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The EDITH and LORNE PIERCE 
COLLECTION ^/ CANADIANA 




^teen's University at Kingston 




coursl 
verify 



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An^ A -CTc 



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PREFACE. 



' o » ■ 



EMBODIED in the following pages are plain facts from farmers in the Canadian 
North-West, on many points of interest to intending settlers. It should be 
stated that circular letters asking for information were sent ont in the month of 
September, 1884, to all farmers in the country whose addresses could be procured 
The replies received were so numerous as to make it quite impossible to embody them all 
in one pamphlet. Those given in the following pages relate chiefly to the main 
questions present, in the first instance, to the mind of an intending settler. 

The full address of each settler is given in the first instance only. It is, of 
course, competent for any reader, by writing to the address given in each case,- to 
verify the accuracy of the answers now published. 



Eegttlations for the 



Sate of lanl 



■r^. 



The lands within the Railway belt, extending 24 miles from each side of the main line, will be disposed 
of at prices ranging from 

$2.50 (10s. sterling) PER ACRE 

upwards, with conditions requiring cultivation. Prices of lands without conditions of cultivation 
can be obtained from the Land Commissioner. When cultivation or settlement forms part of the con- 
sideratibn, a rebate for cultivation will be rJlowed, as hereinafter described. 

TAese Regulatious are substituted for and cancel those hitherto in force. 




If paid for in full at time of purchase, a Deed of Conveyance of the land will be given ; but the pur- 
chaser may pay one-sixth in cash, and the balance in fiv6 annual instalments with interest at six per cent, 
per annum, payable in advance. Payments may be made in Land Grant Bonds, which will be accepted 
at ten per cent, premium on their par value and accrued interest. These bonds can be obtained on appli- 
cation at the Bank of Montreal, Montreal, or at any of its agencies in Canada or the United States. 

A rebate of from $1.25 to $3>50 (5s. to 14s. sterling) per acre, according to the price paid for the 
land, will be allowed on the acreage actually cropped, on the following conditions : 

1. The purchaser will not be entitled to rebate unless at time of purchase he enters into an-under- 
takjng to cultivate the land. 

2. One-half of the land contracted for to be brought under cultivation within four years from date of 
contract. In cases where purchasers do not reside continuously on the land, at least one-eighth of the 
whole quantity purchased shall be cultivated during each of the four years. 

3. Where a purchaser fails to carry out fully the conditions as to cultivation within the time named, 
he will be required to pay the full purchase price on all the land contracted for. But if from causes beyond 
his control, proved to the satisfaction of the Company, a settler so fails, he may be allowed the rebate on 
the land actually cultivated during the four years, on payment of the balance due, irxluding the full 
purchase price of the remainder of the land contracted for. 

O-BOSrEIS-AuILi C02>Tr)ITI0±TS. 

All sales are subject to the following general conditions : 

1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained thereon until Bnal payment has 
been 1 made. 

2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvements to be paid by the 
purchaser. 

3. The Company reserves from sale, under these regulations, all mineral and coal lands ; and lands 
containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and marble quarries, lands with water-power thereon, and_ 
tracts for town sites and railway purposes. 

4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water-power, will be disposed 
of on very moderate terms to persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to utilize 
the same. 

5. The Company reserves the right to take without remuneration (except for the value of buildings 
and improvements on the required portion of land) a strip or strips of land 200 feet wide, to be used for 
right of way, or other railway purposes, wherever the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or any branch 
thereof, is or shall be located. ^ 

Liberal rates for settlers and their effects will be granted by the Company over its Railway. 
For further particulars, apply to the Company's Land Commissioner, John H. McTavish, Winning, 
Montreal, December, 1884. 



H( 



Proctor, 
young. J 



Cameroi 
Dicksoi 

Wagner, 
P.P.) 
Mercer, 

little, Ja 



Field, Ed 

I^itch, A 

Walker,; 

! Vandervo 

[Smart, G 
|Kenny, D 

forton, 
iaw8on,JI 



1. 



losed 



■ QUERIES AND ANS¥/ERS 

RELATING TO THE SUITABILITY OF THE 

CANADIAN NORTH -W^EST 



ration 
! con- 



FOR 



FARMING PURPOSES. 



lepur- 
r cent, 
cccpted 
1 appU- 



for the 
mnder- 

i date of 
;h of the 

^ named, 
beyond 

rebate on 
the full 



menthas 
id by the 

md lands 
reon, and, 

disposed 
to utilize 

buildings 
used for 
ny branch 

• 

JVinni^g> 



When did you first settle in the North-West? 

How much capital did you commence with? 

What do you consider the present value of your farm ? 

These questions eUcited the following answers from actual settlers : — 



Name. 



Proctor, Henry . . . 
Young, John M.L. 
Curhie, William. . . 



Cameron, G. A.. . 
Dickson, J. W . . . 

Wagner, W. (M. 

P.P.) 

Mercer, James.... 



Bole, J 

Little, James. 



Field, Edward.... 

Leitch, Angus.... 

i Walker, J. C 

I Vandervoort, G. . . 

Smart, George. .. 
[Kenny, David W. 

[orton, Thos. L.. 
lawson, James . . . 



Postal Address. 



Woodlands, Manitoba. 
Moosomin, P.O. Asa.. 
Chater, Man 



Indian Head, N.W.T.. 
Amaud, P.O., Man... 



Ossowa, Man . 



Black Ox Farm, G. vi> 

fell, N.W.T 

Regina, N.W.T 

Manitoba 



When 
Settled 



Shell River, Man... 

Griswold, Man 

GlendaleP.O., Man. 
Alexandria, Man. . . . 



Holland, P.O 

WolfCreek, Sec.3i,T. 

15, R. 10, Asa 

Gladstone, Man 

Mountain City, Sec. 16, 

T. 2, R. 6, W. Man. 



1873 
1881 

1880 



1882 
1882 

1871 

1872 

1883 
1879 



1867 
1881 
1877 
1876 

1879 
1883 

1873 
1877 



Capital at Commencement. 



Nothing 

I was in debt $10 

Had no money to begin with, but made 
about $2,000 the first two years with 
warehouse on river 

Carpenter's tradewas all the capital I had 

None, but what it cost to build, and all 
of that I made by working out ..... 

None 



Value of Farm, 
Sept. '84.. 



la- 



None ; I had to be an agricultural 
borer at first 

Not any 

I had a team of horses, waggon, plough 
and harrow 



None 

None 

None whatever 

No capital at all. Upon entering on my 

homestead I had not one dollar left . . 

Nothing 

What paid the passage for my family 

and freight 

Nil 

Not any 



$ 

$12,000 

$1,600 

About $10,000 to 

$12,000. 

$2,000 to $2,500 
$2,500 

Iwas offered$2oper 
acre, and reAised. 

$900 

$2,000 

I have 320 acres, 

which is worth 

$7,000 ; town 

property $1,000. 

$2,000 

$3,000 

$2,000 

$3,000 

$2,000 
$1,000 

$3,500 
Say about $5,000. 



l^O'^cfiv 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Chambers, S 



Agnew, James. . . . 
Bruce, George. . . . 
Perley, W. D . . . . 

McGill, George. . . 



Harward, Fred.. , 
Rorison, W. D . . , 
Davis, John B . . . . 
Troyer, Christian. 



Pollock, John .... 

Little, J.. 

Wilson, James. . . . 
McGregdr, D.... 
Riddle, Robert. .. 

Hall, P 

Bolton, Ferris .... 
Carter, Thomas... 

Warren, R. J 



McCorquodale, C. 
Taylor, William.. 

McDon^ld,Duncan 
Burgess, J. W . . . . 
Garratt,R. S.(J.P) 
Lawrie, J. M 



Kines, William. . . 



Postal Adress. 



Wattsview, P.O., Man. 



Brandon, Man 

Gladstone P.O., Man.. 
Wolseley, N.W.T 

Carrolton P.O., Man.. 



Littleton, Man 

Oberon P.O., Man .... 
McLean, Assa. N.W.T, 
Sec. 22, T. 3, R. 2,W. 

2, Alameda, N.W.T. 

In Southern Man 

1879 

Wolf Creek, Assa., 

J!N« VY % X •••••••••• 

Neepawa, Man 

Stodderville, Man 

Griswold, Man 

Salisbury P.O., Man.. 
South Antles, N.W.T. 
Calf Mountain, Man. . . 
Woodlands, Man 

Oliver, Man 

Morden, Man 

Manitoba 

Bale St. Paul, Man: . . 

Fleming, N.W.T . 

Kenlis, N.W.T 

Birtle, Man .......... 



Big Plains,Osprey,Man 



When 
Settled 



1879 

1882 

1879 
1883 

1882 



1881 
1877 
1882 
1882 



Apri', 
1884 

1869 

1877 
1882 
1871 
1882 
1877 
1879 



1878 



1882 
1874 

1872 
1882 
1878 
1881 



1882' 



Capital at Commencement. 



No cash capital. Had one year's provi 
sions, one yoke of oxen, cow and some 
implements 

I was a poor man, and had bnt little 
capital 

Not 5 cents 



Not much, 



Very little after landing in this country, 



I had $2.50 when I landed at Emerson 



$15 

I borrowed $40 to come here with. 



$100. 



$100 cash, I yoke of oxen, two cows 
and a good stock of clothing 

$150 

$240 

$300 

$300 

$380 

$400, with $1420 to follow in II 
months. The collector absconded, 
and the $1420 never came to hand. . 

About $400. 



About $400. 
About $400. 



$400 

$400 

$400 

$475, with a wife and three children. 



$500, 



Value of Farm, 
Sept. '84. 



$8,000 



$1,000 

I cannot say. I have 
only 80 acres. 

Situate within two 
miles of Wolseley 
it ought to be 

worth$3.25ah acre 

As farm property 
does not change 
hands, can make 
no estimate. 
$2,500 
$11,000 
$5,000 

My wife says 
$10,000 



About $1,500; if I 
were selling it 
would be $2,000 
. $8,000 

< $6,000 
$2,500 
$5,000 
$2,500 
$4,000 
Have refused$4000 
will not take less 
than $5,000 
About $1,000. I 
have $1,000 in 
implements, and 
$2,000 stock. 
• $3,500 
1,088 acres, valued 
at $25 per acre. 
At least $5 an acre 
$2,000 
$10 per acre. 
Sold my homestead 
and pre-emption 
lost spring for 

$4,150 
$2,000 



Cov 

Hal 

^Chei 



Tate, 

Conn 
McCi 

Kem) 

Conn( 

BeesU 

"McKii 



-Sheppa 

Farttjer 

Ogletre 

Boneste 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 




Name 



■; 



)0 

jr.l have 

acres. 

;hin two 

iVolseley 

; to be 

jjaiiwre 

property 

)t change 

can make 

mate. 

500 

,000 

,000 

ife »ay» 

CX5 



1,500; if I 

selling It 
lbe$a,ooo 
8,000 

6,000 

2,500 
5.000 

,500 
4,000 

;fu5ed|4000 
aot take less 

$5,000 

31,000. A 

$1,000 m 
ements, and 
00 stock. 

^3»50o 
icres, valued 
55 per acre. 
St $5 an acre 
^2,000 
) per acre, 
ly homestead, 
pre-emption 
spring for 

150 
$2,000 



Cowlord,C. (J.P.) 

iHall, W, B 

•Chester, A 



Postal Address! 



Tate, James....... 

•Connorson, James. 
'McCor mac k,David 



Kempt, John 

Connell, T. K. . . . 
Beesley, John G.. 
"McKitrick, Wm.. 



Rogers,' Thomas.. 

'.Sheppard, Jos.... 

Farmer, W. A.... 
'Ogletree, Francis, 

Bonesteel, C. H . . 



Ossowa, Man 

Headingley, Man 

Marringhurst, Man. . . . 



Sec. 30, Tp. a, R. 2 W. 

Alameda P.O., Assa. 
Minnewashta, Man .... 
T. II, Sec. 22, R. 30. 

FJeming, P.O., Man. 

Austin, Man 

Osprey, P.O., Man. . . . 
Moose Jaw, Assiniboia. 
Rose Bank Farm, Crys- 

tal City P.O., Man.. 



Railway View Farm, 
Moose Jaw, Assa. . . 

Indian Head, N.WT.. 

Headingley, Man 

Portage la Prairie, Man. 

Plieasant Plain, Kenlis 
P.O., Assa. N.W.T 



' Anderson, George. 
'McCaughey, J. S.. 

Heaslip, J. J 

Day, Samuel 



Stevenson, G. B. . 
Doyle, W. A.(J.P) 

Wat, James 

Haney, A. W.... 

.Hind, Brothers . . . 

Reid, Alex 



When 
Settled 



Reid, E. J 

[Drew, Wm.D.... 
iLambert, W. M.. 
leaney, Jonathan. 

:night,W.G.a.P) 



Grenfell, Assa. N.W.T. 

Alameda P.O., N.W.T. 

Alameda P.O., N.W.T. 

Sec. 34, T. 13, R. 30, 
Fleming, N.W.T... 

Brandon, Man ........ 

Beulah, Man 

Brierwobd, P.O., Man. 

Wolseley, N.W.T. .... 

Pense, Assa., N.W.T.. 

Of Messrs. Callender 
and Reid, farmers 
and general store- 
keepers, Millford, 
Man 

Plum Creek, Man 

Brandon, Man 

Regina, N.W.T 

Meadow Lea, P.O., 
Man 

Oak Lake, Man ...... 



1869 
1858 
1882 



1882 

1878 
1882 

1882 
1878 
1883 
1880 



1883 

1883 
1869 
1869 
1883 



Capital at Commencement. 



$500 

About $500. 
ISoo , 



1882 
1882 
1882 
1882 

1879 
1879 
1883 
1883 
1883 
1880 



1883 
1882 
1882 
1880 

1879 



I500 

•500 

I600 

I700 ..^ 

$700 r. 

$800 , 

I brought $800 in cash with me, but a 
young man will make a fair start in 
life with $400, that is, if he can get 
a wife easily 

$1000; increased it by another $1,000 



|i,ooo 

|i,ooo 

About 1 1,000. 
Under |(,ooo. 



Value of Farm 
Sept. '84. 



Under 9i|Ooo. 

|i,ooo 

ii.ooo 

$1,000 



About $1,200 

$1,250 

$1,500 

$1,500 to use in starting 

About $2,000 

My partner and myself had $2,000 
between us. 



$4,000 
About $ic,ooo 
^2,ooo;bat 1 would 
not sell it for twice 
that amount. 

$2,000 

10,000 

$7 per acre 

(320 acres). 

$3,000 

$9,000 

$2,000 

I consider my farm 

worth$4oootome. 



$3,800 

$33.60 
$16,000 
$14,000 
$7 per acre. I 
would not like 
to sell it for that, 
but I suppose I 
could not get 
more than that 
just now. 
$4.ooo to $5,000 
$10 per acre. 
$3,000 
$6,000 

About $10,000 
$10,000 
$5,500 
About $4,000 
About $3,500 
6,000, what it is 
assessed for. 



$2,000 

About $2,000. 

$2,000 

$2,000 



$2,000. 



$4006 
About $5,000 
600/. to $4,000 
I would not care 

to take $4iO00 
Assessed at $4,000 

and stock $3,000 

•=$7,000 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Postal Address. 



Chambers, W . . • . 



Lawrence, Joseph, 



Miller, Solomon . . 
Hayter, W. H.... 

Robertson, P 

Gilbert, Josiah . . , 



McEwen, Donald. 

Malhiot, Zephirin. 
McKnight,R.(J.P) 
Grigg, Samuel . . . 

Harris, James.... 
Armstrong, George 
Elliott, Joshua... 

Bobier, Thomas.. 

Mclntyre, John. . . 

Harrison, D. H... 



'Wright,Thomas<Sr» 
Sons 



Sec. i8, T. 71, R. 26 
W.,5irke, Man.... 



Clearwater, P.O., Man. 

Alameda P.O., Assa.. 
Alameda.Assa. N.W.T. 

Rapid City, Man 

Durham Park Farm, 
Regina«'.0.,N.W.T. 

Brandon, P.O.,Man. •< 

Wolseley, N.W.T... . 
Carman P.O., Man. . . 
Sec. 7, T. II, R. 18 r 
W. Brandon, Man. \ 
Moosomin, N.W.T. . . . 
Dalton, Brandon Co.. 
Sourisburg, Man 



Moosomin, Assiniboia, 

Milton Farm, near 
Regina, N.W.T.... 
Newdale P.O., Man. . . 



Thistle and Wright 
Farms, Qu'Appelle, 
Assa, N.W.T 



When 
Settled 



1882 



1879 

1882 
1882 
1882 
1883 

May, 
1884 
1883 

1879 
April, 
1884 
1882 
1880 
1880 

1882 

1883 

1881 



1882 



•3.000 

$3,000 I have a large family . 

1,4000 

About $4,000 



Capital at Commencement. 



12,500 

About $3,000. 



l4,ooo. 

15,000. 

$5,000. 
$5,000 . 



1^5,000. . ••••• 

$5.2'oo 

About $6,000. 



My two sons and self fetched $7,000 in 

cash, stock and implements 

$10,000 



$30,000. 



$30,000 invested up to 1st September, 
1884 



Value of Farm''' 
Sept. '84. 

$5,000; more when 
we get M. N. 
Western Railway 
All my lands are 
worth$l2,oooor 
$15,000 
$6,000 
Do not want to sell. 
$6,000 to $7,000 
It should be worth 

$5,000 
I would not sell 
under$i5 per acre 
$32,000 

$10,000 
$8,000 for the one 

I live onv 
$12,000 for the sec. 

$15,000 
from $12,000 tO" 

$15,000 
1,200, that is my' 
half section. 
$50,000 

Have several;.. 
worthfrom$ioto 
$12 per acre. 
$i2improvedand 
$7 unimproved 
per acre. 



Following are the names and addresses of other settlers whose testimony recurs through- 
out the Pamphlet : — 



Name. 


Address. 


Name. 


Address. 


Anderson, George 

Bailey, Zachary 


J 
Manitoba. 
Lothair P.O., Man. 
WattsviewP.O.,Man. 
Morris, Man. 
Moose Jaw, Sec. 2, T. 

17, R. 27, W.2. 
Calf Mountain, Man. 
Postmaster, Bellview. 
Wellwood, Norfolk, Man. 


Davis. W. H 

Day, Tohn F 


i^ec. 27, Tp. I, R. 12, 
Crystal City P.O., Man.- 
Fleming,R.3o, T.13, S.4. 
Souris P.O.. Plum Creek. 


BartleV, Noah 


jjAmcs. X* • A. ••«■> •«•••• 


Devell. Tohn 


Battell, H. C 


Dick. David 


Moline P.O.. Man. 




Dickin. Georee 


Manitoba. 


Bedford. Tacob ..... .... 


Dickson, Phillip. 

Downie. Tohn 


Chater. Mdn. 


Bell.C. T 


Oak River P.O.. Man. 


Blick, G. R 


Elliott, T. D 


Alexandria P.O., Man. . 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO TH£ CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 




Name. 



to 



re when ■ 
M. N. 
Railway 
nds are 
z,oooor 

oo 

it to sell. 

$7,060- 

je ■worth 

not »eW 
5 per acre 
,000 

>,ooo 
)r the one 

an;' 

for the sec. 

5.000 
12,000 

30 

hat is my 

[ction. 

0,000 

everal;- 
fromfioto 

er acre, 
proved and 
inimproved 
icre. 

; through- 



;ss. 



I, R. «. 
P.O., Man. 

,,T.13.S.4. 
i>lum Creek. 

I Man. 



lo., Man. 
To., Man. 



.BUckwell, James 

Blythe, R 

Boldrick, Robert .' 

Boulding, G 

Bowes, John.. .. 



• • • t • • • 



Address. 



Brown, W. J 

' Caflerata and J efferd . 



'Cameron, Wm. C, 



Campion, Brothers 

Campbell, Robert 

Carroll, A. H 

Champion, W. M 

Connell, Robert 

'Coay, ITiomas 

Cox, William 

Cox, John T 

Daniel, Joseph 



Hanna, S. (Reeve 
Whitehead) 

Harris, A. B , 

. Hartney, James H 

Hoard, Charles 

Hoptf, George 

Hornor, T. R 

■Howey, Wm 

Hutchinson, A.. 

Hume, Alex 

Ingram, W. A 

Jeffrey, William (Junr.).. 

Johnston, James 

Jones, James 

Kennedy, Thomas 

•King, M 

Kinnear, J. H 

Lang, Robert 

Leepart, R.N 

lK>thian, James 

Mc Askie, James 

McBean, Angus 

McDiarmid, Colin 

McDonald, W. W 

McDougall, Adam G. 
(Reeve of Wallace). . . . 

McGee, Thomas 

rMcGhee, James 

TMcIntosh, Archbid 



Virden, Min. 

Bljrthewood, Wapeila. 

Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T. 

Regina, N.W.T. 

Sec. 25. T. 9, R. 26, Vir- 
den P.O., Man. 

Pomeroy, Man. 

Sec. 24, T. 18, R. 24, 
Fense P.O., N.W.T. 

I'Mgeley Farm, Qu'Ap- 
pelle., 

Manitoba. 

Bridge Creek, P.O. Man. 

Carrolton, P.O., Man. 

Reaburn P.O., Man. 

Osprey P.O., Man, 

Manitoba. 

Millford, Man. 

Box 44, Rapid City, Man. 

Postmaster and Farmer, 
Moosomin, N.W.T. 
of Griswold, Man. 



Beulah P.O., Man. 
Souris, Man. 
Lake Francis, Man. 
Carberrr, Man. 
Pendennia, Man. 
Warleigh P.O., Man. 
Craven P.O.,jiear Regina 
Chater P.O., Man. 
Millford, Man. 
Rapid City, Man. 
Brandon, Man 
Portage la Prairie, Man. 
Stoddartville, Man. 
Belle Plain, N.W.T. 
Plum Creek, Man. 
Oak Lake, Man. 
Balgonie, Assa, N.W.T. 
Pipe Stone P.O., Man. 
Beaver Creek, P.O., Man. 
Brookdale P.O., Man. 
Gladstone P.O., Man. 
Fleming, N.W.T. 
Virden P.O., Man. 

Bumside, Man. 
Blake, Man. 
Broadview, Assa., N.W.T 




Elliott, Robt. W 

Elson, John 

Fannery, W.J 

Fargay, John H 

Fintay, James 

Fisher, Henry 

Fraser, John S , 

Fraser, John < 



Fraser, D. D. 

Garratt and Ferguson.. , 
Gibson, William 



Gilmour, H. C . . 
Gordon, Leslie . . 
Graham, Mark... 

Giang, J 

Grimmelt, D. W . 



Address. 



'••••••••••I 



Haddow, James. 
Hall, David .... 
Obee, F 
Oliver, Thomas. 

Orr, James D 

Osborne, Daniel ... . 

Parr, James E 

Parsiow and Healey. 



Patterson, Abr. 

Paul, James M. 
Paynter, W. D, 
Paynter, J. E. 

Phillips, S 

Pierce, Stephen 



.«.« •••••• 



Plunckit, Robert . 
Pollard, Alfred.. 
Pollard, E. Sep. 

Pollard, H , 

Powers, Chas. F . 

Prat, John 

Reid, William . . . 



Rutherford, Johnston 

(P.M. and J.P.) 

Screech, John 

Shipley, Martin 

Shirk, J. M." 



McLean, N.W.T. 

S. 34,T. 1. R.I I, W.Man. 

McLean, N.W.T. 

Manitou, Man. 

Shoal Lake, Man. 

Regina, N.W.T. 

Beulah P.O., Man. 

Sec. 13, Tp. 12, R, 19, 

Brandon, Man. 
Oak River, Man. 
Kenlis P.O., N.W.T. 
Loganstone Farm, Wol- 

seley, N.W.T. 
Moose jaw, N.W.T. 
Qu'Appelle, N.W.T. 
Portage la Prairie, Man. 
Cartwright, Man. 
Sec. 26, Tp. 8, R. 28, W, 

Elm Valley P.O., Man, 
Manitoba. 
Austin P.O., Man. 
Glenboro' P.O., Man. 
Bumside, Man. 
Cartwright, P.O., Man. 
Fleming, Man. 
Crystal City, Man. 
Sec. 20, T. 19, R. 20.W., 

Regina, N.W.T. 
Alexandria P.O., T. 2, R. 
, 6, W., Man. 
Sec. 15, T. 15, R. 12, W. 
Beulah P.O., Man. 
Beulah, Man. 
Rapid City, Man. 
Tp. 12, Sec. 28, R. 30. 

Fleming Station, Man. 
Manitoba. 
Sidney. Man. 
Manitoba. 
Sidney, Man. 
Brandon, Man. 
Rounthwaite, Man. 
Tp. 13, R. 20, Sec. 16, 

Rapid City, Man. 
Silver Creek, Man. 

Routhwaite, Man. 
Wavy Bank, Man. 
T. 8, R. 18, W. of ist 
Mer., Rounthwaite P.O. 



8 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 


Address. 


Name. 


Address. 


McICellar Duncan ... . . 


Rapid City, Man. 

Arrow River P.O., Man. 

Bumside, Man. 

Chairman Municipal Ccl. 
S. Qu'Appelle, N.W.T 

Gladstone, Man. 

Asessippi P.O., Man. 

Sec. 1 8, T. 3, R. 2, Ala- 
meda P.O., N.W.T. 

Minnedosa, Man. 

Minnedosa, Man. 

Minnedosa, Man. 

Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T. 

Hanlan, P.O., Man. Sec. 
i8, T. 13, R. I, W. 

Postmaster, Brookdale, 
Man. 

Littleton, Man. 

Sec. 4, T. 17, R. I, 2W. 

Tp. 7, R. 16, Sec. 20, 
Millford P.O., Man. 

Carberry P.O., Man. 

Birtle, Man. 

Ossowa, Man. 

Lucas, Man. 

Moosomin, N.W.T. 

Emerson, Man. 

■ 


Sifton. A. T^...... ...... 


Brandon. Man. 


McICenzie. Donald ...... 


Sirett. Wm. F 


GlendaleP.O., Man. ' 


McKenzie. Kenneth . . • • • 


Slater. Chas. B 


E.^S. 34, Tp. I4,R. 23, 

W. I, Wapella, Assa. 
Beaver Creek, Man. 


McLane, A. M • • 


Smith. Wm 


McLean, John A 

McLennan, Thomas 

McMurtry, Thomas 


Smith. W. P 


Souris, Manitoba. 


Stevenson, F. W 

Stirton, James , 

Stowards, R. C 


Griswold, Man. 
Calf Mountain Man. 
Maryville, Arrow River, 

P.O., Man. 
Griswold, Man. 


McRae, Roderick 

McTellan, Tohn 




Malcolm, Andrew 


Tavlor, Tohn 


S. 32,T.7,R. 25, Belleview 
Beulah, P.O., Man. 
P.M., Beaver Creek, Man. 
Griswold, Man. 


Middleton, Alex 

Miller, Roberts 


Taylor, William 

Thompson, Stephen 

Todd, P. R 


Mitchell. Tohn. 


TuUoch, Andrew 

Uoiohn, Frank 


Broadview. N.W.T. 




Lake Francis, Man. 


Mitchell, T 


TJrton. W S 


Moosejaw, N.W.T. 

Neepaw?i, Man. 

Sec. 34,T. 17, R. I4,2W„ 

Qu'Appelle Station. 
Balgonie, Assa., N W.T. 
Douglas, P.O., Man. 
Birtle. Man. 


Moore, George 


Warnock. Wm 


Mooney, John 

Muirhead, Thos. • . • • .... 


Webster, A ; 

Whitney, Charles 

Willmott, H. E... 

Wood, James H 

Wright, Charles 

Yardley, Henry 


Nelson. Robert 


Newman, Chas 


Nickell. William 


Beaconsfield. Man 


Niff,J. R 


P Oak Point: Man. 


Nugent, Arnold J 





Information for the Guidance of Intending Settlers. 



I 

A 

C 
C 



'being 

the A 

t 

lands 

pamph 

T 

the h*n 

-stead 

•availab 

Se 

Depart! 

station. 

situatio; 



On arriving at Winnipeg or any other of the principal stations along the line o 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, the first step should be to visit the Land Office 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, where the field notes and maps descriptive of 
the lands may be inspected, and the most minute details obtained as to the soil 
and general character of each locality. This will enable the intending settler to* 
choose a locality in which to seek his farm. The land grant of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway along the main line has been divided into agencies as far west 
as the third meridian, within the limits of which lands belonging to the Company can be: 
purchased from the Agents of the Company at the stations hereinafter indicated. 

BRANDON. — Lands in main belt, ranges 11 to 23 (inclusive) west of First Meridian. 
VIRDEN. — Lands in main line belt, ranges 24 to 28 (inclusive), excepting townships 14, 
15, 16, west of First Meridian. 



Th€ 

to every 

to pre-ei 

-acres, m, 

•end of t 

required 

•three y 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



\ 
Lssa. 



River, 

leview 
:, Man. 

r. 



:4,2W., 

:ion. 

NW.T. 

[an. 



[an. 



. MOOSOMIN. — Lands in main line belt, ranges 28 (part of) to 33 (inclusive) ^^st of First • 

Meridian. 
BROADVIEW. — Lands in main line belt, ranges i to 7 (inclusive) west of Second 

Meridian. 
WOLSELEY. — Lands in main line belt, ranges 8 to 13 (inclusive) west of Second Meridian. 
REGINA. — Lands in main line belt, ranges 14 to 23 (inclusive) west of Second Meridian. 
'MOOSEJAW. — Lands in main line belt, range 24 west of Second Meridian to range 10 * 

west of Third Meridian. 
SWIFT CURRENT.— Lands in main line beh, ranges ii to 20 west of Third Meridian to 

Fourth Meridian. 
MAPLE, CREEK. — Lands in main line belt, range 20 west of Third Meridian to Fourth 

Meridian. 
MEDICINE HAT.^Lands in main line belt, from Fourth Meridian to range 10 west of 

Fourth Meridian. 
CROWFOOT. — Lands in main line belt, range 1 1 to 20 west of Fourth Meridian. 
CALGARY. — Lands in main line belt, range 50 west of Fourth Meridian to summit of 

Rocky Mountains. 
'','■■■*■-• 

The business of the Swift Current and Medicine Hat Agencies is foi' the present 
'being attended to by the agent at Maple Creek, and that of Crowfoot Agency by 
the Agent at Calgary. 

The Agents at the Land Offices have, for free distribution, maps showing the 
lands open for sale, and those already disposed of, plans of the town plots, and 
pamphlets giving descriptive notes of the lands within their agencies.. 

The Government have established Intelligence Offices at various points along 
the line, in charge of officers, who will give the fullest information regarding home- 
stead lands. Attached to these offices are Land Guides, whose services arc always 
available gratuitously for locating those in search of homesteads. 

Settlers arriving in Winnipeg should, before going West, call at the Land 
Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the office of which is located • in the 
station. There they can ascertain what lands are open for homesteads, and the 
• situation of the Government* Intelligence Offices. 



line o 

Office 
Itive of 

le soil 
[tier to- 
Inadian 
Ir west 

lean ber 



; , How to OUain Government Lands. 

The Dominion Government makes a free grant of 160 acres of agricultural land 
to every British subject over the age of 18 years, and also affords settlers the right 
to pre-empt another 160 acres; that is, the settler may take up the additional i6o 
acres, making a payment of from 2 to 2^ dollars (8 to lo shillings) per acre at the 
end of three years of settlement. Settlers taking up Government free homesteads are 
required to reside on their farms for at least six months of the year during the first 
three years. 

In the case of taking free homesteads, pre-empting or purchasing from the 
hOovemment, the business will have to be transacted at the nearest of the following 
s X)ominion Land Offices : — . . ' 



10 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH WB8T. 



I: I 



, * Agency. 


Post Office. 


Agent. 


WinniDec 


Winniiee, 


A. H. Whitcher. 


Dufferin 


kelson 


W. H. HiAM. 


Little Saskatchewan 


Minnedosa 


W. M. HiLLIARD. 


Birtle 


Birtle 


W. Ct. Pentland. 


Souris 


Brandon 

Deloraine 

Coteau 

Repina •«..•• .... ...... .... .... 


E, C. Smith. 


Turtle Mountain •• 


J. A. Hays. 
J. J. McHuGH. 
W. H. Stevenson. 


Coteau .•-• ...... ........ ....a 


Regina • 


Touchwood Hills . • . . • 


Touchwood Hills ..•• 


J. MoTaggart. 
J. McD. Gordon. 
P. V. Gauvoreau. 


Calearv 


Oalfarv ...... ........... ...... 


Ddmonton 


Edmonton 

Prince A Ibert 


Prince Albert. 


Geo. Duck. 









^ ^ Liberality of Canadian Land Eegulations. 

• The land regulations of the Canadian Government, combined with the advantages 
offered by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, are the most liberal of any on the 
North American Continent. The fee for taking up a homestead in the Canadian 
North-West is only $io, whereas it is $26, and in some cases $34 in the United States > 
and the taking of a homestead does not in Canada prevent the pre-emption of other 
government lands, or the purchase oif Canadian Pacific Railway or Government lands. 



The Climate. 

Following are the opinions of actual residents in regard to the climate. The 

questions asked were : — 

About what time does winter regularly set in, and when does it end ? Have you 
suffered any serious hardship or loss from the climate in winter? Is the climate 
healthy? For postal address of each settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



Kamr. 



Dickin, George 

Hind Brothers . , 
Urton, W. S . . , 

Yardley, Henry, 



Answer. 



1st week in November, and 1st week in April. No loss or hardship. I 
travelled 20 miles with ox train in the worst blizzard last winter. Climate 
very healthy. 

Latter end of November, till middle of March. Climate can't be better. 

Begins end of November. It is always very pleasant in the daytime. No less- 
or hardship ; you need endure none if you are careful. It is most certainly 
the healthiest climate I have seen. 

About loth November to about 20th April. Climate very healthy indeed. 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



ZZ 



Name. 



■'Hutchison, A. 

• 

Proctor, Henry 
Knight, W. G. 



Smith, W. P 

Blythe, R , 

'Field, Edward.... 

Lawrence, Joseph, 

■ Screech, John . . . . 

■ Cameron, Wm. -C, 
. Lothian, James. . , 

''Gibson, Wm 

: Bruce, George . . . . 

■ Middleton, Alex . . 

Wamock, Wm . . , 
; Reid, Alex 

Fraser, John 

Perley, W. D.... 

" McGill, George. . . 

■< Grimmett, D. W. 

SPurdy, Thos. F. . , 



Answer. 



a small tent 
thermometer 
undoubtedly 
favorable to 



2nd week in November to last of March or first of April. No hardship 

whatever. Climate very healthy indeed, probably one of the healthiest 

in the world. 
About 15th November to about 1st April. Our family (Father, Mother and 

14 children) have been very healthy. 
5th November to 5th April. Three years ago I was living in 

until the end of November, my house not being built. The 

registered considerably below zero at times. The climate is 

healthy, the exceeding dryness of the air in winter being very 

the healthy and vigorous action of the lungs. 
Begins middle of November. Climate very healthy. 
About 15th November to beginning 'of April. Had several slight frost-bites. 

Climate decidedly healthy. 
About isth November; very often later, and sometimes earlier. No hardship 

or loss. Climate very healthy. 
About 20th November to about March 20th. I never lost a dollar from the 

climate in winter. Climate as healthy as any under the sun. 
Middle of November to 20th April. No hardships or loss ; with care there is no 

danger. Climate very healthy. 
2nd week in November to end of March. No hardship or loss whatever. 

Climate very healthy. 
About 2nd week in November to end of March. I have ploughed for three 

seasons up to the 7th of November. No serious hardship or loss. I believe 

the climate to be very healthy. 
Last year nth November to middle of March. No hardship or loss as yet. 

I can say the climate is very healthy, as two of my childred had had bad 

health in Scotland, and we have all had the best of health since we came here. 
The snow generally goes away about the second week, of April. I like the 

winter well, good steady weather, no slush and mud here. Climate healthy. 
Frost set in 2nd week in November, 1883 ; first heavy snow about middle of 

December ; had fine weather after 22nd February ; winter ended 1st week in 

April. Climate very healthy. 
For farming operations from middle of November till last of March. No hard- 
ship or loss. The climate is cold, but steady and healthy, and stock do well. 
There is very seldom any really cold weather in November. I have always 

been better here than I was in Scotland in winter. , Climate very healthy 

indeed. 
About 15th November, ends in March. Have been very comfortable. Climate 

very healthy ; no better in the world. 
Not much dependence on open weather after 1st November. Some people sowed 

in March this past season. I like the climate much ; it is dry and immensely 

healthy. 
1st November to middle of April. No hardship or loss; persons soon learn to 

avoid them both. Climate undoubtedly healthy ; never hear a person cough- 
ing in church. 
6th November to middle of April. No hardships or loss. Have chopped in 

woods in January with hat and mittens off. The climate is the best I have 

seen as yet. 
Last year frost came on the 7th of November, but no snow till the end. No 

material loss or hardship, no worse tlian from Belleville to Montreal and in 

Western Ontario. Climate very healthy ; those that come here will find that 

out when they come to feed themselves. ^ 



12 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NOBTH-WEST. 



Name. 



i 



I ' 



Rogers, Thos. , 
Downie, John, 



Anderson, George..., 
Young, Jno. M. L.... 



Doyle, W. A. 



Oliver, Thomas 

Sheppard, Joseph 

Stevenson, T. W..... 

Blackwell, James 

McGr^or, D 

Powers, C.'F 

Rutherford, J 

Carter, Thomafi 



Bobier, Thomas, 



McKitrick, Wm...... 

Cameron, G. A 

Bailey, Z... 

Black, G. R 

McLennan, Thos 

Farmer^ W. A 



^/ 



Answer. 



The climate is certainly 
for them the winter is toO' 



Last year, loth November to 15th March. No loss or hardship whatever- 
Climate very healthy indeed ; can go three good square meals every time. 

Ploughing stops 5th to 7th November. Winter doesn't begin, till, say, from 
1st to loth December. No hardship compared with the settlers of Ontario- 
Climate perfectly healthy; clear, dry atmosphere. 

About 15th November to generally the 1st April. No hardship or loss. My 

wife and family suflfered in Ontario, but not here. Climate healthy. 

I can hardly say that winter always begins as early as November, but it generally 

ends between March 15th and April ist. No hardship or loss. I drove su 

yoke of oxen 140 miles in six successive days, starting February ist, about 

the coldest time we had, and did not suffer. I consider th? . climate very ' 

healthy, far ahead. of Ontario. r 

About 20th to 30th November to about last of March. No hardship or loss* 
whatever. I have frequently in travelling slept inthe snow rolled up ixu 
a buffalo robe and have never been frost:bitten. ~ - 
healthy, except for consumptives in late stages ; 
severe. 

About the middle of November. I like the winter, as it is always dry and a 
good deal of fine weather. Climate very healthy. 

Last year loth November, and opened for seeding on the 25th March, if I was- 
ready. This is a good climate to live in. It is healthy because the air i»- 
pure and the nights cold. 

Last year 9th November. No serious hardship or loss, but frost-bites now and 
then. . Climate extremely healthy. 

Latter end of November till generally the end of March. No loss or hardship- 
Climate very healthy. 

loth November till April 1st. A little loss both years. Climate healthy. 

About the middle of November to about i st of March. No hardship or loss at all .. 
All stock winter well. Climate very healthy. My wife came here weighing 130* 
lbs. and sickly, now she weighs 184 lbs. and has good health. 

About 1st November till ist week in April. No hardship or loss. Stock do 
well, if half cared for. Climate the most healthy in the world. 

About 2oth November till about 15th March. No hardship whatever. My 
fowls also do well in winter. I have a few black Spanish fowls, and my 
Brahmas also do well. I know the climate to be very healthy. 

About '1st of November to end of March. The snow being dry a person never 
has wet or damp feet during winter. The climate, is most decidedly healthy^ 
that is one of the reasons I am in this country. 

15th November to ist April. I can say from experience this is a healthy 
climate. 

loth or 2oth of November. No hardship or loss. Climate is healthy ; I nevw 
heard any one deny it. 

Middle of November till April. No hardship or loss. We have all been very . 
healthy ; consider climate very healthy. 

Middle of November and breaks up in the beginning of April.. No hardship- 

or loss whatei)«rj and I have roughed it as much as any of the settlers>v 

Climate very healthy. 
About 15th November to 1st April. A little hardship ; had to sleep out 

15 or 16 nights, but no less whatever. Climate healthy, could not be 

more so. 
5th Npv. to 15th March. No hardship or loss. Climate very healthy. 



» l »«Mtt*t« I 



•d^mm 



PLAIN FAOTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NOBTH-WBST. 



13 



Name. 



Drew, D. W 

Ogletree, F 

Thompson, S 

Bonesteel, C. H 

Anderson, Geo 

McDougall, A.G 

Hume, Alex 

Stevenson, G. B 

"Wagner, Wm 

Nelson, Bobert 

Mcintosh, A 

Bolton, F, 

Morton, Thos. L 

Wilson, James 

Slater, Chas. B 

Connerson, James . . . . 

McKenzie, K 

Kennedy, Thos 

Harris, A. B« ....... . 

Burtley, Noah . . ; 

Chambers, W 

Carroll, A. H 



Answer. 



About the middle of November ; we are apt to have some good weather after 

that. Winter ends about end of March, but some grain was sown in Mavch 

this year. No hardship or loss. Climate healthy, myself and fitmily all hailing 

good health here. 
Three years since I came, we ploughed until the middle of November, but 

oftener the ground is closed the latter part of October. Never toffered 

any hardship ; am well pleased with the winter. I consider the climate 

very healthy. 
1st week in November till about April. No hardship or loss. I have been 

out a good deal with team in winter •, never been frozen yet. 
About the last of November, and ends in April sure. I suffered no loss from 

the climate last winter. I consider it a very fine winter, much more so 

than I ever expected to see hete. Climate very healthy, 
loth to 15th November and ends in March. No hardship or loss, and don't know 

of any one in this section having Buffered anything serious. 
About 15th to 20th November, ends about ist April. No hardship or loss. 

Climate the healthiest in the world. 
It freezes up about the 1st Nov. No hardship or loss. Climate healthy. 
Have ploughed three years till 5th November. No hardship or loss. Climate 

healthy. 
1st to 15th November till 1st April. No hardship, but by the neelect of my 

stableman I have lost two calves through being frozen ; cow calved during; 

night. Very healthy climate. I left Toronto with a fever-ague and rheumatism,, 

and to-day, 65 years old, I am strong and healthy. 
About the Sth November till 1st April. Can*t say I have suffered any hard- 
ship or loss, but have felt it cold, and I lost some poultry. Climate 

healthy upon the whole. Climate, as far as I can judge, is favofable to sue- 

cessftil settlement. 
Have not suffered any serious losses. Climate extremely healthy. 
About 20th November till 20th March. No hardship or loss. Winters are cold 

but dry, and therefore I prefer it to softer climate. Climate particularly 

healthy. 
Averages from 15th November to 15th April. No hardship or loss whatever. 

Climate very healthy. 
Ploughing stopped about loth Nov. No hardship or los5i. Climate healthy. 
In 1883, November 15th, ended 25th March, 1884. No hardship or loss in 

the sHghtest. Extremely healthy. 
About 15th November to 17th March. No hardship or loss. Climate by all 

means healthy. All the family in perfect health; was twenty- eight years in 

Holland, but never so well and happy as nere. 
Ploughing stops about 7th November, but generally fine weather after. Ends- 

about latter end of March. No hardship or loss. Climate healthy. 
About 5th November till the loth to 20th April. No hardship or losff. l^either 

myself nor family have had any sickness since conaing here. 
1st November to 1st April. No hardship or loss. Climate very healthy. 
1st November to loth April. No hardship or loss in any respect. Climate 

considered very healthy by almost everybody. 1 

About 1st November to middle of April. I hav«i found the winters most enjoy-^ 

able. I have been in various countries, and can say that this is the most 

healthy of any I have ever lived in. ' 

About the last of November tili the latter end of March. No hardship or lost ;. 

enjoyed the winters exceedingly. Climate v< ry healthy. 



14 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Garratt &* Ferguson. 
Bole,J 

Garratt, R, S 

McLean, J. A 

Bedford, J 

Elliott, Joshua 

Todd, P. R 

Dickson, Phillip .... 

Hoard, Charles 

Connell, Robert . . . . 
Cox, William 



Answei;. 



About last week in November. We have only lost one ox, and that was 

through neglect in the ist winter in the country. Climate very healthy. 
Between the 15th and last of November, ends about the 20th April. A man 

can do more work and' with greater comfort than he can do in Ontario. 

Climate healthy. 
From 1st to 15th November, ends from March 15th to April 1st. I say 

emphatically I have suffered no hardship or loss. Climate healthy, rety 

much so. 
About i^th November, sometimes later. No hardship or loss whatever. Climate 

certainly healthy ; I Bnd it so, and so do a good many more. 
Commences at different times in- November, breaks up in April. No hard- 
ship or loss. Climate healthy for young and healthy people ; too severe for 

aged and infirm. 
The plough is generally stopped by frost 

suffered considerably from cold, hut do 

Climate very healthy. 
Ground frozen November 7th, not much 

to graze about April ist ; some snow 

loss. Climate healthy. 
About last of the month to 1st of April. No hardship or loss. 

more so than any country I have been in. 
About 1st to loth November till about end of March. No loss or hardship. 

Climate wonderfully healthy. 
Beginning of November, sometimes in October. Not very many hardships or 

losses. Climate healthy, but wants plenty of clothes in winter. 
November 15th to April 15th. No hardship or losses. No healthier climate 

could be desired. 



1st to 15th November. We have 
not know that we have lost much. 

snow in November. Cattle b^an 
till 18th April. No hardship o 



Climate healthy, 



The Farming Seasons. 



The following are the farming seasons : — 

Spring. — April and May. Snow disappears rapidly, and the ground dries up 
quickly. Sowing commences from the middle to the end of April, and finishes in 
the beginning of May. 

Summer. — ^June, July, August and part of September. Weather bright and clear, 
with frequent showers — very warm at times during the day ; night cool and 
refreshing. Harvesting commences in August and ends in September. 

Autumn. — Part of September and October and part of November, perhaps 
the most enjoyable season of the year, the air being balmy and exceedingly pleasant. 
At this period of the year the prairie fires take place, and the atmosphere has rather 
a smoky appearance,, but it is not disagreeable. 

Winter. — Part of November, December, January, February and March, 



PLAIN TACTS AS TO THE OANAPIAN NORTH-WIST. 



>5 



In the early part of November the Indian summer generally commences, and then 
follows the loveliest portion of the season, which usually lasts about a fortnight. The 
weather is warm, the atmosphere hazy and calm, and every object appears to wear a 
tranquil and drowsy aspect. Then comes .winter^ generally ushered in by a soft, fleecy 
fall of snow, succeeded by days of extreme clearness, with a clear blue sky and 
invigorating atmosphere. In December the winter regularly sets in, and, until (he 
end of March, the weather continues steady, with perhaps one thaw in January, and 
occasional snow-storms. The days are clear and bright, and the cold much softened 
by the brilliancy of the sun. 

Summer Frosts. 

In considering answers to the question * ' Are summer frosts prevalent or exceptional ?" 
it should be remembered tha,t last year a most exceptional frost appeared on one night in 
September throughout the whole northern part of the United States, and in some parts 
of British North America. The damage done to crops in the Canadian North- West was 
proved by Government statistics to be much less than that generally experienced on the 
continent of North America ; and the fact that the following replies were given immediately 
after a frost, even though it was most exceptional; adds largely to the value of the 
testimony. 

It should further be remembered, as will be seen from the testimony of many settlers, 
that ill-eflfects from summer frosts may be, in almost every case, avoided by a system of 
early ploughing ; so that each settler has his remedy in his own hands. 

104 farmers answered^ " Exceptional!^ Following are replies of others, whose 
postal addresses may be found on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or .8. 



Name. 



Answer. 



— \ 



Dicken, G jExceptional, doing little or no damage if wheat land is autumn ploughed. Have 

I seen frost by chance in July, in England. 

Urton, W. S ....'Exceptional; most certainly not the rule. . "^ 

Hutcbinf^on, A [Have never experienced any. 

Smith, W, P .'.Il believe exceptional. This year up to date (September 13th) no frost to hurt 

I the greenest grain. 
Blythe, R !We have had two slight frosts, but not to do much harm. 



Field, E. 



Lawrence, J ', . .. 

Screech, Jolin 

Lothian, J 

McGhee, J 

Bruce, G 

Wamock, William. . . . 



I should say exceptional ; but after first week in September we generally get 

frost. 
I. never lost a dollar by summer frost. 
There has been none here to do any harm. 

Very rare. I have only seen it once, and that nothing to speak of. 
No summer frosts here. 

We have never suffered from frost during summer.^ 
Are the exception, the frost' of 1883 being the only one I have seen in six years 

to do any harm. 



i6 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NOBTH-WSST. 



Name. 



Reid, Alex 

Orang, J 

Perley, W. D 

Grimmett, D. W 

Purdy, T.F 

Leepart, R. N 

Ingrain, W. A 

.Anderson, G . .- 

Young, J. M. L 

Doyle, W. A 

Newman, C. F 

Lang,R 

Sheppard, J 

Stevenson, F. W 

Finlay, J 

V/alker, J. C 

Honor, T. R 

Wat.J 

Malcolm, A 

Pollock, Jno 

Reid, £• J •••••• 

Rutherford, J 

Robier,T 

Little, James 

McKitrick, W 

McFellan, J...'. 

Troyer, C : 

Vandervoort, G. 

Wood, J. H 

!liJrown, W'. J 

Chambers, S. W...... 

Patterson, A 

Little, J 

Black, G.R 

Wright 6* Sons 

Whitney, C 



Answer. 



The exception from all I can learn from men who have been ten years in the 

country. Very seldom coming before the 25th September. 
Once in four or five yeats, there is frost about 7th September. 
We do have slight frost, but not to do any general or serious damage. As the 

country becomes cultivated I feel sure they will disappear, as all new countries 

in British America have had that experience. 
Very rare in growing season. 
I think they are exceptional. Cultivation will improve that as the turf gets 

worked off the land. 
No frost this summer. 

Exceptional in our locality — Souris district. 
Last year was the first that I have seen to injure. 
Summer frosts that are injurious are very exceptional. 
I have not lost $10 (2/.) per year by frosts. Late-sown grain is never safe from 

September frosts. 
Not hurt anything, except last year. 

I can answer for Oak Lake only by experience. None whatever. 
They are exceptional ; this is my second year, and th^y have done no harm. I 

have peas, the second crop in blossom 'to-day (September 12th). 
Prevalent, but seldom do harm. Vegetables not injured this year till 7th 

September. 
Summer frosts do no harm here. 

Last year was the only frost that did any damage since I came here in 1877. 
I have grown four crops, and had one damaged by frost. 
Cannot tell yet, but I hear they are exceptional. 
We have occasional summer frosts, but not often to do much damage. Grain 

that was a little late has been damaged twice during my seven years resi- 
dence here. 
They are prevalent here to a certain extent. ■ , • 

They are no worse than in Ontario. 
We have, but seldom to do much harm. 
Last year was considered the worst in ten years, and I raised 1,400 bushels of 

grain and did not have 30 injured by frost as it all was sold for seed. 
There was frost on 1st July, I883, but did not do much damage. 
Light frosts are prevalent in my district, but heavy frosts are exceptional. 
Never suffered but once in nine years. 
I have never had anything frozen. They are the exception, late sowing the 

cause. 
We generally have a light one in this part about the first of June. 
I have not suffered from summer frosts, 
lliey are never looked for. 

No, not to any serious extent ; still they are not exceptional in this part. 
They are more exceptional than where I came from (Ontario). 
I have farmed for 15 years and have never had frozen grain with the exception 

of once... 
Exceptional. 

Have seen no serious summer frosts. ^ 

There was not the slightest frost this season from the first week in May until 

the seventh September. 



PLAIN FAOTS AS TO THE OANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



17 



Name. 



McLennan, T 

Gilbert,; 

Grigg.S 

Fraser, D. D 

Crilmour, H. C. •••••• 

Drew, W. D 



Ogletree, F , 



Harris, Jas 

Smart, G , 

Elson, John.... , 
EUiott, T. D..., 
!McArkie, ]...*. 
Osborne, D . . . . , 
Harrison, D. H, 
Thompson, S . . . 



'Chester, A 

3onesteel, C. H. 



Nugent, A. J 

McCormack, D . . . 
Lambert, W. M.. 

Bowes, J 

■Champion, W. M. 



"Mclntyre, J 

Tate, James 

T^cMurtry, T 

McCaughey, J. S. 
Stevenson, G. B . , 



■ Shipley, M 

Wagner, W. (M.P.P.) 

Heaslip, J. J 

Nelson, K... 

. Stirton, J 

Bolton, F. 

Morton, T. L , 



Campbell, R. 

Sifton, A. L 

McDonell, D 

Hall, P , 

McGee, T 

McEwen, D'. 



Answer. 



iDay, Jno.'F, 



Exceptional, I think. Never did me any harm, and I have had three crops. 

We have had no frosts this summer. ^ 

Hoar frosts are exceptional. 

Not common. Cut my first frozen wheat last season. 

Here we have had none. 

Summer frosts have done no harm here since I came, excepting September, 

1883. 
They are not prevalent in this part of the country. In my e^cperience of 16 

years the frost last year was the first that ever injured wheat, exeept patches 

sown late. 
None to hurt this year, nor last either. ' 

Exceptional, such as last year, but often have slight frosts, not injurious. 
Not prevalent m Southern Manitoba. 

We were hurt with the frost last year ; none any other year. , 

Never saw any before the 7th of September, and that last year only. 
None this year to hurt. 

Exceptional ; not more frequent than in Ontario. 
Last year we had early frost. The cucumbers are not hurt yet (September 

19th). 
They are the exception, not the rule. 
I have not been here long enough to be certain, but I think they are exceptional. 

Last summer we had frost, tUs summer none. 
The exception till this season. 
None. 

We have had no frost to do any damage. 

None in June, July and August this year. ' . 

The exception since I have been here, as the frost of September 7th, 1883, is th« 

only one I have seen. 
No summer frost this year, 1884. 
Summer frosts have done no damage in this part. 
We^ are not troubled with summer frost. 
In some localities prevalent, in others exceptional. 
Have not seen any. Had an early frost last fall. I lost nothing by it, and only 

late grain was hurt. 
I have only seen one in eleven years do any harm worth mentioning. 
Not prevalent ; last year was the first one which did damage to my knowledge. 
Exceptional ; none since 1 came here. 
My experience is that there is some danger from it. 
Have had no summer frosts to hurt even the tenderest vegetables. 
Exceptional. 1 883 is the only year frost did any harm since I came here. 
Exceptional ; only one year smce 1873, ^ think 1875. Barley and oats were 

cut on loth June, but no damage. ^ 

Summer frosts are not prevalent in this part. 
None in this part. 

Very exceptional in this part ; one this summer in the latter end of August. 
None where I am. 

Exceptional. More seasons without than with frost. 
We have; had slight frosts this season from the 5th September, but so fiir no 

damage to growing crops. 
Never seen any. 



i8 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THB CANADIAN NORTH-WAST. 



Name. 



Fargey, J. H 

Connerson, J 

Rorisnn, W. D 

McKenzie, Kenneth . . 

Daniel, J 

Nickell, Wm 

Harris, A. B 

Bartlejr, N 

Chambers, W 

Faynter, W. D 

Hayter,W. H 

Wilmott, H. E 

Wright, C... 

Johnson, J 

Garratt, R. S. (J.P.)- 

Day, S. and A 

McDonald, W. W... 

McLean, J. A 

Beaford, J....^ 

Elliott, J 

Todd, P. R 

Boldrick, R 

Dickson, P 

Cafferata dr* Jefferd. . . 

Connell, R 

Fisher H 

(settled in 1884). 
Miller, S 



Answer. 



They are exccf tional. We have only had one frost in seven summers — vii.,^ 
September 7th, 1883. 

About the loth of June and loth of September we had very slight frost, but little- 
harm done. 

Prevalent from 7th September in this part. 

They are not prevalent, only exceptional ; more exceptional than in Ontario. 

Not prevalent. Seldom seen. 

Prevalent in some districts about here. ' 

When grain is sown in April, or up to the 15th May, there is no danger of frost ;. 
after that time it has to run chances. For five years we have had frost be- 
tween the 25th August and 6th September. 

I should say exceptional. Some light frosts sometimes cut tender plants. 

My 1st year's experience was in '82 ; first severe frost that killed my tomatoes took 
place on the night of September 26th. I think them exceptional. 

Generally free from frost from the middle of June to end of August. 

No worse than Ontario. 

They are prevalent in this district. 

We have always slight frosts in this part in June and early September, but the;- 
seldom do harm. 

Exceptional and not generally injurious. 

Prevalent in certain localities. 'Iliey are exceptional, generally. 

Haven't seen any yet. 

They are exceptional ; never seen any. 

We were visited with summer frost twice, since I came here. 

Exceptional, generally one, the latest the first week in June. 

Not in middle of summer, but it comes too soon for grain sown late. 

Have ripe tomatoes grown in open air. 

Summer frosts that do any serious harm are exceptional. 

Have had frost in June, but never suffered from it. 

No frost here from first week in April till September 7th. 

Very prevalent this summer, but not done any damage. 

I fear to some extent prevalent, but with good cultivation and activity in spring- 
a farmer can escape ill effects. 

We have had no frost to hurt any vegetable in the summer since I came to the 
country (May, 1882). 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THK CANADIAN NOBTH-WKST. 



«9 



Winter and Summer Storms. 



In many parts of America, anxiety is felt by farmers on account of winter and 
•summer storms. Manitoba and the Canadian North- West are happily, for the most 
part, outside of what is sometimes called the " storm belt," and it is but rarely that the 
■country is visited in this way. This may be seen by the following testimony, and it is 
noteworthy how great a number have experienced no loss whatever ; as many as 150 
thinking the damage of so little real importance as to simply answer it by the words 
^' No " or " None." Storms do, it will be seen, occasionally visit some few parts of the 
country, but it is undoubted that they are exceptional. 

The question asked was : — " Have you suffered anv nerious loss from storms during 
either winter or summer?" — In reply 112 farmers simply answered " ZVf>," and 4a 
answer e4 " None' ' Following are the replies of the remainder. Their full names and 
postal addresses are given on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



Name. 



Urton, W. S 

Hutchison, A 

Proctor, H 

■Warnock, Wm 

Fraser, Jno...... .. 

Perley, W. D 

Miller, Solomon . . . . 

Purdy, D. F 

Davis, W. H 

kogers, T 

Kines, Wm 

Doyle, W. A. (J. P.; 

ItfcRae, R 

Walker, J. C 

Honor, T. R 

Graham, M 

Malcolm, A 

Rutherford, J 

Little, James 

McKitrick, W 

Cameron, G. A . . . . 

Warren, R.J 

■Chambers, S. W.. .. 

Howey, Wm 

JMercer, J 



Answer. 



No ; they are rare. , 

No loss whatever. 

Very little. 

No ; not worth mentioning. 

No ; weather very pleasant. 

This country has not suffered from storm. 

Not to the value of 10 cents. 

Nothing uncommon to Ontario. 

Partial loss two seasons with hail. 

None whatever, so far. 

Not much. 

None ; nor has any portion of this community. 

Never. 

I had my house roof blown off in June, 1884, but no other damage. 

I have never suffered from storm. 

Never until this year. 

Three years ago my grain was all cut down with a hailstorm, but 

up again*^ and I had a good crop. 
We never have had any storms or blizzards here yet, and suffered no loss. 
No, not yet. 

Nothing serious from storms. 
A little last year from hail. 

No, we have no bad storms here as we had in Ontario. 
No loss of any kind. 

No, never. Never saw a bad storm here. 
Not in winter. I have lost a great deal of haj through the heavy rains in 

summer. ,iu,'ii_^ 



it grew 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THK CANADIAN NORTH- WIST. 



Name. 



Lawrence, J 

McLennan, T 

Gilmour, 'H. C 

Ogletreee, F 

McAskie, J 

Harrison, D. H 

Thompson, S . • . • < . • 

Chester, A 

Bonesteel, C. H 

Anderson, G • • 

McConnack, D 

McDougall, A. 

Dickson, j. W 

Lambert, W. M 

Hunoe, A 

Tate, James 

McGill, G 

Stevenson, G. B 

Shipley, M 

Wagner, W. (M.P.P.). 

Nelson, R 

Orr,J. D 

Upjohn, F 

Bolton,F 

Morton, T. L 

McDonnell, D 

Heaney, J 

McBean, A 

Connerscn, J 

McDiarmid, C 

Rawson, J 

Bartley, N 

Chambers, W 

Bole.J 

Garratt, R. S 

McDonald, W. W.... 

Mitchell, John 

Jones, James 

McLean, J. A 



Answer. 



I lost part of my crop this year by hail storms, but it is the first I lost since- 

I came here 5 years ago. 
No, never saw a bad one in this part. 
Have never suffered any loss from storms of any kind, either winter or 

summer. 
I never suflfere 1. 

Yes, this harvest from hail storm. 
No, we are not in the storm belt. 
Have had the top blown off stacks, not hurt much. 
I have never suffered any loss from storms. 
I never have, and think that last winter was a very fine one. 
No loss whatever. 

From hail this summer, but crop has come along again well. 
Yes. One hail storm last summer. 

None yet of any kind. . . ■ 

None whatever. 
I have not. 

Have not suffered in any way from storms. 
Lost none by shelling first year ; lost some last year and this year ; none 

from winter. 
A little, three years ago by hail. 
Nothing worth mentioning. 

Never. We had this year an hour's hail, but did no damage to any amount. 
No, nothing to speak of. 

Yes, all my crop in 1883. ' " 

Never until this harvest. 
Not in the least. 

None in winter. In 1876 hail destroyed half crop. 
The storms have never injured the stri,k or house and stable, <Sr^. 
There was a little hail this summer which did a little damage. 
Yes ; lost all crop by hail in 1883, and badly damaged by rain 1884. 
No, had no damage whatever m six years. 
Only from hail. 
Yes, twice in summer from local hail storms and frost on 7th September, i88.3,. 

though quite exceptional. „^ , 

Not any, except by thunder and lightning, which destroyed ontbuildings, stock 

and implements. 
Never have seen a storm other than thunder since I came. 
This partis not subject to storms in summer. . \'- _. 

A hail storm destroyed my crop in 1883. ' ' • ' 

I have never suffered or seen any bad storms. 
Last year I lost all the grain 1 had, about the middle of August. 
Not so far. 
I suffered some, one year by hail storm during growing season. 



PLAIM FACTS AS TO TUB CANADIAN NORTH-WIST, 



ar 



ist since- 



The Soil. 

The high average yield of crops in Manitoba and the Canadian North- West— more 
than double that of the United States — is in itself a practical proof of the rich quality of 
the laiul, and of its adaptability to agricultural purposes. Still, it is interesting to study 
the chemical properties of this extraordinary agricultural tract excelled by none and 
equalled only by the alluvial delta of the Nile. 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam, of Edinburgh University, an undoubted authority, says 
the soil is " very rich in organic matter, and contains the full amount of the saline 
fertilizing matters found in all soils of a good bearing quality." The soil is in general a 
deep black argillaceous mould or loam resting on a deep tenaceous clay subsoil, and is 
so rich that it does not require the addition of manure for years after the first breaking 
of the prairie, and in particular places where the loam is very deep it is practically 
inexhaustible. 

The question asked on this point was : " Please state the nature of soil on your farm, 

and depth of black loam ?" The description of one farm in each district only is 

given to economise space. Where, however, the description of lands in the same 

district differ, the answer of each settler is given. (For postal address of each 

, settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.) 



Name. 



Hind Brothers. . . . 
Caflerata and 

Jefferd 

Urton 

Rogers 

Beesley , 

Phillips , 

Hutchinson . . . . , 

Proctor , 

Mercer , 

Pollard 

Lawrence 

Orr 

Screech 

Hoard 

Upjohn 

Harward 

Cameron 

Lothian 

McGhee 

Gibson 

Bruce 



District, 



Pense . 
Pense. 



Moose Jaw, 
Moose Jaw , 
Moose Jaw, 
Rapid City, 

Craven 

Woodlands , 
Grenfell .... 



Sidney 

Clearwater. . . 
Cartwright. . . 
Rounthwaite. . 
Lake Francis. 



Lake Francis. 
Littleton .... 
Qu'Appelle... 
Pipestone . . . 

Blake 

Wolseley 

Gladstone .... 



AiWwer. 



Rich black loam, average depth 18 in. 
Sandy loam : about 9 in. of black loam. 

Soil various, all good ; loam.6 to 12 in. deep where tested. 

Deep rich clay on clay subsoil. 

Alluvial soil, 4 ft. of loam. 

2 ft. black loam on clay subsoil. 

Sandy loam on gravelly clay suhsoil, loam from 9 in. to 2 ft. . 

Black loam, with clay under, 2 ft. deep. 

Depth of black loam 18 in. Under black loam is gravel and 

sand. 

Sandy loam, with clay subsoil. 
Blaek loam, 18 in. to 2 ft., with clay subsoil. 
Soil is good, with foot of black loam and clay subsoil. 
Soil heavy, black loam 15 in. 
Soil is good but somewhat stony and bushy ; Slack loam 6 in; 

to I ft., with clay subsoil. 
Depth of black loam 8 in. to a foot. 

Soil is varied, clay, sand, gravel and oLa^e from 6 to 24 in. 
Black loam^ clay subsoil ; loam 8 to 12 in. deep. 
Clay loam, from 16 in. to 2}4 ft- black soil. 
Sandy soil, from 18 in. to 2 ft. deep. 
Black loam 2 ft. deep, on a clay subsoil. 
There is a small creek through my place, which also divides 

the soil, the one half is sandy loam and the other black loam. 



:32 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THB CANADIAN ' NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



I' 



McDiarmid 

'McLean 

Bell 

Mitchell 

Wamock 

Raid 

Fraser 

Stevenson 

Carroll 

Agnew 

Stewards 

Kinnear 

Hayter 

McGill 

Purdy 

Lambert 

Xines 

Young 

McGee 

McKenzie 

Sheppard 

Armstrong 

Findlay 

Walker 

Blackwell 

Hall 

Hornor 

/Graham. 

Hope 

Malcolm 

Davis 

Rutherford 

Little 

Fraser 

McKitrick 

Warren ......... 

McKnight.. ...... 

£rown 

Bailey 

r^ack 

'.McCorquodale . . . 



District. 



Gladstone. 
Gladstone. 
Belleview. 



Brookdale. 



Neepawa. 
Millford.. 
Brandon . 
Brandon. . 



Brandon 

Brandon 

Arrow River 
Plum Creek . . 
Alameda . . . . 
Souris 



Regina, 



Regina ..., 
Osprey ... 
Moosomin. 



Burnside. 



Burnside 

Indian Head 

Dalton 

Shoal Lake 

Glendale 

Virden 

Headingley ...... 

Pendennia 

Portage la Prairie 



Answer. 



some scrub, 



clay bottom. 
On level prairie 2 to 3 ft., 



Carberry . . . . 
Minnedosa. ., 
McLean ..... 
Silver Creek, 
Oak River. . , 
Oak River. .. 
Crystal City.. 



Olive 

Carman 

Pomeroy .... 

Lothair 

Well wood... 
Minnewashta. 



Sandy loam, with 2 ft. of black loam. 

Black sandy loam, 4 ft. 

320 acres of clay loam, with black loam 30 in.; 160 acres of sandy 

loam 24 in. deep. 
From 1 2 to 18 in. of black loam, then yellow clay mixed lightly 

with sand. 

Black loam, i^ to 2}4 ft* in depth ; clay subsoil- 
Sandy loam of 4|^ ft., with clay subsoil. 
Black loam, top depth 2 ft.; clay bottom. 
Some of it clear prairie ; depth of soil 15 to 20 in. 

with 3 ft. loam. 
Cousiderable alkali, 2 ft. loam. 
Loam 3 ft. in depth. 
Black loam, 20 in. 

Good rich soil ; 2 to 3 ft. black loam ; 
Rich loam, depth l ft.; clay bottom. 
Rich black loam, average 15 in. deep. 

rich alluvial soil on river slope. 
Black clay loam, all alike as far as you may go down ; now and 

then you strike gravel 25 or 30 ft. down. 
Heavy clay, loam depth, 20 to 30 in. 
Black loam, depth from I to 2 ft. 
Black loam ranges from 8 in. to 22 in. deep, with sand on clay 

subsoil. 
Clay soil ; black loam 6 in. There is also a gravel ridge running 

through the farm. 
Black loam about 2 ft., and generally clay subsoil. 
Clay, about 3 ft. of black loam. 

1 black loam, or vegetaTile soil. Black loam from 18 to 36 in. 
8 in. black loam, then clay below. 

2 ft. of loam ; claysubsoil. 

Top soil black loam, about 20 in. subsoil clay. 

Clay loam, about 12 in. 

8 to 12 in. of black loam, with clay subsoil. 

Heavy black loam, varying from l}4 ft. to 2^ ft. with clay sub- 
soil 6 ft. 

Black loam and clay, 15 in. black loam, clay subsoil. 

Black sandy loam, from about i to 2 ft. deep. 

Clay and part sandy loam, black loam 10 in. 

Black loam, slightly mixed with sand, depth of soil l^ to 3 ft. 

2/4 ft- very black rich loam, very heavy clay under. 

Black loam and clay subsoil, i to 3 ft. 

The black loam is about 18 in. in depth, and 2 ft. of white marly 
clay ; below that, clay and gravel. 

Sandy losm" black, depth about 2ft.' 

Clay loam, from I to 3 feet. 

Sandy loam, from 2 to 3 ft. deep. . . 

Sandy loam, varying from 6 in. to 2 ft. on black loam. 

Clay subsoil, with 12 to 18 in. of black loam. 

Sandy loam, with clay subsoil, black loam about 18 in. 



i*:< 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THB CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



*3 



Name. 



Comierson... 
Whitney . . . 
Boldrick... 
McLennan . 

Smart 

King 

Elliott 

Harrison ... 
Thompson . . 
Chester .... 

Nugent 

Kenny . . . . . 
McCormack 
McDonald . . 
Dickson . . . . 

Barnes 

Speers 

Champion . . 
Hume . ... . 
Shipley . . . . 
"Wagner. ... 

Mcintosh . 

Stirton 

Coay 

Campbell .., 

Hall 

Wilson . . . , 

Kemp 

Heaney , . . . 

Slater 

Rorison . . . , 
Nickell .... 

Harris 

Paynter. . ,. 

Bartley 

Chambers.., 

Lawrie .... 
Wilmott ... 

Wright ..... 

Dick 

Garrntt 

Elliott 

>utherland*. . 

Hanna 

; Speers . . . . . 



District. 



Minnewashta . . . . 

Balgonie 

Balgonie 

Asessippi 

Holland 

Belle Plain 

Alexandria. ; 

Newdale 

Beaver Creek 

Marringhurst . . . . 

Emerson 

Wolf Creek 

Fleming 

Fleming 

Arnaud 

Morris 

(mswold 

Reaburn 

Chater 

Wavy Bank 

Ossowo 

Broadview 

Calf Mountain.. . 

Westbourne 

Bridge Creek 

South Antles 

Stoddartville 

Austin 

Meadow Lea 

Wapella 

Oberon 

Lucas 

Beulah 

Beulah 

Birtle 

Birtle 

Birtle..... 

Douglas 

Beaconsfield 

Moline 

Kenlis. 

Sourisbourg 

St. Andrews 

Griswold 

Griswold 



Answer. 



First-class, can't be beat ; loam 4 ft. 

Subsoil of grey clay, with about 3 in. of black loam. 

Clay loam ; 6 in. black loam. 

Black loam from 18 to 24 in. 

Sandy loam, 4 ft. 

Heavy clay loam, 3 ft. deep. 

The soil is (irst-class, black rich soil i ft., then a rich brown day 

for 6 ft. 
18 in. black loam on a clay subsoil. 
Sandy loam, black loam from 12 to 18 in. 
Clay subsoil, with from 1 1 to 12 ft. black loam. 
Black rich loam, depth 4 to 5 feet. 
Black loam, from 6 in. to 2 ft. 

Black loam, 12 to 15 i 1., with clay subsoil. > 

Clay loam, 18 in, 
All clay, and about I ft. of black. 
Black loam and heavy clay. 
Dark clay loam, depth about 4 ft. 

Heavy black loam 14 in. Clay subsoil, more or less limestone. 
Heavy clay, loam about 12 in. 
Part sand loam, and part clay about I ft. - 
Black loam from 5 to 12 in., with limestone, gravel or (^sCmb^ 

under which is heavy clay. 
Black loam, on top from 10 to 16 in., with clay and loam subsoil. 
Black sandy loam ; clay subsoil from 16 in. to 2 ft. . 
About 3 ft. on clay subsoil. 
Black loam, on clay subsoil, 12 to 15 in. deep. 
Clay bottom, 10 in. black loam. ' 

White clay subsoil, black loam from 2 to 6 ft. 
Black sandy loam from 2 to 3 feet deep. 
Clay loam, about a foot en average. 
I ft. to 2}^ ft of black loam. 
Black Joam, 2 ft. deep. 

Black loam, clay subsoil, 10 to 12 in. of loam. 
Black loam, 12 to 36 in, clay and gravel subsoil. 
Sandy loam, with gravel ridges, 18 in- 
A rich sandy loam, 12 to 18 in. 
The part of my farm under cultivation is grand gravelly loam^ 

warm early soil ; the black soil is from i ft to 18 in. 
Black loam from 8 to 24 in. deep, clay subsoil. 
A Mack clay loam with clay subsoil, the black loam from 8 to 

15 in. deep. 
Sandy clay loam, I to 2 ft. 
Clay loam, 2 ft. 

Clay loam, from I to 3 ft. of black loam. 
Black loam fro>m I to 2 ft., with clay subsoil. 
Black loam from 6 to 10 inches. 
Black loam 2 ft., yellow clay subsoil. 
Dark clay loam, depth about 4 ft. 



^4 



PLAIN PACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Fuel and Water. 

Recent investigations show that in addition to the clumps of wood to be found 
"dotted here and there on the prairie, and the timber with which the rivers and creeks 
are lined, there is in tliese new regions an ample supply of coal. The coal-beds in the 
Bow and Belly River districts, tributary to Medicine Hat on the main line of the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway, are the first to be worked, and settlers now obtain this coal at 
moderate prices. Other mines have been discovered immedi?.tely on the line of the 
railway, between Medicine Hat and the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and some of 
these will be in operation during the present season. Valuable and extensive cdal 
beds also exist in the Souris district in Southern Manitoba and the south-eastern and 
western part of the North- West, and these will shortly be opened up by the projected 
Manitoba South-Western and other railways. 

As regards the water supply, the North- West has not only numerous rivers and creeks, 
but also a very large number of lakes and lakelets in almost every part of the country, 
and it has been ascertained definitely that good water can be obtained almost anywhere 
throughout the territory by means of wells ; in addition to which there are numerous 
clear, running, never-failing springs to be found throughout the land. An ample 
supply of water of different qualities may always be found on the prairie by sinking wells 
which generally range in depth from eight to twenty feet. Rain generally falls freely 
during the spring, while the summer and autumn are generally dry. 

On these two points the farmers were asked : " What sort of fuel do you use, and 
is it difficult to obtain ?" Have you plenty of water on your farm, and how obtained ? 
If from a well, please state depth of same." The full name and postal address of each 
settler may be found on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



Name. 



Dickin, George. ..-,.« 

Hind Brothers 

-Urton, W.S 

Yardley, Henry 

Hutchinson, A 

Proctor, Henry 

Mercer, James 

Knight, W. G 

Jeffery, Wm 

.Fisher, Henry 



Answer. 



Wood getting scarce ; will be able to get coal. Plenty of water, springs rising 

to surface, usual depth 7 ft. to 20 ft. 
Wood within four miles. Plenty of water from wells 15 to 20 ft. deep. 
Wood, close at hand, is ratherscarce, but there is plenty within 15 miles. Coal is 
cheap here. Plen/y of water from two wells 22 ft. each ; one in house, one in 

stable with pumps. 
Poplar, about three miles distant. Plenty of water for general use in summer ; 

well, 4 ft. 6 in. I get water for cattle in winter at a swamp up to the middle 

of February. 
Wood is easily obtainable at present. I have Long Lake on one side of farm ; 

also a spring of good water, and a well 30 ft. deep. 
Plenty of poplar wood in this settlement. Five wells of the best water, depths 

20, 25, 26, 30 and 36 ft. 
Poplar ; no difficulty, lots of it here. Plenty of water, the Qu'Appelle River 

runs through my farm. 
Wood, and there is plenty in this district. Plenty of water from small lake for 

cattle, and a well for house 7 ft. 
Wood. I have never been short of fuel. Plenty of water from a spring, the 

water rising to the surface. 
Wood; chiefly, but it is costly. Water from Wascana Creek. 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



mgs rising 



Smith, W. P 

Blythe, R 

Field, Edward 

Pollard, Alfred 

Orr, James D 

Screech, John 

Robertson, F 

Harward, F ........ 

Hall, D... 

Lothian, James 

Bruce, Geo 

Bell, C.J 

"Warnock, Wm 

Haddow, Jas 

Reid, Alex 

Perley, W. D 

Prat, Jno 

Miller, Solomon 

Grimmett, D. W 

Leepart, R. N , 

McBean, Angus 

Young, Jno. M. L. . . . 
Doyle, W. A 

Newman, C. F 

Sheppard, Jos 

Armstrong, George . . . 



Pierce, S 

Graham, Mark 

Malcolm, A 

McGregor. D 



Answer. 



Plenty of water- not very good. All neighbors have good^ 

Plenty of water from wells and 



Wood, hard to get. 

water at 15ft. 
Poplar ; easily obtainable from the bluffs. 

sloughs ; deepest well at present 16 ft. 
Poplar; no difficulty. Plenty of excellent water from well 22 ft. deep. 
Dry wood (poplar) in abundance. Splendid water by digging 12 ft. 
Dry poplar and oak, which are not difficult to procure. Not too much water ;. 

two wells, one 23 ft. and the other 10 ft. 
Poplar poles, but rather scarce. Surface water for the cattle ; well for house- 

6 ft. 

Wood, getting difficult to obtain. Plenty of good water ; wells 10 to 20 ft. 
Poplar wood. I have plenty on my own place. Plenty of water, a lake 6 ft., 

deep and a stream running in summer. 
Poplar wood ; no difficulty to obtair . Water from running creek. 
Wood, poplar ; about nine miles to haul. Good water for home use in well 

16 ft. deep. 
Poplar and hardwood ; I have a good deal on my place. I use river water in 

winter and well water in summer. 3 ft. deep. The finest water in the province. 
Coal and wood ; both are now difficult to get here. 
Wood, popular and white birch, easily got. Plenty of water ; spring creek and 

well 20 ft. deep. 
Wood ; it is difficult to obtain, and so is water, on my farm. 
Wood, no difficulty in getting it. Plenty of water. Oak creek runs through it. 
Wood, and plenty in this district, at $3.00 per cord at your house. A good 

lake, and could get water by digging a short distance. 
Wood ; quite close to the house.. Plenty of water from a well about 4 ft. deep. 
Coal and wood ; wood three miles to draw, coal about 25. Plenty of water j. 

water from well 25 ft. deep. 
Elm and maple ; enough on my farm to last twenty years. One elm measured 1 1 

ft. 5 in. in circumference. Pipestone Creek runs through corner of my farm j; 

depth of well 3 ft. 
Poplar ; ten miles to get it. Water from well 16 ft. deep. 
Wood very difficult to obtain. Plenty of water, boggy creek ; wells 12 to 14 ft. 

deep. 

Poplar, very handy. I have always had plenty of water from a well 6 ft. deep. 
Wood, dry poplar ; an ample supply here. Water from two spring creeks and 

seveiral good springs. 
Poplar or ash, plenty of it. Plenty of water from a well 15 ft. deep and out 

of my little lake. 
Poplar wood, costs, six miles from my house, $1.50 per cord. Water is rather 

hard to get in some places, but easy in others. 
Wood, to be had for the drawing and a fee of 50 cents for enough for a year's 

use, for house, stable and some fencing. Water for cattle from a deep pond 

and for domestic use from wells. Have one well at 17 ft. never failing, and 

another at 28 ft. 
Wood in bluffs on homestead. Plenty of water. 
Wood, poplar and oak. Not very difficult to obtain. Plenty of water by digging, 

about 12 ft. . 

Wood ; is plentiful here. Plenty of water from a living spring. 
Elm. Plenty of water from Assiniboine River. 



26 



PLAIN PACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Answer. 



Bobier, Thos 

Warren, R.J...... 

Niff, j. R 

Chambers, S. W. . . . 

Bailey, Z 

Black, G, R 

Champion Brothers. 

McKenzie, D 

Fraser, D 

Farmer, W. A 

King, M 

Thompson, S 

Anderson, George . . 



McDougall, A, G. 
Tate, James 

McMurtry, Thos.. 
McCaughey, J. S, 
Heaslip, J. J 

Bolton, F 

Campbell, Robert 

Paynter, J. E 

McEwen, D. ... . 

Connerson, J. . . . 
Kennedy, Thos. . 
Johnston, Jas. . . . , 



McLean, J. A. 



Wood ; have to draw.it six miles, but intend using coal, as I hear we are going 

to have it at $6.50 per ton. Good water from wells 8 ft. deep; all of my 

neighbors get plenty of gootl water by digging from 8 to 20 ft. 
Wood ; have got plenty on my fiirm. Plenty of water from wells and springs ; 

depth of well 14 ft. 
Poplar ; difficult to obtain, but will use coal. Plenty of water from well 18 ft. deep. 
Wood, any amount of it in this district. Plenty of water ; a spring for home 

use, and a spring creek for cattle. 
Wood, rather scarce, but coal, which is superior, is easily got at Railroad Station. 

Plenty of spring and river water, wells 10 ft. 
Poplar ; any quantity three miles off. Plenty of watei; and good well, 38 ft. deep. 
Dry oak and poplar ; not difficult to obtain. Generally plenty of water, one 

well 5 ft. and another 16 ft. 
Poplar fuel. We have plenty yet, handy by. The Arrow River runs through 

my farm. I have a spring at my house. 
Wood getting scarce ; expect to use coal soon. Plenty of water. Ponds and wells 

14 ft. and 30 ft. deep. Any amount in latter, could not be bailed dry. s 

Wood and coal. River water. 
iWood from Qu'Appelle, and coal at $9.00 per ton on Canadian Pacific Railway. 

Water ia very scarce, and draw it five miles. Have no well yet. 
Wood ; from three to five miles off. Plenty of water. Beaver Creek runs 

through the farm. Wells are from 8 to 12 ft. round here. 
Wood, abundance in this district ; the Weed Hills, Woolf Hills and Qu'Appelle 

being very adjacent and well timbered. Price to townspeople 12s. per cord. 

We depend on slough water in summer for stock. Wells range from 6 to 35 

ft. in depth. 

Wood. Coal this year $6.50 per ton. Plenty of water from well 14 feet deep . 
Coal in winter, wood" in summer, both of which are easily obtainable. Get water 

from a never -failing spring. 
We uee coal, it is quite handy. We get water from a well about 12 ft. deep. 
Coal and wood, easy to obtain. Water from well 25 to 40 ft. deep. 
Coal from Souris, 18 miles from here ; not difficult to obtain. Plenty of water 

from a well 15 ft. deep. 
Poplar and oak wood in 'abundance ; haul three miles. Wells 28 ft. deep. 

Ponds for cattle in summer. 
We get our fire wood, fencing and building timber from the Riding Mountain, 

four miles to draw. We get our water from Stoney Creek, a spring creek 

rising in the mountain and running all the year round. 
Wood, difficult to obtain. Plenty of water from a well 7 ft. 
Wood at present, but intend using coal for winter. Expect to get it at Brandon, 

about $7 (28s.) per ton. Plenty of water, well and sloughs. Wells, one 20 

ft. another 35 ft. 
All oak wood ; in abundance. Water in abundance all the year round from 

"Dead Horse Creek." ' 

Wood, not difficult to obtain in my case, but some have to buy. It costs about 

$2.50 per cord. Plenty of water. 1 lave a good spring creek. 
Wood and coal. Have had no difficulty so far to obtain supply. I have a nice 

creek crossing farm, but supply buildings by wells from 10 to 15 ft. First- 
class water. 
Poplar, oak and ash ; very easy to obtain. I have to dig for water, the depth 

is from 8 tc 12 ft. 



, PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



ar 



Grain Crops. 

The following tables, taken from official sources, will show at a glance the average 
yield in bushels per acre of the crops of Manitoba during the last six years : — 



■ 


1876. 


1877. 


1878. 


1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1882. 


1885- 
1884. 


General 
Average. 


Wheat 

Oats 

Barley 

Peas 

Rve 


32 
51 
41 
32 

229 


265< 
59?< 

32 

30 

304 


26K 
59H 
63 
34 

308 


26U 
58 

37% 
32X 
40 
302 


29K 

57H 

41 

38K 

40 

318 


30 

59 
40 

38 

35 
320 


'32 
51 

37 

278 


27 
56 
35 
30 

259 

583 

400 

28 


29 
66 
42 
34 
36 


Potatoes 

Turnips ...... 

Carrots 

Fla- '. 


287 

688 

400 

28 



I'ater 



The following arfe the chief averages of the chief wheat-growing countries of the- 
World, as officiallly given for a series of years : — 



Irom 
/ 

)OUt 

lice 
Irst- 

[pth 



Manitoba, average yield per acre in bushels. .. 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Minnesota (the Empire Wheat State^ of the Union) 

United States , : 

Ontario • 

South Australia 

Wisconsin 

Iowa 

Ohio 

Indiana ^ 

HHnois 



Wheat. 


Barley. 


29 


42 


288 


34-2 


1 1-4 


325 


13 
13-6 

8 


24-67 


11-3 
6-6 


24*5 


»3-3 
108 


i6'4 
26 


8-2 


»5'5 



Oats. 



66 

43*2 
35-6 

39 

28-6 
26*2 

277 

23 

33*4 



Asked as to the probable jield per acre of their wheat, barley, and oats crops, 
farmers replied as follows : — 



28 



PLAIN FACT8 AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



1. 



Name. 



Sheppard, Joseph 

Stevenson, T. W 

Little, James 

"Mortou, Thos. L 

McLean, John A , 

Paul, James M 

Rutherford, Jonathan . . 

Wat, James 

Boulding, G. T 

Stowards, R. C 

Day. John F 

Leitch, Angus 

Daniels, Joseph 

Reid, E. J 

Bobier, Thos 

McKenzie, Kenneth . . . 

Todd, P. R 

McBean, Angus 

Harris James 

Osborre, Daniel , 

Slater, Charles B '. 

AV right, Charles 

Proctor, Henry 

Smith, W. P 

Robertson, P 

Lothian, James 

Bruce, George 

Webster, A 

Downie, John 

Sirett, W. F 



Young, John M. L. . 



McRae, Roderick . . . . 
Armstrong, Geo .... 
Finlay, James 

Deyell, John 

Bailey, Zachary 

Patterson, Abr 

Howey, Wm 

•Grigg, S 

Elliott, T. D 



Yield of Wheat per acre 
in bushels. 



About 40 

40 

Average 40 

40 at least, I had 45 last 

year 

40. 



About 35 . . 

35 

35 

Expect 35 

35 

35 

35 

About 35 

32 

32, very good 

32 

32 

About 3O or 40 . . . . 

From 30 to 35 

Between 35 and 40. 

30 to 35 

Between 30 and 35, 

Average about 30 . . 

A certain 30 

30 

30 

30 



30 • 

30. 
30- 



30- 



Barley. 



Oats. 



40. 



40 

About 30 , 

25 

50 



50. 



40, 
40. 



30 

About 40 or 50. 
40 to 50 



55 

Black barley average 25 

40 last year 

35 



30. 



Over 40, 1 should think, 
not thrashed yet ... . 

30 on this sea4on's 
breaking 

50, the best I ever saw 

40 ,.. 



have none ; but my 
neighbors will yield 
about 45 



30 last year, and my crop 
is better this year .... 

30 

30 

30 

30 



30 

30 

On account of a dry 
spring it will not go 
over 30 



30. 



SO 

40 

35 

40 

50 

About 40 . 



About 50. 

Partly 70 and partly 40. 

Average 70. 

50. 

Some 60 and some 80. 

About 50. 

46. 

.65- 
Expect 70. 

60. 

so. 

50 to 60. 

About 45. 

50- 
About 80. 

50 to 80. 

About 60. 

40 to 50. 

60. 

Average 50, good crop. 

•70 at least. 

60. 

Badly wasted by hail 

Ftorm. 

40 on this season's 

breaking. 

60 to 70. 

40. They did not do well 

this year ; too dry in 

the spring. 

50 to 60. 

About 60. 

60. * 

9( ■ ■ ■ . 



50. 

A dry spring makes a small 
yield, say 35. 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



29 



Name. 



Chester, A 

'"viDeey 1? •..»•• . .•..«• 

Muirhead, Thos 

Mcintosh, Archd 

Hall, P 

Speers, A. R 

Mitchell, Jno 



Miller, Solomon 

Hope, Geo ' . . . . 

McLane, A. M 



Gibson, John.. 
Thompson, S. 
iHaney, A. W. 



Hall, W. B 

McKellar 

Harrison, D. H. 

Taylor, Wm 

Sterenson, G. B 



Yield of wheat per ache 
in bushels. 



Certainly expect 30. 
30 ■ 



Average will be 30. . . . 

30 

30 



40 

35 

Average 30 ... . 
Good maturity. 



30 

Expect average, 

probably 28 or 30 . 

About 28 

28 

About 28 



I expect it will yiled 26, 
as it is a good crop. . . 

30 



26 on land broken last 

year, not backset. . . 
25 to 30 



Heaslip, J. J 

' Coay, Thomas 

Pollard, Alfd 

'McGhee, James 

Austin, A., senr ... . . 
•Purdy, Thos 



Smith, Wm , 
Lang, Rbt.. 



Barley. 



40 

SO or 55. 



40 

30 

35 on Spring backsett- 
ing 



40. 



25 to 30 

25 to 30.. 

25, and likely 30. 



About 30 . 

40 

About 30. 
Fully 50. . 



25 to 30. 

25 to 30 

Averaging 25 . . 

25 

About 25 

Estimated at 25 . 



About 25. 
25 



About 25 



Averaging 60. 
35. 



25 ; land not well tilled 



40. 
35- 



Oats. 



50 to 60 • 

50 
Average 50 

50 
60 
70 

Probably 40 

Between 50 and 60 
50- 

25, on Spring backsetting 
50 

About 45 

7c, on land broken last year, 

and not backset. 

About 40 

40 
50 to 60 
About 40 
Only about 40; last year 
I had 65 
From 50 to 70 
About 50 or 60 on average 
Averaging 50 
40 
About 40 
40, badly tilled ; on ac- 
count of dry weathej, 
last year sod did not rot. 
40 

45 



Roots and Vegetables. 

All root crops yield wdl, turnips standing next to potatoes in area of cultivation. 
They are in no reported instance infested by flies or other insects. Mangold-wurzels 
.and carrots are not cultivated as field crops to any great extent. . 

All garden vegetables produce prolific creeps, and the Province sustains an extraor- 
dinary reputation for their production. During recent years a very large and general 
■increase has taken place in the acreage devoted to the cultivation of garden products. 
In the earlier years of the Province's history new settlers had but little time to devote to 
gardening, but -once having srot their farms into good working order, they are 
devoting more attention to it, with most satisfactory results. 



30 



PLAIN TACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



The following are instances taken from farmers' reports of successes in the growth 
of vegetables, and in conjunction with these reports it must be remembered that Very 
•few, if any; of these farmers used special means to produce these results. The question 
asked was : " What yields of vegetables have you had, and what is your experience in- 
raising them ?" For postal address of each settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



Name. 



Dicken, George. 

Yardley, Henry. 
Proctor, Henry. 

Knight, W.G.. 

Jeffrey, William 
Blythe, R 

Field, Edward.. 



Pollard, Alfred. 



Answer, in bushels per acre. 



Orr, James B.... ,. 
Lothian, James 

McGhee, Jas 

Gibson, Wm 

Bruce, George 

Mitchell, John 

Middleton, Alex.... 



Have had carrots 12 inches round, and grown cucumbers successfully in the open. . 
Beans and potatoes very good, better than I ever raised in England with 20 • 
years' experience. Turnips very good, and mangolds good. 

Potatoes, 300. I have grown in the garden beans, peas, carrots, parsnips, beets, 
cabbage (several kinds), onions. With attention all do well. 

Potatoes, 300, well manured; turnips, 600, well manured. Carrots and peas,, 
beans and flax, have also done well in small lots. I have grown almost all 
kinds of vegetables with the best results. 

Potatoes, about 160. All kinds of garden produce grow luxuriously ; that is, 
all and every kind that can be grown in England, and do not require manure- 
for some years. 

I have grown almost all kinds, and the quality is splendid 

Potatoes, 150, on the breaking; my beans were frozen. The first year it is- 
not well to sow vegetables on the breaking, except for home use ; other- 
wise, aftere the ground has been properly worked, nearly all vegetables thrive- 
well. 

Potatoes, 300 ; turnips, from 500 to 700. Carrots, 'peas and beans, I have only 
grown on a small scale ; the yield is good. Vegetables are a great success in^ 
this country, and come on very rapidly. I have grown potatoes, onions, 
carrots, beets, com, cucumbers, parsnips, radishes, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, . 
cauliflower, melon ; in fact same as we grow in England. 

Potatoes, 300. An abundant crop of turnips, carrots, peas and beans. My 
vegetables have this year generally been a failure. I have grown almost every 
description of vegetables with great success. 

Potatoes, 300 ; turnips, 400. I have only grown vegetables in the garden, but- 
they all do extremely well. 

Potatoes, 300. Have raised cabbages, carrots, onions and beet, all of which did 
well. With a little experience of the climate, I believe gardening can be 
made a success in all sorts of vegetables. 

Potatoes, 100. This country is second to none for vegetables. 

Potatoes, 200. Cabbage, Scotch kail, rhubarb, onions, carrots, turnips, parsiey, 
pe^s, pumpkins and sage, all do well with climate and soil. We have used 
potatoes two months after planting them. 
Potatoes, 400. I have grown almost every kind of cabbage and garden stuff 

you can mention. I h«re lifted cabbage this fall 20 lbs. in weight. 
Potatoes, 180. Turnips, carrots, onions, beets, parsnips, parsley, lettuce, and 

iadishes all grow well. I have not made such headway with cabbage. 
Ihubarb grows splendidly. 
Ifind no difficulty in growing any of the vegetables I was acquainted with in^ 
Scotland. They all require to be sown early in the season. 



PLAIX FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



31 



My 

every 



stuff 



Name. 



Perley, W. D. 



Prat, Jno. 



Miller, Solomon . 
McGill, George. . 



Smith, William. 



Ingram, W. A. 
Lawrie, J. M... 
Hoyle, W. A. . . 



'Sheppard, Jos. ... 
Stevenson, T. W. 



Aliswer, in bushels per acre. 



iDepell, John . . . . T ■ 
Walker, J. C 



Mooney, Jno. 



.'Homor," T. R . 



Davis, Jno. B. 



Powers, C. F. 
iRutherford, J . 



Potatoes grow splendidly, and of fine quality, without manure. Carrots will 
grow fine, but have not bad much experience. Peas grow splendidly. I be- 
lieve manure would help and produce a large crop, but for quality, the 
present can't be excelled. 

Have some parsnips grown on land which had a crop of peas and potatoes on it 
last, and no manure was put on it, and .took one or two potatoes, a week ago, 
which were 2^ inches in diameter, and long in proportion, 
otatoes, 400; turnips, 750. 

Potatoes average 250 bushels (of 60 lbs.) per acre. Never saw a better crop of 
potatoes, in any country, than I have this year. Turnips, carrots, peas, beans 
and flax, are good. 

Potatoes, 300 ; turnips, 800. Have also grown carrots, parsnips, onions, cab- 
bage, cauliflowers, pumpkins, melons, citrons, cucumbers, lettuce,' squash, 
tomatoes and raddish. 

Potatoes, .300 to 500 ; turnips, carrots and beans do well ; peas 30, and flax 20. 
Everything in the way of vegetables does immensely, except Indian corn and 
tomatoes, which I do not find as yet a success. 

Potatoes, 2150. Only raised turnips and carrots in garden, but they would do 
well here. My experience is that vregetables cannot be raised mor€ success- 
fully in any other country 

Potatoes, about 250 ; peas about 25. Have never seen vegetables eqial to those 
of Manitoba. We cannot raise squash melons or pumpkius to maturity, 
however. Carrots, beets, maize, onions," salsify, celery, chicory, radishes and 
cucumbers all do unusually well with us. 

Potatoes, 200 ; peas 60 lbs. per acre. Vegetables very good ; you can raise every 
kind to perfection. 

Potatoes 300. Turnips not attended to, would have produced 400 or 500 
bushels per acre. I never saw as fine vegetables anywhere else, except 
turnips. 

Potatoes, 359, turnips 800 Peas do well. Vegetables do very well. 

Potatoes 3oo, turnips 600, carrots 300, peas 30 and beans 40. Have grown with 
good results ; potatoes, turnips, mangold- wurtzels, beets, carrots, parsnips, 
onions, radishes, cabbages, cauliflowers, and many others 

Potatoes from 300 to 400. Turnips 600, and peas 30. All vegetables do well . 
Have also grown carrots, beets, cabbage, tomatoes, squash, citrons, onions, 
rhubarb and pumpkins. 

1 never saw vegetables grown to better success than here ; in fact, they are the. 
surest crops we can grow. I have grown potatoes, turnips, cairots and 
beets with perfect satisfaction. 



Potatoes 300, turnips 600, carrots 600, peas 30, beans 25, and flax 30. 

' ■'■ pie 



Have 
plant. 



also grown cabbage, beets, tomatoes, radishes, onions, salsify, 
lettuce, pumpkins, grapes, artichokes, pepper, and parsnips. 

Potatoes, 200 ; turnips, 500 ; carrots, 400 ; peas, 30. Beans do well. All vege- 
tables can be grown with great success. 

Potatoes, 350 ; turnips, 600 to 800 ; carrots, 400 to 500 ; and peas, 40 to 50. I 
have grown successfully :— Cabbage, carrots, pai snips, beets, onions, lettuce, 
radishes, beans, dr'c. 



ith in^ 



3a 



PLAIN PACTS A8 TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Bobier, Thos. 



Stevenson, G. B... 

Stirton, James 

Slater, C. B....... 

Burgess, J. W 

Connerson, James, . 



Rawson, James. 



Patterson, Abr. 

Fraser, D. D... 

Osborne, Daniel 

Harrison, D. H 
Thomps<.n, S..^ 



Answer, in bushels per acre. 



Potatoes, about 300. 1 umips generally have not done well this year, the weather 
being very dry when they were sown in the spring. I never grew any 
except in the garden ; these are excellent. Have grown peas two years ; . 
they do first-class here. Beans can be grown here in. abundance. I have 
grown the finest potatoes that I ever grew in my life, both in quantity and 
quality. Carrots, cabbage, cauliflowers, and other garden stutlf grown in 
this country are of the very best quality. 

Potatoes, from 250 to 3(X), and turnips, 500. Carrots average 450. All kinds 
of vegetables grow well. I have also grown beet, onions, radishes, cabbage, 
cauliflower, melon, citron, and cucumbers. 

Potatoes, turnips, carrots, peas, beans, and flax do very well, without any 'care 
and trouble. If the seed is only sown early, with care and cultivation, the 
yield is enormous. 

Potatoes, 2CO bushels from half acre. The yield of turnips and carrots was 
poor, owing to the drought in the spring. 1 1 ix was good. Vegetables 
did fairly. All cullender vegetables do well hef<?. 

Potatoes 300, really magnificent. Also turnips, carrots and mangolds ; the 
latter yield well. Cabbages and cauliflowers do well. 

Potatoes about 350. I had nine waggon loads (about 30 bushels each) of 
turnips off half an acre last year. Carrots, 500 ; peas 50 bushels off two 
acres one year ; beans. 40 to 60 ; flax 15 ; all kinds do well here — cabbages, 
cauliflowers, beets, melons, cucumbers. &'c. Onions do splendidly. Tomatoes 
are not a success ; we have lots of them, but they are green yet (Sep- 
tember). 

My potatoes are the best I ever saw i » this country. Turnips, very heavy yield, 
also carrots ; peas 30. This equab any country for the growth of vegetation. 
Have grown beets, onions, melons, citrons, cucumbers, pumpkins, tomatoes, . 
radishes, celery and lettuces. 

Potatoes, 400, and Peas 40 All garden vegetables usually grown on a farm, 
grow first class. Onions and cabbages grow extra large and are of fine 
quality. 

I had a fair crop of potatoes this year. My turnips were poor on breaking. The 
yield of carrots was good, but frost killed my beans. Carrots, cabbages, ^ 
onions, parsnips, potatoes and beets are all doing well. 

Potatoes 500, turnips 1,000. Have also grown beets. 

Potatoes 200, turnips abeut 250, and peas and beans from 14 to 15. I 
think I could raise about 300 bushels of carrots per acre. Vegetables grow 
first-class. Sweet corn, cabbages, carrots and long and turnip beets 
grow to perfection, tomatoes splendidly ; onions in abundance. Have also 
grown celery, musk and water melons, dr'c. Took $15 prize money two 
years ago. 

Yield of potatoes and turnips heavy ; carrots are simply immense ; peas are not 
good here, the land is too heavy ; beans do well, and flax yields from 20 
to 30. ITiis is a splendid country for vegetables. I have also grown 
mangold-wurtzels, onions, beets, parsnips, tomatoes, cucumbers, melons, 
citrons, squash, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, radishes, kail, brussels sprouts, 
lettuce, salsify and mushrooms. I have the Provincial Diploma for the best; 
collection of garden vegetables. 



PLAIN rAOTS AS TO THU 0AIfiW4i<f NO«f*-. «ril8T. 



33 



the 



Name. 



Chambers, W, 



Bole, J 

Day, S. D. A 

McDonald, W, M. 
McLean, J. A.. .. 

Speers, A. R . . . . . 



Answer, in busiiels per acre. 



Potatoes 300, turnips 1,000, and white Belgian carrots 500. Drought aAected 
my peas this year, but they will yield 25 ; beans do well here. A little 
capital invested in flax seed culture and the manufacture of twine or cord for 
our self-binding machines, would result in great wealth. Onions, table 
carrots, parsnips, beets, turnips, radishes, lettuces, melons, tomatoes, peas, 
parsley, and all sorts of garden and field vegetables can be grown here to 
perfection ; at least, that is my usual experience. 

Potatoes 300. All kinds of vegetables do well in the Ncrth>West when the 
ground is properly prepared. 

Potatoes about 400 ; turnips 600, and peas 20. Have very fine cabbage, carrots, 
turnips, beans, parsnips, beets, onions, lettuce, spinach, rhubarb, radishes 
and cucumbers. Have raised tomatoes and Indian corn, but not with success. 

Potatoes 500; turnips 1,000, and peas 30. 

Potatoes 409, sometimes more ; turnips from 400 to 600. Peas and beans do 
well. Any and every kind of vegetable does wonderfully well in this country. 
I believe there is no better country in the konwn world that can come up to the 
country for vegetable's. 

Potatoes 400, turnips 1,000, peas 30, flax 40. Carrots remarkably good crop; 
beans yield splendid. 



The Use of Uanure. 



The 

sages, 



grow 

beets 

also 

two 

re not 

Im 20 

Vown 

elons, 

grouts, 

besti 



Fertilisers are not used in the North- West, for they are not needed, and common 
manure is used but sparingly. The land is, indeed, in most cases, so rich that the using 
of it during the first years of cultivation would be apt to encourage the growth of straw, 
and make the crops too rank. After the second year manure in limited quantities may 
be used with advantage to prevent any exhaustion of the land. 

This is the general experience of settlers to be found related with their opinions on 
many other useful subjects in an additional pamphlet, to be had free on application to 
Mr. Begg, Canadian Pacific Offices, 88 Cannon Street, London : — "When, you have it, 
pu t it on your Hght land, don't waste it ; but it is not necessary for years." One settler, 
Mr. Williaim Gibson, ofLoganstone Farm, Wolseley says : "I have used manure to a few 
potatoes to try the effect it had along with others planted without manure, and they did 
no better with it." 

• 

Stock Raising and the Hay Supply. 

The general healthiness of the climate and the favorable conditions for feeding 
horses, cattle, and sheep, make stock-raising a most profitable industry. The boundless 
prairies, covered with luxuriant grasses, giving an unusually large yield, and the cool 
nights for which Manitoba is famous, are most beneficial features in regard to stock j and 
the remarkable dryness and healthiness of the winter tend to make cattle fat and well- 
ponditioned. The easjr access to good water is another advantage in stock-raising. The 






34 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THK CAN API AN NORTHWEST. 



al)undance of hay almost everywhere makes it an easy matter for farmers to winter their 
stock ; and in addition to this there is, and always will be, a ready home market for 
beef. 

Owing to the abundance and excellence of prairie hay, little has hitherto been done 
in the cultivation of grasses, though what small quantity is cultivated is largely of the 
Timothy and Hungarian classes. The average yield of hay per acre is 2 J to 3 tons ; 
sometimes 4 tons are gathered, and in wet seasons as many as five tons. The crop of 
1882 was an abundant one, and was generally saved in good condition, while in 1883 
almost a double yield was gathered. 

On these points the experience of settlers is especially valuable. Their statements 
answer the questions :.'* How many horses and cattle have you ? Have you plenty 
of hay, and do cattle thrive on the wild prairie grasses ? How do your animals 
thrive in winter, and where do you stock them?" For postal address of each settler, 
see pages 3, 4> 5» 6, 7 or 8. 




Dickin, George. 

Hind, Brothers 
Urton, W. S... 

Yardly, Henry. 

Philips, S 

Hutchison, A.. 

Mercer, Jas . . . . 
Knight, W.G.. 



Field, Edward. 



17 cattle. Can cut 20 tons, and can get ^ other oa goverment land. Cmttle 
do equally as well as they did in pasture in England ; they thrive well in 
winter with the same shelter they get there, pole and hay stable. 

I horse and ten head uf cattle. Ves. Cattle do well ; wintered first class. 

5 horses and I cow. Yes. Cattle do splendidly, better than on English hay. 
They are slabled in winter during very bad days, but are turned out most 
days. 

I have 3 oxen and 2 yearling steers. I have sufficient hay for 20 head of cattle ; 
they thrive first class. Last winter I took 12 head of cattle from a neighbor. 
They came out in the spring eqnal to when I was in England. I kept them in 
open sheds with yards last winter. My neighbour has his in stables, and they 
do not do as well as mine. 

30 horses and 20 head of cattle. Plenty of hay ; cattle get fat in summer on the 
prairie grasses. I house them in a log stable during winter. 

20 head of cattle, 3 horses, 19 flheep, and 2 pigs. Yes ; cattle get very fat on 
the prairie grass in summer ; the do well in the stable in winter. I fed 
them on liay alone last winter ; this winter I intend using grain and roots in 
small quantities. 

9 head of cattle at the presfcnt timp. Plenty of hay. Cattle thrive well on wild 
grasses. I have wintered over twice the above number of cattle. I stable 
young cattle ; large cattle run loose in open sheds. 

No horses, 45 head of cattle. Plenty of hay. My thoroughbred short- homH 
have nothing but the wild grasses of th« country, and ihey are in splendid 
condition, in fact quite fat. I should take a prize for Christmas beef in Eng- 
land; the beef cannot be beaten. Cattle thrive well in winter, on hay only. 
Some are in stables and some out. 

Plenty of hay. Cattle undoubtedly thrive well in winter, and get very fat 
in summer. Both horses and cattle do well in the winter in the stable at 
night. Heifers, steers, dr'c., in open sheds. Native horses and half-bred 
horses thrive well out on the prairie all winter, if you have no work for 
theni. 



FfiAIIf r/OTS AH TO TIIK CAIfADlAy NORTH-W BRT. 



$8 



Name. 



on the 



-homH 
lendid 
lEng- 
r only. 



PolUrd, Alfred 

Robertson, P 

Cowlord, C 

Gibson, Wm 

Bruce, George . , 

Middleton, Alex 

Warnock, Wm 

Reid, Alex 

Fraser, John 

Perley, W. D... 

Malhiot, Z 

McGill, Geo • . . . . 

Grimmett, D. W . ■ . . . 



Purdy, Thos. F. 



Pownie, Jno. 
McBecn, A., 



Answer. 



A scarcity of hay in this part. Cattle thrive wonderfully. I house them in 
winter, and feed them on straw, hay, and roots. 

3 horses and 12 cattle. Plenty of prairie hay, and cattle do well on it. 
The)r get on well in stable in winter. I let them out every day, if 
possible. 

67 cattle and 3 horses Cattle do all that 1 can wish. I winter them in log 
stables. 

3 horses, 2 colts, i pair of oxen, 2 cows, i bull, and 2 sheep. I have hay in 
abundance ; cut it this summer 66 inches long ; and cattle get ht on it with- 
out any other seed in winter. I winter cattle in log stables, and they get 
nothing but hay. Horses have hay, with a little oats. 

18 head of cattle. They do well on prairie hay, and do well all winter. 

2 work oxen and cow and 2 calves. Hay has been difficult to put up owing 
to light crop. Cattle thrive on wild grass. When well housed ; tbwy thrive 
well in winter on hay and water, with a little salt. 

3 horses and 15 cattlo. I have enough hay for present stock ; they do better 
on wild hay. I winter my horses and milk cows in stable ; steers and young 
stock in shed open to south, and they thrive well. 

Plenty of hay. Cattle lo splendidly on the wild grasses, better than on some 

hay. They thrive 'ell in winter ; I stable them at night and let them out 

during the day. 
7 head of cattle and team -of horses. Plenty of hay, and cattle come out 

fat on with nothing but prairie hay in spring ; they do well in stable in 

winter. 

1 have only a small stock, but they do fine in winter. I have not much hay, 
but the prairie grass all over the N.W. far exceeds the best quality of cultivated 
hav'in the, East. I never saw so fine and fat animals as this prairie grass will 
make. 

18 horses. Plenty of hay ; and cattle are doing very well. I winter them in a 
frame stable, and they do first-class. 

2 h6rsrs. % cows, and some young stock Cattle winter better on prairie hay 
in this climate than they do in Ontario. A better name for it would be " lawn 
hay," a quality well understood in Europe. 1 keep the cattle in rough weather 
in winter, and they winter easily. 

1 yoke of oxen and 2 ponies. Plenty of very nutritious hay. Cattle fatten on it 
in winter. I can put it up at 200 dols. per ton, and make money. I winter 
my stock in sod and strew stable, and they thrive well, that is, when I fatten 
them. 

6 horses, 4 oxen, 2 cows, and 2 yearlmgs. Hay [plenty in certain localities. Cattle 
do splendidly ; never saw them get so fat on grass. I have a barn 16 by 
45 dug in bank; it will house 16 head, horses and cattle. Lofl on top; 
will hold 10 tons of hay. The cattle do well in winter. 

2 horses and 12 cattle. Plenty of hay ; cattle fed on the hay here are fit for the 
butcher in spring. I keep them in winter most generally in stables ; they 
are rolling fat in the spring on hay and water. 

15 horses and 50 cattle. Cattle thrive well on wild grasses ; I winter them all 
inside and they thrive very well, >vhere feecj can be obtained. 



3« 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 




Sirett, Wm.F. 



Doyle, W. A. 



Ivang, Robert 

Riddle, Robt 

Pollock, John.... 
Powers, C. F 

Rutherford, J 



Bobier, Thomas. 



Little, James. 
McKmght, R. 



Vandcrvoort, Geo. . . , 

Black, G. R , 

Howey, Wm 

Gilmour, H. C . . , . . 



4 horses and seven head of cattle. Plenty of hay ; cattle do better here than on 
the cultivated grasses or in the woods of Ontario. I stable them at night 

. in the winter and keep them in a yard in the daytime ; they thrive w«^ll. I 
milked my cows nearly all winter, bull and young stock lived at the straw 
stack all winter. 

2 horses and 47 head of cattle and hogs. Plenty of hay ; my cattle do 
not seem to want anjrthing but the wild hay if well cured, and they 
winter well without buildings, if in tinchel out of wind. The working 
bullocks, milk cows, and calves are stabled in winter, the balance have 
sheds as windbraks severely, and a belt of Tinchel to shelter from winds 
also. 

lo horses and 35 horned grades which do well. Plenty of hay. Never saw 
cattle do better ; my stock does well in log stables during winter. 

2 horses and head of cattle. I have an abundance of hay. Cattle do well. I 
winter my stock in the open-air sheds, and they thrive well. 

1 have I yoke of cattle. Plenty of hay, and cattle do very well on it without 
grain They do splendidly in winter in a stable of sods or logs. 

10 horses, 10 cattle and 20 sheep. I have 20 acres of Timothy, plenty of 
wild hay. Cattle all do well. I winter my stock in stables made from 
logs, and covered with straw. Cattle and sheep do better than in 
Ontario. 

2 horses, i yoke of oxen, 3 cows, 2 two year olds, I one year old, and 5 
calves. I winter my stock in the house when very cold, otherwise let 
them have their liberty, as stock thrive best to get their- liberty to move 
about. 

I cut too tons of hay (handless). Thousands of cattle in Ontario, and had 600 
acres under pasture there, but never had cattle do so well in Ontario Cattle 
and horses do very well in winter, and the great reason is that there are 
no rain or sleet storms here during winter, I winter my stock in a stable built 
of poplar posts sunk in ground, gided with lumber and sodded, covered with 
poles and straw. 

All kinds of stock do well here. There is all the hay that I require. I winter 
my stock in stables, and some out of doors where there is shelter. 

4 horses and 29 cattle. Anv amount of hay. Cattle do well on prairie grass. 
In winter I stable my stock at nights,' and run out during days ; they are no 
trouble to keep fat. 

3 horses and 2 cows. There is a goodly supply of hay, and cattle thrive 
better on wild hay than they do on cultivated. In winter I stable horses and 
milch cows, but let the young run in an open shed around the straw stack. 
They thrive splendidly, only I think horses require a little more grain than 
they do in Ontario. . 

9 horses and cattle. No hay, but cattle do exceedingly well on the wild 
grasses. I stable my stock in winter with straw and a little grain. I have 
no trouble. 

4 horses, and 8 head of cattle ; lots of hay ; cattle keep fat on it all the 
winter. I wintft my cows in stables, young stock outside, and they do 
well. 

We have a team of horses, and 28 head of cattle. We have plenty of hay, and 
cattle do exceedingly well on it. They wiiit^r wejl in ^ log stable on the open 
prairie, • - . 



PLAIN PACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



37 



Name. 



Hartney, J. H. 
Smart. George 
Elliott, T. D.. 



Answer. 



1 1 horses, 2 mules and 4 head cattle. Plenty of hay, and homed cattle thrive 
exceedingly well on prairie hay. Up to this time I have wintered my stock 
in log stable, covered with poles and straw, and they thrive well. 

2 horses and 5 cattle. Plenty of hay, and cattle thrive well on wild grass. In 
winter I feed my stock on prairie hay, *and let them run at straw stack. 
They are as fat in the spring as in Ontario in the &11. 

13 horse kind and 10 of cattle. Plenty of hay, and cattle do well. They all do 
well in winter in sheds made of straw. 



,^ Sheep Raising. 

Sheep-growing is now becoming an important industry in the Canadian North- West, 
and the climatic conditions are such as to render tlie yield of wool much finer and the 
fibre considerably shorter than that from the same class or breed of sheep elsewhere. 
Sheep have been entirely free from disease in the North-West, and foot-rot has never 
occurred so far as can be ascertained. 

" Do sheep thrive in the Canadian North-West, and is sheep-raising profitable ?" 

In answering this question 57 settlers replied ''Yes" The replies of the others are 
given below. The full name and postal address of each settler are given on pages 3, 4, 
5, 6, 7 or 8. 



I thrive 

ss and 

I stack. 

than 

wild 
have 

[11 the 
[ey do 

and 
open 



Name. 



Dicken, G. ... 
Urton, W. S.. 
Yardley, H... 
Hutchinson, A 

' Proctor, H. . . . 

Mercer, J 

Lawrence, J. . . 

Pollard, A..., 
Robertson, P.. 



Answer. 



Yes, only cannot get them here to suit the settlers in small lots. 

They thrive well and are veiy profitable. 

In my opinion sheep will do well ; very profitable. 

Am testing the above now, and believe they will both thrive and be profit- 
able. 

Very profitable and do well. 

/ 

Yes, sheep thrive well and are profitable. 

Yes. I don't think there is anything that will pay better. They do much better 
than in England or Ontario. 

Should like to go in for this branch largely, if means were forthcomihg. 

Sheep require a great deal of attention in this country. No doubt they could 
be raised to pay well here. 



I 



38 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Upjohn, F. 



Harwardf F. 



McGhee, J 

Bruce, G. 

Warnock, Wm. 
Fraser, John . . . 

Grang, J 

Purdy,T. F.... 
Davis, W. H . . 



Rogers, T. 
Downie, J. 



Anderson, Geo. 
Young, J. M. L. 



Doyle, W. A... 
Armstrong, Geo , 
Walker, J. C... 

Riddle, R 

Wat, J 

Powers, C F. . . . 
Rutherford,;.... 

Carter, Tr 

Bobier, T 



Warren, R. T... 

Mcknight, R 

Chambers, S. W , 
Patterson, A. ... 

Little, J 

McLennan, T . . . 



McKenzie, D. . 
Gilmour, H. C 



Ogletree, F 

Harris, J , 

Smart, G 

Elliott, T. D.... 

Shirk,]. M 

Chester, A 

Lambert, W; M 
Boulding, G. W 

Mclntyre, J 

Wagner, W 



Answer. 



well. 



well. 



No stock pays so >yell, and they are neither 
I find them unprofitable for want of mills in 



In this location they do 

trouble or cost. 
Sheep are scarce, but do 

my neigbourhood. 
They do very well. Sheep raising is very profitable. 
Sheep thrive well here and are very profitable. 
Yes ; have found them do splendidly, with Mr profit. 
Yes, sheep do well ; yery profitable. 
Yes, for those who have capital to put into it. 
Sheep do well ; very profitable at present. 
Sheep thrive well, but would not pay in this part yet, as there are no woollen 

manu&ctories in this part. 
Sheep, I feel sure, will do well, and be profitable. 
The best sheep I ever saw were raised in Manitoba. I saw mutton with three 

inches of fat on the rib. S^^eep raising is profitable. 
I have some sheep ; they thrive well, and would be profitable. 
Sheep do well in some parts, but the spear grass in some places gets into their 

wool, and is severe on them. 
Yes ; will be profitable when market for wool is obtained. 
Yes, particularly well, being profitable for mutton. 
Sheep do well and pay well. 
They thrive well and are profitable* 
Yes, if we had a market for wool. 
I think the most profitable of any stock. 
Thrive well and are profitai le to those who have them. 
Where there is no spear grasS they do well and pay well. 
They do well, and will pay the man that raises them, as the wool and meat are 

needed in the country. 
Thrive well. 

Sheep do well, they are a paying stock. 

Sheep_thrive well. Nothing I know of would be more profitable. 
Sheep'thrive well, and I think would be profitable if there were more. 
Sheep thrive well and are very profitable. 
Yes, sheep thrive, and sheep raising is profitable. It would be more 

were wool factories in this neighbourhood. Good inducements 

enterprizing man. 
Sheep do well ; they are profitable. 
I have a small flock of sheep, and they do exceedingly well. I think it very 

profitable. 

They thrive well, but I do not consider them very profitable at present. 
Sheep have been tried in this country and do very well, and are profitable. 
Yes ; no demand for wool, as yet, in this part, else it would pay better. 
This is a first-class sheep country. 
Yes, it is considered profitable. 

There are not many sheep here. What there ar^ do well. 
Sheep do well and are profitable. 
Do well, with profit. 
Sheep thrive well and are profitable. 
Yes, and pay well. Farmers get from 12 to 14 cents per pound in carcase. 



so if there 
for some 



C 
c 
c 

r 
t 

a 
I 

r\ 

ti 

F 



iither 
Is in 



PLAIN PAOrS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WBST. 



39 



)ollen 

three 

) their 



»t are 



there 
some 



very 



Name. 



Nelson, R 

Stirton, J 

Cox,J.T 

McDonell, D 

Wilson,} 

Heaney, J 

Fargey, J. H... 

Connerson, J 

Rorison, W.O 

McKenzie, K 

Kennedy, T 

Harris, A. B 

Bartley, N 

Chambers, W 

Garratt and Ferguson. 
Todd, P.R 

Sutherland, W. R 

Hoard,C 

Speers, A. R 

Cox, W 



Answer. 



Yes, they do well and will pay. 

Sheep do splendidly, and pay better to raise than any other stock. 

Sheep thrive well in different parts of the conntry. 

Sheep raising is very profitable, if on a high scale. 

They thrive well. 

Do very well and pay well. 

It is a first-class country for sheep raising. 

Yes, very well and profitable by keeping them dry in winter. 

No, unless on cultivated land. 

They thrive well and will be profitable. 

Yes, I believe it would be profitable if properly attended to. 

They thrive well, but get too fat to breed to advantage. No fair trial has yet 

been made in this vicinity. 
Sheep are considered very profitable and thrive well. 
All the sheep I have seen are doing well and will be profitable. 
Yes, they thrive well and it will profitable to keep them. 
Our sheep do exceedingly well ; they run the prairie in summer, and are under 

shed in winter. 
Sheep thrive well and are profitable. 
They do splendidly. / 
Yes, very profitable. 
Sheep thrive very well and are found to be very profitable. 



Horses, Pigs and Poultry. 

The raising of horses has not as yet assumed any considerable proportions, though 
what has. been done in this direction has met with success. There are few countries 
where the horses have such immunity from the diseases of stock as they have in the 
North-West. 

As to pigs, the Berkshire breed seems best suited to the country, as the pigs of this 
class mature rapidly and fatten easily, living on the grass and making' good pork in six 
or seven months with proper feeding. The breeding and fattening of pigs increased 
considerably in 1882 and subsequent years, and no disease was reported among them. 

Poultry do exceedingly well in the North-West, especially turkeys, ovving to the dry- 
ness of the climate. Manitoba is itself the home of the wild duck, goose and chicken, and 
those who devote care and attention to the raising ^f poultry are sure of a good return. 

It is important to add that no disease of a contagious or infectious character exists 
among the cattle and sheep of t^e North-West, and that every care Is taken by the 
Provincial Governments to promote the interest of breeders. Among the more recent 
measures adopted is the appointment of veterinary surgeons in each county, to look after 
the interests of stock raisers, and to carry out the stringent regulations now in force to 
prevent the introduction of disease among cattle and horses. 



40 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Raising of Bees. 



Apiculture is successfully carried' on in the North- West, as bees r'squire a clear, dry 
atmosphere and a rich harvest of flowers ; if the air is damp, or the weather cloudy, they 
will not work so well. Another reason why they work less in a warm climate is that 
the honey gathered remains fluid for sealing a longer time, and if gathered faster than it 
thickens, it sours and spoils. The clear bright skies, dry air and rich flora are therefore 
well adapted to bee culture. 

Fruits. 

Wild fruits, attaining to great perfection, abound in Manitoba and the North- West. 
Wild plums, grapes, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries^ cherries, cranberries, and 
other berries of various kinds abound and are of luscious quality. Little attention has 
hitherto been paid to fruit growing, owing to the time of settlers being too much occu- 
pied with the important work of erecting buildings, and getting their lands fairly under 
cultivation, but as the general improvement of the farm's progresses, fruit culture will 
doubtless receive its due share of attention. . Following are but a few representative 
statements from farmers on the subject ; a remarkable array of testimony on the subject 
may be found in the pamphlet to be had free on application to Mr. Begg, Canadiant 
Pacific Railway Offices, 88 Cannon Street, London, E.G.. 

'*' Strawberries, currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and in fact all small fruits, bear in the greates 
abundance and give every promise of being very profitable. 

" W. A. Farmer. Headingly." 
'' Planted twenty apple trees two years ago, which are growing very well. 

" Arthur J. Moore, Nelsonville." 
*< I have over i,ooo apple trees doing very well, and also excellent black currants. 

«* James Armson, High Bluff." 
••Strawberry, raspberry, brambleberry, gooseberry, black currant, cherry, cranberry, saskatoonberry, 
and ethers. Mrs. Gibson has made over loo lbs. of jelly this summer from wild fruit. 

•'William Gibson, Loganstone Farm, Wolseley." 
" I planted this spring currants, gooseberries, and mulberries, and so fax they are doing well. 

•♦ John Prat, Rounthwaite." 
•• Cuitantsi gooseberries, strawberries, plums, cherries, raspberries, huckleberries, in profusion. 
Only commencing with apple trees and cultivated fruits ; going in for a nursery. 

•' Thomas Rogers, Railway View Farm, Moose Jaw." 
" Plums, black, white, and red currants, strawberries, raspberries, dnd saskatoons Rhubarb does 
remarkably well. 

•* W. F. SiRKTT, Glendale, P. O." 

Hops. 

Wild hopis, pronounced by brewers to be of ex^Uent quality for brewing purposes, 
attain to a luxuriant growth in nearly every portion of Manitoba, the soil and climate 
being apparently thoroughly suited to them. Hops from these parts have for some time 
past commanded good prices, and the cultivation of the hop plant is believed to be most 
profitable to the grower. A resident settler, writing on this subject, says : — 



I"* 



PLAIN PACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



4» 



II 
» 

lisioQ. 

fl 

does 



" Hops will do well cultivated. I have planted wild hops out of the bush into my garden along the 
fence and trained on poles, bearing as full and fine and as large as any I ever saw at Yalding anc^ Staple- 
hurst, in Kent, England. 

" Louis DuNBSjNG (Emerson.)" 



Flax and Hemp.* 



These important crops were cultivated to k considerable extent by old settlers many 
years ago, the product being of excellent quality ; but the universal complaint at that 
time was the want of a market, or of machinery to work up the raw material, and this led 
them to discontinue this important branch of husbandry. Its cultivation has been 
renewed extensively by the Russian Mennonite settlers, on whose reserves in the 
southern portion of Manitoba a considerable quantity is produced. At West Lynne 
alone over 6,000 bushels were brought in during the first week in December, alone, in 
one year, averaging 80c. (3s. 4d.) per bushel. Flax is peculiarly suited to the Province, 
and so much is this felt that an English capitalist has started in Winnipeg an extensive 
linseed-oil mill. This fact and the demand for flax seed that must necessarily arise, 
will still further increase the area of its cultivation. Xt can only be raised successfully 
in a cool region, the warm climates of the south causing the bark to become brittle and 
hard, and the rapidity, with which it there matures preventing the lint from obtaining 
consistency or tenacity. On account of their extremely favourable climate for this cereal, 
Manitoba and the North- West territories are likely to prove formidable rivals to northern 
Europe in its cultivation. 



Shooting and Fishing. 



There is excellent shooting everywhere in the woods and on the prairie, as may be 
seen by the following list of birds and animals to be found :— Small Game : Prairie 
chickens, ducks, geese, pheasants, partridges, pigeons, cranes, snipe, plover, rabbits, 
&c. J Large Game : Moose, deer, antelope, buffalo, elk, and a large number of fur- 
bearing animals. 

The rivers and lakes abound with the following fish : — Sturgeon of large size, white 
fish, pickerel, pike, bass, perch, suckers, sun-fish, gold eyes, carp, trout, and maskinonge. 

llarkets. 

Small centres of trade are continually springing into existence wherever settlemeots 
take place, and these contain generally one or more stores where farmers can find a 
ready market for their produce. The stations along the line of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway are not more than eight or ten miles apart, and the liberal course adopted by 
the railway company in dealing with persons willing to undertake the erection of 
elevators for the' storage of wheat and other grains has led to the establishment of a 
large number of these warehouses along the line of the railway in Manitoba alone. These 
have a total capacity of over 1,500,000. and enable farmers to dispose of their grain at 
good prices almost at their doors. A glance at the map demonstrates that Manitoba, 



• 

4«- 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



via the Canadij'n Pacific Railway, will have closer connection with the seaboard than 
Minnesota, DaKOta, or any of the more Western States now have with New York ; so 
so that the export of grain from the Canadian North- West at remunerative prices is 
assured. The very large influx of people, and the prosecution of railways and public 
works will, however, cause a great home demand for some years, and for a time limit the 
quantity for export. 

Success of Settlers. 

" Are you satisfied with the country, the climate, and the prospects ahead of you ?" 
This is, after all, the most crucial question. For what are enonnous yields and sub- 
stantial profits, if the country cannot be made a home — a resting place of comfort, of 
independence and of freedom ? There are, of course, drawbacks in the Canadian North- 
West, and in these pages the settlers speak their own minds fully on these points. But 
what country under the sun has not some drawbacks ? If so, it were indeed an earthly 
paradise How will old England or bonnie Scotland stand in the matter of drawbacks ? 
The point is this: — Are the drawbacks of the Canadian North- West anything approach- 
ing in importance those under which I am now living ? Is the. North- West a desirable 
place for settlement in my own peculiar circumstances ?• Can I hope to live there with 
greater comfort and less anxiety for the future of myself and my children than in the old 
country ? No impartial reader will have difficulty in answering for himself by the aid of 
these pages. 

In regard to the replies to this particular question, it should borne in mind that thp 
Canadian North-West is an immense country. Its perfect development is naturally a 
work of some time. Railways have been during the past year or two built there at a 
rate perhaps unknov({n in human history, and the work still proceeds. But there must 
yet be districts without immediate contact with the iron horse, though another year may 
see these very districts the centre of a system as has been the experience in the past. It is 
of course natural that each farmer should want the railway running through his farm and 
even close to his own door. But such a thing is impossible even in long established 
Britain : how can it be expected in newly-settled Canada? It rests with each intending 
ettler to ch90se his own land ; there is still ample to be had with good railway facilities. 

In answering the question, Are you satisfied with the country, the climate, and the 
prospects ahead of you ? %^ farmers replied simply "K?^." Following are the answers 
given'by others. Their postal addresses are given on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 



Name 



Urton,W. S.. 
Yardley, H . . . 

Hutchinson, A 



Answer. 



Very well satisfied. 

Yes, I am quite satisfied. If I had more papttal. could make a fortune in a few 

years. 
Perfectly satisfied. 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



43 



few 



.. 



Name. 



Fisher, H , 



Field, E 

Lawrence, J 

Scrcecli, J 

Upjolin, F 

Harward, F 

Cameron, Vr . C 

Lothian, J 

McGhee, J 

Bruce, G 

Bell, C.J 

Middleton, A 

Wamock, W 



Reid, A. 



Fraser, John. 

Grang, J 

Ferley, W. D. 



Kinnear, J . H . . . 
Miller, Solomon. 



Webster, A, 
McGill, G., 



Grimmett, D. W , 

Purdy, T. F 

Davis, W. H... 
Refers, T...... 

Smith, Wm 

Downie, J 



Kines, Wm... 
Ingram, W. A. 



Anderson, J . . . . 
Young, J. M. L. 

McRae, R 

Oliver, T 

Lang, R 

Sheppard, J , . . , 



Answer, 



•••••• 



Stevenson, F. W. 
Armstrong, Geo.. 

Deyell, J 

Walker, J. C 

Robertson, P.... 



Settled in June, 1884 ; more residence is necessary to answer this question, but 

I think with capital a man will do well. 
Very. 

I am ^«ell satisfied with the country and the climate. 
Perfectly satisfied. 
Yes, very. 
Yes, fairly so. 
Yes, by all means. 

Perfectly satisfied with the country, and prospects are fair. ' . , 

Very. Prospects good. 
Satisfied. 
Yes, very well. 

I am quite satisfied with the country, climate and future prospects. 
Yes. Except to go on a visit, I have no desire to go back to the Old 

Couiitry. 
Yes, I am perfectly satisfied, if only a little more railway facility ic this dis- 

trict (Millford). 
Yes, perfectly contented and good prospects ahead. 
Yes, if we hail railway communication to this place (Cartwright). 
Remarkably well. It is a most wonderful country, and with energy and peit> 

severance skilfully directed a fortune can be made soon. 
Well satisfied. 
I am well pleased with the country and climate, and if we had a railroad here 

(Alameda) I would be well pleased with my prospects. 
Yes, fully. 
Yes. So far as climate, it is more desirable thap Great Britain or Ireland on 

the whole. Winter is clear, dry and healthy ; no need of umbrella, mud-boots 

or top-coat round home. 
Well satisfied. 

Very much indeed. I think this will be a great country. 
We require railway facilities in this place (Crystal City). 
Perfectly satisfied. 
I am satisfied. 
Perfectly satisfied, and would not go back to Ontario to farm if paid for it. 

There is not half the hard work here that there is in Ontario. 
Satisfied with country and climate. 
I am. In this locality (Millford) we want a railroad, or a market where we 

can go there and back in one day. 
Certainly satisfied. All we want is railway facilities to this place. 

am perfectly well satisfied. 
Yes. you bet I am. 

Yep, I am, if we had railways through the county (Burnside). 
Perfectly, 
lam. Although 62 years of age I am determined to make this my home for 

the future, as it is a farming country. 
Perfectly with all. Lovely weather is the rule here. 
Yes, fully. 

I am, if we had branch railway here (Plum Creek, Souris). 
Perfectly. 
I like the climate, the only drawback is the rather long winter. 



44 



PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTJl-WEMT, 



Name. 



Blackwell, J 

Honor, T, R 

Hope, G 

Malcolm, A 

Pollock, Jno 

Reed, E,J 

McGregory, D 

Powers, C. F 

Rutherford J. (J.P-) 

Carter, T." 

Bobier, E 

Little, Jas 

McKirick,W 

Taylor, W 

"Warren, R. J 

McKnight; R 

Troyer, C 

Vandervoort. G 

Wood,J.H :... 

Chambers, S. W 

Baily, Z 

Little, J 

Rlack,G. R 

McCroquodale, C.T.C 

Wright 6r' Sons 

Whitney, C 

McLennan, T 

McKenzie, D 

Fraser, D. D 

Gilmour, H. C 

Drew, W. D 

McKellar, D 

Hartney, Jf. H 

Ogletree, F 

Harris, Jas 

Smart, G 

Shirk,;. M.. , 

McAskie, Jas 

Osborne, D 

Harrison, D. H. 

Chester, A 



Answer. 



Am satisfied with the country and climate, but this country wants more rail- 
roads to make it prosperous. 

I am satisfied with the climate and natural resources of the country and my own 
prospects ahead. • 

Well satisfied. • . 

I have no reason to be dissatisfied. There are drawbacks here as well as in 
other countries, but I know of no place where I can go to better myself. 

I am very well satisfied in every respect. 

Well pleased. , . • 

No. 

lliree sons and myself all well satisfied with the country. 

I am, and have great confidence in the future of the country. 

Right well. 

I consider it ahead of Ontario for farming and health. I am well pleased with 
the country, or I would not be here if I was not. 

Yes ; I find this country ahead of Ontario and better for crops and stock. 

The country and cliuiate are better than I expected ; the scarcity of timber and 
railroad facilities are drawbacks to this part (Crystal City). 

Satisfied. 

Yes, as I was worth 80/. when I came, and now I am worth 1,400/. 

Perfectly satisfied and prospects are good. 

I am, with one exception, railway facilities to this place (Alameda). 

I am well satisfied with everything, even to the C.P.R. 

Perfectly. 

Yes, more than satisfied. 

Perfectly satisfied. 

Perfectly satisfied. 

The country and climate can't be beaten : the prospects are fair. 

Entirely so. 

Well satisfied. 

I am well satisfied. 

Yes, very well satisfied with the country, climate and prospectis, if we only get 
the railway to this place (Asessippi). 

I am well satisfied. • 

Certainly. 

I am very well satisfied with the counntry. 

I am well satisfied, and have unbounded faith in the future of the country. 

Satisfied. 

Perfectly, if we had a branch railway to this place (Souris). ' 

I am well satisfied with the country, the climate and prospects ahead, I would 
not change under any consideration. 

Yes, very much. 

Yes, if we had a market and railroad here (Holland). 

Personally not exactly, as I have been rather unfortunate in losing animals, &*c.., 
but think the general prospects are good. 

Very well ; the winter is pretty cold ; the spring, summer, and fall axt^ de- 
lightful. 

Very well satisfied. 

Very much, would not leave. 

I am well pleased with the country, thci Climate is good, and I am sure this 
must be a grand country yet. 



SI 

Fj 
Cd 



«. 



ail- 
»wn 

I in 



with 
and 



y ge^ 



would 
air^de- 



PLAIN PACTS A8 TO THE OANADUIf NORTH-WEST. 



45 

— m 



Name. 



Bonesteel, C. H 

Nugent, A. J , 

Obee, F 

Anderson. George . . . 



Answer. 



Kenny, D. W.... 
McDougall, A. G 

Muirhead, T 

Barnes, F* A 

Lambert, W. M . . 

Bowes, J 

Champion, W. M 
Boulding, G. W . . 

Tate, J 

McMurty, T 

McCaughey, J. S.. 

Taylor, Wm 

Stevenson, G. B 
Wagner, W. (M.P.P.) 

Heaslip, J. J 

Nelson, Rm . . • • • 

Mcintosh, A 

Stirton, J 



>••••• 



and 



Bolton, F .. 
Morton, T. L 
Campbell, R. 



Cox, J. T. . . 
Sifton, A. L. 



McDonell, D 
Wilson, Jas . . 
Kemp, J . . . . 
Paynter. J. E 
McGee, T.. .. 



Heaney, J 

McEwan, D 

Slater, C. B . . . . 

Frazer, J. S 

Connerson, J . . . . 



ire 



this 



Rawson, J , 

Nickell, W 

Harris, A. B 

Bartley, N 

Chambers, W 

Paynter, W, D 

Payter, W.H . , 



Very well sati!>fied as yet. 

All right, if change in Government policy, still I am a good Conservative. 

I am well satisfied. 

I am thoroughly satisfied with the country and climate, and my prospects art 

good. 

Perfectly satisfied at present. 

With the country decidedly, but want a little more capital in my business. 
I am quite satisfied. 

Yes, and prospects are good ahead. • 

Yes, they are all that can be desired. 
Most decidedly. 

This country has done well for me. 
Very much. 

Am satisfied with country and climate. 

I am satisfied with the country. ' 

Yes, I am ; all we want is a railroad to this part (Alameda). 
Well satisfied. 
Yes, well satisfied. 
Yes, very much. 

Yes, perfectly, if we had a railroad here (Alameda) ; otherwise no. 
As to country and climate, yes ; as to my own present prospects, no. 
I have no reason to complain. 
Quite satisfied with the country and climate, but want free trade in lumber 

machinery, and the Hudson Bay Railway. 
Yes, winters are a little too long ; but think this country equal to any. 
Most decidedly so. 
Yes, if, the Government would see fit to remove the duty off implements. 

think it would be all right. • 

Yes, well satisfied. • . 

Perfectly satisfied with country and climate. The only drawbacks are want 

additional shipping facilities, and high tariff on implements. 
[Yes, very satisfied. 

With the country and climate, yes. 

Yes, the country and climate are first-class. 

Not entirely. 

I am. I came to the country without any experience, and am well satisfied with 
it. 

I am yery well satisfied. 

Yes, perfectly. 

Yes, perfectly. , 

Yes, tfwe had a railroad here (Beulah). 

Yes, I feel happy, and all my family, six sons, four daughters, and twenty 
grandchildren. All in Manitoba ; all well and happy. 

With the country and climate, yes. 

Fairly well satisfied with the country. 

I am, if we get railway accommodation here (Beulah). 

Yes, providing we can get market and railroad facilities here (Wattsview.) 

If I were not satisfied I would have left long ago. 

Yes, if we get railway accommodation here (Beulah), 

Yes, quite sa(isfi^4< 



of. 



46 



PLAlJT FACTS A« TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 



Name. 



Parr, J. E 

Wright, C 

Garratt and Feiguson.. 

McLane, A. M 

MeLean, J. A 

Bedford. J 

Todd, P. R 

Boldrick, R 

Tulloch, A 

Speers, A. R 

Caflferata and Jefferd. . . 

Connell, R 

Cox, W. T 



Answer. 



Yes, very well. 

The country is all right, but we want more railways in this part (Beaconsfleld). 

Quite satisfied, if we can get our grain sold at satisfactory price. 

I have faith in the whole country. 

I am satisfied with all of them. 

I should like it better if December, January and February were warmer. 

Well satisfied. Only objection is a little' too hard frost ; storms arc nothing 

like I expected. 
I do not know where i could better myself. 
Perfectly satisfied. 
Yes, perfectly. 
Certainly. 

Satisfied with the country and climate. 
Yes. Our only drawback is the lack of local railway facilities (Milford)* 



. 



The Class of Settlers now in tlie North- West.— The great 

number of settlers come from the Eastern Provinces of the Dominion, Ontario contributing 
by far the largest proportion, composed principally of the very flower of her agricultural 
population. The arrivals from Europe are piincipally English, Scotch, and Irish, 
including tenant farmers, labourers, servants and others, most of whom readily adapt 
themselves to their new life. There are also a good number cf Germans and 
Scandinavians, hard-working, law-abiding citizens, whose co-patriots have proved them- 
selves to be among the most valuable settlers in the United States. Some settlers are 
contributed by the American Union, a small portion being repatriated French-Canadians, 
principally from the State of Massachusetts, and the balance, farmers and farmers' sons, 
almost entirely from the Western States, while there is also a large settlement of Russians, 
Mennonites, and Icelandics, who are now comfortably settled, contented and prosperous, 
the last-named having formed an Icelandic settlement at Big Island, Lake Winnipeg. 
The French-Canadians settled along the Red River, who emigrated from Boston and 
other cities of the New Englai.d States of America, are reported to be in good circum- 
sances, and, their crops having yielded largely, their prospects aic excellent. Speaking 
generally, the people of tho North-West are highly respectable, orderly, and law- 
abiding. 

Farm Ijaboiir* — It is difficult to give definite information on this point. 
There is no doubt it has been high, especially during harvest time, when there is a great 
demand for men to take in the crops, but the very large number of people going into the 
country during the past few .^easons has tended materially to reduce the scale of wages. 
One pcJint should be remembered — that the farmer in Manitoba, with his immense yield 
and fair prices, can afford to pay a comparatively high rate of wages, and still find his 
farming very profitable. 

Churches* — ^The utmost religious liberty prevails everywhere in Canada. 
Churches of nearly all denominations exist and are in a flourishing conditipp, and where 



PLAIN FACTS AH TO THE OANAPIAN N0BTH-WK8T. 



47 



a settlement is not large enough to support a regular church, there are always visiting 
clergymen to do the duty. 

Schools* — Means of education, from the highest to the lowest, everywhere 
abound in the Dominion. The poor and middle classes can send their children to free 
schools, where excellent education is given ; and the road to the colleges and higher 
education is opep and easy for all. In no country in the world is good education more 
generally diffused than in Canada. It is on the separate school system, and receives not 
only a very considerable grant from the local government, but there are also two sections 
in each township set apart by the Dominion Government, the proceeds of which, when 
sold are applied to the support of schools. There is a superintendent to each section, 
and teachers are required to pass a rigid examination before they are appointed. A high 
class of education is therefore administered. 

Municipal Governmeilt* — There is a very perfect system of municipal 
go ernment throughout the Dominion. The North-West country is divided into munici- 
palities as fast as settlement progresses sufficiently to warrant it. These municipal 
organisations take charge of roads'and road repairs — there being no toll charges — and 
regulate the local taxation of roads, for schools, and other purposes, so that every man 
directly vo'es for the taxes he pays ; and all matters of a local nature are administered 
by the reeve and council, who are each year elected by the people of the district. This 
system of responsibility, from the municipal representative up to the General Govern- 
ment, causes everywhere a feeling of contentment and satisfaction, the people with truth 
believing that no system of government could give them greater freedom. 

Last Words of Settlers. 



The last request made of settlers in the course of the enquiries dealt with in this pam- 
phlet was that they would supply such information as they might " deem desirable to 
place the Canadian North-West before the world in its true position as an agricultural 
country and a land suitable for successful settlement." Space will allow of the publication 
of but a very few herje. 

C. H. BoNESTEEL, of Pheasant Plain, Kenlis, P. O , Assiniboia, N.W.T., says : — "I 
consider this country a grand field for emigration for all that are homeless and farmless, 
not only in the old country, but in Ontario. Why, I know of hundreds where I come 
from that are working for daily and monthly wages, who, if they only knew or could be 
persuaded what this country is, or the chances that there are here for them to get a home 
of their own, they would come at once. Even if they only took a homestead, i6o acres, 
which they get for lo dollars (;^2), it would make them a good farm and home, which 
they can never hope to get? where they are. This is my honest belief." 

Messrs. Campior Brothers, per R. E. Campior, who omit to forward their 
Manitoba address, say : — "This country is surer and safer for a man with either small or 
large capital, being less liable to flood and drought than any part of the Western States 
of America, speaking from experience. Intending settlers on landing should first know 
how to work and drive a team and stick to it, and they are bound to succeed." 



4S 



PLAIN rACT« A8 TO THl CANADIAN NORTH-WBHT. 



William Wagner, M.P.P., of Woodlands, Ossowa, Manitoba, writes : — "Very ft)w 
inhabitants have visited Manitoba and North West as myself. I have seen the settler in 
his first j^ear, and again after three and four years, and what a difference. The first year 
much misery, then again comfort. I have seen a good many English settlers in the first 
year ; they are a great deal disappointed ; but, after they have been accustomed to our 
ways, they ard happy and contented. We have in Woodlands about thirty English 
families' who had but little, and they belong to-day to our best of farmers, and with us we 
have ntver heard of ^ny discontent." 

James Connerson, of Minnewashta, Manitoba, writes thus : — " Keep back from 
whisky, contract no debts, sign no notes, stick hard at work for two years, and be up and 
at it. If one has no means, work out with a farmer for a time ; pay as you go along. 
Tb.at is my humble advice to all intending settlers. I know hundreds of very decent 
P'iople in Glasgow (Scotland), also in Holland, who would be thankful to come out here 
and get a homestead free." 

James Little, Postmaster, of Oak River, Manitoba, says : — " This is the best 
country in the world for settlers to come to ; for instance, they can get their land for 
nearly nothing, and in three years be worth between 4,000 and 5,060 dollars (;^8oo 
to ;^i,ooo) just in the rise of the price of the land ; besides, he can raise all the stock he 
requires, perhaps the same amount or more. There is not much work to do, it can be 
done with machinery, and a man that is fond of sport can shoot all the fowl he wants, 
I can kill hundreds of all sorts of wild fowl here, geese ducks, prairie chickens, snipe 
and wild turkeys in abundance. 

Thomas Carter, of Woodlands, Manitoba, says : — " The Canadian North- West 
needs no vindication. It will soon be as well known to the world as is the Rock of 
Gibralter. As fqr the cold, I have been more miserably cold on the heights of Shom- 
clifTe, Kent, (England), than I ever have been in the North- West. Of course a man may 
allow himself to freeze to death if he chooses, or if he is standing near a fire he may 
allow himself to burn if he chooses — it's all a matter of taste." 

G. A. Cameron, of Indian Head, N.W.T,, writes : — "As good a place as a man can 
find if he has plenty of money and brains, or if he has no money, but muscle and pluck. 
Send as many here as you can and they will bless you for it." 



William Taylor, of Beulah, P.O., Man., says : — "Settlers should be used to labour 
with their hands without kid gloves, unless provided with ample means. The grumblers 
here are composed of men raised idle at home, who have not means to carry it out here. 
Laboring men and hired girls coming out with those that hire them do not want to be 
bound for any length of time, as wages rule much higher here than in the old countries." 

Christian Trover, of Sec. 22, T 2, R 2, W 2, Alameda, Assiniboia, N.W.T., says: 
— "I should advise intending settlers to encumber themselves as little as possible with 
extras, with the exception of clothing, and be cautious on their arrival to husband their 
resources. As I claim to be a successful north-wester I would be pleased and most 
happy to give advice and information to intending settlers free." 

J. R. NiFF, of Moosonim, N.W.T., states : — "The fact that I settled shows that I had 
confidence in the country, and after two seasons' experience I am more than satisfied. 
As a grain-growing country I believe, with proper cultivation and energy, it cannot t>^ 
exceeded," 



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PLAIN rxOTS AS TO THI CANADIAN N0RTH-WB8T. 



49 



George Vandervoort, of Alexandria, Man., says : — " I consider Manitoba or the 
North-West is the proper place for a man to go to get a home with ease." 

George H. Wood, of Birtle, Man., writes : — "Speaking from what I know as one of 
the leaders of one hundred and fifty in this locality, I don't know a single instance of a 
sober, industrious person who has not benefitted by coming here, and I do know of 
many who always lived ''from hand to mouth" in Ontario, who are getting rich. All we 
require is a railway to get on well, and all get rich. Farming pays here, the Farmers' 
Union grumblers to the contrary notwithstanding." 

S. W. Chambers, of Wattsview, P.O., Man., writes thus: — " Af^er more than five 
years' experience in this country, I am satisfied that no other country in the world can 
approach the Canadian North-West as a field for agricultural productions. And to the 
man who is willing to rough it first and to roll up his sleeves and work for two or three 
years, it offers a comfortable independence in a very few years, with very little capital 
expenditure." 

' Ct. R. Black, of Wellwood, County Norfolk, Manitoba, says ^ — " This country is 
the best place for a man with a small capital to make a home that I have seen, and I 
have been through eight states of the United States, and I have seen nothing to com- 
pare to this Canadian North-West. I would advise settlers coming . from Europe to 
bring nothing but clothes and bedding dnd light materials. I would say in explanation 
that I have raised as high as 40 bushels of wheat and 75 of oats, but that is not the 
rule." 



Montreal Herald Print. 



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SUPPLEMENTARY. 



TESTIMONY OF SETTLERS. 



Mr. A. R. Speers, of Griswold, Manitoba, writes on 6th September, 1884: — "I consider this the 
greatest grain producing country in the world without any exception, and as I have handled considerable 
stock here I know that to pay well. Last spring I sold one stable rf cattle for 100 dollars (;^2o) per 
head for butchering. My sheep have paid well. Milch cows do very well, and also poultry, and in fact 
everything I have tried. No man need fear this country for producing anything except tropical fruit." 

Mr. P. R. Todd, of Griswold, Manitolia, writes on 12th September, 1884: — "I believe that any 
man who is willing to work, no matter how small his means, can improve his circumstances financially in 
this country, and there is a good chance for a man of means or large capital to run business on a large 
( <. scale profitably. 

Mr. W. H. Hayter, of Alameda, Assiniboia, N. W. T., writes on i6th September, 1884: — *• A 
single man can come here and farm on a small capital, say 500 dollars (j^ioo). I have a family of six 
boys to start. We are well satisfied with the prospects ahead." 

Mr. James Rawson, of Mountain City, Sec. 16, Township 2, R. 6, W., Manitoba, writes on 13th 
September, 1884: — " Persons coming to this Province should have 500 dollars (j^ioo) in cash to start 
with ; not but what a person can get along with less, as I have done, but it is difficult. Magnificent 
count|:y for persons who have plenty of money. Climate healthy, water good, plenty of game." 

Mr. Thomas McGee, of Burnside, Manitoba, writes on 19th September, 1884: — "I think that 
the Canadian North-Westiswell for industrious haid working people, either laborers, farmers or mechanics. 
I was a mechanic before I came here, and am sati^fled that the country is a good one for people that 
want to make homes for themselves." 

Mr. John Kemp, of Austin, Manitoba, writes on 7th September, 1884: — "The soil is immensely 
rich, and will raise large crops for a long time without manure. I am a Canadian by birth, and have 
travelled over a good part of the States and Canada, and, all things considered, I have seen no part of 
America to equal this country for agricultural purposes." 

Mr. Thomas L. Morton, of Gladstone, Manitoba, writes on 8th September, 1884 : — " My land is 
all brush, which 1 consider the best in the end, but more labour. I have twenty acres dark loam, sown 
with Timothy, red top and clover ; 25 head of stock, and 50 acres of crop, which pays far better than 100 
acres of crop. Pigs pay well. Native hops grow well." 

Mr. Robert Campbell, Bridge Creek P. O., Manitoba, writes on 15th September, 1884: — "My 
opinion is that any man with, say, from 500 to 1,000 dollars (;^ioo to ;^2oo) and energy to go to work, 
will have no difficulty in making a comfortable home tor himself and family." 

Mr. John T. Cox, Box 44, Rapid City, Manitoba, writes on 12th September, 1884: — " As an 
agricultural country it is a splendid one — that is the crops must be put in early,, and then they will do all 
right." 



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Mr. DuNC/VN McDoMELL, Baie St. Paul, Manitoba, writes on 19th September, 1884 :— " The 
Canadian North-West, if once settled, will be and is the best agricultural country of ail I have travelled 
through." 

Mr. Joshua Elliott, of Sourisburg, Manitoba, writes on 7th September, 1884: — "I think the 
Canadian North- We:>t is one of the best farming countries in the world, and would think that many in the 
British isles, with tact and energy, might do well here. This is a very poor country for those who will 
not work." 

Mr. W. W. McDonald, Fleming, North- West Territory, writes on 9th September, 1884: — "I 
consider this country the best in the world for all classes of farmers. For the capitalist, plenty of room 
and safe returns; and the man of limited capital, to secure a good home and be independent. I have 
given you a true statement of my own experienc •. You have my address above, and persons wanting 
infurmation by sending a stamped envelope 1 will answer it, and give them the benefit of all my 
experience." 

Mr. Samuel Day, Sec. 34, T. 13, R. 30, Fleming, N. W. T., writes on i8th September, 1884 : — 
" I should like to see the emigration agents go more into the farming districts of England, and induce 
more farm laborers to come to this country. I would suggest Devonshire, as labor is plentiful there and 
wages low. I am afraid some of those city people will not make good settlers, and hence have a bad 
effect by writing home bad accounts. I am satisfied this is one of the best countries for an industrious 
man with energy." 

Bolton, Ferris, of Calf Mountain, Manitoba, says: — "I firmly believe that this country has 
advantages over all others for growing grain and raising stock, and would advise all young men who 
have not made a start, and all tenant farmers with limited capital to come here — that is if they ha -c 
perstverance to rough it for a few years " 



THE FiVOMTE ROUTE TO TIE WEST 
OWEN SOUND 

AND THE 

SPLENDID STEAMSHIPS 

of the Company on Lake Superior, will be resumed on the opening of navigation. 



It is fully expected that the 



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north of Lake Superior will be open for traffic in May next, and a first-c'ass through train service from 
Montreal established. 

Information in regard to rates for settlers and tlielr efitects ^ivlll 
be furnlslied upon application to OBO. 1¥. HIBBARD, Asst. Genl. 
Passeniper Agent, Montreal ; or to D. llIcNICOL,!^, General Passengfer 
Affentf Ontario DlTlslon, Toronto. 

Montreal, April ist, 1885. 



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CANADIAN PACIFIC LllSTB 



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BETWEEN 



TORONTO, OTTAWA AND MONTREAL 



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AND ALL POINTS EAST AND WEST, 



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• -*«» This thorough'y built and splendidly equipped line, which was only opened for traffic in August, 1884, has already earned 

a reputation for comfort and regular time that few lines in America hav* ever reached, and none until after many years of 

■t . operation. In the construction of this line the utmost care was taken with every detail, and nothing was left undone to make 

it what it was intended by its projectors to be, tbe very best ne^w line ever Constructed on tlie 
-9^ 4 American Continent. 

TRACK AND BRIDGES. 

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. ^ The cuttings are unusually wide and thoroughly drained ; the embankments are very wide and solid ; the bridges, resting 

• " on first-class masonry, are of steel, and of twice the ordinary strenj;lh ; the rails are of the best steel, manufactured under rigid 
inspection, and are laid with angle splices of double strength; the ties are large and closely laid, and the track is ballasted 
'\ with the best materials. ,. , 

^ EQUIPMENT. 

The new line is equipped with the finest Passenger, Sleeping and Parlor Cars in the world. The wheels used under all 

the passenger rolling stock are of Krupp steel, 40 inches in diameter, not one of which has ever failed ; the axles are of steel 

and of the full size of the iron axles used on other lines. The car bodies are strongly framed to meet any contingency, and are 

• » ^ wider and higher than those of any other railway. Both first and second class cars are designed to secure uniform warmth 

, Jk combined with perfect ventilation in winter and an abundance of cool air with freedom from dust in summer, and the cars of no 

\ , other line cr.n compare with them in these respects, nor in strength, elegance and comfort. 

THE SLEEPING AND PARLOR CARS 

are owned and operated by the Company, and no expense has been spared to make them perfect. They are finished outside 
; with polished mahogany and their interiors with their rich carvings and beautiful fittings are beyond comparison. The berths 
^ are wider and longer than in other sleeping cars. The curtains, lilankets and linen, made expressly for the Company, are of 
the finest (luality. 

SECOND-CLASS SLEEPING CARS 

1 are run on this line instead of the ordinary second class cars. They are handsomely finished in light woods, on the general 

I plan of ordinary sleeping cars. They are bright and pleasant, and so comfortable that they are largely used by first-class 

piissengers in making short trips. :no extra cliar{[e Is made in tliese Cars. 

TIME. 

The trains of this line are run sharply on time. The through trains m.ikc very few stops, and no annoying delays are 
permitted to occur at stations. All freiLiht trains are kept well out of ihe way of passenger trains, and no train IS per* 

niitted to follo^v a passeuKer train from a sta^tion until it has pat»sed t|te next- 
station aliead. This IS the only Inie in America wlieie this rule is in force, .vj, ;• 

SAFETY. 

■ • Every appliance of proven value, calcul.ited to secure safety, has been adopted on this line without regard to cost These 
are too numerous t(j mention, but they include an elaborate guard sysicni at all biidges, Cooke's patent safety switch at all 
turn-outs from the main track —the unly safeiy switch in use in Canada, ,ind the only one known that will with certainty pre- 
vent derailment from a niisplactd switch Kspecial care has been taken to make the heating apparatus on trains entire!) 
safe, and the oil used in lighting the cars is manufactured expressly for the Company, and is safer even than candies, while 11 
affords a most brilliant liglit. 

CIVILITY AND ATTENTION. 

i'lhe civility and attention of the ernployeesof the Company are spoken of by every traveller on the line. The cleanliness 
of cars and stations is also noticed. I'hcsc two points are, next to safety, most carefully watched by the management. 

SCENERY. 

Some of the finest scenery in Canada is found along this line It varies from_ beautiful to magnificent, and is now()ere 
uninteresting. Broad fields and rocks and lakes and forests are passed in succession. The beautiful Ottawa River is on One 
side oi the other from Carleton Junction to Montreal. A fine view of the picturesque Parliament Buildings at Ottawa is 
obtained from 'he passing trains, and the line crosses directly over the magnificent falls of the Lievre of Buckingham. 



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