reached to 
the side of the river. All which is exactly agreeable to the rules 
the Romans seem to have almost inviolably observed in building 
their stations*** Tlie steam engines of Wallsend coDiery are 
nearly upon the site of this station. In sinking the aliaft of a 



|>it» rtry large teethe and a conduit formed of large stonee^ were 
fbund. Fragments of beautiful pottery ; immense quantities of 
bones and horns of ammafs are continually turning up ; and in- 
jtcribed stones have been built up by the incurious masons. In 
the works of the colliery.* Four centurial inscriptions, and an 
altar to Jupiter, are given in Horslcy, the originals of whicli are 
St the rectory of Ryton^ This inscription=- 

HADR .... 

MVR.COND. . . . 

HOC MAR .... 

PO!i . COSS . D . , . . 

g]?eci by Penant in his Northern Tour, is a forgery, published 
in the Newcastle Journal, August 6, 1 775. The ancient xilfage 
of Wallsendi called by Letand pagula infrequens, stood on the 
lite of the station ; the motlcm village is a mile north of it, and 
contains a few excellent houses. The Old Church dedicated to 
Holy Cross, stood very inconveniently upon the brow of a hill, 
and bad a long flight of stairs up to it. The New Church wai 
uder authority of an act of parliament, and opened in 

** I dare con6dently affirm,'* says Camden, "that Tynemouth 
in the lime of the Romans was called Tunnocellum ;" but 
Horsley, on rational grounds, placed that station at Boulne^, 
on the opposite end of the walLf Recent discoveries have, 
however, proved that the Romans had buildings here. Two 
inscriptions were found in 1785, on the north side of the castle, 
til feet below the surface, and in the foundation of an ancient 
building. They are in the possession of the London Society of 
Aatiquaries. One of them is an altar inscribed in tliis manner:— 



' Bfiiil^ Newc, Voh L p. 604. 

t Brit. Rom, pp^ lot, 109. 


which is plainly to be read ; Jtm optima nummo Mlius Rufia 
prafectus cohort is quart i^ Lingonum, This is the first nientioo 
of die Jir&i cohort of Lingones* and of the prefect MMum 
Riiftis.^ The other inscriptloci is on a tablet about twenty* 
one iDcheE square : — 







G^ruMf cumhas^ et templtini fecit Caiitn Jtditis Maximinus Le^ 
gionit iextm xHctrices ex voto. This is the most approved reading. 
The two first lines of the original are, however, much defaced, 
and, in diiierent works hnve been so variously engraveD,f m to 
make m cautious in adopting the barbarous triads ^jrrum, 
cumbas, et templuni. Brand supposed that gyrum meant * a 
circular harbour for tlie shipping;' and, that the word referred 
to Prior*s Havens adjoining to this place, and which, in hii 
opinion, had all the appearance of having been one of the 
artificial harbours of the Romans : but Gough endeavours to 
prove that the word has no such meaning. The other readingft. 
proposed for the first line are, Cippum cum basi^ and Publicum 
civicum hasiliatm* Perhaps the Maximinus here mentioned 
waa that gigantic favourite of Severus, who, from a commoii 
soldier was made a centurion^ then a tribune, and last of aH 
became conmiander in chief, and usurped the empire. 

Though the origin of the monastic institution at this place it 
both remote and uncertain, it is believed that a small chapel of 
wood was erected here in the popular reign of Edwine, king of 
Northumberland, and that his daughter, Rosella, took the veil 
in itj His successor, St. OswaJdi rebuilt it of stone.$ On 


t G«ot Mftg, 1786, p. 

Gongh's Camd. III. t56. 
8«5* BranJ^s Newc Vol IL p. 65. Gough'j 

.Vol.111, pi. Mil* fig. 15. 

I %M, Ul. IV. ToBi. L. C. p. 45. i Tin. Not. Mon. 


On account of the injury it received from this siege it was 

rebuilt about 1110, iu which year, the remains of St- Oswin 
were regained from Jarrow, The monks of Durham made 
fieveral inefTectual attempts to recover it from the church of 
St, Albans.* David, King of Scotland, spared it from the 
general desolation in which his arms involved Nortliumberland, 
for the consideration of twenty-seven marks of lilver.f William 
Figun, tlie thievish and gluttonous monk who atole the common- 
seal of Sl AlbanSj and committed a forgery vrith it, waa banished 
from tliat house to this cell at Thinemut, His end was mise- 
rable ; ^* for falling asleep in the privy, after he had over-eaten 
and dranki he never waked again ; and the monks who were in 
the dortore, distinctly heard a voice crying in the privy, * take 
him, Satan ! take him, Sat&n !** *% 

When William Trumpintun was abbot of St. Alban's, ** ta 
the end that he might reign alone without contradiction, he re- 
moved his prior, Relmuud, the greatest monk then living, well 
knowing that if he subdued the chief tJie rest would be hushed 
through fear, and sent him away to the cell of Thinemue, which 
ifl a place of banishment for our monks, taking aWBy his books, 
which hail cost him much pains to procure, and other nec€«- 
saries that he might havu enjoyed, being an ancient man. 
From that time none durst open their mouths against the abbot ; 
and he went on merrily and securely, and visited the cell of 
Thynemue and others, with great retinue, being attended by a 
great number of kindred, who I>ad never known him before, I 
will hero mention what i^ to be done when the abbot comes from 
Thynemue : — When he goes thither, he is to be attended by six 
esquires, who, to this effect have extraordinary feofs of the land 
of the chiii'ch. These six shall be at tlie abbot's charge, both going 
and coming, but upon their own horses, the which shall be 
£tghtJy, and strong enough to carry, according to custom, if 
need be, the habits of a monk behind each squire. If any 


• Siin. Duu. Col. 543. t Dug. Mon. VtiL I. p, 335. Rip. Haj, p. Jld, 
I Stev. CoDt. of Dug. Vol. I. p. 253. 





hone belonging to any of these squires shall happen to die by 
the way tl*e abbot is to give him ten shillings for his loss. It 
is to be observed, that the abbot is to ask the king's h'cence to 
go to such remote parts of the kingdom, and so near Scotland^ 
wh«DMiever be derigna to repair to Thyncmue, When arrived 
theiv» he is to behave himself modestly, correcting the family ; 
not to be 3 tyrant, not sqaanilertng the provisions and stores of 
the bouse ; but considering that he h come thither to reform 
all that requires it» and to visit his flock with fatherly affec- 
littn* Peace being retilored» and King John dying, William 
resolved to visit Thynemue, and other cells, and accordingly 
set out northward. In his way he was attended by such a mid* 
tilude 08 looked like an army. There he reformed what was 
amiss : and being desirM by the prior to discharge him of that 
office, because he wm grown old, he intreoted him to have 
patience for awhile till he could provide for all things. 'Hie old 
prior, with much dilBcuhy, obtained leave to quit that digniry, 
aad was all the rest of his life kept by the tibbot, as his couii- 
•efior, and at hh table.'* ^ 

Among the most remarkable features of the history of thi« 
place, after this time, are the following. The churches of 
Eglingham, Norton, and Hartbuni, were given to the monks for 
the purpose of mending their ale, and to enlarge their means of 
baapttality. The prior mediated a peace between England and 
Scotland, in 1244; and eleven years aAer obtained a charter 
from Henry the Third, to hold a market in liis %ine and manor 
of Bewicke. He claimed the privilege of a market also at 
Tynemouth ; but in a suit on that account, judgment wa< 
given against him in tlie King's Bench* 1 he place, however, 
iiad certain immunities, which it annually asked of the judges 
itinerant, by some great public character, or by its baililfs, 
ai the * Chille* Fountmn, in Gateshead, when they came from 
Y'ork ; or at * Faurstanes,* when they came from Cmnberlimd. 
They returned the king's writ within their respective lordhhips» 

G 2 au4 

♦ SUV. Cotit. of Dug. Vol. I. pjK ?56, fi6. 


and were cxf mptecl from comage by King John : several vil- 
lages in Northumberland, however, paid coniage both to St. 
Alban's and to this house* Edward the First, in 1299, re- 
stored them certain tree customs, which the crown liad deprived 
them of, and granted the prior to liave all pleas concerning his 
men, lands, and tenements, to bo pleaded and determined by 
his oun juBtices, the king's justices not being permitted to enter 
his liberty. f A fair, granted to the place in 1303, was re- 
voked the next year, on the petition of the town of Newcastle. 
The prior caused a pillory to be erected in the village, in 1307* 
A riotous band of Northumbrians, at tlie head of whom were 
Sir William dc Middlcton, Knt. and Walter de Seleby, ravaged 
this house, in 131G ; but being apprehended, they were sent to 
London by shipping, and there tried, condemned, and hanged. 
The hospital of St, Leonard, at this place, is of uncertain 
foundation i it existecT in 1320. Ruins of it are still traceable 
a little to the west of Tynemouth^ on the road to Newcastle, J 
The queen of Edward the Second resided here some time, in 
1322; as had also the queen of Edward the First, in 1303- 
The monastery was plundered by a party of Scots, under iJie 
Earl of Murray, in 1389.5 Cardinal Wolsey wrote to Lord 
Dacre, warden of the marches, desiring him, * by all meanft 
and politique wayes which he could devise,* to bring one Ro* 


• Stcv, Coat, Dug. 11. p, 79, 
i Brattft's Kcwc< II. p. B6. 

TiD, CImrt. f. 97* 
t Ibid, II. p. 91. 


§ Oa Ao^nft the Iwentletb, las'!, being tlie feitival of St. O^wiu's 

Passion, whilst a iai I or was lie win;; a pitca of wood for bis sbip, at Ntrw- 
CBPtlc upon T^ue, he pfTccivctl blood to ilow from it ; but recollecting 
tlie boly day^ de^utecl (ivnt hh eiriploytiii'nf^ A curnpanioa of bis dbrc* 
gardiog tht iiiir^cle, came and stmck it again; but inuoediatety blood 
gU!(bed from every patt tliat was cut, as if one'* breast had been pierced 
with a iword. ITm; matter was told to the clergy, i^ho, with the laity* 
approved of the mirade : the wood wm tukcn to Tyueoioutby aad placed 
by the body of tbe tfaliit, in teilimooy of the miracle* Wahiughajp, Ypa. 
Neiut p. 336. 



Lambert to justice, who, on account of murder, bad taken 
SJUJctuary in the church of this monastery.* 

Kobcrt Blakeney, prior, with fifteen monks and three no- 
vices surrendered this monastery, January the twelftlj, 1539, 
when an annual pension of eighty pounds was assigned to the 
prior, and smaller ones to each of the monks and novices. Its 
dite» with all its ofHces, were demised, March the ninth, in the 
year, on a lease of twenty-one years, and at a yearly rent 
of 1631. 17s. to Sir Thomas Hilton. Its po^iscssions were very 
large, having twenty-seven villas in Nort!j umber land, with their 
royalties belonging to it :-— viz. Tyncmouth, Milnton, Shields, 
East ChirtoD, East Preston, Monkton, Whitley (where they 
had a tower) Murton, Ersden, llackworth, Seghill, Wobing- 
ton» Dbsington, Elswick, Wylam, Hertford, Cowpen, Bebaide^ 
Wddon, Hauxley, Ambell, Eglinghum, Bewick, Lilbum, Flat- 
wortli. Middle Chirton, West Chirtoii. Tliey had the lands of 
Ro}*eley and Denum,f a tower at Benwell, and possessions at 
" Mokcteiton, Denton, Whittlngliam, Billyraille, and Framling- 
ton." J They had the tythe^ of Corbrldge, Ovington, Wylam> 
Kewbum, Dissington, Callcrton, Elswick, Bothal, Warkworth, 
Ambel, Rothbury, and Wooler, in Northumberland ; and of 
Hertnes and Middleton upon Tees, in Durham. Several mes- 
iHj^tt in Newcastle belonged to them, as also the impropria* 
tioiis and advowsons of the churches of Tynemouth, Wood- 
bcffiiy Wlialton, Bolam, Bewick, EgUngham, Hartburn, Shi!- 
tolle, and Haltwesel, in Northumberland ; and those of Con3-» 
dil^ in Durham. The Benedictine monastery on Cocquet Island 
nnacell to this houset Their whole possessions, in 15 S9, were 
CMiEiiated at TOGl. l(h. S|d. a year.^ These continued in the 

G 5 hands 

• Brand's Ncwc, Vol. II. p. 105. 

t Ibid. p» liO. Grose, Vol, IV, p* 146. 

i Law. MS. f. 13. Brand's Newc. p. 110. 

i Ms. 10 llic Aiicni. OflRro, Bratitl» Vol. IL p. Ill, Du^dale vftlucs 
iftt58rK lo$« 5d.— Speed at 5111. 4s. id.— and Stevens' Continuation sa>g, 
I iade 5111. 4s. l^d. stimma dara :V}7U IO2, d|d« per antt.*' 


hands of the king till Edward the Sixth, in I550» gave them 
in fee to John Dudley* then Earl of Wan^'ick ; but on that 
nobleman*^ atUtinder they again reverted to the crown, and, in 
I 1567, were enumerated amongst the queen's possessions in 
No rthun ib erl an d.* 

The churdi was parochiaJ tiU 16.S9, when a part of its roof 
ts eaid to have falen in, and killed five or six soldiers.f On 
account of this great ** decay, and the parishioners in the late 
civil wars being often debarred the liberty of a free resort to it* 
another was begun to be built* in J 659, and being afterwards 
finii^hed, was consecrated, in J 668, by Bi&hop Cosins/*J The 
cemetry here» however, continues to lie used; but the little 
oratory of St- Mary, wliich, a few years ago, was in great per* 
fection, and occas tonal ty uned at funerals, lias lately suffered 
great desecration, having had its windows walled up, and being 
converted into a magazine for miiitary stores. This oratory is"^ 
nine feet broadj and eighteen feet long* " It is adorned,** laya 
I Grose^ *• with intersecting archesi, and the ceiling omamentell 
with figures in relief, representing Christ and the twelve Apos- 
tles. These are enclosed in roundels, having an in^ription 
under each of them, in the old text hand : both these and the 
figures are as fair and perfect as when first executed* This 
chapel is lighted by a round window. On each side of the door 
are two heada, in a Flyle much superior to that of the general 
taste of the age in which Uiey were supposed to have been done; 
and over the same door are two encatcheons, the dexter one 
charged with bearings of Vesey, a cross sable ; the sinister, th* 
bearingH of Brabaut and Lucy, quarterly."^ Hutchinson con- 
ceived tliis place contained the shrine and tomb of St. Oswin, 
Ilut we believe, with Gro^e, that the arms just mentioned are 
those of the Percys, for the Tynemouth Chartulary mentions 
** die new chapel of St. Mary,*' in 1336; and MS. authorities 
in the Bodh'ur and Bcnnet college libraries, quoted by Brandy 


• Law. MS. f. 13. t Thnr. St. Pap. Vol. VT. p. J31. 
I Miig. B it. Vol. UL p* 694. Id. 1754. 4 Hiilcli. 11. 316. 


k foe 



prove that Lord Henry Percy, about that time, was a great bene* 
factor to this church, having bestowed 100 marks and more than 

.000 trees, to assist in its reparation, af^er it had been destroy td 
the Scots,* To this date may also be fixed the origin of the 
greatest parts of the edifices, as they stood at the dissolution* 
Thej indeed appear to have been the work of different ages ; 
many of the arches being ornamented witli the zig-zag, severjil 
of them semicircular, and others pointed* 

Colonel Eduyard Villi ers was governor of this castle iii 16'6/>t 
and died in 1707. Much of the priory was ** pulled down by 
lttt»t for erecting the barracks, light-house, bis own house, nenr 
itf and other edifices; he likewise stripped off the lead vUiich 
tiJJ then bad covered the church. This I was informed by an 
ancient man, who lived ne^r the spot; and who likewise said a 
great deal, particularly a long gallery, had fallen down of itself. 
Towards the south side this monastery seems to hnve been i^ur- 
nmnded by a double enceinte of walls. The graves of many 
persons, said to have been slain in the siege, are iVequently 
?i&tb1e in a dry summer, without the walls of the place.**f In 
these banks are also apparent a seam of coats, and a tnetaUic vein, 
which has produced a small quantity of lead* 

During the years we were threatened with French invasion, 
these light and elegant remains suffered greatly by the military 
amuigements made at that time- Sufficient specimens of theni> 
however^ are lefl to point out the extent and ancient magnificence 
of die establishment ; though more wanton and more needless 
desecration was never committed upon any spot than this. 

John IVelhemstede^ a learned and voluminous divine and his- 
torian, while he was prior here, was promoted to the abbacy of 
St* Albans, upon which occasion he gave to his house a chalice 
of^d.( Jahn of Ti/ncmoiUh^ also, an eminent sacred biogra- 
phcTy was born and flourished here. He was vicar of Tync- 
mouth in 1366. His greatest work he called Sanciihgium tkr- 

G 4 vQrum 

* llrai>^, n. 94. t Gro^f ^ ^vp* 

t i^lev. Can, of Dtigd. Vol. t. p. £6i. 


ivorum Det.^ His Golden History^ in twenty books, is extant in 

[ Uie library at Lambetli.f 

We have before mentioned that Ti/nemoidh Castle was two 
I months besieged by William Rufus.j: Henrj^ Lord Percy, about 
I the year 133G, gave 100 niarks towartb building a gate here; 
I and, under \S1% the Tynemouth Chartulary describes the pri-* 
Lc^ry afi " a certain fortified and walled place, to resist the inalico 
t of the enemies of the kingdom.^* In Queen Elizabeth's time it 
had one master-gunner at eightpence a day, and six inferior 
gimners at sixpence a day each. J At present, eays Camden, it 
glories in a noble and strong castle, which, in the language of 
an old writer, ** 1% made inaccessible on the cast and north side 
by a rock over the ocean i but, on the other sides, on account of 
its lofty situation, is eaEiJy ddended,** || The Earl of New- 
castle put it into a posture of defence in 1612. He sent to it, 
from Newcastle, six great guns and 300 soldiers, and threw up 
trenches, and built a fort to defend the haven ;^ but it wj 
obh'ged to surrender to General Levin, \i\ 164*4', when thirty- 
eight pieces of ordnance, and great store of ammunition and 
provisions fell into his hands* The garrison were allowed to 
march out with their baggage ; but bound themselves to submit 
to the instructions of parEament. Before this surrender the 
soldiers had suffered so much by the plague that the com- 
mander in chief had fled out of it ;^* and six prisoners who had 
been taken in Nortliumberland, made tlieir escape in a tem- 
pestuous night, ** through a privy built on the north side of the 
castle ; and though the rock is very high, yet, with sheets sewed 
together, they let themselves down/'f f On Colonel Lilburne's 
revolt, in 1618, this fortress was stormed, and all found in 
arras in it were put to death ! Lilburoe was dccolated, and 

ip I 

• Stcf. Con. of Dugd» Vol. I. p. 208, f NichoUou's Hist, lih.VoI. 1» p, \7<J. 

% Sax. Chron* p. $oe. $ Pecks DeiiJ. Cur. Vol. L lib. li. p. J 5. 

II Brit. p. 650. Ed. 1590. % Lord's Jour, Vol V. p. 170. 

♦ ♦Par. Hist, Vol. XIII. p. S56. tt Rush. Coll. p. 4. VoJ» 11. p, 1219. 





tiead stuck upon a pole! A tier long neglect the batteries 
wei% repaired, and tlie castle made a depot for arms nnd tnili- 
tary •lores in 17^3 ; at whith time Major Drunford discovered 
llietwd Roman mscrlptions. Little remains of this ancient btd- 
wvrlc except a strong gate-way, the approach to which has been 
laleij flanked with baMions, in the true gingerbread style. The 
iSlftge of Tynemoutli is much frequented in the bathing season; 
and very convenient warm and cold badis have been erected in 
the Friar*s Haven, 

The four wards of the to^rn of North SttiELDS con- 
laioedy in 1801, not less than 891 houses^ and 7,280 persons. 
In ft case between the town of Newcastle and tlie Prior 
of Tynemouth, tried in the King's Bench, in 1292, it ap- 
peared tliat, at this town, where there had been certain small 
dwellings, tlie prior of Tynemouth had built a quay and twenty- 
six house^t and that these Iiouses were tenanted by fishers, 
brewers, and vietuallcrs, so rich as to be able to give loading 
aod victuals for 100 or 200 ships ; and that, because all this was 
done to the great loss of the king's revenue, and the detriment 
of the town of Newcastle, judgment was given against the 
prior, and he was ordered to remove all these new erections at 
his own charge.* As Newcastle continued to insist upon having 
the sole right of holding a market upon the navigable part of the 
Tyne, the want of one was much complained of at this place by 
its iidiabltants, and the sea-foring people that tVequented it, in 
the time of Cromwell, who, it should seem, had serious intent 
tions of constituting it a markcl-town.f But the measure was, 
ftt tliat time, prevented by the breaking up of parliament, and 
many years elapsed before this desirable privilege was obtained. 
The pi4igt<e raged here in 1695* We have before noticed, that 
the parUh church was built in 1659. It is a plain but commo- 
dioos edifice, conveniently situated on the north side of the 
town : it 1ms at various limes undergone alterations and enlarge- 
ments; and, some years ago, a steeple was erected, and six 
sausical bells placed therein^ Charity schools, on the improved 

• Boiimet Ncwc* p. 162, 178. t Engl Gricv. pp. 117, 11£>, lih 


systems of education, have been lately founded here : they are 
supported by annual benefactions. The oldest part of the town 
is a long narrow street, on the brink of the river, whichj for 
dirt and bustle, and confusion, is bo where better equalled than 
in Wapping. The improvements and enlargements herehove^ 
however, been carried on of late years on a very extensive scale. 
Many new streets have been built, others arc now building, and 
several more have been planned. Doekwray 8quare, a place of 
considerable neatness, is the most fashionable part of the town ; 
being chiefly inhabited by wealthy ship-owners. An elegant 
ion, built by the Duke of Nonhumberland ; a new market* 
place, on the side of the rirer ; and a public library, are 
amongst the latest improvements- At the foot of the town are 
two light-houses, maintained by the Trinity-house of New- 
castle; and near them Clifford's fort, built in 1672;* taken by 
the Scots 1614 ;t and which efiectually commands all ve8seb 
entering the river,}: 

At Chirton^ in this parish, Mr» Gardiner wrote that severe 
stricture on the coal trade, entitled " England* Grievance Dis- 
covered." Mr. Collingivood, brother of the late Lord Colling- 
urood, and Mr. Cardonnell, author of " Picturesque Antiquities 
of Scotland," have each a residence here. It has been conjec- 
tured $ that this place had its name from having been the site of 
a Roman fort; for in the fields of East Cliirton there was a 
place, in 1320, called " Blake Ghestres.")] Cuflercoats is a 
small bathing -town, inhabited chiefly by fishermen. Here are 
warm and cold baths, a ballast hill, the ruins of an old pier, 
of a waggon-way for coals, and behind the village a neglected 
quaker burial-grotmd. IVhitletf contains fii\y-five houses, some 
of them inhabited by genteel families ; this village was held of 
the prior of Tyneraouth, by the singidar service of making, at 
the tower thereof^ a large annual feast, called * le com^eyes,* to 
the members of the monastery and certain of its dependents, 

• Bonnrf'R Xcwc. 178t t WaJlis II, 555* 

♦ See South SJiields, Vol. \\ p. 15^5. 
$ S€e RcyD«td ft It^ Aat. [] Tynem, Chart f. 81. Brand s Newc. II 9K 

korthumbehland. 91 

on Innocenl^s l^^y* ftnd die day afler. As horses and dogs were 
included in the naniber of the guests it U probable that hunting 
made orte part of the amusement.^ The Moh^*x Stont\ near 
the village of Monkseaton, is nothing more than the remains of 
An ancient crofts ; upon the pedestal of which is this " idle and 
modem" tndcnption : '* O Horor to Kill a man For a Pigei 
head**' This motto Mr* Grose, with considerable he&itatian, 
ittriblites to a liquorish monk of the cell of Tynemouth, ^\ ho 
strolling to the castle of Seaton Delaval, cut off a pig's head 
6-0111 the spit, and made the hest of his way homewards with it. 
Mr. Dehivalf on his return from hunting, enraged at this au- 
tlacity, remounted hh horse, and pursuing die offender^ over- 
took him at tliis place, and so belaboured him with his hunting 
gad, that his death, which happened within a year and a day, 
was laid to his charge. As an expiation of the deed this obe- 
lisk was erected, and the manor of Elsig (or Elswick) conveyed 
to die roona«tcry, 

Earsdon Church h a plain ancient building, dedicated to 
St, Alban, and is subject to Tynemouth, to wliich, with the 
manor and tythes of Earsdon, it belonged in 1097. The manor 
paid sin shillings a year comage to the prior of St. Alban's. 

Seaton Dllaval is situated upon a gentle slope, and though 
the surrounding country is fiat and tame, yet the magnihcence 
of the buihiing, the extent of tlie pleasure grounds, and its con- 
tiguity to the sea, renders it an interesting spot. The site of 
^le ancient cnsth was a little to the south-west of the present 
icturc; but its wall^ have been entirely razed, its ditches 
levelled, and nothing is now lell of the first establishnienta of 
this fttinily excej^ the chapeL This little venerable pile is one 
of the purest and most perfect specimens of Norman architec* 
tare in the kingdom. Except iu its roof, it seems to have tin* 
jone very few alterations. Above the west door, within and 
lout, are six shields, charged with arms of die Delavals. 
The arches^ at the entrance into the chancel and above the 

• Tynern. Chart, t 6a* 


altar, are supported by short columns, with plain lieav}^ capi- 
tals, and wrought with double tiers of zig*zag. The walls are 
decorated with pieces of armour, tattered banners and escut- 
cheons. There are also here two old monuments — one of them 
a recumbent figure of a knight templar in armour, resting upon 
his \ei\ arm, liis shield plaiu, and the other a neatlj executed 
recumbent figure of a female, with her hands elevated. Each 
of them have a dog at their feet, the usual emblem of faith- 

Seaton Delaval was built by Admiral Delaval, after a design 
of his friend Sir John Vanbrugh. Heynolds contributed much 
to rescue the bold and txfraordinary genius of this architect 
from that unmerited neglect to which it had been consigned by 
jealousy and vulgar criticism. The porticos, the hall, and the 
saloon, are the chief features of this edifice. The offices in the 
lowest story are all arched with stone. The wings range at 
right migles with the north front of the house. They have fine 
arcades alopg the whole length of their fronts ; and contain the 
kitchen, &c, on the west side *, and very noble stables on the 
east. Tlie large addition to the ea*t end of the southern front 
has broken the uniibrmity of Vanbriigh's design, though it has 
been executed in his style. It was the intention of the family 
to liave made a corresponding addition on the west, but as the 
present erections are in extent more like a royal palace tlian 
tire cotmtry seat of a subject, it is not likely that the plan 
should be ever finished. Among the most remarkable produc* 
tions of art in this hou«ie arc^ — a fine full length portrait of 
Charles the TwcllYh of Sweden, in the fruit room ; very fine full 
length pictures of the princess of Modina, and one of her 
daugliters; the mother of tlie present Mr. Delaval, and one picture 
of seven, and another of four of her children, by Pond; with a pic- 
ture of Sir Ralph Delaval, coasting admiral In the time of Charles 
the Second, and several other family portraits in the saloon* In 


• ♦ Ttiis wiag was destroyed by fire, May G, 175?, hnt rebuilt on tlic 
•riginnl i>Ua* 


^itt parlour are heads of Sir Francis Drake smd Sir Joha 
Btal, of Hm-tley; and, in the mahogany parlour, heads of 
Adrujrol George Delaval, and his friend Sir John Jennings, 
both by Lely* The original picture of the Duchess of Cum- 
berland, by Reynolds, from which the mezzotinto engraving 
was taken, is also here« 

The pleasures grounds are extensive, and great attention has 
been paid to adapt them to the situation. In spite of the neigh* 
bourhood of the sea, the trees in the lawn are healthy, and have 
ittained a venerable &ize ; but in the sea-walk, and where tlie 
plantations are narrow, they are stunted and miserably shat- 
tered. A fine obelisk, about half a mile south of the house, 
hjis beep happily placed in the dead flat towards Tyneniouth. 
The mausoleum was built by the late Lord Delaval, in memory 
of hia son, who died about his twentieth year. * 


* Tbis fttniily came into Eln^land with Wiltiain the Conqueror, to \^1mm 
they were r<^latfcl by the nutniage of Guy Dclavnl to I)ioriLhia« i^rroui] 
liter of Robert, I^rl of Mortag^it, and WilUani*? niecis In liei, 
tt^rt ilf^ la VilI f^ve to the monks of Tycicniontt), the tyth&'i of Seaton, 
CBUerton, and Dusington. * Ktchard of Hexliam, tlourished beti/^e<^ 
1154 atid lia9,t and says^ tliat Robert dt Seitm^ With Rickaldy his itiotJjer' 
|tfe to the church of Hexham a nioicty of tlie \ille, called Achcwir ] and 
L^t afterwards this Ridud^ mother of Robert df Ui I W, gave to ihe same 
I VVfch all her right of ttie other moiety of Achewic. The»e arc eaouie* 
liletl aitioun; hcnefactaens to Hexham, by David, Kiag of Scots, iind 
Kiof ^lepbeu, and may tlierefore be dated between li;35 nnd 1154.^ 
Dogdatr njCDtioiis a Hu^h Delaval, in 1139^ and a Guy Delavul, the ca- 
pital teat of \ihose barony wm in Yorksiiirc. Jotm ' Ucvai' va,i liberated 
from a J^rotch prison in 1174 ^ ^"^ Gilbert Delav«tl was one of the tweiity- 
fite barofts 6Woro^ re»peetin<; tJte execntioD uf Magna Chaita, and Chart;! 
Fflrerta, by Uie pope. || Etistnce Delaval held, in capite* of Heary the 
'ITiird, Black- Caller ton, with Seitan (ind lU mem hers, Newsham and Dis- 
iOigtony for two knights* fees of the old feufmeirt«^ llu^h Dcluval nianied 
Vind, diugfiterand Heiress of Hugh de liolt>ec ; ** he was alive in 129;), 


• Speam. MS. f SclH. pref. «d. X. tcript* p. xivii, 

t X. S«h|»t« Col. 907. $ Broniplnn Col. llu$. tj M. Fftfis, jl. fM, 

t TeiUi dtf KevUI, p. W3. •* D<ifd» b^t* 


Seaton w-a& in pos^ssion of the prior ofTynetnmith in 1079,* 
and paid 4 Id. a year comage to the abbot of St. Albans. The 
manor, however, comprised a part of the barony of Delaval id 

* Br;)(id\ Ncwc. VoL II. p, 27. 

Imt dif<! witlMHi* hsne, Eustace jnctTctle^d Hugh^ and tlic next af^erbim 
va* Kodcrt* \%1m niairied Margsircr, danghrer of William, Lord Grcji 
Ktokr. Tiu.s |{i»brrt was cofi.'iti and Jirir of x\iidte\v deSni<"tlitoii, * who, 
1 Jl I, dir'd "C'lKt'd of the manor of** ScitonDcIava c, and Ihe villp of Norlj 
Dissjn;;ton." Ijord JnjiCiiiiK' D'cvil was ouf of tlie barons nho suffered i 
the bloody quarrel uliircd njj liy the ** fUe-wolf of France."^ William De- 
lavnt, ^liriilFof NaitEimiilii'iUiiid 1111375, inarricd CbrisktianaT tUhs;1iter of 
Robert dc E^iUiieftoii. Tla'ie wsls a Sir Ki>brrt Delaval, in lo7b'» be W8« 
succeLiIt'd b}' Sir Hptiiv DolriTal, wlio dyiii;; nithont issiif*, his viUc of 
' Calverdon/ and its uienibtTii, went to Jciliu Tmpiii» of Wbitchestcr, who 
liad married biji sifter Alice ; but ,die abo dyin^ witbont kstie, a tbrrd of 
the barony di'scended to Jus wister Eiixabcih, wife of Jolm de Tnipin. 
One Manhcrye liad Ualf of ^' Scitou Delaval, Norlli Di^^ington, and 
Hartela\«e/' hi l MI2. At>er tljis« f^rrat jmrt of Ibe family pokAc^itfiiA 
fceni to liave centered in William DcIavHl, of BtiKvcll, who was alive in 
1455* A Wbiictii'stcr, liovv(.'Vcr, lield a titird part oftlte mauor of Sciton 
Dclaral in 1150.$ Sir Jobn Delavril, %(bo wa?) fuiir times sbcrilf of 
Korthnndji^rland, atid tbe lin^t time, jg j.iTO, was possessed of " Seilon 
Ilclaval, Black -Caller I on, Brandon, half of liydle>d<*n, the irillc of Hart- 
Icy, nrnS olbcr posst'ssion"/' in tlie lenili of EUatabelli. ^ His eldest aon* JoJip, 
doe» not appear to have lived to inheril tlje eatatp; for, in 1575, we find it 
•n tbe bajids of Sir RoIi«rt ; of hU kou KRl]>b in id(),> ; ibeu of liii^ grandson 
Kobert ; ar>d ibtu of ld'> ronsin Ualpb, who wa* created a baronet iii 
1660. Tbis tille, in tbf next generaiion, brcanifi exiincl in Sir Jolui De)a- 
ftil whose Quty dan^btur married Jubn Ro;^crs, E>q. anil at whoftc decease 
the family po<i«ie«sioiT^ came to Geari^e Deluvati of ^Hiutb Diuin^ioo* who 
had til rce sons, Sir John, ofH;vr(lry» Edward, of Diii>mgton, and Admiral 
George. Edward bml isAiic by iMiiy* daughter of Sir Frauci» Blake, of 
Ford Caattc^ one son, Sir Francis Blake Delaval^ wbofoatried M I? s Hussy 
ap Preace, ^aod-daugbter of Sir Tbonm« Hu.4.4yi of Doddiogtou, in 
olniiltire. 'Ilie produce of ihiji marriage \%qs^ nitmermis. TIh- eldest i 
Aamcd after bis fiithcTi was created a Knight of tbe Bath, at the corocalioii oT 


• \V«lll«, It* t?5. ♦ KnifUlofl, CoL «^il. Lei. Ir. ToL V. f. loa. 

( tawm, M%, f ]«, $ fb* MS. f. IK 

1121} and has continued in tlmt lamily ever since. The har- 
bour here was formed by Sir Ralph Ddaval, Bart. " Charles 
the Second^ who had a great taste for matters of this kind, made 
lliia collector and surveyor of hh own port."* It is called Sea- 
tOH'SIuice^ from the filuice and Hood-gates which Sir Ralph 
invented to scour the harbour* The salt trade lins diminishecf* 
The copperas and glass works were eommenccd by Thomaa 
Ddavalt Esq, who, having resided some time at Hamburg?!* 
obtained considerable wealth, and a passion for commerce. 
He also planned the new entrance inio the Iiarbour^ which was 
executed by the late Lord Delava!, his brother, to whom he 
so'd ail his concern at this place. The new entrance is cut 
-t^.^'iugh a hne free-stone, and is nine hundred feet long, thirty i^et 
broart^ and fifVy-two feet deep. The harbour is capable of hold- 
tag twelve or fourteen sail of vessels, each of two or three hun* 
^ed tons burden* 

Hartley, a village about half a mile eouth of Seaton- 
Sluice, in the time of Henry the Third, was held by knights* 
•ervice of the barons of Gaugy, Tlie Hetton ftimily had half 
this mannor in 1 35%f and the other half appears to have been 
considered as a member of the Delaval barony, from the 
twdfUi of Richard the Second to the tenth of Elizabeth, f 
when it was wholly in the hands of Sir John Delavah On 
Botfet^ Inland^ opposite Hartley, was fonnerly a small chapel, 
dedicated to St. Mary, and a hennitage, both desolated, Lonl 


• Hntc. Vol. IL 
t La«noii*s MS, f. -k t Wallace, Tl. if78. 

! the Third : lie dying without issue, in 1771, Vf9% mticeedcd hy liit 
tTt Sir Jplm HuAsy DeJaval, wbo wa^ created a ptrr, by iJiP title of 
liroa Deiar^J* of Ireland, and ofltTwartli of ringknd. He mariiod fir»t 
Bhoda Robin*ODf liy whom he had one mu. who died u minor. His soc^nd 
■ttnitftf; wnB la Miss Knight, J&nuary, idOX Hi^ lortliihip died in IBUS, 
ifceo tlie entailed e-^tAle came to hh brother, Edward Hussy Delaval, ©f 
IMdtiigtmi, Esq. it* |>re<;eut poito^or^ and the per^oujif prupertj ivai be- 
^Kitbed to hit relict. 


Delavol formed a small liarbour bere, for refuge to ihe fif*Tici 
in storms. The fucus lycopodloides abounds on the stei 
facus digitalis on this island, and along thu coast towards Tjne* 

Halliwell was Utld by soccage tenure of the barony of 
John IklioJ, by Eustace Delaval, whose descendants had pro* 
petty here in H35. Over the door of an old mansion-house of 
Kalpli Bates, Esq.of Milburn House, is inscribed MEDIO ***.IA 
FIRM A. 1656, This vilhi^^e has its name from St, Mary's Well„ 
whicli k medicinal, and turns to a deep purj^le with galls, • 
Hackvcorih was ancietuly a possession of the prior of Tyne- 
mouth ; and, since the dissolution, has been many yciiTb the re« 
fiidcnce df the ancestors of R. W. Grey, its present owner^ 
who built the new mansion-house there- Burroden^ a strong oltf 
fortress, was the seat of Bertram Anderson in \B^%\ It 
IS the property of the Ogles of Cawsey-Park, but in ruins- 

Seguill was mistaken, by Camden, for Segedunum. It be- 
longed to Tynemouth Priory in 1097* A branch of tlie Mit- 
[ford family resided here, and built the tower and afterwards a 
' mansion-house, both of which are at present in ruins. Since 
their timt it belonged to the Allgootls, of Kunwick, who sold it 
to the late Sir Francis BJake, of Twizell Castle, Bart* 

South Blytiie has a commodious port for small vesselfiJ 
The bishops of Durham have jurisdiction over the river and the 
wastes, between high and low water marks. Formerly they hi 
royal rights upon it. The yearly rent for anchorage here, at 
four-peace a ship, in 134-6, was only three slulltDgs and four- 
pence. The coal-trade flourislied here during the sx^ge of New- 
castle ; but, after that, Gardiner complained bitterly against the 
corporation of that town for impeding the commerce, and espe- 
cially the coal-trade of Blythe and Hartley. % That grievance 
has, however, been removed, upwards of fitly sail of vessels be* 
ing registered here. The chapel of Blythe was built by Sir M, 
W, Ridley, Bart, who also provides a chaplain to it at his 


• WalJL^i, L 1B> 1 1^%. March, p* t?3. ; Eagl. Gricv. p. Itt. 

\ It 
he ] 



©wntjcpehce. Nermham was held, in capite, of Henry tlic ThirtK 
liy Eustace Delavnl, and belonged to one of that family in 14^0, 
It wai the seat of Thomas Cranilington, Esq. in 1567^ whose 
descsendaiit, Robert, having his estate sequestered by parliament, 
in \S5% this matior^ and that of South Blythe» were purcliased 
liy Col Thomas RutchOf aad iM prci^nt are possesuiions of Sir 
M. W- Ridl^- 

STAN^tflNGTON was a member of the barony of Roger Mer- 
lijf in the reign iii Henry the Third, ♦ At bin death it was di- 
tided by the niflrriage of hiij daughter, Mary> to Willtam Lord 
Greptoke, and of Johanna, to Robert de Somervillc. TJie 
maiety which fell to the Greystokes descended to the Dacres, 
and fnnu thence to the Howards. The other half went from 
the Somen i lies, in the twenty ^nintli of Edward the Third, to 
Sir ** Rhese ap Gnifith,'* by Jii^ marriage with Joan, eldest 
^Umghtcr and co*heiress of Sir Fbili|) Somerville ; and to Maud» 
hta graod-daughter by Elizabeth, ibe wife ofJolin Stafford, f 
The Griffiths for some time had a fourth part of tliQ manor ; 
iittt the whole of the Somerville moiety was in the hands of llie 
Hiorntons, of Netherwitton, in 1567*$ The rectory and ad- 
of the vicarage were granted to the abbey of Newminster, 
Roger de Somerville, in l33S ; and Roger de Mcrlay, who 
4Icd JO 1264'# founded a chantry in tliis church to the Blessed 
Ftrgin, and endowed it with lands and privileges at Clifton and 
Cotdwellf iu this parish. « 

HoRTOH chapel was formerly subject to Woodhorn, but 
tarered from it in 1768. Twa maiden sisters of Admiral 
George Delaval h'ved in Horion Castte^ remains of which were 
existiag in 1 809, when iu foundations were razed and its fosse 
letdbKL E4ward the Firut pardoned the prior of TjTif^moulh 
for acquiring lands in " Hertford^ Bebcssct on Blytlie, Coopen^ 
^•** without Ucense of mortmain, f BthmU^ after the disso- 
lution^ belonged to John Ogle, Esq* in 1;>67, and to Edward 

Vol. XR H Delaval, 

L litttthe 

I Tliornti 


• Tests de N€vill,p, 3a3. t M4^. Biif. 

$ Ilj-and*A Ncwc, IL &8. 

X Li*w. Ms*, f l<3 


Delaval, Esq* in 1628. It was soM to John Johnson, Ewj. abouC 
the year 1700, from whom it dosccnded to Mr. Ward^ ita pre- 
sent possessor* Ilarifard-Houiet the scat of William BurdoA^ 
Esq, was bui!t afler a design of Mr. Stokoo, architect, New* 
c IIS tie* It is we)} situated upon the woody declivities of the 
Blythe, which, in this neighbotirhood, affords very excellent 
landscape. This manor paid five-pence farthing cornage to 
the abbey of St, Alban's. 

Bedlikgtonsii I RE IS B parish, in Chester ward, in the county 
af Durham^ and lies between the rivers Wansbeck and Blythe* 
It measures about 191,000 acres, and, in 1801, contained 1196 
persons. It was a royal franchise under the biahops of Durham, 
and enjoyed its own courts and officers, till it was stript of tho«e 
privileges by statute of the twenty-seventh of Henry the Eighdi; 
in all civil matters it is a member of the county of Durhajn. 
« Bishop Cutheard purchased, out of the treasury of St, Oath- 
bert, the village of Bedlington with ita appendages, Nedertun, 
Grubba, Twisle, Bedingtun, Slic«bume, and Commer." ^ The 
monks of Durham, in their ftight to Lindisfarne, before the 
arms of the Conqueror, with the incorruptible body of St, Cuth- 
bert, restetl all night here, f The church was appropriated by 
Bishop Fam ham to the priory of Durham, in 1242, when tho 
stone roof of the church of Durham was commenced. J Tbe 
Reverend Francis Woodmas, the cxpojiitor of St. Chrygofttoai^ 
was vicar here, from 1696 to 1719. Every plough-land of tlie 
fjianar paid u t brave of com to Kepeir Hospital, near Durkaniy 
about the tiniQ of Richard the Second, a claim which was afler* 
war da covered by an annua! payment of nine shdling^u This, 
and the Choppington farm, were purchased of the parliament^ 
in 1659, by Robert Fenwick, Esq. for 12961 } At the restora- 
tion, tlie purchasers of the church lands offered the king a large 
sum to conlirm their right for ninety-nine years ; but, instead of 


• Sim. Don. Col. 75. t lb, Jy. ; Hutdn Dnrh. II. 74. 

i Wliitelocke^B MeiaoritU, }u ?T>r 




^ce^img ii» he granted n commUsion for enquiry aHer aU sucli 

The Bedlington blast-furnace, for ameUing Iron, was some 
years amce taken down i the concern belonged to the iMalling^ 
of Suoderland, and was accounted very unsucceftsful. Mefisr«» 
Uawlcs and Co* of Gateshead, afterwards carried on extt-nsive 
^rorlcs in wrought iroD, both at the Bebsidc and Bedlington 
MiilSf which at present are the property of Biddulph, Gordon, 
and Co, and employ about fifty men. 

Blagdon, Shotton, and North-Wee talet, places w!iich had 
l^arly fiiiuilar revolutions of proprietors witli Stannington, were 
held by John de Plessis, in Henrj^ the Third^s time, of the ba- 
rony of Morpeth, by the service of one knight*s fee** Biagdou 
helwifed to the Fenwick's in 1567; but, after tliey sold Litilc 
Hark, they had their residence here, till they parted with it to 
the \VTiiies, a family who came from Hawthorn, in the county 
of Durham. Matthew, who amassed con&iderahle wealth as a 
incrdtanr in Newcastle, built the house, whicli tvas enlarged 
aiid ornamented by his son Matthew, who was created a baronet 
ia 1756; but, dying without issue, the estate went to his ^ter 
Elizabetlt, wife of Matthew Ridley, Esq* of Heaton, and is at 
present enjoyed by their son, Sir M. W. RidJey, Bart. Near iliis 
last place is the ancient viUe and manor of BellamCy for whicli 
Rpberl de Bellastse made service for a third part of a kuight*s 
fe^» 10 Henr^' the Second. The SomerviJles and Griffiths had 
pOGSQs^ons at it ; in the seventeenth oi' Henry the Sixth a Btl- 
]$sasc held half tlie manor ; and since that it was for many years 
t2i£ residence of a fiimity of Bells. An uciiuccessfal attempt 
V3S a few years ago made to establish a manufactory of printed 
colto>ns tt Stannington bridge* 
WfiALTOSiis a thinly populated parish. The church is an- 
at ; some of the Ogles have been buried in its chancel: it 
repaired, and parapets and pinnacles added to the tower, in 
17S3* The villagt is remarkably neat aiid clean ; and tlie rec-* 

H 2 lQt*$ 

* Testa de ^f^viil, p^ mr 



tor^s mansion is surrounded with tastefuT pleasure-groundii aud 
, fine treefi* The baron\f was j^iven by the Conqueror to Walter 
Filz William^ one of his followers. It was held by service of 
titree knights* fces^ King John took it from Robert de Cram* 
tnarille, and ^oMt it to Roger Fttz Roger, the last of whos« Mum 
took the samameisf de Clavering, but dying without legitimate 
issoe, he settled great part of his estate on Edward the Ftr&t,* 
In 1308^ the king*s soti died seized of this manor^ and tliat of 
Newbum.f The Scroops of Masham had it in 1346 J, snA 
m 1446. It was a po^ession of the crown in the reign of Jamei 
t!he First; but was afterwards granted to the Maggisons 
Wialton, and others, John Shaw, author of certain works' 
against popery* and several* times a member of the convocation^ 
was rector liere, in 1645. There b a remarkable camp^a llttW 
to the east of this \ illage, from which the term Whalton, or 
Walton, may have probably originated. 

Oi^le Castle has been nearly demolished. Tlie remnant of it, 
however, in its small windows, with pointed arches, suHicientl; 
demonbtratcs the time of its building. It has had a square 
double mote around it. The Ogle family were seated here be- 
fore tlic trnte of the conquest. Humphrey de Ogle had a grant 
of all his property from Walter Fitz William. J Thomas de Ogle 
held his manor of the barony of NVTialton, by serdce of one 
knight's fbe and a half; but, adhering to the barons in their 
rebellion against Henry the Third, his estate was extended, and 
not recovered till the reign of Edward the Third, who> in 1340, 
granted license to Robert de Ogle to convert his manor-house 
into a castle, and to have free-warren through aJl this demesne.* 
This Roger, by marriage with the only daughter of Sir Robert 

* Mas. Brit. f Law. MS. t 4. 

t III Trifiky Tk!rm, twtatieth of Edward tfie Third, iT wat Connd in the 
rolls of tlic cxchrfjner that Httiry Lcscro|» Leld Uir manor of \\ luillon, wilii 
the barony, in chi^f, by the service of l!ut r knij^litV fe«^ 1 1 is manerittm 
^m hrnvntAf whicfi may ^ti'nify that ihU niiiuor was a tMitouy, or the aemt 
tf % httrony, Madox, Bar. Aug. fi. 41. 

4 Bonme'i NVwt, f». f 1 1*. 

IT 1 



Uertam, of Bothal^ became possessed of that barony;* after 
whidi the property was united till the year 1609, when Ogle * 
Wit sold to Thomas Brown, Esq. an opulent ship-owner in 
I«Wldoii« After the battle oi^ Neville Cross, John Cpptland, 
with eight companions, rode off with David, King of Scots, and 
after carrying him twenty-five miles, arrived about vespers at 
Ogle Castle, on the river Blythe*f 

PoMTELATfo, mistaken by Camden for the Roman station 
Pons Elii, has its name from its moist f^ituation on the river 
Font, Tliec/iurcft is dedicated to St, Mary, and in the appro* 
priaiion and a^lvowson of Merton College. It is tn the form of 
M cam I iia tower remarkably broad and heavy ; the door-way i* 
the weit of Norman architecture j the porch arched, and cover* 
td with heavy freestone flags. The arches in the inside are all 
pointed* in ilie chancel windows are several arms on painted 
ghiK. Here too are the burying-places and stones inscribed to 
Ibm meinory of the Goftcns of Island or Eland Hall, the Hors* 
Wya of Milburn-Grange, the Oglea of Kirkley, and the 
Cam of Dunston. The Lincoln taxation, made about A. D. 
1291, values " Pont* Ealand rectory at 30h Is.; the prebend of 
Lord Charles de Betlamont in it, at 2Sl.; and that of Philip dc 
WyJcby at 2<M. lOs^ There was a chantry in this church, de- 
dicated to St- Mary. J ** Mr. Richard Coate di^d, January the 
third« 1719t and left his whole effects, at or about 70l« per an- 
num, to tlie parish of Pont Island, for iL<harity school, Mrs. 
Barbara Coats built the school-house at her,owo charge," || Tl^e 
barons of Mitford were lords of the manor of Eland- Gilbert 
de Eland held, in Eland, one ptough-land, by tlie payment of 
two pair of white gloves and one lax ;% and lus descendants had 
considerable powei?iions here for mar\y generations. The ville 
of Ponteland, with Eland Green, and lands in Meresfen, were 

H 3 in 

• Ma^. Brit. \ aod WallLi, Vol. IL p. 551. 

i 3^\me% Froiiarl, IL 190. ti uq, % Tun. Not. Mon. p, 39^. 

f Hutdi. State of, &c. p. 56. || Intcrip. in the churth. 

^TcftadcNtfvtU, p. 3W. 


in the hands of one Seutynns in 1567;* arid Oie Errtrlgtoffe, 
of Errington Castle, liad mi extensive estate here from 1 597 to 
ITTI', in which year tTtey sold it to George Silvertop, Esq. This 
place was the head-quarters of the King of Scotland, in 1^44, 
when the English army waa at Newcastle ; and it *raa hi^rc tTwtt 
a peace was negocialed between the contending p«rties> by t!lfe 
prior of Tynemouth, and other ecclcsiastics*f 

'flionias Burgilon^ in the reign of Henry the Third, held, in 
loccagc tenure, of the barony of Mitford/ sixty acres of land ifi 
KniKLEY, by the payment of half a mark; Hugh Belle hafl 
irxty Other acres, by the same service ; ta\d ** Marieria de 

[^it'kelaw" held a fourth part of the village, by paying a mark 
tmd a half4 The family of Eiire, who were lord* of Kirkley 
and barons of Witton, in the county of Durham, held this 

:ianor in Edward the Second's reign, by annually presenting fet 
farbed arrow at the thanor court. They had other valuable pos- 

Dssions in this nefghbt>urhood. Several of this family held high 

^lUatidns in Northumberland. Bir Ralph ^was in parliament fb 

\35\. Sir William ^vas sheriff in 1436 ; and his son Ralph held 
office in 15011, and was afterwards warden of the Eafet 

Marches, which olHce he filled with greftt crediL " He, witli 

his friends, tenants, and fren^atits, maintained the Castle of Scat- 
borough for six weeks tigainst the northern rebdls ; the garrison 

iving fm- twenty days on bread and water*" He was slain fti a 
battle with the Scots on HalMon Hill, m I4S6.J This pUce 
iiasj for upwards of two centyries, been the sddt and property 

&f a branch of the ancient family of the Ogles. ** The man- 
Won-house makes a handsome iippejirance, being a Square buiTd- 

ng, with wings, consisting of oiRces." The landscape, to the 
Bt of it is extensive and good, 
Nqhth MiLBURKK wiis hcld of the bardny of MTtford, by 

knights* service in Henry the IT^rrd's time, by Simon de Dive^ 


• tsth, lo RlU. f CJiro. dc Mail p. 207. Matt. Pari!«, p. 6^6. 

I Testa tic Nevill, p. 38<u 

^ Kid, Ror. Hist, p, 59?* WrWu, Vol II. p. 554, 



listiNi, who 'grunted it to the church of Hexham. Ailer tlte 
dittoltttion Bartiiram Anderson, of Milhtme Graji^e^ procured 
pMMBsions here of Edward the Sixth, and conveyed them to 
Edwurd Horgley, whose descendants hove been seated here ever 
mnm> ^* Millebvrne dpi Suth*' wes also a member of the 
Morpeth bvony^ arui held of it by knights' service by Robert 
dc Meneville. Thomas Bates held it in 1567 ; this family were 
formerly iteated at Halliwell* One of them waa superviaor of 
^oeen Ehzabeth's property hi this county; and another of 
tbao a member of parliament for JVforpeth. Miilturm Home^ 
their present re«idence, waa built in 1809, by Ralph Bates, Esq. 
from designs by Mr. P^jterson, of Edinburgh, architect* The 
looms in it are all oval, and elegance and utility have b^en hap** 
pily ttnited through the whole structure. 

Newburne, — Osulph, enraged at being deprived of the 
airldom of Northumberland, betook himself to the wood* and 
mountains; but afterwards collecting a few of his associatci* in 
want and disgrace, he besieged Newbuene, where Copsi his 
livtl^ was tumultUQUsly enjoying lumself with his friends. Coptt 
tbok refuge m the church; but tJie revenge of his antagonist 
was not to be soflened by dread of lieaven or ecclesiaaticAl con- 
•are ; fire was applied to the sacred edifice, and the earl in at- 
tempdng to escape, was seized and murdered* This happened 
on the third of the ides of March, 1072. This was one of die 
Kortbumbrian churches, lield of Henry the First, by Kichard 
fe Aorea Valle^ and whicl* that monarch gave to the canons of 
the church of Carlisle. Except the tombs of tlie Delavals of 
Korth DiBsington it contains little wortliy of notice. 

The village or bormigh of Newburne paid a fcc^farm rent of 
dilrty pounds a year to Richard the First. His successor John, 
fa ISOl, raised their rent to fifty pounds ; and, on account of pnvi- 
Ifgesand exemptions they enjoyed, imposed a fine upon them oi* 
fiitoen marks, and two palfreys. As the tide flows past this 
flaeei its commerciid consequence might have been cx[»ected 
Co have kept pace with the times; but Newcastle, which in the 

H i thirteenth 



thirteenth centufy paid only a sixth more rent than N^whurnc^' 
reaped too iniiny royal fiivours fmr a rival to thrivf in tts neigh* j 
boitrhood* The «ia»or,or, ad it is sometinnes c'>ilJed» the barony of^ 
Kewbunie, lias had the same revolution of possessors bs Wark- 
worth, from Uobert FiU Roger, m the lime of Henry the Third^n^ 
to the present day. Ou the twenty-eighth of August, le^O**" 
tliere waa a sharp conflict here between the armies headed by 
Lord Conway and General Lesly. ** Tlie Scotch pitched their 
tentson HeddorF Law, above Newboume, from whence th^re went 
a continued descent to the river of Tyne- In the nighl time they 
made great fires in and round about the camp, in an open- 
moorish ground (having coals plenty thereabouts) so that the*% 
camp seemed to be of large compass and extent.'* Vestiges i>f*1 
this encampment appear very fair a little south-east of Heddon^ 
Law, on Throck!ey Fell. The king's army cotisis^ting of iJfXX)' 
foot, and 1 500 horse, were drawn up on Stella Ha ugh, opposite 
Kewburne. Their Ime extended near a mile, and tlicy had. 

[thrown up breast works, at the two fords, to oppose the- 
possage of tlie Scotch, at low-water* Lesly, unknown to tlie* 
English, planted nine pieces of cannon on the tower of tlie.^ 
dmrch, and placed his inuisqueteers in the church, houses,. 
lana«c, and hedges, in and about Newbyrne* These cannon^ 

[Says liurnett, were made of bar-iron, hooped, like a barrel,* 
with cords, and wet rawhides. They were carried on horse*] 

t back, and bore several discharges. After tliese had played awhile 

I upon the English breast-works, und exposed their army to the 
Bre of the musquetry, hi§ soldiers began to raunnur, and Con- 
ray sounded a retreat. CommiHsary Wilmot, Sir John Digby, 

"and Daniel O'Neal, being commiinded to bring up the rtar, 

were surrounded and made prisoners ; but were nobly treated by. 
Lesly, and had afterwards liberty to return to the king's army. 
This, says Clarendon, was an irreparable rout* Conway waj* 

accused of co'.vardice and treachery, and made a most uiiserable 

defence against tlie charge*^ 

* Rtishwortlj !« Colkclionf, p. 123 k* WfailbcLs Mnuoir^, p. 34. 





Korth and South Digsiugtons w«re maoors and aeais of the 
Dclavalti soon after tlie conquest. Eih^ard Dclaval, wlio was 
page to Charles the Second, lived at South Diulngton ; and the 
pliice fltiil continues in the family. Admiral Delaval was hotn 
Hi North Diuingion, He sold it to the Colimgwoods, from 
whom it de&cendedy by bequef^tj to Waiter Spencer Stanhope, 
Etq. of Caimon Hail, Yorkshire, its present possessor. The 
dli^iel here, .which was subject to Tynemouth^ has been many 
years neglected ; tliough the estate continues to pay a small 
modus in lieu oftythes, as if a chaplain was still maintained* 

WotsiNCTON, an ancient posst-ssion of the priory of Tync- 
mouth, belonged to the Jenrjitsons, in Queen Elizabeth's 
reign. They sold it to James Dagnia, Esq. of Cleatlon Hall, 
10 the county of Durham* a celebrated amateur in painting; and 
of Itim it was purchased by the ancestors of the present possessor, 
MattJiew BelJ, Esq, 

D&MTON was a manor of the barony of Wlialtonj in Henry 
the Third's time,* In 1380 it was given, with " Itedwod, near 
Newburne," to the prior of Tynemouth, by Adade Fenrother.f 
Soon after the reformation we find, in the Ibt of grand jurors, 
a fiuudy of Errington's residing here* From them it passed to 
the Rogers, the last of whom married the daughter of Sir Jolm 
DelovaJ, of Hartley, and tlied without ii^sue. His estate being 
divided, this portion fell to the Honourable Edward Montague^ 
Earl of Sandwich, and husband of Lady Mary Wortley Mob< 
tague, who fitted up the old hall in the iiothic style. Vest i get 
af a chapeJ, and a cemctry, as also a sepulchral stone, inscribed 
with a sword and flowered crosier, were found here about 
thirty years since. By the rivulet east of this place, a piece of 
the Koman-watl is still remainkig; and about ^00 yards of it 
were lately razed here, when two centurial stones, each inscribed 
C. IVLl UVFI, I. e, Centurio Juli Ruii, were dug up. 

At Lemmington are extensive manufactories of crowi#Bnd 
iJint glass; as also the Ti/ne iron*tuorks which employ about 


• Now, Feod* p* *t%. 

t Brand's Ncwc, Vol, II. p. VT. 


hundred men, and annually produce abAt 
©f iron. At Scotchwood a mile below this place Lord Duii' 
donald established the first apparatus for extracting tar from pit^ 
Heddon on the Wall. — Walter dc Bolbec gave to the church 

I of St. Margaret at BlancWand, and to the canons serving God 

\ there^ the right of patronage to the church of St, Andrew, At 
Heddon^ with all its appurtenaticies, for the good of the soul of ^ 
his father, Walter. The deed of grant b witnessed by his mother^ ^" 
his brother, Hugh de Bolbec, and others* The east end of the 
chancel of this churchy is a ueat specimen of pure Normaa i 
architecture ; the other parts of the ediiice are all Gothic* 
Wlien the military way wa* made through this vilUige, in 1752, 

' ft large and very valuable collection of silver and cofj^per Komaii 
coini and medals were found in tlie Roman wall h^re, deposited J 
in wooden boxes, which were much decayed, * Hie fftmtars of i 

k!f«ddon on the Wail, East ahd West Hedwin, Whitchester, and 
Houghton, mth Its members, were parcels of the barony of J 
Boibec, in the reigii of Henry tlte Hiird. f 

Clos£ House, making part of the manor of Houghtofi, 
formerly a chapeU tbundcd by the UHtcliffes of Carlington Castle^ j 
and endowed with the lands which comprise tlje present estate* 1 
At the reformation it reverted to the Katcliffes, and was by I 
them sold to the Reeds ; and of the Heeds purchased, in 1620,1 
by Robert Bewicke, Esq. an opulent merchant in Newcastle,] 
^'ho had his residence rtt Bewicke*s Entry, in the Ch^r, This ] 
inansion is very delightfully situated on the north batik of th^ 
Tyne. It was built in 1779, when the old chapul, which stood! 
6n the site of the bow-window, at the east end of the Imusc,^ 
was pulled down. It is one of the seats of C, Bewicke, Esq. 

Robert de la Val, and Kiclmld, his mother, about the ycat 
1140, gave half the village of Achewic, now ciilkd IWhvfrkt it 
the%mrch of Hexham. This same RIchaUl, afterwards, cou- 
ftrmed to them all her right of the other moiety of this village}] 

• Hut(f. Vol, 11. p. 4r,9, t Testa de Xevil^ p. :18l^. 






ihd other bctie&ttars encreased their ]^osKe$$iofts here ffUPttr rfm 
diiiolution. The manor and hall were pnrchased of the crcm-n hf 
John, second son of Sir John Fenwick, of Walhngton. They de» 
ficendeclby the femalelhiefirom him to Ralph ScourfieW, E«q>ifooiit 
1670, imd from him to Edward Bell, of Bellasisf > Es4^. whose Mcst 
(ktightery and co-heiress, married George Spearman, Ei«|. of 
Prestdn^ near North Shield*?, tJie fathtfi of Ralph ^Spcurmtn, 
E«q, the present possessor. In nuiking a road through att old 
camp near tlits seat» several hand mill-stoiics, a sacrificing khite, 
and a flint-ax, similar to the pattoo of the South Sea iilanda, 
*cre discovered, and at presetit «re hi the polslfeBsSon tjf Mn 
Spearman. Whhchentcr w-^r, for many generations, the seat of 
the Turpfm, a fkmDy allied to the RatclifTcfi, Dckvals, Rout- 
cheaters, ^-c- In a large c«/r;/, on Tttrpin^s HHl^ m 1771, a 
stotie ch^t was found enclosing nothing but a Smalt quantity of 
ash^ and burnt bones. In 1795, another of these chests wal 
fotind 'hi ihe same cairn : it contained ttvo urns, and ccrppcr 
C0f dd of Domitiati, Amo^inns Pms, and Einstma, which arft 
t Eadmick Hall, There aare idso cmrious tttmuH at Heddon 
Law and De^^ly Law. 

South Tixdale. — Tlie parish of Kirkhaugh lies in south Tin- 
dale, and at the soutli-west extremity of Northumberland. Culti- 
vation here is confined to the borders of the river, from which the 
mountains on each side rise witli a rapid but irregular ascent. The 
diurch^ a neat but humble-looking edifice, is placed in a meadow, 
oa the j^outhcrn marginof theTyne* Tliestone coffin, and the altar, 
dedicated to Minerva and Hercules, were some years since either 
removed or destroyed. The Tyne, in these parts, is, as Froissart 
describes it, "exceedingly rough and stoncy,'^ It rises very 
suddenly during heavy rains, and almost as suddenly fdls in fair 
reather. Nearly opposite to the church is Whitki/ Castle^ a Ro- 
man station, which, on the authority of the Notitia,and the cor- 
roborating evidence of an inscription, Mr. Horsley pronounced 
to be AlwnCf garrisoned by the third cohort of the Nervii ; ♦ but 


• Brit. RoD^ pp. 110, 455. 


recent inqumes fiave refuted this opinion. That the place wa» 
once of considerable importance, the inscriptions found at it, and 
it* present remains abundantly testify, Its walls enclose iin area 
of nearly nine acres, and have been defended, on the west, by 
ten different brcast-works, each resembUng a nght-angled trian- 
gle, the hypothenuse of which faces inwards. These have partly 
extended to the north and south sides, and two of tJiem have 
girded the whole area of the station ; from which the ground 
slopes on every side but the west, and on the east ratlier rapidJy. 
A year ago the remains of a very fine sudatory were discovered 
al its north-east corner, out of which issues a ckmr and plcniiful 
spring. Many of the pillars of the hypocaustum were standing, 
covered with large thin slabs of freestone, and a strong cal- 
careous cement, in our visit to this place in September, iBl 
The Maiden- Way passes the east wall of the station, at the dis* 
lance of about tifly yards. Between this way and the north- 
east corner of the station, about five years since, an altar, bear- 
ing the following inscription, was found fixed in a socket like th# 
pedestal of a cross ; and near it, at the same time, were disco*' 
vered, the head, a hand» and feet of a colossal statoe ;— 




C. LEG Ti 
V, P, F. 

Deo K^rcitli C^m Vitellint Atlicianni renturio Icgi^ni* stxts ntHt'u 
pofiens fecit ; irr, itx\m votum perficienA fecit* 

On the ri^ht side of this al^ar is a rude figure of Hercules^] 
fighting with a serpent, twisted round a tree; and, on the left^ 
the samz deity k represented, strangling a serpent in each hand« 
The original is at an ale-house near the station : it has a square 
hole in its top , and the fagments of the statue, in all Hkelihood^^ 
appertained to one of Hercules, which had been fixed upon tbfe 




^Ur. The most remarkable iuscriptioa that t}m place ha* af- 
Ibrdbdl b given by Camden in this manner ; — 

IMP. CARS. Lttcii Septimi Severi Ara 








TR. POT..X-IMP--COS. nil. P. p.-* 




PR.-COH. m. NERVIO-.. 
RVM-a R. POS. 

Camdeii calls k an imperfect inscription, in abbreviated and 
complicated characters. The original haii probably been de* 
•trojed* Mr, Hori^ley, however, found a copy of it at Appleby^ 
ttd haa^giveii this reading of it : — 

^ Impeimtoris Caesarii Lncii Screri Arubfci Adtabe&ict Parikici maximi 
iif»«tivi Aiitoniii] Pit Siamiattci u^poti divi Anto«imi Pii pronepoli divi Hi^ 
MuiabDepoti diviTnjani Parthkietdivi Nervae idnepoti Marco Aurelio 
ADtonioo Pio filici A a gusto Germanivo print ifici rmlx^mlJ^ tribnnitix potcj^- 

tilb deciiaiiBi imperatorf- - • 'COD&uti quortum patji patriae pro pietarr 

9^iiem ex voto comnmni curiuti legato AugmtaLi coliors tcrtia Ncrvtontm 
(i€njo Romap po^nli.^ 

By this, says Camden,* we Icarn, that the third cohort of the 
Xenrii erected here a palace to the Emperor Antonmus, son of 
Sfiverus ; and Horsley observes, ** that if this temple has been 
erected to Caracal! a, it has been dedicated to him as the Geniu^ 
of Home, or of the Roman people : a fluttering compliment 
too often paid by them to their emperors. The inicriptlon 
wai erected in the year 213," ^ We think that G. ft. POS. 
in the luat line, should be read gratis posuit. Horsley al» 
80 found here a fragment of an inscription, which likewise re- 
• Gvogfi't Ed. Vol* III. ji. 177* * Brit R*ym. p, *5a 

110 K«ITHPM0£RLA}W« 

ftrred to Caracalln. And there was, in his timCt a c^nturiii 
I tone here, inscribed VEX. LEG. xx, V, V. REFEC. ; and m 
the church-yard of Kirkhaugh, an altar dedicated DEAE 
MINERVAE ET HERCVLI VICTOR, Over tlie «table-door 

of the above ptibhc-house, is aii altar, on which are carved a pa- 
tera and urceolusi. The area of the station is covered with irregu- 
lar heaps of ruin : no stratum of stone appears within several miles 
similar to its remains* Thornhope, f, e, the Castle-brook, runs a 
little lo tlie east of this place, and derives its name from it. 

The parish aud village of Knabesdale, derive their name 
fVom the Knarcy a stoney brook on the east side of tJie village. 
The meadows by the Tyne, about thig place, arc very fertile ; 
and the woods upon its banks healthy and luxuriant. WiJliam- 
ston and a few other spots on the river are remarkably sweet 
and sequestered. The mountains on each side arc lofty, and 
thdr heads covered with heath. The church has an ancient 
appearance, and the ground about it is irregular as if it had 
been covered witli buildings or encampments. The manor of 
Knaresdale was forfeited by John Pratt, and granted to Sir R. 
Swinburne, by Edward the First, in 1279, from whose family 
k passed in Queen Elizabeth's reign, to William Wallace, of 
Copdand Castle, Esq. by his marrriage to Eleanor pecond 
daughter of John Swinburne, Esq, of EiUingham. It wns 
aold by Robert W^allace to Alderman Stephenson, of New- 
castle,* of whose son it was purchased by the late Mr. Wallace, 
i»f Feathers to neb augh Casile, Knaresdale Hail is ruinated* 
The forest was anciently extensive and well replenished witji 
red-deer, the breed of which is nearly, if not altogether, extinct 
in these parts. ** I Iiavc seen,'* says WallLs, " about five or 
six in company, never more." f On the side of a mountain, 
called ISnowhope, is a strong medicinal spring, 

Lambley was anciently a small house of Benedictine nuns.' 
It b uncertain who was its founder. King John, in 1200, con- 
(irnied a grant of Adam de Tindole, 9^d Heloise, hia wife, to 

• W*|]it. Vol, IL IV* f Ibid, Vol. L p, 40«. 

IfORTItir^IBSRLAlfn. Ill 

Cfodv St« Mary, St Parrick, and thenunt of Lambley* of right 
of patturage on botli eidei the Tyne, in their manor of Latnbley, 
and tbe chapel of SandibumeBek» with four acred of land* in 
the aanie pl«cQ, and the tythes and offerings ; aa atoo the dona* 
tiofiv of BeneringSy and Sandiburn^^^le made by Heliae, nephew 
of Uic faid Adam,^ They had a fifth part of the village of 
Widen* and certain poe^eisians in Nei^coatle. f Thb place and 
lis neighbourhood were miserably burni and wasietl* by a roir* 
iDg army of Scot^, in 1296.| At the dissolution tt had six 
■ittu, and a yearly income of 5h l^s. 8d. £d\Tard tlte Sixth 
franlad it to Dudley* Earl of Northumberlandp but on hia 
BttaiDder it reverted to the crown, and compridcd part of tht 
of Featherstonehaugh Cattle in 1567*$ It ai\erwarda 
the seat of the Allgoods, of Nunwick* in whofie pos- 
it ia at present. The Tyne ran amongst the wo lb of the 
in Camden's time; and has now swept away all afipear- 
tacft of it. This ia a spot of great loveliness. Between tlie 
liver and the old residence of the Allgoods, is an ash-tree often 
tntnkSy all sprung from one stock, and each of great height, 
llMckfiesSt and foliage of the most exquisite L^htness* The 
§hapet of Lambley stands among a few poor cottages called 
iikrpertown ; aod is certainly one of tbe most humble of the 
jawghfers of our religion. Opposite Harpertown is an old 
fortress called CasiU-hill^ defended on three sides by the oa^ 
tural slope of the river bank* and on tlie fourth by a deep, dry 

Haltwhistlk.*— The parish churchy pleasantly situated on 
the aouth side of the town, is dedicated to the Holy Crosa. A 
Uiion current about this place has handed down, that the 
was once situated on the south side of the river* on a 
pace of ground called the Church Close* but that it waa 
away by the Tyne; we appreliend that the Church 


• DilF* Mon. Aag. p. 506. Stev. abr. p. 62. 

t WftUis, Vol. IL p. 19. Braod ji Newc. Vol. L p. 544* 

I Kiii|tl»t<»»> Col. PIR% $ Law. MS. f. S0« 



Close was the site of a chapdl,* for the use of tnc 
habitants on the soutli side of the river, like that at chap 
houses, whjchf on Speed's map, is marked opposite Larnb- 
ley. The tomb« in this church, indeed, prove its high an- 
tiquity. Over one of the Bleukiiisops' is one of those funen^H 
• inscriptions in use before the common people were able I^H 
read. It is inscribed with the family arms, a large and well 
executed flowered crosier, a broken hiked Kword, and 
staff and script; aJI which, while it proves the antiquity of tl 
church, shows that the person, over whoM remains this Moi 
was placed, had hoiiourably passed from a military to a religio 
life, and thut he had made a pilgritnage. HtTe h also an altai 
tomb with tlm innription i—** John Rcdle that sum tim did he tin 
Laird of the Walton gon is he aut of thh val of mesre hi* 
lies under fhis^an^ 1562.'* This John Ridley was brother 
the celebrated martyr, Dr, Nicholas Ridley, Bishop of h 
don. Th<-' rectorial possessions of this church were granted 
royal charter, in 1S83, to tlie priory of T}Tiemouth; and are 
present in different lay hands. The ediiice consists of a nave» 
two side aifilee, and a chancel ; and has lately undergone con* 
side rable repairs. The village contained, in 1801, nlncty-eigl 
houses and six hundred and twenty-eigltt inhabitants. It 
a market on Thursday, and falrii on the fourteenth of Mi 
and the twenty-second of November* Over the door of tl 
School-house is inscribed — This charity-school was founded 
the Right Honourable Dorothy Chftpei, Baroness-Dowager 
Tewkesbury, &c, and this house was granted by the Re 
Tltomas Pate, about A- D. 172'J. At the cirsi end of the vill 
is a remarkable oval nniund, called tlie Castvl Banks^ havii 
a fine spring tn its centre, and at each end four gradatioi 
of terraces from the natural surface to its summit, the 
north aide of which is defended by a breast-work of eartli^ 
and the south by a steep declivity. Not far from this there 
is also another curious oblong Iitil apparently lactitious, 

» Sc« Uh lu Vol. VII. f. C'A 



mid ealled the Schtil Hill. . There are two old turreted 
buildings in this town, strongly charactert^stic of the inse- 
curity and jealousy of the border times ; and half a mile to the 
east of it a large square Roman castra oestiva, called Whit- 
cheater, and defended on three sides by deep rugged glens* 

B£LLISTER Castle, on the southern banks of the river, 
opposite Halt whistle, at present consists of a rude and crumbling 
maw of ruins, overshadowed by an enormous sycamore. U 
itanda on a high artificial mound, and has been surrounded by a 
broad fos8. The landscape around it is good, the faekts rich, 
aad the banks woody. It was the seat of Thomas Blenkinsop* 
in 1551, and of George in 1567. At present the manor be* 
longs to Cuthhert EUtson, Esq. of flebburn Hall, Durham, 
and tlie cattle and estate to Mrs. Bacon, of Newbrough* 

Blekkiksof Castle is on the west side of the Tippal 

The country around it has a cold and naked appearance. It 

is built upon a Uttle eminence, and has been defended by a deep 

df}* ditch on the north and west ; on the south by the chamber of 

a rivulet, and on the east by a steep bank. The buildings have 

consisted of a square tower, built upon vaults, and surrounded by 

A high outward wall at the distance of four yards. Though it 

tt miserably ruined, a few rooms of it are still tenanted by two 

poor families. The stones of which the tower has been built 

hive the same character as those found in Roman stations, and, 

»• suppose, have been brought from Caervoran, In two places 

we found the letters P. N, which are probably only the initials 

of some modem name. 

An altar bearing this mscripdon, in the beginning of the last 
^Dtury was at this place : — 

mU. FIL. V. S. L. 




* Ijtg, Msrdi, pp. 160, 161. 


It is at present m the garden wall of the inn at Glenwhelt, a 
small village a little to the north of this place ; where, also, is the 
collossal headj measuring five feet in circunifbrencei which 
Hutchinson saw near Thirwoil Castle. The right Bide of this 
altfir is woni, as if it had heen used in a staircase. Mr. Hors- 
ley readiB it thus; — Deabus Nymphis Vetia Mansueta ct 
Claudia Turbiniila filia votum solvcrunt libentes. Thii^ estate, 
in the time of Henry the Third, was held by Ralph Blenkinsop, 
af Nicholas de Bolthy, Baron of Tindule, by the annual jmy- 
ment of half a mark, and is at present in the posseAsion of hia 
descendant, J. Blenkinsop Coulson, Esq, oi' Blenkinsop Castle, 
a mansion which he has lately byilf» at Dryburnhaugh, on 
the es&i side of the Tippal^ and opposite to the old faroilf 

FrATHERSTONEHAuon Castle (i* e* the castle in the 
meadow where the atones are stratified featherw!se» m in the 
bed of thte Tyne at Hartleyburne Foot) nm the seat of 
Thomas de FcfhcrUonehaitghf in I he time of Henry the Third, 
and held by him of the barony of Tindale, by the yearly payment 
of SIX shillings and eight*pence.* The manor T^ii? sonte year* 
since sold to the Earl of Carlisle ; but the estate continued in 
the family till it was sold by Sir Matthew FetherMonehaugh, <>f 
Up Park, in Sussex, Bart, to the father of its present possesscMr, 
l^ie Ri^it Honcrarable Thomas Wallace. Thfe edifice, likt 
most of the hordet castles, had a ditch around it, and cohststed 
of a strong tower, buik upon arches, and ftn-nished with tufrets* 
Mr. Wallace has added three smaller towers, and a suit c^ 
ofHces, which, with the garden wall, are executed ih the casti- 
lated st}'le, and make a bold and intereisting appearan«?e, ft 
fronts tlie narrow vale of H«tl^tirne, through which, and 
over the rocky and finely hooded bimks of the Tyne, are seen 
till? high and heatliy summits of Tindale and Byres Fell. The 
meadoAvs around it are lincomm only rich; the trees in the 
hedge-rows mi th# lawn, large and luxuriant, and the plan- 


HOllTmjMBEllL AKDW 1 1^ 

saiotm ilirougboot the whole estate retttarkaUy heaichj» Ihick, 
and picturesque. 

Thikwall Castle stands on a rocky precipice, above 
the TippjJ» and a little south of the Pict's Wall. It gave naiue 
to an ancient family before cailkd Wade,* Tl*e church of 
Hexham held lands and possessions here, the g\fi of Brisn de 
Thirwall, and Roger, ]us son^ prior to the twenty-seventh of Ed- 
ward the First The heiress of this family^ in ITSS, marritnl 
Matthew Swinburne, of the Capheaton fanuly, who sold the 
Gistie and manor of Thirwall to the Earl of Carliile* The wjlls 
[this fortress are, in some places, three yards, and m others 
two yards and three quarters thick, but sadly ruined* ** At 
die entrance," say WoUis, ** part of tm iron gate is still re- 
maining, within which, on removing the rubbkh, the flooring 
of a room was discovered, in 1759, consisting of three courses 
of fla|^ one above another, a stratum of sand lying between 
each/' It was vaulted undemeatli. Great part of it has of 
late years been applied to building cottages* ** Here the Scots 
opened to themselves a way into the province between tlie 
Inhtng and the Tyne, and very prudently too, in the very 
{^ace by which the heart of the kingdom was mvBt acces^ 
whlc, without the intervention of any rivers.*' ** The Scots,** 
lays Fordun, ** being nmsters of the country, on both gides the 
valJ, began to inhabit it as conquerors, and calling together 
the peatsantry with their hoes, qutlltfts, or spades, rakes, forkip 
and mattocks, began to dig a number of cuts and pits alt over 
it, by which they could easily pass and repass. From these 
holes the wall here takes its present name, the place being 
CfkUed, in English Thrlvadh in Latin, Mums Perforattis^f 
la sight of this castle, to the south, is a camp, with a single 
fiUuti) of turf, and a foss. It is called Black Dykes* The 
lltmi is high on the north. Lead bullets have been found iii 
. on cutting turf. We^t of it a quarter of a mile is an* 

¥her camp4 
Umthank Hall stands on the soutli side of South Tyiw^ 

12 and 

C4ind«t), OoQ£Vs Ed. Vi)h in, p. V5.>. t Ihid. % WaUU, V(*l. I. p. ^ 


and under a lieatliy momntam» called Plen Moller. It wai tlie^ 
seat of the late Robert Tvireddlc, Esq. and by him bequeathed- 
to Robert Pearson, Esq. of Benwell. TnaApi^ood, near 
Haydon bridge, i« the residence of the Reverend Robert 
Tweddle, whose brother John, a gentleman of polished 
learning, died at Athens on the eight of the kalends of 
August, 1798, in his thirtieth year, and was buried there 
in the Temple of Tlieseus. Farther down the river, and 
on the same side is WiLLtMOTE^iiWicK: (L e* the moat and 
filla of William) an old and ruined fortified residence o£ the 
ancient family of Ridley s, from whom descended Bishop Ridley, 
the martyr ; Dr. Lancelot Ridley, author of a C^omraentary on 
the Epistles of St. Paul ; Sir Thomas Ridley, Chancellor to 
Archbishop Abbot, and author of A View of the Civil and Eo^H 
clesiastical Law ; and Sir Thomas's son and biographer. Dr. 
Gloster Ridley. * Their lineal descendants are at present set* 
tied at Heaton and Blagdon, in this county, where they have 
large pofsessious. They had also a residence at Hardridikg, 
in this parish, which they ^cild to Mr. Lowes, a family reiidcnt 
at that time at Crow Hall, on the n<irlh side of the South 
Tyne, but who of later years have had their seat at Rtdlet 
Hall, on the opposite bank of that river, and near its con* 
Huence with the Allen. This mansion stands in a fine open 
lituation ; and the walks around it, especially among the woods 
and rocks on the banks of the Allen, are very romantic, and 
and abundant in excellent specunens of landscape. The estate 
And hall were, in 1567^ parcel of tlie poisessions of the Ridleys, of 
Will imotes wick. The Lowes* family are also ancient in these 
parts, and have their name from being possessors of the forest 
of Loughs (or Lakes) in this parish. Near Ridley Hall is the 
chapel of Beltingham, of the antiquity of which a very largs 
j9w-tree, in its yard, is a standing rnomorial. Further up, on m 
neck of land, at the confluence of the Allen and Harsingdale 
Burn, are seen the crumbling walls, and broken gateway of 
Staward lk PsEJt, an ancient fortress; granted, in 13S6, bj 

* Cirttr^ Hjsl. of Cunb. pp. 149, 508. Bowycr'i Aaecd. 


Edward, Duke of York, to the Friar« Eremites, of Hexham, 
to be held by the annua] pa ytuent of five marks.^ The scenery 
about thit place »5 also of the most striking aod interesting na- 
ture, consUting of woods, rocks, ruined walk, water, cottages, 
and patches of ricJi tillage land* This peel or castle was the 
residence of John Bacon, Esq. a gentleman, who raised a larg* 
fortune by mining, and who is said to have been a descendant 
from the same stock as Lord Chancellor Bacon, by a monk of 
M^etherall Abbey, who conformed and married, Mr. Bacon's 
son and successors, settled at Newton Cap, in the county 
^of Durham. He had seven daughters, siJt of whom mar- 
to opulent gentlemen in Northumberland, and one died 

CaervorAX (i,e, the town and castle) is situated about 
twelve or thirteen cliains, within both the walls, and n^r the 
iestern boundary' of this county. It is an oblong square, and 
Contains about four acres and a half. The ramparts and ditch 
around it are now, as in Hor&ley*« time, very conspicuous. 
Its ancient name appears to liave been Magna,, where the No- 
titia places the CohorS Secunda Dalmatorum, though no inscrip- 
tion has been found to strengthen the conjecture. The great 
nulitary way from Walwick Ch esters, passes a ttttle to the 
south of this fort ; and the Maiden-way goea through it to Beau 
Castle, which is about aix miles to the north of it*f 

" Abundance of antiquities of various sorts have been 
dug up in this station and t(ncn, Wlien I was last here 1 pur- 
diaied a Roman ring, with a victory, ofi a Cornelian, but 
»:"J Three altars have been found here, dedicated to 
die God Vitires. § On a funeral stone, cut in two, and used 
is steps in the stairs of a house, Mr. Horsley found an inscrip* 
tion which he reads thus: Dis Manibus Aurelia Pubeo Voraa 
lixit annos**** Aurelius Fubeo Naso pientissimae filiae dicat. 

I 3 Tliis 

• WaJlii, Vol- II. p. ^2. t Warb. VaII. Kom. p. 75. 

t Bonlex, p. f30 f H>. O^ugtii Camd. Val. Ill, p, f3«. 

11« . TPORTH^Mll«lttANl>. 

This inscription, IMR CAES FLAV VAL CoNSTANTINd 

PIO NOB CAESAR is noticed by Warburton, in hi« 

map. The stone on which it t» cut^ is broken in two.. It ia 
cuFiouB, «ays Horsiey, but needs no explication. The three 
following fragments of iDscrlpUons are in the Durham hbrary ; 


ANToNNIA * -L L M. /, e^ Minervac Julius Gnenius actarius 
cohort is quartae Britonmn Antoniniae votum sohk hbentissirae 
merito. — Honley. The actm*ius provided com for the armies ; 
and an Aotonlne Cohort, is mentioned in Gruter.* PM CA 
••..If ADR- -LEG II.-.APIATORIO, 4he reading of 
>^4iich b very uncertain, though Mr* Hortley says, " I take it 
to have been erected to the Emperor Hadrian by the Legio 
secundo Augusta, and that Apiatorium was the name of the 
place at that time," Perhaps of the three the last is most per- 
AVG. It is the fragment of an altar dedicated to Fortune by 
Audacius Roraanus, centurion in the Jegions, sixth, twentieth^ 
and second, wlrich lasL was called Augusta* There are a few 
inscriptions besides these in the Britannia Romana, belong- 
ing to CaervoraiH but none of them any way curious. 

A humaii skeleton was found at the east end ef this station, 
when the military road into Cumberland was made: a)sa 
some years afler, a small fair Roman altar inscribed DKO 
VITERiNO, and a small brass lar, both in the pomeaaton of 
Mrs, Bacon, of Newbrongh, In 1760 was found a fine relief 
of a Roman soldier fourteen inches and a half high, and nine 
broad. Above its lefl shoulder was a lion recumbent, with a 
<deer struggling under ita paws, j: 

The four foUowing inscriptions are copied from Hutchinson; 




1* A£LS*- 

* P. eclx. D. 1. et p. %\. a. S» 

5. niF 

t WalTis, VoLn.p.5, 

The fifirt of which is on a fragment of a tablet, aod has at 
«Jtar in relief under iu The third, perhaps, ought to he read:^ — 
Imperalor Antoninus • • • • vallo renovato - • • « quae supra fecit ; 
mad the fourth may relate to some band of soidiers quartered 
^t Magnum, 

Mr* Brand, however, eav at Glenwhelt^ a Btooe foimd at Cocr- 
^onn, and itiscnbed— CIVTAS DVMNI, r. e.the city of the hill. 
♦* 1 saw here,'* gays he, <* October the seventh, llh^t five square 
bffsei of columns and some curious gutter atones. On opening a 
tumufus, on the east of this station, there waa discovered a 
remarkable hollow &epalchral Btone, which contained a imall 
quantity of a black liquid, and two gold rings*'* Fram thif 
place he abo brought the two ioUowing inscriptiona : — 

f . BED M , 




ET Aorrva • c 





ER. V. 8, 

The first of which he translater:— 

" To the God Mara iik) tlie dt^itjcs- * * >JtiUii« the aclatiiiy of Itie cdlit^rt, 
I AotittB tbe ceDturioD, and Servitu Valerius GrarcUos erected tbis from 
igrotmd, perfbnning a vow.'' 

Ta the second he affixes this reading : — 

«* Ceatnrin Marci Anton' viataribrti gratia «ia fecit." * 

We found the two following in the east end of Mr* Carrick's 
-C. CALERI . CASSIA • IN BVPXIX- The letters 
<if which are rather faint, but we believe they are here faithfully 
copied* The next k very perfect :—COH . I • BATAVORUM F. 

14 ** Th^ 

• Hist, of Newc. Vol, L p. fillf. 


" The fiwt Cohon of Batavians made this," The Notida 
pLices this coliort at Pracoiitia, or Carawbrugh, where we find 
Melacclnia> Marcellus, ils prefect, dedicating an altar to For- 
tune, We also found on the garden wall a centiirial etone, too 
rude and tiine-woro to be legible ; and this fragment of an io- 
fcHption— GERMA • R*-»'C . NE. There were also here a 
part of a statue from the knee dovt nwards, a millstone, an un- 
Bcribed altar, and several other curious Roman sculptures, scat- 
tered in different parts of Mr. Carrick's premijies. 

Scarce a furlong hence, says Camden^ on a high hill, the 
Roman wall remains fifteen feet high, and nine broad, faced 
with hewn stones on both sides. The finest specimens at thit 
day are to be found on tlie high grounds between this place and 

Wall Town was anciently a castellated building, and the seat 
of John Ridley, Esq. in the reign of Edward the Sixth. The 
estate and manor at present belong to Mrs* Bacon, of New- 
brough. Here is a fine clear fountain, which has formerly been 
enclosed, and in which Paulinijs baptised one of the Saxon 
kings, perhaps Edwin, in whose reign the wells by the way- 
sides were supplied wnth iron diehcs for the convenience of 

Great Ch esters, or JEnca^ was garrisoDed in tlie time of 
the Notitia, by the cohors prima Asiorum. It is about the 
same size a* Cacrvoran. The ditch around it is remarkably 
frt^h on all sides hut the east. The walla in several placet 
partly standing. The whole area covered witli heaps of ruins» 
amongst w^hich are distinguishable the Pretorium fifty yards 
long and forty broad, the Questorium, tlie remains of a 
temple, and other public edifices. Some pieces of an iron-gate 
and hinges were found in the ruins not long ago. A paved 
way fifteen chains long, leads from its southern gate to the main 
military way. Camden dared not to visit this place for fear of 
mosstroopers. '* They told us»-* says he, ** tlint Chester was a 
very great place*'* Here is the following inscription : — 






-L[\M PK.'VE 






*■ I thinlt," gays Horsley, *• voto in the tif>h line must be 

€X voto, as usual, ami then there is no cliHiculty as to the 

meaning." Tuscus and Bassus wer« consuls in 208, 

Horsley has seven inscriptions and carvings found here, three 
of which are curious, lAid still fL'main in the neiglibourhood* 
One is a symbolical sculpture in relief, on a large stonet at the 
bottom of whicli are two boars, with their heads towards each 
other, and a tree on each side of each of them ; above them, 
two eagles, standing on the boughs of trees, and each of them 
supporting on its wings a victory, which holds a vexillura in the 
middJe o( the sculpture. This is manifestly indicative of the 
Honmn eagles liaving been victoriously borne through tiie Cale- 
doman woods, as the wild boar was the Iloman type of the 
people of that country. The next is a tomb-stone, with a head 
cftrred at the top, and this inscription below it:— D. M, AEL 
cornicularius was an inft?rior officer under a tribune. The 
third, also a sepulchral stone, has an ill-tlesigncd human figure 
upon it, and beneath it this inscription: — DIS M.PERVICAE 
FILt A F, I. e, Dis Manibus Pervicae filia fecit. 

But the most remarkable inscription this place has produced 
i dug out of the ruini of a large building in the upper part 

ofdiis station- — 


MAX1510 LEa rr, apro 



The perfect part of diis inscription is copied from Mr, 
Brand's drawing, and the letters in italic supph^ed frotn Wallis, 
who says, •* it is imperfect at each corner at the bottom* 
whereby half of four lines are wanting^ besides some letters. 

Mr. Brand also found here this fragment of an in^icriptioii: — 
« A VG . I * C AEI . VIC , S." There are many barrows or tumuli 
in this neiglibourhood ; and, in those that have been opcued the 
graves have been formed by side-etones let into the earth, and 
covered at top with large flat stones* 

Little Chgsteks, or the Bowers^ was the ancient Vindo* 
laHfff and garrisoned in the time of the Notitia by the cohors 
quarta Gallorum* It stands one mite and tliree quarters soutlt< 

j jof both the w^alle, and a few chains north of the Roman military 
wdy from Walwick Chesters to Caervoran. A causeway has le4 
from it to Hadrian's vallum. Its ramparts are seve|i chains 
long, and four broad ; the towers at their comers have been 

I roundf and are partly remaining : the ditch in few places can 

^ be traced ; the area is covered with a rich sward^ and is very 
irregular ; on the east the ground slopes swiftly from it to Bar- 
don Burn I on the opposite side of whicl^ rises a high hiU^ 
called Borcum or Barcum, which would induce the belief that tliis 
place had not been called Vindolana, bm Borcovicus, a name 
attributed to Ilousesteads. There are foundations of buildinga 
on the west side of it; and in a piece of swampy ground ther^ 
many urns have been founds son^timea four or more together, 

' covered with a large square brick, and having a strong oak 
post driven into the earth close by them. A little south-west 
of this sepulchral depot is a dry » green hill, called the Cliapchicadi* 
At Coidley-gate, where the via vincialis crosses Bardon Bum, is a 
milepilliir about seven feet high, placed at the foot of a large tumu- 
lus ; and a uiile farther up the Causeway ^ another broken in two. 
Some years ago on the west side of this p1ncc» about fif^y 
yards from tlie walls thereof, there was discovered, under a heap 
of rubbisli, a square room, strongly vaulted above, and paved 
with large square atones set in lime ; and under this a lower 
roomy whose roof was supported by rows of square pillars of 






^Ottt fatalfa fard tuglu The upper room had two niches like 
^ind, perhaps* in the nature of] cliimmeft* on eacl) side of every 
camtr or square, which iu aU made the number sixteen. Thr 
^pmtmmi^ of this room, jis also its roof, were tinged with 
smoke* The stones used in vaulting the upper room h«ve been 
tkedp fts our joiners do the deals for chiunberis ; those 1 mw 
omnberad thu£, x. xi, xiii."* This description answers 
to the £brm of the hypocausta and sudatories found in the dlf'^ 

(ferent Roman stations in Uiis neigbourhood. An inscription^ 
idsor imperfect indeed, but curious, was about the siime time 
(ofmi here, and described by Dr* Hunter m the Philosophical 
Traafiactions. Wlien Horsley visited this place he found the 
origiaal had been conveyed to Bcltingham Chapel -Yard, 
where it was converted into a tomb-stone, and the inscription 
■ hewn off:^ 


^^^^_ VOTA NV 


^^^^v fl'ndamen »-'t£rvnt svb 

^^^^p cl xe^^epho eg av pr 

^ cvraSte 

^^^•f ••GaUorutti-*Votii tmniiiii ejus priiiripis optimi tnrribns^-fimd amenta 
^m |iOiiiienuit mib Clmidio Xenoplioutf^ li'<,rBto, Augiutnii proprat'tori curaiite,"^ 

I Horsley, concerning this inscription, observes, tliat it seems 
to tGstabliidi the credit of tlie Notitia, that the first cohort of the 
GatsiB were quartered here ; tlmt it mentions a proprietor of Britain, 
Claudius XenophoOj no where else spoken of, and that the words 
optimi principis, would make one believe thai it reft^rred to Trajan* 

OH . 1 . HAMMIOH«|. 

• WiiL Tr«i!», No. *78. 


Camilen found the allar bearing thrs inscription at Melk* 
rigg, a hamlet on South Tyne« It waft copied into Speed V 
Map of Northumberland from the original in the Cotton Col* 
lection^ which at present is at Cambridge, In Horslej'a timt 
St was much defnced. The Syrian Goddess was the same u 
Cybele, Ceres, 7V41us, &c, Calpurnius waa pro pre tor in Bri- 
tain under Marcus Aurelius. The word Hammiorum, Mn Hor»- 
!ey supposed had been miscopied by his predecessors, and had 
been Gallorum in the original. 

To this place also belongs a sculpture representing Mer- 
cury, with hiij caduceus in his kfl hand» and io his right a 
purse 8uspendt?d over the head of a Camillus, pouring incense 
on an aJtar, inFcribed, DEO MERCVRIO. This stone, and 
«ome Roman sandals found here, were given to the Royal 
Society, by Mr. Warburton.* The bricU at this place arc 
inscribed, LEG. VL V, Lcgro Sexta victrix. A large altar 
was found here, with a deer in the centre, leaning against 
a tree, and two fawns in niches below, all in relief. It 
has been spirt in two, and the sculptured part of it is at pre- 
sent used as a rubbing stone for cattle, in a field north of the 
via TTincialis. Near it we were also shewn a stone, inscribed ta 
the Biis Manibus, and in memory of a person, who had lived 
twenty-four years, three months, and eight days, but his name 
too much obliterated to be legible. The stone was dis-» 
covered by the plough. At the west end of the Well-house is this 
inscription, where it was first taken notice of by Mr. Wallis :— 

L the bottom, 
resent state, 
^ the weoiliet 

of the wail 

}70RTHUMBEhtAK]»# * iCf 


The stone was removed to Ridley Hall. It is remarkable for 
Qtioning Hadrian^ and the propretar Plutoriufl Nepos, and 
being found in one of the castella of the wall usually attributed 
to Severus. It seems to destroy alt accepted criticism respect- 
ing the autliors of these two barriers, and to induce the belief 
lUat they were the labour of successive emperors^ each adding, 
altering, or repairing, as the exigencies of didrerent timei re- 

Hou5EJiTeAD5» called by Dr. Stukely» the Palmyra of 
Britain, is the Uorcavkiu of the Kotitia, where the first cohort 
'the Timgrians, a people of Delgic Gaul, livin<^' on botJi sideis 
be Maese^ were in garrison. The great stone barrier running 
I the steep and rocky brovir of a high lull forms its northern 
rampart. Its area measures five chains by tieven ; the ditch is 
obscure, but the ramparts very apparent. The lines and angles 
of the different buildings, tliat stood within it may be distinctly 
traced amid confused heaps of ruins ; stones carved into curious 
forms \ embossed figures of gods and warriors ; and broken pH- 
lan» of rery difFerent degrees in size and excellejicy in work- 
tip* We found the thresliolds of certain buildings lately 
ttared of rubbish, by the curiosity of former visitors, where ap- 
peared the plinth of a pilasttT, finely moulded on two sides ; 
remains of a floor waved with parallel Hues , and three fre€- 
iBdne Meps, much worn by use* Near tliese is also a small circu- 
lar building, widening upwards, with a narrow way into it ; the 
piace^ perfiaps, which Mr, Brand supposed had been an oven. 
On the east side of the south gate is an oblong building, pro- 
jectmg about thirty feet, through the ram partis, and having the 
bise of a cir^tUar tower or staircase at its north east corner : 
tt» walls at present are about five feet high; and its iaterior, 
^ut ten feet wide, is fUIed up with stones and rubbish. On 



the ^uth and west of this iiation the ruins of a town arc large 
umd manifest, where the columns of the temples, the statues 
of the go<ls, and the altars of Roman pitty he in melancholy 
desolation. On the edge of the brook east of this place wc saw 
remalnft of a bath, about thirty- eight feet by fifty, the floor of 
wrhich is vigibJe, and the hypocaustmn, we believe, entire. On 
Chapel HilJ, about three furlongs to the soutli, is a large ruin- 
ous lieap, supposed to be the remains of a consiilerable temple^* 
West oi' this, where tlie way leads from the station, we also 
saw the lines of buildings, a large stone apparently the pedestal 
of a statue, and a broken statue which was lately dug up in 
making a drain. The hill sides herfe, where the land is good, 
are all terraced, afler the ancient method, mentioned by Jo* 
sephus, of cultivating swiftly-sloping grounds* 

The Britannia Romana has sixteen inscriptions and sculptures 
found here, some of which are very perfect and curious* We 
select the fuUmving from that work : — 

I O M 

AVG . COH . I . TV 

JoTi Oltttmo Maxima et autbinibns Aagnsti coU«ri fkrijua Tiuifranim^ 
iiuUtitm cai praeest Quinttii Vcrins iJupcr>tes pracfectus. 

This altar h built up in the cMmney jamb, in the house tl 
the valley, below the gtation. 

I O M 


• Hor». Brit, Rom. p, «19. 


ajtar has been dedicated by tlie same cohort and prefect 
ai the last, but the word M AXIM VS is pnrtly worn out, aad 
the word PREAFECTUS entirely gone, 
I ., .. 







Jon OptifSM Mfiximo et oumiuibiis Aitgusti cohort prima TungrDrum cmi 
praeert Qotottis JiiUila Maximus praefectu*. 


V S L M 

DcoMaiti Quml(L4 FlorJii!^ Miiterotis praefecttt* coliortii prtioae Tod- 
fTorom voturd solvit libeoi mcrito. 

Besides these there are three mutilated ioscriptionB one : 
cneDtions the sixth legion ; the second is, MATH IB VS COH. I, 

TV^GR ; and tlie tliird, a defaced aJtar of Jupiter* 

The sculptures in alto-relievo : the first of them, a flying vic- 
tory, witli one foot touching a globe ; the second and third, 
figures of Roman soldiers ; the fourth, three female figures, 
limiliirly clothed, and in similar attitudes, seated in a chair, 
and holding with both hand^ a cylindrical vessel j and the fiftlj, 
three other female figureg in separate chairs, each di^crently 
clodied, and the middle one having its legs tied to posts with two 
car As ; the sixth, also, has upon it three feniale figures, euch 
ttindiog, and of ruder work than the former, and, above their 
bciidli, three fishes, one of them a sea-goat ; and, tlie geventh^ 
** a imall statue of a soldier in the Roman mllitai-y habk, 
Holding a spear in his right hand, resting with hm lcf\ upon ii 


*i r 

** There is one inscription more which belongs to this 
place, tliat was published in tht; Trunsactions, by Dr* Hunter, 
•everal years ago." It was imperfect when he saw it, and i» 
givcQ thus:— > 








..**tii Vtootnoni* [filio] 

2-..- Oferiiotila 

Bnmnl<> AlimEhionis 

M.ttMttcuo !M^nccion» 

ReviiiHo Qiiartioni^ 

crrgi ptoctiraTjt Dflfitu 

Rautionh ex ^^tia sui 

This has evidently been a sepulchral monument, but it Ib ex- 
tremely obscure and barbarous, and difficult to decypher. 

Cahrowbrugh, or Procolitia, governed, when the No 
litia was made, by the first Batavian coliortj standi on elevate 
ground, rich, green, irregular, with large heaps of ruins. 
militar}^ way that accompanies the barriers over these hills, | 
through the middle of this fort, the stone barrier forming it 
northern rampart, which, with that on tlie east, is still ver 
visible. There are no remains of the ditch, but on the wes% 
where lie the ruins of a considerable town, and, in the begins 
ning of last century, was found a well, plentifully supplied witlil 
iiDe water, seven feet square, cased with ashlar work, and as ap*| 
pears by the ruins on its brink, once covered with a house. It 
is supposed to have been a bath. There is a broken pillar 
by iL 

This place has not hitherto been found rich In aDtiquitjei,.J 
It has, however, pT«^uce4 two very fine altars, dedicated t4 






Mr* Warburton, to the library m 
Th^ir inscriptions are ae follow :»^ 





P R 


^ The foa^ of these Is curieufl and useful, inasmuch ag it con* 
firms the evidence of tlie Notitia, that thia place was ancieuUy 
caUed FrocoUtia. The second la read by Horaley thus;-^ 
Foituiise popixli Romani Caius Juliuti Raeucus centurio kgionis 
aaots ▼ictricts; but that anliquaryi by mistake, makes it be- 
hag to Liule-Chesters.* 

A ^tone, in the form of an altar without a focus, was found 
kf^ by WarburtoDf with this inscription ; — D* M. D. THAN* 
dtcaled to the Genii of Spirits, by Tranquilla Severa, for her 
and hei«," Mr, Wallis mentions a relief of Neptune, with hi* 
trideot, reclining^ in a houso-end liere ; it has, since his time, 
been removed into the walks at Hallington, ^ 

Half a mile south* west of this place, and similar to it in size» 
iiaa exploratory, cu* summer fort^ called Broom-Dykes; and 
mmr to Houses tt^ads is Busy-Gap^ a break in the mountain, 
ilid to have been one of the inlets by which the Caledonians. 
most frequently iiwaded the provinces south of the wail. Mr. 
Horsley thought the castle at SiiEWiKc-SiftKt.DS had no ap* 
petrance of being Rotnan* *' The castle itself (now in ruins) 
«Ad the motes beside it, are untioubtedly of much later date. 
And I observed several trenches thereabouts ; particularly a 
Iwge and long oibe, which reaches from Busy-Gap cross the 

Vol,. XIL K passes 

* Warb, Vsl. Roin« p. 56 luid 69. 


passes bet«r««e]i the mountains. But these are all oti tlie notfli 
aide of the wall, and must certainly have been made in later 
times, for securing the neighbouring passes. Probably they 
are no older than the times of our famous mosstroopers^ who 
might convenicntty shLlter themselves among those hideous 
mountains and mosses." ♦ There are many superstitious tales 
about enchanted warriors in a cavern near Shewing-Shielda ; 
and a littJi* west of it» near the wail, is a high rude stone, called 
by the common people King Ethel*s Chair. 

Between the South Tjnie and Canraw u Newb»ough> which 
probably derives its name from being built out of the ruins of 
Procolitia^ or from its proximity to it, Thb village stands 
conspicuous, in the escheats of the tenth of Elizabeth^ for the 
great number of its freeholders. Here is the seat of Mrs. Bacon, 
and the Rev- Henry Wastal, her relative by an ancestor of his, 
rector of Stmonbum, marrying one of the Bacons of Staward 
PeeL There are very excellent whetstones obtained near an 
old deserted lcad*mine above Newbrough-f 

Whitfield IIall, a seat of Willi^i Ord, Esq. is situated- 
on the West Allen. William, King of Scotland, confirmecl' 
the manor of Whitfield to the church of Hexham, of which it» 
was held, in 11^6^:}: by John de Whitfield, at the annual rent* 
of 16s. 4sl, It continued in this family till its last proprietor/ 
Matthew Wliitfield, Esq* who was higli sherifi* for this countjv 
in I728» sold it to the Orda of Fenham, The mansion-house 
iras rebuilt about twenty years since, and great improvements' 
made about it. The high and bold rocks, and the hangti^ 
woods, thick with hollies, form a fine contrast wnth the neat«* 
ness of the lawn and tiie pleasure grounds* The Whitfields of* 
this place were usually styled earkf and after they became ex*-* 
tinct this local title passed to the A^liitfields of ClargilL 

Langl£t Castle, the cnpital seat of the barony of Tyndal«^ 
was held of the crown, in the time of Henry the First, bj 
Adam de Tyndale, by service of one knight's fee ; and con'- 


J BriL Rom. p. 147, fWsMhy L p, <J4* | WalUi, 11. 33. 





tioued In his male desceodaDts till the tfme of Hetirj tho 

Third,* when the family inheritance was divided between two 

cso-helressesy and this part came to Richard dc Boiteby, by 

mxmrrmge <j^ one of thctn. From the BoUebys, from like 

^muse, it passed to the Lucys, Barons of Egermojit and Cocker- 

vnouth, with whom it remained five descentSp when issue niiile 

.sgaiA failing it became the possession of Gilbert de Umfraavilj, 

^arl of Anegos, by marriage of Muud, sister and heir of Anthony 

^ord Lucy. On the demise of the Earl of Anegos, his widow 

Tnarried, in 1383, Henry Percy, Earl of Noithumbcrlaml^f 

a circumstance which united the large possessions of the Urn- 

franvills and Lucp in the Percy family, with whom this castle 

and manor remained in 1567; J but it ai'kerwards became the 

property of the RatcliSes, of Dilston, with whom it continued 

till it was forfeited by James, the last Earl of Derwentwater, 

ID 1745< It now belongs to Greenwich Hospital* 

This casUe is well situated on ihe south side of the Tyne» 
and though it has of late years been barbarously handled, it 
is by far the most perfect ruin of the kind in the county. It 
is in the form af tlie letter H, its walls near seven feet thick, 
iu inside twenty ^four feet by eighty, and the towers, one at 
each corner, about sixty-six feet liigh. The rooms remaining 
ire all arched with stone; those in the towers are fourteen 
feet square, and the four snuJl fire-rooms on the east, each 
eleven feet by thirteen. The ground-rooms, on the east and 
west, four on each side, have been much injured by being 
■led as farm offices. The windows wl^icb have lighted the 
gneai hall, kitchen, &q. are large, those in the chambars mostly 
small, and built at an angle that would prevent the entrance 
of an enemy's arrow. The stone of which this fabric is built 
*is yet so remarkably fresh, as to exhibit in their primitive 
sharfmesa the characters of the masons. The whole of the 
toaide is red with the marks of tire. 

Haydon-Bridgb has a charter for a market on Tuesdays, 
K2 and 

T«»t*. <i« Ncvii* p. 381, f CoH, Pe^rtgc, Vol VL p. en, 

; UkWK MS. t 14. 


and a Mr dh July the ttrenty-iifst, and three days after, pri 
cured by the first Anthony, Lord Lucy, but both long sine 
fallen inio disuse. The bridge here, in Cainden*g time, wa 
* wooden, and oat of repair.* At present it is of »tone, 
consists of five arches, tliree of them built in 1800 and 181( 
Tlie church is a plain, neat, and new edifice, with a squ 
tower, finished with a quadrangular spire. Opposite to i% 
on the south bank of the Tjnc, i^ the Free-School an 
Hoispitals, founded and endowed by the Reverend Joh 
Shiifloe, A. M. Vicar of Nethen^arden. The endowmc 
consists of a valuable estate at Mousin, near Bamberough 
which the trustees considering iis more than suflScient for the^ 
maintenance of the establishment, an act of parliaineni was 
procured, id I7SS, for turning its proceeds into a more ' 
channel^ and enlarging and amending the old constitutions i 
the charity. By this act the trustees are empowered to bail 
and maintain alms-houses for old iind decayed inhabitants 
the townships of Hay don and Woodshields ; to provide a school'^' 
mistress to teach readings writing, knitting, &c. to erect 
suitable houses for the two ushers, and to regulate thetr's tmd 
the master's salary. This act provides that the master's salary 
shall not be less than lf)Ol. nor more than 150L a year; and 
that the two ushers shall be paid such annual salaries as shall 
teem meet to the trustees, so that the salary oi tlie first be oot 
less than 35U nor that of the second \em than 201. a year. 

Netherwahden" 18 very sweetty situated between the two 
Tynes, and near their confluence. Its church has been lately 
rebuilt ; it is a vicarage, Its rectory appropriated to the churcH 
of Hexham, ami has under it the chapels of Hoydon and New- 
brough. The Scotch army, tlitit plundered the western part** 
^f this county, while King David ravaged its shores, encamped! 
at " Waredun," near Hexham, the twcnty-fiftli of JanuaijiJ 
U38,* Between this place and Wahvick Grange ia the finug^ 
jfient of a crasi^ with a sheathed swurd cut upon it. 

CuBiiTERs, East-Ciiesters, or Walwick-Chesters, an. 

* Scrip* % cd. 96*1. 




decrtly CUumum^ the station of the Ala Secunda Astonim, is 
140 yards by 200, on the outside of the ramparts, which, with 
the ditch and large ruins iq their area were extant till of late 
years^^ but now grass-grown, though their Hnes are still per- 
ceptible, and the ground within them very irregular witfi 
foundations of buildings. The liuburbs liave been between the 
fort and the river, over which remiiins of a Roman bridge here 
can easily be traced in dry seasons. The bases of the piers are 
like fine pavements, the stones large, and joined together with 
faorkontal dove-tail cramps, several of which we saw in their 
original situation, and others at Mr* C]a3rt6n*s house* Each 
of these large stones has, in the centre of its uppermost super- 
ficies» a lewis, or poising hole, narrower at the top than the 
bottom, an invention attributed to modern times, but evidently 
iDcient* There is a vault in the area of this station, which has 
not yet been cleaned out ; and behind Mr. Clayton's house, 
§cveral yards of tlie Horn an wall, and its tiitch filled witJi water, 
in grettt perfection. 

There are several sculptures and inscriptions found here, 
mentioned in the Britannia Romiina, hut none of them any way 
remarkable^ except an altar dedicated '* to the Dii Manes ^ by 
Fiibius Honoratus, tribune of tliu first cohort of Vangiones," a 
people from Belgic Gaul, ** and Aurelia Egleciane, the parentj^ 
of Fabia Honorata, their most charming daughter/* 

In a summer-house in Mr. Clajrton's lawn are several anti- 
qaities* the produce of this station, the most curious of which 
are the following. A broken altar, too imperfect to discover 

K 3 any 

• Hofileytip* 143. Braaifs Newc. I* m% ** Theiitc of the Prato- 
ttmB, nf tile eastcru end, is very di!4tLni;«iiii!Uable, with two entrances 
tiiroiigli the valtiiin^ aiL^werinf to each Bide of the Prn^toriiiiu, and a roaiJ 
leading down to th^ river. The ^ouiid withiii the vaifnin i^ crnwtled with 
the ruhu of stunc hiiUdings, wl^ich appear to have stood in lineal directions, 
formifig »treett, two on the south side and two on the norlh, intcnccted 
in the middle by a crnsjt street from norrh to aontiu On the »outh side, 
without the valhtm and fois, niany tuxos of huildiagj> appear, and sonue on 
llw north.** Hotc. L 73. 


any thing from» except that it mentions Ulpius, who wat ] 

liieutenant of Britain in the reigii of Commodas/ A statue off 
Etiropftf of very pretty workeianshipj in free-:itone, but broken] 
into three pieces, and the head and arms of Europa, and the | 
legs, head, and tail, of the bull wanting. The feet of the bull] 
rest upon a long scaley fish» symbolical of the sea ;— 

Ausa e:»t qnoque regia virgo 
Nescta quein premeret, t<frgo comidtre tauH« 
TiiDi Dgu& ii terra, 5iccoqiie a liltoie, bfi-D^itn 
h'tLisik fit^dum primis vestieia pooit m tmdis* 
Ind« abji altenit^'iif mediique |)«r i^qtiora ponti 
Fcrl pra^dnm. Pavel |j%c ; litUisqite ablaUi relictism 
Rcspiciti €t dexUii cornu itnet , altera dorso 
Impoiiitii Cfrl : trrmulse tinnantur fiamine ve^tes. 


The following ioscnption if upon a large free-stone table, al j 
present broken into four pieces. There is a neat moulding 
round the mscnption, much of which has been purposely | 
erased. The letters in the original are much compUcated, buti 
perfectly legible :— 


AVG • 

*....... ,.p......B, P CS PP DiVI 





Concerning this, it is observable, that It has been made in th^j 

time of Alexander Severus, by the second wing of the Asti, tal 

coniraemorate the rebuilding of bome ediHc^, which had become] 

ruinous through age, and which was dedicated on tlie third of the 

kalends of November, I'hc ruined granery at Great Chestera 

pas also repaired by the second cohort of tlie Asti, under the 


« ZipliiK I. botii. pp. 620— ^S-*, 


tmnc enipcriN'f who comnyenced his reign, A« D. 2^, and wta 
lurdert'd ia 225, We f^uspect, from the space In this inscrip- 
Itan, betwetr n COS and FP, that its date should be fixed in 2*26, 
rhen this Scverus was second time CM)nsuJ. Laropridius says 
' him : ** in Britania (ut alii volunt in Gallia) in vjco cui Stciia 
tst eura occiderunt." The erasurea on this stone prove 
he fell into disgrace with the soldiers. Alf^vald, King of 
^onhatnberland, in A. D. 788, was slain in a place called by 
loveden and others,* ^* Scile- Chester pwia murum/* It tnay, 
rhaps be thought a wide eonje<:ture, to suppose that Sicila^ 
!rUiimuni, and Scile-Chester, are names of tfie same place, and 
JiBt the ground here has been sanctihed with the blood of the 
benevolent Alexander Severus, and of Alfwald, called by 
Simeon of Durham, Rex pi us et justm. 

At thk statloQ was also found a fine consular medalion of 
{adrian, four inches in circumference ; the legend roimd iIjp 
bead, Ilaclrlano Aug. C(Bsari^ and on the obverse, S* P. Q, R 
Oplimo PrincipL S, C, encircled with a civic garland.f 

On tiic west side of this titatlon, finely situated on rich and 

f rising ground, and commanding an extensive and weil-cuitivated 

prospect, ifi Cmestehs, the seat of Nathaniel Clayton, Esq. It 

buik by John Enington, Esq, of Wnlwjck Grange, who 

^ifterwards sold it to Adam Askew, Esq. patentee, liigh-sherifl' 

of tlie county of Durham, and of whom it was soon after pur- 

chosed by it« present possessor. 

Warwick Gravce stands on a rocV, in a low and secluded 
situation, on the brink of tlie North T}'ne, The ancient dwell- 
ing was bm'lt afler the manner of the border towers : the addi- 
lions to it in tlie modern style. It was the seat of Anthony 
Errington, Esq- in 1551; and of his Jincal descendiint, John. 
in tlie ktter part of last century. The estate is leasehold, mi- 
ller the Northumberland family. There are several Ilonian an- 
tiquities, brought from Cilurnum, and <"hiefly of the sepulchral 

K 4 kind, 


I^ic, Hsf^nj^U Cot «pg. 
t Wallis IT, m* 

kind, in the garden-wall here ; but none of them Rfc very 

Walwick was purchased by the kev, Cuthbert Wilson, 
of Justice Wilson, by Mr. Dixon^ who sold it to Henry Tulip 
Esq. of Fallowfield. It b, at present, the residence of the] 
Rer, Robert Clark, llie prospect from it is exceedingly fine, 
reaching as far as Swinburne Castle, on one side, and to the | 
plantations of Minster Acres and the blue mountains, in ihm\ 
district of Weardalc, on the other. Concerning the plinth of a I 
ptllart in the corner of the Stack Yard, on the edge of the I 
military way here, Mr. Hutton observes : " I saw a beautiful i 
pedestal, pannelled, moulded, and fluted, in peHectton, twoi 
feet by eighteen inches, no doubt a Roman relic, degraded t^j 
a shubby prop, as a thing of no value.*** 


The parish of Simokburk is remarkable for being the 
largest in the diocese of Durham, It extends from the 
Roman W^all to Liddesdale, in Scotland, a space of thirty- 
two measured miles ; in wtiich are only two chapels of case, 
BelUngham and Falslone. " In Nortiie Tyndale is but one 
paroche church, called Simonsbume. In it is aliquot sacella* 
Sens I hard that Simousbume is in Sowth Tyndale, aad that 
in Nortlie Tindale is onely Belingeham chspel, longrnge to Si- 
inonsburne."f The aliquot sacella here mentioned, were pro- 
bably the chapels of Houghton Castle, Kirkfield, FaUtone, and the 
one at Bumskirk, on the south side of Dead- Water, where some 
grave-stones still renmiup Kirkfield Chapel is about half a mile 
from Wark, and, by an arch and two pillars in its north wall, 
appears to hnve consisted of two aisles: a tomb-stone remains 
lit it, dated A. D. 1686. The parish church is dedicated to Su 
Simon. Edward the First took the advowson of it, with other 

• R«man WslJ, p. til. t Ld. It. Vol. XJL fol. 74. 




-property, from the see of Durham, in the time of Anthony 
Beck, becaiMc that prelate refuied to observe a treaty the king 
had made between him and the Prior of Durham. John Darcy 
left the advowion of it to Queen Philippa, who gave it to 
Windsor College. It fell to the crown by the attamdcr of the 
last Earl of Den*'entwater, and at piresent belongst to Green- 
wich Hospital. Its revenues ore upwards of 5000). a year ; but 
an act of parliament has lately passed, to divide it into 6ve 
rectoHes, after the decease of the present incumbent, and to 
befttow tliem upon naval chaplains. A itcull, says Wallis, waa^ 
found in a grave in this church, with the fi^re of a large 
scallop thell on the back of it, and of a torcula? shell at one of 
the auditories. The chaucet has once had considerable ele^ 
gance^ iU door-way on the south side being rich Gothic, and 
its original windowi; long, spear-pointed, and finely ornamented, 
but now walled up. At the east end of the south aisle is the efHgles 
of the Rev. Cuthbert Ridley, a child, and a youth, cut in stone, 
with an inscription^ dated 1625. Mr. Wallis, author of the 
hiitory of this county, was several years curate of this parish- 

Simonburn Caitle formerly belonged to the Herons of Chip- 
chaae, who aold it to the AUgood family. '* It was polled 
down, to satisfy a violent curiosity tlie country people had for 
•earching, like King John at Corbridgc, and Nero at Carthage, 
for hidden treasure ; where they succeeded no better than those 
hro royml money-hunters, who got nothing but rubbish for 
iheir pains. Part of the west end was rebuilt, 1766, with twn 
imall turrets at the angles."* 

NtnfwicK, also, came by purchase from tJie Herons to tha 
All^tKida. This seat was erected by Sir Lancelot A Ugood, Knight, 
who waa h^h-sheriff for this county in 1746, It is a hand- 
iOllie building, of white free* stone. On the west It is screened 
iwth a fine wood, and from tlie terrace the prospect over the 
fertile banks of the North Tyne is eittremely rich and diver- 
lified. In a held adjoining this house were five upright pillars. 

• Widi»t II. 55. 


m circular order; four of them perfect and entire m 1714, the 
other broken ; the perfect ones eight feet high and nine and a 
half over ; the circumference of the area in which they stood 
ninety feet.* North-west of Niinwick, about three quarters of 
a mUe» is Paik-Etid^ the seat of Thomas Ridley, Esq. sui^H 
rounded with fine scenery, and grounds in excellent cultivation^" 

fVark is enumerated among the queen^s possessions witliin 
the liberty of Tbdale» in 1 567* James the First granted it t^H 
Theophilus Howard, Eail of Suffolk, of whom it was purchaseJ^^ 
by the RatcHfTs of Dilston ; and, by the attainder of the laa^^^ 
Earl of Derwentwater, reverted to the crown, and was givon fl^M 
Greenwich Hospital. Here is an exp!oratory mount, called 
Alote hftll, on which the RatclilTs had a manision-hous^. The 
camps in this netghboyrhood were probably formed by the army 
of Edward the Third, while he vainly wailed the return of tli^H 
Scotch army into their own country, in 1327.f Giles Heron^" 
of this place, by industry and care, acquired the sum of 8001. 
three- fourthi of which he left to the poor of the parish of 
Simonburn, and tlie residue to the perpetual maintenance of a 
echoobn aster in this village* He died in 168k An estate, 
called Tecket, was purchased by his trustees, which at present 
lets for about 24<)1. a year ; and, in 1805, the Governors of 
Greenwich Hoi*pital assisted the neighbourhood in erecting an 
elegant school -room. 

Houghton Castkf the seat of William Smitli, Esq, fttandii 
proudly on a smooth sloping bank, on the southern brink of 
the North Tyne- It is an extensive fabric, and immensely 
strong* It was a possession of the Swinburnes in 1326> and of 
the Widdringtons in 1567* Adjoining to it is *' a domestic 
chapel, now in ruins,* 'J Here also is etn extensive paper f-rolU; 
and, at a short distance hence, on a woody and rising ground, 
is the village of Hitmshau^h^ anciently belonging to this castle; 
and where also is the seat of the late H* Richmond, Esq. 

• Wallis IL 50. Gouglis Camd, III. *?48, 
♦ Johties Froisart, Vol. L p. 57. % Waltls 11* 67, 




Bellindham gave name to an ancient family, who were 
cd at it In 1578, and m 1454' : some ruins of their castle still 

ttain near the village. Half of the manor belonged to the 
ArchhUhojis of York, as pitrcel of tlie pos^^ession of the 
franchi^ of Tindale, prior to the retgn of Heniy the Eighth, 
The chapel is dedicated to St. Cuthhert, and entirely roofed 
with stone arches in rib-work : tliere are many grave-stones in 
Its floor, fcniptured with swords^ and other emblems of the 
warlike disposition of the inhabitants of this district. Here was 
a weekly market on Saturdays, now disused ; the fairs are on 
tlie Wednesday belbre Easter, and on the first Saturday afttjr 
the fifVeenth of September* Nearly oppo&ite to this place, on 
die ?outh side of the North Tyne, is He&Heside^ the seat of 
Willl«ai John Charlton, and of his ancestors, since the time of 
Edward the Sixth. The old mansion-house was built after the 
manner of Lowther-Hall, in Westmoreland, was burnt down about 
seventy years since, and then rebuilt. The present edifice was 
slso twice involved in flames, by the negligence of the house- 
carpenters, during the time it was building. It stands on a 
gentle eminence ; the grounds around it are well clotl^ed witli 
woody and agreeably diversified with fine sheep-walks. The 
giirdens and fruit walls are uncommonly productive. Five miles 
above this place is Foist one Chape! , and about seven miles 
ftirlher up is Keelder CaHle^ formerly the residence of a famous 
border chieftain ; and at present a shooting-box of the Duke of 
Northumberland. Sir John Swinbum, of Capheaton, has also 
% shooting-seat in this neighbourhood, colled M ounce* Know, 
^htmt which he lias paid considerable attention to planting. The 
moora here are scattered over with cairns, tumuli, and Druidicol 
monunients ; and, as appears by the large quantities of wood 
buried in the peat>mosses, have been covered with thick forests. 

Tanet HaU^ about two miles above Hedieside, anciently be- 
longed to the Comins. Concerning this place the lords of the 
council wrote to the Earl of Northumberland and Sir Ralph 
Sadler in this manner :— " And here we have thought mete to 
put you in remembrance of Tarsctt Hall, belonging to the Lord 

Borrows I 


Borrowi, and Hawgston, beloDging to Sir John Wetheryogtoi! 
beyng thought mete places*' for the keeper of Tindale to \i\ 
in.* It is quite demolished. Its area has fonned an ohloi: 
•quare» in length about 120 yards, defended on three sides 
a deep foss, ten yards broad ; the east side lying on a ttei 
descent. At each comer have been turrets ; and traces of 
outward wall appear, f 


is the name of a district, comprising the parishes of Ehdon i 
Corscnsiiie. Richard do Umfranvill lie Id the vale ofRcdesdal^ 
by tha service of guarding it from thieves ; j: and his succe 
Gilbert, held it •* per regalem potestatem."^ But, as this 
trict continued a nest of lawless freebooters, it was enacted 
parliament, in 1420, that the statute of the second year of Henr 
the Fifth, against tlie robbers of TindaJe, should be extended to 
those of Kedesdale, " that they should be outlawed, and their 
property forfeited," Harbottle Castle, and the manor of Otter- 
burne, were held oi the king, in capite, by Robert UmfranvUI, 
in 14-28, " by the service of keeping the valley of Riddesdale 
free from M^olves and robbers, which service was adjudged to be 
great serjantry. Upon search," at tltis time, ** it was found in 
One of the books of knights* fees, in the custody of the king's 
remembrancer, that Gilbert de Humfranvifl held Riddcsdal^ 
per rcgaletn potcftatem^ by royal power. There was no species 
of taiure in England known by the name of tenure by royal 

• Sit R. S^l. St. Pip, Vol. I. p. 490. t Halclu I. 193, 

t Tost* 4t 'Nev. p* 59f . Hie print td copy of thin rrford makei no metK 
tion of woKes or foxes; but a Harkau MS. of the time of Henry tfae 
Third, *ay*, in one part—" Idem Ifcnricfw (enuit d*; Rege in capite io 
I com* Nort]itttiil>n& mancrium de Laxton--per M-rjirjituuii adfug^Md^ L^rvm 
cum canibvs ttLU per QVkTVon arm* r awd in another part — " idem Viiali 
tenuit inaDerium de lax too— -de Kegt in capite per scrjcatiam cwrrfndi od 
txwm Id madatmn Regit." 

IL 3e5. 


f)oif«r, I io humbly apprehendi that in this cas^ the tenure 

'WIS baronjTy accompanied with a fuU power of a Lord Marcher 

^oreagaiitfi Scotland, like that baronial power which was an- 

^i^ientljr vested in the Earl of Chester, for the time being, or 

^pume other great Lord Marcher foreagainst Wales."* In 1567 

^-thk •province' belonged to the crown* f Lord Redesdale if 

the greatest landliolder here, but the Duke of Northumberland, 

m Jord paramount of the district, for which he holds a court-lect 

at Elsdon. 

RisiNGHAM is supposed by Camden to be a compound of 
Old Eogtiflh and German, and to mean the Habitation of 
GiantSf because Risingberg, in Germany, signifies • the moun- 
tain of giants/ WalliK says it means • the hntnlet on a rising 
ground,' RlCCinjahseill signifies the home of the ozier meet' 
dams. This is the modern name of a Roman station on the 
western branch of Watling Street, twelve miles from the wall, 
_io4 on the brink of the river Rede, Its area contains three 
acres, three roods, and twenty-six perches, and is covered with 
tha linet of ancient buildings^ The walls are high ridges of 
ruins ; they make a flexure at the north gate, where a sluggish 
btck-water from the Rede lies against them. The ditch is in 
fiiaiiy places very visible. Opposite this station lie many large 
ftenet in the river, with holfs in them, somewhat in the man- 
ner of lew is- holes, as if they had been used in a bridge. Forty 
yem since a mile pillar was standing, a mile south of the 
stitioA ; and at present there h one used as a gate-post, oppa- 
ate the door of the inn at Woodhridgc. Waih'ng Street is very 
fii^le m this neighbourhood, and in one place has lefl the 
sacteut appellation l^am^ to two farm-houses, as it has done 
in Learning Lane, in Yorkshire, and as the Roman way, Raking- 
dike, from Lanchester to South Shields, has done in Leant 
Lantf in the parish of Jarrow. ** Here," says Camden, *' are 
oumy and considerable remains of antiquity; and the inhabitants 
that the god Mogon a long while defended thii place against 

• Bfadoi, Bar. Aag, p. 244. f Eaot, 10 Elk. 



sotdon or Pagan Prii 

Nor do tliey speak at 

some soicum or ragan rnnce^ r»*or do uiey speafc at random | 
for that this god was worshipped here, appears from two altars 
lately taken out of the river here, with the following mscrip* 
tionsi"— DEO MOGONTI CAD. ET, N, DN AVG, M. G. 
PRO SE ET SVIS POS. This ta in Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. Botli Camden and Woodford begin with DEO, but no 
room ur trace of it appeared to Hor^ley, and Woodford has 
TAL». instead of TA, in the sixth line. Tliis Mogon waa a 
local deity of the Cadeni^ who are the 8ame as the Gadeni of 
Ptolomy* The Bmeficiarii were Boldiers who attended the 
chief officers of the army, and were exempt from duty, as we 
learn from Fes t us, somewhat like our cadets. Prima Statio 
may imply that it was the first northern etation at the time the 
altar was erected;* or that it was the first station north of the 
wall. Habitancuvt was evidently its Roman name: — DEO 
MOVNO CAD. INVENTVS DO V. S. This, perhaps, 
also belongs to Uie god Mogon,— D. M- BLESCIVS DIOVI* 
In Trinity College. The rydenese of the letters in the original, 
their scattered position, and the stops on each side the I, 
are very remarkable.f— ^HL CVI PRAEEST. M FERE- 


CVRANTE IVL. PaVLO. TRIB. In Trinity CoUegc. 
V, S, LL* M, The original lost, and nothing known respect- 
ing the goddess Tertiana. HERCULI IVL PAVLLVi^ 
TRIB V. S. On an altar, used as a gnte-post, on the south 
side of the station in HorsIey*s time. „.AVR* ANTONINI. 
SACRVM. At Trinity College. There is no doubt but pro 
salute impcratoris M. has gone before, and perhaps the altar 
has been to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, or to Jupiter and Uie 
numina Augusti, as at Benwdl M. A. Antoninus, called 

* GottgUI Camd, lU. 230. t Horsley, No. XC 


^VhnosophtiB, had wdrs here» and his legate, Calpumius Agricoia» 
M e oamed tn an inscription or two in these parts ; and I am apt 
^0 think* tliat both this inscription, and some others in the 
^»orth, belong to that emperor."* DEO, INVICTo HER- 
"VANGI V. S. L. M. This is also in Trinity College, verj 
-entire, large, and beautiful ; on one side an ox, on the other 
mhe priest's veil and pater a, f—,. J COS Cvl PRE R AVREL^fc 
^AST. VETvsTaTE CoNLaBS. This is lost: Mr. Gale' 
-observes, ** that vetU8tate conlabsum, signifies a falling to de- 
-cajj and not a destruction by fire, war, or other enemy than 
age and neglect.'* NVMINIB AVGVSTOR COH UlT GAL. 
EQ. FEC, ** This long stone," says Camden, ** has an ele» 
gant relief, far surpassing the rest in execution, inscribed, by 
tlie fourth cohort of Gaulish horse, >o the divinities of the em- 
perors." There is an engraving from the original, wliicli is 
m Trinity College, in Speed's map of this county. Mars and 
Victory are set in a niche on each side of the stone. *' Tlie 
emperors, in honour of whom it was erected, I take to be Se- 
lenia and Caracal b, who were much hereabout, and, I be- 
lieve, were possessed of this very -station," J These ten pre- 
ceding inscriptions are all mentioned by Camden ; the three 
following were first publislied in Warburton*s map. MARTI 
is Mars and Victory ou the capital, and an ox* s head on the 
base of this aUar,— FORTVNA AVG AEL PROCVLIN V 
a The third of these is a dedication MARTI \1CT0RI, by 
^tiibtme; but it is very imperfect. Dn Hunter ^ first noticed 
the following fragment, which Hutchinson saw walled up iq 

ahouse upon the station,. DOLOCHENO C, I\X. PVBL 

PIVS TRIB ¥• S. L- M- The letters 1 O M have either 
been at the top of the plane of this altar, and struck off with 
the capital, or else upon the capital itself. Besides the above^ 


* Harftle>% p* ;a6« t GauRli, III. 1^47* | Horsley, p, tSf. 

f Piiibs. Trans. No. ^78. Gibi* C«jxid. JOBG. 


HorBley haj * two sepulchral iDscripllons, two rdiefe, and an 
alt^ to Jupiter, found here ; also a rude bas relief of a Roman 
archer, called Ro6in of Bmngluitn^ or Robin of Redetdak: it 
is near the Park-head» about half a mile from the station, on a 
huge piece of fallen rock* Mr. Hutch! o&on disagreea with 
Horsey, in calliDg it Honian ; and says, that the appellation 
Robin of lledesdale, was given to one of tlie Umfranvills, and 
that in the time of Edward the Fourth, one Hiliiard, of the 
Lancastrian party, was thus denominated.^ Thii inscription, 
D M AEMILLIANVS ANNORVM X. we copied from tlie 
original at Caropville : it waa comHiiunicated, with another se- 
pulchral inscription^ to Mr* Hutchinson. The two next were 
aUo found here, and described by Lionel Charlton, in the Gtfn- 
tletnan^s Magazine, in 1753, at which time one of them waa in 
a cow'house, the other in a chimney, at Woodburn ; — 

1 D M 

VI xn c. R 
a € A 


• •..XII : O. R 

Q C, J A 




Mr* Brand has published the following m his History of 
V. S* LM. It ia upon a handsome altar, discovered here in 
1 783* Spon's account of the Da* Matres ie, that they were 
deified women, who, while living, were thought to have the 
gift of prophecy, and after their death seem to hare been wor- 
ahlpped as a sort of genii, or tutelar deities of the places wliere 
Ihey resided. This altar is at Carapeville. 

* P. ^40. t Hut«4i. I* pp. 191, t9S, Hofsfey, p, f39. 

t VoK r. p. 6t«» See Honky, pp. SOl, %rt* 

CtsDfiH parish is about twenty-tn^o miles long and seven miles 
poadt and contains about J 500 inhstbitants. The village of Els* 
m ha» an annual fair, for cattle^ on the twenty-sixth of August* 
The parish church is ancieot, and has once been mucli larger 
on the north side. In clearing away the earth recumbent against 
north transept, the bones of upwards of one hundred per* 
\ lately found, regularly deposited in double rows, the 
9CII& af one alternately lying between the thigh bones of an- 
^(tb^* Behind the chancel was also found a tomb-stone, with 
s croes and a sword carved upon it ; the monument of a young 
anaoi as i^peared by the beautiful freshness of his teeth. The 
Treetcrtf^hoiise is a strong old tower, with a circular staircase at 
<lfie comer ; its lowest story is spanned with one large arch ; on 
«t8 front are the arms of the Humfranvilles, and beneath them — 

Tlie Mote HiU^ on the north side of the village, has, as its 
miame evinces, been a place of assembly, on public occasions, in 
Saxon times ; though the remains of strong masonry, and two 
S^nscriptions* found upon it, prove that it has been used as an 
E^xploratory hill by the Romans;, though its features at present 
YoL, Xn. L bear 

* Buoei of dififerent kiudi of animals, boar'5 tusks, an iira with ashes of 
», were, abnut thirty-five years since, ^vt^ up licrp. The iascnp 
\ are in Uontcy as follow « : — 




C. A, ACIL, 

9dine have thought Utat these arc ft apnenta of the same ftonf*, tod that 
'^kmt iliDuld be read tlius : — ^Deo Matiino pro aalute et bouo generis liumani 

i ^pcranie Gcta Augusta suh- legato aairustali propnHiore pasuit jie 

|^ft«dicavit Cains Aiilus Acilius.' •• -Mr. Ho rsley, however, did not entirely 
^o^ndde in this reading, supposing iiiat the cha&mii in the third and fourtJi 
lioes of tlic recond fbould be filled op isith ** Calpumiui Agncola,'* 



bear no resemblance of Roman origm. It consist* oFtwo cir 
clcs, detached from each other by ditches, about tliirty feet - 
deep, aud defended by high breast*work on their margins. Fa^ 
bulous tradition relates that a giant, called Ella, resided here, 
and committed great ravages in the neighbourhood. 

Bereness Vhapel^ in this parish, had a long time laid in ruir 
but was rebuilt by voluntary subscription in 1 793, when it 
endowed wiUi 17301; whereof 12001. was given by the Kev.l 
L. Dutt^ns, rector of Elsden ; 40DL by the governors of Que 
Anne's bounty, and 1501. by the subscribers to tlie edifice. 
Ottehburne Castle, says Leland, siandcth on ** Otter] 
, in Kidt^sdale." John Hall, Esq. whose ance&tors had been 
long seated here, was a magii^trate, and captain of a train-band 
fin (iueen Anne's time. He engaged in the rchcilion, in 1715, j 
was taken prisoner at Preston, in Lancashire, and executed at 1 
Tyburne. Ills estates being forfeited, were purchased by Halll 
i of Catclengh, whoBe son Hobeit left tliem to the father of Mr» . 
I JEllLif tJicir present posge»5or, whose mansion-house is founded j 
upon the .site of tiie old castle. In liis account^ of tiie battle i 
Ifought herCv on the ninth of August, 1S8%S, Froisart describes J 
I this fortress as ** tollerabJy strong, and situated among marches^ j 
[• .wliich the Scots attacked so long, and so unsuccessfully, that ] 
I they were fatigued, and afterwards sounded a retreat." In | 
council, however, it was agreed to renew the attack in the cool J 
of next morning ; but to many of them tlic light of that morn* 
ing nuvtr shone. Under the Earlh of Douglas, Murray, and i 
f March, tliey hud a little time before entered Northumberland, i 
crossed tlic Tyne, and burned the country as fur as 13rancepeth| 
Castle, and then returned, laden with plunder. In iheir wajF 
back they lay three days before Newcastle, in which time there 
was much skinnishing, and Sir Henry Percy lost his pennon in 
on encounter uith Douglas, who boasted he would ftx it upon. 
his Castle of Dalkeith. The morning after tins — 

» B. IlL c. l?5— 189. Jobaef'Tx«Qsktiotij Vol IX, p. 237^1 





The Dowflaj tiirnyd hTin homewarde a^Jiym, 

For »orti w'ithow^bteii tm>e, 
He tonk \m iogtyti^e a( OtUetbomey 

Upon a Wedyiwday ;• 

in hi« road to which place he burned the castle of Ponelace^ 
and took \U owner, Sir Ilatfino dc Jlphrl^f prisoner. While 
they were at supper* and " some wt-re gone to sleep, for they 
had laboured hard during tlie day at tlie attack of the castle ** 
of Otterbume, tJie^ English, from Newcastle, entered their camp 
with tJie cry, * Percy ! Percy !' It was moon-light* The as* 
tault, byniistake» was made antong tlie huts of tlie servants^ 
which gave the Scotch (who had settled tlieir plans of defence 
in case of attack) time to wheel along the mountain side, and 
fail upon the English llank. The battle now raged. Douglas 
and Hotspur had met, and the Scotch were giving way, when 
Sir Patrick Hepburne and his son came, and renewed the fight. 
** The Earl of Douglas, who was of a high spirit, seeipg his men 
d, seized a battle-axe with both his hands, like a gallant 
blight, and, to rally his men, dashed into the midst of hii 
enemies, and gave such blows on all around him, that no one 
eould withstand them, but all made way for him on every side, 
until he was met by three spears that pointed at him; one struck 
him on the shoulder, another on the stomach, near the belly, 
atid the third entered his thigh. He could never iliitengage 
himself from these spears, but was borne to the ground, Bght- 
ing desperately. From that moment !ie never rose again. Some 
of his knights and esquires had followed him, but not all ; for, 
though the moon shone, it was rather darL" Wljen his fol- 
lowers came up they found him stretched upon the ground, with 
his valiant chaplain and a wounded knight by his side. ** Thanks 

L2 to 

•Tlic Battle of Oltcrhunie, oa old ballad. 

i Probably Sir "Ayraeruftde Athelc,** who was j*1ieriif of Nortliumberlaod, 
it3l3lK Fontdaiid^ attptirtof the Mitf^rd barony^ was, at t}th time, a 
tN^i»esxtou of Sir Ttioniaji Percy, by liis Diarriage wiUi Elizabftth, Co*Ucire*» 
•I Dtfid Siralolgie, Earl of AthoL 


to God," says he, ** I die like my forefathers, in a field of 

battle, and not in my cliamber upon my bed. Raise up myl 
banner, and continue the cry of * Douglas!' but tell neither] 
friend nor foe that I am dead.'* The main force of the Englisli^ 
army marched over his body. Sir Ralph Percy, badly wound* 
ed, was soon after taken prisoner. The contention still conti^ 
nued fierce; but when the fallen banner again came forw'ard,! 
with the cry of ** Douglas ! Douglas!" the Scotch made a furiou*! 
attack, and tlie English^ weary with a long day's march, andi 
the fatigue of battle, at last gave way, and were completely j 
overthrown. Sir Ralph Percy, and other distingubhed charac^l 
ters, to the number of 1000, were taken prisoners : upwards ( 
1800 were killed, and above 1000 wounded. Soon afler the! 
Bishop of Durham came up with flresh troops, but Unditig the 
Scotch strongly entrenched, and being deceived in their num' 
bers, by their blowing a claniorous concert witli their horQ%J 
they determined to return again to Newcastle. I wm told, 
Froisart, that this battle waa ** la plus dure et la plus cruelle < 
la miex combattue que jamais bataille fut. Ce que croy. C« 
Anglois d'un cost^ et Eacocois de Pautre sont moult bons geni 
d'armes et quand ili se trouvent ou rencontrent au partj 
d^annes e'est sans s'epargner. 11 n*y a entrc eux nid ho. Tant 
que lances^ e^pees, hackes, et dagues peuvent durer ils ficrent 
et frapent Fun sur PauLre et quand ils se sont bien battus et que 
Pun partie obtieut, ils se glorihent tant en Icurs armes, et sont 
si rejouts que sur les champs ceux qui sont prU et fiance z sod^ 
rati^onnez ; et savez vous comment ? si trestot et si courtoisc 
ment que cliacun se contente de son compaignon et qu'au de- 
parteraent ils dient. Grand mercy. Mais en combattant et 
faisant armc^ Pun sur I'autre il n'y a pouit de jeu ni d'epargne^ 
Ain^ois est tout a certes, et bien le monstrent la : ainsi que je 
rous diray, car ceste rencontre fut aussi bien demenee au droit 
d*armes que nulle chose peut on9ques estre.'' 

Mr. Hor&ley, in a letter* to R.Gale, Esq, December thirteenth^ 

* Hutvh. NaitlHimb. I, 19a. 



J729» described a cairn opened near Ottcrburae about thgt 
time. It WAS computed to contain about alxty ton« of \oo9c 
atones, under which appeared a large, flat, undressed stone, that 
covered a cavity, three feet long, two feet broad, and about 
four feet deep. It was filled about eighteen inches with fine 
mould, next was a layer of ashes, mixed with pieces of 
boae and half-burned wood, and then two feet of fine river 
sand. A similar monument, near High Carrich^ was used in 
buddiDg a kiln, a few years since : in its centre was a cavky» 
formed by four stones set on edge, and covered with one about 
eight feet long and five feet broad. Hare Cairn^ u e. army's 
lon^t on a sheep-walk, east of Ilachester, is a mass of looae 
itaiiei^ twelve feet high, and sixty yardg in diameter. Toild- 
Lmo means Fox Hill, and is the name of a moor about n mile 
south-east of Bereness Chapel, on which are three rude stouc 
pillars^ in a triangle, twelve feet asunder. There are several 
[, tumuli, and Druidical circles, scattered over this district, 
cially on the hills towards the borders. 

At ElishaWf between Otterburne and Rochester, was an hm* 
pltal and a chapel, valued in the Liber Regis at Ids. 4d. a year; 
but few traces of them at present remain. About the spot the 
ground it uneven, with foundations of other buildings ; and a 
Soman bridge has crossed the Rede here, as is evident by f^tones 
still remaining, joined together with iron cramps and lead. 

Rochester is situated in Wathng Street, eight miles north 
of Risingham, and twenty of the wall. It is the Brancniuni of 
Plolo«ny and the Itineniry, as is proved by this inscription, dis- 
covered by Camden, and at present in Trinity College : — D R S 
Deae Romae sacrum duplares numeri exploratorum Bremenii aram 
rnstrtuerunt numeni ejus Caio CsEpione Charrtino tribuno, &c. 
Richard numbers Brcmenium among the twelve stipendary cities 
io Britain. It is defended by three rampart.s oi' earth and a 
vaU eevcn fe«t thick, and fancifully chequered witli ashlar 

L 3 work, 



fktdn M Miftnii eohortis primetJUla Varduhrum dviam Roma" 

_ Tl»# tliiiH^ fiiUowiiTg inscrijitions we copied from very perfecl 

I iiimI t%(*4«hti(\il ultitn tbuncl witluxi thb station, iu the ruins of a 

I Uiiti* huiliiliigi on t)ie west side of the south gate. The onginaU 

H iwri» «il CMttpeviUc ;•— 



(irNto. iiiA 


one SANCT^ 



-Mwfroae <^ Genio 
fe. Concerning 
bit inscnbed * Deo 
and that the terms 
faUf establish the 
HL B tUi stipendaiy 
Ihii lie was most of 
«f die peo|ife bto classes 

of Copper- 
if ftttwi as llie aeirenth, 
lii Mercurial and 
of TrareUers. 


Concern ing die other two of these inscriptionsi there Is nothing 
remarbiblef except their being dedicated to Minerva only, and 
t}»e last being erected ** by a decree of the senate." There 
are al«o several funeral Inscriptions, and curious figures in has* 
leltef, at Campeville, brought from this place, and amongst the 
flat tbta fragment :— 

.-E L. AVG 
• CoH, I F. 
-G. AVG, 
IT. F. 

from which little more can be gathered than that it has been 
erected m memory of some work done by the first cohort of 
Varduliansj called ^dii. 

In our visit to this place, In September 1810, we found two 
oken inscriptions in the possession of the Rev. — Hope, 
rho resides within the area of the stations ; and the following 
curious, though imperfect inscription , we copied from a stone 
in a wheat field across the rivulet, and opposite the north -ea«t 
comer of the station. The top of it has received much injury 
from the weather ; — 

..C--,-.F AVG. 

M. V. D. XXV. 

Cripchase Castle.— Peter de Insula heldChipches and Wit- 
^»illi by a third part of a knight's fee, of tJie barony of Humfran- 
^ilL* In the time of Henry the Eighth it wa& the residence of 

* Tcsta« de Nevi)» p. $Bt* 


Sir Jolm Tleran, in whose family it continued four tlesceiits, imd 
Umki fell to the Allgoocis, who soon after sold it to John Ree^l^ 
E^» de^CPTitlecl from the ancient family of Reeds of Trough- 
end* in [tede*d»ilc, nnd grundiatlier of its i>resent possessor* 
Ldand calls ** Chipchase a praty towne and cattle, hard on the 
eafite parte of tite anne of Northe Tync ;*** and Sir Uitfph Sad- 
ler» iu u letter to Secretary Cecily says, '* the most apte and 
convenyq|it placis for tlic keeper ot Ttndak- to reside in on all 
tlie frontiers are Hawgston, Langley, or Chipchase, in one of 
whicti iij placis men of ^errice have alwayes been plaoc?dy and 
especially for the well executing of that office oC Tyndale/*^ 
The old tower still remains : its roof is built on corhels, and 
hoit openings through which to throw down stones or scalding 
%vater upon an enemy. The grooves of the portcullis, tlie 
porter's chamber above it, and tattered fragments of Gothic 
paititln^j' on the walls, are exceedingly curious. The large ad- 
ditiouN to this structiiie were made by Cutribert Herron, Esq, 
in 1621 ; and soon after it came to the present family it 
thoroughly rcprtired, and much improved ; the chapel^ in the 
lawn was rebuilt, the gardens made, and the grounds covered 
witli extensive plantations* This delighful residence is sur- 
nndcd with scener)^ of the richest and most enchanting kind; 
tind from the neighbourhood of Wark, Nunwick, and Simon* 
bum, lias a bold and magnificent appearance. The rooms in it 
are fitted up in a splendid style, and ornamented with several 
very excellent paintings, amongst which are a fine picture of 
the Descent from the Cross, by Vandyke ; the Marriage at Cana 
in Galilee, by Tintoretto; a Holy Family, by Rubens; St. John 
receiving his Revelations, coloured and drawn with great spirit; 
and the Forum at Rome, with the Tale of M. Curtius leaping 
into tlie Gulph, by Paul Panini. 

♦ Vol. VIL fol. 75. t State Papers, VoL L p. 441. 

t *rhi» <li]ipel, in 117], was given to t]ie chiircb of Hc^xhatn, b^ Odonel 

fTmiifrafivill. 'Vht* oKl cUapel atoofl near the front of the casllc* At pre- 
trat Ui*i Virar of fliiilfertoo pcrfonns liatj here four liijjt^ a ^ear, for whjdi 
li» rccftfti fuftv sbiilingi a year, in heo of all ty&cs. 




SwiNBVRXB Castlb, the flcat of Mrs. Riddelly iBan elegant 
itone building, on'rising ground, and surrounded with plantaF- 
tions, laid out in long straight lines, which, at a distance, have 
a dark and hard appearance. This place, wkh Ganiterton, waa 
held by ** Peter de Gunwarton, of the baronj of Ba]iol, bj two 
knights' fees,"* in the reign of Edward the First .In 1S96 It 
belonged to John de Swinburne, from whom it passed to Joha 
de Widdrington, by marriage, and was the property of his de- 
scendant, John Widderington, in 1596.t Afterwards it came 
to the Riddells, an ancient family, some of whom were opulent 
merchants in Newcasde, and built a residence out of the hos- 
pital of St. Edmund, in Gateshead, which, owing to a quarrel 
between tbe mob and an old senrant, was set on fire as the 
Duke of Cumberland marchod past it into Scotland, in 17M. 
William Ryddel, in 1569, obtained a lease from the crown of 
coals ** cum les water pyttes in campis de Gateshed."^ Sir 
Thomas, of this fiunily, was so great a loyalist in Cromwell's 
time that 1 (KX)1. was o&red for his head. 

St. Oswald's Chapbl standa on a high and boU situation, 
above Chollerford bridge. In a field near it sculls of men and hilts 
of swords have been frequently ploughed up. ** There is a fame,** 
says Lelond, ** that Oswald won the battle at Halydcne a 9. 
niyles est from St, Otnoalde^n asche^ and that Ilaliden is it that 
Bcde caulith Ilevenfeld. And men there aboute yet finde smaule 
wod croesis in the ground."^ A large silver coin of St. Os- 
wald was found, not long since, in repairing the chapel, and 
there are many ancient charters in the ciiurch of Durham with 
seals, bearing his head, and this fnscription— ^APUT SA^^CTI 
OSWALD REGIS, on one side, and his cross and SIGIL* 
LUM CUDBERTI PR.ESULIS SCI, on the other. The 
origin of the sanctity of this place is briefly this :— Ceadwallo 
and Penda having ravaged the whole kingdoni of Northumber- 
* Test de Nev. p. 385. t Inquig. p. nort. Oct 8, 15B5. 

% Jones's Index to RecVoL U, sii6 Ck4$9kmi. f It. VoL VIL p. $U 




land, Ethelburga and Paulinus fled into Kent* and the p€Ot>le, 
seeing no end to the oppression they suffered, chose Eanfrid 
King of Bemicia, and Osric of Beira : they botJi renounced 
Christianity, and, aa if in punishment of their apoetacyy the 
terrible CeadwalJo attacked Osric, slew hira, routed his array, 
and plundered hi£ subjects. Eanfrid, dreading sirnilar treat- 
ment, threw himself upon the mercy of the tyrant, who mur- 
dered him in his presence. At length, in 635* OswaJd, Ean- 
frid's brother, rising from obscurity, with an army, small in- 
deed, but composed of vahant men, strong in the fiuth of Christ, 
generously resolved to oppose the usurper. He had studied the 
art of war in retirement* and now, having chosen a pro] 
situation on the banks of Dcnis^sbum, entrenched himself, 
under the baiuier of the holy cross waited with religious 
lemnity for the enemy. Ceadwallo, flushed with recent sue 
ce«s, and conitdcnt in his numbers, rushed into the camp, but 
waa himself slain with an arrow, and his army routed. The 
Nortlmmbrian Saxons thought they saw the interference of 
Providence so plainly in this victory, that they called the field 
of battle HfJerifeUky^ i. e. Heaven Field ; and the brethren of 
the church of Hexham, for many years, annually resorted hither 
on tlie day before St. Oswald's martyrdom In make vigils for 
hiB soul, and sing psalms, and oifer the Facfi6ce of holy obla- 
tion for him in the morning. Which good custom growing more 
into notice, continues Bede, they have lately made the j»l8€e 
more sacred and more honourable, by building a church at it ; 
and that not without cause, for we do not find that there was 
any sign of Christianity, any church, or any altar, in the whole 
kingdom of Bemicia before this new general erected this ban] 
of the holy cross, when he was about to light with a most bi 
barous enemy.f 

Dkni^esburn, is at present called Erringburn, Hefenfelth, 

• Fcrtychron. 1. b. ell. Sax. Ann. G. Mtlms. L 1, c, S. 
fEciuHiiL L^. €.i.t. 



aceoidiBg to Bede, wm jaxts mram, ad AqaOoiMmy and h 
nppQied by lome to be the tune si HdUmglom^^ h old writiBgo 
JUUbms thatk, HotyHilL Bj the tnditioo of iooe, tli» 
btttie WW ibug^t ot Bingfiddy iriiere thete is a dopd^ fbmierijf 
under Hexham dburdi; but othen oMert that k hnn > tii e d m 
the gnmndt of CoddejTt beknr the dmrdi and cnMi of St. 
Onrald, and betweeo Errmg^nini and the WalL Bat whether 
h was at HallingtOD, CocUej, or Brngfidd, Erringbuna nost bo 
dtt same bfook that Bode calk DeiiiBesbiiiii.t 

St. Johmlbx k the name ofaparish, the dnwdiofwfakh 
k dedicated to St. Jdm of Bereriej, and stands on a bold and 
woody hfadlimd, having a prospect of both arms of the Tyne 
and fiur down its muted stream. BdowkkHSmadi^y aplaoe 
where bothart and nature have nnitad their eCbrts to render 
charming.^ Prior Bidiard caUs k Emeihtmf whidi he inter- 
preto JSsglf^i HffiL$ It was to thk sweet sdkode that John of 
Beveilej retired from hk i^ostolic hdwaffs of evangdinng tibo 
En^ish pagans, previous to hk a ppo i i^ ip mit to the see of Hes- 
hsn^bjKingAUred. Hereakowasdionlorjrof St. Michad, 
hdd sacred in former dajrs Snt its power over inwlerate diseases. 
It was plundered by two Scots from the army of David, in 1138; 
both of which, says Richard, soon after were seized with mad- 

* HalMngioMy before tlie dinoistion, bekmsed to the elmrcli of Hexham. 
At present it paitlj belongs to the Errinftons, and to Christopher Soulsbv, 
Eiq. of HaUiMgton Mmhu, The Erringtoos derive their name from a small 
hanlet on the Eiringbam, and were seated at it in 137$. Their principal 
Nit, in 1567, was (MtUy Tower, a strong old fortress, at present in roim, 
tbongh the dongeons and rooms in its tnirets are pretty perfect, and traces 
of painting are »tiil obsertable on the ptaster of iu walls. Near HaUnigtoe 
is t hill, called the Mote Lac, haTing a square entrenchment npon it, in 
tbe middle of wliicb is a hearth-stone, for kindling ahmn-fires upon; and 
not far soath-wcst from St. Oswald's (Ihapel is a curious hi!!, called lUmgiitf 
Shows, with several gradations of artificial terraces on its sidei. 

t Smith's Bede, aps. p. 7t0. 

t Stubbs, Act. Pootif. Ebor. col. 1G92. f De Stats. &c. col 991. 

15S KoiiTmncBEitLAyki* 

iiesg, and wildlj roved about, manglmg ihetr limbs till ibef 
died. After die dk$olutiOD *' Tharinitag and Cliantri-cloee"* 
were in the Imnds of the crown^ as parcels and posssedsions of 
the church of HexhaTn.f In 1 7*1 1 it belonged to John Coats^ 
worth. Esq, firom wliotn it passed by will to James Jurin, Esq* 
son of Dr, Jurio, the learned editor of Varenius' Geographr* 
President of the College of Phyaicians, arc. and, since the death 
of his widow» it hcs been the scat of John Hunter, Esq. i\f r- 
Coatsworth built the man^ion-housei and Mr* Jurin made great 
improvements about it* 

Beaupront was iJie seat of David Caroaby» E&q^ in 1567 ; 
and, in 1 628, we find, in tlie list of grand jurors for this county, 
tlmt it was the residence oi' Henry Errington, Esq. from whom 
It has lineally descended to itfi present owner, John Krrin^on, 
E«q. Few places make a finer appearance, or enjoy a larger 
and belter cultivated prospect than tliis. From the south side 
of the Tyne it exhibits a long and hantUome front, surrounded 
with fine pleasure-grounds; and from its walks are seen towns, 
towers, and hamlets, an# the winding stream of Tyne^ some* 
times hidden under its banks, and at uthers boldly crossing the 
meadows in broad and silver*looklng reaches. 

Hexham. — A similariry of name Itsduced Camden, and other 
antiquaries, to suppose that Hexham was the Axelodunum of 
the Romans; but Horsley, on stronger grounds, refers tli^t 
station to Br ugh in Cumberland.:}: He knew not what name ta 
give this place, *• unless we suppose it to have been Ptolomy's 
Epiacum ;§ but no doubt now remains that Epiacum was either at 
Lanchester or Ebchester. || That the Roma/is had a station or 
town here is prob:ib!e, from its early mention in Saxon Jjrstory, 
and proved by the discovery of two Roman inscriptions in a cr^^pt^ 
of the church. The first of them is upon an altar, imperfecl 
at the top ; and copied by Horsley lhu5 : — 

^ Uwt. MS. f. 13. t Ech. 10 m'u. 

I Brit. Rom. p. 190. i lb. 250. |J Uic Cor. SS— 5S» 




LEG. A. ..• 


bese equltcs Corionolotie, Horsley supposes nught be Uie 
5itMetic Crototiiates of wliom Strabo sard, " tlie last of them 
was tlie first ot* the Greeks;" a conjecture wlitcli accounts fur 
the Greek inscriptions found at Corhridge. But some have 
tJioyglit that the name Corlonotota; may be a corruption of 
Curia, or Coria Otadenorum, and that Corhridge wai the place. 
Coriotioiar In the anonymous RavennaS| is not uuUke this name.** 
Tile Qtlier is on a tablet in tlie roof of the north passage to the 
body of the crypt ; the right hand side of it is hidden m the 
^al!^ and the blanks in the fourth and (lf\h line* " have been 
■ignedly erased with a tool : — " 




VS II*.. 

>; ^»-HORR 



The imperfect state of this inscription renders its true read- 
ing very douhtfuJ ; and as the names of Pcrtinax were Publiua 
Helvius, Horsley was certainly mistaken in attributing it to that 


• Legato Ati^^tali proprit tmt Qninifis Calpiirniits Cnuceisiniu,'* prwtltrtu* 
equlluiu Caisartcti&ium Coiionototariim niaau ^tiest'uibaimi biimmis dd 
fVttnn M»lvit. Uornlof, p. 2 iS* 

t Lnpemtor Cse^ar Liicjii«i 8e|»timiii& Pe rtiiiATC et impcnttor Ctvsar Merciu 
4iLrdii» AniooiDfit Vimfeiix et Ge(« Ctftar Coliorliufi) VenUmtiouef fece 



emperor, as he lias also been m copying some parts of the 
original. We conjecture that it relates to the building or ro- 
pairing of some granary, and tliat it is akin to the inscriptionfl 
belonging to the time of Alexander Severus, and found 
iCsica and Cilumum** There is also a fragment of another 
scriptlon in this cr^'pt, over the head of a door way* 

In 674-, two hundred seventy and eight years after tlie 
sertion of Britain by the Romans* Hettoldesham, or, as it 
more usually called, llagustald^ was made the see of a bishop, 
by St. Wilfrid, Archbishop aC York. The founder presided 
over it four years ; but falling into disgrace with King EgiflM 
and into a controversy vnih Theodore, Archbishop of Cant^PI 
bury, he was deprived of his dignities, and succeeded in this 
office by £ata, Tumbert, and St. John of Beverley ; on whose 
promotion to the see of York, in 687, he was restored to hk 
neat here, in which he continued till lii^ death, which happened 
in 6S7. Afler him came Accai the friend and patron of ^H 
Bede,f and the chaplain and sharer of the fortune of his pr^ 
decessor. He was, says Bede, a most zealous man, et cor 
Deo et homlnibus magnificus. He enlarged and beautified I 
cathedral church ; but was banished in 752, and succeeded | 
Fridbert, who presided thirty -four years, and was followed 
Alcmund in 767, Tilbert 781, Ethelbert 789, Headred, 8C 
Eanbert, or Osbert, 806, and, lastly, by Tydfcrth, who died ^ 
journey to Rome, about 821, and wift whom the biahopr 
ceased, after lasting about one hundred and ilfty years, and 
about fifty-one years before the devastation of Northumberlajid 
by Halden the Dane.J In 883 it was united to the see of 
disfarn, at that time removed to Chester le Street, and foUoii 
the fortune of tlie Bishopric of Durham, till Henry the Fid 
offended with the conduct of Bishop Flamhard, gave it to thic" 
see of York, in which it has ever since continued. ^h 

On the south side of the Tyne, says Richard, stands a ton^^ 


* See Ornt«r, p* cxc. No. \S, p. cx^u No. 8. p. tnlxxviii. No. 7, a 
t BcdP, Eccl. Hwit, I. V, c. 30. | Ric Hag. J. i. c, xix. 


, and 




rather tmall at present, and thinly inhabited, bnt formcriy, as 
fntiges ef antiquity testify, largo and magnificent It has its 
Mme from the Hestild, a rivulet that nms near it Etheldreda» 
wife of King Egfirid, gave it to St. Wilfrid, Bishop of York, 
that he might raise it to be the see of a bishop. The church 
vas dedicated to St. Andrew, and is much celebrated by ancient 
hMtorians for its feztent and beauty. The workmen eniployed 
• m building it were brought by St. YnUni from Rome. ** He 
begantheedificebymjildng crypts, and subtemuMons oratolrfesy 
and wmdtng passages through all parts of its foundaticins* The 
piDaTs that supported the walls were finely pdished^ Mpnt, 
snd of various other shapes, and the three galleriei were of 
immense height and length. These, and the capitals df thdl^ 
columns, and the bow of thp sanctuary, he "decorated with 
histories and images, carved in relief «on tbe stone, and with 
{Motures coloured with great taste. The body of the church 
was surrounded with wings and porticos, to which winding 
rtaircases were contrived with the most astonishing art. These 
itaircases also led to long waUdng-galleries, and various wind* 
'n^ passages so contrived, that a very giM m u l t i t ude of peopte 
might be within them, unperceived by any person on the grounds 
floor of the church. Oratories, too, as secret as they were 
l)eautiiul, were made in all parts of it, and in which were altars 
of the Virgin, of St. Michael, St. John the Baptist, and all the 
Apostles, Confessors, and Virgin^ Certain towers and block* 
houses remab unto this day, specimens of the inimitable ex- 
cellence of the architecture of this structure. The reliques, 
the religious persons, the ministers, the great library, the 
vestments, and utensils of the church, were too numerous and 
magnificent for the poverty of our language to describe. The 
atrium of the cathedral was girt witli a stone wall of great 
thkkness and strength, and a stone aqueduct conveyed a stream 
of water through the town to all the ofiices. The magnitude 
of this place is apparent from the extent of its ruins. It ex* 
celled, in the excellence of its architecture, all the buildiiq;^ 
Vol, XII. M in. 

169 ROHTl{UMB£Br.AHP. 

in England ; and in tnitb, there was notliing Itke tt, at tkat 
time, to be found on this side the Alps.* " Of the two oi 
Saxon churclies, [iientJO»>cd by Richard, there are na 
at present. 

The place in whiuh the Roman aiuiquitie« were discovered, 
we suppose has been one of tlie oratories of Wilfrid's churcli 
Its body is fitleen feet by nine, and has boen approached by 
winding pas^ageSf at present walled up ; access being obtained 
to it by raising a large tombstone, and defccnding into it by 
a long ladder out of the churchyard. The number of carved 
stones in it, which have been applied to former buildings, evi 
dently testify, that as long as the ruins of the Uoman fortre; 
lasted, they were used in the foundations of this edifice. 

Thomas the Second, Archbishop of York, in liis visit to thi 
place in 11 13, struck with its rtiinod grmidear, and recollecting 
Its ancient dignity and opulence, with the consent of its rector 
and vicar, placed a prior and canons rirgular, of the order of 
St. Austin, in it. The following inscription, in ligature letter^^ 
in a ^let of the tabernacle work at the entrance into tlve choir, 
proves that this archbishop was one of its Iienefactors. Oi 

pro anima, Dni, Thoma? S Pater h\ijx\& Ecclesiitt Qui 

fecit hoc Opw.^. The letters in Italic supply the parts of tlje 
mscription broken off. In various parU of the church we 
found the letters ri laid in the form of a St. Andrew's crossi on 
a shield; and in the inside of the manor office is a shi*»Id^ 
charged with St. Andrew's cross, and the letters t\&l}^ meao* 
ing Rkhardm Prior ifaguslaldenm^ which prove that the edifice 
was buildhig in his time* Richard flourished iu tlie relgt) 
Henry the Second, and died ** sub annum ll^O.f" To 
reign of Henry the First, when this church was separated 
the see of Durhaai» we may therefore date ike co«ajiieac 
of its r^-buildlng, and the period of its being Bmshed to ll 


• Rich. Pr. Hag. tot, X Script, Col. t9Q. See alto KMm, and Bod**! 
l^c* BhU L. V* e* xv. 

♦ %^03siua tie Hist. Lat, L. II. rap.^f. 



Utter tnA of the time of Henry the Second. It is in the form 
of a Greek cross ; the tower, near tliirty-tbur ywrds high, k in 
the centre, and appears low and broad. The architecture is 
mixed, of the Gothic and Saxon; in one pnri tho narrow sharp 
windows appear, whicli began to be in use about this tiiae. 
Tht! mtGrbr Is hfghly finished ; tlits principnl pillars, which are 
rather disproportionate and heavy, are clustered, and suppoft 
Cothic! arches ; bat the members of the archings and pilasters 
«rfe finely proportioned. The choir i^ roofed mth wood, 
c<tv<?red \t'ith Ibad, and the side aisles are arched with stone. 
Jl d6uh]e gallery runs round the whole structure, oj»ening witn 
Kdxon arches, each opening being composed of three arches^ 
the centre one circular, the side ones painted , the workmaii- 
mh'ip extremely fine, and tlie pillars light.* Tlic nave was 
burnt down by the Scots in 12t)6, and nothing now remains of 
h but a sadly ruined specimen of its western door, and part of 
tbif )»outh wall adjoining tlie cioi«ters» Tlie ivhole edifice has 
strong marks of fire upon it. The choir is at present used as 
the parish church, and crouded with most inelegant pewns and 
leries. On the pannels of the screen, at its entrance, is 

inted Dr^th*s I)ana\ and several historical subjects ; and 
tPtCT the litany-desk, at present placed on the west side of the 
tramie^t, are full-length portraits of the saints Wlliric!, John 
<iT '' Vy, Acca, Fridbcrt, Gilfrid, Alcnmnd, and Eata, 
n inscription above their head*, * Fum/atortSf hitjus locL* 

"Eiith figure Is about three feet lon<;, the drapery good, btit the 
\ 'It. The bishop's pew, and the oratory, T\eiT Prior 

Kiw-.^.v, ^, tomb, have been a)ao ornamented with paintings, al 
p^estnt much defaced by time and bud usage. 

tit the ^outh aisle is a mutilated effigy of one of the Urn* 
franvilles, in the altitude of a crusador ; and, at the entrance 
into the northern transept, is a recumbent tigure, with clasped 
handt, legs and arins cuirassed, tword sheathed, afid his shield 
charged with the arm* of the Aydens, At the west end of the 

M 2 north 

• Holcii. I. 91, 99. 


fkorih aisle is an elegant tomb, supposed to be in memory of 

Ur^vald, King of Northumberland, who was slain at Scale- 

Ichester, in 788.' The effigy that belongs to ft is clad in the 

tohta of an ecclesiastic The tomb of Prior Richard is oma- 

Eieiited wkh several rude and fanciful carvings, which Iiave 

been mistaken for Roman antiquities, but which Pentmnt justljf 

litiles, ** raonstruous engravings of no meaning or moraenL*' 

bKear this tomb is a. beautiful oratory, now a pew^ and above it 

w suspended the helmet of Sir J. Fen wick, who was slain at tlie 

battle of Marsden Moor, and whose sculi, broken in the same 

[place as the helmet, is still preserved in the priory. On the 

liouth side of the altar are three stalls (and two others have 

leeo cut away ) highly omajnented with tabernacIe'^worLy AO^j^J 

t to which the bishop and his attendants retired during the elera*'^^! 

rlion of the host, as is the practice in the great churches of the 

.continent. Behind the altar is the place of the shrine of th« 

. lioly reiicks* now called the Old School, Hfly-nine feet long, 

•*and twenty- five feet widCf in which hare been found many stone 

iCoAiDS. And against a pillar an the north side of the altar stiU 

►'remains the fridstooi^ or seat of sanctuary, concerning which 

I Jlichard tells ns, ** that by seizing any one, %ing for refuge* 

.'within tlie four crosses on the outside of the towiit a penalty of 

y sixteen pounds was incurred ; within the town tlie penalty wet 

thirty-two pounds ; within the walls of the churchyard forty* 

eight pounds; within the doors of the choir H^L and besides 

* these penalties, penance, as for sacrilege, for each offence ; 

I ^ut they who shall presume to seize any one in tlte stone chairi 

, near the altar, called the Frid-stool, or at the shrine of holy 

fVelicks, behind the altar, for such flagitious crime, shall not be 

allowed to purchase remission by any sum of money, but shaU 

be bootUsSy incapable of pardon,* *' 


• Lib. It. cap. XVI. "Hiis privilege of saactuary wa« fii^t prorured by 
WilfrRl, itnl iu a ^uil r-iiicpniin^ ihc iMjht of it, in 1^92, tfic Arrlibuhopy 

of York iilcuiJi'd Jiit rUim of imiiienuiri&l luage, upon which the kiag i 





This church had large possessions^ a catalogue of which i^ 
itill preserved in the maiior*oiBce of the abbey, and ii caJled* 
the Blnck*Book : it was gleaned for the Monasticon* At the 
diasolutionp the priory lands were valued at 12^1. lis. Id, flo- 
bert HolgatCt Archbishop of York, in 1545, gave the manor 
in exchuige for certain church property, and retained nothing 
but episcopal jurisdiction.* Several of it* poi^sessions were ia 
the hands of the crown, in 1567» but sold, in 1578, to Sir 
John Foster, Knt, Bant. In 1660 they devolved ta his son- 
rin*law, Sir John Fenw-ick, Knight, whose grandson. Sir John 
Ptfiiwick, Bfirt. «iold them to Sir WiUiatn Blackett, Bart, from 
irhom they descended to T, R, Beaumont, Esq. of Bretton 
Park« in Yorkshire, by marriage of Diana, daughter of the late 
^Sir Thomas Wentworth Blackett* 

The Priory stood at the west end of the church. Its doi- 

and chapel were to be seen not many years since^ Sir 

^'nald Carnaby f repaired it, and his arms, with the date, 

M 3 1539, 

«ouoci] eslAbli&hed hit right ; and Ed\Kiird the Tltinl cnnfirmed Jura Ke* 
ilia, atid the n^t of teufhs and 6ft«'ciitti'i to it, »llowiog the archbishop 
I \m OMTU officetft No \au^\ hailiff eoufd enter \m muxior. He hetd 
pruc^nerfi and parted \ritU them ntlih own will* He had a market, callows, 
u)d ctiaitcU of fug]tiv(*9 untl fotou^ rotidcmned in the luaiior. Mttdox^t Bar, 
Aug, p. t5<. These pn^tleve* Vieic abridged in I4ii, on accotiat of the 
plac? bciiii; an a&vlmn to citttku^ and iobbe»-a ; and finilly ovrrthruwo in 
the twenty -seventh of Henry the Ei^ith, when 1 be Arch bislia|> of York, 
■od hit tem|ioral eUancelbr, were made josticeji of the peace for the ikk§ 
of Hexbum, which disttict^ in tlie fourteenth of Elizabeth, was ajuiexed 
to Uie county of NorthnmberUnd. TIte only remain.^ of ihene aociait 
fiaiicliise», existinp^ at present, arc — a conrt of record^ and a court of 
pleat, over ^hicli a steward presides ; aod a court baroo, of which tlie 
biitiffof the ntanor is the jn dee. 

* B. Waiis'i Sqr. I. 19, 4k 

t There wan a warm dbpute between the Dnke of NorthumbeHaad and 
Sir Ralph Sadter, in 1559, concerning Lady Caniaby^ houiie beui^ made 
the reiidrnce of the keeper of Tindale, in whicb Sir Halpb sayst— *♦ Hex- 
ham ii no apte. no mete pt^ice for the tervice of the keper of XyBdal^ Nor 

166 liOBTIiUMi^l^I^AtiO* 

1539, rematu ovec a door hi the mi^nor office:. Here i$ a finely 
carved oak bedstead, around the fringe of tlie tester of whicli^i 
is this inscnplioD, in Gothic capitals :—••* •Eboracenaii l^icKi 
seicifi mcdit hoc opus A* ****<• - omini mUlIsimo quingiat • 
Tbt! ituperfections were caused by im ignorant workiuan, wh^^ 
niled the fringe to tlie po^t& of the bed, without the raouldii^pj 
prhich formerly went between them. The priory was aJ&i^l 
med by Sir Walter Calverly Blackett, Bart, ^nd a fcnf^ 
yjears since was completely rebuilt by Mr. Beaumont* Ko part 
of the old building remains, eJ(cept the mana^ olScCt the re- 
faoory^ and a sm;dl specimen of the claistor», ua one pai^ of J 
which M'as lately dug up a butiou^ gravestone, i335Crij^^4p 
FVEEI VHDANI, and ornamented with crosses and swords* 
The Gatewa^t which Jeads to the north ftonl of tlu& man&ioi^ 
bears strong marks of Saxon architecture, ^d h 3upposv4 ^ i 
have been coeval with Wilfrixl's cluirch. There are aJ^o twi\^ 
towers in the ciixuit of the walls of the old uionasiejy, whici| 
^hibit marks of high antiquity. One of them is built over n » 
gateway, and was formerly the town-hall, but at present a ses'* 
^oos-room, for the county of Northtuiiberlandj and^ a coiuit* 
bou&e for the manor of Hexljiim, The other stands on a hillj^ { 
h square, has small loop-holes, broad corbel battl-emeuu, au<4 
two dungeons, which were used as prisons while tlie town bad 


1h my tyme I am sare there never lay any snch in Hex]iam| saving onley Sir 
KegiiaUlc Carnaby, who liad lever lye in liis ownc honne, though it were 
not the mctest place Tor the servicer, then feke any all»cr?v Nt'vej' the lc«s> 
1 hitvp learned *iiice my comyng hitijer, Uial Mr. Slingtibie hath « ^ret 
desyrc lo He In Hexham, wher indcde he haiih leva for the most part tliis 
xij moncth, ever since he had thofl^icc, in a hotise, which, if he woU neds 
lye in Hexham, may serve him ha ^vellnuwa$ it hath done before; and if 
hi' be wery fjf that lioii'-e, yet m iIil-'io m Hexham i} towers of the quene's 
ni;yeities, whicti, m I am ciedihJy injiwriucd, willi IhcJip^nce of xx^, tp 
make u Utile re P'-irationi will ierve as good a ma4i a» Mr. Slingshie 
but fur liU own ewic and comodyt*^, Iien^ns^ ned& have my lady Caroabie*! 
home, becui^^ It la the fayrcst ia tjxu tpwnc»" Statu PajjcK, YqL 1, 


fli^tiwe pmllegM. ** On an oak mantleplece of one of the 
ctork chambers is tai inscription^ which seetns to consist of moral 

This town is finely situated on the soutli side of the Tyfte. 
Its streets are narrew, and not w^ built. It has a market oA 
Taesdtjf^ tad annual fairs, August the fiflh, and NoreAiber 
the eighth. Leather, gloves, and htfts, arc its chief manuftec- 
tures* Here is a firee-schoc^, founded by Queen Elizabeth, 
June 25th, 1598. The Mercer's Company, in London, 
founded a lecturesbip in the church, in 162S, under the will of 
Richard Fiskbome, Esq. which has opulent revenues at present. 
This Uiwn gave birth to two pridrs of its church, John, and 
Richard de Hexham. John continued the History of Durham, 
from 1130 to 1154, which Twisden published among the De- 
cern Scriplores, from a single MS. in Benct College Library, 
Cambridge. Richard wrote '* A History of Hexham Churcit 
and Bishops;^' ** The Reign of Stephen;" and « The War 
of the Standard ;'* also published among the Decem Scrip- 
tores, f 

John Nevil, Marquis of Montague, getieral of the forces of 
Edward the Fourth, gained a decisive victory near this town, 
at a place called the Linhills, on the southern bank of Devils- 
water, over the forces of the deposed king, Henry the Sixth. 
The Abacoiy or cap of state, adorned with two rich crowns, 
was found upon one of Henry's attendants ; and his general, 
the Duke of Somerset, was taW§ prisoner and beheaded, as 
were several other distinguished characters, at Hexham. Mon- 
tague's success procured him the title of Duke of Northumber- 
land. Henry was soon after taken prisoner ; and his queen 
and son, after many miseries and adventures, arrived at tJie 
house of Rene, of Anjou, her father. Duxiield and the Queen's 
Cave, places near the field of battle, date their names from 

M 4 this 

♦ Hntdi. I. 106. Cough's Caind. ITI. ?49. 

+ Sfld. Prffif. ad. X. Script: Wharton's Angl. Sac. I. Piicf. 48. T«il 
Bib. Brit. p. 628. 


tint e%ent* A serious riot dso to(4 place in this town oil tW 
ninth of March, 1761, between a v^ry large coucoursc of fieo* 
pie, collected to oppose the halioting for the militia, and a 
troop of the North Vork militiii. After Ensign Hart and a 
private were killed, the magistrate!! commanded the mnitia XQ 
fire upon the raob^ tbrty-five of whom were killed on the s-poU 
and about liOO badly wounded* 

The Abbey of Blanxhelano stands in a narroir, green 
valley, surrounded by moor« and morasses, and in about two 
miles from the head of the river Derwent. It was founded by 
k^alter de Dolbeck, in 116^, for twelve preirionstratensian 
anons* The abbot was summoned to the parlitimenta held in 
1291 and 1295. lu revenues, at the iuppres^ian^ were valued^ 
by Speed, at 141. ds. ld« It was granted by the crown to John 
iBellow and John BrixHolm» and aller tfiHt brcarae the propetty 
lof the Forsters, of Bambargh, who forfciud it» in 1715, after 
rhich it was purchased by Lord Crene^ and by him leH 10 
I charitable U£e$* Part of the church ts litted up for Uie um of 
the parish, and contains some old grave-stone«. The gateway 
of the quadrangle of Uie abbey ^ and the abbey itself, ore pretty 
I entire. A mite from it, near llunfttanworth chapel, ts a curious 
^ arched x'nttfip Ibriy-five feet iong> and twenty-five feet wide. 
Also in this neighbourhood ie Bo l beck, which, in the cleventb 
and twelilh centuriea, was the barony of a famous family of its 
own name; it was forfeited, witii the Bywell bnrony, by Uie 
Earl of Westmoreland, in Qiccn Clizabctli*i$ reign ; it at pre- 
sent is a manor of George Sitvertop, Esq. of Mini&ter Acaxs, 
a seut abou( which great and laudable improvements have, of 
late years, been made in planting. 

PAuuHoe Castle has its name from stiwding on a prmid 
eminence. It was the capital seat of the barony of the Hum- 
franviJles, and given to them by Willium the Conqueror, with 
whom tljcy came into England. It wtis gallantly and SiUCcesiS' 
fully defended agaim^t William, King of Scotland^ in the time 
of Henry the Second. Odonel Ilumfranville also defended it 



V01lTHVlfBBmi.A«]K 16§ 

die Scots in 1244, and plundered his neighboun to 
repair ita roof. Gilbert, of this fiunily, died in 1845, and ia 
called, bj M. Paris, ^ a famous baron, the guardian and orna* 
ment of the northern parts.'' Three of this family were Earb 
of Angus, viz. Gilbert the Third, who died in 1272; Robi^ 
who died in 1S84 ; and Gilbert the Fourth, who died without 
iasue in 1381. Su: Robert, half brother of Gilbert the Fourth, 
was sheriff of this county in the ye^rs 1871, 1376, 1400, and 
1404; and Sir Kobtrt, grandson of the. second earl, waa a 
knight of the garter, and Vice- Admiral of England, in 1410: 
be brought such plenty of cloth and .com from il Scotch war, 
that he was nick-named Robin Mend^Market. He was slain at 
Baugie, in Anjou, in 1419.* From this family Prudhoe came 
to the Tailboys, who forfeited it at the battle of Hexham. 
The crown granted it to John, Duke of Bedford, and after- 
wards to Henry Percy, first Earl of Northumberland, in whose 
fiunily it still continues. This castle was tenanted, in 1557, by 
Hepury Percy, brother of Thomas, Earl of Northumberlaild ;f 
though in 1559 it is described as ** old and ruinous, being 
walled about, and in form not much unlike unto a shield 
hanging with one point upward, scituate upon a high moate of 
earth, with ditches in some places, all wrought with man's 
hand, as it seemeth, and is of content, all the scite of, with a 
little garden plat, and the bankes, by estimatciou, sc. iii acres. 
— ^There is within the scyte, and without the walls, an elder 
chapellf which hath been very faire, and covered with slate." — In 
this there was a chantry for two chaplains, founded by Gilbert 
Ilumfranville, first Earl of Angus. *' The gate is a tower, all 
massy worke on both sides to the top of the vault. Above the 
vault is the chepell ; and, above the chepell, a chamber, called 
the wardrobe." The outer walls appear to be the oldest part 
of this fortress, as the square towers in them, on the west side, 
have circular bases, and the covered way, which leads to the 


* HoUinsbed, II. 536—578. 
t Lodge*! niiut. of Brit. Hist. Vol. I. p. e54. 

170 K0iiTin'M«EiitA>n*w 

iimer u»d semicircular gskc^ is of much stronger and better 
Biasofiry thiiD tiie lower fiart of the tower ati the guteway ilMlt^ 
Tlie keep measures ^* one way IS ) chords, aiiotber wa^ sdl 
j^eards north aad south, of thrte storyes onJy, and ot* heighft 
XV yeards, or tkereabouts, besides the battlements,'* It 
had winding galiei'ies, gained out uf the walls, Tiie ground 
high towards the river, and on tlie south the waih have 
dci^eiided by deep ditches, rrosied by a draw-bridge. Two 
families live amongst tiiesc ruin^» which hmre hitely^ in niaiv 
pbces, been secured irwn entirely fkJling tSgOtllGri by repamni 
itie parts most dJ lapidated* 






b aented oa a rich plain on the north side of the Tyae, It 
called Corabridg<s in 771, at which time there was a utoiuister 
at iL^ Da^id, King of Scots^ had his tents here in January » 
H3S,f while he was plundering the adjacent countf}' ; an^ 
anuiet^ from Scotland, in the yeai« i29G and 1311, burnt thi^ 
ioH D* The manor wm held in fee ikmn, at die annual rent { 
forty shillings, by tlie CluTerings^ of Wtirkworth, by gra 
from King John, and^ continued wkh them till Edward th?^ 
First's time. Atter 1533 it was purchased by Henry, Lord 
Pen:y, and still continues in tliat family. This town waa ai]»^| 
Ciently a borough^ and sent members to parlimnent, a privilege 
dhcoutinued for many centuries. King John granteil it aa 
annual fair on the day of John the BuptiBt^ and a weekly mar- 
kek In Leland^s time tlie names of divem streets remaine<|^H 
here, and he ibund great tokens of old foundations* By tradi-^^ 
lion this txiwii had once live churches, only one of which now 
relating : it is dodiontcd to St Andrew, and has been built out 
of the neighbouring Uoinan istation ; on a grave-stone in the 
notth uisle, is tliis inscription, iu modern Gothic characters : — 

• Uic. \U%. toL 29a, t Joh. H«?. Cal. ?60. 

XQllTHUiaiBftLAilB. 171 

^0 j%cet in tcrrift AftUni ftlhia HafO* 

By the church is an old tower, which was once the town gaolp 
though Camden calls it *^ a little turret, built and inhabited by 
the vicars." 

CoRCHESTER is a Roman station, at the confluence of the 
brook Cor with the Tjme, half a mile west of Corbridge. Sonne 
have thought that this was Ptolemy's Citria Otadenorum^ but 
Horsley makes it tlie Corstofitztm of Antoninus. It was " al* 
most levelled" in Horsley 's time ; " but abundance of n^edals, 
inscriptions, and other Roman antiquities, have been found at 
it."* The foundations of the part belonging to Greenwich 
Hospital are untouched, but the rest of theni are entirely razed. 
When this was done, remains of a hsifh were found, one room 
of which was ornamented with a nea^ small, green bordering. 
The ruins of the Roman bridge here are ^till discernible, espe- 
cially on the south side of the Tyne. Th.ere are various altarai, 
inscriptions, and othjer curiosities» the produce of this sti^OP* 
in possession of different persons in Corbridge ; of George Gib- 
son, Esq. of Stagshaw-Close House ; and of the Rev. Robert 
Clark, of Walwick. But the most curious of its productions 
are the two celebrated Greek inscriptions, foi^nd in the church* 
yard of Corbridge :— 






. )^^^^f^ them i^ake aa hexameter, the first being read:— 

• BhU Kom. 397. 



Iti 17*5, a fine stiver plat e^ or lanx^ nineteen inches and 
half long, and Bdeen inches broad, and weighing 148 ouncefigj 
was found on the margin of a HttJe brook, on the ea«t side 
Corbridge, It is at Alnwick Castle. Sir John Clerk mad^ 
[ *' no question of its being a tabula votiva^ and that it had t)eeii 
f Jiung up or kept in some temple at Corbridge, dedicated, pei 
[ Iiaps, to Ceres or Apollo." It has a flat rim, an inch and m 
rquarter deep, charged with vine leaves ; and the middle of it, 
is adorned with figures of Apollo, Vesta, Juno, Minerva, and 
Diana, each with their proper symbols, &c.* The figures arc 
in has relief; the minor parts have been executed witli punches. 
On the back are a few dotted letters, which were probably the 
I workman's signatures* The work is neither of the best nor 
tithe worst of times: the figure of Vesta is extremely well exe-. 
Itcuted, the posture free, ttie drapery soft and easy* Also 
^hbout the same time was found, on the other side of the riTer^ 
nearly opposite the place where the lanx was found, a silver 
Icup, weigliing twenty ounces ; on one part of it are six equi 
stant compartments, each containing the Christian mgnci« 
gram. ** It may have probably been a chalice, and tlie diib^ 
though of Pagan workmunsl»ip, may have served as a pat- 
ten." t 

Dixston-Hall standi on a bold situation, on the east side 
of the brook called Devi Is water. Here, in the time of Henry 
the Third, was the baronial seat of Thomas de Devilstone, 
whose family had resided in it t>om the time of the conquest* 
After tliem this place was successively possessed by the Tin* 
dales, CrasLer.s, Claxtons, and RatcHttes, which last family had 
it in 1457- Sir Francis liatclifle married Mary Tudor, natural 
daughter of Charles the Second ; and James the Second, in 
1687, created him Baron Dilston, Viscount Lang ley, and Earl 
l«f Derwentwater. His son James being engaged in the rebel* 



* Qoogh*s Canid. ITL 250. 

t Ibid. 

voftrauiiBKfti.Ain»/ tli 

UflBy in 1715, wat taken and bdieaded, when the whole of HI 
eitateiwere forfeited to the crown, and given to GreeikiwlGb 
HoapkaL The Hall was buUt in 1616, l>y Francis Ratclifle^ 
Eaq. MDiif after falling into ruin, completely removed, by ihi 
advice of Mr, Smea ton . It stood adjoining to tlie old toner iof 
the DevilatoneSy which still remains. In the chapdf which b 
kepi in decent repair, tlioogh not used,' is a vault, containing 
tbt remains of several of the Ratdiffe fiunily. 

Arwmx Castls stands on the west side of a deep dell, and 
by the present extent of its mini seems to have been, at one 
time, n place of great sise and strength. It is encom pa ssed 
with a minoos outward wall, pierced with arrow*holes« Hcse 
is a staUe arched with stone, and having stone mangers. It 
gave name to a family, whose heiress Edward the First mn* 
tied to Peter de Wallis. Afterwards it bdonged to the 
Baymessy of Bolam, who held it from 1368, to the rdgn of 
Gbtfks the First. A moiety of it belonged to the Camabys of ' 
Haltom Towsb, a strong old seat, with turrets at its fiatf 
eomers, and which that family obtained by marrying an hdrasa 
of the Haltonsy in Edward the First's time. They were' a 
branch of tlie Camabys, of Camaby, near Bridlington, in 
Yorkshire. This estate was sold, in the beginning of the last 
century, to John Douglas, Esq. and from him descended to 
the Bldcketts, of Ma^fen. Here is preserved a sword of the 
Camabys, sixty-four inches long ; and, a short distance to the 
north, is 

Halton Chesters, the Hunnum of the Notitia, and garri- 
soned by the Ala Saviniano. It lies between the two barriers, 
and on both sides of the present military way. It seems to 
have been supplied with water by an aqueduct, from a spring 
on the higher ground, which a countryman told Horsley, for- 
merly contained the speaking tmmpet, which ran through the 
whole length of the wall. The border part of the station Is 
called Silver HiU. On the south side of it, the walls, ditchea^ 
and the interior buildings, appear in large aad confused heqia 


1*4 sscirrrwitxtASTi. 

m -u=s» Tr* ic^s=3r-r^r- : m£T ietcns to have been rounct, and 
a zjBia ic -uEs iiir-rf- JLrr^r :h:D a: cihcr places, plainly Indi- 
ra-* "lie resaiES ?c i itlir i^«-€t. Th-: iuscriptions belonging 
13 ::.<7jef- ▼•^.i I-i:-*Jit n-fz:!:-*, are few and incurious. 
5!-:ca liS ^ce irrr :»?tr iy^s^L s ct£in; «tone, with LEG II 
A'«~ ,-- 1- :i 1 CT-.; irr^T^-wiih etgle* hf^d^ at each end; another, 
-"nraiti!: rcao ry r f i:, ^.ih -^ ir.icnptioDy in a border, 
L-i:-. X:\ '^■^r .-- HrSTIN"? PKOCVL: and a tWrd, eleven 
:^:.: zs >» *l-\- .T^-rnSs-f, UL VI. V. P. F. FEC. Ctreat abund- 
LTO? ::" sc^ b.TTs*. l~jr W -Scii^ c:" nascie shells, many 
Ctiri^v arc & c^jtipj? rr-^. z*i^ ic Mjre^, have been dug up 

'?'«'w-t; :^ ij""? :>: r^fci :»» Vt^!!?- 2§ 2 b^ronr held in capite 
.i" :*i i,-^;. rr H.u:? i:f ?aii-?I. bj ±c serrlce of five knight's 
f v< c ' i-=c -t' -'• --"^ n.^*: r*£5 :*:t w^r-i ?f Xewc25tlc,as his 
srj-ssvr^ :c.i - v^ ^^ ir T"~.ljr:: H'^'::*. """ho invested them 
"•e^-T-n:. !:r I^.^— "i r r f^j^.Tic"* rrii::: :: »r*=::f to the NeviPs, 
g't: -i^-:? zx^ tr "«»arTier«ua!»L wV fxr:>l!-c :r in 1 jTT, after 
».•!.-• . t » :cr-:rj«fi ^; -- 'rrizc^ .k de Ff-.-ncLs of Fen- 
, .: - -,»w^ !:?it » • / V - V Tr:(>r-rr ::" :he Rcr. Septimus 
>,.',j, r- :.i mir-JiT-z m-.-ih zbe ^yl-^-^ c: the last of that 

- Z'lrsniwr :i ?7^e"." Siij? liesiarvfv. :^iis of the for- 

-. .^^': :>T-jr^ 7 :.^>^* ** ^ *?'.:3ded :a !enc:h a.'! of cne street, 

•Tcn ue river, er *.i:*r -y Ttiw. L« divided in!o two several 

r-->i*cf. i-:-: '--'-i^ •-^'' ^'=' '"^^'•.•^•i^'t me::, whcse trade is in 

irvu-werfr. :cr tfee rtfr^ensen and bordertrs of rhjf country. 

YStT jfc sooject :o tht? shieves of T\ aedcle, and compelled, 

w:gr am* samwer, o br.n^ in all their cattle and sheep into 

1^ iOWt ia the nkht *t-a<or», and watch both ends of the 

j^^ and, when the enemy approacheth, to raise hue and 

-. 1b FrweH town, the ancestors of the Earl of Westmore- 

^^il^afeir tower, or gate-house, all of stone, and covered 

'^^^z mMnlng to have proceeded farther, as appears by 

the beighc of a man, left unfinished.^' Facing the 




mmBtle^ on the southern margin of the river, are the rums of a 
•<}oxnestic chapel : the piers of the bridge, mentioned by Cam- 
•^en and Penant, are stiil stand ingi and have prububly belonged to 
41 wooden bridge, which lead to tliis chapel, and to the southern 
^arts of the baronies of Bywcll and Bolbeck, Tht? town is 
small at present, but, both in appearance and gttuation, the 
most Interesting of any in this county* The woody banks of the 
riTcr, the water-fall, the castle» and the two churches> all 
withia a narrow compass, group agreeably together, Mr. 
Hodlgsoii's house is of Payne*s architecture, and girt with a iine 
lawHt and stately forest trees. A silver salver^ of Roman work- 
manship, and inscribed DESIDEKI VIVAS, was found in 
the Tyne, neur this place, al\era flood, in 1760* 

At OvtXGfiAM, was a cell of black canons, subordinate t& 
Hexham, and founded by ouq of the ITumfranvilles, barons of 
udhoe. Speed values it at 131. a yean In the parish church 
is a tomb of one of the Addisons, who purchased the 
hnds and appropriations of this house, and resided here, till 
their possessions were sold to Cliarles Clarke, Esq. from whom 
they went, by marriage of his daughter and heiress, to William 
Biggc, Esq. a£ Benton, This town had a royal charter for a 
oiurket, and was governed by a baiMl Near it, at Wylam^ 
ire large coUieries; and Wvlam Hall, a se;rt of the Bbcketts, 
m the seventeenth century, and at {present of Christopher 
ckett^ Esq, North of Ovlngham, on the line of Hadrian's 
l^aUum, is WELxoy, now a small hamlet, but once, as exten- 
foundations testify, a considerable village. This, in 6S% 
the royal villa of King Osweo, which Bede calls An Mtr- 
aad in which Finian, Bishop of Lindisfarne, buptiifc^ 
Mcrciaii kK>g, Peada, and Sigberet, King cff the Ea^r 
Wkltosi ToavBR, aiitiently the seat of the Welton 
mkw^ and at present the property of William Bosti^ll, Esq. 
Biitton Hall, Yorkshire, is failing fan into rtiins. At it wi$ 

• Hiit. Aap. I nL c, «1, $f. 


jiuw this iiiscriptmn : LEG. IL AVG* F, on a large Aton^ 
oul of the opposite castellurn of the wall. 

RuTciiesTEH, the Vindohala of the Notitia^ was the stat 
. of the first cohort of the Frixagi. It has been a consider 
fort, h'dvlng hiid towers not orily at its corners and gates, bd 
also in each intemiediate space between them* Its inside 
paved with flat, unsquareU freestones^ lately taken up, on the 
east side. A broken statue of Hercules, two silver fibula?, coins 
of the loNver empire, and bricks made by the sixth legion, are 
mentioned among the discoveries here \ but no inscriptions 
any note havf been found. In the castellurn, nearest this st 
tion on the east^ were found, in 1766, an urn full of gold as 
silver coins ; " almost a complete series of those of tjie highi 
empire ; among them several Othos; most of tliem in fine pre- 



is a well-built town, having a market and three annual 

the cross was built by Sir John Swinburne, Bart, in 17S6, to 

whose ancestors this manor was granted by Sir William de Hil« 
ton, in lfi99. Here is a free-school, founded and well*endow 
by Sir Thomas Widdrington, K nighty in 1663, In the chur 
is a cross-legged figure of one of the Fenwicks, an antient fi 
mily, who resided at Femwick: Towkh, in this parish, from 
time of Henry the Third, to the Revolution, when their estal 
was forfeited for treason, and sold to the BlaeketL<. in pulli^ 
down the ruins of thi^ house, in 1775, " several hundred fair 
gold nobles, of Edward the Third, were found in a stone chest, 
covered with sand twelve inches deep* and placed over the arcfa 
of the cellar door, wrhich stood immediately under the Bags of 
the castle gate. They were probably concealed on an inroad 
0f David, King of Scotland, in 1360, as far as Hexham, whence. 

• WaUis, ii, lfi«. 


he caffied off the two sons of Sir John Fenwick, the «j#ner of 
UiB castle, who did not long survive the loss, and pfobablj' then 
concealt'd tliis new species of coinage."-)- 

\Ve8t-Matfek, the seat of Sir William Blackett, Bart, ww 
held of Henfy the Third, by Philip de Uleote, in Grand Ser- 
jeawcy. After this it belonged to the Feltons ; then to Sir 
£dwajrd de Hastings ; in Queen Elizabeth's reign to Sir Ralph 
LiWBon, and afterwards passed, with Halton Tower and other 
property, to the BlackettSi. In an odjoining 6 eld is a circular 
mount, with a cavity on its top ; and by it a stone nine feet 
high and three feet by one and a haJf thick, called the Sto6* 
Stone, In removing the mount, two kistvaens were found| coii- 
taioing ashes of the deud^ dusty and white. 

CETEESEBuaKE GRANGE, before the dissolution, belonged la 
Hexham priory ; and to Gawin Swinburne, Esq. in 1567. In 
1638 it was the seat of Thomas Widdringlon, Eeq* whose son» 
Sir Thomas, became recorder of York: lord-kueper in 1647t 
speaker to parliament in 1656 1 and lord chief baron in J 658. 
From this family it descended, by the female line, to Ralph Rid* 
deJt, Esq. the father of its present possessor- Near it, in 1B02, 
fame curious brass spear heads were found in making a ditch. 

Little Bavingtok is the seat of Sir Cutbbert Shaft oc, 
Knight, to whose ancestors it belonged in 1304* It has a large 
slieet of water in front, and is surrounded with young planea* 
tioas. The ground about this place and Throckerington is cele* 
brafed for the excellency of its sheep walks. 

KtRK Ha RLE was a manor o^" tlie Rolbeck barony. It ti the 
mine of ft parish, and of the seat of Sir William Lorraitie, Bart* 
It belonged to Sir Robert Herle in the reign of Edward the 
Rrrt, and to the ancestors of its present po^essor about the 
ytar 14^t The seat is in a low situation, sheltered with tall 
l<?fCft rrecs. Near it is a stone pillar, erected on the spot 
wKere Robert Lorraine, Esq, was slain by a band of Moss* 
troopers, in Queen Elizabeth's reign. This ikmily came mt# 

Vti. XIL N 

• Googb'i Cacnb. iO, \k y^t, 


■England with the Conqueror, by whom they were infeoffecf 
with lands in the county oi' Durham : they obtained this estate 
by marriage of a co-hciress of William del Strother, of Kirk- 
harle Tower, in the reign of Henry the Fifth. 
. Little Harlb was a manor of the barony of Prudhoe. It 
belonged to John de Fenwick in 1551 ; and to Wilham Ainsiey 
in 1567, the heiress of which family, in 1793, married the 
Honourable Charles Lord Murray, youngest son of the Duke 
of Athol ; his lordship took the name of Ainsley, and was Dean 
of Hocking. Since his death, Little Hark Toftcer has beea 
the residence of his relict. 

. Cafheaton is said to have been in the hands of the Swin- 
burnes since 1264. Leland calls it " Huttun, a fair castle, in 
the midste of Northumberland, as in the bredthe of it. It is 
three or four miles from Fenwicke Pile, and this is the oldest 
house of the Swynburnes.'* Sir Thomas, of tliis house, in 
1405, in company with Lord Berkley and Henry May, Esq. 
took fourteen French ships, carrying provisions to Milford 
Haven. This family, and the Swinbumes of Edhngham castle, 
inttrmarried in the time of Charles the First, since which time 
their chief residence has been here. The mansion house was 
built about the year 1668, by Sir John Swinburne, who was 
created a baronet in 1660; and died in 1706. The present 
possessor, Sir John, nho is the sixth baronet of the family, 
has made great improvements here, by building his cottages afler 
regular plans, and sheltering his estate witli large plantations. 
. In the beginning of tlie last century, a great number of Ro- 
man coins, and vessels of silver, were found near tliis seat, by 
some workmen employed in making a hedge. The coins were 
all privately sold ; as were also most cf the vessels, after break- 
hig the bottoms out of some, and the ornaments and handles off 
others. They presented to Sir John Swinburne, the grandfather 
of the present baronet, one cup entire, weighing twenty-six 
ounces ; the bottoms ''of three others ; three handles, adorned 
with beautiful figures in relief; part of another carved handle ; 

a figure 

« figure of Hercules and Antaeus wreMlIng ; and a figure of 
>^^eptuDe< Thejie havt all been described in a kt6 voiuine of 
^e Arcti^oobgia. 

BoLAM was the barony of Gilbert de Bolam, inid granted to 
litm by King John. From 13U% to [G38» it, in ii great mea- 
sure, belonged to the Raynies fainily* The heiress of the 
Morsle^i of Bolani, in Jij09| married the Hev* J. \L Beresford, 
«onof Uie present ArehbUhop of luani* who reside* at Btdam 
HalL The church is very andcot : in it is the figure of a knight 
templar, supposed to be the effigies of Sir Walter de Bolam ; 
-also a comb of the Middletons o^ BeJsay Castle* The village is 
^aid to have formerly consisted of tivo hundred slated liouses* 
Thi^ tamp west of it» iH oval^ near whtcli» on both jsidL'S of 
^e highway, are inequalities in the eartJi, which appear like 
linear intrenchments. Farther west is Gallmi UilU used by the 
Karons as a place of execution, bi.'fore the power of bunging 
iras taken from them ; and iitill farther we&t, by WatJing Street » 
«n Bolam Moor, is a lumulus of earthy between two large up- 
right stones, in wliich Mr. W'arburton found a stone cofHnf 
^^aibout three feet long, two broad, and two deep, smoked 
^thin, and containing notliing but several lumps of glutinous 

Haiikuam, seen before a setting auu, appears like one of 
^e fine towered hills in the pictures of Nicholas le Foussin, 
"^ It stands on an eminence, and has been u place of great 
strength and security ; a range of perpendicular rock^ on one 
aide, and a morass on the other ; the entrance by a narrow de* 
clivity to the north, which, in the memory of some persons 
3J0W living, had an iron gate. The manor house in on the soutli- 
irest corner of the precipice, built on to un old towen lu 
Charles the Second's time it was the seat of Colonel Philip 
Babbingtoui Governer of Berwick upon Tweed s his hrst wife, 
^ying under excommunication, wa^ interred in a vault cut out 
^f the soUd rock, below the tower," ^ 

N 2 Belsay 

» Wtllis, ii, jji). 


BELSAt CASTLBy the Seat of Sir Charles Miles L&mber 
Monck, stands on a rising ground, finely interspersed wti 
fiingle trees and thick groves of wood. It has a grey, neutr 
appearance, and consists of a venerable tower, to which extcc 
fiite additions ^ere made by Charles Middleton, Esq, who died 
in WIS. ** In a 6eld to the sautli b a domestic ciiapel ;*' and 
above the cofetle an ancient stone cross. Sir Charle?, who paid 
great attention to Grecian arclutecturc, in his travels through 
Asia Minor, has commenced a new mansion on a large scale, 
and on a style of the greatest elegance. The Middletons for- 
feited this place in 1317; but one of them marrying a aole 
heiress of the Strivelings, who were tlien possessed of BeUay, 
they were again infeofed in (his part of their estate^ by Henry 
ihe Fifth. Sir William was created a baronet in 1662. Hw 
son. Sir John, married the sole heiress of John Lambert, Esq. 
of Calton, in Craven, whose ancestor, William Lambert, mar* 
tied Gundre<l, grand-daughter of Willkim the Conqueror: ge- 
neral Lambert, who commanded the forces of the Common* 
wealth, was of this family^ and Im official seal is at Belsay 
Castle. Sir WilHam Middleton married .Jane, only surviving 
daughter and heiress of Lawrence Monck, Esq. of Caenby, in 
LiiiColntihire, at whose demise, his grandson, the present ba* 
fonet, changed his name from Middleton to Monck. 

HAHTauHK, is a pleasant village, having a spacious Gothic 
church, and near it a Gotfiic tower, partly used as a school- 
room, and overhung with ivy» In the vic;trage gnnmdis, by the 
margin of the Hart* are delightful walks and arbours, formed 
by the late Dr. Sharpe, who was vicar of this church, and arch- 
deacon of Northumberland. 

Wallikoton, a manor of the Bolbeck baronVf belonged lo 
John Grey, m 1 326, from whose family it parsed, by an heiress, to 
William del Strother ; and from him, in like manner, to Sir Joha 
Fenwick, of Fenwick Tow er, in Henry the Fourth's time : hia 
descendant. Sir John Fenwick, who built the great eating hall 
in Christ's Hospital, and was executed for high treason, sold it 


%o Sir WiUiam Blackett» of Newcastle upon Tyne, whose grand- 
L^kughter marrying Sir Walter Calverley, of Caiverley, in York- 
^«hire, that baronet took the name of Bluckett, and, at his do- 
rajse, this estate fell to his nephew. Sir John Trevelyan, of 
!Nettlecomb, in Somersetshire, whose son John succeeded him 
in his title and estate, in 1768, and is yci alive. Letand calls 
** Walliugton Castle the chefcst house of the Fen wicks.*' Tlie 
present edifice is a spacious and handsome structure, of white 
Creestone, finely hewn. Behind it is a large gateway ; and on 
liie east, north, and west, thick groves of luxuriant forest 
ij^es* At the bottom of the lawn runs the Wansbeck ; crossed 
Ijy an elegant stone bridge, with three arches, «nd open battle- 
Tnents. A mile east, over the same river^ is a stone bridge, at 
Che south end of which, on each side of the road, are grass- 
j^own ruins, of a considerable village. Also, withuk the pre* 
c*incts of tftis estate, is 

Camboe, that is. Camp HiU, which, in Henry the Tliird's 

€uni!, was the seat of Iloberi de Caniho€f sheriff of this county 

in iliree successive years. Here was formerly a chapel, in the 

«^iQ8 of which were lately found grave-stone^, with emblematic 

devices cut upon them, now in the walls of a bam* This also 

was the birth place of Mr. Bhowk, usually ciUlcd Capability, 

imd celebrated for his taste in landscape gardening, and do- 

ic architecture. 

^OTHLEY Castle, which, from many points of view, has 

\ appearanoe of the seat of some ancient baron, was built for 

' ttibct, by the late Sir W, C. Bluckett, It is on a rugged emi- 

HBDce, in a park of its own name, and which, thirty-iive years 

aince, was full of deer;* but since tltat time has been dis- 

parked, and put under cultivation. Near it were two fine sheets 

of water, hemmed with shrubberies. 

LoNGWiTTON Hall, is an ancient building, fronting the 
jouth, and having a thick grove of wood on the north, ea$t, and 
•rest* It formerly belonged to a branch of the Swinburne fu- 

N 3 miiy, 

• WalUi, ii. 5f;>. 


mily : ^"Jw sold to the Blacketts : and desccndod to Sir John 
Trevelyan, Bart. At present it is occupied by James Fen wick, 
Esq. BcloK* the garden, on the margin of the Wansbeck, in 
an oak wood, are three medicinal fountains, called Thurston 

Netherwittos, formerly called IViffnTt-ft^'the-Walmf ha« 
a tmall chapel, under Hartbum. A cotton manufactory was 
established here about twenty years since ; but, as it never 
flourished, was soon discontinued. Here was tho seat of Roger 
Thornton, Esq. the munificent patron of Newcastle. He was 
probably bom at the neighbouring hamlet of Thornton.* Tra- 
dition represents him as rising out of poverty to great opulence, 
which he acquired in merchandize, and mines of lead in Wear- 
dale.f He diet! in 1429. The tozccr -he built here has long 
fjnce fallen into nn'ns. The present mansion, which is a hand- 
fomo structure of white freestone, is the residence of W alter 
Trevolyan, Esq. and, with the estate, came to him by morria^ 
with Jane, eldest daughter of James Thornton, Esq. 


18 supposed to derive its name from some path to it, over 
a Moor. The Testa do Nevill destTibcs it as the barony 
of Rogor de >rerlay, held of the king by four knights' service ; 
and that the predecessors of that baron, had held it from the 
time of the Conquest, without any part of it being alienated. 
This Roger was the third of that name. The first of them, in 
1199, obtained, from the crown, licence for a market for his 


•** Thftrnionj says Warbiirton, (in a letrcr to R. Gafe, Esq. 5tli Jan. 
1717-8) tbougliat prcseutan mcou&KJciablpvillace, .nhrwn tiie vestigia is 
it of a remarkable town in former tiinc> : a lii^h ridged luilitaiy way ruits 
tbroU|;;b tbc inidiJlc of it, and a squaie platforin joins to it, both ^vIucb arc 
evidcnily Roman. 

t Sec Uouroc'8 Neve. p. 2''.>. 


boroo^^ and an annual fair on Magdalen Day ; his successor 
ornamented the borough, and founded an hospital at Catch'* 
hum; and Ro^r the Third granted' to his burgesses many im- 
munities. He died in 1265, leaving two co-heircsses ;. Mary, 
the eldest, married to \ViUxam Lord Greystock ; and Jonanna; 
married to Robert de Somerville. The whole of this barony 
diescended to Lord Greystock, and from him to his son John, 
who divided his grandfather Mcrlay'-s possessions between him- 
self and his uncle, Robert de Somerville ; but having no issue, 
and his brother William bemg dead, he settled his moiety of 
this, and his other estates, on his relation, Ralph Fitz-William» 
who assumed the name and title of Ralph Lord Greystock : he. 
built a cliantry in Tynemouth churcli, and, after possessing the 
estate nine ye|uv, died in 1316. His successors were: Ralph, 
who died in 1317. Ralph, who was poisoned at Gateshead^ in 
ISSi, by the revengeful adherents of Sir Gilbert Middlcton, 
whom his lordship apprehended for treason, in the castle of 
Mitford. William, who was summoned to parliament in 1352, 
and, after building the castles of Greystock and Morpeth, died 
in 1358. Ralph, was in 6ve parliaments; he had the direction of 
the expedition against the Scots, in 1380, when he was taken 
prisoner, at Horseridge, in Glendalc*, by the Earl of Dunbar: 
his raasom cost 30(X) marks, towards which tlie burgesses of 
Morpeth paid 71. 13s. lOd.; he was a benefactor to the priories 
of Brinkbum and Newminster, and died in 14-17. John, didd in 
14*35. Ralph, was in four parliaments ; he di<.*tl in 1486, when 
his estates devolved upon his grand-daughter, Elizabeth, Ba* 
roness (ireystock and Wemme; who married Thomas Lord 
Greystock, ofGilsland, in whose family these possessions con* 
tinued, till issue male failing, they devolved, in 1566, upon his 
two grand-daughters and co-heiresses, Anne, married to Philip, 
Earl of Anindel ; and Elizabeth, to William Howard, third son 
of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, and from whom they have lin- 
eaUy descended to the present Earl of Carlisle. 

** I have no particulars," says Camden," from ancient his- 

N 4 tory, 



tory, rektiv« to this place, except Ihat^ in 121 5« it was burnt 
down by its own inhabitatiu, out of Iiatrcd to King John.*' 
L eland callt it a ** long town, metely well buylded, with low 
howsys, t!)e stretes pavyd. If is a far fayrar towne then Alen- 
wike. Morpeth Castle standeth by Morpeth town* It la set of% 
a high hrlj, and about the hill is moche w^ood," Nothing now 
reniaiufi of the cobtle, but part of the gateway-tow er^ and frag- 
ments of the outward wall. The tower haa formerly had an- 
gular turrets at the nortli-east and south-east comers, commu- 
nicating by an open gallery, supported on corbules. Near the 
castle, on the north aide, ia a round mound of earthy on n natu- 
i»l mount, whose hiught is greatly assisted by art, probably a 
lualvoisin in some blockade. 1 he town was also burnt down, in 
)669, when the loaa was estimated at 3,5001. At present it ia 
neat^ and pleasantly seated among woody, undulating htll& It 
is a prescriptive horottgh, governed by two bailiffs and seven bur- 
gesses. It first sent members to parliament in 1558, The 
market is on Wednesdays, and affords the principal supply d^ 
fat cattle and f^heep for the consumption of Newcastle, Shields, 
and Sunderland. Here is the county gaol for Northumberland. 
The town -house, from a design by Vanbrugh, was built at 
the expence of the Earl of Carlisle, in 1714. On the market- 
house is inscribed : ** The Hon* Philip Howard, and Sir Henry 
Beloeyae, Knt. tlie only benefactors of this cross. Anno Dom. 
1659." The paruh church is on Kirk Hil(, a quarter of a mile 
out of the town ; but there is a good ring of bells, in a square 
tower, near the market-place, A I the bridge end is a cliapel { 
and, adjoining it, In an old chantry, a good free-school, founiied 
by K ing Edward the Sixth. Tliere was also formerly here aa 
hospital for the sick. The population^ in 1801, amounted U» 
2,951 persons. Dr. WLlham Turner, the first Engliah botaniat 
and orttithologiiit ; and Dr» VVilliatn Gibson, author of *' A Book 
of Herbs,** and ** The Treason of tl\e Prelates since the Con- 
quest,'* were born in this town ; and Mr. Horsley, the learned 
autlior of the ^ Britannia Romana," was several years nuAia- 


9xT of a diftscDtlng congregauon here. He died in 1732, aged 

A qwartar of a mile owl of the towiie^ on the hichere syd^ 
^ Wanspeke, was New Mikster Abbay of wliite inonksy 
pleaiaunt with water, and very fayre wood about IL'* * The 
<^islersjans catne here^ under the patronage oF Ranulphus de 
^leriay, in il3B, who» in the next year, founded this house- 
Its abbot was several timet sumrooned to tlie parliaments of 
Edward the First *f The catalogue of itfi benefactors is long ; 
.fUid its revenues, at the di^solutiont by Speed's account, 
amounted to i40L 10s. 4d. Only a fragment of a door-way re« 
James the First granted its scite to the Brandlings i at 
f'present it belongs to William Ord, Esq. of Whitfield Hall, 
M. P, for Morpeth- 
MiTfoRD, at the time of the Conquest, was a villa and 
irdthip of Sir John Mitford, whose only daughter, Sibel, was 
^married to Richard Bertram, a Nortnan- It was created a 
barony by Henry the First ; and forfeited by Roger Bertram, 
one of the confederi^e barons, in the reign of Henry the Third. 
Part of it was afler^'ards given to Eleanor Stantour, wife of 
Robert de StoteviUe; but Edward the Second granted the en« 
tire barony to Adomar de Valence, Earl of Pembroke : from 
whom the greater part of it descended, by marriage, to David 
de Strabolg}', Earl of Atho) : but issue male failing in his son 
Davtd, it passed, by female heirs, to Henry Percy, and in tlic 
same manner from liim, in Henry the Sixth's time, to Thomas 
Brough, Esq. Queen Mary, and afterwards Charles the Se- 
oondf granted it to the Mitfords of MoUsden^ a collateral 
br.mch of its ancient owners, who still enjoy it. 

Thtcmile^ in 1215, was burnt down by King Jotui and his 
Hiitan, a band of Flemish troops ^ben they so miserably 
viMted this cmmtry.^ In the next year it was beseiged by 
Akxander, King of Scoti;. Sir Gilbert de Middleton, and hia 

•Ld* It. V.7. foL^S, fSTtv. Dn?. volJi» spv, p, 14. 


asBOciates, had possewioti of it in 1 SI & ** h wmb beten 
tlowne/' fsays Lelarid, **by the kynge; for one Sir Gilbetl 
MiddietoQ robbyM a carditiall comtnge out of Scotland, 
Bed to his ca&tte of MiUbrd.** It etandfi on a high n;iturtil 
netice^ outli: ' ' -rthe Wan?ibeck. On the 

and east, grt i employed in forming » ditch ( 

of the rock tinder its wails, whifih are tfUll^ in niany^ plaices, l 
feet high. The keep ia circular, of rough titrong ma^oiirj ; 
contaiitiug small gloomy dungeons, with thicU walls, and na 
loop-holes. The other buildings, within the area of the n-allll 
arc quite deo)o)iaiied« Near it is the icei of Bbktram Mil 
FORD, Etq*i and the parish chitrcltf appropriated to Lane 
Priory, and in wbidi is t\ moaunient, with the rude eifigjr 
one of the Bertrams, and an tnncription, dated 16S2. 
wn9 et mfirkrt here in I *1'jQ, St, Leonard* s II 
above tlie village of MiUbrd, wm founded In 
tram, in Henry the First's reign ; at present it is a ^entlennan's 
Beat^ and called The Spitai** 

The barony of Both a L was held of the king, by thr 
Icnigbis' service, by Robert Bettrani, and afterwards by his i 
Richard, in the time of Henry the ThinL They were 
younger branch of the Bertrams, of MitJibrd. In Edwa 
the Third's reign, their estates passed, by an licini-ss, to Sir Ro 
bert Ogle, of Ogle, knightf rhose posterity enjoyed this ba- 
rony tlirough a long succession. In tlie contest between tli( 
houses of Y ark and Lancusicr, Robert Ugle, being in tiie tttq 
cesfiful party, nus created Lord Ogle. Cuthbert tlm se?i 
and last of them who bore that title, had two daughters, J<l 
hanna and Cutharine, the latter of whom married Charlc; 
Cavendish, of Welbeck, in Nottinghamshire, and was 
Baroncfss Ogle. From her son William, who w*aa creat<:d Da 
of Newcastle, in 1664, it passed, by only daughter^ 
to John Holhs, also Duke of Newcastle ; and then to 
£arl of Oxford and Mortimer; and, lastly, to the Dnke of 
Portland, in irhose family it still continues* 

The easHr wm built by Sir Robeit Bcrtrtm* in the time of 

«Iilwflnl the Tbirtl, The following estmrtt wii5 puhJished m 

^lie Anti'^iTiariafi ttepertor}, from a iiirrey> culled ** Tli<r Book 

of the Bothnol Barrinryc/* tnkcn in June, 1578, •* To thi» 

^ «:rifiiKir af Bnthoole beiongeih nne cu^Ufll, in circumference 

'e, wherto betongeth ane caitell. great ehaulmer, 

f I>. chttiilmcfs one galare, butterie, pHntrie, Ijirde- 

[s%ort Icitchitt^^ tiaclcboase, brewhtiuse^ a ituble, an court, 

^:!" ' ' thare is a prisoci, a porter loge, 

^tii ::, tin cammoo itable, and a towrre 

^sailed Bfaoke Towrt- ; a gnrdine* ane norice, chapel^ and an 

^towre caHc'd Ogfe!< Towre, and pastrie, with many other priftie 

^^c^aldingi here not specified, faire garditigy, and orchett9, 

irin grower all kind of hcarbes and ftoirres, and fine applies, 

iltimbes of alt kynde, peere, damsellt!i» naltes, wardens, cher* 

"i<s, to iSie black and reede, wallnutes, and also licores veric 

^ne, wortfi by tfie yeare XX*-.** Of ali these, only the gate* 

refnaznst and the outer wafla» sadly sbattered, and io> 

^clofting" about two roods of land, scattered with fragments oi^ 

'fcuilJings. The gateway has been liiiely mtich deformed, by a 

«hed built against its arch : it is ** fliuiked on the north by two 

"J>olygnnal towrm^ liiVy-three feet high -. and, on the «outh-weat 

single, by a s<jftlro turret, whose height nieaaurcs ai^ty feet*'* 

^Thc §citc of these ruins occupy a fine natural emiDefitc in the 

«itd$t of a deep valley, and washed on the south by the Wans* 

** The wood scene in the back ground slopes to tlte 

^s edge, here and there skirted by ptcturescjue rocks/* In 

the church i which stands a little distance east of the t*ast)e, is 

afnted in black letter, a gene^dogical table of the Ogles, from 

Conquest ; and a curious tomb, belonging to that lamily, 

^e of alabaster, and inclosed with iron mik* It consists of 

(cumbent figures of one of the barons and his lady, with seve- 

al emblematical figures about them : and in one part of it a 

bield, Hingulurly charged with armorial devices. On the river's 

side, about three c|uarters of a mile above the castle, stood 


nil by one of the Ogles, a^ appeared I 
» iftpi nigiifitl II It was eight yards long, and fa 
A tkm jtm9 ciAce It waA oversown with trees, whi^ 
mt iinr roots mto its walla ; at present It u quite d&* 

fxEft Tower, ui Speed'^; map, jji culled Cocklc^^ 
apd gygtiiundcd witli a park. It wm in the barony of 
4pd wai» a inaiaiion-tkoiui^ of the Bertrams in Edward 
m* It lias anckntly been mucli larger towards 
appears by large remains of Strang foundations 
of arche^i between tlic old and new parts* 
MJk ^ possession of hiii graco tlm Duke of Portland, a 
ltt%|«lt of it being thrown down by lightning. There 
^ fiir^r oiKuus fire-placcs in it* In the front are the Of 
liii llie supporters, two antelopen, collared and chained. Il"" 
^ MttcMcolations on the outside, nnd is uUogetlier aikT the 
^itm ^ iho old border mansions* 

Mll^HisoTOV Castle was the seat of " Gerard de W4 
t in 1272,** who held it witJi ** Dririg and Bomdon,.*] 
fH It^ barony of W»aUon, by the service of otie knight's fee* 
Yttk liaiiiy stands conspicuous in the list of slierifFs of th 
^ffgltSk Atul as a h*ne of heroes. Sir William was advanced i 
ll# 4iCtMly oi* a baron of the redm by Charte the Firv^t, and 
ImH hyi la^ at VVigan, in Lancashire, in the cause of Charlf 
d^ ^buSiHid. " llo wa^t'* ** mys Clarendon, ** oiie of the' 
Mlrittr«i 11^" ^^ '^ ^S*-*^ being near a head higher than most^^ 
nJI MHU** His grandson, Wiiham, Lord Widdrlugton, foi^^| 
lliiid dli Mtite In the rebellion in 1 7 la; ailer which it wa£ ' 
^1 ^ .1 ^1 100»0()(>1. and soUl by ttie crown to iSir George lleve^j 
^f^m ^Im^ij^ i^ descended, by heitcssesj to Lord Bulkeley, il 
gf^lMIt |M>SMS8or< The castle, though Irregular and the work 
^ ^mrtinw M£v*t ^^ ^ noble structure, e^ecially the most im^ 
mm9ik purt of it, which was a Gut hie icnur^ finished with machi*| 
and fiHir round turrets, built on double tiers of coivj 

* Tcita dc Ncvil, [k iat. 

nomttttrifButAvft; fM 

MM DbereitagoodTie«roritl7 8.fliidN. Budkyin ITSQii 
It wfli bonn dmm about tbbtf jrean ibiot i and the only w^ 
wtUag pwt nf it at preient is sn octuigolar, embAttled tower^ 
t» wUdi • a^uare modern ediBce hm been added. It coa»« 
cxtemive tea prospect to the east, and a land viei^ 
I tbe eeudi aa fiur as Tjnemouch Cattle. 

CAtmR FAWHf a member of the Bothal batoajr, was Ae 
seat of • yaanger branch of the Ogle% of Botbal CastlOp flrooi 
k bos descended to its prasent possessor, William Qgle 
ifl^ ThetoweroftbemaMieaJMwaeirasbniltl^Jelni 
Oi^Ea^kkliSM. The chapel efSt Cmfebert is in mins. 

LoiMnMULR was gifen bj OMpatricp Bari of Dunbar^ as m 
mmilsge pertien to Sir Balph Merisj, Baron of Metpelk 
He tsnonts of this manor, in the tbne of Henry the T1iifd» 
weie ceaspdtod to loeep the rends and ditches 4n good erdsTf 
nnder pnin of fct t Mti n g dlse* virg&i JhreaSf'^ Ibr every efisnee» 
Half ef the tfflage, wkfa a deer-park, and an ancient leowr^ 
bekmg to Ralph RkMeH, Esq. and the other half to C. W« 
B^jgfe^ Esq. who b now enjoyed in boading a huge and do* 
gant mansbn on a pait of his estate here, called* LinnoN. 

fkLTON was one of the manors of the barony of Mitfimj^ 
and was siicoe«sir^ pos se ss e d by the Bartram, Pembroke^ 
Athol, Percy» Scrope, Lisle, and Widdrii^ton fkhiilics ; from 
wMch last it passed, by marriage, to the fkther of the present 
possessor, Ralph Riddefi, Esq. whose seat, caUed Fekon HaUp 
and bailt by the Widdringtons, stands in an old and extensiTe 
perk, on the west side of the village. Here the barons ef Nor* 
thumberland did homage to Alexander, King of Scots, in 1215; 
a defection which King John punbhed, by laying this and other 
places in the nei^ibourhood in ashes. 

On the north side of the Coquet, a few miles below FekoOr 
is Gruyaanoe, of note only for a nunnery^ founded by Richard 
Tyson, mentioned in the Lincohs Taxation, and annexed to 
ft%% abbey of Ahiwick, by charter of Etlwaid the First. 


* Wan.i, n. 3r»0. Hutcli. H. .119. 


BRtNiCBUBN Prior Y was tonndcd for blnclc canoni, ia the 
lime of Henry the First, by Roger Bertram, Baron of* Mtlford, 
and dcdieated to St, Peter. In 1534, it wsls valued by Speedy 
at 771. lu possessions were granted to Jorin, Earl of Warwick, 
ill l.*5i9; and a^in, ia the &«me reign, to a brancih of the Fen* 
wicks, of Feiiw'ick Tower, whose descendants sold thfm a few 
years since- Major Hodgson, tlieir prestent possessor, has 
uiiide great improvements about the place. The priory stjinds 
on the north cm margin of the Coquet, surrounded by high 
banl^ and hanging woods. Tiie shell of the church is ^til) very 
entire, and exertions were used not many years since, to lit it 
yp for divine service, for which purpose a brief was obtained. 
The north and south doors are charged with rich Saxon orna- 
nients ; the upper windows have round arches ; the rest, with 
tl. * of the tower and nave, are pointed. " llierc have 
hr il^ here so lute as i7'i5. At the east end, and in the 

north and soutli crossesj were chapek; in one iif which were 
dJviTJi fragment* of coffins and human bones.** In clearing away 
the rubbish, a circular staircase, communicating with tfie body 
of the church, has been lately laid open^ and vaults for inter- 
ment, formed like the kistvaen, discovered. ** On the whole, 
thougft thiH building, except about the doors above mentioned, 
is remarkably plain, it has a sober and solemn majesty not 
alwayi) found in buildings more highly decorated. Fart or this 
perhaps it may owe to its romantic situation."* 

VVarkwohtu is an ancient prescriptive borough, governed 
by a port-reeve, now culled mayor, chosen by th« tree bur- 

• Gr09«i. Wbi'ri.* lite o»<^ti'rn brancli of Watliiig Street cri'Ssca the Co- 
«|«i't» a little below tlm pUee, tliiTc ure cvidrnt rpmaini of a liHilge ; and 
on rh« Ijili, m t\it north tide of the prioiy, are litirs af r>rttfiratiom, and 
appeal ftiices of an «itri^iH town, Joltfi of Hexlmm^ under the year iiM, 
CAiU diw place iinmnhuK^h^ ortho^mfihy which iiwimeA m to b<flieve', tliat 
tllM f» the intr sitiiatiou t)(^ XlntNANBURcit* nherc ICiuj^ Atlicbtao, m 
958| forght with such boasted anccesi'i ti^aiast the Iriidi, Wdcb, aod Noi - 
tUumbrian Duaes* Sase, Am, 93^. Mailros Chron, 937, 


^[ettfcSy and sworn into office by a coiM-leet. It hai an exten- 
sive common-right; a weekly markd on Thursdays; and aa 
annual^fV on the Thursday before the twenty-third of Novan- 
ber. In 1^1 it contained 614 inhabitants. In tlie churchy 
which has a tall spire, are the remains of Saxon architecture ; 
and a cross-legged figure of Hugh de Morwic, with a modem 
inscription. Adjoining the church was a cell for two Benedic«* 
tine monksy from Durham, founded by Bishop Farnham, in 
1256, and endowed with the appropriation of the church of 
Branxton. The Inidge is of three arches of stone ; has a pillar 
with the Percys' arms on the middle of it ; and a tower, lately 
repaired, at its south end. 

The castle and manor of Warkworth were held of Henry the 
Second, by the service of one knight's fee, by Roger Fitz- 
Roger, whose ancestor, Serlo de Burgh, was a follower of the 
Conqueror. Edward the First sumamed the family de Claver' 
hgf from a manor in Essex, granted to them by King John* 
Issue male failing in John de Clavering, his estates fell by be- 
quest to Edward the Third, who granted them, in 1S27, to 
Henry, Lord Percy; from whose family this place was taken 
in the reigns of Richard the Second and Henry the Fourth, and 
given to Roger Humfranville, whose constable here was Hard- 
ing the Chronicler. It was restored to the Percys by Henry the 
Fifth, and several times after seized and restored. The castle was 
the favourite residence of the Earls of Northumberland, and in 
Leland's time "well menteyned;'* but in 1672, its timber 
and lead were granted to one of their agei.ts, and the principal 
parts of it unroofed. At all points of view, and especially 
from the south, it is a most magnificent pile of ruin : " and, 
though of great strength, it seems to have been one of those 
hospitable maniions," 

Where throngs of knights aiid barons bold. 
Th weeds of peace high triumphs bold, 



Ho RTUU&i BEnt An t}« 

than one of *' those rugged tbrtresse* destined solely for war.**^ 
Within its tuoat it contains above five acres. It stands oa 
rocky its wttHs guarded with toirera, and of a triangular sh 
the keep forming Uie apex, and the southern vrall, in which 
the great gfite between two polygonal towers, the base. Tike 
keep is Kquare^ witli the angles canted off, and having at the 
middle of each side a projecting turret, semi-hexagon at its 
base, and of the same bight as the rest of the structure : it 
contains a chapel, and a variety of spacious apartmentu, and 
IB fintBhcd with a lofty watch tower, connnandlng an almost un* 
bounded prospect- f 

IL'ilf a mile above the castle, on the brink of the Coquet, ii 
tlio IIehmitage of Warkworth, <;e]ebrated, in 1771, by the 

• Gro«G. 

♦ E«tra<^t of » Survey, by G. l!lark%OQ, in 1567, one of tlio au4lilOT% to 
Uit tUea Liirl of Kor^iwiutHrbiid ;— 

** riic buyldingc of Ui^j sayd cattail on the aowth parta, ia thrc towres. 
The ji|;iite-boLi!»e toMTC, iu tlic [fitdilJe thereof, inluch is ih' entyir at a 
draw-briilgr over drye moyte ; and in the ^anie tow re ys a prison unci 
poi ter lodge ; and ov^r ihe «aina a tare lodginge, called the con§ta1>les 
liMl|^g« ; stid ill Ihe conrtayrw b€twe€n the gatehouise and wcit towre is 
fere and ci>me1y buyldinK, » cUupell, and divei^e hoo&cj ol offiee one 
the groiiiid j And iibuve the ^reat chambre, and Uic Jotde^ lodginge : all 
whidi be tiow in great decay e> as well in the covert our beynge lead, k% 
aUo in timbre, an glaM ; and vrithout some help of repaiacioui It ^tU 
come to utter ruin. 

** Over the cotirte from the postcmc tow^re is the foiinffacinn of n 
hofite, wTiirh wa.^ meant 1o huve been a coUed{>e, and part of tlie mB9 
were btiiided, nrhuvb, if it had been ti[iished» would have mode a i^cifeot 
jiq^narc. The daun^ton is in the north [larto of the ^ytc o(^ llie i«^^ 
castetl, let upon a titttc mount, higher than the rest of the cowrte #*>»•• 
-»•'*• 6tcppes of grta» befori- you enter toyt: and the same js hm\d 
Ri fonre square, and owt of every square ope tuvvre ; all which be so 
quarterly uqiiarcd together, that in Kijgbte every parte appcarcih fyvo 
tovrreii very lineiy wrought of maiion workj and iu ibe ^me conteyned, 
«a well a tkre hall, kytchinge» and all oilier homes of offices verie fare and 
aptly placed, as aUo greet cbambre, chapel, and lodgings for the lord and 
kh trayn,** Ate. &;c. 


Sate Btfiliop of Dromore, in the ballad of tJic Hermit of f^'ark* 
^^vorth* It wns only for one priest, or hermit, but its origin and 
^^oundatian are uncertain. The Earl of Northumberland, in hk 
.^grant to the last hermit, in 153% calls it '* min artmtage, 
'Vbelded in a rock of stone, in my parke, in honor of the Holy 
"Tr**uty.** As it was never endowed in mortmain, its munifi* 
-^cent allowance reverted to the Percy family at the dissolution. 
^Mere are renaains of buildings of masonry, one of them 
-^Kighteen feet by seven, against the rock. But the most perfect 
-^^saiid curious part of it consistJs of a dnipel, sacristy, and vest?* 
^^^ule, hewn out of a fine freestone rock, twenty feet high, and 
overshadowed wtUt shrubs and stately forest trees. The en- 
trance is by file chapel, over the door of which wits formerly 
legible: "Sunt raihi laclirymge meac cibo interdice & noctu.** 
The chaptl is about eighteen feet long, and seven feet broad 
high, and executed with great neatjiesa in columns, groins, 
nd arches, in the old Gothic style. It is lighted by a window 
^^■if two compartments, in the sill of which lies an elegant figure of 
-3a lady ; at her feet, in a niche, is a male figure kneeling, his 
^3iead on his left palm, and his right palm supporting his left 
^^Ibow; and an obscure figure in the pillar of the window. 
The altar is the breadth of the chapel, and has two steps to it. 
-Parallel uith the chapel, five feet wide, and stretching five feet 
^^voimd its west end, is the mcriMt/^ lighted from the cl.apel 
"*^tli a Gothic window, and having the remains of an altar in 
^^^tf and over its door a shield, with instruments of the passion. 
^Mu> west end communicates with the ve&tibnle^ in which are 
'^wo square niches, and from whence Iws been a way into au 
^ipSftment of masonry, having remains of a chimney, A stair'^ 
Oic led from the chapel door to the top of the clitf, where was 
^e hermit's house and garden. 

Coquet Island, a mile from the main land, and a mile 

'ound, is said, by Bede, to have been famous for the resort of 

Qianks in St. Cuthbert*s lime* It had upon it a ceil of Bene- 

VoL. XIL O dJctine* 


than one of 



. :ho mill*" oi v. l.'c.S 

W*^" '^^ . arul li-ht-iioiiM . h 

^^^^y »^-^ ^ood vaym- oi' .in oio, 

"^^ r^^*- • \nit seven at-vcN «;*' :' *. 

^^'0»'- -.0 Secoiul's rei-n, i.:-:.- 

. :ii till' parisii .»:* lA->lr.->v, 

.-> exports, corn, p.^rk, rgi:-, 

*•* ' ^. .:iul slup-hiiiluiiij: iiiattrial>., till lati!}, tliv rrr.ian.> oi' 

XV, ot* vfi-y ariciciU anhiurtsire, 

:hv last of it was blown down 

'.♦.as used till Ifiteh, a:ul liviit- 

'.' tiio sca-bunks near it bj, tl;?* 

'iiilht by the valvar to hv bon,-. 

; »r.scs, siaii^i;}itcred in boniir <i !> 

vl NWk'K. 

\.»rtliiinib( riaia?. ami »t;i aiuloiL bo- 

».-i»rporatc by [ireseription, eon--lstiis:x 

*.v*.«iiioii-t:ouncil ()r futiifx-iiiiir, and 

.•'yiriri. witli a v. ..l!, ihrtt ^lm:*.-.* j\ -■, 

f<v.i r- 
1 "». .hilijix. i«.i'. \. p. I.. », 

..•'ini*>i^ii rn Si. M irk' (! ••. . ji.;- fs. i"l!i a 
.» •«.% I«'ct over, «<ii a ip<in. rMiimrly'l .!■..'♦;, 
» till (iiil till ulxMit a v\;»'k 1h;;«i»- t: ; ..•!:!! ^•■•n 
..ii!j», and i\< liiilti-in nimh' i!i.('. ;. '\ ,,': -lo'.. '., 
»» Hi' >ira\\. \i\ .1 iH'^uii x^}i«. ii\(«- i;- .u. ;.,ii> , .'.^ 
.vOUKi'i fiwni,* liia! il ly. In M/nio | I.k » • i; i ..n ^^ 
• * I lull . and n«» ^li<k, or ctlu-r ht Iji l.r:i!: arc»u» -i, 
.\«und« ''H'^ u!iioi»'-r tht.' nmd. Tlii^ ili.n- . ai.-.l ;l. -j 


Uwcrs of wlach still remain. In 1801 it contained 4719 inha- 
bitants. Its market is on Saturdays, and well supplied ; and its 
fairSf on the twelfth of May, the last Monday in July, the first 
Tuesday in October, and the twenty-fourth of December. 
The Toivn Hall was built in 1731 ; the S/tatnbleSf which are 
Gothic, by the late Duke of Northumberland. At the head of 
Pottergate is a toiver, in imitation of that of St. Nicholas, in 
Newcastle, built at the expence of the borough, in 1786 : it 
was intended for a ring of bells ; but since made a clock-house. * 
Here are ivro Jree-schools ; one of them for the classics, founded 
in 1G87, rebuilt in 1741, and endowed with certain tolls: also 
two charity schools ; and one 07i Lancaster's system^ inscribed 
thus in its front : <* For the education of 200 poor boys, this 
school was erected and founded by Hugh, Duke of Nor- 
thumberland, on the twenty-fiftli day of October, 1810; in 
commemoration 6f our sovereign, George the Third, having oH 
that day completed the fiftieth year of his reign.'* The 
churchy which is dedicated to St. ^lary and St. Michael, is 
Gothic, 150 feet by 52. In tlie south aisle are three ancient 
recumbent effigies of persons unknown. The chancel is sup'* 
ported by two rows of elegant fluted pillars, with flowered ca- 
pital ; and lias a large open space behind the altar. Near the 
town, in 172G, were found on a quarry head, about twenty 
swords, sixteen spear heads, and forty celts ; and on the face 
of the rock above them was rudely cut a date, 1 1 45. 

Alnwick Castle, the principal seat of his grace the Duke of 
Northumberland, belonged toWiDiam Tyson, a Saxon baron, who 
was slain in the battle of Hastings ; and whose daughter, and poS' 
se8sion6,were given by the conqueror to Ivo de Vesco, one of his 

O 2 followers. 

rloatiis aliiftcd.tlipy ritlc the bounds of the moor, attended by tlie two oldest 
fubabitants as guides; each of the newly-initiatcd ahi;htiii!,' from his horse 
f¥ery quarter of a mile, to cas»t a stone upon tlie boundary cairns or 
kirocks. This road, which is about twelve miles, is over many dangerous 
precipices. Tradition asiigns tlii« ciistoio to a capricious mandate •f 
iung John. 



foBowcTf. Tro*$ heiress, by Henry tlie First > was inarrled to 
Emtace Fitx John, whose descendant^ Eustace do Tescy, held 
this boronry of Henry the Third, by the service of thirteen 
kiughts* fees.* William de Vescy, the last baron of this fa- 
mily, died in 1^7» leaving the barony of Malton, in York- 
^hire, la Gilbert de Aitun, who had mangled hts only daughter; 
and this barony to Anthony Bee, Bishop of Durlian), in trust 
for his natural son, William de Vescy, a minor* The bishop, 
tlhr holding it urxen years, sold it to Henry Lord Percy, in 

^1S10; and since that time it has shared the fortune and vicissi- 
ttidai of that powerful family.| 
■ • Test, dc NcF, 'JO^, 

M tW PffCf ffttnily derive thdr dcscirnt from Manfre*! P^rcj-^ wh4» 
CUM out of DenmArk Into Nomiajidy, bcfurc Rolkt ; nnd William and 
$r\10f fifth in descent from liim, came InUi Kti^lAiid with the Cndrjnrrnr. 
*nie nmlc line frtiled till ITeiii-y IL but Agnes marry inp JoRi»eliue dc l/>- 
f till Iftnn', tilt* tiftli nf tLietr de^cendAnt^ (who Itad a^.^nmrd the iiaifi« of 
JVfcy) wa* ^rcjiti^d ICarl of Northumbcdfttid, 51 Edward III.'* Hit br»* 
liter ThoiitftXy Eiirl of \\'orce»trr^ «vnd liis renowucd ifoii, Hot»|)tir, ^en* 
i^iM At tbc tmttle of Shrewsbury* After this he was attainted, hut soon 
ilWr liikcii i»»to tavoiir ; lhou':h he ajraiii t'Ojjus^cd in irhdhuii, iind fffl Ht 
lUHiam Muur, in t ^Ot>. Honrj^ son nf Henry I!ot«|inrj in i\w hegintitiis 
^tlii^ K^iR" <^*' Hrnry the Fifth, was restored to Iti^ father's c^ute and 
mif ; hilt wan ftlnin "» the battle of St. Albmi'a, in 1451. Hh scun, TIeiiry, 
tliinl earl, fell in the battle of Towton, AtYcr tliis Jolia Nevil, Lord 
Xm^w^ «'»» creatt'd Earl of North utnUej land ; htil, iji iiW, it-su^ed tl 
16 Mfltry i'«*rry, ridc-t sou of the tliird tail, llr al^o fell l>y thr s\\rird, 
b*lilK >^**" *" *" lusurnction f>f J^ea.-lallt^ ^s^in'^l tlie cotlfetuin of thr 
^ fff ^ al Coxlftdife, nearThJrsk, in VorKshire, in lioa. Hrnry Uh wp, 
^ fifth rutli died in li^iC^ and was buHi'd iipar ht^^ father, at Deverley. 
nil *^ •**'* «wercwor, Henry, died in liv;37, Icavinjjf iio issue, Soon after 
lIlK «liihn lluilU'V, B^il of VVarkwoiIJi, was created Dnkc of Northiunl>er- 
laiidf al>cr Hho»e dcrohuion, Thomiw, nori of Thomas Perry, who wa^ pnt 
In fitith (i»t taking np arm« a^in««t Hntry tiie lti£;hth, obtained hb nnclc'» 
^^^l ^ , Imt bdiig t'onunitled to the To^er, on j«u-«>plriuii of tit-asou, 
1^ If, Jime 1*1, 1A84, HU brotlier Henry sueccedcd him, ac- 

Miiliitf ^* ^'^^ tenure of Queen M^arj^'s patent, aad in 156J>, ended hk daya 


L nftlH 

H ffitr; 


K0ftTtlUMBERLAK1>. 197 

Thk castle standB on elevated ground^ on the south side of 
^^e AJne. ** It is believed," says Grose, " to have beea 
^^^anded by the Romans ; for when a part of the castle- keep 
^^mwBs taken down to be repaired some years ago, under die pre- 
^sent walls were discovered the foundations of other buildings^ 
"^rhich lay in a different direction from the present, and some of 
^he fctones appeared to have Roman mouldings. The zigzag 
Network round the arch leading to the inner court is evidently 
^f Saxon architecture ; and yet tliis was probably not the most 
^^nttesit entrance, for under the fiag tower (before that part 
i^as taken down and rebuilt by the present duke) was the ap- 
pearance of a gateway, that had been walled up, directly 
fronting the present outward gateway into the town," It was 
a consid(;nible fortress in 1093, in which year it withstood the 

O 3 memorable 

to prison. " Henry Percy, the ninth carl, wa^ not re«tor(Ki to \m honours 

Ut\ 4 Chatici I« IjAvmi,' been impf JMrncd iu tlie Toupr most of the rciitm of 

Jittiies I* lor mjjpri^u uf ticasoti coiiceriim:* tht' puwder ptol. Hf *ii*rc! 

ftrirl wa^i bttrted at Petwortlif ifiJi'. Hv was succeeded by his §ou, Al^er- 

iton, biincil at tJicsame place, 1668. Hk .^uccet'^or w»s liis son Joscehne, 

fanrird tlicre, 1670* Dyin^ without issue loale, tti^e harony devolved oti liis 

iduftiter, Eli3Eahetli» uiarriLd to Ileiiry CavciidTsh, Earl of Ogtc (only sou 

I licir of Henr)% Duke ofNenoasUe) who took the name *nri anns of 

Perry, and died and uaa burit-d »t Petvvortlj^ 1680* Algernon, her eoit 

by her f^ccoud husband^ Chailes Seymour, Duke of Somerset, was. the 

twdftit £arl of Nortlitmiberlandf by crculioii, 1749^ S3 George IL being 

ttheftam*' tiinir Duke <jf SomerseL He died I7;t[l» and was buried in 

fettmin^ti-T Abbty . His oiijy soo Geor^i- dyttig before biin, 1744, tJie 

Utie dev(itved to bU only ^i^ter ICli^abeiti, mairicd 1740 to Sir Hugh 

Sijiiihsou, Bart, who succeed*?d in tJte tifle of carl 1750, on the death of tfje 

Duke if Jjonicrnet, and 1760 was created Duke of Northumberland, He 

dietl June i, 17iJ6, aud wa^ buried in WcstJuimicr Abbey, and succeedcil 

by tiii eldest son, and namestike, Hugh, fonrteendi Duke of Noithuntbcf* 

nd. Hi* brother Alger acm, in cuiiseciuence of hi» father liavio^ been 

eAled Lurd Lovaiue, Ba.ron of Alnwick, is now a peer of Great liritaio^ 

by U»e'€ titles. The tiUe« cf Earl mid Duke of Nortliunibedatid had be- 

►re been conferred, by Charles IL iiiB3^ on his natural sou, George 

oy, wtUi whom Lhe^ boUi expired/*^ — Gough'a Camd, III, S?58,* 


memorahle siege against Malcolm, King of Scots, and hi« 
S01I9 Prince Edward, both of whom were slain before it.* 
William the Third, of Scotland, was taken prisoner here in 
llT-k King John burnt it down in 1216. After 1310, it un- 
derwent a thorough repair. The two octagonal towers were 
added to the old Saxon gateway, in the inner ward, in 1350» 
as b apparent from the numerous shields upon them. It con- 
sistt c^' three wards, and contains within its outer walls about 
five acres. The walls are flanked with sixteen towers, most of 
whidi are fitted up in a stvie as suitable to their architecture 
as is conTenient with modem manners. The battlements of 
the tewers are embellished with grotesque figures of warriors, 
riany ca them anoioat, others added bv the late duke, who, 
on his accession to the estate, restored tiie whole of the edifice 
tnxu a ruin to its present ma^iificence. The saloon in the 
€ftt*kl b fortT'-two feet br thirty-nine, and ornamented with 
l^cturvs of the ninth, tenth, and eleventh Ecrls of Northum- 
berlanKt The iM«j^a/o« is forty-six. feet by thirty-five; 
and the J««^-nvi« fifty-four feet by twenty-one, exclusive of 
a eireulnr recess^ nineteen feet in diameter. The chapel is 
fi:\Y feet by tweuty-one, corloil in the manner of King's College, 
in Cambridge, the walls painted like the great church of Milan, 
anil the windows of painted glass of great lightness and ele- 

Alnwick Abbey, sweetly seated on tlie northern margin of 
the Alne, was the first house of the Premonstratensians in 
England: they settled at it in 1147, when Eustace Fitz John, 
who took the surname of Vescy, gave tliem a foundation 
charter and rich endowments. Its abbot was frequently sum- 
moned to parliament. In 1534 it was valued at 1891, 15s. and 
Wtts granted to Sadler and Winnington in 1549. The Brand- 

* Acroi9 was erected, in 1774, by the Duchess of Norihinnbcrland, 011 
tin p^ee where Malcolm fell, her grace being lineally descended fron) 


lings made it their scat several years, and afler them the 
DoubledaySy by whose heirs its scite was lately sold to the 
Duke of Northumberland. A gateway tower of it remains, on 
which are armorial shields of the Percys, crosses, and a niche 
richly crowned with open Gothic work. St Leonardos Hoipi* 
t4ilf in Abwick, was granted to it by Lord Percy, in 1375. 
The chronicle of this abbey is in King's College Library, Cam- 

HuLNE Abbey stands in a woody and delightful solitude, in 
Hulne Park, three miles above Alnwick. Among the English 
barons who went to the Holy Wars, in the time of Henry' the 
Third, were William Lord Vescy, and Ralph Gray. In a 
visit to Mount Carmel, they found among its monks ont Ralph 
Fresburn, a Northumberland gentleman, who had signalized 
himself in a former crusade, and whom they intrdated the sa- 
perior of the monastery to permit to return with them ; their 
request was granted, on condition that they founded a house 
fbr Carmelites at home. Afler their return, Fk'csbum, it is 
saidf fixed upon this spot, from its striking resemblance to 
Mount Carmel, and, at his own expence, began to lay the 
foundations of this abbey in V2\0; it was endowed by the 
Lprds of Alnwick. Johij Bale, the biographer, lived and 
studied here. Its outer walls and gateways arc still very en- 
tire ; but it$ numerous chapels, oratories, and offices, are much 
dilapidated. The most perfect part of it is a fine tower, which 
was fitted up in the Gotliic style, by the late duke : on the 
wall adjoining is tliis inscription, in old English letters, in 
relief : — 

In the year of Crist Jim ra.ccrc.iii «!t viii* 

Tliis towr was bilUcd by Sir Hen. Percy 

'ilie foiirlli eric of NortlniWeriad of gret honr A: worth 

Tliat espoused Maiid y* pjood lady full of virtue & bewty 

Paugter tp Sir WilUii Herbert, right noble Sc hardy 

() 4 Eric 

• Anno 1468, about the lime he was restored to his father's powcMiox)^ 
.411(1 earldom. See Col!. Pew. VI. 70?. 


Erie €f Pembrock iii:ose sou!* s 91MI nve 

And with bis ^nce ooscnre y* boildr of this towr. 

HowicK v«s a maior of the Muschanqp baronj, in Heniy 

dw Thnd*s rv^n, and afterwards engrafted upon that of WiU 

Itam de Vckt, of whom it was held by Adam Ryhaud^ by 

scrvm of one knight's fee.* Hontercombie, one of the repre- 

a co utii es of the Mttschamps, howerer, died seized of half of 

k» etther b 1313 or 1317. &r Ralph Grey^ of Chillingham, 

IkU anediely 01* it in the reign of Henry the Eighth ; and the 

wlwtte of h was possessed hy hb descendant, John Grey, Esq. 

la ITOU whcise SOD, Henir, was created a baronet in 1746 ; 

dM in 17J9: and was succeeded in his title and property by 

hfe eMtst aoQ llenrr, at whose decease, in 1808, Howick 

JtiKeoiSad to ht$ nephew Charles Grty^ Earl Greif, and Vic" 

NaiMtf Ifcpm..^. who for many yean distinguished himself for 

htt waiimB «fipi3^Hm to Mr. Pitt's administration ; and, as 

ttie ar$t Iced of the Adwralty, became a cd]eague in govem- 

■K^Bt wHh >fr- Fcoc. Tbe ^ little /».V," or tower of Howick, 

Murntioaed by Leisnd, * was eoiered," says Wallis, " by a 

t^i ot^5«ep$^ anxi wa$ 9 fiur structure, to the end of which, 

the 6r$t Sir Henry Grey boSt a large handsome house, end 

ekftaiu offices." This pile was taken down in 1787, when the 

prtKitt noble structure was commenced* Fhyne and ether 

architects gave ilestgns for it; but it was chiefiy executed 

under the direction of Mr. Newton, of Newcastle. Its inter- 

mil arrangenamts, furniture, and decorations, were last year 

ahniist entirely renewed ; the wings joined to the centre by two 

additions, the fronts of which form the arcs of a quadrant ; 

m*w gateways made; the approaches altered: and the lawn 

broken into a better style. It stands within a mile of the sea. 

The chmrck^ which is on the margin of a brook, that skirts the 

IiwHv was built by the first barotiet, though he was not its 

pitroOt and is an edifice of great neatness, without a tower, 

itt fPoMy and in the Greek style. 

• Test de Nev. 38*. 


Chaster. William de Craucestr* held Craucestr^y in 1272, 
if the barony of John le Viscount, by the service of half n 
ight's fee, and at present it is the seat and manor of his 
Lineal descendant Shafloe Craster^ Esq. The hall^ which is 
fcuilt of basalty stands in a deep grove of forest trees, and has 
Kne sea views through the chasms of a bold chain of broken. 
Brocks, that run between it and the shore. The grounds about 
St are kept exceedingly neat and trim. The village of Craster, 
•^)n an inlet of the sea, is inhabited by fishermen. 

DuNSTANBRouGii was a manor and estate of Prince £d- 
Tnund, Earl of Lancaster, whose son Thomas obtained a 
licence, in 1315, to make a castle of his manor-house in this 
place. He was the most powerful and opulent subject in Eu- 
rope in his time; but becoming general of the confederate 
army that opposed Edward the Third, he was beheaded, and 
afterwards canonized. This estate and fortress were restored 
to his brother, and continued in the Lancastrian house till 
afler the battle of Hexham, when certain of Queen Margaret's 
adherents, namely. Sir liichard Tunstall, Thomas Findern, 
Dr. Morton, and others, with 120 men, continuing within it 
in arras, it was besieged by Lords Wenlock, Hastings, and 
two others, with a large force, and, after three days assault, 
was taken, and battered into ruins, in which state it has ever 
since continued. It stands upon a high whinstone rock, acces- 
sible on the south, but naturally defended by a rocky declivity 
^on the west, and by the sea and abrupt frightful precipices on 
the ew^t and north. Nothing at present remains of it but its 
outworks, s::hich are in the form of a crescent, and chiefly 
consist of the shtjU of the keep, on the highest ground on the 
west; of a strong giwpmy gateway, defended by two large 
round towers ; and of three square towers in the southern wall. 
Its area contains about nine acres ; and, in one year, is said to 
have produced 24-0 Winchester bushels of com, besides several 
loads of hay. Hexangular crystals, called Dunstanbrough 



diamonds^ are sometimes found here, which are not inferior !• 
those of Bristol in hardness and lustre. 

The village of Dunstan is celebrated as the birth-place of 
Duxs ScoTUS, the famous opposer of Aquinas. In one of his 
MS. works, are these words : — " Explicit lectura Docioris Sub- 
tiles in Universitatc Oxoniensi super quartum libnim sententia- 
rum, scilicet, Domini Johannis Duns, nati in quadam villula paro- 
chiae de Emylton, vocata Dunstan, in Comitatu Northurabrias, 
pertinentc domui Scholarum de Merton Hall in Oxonia, ct quon- 
dam socii dictac domus." This place belongs to Merton College 
to this day. 

In this parish also is Fallowden House, the scat of the 
late Earl Grey, which he inherited from his mother, who was 
an heiress, of the name of Wood. His lordship signalized 
himself, as a general, in America, and in the West Indies ; 
and was created a peer of the realm, by the title of Baron 
Grey de Howick, in 1801 ; and of Earl Grey, Viscount Howick, 
in 1806. At present it is in possession of the Countess Dowa- 
ger Grey. 

" The Fam Islands," says Pennant, " form two groups of 
little isles and rocks, to the number of seventeen; but at low 
water the points of others appear above the surface. They are 
rented for 161. per annum : their produce is kelp, some few 
feathers, and a few seals, which tlie tenant watches and shoots, 
for the sake of the oil and skms. Some of them yield a little 
grass. The nearest isle to the shore is called House Island^ 
which lies exactly one mile and sixty-eight chains from the 
coast. On this secjuestered spot St. Cuthbert spent the two 
last years of his life." Here was afterwi^fcJs established a 
prior?/ tor six benedicline monks, subordinate to Durham. It 
was valued, in 1.031, at 121. ITtJ. ^d. The remains of it are 
sadly shattered. Part of the square tower, which Leland says 
was built by " Prior Castel of Durham, the last save one," 
is still standing. There is a light home here, and a well of fine 
fresh water. 



ELLtKGUAM is the name of a pamh^ and was the barony of 
Ralph de Gaiigy in Henr)^ tiic Third*s reign. In 1378 it waa 
a lordship of the heroic knight, Sir Alan de Heton, whose 
name, at his death, was extinct in co-heiresses. In 1460, on 
the attainder of the Earl of Northumberland, it was given, with 
some other manors, to the king's brother, George, Duke of 
Clarence* John Swinburne, of Chapwell, in the county of 
Durham, forfeited it in the rebellion in 1769* The hally which 
is an ancient building, much repaired last year, iss the seat of 
Thomas Huggerston, Esq. a brother of Sir Camaby, and wlio 
inherited this estate from his uncle Edward. 

BAMttVRGii Castle <(tands upon a bogalt rock, of a trian- 
gular shape, high, rugged, and abrupt, on the land side; 
Hanked by the sea, and strong natural rampire* of sand, matted 
togeiiier with sea rushes, on the east ; and only accesstbJe to 
an enemy on the south*east, which is guarded by a deep dry 
ditch, and a series of towers in the wall, on cuch side of the 
gateway. The rock is beautifully besprinkled with lichens of 
various rich tints ; it rises 150 feet above the level o^ the sea, 
and lies upon a stratum of mouldering $tone» iipparently scorched 
with violent heat, and having beneath it a close flinty sand- 
atooe« Its crown is girt with walls and towers, which, on the 
land ddc, have been nearly all repaired ; but on the east arc 
^fl ruinous. The outLT gateway standi between two fine old 
iDwers, with time-worn heads s twelve paces witliin it is a se- 
^ * ife, which is machicolated, and has a portcullis; and 
iig, on the left hand, audon a Iot\y point iy\* rock, is a 
t«Ty aocient round tower, of great stren*?'^*^ commanding a pass, 
N) every kind of annoyance from the bcfeiogcd. ** This 
. .; _ars die moKt ancient appearance, and challenges tlte 
Savons for its origitu" Tlie keep * stands on the area of the 


* WalUs Au<J oiljriff tliuuglil t]je bajie of thu tower was ni* Roman oii. 
90, wbicii Gro^ie Loutradicts. As ** three Romui] diMiurii, one of them a 
V«psi&ian," w^r<' foaml here, wc mav fairly coiiuUitlt% llml tUi^ w»s {\w 
•rite of aoc of the Cu<^r4lL-i buiU by Agiicoia^ in \m tluril camitaigu in 



rock, having an open space around it. It is square, 
that kind of buiJding which prevailed from the Cooqi 
about the time of Henry tlie Second. It had no chimney ; but 
fires had been made in the middle of a large room, the door of 
which was of stone, supported by arches, and the Hght ad- 
mitted into it by a window near its top, three feet square. AI] 
the other roouiji were lighted by slit holes, six inches broad 
It is bailt of siiial! stoni^F, from a quarry at SunderIand-on-tli€ 
Sea, three miles digtant ; within it is a draw-well, discovered 
ia 1770, in clearing the celiai* irom sand and rubbt&b ; its depthJ 
is 1 15 fecti cut through solid rock, of which seventy 4ive feet J 
is of whinstone. Dr» ijharpe repaired one story of it for a court j 
room for the manor; at present ihe truhtees under Lord] 
Oewe'ci will, reside in it. The drawing-room is huug round 
with iapcsirj/f in which in wrought the life of Marcus Aurelius ; 
' and with portraits of Lord and Lauy Crewe, and Dr. Sharpe. 
The Ubrari/ is extensive, is circulated gratis for twenty miles 
round, and was the bequest of Dr. Sharpe* TJie remains of 
tliC chapel were found under a prodigious mass of land in 1773* , 
The chancol is separated from the nave, thirty-six feet by] 
twenty, and, aiXet the Saxon fashion, semicircular at the > 
end* The ancient font was discovered^ and is preserved in the ^ 
ke^ The altur had a passage round iu The rebuilding of 
tliis cilifiee bus been commenced on its old foundations. 

** St, Bede, in describing the besieging and burning of it by ' 
tPenda, the Mercimi, saj$, it had its name from Queen Bebba. 
I But Matthew of Wostmiaster tells us, that Ida, first King of 
jKonhumiKr!and» built it, fortifying it fin^t with wooden pall - 
leadoes, and after wainl^ with a wall But take the folio win^-J 
^description of it frum Roger Hoveden : — * Bebba is a strong 
^ity, not very large, but including about two or three 

aving one entrance hollowed out, and raised mih steps, in a^ 
►tuqirizing niaiiner, and on the top of the hill a beautiful 
church, and to the west, at the top, a fountain, adorned with 
extraordinary workmanship, sweet to the taste, and clear to the 


eye. At this time it is rather a castle than a city, though large 
enough to pass for a city,'* Alfred calls it Sa cynelican 

buph, ISe mon nemepBebbaa buph. Penda attempt- 
ed to bum it in 672, by setting fire to piles of wood laid against 
its walls ; but the wind blowing contrary, the flames caug!vt 
hk own camp, and he was obliged to raise the siege, Brrthric» 
after being some time besieged here, in V05, salUed out, and 
took Eardulf prisoner, and routed his army* Here Oswald's 
teliques were kept, and wrouglit miracles. It was destroyed in 
993 by the Danes ; but about the time of the Conquest was in 
good repair* William Eufus besieged Earl Mowbray here; 
but Etidlng the place impregnable, he built a tower of Mal- 
voisin against it, and leaving a strong garrison, marched south- 
ward* The earl escaped, but was tdken at T^nnemouth : his 
wife» and Governor Morel, held out, till the king threatened 
to put out his eyes unless they surrendered, ivhich they ae* 
cordingly did, Edward the First summoned Baliol to meet 
him here, and, on his refusal, invaded Scotland, and took 
hio» prisoner ; and here his successor sheltered his favourite 
Gavcstnn, in 1310. It lost the greatest part of its beauty in a 
aiege alW the battle of Hexham. ** From that time it has* 
^tiflercd by time and winds, which throw up incredible quan- 
Litiee of sand from the sea upon its walls, through the windows^ 
wltich arc open»"f 

Sir John Forsler was governor of it in Elizabeth^s reign ; 
dnd his grandson John obtained a grant of it and the manor, 
from James the First. His descendant, Thomas, forfeited it 
in 1715 ; but his maternal uncle, Nathaniel, Lord Crewe, 
Dishop of Durham, purchased his estates, and bequeathed 
%liem to cliaritable purposes. He died in 1720. Tlie trustees 
under his will, reside here in turn, and at their own expence. 
Archdeacon Sharpe, about the year 1757, began tlie repairs 
mt tile castle, on which he expended large sums out of his 
fiwn purse. Much has been done since his time ; and it affords 



matter of high ^Ratification, to see this veneraMe 
gradoaUy reclaimed from ruin, and converted luto apartmei 
for the most wise and benevolent uses. A large room is fiti 
up for educating the boys of the neighbourhood, on Dr. Bell*s 
system. A suite of rooms are allotted to two mistresses, and 
twenty poor girls, who, from tlieir ninth year» are lodged^ 
clothed, and educated, till they be fit for service. Here 
is a market for meal and groceries, which are sold to the 
at prime coat, on Tucficiays and Fridays* Medicines and 
•vice are given at the infirmary on Wednesday* and Saturdays ; 
and, in IBIO* 1050 out-patients were admitted to its benefit, 
and thirty-six inpatients ; of whom tliirty-four died, eight v 
fient to Newcastle infirmary, and the rest either cured or 
lieved. Various signals too are made use of, to warn vessi 
in thick and stormy weather, from the rocks of the Fei 
Islands. A life-boat, and all kinds of implements usetul i] 
saving crews and tlieir vessels io distress, are always in rea< 
ness; also beds for shipwrecked ^lors ; and all means used 
prevent wrecks from being plundered, and for restoring 
to their owners. 

The town of Oamburgh wa^; once of considerable important 
as appears from the Testa de Ncvill, and the numerous 
sages respecting it in Madox's History of iJie Exchequer. It 
gives name to a shire, ward, and deanery; sent members 
the parliament in 1294"; contributed a ship to the siege of Ci 
lais, in Edward the Third's reign ; and had a market, now* dii 
used. Here was a monastery for Austin friars, founded in 
1137, subordinate to Noslel abbey, vdued by Speed at 124^^ 
15s, 7d, granted, in 151-5, to John Forster, whose descendantlH 
had a seat in its premises, lately pulled down. Also a monas- 
tery of friars preachers, founded by Henry the Third, in 1265, 
given by Queen Elizabeth to Rcve and Pindar, and called, b; 
Leland, " a fayre college, a little without the town, now cl 
gone down/* St. Mary Magdalen's hospital was licensed 
Edward the Second. The church is dedicated to St. Aiden 



has a cross-legged figure in it, called, by tradition. Sir Lance- 
lot du Lake ; monuments of the Forsters ; and old armour sus- 
pended from the chancel roof. Lord Crewe's trustees have 
lately made great improvements here, by building cottages on 
uniform plans. 

In this neighbourhood, at Spindeston^ b a camp, nearly 
round, with a triple ditch and rampart, and two exploratory 
iiills on the south, and one on the north. A little west is 
another, in the form of a crescent, triple trenched, and with 
ramparts pf oncemented stones. There is a ballad called, the 
Laidley Worni^ of SpindUston Heughf said to be 500 years old, 
and composed by Duncan Frazier, a Cheviot bard, in 1270. 
The camp at Out Chester^ is square, and, as its form and name 
indicate, of Roman origin. 

Edderstone, in Bamburgh parish, was the seat of Sir Tho- 
mas Forster, Knight, in the reign of Henry the Eighth, and of 
his descendants, till the year 1763, when it went into the 
Bacon family, who built tlie present mansion, and sold it 
lately to J. Pratt, Esq. 


was a manor of the barony of Wooler ; and after male issue 
failed in tlie Muschamps, was held in medieties, from the time 
of Edward the First to the tenth of Elizabeth, by the families 
of Graliani, Iluntercombie, Lylburne, Meinells, D*Arcy, and 
Conyers. The Forsters possessed it in 1638; and after being 
sold by the descendants of Abraham Dixon, Esq. who resided 
upon it in 17.>9, it was lately purchased by William Clarke, 
Esq. The mansion-house' was built from designs of Payne ; 
but has suffered much from neglect. The chapel is parochial 
under Bamburgh ; it was built in 1700; or the bells hang, as in 
many parts of Scotland, on a frame on the outside of the 
gable." The old chapel is in ruins on an adjoining hill The 



town IS small y but pleasant ; liajs a market on TuesdiiySy and 
filirs on the Tuesday before Whitsuntide, and the 23d nf Au- 
gust. ** A mile south-west of it is an encampraent, nearly 
'fequare, with a wide fosB and double rampire, the entrance on 
tiie south*" 


in the oldest rceords concerning it, is called Robire^* or Ratli^ 

bury, a name probably derived from lis being thi burying- 

I -place of Rathf or Roth^ some Dane of distinction. There Is a 

'•large Harrow on the southern margin of the river, opposite the 

t'iown, and several others in the neighbourhood* King John 

enfeotfed the barons of Wlialton, in this tnanor^ for the pa}*- 

ment of one knight^s fee.f With Warkworth it fell to tbc| 

CTOwn, and in 1330, wos granted to the Percys, and en- 

iled upon their male posterity, September the 25th, J: 15^2.1 
T!ie church is in the form of a cross, and contains a font 
%*ery curious workmanship. Wilton Totoer, a strong ancientj 
building, with the Humfran%'ille*5 arms upon ita west side, iaJ 
the rector's mansion- Sir Ralph Sadler recommended tbei 
** parsonaige of Rothcberj*, whiche is presently in the hands of 
one of the prebendaries of Durcsme, with the yerely fee of | 
CC« (2001.) to be anexede to the castill of Harbottell/*^ The 
I inhabitants, in 1201, held their tmcn of the crown, and paidi 
lines like Newcastle and Newburne. |I Leiand calls it ** such j 
^ toun as Corbrige/' In 1801 tt contained only 66S persons.. 
It has the privilege of three annual fairs, and of a market on J 
Thursdays, which Inst, with free forest here, and certain otlier^ 
franchises, was granted lo the lords of the manor by King 
l-John. Its situation is dry and salubrious, on which account,^ 
fi«nd for its goat's milk, it is much resorted to by valeludina-^ 


• Testa de Nev. S31% 392. f Ibid* 

♦ Col, ftcrage. Vol. VL 651, J Si. Pap. IL 15, 

II Mado^*A Birtxi. Borog. 54. 

Hans.* On iKe top of a hill, between this town and l^hrq^ton, 
it a circular entrenchment, with a tlouble ditch and vaJlum, 
called Old Rothlury^ and not far from it^ in a sand-stone rock, 
ii ft large cave, 

Hepple was held in thenage, by the annual payment of fifty 
ihEJings, by the ancestors of Wilham Bardolf, in whose time 
Kin^ John changed that service into one knight's fee. In 
Henry the Third's time it belonged to •* Joo Taylleboys," and 
continued in his family till about the year 1370, when it i^ent 
to the Oglesy and from that period had the same revokition of 
^pmesson as the Bothal barony, till the late Duke of Portland 
told it to Sir J, B. Riddelh The castle or tower was ex- 
Ct*edingly strong, but its remains at present are few. West of 
it half a niile, on Kirk Hill, was a chapel and cemcieri/^ all trace 
of which were about fifty years since removed- 

Cartington Castle, in early times, belonged to a family 
of its own name. In 1502, it was the seat of Sir Edward Rat- 
diff, and aflerwarda of Edward Widdrington, who raised a 

Vol. XIL F troop 

• Jotm Brown, D,D. w« born here, m 1715, aiid edncaiiMl it St. Jolin'i 

Collvi^, Cuiibridg€. He wa^a Canon of Cai'lisle^ and an acltve vohuitcer 

I the rebeliioH, in 1715, He \va*» aUo Vic;ir of IVIoiL-land in W' estniore- 

liad, Bixf ofLa^oobyp in CuniberlauJ ; aftorward^s Ri.clor of Hfrksley, lu 

Enex, and lastly^ in 1761, Vicar of Nevfcaatle upon Tyne, and a cUaplaiJi 

in ordinary to the kioj;. IV Emprr&s of Hn^sia invited him to assist in 

ninflp certain reyiilationst for schools, A:c. iu her cniptrc ; but, while pre- 

ations were making for \m voyai^e^ Le died, by an act of Mtieide, at hj» 

pniS% in Pall-MalJ, LeiiJon, September tli« ifSd, 1166, He publisked, 

^ia 1751, Essays cm -Slmfbbury's Cbaracteriitics ; in 1735, tbc tragedy of 

BarbarovMt; and, in tJie ncjct year, llic tragedy of Atfaebt'ii]. In 1757, 

* appeared his Esiiniateof tbe Manner* and Principles of the Times ; and, in 

1766, a Letter to Dr. Lowtb, M'bo had alluded to liim, as one of Dr. War- 

artoaiflattereri. Amouj? bis works aba w»re : Ttie Care of ♦Saol» i 

^l^ocm i ITie History of tlie Rise and PjO|/rew of Poetry aud Music ; and 

Tbougbts ©o Civil Lib«rty, Licentiousness, and Faction. 

Binft, BriL Bjun^$ Netec, I. 310. 

^\6 nohtiiumbealavi?. 

troop of horse for Charles the Firsit, and wa« created a btroitti 
in \i}^2f but had his estates sequestered by parliament in 165% 
Hla daughter and cohtiiresn, Lady Charlton, of Hc^lieiide* 
founded an almshouse here, for four widows of the Hani&n ca- 
tholic persuaiion. AAer this a Talbot, who signalized himael4j 
but waK killed* at the siege of Buda, had this estate* His 8o9i 
John» being concerned in the rebellion m 1715, Bad from 
Chester. Since that time it belonged to the Alcocks, of Neiv^ 
castie* The mansion is strongly built, and of the castellati 

Adjoining to the village of Haly&toxb is a very copious^ 
spring, called Our Ladt/'s IVell^ in wliich, as some say,* 
nus baptized a great multitude of 8axoii5» Here also 
small benedictine nunnery, founded by one of the Humfran* 
ville's, of Ifarbottle castle. Henry tlie Third confirmed theii 
charters in 125>K Richard Kellorsc, Bishop of Durham, umite 
the church of Corsenside, and Horbottle d]a|>e], to this church 
and nunnery ; and gave th*j advoirson of the vicarage to Lc 
Richard Humfranvillo* Its annual revenues at tlie diasolutioni 
according to iSpeed, were only 151. IDs* 8d. though they liad 
been rated in the Lincohi taxation, m 1291, at 4*0i* The 
church has been much larger than it is at present. V u 

of the convent *itill appear in ihe Mill House ^ and in ot! i- 

ings in the village. 

HifcRBOTTLE Castle, with the franchise of Kedesdale, wa 
given in 1075, to Robert de Humfiauvilie, Lord of Tours 
Vivan, to be defended by the same sword which the coni^ue 
wore when he entered Northimiberland. Before that time 
belonged to Mildred, the son of Acman* From the Hamfraii 
villes it was inherited, in 1438, by Walter Talboys, vv^iose di 
scendant, Sir Walter, forfeited it atler the hmh of Hexha 
It was, " as it is saide, the Lord Talbusaes inheretaacei 
gef en the prence in exchange, for that it was so aaeat a hfMtff^ 


• Btw Lei. If, r. (y. 

Cm* the serrice, te."* It beloi^ed to the crown, in 15$7 1 
bttt heing granted to a branch of the Widdrington family, tiieir 
b^resi carried it to Sir Thomas Gascoigne, who sold it to the 
Ciennels^ ks present possessors: their mansion is a modem 
biiildiBgy at the east end of the village. In U7S» this fortresi 
was sacked hy the Scots ;t after which it was rebuilt, and so 
strongly fortified, that a Scotch army, in 1296, besieged k 
two days in vain ; after the battle of Bannock Bum, however^ 
they succeeded more to their wishes, and again demolished it. 
It was the retirement of Queen Margaret, of Scotland, on bar 
aecond marriage to the Earl of Angus, and here was bom, in 
1518, her daughter Margaret, afterwards married to tlie Eail 
q£ Lenox.^ It is boldly seated on the southern brink of the 
Coquet^ and its ruins are of large extent. The walls of the gresH 
tower have an odd appearance, parts of them being rent asoi^ 
der from their foundations, and overhanging their base ; and 
other parts having slidden in large masses, halfway down tke 
hill, and fixed themselves deep in the earth. 

BiDBLKSTON, the Seat of Thomas Selby, Esq. is seated at the 
head of a gradual slope, at the foot of Silvertoa, a high greea- 
mountain, and one of the. most southern of the chain of the 
Cheviots. It belonged to the Vissards, whom Edward the Firsts 
on account of their treasonable proceedings, deprived of it, in 
1272, and gave to Sir Walter de Selby "pro bono et laudabili 
servitio."^ His successor, Sir Walter, was governor of Liddle 
castle, in 1342, in which year the fortress was taken by Davidf 
King of Scots, and its governor beheaded. This family wet 
also possessed of the barony and manor of Prend^lath, on thm 
opposite border. 11 Their seat here is a large and commodveos 
stone edifice, built by its present possessor. 


* 8irR.Sa(l. St. Pap. ii. 15. 

t Ridp. Bord. HUt. p. 98. t Knighton int. x. Scrip. Aog. col. 1 \i96, 

$ Original Grant at Biddleston. 

I Cliarter in Oatcihead Vestry, Dortiaiii. 



£DiiN'GffA>f Castle, with several other possessionB^ i^a# 
held by John, son of Walilcn, of the barony of Earl Patrick, 
for one soar hawk, or sixpence** It was the seat and manor of 
Sir Roger de Hasting, Ktit, who bore a captain's commission, 
in the expedition against the IVIoors, in 1509. In the tenth of 
Elizabeth, it belonged to Thomas Swinburne, Esq. ; but heirg 
male failing in his descendant^, in the reign of Charles the First 
it went by marriage to the Swinbumes of Capheaton, its presenfi^B 
owners. The castle stands near the head of a narrow valley,'^^ 
and chiefly consists of a grey, venerable tower. 

Bolton is a small village, on the north side of the Alne 
and having a chapel under Edlingham : but it is only of not 
on account of an hospital^ founded at it by Robert de Re 
Baron of Wark, ** to support," as his charter seta forth, " \ 
master, three brethren, three chaplains, and thirteen leproui 
laymen." It was dedicated to " the blessed Mary, and Sti 
Thomas the martyr," and put under tlie wardenship of thi 
Abbot of Kyval, and the Prior of Kirkham. It was well en- 
dowed, and at the dissolution came, with this manor and village 
to the Collingwoodfi of Eslington- The Earl of Sun^ey 
met here by several noblemen and gentlemen, with their re 
tinues, to the number of 2^,000 men, before the battle 
Hodden Field^f 

Eglingham is tliename of a parish and a village, and in 15B1 
was the seat and manor of Luke Ogle, Esq., and at present 
his descendant, Ralph Ogle, Esq, It is en\uroned with tnoort* 
Near it is a mineral water, described by Mr, Cay, in the Philo^ 
iiophical Transactions ;| and below it Kim-mere, a lake stor 
with pike and perch, and its banks abounding with the mpica 
called sweet p^ah^ or Dutch myrtle. 

WiiiTTiKGHAM, ** In the year 883, Alfred the Great, haiN- 
tug slain the two Danish generals, Hlnguar and Halden, beg 

• Tc*t. de Nev, *e5. 


to cuhhrate the wastes of Northinnberliuid.^ At that ^ 
Cuthbert, by a vision, revealed to the Abbot Edred» th 
Ushopy and all the En^Ush and Danes, should be commanc 
Hfflsom Guthred, the son of Ardecnute, who had been i 
slavery to a widow, at Whittingham, and should make him 
of Northumberland; which was done, and he reigned 
York, but Egbert beyond the Tyne."* This village wi 
ctendy held in sergeancy of the king, by dreogi^e service' 
has a fair on the twenty-fourth of August; ijbs church is 
form, old, and spacious ; and4he vale jn wl^cb it stands u 
trembly rich, well cullivated, and beauUiul. 

ELLINGTON, a i^eat of Sir Thomas Henry OddeU^ B^ 
occupied by C. W, Bigg^t E»q., stands in a low^ ric 
•helterecl gituationy on the margm of the Af ne. It is a B|i 
mdjeie^gtmt edifice, of poJisheid feeorstone, and in the n 
style. It belonged to Alan de Eslington, in the time of 
the Third, of whom he held it by certain local services, < 
species of sergeancy ; from this family it passed to the I 
rigges, and from them to the CoUmgwoods, with whom it, 
tinued from the sixteenth to the dghteenth century; \ 
Colonel George Liddell, a younger son of Sir Thomas Lidaeii, 
of Ravensworth, Bart, bought it of the commissioners for 
seUing estates, forfeited in the rebellion, in 1715, and lefl it to 
his nephew, Henry Lord Ravensworth. 

Callaly was the seat of William de Callaly, who held it 
and Yetlington, by drengage and other services, of Henry the 
Third : his son Gilbert gave them to Roger Fitz-Roger, Baron 
of Warkworth and Clavering, from whom they have been 
handed down to his lineal descendant, John Clavermg, Esqr 
their present possessor. The tower, at the west end of this 
mansion, has marks of high antiquity; that on the east, BOf^ 
the centre of the building, are modem. The dining room if 

P 3 forty* 

^ ChroD. de Mailrot, p. 145. Sim. Dam. col. 147. 
t Test, de Nef. 389, 39S. 

2H K9ftrHmffBEmirAin>« 

forty-five feet long, and twestj-five feet high, elegantly ttac^ 
coed, and has a music gallery at each end. A raivge of high 
roc^h hills, planted up their sides, and brown and craggy at 
their heads, sweep before the southern front, at the distance of 
kalf a mile. 

Near Callaly is a conical hill, called Castle Hiix; ka 
top, comprising about two acres, is girt by a high wall, and, in 
die weakest phices, by a fbss seven yards deep, hewn out of 
tlie solid rock, and fhnked on the outside with a wall. Down 
the western brow of the hill, about one hundred paces, ^ 
another strong waU, it» ruins measuring seven yards and a 
half at their base. The whole fortified area contains nearly 
six acres, and jb difficult of access. There are several other 
andcnt camps in this neighbourhood. 

Glantox Pike is also a oooical exploratory hill, in s^ht 
of the carious circular camps, on the tops of Ciinch HiU and 
Ingram HUL Near it, at Deer-street, beside Glanton West* 
field, were found, in 1716, four Hstvamsj one empty, lh« 
other containing each on urn, filled with fine earth, charcoal^ 
and human bones, bearing marks of fire: also near them, two 
more urns of ordinary pottery. North of Glanton West-field 
a quarter of a mile, a ccH^ of the old mixed brass, well pre* 
l^ervt^d, ivas turned up, ar.d given to Mr. Wallis. By the side 
of the highnay, ovor Hedgloy Moor, is a square stone pillar, 
called Percv'r Crosjj, embossed with the arms of Percy and 
Lucy, and sot up in memory of Sir Rulpfi Percy, ^who was slain 
here by Lord Montaciile, in a severe skinnish, in 1 4f»'^ before 
the h:tttl^? of Hoxham. Hw dying words were, *' / have sav$d 
the bird in vt// brcfst ;" meaning his faith to his paity- 

Tho ninnsioii at R odd am was built by the late Admiral 
Roddam, on the scite of the old family residence. John 
M«j^y ^^'^o flourished in the beginning of the sixteenth cen- 
iify, mentions* the following curious grant, as ranch admired 
Hr Robert, Duke of Alban} , for its brevity : — 

**I King 
• Hist. Brit Ac. p 265. 


*< I Kimi Athdfltuie 

Giffig heir to Paulanc 

Odam and Rodam 

A Is grid and ab fair 

Als c?ir tlta myn ware 

And yair to Witnen Maid my wyff." 

The battle of Brunanhurch^ so much extolled by the hk- 
torians and poets of that age, is supposed by Camden to have 
been fought near Broomridge, a mile from Ford castle, wher6 
are the lines of a large encampment ; and this grant may have 
been made by Athelstane, in consequence of services there 
performed. The Testa- de Nevill, mentions this manor at k 
member of the barony of the Earl of Dunbar ; but is silent 
respecting the family, though their names occur in the escheats 
for the year 1£64, as possessors of it. They were a warlike 
family.^ Leiand calls them ** men of fair landes in Northum- 
brelande, about Tylle river, ontyl one of them having to wife 
one of the Umfraville daughters, killed a man of name, and 
thereby lost the principle oi dccc markes by yere: so that 
at this time Rodam, or otherwise Rudham, of Northumbrelande, 
is but a man of mene lands." 

Near Ilderton, the manor and seat of Sanderson Ilderton^ 
Esq., and of his ancestors, since the time of Edward the First, 
is Rosedon Edge^ on which is a large square entrenchment ; 
and in sight of it, three miles to the east, on Bewick Hilly is 
a semicircular camp, its chord on the west, guarded by an 
abrupt declivity, overlooking the plains of the Bramish, and 
its arc by a double foss and vallum ; the entrance on the south' 
is by a hollow way, hemmed on one side by large stones, set 
edgewise in the earth. At Haeriip'burn^ half a mile farther to 
the east, is a smaller semicircular camp, a kind of out-post to 
Bewick Hill. Near Three-stone Bum, north of Hedge-hope^ 
one of the highest of the Cheviot mountains, is a Druidioaf 

P 4. Circle, 

• See Lei. Colect. and Coll. Peerage, VI. 659. 

216 W&f BUUSEilL AN P. 

Circle^ thirty-eight yards in diamct^r^ and formed by ten large 
stones : and a few tnite$ south of this place is Linhope'^pcmlf 
a cataract of the Brami&h, that falls over fifty-six feet of poiot^ 

LtLBt/itsiK 1 owERy *^ bosocned high in tufted trees/' is m 
grey old ruin, on the north side of a brook of its own name ; 
near it are remains of a chapel. It was the seat of John Ul- 
burne, in 1234, from whose stock sprang John Lilburne, a tur- 
bulent enthusiast, in the time of tlie civil wars* In latter times 
it belonged to the Clcnnels ; and from them was inlieritt;d by 
Henr>' Collingwood, Esq , whose mansion, a neat modem build- 
ing, stands OP Uie south side of the brook, opposite the old 

Patrick, Earl of Dunbar, htld tite barony of Beakly or 
Bengi^eya, consbting of several manors and* villages, by the 
service of his being for them, InOcrg^ and Haitbofg^ between 
England and Scotland ; " tliat is,** says Camden, *' if I under- 
stand rightly, obliged to secure and protect the commuBica- 
tion to and fro, between the two kingdoms. For the Old Eng- 
lish call entrance and a porch, in their language, luDOpOU/'^ 

Chillin'oh AM, anciently called ChevcUngham, was held of 
the barony^ of William de Vescy, Uy Robert de Muscamp ; 
and afterwards belonged to the chief of the noble family of 
Greys, Barons of \\ark, from whom it was inherited by tlie 
Earl of Tunkerville, its present posscissor* The castle was re- 
built in Elizabtth's reign; it is a square heavy structure, of 
four stories in the wings, and three in the centre^ Here is 
a marble chimney-piece, in sawing which, was found a live toad ; 


• By the »kff of the high «wtf, in thin ^ttmh, wa« a limp of stones, catl(^d 
til© Afren full if Sttme$^ aix4 a^cnbcit to tiri* ilvvil On irnioviiit; them to 
mmd ihc roud, tUey i«fef« foand to eovtr llw haw and framnciil» «tm rT»n* » 
the lirtM i-in ubi , iwiMvif feel in diaiueler^ uimI Iriviwg four rows of step^. 

Hcht. Mtig. 1769, p, l^'J. 

i i Mr. ^u ,„^,^ , u,,, of the Tttla ilc NeviU, at p. :;9i, Um SUingburg^ tor ] 
»'< hgfuttg. 



nidus in which he lay has been plastered up. The other 
partfwith the same mark, was at Horton csustie.* The hes^ 
picturea here are full lengUi portraits of Lords Bacon^ Bui^- 
leigh, and Buckingham^ the last twa gaudy, and portraits of 
Charles the First, and James the Second. The park is ex- 
texuive, and contains a Jarge herd of deer, and a numeroui 
breed of wild cattle^ called the White Scoituh Bhmi / " Uiese 
are of a middle size, have very long leg9, and the cows are 
fine homed ; tlic orbits of the eyes, and Uie tips of the noses » 
are black ; but the hulls have lost the manes attributed to them 
by Boethius,"f They are very shy, wild, swift, and savage. 
In severe winters they venture to visit the out-houseiii in search 
of food* 

H OR TON Ca&tjlb Stands in a bleak and naked country. It 

*vas held of the barony of William Vescy, by William Tuber- 

vUle, by half a knight^s fee ; and afler that '^ for many ages 

was the porsesslon of a branch of the family of Grey» of 

OhIlJingham. Sir John Grey, of Horton, going into the war 

' £j\ France, with King Henry tli^ Fifth, took by storm tlie castle 

L^a|!»TankerviUe, in Normandy ; for which good aervice he was 

«::!reatecl Earl of Tankervillc, and Knight of tlie Garter/* The 

_^t:ivo families afterwards became united, and at present are re- 

tT-^re^ented by Earl Grey, the owner of this castle, 

Wooi^KR, or, as it is written in the Testa de Nevill, WiL- 
^^^ovE, was a barany^ consisting of several manorii, and given to 
■^^OBERT de MuscAMp, by Henry the First, to be held by the 
Eiymcnt of four knight's fees. His successor, Kobert« in the 
iuie of Henry the Third, was the most powerful baron in the 
i<Jrth, but his name expired in three daughters, co-heiresses, 
*ha married the Earl of Struthern, Odond de Ford, and Wid- 
er de Huntere<ambe. Aftcrwarda we find the families of 
Hcuell, Scrope, d'Arc}'s, and Percys, having possessions here, 
_^»^nd from the laet of these* the manor of Wooler passed to the 




GfejSf and from them is inherited by the Earl of T"^- 
Here was an hoifpiialy riedicated to St, Mary Magtia., 
on a round hill, near the town, is an old tmwr^ probably iha 
ohatteau fort of the Mustcamps. The town has a marbH on 
Thundays, and fairs tlie tenth of May, aiid seventeeocJi of 
October, It was burnt down about tiie year \ Vli^ and ♦* anMe 
fairer out of its aehes.*' At preaent, however, it it nearly all 
thatched ; and though it begins to flourish, baa but a coM ttOr 
cleanJy appearance. \t& church is said to have formerly beett 
a chapel to Fenton church, a ruin on the east «ide of the Till : 
it waa thatched till 1765, in wfiich year it was rebuilt^ H« 
also are Hve or hix dissenting meeting-houses. 

In ihU neighbourhood are several remarkable cnirenchmtA 
and cairns : one at a place called Cattlewell, is naoii^d Maiden 
Cftsfle^ and a lar^^er. Trodden Gazes, At Humbled on bum* a 
nule north-east iVotii Woolcr, is Green CnMle^ a la'^gc round 
eamp, with a oairni on a hill, cut in lerrace§* And im Red- 
rigs, near the Toll-bar, is a IVkmstone PiHnr^ pointing out the 
•pot where Henry Lord Percy, aod George Etirl March, in 
!S02, defeated 10,000 Scola, under Earl Douglaa. 

Yeveriko is, at thtB day, an lacomsiderable Tillage, on tht 
south side of the river Glen : concerning it, aaya St. Bede, 
" PaulinuB, coming with King Edwin, and hw Qiieen Ethel- 
btirga, to the royal villa, called Adgefrin^ abode ther« thirty- 
gix i\iiy% employed in catechising and baptizing ; in all whic 
time he did nothing, from morning to night, but instruct 
people, who flocked to him from all the tiilagefi aiid places, 
the doctrine of Christ, and baptize them in the neighbouring 
river Cilen. This villa was deserted by succeeding kings, and 
another made in its btead, at a place called Machmu^ On the 
south side of Yevering is a whinatone column, in memory of 


• Ecc. Hist L. IL c. liv, Marlmin h .snjipo^cti to have be<*n at Mii> 
FIBY,D, anilUbuilr village, »itaated on ilic north Mcleof Mi feld Plaun^ where 
fjir Williatn Hiilnjcr dt-tVated a party of Scots by the Durhatn force», before 
tlie bftttte ofFlodden* 


Ae battle of ** Geteringey" fought here in 1414, between Ihe 
English, under Sir Robert Humfranville and the Lord Warden 
of the Marches, and a strong party of the Scotch, in which th* 
ktter were discomfited.* 

Above this village rises Ybvekikg Bell, a green Misshaped 
mountain, two thousand perpendicular f^ fVom the plain. 
Its top is level, and girt with a wall of large whinstones, en- 
closing an area of above sixteen acres. The entrance is on 
tile south. In the east side of it, a paved way, three pacca 
broad, and thirty yards lone, lends to a low circular mount, girl 
with a slight wall, one hundred and eighty paces in circunr* 
ference, and with a ditch within ; its centre is crowned with k 
cairn of stones, ten paces high, the middle hollo^i', and six 
paces from brim to brim, and the stones beneath it calcined 
witii fire. The sides of this mountain arc scattered with cir- 
cular foundations of small buildings, such as arc seen by th^ 
margin of the higher parts of the Coquet, and through all the 
Cheviot district. South of the Bell half a mile, is a cairn cafleA 
Tim Talhn^s grave. On Newton Tor, a very high hiH, are en- 
trenchments and a cairn ; and on Haerhnoy near Mr. Selby's seiit^ 
at Paston, a camp, girt with a round double rampire and fbfSw 

CoPBLAXD Ca«tle wfts rebuilt, in 1614, by George Wal- 
lace, Esq., to whose family it belonged, from Edward the Se- 
cond's reign, till it was sold in the last century, to the Ogles 
of Kirkley.f It stands on the north brink of the Glen. 
One John de Copeland was amongst the twelve English knights, 
chosen to meet the Scotch commissioners, to settle the certain 
border disputes, in 1249; and we suspect, that the celebrated 
Northumberland Esquire, John de Copeland, was of this famfly. 
He took David, King of Scots, prisoner, in the battle of Dur» 
ham, in 1347, for which he was created a knight haneret, and 
had 5001. a year settled upon himself and heirs.j: 

• Hardin?, c. 2l5f. t Walli**, 11. 480. 

t Pryimc'8 4th In!«t. p. 345. Lrj;»eA IVfarufi, p. ?.n Durn nnd Nicb. Hfot. 
•f Wectin. and Cuuuberl. VoU I. p. 36. 


Ford was the seat and manor of Odonel de Ford, in \i 
and by him held, with other property of the Muscamp haron^i 
by one knight's service. His heiress married Sir WilUa 
Heroni wliose descendant, Sir WilJiam, huilt the casik^ in 13S1 
and obtained a royal grant of a weekly market and an annua 
fair at this place, and also liberty of free warren in his manora,^ 
Their heiress married Thomas Carr, Esq. of Etal, in Queen 
Elizabeth^s reign, and bis heiress Sir Francis Blake, from wboi 
it wtnt to llie Delavals. In Leland's time it was ** meadl 
strong, but in decay." It was rebuilt by the late Lord Deli 
v&\ in 1761 ; and Is at present the seat and property of hit 
relict, Lady Del aval. 

Robert dtj Maneriis held Ihthcd^ now called Etal, of 
Muscamp barony, in 1272, by half a knight's service- Th 
castle was built in 1340. James the Fourth, before the battli 
of Plodden Field, took, and ruined it. Sir Thomas Manner 
Lord Kos, of Eta], was created Earl of Rutland in 15S 
Lord Wharton made this place the residence of the Deput 
Warden of the Eaf^t Marches, in 1552. In Queen Ehzabeth'i 
reign it belonged to Sir Robert Carr ; and by marriage of th 
heiress of that family, in 1762, it went to the Earl af Errol] 
whose sister. Lady Augusta Hay, carried it to the Earl 
Glasgow, its present possessor. The mansion \& an clegan 
modern structure, 6ncly placed, at a short distance from th 
venerable remains of the old castle. 

Pallinsburx is the seat of George Adam Askew, Esq 
The country about it is remarkably fertile, and thrown by 
ture into a thousand hilts, of low undulating forms, exquisitely 
beautiful. Several small vessels of coarse pottery, and a tria 
gular shape, were found on this estate. 

In Brankston West-Held is a rough upright column of basalt 
six feet seven inches high ; a memorial of the great victory ob- 
tained over James the Fourth by the Earl of Surrey, on tlic 
ninth of September, 1513. This battle is sometimes called th^ 
baUk ^/'Branxton, from the main scene oi action lying near 



Aat village; but commonly the battle ^Fi^odden^ becauie the 
Soots were encamped on Flodden Hill, and from thence draim 
out of their entrenchments to fight, by the Earl of Surrey 
secretly marching through the narrow defiles about Crookhamy 
and catting off their retreat. Among the slain was the Ardi- 
bish(^ of St Andrew's and two bishc^, four abbots, twdve, 
earls, seyenteen lords, innumerable knights and gentlemen, 
and from eight, or, as some say, twelve thousand common 
The English only lost about fifteen hundred : their suo- 

I was attributed to their artillery and bowmen. King James 
Ul near Branzton, and was next dMj found by Lord Dacre. 
On the highest part of Flodden Hill is a natural rock, called 
tke Kk^i Chair^ whence he had a good view of the two ar- 
■iies and the country. The standards and ordnance were nest 
day carried to EtaL James's corpse was embalmed at Berwick^ 
and brought to En|^d, and buried at Sheene, where, at the 
dissolution, it was tumbled into a lumber-room. . His swocd 
and dagger were given to the Herald's College, where they now 
are. Surrey deposited the Scotch standards in Durham Cathe- 
draL As Sir Camaby Haggeistmi's workmen were digging in 
Flodden Field, in 1810, they came to a pit filled with human 
bones, and which seemed of great extent ; but, alarmed at the 
sight, they immediately filled up the excavation, and proceeded 
no fiuther. A fine seal, supposed to be Roman, was found here, 
and was in the possession of the late Countess Cowper.* 

The village of Werk stands on the margin of the Tweed, 
and chiefly consists of a miserable cluster of thatclied cottages, 
occupied by fishermen, most of whom, are freeholders. The 
Castle here, so celebrated in the border annab, is completely 
ruined, nothing remaining of it but fragments of ashlar 
work, near its foundations, and lines of its moat. It stood on a. 
round hill, apparently artificial. Below it is a beautiful terrace 
on the brink of the river, called the Maiden's Walk. The 
Kembf or outwork, is an intrenchment half a mile long, con- 
* Hon. Bitt Bon. p. 75. 

mtmg of a rampart of eorth aiul atonp, and « ditch ; it ftil 
midde and western extremity are small mounts, each ddV at 
die tdp with a trench ; also another on the river side : and 
near the first ruin* of SK Gfhs^i Chapel^ some curious grav*- 
dtonea. Bat lie Place is on the sauth side of th« iiia&tk, and 
opposite it Gnll0tiL*s Hill^ which is terraced, and a round hiU, 
calletl Gaiioios'/iiii'hiow, The harany of Werk was given lo 
the family of Ros, Baroni of Helragley, in Yorkshire^ by Henry 
the Firsts for the service of two knight's fees^^ and was in 
their possession till 1399; but in the next year was found to 
belong to Sir Thoma* Grey, of Hetion. It gave title of baron, 
in 1622, to Sir WiiHam Grey, who died in 1674, and wjw suc- 
ceeded by his ^OHj Ford Grey, who was created Viscount Glen- 
dale and Earl of Tankerville in 1695, which titks expired with 
him in 1701, and the barony with hig brother Ralph, in 1706; 
but the earldom was again revived in his niece's huj»band» 
Charles Be^nel, Earl of Ossulton, whose great grandson, 
Charles, the present Earl of Tankerville, succeeded to his titl# 
in 1767. 

Though Leland asserts, that ** Henry the Second caused tho 
castell ot Werk to be made/' Richard of Hexham fells m, 
that Carrunif wluch tlie English call Werk, was taken by the 
Scots in 1 3S6 ; but that two yean* alter, they invested it 
with a numerous array, and, **^ cum baluHt el machinu mttkis §** 
but, after three weeks assault* were forced la raise the sieg^, 
SdOA after they made a similar attempt with no better success; 
but afterwards returned to the attack, and compelled the fa- 
mished garrison to capitulate. Henry the Second repaired it ? 
but John, ever inconsistent, burnt it down, Henry the Third 
and his queen resided hcTe in August and September, 1^5 5 f 
and were met by the King of Scotland and Queen Margaret, 
fStkBiT daughter, f Edward the First strengthened llie garrison 


* Tcita de Nevil^ 59^. The MugttA Hrttaxmia c6iifoiiud4 Oiii phite 
Willi Wark, on the Nortli Tync. 

♦ Ryni. Ford, L 561. 


with 1000 nitB» oq the defectioD of Robert de Boi^ and had 
bis court here at Easter, 1295.* *' The Scottes, in 1318, caoM: 
into Bo^and, and destroyed the castells of Wark and Har^. 
bottler" In 1S41, the garrison sallied out upon the reav ef 
David Brace's army, as they returned from ravaging Dttrhaa^ 
and took 160 horses laden with q>oil ; a drcumstance wUeh 
bwi^t on a desperate siege, in which the celebrated Coimtese 
of Salisbury greatly distinguished herself: Froisart has !»• 
lated this a£Eur with his usual minuteness a^ gaUantry. In 
1884 tba castle was burnt down, but soon after rebialt i and ift 
1419 fotaken by the Scots, and its garrison butchered i a deed 
iriiich the English revenged, by creeping up a sewer from tb9 
Tireed w$a the kitchen, and sheddmg blood for blood. In 
14^ it again fell into the hands of the Scotch, who demia- 
lished il» After being repaired by the Earl of Surrey, it was 
gaUaady defcnded, in l52Si against 4000 Scotch and Frenoh» 
wfaoottde breaehes in the waHs with cannon. The historiasp 
Rwdianani who was present at this siege, describes it thuit 
*^ In the innermost area was a toirer of great strength and 
he%ht ; this was encircled by two walls^ the ooter indttdidg n 
large space^ into which the inhabitants of the county used to 
fly with their cattle, com, and flocks in time of war i the inner 
of much smaller extent, but fortified more strongly with walls 
and towers.'' " As a good pece of its wall was fallen down in 
1543, one Archan, an Italyan, was employed to repair it."f 
The work was commenced on the twelfth of February, and 
finished on the tenth of November, in the same year» and cost 
1864L 16fc 7d.j: 

At Bngham^ near Wark, was heUl the great oonvention Sdt 
settleaMnt of the tendis for the Holy War, demanded by Henrjr 
fibe Second, in 1 188% Hugb^ Bkhop d Dorbam, appeared #■ 
Henry's part» and was met by WiUiam the Second of Scotland^ 

• Prymn^ 4tb Inst. 3S7. 
t Lodgt's lUuit of Brit Hiit. I. 50. t BocDean MS. 68S6. 18. 


With \m bishops and barons, who rejected the demand witli the 
utmost contertipt, 

LKAHMoLrru was Cormerly a considerable ▼illage, as appears 
by the foundations of Frnnll cottages, and a negJected burial 
ground. It had a market, but at present consists onlj of one 
farm-houfJc, In a marl-pit near it, fourteen feet deep, we 
found large stag's boms, and an oak paddle, such as the Soull 
tea iRiunderR use. 

At rAHiiAM was formerly an abbey of btack-cunons, subo 
dinate to Kirkluim, in Yorkshire. William Wallace, whose en* 
canipment gave name to the (ie)d adjoining it» burnt it down 
1995, It SI nil hot, according to the Lincoln Taxation, was 
lowed thirteen pounds a year. The church stands sweetl 
among fine trees, on the edge of the Tweed : hnt the village i 
Miall luid dirty* The English, under Sir John Ltlburne, we 
•everdy defeated here in 1S70. There was " a little tower < 
defence here against the Scots,'* in Leland's time. CAnttAl 
}lAl»t, the seat of Anthony Compton, Esq. is a handsome mi 
j|im structure, about whicli great improvements have bee 

de by planting. His estate here was purchased by Iii 
grandfather of the Forstcrs, There is a ruined chapel, with 
neglected burial ground , at Mindrum, 


11 the name of a district, having the sarae bounds as the parii 
of Norham, which, in 1801, contained 3584 inhabitant 
NoniiAM was anciently called XJblmnfbrd. King Bgfrid buil 
a church at it, and honoured it with the remains of Leolwulf, 
whom St. Bede dedicated his Church Histor}' : he was the fir 
of our kings who retired from a crown to a monastery. After" 
the second descent of the Danes upon Lindisfarne, St, 
Cuthbcrt*s body rested here till the time of King Ethelred. 



The churdi had three chantries in it: only the middle aisle of 
it is standing. In some old foundations at its east end, a stone, 
with curious inscriptions, and the effigies of Su Peter, St Cuth- 
beit, and King Ceolwulf, its patrons, was discovered. The 
auile stands on a high rock, on the brink of the Tweed. It 
was built by Bishop Frambard, in 1 121 ; but the Scots, under 
Xing Daridy in 11 38, took and destroyed it Hugh Pudsqr 
soon after rebuilt it, particularly the great tomtTf which is still 
standing : the crown took it from the see of Durham durii^ 
part of his prelacy. Kings John and William, had four con£b* 
fences here : one of them respecting a castle at Tweedmoutb, 
which John had twice attempted to build, but which the Lion 
as often destroyed. Alexander the Second, after investing it 
f<Hty days with a mighty army, in 1216, was obliged to raise 
the siege. Edward the First resided here, and held a confe- 
rence with the nobility and clergy of Scotland ; and afterwards 
called a parliament, in 1291, on Uplington Green, on the op- 
posite side of the Tweed, to settle his claim to Scotland, pn 
the death of Margaret of Norway: after this, John Baliol 
swore fealty to him in this castle. It was twice besi^ed by 
the Scots in Edward the Second's reign, and at length taken ; 
but recovered in 1322. In the night of Edward the Third's 
coronation it was unsuccessfully assaulted, but forced by storm 
in the next year. Bishop Fox put it into good repair ; but it 
suffered much in the siege immediately before the battle of 
Flodden Field. In Henry the Eiglith's reign it was again 
taken ; but recovered by Franklin, Archdeacon of Durham. 

Bishop Tunstal repaired it in the reign of Queen Mary. Cam- 
den had his information respecting it from Dr. George Charl- 
ton,* who was bom here whilst his father was keeper of the 

Vol. XII. Q castle. 

* He was educated by Bernard Gilpin, whose life he wrote ; admitted 
of 8t Edmund's Hall, Oxford, in 1576 ; one of the four English divines 
sent to the council of Dort ; Bishop of Landaff, in 1618 ; and Bishop of 
Cfiichester, in 1619, where he died in 16«8. He wrote abo, A lliaakfol 
Remembrance of God*s Merry, and A Confotation of Judical Astrology. 




C7i5tlc. *' U Ts fortified/* says f 

outer iTJill, which is of great compass, were many little towen* 

in the angle next the river ; within is anotiier circular wall, 

much stronger, in the centre whereof rises si loftier tower: 

hut the cMaMishetl peace of our age long suffered tills castle^ 

though on the border, to run to decay.'* " U is,'* says Sir 

Ualph Sadler, ** the most convenient place of service for the 

warden of ihcstc march to lye at, having thereunto annexct all 

that tltc hdllf revennewes pcrtcyninge, and belonging to the 

HJde castell, witliein Elande Shire and Norhume Shire, as tliey 

Ctiuie to the hande$ of the late Bishoppe of Duresme with the 

yerely fee of one poundc by the yere.*' After Bi&liop Barnes 

Alienated it from his see. Queen Elizabeth granted it, with all 

the tythes atul demesne*, to the Earl of Monmouth, who sold 

ihcm for 600(fl* and the furniture of the castle for SOOh to 

Cicorgt* Hume, Earl ot' Dunbar. The Fenwicks of Lcmhtgtont 

N MNAt nciir WhitUngham, sold the castle to Mr* Alder, who 

d^midished the outworks, and then demised it to Sir Fnmeis 

BKike, BarL The manor belongs to Sir Camaby Hagger- 


TwixKLL Castlb, a seat of Sir Francis Blake, Is best 
Y tewed from the bridge* It has been near forty years in build- 
hig, and has no floors laid yct« Though at present it is five 
storiet high, it b intended to be iifleen feet higher, and to be 
hnishid with fif\ecn-feet turrets at the corners. The Till runs 
in tVont of it, under a bold rock, which is finely fringed with 
wood, and adds much to the interest of tlie castle. This place 
held in soccage tenure of the Mitford baroas by Alida de 
frrley, in 1 272; in 1329, it belonged to Sir William Riddell ; 
mid WHS afterwards for several descents in the Selby family, a 
lady of i^hich, in tlic sixteenth century, built the bridge here, 
grhich is nearly senii-clrcular, ninety feel ainl a half in span, and 
rty*six feet high from the battlement : below it is a fine pe- 
trifying fountain; and farther down, the ruins of TUmauth 
CkapcU where wns till lately ^* a stone boat of as fine a shape 



afi a boat of wood, St, Cuthbert is reported to have sailed in 
it down the Tweed, from Melross to tliis chapel. It is ten feet 
long within, three feet and a half in diameter, eighteen inches 
tleep, and four Inches and a half thick.*** " Tlie vicnr of 
Tillemouth,** says Leland, ** did write an hhtorle, thus inti- 
tuled, Hixtoria Arirea^ wherein is much to be seene of Kinge 
'William Con<jueror's cuming yn to England*" Tillmouth 
XIousE is also a seat of Sir Francis Blake. It contains an ex- 
:r4*llcnt collection of pictures. It belonged to Jurdan Riddel I 
in 12T2; and afterwards to the Claverings, far many genera- 
•^ions. Near Tillmouth Cross is a square canip, called Haltf 

Hetok, in Edward the First's reign, belonged to Willijm 
t3e Eton ; and, in the next reign, to Sk Thomas Grey, captain 
^^z^f NcMrham Castle. Sir .Tolin Grey^ of Eyioo, In 1420, was 
^^aced with the order of St. George, or the Garter ;f and 
^•^ rora him the estate descended to the present Earl of Tai»ker» 
"^fc^ille. The c/tstle was a strong and beautiful structure, nearly 
^'*=^<|uarc. At the south-west corner was the Lion*i court and 
io\^*er; and on the north side^ a vault, in which l(K) horse 
Flight stand. The great Scotch army, in 151 S, besieged it in 
• ain. It Is now quite in ruins. 
'Cpr\*itill is a small village, with a good inn, and an old 
of the Collingwoods, of Lilburne. In 1549, the Scots 
"^fcook a strong old house, called the Castle of Cornhilh On the 
"^^jrink of the Tweed, a quarter of a mile from the bridge, are 
"^iraccs of a fort, trenched round, and called Cadle Stone^XicL 
^•ji 1751, in pulling down the chapel, was found a stone ^'ofEn, 
aut eight feet long, in which were two urns, of coarse pot* 
jr, and the sfmnk-bones and scull of a person of great siise. 
To a wood, a little south of Cornhiil, is a fine mineral spring, 
Ibrmerty much resorted to; and in tlie Belds beyond it, on each 
«de of the Kelso road, are a series of works, consisting of ter- 
races^ conical hills, and basins o£ water, which are altogether 

Q 2 so 

• Walli*, IL 450. t Heylm> Hist, of St. Geo. p. 3<55, 

~"^». uigh 


80 destitute of every thing like military strength, and so finely 
executed, as to make us believe they have been of an agricul- 
tural nature ; perhap6 the gardens of some peaceful monarch, in 
an obscure period of the historjr of our country. Their east end 
extends to the medicinal spring, which was probably once connect- 
6d with them. Josephus intimates, that much of the husbandry 
of the Jews was of this nature. The terraces near Branxton, 
mentioned by Pennant, are perhaps of a similar kind. 


Opposite to the mouth of the brook Lindis, lies Lindis- 
#ARNE, called by the Britains, Inis Medieante^ and by the 
English, Hofy Island^ from being the residence, of several of 
the fathers of the Saxon chwch. Fahretty in Celtic, means 
a recess. King Oswald, in 635, made it a bishop's see ; and 
Aiden, a Scotchman, its first prelate. The church was en- 
larged in 652; but, " more Scottonim," only made of timber, 
And thatched. Eadberct, who was bishop about ten years, and 
died in 698, took off the thatch, and covered all the roof and 
walls with sheets of lead. In 793, the Danes made their first 
descent here ; and their second, in 875, in the episcopacy of 
Eardulf, the seventeenth, and last of its bishops. Dreading tlic 
visits of these pagan barbarians, Eardulf, with Eadred, the 
ilbbot of the monastery, and the inhabitants of the island, took 
up the body of St. Cuthbert, and the most valuable of their 
relics and sacred utensils, and lefl it to the fury of the in- 
vaders. After wandering about from one hiding-place to an- 
other, for the space of seven years, they at last settled at 
Chester-le-Street, where eight bishops presided, before the 
final removal of the see to Durham. 

** 67. Cuthbert y who from a poor shepherd became monk of 
Melros fifteen years, was prior here twelve more, when he re- 
tired to the Fame Island ; from whence he was caUed to this 



cee, which he only hdd two year^^ and returned to Km retire 
zneiit ; where he died, and was buried at tile east end oF his 
<iratoryi where hia stone coffin is still shewn. Hi& body wa3 
^oirnd fresh eleven years after his death.*** Sl Bede wrote 
liis life, both in prose and verse. Ui& Icgejui is long, and un- 
c'Ofnmonly rich in the raarvellous : a very curious manuscript 
-copy ot* it IB in the possession of John Thompson, Eijq* o^ 
UorthumberUnd Street, Newcastle. 

** The montuitefy here, occasionally mentioned, of Aidau*^ 

foundation^ w;i3 under the government of the bishops. The 

abbot and moaka were the cathedral clergy. The cathedral* 

and the neiglibouring village of Fenham and church of Nor- 

haiDv with other possessions, were given by William de Cari- 

iephot to the monastery of Durham i to which the cell of Bo* 

nedictine monks, at this place, was then made subordinate; 

itg annual revenues, in 1534, are valued by Dugdnle at 

481, 18s. Ikh and by Speed at GOh 5«. In 154-1, they were 

g^ranted to the Dean and Chapter of DuHiam^ in whose posses^ 

•ioD they now are.** 

The church of the monastery is in ruins. Its north and south 

rail is standing, though much out of perpendicular ; great part 

^>f the west remains, but the east is fallen. All the arches are 

^^Ircular, except two iu the chancel, and one in the north aisle ; 

ft^ut these, as well as a pointed arch over the north aisle, built 

^:%iiderneath with a semi -circular arch, seem to be more modern 

the rest. All the roof, both of the church and chancel, 

been arched* The columns of tlie nave are of four sorti, 

twelve feet high, and five feet in diameter, massy, and richer 

%.haEi those of Durham ; the bases and capitals plain. Over each 

^^reh are large windows, in pairs, separated by a sh<tt't column ; 

^md over these are smaller arches. One of the diagonal ribs of 

Ihe arch, that supported the tower, is still standing, richly 

wrought with 8axon zigzag ; as is also the we;«tern door, and 

aeveral other arches. The length of tiie body is 138 feet, its 

# Goai^h*^ Camd. III. 7 Id. 



^^^^ >RT»UMB£RLAXO. 

breadth eiglileeu feet^ and, with the two aisles^ thii1y<&ix 
hut it may be doubted whether there ever \vas a transept, 
stones appear red \^'ith tirei and, on the south side of the chan- 
cel, are eaten by the weather into the scmbhince of honey^ 
comb. Mr. Selby, to whom it belongs, has lately repaired ihll 
weakest parts of the walls. On the south side of it, are the 
ains of the priory and offices ; tlic inside of their walls, built 
of whinstone, obtained from tlie rock, which forms a high na- 
tural pier on the south side of the island. West of it is the 
pamh churchy a phdn, but spacious Gothic ediHce ; ita archeg^ 
on one side, semi-circular ; on the other pointed ; the windows 
long and narrow ; and the chancel walls of polished frt:estonei 
whitewashed. East of the ruins is the pedestid of St, Cuth4 
bert'« Cross, anciently held in high veneration ; and ut present 
called the Pdting^ione; marriages are thought un fortunate, whe 
a new-made bride, on attempting, cannot step the length of it.^ 
The entrocJn found here, are called St. Cuthbert*s bciids ; and 
said to be made by him in the night. 

The iiiland is two miles from the main land, and, as in Bedel 
time, accessible to all kinds of conveyance at low water, thougl 
the sands are diutgerous to persons not acquainted with then 
It is nine miles round, and contains 1,020 acres, nearly half 
which is sand banks : on the north-east a spit oi luud runs out 
a mile long, and in places not more than sixty yards broad, 
where the tide may be seen ebbing on the east and flowing oii||^^ 
the west : in Camden's time, tins part, ns it is now, was left t0^^ 
rabbits* The soil is rich ; but, before the inclosure of the 
common, in 1792, only forty acres of it was in tillage, and 
that subject to inturcommonage as soon as the crops weri^M 
reaped* The rental of the whole island was, in 1790, 320},^^" 
in 1797, 9'2Gl. Between the town and the castle there is a 
small harbour. The toxm is on the west side, and, tu 179 
contained 379 persons, most of whom are employed in fishing 
It has Ibrmcrly been much larger, as tlie names and ruins 
H'vcrnl streets testify. The casltc is mentioned by Camdet 


It Stands upon a lofly whinstonc rock, on the south-east corner. 
In l^^^, his majesty expressed his pleasure " with the repayr- 
ing of the blocke house in the Holy Island." * William Heede 
was captain of this and the Fame Island, in 1 559 ; the monthly 
expeuce of the garrisons of which, at that time, was 28L 48. 8d,;t^ 
Parliament garrisoned it as a '' place of consequence to the 
northern parts," in 1646; and, in 1715, onelltocelot Erring- 
ton, in a romantic manner, seized it for the Pretender. A 
garrison, from Berwick, is kept in it at present. 

The parish of Holy Island is also called Islandshire ; it 
contains the chapclries of Kyloe, Lowick, Ancoofl, and Tweed- 
mouth ; and, in all civil matters, is included in the county of 
Durham. ** At Kiley, primis annis Hehrici viii. not far from 
Norham, in the lordship of the Bishop of Durham, was found, 
betwixt two stones, bokels of an arming girdle, typpe and 
barres of the same, of pure gold ; a pornel, and crosse, for a 
sword of gold ; bokels and typps of gold, for spurs. D. Ru- 
thall had some of them." ^ 

Haggerston, is the 6eat of Sir Carnaby Haggerston, B^rt. 
and of his ancestors, since the time of Edward the First.^ 
Tliomas, who was a colonel in the Northumberland regiment, 
in the civil wars, was created a baronet in 1643. The mansion 
house stands in a thick grove : the oldest part is a foiver^ to 
which two additions have been made, and in which Edward the 
Second received the homage of Thomas, Earl of I^ancaster, 
for the earldom of Lincoln, in 1311. Hard by are ruins of an 
old Chapel. 

TwEEDMouTH is a considerable village, on the north side of 
the Tweed, opposite to Berwick. It has a chapel belonging to 
the establishment, and a Presbyterian meeting-house. All 
traces of the castle King John attempted to build here, are obli- 
• Lodge's niiMt. of Brit. Hist. V. I. p. 50. 

t Sadler's St. Papers, Vol. I. p. C. 
t Lei. VII. 71. ^ Test, dc Nev. p. r,3. 

temtttd* In 1275, icvcrnJ tnonltf, 
<l(*)mtatinn f^f thv Scotch nobility here, 
rroachtricnti curnplained of by tlie Btsiiofi af 
lioffpitAJ, which Mood herc% gave name to 
cirtiichcd from IVecrfinouth, hut in the mm 
popiihition of whichp in 1801, amotinted m 
Keur rhc Spltt«il I* a fine niinenil Bpriug, otAe 


Hector Rocthhix rcbtcn iin improbabk talc 

King of Soothindt being tJikcn pnaoner here by Uk I 

makcH thix the himhng plncc of the Danes, tmikr Iin 

S6T>* King Edgar gave it, with Coldingbom, to liie ctardbl 

of Durham ; but Hishop I'lambard forfeited it : sa ttym 

lingjihcad ; but it>i nanu* doe» not occur in Edg«r^ 

In Alexander'a rcfgn it had a church, and was one of ^tmjmr 

b^rotighx for holdin/? courts of trade, in David's time. Witli 

the ftcljacent country, it was laid in rushes, in ] 173; aiH)^ in the 

fblltming year» Earl Duncau rekindled it^ embers, aod btftdt- 

ercd itif inhalHtairl5* Ilrnry the Second received its caslic 

9§ part of the ph^lgr for the ranflom of King Witliaoi, and 

Itrengthcned it» rortif)cation8 ; |: but Richard the First restored 

it. King John, and hia Hutar^i ravaged it horribl}-, with fire 

and Rword* Edward the First, in 1201, held a convention of 

the states of England and Scotland here, respecting the claim 

to the Scott tjih crown ; and, in the following year, in the great 

hall of the cattle, decided in lialiors favour ; but that prince 

breaking hU Oath, Berwick became an object of Edward's \*cn* 

gcmicc, and waa most unmercifully sacked. In 1296, the 

• Lib. 10. f Smidi*8 Iktle, p. 760. 

J Bromton, |089, 1167. In Ymag;. Hint. .S8i. Diccto, oBU M. Pam 
$ny^ Bearjr obtniocd it in pn-jittuvm iHH3id(ndtt, 


JBoglifth king, says Knigbtooy fortified it with a wall and a foup 
and in the same year received the homage of the scotch noU- 
iity here, on the twenty-fourth of August, before an English 
parliament. The town, in 1297, was taken by Sir William 
Wallace, through neglect of Cressingham, its governor ; but the 
castle held out, and after a long assault, was relieved by a 
large army of horse : Wallace about eight years after this was 
betrayed, and half of his body exposed upon Berwick-bridge. 
The Countess of Buchan, for crowning Robert Bruce at Sc<me^ 
was shut up here in a wooden cage, in the shape of a cn>wo« 
and ordered to be attended by two English women : she lived 
in it six years, and was then released. Edward the Second 
and his queen wintered at Berwick* in 1310 ; and two years after, 
Robert Bruce made an unfortunate attempt to obtain it by a 
scalade in the night. The English King assembled his army 
here before the battle of Bannockburn ; and, three days after 
it, issued a proclamation from hence respecting his privy seal, 
which had been lost in that sanguinary conflict. Peter Spalding 
betrayed this place into the hands of Robert Bruce in 1318 : 
many attempts were made to recover it, which was not effected 
till the day after the battle of Halledon-Hill in 1333. Edward 
the Third was here in 1335 ; with a great army, in 1340 ; and 
the year after, at Easter, held a tournament ; but, in his absence 
in France, in November 1353, the Scots surprized and took 
the town : the castle, under the renowned Sir John Copelandi 
held out till Edward, on the 14th of February following, arrived 
Vol. Xir. Q* " with 

* Berwick, or Befipic, in Doomsday-bookj and in the old language of oar 
country, has nearly the same signification, as grange, granary, and barn, 
meaning a place for laying up the produce of a farm during winter. Bere, 
te this day is a provincial name of barley, the liquor of which is called bear, 
Ingulphus says, that Berwick is equivalent to manor. Some derive it from the 
Celtic word aber, water ; others fVom Bniicta, as if it had been a principal 
town of that kingdom ; and others from bare, as descriptive of the nakedness 
•fits sitvatioB. Wic is the same as Ffcus, dwelling, town, or village. 

^94 irOBTHIIMB»X.4V O. 

wUb A great armyy and forced Ihe Scotcb to capitulate. Sereii 
^cotcbmeOf id 1S77» ioipri»ed the cattle, and bdd it eight 
days agaioat 7000 archers and 3000 cavalry. The depotj^ 
g^temor, under the £arl of Northumberlandy betrayed it into 
the eoeiny't baudt io 1384 ; but the eail by meoacea and bribery 
#000 after recovered it: thb high spirited lord, however* 
through tlie solicitation of his uncle the Earl of Worcester, en- 
g^g^ig in the rebellioo against Henry the Fourth, in 1406, em- 
ployed this, amongst other fortresses, against thr king ; but a 
eaooon-shoty^ the first that was ever fired in England, so alarmed 
the garrison, that it iounediateiy surrendered. An unsuccessful 
attempt was made to reduce it in 142^ ; but, after the battle 
of Towion, in 14599 it was agsin in the hands of the Soots, 
who strengthened its walls at great expenoa, and held it till 
1489, when it again came into possession of the English, in 
whose hands it has ever since continued. ** From that time," 
says Camden, " the kings c^ England hava continualiy added 
works to it, particularly queen Eliaabeth, who lately, to the 
terror of the enemy, and security of the townspeople, con- 
tracted the circuit of the walls, drawing vriihin the old 
ones a very high wall, well built of strong stone, surround- 
ed by a deep ditch, a regular rampart, redoubt, counter- 
scarps, and covered ways, so that the form and strength of the 
Cortifications are sufficient to discourage all hopes of carrying it 
by assault, not to mention the bravery of the garrison, and the 
stores in the place which exceed belief." In 1559 the garrison 
consisted of only 2000 men, which, according to Lord Trea- 
surer Cecil's opinion, should be increased to 3 or 4(KX) more ; 

" and, 

* Waltuogluun and SjJieed relate that his altQH wm of a large tiae« and de- 
molished great part oi a tower. lu the ipring of IBU, a ball of cast iron, 
weighing ninety'tis pounds, was found in a partof tberuinjof thecasl]e« whkh 
aoawert well lo WaUingham's account. It had penetr«ted the caaile wall 
about three yards, at a place where it was flanked with a tower, wliach of courte 
must have been first penetrated^ and of whick tktm are nfficieiit reouuaf to 
ascertain this fact. 

** and, if it should come to a siegei 10,000 w ill scantly sulHce/* 
Accordingly we find orders for sending 2000 additional men 
limber in November 1559; and, a month after, for 2000 
mote*. From the year 176'l to 1770 the walU were almost 
tntirely rebuilt io many partft, particularly the quay* walls and 
gates, together with the saluting battery : tbey were completely 
finished in l7S5,t A modern writer an ibe fortifications says: 
'* Berwick was regakrly fortified in the old Spanisb and Italian 
style, in the reign of Queen Mary, and has five demi-rivetted 
bastbns with double retired fiauks, casemates, and cavaliers; 
but the ditch is very shallow, and has never been ri vetted, 
or the counterfort is now niioed and obliterated. Tlie ruins of 
the ancient Scots fonilications are still observable. But in the 
present art of war, no fortifications around this place could 
ever be important^ as it is every where closely surrounded by 
commanding eniLuences; and hollow ways reach almost up to 
tbe walls forming nature! approaches." { 

The Governor of Berwick hcis an annual salary of $S6}, 
7ffp Id. M is house makes the north eatst hide of an imperfect 
square called the Palace, The barrackii measure 2l7 by 121 
feci in the inside ; and contain 24 rooms for otHcerSi and 72 
rooms adapted to bold 567 privates. 

The CituRcu of this town is a peculiar of the dean and 
cihapter of Durham. Jt stands on the north side of a fine area 
called the parade* Joan, sister of Edward 111. was married 
lere, in 1328, to David, son of King Robert Bruce. In iGhl^ 
Ibe corporation procured a brief to collect money for rebuilding 
it ; the work was cornmeuced in l642 and was finished in l662, 
under the direction of Colonel George Fenwick of Urinkburne. 
It cost 1400L According to the fashion of the times, in which It 
^as buiU| it has no steeple, U is ninely feet eight inches long, and 

♦Q 2 fifty- 

« Ssd.SL PftpJ. 589« 601, 658. 
f FuUer*» Bcr«vick« p. 555. 
I £diub. Eucjclop. 



fifly*two feet six incbes broad, and consists of three aisles, und 
several gallenes, all handaomely pewed : the external architec- 
ture, though beloDgiog to no definite order, is extremely pleasing 
and approaches nearly to elegance. The Mercer's Company 
in London, founded a lectureship here, ai at Hexham. ^H 

The Rdigioiu Houses here never made any remarkable figur€^^ 
David the First, king of Scotland, founded in Berwick, a coQ« 
vent for CUtcriian Num ; and Robert the Third, in 1391^ 
granted its revenues to Dry burgh Abbey. The convent 
Carmeiitcs originated in the munificence of Sir John Grey, ii 
1270 ; they officiated tn the King's Chapel in the castle. The 
Scotch king, in 1230, brought hither a convent of Dominkam^^^ 
which Edward the Tliird removed. The Trinitaria/is are said^^ 
by Lei and, to have been dissolved by Bishop Beck ; but men- 
tion occurs of their house, in 1327» as founded '* pro miuistro 
et fratribus sauctae Trtnitatispo/f^fs Berwici/' The Frnncisatns 
also had a house, here, to which Edward the Third, ia 
1338, confirmed a grant of twenty marks a year; and* be- 
tween the sea and the town, In Maudlin- (ield, stood the hospital 
and free chapel of Si, Mary Magdalen^ menliontsd in the escheats 
for Northumberland, in 1:^66: it had a hospital or hermitage 
belonging to it, at a place calif d Srgeden, 

Queen Ellzabedi founded a Free-Schooi here, and placed 
under the patronage of the Guild, A charity-school was built 
in 1725, in which twenty boys and six girls aru cloathed &<^4^H 
educated. The Corporation also lately erected a spaciooi^H 
building, consisting of offices and five schoolrooms : one for 
mathematics, another for writing, and the rest for reading* 

The Bridge of Berwick was swept away by a flood in 1 199,* 
concerning which Leland says, *' it brake with great force of 
water, bycause the arches were to low ; and after the makio^^H 
of iU as it was then, it durid scars IX yeres.'* It was re-edifierf 
of wood, of which material it consisted till the time of James 


* UovedoD, p. 796, 


^be First, who commenced the present elegant stractare of 
Atone. It has fifteen arches ; its whole length being 388 yai^ 
and its breadth seventeen feet. It was twenty-four years, four 
Toon^tSf imd four days in building, and finished on the twen^« 
fonrtli of October, l6d4. It was built by Mr. James Barren 
and -Lancelot Branxton, and cost government the sum of 
14^9^1- Is* £d« The 10,0001. paid to the crown for coofima* 
ikm of the will of Thomas Sutton, founder of the Charter* 
Houae, was also applied towards rebuilding this edifice. 

The T<mm Hall was bailt by Joseph Dodd, architect, in 175I< 
On its ground fioor, on the east side, is a piassa, called Umi 
£achange ; and opposite it, are cells for criminals, and shops. Tfao 
second door consists of two spacious halls and other apartroeots. 
The outer hall measures sixty feet by thirty-one, and is used for 
holding courts and guilds. The inner hall is 47 feet long aadl 
33 feet broad, and occasionally occupied at assemblies aadl 
public entertainments. The upper story is the common gaol of 
the town. The roof is covered with slate and lead, and the 
whole edifice elegantly finished by a turret 150 leet high, aad 
coBtainiog eight musical bells. 

CoKPOEATioN. — Berwick appears to have been one of thm 
original four Scotch burghs. Its first charter was granted bf 
Edward the First, who required its Mayor to be sworn before 
his Chancellor, Treasurer, and Barons of the Exchequer of 
Scotland.* The seal of the corporation is a bear standing upoa 
a tree, with this inscription : Sigillum dmi Henrici dei gra. 
reg. Angliae et Francis & dmi Hibernise de terra sua ultra 
tuedmT The corporation were first summoned to send mem- 
bers to parliament in the latter end of the reign of Edward 
the Fourth, from which time, to the first of Edward the Sixth* 
the returns are all lost, except an imperfect bundle of the thirty- 
third of Henry the Eighth. The last charter of this town was 


* Burrow's Reports. 



graoted b^ James the Flni and saucttoned by parliament in tbe 
Uni year of hh reign. The present corporation cooaista oC m 
mmyOTf recorder, town clerk » and four bai tiffs ; and also of a 
corptver, four Serjeants al mace, and a water-bailiff. The mayor 
ia also escheator in tbe borough* clerk of tbe market, and a 
juttice of the peact ; the other justfces of tbe town being tbe 
recorder, and lucli resident burgesses as have sustained tiie 
afRceof mayor. They are lords of the manor of Tweed mouth, 
where they hold a courl-leel and court^baron Iwice a year# 
Their revenues, which arise from duties laken at the quay and 
gates, from ballast quay daes, and other sources, seldom exceed 
70001. a-year. ^M 

Tbe population of this town, in 1801* amounted to 7187^™ 
Its charter secures the right of weekly markets on Wednesdays 
and Saturdays, the latter of which is well supplied. Its fair it 
on the Friday in Trinity week« ^^ 

Exclusive of the trade in S tlmon, great quantities of coi^H 
and eggs are exported here for London. The foreign commerce^ 
even in the best of times, was never ex tensive, not more than 
4J45 tons of skipping, having annually delivered cargoes here 
0f» an average of lour years, ending in 17^4. In 1800 tbe port 
bikd belonging to it ^1 vessels, equal to 5,399 ^o^s. Tbe bar* 
Ibotir, if I several places, abounds with low, dangerous rocks ; 
at its month, a nobte pier is at present const ructtng on the site 
of an old one, built by Queen Elisiabetb, but lung since de- 

The most remarkable objects of antiquity Ibis town at pre* 
sent affords, are the exlemive ruins of the Caff/f, once a place 
of high importance, but now almost levelled with tbe ground ; 
and, about 400 yards north of it, a pentagonal lower, called tbe 
B€U Tower f having its name from containing a bell, which was 
rung at the approach of an enemy. ^m 

In digging a cellar on Hidebill, in 1770, the clay was fouo^H 
idtinrntely mixed with quicksilver: a piece of it tbesiseof an 
egg, produced a iea-spoonftal. Tbe place where it was found is 

t> muc 



mtKh huih upon, a ciroumstaoce which hus prevented far tlier 

It may not be ambs to subjoin here the account formerly 
given o( the bordrrers, who live round about this pluce, liy 
^fieas Sylvius, afterwards Pope Pius IL who lived in Scotland 
a private Jegnle about 1 1^-18, in his life, written by htmsttif, aod 
published under another's nanie,^ as they are nat at nU aitcfeds 
* There u a river/ (llic Tweed) ' which, spreading ilsejf ftgm 
a Kigti mountain, parts the twa kingdoms, y€i»eiis haviag 
crofftcd this in a boat, and arriving about sun-s6t at a large 
village, went to the bouse of a peasant, and there supped with 
the priest of the place, and his ho%u The table was pleutifuMjr 
spread with large quantities of pulse, poultry, and geese* but 
neither wine nor bread was to be found there, and all the peo* 
pie of the town, both men and women, flocked about him as to 
some new sight, andi as we gaze at negroes or Indians, so did 
they stare at iEneas, asking the priest wberw he came from* 
what he came about, and whether be was a Cbrisiian. iEneas* 
undefBtandiog the difficulties be must expect on this journey^ 
had taken care to provide himself at a certain monastery with 
tome loaves, and a measure of red wine, at sight of whicli 
they were seised with greater astonishment, having never seea 
wine or \vhite bread. Women with child came up to the table 
with their husbands, and, after band ling the bread and smelling 
at tlte wine, begged some of each, so that it was impossible to 
void distributing the whole among them. The supper lasting 
111 the second hour of the night, the priest and host, with alt 
the men and children, mado the ben of their way off, and left 
^neas. They said they were going to a tower a great way off 
for fear of the Scoti, who, when the tide was out, would come 
over the river and plunder ; nor could ihey^ with all his en- 
treaties, by any means be prevailed on to take ^^neas with 
themj nor any of the women, though many of them were young 


* Coatoientftriei of Piui IL published uujer the n%m^ uf J«ha Gebdihi 


and bandsome ; for they think them in no danger from an enemy, 
not considering violence offered to women as any barm, ^neas^ 
therefore, remained alone with them with two servants, and a 
guide, and 100 women, wbomade a circle round the fire, and 
sat the rest of the nigbt without sleeping, dressing hemp and 
chatting with the interpreter. Nigbt was now far advanced > 
fiben a great noise was beard by the barking of dogs, and scream- 
iogof the geiese, all the women made the best of their way off, 
the guide getting away with the rest, and there was as much 
confusion, as if the enemy was at hand, ^neas thought it 
sore prudent to wait the event in bis bed*room (which hap* 
fcned to be a stable> apprehending if be went out be might 
Bustake bis way, and be robbed by the first he met. And soon 
liltec the women came back with the interpreter, and reported 
tbere was no danger ; for it was a party of friends and not of 
tnemies that were come.*'' 

* Camdeiu 



XJ. AS been noticed by Tanom writers to have a peculiarity 

in its geographical situation, not possessed by any other county 
in the kingdom; that of being boumled by four entire shires 
only, 00 the four cardinal points, and without being cut or 
intersected by detached portions of other counties. These 
bordering counties are, Yorkshire on the North, Lincolnshire 
on the East, on the South Leicestershire, and Derbyshire on 
the West : with which latter connty it was united under one 
sherifl^ until the lOlh year uf Elizabeth. Its Bgure is rather 
elliptical ; its transverse diameter extending from Alkley or 
Finningley in the north to Stanford upon Soar on the Leices- 
tershire border, being fifty miles; whilst its conjugate or shortest 
diameter from Tevershall on the Derbyshire border, to Col- 
^ lizkgham which joins to Lincolnshire, may be estimated at 
lwcnty*&ix, or twenty-seven. Its latitude extends from fifty - 
two degrees fifty minutes, to filly-three degrees, thirty-four 
minutes norih ', its circumference is estimated at upwards of i 
one hundred and forty miles ; and its superficial content at 
480,000 acres, its 

Djvisiovis consist of six hundreds or wapentakes, including 
Dine market towns and one hundred and sixty parishes; in 
which the tillages have been estimated at four hundred and 
fifty» but this must of course include the smallest hamlets. 

Vol, Xn. A North 


NoitTH ut ThEnt there are now three xsapcniakes, though 
these at the time of the conqucrtir^s survey were /re iti number. 
BaoxTON has undtrgone no change since that perio<l. Thur- 
G4IIT0N U now Thurgarion a Lee, or Lythe, the ancient 
hunJrerl of Z*j/f/o being joineil with it; BASisETLAw contain* 
the ancient butKlred of OaxLaideheck, which now fnrins the 
north clay diyision ; and having also the south clay and Hat- 
held dtYisions 15 considered as being equal to three hundreds. 

South of Trent there are the three wapentakes of Rl siu 
cLtPF, BiNGU sM, or Binghamshore, and Newark; but the&tv 
though nominally equal to one half the county, do not conUiin 
quite one third of its superficies. 

It has been said that in the ii'^ual division of the county^ the 
hundreds of Busnettaw and Newark are equal to the other 
four, if the town of Kotlinghani is left out of the calculation j 
and we must not omit another mode of division which has long 
ext!ited, drawn from the nature of the soil ; for the western dis- 
trict is calltti the Sand, and the eastern part of the county is 
dcMgnated by the appellation of the Clay, The first of these 
is in general woody or barren; the latter highly fertile both 
as arable and pusture^ and again subdivided into the north and 
south clays. In the 

HisTouY of this county, very little is known of its ancient 
state, except that it formed a portion of the settlemenu of the 
Coritani, as the l^oinans called its aboriginal inhabitants. In 
common with the rest of the island^ it became the prey of the 
Roman Eagle, and had several Colonies of that entcrprizing 
people, as is evident not only from hii^tory, but also from vari* 
ous antiquliies discovered at dinercnl times, and from thetr 
roads of which condderahlo vestiges still remain leading to and 
from their difterent stations. After the evacuation of the 
island by the Roman arms, the invading Saxons adopted a new 
mode of division, and this county became part of the kingdom of 
Sfercla; and even after the union of the Saxon heptarchy 
liiulcr One monarch, was siill gorcroed by the Earls of rh^K name; 
1 At 


At the cotHjucst, the same change<i took place here, as in 
other counties ^ and iti subsequent history is too closely con- 
nected with that of the kingdom at large, to require any 
furthet elucidation, except in some few points which will lie 
best tre'«ited of| under their respective heads* This county 
ontains but few 

BtttTisH ANTiQDiTtEs; yet we must not neglect to mention 

an ancient camp at Barton about four miles S. W. of Notting- 

»m, which Aubrey seems to have examined, and which he 

onsiders as of British workmanship* It has indeed been 

illed British Hill; but now Breni'i HiU : and though the for* 

tiBcalions which were on its summit have long been levelled 

in the du8t« yet there are still vestiges enough on its sides to 

show that it mu.^t have been a place capable of an obstinate 

efence ; for there have been originally fifteen earthen banks^ 

ach about half a mile in extent, which mnst have been 

ttccesslvely forced before an enemy could even attack the 

lelt That it was once a place of importance is also further 

'^tirinced by the coins which at dillerent times have been fomid 


At Oxtan also there are three large tumuli^ the largest of 

rirhich is fifty-three feet in diameter* This wa^ opened by th«? 

»tc major Rooke, who has much distinguished himself by hi^ 

search into the antiquities of this county* He found in it an 

Bin made of iron, filled with ashes and burned bones ; along 

rith this, there were a large sword in a wooden scabbard. 

token into several pieces, two daggers, and fifteen glass beads^ 

blue^ yellow^ and green: and he considers it as being the tomb 

fsoroe British warrior. Mr* Rooke also considers those ele- 

r^ations, now called Robin Hood's Hills, as having a great le- 

ItembUnce io tumuU at a distance, though on a nearer approach 

iiey are found too large to have been the production of art. 

They lie at the back oi Newslead Abbey, on the North- 

restern range of the foreM, betv^cen that and Ktrkby, and 

llbrta a curious kind of amphithcatje at the end of a little valley ; 

A 2 bur 


but though they have originally been the work of nature, yet 
an may have had some band in producing their regularity of ap« 
pearaoce in remote times. On the summit of the highest, there 
wa,s formerly a scat cut out of the solid rock with a canopy over 1 
iU ^nd called Robin Hood's Chair, though probably of miiellj 
higher antiquity : this however was destroyed some years ^go^j 
having actually been taken down to form some rock work in thel 
Park at Neivslead Abbey. 

In the western limits of Works'^p Park^ there are also several] 
mounts which are cTideiuly ancient tumuli; these have no«rJ 
some very old oaks growing out of thens^ which add much t^l 
their air of aittHjoity. Of 

Roman ANnQt;tTi£s — there are still many specimens in 
rious parts of the county. The great camp on Holly hill nea^ 
Arnold ^ is supposed to have been the central depot of the Re 
man forces in this district, as from its great elevation^ all th€ 
eTcploratory camps are easily distinguished ; at the same timi 
that its vicinity to Nottingham, gives great weight to the opi*J 
nion of Dr» G«i}e, that this was the Causennis of that mllilari 

About two miles from Mansfield also, are still to be see 
some vestiges of that curious Roman villa, discovered by Mi! 
Rooke, and which will be more fully described in its propt 
place* In various parts of the county also, have been found 
spears^ fibulae* and keys of brass, and evidently of Roman ^ 
workmanship; these have more particularly been dug up about 
Newstead, and between Mansfield and Harlow Wood, Brass 
Cclu have also been found, particularly between Hexgrave 


*Ilooke'i Sketch of Sherwood Forrst. We sbmll remark here, onee for ajf, 
thnt the variuufi authorilii^ ihall be fuitlifuLlN given ^ but that the formstily 
of marking ^utHMiom wilt in general be dispen&ed i*iilv ai noc only br^skkig 
in tipoti the regular ctiftin ol description, but in tome measure tending to 
etieck thai mode of abbreviation which is better done by a general view of the 
vatioui opinionij than by a distinct quotation from each specific authority. 



and Raliivrorth water ; but these are perhaps rather of British 
origin. Into this part of the queslion. Major Rooke enters very 
fully. He observes that antiquarians have cJiOered much in 
opinion with regard to their me ; for many of them have a ioop 
on the side, from whence it has been thought they were used 
by the Romans^ as missile weapons; but a.^ on the other hand, 
many of them have been found in the shape of a chiiie], that 
coDJecture seems not well founded. Besides the edges of most 
of those that have been found, are notched in such a manner 
9M to prove that they have been used for mechanical purposes; 
they have also been found in pUae^f where the Romans are sup* 
posed never to have penetrated ;^ nay they are found even at 
the present day in parts of Ireland and of Tartary, where that 
nation never found a way : the occasional discovery of them 
therefore, near the best adcertaiued Roman stations or high 
roads« does not militate against the conjecture that they were 
fkbricaied by the ancient Britons long before the Romans 
taught them the use of iron, though the Cont|uerors might in 
some measure have adopted, and iinproved them, during their 
reaidence here. 

The Roman Roads have been pretty numerous; through this 

Near Willoughby on the H^alds^ the ancient Fosseway enters 
from Leicestershire, passes on to Newark, crosses the Erminge 
urt€t from London to York, and then enters Lincolnjihire. This 
road may be easily traced for \n'^T\y miles along the wolds^ and 
U literally ^ fosse, dug so deep than an army might march along 
tt, even now, without being seen except by thtjse on the very 
edge of the bank. Several of the roads through the wolds cross 
tt in different placesi particularly about Owthorpe, and in many 
parts the remains of the old pitching with stones set on edge 
may be found by clearing away the grass and weeds, 

A 3 The 

• The Editor of the*c shfctiiav* one disco vered in Worcestershire Imi iiain^ 
icr, near Evcibttm^ iAs from any acknowledged traces of the Eornan^* 


The Forest tracts al»o contain many vestiges of those miiU 
Ury ways, wliich nre invariably in a norih-west direction, thai 
seeming to have been their line of march through tiiis disiric 
and these are in many places accompanied by exploratoi^ 

One of these roiitls commences at Nematkt and goes throng 
part of Smithtteti, in a line between Norwood Piirk and Kir| 
Jington ; when it enters ihe forest, we lose it for a short dtstanc 
Iiaving cridently been Htsfroyed, nor do we find it again unt^ 
if ^bews itself in anebn;irtcl ridge ne;ir Rainworlh w^ter» This 
had Inen for many ctnturres* since the conc^uest, the old road 
from New:irk to M;instield, utn\ was unciently called the Sireti , 
a certain proof of its Roman origfin. 

To the S<juihward ol Mansfield al§o^ particularly near t) 
Hut,* are several fragments; which added to the amenity of 
situation, and the di&covery of the %'illa, and of several Coin 
&c. sufficiently prove it^ having been a Roman station. There 
n reason to believe that Ihe ^^m 

Eaiil!! orNoTiTSGHAM — dcfivcd their tttle^ rather from tli^H 
CaaU, than from the County; with the latter boirever, ihetr 
history is so clo5;t:ly cunnecled that we shall give it in this place 
Part of it we shall give from an ancient MS. * in the Brilis 
Museum which brings it down to 1694. and is called 

*« Catalogue of the Earls of the town of Notingham with t 
brief hiiittorical collection of their loyalty, armes» wifea anJ 

•• William Peverell a naturatl Sonne of William the Con 
fjucror^ begotten to Normandy; which William came with hi| 
fatlicr to this his conquest ; who having been brought up 
military profession, and one that the Conqueror could confid 
)tii he advanced bim to honour, and gave him bis new bu 
rastle of Nottingham^ with sev trail lordships within this cou 


• Hurl. MSS. 5041. 


If.* This William with his Notifighamsli: forces was one nt* 

^.Ihc chief Commanders in the third of Kiiitj Stephen a^aiiiJ^ 

' those projidwus Scots, who had inviided England, so farr as 

North AUerton, in the couoty of Yorke; where theye receivrd 

I their reward, being totally overthrown: and with king Slrpben 

In the battle of Linculne, where he Wdn taken |>risonifr, ho that 

Maud the Empress had scize^l on his casllv of Ngtingham, and 

^vea it to one William Painell : but it wtui recovered again by 

I stratagem. He married Aveline. 

"WiLLJAM pEVLittLL his sonne and heire with others con* 
irived which way to take away the life of Rauulphe Earl ivf 
Chester, which by poison was done.f After hearing of llenrv 
the 2ds fewry, he lied the Reahiie, leaving all hii» ciij'tles and 
lordship[>3 to the King's dispossal. He left a daughter and 
heire, Margaret^ who marrk'd about 1141 

*' William (Earl of Nottincham iu her rights) and Earle 
r Ferrers and Derby, of who&c antiquity and family you may 
see more in the earldome of Derby, /or Robert hi% father stUcd 
kimieifi Ear ie Junior de Notingham^l This til le next came to 

A 4 ^'JoHj«, 

• Thcte amoontt'd to forty-eight tradesmen's boujcsiii Uie town, and firtj* 
We Rtsnors tn ihe Shire. 

f The circuttittatices connected with ihif events strongly mark the igno- 

•nt supcrttUiun of those time$>,whcn (he simple&t and plainer pracci^Acs wtttr 

eferrcd to magic; for ihe moiitiih writer who relates ihe »torv tells us, that 

Iqaftrrel having arisen between thU Perfrri and TUttutph ite M^ctnit Earlnf 

tier, the former contrived vrilh many «itbersj 6y fi>reert/ and wiichcrttft, to 

lym , which ho accordingly effected A^v poiionhtg him ; a mode so cvriain* 

My not to have required (lie aid eiilwJf of sorcery or wilchrrafl f The 

pefpetratorof this horrible deed, tied fif»t inio a monastery of hi«< nwn foun- 

dnimu at LtntiJn, Imd his head shnrn like a Monk, and appeared to have 

tikrii the vows ; Imt he »oon found thut the power of the Churcli was not 

nScieur to protect him agninit a justly incensed Monarch. 

► * We are told that ho was a very ju«hii aisd devoot man, " according to the 

mannenof tho%e tinted'* which tnay have bt'Cn *tnc of the reasons th.i( induced 

kilig Richard CcMir de Lion to lake UU cai tic and liunour» iroin himi and 

bellow fbeiB OD his brother John. 


'« JaHN» who wai siroamed Sanz-terre, sixi aoniie of Hearf 
the Second ; which John be made Earle of Moreton (or Max^ 
layne) and gave him this castle and honour of Notingham, 
whom bad before a castle seated upon an hill near to Mori, ia 
the county of Wiltsh : (now called Marleburgh) and lastly was 
King of this reaUn.* After this it was granted to the ancieni 
fiunily of the Mowbrays ; first to 

«< John Moubrat, f 27th of Edward the Sd, who wai slaine 
in the Holy Land by the Turks, anno. XLII of £dw. IIL He 
married Elizabeth daughter and heire of John Lord Segraye 
who assumed the surname of Segrave> from a lordship in Lei« 
cestersh : their son 

«' John Mowbray, created Earle at the coronation of king 
Richard the Second, and H. of his reign. % He was one that 
entered Scotland, with his joint forces, and died the sixflt of 
Richard the 2d at London, without issue and was buried there. 

''Thomas Mowbrat his brother, succeeded, being next 
heire, and was created Earle of Notingham by Richard the 
second, the VH of the said King's reigne. Hee with other 
Barons entered Scotland with an army of Spearmen and Archers ; 
and in the IX of his reign. He constituted the said Thomas Earle 
Marshall of England, for term of life ; whose loyalty and great 
service for his King and countrey, the French and Spaniards 
both knew ; also he attended king Richard into Ireland, the 
XVIII of his reigne. He was the first that was ever honoured 
by charter with the office of Earle Marshall. His first wife 


* On the return of Richard from the Holy Land, John refused to reaigpi it, 
and kept it in bis own hands until he came to the Crown^ in whicli it was 
merged for some lime. 

f This Earl is not mentioned in the general lists. His creation* if it reallji 
took place, must have been in 1S52. 

t With this special clause that he should boId« tub /iMiore C^mitali, or at 
parcel of this Earldom, all his other lands and possessions. He must haTO 
entered early on the theatre of public life* as be died under age« and his 
brother was only seventeen years of age when cieated Earl ia his room. 


was Elizabeth daughter and heire to Jolin Lo : Strange of Black- 
mere ; she aird XXUI of August VIL of Eiohard IL without 
issue. His secoatl wite, viz. Eiizabelb one ot ihti daughters of 
Richard Fitzalan, Earle of Arundelle. And the XXIX of 
Septem: Anno M. CCCXCVIl. he was created Duke of Nor* 
fblke; but suddenly afler the scales turned by subtile and per* 
nicious counsel], for ambition and striving;; for wordly bonourt 
and promotion is a very miserable thing, short of continuance 
md hastneth an dangrous end ; for in the XXf of Richard li, 
be had an Irrecoverable fall, being banished out of this realm 
never to return into England. He died at Venice in Septem* 
the I. of Hen. IV^ 

"Thomas Mowbray EAittc Marshall op Ekgland (his 

Son)f who meeting with discontented persons, soon laid hold of 

that opportunity ; for rebellion doth all waics begin upon revenge, 

or ambition, and sinister respect. Such was his desperate con- 

ipiracy against his lawfull kingj for the whiche he had tliestrolct 

' of the axe at Yorke, anno MCCCCV. He married Constance 

[daughter of John Holland Earle of Huntingdon and Duke of 

[ £xeier. 

*< Jobs Mowbray Earle Marshall ano Earle or NoTtfiG* 
^AM (his Son X) hee was a mo^t active and faithful subject io 
Iking Henry his warn? in France with horse and foot; alls^ 
sut eminent Commander in bis service in Normandy ; and [ 
Henry VI. retained by him in those warrs, with one Baneret^ 
IV Knights, one CXIV military men armed a capea pee, and 
CCC and LX archers. For this his fathfuU loyalty he was re- 

• Variooi hiftoriani give liim but an indifFerenl character, and acca»e him 
«f a series of pciliiical indttiy, whicli seems lo have been puoisbed even by 
the man for whom he commined iiomc of hi^ worst deeds. 

« He ^a» Earl of Notliticflium, but ii said nut to have betfii Duke ol Nor* 
folk* He wa» very young, on comnig lo the Uile, and was prevailed oa ttt 
join in the conspiracy ot Seroopc Archbiahnp of York» 

I He h by some geitcially called ItittWf to the preceding Earl* 


floral ttiid digoified with flial princely tkim ol IMnr «f 
Mke, He dyd ihe XX of May, VU of Hen. VI 
body to be buryed wiibiii tlir Uie of Axholoie ; 
•til OcL XI Henry V. He marrtcd Eatbcrioe 
Ha1|>h Nevile £arle of Westmoreland* 

*'JoiiBi LoftD Mownn4r succeeded and cnjoy^ Itw 1 
tUIcK of Honour, and in ibe XV U of King Henry tbe VI i 
bee waft sent Ambossadoar tn treat of peace bein ixt OQr Kin 
and the French King, and died MCCt'CLXI and buried 
Tlietfurd tn Nurfulke,* He married Eleanor daughter to VViUia 
Lofd Bourchrer. 

"Joiiw Lord Mowbrav (his Son) was by Henry the V] 
the XXIV March created Earie Wanrenne and Surrey : a pef 
ton of good prudence, and put oit the belt of military hon 
engaging to serve hi& King in the warres of France^ fd 
one whole ycarc* He died at Frmnington Castle (quer 
Framlingham) in Norfolket and was emerredatXhetford ann 
MCCCCLXXV. He niarned Elizabeth danghtcr of John Tal 
bo^ fifflt Ear le of Shrewsbury of Lhat naroe^ by whom he ha 
Anne solo daughter and heire, but she died without issue f 

*• jjiabcl one of the daughters of Thomas Mowbray Duke ' 
Norfolke by his II wife, married James Lo: Berkley who diel] 
at Berkley Cusile in Glouce»tersh : anno MCCCCLXHI and 
lyeih buried in Berkley Church; to whom s! •* had issue, 

"Wiitivw Bekklby,! who received the order of Knight 
hood ttt Calais : be wa« by King Edw ; IV advanced o vt^ountf^ 

• lie wn^^ttlta Jaitice Ttiueraiit of the ling*> forests louth of Trcoi; mnd 
iiccording to U»o piety of tho*c dAys, made scvrriil pilgrimage* tu Jloiue, 
the Ht»ly lund &c, aitd had even *oMred to inkc Jtvprol more; but in Uiis he 
wai Iriiitfuti'd by the arrot o( T>c«ih. 

t it «|Jpciifhh.iweverthiiithiiUdv h«iviog married llich«d Dakcot \ork, 
Woond wti tif F4wutd the founh, he W4« lliercby emitted to poocsa the EstU 
floni. in» HMirder in l\w Tawvt nl jiii catJy age, prp vented any issue ; oot 
4Atf he a|ipeiLf in »U the geneml hs{», 

t He 11 »omcttmei »aid to hiive beeu ber gnmdtoi^ 


ind by King Richard created Eaulb op Notingham. But 
af^etv adhering to Henry Buke of Buckingham, against King 
Hichar^i, he fled unto Henry Earle of Richmond, who was after 
King, and constituted Earle Marshall of £ngbnd> and after 
Bdvanced to that princely honour of a Marquessc, He died 
without Issue XIV of Feb: VII Hen, VIK He married three 
wtres| Elizebetb daughter of Reginald West Lord La Warre ; 
Jane daughter of Sir Thomas StraDgwaya Knight ; she died 
I Rich S I Anne daughter of John Fiennes, I^ord'Dacres of the 
South, but dyed without issue X Sepir: XIII Hen, VIL* 

" llE^av FtTzaoY, a natural Son to King Henry the Eight, 
begotten on the Lady Talboys, widdow, but daughter of Sir 
John Blound, Knight ; who was by his talhcr the XVllI of June 
in the XWll yere of his Haign» made Knight of that nobk order 
of the Garter, and the &ame <Iay advanced mito that honourable 
title of Earle of Notinghain &,c; who with the rest of bis ho* 
Hours and dignity s dyed vvithout issue the XXiV of July anno 

"William Howaeo, a collateral branche of the Duke of 
Norfolke was by Queen Mary advanced to a Baron by the title 
of L^rd Howard of ElBngham in the hundred of Copthorne in 
the Com: of Surrey. He married Catherine daughter and co* 
Ikeir to Sir John Broughton of Tuddington in Com : Bedf : Knt. 
but had no issue male; secondly Margaret daughter of Sir 
Thomas Gamage^ Knt. who had issue male.f 

" Cmahl^s Howard, succeeded in the honour, nho ^as ( in 


* Having no iisur, bc^vu prcvtjted on by Ihc politic Henry the serentfi, to 
l|iAke over hh honourt and estotes to the crown ; by which rneani las brother 
3k!iiitrice, aguiu^t whom lie h Mid to liavc been much enraged, for murrjin? 
tome pcrsun below bini in &iiiticjii. wns coinpletftly diiiuheritcd, Maurice, 
Wmcver« wto> ambled to recover snuie manours wrhich tbo Crown could not 
I |fty bold oG hot tbc earldom ot Noilingharn wa« loit t^ the famity, and lay 
dormant for toiuc ycari. 

I Ii doen not uppciir howevefi from otbcr sources th^t this WUIlan^ Uowgird 
trer bort the tide ot Notilnghtim. 


hii faiber's life tiine) on6 of those noble persons, by Queen 
Elisabeth made choice on for the condu<;ting the Lady Anne of 
Austria, daughter to Maximilian the Emperor from Zeland into 
Spain : and XXIV April the XVI of £liz : he was made one of 
the most noble order of the Garter, being then Lord Cham-> 
berlayne to the Queen.* Hee was made Lord High admirall 
of -England anno MDLXXXVIII ; he was constituted Lieute- 
nant ^General of the Queen's whole fleet at Sea, against the 
Spaniards Armado ; also in the XXXIX of her raigne he was 
dignified with the title of Earlb or Notinoham, and at the coro* 
jMftion of Ring James, he was Lord Great Steward of England 
and dyed at Hayling in Kent, anno MDCXXIV. He married 
Katherine daughter to Henry Lord Hunsdon (first wife) and his 
second, but oldest sunriving Son by her. 
' •'Cbarlss HowABD succeeded.'^*— — — 

Thus fhr says the MSS.*-to which we have to add that he 
married three wives, but had issue only by the last of them, 
Margaret daughter of James the Scottish Earl of Murray. His 
eklett son James, died unmarried in his father's life time, and his 

Charles Howard succeeded as Earl of Nottingham, but dying 
without issue, the earldom became extinct, though the barony 
of Effingham went to the ancestor of the present Earl of that 

Heneage Finch, baron Finch of Daventry, was created earl 
of Nottingham in the reign of Charles the second. He was son 
and heir of Heneage Finch, fourth son of Sir Moyle Finch, the 
Iwenty-fiflh baronet created by King James. Sir Moyle had 
married Elizabeth only daughter of Sir Thomas Heneage Knt. 
Treasurer of the chamber, vice chamberlain of the household, 
and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, in the reign of 
Elizabeth, also a member of her Privy Council, and who would 


* He wM Earl tw cnty-ieYcn jcsn^ and knight of tW Garter durbg s pe- 
riod of fifty-tw*. 



received higher honours, had not his death prerenled it 

Sir Moyle Finch wa,^ also considered as having further claimi 

ttpoci his sovereign ; accordingly soon after his death his Widow 

was raised by James the first to the peerage, by the title of 

Viicoantesst Maidstone; and a short time aller^ in 1628^ Charlet 

first, gave her the higher dignity of Countess of Winchel* 

in which the was succeeded by her eldest son. 

iog highly esteemed for his great knowledge of the laws of 

Sigland, he was on the restoration of Charlca the second, first 

appointed solicitor General, then attorney General, and soon 

mfter, in 1G60, a Baronet* In IG?-*!, he rose to the dignity 

of lord keeper of the Great Seal, was created Baron Finch, and 

in I<iT5 earl of Nottingham. He married the daughter of 

Datiiel Harvey Esq. a njerchanl in London, and had a nume* 

rous family. Hts eldest son 

Daniel second Earl of Nottingham of that family succeeded, 
but shortly after, the earldom of Wlnchdsea coming to him as 
heir to his great grandmother, tlie fust Countess,though descend- 
ed from her fourth Son, the title of Nottingham became merged 
in the older creation of Winchelsea, and is now enjoyed hy the 
present Ear t of Winchchea and Nottingham, 
With respect to the 

Estates and Lanoed Property — of this coiinty« we know 
nothing of tbem before the conquest ; soon after which the 
Saxon landholder* seem to have been completely ousted from 
their lands, which were then parcelled out by the Norman 
soiong his followers, in various proportions: to William Pe- 
el he gave no less than one hundred and three lordships ; to 
ger de Buisly, eighty-six; to Walter D'Eincourt, thirty- 
Ibor; to Ralph FiU Hubert fen; to Hugh D'Vbrincis earl of 
Chester, four; to Alai>earlof Riclnnond, seven j to Robert earl 
ofMorteign and Cornwall, six; to William Malet, baron of 
Eye, two; to Henry Ferrers earl of Derby, three; to Ralph de 
^Limesi, eight ; to Hugh de Grenfsmesnil, one; to Goisfred de 
H^inselin, eighteen: to Hugh de 8ay of Ricard*s Castle, six; 
a to 


to Ralph de Buniiij eight ; to Tosti Earl of Northamberland, obat ^ 
to Godiva Countess of Mercia, four, and to Algar Earl of Mer- 
ciai one, being all that was left them out of their ancient Saxon 
possessions in this county. 

Besides these we find from Domesday, that there were other 
landholders in the county ; these were the Archbishop of York i 
Bishop of Lincoln ; Bishop of Bayeux ; Abbot of Burgh ; 
Roger Pictavensis; Gilbert de Gand ; Gilbert de Tison : Ilbert 
de Laci; Berenger de Todeni; Hugh Fitz Baldric; Osborne 
Fitz-richard ; Robert Fitz-william; and William Hostiarius, or 
the usher. 

To enumerate the various changes of property in succeeding 
reigns would far exceed our limits; but as great part of the 
lands of this county^ at different periods, came into the hands 
of the church, we shall here add a list of the 

Religious Foundations. — Beauvalle, or Pulchra vallis in 
Parco de Gresley, a Carthusian Priory, dedicated to the Holy 

Bingham College. 
Bfythe Benedictine Priofy; to the^lessed Virgin. 

■ Hospital ; to St. John the Evangelist 

Bradesbusk Hospital, in Gonalston Parish ; to St. Mary M^g-^ 

Broadholm Pramotistratensian Nunnery ; to the Virgin Mary. 
Clifton College ; to the Holy Trinity. 
Felley Austin Canons ; to the Virgin Mary. 
Fiskerton upon Trent, Austin Cell; to the Virgin Maryv 
Ltnton Cluniac Priory ; to the Holy Trinity. 

■ ' ' ■ Hospital ; to St. Anthony. 

White Friars or Carmelites, 

Marshe Benedictine Cell ; to. St Thomas; 
Matter sty Gilbert ine Priory ; to St. Helen. 
Newark Hospital; to St. Leonard. 

Hospital belonging to the Benights Templars^ 

• Austin Friars. 



Newark Observant Friars. 

NewMiead Austim Canons ; to the Virgin Mary. 

Nottingham, St. Mary's Cell. 

St. Sepulchre's. 


^t. Jones's Hospital; to St. Joha the Baptist. 

— — St. Leonardos Hospital 

Plumtrt's Hospital; to the Anuunciation of tlfcc 
■ Grey Friars. 

White Friars. 

Bodynffon College. 

Rufford Cistercian Abbey ; to the Virgin Mary. 

She\ford Austin Priory ; to the Virgin Mary. 

Sibthorpe Collegiate Foundation. 

Southtvell College ; to St. Mary. 

— Hospital ; to St. Mary Magdalene. 

Stoke by Newark Hospital ; to St. Leonard. 

Thurgarton Austin Canons; to Su Peter. 

Turfbrd College. 

Mallingwells Benedictine Nuns ; to the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Wdbeck Pramonstratensian Abbey ; to St James. 

Worksop or Radford Austin Canons; to St. Mary and St 


Tiic various grants of the lands belonging to the foundaiionft 
which took place at the dissolution, will be recorded under the 
several heads; and wiih respect to the present occupation 
and tenure, it is only necessary to say that few estates in the 
county arc above 12,0001. per annum, but the majority are 
much smaller, so as to produce a numerous and opulent gentry, 
to whom must be added a most respectable yeomanry occu- 
pying their own lands. 

Though Nottinghamshire boasts the residences of so many 
of the highest orders of the nobility, yet it is rather surprising 


* Xaaocr*t Net. Moik 




ibat^ wJth the exception of the town of Notlinghara itself, thcr^ 
are so few others that have atforded titles to resident nobles* 
The only places in the county which have given titles are^ 
Mamfieldt an Eiirhloni in the Murray family; Newark, a 
Viscounty in the Meadows, now the Pierrepoint family ; and 
Lexington enjoyed by the family of SattODj bat now ex- 

The Baronetcies in the county have been roore numerous; 
these commenced with Sir Gervase Clifton of Clifton, the 13tli 
Biironet CI eiueii by Kmg James the fjrftt ; Sir John Molyneux 
of Teversal and Wellows; Sir Hardolph Wastneys of HeatoD^ 
now extinct ; Sir Thomas WiHiamsun of East Markham^ ex tin 
Sir Edward Golding of Colston Basset^ extinct; Sir Willi 
Willoyghby of Willoi;ghby, extinct; Sir Francis 1 eeke of 
Newark upon Trent, extinct; Sir Edw*ard Neville of Grove* 
extinct; Sir Francis Willoughby of Widlaton> now merged in 
the peerage; Sir Thomas Parkins of Bunney, extinct; Sir 
George Smith of Nottingham and East Stoke, now Smith Brom 
le}' ; Sir Samuel Gordon of Newark tipon TrenV, extinct; Si 
Richard Sutton of Norwood Park; Sir Richard Heron of Ne 
ark; and Sir JohnBorlase Warren of Stapleford Hall. 

When the order of the Knights of the Royal Oak was 
conlempiation aller the restoration of Charles the Second, the 
names of the following gentlemen were on the Irst for thai 
honour; Cecil Cooper of Thurj^nrton, John Palmer, John 
Whaley, John Eyre of Mati^field Woodhouse> John Middleton, 
Esqrs, and Sir John Curson, KnU ancestor of the present 
Scarsdale family. 

The present sta^e of landed property and of residence, wi 
be fuUy shewn by the followjng list of the 

Bunnet/f Lord Ranclifle. 
Clumber Park, Duke of Newcastle. 

Cost act 



eiU - 


• Langar in llic S. E. pnrt of Ihc county docs not come exactly wilhto 
lltii (leKTipiion ; the title in the patciil is VtscotiiU Ihutf of Langar, 

of Lanear, J 

Cosiock, Lord RancliflTe- 
Holme Picrpoint, Earl Manvers. 
Langar, Baroness Howe. 
Newsi€ad Abbt^f Lord Byron, 
Scrtbjf Hati, Viscount Gal way.* 
Thorcsbif Parkt Earl Mani^ers. 
' Wclbcck Abbey, Duke of Portlandi 
Wollaton Hail, Lord Middleton. 
Worksflp Manor, Duke of Norfolk; 
Carlton HalL Sir WilUara Earl Welby, Bart- 
CUft€m Grove, Sir G^rvas CliftoO/Bart. 
East StoUx near Newark, Sir George Smith Bromley, Bart. 
Monoid JVoodhou^e, Sir William Boothby, Bart* 
Norwood Park J near Southwell, Sir Richard Sutton, Bart, 
Siaplrford Hall, Right Hon. Sir J. B. Warren, K. B. Bart. 
Weilow, near OUcrton^ Sir Francis Molyncux, Bart* 
Atme^lejf Halt, John Musters Cbaworlhi Esq. 
Anncsley, William Chaworth, Escj* 
Apsley, E* Wiilaughby, Esq. 
BabiLorih, Hon. J. Bridgertian Simpson. 

1 Rev. Archdeacon Eyre. 

Becstftorp Hall, Thomas Bri^tow^ Esq. 
Berry Hilt, near Mansfield, T. Walker, Esq. 
Blythe Hall, a seat of the Mellish family. 
Btythe^ near to, seat of Joshua Walker, Esq. 
Bramcote House ^ John Longden, E<?q. 
Brook Hill, near MansfieM, Bcv* D*Ewes Coke. 
Mrtmgkton Upper, seat near to, F, Morris, Esq. 
Carlion, near Worksop. R. Ramsden, Esq, 
Ckilwelh William Charltoo, Esq. 
Cockglade, near Carburton, Dr. Aldrkh, 
Coddington, near Nt!wark, S, C. Colclougb, Es<f. 
Colstofi Ba$4e(, seat near to, Samuel Wright, Esq* 

B Colwick 

• TTiete ti a very htndsomt sent of l»dy QAmikj, do4e to the tawDoC 
B*wtry* and which we bclicv* ii witbiu the limits of thii countj. 



Cohfick Hall, Job a Musters, Esq. 

, near io, seat of Gent^ral LUUr, 
Cromwell, Joseph Pocklitigron, Earj. 
I Edwinstow, Hon. R. L. Saville. 
^ near to, seat of Dr. CKxkes* 

- , near to, seat of Booth by, E:>q. 

, near to, scat of Mills, Esq, 

^ortit Lodge, near Papplewick, J^ Cope, E^sip 

Flmtham Hall, Col. I'lioroton* 

Gedling House, William ElUot EJliotti E»q# 

Grove, Anthony Hardolph Eyre, Esq. M, P. 

UurgurtQn Hall, G. D. L, Gregory. Esq. 
Kelkam Hou&e, John Manners Suttoiw E.'iqv 

KirkUngton Hall, near SouthwelL ]Vlrs< VVhetbam. 

Langford House ^ near Newark, Chaplin, Esq* 

Langold, near VN'urbiop, J. G. Knight, Esq* 

Lentun Grove, Francis Evans, Esq. 

Lent on Priory, William St ret ton, Esq* 

JIappcricj/, Ichitbod Wright, Esq. 

3Iuskham Houie, Joseph Pockhngton, Eaq# 

MuMam South, near to, seat of W. D. Rastell, Esq. 

Isettleworth, near Mansfield, Edward Greavea, Es4j« 

Norwood Parkt Thorn aij Wright, Esq** 

Nunall Tetttple, Hon. Henry Sed ley. 

Oibcrton, near Retford, Francis Ferrard Foljambe, E«<|i. 

Ossington Hall, near Tux ford, JohnDenison, Esq. M, P. 

OxLthorpe, Miss Rcnsbaw. 

Plumtree, William Hal lam, Esq> 

Papplctiick, Right Hon* Frederic i^lontagtie- 

PoiMtill near Mansfield, R. Burdon, Esq.f 
Ranby Hall, Hugh Blaydes, Esq. 
Itatdiffc Lodge, Tliomas Boulton, Esq. 
Red/dll, John Chaaihcrlain, Esq. 

* He is we believe only the occtipu;iL 
f Ci;l. II4II U| Of was, the occapaiU t»hlijjsK»t. 



Rempstont semi near to, J» Goodere, £91;* 

—, seat near to, W, Gregory Williams, Esq, 

^Muddirtgton, Will ram Ford Rawaon, Esq. 
^Jtuffhrd AbUy, Hon* and Revd. J. Lumley Saville. 
Scqfton near Babworih, R. Sutton, Esq. 

hcf-wood Mali, near Mansfield, CoU KelteU 
mcrwood LodgCy Henry Cooper, Esq* 
Shirewood Hail, John Need, E«q, 
kthire Oak, near to Gateford, J. Hewell^ Esq, 

Icghf, seat near to, Thoraas Luidley, Esq* 
fiiaunton Hall, Rev, J, Suuilton, D. D. 
fj^anford Hill, Charles Verc Dashwood, Eiq. 
^^VrW/cy, Thomas Webbe^Esq, 
Syer$toH, George Fiirmghara, Esq. 
T%omey, George Neville, Esq* 
Thitimpiont J. W. Emnierton, Esq, 

hurgarton, John Brettle, Esq, 
Totlenon Bali, Pendock Neale Barry, Esq* 
JFalie^eld near Sneinton, Charles MeUor, Esq, 
rWaiting ffW/i, William White, Esq. 
Wainall, near to, seat of ^— .^ Rolleston, Eiq, 
y^jf^Afly near Annesley, W. Chaworth, Esq, 
Yigthorpc near Carlton N. W. — R, Kentish, Esq, 
Yifford House, John Smith Wright^ Esq. 
finckbourne near Southwell. P. Pegge Burnell, Esq* 
itkorpe Hall near Muskhara. R, Pocklinglon, Esq. 
[Hall, Joifathan Aclom, Esq, 
Tivcricn Hall, near Bingham. 

Having thtss taken a genera! view of the past and present 
naie of Landed Property, it remains for us to glance slightly 
Lit the present stale of the County in other respects^ and shall 
fiercfore begin with lis 

Cliiisat£. — which i^ by all writers, even of the earliest dale, 
ton»idered as mooh drier than that of most of the other neigh- 

B 2 bouring 



bouring counliei, or indeed than ihe kingdam in general. By j 

comparison of di 1)1" real years, and different places^ this opinion 
has met with a considerable degree of confirmation sulBcient \ 
establiih it as a general meteorological feet. In ihc yc 
1794, the quantity of rain which fell at West Bridgeford w^ 
only twenty SIX inches and a quarter; in 1795, it was Iwcntj 
four and three quarters; and in 1796, only eighteen inches.* 

Mr, Lowe, in his agricultural survey, has accoi>nted for this 
fipon very rational grounds, conceiving that although th 
greatest rains come with the Easterly winds, from the Germai 
ocean^ yel the surcharged clouds being attracted powerfully 
by the mountains of Derbyshire, i>assover this county too quicti 
ly to deposit much of their moisture, whilst on the other ha 
the clouds from the western ocean and Irish channel are i 
traded and broken by the Derbyshire and Yorkshire niou 
tain;^, before they arrive at this level district. 

This general dryness is cotisidered as favourable to the tei 
perature of the County, so as to bring it nearly upon a par vii^ 
respect to seed time and liar vest, with the more southern couB 
ties. The 

Soil and Surface*— Of Nottinghamshire are eonsidered by 
Thoroton as "generally of the most fertile in England (excep 
a part of the forest of Sherwood which was the most pleasan 
bat by the abominable destruction of woods is now much othc 
wise) and likewise some of that which borders upon Derbysbir 
part whereof aftbrds most excellent coals.*' The fact JSj ih 
this is not properly a level, but a champaign country, having 
a general inequality of surface, seldom rising to the altitude i 
a hill, but auOiciently broken to avokl the sameness resulting 
from u dead flat, and also presenting a considerable variety i 
surface v>hich the attentive agriculturist will know hoiv to ap- 

^jff. [t is fpinnrkablc, However, th«t th« corresponding qauititles jn the meb 
pA\% were gulj iZ^t aiid 18 inches in 1794 — 95. wtuJst in Ltuc«thii« j 
^isouQled to siify-niQe inches nnd a half! 



The general dtvisiun of the soil h now into sand or gravel; 
§lay ; limestone and coal land : and the IkrsX of these ha» again 
T}#en sabd'ivitled into the forest country and borders extending 
about thirty miles in length » and from seven lo ten in breiidth ; 
the Trent bank district ; and the tanf^ie qf hmd beyond, or east y 
Trent, running into Lincolnnhire. 

The Trent bank district ticcompanies the river through its 
whole course in the county^ as fkr as Sutton upon Trent, and is 
in some places not more than a mile in breadth, and never move 
than fii'e; it is in general a mellow vegetable mould un a bottom 
of sand Of gravel, which tometimes &hew themselves on the 
surface. The Aouth-western district also on the hanks of the 
Soar is included in this* 

The district east of Trent, is generally a poor land, and being 
subject to floods, is much incon>moded by low nmors, which it 
is to be hoped the present system of improvement by drainin*^ 
will soon remove. 

The clay district Is again divided into the north tmd south 
clays, The first of these is extremely fertitej much more so 
indeed than its name would seem to imply, arising from a con- 
siderable mixture of sand that renders it more friable and of 
course more easily susceptible of agricultural labour than cold 
lelay lands In general. In the more northern part it is agreea- 
Ibly diversified with hill and dale, whilst its bold promontories ris* 
Ting abruptly from the dead level of Misson Car, and its cou- 
tiualion into Lincolnshire appear evidently to have been at 
ne very remote period the boundaries to an ocean which 
bust once have flowed over what is now a scene of rich culti- 
"ipation. It is impossible for any persim to conretnplate the view 
from Oringiey on the Hill without drawing this conclusion, and 
it appears even more evident when these hills are viewed from 
lie low, particularly on the road from Buivtry towards Re(ford, 
when they have all the semblance of Idands rising from the 
bosoin of the ocean ; their abrupt cliBs being to the northward. 

B 3 whiUt 



whilst on llie other tide they sink gradually into theg^ntral 
I line of the county. # 

The south day district is by no means so extensive as the 
I fiorth ^ it includes the Vale fif Bdvoir, which presents a scene ot 
I cultivation perhaps equal to any other in the kingdom ; aliq 
, the woulds, which are a ranj^e of high bleak hills, in many parts 
uninclosedtbut now in a state of progressive improvemeiU, par- 
ticularly by plantings for which they seem well calculated* 

The lime and coal dUtncts lie on the very western verge of 
the county, beginning about S/ur€ Oaks^ and extending to the 
southward as far as the Trent. The coal begins near Mans- 
field : and it is a curious fact that the limestone is prectnely 
bounded by the river Lene, to the eastward of which it is not 
to be found. The 

Produce of this county is fully equal in quantity to the 
tegular proportion that might be expected, but we have not 
been able to procure any thing like an estimate either of its 
annual quantity or value. In such a diversity of soilj the agri- 
culturist has an opportunity of cultivating every species of 
grain, nor do his cares go unrewarded ; but we have not been 
able to ascertain any leading facts not generally known. Thn'e 
is however on^ species of grain whose culture Mr. Lowe in his 
survey believes to be peculiar to this county. These are called 
Skegs, and yield a crop double in quantity to any other species 
of oats, but only equal in wt-ight. The great advantage result- 
ing from their cultivation is, that they will grow where nothing 
else will ; and as they yield a sweet nourishing food, the far^ 
mers, though they seldom bring them to market^ r^isc them it| 
considerable quantities, particularly in the north-western pari 
of the county^ for their own use, giving them to their horses, 
in the straw. In the agricultural survey, they are stated to be 
the 'A vena stipiformii*' of Limiseus, and defined scien titi call y 
I as *' pannicled. calyxes two-flowered, awns twice as long at 
the seedj culm branchy, stipe fgrro.** That they might be ia- 




lrodoc€d With success into other places, is evitlent from the 
fact, thftt here they are sown on the worst land; sometitnes 
on a lea, sometimes after turnips, ol\en taken as n last crop. 
Their produce on bad land amounts in ^ncral to about four 
quarters per acre, equal in valtie to about two Ihirtls the stme 
quantity of oats ; nor are they «npr«ritable on good Iirid, as 
they have been known to produce fourteen or fifteen quarters; 
but their great advantage is that they will produce a considera] 
bic quanlity of 5wcet nutritious green food for hor-^es and tha 
they will do this on the worst land where nothing else will 
grow. * 

ifopf arean article of con??itlerable cultivation in the central 
part of the county about Oilerton, and indeed in most parts of 
the north clm^. Their cultivation is not however considered as 
an increasing one; for though they are much stronger than the 
Kentish hops, in a proportion of nearly two to one, yet their 
flavour is by no means so mild and agreeable, which of course 
operates against them in the market. 

It is thought that this county is favourably situated for the 
ealtivation of orchards, as much of the soil is a red marlv loam 
with blue veins, similar to the orchard districts of Worcester* 
shire and Herefordshire* There are indeed in the north clay 
many orchards both of apples and pears, but not in isuffictent 
quantities to render the making of cyder or perry an object of 
agricultural attention ; particularly as the ready sale at Mans- 
field market to the dealers who supply the whole mountainous 
district of Derbyshire, is sullinient to carry off any i|uanlity of 
tlie fruit that may be raised* 

H^ttdt sometimes called the dyer's wet'd* is anarrtcle of par* 
tial cultivation about Scrooby, and other places in the northern 
district, and has this advantage that it docs not occupy much 
ground, being sown with oiher crops either barli;y or clover, 
Jn a favourable season, it has been known to yield half ato(i 

B i per 

^ More on this tnbject niii^ be seen in L^wcS larvcy of tbc coont^. 


per acre ; bui its price is too variable far the farmer to depen4 
much upon its cuHure« being s^Jin^times as low us 6/, and at 
others rising to 34/» per ton* 

It may be ob&eryed with propriety^ that tiotwithstanding all 
that has been said in favour oNarge farms, yet the system of 
occupation to this county, i» a proof that they are far from 
being absolutely necessa^ry^ at leaU beyond a certaiti extent. 
It may be trge indeed* that if very large forms had never ex- 
isted, many of our present improvemenU would never havi^^ 
been thought of; but even granting this, it is still pleasant tol^ 
see a whole county^ populous in proporti^^m to Ibe extont anc) 
uatureof its Aoil, in a high stale of cultivation, intersected by 
good roads^ and inhabited by a respectable yeomanry aoii 
leasehold farmers^ well lodged and comfortably situated ; and 
all this, where very few farms exceed SOO/. per annum ; wber 
more firms ape below than above 100/. j and many, in the cla] 
district, as low as twenty. By this equal division^ it is easy i 
conceive how many families are livji^g in h^^nest respectabilit]^ 
and though they may be considered as in a state of poverty 
the smallest farms, yet it is no^ a state of poverty wbipb will 
send their occupants to the workhouse for relief* as would in 
fallibly have been the case bad twenty or thirty of these littl^ 
spots bpen pon^olidated into one^ and their hapless tenants ob^ 
liged to perform i|s servile drudgery, as that which now forn 
the cheerful labour of themselves and families, and is a powcrfa 
stimulus to tht;ir industry. 

A liberal spirit of improyemer^t too sepms to pervade alt 
classes, each in proportion to his means, trying and adoptin^^H 
the moderi} discoveries of other districts ^ and the beneficial el^H 
fects of this spirit, which has been much aidpd both by the pre- 
cept and example of many of the resident gentry, is evidetil 
over the whole face of the county. Much of this state of ioi^ 
provement, resulting from a more ec^ual di0usion uf occupancy 
may be supposed to proceed from the 




TEN4;*Rs--which of course are in all the variety of freehold, 
copybold, and leasehold, and there is also a considerable quan» 
Uty of church and collegiate lands; the church of Southwell, 
and the archbishopric of York, being sfili, as formerly, consi- 
derable landholders^ whilst some of the ancient priory latids are 
now in possession of the universities. 

The freeholds, indeod, are more extensive than numerous i 
and with reipectto ihc copyholds, a great proportion of the 
smallest ones are "Borough English/' and descend to the 
youngest son.* 

The ifDQiediaie occupanU of the soil, llowever» are mostly tetip 
ants at will^ and as Uiejr ^rms in r|iai>y instances have thus 
gone through sevisral generations, they feel a kiud of heredi- 
tary security that prompts them to the same course of improve- 
roent as if they were secured by leases. 

The JUnt-i indeed, according to the modern system, have 
been in many instances raised in a moFt extrnordinary propor- 
liou, even oo the lea^hold lands, though perhaps not far be- 
yond the limits of strict propriety ; we have heard, however, of 
some ini^taxK-es, particqtarly on the baiika of Trent where they 
have been raised in a proportion of three to one ! and that un* 
tier circumstances which left the farmer no choice between ac- 
ceptance and dismission. If, with t?iich an extraordinary rise, 
the farmer is titill able to live and pay his rent, it is indeed evi- 
dent that the landholder might have doubled his rentJ! without 
uny injury to the farmer, and with a just regard to his own 
rights; bat we cannot help fearing that a rise to such an extent 
must be immediately detrimental to the occupant, and ultimate- 
ly so to the landholder, unless it pruduces a more spirited mode 
of culture^ and perhaps brings a considerable part of the land 
under thp plough, that would otherwiie have lain in a com- 

• The origin of ihis part of our commun law is completely inroUcd iti 
lajUery. but i« 5up|H)8cd to have Arisen Iron* the ancieatfystem of va^salagr, 
wlitch gnvc tlic iard certain rrghts Over hii vvtsad brides tliu» rcndoriiig the 
l^iliinacj of the tldett born uncertain. 


paratiTely idle stale. Shotild ihat prove ta be ifee caae, theti^ . 
indeed the public at large mast benefit from it, and the exlracvp«^| 
dinary nse need no longer be considerctl as an evil; but tbii^^ 
can only be determined by the result of the experiment. 

In thfs county, also, the farmer we understand has many ad- 
vantages in the article of iythes ; for most of the lands, origi 
nally church lands, are tythcfree ; whilst in other parts of ih 
connty, compositions are gencraUy made, and that at a miich 
lower rate, than a surveyor would be apt to value them at. 

Before we dismiss this part of the subject it will not be irrel^ 
▼ant to notice two Guriouti agricultural facts, in some measn 
peculiar to this county* Mr. Lowe in his survey tells us that 
the/or«r dUtrict, the land being of a convertible nature, ver 
Httle now remains permanently m g^rass, except in the bottoms 
near rivers or brooks for meadow, and homesteads about fa 
houses for convenience; but formerlj' there was always abo 
each forest village a small quantity of inclosed land in tillage 
pasture, the xt%t lay open, common to the sheep and cattle 
the inhabitants, Qnd the King^s deer. 

With respect to foresi breaks, he observer, that it has been m 
immemorial custom for the inhabitants of townships to take 
breaks, or temporary inclosures of more or less extent, perha 
from forty to two hundred and fifty acres, and keep them 
tillage for five or six years. For this the permission of the t.01 
of the manor, however, is necessary, and two verdurL-fs niui 
inspect, who report to the Lord Chief Justice in Eyr#», that 
is not to the prejudice of the king or subject; and they are at 
the same time to see ihat the fences are not such &§ io exclude the 
Deer* The 

MtNEUAi«ooY of Nottinghamshire, ha^ nothing particularly 
worthy of attention. We have already mentioned the articl 
of coats in the western part of the county ; these are b< 
coming very valuable to their proprietors from the increas 
sale arising from the facilities of water carriage^ and as they 


tre now both cbeap and plentiful^ the encouragement to lime-^ 
burning will naturally increase to the manifest improyenient of 
agriculture. The county is not deficient in stone of vr^riouf 
kinds. Very exteufiive quarries of a reddish stone, in iinmenf# 
blocks* are now in full work near MansBeld, and there is a 
quarry nearMan^^field Woodhouse now worked for the purpose! 
of burning as lime, but which is so extremely beautiful, of a 
light cream colour clo^e in the grain^ and extremely hard, 
thai it would be highly valuable for ornamental buildinr;, were 
it not that its extreme hardtipss would raise its price far beyond 
that of Portland intone* 

A good bluish atone, fit for building ptirpose*?, hast been for 
a long time, dug up at Maplebeck ; Newark bridge is built of 
it. and it appears to improve from cjcposure to the weather. 
But there b no county in the kingdom which produces such a 
quantity, and at the same time such a variety of gyprntfif ala» 
bastcr, OTpUister as it is commonly called here. The pits at 
Gothamj Beacon hill, &c. will be spoken of under their proper 

Marie, it is supposed^ might be found in considerable quantitiei 
for agp"! cultural purposes, if that mode of dressing land was 
once introduced ; j;uch veins of it as have been opened by 
chance, are found to be highly calcareous, and might, under 
judicious management, be rendered highly beneficial. There 
i& no county in England, of a champaign surface, which is wa* 
tered with a greater variety of 

Rivers^ affording it all the advantages of navigation for 
commercial, and of irrigation for agricultural {wjrposes. The 
principal of thrse is the 

Trent; respecting the origin of whose name, a variety of 
eonjectureu have been started. Its present name is known, or 
fltp/irttcfi?, not tn be older ihan the Saxon times, and antiquaries 
have been much puzzled at its not being mentioned by name 
by any of the Roman writers; in fact neither by Ptolemy, 



Strabo, nov even in the Ittnerary. A iaticifol idea had indeed 
originated from the brain of some monk, of its receiving 
Ihirty tributary streams, being therefore called Triginta, and* 
that being changed into TrctUc in the Norman French ; but 
this is too dirosyeven to require refutation. That a river 
of such magnitude, should not have received a name from the 
Romans is incredible; and it may naturally be supposed^ what^ 
e¥er that name was, that some remains of it shoutd be in the 
present appellation. The happiest guess of this kind muy be. 
seen ia the thirtieth vidume of the Gentleman'* Magaeine^^ 
page 65, where a very ingenious writer observes, that we find 
in a note of the Grammnrian Seruius upon Virgil, that the Tibet, 
in one part of the city of Rome had the name of " Terentum'^ 
in consequence of its wearing its banks from the rapidity of it 
course—*' co quod rtpas terat.** — Now supposing this to be trtae^ 
and that the Romans might probably enough have given ihej 
name of their favourite river, (as our modern discoverers hav« 
done in several instances) to this one, whose beauty they could 
not fail to be struck with, for it is not likely they would havtl 
left it without a mime, then the etymology of its present ap*^ 
pellation wotild be simple and un forced * 

Another idea has also been started on the ground of looking 
for its etymology in the ancient Roman name, for there is' 
another word in the Latin language, which is as good a word 
lor conjecture, and cumes even nearer to it in sound; this is, 
TridcniuiH, or Tridanta, from whicli Trent, or Trcont as in the 
SaxoHj might easily be deduced. 

The:je indeed ure only conjectures ; but its real Roman name, 
which however has no similarity whatever with its present ap* 
pellation^ may perhaps be traced by the consideration, that 
although it had been the general !!>upposition ot antiquaries thai 
the Roman name of the Humber was Ahus, yel Doctor Gate ' 
seems to have been rather fortunate in his conjecture, that its 
real name was Utub, of which there are still sor^^e vestiges in 
the names of Isurium^ nnd Ehuracum the modern York: the 




^ucUton then natural ty^ arises, to what river did they give the 
name o( Abus ,^why t^ the Inni^ says our etymologist, and even 
of this there is a vestige in Appisthorpe, or Abu«^thorpe, the 
town on the Abus near Littleborough^ the AgeioQum of the 
This* is certainly a conjecture wbichj on a minute invesli- 
ation, may appear to be well founded ; and is at least well de- 
erving the notice of antiquaries. 

The river it?ie If has been considered of high importance as 
iarly as the Contjuest ; for it is recorded in Bom esd ay -book, 
llliat " in Snotin^hamj the wtUer qf Trait and the fosae and the 
ray towards York, were kept so, that if any should hinder 
y^t pOMage of boats, and if any should plow or make a ditch on 
|the King's wayj within two perchesj he should make amends 
Illy Eight pounds/' 

It ranks as the fourth capital riv^er in England^ being only 
I iur passed by this Thames, Severn, and Huinber : and though 
[most certainly not the largest, yet it may be said tu run the 
[ kmfgfst coarse of ajiy, from its rising neart^r to the we^t side of 
[ the kingdom than any of the others. 

It rises near Biddulph in the Moorlands of Slaflrordshire> re- 
ceiving from Cheshire and Lancashirej even whilst near its 
llieail» a number of small rivulets, which have been said to 
tmount to Thirty and thence its name ; but this is futile^ for the 
Saxon name of Treonta was given, long before the introduction of 
* the Norman French into this country. It soon becomes a pretty 
large river, coming down from the hills with a very rapid current, 
and being augmented in the flat country by the accession of other 
rivers, it ilows past Trentham to which it gives a name^ and 
from thence Burton in Derbysliire, when it Brst becomes navi- 
gable. It soon after enters Nottinghamshire near RadcbtFe- 
^ iipon-Soor in a clear stream, and bold rapi^l current; thence 
flowing past the groves of Clifton, it winds round the town of 
Koltingham, giving fertility to an immense range of meadows^ 
flified by villas, villages, and ccmfortabte farms, in some 


$0 totTlvokAkMiRi. 

filaces sweeping oyer fertile plains, in others reflecting oniu 
glossy surfac!9> high spelling kh(^\h, and green feathered cliflir 
that add to the sublimity of the scene. Its scenery roand 
Holme Pierpoint and Radclifie is pleasing in the extreme; it 
then proceeds with rather a tortuous course through a highly 
cultivated country towards Kewarky where it suddenly takes a 
bend toward the North, and pursues that route as far as GliftonV 
tpon-Trent, where it becomes the boundary between Nbtting^' 
luun and Lincolnshire^ and passes Gainsborough, but does not 
leave that county until it reaches Heck Dyke, from Whence it 
proceeds, after a courser of near two hundred miles/ to t!M 

At Gainsborough, abovft eight milcfs before Rsr leaf mg^ Ih^ 
bounty, it loses th^ influence of the tid6 which iioWs up so* 
hr, and is no longer navigable for vessels of any gfoaC btrthen ^ 
ftal vessels of a flatter construction are cottstatlUy oddi)>ied in 
k as hig^ up as Burtofc. its navigMionis inde^ of socfar 
importance to the country ift hrge,' in eooMqu^nce of th^ 
tiumerous coromunicatkms which it forms with other rivers and 
canals, that every means have beeir taktiWtO'aflford it alt the 
facilities possible. For this purpose it htti a sid^ cut of teif 
Ibiles in length, in order to avoid twenty-one shoals* Whtclr 
occur in little more than thirteen miles of its course b^tweei^ 
Trent bridge at the commencement of the Nottingham' canal/ 
and Sawley Ferry at the commencement of the Trent and 
Mersey canal. This side cut, which is sometimes called the 
TYeru Canal, has a rise of twenty-eight feet; and it n6t only 
crosses and is connected with the Erwash canal near Sawley, 
but has also a short cut and lock into the Trent at Beeston/ 

The Erwash is but little connected with the county,- merely 
^ming the boundary on the soutl^west for about ten or 
twelve miles between Nottingham and Berbyshires/ and falls' 
into the Trent near Thrumpton. 

The Soar is more to the southward, constttutinj^ a partial 

boundary between this county and Leicestershire, but has 

nothing particularly worthy of notice. 

f Besides 



Besides these> there are some smaller streams M^hicti have 
t>een accurately <lf linealed by a native antiquary ;* who tells 
tti that on the forest nide of the county there are hvc fine 
streams which cross from west to «asi, almost parallel to eacli 
Olher^ and after wrards turn to the north and form the River Idk* 

The first of these is Rainworth water which rises near New- 
tiead Abbeyj runs to Inklesall dam and Hutlbrd, and joins the 
Maun^l Ollerton. 

The Maun, or Man, riscft in the forest between Kirkby and 
Newstcad, and runs by Mansfield, Clipsitone, and Hdwmstowi 

The Medcfi rises in the forest near Sutton Hard wick, and 
runs by Budby through Thoresby Park ; it joins the Maun near 
Palethorpe^ and from this junciion the two rirers take the 
miTne of The idle* 

The WtHten runs through Wclbcck Park, and after receiving 
the Poulter from Langwith, through Cackney, by Carburton, 
and thence through Clumber Park into the Idle near ElkesUy* 

The Worktop riv«*r runs from Worksop by Scofton, Bilby, 
and Scruoby, and enters into the Idle at Bawtry. 

The IdU^ after asHuming that name, runs m a courne nearly 
itortb, by Haughion Park, through Retford towards Mattersey • 
thence north-west to Bawtry, where it takes an easltrn course 
past Mistson, and traversing the Car falls into the Trent near 
ili junction with the Chesterfield canal, in the nurth east angle 
«f the county* 

There arc two others north of Trent which run in a 
southerly direction. 

The Lcn€ rises near the source of the Maun between Kirkby 
and Newstead : runs through Ncwstead Park, by Papplewick, 
BulwelL Basford, Leiiton, and thence into the Trent, by Not- 
imghum bridge* It will be treated of more particularly in the 
description of that towa* 

Dover or Iktre beck runs from near Bludworth by Oxton, 


' Sk«tcb Qi Sherwood fore»V ^J oa'^jot Hajmsa Hookc 


Calverton^ Eperst^Ot Lowdbam^ and ibmce mm lit T^oft hf 

Caythorpe near Ilovet ingham. 

Alt these may be considered u Uilwiftiig i» the fatmL 
South of Trtsnt there are many small rif^en wkidi take lh€ff 
riie in the wold^^ and convey their tfitntagj utewtoibM 
riven hut none of them require parttctilsr twCke* 

Wiih such facilrtici^ of inland coromnakaCM k n qoI tobe- 
supposed that 

Canals have been neg1<?cted ; in fbctw^fiai l^attingliam- 
shire as well supplied in that xnnde o( cowmmtmAmmrtnunm 9B 
hny county in the kingdom. 

The Noit ingham Canal in some measure csaoiA ike prece- 
dence ; it£ general course being about fifle«B aUct ikroygh the 
county in a norih-westdirectton» but not exactly ia a right liite^ 
Itcoiiiniences In the river Trent, and proceeds t<» (be Cromfbrd 
canal near Langley bridge, very near to the lenniDation of lh« 
Ervvash canal ; and it is also connected with the side cut itx^m 
the Trent and Mersey navigation, called generally the Trent 
canals which enlers near its southern limit. Its bed is not 
greatly elevated, and its supply la principally from the n^er ^ 
however to gitard against deficiencies of water in dry seasons, 
a reservoir hut been made near Arnswtrch, with a self regulating 
sluice, which lets off above 3000 cubic feel of water per hour 
for the use of some mills in its neighbourhood, and also for tho 
Er wash cans I. This navigation was finished in 1803; and the 
principal object of its undertakers were the expoK of agrtcu)*- 
lural produce, and of coals from the various mines in its vicimiy, 
together with the importation of jinie^ timber, and other heavy 

The Grantham Canal is also connectetlwith the Trent, com« 
mencing near Holme Pier point, and having a branch upwards 
of three miles in lengthy leading to liw; town of Bingham* The 
system of lot kage on that part of the line whicb is in thi^ 
county is very extensive ^ for on the rise of the wolds from ihe 
Trent \o Cromwell Bishop, in a line of only six miles and 

a half. 



a ba1f« there is a gradual elevaiicm of eighty-two feet; but 
from Cropwell to Stainwith, closes there is a dead level of 
twenty tniles. The proprietors of the Trent river navigation 
having been at a eonsiJerable expense in deepening the rivef 
tie«r to the entrance of this cana), they are intitled to take c^t* 
taia tolls on all goods passing from this to the Nottingham 
canal ; which have of late years risen to a considerable amount* 
In 1793 it was in contemplation to have farmed a junction be* 
tween this and Newark and Bottesford canal near Stainwith, 
which would have made a complete line of water communica- 
tion between the souih-eastern part of Nottinghamshire and the 
adjoining country* 

The Idle River Canal must not pass unnoticed^ although it 
is more properly a Hver navigation th;in a c«/. It commences 
nt Bawtry, and runs nearly east for ten miles along the nortiiern 
verge of the county. In one part ofits course it has the name 
of By car Dyke ; and about half a mile fi-ora Stock with, where 
it joins the Trent, (dose to the junction of the Chesterfield canal 
witli th>it river) is Misterton Sas or Sluice which has an open- 
ing of ^venteeu feet eight inches, with two lock doors or gates 
Biicteen feet high opening to the Trent* for the purpose of keep* 
ing the floods out of the low lands through which this river 

But the mo«t important water communication ita the northern 
district of the county, is the Chesterfield Canal, which com* 
mences In Derbyshire close to that town, and enters Notting- 
hamshire hear Shire Oaks, thence by Worksop through the 
oorthern limits of Sherwood forest in a circuitous direction by 
Babworth to Retford* where it changes its course suddenly to 
the north, passing through Welham, Haylon, Clarborough, 
and Clayworthi by Wiieton Hallt Evertun^ and Drakelow^ 
where it run^ through a tunnel of two hundred and fifty yards* 
and the nee round G ring ley on the hili m a north eu^t direction 
through Misson Car lo Misterton* across Walkeringham moor^ 
and thence into the Trent at Stbckwith* The advantages which 

VouXIL C . have 



hate already resulted irom this litie of coaii 
Bcmibly feJt throttgh the whole of tliH district* 

The whole line of this canal is about forty miles; ffoa Chei- 
tcrfield it riaes abool forty-fire fen until it reaches Ko Hi' < oi » 
both in Berbyfthire, and from thence to the Trent it has ft fe* 
gular fall of three hundred and thirty-five feet. 

The RoADii of Noctinghdmshire are generally in very ^9oA 
order. It i< needless to mention that fx>rtion of the Cfremt Nonk 
HimkI which runs through the county from Newark to Bmt- 
try ; but it is but justice to the couruy at large to »y tbttt iJie 
whole of the roads through it are nearly in as good order as emn 
t»o&8ibly be expected, from the hottoms on which they are 
formed, and the maicriaU which can be procured for their for- 
Datton and preservation. Much of this has arisen from the 
various parishes h;iTing taken up the business with a determi* 
nation to see it well executed, and from the public spint of 
the gentry and the better order of farmers who have sedulo<ii«1y 
undertaken the office of surveyors, instead of leaving k to 9om0 
careless contractor, whose sole object was to finish a certaon 
number of perches of road, without any regard to its fitne^sa to 
endure even the next winter f^eason. 

In some places indeed^ particularly in the coal districts, and 
in the clays, the carnage of a heavy article, and the want of a 
good bottom, have formed a few exceptions ; and in the forest 
district alsO) there arc some places, particularly between Ret- 
ford and Worksop, and again between Worksop and Warsop> 
where a heavy sand forms an almost insurmountable obatacle 
to the et^tablishment of a convenient line of road. The first of 
theat being m the direct line of road from Gainsborough to 
Sii«aicld , it ou^ht to be an object with the county to amend it 
If possible ; but with respect to the latter, the sands are too deep 
perhaps ever to admit of amelioration. To avoid the worst 
part of this road, the duke of Purtland, in some instances, per* 
rntts curriuges to pass through bis park; but with respect to th« 
road itself, the editor of these sheets can give no belter idea 




than in statbg the fact, that in the autuoma) seasoHj eteii after 
Home slight rain had fallen to fix the sands, he was three hours 
going from Worksop to Church Warsop in a post chaise, 
though the distance is only eight miles ! It is perhaps not to be 
expected that any rapid amelioration can take place in these 
landy roads, on account of the enormous expense which woutd 
attend the transport gf lime and gravel, or other materials ; but 
with respect to the roads in the clay district, the following hints 
from the author of the late Agricultural Survey of the County 
may not be misplaced. He states that the most approved sys- 
tem of forming new roads on clay or wet bottoms, is first to 
throw the soil from ibe sides, leaving a groove in ihe middle 
for the materials, beginning with brush-wood laid on plentifully^ 
over which must be depoiiited a sufficient quantity of stones and 
gravel. If the gravel is very sharp and good, he thinks there 
is no necessity to round the road. He also asserts that a con- 
cap€ surface has been found to answer very well; but still ac- 
knowledgea that where the materials are tender; it may be 
better to round it a little, though not so much as is generally 
done, as that is oft*in dangerous and always hurtful to the road, 
by obliging carriages to keep one track, and thus cut it up in 
deep ruts. 

The numerous impfovements in the inland navigation of this 
connty, have tended much to the increase of its 

Commerce, of which a gogd idea may be formed by a brief 
entimeratioo of the various articles of export and import on the , 
various lines of water*carriage. 

The eiportf which pass either from or through the county, 
and in cither rase form a very lucrative business for many 
thousands of the population, are lead, copper, coals, and salt 
troui Derbyshire and Cheshire ^ StalTordshire ware in consider- 
able quantities; lime and limestone for agricultural purposea; 
chirt stone for the glass manufactories j coarse earthen wares; 
pig iron and cast metal goods ; oak timber and bark ; and 

C2 The 

J6 .]fiief«i««HAVi«nti. 

Theimporte iat fMon^ cottsninptioiit fttid for the suf^ply of 
Ae netg^booring d&trictsi. are timber* heiiip» flax alid iron 
. from tht nortbeim puts of Borope ; mtlt» com, and flour ; |pro- 
tbrifctof all kinds; Wiiliei and spinta^ cotton wool, abd yarli; 
hrfgt quantitiet 6f flintB from NorthfleM and the various chalk- 
fi^ nesLT the Thames, for the use bf the Staffordshire potteries ; 
arid ih short all species of riw materials for inland manu- 
factures. The . 

MaWu^acturbb of Ithe cotsnty are updn a. scale equally ex- 
tensive* T\ieMiockmgf^uak^fkeiory hks L6ng beeh a staple> and 
is the mbstancledt mannfactilTO of the county; it is to be la* 
ikkented howeverv that the partial atbppage of cfKportatlon from 
the ^leaent eilslavied state of the Continent, hiid the nlachi- 
aations of somis . designing chariicters, havd .lately pirodticed 
aeetoea of.riot ahd outrage disgraceful (fo these coAcerkied in 
dMm, and highly injaribbs to the cbunty at large* The par- 
ticulan of this manufacture will be entered inlo'more fully^ in 
tie descriptioh of Nottia|;hamw 

Cbiioii MUb hare now become a coniaderabM branch of ma- 
tmfiBictdre firom th^ir connection with the atocking trade. Theie 
have also undertaken to produce a supply of cotton twist for 
the Manchester trade. In the town of Nottingham alone there 
are too less than eight of these establishments; at Mansfield 
there are three ; at Papplewick and Linby^ six $ at Newark, 
two; besides others at Worksop, Redfbrd, Sduthwell, &c. &c. 
t6 the number of twelve or thilrteen ; and four establishments of 
worsted mills. 

The MieUiing bunmts k another lucrative branch, principally 
at Nottingham* Newark, and Mansfield ; and this is both for the 
home consumption, aad elpottation to the counties in the vicinity. 

The Bretvtries at Nottingham and Newark are also objects 
of great importance; at the latter place in particular, they cota- 
sidered themselves as powerful rivals of the Burton brewers, 
and th^ir foreign trade was very considerable previous to the 
present circumscribed state of continental commerce. 




Uik millM have been rstablished at Nottinghami to be worked 
by horses ; for though there is so much water round that town, 
yet the frequent floods preclude all possibility of em ploying 
water mills, except by the adoption of a principle which we 
shall notice in its proper place. 

The Thread and BritUk Lace manufactures have long been 
carried on upon an extensive scale ; but the unfortunate fond^ 
ness for French and Brussels lace« though even much of that is 
BriiUh lac€ Jiowcred and ornamented on the Continent* has 
always operated against that due encouragement which the io" 
dustry of our own manufacturers and our owtt woiking poor, 
ought to receive from the fashionable and the opuknt. 

PQiierUs of co^^rse red earthen wme have been established 
with some success at Sutton in Ashfield A starch manufactory 
is now at work at Upton near Southwell, A $mklotk manufac- 
tory has long been in a flourishing condition at Heiford ; and a 
dying <^wi bleaching (rude has been attempted with considi^r* 
able success both at Nottingham and Newark. Cojisidcnible 
sums have been annually received at Mansfield by the stcne 
trade; suid there is also something done there in the manufai;-* 
tnre of anlficial stone. 

The flourishing state of the county of Nottingham may per* 
hapkS be most accurately proved from the progressive increase 

Population. — At the close of the seventpenth century, tht 
number of houses in the county were 17|6^4; and the inhabi* 
taiils were estimated at 105,300, 

In 1801, there were found to be 08,558 males, and 71,792 
femalesi amounting to 140,350 in all; 35,513 of whom were 
f oiployed in different manufactures and la trade, and 93^904 tn 
the variotis branches of agriculture* 

By the recent parliamentary returns it appears that the in- 
crease of population has been considerable; males 79,057; fe- 
males 83,843: forming a total of 162,900, and an increase of 




• We have already made some obderratkms on the size of the 
fetrms in this county, all of which are upon a moderate scale ; 
and we most again rerert to that subject in our consideration 
6f the 

Poor and Poor's Rates. — As these are in a great measure 
c!erroborative> in this county, of the general principles there 
adverted to. 

Eden, in his very nsefel work on the state of th« poor through- 
out the kingdom, speaking of a parish in a neighbouring county, 
but bordering close upon Nottinghamshire, says, that many 
people of this parish attribute the rise in the poor's rates to the 
enclosure of the common fields; because, say they, before the 
enclosure took place, farms were then from ten to forty-pounds annum, and any person could then rent a small tenement ; 
bat now the parish being mostly thro^vn into large ihrms, it re- 
i|uires a very considerable capital to stock one. This eircum- 
atance reduces therefore numbers to the necessity of living in a 
state of servile dependence on the large farmers ; aiid as they 
have no prospect to which their hopes can reasonably look for- 
ward, their industry is checked, economy is deprived <^f its 
greatest stimulant, ^qd their only thought is how to enjoy the 
present moment ! 

Let us now look at the state of the poor in Nottinghamshire, 
where large farms are fortunately, as yet, almost unknown. 
A very faithful picture of them has been drawn by Mr. Lowe 
in his agricultural view of the county, which having been found 
correct, as far a^ a cursory survey would admit of, we shall 
venture to take it as our ground work. He tells uq. and that 
too with justice, that there are few counties in England where 
the poor will be found better lodged, clothed or, fed, or better 
provided wit|i fu^i.^ IVf ost cottages have a garden, a^d potatoe 


* In this the manu/aeturing poor mo«t be eicepfed ; for here as in all pfber 
placei, they have that syitein of luxarious, yet brutish, indulgence, and tiiat 
slatternly poverty, which must always l^ef p (heq^ in abject p^ory,' and iQ 
pUfiOit absolute vohmtmry wipt I 



garths akid few of them are wiihoot a web of cloth of their own 
jtptnning; many of thenrij partkularly in the cTaysnave a few 
acres of land annexed to their cottages, and are thereby ena* 
bled to keep a cow in addition to their pigs ; and here too the 
poor may be actually said to be industrious, for here they are 
oflen seen themitelves^ as well as their children, employed at 
their leisure hours in cojlecttng the horse dung from the public 
roadsf either for the use of their own gardens or to sc\h* 

Now the consequences of all ibis, if not ohvioui, are at leaiit 
certain ; for here in general the rates do not run so high as in 
other counties where manufactures have formerly flourished, 
though now gone to decay ; but» adds Mr. Lowe, at the same 
time, it is a matter of concern lo observe, that the manufactures, 
particularly that of stockings, uhtist ihey increase the popula- 
tion, increase at the same time tlie burthen of the poor's rate on 
the occupiers of land ; which may be ascribed to the lower ma- 
nafacturers too frec^uently spending all their earnings, without 
looking forward to a time of old age and infirmity. 

As a remedy for this evil in the mun^faciuving part of the 
county, IVlju Lowe ver^ properly reconinitinds the extension 
of friendly societies* or the making some more competent pro- 
vision by the legislature on the same principle; but we fear that 
unlil the nature of mankind is altered, no radical cure will 
ever be found for the eyil amongst the m<^tutfacturing poor, 
though much may certainly be dane pi tl^e way of regulation ; 
perhaps by premioma to tbo^ who have brought up the lar- 
gest families without parochial assistance ; by Tontines on the 
principles of collection established in Friendly Societies; and 
£veo by encouraging those clubs where money is coJIccied for 
tjie purchase of various useful but expensive articles of furm- 
turc; and where each member's chance of possessing the month- 
ly prize is determined by what is generally termed a rqj^e. All 
these vt\\\ tend to produce a spirit of economy ; and some of 
them may in the end be highly beueficial and lucrative to in- 

C 4 dividuals; 

• AgricuIluraJ Sttrvey, p. 140* 



di?idaaU ; but jperhaps the speediest and most nseful reform, 
both as a temporary and as a lasting expedient, would be the re- 
moval of the manufaciorerft pay faW« from the public houses. 
This would take away from the poor mauuiUcturer the temptit* 
tion lo driak, because it would check the landlord in hi^t syi^H 
tern of gi?ing credit* and it would save the sober indu&trioifl^l 
muLhanic from the abwlute necessity he is always under of 
spending part of bis money in the alehouse on pay nights, even 
although he should not have incurred any debts there throug] 
the week. 

The agricultural will always indeed have advantages over t 
manufacturing poor; but much will depend on the difTerence 
habits, for the advantage of wages h always on the side of t 

The farming labourer haa seldom in this county been in the 
receipt of more ihaii eighteen pence per day, though in the 
harvest months it may amount to a couple of shillings. The 
hours of labour for this, are the common ones in general use; 
but if the labourer undertakes task work^ he may increase bis 
gaUit by a little industry without injuring or over fatiguing 
himself. His provisions are rather moderate ihan otherwise j 
and his fuel may always be had reasonable since the extension 
of water carriage. Upon the %hole we may consider the poor 
of this county as comparatively comfortabk, though much yet 
remains to be done, both by themselves, and by those of the 
higher orders who may think it a more charitable act ioprfttni 
poverty by encouraging economy and industry, than to relieve 
it even with larger sums, where it might have been avoided, by 
a little prudent circumspection. Much of the comfort of the 
agricultural Poor must depend* as has been before observed, 
upon the division of laijd ; and even their number must be much 
smaller where the farms are small, than where those who would 
have been farmers have no other mode of support than becom* 
ing the labourers of the rich overgrown capitalist, who regards 
them no longer than they are useful lo him* We mean not 




this, howerer as a general ar gutnent against large farms ; they 
have their advanfagei^, and it must even be curifessed that in 
maiiy parts of the kingiiom^ smaH farms woukl be intinitely less 
product! re, acre for acre, than large ones. What we wlah to 
enter a caveat against is merely ihat system of aniting many 
fanns into one, which in many places has swept away whole 
hamlets* nay villages, where the residences of honest cheer- 
ful industry have actually been levelled with the dust, and no- 
thing been left, hot the solitary church, to mark that here had 
been the habilafion of men; whilst the few un forty nate villa* 
gers that are unable to emigrate, or not old and helplessS enough 
to gain admission into the workhouse, are crowded into rows of 
improved collages, as they are called, and ranged like cattle 
in a stall wit hoot even a slip of garden ground to jioface a tarn* 
mer*s evening. Bat even where large farmj* are necessary, even 
this evil might be partially avoided, in regulating the new 

Inclosuhes.^As by a due attention to the probable number 
of labouring poor in each parish, a sufficient number of small 
slips of one or two acres each mi^lu be enclosed for the purpose 
ofraising cottages and forming g^artlcn ground for the agricultural 
poof» an arrangement lending not only to their benefit, but al- 
so to the advantage of the farmers themselves, as it would be an 
additional stimulus to industry, would excite an emulation 
amongst the labourers to become possessed of these small ad- 
vantages, and would soon be sensibly felt In the diminution of 
poor's rates. It has indeed Ue^n objected that small portions of 
ground given to the poor will make them too independent, and 
render them unwilling to work for the ftirmer; but the man 
who can thus coolly object to the comfort of his fellow crea- 
tures, from an idea, and we believe a mistaken one too, of his 
own interest, denervesnoi an answer! 

With respect to the principles and practice of Inclosurca in 

this county, it is not to be 2$up posed that a summer Tourist can 

have witnessed their progress, but must judge of them rather 

by their actual state. In this re pect, however, we believe that 

9 thtt 



the Notiinghamshire iiiclasurca bare not btea producUvt af 
evils; they are now, and have been for some time, gviog on 
with great rapidity ; the apfilicatious to parltatnent^ vvery 
mssionsif are numerous, and ihey have bad the effect of raiamg 
• tbt; value of bnd very conaiilerably wherever tbey have taken 
l|>lacei In fact there is now vtrry little left to tnctose, exce|>t 
ktome tracts on the western side, and about the middle of tbr 
I'fbrest. These are at present mostly rabbit warrens, and seem 
[•fit for rery little else; indeed we understand that portions of 
hthese tracts have been taken into cultivation, but suBered again 
I |o run waste from their being totally unproductive. That this 
rotinty has for acme years been in a progressive state of 
Improvement is evident even to the passing stranger ; but 
klhcre are some facts recorded by Mr, Lowe in his survey, which 
I prove it indubitably. One instance in particular is conclusive. 
[He tells us that about thirty years ago, the sand lands in Gress* 
•Iborp, Cromwell, and Muskham BeUU, all on the great north 
I road between Newark and Retford, were not worth more than 
Itwo shillings and sixpence per acre, covered with wild sorrel, 
litnd lea lay for six or seven years. Now they produce from 
I eight to ten quarters of remarkably fine oaU! per acre ; and 
lib is entirely cilected by turnips and clover. 

Much improvement may also be expected in future from the 

Itention now paid to draining. In the new inclusure tills, 

drains are ordered by the commissioners, and provision made 

»r their being properly kept up, which has already been found 

|to be more encctual than the old laws of Sewers, of the neglect 

the execution of wbich there have been great complaints in 

iKottinghamsbire, as well as in the neighbouring counties.^ 

The Archit£cture of the county will be best described un- 

'dcr the various heads, and there is peih^ips no county in the 

kingdom that displays a greater variety, principally modem ; 

indeed we may assert that Nottinghamshire contains the reai* 


♦ Agricultural Sarvey, p. 98. 



j^nc^s of more nf the nobility and gentry than any other of iu 
Me: In what may be calltrd agriailiurttl architeclurt, however, 
great improvements have «)f late year^ bi^en maUo, through the 
Tery patriotic exertions of several gentlemen of the county« who 
have (bus not only ornamented but improved their estates, and 
m some measure corrected au existing evil; that i», ill e farm 
houi€ft in most parts being chiefly situated in villages, and often 
at a distance from the farms. Great improvements have aUo 
been made in the farming ofiices, which not coming immedintely 
within the plan of a work of this irature, we must refer for fur- 
ther inforoiattun to Mr. Lowe's survey. 

In EccLiisi\sTtCAL AftcntTECTUBE, there are many elegant 
specimens of the antique, particubriy in St, Mary's church in 
Nottingham, the colbgiate church at Southwell Newark 
churchy the church of Rudford witli the abbey gate near Work- 
sop« and several others which will be auiiced in ihcir proper 

Of Ahcient Sei'ulchral MoNVMESiTs, however, the num- 
ber is but limited ; for, with the exception of the Furnival and 
Lowetoi monuments at Radford, there are nono older than the 
|4th century, of which period, Mr. Gough even with liis ac- 
curate research could discover but six cross-legged figures of 
crufiaders: one of which is atFliaiham^ and belongs to the Hus^ 
aeys* but who wrre not in possession of that manor l>efore the 
eighth of Edward tlie third, so that its dale cauoot he anLeriof 
lo ISSi, 

We have but little to observe on the subject of 

Zoology, as Nottinghamshire ha^ no particular genus of 
animals of any kind except the old /oral (freed qf sheep, which 
are described as a small polled breed (though some are horned) 
with grey faces and legs : the fleeces run from thirteen to 
eighteen to the tod of twenty -eight pounds; and the carcases 
mhen hi are from seven io nine pounds per quarter. This 
breed, however, mf^y be expected to he soon worn out, as the 
Farious crosses have been found to improve both carcase and 
6 fleece 


0efrco u> iQnch> Ihal (ew farmerti wiU now mr Atm^ wh^ 
tbftir weight may be nearly trebled by a mixivre of tJie I>nk- 
li;y breed. In some expeiimeaU whicb have bec»nade«A 
tlie 6ercei» it bas been ascertained that tbe foirert and I mtnikM 
Ain: brcedi mixed bare produced eight povods of ii«ttl«tal 
th« Forest alone« only five : and witb respect ta ptice, ifaa 
bia been more than doubled by tbe cross of the Baikeipei] 
toiedt It is a curious fact, and deserving of attenlioo ia otfcg 
eomitiei, that though the coal district in the west of K<Htiwgii«M 
shire it very apt to bring on the rot in sheepj yel nmjr hmt* 
dreds of the infected have been cured by a removal to tmm^ 
ttone land ; from whence it bas been inferred^ with feme appear- 
•nee of truthi that water impregnated with tbe foied mad oC 
lime in proper quantities^ with change of pasture* aa moo as 
tbe dtvieasc appeared, might be attended with every dmeaof 
lucctfNH* The experiuieni is ut least worth trying. 

Mr. Lowe ttlts m, that in the clay district more |>%eoiit tie 
Isopt than are probiibly in any other part of tbe kingd<(iiii : and 
bt say* it IS a wtfll attested fact thai some years ago» j^eveo hoiK 
dred doa&en were sold, on one market day at Tux ford, for sixty* 

The forest of Sherwood has been so long disused for its an* 
eient purpose a)* a preserve for game, that little is to be said 
on that point : there is a curious fact, however, respecting Fal- 
conry recorded by Fuller, not undeserving of notice. "We 
nmtt not forget how two Ay res of Ltinnanls were lately found 
in Sherwood fnrest. These Hawks are the natives of Saxony, 
and it seems heing old and past flying at the game, were let, 
or did set theujselves loose, where meeting with lanerets en« 
larged on the same terms, they did breed together, and proved 
at excellent in their kind, when managed, as any which were 
brought from Germany,'* 

Before we close this general ikttch of the county, it wilt not 
be irrelevant to take a short view of its 

Mi^NRiPAi AND Parliamentary History ; but of these there 


irOTTl K G II A HS a IRS. 


is little peculiarly novel to be noticed* The cotinti^s of Derby 
and Nottingham were under the same afacrifF, (an offit:er ap- 
pointed here as early as in atiy other part of the kingdom) until 
after the i*eign of Edward the third. 

With respect to its parliamentary history, we have found but 
few violent contests- In the "History ol Boroughs" indeed 
there are loud complaints that the county is under the influence 
of the aristocracy, from having so many noblemen reiident in 
it ; but this will always be the case, influence always will exists 
and the Editor of that work himself tacitly approves of it ih 
dejicribing the attempts made by Mfijor Cartwright to restore 
the independence of the county at a time when he was encoii^* 
aging the honcj^t industry of the county by his manufactures. 
Now surely I without denying the major every credit for his 
disinterested am! patriotic designs, if he bad succeeded in con- 
sequence of the good opinion of the freeholders, this very suc- 
cess would have been the effect of influcDce ; not a dishonest 
one His true, but proceeding from an interested feeling on the 
pari of &ome of the voters at least. In short it is not the in-- 
fluence we ought to complain of, but the bad use made of it, 
when that take^i place. 

The Ecclesiastical Jueisoiction of Nottinghamshire is un- 
der the see of York ; but it had formerly, even as late as llie reign 
of Elizabeth, a bishop of its own. At present it ha^ an arch- 
deaconry, and the four deaneries of Nottingham, Bingham, 
Newark, and Retford. There are in all in the county 182 
parifihes and chapelries, u hich are within the jurisdiction of 
the arch-deacon; to which we must add ^ parii^hes and chapeU 
ries belonging to Southwell; also 7 parishes and cliapelries 
within the jurisdiction of the dean and chapter of Vork, and 
the peculiar of Kinolton, whose vicar is collated by the arch* 


• Thow who iiiih funbet uiforiiiafioti majr coftiylt the {i|iipendii !• Derin^, 
vphcre there are e«pii»u« litu of the churchet, tnd chipcli oi each dcAiier/, 
•itti their |iatrot}t, Ice. 

There are several mstances of 

County BiocitAFav, wbtch a» we are unable to refer then 

\ their specific birth places, mast be generally noticed here- 

StR John Fenton Knt. wa$ bom in this county* and vras 
for twenty-teven years a privy counselior in Ireland to Clueeii 
Blizaheth and King James. He translated the history of Gaic* 
ciardini out of the original Italian into English, and dedicated 
it to Clueen Elizabeth. He died at Dublin in 1603, 

Edwakd Fenton> bis brother, was also born in this county. 
He in rery early life displayed an inclination for nautical a0air»« 
and was very active in the various attempts at discovery about 
Hudson ^s Bay, Greenland, and Ihe other northern parts of the 
American continent, so feishionable at that period. Much re- 
specting him may be found both in Hackluyt, and in Pur- 

Thomas IIoiimk another Nottinghamshire man, became a 
student at Magdalen Hall, Oxford* in 1624, and was soon ad- 
mitted to the degree of M. A. He seems to have distinguisheil 
himself much by his abiliiies as a pedagogue; for soon after 
taking his degree he was appointed master of a privatcr school 
in London* was shortly after chosen master of the free-school 
ftt Leicester, where he remained only two years, and was thence 
Cianslated to that of Tunbridgc in Kenr, His merits did not 
long remain unnoticed ; for after a residence of about ten years 
at the latter place, he was preferred in the head mastership at 
Eton, where he remained during the residue of his life. If we 
tnay Judge of his practical abilities by several works which h« 
has kft behind him introductory to, and illustrative of, classical 
education, it mujit be confessed that he was highly deserving o£ 
the promotiojis and enciiuragemcnl he met with. 

William HoLota, D. D. a native of this county, is particik- 
larly deserving of notice, being esteemed, and we believe just- 
ly, as the Inventor of the art of teaching the dumb to tpeak. He 
was educated at Pembroke Hall, where he took the degree of 
M. A. and shortly after received the rectory of Blechingdon in 


If O*TIK0 HA iriHtll** 

>uring the civil wars he secra§ to hare acted a 
loyal part ; for on the restoration he was made a canon both of 
Ely, and of St* Paul's; shortly after be was appointed sub- 
dean of thecbapcl^ and <^ub-almoner to the king; and he ivas 
also one at" the earliesit members of the Royal Society* A co* 
temporary biographer lays ** he was a great virtuoso, and got 
himself a great name by his wonderful art, in making a young 
gentleman* Alexander Pop ham, ^on of Colonel Edward Pophara, 
who was born deaf and dumb, to speak ; how he did it he tells 
us in a discourse of the Elements of Speech^ which he wrote 
Ibr that purpose, and to promoto a pablicgood. But the young 
inan being taken from hi in too young, or before he grew per- 
fect in hts speech, lost what he bad been taught by the doctor ; 
and was sent to Dr. Wallis of Oxford (who had recovered the 
<ipeech of a young gentleman, one Mr. Whalley) to restore his 
speech again, which Dr* Wallis having eCected, he vainly as* 
sumed the glory of it to himself, without takfng notice of Dr* 
Holder, tlie first Inventor of it in England, if not in the ^bole 
world* This provoked Dr. Holder to vindicate himself, against 
Dr« Wallisi in a treatise which he calls " a Supplement to the 
Philosophical Transactions of July 1070;" to which Dr» Wallis 
published an answer soon after, and so the controversy ended." 
Now, without presuming to settle tlie point of priority in dis- 
pute between Drs. Holder and WallJK, we may hence justly in- 
fer that the world at large is indebted to England for this great 
discovery ; and that all the boastings of the French Abb^s St* 
card, and De I'Epee, are nothing more than the arrogant inso- 
lence of Frenchmen, who. either through ignorance or impu* 
dence, would claim for themselves and their countrymen* every 
thing honourable possessed by other nations. Dr. Holder al&(> 
frrote *' A Treatise of Music," both theoretic and practical, in 
If bich he is said to have had great skill. 

Nottinghamshire boasts of two extraordinary characters 
of th«t name o( Sterna ; but the one lo which we here allude 





• RiCTTAmD Sterne D. IX who was born in thb county ia 1598; 
4itid said to have bet-n descen<ied from an ancieot stock* His 
early years were spent at the free-^chool at Notlingharo ; and 
he afterwards weni to Christ Charch college, Oxford, whca he 
graduated with much credit to himself^ and wan soon after ad- 
mitted to holy orders. He soon attracted the notice of Arch-* 
btshop Laud, who appointed him one of his chaplains ; and his 
character was now so well established that he was immediately 
aAcfrwnrdjj elected master of Je^us College^ by the unanimotaa 
tote uf the fellows. 

lidoes ifol appear that he took any active part in the afiairi 
which brriught his patron to the scaffold ; however, when the 

r charges were brought forward against the Archbishop* and he 
in consequence committed a prisoner to the To«er, his 
enemies had sufficient influence to cause Dr. Sterne to he sent 
thither also. They were unable, indeed* to prove any thing 
gainst him« and were obliged^ though unwillingly, to permit 
i\m to be set at liberty, after the public execution of the Arch^ 

' tishop. Ourrng the civil vrars, and proicctonite, he retired in- 
to 11 sale obscurity; but was called from it on the Restoration, 
and immediately afterwardi appointed bishop of Carlisle, tn 
I6(i4« hv was pit)moted to the archlnsliopric of York> which 
he mijoyed for twenty years, and died in 1084. 

Having thus taken a brief view of the county in its various 
pbtions, it remains for us, previous to entering upon the spe- 
cific topography, to delineate the 


Winch embraces a large ponionof Nottinghamshire, and v%*h]ch, 
according to Camden " some render the clear, some the famous 
forest, anciently thick set with trees, whose entangled branches 
were so twisted together, that they hardly left room for a 
jiinijie person to pass. At present** be adds »* it is much thinner, 
bwl still breeds an infinite number of deer, and slags, with lofty 
antlers;" this however was in the reign of Elizabeth, 





Gilpiti* iti his elegant delineations of forest 8cenery» ohteryes 
ibat Britain, like other countries, abounded once in wood; but 
as it became more cultivated, its vvooik of course receded. 
That our woods were often cut down merely for the sake* of til- 
lage and pasturage^ without any respect to the uses of timber^ 
^eetni to be evident from the great quantities of subterranean 
trees dup up m various parts of England. Thoso are chiefly 
foiiiad m marshy grounds, which abounded indeed every where 
before the arts of draining were in use ; and nothing n'as neces^ 
ftary in such places to produce the future phenomenon of sub- 
lerranean timber* but to ca^ry the trees, when cut down, upon 
the darface of the hog, which might easily be done in dry sum- 
mers* Dr. Plot,t who also aeems to be of this opinion, adducei 
several reasons for supposing that they might have be^n buried in 
thi« way, to make room for the plough : he also imagines that 
the English might begin to clear their Lands for tillage as early 
ai the reign of Alfred the Great. 

There it indeed some plausibility in this theory ; for at pre* 
sent even the vestiges of most of our English forests are ob* 
hierated ; and scarce any of them can now boast of their syU 
van honours* 'Tls true, however, that some of the woods were 
destroyed in licentious times; and that many of them have been 
suffered, through mere neglect, to waste away from ihe pil- 
lage of a dbhonest neighbourhood. 

Leiaud during his journey seems not to have paid much at- 
tention to the then state of ihis woodland tract. He say^ 
" coming ottte of the town of Mans:field, withyn a little way ; 
pasted over the brooke that renneth in the vale hard by It. 
Tlwbrooke a 3 miles by west above the town oC Mansfield, 
and a 3 miles lower goeth by Clypstone as I harde. 

" Soone after I entered, withyn the space of a mile or lease, 
into the very thick of the woddy Forest of Sherwood^ wher yt 
greate game of Deere : and %o I rode a v miles in (he very 

Vol, XII. D woddy 

• Gilpin't Forest Scenery* 
t Pbt*i S'mfr«ird?^h»fe. 


woddy grounde of the Forest, and so to a liule pore streete 
a thoroughfare at the end of the wood.**^ 

" A liule or I came to the end of this wodde, I left about a 
quarter of a mile on the right hand, the Ruins of Newstead a 
priory of Chanons." 

In less than a century after this, Thoroton tells us that the 
pleasant and glorious condition of this noble forest, is now won*' 
derfuUy declined; and he adds, there is at present (1G75} and 
long hath been a justice seat held under my Lord's Grace 
the Duke of Newcastle, Justice in Eyre of all his Majesty's 
forests north of Trent, wherein it seems his deputies or lieuten* 
ants have allowed such and so many claims, that there will not 
shortly be wood enough left to cover the bilberries, which 
every summer were wont to be an extraordinary great profit 
and pleasure to poor people who gathered them, and carried 
them all about the country to sell. 

Notwithstanding this early devastation there is still much 
woodland scenery in existence, sufficient to give a pretty accu* 
rate idea of what was once a forest life. Gilpin, (whose ob^er* 
vations are so very picturesque, that we shall take an opportu* 
nity of embodying many of them in this delineation as highly 
illustrative of what may be esteemed one of the chief beauties 
of Nottinghamshire) remarks, that this once celebrated forest was 
formerly the frequent scene of royal amusement As early as 
the time of Henry the second, Mansfield was the general resi-^ 
dence of the court upon these occasions, and it was in its vicinity 
that Henry made an acquaintance with the miller of famous 
memory. Sir John Cockle; but in treating of Mansfield at 
greater length, we shall perhaps have an opportunity of shewing 
that this old legendary story is by no means of such an early 
date. This forest was also the retreat of another personage, 
equally celebrated in the Chronicle of ballad, the illustrious 
Robin Hood, who with little John and the rest of his associates^ 


* This leemt (o bare been Fapplewick. 


SSiciri^ tne w6ody scenes of it their asylum^ laid the whole 

» country under contribution.* 
It is a matter of serious regret, in a picturesque point of view, 
that none of our landscape painters have ever thought of study- 
ing in this forest; for it cannot be denied by those who have 
actually traversed it. that it would afford many specimens of 
landscape, new to the English school, and of which no good 
likeness can be found among the Italian painters. Its style is 
totally di He rent from the rocks and woods of Claude Lorraine^ 

■ or the savage scenery of Salvator iiosa; but il has a wildne^^s 

■ peculiar to itself, varying with the hours of the day and with 
all the atmospheric changes to which England is so subject, bq 

■ tbat in fact there is iicarcely a ferny heath, a knoll, or glade^ 
that does not present some novelty ta the lover of picturesque 
beauty* Having traversed its woodland haunts in every direc- 

■ tiotij tinder all the changes of an autumnal season, and 'midst all 
the varieties accompanying the aerial landscape at early dawn« 
during the glare of open day, and whibt the dewy hand of even* 
tng is slowly drawing her sober tinted mantle of grey over the 
receding thickets, and all nature sinks into repose, the editor 
of these sheets feels that he would leave the most interesting of 
the Beauties of this county but imperfectly noticed, if he did 

K not enter at some length into the application of the principles of 

■ the picturesque as far as tliey relate to this forest, and which 

tare so ably laid down by the inimitable in vei^ti gator of the 
charms of English sylvan landscape. Nothing can be more 
correct than his first principle that there are few extensive 
forests which do not contain, in some part or other, a specimen 
of every species of woody scenery. The wild forest view In- 
deed differs essentially from the embellished one, for beauty is 
not the characterestic of the forest* It disdains all human cut- 
tare ; and the very name, from our accustomed association of 
ideas, immediately suggests to the imagination a continued and 
uninterrupted tract of woody country. 

D 9 Thiff 

♦ Vide Gilpin'* Fotc»t Sceaerr 


This forest however, if it does not possess what the landscape 
gardener would term beautiful, has in itself every variety of 
sylvan scenery, consisting of pasture tracts of woody country 
intermixed with pasturage, and in many places with cuUivate4 
enclosures. These intermingled scenes are again divided from 
other intermixtures of the same kind, by wild heaths which are 
sometimes bounded by a naked line of horizon, at others skirted 
with wood : and this intermixture of wood and pasturage, with 
large separations of heath, gives a variety to many tracts of 
Sherwood Forest which could not be expected io a boundless 
continuance of woody scenery alone. 

. The forest heath too, though to the common observer it pre* 
senU only ideas of sterility and desolation, becomes a most in- 
teresting scene to the tasteful admirer of nature, when bounded, 
aa it generally is in this forest, by woods in various directions^ 
and interspersed here and there with lately planted clumps 
which almost imperceptibly unite its woody boundaries with 
the Wide foreground of heath and graveL A very pleasing 
contrast too may be discovered in the broad masses of colour 
in the wild extent of heath and the various portions of gravelly 
surface, broken as they often are by the rude forest tracks, or 
dotted in deeper shades with patches of furze, fern, or other 
wild plants which stain it as it viere with every shade of green, 
or enliven it with the livelier tints of tiie yellow furze blossoms* 
But among all the minuter plants, as Mr. Gilpin observes,/frn 
is the most picturesque. In itself it is beautiful. We admire 
it, adds he, for the form of its leaf — its elegant mode of hang- 
ing-— and its dark brown polished stem. As an accompaniment 
also, nothing is better suited to unite the higher plants with the 
ground ; whilst its bright green hues in summer, and ita ochre, 
tint in autumn, join each season with its correspondent tinge. 
In some places too the most pleasing ideas of animated nature 
break in upon the desart scene, from the woodman's cottage, 
or groupes of cattle, or the starting deer, and when these cir- 
cumsunces come in unexpectedly, and happily unite with the 
6 time 



lime of day, or with the i^eneral expression given to the scene by 
the sUte of the atmosphere, it does not require much taste to per- 
ceive that, to a picturesque eye, the wild heath may become one 
of the most interesting scenea of the foi-est* To this most be 
added the iticidental appearance of smoke, either from the low* 
roofed cottage, or from tht; frequent practice of burning the 
gorse and fern for agrlcaltai'al purposes, and which is always 
attended with peculiar beauty in woodland i^cenery. In the 
latter ca4^, its ailhci is always striking, for then we see it in 
large masses spt*eading in the forest glades, and forming a soft 
back ground lo the trees which intercept it; attd as tliis proces.% 
generally takes place in autumn, it contrasin more happily 
with their nisset foliage, or withered ramifications. 

Mr. Gilpin observes that the blasted tree has often a fine ef- 
fect both in natural and in artificial landscape^ When the dreary 
heath i:* spread before the eye, and ideas of wildness and de- 
solatioQ are even wished for, surely no accompaninieni more 
suitable to the scene can be imagined than the blasted oak, 
ragged, scathed, and leafless, shooting its peeled vThite branches, 
athwart the gathering blackness of i»ome rising storm ! It must 
be confessed indeed that much of forest beauty, if btauty it can 
be called, depends upon the adventitious circumstances of time 
and season. He who would enjoy the various pleasures inci- 
dental to the contemplation of nature in Sherwood Forest, must 
not shrink from the evening's chill, nur from the passing storm. 
When the tempest scohU over the forest, as Gilpin s»ublimely 
exclaims, as wc traverse its deep recesses, what grandeur do 
the internal parts of it receive from the casual ray darling upon 
ikiem! or when we view the storm blackening behind the irees^ 
with what wonderrul eftect does the sun, in an opposite direc- 
tion, strike their tutted headn. But if that sun be scttijig, 
whilst the tempest is brewing over the hemispheres-black to* 
wards the east — lurid— more purple— and glowing with red, as 
tl sidvancc)« towards the west — t!ie scene is too sublime for de- 
icription. But even in the af illeat evening^ there is a silent and 

D 3 a sacred 



a sacred charm produced by the effect of a decrming son, whiU 
the traveller is treading the mazes of the forest especially iit 
broken ground; because, if moving with any rapidity, he li 
cojislantly shifting his sensible horizon. For then how oftea* 
and with \^hat delightful elFect, does he see the sun's broad diivk 
just appearing above a woody hill^ throwing a mass of light 
upon the broad tints of green, or darting his lengthening ray 
through the branches, whilst the shadows of surrounding objects^ 
seem extended to the distance. But the partial breaksof lights 
are at this time the most beautiful ; for then the sun-beams, so 
much softer than the glare of noon, sometimes catch the taps 
of those groves that hang midway upon the shaggy steep, and 
slightly touching here ami there some other prominent objects 
imperceptibly mix their ruddy tint with the surrounding 
jnists, appearing to set the upper parts on fire, whilst the lower 
skirts are lost *' in a darkness of varied conftision, in which 
trees, and dark ground, and radiance^ and obscurltyt art^ all 
blended together'' as if rendering darkness more visible. 

It is not however in any one district of Sherwood, that all 
these varieties can be seen* The open heath with its accompa- 
niments may be traced chrriugh these broad tracts that lie between 
Beskw^ood and Mansfield, skirling Newslead abbey, and ex- 
tending to the right towards Ox ton and Fanuficld. The wild 
expanse, overgrown with gorge and fprn, and skirted with 
woodland scejiery, may be traversed between Mansfield and 
Ollerton, rotmd Ed wins tow and Kullbrd, and including the 
scenery of Clipstone Park. Whilst the more varied scenery of 
ancient forest, of thickening foliage intermixed with opcnlawm, 
and breaks of cultivation, may be found round Warsop and 
Carburton including much of the park landscape of Welbeck, 
Worksop^ Clumber, and Thoresby. and extending to the 
northern limits of the forest land to the right of the road from 
Worksop to Retford. The whole of which is finely contrasted 
on the eastern bounds, by the rich scenes of cultivation and 
enclosure extending ffom Haughton park to Southwell, and 




where in general the ground ts ftu(Bcient1y broken to add the 
picturesque to the beautifuL Such are the scenes^ ihM, even 
in Its denuded condition^ may be traced throughout Sherwood 
forest ; we shall now slightty touch upon its ancient history and 
present state. It appears that (he forest was anciently divided' 
or rather known, by the names of Thorntry Wood, and High 
Forest; the Brst of which, although by much the smallest, con- 
tained within its limits no less than nineteen towns or villages^ 
amongst which Nottingham was included ; and the High Forest 
U described as abounding with fine stately oaks, and being 
entirely free from underwood. The first time in which we find 
this forest particularly mentioned was in the reign of Henry the 
second, it being then, a» we have before noticed, a place of 
royal resort, and also famous as the principal haunt of Kobiii 
Hood and his trusty bowmen. 

It appears by an in(]uiAiuon held at Nottingham in that reignj 
that the archbishop of York had a right, or a custom, of hunlitig 
in the forest, nine days in every year; ihree at Christmas, 
three at Easter, and three at Whit!iunt)de ; and also that the 
archbishop and his canons, and hia men, had here tbc^ir proper 
foresters, and aeryes of hawks, and pannage. It is evident in- 
deed, that, although not mentioned by any writers before this 
reign, it must have been for some time previous, of consider- 
able conaecjuence ; for the first session of justices in Eyre, held 
by order of Henry, was under the superintendance of the 
bishops of Durham and Lincoln, and the earl of Leicester The 
last of these sessions upon record in the Tally Office of the 
Exchequer, is in a book in which is entered the claims and 
commencement of a justice-seat held here before the then lord 
Cromwell who was chief justice in Eyre north of Trent, and 
which roust have taken place sometime afier the 26th year 
(1534) of Henry the eighth. In the same reign there was also a 
perambulation, which is preserved by Thorolon, much more 
minute than any preceding ones, bui not e&sentially dilFering 
ill the extent of its limitfk 

D4 According 


According to Thorotou, Sherwood Fobbst extends into lh« 
Hundreds of Broxton, ThaTgarton> and Bassetlaw. He considers 
its origin, as a forest, uncertain ; bat although not meutioiiefl 
by name, earlier than the time of Henry the second, he shews 
it roust have been known as a forest long before, for William 
Plevcrel in the Jirtt year of that reign, was called upon to 
answer <' De Placitis Forestae" in this county. At that time be 
bad the whole profit and command of this forest ; but it oMUt 
soon after have fallen to the crown, for in Henry's eighth year 
(1161) the sheriff of the county prays to be discharged of 4L 
m vasto forests ; and two years afterwards be prays for tbe 
aame discharge, also for 61. &s. Od, paid to the constfible, eight 
foresters and a warrener ; and 40i. to the caaons of Sherwood 
fcr alms.**^ 

The old Forest Books contain a copy of a charter made hy 
King John, before his coming to the crown and whilst eaii of 
Morteyn, to Matilda de Caux and Ralph Fitsstephen her hus- 
\»nd» and to their heh-s, of all the liberties and free cuatoma 
which any of the ancestors of the said Maud (lords of Laxton) 
held at any time in Nottinghamshire or Derbyshire, that is, all 
the forest of Nottingham and Derbyshires, as their ancestors 
ever held the same. 

It aflerwards came to John Birking as heir general to Matilda 
deCaux, and the 11th of Henry the third (1396) was in the 
possession of his son ; but this line failing, it descended to the 
family of Everingham, who by heirship claimed '<Custo- 
diam Forestarum Regis'* in both Notts' and Derby ; but Tho- 
roton is of opinion that this claim extended no farther than the 
preceding limits of Sherwood Forest, as Henry had disafforested 
all the other parts of those counties, live years before this claim 
was put in. 

The Everinghnm family having lost their rights by forfeiture, 
in the reign of Edward the first, it came to the crown, since 
which time it has come generally under the civil jurisdiction of 


* It is probable these were the monlLS of Newstead Abbey. 


ibc sbcrilTs of the covmty, and iu forest jurisdiction has been 
panted to various individuals among the nobility and gentry* 
as (ipecial marks ot royal favour. 

1(5 nmiiiiers and costcitns at that period are curiuusj and in 
some meaisure illuHirattye of the times; as recorded in an inquU 
sition taken before Geott'rey de Langley* the king's jiisiice in 
Eyre north uf Trent, By ihis it appears that the chief keeper 
ought to have three deputy kceperit over three distrtcts in order 
til attach all trespa^^e^, and pre!»cnt them at ihe attachment be* 
fore the Verdnrers, 

In the first keeping which lay between the rivers Lcnc and 
Doverbeck, he was to have one forester riding, v^'ith a page and 
two foresters on foot; two verdurers; and two agisters. This 
keeping contained the three hays of Beskwood, Ltndeby, and 

The High Forest formed the second keeping; and here were 
two foresters riding* with two pages and two foresters on foot ; 
bt;re also were two verdurers, and two agisters. This keeping also 
included tlie two bays of Birkland and Billahay* with the park 
of Clipstonet which were to be under the careof twoTerdiirer* 
and two agisters. 

The third keeping* Rurawoode, was to have one forester on 
foot; and two woodwards, one at Carburton* and the other at 
Badby; also two verdurers, and two agisters* It was further 
found that the chief keeper ought also to have a page bearing 
bis bow through all the forest to gather cfnminage.^ 

The whole extent of the forest from north to south is about 
twenty-five railesj and its breadth from seven to nine; which 
seems to agree with its ancient boundaries^ for the perambu- 
lation in the I6th of Henry the third {1231} began atConings- 
withford, by the highway towards Ntittingham, on to Blackstone 
Haugh^ and thence following the course of the Doverbeck into 
the Trent, Westerly, it went from Coningswiih by Maydcn 
Water to the town of Worksop, following the course of the 

bis leensto have hcttk a fee for ttie fvrmtitioa tnd |irei«rvatioQ of toadi. 


river to Pleasley, so ap to Otter Brigges, then keeping the 
great highway to the Miilford, thence to Mayneshead, by 
Hard wick and Kirkeby to Nun Carre, on< towards Annesley, 
keeping the high road to Linbye through the midst of that town 
to Lene watery on to Lenton, ''and from thence by the said 
water, as it was wont of old time to run into the water of Tredt, 
to the fall of Doverbeck.'* 

Although there were some disafibrestation after this, yet they 
appear to have been again resumed ; so that, as Thoroton states, 
this old perambulation stood in the year 1673, without any re- 
markable alteration. It must be remembered, however, that 
several tracts of land, particularly in the northern district as 
far as Rossington bridge, which lay in a waste state, had been 
generaliy esteemed part of the forest ; but from the survey of 
1609, they appear either not to have belonged to the forest, or 
to have been disafforested before that time. 

The present state of this forest has been ably delineated by 
the late Major Rooke, who observes that it is the only one that 
now remains under the superintendance of the chief justice in 
Eyre, north of Trent, or which now belongs to the crown in 
that district.* 

The Fouest Officers, consist of a Lord Warden, who 
holds his office by letters patent from the crown, during plea- 

* By tlie survey of 1609, this Forest was parcelled out in three wa Iks. 
The north includes the towns of Carborton, Gleadtborpe, W&rsop, Nettle* 
worthy Mansfield-wood bouse, Clipstone, Ruiford, and Edwinstow; the bays 
of BirkUnd and Bilhagb, towns of Budby, Thoresby, Paletborpe, or Pe- 
verelthorpe, and Ollerton. 

In the middle, are Mansfield, Pleasley bil^ Skegby, Sutton, Hucknell, 
Tulwood, part of Kirkby, Blid worth, Papplewick^ Newstead, part of Lin- 
by, and part of Annesley. 

In the south, are the towns of Nottingham, part of liVelford, with Rad- 
ford, Soeinton, Col wick, Cedling, Stoke, Carleton, Burton, and Bolcote* 
Guntborpe, Caytborpe, and Lowdham ; Lambley, Arnold, Basford, BulweU, 
Beskwood Park, Woodborougb, Calverton, and Sauntesford Manor. 

Vide Appendix to Lowe't Agricultural Survn^ 

^^^^B JIOTTIKOttAMSfirRE. 59 

I mrp; at present the Duke qf Newcastk : a Bow-B£arer and 

I Rajs G Eft appointed by the lord warden during pleasure ; at pre- 

acnt. Lord B^ron : and Four Verdurers elected by the free* 

holders for life; who have each a tree out of the King's hays 

I of Birkland and Rilhagh, and two guineas to *fach verdurerat- 

I tending the inclosure of a break ; the present verdurers arc Sir 

I Francis Molyneux, Ban, J. Liichjicid, Edward ThurfHon Gottid^ 

and William Sherl/rookc, B$ip't, 

There are also a Stewwrd ; nme Keepeus* appointed by the 
Yerdurcrs during ple;tsure# having so many diflercnt walks, and 
I each a salary of twenty shillings pakl by the lord warden out 
of a fee farm rent from Nottingham caiitle. 

There are also Two sworn Woodwards for Sutton and 

Thorney Wood Chace, btJing a branch of the Forestt was 
granted by Queen Elizabeth^ in 1599 to JohnSraiihopcj Eticj. as 
hereditary keeper, which is now enjoyed by the earl of Ches- 

The Surveyor General qfihe woods has also a jurisdiction over 
this forest as far as regards the wood, and timber of the crown; 
lie has a deputy in ihe forest who has a fee tree yearly, and a 
salary of twenty pounds paid out of the *ales of wood,f 


• Tbi> crbace coroprchendi Ihe greateft purt of the prcicnt Soviihem divifion 
of the forest. Mr. Lowe, in hi» Survcj, lays il U well itocked with fallow 
deer, the oihef fjflrts h«*ing been stocked wiili red dc<?f, whicti two tpecies 
appear not Co have latennised in breed. Tlie qutntitj of wood will fooii 
ht reduced, m eonscqoence of the rcc«nt iuclo^iurcs of Laiubley aod Ged* 
liog. Tbc deer have been lutterJy much dimirilAhcd, perhaps rutalty or 
nearly dctiro^cd, 

f To lliew officer*, llicrc were fwrne additional one* in Thoroton** time, 
towardi tlie close of the leveuieeiitb century, for be tells u» that the twtiee Re- 
gardcri were to reduced by an ordmance In (he reig^n of Edward the firtf. 
Thotetwcjve forcU keepers were at that time, one of Mmufield, one of Mnnt- 
i«ld Woodhoofc, one af Anneslcy hiJliand Kewiicad, ttne of P^pplcwick 
oOf of Rumwoode and Oswnld, one of Ruflbrd, one of Bilbagh, one of Birk- 


Mr. Lowe states that the whole soil of the forest is under* 
elood to haTe been granted by the crown to different lords of 
manors, reserving only, in forest language, the vert and »mi- 
9om, or trees and deer. The latter were certainly in former 
iioaes very numeroas, and all of the red kind, with the ex- 
vcjplion of Thomey wood chace, where they were the fallow 
d««r. Within the memory of many persons, now living, herds 
of a hundred or more might be seen together in different parts 
of this woodland district; but the extension of cultivation has 
driven them gradually firom their accustomed haunts ; and, ex- 
cept in preserved parks, there are none now to be found. The 
vert, and venison if there were any, are under the care of the 
▼efdurers already mentioned. 

It was most certainly not quite an exaggeration in an author, 
who wrote about the middle of the last century,^ to say that 
the woods were so destroyed, that Robin Hood would scarcely 
find shelter in Sherwood forest for a week ; for of the ancient 
woodland, the principal remains are now only to be found in 
tho hays of Birkiand and Bilhagh, which form an open wood of 
large ancient oaks, free from underwood (except la one part 
where some natural birch is growing,) but most of them iii a 
state of decay. The extent of this tract is about three miles, 
by one and a half ; or about fifteen hundred acres : and in a 
survey about two and twenty years ago, they contained no 
more than ten thousand one hundred and seventeen trees, va- 
lued at a little more than seventeen thousand pounds. Part of 
these hays is in Thoresby park. Clumber park contains there- 
mains of two venerable woods, which were called Clumber 
and Hardwick woods ; and there are some other ancient dis- 
tricts of small extent consisting of Harlow wood. Thieves wood, 


knd, oue of Calvertun, one of Fviieafitld, one of Langton ■rboor ■nd 
Blidworth, and one of SaUon in AsbfieM. There were also a keeper of Net- 
tinglmni park, a keeper 6f Clipstone, and teferal woodwards for e?ery towo^ 

• Tour through Grwil Britain, Vol. 3. 


and some scattered portions of the Man&field woods, wkicfa* 
however^ can boast of very little valuable timber. These are 
all that remain of the ancieni woodland ; hot we shall have oc« 
:casion to enter more minutely into a description of the modem 
plantations which are now conducting on an extensive scale. 

The enclosed parks, bordering on the forest land, have some 
antique and very august specimenit of the ancient forest ho* 
nours. Major Rooke observes that in Welbeck park, particu* 
larly, the extensive groves of ancient and majestic oaks are 
beautifnlly diversified by the slender and pendant branches of 
the silver-coated birch, with which they abound. Many of 
these venerable oaks are of an extraordinary size, and undoubt* 
edly of very remote antiquity, perhaps not less than a thousand 
years old, some of them being upwards of thirty four-feet in 

Among the many large trees, which are objects of curiosity 
to the botanical tourist, is anoak on the west side of Clipstoott 
park* called the parliament oak, from a tradition of a parliament 
having been held there by Edward the first; and another near 
the north-end of the same park, called the Broad oak, mea* 
suring twent)' seven feet and a half in circumference. Near 
Blidworth also, there is a very large and ancient elm called 
Langton arbour, which even some centuries ago was sufficiently 
remarkable to give a name to one of the forest walks, and to 
have a keeper appointed to it.* 

A recent discovery has shewn a very curious mode of ascer- 

•In traversing the forest between Mansfield and Notiingham, the tourist 
will observe a large square pillar, on which was furmerly a bruss-plate with aa 
inscription. This is on the north side of Harlow wood ; and tradition sajf^* 
that this pillar was formerly the place where the forest officers of the crown 
assembled annually on Hulyrood'day, early in the morning, to receive the 
charge of the lord chief justico in Eyre, to view fcnccsj and take an account 
of the dter, in order to make their presentments at the Sweinmote court« 
which ivas held on that day at Mansfield by a steward appointed by the lut4 
chief justice in Eyre. RookcU Skttch of the Forest. 



taintng the great aniitjuity of some of these trees. Major 
Rooke telb us that in cutting down some timber m Btrkland 
and BilUaghi Ictiers have been found cut or stamped in the body 
of the trees ; denoting the king's reign in which they were 
, thus marked. 

It seems that the bark was cut off and the letters cut in, afler 
which the next year's wood grew over it but without adhering 
where the bark had been cut. 

The cyphers are of James the first, of Will ram and Mary, 
and one of King John ! one of these with James's cypher was 
about one foot within the tree^ and one foot from the centre : it 
was cut down in 17B6.* One of William and Mary bad the 
mark about nine inches within the tree, and three feet thre« 
inches from the centre ; cut dovvn also in 1786* 

The mark of John was eighteen inches within the tree, and 
something more than a foot from the centre ; it was cut down 
in 1791 : but the middle year of John's reign was 1207^ from 
which if we subtract 1^ the number of years requisite for a 
tree of two feet in diameter to arrive at that growth, it will 
make the date of its planting 10BJ» or about twenty years after 
the conquest* The tree therefore, when cut down in 179U musi 
have been 706 years old, a fact scarcely credible ; for it ap- 
pears from the tree^ whose marks are better authenticated, that 
those exactly of the same size, when marked, had increased 
twelve inches in diiuntter in 172 years, whilst this one had in- 
creased no more than eightuen inches in 584 years« It mnsi 
be allowed however that the surplus six inches of di0erence 
contained a greater cubic quantity, than the six inches immedi- 
ately vvJtliinthem, and would therefore require a longer time for 
their increase, and that in the proportion of an increasing progress 


•This tree must Imvc been therefore tw© feet in diameter, ot two yards hi 
circupifcrrace wJicn the mark vth^ cut. Now a Ircc of thai liic is genermlly 
eiCimuted at one hundred and twenty yearV growth, which number »utitr«cted 
from the middle year of Jumet's rci^n, would make 1491 the ddtc uf (he plaat- 
iDg of the tree. 




,^^.* This very accurate delineator of Sherwood Forest, ac- 
counts for these phenomena, by supposing (as the increasing 
wood never adheres where the bark has been taken otf) thai 
ihe sap which rises from the roots through the cQ|jillary tubes 
of the wood, to the branches, returns in its circulation between 
the hiea and the bark. " I have often/' sayi be, *' examined 
many of the ancient hollow trees in Birkland and in Bilhagh, 
and always found that where the bark remained, even on their 
mutilated trunks, there they frequently put out small branchei 
with leaves ; but where that necessary covering of the re- 
luming sap was wanting, there was no iippearance of vege- 

With respect in motlern improvement in this forest, much 
has already been done; but there is one point whirh ret|uirea 
more attention than has hitherto been paid to it. Mr. Throsby, 
in bis additions to Thoroton, has already given a hint on this 
iubject, and it were well if it could be attended ta. He says^ 
" in passing over this forest, I observed that it h now in a great 
measure inclosed between BIyih and Nottingham. As many 
parts of it are but thinly inhabited at present, and in conse- 
quence of the inclosures you meet with a great variety of roads 
branching here and there, handfHx^ts would be exirtmeiy use/ai 
They arc at all times in such places, the most civil things a 
traveller meets with, but rarely seen here/' 

The inconvenience resulting from the want of handposts is 
certainly very great; but with respect to the latter part of the 
observation, the editor of these sheets must do the inhabiianti 
of the forestthe justice to say, that ijx walking over it* varioui 
tracts, he never experienced the slightest deficiency in civility* 
but always found them ready to direct, or even to accompany 
him over its most intricate recesses. 

The present state of the woodlands of this forest, and of 
modern plantation, is a subject of too much importance to be 


* Major Booke alto myt, that tiprtat trees with this mark had been L'ut 
4t>wu, M tbat deceptiou or mJMtnke U Karcf.1/ poskibte. 


slightly pnssed orer^ parttcalarly at a period when our uup^* 
tation of timber for na?al purposes is so much circumscribed* ■ 
That England, by a little care and attention, might m fifty 
years be able to supply her own wants, in this article, and that 
without interfering with land fit for agricultural purposes^^ h a 
truth which we believe will not be denird ; at leaj^t, whoeter , 
Iraversjes thin tract must confess that much of it which is unfS 
for cuUivation, might be thus usefully employed. To she 
what has, and whait may be donr> we shall therefore avail our 
selves of a very accurate enumeration of the various modcr 
plantations by major Rooke^ to whose labours we ha^e been \ 
much indebted in the course of this delineation. 

Hetelljt us that so late as the beginning of the last century 
(1700) Sherwood was full of trees, and it wai then one con* 
tinued wood from Mansfield to Nottingham. 

Since that time, the forest has been pretty much cleared; 
none of the ancient wooda being left, except those which 
have already mentioned: it is pleasing however to observe tha 
efforts are now making to adorn this ancient forest, and tha 
large plantations have been made, and are stiH making, 
honour of our splendid naval victories, than which toothing i 
be more appropriate* 

The duke of Portland's extensive plantations in the neigh- 
bourhood of Wclbeck have a fine eflect, and are alre;idy see 
at a great distance ; whilst the stcraggy oaks called Thieve?" 
Wood, between Maiisfiekl and Nottingham, have been filled up 
with young plants, which are now fvpringing up to form an 
union with .several others ni the Portland plantations. 

On that part of the forest called Cock's Moor, in the parisb of 
Kirkby, and uhich is generally considered as the highest 
gmuiJtl in the county, commandmg the most extensive view*l 
in every direction, a plantation of forty acres has lately been 
£unned : and forty 'five acres have been »own with acorns dnd 
chesnuU in Norton forest in the same neighbourhood. 

The second duke of Kingston ptauied two large clumps of 




«rcrgreeiis, the one circular, the other square, on Hangerhillt 
at the west end of Birkland, which have succeeded very well* 

The ManvetiJ family have made many plantations ahout 
Thoreaby since it came into their possession. One of these^ 
partly forest trees and partly 6 r^j, has been called Howe Grove^ 
in honour of the tirst of June : another at the eaiiteru extremity 
of the Auaru adjoining to Thoresby park is named afler the 
Earl qf St. Vifuxm : and there is another on the boundary of 
Budby forest;, called Duncan wood^ which with some jtteeps on 
the forest side of the park called Portland grove^ and Benlinck 
border^ form the whole of the Thoresby plantations on that side* 

The extensive plantations at RuBbrd abbey^ bordering on 
the foretit, first begun by the late patriotic sir George Saville* 
have been greatly increased and improved by the present 

The Right Hon. Frederic Montague has also in this part of 
the forest made several plantations, chiefly of oak: the first of 
these^ on the left band side of the road to Nottingham* is called 
the Hqwc plantation : the next is the Spencer ; the third, about 
a mite from these on the right hand side of the road is the Net" 
4on; contiguous to which is the St. Vincent plantation* 

Adjoining is another plantation in honour of Sir John Borlase 
Warren's gallant conduct on the coast of Ireland, and during 
his command of the Western Squadron, and called the Warren 
p^ntation: and the Duncan plantation is formed on the right 
band sidt^ of the coach-road to Papplewtck: whilst on the most 
elevated spots in these plantations, handsome pillars are erected 
with suitable inscriptions. 

In this western district, and on the left hand side of the road 
to Nottingham, just wht^re the forest gives way to modern cul- 
tivation> Henry Cope, Esq. has erected a good house, and has 
alto formed several extensive plantations, which are already 
become highly ornamental. 

On the eastern Limits of Sherwood, sir Richard Sutton^ Bart^ 
bat made some very extensive plantations near Farnfield; and 

Yoi.XIJ. E m 


in one of th«:sej which encirctes a hill, he has mised an eleganl 

bailding in the Turkinh style^ which commands a most extended 

and delightful prospect. 

Round Kif kby, aome very large eiumps of firs and larcheiji 
which are now of sufHcnent growth to be seen at a considerable 
distance, have been planted by Sir Richard Kay e« Bart. L. L. D- 

Itfae late venerable dean of Lincoln, and rector of this parish* 
Towards the northern limits we most notice several very con- 

'tfpicuou9 plantations formed by Earl Bathurst; also about iifty 
acres of oak and other forest trees planted by Robert Ram5df«n# 
E»q» of Carlton : nor must we omit the very extetuive planta-^ 
lion&of F» Foljambej Esq. roynd Osberton, which with a pa- 
tnotiG spirit the owner is annually increasing. 

Upon the whole, we agree with the Major in his conclusion^ 
that from the laudable exertions of the resident nobility and 
gentry, there is reason to hope that the uniiiclosed parts of this 
•xtetisive forest of Sherwood will again be embowered^ and 
that succeeding generations will have occasion and opportunity 
to venerate the majestic oaks planted by their ancestors at 
monuments of British valour. 

To give some adequate idea of the surface of the forest with 
respect to extents we shall cloi^e with a sketch of the survey lit 
1G09^ with the more recent inclosures. 


Ancient inclosures ot^ual to*,* .44839 

woods 9486 

wastes 33080 


CTii>s(ou Park 158^ 

Oekwoud Park....... .M72 

Bulwell Park 326 

Nottingham Park I2d 




iSincc which time, the following; inclo^ures ha?e taken place* 


Iti 1789 in Arnold Forest 2280 

1792 Baiford m ,..,.1158 

1794 Sutton m Ash6eld .«...2608 

1795 Kirkby in ditto ,.--«...*. 1941 

1796 Letiton and Kadford 261 

8248 stores in allj independent 
«f subsequent ioclosures^ of which we have not been able to pTQ* 
cupe any e&iimate. 

Having thus completed our delineation oF tbe forest it only 
■^maini lor ua to notice that famous^ but legendary character, 


whom tradition records as having made ibis his principal 
haunt, and of whoi^e popular and int creating story but little 
k known to any degree of certainty, though bis exploits bav« 
been celt^brated in ballad in every succeeding age.* 

We shall here endeavour to collect all that has been written 
upon the subject, both legendary and historical ; and though 
re cannot hope to throw any new light upon a tale so obscum 
I to t>e by some considered as enlirely fabulous, we may at 
eatt 80 far gratify curiosity as io present it with all that a 
patient research can afTord, 

Mr. Throsby, in bis addition lo Thoroton, observes that tht 

tigs if] the Garland which goes by his name, are simply and 

^toiically poetized, and have been the favonriies of the lower 

Mcla&ftes perhaps ever since his time. We are very doubtful, 

however, of their having any particular claim to antiquity, at 

^least in their present dress. Tbeir internal evidence is not lu 

ivour of their antiquity; the style and turn of expression are 

wot those of the tweSflh century, nor of many centuries after- 

E ^ wards, 

* Sotue few p;uticular& may b« Co U4id in Percy's Et'tiqtiet; but Sir J ah^ 
M^wktoj con»idert the idrlivlt vubject m pTtvetopcti in iilrnost iaip«n«tf«b^ 


wards. One fact in particnlar is well worthy of attention^ that 
they are free from indecency, which is not the case with the 
popular ballads even so late as the reign of Elizabeth ; and this 
simple fact alone must ,place the date of their composition, or 
of their present dress, at a period not by any means remote. 
Indeed Mr. Throsby partly agrees with this opinion ; for al- 
though he says that their remote antiquity cannot be doubted, 
he adds that they most likely have been varied agreeably to 
the phraseology of the different periods in which they have 
been recited. We further agree with him in his observation, 
that who were the authors of them, nobody knows ; and that 
they were most probably written by various hands, as some of 
them have much more of the spirit of poetry than others. 

That R<^iH Hood however was not a fabulous hero, there are 
sufficient reasons to prove, if it were necessary. 

Camden calls him the gentlest thief that ever was ; and Major 
says of him, 

«« From wealthy abbots' chests, and chorles abendaat store. 

What often times he tooke, he shared amongst the poor : 

No lordly Bishop came in Robin's way. 

To him, before he went, but for his pass must pay t 

The widow in distress, he graciously relieved. 

And remedied the wrongs of many a virgin grief ed.*' 

As early as ]594 his story seems to have become a favourite 
subject for the drama ; for in that year was printed " a pastoral 
comedy of Robin Hood and Little John/' Again in 1634 wti 
meet with '* Robin Hood's pastoral May Games;" and in 1730 
Robin Hood is performed as an opera at Bartholomew Fair in 
London. Shortly after came out " Robin Hood and his Crew 
of Soldiers," and in 1751 a musical entertainment under the 
name of ** Robin Hood" came out at Drury-lane ; besides which 
we have had ** Robin Hood, or Sherwood Forest" of a recent 
4ate ; all founded on the original Garland. 

This collection of ballads is too well known to require the 
msertionof any extracts; but the events which it records dif- 

fer consitlerabty from what is considered as the real hbtoricat bio- 
raphy of this extraordinary character, for such he certainly was,* 
His legendary biography indeed seems made op of a tissue 
Df exaggerations. It tells us that bis father was ^foreuer, and 
could send an arrow to a distance of two north country miles; 
and by a strange anachronism it describes his mother as niece 
to the famous Guy, the Saxon Earl of Warwick. 

She is stated to have had a brother "a notable Squire" who 

"lived at Gamewell Hill in this county, (perhaps corrupted from 

Gamelstoiij or Gamston) and who was anxious that Robin when 

a youth, should live with bim» This, however, was prevented 

by a fondness for field sports, and for a rambling life, which led 

Hobin to Tuibury in Stalibrdshire, not far from his birth place 

of Loxley> where he married a shepherdess under the poetical 

.MDame of CloTinda, having been charmed by her dexterous man* 

Ef of killing a buck in the fort^^^t. 

Bveo at this early period of his life, his exploiu against the 

foresters must have been frequent ; for we are told that he 

killed no less than fifteen of them, f all of whom were buried in 

one row in one of the church yards at Nottingham, His fame 

was now so great that he bad raised a force of nearly one hun* 

died followers ; and in a short time« his robberies and frolics, his 

kindness and charity to the poor, became the general theme 

E3 of 

*Dnjton in the ^6th long of bit Poly Olhian give* some particiilmrt of 
Robio And hit maid Marka called Chriniia in I he Garl«iid. 

f *^ A r^w days aso &s tanie labouring men were digging in a gaidru si 
FoiUoc Dctir Nottiiigliafu, they di*covercd tu buman skeletons intire, de- 
posited ia regular order side by aide, and supposed to be part of the fifteen 
fore^ttcrsthBt were killed by the daring outlaw Rubin Hood. 

•* Near tlie above place micieiuly stoo<l n cburcb, built in the early ages of 
CbristtiLn)tT dedicated loSi« Micbuelt aiitl totally dtfstroyed at the reforniatioii ; 
jeC »till tbc pafisbiuners on cerUin times repair to thi^ place for religious par- 
pQtesj it bein^ con»idered as consecrated ground. In thii place at difijpreut 
times great qua nti ties of human bones hair c been found j besides sereral Saion 
sad old EngUih coins, ke. 6lc/* 

GtnC* Mogntine, April 179i. 


of conrersation, aii<i prodaced a kind of friendly feeling towards 
him, althoQgh an ouUaw. He appears by the Garland to have 
made his business his amnsement, and to have been a merry 
thief, for he sports most jocularly with the characters and per* 
ions of a bishop, and the sheriflPof the county, after robbing 
them of their purses. 

Yet he was not always victorious ; but seems to have been 
roughly handled at dii^erent times, by a tinker, a shepherd, 
and a friar, and several others. 

He is next described as going to London, and being receired 
at court, where he appeared in a scarlet dress, whilst his men 
were clad in Ltncoln green ; all of them wearing blaek bats and 
white feathers : a species of costume, by the bye, unknown in 
the reign of Richard the first, or of John, at which time he 

Soon after this, he is stated to have fought a desperate battle 
with Little John, or John Little, who was eeven feet high, in 
which however he was worsted ; but Little John notwithstand*^ 
ing joined the troop, and became his faithfurfriend.* After this 
the Garland states that a monk whom he sent for to let him 
blood, was the cause of his death, when all his bowmen fled to 
different countries to escape that justice which they could not 
otherwise avoid, now that their chief was gone. 

Thus far the Garland ; but the author of the " Anecdotes of 
Archery," who seems to have paid considerable attention in his 
research afler the real events of this outlaw's life, gives us some 
other particulars which have a great semblance of authenticity. 
He describes him as at the head of two hundred strong, reso- 
lute men, and expert archers, ranging the forest of Sherwood, 
but not remaining there always. 


* There it a loose paper iti Athmole*i hand writing in the Oxford masenm, 
which says " the famous Little John (Robin Hood's companion) lies boned 
in Hethersedge charch*jard, in the peak of Derbyshire ; one ttooe at hit 
head; another at his feet) and part of his bow hangs np in thechnith* 
A. D. 161f. 



Fuller says that hi» principal resirlence was in Sherwood 
forest,^ though he had another haunt near the »ea, itt the north 
ridtng of Yorkfihire, where Robin Hood*s bay still bears bit 
name : and Charlton, in hia " History of Whitby/' observes that 
Robing when closely pursued by ihe civil or military power, 
found it necessary to lea? e his usual haunts, retreated across 
the moors to Whitby in Yorkshire, where he always had in 
readiness some sniall fishing vessels, and in those putting dV 
to sea» he looked upon himsetf as quite secure, and held the 
tr hole power of the English nation at detiance. The "Anec- 
dotes of Archery" add, that the principal place of bis retort 
At tJiese times, and where his boats were generally laid up, 
was about six miles from Whitbyi still known as Robin Hood's 
baf . It is then stated to be a tradition in that neighbourhood, 
that in one of these peregrinations, he went to dine with 
Richard the abbot of Whitby, accompanied by his friend Lit- 
tle John ; when the abbots who had often heard with wonder 
of their great skill in shooting with the long bow, requested 
after dinner that he might have a specimen of their dexterity* 
iTbe two friends^ in order to oblige their courteous entertainer^ 
accompanied the abbot to the top of the abbey tower; from this 
elevation each of them shot an arrow which fell close by 
Whitby Laths, To preserve the memory of this transaction, 
and to mark the distance, the abbot set up a pillar on the spot 
where each arrow fell; the distance being more than a mea- 
sured mile. That there were two pillars standing at Whitby a 
few years ago, is beyond a doubt, and that they were called af^ 
ier these (wo friends is equally certain ; but that there is any 
real foundation for the story, we will not pretend to say. 

The " Anecdotes^* then proceed to state that he was out- 
lawed, and a price set upon bi^ head ; and detail several stra- 

E 4 tagems 

* Kittoii, mlio rcrtniiily hat ikewn indefAtignble research iti his " Robin 
Hood" ui two voluaics^ sa^i ibat Boni^di^lc forest in Yurkthiro, wwl PloFny^ 
ton patk ill CgnjberluuJ, wer« alftolwuof bl^> fAvoiirilc hauiitK 


ttgems which were put in practice to ensnare him but in Tain ; 
tot force he repelled by force, and stratagem by moreskilinl 
wiles. At length the force sent against him was so poweHnl 
that many of his followers fell, and the remainder baying been 
ibrced lor personal safety to desert him, he sought shelter and 
protection in the priory of Kirklees in Yorkshire, the prioreu 
of which was his near relative. Here it is said old age, dissap* 
]K>intmeut, and violent faiigae, brought on a disease which re- 
quired venesection, when the monk who was called to perform 
the operation, either through ignorance or design, wounded an 
artery, and he bled to death. 

Convinced that his end was approaching, and wishing to 
mark the spot for his last repose, he called for his bow, and let* 
ting fly two arrows, the first fell into the river Calder, but the 
second failing into the park, pointed out the place of sepulture. 
His death is said to have Uken place on the eve of Christmas 
day 1274; and on his tomb, which still remains in Kirklees 
park, the following epitaph is said to have been inscribed by 
the prioress. 

" He^ andernead dis Util stean, 
LaU Robert Earl of Huntington ; 
Kea arcir rer as hie ta geod« 
And pipl kauld im Robin Heod : 
LieJc atlas at bi an is men 
yU England ni?T see agen."^ 

The question now naturally arises, " who and what was this 
Kobin Hood, earl of Huntingdon ?t 


* A drawing of this tomb is preserved bj Googh in bit SepnlchTal Bfonn- 
neutt , but we are told that the late Sir Samuel Armitage canted the ttone to 
be taken up, and the groaud'below it to be dog a yard deep, which appeared 
nef er before to have been rooFed. It was thence tnpposed that thit coold not 
bare been the place of hit interment. 

Mr. Ritton alto on the aothority of one of the Sloanian M8S. tayt that it was 
the prioreit who bled him, and taffersd him to bleed to death. 

t Robin Hood hu not beea mentkaied by any of the clericci writers of 




Thai no nobleman of that name ever existed in EngJandj ii 
beyond a doubt. John Le Scot, of the royal family of Scot- 
landj was earl of Huntingdon in 1^19. He died shortly after, 
and the title was extinct until 13-57, when it was conferred on 
William de Clinton^ which compl cutely filh up the period of 
Eobin Hood's life. 

It hai indeed been said that bis name was Head or Hood* 
and that he was the son of a noble ntam Others Jgain have 
been of opinion that in the unsettled rergii ot Richard the fir^ 
be was one of those youths that resented the inclosing of tl»c 
forest, and being prosecuted by the officers of the crown» he 
was tempted both for bis own security and out of revonf;;e* to 
raise a band of archers, who acting under his command infested 
all the towns within the forest and in its vicinity, robbing aU 
rich travellers, but tiever proceeding to acts of blood shed, ex* 
cept in se1f*defenee. It has been said tooj that he was a greal 
fjiirourite in many parts of the country, in consequence of his 
hoarding up the dilferent articles which he obtained in hit 
course of robbery, until they amounted to a con^^iderable stuck, 
when he exposed them for sale at a particular place on the 
borders of the forests where his Kales were as regularly attended 
as a fair; and there is no doubt that his customers got their 
purchases pretty cheap, from whence arose tht; proverb of 
selling Robin Hood's penny worths.^ 


that period, wlitch, Mr, Ilit5on« (ituteid of toiisideriiig U us sQ argument 
[^•gsifift bi» existence,) h of optnicM), ^jit owing to the inveterate hatred 
and enmity which the uuclawed foresters alwaj's shewed towards that ordcr^ 
who were aUo Uien the bwyert ol (he time, 

* There is snoihcr proverb respecting biin, recorded by Fuller ia hi» Wot • 
thiet of England.—" Manj talk uf tiubiii flood who never shot out of hii 
bow'^ — that ij, adds thia quaint historian, " mmiy dincaurse for prate rather) 
«f matters whereia ihey have no «kiJl or experience. Thii proverb ii now 
fitmded ail ofer £ngl(itid, though originally of NoUinghamshire eilraction." 
Toiler then goeaou to »y " ill at he wa» an arch robber, and withal an excel JenI 
srchtr i though tQfcJj the poet gave a twang to the loose of hit arrow ; raak- 




As far as rcgarcls historical feet, be is certainty mentioned m 
our different annals; and Rapin notices him so far as to 
that about 1199 lived the famous Robin Hood with his co 
panion Little John, who were said to infest Yorkshire with their 

In the Harleian collection of MSS. also at the British Mo«e 
in No. 153-1, p. 199, there is the following article, though 
know not on what authority^ nor by whom written. 

*' Robin Hoo^l, accompanied with one called Little John, 
lested passengers on the high way, temp* Rich. I. of whom it it 
said that he was olf noble bloody no tesse than au Earle* Having 
wasted his estate in riotous courses, very penury forced him to 
flteale* The Kmge att last sett forth a proclamation to hafi€ 
htm apprehended; at which time it happened he fell ill at a 
nunnery in Yorkshire, called BiV^d^y* j,* and desiring there to 
let blood, he was betrayed and made bleed t<>deaih/' 

But the question seems now pretty well set at rest, by Still 
ley in his Palfieographia Britannia, VoL 2, p. 115, where he 
jectures bis true name to be Fin Octht and that he w^as de* 
scended from a Norman chief of that namej fvho was lord of 
Kyme in Lincolnshire immediately after the conquest, and 
further that his mother was daughter of Payne Beauchamp and 
Koisia de Vcrc. 

The Pedigree appears then to run in the following manner 
Richard Fitz Gilbert or de Clare, earl of Brion in Normandy, 
married Alice daughter of Waltheof who was earl of Hunting* 
don in 1068 in right of his wife Judith niece to William the 
Conqueror. He had a son by this Alice, Robert Fitz Gilbert, 
whose daughter Roisia having married Gilbert de Gaunt^ had 
a daughter Maud wife of Ralph Fitz Ooth, or Oetk, a Normaa, { 


ittg him ahoot oae a cloth yard long, at full fortj score markj for ctMspaia 
fterer higher than the breast, and wtibin ie«i than a f(»ot of Che mark. 

" But herein oar author hmth verified the (irOTerb, talking tt large of Rohiii 
Uood, in whose bo« he never shot !'* 

* TbisbeTidentl^ an error in copjing from some ^Id MS. for Xtrtltet. 


wnA lord of Kyme in Lincolnshire. Of this marriage was WiU 

liam Fita Ooth, who was brought up by Robert de Vere earl of 

Oxford, and married a relative of bis patron, the daughter of 

Paganel Beauchamp and Roisia de Vere of the Oxford family. 

Robert Fits Ooth was the son by this match, and he certainly 

could thus prove a descent from the first earl of Huntingdon* 

thoagh his claim to the title might not be so certain ; and yet it 

must be acknowledged that he was at least one qf the repretenta" 

ihts of Waltheof the lirst earl, by his daughter Alice ; a claim of 

some importance when it is recollected that Waltheof leaving 

no son, the title of Huntingdon, after his death, was carried by 

another daughter Maud to her husband Simon St. Liz, who was 

the second earl, but left no issue ; and Maud marrying to her 

second hasband David, prince, and afterwards king, of Scotland, 

he became third earl of Huntingdon in right of his marriage ; but 

this line failed in John Le Scot who was the tenth earl of Hon* 

tingdon, but died without issue in 1337, from which time until 

1337, when the title was conferred as a new grant on William 

de Clinton, it appears to have been considered as extinct. 

Throsby, who, in his additions to Thoroton, seems to bare 
taken a very comprehensive view of this subject, observes that 
imder these circumstances, the title may actually have been 
claimed by Robert Fitz Ooth ; and there is great weight in m 
subsequent observation where he says, it has been supposed that 
he might have been driven to his predatory course of life, in 
consequence of the troubled state of Henry the second's reign, 
or perhaps adbpted it, being dissatisfied with the refusal of hit 
claims, particularly as his father William Fitz Ooth might have 
been implicated in the consequences of the rebellion of the 
king's eUlest son, the prince Henry; for in the rebellion 
the earl of Ferrers took the prjpce's side, and he was lord 
of Loxley, which has been said to be the birth place of Robin 
Hood. It may also not be irrelevant to observe, that the fact 
of his being something more than a mere robber is evident from 
the considerable force which he was able to raise and to keep 

4 together. 

ill llic l^odivy ^afti^ 
veil » lm$ph of ysM an ttejBi 

I Mill •Utsr'iff, to arrtM or crca la 4« 

|#cU«l» Mr U likely ever la te 

artMimry characl^^ asd mm/L mtm lfai»a 

t^ lu»ionj ofiUiriab^Mi* 

r Jivbioo now kadi Q» ta iIm 

> vayal afsiT« or < 

ciem co^- 


Miacli hi which, on any sad^, is portf enlariy itfi^g la 

'4^ ,wl|fr; timJ it may be jimly «tid thai Uiite b |iafia| 

||I0 loWH ii^ (iiv cmpiro wKicti ajipears under such a rarktjf afl 

|#iliti'*Ul it ttlii duei* from its ditlereni points of view. Tbe 

mivM wIm* tfirrivci by the I^tiJon road, cannol 6iil btiag 

\%Unw\\ %m %[^mi9^mUttg the Kill by Fiumpir^e, to see tbe feftilt 

^h 0I IWiH liuuildcd by the august rock on vrhtch ii lUfids, 

I ^ t ' — » It II prtcipilous hit I to the W(i» the long p:»ast 

iuxWy iiinkitig tnlo the plain 00 kis rigbl, 

aimI Ibf Htiul« ivra^ ned by li)(s graceful tower of 5i* Mary's. 

ibMitbl be «iM«i by ibc c'liM vrn «iile from the Newark r^d* tlie 

fhuW iHtiAi i»( buibJiM)t U tbcu foi ojihortened« the tower of St. 

Ury*t Aiid Ibi* iTtill^ i^re nearly m oiie« whiUt the long Line of j 

Jl\ t XiV^w bridgen raifte idcti^ of its mze aiid itapoit- 

i^pimrtnuly t'licuiuacribed lin^ks wouM nolatber- 

wUa hikveji«i*l^(i»d« If ho comet from the norths from Mannfialik 

Ibi I<m0r fif St Miiry'«t ^ii^ preeminent, i& the only object 

nvlllf b iimrka bU approach to tbc hAbitaiiou of gregarious man^ 

anill Ko rliaf Ibt hiti above ihe race ground^ when the ivbole 

f^ Ui»on his wtonijdied sight, as if by enchantment^ 

h)w« lien At hh feci; he sees ibe Ltinc and the Trem^ 

ilifmiAiilli[ij tnd beyond these the vale of Bel voir m almost urt* 

6 Itmiied 



limited extent, skirted partly by the Leicestershire hills, seemt 
like anew world starting into existence. It is, in short, impossible 
for any man of taste or feeling to view the scene without experi- 
encing emotions that he must allow to be indescribable— emotions 
tuch as the Jewish lawgiver may have felt on Pisgah's meant 
Then the approach on the western road from Derby, is com- 
pletely different from the others. Oo arriving at Wollaton 
park -gate, the town is just seen; all that is descried is then in 
a commanding situation, and this is perhaps the point of view 
•which impresses a stranger with the highest ideas of the place : 
on the right, the castle and its commanding clifis boldly start- 
ing from the verdant swells in the park; in the centre the bar- 
racks appearing to form a town of themselves ; and to the left, a 
number ofwindmilis which immediately excite the idea ofaDutch 
or Flemish town. To the north he looks down upon the forest^ 
with Its foreground flat, but in high cultivation ; around are 
numerous villas, and respectable manufacturer's country re* 
treats; on all sides the country appears rich, well cultivated^ 
and populous; and the noise of the stocking frames is heard in 
most of the houses. 

The sounds of industry on all sides present indeed a different 
picture from that drawn by a facetious traveller, sometime in the 
seventeenth century, who, in his journey to the north, says, 

" TlicHce to Nottingham where rorert, 
Higliway riders, Sherwood drovers. 
Like old Robin Hood and Scarlet, 
Or like Little John his varlet ; 
Here and there they show thcro doughtj 
In cells and woods to get their booty.*'* 

At the same time it must be confessed, that although the •a- 
trance on the western side is open and airy, yet the long line 
dfktreet filled with low manufacturing cotuges does not im- 

* Vide Drunkea Bamaby's Journej. 



ptt»M the traTetler witli any high ideas of either the ele, 
or comfort of the town itself. 

Noiiinghnm, we are told by Camden« and his whole sabee^ 
quent train of copyists, has the honour of giving a name to 
county at large. This is evidently softened from the Saxon 
»« Snottinghani/' an appellation given it on account of the sub- 
terranean caverns and passages hollowed out in ancient times for 
houses and retreats under those craggy rocks on the south side, 
banging over the river Lene. An old etymologist (Asserius) 
informs us that the Saxon name may be latinized into ** Spe» 
luncarum Domus/' or the house of caverns^ and that if tnina- 
lated into British, it would be •' Tui Ogo Bancj" a name which 
however we have no authority to say was ever given to this 

There is perhaps no town in the kingdom, who«e origin is hid 
in greater obscurity than Nottingham, and there is certainly 
none which has given rise to a greater variety of conjectures, ^^B 

Stukely says,* one may easily guess Nottingham to bafS^^ 
been an ancient town of the Britons, As soon as they had 
proper tools, he adds, they fell to work upon the rocks, which 
every where oiler themselves so commodiously to make housei 
iti^ and he doubts not that here there was a considerable collec* 
ttoji of dwellings of this sort. 

Dr. Thoroiunf seems to consider all memorials of its origin aa 
entirely lost i and places no conEdence whatever in John Rouse, 
a monk of Warwick, and canon of Osneyj who, io his history 
addressed to king Henry the seventh, tells a long tale of the an- 
Uqutiy of Nottingham 9bi^ years before the Christian era ; J at 


*Stukelf^'i Iliiierary, pnge 49. t Thoroton's Survey of Notta- 

t Lcland in lu^ Collcctaucii V^o). 3, |k 43t gives us aotue rragnients from % 
Chronicle which he coRftiders os ihc work of an unknown or uncertain writer^ 
Who iCt!iiiJito have written an epitome of Geoffrey of Monnionih^ and to have 
loaerted many thrng^ which are not to be found even in Geoffrey *» work, and 
iprhose authority is certainly tlius rendered, ifp(*ntbte, more doobtful. Herf 
wt are told of king Ebrancusj wlio built on the duhrQUi lull ihsi which ts now 

Nottin^faain . 

irOTTlllOHAMSHlEfi. 79 

which time, according to him, king Ebranc built a town on the, 
banks of Trent, and partly on this ** Dolorous'' hill, a nam* 
which it had acquired, from the extreme grief of the Britons^ 
in consequence of a great slaughter of them by king Humber, 
and which took place. here in the reign of king Albanact Foe 
this piece of original secret history, indeed, the reverend monk 
does not fiivoor us with any authority ; nor can ^e help think* 
iiig it a piece of unnecessary labour in Dering,* in his hist<Nr][ 
of the town, being at the trouble of proving that the Britons 
being little better than savages at Caesar's coming, which was 
oaJy half a century before the commencement of the Christian 
«n» so it was not likely that they should have b^n more civi- 
lised 900 years earlier. ' Dr. Dering however, like other, writeriu 
indulges himself also in conjecture ; but as there is some apt* 
pearance of plausibility in his opinion, we shall slightly notice 
Its tnbstance. He conceives then that the most which can be 
topposed with a due regard to probability, is that considering 
tiie convenient situation of that part of the forest of Sherwood^ 
in the immediate vicinity of the site of the present town» it ie 
not nnlikely that several colonies of Britons had planted them* 
eeives hereabouts, where they were sheltered from the incle* 
mency of the most prevalent winds of the winter season, accom* 
modated with the convenience of a southern aspect, and with 
plenty of water. Nay, like Dr. Stukely, he imagines it highly 
probable, that as soon as these people were provided with tools for 
the purpose, finding in these parts a yielding rock, they might 
improve their habitations by making their way into the main 
rock, and framing to themselves convenient apartments in it, and 
that perhaps long before the Romans came into this neigh- 

Nottingham \ and immediateljr after it is stated that Lucius son of Helena 
caused four cities to be founded, one of uhirh was Nottingham. Upon tbe 
whole; it teems that the Monkish writers were ignorant of, or inattentive to, 
that wholesome adage, that people of a certain habit ought to have goo4. nt- 

* Daring's Town of Nottingham. 


bourhood. He seems to lay the greater stress upon this conjeo*-- 
ture« in consequence of the discovery made by some workmen em* 
ployed by lord M idd leton in 1 740, to level a deep and narrow way 
between the two hills called the Sand-bills on the Derby road 
approaching to Chapel Bar ; for when these workmen had re- 
moved a good deal of the sandy part of the hills, they met here 
and there with excavations which (upon clearing away the 
sand from them,) appeared to form the partition walls of several 
rooms, of difierent altitudes, cut out of the solid rock. These, 
the Doctor thought, had no marks of being of Roman workman- 
ship, and he therefore considers them as British. These re- 
mains he eren considers as of higher antiquity than the esca- 
lations in the rock on which Nottingham stands ; and having 
roundly asserted, (which may indeed be true) that the whole 
rock on which the town is built is so undermined and hollowed 
•ut, that it is almost a question, whether the solid contents of 
what is erected on the top would fill up the cavities under 
ground, he comes to the conclusion that the sand of the place 
in question was brought from the Nottingham excavations, and 
that it would not have been lodged upon the ute of these cham* 
bers if they had not been in a ruinous state, and therefore of con- 
siderable antiquity. He adds that there are other sand hills 
about the town where the same discoveries have been made, 
which have given rise to a tradition that the ancient town of Not- 
tingham stood further to the northward ; and is of opinion that 
these straggling habitations formed no part of the town in the 
Saxon times, being considerably without that wall which Ed- 
ward the elder constructed for the defence of Nottingham. 

The Doctor then adverts to a story of Coilus, a British king, 
having been buried here in the year of the world 3833, a period 
which in ancient chronology falls in between the destruction of 
Sodom and Gomorrah, and the destruction of Troy : but though 
possessed of all the prejudices natural to a local historian, he 
acknowledges that even this more a proof, if true, of the an- 
tiquity of Nottingham, than that the certainty of some Indian 


>0TtiaOHAMiniftB. M 

iMtslMving stood ft thoufltad yean age oa the preiont teiUt ef 
New York> or Philadelphia^ would carry their aptiqotty teck 
beyond the days of Wtllmm Peim. 

After all ihese conjecturea we can only aay that tfa»«rf^ 
thing certain iB, thai there is no authentic hbtory extant whieh 
givesany account of the /Ira formation of the carerne of cor 
ancient Ttcglodfftt^ ; we nny, therefore^ safely infer that they 
are anterior to all authentic history, and, of oonne, older than 
the time of the Romans. How fer they may be carried h m fpmi 
that perfod is» however, perhaps fer vrer hid in obscurity ;* but 
if wo might be allowed to add efw eonjlBctore to the' many nU 
feady fai ezistence» we should certainly Tehture to ntppoie that 
they could not have been made, before the island of Britain 
was inkoHied, though probably very soon after; and we wmf 
venture to predict that when the one era is settled precisely by 
coid^Uiring antiquaries, the other may then be guessed ' 4t 
within a century or two ! We come now to a period of Topo- 
graphical history, which might be supposed attended with few 
difficulties; but the real antiquary seems possessed of the pro* 
perty of the Cuttle fish, which throws oipt such a quantity of 
ink around it, that it is impossible to trace it in the obscurity* 
When the emperor Antoninus drew op his Itinerary, through 
the island of Britain, beseems to have been anxious to settle 
both the names of places, and their distances, with great pre* 
cision ; unfortunately, however, not being gifted with prophetic 
powers, he has not told us^ what these places would be called 
in succeeding ages, and there are now as many disputes trpofi 
ike road, where the Romans were, and where they were not, 
that a plain jog trot traveller can scarcely get along. Even 
round this very spot, now under examination, two very learned 
men. Dr. Gale, and Mr. Baxter, have kicked up tuck a dusi, that 
if they had both travelled the same road, the traveller in search 
of truth would have been blinded ; they seem not to have tra« 
veiled the same road, however, and therefore there is a differ- 
ence of twenijf miici in their distances ; or perhaps, for a more 
. Vol. XU. F logical 




14 1 

Koir t^i hMl 

iii ii iiiM ; at Bcif Ca rt ct u m ; 

nf lo be Caster, th w^g iiAgdiUMiceii oolTSSMika; Ctei 
,IH«» bt caUa CniitliM> thoack ibe dlrtne« mmkfMt 
tmal the ditfaase Ha fiadiiii la t^o wtei sbortaf I 
Iliiierary ; and^ tboagfa lie adds a mile froai 

iMkidllMa&tlcashartaf thewiMfelediiMK^ Far 
and Gale agree to a diaUiica of lOS aUea^ whiiit 
Baxter can only produce S5« 

Much ink has been tpiUed, nay wailed* om baib aidat af 
queftion ; we shall, therefore, add as littk aa povible, la ite^ 
ij*i»nlity ; it is necesiary, however, to state, that, aitha^ it 
•upporteri of Mr. Baxter assert that there have never bceii^ 
any Roman cojiir, or um«, discovered at NottiDghani, aa 
invariably the case at all their acknowledged statioo*; yet 
there U lafficient proof, that there were Roman stations wjtli«i 
til Aiffht of the rock on which Nottingham stands, it is not like* 
1 y that a place whoee situation was so comroaodang* and sa ca« 
I Mble of defence, would have escaped their notice* But Dr. 
Gale bring* further proof in support of his opinion^ that Cftii- 
icnnii wa« our modern Nottingham ; for he shews clearly, that 
Cautennii, or Caufenui*, were the Homan changes of the word 
Ccven, from whence, in Various placet, were the names of *' Go- 
fennis,*' ** Gobannium," kc. Cctcn being the ancient British 
for a cluster of rocks, and Kaff, or Kaoup in the same langtiage, 
signify tug a cavern, 
Bf. Gale, indeed, perhaps goes too far, ki supposing that tha 



extavatiom are Horoan; if they had been so* it is not probable 
that they would have had a name latinized from the British ; for 
there is no instance whatever, on record, in which Ihe Hotnans 
bad adopted British words for the names of places of their own 
erection* That the caverns existed^ therefore, before the Ro- 
man settlement seems beyond a doubt; it is still probable^ 
however, that the Romans may have availed themselves of ihe 
then existing caves, and may even have added others* 

A periud of greater certainty begins in the seventh century, 
ftt which time it is allowed by all historians^ that Nottingham 
WES a considerable place, and bad a strong tower, for its de* 
fence ; and it is certain^ that^ during the Saxon heptarchy, it had 
ihe name of Snottingham^ from Snoitinga, signifying cavegt 
%miHam, a home or dwelling place, or perhaps used with a 
plural signification. It is Dr. Bering's opinion, that this Saxon 
tiame was doubtless given to it, by that people, from the con- 
dition they found the neighbourhood in» before they tbein<(elves 
made improvements by building. It then belonged to iht 
kingdom of Mercia, and a part olf that kingdom took alter* 
wards, in king AUred's reign, its name from this town, Snotting- 
bam Scyre. 

It is rather curiou.^, that all the learned investigators of the 
uriginof Nottingham should have overlooked a particular cir- 
cumstance, which seems to throw a new light upon its state, in 
the Saxon times, and perhaps, for some ages previous to thern^ 
If the Saxon origin, of ihe name of Nottingham, is correct, 
pay W€ not suppose also, that Snottengat or SncitengcUan, may 
liave been corrupted into Snenton, or Sneinton. If, then, there 
"Were two places existing in the Saxon times, by the names of 
iSnottinga A a/fi, and Snottenga/ori, it is a yery probable conjee* 
ture, that the spot designated by the appellative of ton, was 
more considerable than that which had only the adjunct of ham, 
inasmuch as a town is larger than a village, or hamlet. That 
P|Ucb was the origin of the name of Sneinton, now a village ad* 
|(^ining to Nottingham, seems almost beyond a doubt, when we 

F "S consider 


coniider Umt ii potseflses ezteiisiTe' cav^mii of an antiquity 
equal to that of tlie latter place, or at leatt apparently so : and 
It is mttch to be regretted that the able antiquaries of past dajrs 
were not in possession of such a clue to conjecture. Tis not 
for us to Tenture further into a subject so capable of extension ; 
but we may he allowed to express a hope that some local an- 
tiquary will be induced to investigate \t, as far as probability 
will authorise his research. 

From the period of the union of the Saxon heptarchy. Not* 
tingham seems to hare increased in conseqaence. In Edward 
the Confessor's reign, immediately preceding the Norman con- 
quest, there were one hundred and serenty three burgesses, 
and nineteen rilleins, in this borough ; and Earl Tosti had lands 
and houses here. 

• But, perhapSf the proper era from whence we should com- 
mence our view of the rise and pi^gress of this place, is that 
period when the Jcingdom was settled, after the Norman acces- 
sion, and the surrey of Domesday-book, was made. Prom 
this register it appears that Hugh, the sheriff, (bund here one 
hundred and twenty dwelling houses, of which the sheriff him- 
self possessed thirteen ; Roger de Builly had eleven ; William 
Pevereli the earl, son of Ralph Peverell, who came in with 
the Norman, had ibrty-eight tradesmen's houses,* which 
brought htm in thirty shillings per atmum ren^ * seven 
knights', and thirteen gentlemen's houses, be^des eight borders, 
forming, in* the wholes his honour of Peverell, in the town ; 
Ralph de Burun had twelve gentlemen's houses, and one mer- 
chant's house ; one Guilbert, had four houses; Ralph Fitch'er- 
bert, eleven houses ; Goisfrid de Anselyn, twenty one houses ; 

' Acadus 

* It is curious to coDtrait thif turn wiih the value oi Uad iu Nottingham^ 
4t the present day. In 1811, the ground for some new baildiogs, in a street, 
at the end of Smithy Kow, Was sold at the rate of 9L per square yard ; so 
that three square yards, without buildings, in the year 1811, would yield as 
mach in intertst of money, m forty-eight houses did« in rent, in the yeat 


Acadas the Priest, two hoiues ; to the crofl of the Priest th*rt 
were sixty houses ; Richard Tresle« had four lioiises ; and io 
Ibe borough ditch, seTenteen houses and other six houses'; 'all 
«nM>iintiDg to two hundred and seventeen* 

The compiler of '* Magna Britannia/' published about a etW' 
tury ago, is of opinioq, that the reason why we find no more 
iohabitants^ in this borough, it because many of the hooM 
were deserted, in consequence of the ravages, that took place, 
in the Norman conquest; and the number was certainly dimi* 
nished, since the Confessor's reign, for then there were, as we 
have before noticed, one hundred and ninety-two burgesses^ 
and yilleins, though, when the first Norman surrey was taken^ 
there were only one huodred and thirty-six men dwelling 
there, which number, at the Domesday survey, was reduced to 
one bundredaod twenty. About this time, however, great en* 
concagement seems to have been given to resident burgesie% 
(and we may« perhaps, from hence date the origin of the mb^ 
dem burgess lands,) for the burgesses had six carucats to 
plow, and twenty borders, and fourteen carucats, * or plough 
lands besides. They were also woot to fish in the Tnem, but 
complained ihat they were then prohibited. 

At this period, also, the church, with all things belonging to 
it» was of 100 shillings annual value. 

Having thus investigated its origin, we shall now proceed to 
take a short view of its general 

UirroRY, premising first, from Dering, that Nottingham can 
claim, as a town of note, the ageof 900 years ; as a considera- 
ble borough, 761 ; as a mayor's town, 518, being only a cen- 
tury posterior to the metropolis ; as a parliamentary borough; 
during which it has constantly sent two representatives, 5SI e 

* This iDiut have been a contiderable quantity, for the carucat, or hide, waa 
lis'icore acres of arable land, together with pasture, and meadow, with' 
barDt,iUbIes, and dwellings for nich a naraber of men, and beattt, at wer« 
peeeMary for agricoJtoral purposes. 



and as a county in itself, a thing y^ry unusual for boroughg, a 
space of 353 years, up to the year 1812, 

The first great historical event, we find connected with the 
place, was m the year 852, when the Danes, in the course of 
their frequent ravages, came to this place. In which they were 
immediaitely afterwards besieged by Buthred, the Mercian 
king 5 but, with so little prospect of success, as the Danefi had 
possessed themselves of a strong tower on the scite of the pre- 
tent castle, that he was obliged to send for assistance to Ethel- 
ted, king of the West Saxons, and Alured his brother, who, hav* 
ing collected a large army, proceeded towards Nottingham, and 
oOered the invaders battle. This, however, they thought pro- 
per to decline, when the Saxon chiefs attempted to batter 
down the walls, but even this, they were unable to perform; and 
at length the Danes, starved out perhaps, agreed to conclude a 
peace, and return home under their leaders Hcngar and Hubba, 
From this time, until 940, the Danes were very troublesome 
to Nottingham, and the surrounding parts of Mercia; for, hav- 
ing landed with a large army, and got military possession of 
mil the northern parts of Britain, they lefla large force there, 
and proceeded to Nottingham, which they took with facility, 
and fixed their winter quarters there. From this they were 
again driven by the Saxons j but again returned, and remained 
until the middle of the tenth century, when king Edmund 
made a final reconquest of the place* 

William the Conqueror came here in 1068, and soon after 
founded the castle. 

In the troublesome limes of Stephen's reign, Ralph Paynell, 
who was governor of the castle, and in ihe interest of Henry 
afterwards H«nry the second, invited the earl of Gloucester 
in 1140, to take possession of the town. It is recorded that 
the town being thus easily taken, was plundered, and the in- 
habiLants killedj or burnt in the churches^ to which they had 
fled for safety* It ia also stated by StoW*^ that one of the rich- 


Stow'i Sumcoarj, p. 135* 


€it of ihe inhabitants was forced by a party of the robbers to 
shew them where his treasure lay; he, accordingly, took them 
iata a low cellar, from whence he escaped;^ whilst tht:y were 
intent on plunder; and, having shut the doors, set fire to his 
house, in consequence of which, not only they were burnt, but 
the whole town was set in flames, r^utttngham met with the 
same misfortunes only thirteen years aClerwards; £br being ta- 
ken by Henry, in 1153, we are told, by Leland, that the garri- 
son retiring from the city to the castle set fire to the town on 
their evacuating it.* 

It has, however, been otherwise asserted^ that this conOa* 
gration was caused by the Earl of Ferrers, In the contests be» 
iween Henry the second and his son Henry, who came sud* 
denly» with a good number of horsemen to Nottingham, which 
Reginald de Lucy had then in keeping for the king ; and, hav* 
ifig taken it, burnt the town, slew the inhabitants^ and divided 
their goods amongst his soldiers* 

After this, from whatever cause it may have proceeded, the 
town of Nottingham appears to hare lain in ruins^ until the 
kingdom became quiet by the death of Prince Henry, whom 
his father had been so imprudent as to cause to be crown* 
ed duiing his own life time : the inhabitants then, having 
some prospect of protection for their lives and property, began 
to make great exertions to restore it to its former consequence^ 
and the king, in order to make them amends for what they had 
su^ered from their loyalty, not only gave them evtfry eucou* 
ragement, and assistance, in the rebuilding of it, but also grant- 
ed ih cm a writ? charter, in whith ht? confirmed all those free 
customs which they had enjoyed in the reign of Henry the 
first* This is a convincing proof, that Nottingham had been a 
corporation^ for a considerable time, before the grant of this 
new charter; and it is, with great probability, supposed, that 
they had enjoyed a market, and paid a farm rent to the crown, 
•om^ time previous. John earl of Morteyii, Henry's younger 

F 4 soo^ 
• Lcland Collect, vol. 3. p* 3lf. 




•on, afterwards king* procured them some further pmHegei 
being matle earl of Nottingham ; and by a new charter, which 
conBrnied on coming to the throne > granted all the advan- 
ge», which his father ami great grandfather bad bestowed 
ion tliero, together with a merchant's guild, or fraternity. 
During the contests between Richard the first and his hfo* 
er John, Nottingham changed hands several times ; and, on 
the king's return from his captivity* this castle held out a 
siege of several days, tboygh the king himself besieged it 

Soon after, Richard called a parliament here, in which lie j 
demanded judgement against John and his accomplices: and 
the |*ar I lament immediately issued summonses for John, and 
Ihe baions* his friends, to appear in forty days, to answer all j 
CompkintK, under pain of forfeiture on the part of John, and 
for the others, lo stand such censure, as might be awarded 
Against them, by the parliament. In cotisequcnce of non-com - 
pliance, earl John incurred the foi feitore, bot was soon restor* 
ed by his brother J however, after coming to the crown, we find 
ihaU in hia contest with the barons, an attempt was made to de- 
prive himof this place, by the ♦'army of God, and the Holjy 
Church," as it was then called, but without sixccess. 

On a subsequent occasion in 1213, John was so pressed, that, 
having reci'ived repeated intelligence of a plot against him, 
he distrusted even the officers about his person, and relying 
solely on the loyally of this town, and of some foreign archers^ 
disbanded his army, and retired here to &hut himself up in the 

InI33D, the well known event of the seizure of Monimer, 
earl of March, by the young king Edward the third, took 
place in I he castle ; but that will be treated of more fully in 

another place. 

Seven years afterwards a parliament was called together for 
Tery imporUnt purposes, and Nottingham has the honour of 
^cing the spot, from whence emanated laws that were the first 



foonijaljon of England^s greatness^ as a manufacturiiig comitiy i 
for here it was enacteil, that whatsoever cloth- workers of Flan* 
ders« or of other countries, would dwell, aiKl inhabit in £ii« 
gland, should come quietly^ and peaceably, and the mo«t €oii-» 
venient places should be assigned to thcnii with great liberties 
and privilege*], and the king would becotne surety for them, 
until they should be able to support themselves by their SO'^ 
ireral occupations. The same parliament also passed that pa- 
triotic laW| that no per&on should wear any foreign made cloths^ 
with the exception of the royal family: they also prohibited 
the exportatioD of English wool. 

A curious attempt to infringe on the liberty of election took 
place here, m the reign of Richard tlie second, which is well 
worthy of notice. In 1386« the marquis of Dublin, the royal 
favourite, having been dismissed in consequence of the remon- 
^trances of Parliament, he, and some of his adherents, soon alter 
procured access to the king, and was, in a few weeks, accom- 
panied by the misguided monarch into Wales; where it was 
privately settled, that a plan for the assumption of arbitrary 
power should be put lu force, and that the patriotic barons, 
the duke of Gloucester, the earls of Arundel, Dt^rby, War- 
wick, and Nottingham, should be the Brst victims, not only for 
the purpose of revenge, but of security. In order to insure 
the success of their plan, it was determined that the King should 
raise an army to keep those barorui m check, and that he 
should then call a parliament^ the elections for which should 
be so managed as to have none but the Ifriends of the favourites 
summoned or elected, so that there would be no difficulty in 
passing any law which might he proposed. No sooner was 
everything prepared, than Richard, with his /a vou rites and 
their friends, proceeded to Nottingham, where all the sheriiFs, 
and all the judges, were sent for, together with many of the 
principal citizens of London ; to these^ when assembled^ the 
monarch communicated his design of proceeding with an army 
(o chastise tbe noblemen, already mentioned^ and demanded of 
4 019 



tbe fiherifrs> what number of troops they could raise immedi- 
ately. He then told them to permit no representatives to be 
chosen for the new parliament, that were not in the list, which 
be should deliver to them himself; but the sherifTs immediate- 
ly answered, that it was not possible'to execute his orders; for 
the people were in general so partial to those noblemen, t^t it 
would be difficult to levy an army against them ; and they corw 
eluded by stating, that it would be still more difficult to depri 
the people of their right of freely electing tbcir repre^entativi 
in parliament. 

The judges, however, were neither soscrapnloiis, nor so pa- 
triotic, as the sheriffs ; for ihey answered to the queries put t9 
them, '' that the King was above the law ;" yet, when required 
to sign this opinion, they endeavoured to evade it, until forced 
by the menaces of the court party,* Notwithstanding this 
forced submission of the judges, Richard found it imposaible to 
do any thing at Nottingham, and therefore returned to London. 

Nottingham was at>erward5, in I4G1, the rendezvous of Ed- 
ward the fourth, where he collected his troops, and caused him- 
self to be proclaimed King, immediately at\er landing at Ha- 
ve nspur in Yorkshire, 

In 14H5, Richard the third marched from Notltngham to- 
wards Bosworth- field, in order to decide the fate of England in 
his fatal contest with Henry the seventh ; and Henry the ne- 
f enthj two years afterwards, (in 1487) held his council of war 
at Nottingham previous to the battle of Stoke, which we shall 
have occasion to notice more fully in another place* 

We must not neglect to nolice an extraordinary tempest, 
which took place here, in the reign of Queen Mary, and which 
is thus stated by Stow, in his Chronicle* He sayi*, that on th« 


• *Tls alm<ist unnecessary to state to tTioie acqeainted with Englbb lu«torj, 
tliit ibete judges^vere sir Robert Tresilinn* lord chief justice of the Ling'i 
bench, who vras tfterwards bsngt'd at Tyburn : Sir Robert Belknap, chief 
justice of Ihc cominon pleas ; Sir Joho Holt i Sir Roger FuJlliorp { Sir \VU' 
1^ de Burgb ; ind John Locktoa^ Sergeant ae liiv. 


TtH of July, 1559, " was witbin a mile of Nottinghao), a mar- 
vellous tempest of thunder, which, as it came tbrough two 
towns, (Lenton ami Wilfonl,) beat down all the houses and 
churches, the bells were cast to the outside of the chwrch-yard^ 
and some webs of lead 400 feet, into the field, writhe n like a 
pair of gloves. The river Trent running between the two 
towns, the water with the mud in the bottom, was carried a 
tjuarter of a mile^ and c&st against the trees; the trees were 
polled up by the roots, and cast twelve-score foot oft. There 
fell some hailstones that were 15 inches about/* 

In 1649, Charles the first «et up his standard here, which 
will be noticed more fully in another place* It is unnecessary 
to recapitulate all the occurrences connected with this event, as 
^bey may be seen at large both in Bering and Thoroton. It is 
sufficient to say, that the town being soon after in possession of 
the Parliament, the government was entrusted to Colonel Julius 
Hutchinson, whose memoirs hav^ lately been published, and 
who, however he might have erred in his politics, has yet the 
merit of being true to the side he had choaen. In 1643, he 
seems to have been strongly tempted to deliver it up to the 
King's fnends, by the earl of Newcastle, who offered him 
the sum of 10,000/, and promised also a grant of the castle and 
its government, to him and bis heirs, which he refused, accord- 
ing to his own account transmitted to the Parliament. During 
the next year, 1644, there seems to have been a paltry kind 
of skirmishing carried on between the royal garrison of New- 
ark, and that of Nottingham*; for we are told by Whitlock, 
who is copied by Dering, that colonel Hutchinson met with a 
party of the people from Newark, when he slew iheir captain^ 
ftnd took 50 prisoners ; and that be and his party« on the next 
day, took more of them consisting of twenty gentlemen, and 
officers, together with sixty of their horse. Shortly after a 
detachment of the Newark garrison^ having come rather too 
near to Nottingham, to levy contributions^ and to take some 
prisoners^ they were pursued^ by a party of the Nottingham 


ironpsi ^nd escaped, with the loss of all their prUoners^ mod 
five or six of iheir own party; but the Nottiogliam menj fol- 
lowing too close, were, in their turn^ assailed by fresh troops, 
iheir prisoners taken from tbero^ and also two officers, and 
about thirty horsemen. 

Some differences seem to ha?c taken place, between the gar- 
rison and the town cotninittce in 1645, so that the Parliament 
were obliged to refer ihem to a committee of both houses; a 
measure evidently necessary, as, during these intestine broils 
in the town, a party of horse, from Newark, had stormed a fort 
upon Trent bridge, and became masters of it« after putting 
about forty men to the sword. 

But it is unnecessary tu recapitulate all the eFents of that 
time, we shall, therefore, just notice that after the restoration, 
in 16S2^ a surreptitious surrender of the charter was procured 
by the ministers of Charles the second, which occasioned great 
disturbances. A new charter was granted^ but even this was 
taken away in IG87, by king James the second, by a writ of 
quo warranio. 

A rery copious account of the subsequent events will be 
found in Bering^ but it is not irrelevant to add, that it was at 
Nottingham the meeting took place between the earl of De- 
vonshire, and several other noblemen, in order to promote the 
glorious revolution of 1688, when a slop was put to the insi- 
dious attempt to introduce popery into the kingdom^ and thai 
too by the assistance of the Dissenters ; for such certainly wa^ 
James's ptan^ notwilbstanding all that has been asserted to the 
contrary, by some modern whigs.* The internal quiet of the 
kingdom, from this period, until the present day, (with one or 
two slight exceptionsj] leaves us little more to record of past 
events, respecting Nottingham : we shall, tharefore, merely 


* In this we beg 1c«ve to be oodentood, m$ r«eording nn UiitrmrAl factV 
withoQt reference to potitica) or to parly opiniooij twa ttiiogs whiob ougbt 
Acrtftialj to be mToktcd m » wori.of Uiia kiad. 

briefly notice some late occurrences, which fall with mo«t pro* 
priety under this general head. 

Throsby tells us, that in the year 1777, as some workmen 
were clearing away the rubbish at a place called Derry Mounts 
Ihey discovered sereral human bones, which appeared in a per- 
fect state* III a scull, there was the appeai^nce of a bullet- 
hole; a dagger likewise was fouml with the skeletons, which 
p were five in mimber, and a piece of silver coin, the legend not 
legible. But from a tradesman's token, of the date of 1GC9, it 
was supposed, that those people might have fallen in some skir- 
mish during the civil wars, or at least during the Protectorate, 

A most extraordinary natural phenomenon took place here 
in \7&5, which has been considered as perhaps one of the larg* 
est water-spotits» ever seen in this country. It happened on 
the first of November. In the morning the sky was clear ; but 
the preceding day had been overcast, and some claps of thun- 
der heard in the evening, though at a considerable distance* 
About eleven in the morning it became overcast like the former 
day» and rained heavily at interval^?, until the afternoon, the 
wind being first at south-west, and then falling calm. At four 
in the afternoon, the water-spout was first FCen, proceeding 
from a dense cloud, apparently about a quarter of a mile to 
the southward of the Trent, and moving slowly towards it; and 
It was remarked, that the branches of the trees, over which ll 
passed, were bent downwards to the ground. 

As the cloud came nearer to the river, it appeared to be 
strongly attracted by it, and when it crossed did not seem more 
than 30 or 40 feet from the surfisce of the water, which was 
violently agitated, and tlew upwards to a great height in every 
direction. Some persons who saw it from the Trent bridge, 
then only about 300 yards distant, mistook it at first for a 
column of thick smoke rising from a warehouse by the Trent 
lide, which they supposed to be on tire; but they were soon 
undeceived, and now beheld with astonishment a large black 
inverted cune, terminating nearly in a point, and in which 


^i^ ym^wmi rmrf phiBly* at they fkfterwardi said, a whiti* 
mg spiral motion, whilst a nunbliog' noise like thunder waa 
kB8i4^^di<rtaDce, By the description which those people 
l^ive ef it, (att4 indeed they may be supposed to hare exanua* 
ed it oooUy» whilst they ^opposed it to be only ^ colttmn of 
psaktf) the middle of the con^ appeared nearly twenty -fisel 
la4ttineter. After passing the rifer, it ascended slowly asid 
mfyesMcally IB a N*E» direction; and nothing coming within 
Aelipits qt its.electric pfAwen^ niitil it cafne orer Soenton, ii 
dNure 9l]it began its d eva stat i on, taking the th^b from sereral 
barps and collages, and toMring up soine apple treea by the 
TCM^ on^. of which was (iw fieet in circwnference,. yet waa 
br^lBep short off near the groonn^ and. the body and braachea 
ciip^ad seTonal yards. A barn- near 30 yards long waa lefelled 
iril^.^ie grenodf ^ a4joiniipg boose was onmoM* fod other- 
wjienmch shatterejd ; a sycamore in tfae^yard^^ which nwasnred 
BCfprlj. Iw^o yards in cirdunferai^e, waf,tom np; in ahor^ bi>» 
Ih^ coald resist the hppetiiosity of ita action ; and the rain 
hSf^f heaTily at the ^e, jo^md to the roaring noise of the 
sp9«v uid t^^ by the mmtbjf of the phenomenon, prodnced 
amepgpt the spectators a scene of terror and confotion which» 
they acknowledged, was not eaay to be described. 

It viras suted also, that in a tavern in the outskirts of the vil^ 
lage^ it tore off part of the ro^ whilst the people within were'' 
almost all of tbem seized with a painful sensadbii in the head, 
which la*ited some hours : and the spout in passing orer the ad- 
joinmg close where a number of people were collected, it 
being the usual statute for hiring servants, affi>vded rather alo- 
dicrous scene wherein hucksters, stalliv baskets, &c. were all 
thrown into confusion, and some of the people hurled with 
great violence against the hedge, but happily without any se» 
riousMcident One boy indeed, about 14 yeaiaof age,issaid 
to have been actually carried over the hedge inlo^ an adjoining 
field, but without being iiyured. 
Some flashes of light were observed in its passing the fields; 

8 and 

w^TTi NO B A ws Hmm* 


ati(! a« the dou^ pa.<;$ed orer the hill^ oppostte to the tavern, 
the fpout was observed to contract and expand alternately, as 
if it had been attracted, and repelled, by some extraneous force. 

I It continued in ail about twenty minutes.* We have beijn 
more particular in noticing this phenomenon^ because it seems 
described with more accuracy than any iimtlar one which has 
happened in the kingdom. 

It is always unpleasant, to record the rbullitionfi^ and nut- 
rag<es, of parly* whatever may have been their original pritici* 
pies ; yet we cannot wholly pa** over the events, in the year 

11794 J but shall avoid all chance of misapprehension, by a quo- 
tation from Mr. Throsby, who seems the most moderate of the 
local historians that have noticed these unhappy disturbances, 
and to have confined himself to historical fact, without animad* 
rersion. He commences with the pleasing observation, that 
this year was marked by the loyalty of the inhabitants of tha 
town aitd county, in support of the constitution, and defence of 
the empire^ in the raising of four troops of gentlemen yeo- 
matu'y and cavalry, the ranks of which were filled up with the 
most respectable of the inhabitants in general, and the whole 

I under the command of A. H* Eyre, Esq. of Grove : the Not- 
tingham company having Ichabod Wright, Esq* for their cap- 
tain. On this occasion he remarks, that none shewed more 
loyalty I in the way of subscription, than a club in Nottingham, 
called the loyal society. 

Unfortunately, however, in July of the same year, a serioiu 
disturbance took place, in consequence of some people, " evil 
afiected,'' as it has been said, shewing sigits of pleasure on the 
arrival of some unpleasant news from the continent, and wear- 
ing in their hats, emblems, &c, A party of royalists in con* 
sequence (or, as another local historian describes them» a num- 
■ l»erof violent politicians under /»rr^4-yice of loyalty ducked se- 
veral disalFected people in the river; but not stopping there, 
tht mob at night set fire to some outworks of Mr. Dennison^s 


« Vidt Gent'i Mag> for 1765. 


cotton-mill^ in wbick some oF tfaoto considered as JaooMu bed 
taken shelter, and from whence it has been asserted that some 
•hot were fired* The vigUance of the magistrates and their 
friend^, however, assisted by the light horse from the bar- 
racks, prevented farther mivhief than the baming of some 
premises, not of any extraordinary value : but the next day 
still continued as a day of ducking and disorder, until the 
popular ebullition subsided* 

Mr. Throsby, also records a great flood, which took place 
here, on the 7th of February 1795, after a severe week's frosW 
and in which, by an accurate estimate, upwards of one million 
of damage was done by the Trent alone« Many fiimilies, both 
in the town, and mdeed in all the villages bordering on that 
fiver, were great sufihrers, from the loss of cattle drowned, and 
from the damage done to their goods. The new gravel road to 
the Trent bridge, which had been heightened and improved at 
different times at a very considerable expense, and the beau- 
tiful canal cut, which forms a collateral branch with the river 
Lene, received such imo^nse fracture^ as to require an im- 
mense expense for their repair ; and the new Lene bridge, with 
its accompanying arches formed to draw the water off the 
road, was also materially injured. 

From that period, nothing remarkable has happened at Not- 
tingham until the unfortunate disturbances amongst the stock- 
ing manufacturers in the early part of 181:2, and a short time 
preceding ; but the occurrences are too recent to require de- 
scription, and it is to be hoped, that the parliamentary regula- 
tions which are taking place, whilst these sheets are in the 
press, will prevent the necessity of any further notice* We 
•hall now proceed to the consideration of the 

Local Topography, oF Nottingham, which the author of the 
tour through Great Britain very justly states to be, one of the 
most pleasant and beautiful towns in England, from its situation, 
even if its various buildings were not to be taken into the 
account. We have already noticed the various circumstances, 


V0TTIV6B4JltBpM« 9? 

connected with iu approach from diflferent quarterip and thall 
now slightly notice its 

Situation and Extent, the former of which k pdrhape aft 
fiiTOurable as can well be imagined* With respect to its retaU 
tire situation to the kingdom in general. Dr. Bering Tory jtistl j 
observes that it lies almost in the middle, equidistant fipom Betf^ 
wick upon Tweed northward, and Southampton southfhtr4» at 
the same time that there is very little difference in hs^dbtance 
from Boston and Chester, on an east and west line. 

It is locally fixed in the south west comer of the county, anS 
of the venerable Sherwood forest, and drily and afarily silualaA 
upon a soft rock coyered with A sandy soil« On three sidesi it 
is sufficiently protected by gentle eminences from the moal 
hurtful blasts, whilst its southern aspect gives it every advtn* 
tage of the enli? ening rays of the noon4ide sun at all seanae 
6i the year* On this point of view, it overlooks the fertile 
and extensive vale of Belvoir, the Nottinghamshire wold^ 
and the hills of Leicestershire ; a prospect not only pleasing 
from its beauty, but also from the consideration of the great 
fertility of the vicinity, particularly in the barley crops, and 
which has rendered Nottingham so long fomous for mah and 

The rock on which it stands, is so high that even the gronhd 
floors of many houses on its summit, are a long way elevated 
above the rook's of other habitatibns situated in the NarrowMarsh 
at its foot. Indeed the stranger is struck with the novelty of 
the prospect when in one part he contemplates three tiers of 
streets, each overlooking the one immediately below it, and 
many of the houses iu these streets with apartments cut into 
the rock, below the cellars of the superior ones. 

From several breaks in the High and Low Pavements, and in 
the Casile Lane, the birds eye view of the houses and gardens 
between the foot of the rock and the rivers Lene and Trent, is 
extremely picturesque, and becomes more so when the spec- 
tator views the more distant scenery extending from the romaAv 

Vo*.XII. G tic 

lie and pleasing hllU of Sneinton and Colwick in the mxith casf 
round by Bridgeford and Gamston, &c. to the deep eitr* 
bowered village of VVilford, overtopped by the shady groves of 

The ancient extent of tlie town was from Chapel bar aerosf 
the Mansfield road towards the present house of correction, 
from whence it turned short to the southward, through Coa1*pit 
lane, and thence to the HoUnw stone, then forraing the southern 
entrance into the town ; thence along ilie pavements towards 
the south side of Castle gate« joining the castte rock^ near to 
the present brew house yard, 

in later times (about the middle of the last century,) Bering 
telb us that the town of Nottingham was about two statute milet, 
and the County of the town spread its jurisdiction upwards 
of ten miles, in circumference; the boundaries of which they 
carefully preserve by chusing every half year a certain nooi* 
ber of persons of the town, headed by one of the coroners^ 
which are called the Middkion Jury, a name supposed by Be- 
ring to be contracted from " middle town Jury," not only b«* 
cause they are summoned from amongst the towns people, btit 
because whilst they take care of the extreme boundaries, ibey 
likewise walk through the middle, and every part of the town# 
taking notice of, and preventing^ all iucroachments and niiit- 

The nourishing condition of DQanufactures in Nottingham 
have, however, during a course of many years, considerably 
extended iLs limits, so as to have added perhaps one half to iti 
superficial contents within the last century ; whilst the progresi 
of building, not only in the very heart of the town, but alao 
in its outskirts, promises a further increase, as soon as the com* 
mercc of the world shall be restored to its ancient fooling. 

ANcrRNT Wails, and Gates, of Nottingham are now scarce* 
ly to be traced, although in Leiand's time some part of them 
WIS remaining; he says, "the town hath been meetly welte 




^Mid with stone, and hath had divers gates, much of the wal- 
le 15 noiv dowiie, and the gates, savinge 2 or S." 

The ancient line of wall we have alrtady noticed in describ- 
ing the extent of the town informer times ; to thi^ we have lit« 
lie more to add than that the original wall was butlt by Kdward 
the elder for the better security and d trie nee of the place about 
the year 910, and that WUliamthe Conqueror made »ome ad- 
dition to them on building the c&%i\e ; for after that, the wall of 
the town joined the outer wail of ihe castle, and thence ran 
1 northward to Chapel bar. Of this> in Bering's time, there 
were manSfesit ve.iiigeH remaining ; and Throsby says, that 
though from Chapel bar north, and round to the east, the true 
ancient wall i^ not to be traced above ground, yet even withia 
a few years, some parts of it have been found in digging; and 
he adds that of the wall extending westward along the rock by 
the coal yard to the hollow stone, a portion was lately visible. 
Denng says, that about midway between the castle and Cha- 
pel bar, in a part of the dituh now formed into a reservoir, som« 
ruins were to be seen in his time of a postern, which was erected 
ill consequence of a precept of Henry the third, in which he 
pOrders *< his bailiffs and burgesses of Nottingham without delay 
lomake a postern in itie wall of the said town, near thecastle^ 
towards Lenton, of such a breadth and height that two armed 
borsemt^n carrying two lances on their shoulders might go \a 
jAiid out ; where IViUiam, Archbishop qf Yark, had appointed it, 
^ho made the King understand that it was expedieiit for him 
;^nd his heirs, and for the castle and town*'-*— most certainly 
iber a curious subject for an arckbUhop to advise his monarch 
; it is, however, a pretty specimen of «good old tiroes'* ! 
From ihis postern, adds Dering, a bridge went over the town 
itch, which though long since hlled up, along with the whole 
!4ine of fosse on this side of the town may be traced, whilst the 
«citc of the bridge \^ even now called Bmton Bridge, an evi- 
ent corruption of the original jianie. Great part of the ditch 
If if ftill occupied as kitchen gardens, and there i% a bury- 
G 2 iaf 



itg gfoond of the Baptists at one end of it ; whilst the lane tKal j 
ntos along It b called B^f// Dyke, having formerly been uaed as ij 
ftireof exerci^ for the toHU*s people In archery. 

ANtft the middle of the last century, Chapel bar wasp 
sad fvai Uieii the last remaining specimen of the ancle 
Uttdtr ii kad been two arched rooms one of which waij 
Mr a milttary chapel, but which had foi 
yota bittt occupied as a brewhouse by an alderman 
I tubs having been placed even on t 
t to Ibeir former sanctity, iiome ^cetiou 
mm a kick at the fallen siupersUtions t 
% %MK m4 ys Fega84is in dramng up what i 

** INir fFHia rf gH IwfJ wafen into Cod, 
Aid ^vt ft«t lijaeit br w d Ibr Be«h aud blood, 
■iC WW a lifMd «jfrt*t7\ here let up, 

r piliil tadkpMii both^ p«rtal« tlie cop/* 

Tise HoUom Sume, tliovgli mneb altered of late years, mt] 
now atill be oonstdered as the remains of an ancient entranced 
or gate to ibe Kwrik About seventy years ago it was a very 
narrow pafttge* having been secured by a strong portcullis^ of 
which at that time there were some evident traces to be seen. 
Within the gale on the \eh hand, there was a cavity cut in the 
fock capable of holding twenty men with a fire place and 
l>ettches, evidently designed for a guard house, and having a 
ttairciise cut aUo in the rock for the relief of the centineli^^d 
Dr, Deriiig considers this as having been used for military puP^fl 
poses even as late as the civil wars, perhaps first executed at 
that very period. This pa>i5age» however, is now sufficiently 
wide for two carriages to pass, in consequence of a late duke 
mt Kingtton» in the year 1740, having made a present to the 
corporation of a house which belonged to him standing on the 
fOtk above the passage, and which being pulled down enabled 
the workuien to proceed in cutting away the rock to its present 



Jth, During ihxs process the labourers met with some por- 
tions of the ancient wall^ of which the mortar formed lh<.^ hard- 
est part. 

There h perhaps no town in the kingdom that has a more 
curious variety of names for rxs streets than Nottingham; 
all tak«;n from the yarious circitmstances of relative situations, 
or their peculiar qualities. Some of them, and these arc even 
now the most frequented for trade, take their appellations from 
the different occupations exercised in them at the time wht:ii 
Nottingham had a considerable portion of that species of the Iron 
manufacture now transferred to Birmingham, such as Bridle- 
smith Gale, Girdlesmiih Gale, Fletcher Gate, &c. ; others 
from different animab, Cow lane, Sheep lane, &g.* and some 
Jew lane. Rotten row, Cuckstool row, &c. sufficiently descrip- 
tive of their various properties* 

There is another street which runs along the north side of 
the town, at the back of that range of buildings that forms one 
side of the market place and Long row ; this had a name 
which, though certainly very appropriate to its situatioti^ is said 
by Throsby to have been disagreeable to the ears of a Mr. 
Rouse, a resident in it, a man of some property, but generally 
consiclered as a little deranged in his inlellerts. The proof 
which Throsby adduces of this, is, that he ottered hiraselO i^ot 
many years ago, as a candidate at an election to serve in Parlia- 
ment, and this, he says, was done in one of his mad fits ! In 
order to accomplish his design^ he treated his companions, who 
were all of the lower order of the electors, with ale, purl, and 
sometimes with rhubarb, which he strongly recommended to 
all as an excellent thing for the human constitution j and no 
doubt would have proposed measures of a similar tendency 
for the political conslitution had his ambition been gratified* 

Notwithstanding his fundness for this medicine, he disliked 
the name of the street in which he resided, and conceiving thai 
the residence of a man who wished to get into pavliameut 
should bear some reference to ihe object of his aambition he 

G 3 caused 



caused at hU own expense a number of boards to be stuck 
at Ibe most conspicoous corners and passages, bywhicb tbc 
who could read, mere informed that they were in Parliament ^ 
Scr«et* He and his ambition are now in the silent grave, but 
h3M eflbHs %0 gel some how or other into a parliamentary way* 
mtttWt beliere, not quite obliterated^ and the learned of thi 
liei^b^vHiood in order to shew their readings have adopted his 
wya, littt the UUieraie are still rude enough to make use of 
in noce vnlgar appellation. 

Tlie Stb^cts* in general, are upon a narrow scale, if we 
eepi ihe CaMle gati; aod the high Pavement; and we are sor 
to ay, whilst describing the beauties of Nottingham, that there 
k loo miach tnith in Throsb>^s observation, which we shall 
^Mteb btttleaipered with the confession that we have perceived 
constderable imp'rovement in this respect in some parts of the 
ifrwiu whibt IB others the censure must be allowed to remain 
in full ktrce. We have heard it said that the great clash of 
pwtirs in Hottinghaa] operateSi in some degree, against unani* 
MIy to ■ wwi r cs necessary for the improvement and welfare 
«f tile town; if thts is the case, we must hope that a more 
laberml spirit will begin to shew itself; for, that there is much of 
• liberal spirit, in the leaders at least, is evident from the ac* 
live e^tertions which have lately been made, and are still mak- 
ing here* in the eitise of benevolence^ and which we shall 
have occasion to notice more fully under the beads of the In- 
firmary and Lunatic Asylum. Mr< Throsby's observation is as 
fcUows :— ''but when it is said that the scile of Nottingham is 
delightful, the air salubrious^ and the town one of the pleasant^ 
est in the kingdom, it must he lamented that the new building 
are erected, many of ihein, without any design of forming 
regular streets. Well contrived streets or passages'* he adds 
*'arc highly conducive to health and cleanliness; but here la 
a rtmrrtction of buildings, generally without order, seated 
like clusters of mushrooms in a field cast up by chance/' Hi 
thtfn eiclaims^ ** how the gathered filth within doors is scattered ' 








^i\y^ in the dirty passages wiihout, in the front of the dwell- 
iJigs! — and many of these streets ami lane.s, if so they may 
called, are without any sort of pavement, consequently wit[i- 
OQt regulated water courses, and consequently pregnant with 
mischievous trfftcis," 

Of the Caves and Cavekns in th^ town we have already 
ilightly spoken. Letaml says« '^ southward as to the waterside 
be great clifes and rokkes of stones, that be large and very gtjod 
to build with, and many houses settle on the toppes of thera ; 
and at the botom of iliese be great caves, where many stones 
hath been diggid oute for buildings yn the town, and these 
caves be purtely for cellars and .storehouses." Many of thc^ 
caves and cellars are but of modern date; others no doubt are 
extremely ancient^ peiiiaps enlarged in diticrent eras ; and it 
is by no means unlikely that a strict antiquarian research into 
the subtei-raaean part of Notti«ghaHi might be attended with 
some very interesting discoveries. 

For want of any very recent information on this subject, we 
must be content to take notice of some circumstances which took 
place during the last century, and which are handed to its on 
the authority of Bering, but unfortunately that is again found* 
ed merely on the story of a bricklayer, who, if he was a fel-- 
low of any thing like what is called ^rniuj by the lower clas* 
teSt might perhaps have been amusing himself with the ere-* 
dulity of the local antiquary, 

Bering, indeed, speaking generally of these excavalions« 
*ay«, that in several parts of the town structures of a very con- 
siderable extent, arched in a regtdar manner, and supported 
by columns with carved capitals, have been discovered at dif* 
ferent times, together wiih apartments for lodging places with 
obscure entran<:es, whilst digging for foundations for the houses 
in Long Row, and on the south side of the market place. But 
there may be something apocryphal in the story of a brick« 
layer, who assured liirn that, when an apprentice, and at work 
near the Weekday Cro^s, be got into one of those subterraneous 

G 4 fabrics^ 

104 .: ir0tTI|r99AVflHIM. 

Abrics, mpported by tbofe ornameDted pillari already no- 
Iked^ and through which he made hb way to the upper end of 
lUcher gate^ ha?ipg found tb^re a wooden eap jand a wooden 
can» which aeemed to be found and whole* but» on being taken 
hold oC mouldered into dust. 

Tb» conclusion drawn from this by Dering is too erroneoos 
lo escape notice; fe^r be says 'nhese places being of the Ooikie 
order, I coi^^ecture to bare been contriYed in the time of the 
Jieptarcby/' which was in iact about three hundred yean b^cre 
Ibe introduction of Qoikk ^rckiucnarc into England ! There 
is^ howeveri more apparent probability in the sequeU as the 
causes which he assigns may hare not only brought some of 
the ancient excayations into, use, bpt rendered the making of 
elhers necessary ; .for he observes that tbe Damt, who were 
then Bagans, made frequent inroads into the kingdom of Mer- 
laa, where they exercised in a most extraordinary manner 
their cruelties upon nuns and Iriars, and indeed upon Christian 
priests of all kinds* . To them, therefore, these cares might 
have been a refege in time of danger, and there they might 
possibly have, been in the habit of performing their religious 
duties, without the danger of being exposed to the fury of 
those.persecuting idolaters. The 

Castle is the first object of particular curiosity to a stranger ; 
not so much perhaps for its own beauty, as for its commanding 
aituation, and the interesting historical passages connected with 
it. Camden, who wrote whilst the ancient fortress was in ex- 
istence, briefly observes, that this castle rises on a bold rock on 
the west side of the town, where it is supposed to have been 
anciently a fort which the Danes held out against Ethelred as 
already mentioned ; but without attending to suppositions, we 
.have the historical fact that it was founded by William the Con- 
queror, and its govcmineut conferred on William Peverel, who 
seems, or at least his son, to have been the superintendant of 

its erection.* 


e Xhif cistle not being mentioned in Domesdajf'boolr, has led some to sop- 
pose that it was not erected until the reign of Heniy the fint. 




Of in State at that period, we are told by William of New* 
bargh, that it was made so strong both by nature and art, that it 
was esteemed impregnable (except by tamine) if provided with 
a sufficient gaiTison. 

In the reign of Edward the third, it was considered so strong 
as to be a secure residence for the Queen-mother and the earl 
of March ; and it was by stratagem only that the youthful mo* 
narch, (as we shall notice more fully} was able to procure ac* 
€€ss in order to check the arrogance of the favourite. 

It was aCterwards much enlarged by Edward the fourth, par* 
ticuiarty with an immense tower, said to have been a stately 
and mugnificent fabric of atone ; to which Richard the third 
added a tower, or so much enlarged and strcngthcfned that built 
by his brother, as to be the reputed founder of it, and of this 

e scite may still easily be ascertained. 

Those who are anxious to enquire accurately into its form 
and extent may have recourse to Bering, who, by means of 
quotation, aided by conjecture, is very copious on the subject; 
but perhaps the best delineation we can give of its ancient 
stale will he from Leland, who visited it in the reign of Henry 
the eighth. He says *' there is a great likelihood that the cas- 
telle was builded of stones taken out of the rokke and the great 
ditches of it. 

The Base Court is large and meetly strong, and a stately 
bridge is there with pillars, being bestes and Giantes, over 
the ditch into the second warde ; the frontier of the which 
warde in the entering is axceedinge slronge with tnures and 
portecoleces. Much part of the west i^ide of this inner warde# 
as the haul and other thinges be yn ruines. Tlje ci^t side is 
stronge and well toured ; and so is the south side* 

Bui the moste bcautifullejit and gallant building for lodging 
is in the north side where Etlward the 4ih, began a right sump- 
tuous pccc of stone work, of the which he ckrely Bnished an 
excellent goodlie tour tif ;) heights yn building, and brought 
up the other part likewise frnm the foundation with stone and 

marvel us 



manrelus fair compactd windoes to layyng of the first soyle for 

chatBht^rs and their lofte. 

Then king Richard his brother, as I hard there, forced up 
upon that worke another peecc of one loft of tymbre* making 
round wmdows al^o of tynihre to the proportiuii of the afore- 
snid windows of Stone^ a good fi^utuialion for tlic new tymbre 
windows. So that surely thai north part is an exceding piece 
of work. 

The dongfon or keepe of the cmstelle standeth by south anJ 
egt, and is exceding strong ei muura laci ti opere^ 

Ther is an old fair chapel ie ^nd a walle of a greate depthe* 
The kepers of the ca.stelle say Edv^ard the thirdes band came 
up through the rok and toke the erie Morlyiner prisoner. 

There is yet a fair stair to g.i down by the rok to the ripe of 
Lene. There be diverse buildings belvryxt the dungeon and 
the imier court of the castelle ; and !Uer goith also douiic a stair 
ynto the groundi \\h%T Davy kinge of iScottes, as the castettanes 
say^ was kept as a prisoner. 

1 marked in all 3 chapetles yn the castiHe, and 3 welles/*^ 
From ibis description of Le)und's» it \% evident that this 15 one 
of tlie castles which had been permilted to go to decay in the 
preceding reign ; but, as Thorolorr says^*^ the whole became far 
more rniuous in the possession of Francis, e;irl of Rutland, in 
the latter end of whose time, many of the gooffly buildings 
were pulled down, and the iron and other ntateriaU i^ld/' 

During the civil warK« we have already seen that it wasoc* 
copied merely as a fortress ; but was soon after, by order of 
Cromwell so far demolisbed as to render it unserviceable tor 

After the restoration, the duke of Buckingham claimed it in 
right of his mother ; but soon after sold it to the duke of New- 
castle, who, in the year 1674, and at the advanced age of %% 
began to clear away the whole of the ancient work, and build 
the present mansion, which he lived to see about three feet 
above the ground i and dying in 167G, it was fuiished according 




lo hvB pUn about three years afterwarda* Before vrt proceed 
ii> delineate lis present state, it will be proper to take some 
notice of 

MoBTiMER^s "Hole, 
which J with its history, has caused a long controversy amongst 
the various writers since the days of Camden ; but which we shall 
be able to delineate with accuracy and novelty through the kind 
attention of Mr, Streilon of Lenton priory, the present archi- 
tect of the castle, and lo whose indefiitigable spirit of research 
the historical world is much indebted for a local discovery which 
conBrtns the ancient chronicles in their simple statements, and 
clears up that immense mass of doubt and conjecture in which 
so many later hisiuriaus have completely lost their way. It 
I8i at the same time, necessary to remark, that the discovery to 
which we allude, had been partisLlly known before, although the 
later commentators had, by some unaccountable neglect, failed 
lo avail themselves of the light which it throws upon the whole 

Rapinj speaking of the plan of Edward the third, to seize 
upon the favourite, takes his account of it from the old ehro* 
nicies, and nays, that *' to execute hi^ designs, he chose the 
lime the parliu^ment was to meet at Nottingham. 

The court being come to that town, queen Isabella and the 
carl of March lodged in the castle with a guard of one hundred 
and eighty knights;* whilst the king with a small rttinue was 
lodged in the town. 

In spite of these precautions, w htch seemed to shew that the 
the queen and favourite were not without their uneasiness, Ed- 
ward having gained the governor,t entered the castle through 

a seem 

* Stow &ayt that tlie Queen !iad itio leys of tfae castle brouglit to tier 
every niglifj and laid them under her pillow. 

♦ The governor was Sir Willianj Elands who, ia « MSS< chroitklc qmited 
by Dcriiigj la deicribed tii »<iyiiig to llie young king, when the matter vtui, first 
proposed. " Sir woll ye understands^ that the y ftts of tbc caMcIlc bcth loltcii witU 
Ukjh mud queen laabell ^ent hldder by nigtit foi tlic kayca dicreof, and they 

* Msret passagDf Aiid ctme into his mother's aptrtment^there 
watmt first aoino noise nade, and two knights of the gnard were 
killed. The earl of March was apprehended, and notwith- 
standing the queen's cries and entreaties to spare the gallant 
IfortiBier, he was carried oat the same way the king came in, 
siad conducted nnder a strong guard to the tower of Lwidon.^* 
tnw oldeet description of the pamtige thas alluded to, b In 
f Camden, 

kelsjrdtf under tb« cbemseO of her beddii bede anto tlie morrow, and to I 
Mtj aot cone into Ibe eaatell by the jats no mraner of wjte, bat yet I know 
hnHber wigre by an nley tbet stietcbetb oete of the word tinder die esidie 
kill^ tbe CRfleU tbat gootb into the wett;, which eley qoeen Usbeli no wete 
fiCber mcayne ne the Mortimer ne none of his compenye Jcnowtk al not, end 
so I ahall lede yoa throogh the aley^ and co ye shall come into the caitell 
without aspiges of any men tbat beth your Enemies." Stowe and the other 
cktwiklers inform ns more partSeotarly than Rapin seems to bare Ibonght 
Mscwary, that it was upon Friday after the feaat of St. Lnke, in tbe dead 
ifaM of tbe niebt* that tbe kinf and bis party ^ got into tbe cistlt by a way 
■mde nnder gronnd. which through a rock pcsirfk ly stairt «p ta tbe kitfr 
(wbkb place hath ever since been called MortioMr's Hple) and entering 
a rqom next to the queen's lodgings, found the Earl with Henry bishop of 
lineoln, and some others, &c.'* Vide Magna Britannia, Vol. IV. p. 7* 
The qneen Is stated to ba^e exclaimed, ** Bel Fitz, Bel Fitai ayes pitie do 
gentill Mortimer." 

^iXbia anfortnnate favounte was not beard in bis defence against tbe Tarioos 
fbi^vfet brooghl against Yam, some of which were certainly ratber political 
errari than political crieifs, whilst others were more supported by ta/frmoc 
than by provf. With respect to his^ personal familiarity with the Queen- 
asoiber however, that roust still remain as an historical fisct ; altfaoogfa he bad 
a Very numerous family by his wife, Joan daughter of Peter do Gene- 
viUe Lord of Trim in Ireland. His sentence, which, ran, that be should, 
•I n traitofy be drawn and banged on tbe oonmon gallows at Tyburn, 
fias .f x^uted without the least (avoor. His body, after hanging two 
days and nights, was granted to tbe Friars minorib who baried it in tbehr dinicb, 
now Christ Church. The irregularity of bis not being beard, bowavery proved 
in tbe end advantageous to his family, for Roger his grandson obtained af- 
terwards an act to reverse this sentence as erroneous, and bis descendants, in 
the fevale line, afterwards mounted the throne of England. Edward the 
iburdi was son of Anne Mortimer, duchess of York, and beireta of Edniond 
her brother, the last earl of March. 9 



Camden^ who after telling us ''certain it U that in the firsi 

court of the castle we descend with lights down many steps inio 

another subterraneous vault and arched rooms ctit in the rock 

A^tialf; oti the walb of which are carved Christ's passion^ and other 

things, hy the hand as they pretend of David king of Scots who 

was there imprisoned/' adds " in the upper part of the castl6 

I which rises high on tlie rock, we came by many steps into 

a sabterraneous cavern called Moi"tIiner*a hole, from Roger Mor* 

timer's concealing himself in it, when his conscience gave him 

the alarm.'' 

The later historians all animadvert upon this evident error 
of Camden; and Dering says, "had Mr. Camden been more 
I exact in observing the place we are speaking of, he wotild 
; hardly have fallen into this error, &c. ;" bat we cannot help re* 
forting upon Dering that even fie seems not to have taken that 
careful observation of the place which might have been eic- 
pected from the hints given him by a Mr. Paramour, and which 
he mentions in his description of the place* 

That the passage, now called Mortimer's hole, leading from 

I the court of the old castle, to the level at the bottom of the rock, 

was not the secrci passage mentioned by the historians, is almost 

self evident; for it is a vault seven feet high and six wide with 

broad steps the whole way down cut in the rock, though now 

almost entirely worn away, and upwards of 107 yards in length. 

There are even now the remains, of several gates which were in 

It for defence ; and Dering himself says, that after the conquest^ 

I it was no doubt made use of for the purpose of conveying the 

" meat and beer, for the use of the garrison, the nearest way 

into the castle, its lower entrance opening into the brewhouse 

I yard, and connecting it with the mil Is erected on the river Lene, 

then brought to run close by the rock on which the castle 

stands. After noticing a passage from Drayton's Baron^s wars, 

purporting thai this •* wonderful passage had been hewed and 

j dug out during the Danish invasion by some of the Saxon kiiigi 

S better iccurjty in c^nt of a siege*' Dering adds^ that for 


bisotvn part he could not help thinking it designed to rdreva 
the castle with men and providion^, in case of a siege, in which 
thtj enemy should be in paisession of the town, 

Thtt a passige used for such purpose* could hate been un- 
known in the reign of Edward the third, is impossible ; ne might 
ihtrefore, sufely conclude, even without having seen theplace^ 
that the paiftage from the upper court yard of the castle into 
tll^ rock yard, or brewhou&e of the castle, as it is railed in old 
wrilingc* and which seems the only one known to Leiand or 
Olinden, could not have been thai secret passage, through which 
Edwtird and his party entered. With respect to its general dc- 
•crtption, even as it exists at the present day, Dering is cer* 
laifily very correct lie siays, that this way through the rock 
wat provided viiih no U^9 than six gates, of which some rcmatni 
ire &liU to \m aeeci* hcsides a side one,* on the left hand going 
dowtt : ** the ftrsl gitt was above ground leading from the turret 
down Kft ili« tec^Kiid; the place where the turret »tood is now 
c«f eriMl bv part of the modem fabric^ and the passage to the 
} {% illM* and th« gs^xe itM-lf walled up with stone ; to 
I a new passage cut out of the rock since the building 
of the present cattle, without the wall of the paveil yard. 

•* The distance bel%%*een the first and the second gate I take 
to have been about 16 yards; from this we ttep down 14 yards, 
and meet with the marks of another, and 15 yards lower was a 
fourth ; miout 45jurds behw ihU, on the l^ hand, we abterre a 
guH ktkktd irpf wkick with jeren or eight 9tep$ did lead up 
into fOfMt wtfrh ^ the old tower (as the late Mr. JcmUhan Para* 
mour informed mt^ in whose time it was kricked up ;) about eight 
yards below this stood a fifth, and the sixth and lowest which 
0|Nncd into the ruck yard, and is also now bricked up, is still about 
Itmo yurds lower — there arc, all the way down, till within 15 or 
16 yards of the b<jtloin, openings in the side of the rock to con. 
irey light into this passage, and to serve the soldiers to shoot 







their arrows througb upoti the enemy; in the upper part ar6 
cut out sev^eral regular port boles, ninth show that, during the 
civil war» caaons were plaivted llicre^ wiach conimaiiik'U all 
the [DeadowA ; there are besides in this part of the vault ob* 
•ervable man/ holes or excavations about a foot in hetglit^ 
breadth, and drpth ; tbe^^e seem to have been made to lodge 
caiujon ball?* in to prevent their rolling to the bottom," 

From thi» description, which is undoubtedly accurate in 

t general, we are led to ituppose, that Dr. Dering was as careless 
in his examination of the place as those who went before him* 
and il is extretnt^ly curious that he pays no parttcul;ir attention 
lo the observation of Mr. Panunour noticed abi>ve in Italics, If 
lie bad observed this passage in the lel\ hand, he would have 
found that it was not bricked up, but .so artificially closed ^itli 
rough stoue as to resemble the Uving rock itself. 

Mr. Strettonj ho\%ever, was particularly struck with Para- 
mour's description, and htingdelerrained to ascertain the lact* 
with considerable dilliculty discovered the entrance alluded to* 
which led into a narrow wimling pa^^sage mto the body of the 
rockt and seemed to direct tttelf towards the preseDt terracef 
but was entirely filled up at the upper end. After removing 
the gravel and soil from that part of the terrace at the east end of 
Uie present building, and as near as possible to the sit^ of the 
ancient keep, he was enabled to enter J be passage from above, 
and which by a careful comparison with the plan of the castle 
drawn by Smithson in 1617, and some other MSS, doemaaents 
m Mr- Stretion's own possession, wa? ascertained to have origi- 

tnally led into the keep which contained the state apartments, 
Thh then was the Mecrei passage which Sir William Eland 
alone knew, and uf which Mof timer and the queen had nosus* 

Ipicion ; for the principal passage did not lead into the body of 
the castle* but into a court yard, and into which, if there was an 
entrance from the keep, that was considered as secure by tbe 
keys being delivered up at night to the Queen* 

All doubts and conjectures are therefore completely cleared 
Ji up 




mjg^ by ihb tnf esugaLion : so that it is no longer oecessaiy lo m^ 
pose lilt principal pa&sage a secret one, a thmg almost mcredi- 
' bh ; Oft It aoillf hive done* to doubt the whole story« in coo- 
a«|iieiict of ihr apptrent incredibility, 

Tibs ptt59g« itaelf is again partly closed up below, with the 

iMMi wbicil b«ifore had been used tot that purpose; on the 

, leTel of the terracQ it is completely secured and gravelled civeri « 

b marked, so as to iihew in the clearest R»n»fr 

I Hith the ancient build itjgM as laid down m Smith- 

i ton's plan. 

in trhich the king of Scots is said to haicbecB 

at the cither end of the castle, and wasm&cl 

[ »olhiij|g OKM-e than a complete range of cellars dug out of tha 

lock, part of which we believe were preserved for the use of 

Ihc modern maitsion^and the rest tilled up with rubbish.* 

If U were not Ibr these historical tkcts^ the castJe iteelf, as it 
now axbl^ would not be an object of any particular interest 
Al tha lime of its erection^ indeed^ it was much admired ; ai]d 
Stukrty. who visited it soon after, says, " it is a goodly building 
on a high perpendicular rock^ uid seems to have been modelled 
after s^me of Inigo Jones4'^ 

Mr ThroshyV animadversion on it, howeveri is not an unjust 

oaii ha aays '* art should hero have been, in etiect» as bold %9 

alnra; alof\y massy pile toweriitg towards tho heavens^ with 

iirrtlsand embauled walls, tlie tiiite of ages pa^t, placed on its 

Urow, instead of the present formal and equal edifice^ would 

[liave created a scene of splendour not in saemiogly irregular 



* In 17tO thii pUttt was opened bj order of the then duke of Newcjiitte, 

jnofder to W'urrli inr the cnrtUig? s«id to liave tieen ni»de by the kiug ol 

$ffmt snd d«icri^d by Canwient but >«rirhout Any disco very of (liem. owing 

|t» the (rtAt qimnetljr of rubbi^bj Ate* It is now wjtlted uji with hrtck> ntid iJ 

I th« rtiAi *u\ti of « ^ard which was formed fur vnrious donieitic purpofe^» 

r ft •Intighter hou9<!« &c« at the {jertod when the castle wm uiltsbtted try 






ITct it must be allowed that the ediBce has some merit ia iU 
architcfcture abstractedly considered. It is a very large build- 
ing* on a rustic baseaient which supports an ornamented front 
of the Corinthian order, with a very grand double flight of 
tteps leading to the principal range of apartments. Over the 
door of the north ea^t front, here alluded to, is an equestrian 
Matue of the founder* who was so determined on its erection 
I hat he tied up a considerable estate by his will fur that express 
purpose. The statue is the more remarkable for being carved out 
of one solid block of stone brought from Donnington in Leices- 
tershire, and was executed by an ingenious artist of the name 
of Wilson.* The other sides of the building are handsome, but 
not so highly ornamented, with a handsome terrace surround- 
ing the whole, and an arcade on the south aide. Thift has long 
been a favourite promenade with the haut ton of Not ting 1mm, and 
tf certainly very delightful in a summer evening, from the ex* 
tenatveness of the prospect in which the Trent format a very con- 
:«piciJous object in the fort* ground; then the groves of Cliftoa 
appear with Wilford on the banks of the river; beyond this to 
the right is a rich valley over which Derby shire may be clearly 
seen; then Woflaton hall, and the forest oF Sherwood, &c. and 
to the left» the vale and cattle of liclvoir, Rudington hills, and 
Colwick hall and village, Flolm Pierpoint, &c. whilst almost: 
the whole town of Nottingham h below in a birdB eye view. 
This is the same prospect partly seen from the openings in the 
rock in Mortimer's Hole, and vvhich, in its detached masses^ 
iieems like so many living pictures in a frame* 

The apartments \n the interior were once very fine ; but they 
Vol. XI I. H have 

* Dering tayi ofliiig, th&t loon ft(ter ercculing iKji work, he was for a tints 
•polled for a statuary} b«caotea Leiceatershira ludy, tbe wjdaw Lady Pud- 
•ey» who wa« poifrtted of a very targe jointorc, fatling deeply in love with 
huog goihm koigljlcd, aiid married Iiim; but lie Uvjiig up to the citent of 
hU aproQ »triag e&tate, and his Jady dying before him, Sir William <}uick1y 
ralumed to his formrr occupatiofi, aad the public rccovarad iha los* of an 
f miiieTir artivt. 



iMve l^Mg bf en neglected. Throsby, who visited It about fifteeii 
Of tireiuy yean ago« says ** within the castle I foand notbingto 
ailimct ; the pieiures which once adomi!d the vi^alls of the apart- 
mefil» are now immured* aiid the chief of the ^rniture. 
remaiiisonly stimetapesfry* &.e. Some of the rooms I 
Ml occupied by a Mi^ Rirkby; lately a part of the ciulltt 
t ttted aa a boartliiig ftcbool." At present we fiod it inbabited 
[by luro ladiest in separate teuements; but there isi nothing to 
[beaeeUf which can induce a stranger to intrude upon their do* 
itic privacy* The 


I in biU i^mall* loniaintng only IdO acrrB^ and at present in a very 

I neglected slate, yet still used as a summer promenade^ and 

ff«q«ented from diflerent ruads leading through it to 

iTUfiifdf Lentoo, &c« U has now no deer, and but very few 

1^ y«l wr are informed that it was well stocked with the 

fi»rroer oiitik aller 17iO» and that it had many good timber 

tf«ea» until they were cut dowo on the property betug leqiies- 

tral«>d in the civil wars* 

Dr, Tborotou is of opinion that this park« or at least the one 

r hali of it« was that which William Peverell had a license from the 

Conqueror to enclose for the purpose of making him an orchard. 

In that Itcen^' tlie quantity stated is ten acres^ which of ajs- 

iCicnt foreU measure is equal to about 6fty of our present ones> 

iTbe most remarkable object in the park is a range of 


or Pofiish or Papist ho1es« as they are vulgarly called^ which has 
cen considered as confirtiring the conjecture that ihey actually 
belonged to an abbey or monastery^ probably that of Lentor, 
built by Will tain PfvereL 
They stand some distance west of the castle, in the face 4lf a 
Lc!iirpretly near to the banks of the Lene, as it now runs ; aiid are 
described by Deriiig as the ruins of an ancient pile of building, 
cut and framed in, the rock. There are 










no written records of ihem whatever^ and of course, conjectures 
have been many and various. 

In the early part of the last century, when Stukely visited 
them, they were more perfect that at present: he says, " what 
is visible at present is not of so old a date as the time of the 
Britons, yet I see no doubt that it is founded upon theirs. This 
is a ledge of perpendic«i!ar rock h^vvn out into a church, houses* 
chambers* dove* house, &c. The church is like those in the 
rocks at Bethlehem, and other places in the Holy I-and. The 
altar is natural rock, and there has been painting upon the wall : 
a steeple, I suppose where a bell hung, and regular pillars. 
The river here winding about makes a fortification to it, for it 
comes to both ends of the cliiF, leaving a plain before the mid- 
dle. Th« way to it was by gates cut out of the rock, and with 
oblique entrance for more safety. Withtiut is a plain with thre« 
niches, which I fancy their place of judicature, or the like : be- 
tween this and the castle, a hermitage of like workmanship/' 

To this description, it is scarcely possible to add any thing 
that will give a beUer idea of the place. We can only say, that 
it has suffered considerably from the elFects of time and weather 
sioce Stukely wrote; but enough still remains to gralify* 
and, at the same time, to excite curiosity. The outer part has 
ftiUen down in several places, evidently from the etli^cts of 
damp and frost ; but the church and altar, and even fiome ves- 
tiges of the ancient paintings, may be clearly traced ;* many of 
the pillars are ornamented with capitals, &c. and thespandrilled 
Gothic arch is very well imitated m several places ; a fact in* 
deed which militates against their very early antiquity. It is 
mnch to be regretted that no care whatever is taken to preserve 
this venerable specimen ; the floor f>f it is broken into boles, 
where the water lodges* and much of it is disfigured Avith the 
grossest Bltbiness. In the summer, these excavations have be^ 

H2 come 

♦ Svme iftgeninus ttrtlit has added a nntBWr pf piintingi, such at ck'phanrf, 
Mldiers in full accoatrcraents, kc, not itreJegaotly donr, but which muit b« 
CloMcd amongn '* modem aniiqucs,'' 

flspfiie Om luuuito of tii« veiy lovrtit of Motely^wkothira tak» 
up their nocturnal abode ; and if no(fc A dan-of thievety tl mxf he 
fMVidevrdM/ioaiathingwoKMk • • ,. r. . - . - • *iiif » i 
.1 .On a careful exaAiaa^ao^ U. it^videnl thai Ihs wholSiliMe 
9f e3i6av«liw>ii.ibai: baau the work of diffiureaA periods*.. The 
J>oYe-c0ta» for iii8fta0C0i>M but of Modern date; aodcloealiyil* 
where there are chimniei cut through the roek« ihu macto of the 
imok« iitUlreinain» as ICby the.eflfecls#fyeaterday^-e,ooc u paw Dy > 
J)^tiog. aaygi that« ki his tmew tome old peiapte:.rei»eniheiicd 
thjt» oiiieh more extensife J and be .adds from UndkioB* f ilhat 
ia,the time of il», civil war,, the Romtdheads had. demolished a 
part of Ahem unfar pretence, ^f Ihetr abhorrence Id fioperjf^ 
whluh majhpprhaps bo tb^/sole lerigiii •of • their teceiifiBg^Ihe 
vime.of PmMit hotflSk 

t^.W» wiUr'liot^fi4iow,the. various authors threug|i' Ihetr wide 
cang^ pf cofljjet^tuvfsf but must confess that there seems most' 
probabilil^ m tM which, supposes them lo h»ve»heen the iesi* 
djsni:e of some order, of anchorets or h^mits^inol endoiied, 
though perhaps dependent upon some religious riieuee»- and* 
therefope. aotoreoNded in eny list uf religieusf fsnedetisns. < To 
whieh we must add« that it is extremely ^probable thai, wheii 
mpreentiret their entrance, was more ea#iily concealed; aadk 
therefore, that in the early days of the reformation -they may 
have been occupied at times Tor religious purposes, by these 
who were averse from the neyr order of things^ ;end wished Iq 
enjoy the exercise of their ritual in secret. . 
. The place designated by Stukely, as an.hermiiage> has 
nothing remarkable ; and we warcnot fortunate enough to find 
ou^ the spot mentioned by leering as affording the most icleer 
and perfect echo, he had ever met with» 

At the upper end of the pa^k* adjoining the Derby reedv 
are the . . 


already mentioned ; a spacious range of brick buildings, open 
and airy, and healthfully situated. They were erected by 
government in 1792-93. 







^ When the unhappy Cbarlet the f\rst resolved to raise an artny 
hi defence of his prerogatives against the encroachments of the 
Parliamenl'i he appointed Nottingham as the spot where his 
standard should be raised, and which is said to have been first 
hoisted on one of the towers of the old cajit1e> but afterwards re- 
moved to the 

Standard HjLt, 

Which is just ivithoLit the old vrall on the north side, and 
sttnated on part of ihe Castle Hill. The <ipot is still pointed out 
at the present day» thoug^h its name has since been changed to 
ihfltl of Nevil's Closei being the property for many years of a 
family of that name. In order to mark the exact spot, a post 
had stood here for a long time, but being at length pulled up, 
the then owner, in order that it might still be exactly known, 
planted several elm trees; but these were repeatedly destroyed 
by the mischievous boys of the plarci perhaps stimulated by 
those who ought to hare been witter than to wish to destroy the 
memory of a place remarkable for an historical fact, for the sake 
of some paltry feeling in politics. 

In consequence of the removal of any exact mark^ the local 
antiquaries have been at their usual conjectures respecting a 
fact even so recent as this ; and some have asserted thai a hill 
a atnali distance to the north, called Derry Mount, was the iden- 
tical spot. Dr. Dering, however, is of a contrary opinion, and we 
think for a sufhcient reason, if he is right in asserting that this 
latter place is not within the jurisdiction of the castle. 

Waving all furl her conjecture^ however, we shall briefly state 
a few of the leading circumstances from Clareridon, who tells 
us, at the close of his first volume, that the king " published a 
proclamation by which he required all men who could bear 
arms to repair to him at Nottingham by the 25th of August fol- 
lowing, on which AAy he would set up his royal standard tliere> 
which all good subjects were obliged to attend.^^ 

It appears that some of his advisers proposed York in pre- 
ference to Nottingham J but the king thought he would be 

II S nearer 

118 yoTTtyeaAiciKfBB. 

> to mne fHeadi who wwtt alirriBg m hiirfiMrosr^lMliiii 
the sooth and weit He •ecordingljr came to NottfaigkaMi • 
few days beibre the 9Sch; and haviiig gone lowardf CoveMry 
with a few troopfy die gates were shot against him, and he BomaA 
it necenary, in consequence of the appearance of aDaie of the 
parliamentarian forces, to return to Nottingham on the day «p* 
pointed for the ceremony. 

^ According to proclamation, upon the 35th day of Angnst 
(160,) the standard was erected abont six of the clock in the 
evening of a very stormy and tempesUioas day. The king hiaih 
self with a small train rode to the top of the Castle hill» Vamey 
the Bjiight Marshal, who was standard beaieo oarrying the 
standard, which was then erected oii that place, with little ether 
ceremony than the sound of drams and trampets : melancholy 
men obsenred many ill presages about thai time. Thestuidard 
was blown down the same night it had been set op, byavery 
strong and onruly wind, and could not be Sxed again inaday 
or two, till the tempest was allayed, he*** 

Bering, and Tboroton, as well as Thresby, speak of its having 
been erected on the 98d; but this most allode merely to the 
usoal hoisting of the standard in the castle on the kuig's arrival, 
which was on the 33d, and which is done even at the present 
day at Windsor when his Majesty is there, but the ^brmai 
erccticn of it, agreeable to the proclamation, was that which took 
place on the Standard hill. The king's declaration on this im« 
portant day, was, after setting up the standard, and the cere* 
mony of blessing his arms, «' that he would govern according 
to the known laws of the land ; and if he failed in these things* 
he would expect no relief from maui, nor protection from 

Before we quit the environs of* the castle, it is necessary to 
take some further notice of the 

Ktvam Lemb, 
as far at least as it is here locally cmmected with the town. In 
an old perambulation of the forest taken in the 16th of Henry 





third (19^1) the bouuds are descnbed asninning "solo Lenton, 
aiid from ihence by the same water, as it was wont of old lime 
to run into the water of Trent/' which confirms the generally 
received opinion as recited by Dering. that at Lenton bridge it 
u»edj before the Conquest, to turn towards the soiiih and empty 
itself into the Trent, opposite lo Wiiford ; but that the Conqueror, 
or at least one of the Peverels, turned it into a new cot running 
by the foot of the castle rock, as it does at present, along the 
south side of the town^ and thence to SneUuon meadows, where 
it divides the jurisdiction *»f Noliingham and the pariah of 
Sneinton^ and turning short otl'f<iUs into tl»e TrenU 

Some people have been of opinion th;ti its present course is 
of a more modern date ; but the fjuotaiion from llie pirambtJ- 
lation must now be considered as conclusive* 

Leland says, " the little ryver of Lene and the great stream 
of Trente cum nere together in the medow on the south fide uf 
ike town; and when any land waters cum down much of the 
tale and meadowes there be overflowexi*" Since his time, how- 
ever, great improvemeuts have been made in ihf state of this river. 
Throsby has recorried the particulars with such accuracy, that wc 
shall quote him where he says^ that the passage over tiie Leen 
(or Lene) into Nottingham, was made between twenty and 
thirty years ago, very commodious, and aji ornament to the town. 
In fact it is sa at the present moment; but when he wrote, it had 
been partly destroyed by a great tttjod which happened lu 
March 1795. He further says when the improveraenis firM look 
place, in consequence of making a cut from the Erewa^lj canal 
near Nottingham, to communicate with the Trent near Trent 
bridge, the old road ftom the bridge to the town was in u great 
measure cut away for that purpose. The new high road wa<i, 
therefore, formed in a straight litic, at a very great expense, and 
raised to a height which vv as supposed to be far above any pro* 
bable rise of the rivers* By the execution of tlii^ plan, a num- 
ber of little bridges were united into one grand and light range 
of arches over all the water currents and sv\ampy grotmd on the 

H i L*>f\dou 



hmitm hmmI. Tliia* however^ could not resbt thatsev«c« Ibcdf 
Ui« Tcry fooodalioo «>f the arches was shaken^ mocli oflli 
solid road wi9 swvpt aumy ; and ibe whole damage m 
m^lfd al upward! of 900(ML 

fiince that period, the xvbote has been repaired, maj 
coRMilidaied* as to hid defiance to ev^try thing but the 
aUacki of time* 

Th# TVrnl to4|€ fraa anciently c^lltd Hesthbethe bridgej at^ 
cording to the opinion of Thorotun and others; and mw:k an* 
UiqiMmii conjecture may be found on this subject in Deriftg and 
Throsby, There certainly was a bridge built Ijere by EdwaH 
IIhi liidert about a century before the Norman accession^ which 
rtmaoed in part until IStiS, when it was almost completely de- 
alroyed by the ice. The corporation then erected the present 
bridge ofaione^ oonaiaitng of twenty arches, to which conside* 
rable r^paira and improirttnents have been made; notwithstand- 
ing which it hat a rery retierable a ppeerancej throwing iu long 
range of arcbea acroAS the flats on the London road. The fundi; 
for the 9Uppoft otthis bridge are now, wc believe, pretty consi* 
derablc. Even in the middle of the last century^ they anaonnttd 
to 130/. per annum, which conniving of houses and landi granted 
by the crown, ofgiftsi and legacies, besides toUs, &c, must now 
be considerably tmproired in value. We liave not seen any re* 
cant atatement of thc^e funds; but the sum mentioned was a 
net receipt after paying all charges^ " burgesses parts, &c/' 
The rapidity of the floods in the Trent, ao often mentioned, 
pravants all Httcmpt<s at the erection of water mills, and is the 
reaaon why a stranger on his first arrival is forcibly struck with 
iha appaarance of so many windmills, where there is apparently 
inch a copious supply of water. We cannot hclpljcing of opinion, 
bowever,that very commodious water mills might be erected here 
upon tba same principle as those ou the banks ofthe Rhine in Ger- 
many* These are erected upon platforms of wood, properly 
fccured against the force of the current, and made to rise and 
_&U with the water. In seasons of frost, they might be totally 

4 removed i 

KOTTtNOHABtSlffnC. 1?# 

remored; as is done in many ciiirs an ih^ Rhine, particularly 
at Menu. Notlinghanii in its 

Ecclesiastical BivtsioN, 
has three parishes; St. Mary's; St* Peter's; atitl St, Nichotas ; 
each of which has its appropriate church; anti there is besides 
the extra-parochial chapel of St. James, lately built on part of 
the castle ground* 

St. Mary's is the largest parish, and contains the prin- 
cipal church, nhicU standing on a bold eminence., twenty-three 
yards in perpendicular height above the level of the meadows, 
presents a commanding appearance to the spectator in almost 
every direction, Leland, when speaking of it, says that *' it is 
excellent nexvc, and nny forme yn work, and so many fair wyn- 
dows yn it that no artificer can imagine to set more." Stukely 
also describes it as " a fine old llghtjiotne building, with a good 
ring of eight bells," 

As it is said by Letand to be " newe/' we must presume that 
it had just received a complete repair at his visit; for its anti- 
quity is of a much older date, and carried hack by some to the 
Saxon times, evident indeed from its architecture, or at least 
previous to the reign of Stephcu, when thai mode of architec-^ 
lure fell into disuse* We are not disposed, however, to place 
any reliance on the tale of Dering, of a workman who told htm 
that in repairing the west end, he had seen a date cut in one of 
the timbers, which he did not remember, but knew that it was 
upwards of eleven hundred years old ! This church is built 
quite in the collegiate style, in form of a cross, with a very 
august tower in the centre, and evidently of the Gothic of Henry 
the seventh's reign : and its whole appearance is venerable and 

^Jtisat present undergoing a complete repair, and it is but 
fltie to the taste of those who superintend it, to say, that the 
ancient workmanship is preserved as much as possible. It is at 
the same time a matter of regret that the ancient bell loft in the 




hn^y of tlie cbureh is taken down^ as it was a very cttHovt 

ffrtg^ent of oW cusimns. 

The interior is as %'€Dcrabl« as the outside ; tlie windows cast | 
ttdim religiouii liglit, but arc no longer adorned with iheir an- 
cient painted glass, except some trifling fragments. There was J 
silso an ancient painting on the waU, of St. Christopher; but 
nothing remains to gratify cyriosity, except some faint shades 
' that are scarcely perceptible- 

The moniimenls in the church have once been numerous; 
both myraf or of the tablet kind^ and also many brass plates; 
but these latter were almost entirely stripped oflT by tbe liberal 
nnd reff^rming round Iieads in the civil commotions of tbe 
St vcnteenih century, 

In the south aisle is " our Lady's* chapel" which contains the 
lomb of the first and second Earls of Cbre, who died at the he- 
ginning and middle of the seventeenth century; and opposite 
to this, on the north side is the " Chapel of All SainU*' the bu- 
rial place of the Plum! re family. In ibis latter chapel is a win- 
flnw which, fur si^eand elegance of ornament, surpasses roost 
that we have seen of its date and style, and whose ramifications 
mu\ irncery, by making even darkness more visible^ add much 
III ihr nolemniiy of ibc surrounding scene of mortality. 

The ftiuient organ was destroyed in the civil wars; anotbtr 

Intib in I7(U, which %vas taken down and replaced in 1742: 

but the present elcgane and fine toned one was erected in 1777, 

by Sncuf^r, It has two fronts ; and, both in tone and elegance^ 

is a convincing proof of tbe extraordinary skill of its maker* 

For the inscriptions on the raonumentji, ami on the bells which 

jiow amount to ten in number, we must refer to Dering. as even 

^ slight recapitulation would far exceed our limits* Before the 

In'fuimation this church had a efuild or fraternity of six priests 

iin honour of the Trinity, and also three chantries. The Tri* 

k^nntal and Annual visitatiotis of the archbishop^ and of tbe 

urehdracon, are always held in ibis church. 

Hr. Pi:tkii's Church is a hiiudsome edifice with a lofty spire, 

^ standing 



standing near the market place. li silU retains some memorials 

of Saxon archiiecture ; much of Gothic ; and a considerable share 
of modern additions^ added during a recent repair. The necessity 
for these modern additions was occasioned by the damage which 
itsustained in the civil wars during the siege of the town by 
Cromwell's forces; at which time in particular a shell fell upon 
the vestry, and destroyed not only that but also pari of the body 
of the church. It is at present well lighted in consequence of 
its modern windows^ and issudictently large to accommodate the 
parishioners ; which cannot be said of St. Mary's^ whose parish 
is considerably krger than both the others. 

Whilst digging a vault about a century ago^ the workmen dis- 
covered the remains of John de Piumirc, the benevolent foun- 
der of the hospital at the bridge^ and which still bears his name ^ 
and who* with his brother, desired by witi to be buried in the 
chape) of All Saints in this church* 

Here is a very good ring of bells, the 7th of which was given 
to th* church by Margery Duubleday,a washerwoman ^ in 1544, 
with twenty shilliit^s per anmim to the j(exto(i> for the ringing 
of it every morning at fonro'clock> in order to rouse all future 
nymphs of the tub to their daily labour. 

There are many monuments in the church j but they are prin* 
cipally interesting to the local antiquary, as iUustrative of the 
descent of the various families in the parisht In this church the 
Spiritual Court is held« 

St. Nicholas' Church was pulled down in the civil wars, by 
order of Colonel Julius Hutchinson, the parliamentarian gover* 
iiorj its materials applied to private profit, and the belb as it 
is said sent by tlic goviTimr to the niauur house at Uvvthorpc.* 
The reason assigned for pulling it down, was its extretne vici- 
nity to the castle, which would have been beneficial to a he- 

• Tbiiteemfi however* partly conirndicted bj a fuel incntiotied bjThroiby, 
who sayt tb»l in digging sniue veart ago tiPitr llie loundalion of the pres(T»t 
tower, |Jirt uf a t>eU was foutid brokro io pieces, Aiip[»u4«il td liave bven din^ 
ax the detuuliiiiia of tke uld churcli. 



^egiiig army in case of an attack* The pfes^nt ediBce irift 
erected in 1678; it is of bricks oniamented with stone corners, 
window frame s, &c. and has a light and airy appearance. There 
is a very fioe prospect from the church yard, though its elevt* 
tion is only ekven yards abowc the level of the Trent. • 

-• The interior iR very well lighted, and extremely comfortableii 
Dnsequence of the great attention paid to it; for the parish n 
of 4ate years so increased 9s lo be^superior to St. Peter V It 
consists of a spacious nave and two side aisles, the southem- 
niost of which was much enlarged in 1166 by priva e subscrip- 
tion; and a similar extekif^ion of the north aisle took place m 
1783, when 500/. were raised for that purpose. It has been of 
late years new paved, and oriiamL-nted with a handsome pulpti 
nnd reading de^k, and also with a new gallery on ihe nortK 
side. The ancient monuments were all destroyed; and the 
modern ones do not require any particular notice. Amongiit 
other parochial charities^ is a chance htquui of Anthony Walker, 
a wandering beggar, who left iwo cottages and sijc acres of 
ground at Matlock to that parish in which he should did which 
happened to be this of St, Nicholas. 

St. James's Church, or chapel, has laltly been built, in con* 
aequence of the great increase of population, on castle ground, 
which is extra^parocbial. On or near to its ociie, was in ancient 
times a chapel^ which was granted by Edward the second to 
the friars C«irmelttes, to whose monastery it was adjoining. 
Here also the court of the honour of Peverel was held for some 
centuries^ but now removed to Basfbrd. 

The present edifice is light, neat, and elegant, both w ithtn 
and without, and judiciously and tastefully executed in imita- 
tion of the Gothic style* under the superintendance of Mr. 
Strelton of Lenton priory, whose taste and research as an anti- 
quary are fully displayed by his choice of style and selection 
of ornaments. The inside is peculiarly neat and comfortable, 
without losing any thing of its Gothic atr; and ihe light support 
of the galleries, together with the execution of the pulpit and 




reading desk> are in Ihemsdves complete modela for future 

If it has any defect it h in the lownes^« of the tower, which 
we believe proceeds from a lowness in the subscription purse. 
By the act of Purliameiit for its establmhment, the subscribers 
have at present the presentatiun in ihoir own haiid^t^ but it iJ 
in a certain (tme to devolve to the crown* 

In the town of Nottitighara, there were formerly seireral 
REHCiots Foundations. LeJand says, "there hath been 3 
hou^s of frereSf as I remember, whereof 2 stoode toward the 
weste of the towiie, and not far from the cagteHe/' 

The Grey Fkurs were placed in the Broadmarsh not far 
from the castle. The bouse was founded by Henry the third 
in 1350, and granted at the dissolution to Thomas Heneage. It 
is now the scite of a brewery. 

The White Friars, or Carmelites, had a house in St. Nicholas 
parish. It was founded by Reginald lord Grey de Wilton* and 
Sir John Shirley, Knt. and granted by Henry the eighth to 
James Sturley. 

The HousR of St« Johns belonging to the knights of Jerti* 
salem^ stood on the eastern side of the town. 

St. Leonard's Hospital for Lepers, was also somewhere on 
thA eastern side : it had the privilege of cutting the dead wood 
in the forest of Nottingham. 

St, Mary's Cell, tvc are told by Tanner in the Not, Mon. 
was founded in the reign of Henry the third for two monks in 
the chapel of St* Mary in the rock under the castle. 

St* Sepulchre's was a brotherhood in the reign of Henry 
the third: and a College of Secular priests wa* once existing 
in the castle,* 


• Dcring it very copious in hU detail of the ?ariau» rules of the«« diffetw 
f lit ordrrs ; wc iball select one or twa to exemplify the chtutity &nd cUatdi* 
nea Qi the ihodIs, tw« firtoei with which we belif ve llioy ti«Ter baire beco 
ettraardinarily gided. 


K OTT t If G H A lif S tf t R E< 

* As Nottingham has but three parish churches which have 
long been inadequate to the inoreased population, it is not sor* 
prizing that it should contain such a number of Dissenting and 
Sectarian Places of Wonsntp. 

The High P/vvf.mfnt Meeting is established by a number ' 
of the moiii rei^pectable inhabitants of the town, and the build- 
ing itself is a handsome fit|uare of brick, and of modern erection* 
It is spacious, light, nml utry ; and acknowledges the Pt^byie^y 
Hon principles and form of wurship. 

The Castlegate Meeting is nearly on the same principle^H 
the coogregation being Calvinists, and pretty nuineroos; tndi 
they have had the good sense !o make their place of worship 
airy and commodious, the want of which good and neressarjT j 
qualities wc believe often tends to fill Sectarian Chapels with^ 
visitors who would otherwise have adhered to the Established^ 

The Gekeral Baptists arc not very numerous; their place 
of %vorship was originally a Methodist chapelt and is a smaU»'^ 
liut neat, octagon building. 

The Bapttzisg Calvinists are more numerous ; and have 9} 
spacious, well lighted, comfortable place of meeting near CoU 
iin's IlospiiaL 

Close to it, and almost adjoining the north east side of Col* j 
lin*s Hospital, is the very neat and simple meeting of thi 


With respect In ifie first, It was ohJainrd, ** ttiil no brntLer alone risit a j 
sister, but in cumpiinTi and that by pcrmi^ision, »nd fof edtRcation ;" inj^ 
that " none w«r^ to kiss the li^is *if any woman." With mi^rct to thu latttr* 
Tirtue, there were xha rcmarkabte <tirectiuii*i ** rhat t}iejf be B«it too ni6« in 
fvasbmg tbeir clothes," und that " ihej d^ire kill no vermiiii nor l^con fea- 
ther beds-'* and k was further ordered, thai "if the abbot enjojn t<> an f 
monk mjidiiihilliUi, he musf, with reference and lubmiisimi, excuse hit ioi* 
bility ; if the abbot urge !(, he most obfy, and trtivt lo God't assistance.^' * I 

• We may almost Bay Unit Ihii is prnvri in the njetropolis, wlierethe com* 
f«>rtablc chupeJs belongiiig tn the church of England arc tlwa^'s well filled, 
and The parhh ehuft^ii dvicrlcd. 

But the most tiumerouaof all the Prott;Uant sectaries ar 
Wesleyan METHODrsrs, who have anew place of meeting in 
Hockley Sircei* It is large, and always wtfll attended. 

The Ro^AM Catholics ha^e ahii a smu II chapel in Storey 
Slreer» King*s Place; b«t they are nut very numerous. 

There W15 also lornierly & &ect of Phitadtipkians, who met 
in the brew house yard« and whom Dr* Thorototi calls a set of 
fanatics* Their founder was a Dutch Anabaptist, and certainly 
a false prophet ; fur he boasted that he would rise in three day 4 
after ht« death which happened in li>56; which not taking place, 
many of hia followers immediately disowned hm doctrines. 

The Public Cuahities, both ancient and modem, are very 
numeroust J and the latter are upon a very extensive scale. 

pLUMTBE'«i Hospital was founded by John Plumtre^ an ixi- 
habitattt of Nottlnghaui* sometime about the IGth of Richard 
the second^ having obtained the king's leave to erect an hospital 
■ at the bridge end for two chaplains, whereof one was to be 
ma«ler« and 13 poor old widowsi to the honour of the annuncia- 
tioti of the bkised Virgin. Little of the first building is, we 
believe* now in existence, yet mucH of what remains is of con* 
«iiderable jnliquity^ and seems of Elizabeth's time, or a little 

I before. It has a centre with ballustrade on top, tvv^o wings or 
endi of semi-circular isigzag outline in the roof, and the win* 
dow* of plain stone work. 
In 1751 a dei»cendant of the onG^inal founder added four new 
tenements; and two year* atlerwaids his njn repaired tho old 
tHiilding, added two new tenemetkts and thus completed the 
original benevolent plan. The apartmenta are clean and com- 
fortable^ the pensioners receive fil'leen shillings each per 
month, a ion of coals and a new gown per annum ', and the 
presentation is still m the Plumtre family. 

Collin's Hospital is a plain brick elevation of two stories, 
with fourteen wlndovrs in each row in front* a doorway of cut 
£toue with niche and ornaments over it. It stands in Friar Lane, 




surroundet] by a small court and low brick wait; and is really 
an ornament to that part of the town. 

It was founded by the will of Mr. Abel Collin in I70i far the 
reception of 2^ poor men and womeoj each having two com- 
fortable apartments and two shillings per week^ with a ton and 
a half of coals per annum* 

Of other charities of an old standings our limits will €>tilj 
permit uh to name Willoochby's Hospital in the Fishcrgatc; 
Gregory's Hospital in Houndsgate; Woolley*s Beadbousi 
in Becklane ; Handleys Hospital in Stoney Street ; Bilby's 
Alms Houses in Coal-pit Lane; Labourers* Hospital on Toll- 
house Hill; Wabsargate Hqspital, &c.» the whole of whicli 
afford relief to upwards of 70 poor and InBrm individuals 
sides these there are the Pcckknm and Covcniry charities^ 
well as several others, which, having no importance beyond 
their immediate locality, do not require any particular illuftrt- 
tion here. 

The Workhouses are in number equal to the parish esj 
are all upon a very clean and commodious scale: and it is bi 
justice to the town at targe to say that e?ery benevolent plaa 
or regiilation for the comfort of their helpless inmates is strictly^^ 
attended to, and generally followed by beneficial coinse* 

The size of the parkh of St^ Mar^^s, now so very populous 
calls perhaps for some further additions to its own ; but those who 
have the management of it have fully availod themselves aflU 
animadversions of Eden, who, in his Slat© of the Poor written in 
1795, noticed that this workhouse was surrounded by other 
buildings, most of which were much higher than it ; so as com- 
pletely to obstruct the free pai>sage of air. 

In this parish also we understand from the same author that 

several small donations, amounting in the whole to about 80/, 

per annum, are disitributed to fit objectst not receiving paro« 

chial as&iMance. 

Bui one of the greatest glories of Nottingham, is itsG£ifStiU. 



»»i4 I 




iMPfRMAiiY^ a most Spacious, and indeed eleganl buildings 
and ngble institution, which, as Throsby ob-^erves^ takes under 

its healing wlngji, the sick, poor, and lame, from any county or 
district ; shedding a most comfortable inilueiice around ; and 
forming a splendid ornament to the town« 

The first stone was laid on the 12th of February 1781, at the 
ftouth east butment, accompanied by a series of silver coins of 
ihe present reign, and with a brass plate whose inscription at 
some di.Htant day may prove, to future antiquaries, the bcne^o* 
Icnce of Englishmen io the 18th and I9tb centuries : 

" General Hospital near Nottingham ; open to ihe SJck 
and Poor of any Country, The Corporation gave the 
ground for the said Hospital/' 

On digging for the foundation, some human bones were 
found with a sword and target, broken spears, &c. 

The building consists of a centre, two advancing wings, and 
two ends ; it has thirteen windows in a range, and is two storiea 
high; and from the south east front a most extensive prospect 
of the vale of Btilvoir presents itself* It is most airily situated 
on all sides, and is surrounded with pleasant walks and 
gardens ; for which the duke of Newcastle benevolently 
gave some ground in addition to that presented by the cor- 

It has been observed that this hospital may boast of two 
things: first, of being at) eleemosynary asylum to the indigent 
and impotent ; and, secondly, that it is built upon the identical 
spot, (or near to it,) on which the unfortunate Charles first fixed 
his royal standard; but after a very careful survey and exam- 
ination, for which we were indebted to the polite attention of 
Mr* Stretton the architect^ and to the laudable pride of the 
matron who was anxious to exhibit every thing concerning it, 
we may fairly say that this benevolent and liberal institution 
has much more to boast o£ 

At present there are considerable additions making to itj by 
which two spacious and airy day rooms, four additional wards. 

Vol* XIL 1 a more 



ft more com m (idiotic «hop and store room, aad sevemi other 
conveniences^ will be obtaine<).* 

In these additions, many very useful improvements are tak- 
ing place, particularly in the mode of ventilaiion and of Use 
conveyance of water j botb of which are well worthy the ex- 
amination of persons superintending similar establishmenU^ Of 
indeed any buildings on an extensive scale^ being both Bie- 
cbanically and philosophically novel and correct, Tbcinlrr- 
tial cleanliness is highly deserving nf praise ; and the dii^posi- 
ticiii of the dispensary, and other offices, is a pattern for ail 
iustitutiotis of this nature. 

The Nobility and Gentry of the county and town have come 
forward in the handsomest mamier to execute the Tarious of- 
fices; and the Medical gentlemen all contribute their services 
graluitou<^ly. The benefactions, legacies, and annual subscript 
tiuns, are on a very handsome scale ; and it is worth notice that 
the annual esepensep upon a tair principle, can never well ex> 
cced the annual income ; for every subscriber can only recom^ 
mend a certain number of patients in proportion to his subscript 
tion, though the scale of recommendation is yery liberal, si 
subscribers of two guineas annually can recommend two in- 
patients, and three out-patients, in the course of a vr;ir ; and 
these may he from any distant county, even if brought here 
liierely for the purpose of cure. 

The benefactions have already been very numerous: aroongi* 
which one generous tfn^;iou?ft individual subscribed the lium of 
UHMMIL stock, e^inal to 6337/. sterling If 

At the close of the year ending March 1811, the benefac 
lions amounted to 14,785/.; the legacies to 44i3/. ; and the 


# Vide Genera] Report fnr tail. 

I Other bene faction a were, fruui Mn. £. Dutiibiiiige of W(K>dbi>r^ig(t| 

moot , a Iricrid 4001; Diike ot NewcaMk', ond Jwlm Morrii, tsq of Jjut' 

utighiitii 900L €»eli ] Mtid Dsanj of f 00/. sod liXfl. frcnn* tite tietfrhbourritg 

Mobility and Geutrj. Tbcre bate iIm been seircfd legacies of^OOL; t^ 

e t^^J 




CcipU in that ye^r, incltKling 1 000/. balance, and 947/, annual 
Bobscriptlonf^ amounted to SS2^L 

In February 1813, there were 49 in-patients, ami 309 out- 
patients, then on the hospital books : but the total number re- 
lieved, from the first opening up to March 1811, were 9525 in- 
jpaiients, ^4401 ouUpaltents, making Si total of 33926 ! ! ! 
I The Lunatic AsvurMj both for paupers, and for those who 
pan pay for admi&sion, is upon a very considerable scale, and 
Is amongst the first completed under the act of Parliament ; 
having been opened for admii^sion on the 12th of February of 
Ihe present year (ISI^) when nine were admitted from Not- 
tingham, and there were also 52 recommendations of cases on 
,the books. 

This building which is erected upon an airy acitein the pa- 
lish of Sneinton, at a very short distance from the town, and 
rtaced fto as to form an ornamental object, has been very justly 
id to possess a decided superiority in iL<» general design, and 
the distribution of its arrangement, over any other buitding 
bf the same nature yet established. It h built on land pur* 
uebased by the voluntary subscribers for that purpose, and Its 
general plan is to provide separate and diMinct wards for male 
Ind female lunatics, distributed into classes; as well as for the 
convalescents and iucurables; and also separate and distinct 
itiring grounds for the mate and female convalescents* 
b This plan has been completely executed, by a buiidrng of 
kve Rtories in height, two of which are in the basement, but 
Motficiently light and airy for every purpose of health and coin- 
l^ort. Each story has a long and airy corridore, which leads 
lo each range of cell?, airy, cool, ami corafurlable, and afford- 
fig accommodation for fifty-six patients. The style of archi^ 
cture is extremely plain ; yet the front elevation may be 
kinsidered suiiictently handsome lo render it an object of beau- 
y from any point of view. 

In order for it* support, much has already been done by vo- 
luntary contribution J but much yet remains to be done, not 

I f only 



arc I 

only to pay off the debt already contracted, of which abou^ 
4700L was borrowed from the funds of the General InErmary^ 
but also for its aunual support and expenditure, 

Tlie patients form three classes ; persons who can pay fot 
thetr care and maintenance in proportion to their ability; per- 
sons admitted on the paymtiit of very small soms; and pau 
pers, for whom a certain rate shall be paid by the county* 

The justicet of the county* and also of Nottingham, bene' 
factors of 20 guineas, and annual subscribers of 2 guineas, arc 
^vernors ^ and all elections of officers, &c* are to be done by 

The dc/nationsin 1811 amounted to 1764^.: legacies ta 2487t* 
aodthe annual subscriptions to about 350/* 

The Public Schools in Nottingham are fiilly siifljcient in 
number, for the sixe of the town; and from the recent judi- 
cious regulations which have taken place in several instances, 
they are likely in future to answer every benevolent purpose 
for which they were iounded. 

The Free Gbammah School wa» founded by Agnes Mellors 
in 1M3, a vowess, often called Lady Mellors, but only the 
widow of a wealthy bell-founder of Nottingham** Thii 
school, which is in the parish of St, Mary's, bad almost fallen 
into disuse, as the knowledge of Latin is no longer necessary to 
enable a man to say his pra^/era, which was the case in the day^ 
of Catholicism when this school wa* founded, though but a 
very few years before the Beformation; of course, few schobr»^ 
were in the habit of attending ; but by a recent and judicious- 
regolatiou of the corporation, in 1807, sixty boys are now to 
be admitted and taught not only Greek and Latin, and ihi 
classics, but also English, writing, and arithmetic, gratis, 

Tliere is also an excellent Charity School, a neat litil« 
building, clean and comfortable, and ornamented in the front: 
with the uEual statues of a boy and girl of the foundation. Ji 
h airily situated in the High Pavement, on a piece of ground 

m Deriag^ p. 154. 







Ipvea by a bencvolenl attorney, a Mr. William Thorpe. It it 
entirety supported by voluntary coiitribtitioo> and maintains 
fifty poor children of both sexes, who are instructed in religion* 
and in English reading- Forty of these are clothed in the blue 
coat costume, and the whole of them have an air of health and 

There are several other schools supported on liberal princi* 
pies ; ose in St. Mary's parish educates thirty poor children ; 
Qjiother in the same parish, supported by a private society^ haft 
Jong been established for the edtjcation of sixteen ; the Protes* 
tani Dissenters support one for the poor children of their own 
persuasion, who are clothed and plainly educated; and a Church 
of England Sundaj/ School has been for some time in existence, 
whose receipts in 1811 amounted to \^7L 

The Sunday Sckoots in Nottingham, supported by all classes, 
are, indeed, on a very extent ive scale, though at a small ex- 
pense, as tbe yoiiBg people of each persuasion^ and in very 
respectable situations in life^ dedicate themselves sedulously to 
the education of the children, who amount to upwards of 1500 
of each sex, or about 3000 in the whole. 

The County Hall was, in Dering's time in the middle of the 
last century, a ruinous disgraceful building. This, however, 
has been replaced by a very commodious and handsome edifice 
erected by t^e county in 1770» on the High Pavement, and ia 
the immediate vicinity of St* Mary's churcJi. The ground oa 
which it stands was expressly excepted from the jurisdiction of 
the town by the charier of Henry the sixth, and still continues 
so. It has an exten^ve ball with two convenient courts, and 
all the neC'e<^iiary apartments for the accommodation of the 
judges, j«ry rooms, &c. ; and is ornamented with some old 
standards of the duke of Kingston's light horse, in the rebellion 
i*f 1745, and with pictures of their present Majesties given by 
tlie earl of Manvers. 

Tbe Town Haul, for the town and county of the town of 
^ottingham^ is a large building three stories high, with the 

I n towtt 



town prison on ihe ground floor^ and a large fiight of st^fis H 
one end, leading to the first floor, co mm odiously and haDd«> 
some I y fitted up for the various necessary purposes. It stands 
near the scite of the old Weekday Crosa* 

In 181 1 » the annual statement of the county rate of lh« , 
county and town of Nottingham was 2G3l/*^ which wa» all ex* 
pended, except a small balance of 177f* 

The County Piiison, which formerly was under the andcm 
county balh i^ now behind it; and, being on the slope of the 
rock on its southern face^ is not only airily situated, but liai 
aliio some very exfcensiTe yicws from its upper apartments^ from 
one of whjch^ some years ago, a prisoner jumped in hopes of 
escaping, though at a height of 70 feet. This gaol is clean, and 
airy; and, we understand, under excellent modern regulations; 
which were certainly very necessar\% when we consider its 
state when the benevolent Howard was collecting his materials 
Ibr a History of the Prisons in England. There are some small 
benefactions existing for the relief of poor debtors ; but, in Mr* 
Howard's time, their principal relief was from a collection 
raised by a person employed to go round the country at Cbrist-^ 
vmA, which amounted at that time to about S5/. Mr. Howard 
complained much of a man who, in the year 1776, having ob* 
taiued hb Majesty's pardon, was nevertheless detained in gaol 
for a considerable time for the paltry sum of about fifty shillings 
for ofiice and gaol fees, 

TheToWiS and County Gaol is also as commodiotts a^ cir- i 
cumstances will admit oft though much is yet wanted to rendeff 
it complete^ At Mr. Howard's first visit, he complained mucl^^ i 
of the stale of its dungeons and other rooms; but at his second^ 
considerable improvements had taken place. There is now «4 
total separation of Felons and Debtors; and there is a commo-^ 
dious bath, which is extremely conducive to the health amtffl 
cleanliness of the unfortunates confined here. A small sum i^^ 
annuiilly collected in the town for the relief of poor debtors, j 
The Town BiuDttW£Lij which stands in St« John's Street, ha^i 






Also began to derive some benefib from the liberal active phi- 
Uathropy of the present day. Indeed it is to be boped that in 
a few years, the general melioration of all places of confine* 
nien^ as far as is consistent with security^ wilt caufie Mr* Flow- 
ard's Aorri^/c, yet unfortunately too accurate, statement, to be 
considered as a kind of Romance, It never can be too deeply 
impressed upon the minds of all ibose who have any power or 
superintendance over those places, that the separation nf the 
sexes, the separation of yonng from hardened onfeiK!eri>» and 
the separation of debtor-j from felons, are objects bi>tli of thi? 
greatest physical and moral importance. When all these things 
are sufficienily attended to, with the addition of wbole.Home 
food, clean lodging, airy exercising grounds, good sewers, and 
a supply of water, with good workshops and incitements to in- 
dustry, Mill will our prisons be places of punishment to tho^^ 
unhappily confined in tbem; and with these additions they aie 
also more likely to become places of amendment. 

The Marjcet Place of Nottingham has long been admired. 
Even in the reign of Henry tb<^ eighth. Lei and says, '* the Mar- 
ket place and streate, both for the buildings on the side ol it/ 
for the very great wideness of this streete, and the clearie pav- 
ing of it, is the most fairest without exception of all England;" 
and it is now certainly one of the most spacious in the hing- 
dloDi^ surroonded with excellent houses, and having every ac* 
commodation for its various purposes. At the upper end of it 
formerly fttood the Mali Crott ; but that, with the other crosses^, 
is now down, 

ll is now tJie place for the two weekly markets on Wednes- 
day and Saturday ; on the former of these days the ancient 
beast market from St. Peter's is held liere ; but on the Saturdays, 
irhich are the principal days, the mayor ami corporation have 
yery judiciously ordered tije cattle market lo be held on another 

The supply of this market^ jiarticularly on Saturday, is very 
abundant in every necessary of life ; but the prices are consi* 

1 4 dered 



I dered as rather extraTsgant in many instances* and rery Imr in- 
deed above that scale which Bering has giren os m hb book : 
and nothing can be more amosing or interesting ta a stranger 
^ than to go through this market, and observe the extraordinary 
neatness and regularity of those who have brooght thetr ▼arioos 
articles for sale ; bat more partlcolarly to see the 3*oiing ^eniales 
of the town, many of them of the most respectable familtea in 
the place, who are not ashamed to put on their markeiiog i 
dress, and, with their little baskets, to make such purchases as| 
they can conreniently carry. It is not unfair eitlier to remark* 
that the stranger cannot fail to be struck with the neatness and 
beauty, which he will meet at eveiy step, and that in a greater 
proportion than the Editor of these sheets recollects ever lo 
lave met with in any other town, even where they have been 
famed for the charms of the sex. 

The New Exchange stands at the east end of the Markel^j 
place ; it is a very handsome brick building of iour stnrinsin 
height, erected by the corporation in the early part of the lasij 
century, of 123 feet in length, and the front supported by ; 
range of stone pillars forming a spacious open parade, with the 
Shambles partly under, and partly behind it; which, howevcrpj 
are so insufTicienl for the demand on market dayii, that BOstallt 
are sometimes set out in the Market place, or rather in the 
Smithy Roio, It was intended at first to ornament the fronton 
with the statues of George the firsts and the then Prince and^^ 
Princess of Wales ; but the niches still remain untenanted. There 
is, however, a well executed figure of Justice on ihe top. The 
apartments above stairs are airy and spacious^and neatly, though 
plainly, fitted up for public purposes and various corporatioii|^| 
and election uses : there \v^s also been for some lime a subscrip- - 
tion news room fitted up in one of them, called the Exchange^^ 
HaJK ^ 

The Fairs at Nottingham are three annually ; these we be- 
lieve take place on the seventh ol' March, the second and third af^_ 
Aprilf and the second of October called Gootie fair. All o^^ 
8 these 



tkese are for cattle and hor^s, and the latter also particularly 
tor cheese-* 

The Tr\de and Manufactures of Nottingham have long 
been very extensive. Here are several mills for spinntn^silk 
and cotton, and for twisting^ do; silk mills worked by hordes; 
lace workers; stocking wt*avers ; a whitt* trad work ; a foutidery 
for cast iron ware from Ibe pigs brougiit from CoalhTook dale; 
dyinj^ and bleach works; British lace by framework; brew- 
eries; malthouseii; tanneriesi &c. The glasshouses, however, 
which formerly existed are now laid aside ; and the pottery is 
also very triflings 

Great changes have at difTerent times taken p!ace with re- 
spect to the trade of this town; and it is a curious fact that lit- 
lie more than a century ago, though then a manufacturing 
place, it was dependent upon the neighbouring towns, and 
even villages, for grocery, drapery, &:c» though it is now iho 
general depot for a very extensive neighbourho<>d. Much of 
its modern im prove m en t must, however, be dated from even so 
late a period as that in which its water communications were 
improved by the various cnta in its vicinity. 

It is said that, as early as the commencement of the twelfth 
century, ihe Dyeing Thaue was an object of importance to 
Nottingham ; but it declined in the reign of Mary, and 15; now 
scarcely worth mentioning, though so long a source of opu- 
lence and independence to many families in the place. 

The Stocking Ma su factory seems lo have begun to fill up 
its place soon after^ as the stocking frame was invented in the 
reign of Elizabeth ; yet, m 1641, there were only two frame 
work kniiters in Nottingham. 

The usefulness and simplicity of the present machines are 
lltonishing; and it is well known, that it was invented by WiU 


•The AgTiciiltural Survey »aj?, that the foir on the second of April b 
moveablf , if it falU on tlic Monilay after Pdm Suaduj , and wc hiirc seen it 
stilled fbtt these fairs are on the Fridiij aflcr Jnnuarj 13ih, 7tfi and Btli ol 
Idftrcb, Tfaoridaj t^fgre Eajtcr, md 2ad, 5ft>^ «iid 4th, of Ocloher. 



Ham Lee, who was M. A, of St, John's college at Camliridgej 
born atCalverton according to Thoroton, but at Woodboroagh, 
a vilb^€ about seven miles distant fiom Notcingham, according 
to Der ing^s account, who records a traditional story of him that 
he was heir to a pretty freehold estate^ and being deeply in 
love with a young person to whom he paid his addresses^ but 
whom he always found more intent upon her knitting, than to 
bis wows and protestations^ he was induced to contrive a ma* 
chine* which should render the mode of knitting by hand en- 
^lirely useless. We have, however, seen it stated diOereotly ; 
that Mr. Lee m'asa poor curate, and married ; and his wife being 
obliged to occupy herself industriously with knitting, which 
interfered very mucii with the atientiun necessary to her fa- 
mily, he was prompted to attempt thi; invention of the presenl 
Complex, yet simple, machinery. It is certain ihal he or his 
brwlUer exhibited the loom before queen Kliaiabeth ; but his in- 
vention being de«piscd in his native country, h« went to France 
with several English workmen, where he was patronized by 
Henry the fourth. The murder of that monarch overturned all 
bis hopes of success ; he died of grief and chagrin at Bsris^ 
and hh few surviving workmen returned to England. After 
some time, a company was establtstied in London; but no trade 
«f this kit^t, where sffmli capitals are suHicient, can possibly 
Nourish under a monopoly ; of course even the London dealers 
ill hosiery bund it more profilahle to purchase their goods in 
tht: country, than from the manufacturers of the metropolis ; 
and the ti^de has thus been enabled, for manyyears^to ^d iti 
own level. 

We hEive not been able to procure any recent estimate of the 
number of frames em jdoyed in this manufacture; but During 
says, tlrat in the middle of the bst century, there wert? !300 
en>pl<\ved ill Nuttingham alone, to which may be added about 
400 assistant workmen occupied in making the various partaof 
the frame niauof.tcture, and also a great number of winderSj 
*lzers,ajid scaniers, &c, The nujober at present, however, nol* 




withstanding the circuinflcribed state of our cocamerce, muat ht 

much greater. 

The Bone Lace Trade was once a source of profitable in* 
dtistry to a number of females; it afterwards declined ; bal we 
believe that the frame lace would soon have enabled us to rival 
the continent m that article^ had it not be<:ii fur the lat« 
unhappy disturbances. Ii is evident, indeed, that if the enc* 
miea of England had it in thtir power to stir up any part of het 
populacei to i' legal deeds, ihis is one point to which ihey would 
naturally direct their attention; ami ii is not inipossibte that 
some future investigation may shew that French inOuence and 
corruption were at the bottom of these rioti, not only for the 
pur[>oses of general injury, but with a reference to this branch 
of trade in parllcuiar. 

The Maltinc Business^ as we have already noticed under 
the general head of the county, has long been a source of pro* 
fit to the town ; indeed, ever since the introduction of that 
trade into the kingdom, at the peritjd of the Norman conquest. 
The goodness of the barley, in the vale of Belvoir, has been 
stated as one cause of the goodness of the Nottingham malt 
and ale, which even Stukely the antiquary did not disdain to 
mention, saying, " h was highly valued for softness and plea- 
Kint taste ;" much abo may have been owing to the great depth, 
and consequent coolness, of their ale cellars, many of them 
having 36 steps in depth. Some of the other nianu factories, 
already noted, have indeed fallen into decay, particularly the 
Tanning business ; and the Iron trade, which, with the exception 
of a founder y already mention td, is complelefy removed to 
districts better fitted for it. 

The Population of Nottingham has been increasing gra* 
dually ever since the reign of Edward the Confessor, when the 
number of men stated, amoimted lo 192; and if we allow each 
man to have bad a bouse, and the whole inhabitants to have 
averaged at 5i per house, the popubtion must have been about 
1056; excc|3t m this uislance, that^ after the Norman coiiquesl, 
9 the 



the nomber of men were otUy 1S6» which>at the same propor* 
tion^ would give a population of about 74B, 

It has been said thai a decrease took place in the reign of 
Henry the eighth ; bat that is merely an inference drawn from 
aa act of Parliament having passed, obliging the town& of Not- 
lingbam, and some olher5» to repair their ruinous bouses, aoil 
bad paremeats; and, therefore^ canoot be taken as an absolute 

The earliest authentic account we have of the population in 
the last century, is from Deri a g* pages IS and 14, where it ap- 
pears that the houses amounted to 18Q6, and the inhabitants to 
9790, besides SUO in workhouses, gaols, and hospitals, equal 
to a total of 10,010 : this was in 1739; and by a census of the 
birtlis and burials for the seven preceding years, tt appears that 
the former amounted to 2G94, the latter to 3*13 1, giving an in- 
crease of ti6t3, indepetideot of new comers.* 

By another account taken in 1751, the number of inhabi- 
tants b estimated at 10.0G1, being only an increase of 51 in the 
coarse of twelve years. 

By a census taken in 1779^ the parishes were slated to con- 
lain as follows : 

• III the year 1T44, Bering prod ucet several ijutancej of toiigetity, prot. 
iag tlie geoeral tieatthrulae» of thii town ; two of his in.»tiiiices may amu^e, 

"Goody Ry ley* till witfiin tlirec days of her death, being in Si. Mary "s 
wofkhou»c, if ^e was not p)ea&ed with her usage, wQtil4l every now and 
then, take a ramble tm foot to London, where she had lome of her childrea 
settled i and if they gave her the least ofFence. »hc would as readily trot 
down again to Nottiiighaia ; she wa* above lOifyeara ol age/' 

After this ettraflrdhtaty instance of an old woman, whom it was difftcijjl to 
please, ihe doctor adverts to a lady to wjirtm he seenji lt> bave paid roorc pet" 
lonaJ altention, w he speaks of her hi the present ten*e ; thi"* was •* Goody 
Gedling, without Chapel bar," who, necording to his observatian», "sella 
ak, walks about, brews herself, and spins, m ertimifl^ nimbU ttntgntd, and 
tias a Toi-ce very ihrill; by her cotintt^uaiice oQe wauld judge ber not to bt 
aboTC 70. !'• 


HnmiCM* Families. SouU, 

St. Mary's ,.. ,.2314 2584 12037 

St. Pcler*s...„,. 446 4©7 2445 

St. Nicholas's. .,•,.•••.•,. 431 475 2502 

firew house Yard, near Uie caiUcj Extra-parochial 127 

3191 3556 17,711 

and at that, period, the burials, from 1772 to 1778 iocluslre, 
amounted to 39<>3. 

The return of 1801 gave 4977 houses, contaiomg 6707 fanii- 
Hes; the males were 13729; the females 15132; making a ge- 
neral total of 28G61 ; of whom 11698 were employed in trade, 
tnanu&ctures, and handicraft, and 362 in agricylture. The 
estimate of the parishes was, St. Nfary's 29,654 ; Sr, Nicholas's 
S.415; Sl Peter'd ^,739 ; and Extra- parochial only GO, being 
only one half of the prccedhig census. 

By the returns of 1811* the males now amount to 15,537; 
the females to lH,82(j; making a total of 34363, or double the 
population of 1779, a period of only 32 years. It appears, 
however, that there has been a decrease both of baptisms and 
burials in Nottinghami during the last year^ though not to any 
rery coniiderable amount,* 


*" TlioAe who chuse to ^peculitte on tlie chancer of life &nd d«at1i x&a^ re- 
ceive &onie inlbrLuatiop, by contpftrliig the fnllowiog accouniC of tlie biiUii 
and tMirinliiJittiia CowUf wkh the Aam total of population : 

McOft. Fcmo/cf. T^talpfBtp, Total of Bur. 

St. Mur^'d Baptized ..**5fB 444 967 

Burivd t%0 f99 579 

St. Nicbolai's Baptised * • 48 48 96 

Buried 54 dl> 111 

St. PcterV BuprLzed 56 SO 66 

_ Bufied 36 4» te 

11^8 770 

H«re there is an etTraordi^iac; diCerence between tlie births and detthf, 
4nd 1(1 a proportion uniiBown in former fimes ] but m% gorccivei that oo one 




Tbciiisli much cif thif increase must have arisen from the in- 
crease of commerce an J maiitifactures ; yet ive imist allow jK)me 
merit to the healthy situation, and to the general salubrity of 
the air. By a sutexiieiit kept by Dr» Clarke^ of Nottingbara, 
for IHIO, it appears that the thermometer was at its greatest aU 
titude on the secoBtl of September, being 89" with an easterly 
^vintl j its greatest ilepressiuii on the 20th of February, being 
14** with the wind at N. E, Its greatest variation in 24 hours 
was on the 19th and 20lh of February, from 16' to 46^. 

The annual mean of the barometer was 29,HS inches; itf 
greatest height being on the Slat of December 3O^50# the wind 
^tN. £. and its lowest state on the 19th of February 28.73, 
wind at S*W, 

There were in the year 269 dry, and 96 wet days ; the great* 
est quantity of rain falling in July, equal to 3,85 inches^ and 
the smallest quaniity in SepLemberi only 0,62 inches; the 
total (juanl it y, during the year, 23,15 inches. 


%ri!l be at a fois to account for k, after readmg iKib followkig ststement from 
.1 recptil per'iodiciil wot It, 

In IBIO an epidemic iinnll pox rtged nC NottingH«ini 450 had tbe infee* 
lion natarallyj of whom 151 died ^ 20 children were UiocuUted with the Vi- 
lioloui mutter, of whom 1 died. 

During the eight months that this eptderaic wni in all its virulence^ lOtt 
were vaccinated, 86 of who<i] had been expo-^cd to the iraholaus iafectioil 
some days preirioiis to vnccinailon. Of ihne B6, tbere were S^ who escaped 
Ihe imall pox totaltj ; on 46 of tim Dumber the sm nil pox and cow pox acted 
together at the siine time] hut, in all thetc cases, the »roall pox was mild. In 
»even only tbe cow pox fuiled of effect, and ihc epidemic proceeded as u«uaL 

The conclusion drawn from this^ wai (hat 9t6 were probably uvcd from 
the iQfetitiotii of whom 2$^ would otherwke naturalJj bare died in thetlioft 
ipacc of eight months I 

By a report of vrtccination in that year, it appeari that up to thot period 
$7B4 persons had been vnccinuted nt Nottiugfiam, out of which one only 
tcKjk the small pox, and died ; whiht in that nit m be r of patienlfi in the iialu- 
tal way the prnportion of deaths would bare been 60O; and with inoculation 
f7. Vide Monthly Mugndnc. 




There were 14S winds between N. and N, E. ; 79 between E. 
ajitl S. E. ; 157 between S. and S. W. ; and 88 from W. to N. W, 

le State of thr Poor is at all lime?* an object of conse* 

nee, but more parlictilfirJy so in a large nianufikcturnig town 
like Nottinghnm. The public workhooj^es and charities we 
have already noticed; but it rniglrt perhaps be of singular tise, 
if a house of General liiflusiry were established, which Eiien^ 
in his work on the Poor, says was in contem|>l4itiou some years 
before he WTote, but failed on account of the dilliculiy of unit* 
ing men of different party principles, even in a work of be- 

At the period when Eden wrote, there were no less than fifty* 
one friendly societies ;* and he also takes a very particular no- 
tice of a most benevolent and rational one, called the Charitable 
Society, the principal intenlinn of which is to extend relief to 
such cases, as it is impossible to alleviate under the general 
poor laws. In pursuance of this plan the funds have been faith* 
fully employed, as far as their general amount wilt admit of^ 
and principally to the following objects; to strangers in distress, 
and to persons labouring under disease or other casual mis for- 
tuoe. This has been done, either by loans^ by donations, or 
both, as circumstances required. The society has also paid, in 
some instances, small annual subscriptions to Sunday schools; 
and they have even paid for the education of individuals in poor 
and deserving families. The Qtuiker^ were the original patrons 
of tills benevolent plan, in which they were soon joined by 
others; but it was left principally under their management. 

In 18(J3 {than which %ve have not been able to procure a more 
recent account) the parish raien of St. Mary's amounted to 
SS95Ly Sl Nicholas* to 5^55/.; aikl St. Peter's to U67/.; at 
which time, houses were rated froni III. 8d, to I^i. ; and land 
from It** iOif. to 19s, Gd. in the pound. 

These rateji, however, must l>e enunnously augmented, when 
H*e consider tliat the number of poor relieved in the first weeic 


* But Ibeti ttiere wetf 152 alefiausek *. 



of January 1819, wan 8288, in 2363 families^ and on the SOtfl 

of the same month, 4248 families, ainouiiting to 15350; so 
that in one month, the number of paupers was doubted, and 
actuatty amounted to nearly one half of the population. 

If any ihingcould convince the labouring poor, of the tmpro* 
priety of popular commotion, we think this would be sufBcient; 
for though the manufactures of Nottingham must undoubtedly 
have suffered from the present restricted state of commerce, yel 
that efiect had been fully produced, before the first week in 
January. To what then, it may be asked, are we lo attribute 
this extraordinary increase? To the noUl most certainly ; as 
they have obliged the employ ers to stop rheir works, lest their 
property should be destroyed. This needs no comment* 

In referring more particularly to the Pbesent State of Not- 
tingham, we shall have an opportunity of noticing some points 
that did not regularly come under any of the preceding beads; 
and here we may first consider its progressive improvement. Lc- 
land, speaking of it generally, tells ua that *' it is both a large 
towne, antl wMe builded for tymbre and plaister, and standeth 
stately on a clyninghille.'* Of these buildings of " tymbre," few, 
if any, are now remainirkg; but it ts evidenttthat all the advan- 
tages arising from its situation, were not then attended lo; for, 
even so late as the middle of the seventeenth century, we are 
told that the stranger, especially in the winter, found the 
Trent lanes very dirty, and after he had passed the Lecn 
bridge, the very foot of the town, called the Bridge End, deep 
and miry. At his first entrance^ continues Deringt into the 
narrow passage which used to lead between two high preci- 
pices* lo the upper part of the town, be was, from a parcel of 
little rock houses, if the wind was Northerly, saluted with a 
volley of suJFocatjng smoke, caused by the burning of gorse and 
tanners' knobs. Every body, he adds, knows the fragrancy 
and cleanliness of tanners, fell mongers, and curriers, many of 
which were then dispersed all over the town; the greatest tho- 

* Query, the HoUun Stmie? 




FDUgbfare In the town, Brldlesmith Gate, wai then lined on 
both sides with the roughest kind of blacksmiths ; the market 
place, though spacious^ yet was paved but on one sidii, and on 
the other, called the Sands, it was very mtry. That p!ace near 
Su Peter's church, where the Monday market was afterwards 
projected, was not paved ; and part of it was so boggy, that 
there was a bridge of planks laid acroits it with a single rat)« 
over which it was extremely dangerous to pass in the night 
time. The whole of that quarter was dirty in the extreme, and 
there was one continued swamp from Listergate to the Lene. 

Al that lime, indeed, the houses were not only of wood and 

plaisier, but the roofs were thatched with straw or reeds; and 

we are told the first tiled house in Nottingham was one in the 

.Long Row, which had formerly been the Unicom Inn, the last 

lin the row, and which had its new roof put on in 1503. The 

toldest brick house was the Grfen Dragon^ a public house in the 

tLong Row, of the dale of 1615. Some slight improvements took 

(place during the civil wars; but it was not until after the Re^ 

[storation, that the increase of manufactures produced a consider- 

ible melioration in the style of building. Of these earlier 

[upeeimens of the elegance of those days there are stiU some 

f remains. 

Tkurland Hall is a good specimen of that style ; at present 

fit seems to contain only two thirds of the original plan* con- 

i fiMting only of a centre and one wing. The centre has a double 

I row of ornamental pila-sievs; the door of entrance is about eight 

fcet above the level of the street, with steps to ascend; the 

I window frames are of heavy stone work; and there are semi- 

I circular zigzag pointed fronts to the roof. Within side, the 

rthickness of the walls reminds the stranger of ancient dungeons; 

and the apartments, though spacious, are extremely gloomy. 

I The great room is generally used, upon public occasions, ass 

dining apartment for the meetings of the nobility and gentry of 

the couniy. 

P/umtrc*s Houst is of a more modern date, and has been 
Vol. XIL K much. 

p^. andgtiHsrilly^.adbiiked for ils very light andeUfuil 
froi^ bniit in the Italian -style of arohitectnre; it standi ouSu 
lAaty's hilU and is a great ornament to thai part of the toira. 
Here* we cannot avoid doing Kottingham the josttce of record* 
^g the sentimentsof an intelligent foreigner respecting it.^ 

^ This of all the towns I have yet seen» except Londoii^ 
ismied to me to be one of the best; -end is nndottbtedly the 
thanest. Erery thing here iprore s^modem .appearance^ and a, in ihe centre^ scarcely yielded to aLondcfi square 
In point of beanty. Noltingbam lies high* and makes -a bean* 
lifiil appearance at a distance^ with its neat high hooses, -red 
foo^ and its lofty steeples^'' 

We notice the state of Owrdmng in Nottingham and its 
neigUioiirhood» merely for the poqpost of recocduig one or 
tpsocnrieorfocts. It appears that seen after theConquest» as 
already mentioned* the king gave to • William P^erell ten 
acres to make an apple-orchard (mdfniendmm Pommiuuh} and 
tvkiehissopposedy from thediffiuenceinmeasarib tohajrecon* 
ilitnted great part of the present park. We have norecordiw 
howe ver» of its havuig been planted with •frnit irfes. . 

In later times, we are told by Deringp AaV the gardeners of 
Nottingham were not very skilfol* imtil after the arrival of Mar- 
shall Tallard, and the other French officers taken at Blenheim, 
who '^ resided in Mrs. Newdigate's hoose in the Castle gial^ and 
smde very fine gardens there/' 

The Stgfpfy qf water, a thing so necessary in a popalous 
place, has of late been much oomplPMnod of. Throsby 
observes, generally, that the wells, like the ceUatSii are 
9ften of the depth of 36 yards, and the whole descent 
through a body of rock ; but a ^^reat ;part of the vrater 
wluch is used in Nottingham, is supplied by water works» which 
have become profitable to the proprietors. . The editorof a re- 
cent local guide, however^ complains that the place caaaor 
boast of good, pure, and wholesome water; and bf asserts 


* Travelt in England^ mottly on Utot, by MoHtE, a Pnuaitii derg3rnuio>'>n<l 
• profeiior of ooe of the OenMO onircitkiei, 1794. 

Eiri6e water WuK which the works on the river Lene sup- 
ply not more than cue third of the town, is far from being pure ; 
but eyen the advantage of this the most populous part^ caiinot 
obtain ; and to this cause, together with the confined s^ate of the 
buildiogs^ mrich of the excessive dlth^ misery, and disease^ of 
the lower orders of the people^ are to be attributed.^' We 
hope, howeverj that this picture is rather too deeply colourtd t 
it is, at the same tirae, a matter of serious regret, that the dis- 
agreement of parties, as has bet^u said, should have so far pa- 
ralysed pub he spirit, as to have prevented some judicious, and 
probably efficacious, improvements lately proposed. 

The Supply of coal, an article of such importance, may be 
supposed to be on a cheap and convcn tent scale, as Notting- 
ham is in the immediate viciaity of very extensive coalpits; 
yet it has been a matter of complaint, that the increased facili* 
liesol water carriage have actually raised the price upwards of 
50 per cent. This has been attributed to a *' combination 
against the poor*' ; but it is more likely to have arisen from the 
extension of the country to be supplied, in consequence uf the 
new canal cuts having Leeu greater than the usual supply at 
the pits was equal to. 

In adverting to the State of Soctett, it is unpleasant to be 
obliged to remark, that a town possessing so many facilities, for 
promoting the comfort and happine^ of its population, should yet 
be " so split in parties, that no measure afiecting the inhabi- 
tants is allowed to be carried into execution, without under- 
going a very rigorous investigaiion.** Such was the observa- 
tion of Sir F- M. Eden, in his State of the Poor; and we lament 
It, because, instead of leading to truth^i as it might be proved 
to do theoreticalttf, its /jr<*c//ca/ consequences are generally so 
mixed with the personal feelings of party spirit, that the best 
measures are negatived merely because that the question ia 
thereby carried for or against the opposing interests. 

The prevalence oi a decided party spirit in Nottingham 
cannot be more fully proved than by a recent fact of a news- 

K 9 room 

Ut ndtfiirdirAiiiiiicf. 

i being eitablithed, wlioBe list of newspapers were pnlH- 
UsbwL ttul were aih if not the decided organs, at least the dgy 
cided partisans^ of one Hde. We will not make any obser* 
fatioDson the Ubermlky of this arrangement; it is sufficient to 
iay» that another newsroom has been proposed, on a tme liberal 
plan> without reference to part j politics* or local prejudices* 
TUa is aa^it should be, and will undoubtedly accord more with 
the general spirit of 4he town ; for that the genermt Mpnrii h a 
liberal one, however it aoay have bee^ warped by noisy or 
designing partisans, is evident firom the unity and aetive be- 
nevolence so particularly displayed in several of the charita* 
ble establishments already noticed. But in Nottingham it must 
ever be the case, as in other places, that those 101AO are reaify 
Hhmaitmd candid are silent. and quiel, too often indeed su- 
pine* whilst those who make liberality of sentiment teir stalk- 
ing horse are at least chunorous* if not intolerant • 
Wbilatdoing justice to the inhabitants at the present day, we 

^not, however, forget an ancient distich: 

*' ypo niw ooofipgMi, pww I— dbte Kottiajh— ^ . 
Gent foBtet atque focus, sordidiii Ule locus." 

And which has been, though not very elegahtly, translated : 

** I cMmot without \y% and shsiae, 
Commend the town of Notting^imm* 
The People and the fuel st 
The place as sordid as a Sink !" 

T^is opprobrium, if it ever had truth on its side, is now com- 
pletely done away ; let us then turn to more agreeable subjects. 
That the state of genteel society here has long beeii on a 
ftsbionable scale b evident from the statement of Dering, that, 
hi the middle of the last century, there were 400 saddle horsesj^ 
above fSO coach, chaise,- and team horses, II gehtlemeoV 
coaches and chariots, a considerable number of chaises and 

• ■ chairs^ 



'cbairs^ liesides five hackney glass coaches* one charioi» and 
9«Teral chaises and chairs on the same principle*^ 

The Assemblies of Nottingham are, as in ail oiher place^» the 
resort of the young and gay, who go to see, and be seen ; and 
also of those, who, having played their matrimonial cards well 
in early life, are now content to sit down to a game of sober 
whi^t or r^uadrille. There was a distinction tn former limes 
thai certainly trenched much upon the harmony of society, in 
baving two separate as&emblies^ for the two separate classes of 

K 3 polite 

• If we go funlier back, liowcrer, to llic beginning of thf »»xtceiiib ccntary 
only, wc must form m ciiritnis idfa of the state vf laanners, from the dre^ t>f 
an iti{ieTman*ii lister, uliU> dj^ing in 151 J, lefl in htv nvilli the fallowing 

'* Item. I gire to my sitter, Margnrtt Banks, every year, « gitrmeni 
of the price at 5%. 4d. dttting her life, «a need re^uiret, aiid a pair of 
iho'^s^ a imoke, and a kerdiirrof 8d« price, and every quitrter of a jretit, t^4. 
and A foame in my bedc hou>c, like at oilier my bede-folkc» liavc" — ^so iliai if 
Mr». Marp;arel TSanki had no more clothes ihim those Jeft by the wt*,rthy 
aldtrman, she musl hare *iecn nfnritf ai thinly clad a» toiuc of mir fasliion- 
able belles of tlw present day. 

In eiimining the various cireuniftance^ peculiar to tht* places in flncient 
^y«i we find a provcfb recorded bj Fuller : 

*' The litil^ imtili <if NotiingUim, 
Who doth the work that no luau cm/' 

He thinks it means Ko^r^^, or a person ^^ha nvvtt was; and 8<ldi, thai the 
proverb. Hy way uf Mircasm, Jt appVit'd to such, wlio, h^'ing concoiied of their 
ikill, pretend to Ihe atdiicfing of in»t»'>i»ibililjei. But Dcring is of opinion, 
that It aioie merely from the circumstunce of Natriiigham havingj in I urine r 
eWaet, Heeti famous for the pjodoction of the most curious nrtJcks in the jrnn 
manufacture: whilst lUy take* it literally, itiirl supposes thaithcre really 
wat a " little *milh/' who wmstQ very clever, tlial, by a kind o| a^jhiwable 
eaag^eraiioii, he might belaid to ** do the work that no man could/' 'J hit is 
all duabtlest vcrj ingenious; but tf we might hazard a cimj^'vlure^ff is not 
impufuble that the Unei may rather be an Enigma lt«an a Pr^Ji/rrftMiad ihsit the 
"lii tic smith*' wmt a Ind^, as even at the present day, hi the iirjgfihuurmg 
cjuntici, many, though nut absniuicly of the /a»r arx, afe employed at the . 
Cyclopmii iorge. U then, thit iudy was clever a* a tforkjuan, tJie whole might 
be a huniourout alluilou to her ikill und to imt sex. 



jjoUtc and middle life. The former of these, the " Ladies* As* 
semblies," were held in a lofty and spacious apartment on iht 
Low Pavement,^ited up with all the usual convenitncies; and ihe 
latter, the *' Tradesman's Assembly/' at the Thurland HalL The 
assembly room at the Low Pavement «till remains; but ihe other 
we believe is discontinued, as there is now a more geaermi and 
liberal mixture of society. 

The Theatre is a plain building in Mary Gat«» withotit any 
external decorations but very jvidiciously fitted up and arranged 
within* A recent writer, however, has observed, that it la, per- 
haps, to the credit of the inhabitants that more attention has been 
paid to useful and charitable institutions, than to those of mere 

The Rii>iNG School also of the yeomanry cavalry, at the 
lop of Castle Gate, has often been the scene of the usual eqaes* 
trian and other itinerant exhibitions. 

The Ansu.\l Races for the king's plate take place herein 
July. Formerly the course was four miles, but now unly two 
miles, round ; it js on the north side of the town, to the left of the 
Mansfield road ; and is said to be one of the best in England, so 
far at least, as that it is never^out of order in any kind of weather^ 
being on a sandy soil, and having a sufficient descent The 
Race Stand, is an elegant building of two stories in height; 
built by Mr, John Carr, of York, as architect, and the first 
stone laid by Mr, St re Eton. The lower story projecU some dis- 
tance beyond the upper, with a ballustrade on top, and a ter- 
race to which opens the upper room of seven windows in front* 
The whole of the upper part is appropriated for the company 
during the heats, and the lower apartments arc very judiciously 
fitted up for refreshments. 

The Public Walks^ in and about Nottingham, are very nume- 
rous, though there is none that can be considered as the public 
MalL The Castle terracci and the park, have been already de- 
scribed, and the meadows which extend along the banks of the 
Trent are in many spots peculiarly pleasant, from the very 
charming prospects which they command. These, with the 







others called the ** Burgesses Grounds/' nre much frequented ; 
and ti> these we must add the walks to Wilford and Clifton^ and 
to Colwick, where ihere is a springs formerly in great repute. 
The t^hote of the scenery is pleasingj and much enli?ened by 
the very frequent passage of commercial craft, on the Trent and 
the other canal cuts. 

Another favourite walk u to St Ann's WeH» about two miles 
distant, at the foot of a hiH, not many years ago covered with 
trees, and called " Nottingliam Coppices.** This is, howcTcr, 
now entirely cleared^ inclosed, and cultivated; though the old 
name still remains* This hilL or part of it at least, belongs to 
the burgesses. The well itself is covered by an arched stone 
foof, but of rude workmanship; and has formerly bten often 
used as a cold bath ; Throsby says, " it will kill a toad/* Even 
now rheumatic patients derive some benefit from its application. 
The houiye of entertainment is near the well ; and they are still 
surrounded by a few trees, which add much to the beauty of 
the place in a summer evening. The story of this place having 
been a sequestered haunt of Robin Hood is motit probably a 
fable; though certainly he may have been there; but as for 
the cap, and part of his chair, or at least those things shewn 
for them, it would be absurd to place any dependence irpon 
their autheniku^ft as relics, after so long a period as 70<}year>4. 
Brome, who made a tour in 1700, say a, "Strangers are placed 
in the chair, a cap put on their heads, &c. when they receive 
the freedom :" — ^in short it is nothing more than a second edition 
of the Horns at Highgate. Deringp indeed, very properly con- 
siders the whole as the artifice of some former publican, and 
which was so profitable as to be retained, bringing great num- 
bers, as at the present day, to spend their money in holiday 
times: he adds, "for at those times, great numbers of young 
men bring their sweethearts to this well, and give them a treat ; 
and the girls ihink themselves ill used, if they have not been 
saluted by their lovers m Robin nood*s chair ;" so that it ap- 
pears to be a cure, or at least a palliative, for love, as well as foi 
6ore eyes and rheumatism. The house is built on the scite of 

K4 an 



an ancient chapel, and part of the east wmll is incorj 
in the building ; so that we may snppcse Robin Hood's rtlb 
to b^ no older than the Heformation« when the mir^culow le- 
gends of Monkery ceased to have their attraction, and thewt^ 
would most probably ha?e been deserted without the auisttoci 
of Robin^ and some stout Nottingham ale* Those who wisb» 
koow further particulsirs may consult Bering, page 73. 

About a furlong from the well, teat the Shepherd's race, i 
maze or labyrinth cut in the torft on the summit of a geodf 
hill. It wa% on what was once a common belonging to SiieinloA 
parish, given to them by the family of Picrrepoint; but the rectal 
inclosures have completely destroyed every restige of iL It 
was 17 or 18 yards square; at the angles were four projectiooi, 
facing the four cardinal points ; and to follow it through all its 
windings would have been a pretty bmart run. Stukely thinks 
it to have been Roman ; others suppose it to have been madt 
by the priests of St. Anntr^s chapeU for the sake ofexerciie; 
but a^ the slightest vestiges of it are no longer in eJCisteo^rU 
Is unnecessary to examine its history at greater length* 

The Caves of Snei>*tok. (illustrated by a plate^) thonj 
a pariiih distinct from Nottingham^ may yet be properly i 
in this place^ from their very close vicinity to the t&wsi* TIkk 
roton, indeed, says, that Sncinton Lordship (Snotington or N 
ington, as it is called in thi? Magna Britannia^ and wh 
serves as an additional proof of the probability of a eonjectai 
formerly started respecting its name,] is a member of St. Mary's^ 
Nottingham, and may now be almost considered as locaUj 
united to it. It is a distinct parish, or chapelry, in the deam 
of Nottingham ; and the present ancient chapel dedicated 
St, Stephen stands upon the summit of the excavated 
surrounded by a burying ground : and the chapel is small 
low, partly in the Gothic style, but having nothing to reconi* 
mend it pariicuhrly to notice, except the very extensivi; pi 
pect over the vale of Belvoir, and even a^ far as the *' JLeici 
tcrsU ire to rest rock/' at a distance of twenty miles. From 








pMxii of view also the spectator looks down upon Colwick 
Hail, the &tdt of the Musters family, oa the banks of the mud- 
ing Trent, 

It was ortginalty crown land ; but king John granted it to 
William de Briwere ; from whom it went, ;n the reign of Edward 
Ihe first> to Tibetot, and was held of him at iLie same timp by 
Robert Pierpoint, by ibe ser?lce of a pair of gloves, or one 
penny, though fairly valued at 26/. 3«. It has continued cvef 
since in that famiiy, ^vho, as wc have obseryed, gave^the common 
near to St* Anne's weH to the parish. 

The village itself is rural, at present in some measure romantic ; 
has a number of pleasant villas and cottages, and has long been 
famous for a race of dairy people, who make a very pleasant 
kind of soft summer cheese, 

Creat part of the village, indeed, consint^ of ihe habitations 
within the rock, many of which have staircases that lead up to 
gardens on the top, and some of them hanging on shelves on its 
sides. To a stranger it is extremely curious to see the perpen- 
dicular face of the rock with doors and windows in tires, and 
ihe inhabitants peeping out from their dens, like the inmates 
of another world ; in fact, if it was not at home, and therefore 
cf no value, it would, without doabl, have been novelized and 
melodramatized, until ail the fashionable world had been mad 
for getting under ground. The cofleehouse* and ale houses, cut 
out of therockr are the common resort of the holiday folks; in- 
deed the cofieehouse is not only extremely pleasant from its 
garden plats, and arbours in front, but alto extremely curious 
from its great extent into the body of the rock, where visitors 
may almost choose their degree of temperature on the hottest 
day in summer. 

Without going into all the minutia? ofCorpomilon squabblet , 
which are seldom interesting beyond the locality of the borough 
itself, it is enough to notice of the MvNtctPAL History of Not* 
tingham, that it was anciently governed b)'' two bailifB, coro* 
Ders, and a common council ^ who were empoweied by Edward 




the first to choose a mayor. Henry the sixth made it a coonlj 
of itself; and it has dow seren wards, with each an aldermaiij 
oat of whom the mayor is ahrays chosen. These wards are* 
Chapel ward, on the western side of the town ; Ciutlc xourd, in 
the viclniiy of the -castle; Market ward, inclading the market 
place* and the Long Row and lanes to the north of it ; NortA 
wurd, which embraces the north ea5t division of the town > 
Bridge ward> between Sl Mary's and the Lene, and the lanef 
and streets to the eastward ; Middle taard, which h very small* 
to the east of Market ward, and between Grldle Smith Gate* 
and Fletchergate ; and Monihall ward, to the south east of the 
latter, and containing the Low, and part of the High Pave* 
mentii. Each alderman, though possessing a peculiar jurisdic* 
tion over^ is not obliged to reside in» his ward ; for* indeed, bit 
jurisdiction may properly be eaid, as a justice of the peace* to 
extend to the whole town. 

At present, the corporation consists of a mayor^ sis alder* 
menji a recorder, two sheriffs, two coroners, two chamberlatnty 
aad a common council composed of twenty -four bargessej^ 
eighteen of whom are chosen by the burgesses at large, but 
must have served the office of sheritr, and arc the senior coun* 
cil. whilst the remaining six arc chosen the same way from the 
body at large, and from the junior council. These, however, 
have ec[iJal rightii, and equal votes, except ihat the magistracy 
is filled Up from the senior body. It appears, that the hurgesies 
of Nuitingham hjve some privileges, advantageous to the lower 
jaoksj particutlarly the *' Burgesses Grounds/' as Ihey are 
called, which may be worth about Si per annum* to about 300 
of iheir number, to themselves during life, and to their widows* 
Where parties run high, it is not surprising thai charges of 
undue partiality, in the distribution of these dooceurs, should be 
sometimes brought forward ; nor were we surprized to hear, that 
some attempts which were made to enclose these lands, giving 
the various claimants an equivalent, have hitherto been always 
negatived* notwithstanding the probability, that such iui ar- 
9 range meat 







rangement ifi^ould make the landJn more valuable, and more use- 
ful u> t be town at large. No doubt that some of the partizani^p 
on both sides, may have considered these grounds as very good 
grounds on which to found theii* plans of borough influence** 
In Parliamentary Rights, the mayor and corpora^un, free- 
holders of 40^. per annum, eldest sons of freemen by birtb^ 
younger son* of freemen if they have served a seven years* 
apprenticeship any where, and freemen's apprentices^ havd 
each a vote* The ancient right wa^ in those paying scot and 
lut; but Oldfield, in his History of the Boroughs, complains 
that the decision of the House of Commons, in 1701, which 
settled the present arrangement, hag rendered the right of vot- 
ing so complicated and open to fraud, that every freeman 
may qualify as many as he pleases, by surreptitious indentures 
of appreniiceship. He adds, however, that Nottingham is un* 
derno immediate influence, owing to the great number of elec- 
tors, (n bout 1700;) yet complains, that the leading men of 
each party have formed a coalition to return one member each. 
This, he asserts, neutralizes the two voles; and he recommends 
that /A/«r should be allowed to prevent ii; but, however fine 
this may look in theory, it is extremely probable, that those 
who have been witnesses to popular contesU in large towns are 
very glad to secure peace and quiet, by any arrangement 
which will put a stop to scenes, where every thing is considered 
but libeHy and proptrty, both of these being very apt to suf- 
fer during the concussions of Whigs and Tories^ The necessity 
ofaocnething of this kind at Nottingham, or some other powerful 
palliative, seems acknowledged by a late act of Parliament, in 
consequence of tumu I tuoua proceedings in lH02, which gives 
a concurrent jurisdiction in this borough to the magistrates of 
the county at large. 

The number of votes has been estimated at 1700; but it is 


•At an election of Cominoii Coancilmen, m 1797. the corporatina and caii- 
didatei had the good 9eu»e to agree, Ihai n Atm} atop should be put to the old 
Abu«e ol gifin^ iDouej, &c. as pracliaed on JWoier occiuiotii. Thi» roajr be 
^teduaykir iiist&ucc of prActicul relbroi* 



HOW probably much larger- The votes at the late election i»l 
1 J507, ran for John Smith, E^q. 1047 ; for D. R Coke, Eati, 7m ij 
and for Dr. Compton, 575. 

With respect to BtoGRAPitY* particularly of literary cba-] 
racters^ Koltrogham has not many insUnccs to produce* The 
first we find on record is 

JoHji Plough/ son of Christopher, and nephew lo John.P»j 
rector of St. Peier*s who spent JteveraJ years in acquiring acade- 
mical learning at Oxford j and, in the latter end of 1543, suppltr 1 
catcd fur ihc degree of B. C. L. but does ftot appear by the Uni*] 
vcrsitybook to have obtained it- Yet, at that period, he wai 
rector uf St. Peter's, in room of his uncle, who had purchased i 
ibc adf owson for one mm from Thomas Hobson> the prior of J 
Lenton monastery, in order to confer it on him. Wood says,] 
that after this John became a zealous minister of God's word, 
in the time of king Edward the sixth j but being obliged to fly 
beyond sea, on the accession of queen Mary^ he went to reside 
a! Ba^il, and there wrote the following books; Apilogy fotl 
the Protestants, written in answer to a book against the Englisll j 
Protestents, that was ptsnned and published by one Miles Ho 
geard, of London, hosier; a Treatise against the Mitred Man in] 
the Popish Kingdom ; and, the Sound of the doletul Trumpet. 

William BftiGHTMAN,t was bred a fellow of ^ueei/s College 
Cambridge, and afterwards hentfficed at Hawnes, in Bed for 
shire. He made many prophcciesj and Fuller alludes to thefltl 
in very quaint terms. " Sure I am that Time, and Mr. B. will 
expound tbe hardest places in the Revelation j but what credit 
is to be given to the latter alone 1 will not engage. Such, 
who dislike Mr. B's %vriting, could not hut commend his evan- 
gelical living> who had so much of heaven in his heart. Walk- 
ing through the vineyard of thi«; %vorld* be plucked and eat a 
few gra^e>>, but put up mine In his vessel, using wealth as if he 
used it not. His clay cottage did crack, and fell down in the 
same minute, so sudden was \m death; but he who died 

• U'outJj Alhciiajj VoL L p. i2$, ♦ TuiitfB Worthier. 


4ouM on no Jay be said to die AudiWnly, being always pre* 
pared for bh dksolution." 




GiLBBRT W.iREdELD, ifi more modem daysi^ iras a native « 
thiH town, being bom in ibe Parsonage Houii: of St. Nichub^, of 
wbicb parisU Wh father iiras rector, on the ^d of Ffcby. I75(i. 
HU father was of a Derby^^htre family, but immediately from 
SlaHurd&bire. His motUt^r'ii ancestors were of Nottinj^bam* her 
grandfather having been twice mayor: by an allui^ion madi^by 
Waketield, in liie memoirs uf his own life, they were onijinaljy 
fi^ihermen. Ii has been said in frome recent publication, owing 
to a miiiintei'prelation of a passage in the first volume of that life, 
that his mother was buried in one of the churches at Notltng* 
ham; but the fact is, she died at Hackney, in 1800, in her 
79th year, and was buried at Richmond. His life it* »o r«;ceut, 
and had m little connection with bis native county, thut it is 
need Jets to go into further particulars, except that after Jear* 
iiig the academy at Warrington, he resided at Bramcole, and 
afterwards at Ntittingham, where he attempted to establijih a 
school, but seems to have been either unsucce3sful or unset tled« 
As many of his co temporaries arc yet living,, and as further 
notice might lead us into both religious and political discussions, 
we muiit refer to his own life, written by himself, which cstnnoi 
fail ofatlWding both infarmation and amusement, to the libera] 
on both sides of the {|uestion.s connected with lUh learned, 
tbongh unfortunate, character, 

Henrv KinKE White will long remain, his memory at lea«t, 
13 a proof that genius and talents will always burst through the 
thickest veil ofobscurity* In fact, the spirit and perseverance 
with whicli he adhered to, and at last accomplished his youlii- 
fal wishes, as related by Mr* Southey, are almost incredible, 
yet strictly true ; and are, or ought to be, a proof to parents^ 
that the early inclinations of their children ought not to be 
heedlessly thwarted und^r the name of obstinacy, where they 
may be the cont^equence of conscious genius^ and ot coii»cii»U5 
wortb. He has also unfortunately added another proof of the 



homeiy nd^ge, "lOon ripe, soon rotten." To dilate on the bi- 
ography of him, who may have been the school companion, or 
college friend, of in«iiy who read these lines, must be totally 
ujinecettary ; it is pleasant to remarki however, that his rae* 
mory is not forgotten^ nor useless to his family, the female 
branches of which now superintend a very respectable board- 
ing school in Nottingham, and who need not be ashamed td 
have it said, that the merits of an amiable son and brother go 
hand in hand with their own* 

It is time now to leave Nottingham, and proceed to examine 

with which we shall commence in a north-west direction, come 
round by the west, to the southern parts of the counry, not 
confining ourselves to the exact local division of Hundreds, b»t 
adopting such a route as would most readily pre^nt itself to 
the observant tourist.* 


* In the general iketch of the county, it has been atatedj that there *te 
»ix wapentakes or h anil reds. I'hc pariihcs cootatned in each, arc as Tollotr : 

IttrsffcLiFre. Adholton ; Barton m the Beunt ; West Bndgcford ; Bon' 
r.ty ; Clifton; Curlinstock ; Gotham; Key worth ; Ke^nston, an Untndoned 
Chapelr; ; Eaat Leek; NormanCon upon Soar; Plunitre; Ratcliffe upon 
Soar ; Henitoo ; Ruddtngton, has Flawfardy for tlie mother cluirch ; Staor- 
ford; Stanton in the Wolds; Snttun BoningtoD; TfftOFp in liie Clods; Wid- 
mcrpole; WjsalL 

BiNGiiAM. AsUctori in Whatton j Bingham; East Bridgvford; Biotigh- 
ton Salncy ; C«rcoh(onj Cofgravc, two panslics ; Coliton Basset; Cropwcll 
Bishop; Elton; Flinlham; Grantv ; Hawkeswoith ; Htckling; Holme 
Pierputnt; Knereton ; Kmollon ; Lunger; Orston; Owlhorpi Baddiffe opotv 
Trent; ScrevetouiTilhbycunj CropwclJ; Whaltoa, cujitaiiiing thtChmpclrj 
of Astacton. 

Ntwjiti. Baniby in the Willows; Norih Clifton; North and Soutli CoL 
ruigliams; C<»thani; Eikering ; EI»lon ; Farrington ; Hawton; KilWngioii; 
Newark; South Scarlc ; Shelion ; Syeriton Chape Ity ; SUnton^ JStoke ^ 
Tborney; Thorp by Newark; Winihorpc, 

B4S5ETLSW. N^trih Cl^. Beckingham ; Boyle; Glarboroiigh ; Cla- 



, fS/iSFOlD h the fir»t plactf, in this direction^ deserving of 
n a bottom, to which yau approach from tht: race 
ground^ aud the scenery around it, is rich in the extreme. 
Tills villagei indeed* may be now said to be a town« lo much 
is it increased of late, from «bc various raanufactarcs, ami the 
improvements consequent upon them^ for here are not only corn 
and cotton miUs, but I he bleaching and dyeing branches of 
business have been carried on for some yeari*, with consider* 
able success. The church h dedicated to St. Leodigariui, and 
has a very handsome spire; with a nave and side aisles in jf^ry 
good order; but there are no ancienl epitaphs, though it for- 
merly contained many armorial bearings in the windows. The 


worth; Cotef, a free Cbspet; Evertdn; GTingley on tlie Hill; Havton; 
Holte; Noflh snd South LtfTertotw; Missoo; Misterton; East and Wctt 
Retford»; liowineloo ; Saundby; Stuiley; Stufton; Korth and South TiU 
uei; Wiilkriughani ; North a»d South Wheatiey. 

&Hith Ciaif. hiiiihorpe; Darletoa^ Bait Praylon; Dunh^tro; Eaton, Of 
idteloni Egmanton i Gamsion ; Grove; Headon ; Klrton; LBuehiiui; Lex» 
ifiton, or Lax ton ; Eiist Mark ham cum Weil Drayton; We«t Mark ham cHNi 
Bevercotei^ Morehoase ; North and South Maskliain ; Muskham Pre* 
bend; Ramptoii; East and West Trtis^eUs; Tntford; U{iton. 

KATfiEti^. Babworth; Berercotes; Blithe; ISoughton, but ito ehordl; 
B«tljaj]iieU ; Carltou in Liiidrick ; Cuckcncy ; Edwinstow ; Elke»ley ; Flit* 
aiAgley; Uarworth i Uougbtotij Marlon, here wu» ancicutly a Chiipdi 
ilattersej^ Merriel Bridge, here was a CUupel formerly; OrdsaJI; \Vei| 
Ray too ; Sutton upon Luuod cum Scrooby ; WateBby ; Warsr*p ; Worksop. 

BnoKtow. Attenborough; Arnold; Batford ; North BeeJiton; Bilbo* 
rough; Biidworth ; Bulwell; Eastwood; Grieslcy ; Hucknall Torcard ; 
Kirkb^ in Athfield; Lemon; Linby; MansBeld ; Nuthall ; Radford; Set- 
■ton; Strelley ; Sutton upon Aihfield; Tevertal ; TroweJl ; Wo'latan* 

TuvaoAaToit. Arerhmm; Bleaibjr; Burtoo Joyce cum Bulcote; Ctl- 
f erton ; Caunton ; Culwick ; €rumweU;Editigiej ; Eperstou; Eaton or Oiton ; 
Elton in Cropwelij a Prebetnl ; Exton, aiioUier Prchetid; FarnAcId ; Fled- 
borough; Gediing; Gonalston; HttflougUton; Ho<:kertan ; Hoveringham ^ 
Kelham; Kirklington : Kn««aJZ; Lamblrj ; Lowdham; Mamham ; South 
Netbeley; Nornaanton by Gfetthdrpe ; Noithivell OverbaTl ; Owrngtoa.; 
Roliton; Sntuton; Stmthwell ; Stitton iijxjn Trent j Thurgartoo; Uptoa ; 
WeHon Uercj aud NormauvUIe^ WoiMlboruugh, 


importance of this place haa also been kept up, by its being Cbe 
scat of the Court of the Honour qf Pcvcrel, since it wat re- 
moved from Nottingham, The High Steward, however, bus 
the power of holding it by his deputy wherever he ihinki 
necessary or convenient. It formerly sat every Tuesday, and 
has jurisdiction, not only over Nultinghanishire, (the two hun- 
dreds of Thurgarton and Broscton. being added to the others in 
the 25Lh Charles the 2d,) but also over great part of Derby- 
shire, and a town or two in Leicestershire. At present it siti 
twice in the year, to try causes as high as 50/» ; Lord Middle- 
loo h the High Steward, and his defmty presides. A g«ol 
for the court is situated here, %vhich Howard describes as hav 
iiigj at the time of his wriiin;j, merely one room, with three 
beds; but the keeper toUl him, he had atiotlier little room for 
women prisoners^ of whom there being none in bis custody, 
he applied the apartment to domestic uses, A bowling green 
close by the gaol is much frequented by the inhabitants of Not- 
lingham; and Mr. Bray observes in his tour, that the prisoners 
bcitig then permitted by the gaoler to wait upon the company, 
their confinement was not very rigorous* 

Mapperle^ is a hamlet in this parish, and has a hand-some seat 
ef IcUaboii Wright, Esq, a banker in Nottingham. This gen- 
tleman has been very active in forming plantations^ and making 
inclosures^ and the place is now an ornament to the neighbour- 

BuLWELL is a large village, and it« inhabitants arc princi- 
pally employed in cotton printing, and in bleaching; it has 
also some very extenMve lime works. Part of the parish is in 


the forest; the rest is incla^ied ; but the Lordship is the property fl 
of different individuals, who are stated as forming a kind of cor- 
poration, having the appointment of their own stewards, and 
the perqaisites of their own courts. Yet they still continue 
, copyholders, in order to preserve their customs and forest 
rights* The ancient manor house, Bulwcll WoodhaU, is now the 
residence of a farmer; but a handsome house has been built 





some years ago, by John Ncwton,Esq. to which he wished toaffiac 
the name of the place ; it happens^ however, unfortunately to 
have acquired the appellation of " Pye-wipe-Hall," so that £u/* 
well Hall is almost obsolete. 

INuTHALL stands a short distance from Bulwellj the Tillage 
is very BmaU, but has a neat and well preserved church, dedi* 
cated to St Patrick, with a handsome tower, and two aisjc!?. 
Here were, formcriy, several ancient monuments of the family 
of Bonn: and there are also some moilern ones, butnotofpar- 
ticubr consequence- Some of the armorial bearings of the 
Strelleys^ and other familie3> yet remain in the windows. 

But the greatest beauty of the place is the Temple, the seat 
of the Hon Henry Sedley, formerly Veniont but who took thin 
name in consequence of his marriage w*ith the only daughli^r 

I of the late Sir Charles Sedley, Bart.* This scat of Nut/tall 
Templct stands on an extensive plain, near to tlie village, and 
has a spacious paddock cont^ected with it^ but without any of 
the higher embellishments of park or garden scenery. The 
house is a square, with two low wings, and a handsome portico 
in front, consisting of six lofty pillars^ with a neat pediment; 
* and a light ballusiraded range of steps. The roof is pitched pretty 
high, with a lofty dome in the centre, surrounded with an airy 
baliustrade. The visitor first enters a magnificent hall, sup- 
ported by detached columns of the composite order, lighted 
from the dome, and elegantly decorated. The dome within 
Vol. XI L L displays 

* or tUli ramltj was Sir C[i!irt«!S Sedlej^jin tlie reign of Cbarlea the lecoud^ 
noted for Uis gallantry, and pnrticularlj meationcd in GritrnmontS Memoirs 
of tlie Engl bli Court. Diasipaiioii, howcrcr, vr as then fashionable ; but m 
«|pi(e of court intrigue* !9ir Churlei shewed himself an honest pstnut H the 
|lcv<iJation» when be waa very active agaiiivt Jamea the second, humourouifj 
observing, th«t be should do bis utmoU to make his Majesty *s d*ug)iter & 
qtK'en. as the king Imd made his a Counless ; nltuding to her being mtde 
Coonte>s of Dorchester* She was no beauty, Charles once said, his brother 
had her by tvay of penance j yet such wus James's attachment, (bitt he Mpould 
not part with her, except at the slrang retuon»trances of the queen and priei^^ 
agfuiisl whom she tiad employed die irholc torce of her ridicule. 


diiplays « profuaioii of oraameiilal bocy w^k, and baaf a light 
gallery tupported by the pillars of tbe hall. On enlraace, a 
BtK€hHt, of elegant workmanship, imilet upon the stranger, 
who cannot fail of being much strack not only with the ale* 
ganccj bttt with the conTenience of arrangement, which displays 
itself on all side^ particularly in the easy oommuoication from 
the hall to the Tarioos apartments. 

Yet, with all this elegance, a moment's consideraiioB destroya 
the effect, as there is something particularly incongmons in this 
style of architectttre in our climate. The original Rolonda of 
Palladio, of which this house is a copy, is the VilU Capra near 
Vicenaa in Italy, one of the most celebrated works of that 
great restorer of ancient architecture, and which is shoated 
aboQt a mile from the city gates. Nothing, as Mr. Dallaway 
observes,* can exceed either the plan or elevation of the ori* 
ginal in simplicity and commodiousness ; and its elegance baa 
often excited a desire of imitation, and an ambitHMi of im- 
provement, which, however, have always failed, §nm a viola- 
tion of that simplicity which is the real cause of all the excel- 
lence of Palladio's work. In this point he considers Mere- 
worth Castle and Footscray Place in Kent, which, like this of 
Nuthall temple, are imitations of the Villa Capra, to have to- 
tally failed ; as the four porticoes which constitute their decora- 
tion are ill adapted to our climate, whilst the filling them up 
with apartments, which has in some instances taken place, is 
still a greater solecism in architecture. 

Gretsley parish is the largest in the county ; and is said to 
be twenty miles in circumference. It has a handsome spacious 
church with a lolly embattled tower, in which are four good 
bells. The whole is kept in good order ; but the value of the 
living is said to be very unequal to iU extensive duties. There 
are some monumenU of the Rollestons, Millingtons, &c. but 
none remaining of the ancient possessors, pf whom the Canti- 
lupes had license to embattle their mansion house. Thb is to- 
e Dtllsfrsj on the httu 



tally destroyed^ with the exception of some fragments of the 
aDcient walls. 

« Northwest from Watnow is the castle of Griesly, the an- 
cient possessions of the lord Zouch ; and before of the lord 
Cantilupe, who married the daughter and heiress of Sir Hagh 
of Griesly. The same is now the possession of Sir John Sa- 
vage, whose ancestor had it hy the gift of Henry 7lh/'^ 

Bemtvakt "within the park of Griesley which is north from 
the castle, was built an abbey in the time of Edward 3d, by 
the lord Cantilupe, called Latin htlla vailis, which 
Bridget, now Countess of Bedford^ hath by Sir Richard Morrison 
her first husband, the reversion belonging to Charles Morrison 
her Sonne/' t Tanner, in his Monasticon, tells us that this wat 
a Carthysian priory , of a prior and twelve monks ; they seem* 
also, to have been jolly fellows, as John of Gaunt granted 
them a ton of wine annually^ as long as he lived, a certain 
mode of securing their prayers for his longevity. They were 
also indebted to Edward Baliol, the Scottish monarch, for a 
grant of sufficient timber for its first erection 4 W this place» 
once so important that the prayers of its inhabitants were in* 
cesMiiUy sought by numerous benefactors, nothing now re- 
mains except some tottering walls that contain nothing either 
picturesque or illustrative of antiquity, and are now merely ap- 
plied to form the common offices of a farm yard. 

Kimberley village is within this parish, and its situation scat* 
tered over a rising ground, intermingled with trees and hedge?, 
may be considered as even romantic in some points of view. 
It had a chapel, now in ruins, and going rapidly to decay ; and 
which, not being noticed by Thoroton, may in fact be of a 
posterior date to his work. 

Eastwood stands upon the vory verge of the county, and 
is in the coal country; of which there are extensive mines at 
various depths^ from 5 yards to 50* These coaU contain a 
~ t variety of specimens of antediluvian remains, particubr* 

L2 ly 

' Harleian Col. Sb% 53. f Ibid* | Leland. CoL VuK h 64. 


\y ol FcrnR anfother vegetables. The village itself is scat- 
tered over some broken ground, wiih a modern built cburch of 
brick, and of course possessing no ancient inoniiment) ; and 
those who ch use to gossip with the " sage chroniclers'^ of the 
place, will be told a wonderful story of a farmer being swat 
lowed up alive in the parlour of the village alehouse, whilst 
vfz& swallowing a cup of ale» to the great surprize of the host^ 
who by this means discovered that his humble raan^ston wai 
built on an exhausted coal pit* 

CossAL is a small village to the southward uf Eastwood. Here 
is an hospital founded by the ancient family of Wil lough by^ 
for four men, who have coals« clothing, and two shilUngs pc^ 
week, for their support. Near it is a small chipel in which is a 
vault of that family. About the year 1780, on the death of 
Miss Willoughby of Nottingham, this ancient vault, which had 
not been used for many years, was opened for her interment ; 
when the workmen entered it, they were surprized by a lumi- 
nous appearance at the further end, which suddenly dtsappear*^^^ 
ed on the approach of a candle. As soon as their superstitioo^j^^^l 
alarm, however, gave way to their curiosity, this ptiraculous 
light was discovered to proceed from the animal phosphorus of 
a human sculU covered with a greenish coloured mould in a 
high state of putrescence. 

Marshy which is about one mile from Cossal, ^ecms to be the 
place described by Tanner as having a Benedictine cell or cha* 
pel of St. Thomas, but whose scite wa^ then considered by himr 
and since that by bis copyists, as unknown. 

Strruev '*in the west part of the couiUy called the Sand^ 
where the little river Erwash makes ila way to the Trent, an- 
ciently Strettci^h, gave name and re^jldence to the knightly fa- 
mily of the Strel leys, (commonly called Sturley,) one of the 
oldest and most famous in the county/'^ It is now the pro* 
perty of T W. Edge. Esq. who has a nmdcrn seat in the parish* 
The village itself is small; the church is dedicated to All Saints^ 

* C«ii}dcQ*f BritDnnia« 



and is kept parttcularly neat, especially the chancel ; owing in 
Ipft great measure to the attention of the patron, who has present- 
a very elegant modern painted east window, of various 
criptural subjects. Some of the old armorial glass is still in 
ood preservation, which, with the antique font, may be seen 
In the plate:* to Throsby^s edition of Thoroton, Two old altar 
monuments still exi^t in the chance!; one has no inscription; 
the other is of the date of 1500: there are also some rery neat 
ppulchral menioriaLs of the family of the present possessor, 
rhosc Seat is near lo the church, a plain building of three sto- 
ries in height, with a small projection in the centre of the 
principal front, ornamented with a pediment. The pleasure 
grounds are as yet in their infancy ; but laid out in a good style^ 
and derive much of their beauty from views of the surrounding 
scenery, which consists of romantic vallies and pleasing 
iroodlands interspersed with all the elegancies of culiivalion* 

BtLBO ROUGH parish has a church dedicated to St. Martin^ on 
a very small scale, but containing some monumenlalfloorstones 
which may amuse the hunter after genealogy. It also possesses 
some coal mines, where that fossil is met with at the depth of 
one hundred yards; hut it is principally remarkable for con- 
tatning the hamlet of Broxiow, which gives name to the hun- 
dred, and was a place of great consequence in the Saxon times. 
Here is an ancient manor bouse, prettily embowered in trees, 
but much of its picturesque elTect destroyed by some uncouth 
additions of a modern date. 

Radford is a manufacturing village at a very short distance 
from Nottingham on the road to Wcdhiton, with a populaiion 
amounting to 3447, )t has a small church dedicated lo St. 
Peter ; and the village contains some good houses, particularly 
one beMmging to Mr. Elliot of Nottingham, where ihe grounds 
are a most excellent miniature of park and garden scenery on a 
larger scale. In this neighbourhood are many coal pit** in 
which the coals are dug out in large masses; and it is said that 
they possess the inflanimable princjpli: or gas in a greater pro- 

I* 3 porliou 


portion 4htii any other species of the fossil in the kingdom* 
The pleasantest ramble for the tourist in this part of the envi* 
roofl of Nottingham, after passing the heavy sandy road which 
leads to Radford, is to pass through that village, and to cross 
the Erwash canal and the river Lene, along whose banks he 
may trace some very pleasing scenery. He then, leaving Wol- 
laton parkwall on his left, arrives at the village of Wollatov, 
in which there is a very ancient church, well deserving of at- 
tention, and dedicated to St. Leonard, with a very good spire, 
containing six bells. This church is very neatly pewed, and 
has a small organ; in it is also the vault of the Middleton 
family, but there are no modem monuments : iJf the ancient 
ones, however, described by Thoroton are in good preserva* 
tion. Amongst these, is one to Richard Willoughby, Esq. and 
his wife, who died about 1481: it resembles an ancient fire^ 
place in a Gothic hall ; and in the centre is a large grating, 
inside of which lies the representation of a skeleton on the floor. 
Here is also a monument of Henry Willoughby, in armour, 
with two female figures on one side, which lie in a line, and are 
just his length. He is in the attitude of prayer ; and the lower 
part of the altar contains four figures, two of which are sons in 
armour, and two daughters in the costume of the time. Three 
Gothic arches in the body of the tomb shew a statue of a corpse 
in grave clothes. The date is 1528, no less than eighty-three 
years before the institution of Baronets; yet the inscription on the 
tomb has " miles pro corpore regis, Sfc. BaronettM," which, how- 
ever, Thoroton considers as a mistake for " Bannerettus,'' and 
of which several other instances might be adduced. 

The village is extremely rural; and in it is a neat villa look* 
ing house with pleading grounds, belonging to Mr. Martin 
Steward to ibe Middleton estates. Leaving the village, the 
ro id leads to the Erwash Canal, along whose towing path there 
is a very pleasant ramble, by some extensive coal pits^ from 
whence we cross a common, to the Bramcote Hills, near which 
is a modern built house^ of John Longdon, Esq, called Bramcote 




Houic, As yet the grotinds and plaiuatioDs are ki a very 
roiigb state ; but as ihe hiila at the back of the house are a very 
pktLitesque range, tt prumiseSf when completed, to be a place 
ofcoiiKsderable inlertst ta the admirer of ronil beauty. 

Between these hillii, on the brow nf a rising ground. Is a Very 
carious and conspicnous object, called the Hemlockstonb* 
Thiii \s an insulated rugged mas^ of rock, or reddish ssnd^tone^ 
upwardg of thirty feet high, and consisting of very thiu laminm 
dipping to the west; its extreme breadth from north to south 
is about twelve feet at the base^ but .spreading at about two 
thirds of its elevation ; and it^i thickness below is abuyt four feet, 
Inouiline, it bears some slight rcicn^b lance to a mushroom, ami 
is evidently wJfring away, from the eilects of the weather* Dr. 
St»ke]ey is of opinion, that it is merely the remnant of a 
quarry, the stone of which has been dug, or cut, from around 
ii; an idea not improbable, as it consists of the siame materials 
as the adjoining hills, though in much thinner layers. 

Bkamcote, was long the reside ntc and prnperfy of rhe JFaiid- 
l^y family; and in the church lies Henry Handley, Esq. uhose 
memory it preserved in Notttnghain by his various charitiei;, 
as well as at Bramcote^ where he left 5oL per onnum, for a 
preuchingand resident minister, and 5L per annum to the poor; 
he died in 1650* This place is only further nutiteable for har» 
ing, at one period of hts hfc, been the residence of iJUben 
Wakefield, who :^ettled here in oider to establish a school, but 
without success. The tourist now comes into the Derby road, 
and turning towards Nottinghauu soon arrives at the park* 
gate of 

W^LtATTosi Hall,* 

This gale is a handsome elevation cif stone« with a neat lodge, 
and light iron railing; and the approach to the house is through 
a noble winding avenue of hme-trees, nearly a miie in length* 
The park i« eactensive, and well slocked with deer, hares, aad 
ill« various domestic animals; it aUo contains spacious sheets of 

L 4 water, 

* iu aucicnt aimc ««s 01 a vet ton, but has l&ng Lee a ihus corrnpitiJ, 



water, supplied with a variety of lisb, aud enlivened by swans 

and other aquatic birds; and is broken into gentle swells, weH 
wooded with oak and elm, and at intervals admitting some very 
picturesque and extensive views of the surrounding landscape* 
A fine sweep leads round to the north front of the house^ which 
stands on a knoll, and exhibits a most magnificent appearance 
e?en at a considerable distance^ lofty and antique, and bearing 
some resenibhmce to the august lower of some ancient carJ 

*' Bosotn'd high in ruftcd irc«.'*- — 

It U of the fashion of Queen Elizabeth's time, or rather Of 
that ^hion then just beginning to be introducei), and i^in the 
Italian sty le» but of Gothic arrangementi It is square^wrlh four 
large towers* adorned with pinnacles ; and in the centre, the hodyJ 
of the house rises higher, with projecting coped turrets at the cor- 
ners. The front and .sides are adorned with square projecting Ioni€ 
pilasters; the square stone windows are without tracery; and 
the too great uniformity of the whole is broken by oblongi 
niches, circular ones filled with bust"! of philosophers, em- 
perors, empresses, &c. and by some very rich mouldings. 

The house is built entirely of freestone, which came hom\ 
Ancaster in Lincolnshire, in exchange for pit coal from the J 
estate. Sir Francis Willoughby, Knt. built the bouse, an4| 
was also the dcssigner of the plan, according to his own laslef 
but the whole was superintended by John Thorpe, a ct^lebratc 
artist of that time. 

Camden, in the first edition of his Britannia, rather pays thli 
house and its builder a compViincnt; but, in his last, he censureij 
hts niotivea for erecting it; and asscrtsf that, by the time it wafj 
finished, it had sunk three Lordships. Again, in speaking of 
IVollaton, he says, •' where in our time. Sir Francis WiU 
loughby, at great ex pence, in a foolish display of his weaUb 
built a magnificent and most elegant house, with a fine prosi»| 
pect," A later critic,* speaking of this house, seems inclined 1 

# Lard Orford, VoL III, p. 144. 



> carry its style of builtling to a much earlier date than the 
reign of Elizabeth, when it is supposed to have been first in- 
iroduced : hts says, ** the taste of all these stately mansiom was 
that bastard style which intervened between Gothic and 
Grecian architecture; or which, perhaps, wai* the style that had 
been invented for the houses of the nobility > when they first 
ventured* on the settlement of the kingdom after the termina- 
tion of the quarrel between the Rosea, to abandon their fortified 
dungeons^ and consult convenience and magnificence; for I 
am persuaded, that what we call Gothic architecture was con- 
fined solely to religious buildings, and never entered into the 
decoration of private houses*" This is rather a curious position ; 
but if the noble author merely means to assert, that private 
houses were never built in the cathedral style, we will agree 

irith him, even although his own house at Strawberry hill 

F|brms an exception to the rule. At the same t'iroe, it cannot 

be clt^uietl, that the castellated mansions of the nobitity and 

gentry were built in the Gothic, though not exactly in the 

'ccle4ia$ikal Gothic manner; and it is as evident that the 
style of Wollaton Hall was not introduced immediately after 
the contest of the Roses, nor even in the reign of Henry the 
eighth, as the buildings of that period, of which indeed only 
a few remain, consist of ranges of low aparimenis, with g^uare 
framfid windows with mullions ami iracery, und ihe whole 
generally added to the castellatetl mansion of former times:* 
and as we are, perhaps^ to date the introduction of the Goikie 
My le from the taste and observation of our wandering Crusaders, 
go fur this introduction of the reviving arts in Italy, engrafted 
upon ihe former style, are we indebted to that spirit of ramb- 
ling over the continent, which had become so fashionable in the 
tune of Elizabeth, and even in the latter part of Hjrnry% 


•A verjr correct cjiample of llus poiition maj he found lit If^vcrcnitk 
in Kcnti near Taitbridgc, Ihe rc&idctice of Sir Thoiun* lip)c^ii> and often the 
icene of llcnry*!> courtship with the f»ir A^nne. 



ig tht>s examined the ouUide of this augtist m&tisiofii 

Lwe shall proceed to the interior, in the examination of whtch 

rwcwerc more fortunate than Mr. Bray, who obserycs in hi« 

todr, '* so far may be seen, but strangers are nut permitted to 

Ltee the inside, cTcn when the family is absent; a piece of 

pride, or gloomy inbospitality, which for the credit of our 

country is rare." It is to be r«;gretted, that a man of so much 

I taste, and so capable of describing this residence, should thus 

have been dti^ppointed ; we, however, met with no difficulty 

in procuring admission; but even found the attention and ciri- 

ility of the domestics redoubled, when the intention of the visit 

l^as known. We shall then at once, in company with our 

Iteaders, ascend a handsome flight of steps, which leads to an 

Snipanee hall, in which is an armoury for the county, consisting 

»fa number of musquets with their accoutitrments all disposed 

lln a regular and ornamental manner. From hence we enter 

II^LL, which is a lofly and spacious apartment, on a plan and 
jirrangement strictly Gothic, but fitted up and ornamented en* 
Itirely in the ItsiHan style of revived architi^cture. It has an 
^it flat ceiling, supported by oaken brackets of light and ^ 
workmanship; at the upper end is a gallery, and the 
crcen is supported by Doric pillars. Under the beams are a 
Itaricly of devices, of satyrs, caryatides, &c, according to the 
taste of the times; and in the gallery are a handsome clock, and 3 
[in organ. The walls and ceiling are painted by La Guirc; and < 
[there ore several good pictures by the best masters, Neptune^ 
ind Amphitrite, Rape of Eurtipa* These are both hy Luca^ 
\€iryrd(mi. Game, fruits, and a dog most exquisitely e^ecuted*^ 
I Wolves and dogs. Schneider, Three landscapes ; one cattle in < 
Ifreposc amidst ruin,^ ; travellers reposing beneath a rocky 
Icavcni, with cattle, and ruins; travellers \vith their flocks, 
kItOM di Tivolu Charles the first; a good copy from Vandyke* 
[Ancient painting containing a birds eye view of Wollaton Hall, 
' and gardens. Mere is also a good bust of Bacchus in white 

marble ; 



fiiBrble; and there are imitations of Elks head^ but with real 
horns, over every door. Near to the gallery h a family piece, 
in which is introduced Sir Hugh Willouphby, whose portrait 
we shall have further occasion to mention* 

The Gallerit contains some fkraily portraits, a large paint- 
ing of Joseph and his brethren, and a piece of still life. 

The Saloon is a very elegant and airy apartment, containing 
some good pictures. A most masterly production of dogs, and 
a wild boar. Schftcider, Four family pictures of the Wil* 
lou^hbys, in (he time of Elizabeth ; the^e are Sir Francis and 
his lady, their son and daughter. First Lord Middleton* 
His Liidy, Large view of the house and park at Middlctom 
Though the paintings in this apartment deserve examination* 
yet the stranger's attention %vill be principally directed to the 
windiiws, from whence there is a most enchanting prospect of 
the plcasare grounds and their various ornaments of buildings 
and water, backed by fine groves, in which are seen shady 
walks, and all the beauties of garden scenery. 

The Principal Staircask, is elegantly painied in fresco. 
In the centre is a Roman sacrifice to Apollo, in which the por- 
traits of several of the family are introduced. The ceiling re- 
presents Heaven, with a toll assembly of the Gods; and Pro- 
metheus is seen stealing the sacred spark of fire. On thelefl 
side of the staircase, he is represented animating the figure • 
the story is here rcuArkably well told, and the surprize mixed 
with joy, wonder, and gratitude, so strongly marked in the 
countenance of the animated statue, seems a counterpart of the 
feelings of our general mother, so admirably delineated by- 
Milton* On the right side, the unfortunate Philosopher, for 
such, when divested of allegory» we may believe Prometheus to 
have been, is seen chained to the rock by Vulcan, whilst Mer- 
cury gives the orders, and the whole groupe are surrounded 
by nymphs, graces, &;c. The whole aflibrding an excellent 
allegorical lesson; for though Prometheus may have been the 
first, he is not thu last who, after animating a female statue, and 




having his chains rtreted by the Grefcna Green Vulcan» hai 

found bis heart torn by a Vulture 1 

The DiSiMo Rooait up sUirs has two most magni Been t glafistv 
and has some Tery capital family pictures Sir Richard WiW 
looghby. Lord Chief Justice for the space of twenty -three 
years> in tUe reign of Edward the third. Sir Hugh WiUoughby* 
frozen to death in the North Seas, in 15M. He went out for 
the purpose of making discoveries in the Northern Ocean, with 
three ships fitted out at the private expense of the society of 
merchants^ who had joined in company, in order to prosecute 
the search after a norlh-ea&t passage to India. Having pr 
ceeded as far as Spitzbergen, the Edward Banaventnrr, con 
manded by Captain Richard Chancellor, was separated from 
the squadron in a gale of wind ; soon after which Sir Hugh 
discovered land, but w^& unable to examine it on account of the 
ice and shuahiess of the water. He considered it as being in 
72 degrees of north latitude; and it may have been the Coa 
of Nova Zemblaj or the island of Kolgen. Sailing from thenci 
to the westward^ he came at length to a river and harbour, 
nvhere he determined to pass the winter; bui not having a suf- 
ficient quantity of wood for fuel, and being perhaps attackc 
by the scurvy, he and his v\ hole crow perished^ though it af 
peared by the papers which they left behind them thai they 
were sliil alive in the munth of January 1554. This harbour is 
said to have been called Ariina; and tli^re is a river of that 
name in Russian Lapland^ To this unhappy evetU« ThomsQA 
alludes in his *' Winter :" — 

-Tyiherabte they ! 

Who, lirre ctiianglcd in tl«? galfierinic: ice^ 
Tiikc their Imt look of ilie dcircnding aun ; 
Whilr, full ordfiiih, »nd fiprcp witli ietifofd frosty 
The long long niglit, iiicttinbrni oVr their h^ads, 
YAh hurriblo. Suth wnd ih« Brjton*» fjite, 
A> with Cir^r prow, (whiu hitvc nut Jlritoii* diir\P) 
l\v iuT (he jjjissugr *Qugbt, ain;inptcd jujiCc 



Si> much in ftin^ tnd seemmg to be sliat 
By jealous nature with cterriB! burs, 
lb these feli re%wm, in AnitM cnughr^ 
And to (he stony deep his idle shit» 
Immediate seurd, be mth }u% hapless crew* 
Each full exerted at his sevur:il task. 
Froze into statues ; to the cordage glued 
The iulou and the pilot to the lieku.'* 


The poet has Indeed made a copious use of the pott's Iiceuce by 
exaggeration; but it is impossible to look on the picture with- 
9^t feeling many of the sensations that arise from the delmea- 

The Drawing Room is plain but elegant. The pictures are, 
a fine view of Notiitighara, from ihe Trent j good portraits ol' 
ktc Lord Middleton aitd his lady ; an old lady by SirGodfnry 
Kneller ; two sea pieces ; two Indian paintings; and a humourous 
piece of two boys eating hasty pudding.* 

The BiLLi^iiD Room is well adapted for Us declared purposf 
and has a few good paintings. Over the fire place, is what U 
called the original of the Earl of Strailbrd, and his secretary, 
Ciie night beFore his execution ; there are several pieces of this 
kind, however* which claim the meed of ortginaliiy. Speaking 
of Wentworih in Yorksiiire, Gilpin says, '* the original of Lord 
Strafibrd and his secretary is said to be here. Its pretensions 
are disputed; though I think it has merit enough to niaSntairi 
them any where.*' Whether this at Wollatun ^ really the ori- 
ginal* or only a copy, we will not pretend to decide; but the 
picture certainty has considerable merit; and is no doubt a juil 
likeness of that unfortunate nobleman, whose true character 
has perhaps never been justly appreciated ; for whilst the 
violent factions, which occupied the attention, and directed the 
conduct and sentiments, of his cotemporaries, still con tin oe by 
their remembrance to divide posterity into his absolute censarcrs 
or uncjualified admirers, both his enemies and friends b^vc tjjo 

lit uch 

• Soine aJtcfation hAiiiace tHken jiUce tvilh respect to these picture*. 



Viicb confounded bit own raerits and 

die UumctiofiA in wbicb be w^ hi i 

idfibldf he exprewed bii late far kk camtHtwf, loii Ar Hi 

■overeign ; bat he expreaied bis feart thit it aogvred ID §m lk» 

povple's hapfmcH!. Uiii* to write the comm t mx mem mi mw^ 

§Km in letten of blood* 

Atone end of the rooio, 1$ a large piece of lf«it# 
§afDe» Yegeublet, &c. ettber an original of, or a good cayy 
Mckmader* At tbts other end, is a very corioits coafiQiiliaB oC 
lurfKape« sea bc)cb« rocks, &c. in the centxe is a 
ietitly a portrait \ there is also a Sherman with hia 
aome fish remarkably well done. 

IlieS&coNDAaY Staircase, h ornamented with 
palntingf* Landscape and buifaloes ; these anioials 
in the park. Ttie father of the present lord. Se¥eral Itach 
paintings* particularly a most excellent market piece, balias 
tea piece, a copy from Ciaudt Lorraine. A philoaofiller wilb 
Gerard's Herbal before blm ; a painting of rery ccmaidefaMc 
merit, though evidently neglected. The infant J<^, 
his ofleriiig to the child Jesus, with Mary and 
Isaac and Jacob meeting. Some family pictures of the an 
line of Willoughby, which deserve a more consptciMMii 

The Tisitor is now led by a circalir staircase in one of tht 
lowcrf, to the Upper Room or Ball Room, which rises abote 
the centre of the roof. At present it is little more than a lorn- 
her room, but is still %vorth seeing, as it contains some carious 
ancient arms, some fdinily pictures copies uf those below, and 
a very strange one of Susannah and the lihkTs, literally a curi- 
osity. Here is also an antique cabinet of Queen Elizabeth's 
time* with a variety of uncouth figures carved on it* 

In two of the turrets there are neat rooinaj to which the ap- 
proach is from the roof of the house^ from whence there is a 
most delightful and extensive prospect of the well wooded park 
and gardens, in which the w^atcr and bridge have a very fine 
9 I ffect ; 



fir«ct ; and ibe Would^ iogcih<fr wltb tb« vale of Btlvoirj add 
ranch to the beauly of ilie prospect^ contrasting finelv with the 
ricti foreground. TUt ornaments of the roof consist principally 
of a number of statues of very decent execution^ and in remark- 
ably good preservation ; and the mode of arranging the chim- 
iiieii it well worthy the notice nf the architect, springing from 
the corners to a centre* lo as to appear rather designed for 
ornament than u^. 

Uescendiiig from this elevation, the Lishahy is the next ob- 
ject of exauurtation. It is a long room^ wainscotted in imitation 
of oak, with a good selection of books on general nubjects. 
Well arranged. Here is an ancient folio Missal, hig^^ly illurut* 
Hated ; also an ancient service book of Woltaton churchy bought 
from the last Catholic rector for ten marks, containing the whole 
service set for chanting in the ancient manner. Henry, the fifth 
Lord Midiiieton, with many portraits of the earlier brancheiiof 
the Willoughbys are in this apartment; together with a very 
curious antique cabinet, ornamented with animals and flowers^ 
inlaid in mother of pearl. 

Leaving the house, the stranger is conducted towards the 
grounds, when he passes a vt^ry handsome pile of stables and 
other exterior offices, erected in 1774 : in the front is a pediment 
enriched with sculpture, and the whole are on a large scale, and 
finished even in a style ol elegance* Close to the mausiun* is 
the ancient pleasure ground, in which the antique style is pre- 
served, though with some modern alterations and additions : 
here are a number of statues, and the other usual ornaments of 
such places. The modern flower, and kitchen garden, &c, are 
at some distance from this, and completely hid in wood, so as 
only to he visible from the upper part of the house. In the 
grounds there is a curious sunnncr house in the Grotto style, 
pannelkd and ceiled with looking glasses, and ornamtnted with 
paintings and shell work* Under it is a water home, formed 
completely in the grotesque, with *hell and rock work ; but as 




these arc at least a century old, much of their former grandeur 
is gone, 

TftowELL lies between Wollatoo, and the verge of the county; 
ttt$ nothing more than a scattered village^ with a cbarch dedi- 
cated to St. HeJen, This buildingt though consisting of a nave 
and side aisles^ is in very indifferent preservation ; but the tower 
is a very fine object* In the windows of the chancel are many 
fragments of armorial glass ; some of the ancient stalls remain, 
and there h an antique and capacious font> that may engage the 
attention of the antiquary.* 

STArLEFORD^ a populous village engaged in the stocking 
manufacture, lies about a mile south from Trowel, close to the 
Erwash canaL The chapel is dedicated to Si, Helen's, and 
I is kept in very good order. The spire has a set of five bells, 
I and the chapel h sufficiently liirge for the whole parish, having , 
II nave and two side aisles; yet the love of variety or of novelty, 
[even in religious matters, has been fallowed by the establish- 
[ment of a meeting house, upon the Wt-sleyan principles. The 
[whole of the chapel under^vcut a thorough repair in 1785 ; and J 
lit is pleasing to observe, that the churchwardens have been par- 
Iticularly careful to preserve the ancieni monuments, some of 
Iwhich remain lor the iamilies of Tevery and Willoughby, and 
Itbere are also some handsome tablets for the Warrens 

STAPtEFOBO Hall, the Jieat of the Right Honourable Admiral 
^Sir John Borlase Warren, Bart, and K. B. is situated close to 
the village. It stands low, with a handsome lawn in fronts 
i^tefulty surrounded with ornamental plantations* The house is 
quite in a plain style, and was rebuilt by the gallant proprietor, 
al)out 1797. It would far eKceed our limits to enter on his bi- 
ography ; the pen of the historian must deuil his exploits— but 


* The Mftgna Bntonniat speaking of Trowel, tajij that " while the natif 

rSciiiprtfTglMOi Lnd m \mn here, the Prit*r ha'J tJjc Itbcftj of/rfe vfttrrtn m blL 

tlie ritmesnc laiictt belonging to them/* — a thing not very uncommon^ if w* 

are to behete all (he i lories of monks titid nuos, so prevftlcQt mt tht time of 

the Hcf^irniftUoij. 



il is a fact worth recording here, that on his engaging in the 
naval service as niitlshipnian of the Venus frigate, at the com- 
mencement of the American war, then resuming a professional 
life, to Mrhich be was much attached, he performed asingtilarand 
perhaps romantic action that betokened a munificence truly 
princely, by going to the Fleet and King's Bench prison and ac- 
tually releasing all the officers of the navy detained at hoth^ 
out of his own private fortune. 

Attcn&orougii, which we presume was the ancient Aucntan^ 
lies nearly on the banks of the Trent. It is a very small ril- 
lage« not containing more than twenty houses ; yet its church U 
Urge, and also well filled, as it serves for Chi I well, Touelon,* 
and part of Bramcote* It is dedicated to St« Mary, and has 
some armorial glass, as well as rude figures on the capitals of 
the pillars that deserve attention. The monumental remaini 
are but few; but there is a curious little brass only eight inches 
long, of which a plate may be found in 1 hrosby'i edition of 

But this place is remarkable, as having given birth to Henry 
Iabton the regicide, and son in law of Cromwell. He was 
eldest son of Gervase Ireton, Esq. and brother to Sir John Ire- 
ton, Lord Mayor of London, in 1()58. He was a gentleman 
commoner of Trinity College Oxford, in 1G29^ and at the age 
of 19 took one degree in arts; but* ai Wood tells us in his 
Athenct, left the university without completing that degree by 
determination^ at which ttme he had the character in that 
college^ of a stubborn and saucy fellow towards the seniors, and 
therefore his company was not at all %viinting. Afterwards he 
went to the Middle Temple^ learned some grounds of the com- 
Bion law, became a raan of a working and k^horioos brain, 
which, in the end, led him into error. When the rebellion broke 
out, he as a person naturtd to mischtef^ took up arms against 
the king, was a rtcruUtr in the Long Parliament, eitiier for the 

Vol, XIL M county 

* It is ftConoQs mistake of Dr. Thoniiis Fuller^ in hii Ecckiiastjcal Htstc^ry, 
to conofund iliii pk^Q nicli Towioiilleld in Yorkftbire^ 



tingham durmg its coatinuancej ami also that all persons Comitig 
from, or going lo it* should be free from all processes of la*; 
TUis fLiir still ccmtinucs for horned caUle^ sheep^ and bops; and 
there is another on the WcdnestJay in Whitsun-weekj by grant j 
of Charles the second. At the dissolution, the abbey demesne 
was gr.inted to Sir William Hicks; it iifterward* came to tb« 
first Duke of Richmond, who sold it to the ancestor of ■ 

Gregory, Esq. the preienl possessor, in the reign of Charts 
the second. 

The vilUge, iwhich at the present day consists of a long street^ 
is a pleasant evening** walk from Nottingham, being extreoiejy 
neat and rubral, and liavinir several gentlemen's seats on tht 
banks of the rivrr. 

Thechurcli, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is very saiatU aoi 
seems to have been built oti part of the ancient hospital, ailer ' 
the dt!Siruction o] the priory* It bears, however^ high marks 
of antiquity itk many pans, and near the reading desk there k 
an ancient ini>Jiamental stone on which a cross and chalice art 
carved with the date of 133S^ but this may have been remoTed j 
from the original I church. The font is very large, being tw# 
,lV-et six inches in height j and is remarkable from its being in 
the form of a parallelogram, as if intended for complete immer« 
9ion. On the sides are some curious and even laboured sculp- 
tures of the crucifixion, &c. wjih niches filled with angels- 
All vestiges of the Abbey and Abbey Church, had long been 
destroyed p nor ivaji its scile even known until some years ago, 
when a vtiy curious brass plate of the crucifixion was founds 
Weighing upwards of seven ounces, and supposed to have been 
left there by Cardinal Wolsey, on his way to Leicester abbey, 
where he elosed his ambitious and disquiet life. It contains a 
number of figures, not badly exetuled, as may be judged fron^j 
an tmprei^sioa of it in the 67 th volume of the Gentleman's M**i;»| 
gazine^ It was found adhering t<» a wooden crucifix, above the | 
transverse piece; and this discovery naturally led to ihe sup- 
poi»ilion» that the spot where it was found must have been the 




sT^tte of the ancient priory. Nothing further took place, bow- 
er, with respect to investigation, unul a few years ago*- 
hen Mr. Stretton, whose house is close by ihe anctcnl church 
yard, and mdeed partly situated on the ancient ruin, be^n a* 
rie of examination iti which he discovered several bases of 
he very elegant Saxon pillars of the conventual churchy but 
even in doing this his researches were att**nded with very little 
antiquarian satislactiont as the venerable remains ivere actually 
taken away for common purposes. He had influence sufficient, 
however, to prevent any further Vandalic proceedings ivf this 
nature, and has not only dug out seven very fine specimens cif 
the ancient pillars, to the hci^^hi of a (^w feet above their 
bases, but has abo been enabled nearly to trace out the groiuvd 
plan of the whole* 

Lcnton Priory is a very handsome dwelling house of Mr, 
Sli»etton's own erection^ in the form of an ancient priory, as 
far as the proportions would admit; and there are several an- 
ue aepulchral memorials in the garden desi^rving of notice, 
particularly a stone coflin^ with a crosier on the lid; also a very 
curious Saxon font supposed to have belonged to the ancient 
priory* The ^xU^rior of the bou«c presents some very good 
specimens of the oraamentcd Gothic, in the floors ami windows* 
and the interior arrangement, tliowgh possessii^g every moderii 
^omfortj is not inappropriate. 

The antiquarian tourist w-lll also fmd much to gratify him 
tna collectiow of curiositi*?*! belonging to thii gentleman, most 
f which are illustrative of Lcnton, and its neighbourhood. 
Here is also a portrait of the lamous AW/ Givt^nne, which, if not 
an original of Leiy's, is such a co()y ai he need not have been 
a.<$himed of. It is not our place, indeed, to fdl up the^e pages 
ith reuiiirlts on a woman of her description, however-clevai<ed 
ihe became in life; yet we tnust do her the justice to allow, that 
Jier portrait speaks her worthy of a better fate. Indeed iihe 
jWffS most oiunificeutly liberal in her benelWlioni*; and her 
^-tfwblesj her failings* and ail her errors, arc forgotten in the con- 

M i lemplatioa 

tjNDplation of her being the primary cause of the erection 
and establishmeDt of Chelsea Hospital, as an asylum for dia* 
abled soldiers, and for which she adoally gave the ground on 
which it stands, as an encouragement to the design.* Her lat- 
ter end too was honourable to her, as Dr. Jennison, who ' 
preached her funeral sermon, adduced satisfactory evidence 
that she died a sincere and contrite Christian. Such, as her bi* 
ographer has observed, was Nell Gwynne; her failings most 
be admitted by all; but the most rigid moralist cannot witlN 
hold from her the praise of many good and amiable qualities. 
Bat to quit this digression, to which we were led by a recollec- 
tion of this very capital portrait, let us now proceed towards 

. WiLFoao, a most delightful village on the banks of the Trent, 
and which contains several very neat villas, belonging to some 
people of opulence in Nottingham. The village is altogether 
neatly built, and extremely rural. The church stands close to 
the Trent, and is not only an handsome object in itself, but also 
commands a most pleasing view of Nottingliam and its vicinity. 
It is dedicated to St. Wilfrid, and the name is evidently a con- 
traction of Wilfrid's ford, ai there is both a ford and a ferry 
close by ; the tower is low, but the nave and two side aisles are 
capacious and kept in good order, and the chancel has a very 
neat altar piece. It seems to have been anciently a Roman station, 
as many Roman coins were dug up here a few years ago, most 
of which were of the latter emperors. 

WHford House, a neat modern building, is the seat of John 
Smith Wright, Esq. Turning from this village towards the 
bank of Trent, we have a view of the steep cliff on which 

Clifton Hall 
standi deeply embowered in groves of oak and elm, and most 
pleasingly situated to command the most extensive prospects 
over the Trent, the town of Nottingham, and an immense tract 

" of 

* A public hooie in the yicinity of that hospital, and much frequented by 
its inmates, slill exhibits a rude representation of her head ; and there, as 
well as iu the hospital, Udl Gwynne, has long been a standing toast. 



i>f country extending into all the surrounding counties, A 
neat gravelled walk leads along the river's bank, from whence 
the opposite shore, crowned with the towers of Wollaton and 
the modern Gothic villa of Mr# Wright, is seen to great ad* 
Tantage. At the end of this path, a handsome park gate opens to 
the grounds, and leads to Clifton Grove^ a long avenue form- 
ing ibe approach to the house, about a mile in length, and broad 
enough for a dozen carriages to drive abreast. It is entirely 
covered with the green award, and thickly sheltered with treei* 
on each side which preclude all distant views^ except about 
the middle, where a circular opening cut in the foliage presents 
an almost magic prospect of Nottingham castle with the town 
and part of the surrounding scenery, like a living |>icture in a 
irerdant frame. The eiTect of this is indescribable, nor coufd it 
be expressed even by the largest painting; in short, it must be 
eeen to be fully appreciated. The whole of the orowii of the 
cliff, and also the slope to the Trent, are covered with fir 
and elm, which were planted in 1740 and have thriven re- 
markably well* Near the upper end of this avenue, the clijf 
nearly overhangs the Trent^ whose silver stream meanderjt 
most pleasingly round it* *' Here" we are told by Thronby, 
^' trddition says, the Clifton beauty, who was debauched and 
murdered by her sweetheart, was hurled down the precipice 
into her watery grave; the place is stit! shewn, and it has been 
long held in veneration by lovers*** 

We now approach the hall, the seat of a very ancient family 
of the same name for many centuries, of which the present Sir 
Gervas CUfton, Ban, is the represenUitive. The mansion, 
which stands on a rock of gypsum or alabaster curiously inter- 
spersed in many places with beautiful spars, was formerly 
quite in the antique style of the sixteenth century, atid Stukely 
speaking of it about the year 1712 says, '^ Clifton near here, 
is a good seat with pretty groves, and a noble prospect ;*' but ii 
is now much modernized, indeed in some parts almost rcbuitt. 

The present Sir Gervabe Clifton, had begun to modernize the 

M 4 house 



house near forty years ago, but broke off bis geiieraTflSSfgli m 
con&efjuence of a domestic loss. Much was done, however, tn 
the couise of twelve years ^ for what was then done to mo- 
dernize it was executed in the most elegant manner, and the 
gardens and plantations were begun to be laid out on a new 
pUn of tastefiil elegance. At present the front to the viUage 
slill retains part of the ancient mansion, but looks incomplete, 
from the wings not being regular ellher in iihape or in size* 
The centre of the principal Iront is ornamented with ten hand- 
some columns of the Doric order, but is rather concealed from 
view by the luxuriance of surrounding plantations, as well as 
by the churchyard enclosures, and b)/ some of the ofiices* so as 
not to be seen except on a close approach. One of the most 
elegant of the intended alterations was nearly Bnished, whea 
the death of the amiable mistress put a stop in some measure 
to the |*lan^. Lady Clifton's intended dressing room was ar- 
rangt^d with a south aspect with an entrance into the green- 
house, thus bringing that roost pleasing sheltered amusement in 
a dreary winter's day within reach of the social fire^de« and 
thereby rendering it a more frequent object of attention, than 
when placed at such a distance as almost to forbid a visit to it 
during the inclement season when it b most desirable* Xhfi 
k house contains many good paintings, but ^ they are mostly 
Ifamil}' portraits, they require no illustration* 

The gardens are on the side of a hill ri&ini^ above the house, 
Imid originally were laid out in the ancient taste with a regular 
Iseries of slopes in progressive height, connected by flights uf 
Ifitone steps, and divided by cut yew hedges; and, as it has been 
justly observed, the le\elling of the ground on each^of these* 
L»o as to make ihem into so many ilat parterres, was not only at- 
{tended with great expense, but alijo a proof of the then bar- 
rbarous tast^ of the designer ; as, by the preservation of the 
[initural slope of the hill, its whole surface might have been 
I viewed either from the summit or from the base; instead of 
[baving only one terrace seen at a time. After ascending th^e 




stepAt the fisitor found htmielf on a large bowling green, be* 
yond which wiis a walk through u wood» leading to a summer- 
house in a most commanding situation, looking down on the 
Treaty and over a great extent of distant country. At present 
the fine terrace walk is preserved^ as well as a most interesting 
one at the toot of the hill, winding through a thick embower* 
ing shade of willow and hawthorn^ overtopped by some fine 
, spreading elms* 

The VUiagc of Clifton lies on a flat» and contains a number of 
neat rural cottages Bnely shaded with treesj and also two or 
thsee pretty vilU looking residences. The church, dedicated 
U) St, Mary, inclose to the mansion, and^ though ancient, is^et 
in good preserration^ with a nave, t^o side aisles^ and two 
cross aisles. In the windows are still some fragments of armo- 
rial glassy and (here are many old brasses of the Clittons. 
Here also is the family vault, in which are deported several 
generations, its entrance having the date of 163^2* Throsbjr 
tells us that in it is an ancient leaden coQiii, Ibrmed to the 
human shape; also a heavy piece of lead in the form of a heart* 
which once held the heart of one of the family who died ahroad« 
Some of the table monumt;ntfi with ancient knights, &c. arewortb 
inspection, as well as the brasses some of which are very finct 
Here is also the grave of Joseph, (commonly called the Black 
Prince,) a negro converted to Christianity in 1G85, and who 
was brought up under the patron:vge of the resident family. It 
usaid that be grew to the height of seven feet nectr/y, which is 
marked off in the church porch. 

The ancient state of this place has been described in a MS. ia 
tbeBritishMuseumj^^andamile beyond is the town of Clifton; 
also upon the very bank of the river of Trent, is the housv of 
Gervase Clifton, a most ancient stock, and most renowned by 
Ihe memory of his worthy grandfather, Sir Gervase Clifton 
deceased, most famous for his courtesie and libenilily, and fur 
bb great services done in the wars, as well within the realm as 


• Hurl. CoU 5C0, 53. 


in France and Scotland." To this there is no date ; bnt there 
is also another* containing the following quaint paragraph^ 
speaking of the first baronet of the fiamily. " Hee is worthjr m 
be honoured that deserveth honour, saith the Roman Emperor* 
This person was honoured in being chosen a hurgesse with the 
Lord Mansfield, for the borough of East Retford« in this county 
as their representatives in that long winded Parliament at W^f- 
minster, whose loyalty to king and country, deserves the van 
and right hand of all baronets in this shire, for he suddenly 
found that there was a compact party of dangerous principles In 
the House of Commons, so that he betooke himself to the breast 
ptate of loyalty* and with a goorl courage and resolution, went 
to Oxford to serve his Majesty of blensed memory, king Charles 
the first, who made him a commissioner at the garrison of New- 
ark upon Trent, where he proved a valiant and fortunate gentle- 
maiii one well settled in his religion, and allegiance to his Iteg* 
lord and sovereign, for which he paid into the usurpers of Gold- 
smith's hall in London the sum of MDC hundred XXV 

The early opulence of the Clifton family, is particularly 
noticed by Peck in his ** Desiderata Curiosa/' where he states 
a curious wedding dinner, in the year 1530; at which there were 
two oxen^ two brawns, twelve swam, three quarters of wheat, 
seven lambs, six wethers, seven calve?, ten pigs, eight cranes, 
sixty couple of coni^es, three hhds of wine, white, red, and 
claret, and eight quarters of barley malt, &c. &ۥ kc^ The 
wine cost five guineas, the oxen thirty shilling each, pigs five* 
pence, lambs one and five-pence, wethers two and four-pence, 
the wheat eighteen shillings per quarter, malt fourteen shillings 
per quarter, and there were as many wild fowl as cost a sum 
equal lo the two oxen. The wedding ring cost twelve shillings * 
and four pence. 

Tumier, in bis Monasticon tells us, that at ClifWn there was* 
a small cottage for a warden and two priests* dedicated to the 

• Uirl. CoU. JOM. • 




Holy Trinity; begun by Sir Robert, and completed by hissoa 
Sir Gerrase Clifton, in the time of Edward the fourth ; at the 
dissolution, it was valued at 21/.. 

Near Clifton is Chilw£LL» of wbich there is now nothing 
worth particular notice; but b a MS. iq the British Museum* 
we find the foHowinjj note ;* " and against Chfton on ye north 
side of the Trent, standiih Chilwell, where is an ancient house 
builded by Sir William Babyngton, sometime chiefe bushier of 
the Common Pleas, and before was the house of one Martel^ 
an ancient gentleman, whose heire the said Babyngton mar* 
ried, and lately the Lord SheiField possessed it, as heire to Ba* 
byngton, who sould it, and now one Christopher Pymni^ GenU 
has it/' 

Of Barton, we have already spo]<en, in our general intro- 
duction. Near it is the hilU already noticed, on the top of 
which, are the remains of the Roman camp, m appears from 
the many coins which have been found at diiferent periods. It 
is evident, however, that it was ongioaliy British. Peck grvei 
an extraordinary account of the elTect^ of lightning upon thi* 
hill» in 1734, seemingly like tile consequences of an earth- 

Thrumpton Hall, is a short distance from Barton. It be* 
longed formerly to the Pigot family, who some years ago sold 
it to John Emracrton, of the Middle Temple, Esq. ; from whom 
it came to the Wcscombs, who have since taken the name of 
Emmerton. In lG6d» its then possessor Ger vase Pigot, Esq. was 
high sherifFof the county, and having dressed his men in black 
and silver, on account of his daughter's decease, they were 
obliged soon after to attend him in the same livery to bis own 
last liome. 

The mansion, which stands near the union of the Soar and 
Trent, was built about IGiiO, and, though having undergone 
many recent alterations, still retains much of the ancient work, 
much of 

partaking \ 

style ( 


» Hwl. C»lh 36«, M, ♦ DwideratA Corioii, Vol f, lib. XIV. p. 54, 



t<ie ornamented gable ends to ihc returns in front, and lb« 
square heavy framed windows, &c. It rises to the height of 
lour stories, and the interior arrangements are upon an elegant 
and convenient sc^e. The gardens arc extremely neat and| 
agreeable; and the surrounding scenery is piciurcsqnc in al* 
mof^t every point of view. It i» now the property and residence 
of John Wcscomb Emmertcm> Esq. 

Gotham, so famous in proverbial story, is but a short dif« 
tance from Thriiaipton« and lies on the cross road from CHflon 

Oid ** Drunken Bariiaby*' seems to have visited Gotham m^ 
one of bis poetical journtes to the north j for he sings : 

" Tticnce to Gottiatiij vthtre iiire am I« 
Thougli not all faols, I saw many ; 
Here • she-gull found I prancing. 
And in mfK»nshine nbiblj daiiciiig ; 
TiKre tnuther wanton mtcdliugt 
Who, her Hog was m;C u tadling/' 

Mr.Throsby,howe¥er«seeo]sof adilFerent opinion from hone^ 
Bdrnatby, for he says, that he now thinks the inhabitants of this 
village as wise a5 their neighbours, A variety of opinions, indeed. 
Lave gone abroad respecting this place^ War ton, speaking of 
'* tlie idle pranks of the men of Gotham," is rather mistaken^ 
when he calU it a town in Lincolnshire]^ but he add*, '* tliat 
such pranks bore a reference to some customary law tenures be* 
longing to that place, or its neighbourhood, now grown obso- 
kte ; and that Blount might have eniiched his book of ancient 
Itjnureswith those ludicrous storit*s," Hearne also-f says, " nor 
is there more reason to esteem. The merrjf tales of the mad tncn 
of Gotham i (which wis much valued and cried up in Henry the 
eighths time, though how i^old at hailad singer^n stalls,) as alto- 
gether a romance: a certain 4tLilJu I ptirson having told me more 
than onre, that tUe^' formerly held bads I here, by such sports 
land customs ai are touched upon ia this book," 

• English r&ctry. Vol. III. 
t ^Uckti ctSpiciljcg. and Gul. Ncwbrig, Vol III p» 7H. 



But Fallcr* says, that the proverb " as wise as a man of 
Ciothann pas!«eth [jublicly fur the periphrasiiuf a fool j and an 
humlred fopperies are furged and fathered on the towasfolk of 
Gotham/^ Still he thinks it iio mure remtirkuble than iIns 
customs of other nations; for h has been well obijerveJ, that 
a custinn seeing to have prevailed, even among tlie eartievt 
nations, of stigroatiziag some panlcolar spot a& remarkable for 
siupiJity. Amongst the Asiatics, Phrygia was considered as 
the Guiham of that day ; Abdera, amongst the Tbracian2» ; snd 
Boeotiii among the Grct^ks* Fuller, however, adds, ♦* but to re- 
turn to Gotham, it doih breed as wise people as any vvhich 
cau^ielfsijly laugh at their simplicity. Sai^ I am Mr. Wiillam 
de Gotham^ fifth master of Michael Houae^ Cambridge, anno 
I3c)9, and twice chancellor of the University, was as grave a 
governor as thiit age did a0brd : and Gotham is a goodly large 
lordship, where the ancient and right well respected family of 
Sl Andrew have flourished some hundreds of years, till of late 
the name is extinct, and lands divided betwixt female coheiri 
matched unto very worshipful persons.'* 

From these various protests in favour of the men of Golham, 
it is evident that considerable publicity had been given to I he 
many ridiculous fables traditionally told; particularly of their 
having often heard the cuckoo, but never having seen h«r« 
and therefore hedged in a bush from whence her note seemed 
to proceed, that being confined within so small a compass, they 
might at length catch her anti satisfy their curiosity. It hoj 
been observed by several writers in the last century, thai what 
gave rise to the story is not now remembered ; but th^y all 
mention that there is at a place called "Courthill'' In the parish, 
a bush still designated by the name of the " Cuckoo bush/' 

The editor of the Magna Britannia, huwever, might almoM 
be suspected of being a Gotharnite himsetC from the warmth 
with which he declares that, ** unless some good reason can be 
produced, it ought to be laid aside, and never mentioned »ft 

• Britbk Wonbjef. 


* liistory.*' He adds, Ihat in the Conqaeror^s Survey, it U calltcl 
•• Gatham/' frfun goats, whicb we may Tmagine at that time 
were pteDtirtil in or about it ; and being much cberished here« 
it was hence caKed GoatK-bome or dwelling. One 5iory was 
lord of part of this manor before the Norman invasion;* but ] 
after that it was taken from him^* being a Saxon, and given by 
the conqueror to Robert^ Earl of Morteyn^ one of his Norman 
followers* It is now the property of Pen Asheion Curzon, Esq. 
The Tillage stands upon a gentle rise, whose basis In gypsum 
or alabaster, which seems also the basis of the hills to the west 
and southwest. From Clifton hill to Gotham, the whole country 
isa dead flat, extending to the Wouldsand into the vale of Bol^ 
toir ; but the ground rises towards East Leek and Remston, so 
as to join the Leicestershire hills* To the west, there are some ' 
very fme swelling eminences, partly clothed in wood; over | 
these the road runs towards Key worth, and the views from I 
them into Leicestershire on one side, and over Nottmghanishire 
towards Lincolnshire on the other, are very fine* Much of the 
land round the village is common fields but is highly suscep-. 
tibleof cuhivatTon; and there is plenty of game in the neigh* 

The village church is antique, and is dedicated to $t Lau*] 
rence ; it has a nave and two side aisles; but the spire is rather J 

' of a heavy appearance- The whole of the church is in good] 
repair, and the chancel has been rebuilt about thirty years ago. 
The village itself only consists of a few cottages, not remarkable] 
for neatness ; it must be confessed, however, that the inhabitant 
are very tenacious of their parochial honour, as the editor of I 
these sheets, on making enquiry on the spot^ could not meet j 
with any person who seemed to know any thing of the olij 
Gothaniite stories. For this uifful ignorance, however, he wa^l 
made ample amends by a talkative landlady at the village tnil'l 
at East Leek, the adjoining parish^ who seemed to have irea 


*Mag. Bnt4n.Voh4*p*ir. 



mitred in her memory ef ery tale that had been told of her 


CQunhilh the scene of the cuckoo-bush siory^ is a rery short 
distance from the Tillage, and the "cuckoo bush," is most cer- 
tainly still in existence there ; the present inhabitants have been 
wise enough* however, to turn this hill to better purpose than 
their ancestors did, as they work on the side of it two very fine 
^ cjuarries; one of gypsum, or piaster, as they term it, in very 
large blocks, the strata in some places being three feet in thick- 
ness; the other of a reddish stone, suiEciently hard for build- 
ings but calcareous, and fit either Id burn into lime, or to polish 
as marble. Much of the produce of these quarries is now car- 
ried to the canal, and there shipped for the wharfs at Notting- 
haai;, from whence it is con? eyed to various parts of the king- 

The book alluded to by Fuller is also mentioned by Wal* 
pole, who says, " the merry tales of the mad men of Gotham, 
a book extremely admired, and often reprinted in that age, was 
written by Lucas de Heere, a Flemish painter, who resided in 
(England in the time of Elizabeth," Wood, however, is of a 
<)i0erent opinion respecting the author^ and tells us they were 
written by one Andrew Borde, or Andreas Perforatus as he 
calls himself by a strange kind of dog Latin paraphrase. This 
facetious gentleman was a kind of travelling quack ; and it is 
supposed that the name and occupation of a "merry and re w," 
took its rise from some of the professional fooleries of thii 
whimsical charlatan* There is an old black letter edition of the 
work, now in the Bodleian library at Oxford : it is called " Cer* 
larne merry tales of the mad men of Gotham, compiled in the 
sign of Henry the eighth, by Dr. Andrew Borde, an eminent 
^physician of that period;" but it would far exceed our limits 
to tell more than one stury, which is related nearly m the fol- 
lowing words : 

'* There were two men of Gotham, and the one of them ua> 
going to the market of Nottingham to buy sheepe, and the 




Other came from the market; and both met together upon Kdt^ 

tiugham bridge. Well m^l, said the one to the other. 

Whether bee ye going? said he that came from Nottingham. 

kMarry* said he that was going thither, I goe to that market to 

lt>uy sheepe. Buy sheepe! said the othr^r, and which way 

yfiiit thou bring them home P Marry, said the other, i will 

» luring them oTer thiis bridge. By Robin Hood> said he thai 

•came from Nottingham, but thou shalt not. By maid Marlan« 

.said lie that was going thitherward, but I wilU Thou shalt not 

.«aid the one, I will, said the other. Ter here f said the on«« 

,Shue there / i^aid the other* Then they beat their staves against 

-the ground, one against the other, ai» there had been a hundred 

[j»hcepe betwix^t them* Hold in, said the one. Beware the 

leaping over the bridge of niy sheepe, said the other. They 

shall not come thi.s way, said the one. But they shall, said 

.the other. Then» said the other, and if that thou make much to 

<Io, I will put my finger in thy mouth. A*— thou wilt, said the 

ether. And as they were at their contention, another man of 

Gotham came by from the market, with a aacke of meale upon 

his horne, and seeing and hearing his neighbours in strife about 

sheepe, and none betwixt them, said, ah! fooles, will you 

never learn wit f Helpe me, said he thai had the meale, and 

lay my sack upon my shoulder. They did soe; and he weol 

to one side of tlie bridge, and unloosed the mouth of the sacke^ 

and did shake out all his mcale into the river. Now neighbours^ 

aid he, how much meale is there in mysacke? Marry! 

'there is none at all, said they. Now by my faith, said he^ 

even as much wit is in your heads to strive for that ihing you 

have not. Which was the wisest of all these three persons^ 

I judge you ?'* 

It is needless to expatiate on the tales of the two brotherf« 
€ne of whom wished for as many oxen as he saw stars, whilst ■ 
the other wishing for a pasture as wide as the firmament, they 
quarrelled and killed each other, about the pasturage of the 
ojten; nor shall we show so little respectful the foibles of the 




fairsexj as to notice the ingenmty of the good woman of Go- 
tham> who when left at home by her husbaod, with directions 
to wet the meal before she gave it to the pigs, threw the meal 
into the wel!, and the pigs after it: these, and uri hundred others, 
tre jihall leave for the grave chroniclers of ihe neighbouring 
parishes who are all very careful to remember, what the people 
of Goiham seem rather anxious should be forgotten* The sages 
of Gothara, indeed^ have a tradition that their folly was like Ed- 
gar's madness, put on for ihe occasion; and Mr* Throsby re- 
lates that this tradition is, that the Cuckoo bush was merely 
planted to commemorate n trick which the inhabitants of 
Gotham put upon King John^ who, passing through this placii 
towards Nottingham, and intending to go over the meadows, 
%vas prevented by the villagers who supposed (as men of Go- 
tham might,) that the ground over which a king passed must 
ever after remain as a public road* The king, incensed at their 
proceedings, sent from hif^ court soon after some of his officers 
to eni^uire of them the reason of their incivility and ill treat- 
ment, in order that he might duly apportion the punishment, 
by way of fine, &c, The Goibamites, hearing of iheir ap- 
proachj thought of an expedient to turn away his displeasure ; 
for when the messengers arrived, they found some of the inha- 
bitants endeavouring to drown an eel in a pool of water; some 
employed in dragging carts upon a large barn, in order to shade 
the wood from the sun; otber-s were tumbling ihetr checsei 
down hill, that ihcy might find their way to Nottingham market 
for sale; and some employed in hedging in a cuckoo^ which 
had perched upon an old bush that stood where the present one 
now stands; in short ihey were all occupied in some foolish 
way or other, which convinced the king** oHiccrs that they 
were a village of fools! Thus far > Mr. Thro»hy ; but at the 
same time he quotes some stanzas from an humble village poet, 
who, with some degree of irritation, attempts to prove that they 
who go to look after the cuckoo bush, are now the greatest 
fools! But then the cuckoo bush is «jiill there ; and if the an- 
Voi.XlL N cient 


iroTTI M O H A H Sll lUE, 

cicnt Gothamites were so simple as to plant It, we cannot belp 
thinkings that their Ue^sceatJants are not much wiser for being 
^^^y ^v^^h tliose who choose to laugh at an ancient jest. 

Radcliffe upon SoAfij was once a place uf some conse** 
qyencc, *' Next Kingston standelh Radclivc, alias Eatdiiie 
upon Soar, wliich now is the house of Henry Sacheverell, Esq.; 
but anciently it was the inberilance of one Priott« alias Pigott, 
ami at\er of the Duke of Buckingham, of whom it was p\it* 
chased.'*^ At pr^^seut almost the whole of the aucit^nt manor 
house has been pulled clown> except a small part turned into a 
farm house; and the old dining room, which is now occupied 
as a barn. There is^ however, a modern seat called Ratclifie 
Lodge^ the residence of Thomas Boultonj Esq* In the village 
IS a free school for six poor children; and the old, decaying 
church contains nothing worthy notice^ except an humble^ yet 
true and striking, description of mortality and of the compa- 
rative rapidity of human life^ in an epitaph on Robert Smith* 
born in the first year in the last century, and died in 1782. 

" Fift^-Ave jcars it was and something more. 
Clerk af thU p«riih, he the oBca bore ; 
And in lliat tpacc, *tii «wful to declare. 
Two Ctneratiotii buried by him were." I 

Kingston upon Soar, is now scarcely deserving of the 
name of a village* " Upon the same river, (Soar) standeih the 
towne of Kingston, whcretJi siandeth the mines of an old house^ 
late of Antho ; Babyngton, Esq. attainted in the reign of Eliza- 
beth; but now it is the inheritance of Gilbert Earl of Salop/** 
Of this* building nothing remains but the outward wall of the 
couft and gardens, with an ancient stone gateway, all in a state 
of dilapidaiion^ and speaking the melancholy tale of other 
times. The church is very small, with a curious bell turret 
of the simplest form ; it is, however, well worthy the notice of 
the antiqixf^rian tourist. It consists of two aisles, of the Gothic 
order, with &onie small Gothic arches in the chancel of great 

antiquity ; 

*H«rl. Coll. 568. f Ibid* 3CS, 5S» 



antiquity ; but iU tiate is carried even farther back by the Saxon 
doorway in the western porch- Frooi the arrangement of the 
Gothic arches in the walls of the chancelj it is cvidciit that the 
buiUling has once been much larger; the ^ch leading from the 
iia?e IS ?ery curious, but the Bahyngton monumeni inside the 
chancel infinitely more so. This latter consists of a canopy, 
formed on a semicircular arch supported by grotesque pillars# 
and adorned with upwards of two hundred heads of a bal>€ in a 
ion, the common monumental pun on the family name^ and 
which the architect has thought sufficient to designate the owner 
without any inscripiioUi On the tomb, under this arch, once 
lay a figure, but that has long since been removed, and the 
iomb itself bears evident marks of crunibling to dust like its 
teuant; it is still, however^ venerable in ruin, and would have 
been more so if our modern VandaU (for it wuuld be paying 
them loo high a compliment tu call them Goihs,) commonly 
known by the appellation o( church^wardens, had not daubed it so 
completely with yellow ochre, as to have filled up most of the 
ramifjcations in I he highly embossed foliage of vine leaves 
which once adorned it in rich alto relief. These beautifier^ have 
been at work on the elegant Gothic remains on the inside of the 
chancel walls; they have not yet, however, attempted to ini» 
prove some very ancient armorial beat ings on its outti^ide* The 
carved work and tracery of the east window has also once been I 
L'urious; but its effect totally destroyed by the white wasHtl 
and plaiiier of these animal cQtm(Hsseur9 ! Tiie country roun4 j 
Kingston is highly cultivated; and the f iew^ into Leicester- 1 
ahire, on descending from tbe hilts of the wolds are rich and j 

East Leake, and its coinpanioti West Leake,^ are said to de« 
rive their names from the Saxon verb " I.eccian," to water ok ' 
moisten, they being both traversed by a small rivulet. 

The former h a large village, consisting principally of faring 
liouses; and the church, dedicated to St, Mary, is a handsome 

N 2 specimen 

# Sometimes ipelled Leak, mnd Leek. 



Specimen of the later Gothic, in very good preservation^ aitd 
b^Ttng a very handsome turret and 3pire> containing four well 
toned bells. In the interior, which is kept in good orden are 
some ancient benches wtih curious carvings, which seem to 
have belonged to an older building. Here is a charity school 
founded by John Blay, citizen of London^ but a native of 
Leake. He died in 173 1^ but not before he had bought a 
piece of ground for its support^ for which he paid 450^ He 
also bequeathed 10/. to every farmer, and 5L to every cottager 
in the village. 

West Leake has some small remains of an ancient manor 
house; inhabited some years ago by the family of Chad wick, 
but now giving shelter to an humble villager's family* The 
church is very low, and seems of an older date than its com* 
pan ion. In a niche in the north wall are two very old monu* 
ments, each contain ing a recumbent figure ; there is also one of 
a lady in the chancel j but much decayed. 

Sutton Bomington consists of two parishes; St. Aime's^ and 

St. Michaer^ field. The principal church is kept in very 

decent order, and is buik on a large scale, having a nave and 

two side aisles ; the other is much smaller but more ancient 

and contains one ventTablCj Uuinmch mutilated, monument in 

the chancel. Though considered now as one town, ibis was not 

the case formerly* " next beneath Norm an ton standeth upon 

the river, iW0 iowns called vulgarly SuUon Bontngton ; but^ in 

truths the more southerly is Sutton juxta Bonlngton, and the 

other is Bonington*"* 

Norm AN TON tjpon Soar is but a small village, with a very 

[undent church gone much to decay, and nothing remarkable 

I in it but a large font, used when baptism was performed by 

[dipping. The manor was once in possession of the Willooghhy 

family ; but ia now the property of two eminent breeders anH 

graziers^ Messrs, Buckley and Richards; to the former of 


• HirL Coll. U%. 




mhom the late Duke of Bedford gave 700 guineas for the use 
of one of his rams, for one season. 

Stanford is a pleasant village on the verge of the county, 
with a church embowered in thick foliage and forming a very 
(pleasing object. It is pretty large, with a nave and two side 
aisles, and a very extensive chancel; and the whole kept in 
in good condition. In the roof of the nave are many figures 
curiously carved, serving as supporters, and there are several 
ancient monuments of the lllingworths, and Lewises Jatu pos- 
sessors, with the latter of whom the Dash wood family are con- 
nected by marriage. Th« square tower adorned with pin- 
nacles has a good effect, when seen peeping from amongst the 
trees; the village is extremely rural; and the parsonage bougie 
b a genteel comfortable dwelling. 

Sim\ford Haiij the seat of the late Charles Vere Dash wood, Esc^* 
is a great ornament to this vicinity. It stand* about a mile from 
the village, on a gentle eminence, and looking down upon u 
pleasing piece of water, with an extensive paddock, and some 
^ thriving plantations at the back of the house, formed a pleading 
object from the Loughborough road. The modern house was built 
nearly on the scitc of the. old manorial ediBce about forty years 
ago, with more attention to d'*mestic comfort, than to external or 
internal show j it consists of a centre of handsome elevation of 
three stories, and the two wings assimilate well with the general 

The Dining Room has some good family portraits; also some 
landscapes, particularly a vcr}^ fine moonlight piece* The 
Library also contains some good paiiUingSt with portraits, and 
a horse by Siubbs. The Dtaiciu^ Room is most remarkable for 
its very fine view over the forest hills in Leicestershire : to the 
iefl are Cluarndon woods and Mount Sorrel; in front is Lough- 
borough, in the mid^t of a verdant amphitheatre, with Barley 
and Garendon park, in the latter of which the manstou forms a 
fine object, whilst the village and church of Stanford com- 
plete the foreground. Now advertised to be let* 

N i^ Remtstone 



RSMFJ^TONE is a pleaasmt village in this neighbodrhoodj coa- 
taining two good hunting seats belonging to J. Goodere, and 
W.GAVilliams Esqrs. the old manor house being now turned into 
a farmer*? dwell ing- The parochial concerns of this village 
have undergone a conaiderable change. The ancient chui*ch 
was St. Peter's in the rushes, standing about half a mile from the 
village in which was an old chapel long in disuse: but the pre* 
sent church which stands in the village was consecrated in 1773* 
and built out of the ruins of these two sacred edifices. Its stile Is 
neatj and its interior handsomely arranged ; with a tower steeple 
and five bells ; but though the inhabitants are obliged to attend 
divine service in it, they make but little use of its church yard* 
chusing rather to mingle with the dust of their departed rela* 
lives in the old burying ground, which lies in a retired and 
sombre situation, and has two ancient tombs^ one of which is 
for an archdeacon of Nottingham. 

' Thorpe in the Clods is in this neighbourhood, of which 
wc have only to observe that Thoroton, when treating of it, 
complains heavily that the inclosures had depopulated it so 
much in his time, as to leave not a house inhabited except some 
part of the hall, and a Shepherd who kept ale to sell in ihe 
church ! 

CoRUNSTOCK or Costock, is on the high road to Lough- 
borough* it is a place of no conscf|uencej though pretty ex- 
tcnsiive : consisting principally of farm houses. The church is 
a poor building of one aislcj with a roof like a barn, and a 
steeple like a dove cote; some remains of painted glass are in 
the windows, and on the outside wall is part of a mutilated 
monumental figure, probably the tomb of the founder. 

Turning to the left, towards Nottingham, we approach Bln- 
^v, a straggling village on the high road, containing about sixly 
hoifees, and which seems lo have been indebted principally for 
its origin to the anttent seat of Bunny Pabk Hall» once ihe 
property of the f;uni!y of Parkyns, and now of their dtacen* 
dant Lord KanclilTe. This femily have indeed been great bene-! 




fEiclors 16 the Tillage, as it contaim a good school house and hos- 
pitiil, the former being close to the church yard gate and erect- 
ed m 1700 for the poor children of Bunny and Bradmore; and 
the latter having four rooms for four poor widows, and endow- 
ed by Dame Anne Parlt yn9 with IGI, per annum, to which 
her husband. Sir Thoma&, added 5L 

The church has a nave and two side aisles ; the body is an- 
cient, but the chancel of a more modern ilate. In the latter is 
the tomb of Sir Thomas Parkyns, ban* so famous as a wrestler 
in the last century ; also a monument in tlie body of the church 
with the date of 1G03 for Richard Parkyns, Esq. his w\h, (our 
sons, and four daughters, 

Et'NNY Park Hall is a strong looking heavy building close 
to the road f$ide, with a very heavy gateway in front, built in 
the ancient style of two centuries ago. The house irself is a 
massy pile, and its front in its present state has quite llie appear- 
ance of a ruin ; and, being built of brick with stone corners and 
window^ cases, has quite a sombre eileci. It seems irwleed to he 
the patch work of different periods; bnt the aparlmtnts are 
lufty and commodious, and contain many good family pnrtraits, 
amongst which, in particular, are two in the dining parlour of 
the late Sir Thomas and his Lady, by Vanilcrbank; but the 
house having long been unoccupied by its possessor, even 
these are going to decay* The Park has a fine sheet of water, 
and a long avenue of fine lofty trees; it has also some good 
scenery, which, however, Mr Thiosby unfortunately calb ro- 
mantic, though it merely consists of some gentle swells with 
clumps of forest trees, with a profusion of bramble and other 
cover for game. 

Sir Thomas Parkyns, Bart* who lived in the early part of the 
last century* was remarkable for his skill in, and fondness for, 
ihc art qf wrestling. By the inscripiion on his monument in 
the church, we are infmmed that he was a great wrestler, and 
Justice of Peace for Notts and Leicestershire. Also that Jii* 
new-roofed the chancel, built the vault below, and erected this 

N 4 monument 



monument wrought out of a fine piece of marble by Kb cbap* 
lain in a barn ; that he studied Pliysic for the benefit of his 
neighbours ; wrote the *' Cornish Hug Wrestler ;*' and died in 
1741, aged 78. 

He had two wives j one a grand-daughter of a London alder^ 
man; the other an alderman'^ daughter of York; he had two 
or three stone co(Bns made for himself, in order to take his 
choice, and there is one of them now in the church unoc- 
cupied, and ready for whoever wishes for it. Notwithstanding 
some eccentricities tn his character, he was, however, upright 
and inteliigent, and possessed all the learning of his day ; and 
at his decease was universally lamented as a most excellent 

On his monument in the church, he is represented in a pos* 
ture ready for wrestling; and on another part of it, he appears 
thrown by Tiftt^, accompanied with a stanza said to be written 
b^ Dn Freind, 

** Quem modo str&visti longo tn certmuSne tempniSj 

Hit; recubuit itritanum cUrusin orbe pugil 
Jam primus straCuy ; pftcter ta viccrttomiies ; 
De to ctiani Ticlor, quandoresurgct, erit." 
This whimsical epitaph has been translated, 

'* At length he faJli, the long^ Jong contest's o'er, 
And Time Uu thrown, whom none e*cr threw before . 
Yet boast not Time ! thy victory, Tor he 
At last shall rise again, and conquer thee." 
Through his great fondness for this manly exercise, he tram* 
ed not only his servants and neighbours, but also many others 
to it, and often exhibited his pupils on public occasiuns with no 
Jittle fame : and by his will he lefl a guinea to be wrestled for 
every Midsummer's day, as well as muney to the ringers, of 
whom he alway:^ made one upon these occasions. Ili.4 fondness 
for displaying his skill in Lai in was almost equal to that of 
wrestling: over a seat which formerly stood by the road side, 
was this inscription : 

^ Hie sedeas Viator si iu dcfessus es ambulando,*' 



Nay, even his horse block waa made a reporter to posterity of 
ibe honour of a visit from a Judge on the circuit by» "Hinc 
Jusliciarius Dormer ec^uum ascendere solebat V 

His book on the " In play, or the Cornish Hug Wrestler/* 
contains many quaiat specimens not only of his style but of 
hia ideas on that subject ; and an admirer of hi.s a Mr. Tunstall^ 
says in a prefatory address^ that Horace was wrong in satirize 
ing the Roman youths for hissing the tragedies at the Amphi* 
theatre and calling for their wrestlers and boxers »*-he then 
prophesies that, 

*^ Vigorous J outb5 Will cxcrcite I he field. 

And fam'd Olympia, to tb^ Btmmj } idd ; 
Then new epochal fium thj aporU shall riic, 
And future jears be reckon 'd from thj priac ;* 
Aftd meti shmtl qttettion where the dnto to ptice. 
To thy tic w annuls or tt> Anna's peacc^^^^ 
Tbe Jimber minnetj and ftiJit^atic shrug, 
Shtdl yield tiie Iwaour tu thy Corntsh Hugg* 
Then cheated dacD^eU AhulJ Jici more embrace 
Tbe feeble uffipring of a flimsy race, 
But cjuii their Bullicit aad discard (heir Beaux, 
Atid (torn tliy ring their tusty husbindi cbod^e^** 

Sir Thoiwas htmself, in speaking of the excellence of bis 
art, says ** I receive no liroberUams, no darling sucking bottles 
who must not rise at Midsummer till eleven of the clock, till 
^e fire has aired his room, and clothes, of his colliquatiFe 
veats, raised by high sauces and spicy forced meats^ where 
be cook does the oHicc of the stomach, with the emetic tea* 
able« set out with bread and butter for 's breakfai^t; FU scarce 
admit a Sheep eater; none but beefeaters will go down with 
me*" He then endeavours to inspire his readers with a fond- 
ness for the art by the hopes of gaining the approbation of the 
fair sex, laughs at the Norfolk Out play, and [though wtih a 


* Of A guuiea a ymr at Midiuintnct * * I 



Diarghml note cif Ilmii soii qrd maly pmse,) giTcs a *ly hint 
abaut the Bedfordshire In play, and the close Comish Hug. 

Near to Bunny is Bradmorc, a mere harolct, bat noticed 
here from its having a Tower and spire viithoui a ekwtch : the 
latter was burnt down some years ago^ and the inhabitantf 
|o to 
p«; BwDfivaTON, which, however, is only a Chapelry t<^ FkfUf* 
ford the mother churchi standing in a field. This ancient 
churchi built in the Saxon style, had a lofty spire steeple and 
many curious monuments with cross-legged figures ; but bar* 
ing been long neglected, and become so ruinoxis as to be in 
danger of falling, a license was obtained from the archbishop 
in I773, to pull it down. For this purpose some of the work- 
men from the neighbouring coHicries were employed, who* by 
their architectural skill joined to the taste of the church war- 
dens for the time being, contrived to mutilate and even to de- 
stroy almost all the monumental memorials. Indeed Mr. 
Throsby asserts that the materials were taken to mend the 
Toads, to build bridges* and erect pigsties, and the grave stones 
taken up to cover the sink holes in the village streets ! 

The village of Ruddington itself is of considerable size; tl 
has a respectable free school founded by James Peacock, citi- 
zen of London in IGll ; and here also was formerly a college 
founded by William Babyngton, Esq. by license of king Hen- 
ry the sixth, for a warden and four chaplains, which he endowed 
with revenues vaJued at 30/.* 

The chapel is of con^derable antiquity* and is mentioned by 
Thoroton; and here is every Sunday a dole of bread to the 
poor who attend Divine Service, amounting to four dozen and 
a half of loaves. 

The tourist will find mucli amusement in hjs ramble to the 
fcoatb east of Nottingham, (still in Rushclifte hundred) and the 
first object of Ms notice, after admiring the commodious ca* 
nal ftitb its bridges wharfs, £ic. will be 


' Twiuer** MonanftcoVit 



West Bridgsford, a pleasing well hMt, little irtUage. Its 
church is dedicated to St. GileSj and consists of a naye and 
side aisle; its light tower* which contains three bells^ appears 
lo great advantage peeping alxive the trees which surround tt; 
its interior is kept in very neat order, and it has still some re- 
mains of armorial glass^ which the annua) beaiitifiers have not 
yet begun to whitewash. "The Trent goes from Clifton to 
the bridge of Nottingliam, called the Trent bridge, and aa- 
ciently Htthe botke bridges; at the south end whereof ts the 
town of Brtdgeford built by the famous Lady of Mercia, to re- 
repress the violence of the Banes* who possessed Nottingw 
ham/* * 

Edw ALTON is a small village on the London road, not very 
remarkable fur neatness or comfort ^ but this must in a great 
degree be attributed to its moorish situation, Throsby says, 
that some years ago Ihe land could scarcely be let at any price; 
the improved system of drainage, however, has now improved 
the parish, consisting of 700 acres of old inclosure. In the 
yard of the chapel, which is dedicated to the Holyrood, there is a 
grave stone of an old woman, who possessing some landed 
property, was supposed by the sepulchral poet of the village 
to have lived upon the fat of the land, as he has added to the 
Qsual obituary notice, 

"Sbe draak good ale, good punch* and wine ; 
And llr'd to the sgc of ninety nine/* 

ToLLERTON Hall the seat of Pendoc Neale Barry, Esq. is a 
fihort distance from Edwalton, The house has been lately re- 
built in imitation of the Gothic ^vith towers> turrets, &c* and 
with a cloister which communicates with the church. It is a 
pleaMHg looking building; but wants that vastness bolh of 
height and extent which is the very essence of Gothic sublimity, 
and w iibout which, towers, turrets,, and pointed windows, are 

• Harl Ctfl. 368, 53. 



iilroost as absurd as baillements on a pigstye, or a hmy cart ! 
Tbc grounds are very extensive, and i^ put into good orderj 
would have a fine eil'ect, though they lie entirely an a tUtm' 
The new gateway* and the lodge near it, together with the 
bridge, will all assimilate well with the surrounding scenery. 

The village is very small, the church ancient; and the Faf-l 
nonage house a comfortable and respectable looking residence. 

To give even slight notices of Coigravep Piumtre, and seve- 
ral other pleasing little villages in this neighbourhood^ would] 
far exceed our possible limits; nor can we say more of Key*\ 
worthy than, that although a village of not more than thirty] 
houses, it has not only a church but also a meeting hotisi j 
lately erected. The church, which h dedicated to St, Mary! 
Magdalen, has a nave and two dark side aisles, and a curious 
tower with another raised upon it. 

Stanton on the Wdlds, is another small place in this ' 
neighbourhood, which we were not tempted to examine with 
any very critical accuracy whilst peJestrianizing over the. 
Wolds i butThrosby says, that the church is below descriptiofi 
and is of all other?^ within and without (with respect to th^ 
latter of which we can fully agree with himj the most despi* 
cable he ever saw. When he was here about twenty years 
ago, one family only went to it, making a congregation of four 
or fife; and the other families, he says, were alt either Dissen- 
ters or Abseniers, and hke the pious folks in Cromweirs time 
amused themselvea with breaking the church windows. By 
the parish register of 1788, it appears that a young damsel of 
the parish was baptized and married on the same day ; at the 
age of tweiUy* 

In this neighbourhood the remains of the ancient Fosscway 

are in high preservation, or more strictly speaking, have not 

-yet been destroyed. Uorsky observes, ^ that this Fosse way 

proceeds directly from Bath to Lincoln, and has been continued 

beyond Bath as far as Ikhesler, if Jiot quite to the sea. Stuke- 


* KoT»1ey Brittn* Roni. 388. 



iy, indeed, thinks it has been carried as far as Seaton on the 
coast. Great part of ihis road, which ts undoubtedly of Ro- 
man workmanship, has had no part of an Uer on it> though 
running through the very heart of the kingdom, except in llie 
latter part of the sixth Iter of Antoninus and middle part of the 
eighth; but the route from FenowiV (Clay center) to Lindum, (nowr 
Lincoln) has undouhtedly, in the opinion of Horsley, been 
on the other part of itj and he seems to join in the opinion 
i>f others that it has been continued from Lincoln to the sea 

Speaking of the Lodge upon the Woldi, which is in this neigh- 
bourhood, Stiikeley says that in 1724 here was an Inn, under 
a great wood upon the declension of a stiff' clayey hilL Here 
the pavement upon the road is very manifest, of great blue flag 
utones laid edgeways very carefully* The quarries, whence 
they took them, arc upon the side of the hilL This pavement 
it two feet broad or more, and is still very visible where not 
covered with dirt,* It is still in the same state, and gives a 
very good idea of the ancient Roman roads; and about 0\v- 
thorpe particularly is so sunk In the Fosst^ that an army mighl^ 
be marched without observation for many miles. 

OwriioQFE Hall is now a venerable pile, and stands in a 
very retired situation, forming an object of considerable inte- 
rest from its connection with a man of some eminence during 
the civil wars. 

Colonel Julius Hutchinson, its founder, was an active par- 
liamentary partisan in this county during that unhappy period, 
and was for some time governor of Nottingham (!astle. Though 
he gat in judgement upon his unfortunate Sovereign, yet it ap- 
pears that no very active means were taken to apprehend him 
at the Restoration, and he seems to have lived sccretlt/t though 
perhaps by a tacit forbearance, in his house at Owthorpe for 
some years, in which was a room made for defence, as Thros- 
by nay?, with apertures to hre through in case of an attempt to 

Vid€ Stukclf j*j Inner try. 



take hint. Such a defence fts lhi&« indeed, could never have 
Ijeen seriously intended, and would have been of very litilc 
avail. He had no opportunity of trying it, however, for be was 
seized within a few yards of hb own house, whilst on his way 
to the church that stands within less than a stone's throw of H* 
in the year 1653 at a period when many were taken up for aup« 
posed treasonable oircnce^; some tried, and others imprisoa^d 
for life, amongst the latter of wliorn was the Colonel. Mr. 
Dickinson in his History of Southwell, observes that thougb 
old and infirm, and particularly out of health, yet he was hur«j 
fied in a dark night by a party of horse under the commandl 
of Cornet Atkinson, without open accusation or written war- 
rant, from his dwelling to \ he gaol at Newark, where he wai ^ 
detained for several days. Now we will grant that thia treatment 
was illegal, and unconstitutional ; yet surely Colonel Hutchin- 
son, who, without legal warrant but merely by a precept issued 
by rebels, bad sat upon the trial of his Sovereign^ and without] 
any law whatever had condemned hrm to death, must havgl 
been the last person to complain of illegal treatment I 

The house itself is now occupied by a maiden lady who] 
lives in great retirement,* It is large, and forms a sqanre^J 
with handsome, lofty, and convenient apartments, but witbl 
little ornament, A handsome flight of steps leads into a hall^l 
which occupies the centre of the ediBce and is lighted by two 
large windows at the entrance, and by one of very considera* 
ble size at the further end. The view from it is very fine, as ' 
it stands on an eminence at a small distance Irom the foot of the 
range of hills, below which the Fosseway lakes its direction, 
and the eastern side opens upon a very fine terrace ; but as the 
house has been almost deserted ever since the beginning of the 
last century its gardens and grounds are rjoitc m a state of deso- 
lation. The Editor of the Colonel's Memoirs, when speaking 


* Miss Eeushaw is the occupant. The preiont pos5«i5or o^ Owtliorpc, hj 
pareliajic in i773> 19 Sir George Smitli Bromley, fis rt, 






of the sale of ibis place, observes that the most extraordinary 

and gratifying clrcumsiauce (to the existing tlescendaiib) was 
the Teneratiou tor ihe family which still subsisted, and which 
at the period when the Wt possessor had by his will ordered 
this and all his estates in Nottin^;bam shire to he sold, and the 
produce given to strangers^ induced the tenants to oBer a large 
advance of their reoUj and a good 2share of the money neces* 
sary for purchasing the estates, in order to enable the rentains 
of the family to come and settle among them* 

The church which is very small, and dedicated to St. Mar- 
garet, stands near the house. It consists only of the nave and 
one aisle, with a small chancel. The tower is low, and has 
but one belL Wilhin are several large monuments of the 
Hutchinson family, consisting of hgures as large as life laying 
under canopies supported by carved and twisted pillars, &.c. 
and decorated with all the monumental frippery of the seven* 
teenth century. 

Colston JSasset is close to Owthorpe, and is a plea^iing lit* 
tU village, with a very elegant house, the residence of William 
Milnes, Esq. The church has a peal of five very deep and 
solemn toned bells. The villagers have a tradition that, when 
this place was sufTering under the plague in 1604, the inhabi- 
tants of Nottingham and Bingham not only refused to permit 
any articles to be brought from hence to their maikets, but 
Ijven cut ofi' all communication with them whatever, so that 
Jay were left to shift for themselves, to live or die, as it pleas- 
ed God. jj 
KtNOULTOM nikky be distinguished from hence by the lofly 
^wer of its chapel, which we believe has been lately rebuilt* 
baving long been in a wretched state. The church, dedicated 
E|o St, Wilford, is now a ruin at some distance fryin the villagi^ ; 
t)ut there is nothing further worthy of notice. 

At HicKLiNG some silver Roman coin.*4 have been found ; 
I'hich are in confirmation of the opinion of Camden^ that it 
*was a Roman station in the neighbourhood of the Fosseway, 



WtttotfCHBY ON THE WoLi> IS Considered by Horsley as 

an ancient Hnman station, and as the Vernometum so of^i^n 
mistaken for ^fargidinmm. 

The village is pretty extensive, and has an appearance ex- 
tremely rural, from the whole length of it being shadect by mi 
double row of trees, whose thick embowering foliage sbelttrt 
its beaut ifu! cottages. Though so retired in its situation, it 
could not, however^ escape the baneful effects of civil commo^J 
tion, but was the scene of a bloody contest in the unhappy] 
days of Charles, an action having taken place here at Wit* 
loughby field, A cross of a kfty construction stands in the cen-^ 
tre of the village, but having no inscription, iu origin or date 
is unknckwn. It consists of one stone, five yards long; and 
its appearance gave such offence to the pious soldiery of Croni* 
well in the civil wars, that they had tied ropes round *t in order J 
to pull it down ; but their religious enthusiasm was so much J 
damped by some strong beer given to them by the vicar, after [ 
he had made a long speech in defence of its innocence, thai 
It was permitted by those apostles of the church militant to re- 
main unmolested* 

The church is dtdicafed to St Mary and All Saints, and bat I 
I a nave with two side aisles ; one of which is inclosed by railing 
in order to preserve the family memorials of the Willoughbys. 
In this latter, at the entrance is a stone with this imcriptton t 

" Here lietb the body of Colonel Stanhope, who was slain in 
Willoughby field in the month of July 1648, in the 9ith year 
of his age* being a soldier of king Charles the l»t/' 

A table monument surrounded with battlements, stands in 

the centre, with angels in niches; on it lies a knight in armour 

I 'with a roll or wreath round his helmet, and by his side his lady 

• with a curious mitred head dress. 

A very graceful monumental tigxire of a lady, with a dog at 

• her feet, is placed under the south wall ; and in the choir, un- 
der an arched wall, whb plain iTiodem pillars supporting it in 




front, iliercU another kuigbt in warlike capamon, his tomb 
completely coyered with ai'morlal bearings. 

WiLLouGHBY Brook Hes between Willoaghby and Over- 
Broughton ; and on the Willoughby side of the road« there i« a 
turnulus which marks the i^icinity of the Roman station. This 
is now called Croeshill; and there i^a revel or annual festival 
held upon it, which is supposed to be founded on some tradi- 
tionary festival of the Roman mythology. 

Stukely tells us that the old Roman town (of which the re- 
mains of the ttggcr, or ditch and mound surrounding the camp 
still exist) was in a field called " Heninga/' a British word al- 
lusive to the ancient meadows. Here^ accord irtg to the iradi- 
llon, there was an old city once called Long Billingtm ; but 
since that, the Blackfield, in common discourse, from the 
colour and excessive richness of the soil which never requires 

Tradition also says, that at a barn at a place called ffW/i^ 
there once was a church ; and also that the city once extended 
80 far« Stukely adds« that in his time the people in the vicinity 
had a notion of great riches being under ground ; and that there 
was a vulgar report, that one balk or mere (that is a division 
between the plowed fields) had as much money utider it as 
would have purchased the whole lordship; but it seems they 
had been often frightened by spirits whilst attempting to dig it 
up, of which also there \%'ere many curious stories. Notwith- 
standing these sprites, however, of late years some coins and 
other antiquities have been found. 

Upper or Over Broughton has nothing remarkable | but 
we mention it as a pleasant village, and the last on the London 
road, being on the very verge of Leicestershire, Near it also 
is Widmerpoolc through >^hich runs the coach road ; and the 
country rising here from the vale of Belvoir^ into the Leices- 
tershire hills, produces a diversity of prospect extremely 

The tourist will not quit the enf irons of Nottingham, without 
Vot. XIL O Tisiting 



Visiting CoLwicK Hall* the seat of tjic Musicn kmWy, wh^ 
Uhoogh standing on a flat, yet being backed with tome J 
I irooded JiiHsj and having the silver Tri^nt in front* wttb llic 
extensive plains on ils southern bsink> has a very impresstre 
appearance. It is about three mi lets from Nottingham* on the 
L norik bank of the river, and forms the termination to a most 
agreeable evening's walk. The steep rock at its fetr^ milig 
in abrupt precipices, and finely tufted vvith overhanging woodv i 
producer a good effect in every point of view, and in the stiJl^ ^ 
Uhe silent hour of eveningj throws a sombre shade urer Use 
I f^iilage church embosomed in foliage* The Park is bot sma1l» 
i but comprobend:i^ much of this charming scenery within its^ 
ljiaU» and is stocked with the antlered natives of the forest*^ 
I The pleasure grounds and crnamcnta! plantations are^ coinpara'* ] 
^lively* more extensive thun the park, and exhibit a good &peci^ 
Imen of modern improvement engrafted on the ancient moiteL 
I But the bouse is the principal object, and consists of a very 
elegantly elevated centre crowned with a pediment resting dci 
I four welt proportioned Ionic pit lart^> and joined by two wiug» 
I of one lofty story >|ith entablature supported by scjuare pilas* 
Uers with plain capitals, and lightened much in its cfTect by a 
i handsome baUustraded parapet; the whole doing much credil«f 
iziot only to the inventive genius of the iksigner, Mr Jobti 
ICarr of York, but also to the executive taste of the luprrin* 
^lending architect, Mr. StretLon. In the grounds there Is also 
(Well consiructedj and indeed even clegnnt, dogkeiuieJ* cob* 
Jductcd bv the same artist<i. 

The Church which stands ctos^ to the hoo'^ej is dedicated to 

, John the Biiptist, and contains some ancient inonuments of 

hhc Byron family ; ^\m ^ot that of Musters, the present pos- 

Uesfiorsj by one of \%hich on tUe norrb side of the chance t it 

lappearA that the chancel was rebuiltj and the church repaired, 

by Sir John Clusters* kt\U in 1684* 

CAHttoN is a village of considerable size, near to Colwick, 
li^l U entirely supported by th^ stocking mtnufactuff;; here 
^ aho 



a3iK> is G£DLnra« of which we find nothing remarkablej ex* 
cepta curious fact of an old soldier who died in the workhouse 
in I797j in the DGth yeir of his age> and having been mail 
the battles in the German war about the middle of the last cen* 
tary, enjoyed a pension from Government^ which enabled him 
to live comfortably ; but having tried to live in several families 
in the village^ at last boarrled himself in the workhouse, where 
he resided for many years. Mr. Throsby. indeed, tells a long 
story of two stone coffins in the church yard, which have oc» 
ca si on ally had different tenants, who on these occasions^ like 
the victims on the iron bed of Procrustes, were always made to 
fit them. He aUo mentions a stone which '* bare this inscrip- 
tion, but now defaced^ >" Here lieth the body of Joseph 
Smalley, whose mother was 60 years old, when he was born/' 

On the opposite side of the river i^ Holme Pi£Rpoii<T,a 
pleasant but very small village* *' Within this hundred (Bing- 
ham) about two miles beneath the bridges of Notts^ upon the 
said rivtr, is the town of Holme, called Holme Pierpoint, in 
which is the possession of Sir Henry Pierpoint, a very aiicieni 
gentleman of the jhire. Before it waj the inheritance of one 
Manvers, whose hetre the ancestor of Sir Henry Pierpoint 
married about the time of Edward Int." 

Holme Pierpoint House is still a large and ancient build- 
ing, though much of it at times has been pulled down* It 
stands close to the church, and is now completely repaired 
and cased in imitation of stone, forming a very handsome spe* 
cimen of the Gothic of the later ages. 

The church is rich tn mural monuments^ in altar torn bs^ and 
in ancient armorial brasses. Its form is Gothic, but in the style 
of the time of Henry the seventh, with large and numerous 
windowi, a square tower^ and a handsome lofty spire^ and con* 
listing of a nave aud side aisle. 

The family vault of the late dukea of Kingston, and of the 
present Pierpoint family, is in the north side of the choir, 
with a lofty monument over it supported by Corinthian pil- 

O 9 lars. 



jlars, and most gloomily ornamented with death's heads iis 
Iwreaths, intermixed with fruit and foliage. Its inscription i» 
ather in a superior style of sepulchral bombast. '' Here lyeth 
the Illustrious PrinccsM Gertrude, Countess of Kingston, daugh- 
[ ter to Henry Talbot, Esq. son to George late Earl of Shrews- 
ury. She w'as married to the most Nuble and Excellent Lord 
Hobert, Earl of Kingston, &c/' A very fine altar tomb to the 
m^emory of Sir Henry Pier pot nl, knt. in 1615, ia on the south 
side ; he is in armour, and in xhe, usual attitude of prayer. On 
the sides of the tomb are a son, four daughters, and an iiifant 
in swaddling clothei» ; and over it a highly ornamented tablet 
containing the inscription. Near it is another who, by his habit 
of ft pilgrim, seems to have been to the Holy Land ; he has 
angels playing round W% head« Here too was buried young 
Oldham, considered a& a poet of considerable merit, and pa- 
onized by William Earl of Kingston, who also wrote the 
\txy elegant inscription on hia monument* 

Radcliffe on Trevt near to this, is particularly remarkable 
'br its very romantic scenery, standing tjpon a lofty cliff on 
the south bank of Trent, from which it takes its name, and 
nhtch aUbrds it some very fine prospects over the vale watered 
by that meandering river. Its vicinity is extremely pleasing 
from the goodness of the roads, and from the number of gen* 
teel villas which embellish it The village itself is very ex- 
tensive, and is very active in the hosiery manufactory. The 
church dedicated to St. Mary, has a handsome spire steeple, 
with four belU; the nave and chancel are both spaciouSp and 
kept in good order ; but the only monument of note is a wooden 
figure of Stephen Ratciifle the founder, and which must there* 
fore be very ancient.* 

It hai be«ii propoted as a question to antiqttartcSi wh\t arc xfi^^dtn rtio- 
.nonicntal £gure« icl up, iti pli*ccs where iloiie might have bcf n ewilj pro- 
cured * bat wctef wiswercd. 




lies a short distance from RadcHffe* Its situation i& rather low ; 
bot being surrounded with bigh groonds all in a rich state of 
cultivation* the views in its i^icinity are both extensive and 
pleasing. Tlie town nse\f, though once of considerable re- 
pute from its religious establishment and collegiate churcb, of 
a date nearly as old as the Conquest, is now nothing but an in* 
considerable struggling place, but still possessing a market, 
and several fairs: these are on February the l:kh and 14th fur 
horses, for agricultural purposes, and lor draught; on the first 
Tliursday in May for horses, horned cattle, sheep, and swine * 
and on Whitsun-Thursday* 31st May, Sth aud 9ih of Novem- 
ber, for young horses and hops* 

Bingham once contained the college of St, Mary, which Tan- 
ner, in his Monasticon, observes was valued, according to Spetid, 
at 40t ; but he merely calls it a Guild, rated at 4L Of this, haw- 
ever, there are now no vestiges, nor of two chapels which 
once had eicitttenoe, as well as a chantry in the chapel of St, 
Elen. The market place is very extensive, and has very cum* 
fliodious shambles j but has nothing else worthy ol notice. Near 
Histtie vicarage, a handsome modern dwelling, attached to a 
living of very cunsiderable value. The church deserves the 
attention of the curious traveller* It is a sptcinif n of the an- 
cient Gothic; and though a heavy building badly lighted, owuig 
indeed to a considerable part of the nave being taken down in 
UB4 when it was completely repaired, it stiH possesses an air 
of ecclesiastical magnificence* The chancel is lolty and spa- 
cious, and has a very fine arch joining it to the body of the* 
church, but some of the ornaments over this arch cannot fail 
of exciting the risibility of the stranger, consisting of the royal 
arms of queun Anne, surrounded with gaudy ornaments of 
plaisler work, with a large collection of chubby cherubs^ 
amouga whom the aspirijig church wardens of that day tiavc 

O 3 contrived 



cooUiTed to iiiCrodace tbetr own nametj as briogio^ them one 
step nearer to heaTen* Hus cari oq s melange, howcTer^ wiiii 
all its incoogTQjty^ b coiuidered as tlie principal Hon of the 

The chancel has been lately ceiled, with other improre* 
meots at the expense of a late jDCiimbent ; and the nave and 
two side ables are very spaciom* Here are many tombs, but 
none of any particular merit. Mr. Throsby, indeed, remarks 
that all the la<ius have remarkably good characters on their 
tombstones ; and he, therefore, concludes that e?en now a maa 
might hare a chance for a good wife here. 

Here is a good Charity School for children of both sexes ; 
bai originally erected for the education and support of thirty 
poor boys, by the benevolent subscriptions of the neighboor- 
iag gentry. 

It U a curious fact that in the recent retmns of population, 
the sexes in Bingham were stated to be e^ual, or 663 of each, 
amounting to 1336. 

Since the Conquest this place has gone through a Tariety of 
possessors^ and once belonged to a family to which tt gave a 
name. They, however, seem to have lost all property here» 
and it has since come to various hands. 

With respect to its biography^ we must noc omit to mention 
a Mr. White, who, though in the huroble station of a ftchi>ol« 
master here, W2fe yet recommended by Dr. Maskelyne to his 
Majesty as a proper person to assist in the prosecution of a 
very considerable astronomical work, which, nevertheless^ ho 
modestly declined. He was for many years, the compiler of 
almanacks for the Stationers' company, and published the 
'* Celestial Atlas*' which was so long in very high repute. Ilia 
astronomical knowledge appears to have been entirely the re- 
salt of his own industry; be died in 1783 at the age of 61. 

A curious instance of bigotry, beyond the grave, is recorded 
here of one Henry Porter, who, differing in opinion with his re* 
lativ*:son religious matters^ actually gave orders that his body 




should n^t be buried among ibeni, but ugainst the north wall 
cu the outside of the church* 

Mr. Throsby^ iti hi.i additioud to Thoiotoztj gives a long list 
of events, amongst which are some anecdotes of a drunken 
clergyman, and of another who fur a series of years v as in- 
tane: but these perhaps are memorabilia which we ought only 
lo remember to forget. Nor is it particularly neceitsary to re- 
cord the breaking open of the church, or the setting fire to the 
town in 1710. Two o{ hi* tnsiances, however, we may notice : 
one of twelve young men, whose united eKertions in some his*' 
I irionic efforts m the winter of 17B3 enabled Uicm lo raise lOOA 
to bi: settled on the poor of the parit^li for ever , and the other 
of Thomas Groves^ a poor lad, born in 17€M), and put out ap* 
prentice to a cabinet maker from whose service he eloped, and 
having entered as a private in the msLrine corps, rose at length 
to the rank of Colonel, dying in 17&0, after seventy five years 
of service. 

Shelford stands on the banks olf the Trent, in a north west 
direction from Bingham. Here was an Austin priory, built by 
Ralph Hanselyn in the time of Henry the second, to the ho- 
nour of ihe blessed virgin Mary ;* the scite of which at the dis- 
solution was graut4!d to Michael Stanhope, ancestor of the Ches^ 
teriseld family, the present possessors* Here was an ancteol 
mansion of the family ; but burnt do\tn in the civil wars, hav- 
ing been a garrison for king Charles the first. At that time 
Colonel Stanhope, son of the first earl of Chesterfield, was gover- 
nor; but was slain when it was tdken by storm by tlic Purlia* 
mentarian Uoops. Some year-* after this, the family nmde some 
additions to, and re|>airs of, that pari standing after the eil^cts 
of the fire ; it has now the appearance of the ancient manor 
houses of that period, but is inliabited by a farmer. The 
church, B respectable building, contains many monuments of 
the Stanhope family ; and in the vault is interred the late earl. 

S»>mc of the earlier generations of this family built and en- 

C) 4 dowed 

• Tftnner'A Monasticon. 


dowed in the village an almshouse, with a chapet attached to 
it, for six poor men, batch el ors or widowers. To each ihtre is 
aj»s>gned a hou^e^ a garden^ and orchard ; they have also an al- 
lowance of coals, two shillings per week, and a cap and coat 
every year. These, however, are now reduced to four, of 
whom one is from SheUord parish, another from Ged ling, and 
Vwo chosen by the incumbent of Bingham. Throsby gives a 
curious plate of what he calls a whimsical and puzzling inscrip- 
tion, on four sides of a long square stone in the church yard j 
but this is nothing more than a simple epitaph ^ and the secret 
of the enigma is, merely to read the west side first, and ihea 
take the south, east, and north sides from line to Hne, as one 

East Bridgepokd is a short distance from Shelford, on the 
banks of the Trent, and Is a very ancient village having inda- 
bitable remains of a Roman camp pointing it out as one of their 
stations; and confirmed, with respect to its chronology, by 
many coins, urns, and other antiquities, dug op at various times. 
This place has likewise been the possession and residence of 
many ancient familiest there being still much armorial glass in 
the church, of Dering, Deyncourt, Babington, &c* It is evi- 
dent too that the church was once on a much larger scale ; but ' 
from the decay of the place itself, from inattention, and per- 
haps from sacrilegious hands taking away its venerable walls 
tor humbler purpose,*;, it is now not only reduced in size, but' 
bassutfered much from actual dilapidation, whilst many of the 
monuments have been defacttd, others much mutilated^ and 
itome removed into the church yard to perish through th<? at« 
iack« of weather. It wan, however, in a much worse sute in 
Mr. Tliroshy's time ; indeed, he complains oi it very much. 

Here is a Clvarity School supported by private contribulioni 
for teaching English and the catechism, to ten poor boys. 

In modern history, this village is remarkable as being the 
birth place of the rcgicidal parliamentarian Colonel Hacker* 
who attended the unfortunate Charles to his last scene, for 


1 . • , 


Mrhich he afterwards sufFeretlas a iraitor^ and bis estates were 
confiscated ; yet his two brothers were active partizaus in the 
royal cause, for which one of them was slain* 

But Bridgeford is most worthy of notice for its early history, 
Stukely says that it lies near a mite to the right of the Eooiaa 
staitou, Adpontem, and adds that doubtless there was a bridge 
here in the Roman times* He then says, *' here were formerly 
great buildings and cellars on the right hand as you descend to 
the Trent^ and a qoay for vessels to unload at* The Homaa 
station upon the fosse^ 1 found to be called Boroughfield, west 
of the road. Here a spring was under the bedge^ called Old» 
wark spring, very quick, running t*ver a fine gravel, the only 
one hereabouts that falls eastward, and not directly into Lhe 
Trent Hereabouts 1 saw the Roman foundation's of walls and 
floors of houses, composed of stontfs set edgeways into clay^ 
and liquid mortar run upon them. About a miltf from this la.U 
station^ upon an eminence of the road beyond Bingham lane* 
there is a tumulus, from whence a hoe prospect of BeUoir« 

Horseley, however, does not coincide with him in the opinion 
of Ad Pont€m» being in this neighbourhood, but considers this 
place as the Margidunum of the sixth Iter of Antoninus; and 
though he does not decide absolutely whether Newark or South* 
well is the tr\ie Ad pontarit yet he confirms his idea respecting 
this place not only by the actual admeasurement, hut by the 
consideration that it is often called Bridgeford on ike hUh to 
which he conceives its ancient adjunct of dunum had a re* 
ference. " This station of Margidunum-f is distant from Verno- 
metum thirteen miles* according to this Iter; but only twelve* 
according to the 8th. The Utter seems to be the truer number* 
unless we suppose the truth to he between the two. If we pro- 
ceed across the Fosse, the next station that ofler» it^self, is East 
Bridgeford. The name has led most of our antiquaries into the 


• Stukclfj'a UintTary, 1 JIof>Iej'» Brilaii. Roiaftd. 4S8* 


irott nrnit A 9f6inits. 

opinion of its being Ad p&nttm ; but the numbers and dutancei 
ought to preponderate.*' We shall notice this queslkm mor^ 
fully when we come to Southwell. 

SciLCtETON is principally remarkable as the birtb place and 
residence of Dr, TnoaoroN, the earliest topographer of this 
country; and here siill remains the old manor house of the 
family. In CarcoUton, near to this, is another building erected 
by the Dr* himself, but now tti ruins. " Now is found Scre- 
rotonj ulias Screaton, where is the beautiful house of Richard 
Whalley, Esq. whose ancestor married the daughter and heir of 
one Leek, or rather Leake, about the time of Henry the seventh* 
who was owner thereof.'** The manor then cume to the Tho- 
fbtons, and h still their property j and Thomas Thoroton, 
Esq. a descendant of the worthy and learned doctor, has now his 
n-sidence here. 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Winifred, is a neat 
edifice, with a nave and two side aisles ; the lower steeple con- 
tuiti^ a small ring of three betU^ and the curious old font* 
which is siili in high preservation, is worthy of notice: there are 
several iincicnt monuments of the Whalleys. 

Wmattoh, which lies about two miles east from Bingham, 
comprehends in its parisli the chapelry of Astacton, the chapel 
of which small village or hamlet dedicated to the patron saiBl 
»if the parish is now a total ruin, but has been lately converted 
into a dwelling house. 

The church of Whation is dedicated to Su John of Beverley, 
>tands on a rising gmuiid on the north side of the village, and 
consists of a body, two aisles, and a chancel^ with a tower at 
the angle formed by the north aisle and chanceL The nave 
rests on three pointed arches on each side, with octagon 

Against the north-east pillar is fixed up a white slab, with ibm 
figure of a man in flowing hair and gown, and a pur^e at hb 
right side, his band on a cushion* and round hiu), on a ledge in 
bUck letter. 

• Hart, ColK p. Sd8. 




" Uk jttcet Thoms5 Crantner Armiger, qui obiit Ticcfimo sftpcioio die 
ttienfiit mail a&no dni m^* m'^* oetiteitJBQ priroo cui oie ppciatur Den. 

II has also several armorial coaU, and was raised in memory 
<»f the father of the lamous Archbishop Crarimer, born in 14^9 at 
Aslacton ; and which maaor came to Lhe tamily by ihe mar- 
riage with tiie heiress of the Aslactoiis^ passed by an heiress of 
Cranmer to Molyneax,and is now the property of the Pierpoiat 

The font h Jeserviag of notice ; not for lis anUqoHy which h 
but recent^ by a date of 1662 on the shaft, but from its orna- 
menu^ consisitng of a rose* lulip« Oeor de lis. £tc. 

The monuments are various. Two arches have been made 
la the north \vall of the north aisle : one of these U empty ^ 
under the other is a priest with curled hair* and his head rest- 
ing on a double cushion; in the middle of this aisle, across- 
legged Knight in armour lies on a raised tomb, Sir Richard 
Whatton ; and an altar tomb with an armed knight in alabaster, 
one of the family of Newraarch, is placed at the east end of the 
south aisle, now converted into a schoolhouse. The chancel is 
quite plain; and, being fitted up with modern seats and desks^ 
has lost its venerable airi but the style of the church plainly 
bespeaks it lo be of the lime of the Edwards. The windowi* 
are particularly deserving the notice of the Gothic architect^ 
being very elegant specimens of the lancei arch, and of orna* 
mental tracery i in the east window of the north aisle, in parti- 
cular> there is a very rich specimen of the quatr^oiL Of the 
state of 4jlaaon, as cotemporary with Cranmer, we have the 
following account from Leland : " And coming near toward Mile 
Brooke^ I left about a mile on the left hande Aslacton village 
in Nottinghamshire, where Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of 
Cantorbyri, was born^ and where the heire of the Cranmers^ 
a man scajit of XL luarkes landes by the yere now dwellith.'^ 

The manor bouse and grounds are now the property of Mr. 




Merriot. A modem hrm house occupies the scUe ; and tome 
years ago bad ftome curious relics of the C ran met family. Here 
also Diay be traced several moats, islands, and other remains of 
the pleasure ground& At a nmall distance from the house b 
a raked walk of three or four feet, and more than one hundred 
yards long, which leads to Orston^ and is still called ** Cran* 
Bier's WaiL'^ At the west end« on crossing a moat, the visitor 
may ascend a square mount of considerable elevation^ and 
from thence have a pretty extensive prospect. 

Of the ancient chapef> now in ruins^ part of the walls still 
remain; these are visible under a modern built house of brick 
atid tile ; and the chapel itself is now a coramon alehouse.* 

The ARCHBisBe? was born on the second of July 1489 ; and, 
being placed at an early age under a private tutor, was soon 
filled for the completion uf his studies at Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge. He- graduated, and entered into priests^ orders, became 
a fellow of the coHfge, completed his degree of I>. D* and was 
fioen after entrust^^d by Mr. Cressy, a gentleman of large foJ^^ 
tunc residing at Wahham abhey in Essex, with the care of fal^H 
two sons I but the plague breaking o^t in the university* Dr. 
Craumer retired with his pupils to their father's house. 

At this period Henry the eighth came to Waltham abbey, 
during the arrangements for his divorce, whicfi, how ever, went 
oo loo slowly for the monarch's impatience. Two of hia prin- 
cipal ecclesiastical agents lodged in Mr. Cressy's house, and 
were much gratided in finding a man of Cranraer's learning and 
undaunted spirit, not only approving the measure as much as they 
did themselves, but even inclined to enter on it more boldly 
than they dared to do* Wbco asked his opinion respecting the 
propvjcty of opposing the pope's mandates and the intrigues of 
li is Agents, Cranmer at once recommended that the suftV rings of 
the king's conscience, respecting a marriage with bis brother'^* 
wife, slitjuld be referred, not to the pope and his dispensing 
power, but to the word of God and an assembly of divines; and 

• Vide tuT^hn, Gcola, M«g. VoL 62, P«rt IL 991, 



alsoi that this should lake place in the Engliih oniverstties, and 
not ifi the ecctesiastical courts of any other nation; adding^ 
that if the cause was once determined by the authority of scrfp* 
Hire, the pope coald iwit possibly have power to overttarn il, not 
having authority to dispense with the word of God!* When 
the monarch heard of this opinion* '* Aye" said he, " tliis 
man hath the sow by the right ear -" he immediately sent f^r 
him, and not only employed him in the work at home, but in 
Writing and in embassies lo the pope, and the diflTerent Euro- 
pean princes, umil he had not only ihe consent of the English 
universities, bat also of all the foreign powers concerned, or 
presuming to be concerned, in this bosiness. 

On the death of archbishop Warham Cranmer wag imme- 
diately appointed to the metropolitan see> and was under the 
new order of things, then just commencing, considered as the 
ecclesiastical head of the church in England, without ihe inter- 
ference of the pope's legale ; and was al^o entrusted with many 
civil commissions by Henry, whose favour lie had gained, by 
not only pronouncing the sentence of divorce against Catharine^ 
but also uniting him to his then favourite Anna Boleyn. 

When Henry asserted his supremacy in ecclesiaKiical affairs , 
Cranmer supported him against the pope's claims; he also aided 
much in the dissolution of the monastic societies, and encou- 
raged the cause of rational religion, by causing the Bible to bif 
translated into English, and a copy of it to he placed in every 
church in the kingdom. This part of the Reformation was 
much expedited by the discovery of printing, which had then 
laken place, tboogh not many years before. f A copy of this 
work was presented to the king, and is now preserved in the 
British Museum. 

The appropriation of the revenues of the convents, for the 


■ Tht4, however, wai n power which the Pope tlien claimed, and whkh the 
Catholics admitted ; nor do we know ihat it ii even now denied. 

f Printing began to be uacd in Esglaud in 1453, nlioQt 50 ytm before 
Htnry'B flccr»9ion* 



establishment of rrcescbools^ was a measure of his recommen- 
dation ; but this took place only in a few instances^ as the pro- 
fuse monarch found a pleasanter mode of spending these large 
9Uiiis: ytjt though thwarted in some things^ Cranmer still used 
every means in his power to aid the cause of the Reformation. 
By this^ he became so obnoxious to the Catholic hierarchy, to 
ihe pope and his agents, that erery means were taken to ex* 
cite the public discontent against hira ; the power of Henry, 
however^ was his protection ; and it is said that Cranmer^ of all 
that monarch's favourites, was the only one for whom be pre* 
served a sincere respect to the very last. 

During this period, the faction which opposed him had 
so far lost sight of propriety as to bring charges against him in 
Parliament, which they could find no person willing to under- 
take except Sir John Gostwike, Knt. ; and this perfton ventured 
lo accuse hiui of preaching heresy at Sandwich in Kent, When 
the king was acquainted with this, '• How comes Gostwike,^* 
said he, " who dwells in Bedfordshire, or Buckinghamshire, to 
hear my lord of Canterbury preaching in Kent ? Go !*' added 
he to a gentleman of the privy chamber, '* and tell him, that if 
he does not go to the archbishop, and reconcile himself to 
bim, 1 will pluck his goslin's feathers so, that he shall never 
again have au heart to slander our metropolitan, of any other 
learned ninii." 

On the death of Henry^ and the accession of the youthful 
Edward, he performed the coronation o(Iicc ; and was soon aftet 
appointed with other bishops to compose the homilies ; the act 
of Parliament .ilsu for the Common Prayer took place through 
his recommendation and intluence. But having joined the 
party of Lady Jane Grey,* on the demise of the young monarch, 
the ruling powers caused hira lo be committed to the tower, 
i\nd attainted of high treason, for which, however, he obtained 

a pardon 

* Thts \at\y*i proper nam« wts Dudle^t »> ihm wife of Lr^rd ODildford 
Duilley; it i^ curiuai thai hUtorinm »h««i}U, notwithttsndtnfr always d«fl(ig- 
nate ber by het maiden name. 



a pardon from Mary. Yet he was immediately after conveyed 
to Oxford, and condemned for herc.^^y, for denyijig transubstan- 
tiation, and the propitiatory sacrifice of the mass, or in other 
words a repetition of the sufferings of Chrift in an ordinance 
which Christ himseif told us was only a tememhrancc of him. 
After condemnation, he was induced to sign a recantation ; 

, but having nobly dented his crrofi and withdrawn that confes- 
sion, he was condemned to the stake, at which be sulFered oi^ ^ 
the 21st of March 1550. 

To this he was brought witHont any official notice^ though 
he had reason to expect it ; and when tied to it was obliged ta 
listen to all the charges and aspersions of Dr« Cole : but Craiv 
mer boldly replied, '* 1 believe every word and sentence 
taugbt by our Saviour Christ, his apostles, and the prophets of 
the Old and New Testament^ but as to the pope, I refuse him 

^ as Christ's enemy, or Antichrist, with all his false doctrine; s/"^ 
So great was his sorrow for his recantation* and ^a determined 
was his spirit at the last hour, that he calmly held his right 
hand in the fLimes till it dropt oiY, paying* *' this hand has 
offended ;" and this h«s was enabled to do^ as his exeeii- 
tioQer!i had taken care to keep up a slow Hre^ in order that be 

I f^hould suffer the utmost pain of his punishment, as a proof 

^ of their regard for Christian mcrcicM* 

It has been stated, that after his whole body had been reduced 
to ashes, ^iiis heart was found entire, and untouched by the Are, 
which by some of the bystanders was considered as an argu- 
ment in favour of his hearty love of the truth ; whilst others looked 
upon it as a proof of the heretical obduracy of that vital part« 
which would not yield even to the warm argument of a blaj&i ng 
Catholic fire! 

Elton, near Whatton, has so little lo be noticed, that we 
only mention it in order to add another instnnce to the many 
which prove bow necessary it is, that precautions sbould al- 

« We do not wisti to estublisH a new age c»f miracles ; but mcreVj gire(l># 
passage Ifoin Bifhop Godwin'i worlc^ " Be Pra;tutibiit| p* J03/' 



way§ be taken with respect to fire arms ; not a footish fear 
vhich will often produce the evH it wishes to avoi<V. but a coo! 
camion whfch shall point out the neceiisary guards against acci- 
dent, Mr. Throsby records this curious circumstance^ which 
took place here in 1784| when a blacksmith had purchased ^^M 
a piece of iron about two feet long, and an inch and a lialf ia ^B 
diameter, apparently solid^ and which had been used a^ a pestle 
in a family J upwards of sixty years* The workman having 
aome doubts, however, about its solidity, put it into his fire, 
when it exploded with great force; and a musrjuet ball from 
within it grazed his side, and lodged in some coals behind 
bim* This led to further examination and enquiry when it 
was discovered to have been a gun barrel dug up in the year 
1723, but so completely (i)led with earth and rust that nor 
cavity had ever, till then, been noticed, 

Granrv lies two miles to the south of Elton, and on the 
I borders of Lincolnshire, but is remarkable for nothing more 
than giving the litle of marcjuis to the Rutland family, whose 
ancestor Sir John Manners, purchased it from L4>rd Viscount 
Savage, to whom it had been granted by Henry the Bevenlli, 
after the attainder of Henry Lord Lovel, of whose unhappy 
I and mysterious fate we sltall take some notice under llie head 
of Stuke near Newark.^ 

WivEnroN, though possessing few remains of its ancient gran- 

I deurt is still mtereMing even in its present dilapidated and de* 

[ populated state. The Hatl %vas built by the Cha worth family 

! in the reign of flenry the sixih^ and the house was sutlTiciently 

» in the castelfaled style to be a garrison during the civil wars;, 

I since that period, howerer, it has fiu(T*ered much ; and even iti 

Thoroton*s lime, little was left but the ancient gste house, of 

which he has given a plate* This is now almost in ruins, stand* 

[ingin the open fields near Trthby village, a solitary memo- 

j f ial of departed gramleurj of ancient hospitality, and of all 

this once happy delights of domestic sociability. 

9 LhuaMt^ 

* Hail. Colt. S6S. 






Langar^ was the seat of Earl Howe^ and is now in the pos* 
session of his descendanbi la the female line* *' Here was an 
ancient house now re-editied by Hen. ho* Scroope^ Lord and 
owner hereof, whose ancestor married one of the daughters af 
the Lo* Tiptoft; and the Rhodes were Lords hereofj immedi- 
ately after the time of the CoiiqueHt."* 

Thoroton says^ '^ the whole lordships of Langar and Bar- 
niston are become the possession of Mr. Howe, who has made 
a convenient park of the closes which he halh found nigh the 
house, which is well stocked with deer, much better than the 
towns are with peoplei when so considerable parts of the fields 
are enclosed : the too common fate of good land in this 
country/' Without combating Dr. Thoroton's deductions about 
incbsures, it is enough to mention that part of the old houses 
which he describes^ still remains at the back of the new part of 
theedihce. It stands close by the church, and has a communi- 
cation witb it, and though now long deserted and of course pos- 
•easing little of modern elegance in the interior, yet the antique 
portion may be considered a& gti'ing some insight into ancient 
manners* The modern front has a very handsome portico sind 
pediment, with six lofty Ionic pillars the height of the house, 
which is three stories; and the gardens, though much negtectedv 
might with little troubk be rendered extremely pleajiing. 

The church is dedicated to St. Andrew, and consists of a 
nave and two side aisles ; it has also a tower of not very an- 
cient workmanship, with a ring of ftve bells. It contains many 
monuments of the Lords Scroope, &c» particularly one very 
elegant one^ ornamented in the richest sepulchral styles of 
Lord Scroope who died in the year 1609^ with his lady. 

The parsonage house is excellent of its kind; and has a 
Vol. XII. P very 

• In the introductory part of lUc county, we hiVc not noticed Laugar and 
Granhy us giving noble litJes; but tb<r reason of tbb is evident, ai the object 
there wa* to ootico ouly tbow which give the tupfrUtr title, by wUtcb eich 
poiseMor i* knowti. 



very good observatory erected in 1797 by Mr. Gregory the 
rector^ who was very partial to astronomical pursuits. 

We now proceed to Newark Hundred, and conftmence wi4b 
tbe town of 


Of which old honestj but Drunken Bamahy sings « 

'^ Thence to Ncwtrk. flocnl surfowodod. 

Where I hoping mast, were drained j 

Hsad Co hand t straightwii^s shortd« 

To a cdUr ricblj ilored ; 

Till tuBpGctcd for a pkklock^ 

Tho beadle led mc to tbe whip stock/' 

Later tourists, however, have been more hospitably treated^ 
and of cciurse speak better of the accommodations. 

Arthur Young sayg, it " h a very pretty and well built town ; 
remark when you see it, particularly the steeple, which, for 
9ome miles aroundj appears very light and beautiful : there is 
likewise a new street worth viewing; although ihc houses are 
very small, yet each side of the street forms but one front, and 
is in a very pretty neat InsteJ* Bibdin also in his musical tour 
seem^i though a vagrant melodist, to have been on better terms 
with the parish beadles than poor Barnaby, and therefore laya 
that it " is a clean, handsome, improving town, and seems to 
look more like the land of the living than any place in the 
county. The market place is very handsome and spacious. 
It is full of bustle, being on the great north road; and it boasts a 
vicinity full of spirit and importance." With respect lo the an* 
iifuity of Newark, Throsby, as well as some other aotiquaries* 
looks for " Ad Pontetn" here ; but Mr. Dickinson^ as we 
shall presently have occasion to shew more at length, endea- 
vours to fix that station at Southwell.** 


* The county of Nuttiugliam, and the kingdom at large» are under gi 
tfbtigatiouft to ^r. Dickiiiaoa for his antiquarian researches and modern dell< 
neatti^nt ; and wt cannot omit a fact niticb to the credit of the candour and 
hherali ty of that gcuilumap, that he haj dedicated hts hookt with juit dtscri- 
ttinatiou, to one who liad been hi< political oppoucnl on many ocGationat 




That Newark, however, was a Roman ftation in now beyond 
a doubt. Stukely* in his Itinerary, says that it was certainly 
raised from the neighbouring Roman cities, and has been 
walled about with their remains; and he adds, thai the northern 
gate was composed of stones seemingly of a Roman cut ; and 
not improbably the Romans themselves had a town hereabouts^ 
for many antiquities are found about it, especially by the Fosse 
side which runs through the town. Hor^ley also is pretty 
much of the same opinion ; for he says, in his observations on the 
sixth iter of Antoninus,* "The station AdPontera, is only seven 
itinerary miles from Margidunnm* which distance is not quite 
sufficient to bring us from Bridgeford quite up to Newark— this 
therefore obliges us to look for Ad Poutcm, two or three miles 
from the middle of Newark. I make no doubt but that this 
large town has arisen out of the ruins of Ad Pontem on one side, 
and Crocolana on the other. The name " Newark/* which irn* 
plies aome prior building of greater antiquity, may perhaps 
refer to those Roman stations on each side of it/* 

Mr. Dickinson's recent observations are even more to the point. 
He says^ that it requires little sagacity to discover that New -work, 
(the obvious signification of its present name, and that by which 
it has been distinguished in history, &c. ever since the reign of 
Edward the Confessor,) is a name of reference, of comparison, 
and of discrimination. If what was then erected was called 
the New- work, it is an incontrovertible admission that there wat 
something older, on which the modern establishment was en- 
grafted, but 3tilL that is enveloped in the obscurity of untiquity 
He then notices, thnt Stukely with great acumen shews the 
probability, and almost certainty, that this was the Sidnaceaster 
of old, once a bishopric in the early days of Christianity, hav* 
tng had a succession of nine bishops. Though these walls and 
gates are now down, yet tliey have been shewn by Stukely and 
others to have been formed of Roman materials; and innu- 
merable quantities of Roman coins, and other antiquities, have 

P 2 been 

• Honlrj'f BriCaDt Rom. p. 4J9. 



been found here. Stokely atso thinks that the Roman itQfbe 
wasEitarona; and he addi* that Mr, Baxter has placed it al» 
most beyond contradiction, that the Roman name of the Trent 
was Tatus, or AbuM as sortie hare thought^ and which we hare 
allijded to in the early part of this county. That branch new 
called the Trent^ and passing under the w^Wa of the castle^ 
Stukely also calk the rirer DaTon or Ta?on« a.<iserling that tt 
is not the Trent, bat the united streams of the Da? on and SDtle* 
From these circumstances, Sttikeley draws his conclusion of 
Sidnaceasttr being the modern Newark; and he adds, that the 
Roman town being destroyed by the Scots and Picls after the 
departure of that people, it was refounded by the Saxons, who 
to the name of the river Suite on wiiich it stands added the ter* 
mination " Ceaster^' to markitsliaving been a Roman italion, 
llnis forming Sidnaceasier. After this, Mr. Dickinson con* 
oatves it highly probable that the Danes may have destroyed 
the Saxon refounded city, and hence iVht^-work was justly ap- 
plied to it in the reign of Edward the confessor* Camden, in* 
deed, carries its antiquity no higher than the time of Alexander* 
bishop of Lincoln, who built the present castle; but in this 
he confines himself solely to the building as it then stood. 

To detail the history of Newark from its re- edification would 
be little more than a recapitulation of great part of the his- 
tory of Englaml; a few facts, howevert desenre partlcula? 

This place was the scene of king John's death; those who 
wish to enquire particularly into the fact of his being poisoned 
or nat, may consult the fuurth volume i>( the Archatoiogia, p. 29, 
where they will End a long letter of Mr. Pegge*s upon that sab- 

James the first arrired at Newark, on his way to London, on 
the 2l8tof April ltK>2, on which occasion he was received by 
the corporation, and addressed by the alderman^ (there being 
then no mayor,) Mr. John Twentyman, in a Jong Latin speech, 
witit which his Miijetity was so well pleased^ that he conferred 


fipon him the off ce of purr^yor of wax la ihc loysil household, 
in ihe counties of Notu, York, LiiKoln^ and Derby. WUeii 
about to depart, James ordered him to repeat the speech, llten 
asked hh name ; and on being told, replied sharply, *' then by 
my saul man ihou art a tray tor; the Tu'eutymans pulled down 
Redkirk in Scotland/^ This, however^ must have been in jetitt 
as he coniinued hi| &Your to hm, and was oflea accompanied 
by him in hts hunting excursions m\ ihe forest. 

In the unhappy reign of Charles the first, Clarendon says 
that Newark became a very necetMtary garrison in the county of 
Nottingham ; and had not only subjected that little comity^ 
the town of Nottingham only excepted^ which was upon ihf 
manner confined within its own wallsj but had a greftt part of 
the county of Lincoln under contribution,* 

ThorotQu speaking of those times^ of which we may almost 

If onsider him as an eye witness, saya that Newark was one of the 

aost considerable garrimns the king had, ia which the loyalty 

id courage of the townsmen were ever remarkable, and suf- 

[^ciently manifested in all their three sieges f at the first of 

iwbich Sir John Henderson, %he prudent governor^ caused all 

[JTorthgate and the Spiral (an hospital of St. Leonard of Slokf) 

|o be burned, '^yet the remains ftirmed a reccpiacle fui Ihe 

lienemy at the second siege, where Prince Rupert took a goodly 

train of artillery which I &aw,t together with their foot arms, 

^ when he so fortunately relieved the tovni then under the 

^ government of Sir Hichard, now Lord Byron: but before the 

ihird^ there was not one stone left unt brown down, and in oc 

P 3 near 

^ Id the tacond vol. of ClBrendon, page 25^ are some stories of tlie unmh 
Hngncssor people in litis couiUj to k*nd money to the king j but wln>» m ke 
ob&erves, miglithjive fiaalljF «aved hoih their m<Micy And c»tiit(?f. One tii pur- 
ticular, he mentloaB, who was aiked for a loin of hOOL «(td prstriited \mL 
ftwearing he had never teen f»0€l. of his own money Mt one lime in his life ; 
"yel a few weeks after the ParliamcuUnwi army borrow^ 50001. which tliey 
found bid in hii bedchamber* 

^ f Claraodon 3my% 4000 priioD^n^ cleTea bia^t cumoni two mortar pieflt4» 
And liTA barrcli of puwd«r. 


near the place a strong fortification raised in Sir Richard Wil- 
lis's time, (as I remember) and called the king's sconce, which, 
by his Majesty's special command then in the Scots quarters 
on the north side of the rirer Trent, was about the sixth of Bfay 
1646, with the town and castle and the rest of the fortresses, con- 
eluded by commissions of the Right Honourable John Lord 
Bellasis the last go? emor, to be surrendered the Saturday fol* 
lowing, though it is said, that Mr. Smith, the Taliant mayor, 
upon his lordship's communicating to him the king's order, 
urged the gofemor with tears, to trust God and sally, rather 
than think of yielding the town, which indeed at that time suf- 
fered more by the plague within than the enemy without" 

The Beacon Hill was the scene of this action between Prince 
Rupert, and the Parliamentarian army under Sir John Mel- 
drum; and a MSS. recorded by Mr. Dickinson, says ««the 
t>rince advanced up the hill, at the descent whereof he espies 
four bodies of horse standing in readiness to recei?e him; and 
charging and it^uting these horse, drore them quite put of the 
field beyond their own work, foot and cannon, some into the 
island, and others to Muskham bridge, pursuing them with that 
expedition, that he besieged them in their own intrenchment 
at the Spittle with his horse, before his foot came within four 

During the second siege in 16<14, an extraordinary circum- 
stance is related to have taken place of one Clay, a trades- 
man of some eminence residing in the market square, who, as 
is recorded on his monument in the church, is said to have 
dreamed three successive times in one night, that his house was 
in^flames. At the conclusion of the last dream he got up much 
confused, and caused his whole family to leave the house ; very 
soon after which, a bombshell from Beacon hill fell on his habi- 
tation, and, passing through every floor, was set on fire. 

Much gallantry was displayed during the third siege ; and it 
has been particularly recorded, that on the first of January 
1645, the Newarkersmadea most determined sally upon Poyntz's 




If narters at Stoke« and killed and took above SCO of his men; 
but the most effectual atrack was on the lirst of April in the 
£ame year, when they killed and drowned several hundred of 
the t;nemy*s choice troops, and took so many prisoners, that 
their nunibers caused great sickness in the town. It has been 
asserted, that Newark might have sustained the siege many 
months longer ; but^ as has been before noticed, it was sur- 
rendered to the Scots army, by the king's order, on the 19th 
of May 1645-6. Mention about this lime is made of a memora- 
ble gentleman volunteer, Mr, Gawen Rutherford^ who well de* 
serves to be held m everlasting remembrance for his loyalty; 
" for having twenty-nine children by one wife, he irooptd under 
his twenty ^evemh child, who was a commander for hi^ Majesty 
at Newark**' 

Of the state of Newark at the close of the last siege, we may 
form a good idea from the MSS, already noticed as preserved 
by Mr. Dickenson, " the ladies and gentlemen did much de- 
sire the surrender to be speeded as much as could be, longing 
for their enlargement, which occasioned the surrender a day 
sooner than by the articles was agreed. And truly it is become 
a miserable, slinking, infected town. I pi ay God, they do not 
infect the counties and towns adjacent— they carried not much 
out of the town, for they had hot very few carriages/' 

After the surrender, the country people were ordered to come 
with pick axes, shovels, &c. to demolish all the work^ and 
circumvallation ; but one of the sconces has been left entire, 
and gives a good idea of the state of warfare at that time. It is 
extremely small, and consists of five bastions, being a pentagon, 
but these are so near to each other, that the curtines are 
scarcely half pistol shot in length, contrary to the usual scale 
which always allows two rausquet shot between the retiring 
(lanks of two bastions : and, being fortified on the fieldlace as 
well as towards the town, shews that the assailants were not 
without their apprehensions that some attempt to raise the siege 
might cause an attack upon their own works, 

P 4 Sine 

Since the HeralutioD« little remains to be noticed, exce|>tt 
progre^ife improvement in trade^ manufactures^ andopD]eaoe; 
the leading poiotR of wbicb will be detailed under their r^spec> 
live heads in the description of the place* 

The whole p:»rish of Ne^i ark contains about 80Q acres. Some 
changes with res|»eci to its boundaries, however, must hare 
taken place: for Mr. Dickenson fells us, that anciently the 
Trent pas&ed near to the town about 350 yards distant from the 
castle, where the bed of the old river is very apparent, and is 
to this day called the ** Old TrenL'* Where the main stream 
now runs by Kelham^ there was a small brook which not being 
sufficient for the various purposes of the Sutton family, resident 
there, a cut was made from the Trent to the brook which gave 
ra turn to the whole current, probably aided by the obstruction 
rhich the mills at Newark must be supposed to occasion: it 
there forced its way and formed that channel which is now 
seen* An island has thus been formed, which is remarkably 
fine feeding land for cattle; there is aljK> under the upper stra- 
tum of gravel a bed of clay extremely useful for the making of 

It is a curious fact, that although the number of inhabitants* 
and consequently the number of dwellings, are increased in a 
great proportion, even within the last two centuries, yet the 
ichnography of the town, according to Mr. Dickinson, appears 
to have undergone no alteration. Northgate^ indeed, whick 
now forms a part of the town, appears in former times to have 
been only a hamlet ; for it is in many places called " Norihgat 
juxta Newark." 

Th*! Sirceu of Newark are now kept in a very respectable con«| 
dition: yet, according to the before mentioned authority^ whici 
we shall often have occasion to quute, this improvement is bill 
of late dale, although an act of Parliament for paving them was 
passed in the 27th of Queen Elizabeth. It was nut, howeveti 
until the middle of James's reign, that even the paving of thi 
market place was begun, and that only a causeway six fe* 

9 broai 






broad from the weat corner of the market place to the south 
porch of tlie church. At that tiwe there was a cross in the 
ceotre of the market square, on which was cut the name of the 
undertaker of the work, and the date (H, W. 1619) forHeory 

TheQ\srLE2,ndilB precinct, though within the borough of 
Newark, are in the parish of Stoke. It was built, or re-edified^ 
in tlie reign of Stephen, by Alexander, bishop of Lincotn, and 
its o/^f name of A>u;-work still preserved** Henry of Huntingdon^ 
in speaking of this, acknowledges thai this kind of military 
erections were even at that time deemed rather improper for an 
ccclesiaatlc to engage in; the pious bishop^ therefore, built two 
monasteries as an expiation. But though he might flatter him- 
•elf with thereby avoiding the pains and penalties of purgatory. 
It appears that Stephen was not so easily satisfied, but having 
seized both the bishop and his uncle, kept them in durance 
until they had surrendered to him all their fortresses. The 
governor of the castle refuged to deliver it to ihe king's oiBcers, 
without an order from the bishop iu person^ this, however, he 
waved, when be received notice from the bishop, that the king 
had made a vow that he should have neither meat nor drink 
until it was given up. In the days of iuhu, and in the baro- 
nial wars, it several limes changed hands* Whilst a royal garri* 
•on, the troops repeatedly sallied out, wasting the lands of the 
neighbouringrebetliousbarons;but the Dauphin of France, whom 
they had called in, in order to put a stop to the depredations^ 
Lordered Gilbert de Gaunt, whom he had lately created Earl of 
rXincolnj to proceed with a considerable force, either to re- 
duce it, or to repel the soldiers of the garrison. He, tiowever, 
having got intelligence of the king^s approach with a powerful 
Tarmy, retreated to London: but John, having in his march 
over the washa lost a part of his army together with his car- 
riages and military chest, who wt ro all surprized and over- 
whelmed by a rapid flood tide, he retired t» this castle ; and, 

• Vide Gfo»c'» Anti<iuitic*. 



being extremely sick and in violent angujsK of mint], here 
ended his unfortunate reign in 1316, the 19th of October, 
^ 6(0 we adds, that immediately on his decease, his attendants#| 
afier taking all that wae about hiirij fled; not leaving so mach 
of any thing, worth the carriage, as would cover hisdea4| 

The governor, Robert de Gangi, seems now to have given it 
up to the barons, for Henry the third, on bis accession, found it m i 
their hands: but he having directed it to be restored to the bishD{ft J 
of Lincoln^ De Gangi refused at first on pretence of money du4|i 
to him ; he was by force at length compelled to be content] 
with ihe payment of 100/* In 15'30, Cardinal Wokey lodged [ 
here with a great retinue, in his way to Southwell, where ho ' 
was acciislomed to spend part of the summer. The remainder 1 
of its history may be considered as connected with that of the 
town, already recorded. 

Though now in ruins^ it still presents an august appearance^ i 
wliich would be even much more so, were it not that its re* 
mains are applied to the purposej^of coal wharfs, stables &c« 
The north front over looking the river* is the most perfects j 
having a large square tower at the north east anglf;^ and another 
in the centre of the elevation. Between these great features^ 
in the principal story, and among some large magnificent win* 
dows, is an excellent projecting window, forming a perfect 1 
ipecimen of those called baj/t, or bower a , in ancient times. 

The general outline of the plan of the castle is square ; itsdi* 
mensions are very great; and the nunibcr of stories, by the ap* 
pearance of the north frontj seems at least to have been five* 
Within the exterior walls^ nothing remains; aud the plot has 
long been used as a bowling green. The vestiges of the great 
hallt shew evidently that it was built in later times^ from the 
manner in which the roof appears lo have been inserted into the 
walK; and in this hall, the before menlloned window seems to 


• Vide PtifBUifs of Architectural Iniiovutioiis* 
t /Irchtfologin, Vol. VI. 321. 



have been hangiag over the river, and even of later coQstruc* 
I iion, as it could not have been placed ihere> unul all the an- 
Icieixt modes of defence had become out of use. 

Under this hall, is a most curious arched vault or crypt, sup* 
ported by a row of pillars in the middlej and having loops and 
embrasures towards the river in which were planted cannon in 
the civil wars. At the end of this vault, there are some remains 
of the entrance of a subterraneous passage, said to have gone m 
great wa%' under ground. There are also Home vestiges of a stair- 
case from the vault up to the halL Exclusive, however, of ibis 
hall and vault, what remains of the editice seems most evidently 
to continue precisely as it was in the days of king Stephen; and 
exhibits a curiou.^ specimen uf the odd mixture of old Norman 
architecture, and of these which bishop Gundulpb lirst intro- 
duced at Rochester castle. 

The Bridge, which crosses the river close by the castle, was 
originally of wood, but pulled down in 1775 being then qalle 
ruinous; when Henry Duke of Newcastle caused one to bft 
erected of brick, fact-d with stone. A better idea of its appear-, 
ance may be formed from the accompanying plate than from 
ny description. 

The Church has long been considered as the first parish 
I church in the kingdom. It is of the age of Henry the sixth, and 
rThoroton says *' yet 1 suppose it better than all the ten men- 
tioned in Domesday book, wliich I guess were not all in thit 
town, though in the Soc.'* It is indeed a noble edifice, its ex-* 
terior most superb ; mullions and tracery of excellent designs 
fill the windows; in difterent parts of the building are niches 
with statues, and other decorations; and there is perhaps no 
ecclesiastical edifice which contains such a number of ^hort 
ludicrous busts, forming spout heads, &c. except Magdalen 
college in Oxford. It is much to be lamented, indeed^ that the 
[buildings which surround it take olF mnch from the elFect 
which would otherwise be produced by a clear view of the edi^ 
fice. The other church having been destroyed during the civil 



fvmrf« lliis seems lo have had the undivided atteiiUao of succ^ed- 
hig generations for iu preaervaitoa and iniproYemenL The 
lower is light and handsome, possesRes much symmetry^ and 
htaelyj and has a peal of eight bells y it is much ornamented 
with arch vrork and imagery, and supports a lofky stone spire 
md^raed with the tweke apostles in niches, and which makes 
a f ery handsome show In approaching the town in all direc*^ 

The inside of the church has moch of a cathedral appearance ; 
butthenate is narmw and gloomy. The pillars are light and 
beautiful ; the choir is inclosed by a rich screen of wooden 
carved work, and has a spacious east aisle behind it. The aisles 
are lofty* and the pavement is covered with sepulchral memo* 
rials; besides which the numerous monuments vind brasses are 
in good preservation. The new galleries too add much both to 
the beauty and convenience of the building. 

The windows have formerly been filled with painted glass, 
come of which are stilt in good preservation^ representing the va* 
rious events of our Saviour's life; the history of the New Testa* 
ment was formerly in the windows of the north aisle, and in the 
east window the history of Joseph. Besides these, here have 
been many armorial bearings of Deyncourt, Cromwell^ Tate* 
shall, Chaworth, Cakopt, Foljambe, Leek, Barry* &c. 

Most of the iiuporLint monumental inscriptions may be found 
in Thorolon; we shall, however, briefly notice a curious brass 
ef an ecclesiastic, mentioned by Cough in his Sepulchral Mo- 
nurnent& It is on a large slab, at the entrance of the soutli 
traniicpi,* and contains the figure under n rich canopy of three 
arches with double rows of itainis round it. Over the saint^^ 

i angel sided by two naked hgures; under the two uppermost 

aints kneel figures with labeU. Angds at the side of hts head 

hold censers or lUuL He is in curled flowing hair, a long coat 

with pocket holes in front, and over it a kind of mantle linetl 

with something like minever, his sleeves are buttoned to tht 

* Strpu Icbral MoEtQisentt, Vul, L p« 185« 



wristbands, and fioin his conjoined hands falls a scroll inscribtfd 
*' Miserere mei, dotDine Dtus meus/' He has pointed sboes» ot 
balf boot9^ with a buckle or opening in the rnstep. Between 
his feet h represented a lion hunting. The whole ligure is 
much worn by trampling; but the tradition of the place is, tliat 
ikjs is the grave of Alan F/cmj/ztg, the founder of the churchy and 
of coarse the oldest one in it. 

The communion plate is all of massy siWer, the gifls and IMS'* 
iguests of various individnaU; yet it is surprising, that when a 
most daring atiempt was made about seventy years ago to rob 
[the chufch, the thieves did not touch the plate« but seemed ifi" 
tent only on securing the money belonging to the corporationt 
which they supposed to be kept here in an iron cbei^t. 

Of other Religious Foundations here was an Jiospiial, de- 
dicated to St, Leonard, founded by Alexander, bishop of Lin* 
coin,* in the latter end of the reign of Henry the fir&t^ or be- 
ginning of that of Stephen, and confirmed by his successor 
Philip. Perhaps^ this h the one said to have consisted of ft 
master, one chaplain, and three poor persons, with revenue! 
amounting to 18/. 

Here were also a bouse ot Awtm/nan, mnd another ofOifstr^ 
\9itntfriarg; the friary seal was discovered some years ago, anil 
iits facsimile (a bust of the Madona and child) may be seen in 
iihe Gentleman's Magazine, Vol, 76, page 9 IS. 

An ancient hospital for sick persons, belonging to the 
knight's templars, was founded here before 1185: and at the 
farther end of the Northgate street was a great house called tbe 
Spittle, burnt down, as already mentioned, in the civil wars.f 

Here also were formerly a great house called the CAauniry 
iFreeschool, and a Song School at tbe north west corner of the 
I church -yard for an organist and six choristers. 

The present GRA>iMAti School was f^sunded by Dr. Thomas 
LMagnus in 1529; as appears by an inscription over the door. 


• Tanner's MoTtastlcon. 
t Soa« liAve considered tlili at th« HoipriEil of St. L«oa«T(i. 


The MwKET Place it a hamlsome square; but traditionalljr 

I lEiid io he much smaller than it once was. It is related that ill 

the civil wars no less than ten thousand men hate been drawn 

up in it. All this^ however, must feem doubtful to any one wha 

will examine the antiquity of the buildings which surround it# 

the scite of the church and townhall^ of the inn, &c. when he 

will scarcely find room for its ever having been more extensive 

[than at present. Some, indeed* consider the doobJe row of 

I buildings between the south side of the church and the market 

I place, as an encroachment, and Mr. Dickinson is of the same 

hepinion ; yet let the houses on that side next the Church be ex* 

nined^ and it will perhaps appear that they are of an older 

lAfktc than the middle of the seventeenth century. 

The market on Wednesday ts well supplied with butcher's 
[meat J fishi poultry, and vegetables, &c. 

The TmvNHALL ts a neat and even elegant building of stone« 

[erected in 1805 by the corporation at an expense of 17000/. 

f paid out of the funds of the tt^stamentary estates tell for the ad-* 

vantage of the town. It stands in the market place, hasanar* 

rowj t>ut light and airy front, and possesses considerable depth. 

[•The basement h rustic; four handsome piHars support a pedi* 

Blent ornamented with the corporation arms. On the top is a 

Statue of Justice^ and the ballustradcs give it a handsome 6nish* 

It is three stories high, and has seven windows in front. Here 

are held the concerts and assemblies, and also all the corporate 

meetings, &c. 

' The Fairs are six in the year ; at which a considerable traf- 
fic is carried on in rattle of a!l kinds. The dates are, Kirst on 
Friday before Careing Sunday, or Sunday before Easter; se- 
cond May 14ili, or day after, if Sunday ; third Whitsun Toes* 
r day ; fourth Liinunas, or Maudlin fair, on August the second, 
[or if on Sunday ihe day after; fifth All Saints fair, 1st of No- 
iTeroher ; sixth St, Andrew's, on the Monday before December 
[the llth. 

The Editor of these sheeli', when at Newark, was a 3qy ajicr 


the fair; but Mr, Dickmson^ he finds, complains that great an- 
Doyance is given to travellers and lo the inhabitants themselvef, 
in consequence of the mart for horses being held on the great 
London road at the southern extremity of the town ; and thai 
for cattle and shetsp, on the spacious area which composes the 
entrance from the elegant bridge northward of it ; whilst those 
filthiest of all animals, swine, are posted on the causeways near 
ihe fronts of the houst^s in the principal streets. Some me» 
Itoration of these nuisances has^ we believe^ taken place since 
Mr. Dickinson wrote. 

In IStK)^ an annual cheese market was established here, to 
be held on ihe Wednesday preceding the second of October, 

The Manufactures of Newark are extensive: at ihc 
south end of the town, a cotton mill has been erected of con- 
siderable size, from which a great number of poor derive a 
comfortable subsistencct When Sir F. M, Eden wrote his work 
on the poor, he states the cotton business to have been th^n the 
principal one here ; and adds that a mill for making cotton 
thread for the hosiers gave employment lo upwards of JOO, 
chiefly women and children, earning from one to five shillings 
per week. 

In North gale, there is a very large Brewery, where a great 
trade was carried on for many years with the northern parts of 
Europe, until such a heavy duty was imposed on the impor- 
tation of British beer by the Russian government, as to ajnount 
almost to a prohibition. Since that event. It is pleasing to un- 
derstand that the propietors have cultivated a trade at home 
with no less assiduity than success. 

The Workhouse is one uf the be&t in the kingdom. It is 
sufficiently capacious and well aired ; and the sexes very judi- 
ciously separated, on the two sides. Edtn speaks of it ^ as 
being well supplied with vegetables from a good garden, and 
in all other respects, both within and without, exhibiting a de- 

* Vide Sir Frederick Mortoa Edcn't vtty volutble work on the Stite of th« 



gree of comfort aii^! ot^Aimm m^Aom ta be act wiA* Be 
gUttdet to a nioft libml wrmtgemaUt of m few ai^afftaMV^ 
tter tiedtrr th&n tbe reitt appointed fiir the re cep tieii of i 

pemm* ms hsre been imfivrtiiiiAlely (irtcipiceieil firom an esey ^ 
.Hftlfon in h(e, to ibe bimiiUatiiig conditio of sdbsieting oq « 
Ipwochial allowance : and be adds that tbeir iilaalion receiTes 

erery aitenibn tbat homaoity coold dictate. This was polK 
I Ibhed »omc few yeart ago j but, on recent enqaiiy, we find the 

tame reputable ccndoct to be adhered io, and eYen improved 


In 1794, when Sir F. Eden wrote, the industry or the poo- \ 
I per« also was well attended to ; some of ibe children were 

ployed at the cotton mill ; others permiued to engage in soch 

work as »ttited them tn different parts of the town ; and tbe 

l^own people allowed two-pence in the shitltngoQt of their ' 
imingB. At that period the annual expense was opwards of 

The badge, as appointed by tbe act of William the third, ts 
worn by ihe paupers ; but on its tiaring been laid aside some 
years ago, the paupe