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MARCH, 190^. •• 


puice OMC sHn.t.i#tiv^oogl<^ 




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Annual Bxaminatiov — 

Greek. — Part I. — (Translation of Prepared 

Books) ... 
Latin. — Part I. — (Translation of Prepared 

Books) ... 
Greek. — Part II. — (Translation of Prepared 

Books) ... 
Latin. — Part II. — (Translation of Prepared 

Books) ... 
Greek. — Part I. — (Composition and Unseen 

Latin. — Part I. — (Composition and Unseen 

Translation) ... ... ... ♦ ... 

Greek. — Part II. — (Composition and Unseen 

Latin. — Part II. — (Composition and Unseen 

Greek. — Part II. (Oatlines of Greek History, 

Lit' rature, and Antiquities) 
Latin.— Part II. (Outlines of Roman History, 

Literature, and Antiquities) 
Comparative Philology. — Second Year 
Comparatiye Philology. — Third Year 
English.— Part I.— First Paper 
English. — Part I. — Second Paper 
English.— Part II.— First Paper 
English.— Part II —Second Paper ... 
French.— Part I. — First Paper 
French. — Part I. — Second Paper.— Prescribed 

French. — Part I — Third Paper. — History of 

the Literature and Language 
French.— Part IL— First Paper 
French. — Part II. — Second Paper.— Prescribed 

French.— Parts I. and II.— Third Paper 
German. — Part I — First Paper. — Prescribed 



1, 307 

5, 311 


16, 316 

21, 321 

22, 322 


30, 324 

33, 339 
36, 335 
39, 336 
42, 338 
44, 325 

48, 328 




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Annual Examination — continued — i»agt« 

German. — Parti. — Second Paper ... ... 67 

German. — Part I. — Honours, and Part II. — Pass 

(First Paper). — (Composition and Unseen 

Translation) ... ... ... ... 70 

German. — Part IE. — Second Paper ... ... 74 

German.— Part IT.— Third Paper ... ... 77 

Ancient History ... ... ... ... 79,341 

History of the British Empire.— Part I. ... 80, 343 

History of the British Empire.— Part II. ... 82, 344 

Political Economy ... ... ... ... 83,345 

Pure Mathematics. — Parti.... ... ... 85,346 

Pure Mathematics. — Part II. ... 87,348 

Mixed Mathematics. — Parti. ... ... 89,350 

Mixed Mathematics. — Part II. — Engineering 

Course ... ... ... ... ... 93, 353 

Mixed Mathematics. — Part II. — Arts. — First 

Paper ... ... ... ... ... 95 

Mixed Mathematics. — Part II. — Arts. — Second 

Paper ... ... ... ... ... 97 

Deductire Logic ... ... ... ... 99,356 

Inductive Logic ... ... ... ...101,358 

Mental Philosophy.— Paper No. 1 ... ... 103 

Mental Philosophy. — Paper No. 2 ... ... 104, 359 

Moral Philosophy ... ... ... ... 1 05, 360 

Natural Philosophy.— Part I. — Arts & Education 106, 363 

Natural Philosophy. — Part II.— Arts and Science 108, 366 
Natural Philosophy. — Part II. — Engineering 

Course .. ... ... ... ... 110 

Natural Philosophy. — Part HI. — Engineerinjf 

Course ... ... ... ... ... 112 

Geology.— Parti . ... ... ... ... 361 

Geology. — Part II. — Mining Honours ; Science 

Pass ... ... ... ... 114 

Biology.— Part I.— Botany ... ... ... 116 

Biology.— Part I.— Written Paper ... ... 362 

Biology. — Part I. — Laboratory Work ... 363 

Natural Science. — Physical Geography ... 1 1 7, 41 5 

—Natural Science. — Chemistry ... ...118,371 

Natural Science. — 2k)6logy ... ... ... 119 

Natural Science. — Zoology. — Pass and Honour 

Paper ... ... ... ... ... 120 

Astronomy ... ... ... ... 121 

-.Chemistry, — Parti. ,,, ... .,, 36S 

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ANircAii Examination— conft'nwerf — p»ge 

—Chemistry.— Part II. ... ... ... 369 

—Chemistry.— Part III. ... ... ... 123 

-^Organic Chemistry.— First Year ... ... 370 

inorganic Chemistry — Third Year Science ... 124 

^Physiological Chemistry and Histology ... 125 

-technical Chemistry. — Third Tear Science ... 126 
-Elementary Physics and Chemistry. — Veterinary 

Course ... ... ... ... ... 127 

Jurisprudence (including Roman Law) .. 128,372 
Constitutional History and Law (Part I.) and 

Public International Law ... ... ... 129, 374 

Constitutional History and Law.— Part II ... 131, 376 

Constitutional History and Law. — Part III. ... 133, 377 

Private International Law ... ... ... 136, 381 

Administrative Law ... ... ...137,379 

Law of Property in Land and Conveyancing ... 139, 394 

Law of Contracts and Personal Property ... 142, 383 

The Law of Wrongs, Ciyil and Criminal ... 144, 387 

The Law of Procedure ... ... ... 1 48, 384 

Equity ... ... ... ... ... 162, 391 

Education. — Section A. ... ... .,. 166, 339 

Education. — Section B. ... ... ... 157, 340 

Machine Designing ... ... ... 159 

Applied Mechanics. — First Paper ... ... 397 

Hydraulic Engineering. — First Paper ... 398 

Hydraulic Engineering. — Second Paper ... 399 
Mechanical Engineering. — Part I.— Second Paper * 400 
Mechanical Engineering. — Part II.— First Paper 401 
Mechanical Engineering. — Part II. — Second 

Paper ... ... ... ... ... 402 

Civil Engineering. — ^Part I. — First Paper ... 403 

Civil Engineering. — Part I. — Second Paper ... 404 

Surveying. — Parti. — ^First Paper .. ... 406 

Surveying — ^Part I. — Second Paper ... ... 409 

^Metallurgy.— Part L ... ... ... 413 

Physiology. — First Year Massage Candidates ... 416 

Physiology. — Third Year Medicine ... ... 417 

Physiology and Histology. — Third Year Medicine 418 

Anatomy. — First Paper ... ... ... 419 

Anatomy. — Second Paper ... ... ... 420 

Materia Medica and Pharmacy ... ... 421 

Theory and Practice of Medicine ... ... 422 

Forensic Medicine .. . ... ... ... 423 

Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... ... ... 424 

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Annual Examination — continued — rage 

General Pathology and Bacteriology ... ... 425 

Special Pathology ... ... ... ... 426 

Surgery ... ... ... ... ... 427 

Harmony. — First Year Diploma ... ...169,428 

Harmony . — First Year Muft. Bac. — Stcond Year 

Diploma ... ... ... ... 163, 430 

Harmony. — Second Year Mus. Bac. — Third Year 

Diploma ... ... ... ... 166 

Harmony.— Third Year — Diploma ... ... 432 

HaVmony.— Mus. Bac.— Third Year ... ... 167 

Counterpoint. — First Year Diploma ... ... 169 

Counterpoint. — First Year Mus. Bac. — Second 

Year Diploma ... ... ... ... 170 

Counterpoint. —Second Year Mus. Bac. — Third 

Year Diploma 171 

Counterpoint.— Third Year Mus. Bac. ... 172 

Double Counterpoint, Canon and Fugue. — 

Part I.— Third Year Diploma.— Third Year 

Mus. Bac. ... ... ... ... 173 

History, Literature, and Esthetics of Music. — 

Third Year Mus. Bac. and Diploma in Music 1 76 

History, Literature, and ^Esthetics. — First Year 

Mus. Bac. — Second Year Diploma ... ... 178 

Form and Analysis.— First Year Mus. Bac. — 

Second Year Diploma ... ... ... 179 

Form and Analysis. — ^Third Year Diploma. — 

Second Year Mus. Bac. ... ... ... 181 

Instrumentation. — Third Year Diploma (Pass 

and Hon.)— Third Year Mus. Bac. (Pass) ... 183 

Musical Terminology. — First Year Diploma ... 184 

Musical Terminology.— First Year ... ... 434 

HoNOUB Examination — 

Greek. — Part I.— (Translation of Prepared 

Books) ... ... 186 

Latin. — Part I.— (Translation of Prepared Books) 191 
Greek.— Part II. — (Translation of Prepared 

Books) ... 197 

Latin.— Part II.— (Translation of Prepared 

Books) ... ... ... ... ... 203 

Greek.— Part I. — (Unprepared Translation) ... 209 

Latin. — Part I.— (Unprepared Translation) ... 212 

Greek. — Part 11. — (Unprepared Translation) ... 215 

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Honour Examination — continued — Page 

Latio. — Part II, — (Unprepared Translation) ... 218 

Greek. — Part L— (Composition) ... ... 221 

Latin.— Part I. — (Composition) ... ... 222 

Greek.— Part II.— (Composition) ... .,. 224 

Latin. — Part II. — (Composition) ... ... 225 

German. — Part I.— Second Paper ... ... 227 

German.— Part I.— Third Paper ... ... 230 

Ancient History. — Second Paper ... ... 234 

History of the British Empire.— Part I. — Second)' 

Paper ... ... ... ... ... 236 

Pure Mathematics. — Part I.— First Paper ... 237 
Pure Mathematics. — Part I. — Second Paper ... 239 
Pure Mathematics. — Part II. — First Paper ... 242 
Pure Mathematics, — ^Pai t II. — Second Paper . . . 244 
Mixed Mathematics.— Part I. — Secohd Paper ... 247 
Mixed Mathematics. — Part II. — Arts and En- 
gineering ... ... ... ... ... 261 

Miked Mathematics. — Fart II. — Arts and £n- 

niieering. — Second Paper ... ... ... 266 

Deductiye Logic. — Second Paper ... ... 268 

Inductiye Logic. — Second Paper ... ... 260 

Biology. — ^Part I.— Medical Course. — Written ... 261 

Biology. — Part I. — Practical ^Examination ... 262 

Biology. — Fart I. — Zoology. — Science Course ... 263 

Natural Philosophy.— Part L ... ... ... 264 

Natural Philosophy.— Part 11. — Arts and Science 266 
Natural Philosophy. — Part II. — Engineering 

Course ... ... ... ... ... 268 

■^Chemistry.— Part I ... ... 270 

^ Chemistry. — ^Part II. — Science and Engineering 27 1 

Jurisprudence (including Roman Law) ... ... 272 

Constitutional History and Law. — Part II. ... 273 

Law of Property in I^nd and Conveyancing 275 

Law of Contracts and Personal Property ... 277 

Physical Geography ... ... ... ... 279 

Physiology and Histology. — Second Year Science 280 

•JBducation. — Second Paper ... ... ... 281 

^ Metallurgy. — Part I —First Paper ... ... 282 

""Metallurgy. — Part I —Second Paper ... ... 283 

Geology —Part L ... ... ... ... 284 

Applied Mechanics. — First Paper ... ... 286 

Applied Mechanics. — Second Paper ... ... 287 

Mechanical Engineering.— Part I.— -First Paper 288 

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Honour Examination — continued — 
Mechanical Engineeriiig. — Part 


Surveying. — Part I. — First Paper 
Surveying. — Part L — Second Paper 
Surveying. — Part II. — First Paper 
Surveying. — Part II. — Second Paper ... 
Surveying.— Part III. — First Paper 
Surveying. — Part III. — Second Paper . . . 
Ctvil Engineering. — Part I. — First Paper 
Civil Engineering. — Part I. — Second Paper 

I. — Second 



Final Honour Examination in Arts and Scienob — 

School of Classical Philology, 

Greek Translation ... ... ... ... 435 

Latin Translation ... ... ... ... 439 

Greek Composition ... ... ... ... 443 

Latin Composition ... ... ... ... 446 

Comparative Philology ... ... ... 446 

Greek and Roman Literary Criticism ... ... 448 

Greek and Latin Literature ... ... ... 451 

General Paper ... ... ... ... 462 

School of History^ including Constitutional and Legal History, 
and Political Economy » 

Ancient History. — First Paper ... ... 466 

A ncient History. — Second Paper 

History of the British Empire.— -First Paper 

History of the British Empire. — Second Paper 


Politick Economy. — First Paper 

Political Economy. — Second Paper 

Political Economy. — Degree of M.A. ... 

School of Logic and Philosophy, 

I. — Formal Logic 

n. — Inductive Logic .. . 
III. — ^Psychology 
IV. — ^Metaphysics 

V. — Moral Philosophy 
VI.— History of Philosophy ... 



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FnffAL Hon. Exam, in Abts and SotEVCR^-continued—- page 
School of Modern languages, 

English. — First Paper ... ... ... 470 

English. — Second Paper ... ... ... 471 

English.— Third Paper ... ... ... 472 

English. — Fourth Paper ... ... ... 472 

French. — ^First Paper ... ... ... 473 

French. — Second Paper ... ... ... 474 

French.— Third Paper ... ... ... 478 

French.— Fourth Paper ... ... ... 482 

German. — First Paper ... ... 486 

German. — Second Paper ... ... ... 490 

German.— Third Paper ... ... ... 494 

School qf Natural Philosophy, 

General Physics and Heat ... ... ... 496 

Light and Sound ... ... ... ... 498 

Electricity and Magnetism ... ... ... 499 

Special Course ... ... ... ... 602 

School of Geology, 

Geology.— First Paper ... ... ... 602 

Geology. — Second Paper ... ... ... 604 

School of Chemistry, 

^^ Chemistry. — First Paper ... ... ... 506 

Chemistry. — Second Paper ^.. ... ... 506 

Chemistry.— Third Paper ... ... ... 606 

Final Honour Examination in Laws — 

Public Litemational Law ... ... ... 607 

Priyate International Law ... ... ... 508 

Constitutional History and Law.— Part L ... 610 
The Law of Wrongs and the Law of Procedure. — 

First Paper ... ... ... ... 611 

The Law of Wrongs and the Law of Procedure. — 

Second Paper ... ... ... ... 616 

Equity ... ... ... ... ... 619 

Law of Property in Land and Conveyancing ... 522 

The Law of Contracts and Personal Property ... 625 

Administratiye Law ... ... ... ... 626 

Final Honoob Examination in Mbdicine — 

Theory and Practice of Medicine ... ,.. 687 

Clinical Medicine. Case for Commentary ... 627 

Qbttetrics.— Case for Commentary ... ... 529 

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Final Honour Exam, in Mkbicins — continued'^ p<v« 

ObstetricB . ... ... ... ... ... 630 

ForeD sic Medicine _ ... ... ... ... 530 

(reneral and Special Pathology, including Bae- 

teriology ... ... ... ... ... 531 

Gynaecology. — Case for Commentary ... ... 632 

Gynaecology ... ... ... ... ... 532 

Surgery. — Case for Commentary ... ... 533 

Surgery. — Honours ... ... ... ... 534 

Final" Honour Examination in Engineering — 

Hydraulic Engineering.— Part A. — First Paper ... 535 

Hydraulic Engineering.— Part A — Second Paper 639 

Hydraulic Engineering. — Part B. ... ... 540 

Thermo-dynaraics and Electro-magnetism • ... 541 

Civil Engineering. — First Paper ... ... 543 

Civil Engineering.— Second Paper ... ... 544 

Mechanical .Engineering. — First Paper ... ... 545 

Mechanical Engineering — Second Paper ... 546 

Applied Mechanics. — First Paper ... ... 547 

Applied Mechanics.— Second Paper ... ... 548 

Mixed Mathematics (Engineering). — First Paper 649 

Mixed Mathematics (Engineering). — Second Paper 550 

Examination por the Degree or M.C.E. — 

Mining Engineering.— First Paper ... ... 552 

Mining Engineering..— Second Paper ... ... 553 

Road and Bridge Construction and Maintenance. — 

First Paper ... ... 564 

Road and Bridge Construction and Maintenance — 

Second Paper ... ... ... ... 555 

Hydraulic Engineering.— Part A. ... ... 656 

Surveying and Levelling. — First Paper... ... 557 

Surveying and Levelling. — Second Paper ... 559 

Supplementary Pass Examination in Medicine — 

Theory and. Practice. of Medicine . ... .., 562 

Forensic Medicine ... ... ... ... 563 

Special Pathology ... ... ... ... 564 

Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... ... ... 665 

Surgery.— -Pass ... ... ... ... 566 

Materia Medica and Pharmacy ... ... 567 

Therapeutics, Dietetics, and Hygiene ... ... 568 

Physiology and Histology ... ... ... 568 

Anatomy ... ... .. ... .^^ 669 

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NOVEMBER, 1906. 

DEQHEES OF B.A., B.Sc, LL.B., M.B., B.S., 


The Board of Exam%ner$. 

1. Translate, with brief notes in the margin where 
you think them called for — 

(//) ^rji^ev <l>ol3rjd^c' 0tXea 
yap ^^€ TCL^iQ TTTepvyiov 
OoaiQ a/jiiWaiQ irpotrijia 

TovZe Ttayovy varpt^aq 
fjLoyiQ irapeiwovffa f^pivaq. 
K'panrvoipopoi ^i fx^ enefiypav avpaC 

KTVTTov yap d\ut ^(aXvjSog 
^i^^ev ayrpufv /JiV)(ov, ek 5' CTrXryJe fwv 

Tav Se/JiepuifTriv aidat' 
avdriy 3' aTridiXoq o^w TTTepiitT^, 


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{h) eyuj yap ovk el ouoru^^w, rovh* EiveKa 

deXoifJL av <jjQ irXeiffTOKTi frrjfjLorag TV)^elv. 
ov hfJT\ kitei fjie Kal KaaiyvriTOv Tv\ai 
Teipova ArXavrof, og irpog kairipovg T&irovg 
earriKe kIov^ ovpavov re Kal ')(dov6g 
^fioig epeidtavy A\dog ovk ehayKaXov. 

(c) Ki. ^ yap TTOT ecrriv eKTrecrnv apxvi ^^« » 
UP. ijhoi aVf olfiaij rrivh' Ihovira (Tvn<popav. 
Ki. TTwc F OVK ayy iJTig eK Aiog Trao-^w KaKuig'y 
nP. wg Toivvv ovTiay TCjyZi vol fiade'iv wapa, 
Ki. wpog Tov Tvpavva (TKi\irTpa (TvXrjdiiffeTai; 
HP. irpog airrog avrov K€yo<l>p6ywy fiovXevfiarwy, 
Ift. irolip rpoirtf) ; aTifirfvoVf el /i^ tlq /3Xa)S>y. 
nP. yafxel ydfjLOv Toiovrovy J ttot atrxaXf. 

(d) KaKpiva frpwTog c£ oyeiparwy a xp^ 
{/Trap yevetrSaiy KXrj^ovag re hvtTKpiTOvg 
eyyu)pi(r avrolg' evohiovg re (rvfx(i6Xovg 
yaiJ,\pwvv\wv re Trrfjaiy oltaydy (TKeOputg 
htitpiUy otriyig tc de^ioi <pv9iVp 
ehojyvfjLovg re, Kal Biairay rjyTiva 
e^ova eKaoTOiy Kal irpog aXX?;Xovc rlveg. 
e^Opai re Kai (TripyriOpa Kal ^vy espial' 
(nrXay)(y(ity re XeLOTt^Ta^ Kal \poiay riya 
ej^ovT av eiTj lalfMctnv irpog tj^yiiv* 

2. {a) Give a terse account of the conditions under 

which a drama was exhibited in the time of 
(() What rational account can be given of the 
mvth of Prometheus ? 

3. Explain the meaning of — ayijpiBfwv yeXaajjia — Tt)y 

ffi^ripofXijTopa alay — *Apa/3/ac 6,p£ioy aydog, ol 
wdXiafia KavKatrov ireXag vefioyrai — Eptvvfg — 
KripoirXatTTog ^oya^ — avXijy MaiwTiKog — at vpoari- 
yopoi ^pveg. 

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And the grammar of— ct yojo fx vv6 yf^v -^KtVj w{ fiii 
deog kireyridu — kl^ikvffafjiyfy fiporovQ tov (or to) /i^ 
tie "Ai^ov fjLoXeiy — ovk eany 6t^ fieiiova fioipay 
veifiaifi § troi — tivoq a/JLirXaKiaQ noivac oXixei', 

4. Translate, with notes, as above — 

(a) dXX' ti ffoi tljcEv* '£i Opa(TVfxa\€y irufc Xeyeic ; 
firj airoKpivuffxai S)y irpoelweQ firjoiy ; iroripoyy i 
davfxaaiEy fA7)V tl TOVTijjy ti Tvyyjivti oy^ dW 
ertpov €i7ra> ri tov aXriOovg ; rj ttwc Xeyeig j tI &y 
avT^ eiTreg vpog Tuvra J Elev, e<f>Tj' wg drj Sfioioy 
tovto EKtlyiD, Ovhiy ye KtjXvUy ^y d^ eycj' ei B* 
ovy Kai firj eoTiy Ofxowvy (paiyeTai ^e Tt5 IpojTridiyTi 
TOiovToy, ^TTdy ti avToy oiet airoKpiytlaBai to 
<paiv6fi£vov kavTify idy Te fifJLEig dirayopevtofjiey kdv 
T£ pii ; "AXXo Ti pvy, £^17, koI av ovTtit iroiiiatig ; 
^y eyttt airiiiroy^ tovtwv ti cLTroKpiyel ; Ovk ay 
Bavfiaffaifjiif -liy d* cyw, ei /loi crKE'^ap.iyt^ ovtw 

{b) ayvpTai di Kai fxdvTEig ettX irXovtriioy Ovpag 
lotrrtg veiOovaiy utg ttm irapa (T(pi<n dvyafiig ek OeSty 
TTopt^ofxiyri Ovariaig re Kai empdalgy etre n d^iKTifid 
TOV yiyoytv avTOv r) vpoy6yu)yy cLKElffdai fXEd^ 
Tj^vHv TE Kai EopTdjy, Eciy TE Tiva E^dpbv irripifii'ai 
e6e'Xi7 fiETCL frfjuKpHy ^aTraydy, 6/jioi(og ^iKaioy ddUi^ 
j3Xd\pEiy Eirayidyalg Tialy Ka\ KaTa^Efffxoigy Tovg 
dEOvgyiig <pa<TLyy TreiOoyTEg cripicnv virtipETEly. TOVTOig 
^E Tract V role Xoyoig fiapTvpag TroirjTag iTrdyoyTai, 
01 fiiy KaKtag izipi EVirETEiag ZiZoyTEgy wc 

r^r Illy KaKOTTfTa Kai eXa^oi^ larriy kXiaOai 
prfi^iiog' Xelri ^Ey o^og, fidXa ^* lyyvdi yaUi' 
Tfjg ^' apETfig tdpQTa OeoI TrpOTrdpoiOey eOrfKay 

Kai Tiva ohoy fiaKpdv te Ka\ dydvTV, • 


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5. Translate^ with grammatical and explanatory notes 

where necessary :— 

{a) KtXiveiQ drj fi/jidg irpotrdeivai t^ ^iKai^ rj wc to 
TTpbJTOv eXiyofiey, XiyoyreQ diKaiov iTvat rov fiev 
ifUXov iv TToulVj Toy ^' €')(dp6y KaKwc, vvv wpog 
TovT^ 2}de Xiyeiv, on €<mv BiKaioy Toy ^Iv i^iXov 
ayaQoy ovra (Z iroulvy tov 5' k\Qpov icaKov ovra 

(jb) eoTTiy ^f Tovro TvpavvlQ, fj oh Kara (T/jiucp6y 
ToXXorpia Kai XddpijL Koi fiiq. cKJMipelrai, Kai iepa 
Kai 8(Tia Koi V'^m i:at hrifidtna^ aXXa fuXX^/3^>yy, Z>v 
k<f EKoiaTf fJ-^pet^ Brav tlq adiKtiffag /ii) Xd6j;, 
i^Tifjiiovrai t€ icai oyeicrj exei ra jjieyiffra * 

(c) ^rjXoy yap on oh tovto Xiyei, oirep &pTi eXiyofiey, 
TO TivoQ irapaKaTaOefAeyov ti OT^ovy firj <ruHl>p6ywi: 
hwairovvTi awodidoyai ' Kairoi ye 6(l>eiX6fJL£v6y 
TTov kcTiy TOVTO y 6 irapaKaridtTO ' ») yap; Nat. 
^ AiroZoTtov di ye ov2' owuKmovy Tore ovore tiq firi 
ffU)(l>p6yu)Q aTTQiroiri. 

6. What is the meaning of — ctpwvevco-Oai, epfiaioyy 

Karareiyagy Eh<l>vri£, 'i^ioi Xoyot, IrifiiovpyoQ ? Dis- 
tinguish in meaning between — Qelvai vofiovg, 
diadai vofiovc ; ev^epriQy ehweTtic ; 3el, XP^y vpotr-q- 
KEi] oh TrdyVf oh irdyv rt ; olha tov aydpwTroVy 6 
6.y6pw7roQ yvutpifxog eariy kfxoL 


Explain why a discussion on the nature of justice 
formed the proem to Plato's Ideal Common- 

8. Outline the arguments by which Socrates, starting 
from Simonides' definition of Justice, forces 
Polemarchus to admit that the just man is a 

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The Board of Exanni/ners. 

I. Translate, with concise notes in the margin where 
you think them necessary — 

(a) Sin autem ad pugnam ezierint, nam saepe 
Regibus incessit magno discordia motu, 
Continuoqne animos vulgi et trepidantia bello 
Corda licet.Ionge praesciscere : namque morantes 
Martins ille aeris rauci canor increpat, et vox 
Auditur fractos sonitus imitata tubarum ; 
Turn trepidae inter se coeunt, pennisquecornscant, 
Spiculaque ezacuunt rostris, aptantque lacertos, 
Et circa regem atque ipsa ad praetoria densae 
Miscentar, magnisque vocant clamoribus hostem. 

(6) Ac veluti lentis Cyclopes fulmina massis 
Gum properant, alii taurinis follibus auras 
Accipiunt redduntque, alii stridentia ting-unt 
Aera lacu ; gemit impositis incudibus ^tna ; 
lUi inter sese magna vi braccbia tollunt 
In numerum, versantque tenaci forcipe ferrum : 
Non aliter, si parva licet componere magnis, 
• Cecropias innatus apes amor urget habendi, 
Munere quamque suo. Grandaevis oppida curae, 
Et munire favos, et daedala fingere tecta. 

{c) Nam qua Pellaei gens fortunata Ganopi 
Accolit effiiso stagnantem iiumine Nilum 
Et circum pictis vehitur sua rura phaselis ; 

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Quaque pharetratae vicinia Persidis urget, 
Et viridem Aegjptum nigra fecundat harena 
Et diversa mens septem discurrit in ora 
Usqne coloratis amnis devezus ab Indis : 
Omnis in hac certam regio iacit arte salutem. 

2. (a) Discuss the object of Vergil in writing the 

Georgics. Comment on any means which he 
adopts of making a didactic work *^ poetical." 

(6) What are the chief errors which he commits 
in regard to bees ? 

3. Explain — imbrex, insincerus cruoriinvisa Minervae 

aranea, viva volare sideris in numerum, snspen- 
dnnt oeraa, Cnretum sonitus, vellere signa, 

4. State the grammar of — trunca pedum — neque 

enim pins septuma ducitur aestas — pabola venti 
ferre domum prohibent. 

6. Translate, as kbove — 

(a) virtus repulsae nescia sordidae 
intaminatis fulget honoribus 

nee sumitautponit secures 
arbitrio popularis aurae. 

virtus reclndensinmeritismori 
caelum negata temptat iter via 
ooetusque volgaiies et udam • 

spernit humum fugiente penna. 

(b) hie dies anno redeunte festus 
corticem adstrictum pice dimovebit 
amphorae ^mum bibere institutae 

consule Tullo. 

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(c) aurum per medios ire satellites 

et perrumpere amat saxa potentius 
ictu fulmineo : ooncidit auguris 
Argivi domus ob lucrum 

demersa ezitio ; diffidit urbium 
portas vir Macedo et subruit aemulos 
reges muneribus ; munera navium 
saeTos inlaqueant duces. 

(d) campestres melius Scjthae, 

quorum plaustra vagas rite trahuni 
vivunt et rigidi Getae, 

inmetata quibus iugera liberas 
fruges et Cererem ferunt, 

nee cultura placet longior annua, 
defunctumqne laboribus 

aequali recreat sorte Ticarius. 

6. Explain the epithets in — 

Vester, Camenae, Tester in arduos 
ToUor Sabinos, sen mihifri^um 

Prseneste, sen Tibur tupinum 

Sen liquidae placnere Baiae. 

?. What is meant by *^ Epicurean" as applied to 
Horace ? Illustrate such principles from any- 
thing you may remember in the Odes. 

d. Explain ^he grammar of — abstineto irarum — 
testudo resonare septem callida nervis — donee 
non alia magis arsisti. 

9. Where were — Lipara, Algidus, Bhodope, Cantabri, 
Castalia, Galaesus ? 

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10. Translate with notes — 

(a) phalarica erat Saguntinis missile telum hastili 
abiegrno et cetera tereti praeterquam ad ex- 
tremum, unde ferrum exstabat; id, sicut in pilo, 
quadratum stuppa circumligabant linebantque 
pice ; ferrum autem tres longum habebat pedes, 
lit cum armis. transfigere corpus posset, sed id 
maxime, etiam si haesisset in scuto nee pene- 
trasset in corpus, pavorem faciebat, quod, cum 
medium accensum mitteretur conceptumque ipso 
motu multo maiorem ignem ferret, arma omitti 
cogebat nudumque miiitem ad insequentes ictus 

(b) turn nemini visum id loDgum, cum ab occasu 
solis ad exortus intenderent iter; nunc, post- 
quam multo maiorem partem itineris emensam 
cernant, Pyrenaeum saltum inter ferocissimas 
gentes superatum, Rbodanum, tantum amnem^ 
tot milibus Gallorum probibentibus, domita 
etiam ipsius flupninis vi traiectum, in conspectu 
Alpes nabeant, quarum alterum latus Italiae sit, 
in ipsis portis hostium fatigatos subsistere — quid 
Alpes aliud esse credentes quam montium altitu- 
dines P fingerent altiores Pyronaei iugis ; nullas 
profecto terras caelum contingere nee inexsuper- 
abiles humane geheri esse. 

(c) id vero laboris velut de integro initium fuit ; 
nam nee explicare quicquam nee statuere poterant, 
nee, quod statutum esset, manebat, omnia per- 
scindente vento et rapiente ; et mox aqua levata 
vento cum super gelida montium iuga concreta 
esset, tantum nivosae grandinisdeiecit, ut omnibus 
omissis procumberent homines tegminibus suis 
magis obruti quam tecti ; tantaque vis frigoris 
insecuta est, ut ex ilia miserabili hominum 

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iumentorumque strage cum se quisque attoUere 
ac levare vellet, diu neqniret, quia torpentibus 
ngore nervis vix flectere artus poterant. 

11. Translate and explain — 

(a) ipsi triumviri Romani, qui ad agrum venerant 

{b) Aegates insulas Erycemque ante oculos pro- 

12. Comment on — 

(a) adversum femur tragula graviter ictus. 
(6) nox una Hannibal! sine equitibus acta est. 

VS. Explain praetorium missum ; agmen quadratum ; 
de re publica referre, votorum nuncupatio, 
solum vertere^ animam reciprocare, navales socii, 

14. Summarize the chief events in the histories of 
Rome and Carthage between the first and 
second Punic wars. 

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The Bowrd of Examiners. 

[N.B. — Second Year Candidates need not attempt more 
than Six, nor Third Year Candidates more than 
Eight, of the passages for translation.] 

1. Translate, with brief notes in the margin if 
necessary — 

(a) avTop ewei p ev^yro icai oi/Xoxurag xpo/3a\oyro, 
avipvffav /zev wpufra koi eer^afav jcat e^eipav, 
firipovQ T e^eTafiov Kara re Kyitry eKoXvipav 
^iTrruxo- iroifiaavTeg, ev avr&v 5* wfiodiTrjaav' 
icatc h* £7ri ox*^??^ ° yipiov^ enl ^* aiOoTra oTvov 
Keifie ' vioi ^e irap avrov t\ov flrf/x7rw/3oXa y^epvlv* 
avrap CTret Kara /xfjpa Karj Kai (nr\ay)(va iratravTOy 
fiitrrvXKov t &pa rSWa Kal afuf of^eXolviy Eweipavy 
&7rrrj(Tay re Trepuppa^iutt: ipvffayTo re Trayra. 
avrap kvei wavaayro voyov TtrvKoyro re ^atro, 
^aiyvyTy ov^i ri dvfiog e^evero ^aiTog eicrrig* 
avrap iirel ttovioq Kal Idrjrvog c£ epoy eyro^ 
Kovpoi jiky KprirfjpaQ eTrearixj^ayro iroroio^ 
ybjfxricray ^' apa irauiv eirap^afjieyoi ^ETrdeatny, 

{b) (jjg &p £(f>rjn (TKriTrrp^ Be fitrcupptvoy iihi Kal &fni> 
TrX^fev • o ^' tByu)6r}, SaXepoy Be oi eKiretre BaKpv. 
(TfXtoBii B alfxaroEffffa fieratppiyov e^virayearr) 
fTKiiirrpov wro '^(pvffiov * o 5* &p^ e^ero rapfiricrey re^ 
aXyritrag h cv^elov t^wv airofioptaro BaKpv. 
01 Be Kal a\yvfJLeyol irep eir* ahrw riBv yeXacraay. 
StBe Be rig eiiretTKe iB^y eg wXrftriov &XXoy * 

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/SovXac T e^apx^v ayadae T6ktfi6v re xopvatruty* 
vvv Zi Toti fjiiy Apiaroy kv *Apy€ioi9iy epe^eyf 
oc Toy Xuffirfrfipa kntafioXoy €9\ ayopauy. 

2. Explain — vriee afupiiXitraai — ^lyutroiai Xixttrtriv — ei 

li voT ec ye fiiav fyovXevfrofJiey — diwaQ a/i^tkv- 
iteXXov — kvi ?ipa <pip€iy — ov Bpiapewv KoXiovtri deoi 
aydpec di tb Trcivrcc Atya£«va— OeyLHorfc— S/itr6^£w. 

3. Give a succinct account of — 

(a) the probable dialect of the original Achilles- 

{b) indications in Homer of the physique and 
armour of the Achaeans as distingimhed from 
other Aegean peoples. 

4. Write down the Attic equivalents of— »/y€p6€v, 

Xipritj €irtr£rpa^arai, fjaro. 

6. Translate (as above) — 

(a) X^V^' '''^^^ h^^ Kara ^oiyieraav efiiroXay 

/liXoc inrep iroXidQ &X6q ircfwrcrai' 
TO Katrropeioy 5' £v AioXi^eatrt ^ophaig diXuty 
adprieroy \apiy eTrraKTvirov 
fjiSpfuyyot ayTdfJiiyog. 
yiyoi oloc ktnrl fiaduy' jcaXoc roi iriOtoy irapa 

iraifflyf aUl 
KaX6s» 6 he *Paddfiaydv£ ei nivpayeyfOTi (fipevioy 
cXa^c tcapiroy hfi^firfroyj ohh aTaTaitri 6vfji6y 

Tepnerai eyhodey, 
ola \piOvpu)y iraXafjiaig e^rcr' alel fipor&y. 
ajaaxoy Kaioov afii^ipoiQ hiaifioXtdy v7ro(l>ariec, 
opyaia areyeg aXtoTreKuty creXot. 

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(b) 'Lafitpoy fxey y^pri vt vap avZpX 0tX^ 

oTCLfuVy eviwvov fiatriXfji Kt/pdvac^ 6<l>pa KWficL' 

iovTi ffvy 'ApiccortX^, 
M.oiaa, Aaroicaiffiv SifieiKdfAivov Hvdwrl r* av^i/c 

ovpoy vfjLviav, 
EvBa TTOTe •^vffiwv Aioc air)T&v vape^poe 
ovic airodafjiov 'AttoXXwj'oc tv^ovtoq tpea 
Xpfitrey olKKTTfjpa Bclttop KapTro(f>6pov Ail3vaQy iepav 
vdaov WQ ij^rj Xiirtoy Kritraeier evapnarov 
iroXir kv apyiyoerri fiaar^. 

6. ]\ame any strikiDg features of (a) the grammar 

and dialect {b) the constructive manner of 

7. Comment on — \evKaii: TriOfiaavra (l>pa(Tiv — iv^evi- 

ovTEQ avc^iov — tv HxfQCjvi Tdfftraig—^ irpooifiicjv 
afipoXac — HoiavTOQ viov ro^orav — ^Ap')(i\o')(OP 
e^Oeariv iriaivdfievov — *Apyove xaXivov. 

8. Translate (as above) — 

(a) 6 XevKaffirig opvvTat Xaog evrpeirriQ cttJ woXiy 


rig apa pvccrot, rig ci/o' iirapKetni dewy i) Oedy ; 
TTorepa ^fJT ey^ irorinitrto PpeTTf haifjLoywy j 

tei> /ACLKapeg tvehpoi. 
dic/id^ci f^perewy £\E(rOai' rl fiiXXo^ey nyaffroyoiy 

CLKOVET yj oifK cLKoviT aanidcjy KTVTroy ; 
TrfVXwv Kai arnpiwy iroTy tl /nrj vvv, a/jifl Xerdy' 

KTviroy hehopKa' warayog ov)( kvog ^opSg, 
Tl pi^eigf irpo^uxreigy iraXaixBioy "Aprig, ray Ttay 


J> yjpvtroirijiXrilE, haifioVj tinV tiriht ttoXiv, 
av iroT EvfiXriTay eOov. 

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(h) ovTiMti, yivoiTo. Toy ^e Trifncrov av Xiyw^ 
vifiwrann irpoffTayBivTa Boppaiats irvXocc, 
TVfi^y Kar ahrov AioytvoDc *A|i0tovoc. 
Ofivvffi y al^firjyf ^v ex^'^ fidWoy deov 
ffifieiv ireiroiOuc oiAfiaTwv 0* vwiprepoy, 
^ fi^y Xawa^eiy &aTV Kahfiiluty piijf, 
Aide* t6^* av^9 fiTirpoi c£ 6p€ffK6ov 
fiXoKFTTifxa KaWtTTp^poyf aydp67raig uvrip, 
(rreiyti 3' llovXoc a/ort hia iraprfihiay 
&paQ <^vov<n)Q Tapi^vQ ayriWovaa Opl^, 
6 5' (bfioy ovTi wapdiru}y iirutyvfjiov 
^>p6yrifjLay yopyov ?* ofXfi t\iayf irpotritrraTai. 
ov firjy aKdfiiratrro^ y e<^ifrraTai wvXaii:' 
TO yap irSXetas ovei^og iy ')(aXKT)XaT^ 
traKei, kvkXu}T^ (rw/iaroc npoftXrifiaTi, 
S^/yy' CifjLOiTiToy 7rpo(TfiEfir\\ayripiivriy 
yd/u^otC eyutfiay Xajunrpoy eKKpovtrroy ^c/iac' 

9. (a) Give instances of metaphorical condensation 
in the style of Aeschylus. In what ways are 
Greek metaphors qualified or defined ? 

(ft) Give instances of plays upon words. 

10. Comment briefly on the story of Cadmus, of 

the Sphinx, and on the epithet kwTairvXoi. 

11. Write a note on the grammar of — 

Oeot troXlraij jjiff fie ^ovXtlag TV')(jE7y — eKvlp' 
oEiv troXiy fpriffiy, ov^e Trjy Aiog ipiv veh^ aKri\l>a(ray 
kfiTTohwy (r\E&uv — 

and on the meaning of — 

kBpiypar* olKitrrripag, ottwc yivonrOe irpbg "^pioQ 
Tohe. — iJLtXayhiTOv (tolkoq — hrinKibv Trri^aXlwy dia 
OTo/itt, wpiyeyerdy x^Xiydy — TriOvog Traideg — 
uaari^ — Kafixl^iirovg ^Epiyvg, 

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12. Translate (as above) — 

(a) wapairei te Tpoeiweiy roXtri hovtCov tKaarovq Trvp 
avaKaUiv' jco/it^^c ^t vipi Trjv Cjprjv avrf fieXfitreiv, 
tiffre acTiyeac awiKitrSai cc Trjy EXXa^a. ravra 
Upetri <T(l>i TroUeiv, Kal avriKa irvp avaKavaafitvoi 
tTpairovTO TTpoQ TO. irpSPara. ol yap Ew/3o£cc Trapa- 
')(pri(Tafieyoi rov 'Bclki^oc ypr\(T^oy wg ovdeyXiyoyTa, 
ovre Ti eleKOfilffayro ovMy ovre irpoetra^ayro wg 
vapeffOfiEyov aft TroXe/iOv, Trepnrerea re ETroiijaayTo 
<x<pi(n avToiffi ra npriyfiaTa* "B/iki^l yap i^E e\ei 
'nEpt TOVTioy 6 ypTitr^OQ' 

^pdKfo papf3ap6<lKjJvov orav Z,vybv hq aXa paKky 
P^pXivov ^vPoiijQ airkx^iv iroXvfjniKddag cdyaq. 

rovTOKTi ^E ov^iy ToTtri STTEffi ')(priffafjLEyoL(n ly roTai 
TOTE TrapEOVffl TE Kal Trpoff^OKifioitn KaKoltri, irap^y 
(T<pi arvfupopy ')(prl(Tdai npog to. /icytora. 
(6) irpStTot yap Ay^pioi yriffiijjTEijJv atrrfOEyTEg wpog 
Gc/iioTOJcXe'oc XP^fittra ovk E^otraV dXAa Trpo'iar^O' 
fjLEyov QEfiifTTOKXiog \6yov rov^e, wg iJKOiEy'Adriyaloi 
TTEpl E(i)VTOvg E^ovTEg ^vo SEOvg /jiEydXovgy HeiOw te 
Kal *AyayKaii]y, ovro) te tr(j>i KopTa ^oTsa clvat 
X/o^/iara, inrEKpiyayTo npog ravro XiyoyrEg, wg KaTO. 
\6yoy -^ffay apa at ^AdfjyaL /icydXai te Kal Ev^ai' 
fiovEgy Kal Ocwv "^riuTiay ^koiev ev' ItteI *Av^piovg 
yE Ely ai yEWirEiya^ Eg to. ixiyKTra dyiiKOVTag^Kal dEovg 
dvo d^prfOTOvg ovk EKXEiirEiy ff<ftEijjy r^v vrjtJOVy dXX' 
ahl <^LXo')(it)pEELy^ Ilev/fyv te Kal *Aftif)(ayirjv* Kal 
ToifTwy Twy BEuty £7ri;/3oXovg ioyTag ^Ay^plovg ov 
^u)(rEiy -xprifiaTa' 

13. Where were Scione, Ellopia, Hollows of Euboea, 

Aphetae^ Amphissa, HermidDe ? 

14. Gire the Herodotean words for liTTaw, fiXdirTw, and 

the Attic for avayvtb<rai, EKiaTo. Comment on the 
Ionic use of 7rpdj[3ara, Tifxtapirf, Ewitrra/jLai, and on 
the grammar of ewoUeto irdy Skwc &y i^nTUfSEir), 

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15- Translate (as above) — 

(a) ""On fJLEV ovv travT^ av^pa eiKOTwc aifoMyovrai 
TTCpt TctirrqQ rrjq aperffg avfil^ovXov ^la to ^yeltrdai 
iravTi fitreivai avrfJQf ravra Xiyio' on ^c avrrly ov 
(jtvcrei riyovvTai elvai ov3' awo tov avTOfidroVf aWit 
lihaKTOv re Ka\ cf iwifieXeiac irapayiyveoQai ^ av 
frapayiyvryrai, tovto (toi /xcra tovto irtipdffOfiai 
airo^ei^ai. ova yap ffyovvrat aXX^Xovc KaKO. €')^€iy 
avdptawot 0vo-ei f/ Tv\Tjf ovdei£ ^vfiovrai oh^e vovOeTei 
oifM ^i^dtTKEi oh^e icoXd^ei rovg ravra c^oyrac, iva 
fifj ToutvTOi iiTiVy dW' tktovaiV o\ov tovq al(r-)(povg 
i} fffjLiKpovg i dffBeveic tIq ovrtog avdifrog ^trre ri 
Toimtfv eTri^eipelf iroieiPy 

(b) ei yap ric Xeyoi on 'AXXa toXv ^ca^cpet, J> 
'SibiKpartQ, TO trapa-^^pri^a tfhv tov eic tov vtrrepov 
Xjoovoy Kai ii^iog Kal XvrrrfpoVf Mwv fiXXo) r^, (j>airiy 
av eywyey rj if^vfi Kal Xinrrf ; ov yap evO^ ot^ aXX^. 
aXX' &(nrip ayaQoQ itrravai ivOponrogy trvvOeig to. 
ri^ia Kai ovvBeIq to, XvTrrfpd, Kal to kyyvg Kal to 
Toppw crniffac ev t^ ^^^^ ctirc worepa TrXeiu) tariv. 
kkv fiEv yap ff^ea trpog tf^ia tfrr^Q^ to. fieH^w del Kal 
TrXctw Xiprrca* edv he Xvwrfpd vpog Xvirrjpdy to. cXdr- 
rw Kai (TfiiKpoTEpa' edv Ze fj^ea wpog Xwr^pd, edv 
fuv rot dvKipd VTrepj^dXXrfrai viro t&v fj^eufv, edv re 
ra iyyvg vvo tUv voppia edv re ra iroppo) viro tQv 
eyyvg, TavTtjv Trjv wpd^iv wpaKTeov ev y av ravr' 
ev^ • edv 3e ra fj^ea viro rwv dviapt^v^ ov wpaKrea' 
fiij TTT} dXXri e^eiy <l>airfv av, ravra, f5 dvdpwiroi ; 

16. Explain the attitude of Socrates towards sophistic 


17. Comment on — iroppw e^o^e twv wKTCtv elvai — 'Itttto- 

Kpdrti, tov twv ^ A(rKXr)'iriaCwv — itporrr^ov — Tovroig 
Kara tovto eivat ov ^vfi^epofiai — ^epeKpdTr)g 6 
itoiifrrfg e^i^a^ev eirl Ar/va/w — yvCidi aavTov Kal 
firi^ev dyav. 

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The Board of Exandnerg. 

1. Translate, with brief notes in the margin where 3'ou 
, think them called for — 

1 (a) Illud in his rebus vereor, ne forte rearis 
inpia te rationis inire elementaviamque 
indugredi sceleris. quod contra saepius ilia 
religio peperit scelerosa atque impia facta. 
Aulide quo pacto Trivial virginis aram 
Iphianassai turparunt sanguine foede 
due tores Danaum delecti, prima virorum. 
cui simul infula virgineos circumdata comptus 
ex utraque pari malarum parte profusast, 
et maestum simul ante aras adstare parentem 
sensit et hunc propter ferrum celare ministros 
aspectuque suo lacrimas effundere civis, 
muta metu terram genibus summissa petebat. 
nee miserae prodesse in tali tempore quibat 
quod patrio princeps donarat nomine regem. 

{b) denique materies si rerum nulla fuisset 

nee locus ac spatium, res in quo quaeque 

numquam Tyndaridis forniae conflatus amore 
ignis, Alexandri Phrygio sub pectore gliscens, 
Clara accendisset saevi certamina belli, 
nee clam dura tens Troianis Pergama partu 
inflammasset equos nocturne Graiiugenarum. 

2. Comment on — Heraclitas clarus ob obscuram 

linguam — Acragantinus Empedocles — ^Anaxa- 
gorae homoeomerian. 

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3. State concisely the physical theory of Epicarus, 
giving (if possible) the Greek terror with the 
Latin equivalents. 
Give the various words used by Lucretius 

4. Explain the forms — indugredi, consumpse, escit, 
aquai. , 

b. Translate, as above — 

Licet superbus ambules pecunia, 

Fortuna non mutat genus. 
Yidesne, Sacram metiente te viam 

Cum bis trium ulnarnm toga, 
Ut ora vertat hue et hue euntium 

Liberrima indignatio ? 
*' Sectus flagellis hie triumviralibus 

Praeconis ad fastidium 
Arat Falemi mille fundi iugera 

Et Appiam mannis terit, 
Sedilibusque magnus in primis eques 

Othone contempto sedet ! 

6. TranslatCj as above — 

(a) Syllaba longa brevi subiecta vocatur iambus, 
Fes citus; unde etiam trimetris accrescere 

Nomen iambeis, cum senos redderet ictus 
Primus ad eztremum similis sibi. Non ita 

Tardior ut paullo graviorque veniret ad aures 
Spondeos stabiles in iura paterna recepit 
Gommodas et patiens, non ut de sede secunda 
Gederet aut quarta socialiter. Hie et in Acci 
Nobilibus trimetris apparet rarus, et Enni 

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In scaenam missos com magno pondere versus 
Aut operae celeris nimium curaque carentis 
Aut ignoratae premit artis crimine turpi. 

(b) Yeraibus impariter iunctis querimonia primum^ 
Post etiam inclasa est TOti sententia compos. 

(c) Neve minor neu sit quinto productior actu. 

7. Translate, with short notes — , 

(a) Cum hoc Pompeius egit et, ut ad me ipse re- 
ferebat — alium enim habeo neminem testem — , 
vehementer eg^t, cum diceret in summa se per- 
fidiae et sceleris infamia fore, si mihi periculum 
crearetur ab eo, quern ipse armaaset, cum ple- 
beium fieri passus esset ; fidem recepisse sibi et 
ipsum et Appium de me ; banc si iile non ser- 
varet, ita laturum, ut omnes intellegerent nihil 
sibi antiquius amicitia nostra fuisse. 

(b) De intercessione statim ambo consules referre 
coeperunt, cum sententiaegravissimae dicerentur, 
senatui placere mihi domum restitui, porticum 
Catuli iocari, auctoritatem ordinis ab omnibus 
magistratibus defendi, si quae vis esset facta, 
senatum existimaturum eius opera factum esse, 
qui senatus cousnlto intercessisset, Serranns per- 
timuit et Gornicinus ad suam veterem fabmam 
rediit : abiecta toga se ad generi pedes abiecit ; 
ille noctem sibi postulavit: non concedebant; 
reminiscebantur enim Kal lanuar. ; vix tandem 
illi de mea voluntate concessum est. 

(c) Qua re facis tu quidem fraterne, quod me hor- 
taris, sed mehercule currentem nunc quidem, ut 
omnia mea studia in istum unum conferam. 
Ego vero ardenti quidem studio, ac fortasse 
efficiam, quod saepe viatoribns, cum proper- 
ant, evenit, ut, si serius quam voluerint forte 

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sorrexerint, properando etiam citius, quam si de 
nocte vigilassent, perveniant, quo Yeliot ; sic 
ago, quoniam in isto homine oolendo tam indor- 
mivi diu, te mehercule saepe excitante, carsu 
corrigam tarditatem cum equis, turn ?ero — 
quoniam tu scribis poema ab eo nostrum probari 
— quadrigis poeticis. 

8. Translate and explain — 

(a) Is, quern putabant magistrum fore, si bona 


(b) Mirandas kwitrri^affiaQ sine uUa pastoricia fistula 


(c) Carmine qui tragico vilem certavit ob hircum 
Mox etiam agrestes Satyros nudavit. 

{d) Ignotum tragicae genus inrenisse Camenae 
Dicitur et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis, 
Quae canerent agerentque peruncti faecibus ora. 

9. Comment on the grammar of — 
(a) Desertus ab officiis tuis ; 

{h) Equidem malneram, quod erat susceptum ab 

illisy siientio transiri. 
(r) Te nunc, mea Terentia, sic vexari. 
{i) Di faxint. 

10. Where were Cythnus, Pannonia, Lugdiinum, 

fiaetica, Vetera, the Lacus Curtius, the Miliarium 
Aureum, the Gastra Praetoriana^ the Portions 
Yipsania ? 

11. Translate, with grammatical notes — 

(a) Muta ista et inanima intercidere ac reparari 
promisca sunt. 


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(6) Prope in proelium exarsere ni Valens ad- 

(c) Haud dubie servaverat non dementia, quippe 

tot interfectis^ sed efHigium in futuioim. 
{d) Ubi per turmas advenere, yIx ulla acies ob- 


12. Explain — ^ita visum expedire provinciam domi 

retinere — ?exilla Germanica — primipilaris — tes- 
serarius — insula — equites legionis — legatus — 
cella lunonis — evocatus. 

13. Translate, witb notes — 

(a) sextus dies agitur, commilitones, ex quo ig- 
narus futuri, et sive optandum hoc nomen sive 
timendum erat, Caesar adscitus sum. quo domus 
nostrae aut rei publicae fato, in vestra manu 
positum est, non quia meo nomine tristiorem 
casum paveam, ut qui adversas res expertus cum 
maxime discam ne secundas quidem minus dis- 
criminis habere : patris et senatus et ipsius im- 
perii vicem doleo, si nobis aut perire hodie 
necesse est aut, quod aeque apud bonos miserum 
est, occidere. 

{b) Vibius Crispus, pecunia potentia ingenio inter 
claros magis quam inter bonos, Annium Faustum 
equestris ordinis, qui temporibus Neronis dela- 
tiones factitaverat, ad cognitionem senatus voca- 
bat. nam recens Galbae principatu censuerant 
patres, ut accusatorum causae noscerentur. id 
senatus consultum varie iactatum et, prout 
potens vel inops reus inciderat, infirmum aut 
validum retinebat adhuc t^rrores. et propria vi 
Crispus incubuerat delatorem fratris sui perver- 
tere traxeratque magnam senatus partem, ut 
indefensum et inauditum dedi ad exitium postu- 

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The Board of Examiners. 

1. Translate into Greek prose — 

In the course of the night, Leonidas observed 
what had happened. He saw that if he did not 
retreat immediately, he would be surrounded bj 
the Persians and would perish. But the law of 
Sparta forbade the soldier to leave his post, and 
Leonidas was not afraid to die. He ordered the 
other troops to retire while it -was yet possible; 
he himself, with his three hundred Spartans, 
remained to die at his post. Accordingly the 
other troops departed, but the seven hundred 
Thespians resolved to stay and die with Leonidas. 
And now, before the Persians coold descend 
behind them, the Spartans fell upon the host in 
front; Leonidas was the first to fall, but his 
soldiers continued fighting until the Persians, 
who had crossed the mountain, arrived. Then, 
ceasing from the attack, they took up their 
position on a hill to defend themselves against 
the enemy, who now encompassed them on every 

2. Translate into good English — 

" AvZpt^ Hiperaiy vfXEiQ Kal £0urc cv ry avr^ rifxiv 
Ka\ €rpd<l>rjTe, Kal ra truffiard re ovhtv fifjiiiy yeipova 
i\tTBf ^Inrxag re ovdev KaKlovaQ vfiir vpotriiKei rip.tljv 
t\€iv, ToiovTOi Z^ ovreCf ^y fJt^y Ty irarpi^i oh /ic- 
rel\eTe tS»v icwv ht^-^^^y oh\ v^' fi/x&y aTreXadivTfCf 

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ciW viro rov avdyicrjv vfiiy elvai TOLTririiheta iropi^ 
i^etrdai. vvv he omoQ fxiv tuvtu cfcrc, ifjiol fxeX^tret 
(Tvy toIq deolc' Hetrri 5' vjjuvy el fiovXetrOe, Xaf^ovrac 
SvXa, olairep iifielc e'xpfjiev, cif rov avToi' rifilv ircr- 
Jvvov e/ji(3alyeiv, k&v ti ek rovrtoy jcaXoi' Kayadov 
yiyvrjrai, tG»v ofioitay rifilv a^tovtrOat. tov fiey ovv 
npotrdey ')(p6yoy vfxelQ te ro^drai Kal &KvyTiffTai fjre 
ual fjjuelgy Kal ei tl x^ipovg fffAiiy ravra iroieJy ^re, 
ovdey davfJLatrToy' ov yap ^y vfxiy (rxpXii, (oarrep iifiiyy 
rovTtav ETTifjiiXetrdai' kv he. ravTrj ttj oirXicrEi ovBet^ 
flfiElg vfiwr wpoi^ofxey. Oojpa^ fiiv ye JTEpi to. aripycL 
&pfx6rTU)y Elector^ Etrraiy yippov ^e ey rp apiarep^y 
b TcdyTEg eidiafiEOa (popEly, fi&xatpa he ey rrj 
^E^i^y J ^1^ iraieiv rovq Eyayrlovg Zeijtreiy ohhei' 
(pvXaTTOfiEvovg /xri ti iralovTEg E^afxdpriafjiey. 


The Board of Examiners. 

1, Translate into Latin Prose — 

The mutineers, seeing their leader fall, pre- 
pared themselves for revengfe; and this whole 
company, with the king himself, had undoubtedly 
perished on the spot, had it not been for the 
extraordinary courage which Richard displayed 
on the occasion. He ordered his whole com- 
pany to stop ; he advanced alone towards the 
enraged multitude; and accosting them with 
an intrepid countenance, he asked them, 
^^ What is the meaning of this disorder, my 
good people ? Are ye angry that ye have lost 
your leader ? I am your king ; I will be your 

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leader." The populace^ overawed by bis pre- 
•sence, followed bun ; be led them into the fields, 
to prevent any disorder which might have arisen 
from their continuing in the city; being there 
joined by Sir Robert Knollys, and a body of 
well-armed veteran soldiers, who had been 
secretly drawn together, he strictly ordered that 
officer not to fall upon the rioters and commit 
an indiscriminate slaughter upon them. 

Translate into good English — 

Sed, quoniam res humanae fragiles caducae- 
qne sunt, semper aliqui anquirendi sunt quos 
diligamus et a quibus diligamur. Caritate enim 
benevolentiaque sublata^ omnis est e vita sub- 
lata iucunditas. Eqaidem ex omnibus rebus, 
quas mihi aut fortuna aut natura tribuit, nihil 
habeo quod cum amicitia Scipionis possim com- 
parare. In hac mihi de republica consensus, in 
hac rerum privatarum consilium, in eadem 
requies plena oblectationis fuit. Numquam 
ilium ne minima quidem re offendi, quod quidem 
senserim; nihil audivi ex ipso quod nollem. 
Una domus erat, idem victus, isque communis : 
Deque solum militia, sed etiam peregrinationes 
rusticationesque commanes. Nam quid ego de 
studiis dicam cognoscendi semper aliquid atque 
discendi, in quibus remoti ab oculis populi omne 
otiosum tempus contrivimus t Quarum rerum 
recordatio et memoria si una cum illo ocddisset, 
desiderium coniunctissimi atque amantissimi 
viri ferre nullo modo possem. Sed nee ilia ex- 
tincta sunt, alunturque potius et augentur cogi- 
tatione et memoria; et, si iUis plane orbatus 
essem, magnum tamen afferret mini aetas ipsa 

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The Boa/rd of Bxaminers, 

1. Translate into Greek Prose — 

The veBsel being repaired, we again embarked, 
and in two days arrived in safety at Cadiz. I 
found great confusion reigning there ; numerous 
bands of the factious were reported to be hover- 
ing in the neighbourhood. An attack was not 
deemed improbable^ and the place had just been 
declared in a state of siege. I dressed myself 
and walked about the town. In one place 
no less than six orators were harangaing 
at the same time on the state of the country, 
and the probability of an intervention on 
the part of England and France. As I was 
listening to one of them, he suddenly called 
upon me for my opinion^ as I was a foreigner, and 
seemingly just arrived. I replied that I could 
not venture to guess what steps the two Govern- 
ments would pursue under the present circum- 
stances, but thought that it would be as well 
if the Spaniards would exert themselves more 
and call less on Jupiter. As I did not wish 
to engage in any political conversation, I in- 
stantly quitted the house, and sought those jsarts 
of the town where the lower classes principally 

2. Translate into good English — 

ovrogrolwv 6 KupocXeyerai Avtravcp^fSreliXOty 
Hyiov avT^ TO, ?raf>a twv avfifia.'xwv hwpa, &XAa 
r€ <l>i\o<l>poP€iffdai ((ijc avroc e^?; o Avtrai'^po^ 

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JfV^ TTori Ttyt kv MeyapoiQ hifiyov^tvoQ)y Ka\ 
TOP kv ^aphtat irapaZiiaov kwiheiKvvvai. kvil 
^£ kdavfjLaiev 6 J\.vaavZpoQ cue koKcl fikv ra 
hevipa tiriy hi 'itrov di iravra ve<^vTevfiiya, opOoi 
ht oi trrixoi r&v ^ivBptaVy eiryccivfa ik iravra KoKCiQ 
eirij otTftal he iroWal Kal ifielai ffv/jtirapofjiaproiev 
avroiQ TrepiiraTOVffi, ravra Qavfia^tav eIitev ' 'AXX* 
cy(t» TOii 2> KvpCy iravra fjikv ravra davfjiai^vj 
eirl rw ictiXXcf^ woKv M fiaXXov &yafiai rov Kara' 
fitrpifiTavroc <roi Kal diardiavroQ SKatrra rovrwv. 
CLKoviravra he ravra rov Kvpov ffoOfivai re koi 
elirelv Tavra rolwvy & Avtravhpey kyit) navra Kal 
hufuiirpffera Kal hira^ay ecrri 2* ahrdv & Kal 
k<l>vrev(ra avroc • Kal b Avtravhpoc ^<prjy d^ro' 
/BXc^ac; etc avrov Kal iBitv rdtv re ifiariutv ro 
KaWoQ 2fv el\E Kal rfjc otTfiTJc alffdoftevog Kal rtov 
trrpewrwv Kal rHv xj/eXiojv [ro icdXXoi;] Kal rov 
aXXov KotTfiov o5 tlx^^y '^' Xeyccc, ^ Kvpe ; ft 
yap (TV rale <^€UC X^P^^ rovru>v ri ktpvrevtrac ; 
Kal rov Kvpov iuroKpivatrdai, Qavfid(eig rovro, 
«5 Avcravdpe ; o/avvfii trot rov 'M.idpriVy oravirep 
vytaivw, firitrutirore henrvfjirai nplv thpCJ/raiy y 
rStv To\efxtK(ov rt fj riav yewpyiKwv epyotv jneXerwv 
Ti dci €v ye ri <^i\orifjLOviJievog, 


27i€ Board of JExaminers. 

L Translate into Latin prose — 

These fellows, with the look of banditti, were 
in no respect better; and the traveller who 
should meet them in a solitary place would have 

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little reason to bless his good fortune. One of 
the carriers whom I afterwards met in the 
aforesaid town^ informed me that the whole 
party were equally bad, and that he and his 
companions had been plundered by them of 
various articles, and threatened with death if 
they attempted ro complain. How frigphtful to 
figure to oneself an army of such beings in a 
foreign land, sent thither either to invade or 
defend ; and yet Spain, at the time I am writing 
this, is looking forward to armed assistance from 
Portugal. May the Lord in His mercy grant 
that the soldiers who proceed to her assistance 
may be of a different stamp ; and yet, from the 
lax state of discipline which exists in the Portu- 
guese army, in comparison with that of Eng- 
land and France, I am afraid that the inoffensive 
population of the disturbed provinces will say 
that wolves have been summoned to chase away 
foxes from the sheep-fold. 

2. Translate into good English — 

Inter duas acies tantum erat relictum spati ut 
satis esset ad concursum utriusque exercitus. 
Sed Pompeius suis praedixerat ut Caesaris im- 
petum exciperent neve se loco moverent aciem- 
que eius distrahi paterentur ; idque admonitu G. 
Triari fecisse dicebatur, ut primus excursus vis- 
que militam infringeretur aciesque distenderetur 
atque in suis ordinibus dispositi dispersos adori- 
rentur ; leviusque casura pila sperabat in loco 
retentis militibus ouam si ipsi immissis telis 
occurrissent, simul fore ut duplicate cursu 
Caesaris milites exanimarentur et lassitudine 
conficerentur. Quod nobis quidem nulla ratione 
factum a Pompeio videtur, propterea quod est 

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qnaedam animi incitatio atque alacritas natura- 
^ter innata omnibus, quae studio pugnae incen- 
ditur. Hanc non reprimere sed augere impera- 
tores debent ; neque frustra antiquitos institutum 
est ut signa undique concinerent clamoremque 
universi tollerent ; quibus rebus et hostea terreri 
et suos incitari existimaverunt. 

Sed Dostri milites signo dato cum infestis pilis 
procucurrissent atque animum advertissent non 
coDCurri a Pompeianis, usu periti ac superioribus 
pugnis exercitati sua sponte cursum represserunt 
et ad medium fere spatium constiterunt, ne con- 
sumptis viribus appropioquarent, parvoque in- 
termisso temporis epatio ac rursus renovate cursu 
pila miserunt celeriterque, ut erat praeceptum a 
Gaesare, gladios strinxerunt 


The Board of Examiners 


1. Write a brief account of (a) the Epic cycle, (h) 

the Lesbian lyrists. 

2. Either describe succinctly a performance of tragedy 

about B.C. 450. (Use the Greek technical terms.) 


Give an account of the work of Theophrastus, 
Plutarch, Apollonius Rhodius. 

3. Describe a typical Greek temple, and also a 


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4. Draw a diagram of Athens and the Peiraeus, and 

mark the position of Academia, Lybeum, 
Dionysiac Theatre, Pnyx, Ilissus, Cephisus, 

5. Where were — Pylos, Ithaca, Amphipolis, 

Megalopolis, Abydos, Delos, Cythera? State 
some fact connected with each. 

6. Give a terse description of the proceedings in the 


7. Explain— eio-^opa, fiovtriicrif fjtiroiKoCy <l>paTpia, avXi/, 


8. How was the Persian power extended by Cyrus 

the Great, Cambyses, Darius ? State in outline 
the chief events connected with the three 
Persian expeditions against Greece. 

9. Relate briefly the part taken in the Peloponnesian 

War by Phormio, Brasidas, Demosthenes, 

10. Under what circumstances were the following 
battles fought : — Eurymedon, Tanagra, Aegos- 
potami, Leuktra ? 


The Board of Examiners, 


1. (a) Divide Latin literature into periods, explain- 
ing the principle upon which you do so, and 
naming the chief authors in each. 
(h) Discuss briefly the salient qualities and de- 
fects of Latin literature as a whole. 

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2. Describe (a) the literary work of Cicero apart 

from his speeches; (b) the dramatic work of 

3. Describe (with diagram) the Forum Rom an am and 

its chief sites and buildings before a.d. 100. 

4. Distinguish the various troops and officers in the 

Roman army of the early Imperial times. Also 
distinguish the yarious siffna. Use the Latin 

5. Give a brief account of (a) Roman meals; (b) 

Roman writing and writing materials. 

6. Where were Numantia, Trasimenus, the Treveri, 

Tibur, Noricum ? 

7. Explain — tablinum, comitia curtata, vestib^dum, 

raeda, cenaculaj or do eqttestris, vilicus, pistrina, 

8. What were the character and extent of Rome's 

influence in Italy in the year 350 B.C. ? Illus- 
trate your answer by a rough map. 

By what wars did she complete the conquest 
of Italy ? 

9. Name the chief champions of popular rights 

between 150 B.C. and 90 B.C. State in the 
briefest possible form the chief aims and measures 
of each. 

10. Summarise the chief events in Roman History 
between the battles of Philippi and Actium. 

How, after the battle of Actium, did Augustus 
reconcile the Romans to what practically 
amounted to monarchy ? 

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Professor Tucker. 


1. What is meant by ** Semasiology '* ? Discuss and 

illustrate the difficulty of creating a science in 
this respect. 

2. Draw a diagram of the articulating apparatus. 

State what occurs when we pronounce the 
English r, ng (in thing), u, g, /, a French 
nasalised vowel, and the Scotch eh, 

3. (a) Explain " sonant nasal," " pitch accent/* 

" indeterminate vowel.'' 

(6) Write phonetically the words of the last 
question (a). 

4. What tendencies of phonetic change are universal ? 

Give illustrations of the processes. 

5. (a) Describe the exact connection of the Greek 

and Latin alphabets. 

(b) How did *' alphabetical " signs develop from 
" phonograms " ? 

6. Given in certain English words the consonants 

w...dy h,..t, r „. dy s..,ty sp.,,k^ what 
Greek, Latin, and German consonants should 
(or might) correspond to them ? Conversely 
give the English consonants for k ... w, r ... y, 

Explain clearly the method by which you 
proceed m such comparisons. 

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7. (a) Compare the morphological methods of the 

Bantu, American Indian^ and Turkish speeches. 

(b) Discnss briefly the connection of race and 

8. Give a short account of the languages which are or 

have been spoken over the following areas : — (a) 
the British Islands and France, {b) European 
Russia. If possible, place such languages on 
an outline map. 

9. (a) By what arguments do we arrive at an 

" original home " of the I.-E. people ? 

{b) Give a synoptic table of the history of the 
Teutonic branch. 



Professor Tuelter. 

1. Comment on the vowels italicised in — Levir, 

v^num, po^na, quattuor. Discuss the exact 
relationship of similis, ojjiaXog — lovem, Zrjva — 
dvr^fTKut, irii^arai — cribrum^ cerno — yvviiy fivaofjLai, 

2. Take the following words ; analyse them into their 

original component parts ; point out and account 
for anything phonetically or morphologically 
peculiar in any of them — 

a^poc (with imber)y aid) (with al&va), ^traa 
(with Tiva), &Tepoi (with ol crfpo«), eUi (Doric 
= £{«), fx€(rafi0pirj (Ion., with fifxipa), ii^ri. 

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(with sunt), poeui (with pdno), n&nus (with 
eyarog), eicaTotrTog* (with centenmus), honesttts 
(with Iiondr?'<i\^^vcr8U8 (with yerto), opvaato (with 
runcare), hih «? (with x* ptvoc), ^flivw ^.vi^h 
^Q6ri)y TCLvvrai \V ith rctVerat J, j90«c^ (with ^ccor), 
stahvlisy cereh m with Kpara), trrtiXrj (with 
<7rc\Xai), youi" (with yovaroc), utcv (with atce, 

3. Write a concise account of the formation of the 

I-E. verh in respect of (a) tense-stems, (6) in- 
finitives. Give illustrations throughout. 

4. Give (with examples) a full account of the for- 

mation of comparatives and superlatives in Greek 
and Latin. 

5. Decline *7ndtery *oms, and the demonstrative *so, 

sdy explaining such Greek and Latin forms as 
deviate from the proper phonetic equivalence. 

6. Give and illustrate the history of q, n in Greek, 

the I-E. aspirates in Latin, nnd i in hoth. 

7. Account for <f>ipuQ, fpipyi} ehojiaiy sint, ^vrat, KSprj, 

ifffiiv, Ifcarov, secundus, quinque, Zpayjiijfny tuus^ 

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Er\GLISH.-^P }^I. 

dPlRST PaF*H. 

Mr^ Murdo ^\ 


1. Give a concise account of the changes that took 

place in the grammatical structure of the 
English Language after the Norman Conquest. 

2. '' In the history of inflections, two counteracting 

influences, which are always operating upon 
language, hecome plainly visible.'* Explain this 

3. What is a dialect ? Give some account of the 

dialects of Early English. 

4. What is meant by the term '* Latin of the Second 

Period"? '^ - 

5. Explain the following phrases : — I have no long 

spoon — put it to the foil — young scamels from 
the rock — upon a sore injunction — it did bass 
my trespass — each putter-out of five for one. 

6. Explain tersely — 

(a) What a pied ninny's this ! Thou scurvy patch I 

(6) His mother was a witch, and one so strong 
That could control the moon, make flows and 

And deal in her command without her power. 

D i, 


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(c) My charms crack not ; my spirits obey ; and 

Goes upright with his carriage. 
{d) .... every day some sailor's wife, 

The master of some merchant and the merchant 

Have just our theme of woe. 
(e) .... and the fair soul herself 

Weighed between loathness and obedience at 

Which end o' the beam should bow. 
(/) .... invert 

What best is boded me to mischief! 

7. Write concise explanatory notes on — 

(a) So our virtues 

Lie in th' interpretation of the time : 
And power, unto itself most commendable, 
Hath not a tomb so evident as a chair 
T^ extol what it had done. 

(b) I would they would forget me, like the virtues 
Which our divines lose by 'em. 

(c) He lurched all swords o* the garland. 
{d) .... nay, sometimes, 

Like to a bowl upon a subtle ground 
I've tumbled past the throw ; and in his praise 
Have almost stamp'd the leasing*. 
(e) Ay, as an ostler, that for the poorest piece 
Will bear the knave by th' volume. 

8. Explain the following phrases from Paradise 

Lost: — above the Aonian mount — some small 
night-founder'd skiff— the Tuscan artist — Busiris 
and his Memphian chivalry — that hill of scandal 
— on the grunsel-edge — the giant brood of 
Phlegra— that small infantry warred on by 

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9. Explain the following lines with rererence to their 
context : — 

(a) The ascending- pile 
Stood fixt her stately highth. 

(b) A leper once he lost and gained a king. 

(c) ... that soil may best 
Deserve the precious bane. 

(d) Anon they naove 

In perfect phalanx to the Dorian mood 
Of flutes and soft recorders. 

(e) As far removed from God and light of Heaven 
As from the centre thrice to the utmost pole. 

(/) Millions of spirits for his fault amerced 
Of Heaven. 

J 0. Comment upon — 

(a) Taliessin is our fullest throat of song, 

And one hath sung and all the dumb will sing. 

(^) . . . . What other fire than he 

Whereby the blood beats, and the blossom 

And the sea rolls, and all the world is warm'd ? 

(c) All men, to one so bound by such a vow, 
And women were as phantoms. 

(c?) I saw the fiery face as of a child 

That smote itself into the bread, and went. 

(e) And mirthful sayings, children of the place. 
That have no meaning half a league away. 

(/) I saw the spiritual city and all her spires 
And gateways in a glory like one pearl. 

11. Compare Tennyson and Milton in the matter of" 
(a) diction; (6) versification, 

D 2 

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12. Explain the following from Johnson's Lift of 
Pope : — 

(a) Wycherlej wrote verses in his praise, which 
he was charged by Dennis with writing to him- 

(J) A.t its first appearance it was termed by 
Addison merum sal, 

(c) It is certainly the noblest version of poetry 
which the world has ever seen. 

(d) The subsequent editions of the first Epistle 
exhibited two memorable corrections. 

(c) Bolingbroke hated Warburton, who had drawn 
his pupil from him. 

ENGLISH.— Paet I. 

Second Paper. 

3fr, Murdoch. 


1. Discuss the theory that T?ie Tempest was written 

for a court performance in 1613. 

2. Write a note on the " dramatic unities " with special 

reference to The Tempest. 

3. Write a short account of the group of plays to 

frbich The Tempest belongs. VVhy are they 
called ** romances " ? 

4. Discuss the character of Coriolanus. 

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5. Write a short note on the supposed " sources " of 

Paradise Lost, 

6. Discuss the origin of the Arthurian Legend. 

7. What is your own opinion of the allegorical signifi- 

cance of The Holy Grail ? 

8. Give a concise summary of the history of the English 

novel up to the time of Scott. 

9. What are the most striking characteristics of 

Johnson's prose style ? 


Pass Candidates only. 

Write a short essay on Scott as a historical 

Additional for Honours. 

1. Write a concise account of Dry den — (a) as a poet, 

{b) as a prose writer. 

2. Give some account of one work by each of the fol- 

lowing : — Sterne, Goldsmith, Gibbon, Collins, 
Thomson, Coleridge. Give (approximately) the 
date of publication in each case. 

3. Explain fully — 

(a) Wei couthe he peynten lyfly that it wroghte. 
With many a florin he the hewes boghte. 

(b) Yet sawgh I brent the shippes hoppesteres. 

(c) Men may the olde at-renne, and noght at-rede. 

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(d) The clothered blood, for any lechecraft, 
Gorruptetb, and is in his bouk y-Iaft. 

{e) The cai'eyne in the bush, with throte y-corve : 
A thousand slayn, and nat of qualm y-stoi've 

(/) . . . but rather lyk man ie 
Engendred of humour malencolyk^ 
Biforen, in his celle fantastyk. 

4. CommeEt on the metre of the following* lines ; — 
(a) In-to a studie he fil al sodeynly. 
{b) Now it shyneth, now it reyneth faste. 
(c) And thinketh beer cometh my mortel enemy. 

0. At what points does Browning depart from his- 
torical accuracy in order to adapt the story of 
Strafford to the requirements of drama ? 

6. Explain the following lines with reference to their 
context: — 

(a) He's surely not disposed to let me bear 
I'he fame away from him of these late deeds 
In Ireland ? 

(6) . . .1 know the Faction, as 

Laud styles it, tutors Scotland : all their plans 
Suppose no Parliament : in calling one 
You take them by surprise. 

(c) A breed of silken creatures lurk and thrive 
In your contempt. 

(d) I can't think, therefore, your soul's purchaser 
Did well to laugh you to such utter scorn 
When you twice prayed so humbly for its 

The thirty silver pieces. 

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First Paper. 
Mr, Murdoch. 


1. Explain the following words from Hamlet: — 

quillet, lazar, anele, bisson, handsaw, yaw, 
chopine, escote, fardel, romage. 

In what sense, now rare or obsolete, does 
Shakespeare use the words — censure, rival, 
shrewd, union, addition, ecstasy, abuse ? 

2. Write concise notes on the following passages : — 

(a) So frown'd he once, when, in an angry parle. 
He smote the sledded Polacks on the ice. 

(h) There is, sir, an eyrie of children, little eyases, 
that cry out on the top of question, and are most 
tyrannically clapped for*t. 

(c) . . . and am I then revenged, 
To take him in the purging of his soul. 
When he is fit and seasoned for his passage ? 

{d) . . . her speech is nothing, 
Yet the unshaped use of it doth move 
The hearers to collection. 

{e) For use almost can change the stamp of nature, 
And either master the devil, or throw him out 
With wondrous potency. 

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3. Explain the following lines with reference to their 

context : — 

(a) And be no more an exhaled meteor, 
A prodigy of fear and a portent 
Of broached mischief to the unborn times. 

{b) All plumed like estridges that with the wind 
Bated, like eagles having lately bathed. 

(c) The skipping king, he ambled up and down 
With shallow jesters and rash bavin wits, 
Soon kindled and soon burnt. 

(d) . . . he is a worthy gentleman, 
Exceedingly well read, and profited 

In strange concealments. 

(e) I must speak in passion, and I will do it in 
King Cambyses' vein. 

(/) villain, thou stolest a cup of sack eighteen 
years ago, and wert taken with the manner. 

4. Summarise the differences between the First 

Quarto of Hamlet and the Second. 

6. State concisely the chief reasons for believing that 
Shakespeare was not the first to dramatise the 
story of ffamlet, 

6. Describe the two types of history-play followed by 

Shakespeare, and discuss, in this connection, his 
indebtedness to Marlowe. 

7. Give, in summary form, Dryden's arguments for 

the use of rhyme in tragedy. Did his practice 
accord with his theory ? 

8. Give the substance of Macaulay's comparison of 

Addison with Swift and Voltaire. 

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0. Comment on the following' lines from Gray — 

(a) The generous spark extinct revive, 
Teach me to love and to forgive, 
Exact my own defects to scan, 
What others are, to feel, and know myself a man 

(6) What idle progeny succeed 

To chase the rolling circle's speed 
Or urge the flying ball ? 

(c) Two coursers of ethereal race 

With necks in thunder clothed, and long- 
resounding pace. 

(d) Some pious drops the closing eye requires. 

(e) He gave to Mis'ry all he had, a tear, 

He gain'd from Heav'n ('twas all he wish'd) 
a friend. 

10. How is Burke's attitude towards the French 

Revolution to be reconciled with the political 
principles enunciated in his previous writings ? 

11. Write a short description of Burke's prose style. 

Additional for Honours, 

12. Interpret (with any pertinent comment)' — 

(a) Ther saugh I first the derke imagining 
Of felonye, and al the compassing ; 
The cruel ire, as reed as any glede ; 
The pykepurs, and eek the pale drede; 
The smyler with the knyf under the cloke ; 
The shepne brenning with the blake smoke ; 
The tresoun of the mordring in the bedde ; 
The open werre, with woundes al bi-bledde ; 
Contek, with blody knyf and sharp man ace ; 
Al ful of chirking was that sory place. 

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(b) Ne no man shal un-to his felawe rjde 

But cours, with a sharp y-grounde spere ; 
Foyne, if him list, on fote, himself to were. 

(c) Two fyres on the anter ^an she bete, 
And aide hir thinges, as men may biholde 
In Stace of Thebes, and thise bokes olde. 

13. Give a concise account of Chaucer's work, distin- 
guishing his three periods. 


Second Paper. 

Mr. Murdoch. 


1. Describe the system of versification employed in 

Anglo-Saxon poetry. 

2. How do you account for the literary barrenness of 

the fifteenth century in England ? 

3. Write a note on the origins of English drama. 

4. (a) Give a brief account of one work by each of 

the following : — Michael Drayton, Thomas Nash, 
Ben Jonson, Sir John Denham. 

(}) State precisely what you mean by Euphuism. 

5. (a) Compare Dry den and Pope as satirists. 
{b) Compare Milton^s prose with Dryden's. 

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6. In what sense can Gray and Goliins be said to have 
been heralds of the Romantic Revival in English 
poetry ? 

?. Give a concise account of the prose work of Cole- 
ridge, Hazlitt, and De Quincey. 


Write a short essay on one of the following 
subjects : — 

(a) Wordsworth's attitude to Nature. 

(b) The meaning of " Style." 

(c) Macaulay as a literary critic. 


For Pass Candidates only. 

1. What are the chief points discussed in the Essay 
.D*-."* of Dramatic Poesy, and what is Dryden's con- 
clusion in each case ? 

"l. Mention some points of resemblance between Ham- 
let and Julius Casar. 

3. Write a note on the character of Palstaff. 

4. Write a short account of Addison's work — (a) as 

dramatist, (Jb) as poet. 


For Honours. 

1. Discuss] Coleridge's account of Hamlet's charac- 

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2. Explain Hutton's statemeDt, that Browning* is ^' a 

great imaginative apologist, rather than either 
a lyric or dramatic poet." 

3. What does Hutton mean by " the voluntary element 

in Wordsworth's genius " ? 

4. How, according to Hutton, was Arnold influenced 

by Goethe and Wordsworth respectively ? 

6. What is meant by the term mysticism as applied, 
by Hutton, to Shelley's poetry ? 

FRENCH.-Part I. 
First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 


I. — Version. 

1. Traduisez : (ni trop litteralement ni trop librement) — 

Pass and Honours. 

(a) France in the middle ages, and even in the 
earlier half of the 14'th century, was still a 
vast agglomeration of heterogeneous races, each 
with different customs and different traditions. 
Aquitaine was as English as Surrey was French; 
Brittany was still a separate and generally an 
inimical country; Burgundy, Provence, and even 
Perigord, were petty sovereignties independent 


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of the Crown of France. These different districts 
had each their different manner of letting land 
and providing for its tillage. 

But, in almost all of them, French agriculture 
was already remarkable; far superior, for in- 
stance, to that of England, notwithstanding her 
temperate winters and rich soil. The English 
kitchen-garden was then, as now, singularly 

Pa^ and Honours, 
{h) In spite of his universality, and elegance and 
clearness of his style, he was a man without true 
passion either for art or science; and by his want 
of warmth furthered the tendency towards arti- 
ficiality from which the language and literature 
already suffered. His true importance is a pre- 
cursor of the scientific and ** philosophic " spirit 
of the 18th century, not only as a popularizer of 
science, but also as the initiator of scientific 
doubt and destructive criticism. 

Honours only. 
(c) Every castle was, in fact, a school — a seminary 
of polite education. From the king to the 
pettiest baron, every noble received at his court 
the children of his principal vassals ; and thus 
every noble child was educated to the standard 
of the sphere immediately above his own. In 
their homes, from the age of seven, boys and 
girls alike had learned to spell, to ride, to know 
that they were Christians. At the age of ten or 
twelve they were generally sent to court. Here 
they learned, above all, the duties and behaviour 
of gentle people. 

Great care was taken that they should be well 
bred, chivalrous, courteous, neatly clad, and 

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II. — Traduction. 

Paf^s and Honours. 
1. Traduisez: 
(a) Moins riche que rhomme en qualites exquises, 
la ferame Temporte par les qualites natives, ce 
que Montaigne appelle les qualites de piime- 
saut ; son instinct la guide parfois aussi heureuse- 
ment que la plus rigoureuse logique ; tandis que 
nous discourons, elle observe ; le grand livre du 
monde lui est familier : elle devine, elle d^mSle, 
elle penetre: c'est, dans le detail des choses de 
I'&me, un merveilleux psychologue. Sa volonte 
conQoit, quand il le faut, les resolutions les plus 
vaillantes, les resolutions du sacrifice : oti nous 
d6cidons par raison, elle ecoute son cceur, et la 
tendresse n'a pas de source plus profonde, le 
d^vouement de plus complet abandon. Au bon 
sens le plus solide elle sait allier les grd,ces 
l^g^res. Dans tout ce qui demande du tact, du 
goAt, moins d'application que de genie, Toubli 
ou le don de soi-m^me, dans la conversation, la 
correspondance, la critique, des juges difficiles 
ne lui reconnaissent pas de superieur : elle a la 
finesse, Telan, le charme. Ce sont 1^ des 
richesses incomparables dont il n'est besoin que 
de diriger et de perfectionner Temploi. On peut 
regler, son imagination et rectifier sonjugement, 
eclairer ses sentiments et asi^urer sa volonte, 
discipliner en un mot ses facultes sans en 
contraindre failure naturelle. 
(J)) je n 'etais qu'une plante inutile, un roseau 
Aussi je v6getais, si fr^le qu'un oiseau 
En se posant sur moi pouvait briser ma vie. 
Maintenant je suis finite et Ton me porte envie. 
Car un vieux vagabond, voyant que je pleurais. 
Tin matin en passant m'arracha du marais, 

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De mon cceur, qu'il vida, fit un tuynu sonore, 
Le fit s^cher un an, puis, le per^ant encore, 
II y fixa la gamine avec huit trous ^g-aux ; 
Et depuis, quand sa ISvre aux souffles musicaux 
Eveille les chansons au creux de mon silence, 
Je tressaille, je vibre et la note s*61ance ; 
Le chapelet des sons va s'egrenanc dans Tair; 
On dirait le babil d'une source au flot clair ; 
Et dans ce Hot chantant qu^in vague ^cho 

Je sais noyer le coeur de riiomme et de la b^te 

III. — Syntaxe Compar^e. 

{Pass and Honours), — {Repondez brievement en 
anglais aux questions suivantes.) 

(a) Comment expliquez-vous Tassertion suivante: 
" Lefran^ia semhle etre d V^tat de transition en 
ce qui conceme son accentuation " — et quelles 
sont les consequences grammaticales de cette 
faibleese de Taceent ? Donnez quelques ex- 
amples k I'appui de votre raisonnement. 

(6) Montrez au moyen de lignes les differences, qui 
existent dans la construction d'une phrase 
ordinaire en anglais et en frangais — Enumerez 
les defauts et qualit^s de chaque construction. 

(c) Traduisez les comparaisons suivantes par des 
'' dndles " anglais correspondants. 

Boire comme un trou ; 
Manger comme qnatre; 
Impartial comme la justice ; 
Jaune comme un citron ; 
Lent comme und tortue. 
Citez d'autres comparaisons que vous pourriez 
savoir en francs. 

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FRENCH.— Part I. 

Second Paper. 

Tlie Board of Examiners, 

PASS and honoue paper. 

Prescribed Authors. 

1. Traduisez {en soignant le style et la precision dea 
expressions ) : 

Pass only, 

(a) Melange, action, savoir-faiie, tout cela ne se 
concilie gudre, il faut le dire, avec I'id^e d'inpo- 
cence, de dignite individuelle. Ge g6nie libre et 
raisonneur, dont la mission est la lutte, apparait 
sous les forme8 peu gracieuses de la guerre, 
de Tindustrie, de la critique, de la dialectique. 
Le rire moqueur, la plus terrible des negations, 
n'embellit pas les fevres ot il repose. Nous 
avons grand besoin de la phjsionomie pour ne 
pas ^tre un peuple laid. Quoi de plus grimaQant 
que notre premier regard surle monde du mojen 
^ge ? Le Gargantua de Rabelais, fait fremir k 
c6te de la noble ironie de Cervantes et du f'ameux 
badinage de TAriote. 

II y en avait de tout petits, qui tAchaient de 
prouver qu'ils avaient seize ans, et qu'ils avaient 
(iroit de parti r. L'Assembl6e, par gr^ce, avait 
abaiss^ jusqu'^ cet Age la faculte de s'eifrAler. 

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II y avait des hommes mtirs, des hommes d^ja 
grisoDoants, qui ne voulaient pour rien au 
monde laisser une telle occasion, et plus lestes 
que les jeunes partaient devant pour la fronti^re. 

Personne ne voyaii ces choses sans ^motioD. 
La jeune audace de ces enfants, le d^vouement 
de ces hommes qui laissaient-lk tout, sacri£aient 
tout, tiraient les larmes des yeux. Tels pleur- 
aient, se d^sesp^raient de ne pouvoir partir aussi. 
Les partants chantaient et dansaient, lorsque les 
municipaux les menaient le soir k rH6tel de 
ville. lis disaient k la foule emue : " Chantez 
done aussi, vous autres ! criez : Vive la nation !'* 

Pass and Honours. 

(b) Le travail de la campagne est agr^able k 
consid^rer, et n'a rien d'assez p^nible en lui- 
mSme pour emouvoir k compassion. L'objet de 
Futility publique et pnv6e le rend interessant : et 
puis c'est la premiere vocation de Thomme; il 
rappelle k Pesprit une id6e agr^able, et au coeur 
tous les charm es de I'ftge d^or. 

La seule habitude qu'on doit laisser prendre k 
Tenfant est de n'en contracter aucune ; qii'on ne le 
porte pas plus sur un bras que sur I'autre ; qu'on 
ne I'accoutume pas k presenter une main plut6t 
que I'autre, k s'en servir plus sou vent, k voulpir 
manger, dormir, agir aux mSmes heures, k ne 
pouvoir res ter seul ninuit ni jour. 

• •«••. 

Toutes DOS langues sont des ouvrages de Part. 
On a longtemps cherch6 s'il y avait une langue 
naturelle et commune k tous les hommes : sans 
doute il y en a une ; et c'est cells qne les enfants 
parfcnt avant de savoir parler. 



Fetas only. 

(c) ^ous ces barbares avaient la tdte ^levee, les 
couleurs vives, les yeax bleus, le regard farouche 
et menagant ; ils portaient de larges braies, et 
leur tunique ^tait chamarr^ de morceauz de 
pourpre ; un ceinturon de cnn pressait h leur 
cote leur fidele 6p^e. L'6pee du Gaulois ne le 
quitte jamais : mariee pour ainsi dire avec son 
maitre, elle l^accompagne pendant la vie, elle le 
suit sur le b^cher fun^bre, et descend avec lui 
au tombeau. Tel 6tait le sort qu'avaient jadis 
les Spouses dans les Gaules, tel est aussi celui 
qu'elles ont encore aux rivages de Find as. 

Pass and Honours. 

(d) Ces petites phrases qui ne supportaient pas la 
discussion, arrachaient un oui ou un non k Tinter- 
locuteur, et la conversation tombait h plat. 

Monsieur de B implorait alors 

^assistance de son visiteur en mettant k Touest 
son nez de vieux carlin poussif ; il vous regardait 
de ses gros yeux vairons d*une fagon qui signi- 
ilAit : Vous dites ? Les ennujeux empresses de 
parler d'eux-memes, il les cherissait, il les 
ecoutait avec une probe et delicate attention qui 
le leur rendait si pr6cieux que les bavards 
d'AngoulSme lui accordaient une sournoise 
intelligence et le pr^tendaient mal juge. 

Les Questions suivantes peuvent se trailer en 

Pass and Honours. 

2. Commentez les 4 morceaux precedents (a), (6), (c), 
(d), en ce qui concerne les ouvrages aniquels ils 

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appartienDent, ainsi que leurs auteurs. Indiauez 
aussi les personnages ou les evdnements aont 
ils font mention. 

Pass only, 

^1 Quels points d'affinite remarquez-vous entre J. J. 
Rousseau et Chateaubriand et comment est-il 
possible de leur appliquer ^ tous deux le titre de 
" Fondateur du Romantisme " ? 

Pass and Honours. 

4. Decrivez longuement la place speciale que Michelet 
et Balzac ont su se creer dans la Litteratuie 
frangaise. Prouvez que dans celui-Ik on trouve 
Tenthousiasme et I'dme d'un po^te ; et dans 
ce\ai-ci du romantisme et du realisme. 

P<iss and Honours. 

0. Jusqu'^ quel point A. Daudet est-il naturaliste ? 
Montrez la difference qui existe entre lui et E. 
Zola. Etendez vous sur cette question. 

Honours only, 

jlWtitez en fran^ais la question suivante. 

Comparez le romantisme frangais avec le 
romantisme anglais. Ne vous servez pas seule- 
ment de la critique de Brunetiere; donnez plut6t 
le resultat de vos propres pensees. 

E 2 

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FRB.NCH.— Part II. 
First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

I. — Version. 

1. Traduisez : {ni trap litteralemettt ni trop lihre^ 

ment) — 

(a) Sincerity is the luxury allowed, like diadems 
and authority, only to the highest rank, that 
being- permitted to speak truth, as having noDe 
above it to court, to conform unto. Every man 
alone is sincere. At the entrance of a second 
person, hypocrisy begins.' We parry and fend 
the approach of our fellow man by compliments, 
by gossip, by amusements, by affairs. We cover 
up our thoughts from him under a hundred 
folds. Almost every man we meet requires 
some civility — requires to be humoured; he has 
some fame, some taletit, some whim of religion 
or philanthropy in his head that is not to be ques- 
tioned, and which spoils all conversation with 
him. But a friend is a sane man who exercises 
not my ingenuity, but me. My friend gives me 
entertainment without requiring any stipulation 
on my part. 

We are holden to men by every sort of tie, 
by blood, by pride, by fear, by hope, by lucre, 
by lust, by hate, by admiration, by every cir- 
cumstance and badge and trifle, but we can 
scarce believf that so much character can subsist 

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as to draw us by love. ... I wish that friend 
ship should have ieet, as well as eyes and 

{b'S During a visit which he paid to one of his 
relations, the owner of a house at Chambery, 
behind which stretched a garden where he had 
played in his childhood, Xavier de Maistre 
wished to revisit alone this scene of his early 
pleasures. He asked and easily obtained per- 
mission from his friend to go there unobserved ; 
but as his visit to this unpretending enclosure 
was unnecessarily prolonged, his friend, anxious 
at his long absence, went to look for him, and did 
not see him ; no tree, no* salient object could, 
however, conceal him from sight. At last, after 
an hour's anxious search, he was discovered by 
the side of a pool of water, on the surface of which 
he was throwing small pieces of paper, and 
was looking at the water-spiders playing round 
them. *' I remember," he said to his fwend, 
'* that, when a child, this pastime amused me 
greatly ; I wanted to see whether it would be 
so now that I am old, and really I have not 
found a very great difference." 

11. — Traduction. 
2. Traduisez — 

{a) Concevons que nous voguions pendant un 
million d'annees {avec la vitesse de la lumiere, qui 
est de 75,000 lieues par seconde) — Sommes-nous 
aux confins de Tunivers vi5»ible ? — Voici des 
immensites noires qu'il faut franchir. — Mais 1^- 
bas de nouvelles ^toiles s'allument au fond des 
cieux. ElanQons-nous vers elles, atteignons-les. 

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Nouveau million d'annees, nouvelles revelations, 
nouvelles splendeurs ^toil^es, nouveaux univers, 
nouveaux mondes, nouvelles terres, nouvelles 

Eh quoi ! Jamais* de fin ? Jamais d'horizon 
ferme ? Jamais de voiite ? Jamais de ciel qui 
nous arr^te ? toujours I'espace, toujours le vide ? 
Oti done sommes-nous ? Quel chemin avons- 
nous parcouru ? . . . Nous sommes . . . au 
vestibule de Tinfini ! . . . . Nous n'avons pas 
avanc^ d'un seul pas ! Nous sommes toujours 
au mSme point! Le centre est partout, la 
circonf^rence nulle part .... Oui, voilk ouvert 
devant nous I'infini, dont Fetude n^est pas com- 
mencee . . . Nous n'avons rien vu, nous recu- 
lons d'^pouvante, nous tombons aneantis, in- 
capables de poursuivre une carridre inutile. . . . 
Eh! nous pouvons tomber, tomber en ligne 
droite dans I'abime beant, tomber toujours dans 
r^ternite enti^re, jamais, jamais nous n'attein- 
* drons le fond, pas plus que nous n'avons atteint 
la cime : que dis-je ? Jamais nous n'en appro- 
cherons ! Ni ciel, ni enfer ; ni orient, ni 
Occident; ni haut, ni bas; ni gauche, ni droite. 
En quelque direction que nous considerions 
rUnivers, il est infini dans tous les sens. Dians 
cet infini, les associations de soleils et de mondes 
qui constituent notre univers visible ne forment 
qu'une lie du grand archipel, et dans Teternite 
de la duree, la vie de notre plan^te toute entidre 
n*est que le songe d'un instant. 

(h) Les jours succ^deront aux jours, et les annees 
S'eifeuilleront ainsi que des roses fanees, 
Avant que je n'^treigne entre ces faibles bras 
Les seuls tr^sors que j'ai adores ici bas : 

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La gloire et le genie. Et pourtant, comme 

Ces Letlres dont j'ai fait ma volupte supreme ! 
Comme f entends vibrer tout mon coeur dans 

les mots ! 
Ce qu'ilsm'ont prodijru^ de plaisirs et de maux, 
Ce que j'ai consume de nuits passionn^es 
A guetter une phrase au vol, et de journees ! 

Cieer ! sentir les mots palpiter sur la page, 
Les entendre fi^mir d'amour, pleurer de rage, 
Et moi-m^me avec eux vibrer, souffrir, crier. . 
Etre en eux comme Dieu dans le monde. Creer ! 

III. — Syntaxe Comparbe. 

{Repondez en anglais aux questions stuvantes.) 

{a) Montrez, au mojen d'ezemples, les points de 
difference les plus saillants dans Temploi du 
passif en anglais et en francs. 

b) Comment doit-on ti*aduire en anglais les mots 
ci-dessons en italique ? Expliquez cette traduc- 

lis voient ctoV dans leurs affaires ; 

II me parla tout franc ; 

Us etaient tout surpris et indign^s ; 

lis 86 contenterent d'examiner mes jiapiers. 

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FRENCH.—Part If. 
Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

Prescribed Authors. 

1. Traduisez (en soignavt le style et la precision des 

(a) Sa manidre litteraire ne m'a pourtant pas 
servi de type, et dans des momeDts oil mapens^e 
eprouvait le besoin d'une expression bardie, sa 
forme delicate et adroite m'a paru plus propre ^ 
m'emp^trer qu*^ me de^aj>:er. Mais quand les 
beures de fi^vre sont pass^es, on revient ^ cette 
forme un peu vanlootee, comme on revient k Van- 
loo lui-m^me, pour en reconnaitre la vraie force 
et la vraie beaut^ k travers le caprice de Tindivi- 
dualite et le cacbet de Tecole ; sous ces mi^vreries 
souriantes de la recbercbe, il j a quand m^me le 
g;enie du maltre. 

Les superstitions rustiques lui venaient en 
droite ligne de la religion des druides, cette 
doctrine peu connue dans son essence, car on ne 
Pa jug-^e que d^aprds les crimes qui Tont souillee 
et d^natur^e. La vierg-e Marie et le grand'fade 
se confondaient 6trangement dans I'imagination 
poetiquement sauvage de la bergdre d'Ep-Nell. 

(b) Ce sont euz qui ont os^ croire les premiers 
qu'il suffisait du tableau des affections privees 
pour interesser Pesprit et le coeur de Pbomme ; 

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que ni Tillustration des personnages, ni Fimpor- 
tance des interSts, ni le merveilleux des 6vdne- 
ments, n'^taient n^cessaires pour captiyer 
Timagi nation, et qu'il j avait dans la puissance 
d'aimer de quoi renouveler sans cesse et les 
tableaux et les situations, sans jamais lasser la 
curiosit6. Ce sont eux enfin qui ont fait des 
romans des ouvrages de morale oil les vertus et 
les destinies obscures peuvent trouver des 
motifs d*exaItation et se ■ cr^er un genre 

(c) Nous croyons que Tauteur d'un bon ouvrage 
doit se garder de trois choses, du titre, de T^pitre 
d^dicatoire, et de la preface. Les autres doivent 
se garder d'une quatri^me, c'est d'^crire. 

L'epltre dedicatoire n'a ete sou vent pr6senlee 
que par la bassesse interess^e, h la vanite 
aedaigneuse : 

De 1^ vient cet amas d'ouvrages mercenaires ; 
Stances, odes, sonnets, ^pitres liminaires, 
Oil toujours le h6ros passe pour sans pareil, 
Et, f(it-il louche ou borgne, est r^put6 soleil. 

On etouffe Pesprit des enfants sous un amas 
de connaissances inutiles; mais de toutes les 
sciences la plus absurde k mon avis, et celle qui 
est la plus capable d'etouffer toute espdce de 
genie, c'est la g^om^trie. Cette science ridicule 
a pour objet des surfaces, des lignes et des points 
qui n'existent pas dans la nature. On fait passer 
en esprit cent mille lignes courbes entre un 
cercle et une ligne droite qui le touche, quoique, 

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dans la r^alite, on n'y puisse pas passer un f6tu. 
La geometrie, en v^ritl§, n'est qu'une mauvaise 

(d) II n'y avait k cet endroit qu'un assez gros 
volume allemand, relie en peau de truie, avec des 
clous de cuivre aux plats et d'epaisses nervures 

sur le dos Le volume dont les plats 

etaient 16gerement entre-baill6s, reposait sur sa 
tranche m^diame. 

Sa bouche etait imperieuse et ironique et ses 
yeux bleus riaient d'une fagon inquietante sous 
des sourcils noirs, dont Fare etait tr^s pur. 

Pour ma part, je ne decouvre dans Thumanite 
aucun sig-ne de declin, j'ai beau entendre parler 
de la decadence. Je n'y crois pas. Je ne crois pas 
mSme que nous soyons parvenus an plus baut 
point de civilisation. Je crois que revolution de 
rhumanite est extrSmement lente f^t que les 
differences qui se produisent d'un si^cle h. Tautre 
dans les moeurs sont, k les bien mesurer, plus 
\ petites qu'on ne s'ima^ine. Mais elles nous frap- 
^ pent. Et les innombrables ressemblances que 
\ nous avons avec nos peres, nous ne les remar- 
■ quons pas. Le train du monde est lent. 

(e) L'histoire ne resout pas les questions ; elle nous 
apprend k Texaminer. Elle nous ensei^ne au 

t moins comment il faut s'y prendre pour observer 
\ les faits bumains, Le regard que nous jetons 
j sur les choses presentes est toujours trouble par 
1^ quelque inter^t personnel, quelque prejuge ou 
\quelque passion. Voir juste est presque impos- 

iyible. S'il s'agit au contraire du passe, notre 

regard est plus calme et plus siir. 

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Leg Qtiestion^ Suivantes Peuvent se Trailer en 
Commentez^ fond les morceaux pr6c6dents (a), (&), 
(c), (rf), (e), en ce qui concerne leur origine et 
leurs auteurs. 

Nommezles cinq divisions litt^raires danslesquelles 
apparait le talent de Voltaire comme prosateur et 
indiquez bridvement le r61e qu'il a jou6 dans le 
roman et Thistoire. 

Discutez Tassertion suivante : one Mme de Stael est 
une des femmes ecrivains les plus importantes 
que le monde ait vues. Est-ce tout h. fait juste 
en ce qui concerne son style et sa conception du 
roman ? 

Contrastez le style de G. Sand et celui d'A France 
et montrez les influences religieuses, politiques 
et litt^raires qui ont agi sur ToBuvre de ces 
deux romanciers. 

En quoi le naturalisme de Daudel diffdre-t-il de 
celui d'E. Zola ? 

Donnez des notes trds succinctes des oeuvres et du 
style des ecrivains suivants : Augustin Thierry, 
Michelet, Thiers et Fustel de Coulanges. 

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FRENCH.— Parts I. and IF. 



(Les r^ponses peuvent se faire en anglais.) 
The Board of Examiners, 


Traitez seulement cinq des questions suivantes, 
mais en comprenant toujours dans votre choix les 
questions {a\ (c), (/). 

(a) Indiquez d*une manidre concise et claire les 
traits saillants de Phistoire du Roman en France 
depuis d*Urf6 jusqu*^ Flaubert. Enum^rez k 
grands traits les ^crivains qui ont illustr^ cette 
branche importante de la Litt^rature pendant 
toute cette p^riode. Mentionnez leurs oeuvres 

{b) Pourquoi les Chroniqueurs occupent-ils une 
place si importante au Moyen-Age, en ce qui con- 
cerne rhistoire ? Qui 6taient-ils ? De qui ont- 
ils pris la place and quels sont leurs ouvrages ? 

(c) Quel r61e la science et la philosophie jouent- 
elles dans rhistoire du Roman ? Qu' entend-on 
par roman h. tbdse, roman romantique, roman 
fiistorique et roman naturaliste ? Dans quelles 

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p^riodes de la Litterature trouve-t-on des ez- 
emples de ces diiF^rents genres ? quels en sent 
les principaux repr^sentants ? Gitez les ouvrages 
les niieux connus. 

(d) A quelles epoques de la Litterature peut-on 
constater I'influence des 6criyains anglais sur les 
romanciers frangais ? Quels ^talent ces ^crivains 
et ces romanciers ? Etendez-vous longuement 
sur cette question. 

(e) Quelles ont ^t^ les differentes tendances du 
roman en France depuis le XV lie sidcle jusqu*^ 
nos jours et quelles sont les causes de la popu- 
lar ite du roman moderne ? 

(/) Montrez brieve ment en quoi difidrent les 
Chroniqueurs du Moyen-Age, les ^crivains de 
Mtooires des XVIe and XVIIe sidcles et les 
Historiens des XVIIIe and XIXe si^cles ? Citez 
des faits, des noms et des ouvrages. 

(g) Ecrivez une note detaillee sur chacun des 
6crivains suivants : Pascal, Mme. de Sevigne^ 
Bossuet, F6nelon, Fustel de Coulanges. 

11. — HlSTOlRE DE LA LanGUE. 

1. Part IT. — Qu'entendez-vous par Epopee nationale 

et Romans d'aventnres ? Quelles autres divisions 
compldtent ce qu'on appelle Po^sie Epique ? 
quel est le caract^re general des extraita (|ue vous 
avez lus de cette ^pop^e et quels sont ces extraits ? 
Donnez-en des details trds concis. 

2. Part I. — Tracez rapidement les progr^s du dialecto 

de rile de France depuis les origines jusqu' 
apr^ la croisade contre les Albigeois. 

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GERMAN.— Part I. 

First Paper. 

The Board of Examiner8, 

Prescribed Authors. 

1. Translate, locate, and annotate — 

(a) Der du von dem Himmel bist, 
Alles Leid und Schmerzen stillest, 
Den, der doppelt elend ist, 
Doppelt mit Erquickun^ fullest, 
Achy ich bin des Treibens miide ! 
Was soil all der Schinerz und Lust ? 
Siiszer Friede, 
Komm, ach komm in meine Brust ! 

{h) Geh ! gehorche meinen Winken, 
Nutze deine jungen Tage, 
Lerne zeitig kliiger sein. 
Auf des Giiickes grosser Wage 
Steht die Zunge selten ein ; 
Du must steigen oder sinken, 
Du must herrschen und gewinnen, 
Oder dienen und verlieren, 
Leiden oder triumphieren, 
Amboss oder Hammer sein. 

{c) Kennst du den Berg und seinen Wolkensteg- ? 
Das Maultier sucht im Nebel seinen Weg ; 
In Hohlen wohnt der Drachen alte Brut; 
Es stiirzt der Fels und iiber ihn die Flut. 
Kennst du ihn wohl ? 
Dahin ! Dahin 
Geht unser Weg ! o Vater, lass una ziehn ! 

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2. Translate and explain — 

(a) Diese Gondel ver^leich' icb der sanft ein- 
schaukelnden Wiege, 
Und das Kastchen darauf scheint ein gerau- 
miger Sarg. 
Recht so ! Zwischen der Wieg' und dem Sarg 
wir schwanken und schweben 
! Auf dem grossen Canal sorglos durch's 

I Leben dahin. 

{b) Wiszt ihr, wie aucb der Eleine was ist ? Er 
macbe das Kleine 
Recht; der Grosze begehrt just so das 
Grosze zu tun. 

{c) Lange haben die Groszen der Franzen Spraclie 

Halb nur geacbtet den Mann, dem sie vom 

Munde nicbt floss : 
Nun lallt alles Yolk entzlickt die Spracbe 

der Frank en ; 
Ziirnet, Macbtige, nicbt! Was ibr ver- 

langtet, gescbiebt. 

3. Translate, locate, and comment upon tbe following 

Aber aus der dumpfen grauen Feme 
Klindet leise wandelnd sicb der Sturm an, 
Driickt die VSgel nieder auf s Gewasser, 
Briickt der Menscben schwellend Herz dar- 

Und er kommt. Vor seinem starren Wiiten 
Streckt der SchifPer klug die Segel nieder ; 
Mit dem angsterfullten Balle spielen 
Wind und Wellen. 

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Und an jenem Ufer driiben stehen 

Freund' und Lieben, beben auf dem Festen : 

Ach, warum ist er nicbt bier geblieben ! 

Ach, der Sturm ! Verschlag'en weg vom 

Soil der Gute so zu Grunde geben ? 
Ach, er sollte ! ach, er kdnnte ! Gotter ! 

Doch er stehet luannlich an dem Steuer : 
Mit dem Schiffe spielen Wind und Wellen, 
Wind und Wellen nicht mit seinem Herzen ; 
Herrschend blickt er auf die grimme Tiefe, 
Und vertrauety scheiternd oder landend, 
Seinen Gottern. 

4. Translate and locate — 

Und er richtete den Zeigefinp^er, 

Der so rotlich war wie eine Rose, 

Nach dem weiten ausgespannten Teppich, 

Fing mit seinera Finger an zu zeichnen : 

Oben malt' er eine schone Sonne, 

Die mir in die Augen machtig gliinzte, 

Und den Saum der Wolken macht' er golden, 

Liess die Strahlen durcb die Wolken dringen j 

Make dann die zarten leichten Wipfel 

Frisch erquickter Baume, zog die Hiigel, 

Einen nach dem anderir, frei dahinter ; 

Unten liess er's nicht an Wasser fehlen, 

Zeichnete den Fluss so ganz natiirlich, 

Dasz er schien im Sonnenstrahl zu glitzern, 

Dasz er schien am hohen Rand zu rauschen. 

5. Translate into idiomatic English and annotate : 

(a) Dasz er gleich den Brlidern eine hohere Schule 
besuchen wiirde, daran war nicht zu denken. 
Die Mutter hegte wohl eine Zeit lang den Plan, 

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ihn den Alteren folgen zu lassen, sobald diese 
•das Abiturientenexamengemacht baben wijrden, 
^denn es tat ibrem Herzen wehe, dasz dieser eine 
den anderen nacbstehen sollte, aber schlieszlich 
fligte sie sich. Und es war wohl auch am 
besten so. Paul selber hatte es nie anders 
erwartet. Er bielt sich fur ein durchaus unter- 
geordnetes Wesen den Briidern gegenuber und 
hatte es schon langst aufgegeben, ihnen jemals 
zu gleichen. Wenn sie zu den Ferien heimka- 
men, Sammetmiitzen auf den wallenden Haaren, 
bunte Bander quer iiber die Brust gespannt — 
denn sie gehorten einer verbotenen Schiilerver- 
bindung an — so schaute er zu ihnen empor wie 
;zu Wesen aus hoheren Welten. Begierig 
lauschte er, wenn sie untereinander liber Sallust 
4ind Cicero und die Bramen des Aeschylos 
^prachen — und sie sprachen gem davon, schon 
allein, um ihm zuimponieren. Der Gegenstand 
seiner allerhochsten Bewunderung aber war 
das dicke Buch, auf dessen vorderster Seite das 
Wort " Logarithmentafel " geschrieben stand. 
Wie gelehrt musz der sein, der das alles im 
Kopfe hat ? sagte er sich, den Deckel des Buches 
streichelnd, denn er dachte nicht anders, als dasz 
man alle diese Zahlen auswendig lernte. 

'{b) Der Verteidiger hatte geendet. Ein Murmeln 
ging durch den weiten Schwurgerichtssaal, 
dessen Galerie von dichtgedrangten Kopfen 

Wenn der Angeklag-te die Wirkung des 
glanzenden Plaidoyers durch ein unbedachtes 
Wort nicht wieder verdarb, so war er gerettet. 

Die Replik des Staatsanwalts verhallte 

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Und nan klirrten die Lorgnetten und Opern- 
gucker. Aller Aug'en wandten sich nach dem 
blassen, schlicht gekleideten Manne, der auf 
demselben Armensiinderbankchen sasz, auf 
welchem vor acht Jahren der tuckische Knecht 
gesessen hatte. 

Der Prasident hatte gefragt, ob der Angek- 
lagte nocb etwas zur ErhartuDo- seiner Unschiild 
beizubringen babe. 

*' Schweigen, Schweigen !" ging es murmelnd 
dnrcb den Saal. 

Aber Paul erhob sich und sprach, erst leise und 
stockend, doch sicherer von Augenblick zu 
Augenblick : 

'* Es tut mir von Herzen leid, dasz. die Miihe^ 
welche sich der Herr Rechtsanwaltgegeben hat, 
mich zu erretten, umsonst gewesen sein soIL 
Aber ich bin nicht so unschuldig an der Tat^ 
wie er mich darstellt." 

6. Translate and locate the following passages : — 

(a) Nein, eine Grenzehat Tyrannenmacht 

Wenn der Gedriickte nirgends Recbt kana 

Wenn unertraglich wird die Last, greift er 
Hinauf getrosten Mutes in den Himmel 
Und holt herunter seine ew'gen Rechte, 
Die droben hangen unverauszerlich 
Und unzerbrechlich, wie die Sterne selbat. 
Der alte Urstand der Natur kehrt wieder, 
Wo Mensch dem Menschen gegeniibersteht. 
Zum letzten Mittel^ wenn kein andres mehr 
Verfangen will, ist ihm das Schwertgegeben — 
Der Gtiter bochstes diirfen wir verteid' gen 
Gegen Gewalt. Wir stehn vor unser Land, 
Wir stehn vor unsre Weiber, unsre Kinder! 

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(6) Aaf dieser Bank von Stein will ich mioh setzen, 
Dem Wanderer zur ktirzen Ruh bereitet 
Denn hier ist keine Heimat. Jeder treibt 
Sich an dem andem rasch und fremd voriiber 
Und fraget nicht nach seinem Schmerz. Hier 

Der sorgen voile Kaufmann und der leicht 
Gescblirzte Pilgrer, der andacht'ge Mdnch, 
Der diistre Rauber und der heitre Spiel mann, 
Der Stumer mit dem schwer beladnen Rosz, 
Der feme berkommt yon der MenAchea 

Denn jede Strasze fiihrt ans End' der Welt. 
Sie alle ziehen ihres Weges fort 
An ihr Gescbaft und meines ist der Mord ! 

GERMAN.— Part I. 
Second Paper. 


The Board of JSocamvners, 

1. Translate into German — 

My dear Lord Houghton — It is very kind of 
you to remember me at this time, and to send me 
the gift of your two volumes. I thank you 
warmly for your kindness. I came down 
here on Monday, and the time of the journey 
passed rapidly as I read portions of your first 
▼olume. I have a ^reat love of poetry ; but I 
suspect few have less capacity for writing it than 
I have. What makes it easy to some and 
impossible to others I cannot undei'Stand. I 
console myself with the belief that it is necessary 

F 2 

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for some of us to write and speak only in prose. 
And so jou are to lose your now only daughter. 
It is cruel, but inevitable. I have four daughters 
now scattered and gone, and my house is almost 
as lonely as yours. My boys remain with me, 
but they do not make up for the loss of my 
girls, t hope your daughters will be happy, 
and that their happiness will do something to 
lessen the misery of having lost them. I remem- 
ber the pleasant evenings at F— — , and I can 
imagine how changed is now the scene ; but I 
will not further moralise. 

Believe me, always sincerely yours, 

John Bright. 
Kelso, 25th November, 1881. 

S. Translate into English — 

(a) Als sie mun endlich in die kUhlen Schatten 
des duftenden Waldes traten, als die Biische wie 
in sehnsuchtigen Seufzern fliisterten, als die 
wunderbaren Melodien der rauschenden Biiche, 
die Lieder der Vogel fernhin tonten und den 
Widerhall weckten, der ihnen aus den Bergen 
antwortete, da stand Balthasar plotzlich still 
und rief, indem er die Arme weit ausbreitete, als 
woir er Baum und Gebiisch liebend umfangen : 
** 0, nun ist mir wieder wohl, unbeschreiblich 
wohl. In der Stadt ist mir oft zu Mute, als 
wollten die Hiiuser Uber meinem Kopf zusam- 
menstiirzen ; eine unsagbare Angst treibt mich 
hinaus. Aber hier, hier eriiillt bald mein Gemiit 
eine siisze Ruhe. Auf den blumigen Kasen 
gelagert, schaue ich hinauf in das weite Blau des 
Himmels, und iiber mir, iiber den jubelnden 
Wald hinweg, Ziehen die goldenen Wolken wie 

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herrliuhe Traume aus einer fernen Welt veil 
seliger Freuden. mein Freund, dann erhebt 
sich ans meiner eigenen Brust ein wunderbarer 
Geist, und ich vernehm' es, wie er in geheimnis- 
voUen Worten spricht mit den Buschen, mit den 
Baumen^ mit den Wogen des Waldbacbs, und 
nicht vermagich die Wonne zu nennen, die dann 
in wehmiitigem Ban gen mein ganzes Wesen 

(h) Man meint immer, man miisse alt werden 
um gescbeit zu sein ; im Grunde aber bat man 
bei zunehmenden Jabren zu tun, sicb so klug zu 
erbalten wie man gewesen ist. Der Mensch 
wird in seinen verscbiedenen Lebensstufen wob} 
ein andrer,aber man kann nicbt sagen, dasz er ein 
besserer werde, und er kann in gewissen Din gen 
so gu^ in seinem zwanzigsten Jahre recbt baben 
wie in seinem sechzigaten. Wenn daber ein 
Schriftsteller aus verscbiedenen Epocben seinea 
Lebens Werke zurlicklasst, so kommt es beson- 
ders darauf an, dasz er ein angeborenes Funda- 
ment und WoblwoUen besitze, dasz er auf jeder 
Stuf'e rein geseben und empfunden, und obne 
Nebenzwecke gerade und treu gesagt babe wie 
er gedacht. Dann wird sein Gescbriebenes, wenn 
es auf der Stufe recbt war, wo es entstand, aucb 
ferner recbt bleiben, der Autor mag sicb aucb 
spater entwickeln und verandern wie er will. 

3. (a) Wbat is understood by a "continuant" ? What 
by a ** nasal consonant " ? 

(6) Sbow the difference in the pronunciation 
of: E. ''hole" G. ''hohl"; E. ** stand" G. 
"stand"; E. "feel" G. " viel'': E. "burt"^ 

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(c) Transcribe the first sentence of the passage 
given above under 2 (b) (from ** Man " to 
** gewesen uV^) in phonetic spelling. 

4. (a) Give the nominative singular of all the nouns 
in the plural occurring in the passage given 
onder 2 (a), and the nominative plural of all 
those in the singular, with the definite article. 

{h) Give the first person singular of the imperfect 
indicative, and the past participle, of all the 
strong or irregular verbs in the same passage. 

{c) Write out the first four sentences of E's 
speech in the same passage as they would sound 
in indirect narration ( ** Er rief\ nun sei ihni 
wilder wohly*^ <S;c., to ^' Freuden "). 


Part I. — Honours, and 

Part II. — Pass (First Papp:r). — (Composition 
AND Unseen Translation.) 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Translate into German : 

(a) I cannot understand tJje rage manifested by 
the greater pan of the world for reading new 
books. If the public had read all the books 
that have gone before, I can conceive how they 
should not wish to read the same work twice 
over ; but when I consider the countless volumes 
that lie unopened, unregarded, unread, and 

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iiD thought of, I cannot enter into the pathetic 
complaints that I hear made, that Sir Walter 
writes no more, that the press is idle, that Lord 
Byron is dead. If I have not read a hook 
hefore, it is, to all intents and purposes, new to 
me, whether it was printed yesterday or three 
hundred years a^o. If it he urged that it has 
no modern, passing incidents, and is out of date 
and old-fashioned, then it is so much the newer ; 
it is further removed from other works that I 
have lately read, from the familiar routine of 
•ordinary life, and makes so much more addition 
to my knowledge. But many people would as 
soon think of putting on an old armour as of 
taking up a hook not published within the last 
month, or year at the utmost. There is a fashion 
in reading as well as in dress, which lasts only 
for the season. 

(6) I continued the labours of the village-school 
as actively and faithfully as I could. It was 
truly hard work at first. Some time elapsed 
before, with all my efforts, I could comprehend 
my scholars and their nature. Wholly untaught, 
with faculties quite torpid, they seemed to me 
hopelessly dull ; and, at first sight, all dull alike, 
but I soon found I was mistaken. There was 
a difference among them as amongst the 
-educated ; and when I got to know them, and 
they me, this difference rapidly developed itself. 
Their amazement at me, my language, my rules, 
and ways, once subsided, I found some of these 
heavy-looking, gaping rustics wake into sharp- 
witted girls enovigh. Many showed themselves 
obliging, and amiable, too; and I discovered 
amongst them not a few examples of natural 

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« politeness, and innate self-respect^ as well as of 
excellent capacity^ that won both my g^ood-will 
and my admiration. The rapidity of their 
progress, in some instances, was even surprising ; 
and an honest and happy pride I took in it. 

2. Translate into English : 

{a) Alle Biicher, die je geschrieben warden, vom 
altesten bis zum jiingsten, stehen in eioem 
geheimnisvollen Zusammenhang. Denn keiner^ 
der ein Buch geschrieben, ist durch sich selbst 
geworden, was er uns ist, jeder steht auf den 
Schultern seiner Vorganger, Alles, was vor ihm 
geschaffen wurde, hat irgendwie dazu geholfen, 
ihm Geist und Seele zu bilden. Und wieder, 
waser geschaffen, hat irgendwie andre Menscheu 
gebildet, und aus seinem Geist ist in spatere 
iibergegangen. So bildet der Inhalt aller Biicher 
ein groszes ^ Geisterreich auf Erden, von den 
vergangenen Seelen leben und nahren sich alle, 
welche jetzt schaffen. In diesem Sinne ist der 
Geist des Menschengeschlechts eine unermesz- 
liche Einheit, der jeder Einzelne angehort, der 
einst lebte und schuf^ der jetzt atmet und Neues- 
wirkt. Der Geist, den die vergangenen 
Menschen als ihren eigenen empfanden, er ging* 
und gehtjeden Tag in Andre iiber. Was heut 
geschrieben ist, wird morgen vielleicht die Habe 
von tausend Premden, wer langst seinen Leib 
der Natur zuriickgegeben hat, lebt unauf- 
horlich in neuem irdischem Dasein fort, und 
wird tliglich in Tausenden aufs Neue lebendig. 

(b) Das Geschlecht, das Venedig gegrundet, hat 
sich nicht zum Spasz auf diese Inseln gefliichtet ;. 
es war keine Willkiir, welche die Folgenden 

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trieb^ sich mit ihnen za vereini^en : die Not 
lehrte sie, ihre Sicherheit in der nnvorteil- 
haftesten Lage sucheo, die ihnen nachher so 
vorteilhaft ward und sie king machte. Nan 
drangten sich die Wobnungen empor; Sand und 
Sumpf wurden durch Felsen ersetzt; die Hauser 
suchten die Luft, wie Baume, die geschlossen 
stehen : sie muszten an Hohe zu gewinnen 
suchen was ihnen an Breite abging. Auf jede 
Spanne des Bodens geizig, und gleich anfangs 
in enge Baume gedrangt, lieszen sie zu Gassen 
nicht mehr Platz, als notig war, eine Hausreihe 
von der gegeniiberstehenden zu trennen und 
dem Biirger notdiirftige Durchgange zu erhalten. 
Im iibrigen war ihnen das Wasser statt Strasze, 
Platz und Spaziergftng. Der Yenezianer muszte 
eine neue Art von Geschopf werden, wie man 
denn auch Venedig nur mit sich selbst verglei- 
chen kann. 

— (Goethe, " Italienische Beise." ) 

(c) Wobl dem, selig musz ich ihn preisen, 
Der in der Stille der landlichen Flur, 
Fern von des Lebens verworrenen Kreisen, 
Kindlich liegt an der Brust der Natur ! 
Denn das Herz wird mir schwer in der Furstea 

Wenn ich herab vom Gipfel des Gllicks 
Stiirzen sehe die Hochsten, die Besten 
In der Schnelle des Augenblicks. 

Und auch der hat sich wohl gebettet, 
Der aus der stiirmischen Lebens welle, 
Zeitig gewamt, sich herausgerettet 
In des Klosters friedliche Zelle ; 
Der die stachelnde Sucht der Ehren 

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Von sich waif und die eitle Lust, 
Und die Wiinsche, die ewig begehren, 
Eingeschlafert in ruhiger Brust. 
Ihn ergreift in dem LebensgewUhle 
Nicht aer Leidenschaft wilde Gewalt ; 
Nimmer in seinem stilien Asyle 
Sieht er der Menschheit traur'ge Gestalt. 

Auf den Bergen ist Freiheit ! Der Hauch 
der Griif'te 
Steigt nicht hinauf in die reinen Liifte ; 
Die Welt ist vollkommen iiberall, 
Wo der Mensch. nicht hinkomnot mit seiner 


— (Schiller, " Die Braut von Messina.") 

GERMAN.— Part II. 

Second Paper. 
The Board of Examiners 

1. Translate^ with brief marginal nptes where 
necessary : 

(a) Der Kaufmann bei uns erlebt ebenso viel 
Groszes, Empfindungen undTaten, als irgendein 
Reiter unter den Arabern oder Indern. Je 
ausgebreiteter sein Geschfift ist, desto mehr 
Menschen hat er, deren Gliick oder Ungliick er 
mit fiihlen musz, und desto ofter ist er selbst in 
der Lage, sich zu freuen oder Schmerzen zu 
empfinden. Neulich hat hier ein groszes Uaus 
Bankerott gemacht. Wenn Sie die Gewit- 
terschwiile empfunden batten, welche auf dem 

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Geschaft lag, bevor es fiel, die furchtbare Ver- 
zweiflung des Mannes, den Schmerz der Familie, 
die Hocbherzigkeit seiner Frau, welche ihr 
eigenefi Verraogen bis zum letzten Taler in die 
Masse warf, um die Ehre ihres Mannes zu retten, 
• Sie wiirden nicht sagen, da&z unser Geschaft arm 
an Leidenschaften und groszen GefUhlen ist. 
Triibe Erfahrungen hat der Kaufmann freilich in 
Menge zu machen. Der kleine Arger i'ehit ihm 
nicht, und vieles Schlechte musz er erleben, aber 
der ganze Handel ist doch so sehr auf die Red- 
lichkeit Anderer und auf die Giite der mensch- 
licben Natur bereebnet^ dasz ich bei meinem 
Eintritt in diese Tatigkeit erstaunt war. Wer 
ein ehiliches Geschaft hat, kann von unserm 
Leben nicht schlecht Henken, er wird immer 
Gelegenheit haben^ Schones und Groszartiges 
darin zu finden. 

<(i) " Wer hat die grosze Landschaft erobert, in der 
ich geboren bin ? " 
'* Einer, der ein Mann war.** 

*' Ein trotziger Landwirt war's/* rief Anton, 
** er und andere seines Hauses. Mit dem 
Schwert oder durch List, durch Vertrag oder mit 
tJberfall, auf jede Weise haben sie den Boden an 
sich gezogeri, in einer Zeit, wo im iibrigen 
Deutschland fast alles tot und erb§rmlich war. 
Als kiihne Manner und gute Wirtschafter, die 
sie waren, haben sie ihren Boden verwaltet. Sie 
haben Graben gezogen durch das Moor, haben 
Menschen hingepflanzt in leeres Gebiet und 
haben sich ein Geschlecht gezogen, hart, 
arbeitsam, begehrlich, wie sie selbst waren. 
Sie haben einen .Staat gebildet aus verkommenen 
oder zertriimmerten Stammen, sie haben mit 

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groszem Sinn ihr Haus als Mittelpunkt flir viele- 
Millionen gesetzt nnd baben aus dem Bre^ 
unzahliger nicbtiger Souveranitgten eine leben- 
dige Macbt geschafFen." 
(c) Write a short appreciation of Freytag's ** Soil 
und Haben." 

2. Translate, locate, and comment upon the following 
passages : — 

(a) Ich freue mich, wenn kluge Manner sprechen^ 
Dass ich verstehen kann, wie sie es meineo. 
Es sei ein Urteii iiber einen Mann 
Der alten Zeit und seiner Taten Wert ; 
Es sei von einer Wissenschaft die Rede, 
Die, durch Erfahrung weiter ausgebreitet, 
Dem Menschen nutzt, indem sie ihn erhebt ; 
Wohin sich das Gesprach der Edlen lenkt, 
Ich folge gern, denn mirwird leicht zu folgen. 
Ich h6re gern dem Streit der Klugen zu, 
Wenn um die Krafte, die des Menschen Brust 
So freundlich und so fiirchterlich bewegen, 
Mit Grazie die Rednerlippe spielt; 
Gern, wenn die fiirstliche Begier des Ruhms, 
Des ausgebreiteten Besitzes Stoff 
Dem Denker wird, und wenn die feine Klugheit,. 
Von einem klug*en Manne zart entwickelt, 
Statt uns zu hintergehen, uns belehrt. 

{b) glaube mir, ein selbatisches Gemiit 

Eann nicht der Qual des engen Neids entfliehen. 
Ein solcher Mann verzeiht dem andern wohl 
VermSgen, Stand und Ehre ; denn er denkt, 
Das hast du selbst, das hast du, wenn du willst,. 
Wenn du beharrst, wenn dich das Gluck 

Doch das, was die Natur allein verleiht. 

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Was jeglicher Bemiibung, jedem Streben 
Stets unerreicbbar bleibt, was weder Oold, 
Nocb Scbwert, noch Klugbeit^ nocb Bebarr- 

Erzwingen kann, das wird er nie verzeibn. 

(c) Die wahre Freundscbaft zeigt sich in Versagen 
Zur recbten Zeit, und es gewabrt die Liebe 
Gar oft ein scbadlicb Gut, wenn sie den VVillen 
Des Fordernden mebr als sein Gliick bedenkt. 
Da scbeinest mir in diesem Augenblick 

Fiir gut zu balten^ was du eifrig wUnscbest^ 
Und willst im Augenblick^ was du begebrst. 
Durcb Heftigkeit ersetzt der Irrende. 
Was ihm an Wahrbeit und an Eraften feblt. 

(d) Zeigen Sie, auf Deutscb, in wie weit die 
Verbaltnisse, Personen und das Problem von 
Goetbe's " Tasso" denen entsprecben, die Goetbe 
am Hofe zu Weimar fand. 

. Give a survey of Lessing's work as tbe greatest 
German representative of tbe ** Aufklarung," 
witb a more detailed reference to bis ** Laokoon* 
and tbe " Hamburofische Dramaturgfie." 

GERMAN.— Part 11. 
Third Paper. 
The Board of Examiners, 

1. Geben Sie eine kurze Uebersicbt iiber die ** Roman- 
tiscben Scbulen '^ in Deutscbland, mit den Namen 
und Daten ibrer Hauptvertreter, und zeigen Sie 
die Bedeutung der romantiscben Bewegung. 

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2. Was wissen Sie von Walther von der Vogelweide ? 

3. Die sechs ^rossen Dichter der klassischen Zeit des- 

18ten Jahrhunderts sind Klopstock, Lessing'^ 
Wieland, Herder, Goethe, und Schiller. Geben 
Sie ganz kurz, in einem oder zwei Satzen fur 
jeden, die Bedeutung der vier ersten von diesen 

4. Wann und mit wem beginnt die Bildung der 

neuhochdeutschen Schriftsprache, und welche 
Manner haben sich besonders um ihre Entwick- 
lung verdient gemacht ? 

5. Geben Sie die Namen der Verfasser ( wenn bekannt) , 

die Zeit der Entstehung, und die Gattung- 
(Drama, Roman u.s.w.) der folgenden Werke: — 
{a) *<Die Leute von Seldwyla'': (J) " Da& 
Waltbarilied "; {c) '' Agathon "; {d) " Aus dem 
Leben eines Taugenichts "; {e) " Maler Nolten "f 
(/) '*Gudrun." 


Schreiben Sie einen deutschen Aufsatz fiber eine& 
der folgenden Themas — 

'* Des Lebens Muhe lehrt uns allein des Lebeii& 
Giiter schatzen.*' 

" Es bildet ein Talent sich in der Stille, 
Sich ein Charakter in dem Strom der Welt."^ 

^^ Willst du genau erfahren, was sich ziemt^ 
So frage nur bei edlen Frauen an." 

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Professor Elkington, 


Answer fUly and dearly TBHT, and only Ten, of the 
foUowinflT questions. 

1. Describe the geographical position of the follow^ 

iDg places, and mention any inoportant historical 
events connected with them : — Alesia, Corfinium, 
Delos, Djrrhachium, Herd a, Mjlae, Praeneste, 

2. Write notes on diminutio capitis, jus Latinum, 

Lar familiaris municipium, plebiscitum, provo- 
cation proximus agnatus, senatus auctoritas. 

8. What influences, social, religious, and literary, 
throughout Grecian history tended to counteract 
political disunion ? 

4. Discuss the origin and the efiects of despotia 

government in Greece. 

5. What was the Theoric Fund, and how did it affect 

public policy ? 

6. Explain the origin and development of the Roman 


7. Sketch the history of the Roman Senate. 

8. What were the grievances which Tiberius Gracchus 

proposed to alleviate, and how far was he suc- 
cessful ? 

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9. Enumerate the extra-Italian possessions of Rome 
in the times of the Gracchi, and point out 
shortly the circumstances leading to the acquisi- 
tion of each. 

10. What were the causes of the Social War, and by 

what concessions was it terminated ? 

11. Write a short account of either Gaius Marius or 

Lucius Cornelius Sulla. 

12. What was the nature and what the object of the 

First Triumvirate ? 

13. Explain the principle on which Provinces were 

divided between the Senate and the Emperor. 



Professor Elkington. 

Answer ftilly 'and clearly TBN, and only Ten, of the 
, following' qnestions. 

1. How far, if at all, did the Roman occupation of 
Britain affect the country permanently ? 

12. How did Canute acquire his power in England ? 
How did he confirm it ? 

3. Explain the meaning and the importance of the 
Assembly at Salisbury in 1080. 

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4. Give a short account of the state of literature in 

England during the reign of Henry the Second. 

5. Write notes on : — ^The Barons' War; Benevolences; 

The Cabal ; Impeachment ; The Pilgrimage of 
Grace ; Tonnage and Poundage. 

6. Trace briefly the origin of the House of Commons 

7. Write an account of the reign of Richard the 


8. Give some account of the history of the conti- 

nental possessions of England to tbe middle of 
the fifteenth century. 

9. Give some account (a) of the foreign, and (6) of 

the domestic, policy of Henry the Seventh. 

10. Estimate briefly Cardinal Wolsey's place in the 

history of England. 

11. Give a summary of the results of the Renaissance 

in England. 

12. Give a short account of the part played in Irish 

history by (a) the O'Neills, (b) Wentworth, (c) 

18. Trace the causes which led to the Parliamentary 
opposition to Charles the First. « 

14. Trace briefly the history of the means by which 
the Restoration was accomplished. 

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Professor Elkington. 

Answer folly and oleftvlr TBV, and only Ten, of t]i» 
followinflT questions. 

1 . Why was James the Second a failure ? 

2. To what events did the Revolution of 1688-9 g'ive 

rise in Scotland ? 

3. Write notes on : — The Non- Jurors ; Wood's half- 

pence ; the lines of Torres Vedras. 

4. Write notes on : — ^The Peerage Bill ; Occasional 

Conformity ; the Six Acts. 

5. Describe the efforts of George the Third to increase 

his power. Was he successful ? 

6. Give an account of the struggle between Parlia- 

ment and John Wilkes. 

7. What is meant by the *' Industrial Revolution V* 

Describe its chief results^ social and political. 

8. Indicate the merits of the government of Willian> 

Pitt as a peace minister. 

9. How* do you account for the opposition to the 

French Revolution in Great Britain ? 

10. What was the ''Old Colonial System," and to 
what results did it lead ? » 

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11. With what powers did England successively come 

into contact in North America ? State briefly 
the results. 

12. Discuss the chief problems of domestic polic 

which were dealt Vith by the governments o 
George the Fourth. 

13. Trace the history of the growth of the freedom of 

the press in England. 

14. What does India owe to (a) Warren Hastings, 

(J) Lord Dalhousie ? 


Professor Elkinyton, 

ilnswer fhlly and clearly TEN, and only Ten, of the 
foUowinflT qnestlons. 

If " The Laws of Economics are statements in the 
indicative mood of relations between causes and 
effects, and not precepts in the imperative mood.'* 
Comment upon this statement. 

2. Indicate the more important conditions on which 

the efficiency of labour depends. 

3. Define Capital, and justify your definition. 

4. Define Exchange, and justify your definition. 

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5. Distinpruish between — (a) Goods and Wealth, 

(J) Profit and Interest, (c) Total Utility and 
Marginal Utility. 

6. Enumerate some of the chief causes of difference 

between Real Wages and Nominal Wages. 

7. (a) In what circumstances are joint stock com- 

panies likely to succeed ? 

(b) Compare the advantages of joint stock com- 
panies with those of private firms in various 
kinds of industrial undertakings. 

8. What is meant by the Law of Diminishing Re- 

turns? Is there a Law of Increasing Returns? 
If so, state it. 

9. Write explanatory notes on — (a) Market, (ft) 

Natural price, (c) Seigniorage, (^ Unproduc- 
tive Labour. 

10. Show the importance of Statistics as an auxiliary 

to economic inquiry. 

1 1 . What are the chief characteristics of a good system 

of Taxation. 

11?. Elucidate Walker's remark that ** the value of 
money is determined by demand and supply." 

13. (a) Why does Great Britain import more than 
she exports ? 

(^) Why do the prices of foreign bills fluctuate ? 

(c) What is meant by the Foreign Exchanges ? 

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The Board of Examiners, 

Candidates must answer satisfactorily in each of' 
the Three Divisions of this Paper. 


1. Find the centre of a given circle. 

If two circles intersect, shew that the line 
joining their centres cuts their common chord 
at right angles. 

2. If two chords of a circle cut another, the rectangle 

contained by the segments of one shall be equal 
to the rectangle contained by the segments of 
the other. 

Describe a circle to pass through two given 
points and touch a given straight line. 

3. Find a mean proportional between two given 

straight lines. 

If two circles touch, a common tangent is 
a mean proportional between their diameters. 


1. Shew how to solve two simultaneous quadratics in 
which all the terms which involve the two 
unknowns are of the second degree. 


x^ axy __ y^ hxy __ fv^ h^ 

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2. If the three fraptions xja, yjb, zjc are equal, shew 
that each in equal to 

(Ix + my -t nz) j {la + mb -{■ wc). 
Prove also that 
(a^ .f b^ + £?») {x^ + y' + z^) = (ax + by + czf. 

S. Define a geometrical progression and prove for- 
mulse for the r^ term and the sum of n terms. 

Shew that the product of terms equidistant 
from the first and last is the same whatever 
terms are taken. 

4. Prove that 

n+l ^r ^^ «6^ + n^r— 1 

and shew how to form a table of the values 


Express n+s^r in terms of «£>, „C,._i, „Cr-2- 


1. State and prove formulae for the sine and cosine of 

the sum of two angles in terms of the sines and 
cosines of the angles themselves. 

If sin Ay sin B are given, how many 
values are there for sin {A + E) and for 
cos (^ + J5) ? 

2. Find a formula for all the angles which have a 

given cosine. 

Find the general solution of 

sin 3d? sin hx = sin Ix sin ^x. 

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^. Kad a formula for the area of a triangle is terms 
of the sides. 

Shew that the area is 

i(6«sin2C + (?*8in2^). 

4. Shew how to solve a triangle having given two 
sides and the angle opposite one of the sides. 

If a = 273, b = 392, A = 37° 14', find C 
to the nearest second having given 

log 3-92 = -5932861 

log 2-73= -4361626 

Z sin 37° 14' = 9-7818002 

i sin 60° 19' = 9-9389076 

difference for 1' = 720 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Find the equation of the straight line joining twc 
points whose co-ordinates are given. 

Shew that the three straight lines bisecting at 
right angles the three sides of a triangle meet 
at a point. 

^. Shew that the line 

y ^ mx + — 

touches the parabola 

p^ zz 4aa. 

Find the locus of the intersection of any 
tangent with the perpendicular drawn to it from 
the vertex. 

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3. Find the locuai of the middle points of a system of 

parallel chords of an ellipse. 

A chord of an ellipse passes through a fixed 
point. Find the locus of its middle point. 

4. Find the limit when 

aj = 

g^ - 1 


Hence, find the differential coeflBicients of o^^ 
log^ X. 

Shew how to find the maximum and minimum 
yalues of a function of one independent variable. 

Find the maximum and minimum values of 

a« ^ li^ 

a -^ X X — b 

6. Define the curvature at any point of a curve, and 

prove the formula 

p =z rd rjdp. 
Find the curvature at any point of a parabola. 

7. State and prove the rule for integration by sub- 


Integrate sec x, cosec x, sech Xy cosech x, 

8. Investigate formulae of reduction for 

/ '^ sin ^x cos ^x dx 

Shew how to find the value of the integral 
when the upper limit is replaced by w or by 2^. 

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9. Prove the formula 

^ r^sindd e 

h f' 

for the volume g'euerated by the revolution of a 
sectorial area about the initial line. 

Find the volume generated by the revolution 
of the curve 

r =: a (I + cos 6) 

about the initial line. 

The Board of Examiners. 


Shew that the acceleration a of a body due to a* 
force F is g FjW v^rhere W is the weight of tho 
body expressed in the same unit as F, Discuss 
the introduction of the maiss of the body into 
this expression for a, describing* carefully the 
dynamical and gravitational systems of units. 

A man descends from a balloon by means of a 
parachute. The resistance to the parachute is 
'2v^ lbs. wt. at velocity v ft./sec, and the man 
and paiachute weigh 400 lbs. Find the velocity 
at which he descends, and obtain an approxima- 
tion to the area of a horizontal plane surface 
which would offer the resistance hei'e supposed. 

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S. Explain the principle of the conservation of 
momentum, shewing* its connection with 
Newton's Third Law of Motion. 

A ball of mass m lbs. is fired horizontally 
from a gun of mass M lbs., the kinetic energy 
of the two, produced by the explosion, being 
E ft. lbs. Find the velocity in ft./sec. of the 
ball and gun, the latter being- supposed to recoil 

3. Explain the construction of a velocity-position 

graph from a given force-position graph. How 
would you proceed to obtain a position-time 
graph ? 

A mass of M lbs. is suspended from a point 

by a helical spring which is of natural length 
/ .it, and has a tension T lbs. wt. at length 

1 + a ft. The mass is released from a point 
distant I below 0, and hits a fixed inelastic 
horizontal plate b ft. lower down. Find the 
velocity of the mass when it reaches the plate, 
and the time elapsed. Find also the time when 
the mass reaches the plate again. 

4. Explain the meaning of the acceleration of a point 

when the magnitude and the direction of the 
velocity are both changing, and find an expres- 
sion for the component acceleration due to each 

A tube inclined at an angle d to the vertical 
rotates with uniform angular velocity oi radians 

Ser sec. about a vertical axis intersecting it. 
'ind in feet the distance from the vertical axis 
of the position in the tube at which a small 
smooth body can remain in relative equilibrium. 

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6. P^ve the addition theorem for moments, and deduce 
the condition of equilibrium of a body on a fixed 
smooth axis. 

A gasalier with two straight arms each of 
length A in a line at right angles to the descend- 
ing tube of length I is hanging out of plumb 
from the ball-joint at top. A horizontal force 
P applied at the lower end of the descending 
tube, brings the gasalier plumb. Find the weight 
at the end of an arm which will do so. 

6. Shew that it is necessary and sufficient for the 
equilibnum of forces in one plane on a rigid 
body that the sums of the resolved parts of the 
forces in two directions and the sum of their 
moments about one point should separately 

A plane plate can turn in its own plane about 
a centre fixed in a frame. A cord passes 
around two smooth j)egs Ay B in the plate in line 
with 0, and its ends are fnstened to a point C of 
the frame in the plane of the plate. A couple 
of moment L is applied to the plate in its plane 
se as to strain the cord. Assuming the dimen- 
sions given and neglecting gravity, find the 
tension of the cord and the reaction at 0. 

7. Shew that the mechanical efficiency of a rough 
square^threaded screw driven in a fixed nut 
against an axial force by a couple around the 
axis is tan a/tan (a + X), and that this has a 
maximum value (1— sin X)/(l + sin X) when 
a — 9r/4 — X/2, where a is the angular pitch 
and X is the angle of friction. 

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If the screw is a hollow tube of meanrad]a» 
r which is driven against the pressure of a 
rough plate bearing against the square-cut end 
of the screw and not rotating with it^ shew that 
the mechanical efficiency is tan a/(tan (a + xy 
+ /i' rja) where a is the radius of the screw- 
thread and fx' is the co-efficient of friction with 
the plate. 

8. Prove the theorem z z= ^mzj^m for the c.m.^ 

explaining the rule of signs for the distance z. 

A plane polygon is defined by the distances 
1, 2, 8, 4, 5 of its angles -4, B, C, i>, E from a 
point O, and the magnitudes 60°, 60^ 75°, 75°, 90^ 

of the angles AOB EOA, Find the distance 

OG of the cm. of the area of the polygon from 
Oand the angle GO A, 

9. Define the stress across a surface in a body^ and 

shew that if the stress is always normal it& 
intensity is the same in all directions at the same 

A surface S is coterminous with a plane area 
A of given cm. G. Find the magnitude and 
the line of action of the resultant of a uniforo^ 
fluid pressure over S of intensity p, 

A right circular cylinder of radius r and 
length I is immersed in heavy liquid, with it& 
axis horizontal and at a depth h{>r) below the 
surface. Find the magnitude and line of action 
of the resultant pressure on the part of the 
curved surface on one side of the vertical plane 

x-^\vnough the axis' 

of tht 


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Enqinebrinq Course. 

The Board of Examiners. 

[Blectrical EAgln««rlBg' Students omit th« first Two 

1. State and prove the six fundamental relations 

between the parts of a right-angled spherical 

AOB, BOC^ COD are three right angles at 
0. Given the inclinations of the plane BOC to 
the other two, find the inclination of these to 
each other, and find also the angle BOA, 

2. Shew how to solve a spherical triangle of which 

the three sides are given. 

The latitudes and longitudes of three places 
on the earth's surface are given. Finci the 
shortest distance of one from the great circle 
through the other two. 

8. OAy OB, OC SLTB mutually at right angles. From 
a point P perpendiculars PL, PM, PN are 
drawn to these axes, and PR is perpendicular to 
the plane AOB, If PL, PM, PR, LR, MR, 
NR are bars of a frame connecting P with the 
fixed points L, M,' N, find the stresses in the 
frame due to a force i' on P at inclinations 
a, i3, y with the axes OA, OB, OC 



4. State and explain the principle of virtual work. 

Stidino: pieces A^ B^ C on three fixed bars 
OA, OB, OG mutually at rig-ht angles are 
connected by two bars BC, CA smoothly jointed 
to them. Forces P, Q, R are applied to A, B, C 
in the directions OA^ OB, OC. Shew that for 

PlOA + QlOB = RjOa 

6. Shew how the motion of a particle along a straight 
line is determined when the force is given (a) as 
a function of the time, (b) as a function of the 
position of the particle. 

If in the first case the force is A sin 2TrtjTy 
where A, T are constants, complete the solu- 
tion, and discuss the result. 

6. Define the principal axes of inertia at a point, and 

obtain a formula for the directions of these axes 
at a point of a plane area, the moments and 
product of inertia for one set of axes at the 
point being given. 

Find the directions of the })rincipal axes at 
the angles of a uniform triangular lamina, using 
• the equimomental particles at the middle points 
of the sides. 

7. Find the pressures on the bearings due to a concen- 

trated load fixed to a rotating shaft at a given 
distance from it and from the bearings. 

Find the pressures on the bearings due to' a 
uniform distribution of mass along a given 
straight line parallel to the shaft and in a given 
position relative to the shaft and the bearings. 

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8. Shew how to determine the small oscillations of a 

irictionless mechanism with one deg^ree of 
freedom by the use of the equation of energy, 

A smoothly-jointed frame ABCD of equal 
uniform bars hangs in a vertical plane with AB 
lixed in a horizontal position. Find the time of 
a small oscillation under gravity. 

9. State D'Alembert's principle, and determine the 

inertia-forces in the case of a plane amina 
moving in its plane. 

In the case mentioned, suppose the force on the 
lamina is constant in magnitude and direction 
and applied at a point other than the cm. 
Determine the motion. 



First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Prove that the area of a spherical triangle is the 

product of the spherical excess • and the square 
of the radius of the sphere. 

Find formulae to determine the area common 
to two small circles on a sphere, their angular 
radii being a, b^ and the distance between their 
poles c. 

2. Prove the fundamental sine-formu)a for a spherical 

triangle. — --*«•' 

The mutual inclinations of the lines OA, OBy 
OC are given. Find the cosine of the inclination, 
to OC (k a perpendicular to the plane A OB. 

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3. Shew how to solve a spherical triangle having 

given two sides and the included angle. 

A point P on the moon's limb is defined 
either by the angle between the great circles 
from the moon's centre to the point P and to 
the point Q of the limb nearest the zenith 
or by the angle between the great circles to P 
and the point R of the limb nearest the pole. 
Given the declination and hour-angle of the 
moon and the latitude, find a formula for the 
difference of the two angles. 

4. Describe the adjustments of a transit circle. 

The east end of the axis of rotation of a 
transit instrument in S. lat. \ has an elevation a 
and an azimuth /3 north of east. The line of 
coUimation is at an inclination 7r/2 — y to the 
axis of rotation. Find the hour-angles of transit 
of a star whose S. declination is d. 

^. Shew how the longitude is determined at sea by 
the observation of an altitude and the chrono- 
meter, the latitude being supposed known. 
Give the necessary formulae, and state the 
corrections to be made to the observation. 

Shew that the rate of change of altitude of a 
star is greatest when the inclination of the circles 
from the star through the zenith and pole is 
greatest, and that this occurs when the star is in 
the prime vertical. 

<&, Define the equation of time and explain the state- 
ment that the right ascension of the mean Sun 
is equal to the mean longitude of the true Sun. 

Shew that^ neglecting disturbances, the Sun 
has the mean angular motion in its orbit when 

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its distance is a geometric mean between the 
semiaxes, and that this occurs at about 90° from 
the line of apses. Find the difference of the 
mean and true longitudes of the Sun at this 
time, and hence shew that at an equinox the 
equation of time is about 7 minutes. [Take the 
excentricity of the orbit as 1/60 and cos 23* 30' 
= 11/12.] 

Explain the sources of the reductions for the 
apparent position of a star at a given time. 

Let S be a star, V the point to which the 
earth's centre is moving, P a given pole. Shew 
that if k is the constant of aberration, the 
aberrations of S along and perpendicular to the 
great circle S P are 

k (cos 6 sin c — sin b cos c cos A ), 
and /e sin 6 sin J., 

where P r = 6, PaS = tf, /S/^7 = ^. 


Sboond Paper. 

Tits Board of Exammer*. 

1. Two equal uprights ABC, DEF are jointed to 
fixed points Jl, D on the same level, and are 
braced by equal light bars BF, C-S jointed at 
their ends to the uprights. A force X in the 
direction CF is applied at C Find the stresses 
in BFy CEy and the maximum bending moments 
in the uprights. 


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2. Investigate conditions of equilibrium for a rig-id 
body, acted on by any system of forces. 

A gasalier has three straight branches^ each 
of length a, equally spaced around the descend- 
ing tube, which is of length L To make this 
tube hang vertically from the ball-joint at the 
top a horizontal force P, applied at the bottom 
of the tube and making an angle S with one of 
the branches, is required. Find the weights 
which, applied at the ends of two of the branches, 
will effect the same object. 

8. State and demonstrate the principle of virtual 

Four uniform bars, each of weight m and 
length a form a frame ABCD. AB is fixed 
horizontally. Find the tension of a cord of 
length a joining A and C, so as to hold the 
frame in an oblique position. 

4. A particle describes an orbit about a fixed centre 

of force. If V is the resultant velocity, u its 
component perpendicular to the radius vector, 
k the curvature, shew that u varies inversely 
as r, and that the force per unit mass is kv^ju. 

5. Demonstrate the theorem of parallel axes for 

moments of inertia. 

Shew from considerations of dimensions that 
the M.I. of a uniform rod of length a and mass m 
about its centre is equal to that of a rod ot 
length 2a and mass mj^. Hence, by equating 
the M.I. of such a rod to the sum of the M.I's. 
of its two halves, shew, without integration, 
that the M.I. about its centre is one-twelfth of 
the mass into the square of its length. 

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6. Shew that the rate of increase of angular momen- 
tum of a system about a fixed axis is equal to 
the moment of the external tbrces about the 

A turbine wheel with vertical axis is driven 
by a jet of water which before entering the 
wheel has a horizontal velocity v ft./sec. at an 
angle 6 with the perpendicular, of length r ft., 
to the axis, and after leaving the wheel has a 
negligible velocity. Shew that the driving 
couple is mvr sin djg ft. lbs. where m lbs. is the 
mass of water per sec. entering the wheel. 

?. A roller of radius r and M.I. JfP about its axis 
rolls down an inclined plane of elevation i. The 
handle of the roller trails on the plane behind, 
its length being I, its mass m, and its cm. dis- 
tant 2//3 from the end. Find the acceleration 
of the roller {a) when all frictions are neglected; 
(6) when a co-efficient of friction /i is assumed 
between the plane and the handle. 


Professor Laurie. 

To be used as Pass Paper, and also as Honour Paper No. 1. 

1. What are the three parts of logical doctrine ? How 

would you deal with the statement that one of 
these parts ^' is the strictly proper subject " of 
Formal Logic t 

2. How do you define a Concept ? Show the import- 

ance of distinguishing between the collective 
and the distributive use of names. 

H 2 

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3. What distinction should be drawn between con- 

trary and contradictory opposition ? Give, 
where possible, the contrary, the obverted 
converse, and the contra positive, of each of the 
following propositions : — 

The insane ought not to be punished. 

Few men pursue their ambitions wisely. 

If a child is spoilt^ he is likely to be trouble^ 

4. What reasons hava been given for and against 

the addition of the forms '^ All aS' is all P," and 
*' Some S is all P," to the four traditional forms 
of proposition ? 

6. Prove, from the rules of the syllogism, that a 
valid syllogism in the second figure must have a 
negative conclusion and that the conclusion of a 
valid syllogism in the third figure must be 

6. What are the characteristics of an Inductive 

Syllogism ? Give an example. Comment on 
the distinction between Perfect and Imperfect 
Induction. • 

7. What are the different kinds of fallacy of accident ? 

Give an example of each. 

8. State the following in syllogistic form, and point 

out fallacies, if any ; — 
(a) An agreement is adhered to if it be advan- 
tageous to the parties concerned ; but since ttm 
agreement between A and £ has not been to 
their mutual advantage', we may therefore infer 
that it has not been adhered to. 

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{b) Since the business of an Arbitration Court 
should be to regulate industries generally, it is 
not enough to empower it to settle disputes 
between individual employers and those whom 
they employ. 

{c) There must be some connection between 
Parliaments and undue loquacity; for it is 
admitted thnt in all the Parliaments of Australia 
there is too much speaking. 

(d) You are either fated to recover from your 
illness or not; in either case, therefore, it is 
useless to call in a doctor. 

. In a given examination, every candidate who takes 
either Classics or English takes Mathematics ; 
no one who takes Music takes Classics; but 
every one who does not take Music takes 
English. What can be inferred from these 
premisses (a) of those candidates who do not 
take English, (6) of those who tak«e Mathematics ? 
Work this question by the method of Indirect 


Professor Laurie. 

To be used as Pass Paper, and also aa Honour Paper No. 1. 

1. Is Resemblance implied in all propositions of which 
the predicate is a general name ? Consider this 
question in connexion with Miirs treatment of 
the Import of Propositions. 

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S. Is it possible to deduce from definitions, as such, 
any real scientific knowledge? Discuss the 
statement that the science of Geometry is derived 
from definitions. 

3. Row would you express the principle of the Uni- 

formity of Nature ? On what grounds has this 
principle been held to be an induction from facts 
of observation ? Add any comments. 

4. Is the Method of Agreement applicable to cases 

where an observed conjunction of phenompna, 
though frequent, has not been unvarying f Give 
reasons for your answer, and an illustration. 

5. Mention any difficulties which may occur in the 

extension, beyond the limits of actual experience, 
of a quantitative law which has been ascertained 
by the Method of Concomitant Variations. 

6. Show that induction and deduction go together in 

the actual processes of the discovery and proof 
of uniformities. 

7. Mention different kinds of law to which the term 

'^ empirical law'' has been applied, with the 
method or methods appropriate to each. 

8. Show the relation between analogy and hypothesis. 

Discuss the statement that the argument from 
analogy may in some cases approach in strength 
very near to a valid induction. 

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Professor Laurie, 

To be used as Paas Paper and Honour Paper No. 1 for Second 
Year Students, and as Pass Paper No. 1 for Third Year 

1. Mention difficulties which are encountered in tracings 

(he correlation between nervous and psychical 
processes. Give any instances in which these 
difficulties have been overcome. 

2. On what grounds has it been held that Knowing, 

Feeling, and Willing, are mutually implicated ? 
Must the primacy in the development of the 
mental life be given to Conation ? Refer, on 
this question, to any recent discussion which is 
known to you. 

3. What do you understand by the extensity of 

sensations ? May this be distinguished from 
(a) the intensity, and (h) the quality, of sensa- 
tions ? 

4r. In what respects does Perception, as a psychical 
fact, pass Deyond our experience of sensations ? 

6. To what extent may repetition be relied upon (a) . 
as an aid to the memory of particular facts ; (i) 
as a means of strengthening the memory gene- 
rally ? 

6. What reasons have been given for holding the 
judgment to be the starting-point in thought? 
Trace the process by which the notions- of in- 
dividual and class have been differentiated. 

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7. Is the Subjective Idealist entitled, on his premisses, 

to infer the existence of minds other than his 
own ? Discuss this question. 

8. Examine Spencer's statements that all efforts to 

understand the essential nature of Matter or of 
Motion bring us to alternative impossibilities 
of thought. 

9. Compare the ideals of Science and Religion as set 

forth by Spencer in his chapter on "The Re- 


Professor Laurie, 

To be used as Honour Paper No. 2 for Second Year Students, 
and as Pass Paper No. 2 for Third Year Students. 

1. What, on Spencer's view, are the parts played by 

the environment and the bodily organism in the 
development of mind ? Add any comments. 

2. Is it possible to explain] our knowledge of Space 

by reference to facts of sentience, either with or 
without the aid of a theory of evolution ? 

3. What is the intention, and what the value, of 

Spencer's Universal Postulate ? 

4. Can the origin of all necessities of knowledge, as 

assigned by Spencer, be reconciled with his 
statement that no one can ''ever take a step 
towards justifying his scepticism respecting the 
Universal Postulate without, in the very act, 
confessing his accej>tance of it" ? 

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& State, and examine, the doctrine of Inseparable 

6. Consider Spencer's step to his Transfigured Realism 

from his distinction between two aggregates of 
states of consciousness. 

7. It has been said that Spencer*s Transfigured 

Bealism is a representative theory of perception. 
Examine this statement, referring to his diagram 
of the cylinder and the cube. 

Professor Laurie. 

1. What value do you attach to the Socratic tenet 

that virtue is knowledge ? How was this modi- 
fied by Plato and Aristotle ? 

2. How does Aristotle define virtue ? Write a note 

on his distinction between the moral and the 
intellectual virtues. 

3. What were the leading features of the Stoic moral 

philosophy ? 

4. State, and consider, Butler's vindication of Bene- 

volence as distinct from Self-love. 

^. Moral philosophers, it has been said, are generally 
agreed as to the duties incumbent on man, while 
they differ as to the criteria and basis of morality. 
How may this be accounted for ? Refer, in 
your answer, to MilFs treatment of this question. 

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6. Estimate the value of Spencer's Absolute Ethics^ 

as a means of ascertaining the duties which 
should be fulfilled by actual men under existing 

7. State, with any comments, Green's doctrine that 

the gradual development of our knowledge 
depends on the reproduction, in us, of an 
eternally complete consciousness. 

8. How, according to Green, does the true good differ 

from the merely apparent good ? And what is 
" the formal character of the Moral Ideal ** ? 
Add any comments. 


Arts and Edccation. 

7'Ae Board of Examitters. 

TEN questions only to be attempted. 

1. Explain what is involved in the measurement of a 

physical quantity, and illustrate your answer 
by giving a full explanation as to how force is 

2. Explain how velocities are compounded and resolved 

graphically, and why the method is a legitioiate 

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A ship Steaming N.E. through a current 
running 4 knots an hour is found after an hour 
to have made 4 knots due N. Determine the 
direction of the current and the speed of the 

8. Define acceleration, and determine the acceleration 
of a body that moves with uniform speed in a 

Prove the formula for the period of a conical 

4. Describe the construction of an aneroid barometer, 

and explain with full detail how to calibrate it. 

5. Describe and give the theory of one method for 

determining the co-eftcient of real expansion of 

Why is an accurate knowledge of this co- 
efl&cient specially important ? 

6. State the laws of evaporation, and show how they 

can be explained on the basis of the molecular 

Describe how to determine the maximum 
pressure of aqueous vapour for temperatures be- 
tween 50° C. and 100° C. 

7. Describe with full detail how to verify the inverse 

square law for magnetism by the method of 

8. Describe the Replenisher, and explain its action 


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■ 9. Define unit current: Describe how to use a tangent 
galvanometer, and, in case its number of turns 
is not kn6wn, show how to determine its reducing 
factor by means of a copper voltameter. 

10. Describe some simple form of direct current 

dynamo, and explain its action fully. 

11. A person looks at an object through a concave 

lens of 6 inches focal length, the object being 
4 inches beyond the lens. Draw a figure, 
approximately to scale, showing the paths of 
the rays by which he sees the image formed, 
and determine its position. 

12. Describe, in detail, the different parts of a modern 

astronomical telescope, their arrangement, and 
the mode of using the instrument. 


Arts and Science. 
T^t€ Hoard of ExaTainers, 

VINE questions only to be attempted. 

1. Obtain from first principles the expression for 
the kinetic energy of a body rotating round a 
fixed axis with constant angular velocity. 

Give the theory of the compound pendulum 
making small swings. 

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2. A thin wire is stretched horizontally and loaded 

by weights applied at its middle point. Show 
rally how to use this apparatus to determine 
Young's modulus for the material of the wire, 
and give the complete theory of the method. 

3. State Ramsay and Young's general relation be- 

tween the pressure and temperature of fluids 
kept at constant volume, and deduce the corre- 
sponding form of the characteristic equation. 

What inference can you draw from this form 
of the equation respecting the relation between, 
the molecular pressure of a fluid and its volume 
and temperature ? 

4. State the assumptions on which the kinetic theory 

of gases is based, and deduce an expression for 
the energy of translation of the molecules per 
unit mass in terms of quantities accessible to 

5. Discuss the phenomenon of beats between vibra- 

tors of slightly different pitch, and deduce from 
the theory of vibration the relation between the 
frequency of the beat and those of the vibrators. 

Explain why beats are not always heard, even 
though theory shows that they are produced. 

6. If a lens whose focal length is /produces a mag- 

nification Ml when the image is at a distance 
d from the lens, and a magnification m^ when d' 
becomes d + x prove that — 

/=— ^— 

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7. Establish from first principles — (a) the expression 

for the electric intensity just outside a charg-ed 
conductor ; (6) the relation between the electric 
intensities at the two ends of a tube of force. 

Describe the guard-ring condenser, and obtain 
the expression for its capacity. 

8. Describe and give the complete theory of the 

laboratory metnod of investigating the magnetic 
properties of an iron rod. 

9. Determine in terms of the different quantities 

involved the magnetic force at any point in the 
axis of a coil carrying a current. 

Describe the Helmholtz galvanometer, deter- 
mine its constant, and point out its advantages. 

10. Describe fiilly and give the theory of some 
accurate method of comparing two small resist- 

Engineebing Course. 
The Board of Examinen. 


i. What do you understand by (a) Harmonic Func- 
tion, (J)) Harmonic Series? State the general 
relation between such periodic functions as occur 
in physical problems and Harmonic Functions. 

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The rectilinear displacement of a particle is a 
harmonic fanction of the time; at what point in 
its path is its velocity half its greatest yelocity ? 

2. Obtain an expression for the shearing stress at any 

point of a cylinder under torsion. 

The rigidity of steel is 38 X 10" and its 
ultimate resistance to shearing stress 9*68 x 
10^ dynes per sq. cm.; find, correct to the 
nearest degree, the greatest twist which can be 
sustained by a steel shaft 800 cm. long and 15 
cm. in diameter. 

3. State Mendeleefs Law of Expansion for perfect 

liquids, and show how it differs from the general 
law for solids. 

Gutkowska obtained the following values for 
the density of kerosene : — 

atO^ -8056; at 32°, -7824; 
atl6^ 7940; at 48°, 7708. 
Show that kerosene obeys Mendel eef's Law, 
and calculate any constants involved. 

4. Explain the terms Indicator Diagram, Isometric, 


Determine the form of the isothermals of a 
perfect gas, and show how to draw them for 
consecutive degrees of temperature. 

5. State the general rule for the transformation of 

other kinds of energy into work, and discuss the 
problem fully for the special case of utilisation 
. of the potential energy of a high-level water 

In what respects does this case (a) resemble, 
(h) differ from that of a perfect heat engine ? 

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6. A battery of constant e.m.f. and negligible internal 

resistance is joined by leads of resistance r to a 
variable resistance jB. Find the value of M for 
which the rate of generation of heat in it is a 
maximum and the corresponding value of the 
ratio of the power dissipated in S to the total 
power developed by the battery. 

7. State fully what you know of the mutual action 

of two coils carrying constant currents in terms 
of the different variables involved. 

Describe two practical forms of electrical 
measuring instruments depending on these 

8. Describe some good form of alternate current trans- 

former. What is magnetic leakage, and how- 
does it affect the performance of a transformer T 
Specify the different losses, and describe how 
they may be estimated. 

Express the primary and secondary e.m.f.'s in 
terms of the magnetic flux, period, and numbers 
of turns. 


Engineering Course. 

The Board of Uxaminers. 

Give a full description of the construction and 
mode of use, and discuss the theory, of the 
platinum resistance pyrometer. 

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2. What is a ** t, ^ " diagram ? 

Determine the forms of the isometrics and 
isopiestics of a gas on such a diagram when 
drawn in the usual waj, and describe the artifice 
by means of which all ideal t^ ^ diagrams of 
internal combustion engines may be constructed 
of straight lines. 

3. State and prove Glausius' Theorem, and deduce 

from it (a) a mathematical statement of the 
Second Law of Thermo-dynamics ; {b) a defini- 
tion of entropy. 

4. Describe Rankine's '' standard " steam-engine cycle 

and obtain an approximate expression for the 
efficiency of this engine in terms of the tem- 
perature limits and the corresponding values of 
the latent heat of steam. 

Assuming that the latent heat of steam is 
given by 


evaluate this efficiency for an engine for which 
the boiler and condenser temperatures are 187° 
and 49° C, having given that loge 7 = 2*046, 
loff, 10 = 2-303. 


5. Describe with full detail and give the theory of 

the ballistic method of investigating the mag- 
netic properties of a specimen of iron. 
State Steinmetz's law* 

6. Describe how to measure a co-efficient of mutual 

induction, and give the theory of the method. 


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7. Discuss fully the armature reactions of a condnuous 

current dynamo, and point out the mechanical 
and electrical arrangements by which the effects 
of these reactions can be eliminated. 

Prove the formula that gives the e.m.f. gene- 
rated in such an armature in terms of the dif- 
ferent quantities involved. 

8. Describe with full detail the different instruments 

required, and how you would use them to deter- 
mine the efficiency and the various losses of a 
transformer under different conditions of loads. 

Mining Honours; Science Pass. 

TJie Board of Exirmnera. 

For all Candidates. 

Draw sketch sections illustrating the following: — 
(a) A laccolite. 
{b) Unconformable overlap. 
(<?) Overfold passing into a thrust fault. 

At a point A a bed of coal outcrops at the 
surface (height 800' above sea level). The bed 
dips due W. at 30°. ^ is a point 500' above 
sea level, distant 1,000 feet (measured hori- 
zontally) in a N.W. direction from A. A shaft 
is sunk at B to reach the coal. At what depth 

. should it be met with ? 

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8. Describe the chief characters, megascopic and 
microscopic, of the following: rocks : — Propylite, 
Granophyre, Monchiquite, Hornfels, 

For Mining Honours Candidate. 

4. Discui^s the work of Sandberger bearing on ore 

genesis, and state how far his views are re- 
concilable with recent hypotheses in this subject. 

5. Give an account of the Jurassic coal-bearing 

deposits of Victoria; the structure, origin, and 
economic importance of the coals; and *the 
nature and influence of subsequent earth move- 
ments on the coal deposits. 

6. Describe briefly the salient points in the geological 

structure of Broken Hill. State the nature of 
the mineral contents of the lodes from the 
surface downwards, discriminating between 
diflerences due to secondary changes and those 
which are original. How far do the original 
diflerences in the mineral composition of the 
lode bear upon theories as to its origin ? Point 
out aijy resemblances and diflerences that exist 
between the structural characters of Broken 
Hill and Bendigo respectively, 

7. Give an account of the geology and ore genesis of 

theMt. Bischoff* field. 

For Science Pass Candidates, 

8. Discuss, from a chemical, petrological, and struc- 
tural point of view, the relations of the Dacites 
and Granodiorites of the Dandenong and 
Macedon areas. 

I 2 

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9« State the horizons of Ordoviciao rooks in Victoria, 
with the prominent Oraptolites of each horizon. 
Describe three typical Ordovician Oraptolites, 
and mention any peculiarities in the Oraptolite 
succession of Victoria as compared with other 

10. Briefly compare the Jura-Trias series of Victoria 

with deposits of similar age in the Alps and in 
Britain, particularly from the point of view of 
the conditions under which the deposits were 

11. Give a description of the Glacial deposits of 

Bacchus Marsh, with their probable mode of 
origin, and state where rocks of similar origfin 
and age are to be found. 

BIOLOGY.— Part I. 

The Board of Examtnen. 


For all Candidates. 

1. Cut, Rtain, and mount a transverse section of the 

stem provided. 

Make a diagram of the section^ marking the 
position of (a) protoxylem, (J) cambium, (c) 
pericycle, (d) phloem, (e) cork, (J ) cork cam- 
bium. Give the age of the stem. 

2. Construct the floral diagram of the flower pro- 

vided, and lay out the parts of the flower 
according to this p]an on a sheet of paper. 

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For Pass Candidates. 

3. What are stomata ? Where do they occur, and 

what is their structure and function ? Why 
should they open in light, and close in darkness ? 

4. Describe experiments to shew that green plants 

take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen 
when exposed to light, and also to shew the 
influence of light on transpiration. 

For Honours jOa'ndidates. 

5. Identify the preparations (A), (B), (C) and (D), 

and the specimens (£), (F) and (6), making and 
labelling a rough sketch of each. 

6. Compare the structure of the one-year-old Dicoty- 

ledonous stem and root, by the aid of diagrams 
of transverse sections, and trace the growth of 
the root up to the end of the second year. 

Physical Geography. 
The Board of Bxaminers, 

I. Define the following terms : — Anticyclone, caldera^ 
atoll, fiord, geoisotherm, nimbus. 

Classify the different types of plains. State their 
modes of origin, and, as far as possible, illustrate 
your answer by Victorian examples. 

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3. In what parts of a river's course may lakes occur ? 

Describe how they are formed, and by what 
agencies they eventually disappear. 

4. Contrast the climates of the districts of Victoria 

lying to the north and to the south of the 
Divide, and explain the physiographic causes for 
this difference. 

5. State what becomes of the rain which falls in areas 

like the Mallee. What are the methods by which 
the amount of rairr which does not flow into 
streams is determined ? 

6. What are the causes of " river capture " ? Illus- 

trate your answer by means of diagrams. 


The Hoard of Exaniivsrs, 

1. State and explain Boyle's law. 

2. How does temperature usually affect the solubility 

of a salt in water ? Explain, with the aid of a 

3. Explain, as fully as you can, the explosive effects 

which follow the application of a flame to a 
mixture of hydrogen and air. 


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4. What is meant by th« molecular weight of a 
substance ? Explain, and give instances. 

b. How is chlorine made ? Describe its chief pro- 
perties and reactions. 

6. Explain the nature of those actions which fre- 
quently occur when two saline solutions are 
mixed, resulting in the production of solid 
precipitates. Give instances, and write the 
equations for them. 



Professor Spencer, 

AU answers must be illustrated ygj rongli sketohes. ITot 
more tliaa VOUS questions must be attempted. 

1. Identify specimen A^ and write a short account of 

its life history. 

2. Identify specimens B^C, Z), E, F. "Where does each 

of them live and how does each of them breathe ? 
Write a general Recount of the different forms 
of shells among the moUusca, illustrating your 
answer by reference to those of the mussel, 
Umpet, chiton, snail, sepia, and nautilus. 

3. How would you distinguish a snake from a lizard, 

and a non-venomous from a venomous snake ? 
What animals defend themselves or obtain their 
prey by means of a poison apparatus ? Indicate, 
in each case, briefly the structure and manner of 
use of the poison apparatus. 

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4. Write an account of the liver fluke, and the various 
stages through which it passes in its life history. 
Indicate where each is to be found. 

6. Why is it advisable to keep dogs away from the 
supply of drinking water ? Indicate briefly the 
importance of an inspection of the meat supply 
of the community. 

6. Write a general account of the structure and 
habits of earthworms, indicating their economic 


Professor Spencer, 


▲U answers must be iUnstrated bylronffh sketches. Vot 

more tliaa FOUS questions must be attempted. 

I. Identify specimen A^ and write a short account of 
its life history. 

S. Describe the structures by means of which the 
following animals defend themselves against 
enemies, (a) land planarians^ {h) centipedes, 
(c) millipedes, (d) scorpions, (c) spiders, (/) 

3. Identify specimen B; where does it live ? Describe 

briedy oy means of rough sketches its external 
anatomy. How does it differ from a cockroach? 

4. What is meant by the term diflerentiation, illus- 

trating your answer by reference to the structure 
of an amoeba, a vorticella, a hydra, and an earth- 
worm ? 

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5. Write an account of the leading features in regard. 

to the life-history and organisation of bees and 

6. What are the chief groups amongst the reptiles r^ 

Indicate very briefly their characteristic features, 
illustrating your answer by reference to one 
member of each group that you have seen. 

7. Write an account of the more important features 

in the circulatory systems, of sharks, lung fishes, 
and frogs. 

Honour candidates must answer questions d> 
4, 5, and 6 or 7. 

The Board of Eoeaminers. 

1. Describe how to determine the uncorrected deviation 

error of a transit instrument, and show how to 
correct the observed time of transit of a star for 
this error. 

2. Show that the lengths of the four seasons are given 

by the four values 

mh±b^eoos^l ±x)} 

where e is the eccentricity of the earth's orbit 
and ^ + X ^^^ longitude of aphelion. 

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8. Explain fullj how you would transform mean time 
for the 10 hour zone to the corresponding 
apparent solar time at Melbourne. 

4. State the diiFerent methods by which the figure of 
the earth has been determined. 

Assuming that the gravitational potential V 
of the earth at any point on its surface is given 


-.F = XJf{l + i:(l-8sinV)} 

where <j) is the latitude, prove Clairaut's theorem, 

6. Describe and give the theory of the magnetometer 

method (azimuth) of determining the meridian 
from observations of the sun. 

'6. Give a short account of the different ways in 
which the scale of the solar system has been 

7. What data are necessary to enable us to determine 

the mass of a double star ? 

Explain fully how to deduce the mass from 
these data. 

What are spectroscopic binaries, and how 
much can we learn about them ? 

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The Board of Examinerw, 

1. Explain all that is represented by the constitutional 

formula usually assigned to acetic acid, and 
point out the principles underlying the deter- 
mination of such a formula. 

2. Give an account of the malonic ether synthesis, 

and show how, by its means, you could 
synthesise (a) isosuccinnic acid, (b) propionic 

B. Explain the theory of space isomerism. Show how 
this conception may be used to explain the 
peculiar isomerism of fumaric and maleic 

4. To what classes of organic bodies do the sugars 
belong ? Write a very brief account of the 
main points in the chemistry of the hexoses. 

^. Compare the actions of nitrous acid on amines 
belonging to different classes, and explain why 
the product of its reaction with primary aromatic 
amines is of such great importance. 

^. How can phthalic acid and its anhydride be pre- 
pared ? Discuss the characteristic condensations 
of the latter with phenols. 

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Third Year Scienob. 
The Board of Examiners, 

Write papers on not more than six of the following- 
subjects : — 

1. The determination of silica in rock» 
(methods and precautions). 

2. Peroxides and persulphates as reagents. 

8. The cyanogen compounds of iron, cobalt^ 
and nickel. 

4. Soluble compounds of gold (formation^ 
properties, and applications). 

5. The isomorphism of salts. 

6. Water of crystallization. 

7. The theory of electrolytic solution tension 
in its bearing on reactions in which metals play 
a part. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

Not more than Five questions are to be attempted, 

1, By what means can blood be laked ? In what 

respects does the serum of laked blood differ 
from normal serum ? 

2. Classify according to their chemical characters the 

carbohydrates laken in food. 

^. If in the air of a disused mine a candle burns, an 
insect lives but a mouse dies, what poisonous gas 
would you suspect, and how would you test for 
its presence ? 

4. Show, by means of drawings and descriptive notes, 

the structure of a nerve-fibre and a striated 
muscle-fibre, and the structural relationship of 
the former to the latter. 

What methods would you employ in the 
laboratory for elucidating the minute structure 
of nerve and muscle ? 

5. Describe, by means of caiefully-lettered diagrams, 

the minute structure of the sub-moLxUlary gland, 
the pancreas, and a cardiac gland of the stomach. 

6. Describe, with drawings, the different kinds of 

cartilage, and the positions in which they occur 
in a grown-up body. 

Trace carefully the stages in the history of 
cartilage from its first occurrence in the femur 
of a mammal. 

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Third Year Science. 

The Board of JExaminers, 

Answers should he given to not more than six of the 
following : — 

1. Describe briefly the most reliable dry 
methods for the assay of tin concentrates. Explain 
fully the chemistry of the processes. 

2. Compare and contrast the methods of 
scoriiication and cupellation as applied to the 
assay of silver ores. 

3. Write a short paper on the chemistry of the 
processes of calcining, roasting, and retorting 
zinc ores. 

4. Explain the reactions on which the efficacy 
of the "roast and reaction" process depends. 
For what class of lead ore is the process most 
suitable ? 

5. Describe a process for the recovery ot 
sulphur from alkali waste. 

6. Write a paper on commercial applications 
of the electric furnace. 

7. Give a brief account of the manufacture of 
soap, and explain the theory of the chemical 
changes involved. 

8. Write a paper on cellulose, its solutions, 
and their technical applications. 

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Veterinary Course. 

TiniB allowed : Two hours. 

The Board of Examinen. 


1. State and explain Boyle's law. 

2. How does temperature usaallj affect the solubilitj 

of a salt in water ? . Explain^ with the aid of a< 

d. Explain, as fully as you can, the explosive effects 
which follow the application of a flame to a 
mixture of hydrogen and air. 

4. What is meant by the molecular weight of a 

substance ? Explain^ and giye instances. 

5. How is chlorine made ? Describe its chief pro- 

perties and reactions. 

6. Explain the nature of those actions which fre- 

quently occur when two saline solutions are 

mixed, resulting in the production of solid 

precipitates. Give instances, and write the- 
eq nations for them. 

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lli^e Board of' JSxaminerB. 
Candidates slionld answer SEVSV qnestions only. 

1. Write a short history of the verbal contract in 

the Roman Law. What is cautio ? 

2. Explain and comment on the following : — 

Furtum est contrectatio rei fraudulosa vel 
ipsiu8 rei vel etiam ubus ejus possessionisve. 
(J. 4. i. i.) 

■ 3. Classify the heads of quasi-contractual obligation 
Id Roman Law. Compare them with sources of 
obligation in English Law. 

4. What is Novation ? , What are the principal 

forms of novation, and how was it enected in 
Roman Law ? 

5. Distinguish between correal and solidary obliga- 


'6. Consider the propriety of the application of the 
term Status to the following cases : — A British 
subject; an alien ; a married woman; a son; 
a soldier; a bankrupt ; a member of Parliament; 
a minister of religion ; a solicitor. 

- 7. "A party has a right when another or others are 
bound or obliged by law to do or forbear 
towards or in regard of him.'^ Consider this 
deHnition in the light of the following cases : — 
(a) The duty of a gaoler to keep his prisoner 
safe; (6) the duty of an employer under the 
Factory Acts not to work his employes more than 
a certain number of hours per day ; (c) the 
capacity to make a will. 

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S, What do you mean by a juristic person, and what 
is the doctrine of English Law concerning their 
creation ? Is the State a juristic person ? 

9. Write a note on the importance of the family in 
the history of law. 

10. Consider the relevancy of Motive in the following 
cases: — 

(a) A is the owner of land and intercepts water 
collecting on his land whereby the X corporation 
are deprived of water which would otherwise be 
available for the supply of their borough. 

{b) The X Miners' Federation order their members 
to cease working for the Y company on two days 
a week ; the order is obeyed and thereby the 
company suffer loss. The company bring an 
action against the Federation. 


The Board of Examinert, 

Candidates sbonld answer SEVSV questions only, of 
wbiota. rOUB sbonld be from. Part ▲, and TKBES 
slLonld be firom Part B. 

1. What is meant by personal and terntotial 
sovereignty f How is each evinced in the 
British Constitution? 

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2. What are the historical associationn and political 

significance of the terms State, Nation, Com^ 
monwealth ? Explain the term National-State. 

3. Whataretheprincipal classifications of Constitutions? 

Apply a»iy one of them to the Constitution of 
the United States, the United Kingdom, the 
French Repuhlic, the Commonwealth of Aus- 

4. Describe the functions of a modern Ministry 

collectively and individually, in and out of 
Parliament. What is the constitutional position 
of the Opposition ? 

5. (a) Compare the Continental group system with 

the party system as it exists in England. What 
are " open questions," and what has been the 
modern tendency in reg*ard to them? 


(6) Compare the committee system as it is used in 
the Congress of the United States and in the 
Imperial Parliament. Are there any, and whac^ 
constitutional difficulties in the w^ay of an 
extensive devolution of the business of the House 
of Commons in committees ? 

6. What are the *' estates of the realm " at the 

present day? What do you consider to be 
estates of the realm in the fourteenth century? 


1. International Law has been described as the rulea 
which determine the conduct of the general body 
of States towards each other. How far do 
you consider that the limitation is true ? 

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2. Distinguish mediation from interveniion. To 

which head would you attribute the action of 
President Cleveland in 1895 in respect to the 
British Guiana- Venezuela boundary dispute, and 
the action of President Roosevelt in relation to 
the termination of the recent Russo-Japanese 

3. What reservations are commonly made in general 

rements to refer disputes to arbitration? Give 
trations of cases deemed to fall within the 
classes of matters reserve. 

4. *' There are neutralized states and neutralized 

individuals, and the process of neutralization 
may be made to apply equally well to seas 
and waterways, and even to such things as 
buildings, ambulances, and ships" (Lawrence, 
485-6). Consider this passage and compare 
neutralization with neutrality. 

5. What has been the influence of feudalism in the 
grgwth of International Law ? 

Part II. 

Tlie Roan I of /''rmniif erg, 
CaAdidates should answer SIX qnestions only. 

1. What is the writ of prohibition, and what has been 
its importance in the history of the relations of 
Courts ? 

K 2 

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^. Consider the following cases in the lig^ht of the 
Judicature Act 1873 s. 25 (Supreme Court 
Act 1890 8. 63) as to conflicts of law and 
equity : — 

(a) Af by bill of sale, assigned the stock in trade 
then or afterwards on his premises to B b}'^ way 
of security. A pledged with C stock in trade 
brought on the premises after the date of the 
bill, and C received the property without notice 
of B^s claim. B brings an action for detinue or 
conversion against C. 

(6) X sues Y upon a contract of service not to be 
performed within a year. The contract is not 
in writing as required by the Statute of Frauds. 

3. What do you understand by a Digest and a Con- 

solidation of Statutes ? What views are held as 
' to the propriety of reference in the case of a 
Consolidation Act. to the several Acts of which 
it is composed and to cases decided thereon ? 

4. What do you understand by ratio decidendi, and 

obiter dictum, and state their relation to '* the 
doctrine of the case." Consider their applica- 
tion to the following cases : — (a) The Court 
bases its conclusion on two independent grounds ; 
(6) the several members of the Court concur in 
the decision and in the reasons therefor, but one 
member of the Court rests also upon an addi- 
tional and independent ground from which the 
other Judges hold aloof ; (c) the Court rests its 
decision upon one ground, but expresses the 
opinion that the case might be determined upon 
another and broader ground. 

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5. What were the principal steps taken during the 

19th Century for the improvement of the form 
and increasing the accessibility of Statute Law. 

6. '^ Custom is one of the main triangles of the law 

of England." — {Coke). To what extent do you 
consider this statement true ? 

7. Consider the principal differences in the functions 

of a Judge in a trial with a jury at Common 
Law, and the functions of a Judge in Equity. 

8. Write a note on the Vice- Admiralty jurisdiction 

in Victoria. 

9. What were the principal grievances of the 

Australian colonists under the Constitutions of 
1842 and 1850, and how were they removed ? 

Part III. 

The Board of Examiners, 
Candidates slioiild answer FOUS questions only. 

1. What importance has been attributed by the Privy 
Council in the construction of the Constitution 
of Canada to the power of the Dominion Govern- 
ment to veto Acts of the provincial Legislatures ? 

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2. '^ This Act, and all laws made by the Parliament 

of the Commonwealth under the Constitution, 
shall be bindintr on the Courts, Judges, and 
people of every State, and of every part of the 
Commonwealth, notwithstanding anything in 
the laws of any State ; and the laws of the 
Commonwealth shall be in force on all British 
ships, the Queen's ships of war excepted, whose 
first port of clearance, and whose port of destina- 
tion are in the Commonwealth." (Common- 
wealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900, 
sec. V.) 

Consider the authority and meaning of this 

3. What are the provisions of the Constitution of the 

Commonwealth in relation to trade and com- 
merce ? 

4. What is meant by contemporanea expositio in the 

construction of a Constitution ? For what pur- 
pose, if at all, may recourse be had to the 
following matters in the construction of the 
Commonwealth Constitution? The Draft Bill 
of 1891; the Draft Bill of 1897 submitted to 
the States Parliaments ; the Debates in the 
Federal Convention, and the speeches of 
Members ; the fact that certain matters were 
within the knowledge ot the Convention ; 
decisions on the United States and Canadian 

5. What provisions are contained in the Judiciary Act 

as to the law to be applied in the federal 


6. In what sense is it true that the common law is 

part of the law of the Commonwealth ? 

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The Board of Examiners, 

Candidates sliOTild answer FZVS qnestlons only. 

1. A is made bankrupt in Eno;]and. He is known to 

have certain property in Victoria, and it is 
suspected that he has other property here. What 
steps can be taken by the trustee in respect of 
either ? ^ is at present in Victoria. 

2. The Russian agent of an English merchant ships 

goods at a Russian port for carriage to an 
English port by a German vessel. The master 
as agent for the charterer gives ordinary bills of 
lading, which are remitted in due course to the 
consignee on whose behalf the goods wefe 
shipped. The vessel is wrecked on the coast of 
Norway, but the goods are saved. Instead of 
re-shipping them to England, the master orders 
them to be sold, and by Norwegian law the 
purchaser gets a good title. The purchaser 
sends the goods to England. The original con- 
signee, holder of the bills of lading, now desires 
your advice as to whether he can maintain an 
action for the recovery of the goods and whether 
he has any, and what, remedy against the 
charterer of the vessel. You ascertain that by 
German law, which in this respect is the same 
as English law, a purchaser in the circumstances 
would not get a good title. 

^' H proposes to marry his deceased wife's sister who 
is domiciled in Victoria. He is advised that his 
marriage will not be good unless he too is domi- 
ciled here, and he thereupon declares his 

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intention to remain permanently resident in 
Victoria. He marries, and subsequently family 
and business reasons require him to leave 
Victoria and make his permanent home in- 
England. On his death intestate, with moveable 
property in England and moveable and immove- 
able property in Victoria, a question arises as to 
the right of the children to succeed to the 
property in question. Consider the case. 

4. What do you mean by an intention to change the 
domicil / A, domiciled in England, leaves that 
country in circumstances which indicate an 
intention not to return there. He acquires land 
in Victoria and New South Wales, dividing his 
time equally between the two States. Upon 
what other matters would you in such a case- 
desire information if it could be obtained ? In 
the absence of other information where would 
you say A was domiciled ? 

Do you consider that the expression " Aus- 
tralian domicil " has any meaning ? 

6. In the administration of the estate of a deceased 
person, for what purposes do you regard the 
lex fori and for what the lex domicilii? 

A dies intestate domiciled in England, leavings 
real property in Victoria and no ether property 
here. He has a widow, a son, and two 
daughters. Consider their rights in the estate. 

6. What is the basis of the jurisdiction of the 
Victorian Courts in (a) an action for breach of 
contract, (6) an equity suit (or the administration 
cf a deceased person's estate, (c) probate of a 
will, (rf) petition for a divorce ? 

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In a proceeding" in Victoria to enforce a New South 
Wales judgment, how far do yow consider the 
following facts material : — ^That the New South 
Wales Court was not a Court of competent 
jurisdiction, that the judgment was based on a 
cause of action not recognized by Victorian 
law ; that the judgment was not for a definite 
sum of money ? 


TJie Board of Examiners. 

Candidates shonld answer FOUS questioss only. 

. What do you consider to be the essential principles 
of difference between the European Administra- 
tive Law and the treatment of the same matters 
in English Law ? 

I. What is the practical importance of the doctrine 
that the King is not bound by Statute unless 
named ? 

A, a servant of the Post-oflSce, is charged with 
driving a mail cart in the borough at a speed 
exceeding that fixed by municipal by-laws. He 
is also charged with running down and killing* 
X by his furious and negligent driving. It is 
shown that A was engnged in the business of 
the Department, and that by no fault of his own 
he was delayed so that he could not have caught 
' a train by which the mails were to be consigned 
except by driving at such a rate as to be 
dangerous to users of the streets. Consider the 

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3. Can we extradite to a foreigri country — (a) A 

British subject, (b) where the act in respect of 
which the extradition is demanded is also an 
offence against English Law, of which Eng-Iish 
courts have jurisdiction ; (c) where the facts 
alleged to constitute the extradition crime do 
not disclose any offence under our law supposing- 
that they had occurred here ? 

4. What were the defects in the English Statute of 

1819 in connection with the fitting out of 
expeditions, and how were they dealt with by 
the Foreign Enlistment Act 1870 ? 

-6, (a) The Government of New South Wales with- 
out statutory authority estahlishes a lock-up and 
police station in a crowded part of Sydney, 
which amounts to such a serious disturbance of 
the occupiers of surrounding property as would 
constitute a nuisance at common law if caused 
by private persons. In an action against the 
Government (which is by Statute made liable 
for tort) there is evidence that by better con- 
struction of the premises the nuisance mig'ht 
have been considerably abated if not entirely 

(b) The' Commonwealth of "Australia 

•establishes rifle ranges for the practice of its 
defence forces. The occupier of property in the 
neighbourhood brings an action against the 

-Commonwealth in respect ot — (1) noise caused 
by the discharge of rifles, amounting to a 

^nuisance ; (2) bullets escaping from the range 
into his grounds to the danger of himself and 
his household ; and claims an injunction and 

•damages. Consider these cases. 

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6. (a) The Government of Q. is the owner of public 

docks and harbours, for the use of which it 
levies charges upon shipping'. A vessel is sunk 
in the harbour, and the Government takes no 
measures either to remove the wreck or to mark 
its position by lights or other means. A vessel 
of the A Company strikes upon the obstruction 
and suffers damage ^ and her owners now claim 
oompensation from the Government which is 
suable in tort. 

(b) A borough corporation charged with the 
duty of lighting and repairing the streets fails 
to light them, and A, walking along a street on 
a dark night, trips over a fire-plug around which 
the road has worn away, and his leg is broken. 
A desires to know whether he has any remedy 
against the corporation. 

7. Write a short note on " Act of State '* in English 



Mr. Guest, 

1. What is meant by sub-infeudation ? By what 

Statute was it abolished ? What was the effect 
of that Statute ? 

2. How is it ascertained whether an estate in re- 

mainder is vested or contingent ? Illustrate by 
examples ? 

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3. What is the effect of 

(a) a conveyance of land to A and his heirs to* 
the use of B and his heirs to the use of C and 
his heirs. 

(J?) a demise of land to A for 25 years to the use- 

Give reasons. 

4. A, who died in 1892, by his will, devised land 

" to such of the children of his daughter B as 
should attain 25 years of age and their respective 
heirs in equal shares." The daughter B was 
living at the date of the will but predeceased A, 
and left her surviving two children only, of the 
ages of three and two respectively. What 
estates, if any, do such children take ? Give 

5. To what extent is the creation of chattel interests^ 

in land still governed by the Common Law ? 

6. How is trust property usually vested in trustees ? 

What was the objection to vesting trust property 
in a Trustee Company and an individual ? How 
was it remedied ? Give reasons. 

7. If a lessee commits a breach of the covenant to 

repair in his lease, how is it to be ascertained 
whether the lessor can determine the lease, and 
what steps must be taken before the lease can 
be determined ? Give reasons. 

8. State the effect of the proviso for redemption in 

a mortgage ? How is the agreement betweea 
the parties as so expressed affected by any and 
what doctrine of Equity ? 

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'^. What is the effect of an order of sequestration 
made against a judgment debtor — 

(a) before seizure under a writ oi fieri facias, 

{V) after seizure and before sale. 

{c) within four days after sale. 

10. A after entering into a contract to sell land to 
B and before the completion of the contract 
conveyed the land to C, in consideration of 
natural love and affection. C had no notice 
of the contract, and the conveyance to him was 
duly registered under Part XVII. of the Real 
Property Act 1890. Upon the completion of the 
contract A executed a conveyance of the land to 
B, and this conveyance was also duly registered. 
What are the rights of ^ and C respectively to 
the land ? Give reasons. 

11. The registered proprietor of land under the 
Transfer of Land Act 1890 signed a lease of 
the land to B, The, lease was not registered, 
but the lessee went into possession. The pro- 
prietor, during the currency of the lease, sold 
and transferred the land to Cy who had no know- 
ledge of a lease having been granted. C brought 
an action to recover possession of the land. Is 
be entitled to succeed. Give reasons. 

12. What is the effect of the registration of instru- 
ments under the Transfer of Land Act 1890? 
Has an instrument of transfer on a sale of land 
under the Act any and what effect prior to 
registration ? Give reasons. 

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Mr. Duffy, 

1. Explain the following' terms : — 

(a) Contract of record. 
(6) Quasi contract, 
(c) Escrow. 

2. In what circumstances, if any, is a past considera- 

tion sufficient in a simple contract ? 

3. State shortly the law as to the rig-hts and oblig'a* 

tions arising- from contracts by lunatics. 

4. A wishes B to make a contract with him which- 

he thinks will be to Es advantage. In the 
negotiations A makes a false statement to ^ 
without knowing whether it is false or not. 
Such statement is intended to induce, and doe& 
induce, B to enter into the contract. The 
contract turns out to be disadvantageous to B. 
What remedy, if any, has he against A ? Give 
reasons for your answer. 

5. Sir William Anson says : " Legal impossibilitj 

arising from a change in the law of our own 
country exonerates the promisor.'' Explain and 
illustrate this statement. 

6. Explain the following t«rms used in the Sale of 

Goods Act 1896— 

(a) Future goods. • . 

(h) Specific goods. 

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7. When will a condition in a contract of sale of 

goods be treated as a warranty ? 

8. State shortly the law relating' to the sale of goods 

in market overt. 

9. State shortly the nature of the following Common- 

Law actions — 

(a) Trespass. 
{b) Trover. 
(c) Replevin. 

10. What is necessary to constitute a gift of personal 

chattels at Common Law ? 

11. State the method of registering each of the 

following instruments under the provisions of 
the Instruments Act 1890 : — 

(a) An absolute bill of sale. 

{h) A contract of sale of personal chattels with a 
contract for the letting of the same back to the- 

12. In what cases may the Court decree a dissolution^ 

of partnership on the application of a partner? 

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Mr, C, J. Z, Woinarski, 

1. (a) Give illustrations (i) of acts done maliciously 
and causing^ damage to another, but which do 
not involve legal liability 5 (ii) of acts causing 
damage which involve legal liability only if 
malice is proved. 

(b) What do you understand by the expression 
reasonable and probable cause in an action for 
malicious prosecution ? 

."2. Explain the extent of their civil liability, if any, 
to each of the following persons respectively in 
the events named — (a) to a person who ratifies a 
tortious act done by another ; (J) to a person of 
unsound mind for a tortious act done by him ; 
(c) to the proprietor of a public bath in respect 
to an injury to a customer caused by~a defective 
board in the flooring of the premises ; (d) to the 
proprietor of a private hospital, in respect to the 
death of a typhoid fever patient, caused by a 
nurse of the hospital negligently administering 
an overdose of opium ; {e) to the Commonwealth 
of' Australia in respect to an injury caused by 
the negligence of one of its officers in the execu- 
tion of public works. 

^ 3. (a) On the 1st October, 1906, Ay in Gippsland, 
sent a piano and five horses to B, an auctioneer, 
with instructions to sell them by auction on 
his behalf. B sold the piano and horses as 
directed, and delivered them over to their respec- 
tive purchasers, and handed the proceeds, less 

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his own commissioD, to A, The piano and the 
horses beiong^ed to C, and A had no title to 
them. C sues B for conversion. Will he succeed ? 
Give the reasons for your answer. 
ib) Fotildes V. Wilhughby, 8 M. and W. 540. 
Extract from the judgment of Alderson, B. : — 
" But the question here is, where a man does an 
act, the effect of which is not for a moment to 
interfere with mj dominion over the chattel, but, 
on the contrary, recog'nising' throughout my title 
to it, can such an act as that be said to amount 
to a conversion ? " How was this question 
disposed of in the judgment? 

4. Distinguish the actions of deceit j Blander of title, 
and passing off^ and consider the liability to an 
action of deceit of a person — 

(a) Who misleads to his prejudice another person 
by an erroneous statement of the law ; 

{h) Who innocently misrepresents a fact to another 
as an inducement to enter into a contract with 
himself, and who subsequently discovers the 
statement to be false, but suffers such other to 
act upon it. 

-5. (fl) St, Helen's Smelting Company v. Tipping, 
11 H.L.C. 642. Extract from the judgment of 
the Lord Chancellor : — " It appears to me that 
it is a very desirable thing to mark the difference 
between an action brought for a nuisance upon 
the ground that the alleged nuisance produces 
material injury to the property, and an action 
brought for a nuisance on the ground that the 
thing alleged to be a nuisance is productive of 
sensible discomfort.** What is the difference 
indicated, and how does it affect the right of a 
plaintiff ? 

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(b) What extent of obstruction to ancient lights 
will constitute a leg^al nuisance ? Can an increase 
of noise in an already noisy neighbourhood con 
stitute a legal nuisance ? 

6. (a) Scott V. Stansfield, L.R 2 Exch. 221. Plea^ 

to a declaration of slander, that the defendant 
was a County Court Judge, and the words com- 
plained of were spoken by him in his capacity a& 
such Judge, whilst sitting in Court and trying 
an action in which the present plaintiff was 
defendant. Replication, that the said words were 
spoken falsely and maliciously, and without any 
reasonable, probable, or justifiable cause, and 
without any foundation whatever, and not bona 
fide in the discharge of the defendant's duty as 
Judge, and were wholly irrelevant to the matter 
before him. To this replication the defendant 
demurred. For whom was judgment given, and 
upon what grounds 1 
(b) Are there any, and what, restrictions upon the 
right to publish reports of judicial proceedings T 
Is there any, and what, liability upon a person 
who innocently disseminates a libel ? What is 
the position of a defendant in a libel action who 
pleads justification, and succeeds in proving the 
truth of part of the words complained of? 

7. The offence of conspiracy may be said to consist 

in the agreement of two or more persons to effect 
any unlawful purpose, whether as their ultimate 
aim or only as a means to it. Write a note upon 
the words italicized in this definition. 

8. Write a note upon the offence of Unlawful 

Assembly at common law. Is the offence con- 
stituted if a group of persons — 
(a) Assemble to see a prize fight ? 

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(b) Assemble to support a Parliamentury measure 
by strictly constitutional means, but with know- 
ledge that their assembly will be opposed, and 
that a breach of the peace may very likely be 
committed ? 

(c) Assemble for the purpose of beating X, but 
abandon their design, and depart without doing^ 
anything to carry it out ? 

9. (a) State the crimes which are punishable with 
death (i) in England and (ii) in Victoria. 

(b) State in effect the provisions of the Larceny 
Act 1901 (1 Edw. 7, ch. 10). 

lO. What crime, if any, is committed in each of the 
following cases ? — 

(a) A writes and sends to B & letter inciting B 
to commit a felony. B does not read the letter. 

(6) A enters a dwelling house at night through an 
open window, with intent to commit a felony. 

(c) A is -absolutely entitled to Blackacre, the dry 
legal estate in which is in B, and A signs B^» 
name to a transfer to himself of the legal estate, 
and takes the transfer to (7 to obtain a loan on 
mortgage of the land. C declines to make the 
advance, and returns the transfer to A, who 
makes no further use of it. 

{d) A is allowed to take goods, which he has 
bought, away from the shop on his promising to 
call m the evening and pay for them. A does 
not call and pay for the goods. 

(e) A finds a sovereign in the road, and picks it 
up, intending to keep it, whoever the owner may 
be, but not knowing who he is, and having no 
reason to believe he could be found. 

L 2 

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Mr, C, J. Z. Woinarski, 

A. — Civil Procedure. 

1. When, if ever, is it necessary — 

(a) to obtain leave to appear and defend an action ? 

(6) for the Attorney- General to be a party to an 

(c) to obtain an order foi> a person to defend an 
action on behalf of himself and others ? 

{d) to obtain an order for an infant defendant to 
appear by a guardian ? 

"2. (a) A and B^ joint owners of a house, sue (7, their 
tenant, for damages for breach of covenant, and 
(i) A dies, (ii) ^7 dies. What is the effect in 
each case upon the action ? 

(h) If C died after judgment was got against him 
by A and B^ could execution be got upon the 
judgment, and, if so, how ? 

(«) If C had not died, and A and B got judgment 
against him for £100, and if X owed C £150, 
which (7, after the judgment, assigned over for 
vahie to Y^ who gave notice thereof to -Y, and 
A and B thereafter obtained a garnishee order 
nisi and served it on JT, what is the legal 
position ? 
:3. OuUine the provisions of the Rules of the Supreme 
Court as to — 

(a) Proceedings on an Interpleader Summons by 
the Sheriff; 

(Jj) Certificates of the Chief Clerk. 

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4. (a) When may an arbitrator state a special case fo«* 

the opinion of the Supreme Court ? 

(6) What, in effect, are the provisions of the 
Supreme Court Act 1890 as to referring an 
action to arbitration ? 

(c) What procedure may a defendant adopt, and 
in what circumstances, if an action is commenced 
against him in the Supreme Court as to a matter 
which the plaintiff had previously agreed with 
him should be referred to arbitration ? 

5. Sketch the procedure by a person aggrieved by a 

final judgment of the Supreme Court who 
desires to appeal to the Privy Council under the 
Order in Council. 

B. — Criminal Procedure. 

1. (a) What power, if any, has a justice of the peace 

to receive and act on information in respect to 
an offence committed outside of his local juris- 
diction ? 

(6) What power, if any, has a justice of the peace^ 
out of sessions, to commit a person for trial for an 
indictable offence ? 

(c) What power, if any, has a coroner to commit 
a person for trial ? 

2. (a) ^is charged with an offence summarily punish- 

able, and convicted by a Court of Petty Sessions, 
and fined £3. The Court ordered the fine to be 
levied by distress, and that in default of sufficient 
distress A be imprisoned for seven days. Will 
an appeal lie to General Sessions ? Will pro- 
ceedings by certiorari lie in any, and what, 
circumstances ? 

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cbar«*ed with manslaug^hter. The 
investigation is made by a Court of 
Petty Ses>ions, and — 

(i) a witness refuses to answer certain 
relevant questions. What course should the 
Court pursue? 

(ii) If the evidence given for the prosecution 
raises a strong or probable presumption of A^s 
guilty what course should the Court pursue ? 

(iii) If A be committed for trial and feels 
aggrieved, can he obtain an order to review the 
order for commitment ? 

(iv) Can A be committed for trial to G-eneral 
Sessions ? 

3. Write a note upon the restitution of stolen 

C. — Evidence. 

1. Questions put to a witness by the counsel who 

produces him (whether in examination in chief 
or re-examination) must not be leading ones. 
Why ? Give an illustration of each of the 
exceptions to this rule. 

There are some questions which it is quite legal 
to ask, but which a witness may, if he think fit, 
equally legally refuse to answer. In what cases 
does such a privilege arise ? 

2. Explain shortly the distinction between Fact in 

Issue and JFact Relevant to the Issue, 

Is the evidence tendered admissible or not, 
and why, in each of the following cases ? — 
(a) On an issue whether B assaulted JL, his wife, 
A stated that after she was struck on the head 

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bj Bj she locked herself in a room for two or 
three hours, and then, having bathed her head, 
and recovered herself, went to a neighbour Xy 
and made a statement to X, A tenders evidence 
of what she told X. 

{h) A sues B for breach of warranty of the quality 
of certain ^oods which B has sold and delivered 
to him. The bargain was made between A and 
an agent of B, who had authority to sell the 
goods on his behalf. A tenders in evidence, to 
prove the warranty, a statement made by ^'s 
agent at the interview when the goods were 
bought. B objects, as the bargain had already 
been struck at the time when the statement was 

(c) A witness, being asked the date of his parents' 
marriage, replied that he had heard his father 
say that it was on the Ist May, 1886. 

{d) In an action for negligence under the Em- 
ployers Liability Act 1890, the plaintiff alleged 
that the scaffolding was made of defective 
material, and that square hardwood joists were 
used for a ledger pole instead of a proper round 
scaffold pole. The plaintiff tenders evidence of 
the fact that after the accident the defendant 
replaced the broken pole by a round pole of 
different material. 

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Mr. J. E, Mackey. 
Not more than Eight questions are to be attempted. 

1. Explain and illustrate what is meant by the 

equitable jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. 

2. A, in consideration of natural love and affection^ 

assigned to her husband B a leasehold belonging 
to her. B subsequently mortgaged the lease- 
hold. Upon the death of J5, A claimed to be 
entitled to the leasehold subject to the mortgage. 
She contended that she had assigned the lease- 
hold to B solely to enable him to mortgage it 
in his own name, and that it was part of an 
arrangement between them that he should 
re-assign to her. C, the executor of jB, relied 
as a defence upon the Statute of Frauds (In- 
struments Act 1890, section 208). 

Is verbal evidence admissible to show wha^ 
the arrangement was between A and B ? On 
proof of the facts stated, what would be the 
rights of A ? 

3. Ay B, C are trustees, and had at a bank a trust 
account in their joint names. A being about to 
visit Europe authorizes B and C to draw cheques 
on the account, and authorizes the bank to pay 
cheques so drawn. 

While A is absent in Europe B and (7 draw 
cheques and misappropriate the proceeds. What 
are the rights of the beneficiaries ? 

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I:. Testator gave llie residue of his peiRona] estate ta 
trustees, directing them to immediately convert 
it into money and invest the proceeds in 3 per 
cent, consols, which they were to hold upon^ 
trust for A for life, and after her death for B» 

The trustees allowed a part of the residuary 
personal estate, which the testator had in aii 
Indian loan, hearing interest at 10 per cent., to» 
remain for several years in that security, during 
which they^ paid to A the interest at 10 per cent.,- 
which it yielded annually. On the loan heing paid 
oif, the trustees invested the money in the 8 per 
cent, consols at a time when consols were so low 
that the amount of stock purchased was con- 
siderably greater than if the conversion had; 
taken place during the year following testator's 

On accounts being taken J3 claimed that the- 
trustees ought to be allowed as payments to J., 
not the sums which they had in fact paid her,, 
but only a sum eoual to what she would have^ 
received from dividends if the money had been, 
transferred from the Indian loan and invested 
in the 3 per cents, during the year following 
testator*s death. The trustees claimed that since 
no loss had resulted from the breach of tru«>t 
they were not liable, and that if they were held 
liable they should be allowed to set off the gain- 
to the estate by the increased amount of 3 per 
cent, consols purchased. 

What are the rights, inter se, of B and the- 
trustees ? 

6. In what cases do the rules of equity protect- 
trustees from the consequences of breaches of 
trust ? 

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Explain any statutory provisions that have 
become law during the last twelve years for the 
protection of trustees. 

'6. What is at Common Law the order in which debts 
are payable out of legal assets ? To what extent 
has this order been altered by rules of Equity 
and by Statute law ? 

'7. (a) A being" the owner in fee of Blackacre declares 
himself trustee of it for B, C, and D upon trust 
to sell at his discretion and divide the proceeds 
in equal shares among them. Before sale B dies, 
leaving" his realty to X, and his personalty to T. 

Who is entitled to J5's interest in Blackacre^ 
and why ? 
{b) A contracts to sell Blackacre to U. A dies 
before conveyance and payment of the purchase 
money, leaving his realty to JT, and his person- 
alty to Y. 

Who is entitled to the purchase money, and 
'((?) In the latter case (6) if B dies before convey- 
ance and payment of the purchase money, leaving 
his realty to C, and his personalty to 2?, who is 
entitled to Blackacre, and who is liable, and to 
what extent, for the payment of the purchase 
money, and why ? 

8. (rt) A on his marriage covenants to purchase and 
settle lands to the value of £10,000 on his wife 
B. He purchases lands to the value of £5,000 
and settles them upon B, On the death of A, 
intestate, shortly after, what are the rights of 
J^ under the covenant ? 

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(b) A on the marriag'e of his son X covenants 
to settle upon him £10,000. By his will made 
subsequently A leaves to X one- third part of 
the residue of his personal estate and dies with- 
out having performed the covenant. What are 
the rights oi' JC? 

{c) A by his will leaves his daughter y one- 
third of his residuary estate. Subsequently, on 
y'« marriage, A settles £10,000 on her. A dies 
without having altered or revoked his will. 
What are the rights of Y? 

9. In what classes of cases does Equity grant relief 
on the ground of accident ? Give illustrations. 

10. Plaintiff brought an action for specific perform- 
ance of a written agreement for a lease with a 
parol variation. Defiendant relied on the Statute 
of Frauds (Instruments Act 1890, section 208), 
and counter-claimed for specific performance of 
the written agreement without the variation. 

Discuss the rights of the parties. 


Section A. 

The Board of Exatniners, 


" The development of the child in school can pro- 
ceed naturally only when the school is rightly 
related to all the educational agencies of Society." 
What theory of education is here set form'( 
How does Parker enahle you to establish this 
relation ? 

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2. What do you consider is the value to a teacher 
of any grade of school understanding the views^ 
of Froebel ? 

8. What are some of Thring's views on teaching 
language ? 

4. Take a first lesson in Latin^ French, Algebra,. 

or Theoretical Geometry, and set it out accord- 
ing to the Herbartian Steps. 

5. Apply the Doctrine of Apperception to the course- 

of teaching in — 

English and Latin, 
or in 

Arithmetic and Algebra. 

6. What standards for criticising the work of a school 

are furnished by FroebeFs Law of Unity and 
Herbart's Doctrine of Apperception ? 

7. Contrast the views of Baldwin with those of Dr, 

Harris, on the '* Necessary Groups of Studies.''' 
What principles of education underlie this dis- 
cussion ? 

8. Why does the acceptance of the Doctrine of Apper- 

ception lead to Child Study ? Contrast the 
findings of Lange with those of Parker on the 
content of the children's minds on entering^ 
school, and reconcile the two views. 

9. Why is Parker's work styled the Theory of Con- 

centration ? What great tendency of modern 
education does he here set forth ? In how far 
is he successful in solving the problem pro- 
posed ? 

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10. Which of the books studied has been most help- 
fol to you ? In giving your reasons, show that 
you have been enabled to understand some- 
thing of the aims, tendencies, relationships, and 
methods of modern education. 

N,B. — Only Nine questions to be attempted. 


Section B. 

The Board of Examiners, 


1. "The school is an integral part of Societj'', and 

must sooner or later come into agreement with 
changed views as to the ends of Society." 
Establish this from the history of Athenian 

2. " The history of Education since the end of the 

Sixteenth Century has been but a series of 
attempts to remove the shackles imposed by 
the Renascence and Beformation." 

(a) How far is this statement true ? 

(ft) In what respect is it not true ? 

{c) Summarise the *^ series of attempts.*' 

3. Give the relation of Pestalozzi to his predecessors 

and to his successors. 

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4. Name an English and a Continental educator of 
the Seventeenth Century, contrast them, and 
indicate in how far either of them anticipated 
modern reforms. 


1. Give and criticise Herbart's division of Interests^ 

and show how, by means of it, we can commend 
or condemn any programme of instruction. 

2. What is the relation of Herbart's five fundamental 

ideas to his whole system of education ? 

3. What is the relation of Interest to Self-Activity ? 

4. What principle underlies the scheme of work set 

out in "Organic Education"? What are your 
views on the experiment here set forth ? 


1. What features in the German educational system 

do you consider should we endeavour to follow ?' 
In particular, discuss the question of examina- 


2, In a school course extending from the age of six. 

to sixteen or eighteen, give an account of the 
language training the pupil should go through. 

8. " The classics have only themselves to blame for 
the lessened regard in which they are held." 
Discuss this statement, and contrast the two- 
methods of teaching which are here implied. 

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Give an oatline of a course of Mathematics extend- 
ing from the Kindergarten into the Secondary 
School. In particular, show how and when 
Alg-ebra and Theoretical Geometry should be 

N.B. — Only Three questions from each of I., 
II., and III. to be attempted. 


Professor Kemot. 

Make a complete set of working drawings for a 
bearing on a shaft, 8 inches diameter, showing 
all lubricating arrangements. The shaft may be 
assumed to make 200 revolutions a minute, and 
to carry a weight of 1,000 lbs. in the immediate 
vicinity of the bearing. Specify material and: 
workmanship throughout. 



The Board of Examiners, 

1. In a succession of Sixths (four-part writing), what 

claims the attention of the student ? Illustrate 
your answer by a succession of chords of the 
sixth upon the degrees of the C Major Scale — 
ascending or descending. 

2. Give rules for approaching and quitting the chord 

of the Six-four in the Dominant. Illustrate 
your answer by examples. 

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3. Under what conditions may Consecutive Fifths be 

allowed ? Give illustrations. 

4. Resolve the following chord in several different 

ways : — 

5. Harmonize the Fio-ured Bass :- 

^ ^ 




-^ — 




3 — 


3 *l? 





nry— ^ 

p " ^ 



6 « 87 
— o 

a 3 






-«-> ff< i Ptay 

6 5 ^_ 

— 6 - 

4tl 1= tl 






6 ll6- 

:q 6 6 


b ^ ^ 

6 5-687 

6 ^_^ p 


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^. Harmonize the Unfigured Bass : — 




/S^** If 'f 

{{*)•». f^ 4 

o ^^ 

^ 1 

^^ ff 'iJ 


^ 2 






fi _ -«5»-|g» 

rf''°(' ' f' l i 

Q O 

j^tJ ri 



ii "ri"f'irp ri"f'i " ii 

7. Harmonize one of the Melodies — 



# * ^ 

j i jjj i jjj 



i,"p if 







- tnp- 

F' / i ^ 

rirrrJ i ^'i i 

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fiJj^^iJjj i jjjm^ 

8. Shew in Four-part Chords the harmonic framework 
of Cramer's Study in E Minor, No. 


Write a few bars of orig^inal harmony in G Minor^ 
introducin<r the Dominant Ninth, Added Sixth^ 
and Neapolitan Sixth (pathetic cadence.) 

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FiHBT Year Mus. Bag. — Second Year Diploma. 
The Board of JSxaminers, 

PAJ3S AND honour PAPER. 

1. Set the Melody for three female voices unaccom- 
panied : — 

Y^P' I J J I J /"J I J H I 


* d d 



J I J .n I J J 


P\^n\i n \ } 


2. Add Soprano, Alto and Tenor parts to the Figured 
Bass : — 



M 2 

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fcl2 4- 6 - Y^Z 

W?T7 r L'rm 



7^6 etje §s 

3 «#1 

citi ... n 


tf* 6 « 17 

S. Add Alto, Tenor, and Bass parts to the Melody: — 







^.L^S ^ 





# ^# 



yi^„jji-'.- i H*iJj i jjj^ B 

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4. Add simple Instrumental Accompaniment to the 
Melody : — 

Con Tnoto, 


b^q N 





J J"^| ij HJi' ^ 


5. Make a harmonic analysis of the following Beet- 
hoven movements : — 

(a) The Funeral March in Op. 26, beginning after 
the Trio. 

ijb) The Adagio in Op. 27, No. 2. 

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Second Year Mus. Bag — Third Year Diploma. 

The Board of Examiners, 

pass and honour papeb. 

1. Harmonize the following Figured Bass in Pour 
Parts : — 




' 2? 2? 


^h^ J^ 



a I 98 6,-98766- 676 
34 4 

7 98 6 - 
t 6ll5 




7 ^ o 7 ^ § 7 7„ 

'43 4 — 3 43 

2. Harmonize the following Ground Bass for four 
voices (adding three upper parts). Repeat three 
times, and add a Short Coda: — 








3. Add three upper parts to the following [Jnfigured 




rr i r-rT 

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4. Add three flowing parts below the following 
Melody : — 

j^U^ I ^P^^ P 





Mu8. Bac. — Third Ybar. 

The Board of Examiner*. 

1. To the following Unfigured Bass add four upper 
parts: — 
















-h— # 


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2. To the following Tenor part add Treble, Alto, and 
Bass parts : — 

Uf i-^ r: \ f r P 


Mh^' ^A^^ 



f p S 

tffrr"f l J^r7r | J3j/J l»l 

3. Set either of the following verses for four voices : 

(a) Ring out the old, ring in the new, 
Ring happy bells across the snow, 
The year is going, let him go ; 
Ring out the false, ring in the true. 

{b) The spacious firmament on high, 
With all the blue ethereal sky 
And spangled heavens, a shining frame^ 
Their great Original proclaim. 

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Board of Examiners, 


HoBours Candidates should omit Question 1. Pass Candi- 
dates should answer either (a) or {h\ in Questions 
2 and 4. 

1. Write a C.P. of the Second Species below the C.F. 

j"*^ .^ '■ '^ .. ° ^' ^ ,. II 

2. Write a C.P. of the Third Species (a) above; and 

(b) below, the C.F. 

H^f " ° ■ ° u ° ■ I I 

3. Write a C.P. of the Fourth Species above the C.F 

H ° ' ° "° ° " HI 

4. Write a C.P. of the Fifth Species (a) above, and 

(b) below, the same C.F. 

5. Transpose the C.F. in Question 1 a major ninth 

lower, and add two parts above it in First 

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First Year Mus. Bag.— Second Year Diploma. 

The Board of Exaininers, 


Honours Candidates should omit Qmstions 1 ajid 2. 

1. Add below the C.F. two parts of which the Alto 
shall be in Third Species, the Bass in First 
Species : — 


\> O < > 


<> Q r-. r> Q 

2. Place the same C.F. in the Tenor, and add an 
upper part in First, and a Bass in Second 

8. Add to the C.F. a Soprano part in the Fourth 
Species, and an Alto or Tenor in the First 
Species : — 

ms,. ^ ° ° " 


4. Add to the C.F. (which may be placed in any part 
in any key), two parts, one of* which shall be in 
Fifth, the other in First Species : — 

Hii ^' ^^^ " ° " I I 

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Honours only, 

5. To the C.F. add Treble, Tenor and Bass parts in 

First Species : — 

6. To the C F. add a Treble in First Species, and a 

Bass in Fourth Species. Do not break the 
Svncopation : — 


Second Year Mus. Bag. — Third Year Diploma. 

TJie Board of Examiners. 
pass and honour paper. 

1. To the C.F. add a Treble in Third Species, and a 

Bass in Fourth Species. Do not break the 
Syncopation : — 

2. To the C.F. add a Treble and an Alto both in 

Fifth Species: — 

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3. To the G.F. add a Treble in Third and a Bass itt> 
Second Species : — 

H ° ^^ .. o ^> ° ° ^ ^ ° ^ 

4. To the G.F. add a Tenor in Fifth and an Alto and 
a Bass in First Species : — 


o «» 

O /V 


Third tbab, Mus. Bag. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. To the C.F. add a Bass in unbroken syncopation^ 

and Treble and Alto of First Species : — 

2. To the G.F. add a Treble of Second and a Bass of 

Third Species: — 

§ ft o „ o ° r^ ^=H 

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^. To the C.F. add Treble, Alto, and Tenor parts, all 
of Fifth Species : — 







<^> o 


4. Add to the C.F., Second Treble, Alto, Tenor, and 
Bass parts, all of First Species : — 


b o ^^ o : 




FUGUE.— Part I. 

Third Year Diploma. — ^Third Year Mus. Bag. 
T?ie Board of Facaminerg. 

Honours and Mus. Bac. Candidates should answer 


1. Write Double Counterpoint at the octave to the 
following Canto Fermo. From this point :)^ the 
candidate may if he chooses proceed indepen- 
dently of the given canto, writing both canto 
and counterpoint : — 

fUj l Air i r^i^^ ^ 

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2. Continue the following' Canon 2 in 1 for about 
16 bars, adding a short Coda : — 

^<*' J J /J ^' 




r f r r 


3. Continue the following Canon : — 


















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4. Give Tonal answers to the following^ subjects : — 

f>"" ''' rp u {^^ f-^^ 

^ Etc. 

J'' ^iiF^i I II 



Honours and Mns, Bac. Candidates only. 
5. Continue the following Canon and added free part 
for about 12 bars — add a free Coda: — 

^c, r t^ i f f 




v^jH ^f.H'^sr 

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Mus. Bag. and Diploma in Music. 

The Bowrd of JSosaminers. 

pass and honour paper. 
'<Pass Candidates may answer either Quesfcion 4 or 5 — in all, 
only Four questions. Honours and Mus. Bac. Candidates 
should devote as much time as they can to Questions 
2, 4, and 5.) 

1. Identify the following themes : — 


Molto lento. 

bffir i TTT^ 






r^^f 1 








fp"^^ -y-— -Ijl: ^ ^ ^ 

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;; i ^>;i' 





J J44-M 

V * I bJ I I 





> i >( */ -I y 

2. Describe what is understood by the Romantic 

element in music. Shew how at various times 
this element has exercised strong influence on 
the formal development of the art especially in 
the time of (a) Bach, {h) Schubert, (c) Wagner. 
Make special reference also to the art period (in 
Literature and Painting as well as in Music), 
about the end of the 20th Century ; also to (a) 
the personal equation introduced into Music, 
sacred and secular, (5) the connection which it 
was sought to establish between Music and set 
programme, and (c) the influence of national 
elements — Folklore, Volkslied, Volksweisen. 

3. In what respect must Bach be regarded as a 

Romantic writer ? Refer to as many compo- 
sitions as you can in support of your argument. 


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4. Write a note upon the use which Wagoner as a 

music dramatist made of the material to his 
hand» Shew what were his aims and ideals, and 
what modifications these led him to make on 
legend Q Stoff '), the conventional choice of sub- 
ject for dramatic treatment, and the forms of 
operatic music ; also on the interpretative means 
— singers, chorus, ensemble vocal work, and the 
orchestra. In the course of your answer shew 
the limitations of Wagner's genius, which, in 
spite of all the greatness of his work, prevents 
him from being regarded as the equal of Bach or 
Beethoven — if such is your opinion. 

5. Write an essay on Schubert, his works, and his 

place among composers. Do not devote much 
time to unimportant biographical details, but 
lefer to Ballade, Art Song, Sonata, Symphony, 
and to Schubert's Marches, Dances, and Piano- 
forte Duets. 


First Year, Mus. Bac. — Second Year, Diploma. 

7'he Board of Examiners. 
pass and honour paper. 
1. Write a short historical note on each of the follow- 
ing works : — 

Salomon Set of Symphonies, Magic Flute» 
Italian Concerto, Eroica Symphony, English 
Suites, Creation, Fidelio, Matthew Passion. 

And on each of the following Composers : — 
Haydn, Emanuel Bach, Beethoven. 

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S. Enumerate as many as you can of Beethoven's 
coDQpositions up to Op. 31. 

3. Give a general description from memory of any six 

of Beethoven's sonatas up to No. 17 (including 
Nos. 5, 8, 10, 14), and of as many as you can 
of the first six symphonies. Add quotations. 

4. Write an essay on (a) Beethoven's heritage from 

Haydn and Mozart, and how he enriched it ; 
or (b) the evolution of Beethoven's Second 
Period. In either essay devote some attention 
to the Pianoforte, the Orchestra, and the Sonata 
with other forms of Composition — orchestral and 
choral as well as pianoforte. 


First Year, Mus. Bac— Second Year,' 

Tlie Board of ExamirierB. 

PASS and honour paper. 

Honours Candidates should omit Questions 2, 3, and 5. 

1. Shew the essential points of diflference between 
Binary and Ternary Form, referring to examples 
which stand on the boundary line between the 

N 2 

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2. What are the characteristic features of the Gavotte 

(distinofuish from Bourree)^ Courantdy Oigue 
(two diflferent kinds), Chaeonne 1 

3. Enumerate some characteristics of Bach's com- 

positions in Suite form. 

4. In what sense is the Suite the forerunner of the 

Sonata ? In what particulars is it incorrect to 
say that the Sonata is a development of the 
Suite ? 

6. Write a note on Mozart's use of Double Counter- 

6. Describe Beethoven's Septett in detail. Write a 

note on the form of composition of which it is 
the culmination. 

7. Make a careful harmonic analysis of the Scherzo 

(not Trio) from Op. 2, No 3. Mention the keys 
in bars 9, 13, 17, 19, 21, 23, 25, 39, 40, 50, 51. 
Explain the chords in 5, 30, 46, 61, and in Coda 
bars 6, 8, 14. 

8. What peculiarities of form are to be found in the 

followinj^ {a) Compositions, and (V) Single 
Movements : — 

{a) Beethoven's Op. 13; Op. 27, Nos. 1 and 2 ; 
Op. 31, Nos. 2 and 3. 

Give a reason or precedent for each departure 
from conventional form. 

(&) Mozart's Sonatas in C Minor and F Major; and 
Beethoven's Op. 7, Op. 10, No. 1, Op. 28 (first 
movement of each). 

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9. Some authorities regard the Andante in Op. 13 as 
a Rondo, with three presentments of the theme 
and two episodes ; others as an Episodic move- 
ment, with one episode. Without committinj^ 
yourself to either, advance arg'uments in support 
of hoth views, usino^ the Largo in Op. 2, No. 2, 
and the Rondo in Op. 13 as illustrations. 

10. Give a careful Analysis of the form of the First 
and Last movements of Sonata No. 6 (Op. 10, 

No. 1). 

Thibb Year Diploma. — Second Year Mus. Bac. 

Tlie Board of Examfiiners. 

pass and honour paper. 

(N.B. — Honours and Mus. Bac. Candidates should omit 
Questions 1, 2, and 3.) 

1. Distinguish between the Italian (Scarlatti) and 

French (Lulli) forms of the Overture. Why 
is Bach's Partita in B Minor called ** Die fran- 
zosische Ouverture" ? 

2. In what respect is the overture of the time of (a) 

Scarlatti, (h) Gluck, (c) Mozart, (c?) Beethoven,, 
and (e) Mendelssohn, a form of peculiar interest 
and importance ? 

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3. What novelties in form are to be observed in the 

overtures to Seraglio^ Magic Flute, Egmont ? 

4. Write a short note on the Overture with Introduc- 

tion, shewing" the origin of the form, and 
referring to examples — 
(a) Which use the Introduction to establish a 
close connection with the dramatic subject, and 

{b) Which shew *' transformation of theme." 

6. Describe as minutely as your memory will allow 
any two of the following Overtures : — Don 
Oiovanni, Semiramide, Leonora No, 3, Tann- 

6. Write a careful analysis of Beethoven's Sonata 
Op. 90 and of Bach's Fugue in C Minor 
(Book II.) 

Honours and Mu8, Bac. Candidates only, 

7. Shew how the Overture form is founded upon 

Sonata form. Describe Mozart's treatment of 
the form and the modifications of Sonata form 
in the hands of Beethoven and Mendelssohn 
{Coriolan, Egmont, FingaVs Cave), 

8. Write a short essay on Programme Music and the 

part played in its development by the Overture. 

0. Shew how the composer of the Freischutz Overture 
has kept at once to his programme and to the 
rules ot Sonata form. 

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Third Year Diploma. — Pass and Honours. 
Third Year Mus. Bag. — Pass. 

The Boa/rd of Examinert* 


N.B. — Pass candidates (Diploma) should answer questions 
1 to 7 only ; Honours candidates, 3 to 9 ; Mus. Bac. 
candidates, 6 to 10. 

1. In what early overtures are trombones employed, 

and in whose overtures do we first find those 
instruments used as an essential part of the 
orchestra ? 

2. What is the literal meaning and also the derivation 

of Piccolo^ Bratsche, Violoncello, Trombone, 
Violin, Pianoforte ? 

3. Explain the terms " Natural Horn," " Horn in F, 

G, &c.'' (with crook), "Valve" or "Ventil 

4. Enumerate the transposing instruments in a 

modern orchestra, and explain how their parts 
must be read. 

5. Give a reason for the (usually) fuller scoring of a 

classical overture compared with that of a 
symphony (Mozart, Beethoven, &c.). 

6. Explain the scoring of the passages under A on the 

accompanying sheet. 

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7. Name notable orchestral effects in the following : — 

Seraglio^ Egmonty Leonora Overtures ; Pastoral 
Symphony (** Scene on the Brook"). 

8. What, in addition to the usual strings, is the 

orchestra employed in the following : — (a) 
Seraglio, (b) Figaro, (c) Hgmont, (d) Freischutz, 
(e) FingaVs Gave Overtures and Haydn's 
" Military," and (/) Beethoven's Fifth Symphony 

9. Score for Wind Instruments the sections of pas- 

sages shewn under B on the accompanying 
sheet. Name the compositions. 

10. Score for small orchestra the first twenty bars of 

Beethoven's Sonata op. 26 ; also the first four 
bars of Variation 1 and the first eight bars of 
Variation 4. 

as much as you can of the Funeral March in the 
same Sonata for full orchestra. 



The Board of Examiners. 

Give the meaning of each of the following terms: — 

Symphony, Coda, Movement (applied to a 
section of a Sonata, &c.), Concerto, Toccata, 

Equal Temperament, " Wohltemperirtes Kla- 

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2. Give the derivation or orig'iD, also the modern 
meaning, of each of the following : — 

Minuet, Sonata, Andante, Mass, Counterpoint, 
Tenor, Solfeggio, Oratorio, Treble, Arpeggio, 
Discant, Conservatoriom, Philharmonic, Lieder- 
tafel, Chorus, Tgj* i 

3. Give the meaning of the following directions : — 

Soave, pesante, come sopra, pizzicato, semplice^ 
ristesso tempo, 

4. What is a Metronome ? Explain how it is used^ 

and what the meaning is of | __ ^ qa 

5. Name several '' keyed " instruments. How did the 

notes on the keyboards come to be called '^keys"?* 
What was the original name, and what words^ 
are derived therefrom ? 

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Tlie Board of Examiners. 

1. Translate, with brief notes in the margin where 
you think them called for— 

{a) aW £i fikv dbjfTovffi yipuQ lAtyaQvfxoi ^AynLoiy 
apaavTCQ Kara dvfx6vy OTrutQ avra^iov ttrrai ' 
et ^£ KE fjiif dwuKTiy, eyiif ^i kev airrdg eXwfiai 
5 reov i) Aiavroc «wv yipag rj ^OdvorijoQ 
&i(t) eXufv' o di KEv KEXoXwffETat, 6y kev tKWfJiai, 

(ft) El 3c fjiiy alxfjtrfrrjp cdeerav Beoi qIev EovTECf 
TOvyEKCL oi irpoOiovoriy ovEidEa fivdfioraffdaij 

^c) ?iaifJLoylriy aul fjLEy oteat, ovdi ae Xridu)' 

Trpfj^ai 5' EfiiTTji: ov Ti Zvvi)(TEaif aW airo Ovfxov 
fiaXXoy EfJLol EcrEai ' to ^e roi Kal piyiov corai. 
£1 3* ovTW TOUT EtTTiyf EfjLol /LifWci <l>iXov iJyai. 
aXX* CLKEOVtra KaOrjarOt e/jl^ 3* ETrnrEidEO jivQi^y 
fjLTi yv TOi ov •)(pai(riJiiM)(riv otroi QeoL ei(t ev ^OXvfjnr^ 
icrorov I6vd% ote kev tol aanTovQ XElpaq £(I>ti(m>, 

{d) ij^ri yap Kal ^Evpo wor* ijXvdE ^log 'O^vfrffEVQ 
CTEV EVEK ayy EXir}Q <rvy aprii(f>iX(p 'M.EVEXaip * 
TOVQ V kyib ilEiviaffa Kal kv p.Eyapoiqi <l>lXri<raf 
CLfK^oTEptoy 3c <l>vrly i^arjy Kal firj^Ea irvKyd. 
a\V OTE 3i) TpojEfftTiy ev aypofXEvoiaiv c/xi)(0ci', 
(TTavTiov fjiEv ^EviXaoQ VTTEipE'yEy Evpiag &fiovgf 
afJL(p(o h* kiofiiyio yEpapwTEpoQ i^cv ^O^vaaEUC* 

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{e) fifi fjL epedey <rx£rX/iy, /lc^ \ia(rafAitnn (re fjedfjiaf 
rifg oi ff airexdjipuf wg vvv lorayXa <l>i\ritray 
fjiiffff^ h' afjiiporipufv fjtrjTliTOfiai txOea Xvypa, 
Tpwtoy Koi Aavaijyf vv ^i Key KaKov olror oKrfai, 

2. Explain — TpriTo1<n {^ivwTdltTi) \i')(^etTtnv — fioipriy 

evig — ei ii ttot tq ye fiiai' (^ovXivtrofxev — v^ec 
a/z^ie\ier<Tai — heiraq ajxipiKvireWoy — enl ^pa <l>ipeiy 
— ovXo^vTac frpofiaXovTO — bv IRpiupewy KaXiovtri 
Btoi, ay^peg ^e re irdtTeg Aiyaicjya — difiiffreg^^ 

3. Give a very succinct account of — 

(a) the probable dialect of the original Achilles- 
poem ; 

(&) indications in Homer of the physique and 
armour of the Achaean 
from the Aegean peoples 

armour of the Achaeans as distinguished 

4. Write down the Attic eqnivalents of — r/ycpOcv, 
X^PVh <l>0irv6e(TK£, elaro, £7rtrcrpa0arac, &ye 5^ 
Tpaireio/Jiey (fnXoTrfrt. 

-6. Translate (as above) — 

(o) KpcLTOQ Bta TE, (T^^v fJtEy eyroXij Aiog 
e')(ei riXog ^^, Kov^ey ifnro^iify tri. 

(o) EfiQi ^£ firiTrip ov^ fiTraJ jjioyoy Qi/jiig, 
Kal Fata, noXXwy oyoixaTuy fJiOp(j)f} /x/a^ 
TO fieXXoy rj Kpalyoiro TrpovTeOefririiceiy 
<jjg oh KUT l(T\vy ov^e irpog to kapTcpoy 
Xpf/i?; ^oXu) hi TOVQ vireporyoyTag KpaTelv. 

\C) ^rfXia (r\ oQovyeK eKTog aiHag Kvpe7c^ 
irdyTuty fiETaax''^^ '^*** r£ro\/ii?fC^>C ffioL 

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(d) ovoaoi T htoiKOv hyvdQ 'Ao-tac <e.Ioq vlfiovraiy. 
fLeyaXoerrSvoiai troiQ vfifiaat €rvyKap.vov<n Bvaroi^ 

Ko\\ihoQ Tt ydg evoiKOi 

TrapOivoi, fxa\aQ firpcorot, 

Kox ^KvOrft o/KtXoCy ot ydg 
€a\aTOV TOirov afitfn Maiwriv exnvtri Xlfjivay* 

'Apa/3/ac r' &piioy avdoc, 

vxl/iKprifivoy ol nokitrfia 

KavKCLcrov viXa^ vefioyraif 
^aiioc crrpaToc, o^wp^poiai (ipefitity iv aix/*«<C- 

(e) lil. fiijTOi fjie Kpv\l/rfQ rovff oirep /xcXXw waOeJt^, 
nP. a\\' ov fieyaipw Tov^i <roi lutprijiaroQ. 

IQ. tL ^rjra fJieWeig jx^ ov yeyunufTKeir to irdv f 
nP. <l>d6voQ jiev ovheiQ^ crag h* OKvia Opalai <f>piyciQ. 
IQ. firj /xov wpOKrjdov fidtraov itg efiol yXvtcv, 

6. Explain tersely — 

(a) The grammar of — 5 »^a/>ic ycip n lv/ji(f>opa7Q 

iirairi^ ; — wc roivvy ovnav riavli trot fiaOettr 
vapa — yfjy irpo yfjg eXavyofiai-^iieXvtrafjiTiv 
PpOTOvQ TO fjLt) elg "AtSov fioXeiy — ovk eartv 
OT^ fieli^ova /Jiolpay yeiixaia i) troi, 

(b) The meaning^ of — KVfxaTuty ayfjpidfioy yiXatr/uicL 

'EpivvEQ — KrjpoirXacrTOQ ^oi^as — at Trpoaijyopot 
^pveg — Zrjyog cLKpayeli^ Kvyeg, 

7. (a) What rational account can be given of the 

Prometheus-mjth ? ' 

(fi) Explain — VTaaifioyf iiriiao^ioyy nepiaKTou 

6. Translate, with notes, as above — 

(a) '€lg 3e £c rrjv ^aXafuva avvfjjXdoy ol uTparriyot 
CLTTO Tojy eiprjfjiiywy TroXiufVf k^ovXtvovTO TpoOiyrog 
"Ehpvfiia^ew yyuffirfy d?ro^a/v£0'6ai roy (iovX6fieyoy, 

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€KOv ^oKfoi ewiTri^ettfTaToy tivai vav/ia\ifiy troihtrOai 
Twv avToi ')(ijjpiwv iyk'paTies elrri' ?/ yap Arma) 
of^tiTO r\Zriy twv 3c Xoiviwv trepi irpoeridee' ai yvdfiai 
3e Twy XeyovTwy ai tiXeltrrai ovvt^iTrncToy wpoc 
TOP ^ladfJLoy irXwaayrag vavfiayitiy irpo riJQ IleXo- 
iroyvritrov iniXiyoyTec Toy Xoyoy Toy^e, wc, yv 
vucridiwfn t^ vavp.a\b^ kv ^aXafuyi fiey Iovtiq^ 
•JtoXiopKffcroyTai ky vi}fri^y lya tr^i n/jnapirj ov^efiia 
eiri<ffayrf<reTai' trpoQ H r^ ^Ifrdfi^, eg tovq tuvTwy 

(J) Oifrog de aXAoc XiyeTai XoyoQ wepi tov Sip^tia 
yocTTOVf ovdafJLuc tfxoiye ttcotoc, ovTe a\Xa;c 
ovre TO Uepaiwy tovto ttclOoq' ei yap h) ravra 
ovTUf elpidri ek tov KvfiepyiiTew irpog iB^ep^eay ky 
fjLvpiyai yytjjfxrjffi fiiav ovk c^w ayTi^ooy, /Jirj ovk av 
voifjorai fiaoriXia rotov^e* roue fJtky ek tov Kara- 
aTpwfJiaTOQ KaTaf^ifidtrai kg KoiXriy v^a, koyTag 
TLiporag Kai UEpffiwy Tovg Tr/owrouc, rwv 3' kpETtwyy 
EoyTwy ^oivUiityy oKiag ovk av 'iaoy TrXfjOog Tolai 
TLipcrriffi k^ifiaXE kg Trjy OdXacrffay, 

9. Comment on the grammar of — knoikeTo irdy fjKwg 
av k^itTutdEiri — dvo OTrXiTag ^i^ovag i) icara avdputwijy 
<l>v(ny E^ovTag EitEtrdai cnpi. 

10. Give the Herodotean words for //rraw, j^XavTw, 

dvaXiaicu) f and the Attic for dyayvuKraif irpoKaTEy 
kXivvuff kKEaTo aXccc* Parse irpoEffd^avTo, Com- 
ment on the Ionic use of npopuTay kvitTTafiai, 

11. Where were Scione, Ellopia, Hollows of Euboea, 

Aphetae, Amphissa, Hermione ? 

12. Contrast Socrates' theory of sin with the notions 

prevalent at the time. 

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13. Translate^ with notes, as above — 

(a) apa Kal kv avr^ T-p Ti')(yrj tvi tic Troyrjpia, Kal Set 
iiel cicaoTjy t£\vti nXXrig TfxvrjQf ^tiq aifr^ ra 
iviJL<j>€pov cTKixpsTaif Kal ry trKOTTOVfiivri kripac av 
TOiavTrjg, Kal tovt tariy atrepat'TOv ^ tj avTq avrp 
TO ivfi(l>ipov vKiy^/iTai ; ») ovre avrfiQ ovre aWrji; 
wpoff^elrai cttI Ttjy avrfjg irorrjplay to ^Vfiifiipoi^ 
^Koireiv ovT€ yap irovripia ovre hfiapria ovlefiicL 
ov^sfjii^ Ttxri^ TrdpEffTiy, ov^e npoariKei T€\vy a\Xa> 
TO ivi^(p(pov irjreiv i) Ikiiv^ ov Te-^rr) koTiVy avrtf 
^e d/3\a/3^c Ka\ aKepnioc kariv 6p6i) ovcray £b>aTr€f> 
av ^ eKCLffTri aKpif3t)g 6\ri iiirep kari', 

(b) oi ^e Tijg Tutv OeCJv vv hvOpfjJTnoy TrapaytoyfJQ 
Toy^Ofjirjpov fiapTvpoyraiy on Kal kKeJyoc elTrey 

Xtarol ^£ [oT|0£7rroi] re Kal Oeol ovroi, 
Kal Tovc fiky Bvaiann Kal ivyjaKalq ayava'ttny 
Xoififj T£ KvitTY] TE irapaTpufirufff ayOpwiroi 
XKrao/jieyoiy ore Key rtg virep(M]-g Kal a/iapTy, 
pii3\<i)y ^e ofjia^oy irape^ovTai M.ov(raiov Kal Op- 
(piiOQy SfX>/i'iyc re Kal Movffoty kyyovwy, &€ 0a<ri, 
ica6' ag OvrfTroXovaiy^ ireidot'Teg ov jxoyoy IhiLJTac 
aXXa Kal iroXeig, ibg fipa Xvffeig re Kal Kadapfxol 
a^tKijfjaTUfy hia dvaiioy Kal Trat^idg ffhoyuty eitrl fjiey 
en iitfffiyj elfrl le Kal TeXevTijtratriy^ ag Btj TeXerac 
KaXovffiry a7 Twy eKeJ KaKdy awoXvovaiy ///iac> ftJ^ 
Ovffayrag ^e ^eiya irepLfieyei. 

14. Discuss briefly — 

ov^elg ay yeyoiTO, tog do^eieyy ovTutg a^a/jLamvogp 
og ay fietyeuy ky Trj ^iKaiocrvyrf' 

15. Explain — eiptjyevetydai^ ItStoi Xoyot, drjiiiovpyog^ 

avXi], KaTUTeivag, oerta, Schema Pindaricum. 

16. Translate and discuss from the point of view of 

textual criticism — 

^Ap' ovy Kal yoaoy otrng ^eiyoQ (jivXa^aadai ica) 
Xadely, ovTog ^eiydrazog kfiTroifjffaif 

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The Board of ExaminerB. 

1. Translate, with terse notes where you think them 

called for — 

(a) Tactus enim leti satis esset causa profecto, 
quippe ubi nulla forent aeterno corpore quorum 
contextum uis deberet dissoluere quaeque. 

(6) praeterea per se quodcumque erit, aut faciet 
aut aliis fungi debebit agentibus ipsum 
aut erit ut possint in eo res esse gerique. 

(c) sed quae corpora decedant in tempore quoque, 
inuida praeclusit speciem natura uidendi. 

{d) insula quem triquetris terrarum gessit in oris, 
quam fluitans circum magnisanfracrtibusaequor 
Ionium glaucis adspargit uirus ab undis. 

(c) Heraclitus init quorum dux proelia primus, 
clarus ob obscuram linguam raagis inter inanis 
quamde grauis inter Graios qui uera requirunt. 

(/) perspicere ut possis res gestas funditus omnis 
non ita uti corpus per se cons tare neque esse, 
nee ratione cluere eadem qua constet inane, 
sed magis ut merito possis euenta uocare 
corporis atque loci, res in quo quaeque gerantur. 

2. State briefly the Epicurean physical theory, with 

the proper Latin terms. Enumerate the words 
used by Lucretius for "atoms" and " to be.^' 
Explain komoeomeria. 

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3. Comment on the forms — indugredi, consumpse, 

redducit^ escit^ queatur. 

4. Translate (as above) — 

(a) Ipsi per medias acies insigpnibus alis 

Ingentes animos angusto in pectore versant, 
Usque adeo obnixi non cedere^ dum gravis 

aut hos 
Aut hos versa fuga victor dare terga subegit. 

.(^) Namque sub Oebaliae memini me turribus 

Qua niger umectat fiaventia culta Galaesus, 
Corycium vidisse senem, cui pauca relicti 
lugera ruris erant, nee fertilis ilia iuvencis, 
Nee pecori opportuna seges nee commoda 


i(c) Est etiam £os in pratis, cui nomen amello 
Fecere agricolae, facilis quaerentibus herba ; 
Namque unoingentem toUit de caespitesilvam, 
Aureus ipse, sed in foliis, quae plurima 

Funduntur, violae su'Wucet purpura nigrae. 

{jd) Non te nullius exercent numinis irae. 

Magna luis commissa: tibi has miserabilis 

Haudquaquam ob meritum poenas, ni fata 

Suscitat, et rapta graviterpro coniuge saevit. 
Ilia quidem, dum te fugeret per flumina 

Immanem ante pedes hydrum moritura puella 
Servantem ripas alta non vidit in herba. 

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6. (a) Discuss briefly the object of Vergil in writing 
the Georgics. Comment on any means 
which he adopts of making a didactic work 

(h) What are the chief errors which he 
commits concerning bees ? 

6. Explain succinctly the meaning or grammar (as 

the case may be) of— Izionii vento rota constitit 
orbis — seras in versum distulit ulmos — vesti- 
bulum — imbrex — si quem numina laeva sinunt 
auditque vocatus Apollo — carmina qui lusi 
pastorum — Pellaei Canopi — esse apibus partem 
divinae mentis et haustus aetherios — viva volare 
sideris in numerum — tranca pedum. 

7. Translate (as above)— 

(a) milesne Crassi coniuge barbara 
turpis maritus vixit et hostium 

(pro curia inversique mores !) 
consenuit socerorum in armis 

sub rege Medo Marsus et Apulus, 
anciliorum et nominis et togae 
oblitus aeternaeque Vestae 
incolumi love et urbe Roma ? 

(b) unico gaudens mulier marito 
prodeat iustis operata divis, 
et soror clari ducis et decorae 

supplice vitta 

virginum matres iuvenumque nuper 
sospitum. vos, o pueri et puellae 
iam virum expertae, male ominatis 
parcite verbis. 


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{e) campeBtrei melius Scjthae, 

quorum planstra vagas rite trahunt domos, 
yivuBt et rigidi Getae, 

inmetata quibus iugera liberas 
fruges et Cererem ferunt, 

nee cultura placet longior annua, 
defunctumque laboribns 

aequali recreat sorte vicarius. 

(dy diear, qua violens obetrepit Aufidus 
et qua pauper aquae Daunua> agreetium 
regnavit popnilorum, ex humili patens 
princeps Aeolium eapmen ad Italos 
deduxisse modoe. 

8. Explain the epithets in — 

Veeter, Camenae, vester in arduos 
tollor Sabinos, seu mihi frigidum 
Praeneste seu Tibur supinnm 
seu liquidae placuere Baiae. 

9. Explain the meaning or grammar (as the case may 

be) of — destituit deos mercede pacta Laomedon 
— eradenda cupidinis pravi sunt elementa — 
concidit auguiis Argivi domus ob lucrum -^nec 
Laestrjgonia Bacchus in amphoi-a— uxor invicti 
lovis 6846 nescts — virtus repulsae nescia sordidae 
— donee non alia magis arsisti — abstineto 

10. Translate with notes — 

(a) quamquam, etsi priore foedere staretur, satis 
cautum erat Saguntinia, sociis utrorumque 
exceptis ; nam neque additum erat ^' iis, qui tunc 
essent" nee *^ ne qui postea adsumerentur " ; et 
cum adsumere novos lieeret socios, quis aeoum 

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censeret aut ob nulla quemqaHtn mprita in ami- 
citiam recipi, aut receptee in fidem non defend!^ 
taetum ne Carthaginienfiiam socii aut soUicita- 
rentur ad defectionem aut sua sponte descis- 
centes reciperentur ? 

(b) is et ipse Aipinus amnis longe omnium Galliae 
fiuminum difficiUimus transitu est; nam, cum 
aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium 
patiens est, quia nullis coercitus ripis, pluribus 
simul neque iisdem alveis £uens nova semper 
vada novosque gurg^ites — et ob eadem pediti 
quoque incerta via est—, ad hoc saxa glareosa 
volvens nihil stabile nee tutum in«;redienti 

(c) extemplo et circa a praetore ad civitates missi 
legati tribonique suos ad curam custodiae inten- 
dere, et ante omnia Liljbaeum teneri apparatu 
belli, edicto proposito^ ut socii navales decern 
dierum cocta cibaria ad naves deferrent, ut, ubi 
signiiin datum esset, ne quid moram conscen- 
dendi faceret, perque omnem omm, qui ex 
speculis prospicerent adventantem hostium 
classem, dimitti. 

11. Comment on — 

(a) Adversum femur tragula graviter ictus. 

{b) Ne cuius suorum popularium mutatam secum 

fortunam esse vellent. 
(c) Yictores ad centum sexaginta nee omnes 

Romani, sed pars Gallorum, victi amplius 

ducenti ceciderunt. 
{d) Nox una Hannibali sine equitibus acta est. 

12. Describe a consul's proceedings on his first day of 

office, giving the Latin technical terms. 

o 2 

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13. Translate (as above) — 

(a) Agitfttum secreto, num et Piso proficisceretur, 
maiore praetexto, illi auctoritatem senatus, hie 
digmationem Caesaris laturus. 

(6) Ignarus interim Galba et sacris intentus 
fatig'abat alieni iam imperii deos, cum adfertur 
rumor rapi in castia incertum quem senatorem, 
mox Othonem esse qui raperetur ; simul ex tota 
urbe, ut quisque obvius fuerat, alii formidine 
aug'entes, quidam minora vero, ne turn quidem 
obliti adulationis. 

(c) nee principes modo coloniarum aut castrorum, 
quibus praesentia ex affluenti et parta victoria 
mag'nae spes, sed manipuli quoque et gregarius 
miles viatica sua et baltcos phalerasque, insignia 
armorum argento decora, loco pecuniae tradebant 
instinctu et impetu et avaritia. 

(d) Celsus constanter servatae erga Galbam fidei 
crimen confessus (Bxemplum ultro imputavit. nee 
Otho quasi ignokceret^ sed, ne hostem metueret, 
consiliatorem adbibens statim inter intimos 
amicos habuit et mox bello inter duces delegit. 

What is the MSS. reading for consiliatorem ? 
Can it be defended ? 

(e) Precibus et igne puro altaria adolentur. 

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The Board of Exajninera. 

1. Translate, with brief notes in the margin where 
you think them called for — 

{a) aW' tl fitv ^kUTOvtrt yipag fieyaOvfioi *Ayaioly 
aptrayrec Kara Ov/Jior, ottuq avralior earrai ' 
ei ^i Ke fxrl ^wuKrtVf kyit hi Kev avroc eXutfiai 
3 Tfov Ti A'iavTOQ luty yipac 5 ^Ohvaijoe 
ascii eXwv' o hi. Ktv Ke\o\wtreTaif ov kiv "iKUfxai* 

{b) ei hi filv al\^JiTriy edftrav deoi aiiv corrcc, 
TOvreKO. ol irpoOiovtriy orelhea fivO^tratrOai ; 

(c) hatfiovirf^ aici fxev oUai, ovhi ce X?;6w 
wprjEai h^ tfifrrj^ ov ti hvrritnai, aXX' airo Ovfjiov 
fAciWoy ifioi 'iereai ' to hi TOt Koi plyioy corai. 
ei h^ 0VT10 TovT itTTiyy ifiol fiiWei <pi\oy flrac. 
aW' cLKiovaa KadrfffOf ifif h* (inireiOeo ftvO^), 

fxrj vv Toi ov ^patfTfiiatriy o<rot Oeoi £iV iy 'OXv/jlv^ 
iSiaaov i6y6\ oti Kiy toi aairrovg xelpag e<piiu. 

(d) fjhri yap koi h€vp6 Tror' ijXvOe hlog ^Ohvcfrivc 
trev eyeK ayyfXeiyg <rvr nprn<pi\<f} Mei'fXa^ • 
TOVQ h* iyw e^eiriaaa koI ey fieyapoicri (plXriffa, 
afi(f>OTipwy he <pvtjy ihariy Kat fjiijhea irvKyd. 
dXX* ore hrj Tpweffcriy ey aypo/xiyoiaiy tfiiyBeyy 
crrdyTOjy fiey MeyiXaoc V7r£ip6)(cv evpiaq HfiovQ^ 
a/i0w h^ eiofiiyuf yepapwrepog ^ey \}hv<r(T£vc, 

(e) fxii fi epeOe, erx^Xiiy, //»/ y^aixraiiiyji at fiedfuOf 
TirfC hi a a'7rt)(67jp<o wc yvv eKvayXa (piXfitra, 
fiiffff^ 5' afJKfiOTipufr /jriTlcrofjiai e')(6ta Xwypa, 
Tpwwy Kai Aa.yawy, av hi Key KOKovolToy oXrjau 

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2. Explain — TprjToiffi (^ivutroiai) Xiytaaiv — fioipriyeviQ — 

— ^iirag d/i0c«:iWeXAoi^ — rirt ^pa ipepeiv — ovXo\VTac 
irpofiaXoyro — ov 'Bpiapeu}v KaXeovcri Oeoi, ay^peg ce 
re irayTeg Aiyaliaya — Gifu^res — ^fJLiydev. 

3. Give a very succinct aocouat of — 

(a) The probable dialect of the original Achilles- 


(b) Indications in Homer of the physique and 

armour of the Achaeaus as distinguished 
from the Aegean peoples. 

4. Write down the Attic equivalents of — iiyepdey, 

X^PVh 0O«vv6€TTtC€, EiOTOf cTTtrcrpa^arai, aye It) 
rpawtiofxev, ^iXoriyri. 

ft. Translate, with notes as above — 

(^) Kaipop el (ftdiyiaWf iroXXiir veipara mfyrayvvatg 
kv ^pa\tiy fxtimy In-erat fiufftog ardp4jjvtay, airo 

yap Kopog afxjSXvyei 
a.lav^Q Ta^elaq iXyri^g . 
atrroity ^' cucoa tcpv^wy dvfioy fiapvpei fAaXitrT 

eaXolffiy sir aXXorpioiQ. 
«\X* OfKOQy Kpfvtrwy yap oiKnpfiov (pSSyoCy 
fiij Trapiti fcaXa. vwfja diKai^ Tny^aXtw ffrparov' 

a^pevhel ^i npog &Kfiovi \a\KEVE yXattrtray. 
ct Ti Kal <pXavpov wapaiOvrrfTii^ f ^7" '^oi (jteperai 
Trap triSty. 

(b) yivoC (HOQ effffi fxadwy ' KaXog rot iriOiav irapa 

Traiffiyy ahi 
KoXog^ 6 ^6 *Pa.^ajjiaydvg ev w€vpayey,oTiil>perwy 
eXaxe scapv^y afi^fitirovy ohS* cnraraifn Ovfioy 

TipTTETai ey^odet^, 
Ota ipiBvpti^r fraXajjiatg hrtr aiEi (ipoTiiv, 

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(c) Kol iffOivSKaproQ ioitra liZoi \j/d<l>oy xep' avrd(, 
€1 iroTS y(eifiipu)v vvp i^licrfTai XoiVOiOv, 
rj (Tvv opdalc KuSvtffaiv detr/rotrvyaiaiv ipei^ofiiya 
H&^Bov fiXXocc afi(f>iwg Bi/aravoy iy rcij^fCiF. 
eov fpri^ufffaiaa \wpoy. 

6. Name any striking features of (a) the grammar 

and dialect^ {fi) the constructive method, of 

7. Write a note on XevKai^ TtBiitravTa (jtpatriv—^ 

tvfityiovTEQ ayeyj/wy — ey UvOwyi TotrvaiQ — ^Apyl" 
\o')(Oy cx^co't'' ntaiyafuyoy — Aio^ aitfrUt^ iraptBpoc 
— Ztf^vpia AoKpig — dicoyra aywyog /SaXeiK e£ii». 

8. Translate, as above — 

(a) iroWa yap, evre 7rroX«( ^a^aaOn 

iri, ^v(mf\i} re vpatrffti, 

aXXoc ^* aXXov ayei, 
<l>oyevet, ra de irvp/popel' 
KOLTry^ ^e ypaivtrai noXiajj!' aTray* 
fxaiyofieyoQ ^ eTriirvel 
Xao^a/iac ^laivwy 
evffefieiay " Apiyc. 
KopKopvyal ^ av* dtrrVf irpori I* hpKaya 
trvpy&TiQy irpoc ay^poc 3' avijp dopl jcXo'crac. 
(p) rirapTOQ clKKoq^ yeiTOvag TrvXag e^tM^y 
"Oyxac 'Adayac, Evy jio^ wapitrTaraiy 
'ImtvfiehoyTOQ tT\r\fia Kot /leyac tvttoq. 
SX<o ^€ TToW^y, aavidog KiixXoy Xiyw, 
c0p<£a ^tyriffayToc ovk aWug ipw. 
6 frrifAaTovpyoQ 3' ov rcc cvreXi^c ^p 'fl*'^ 
otrriQ t6^ epyoy HyrratTEV irpog atriridif 
Tv0wv' liyra vrvpfryooy ^la trrofia 
Xiy yvy fxeXaiyayf aioXtfy irvpog Kcurir' 
o<l>i<ay ^i irXeirrayaiai irepl^pofjioy kvtoq 
vpotTTidoipiaTai KoiXoyaffropog kvkXov. 

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(c) aXka yowi', & (piXai, Kar olpov 

ipitrtnr aficfi Kparl irofiirifiov \tpo1v 
irirvXory og aliy ^c' *A')^ipovT d/ueZ/Scrac 
TCLV atTToXov fieXayKpOKoy Gewpi^a 
rav aemfif} VdXXwvi, rav avaXioVf 
TTOiv^OKOV eie a<l>avfj re \ipaov» 

9. Comment briefly on the story of Cadmus, and on 
that of the Sphinx. How do you explain 
kirTaTEiyeiQ e^oloi ? 

10. Give instances of metaphorical condensation with 

word-play in Aeschyhjs. In what ways is the 
metaphor qualified or defined ? 

11. Explain tersely the meaning" or grammar (as the 

case may be) of iSpixpaT olKi(rTi}pa%, onwc yiyoitrOt 
trpoQ ypio^ role — ninXiiiv kul (Jtc^cwv Trdr', ei fjirl 
vvv, a/Kpl Xirdy^ e^ofiev f — kKwipafAv rroXiv ij>riffivy 
ovce rrjv Aeog epiv ifXTro^utv fT\tQeiv — 0i/xoi ^c 
ervpi^ovffi fiap(^apov Tpoirov* 

12. Translate, with notes as above — 

(rt) QiQ he. iQ Ti]v ^aXajjuva avvfiXdov oi orparijyoi 
OLTTO Twv elprj/jiiytjjy iroXitay, kfiovXtvoyro irpodiyrog 
Evpvfiiaceu) yyuffXTjy awo(l>aiyeffdai toy ftovXo/jievoy, 
OKOv hoKEoi iirirrihfjJTaToy elyai yav^Layljiy iroiUadai 
Tuty avToi "^wpiijjy eyKpaT£f.Q eiai' r/ yap ATTiKt) 
cupeiro ij^rfy twv he Xonriujy iripi Trpoeridee' al yyat/Jiai 
he Tuty Xeyoyrioy al TXe'itrraL (rvye^eirnrToy irpbg 
Toy ^Itrdfioy irXwrrayTac yavfxa^ieiy irpo rfjc IIcXo- 
iroyriiffov eTriXeyoyreg roy Xoyoy royhey <wc> »)»' 
ytKride(jt)(n Tp yav/jia^irji ev ^aXajiIyi fiey eoyrec, 
TToXiopicrjtToyrai ey yii<J<Oy *iva tT<f>i Tifiutpir) ohhe/iia 
eimpayriaeTaC irpoQ he T<p 'Itrdfi^, e£ tovq ewvrufy 

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[b) OvTog ^6 ^XXoc Xiytrai Xoyoc vepi rov tSipSna 
voarovy ovfiafiwQ efioiye viorog, ovre AXXiiic 
ovTe TO Ilepffetoy rovro irdOog' ei yap ^i) ravra 
ovTtJ elpiOrf U rov Kvfiepprjrew irpoc tSipieay kv 
fivpiyffi yvw/JLjiffi fiiav ovk i.\u> dvr/fooi', /wj) ohi: av 
iroifjfTai PatnXia roioy^t' tovs jjiiv iK row Kara^ 
'ffrpwfiaTog KaTaf^ifidffai ic KoiXrjy vfjoy eovraQ 
Uiparag koi Iltpaiiifv tovq TrpufTovQy ribv ^* ipiTiwVf 
iovTioy ^oiviKwVf oKutg ovk hv \aov irXf^Qog rol<n 
Uiparicri e£c/>aXe £c ri)v ddXatrffay, 

13. Comment on the grammar of-^iitoiiero nay okwq 

ay e^iaioOtiri — hvo owXtTaQ fiiZoyaQ y Kara aydpwirwy 
i^vffiv txoyraQ eireadai tn^i. 

14. Give the Herodotean words for firrdioy /^Xairrw, 

ayaXiffKuf ; and the Attio for drayywffai, irpOKare, 
iXiyvbt, EKeaTO &XieQ, Parse vpoetrd^ayro. Com- 
ment on the Ionic use of 'np6fiaTaf kirifnafiaiy 

15. Where were Scione, Ellopia, Hollows of Euboea^ 

Aphetae, Amphissa, Hermione ? 

16. Translate, with brief notes as above — 

{a) €1 lily TO ffUfxa eiriTpeireiy tre e^ei ry ^tanv^v- 
vevoyra rj ^prjffToy ahTO yeyiadai Tj iroyripoy, voXXa 
hy irepiEffKexl/tif, iiT iwiTpeirrioy eiTe ov, Kai elc trvfi- 
jjovXify Tovc T€ (plXovQ ay irapcKaXeic koi tovc 
oixeiovQ, ffKonovixeyoi: rifiepaQ avyyaQ* o ^k wepi 
wXeioyoc rov (TWfiaTog ftyf«> Tr^y ^j/vxriv, ical ky ^ 
irayr korri ra ca rj tv f/ Kaxtac npoTTUyy ^PV^^ov rj 
iroyrjpov avrov ytyofiiyovj ntpl hk tovtov ovtb t^ 
TraTpl ovT€ Tt^ hleX^ kweKOiyuKTiJ ovTt r//ii«5i' Twy 
ETaipiay ovZeylj eit kvirpiitrioy tire Kai ov t^ 
iLt^iKOfiiy^ TOVTtf ^iytfi rrfy trrjy i/'v^iii'. 

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(J) *Ev yap rate AXXa^c apcralc, AarcEp av Xiyiig, 
iav TiQ t^rj dya6oc avXijr»)c flvai ?/ AWiyv fivTiPovv 
Ttyv-qv fjy fifj iarriv, rj KarayeXwffiv rj xaXeiraivovffi, 
Kai 01 oiKeioi wpoffioyTEQ yovBerovaiv wg fxaiv 6 fievov 
iv di BiKaiotrvyrj Kai ky ry aXXjj vroXiTiKy aperyy edv 
Tiva Kai el^wtTiy, on ql^lkoq eoriv, eay ovTog avrog 
jca0' avTOv raXij0^ Xcyi; iyayriov iroXXwv, o eKei 
(rbul>po(rvinriy ffyovyro elyai, raXiyd^ Xcyciv, AvTavOa 
fxayiayy Kai 0aoT Trayrag Se7v 0avac elyai ^iKaiovgj 
iay re Sitny eay re fii), i; fxaiytaBai Toy ji^ Trpoffiroiov' 
fieyoy diKatoffvvrjyf u)g ayayKoioy ov^iya oyriv ou^i 
hfitatryiirtag fAiTi\tiy avr^gyTi fiij eJyai ty ayOpwnoiQ. 

17. Explain the grammar of— JJc ye npog tre elprjtTBaL 

TaXridfj — ravT ovy ij^rf (rv aric6irei, irorepoy vepl 
avTU)y fiovog olei deiy ^eaXeyeer^cu irpog fiovovg — 
^o^av tjfilv ravra hropevofieBa I and the meaning 
oi — iroppta Twy yvKTwy — *l7rjroKpaTri rby K^ov^ tov 
riHy ^AffKXrjTna^y — ey t^ irpotrri^i^ — ewf ay o\ 
Toidrai avroy a^eXicuo'CtiO'iv — ovg nipvaty ^epeKparrig 
e^ida^ey cTrt Arfyai^, 

18. Explain the attitude of Socrates towards the 

sophistic teaching. 

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Tlu Boavd of JSxcuminers, 

1. Translate, with brief notes in the margin where 
you think them desirable — 

{a) Taetns emm leti satis .eaaet causa profecto, 
quippe ubi nulla forent aeterno corpora quorum 
contextum uis deberet dissoluere quaeque. 

{b) praeterea per se quodcnmque erit^ aut facie t 
aut aliis fungi debebit agentibus ipsum 
aut erit Qt possint in eo res esse gerique. 

(c) Sed quae corpora decedant in tempore quoque, 
inuida praeclusit speciem natura uidendi. 

{d) insula quem triquetris terrarum gessit in oris^ 

?uam fluitans circum magnis anfractibus aequor 
onium glaucis adspargit uirus abundis. 

{e) Heraclitus init quorum dux proelia primus, 
darns ob obscuram linguam magis inter inanis 
quamde grauis inter Graios qui uera requirunt. 

(/) perspicere ut possis res gestas funditus omnis 
non ita uti corpus per se constare neque esse, 
nee ratione cluere eadem qua constet inane, 
sed magis ut merito possis euenta uocare 
corporis atqtie loci, res in quo quaeque gerantur. 

S. State briefly the Epicurean physical theory, with 
the proper Latin terms. Eoumerate the words 
used by Lucretius for "atoms" and 'Ho be." 
Explain homoeomeria. 

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3. Comment on the forms — indugredi, consumpse 

redducit, escit, queatur. 

4. Translate (as above) — 

(a) Si forte necesse est 

Indiciis monstrare recentibus abdita rerum, 
Fingere cinctutis non exaudita Cethegis 

(b) Pnblica materies privati iuris erit, si 

Non circa vilem patulumque moraberis orbem. 

(c) Sic priscae motumque et luxuriem addidit arti 
Tibicen traxitque vagus per pulpita vestem ; 
Sic etiam fidibus voces crevere sevens 

Et tulit eloquium insolitum facundia praeceps, 
Utiliumque sagax rerum et divina futuri 
Sortilegis non discrepuit sententia Delphis. 

(d) Carmine qui tragico vilem ceitavit ob bircum 
Mox etiam agrestes Satyros nudavit. 

(e) Ignotum tragicae genus invenisse Camenae 
Dicitur et plaustris vexisse poemata Thespis, 
Quae canerent agerentque peruncti faecibus era. 

6. How does Horace translate the following Greek 
terms : — 

KaOoXov, (TTpoyyvXtifQf Kvpta^ to hpfiorrov, irpaKT- 


Explain the terms — actus, voti sententia 
compos, ampullae, bidental. 

6. Translate (as above) — 

(a) At hoc frementes verterunt bis mille equos 
Galli canentes Caesarem, 
Hostiliumque navium portu latent 
Puppes sinistrorsum citae. 

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Id Triumphe, tu moraris aureos 

Currus et intactas boves ? 
To Triumphe, nee lugurthino parem 

Bello reportasti ducem, 
Neqae Africanum, cui super Carthaginem 

Virtus sepulchrum condidit. 

{b) Infamis Helenae Oastor offensus vicem, 
Fraterque magni Castoris, victi prece 
Adempta vati reddidere lumina. 
Et tu, potes nam, solve me dementia, 
riec paternis obsoleta sordibus, 
Neque in sepulchris pauperum prudens anus 
Novendiales dissipare pulveres. 

7. Explain the term ''"Epodes." What were they 

called by Horace ? 

8. Explain — Phocaeorum velut profugit exsecrata 

civitas — sectus flagellis hie triumviralibus 
praeeonis ad fastidium — Appiam mannis terit — 
ibis Liburnis inter alta navium, amice, pro- 

9. Translate, as above — 

(a) De familia liberata nihil est quod te moveat 
primum tuis ita promissum est, te facturam esse 
ut quisque esset meritus; est autem in officio 
adhue Orpheus, praeterea magno opere nemo; 
ceterorum servorum ea causa est, ut, si res a 
nobis abisset, liberti nostri essent, si obtinere 
potuissent; sin ad nos pertinerent, servirent, 
praeterquam oppido pauci. 

(6) Consulares duce Favonio fremunt ; nos 
tacemus, et eo magis, quod de domo nostra nihil 
adhue pontifices responderunt : qui si sustulerint 

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religionem, aream praeclaram habebitnus; 
superficiem consumes ex senatus consulto 
aestimabunt : sin aliter, demolientur, suo nomine 
locabunt. rem totam aesdmabunt. 

(c) Reliquum iam est: STraprav eXa^cc, ravrav 
KOfffiei, Non mebercule possum, et Philoxeno 
ignosco, qui reduci in carcerem maluit ; veram 
tamen id ipeum mecum in his locis commentor, 
ut istam probem, idque tu, cam una erirnus, 

What is the MSS. reading for istam probem ? 
Can it be defended? 

(d) Hoc tibi tam ignoscemus nos amici, quam 
igTiovemnt Medeae 

. . . quae Corinthum arcem altam habebant 
matronae opulentae^ optimates 

quibus ilia manibus gypsatissimis ]>ersua8it, ne 
sibi vitio illae verterent, quod abesset a patria. 

10. Translate, briefly discussing the text — 

(a) Hac quidem cura certe iam vacuus som ; iacet 
enim ille sic, ut Phoci» Guriana stare videatur. 

(J) Sed idem Nerius index edidit ad adligatos Cn. 
Lentulum Vatiam et C. Cornelium : + ista ei. 

(c) . . . in illo cubiculo tuo, ex quo tibi 
Stabianiim perforasti. 

11. Translate and explain — 

(a) Is, quern putabant magistrum fore, si bona 

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(6) VideBne consulaliun ilium aoBtrum, quem Curio 
antea awaBa^it^ vocabftt, si hie factus erit^ fabam 
mimum futumm t 

(c) Explain: — US. Tici«8^ libora legatio voti 
causa ; fonim attingpere ; £ftmiliam ducere ; 
rationem ducere ; vadimonium concipere ; nos 
vero ferrei. 

12. Translate^ as abore— 

(a) Agitatum secreto, num et Piso pi*o£cisceretur, 
maiore praetezto, illi auctoritatem senatus, hie 
dig^ationem Caesaris laturus. 

{b) Ignants interim Galba et sacrig intentu, 
fttigabat alieni ism imperii deos, cum adtertur 
rumor rapi in cwtra inoertom quem seoatorem, 
mox Othonem esse qui raperetur ; simnl ex tota 
urbe^ ut quisque oovius fuerat, alii formidine 
auf^entes^ quidam minora vero, ne turn qaidem 
obliti adalationis. 

(c) nee principes modo eoloniarum aut castrorum, 
quibus praesentia ex affluenti et parta victoria 
magnae spes^ sed manipuli quoque et gregariuB 
miles viatica sua et balteos phalerasque, insignia 
armorum argento decora, loco pecuniae tradebant 
instinctu et impetu et avaritia. 

{d) Celsus constanter servatae erga Galbam fidei 
crimen confessus exemplum ultro imputavit. nee 
Otho quasi ignosceret, sed, ne hostem metueret, 
consiliatorem adhibens statim inter intimos 
amicos habuit et mox hello inter duces delegit. 

What is the MSS. reading for consiliatorem ? 
Can it be defended P 

(e) Precibus et igne puro altaria adolentur. 

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13. The characteristics of the style of Tacitus hare 

been said to be brevitas^ varieiaSf and poeticus 

Illustrate any one of these characteristics from 
the chapters prescribed. 

14. Translate, with notes — 

Yibius Crispusy pecnnia potentia ingenio inter 
claros mag'is quam inter bonos, Annium Faustum 
equestris ordinis, qui temporibus Neronis dela- 
tiones factitaverat, ad cognitioneni senatus 
vocabat. nam recens Oalbae principatu cen- 
suerant patres, ut accusatorum causae nosceren- 
tur. id senatus consultum varie iactatum et, 
prout potens vel inops reus inciderat, infirmum 
aut validum retinebat adhuc terrores. 

15. Remark on anythinp^ unusual or non-Ciceronian 

in Tacitus' use of — expedio, natales, impono, 
potissimus, the ablative absolute, partes, olim, 

16. Explain — provinciam domi retinere, ala, una 

cohors togata, septuma decuma cohors, praefectus 
legionis, vacationeS; sectiones. 

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TJie Board of Exaviineri. 

Translate, with brief notes in the margin where you 
think them desirable — 

1. K/>t€ viirovy tI ^i 2ih 3ta <nr£oc toirvo /i^Xwv 
varaTOii ; ovri Trapoc yt \e\eififiiyos epxeai oldr, 
oXXa iroXv vpuroc vi^eai riptv AyOea iro/iyc 
fiUKpa fiifidcy wpwTo^ 3c podc vorafiiav aijUKartiQ, 
iFpHros Si oraQfiovht XiKaUai airoyeeffdai 
ktnripioc' vvv avre irayvtrraroi. ^ avy* Ayain-OQ 

• QipdaXfioy iroOieiiy Toy art)p kukoq e^aXauttfep 
tfvv Xvypolg krapoiiri, lafiatraa^tyog t^piyaQ o'iy^, 
OuriCy ov ovTtw 0f7/i( vti^vyiAivov tlvai oXedpoy, 
el hri 6fJioil>poyioic iro7:i<t>uyij€ig re yivoio 
tiireiv owvfi Kelvog ifioy fiivoQ iiXaaKa^tC 
Tfi KE oi eyKtifiaXdg ye Bia tnrioQ &XXvhiQ &XXt) 
deivofievov paloiro frpog ovhei, Kah Se k kfiov Ktlp 
Xftf^i^o-fcc KaKtiy, rd /iot ovrihavoQ tropev Ovng. 

2. Maicapiov etmy rj rpay^Sia 
wolri^a Kara vdyTy el ye irpwrov oi Xoyoi 
VTO Twv dearwy eiffiv eyyutpitrfiiyot^ 

vpiv Kai nv eiTrely* tatrd* vwofAyfjaai fioyoy 
hel roy iroitir^y' OlSiirovy yap av fioyoy 
^(5, rfiXXa wdyr* tcraortv* 6 varijp Adioi, 
firirrip 'loirairri;, dvyaripegy Trainee rtVcc, 
ri weiffed* ovrog, rl vevoiriKey, ay iraXiv 
eiiry rig 'AXxfiiwya, Kal ra vaiSia 
icdvr eifSvQ elpri\y ori fiayelg aneKToyev 
ri^y fitirip'f hyayaKriay l*" Ahpaarog ehdiufQ 
flfei vdXiy r' aTreiai 

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cTTctO' oTay fxrihiv ZvvtavT* diriiv en, 
KO^il^ ^ tcrttftiiicwffiy iv ro«c ^pafiturufy , 
aipovffiy ijfnrep ddcrvXoy r^v iJCTi\avqvy 
Kal TOiQ OeiofiipoKTiv airo^pwi'TWi tX€i. 
i]fiiv he ravT ovk eanvy aXkU Trdyra eel 
evpely, ovofiara Kaivdy ra Zi(f)Kr)fieva 
irporepovj ret vvv wapoiTa, r^*' KaraOTpoi^iiVp 
Ttiv eltrfloXfiv. ay ey n rovTwy TrapaKiirp 
Xpefir}g Tig y ^eihwy rtc, extrvpirTETaC 
Jl3f\ei ^ ravr* eS^ari icui Tevjcp^ woiiir, 

3. Uapakmfinyrec le avrovc «« KepKvpdhoi eg oucrifia 
fjAya KaTeipiav^ ecu wrrepot^ lldyovreg kotu t^iKoaiy 
ay^pag diifyoi^ hta ^voir trToij(piy birXtriiy acnrifiatdey 
ira^reTayfiiyufyf ^itfiiymx t£ ?rpoc oAAiyXovc «cac 
iratofiivovc Knt Ktrrovfiivov^ vt« tQv vaparerayfjie'' 
vtjy, ei irov rig rtya 'iiboi tySpoy kavrov' fxtumyo^opoi 
T€ irapcovrec iirerdyvvtiy rrj^ oBov rovg tryokairepoy 
TpoiovTag. Kat ec ptivay^pag e^ifKoyva eXioBot^ rovg ey 
T^ oiKTffAaTi TovT^TMrpov^ e^uyoyotrreg KQi iBtM^dsi- 
pmyreQ {^vto yup nvTOvg fteraffrti^oyrdg v»i aWo<re 
ayBiy)' ti/c ce ifffdoyro Kai rig sd/roig c^^Xbicre, rovg 
T£ ^ AdrivQLioifg £ir£KaKovrTO jcae itiXevoy 9f^^, el 
fiovXoyTai, avTovg hia<f>6tipeiyf eK re rov olKtjfiaTog 
ovKeri riQeXov Hvdrni^ ovS* emxym JE<f>affay Kara 
hvya^ty irepi^ilxff^i ov^iva, ol ^e KepKvpeuioi ica 'a 
^ey rag bvpag nvh^ ahroi hveyuovvro fitdiea-dai, 
hyafidyvEig he hri to re'yoc tow rHKitftaivg Kal 
huXdyng rtjv vpoi^v t/3a\Xov nw Kepdft.^ Kal 
ETo^evoy Koru* oi. he e^nAmnrovTm re utg ihvyayro 
Kal 6^ui oi woXXoi. mpwg airrowc ^ufpBetffoyj oiarovQ 
TCy oSfQ afUmy ixxiMM, £c rac trfayag wiBiiyTeg Kai 
|]e«c[| KXiywy nyvy^ cu. crv^oi^ ahroig iyovuai, Tcilg 
ffvdproig .eat cc rmy Inariufy wapcupiffKiTa miovyreg 
diray^fieyoiy vnitti lTe'\ rpoit^ to woXv r^c yvKrbg 
{eireyeyero yap yv^ r*5 -n'a^^yL(ar«) aroXovvre** 

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ff(l>dQ avrovc «foi PaWo/iEvoi viro t&v fiyw Ste^* 
Oapriaay, koi avrovg oi KepKvpaioi, iirei^ri rifiipa 
ryivfTOy <f>opfirfh6v efrt ^/ua^ac cwi/BaXovrcc awfiyayoy 

AfiiXei fi ^eitri^aifiovia do^eiey av eJvai ^ttXia 
irpog TO daifioyioy' 6 ^e heiaLdaluutv tolqvtoq tiq, 
owQ €7ri Kpiivg airoyi\j^afiEvoc tclq ^eipag Kai irepip" 
paia/ievos airo iepovy catpvrjv elg to arofia \a(^y, 
ovTUf Tr/v iifiipav TrepnraTeiv, Kal Tifv o^ov lay 
vcLpadpcLfiri yaXrj, fjirl irpoTspoy iropevSflvai, £wg 
du^XOy Tig, fj Xidovc Tpiig virip ttjq o^ov hiaPaXy, 
Kai TUfV XiTrapwy Xidtity Twy ky rate Tpio^otg vapiiijy 
Ic rifc XriKvdov tXaioy KaTa^eXyy Kal ctti yoyara 
vtawv Ka\ irpoffKvyrfffag aToXXaTTeadai, Kai eay 
fxvg BvXaKoy a.X<f>iTiav dia<j>ayriy irpog Toy e^rjyrjTtiy 
eXObfVy epiifTdy, tL 'xpf/ iroiely Kal eav awoKpiyriTai 
avT^y EKZovy Oi t^ ukvtoIe'^t^ ewippaxpaiy/ifi irpoai^eiv 
ToifToiQy dXX' dTTOTjoaTTcic eKdvaaffBai. Kal irvKva 
5e TT^f otKiav KoBdpat ^eiyog, *Emrr/c (paffKojv 
iirivytayrjv yeyoviyat' Khy yXav£ (ia^i^oyTOQ avTov 
rapdrriyroi, eivagy ^AOrjvd Kpeimoyl wapsXOeiy 
ovT(o' Kal ovre ^yrifxaTi l7rt/3^vai, ovte evl yeKpoy 
eXBeiwy dXXd to junj fxiaiyecrBai trvft^ipoy awrw <f>fi<rai 
tJrtci. Kal OTav kvvvvtoy t^i;, iroptvitrdat irpog Tovg 
ovttpoKpvragy wpog tovq fidvTeig, irpog Tovg opvi' 
dotTKOTTovgy kpwTTifftoy riyi Oe^ Tj dtq fv\todai Zii, 

P 2 

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Ths Board of Examiner $. 

1. Translate, with concise notes in the margin where 
you think them desirable — 
(a) Ba. Forum coquinum qui uocant, stulte 

uocant : 
Nam non coquinum, uerum furinumst forum. 
Nam ego si iuratus hominem nequam 

Peiorem hau potui quam hunc quern duco 
, d nee re, 

Multilocum gloriosum insulsum inutilem. 
Quin ob eam rem Orcus recipere ad se hunc 

Vt esset hie qui mortuis cenam coquat : 
Nam hie solus illis coquere quod placeat potest. 
Go. Si me arbitrabare istoc pacto ut praedicas, 
Quor conducebas ? Ba. Inopia : alius non 

Set quor sedebas in foro, si eras coquos, 
Tu solus praeter alios ? Co. Ego dicam tibi : 
Hominum ego auaritia factus sum improbior 

Non meopte ingenio. Ba. Qua istuc ratione ? 

Co. Eloquar. 
Quia enim, quom eztemplo ueniunt conduc- 

tum coquom, 
Nemo ilium quaerit qui optumus, carissumust : 
Ilhim conducunt potius qui uilissumust. 
Hoc ego fui hodie solus opsessor fori. 
Illi sunt drachumis miseri : me nemo potest 
Minoris quisquam nummo utsurgam subigere. 

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{b) Ite, leves elegit doctas ad consulis aures, 

verbaque honorato ferte legenda viro. 
lace miousdecima dominam venietis in urbem, 

ut festinatum non faciatis iter, 
si quis, ut in populo, qui sitis et unde requiret, 

nomina decepta quaelibet aure ferat 
ut sit enim tutum, sicut reor esse, fateri, 

verba minus certe ficta timoris habent. 
copia nee vobis ullo prohibente videndi 

consulis, ut limen contigeritis, erit. 
aut reget ille suos, dicendo iura, Quirites, 

conspicuum signis quom premet altus ebur ; 
aut populi reditus positam componet ad 

et minui magnae non sinet urbis opes; 
aut feret Augusto solitam natoque salutem, 

deque parum noto consulet officio. 

(c) Dionjsius, de quo ante dixi, cum fanum 
Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syra- 
cusas : isque cum secundissimo vento cursum 
teneret ridens: Videtisne, inquit, amici, quam 
bona a dis immortalibus navigatio sacrilegis 
detur ? Idque homo acutus cum bene planeque 
percepisset, in eadem sententia persevei-abat : qui 
cum ad Peloponnesum classem appulisset et in 
fanum venisset lovis Oljmpii, aureum ei de- 
traxit amiculum grandi pondere, quo lovem 
ornarat e manubiis Karthaginiensium tyrannus 
Gelo, atque in eo etiam cavil! atus est aestate 
grave esse aureum amiculum, hieme frigidum, 
eique laneum pallium iniecit, cum id esse 
[aptum] ad omne anni tempus diceret. Idemque 
Aesculapii Epidauri barbam auream demi 
iussit: neque enim con venire barbatum esse 
filium, cum in omnibus fanis pater imberbis 

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egset. Idem m&asas argon teas de omnibus 
delubris iossit anferri^ in. quibtt& quod more 
veteris Graeciae inscriptum esaet bono rum 
DEORUM, nti se eorum bonitate velle dicebat. 
Idem Victoiiolas aureas et paterae et coronas, 
quae simulacrorum porrectis masibus sustine- 
bantur^ sine dubitatione tollebat eaque se acci- 
pere, non auferre dicebat : esse enim stultitiani, 
a qaibus bona preearemur, ab iis porrigentibus 
et dantibus nolle sumere. 

(d) Servus ei dicitur comes unus fuisse nutritus 
una, eoque baud ignarns linguae eiuadem ; nee 
quicquam aliud proficiscentes quam summatim 
regioniSy quae intranda erat, naturam ac nomina 
principum in populift ae€^>ere, ne qua inter 
colloqnia insigm nota haesitantea deprebendi 
possent. lere pastorali babitu, agrestibus telis, 
falcibus gaesisque binis armati. Sed neque com- 
mercium linguae^ nee Testis armorumye habitus 
sic eo8 tezity quam quod abborrebat a fide, 
quemquam externum Ciminios saltus intra- 
turum. Usque ad Gamertes Umbros pene- 
trasse dicuntur : ibi, qui esseut, fateri Bomanum 
ausum : introductnraque in senatnm, consulis 
verbis egisse de socdetate amicitiaque: atque 
inde comi hospilio acceptum, nuntiare Romanis 
iussum, eommeatum ex^dtui dierum triginta 
praesto fore, si ea loca intraaset, iuTentutemque 
Camertium Umbrorum in armis paratam im- 
perio fiituram. 

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HONOUR BXAMlNATlOir, ITOV., 1906. 21o 


TJie Board of Exaviinerg, 

Translate, with brief notes in the margin where you 
think them desirable — 

1* £vpv]^a)^^ tl yap v£kv EfHQ tpyoio yiwoivo 
&pri kv elapiv-^y Sre r' iffiara fjuucpa Tc'Xovra*, 
iy TToirft hpivavov fiey eyuty tweaftinc t^oifHf 
Kal ^c nrv Toiov e^ot^, f wz Treiprftratfuda epynv 
vfliTTUC &XP*- /^«^« Kvi(l>aoif voiff ^e irupeitj, 
u ^' uv teal fioec eltv iXavyiftev, mwcp a/Moroi, 
aiOofvec^ /jLeyaXoif a/i^oi KEKoprjore noirft:^ 
ijfXcfrecy uro^opoc, r&r t£ tfSitfiK oitK oKmiraiv^tf^ 
TiTpayvov V eiri, eiKOi 3' vvo /3dXoc aporpf 
ry ICC fjL* t^iCy ci u\Ka hirivEKia vpora^oifiify, 
el 2' av Kai ir6\efi6v irodtv opfirfVEie Kpoyiuv 
rifftepoyy avrkp €f»«€ ^raaeoi €iq Kai ^vo havpt 
Kal Kvyirf vdyxaXKOc, eiri Kporat^g apapvia, 
T^ KE fi t^oic irpwTOitny evi 7rpofia\oi<n fjuyiyra, 
si^^ ^p fid r^y yatnip ^yEihi^wy oyopevocc* 
dXAa /mix' vfipi^Eig, Kai roi voog imiv aTnjyii^' 
nal ««v rec ^fnc€€t^ fiiync ^fifteyat ifj^e. iqporatoc? 
ovTExa trap fravpet^ cat ovrt^at^ccKv 6/u(Xe«£. 

2, 2G. aXXo Tt ifir oh ro^ieic 4^i9 ^^^ oij^Er irXrir dwEp 

r« jfOjQc TOVTi Kui Tag K6^eX«c Kal ri^v yXurray, 
rpia Tovri ; 
XT. olr^ fiy ^coXcx^^'^ 7* aTtxywQ ruiic AXXoccj ovS* 

kv UTUVTiiy' 

oiiS^ av ^vvatfjLy ev^f frare^acjfx'y ovd' iiTMBeifir 

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XO. \iye wv fifily o ti trot ^pw/ucv dappwVf wc ovk 
^/ictc Tifiiav KoX davfiai^tav koI i^rfTwv heiiog ilvai. 
ST. & ^ifnroivai, ^iofxai roivuv vfxwy tovti Traw 
tUv *^\\riviiiv tivai /i€ Xiyiiv kKorbv tnaZioitnv 
XO. aXX* tffTai ffoi tovto irap yfiwv' (Serre to Xoivor 
y' airo Tovhi 
kv rf ^Tifi^ yyuffiai ovhiQ viKiiaei irXciovai Tj <tv. 
2T. fiii fioi ye Xiyeiv yvwfiac fnyaXac' ov yap 
Toimav iiridvfjiWf 
AXX' Off' i^avT^ ffTpeyl/o^iKrjffat koI rove xp^orac 
XO. rev^ei rolvvv Stv ifiiipeic' oh yap fieydXwr 

aXXa aeatfToy wapdiog Oappwy toIq ii^eripoiQ 

ST. Zpaata ravd' vpTiv VLtrrtvaaQ' ri yap avayKfj fie 

^cct TovQ tmrovs tovq Kovirariac Kal rov ya^ov og 

fi iviTpi\Ley, 

S. rovTO fiiy ^i) ovtu e^evpidrif rag Be vpo fffioXac awEK' 
povoyro oi HapKaloi. y^povoy Be 3^ froXXor 
rpifio/jiiyuty icai irtnTovroiv a^tporipwy woXXCiVf icat 
ovt: etraov rHy U.ep<rswyj*' AfiafriQ 6 trTpaTtiyoQ rov 
irtl^ov firjxaydTai ToiaBe* ^adiby tovq BapKalovc, 
WQ Kara fJiey to iff-y^vftoy ovk alptToi clfv, B6X^ Be 
atpeToi, woiiei roiaBe' yvicroQ TCK^poy opvlaq evpeav 
eveTeiye £vXa affOeyea vKep airrifc, Karvirepde Be 
eTrnroXijg rwy IvXwy \ovy yi/c CTre^opjyffC, Troiitay Ttj 
aXXri yfj iaoweBoy. &fia ifiiepri Be eg X6yovQ wpoe- 
KaXieTo tovq 3apKaiovQ» oi Be atnratrT&Q viriiKovffaVy 
eQ 6 (Tifn eaBe ofJioXoyiri yprieraffdai, r^v Be OfAoXoylrfr 
eTouvyro ToiriyBe rii'a, em TfJQ KpvTTTfJQ Ta(l>pov 

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Tafxyovrei: opKia, Itrr av ^ yfj avrrj ovruf exj/* ficVciv 
TO opKiov Kara x^PV^i 'f"' BapKaiovQ t€ viroTeXieiv 
<l>avai a^iriv fiaviXit Kal Hipfrac /xiy^eV &\\o veox^ 
fiovv Kara "BapKalovc* fieTCt he to opKtov 'BapKoiot 

fjiev TTLfTTEVtraVTEQ TOVTOlffl aVTOl T€ If^tflraV EK TOV 

a(rreoQ Kal T&y iroXtfiitav ttav napiivai ig ro re7)(og 

TOY fiovKofXtVOVy TCLQ TTvXaC WaCOC aVoHaVTtQ* 01 

Ik Uiptrai KaTappff^avreg t^v KpvTrrrjv yii^vpav eSeov 
Etna eg to Telxog. KaTtppti^av M rovde uvekev t^u 
hoirjtray yc^vpav, i va ifnrehopKeoieVf Ta^ovTtg Tolai 
BapKaioiffi j^povov fiiveiy aUl ro opKiovy otrov av if 
yfj fJiiyy Kara tote eT^^e* KaTappii^nai Ik ovketi 
efiEPE TO opKioy KaTCL ')(wprfv. 

Kal 6(ra fuv Xoycj) cTttov EKaaTOi Tj ^iWovTEg 
TToXEfiiitrEiy *) Ev ahr^ ^hrf ovTEg, \a\E7r6v Trfv 
aKpipEiav avTrjy tSjv \e\Qevtwv diafjirrjfxovEVffai 7)v 
Efioi TE Stv avTog ^Kovfra Kal To7g &Wodiv ttoOev f/xoi 
awayyiWovaiv' wg 5 av khoKovy k^ol EKaaTOt Trepl 
Twy ai€t TtapovTiay ra ZiovTa fiaXiaT Eiirelyy k\ofiEyip 
on kyyvTaTa Tfjg Jv/iTraa/yc yvujii-qg tCjv aXriQCjg 
XEydeyTtoVy ovTutg E'iprjTai. to. 5' Epya Tutv 7rpa\0iy- 
Tuv ty T^ iroXifii^ ovk ek tov vapaTV\6yTog 
TTvydavofiEyog i^^iwaa ypatpeiy ou^' u)g k^ol kdoKEiy 
dW' oTc TE avTog trapiiy Kal Tropa T(oy aXXuiy oaoy 
IvyaTov cLKpif^Eiq, irEpl ekclgtov kiTEl.EXdijy kirnroviag 
hk rivpiffKETOy hioTi 01 irapoyTEg Tolg epyoig EKaaroig 
ov TavTCL TEpl TLJy avTwy eXEyoVf aXX' wg EKaripwy 
Tig Evyoiag rj fiyrjfjirjg E)(Oi, Kal kg fiky aKpoaany 
'iaiag to /xj) ^vSufh Eg airrwy aTEpTriffTEpoy <f>ayE7Tai* 
offoi hk (^ovXrjaoyTai TQy te yEyofjiirioy to ffa(pkg 
ffKowely Kol Tuty /lEXXovTwy ttote avOig Kara ro 
avdpumEiov TQiovTtay Kal TrapaTrXrjtriwy EtrEaOaiy 
cij0cXi/ia KpiyEiy avra apKovyrwc e^ei. KTrffid te kg 
ahl fidXXoy yj hytayierfia kg to irapa^pfifxa aKovtiy 

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2%e Board of Exatm/nerB. 

Translate, with concise notes in the margin where 
you think them desirable — 
(a) Principio caelum ac terram camposque liquentes 
Lucentemque globum lunae Titaniaque astra 
Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus 
Mens agitat molem et magnose corpore miscet. 
Inde hominum pecudumque genus vitaeque 

£t quae marmoreo fert monstra sub aequore 

Igneu.M est ollis vigor et caelestis origo 
Seminibus, quantum non corpora noxia tardant 
Terrenique hebetant artus moribundaque 

Hinc metuunt cupiuntque, dolent gaudentque, 

neque auras 
Dispiciunt clausae tenebris et carcere caeco. 
Quin et supremo cum lumine vita reliquit, 
Non tamen omne malum miseris nee funditus 

Corporeae excedunt pestes, penitusque necesse 

Multa diu concreta modis inolescere miris. 

{h) Qoandociunqne igitur nostroe mors claudet 
Accipe quae serves funeris acta mei. 
Nee mea tunc longa spatietur imagine pom pa. 

Nee tuba sit fati vana querella mei, 
Nee mihi tunc fulcro sternatur lectus eburno, 
Nee sit in Attalico mors mea nixa toro. 

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Desit odorifei'iB ordo mihi lancibnS; ftdsint 

Plebei parvue :foneri8 exeqniae. 
Sat mea sat magnast^ si tree sint pompa iibelli, 

Qaos eg^ Persephonae maxima dona feram. 
Ta vero nudum pectus laeerata Bequeris, 

Nee fueris nomen lassa voeare meum, 
Osculaque in gelidis pones suprema labellis^ 

Cum dabitur Sjrio munere plenus onyx. 
Deinde, ubi suppositus cinerem me fecerit 
ardor, * 

Accipiat Manes parvula testa meos, 
£t sit in exiguo laurus super addita busto, 

Quae tegat extinct! funeris umbra locum, 
Et duo sint versus, * qui nunc iacet horrida 

Vnius hie quondam servus amoris erat.* 

(c) Ula vero deridenda arrogantia est, in minoribus 
navigiis rudem esse se confiteri, quinqueremes, 
Aot etiam maiores, gubernare didicisse. Tu mihi, 
cum in circulo decipiare adversarii stipulatiun- 
cula, et cum obsignes tabellas clientis tui, quibus 
in tabellis id sit scriptum quo ille capiatur, ego 
tibi ullam causam maiorem committendam 
putem ? Citiushercule is qui duorum scalmorum 
naviculam in portu everterit in Euxino ponto 
Argonautarum navem gubernarit. Quid ? si ne 
parvae quidem causae sunt, sed saepe maximae, 
in quibus certatur de iure civili, quod tandem os 
est illius patrpni qui ad eas causas sine ulla 
scientia iuids audet accedere ? Quae potuit igitur 
esse causa maior quam illius militis, de cuius 
morte cum domum falsus ab exercitu nuntius 
venisset, et pater eius, re credita, testamentum 
mutasset, et quem ei visum esset fecisset heredem, 
essetque ipse mortuus ? Res delata est ad 

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ceDtumviroSy cum miles domum revenisset, egis- 
setque lege in hereditatem patemam. Nempe in 
ea causa quaesitum est de iure civili, possetne 
paternorum bonorum exheres esse filius, quern 
pater testamento neque beredem neque exbere- 
dem scripsisset nominatim. 

(d) Nox per di versa inquies, cum barbari festis 
epulis, laeto cantu aut truci sonore subiecta val- 
lium ac resultantis saltus complerent, apud 
Romanes invalidi ignes, interruptae voces, atque 
ipsi passim adiacerent vallo, oberrarent tentoriis, 
insomnes magis quam pervigiles. ducemque 
terruit dira quies : nam Quintilium Yarum san- 
guine oblitum et paludibus emersum cernere et 
audire visus est velut vocantem, non tamen 
obsecutus et manum iutendentis reppulisse. 
coepta luce missae in latera legiones, metu an 
contumacia, locum deseruere, capto propere 
campo umentia ultra, neque tamen Arminius 
quamquam libero incursu statim prorupit : sed 
ut haesere caeno fossisque impedimenta, turbati 
circum milites, incertus signorum ordo, utque 
tali in tempore sibi quisque properus et lentae 
adversum imperia aures, inrumpere Germanos 
iubet, clamitans 'en Varus eodemque iterum 
fato vinctae legiones ! ' simul haec et cum 
delectis scindit agmen equisque maxime vulnera 
ingerit. illi sanguine suo et lubrico paludum 
lapsantes excussis rectoribus disicere obvios, pro- 
terere iacentes. plurimus circa aquilas labor, 
quae neque ferri adversum ingruentia tela neque 
ngi limosa humo poterant. 

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The Board of Examiners 

1. Translate into Greek Iambics — 

A league from Epidamnum bad we sail'd, 

Before tbe always wind-obeying deep 

Gave any tragic instance of our barm : 

But longer did we not retain mucb bope ; 

For wbat obscured ligbt tbe beavens did grant 

Did but convey unto our fearful minds 

A doubtful warrant of immediate deatb ; 

Whicb tbougb myself would gladly bave embraced. 

Yet tbe incessant weepings of my wife, 

Weeping before for what sbe saw must come, 

And piteous plainings of tbe pretty babes — 

That mourned for fashion, ignorant what to fear — 

Forced me to seek delays for them and me. 

2. Translate into Greek Prose — 

The king assembled both a great fleet and a 
great army ; and, entering tbe frontiers of Scot- 
land, appeared with a force which the enemy 
could not think of resisting in the open field. 
The English navy, which sailed along the coast, 
secured the army from any danger of famine ; 
Edward's vigilance preserved it from surprises ; 
and by this prudent disposition they marched 
from one end of the kingdom to the other, 
ravaging the open country, reducing all tbe 
castles, and receiving the submissions of all tbe 
nobility, even those of the regent. Wallace, 
though be bung upon the English army in their 
march, found but few opportunities of signalizing 

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that valour which had formerlj made him so 
terrible to his enemies. At last that hardy 
warrior, who was determined, amidst the universal 
slavery of his countiymen, still to maintain his 
independence, was betrayed into Edward's 
hands by Sir John Monteith, his friend, whom 
be had acquainted with the place of his conceal- 

The Board of Examiners 

1. Translate into Latin Ele^acs — 

She was a lady g-reat and splendid, 

I was a minstrel in her halls. 
A warrior like a prince attended 

Stayed his steed by the castle walls. 

Far had he fared to gaze upon her. 

" rest thee now, Sir Knig-ht," she said. 
Thfi warrior wooed, the warrior won her, 

In time of snowdrops they were wed. 
I made sweet music in his honour, 

And longed to strike him dead. 

2. Translate into Latin Prose — 

Young Edward received the captive king with 
all the marks of regard and sympathy ; adminis- 
tered comfort to him amidst his misfortunes ; 
paid him the tribute of praise due to his valour ; 
and ascribed his own victory merely to the 

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blind chance of war, or to a superior providence 
which controls all the efPorts of human force 
and prudence. The behaviour of John showed 
him not unworthy of this courteous treatment ; 
his present abject fortune never made him forget 
a moment that he was a king. More touched 
by Edward's generosity than by bis own 
calamities, he confessed that, notwithstanding 
his defeat and captivity, his honour was still 
unimpaired ; and that, if he yielded the victory, 
it was at least gained by a prince of consum- 
mate valour and humanity. Edward ordered 
a repast to be prepared in his tent for the 
prisoner, and he himself served at the royal 
captive's table, as if he had been one of his 
retinue. He stood at the king's back daring 
the meal, constantly refused to take a place at 
table, and declared that, being a sul^ect, he was 
too well acquainted with the distance between 
his own rank and that of his majesty to assume 
such a freedom. 

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Tlis Board of Bxannners. 

1. Translate into Greek Iambics — 

A league from Epidamnum bad we sail'd 
Before the always wind-obeying deep 
Gave any tragic instance of our barm : 
But longer did we not retain mucb hope ; 
For what obscured light the heavens did grant 
Did but convey unto our fearful minds 
A doubtful warrant of immediate death ; 
Which though myself would gladly have embraced, 
Yet the incessant weepings of my wife, 
Weeping before for what she saw must come, 
And piteous plainings of the pretty babes — 
That mourned for fashion, ignorant what to fear — 
Forced me to seek delays for them and me. 

2. Translate into Greek prose — 

The Lacedsemonians, we hear, have occupied 
not only all Attica, but are about to enter, if 
they have not entered already, the territory of 
their confederates the Thebans, and to join their 
forces. Whither will you go, my Aspasia ? 
Thessaly is almost as perilous as Boeotia. It is 
worse than criminal to be so nearly allied to 
the greatest man on earth, who must always 
have the greatest enemies. There are more who 
will forgive injury than there are who will 
forgive station : and those who assail in vain the 

Sower of Pericles, will exert their abilities in 
iminishing his equanimity and happiness. I 
fear your fondness will have induced you again 
to enter the city, that you may assuage and 

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divide those cares which must wei^i^h heavily on 
bis wisdom and patriotism ; and the more, 
siDce his health has been undermined by the 
pestilence. I dare not advise you to forego a 
duty : but remember he has commanded you to 
remain away. Your return would afflict him. 
I am quite incapable of judging for you. Were 
I with you, then perhaps I might know many 
things which should influence your decision. 

The Board of Examitiers, 

1. Translate into Latin Elegiacs — 

She was a lady great and splendid, 
I was a minstrel in her halls. 

A warrior like a prince attended 
Stayed his steed by the castle walls. 

Far had he fared to gaze upon her. 

'^ rest thee now, Sir Knight " she said. 
The warrior wooed, the warrior won. her, 

In time of snowdrops they were wed. 
I made sweet music in his honour. 

And longed to strike him dead. 

2. Translate into Latin Prose — 

Pericles, I was much edified by your letter y 
but, pardon me, when I came to the close of it 
I thought you rather mad. 

" What V' said I, " beard this panther ! " 


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However, when I had considered a little more 
and a little better on it, I went to him and 
delivered jour love. He stared at me, and then 
desired to see the dii^ection. '^ Ay/' said he, 
'^ I ren[ieinber the handwriting. He often er 
writes to me than I to him. I suppose he has 
less to do and less to think of.'^ 

The few other words he added are hardly 
worth the trouble of repetition : in fact, they 
were not very filial. Dear Pericles ! I would 
love hira, were it only out of perversity. But, 
beside all other rig'hts over me, you have made 
me more disposed than ever to obey you, in 
making me more contented with myself, as you 
have by this commission. I may do something 
yet, if we can but fumigate or pray away the 
plague. Of two thousand four hundred soldiers, 
who landed but forty days before me from the 
Bosphorus, under the command of Agnon, son 
of Nikias, one thousand and fifty are already dead. 
I shall have nobody to persuade or manage, or 
even to fight with, if we go on so. 

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HONOUR fiXAMINiiTION NOV., 1906. 5^27 

GERMAN.— Part T. 
Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners 

1. Translate, with brief mar^nal notes where neces- 

(a) Gleich einer schwarzen Mauer ragte der Wald 
vor ihm empor, und der Mondenglanz ruhte 
darauf wie frisch gefallener Schnee. Er fand 
den Platz, an dem vor Jahren die Hangematte 
gehangen^in gespenstigem Dammerschein schim- 
merte die Lichtung durch das schwarze Gezweig. 
Weiter und weiter zog's ihn. Wie ein Palast 
aus flimmerndem Marmor stieg das ** weisze 
Haus " mit seinem Erker und seinen Giebeln vor 
seinem Blicke empor. TieFes Schweigen lag auf 
dem Gutshof, nur hin und wieder schlug ein 
Hund an, um soibrt zu verstummen. 

Er stand vor dem Gittertor, ohne zu wissen, 
wie er hingekommen. Er faszte die Stabe mit 
beiden Handen und guckte ins Innere. In 
Mondenglanz gebadet lag der weite Hofplatz vor 
ihm da ; in schwarzen Konturen hoben sich die 
Wirtschaftswagen ab, die in Reih und Glied vor 
den 3tallen standen ; eine w^eisze Katze schlich 
am Gartenzaun vorbei ; sonst lag alles im Schlaf. 

Langs dem Zaune ging er weiter. In dem 
Aschenhaufen hinter der Schmiede lag 'ein 
Hauflein glimmender Kohlen, die wie brennende 
Augen aus dem Dunkel guckten. Jetzt begann 
der Garten. Hochstammige Linden neigten 
ihre Zweige iiber ihn, und ein Duft von Gold- 
regen und firiihen Rosen wogte durch die Gitter- 
stabe betaubend iiber ihn her. Durch das 

Q 2 

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Gezweig bindurch erglanzten wie silberne Biinder 
die kiesbestreuten Pfade, und die Sonneniihr, 
welcbe der Traum seiner Kindheit gewesen, 
ragte diister dahinter empor. 
(b) Mit unbeimlicberEIarbeit stand die wildeBrand- 
nacbt vor seinen Augen, und inmitten der Anp^st, 
vor fremden Menscben zu stebn und zu sprecben, 
iiberkam es ibn wie ein GefUbl des Gliicks, wenn 
er dessen gedacbte, wie er in Qualm und 
Flammen bocb anf dem steileii Dacbe gestandem, 
bandeind und berrscbend als der einzige, dem 
alle geborcbten, der einzige, der inmitten der 
Wirrnis bei klarem Kopf geblieben. ** Viel- 
leicbt kann icb docb meinen Mann stebn, wenn's 
darauf ankommt !*' sagte er sicb trostend, aber 
um so tiefisr versank er darauf im Anschaun 
seiner trtibseligen, gedriickten, kraft und saft- 
losen Existenz. ^' Es wird nie anders, es kann 
nur scblimmer werden von Jabr zu Jabr" sagte 
er, da borte er hinter sicb die Mutter seufeen, 
und was er soebeii gedacbt, erscbien ibm als 
scbnode, berzlose, Selbstsucbt. 

Im nacbsten Aup:enblicke stand er in dem 
boben, menscbengeliillten Roume vor einem 
erbobten Tiscbe, an welcbem etlicbe Manner mit 
strengen ernsten Gesichtern saszen ; nur einer, 
der ein wenig abseits Platz genommen batte, 
lacbelte immer. Das war der Staatsanwalt, vor 
dem alle Welt sicb fiircbtete. Auf der rechten 
Seite des Saales sasz gleicbfalls auf erbobten 
Platzen ein Hauflein wiirdiger Biirger, die 
sebr gelangweilt dreinscbauten und sicb mit 
Federmessern, Papierscbnitzeln u.s.w. die Zeit 
zu vertreiben sucbten. Das waren die 
Gescbworenen. Auf der linken Seite sasz in 
einer ver&cblossenen Bank der Angeklagte. 

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*2. Translate, locate, and comment upon the following* 
passages : — 

(a) Ich freue mich, wenn kluge Mftnner sprechen, 
Dass ich verstehen kann, wie sie es meinen. 

Es sei ein Urteil liber einen Mann 
Der alten Zeit und seiner Taten Wert ; 
Es sei von einer Wissenschaf't die Rede, 
Die, durch Erfahrung weiter ausgebreitet, 
Dem Menschen nutzt, indem sie ihn erhebt ; 
Wohin sich das Gesprach der Edlen lenkt, 
Ich folge gem, denn mir wird leicht zu tbigen. 
Ich h6re gem dem Streit der Khig-en zu, 
Wenn um die Kriifte, die dea Menschen Bmst 
So freundlich und so furchterlicli bewegen, 
Mit Grazie die Rednerlippe spielt; 
Gem, wenn die flirstliche Beirier des Ruhms, 
Des ausgebreiteten Besitzes Stoff 
Dem Denker wird, und wenn die feine Klugheit, 
Von einem klugen Manne zart entwickelt, 
Statt uns zu hintergehen, uns belehrt. 

(b) glaube mir, ein selbstisches Gemiit 

Kann nicht der Qual des engen NeidR entfliehen. 
Ein solcher Mann verzeiht dem andern wohl 
Vermogen, Stand und Ehre ; denn er denkt, 
Das hast du selbst, das hast du, wenn du willst, 
Wenn du beharrst, wenn dich das Gliick 

Doch das, was die Natur allein verleiht. 
Was jeglicher Bemilhung, jedem Streben 
Stets unerreichbar bleibt, was weder Gold, 
Noch Schwert, noch Klugheit, noch Beharr- 

Erzwingen kann, das wird er nie verzeihn. 

(c) Die wahre Preundschaft zeigt sich in Versagen 
Zur rechten Zeit, und es gewahrt die Liebe 

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Gar oft ein schgdlich Gut, wenn sie den Willen 
Des Fordernden mehr als sein Gluck bedenkt. 
Da scheinest mir in diesem Augenblick 
Fur gut zu halten, was du eifrig wunschest, 
Und willst im Augenblick, was du begehrst. 
Durch Heftigkeit ersetzt der Irrende. 
Was ihm an Wahrheit und an Kriiften fehlt. 

(d) Zeigen Sie, auf Deutsch, in wie wait die 
Verhaltnisse, Personen und das Problem von 
Goethe's " Tasso " denen entsprechen, die Goethe 
am Hofe zu Weimar fand. 

3. Give a survey of Lessing's work as the greatest 
German representative of the ** Aufklarung/' 
with a more detailed reference to his *'Laokoon' 
and the " Hamburgische Dramaturgie." 

GERiMAN.-Part I. 

Third Paper. 
The Board of Examiners. 

1. Translate, locate, and annotate — 
{a) Breiter wallet nun der Strom 
Mit vermehrten Wellen. 
Leben jetzt im hohen Ton 
Redliche Gesellen, 
Die sich mit gedrangter Kraft 
Brav zusammenstellen 
In des Gliickes Sonnenschein 
Und in schlimmen Fallen. 

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Wie wir nun zusammen sind, 

Sind zusammen Viele. 

Wohl gelingen denn^ wie uns, 

Andern ihre Spiele ! 

Von der Quelle bis an's Meer 

Mahlet manche Miible, 

Und das Wohl der g-anzen Welt 

Ist's, worauf ich ziele. 

{b) Jeder Jungiing' sebnt sich so zu lieben, 
Jedes Madcben so geliebt zu sein ; 
Ach, der beiligste von unsern Trieben, 
Warum quill t aus ihm die griname Pein ? 
Du beweinst, du liebst ihn, iiebe Seele, 
Rettest sein Gedacbtnis von der Schmacb ; 
Sieh, dir winkt «ein Geist aus seiner Hohle : 
Sei ein Mann und folge mir nicht nacb. 

(r) Gescbiebt wobl, dasz man einen Tag 
Weder aicb nocb Andre leiden mag, 
Will Nichts dir nacb dem Herzen ein ; 
Sollt's in der Kunst wobl anders sein ? 
Drum betze dicb nicbt zur schlimmen Zeit, 
Denn FiilP und Kraft sind nimmer weit : 
Hast in der bosen Stund' gerubt,, 
Ist dir die gute doppelt gut. 

2. Translate and explain tbe biographical allusions in 
the following lines : — 
Klein ist unter den Fiirsten Germaniens freilicb 
der meine ; 
Kurz und schmal ist sein Land ; maszig nur, 
was er vermag. 
Aber so wende nacb innen, so wende nacb 
auszen die Krafte 
Jeder; da war's ein Fest, Deutscber mit 
Deutscben zu sein. 

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Doch was priesest du ihn, den Taten und 
Werke verkiinden ? 
Und bestochen erscbien deine Verehrung 
vielleicht ; 
Denn mir bat er gegeben^ was Grosze selten 
Neigung, Musze, Vertraun, Pelder und 
Garten und Haus. 
Niemals frug ein Kaiser nacb mir, es bat sicb 
kein Konig 
Um micb bekiimmert, und Er war mir 
August und Macen. 

3. Tanslate and explain — 

^< Icb kenne dicb, icb kenne deine Scbwacben^ 
Icb weisz, was Gutes in dir iebt und glimmt ! " 
So sagte sie, ich bor* sie ewig sprechen, 

" Empfange bier, was icb dir lang bestimmt ! 
Dem Gliickh'cben kann es an nicbts gebrechen, 
Der dies Gescbenk mit stiller Seeie nimmt ; 
Aus Morgenduft gewebt und Sonnenklarbeit, 
Der Dicbtung Scbleier aus der Hand der 

4. Give a concise account of the friendsbip between 

GoBtbe and Scbiller, sbowing its importance for 
tbeir personal development and tbeir literary 


1. Translate and locate, witb sbort notes in explana- 
tion wbere necessary — 
(a) Sind wir denn webrlos ? Wozu lernten wir 
Die Armbrust spannen und die scbwere Wucbt 
Der Streitaxt scbwingen ? Jedem Wesen ward 
Ein Notgewebr in der Verzweiflungsangst. 

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Es stellt sich der erschopfte Ilirsch und zeit^t 
Der Meute sein gefiirchtetes Geweih ; 
Die Gemse reiszt den Jager in den Abg-rund; 
Der Pflugstier selbst, der sanfte Hausgenosz 
Des Menschen, der die ungeheure Kraft 
Des Halses duldsam nnters Joch gebogen, 
Springt auf, gereizt, wetzt sein gewaltig Horn, 
TJnd schleudert seinen Feind den Wolken zu. 
(b) Wir wollen nicht frohlocken seines Falls, 
Nicht des empfangnen Bosen jetzt gedenken, 
Fern sei's von uns! Doch dasz wir rachen 

Des Konigs Tod, der uns nie Gates tat, 
Und die verfolgen, die uns nie betrubten, 
Das ziemt uns nicht und will uns nicht 

Die Liebe will sin freies Opfer sein ; 
Der Tod entbindet von erzwungnen Pflichten, 
Ihm haben wir nichts weiter zu entrichten. 

2. Schreiben Sie eine kurze Kritik von '* Wilhelm 
Tell," seinen Vorzuge und Schwachen, besonders 
insofern diese fiir Schillers Tatigkeit als drama- 
tischer Dichter allgemein charakteristisch sind. 


1. What is the difference between a ** voiced con- 
sonant" and a vowel articulated in the same 
place, e,ff,, the first two sounds in E. ** wound," 
and ^' year " respectively ? 

2. Show the difference in the pronunciation of — E. 
"fail," G. "fehl"; E. *' so," G. ^*so"; E. 
"many," G. "Mahne"; E. **room," G. "Ruhm." 

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3. Give the rules on the pronunciation of the letters 

^* ch " in ordinary German spelling, as exem- 
plified by the words — Rauch, doch, Dichter, 
solch, welch, mochte, Sacbsen, Chor, China, 

4. Transcribe the lines ^iven above in Question No. I. 

(3) in phonetic characters. 

Second Paper. 

Professor Elkington. 

1. Discuss the original powers of the Consulate, th( ir 

limitations, and their gradual devolution upon 
other magistrates. When was the Consulate 
abolished ? 

2. Mommsen says that the whole legislation of Gaius 

Gracchus was pervaded by conflicting aims. 
Discuss this statement. 

3. Discuss the question of the participation of Caesar 

and Crassus in the affair of Catiline. 

4. By what arguments could Cassar defend his action 

in the Civil War ? 

5. Give the history of the reign of Septimius 


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6. Trace briefly the history of the Caroling^ans to the 

coronation of Charlemag'ne. 

7. Consider briefly Solon as a legislator. 

8. Write an account of the Sophists. 

9. Comment upon the following' citations from Pro- 

fessor Dill's *^ Roman Society " : — 

(a) " There were many causes which rendered 
the tragedy of the Early Empire inevitable.*' — 
p. 41. 

(b) " Juvenal and Tacitus have 

much in common." — p. 68 

(c) "The Circle of the younger Pliny." — 
p. 142. 

(d) " These colleges became homes for the 
homeless, a little fatherland, or patria, for those 
without a country." — p. 271. 

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Part I. 

Second Paper. 

Professor Elkington, 

Write a short ESSAY on eaoh of the following sabjeets. 

1. The double character of the English Constitution. 

2. The specially constitutional work of Henry the 


3. The entry of Scotland into the history of Europe. 

4. The dissolution of the first Parliament of James 

the First. 

5. When and why the Court of Star Chamber became 


6. The character and political opinions of Lord Bacon. 

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First Paper. 

The Board of Exa7n%iier»» 

1. Enunciate and prove Sturm's theorem. 

If any one of the auxiliary functions has im- 
aginary roots, show that the original equation 
has at least an equal number of imaginary roots. 

2. Prove that any rational fraction can] be expressed 

as a sum of partial fractions. 

Express {x — a)"* (a? — V)~^ as a sum of 
partial fractions. 

3. State and prove the exponential theorem. 

Sum to infinity the series whose general term 

iii ■ 

4. State and prove the rule for forming convergents 

to a continued fraction. 

Find the value of 

12 3 

Ti:2"+3T "•• 

6. If a?,y are positive, show that (ixf -^y^)l(x^ —y^) 
lies between ? x^""^ and ?yP-«. 

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If «!, ^2, . . a„ are positive quantities in arith- 
metical progression with common difference dy 
shew that 

lies between 

"n ^n 1 "n-l- 1 "1 


(r 4- 1) ^ (r + 1) flf • 

6. State and prove the rule for the multiplication oi' 

Shew that 

ihc) (zbc) 

= {abcy{3P^), 

{xhe) (yhc) (zbc) 
{axe) {aye) {aze) 
{abx) (aby) {abz) 

7. Shew that the general rational integral equation 

of tii« n*^ order with complex co-efficients has w 

Give a geometrical representation of the n n"' 
roots of a given complex quantity. 

8. Expand sin /i0 cosec 0, and cos nQ^ ia descending: 

powers of cos 6, n being a positive integer. 

Shew that the sum of n terms of the series 
whose r*'* term is 

sm (a-f-^-) 

does not depend on a if m is a positive integer 
less than n. 

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HONOUR BXAMlSATlOVj NOV., 1006. 239 

9. Define cos Xy sin x whpn x is complex* and prove 
the addition formula for these iknctions. 

If sin ~'\x + iy) = tan "'(« + i*;), express 
u^ + v^ in terms of a?,y. 

10. Resolve cos into factors. 
Shew bow to sum 

-L I _L 

when n is even. 


Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1 . Prove that the joins of any point with the three 
pairs of opposite vertices of a quadrilateral are 
in involution. 

Hence find a condition for the collinearity 
of three points, one on each side of a giver 
triangle, and deduce the theorem of Menelar" 

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2. If a = 0, /3 =; 0, a '=z 0, /3' = are the equations 

of four straight lines in the standard form, show 
that the equation of the circle which has afi, a'/3' 
as the extremities of a diameter is 
cos aa cos a/3' a 

cos i3a cos /5/3' /3 =0. 

Hence shew that the circles described on the 
diagonals of a complete quadrilateral as diameters 
have a common radical axis. 

3. Shew that four normals can be drawn from an 

arbitrary point to an ellipse. 

If the normals at three points P, Q, R of an 
ellipse meet on the curve, shew that the centre of 
the circle PQR lies on a coaxal ellipse. 

4. Find the equation of a hyperbola referred to 

its asymptotes as axes. 

Prove that the chords joining a variable point 
on the curve to two fixed points on the curve 
intercept a fixed length on each asymptote. 

5. If f{x), f'{x), f^(jc) are continuous, and x lies 

between o and A, prove that 

' /(a + X) --/{a) = I {f(a + h) -/(a)}, 

-{.^x{x^h)rXa + eh), 
where 6 is a positive proper fraction. 

Discuss the principle of proportional parts in 
the case of the logarithmic tangent. 

6. Shew how to find the turning values of a function 

of one variable. 
Find those of 

fl« + l Jn + l 

{x — ^0" (a? — by 

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7. State and prove the rule for finding the Jacobian 

of functions of functions. 
If the roots of 

a^ — p'x^ 4- ^' a? — r' = 0, 
are the squares of the roots of 

x^ — pix^ + ^a? — rir 0, 
shew that the Jacobian of p\ q\ r', with respect 
to ;?, q^ r is 8r {pq — r). 

8. Shew how, by an algebraic substitution, to ration- 



where y^ = ax^ + ^hx + h, and F denotes a 
rational algebraic function of ar, y. 
Prove that 

J y s/ a \ s/a x — x J 

where x', y^ are particular simultaneous values 

9. Shew how from a known indefinite integral to 
deduce others by differentiation. 

If Wi, «2, .... tt«, V are n + 1 quadratic func- 
tions of a?, shew that the value of 

is algebraic provided v is harmonically related to 
one of the u^t, 

10. Define a definite integral as the limit of a sum^ 
and shew how to find the limit. 

Find / x^ dx from the definition for all 
values of n. 

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First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Find the equation of the polar line of a given 

point with respect to a conic whose polar equation 
referred to the focus as pole is given. 

Three conies C, F, TF have a common focus 
and touch in pairs at the points P, Q, M, Shew 
that the tangents at P, Q, R meet the corre- 
sponding directrices of U, V, W in collinear 

2. Find the angle between the tangents drawn from 

an arbitrary point to the general conic referred 
to any rectangular axes. 

Hence obtain the equation of the director 

3. Find the general equation of a conic having 

donble contact with two given conies. 

If two tangents to an ellipse cut the auxiliary 
circle in F, F ; Z, Z; then YZ', Y'Z intersect 
on the major axis. 

4. Shew how to find the foci of the conic represented 

by the general equation. 

Find the locus of the focus of a parabola 
which has a given triangle ABC for a self 
conjugate triangle. 

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6. Find the envelop of a line cut harmonically by 
two given conies. 

Shew that the tangents to two conies at their 
four points of intersection touch a third conic. 

6. Knd the magnitude and direction of the shortest 

distance between two straight lines. 

A straight line moves so as to be at given 
distances from the rectangular axes. Find the 
equation of the surface traced out by it. 

7. Prove that six normals can be drawn from a given 

point to a central conicoid, and that they lie on 
a cone of the second order. 

If the given point is on the conicoid, every 
generator of the cone cuts the conicoid again in 
a point the normal at which intersects the normal 
at the given point. 

8. Find the principal planes of a given central 


Shew that the common conjugate diametral 
planes of two concentric conicoids are given by 
the Jacobian of the two conicoids and the recip- 
rocal of either with respect to the other. 

9. Shew that the hyperboloid of one sheet has on it 

two systems of generating lines, and that the 
generating lines do or do not intersect as they 
do not or do belong to the same system. 

Two generators of the same system passing 
through the ends of any diameter of the principal 
elliptic section cut a third sr^iierator in P, P'. 
Shew that the product of the distances of P, P' 
from the plane of the principal elliptic section is 

u 2 

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10. Find the conditions that a conicoid may be a 
surface of revolution. 

If such a surface pass through two given non- 
intersecting straight lines, shew that its centre 
lies on one of two straight lines intersecting at 
right angles^ and that referred to these lines as 
axes of 07, y and their common perpendicular as 
axis of 2, the equation of the locus of the axis of 
revolution is xy sin a =: dz^ where a is the 
inclination and d the distance between the two 
given lines. 


Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Investigate formulae for the change of two 
independent variables. 

If Uj V are functions of a?, y^ and 

U V 1 

uu -^-bv-^-c a'u+ b'v + c' a"u + b"v + c* 
prove that — 

Mxx for — Itx V^x 2 (M, V) 

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2. Shew how to eliminate n arbitrary functions of 

a g^ven function of the yariaoles from an 
equation in three variables. 

Eliminate the n functions from 

3. Shew how to find the maximum and minimum 

values of a function of n variables which are 
connected by m equations. 
Find the minimum value of 

a?i^ + a:,3 + .... + xj^ 
where Xi, a?^, . . a?„, are connected by m equa- 
tions of the form 

4. Shew that a curve of order n cannot have more 

than ^ (n ~ 1) (r^ — 2) double points and that 
the homogeneous co-ordinates of any point on 
a curve with this maximum number of double 
points are proportional to rational integ-ral func- 
tions of order n of a parameter. 

5. Expand the co-ordinates of a point on a curve in 

powers of the arc of the curve. 

If the tangents at the ends of a small arc PQ 
meet in T^ compare the excess of TP and TQ 
over the arc PQ with their excess over the chord 

6. Show how to find the envelop of a curve whose 

equation contains two parameters connected by a 
given equatix)n. 

Show how to determine the envelop of a 
line drawn through any point of a given curve 
SO as to make a given angle with the tangent 

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7. Trace the curves 

.r + 6 

tan 0: 

r — « 

8. Show how to chanofe the variables in a double 


Effect the change when the relations between 
the variables are 

a sin 6 cos ___ ft sin sin __ c cos d 
sin X cos t/ sin ^ sin ^ cos x * 

and hence find the volume of an ellipsoid. 

9. If 0? is a positive constant, shew that 


e ^ 

Trace the surface 

sin x% cos y6 


10. Define the Beta and Gamma functions and prove 
the formula connecting them. 

Find the value of 

/ / . . . . a:^~y"~*3"~^ .... dxdy dz., .. 

where the limits are such that x, y, z^ . . • • have 
all positive values for which a; + y -f 2 + . . . . 
does not exceed unity. 

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Sbcond Paper. 
I'he Board of Examxners. 

1. A circular cylinder of radius a torns in F-shaped 

bearings of angle 2a, the angle of friction being 
\. The cylinder carries two concentric drums of 
radii r, jB (> r), and a weight carried by a rope 
coiling on the smaller drum is raised by pulling 
a vertical rope uncoiling from the larger. Shew 
that the mechanictfl efficiency is 

1 — a sin 2\/2 R sin a 
1 4- a sin 2\/'Jr sin a 

2. State and prove the principle of virtual work in 

as general a form as possible. 

A, By C, in a vertical plane, are three moving 
points of a frictionless mechanism (a form of 
tongs) and AB, AC are always equal. When 
the distance between A and BC increases by 
X BC decreases by xjk, A heavy block is 
seized between B and £7, which bear on two 
vertical surfaces on it, the co-efficient of friction 
being /x. Shew that if the tongs are raised by a 
vertical pull on J., the block will not slip pro- 
vided /i > 1/2^. 

3. Investigate the curvature of the path of a point 

of a moving lamina, the centrodes of the motion 
being given. When the centrodes are not given, 
give a geometrical construction for the centre of 
curvature of the path of a point when those of 
wo points are given. 

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Three light bars AB, BC, CD are smoothly 
jo\nted together at B. (7, and AB^ CD are 
jointed to fixed points at A^ D, the whole being 
in a vertical plane, and A vertically over D. 
The bar BC is prolonged downwards beyond C 
to E, and the frame is in equilibrium with a 
weight W carried at E. Find the position of 
E for a given position of the frame, determine 
the stresses in AB, CDj and examine the 

4. Investigate necessary and sufficient conditions of 
equilibrium of a three-dimensional system of 
forces on a rigid body. 

A uniform triangular plate of sides a, 5, e is 
at rest in a smooth spherical bowl of radius r 
with its angles on the bowl. Shew that the in- 
clination of the plate to the horizontal is given 


cos d = ?— , 

-4 V (9r» - a^ ^ 63 - ^«) ' 

where V is the volume of the tetrahedron whose 
corners are the centre of the bowl and the angles 
of the plate, and A is the area of the plate. 

5. A rough circular cylinder of radius a fits easily in 
two fixed horizontal rings whose centres are in 
the same vertical and at a distance h apart. A 
horizontal arm at the top of the cylinder is 
loaded so that the whole weight W acts at 
distance h from the axis. Find the least 
value II of the co-efficient of friction for equili- 

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a where sin 


A couple P is applied around the axis so as 
to move the cylinder slowly. Shew that it 
descends with a screw motion of angular pitch 

6. Prove Maxwell's theorem for the relation between 
the quantities of material in tension and com- 
pression in a frame uniformly stressed and carry- 
ing given loads at given points. 

Al light semicircular frame^ carrying a given 
load at a point 0, bisecting the horizontal line 
of supports AB, consists of a large number of 
equal radial struts OA, OAi, .... OA^, 
OB, equally spaced in a vertical plane and con- 
nected by ties AA^ Ai A^ * . . A^ B, 
The frame hangs suspended from Aj B. Find 
the stresses in the frame. 

The members being stressed to the working 
limit^ shew that the quantity of material in ten- 
sion between two close radii through is as 
small as possible for any frame lying entirely 
below AB and carrying the same load. Hence 
shew that the frame is one of minimum material 
subject to the condition mentioned. 

7. Shew that the centre of mass of a homogeneous 
solid formed of two pyramids on opposite sides of 
a plane quadrilateral base is that of eight equal 
particles, six of positive mass at the corners of 
the solid, one of negative mass at the intersec- 
section of the diagonals of the base^ and a similar 
one at the intersection of the join of the vertices 
of the pyramids with the base. 

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8. A horizontal plate makes rectilinear simple 

harmoniG oscillations of period T and amplitude 
a in its own plane. A mass m rests on the plate, 
the co-efficient of friction being ^. The initial 
velocity of mass and plate being given^ shew how 
to construct the velocity-time graph of the mass. 
Investigate the possible types of periodic motion 
of the mass, and find the values of /x separating 

9. Two masses m, M slide on a smooth horizontal 

bar. A massless helical spring, which gives a 
thrust T at unit compression, is interposed 
between the masses. The masses have velocities 
Vj V towards one another before the spring comes 
into action. Find their velocities after that 
action ceases, and the time it lasts. 

If there are three masses each equal to m on 
the bar, with two springs of equal stiffness inter- 
posed between them, and if one of the outer 
masses moves with velocity v towards the two 
others, which are initially at rest, and at the 
length of the interposed spring apart, find which 
spring first recovers its natural length, and the 
velocities of the masses at the time. 

10. Demonstrate the energy condition of stability, and 
shew how to assign limits to the range of motion 
of a stable system when the energy of the initial 
disturbance is given. 

A rectangular vessel is free to turn on a 
horizontal axis which is normal to two sides, at 
equal distances a from the two others, and at 
distance h from the base. The cm. of the 
vessel is at distance c below the axis. Shew 

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that the greatest depth of liquid which can be 
poured into the vessel without rendering the 
upright position unstable is 

where I is the depth of liquid whose weight is 
that of the vessel. 



27^ Bocurd of ExamvMrB. 

1. Investigate the vector equations of equilibrium of a 

rigid body under any forces, and deduce the 
Cartesian equations. 

A body is maintained in equilibrium under a 
given system of forces, such as F at p, by three 
reactions, R^y jBg, ^3, at A (f)i), B (ps), C (p,). 
Each reaction is resolved into three components, 
one normal to the plane ABCj the others along 
the sides of ABC which pass through the 
point of application. Find expressions for the 
normal components and for the differences of 
the pairs of components along the sides of 

2. Investigate general equations of equilibrium for 

a perfectly flexible string. 

A rope is suspended from two points at the 
same level, and the cross-section is the same at 
the same distance from the two ends. Shew 

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that any reduction of section (subject to this 
condition) decreases the tension at every point 
of the rope. Hence or otherwise, shew that the 
maximum span for a given length of rope and 
a given strength of material is that of the 
catenary of equal strength. 

3. A frictionless statical system consists of a linear 
series of pieces, the position of the nth piece 
being determined by the points {x^y yj, (-^t-Vi* 
y»+i), and its potential energy being w„ (.r,,, y„, 
^n+i, ^n+i), with the relation w„ {a;„, t/^, a?«+„ 
^n+i) = 0' Shew that in a position of equili- 

s— + A„_i — -h An ^ U 

where y„ may be substituted for x^ and the V* 
are undetermined multipliers. 

Hence, or otherwise, shew that if the potential 
energy of a continuous linear system is 

I W (^V y> ^''y }/) dz, 


x = dx\dz y' = dyjdzy 

with the relation u (x, y, x\ y') zz 0, the dif- 
ferential equations of equilibrium are 

^7v d Irv . .lu d ^lu __ r. 

r— ~" r "i: - , "T" A ^^ "~ "T" A — — — U 

cx dz Ix OX dz cx 

with the corresponding equation in y. 
Apply this to a heavy elastic cord. 

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4. Prove the differential equation — 

for the deflection of a naturally straight beam 
nnder transverse load. 

Shew that for a uniform beam, if Jfj, Jf„ M^ 
are the moments, y^, y^* t/s ^^^ deflections at 
three points Xi, x^j x^ of a span 

S{ Jfi - w^ix,)} (x, - d?,) = 
S{jryi — w^{xi)} (a?2 — .r,) 
= - ^ n{x, - x^) S{i/i - w,{x,)} 

Wn(iP) = J^ w^^i{x)dx, Woix) = w{x). 

Deduce the equations of three moments by 
talcing x^y x^j x^ as points of support, and treating 
the supporting pressure at x^ as a concentrated 

5. Shew that the displacement Ap of the point /} of a 

body due to a rotation ^ around an axis OA 
through the origin is given by 

^ 1 + a' 14: 

where a is in the direction OA and of magnitude 
2 tan 0/2 . 

Shew that two rotations a, fi in succession are 
equivalent to a rotation y given by 

' l-(a/3)/4 

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0. A body moving- in a straight line is acted on by a 
force F^ which is a function of position and by 
a force F^ which is the product of the square of 
the velocity and a function of position. Jf i?o is 
the initial velocity^ v the velocity in a subsequent 
position, Vi, v^ the values v would have if F,, F^ 
respectively acted alone, shew that 

7. Investigate equations for the motion of a heavy 
particle in a rough rotating- groove, and discuss 
methods of solution. 

A particle slides on a fixed rough plane curve 
under no external forces Shew that if the co- 
eflBcient of friction is 1 /6, the velocity is reduced 
41 % while the direction of motion turns through 
two right angles. 

S. A cam turning uniformly in its plane about a fixed 
centre drives a straight-line sliding piece by 
contact with a plane surface on it normal to its 
direction of motion. Shew that if the sliding;- 
piece moves with uniform acceleration, the (p, r) 
equation of the profile of the cam is r* = p' + 
2ap 4- b, where «, b are constants and O is the 

9. Investigate genei-al equations for the path of a 
resisted projectile, and examine the general 
character of the path. 

If the resistance is very small, shew that the 
decrease of horizontal range is approximately 



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HONOUR EXAMINATroN, NOV., 1906. 255 

where U is the initial horizontal velocity, X is 
the horizontal component of the resistance per 
unit weiofht, X n: tan y\j, X^ = tan i/z^ where i/z^ is 
the elevation of projection, and X is to be calcu- 
lated from the unresisted trajectory. 

Complete the integration when the resistance 
varies as the square of the velocity. 


(arts and engineering,) 

Second Paper. 

The Boa/rd of FxaTniners. 

1. Investigate the relations between the true, mean, 
and eccentric anomalips in a planetary orbit. 

Find the form of these relations for an eccen- 
tricity near unity, and heuce obtain the time of 
felling- a given distance towards the centre from 
rest at a given distance. 

Summarize the methods of solution for the dynami- 
cal equation x zz /(po^ a?, t). 
Shew that 

where 3 A'y = 2/(a; + Ax/S, y +/A.i?/3) Aar, 

is a third-order quadrature- formula for the differ- 
ential equation dy\dx =:/(ir, y). 

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8. The dynamical equation of a certain system is 
x -{- ax + bx + ex =z 0, 

where a, b, c are functions of a;, a?, x. Shew 
that there is an equation of the form 

(a?, X, xy + r{Ax^ + B'x^ + Cx^) dt = K, 

where the co-efficients of the two quadrics are 
linear functions of a, b^ c and their differential 
co-efficients with respect to the time, K is 
a constant, and J., B^ C may be made to 
have the same constant sign for a sufficiently 
small rang'e, on both sides of zero^ of x^ 

Xy X, provided ^(000), c(OOO) are not zero. 

4. Shew that a homogeneous octahedron formed by 
two opposed pyramids on any plane quadrilateral 
base, is equim omental with m/20 at each corner, 
— w/20 at the intersection of the diagonals of the 
base, — w/20 at the intersection with the base of 
the join of the vertices of the pyramids, and 
4m/5 at the cm. of the octahedron, 

6. A uniform bar AB of mass J/, and length 2a, is 
smoothly jointed to two massless sleeves on the 
fixed smooth rods OA, OB, which are at right 
angles. Beyond A on OA is a second sleeve 
C of mass /», and between the two is a very 
stiff massless helical spring in contact with both 
of them. C being at rest, the bar is started 
with angular velocity w so that A moves up to 
(7. Shew that the period of compressiori of the 
spring is 

4m Ma^ 


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where OB = ^, and T'v& the thrust of the spring 
per unit compression. 

Find the motion of AB and C at the end of 
the compression. 

6. State and demonstrate the general integrals of a 

two-dimensional system under no external forces. 

Two laminas moving in the same plane are 
smoothly connected in such a way that a fixed 
line in one can slide freely along a fixed line in 
the other. The system being projected in any 
given manner and left to itself, reduce the deter- 
mination of the subsequent motion to quadra- 

7. Demonstrate Lagrange's general equations of 


A cord of length / fits smoothly in a uni- 
form tube whose axis is a plane curve. The tube 
rotates in its plane about a fixed centre C with 
uniform angular velocity ai, and the cord lies at 
relative rest with its middle point on an axis of 
symmetry of the tube through C. Find the 
condition of stability of the cord, and if it is 
satisfied, shew that the time of a small oscillation 
is 2w'^ll2w^p where p is the projection of the 
radius to one end of the cord on the direction 
of the tube at that point. 

8. Find the acceleration of a point whose position is 

defined relative to a rotating space. 

If there are w + 1 rotating spaces with a com- 
mon fixed point, and the angular velocity of the 
r** relative to the r -|- T'* is 11^, shew that the 

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acceleration relative to the n + 1*'' space of a 
point p whose velocity and acceleration relative 
to the first space are v, a, is 

a + 2 sr[at;] + {sro} V — p(2:ra)2 

where {Sil}^ is to be algebraically expanded, and 
one factor of each term, of not lower index than 
the other factor, associated with p as a scalar 
product J d£ijdt is calculated as if the space with 
respect to which il„ is defined were fixed. 

). State and prove the general equation for the rate 
of increase of angular momentum of a body about 
a fixed point, and obtain the equations of motion 
when the angular momentum is defined by com- 
ponents along axes fixed in the body. 

It is observed that if the axis of a top with 
fixed cm. is prolonged as a spindle, this spindle 
will move along a fixed wire of any form with 
which it is placed in contact. Explain this, 
assuming that the spindle rolls on the wire, and 
obtain an expression for the pressure of the 
spindle against the wire. 


Second Paper. 

Professor Laurie. 

1. It has been said that Plato was the founder of 
logical science. Consider this statement. 

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2. May the question of the validity of the logical laws 

be disentangled from the question of their 
origin ? Give reasons for your answer. 

3. Mention different meanings in which the Law of 

Sufficient Reason has been affirmed. Is this law 
necessary for Formal Logic ? 

4. What problems does thought present to Psychology 

and to Logic respectively ? 

5. In what ways does language minister to the pro- 

gress of thought ? Is thought possible without 
language ? 

6. Give, in its simplest form, the contradictory of the 

following proposition : — " Nothing that is either 
PQ or PR is Vqr or joQ« or prs or qrs or pq or 
^S or 3'R." May a contrary be also obtained ? 

7. What meaning is attached by Keynes to the pro- 

cess of contraposition in dealing with complex 
propositions ? Find the full contrapositive of 
each of the following : — Whatever is A or BD 
or BE is C ; some AC is not either BD or 5DE 
or de, 

8. Eliminating X and Y, what may be inferred by 

a combination of the following premisses : — 
'^ (1) Either some A that is X is not Y, or all 
D is both X and Y ; (2) Either some Y is both 
B and X, or all X is either not Y or C and 
not B " ? 

S 2 

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Second Paper. 
Professor Laurie. 

1. What assurance, if any, may be gfiven of the 

validity of the Law of Universal Causation ? 
Is it possible to disentanpfle the question of the 
validity from the question of the origin of this 
Law ? 

2. Consider Venn's statement that the third stage in 

the expression of the causal relation renders it 
useless for any purpose of inference. 

3. Analyse the process involved in the discovery and 

proof of an Original Induction. 

4. What conditions are to be aimed at in the 

employment of the Method of Difference? 

5. Show the value of the Darwinian theory, as 

providing a basis of classification in the 
Natural Sciences. 

6. What is the value of Illustrative as compared with 

Constructive Hypotheses ? Refer to Venn's 
treatment of this subject. 

7. Is it necessary that the man of science, in 

investigating social phenomena, should leave 
them undisturbed if his observations are to be 
theoretically valid? Is this ideal position 
secured even in physics ? 

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BIOLOGY. -Part I. 

Medical Course. 

The Board of Examiners. 


All answers must be illustrated by rough sketches, 

1. Write an account of the glands and gland products 
of a rabbit. 

2. Describe the development of the mesoblastic 
somites in the bird, frog, and amphioxus. 


3. Describe the development of the WolflBan tubes in 
a frog and in a bird. 

4. Describe the eye and method of vision of an 
arthropod and a sheep. How is the movement 
of the eyeball provided for ? 

5. Give an account of the structure, life history, and 
nutrition of the Hay Bacillus, and discuss the 
question of spontaneous generation. 

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BIOLOGY.— Part I. 
The Board of Examiners. 

Practical Examination. 

All answers mitst be illitstrated by rough sketches. 

1. Dissect the frog provided so as to show the 

circulatory system. 

2. Describe specimen A by sketches. 

3. Describe the skull provided. Draw three transverse 

sections in order to show the structure and 
relative positions of the parts in the region of 
the cranium. 

4. Describe specimen B by sketches. 

5. Describe specimen C by slcetches. Where does it 

live ? 

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BIOLOGY.— Part I. 

Zoology. — Science Course. 

The Board of Mcammera. 


All angwers mtut be illustrated by rough sketches, 

1. Write an account of the glands and gland products 

of a rabbit. 

2. Describe the development of the mesoblastic 

somites in the bird, frog-, and amphioxus. 

8. Describe the development of the WolflGian tubes in 
a frog and in a bird. 

4. Describe the eye and method of vision of an 

arthropod and a sheep. How is the movement 
of the ejeball provided for ? 

5. Write an account of the structure of the skeleton 

in the dog-fish. 

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The Board of Examiners. 

1. A steamer J. is travelling due E. at 12 knots an 

hour, and another B is travelling N E. at 
9 knots an hour. At a certain instant A is 
N.W. of -0 at a distance of 18 knots. Show 
how to determine, by graphic construction, the 
shortest distance the steamers get from each 
other, supposing they keep on their original 

2. With a certain balance, when the weights are put 

into the left hand pan the apparent weight of a 
body is 61*474: grams, and when the weights 
are put into the right hand pan its apparent 
weight is 61 *b77 grams. Find the true weight 
of the body, and the ratio of the arms of the 

3. Describe fully Regnault's method of determining 

the coefficient of expansion of a gas at constant 

Show how to deduce the coefficient from the 
observations, making all corrections. 

4. Describe fully how to determine the pressure of 

aqueous vapour present in the atmosphere at any 

Explain why it is that for the same barometric 
pressure moist air is lighter than dry air. 

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5. What is supposed to be the electrical condition of 

a solution of sulphuric acid in water ? 

If two metal plates maintained at a fixed 
potential difference are immersed in the solution, 
how is this condition affected ? 

Discuss the theory of the simple galvanic cell. 

6. State what you know of the mutual action of coils 

carrying currents; and describe some accurate 
form of current meter based on this action. 

?. A reflecting galvanometer, whose resistance is 
450 ohms, is shunted by a 50-ohm coil, and a 
resistance of 99,255 ohms is placed in series 
with the combination. A cell of e.m.f. 1'433 
volts and internal resistance 700 ohms is coupled 
up to this system, and a deflection of 4 • 3 scale 
divisions is produced. 

Find the deflection of the galvanometer when 
unshunted (a) per micro-ampere (amp. x 10"*); 
(J) per micro- volt. 

8. Two thin concave lenses 1 and 2, of focal lengths 
/i and j^, have a common axis, and are a distance 
a apart. A ray of light parallel to the axis and 
distant y from it is refracted by 1 and then 
by 2 ; show that the total deviation it suffers is 
equal to 


and find the focal length of the single lens 
which when coaxal with the pair would produce 
the same deviation on this ray. . 

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(arts and science.) 

Second Paper. 

2%« Board of Examiners, 

1. The true mass of a body is required to be determined 

correct to one part in a million. Supposing a 
suitable balance and correct weights are available, 
describe the necessary experiments, and deduce 
the complete formula expressing the result. 

2. Prove that the bending moment required to pro- 

duce a given curvature in a uniform elastic rod, 
initially straight, is equal to 

where Y = Young's modulus, 

/= moment of inertia of section of rod, 

p = radius of curvature produced. 

Two equal metal bars are joined by a straight 
wire forming the letter H^ the wire beinj^ 
rigidly attached to the bars, perpendicular to 
their axes, and in the line joining their centres 
of gravity. The bars are hung from the ceiling 
by two thin threads without rigidity so that the 
H lies in a horizontal plane and the wire is 
straight. Two adjacent ends of the H are now 
slightly approximated and then released pro- 
ducing vibrations in the horizontal plane. Prove 

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where Y = Young's modulus for the wire, 

T = period of the vibration, 

K = moment of inertia of either bar about 
a vertical axis through its centre 
of gi*avity, 

/ = length of wire, 

/ = moment of inertia of section of wire. 

3. A perfect gas describes a Carnot cycle. Deter- 

mine the work done, the efficiency, and the 
quantities of heat taken in and rejected. 

4. Obtain the dimensional equation connecting the 

frequency of a vibrating string and the quanti- 
ties on which it depends, and deduce the mathe- 
matical expression of Mersenne's laws. 

5. Design an achromatic cemented convex lens of 

20 cm. focal length whose external surfaces have 
the same curvature, the optical properties of the 
glasses to be used being — 

mean refractive indices, /ii = 1 * 5, /i, =: 1 * 6 ; 

dispersive powers, ^i = '016, ^, = *02b, 

6. Describe, and give the complete theory of, the 

laboratory method of determining H. 

7. Describe with full detail bow to calibrate a volt- 

meter by using a copper voltameter as the basis 
of the calibration. 

8. Define "co-efficient of self-induction" and "co- 

efficient of mutual induction," and describe fully 
how to measure a co»effioient of self-induction. 

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(engineering course.) 

Second Paper. 
Tlie Board of Exammers. 

1. A fly-wheel, mounted so that friction may be 

neglected, is set in motion by a mass m^ which 
is hung at the end of a light string wound round 
the axle and which describes a measured space 
from rest in time ^i ; when a mass m^ is substi- 
tuted for mi the same space is described in 
time t^. Express the moment of inertia of the 
fly- wheel in terms of these masses and times and 
the radius of the axle. 

If friction is not neglected determine the 
acceleration of the falling mass 7/1^, 

2. Draw an accurate diagram of the apparatus 

employed by Berthelot for the determination of 
the latent heat of steam ; explain fully the use 
of each part and the reasons for the various 
precautions to be taken when employing the 

3. Describe the construction and mode of use, and 

give the theory of Fery's radiation pyrometer. 

State what you know regarding the industrial 
applications of this instrument. 

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4. The cycle of the Banke engine differs from '.the 

Beau de Rochas cycle in that the com- 
pression of the gaseous mixture is isothermal; 
in other respects the cycles are identical. Express 
the maximum efficiency of the Banke cycle in 
terms of the lowest and highest values of the 
pressures and volumes concerned. 

5. Describe the construction and mode of use, and 

give the theory of Kelvin's absolute electro- 

6< Define '* co-efficient of self-induction '* and 
** co-efficient of mutual induction." 

Describe fully how to measure a co-efficielit of 
mutual induction. 

7. Discuss fully the armature reactions of a continu- 
ous current dynamo, and point out the mechanical 
and electrical arrangements by which the effects- 
of these reactions cant be approximately 

Prove the formula that gives the e.m.f. 
generated in such an armature in terms of the 
different quantities involved. 

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The Boa/rd of Examiners, 

l. Explain and exemplify the behaviour of different 
solid phosphates when heated. 

G. Give a short account of the chief non-metallic 
hydrides — their composition, properties, reactions, 
and modes of formation. 

3. Explain and exemplify the terms '* double oxides", 

*Mouble chlorides^', "double sulphates", 
** double sulphides ". 

4. Give instances of metals which readily vary their 

valence when in aqueous solution as the positive 
radicles of salts, and explain some of the re- 
actions which bring out this tendency. 

5. Give practical instances of normal salts that are 

not neutral to litmus, and explain the theory of 
such cases. 

6. Explain fully, from a practical point of view, why 

calcium, strontium, and barium are re^farded as 
forming- a group of allied elements. Point out 
also their more striking- differences. 

7. Discuss the actions of dilute sulphuric acid on the 

following : — Nitrites, hypochlorites^ thiosul- 
p hates, sulphides. 

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The Board of Examiners. 

1. What is meant by "The ratio of the specific heats 
of a g-as " ? How can the limiting value of this 
ratio be calculated ? Discuss the bearing of the 

magnitude of the ratio for a given gas on the 
' question of its molecular complexity. 

2. A certain reaction is either uni- or bi-molecular. In 

order to decide which, experiments were carried 
out, with the following results : — 

Experiment. 1. 2.- 3. 4. 

A = 0-5 0-4 0-2 0-1 g. mols. per litre. 
t = 20 25 50 100 minutes. 

Find the number of reacting molecules, and 

also the value of the velocity co-efficient. 

I {A represents the initial concentration of the 

I reacting" substance, t the time when the reaction 

I was half completed. 

i . 1 « 
I For a unimolecular I'eaction k z=:~ log. — 

I • 1 1 a V 

For a bimolecular reaction h nz —; ~ ) • 

j t a a -^ X 

3. Discuss the Vapour Pressure (or Boiling Point) 
curves of pairs of completely miscible liquids. 

Illustrate by reference to the following, or 
similar, cases: — 

(a) Methyl Alcohol and Water. 

(b) Ethyl Alcohol and Water. 

(c) Nitric Acid and Water. 

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4. Discuss the influence of chancre of Pressure and 
of Temperature on chemical equilibrium. How 
is the change of equilibrium with temperature 
related to the heat of reaction ? 

5 and 6. Write papers discussing the relation between 
the chemical properties of the element and its 
position in the Periodic classification in the case 
of the following : — 

(5) Beryllium. 

(6) Thallium. 


The Bowrd of Exavivners. 
Candidates should answer SEVEXT questions only. 

1. Explain the operation of the exceptio non 

numeratae pecuniae. 

2. What do you consider to be the fundamental dis- 

tinctions between moveable and immovable 
property, and how have the two classes of 
property been difi^erently treated inlaw ? 

3. In wiiat connections, and with what significance 

was the term quasi used in Roman Law ? 

4. In what different modes may several persons be 

liable in respect to a single sum of money ? 
What was the nature of the liability of 
cO'heredes to creditors, and what was the 
position of heres and fidei-commissarius respec- 
tively in universal fidei-commissum ? 

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5. Write a brief note on personal and territorial law. 

6. In what senses does Hearn use the terms power 

and liberty ? Criticise their use. 

7. Connect law as used in the social sciences with 

law as used in physical science. 

8. On what grounds, and with what reasou, has the 

definition of law as a command of the State 
been attacked ? 

9. Write a note on self-redress in Roman Law. 

10. Criticise Austin's rejection of Public Law as a 
fundamental decision, and his inclusion of the 
matter of it in the Law of Persons. 

Part II. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Candidates should answer SIX questions only. 

1. What courts and jurisdictions in the English 
system have been of an ^^international'' 
character, and what has been their fate ? 

3. Write a note on the principal objects of the Judica* 
ture Acts 1878 and 1876. 

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3. Write a note on the following: dictum : — 

*' A case is only authority for what it actually 
decides. I entirely deny that it can be quoted 
for a proposition that may seem to follow 
logically from it. Such a mode of reasoning- 
assumes thnt the law is necessarily a logical 
code, whereas every lawyer must acknowledge 
that the law is not always logical at all.'^ (Per 
Lord Halsbury, L.C., in Quinn v. Leathern, 
1901, A.C. 496.) 

4. ** In adopting a construction (i.e. of a Statute) not 

in strict conformity with the language, there 
is more danger than there once was of going 
beyond or falling short of its real intention." 
(Stephen, Com. 1-77.) Explain and comment. 

5. What sources of information outside a Statute may 

be looked at as aids to its interpretation ? 

6. What is the power of the Crown (a) to legislate, 

(6) to establish Legislatures for colonies ? 

7. What are the most important differences in 

pleadings at common law and pleadings in 
equity ? What conclusions do you draw from 
these differences as to the purpose of pleadings 
in the two jurisdictions ? 

8. State briefly the principal features of New South 

Wales government from 1828 until the intro- 
duction of responsible government. 

9. Write a note on public policy a» a source of 

judiciary law. 

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Mr. Guest, 

1. How is the operation of a conveyance in fee simple 

of land in this country affected by the Statute 
Quia Umptores. 

2. How, if at all, are common law conditions annexed 

to estates in fee simple affected by the Rule 
against Perpetuities ? Cite authority. 

3. What are the exceptions to the Rule that the 

Statute of Uses operates only where there is a 
transmutation of possession ? 

4. Bf who died in 1906, by his will devised land to 

his daughter A for her life, and after her death 
to such of her children as should attain the age 
of 21 years and their respective heirs. A died 
in 1906, leaving her surviving two children only 
of the ages of 16 and 12 years respectively. 
What effect, if any, should be given to the gift 
in remainder ? Give reasons. 

5. Ay the assignee of a certain lease, contracted in 

writing to sell the leasehold to B, The 
purchase money was paid, but the lease 
was never formally assigned. B entered into 
possession, and paid rent for a time, but ulti- 
mately got into arrears, and the lessee brought 
an action for the rent against A, Can he 
succeed ? Give reasons. 

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6. If the person conveying is expressed to convey as 

benencial owner^ what is the effect in the case 

(a) A conveyance on sale of freehold land, 

(b) A conveyance of leasehold property, 

(c) A conveyance by way of mortgage 
respectively ? Give reasons. 

7. On a partition between joint tenants in fee simple, 

how is the land to be taken by each conveyea to 
him in severalty ? How would you arrange the 
parties to the conveyance, and what operative 
words would you use ? How would the convey- 
ance be affected by the omission of any words of 
limitation ? Give reasons. 

8. What are the rules as to covenants running with 

the land where the relation of landlord and 
tenant does not exist ? To what extent is any 
such rule affected by any and what doctrine of 
Equity ? Cite authority. 

9. What is the effect of the provisions of the Insol- 

vency Act 1897 as to the effect of insolvency in 
post-nuptial settlements ? 

10. A testator signed his will at the foot thereof when 
no other person was present. On being told 
that two witnesses were necessary he sent for A 
and B, who arrived together. The testator pro- 
duced his will in their presence, and said to them — 
** I want you to sign as witnesses. I have already 
signed," and pointed to his signature. A and B 
thereupon signed their names as witnesses. Is 
the will validly executed ? Give reasons. 

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11. Discuss shortly the effect of the provisions in the 

Transfer of Land Act 1890 as to the applica- 
tion of other laws and Statutes to land under 
the Act. 

12. If land subject to a mortgage in fee is brought 

under the Transfer of Land Act 1890, how, if 
at all, are the rights and remedies of the mort- 
gagee affected ? What provision is made by the 
Act for the cases of foreclosures and sales by 
mortgagees ? 


Mr. Duffy. 

Write a short paper on each of the six following 
topics : — 

1. Guarantees within the meaning of Section 208 
of the Instruments Act 1890. 

3. Par delictum in cases of illegal contract. 

3. An infant's contract for necessaries. 

4. The Common Law action of deceit. 
6. Champerty. 

6. Assignment of choses in action. 

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7. What were the evils intended to be remedied bj 

the £rst legislation in Victoria with respect to 
Bills of Sale, and what were the main provisions 
of such legislation ? 

8. What is essential to the validity of a " lien on 

crops" under the provisions of the Instruments 
Act 1890 ? 

9. Explain the nature of a partner's share in the 

partnership property. 

10. Explain and illustrate the different methods of 

delivering possession of personal chattels. 

11. Under what circumstances, if any, can a person 

give to another a better title to personal pro- 
perty than he himself has ? 

13. What are the rights of an unpaid seller of goods 
against such goods ? 

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The Board of ExanwMTM. 

1. Discuss the strong; and w«ak points of Lowthian 

Green's " Tetrahedral " theory of Geomorphology. 

2. Illustrate the park and alpine types of mountain 

structures. Show how more intense folding of 
the alpine type passes into thrust faulting. 
Where are such features met with ? 

3. Discuss the influence of the Southern Ocean and 

of the Indian Ocean respectively on Australian 

4. Define the following terms : — Anticyclone, caldera, 

atoll, fiord, geoisotherm, nimbus. 

5. Classify the diflPerent types of plains State their 

modes of origin, and, as far as possible, illustrate 
your answer by Victorian examples. 

6. Illustrate by diagrams the ways in which a river 

may change — 

(a) Its length. 

{b) Its velocity. 

(c) The width of its valley. 

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Second Year Science. 
2^he Board of Examiners, 

1. What is meant bj the phrase " dissociation curve 

of oxy haemoglobin " ? What is the physiological 
significance of this curve ? 

2. Write a short account of the duodenum from a 

histological as well as a physiological stand- 

3. Describe any form of apparatus which will stimu- 

late a nerve trunk (say, the sciatic of the frog) 
without producing injury. 

4. Define the terms enzyme, harmoney blaze current, 

receptive substance, axon reflex, 

5. How may a fatty acid be distinguished chemically 

from a fat ? 

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Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Contrast the influence of the Sophists with that of 

Socrates in the history of Greek education. 

2. What problem in education propounded by Socrates 

did Plato and Aristotle seek to solve ? 
Contrast their solutions. 

3. Give the substance of the first chapter of Spencer's 

work, adding any opinions of your own. 

4. Discuss the following statement of Spencer's : — The 

subject which involves all other subjects, and 
therefore the subject in which education should 
culminate, is tne Theory and Practice of 

5. State and discuss the views advanced by Spencer in 

his chapter on " Intellectual Education." 

6. Give the place that manual training possessed in 

the thought of FrcBbel, and suggest means of 
realizing his ideas in all grades of our schools. 

7. *^ To make the internal external, and the external 

internal, to find the unity for both, this is the 
general external form in which man's destiny is 

Show that here Froebel furnishes a complete 
scheme of education, and in particular show how 
it fits into the successive stages of development. 

8' What are some of the views expressed by Froebel 
in dealing with the School ana the Family ? 

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First Paper. 
The Board of Examiners, 

Candidates shoul} answer SIX of tlie followinsr questions. 
Chemical equations must be given wherever possible. 

1. Describe, with the aid of sketches, a good type of 

assay muffle furnace designed for the consump- 
tion of long-flaming coa), and a second, similar, 
furnace designed for the consumption of coke, 
give reasons for any variations in design. 

2. Outline the principal dry methods used for the 

assay of silver ores, and explain the principles 
upon which they are based. 

8. Explain the action of potassium cyanide, and 
potassium carbonate — both separately and con- 
jointly — in crucible assays for — (a) tin, and 
\h) lead. What effect would metallic iron have 
if present in similar assays ? Give chemical 
equations descriptive of the reactions concerned. 

4. Define the terms — ^' parting," " inquarting," 
'^annealing," "surcharge" (plus and minus), 
" volatilisation loss," ** cupel absorption loss," 
and ** slag loss *' — as applied to gold and silver 

Outline a rapid method for the partial analysis of 
slag produced in smelting silver-lead ores in 
blast-fiirnaces, and explain, with the aid of 
chemical equations, the principal reactions 

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6. Outline a reliable method for estimating copper by 

means of a standard solution of potassium 
cyanide^ including the preliminary separation 
of the copper firom any ore impurities that would 
otherwise injuriously affect the titration. 

What effect would salts of iron, lead, zinc, 
manganese^ and aluminium have if present 
during the titration ? 

7. Describe a rapid method which is sometimes used 

(for furnace control purposes) for estimating — 
Tery approximately — the amount of sulphur 
present in roasted ore or matte. 

Sfxjond Paper. 

^'/fc€ Board of MxaTniners. 

Candidates shonld answer SIX of tlie followinsr ques- 

Cliemlcal Equations must be fflven wherever possible. 

1. What are *• refractory materials " ? How are they 

classified, and for what metallurgical purposes 
are they used ? 

2. Explain the terms "intermittent" and "con- 

tinuous '* as applied to (a) hand-worked rever- 
beratory furnaces ; and (h) mechanically- worked 
reverberatory iiirnaces. 

Give an example of each type, and compare 
their relative merits and demerits. 

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8. Write a short paper upon modem developments in 
copper smelting in reverberatory furnaces. 

4. What are the reactions mainly concerned in the 
'^ Roast and Reaction *' method for treating lead 
ores, and for what class or classes of ore is the 
method most suitable ? 

6, Define the terms " slag " and " matte." How are 
slags classified ? 

6. Outline a method suitable for the extraction of 

zinc from its sulphide ore on- a large scale. 
Explain the principal reactions concerned, and 
point out in what particulars (if at all) the 
method you give differs from one suitable for 
the treatment of zinc carbonate ores. 

7, Explain, very briefly, the reactions upon which the 

various " hyposulphite " methods, for treating 
silver ores on a large scale, are dependent. For 
what class or classes of ore are such methods 
most suitable ? 

GEOLOGY.— Part I. 
The Board of Examiners, 

1. Give a short account of the nature, organic and 
mineralogical composition of coral atolls, and an 
outline of the important theories as to their 
mode of origin. 

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2. Define the following crystallographic terms:— 

Form, truncation, law of rational indices, 
hemihedral, hemimorphic, and state the crystal 
forms (giving Miller's symbols) present in 
crystals of garnet, albite, beryl, rutile. 

3. Give the chief subdivisions of Dana's classification 

of the silicates, and quote examples of minerals 
belonging to each of the subdivisions. 

4. Give an account of the geology of the Dandenong 

area, and especially of the relations of the dacites 
to the plutonic rocks to the south. 

5. Discuss the relative value of different fossil groups 

to the stratigraphical geologist. What do you 
understand by ''zones,*' and give examples 
among Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks ? 

6. Discuss the chemical and mineralogical peculiarities 

of the intrusive rocks rich in alkalies. 

7. Draw sections illustrating the following: — Crust 

block, trough fault, thrust fault, recumbent 
anticline, and state the effects produced on the 
outcrops of beds by dip, strike and reversed 
faults, respectively. 

8. Compare the Permo-carboniferous formations of 

Victoria and New South Wales. Give a concise 
account of the lithological character of the 
Glacial deposits of Victoria and their probable 
mode of origin. 

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First Paper. 

Professor Kemot. 

1. Prove that any tangential stress in ordinary 

materials is accompanied by an equal stress in a 
plane at rif^ht anf^les to the first. What bearing 
has this on the arrangement of rivets in plate 
girders ? 

2. Describe, fiiUy, the process of testing a specimen 

of structural steel, giving the results you would 
expect including the autographic diagram. How 
do you account for the oblique or cup-shaped 
fracture so often seen ? 

3. Assuming the specimen tested to be 8 inches long 

between gauge-points, and 1 square inch sectional 
area, compute the probable resilience and the 
average work done per cubic inch of specimen, 
before fracture, in foot pounds. 

4. A circular obelisk of concrete is 50 feet high, 5 feet 

diameter at the base, and 3 feet at the top. 
It is composed of concrete, weighing 150 lbs. 
per cubic foot. What is its greatest safe 
resistance to wind-pressure, and what will be 
the safe resistance of a similar obelisk of double 
the linear dimensions, but supported on a 
foundation only 5 feet diameter. 

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Second Paper. 
l^ofessor KemoU 

1. A beam is 30 feet long, and is supported at points 

6 and 26 feet from one end. For the first 6 feet 
it is loaded with a uniform load of 1 ton per foot. 
In the next 6 feet the load gradually increases 
from 1 ton per foot to 2 tons per foot, and then 
ceases. At 18 feet a concentrated load of 10 
tons is imposed, while at the far end there is an 
upward force of 1 ton. Draw to scale moment 
and shear diagrams, and state what size heam 
you would use, the material being good ironbark. 

2. Investigate the modulus of section as a beam of a 

circular tube 20 inches internal diameter ^ inch 
thick for a quadrant at each side, and 1 inch 
thick for a quadrant top and bottom. 

3. A suspension bridge consists of a parabolic cable, 

numerous vertical suspenders, and a stiflPening 
girder hinged at ends and centre. Investigate 
the moments and shears on the girder while a 
concentrated load traverses the whole span of 
the bridge. 

4. Discuss the behaviour of an unhinged circular arch 

as at Prince's Bridge under varying temperatures, 
partial loading, and slight yielding of abutments. 

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First Paper. 

Professor Kernol, 

1. Make a longitudinal and cross section of Seimens' 

Regenerative Furnace, and describe how it is 
used for producing* open hearth steel. How, in 
your opinion, does such steel compare with that 
made by the Bessemer process ? 

2. Make a neat drawing of an engineer's shaping 

machine, with a quick return motion, and show 
the action of the quick return appliance by a 
diagram in which the abscissa represents time 
and the ordinate distance of the tool from the 
starting point of its stroke. 

3. It is required to drive an air compressor at the rate 

of 100 double strokes per minute and the horse 
power required is 200. There is a stream falling 
1,400 feet in half a mile in the vicinity, the 
supply of water being abundant. Design in out- 
line the machinery you would employ, giving 
all principal dimensions and computing the 
quantity of water used. 

4. Design a water engine to work a capstan in a dock- 

yard. The water being supplied at a pressure 
of 700 lbs. per square inch, and the capstan to 
exert an effort of 2 tons at 100 feet per minute. 
State what are the principal difficulties to be 
met with in such an engine, and how they are 
to be dealt with. 

N.B. — Nothing but the capstan itself may 
project above the level of the ground. 

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Second Paper. 
Profeuor Kemot, 

1. Discuss fully the improvements made by James 

Watt in the steam-engine, and state what effect 
' they had on its efficiency. Make a neat sketch, 
with cnames of all important parts of Watt's 
most improved engine. 

2. Describe a temperature-entropy diagram, and illus- 

trate its use and its relations to the pressure 
volume dii^am. 

3. Make a diagram on the lines of that of Weighton 

and Leavenworth, showing all losses of energy 
between the fuel and the useful work done in a 
winding-engine at a mine. 

4. Describe and sketch any appliances you may be 

acquainted with for intercepting and utilizing of 
heat that would otherwise have gone up the 
chimney or exhaust pipe of a non-condensing 
steam plant. What, in your opinion, is the 
probable numerical value of the gain in each 

5. A non-condensing steam-engine, 20 inches 

diameter and 40 inches stroke, makes 100 re- 
volutions a minute. It is supplied with dry 
saturated steam at 100 lbs. per square inch 
above the atmosphere, cut off at ^-stroke 


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Draw the indicator diagram to scale. Compote 
the power and consumption of steam, with and 
without steam jacketing. State whether an 
earlier cut off would improve the economy; and, if 
so, how much earlier and by what amount — what 
is the e£Pect of too early a cut off and also of too 
late ? 

SURVEYING.— Part I. • 

First Paper. 
The Board of Uacamniers. 

1. From the following observations made with an 
aneroid barometer at the three places named, 
deduce the most probable height of the place 
"L.J." above sea-level. 


Aneroid Tempe- 
Reading. »^"re 

Barograph at 

University : 



as per 

Time Table 

Sea Level. 


29- 12 





28-34 66i° 



L.J. ... 





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Give all calculations. State what rules or 
tables you employ. Explain what assumptions 
are involved in deducing the required height of 
L.J., and discuss their reasonableness. 

2. Describe the kind of telescope which is used in an 

engineer's level and theodolite. 

Explain the defects that may exist in it, and 
how these defects may be detected. 

3. Prove the principle involved in the test and 

adjustment which has for its object the placing 
of the line of collimation in the telescope of a 
transit theodolite at right angles to the hori- 
zontal axis. 

4. Explain clearly the effect produced by various 

errors of adjustment on the work done with a 
transit theodolite, and explain how these effects 
may be eliminated by employing certain methods 
of observation. 


Second Paper. 
The Bowrd of Examiners. 

1. Fill in the missing figures, and complete the 
following page of a level-book. Explain the 
operations to which the figures refer. 

T 2 

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Describe the process of testing and adjusting 
a dumpy level to prepare it for work of the kind 
referred to. 










B.M. No. 1. 



Shoulder of 
pile on Pier 
No. 1 of 





Shoulder of 
pile on Pier 
No. 16 of 


B.M. No. 2. 

12, Show what lines you would measure when making 
a chain survey of the engineering workshops 
on opposite page. 

The walls may all be taken as 14 inches thick 

Assume no obstacles in the way, other than 
the walls shown. 

3. The sketches, given on pages 294 and 295, represent 
cross-sections, 1 chain apart, on a straight portion 
of a railway cutting. The reduced levels at 
various points are given. 

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rVwue<fc4^ ilJit ^jpv^^-viA^ 

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If EH, BH, CH, CO, BO, BF, and AF 

be joined, the triangles into which the surface is 
so aivided may be treated as planes. 

Compute, accurately^ the volume of earth con- 
tained Detween the sections. 


First Paper. 
The Board of Examiners. 

1. Divide the area, which is shown surrounded by 

roads on the attached topographic map, into 
blocks of between 20 and 30 acres each. Give 
the reasons which influence you in choosing the 
particular scheme of subdivision which you 

2. Explain the principle of the anallatic lens used in 

certain tacheometers. 

8. What curve would you adopt to connect the two 
proposed straight portions of the railway line 
marked in red on the accompanying topographic 
map ? Perform the calculations necessary for 
setting out. 

Note. — A full answer to Question No. 1 will 
be considered as possessing half the whole value 
of the paper ; Question No. 2^ 20 per cent.; and 
Question No. 3, 80 per cent 

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Second Paper. 

llie Board of Examiner %. 

1. Find the loss of head, through friction, in a 

length I ft. of wrought-iron riveted pipe, which 
tapers uniformly from a diameter 2^ ft. to a 
diameter d ft., the discharge being Q cub. ft. a 

Apply this to ascertain the error in calculating 
the loss of head as though it were equal to that 
in a pipe of uniform diameter z= ^ (2> + rf), and 
of same length 2, using for illustration the values 
i> = -]^ ft., rf = t\ ft., Z =: 6 ft. 

What is the error, in the same case, in 
assuming the head lost in fi*iction to be equal to 
that in a pipe \l ft. long and of uniform diameter 
d ft. ? 

State what fbrmulse or tables you make use 

2. A pipe is to be designed to discharge a minimum 

Jiuantity of 12*6 cub. ft. of water per second 
rom a certain reservoir. Its axis is vertical at 
the inlet, and the lip, where the water enters, is 
in a horizontal plane. The water surface in the 
reservoir may fall to within 2 feet of the said 
horizontal plane. What is the least diameter 

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that the inlet orifice must have in order 
that the said discharge may be maintained? 
Give full reasons for your answer. 

Note. — A full answer to Question No. 1 will 
be considered to possess twice the value of a full 
answer to Question No. 2. 

First Paper. 

Ths Board of Examiners, 

1. Find the time of elongation of some of the follow- 
ing stars on the night of ^November the 19th, 
this year; the place of observation being the 
observatory at the Engineeiing School. Assume 
the latitude of the said observatory to be 37*^ 48' 
S. and the longitude 9h. d9m. 50s. E. 

Find the altitude of each star at the time of 
elongation, also its magnetic bearing, the 
declination of the compass being 8** 21' E. 

Explain, fully, how you would test and adjust 
the theodolite before using it to find the direction 
of the meridian by observations of the said 
jstars. The theodolite has no bubble-tube on 
the telescope ; there is one on the vernier arm 
for the vertical circle, and another^ at right 
angles to the fii*st, on the upper horizontal 

The Nautical Almanac shows that the sidereal 
time at mean noon at Greenwich, on the day of 
the proposed observations, is 16h. 60m. 26s. 

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Say which stars you would prefer to observe, 
and why. 


For mh Nov., 1906. 






h. m. 8. 

O ' » 

6 Eridani ... 


2 54 45 

40 40 47 

y Hydri 


3 48 45 

74 31 35 

■a Horologii... 


4 10 66 

42 81 29 

a Reticuli ... 


4 13 16 

62 42 28 

a Doradiig ... 


4 32 1 

55 14 17 

j3 Doradts ... 


5 32 51 

62 38 

a Argus 


6 21 64 

62 38 33 

V Argus 


6 34 56 

43 6 48 

« Pictoris ... 


6 47 16 

61 50 18 

/3 Arae 


17 17 30 

55 26 29 

e Scorpii ... 


17 30 35 

42 56 17 

q Pavonis ... 


17 36 31 

64 40 48 



18 20 1 

46 1 13 

a Coronae 


19 8 6 

88 3 2 

Austral is 

t Saggitarii... 


19 48 48 

42 6 54 

a Pavonis ... 


20 18 14 

57 2 14 

a Indi 


20 30 59 

47 37 10 

a Gmis 


22 2 21 

47 24 69 

a Touoani ... 


22 12 6 

60 43 44 



22 37 6 

47 22 33 

^ Hydri 


20 54 

n 47 4 

a Phoenicis... 


21 41 

42 48 66 

^ Phoenicis... 


I 1 56 

47 13 17 

y Phoenicis... 


1 24 20 

43 47 66 

a Eridani 


1 34 16 57 42 50 


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Second Paper. 

TJie Board of Examiners. 

1. How would you test and adjust the trigonometrical 

survey shown in sketch on opposite page ? 

2. Lay out a town site, of about three-quarters of a 

square mile in area, at or near the point marked 
A on the accompanying topographic map of a 
mining district. Formation may be assumed to 
be Lower Silurian. 

Give full reasons for your choice of plan. 

Existing roads are shown in black ink. A 
railway line is shown in red pencil. Creeks in 
blue pencil. 

What water-way would you provide at the 
town bridges over the main creek, assuming the 
catchment area above the town site to be 20 
square miles ? Moderate rainfall, as in Victoria. 

The catchment area in the case of the branch,, 
which joins the main creek to the S.E. of A^ is- 
about 7 square miles. 

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First Pai^er. 

The Board of Examiiners. 

It is required to bridge, temporarily, an openings 
of 60 feet by means of a trussed oreg-on beam. Beams, 
of any transverse dimensions up to 2-4" x 22", are 
readily obtainable in lengtbs of over 60 feet. Head- 
room being limited, it is decided to keep the centre of 
the steel tension-rod at mid-span, 6 feet from centre 
of beam. Intermediate struts are to be used, midway 
between centre and ends, the bottoms of all three 
struts being on an arc of a circle passing through the 
ends of the beam. See outline sketch B on pages 

The moving load on the beam is 10 tons, and it 
may be regarded as applied at. a point. 

Compute the necessary dimensions of the beam and 
tension rods, giving all calculations, and explain the 
reasoning upon which your calculations are based. 

Give all details, such as you would put into the 
hands of the carpenters and blacksmiths who will con- 
struct the structure. 

Outline sketch of trussed Oregon beam, 60 feet 
span. Full lines show centre lines of beam, stioits^ 
and tension rods. Dotted lines indicate approximate 
positions of beams and struts. 


Second Paper. 

Tlie Board of Examiners, 

Design a re-inforced concrete floor to carry 5 cwt. 
per square foot, distributed over any part, or the 
whole, of it. Two-wheeled carta, weio^hintr 2 
tons gross, may travel over any part of the floor 
which is not otherwise loaded at the time. 

Wheel-gauge of cart = 5' 3". 

Area of floor = 100 feet x 70 feet. 

The pillars, which support the floor, are to be 
spaced not less than 12 feet apart, centre to 
centre. Design these pillars, assuming them to 
be 14 feet high from their bases to the bottoms of 
the floor beams. 

Compare round with square pillars. 

State fully the reasoning on which your design 
is based. 

The sketch A, appearing on pages 306-6, shows a 
cross^section of a river valley on the centre line 
of a proposed railway. The ordinary water- 
channel and part of the adjoining flat are to be 
bridged over. 

' It has been decided that the total width of 
water-way shall be 200 feet. 

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Suggest a type of bridge suitable 
place, the bridge being designed for a | 
line of railway, 4' 8^" gauge* 

The navigation of the river is unimpor 
that there is no restriction as to the plil 

The mean velocity of the stream, whea-| 
lowest, is about 2 feet a second. Thi 
velocity in the channel, during floods, is 
6 feet a second. 

Describe the process of placing the 
tions of the abutments and piers whio 
propose for the case. 

Show how you would provide for exp 
and contraction in the event of your recon 
ing iron or steel girders. 

Give, fully, the reasons which influence 
choice of type. 


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Sketch A. 


Sketch B. 
' IS feet 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1. Translate, with brief notes (in the margin) where 

vou think them desirable — 


(a) H^. cpav TaitT avayjcij, firj^ey tyiccXeu' ayay. 

KP. ^ /Jtrjv KtXtvffU), Kaindiifv^u} ye npog. 
Xu»p€i Karuff aKiXri ^i KipKUKXov (iitji.. 

H^. KoX Iti viirpaKTai rovpyov ov jxaKp^ ttop^. 

KP. eppuffjiiyiog vvv OeIve hiaropovc Trc^at, 
wc oviriTifjiriTrig ye tCjv epyu)v (iapvg. 

H$. OfAOia fiop^^ yXiaffffa aov yi^pverai. 

KP. av /jLaXdaKiiov, tyiv h* eiiriv avdaZiav 
opyfig TE Tpa^vTTfTa firj iriirXriacri /jloi, 

H$. OTtiywfAev^ WQ KUfXoiaiy a/jKpifiXriarTp^ ^X*** 

KP. eyTavBa vvv vf^piZe, Kal dtdv yipa 
(TvXwv k(jnrifiipoi<n irpotrriQei. ri aoi 
oToi T€ OvriTOi TdtvV airavrXfitTai wovwv ^ 
xl^evdiovvfiwg at daifjLOveg Upo'firfOia 
KaXovffiV avTov yap ae ^el TLpofjiTidiwg, 
6t<p TpOTTi^ Tfjah' eKKyXivBriaei tc)(v»jc. 

(&) aXV avra tnyw' Kai yap ei^viaiaiv av 
vfiiv Xiyoi/jLi, Tav (ipoToig Ze TrrjfiaTa 
aKOvaa&'f dig crf^ag vjfiriovg ovrag to npiv 
evvovg ediyica Kal (ppevwv tTrrifioXovg. 


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Xt^fai ^£, fiefjL\l/iv ovTiv' aydpioTToig t'x*^*'; 
otW' b>y ^idiOK^ evvoiav e^riyovfievog' 
01 TTpbfTa fXEv ^XiirovTEQ e(3\£7roy /Liariyi', 
KXvovrec ovK ijnovov' a\A* oveipanoy 
aXiyKioi fjiop<pa7tTi tov fiaicpoy '^(povov 
E(f)vpoy elicfi Travra, Kovre TrXivdvcfielg 
^ofjLovg TTpotrsiXovt ^(rayy ov EvXovpyiay' 
KaTwpv')^£g ^* evaioy, C!ktt ai}(Tvpoi 
fjLvp/ifjKec, avTputy ky ^vyolg ayrfXiotg. 
^y r ovdiy avTolg ovre xei/iarog Tetcfiap, 
ovT aydefiwcovg ^pogy ovre Kapirifiov 
Oepovg jBef^aioy, dW are/9 yyutfirfg to irdv 
eirpatTffoy, eg re Irj trfpiy ayroXag cyw 
6,<TTpiay ileila Tag re hvtTKplrovg hvtreig. 

(c) ^rjiCaii 6 irayTa yefxwy 

OsTt e/ji^ yydtfiif. Kparog ayTiwaXoy Zewc, 
fiTfh iXiyvtraifU Oeovg btriaig Ooiyaig TroTiviatroniva 
/3ov^oi'Oic Tra/o' 'iliceavoi/ irarpog avfiecrToy Tropov, 
/iiy^' aXiToifjii Xoyoig' 
/laXa fioi TOVT^ efifiiyoi 
icat /iZ/TTor* eKTaKtirj, 
ahv Ti OaparaXeaig 
TOV ^aKpoy Tsiveiy j^ioy kXtritri, ipayuic 
dvfioi' aX^aiyovtray kv txxppotrvyaig' <f>pi(T(ru ^i ai ^f/5" 
fjivpioig fjLOxdotg ZiaKyaiofiEvoy * * * 
7*9] va yap ov Tpofiiiity 
i^iq, yyw/KjL (xifiu 
OraTovg ayar, Upo/JiTjBev, 

2. Comment on — /m) jjiov irpoKtiBov fxatrtroy wc ^Z*^' 
yXvKV — fiovKoXog Ce yriyiviig aKpaTog 6pyt)v^ Apyoc 
— yijy -rrpo yfjg kXavyofxai — MoXoo'O'a lavtca— 
HeXaaryia — ol irpotricvyovyTeg rffy 'A^paorftar 

(70^0 /. 

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3. (a) Discuss the geopjaphy of iEschylus hs re- 

vealed in tbe Prometheus. 

{h) Write a brief essay on the story of Prometheus 
and its probable development. 

4. Give a short sketch of the characters of, and part 

played in the Proem by, Cephalus, Thrasymachus, 

5. Translate, with notes a> above — 

{(i) Wavv fjLey ovvy liv 3^ tyw. dXXa /lioc iti rotjovlt 
tiTTE' tI ftiyiuToy oiei ayadov avoXtXavkivai tov 
TToWriv ovtriav KeKrfivQai ; "O, ^ 3' iSc, lowq ovi: ar 
TToWovc TTEtaaifxt \iywv» (v yap 1,a6i, tt^riy & 
^uKpareCf on insi^ay rtc tyyi/c j? tov o'lttrdai 
TsXevTrioreiv, eltrepxerai avrw ^iog Kai ippoyrit; nepi 
«!' efiirpovdev ovk elapei. ot re yap Xtyo/icrot fjivdot 
Ttpl Tiiv kv" AtCoVy WQ TOV kvQoZe ahiKi}(ravTa lei 
EKei ^idoyai hUrfP, k'arayeXwfjiEyoi rt'wc, rore 3i) 
OTpii^overiy avrov r^r ypv^tfy fArj aXTjOtlg Sxrir^ Ka\ 
avTog iJTOi hiro rffg tov yrjpwg aorBeveiag i) i:a\ wtrvep 
<£«> rjhrj eyyvTEpio lay Twy eKEi fxaXXoy n KaQopq. 
avra, vTroipiag 3' ovv Kal heifiaTog fieaTog yiyrerai 
Kal ayaXoyiieTai ij^rf Kal vKOTreiy e'L Tiva tl iihiK-qKey. 

{h) Ba/3a/, ^v 3' kyut, 2) (ftiXt VXavKbtVj wg eppwfifywg 
tKOTtpov &ar7rep ay^piayTa tig Ttjv Kpitriy eKKadaipeic 
Toly av^poly. Clg fjidXitTT , e<l>ri, hvyafiai. ovtoiv 
he TOiovTOiyy ovlev fVt, wg ky<t)^aiy yaXetroy CTrcffX- 
dtiy 7W Xdy^, o\og eKciTtpoy fliog kiri/jiiyei. XekTkov 
oZy ' Kai ^ri Kay aypoiKorepiog XiyrfTai^ firf kfie oiov 
XiytiVy 2) ^wKpaTegf aXXa Tovg kTraii^vrrag irpo 
CiKaiotTvrric a^iKiav. kpovtri Ik Ta?£, on ovno 
liaKeifjieyog o ^iKowg iiaarnyijtrETaiy mpeflXwffeTaiy 
dtCri(T£Tai, kKKav6i]<TtTai TWifiSaXfiw, TeXevrwy Trayra 

X 2 

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KaKCL TraSwr aya<T')(^LV^\€v6rja£Tai Kai yvw^frat, on 
ovK elvai ^Uaiov ctXXa hoKeXv hi eSiXiiP* to U tov 
Al(r)(y\ov iroXv ^jr apa opdortpoy Xiytiy Kara tov 

(c) 01 de avToi ovtoi Xiyovtriv, wg eiffiy oloi BvffiaiQ 
Te Kai £V)(w\aTc ayavyaiv Kai ayadiifiatriv vapa- 
yeadai dyaTreiBoutyoi' otc fj kfAt^OTepa r\ ovheri^ 
iriiaTiov' li 3' ovy iruaTEOVy a^KrfTioy Kat Ovriov 
airo TUfV ahiKrifiaTwr. dUaioi fxey yap oyreg aiiifiioi 
fiey VTTO deCjy eao/jieday ra ^ ej a^Ktag Kep^ri airw 
ffofjieda' a^KOi h Kep^avovfiey te Kai Xiffffofuvoi 
v7repj3aiyoyTeg Kai d/io/oravovrcc veldoyTeg ahrovQ 
airifiioi airaXXa^ofiey, dWa yap £y''Athov ^kqv 
^wao/ji£v u)y ay iydahe a^Kriaw/Jiey, ff avroc rj iralfe 

6. Translate, with notes on grammatical peculiarities— 

(a) eXBeltrOai ovy fifjidg ttoXv fxaXXoy elKog koTiv vov 
viro vfjiioy Toty BeiyfSjy rj ^aXcTratVccdo*. 

(h) yvy^ iiy S' cyw, cftaOov o Xiytig* 
(c) irpog TavTa KaKovpyti Kai ffVKofavTei, el ti ^vvavai. 
ov^y (TOV irapiefiai' dW oh /jli) olog t ^yg» 

{d) T0VTU}y ^e nayTiiiy ol wept dewy te Xoyoi KOi 
apeTTJg OavfiatriufTaToi Xiyoyrai, wc apa koX dm 
iroXXolg fxey ay adolg ^varv^^iag te Kai f^ioy KaKov 
eysifiay, To7g 5* kyayTioig iyayjCay fiolpay* 

(e) OvKovyy ^y d^ eyw, to XsyofiEyoy, aheXtpog avlpi 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1. Translate, with brief notes (in the margin) where 
you think them called for — 
{a) Quod superest, ubi pulsam hiemem Sol 
aureus egfit 
Sub terras caelunaque aestiva luce reclusit, 
Illae continue saltus silvasque peragrant 
Purpureosque metunt ilores et flumina libant 
Summa leves. Hinc nescio qua dulcedine 

Progeniem nidosque fovent, hinc arte recentis 
Excudunt ceras et mella tenacia fin^unt. 
Hinc ubi iam emissum caveis ad sidera caeli 
Nare per aestatem liquidam suspexeris agmen 
Obscuramque trahi vento mirabere nubem, 
{b) Saepe etiam duris errando in cotibus alas 
Attrivere, ultroque animam sub fasce dedere : 
Tantus amor florum et generandi gloria mellis. 
Ergo ipsas qua m vis angusti terminus aevi 
Excipiat (neque enim plus septuma ducitur 

At genus immortale manet multosque per 

Stat Fortunadomus etavi numerantur avorum. 
(c) Exiguus primum atque ipsos contractus ad 


Eligitur locus ; hunc angustique imbrice tecti 
Parietibusque premunt artis et quattuor 

Quattuor a ventis obliqua luce fenestras. 

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Turn vitulus bima curvans iam cornua fronte 
Quaeritur; huic oreminae nares et spiritua oris 
Multa reluctant! obstruitur, plag^isque perempto 
Tunsa per integram solvnntur viscera pellem. 

2. Explain — aerii mellis — numina laeva — Phrygiae 

Idae — mella durum Bacchi domitura saporem — 
biferi rosaria Paesti — siletur in noctem — Med us 
Hydaspes — esse apibus partem divinae mentis et 
haiistus aetherios dixere — animas in volnere 
ponunt — defruta — Cecropium thymum — leves 
Parthi — manibus Procne pectus sig-nata 

3. State the exact meaning of the words italicised in 

liquidi fontes — graviter spirantis thymhrae — 
raras superinice frondes— 7/mc*o« sonitus imitata 
tubarum — horridus desidia — niger Galaesus — 
eduram pirum — ^fessos sopor suus occttpat artus. 

4. Translate, with notes as abov*" — 

{a) contracta pisces aequora sentinnt 

iactis in altum molibus; hue frequens 
caementa demittit redemptor 
cum famuiis dominusque terrae 
fasti diosus. sed Timor et Minae 
scandunt eodem, quo dominus, neque 
decedit aerata triremi et 

post equitem sedet atra Cura. 
quod si dolentetn nee Phrygius lapis . 
nee purpui-aruTO sidere clarior 
delenit usus nee Falerna 

vitis Achaemeniiimquft costum, 
cur invidendis postibus et novo 
sublime ritu moliar atrium ? 
cur valle permutem Sabina 
divitias operosiores ? 

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(h) Qnantum distet ab Inacbo 

Codrus pro patria non tiroidus mori 
oarras et genus Aeaci 

et pngiiata sacro beUa sub Ilio : 
quo Chium pretio cadam 

mercemur, quis aquam temperet i^ibus, 
quo praebente domam et quota 

Paelig;nis c»ream ingoribus, taces. 

(c) eradenda cupidinis 

pravi sunt elementa et tenerae nimis 
mentes asperioribus 

formandae studiis. nescit equo rudis 
haerere ing-enuus puer 

venarique timet, ludere doctior, 
seu Graeco iubeas trocho 

sen mails vetita lej^ibus alea. 

5. Explain — cenae sine aulaeis et ostro — si ture 

placaris et horna fnige Lares — Socraticis madet 
sermonibus — Maecenas, equituin decus— capitis 
minor — pharetratos Gelonos — Philippis versa 
acies retro— descendat in Campum petitor. 

6. Give the exact sense (or senses) of — pius — arbusta 

— rudis — purpureas — ferox — lyra — cyathus — 
pauperies — regum apices. 

?. Discuss briefly the merits and the originality of 
Homce as a writer of lyrics. 

8. Translate, with notes as above — 

(a) Simul cvescit inopia omnium longa obsidione 
et rainuitur expectatio externae opis, cum tam 
procul Romani, unica spes, circa omnia hostium 
essent panlisper tamen adfectos animos recreavit 

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repentina profectio Hannibalis in Oretanos Car- 
petanosque^ qui duo populi dilectus acerbitate 
coDsternati, retentis conquisitoribus metum de- 
fectionis cum praebuissent, oppressi celeritate 
Hannibalis omiserunt mota arma. nee Sagunti 
oppugnatio segnior erat, Maharbale Himilconis 
filio-— eum praefecerat Hannibal — ita inpigre 
rem agente, ut ducem abesse nee cives nee 
hostes sentirent. 

(b) Taetra ibi luctatio erat via lubriea glaeie non 
reeipiente vestigium et in prono eitius pedes 
fallente, ut, seu manibus in adsurgendo sen genu 
se adiuvissenty ipsis adminieulis prolapsis iterum 
coiTuerent ; nee stirpes cirea radieesve, ad quas 
pede aut manu quisquam eniti posset, erant; 
ita in levi tantum glacie tabidaque nive voluta- 
bantur. iumenta seeabant interdum etiam in- 
fimam ingredientia nivem, et prolapsa iaetandis 
gravius in eonitendo ungulis penitus perfringe- 
bant, ut pleraque veliit pedica capta haererent 
in dura et alte concreta glaeie. 

(e) Erat' forte brumae tempus et nivalis dies in locis 
Alpibus Appenninoque interiectis, propinquitate 
etiam fluminum ae paludium praegelidis. ad 
hoe raptim eductis hominibus atque equis non 
eapto ante cibo, non ope uUa ad areendum 
frigus adhibita, nihil ealoris inerat, et quidquid 
aurae fluminis adpropinquabant, adflabat acrior 
frigoris vis. ut vero refugientes Numidas in- 
sequeutes aquam ingressi sunt — et erat pec- 
toribus tenus aucta nocturno imbri, — turn utique 
egressis rigere omnibus corpora, ut vix armorum 
tenend crura potentia essent, et simul lassitudine 
et proeedente iam die fame etiam defieere. 

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9. Translate with notes on grammatical difficulties — 

(a) Circumscribit includitque nos terminis mon- 

tium fluminumque quos non excedamus. 

(b) Locum iusidiis circumspectare. 

(c) Vestitus nihil inter aequales excellens. 

(d) Munimento ad tempus. 

(c) Exercitum in reficiendo maxime sentientem 

contracta ante mala. 
(/) Hand dubia res visa, quin per invia circa nee 

trita antea quamvis longo ambitu circumduceret 


10. Explain — 

(a) Sardos Corsosque et Histros atque Illyrios 
lacessisse magis quam exercuisse Romana 

(5) Lectisternium Caere, ubi sortes attenuatae. 

11. Explain — sublatis armamentis ; occidente iam 

sidere Yergiliarum ; luppiter Latiaris ; bello 
integro ; nomen Latinum ; stipendium ; subinde. 

V2. Indicate on a rough map the positions of the 
rivers Padus, Ticinus, Trebia, also Victumulae, 
Augusta Taurinorum, Placentia, Mutina, the 
Boii and Insubres. 

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The Board of Uxaviiners, 

1. Translate, with notes in the margin where you think 
them needed — 

(a) Corpora sunt porro partim primordia rerum, 
partim concilio quae constant principiorum. 
sed quae sunt rerum primordia, nulla potest vin 
stinguere ; nam solido vincunt ea corpore 

etsi difficile esse videtur credere quicquam 
in rebus solido reperiri corpore posse, 
transit enira fulmen caeli per saepta domorum, 
clamor ut ac voces ; ferrum candescit in igni 
dissiliuntque fero ferventia saxa vapore ; 
turn labefactatus rigor auri solvitur aestu ; 
turn glacies aeris ilamma devicta liquescit ; 
permanat calor argentum penetraleqne fi-igus, 
quando utrumque manu retinentes pocula rite 
sensimus infuse lympharum rore superne. 
usque adeo in rebus solidi nil esse videtur. 

(6) ^' At saepe in magnis dt montibus " inqui^ 
^* ut aliis 
arboribus vicina cacumina summa teiimtur 
inter se, validis facere id cogentibus austris, 
donee flammai fulserunt flore coorto." 
scilicet et non est lignis tamen insitus ignis, 
verum semina sunt ardoris multa, terendo 
quae cum confluxere, creant incendia silvis. 
quod si facta foret silvis abscondita flamma, 
non possent ullum tempus celarier ignes, 
conficerent volgo silvBs, arbusta cremarent. 

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2. Translate (as above) — 

(a) Mollis inertia cur tantam diffuderit imis 

Oblivionem sensibus, 
Pocula Lethaeos ut si ducentia somnos 

Arente fauce traxerim, 
Gandide Maecenas, occidis saepe rogando : 

Dens, Deus nam me vetat 
Inceptos, olim promissum carmen, iambos 

Ad umbilicum adducere. 
Non aliter Samio dicunt arsisse Bathyllo 

Anacreonta Teium, 
Qui persaepe cava testudine flevit amorem 

Non elaboratum ad pedem. 

(b) Interdum speciosa locis morataque recte 
Fabula nullius Veneris, sine pondere et arte, 
Valdius oblectat populum meliusque moratur 
Quam versus inopes rerum nugaeque canorae. 
Graiis irigenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo 
Musa loqui, praeter laudem nullius avaris. 
Homani pueri longis rationibus assem 
Discunt in partes centum diducere. Dicat 
Filius Albini, " Si de quincunce remota est 
Uncia, quid superat?" Poteras dixisse, 

"Triens." "Eu! 
Rem poteris servare tuam. Redit uncia, quid 

*' Semis/' 

(c) Et tra^icus plerumque dolet sermone pedestri 
Telephus et Peleus,cum pauper et exsul uterque 
Proicit ampullas et sesquipedalia verba, 

Si curat cor spectantis tetigisse querella. 

3. Translate (as above) — 

(a) Noster autem status est hie : apud bonos lidem 
sumus, quos reliquisti, apud sordem urbis et 

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faecem multo melius nunc^ quam cum reliquisti : 
nam et illud nobis non obest, videri nostrum 
testimonium non valuisse : missus est sanguis 
invidiae sine dolore, atque etiam hoc magis, 
quod omnes illi fautores illius flagitii rem mani- 
festam illam redemptam esse a iudicibus 
confitentur ; accedit illud, quod ilia contionalis 
hirudo aerarii, tnisera ac ieiuna plebecula, me 
ab hoc Magno unice diligi putat, et hercule 
multa et iucunda consuetudine coniuncti inter 
nos sumus, usque eo, ut nostri isti comissatores 
coniurationis, barbatuli iuvenes, ilium in 
sermonibus Cn. Ciceronem appellent. 

(6) In tribunis pi. designatis reliqua spes est; 
quam si exspectaro, non erit, quod putes me 
causae meae, voluntati meorum defuisse. Quod 
me saepe accusas, cur hunc meum casum tam 
graviter feram, debes ignoseere, cum ita me 
adflictum videas, ut neminem umquam nee 
videris nee audieris. Nam quod scribis te audire 
me etiam mentis errore ex dolore adfici, mihi 
vero mens integra est. Atque utinam tam in 
periculo fuisset ! cum ego iis, quibus meam 
salutem carissimam esse arbitrabar, inimicissimis 
crudelissimisque usus sum, qui, ut me paulum 
inclinari timore viderunt, sic impulerunt, ut 
omni suo scelere et perfidia abuterentur ad 
' exitium meum. 

4. Translate, with explanatory notes — 

(n) Tribuni non tam aerati quam, ut apellantur, 

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(£) Quaeres scilicet Kara to Kr^hfioviKov et ad me 
ab eo quasi vwoOiiKag adferes, quern ad n^odum 
me geram ; aliquid ex eius sermone poterimus 
vepl Ttav oXutv suspicari. 

(c) Dignitatis &\ig, tamquam hpvoi:, 

(d) Nam et stipendium Caesari decretum est et 
decem legati, et ne lege Sempronia succederetur, 
facile perfectum est. 

5. Write short grammatical notes on— 

(a) Dum veritus est. (b) Vixinius, iloruimus. 
(c) Quod si conficitur uegotium, ^omnia 
consequemur. (d) Nam si spes inveterarit, 
actum est. (e) Id ei perpetua oratione contigit. 
(/ ) Neque ullius beneficii certum nomen peto. 
(g) Qui istinc veniunt, superbiam tuam accusant, 
quod negent te percontantibus respondere. 

6. Indicate in a rough map the positions of^ — Upper 

and Lower Germany — Colonia Agrippina — the 
Lingones — the Cottian and Pennine Alps — 
Forum Julii — Albintimilium — Rhaetia — 
Nor i cum. 

7. Explain fully — cohortes alaeqiie — septum a decuma 

cohors — cohors togata — legatus — procurator — 
praefectus legionis — speculator — Tiberinus 
amnis — optio — vacationes. 

8. Comment on — vir facundus et pacis artibus — 

linguae feroces — ezsoluturum promisit, rem 
hand dubie utilem — non tamen quies urbi 
redierat — locum castris capere — saepe honestas 
rerum causas, ni indicium adhibeas, perniciosi 
exitus consequnntur. 

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9. Translate, with notes, and pointing" out non- 
Ciceronian words or constructions — 

(a) Quarta pars manipuli sparsa per commeatus 
aut in ipsis castris vaga^dum mercedem centurioni 
exsolveret, neque modum oneris quisquam neque 
genus quaestus pensi habebat: per latrocinia 
et raptus aut servilibus ministeriis militare otium 
redimebant. turn locupletissimus quisque miles 
labore ac saevitia fatig-ari donee vacationem 
emeret. ubi sumptibusesLhaustus socordia insuper 
elanguerat, inops {)ro locuplete et iners pro 
strenuo in manipulum redibat ; ac rursus alius 
srtque alius eadem egestate ac licentia corrupti 
ad seditiones et discordias et ad extremum bella 
civilia ruebant. 

(b) Non fallebat duces impetus militum, sed 
bellantibus aliis placuit expectari. bellum ruere 
in victores victosque, numquam solida fide 
coalescere ; nee referre, Vitellium an Othonem 
superstitem fortuna faceret. rebus secundis etiam 
egregios duces insolescere: discordiam his, 
ignaviam, luxuriem ; et suismet vitiis alterum 
bello, alterum victoria periturum. igitur arma 
in occasionem distulere, Vespasianus Mucianus- 
que nuper, ceteri olim mixtis consiliis ; optimus 
quisque amore rei publieae, multos dulcedo prae- 
darum stimulabat, alios ambiguae domi res. 

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The Board of Examinefs. 

1. Translate into Greek Prose — 

When the Greeks lost heart at the sig^ht of the 
multitude of their enemies, a brave Phoksean 
(^(DKauvg), named Dionysius, promised them 
victory if they would obey his commands. The 
lonians obeyed, and during seven days Dionysius 
made them practise (/ucXcraoi) for the battle all 
the day till night. But on the eighth day, 
such was their indolence (p^Ovnia) and love 
of pleasure that they left the ships, and lay 
down under the trees in the island. In the 
meantime, in accordance with the commands of 
the Persian generals, the tyrants were trying to 
persuade the leieiders of the lonians to desert, 
when the battle should be fought, promising them 
that the king of Persia would pardon them ; and 
the Persians, thinking that the tyrants had 
succeeded, ordered the Phoenicians to attack at 
once. The Greeks, were, however, again on 
board their ships ; but when they were about to 
make a last struggle for freedom, a shameful 
thing befel. Before a blow was struck, forty- 
nine out of the sixty ships of the Samians sailed 

2. Translate accurately into good English — 

X6^^ airi'^ovTi t^q ttoAcwc o^c irivre (TToZia, irpb tyjq 
X^pag ovTiy 6iru)Q airorifivoiTO ivrevQiVy et tiq ettl 
TTJy ')^wpav TUfv KopKvpalwy if/ot* to li vavriKov e\q 

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raTTi darepa riJQ iroXewg KaretTTpaTove^evireyf eydev 
^er ar ra irpoairXioyra Kai Trpoaiadavftrdai icat 
^laKbjXveiv, irpoQ ht. tovtoiq jcai ktri rj? Xifjiivi, owore 
firi \eifjiiov KuXvoiy l(f>iipfA€t, kiroXiopKU fjiev Btf ovTia 
rfiy iroXiv. eirei B* ol KopKvpaloi ek /xiy r^c yVQ 
ovhev kXafxfiavov hik to Kpareladai Kara yfjr, icara 
daXarray 2' ov^ey ciiri/ycro avTOig Bia to yav 
KpaTe7(rdaif ky troXXj^ airopiq, iiaav, Ka\ vefiiroyTtQ 
vpoQ ToifQ* AdrfyalovQ fiorfOe^y r klioyro Koi ihihavKoy 
u)g fj-iya fxey ayaBov avofiaXotev av, el KopKvpag 
areprjOeieyy toIq ^e iroXefiioig fxeyaXr}y ay iir\vy Trpofr- 
l3aXoLey' k^ ov^efiiag yap ttoXcwc TrXify y *Adriy&y 
ovre ravQ oijTt yprffxara irXeioya ay yeykffSai, 


The Board of Examiners, 

1. Translate into Latin — 

Greece was saved, but the p^eneral who had 
saved it perished miserably. Miltiades had been 
twenty years a tyrant, and he now wished to 
employ the forces of Athens like a tyrant instead 
of a citizen. He persuaded the people to give 
him command of a fleet, without telling them for 
what purpose; and out of private enmity he 
attacked the island of Paros. But as the Parians 
made a desperate defence, Miltiades found that 
he could do nothing. At last a priestess, wishing 
to betray the city, sent word to Miltiades to 
come secretly to her temple. Miltiades tried 
to climb into the temple by night, but fell and 
wounded his leg. And now, after twenty-six 

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days' command, he returned to Athens with no- 
thing- done. He was accused of deceiving the 
people, and was sentenced to pay a heavy fine. 
His property being* in the hands of the Persians, 
he could pay nothing, and, his wound mortifying, 
he died in dishonour. 

2. Translate accurately into good English — 

Dum baec Yeiis agebantur, interim arx Romae 
Capitoliumque in ingenti periculo fuit. Namque 
Galli, seu vestigio notato humano, qua nuntius a 
Veiis pervenerat, seu sua sponte animadverso 
saxorum ascensu aequo, nocte sublustri, cum 
primo inermem,qui temptaret viam,praemi8issent, 
sublevantes in vicem et trahentes alii alios, prout 
postularet locus, tan to silentio in sum mum 
evasere ut non custodes solum fallerent sed ne 
canes quidem — soUicitum animal ad nocturnos 
strepitus — excitarent. Anseres non fefellere, 
quibus sacris lunonis in summa inopia cibi 
tamen abstinebatur : quae res saluti fuit : 
namque clangore eorum alarumque crepitu 
excitus M. Manlius, qui triennio ante consul 
fuerat, vir bello egregius, armis arreptis vadit 
et, dum ceteri trepidant, Galium, qui iam in 
summo constiterat, umbone ictum deturbat. 
Cuius casus cum proximos sterneret, trepi- 
dantes alios armisque omissis saxa, quibus 
adhaerebant, manibus amplexos trucidant. 
lamque et alii congregati telis missilibusque 
saxis proturbare hostes, ruinaque tota prolapsa 
acies in praeceps deferri. Sedato deinde tumultu 
reliquum noctis — quantum in turbatis mentibus 
poterat, cum praeteritum quoque periculum 
Rollicitaret — quieti datum est. 

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Skcond Year. 

Professor Tucker. 

1 . Describe and illustrate the morphological methods 

of Mexican, Magyar, Malay, Zulu, Chinese. 
Point out any resemblance of principle under- 
lying the dissimilarity. 

2. Take an area including Asia Minor, Persia, Arabia, 

and the northern half of Africa^ and state what 
languages are or have been spoken within it. If 
possible place them on an outline map. Name 
the families to which they respectively belong, 
and state their morphological classification. 

8. (a) Describe the production of each of the sounds 
actually heard in the words king, porridge, 
heard^ table. Give diagrams for each of those 
in king, 
{h) Write phonetically the words which form the 
headings to this paper. 

(c) Explain (for one previously ignorant of the 
matter) the exact part played by the vocal 
chords in speech or singing. 

4. Write a full and clear account of the development 

of Italian from Latin and of Danish from 

5. (a) Write a concise essay on phonetic change and 

its causes. 

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(b) What causes have prevented the English 
language (for example) from showing entire 
regulaiitj of " phonetic laws " ? 

6. Discuss fully the expression " Latin Race " as 

applied to speakers of Romance tongues. 

7. Write an essay on the application of scientific 

principles to the etymology of words. 

FRENCH.— Part I. 

First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 
I. Version. 

1. Traduisez {ni trop litteralement ni trop librement) ; 

(a) Jean-Ir6nee, our gardener at the lodge, does 
little work for us save plant and tend the kitchen- 
garden, whose produce he shares, and mow the 
lawns and orchard — ^when he de^ms the grass 
long enough to feed his cows. He labours for 
us until noon ; after midday he is on his own 
account, a busy man, and a small farmer in his 
way, with four cows, a cart, and four tiny fields 
of his own well chosen, scattered in different 
enclosures and hollows of the mountain. We 
give him his house, an acre of grass or two, his 
garden, and stabling for his cows and pigs ; in 
addition, he has some £20 of wages and itrennes, 

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80 that he is well off, for Olmet, where even a 
houvier-grand, that important person and main- 
stay of a farm, the head cowhoy, earns barely 
£17 a year. 

(6) Too passionate to be impartial, his Memoirs 
nevertheless present a livino; picture of his time 
as a whole. They abound in portraits which 
were then coming into fashion, and in political 

II. Traduction. 

1. Traduisez : 

(a) Voltaire, qui aimait la vie et qui savait la remplir, 
marque un profond m^pris pour le suicide. II 
comprend, sans les excuser tout k fait, les sui- 
cides des anciens "qui preferent une mort 
volontaire k la vie ; " mais il ajoute tout de 
suite: "Nous nous tuons aussi nous autres ; 
mais c'est quand nous avons perdu notre argent 
ou dans Texc^s trds rare d'une folle passion pour 
un objet qui n*en vaut pas la peine. J'ai connu 
des femmes qui se sont tuees pour les plus sots 
hommes du monde." Remarquez-vous ce mot 
presque prodigieux. C'est le suicide envisage 
par quelqu'un qui n'a pas, un seul jour de sa vie, 
compris la melancolie, ni m^me la passion. 
Comme si sottise ou esprit, et d'une fa^on 
g^n^rale le m^rite personnel, avaient quoi que 
ce soit k voir aux choses d'amour. Les causes de 
I'amour sont ailleurs : " La cause en est un je ne 
sais quoi," disait Pascal, plus psychologue que 
Voltaire. Le merite de Tetre aime n'est pour 
. '•ien dans Taffection de I'^tre aimant, voil^ 
^' W ixiome dont il faut toujours partir quand on 
^^ onne sur les passions. 

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(h) Sa politique 

Est d'etre toujours grave envers un domestique. 
S'il lui disait un mot, il croirait s'abaisser ; 
£t qu*un valet lui parle, il le fera chasser. 
Enfin, pour 6baucber en deux mots sa peinture, 
C'est I'homme le plus vain qu'ait produit la nature. 
Pour ses inferieui's plein d'un mepris choquant, 
Avec ses 6gaux m^me il prend Pair important. 
Si fier de ses aieux, si fier de sa noblesse, 
Qu'il croit ^tre ici bas le seul de son esp^ce ; 
Persuade d'ailleurs de son babilet^, 
Et d^cidant sur tout avec an tori t^ ; 
Se croyant en tout genre un m^rite supreme, 
Dedaignant tout le monde,' et s'admirant lui 

En un mot, des mortels le plus imperieux, 
Et le plus suffisant et le plus glorieux. 

III. Syntaxe Compar^e. 
R4pondez en anglais aux questions suivantes : 
(a) Qu'en tend-on par Sjntaxe formelle et Syntaxe 
logique. Leur relation est-elle la m^me dans les 
langues modernesque dans les langues anciennes? 
(J) Comment doit-on traduire en frangais les 
verbes anglais, qui sont ^troitement lies k 
I'adverbe suivant ; Par exemple : 
to go out, 
to come away, 
to take off, 
to take down, etc. 
Donnez d'autres exemples que vous pourriejs 
savoir ! 
(c) Montrez, au moyen d'exemples, pourquoi les 
mots abstraits sont plus rares en francais qu'en 

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FRENCH.— Part I. 

Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Prescribkd Authors. 

1. Traduisez {en soignant le style et la precision des 
expressions) : 
(a) Lews banquets ne se terminaient gudre sans 
bataille. La cuisse de la bete appartenait au 
plus brave, et chacun voulait etre le plus brave. 
Leur grand plaisir, aprds celui de se battre, c'etait 
d^entourer I'etranger, de le faire asseoir, bon gre 
mal gre, avec eux, de lui faire dire des histoires 
de terres lointaines. Ces barbares etaient insati- 
ablement avides et curieux ; ils faisaient la 
presse des Strangers, les enlevaient des marches 
et des routes, et les foigaient de parler. Eux- 
m^mes parleurs terribles, infatigables, abondants 
en figures, solennels et burlesquement graves 
dans leur prononciation gutturale^ c*6tait une 
affaire dans leurs asaemblees que de maintenir 
la parole k Torateur au milieu des interruptions. 

(6) A la manidre dont les joues rentraient en 
continuant la bouche, on devinaitque le vieillard 
edente s'adressait plus souvent au tonneau qu'^ 
la huchec Sa barbe blanche, clairsemee, donnait 
quelque chose de menagant h son profil par la 
raideur des poils coupes court. Ses yeux, trop 
petits pour son enorme visage, inclines comme 
ceux du cochon^ exprimaient k la fois la ruse et 
la paresse; mais en ce moment ils jetaient 
comme une lueur, tant le regard jaillissait droit 
sur la riviere. Pour tout v^tement ce pauvre 

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homme portait nne vieiile blouse, autrefois bleue, 
et un pantalon de cette toile g^rossidre qui sert 
k Paris k faire des emballa^es. Tout citadin 
aurait fremi de lui voir aux pieds des sabots casses, 
sans mdme un peu de paiile pour en adoucir les 
crevasses. Assurement, la blouse et le ^wntalon 
n'avaient de valeur que pour la cuve d'une 

Pension bourgeoise des detix sexes et autres. 

. •••• •••• 

L' etude 6tait une grande pi^ce ornee du po^le 
classique qui gar nit tons les antres de la chicane. 

Quelques habitues se couldrent famili^rement 
dans I'assemblee, ainsi que deux ou trois fils de 
famille, pares comme des ch&sses, heureux d'avoir 
et6 convies. 

{c) Pour ^tre complet, if eAt dh. 6tre ignare, 
gourmand et Idche. Mais loin de \k, il 6tait fort 
savant, tr^s sobre et follement courageux. 11 
avait toutes les g:randes qualites de I'dme, jointes 
k un caract^re insupportable et k un contente- 
ment de lui m^me qui allait jusqu'au d^lire. II 
avait les id^es les plus absolues, les mani^res les 
plus rudes, le langage le plus outrecuidant. 
. Mais quel devouement, quel z^le, quelle ^me 
g^n^reuse et sensible ! Pauvre grand homme ! 
Comme je t'ai pardonne tes persecutions ! 

{d) Nous arrivdmes k une contr^ oti le soleil ne 
se couchait plus. Pdle et elargi, cet astre 
tournait tristement autour d'un ciel glac6 ; de 
rares animaux erraient sur des montagnes 

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inconnues. D'un c6t^ s'^tendaient des champs 
de glace, contre lesquels se brisait une mer 
d^color^e ; de I'autre, s'^levait UDe terre hdve et 
nue, qui n'offrait qu'une morne succession de 
baies solitaires et de caps decharn^s. Nous 
cherchions quelquefois un asile dans des trous de 
rochers, d'oi les aigles marins s'envolaient avec 
de grands cris. J'^coutais alors le bruit des 
yents rep6t& par les ecbos de la caverne, pt le 
g^missement des glaces qui se fendaient sur 
la rive. 

Si tu n'es pas un dieu cach6 sous la forme 
d'un mortel, tu es sans donte un Stranger que 
les Satjres ont egare com me moi dans les bois. 
Dans quel port est entre ton vaisseau ? Viens- 
tu de Tyr, si c^l^bre par la richesse de ses 
marchands ? Viens-tu de la charmante Corinthe, 
oil tes h6tes t'auraient fait d» riches presents ? 

Les questions suivantes peuvent se traiter en atiglais, 

2. Commentez les 4 morceaux precedents (a), {b\ (c), 

(d), en ce qui concerne les ouvrages auxquels 
ils appartiennent, ainsi que leurs auteurs. 
Indiqtiez les personnages ou les ^venements dont 
ils font mention, et commentez dans ia marge 
les mots en italique. 

3. Expliquez pourquoi 6. Sand est plut6t id^aliste 

que romantique. Indiquez ceux de ses ouvrages 
qui appartiennent k I'une ou k Tautre de ces 
6coles^ Quelles qualit^s vons ont frapp^ dans 
son style? 

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4. Ed quoi Chateaubriand compldte-t-il Poeuvre de 

Mme. de Stael ? Montrez les diff^rentes ten- 
dances litt^raires que yous avez pu remarquer 
dans les Natchez, le G^nie du Chris tianisme et 
les Martyrs. 

5. Decrivez bridvement les d^fauts et qualites de 

Michelet comine historien — Montrez le rdle que 
cet ^crivain, Balzac et Daudet ont joue et 
Tinfluence qu'il ont exerc^edans leurs didSrentes 
spheres litter aires. 

FRENCH.— Part I. 

Third Paper. 


The Board of Examiners. 

Les r^ponses peuvent se /'aire en anglais. 

Trtiitez seulement cinq des questions suivantes; mais 
avez soin de comprendre toujours dans votre 
choix les questions (a), (c) (/). 


(a) Qu'entendez-vous par Roman pastoral et 
Roman r^aliste ? Comparez ces deux genres et 
donnez les noms des auteurs et les titres des 
ouvrages qui en sont les meilleurs exemple^. 
Traitez h fond cette question. 

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(6) Quel est le r61e de Voltaire dans Thistoire du 
Homan ? Ed quoi di£F^re-t-il de J. J. Rousseau 
et de Lesage dans cette branche de la litt^rature ? 

(c) Quelles sent les qualit^s sp^ciales qui consti- 
tuent la superiority litteraire de Commines. 
de Voltaire et de Michelet sur les autres 
historiens fran^ais ? Donnez une id^e du style 
de chacun de ces ecrivains ; 6num6rez leurs 
ouvrages et indiquez I'influence qu*ils ont pu 
exercer sur leurs contemporains and leurs 

(d) D6crivez bri^vement TEncy eloped ie et indiquez, 
avec quelques details precis, les principaux 
ecrivains qui y ont contribue. 

(e) En quoi les Ecrivains anglais Richardson, 
Walter Scott, and G. Elliot sont-ils importants en 
ce qui concerne Tetude du Roman en France ? 

(/) Montrez longuenaent Timportance des M^moires 
de Brant6me, de Montluc, de St. Simon and de de 

(g) Ecrivez une note detaiI16e sur chacun des 
ecrivains suivants : Froissart, G. Sand, Mme de 
la Fayette, De Tocqueville, Montesquieu — 
Mettez ces ecrivains dans I'ordre voulu* 


(a) Montrez que le celtique a laisse bien des 
traces dans le frangais moderne, contrairement 
k ce que pr^tendent certains ecrivains. 

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ENGLISH.— Pakt I. 
First Paper. 
Mr. Murdoch. 

1. Summarise the differences between Early and 

Modern English, with respect to inflexion of 
Noun, Adjective, and Verb. 

2. Account ibr the great influx of French words into 

the English Language towards the close of the 
Thirteenth Century. 

3. Explain tersely — 
(a) My foot my tutor. 

(h) ... No hope that way is 

Another way so high a hope that even 
Ambition cannot pierce a wink beyond, 
But doubt discovery there. 

(c) His word is more than the miraculous harp. 

{d) . . . bring a corollary 

Hather than want a spirit. 

(e) ... I will pay thy graces 

Home both in word and diBed. 

(/) This is the tune of onr catch, played by the 
picture of Nobody. 

4. Explain the phrases, — By'r lakin — forthrights 

and meanders — one dowle that's in mv plume — 
Mars's hot minion — an excellent pass of pate — 
this wooden slavery. 

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6. Write concise notes on — 

(a) Must I go show them my unbarb'd sconce ? 

(b) The thing: I have forsworn to grant may never 
Be held by you denials. 

(e) A pair of tribunes that have rack'd for Rome, 
To make coals cheap. 

{d) Take to you, as your predecessors have, 
^our honour with your form. 

(e) ... If he have power 

Then vail your ignorance ; if none, awake 
Your dangerous lenity. If you are learn'd 
Be not as common fools ; if you are not. 
Let them have cushions by you. 

6. Explain the following words as used in Coriolanus : 

— tetter, kam, cog, absolute, factionary, lurch, 
cautelous, practice, atone. 

7. Explain the following phrases, with reference to 

their context : — Warping on the eastern wind — 
Am ram's son — that approbrious hill — gay 
religions — Thammuz yearly wounded — Javan's 
issue — sons of Belial — bands of pioners — sub- 
limed with mineral fury. 

8. Comment upon — 

(a) Came ye on none but phantoms in your quest. 
No man, no woman? 

(6) I saw the spiritual city, and all her spires 
And gateways in a glory like one pearl. 

(c) And on the splendour came, flashing me blind ; 
And seem'd to me the Lord of all the world, 
Being so huge. 

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(d) Knights that in twelve great battles splash'd 

and dyed 
The strong White Horse in his own heathen 

(e) Behold, the enchanted towers of Carbonek. 

9. Quote examples of — 
(a) Plays on wordsy from Milton, 
(i) Latinisms ofvocabulary^ from Milton. 
(e) Alliteration, from Tennyson. 

10. Give a very short account of each of the following 
persons mentioned by Johnson : — Dennis, Curll, 
Theobald, Gibber, Tickell, Atterbury, Arbuthnot. 

ENGLISH.— Paet I. 

Second Paper. 

Mr, Murdoch. 

1. Give the substance of Johnson's criticism of the 

Essay on Man. 

2. What does Johnson mean bj the term " repre-: 

sentative metre " ? What is his opinion in the 
matter ? 

3. What opinion of Richard I., as a king, would you 

form from Ivanhoe ? 

4. Are we justified in drawing any conclusion from 

Coriolanus as to Shakespeare's political opinions ? 

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6. What is meant by " internal evidence " with regard 
to the chronology of Shakespeare's plays ? 
Illustrate by The Tempest^ or Goriolaivus, 

6. Discuss the originality of Tennyson's treatment of 

the Grail legend. 

7. Divide Milton's life into three periods, and describe 

one characteristic work of each period. 

8. Write a short essay on the character of Miranda. 

First Paper. 
Mr. Murdoch, 

1. Explain the following phrases: — Now is he total 
gules— the triumph of his pledge — the first row 
of the pious chanson — I eat the air, promise- 
crammed — as flush as May — goes it against the 
main of Poland ? — on mount of all the age — 
the dram of eaie. 

9. Discuss Goethe's account of Hamlet's character, 
and compare it with Coleridge's account. 

3. Comment on — 

{a) I will from henceforth rather be myself. 
Mighty and to be fear'd, than my condition. 

{b) Shall we buy treason ? and indent with fears« 
When they have lost and forfeited themselves ? 

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(c) He apprehends a world of figui*es here, 
But not the form of what he should attend. 

(d) Burgomasters and great oneyers, such as can 

hold in. 

{e) Happy man be his dole, say I. 

{f) He of Wales, that gave Amamon the 

4. What is meant by the term dramazic irony ? 

Illustrate from King Henry IV.<, Fart /. 

5. Give the substance of Dryden's comparison of 

English with French drama. 

6. Give the substance of Dryden's account of 

7. Quote from Gray examples of (a) periphrasis, (b) 

Latinism of diction, (c) obscurity due to inver- 

8. What, according to Macaulay, were Addison's 

most striking qualities as an essayist ? Discuss 
Macaulay's estimate of Addison. 

9. In what respects did Burke, in his Reflections^ 

prove himself a true prophet ? 

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Second Paper. 

Mr. Murdoch, 


1. Give a concise account of the work of Geoflrey of 

Monmouth, Lajamon, Orm, Wace, and Occleve. 

2. Write a short account of the Elizabethan novel. 

3. Who were the principal English dramatists before 

Shakespeare ? Name one work by each. 

4. Write a note on — 

{a) Dryden's work in prose. 
{b) Johnson's work in verse. 

5. Give a short description of one work by each of the 

following : — Hooker, Walton, Sir Thomas 
Browne, Hume^ Goldsmith, Cowper, Campbell. 

Write an essay on one of the following subjects :— 
(a) Tragedy. 

Qi) The meaning of " Romance." 
{e) Didactic Poetry. 

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EDUCATION.— Section A. 
Supplementary Paper. 
The Board of Examiners. 

1. What advantages are to be gained from a study of 

Parker's work ? 

2. In what respects is Froebel the greatest of 

educators ? 

3. Why does Modern Education lay such stress on 

school conditions ? 

Give those which a teacher should consider as 

4. What is Thring's Theory of Education ? 

•5. Why does De Garmo in his treatment of Apper- 
ception find it necessary to discuss the nature of 
the syllogism ? Can you indicate his views on 
this point ? 

G. Why does the acceptance of the Doctrine of 
Apperception lead to Child Study? Contrast 
the findings of Lange with those of Parker on 
the content of children's minds on entering 
school, and reconcile the two views. 

7. What is the value of Oral Composition to all school 
work ? 

Indicate how you would treat it as a branch 
of Lan^runge to pupils between the ages of ten 
and fourteen. 

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8. Outline a lesson according to the Hebartian 

Steps : — 
(a) In Latin — Indirect Statement, or 
(6) In Mathematics — The Recurring Decimal as 

an example of Geometrical Progression, or 
(c) In History — Any historical character. 

9. Discuss Parker's views on '* Modes of Attention." 

EDUCATION.— Section B. 
Supplementary Paper. 
The Board of Examiners, 

1. What is the value of Oral Composition to all school 

work ? Indicate how you would treat it as a 
branch of Language to pupils between the ages of 
ten and fourteen. 

2. Outline a lesson according to the Herbartian 

Steps : — 
{a) In Latin — Indirect Statement, or 
(6) In Mathematics — the Recumng Decimal as an 

example of Geometrical Progression, or 
(c) In History — any historical character. 

3. Why does Interest occupy such an important place 

in Herbart's treatment of Instruction ? 

4. From what points of view must " The Material of 

Instruction," be considered? Compare the 
findings of any two educators on the best 

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5. Give the Herbartian account of— 

(a) Subjective side of Character. 

(b) Memory of the Will. 
{c) Morality. 

Or give the '* General Method of Training" 
according to Herbart. 

6. Outline a programme of instruction for a Secondary 

School ; indicate the time per week to be given 
to each subject; and defend your whole 

7. Taking the great aims of education^ discuss the 

programmes of the present schools for girls 
between the ages of twelve and eighteen. 

8. Give some of the great lessons to be learned from 

the History of Education. 

9. What discussion has taken place over History as a 

Secondary School subject ? Outline a course in 

Professor Elhington. 

1. Write a note on Ancestor Worship. 

2. Give some account of the legislation which gradu- 

ally secured to the Plebs the full rights of 

Y 2 

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3. Show the effects of the Punic Wars in beg-inninp- 

and extending the provincial g-overnments of 

4. Explain the circumstances in which the office of 

Praetor was evolved from the Consulate. 

6. Mommsen describes Gains Gracchus as the 
** greatest of poHtical transgressors"; also as 
*' the reg'enerator of his country." Show the 
applicability of both epithets. 

6. Describe the g-eographical position of the following* 

places, and mention any important historical 
events connected with them : — Carrhae, Delphi, 
Megara, Messana, Pharsalia, Sena, Tigranocerta, 

7. Trace the steps by which the Emperor gradually 

acquired control over the Senate. 

8. Write a note on the more important sources oi 

Roman revenue. 

9. Sketch the history of the Confederacy of Delos, 

its origin and purpose, and the causes of its 
ultimate dissolution. 

10. Give some account of the various reforms which 
gradually brought the constitution of Athens to 
its fullest democratic form. 

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Part I. 
Professor Elhington, 

1. Trace the gradual decay of the Roman power in 

] Britain. 

2. Trace briefly the history of the early Overlordships 

of one State over another in England. 

3. Give some accouDt of the great Earldoms 

established in England by Canute. 

4. Show that the Norman Conquest was important 

for all Britain. 

5. Give the date of the Provisions of Oxford, and 

explain their constitutional significance. 

C. Give a brief but clear summary of the legislation 
of Edward the First. 

7. Trace the causes of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381. 

8. Write a note on the characteristics of the Wars 

of the Roses. 

9. Give some account of the Holy League, 1511. 

10. Give some account of Edward the Sixth's 

*' Device for the Succession." 

11. Give some account of *'The Humble Petition 

and Advice," 1657. 

12. Summarise the results of the Cabal Administra- 


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Part II. 

Professor ElkingUm. 

1. Discuss the circumstances which led to the 

formation of the Jacobite party in England. 

2. To what events did the Revolution of 1688-9 

give rise in Ireland ? 

3. What do you know of the Grenville Act ; the 

Schism Act ; the Triennial Act ? 

4. Write an account of the circumstances in which 

the Talents Ministry (a) entered upon office, 
(b) continued in office, (c) quitted office. 

5. What would you set down as the chief positive 

results of the long administration of Walpole ? 

6. Consider briefly the parliamentary career of 

Edmund Burke. 

7. Write a summary of the political and social 

achievements of the reign of William the 

8. Trace very briefly the growth of the cotton 

manufacture in England. 

9. What does India owe to (a) Lord Cornwallis, 

{b) Lord George Bentinck ? 

10. Explain the circumstances in which the first 
European settlement of Australia was brought 

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Professor ElJdngUm, 

1. Explain fully the exact meaning you apply to 
each term in the equation : Produce = Rent + 
Interest + Wages. 

*2. Discuss the question whether Wages should be 
considered as paid out of Capital. 

3. How does honesty tend to increase the productive- 

ness ot Labour'^ 

4. Account as well as you can for the rates of Interest 

in Great Britain, Turkey, and Victoria respec- 

5. Explain the phrases '* immobility of labour," and 

" standard of comfort," and show how the facts 
they point to affect the wages question. 

6. What is meant by the Demand for Money ? What 

are the qualities which should characterise the 
commodity we adopt as Money ? 

7. What objections would there be to an Act o^ 

Parliament ordering that shillings should hence- 
forth rank as florins ? 

8. Discuss the question whether Trades Unions can 

raise wages, indicating any of the difficulties in 
their way. 

9. What can you say for and against a policy of 

imposing duties to establish an industry which 
is expected ultimately to flourish without Pro- 
tection ? 

10. Distinguish between the necessary and the 
optional functions of government. 

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llie Board of Examiners, 

Candidates must answer satisfaotorily in each of the 
three divisions of this Paper. 


1. The opposite angles of any quadrilateral inscribed 

in a circle are together equal to two right anj;les. 
Two circles ABXY, Ci^ZZ intersect in Z, 7. 
If AYG, BXD are straight, then ABy CD are 

2. Inscribe a circle in a given triangle. 

Shew that the difference of two sides is equal io 
the difference of the segments into which the 
third side is divided at the point of contact 
with the inscribed circle. 

3. A straight line drawn parallel to one side of a 

triangle cuts the other sides proportionally 
and conversely. 

If from one angle J. of a parallelogram a 
straight line is drawn cutting the diagonal in E 
and the sides in P, Qy shew that AE is a mean 
proportional between PE and EQ. 


1. Shew how to solve two simultaneous equations of 
which one is of the first degree, and the other of 
the second degree. 
Solve — 

hx + ay z=. 2ab 
x^ -\- 1/^ =. ax + bt/. 

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2. Define an arithmetical progression and prove for- 

mulae for the n'* term and the sum of n terms. 

If «, b, c are in arithmetical progression so are 
a^ — hCyU^ — ca, <?- — ah, 

3. State and prove the formula for the number of 

permutations of n different things taken r at a 
Prove that — 

P zzn P 

n r n— Ir— 1 

4. State and prove the binomial theorem for a 

positive integral exponent. 
Find the middle term in the expansion of 


1. State and prove formulae for expressing the sum 

or the difference of two sines or two cosines as 
a product. 
If J. + ^ + (7=0, express 

1 + cos A + cos -5 4- cos C 
as a product. 

2. Find a formula for all the angles which have a 

given sine. 
Find the general solution of 

cos 3aj sin bx = cos 7x sin Oj*. 

3. Prove that in any triangle 

c :=. a cos B + h co% A. 
Shew that 
a cos ^ — J cos -6 = cos C{b cos J. — a cos B), 

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4. Shew how to solve a triangrle, liaving given two 
sides and the included angle. 

If b = S,c = 3,A=z &2% find B, C, having 

loo; 2= •3010800; 
log i-1 = -0413927; 
X cot 31° =10-2212263; 
X tan 37° 6' = 9-878r^907; 
Difference from 1" zz 2626. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Find the equation of a straight line through a 

given point, and perpendicular to a given straight 

Shew that the three perpendiculars of a 
triangle meet in a point. 

2. Find the locus of the middle points of a system of 

parallel chords of a parabola. 

A chord of a parabola passes through a fixed 
point. Find the locus of its middle point. 

3. Find the locus of the intersection of perpendicular 

tangents to an ellipse. 

Shew that the chord of contact touches a 
coaxal ellipse. 

4. Find the limit when a? == 1 of (a:* — l)/(a? — 1), 

and deduce the differential coefficient of x^. 

Differentiate {o^ — \)\{x — 1). 

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5. Shew how to find the maximum and minimum 

values of a function of one variable. 

Find the rectangle of maximum perimeter 
described about a given rectangle. 

6. Define the curvature at any point of a curve, and 

prove the formula — 

p zz r drfclp. 
Find the curvature at any point of an ellipse. 

7. State and prove the rule for integration by sub- 

Integrate — 

1 • 1 

a + 6 cos a? ' a •\- b cosh x 

8. State and prove the formula for integration by 


Integrate e*^ cos [hx + c). 

9. Investigate a formula for the volume of a solid of 


Find the volume generated by the revolution 
of the curve 

y^ {2a — a?) = sc^ 

about its asymptote. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1. State and prove the polygon law of composition of" 
relative velocities and accelerations. 

A plate rotates in its own plane with uniform 
angular velocity a> about a fixed, centre 0, A 
circle of radius r and centre C, distant c from 0, 
is drawn on the plate, and a point P describes 
this circle with uniform speed v. Find the 
velocity and acceleration of P relative to the 
earth, when ^OOPziz 0. 

3; The path of an unresisted projectile fired fi*om a 
point with velocity v at elevation *, intersects 
a line inclined at an angle to the horizontal in 
the points P, Q, Shew that the middle point 
of PQ is at a horizontal distance 

W cos fc 

(tan i — tan &) 

from 0, and hence find the distance from of 
the parallel straight line which is grazed by the 

3. The resistance to a mass of M tons at any velocity 
is given to differ from the resistance when it is 
just moving by a quantity proportional to the 
square of the velocity. The resistance at the 
low velocity is 5 lbs. wt. per ton, and at 
30 miles per hour it is double. Give an 
algebraic formula for the resistance in tons wt. 
at a velocity of v ft. per sec. 

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If the mass is 100 tons, and there is a con- 
stant driving;' force on it of 2 tons wt., find what 
speed the mass will attain and the H.P. expended 
at that speed. 

i. Find the time of a small oscillation of a simple 

A small ball hangs suspended by a string* of 
length I and is in contact with a vertical wall. 
The ball is pulled back so that the string make& 
an angle 6 with the vertical in a plane normal 
to the wall and is then let go. Given that the 
coefficient of impact with the wall is e, shew 
that the angular amplitude of the rebound after 
n impacts with the wall is 

2 sin-^ (e" sin 0/2), 

and find the time elapsed up to the w"* impact^ 
assuming the amplitudes small. 

0. A given set offerees in one plane act on a particle. 
iShew how to find graphically and algebraically 
the two forces in given directions which will 
balance the given set. 

CAy CB are two equal light bars jointed to 
fixed points 2it A, By and to one another at C. 
Find the stresses in the bars due to a force F 
acting on the joint at C in a given direction in 
the plane ABU, and shew that if the material is 
equally strong in extension and compression, 
the necessary material in the bars is greatest for 
a given magnitude of JFJ when that force bisects 
the greater of the angles formed at C by the 
directions of the bars. 

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0. Shew that if thi*ee forces acting in one plane on a 
ligid body balance, they either meet at a point 
or are all parallel. 

A heavy block standing on a rough horizontal 
plane (coefficient of friction /u) is pulled by a 
force jP in a vertical plane of symmetry of the 
block and at a fixed angle 6 above the horizontal. 
P being gradually increased, the block at length 
begins to slide without overturning. Shew that 
the line of action of P must intersect the base 
within a length djfi tan Q where d is the dis- 
tance between the extreme lines which intersect 
the base and are perpendicular to the vertical 
plane of P. 

7. Find the mechanical advantage of a smooth light 
lever with the applied force and resistance in 
given directions. 

Shew that if the fulcrum is formed of a pin 
of radius r in the lever resting in a rough cir- 
cular bearing, the greatest loss of mechanical 
advantage is obtained by treating the fulcrum as 
shifted from the centre of the pin a distance 
r sin \ towards the driving force, supposed in 
the same direction as the resistance. 

8. From the triangle CAB a triangular corner CAB' 
is cut off. Shew that the distance of the cm. 
of the remainder from AB \^ 

j yp W^ + 3^/^)^ — (1 + x\a -h y/6) xy\ah 
x\a + yjb ' xy\ah ' 

where x z: BB\ y = A A' and p is the distance 
of C from AB, 

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Shew that the distance from AB of the cm. 
of the trapezium obtained by increasing* in- 
definitely the height p of the triangle, keeping 
AB, X, y constant, is 

. x^ + f + xy ^.^ ^ 

X + y 
where 8 is the inclination of the parallel sides of 
the trapezium to AB, 

9. State and prove Archimedes' theorem of buoyancy. 

A solid of revolution with vertical axis plugs 
a circular aperture of radius r in the horizontal 
base of a vessel containing a depth h of water. 
If the weight of the solid is W, and the volume 
of water it displaces is V, find the vertical force 
required to lift it off the aperture. 

The Board of Examiners. 

Electrical Engineering Students omit the first question, 

1. State and prove the fundamental cosine-formula 

for a spherical triangle. 

The latitudes and longitudes of two points B, 
C on the earth are given. Find the latitude and 
longitude of the pole of the great circle through 
B and C. 

2. Shew how to find the magnitudes of three forces in 

given directions which balance a given system 
of forces at a point. 

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The lines OA, OB, OC, are mutually at 
right angles. CA, CB, CO are light bars 
jointed to fixed points at Ay B, and jointed 
together at C. A force F is applied at C in a 
direction making angles 0, </>, xj/, with OA, OB, 
OC respectively. Find the stresses in the bars. 

3. State and* prove the principle of virtual work. . 

A frictionless mechanism is in equilibrium 
under external forces Pi, Pg • • • applied at the 

points A I, A2 The position of the 

mechanism is determined by a variable x and the 
corresponding arcual distances of the points 
named along their paths are./j(a;), f^ix) .... 
If the forces are at inclinations 0^ 62 - - . • 
to the directions of motion of their points of 
application, shew that for equilibrium 

^P,f(x) cos 6 = 0. 

OA, OB, OC are three smooth fixed rods 
mutually at right angles, OC being vertical. 
A, B, C are three sliding pieces on the rods, 
each of weig:ht w. AC^ BO are uniform bars of 
weights TFijTFg I'espectively, jointed to the 
sliding pieces. The system is in equilibrium 
under forces P, Q applied at Ay B in the 
direction AB. Shew that 

P- §1= (2tr + 1^1+ W^) ABI20a 

4. Shew that the tangential and normal components 
of acceleration of a particle moving along a 
curve are respectively 

cPs fdsy 

dV^' \di} • 

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A rod AB of length I turns about a fixed 
point J. in a vertical plane. A cord attached to 
the end B is carried over a small fixed pulley at 
C, the distances of C from A, B when ^^ is 
vertical being A, k respectively. 

The cord is pulled over the pulley at a con- 
stant rate V. Find the acceleration of B when 
the rod makes an angle 6 with the vertical. 

5. Discuss the rectilinear motion of a particle under 

an elastic force as the displacement, and a resis- 
tance as the velocity. 

If the resistance in the equilibrium position is 
L % of the elastic force at the preceding extreme 
position, shew that the ratio of the amplitudes of 
two successive half swings is about 1*016 : 1. 

6. Investigate the period of a small oscillation under 

gravity of a rigid body on a horizontal axis. 
A uniform rod AB oi length /and mass m 
* can turn in a vertical plane about a fixed point 
A, One end of an elastic cord is attached to 
the point B^ and the other end to a fixed point 
Cy in the vertical plane, and distant c from A. 
In the equilibrium position, the rod makes an 
angle with the vertical, and an angle a — d 
with AC. If the cord gives a tension Tper 
unit extension, find the time of a small oscillation 
of the rod. 

7. Demonstrate the equations of impulsive motion of a 

rigid body. 

A rectangular lamina lies on a table. A knock 
is given at a point of one side of the rectangle in 
a horizontal direction perpendicular to that side. 
Find about what point the lamina begins to 

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Professor Laurie, 

1. In connection with the rule that as denotation 
increases connotation decreases and vice vena, 
how would you deal with the difficulty that a 
general name may acquire an added meaning 
while its denotation is unchanged ? 

'J. Point out any ambiguities which attach to the 
signs '* all," " some," " or." Show the impor- 
tance of fixing the exact significance of these 
signs for purposes of Formal Logic. 

3. What distinction is drawn by Keynes between 

conditional and hypothetical propositions ? Con- 
sider different statements which have been made 
as to the import of hypothetical propositions, 
giving reasons for the interpretation which you 

4. What is meant by (a) a subaltern mood, {b) a 

strengthened syllogism ? In what moods is the 
middle term distributed twice ? 

5. May the fourth figure of the Syllogism be treated 

as " only the first with a converted conclusion " ? 
Give your reasons. 

G. What are the principal rules for definition ? Are 
any kinds of terms indefinable ', and, if so, why ? 

7. What do you understand by petitio principii ? Is 
an argument necessarily fallacious when one of 
the premisses is exactly equivalent in meaning 
to the conclusion ? Refer, in your answer, to 
Whately's treatment oi petitio. 

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8. Examine the following arguments, reducing* them 

where possible to syllogistic form, and pointing 
out fallacies, if any. 

(a) No law should be changed unless it has been 
found to be unsuitable. The licensing law is 
subject to this objection, and should therefore be 

(J) Few persons have an intimate knowledge of 
Greek literature, and, as those who possess this 
are worthy of honour for their learning, we 
may conclude that few persons are thus worthy 
of honour. 

(c) All metals are elements ; therefore all very heavy 
metals are very heavy elements. 

(d) Those who are deficient in generosity fail to 
fulfil their duties to the community. An 
avaricious man attaches undue importance to the 
accumulation of wealth ; and it frequently 
happens that those who attach undue importance 
to the accumulation of wealth are deficient in 
generosity. May we conclude, then, that an 
avaricious man fails to fulfil his duties to the 

9. In a given universe of discourse, everything is A or 

D ; but the presence of A is marked by the 
absence either of ^ or of C; and whenever^ 
is absent, C is present. What can be inferred 

(a) as to the presence of and J) together, and 

(b) as to the absence oi D? 

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Professor Laurie, 

1. Does Judgment; as expressed in propositions^ 
necessarily include a reference to reality ? Dis- 
tinguish, in your answer, between real and 
verbal propositions. 

. Discuss the question whether the so-called imme- 
diate inferences (including conversion, &c.) are 
entitled to that name. Show the bearing of 
this question on the meaning attached by !AlilI 
to Inference or Reasoning. 

3. Give a definition of Induction which appears to 

you satisfactory. Distinguish ampliative Induc- 
tion from any operations with which it is likely 
to be confused. 

4. Are any inductions fitted to be tests of others ? 

And, if so, on what principle may these testing- 
inductions be selected ? 

5. What method, or methods, are most suitable for 

ascertaining the conditions of compound effects i 
Show the difficulties to be encountered in such 

G. In what respects does the Method of Concomitant 
Variations supplement other methods ? Give an 
example of its use. 

7. In what sense, if any, may a plurality of causes be 

affirmed ? Explain the bearing of this alleged 
plurality on any of Mill's methods. 

8. Show the value of those hypotheses in which an 

unknown cau^e ?« supposed for purposes of 


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Professor Lavft^e. 

Second Year Candidates are requested to confine theniBelves 
to Questions 1-8 inclusive. 

1. What precisely is the psychological question as to 

the relation between mind and the bodily 
organism ? Is it necessary, for purposes of 
psychology, to decide such controversies as those 
of materialism and idealism ? 

2. On what grounds may sensations of temperature 

be distinguished from sensations of touch proper ? 

3. Sketch the development of visual perception. 

4. In the consideration of Memory, what meanings 

maybe attached to (a) Retention, (6) Reproduc- 
tion ? Does Retention furnish any evidence of 
unconscious states of mind? 

5. Give an account of the various directions which 

may be taken by the productive Imagination. 

6. What is the character of the mental act of Concep- 

tion ? On what grounds has it been said that the 
processes commonly marked off as Conception and 
Judgment are not essentially different ? 

7. Consider the account given by Subjective Idealism 

of our knowledge of Space. 

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8. Examine Spencer's argument, in Tiis First Prin- 

ciples, from " an indefinite consciousness which 
cannot be formulated" to an Unknowable 

9. Show the significance, in the historical develop- 

ment of thought, of Spencer's recognition of 
necessities of Knowledge. 

10. Compare Spencer's doctrine of Transfigured 
Realism either (a) with Subjective Idealism or 
(6) with Hypothetical Realism. 


Professor Laurie, 

L Mention any points (a) of similarity, {b) of opposi- 
tion, between the teaching of Socrates and that 
attributed by Plato to the Sophists. 

2, What were the distinguishing features of the 
Cyrenaic ethics ? 

8. Is it necessary for morality that there should be 
choice between conflicting motives ? Examine 
the position of Aristotle on this question. 

4. What difficulties stand in the way of an intuitional 

theory of morals, such as that of Butler ? 

5. How does Mill seek to vindicate the duty of Justice 

as a part of Utilitarian ethics ? Add any com- 

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6. Does the moral life embrace the whole of human 
conduct ? Consider this question in connection 
with Spencer's statement that ^'conduct with 
which Morality is not concerned, passes into con- 
duct which is moral or immoral, by small degrees 
and in countless ways/' 

?. Examine Green's statement of a timeless Self. Is 
the solution of this question necessary to moral 
philosophy ? 

8. How may we explain (a) the increasing* recognition 
of universal human fellowship; and (b) the 
retardation of this fellowship ? Refer, in your 
answer, to Green's treatment of these questions. 

GEOLOGY.— Part I. 

77ie Board of Examiners. 

1. Describe the symmetry of the Calcite type of 

crystals. Name the principal forms belonging 
to this type, giving in each case the symbols of 
Miller's notation; and explain the relation of the 
Calcite to the Beryl and Tourmaline types 
respectively ? 

2. Give the general characters of the Amphibole and 

Pyroxene groups of minerals, respectively. 

State precisely by what optical or other 
methods you would distinguish between Horn- 
blende and Augite, Actinolite and Diopside, or 
a Soda Augite. 

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3. From a molten maoi-ma of sub-basic composition 
what different rocks may be formed ? JExplain 
clearly the conditions which lead to the forma- 
tion of the different types. 

*4. Give an account of the nature of an earthquake 
shock, the different causes which may give rise 
to it, and the nature of the record of the shock as 
traced on a self-recording seismograph. 

5. State what you know of the characters and strati- 

graphical horizon of the following : — Favosites, 
Cyprsea, Ogygia, Lepidodendron, Tetragraptus, 

6. Give an account of the geology and physical 

geography of the district near Ascotvale and the 
Saltwater River. 

BIOLOGY.— Part I. 

Written Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Identify specimen A, and write a short account of 

its life-history, 

2. Identify specimen B. Describe briefly its external 

anatomy, and compare this with that of atypical 
insect so far as locomotory and respiratory struc- 
tures are concerned, indicating how each animal 
is adapted to its environment. 

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3. Describe the shoulder g^irdle of a frog, and compare 

it with that of a bird. 

4. Write an account of the development of the foetal 

membranes of a bird and a mammal. 

5. Write an account of the excretory structures of (1) 

amoeba, (2) tape worm, (3) frog. 

6. Describe the arterial sjetem of a rabbit, and com- 

pare it with that of a frog. 

BIOLOGY.— Part I. 

Laboratory Work. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Dissect the frog provided, so as to show the arterial 


2. Make preparations to show the structure other than 

microscopic of the eye provided. 


The Board of Examiners, 

TSV questions only to be attempted. 

1. Explain fully the different arguments involved in 
the proof of the formula. 

S1Z ut + J at^. 

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A point moving" in a straight line with uniform 
acceleration covers 12 feet in a certain second, 
and 18 feet in the next second. What is its 
acceleration, and what time has elapsed since it 
was at rest ? 

2. What force is required to stop a train of 100 tons 
going- 30 miles an hour (a) in half-a-minute ; (^) 
in half-a-mile ? 

A ten-gramme bullet, in passing through a 
plank 6 cm. thick has its velocity reduced from 
0)0,000 cm/sec to 20,000 cm/sec. Find the 
average resistance offered by the plank to the 
bullet; find also how thick the plank would 
require to be lo just stop the bullet. 

;3. Describe the principal kinds of strain and stress, 
and explain how they are specified. 

Describe also the principal kinds of elasticit}^, 
and use them as the basis for a classification of 

4. Describe the common hydrometer, and give its 

complete theory. 

The stem of one such instrument is cylindrical, 
and the highest and lowest graduations on it 
correspond to specific gravities of 1 and 1*2; 
find the specific gravity that corresponds to a 
graduation equidistant from these two. 

5. Describe fully, and give the theory of, one method 

of determining the coefficient of linear expansion 
of a metal. 

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An iron telegraph wire is 100 miles long at 
O® C. ; determine correct to the nearest foot the 
increase in its length produced when the tem- 
perature rises to 25*^ C. (Coefficient of linear 
expansion of iron zz '000012.) 

6. Describe fully how you would determine the 

specific heat of a liquid by the method of mixtures, 
and give a complete proof of the formula, which 
expresses the result. 

Point out the defects in the method, and 
explain fully how they may be corrected for or 

7. Describe fully how a thermopile is constructed 

and used to compare the diathermancies of 
different media. 

8. Describe fully how to project a pure spectrum on 

to a screen. 

What different kinds of spectra are there, and 
how are their characteristic features accounted 

9. Describe the Wimshurst machine, and explain its 

action fully. 

10. It was found that 58 c. cm. of hydrogen, at 17° C. 
and 779 mm. pressure, were given off per hour 
when a certain current passed through a volta- 
meter ; the density of hydrogen under standard 
conditions is 8*7 times its electro-chemical equiva- 
lent; find the strength of the current in 

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11. A copper ring is rotated in a uniform magnetic 

field round a diameter which is perpendicular 
to the lines of force of the field ; describe fully 
what happens during* a complete rotation. 

A radial saw-cut is next made through the 
ring; what difference will this make in the 
results of the rotation and in the effort required 
to produce rotation ? 

12. Draw a careful diagram of the instruments, and the 

way in which they are arranged to form a 
sounder telegraphic system, provided with relays 
and local circuits at its two ends. 

Arts, Science, and Engineering. 

27ie Board of Examiners. 
EZOHT questions only to be attempted. 

Prove the principle of the conservation of angular 

An iron fly-wheel consists of a disc of 20 cm. 
radius and 2 cm. thick surrounded by a ring of 
square section measuring 5 J cm. in the edge; 
the density of iron is 7'^ ; find the angular 
momentum of the fly-wheel when it revolves 
1,200 times per minute. 

Give a full account of the corrections which must 
be applied to the readings of a mercurial baro- 
meter in order to deduce an accurate determina- 
tion of the pressure of the atmosphere from its 

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Find the percentage error involved in omitting* 
the corrections for a readino^ made in latitude 
45° at a temperature of 25** C., and an elevation 
of 2,000 metres above mean sea-level. 

(Coeff. of expansion of mercury '00018, of 
brass -00002.) 

3. Give a full account, experimental and theoretical, 
, of the mode of determining^ the pressure 

coeflScient of a gas. 

4. Explain carefully the diflPerence between saturated 

and superheated steam, and state what you 
know respecting the employment of each in heat 

How would you determine the specific gravity 
of superheated steam ? 

5. Describe, with full experimental and theoretical 

detail, a method of determining the Thermal 
Conductivity of a sample of boiler plate. 

6. Give a full account of an accurate method of 

measuring absolute pitch, and deduce a formula 
expressing the result in terms of the quantities 

7. Obtain an expression for the longitudinal chromatic 

aberration of a thin lens in parallel light, and 
deduce the condition that two thin lenses in 
contact may form an achromatic doublet. 

8. Describe, and give the theory of a method of 

determining the mean intensity of magnetization 
of a bar magnet 8 cm. long in terms of the 
horizontal intensity of the earth's field. 

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9. Give Ampere's definition of unit current. Write 

down the expression for the torque on a rectangle 
of wire in which a current C flows, and which is 
placed in a uniform magnetic field in such a 
way that two of its opposite sides are parallel to 
the lines of force of the field. 

Hence establish the law for the force on an 
element of a wire carrying a current i» a 
magnetic field. 

10. Describe, with full detail, how to determine 

accurately the watts absorbed per candle-power 
by an incandescent direct-current lamp. 

11. Describe fully the construction of a druni arma- 

ture. Show how to wind one for a two-pole 
dynamo, if it has 20 commutator segments, 40 
slots, and 4 conductors in each slot. 

27ie Board of Examiners. 

1. How many volumes of air must be mixed with one 

volume of carbonic oxide to give the best 
explosive mixture ? If the explosion be effected 
in a closed vessel, originally filled at one atmos- 
phere pressure, what will be the final pressure 
after the original temperature has been restored? 

2. What proofs have we that diamond and graphite 

are allotropic forms of the same element ? If 
required to practically demonstrate the fact, how- 
would you proceed ? 

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3. An alkali is required for a chemical process, and it 

is found that the cost will be the same whether 
potash or soda be used. Taking soda as costing 
Is. per 11^ find the cost of potash. 

4. *'The classification of metallic elements that is 

commonly used in analytical work is often at 
variance with the classification based upon the 
Periodic Law." Explain this statement, and 
illustrate it by reference to magnesium, zinc, and 

o. Describe the chief tests by which nitrates are 
distinguished from other salts, and explain the 
reactions on which they depend. 

6. Give a short account of a process for the manu- 

facture of sodium carbonate, and explain the 
reactions that occur. 

7. Explain the term hydrolysis. Describe and 

formulate a few instances of this kind of action. 


The Board of Examiners, 

1. Describe the methods by which the atomic weight 

of a newly-discovered element might be deter- 

2. Discuss the possible cases of equilibrium between 

the different varieties of sulphur (solid, liquid, 
and vapour). 

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:3. Describe the changes that take place when a 
solution of copper sulphate is electrolysed 
between copper electrodes ; and show how 
Hittorf was able, by the study of these chano-es, 
to measure the relative velocities of the copper 
and sulphate ions. 

•i. Describe, and discuss the completeness of, the 
methods by which you would separate cobalt 
and nickel from each other and from other 
members of the iron, zinc group. 

0. Write a brief account of the main facts in the 
chemistry of the elements, magnesium, calcium, 
strontium and barium. 

6. Give a brief account of the element boron and its 
compounds containing oxygen, and compare 
the properties of the oxides of boron and 



The Board of Examiners, 

1. Explain fully what is meant by a homoloo^ous 

series of carbon compounds. Illustrate by 
reference to (a) the paraffins, (l) the alcohols, (c) 
the fatty acids. 

2. By what practical method would you find out 

whether a given hydrocarbon is saturated or 
unsaturated ? How would hydrocarbons of the 
following formulae behave when tested in this 
way :^{a) C^H,,, (b) C^H„ (c) C^H, ? 

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5. What is a primary monamine ? Name and formu- 

late one or two examples. Explain the action of 
nitrous acid on such substances. 

4. Describe two methods for the preparation of ether. 
Show that the accepted constitutional formula of 
ether is in accord with these actions. 

6. What is an ester? Name and formulate one or two 

examples of the class. How do esters react 
with alkalis ? Why is this action often called 
saponification ? 

6. How do primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols 

differ with respect to the action of oxidising* 
agents ? How does the theory of their constitu- 
tion account for this difference of behaviour ? 

7. The names ethyl cyanide and propionitrile belong* 

to the same substance, but indicate two different 
modes of preparation. Explain this fully, and 
illustrate by means of graphic formulae. 



The Board of Examiners. 

How may a Torricellian vacuum be produced ? 
How may a partial vacuum be measured ? 

A closed glass vessel containing air is heated from 
10* C. to 86° C. What i« the percentage increase 
of pressure in the vessel ? 


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3. A mixtare of equal volames of hydrogen and 

oxygen is contained in a closed glass yessel at 
at 15° C. It is exploded electrically without 
opening the vessel, and the temperature is then 
restored to 15°C. What gas will remain in the 
vessel ? And what percentage change will there 
be in the inside pressure ? 

4. State the law of multiple proportions, and give 


5. Explain how the atomic theory accounts for the 

&ct of multiple proportions. Show that this 
explanation find^ expression in the chemical 
formulae, using the same instances as in your 
answer to Question 4; 

6. Describe instances of each of the following kinds of 

chemical change, and write equations for them :— 
(a) simple combination, (ft) simple decomposi- 
tion, {c) double decomposition, 0) substitution. 


The Board of Examiners, 

Canliiates «hoiild a&sw»r BMVMV questions oaly* 

L. What are the essential features of the contracts 
re ? How was the standard of diligence of the 
parties adjusted therein ? 

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2. What are the g;enera1 characteristics oi privata 

delieta in Roman Law? Distinguish them 
especially from obligationes ex contractu and 
ptiblica jttdicia, 

3. Describe mafidatunty and show its place in the 

classification of contracts. For what purposes 
was it used ? 

4. Disting-uish between adpromissio and expromissio. 

How were thej effected ? 

5. In what several senses is the term status used ? 

6. il is the returning* officer for the borough of X . 

B, whose name is on the electoral roll, tenders a 
vote, which A improperly refuses to receive. 
B brings an action against A^ claiming damagep, 
and the Court holds that he has a good cause of 
action. Describe the legal relations disclosed in 
terms o£ duty, power, and right. 

7. Mention the principal classes of juristic persons 

known to English Law. 

8. (a) A secretly and wrongfully takes goods of X 

out of the possession of X*s servant. Consider 
the case under English and Roman Law respec- 
tively, according as A takes the goods with the 
intention of destroying them to spite X, or of 
giving them to Y, or of keeping them for 

{b) An English Statute avoids the alienation 
of property by a debtor with the view of pre- 
ferring a creditor or class of creditors. A, a 
debtor, immediately before his bankruptcy, 

z 2 

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conveys certain of his property to X and Y for 
the purpose of recoupino^ an estate to which A 
is indebted by leason of his havings misappro- 
priated funds of the estate. It is shown that 
A was moved partly by compunction for the 
wrong' he had done to the beneficiaries, partly 
by fear of a criminal prosecution. The trustee 
in bankruptcy of A claims the property. Con- 
sider the case. 

9. What is the distinction between Public and Private 
Laio ? If ow far is it received in English Law ? 

10. What are the different tests which have, been 
proposed for distinguishing civil injuries and 


TJie Board of Examiners. 

Candidates should answer seven questions only, of whicli 
three should be from. B. 


1. What do you understand by the Constitution of a 
State ? What are the principal contents of 
written Constitutions, and how may they be 
accounted for. 

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*3. Write a historical note on the Third Estate. 

3. What are the constitutional: functions of the House 

of Lords ? What are its present claims as to its 
powers in respect of Bills passed by the House 
of Commons, and how are they limited ? 

4. Describe the principal alterations which have taken 

place since 1832 in the relation of the Ministry 
to the House of Commojis and to the country. 

5. (a) Write a note on each of the following : — The 

Ballot Act i872, the Corrupt Practices Act 
1883, the trial of election petitions, the Sep- 
tennial Act, or 

{b) Write a note on the Budget, the Appropriation 
Act, the office of Auditor-General. 

6. What are the principal limitations on the ** right 

of public naeeting'*? Consider the effect of a 
proclamation forbidding the holding of a public 


What criticisms have been made on the use of the 
term "International Law"? Do you consider 
that " International Morality " is an efficient 
substitute ? 

What do you consider to be the object of inter- 
national arbitration ? What subjects have been 
deemed most appropriate for this mode of settling 
disputes if 

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3. What rights of States over water are required by 

International Law, anH how are they qualified 
in the interests of other States ? How far have 
States rights over rivers been subjected to 
regulation by treaty ? 

4. What is the present international position in regard 

to the use of pnvateers, and the levy en masse ? 

5. How does the law of war distinguish between 

combatants and non-combatants ? 

Part II. 

The Board of Examiners, 
Candidates shonld answer 8ZZ aii-®*tlons only. 

1. Compare the relative advantages and disadvantages 

of the machinery of Equity and common law. 

2. Distinguish between the Record and the Reports. 

What is the object of a report, and how does 
this determine (a) the class of case reported; 
{h) the contents of the report. 

3. What is meant by an ex post facto law ? Consider 

the use of the term in relation to {a) case law^ 
{b) statute law. 

4. In what several senses is the term common law 


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5. Describe the constitution and function of the 
following bodies: — The Court of Exchequer 
Chamber, the Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council, the Court of Appeal. 

G. Write a note on the principal features in the 
development of Equity, either (a) to the Restora- 
tion, or (h) to the close of the Chancellorship of 
Lord Elden. 

7. What was the criminal jurisdiction of the 

Admiralty, and what became of it ? 

8. Compare the government of New South Wales 

prior to 1842 with the government of the 
American colonies before the Revolution of 

9. What do you understand by responsible govern- 

ment ? Describe the process by which it was 
established in Victoria. 

Part III. 

The Board of Examiners. 

Candidates should answer FOT7& questions only. 

1. What are the principal differences in the position 
of the Provinces in the Canadian Constitution 
and the States in the Australian Constitution ? 

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2. How do you account for the proofressive develop- 

ment of the Constitution of the United States, in 
view of the doctrine that the Constitution must 
receive an unvaryinff interpretation in accordance 
with the intention of its framers ? 

3. In case of any forcible attack upon the icter-State 

railway trains, what steps could be taken by the 
Federal Government for the protection of com- 
merce and the mails ? Do you consider that 
the Commonwealth Parliament may prohibit 
the carriage by the mails or as inter-State 
commerce of correspondence or articles which 
in its opinion are detrimental to public morals ? 

4. In what cases does the Constitution (a) expressly 

subject, (b) expressly exempt, the States from the 
legislative or judicial power of the Common- 
wealth ? 

5. What is the doctrine of the exemption ot instru- 

mentalities laid down by the High Court in 
jyEmden v. Pedder ? Mention some cases in 
which it has been applied. 

0. What is the doctrine in the United States as to 
the exclusiveness of the commerce power in 
Congress ? Are there any provisions of the 
Commonwealth Constitution oearing upon the 
question of the application of that doctrine to 
the commerce power of the Commonwealth 
Parliament ? 

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The Board of Examinei^s. 

Candidates should answer FOVB questions only. 

Where proceedings are taken under the Fugitive 
Offenders Act 1881, is it any objection that (a) 
the matters in respect of which surrender was 
demanded would be no offence if committed in 
Victoria ; (6) it is proposed to try the fugitive 
after surrender for some offence other than that 
in respect of which the surrender was granted j 
(c) the offence was committed out of the territory 
of that British Possession which demands his 

What are the powers of the Crown at common law 
in regard to the admission and expulsion of 
aliens ? What are the principal provisions of 
the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 ? 

•3. Discuss the legal status and liabilities of the 
Railway Commissioners of Victoria. 

i. The Marine Board has the duty of licensing pilots 
for Port Phillip, and may by regulations 
approved by the Governor in Council, fix the 
rates to be charged for pilotage and generally 
provide for the management and control of pilots 
in all matters relative to the efficient discharge 
of their duties. The X Shipping Company is 
required to take the services of Y, a pilot 
licensed by the Board and entitled under their 
regulations determining the order of employ- 
ment to be engaged on this occasion, and 

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(a) by reason of the negligence of F, the com- 
pany's vessel collides with another ; 

(U) by reason of the defective eyesight of Y the 
vessel is run ashore. 

Is the Board liable in either case ? 

5. In what circumstance can a person have a remedy 

against the Government of Victoria (a) under 
the Crown Remedies and Liabilities Act 1890; 
(6) under the Judiciary Act 1903 1 

6. What proceedinefs, civil or criminal, may be taken 

(and by whom) in the following cases, assuming 
that some private damage may be shown in each 
case : — A public body charged with the duty 
of making and maintaining roads has (a) 
neglected to make a road ; (6) failed to repair 
the road after notice that it requires repair, (c) 
employed a contractor to repair the road, but he 
has done the work so ill as to leave a place 
apparently safe in such a state that A's horse 
coming thereon stumbles and suffers damage. 

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The Board of Examiners, 
Candidates shonld answer FIVE questions only. 

1. An Eng-lish company, carrying on business in 

Queensland, issued preference 8tock carrying 
interest at 6 per cent. The Legislature of 
Queensland passed an Act imposing an income 
tax on all dividends earned in the colony, and 
authorizing companies to deduct from the 
dividend of each stockholder his proportion of 
the tax. Of the stockholders affected, some 
were resident in England, and had acquired 
their stock from the company there ; others were 
resident in Queensland, and had acquired their 
stock there. Advise the company as to their 
liability to the stockholders. 

2. (a) Ay a person domiciled in England, comes on a 

visit to Victoria, and there enters into contracts 
with Xy to be performed in Victoria. A leaves 
Victoria, and subsequently X brings an action 
against him in the Supreme Court for breach of 
the contracts. A appears, under protest, for the 
purpose only of objecting to the jurisdiction. 
Is his objection good ? 

If judgment is given against A, could the 
judgment, in your opinion, be sued on in 
England ? 


(6) What is meant by the expressions '* proper 
court," and "court of competent jurisdiction as 
applied to foreign judgments? Is the former 
relevant ? 

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3. (a) A British vessel of war in the territorial waters 

of a foreign State, with the consent of the ruler 
of that State, seizes a British vessel and prevents 
her from landing her cargo there. The British 
owners of the ship and cargo bring an action for 
damages in England against the commander of 
the war vessel. 


(b) A, an alien resident abroad publishes a libel in 
a foreign country upon another alien. The 
parties come to England, and the person defamed 
orings an action for libel. Under what circum- 
stances will it succeed ? 

4. Are there any limitations upon the right of a 

foreign creditor to prove his debt against the 
Victorian estate of an insolvent or a deceased 
person in cases where there is a concurrent 
administration proceeding in another country / 

0. In what cases do Victorian courts recognise the 
jurisdiction of foreign courts (a) in the assign- 
ment of a debtor's property ; (6) in a suit for 
nullity of marriage ; (c) in a petition for divorce ; 

(d) in an action in rem as to moveable property ; 

(e) in the discharge of a debt ? (Notk — Can- 
didates need not answer more than Three of these 
Jim cases.) 

6. What tests have been applied to determine what is 
a penal law ? 

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Mr. Duffy, 

Write a short paper on each of the following : — 

(1) The history of local legislation with respect to 

absolute bills of sale. 

(2) Stoppage in transitu, 

(3 J The maxim Jns accrescendi inter mercaiores 
locvm non hahet. 

(4) The various forms of action available at Common 

Law for the enforcement of possessory rights 
to pure personalty. 

(5) Bailment. 

(6) Accord and satisfaction. 

(7) The Book Debts Act J 896. 

(8) Novation. 

(9) Executed and executory consideration. 
(10) Liquidated damages. 

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Mr, C, J. Z, Woinarski, 
A. — Civil Procedure. 

1. (a) With what indorsements may a writ of 

summons be indorsed, and what is the eflPect of 
omitting any of the requisite indorsements ? 

{b) How is service of a writ of summons effected 

when the defendant is an infant ? 
{c) How is service of a writ of summons effected 

in an action to recover land in case of vacant 

possession ? 
{d) How and when may a defendant enter his 

appearance to a writ of summons ? 

2. What provision is made by the Rules of the 

Supreme Court — 
{(C) As to the persons who may be joined in one 

action as plaintiffs ? 
(6) As to the procedure by a defendant who 

claims to be entitled to relief over against a 

person not a party to the action ? 
{e) As to cestuis que truslent being joined with their 

trustees as parties to an action ? 

(d) As to the cases in which particulars must be 
stated in the pleading of a party? 

(e) As to discontinuance of an action (I) by leave^ 
(2) without leave ? 

(/) As to inspection of documents referred to in 
the pleading or affidavit of an opposite party ? 

{g) As to the consequences of failure to comply 
with an order for discovery ? 

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3. How do you enforce a judgement — 

(a) For the recovery of any property other than 
land or money ? 

(h) Requiring any person to do any act other than 
the payment of money ? 

(c) For the delivery of the possession of land ? 

4. Set forth the procedure to be followed in levying a 

distress for rent. 

5. Write a note upon the writ of Prohibition, and set 

forth the procedure by which the same is 

B. — Criminal Procedure. 

1. Write a note upon the disqualification of a magis- 

trate to adjudicate by reason of interest. 

2. What are the provisions of the Justices Act 1890 

as to — 

(a) The mode of service of a summons and 
information ? 

(b) The proof of service of a summons and informa- 
tion ? 

(c) Substituted service of a summons and informa- 

3. {a) In what respects may time and place affect the 

jurisdiction of a Court of Petty Sessions to hear 
an information ? 

(b) At what stage of the hearing of an information 
should an objection be taken to the jurisdiction 
of the Court ? 

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(c) What courfle may a Court of Petty Sessions 
take upon a variance appearino^ bet\veen the 
evidence given and the inibrmation ? 

4. Explain the terms — Recording sentence of deaths 
arraignmenty presentment^ Bill of indictment^ 
challenge to the array ^ special verdict, penal 
servitude J contempt of court, 

C. — Evidence. 

1. (a) In what cases is a declaration by a deceased 

person as to the cause of his death admissible in 
a criminal trial? 
(h) In what cases is evidence given at a previous 
trial admissible, and how is it proved ? 

(c) In what cases can a plaintiff give parol evidence 
of the contents of a written document which he 
does not produce ? 

(d) In what cases can evidence be given to contra- 
dict a witness who denies matters put to him in 
cross-examination ? 

2. State the exceptions to the rule that the testimony 

of one witness is sufficient to establish any fact. 
State the law as to right, and as to the 
restrictions upon the right of a witness to refresh 
his memory. 

3. (a) A is presented with uttering, on the 7th July, 

1906, a counterfeit half-crown, knowing it to be 
counterfeit. The prosecution tenders evidence 
that on the 6th and on the 9th of July, 1906, 
respectively, A had bought a glass of ale and 
tendered a bad half-crown in payment. Is the 
evidence admissible or not, and why ? 

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(b) A, By and (7 sue D as partners upon an alleged 
contract respecting* the shipment of bark. D 
tenders evidence of an admission by A that the 
bark was his exclusive property, and not the 
property of the £rm. Is the evidence admissible 
or not, and why ? 

(c) A is presented for larceny of a sheep, with a 
second count' for receiving*. The prosecution 
tenders evidence that £ve stolen lambs, and one 
other stolen sheep were in As possession at the 
same time, and were dealt with by him in the 
same manner as the sheep, the subject of the 
prosecution. Is the evidence admissible or not, 
and why ? 


Mr. C. J, Z, fVoinarski, 

1. (a) Why, in an action of malicious prosecution, is 

it necessary for the plaintiiF to nlleg-e and prove 
the termination of the proceedings in his 
favour ? 
{b) Why is a master liable in law for the acts, 
neglects, and defaults of his servants in the 
course of the service ? 

2. What is the law as to recaption of goods ? Consider 

the following case : — 

A entrusted By his servant, with jewellery for 
sale on commission. Disputes arose between A 
and B, and A determined B^s service and 

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demanded back the jewellery in B*s possession^ 
which B refused to deliver up. A thereupon, 
in B^8 absence from his bedroom in an hotel in 
Melbourne, unlocked B^s bedroom door and^ 
repossessed himself of the jewellery, and B now 
sues A for trespass. 

3. Explain the extent of their civil liability, if any, to 

each of the following persons respectively, in the 
events named : — 

(a) To a partner for a violent assault committed 
by his co-partner upon a customer of the firm. 

{h) To a host whose guest is injured by the care- 
lessness of the host in opening a bottle of soda 

{c) To a husband for an antenuptial tort com- 
mitted by his wife. 

(d) To a parent whose child has wilfiiUy broken 
the valuable plate-glass window of a shop- 

{e) To a baker whose servant is* injured by the 
breaking d own of a delivery cart he was driving' 
and which was not roadworthy. 

4. (a) Brinsmead v. Harrison, L.R. 6 C.P. 584, 

Extract from the judgment of Blackburn, J. 

''The question raised upon this record is 
whether the claim of the plaintiff against two 
joint wrongdoers is put an end to by a judgment 
recovered in an action against one of them 
without showing that that judgment has been 

flow was this question disposed of in the 
judgment ? 

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(6) Wathin v. Hall, L.R. 3 Q.B. 396, Extract 
from the judgment of Bluekhurny J, 

"The only questions are, whether or not an 
action will lie for stating — upon an occasion 
which does not show the communication to be 
privileged — that there is a rumour upon the 
Stock Exchange that the plaintiff, who is a 
trader, was in insolvent circumstances, and had 
failed; the defendant stating, not that the 
plaintiff was insolvent, but that there was a 
rumour to that effect ; and whether it would be 
a justification to show the rumour did exist, and 
that the defendant had only repeated it, and 
stated at the time openly that it was only a 

How were these questions disposed of in the 
judgment ? 

5. Tell the facts of an^ case which you would cite and 

use if you were explaining each of the following 

propositions ; — 
((t) It is not a wrong to offer advantages to 

customers who will deal with oneself to the 

exclusion of a rival. 
(6) Where damage is the gist of an action, the 

time for bringing the action runs only from the 

actual happening of the damage. 
{c) Where negligence is negatived, an action does 

not lie for injury resulting by accident from 

another's lawful act 

6. Explain the necessary proofs in an action of 

ieductiony and consider the following case : — 

Ay a widow, sues By for seduction of her 
daughter, C. The seduction took place in 

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the lifetime of A^s husband, CPs father, and 
while C was livinof with her parents, who were 
persons of humble rank. After the father's 
death C continued to reside with -4, rendering* her 
the ordinary household services. Two months 
after her father's death C was delivered of a 
child, the result of the seduction. 

7. A was tenant of a house let to him by B^ and in 

respect of which a quarter's rent was in arrear 
and owing" by Ay in October, 1906. In Novem- 
ber, 1906, a distress for this rent was put in hy 
By and the bailiff who was employed to levy the 
distress, entered the house by forcibly breaking; 
the chain of the front door and seized furni- 
ture which belong^ed to C, a lodger. C made 
the necessary declaration for the protection of 
his goods, and the bailiff thereupon restored 
them to C. Has A any, and what, right of 
action against B ? Give the reasons for your 
answer ? 

8. A was killed by the negligence of B, a fellow 

servant, in the employ of C, Can As widow, 
who was dependent on him, sue C under the 
Wrongs Act 1890 ? Give the reasons for your 

9. (a) Is it lawful in any, and what, circumstances 

to set a man-trap or spring-gnn or oth^r instru- 
ment calculated to destroy human life or to 
inflict bodily harm ? 

(h) Is a person who steals a dog, or one who is in 
possession of a dog knowing it to be stolen, 
liable to any, and what, penalty or punishment ? 

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(c) To constitute murder, within what time from the 
cause of death must the death actually take place? 

(d) Can a person commit forgery of a document, 
no part of which is actually written by him ? 

(e) Is it forgery for a person who is the sole 
payee of a bond to alter it by lessening its 
amount ? 

10. Define argon at common law. What buildings 

might be the subject of arson at common law ? 
To what extent must there be actual burning to 
constitute arson at common law, and would any 
degree of negligence amount thereto ? In what 
respects is the statutory law of arson wider than 
the common law doctrine ? 

11. Give examples of cases in which the carrying off 

of some one else's goods will be unpunishable 
on account of their being appropriated under a 
bona fide claim of right. 

12. Give examples of cases of fatal negligence which 

will constitute manslaughter. 


Mr. J, E, Mackey, 

Hot more tban EIOBT questions are to be attempted. 

1. («) Is the maxim Equity follows the law true of 

executory trusts ? 
(^) Why, in Equity, is delay a bar to relief ? 
(c) Apply the maxim Equity is Equality to the 

case of a joint purchase, 
(rf) What is the equitable doctrine of constructive 

conversion ? 

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2. A, By and C were executors of the will of X, who 
died in 1898, and duly proved the will in that 
year. In 1906, the estate had been fully 
administered, and the net residue duly tendered 
by A and B to Z, the residuary legatee, together 
with the executors' final account and a request 
for a deed of release to themselves. Z finds 
(a) that B, one of the executors, was, at the 
testator's death, legally indebted to the testator 
in the sum of £350, and that this sum has never 
been called in, or repaid to the estate. (6) that 
A and B had allowed at a sum of £200, and 
after inquiry into the matter, a claim by their 
co-executor (7, against the estate of the testator 
for £285, and that thev had paid the £200 to C 
in 1903. 
Advise Z, 

3. An executor is advised by counsel that a trust 

fund is divisible between A SLud B (who are of 
age), and C (an infant) in equal thirds. Acting* 
on this advice, duly communicated to the bene- 
ficiaries, he paid two-thirds to A and B on their 
receipt, and invested the remaining third for the 
benefit of C It afterwards appeared that JB 
and C were entitled to the fund in moities. 

Have jB and C, or either, or which of them any 
and what remedy, and against whom, in respect 
of the money wrongly paid to A? Give the 
reason for your answer. 

4. (a) Distinguish between the responsibilities of 

trustees and executors for the acts and defaults 
of each other. 
(b) Can an executor rid himself of his personal 
liability in respect of the rents to accrue due, 

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and the covenants and a^eements contained in 
a lease held by the testator ? 

5. (a) Wliat is the efPect of the Statutes of Limita- 

tions on a le^cy ? 
(b) Whete an action is brought by a beneficiary to 
recover land held under an expressed trust 
against the trustee or any person claiming 
through him, at what time and as against what 
person for the purpose of the law relating to 
limitations of actions is the right of action 
deemed to have first accrued ? 

6. (a) A devises Blackacre to trustees for sale and 

for division of the proceeds amongst six persons, 
one of whom (X) dies in A* 8 life-time ; the rest 
of his real property A devises to B, and he 
bequeathes his personal estate to C, On the 
sale of Blackacre, who is entitled to the one-sixth 
share of the proceeds which would have gone to 
X if he had lived ? 
(b) Ay by his will, devises an estate to B. After 
making the will A contracts in writing to sell the 
estate to C. Before conveyance A dies leaving 
B surviving. Eventually C being unable to 
complete his contract is released from it by A*s 
executors who sell the lands to D. Who is 
entitled to the purchase money ? 

7 A owns an allotment of land No. 1, and B is the 
owner of the adjoining allotment No. 2. B takes 
possession of allotment No. 1 believing it to be 
No. 2. Afterwards B sells allotment No. 1 
describing it as allotment No. 2 to C, who enters 
into possession and builds upon it. After C has 
completed his buildings A commences proceed- 
ings in ejectment to recover the land. A was 
aware of the intended sale to C, and that the 

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allotment C intended to buy was bis, and be was 
also aware tbat C was building upon tbe land 
believing it to be his own. 

Has C any defence to A^a action ? 

8. A, having sold his reversionary interest in real 
estate, and received the purchase money, after- 
terwards issues a writ to set aside the sale on 
the ground of fraud, which he succeeds in 
proving. In what circumstances, and upon what 
terms, will Equity grant relief? 

0. What are the rights of bereficiarips against a 
trustee who has traded with the trust moneys, 
but subsequently replaced them in proper in- 
vestments ? 
10. Write a note upon the equitable doctrine of 


Mr Guest, 

1 . What is meant by the legal estate in land ? 

When is the legal estate said to be outstanding ? 

2. A demised land to B as tenant from year to year, 

reserving a rent payable half-yearly. B went 
into possession, and died during the second 
half-year of the tenancy intestate, and C was 
•appointed administrator of his estate. No one 
has been in possession since B^s death, »nd a 
year has now passed since the creation of the 
tenancy. What are the rights (if any) of A 
and C respectively to the possession ? Give 

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3. Why in a conveyance on sale of land is it usual 

for the grant to be made not only "to" but 
also "to the use of" the purchaser? 

4. What restriction exists, apart from Statute, dTi 

trusts to accumulate income ? What restriction 
has been imposed by any, and what. Statute ? 

o. In what respects, and by what means, has the 
Conveyancing Act 1904 made it possiblie to 
reduce the length of conveyance on sale of an 
estate in fee-simple by trustees for sale, where 
part of the land included in the same title is 
retained unsold? 

6. Land was conveyed "to the use of A and B and 

their heirs." A died, having by his will devised 
all his real estate, "including his share in the 
land'^ so conveyed to him and B as aforesaid, 
"unto and to the use of C" absolutely, and he 
appointed B the executor of his will, and probate 
thereof was granted to B. After the expiration 
of a year from A's death C called upon B to 
convey to him C one-half of the land referred 
to, but B refused. What rights (if any) has C? 
Give reasons. 

7. What is an easement? State shortly the rules as 

to the creation of easements, 

8. A took a lease of land from B for five years. B 

was in fact a mortgagee in possession when he 
granted the lease, but A knew nothing of this 
fact when he accepted the lease. After the 
expiration of one year the mortgage was 
redeemed, and the land reconveyed to the 
mortgagor, who forthwith brought an action 
against A to recover possession. Can he 
succeed? Give reasons. 

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9. State the effect of the provisions of the Insolvency 
Act with regard to fraudulent preference. 

10. A, who died in 1890, by his will devised certain 
freehold land to B and his heirs, and bequeathed 
certain leasehold land to (7 absolutely, and certain 
other freehold land of A was undisposed of. 
Probate of the will was subsequently granted 
to Z>. How was the title to each of the lands 
mentioned affected (if at all) by the grant of 
probate? Give reasons. 

11.-4 was registered proprietor of land under the 
Transfer of Land Act 1890. B, by means of a 
forged transfer, became registered as proprietor, 
and in consideration of natural love and affection 
he transferred the land to his daughter (7, and 
the transfer was duly registered. The daughter 
had no notice of the forged transfer. What are 
the rights of A and C respectively to the land ? 
Give reasons. 

12. What is the effect of a restraining on anticipation 
in the case of a married woman with respect to 
property settled on her for her separate use? 
Does it operate after she becomes a widow, or 
if she subsequently re-marries ? Give reasons. 

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First Paper. 
Professor Kernot, 

1 . Write a short essaj on laboratory and field exten- 


2. A circular column is 12 feet high and 2 feet 

diameter, and is surmounted by a rectangular 
block 3 feet square and 4 feet high. The 
material weighs 100 lbs. per cubic foot. Cal- 
culate the velocity and pressure of wind needed 
to overturn it. 

A punt is 40 feet long 30 feet wide and 5 feet 
deep, and weighs 20 tons Compute the weight 
that must be put at one end in order to reduce 
the draft of water to zero at the other. 

4. A beam 20 feet long is supported at the ends, and 

is loaded with 500 lbs. per foot in length, and 
also with 1,000 lbs. at 5 feet from one end. 
Draw to scale moment and shear diagrams. 

5. What is a modulus of section? How would you 

find it for a beam of irregular form ? 

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First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Design runner, casing, suction-pipe, and discharge- 
pipe, for a centrifugal pump, capable of lifting: 
40 cubic feet of water per second to a height of 
200 feet. Total length of pipes which have no 
serious bends =: 4,000 feet. Give speed of 
runner and the brake horse-power required to 
drive it. 

Note, — The calculations must be accompanied 
by an explanation of their scientific basis. The 
mere use of formulae, without explanation of 
them, will not be accepted as an answer. 

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Second Paper. 

The Board of Uxaminers. 

On the accompanying^ topographic map is shown a 
mining town named Grass Valley. The posi- 
tions of several mines, within a few miles of the 
town, are also shown. 

N.N.W. from the town is shown a service 
reservoir, distinguished on the map by being 
surrounded by a circle drawn with blue pencil. 

Assume the population within the dotted 
boundary line ABCDEF to be 8,000, and that 
the consumption within that area for domestic, 
mining, and manufacturing purposes will be at 
rate of 320 Imperial gallons per head. 

The mines, lying outside the said boundary 
which can be supplied from the said reservoir, 
may each be assumed to require 17,000 gallons 
a day. 

The buildings are mostly wooden, and ample 
provision for fire extinction is desired. 

Determine the capacity of the service reservoir^ 
and design a reticulation system for the district. 

State clearly the hydraulic formulse or tables 
which you employ for determining the sizes 
of the pipes, and the authorities for the formulas 
or tables. 

Give your reasons for choosing one system of 
reticulation in preference to others. 

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Second Paper. 
Professor Kemot, 

1. Sketch and describe all the usual fittings of aa 

ordinary Cornish boiler. What points would 
you specially note if reporting on the safety oT 
such a boiler? 

2. Write a short essay on boiler explosions, their 

causes, and how they should be guarded against. 

3. Describe some good form of variable expansion 

apparatus for steam-engines, giving full details 
and method of determining proportions of various 

4. What is a compound engine, and what advantages 

has it over a simple engine. Under what 
circumstances would you recommend — a simple, 
a compound, or a triple expansion engine, either 
condensing or non-condensing? 

5. State all you know as to devices for regulating 

the speed of engines and other motors. 

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First Paper. 

Professor KemoU 

1 . Supply outline side elevation to scale, and give all 

Important dimensions for a locomotive of about 
16,000 lbs. traction power, suitable for passenger 
traffic on an up-country line having curves of 
20 chains radius and rather light rails. 

2 . State the standard equation for the tractive power 

of a locomotive, and apply it to that in the 
previous question. Discuss also the proper 
relation of tractive power and adhesion weight. 

3. Write a short essay on rack locomotives for steep 

mountain railways. 

4. Show diagrammatically as many systems of com- 

bining high tractive power with great flexibility 
on curves as you can, and discuss their relative 

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Second Paper, 

Professor Kemot, 

1. Discuss the various methods of ignition in internal 

combustion engines. 

2. Describe carefully, with sketches, the principal 

systems of refrigerating machinery in common 
use, and discuss their relative advantages and 

3. What are the points to be attended to in com- 

pressing air for mining purposes, especially in a 
hot, dry, and dusty climate ? 

4. What system of pumping machinery would you 

recommend — 

(a) For lifting 1,000,000 gallons of water in 24 
hours 100 feet? 

{h) For lifting an equal quantity of sewage 
20 feet in the same time ? 

o. Sketch out a system of electric light and power 
supply for a population of 100,000, occupying 
an area 1 mile square on the banks of a salt 
water estuary, and also a suburban population 
of 50,000, occupying an area of 4 miles square 
surrounding the preceding. 

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First Paper. 

The Board of Uxaminers. 

Design a trussed beam of 49 feet span, to carry a 
moving load of 15 tons. This load may be 
assumed to be applied at a point. Timbei in 
beam to be ironbark^ weighing about 70 lbs. per 
cubic foot. Tension rdds to be of mild steel. 
Struts to be at designer's option. Struts to be 
two in number. No diagonal members. 

Depth, from centre of beam to centre of 
of tension rods at mid span = 6 feet. 

I^ote, — The scientific meaning of each step in 
the calculations must be explained. The mere 
use of formalsBy or the statement that certain 
assumptions are made, without explanation of the 
reasoning on which these formulae or assumptions 
are based, will not be accepted as an answer. 


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Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Design a bridge, of materials more permanent 
than wood, for the site sketched on opposite 
page. The bridge to carry ordinary road traffic, 
and to be safe when a steam-roller weighing 
15 tons crosses it. Clear width to be 28 feet, 
including two footpaths, each 6 feet wide. 

Floods bring quantities of timber down and 
occasionally change the oosition of the channel 

Scale, 40 feet to 1 inch. 

NoTB. — Candidates must be explicit as to the scientific 
principles involved in their designs. The mere 
use of formulae, without explanation or men- 
tion of authority, will not be accepted as an 

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First Paper. 
The Board of Examiners. 

Show what lines you would measure when making 
a chain survey of the piece of land, with 
buildings on it, shown in sketch on opposite 
pa<^e, access to adjacent blocks being permitted. 
Explain how you would plot the work after- 

At station A the reading of an aneroid barometer 
is 39*86. A barograph at the same station reads 
9979 at the same time. At station B the 
aneroid reading is 28*12, and it is found that 
the barograph, which was left at A, recorded 
29*74 at the time when the reading at B was 
taken. The temperature recorded by a thermo- 
meter in the shade when the reading at A was 
taken was 49"" F. ; and at B, when the aneroid 
was held there, the temperature in the shade was 
89° F. How high is B above A ? 

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8. A transit theodolite is employed to measure the 
horizontal angle between a church spire and a 
pole on the ground. When the instrument is 
directed to the point of the spire the telescope 
makes an angle of 40** with the horizontal; when 
directed to the pole the telescope is horizontal. 

Explain the effect on the measurement caused 
by (1) an error in coUimation, and (2) an error 
in the horizontal axis. Illustrate your answer 
by sketches. 

How would you proceed in order to eliminate 
the effects of the errors mentioned ? 

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Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Eliminate the effects of local attraction from the 

portion of a mafi^etic traverse shown in sketch 
on pages 411 and 412. The azimuths written 
near the corners are those obtained by the 
compass at those corners. 

2. Levels are given at height of formation in a railway 

cutting. The field-notes^ entered in a level-booK 
daring the process of giving these levels, are 
reproduced below in incomplete form. Complete 
the notes. Check the figures. Explain the 
operation to which these notes refer. 
















ark No. 16 






M. c. 

371 06 

17 29 



17 31 



17 33 







Benchmark No. 16 


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3. What is the weight of the portion of a ( 
cylinder for a oridge pier, shown in seo 
plan on pages 411 and 4L2 ? 

4. Being provided with a 2rft. rule, a tape li: 
pair of callipers, how would you n 
measurements of the casting mentionei 
question, supposing it to be lying 
ground ? 

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-mj •• WMa» |^«#AMWW fc»w 


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ITie Board of Examiners. 

Candidates n««d not answer more than Bin of the follow- 
ing questions including those marked 1, 9, 8, and 4, 
which are compulsory. 

1. How would you estimate silica, barium, iron and 
manganese in a blast furnace slag ? 

-. Describe a volumetric method suitable for the 
estimat^pn of zinc in mixed sulphide orts. How 
would the presence of salts of iron^ copper and 
manganese affect the titration ? 

3. Give a brief description of the cyanide method for 

the estimation of copper volu metrically. Point 
out the principal sources of error and the best 
means of avoiding them. How would the 
presence of salts of zinc, iron, aluminium and 
lead affiect the titration ? 

4. Why are arsenical and antimonial pyrites more 

difficult to assay for gold than pure iron pyrites ? 
Outline two methods — one all dry and the 
other combined wet and dry — for the estimation 
of gold in antimonial pyrites. 

How would you expect the recovery of gold 
to be affected by a preliminary roast, when 
treating such material ? 

5. When lead is estimated gravimetrically, in what 

form is it usually weighed ? 

Outline a good, general-purpose method for 
the estimation of lead volumetrically, and point 
out any weak points peculiar to such method. 


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6. Write a short paper upon the separation and 

estimation of antimony and arsenic. 

7. How would you estimate tin, in a very low f^rade 

ore, without preliminary mechanical concen- 
tration ? 

-8. Under what conditions as reg-ards grade and 
character of material, and for what reasons, would 
you use — 

(a) an all-dry method for estimating gold ; 
(6) an all-dry method for estimating silver ; 

(c) a combined wet and dry method for esti- 

mating gold ; 

(d) a combined wet and dry method for esti- 

mating silver ? 

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Physical Geography. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Define the terms declination and dip respectively. 

Indicate the nature of the different kinds of 
periodical variations which are known to occur 
in these elements of terrestrial magnetism. 

2. Describe the mallee country, referring especially to 

its position, origin, soil, and climate. 

3. Draw a sketch map of Victoria, and indicate on it 

the salient features in its physical geography. 

4. Explain the nature of an earthquake shock, the 

different causes to which it may be due, and the 
nature of the record of the shock given by a 
self-recording seismograph. 

5. Explain the nature of the Atlantic and Pacific 

types of coasts, and show how far each type is 
represented on the Australian coast line. 

6. Explain the relations which exist in different parts 

of a river's course between the slope oi the 
thalweg, the shape of the valley in cross-section, 
and the capacity of the river for the work of 
transport, corrasion, and lateral erosion. 

cc z 

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first tear. 

Massage Candidates. 

21i€ Board of Examiners, 

1. What means do we possess of reflating the tem- 

perature of the body ? How is it that the 
temperature of the body is practically the same 
on a hot day as on a cold ? 

2. Describe exactly the inenns we possess of increas- 

ing the capacity of the thorax. Mention, also, 
the differences that exist between inspired and 
expired air. 

3. What is meant by the term Arterial blood presmrel 

What advantages does such pressure confer on 
us ? What means do we possess whereby we 
can modify arterial blood pressure ? 

4. Describe a voluntary muscle, and tell what you 

know about its contraction. 

5. What is the composition, and what are the chief 

uses, of lymph ? Trace its flow from, say, the 
tissues of the foot, until it reaches the blood 

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Third Year Medicine. 
Ths Board of Examiners. 

1. What do you mean by the term Mtimnatum as 

applied to the human eye ? By what means 
can its objectionable results be obviated ? 

2. What means are at the disposal of the physiologist 

in investigating the paths of conduction in the 
spinal cord ? 

3. What substances other than dextrose can give re- 

duction in urine ? How can these bodies be 
chemically diiFerentiated ? 

4. What are the essential diiFerences between cow's 

milk and human milk ? What changes are 
produced in cow's milk by boiling ? 

5. What is the effect on systemic arterial blood- 

pressure of — 

(a) strong expiratory muscular action with closed 

(6) asphyxia, 

(c) section of cord in lumbar region ? 

6. Describe the changes that occur in a skeletal 

muscle on cessation of the circulation. 

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Third Ybar Msdtcinb. 
The Board of Examiners. 

1. By what methods can the fundus of the eye be 

examined ? Explain the principles on which 
the apparatus employed is constructed, and give 
some account of the history of its discovery. 

2. If a hitherto undescribed alkaloid were prepared 

from an Australian plant, what experiments 
would you suggest should be carried out in order 
to determine its physiological action ? 

3. A patient has been unable since birth to flex his 

right arm at the elbow by any effort of will. An 
exploratory operation revealed an apparently 
normal mvsculo cvtaneons nerve, electrfcal 
stimulation of which produced vigorous flexion. 
What further investigtitions, exclusive of ex- 
ploratory operation, would you make in the 
living patient, and what structures would you 
specially examine in case of death and necropsy 
in order to throw light on tb« causation of this 
paralysis ? 

4. *' Experiments made on the horse conclusively 

prove that asparagin can act as a protein sparer." 
Comment on this statement of fact. 

5. A number of men who bave been enga^ared in 

fighting a bush fire complain of severe frontal 
headache. To what mig^ht this be due ? 

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Time : 9.3D a.m, to 12.30 p.m. 

N,B, — The Second Honours Paper will be given this after- 
noon from 2.30 p.m. to 4.30 p.m. The oral list for all 
Candidates will be posted at the Begistrar'a Oflicc. 

Examiners : Th^ Profesi^or of Anatomy and 
JDr^ G. C, Bennie. 

1. State how yon would map out the right kidney 

from behind. Describe layer by layer the 
vai*ious structures which would be met with 
within the area you have described, in order to 
expose the posterior surfece of the viscus. 

2. Describe the arch of the aorta under the following 

heads : — 

(a) Its relation to the surface of the body. 

(e) It relations to bones. 

(5) Its relations to other structures. 

^. If the external popHteal nerve were divided just 
above its bifurcation, state what structures 
would be paralysed, and discuss the position 
which would be assumed by the limb, giving the 
reasons for your opinion. 

4. Discuss the general appearances of a transverse 
horizontal section made through Addison's trans- 
pyloric plane. 

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Time : 2.30 to 4.30 p.m. 

N.B.— No Candidate can enter for this Paper who has not 
previously answered the Pass Paper in Anatomy. 

JSxaminers : The Professor of Anatomy j and 
Dr. G. C. Rennie. 

1. Describe the condition of the mid-gut and jolk 

sac in an embryo of four weeks. Name the 
portions of the adult alimentary canal developed 
from these embryonic structures, and describe 
how the chanfi^s are brought about. How do 
you account for the presence, in the adult, of a 
Meckel's diverticulum? State the commonest 
position, and the relative frequency, of such an 

2. Describe the microscopic appearances of a transverse 

section through the medulla oblongata at the 
level of the decussation of the fillet. 

3. Discuss briefly the vertebral theory of the skull. 

4. Describe (a) the innervation of the tongue, {h) 

the cutaneous innervation of the upper limb, 
with an account of the spinal segments con- 

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The Board of Exawinert, 

1. Express in terms of the Metric system, and pve 

the Latin equivalents of: ten minims, three 
fluid drachms^ two pints, twenty grains, half'an- 

2. Give the Latin synonyms, and the quantities of 

active ingredients in one fluid ounce of each of 
the following: — 

Chlorodyne, Donovan's Solution, Easton's 
Syi*up, Laudanum, Ipecacuanha Wine. 

3. Write a prescription for a " Ply Blister," with 

ap{)ropriate directions. Use unabbreviated Latin 

4. Name the official alkaloids of Opium, with their 

preparations and doses. 

5. State accurately the sources and doses of : 

Ext. Belladon. Ale, Infus. Digitalis, Tinct. 
Aconiti, Tinct. Cannab. Ind., Tinct. Strophanthi. 

6. Give the natural orders, botanical names, parts 

used, and active principles of: Chamomile, Fox- 
glove, Hemlock, Henbane, Indian Hemp. 

7. Write all you know of Dilute Hydrocyanic Acid, 

and medicinal substances containing it. 

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8. Compare and contrast Calomel and Corrosive 

Sublimate. Give their sources and preparations^ 
with doses. 

9. Name the official compounds of Calcium, and their 

preparations. Give the doses of such as are used 
in medicine. 

10. Write a short essay on the " Combination of 



The Board of JEJxaminers, 

1. Describe the diagnosis of chronic enlargement of 

the spleen, as contrasted with other conditions 
which may be coniused with it. 

2. Describe the diagnosis, and discuss the special 

risks, of aortic regurgitation, with the treatment 
when that is called for. 

3. Give a description of a paroxysm of true bronchia) 

asthma, with the treatment, both at and between 

4. Discuss the symptoms and diagnosis of tubercular 

menini^tis, in a child of seven years, and describe 
the naked -eye post-mortem appearances. 

5. Give an account of the symptoms and diagnosis of 

gout, in its acute and sub-acute forms, and of 
the appropriate treatment, general and medicinaL 

In dny treatment prcposed full preaenptwm should 
be written. 

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ANNUAL XXAinNATION, DBC., 1906. 423 

17te Board of Examiners, 

1. How woald you distinguish between injories in- 
flicted during life and after death ? 

% A man is found to have died from extravasation of 
blood on the brain. To what causes may it 
have been due, and how would you decide be- 
tween Datura) causes and injury f 

3. Give the signs and symptoms of Pregnancy, and 

the appearances indicating recent delivery. 

4. What are the signs of maturity and of live birth in 

the dead body of a newly-born child ? 

5.' Describe the symptoms, treatment, and paat-inortem 
appearances of poisoning by phosphorus, bella^ 
donna, and carbolic acid, respectively. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1. Describe the formation of the decidua, and the 

mode of attachment of the ovum to the uterus. 

2. Give the mechanism of a breech presentation, and 

describe the management of its delivery. 

3. Describe the signs, symptomS; and management of 

an inevitable miscarriage. 

4. Give the causes, signs, and symptoms of acute 


5. (a) Describe the operation of curettage. 

(Jb) Enumerate the conditions to which the opera- 
tion is applicable, and mention the contra- 

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The Board of Examiners. 

1. Describe minutelj the repair of a simple fracture 

of a long' bone, and state how such repair tnaj 
be interfered with. 

2. Describe minutely the vascular and t«xtural changes 

which occur in acute non-suppuratiye inflamma- 
tion of a serous membrane, with ultimate 
formation of adhesions. 

3. Describe the causation, appearance, position, 

composition, and briefly the possible con- 
sequences of ante-morttTn thrombi in the heart. 

4. State what you know concerning^ adenomata. 

5. Describe the usual macroscopic appearances in 

acute general tuberculosis, and the microscopic 
characters of the lesions in the lungs. 

6. Describe the appearance, staining reactions, and 

cultural characters of three of the chief pyogenic 

7. Describe the products of bacterial growth in 

nutrient broth, taking as example one of the 
following: — Anthrax bacillus, diphtheria bacillus, 
or putrefactive organisms. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1. Describe, with examples, the causes of necrosis of 


2. Describe the various forms of suppuration in the 

liver. Discuss their causation. 

3. Discuss the characters and causation of primary 

renal dropsy. 

4. Describe the macroscopic characters of carcinoma 

of the stomach in its several forms and positions. 

0. Describe the characters of the blood in spleno- 
raedullary (myelogenous) leukaemia. Give one 
method of making and staining differentially a 
blood film from such a case, and state how the 
kinds of leucocytes may be distinguished with 
the method chosen. 

6. Describe the macroscopic and microscopic changes 
seen in grey hepatisation of the lungs, and state 
how you would proceed to diagnose pneumo- 
C0CCU3 from bacillus pestis in sputum. 

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I'he Board of Examinen, 

1. Describe in detail the treatment of strangulated 

femoral hernia. 

2. Describe the treatment of tubercular disease of the 


3. Comment on the cases in which you would trephine 

after head injury. 

4. Comment on the differences between syphilis and 

cancer of the tongue. 

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FiBST Year Diploma. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Work Qaestion No. 5 in the November paper very 
carefully, using the following melody: — 




J n J J 


^ n n \ 




* ■ bd 



# ^ 


■ J .l i rJ J-i-i 

2. Add three parts above the Figured Bass. 






» Ss « 8 

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(6) .. W 

3. Explain why quavers at (a) and (c) are on one tail. 

What effect is shown in the value of the Soprano 
note ? Name the chords at (b) and {d). 
Justify the doubled Major Third at (c) 

4. Add three parts below the Chorale Melody — 

(a) in plain four-part harmony ; 

{b) introducin«r suspensions and passing notes. 




J Jr'JjJ 



'J. ^ I JJJILI Jll^ 


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First Year Mus. Bag. — Second Year 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Work Question 2 in the November paper very 
carefully, with the following^ as the melody : — 

2. Add Soprano, Alto, and Tenor to the Figured Bass. 




# — * 


tl? P %^ 


1 ^ 


3#2 % 

t* tl 

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3. Write two Divisions on the Ground Bass — 

The first in three-part harmony, the second in 
four parts, showing suspensions, passing notes, 








@r r r .r|r ^ ^^1 

4. Acconipany the melody by three vocal parts. 






J * 


\ i r 



f » . 1 



by Google 




The Board of Examinee's 

1. Set one of the following passages : — 

(a) For voice, with accompaniment — 

What says thy son^ thou joyous thrush 

Up in the walnut tree ? 
I love my love because I know 

My love loves me. 

(b) For four voices, unaccompanied — 

A voice so thrilling ne'er was heard 
In spring time from the cuckoo bird. 

Breaking the silence of the seas 
Among the farthest Hebrides. 


Write an original passage of about sixteen 
bars beginning in E Flat, and modulating to the 
following keys in order: — C Minor, B Flat 
Major, F Minor, B Major. Introduce a Minor 
Thirteenth, and an Inversion of the Dominant 
Eleventh ; also a Nenpolitan Cadence, and Tonic 
Pedal Point. 

2. Harmonise the Chorale melody — 

(a) In plain four-part harmony. 

{b) With continuous crotchet movement. 

(£?) With melody in the Tenor. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



(d) Introducing suspensions, passing notes, and 
jaried harmony. 






CJ O f j 

i^ J>j.TiiJ | Jj 







3. Write an accompaniment to the melody for piano- 
forte or strings. The suggestion given for 
accompaniment need not be followed. 










M N 

• — # 

f!'r g cfg 

fi,^fT.rJji^ , 9^^ p ^ 

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Suffgested cKComprmiment figwre {first har). 



The Board of Examinerr, 

1. Explain the terms— Chorale, Ground Bass, Madri- 
gfal» Tritone, Opera di Camera, Glee, Recitative, 
Fignred Ba&s« 

3. Shew tbe derivation, or original use of — QiatDrio, 
Solfa, Mfnfm, Violin, Drscant, Baritone, Opera. 

3. Write the passage A with Tenor Clef. 

4. Write the passage- B with Alto Cl«t 

5. Write the passage C with Treble and with Bass 


fil Writs th«. passage D aa it would appear in — (a) its 
Tonic Minor } (8) iis Relative Miaor. 

Shew the proper signature in each case. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

MARCH, 1907. 



The Board cf Entunvneri, 

Translate, with brief notes in the margin — 

(a) & yipffv, o^x '^**"5 oSfDC avifp, Tay(ti ^* eiftrrcK avrdc, 
OQ Xaov Hyiipu' ftaXitrra ^ yx' «fiXyoc tKavti. 
ovTE Tcv •kyyEhiniv ffrparov €k\vov ep^OfxivoiOy 
ijv x' viftlv ircKfrn, (*iirw, otte wporepoc ye frvOoifirfv, 
oifT€ Ti hri/mav aXXo TrHfrawTKOfjai ohd* aryopevtOy 
aXX ipov nvTOV-^^WQy 6 fim kukov efiTretrev oIk^^ 
doia' TO /Jirv irccrip' €&6\6v xiir-wXe^nf vq wot iv 

Toitrheaaiv fiaffiXcve, irar^p J' CtQ Hwioq ffep' 
vvv V av Koi iroXv fjuli^ov, S Si) ra^a olKoy diravra 
Trarfyy ^appaiweij (i'ioTOV 8* &ir6 wa/xirav oXifrarei. 
fXTjTepi fcai fiyrfrrrfjpeQ £iri')(paov oi/K cfleXovoi;, 

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T&v av^pufv flXoi vice 01 eyOa^e y* tWiv Apiarroij 
01 irarpog fiev Iq oIkov airepplyaffi vietrdai 
^licaploVf &Q K airroc eeh'taaaiTO dvyarpa, 
^otTf S* if K idiXoi ical ol Kt\apifffiivo^ IXdoi, 
oi Z* EiQ fjfjLerepov wufXevficroi ^/lara varra, 
fiovc Icpivovreg Kai oig koI irioyag alyaC) 
eiXaTrivQ^ovffiv irivovffl re aWona oJror 
fiaTpiUiMfQ' TO, deTToXXa Kardyerai. oh ykptir av)]p 
oioQ ^O^vatreifQ effKeVf aprjv ano d'lKOv afivvai, 
flfielg ^' ov vv n roiot afivvifxtv" ^ «rac hrtira 
XevyaXioi t €(T6/JLe<rda Kal oh hedariK6r£c dXir^i'. 

— (Homer.) 

(fj) TovT ean tovtI to KaKOv avd' ovyuf 'Xeyop. 
TO yap vapa^EiyfJia twv ^avi&v aKovere' 
' a 3* eive wpwroy fjviK »/pX^^' ^t X®^*' '* 

7r£V(T£(rd\ e0a(rv£ yap Trpoe mtTor evdahi' 
nwg dv tror a<l>iKoi/Jirfy av ehdv tov Aioq'j 
tireira Xenra KXi/jiaKin irowhfXivoQy 
TrpoQ TavT avtppi-^^cLT av £«c TOV ohpavdvf 
ewQ ^vverpijSri ttjq^ tccfaXfjc KarappvelQ. 
exOeg ^e fieTo. TavT exfOapetg ohK olh* oiroi 
elffijyay* Airi^aior fiiyiarov KavQapoVy 
K&wtiTa TOVTOv iiriroKOfjLEiv jjl iivayKatrtVy 
KavTOQ KaTaxptiv ahrov &(rn£p TrwXlov, 
& Uriydfreiovj <l>rialf yevyaiov WTtpov, 
OTttag iriTtjarei fx ehdv tov Aiog Xafiuv. 
aXX* 6 Ti TTOieX ryhi ^laicvxpag oxlfOfiai. 
olfjLoi ToXag' *iT€ ^evpo ^evp\ & ytiTovig* 
6 Beairorrfg yap fiov fisTiufpog aVpfrai 
iTnrrjdov tig tov aip ctti tov icavddpov, 

— (Aristophanes.) 

{c) Movffawy he fiaXiarTa tUiv lepovg vTro^i^raC) 

o^pa Kal eiv 'Ai^ao KeKpv/jLfiet'og etrOXog onfoverpC; 
/Lii^y aKXerjg fivprjai eiri xpv^pov *A\epovTOij 

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wdrte rcc fiftKiXif reTvXufiivoc Ev^odi x«if)ac 
axrju £K irarepiMfv ireyiJiv iiKTrifioya kXcUuv* 
voWol kv ^AvTioxpto hofioic Kai &vaKTOi 'AXeva 
dp/LiaXij)v efjifiriyov ifierpriffavTO wtvitnaC 
iroXKol Zk ^Koirahriffiv i\avv6ntvoi iroTi caKovQ 
fi6(r\oi ffvy Kepa^ffiy efivK^vayro fiotwiy 
fivpia S* cLfx vE^ioy Kpavvdtyioy kvhiaaaKoy 
voifUyiQ EKKpira fiffXa ^cXo£eiVoi0-c KpewydaiQ* 
aXX' ov oi^iv T&v JiloQy cirei yXvKvv kitKiywiray 
Ovfjtoy kc eitpEiav <T\eZiay arvy yoio yipoyroQ^ 
dfiyaoTOi Zk ra TroXXa koI oX/3ca rffya XiwoyreQ 
ZuXdiQ ky yeKv€ff(TL fiaicpove aiwvai. ticeiyTO, 
ei fjirf ZeiyoQ dot^oc o K^coc al6Xa <^taykiay 
(iapfiiTov £C 7roXw)(opSov ky ayipaffidfiK oyofiatrrovQ, 
— (Theocritus.) 

(jt) avTodey 3i) ^taro^Oiyrt i) viraKoveiy npiy ti ftXal^rj" 
yaiy Ti el noXifir)ffofxty, wc tfioiye Afteiyoy ZoKel 
eiyaty Kal km fieydXri Kai kni j3pa\d^ ofxoiwQ 
npofpaaei fxij ei^oyng /iiySc ^vv 0d/3^ ^ cfo irec a 
K€KTri/jL€6a, rrjy yap ahrrjy ivyarai ZovXuKny ij T€ 
fieyitrrrf Kai kXa-^^itrrrf iiKafutaiQ and rQy Ofjioiuty irpo 
ZiKTfQ toIq viXac ktriTaffaofUyri. ra Ik rov iroXifiov 
Kal Ttay kKaripoiQ v7rap\6yTwy wg ovk aaOeyiffTipa 
ciofjLev yywTE Kud^ eKaaroy aKovoyriQ. avTOvpyoi t€ 
yap eiffi lieXoTroyyfiffiot Kal ovte Idiijf. ovre ky kroiyf 
'Xpilfiard kariv avroiQ, evura \poy(wv iroXkfjtbfy Kal 
ZiairoyTltay dveipoi Zia ro Ppa\ftog airrol cw' dXX^- 
XovQ viro iftyiaq knKpipeiv. Kal ol toiovtoi ovte 
yavQ irXripovyreQ ovre vei^ag trTpartac voXXcikiq 
kKirefATTEiy Zvyavraif airo T&y ihitay re &fjta dirovrf c 
Kal ano twv avrdv ^atravwiTcc Kal npoain Kal 
daXafftrriQ etpyo/xeyoi' ai Zk irepiovtriai tovq voXefiovg 
fidXXoy f/ ai fiiaioi k(y(f>opal dvi\ov(n, auffiaai re 
iTOifJiOTepoi 01 avTOvpyol rwv dyOputTruty fj ')(piifjLaffi 
iroXefjteiy, to fiky iriaroy t-^^ovrtQ kK r&y Kiy^vvtoy 

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Ka¥ weptyeviffBai, ro 3e oh (idfiaiov fjtri ov vpoava' 
Xto^^tw, fiAAwc TS Kmv im/Da 3a£av, oirep eiKoCy 6 
•noXE/iog ahroiQ fxrjKuvfirvbi. ftaxp ^*^ 7^ /**9 ^P°^ 
an-ayrorc "EAAiyi'etc ^wi'aroi IleXoTrovviifl'ttii *:ai ot 
iitfxfia)^ avTiaxf^f-y', ircXe^elv ^€ /ii) vpoQ ofioiav 
(ii'TurwpairKmfiiv iuttJovaroLy orav nifTt (hvXevTtipuif 
(i/t ypwfuroi irupv)(jpjffi€b ti o^'wc siriTeXuai, TraiTfc 
TT ((TOi//iy0m ovreg iftic otf)^ opiQfpvXoL to iipr^ eavrby 
eieairrojc' tnnv^t, — (TruGYDIBBS^)' 

{e)' £1 fxiy vvp Sip^rfQ re aurveiiyf/e ravra Xiyovra 
KJfpvKa ig "Apyoc Kai *Apyei(ov AyyeXoi avfi(iavTtq 
kq 'Ziovaa iirtipwrtov *Aproiipiea vepl ^cXiijc? ovk 
£')(ut aTpzKtwg eiirelv, oh^i nva yrwfiriv wepi avrwy 
cLTfofaivofJiai &XXriv ye rj riiv wep ahrol Apyeioi 
Xiyevari, eirttrrafjLai ^c roaovrOy on el vavre^ 
arSpufTtoi TO. olK^'la icaKo. eg fiiaoy (TuveveUaiiv 
aXXd^aGdai fiovXofievoi rolffi nXri(rioi(riy.£yKv\lfavTeg 
av ig ra twv wiXag Kaica atrvaaitog eKacrroi, avTwv 
cLTTOipepotaTo oiriffiMf ra eoTjveLcavTO. ovto) Srj ovk 
^Apyeioiffi nitr^iffra TrcTTo/i/rai. ly<if ^e 6<f>£iXia 
XiyurTct Xeyofiiva, TreiSeffduiye fiijv ov vavTcnrafft 
ofelXiOf nai /xoi tovto to eirog e'j^Tto eg iravra XoyoV 
lirel KOL ravra Xeyerai, wg apa * ApyeToi. Jjaay oi 

• eTTiKaXfaa/jievoiTor TLipcTrjv iirt rrjv 'EXXa^o, eneihij 
(r(pi TTpog rovg AnKihaifiorlovg KaKUfg y ai')QjLrj iarrfficee, 
irdy 5/) (JovXojieroi a(pi(n e\vai irpb rijg itapeovaiig 
Xvirrfg. — (HERODOTUS.) 

( / ) 6 ^e aXai^fijy roiovroc Tig olag Iv t^ ^eiyfian 
earrjKuig ^LtfyelffSaL tivotg w^ iroXXa '^fi/xaTa ahru 
EtTTiy ey r^ OoXarrp* Kalirepl rijg epyojiiag t^q 
layuffTiuiQ ^LE^iiyai TjXiKri^ Kal a.vrog oara e'iXri<pe 
Kai airoXbjXeKE' koi ofxa Tavra^irXedpIiiaty vifiireiy 
TO Traif^apioy eirl rily rpaTrei^ay, ^pa^fi^s avr^ 
KEifxeyrig. Kai avyoZoiiropov he avoXavaag ev rHohu 
ZtLvbg Xiyeiy wg jier ^ AXi^ay^pov itrrpaTevtraTO, Kai 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


wc atny c*X^> '^' ^^ XSoKoWrira worfjpta iicofnat' 
veti TF^fH rSfv rey^^vvrtav rwv Iv rrj ^Airt^ em fteXriovQ 
elvl tCot kv r^ l^vpwirri aftiptfrffrirfffrat' Kal ravTa Ji) 
ffjmsLL oivdafjiov eK r^c ttoXcwc &7roJe^ty/ify*wt'" Kal 
"YpanfjtaTU de ^iwtlv wc Tfapetm irap* ^ AvTiTrarpov 
Tpttrra h) Xcyofra 'TrapayiveirSai nvrov tic Maicc- 
dcrvia-Py Kal htlofiivrjg avvS t^aytoyffQ ^v\tjv areXovg 
OTL aire iprjTai, orrtoc fjirih vtp kvog (rvKO(l>avrrjdrj 
wepatrepoj 0iXdc ufv ffXctv rj irpo^Tficei MaK^botTi. Kal 
iv T^ (TiTO^e^ Se wc TrXttto fj irivrt raXaiTa avrf 
yivoiro ra hvoKuf/xara ^^ovri toIq airopoig tCjv 
TToXtTwy' ayayeveiv yap oh ^vvatrOai. 

— (Theopbtrastus.) 

The Board of Examiners, 
Translate, with brief noles in the margin — 

(a) quae nisi respuis ex animo longeque remittis 
dis indigna putare alienaque pads eorum, 
delibata deum per te tibi numina saucta 
saepe oberunt ; non quo violari summa deum 

possit, ut ex ira poenas petere inbibat acris, 
sed quia tute tibi placida cum pace quietos 
constituefi magnos irarum volvere fluctus, 
nee delubra deum placido cum pectore adibis, 
nee de corpore quae sancto simulacra ferantur 
in mentes bominum divinae nuntia formae, 
suscipere haec animi tranquilla pace valebis. 

— (Lucretius.) 

(b) non rastros patietur humus, non ui'n?ea falcem ; 
JX)bustus quoque iam tauris iuga soluet arator; 

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nec uarios discet mentiri lana colores, 
ipse sed in pratis aries iam suaae rubenti 
murice, iam croceo matabit uellera luto; 
sponte sua sandjx pascentis uestiet agnos. 
" talia saecla " suis dixerunt ** currite " fusis 
Concordes stabili fatorum numine Parcae. 
adgredere o magnos (aderit iam tempus) 

cara deum snboles, magnum louis incrementum! 
aspice conuexo nutantem pondere mundum, 
terrasque tractusque maris caelumqne pro- 

aspice, uentnro laetentur ut omnia saeclo ! 
o mibi tam longae maneat pars ultima uitae, 
spiritus et quantum sat erit tua dicere facta : 
non me carminibus uincet nec Thracius 

nec Linus, buic mater quamuis atque huic 

pater ad sit, 
Orphei Calliopea, Lino formosus Apollo. 

— (Vergil.) 
{c) Sili, Castalidum decus sororum, 
qui periuria barbari furor is 
ingenti premis ore perfidosque 
astus Hannibalis leuesque Poenos 
raagnis cedere cogis Africanis : 
paulum seposita seueritate, 
dum blanda uagus alea December 
incertis sonat hinc et bine fritillis 
et ludit tropa nequiore talo, 
nostris otia coramoda Camenis, 
nec torua lege fronte, sed remissa 
lasciuis madidos iocis libellos. 
sic forsan tener ausus est Catullus 
magno mittere passerem Maroni. 

— (Martial.) 

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(d) postero die sub ortum solis iustruxere ab alto 
naues uelat ad iustum proelium nauale et tam- 
quam exituris coDtra Romania, cum diu stetis- 
sent, postquam nibil moueri ab hostibus uiderunt 
turn demum ooerarias adgrediuutur. res erat 
minime certamini nauali similis, proximo speciem 
muros oppugnantium nauium. altitudine ali- 
quantum onerariae superabant ; ex rostratis 
Poeoi uana pleraque, utpote supino iactu, tela in 
locum superiorem mittebant ; grauior ac pondere 
ipso libratior superne ex onerariis ictus erat ; 
speeulatoriae naues ac leuia nauigia, quae 
sub constratis pontium per interualla excurre- 
bant, prime ipsae tanto impetu et magnitudiije 
rostratarum obruebantur, deinde et propugna- 
toribus quoque incomraodae erant, quod per- 
mixtae cum hostium naulbus inhibere saepe tela 
cogebant metu, ne ambiguo ictu suis inciderent. 
postremo asseres ferreo unco praefixi — faarpa- 
gones uocat miles — ex Punicis nauibus inici in 
Romanas coepti. quos cum neque ipsos neque 
catenas, quibus suspensi inieiebantur, incidere 
possent, ut quaeque retro.' inhibita rostra ta 
onerariam haerentem unco traheret, scindi 
uideres uincula, quibus alia aliis innexa erat, 
seriem aliam simul plurium nauium trahi. sex 
ferme onerariae puppibus abstractaeCarthaginem 
sunt: maior quam pro re laetitia sed eo grauior, 
quod inter adsidnas clades ac lacrimas unum 
quantumcumque exinsperato gaudium adfulserat, 
cum eo ut appareret baud procul exitio fuisse 
Romanam classem, ni cessatum a praefectis 
suarum nauium foret et Scipio in tempore 
subuenisset. — (Livy.) 

(e) cogitanti autem haec fere succurrebant : 
primum ex eo, quod superior! bus litteris 

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scripseras, ex familiari te illius aadisse pro- 
]atum iri aliquid quod nemo improbaret, 
maiuB aliquid timueram : hoc mihi eius modi 
non uidebatur. deinde, ut me egomet consoler, 
omnis exspectatio largitionis agrariae in 
a^rum Campanum uidetur esse deriuata : qui 
agar, ut dena iugera sint, non amplius hominum 
qninque milia potest sustinere, reliqua omnis 
multitudo ab illis abalienetur necesse est. prae- 
terea, si ulla ros est quae bonorum animos, quos 
iam uideo esse commotos, uehementius possit 
incendere, baec certe est et eo magis, quod 
portoriis Italiae sublatis, agro Oampano diuiso, 
quod uectigal superest domeaticum praeter 
uicensimam ? quae mihi uidetur una contiun- 
cula clamore pedisequoram nostrorum esse peri- 
tura. Gnaeus qtiidem noster iam plane quid 
cogitet nescio. 

<l>v(T^ yap oh rrfiiKpoiaiv ahXlffKotc eri, 
aW* aypiaiQ <l)v(Tai(Tiy ipopptlac &Ttp' 
qui quidem etiam istuc adduci potuerit. nam 
adhuc haec ktroff^H^eTo, se leges Caesaris probare: 
actiones ipsum praestare debere : agrariam legem 
sibi placuisse : potuerit intercedi necne, nihil ad 
se pertinere : de rege Alexandrine placuisse 
sibi aliquando confici : Bibulus de caelo tum 
seruasset necne, sibi quaerendum non fuisse : de 
publicanis, uoluisse se illi ordini commodare : 
quid futurum fuerit, si Bibulus tum in forum 
descendisset, se diuinare non potui^se. 

— (Cicero.) 

(y ) laetum ea uictoria Vespasianum, cunctis super 
uota fluentibus, Cremonensis proelii nuntius in 
Aegypto adsequitur. eo properantius Alexan- 
driam pergit, ut fracto Vitellii exercitu urbem 

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quoque externae opis indigam fame urgueret. 
Damqne et African), eodem latere sitam, terra 
marique inuadere parabat, clansis annonae sub- 
sidiisinopiam ac discordiam hosti facturus. dum 
hac totiuB orbis Dutatione fortuna imperii transit, 
Primns Antonius neqnaquam pari innocentia 
post Gremonam agebat, satis factum bello ratus 
et ceterii ex facili^ sen felicitas in tali ingenio 
auaritiam superbiam ceteraqne occulta mala 
patefecit. nt captam Italiam persultare, ut suas 
iegiones eolere : omnibus dictis factisque uiam 
sibi ad potentiam struere. utque licentia militem 
inbueret, interfectorum centurionum ordines 
legionibus offerebat. eo suffragio tnrbidissimus 
quisqne delecti ; nee miles in arbitrio ducum, 
sed duces militari uiolentia trahebantur. quae 
seditiosa et corrumpendae disciplinae mox in 
praedam uertebat, nihil adaentantem Muciauum 
ueritus, quod exitiosius erat qnam Yespasianum 
spreuisse.— (Tacitus.) 

The Board of Examnmera. 
1. Translate into Greek Iambics — 

L. O speak no more, my lord I This breaks my 
Lie on this bed and rest yourself a while. 
E. These looks of thine can harbour nought but 
death : 

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I see my tragedy written in thy brows. 
Yet stay : awhile forbear thy bloody hand, 
And let me see the stroke before it comes. 
That even then, when I shall lose my life, 
My mind may be more steadfast on my God. 

L. What means your highness to mistrust me thus? 

E. What mean'st thou to dissemble with me thus? 

L. These hands were never stained with innocent 
blood ; 
Nor shall they now be tainted with a king's. 

E. Forgive my thought for having such a thought. 

2. Translate into Greek Prose — 

There cannot be anything so disingenuous, so 
misbecoming a gentleman or any one who pre- 
tends to be a rational creature, as not to yield 
to plain reason and the conviction of clear argu- 
ments. Is there anything more inconsistent 
with civil conversation and the end of all debate, 
than not to take an answer, though ever so full 
and satisfactory, but still to go on with the dis- 
pute, as long as equivocal sounds can furnish a 
term to wrangle with on the one side, or a dis- 
tinction on the other, whether pertinent or 
impertinent matters not ? For this in short is 
the way and perfection of logical disputes, that 
the opponent never take an answer, nor the 
respondent ever yield to an argument. This 
neither of them must do, unless he will pass for 
a poor baffled wretch, and lie under the disgrace 
of not being able to maintain whatever he has 
once affirmed, which is the great aim and glory 
in disputing. Truth is to be found and sup- 
ported by a mature and due consideration of 
tilings themselves, and not by artificial terms 
and ways of arguing : these lead men not so 

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much into the discovery of truth, as into a 
captious and fallacious use of doubtful words, 
which is the most useless and offensive way of 
talking and such as least suits a gentleman or a 
lover of truth of anything in the world. 

Hie Board of Examiners. 

1. Translate into Latin Elegiacs — 

Slow sinks, more lovely ere his race be run, 
Along Morea's hills the setting sun ; 
Not, as in Northern climes, obscurely bright, 
But one unclouded blaze of living light ! 
O'er the hushed deep the yellow beam he 

Gilds the green wave, that trembles as it glows. 
On old Aegina's rock, and Idra's isle. 
The god of gladness sheds his parting smile ; 
O'er his own regions lingering, loves to shine, 
Though there his altars are no more divine. 
Descending fast the mountain shadows kiss 
Thy glorious gulf, unconquer'd Salamis ! 

2. Translate into Latin Prose — 

Full of these ideas, all the electors turned 
their eyes towards Frederic, Duke of Saxony, a 
prince of such eminent virtue and abilities as to 
be distinguished by the name of the sage, and 
witli one voice they offered him the Imperial 
crown. He was not dazzled with that object 
which monarchs so far superior to him in power 


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courted with such eagerness ; and, after 
deliberating upon the matter a short time, he 
rejected it with a magnanimity and disin- 
terestedness no less singular than admirable. 
" Nothing/* he observed, " could be more im- 
politic than an obstinate adherence to a maxim 
which, though sound and just in many cases, 
was not applicable to all. In times of tran- 
quillity," he saii, " we wish for an emperor who 
has not power to invade our liberties ; times of 
danger demand one who is able to secure our 
safety. The Turks, led by a gallant and vic- 
torious monarch, are now assembling. They 
are ready to pour in upon Germany with a 
violence unknown in former ages. New con- 
junctures call for new expedients. The Imperial 
sceptre must be committed to some hand more 
powerful than mine or that of any other German 
prince. We possess neither dominions nor 
revenues nor authority which enable us to 
encounter such a formidable enemy. Recourse 
must be had, in this exigency, to one of the 
rival monarchs.'^ 

Professor Tucker, 

1. State Grassmann's Law, with instances and ex- 


2. Give, with examples, the history of the following 

I.-E. sounds as they appear in Greek and Latin:— 
oi, eUy bh, sonant I, post-consonantal u, velar ^. 

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3. What chief eftects were produced in Latin by the 
old method of accentuation ? 

4 Explain and illustrate " Sentence-Phonetics." 

5. (a) Illustrate fully the phenomena of Ablaut in 

roots or suifizes containing' e, 

(J) Relate the following words to their cognates 
in other Ablaut steps — modestusy ireTratrde and 
veiroade (zi weTroydaTs), BihoiKay solium^ 7ra\at, 
perculsUS, eiKotg (with eoiKwt:)^ iroifxioij vTrEptftiaXog. 

6. Comment on the vowels italicised in — neglego, 

Poenus, nunctipo, mina, fabttla, v^ter, anrttem. 

7. Examine completely the following words in respect 

both of phonology and morphology — 

XeiTreiQ, t^ovffi (Dor. k^ovai), seruntur (with 
uvTai)y C0CU8 (with fri<r(r<i))j sacerdos^ interior^ 
TtdrewQ (with redvrfKwg), (r^ivvvfAi (with segnis), 
iergo (with TiTpifAfxaijy iravovpyo^y aavrovy ^doroc, 
deoffdoTog, wio/Jiai, ektiu (with ticca and tKavaa), 
mihi, iKarov, Savinium (with Sabelltts), ireiayia 
(with offend%x\ Kotlv {cavere), evw (with vro), 
hiXtpa^ (with calf\ Tfjxvg {el-horo), tpavXos 
(with <l>Xavpog), mulceo (fiaXaKog)^ jiaffiXewCf 
eXdrri (with Hnter), Kara (with contra), in- 

8. Take the following verbs, break them up into 

their component parts, state the function of each 
such part, and do the same with each of the 
*' principal parts" of each verb :— r/icrw, MKrw, 
c^w, viritr^viofiaiy peUOyJero, JdciOy irvvddvofjiatf 
"ndtr^iMtf tendOy reivtif, 

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9. Describe the I.-E. method of forming subjunctive 
and optative moods. Shew how far Greek and 
Latin have retained or departed from the original 

Illustrate by *es — *rf — *b1ier — . 

10. Discuss briefly the case-forms— oik-aSf, xaapiiavj 

leavoTEa^ deabtis, honoribus, iifiag, ^ovc, Joras, 
iroXiroVy ^pa-xjiijai, Tro^Etrcri, mors. 

11. Examine the forms — 

yeyoi'vlaj inagisteTj eiicooroc, botim, <pi\airepogf 

12. Write compact notes on — 

(a) The augment. 

{b) The Latin passive. 

(c) The ways of forming infinitives. 

Board of Examiners, 

1. Give a clear account of the term yLiixr\<nQ as applied 

to the fine arts. How is music a jue/iiy^rtc ? What 
is meant by irpaUg as subject of fiifxritng ? 

2. (o) "The distinction between poets and prose- 

writers is a vulgar error." — (Shelley.) 

" Three works which are as near to poetry as 

possible without absolutely being so — PilgrinCs 

Progress^ Robinson Crasoey and the Tales of 

Boccaccio." — (Hazlitt.) 
Discuss these observations with the aid of any 

remarks made by Aristotle in the Poetics, 

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{b) '^The distinction between philosophers and 
poets has been anticipated." — (Shellet.) But 
what, in Aristotle's view, is there in common to 
poetry and philosophy ? 

(3. (fl) "All art is dedicated to joy. . , The right 
art is that which creates the highest enjoyment." 
— (Schiller.) Compare this with Aristotle's 
conception of the function of art. {b) Explain 
the special fioovtj derived from tragedy, (c) By 
what devices of plot or choice of ** hero " is such 
fi^oyii secured in the largest measure ? (d) Who 
is the best judge of the soundness of art, and in 
what respects is fj rCjy Qearpiav Athens 
revealed to us ? 

4. Pope says of Aristotle — 

" He steer'd securely, and discover'd far, 
Led by the light of the Mseonian star." 

Explain and discuss the latter line in con- 
nection with the statement that Aristotle as a 
critic believes in the ** survival of the fittest." 

5. Explain and discuss the statement that the func- 

tion of the poet is to represent o\a av yivoiro 
rather than to. yeyofxeva. 

C. " What distinguishes the artist from the mere 
amateur, says Goethe, is Architectonic^ in the 
highest sense; that power of execution which 
creates, forms, and constitutes ; not the pro- 
foundness of single thoughts, not the richness of 
imagery." — (M. Arnold.) 

How far does this agree with doctrines of 
Aristotle ? By what terms would Longinus 
express "the profoundness of single thoughts"? 

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7. Addison writes — ^'Aristotle has observed that 

the idiomatic style may be avoided and the 
sublime formed; by the following methods. . .'* 
What are these methods ? What must we under- 
stand "idiomatic" and "sublime" to mean? 
Explain v\J/oq as used by Long^inus. 

8. The nature of poetry is such that " ad eloquendi 

quaedam deverticula confugiat, nee mutare 
quaedam modo verba, sed extendere, corripere^ 
convertere, dividere cogatur." — (Quintilian.) 

Compare this with Aristotle's remarks upon 
er€KTace€is and the iike^ and discuss the point. 

9. Distinguish between the error in art and the error 

Kara (rv/ji/3el3riic6c. 

10. (a) Compare the definition of good poetic style in 

the Poetics with that of good style in the 

(6) Why should there be pvdfioc but not nirpov in 
prose ? 

11. Explain o-^^^juara, to \pv)(p6v, to ol^ovy, /icyaXo^po- 

avvriy airXovQ fjivOog, airXfj (rvfrratTig, 

12. £v TTJ '05vo"0"£/^ TrapEiKciffai Tig av KaTadvo/Jiiy^ tov 

*''Ofjiripoy fl\(f^f ov ^ixa Tfjc fff^oZpOTriTOQ irapauiyei to 
fiiyedoQ. What are the grounas of this judgment? 

13. cf avdyKriQ yivoiT* av v^ovq oitiov to tCjv Ifupepo- 

fjeywv sKXeyeiy ael tcl KaipiutraTa, 

Complete this passage, with the illustrations* 

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14. (i) Give the substance of Quintilian's eriticisms 

of Greek and Roman historians. 

(H) Aeschylus, sublimis et gravis et grandiloquus 
saepe ad vitium, sed rudis in plerisque et incom- 

Compare this with an observation of Longinus. 

15. Pope speaks of " lays 

That, shunning faults, one quiet tenour keep ; 
We cannot blame indeed — ^but we may sleep.*' 
What has Longinus to say in similar vein ? 

16. Comment on the following excerpts irom Horace — 
(a) difficile est proprie communia dicere. 

(Z») Archilochum proprio rabies armavit iambo. 
(c) nee gemino helium Troianum orditur ah ovo. 
(^dy si vis me flere, dolendum est 

primum ipsi tibi. 


ITie Board of Examiners, 

Define and characterize the '^ Classical Period '' in 
Greek and Latin literature respectively. Trace 
the nature and causes of the decline in each case. 

(<x) Describe concisely the contributions to Greek 
literature which came from BcBotia^ Sicily, and 
Alexandria respectively. Add the dates. 

(Ji) Which of the Roman writers were provincials ? 
Give some account of each. 

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8. Through what characteristics of subject-matter 
and treatment is Attic Comedy divided into 
periods ? Name the principal writers of each. 

4. What ground is there for supposing the existence 
of Epic poems previous to the composition of 
the Iliad ? 

6. Give an account of (a) the rise and progress of 
Greek oratory, (V) Greek and Latin books on 

6. Write a concise history of Roman tragedy^ 

examining its relations with the Greek. 

7. Give (with dates) a brief summary of the lives 

and works of Alcseus, Simonides, Anacreon, 
Xenophon, Plutarch, Ennius, Varro, Pliny the 
\ounger, Martial. 

8. Write an Essay on each of the following 

subjects : — 

(a) Bucolic poetry. 
{h) Tacitus as stylist and historian, 
(c) The possibility of translating Pindar or 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Place on an outline map the chief Greek settle- 
ments in Southern Italy and Sicily. Describe 
briefly (with dates) how Eome came into 
political contact with them successively. 

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2. Give some account of the AtheDian and Roman 

coinage, stating the modern values. Give the 
Greek and Latin for " £*J50 at 6 per cent, per 
annum," " I will pay the principal on the 17th 
of March." 

3. Explain clearly — Equites Honiani, princeps /tena- 

tuBy senatares pedariiy legatio libera, ^iktt aTroa- 
raalov, Hkti i^ovXrfg, fitTOLKioVy irpofioXiif /icVavXoc 
OvpUf avcLKpifngy Tai,iapypQ, <j>v\ap\o^y yEpovvia, 
ravapxog, otrTpaKKT/iog, vexillarii, divinatio, nun- 
dinae, morbus comitialis, obnuntiatio, 

4. State the origin and application of the proverbs — 

TToD (TTWy — ipse dixit — ad Kalendas Graecas — 
yrGtQi aeavTor — ovdev irpog Aidvvaoy — ab OVO — 
sus Minervam. 

5. Explain by a diagram the topography of — 

Otho per Tiberianam domum in Velabrum, 
inde ad miliarium aureum sub aedem Saturni 
pergit — 

and the allusions in — 

Exsilium et career Minturnarumque paludes 
Et mendicatus victa Carthagine panis. 

6. Describe (with diagram) the Acropolis in b.c. 400. 

7. State in a few sentences — 

{a) the parts played in history by Brasidas, 
Pelopidas, Theramenes, Maecenas^ Vitellius, 
Jugurtha, Pythagoras, Pheidias ; 

{b) events connected with Pydna, Aegates Insulae, 
Aquae Sextiae, Arbela, Lade. 

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8. Give the classical Attic for Trpoffripxoyro, avaTiOei-- 

rat, eKfidWerai, e^w rrjv &pXfly kinTtTpafiiiivr)yy 
KoKitrtiQf yafirfdrfiro/Jiai, vpoajiyapev&riv, kiavri<FafXY)Vy 

9. Write terse notes on the grammar of — 

cur non exsilinm itis ? 

facinora nequo te decora nee tuis virtutibus. 

ne hostes quidem sepultura incident. 

quod non opus est^ asse carum est. 

mediis consiliis standum videbatur. 

ah Narnia Tiberi devectus est vitandae sus- 

me omnium iam laborum levas. 

iroXuQ \a\tna\ XajSeir fiij ov ^poy^* 

vitftOQ 5' oh faii^ero Tratrrig yalrjc ovB^ opiwy, 

elaijXdoy Tt^y dUrfv ravrriy. 

ei ^e av fiiv fiev aKovtroy, eyw ^i ici tol KaraXi^uf^ 

iiriKEiyityaL icdpa Kvrd^. 

£0T* ovv OTTLjg*' AXKrjfTTig elg yfjpag fXoXoi; 

fxapyayro ^e/iac irvpog alBofxiyoio, 

tfftreTai fjfJ'ap or ay itot dXwX^ "iXtoc *ip'h* 

10. What were the differences between the two chief 

varieties of Greek alphabet? What changes 
occurred in the Latin alphabet after it was first 
borrowed ? 

11. State and illustrate the various meanings and 

usages of quin with various moods. Translate 
** There is no doubt that, if he had arrived 
earlier, the town would have been taken.'' 

12. Emend the hexameter — 

ZufiTUi V kvTa yvvalKag dfivfwvag cpya I^v^ac* 

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13. Translate into an English couplet — 

Incipe : dimidium facti est coepisse. Supersit 
dimidium. Hursus incipe et efficies. 



First Paper. 

Professor Elkington. 

Write a short Essay on each of the following* sub- 
jects : — 

(1) The evolution of History from Mythology. 

<2) The Homeridae. 

(3) The Amphictyony. 

^4) Music as a subject of education at Athens. 

^5) The Sophists, from the standpoint of Socrates^ 
as teachers of virtue. 

{6) The characteristics common to the Tyrannis in 

(7) The constitutional and judicial reforms intro- 
duced by Pericles. 

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Second Paper. 

Professor Elkington, 

1. Discuss the chief causes of the gradual diminu- 

tion of the power of the Consulate. 

2. Describe the main racial divisions of the Italian 

peninsula in the fourth century B.C., and con- 
sider how the diversity of race affected the 
progress of Roman conquest. 

3. Trace the effects upon Home, economically and 

politically, of the second Punic war {a) in Italy, 
{V) abroad. 

4. Trace briefly the course, of the last Mithradatic 

war, and explain the nature of the settlement of 
the East by Pompeius. 

5. Why did the Republican government break down 

at Rome ? 

6. On what grounds did Caesar refuse to give up his 

province and his army in B.C. 50-49 ? 

7. What motives induced the Romans to undertake 

the conquest of Britain ? 

8. Trace the derivation of the principal Imperial 

powers as exercised by Augustus from forms of 
authority which existed unaer the Republic. 

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0. What changes in the direction of autocracy 
occurred under Tiberius ? 

10. Describe the principal changes in the government 
of the RoQQan Empire which were introduced by 
Diocletian and Constantine. 


First Paper. 

Professor Elkington, 

1. Indicate the chief points of resemblance and of 

difference between the Feudal relation and the 
Tribal relation. 

2. Indicate the chief causes of the downfall of th«' 

Manorial system. 

8. Discuss the attitude of the Baronage towards the 
Crown up to the accession of Edward the 

4. Discuss briefly the domestic and the foreign policy 
of Henry the Seventh. 

0. Discuss Wolsey's place in the history of England. 

6. Trace the causes which led to the opposition to 
Charles the First. 

". What circumstances brought about the fall of 
Clarendon ? 

8. Trace the effect (a) of Irish, {b) of Scottish, affairs 
in bringing about the Revolution. 

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Second Paper. 

Professor Elkington, 

1. Write a note upon "The English Village Com- 


2. "Party is essential to representative institutions." 

— May, C, H,y vol. TL^ p, 94. Discuss this 

3. '*Such then was the effect of the New World on 

the Old." — Seeley^ Expansion, p, 92. Explain. 

4. Discuss the Act of Settlement as introducing safe- 

guards to the Constitution. 

5. Write a note upon the more important constitu- 

tional questions which arose during the reign of 

6. Explain the circumstances in which the second 

Rockingham Administration was formed, and 
trace thence the course of public affairs to the 
formation of the Coalition Ministry. 

7. Show that the Reform Act of 1832 (a) has not 

produced the principal results expected of it, 
{b) has produced results that were not antici- 

8. Give some account of the Alabama arbitration. 

9. Whom do you consider the greatest of our Indian 

proconsuls, and for what reasons ? 

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Profetsor Elhington. 

^Write a' short Essay on each of the following sub- 
jects: — 

(1) The GoronatioD of Charles the Great 

(2) The Partition Treaty of Verdun. 

(3) The Constitution of the Holy Roman- Empire. 

(4) The changes in Europe, political and social, 

during the eleventh century, which affected 
the crusading movement. 

(5) The history of the Spanish peninsula during 

the fifteenth century. 

(6) The growth of the Swiss Confederacy. 

First Paper. 

Professor Elkington. 

Vo 1>6 answered al«o by Candidates for th» Wyselaskie 
Boholarsliip in Political Soonomy. 

1. What do you understand by Character ? By 

National Character ? Mention some of the lead- 
ing circumstances that influence Character. 

2. Show the importance of Psychology as a prepara- 

tion for the study of theoretical politics. 

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8. ^^ The consilience of Induction and Deduction is 
the very highest art that the human intellect can 
command, not merely for proving difficult pro- 
positions^ but for getting hold of propositions to 
be proved." Illustrate from your reading. 

4. In certain respects societies resemble individual 

organisms, in certain other respects they differ 
from them. Explain as fully as you can. 

5. '' ... there arise impediments in the way 

of Sociology greater than those in the way of 
any other science." — Spencer Study^ d;c,^ p, 72. 
Comment on this citation. 

6. " The progress in the discovery of laws, itself 

conforms to law." Elucidate. 

7. Bagehot sets down as a postulate of English 

political economy, the transferability of capital 
from employment to employment What do 
you understand by '* capital " and by ** employ- 
ment" in this connection ? 

8. " Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the 

exchangeable value of all things." — Wealth of 
Nations, Book /., ch. 6. Comment upon this 

9. Explain and illustrate the meaning of ^'relative 

indebtedness" in the theory of Foreign 

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Second Paper. 
Professor Elkington. 

To be answered also by Candidates for tbe Wyselaskie 
Scbolarsbip In PoUtioal Economy. 

Write a short Essay on each of the following 
subjects : — 

(1) Evolution and Dissolution. 

(2) Political Integration. 

(3) The interdependence of economic phenomena. 

(4) The influence of Machinery. 

(5) The Earnings of Labour. 

(6) The tendency of Profits to a minimum. 


(For the Degree op M.A.) 

Professor Elkington* 

To be answered also by Candidates for tbe Wyselaskie 
Scbolarsbip in Political Economy. 

1. Write a note on the limits of State-Duties. 

2. Discuss briefly Cliffe Leslie's essay on *'The 

Political Economy of Adam Smith." 

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3. (a) " No industry can live anywhere which is not 

able to face the most unrestricted com- 
petition." — GiFFEN, Economic Inquiries,IL, 
p. 188. 

(b) " The dream of the Socialist, that there is a 
common fund produced of which certain 
workmen do not get their fair share, is thus 
a pure illusion." — lb. 
Give the substance of Giffen's arguments. 

4. How does Giffen demonstrate that there has been 

a great increase of well-being throughout all 
classes of society within the last fifty years ? 

5. Write a note on the utility of common statistics. 

6. Write a note on ** the mobility of labour." 

7. Write a brief note on each of the following sub- 

jects : — 

(a) English corn-law legislation in the nineteenth 


(b) The Bank Charter Act 1844. 

(c) The Statute of Apprentices. 

8. How does Walker answer the question, *' May any 

advantage be acquired by the wages class 
through strikes or trade-unions" ? 

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Professor Laurie, 

1. Mention different ways in which the logical laws 

have been stated^ and different theories which 
have been held as to their origin. 

2. Consider the truth, or otherwise, of the statement 

made by Kant that, since Aristotle, Formal Logic 
has not had to retrace a single step, nor has it 
been able to make one step in advance. 

3. How far, if at all, may the doctrine of Opposition 

be applied to Hypothetical propositions ? And 
what immediate inferences may be drawn from 
such propositions ? 

4. What is meant by the Inversion of Categorical 

propositions ? On what processes does it depend, 
and on what conditions may it be regarded as 
valid ? 

5. What is the problem of Reduction ? Distinguish, 

in your answer, between Direct and Indirect 
Reduction. To what extent is it possible to 
reduce categorical syllogisms to moods other 
than the first ? 

6. What fallacy or fallacies are involved in the attempt 

to argue from one of the premisses and the con- 
clusion of a categorical syllogism to the truth 
of the other* premiss ? 

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7. Examine the following arguments : — 

(a) " You are not to inquire how your trade may 
be increased, nor how you are to become 
a great and powerful people, but how your 
liberties can be secured. For liberty ought 
to be the direct end of your government." 

{b) If the moral aim be blessedness, it must be a 
state of consciousness, or an aggregate of 
such states, either painful, indifferent, or 
pleasurable. From this it follows that the 
moral aim is pleasure, for a state of blessed- 
ness cannot be either painful or indifiPerent. 

8. What is the result of Elimination ? Can you 

point out any cases in which this process may 
be of value ? Explain the relation of the 
expressions J\l) and ^(0) to each other. 

9. Of the artists who offered works for a certain 

exhibition, it was found that the candidates 
whose works were wholly rejected consisted 
exactly of juniors who had sent in oil paintings 
and seniors who had sent in water colours. 
Describe the junior candidates as fully as these 
data will permit. 


Profe»8or Laurie, 

1. Discuss MilPs answer to the question^ what a 
Proposition really is. 

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2. Mention any meanings which have been attached 

to Real Definition. How is it that many 
logicians regard Definition as nominal only, 
while, at the same time, they admit that 
questions of Definition lead to an examination 
of things ? 

3. What account would you give of the objects which 

form the subject-matter of Geometry ? This 
may be discussed in connexion with the question 
whether axioms of Geometry may be explained 
and defended as generalizations from observation. 

4. What do you take to be the ground of Induction 

generally ? Is it possible to vindicate this 
ground as itself an Induction ? 

5. May every proof of a special law of causation be 

resolved into an application of the Method of 
Difference, or are other criteria necessary ? Give 
your reasons. 

6. How is it that stress has been commonly laid on 

plurality of causes, rather than on plurality of 
effects ? Refer, in your answer, to Venn's treat- 
ment of this question. 

7. Is the principle of the composition of causes liable 

to any exception ? Consider Mill's teaching on 
this subject. 

8. Mention different purposes for which Hypotheses 

may be used. Should the claim to frame Hypo- 
theses be restricted in any way ; and, if so, how ? 

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Professor Laurie, 

1. To what extent, if at all, is it true that Psychology 

forms the basis of Ethics ? 

2. Give an account of different varieties of motor 

sensations. Is it possible to resolve Space, or 
our knowledge of it, into these or any other 
sensations ? 

3. May all the facts of imagination, reproductiv^e and 

productire, be explained by a }aw or laws of 
association ? 

4. May the concept be resolved into a particular 

image or presentation, together with the use of a 
general name ? 

5. What account would you give, 

the development of the idea of Self? 

6. What is the value of the doctiino of " local signs" 

in connexion with Perception ? 

7. How does Lotze meet the supposition that mental 

life is nothing but a product of the bodily 
organizatioo ? 

8. On what grounds does Lotze defend the interaction 

of mind ajid body ? Compare his theory with 
any dootrime of psycbo-phyncal paarallelism 
known to yun. 

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Frofesior Laurie. 

1. What are the special problems of Kant's Trans- 

cendental Analytic as compared with his Trans- 
cendental Aesthetic ? 

2. Show the importance, for the philosophy of Kant, 

of his schematism of the Categories. Add any 

3. How does Kant seek to get rid of the difficulties 

contained in his first and second Antinomies ? 
Examine his position here. 

4. What does Kant hold to be the proper attitude of 

reason in its purely speculative use towards a 
moral theology, as distinguished from a specula- 
tive theology ? 

5. Show that the inquiry into the nature of knowledge 

is necessarily bound up with the inquiry into the 
nature of existence. 

6. On what grounds has it been maintained that the 

world must be conceived from a teleologicai and 
not merely from a mechanical point of view ? 

7. Does the unity of the world imply intelligence ? 

Is any light thrown on this subject by the 
development of human knowledge ? 

8. Give an account of the Idealistic view of the world 

which WatfiOB, in his chapter on the Philosophy 
of Mindy opposes to the philosophy of Herbert 

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Professor Laurie, 

1. At what point or points does Aristotle, in his 

Ethics, oreak off from the Platonic doctrine of 
the nature of the g^ood ? 

2. Explain Aristotle's division of the intellectual 


3. Distinguish between psychological and ethical 

hedonism, and discuss their relations. 

4. Hovir does Spencer attempt to establish a reconcilia- 

tion in moral j)hilosophy between empiricism 
and intuitionism ? Add any comments. 

5. Does Spencer's theory of the genesis of the moral 

consciousness justify the extension of ethics to 
the lower animals ? 

6. How would you meet the statement that the ethical 

end of self-realization, adopted by Green and 
others, errs in attaching undue importance to 
the satisfaction of the individual ? 

7. May the good will be regarded as a sufficient test 

of conduct*^ Is it possible to reconcile an 
affirmative answer with the acknowledged facts 
that men, acting conscientiously, are sometimes 
led in opposite directions ? 

8. Explain Greenes statement that Reason is the 

source of the idea of a Common Good. How 
does he seek to show that social interest must 
be accepted as a primary fact ? 

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Frofessor Laurie, 

1. What importance do you attach to the Method 

prescribed bj Descartes in the search for truth ? 

2. In what sense, and on what grounds, does Spinoza 

affirm freedom of the Infinite Substance, while 
denying free will to man? 

3. Write a short essay on Leibniz's theory of 

Pre-established Harmony. 

4. On what grounds does Locke conclude that there 

are material things distinct from the percipient 
mind ? Examine his arguments on this subject. 

5. State, with any comments, the distinction drawn 

by Berkeley between visible and tangible 

6. What, according to Locke, is the origin of our 

belief in personal identity ? And how did Hume 
seek to explain this belief? 

7. It has been said that '' the thorough subordination 

of reason to feeling and instinct is the deter- 
mining factor in Hume's philosophy." Consider 
this statement. 

8. Show chat the speculative philosophy of Kant has 

been the source of much of our later 

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First Paper. 
Tki Board of Examiners. 

1. '^ The Norman Conattest inaugurated a diatinctlj 

new epoch in the literary history of England." 
Comment on this statement. 

2. Write a note on the sources of Chaucer's " Knightes 

Tale'' and of his '* Nonne Prestes Tale." 

3. Give a short account of ^' Gorboduc " and of 

'* Ralph Roister Doister." 

4. Compare the Chronicle-play with the Historical 

Drama proper. To which class does K, Henry 
IV. belong ? 

5. Discuss the resemblances between the three plays 

generally considered as Shakespeare's latest. 

6. Discuss the question of Hamlet's age. 

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Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

1 . What are the chief merite and defects of Milton's 

prose style ? 

2. Write a short account of Barleys Murocosmo- 


3- Conapare Dryden and Pope as satirists. 

4. What do you gather from the Essay of Dramatic 

Poesy as to Dryden's own views on — 

(a) the relative value of ancient and modern 
drama ? 

(J) the relative value of English and French 
drama ? 

(c) the value of rhyme in dramatic works ? 

5. Show how the work of Thomson, Gray, Collins, 

and Percy can be considered as heralding a 
romantic movement in English poetry. 

6. What were the real defects of the so-called 

"metaphysical" poetry of the Seventeenth 
Century ? Illustrate as fully as possible. 

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Third Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Describe, briefly and precisely, Burke's attitude 

toward the French Revolution. 

2. Write a short account of Lamb's prose style. 

3. Discuss Macaulay's estimate of Addison. 

4. Compare Wordsworth and Shelley — 
(a) in their attitude towards Nature ; 

(6) in their attitude towards political reform. 

5. Summarize Harrison's argument in the matter of 

Eighteenth Century literature. 

C. Discuss Button's views on Browning — 
{a) as lyric poet ; 
\b) as dramatist. 


Fourth Paper. 

7%^ Board of Examiners. 

Write an Essay on one of the following subjects : — 
(a) The Poetry of Chaucer. 

{h) The debt of English literature to other modem 

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First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 


Ecrivez en franQais deux compositions choisies Tune 
parmi les sujets (a), I'aatre parmi les snjets (Jb)y 
indiqu^s ci dessous : 


(1) Les charmes de la lecture. 

(2) L'instruction doit elle 6tre obligatoire ? 

(8) De rinfluence du journalisme moderne sur la 
litt^rature et principalement le roman. 

(4) L'Angleterre est le pays le plus libre du monde, 
sans en excepter aucune Republique. — 


(1) Des ^crivains qui ont exerc^ le plus d'in- 

iluence sur le d6veloppement de lalan^ue au 
XVP Sidcle. 

(2) Del'influence de Louis XIV. sur la litterature 

de son si^cle. 

(3) De Finfluence exerc^e par certains ^crivains 

anglais sur les romanciers frangais du XYIIP 
Si^le et du XIX«. 

(4) De I'influence des salons litteraires et des 

femmes 6crivains sur la litterature frangaise 
des XVIP et XVIIP si^cles. 

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Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 



Tradaisez en franQais Elegant : 

(a) Trade in those dajs^ both foreign and domestic, 
was sabject to many discouragements. One of 
the most formidable of these consisted in the 
prevalence of piracy. The Governments of the 
period were all more or less irregular and 
insecure, especially in their influence on the 
more remote provinces nominally subject to their 
authority. But if licence seemed to increase 
with distance on the land, much more was it 
thus with distance on the open sea. Trading 
vessels were always armed vessels — were as far 
as possible vessels of war ; and the strong too 
often seized upon the weak, even in the time of 
peace^ appropriating the ship and the cargo^ and 
despatching the crew. Depredations of this 
nature provoked reprisals, and large fleets some- 
times took the quarrels thus originated into 
their own hands, without consulting their 
respective Governments. Almost every state had 
at times its complaint to make of wrong of this 
shape, and often only to be reminded of similar 
outrages as perpetrated by its own subjects. 

{h) At last came the days of his death agony, 
during which the strong frame of the man was 
struggliQg with dissolution. He insisted on 

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remaining by the fireside^ in front of the door of 
his private room. His daughter would spread 
out the gold coins on a table for him, and he 
would remain whole hours with his eyes fixed 
on them like a child that, on beginning to see, 
stupidly contemplates the same object ; and, like 
a child, he would give a painful smile. 

*' It does me good," he would say sometimes, 
with an expression of joy on his face. 

(c) Write to me as soon as you receive this 
letter, for I have not had news of you for 
sonde time. Until now I have been moving 
about so much that I could not give you any 
fixed address. At present, without being 
more settled in my movements, I depend 
more on myself, and I am better able to know 
what I shall be doing, the ordinary risks of life 
excepted. Address your letters to Mr. S. Bdle, 
to he called for ; for they will reach me where- 
ever I am, and in all probability I shall be in 
Switzerland. I am going there to escape the 
heat. I shall spend all the warm season in these 
mountains. I shall go down in October. The 
weather will then be pleasant with you, and I 
shall pay you a visit every winter. This had 
been my former plan, my finest castle in the 
air, and the dearest of my dreams ; and nothing 
no\<r prevents me from realizing it. 

(rf) All the world's a stage, 

And all the men and women merely players; 
They have their exits and their entrances ; 
And one man in his time plays many parts, 
His acts being seven ages. At first, tbe infant. 
Mewling* and puking-f in the nurse's arras ; 
* vagir. + baver. 

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And then, the whining schoolboy^ with his 

And shining morning face, creeping like snail 
Dn willingly to school. And then, the lover, 
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad 
Made to his mistress' eyebrow. Then a soldier, 
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the 

Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in 

Seeking the bubble reputation 

Even in the cannon's mouth 

Last scene of all 

That ends this strange eventful history. 
Is second childishness^ and mere oblivion ; 
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans every- 



1. Le fran^ais ressemble k Tanglais en ce que les 
seuls cas en usage se trouvent parmi les pronoms. 
Pourquoi done est-il d&irable de retenir lea 
expressions de nominatif, de genitif, d'accusatif 
et de datif surtout en ce Qui concerne la con- 
struction de certains verbes ? Les ezemplea 
suivants k traduire en frangais idiomatique 
pourront servir h expliquer les r^ponses : 

She has walked six miles. 

He values it at ten shillings. 

They stood sword in hand. 

He lives in Redan St. 

She smiled a bitter smile. 

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9. Traduisez soigneusement les exemples suivants 
d*expressions elliptiques (1) et expletives, (2) et 
expliquez les differences de coostruction des 
deux iang>ues dans ces phrases : 

(1) IVhen do you think they will come ? 
More dangerous than is supposed. 
I Uke novels, however uninteresting. 
Has she seen the house ? Yes. 
Are any left ? No. 

(2) To say that is to talk like a fool. 
I am the State. 

3. Donnez les idiomes fran^*ais correspondaot aux 
exemples suivants. 

Wliat does it matter ? 

I hnero her to be dying. 

Cost what it may. 

I heard people shouting in the streets. 

Happy is the man who .... 

4. Donnez les comparaisons et metaphores anglaise 
correspondant aux expressions suivantes : 

// fait noir comme dans un four. 

Trempe comme une soupe. 

Fort comme un turc. 

Maigre comme un clou. 

Triste comme un bonnet de nuit. 

Serrd comme des harengs. 


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Third Paper. 

The Board of JSxaminers. 


TRADUCTION (at sight). 

Traduisez eUgamment : 

1. La Fontaine et Moli^re sont inseparables, ils S8 
tiennent pour ainsi dire la main devaot la 
posterite qui les admire et qui les aime. Elle 
leur sait gre k tons deux de n'avoir pas hai les 
hommes dont ils ont peint les travers et les 
faiblesses avec tant de fidelity et par des mojens 
analogues, car la Fable, dans les mains de La 
Fontaine, est devenue : 

Une ample comSdie ^ cent actes divers. 

Ces deux pontes philosophes, si frangais et si 
humains, si modernes et si antiques, pour tout 
dire, si vrais et si durables, sont bien de leur 
pays et de leur temps, mais ils conviennent^tous 
les lieux et h tons les ^ges. Leurs faiblesses, et 
ils en ont, ne sont que des traits de verite plus 
frappants et des arguments de sinc^rite. Ce 
qui prouve victorieusement la parent^ et la 
puissance de leur genie, c'est le don qu'ils posse- 
dent au m^me degre de transformer ce qu'ils 
touchent, et de s*assimiler ce qu'ils empruntent. 
Moli^re disait: " Je prends mon bien o\x je le 
trouve,'* et La Fontaine, dans le mSme sens : 
Mjn imitation n' est point un esclaoage^ 
ct tons deux avaient raison. 

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Les plantes sembleut avoir 6t6, sem^es avec 
profusion snr la terre, comme les etoiles dans le 
ciel, pour inviter Thorn me, par Tattrait du plaisir 
et de la curiosity, k Tetude de la nature; mais 
les astres sont places loin de nous; 11 faut des 
connaissances pr^Iiminaires, des instruments, des 
machines, de bien lono;ues echelles pour les 
atteindre et les rapprocher k notre portee. Les 
plantes y sont naturellement; elles naissent sous 
nos pieds et dan« nos mains, pour ainsi dire; et, 
si la petitesse de leurs parties essentielles les 
derobe quelquefois k la simple vue, les instru- 
ments qui les y rendent sont d'un beaucoup plus 
facile usage que ceux de Tastronomie. La 
botanique est Tetude d'un oisif et paresseux 
solitaire, une pointe et une loupe sont tout 
Tappareil dont il a besoin pour les observer. 

C'est dans la jeunesse qu'il faut apprendre k lire les 
anciens. Alors la page de Tesprit est toute 
blanche, et la memoire boit avidement tout ce 
qu'on y verse. Plus tard, la place est occupee; 
les affaires, les soucis, les soins de chaque joui* la 
remplissent, et il n' y a plus gudre moyen qu' 
avec un trop grand effort de repousser la vie 
pr6sente qui nous envahit de tous c6tes et qui 
nous d^borde, pour aller se reporter en id^e ^ 
trois mille ans en arri^re. Et encore, pour y 
revenir, quand on salt les chemins, quelle pre- 
paration est n^cessaire! que de conditions pour 
arriver k go(iter de nouveau ce qu'on a senti une 
fois ! Aprds quejques ann^es d'interruption, 
essayez un peu, et vous venez la difficulte. II 
est besoin auparavant de se recueillir, de s'isoler 
de la vie qui fait bruit et de lui fermer la porte, 
de iaire comme on faisait autrefois quand on 

EK 2 

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vottlait s'approcher des myst^res, de prendre 
toate une semaine de retraite, de demi-ombre at 
de silence, de mettre son esprit au regime des 
ablutions et de le sevrer de la nourritiire 
moderne — Soyez sobre, soyez k je»in; n'allez 
pas, h YDS jours de communion avec Tantiquite, 
lire tous les journaux du matin. 

4. Un village ! — Voil^ le vingti^me peut-^tre. 
C'est le mSme toujours: on' le fait reparaitre! 
Chacun d'eux est si bien semblable k son voisin, 
Qu'on les fixerait tous en trois traits de fusain. 
Un fouillis de maisons, de granges, de cl6tures; 
Le fin clocher qui pointe au dessns des toitures ; 
La ferme centenaire avec son mur detruit. 

Et le long d'une haie, un cbemin creux qui fuit. 
Mais le calme est si grand, mais la paix si 

On croit si bien qu'ici cessent les bruits du monde, 
Et que nul des soucis, nulle des passions 
Qui sont le iourd imp6t de nos ambitions, 
Ne doit ici troubler, dans son divin mystdre, 
L'entretien familier, de Thomme et de la terre, 
Que, malgre le mecompte et le reveil certain, 
Je n'ai jamais pu voir un village lointain, 
Prds des for^ts, au flanc d'un mont, au bord d*un 

Sans r^ver d'y renaitre avec une kme neuve. 
Sans dire: "Le pays qu'il me faut, Thorizon 
Qui me plait, les voil^ ! — J'y voudrais ma maison. 

5. Sous le ciel morne rampe une plaine &pre, chauve, 
Et vierge du fi^cond d6chirement des socs. 

Oil rien ne croit, hormis aux fissures des rocs 
Quelques brins mal venus de bruy^re ou de mauve. 

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Aux moindres bruits, un vol de corneilles se sauve. 
La pierre ruin^e, Sparse en sombres blocs, 
T^moij^ne qu' autrefois d'^pouvantables chocs 
Ont consacre Thorreur de cette lande fauve. 

Qu'an jour un laboureur habile aux durs trava^ux 
Vienna, attelle ses boeufs trap us, ses forts chevaux, 
Et marche jusqu'au soir dans la g'lebe qu'il fouille. 

II heurte h chaque pas des restes de h^ros, 
Javelots, boucliers, casques rong^^s de rouille, 
Epouvant^ de voir la g'randeur de leurs os. 

6. Traduisez: 

Je monte au cinqui^me 6tag>e par Tascenseur. 

Les ouvriers sont en gr^ve, 

Je prendrai votre parti, car, h mon avis, vous avez 

Le £l8 du general a Spouse un bon parti. 

Ce pauvre homme a du g-uignon depuis quelque 
temps; il est encore sur le pav^. 

11 a la cinquantaine. 

Mettez-vous en mesure de remplir vos engage- 

Je me mets en quatre. 

Vous me mettez dans de beaux draps. 

Vous y mettez du temps. 



Repondez en anglais aux questions suivantes : 
(a) A quels faits de I'Histoire faut il attribuer la 
disparition du dialecte de la Langne d'OC. 
et pourquoi en a-t-on maintenant si peu de 
traces ? 

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(b) Expliquez la phrase suivante : 

'^Un me me temps que Ift forme des nwts 
se modlfiaity la syntaxe clle-meme s^alt^rait 
au cours des temps^ 

(e) La langue frangaise a-t-elle conserve des traces 
du ji^enre neutre ? 

(d) De quel genre doivent ^tre les subs tan tii's^ 

depiv& du latin ? Dounez la r^g^le et les- 

(e) Donnez et expliquez au moyen de retjmolo^e 

le genre des mots suivants : 

Sacrifices, liospitalite, pommes, avoine^ 
beurre, printemps, etudes, differences^ cIkI^ 
tieur, feuille. 


Fourth^ Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 


Traduisez les ex traits suivants et commentez dans la 
marge tous les mots et passages soulignes, en 
ayant soin d'indiquer A, la fin de chaque passao^e 
Touvrage, Tauteur et les personnages en ques- 
tion : — 

(a) II r^flecliit un« minute, la vit toute seule^ dans 
la maison vide : 
Oil est-il ce petit ? 

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All Bas-Meudon, chez ud marinier qui I'a 
recueilli pour quelques jours .... Apr^s, 
c'est r hospice, rassistance. 

Eh ! bien, va le chercher puisque tu y tiens 
. . . Elle lui sauta au cou, et d^une joie 
d'enfant, tout le soir, fit de la musique, chanta, 
heureuse, exub^rante, transfig-urde. Le lende- 
main, en wagon, Jean parla de leur decision au 
jl^ros Hettema qui paraissait instruit de I'affaire, 
mais oesireux de ne pas s'en miller. 

(6) 'Tout h coup vers dix heures il se fit un grand 
mouvement dans la foul a. La porte du jardin 
tourna sur ses gonds violemment. 

'' gest lui ! . . . C'estlui!" criait-on. 

C'^tait lui .... 

Quant il parut sur le seuil^ deux oris de 
stupeur partirent de la foule: 

C'estunTeur! . . . 

II a des lunettes! 

Son Sahara avait des legumes. . . . Tout 
prSue lui, sur la jolie c6te verte de Mustapba 
sup^rieur, des villas algeriennes, toutes blanches, 
luisaient dans la ros6e du jour levant: on se 
serait cru aux environs de Marseille, au milieu 
des bastides et des baslidons. 

(c) Accueilli dans une ville, emprisonn^ dans 
Pautre, et partout S!ip6rieur aux ^v^nements; 
lou6 par ceux-ci, bl&me par ceux-lk; aidant au 
bon temps, supportant le mauvais, me moquant 
des sots, bravant les mechants, riant de ma 
xnisdre et faisant, la barbe h tout le monde^ vous 

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me voyez enfin 6tabli dans Seville^ et prdt h 
servir de nouveau votre Excpllppce en tout ce 
qui lui plaira de m'ordonner. 
' — Qui t'a donne une philosophie aussi gaie? 
— L'habitude du malheur. Je me presse de rire 
de tout, de peur d'etre oblig6 d'en pleurer. 

(d) Retirons nos regards de cet objet funeste. 
Pour admirer ici le jugement celeste; 
Quand la gloire nous enile, il sait bien comme 

il faut 
Confondre notre orgueil qui s'^ldve trop haut. 

Quoi ? qu'on envoie un vainqueur au siipplice? 

(e) — II ne pent exister, k mon goftt, 

Plus iin diseur de ces jolis riens qui sont tout. 
Parfois il est distrait, ses muses sont absentes; 
Puis, tout k coup, il dit des choses ravissantes! 

— C'est trop fort! Voil^ comme les hommes 
II n' aura pas d'esprit, puisqu'il est beau gai^on I 
— II sait parler du coeur d*une fagon experte? 
— Mais il n'en parle pas, Monsieur, il en disserte ! 
— II ecrit? 

— Mieux encore! Ecoutez done un peu: 
" Plus tu me prends de coeur, plus fen at! . . 

H6! bien? 
— Peuh! 
— Et ceci : " Pour soitffrir, puisquHl m' en faut 
un autre. 
Si vousgardez mon coiur, envoy ez-moi le vdtreT 
— Tant6t il en a trop et tant6t pas assez. 
Qu'est-ce au juste qu'il veut, de cceur ? 

— Vous m'agacezJ 

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C'est la jalousie . . . 
"■^ ^Hein! 

— d'antenr qui vous d^voref 
Et ceci, n'est il pas du dernier tendre encore? 
^^Croyez que devers vous mon cceur nefait 

qv!un cri, 
Et que si les harsei's s^ envoy aient par eait, 
Madanie^ vous Uriez ma lettre avec les lecres!'* 
— Ha! Ha! ces lignes-1^ sont , . . . H^! he! 

mais bien-mi^vres! 
— Et ceci. . . 

— Vous savez done ses lettres par coeur? 
— Toutes! 

II n'y a pas k dire: c*est flatteur! 
— C'est un mattre! 

— Oh! . . un maitre! 

Un mattre soit! . . . un mHJtre. 

Expliquez et commentez les phrases suivantes : — 

(a) Corneilie est haut et sain ; il a epure le th^^tre 
et presente au public des personnages fiers, 
genereux, heroTques ; il n'a jamais immole le 
devoir h la passion. 

{h) Molidre n'a pas ecrit pour un certain monde, 
mais pour tout le monde. 

(c) Voltaire, qui commence k faire parler de lui 
en 1714 et meurt dans une apoth^ose en 1778, 
a rempli presque tout le XVIII® Si^cle. II est 
impossible de prendre en bloc un tel homme. 

(d) Mme. de Stael appartient au XVIII® Siecle; 
elle est le XVIII® tout entier. Mais elle est 
aussi cosmopolite; elle n'a pas du tout; une 
nature artiste et son oeuvre a tr^s peu de valeur 

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(e) La faculty la plus forte de 6. Sand c'esti 
rimagination. C'est elle qui, dans le roman, 
exprime surtout le romantisme Ijrrique, con- 
sid6r6 comme TexpaDsion d'une sentimeutalite 
effrenee et de tous ces ^tats extremes dont 
Chateau briaud et Byron donndrent les modules. 


First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Composition — Unseen Translation. 

1. Translate into German — 

(a) Two thousand summers have imparted to the 
monuments ot Grecian literature, as to her 
marbles, only a maturer golden and autumnal 
tint, for they have carried their own serene aod 
celestial atmosphere into all lands, to protect 
them against the corrosion of time. Books are 
the treasured wealth of the world and the iit 
inheritance of generations and nations. Books, 
the oldest and the best, stand naturally and 
rightfully on the shelves of every cottage. They 
have no cause of their own to plead, but while 
they enlighten and sustain the reader his common 
sense will not refuse them. Their authors are 
a natural and irresistible aristocracy in every 
society, and, more than kings or emperors, exert 
an influence on mankind. When the illiterate 
and perhaps scornful trader has earned by enter- 
prise and industry his coveted leisure and inde- 
pendence, and is admitted to the circles of wealth 
and fashion, he turns inevitably at last to those 

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still hio^her, but yet inaccessible, circles of in- 
tellect and genius, and is sensible only of tbe 
imperfection of his culture and the vanity of all 
his riches, and further proves his good sense by 
tbe pains which he takes to secure for his children 
that intellectual culture whose want he so keenly 
feels; and thus it is that he becomes the founder 
of a family. 

{b) " Which is the most reasonable and does his 
duty best — he who stands aloof from the struggle 
of life, calmly contemplating it, or he who de- 
scends to the ground, and takes his part in the 
contest ? The earth, where our feet are, is the 
work of the same power as the immeasurable 
blue yonder, in which the future lies into which 
we would peer. Who ordered toil as the condi- 
tion of life, ordered weariness, ordered sickness, 
ordered poverty, failure, success — to this man a 
foremost place, to the other a nameless struggle 
with the crowd — to that a shamofull fall, or a 
paralyzed limb, or sudden accident — to each 
some work upon the ground he» stands on, until 
he is laid beneath it?" While they were talking 
the dawn came shining through the windows of 
' the room, and Pen threw them open to receive 
the fresh morning air. **Look, George," said 
he ; ^^ look and see the sun rise. He sees the 
labourer on his way a-field; the work-girl 
plying her poor needle ; the lawyer at his desk, 
perhaps ; the beauty smiling asleep on her pillow 
of down, or the jaded reveller reeling to bed ; or 
the fevered patient tossing on it ; or the doctor 
watching by it ; or the child just born into the 
the world — born to take his part in the suffering 
and struggling, the tears and laughter, the crime, 
remorse, love, folly, sorrow, rest." 

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2. Translate into English — 

(a) Mein Yater war Landgeistlicher in einem 
Dorfe des Herzo»^tums. Er hatte genligende 
Mittel um mir, als . dem einzigen Sohne neben 
mehreren Tochtern, jede Art von Erziehung 
geben zii konnen. £r bestimmte mich zuni 
Gelehrtenstande, ich sollte in seine Fussstapfen 
treten, und nichts konnte ihn von diesem Gedan- 
ken abbringen, so zeitig sich auch meine Neigung 
verriet, in der wobl etwas Anererbtes lag, denn 
ein friihe verschollener Vatersbruder war Maler 
gewesen, doch fand man das Beispiel ab- 
schreckend, da eben dieser Oheim ein ti*auriges 
Ende in fernen Auslande gehabt haben sollte. 
So wurde ich in eine vielbesuchte stadtische 
Pension verbracht. Hier bis in das fiinfzehnte 
Jahr dem gewohnlichen Lehrgang in den 
alten Sprachen mit wepig Lust und Eifer 
folgendy und mehr und mehr von dem 
dumpfen Gefuhl eines verfehlten Berufes 
gedriickty schloss ich mich scheu und ungesellig 
in eine Phantasiewelt ein, die sich schon in den 
Tagen der Kindheit unter den Eindriicken einer 
merkwiirdigen Gebirgsgegend und eines mar- 
chenreichen Dorfes zu bilden angefangen hatte. 
Der plotzlicbe Tod meines Vaters konnte vorerst 
in meiner Bestimmung nichts andern. Ent- 
scheidend war dagegen ein Ferienbesuch bei 
einem Paten, der als Forster einer adligen Herr- 
schaft nur einige Stunden von meiner friiheren 
Heimat entfernt, auf einem stillen Dorfe sass. 
Der Grundherr, Baron Neuburg, ein Mann von 
vielseitiger Bildung, in friiheren Jahren Militar, 
von Sitten schlicht und anspruchslos, stand mit 
dem Forsterhause in freundlichem Verkehr. Er 
war mir immer geneigt gewesen, mein Zustand 

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g^Dg ihm nabe, nnd seiner Vermittlung gelang 
es zuletzty mir die ersehcte Laufbaben zu 

(b) Ich will nicht untersuchen, woher unsrer jet- 
zigen Jugend die Einbildung gekommen ist, 
dass sie dasjenige als etwas Angeborenes bereits 
mil sich bringe. was man bisher nur auf dem Wege 
vieljahriger Studien und Erfabrungen erlangen 
konnte, aber soviel glaube icb sagen zu konnen^ 
dass die in Deutscbland jetzf so haufig vorkom- 
menden Ansserungen eines alle Stufen allmab- 
liger Entwickelung keck llberscbreitenden Sinnes 
zu kiinftigen Meisterwerken wenige Hoffnung 
macben. Das Ungliick ist, im Staat, dass 
niemand leben und geniessen, sondern jeder 
regieren, und in der Kunst, dass niemand sicb 
des Hervorgebrachten freuen, sondern jeder 
seinerseits wieder produzieren will. Es ist 
ferner kein Ernst da, der ins Ganze geht, kein 
Sinn, dem Ganzen etwas zuliebe zu tun, sondern 
man tracbtet nur, wie man sein eigenes Selbst 
bemerklicb macbe und es vor der Welt zu mog- 
licbster Evidenz bringe. Dieses falsche Bes- 
treben zeigt sicb iiberall, und man tut es den 
neuesten Virtuosen nacb, die nicbt sowobl solcbe 
StUcke zu ihrem Vortrage wablen, woran die 
Zuborer reinen musikaliscben Genuss haben, als 
vielmebr solcbe, worin der Spielende seine er- 
langte Fertigkeit konne bewundern lassen. 
"Dberall ist es das Individuum, das sicb herrlich 
zeigen will, und nirgends trifft man auf ein red- 
licbes Streben, das dem Ganzen und der Sacbe 
zuliebe sein eigenes Selbst zurticksetzte. 

(c) gliioklicb,' wer noch hoffen kann, 

Aus diesem Meer des Irrtums au&utauchen ! 

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Was man nicht weiss, das eben branchte man, 
Und was man weisA, kann man nicht brauchen. 
Doch lass uns dieser Stunde schones Gut 
Durch solcben Triibsinn nicht verktimmern ! 
Betrachte, wie in Abendsonne-Glut 
Die griiDumgebnen HUtten schimmern. 
Sie riickt und weicht, der Tag- ist iiberlebt, 
Dort eilt sie bin und fordert neues Leben. 
dass kein Fliig^el mich vom Boden hebt, 
Ibr nacb und immer nach zu streben ! 
Icb siih* im ewio^en Abends tra hi 
Die stille Welt zu meinen Fiissen, 
Entziindet alle Hob'n, beruhioft jedes Tal, 
Den Silberbach in ^oldne Stroma lliessen. 
Acb ! zu des Geistes Fliigeln wird so leicbt 
Kein kdrperlicher Fliig-el sicb gesellen. 
Doch ist es jedem eingeboren, 
Dass sein Gefiihl hinauf und vorwarts dringt, 
Wenn liber uns, im blauen Raum verloren, 
Ibr schmetternd Lied die Lercbe singt, 
Wenn iiber scbroifen Fichtenhohen 
Der Adler ausgebreitet scbwebt, 
Und iiber Flacben, iiber Seeen 
Der Kranich nacb der Heimat strebt. 


Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Prescribed Authors. 


1. Translate into English, locate, and annotate : — 

(a) " Soil doch nicht als ein Pilz der Mensch dem 
Boden entwacbsen, 

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Und verfaulcn geschwind an dem Flatze, 

der ibn erzeugt hat, 
Keine Spur nachlassend Ton seiner lebendi- 

pen Wirkung ! 
Sieht man am Hanse docb gleich so deiit- 

lich, vress Sinnes der Herr sei, 
Wie man, das Stfidtchen betretend, die 

Obrigkeiten beurteilt. 
Denn wo nicbt immervon oben die Ordnung 

und Reinlichkeit wirket. 
Da gewohnet sich leicht der Burger zu 

sebmutzigem Saumgal, 
Wie der Bottler sich aucb an lumpige 

Kleider gewohnet/' 

(fe) " Wahrlich, unsere Zeit vergleicht sich den 

sel tens ten Zeiten, 
Die die Geschichto bemerkt, die heilige wie 

die gemeine. 
Denn wer gestern nnd heute in diesen Tagen 

gelebt hat, 
Hat schon jahre gelebt ; so drangen sich 

alle Geschichten. 
Denk' ich ein wenig zuriick, so scheint mir 

ein graues Alter 
Auf dem Haupte zu liegen, und doch ist die 

Kraft noch lebendig.'^ 

(e) " Wie der wandernde Mann, der vor dem 

Sinken der Sonne 
Sie noch einmal ins Auge, die schnellver- 

Bchwindende, fasste, 
Dann im dnnklen Gebiisch und an der Seite 

des Felsens 
Schweben siebet ihr Bild ; wohin er die 

Blicke nur wendet, 

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Eilet es vor und- glanzt und schwanktin 

herrlichen Farben : 
So bewegte vor Hermann die liebliclie 

Bildung des Madchens 
Sanft sich vorbei und schien dem Pfad in's 

Getreide zu folgen. 

2. Write a short comment on (a) the metre, and 
(6) the language of " Hermann und Dorothea." 


I. Translate into English, and comment upon the 
following passages : — 
(a) Der Zweck der Idylle ist iiberall nur der, den 
Menscheu im Stand der Unschuld, d.h. in einem 
Zustand der Harmonie und des Friedens mit 
sich selbst und von aussen darzustellen. Aber 
ein solcher Zustand findet nicht bloss vor dem 
Anfange der Kultur statt, sondern er ist es aucb, 
den die Kultur, wenn sie iiberall nur eine 
bestimmte Tendenz haben solJ, als ihr letztes 
Ziel beabsichtigf. Die Idee dieses Zustandes 
allein, und der Glaube an die mogJiche Realitat 
dersslben, kaun den Mensehen mit alien tTbeln 
versohnen, denen er auf dem Wege der Kultur 
unterworfen ist, und ware sie biosse Chimare, so 
wiirden die Klagen derer, welche die grossere 
Sozietat iind die Anbauung des Verstandes bloss 
als ein Ubel verschreien und jenen verlassenen 
Stand der Natur fiir den wahren Zweck des 
Mensehen ausgeben, voUkommen gegriindet 
sein. Dem Mensehen, der in der Kultur be- 
griffen ist, liegt also unendlich viel daran, von 
der Ausfiihrbarkeit jener Idee in der Sinnen- 
welt, von der moglichen Realitat jenes Zustandes 
eine siunliche Bekraftigung zu erhalten, und 

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da die wirklicbe Erfahrung, weit entfernt, 
dieseo Glauben zu nabren, ibn vielmehr 
bestandig widerlegt, so kommt auch bier, wie in 
so vielen andern Fallen, das Dicbtnngsyermdgen 
der Vernunft zubilfe, um jene Idee zur An- 
scbauung zu bringen und in einem eiuzelnen 
Falle za verwirklicben. 
(6) Naiv muss jedes wabre Genie sein, oder es ist 
kemes. Seine Naivbeit aileinmacbt est zum Genie, 
und was es im Intellektuellen und Asthetiscben 
ist, kann est im Moraliseben niebt Verleugnen. 
Unbekanut mit den Regeln, den Krucken der 
Scbwacbbeit und den Zuebtraeistern der Ver- 
kebrtbeit, bless von der Natur oder dem Instinkt, 
seinem scbiltzenden Engel, geieitet, gebt es 
rubig und sicber dureb alle Scbliogen des 
falscben Gescbmackes, in welcben, wenn es 
niebt so klug ist, sie sebon von weitem zu 
vermeiden, das Nicbtgenie unausbleiblicb 
vers trick t wird. Nur dem Genie ist es gegeben, 
ausserbalb des Bekannten noeb immer zu Hause 
zu sein und die Natur zu erweitem, obne iiber 
sie binauszugeben. 
2. Geben Sie, auf Deutscb oder auf Engliscb, kurz 
den Gedankengang von Scbillers Abbandlung 
" Ueber naive und sentimentalisebe Dicbtung," 
an, und zeigen Sie dabei besonders, wie die 
Ausdriicke " naiv " und " sentimenialiseb " von 
ibm gebrauebt werden und ferner, worin die 
Bedeutung dieses Werkes liegt. 


Translate, locate, and comment upon tbe following 
passage : — 
Im Kriege selber ist das letzte niebt der 

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Die grossen schneileu Taten der Grewalt, 
Des Augenblicks erstaanenswerte Wunder, 
Die sind es nicht, die das BegllickeDde, 
Das ruhig, machtig Dauemde erzeugen. 
In Hast und Eile bauet des Soldat 
Von Leinwand seine leicbte Stadt ; da wird 
Ein angenblicklich Brausen und Bewegen, 
Der Markt belebt sicb, StrasseD, Fliisse sind 
Bedeckt mit Fracht, es riihrt sick das 

Docb eines Morgens plotzlich siebet man 
Die Zelte fallen, welter riickt die Horde, 
Und ausgestorbeD, -wie ein Kirebhofybieibt 
Der Acker, das zerstampfte Saatl'eld liegen^ 
Und nm des Jabres Ernte ist's getan. 


Scbreiben Sie eine kurze dentsche Inhaltsangabe 
von Grillparzers " Sappho," worin besonders 
der tragische Konflikt des Trauerspiels klar 
dargelegt ist. 


Third Paper. 

Tlie Board of Examiners, 

History op Literature ; Essat. 
1. (a) Geben Sie an, was Sie von der " politiscben 
Dicbtung^' Deutschlands im 19ten Jahr- 
hundert wissen, und welcbe Bedeutnng diese 
fiir die Einigung die GriinduDg des neuen 
Reicbes gebabt bat. 

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(b) Was versteht man unter der " Zeit der Auf- 

klarung" in 18ten Jahrlmndert, und wer ist 
der Hauptvertreter derselben in Deulscli- 
land ? Wie verhalt sich diese Bewegung 
zum " Sturm und Drang " ? 

(c) Zeigen Sie die Bedeutung der "Entdeckung " 

des deutschen Volksliedes fiir die neuere 
Lyrik. Wem verdanken wir sie, und welehe 
Dichter haben den Ton des echten Volks- 
liedes am besten zu treffen verstanden ? 
Konnen Sie einige solcher neueren Lieder 
nennen ? 

(c?) Wie erklaren Sie sich die Schwiiche des deut- 
schen Romans, verglichen mit dem engli- 
schen ? Zitieren Sie Werke, die Sie gelesen 
haben, zur Erlauterung Ihres UrteiJs. 

(e) Was wissen Sie iiber die Ursprungszeit, die 
Verfasser und die Gattung der folgenden 
Werke : (a) das Hildebrandslied ; (b) Par- 
zival ; (c) " Simplicissimus '^ ; (d) "Die 
Abderiten" ; (e) " Die Braut von Mes- 
sina" ; (/) "Des Knaben Wunderhorn "; 
{g) "Peter Schlemihl '' ; (h) " Die Weber ^' ? 

Schreiben Sie einen deutschen Aufsatz iiber eines 
der folgenden Themen : 

"Dem Mimen flicht die Nachwelt keine 

' Krauze." 
" Welche Lebensflihrung und Lebensansicht 

empfiehlt Goethe im * Tasso ' ? " 
" Ein edler Mensch zieht edle Menschen an 
Und weiss sie fesizuhalten." 

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TJie Board of Examiners, 

SIX questions only to be attempted. 

L Investigate the nature and magnitude of the 
correction which must be applied to a gravity 
determination in consequence of the finite 
curvature of the knife edges of the pendulums 

By what device can the effect of this curva- 
ture be eliminated ? 

2. Give the theory of the laboratory experiment for 

determining the coefficient of restitution of 

3. If the mass per cm^ (= or) at any point distant r 

from the centre of a circular plate of gravitating 
matter of radius a is given by 


prove that the potential V at any point in the 
axis of tho plate distant z from its centre is 
given by 

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Hence show that at any point whose polar 
coordinates with respect to the centre and axis 
are p. 0, 

when p 7 a* 

4. Give an account of Laplace's theory of capillarity. 

Point out the relation between the " intrinsic 
pressure " of that theory and (a) osmotic pres- 
sure, (b) the pressure within the naass of an 
imperfect gas. 

5. Obtain an expression for the rise of temperature 

produced by a small isentropic compression, and 
describe the experiments by which Joule verified 

6. Prove that the mechanical equivalent of the 

difference between the two principal specific 
heats of any substance is numerically equal to 
the product of the temperature, specific volume^ 
isothermal bulk modulus and the square of the 

7. Deduce from the laws of thermodynamics an 

expression for the relation between the e.m.f. of 
a cell and the external pressure. 

Give a summary of the results of Gilbault's 
experiments on this subject. 

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The Board of Examiners. 

SIX questions only to be attempted. 

1. If t* be the distance, measured from the first 
surface of a thick lens to an object point on its 
axis, and v the distance from the second surface 
to the image point, show that 
1 _ 1 _ 1 

t? — /3 W — a F 

where a, /3, and F are constants for the lens. 

'2. Describe fully how to produce, and how to test for, 
circularly polarized light. 

A parallel beam consists partly of ordinary 
lio'ht and partly of circularly polarized light. 
How would you obtain the relative intensities 
of the two portions ? 

3. Describe the construction, give the complete theory, 

and explain the mode of working of the echelon 
diffraction grating. 

Give an account of any one investigation in 
which this instrument has been used. 

4. Give a full account of the evidence, mathematical 

and experimental, which warrants the identifica- 
tion of the light vector in any medium with the 
dielectric polarization current in that medium. 

5. Give an account of Drude's presentation of the 

electromagnetic theory of ordinary dispersion. 
Show that it leads to Ketteler's dispersion 

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Show how to deduce from this theory the 
true relation between the refractive index and 
specific inductive capacity of a transparent 

6. Describe the construction and mode of employment 

of the Vibration Microscope, and explain fully 
the manner of deducing* the form of vibration 
of a vibrating body from its indications. 

7. Give an account of Helmholtz's Theory of Com- 

bination Tones. Show how to calculate the 
frequencies of the various orders of these tones. 


The Board of Examiners. 

SIX qn«BtioiiB only to be attempted. 

1. Obtain from elementary principles the three usual 
expressions for the energy of a system of 
charged conductors. 

Prove the relations — 

Pmn — - Pnmi 

Pmn <Pmm OT p^ny 

where the p's are coefficients of potential. 

Show also from your equations that^ if a given 
charge be distributed over a number of con- 
ductors in such a way that the energy of the 
system when in electrical equilibrium is a 
minimum, the conductors are all at the same 

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2. Investigate the effect on a uniform electric field 

of introducing^ into it; a sphere of dielectric of 
different specific inductive capacity. 

3. Prove that the potential at any point in the field 

of a uniform magnetic shell is equal to ^12 
where = strength of shell and Q, = solid angle 
subtended by shell at point. 

If the shell be a plane circle of radius y, and 
if a short magnet of moment iff and length 2\ 
be placed so that its centre lies in the axis and 
at a distance x from the centre of the shell, 
prove that the mutual energy of the magnet 
and the shell is equal to 

?^8in'a l^.'P, + ^A\P, ^ + IA\P, ^; + &c.} 

COS a being the argument of the A Legendre 
functions where tan a = yjx and r^ =z a?* + y^ 
and cos that of the P functions where 6 is the 
angle between the axis of the magnet and that 
of the shell 

[For any Legendre functions Q, argument /it, 

4. Investigate the theory of a moving-coil ballistic 
galvanometer with a rectangular coil suspended 
so as to move in the gap between a cylindrical 
iron core and cylindrical pole pieces sym- 
metrically arranged so as to give a radial 
magnetic field which is uniform round the gap. 

Show that with such a ballistic galvanometer 
the time during which the transient current 
passes need not be very small compared with 
the time of oscillatioji of the suspended coil. 

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5. Describe^ with full tjieoretical and practical detail, 

Lorenz's method for the determination of the 

6. Show that^ 

^ = 47r VvP, 

Ii = — VuJB, 

are legfitimate generalizations of the two 
experimental laws usually expressed by 

M.M.F(=y*/W*) = 47rC, 
e.m.f. (= f Eds) =:-'^, 

where P is the Faraday lines per cm^ and t? their 
velocity, B the magnetic lines per cm* and u 
their velocity, while IT and It are the magnetic 
and electric intensities respectively. 

7. Two points are joined in parallel arc by two 

conductors whose resistances and self-induc- 
tances are i?i, P^, and L^ L'^ respectively, the 
conductors being so placed that their coefficient 
of mutual inductance is M; find for alternating 
currents of given period the resistance and 
inductance of the single conductor equivalent 
to the two. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1 Write Essays on any two of the following 
subjects : — 

(a) The measurement of solar and stellar tempera- 

(h) The heat received daily and yearly at each 
point on the earth's surface from the sun. 

(c) Repulsion resulting from radiation. 

{d) The solar constant. 

{e) The influence of radio-active research on the 
problem of the secular cooling of the 
heavenly bodies. 


First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Give a condensed account of the principal views as 
to the composition and condition of the interior 
of the earth, and indicate the nature of the 
evidence, if any, in favour of each of the views. 

S. An alternating series of hard and soft stratified 
rocks is gradually uplifted to a dome-shaped 
projection, rising to a considerable altitude above 

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sea-level. Discuss the nature of the ri?er 
systems which will arise during^ the development 
of the drainage system through youth to 

3. Give an account of the symmetry and chief forms 

present in the Sphenoidal type of the Tetragonal 
system. Point out its relations to the normal 
type and name a mineral crystallizing in the 
Sphenoidal type. 

4. Give the chemical composition, crystalline form, 

and mode of occurrence of the following 
minerals ; — 

Monazite, Tantalite, lodyrite, Vivianite, 
Tridymite, Cossyrite. 

5. Sections from a biaxial mineral are cut at right 

angles to an optic axis, to the acute bisectrix 
and to the obtuse bisectrix, respectively. 
Explain what is seen in each case when the 
sections are viewed in convergent polarized 
light, and explain how the optical sign of the 
mineral may be determined. 

6. Point out the scope, and explain the limitations of 

the law of decreasing basicity as affecting the 
order of consolidation of minerals from molten 

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Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

1 . Discuss the nature and origin of the following" : — 

Propjlite, Saussurite, Essexite, Limburgite 
Fluxion Gneiss, Hornblende Schist. 

2. Describe the characters by which you would 

recognise the following minerals under the 
naicroscope : — 

Anorthoclase, Oligoclase, Nepheline, Zoisite, 

3. State the horizon and diagnostic characters of the 

principal Ordovician graptolites, and discuss any 
anomalies which may occur in the Victorian as 
compared with the extra-Victorian succession. 

4. What do you know of the systematic position and 

stratigraphical range of the following: — 

Archaeocyathus, Rhinopterocaris, Glossopteris, 
Laurus Werribeensis, Dinesus Ida, Lepido- 
dendron Anstrale. 

5. At what geological horizons have glacial deposit, 

been recognised ? Mention the principal Aus- 
tralian localities for each glaciation, correlate 
them with similar occurrences outside Australia, 
and briefly refer to the probable mode or modes 
of origin of the deposits. 

6. Give an account of the physiography, geological 

structure, and petrology of the Ballarat district. 

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First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners* 

Write Essays on some (or all) of the following sub- 
jects : — 
{V) The atomic weights of hydrogen and oxygen, 
and the choice of a standard atomic weight. 

(2) Tiie chemical study of sulphur in comparison 
with elements placed near it in the natural 

(3) Radio-active elements. 

(4) Poly iodides, inorganic and organic. 

(5) The more important features of the chemistry of 

(6) Processes for the manufacture of white lead. 


Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

Write Essays on some (or all) of the following sub- 
jects : — 

(1) Amido-acids and their electrolytic characters. 

(2) The synthesis of ketones. 

(3) The constitution and synthesis of fructose. 

(4) Diazonium compounds. 

(6) The triphenyl methane group of dyes. 
(6) The constitution of camphor. 

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Third Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Write Essays on some (or all) of the following sub- 
jects : — 

(1) The solubilities of "insoluble" salts; their 
measurement, and their alteration in the case of a 
mixture of two such salts with a common ion. 

(2) The theory of such abnormal solubilities as 
that cf sodium sulphate. 

(3) The influence of the solvent in electrolysis. 

(4) The theory of "side reactions" and of "con- 
secutive reactions." 

(5) The thermochemistry of neutralization (acids 
and bases). 

(6) The progressive change of physical properties 
in a homologous series of carbon compounds. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

Candidates should answer rzTB questions only. 

1. Write a note on the equality of States in modern 

International Law. 

2. Consider the developments in Africa and the Far 

East during the laf^t 25 years in their bearing 
upon International Law. 

3. Trace the history and discuss the present position 

of the rules "Free Ships, Free Goods;*' 
** Enemy Ships, Enemy Goods. '^ 

4. What is the right of search, and by whom and in 

what circumstances is it exercisable ? Is it ever 
applicable in time of peace ? 

6. Write a note on the problem of reconciling the 
duties of a neutral in time of war with the right 
of neutral subjects to engage freely in com- 
mercial intercourse. 

6. Write a note on the influence exerted by Russia 

or the United States in the development of 
International Law. 

7. Write a note on the present position in time of 

war of submarine mines, cables^ newspaper 
correspondents, mail steamers. 

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The Board of Examiners. 

GanvUdates slionld answer FOUR qnestlons only. 

1. A is made bankrupt in Eno-land. By the Insolvency 

Act of Victoria, a settlement made by a person 
within ^VQ years preceding the sequestration of 
his estate becomes void as against the assignee, 
unless, the settlor was at the time of settlement 
able to pay his debts without recourse to the 
property comprised in the settlement. In the 
English Bankruptcy Act 1883, there is a similar 
clause, but the term fixed is ten years. A had 
made a settlement of property in Victoria ^^q 
years before his insolvency, and another seven 
years before, and in neither case can it be shown 
that he was able to pay his debts without the 
aid of the property in question. The English 
trustee in oankruptcy requires advice as to the 
courses open to him. 

2. A^ a person domiciled in England, dies intestate. 

His whole property consists of land in Victoria, 
valued at £2,000. The Victorian Intestates 
Estates Act 1896 charges the beneficial estates 
of deceased persons with £1,000 in favour of 
the widow; an English Act of 1890 confers a 
similar right to £500. To what would you 
consider the widow of this deceased entitled? 
Do you consider that the result would be aflfected 
if the Victorian land were sold, and the assets 
distributed in an administration suit in England? 

3. Discuss the relevancy of the intention of the parties 

in determining the governing law^ of a contract* 

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4. (a) In an fiction for breach of a Victorian contract 

to load a cargo of wheat in a foreign port, de- 
fendant pleads that at the time when the 
contract should have been performed military 
operations were in progress in the foreign 
country, and the Government therein forbade 
the export of all corn, and made it a penal 
offence to carry any corn out of the country. 
The plaintiff demurs. 

(6) A contract is made in Peru between the 
Government of that country and D^ for the loan 
of a large sum of money, and D lends the 
money accordingly. A revolution takes place in 
Peru, and a provisional Government is formed 
which is ultimately recognized by all the Powers 
as the Government of Peru. This Government 
assigns to i? a large Quantity of guano as 
security for a portion of tne debt, and Z>, by its 
authority, sells the guano, and applies the 
proceeds towards the liquidation of the debt. 
A second revolution restores the original 
Government (which is in due course recognized), 
which repudiates all the acts of the revolutionary 
Government, among them the transactions with 
Z>, and sues i>, in England, for the recovery of 
the money received by him from the sale of the 
guano. D resists the claim, and counter-claims 
for the balance of his debt. 
Consider the cases. 

5. H and W are domiciled in Victoria. E presents 

a petition for divorce in Victoria on the ground 
of Wi adultery with -T, whom he joins as co- 
respondent, and from whom he claims damages. 
The adultery was committed in a foreign country, 

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and it is proyed that, according to the law of 
that country, no divorce a vinculo can be had, 
and also^ that, while the co-respondent is liable 
to proceedinf^ of a punitive character^ no civil 
action exists whereby a claim for damages can 
be sustained. 

Consider the relevancy of these matters in the 
Victorian divorce proceedings. 

6. What is the doctrine of Renvoi. What cases have 

arisen in England concerning it ? 


7. Is there any, and what, sense in which it is correct 

to speak of (ji) an Imperial Bankruptcy Law, 
{b) the national law of a firitish subject? 

Paet I. 

The Board of Examiners, 
Ouididates slionlcl answer FXVB qneitions only. 

1. ^' In England we have substituted for the notion of 

citizenship or membership of the State, the 
feudal notion of the relation between lord and 
man." Explain and illustrate this statement. 

2. Consider briefly the relation of the Crown and the 

State to the land in the English system. 

3. Write a note comparing prerogative and privilege 

with special reference to their control by courts 
of law. 

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4. Write a note en the statement that "The kicfg 
reigns but does not govern." 

0. What do you mean by the ideas of peerage and 
nobility 7 Do you consider that there is any, 
and what, truth in the view that nobility of blood 
is unknown in the law of England ? 

6. Write a note on barony by tenure or the history of 

life peerages. 

7. Write a note on the following : — 

{a) Judicium parium; legem terrae ; breve quod 
vocatur Praecipe ; commune consilium regni, 


(fi) Recent reviews of the constitutional import of 
Magna Carta. 


First Paper. 

Mr, C. J, Z, Woinarski. 

1. Consider the history and limits of English classifi- 
cations of wrongs. 

*^. Consider the statement that " the liability of 
the Commonwealth for the acts of its servants 
depends altogether upon the relation of the 
Commonwealth to its servants in regard to the 
particular matter in question.'' 

FF 2 

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3. Consider the principles of law applicable in an 

action against a trades union and its officei-s 
for procuring the dismissal from his employment 
of a non-unionist. 

4. In the judgmpnt in Merivale v. Carson (20 Q.B.D. 

281) — Lord Esher, M.R., said : " It is said that if 
in some other case the alleged libel would not 
be beyond the limits of fair criticism, and it 
could be shown that the defendant was not 
really criticising the work, but was writing with 
an indirect and dishonest intention to injure the 
plaintiff, still the motive would not make the 
criticism a libel." What was Lord Esher's 
opinion upon the point, and upon what reasoning 
was it based ? How is the point now actually 
decided 7 

6. In the exercise of a quasi-judicial discretion, what 
conditions must be satisfied, by the persons or 
bodies who act, to exclude intervention by a 
Court of Justice even in regard to a decision 
which the Court may think wrong 1 If such 
conditions be not satisfied, what are the terms of 
the order the Court will make ? 

6. Consider A^^ right of action in each of the follow- 
ing cases : — 
{a) B, who had been shooting rabbits, left a gun 
loaded and at full cock standing inside a fence on 
his land, beside a gap, from which a private path 
led over his land from a public road to his house. 
B^s son, aged 15 years, coming from the road 
through the gap on his way home found the 
gun, and with it went back to the public road, 
and not knowing that the gun was loaded he 
pointed it in play at ^, who was on the road, 
and the gun went off and destroyed ^'s eyesight. 

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(b) Accompanied by B his wife, C bis son (a 
scboolboy), and D his private secretary, A was 
a passenger upon a tram in Melbourne, and 
owing to the combined neg-ligence of the tram 
conductor and of JT, a motorist, £, C, and D 
were killed in a collision which thereby occurred. 

{c) Bf in the year 1886, worked coal under nis 
land adjoining" the garden of ^. In the year 
1896 '-0 sold his land and coal mine to C. In 
the year 1906 A^s land subsided owing to the 
workings in the year 1886, and A^s house fell in 
consequence thereof. 

(d) Cj the bailiff of B, in order to effect a dis- 
tress for rent in arrear by A, went through a 
house adjoining A^s house and into the yard at 
the back thereof, and thence climbed over the 
wall into the yard of ^*^ house and entered A's 
house by an open window and distrained for the 

(e) B was the owner of a ferry boat, and on B's 
wharf a notice was displayed, which stated that 
" a fare of one penny must be paid on entering 
or leaving this wharf, whether the passenger 
has travelled by the ferry or not.'' A paid a 
penny, and went on to the wharf to use the 
ferry, but having missed the boat sought to 
leave the wharf without further payment. The 
turnstile-keeper, who stated that the notice 
referred to contained his instructions, forcibly 
prevented A from leaving the wharf until A 
effected his escape. 

(/) A municipality made a drain across a highway 
within its district, and covered the drain* with 
a bridge of wood. Thereafter the municipality 

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did nothing' to repair the bridgce, which, in the 
course of nature, became so weak that A^s horse 
when being driven by A along: the road^ broke 
through the bridge and was killed. 

{g) A, an outgoing tenant, left a picture hanging 
on a wall, and JB, the new tenant, refuses to 
allow A to come and take the picture away. 

7. In Eex v. McGr&wther (17M)^ the prisoner pleaded 

that he had joined the rebels under compulsion. 
What direction did the Chief Justice, in sum- 
ming up, give to the jury ? 

8. (a) In what circumstances can a person be 

guilty of homicide by non-feasance ? 

(i) Is the mere fact that a prisoner is shewn to 
have sworn to two contradictory statements, 
sufficient evidence to justify his conviction for 
perjury ? 

9. A was presented for attempting to discharge a 

loaded revolver at J5, with intent to do him 
grievous bodily harm. The Crown proved 
that during an interview between A and By A 
drew a loaded revolver from his coat pocket; 
that B immediately seized A and prevented him 
from raising his arm ; that a struggle ensued, 
in the course of which A nearly succeeded in 
getting his arm free, but after a few minutes B 
wrested the revolver from him, and A was taken 
into custody. During the struggle, A several 
times said to B, '* You've got to die." A was 
convicted. Can the conviction be sustained? 
Give the reason for your answer. 

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10. A. was presented for stealing three lambs, the 
property of some person or persons unknown, 
and, in a second count, with receiving them, 
knowing them to have been stolen. The Crown 
proved that seven young lambs were found on 
A^s premises, that A had been asked to acc6ant 
for their possession, and truthfully accounted 
for four of them, but gave an untrue account of 
the possession of the remaining three lambs. 
Lambs, similar to the three lambs in A^s 
possession, had been missed from a neighbouring 
sheep-run, but the three lambs could not be 
identified as those from the sheep-run^ and 
except A's own statement of possession, there 
was no evidence as to the ownership of these 
Iambs, or as to their having been stolen. The 
jury convicted A of receiving. Can the convic- 
tion be sustained ? Oive the reasons for your 


Second Papbr. 

Mr. a J. Z. Woinarski 

A. — Civil Procedurb. 

(a) When may a claim for interest be included in 
a special indorsement of a writ of summons ? 

(b) A writ is indorsed as follows : — " The plaintiffs 
claim is for the price of goods sold and delivered 
to the defendant at his request " (then followed 
particulars of the goods supplied aud their price, 
which amounted in all to £50;, '< and the 

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plaintiff also claims interest on £50 irom the 
date of the writ until payment or judgment. 
Place of trial, Melbourne. (Signed) A.B. And 
the sum of £6 6s. (or such sum as may be allowed 
on taxation) for costs. If the amount claimed 
be paid to the plaintiff or his solicitor within 
four days from the service hereof further pro- 
ceedings will be stayed." Is this a proper 
special indorsement ? If the plaintiff applies for 
leave to sign judgment under Order XIV., 
R. 1, what are the different orders that may be 
made by the Judge ? 

(c) A writ is issued to recover payment of a pro- 
missory note under the Instruments Act 1890, 
and the defendant applies under that Act for 
leave to appear to the writ and to defend the 
action, which is granted by the Judge, uncon- 
ditionally. The plaintiff now applies to a Judge 
for leave to sign judgment under Order XIV., 
R. 1. Wh a t or der should be made by the Judge? 

(jd) A writ under the Instruments Act 1890 was 
served on the defendant, who was temporarily 
present in the State of Victoria, but who per- 
manently resides in New Zealand, and is domi- 
ciled there. Is the service effectual ? 

2. What are the provisions of the Rules of the Supreme 
Court in regard to an account directed to be 
taken as to — 
(a) the mode in which the account is to be made 

(h) the books of account being taken as prima 

fade evidence ; 
{c) the mode of vouching the accounts ; 
{d) surcharge; 
{e) the making of just allowances ? 

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•3. Write a note upon (a) the joinder of plaintiffs 
and of defendants in actions of tort; (b) the 
grounds upon which the production of documents 
in a party's possession may be lawfully refused 
for the inspection of the opposite party. 

4. (a) Will the Supreme Court of Victoria grant leave 
to appeal direct from the decision of a single 
Judge of the Supreme Court to the . Privy 
Council ? 

(b) State the appellate jurisdicth>n of the High 
Court with respect to judgments of the Supreme 
Court of a State. 

(c) Upon what ground did the High Conrt in the 
case of Parkin v. JameSy 2 C.L.R. 315, enter- 
tain an appeal from an order made by a Judge 
of the Supreme Court of Victoria in Chambers ? 
How, if at all, has the doctrine of Parkin v. 
James been modified in respect to a judgment 
of the Supreme Court of a State founded upon 
the verdict of a jury ? 

{d) In what criminal cases will special leave to 
appeal be granted by the High Court ? 

B. — Criminal Procedure. 

1. What are the provisions of the Justices Act 1890 as 
to the cases in which and the procedure by which 
the depositions of persons dangerously ill may 
be taken ? When may such depositions be read 
in evidence, either for or against an accused 
person ? What is the effect upon the admissi- 
bility in evidence of a deposition from which 
certain statements made by the witness during 
examination have been omitted ? 

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2. A was charged on presentment with feloniously 

breaking and entering the dwelling-house of one 
J£, and therein flsloniously stealing two gold rings 
and one gold necklet, together of the value of 
£4y of the goods and chattels of the said X At 
the trial it was proved that the dwelling-house 
belonged to X, but that the rings and necklet 
were the separate property of the wife of X, 
who was living with her husband in the house 
when the crime was committed. A was con- 
victed. Can the conviction be upheld ? 

3. Give in outline the stages in a criminal trial 

. from arraignment to verdict, and write brief notes 
upon motion in arrest ofjvdgmenty writ of error , 
venire de novo, treason-felony, indictm^ent, con- 
tempt of court, 

C. — Evidence. 

1. What are the leading points wherein a difference is 

made in civil and criminal evidence ? 

2. (a) Distinguish between logical and legal relevancy- 

(b) To what extent is evidence of the character of 
(a) a party, (b) a witness^ (jc) an accused person, 
admissible 7 

(c) What is the law as regards evidence of pro- 
fessional communications ? 

3. It is necessary in an action to prove the following 

documents and facts : — 

(a) A conveyance executed in 1870, the witnesses 
to which are alive, but live at a great dis- 
tance, fxom .the .place of trial. 

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(i) A conveyance executed in 1890, which is 
witnessed by a person of whom nothing is 
known, and of whom no trace can be found. 

(<?) The contents of the will of X^ which was 
proved in 1904, and the fact that A and B 
are the executors appointed by the will of 

How should each of these documents and facts 
be proved ? 

Mr. J. E. Machetf. 

1 . Show that a Court of Equity has been disposed to 

treat charitable trusts with favour. 

2. (a) Explain the statement that *' the doctrine of 

election depends on compensation." 

(b) In what circumstances may an improper 
appointment under a power raise a case for 
election ? 

(<?) Ay and B his wife, are registered joint owners 
of certain shares in a brewery. By his will 
A bequeathes these shares to B for life, and 
at her death to his brother, and by the same 
will A gives certain leasehold property of 
his own to his wife. There is evidence that 
A looked on the brewery shares as his own 
absolute property, and that they were treated 
as such oy the company. In the circum- 
stances^ what are the rights of the widow ? 

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3. A and B are trustees of a settlement by which a 

dairy farm in Gippsland is held by them to the 
use of C for life, and after the death of C to 
the use of the children (now infants) of C, and 
C, who is without means, is in possession of the 
farm. The rents and profits of the farm are 
insufficient to enable C to effect necessary 
repairs to the farm building^s and fencing", or to 
pay the municipal rates, which are in arrear, or 
to clear a great deal of fallen timber on the 
farm. The trustees have no funds of the trust 
in hand for repairs or improvements^ and the 
trust deed is silent as to their power to make 
repairs and improvements. What, in the 
circumstances^ is the duty of the trustees ? 

4. -4, as solicitor for By a merchant, obtained probate 

of the will of Xf under the provisions of which B 
became entitled to a third share in the residuary 
estate of X, B required an immediate advance 
on his share, and A was asked by^ to make the 
advance required out of moneys of his own. A 
suggested that he should purchase out and out 
B^s share, and to this B consented. A deed of 
purchase was executed by A and B, under which 
A bought at a fair price the share of the residue 
to which B was entitled. As a matter of fact, 
B had no separate independent advice at the 
time, but A had suggested to B the desirability 
of obtaining it^ but B, on account of the expense^ 
and on account of the fairness of the transaction, 
declined to be independently advised, B subse- 
quently repudiated the deed of purchase. Is he 
entitled to do so ? 
6. What is a precatory trust ? 

A clause in a will which is relied upon as 
. creating a precatory trust is definite^ both as to 

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the subject-mattisr and as to the object of the 
alleged precatory trust. Will such defioiteness 
impose a precatory trust upon the property 
specified in the clause? 

When is parol evidence admitted to support or 
to rebut a resulting trust? Give examples. . 

6. Property of ^, a married woman, was settled in 
the year 1905 upon A for life, with a restraint 
upon anticipation, and with the general power in 
A to appoint the corpuxy and after A's death, 
and in default of appointment, to As children 
equally. In 1905 A obtained a decree absolute 
dissolving her marriage. In 1906 A became 
insolvent, and B was appointed her trustee in 
insolvency. What rights, if any, has B in 
respect of the above property ? 

7. What are Bs rights of specific performance in 

each of the following cases: — 
(a) Lands were limited to such use as A and his 
wife shall appoint, and in default of appointment 
to the wife of A for her life, with remainder to 
A in fee simple. A contracts to sell the lands 
to ^ by a contract reciting these limitations, 
but providing for a conveyance by all proper 
parties, and B pays the purchase money to the 
trustees. The wife of A subsequently refuses to 
(6) A writes to B offering to sell a block of land 
for £1,800, which offer B accepts. In making 
his oifer, A had based it upon an addition by 
• the valuators of the values of several allotments 
in the block, the correct total addition being 
£2,800. On discovering his error, A repudiates 
the contract. 

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8. Upon what principles, and in what circumstances, 
will a Court of Equity give relief from uncon- 
scionable bargains ? 


Mr. Guest, 

1. What is the effect of a devise of land to B for 30 
years if he so long live, and subject thereto, to 
the first son of A^ who shall attain 21 years of 
age, and his heirs ? A was a bachelor at the 
death of the testator. Give reasons. 

S. Criticise Mr. Williams' classification of corporeal 
and incorporeal hereditaments. 

3. If the trustees for the time being of a settlement 

are given a power to sell the trust property, and 
there is nothing in the settlement which 
expressly restricts the exercise of the power to 
any specified period, how, if at all, does the rule 
against perpetuities apply ? Give reasons. 

4. In a lease for seven years the lessee covenanted to 

cut ferns, <S;c., once at least every three months. 
During the fifth year, the lessee omitted to do 
so. The lessor wrote to the lessee, and 
complained of the breach of covenant, and 
added — " I desire also to call your attention to 
the provision in your lease in the following 

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words : — ' If the tenant shall commit a breach of 
any of the covenants on his part herein contained, 
the lease shall thereupon become absolntelj 
void and of no effect.' If your default continues 
until the next rent day, I shall seriously consider 
the advisability of resuming possession.'- The 
default continued until the next rent day, when 
the tenant paid rent up to date and quitted 
possession. Two years of the original term of 
seven years were then unexpired. What (if 
any) are the rights and remedies of the lessor ? 
Give reasons. 

5. What is the present state of the law with regard to 

relief against forfeiture for non-payment of rent ? 

6. Vi%at is meant by the rule that in order that the 

benefit of a covenant may run with the land the 
assignee must be in of the same estate as the 
assignor ? Illustrate by an example ? 

7. Why is it practically important that the vendor of 

leasehold, who is himself an assign of the 
lease, should see that the assignment to the 
purchaser is legally effectual ? Give reasons. 

8. The purchaser of leasehold under an open contract 

requisitioned for Jlrst proof that the lease was 
duly granted, and secondly proof that all the 
covenants and provisions in the lease had been 
duly performed and observed. How should the 
vendor's solicitor answer ? 

9. State concisely the law with regard to the dedica- 

tion of highways to the public. 

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10. In 1878 land was demised to the plaintiffs for 

30 years from 1st September, IH?(5, and tbe 
lease contained a proviso that at any time 
during* the term tbe lessor, his heirs, or assigns 
would, on receiving" notice from the plaintiffs of 
their desire to purchase the land, convey it to 
them for £1,500. The lessor died in 1902. In 
1903 tbe plaintiff served on his executor and 
the devisees of the land under the will of the 
lessor notice of their desire to purchase, and ten- 
dered the £1,600. The executor and the de- 
visees refrised to accept tbe money and convey 
the land, and the plaintiffs broug;ht an action 
against them for specific performance. What 
defence (if any) have the defendants to the 
action ? Give reasons. 

11. If land is sold, and the vendor produces a certifi- 

cate of title to the land in his own name, free from 
encumbrances, is it necessary or advisable for 
the purchaser or his solicitor to inspect any and 
which of the documents of title to the land 
prior in date to the certificate produced ? Give 

12. State why, in your opinion, no covenants for 

title are expressed or implied in the form of 
transfer prescribed by the Transfer of Land Act? 
Can you suggest any covenant for title which 
might be added with advantage in the case of a 
sale of land in fee-simple ? Give reasons. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1. What distinction does Sir William Anson make 

between a pollicitation and a promise ? 

2. What is the difference between ^^ accord and satis- 

faction*' and " accord executory " ? 

3. What rights and remedies has the seller of goods 

when the buyer refuses to pay the stipulated 

4. What is necessary to constitute a gift of a chattel 

personal at Common Law ? 

5. What is meant by the terms " Contract of Sale," 

<' Sale/' and '^ Agreement to Sell," in the Sale of 
Goods Act 1896 ? 

6. Explain the equitable doctrine of part performance. 

7. Explain the doctrine of '^ holding out " in the Law 

of Partnership. 

8. What are the rights of partners as to the applica- 

tion of partnership property on the dissolution of 
a partnership ? 

9. Explain the nature of a negotiable instrument. 
10. Explain the nature of a bailment. 


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£26 IfiXAMlNAtlOK PAPBlld. 

11. State the method of registering an assignment of j 

book debts under the provisions of Act No. 

12. What is the meaning of the expression " Bill of 

Sale '* when used in Part YI. ot the Instruments 
Act 1890? 


ITie Board of Examiners. 

OaadlAates should aaimwBt TKBSS auestioxui only. 

1. What are the principal conclusions drawn by 

French law from the distinction between autorite 
and gestioni What principles are applied to 
the oetermination of pecuniary claims against 
the State for ade de gestion ? 

2. In what sense is it true to say that an officer is not 

liable qua officer for wrongs done by him ? Are 
legal proceedings ever taken against an officer 
in the name of his office ? 

3. In what ways is the protection of public officers or 

bodies provided for in the English system t 

4. What are the principal considerations relevant in 

determining whether a corporate body represents 
the Grown and shares its immunities ? 

5. Write a note on salus populi fuprema lex. 

6 Write a note on the legal position of the Postmaster- 

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The Board of Examiners. 

1 . Describe the modes of production of pneumothorax^ 

its symptoms and diagnosis, and the conditions 
which make active treatment necessary. 

2. What are the forms of cirrhosis of the liver? 

Describe its causes, ana mark it off from hepatic 
and other conditions which may be confused 
with it. 

S. Give a description of the symptoms and signs of an 
ordinary case of locomotor ataxy^ and enumerate 
and distinguish from it any other nervous 
diseased states most liable to be confused with 


The Board of Examiners. 


Miss M. R., aged 43, admitted to hospital on 1st 
February, with the following history: — For about 
six years she had had ulcers on the legs, and for 
several years she had suffered from indigestion, marked 
specially by some pain about half-an-hour after food. 

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But, up till about a year before, she had not suffered 
from other signs, as severe pain, diarrhGea, or jaundice. 

When first seen as an out-patient, a fortnight before, 
she complained of severe pain across the lower part of 
the chest, chiefly in the epigastrium and right hypo- 
chondrium. There had been vomiting for about ten 
days, with slight jauniice. There was' tenderness on 
pressure over the liver. About a year ago she had a 
similar attack, lasting two months. 

On ezaminatioD, she was pale, and distinctly 
emaciated, the tongue was furred, and there was slight 
jaundice; the temperature was 99°, the pulse 96, the 
respirations 34; heart and lungs normal. The liver 
was enlarged, duluess extending up to the fifth rib in 
the nipple line, and down to an inch above the um- 
bilicus. There was tenderness over the whole liver 
area, but chiefly in the epigastrium. The abdomen 
elsewhere was lax, and free from tenderness. There 
had been some pain radiating to the right shoulder. 
The veins on the right side seemed to be rather fuller 
than on the left. 

For a few days she improved, temperature came 
down to normal in the morning, and never over 100^, 
no vomiting, tongue cleaner, and tenderness on 
pressure almost gone. 

On 8th February she was much worse, vomiting 
returned; tenderness was marked, and the temperature 
went up to 103°. So things continued, temperature 
sometimes going up to 104 , and even to 106^ on the 
16th, when she had a severe rigor, great pain, and 
tenderness over the liver and in the right shoulder, 
and up the right side. 

On the 17th the dullness on the right side was up 
to the third rib in the nipple line, breath sounds were 
weak below that level, and a soft pleural friction was 
beard, The right chest looked rather full, and the 

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Yeins were more distended. A blood count showed 
15,000 leucocytes. 

Comment on the case, especially as to cause, exact 
seat, and progress 6f symptoms, and discuss prognosis 
and treatment. 

The Board of Examiners, 
A woman aged 36 years, d, primipara, is taken in 
labour, with strong regular pains. The pre- 
sentation is a vertex in the right occipito pos- 
terior position. At the end of sixteen hours the 
membranes rupture, and a considerable quantity 
of liquor Amnii escapes. On vaginal examina- 
tion the head is felt to be high up, and not to 
have engaged in the brim. The pains increase 
in severity, and cause the patient great distress. 
After a severe pain the patient complains of 
feeling faint, and it is noticed that there is con- 
siderable haemorrhage from the vagina. On 
abdominal examination the uterus is found to b^ 
firmly contracted, but smaller in size than 
before ; vaginally the presenting part is not felt. 
The labour pains now ceased, and ansemia of the 
patient became more pronounced. The pulse rate 
increased to 120, and the temperature sank to 
97°. Give your diagnosis of this case, and com- 
ment as to — 

(a) Its possible causes. 

(b) The signs of impending danger. 

(c) The measures which should have been 
taken to prevent the condition, . 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1. Discuss Shoulder Presentations with regard to — 

(a) Causation. 
{b) Diagnosis. 
{c) Terminations. 
(d) Management. 

2. Give the signs^ symptoms, and treatment of Puer- 

peral Eclampsia. 

3. Discuss the causes of post-parteni Haemorrhage^ 

and give the treatment. 

The Board of JExaminers. 

1 . How would jou conduct a physical and chemical 

examination of an alleged blood stain ? Give 
the most recent views as to the possibility of 
differentiating human from other mammalian 

2. Describe various injuries that may be suicidal or 

homicidal, and state how you might be enabled 
to form a correct opinion as to their causation. 

3. A man is admitted to a hospital in an unconscious 

state; discuss the various causes for such a 

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tISfAL I10V6VR £XAMlKAtION, MARCH, 190?. 531 

GoDsider the following* questions in their medico- 
legal relations : — 

(a) The viability of the fcBtus at an early period. 

(b) The duration of utero-gestation. 


The Board of Eosouminert, 

1 . Describe the differential diagnosis, macroscopic and 

microscopic, of gumma from glioma in the sub- 
stance of the brain. 

2. Discuss tbe relation of oedema to starvation of 


3- Describe, without formulae, the methods of deter- 
mining bac teriolo epical ly the presence of sewage 
contamination in water, with special reference to 
recent methods and their value. 

4. Describe minutely the microscopic changes in the 
aortic valves in chronic endocarditis with pro- 
gressive thickening and recent vegetations. 

6. Describe the forms of bronchiectasis and discuss 
their causation. 

6. State what you know concerning the Spironema 
(Spirochseta) Pallida in man, giving methods 
for its demonstration, and describing its differen- 
tial diagnosis from other organisms resembling 

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The Board of Examiners. 
Mrs. W., aged 83, the mother of three childreDy 
the last being born twelve months ago, is 
admitted to hospital with the following history: — 
A week prior to admission she complained of 
, a profuse vaginal discharge of a yellowish 
colour^ with considerable scalding on passing 
urine. The menstrual function has been always 
normal. On admission^ in addition to the fore- 
going symptoms, she has severe pain in the 
hypogastrium, with some rigidity of the abdomi- 
nal wall, and tenderness on pressure. The 
temperature is 102, with a morning remission to 
100*3, and the pulse is about 110. Vaginal 
examination shows the vagina to be hot and the 
roof tender ; the uterus is fixed, but no defined 
swelling is found in either fornix. Discuss this 
case in regard to — 

(a) The pathological conditions. 

(b) Differential diagnosis. 
({?) Treatment. 

The Board of Examineti, 

1. Discuss the pathology of Tubal Gestation up to 

the end of the third month. 

2. Give the setiology and mechanism of Prolapse of 

the Uterus, and describe the treatment. 

3. Discuss the setiology of Amenorrhoea. 

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Hie Board of Examiners. 


A girly aet. 13^, was admitted to hospital on 
8th May, 1005, on account of fever of a week's 
duration and acute pain in the internal and 
upper part of the thigh. She was a hard worker, 
«nd always healthy before this illness, which 
began suddenly on 29th April, with severe pains 
in the upper and internal parts of the tnigh. 
Rest and fomentations eased the pain somewhat, 
but the fever gradually increased, and move- 
ments became so painful that she could not 
walk. On admission she was pale and wasted, 
with a temperature of 102° F. The right leg 
was slightly adducted and rotated inwards. At 
the upper and internal part of the thigh there 
Vas a considerable swelling, which extended to 
the labium majus and Mons Veneris and 
obliterated the genito-crural fold. The skin here 
was red, hot, and oedematous. There was 
tenderness along the rami of the pubes and 
ischium, and this was greatest in the position of 
the band of cartilage which separates the pubes 
from the ischium in the growing bone. No 
fluctuation could be made out. Rectal exami- 
nation showed that the internal surface of the 
rami was very tender on the affected side. 
Passive movements of the thigh were very 
painful. It was found that some days before 


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this illness the patient had had a pain with 
tenderness over the external malleolus. 

Comment on the diagnosis of this case, and 
gi^e your treatment in detail with prognosis. 

SURGERY.— Honours. 
The Board of Examiners, 

1. Describe the surgical treatment of trigeminal 


2. Discuss the mode of causation, treatment, and 

results of wound of the thoracic duct. 

,3. Describe the treatment of general septic peritonitis*. 

4. Discuss the differential diagnosis of testicular 

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FrRST Papbh. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. A water-main, in which a pressure bead of 60 feet 
is maintained, is tapped for the withdrawal of 
water to supply a jet-pump. The arrangement 
of pipes is as follows, via. : — 

A 2 inch diameter wrought- iron pipe is laid 
horizontally for a distance of 80 feet from the 
main; it then passes vertically downwards into 
an excavation. At a depth of 25 feet below the 
said horizontal portion the pipe is bent again to 
a horizontal position, and continues horizontal 
for a distance of 12 feet from the vertical portion. 
Here the jot- pump is introduced, which consists 
of a chamber containing a smooth, well-shaped 
nozzle, whose tip is ^inch diameter. This nozzle 
is placed horizontally, exactly on line with the 
pipe. The bottom of the chamber has a 2-inch 
^diameter suction pipe leading vertically down- 
wards to a well, the water-surface in which 
remains at a depth of 3 feet below the centre of 
the jet-pump. The suction pipe is 4 feet long. 
Opposite the nozzle- tip, the chamber contracts to 

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a diameter of | inch. This throat is very smooth^ 
and has easy approach curves. Beyond it, the 
pipe, still smooth, enlarp^es uniformly until, at a 
distance of 9 feet ^m the throat, the diameter 
is 2} inches. The pipe then turns vertically 
upwards, the height of this portion bein^ 30 feet, 
the diameter continuing. to be SJ inches; thence 
it proceeds horizontally for 6 feet, where it 
discharges into an open drain. All the bends 
are of large radius, so that the head lost in them 
is not appreciable. (For sketch see next page.) 

Explain what occurs when water is allowed 
to flow through this system of pipes from the 
main, ij^numerate the sources of loss of erergy. 
Suggeet alterations which would increase the 
efficiency. Assuming that one-third of the 
kinetic energy of the jet is lost in the jet-pump 
in fluid irictjon, owing to abrupt changes of 
velocity, this loss being in addition to the 
frictional losses in pipes and passages^ estimate 
the amount of water which will be drawn from 
the main, and the amount lifted from the well. 

H. Design a steel riveted pipe, 36" diam. to convey 
water across the river shown in cross-section. 
The pipe may be exposed to the pressure arising 
from a static heaa of 250 feet. Show all 
supports, joints, and connections to the bridge 
and ground; avoid, as far as possible, placing 
obstructions in the waterway. 

The pipe is to follow the line ABCDEF. 

The cross girders of the bridge are adapted to 
the proposed load ; they are rolled joists, 14' x 7", 
placed one at each panel point. 

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I Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiriers, 

idicate bow you would proceed to ascertain whether 
^ or not a given masonry dam, of trapezoidal cross- 
section, would be called upon to endure horizontal 

k tank on the roof of a buildin^if has a depth of 
4 feet of water maintained in it. An ordinary 
wroaght-iron pipe, which is 3 inches in diameter, 
' except near the top, where it is widened, leads 
vertieally downwards from the bottom of the 
tank, it is desired that, in case of emergency, 
this d-inch pipe shall discharge full-bore at its 
lower end, which is 60 feet below water-level in 
the tank; that is, there is to be no resistance but 
friction offered to the flow. The valves, when 
open, cause no obstruction. 

What are the necessary conditions that the 
desired maximum discharge shall take place ? 

Design the upper portion of the pipe accord- 

How much will the discharge be ? 

In what way, if at all, might the flow be 
impeded if a partial vacuum were allowed to be 
formed in any portion of the pipe? 


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(Also for h ■ ) V 

ibe the Tarion^^^^pH ^^^^^^ i 1 

L Describe the varioi 

3, Design house-conm 
ordiQary 10- roomed 

3. On the aceompanyiQff 
site for a service resi 
ol reticulation fhr th 
marked ** V 

of 500 &A *rQs 

tinction, ^^^ 

with its w i<'' 

demand u 
per head 



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(Also for Dbgree op M.C.E.) 

The Board of Eocaminers. 

1. Describe the various methods of preparing land for 

3. Design house-connections for the sewerage of an 
ordinary lO-roomed two-storied dwelling-. 

3. On the accompanying topographic map choose a 
site for a service reservoir, and outline a scheme 
of reticulation for the water-supply of the town 
marked *^ Eureka/' which is expected to have a 
population of 40 persons per acre over an area 
of 600 acres. Provide liberally for fire ex- 
tinction. The service reservoir cannot be placed 
with its water-level above the 6,580-ft. contour. 

Including water required by mines, the average 
demand may be reckoned at rate of 20 cub. it. 
per head per day. 

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Group C. 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Explain why the results of Fairbairn and Tate's 

investigation of the density of saturated steam 
are no longer utilized. Give the calculation of 
the value of this quantity in terms of others 
which can be measured more accurately. 

Assuming the difference of the specific 
volumes of ice and water at 0° C. as '0916 c. cm., 
the latest heat of fusion as 79 * 9 cal., and the 
vapour pressure as • 460 cm of mercury, cal- 
culate the pressure coefficient of ice at that 

2. Prove that for a perfect gas the isothermal bulk 

modulus is equal to the pressure. 

State and prove the general relation between 
these two quantities of which the above ia a 
special case. 

8. Describe and give the theory of Clement and 
Desormes' method of determining the ratio of 
the principal specific heats of air. 

State the principal objections to the method^ 
and show how Rdntgen overcame them. 

4. The working substance in a gas-engine is of such 
a character that the initial adiabatic compression 
takes place at nearly constant temperature, the 

KK 2 

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remainder of the cycle resembliDg that of the 
Otto engine. Assuming 4;hat, in a perfect engine 
of this type, the lower adiabatic really coincides 
with an isothermal, find the maximum efficiency 
of the arrangement. 

5. Obtain an expression for the capacity per unit 

length of a long cylindrical condenser. 

6. Desciibe, with full theoretical and practical detail, 

one good method of measuring the inductance 
of a coil. 

7. Describe a method of determining the efficiency of 

a continuous current dynamo which will allow 
the separation of the various losses, and explain 
fully how these losses are obtained in the course 
of the method. 

8. Give the theory of the single-phase alternate 

. current synchronous motor. 

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First Paper. 

The Board of Examinera, 

1. Discuss the subject of street improvement in 
populous cities, with special reference to proven* 
tion of dust and mud. 

1?. Write a short essay on electric tramways, and 
contrast the advantages and disadvantages of 
overhead as against conduit constractions. 
Illustrate with neat sketches. 

S. Give a short description, illustrated by sketches, of 
the road bed and permanent way that you 
would adopt for a railway in tropical country, 
with low rainfall, and infested with insects 
destructive of timber. Traffic, moderate ; gauge, 
4 feet 8J inches. Consider the alternative cases 
of gravel ballast being available, and ballast not 

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Second Paper. 
The Board of Examiners. 

1. Draw a cross-section, dimensioned, of a passenger 

station for three double lines of way, as at 
Richmond, the railway being on a 20-chain 
curve. Through trains may pass at 20 miles 
per hour. 

2. Design, in outline, a permanent road bridge over a 

river; total water way, 50 feet wide; road level, 
20 feet above river bed; banks, 6 feet above 
river bed. A horizontal stratum of rock is met 
with 2 feet below river bed. Bridge to carry 
traffic equal to a 16-ion road roller. Flood level 
is 10 feet above bed.. Banks are liable to scour. 
Design either in stone, concrete, reinforced con- 
crete, or steel, or any combination of same. 

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First Paper. 

Professor Kemot 

1. Discuss modern methods . of machining details of 

various pieces of mechanism, with a view of 
increasing speed of production and accuracy of 

2. Describe and criticise the recent proposal to obtain 

water-power from the Yarra at Dight's Falls, 
and distribute it electrically through Melbourne. 
Should it be carried out, what works and 
machinery 'would you recommend ? Give a 
diagram of your scheme. 

S. Describe recent advances in steam production, giv- 
ing special attention to devices for economizing 
fuel and miniijiizing smoke. 

4. Give all the information you can as to a modern 
high-speed engine of about 400 brake horse- 

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Second Papbr. 
Professor Kemot, 

1. Give full and critical descriptions of recent develop- 

ments in steam locomotive practice on the 
5ft. Sin. gauge in Victoria. 

2. Give outline sketch, with dimensions and other 

particulars, of a tank locomotive suitable for a 
2ft. 6in. gauge, with numerous curves of 2 chains 
radius and long continuous grades of 1 in 30. 

8. Write an essay on Suction and Producer Gas 
Plants for Power Purposes. How do they com- 
pare in economy with steam power ? 

4. Give all the information you can as to a passenger 
electric tramway system, such as those at 
Brighton and Essendon. 

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First Paper. 

Professor Kemot, 

1. Define Modulus of Shear Elasticity^ and explain 

how it affects the deflection of beams of various 

2. What is Anticlastic Curvature ** 
How do you compute its amount ? 

3. A beam is 20 feet lonff, and is supported at one end, 

the centre, and a point 3 feet from the other 

Starting* from the supported end it is loaded 
with 1 ton per foot for lo feet, from which point 
the load diminishes uniformly to zero at the end. 

Plot to a suitable scale the moment and shear 

4. A mild steel rolled girder is 10 inches deep, 5 

inches wide, and ^-inch thick throughout. 
Determine its modulus of section and its central 
breaking load on a span of 20 feet. 

5. Determine the probable deflection of the above 

beam under half its breaking load. 

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First Papbr. 

The Board of Examiners, 

J« Liquid is flowing through a tube which is moving 
in a general, given, manner. Find a formula for 
the pressure at any point of the liquid in the 

2. Discuss the theory of the form of the expansion 

nozzle of a Laval turbine, assuming a hyperbolic 
law {pt/^ =z const.) of expansion. 

3. Discuss the determination of the irrotational motion 

of an in viscid liquid, demonstrating the con- 
ditions satisfied by the velocity-potential. 

A helicoidal tube is generated by a given 
plane curve moved with a uniform screw motion 
along and around the axis of z perpendicular to 
its plane. Supposing the irrotational motion of 
liquid in this tube to be the same at correspond- 
ing points along it, investigate the equations for 
the velocity -potential as a iunction of position 
in the plane curve (that is, eliminate the co- 
ordinate z from the equations to be solved). 

4. Discuss (a) the velocity of a "long wave" along a 

channel, {b) the existence of a '' stanling wave " 
in a channel. 

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5. Investigate the equations of motion of viscous 
liquid pdujdt = — hpl^x + fi^^u + JT, &c. 

Two plane boundaries intersect on the axis of 
z. Taking polar coordinates (r, 0) in the plane 
{x, y\ shew that the equations of motion admit 
an exact solution for two-dimensional motion 
(w = 0, -X = 0, F = 0) between the boundaries 
such that the velocity is radial and inversely as 
the distance r from the axis. Complete the 
determination of this solution. 


Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Investigate general equations of motion for a rigid 

body turning about a fixed point. 

If a circular cone fixed in the body rolls on a 
similar cone fixed in space, find the moment of 
the pressure between the cones, ignoring external 

2. Discuss the analysis of stress at a point, and shew 

how to find the condition that a given state of 
stress {PQRSTU) may not violate an assigned 
limit to the diearing stress. 

In particular^ consider the case of combined 
flexure and torsion of a rod. 

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Investigate the equationa of equilibrium 

(\ + /i) aA/^a? + fjLV^u = 0, Ac, 

for an isotropic elastic solid under no volume 
force, and shew that 

V =z ^ K(r J?y, 
W =1 K xz, 

is the solution for the uniform flexure of a beam, 
a being Poisson's ratio. 

4. Shew that 

F xz F X 

iiTfi r» 47r(\ 4- /i) r{z + r) ' 
47r/i r^ 47r|^\ -h /i) r(2: + r) ' 

4ir/i r^ 47r/u(\ + /i) r ' 

where r is the distance from the origin, satisfy 
the equations of the last question, and that this 
solution determines the transmission of stress 
from a concentrated pressure F at the origin, 
acting normally on the plane face 2: = of ah 
indefinitely extended solid. 

5. Investigate the theorem of Three Moments for a 

uniform beam, and discuss the existence of 
similar theorems for naturally-bent rods; in 
particular, for a circular ring under forces in its 

6. Discuss Maxwell's method for the determination of 

the stress in a redundant frame. 

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First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. State the principle of actiou, and enumerate the 

leading parts of boring plants suitable, respec- 
tively, for — (a) Clayey gravel, t50 feet deep ; 
(b) Soft rock, 500 feet deep; and (c) Hard 
rock, 1,000 feet deep. 

2. A lenticular mass of ore, outcropping in flat 

country, is 1,000 feet long, maximum width 
50 feet, underlay 80**, and pitch vertical. The 
lode is firm with weak walls, and timber is 
scarce. Illustrate and compare the methods of 
working you would consider applicable. 

3. Discuss the details of an electrical installation for 

the supply of power to a mine. 20 miles distant 
from the source of energy, which is a river with 
a plentiful supply, and having a fall of 20() feet 
in a short distance. The brake horse-power 
required by the mine plant is 500. 

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Second Paper 

Tlu Board of Eaximtners, 

1. A stanniferous ore, mined from a lode consisting of 

hard granite impregnated with tin oxide, is to 
be delivered to a mill erected on a hillside, at 
the rate of 5,000 tons per month. Give the 
general design of plant, and sketch a cross- 
section showing the principal appliances, 
specifying their number and capacity. Show 
graphically the scheme of concentration or 
Sow sheet, and the nature approximately of 
the products you would expect from each 
operation. Estimate the amount of water, and 
also the horse-power required. 

2. Discuss the conditions affecting the problem of 

ventilation in a lode mine 5,000 feet deep, 
alluvial mine 500 feet deep, and an extensive 
coal mine, respectively. Design a suitable 
scheme for each case, assuming practicable 
conditions, and illustrate by sketches. 

3. In connection with a mine drainage scheme, a 

quantity of water amounting to 10,000,000 
gallons per 24 hours is to be raised in a shaft 
from a depth of 600 feet Give an account of 
the methods that may be adopted, and discuss 
the merits of each, specifying details, and 
principal dimensions of the mechanical appli- 
ances involved. 

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Professor Kernot, 

Plot the following section ; lay out f2;rades^ draina^ 
arrang^ements, and other particulars for con- 
structing a main road ; supply cross-sections at 
the deepest point of each cutting and the highest 
point of any one embankment. Fix waterways, 
and show in outline the culvert and bridge : — 






.. Joins existingp road 

2 ... 


... Bluestone suitable for road 

4 ... 


6 ... 


8 ... 


... Drains 1 sqaare mile undulating 
grass land. Rainfall as in 

10 ... 



12 ... 



14 ... 


. . . Schist, stratification nearly vertical 
strike at right angles to road 

16 ... 


18 ... 


20 ... 


22 ... 



24 ... 


26 ... 


... River draining 2,000 square miles 
of mountainous country, such 
as that east of Melbourne. 

Flood-level 70, summer-level 46 

28 ... 


30 ... 


32 ... 


34 ... 


.. Joins existing road 

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Second Paper. 

Profe99or Kernot. 

Design a steel bridge for subjoined section — width 
24 feet; loads as in ncinitj of Meloourne^ abut- 
ments of briok : — 

Feet Levelfk Remarks. 

100 ... 

Existing road 

Face of abutment. Foundation 


80 ... 

alluvium. 40 feet deep 




40 ... 

River flood-level 70. Maximum 
velocity 6 feet per second 




80 ... 

Face of abutment rock founda- 


• .. 

106 ... 

Existing road 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1, Design an invei*ted siphon to convey water for the 
supply of a city at rate of 20 cubic feet a second. 
The siphon will start from a channel, A^ on one 
side of a valley, and discharge into a channel. 
By on the other side. The lowest point ori the 
line of the proposed siphon will be 120 feet 
below water level in A. 

Mild steel plates, 6 feet, 7 feet, 8 feet, and 
9 feet long, are readily obtainable, of any desired 
width and thickness. 

Decide on the diameter of the pipe. 

State at what level, relatively to -4, you would 
fix the channel at By the length of the pipe 
being, approximately, 1,700 feet. 

Specify the thickness, riveting, jointing, and 
coating of the pipes. 

Show the junctions of pipe with channels a. 
^oth ends. Stone (suitable for concrete), bricks^ 
and good hardwood are all at hand. 

Sketch and describe all valves and screens 
necessary in connection with this work, both in 
the channels and in the pipe. 

Would you carry these pipes above or below 
the ground? If the former, how would you 
support them ? The material in the hill -sides is 
sort schistose rock. 

At the bottom of the valley the surface is 
nearly flat for a width of about 250 feet, measured 
along the line chosen for the proposed siphon. 
The material here is chiefly clay, sand, and 

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M.O.E. BXAMINATION, MA.BCH, 1907. 557 

gravely the maximum depth to bed-rock being 
18 feet. A creek, which is occasionally flooded, 
follows the valley. Its channel varies slightly, 
from time to time, in width and depths but the 
average depth of the bed below the surface is 
12 feet. To provide for floods, a clear waterway, 
70 foet wide, is needed. How would you arrange 
for the carrying of the proposed pipe across this 
portion of the valley ? 

2. Design a steel riveted pipe, 86 inches diameter, to 
convey water across the river shown in cross- 
section. The pipe may be exposed to the pressure 
arising from a static head of 250 feet. Show all 
supports, joints, and connections to the bridge 
and ground. Avoid, as far as possible, placing 
obstructions in the waterway. The pipe is to 
follow the line ABCDEF. The cross birders 
of the bridge are adapted to the proposed load ; 
they are rolled joints 14'' x 7'", placed one at each 
panel point. (For sketch see pages 537 — 8.) 


FiAST Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Explain how you would proceed when making an 
accurate survey of the piece of land, with build- 
ings, shown in sketch (see page 558). Double 
lines indicate brick walls. 

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2. Describe the process of ranginfif parallels of latitude 

and arcs oi meridians on the plains of Victoria^ 
the lines being- 10 minutes of arc apart. 

3. Adjust the survey shown in sketch (see page 560) » 

by balancing the latitudes and departures^ on 
the supposition that the probability of error in 
measuring the long sides is three times that in 
measuring the short ones. 

4. Compute the area of the figure referred to in the 

last question. 


Second Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Describe the steps you would take if called upon 
to select a route for a road to connect two places 
on opposite sides of a range of rugged and 
heavily-timbered hills. 

It is required to ascertain the latitude and the 
direction of the meridian at a place a little to 
the west of Bairnsdale^ in Victoria. The evening 
chosen for the observations is that of the 19th 
February, this year. The nautical almanac 
furnishes the following information, viz. :— 

'^ Sidereal time at mean noon at Greenwich,, 
on 19th February, 1907 = 21h. 63m. Ss. 

star. Right Ascengion. Declination. 

a Columbae 6h. 36m. IBs. 34° 7' 44" 

a Argus (Canopus) 6h. 21m. 64s. 62** 39' 0" 
a Eridani (Achemar) Ih. 34m. ISs.- 57° 42' 64".*" 


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The approximate latitude of the place beings 
87° 48' S., and its longitude 147^ 38' E., 
determine the standard times of culmination of 
the two first-named stars, and their altitudes at 
culmination. In the case of the third star, 
determine the standard time of its western 
elongation, its altitude at that instant, and the 
horizontal angle between it and the magnetic 
meridian, the deviation of the compass oeing 
8- 21' E. 

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The Board of Examiners* 

1. Describe the symptoms and diagnosis of epidemic 

cerebro-spinal meningitis, and its treatment 

2. Describe the best modes of carrying out the ex- 

amination of the urine for sugar. 

6. Give an account of the symptoms and signs of 
aortic stenosis, pointing out other circulatory 
disturbances with which it may be confused. 

4. What is the condition known as Ankylostomiasis ? 
Describe its symptoms and treatment, and the 
ways in which the parasite spreads. 

b. Describe iiilly the signs and symptoms of pleurisy, 
with e£Pusion in different degrees. 

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The Board of Examiners. 

1. Describe the signs of death, and state which of 

them are the most reliable. 

2. Describe fnllj the hydrostatic test, and discuss 

the objections that have been urged against it. 

3. What are the appearances you would expect to 

find in an adult virgin who had been recently 
violated ? 

4. Describe the symptoms, treatment, and post-mortem 

appearances in a case of opium poisoning ; how 
would you diagrnose it from other states of 
unconsciousness ? 

5. What information might you obtain from the 

examination of a skeleton ? 

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ITie Board of Examiners. 

1. Describe the macroscopic and microscopic changes 

in — 

(a) Acute Bronchopneumonia. 

(b) Pachymeningitis Hsemorrhagica. 

(c) Atrophic Granular Kidney. 

2. Describe the bacteriological methods of diagnosis 

in a doubtful case of diphtheria, including the 
differential diagnosis firom the diseases most 
closely resembling it. 

3. State what you know concerning Leucocytosis (not 

including Eosinophilia nor LeuksBmia). 

4. Describe the macroscopic changes in osteoarthritis 


5. Describe the microscopic characters of carcinoma 

in the intestine, and the macroscopic appearances 
of its several forms. 

6. Describe the differential diagnosis of tertiary 

syphilis from tubercle in the larynx, having 
regard to macroscopic and microscopic characters. 

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The Bocvrd of Examvnsrs. 

1. Describe the formation and function of the lower 

uterine segment in relation to parturition. 

2. Give the mechanism of a persistent occipito pos- 

terior position. 

8. Give the management of a case of eclampsia — 
(a) Before labour. 
{h) During labour. 

4. Describe the signs and symptoms of an ovarian 

tumour, and give the differential diagnosis. 

5. Describe the varieties of perineal lacerations and 

their consequences. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

1. Describe the symptoms and treatment of Tetanus. 

2. Discuss the diagnosis and prognosis of scirrhus 

carcinoma of &e breast. Describe in detail its 
operative treatment. 

S. Describe the symptoms and treatment of Pott's 

4. Discuss the diagnosis of the , surgical conditions 
which may cause hsematuria as a symptom. 

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The Board of Examiners. 

1. Name the official salts of Iron, and give their doses. 

2. Write a list of the ointments of Mercury, and give 

their strengths. 

8. Define the terms— Sclerotium^ Strobile, Cormi 

4. Give the composition, strengths, and doses of the 
official hypodermic injections. 

b. Write all you know of the official produets of the 
N.O. Convolvulace». 

6. Write what you can of Chloroform and its prepara- 

7« What is Pyroxylin ? Name the preparations into 
which it enters, and state their uses. 

8. In what form and dose would you administer 

Carbolic Acid, Atropine^ Santonin, Nitrate of 
Silver, Phosphorus. 

9. Name two glucosides, refer them to their sources, 

and state their doses. 

10. Write a prescription having general tonic pro- 
perties. Express the quantities of ingredients 
in terms of the metric system. 

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The Board of JExaminers. 

1. Discuss in detail, with illustrative prescrip- 

tions, the treatment (other than dietetic) 
of a case of Acute Pneumonia in a young 
alcoholic patient ••• 

2. Describe in full, from outset to end of con- 

valescence, the dietetic treatment of a 
severe case of Typhoid Fever with 
several severe haemorrhages ... 

8. Discuss the question of a pure milk supply 
for the City of Melbourne ... 





The Board of Examiners, 

1. What is the function of the Cochlea ? On what 

experimental evidence is your answer based ? 

2. What reflex mechanisms are involved — 

(a) in secretion of saliva ; 

(h) in secretion of gastric juice ? 

3. To what causes may death be attributed in — 

{a) poisoning by prussic acid ; 
(6) drowning; 

(c) poisoning by coal gas ; 

(d) chloroform inhalation ? 

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4. Contrast the innervation of the heart with the 

innervation of the arteries. ' 

5. Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of 

the suprarenal gland, and give a short account 
of the action of its active principle. 

6. What is meant by the term ''nitrogen-equilibrium"? 

Discuss the methods by which nitrogen leaves 
the body. 


Time: 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.wi. 

The Oral List will be posted at the Registrar's Office 
and at the Anatomy Department. 

35»«.^^,-«^o J ^^ Professor of AruiUmy, 

Examiners ... | ^^ g ^ ^^;^.^ 

1.. Describe the male urethra. State how it differs, 
anatomically and physiologically, from the female 

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2. Give the place and mode of ori^n, place and mode 
of termination, and the relations of the third 
part of the subclavian artery. Describe, step by 
step, the various structures which would be met 
with in li^tion of this part of the vessel. How 
would the collateral circulation be carried on 
after such an operation ? 

8. At what joints do the movements of supination and 
pronation occur ? Give the class and sub-class 
of these joints, the various muscles which produce 
the movements, and the innervation of each 
muscle concerned. 

4. In what part of the brain is the Rolandic motor 
area situated ? State how you would map this 
area out on the living subject, and trace Ibe 
path of the Rolandic motor fibres downwards. 

By Anfhority : J. KflfP, AofeiBf GoTcmmeiit Printer, MelboonM. 

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™HL t MViktiMi 1 Ui- .Mhi^liULKiNL. 


111 p(iRI,|(i ANl> JllNHUJ (lOMMiaif'lAL 



DECEMBER, 1906. 


sni^ir r^MC SHILLING. ^^ 


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DECEMBER, 1906. 

Mtlbnuvnt : 



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Greek ... ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Latin ... ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Algebra ... ... ... ... ... 12 

Geometry ... ... ... ... ... 14 

English ... ... ... ... ... ... 16 

History ... ... ... . . ... ... 19 

French ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

,, Second Paper ... ... ... ... 27 

German ... ... ... .*,. ... ... 29 

„ Second Paper ... ... ... ... 32 

Arithmetic ... ... ... ... ... 34 

V Bookkeeping, Precis and Commercial Correspondence — 

Paper A. — Bookkeeping ... ... ... 36 

Paper B. — Precis and Commercial Correspondence 39 

Paper C— -Test for Handwriting ... ... .50 

Geography ... ... ... ... ... 52 

Chemistry ... ... ... ... ... 53 

Physics ... ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Anatomy and Physiology ... ... ... ... 56 

Botany ... ' ^.. ... ... :.. 57 

Drawing — 

1. Practical Geometry ... ... ... 59 

2. Freehand Drawing. ... ... ... 61 

3. Model Drawing ... ... ... ... 63 

4. Elementary Perspective * ..^ ... ... 64 

Typewriting ... ... ... ... ... 66 


Pass Examination — Pag 

Greek (Prepared Books). — First Paper ... ... 72 

Latin. — First Paper ... v.-. ... ... 76 

Greek.— Second Paper ... ... ... 80 

A 2 

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Sbmiob Public Examination. 

Pass Examination — continued. Page 

Latin. — Second Paper ... ... ... 82 

English. — First Paper ... * ... ... 85 

„ Second Paper ... ... ... 88 

British History ... ... ... ... 89 

French, — First Paper... ... ... ... 90 

„ Second Paper ... ... ... 94 

German. — First Paper ... ... ... 95 

„ Second Paper ... ... ... 99 

Chemistry ... ... ... ... ... lOO 

Physics ... .... ... ... ... 101 

Anatomy and Physiology ... ... 102 

Geography ... ... ... ... ... 103 

Algebra ... ... ... ... ... 104 

Geometry ... ... ... ... ... 107 

Trigonometry ... ... ... ... 108 

Botany .... ... ... ... ... Ill 

Drawing — 

1. Practical Geometry ... ... ... 112 

2. Drawing in Light and Shade ... ... 114 

3. Perspective ... ... ... ... 115 

4. Drawing from Memory... ... ... 117 

Honour Examination — 

Greek (Translation of Prepared Books). — First 

Paper ... ... ... ... ... 118 

Latin.— First Paper ... ... ... ... 123 

Greek. — Second Paper ... ... ... 128 

Latin, — Second Paper ... ... ... 131 

English. — Second Paper ... ... ... 133 

British History ... ... ... ... 135 

French. — First Paper ... ... ... •... 136 

German. — First Paper ... ... ... 1 40 

Chemistry. — Second Paper ... ... ... 144 

Physics ... ... ... .« ... 145 

Anatomy and Physiology ... ... ... 147 

Mechanics ... ... ... ... ... 148 

Algebra ... ... ... ... ... 161 

Geometry ... ... ... ... ... 164 

Trigonometry ... ... ... ... 166 

Botany ... ... ... ... ... 158 

Drawing. — 5. Drawing Plant Forms from Nature 159 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 


The Board of Examiners, 

LCaudidates must satisfy tlie Examiners in EACH par 
of the paper.] 


1. Translate — 

{d) Tavra 6 (iaaiXevg eiroiei, Kal ETrefiTri rivac; ayycX- 
ovvrag tolq TiipaaLQ to. irapovra avTcTiQ icawi* ovdev 
^E iipov TOVTotv TUfy ayyiXwv rayjiov TpiyeC 
6(T(jJV yap ffjULEpiov icrriv ?/ irdcra oMgy tooovtol liriroi 
re Kal dyhpeg Earrdai TerayfiiyoL' Kal tovtovq ov 
vi(l>eT6Q, oijK o/Jifipogy ov yv^ KitiXvei, ware fxrf 
TsXiaai roy Ipofioy tov kirireTay/iiyoy' b fiky yap 
irpCJTog dpa/i^y frapaBi^uxn rrjv dyyeXiay tm ^evript^f 
6 ^£ ^EVTEpog T^ rpiT^, Kol ovTwg Eg TO riXog 


2. Translate into Greek — 

(a) The best and wisest philosophers say, ** Do 
not injure your morals (ro ^dog in plur.) by 
bets {TrEpil6(ngy\ 

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(6) If boys write their own language (= tongue) 
as they pronounce {irpoi^epta) it, will they all 
write and pronounce it in the same way ? 

(c) The captain was lunching (apc<rraw) with six 
men under a large oak. 

{d) You will find some of these words (= names) 
in the book of Xenophon which you have 
read (arayty ywcicw). 

3. Write down the accus. sing., gen. sing., and dat. 

plur. of — KVioVy opviQy yipwv, Trviyevg, ^'ra/o, dpi^ 
Ovyarrip ; and decline in all genders ndtig, yXvicvc, 

4. Compare — dX/yoc, fieXac, ai(r')(p6cy aaOevriQ, KaKoig. 

5. Stnte the principal parts of — trj/jLi, irlvu), ifSeipiMt 

rijjLvWf &Xi<rKOfAai ; and write out the past tense 
of ol^a, the pres. opt. active^ of ^i^to/iLy and the 
aor. pass, subjunct. of Tifidut. 


1. Translate — 

(a) ^aXivog fier ^rj yx^^° '^*"* ^*^ ^^^ avrj, ol Be 
wapa ^Apialov ^kov, UpoKXfiQ ical \tipi<ro(f^og' M^ivuf v 
^E avTOv e/jLEve vapa ^Apiaitp. ovtoi de EXeyov on 
TToXXovg <l>airf 6 ^Apidiog sTvai Hipaag kavrov /3£X- 
TwvQf ovg ovic av avatryEtrdtii avrov ^atrCXEvovTog* 
aXV El fiovXEcrdE (TvvainEvaL^ fJKEtv ^^ri keXevel rifg 
rufjroc* el Be fJLfjf avpiov irpip dirtcVat <f>r\(riv. 6 Be 
KXiap^OQ EliTEy' " *A\\' ovTta ^(prj irouXv' kav /xev 


TL vfxiv oirjtrdE fxaXurra (TVfKJiEpEiv.^^ o ri Be iroiriffoi 


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^^(b) npoferoc ^e 6 BotufTiog ehOvg fiev fiEipaKioy Stv 
iiredvfiei yeveaOai avijp ra /itcyaXa Trparreiv iKavdg' 
Kal ^la TavTrjyTijy C7ri0v/umv sBtoKe Vopyitf, apyvpiov 
T^ AeovTiv^* eirei ^e (rvveyivero eKeiv^, iicavog 
ij^rj vofjiiffag eJyai Kal ^pxeiv Kal 0/\oc wy rote 
irpwTOic nil fiTTdirOai evepyerdVy JjXdey elg ravrag 
Tag avv Kvp<f) irpa^eig* Kal fero KrrifTeadai Ik rovTwy 
ovofia fjiiya Kal hvva^iv fjieyaXrfv Kal 'XprifiaTa 
TToXXa* TOCTOvruty d eiridv fiCjy (T(j>6Zpa ey^rjXor av Kal 
TovTO clx^v, OTi TovTwy ovhsv ay di\oi Krdadai fxtra 
aZiKiagy aWa avy Tio ^iKaitp Kal koK^ ^eto dtly 
TovTwv Tvyxdyeiyj ayev de rovrioy fxij. 

3. Explain — ntXTaarai — nepl irXtfdovffay ayopay — ol 
t^opoL. Parse avrifxeifltdri. 

3. Translate— 

(r«) ST. elire ^ri yvv fxoi Tohi* 

yvvalKa (pap/jLaKid^ si irpidfieyog GerraX^v, 
KadiXotfii yvKTWp rf^v aeXrjyriy^ elra ^e 
avrijy Kadelp^aifi kg Xoi^fiov aTpoyyvXov, 
Aawep KCLTOTTTpoy, Kq.Ta Ttipolrfv e^wv,— 

212. tL hr)Ta tovt ay iJixpeXritreiiy a ; 

ST. 6ri; 

el fiYiKET ayariXXoi treXrivri firi^ajjiov, 
ovK ay diro^oirjy rovg tokovq, 

Sa. OTirjTi^ri; 

ST. onrj Kara ftijva rhpyvpioy lavtll^tTau 

(6) Aiyi. /til) (TKWTTTi /i', Hj ' Tciy, aXXd fxoi ra ')(prifiaTa 
Toy vioy cLTTodovyai KiXevaov ciXafiev^ 
aXXoic Te fiiyroi Kal KaKwg TreTrpayon, 
ST. TO. TToia Tavra ^piifiad^ ; 
AM . dlaydtraTO. 

ST. KaKCjg ap oyrwg cTx^Cj ^^C y* ^f^ol ^oKeig. 

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AM. tTTTTOvc iXavvtJV l^iireaov vi) tovq deov^. 
ST. Ti ^iJTa XripeiQ. dairep ott' ovov tcaTa-Treaiaiv ^ 
AM. Xripw^ TO. -^ruiar cnroXafie'lv el ^ovXofiai ; 

4. Explain — evr/Te koi via — tra/jfopag — irpvTaviia Ofiaetf 

— driiJLOTai — Sophists. Parse — irpiafxevoQy Ofxtiy 

5. What character does Xenophon give of Clearchus ? 

6. Describe the ancient method of crossing a river 

which had no bridge. 

7. What do you know of Thales, Pericles, Socrates ? 


The Board of Exanmiers. 

Candidates must do satisfactory work in each Fart of 
the Paper, 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 


1. Translate into Latin — 

The next year Pyrrhus came to Italy with a 
large army. The Roman army, which opposed 
him, was defeated at Heraclea. But, although 
Pyrrhus won the battle, he lost an immense 
number of troops. It is said that he exclaimed 

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in the presence of his generals, *' If I win many 
such victories, I shall be ruined." So, having 
sent ambassadors to Rome, he tried to persuade 
the senate to make peace. Gineas, one of the 
ambassadors, was addressing the senate, when a 
certain old Roman noble was carried into the 
senate house (curia) by his slaves. This man, 
already at the point of death, advised the senators 
never to make peace while an enemy remained 
in Italy. 

2. Translate- 

Post eum C. Hostilius Mancinus consul iterum 
cum Numantinis pacem fecit infamem, quam 
populus et senatus iussit infringi atque ipsum 
Mancinum hostibus tradi, ut in illo, quern auc- 
torem foederis putabant, iniuriam soluti foederis 
punirent. Post tantam igitur ignominiam, qua 
a Numantinis bis Romani exercitus superati 
erant, P. Scipio Africanus secundo consul factus 
et ad Numantiam missus est. Is primum militem 
vitiosum et ignavum exercendo magis quam 
puniendo sine uUa acerbitate correxit, tum multas 
Hispaniae civitates partim cepit, partim in dedi- 
tionem accepit, postremo ipsam Numantiam diu 
obsessam fame confecit et a solo evertit^ reliquam 
provinciam in iidem accepit. 

3. Decline — grex, vectigal, porticus, canis, bos ; also 

— solus, felix, sospes, idem, aliquis. 

4. Compare dissimilis, celeriter, and give the Latin 

ior 18, 80, 800, 50 each, 6 times. 

5. Give the gender, meaning, ablative singular and 

genitive plural of— dedecus, frons (frondis), mus^ 
nix, cupido. 

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6. Give in full— 

(a) The Imperative Passive offero. 

(&) The Future Indicative of possum. 

(c) The Present Subjunctive of malo. 

(c^) The Future Perfect Indicative Passive of fero. 

(e) The Perfect Subjunctive Active of recipio, 

(/) The Perfect Indicative Active of abeo. 

(g) The Present Indicative of nolo. 

7. Give the principal parts of — lugeo, insero, comburo, 

excudo, sarciOy ordior. 

8. Give, with the meaning, the Perfect and Future 

Infinitive, both Active and Passive, of moveo. 


Translate, parsing fidly in the margin, all words 
italicised — 

(a) Nee dubiis ea signa dedit Tritonia monstris. 
Vix positum castris simulacrum : arsere cotuscbb 
Lu minibus flammae arrectis, salsusque per artus 
Sudor iit, terque ipsa solo (mirabile dictu), 
Emicuit, parmamque ferens hastamque tre- 

£xtemplo temptanda fuga canit aequora 

Calchas ; 
Nee posse Argolicis exscindi Pergama telis, • 
Omina ni repetant Argis, numenque reducant, 
Quod pelago et curvis secum avexere carinis. 
Et nunc, quod patrias vento petiere Mycenas, 

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Arm a deosque parant comites, pelag'oque 

Improvifii aderunt. 

Scan the first line, and state by whom and 
under what circumstances the above lines were 

(6) • Ferimur per opaca locorum ; 

Et me, quem dudum non ulla iniecta move bunt 
Tela, neque adverso glomerati ex a^mine Grai, 
Nunc omnes terrent aurae, sonus excitat omnis 
Suspensum et pariter comitique onerique 

lamque propinquabam portis, omnemque vide- 

Evasisse viam, subito cum creber ad aures 
Visas adesse pedum sonitua, genitorque per 

Prospiciens, '' Nate," exclamat, '* fuge, nate j 

propinquant ; 
Ardentes clipeos atque dera micantia cerno.^' 
Hie mihi nescio quod trepido male numen 

Gonfusam eripuit mentem. 

(c) His constitutis rebus et consilio cum legatis et 
quaestore communicato, ne quem diem pugnae 
praetermitteret, opportunissime res accidit, quod 
postridie eius diei mane eadem et perfidia et 
simulatione usi Germani frequentes omnibus 
principibus maioribusque natu adhibitis ad eum 
in castra venerunt, simul, et dicebatur, sui pur- 
gandi causa, quod contra, atque esset dictum et 
ipsi petissent, proelium pridie commisissent, 
simul ut, si quid possent, de indutiis fallendo 

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{d) Cum paulo lon^ius a castris processisset, suos 
ab hostibus premi atque aegre sustinere et con- 
ferta legione ex omnibus partibus tela conici 
animadvertit. Nam quod omni ex reliquis par- 
tibus demesso frumento pars una erat reliqua, 
suspicati hostes hue nostros esse venturos noctu 
in silvis delituerant ; tum disperses depositis 

armis in metendo occupatos subito adorti paucis 
interfectis reliquos incertis ordinibus perturba- 
verant, simul equitatu atque essedis circam- 

2. Explain — anima litandum Argolica, ad latus 

hostium apertum constitui. 

3. Draw a map showing the position of the Menapii, 

Suebi, Ubii, Sugambri, Morini, and Tencteri. 
State very briefly what you know of the Menapii 
and Sugambri. 

The Board of Examvaers. 

Handwriting, SpelUng, and General Intelhgence will be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 

1. Reduce to their lowest terms — 
0^ — 2^3 + 307-2 


jji — 4x-2 + 007 — 2 

(a + hf + (g + df 
(a + cf + (& + ^8' 

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2. Simplify 

b + c , ^ + « , ^ 4- ^ 
b — c c — a a -^ b 
(b + g) (g + a) (a + b) 
"*" (^ - g) (g - a) {a-b)' 

8. Solve the equations 

a + c b + c 

a (a? — g) + * (y — g) = a^ + b\ 

4. Solve the equation 

a? + a — ^ ir + J — a"" 

5. Solve the equations 

X + y = a + b 

ax^ + bi/^ =zab (a + b), 

6. Show how to solve graphically the equations 

X + y = a,xy=zh. 

Find the condition that the two solutions may 
be identical. 

7. Simplify 

y/a + 5 + s/a — ^ , ^« + J — >/a 

s/a + b-- y/a--b ^/ a + b + s/a-^b' 

and verify the result when « =z 17, 6 = 8. 
8. Find a number such that the same result is 
obtained whether we multiply it by a and add 
b to the product, or multiply it by b and add a 
to the product. 

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9. State and prove the formulae for the n^ term, and 
for the sum of n terms of an arithmetical pro- 

There are 21 stones in a row, at intervals of 3 
yards. How far must a boy travel, starting* from 
the middle, in order to bring them all, one by 
one, to the middle one ? 

Tlie Board of Examiners, 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 

1. Prove that if two angles of a triangle are equal 

the sides opposite to them are equal. 

2. Prove that the three angles of any triangle are 

equal to two right angles. 

3. Employ the foregoing propositions to prove that if 

be the centre of two concentric circles, ABC, 
A'B'C\ and if any three radii OA, OB, OC of 
the one are produced to meet the circumference 
of the other in A', B', C, respectively, then the 
angles of the triangle A'B'C are respectively 
equal to those of the triangle ABC. 

4. Prove by dissection that the square on the hypo- 

tenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the 
sum of the squares on the other two sides. 

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5. Give the enunciation and the proof of the geome- 

trical theorem which is expressed algebraically 
by the identity (a — hf = a^ + 6^ — 2ah. 

6. Divide a given straight line in medial section, and 

prove the construction. 

7. Define a tangent to a circle, and prove that the 

tangent at any point is at right angles to the 
radius drawn from that point. 

8. Show how to draw a common tangent to two 

circles which intersect, proving the truth of the 

9. Prove that angles in the same segment of a circle 

are equal. 

State and prove the converse of this. 

10. If two chords of a circle intersect outside the 

circle, show that the rectangle contained by the 
segments of the one chord will be equal to that 
contained by the segments of the other. ' 

Describe a circle which shall touch a given 
straight line and pass through two given points, 
both lying on the same side of the straight line. 
How many such circles can in general be drawn ? 
and in what case is it possible to draw only 
one ? 

11. Upon a straight line, 2 inches long, construct 

a square; and then construct an equilateral 
triangle which shall be equal to the square in 

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The Board of Examiners. 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 

Part I. 

1. Write an essay on *^ Summer in Australia.'' 

2. State clearly in what respects (if any) each of the 

following sentences is faulty, and show how it 
may be improved : — 

(a) You may rely upon me doing all in my power. 

{h) What other power could or ever has produced 
such changes ? 

(c) Sailing along the southern shore of the little 
peninsula, the scene changes. 

(d) I do not deny that in this^ as in all moral 
principles, there may not be found exceptions. 

{e) This, as you know, was a burning question ; 
aro its unseasonable introduction threw a chill 
c 15 the spirits of all our party. 

( / ) Lord Rosebery has not budged from his position 
of lonely isolation. 

3. Explain hrieily what is meant by the following 

terms : — 

(a) Co-ordinative conjunction, (6) relative pronoun 
(c) factitive verb, (d) nominative absolute. 
Give an example in each case. 

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4. Analyse — 

(a) At length, as the Goddess of Truth approached 
still nearer to her, she fell away entirely, and 
vanished amidst the brightness of her presence, 
so that there did not remain the least trace of 
her figure in the place where she had been seen. 

(6) You must not dare, for shame, to talk of mercy ; 
For your awn reasons turn into your bosoms. 
As dogs upon their masters, worrying you. 

Paut II. 

5. Indicate the souiee, and explain the meaning 

of the following : — 

(a) If Jonson's learned sock be on, 

(6) Lausanne ! and Perney ! ye hare been the 
Of names which unto you bequeathed a name. 

(c) Or mythic Utber's deeply -wounded son 

In some fair space of sloping greens, 
Lay, dozing in the vale of Avalon, 
And watch'd by weeping queens. 

(d) Plato the wise, and large-brow'd Verulam, 

The first of those who know. 

(e) the giant crew, 

Who sought to pull high Jove from regal state. 

6. ** The prince . . . went away, convinced of 

the emptiness of rhetorical SQunds^ and the 
inefficacy of polished periods and studied sen- 
tences." Describe the incident which led Rasselas 
to this conclusion. 


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7. ^^ False Humour differs from the True, as a 

monkey does from a man.*' What qualities 
of False Humour does Addison mention in 
support of this statement ? 

8. Explain the following allusions: — (a) A story 

out of Joe Miller; {h) that ancient potentate, the 
Lord of Misrule ; (c) Belshazzar's parade of the 
vessels of the temple ] (d) a collection of 
Holbein's portraits ; (c) the mock fairies about 

9. (a) What is the meaning of the word humour as 

generally understood at the present time ? Men- 
tion some of its earlier meanings. 

(6) What is the subject of Milton's L' Allegro ? 

10. Describe the parts played, in Henry F., by the 

following characters : — Fluellen, Lord Scroop, 

11. Write out from memory — 

(a) From ** Tower'd cities "to "... . all com- 

(J) Four lines, beginning " Meantime unnum- 
ber'd . . . ." 

(c) Three lines, beginning "'* Now, where the quick 
Rhone . . ." 

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N.B. — Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will 
be taken into account throughout the Examination. 

The Board of Examiners. 

Candidates for the Junior Public Examination are to 
ielect any Two, but not more, of the Fivb following 

Candidates for the Junior Commeboial Examination are to 
select any Two, but not more, of the First Three of 
the following periods. 

A. — British to 1509. 

1. Write brief notes on the folio wing^ : — Battle of 

Barnet ; Dunstan; Henry the First's Charter 
of Liberties ; Star Chamber ; Statute of 
Mortmain; Watling Street. 

2. Where are the following places, and why are they 

historically notable : — Anjou ; Bannockburn ; 
Deorham ; Runnymede ; Stamford Bridge ; 
Wedmore ? 

3. What reasons would you give for the success of 

the Normans in their invasion of England ? 

4. Give some account of the Mendicant Friars, and of 

their work in England within this period. 

5. Write an account of the reign of Edward the 


6. Give some account of the discoveries made in the 

fifteenth century. 

B 2 

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B.— Brithh (1500 TO 1714). 

1« Write brief iiote» oa the following: — Gleneoe; 
TJie O'NeilU ; The Puritans; Shoiiwsbuuy j War 
of the Spanish Succession; Wentworth. 

2. Give some account of the character and the policy 

of the Protector Somerset. 

3. Explain and illustrate the fzprowth of wealth in 

En^lnad in the re^n of Elizabeth. 

4. Write a short account of Oliver Cromwell's 


5. Write & short account of the contests with Holland 

within this period. 

6. (a) Give a short account of the Revolutioa of 1688 

(b) Wha/t was the object of William's campaigns, 
in Ireland ? 

C— British (1714 to 1901). 

1. Wriite brief notM en the folio wii>o^ : — Beli&gbroke ; 
Caroline of Anspach; The Cotton Famine; The 
Crimean War ; The Grordon Riots ; The Reform 
of the Calendar. 

S. Write an account of the character and the policy of 

8. Write an account of the Se?» Ye«ra' War, 

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BXAMINATIOlifi^ DfiCKMSSR^ 1906. Si 

4. In what year, and in what circumstances, was the 

Peace of Amiens buoiupfht about ? Why does it 
mark an epoch in the Revolutionary War ? 

5. Trace biiefly the histoiy of New South Wales to the 

accession erf Queen Tictoria. 

6. Write a short account of the public career of Mr. 


D. — ilOMAN. 

1. Why was the Republic established ? 

2. Bmw to»tjbe foil size of your paper a roug^h map of 

the Mediterranean. Mark upon it the position 
of Actium, Alexandria, Capua, Carthag-e, Cilicia, 
Mylae. Give a short account of the historical 
events with which each of these places is 

3. Why is each of the following dates memorable in 

in Roman history :— B.C. 241, 183, 63, 48, 31, 
A.D. 14 ? 

4. Distinguish between the aims and the policy of 

Tiberius and of Gains Gracchus. 

5. Describe very briefly the career of Gnaeus Pompeius 


6. State what you know of the great Roman Roads, 

their course, and their importance in history and 
in government 

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E. — Grecian. 

1. Where were the following places, and why are they 

historically noteworthy : — Delphi, Eurymedon, 
Ithome, Plataea, Syracuse, Tanagra ? 

2. Why are the following dates memorable in Grecian 

history :— B.C. 683, 560, 490, 430, 404, 336 ? 

3. What do you know of each of the following persons : 

— Callicratidas, Cimon, Histiaeus, Lamachus, 
Myronides, Theramenes ? 

4. Explain the following terms : — Cleruchy, Naucrary, 

Oekist, Pentacosiomedimni, Perioeci, Thesmo- 

5. Trace the history of the Delian Confederacy. 

6. Give some account of the domestic and of the pablic 

policy of Pericles. 

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The Board of Examiners, 

C«ndldate8 mxiBt ■atisiy the Bxamiaers In BACK 
division of the paper. 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 


Translate into idiomatic English — 

(a) Pierrette eut un mattre d*^criture. El/e 
dut apprendre k lire, k 6crire et & compter. 
L'^ducation de la jenne fille produisit d'immenses 
d^gftts dans la maison. Ce fut Tencre sur les 
tableS; sur les meubleS; sur les vAtements ; 
puis les cahiers d'ecriture, les plumes 6gar6es 
partouty la poudre sur les ^to£feS; les livres 
dechires pendant qu*elle apprenait ses lemons. 
On lui parlait d^j^ de la n^essit^ de gagner 
son pain, de n'Stre ^ charge k personne. 


(6) *' Je vais vous montrer, dit le vieux, c'est 

1^-baS; au fond derridre la 


** Non,,restez," r^ponditl'oncle ; " il fait froid, 
vous etes vieux ] votre fils nous montrera cela." 
Mais le fils, aprds avoir d6couvert le soldat, 
8*etait sauv6. 

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Le vieux marcha devant. Nous suivions k la 
file. II faisait extrdmement froid dans I'all^e. 
En passant, nous vimes Tetable 6clair^e par une 
vitre dans le toit, cinq chdvres qui nous 
reg;arddrent de leurs yeux d'or ; puis Vecurie, les 
deux bceufs et la vache qui se retourn^rent en 
silence. Plus loin nous arrivdmes h la grange, 
basse, encombr^e de paille et de foin jusqu'au 
toit. Tout au fond nous limes une iendtre 
bleu&tre, ilonnant sur le jardin ; deux g^rand tas 
de fagots ranges contre le mur recevaient sa 
lumidre ; plus bas tout 6tait sombre. Dans la 
fen^tre se tenaient un coq et deux ou trois 
poules, la t^te sous Taile, se detach ant en noir 
sur cette lumi^re. 


(c) Alors d*une chose k autre, il se mit k nous 
parler de la langue iVangaise, disant que c'etait 
la plus belle langue du monde, la plus chiire, la 
plus solide : qu'il fallait la garder entre nous et 
ne jamais I'oublier^ parceque quand un peuple 
tombe esclave, tant qu'il tient biensa langue, 
c'est comme s'il tenait la clef de sa prison 

Puds ilprit un livre d'histoire 

etnous lut notre legon. 

A. Daudkt. 


Grammar and Composition. 

2. Translate— 

J prefer Spririg and Auiumn to Snmmet' and 

In thfi first seaacm the country is beaiUifvl in 
Victoria ; 

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fiXAKlNATlO.NSy DECEMBER, 1906. 25 

The woods are full of floaers ; 
The birds are busy making their nests ; 
The weather is not too warm yet ; 
People take long walks. 

S- Put into the plural tlie words in italics in the 
following expressions : — 

La ciU est trds peupl^e ; le coram^rgant se 
rend le matin de bonne heure k son bureau; 
it travaille jusqu'au soir; alors la ville est 
Eclair ie k r^lectricite ; Toumier reprend le 
chemin de la maison ; celui-ci a sa bicyclette ; 
celui'ld va par le tramway ; un autre eniin a 
un billet ^ prix r^duit sur le chemin de fer. 

4. Give the masculine and the meaning of — 

Gouvemante, porteuse, m^chante, oisive, vn- 
p&atrice^ grasse^ eaduque, tierce, maligne. 

5. Place the right definite article before each of the 

following nouns, and give their meaning in 
English: — Surface^ muraille, fusil, mondey 
))ie?idiantf ddparty valeur, dejeuner, lit, sucre. 

6. Translate— 

I am going ; he rcas fearing ; known ; should I 
speak ? that they might wish; twenty years ago; 
the \Hh of August; Xmas; Friday night; a 
quarter past three, 

7. Conjugate — 

(a) negatively (the whole tense) boirai-je ? 

(b) interrogatively (the whole tense) je vins. 

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8. Translate— 

(a) Winter in an English country means 
g-enerally a gloomy sky stretching over the 
deserted plain. The ground is covered with 
snow^ the boughs of the leafless trees with 
frost. The north wind has withered ^ all the 
flowers and grass. The whole country, formerly 
so pleasant and animated, seems now 'to be 
witnout life. People keep indoors' as much 
as possible ; it is so cold outside. 

(6) His house consisted of but one story^ and 
was covered with thatch^, which gave it an air of 
great comfort. The walls in the inside were 
nicely whitewashed*, and his daughters under- 
took to adorn them with pictures done by them- 
selves. Nothing could exceed the neatness of 
the little front garden. 

^ fl^tri ^ chez eux ' chaume * blanchis d la coUe. 

N.B. — A second paper will follow for can- 
didates for the Junior Commercial Examination, 

d by Google 


FRENCH.— Second Paper. 

(junior commercial examination only.) 

Time : One hour and a half. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Candidates mnst satisfy the Bzaxniners in BACK part 
of the Paper. 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence n-ill be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 


1. Traduisez — 

Marseille, 12 JuiD/06. 
Monsieur P. Lamartine, 


J'ai joint dans ma derni^re lettre tous les 
renseigfnements que vous m'aviez demandes au 
sujet de I'avenir du coton en France. 

Je desire maintenant y ajouter ce qui suit. 

Jusqu'^ present ies manufactures de la France, 
d'ailleurs tr^s nombreuses, ont ete tributaires 
~ des colonies anglaises et de TEgypte pour le 
surplus que ne peuvent fournir les Etats-Unis, 
malgr^ leur immense production. Aujonrd*hui 
on parle s^rieusement de faire produire aux 
colonies fran^aises le coton n^cessaire ^ cette 
industrie qui occupe en France quatre regions 
differentes et qui, en Normandie seulement, 
procure du travail k plus de 100,000 ouvriers. 

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Les Antilles frangaises, I'Alg^rie, Madagascar 
at quelques parties du Senegal jouissent d'un 
climat enti^rement favorable h la culture du 
coton. Des experiences Anterieuresont d'ailleurs 
dej^ donne des resultats tr^s satisfaisants. En 
Algerie, par exemple, pendant la guerre de 
Secession, on a produit plus de 800,000 kilo- 
grammes de coton. 

J^arriverai au Hdvre le 25 de ce mois et vous 
tiendrai imm^diatement au conrant de Tetat du 
march6. Dans " la Revue Commerciale " de 
cette ville, en date du ler Juin, je vois que les 
arrivages de la semaine (250 balles) ont a peine 
depasse' les ventes (287 balles). Le stock sur 
^ce doit done ^tre insigni£anty si mes derniers 
renseignements sont exacts. 

Je vous salue bien sinc^rement, 

M. Lamiratjlt. 

2. yot to be translated into French, 

A Melbourne firm ttdvertises that a lucrative 
position in their office can be secured by any 
young man able to keep a correspoBdence in 
French. The firm is exporting Australian pro- 
duce, and a knowled^ of snieh ft business is sup- 
posed to be required from the sucoessfiil applicant. 
The applicatioBS are to be made in writing and 
in French. 

Write, in French, a abort applicatioa, in which 
you offer your aervices, stating your age, 
previous experience, knowledge of French, 
and of the goods exported by the firm. In this 
Letter make use of the terms, headings, and 
endings generally employed in French com- 
mercial correspondence. 

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The Board of Uxaminers. 

Candidates miist satis^sr the Examiners in EACH part 
04* tke Paper. 

jEEandwriting, spelliikg, and general intelligence will be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 

A. — Translation. 

1. Translate into English — 

Man batte einem Bauern sein Pferd aus dem 
St&lle gestoblen. Kurze Zeit darauf ging er auf 
den Markt. Wie erstaunte er, als er sein Pferd 
in den Handea eines unbekannten Mannes sab ! 
Scbnell ergriff er den Ziigel des Pterdes und 
rief laut : *^ Das ist mein Pferd ; vorige Woche 
bat man es mir gestoblen." Der Ilnbekannte 
sagte rubig: •' Sie irren sich, lieber Freund. 
Dieses Pferd gehort mir und mag wobl 
dem Ibren abnlicb sein.'' Da bielt der 
Bauer dem Pferde beide Augen zu und sagte : 
'^ Wenn das Pferd Ibnen gebort, so sagen Sie 
mir docby anf welcbem Auge es blind ist.'' 
Jener erwiderte scbnell : " Auf dem recbten 
Auge." " Sie seben wobl, dass Sie es nicht 
wisseD ! ** rief der Bauer, indem er das recbte 
Auge aeigte. ** Nein, icb babe micb nar ver- 
sprocben; icb meinte: auf dem linken Auge," 
entgegnete der Fremde. Nun deekto der Bauer 
auch das linke Auge auf und spracb : ^* Jetzt ist 
es klar, daas du ein Dteb und Lugner bisl. Das 

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Pferd ist auf keinem Au^e blind." AUe Uin- 
stehenden lacbten und riefen : '' Der Dieb ist 
ertappt!" (caught), Er wurde verbaftet, ins 
Gefan^nis getubrt und bestraft. 

2. Translate into English — 

Liebe Scb wester ! 

Jetzt bin icb schon zehn Monate bier auf der 
Scbule, und will versucben, Dir einen deutschen 
Brief zu scbreiben. Icb lerne dieso Spracbe mit 
grossem Eifer und babe gute Fortscbritte darin 

Das Leben in unserer Pension (hoarding- 
schoot) ist sebr angenebm; docb baben wir 
viel zu arbeiten und miissen fleissig sein. Wir 
steben sebr triib auf, und beginnen unsere 
Arbeiten um 7 Ubr. Der Unterricbt datiert bis 
in den Nacbmittag. Wenn wir fertig sind und 
die Bucber fortgelegt baben, geben wir spazieren 
oder schwimmen in dem kleinen Fluss, der durcb 
diese Stadt fliesst Aber wir miissen piinktlich 
um 7 zuriickkebren. Dann essen wir unser 
Abendbrot und geben bald nacb 9 Ubr zu Bett. 

Icb muss aufboren, denn es lautet eben zum 
Friibstiick. Scbreibe mir bald; icb mocbte 
gern wissen, wie es eucb alien zubause geht. 

B. — Composition and Grammar. 

3. Translate into idiomatic German — 

You tell me you want to bave a description 
(Beschreibung) of our quarters {Haus) here in 
Dresden. We do not live in tbe centre of tbe 
town, but in a suburb ( Vorstadt), wbere tbere is 
not so mucb noise. From our windows on tbe 
lirst floor we can see tbe Elbe, and often watch 

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(heohachten) the pretty boats and steamers as 
they go up or down the stream. The right 
bank of the river is higher than the left and is 
covered with woods. But now it is not so fine 
as in summer. The trees have lost their 
leaves, and it is very cold. Several times 
the whole landscape {Landschaft) has been 
covered with snow ; but we have not had any 
skating (^Schlittschuhlaufen) yet; the ice has 
never been thick enough. 

4. Give, with the definite article, the genitive singular 

and the nominative plural of — Bauer, Stall, Pferd, 
Mann, Ziigel, Dieb, Gefangnis, Sprache, Pen- 
sion, Uhr, Mittag, Flnss, Bett, Brot, Stiick, 

5. Give the second person singular of the indicative 

present and imperfect, and also the past 
participle, of the following verbs occurring in 
Questions Nos. 1 and 2 — gestohlen, ging, sah, 
ergriff, rief, hielt, wissen, versprochen, essen. 

6. Give the German for — 

The day before yesterday ; to-morrow morning ; 
last year ; I have not seen him for a fortnight ; 
a year and a half ago; at a quarter to 9 o'clock. 

•7. Re-write the following sentences, completing all 
words the ending of which is omitted, and 
translate them into English : — 

Was wollen Sie trinken : kalt Wasser, 

frisch Milch oder alt Wein ? 

Das Buch liegt auf d Tisch, zwischen 

d Lampe und d Tintenfass. 

Welch Haus hast du lieber: euer^— 

eigen oder unser ? 

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8. Translate— 

I write a letter j I read it through once 
more; I put it into an envelope ; I address it; 
I go to the post-office } I buy a stamp ; I stick 
it on the envelope; I throw the letter into the 

N.B. — A second paper will folhw for ca^idi dates for 
the Junior Conrmercial Exanvmation. 

GERMAN. — Second Paper, 
(junior commercial examination oxly.) 
Time : One hour and a half. 
The Board of Examiners, 

Candidates innst satisfy the Baeamiiwars is BJLCB pnrt ef 
the Paper. 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will be 
taken into acaconnt througliout the ExaminatiaD. 

C. — Commercial CoRREBPONBEifCE. 

1. Translate into English — 
Herm W. Steintal in Hamburg. 

BerliD, deD 2 ten Man, 1906. 
Sdir geefarter fierr ! 

Eine seit kurzem in Hamburg etsblierte Hand- 
lung, deren Namen Sie unterhalb dieses Briefes 
vermerkt finden^ hat eine ziemlich bedentende 

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Quantitat Waren bei una bestellt. Auf unsere 
Erkundigungen bei hiesigen Hausern erbielten 
wir die Auskunft, dass ihres Wissens keiner der 
drei Associ^s ein grosseres Vermog^n besitze, 
und tragen daber Bedenkea, den Auftrag^ der 
8ich auf mebrere tausend Mark belauft, auszu- 
fiihren. Ohne Zweifel ist Ibnen etwas Zuverlas- 
siges liber dieVerhaltnisse dieser Herren bekannt. 
Wir waren Ihnen dankbar, wenn Sie uns da von 
Mitteilung macben und gleicbzeitig sagen woU- 
ten, ob Sie es fiir geraten balten, denselben einen 
grosseren Kredit zu bewilligen. Von Ibrer 
Auskunft werden wir den vorsichtigsten Gebraucb 

Zu Gegendiensten gern bereit 

zeicbnen wir bocbachtend und ergebenst 
M. Reinardt & Co. 

To the letter given in Question No. I, write a reply, 
in German, stating, after the usual introduction, 
that you are glad to give the information asked 
for ; that the firm in question is carried on by 
three brothers belonging to a well-known and 
respected (geachtet) family; that one of them 
has been for four years a clerk in your own 
business, and that you have a very good opinion 
of him, as everybody has who knows him ; that 
they certainly have not a large capital, but never- 
theless deserve every confidence {Vertrauen n.). 
Conclude with the request to treat this reply as 
confidential and to use it with caution (Vorsicht)^ 

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T?i^ Board of' ExaminerB, 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 

1. Find the value of the following expression, correct 
to seven places of decimals, without uriTiecessary 
arithmetic ;— 


32 X 62 X 72 X 

2. Find the prime factors, H.C.F. and L.C. IVt. of 

13167 and 5355. 
Simplify — 

.4? - Sj of ^ 


3. Find, by graphic arithmetic, the value of 

(Unit, 2 inches or 5 centimetres.) 

4. An iron sphere has a radius of 26*47 centimetres; 

the mass of 1 c. cm. of the iron is 7*661 grammes. 
Determine — using contracted multiplication — the 
mass of the sphere in kilogrammes, correct to 
one-tenth of a kilogramme. 

5. Find the rent of 25 acres 3 sq. chains 60 sq. 
yards of land at £5 6s. 8d. per acre. 

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EXAMINATIONS, 1>£€EMB£U, 1906. 35 

6. A sum of money, allowed to accumulate for 

4 years at 7^ per cent.^ compound interest, 
amounts at the end of the period to £1,849. 
What was the original sum ? What would the 
amount have been if simple interest had been 
added instead of compound ? 

7. £1,550 is invested in stock at77|; £500 stock 

is sold at 84^ and the rest at 73 ; the brokerage 
on each of the three transactions is ^th per cent. 
Find the investor's net gain or loss, and the 
amount of the broker's bill ? 

8. A grocer mixes three kinds of tea at Is. 3d., Is. 6d., 

and Is. 9d. per lb. respectively. If he uses equal 
parts of the first and second kinds, how much in 
proportion must he add of the third in order to 
to make a profit of 25 per cent, by selling the 
mixture at £11 Is. 8d. per cwt. ? 

0. A and B ent«r into partnership, each cootributing 
£800 capital; C7 joins them five months after- 
wards, contributing £400 ; three months later 
B withdraws his capital. The profits at the end 
of the year amount to £97 6s. 7d. What should 
each receive ? 

10. The true discount on a four months' bill at 7 J per 
cent, per annum is £4 7s. 6d. For what amount 
was the bill drawn, and what is the banker's 
discount on it for the same period and rate ? 


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(junior commercial examination only.) 

N.B. — Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will 
be taken into account throughout the Examination. 

Paper A. — Bookkeeping. 

The Board of Examiners. 

All Candidates mtist attempt qiiestions 1 and 2 ; they are also 
required to ansvoer any two, hut not more than two^ of the 
questions numbered Z to6, 

1. The Balance-sheet of Messrs. Murdstone and Grinby, of 
London, Wine Merchants, stood at 31 December, 1849, 
as follows : — 


Capital— Edward Murdstone ... ... £2,440* 

James Grinby .. ... ... 1,220 

Sundry Creditors— Thomas Grayper £170 
Dr. Chillip ... 180 

— 350 

Bills Payable— No. 123, S. Bodgers ... 500 


National Provincial Bank of England ... £3,000 
Wine ... ... ... ... ... 1,000 

Sundry Debtors— R. Quinion ... £100 
P. Gummidge ... 200 

Daniel Peggotty 200 


Bills Receivable— No. 254, H. Barkis ... 10 


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The firm's books had been kept by single entry to 
the date of the Balance-sheet, but the partners desire 
that a proper system of Bookkeeping shall be begun 
with the New Year. You are therefore required to 
make the necessary opening entries in the books, 
showing all entries in full. 

2. The following are the transactions of the above-named 
firm for the month of January, 1850 : — 

(Note. — All moneys received are paid into and all 
moneys paid away are drawn out of the Bank.) 

1850. £ 

Jan. 3 Bought of C. Mell, wine as per invoice, 600 
and accepted his draft at 30 days for 
the amount 

4 Paid S. Bodgers, B.P. No. 123 ... 500 

5 Paid Thomas Grayper ... ... 170 

6 Received from R. Quinion ... ... 100 

Sold to S. Bodgers, wine as per invoice 350 

7 Received from S. Bodgers, in part pay- 

ment for wine, cash ... ... 2or 

And J. Fibbitson's P.N. (No. 255) for 
balance, the P.N. being payable on 22 

10 Bought of K. Creakle, wine as per 

invoice ... ... ... ... 1,000 

11 Paid K. Creakle in part payment for 

wine ... ... ... ... 495 

and were allowed discount on such pay- 
ment ... ... ... ... 5 

Gave K. Oeakle our P.N. at 3 months 
for balance with interest added at 
5 per cent, per annum 

12 Received from George Demple, of Paris, 

consignment of brandy for his account 
and risk. Brandy invoiced at ... 1,200 

Paid duty thereon ... ... ... 1,200 

Paid landing charges ... ... 100 

13 Sold to C. Mell part of consignment of 

brandy for cash ... ... ... . 800 

14 Accepted George Demple's draft, dated 

10th January, at 2 m/s. ... ... 800 

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1850. £ 

Jan. 15 Sold to R. Qainion part of Demple's 

consignment ... ... ... 1,600 

And sold balance thereof to S. Bodgers 

forcash ... ... ... ... 1,200 

R. Quinion pays on a/c sale of brandy 000 
and gives us his P.N. at 2 months for 
the balance, the agreement being tibat 
we shall discount the P.N. wi& our 
Bankers and charge the discount to 
his a/c. Diseoanted same accordingly , 
and were charged 5 per cent, pw 
annum discount. Our bankers 
credit us with proceeds 
16 Made up A/S for Geo. Demple, charging 
him Brokerage, 5 per cent. ; Commis- 
sioD, 2i per cent. ; Del Credere, 2) per 
cent. ; Cooperage and Casks, £15; 
Cartage and Freight, £10 
Received from R. Quinion, cheque for 
amount of discount on his P.N. 
22 J, Fibbitson's P.N. is returned dis- 
26 Consigned to New York to Jefferson 
Brick for our a/c and risk, wine 
invoiced at ... ... ... 500 

And paid cartage and freight thereon ... 40 
Insured consignment wiUi Lloyds for 
£600, at £2 per cent. , the premium 
being credited to Lloyd's a/c. 
28 Drew on Jefferson Brick, at 1 m/s for 
£400 on a/c consignment, and were 
charged i per cent, exchange 
31 Paid 1 months* rent ... ... 10 

Paid salaries of clerks ... ... 15 

Enter the above in the proper books. 
Balance all books, and take out Trial balance. 

3w What do you understand by the f<^owing : — When a 
document is referred to illustrate your answer by an 
example: — 

(a) Pay-in slip. {d) Cheque. 

(b) £. and O. E. (e) Demurrae^. 

(c) Account current. 

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. Draw out in/uU — 
(a) The P.N. referred to in Question 2, under date 

11 January. 
(6) The A/S referred to in Question 2, under date 
16 January. 

. Give a list of Books used in a Merchant's office, and 
describe shortly the use of any Two of them. 

. A merchant issues about 30 cheques daily, and at the end 
of each month there are usually about 50 cheques 
which have not been presented for payment. How 
would you deal with the outstanding cheques at the 
end of the month, and what steps would you take to 
verify their amount ? 


(junior commercial sxamikation onlt.) 

N.B. — Handwriting, Spelline, and Oeneral Intelligence 
will be taken into account throughout the Examination. 

Paper B. — Pr^icis and Commercial 

The Board of Examinen. 

1. Prepare a digest (not exceeding in length one page of 
foolscap) of the following speech : — 

Mr. Allan McLean, leader of the Victorian anti- 
socialist party in the House of Representatives, 
addressed a meeting of his constituents in the Victoria 
Hall, Sale, to-nieht. The Mayor (Councillor J. W. 
Walden) occupied the chair. There were about 500 
persons present, a large proportion being ladies. 

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Mr. McLean, who on rising was received with cheers, 
said : — Whatever may be the result of the present elec- 
tion, I shall never forget the generous manner in which 
you have treated me in the past. I regret that at the 
outset I have to refer to a rather disagreeable matter, 
but it is better that everything should be cleared up. 
A report is being circulated throughout Gippsland that 
I do not intend to seek re-election, but that I intend to 
withhold the knowledge from my constituents until 
the last moment, and that then my son would be 
nominated for Parliament instead of myself. In a dis- 
trict where I have spent the whole of my life, I am 
sorry that even one individual should think I would be 
capable of an act so unworthy of the confidence you 
have reposed in me. When I decide to retire from 
Parliament — ^and probably the time may not be far 
distant — you will be the first people taken into my 
confidence, in ample time for a suitable successor to be 
appointed. I shall be no party to foist any nominee on 
the district, either my own or any other man's son. I 
consider the trust you have reposed in me a sacred 
privilege, and I have tried to deserve it. I was 
told several weeks ago that if I would come forward as 
a supporter of the present Ministry I would be 
accorded a walk-over. Now, in my physical condition 
you can easily understand that a walk-over would be 
very welcome, but I would not be doing my duty to 
you or the Commonwealth if I followed such a sugges- 
tion. When I was oflFered assistance by a number of 
leading politicians who told me that, as I would be 
unable to visit every part of my electorate, they would 
be glad to speak for me, I felt like my countryman, 
Rhoderic Dhu, who would **not seek one clansman's 
brand for aid against a valiant hand." I am quite 
willing to concede to my opponent the advantages 
accruing from visiting all parts of the district, and I 
intend to fight this contest man to man and steel to 
steel. In previous contests I have never felt it necessary 
to refer to any word or act ot my opponent unless I 
met him on the same platform. Unfortunately, some 
statements were made the other evening that place me 
in an altogether false position. If I were the only one 
affected I would let it pass, as I have always done in 
the past, but there are ei/jht or nine other protectionists 

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sitting with me. In justice to them I must correct 
some of those statements. But I will not say more 
than absolutely necessary to clear myself, and I shall 
make no attack on my opponent. Mr. Wise is reported 
to have said — ** I am a good fighter. At political 
times I can hit hard, and take a lot of hard knocks, 
but they must be true. I abominate the liar. The 
worst things to defend oneself against are the lies of an 
enemy. You have known me, and have never known me 
telling a deliberate lie." I am bound to accept that 
st>atement, and to believe that, like his illustrious 
namesake, George Washington, he had never told a lie 
to that moment ; but I nave to regret to draw your 
attention to the fact that it was not many seconds later 
when he started to put up a fairly good record. 
(Applause and laughter.) That is assuming that the 
report is correct. Mr. Wise is also reported to have 
said — ** Mr. McLean followed Mr. Reid,and Mr. McCay 
followed Mr. McLean. " Now that places me in a false 
position. I have never said at any time, or given any 
colour to the imputation, that I followed Mr. Reid. 
I am perfectly certain Mr Reid never said so. 

Reid-McLean Coalition. 

I have been a colleague of Mr, Reid's for about a 
year, and you get to know a man pretty well through 
working with him in Cabinet. I have never found him 
out in anything unfair or underhand, or in a falsehood. 
(Applause.) I have never at any time been a follower 
of Mr. Reid. We joined the Cabinet on terms of 
perfect equality. I am now sitting in the Opposition 
Corner with eight or nine others ; but we are in no way 
whatever allied with the direct Opposition. K you 
look at the records of the last Parliament you will find 
that I voted much more frequently with the Govern- 
ment than with the direct Opposition — the free-traders. 
We were, however, and are, united in our views on the 
important question which is the main issue at the 
present election. My opponent also stated — " Mr. 
Reid says they have combined on the basis of a fiscal 
peace." I saw that statement in the columns of the 
Age J and was satisfied at the time that it was not true. 
To make doubly sure I questioned Mr. Reid in the 

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street respecting it, and he assured me that there wa 
not the slightest foundation for the statement. He said 
he knew perfectly well that I differed from him on the 
tariff question. Mr. Wise, speaking with regard to 
myself, stated '* that he (Mr. McLean) had tele^^phed 
to Mr. Gratton Wilson, saying he was in accord with 
Mr. Reid's policy. " This, of course, meant the whole 
policy. There is not one word of truth in that state- 
ment. Mr. Wilson, before leaving with Mr. Reid, 
asked me if he could take any message to my friends in 
the country. I told Mr. Wilson that he could tell the 
people, if he wished, that I was in entire accord with 
Mr. Reid on anti-socialism but not upon the fiscal ques- 
tion. I have another extract, which I r^ard as a aerious 
imputation against my personal honour. In speaking 
of me, Mr. Wise is reported to have said : — 

''I thought that when the elections came he 
would throw aside his personal feeling, and, in 
order to carry out his principles, would again 
join himself with the party he had formerly 
been attached to, and again oppose Mr. Reid." 

There can be only one construction placed upon 
those words. It is that my attitude is impelled by 
personal pique against Mr. Deakin, and that I have 
betrayed the trust you reposed in me. I make this 
offer, that if Mr. Wise can satisfy any impartial 
tribunal, to be mutually appointed by him and me, that 
the principles I advocate at the present election are in 
conflict with the principles that I advocated at the last 
election, I give you my word of honour that I will retire 
from the contest. (Applause.) If the statement be 
proved untrue, Mr. Wise, as an honourable man, should 
withdraw the imputation. 

Mb. Deakin 's Inconsistency. 

At the last election the issue Mr. Deakin's Grovern- 
ment placed before the community was fiscal peace for 
the term of the ensuing Parliament and anti-socialism. 
A leading article in the Government organ on the eve of 
the elections showed that a strong majority was 
returned in favour of fiscal peace. In the following 
February Mr. Deakin made a speech, in which, refen-ing 

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to the third party system, he said — '' Ifc is absolutely 
impossible. It cannot continue. It ought not to 
continue." Subsequently Mr. Deakin entered into a 
coalition with Mr. Reid. After that he made the 
famous speech at Ballarat, and, without giving the 
notice stipulated in the agreement, he put an end to the 
coalition. That was the construction placed upon the 
speech by every newspaper, although Mr. Deakin 
denied it. The Reid Gk>vernment had a programme of 
20 items, but they prepared a fresh Governor's speech, 
and subsequently Mr. Deakin got an amendment 
carried in the House against the Reid Government. 
Now, if any one has changed it is not during our term of 
office. Mr. Reid, though he had a very much larger 
following than I had, always treated me in a very &ir 
manner. Whenever there was a slight advantage to be 
^ven to one side he always gave it to me. Mr. Deakin 
was not strong enough to resist the pressure placed 
upon him, and the abuse he was subjected to, and you 
know how he ended by the speech he delivered at 
BaUarat. We who have adhered to the same views all 
through have not changed our parties, or betrayed our 
principles. (Applause. ) The reason I am not working 
with Mr. Deakin is that lon^ as I have been in public 
life I have not yet acquired the attributes of Bunyan's 
celebrated giant, Mr. Facing-both-ways. (Applause.) 
I have not yet learned to lay my principles aside as I 
would my umbrella or overcoat. I have adhered to my 
principles all through, and whatever the consequence to 
myself I intend to do so. (Cheers. ) 

Protectionist Groups Compared. 

In the first place, let me describe my attitude to Mr. 
Reid and his party. We are both in accord on the 
question that divided the country at the last elections — 
tnat is anti-socialism. We are both opposed to the 
leading principles of socialism. If you compare the 
protectionists sitting in our comer with those protec- 
tionists following Mr. Deakin, you will certainly admit 
that the brains of the party are sitting in my corner — 
such men as Sir George Turner, Mr. McColl, and Lieut. - 
Colonel McCay. Mr. McColl, one of the most reputable 
men in Australian politics, was in England when the 

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change of Government took place, but on his return he 
took every means to satisfy himself as to the merits of 
the case, and having done that he selected a seat in our 
comer. Turning to the leading followers of Mr. Deakin, 
what do we find when they are faced by a general 
election ? Mr. Harper has come out as a strong anti- 
socialist, Mr. Carty Salmon has done the same ; Sir 
John Quick, one of the ablest and most consistent 
protectionists in the Parliament, has not only declared 
himself a strong anti-socialist, but he has gone further 
and said that he will withhold his support from any 
Government that -will be in alliance with the socialists. 
I am, as you all know, a consistent and ardent pro- 
tectionist, and, in my opinion, the Government did not 
keep good faith with the country when they neglected 
to make an honest effort to settle as much of the fiscal 
question as they could. During the last session I 
brought the matter under notice time after time, and 
was abused for it. I and those who sit with me intend 
to make the revision of the tariff the first work of the 
next Parliament. We believe that only when that 
question is set at rest will it be possible for free-traders 
and protectionists to combine. There may be one or 
two members of each who have conservative leanings, but 
to speak of conservatism in a Parliament elected by adult 
suffrage is the rankest hy procrisy. The great bulk are 
advanced democrats and liberals, and they could not 
possibly be otherwise elected as they are. 

2. Make abstracts of the following letters : — 

Municipal Accounts. 

The recommendation of the Joint Select Committee 
of the House of Lords and of the House of Commons 
on Municipal Trading, who reported in 1903, has been 
brought under the notice of the Association of Scottish 
Chartered Accountants in London, in connection with 
the recent appointment of a Departmental Committee 
on the same subject to confer and report, and we are 
instructed to forward you a statement of the Associa- 
tion's views in regard to this matter in order that they 
may be submitted to the Departmental Committee. 

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The report of 1903 made the following, amongst 
other, recommendations, viz. : — 

* * That Auditors, being members of the Institute of 
Chartered Accountants in England and Wales 
or of the Incorporated Society of Accountants 
and Auditors, should be appointed by the 
Corporations, County Councils and Urban 
District Councils in England and Wales." 

The Committee's recommendation was no doubt 
made with the desire of securing that the audit of 
Municipal Accounts should only be entrusted to 
properly qualified Auditors, and with this desire our 
Association is in hearty sympathy, especially having 
regard to the large present and prospective growth of 
the Revenue producing Departments of administrations 
under the control of local authorities. 

We respectfully submit, however, that should legis- 
lation be passed on the lines of the Committee's 
recommendation a very great injustice would be done 
to the three oldest Chartered Societies in the United 

The privileges conferred by the Charters granted to 
the Scottish tiocieties are world-wide, and, while the 
Committee's recommendations, if adopted, would not 
prevent Members of the Scottish Chartered Societies 
practising in England and Wales, it would directly 
exclude them from what may be an important branch 
of accountancy work, and, so far as Members of the 
Societies practising in England and Wales are con- 
cerned, would seriously restrict the privileges conferred 
by their Charter. 

We cannot but think that this exclusion of the 
Scottish Chartered Societies has resulted from an 
oversight, and that it only requires to be brought to 
the attention of the Departmental Committee to have 
it rectified in any subsequent report. 

The Scottish Societies have always required a high 
standard of professional qualification as a condition of 
admission, and they are in fact the only Societies of 
Accountants the whole of whose members (with the 
exception of four survivors of the grantees of the 
original Charter) have been admitted only after 
apprenticeship and examination. It is a special 

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feature of these Societies that their apprentices must 
attend the Law Classes of a recognised University, 
and they are also recommended to attend the Lectures 
on Political Economy. 

The members of the Scottish Societies having thus 
been thoroughly and expensively trained as qualified 
Accountants it is obvious that any Act of Parliament 
which excluded them from appointment as Auditors 
to local Corporations while admitting members of 
other and junior Societies, would be manifestly unjust 
and might, in the eyes of the public, be regarded as 
a reflection upon their professional standing ; while 
such a provision would unreasonably restrict the 
selection of the local authorities in the choice of 
Auditors. It is hoped, therefore, that in any pro- 
posed legislation relating to the audit of Municip»al 
Accounts such provisions will be inserted, as ■will 
permit of local Authorities appointing, as Auditors, 
Members of all Societies of Accountants in the 
United Kingdom, which are incorporated by Royal 
Charter or of the Society of Accountants and 

We have the honour to be, 
Your most obedient Servants, 

ROBERT BLAIR, Secretary. 

The Secretary, 
Joint Select Committee on Municipal Trading, 


London, July 23rd, 1906. 
Pear Sir, 

Announcements have been made from time to time 
of the inauguration and progress of the Institute of 
Directors, and we have now the pleasure of informing 
you that in compliance with our Petition His Majesty 
the King has been graciously pleased to grant us a Royal 

The Directors of Companies control investments 
amounting in share capital alone to upwards of 2,000 
millions sterling, besides debenture and other loan 

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money to a large amount, and the need of such an insti- 
tution, alike in the interests of the public and the 
directors becomes daily more apparent. 

There is no other liody of men controlling such vast 
and important interests which is not represented by its 
own Society, and in the initiation and consideration of 
legal changes affecting the status and management of 
Companies we believe that the institute, now officially 
recognised by Koyal Charter, has before it a wide and 
important field of usefulness. 

The bye-laws of the Charter will be framed in due 
course, and will probably provide for an entrance fee 
and possibly an increased subscription for new 
members, but at present the subscription is only one 
guinea per annum without entrance fee. 

To country members the institute, centrally situated, 
with its library, reading, writing, and consultation 
rooms, telephone service, &c., should prove a great 

We are. Dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

AVEBURY, President. 

H. M. BOMPAS, Chairman of Council. 



London, August 31st, 1906. 

The Bell Coy., Melbourne. 

Replying to your favour of the 25th July, Mr. 
Russell had two interviews with me before leaving for 
Australia, on the second occasion he came and said that 
he would not be going for two or three months and then 
whilst I was abroad he called and left a few days later 
so that I only saw him twice and had no time to enter 
into details fully. 

I told him if he had a proper house on this side I was 
quite willing to join the jfactory and arrange for the 
shipping of our surplus goods after November to 
Australia, at 3s. 6d., c.i.f. Melbourne, making an allow- 
ance of 2s. per case for all charges, «.e., landing, rent, 
and insurance, &c., and you or the receivers sending 
monthly accounts of sales and remittances. This was 
a thing which I suggested as a means of keeping a 

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supply on your side, as otherwise you might go six or 
eight months without the slightest chance of getting 
any goods shipped. The steamers sometimes absolutely 
refuse to take these matches, and I have been trying 
in every quarter to get out a matter of about a 
thousand gross to Sydney and Brisbane, and I am 
trying now by a special effort to get some to each place, 
but whether I succeed or not I cannot say, but the first 
opportunity I get I will send some, and if I have some 
assistance I have no doubt that in the end we could 
work up a very large trade in these goods. Not only 
am I selling the short matches but I can supply those 
that are about 4, 6, or 6 inches long, but I cannot do 
anything unless I can get a freight ; to-morrow I 
might get a freight and then alls well or I might not 
get it for another six months, anyway I have the goods 
ready and the moment I have a chance to ship them I 
will. I hope we shall succeed in doing something ere 
long, but up to the moment I have spared neither time 
nor expense in trying to get a freight, in order to make 
a shipment. 

Yours faithfully, 


3. Write a short report on one of the following subjects : — 
(a) An Australian bank's sources of profit ; 

(6) The coming harvest and its eflfect upon trade ; 

(c) The Melbourne Tramway system. 

4. (a) Write, as secretary of the committee, a reply to the 

letter set out above in question 2 (a) stating — 

(1) The letter has been considered. 

(2) Information wanted as to 

(i. ) The number of members of each Scottish In- 
stitute and their degrees ; 

(ii.) A list of members admitted without examina- 
tion with dates of admission ; 

(iii. ) Details of the course of study, examination, 
apprenticeship, &c., required by each society ; and 

(3) Matter will b© further considered. 

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{b) A Promissory Note made by J. Fibbitson, dated 
19 December, 1849, at one month payable to S. 
Bodgers, and by him endorsed to Messrs. Murdstone 
and Grinby, has been returned by the National Pro- 
vincial Bank of England, who are Bankers for J. 
Fibbitson and Messrs. Murdstone and Grinby, dis- 
honoured. Answer. Not provided for. Amount of 
Bill £150. 

What steps would you take on behalf of Messrs. 
Murdstone and Grinby in connection with such dis- 
honour. Give in your answer in full any notices or 
letters you may think it necessary to send. 

(c) Write an order to Messrs. Murdstone and Grinby 
to ship to Melbourne, to your principals, MeSwSrs. 
Jones Bros. & Co., the following wine : — 

40 hhds. Port, at 158. per gall, f.o.b. 

20 // Sherry, at 12s. 6d. per gall, f.o.b. 

40 rr Claret, at 8s. per gall, f.o.b. 

Instruct them to ship per earliest P. and 0. steamer 
and to draw for the amount at sight with B/L 

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(junior commercial examination only.) 

N.B. — ^Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will 
be taken into account throughout the Examination. 

Paper C. — Test for Handwriting. 

The Board of Exandners. 

{Twenty minutes allowed for this question?) 

1. Copy the following: — 

A writer- in the '* Hospital " on the action of 
alcohol as medicine says : — '' As in politics, so in 
medicine, the phenomenon known as the ^ swing* 
of the pendulum * is often very apparent. Whea 
taken hy the mouth it acts as many volatile oils 
or pungent substances do, and reflexly stimu- 
lates the heart. This action is immediate, rapid, 
and occurs before any absorption has taken place 
beyond that necessary to affect the subjacent 
nerve endings of the buccal mucous membrane. 
Secondly, it acts as a vaso-dilator. The skin 
becomes flushed, and a sensation of warmth is 
experienced. Thirdly, it acts as a cerebral seda- 
tive. Fourthly, owing to its fairly complete 
oxidation, it is, in a certain sense, a food ; and, 
lastly, it stimulates gastric secretion. These 
physiological points will serve to place the use 
of alcohol as a drug on a sound basis. It may, 
then, with advantage, be given in syncope, or 

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sndden cardiac failure as a reflex stimulant. In 
cases of chronic heart disease its only value will 
be as a vasodilator, to lessen the work of the 
cardiac muscle when the* peripheral resistance is 
high. With ft full pulse and low tension in the 
arteries, alcohol can have no effect on the circu- 
lation except the transitory reflex one above 
descnbed, and as a protoplasmic poison its 
action, at any rate in large doses, must be dis- 
tinctly deleterious to the cardiac muscle. As 
a stomachic in cases where the gastric secretion 
is diminished it will also be of use ; here malt 
liquors may be advantageous, but obviously in 
cases of hypersecretion its use will be contra- 
indicated. . . ." 

{Teffi minutes allowed Jor this question,') 

2. Write the following sums in column as they should 
appear in a Cash Book : — 

£1000000 28. Id.; £200 Os. 9Jd.; £600753 
14s. lOJd.; 2s. 6|d.; £10001101 Os. lid.; 
£386 Os. 7d.; £542 2s. 2Jd.; £988898 19s. G^d.; 
£355 178. 2id.; £7878?887 18s. 7d.; £445026 
Is. 3|d.; £611164 2s. 8d.; £222206 10s. 7^", 
£25 14s. 6^d.; £40000; £5000005; £344 
98. 5id.; £7008 15s. 3id.; £2 4s. Od.; 
£20020202 4s. 2d.; 3s. 10|d.; £8888008 18s.; 
£1759 16s. 4d.; £7^', £190000; £576; 
£7760076 14s. Id.; £80 Os. 4Jd.; £8 7s. 3d.; 
£7 Os. 7d.; £55550005 13s. lOd. 

D 2 

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Tlie Board of Examiners. 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will be taken 
into account throughout the Examination. 

1. Draw an outline map of West Australia, and on it 

name and mark the positions of the following :— 
Four towns, three rivers, three harbours, and 
three mountain ranges. 

2. State and explain a method of determining the 

latitude of a place and explain the connection 
between latitude and mean annual tem(>erature. 

8. Illustrate by a sketch a trade route between 
Adelaide and San Francisco, and indicate the 
names and positions of the chief ports on the 

4. Describe the method of government of India pro- 

per, omitting: the native States. Name the 
countries adjoining it, and state how far the 
political boundaries coincide with or depart from 
natural physical features. 

5. Illustrate, by a rough sketch map, the directions of 

the prevalent air currents which affect Australia, 
and explain their relations to the general terres- 
trial circulation of the atmosphere. 

6. Defi ne and illustrate the following terms : — Isoclinal, 

coastal plain, barrier reef. Sargasso sea, barome- 
tric gradient. 

7. Explain clearly the origin of rain. Taking an 

Australian example, show what becomes of the 
rain which falls over any single river-basin. 

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N.B. — Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will 
be taken into account throughout the Examination. 

T}^ Boaird of Examiners. 

Candidates should write equations^ where possible, as 
well as verbal descriptiont of chemical reactions, 

1. What do you understand by the law of conservation 

of mass ? Illustrate your answer by reference to 
three combustible substances and their products 
when burnt in air. 

2. What simple chemical and physical tests would 

you use to distinguish between calcium car- 
bonate and sodium carbonate ? What percentage 
of carbon dioxide will each yield if pure and 
anhydrous ? 

[Given that G = 12, Nd = 23, Ga = 40.] 

3. What are the chemical names, formulae, and chief 

uses of the following : — quick -lime, caustic soda, 
nitre, quartz, alum ? 

4. Explain the law of definite proportions^ and 

illustrate it by reference to any substance you 
have prepared in the laboratory. 

5. Give examples of three acids, and of their neutrali- 

zation by bases. What is formed in each case ? 

6. How may hydrogen be prepared in the laboratory ? 

Describe the process in full detail and give a 
sketch of the apparatus. 

7. Give an account of the principal sources, purifica- 

tion, and allotropic modifications of sulphur. 

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Handwriting, Spellii^, and General Intelligence will be 
taken into account throughout the Examination. 

The B^ard of Examinem, 

1. Define Velocity, Force, Work; specify the units 

in terms of which each is measured. 

Describe two experimental methods of measur- 
ing force which are used in the laboratory. 

2. Describe the apparatus you would use, and the 

experiments you would perform with it in order 
to verify the relation 

f * = 2A 
where v denotes velocity, / uniform acceleration, 
and % space described from rest. 

8, State and prove the theorem known as the 
** polygon of forces." 

Forees of niagnitude equal to 1> 2, 8 and 4 
pounds wdighty respectively, act nortii, east, 
south, and west fix)m a fixed point; determine, 
by means of a diagram drawn to scale, the magni- 
tude of their resultant in pounds weight. 

4. Define Centre of Gravity, and show how to deter- 

mine the centre of gravity of a plane triangle 
(a) by calculation, (6) by experiment. 

5. State Archimedes* Principle, and define Specific 


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A small flask weighs 13'58*3 grammes empty ; 
when flUed with water the weight is 38*882 
grammes, and when iilled with kerosene, 33*298 
grammes. Find the specific gravity of kerosene. 

6. State Boyle's Law, and give a iixll account of 
. experiments which verify it. 

7. Describe fally the mode of construction and 

graduation of a mercurial thermometer. 

What temperature Centigrade equals . 5^ 
Fahrenheit, and what temperature Fahrenheit 
equals 5?°* 4 centigrade ? 

8. A brass rod measures 27'5247 centimetres at 50° 

and 2?'5494 centimetres at 100°; find the 
length at 0^, and deduce the coefficient of linear 
expansion from the lengths at 0^ and 100°. 

9. State the Laws of Evaporation into an enclosed 

space, and describe experiments which verify 
each of them. 

10. Define Radiation, Emissive Power^ Absorptive 
Power. Show how to compare the, emissive 
powers (for radiation) of any two substances. 

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The Board of Examiners. 

Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will be 
taken into account throusrhout the Examination. 

Oiv« BSZSr answers, illustrated by dlair'ik>&*« to the 
following' qneetions:— 

1 . Show, by means of drawingb, the position of the 

kidneys of the fro^ in relation to the alimentary 
system, and describe carefully the blood supply 
to them. 

2. Give diagrams and descriptive notes in illustra- 

tion of the anatomical parts concerned in the 
process of respiration in the frog*. 

3. Describe the structure and function of a cell by 

reference to any protozoon with which you are 

4. Give an account, with diagrams, of the different 

kii^s of epithelia met with in the alimentary 
tract of a man. 

6. What do you understand by a perfect joint as 
applied to the articulation of bones in the human 
body ? 

Illustrate by means of examples. 

6. What are the functions of the anterior and pes* 
terior roots of a spinal nerve ? 

Show how their respective functions liave been 

Describe the minute structure of a nerve- 

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7. Where is the pancreas in man, and into what 

part of the alimentary canal does it discharge its 
secretions ? 

Describe the part its secretions play in diges- 

8. What are the principal ingredients of milk ? Is 

it, in your opinion, a perfect food ? Give 
reasons for your answer. 

9. Explain the difference in colour between venous 

and arterial blood, and state to what this 
difference is due. 

10. Give a few reasons in support of the statement 
that the body of a rrumy in some respects, may be 
regarded as a machine. 

ITie Board of Examiners. 

[ZUnstrat* your answers with Hsraxmm wherever possible. 
Attempt Biz questions only.] 

N.B. — Handwriting, Spelling, and General Intelligence will 
be taken into account throughout the Examination. 

1. (a) Give instances of climbing- plants, describing* the 

modes by which they climb. (6) How does the 
stem of a climber differ from that of an ordinary 
plant ? (c) How does the plant gain by the 
climbing habit ? 

2. (a) Describe the structure of a bud, and explain 

fully its importance to the plant, (b) Where do 
buds usually occur ? Give any exceptions you 
may know. 

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S. (a) What are the chief functions of the root of a 
land plant, {b) Point oat how its structure is 
adapted to its function. 

4. Mention (a) a plant which g^rows in shady places, 

(b) one which grows in wot places, (c) one which 
grows under water, (d) one which grows in very 
dry places, and (e) point out in what general 
features these four plants differ from one 

5. Mushrooms can be grown in complete darkness and 

attain full size. Why is this ? Where does the 
food come from ? W hy is the same not the case 
with green plants when grown from seed ? 

6. Describe experiments to shew that plants transpire 

more actively in light than in darkness or to 
shew that germinating seeds absorb oxygen and 
evolve carbon dioxide. 

7. Give an account (a) of the pollination of flowers, or 

(b) of the distribution of seeds. 

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1. Pbactical Geometry. 

Time allowed: One hour and a half. 

The Board of Examiners. 

Instructions to the Candidate. 

You ai*e to attempt only four questions^ one of these 
must be either question No. 6 or No. 7. 

Put the number of the question beside each answer. 

Results must be obtained by construction and must 
not be the result of trial or guessing. 

All construction lines must be allowed to remain. 

Parallel and perpendicular lines may be drawn by 
means of the set square and straight edge. 

Neat and accurate workmanship is expected. 

H.P. = Horizontal Co-ordinate Plane. 
V.P. = Vertical Co-ordinate Plane. 


1. Describe an ellipse within the oblong given in 

diagram Ql, the curve to touch each of the 
four sides tangentially. Use any method except- 
ing that of the thread and pins. 

--[20 marks.] 

2. Construct an isosceles triangle, the vertical angle 

being 40° and the base 2^^ A protractor must 
not be employed. — [16 marks.] 

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3. A table top is in the form of ^ regular pentagon, 

the sides of which are each IV long. Construct 
the pentagon to a scale of 2" to 1'. 

—[20 marks.] 

4. Construct a square, the area of which is equal to 

that of the oblong in diagram Ql, 

— [15 marks.] 

5. Show, to a slightly larger scale, what construction 

is necessary to produce the figure given in 
diagram ^5. — [25 marks.] 

6. Diagram Q6 gives the elevation of an indiarubber 

ball on which are painted two bands of colour. 
Give the plan of the ball, together with the 
colour bands. — [35 marks.] 

7. In diagram Q7 is given the elevation of a right 

square pyramid lying on the J?. P. on one of 
its triangular faces. Draw the plan of the 
pyramid and show the section made by a 
vertical plane which bisects the axis of the 
solid and makes an angle of 45° with the V*P. 
towards the left. — [35 m^rks.] 

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> be 


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a 4 

4. < 

5. ! 

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2. Freehand Drawing. 

The Board of Examiners. 

You are to make a drawing of the example given 
on the next page. Your drawing may be executed 
with a lead pencil, a pen and ink, or a brush and 
any suitable liquid, and must be in outline only. 
Ruling, measuring; or other mechanical aids are 
forbidden. The greatest width of your drawing 
is to be about 2 inches greater than the greatest 
width of the example, the other parts to be 
enlarged in proportion. 

You are not expected to completely finish the 
example in the time allowed. 

One hour is allowed for your work. 

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:j. Model Drawing. 

The Board of Examiners. 

lime allowed: One hour. 

Ikstructions to the Officers in Charge of 
THE Examination. 
The objects required are : — 

1. An iron bucket. 

2. A cube, from a set of drawing models. 

On a suitable support place an imperial drawing 
board, resting horizontally, and about 2 feet above the 

(1) Place the bucket upon its side on the 
drawing board, its open end towards the can- 
didates, and its axis receding towards the right 
at an anjrle of about 45** with the front edge of 
the board. 

(2) On the right of the bucket place the cube, 
with one corner resting upon the drawing board, 
and leaning against the bucket. 

Candidates must have a clear view of both objects 
and must be able to see into the bucket. 

Immediately before the Examination commences the 
following instructions must he read to the 
Each Candidate is to make a drawing of the cube 
and the bucket. 

The board upon which the objects rest is not to be 

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Your drawincr must fairly fill the sheet of paper 
supplied to you. It must be executed in outline, and 
with a free hand. 

A single pencil, or a SHbstitute for the pencil, may 
be held between the objects and the eye, in order to 
estimate their apparent proportions, but all other forms 
of measuring, and ruling or other mechanical aids, are 
strictly forbidden. 

The time allowed for your work is One hour. 


4. Elementary Perspective. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Time allowed : One hour and a half. 

1. Put into perspective the four-legged " milking 

stool," shown in plan and elevation in the figure 
on opposite page. 

The stool rests upon the ground plane upon its 
circular seat, and a line which would join points A 
and B in plan is parallel to the picture plane. 
The centre of the seat upon the ground is 2 feet 
beyond the ground line and 1 foot to the left of 
the spectator. 

Height of the eye above the ground, 3 feet. 

Distance of the eye in front of the picture, 5 
feet G inches. 

Scale \\ in. to 1 foot. 

The dimensions of the stool may be taken 
directly from the diagram. 

2. Make a freehand sketch of the circular slab which 

iorms the seat of the above stool^ when it rests 
on the ground exactly opposite the spectator, 

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with its circular faces in vertical planes inclined 
to the picture at angles of 45° towards the rig'ht, 
the eye being above the slab and well in froi\f; of 
the picture. 

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(junior commercial examination only.) 
The Board of Examinert, 

VeatnesB, spttttd as shown by the amonxLt of work 
complotod), spolliiiff, ■TllabioatloxL, pnxLctuatioxL, and 
iroBA'Al lntolllir*&co will bo takon into aoeonnt. 

CSandidates must submit at least Three papers covering — 
(1) Nos. 1 or 2 ; (2) Nos. 3 and 4, or No. 5; (3) No. 6 
1. Copy the following; : — 

The Subscription List will open on Thursday, 
the 16th March, and close on or before 4 o'clock 
the same day. 

Messrs. Tompkins, Jenner, & Co., 435 East- 
street, London, E.C., are authorized to receive 
subscriptions for the undermentioned issues : — 

The Utopian Railway Company (Limited). 
Incorporated under the Companies Act 1862 to 
1866. Authorized under Royal Decrees of the 
Utopian Government of 9th April, 1885, 14th 
July, 1886, and 21st January, 1887, by which a 
guarantee of interest at 8 per cent per annum on 
$4,964,400, equal to $397,152, is granted for a 
period of 99 years from the 9th April, 1887, on 
the terms and conditions stated in the decrees, 
payable out of the Treasury of the Utopian 
Government; the additional guaranteed capital 
for authorized extra work is mentioned below. 

Issue of £200,000 six per cent, prior lien 
mortgage bonds, series B, part of a total autho- 
rized issue of £300,000, secured by a mortgage 
deed giving a charge on the railway, subject 
only to the charge securing the previous issue of 
£285,000 prior lien mortgage bonds, series A, 
but in priority to the whole of the existing 

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debenture and share capital. The bonds are 
redeemable by fifteen annual drawings at par, 
commencing on the 1st July, 1906, or, at the 
option of the company, on giving six months' 
notice after that date at £llO. 
Price of issue 91^ per cent, payable — 

6 per cent, on application ; 

26^ per cent, on allotment; 

80 per cent, on 17th April next; 

30 per cent, on 17th May next. 

Capital Issued, 
£132,090 ordinary shares. 
300,000 7 per cent, preference shares. 
730,000 6 per cent, debentures. 
285,000 6 per cent, prior lien mortgage 
— - — bonds, series A. 
Total £1,447,090 

Board of Directors, 
A. Henry Thomas, Esq., Chairman. 

William de Lisle, £sq 
Bernard H. Crofts, Esq. 
E. Wallace Bums, Esq. 

Richard Greenway, Esq. 
Percy H. Preston, Esq. 
Frederick Quinn, Esq. 

Sir Waley Snooks, Bart. 
Metropolitan and Provincial Banking Com- 
pany (Limited), 43 Chester-street, E.C. 

California and Hong Kong Banking Corpora- 
tion, 19 Parfitt-lane, E.C. 
Brokers, — Messrs. Clayton, Gibbs, & Co., 

Euston House, E.C. 
Solicitors, — Mft<srs. Flood and Sons. 
Secretary. — John Worth, Esq. 
Offices,— ^^^ Finsbury Pavement, E.C. 

E 2 

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2. Copy the following : — 

Free Education. 
Many persons are anxiously awaiting the effect 
of free eaucation on the attendance. Here are 
the official returns up to this evening, from 370 
Board Schools only out of 410, forty not yet 
having reported. The increase for the first week 
of free education, ending 4th September, is 
28,471, compared with the last week of payment 
of fees, ending 28th August. 

Week ending 

Week ending 

23rd August. 

4th September- 

O »5 
































East Lambeth... 





West Lambeth... 










South wark 





Tower Hamlets 





Westminster ... 










Increase ... 





It may be supposed that many parents may 
have kept their children at home the first week 

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after the holidays that they might begin their 
term with free education ; but, for all that, there 
is a large increase, which is very gratifying. 
There are 410 Board Schools in London, with 
450,981 children on the roll, and an average 
attendance of only 347,857, making the 
number of absentees 103,124, albeit that 
£40,000 is expended annually in enforcing com- 
pulsory attendance. Now that the last vestige 
of excuse has been removed the number of 
absentees ought to be very greatly reduced. 
London, 7th September. 

Copy, and display in correct form, the following : — 
Percy F. Green, stockbroker. 

18 Clinton-avenue, London, E.C. 

List of Syndicates Open and Closed. 

Syndicate, Stock, Duration, Profit. — No. 1, 
Mex. Rails, 13 days, 70 per cent. ; No. 2, Eton. 
A., 21 days, 150 per cent.; No. 3, Milwaukee, 8 
days, 113 percent.; No. 4, Great Eastern, 29 
days, 60 per cent.; No. 5, Dover A., 15 days, 
80 per cent. ; No. 6, Trunk Ist, 40 days, 30 per 
cent. ; No. 7, Spanish, 30 days, 75 per cent. ; 
No. 8, Jagersfontein, 29 days, 212 per cent. ; 
No. 9, Louisvilles, 7 days, 90 per cent.; No. 10, 
Union Pacific, 12 days, 120 per cent.; No. 11, 
North-Western, 60 days, 150 per cent. ; No. 12, 
Sheffield, 5 days, 50 per cen't. ; No. 13, Eton. A., 
9 days, 85 per cent.; No. 14, Greek 815, 4 days, 
115 per cent.; No. 15, Rio Tinto, 25 days, 30 
per cent.; No. 16, Atchison, 16 days, 45 per 
cent. ; No. 17, Berwicks, 11 days, 87 per cent.; 
No. 18, Mex. Rails, 18 days, 115 per cent.; 
No. 19, Uruguay, 6 days, 70 per cent. ; No. 20, 

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Wabash D., 35 days, 55 per cent.; No. 21, 
Trunk Guar., 35 dayS| 35 per cent. ; No. 22, 
Dover A., 3 days, 20 per cent. ; No. 23, Boston 
B., 9 days, 42 per cent.; No. 24, North-Eastern, 
50 days, 95 per cent. ; No. 25, Rupee Paper, 10 
days, 155 per cent. ; No. 26, Norfolk Pref., 21 
days, 60 per cent. ; No. 27, Mex. Rails, 5 days, 
65 per cent. ; No. 28, Bton. A., 10 days, 70 per 
cent; No. 29, Milwaukees, 16 days^ 10 per 
per cent. ; No. 30, Sheffield A., 15 days, 55 per 
cent.; No. 31, Hull and Barnsley, 34 days, 105 

5er cent.; No. 32, North British, even ; No. 33, 
ag'ersfontein, 13 days, 130 per cent. ; No. 34, 
Ohio, 27 days, 33 per cent. ; No. 35, Penny- 
sylvania, 31 days, 90 per cent.; No. 36, Argen- 
tine Fund, 28 days, 78 per cent.; No. 37, 
Missouri Kansas, 14 days, 115 percent.; No. 38, 
Suez, 18 days, 70 per cent. ; No. 39, Chatham, 
15 days, 70 per cent. ; No. 40, Canadian Pacific, 
5 days, 120 per cent. 
4. Copy, and display in correct form, the following : — 
Philharmonic Society, Eighty-first Season, 
1893.— Concert in St. James' Hall.— Pro- 
gramme : — Overture, " Leonora " (No. 3), 
Beethoven ; Air, " Divinit^s du Styx " ( Alceste), 
Miss Esther Palliser (Gluck) ; Symphony in A, 
Op. 90 (The Italian), (Mendelssohn); Concerto 
in E. Minor, Pianoforte and Orchestra, M. Sapell- 
nikoff (Chopin) ; Air de la Jeune Fille (Paradis 
et la Pi^ri) Miss Esther Palliser (Schumann) ; 
Selection from Music to " Henry VIII." Overture, 
Intermezzo Funebre, Three Dances (Edward 
German). Tickets, 10s. 6d., 7s. 6d., 6s., 2s: 6d., 
and Is., at Green and Sons, 534 New Bond- 
street ; all usual agents ; and at the Hall at 
Jones' Ticket Office. 

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5. Copy, and display in correct form, the following* 

balance-sheet : — 

First Schedule. — Revenue Account of the 
Wessex and General Life Assurance Association 
for the year ending 81st December, 1891 : — 


Amount of Funds at the beginninjr of the 
year 1891, £524,2-21 7s. lOd. ; Premiums (after 
deduction of re-assurance premiums), £53,404 
lis. lOd. ; Interest and dividends, £22,067 10s. 
9d. ; Fines, fees, <fec., £88 Os. 3d. ; Rent, £60 ; 
Profits on sale of stock, £12,424 15s. 7d. ; Cash 
bonus written off, £18 88. 6d. ; Total, £612,285. 


Claims under policies, including bonuses (after 
deduction of sums re-assured): — By deatii, 
£36,075 8s. 2d.; Endowments matured, £1,650; 
Total, £37,725 8s. 2d. Surrenders, £1,891 18s. 
6d. ; Annuities, £3,835 19s. 2d.; Commission, 
£2,938 18s. lOd. ; Expenses of management, 
£6,o95 12s. Id.; Income tax, £403 l8s. 2d.; 
Dividends to shareholders, £1,187 10s. lOd.; 
Agent's balance written off, £12 5s. 6d.; Total, 
£54,391 lis. 3d. Amount of funds at the end 
of the year 1891, £557,893 12s. 6d.; Grand 
total, £612,285 3s. 9d. 

6. Make a transcript of the accompanying docu- 


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DECEMBER, 1906. 


First Paper, 

Ths Board of Exominers, 

1. Translate tbe following passages into exact, bat 
readable, English, and (in the margin) parse the 
words underlined — 

(a) Koi vvv EKtiva fiey Oavorr aviirraTo' 
iyit he Kai trv fiiWofi£%' OvijaKeiVj yipop 
oi 6' 'HpaKXeioi iralhec, ovg vvo vrtpdiQ 

01 F elg eXfyxov aWog &Xko6ev irirvtavj 
2) /JifiTepj avh^j troi irarrip aireart yfiQ ; 
Ti Ip^y TToO* ijlei ; r^vi^ V kaipaXfiivoi 
ZriTovai TOP reKovT ' eyib ^e ^ca0epa> 
XoyoKTi fivdevovo'a, OavfJiaiitop ^' orav 
TTvXai \l/o(liCJ(Ti, Trag avitTTTfviv woha, 
utg npog frarpfoy Trpotnreaovfiei'Oi yovv* 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 73 

(fi) 2i yaia Ka^fiov, Kai yap eig a inftli^ofMa 
\oyovc oyei^iariipac Iv^aroviJievog, 
Toiavr cLfjivved^ 'HpojcXci TeKPoiai re ; 
oc elc Mivvaiai irdtri ^la fid\TiQ fJioXwy 
QilfiaiQ tOriKey ofifi iKevBepov fiXiirtiv, 
ovh* 'EXXa^ ^vefff ovh* avi^Ofiai irore 
ffiydtpj KaKi(xrqv Xafifinvtoy elg toI^^ ^l^oy, 
fjv 'Xpfiv vEoatroiQ rdlaZe. irvp Xdy^aQ SvXa 
i^ipovaav iXdtiv, trovTitay KaOapfiCLTuty 
\ipaov r a/ioc)3ac, uty kfxoydriaiy \apty. 

{e) AYK. dXX' ela; voiihaQ koX la^apd^ 'H/oaicXcoi/c 
tlbi KiXeve r&y^e ^aiyitxiiai hofJLuty, 
kif o[q viriaTrir avriwayyeXroL Oayely. 
AM. &ya^y ^tutKeiQ fi aBXiwQ imrpayora 

vfipiy ff vfipiitiQ CTTt Oavovdi Toig kfioiQ' 
a-vp^at fierpiiaQ, Kel Kparelg, aTrov^rjy €X«t>'» 
tTTEi 5' ayayKrfy irpoiTTidijQ ///ilr SayeiVf 
(rripyeiy ayaytcri' ^paarioy h* a ffol doKei, 
AYK. wov hriraMeyapa; nov TiKy^AXKfjLrjyriQ yoyov; 
AM. doK(o fjiey avrrjy, wy Ovpadty tiKaffai, 
AYK. Ti xpfjfxa 3o£i7€ rijaS' cx^*^ TeKfjiripioy j 
AM. iKeny irpog Ayi'oTc etrriag Oatrtrety (iaOpoiQ 
AYK. ayovrfTa y* iKtrevuvtray^ eKffCJtrai (iloy. 

(d) Tiytay V a/xoij3ac u)y vTrfjp^ey *Hpa»:X^c 
ffwffaQ fi£ yipQtVy ^X6ov, et rt lei, yipovy 
Ti x^ipOQ vfidQ TiJQ efjLfjs ij ffvuiiaxufy. 
ta' Ti yeKpCjy rioy^e itXridvei TrtSor; 
ov nov XcXcc/i^ai ical yedtTepwr tcaicioy 
vtrrepog o^Ty^zot j rig rdh^ eKreiyev TeKya^ 
riyog yeyufcray rrjyh^ opH trvyaopoy y 
ov yap dopog ye irdihtg iffrayrai viXag, 
aXX' &XXo Toi TTov Kaiyoy evpiffKU) KaKoy, 

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2. In the abore passages explain the <,^rammar of — 

in (a) aifd^, yvi' in (^) Mtyvaitri, yvev (tense), 
CLfjLOifiag : in (c) k<f>^ olc, & XP^f ayovrjTa : in (jd) 
v/xaQf KaKwVy ^opog, 

3. Explain — KvKXtovlav voXiv — ij eirTamfpyo^ voXtg — 

6rjpo<l>6voc Oea — ra fivarutv opyi evrv^ria ihwy — 
Tivaaaei Kpara (iaXfiiCiov airo — E<f>oXKig. 

4. Translate and explain the construction in — irpcurvta 

S* eyti> tL Xvwpov, ov ^aicpvppoelQf — yc/iw KaKuty hriy 
KOVKET- eard^ oirov reOp — tovtov 5* oirwQ opttrra 

6. Give a brief account of Euripides, and of the con- 
ditions under which one of his dramas would be 
produced and performed. 

6. State the scansion of a line of iambic dialogue, 

and scan the first three lines in passage 1 (a). 

7. Translate, with parsing, as above — 

(a) fiXiKa fjLey ovv rayadavoptn Xido^oog yevofievoQ, 
avTri TTpoeipTjKey * ov^ey yap otl fjirj epyarriQ earf r« 
(TOffiaTi iroyCjy Kay tovtu riji' awacray iXwlEa tov fiiov 
TideifiivoCi aipayrjQ fiev avTOc wv, oXiya Kai ayevyij 
XafifidyiJVy Taireivog rrfy yyojfirjyy evreXriQ Bi rijv 
Tpoohoy, ovT£ (plXoif: kirtZiKCLfTtiiOQ ovre e^dpoic 
<f»ojiepOQ ovTE toIq iroXiTaiQ ^rjXwrog, aXX* avro 
fioyoy kpydrriQ Ka\ rwy eK tov iroXXov ^^/Ltov tic, 
del Toy Trpov^oyTa viroTTTrjaarbjy Kai tov Xiyeiy 
hvydfjieyoy depairevtoyf Xayw fiiov ^wy Kai tov KpeiT' 
Toyoi epfiaioy uty' el di Kai ^eidiag f/ UoXvicXctroc 
yivoio Kai TroXXa OavfjiatrTa k^epydaaio^ rrfy fikv 
Tiy^yqy dwavTEQ eTratveffoyTai, ovk eerTi ^i otrrig Twy 
lEovTUJi'y £1 yovy f'x^t, ev^air* ay o/jiotog aoi yeyiffOai. 

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DECEMBER, 1996. 75 

(J) Kai /jTjy ohy EiTreTv e^^tc av Kara Tt]v ct{/av, oinag 
etTTi icarayeXaora, iL Xapoiv, Kai ^aXitna at ayav 
(TirovhaX avruty icai to fiira^v tCjv kXiriZtav oi^etrdai 
ayapiraffTOVc yiyvofiirovg vwo tov fieXritrrov SavaTOV, 
ayyeXoi de Kat virrjpiTai airrov fxaXa TroWot, wg op^g, 
ilTTiaXoL Kai TTvperoi Kai <pd6ai Kat irepnrvevfiovlai 
Koi li(l>rj Kol XrjffTripia Kai Kutrtta Kai ^iKaarrai Kai 
Tvpavvoi. Kai tovtiov ovdev SXcjg avTovg slffepxerai, 
ear' av ev irpdrTwaiv^ orav he a^XCbtriy iroXv to 
oTOTol Kai alal Kai olfioi. 

{c) opwv he TToXXovg ovk epwTt (juXorrotplag e^ofiirovgy 
aWa ho^Tic fiovov Tijg awo rov vpayfJiaTogJ^ieuivovg^ 
Kai rot fiev irpoxeipa rat/ra kai drjfjLOffta Kat oiroffa 
vayTl fjufieladai p^hiov ev fiaXa ioiKOTag ayadolg 
arhpcKTi, TO yiveiov Xiytti koi to fiatiafxa Kai tijv 
avaj^oXriVt ewl he tov fiiov Kai tCjv wpayfiaTiov 
avTi(l>deyyofjteyovg tu a^rffiaTi Kai TavavTia vfily 
eTriTTfhevovTag Kai hiai^QeipovTag to aSitofia Tfjg 
v7ro(T\i(Te(i)g, iiyavaxTOvv^ Kai to Trpdyfia Ofioiov 
ehoKet fJLOi Kadanep e*i Tig VTroKpiTiig Tpay^hiag /xaX- 
daKog avTog wv Kai yvvaiKiag ^A-^^iXXia ^ Orjcria yj 
Kai TOV 'HpaKXia viroKpiroiTo airroy fii}Te fiahii^uty 
fiTITe (ftQeyyoiievog i^piiiiKOVy ciXXa SpvirTOfjieyog vtto 
TTjXiKOVTQ) vpoaufirei^f or ohc^ ay ff *EXiyrj ttote ij 
IIoXuJcVij aya(r\oiyTo iripa tov fieTpiov airralg 
irpoaeoiKOTay ov^ oirug 6 HpaKXfjg 6 KaXXiyiKog. 

8. In the above passages explain the grammar of — 

in (a) oifCey on /ai), r»/v yyiltfiijyf avTo fjtoyoy : in 
(^) TO. irpoyeipa ravra, iipoi'iKoVf ov)( oiriag* 

9. In what chief respects is the Greek of Luc i an 

not strictly that of Attic prose ? Explain huw 

x, ^«^« ^^ write in Greek, 
he came to 

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10. Explain — fiavavaoi rf^vai — vpoe^pia — dtrirtp rrjy 

Nio)3i7v aKovofity^ limriiyei — Z KvXX^vce — tprifAriv 
ifXiaKeffBi — cvcpycViyc &vayEypa\pi^ — vofitrryiQ — rac 
tvSvyat hiro<r)(uy — TroXXac '0Xw/xiria5ac — fi vac 
*Amjc^C"— «7X*' ^^ o-voXoyovfiiv^ — opSijy Ttapav 
I'^tjy — oi €K Tov vepurarov — Iq to irpwaveiov 

11. Draw a rough diagram of Athens to illustrate the 

w^ords ^ It ijcri wov cKJfiierai evayiovva i^ 'Ak-aSiy- 
/icf'ac «c TTtpnraTiiffue Kai ev rpf XloaceXii, and to 
shew the position of the Acropolis, the Areo- 
pagus, and TO TLeXaayiKoy. 

12. Who were PheiHias, Aeschines, Thamyris, 

Chrysippus ? 


First Paper. 

yVtr JJfMird of Examiners, 

, Translate, with short marginal notes — 

(a) Hannibal, Capua recepta, quum iterum Nea- 
politanorum animos partim spe, partim metu 
nequicquam tentasset, in agrum Nolanum 
exercitum traducit, ut non hostiliter statim, quia 
non desperabat voluntariam deditionem^ ita, si 
morarentur spem, nihil eorum, quae pati aut 
tiraere possent, praetermissurus. Senatus, ac 
maxime primores eius, in societate Homana cum 
fide perstare; plebs novarum, ut solet, rerum 
atque Hannibalis tota esse metumque agrorum 

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DECEMBER^ 1906. 77 

pofmlatioDis et patienda in obsidione multa 
gravia indignaque proponere animo ; neque 
auctores defectionis deerant. Itaque ubi sena- 
tum metus cepit, si propalam tenderent, resisti 
multitudini concitatae non posse^ secunda simu- 
lando dilationem mali inveniunt. 

{b) Quae si paria essent, ut quondam fuissent, 
tamen expertis, quam grave Romanum imperium 
sociis, quanta indulgentia Hannibalis eti^m in 
captivos omnes Italici Dominis fuisset, Punicam 
Romanae societatem atque amicitiam praeop- 
tandnm esse. Si ambo consules cum suis ex- 
ercitibus ad Nolam essent, tamen non magis 
pares Hannibali futuros, quam ad Cannas 
fuissent, nedum praetor unus cum paucis et 
novis militibus Nolam tutari possit. Ipsorum 
qunm Hannibalis magis interesse, capta an 
tradita Nola poteretur ; potiturura enim, ut 
Capua Nuceriaque potitus esset; sed quid inter 
Capuae ac Nuceriae fortunam interesset, ipsos 
prope in medio sitos Nolanos scire. 

Turn into Oraiio Recta from Ipsorum quam 
. . . to tbe end. 

(c) Omnium denique in ilium odia civium ardebant 
desiderio mei, quern oui tum interemisset, non 
de impunitate eius sed de praeraiis cogitaretur. 
Tamen se Milo continuit et P. Clodium in 
indicium bis, ad vim numquam vocavit. Quid ? 
privato Milone et reo ad populum, accusante P. 
Clodio, quum in Cn. Pompeium pro Milone 
dicentem impetus factus est, quae tum non modo 
occasio sed etiam causa illius opprimendi fuit ? 
JNuper vero, quum M. Antonius sumraam spem 
salutis bonis omnibus attulisset gravissimamque 
adulescens nobilissimus rei publicae partem 

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fortissime suscepisset atque illam beluam, iudicii 
laqneofi declinantem^ iam irretitam teneret^ qui 
locus, quod tempus illud, di immortales, fuit! 
Quum se ille fugiens in scalarum tenebras 
abdidisset, magnum Miloni fuit conficere illam 
pestem nulla sua invidia, Antonii vero maxima 

(d) auro repensus scilicet acrior 
miles redibit flagitio additis 

damnum : neque amissos colores 
lana refert medicata fuco, 
nee vera virtus, cum semel excidit, 
curat reponi deterioribus. 
si pugnat extricata densis 
cerva plagis, erit ille fortis, 
qui perfidis se credidit hostibus, 
et Marte Poenos proteret altero, 
qui lora restrictis lacertis 

sensit iners timuitque mortem, 
hie, unde vitam sumeret inscius, 
pacem duello miscuit. o pudor ! 
o magna Karthago, probrosis 
altior Italiae ruinis ! 

(e) sic et Europe niveum doloso 
credidit tauro latU8 et scatentem 
beluis pontum mediasque fraudes 

palluit audax. 
nuper in pratis studiosa florum ec 
debitae ^ymphis opifex coronae 
iiuocte sublustri nihil astra praeter 
moru vidit et undas. 

tiraere jy canities pulsis melioribus annis 
maxime ^^^ antiquas miscueratque comas, 
fide perst^gQg Qp^-yg Pisaea vinctus oliva 
atque Hani,^ decies praemia victor eques, 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 79 

cum maris EuzIdI positos ad laeva Tomitas 

quaerere me laesi principis ira iubet. 
causa meae cunctis nimiiim quoque Dota ruinae 

indicio non est testificanda meo. 
quid referam comitumque Be fas famulosque 
nocentes ? 

ipsa multa tuli non leyiora fuga. 
indignata malis mens est succumbere, seque 

praestitit invictam, viribus usa suis ; 
oblitusque mei ductaeque per otia vitae 

insolita cepi temporis arma manu. 
totque tuli casus pelago terraque, quot inter 

occultum stellae conspicuumque polum. 

2. Translate, with notes — 

(a) Aetas parentum peior avis tulit 
nos nequiores. 

(6) Da lunae propere novae. 

(c) Abstineto irarura calidaeque rixae. 

(d) Et qua pauper aquae Daunus agrestium 

regnavit populorum. 

(<;) Duae legiones urbanae alteri consuli, qui in 
locum L. Postumii suffectus asset, decretae 

(/) Iliturgi obsidione liberato, ad Intibili oppug- 
nandum Punici exercitus traducti, suppletis 
copiis ex provincia, ut quae maxime omnium, 
belli avida, modo praeda aut merces esset, et 
turn iuventute abundante. 

3. Translate, and explain allusions in — 

(rt) Utque malae matris crimen deponat, hirundo 
sub trabibus cunas tectaque parva facit. 

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(b) nec prooul hinc nympha est, quae, dam fugit 
Elidis amnem, 
tecta sub aequorea nunc quoque currit aqua. 

4. Draw a rough map to indicate the positions of 

Capua, Mount Tifata, the Vol turn us, Casilinura, 
Nola, Cumae, Nuceria. 

5. What was there unusual in the constitution of the 

court before which Cicero defended Milo, or in 
the other circumstances of the trial ? Is the 
speech you have been studying the one Cicero 
actually. delivered ? 

6. Give concise accounts, with approximate dates, of 

the lives of Ovid and Horace. 

7. Explain— medix tuticus, connubium, qui spolia ex 

hoste fixa domi haberent, decurrere milites 
cogebat, baud facile litari haruspices responde- 
bant, opima spolia, hie dies campi, sine aulaeis 
et ostro, duodecim tabulae, imagines. 


Second Paper. 

Tlie Board of Examinen. 

Translate into Greek— 

My name is Folly, and men speak ill of me. 
But what hurt does it do me, even if I am abused 
by all the world ? As soon as I began to speak 
to this assembly, the faces of all present put 
on (eMeffdai) a new pleasure. As many of 
you as I behold around me seem to me, 

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DECEMBER, 1900. 81 

like Homer's gods, to be drunk (jxeOveiy) with 
nectar, whereas, befiBre, ye sat as gloomy 
((TicvOpwTrog) as if ye had come from an oracle 
or a doctor. And as, when the sun begins to 
show his light, or when, after a sharp (d^vc) 
winter, the spring appears once more, all things 
immediately regain (dmfcrao/iai) a kind of youth ; 
in like manner, by but beholding me, ye have 
got a smiling countenance instead of a gloomy 

2. Translate into good English — 

ZaKpvppoovvTa, Kai fie 7rpo(TfiXi\pac kaXet* 
** 2) irdi, irpoaeXBE, /Jirj (pvyrjg Tovfiov kukoPj 
/i»y8' €1 <T£ y^ri davovTi avvdaviiv e/jioi' 
cxW apov £$(ii, Kai fiaXiffra fiey fiideg 
ePTavS* OTTOv fjie /Jiij rig 6\peTai fipoTwy' 
el S' oIktov *i<T\eig, aWa fi £k ye rijorle yijg 
TTopdfievffOv u)g raxtora, /xiy^' avrov BdvtjJ^ 
TOuavT eiriffKTjxI/ayTog, ev ^e(j(fi (TKOxf^ei 
Sevreg a^e irpog yfjv rfivh^ eKeXtrajiey fioXig 
(ipvxijjjLeyoy ariratTfioltri' Kai yiy avriKa 
f/ i^wyr effoxptaO* fj redyriKOT apriutg, 

(6) lay eireputTwaiy v/j,dg ot yetJTepoi wpog iroioy 
'Xpt) rrapaZeiyfia avrovg tov filoy irotelarSaiy ri 
Kpiyetrej eZ yap "lare^ 6ri ovx «« TraXalffrpai ov^e 
TOL lihaaKaXela ovZ^ rj /jLovonKt^ fioyoy vai^evei tovc 
yetoTepovgy aWci iroXv fidXXoy to, lr)ix6aia Kr)pvy' 
/iara. KrjpvrrtTai ey rf dedrp^, on (TTe(l)ayovTal 
Ttg dperilg eycKa Kai fivvoiac, Kalwep t^ oyri 
KaKog uty rJ /3/^ Kai (iheXvpog' 6 hi ye reojrepog 
ravr' idilify ^4a06€tp€rai. hiKTjy Tig dedu)Ke irovripog, 
&fnr€p KTri(Ti<l>wy' ol he ye oWot ireTralhevvTaL. 
\prj(l>i(rdfieyog Tig TarayTia Tuy KoXdy Kai hiKaiioy, 

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iwaveXdwy oiiKo^e irai^tveiTor viov' 6 ^i ye te/corwc 
oif vtiderat. wc ovPfxri fioyov cptVoircc, dXXa Kal 
(pvXarrofieyoij r^v \^^^ov t^ipcre^ &m arroXoyiay 
e^ftv role ETTtprfirofJiivotQ vfia^, ri e^iKa^en. ev yap 
*i(rT€f Z 'ABrjvaioty ori roiavrri do^ei ^ iroXic eJyai, 

OTTOlOQ Tig hv ^ 6 KTfpVTTOfJLSVOt, 

[ivuriefjvTtiv = bid, ppvxaoBai = bellow, lajpvTTOfuvog = 
praised by proclamation.] 

3. Give a very succinct account (with dates and an 

outline map) of the chief events of both the first 
and second attempts of Persia upon Greece. 

4. State in chronological order the chief successes and 

reverses of the Athenians in the Peloponnesian 

5. What do you know of Draco, Harmodius, Epami- 

nondas, and of the Philippics of Demosthenes ? 


Second Paper. 

'The Board of Examiners, 

Translate into Latin — 

There was nothing now to be done but to 
name a dictator. The only man worthy to fill 
the post was Lucius Qninctius Gincinnatus, 
a noble patrician, who had long served his 
country in peace and war, as senator and consul, 
and was then living quietly at home, cultivating 
his small estate with his own hands. Now, 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 83 

when the messengers of the senate came to 
Gincinnatus to announce to him that he was 
nominated dictator, they found him ploughing, 
and he had taken off his garments, for the heat 
was great. Therefore, he first asked his wife 
to hring him his toga, that he might receive 
the message of the senate in a becoming manner. 
And when he had heard their errand, he went 
with them into the town, accepted the dictator- 
ship, and chose for the master of the horse, 
Lucius Tarquitius, a noble but poor patrician. 
Then having ordered that all the courts of 
justice should be closed and all common busi- 
ness suspended till the danger was over, he 
summoned all who could bear arms to meet in 
the evening in the field of Mars. 

2. Translate— 

Ubi haec fremere militem in castris consul 
sensit, contione advocata, ** Quemadmodura" 
inquit " in Algido res gesta sit, arbitror vos, 
milites, audisse. Qualem liberi populi exercitum 
decuit esse, talis fuit ; consilio collegae, virtute 
militum victoria parta est. Quod ad me attinet, 
id consilii animique habiturus sum, quod vos 
mihi feceritis. Et trahi bellum salubriter et 
mature perfici potest. Si trahendum est, ego, 
ut in dies spes virtusque vestra crescat, eadem 
qua institui, disciplina efiiciam ; si iam sntis 
animi est decernique placet, agite, clamorem, 
qualem in acie sublaturi estis, tollite hie indicem 
voluntatis virtutisque vestrae." Postquam 
ingenti alacritate clamor est sublatus, quod bene 
vertat, gesturum se illis morem posteroque die 
in aciem deducturum affirmat. Reliquum diei 
apparandis armis consumptum est. Postero 


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die simul instrui Romanam aciem Sabini videre, 
et ipsi, iam pridem avidi certaminis, procedunt. 
Proelium fuit, quale inter fidentes sibimet ambo 
exercitus, veteris perpetuaeque alterum gloriae, 
alterum nuper nova victoria elatum. 

3. Ti-anslate— 

Aeneas celsa in puppi, iam certus eundi, 
carpebat somnos rebus iam rite paratis. 
Huic se forma del vultu redeuntis eodem 
obtulit in somnis rursusque ita visa monere est, 
omnia Mercurio similis, vocemque coloremque 
et crines ilavos et membra decora iuventa : 
^' Nate dea, potes hoc sub casu ducere somnos^ 
nee quae te circum stent deinde pericula cernis, 
demens, nee zephjros audis spirare secundos ? 
Ilia dolos diruraque nefas in pectore versat, 
certa mori, variosque irarum concitat aestus. 
Non fug-is hinc praeceps, dum praecipitare 

potestas ? 
Jam mare turbari trabibus saevasque videbis 
collucere faces, iam fervere litora flammis, 
si te his attigerit terris Aurora morantem. 
Eia age, rumpe moras. Varium ei mutabile 

femina." Sic fatus nocti se immiscuit atrae. 

4. With what events in Roman History are the fol- 
lowing places connected — the Allia, the Pass 
of Caudium^ Heraclea^ Gynoscephalae^ Numantia? 

0. Give a short account of the political career of 

6. Construct four conditional sentences of different 
kinds, using the subjunctive in three of them. 
Then convert them into Oratio Obliqua after a 
past tense. 

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DECEMBER; 1906. 85 


pass and honours paper. 

First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. State fi'om what author and work each of the 

following extracts is taken. Explain them fully, 
giving as much of the contex.t as is necessary 
to make their meaning clear : — 

(a) Then to come in spite of sorrow, 

And at my window bid good morrow. 

(6) For when hard-hearted Interest first began 
To poison earth, Astraea left the plain. 

(c) Perchance I may return with others there 
When I have purged my guilt. 

{d) The lord of irony, — that master-spell 
Which stung his foes to wrath. 

(«) To those who mock you gone to Pluto's reign, 
There with sad ghosts to pine, and shadows 

2. Explain the following allusions: — (a) learned 

Poussin ; (b) his half-regained Eurydice ,• (c) as 
jocular as a merry-andrew ; {d) the Ionian 
father of the rest; (e) the Ausonian king; 
(/) Tryphiodorus the Lipogrammatist ; {g) I 
would deliver them after Plato's manner ; (h) by 
some Draconic clause. 

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3. Describe briefly the incidents by which, in 

Basselas^ Johnson illustrates his view of (a) the 
pastoral life, (li) the danger of prosperity, and 
(c) the comparative value of society and solitude. 

4. State precisely what is meant by the word 

allegory ; and illustrate your statement by re- 
ference to one of the prescribed selections. 

5. Explain the meaning of the following words as 

used by 

(a) Addison : pulvillio, conceit, nice ; 
(6) Thomson : bale, sweltry, fain ; 

(c) Irving : anatomy, rigadpon ; 

(d) Shakespeare: breff, rivage, fet, gull, gleek, 

indirectly, peevish. 

6. Explain the meaning of the following passages, 

naming the speaker in each case : — 

(a) Let him be punished, sovereign, lest example 
Breed, by his sufferance, more of such a kind. 

(b) For he hath stolen a pax, and hanged must a' 


(c) To-morrow the king himself will be a clipper. 

(d) Big Mars seems bankrupt in their beggar'd host 
And faintly through a rusty beaver peeps. 

(e) Haply a woman's voice may do some good, 
When articles too nicely urged be stood on. 

7. Describe briefly the character of Henry V. as con- 

ceived by Shakespeare, illustrating your descrip- 
tion by quotations wherever possible. 

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DSCEMBER, 1906. 87 

8. In what connection does Bacon refer to the follow- 

ing: persons ? State concisely what you know 
about each : — Sejanus, Ravaiilac, Timotheus the 
Athenian, Gaston de Fois, Albert Durer, Gregory 
the Great, Timoleon. 

9. (a) "The changes and vicissitudes in war are 

many, but chiefly in three thing's." What are 
the three things? 

. (6) " Honour hath three things in it." What ai« 
they ? 

(c) Three classes of men ^' have an over-eariy ripe- 
ness in their years, which fadeth betimes." To 
what three classes does Bacon refer ? 

10. Indicate the source, and explain the meaning o 
the following : — 

(a) He that plots to be the only figure amongst 
cyphers is the decay of an whole age. 

(6) And oes, or spangs, as they are of no great 
cost, so they are of most glory. 

(c) Certainly there be whose fortunes are like 
Homer^s verses. 

(//) No youth can be comely but by pardon. 

(e) It is commonly seen, that men once placed take 
in with the contrary faction to that by which 
they enter. 

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Second Paper. 

. The Board of Examiners, 

1. Write an essay on either "The Farmer's Life," or 
" Australian Defence." 

5. ''Many words, harmless once, have assumed a 

harmful as their secondary meaning." Give six 
examples of this. 

3. What do you know about the history of each of the 

following words ? — dunce, dahlia, mob, cosmo- 
polite, sacrament, derrick, silhouette, alligator, 

4. '' Occasionally a name will embody and give per- 

manence to an error." Give a few instances. 

6. What is meant by the " desynonymizing " process ? 

Illustrate your answer by an example. 

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DBOBMBBR, 1906. 89 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Sketch the history of England, from the death of 

Alfred to the death of Edgar. 

2. How did the rule of Henrj the Second help 

towards the making of a united English 
nation ? 

3. What were the leading causes which promoted 

the growth of Towns in England ? 

4. Give a short account of the history of Scotland 

and of Ireland during the reign of Elizabeth, 

5. Give an account of the principal subjects oi 

controversy between James the First and his 

6. What is meant by the Emancipation of the Press ? 

Trace briefly the steps by which the Emancipa- 
tion of the Press was accomplished in England. 

7. What were the ideas of George the Third as to 

the powers which should be possessed and 
exercised by a British King ? 

8. What is meant by the Domestic System of Indus- 

try ? Contrast it with the system which took 
its place. 

9. (a) Trace briefly the history of British settlement 

in New Zealand. 

(b) When, and in what circumstances, was the 
Colony of South Australia founded ? 

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FiHST Paper. 
The Board of Examitiers. 

CaAdidates mast satlsflr the •zaminers in BACK part 
of tlie paper. 



1. Traduisez en anglais idiomatique : 

(a) Les premiers hommes, n'ayant que les monta- 
gnes pour asiles contre les inondations, chasses 
sou vent de ces m^mes asiles par le feu des 
volcans, tremblants sur une terre qui tremblait 
sous leurs pieds, nus d'esprit et de corps, exposes 
aux injures de tons les elements, Fictimes de la 
fiireur des animaux feroces, dont ils ne pouvaient 
^viter de devenir la proie ; tons ^galement 
penetres du sentiment commun d'une terreur 
funeste, tous egalement presses par la necessite, 
n'ont-ils pas tr^ promptement cherche k se 
r^unir, d'abord pour se defendre par le nombre, 
ensuite pour s*aider et travailler de concert k se 
faire un domicile et des arraes ? 


(b) Les peuples les plus 6claires, se ressaisissant 
du droit de disposer eux-m6mes de leur sang et 
de leurs ricbesses apprendront peu k pen h 
regarder la guerre comme le fleau le plus funeste, 
comme le plus grand des crimes. lis sauront 
qu'ils ne peuvent devenir conqu^rants sans 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 91 

perdre leur liberty qu'ils doivent 

chercber la sttret^ et non la puissance. Peu k 
peu les pr^ju^^ commerciauz se dissiperont; 
UQ faux int^rdt mercantile perdra I'affreux 
pouvoir d'ensanglanter la terre et de ruiner les 

nations sous pr^texte de les enrichir 

Les g^uerres entre les peuples, comme les assas- 
sinats, seront au nombre de ces atrocites 
extraordinaires qui bumilient et revoltent la 
nature, qui impriment un long opprobre sur le 
pays, sur le sidcle dont les annales ont ete 


(c) Les pluies avaient enfin cess^, et le printeni}>s 
se faisait tout k coup. Nous ^tions au mois de 
f^vrier: tous lea amandiers ^talent en fleurs, 
et les pr^s se remplissaient de jonquilles 
embaum^es. G'^tait sauf la couleur du ciel 
et la vivacite des tons du paysage, la seule 
difference que Fo&il piit trouver entre les deux 
saisons; car les arbres de cette region sont 
vivaces pour la plupart. Ceux qui poussent 
de bonne heure n'ont pas k subir les coups da 
la gelee : les gazons conservent toute leur 
fraicbeur et les fleurs n'ont besoin que d'une 
matinee de soleil pour mettre le nez au vent. 
Lorsque notre jardin avait un demi-pied de 
neige, la bourrasque balan^ait sur nos berceaux 
treillag^s, de joiies petites roses grimpantes, 
qui, pour dtre un peu pdles, n'en paraissaient 
pas moins de fort bonne humeur. 

— G. Sand. 

(d) J'ai voulu ce matin te rapporter des roses ; 
Mais j'en avais tant pris dans mes ceintures 

Que les noeuds trop serr^s n*ont pu les contenir. 

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Les ncBuds ont delate ; les roses envolees, 
Dans le venty k la mer s'en sont tontes allies ; 
Elles ont suivi I'eau pour ne plus revenir. 

La vague en a paru rouge et comme enflamm6e; 
Ce soir ma robe encore en est toute embaumee. 
Hespires-en sur moi Todorant souvenir. 

— Mme. Desbordes-Valmobb. 

Version et Grammaire. 

2. Traduisez en fran^ais : 

The first time we meet the French peasant, is 
about the end of the twelfth century. Who 
can forget the sombre figure that makes rapid 
strides {s'avancer rapidement) across the pretty 
scene of Aucassin and Nicolette ? Aucassin on 
his courser, dreamy and lost in thought, goes 
riding towards the greenwood to find his true 
love Nicolette. At the edge of the forest he 
passes the little herdboys, sitting on their mantles 
on the grass, as they break bread at noon by the 
fountain's edge. These are mere children. It 
is far later, when the sun is sinking, while the 
tears fall down the cheeks of Aucassin at the 
thought of his poor lost love still unfound, that 
he meets the real French peasant. 

3. Traduisez: 

{a) He had cut his finger. 
She looked at him. 
The boy never came. 

We do not doubt that you speak the truth. 
Old men, women, children, all were killed. 

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DECRMBER, 1906. 93 

(b) Construisez quatre phrases montrant le mode 
k employer apr^s las conjonctions suivantes : 
de peur que, aussitSt que^ jusqu^d ce que, aprds 
que, depuis que. 

(c) Donnez tout Timperatif et Timparfait du sub- 
jonctif des verbes — se laver; ne pas courir ; 

(d) Traduisez : 

I saw some children wandering* in the 

In Africa there are many wandering tribe: 
Which countries have you visited ? 
The clothes I gave you to mend. 

4. Traduisez : 

It is past 3 o'clock. Is it? 

'J 'hey do nothing but go in and out. 

Are you going in for the honours examination ? 

Did you call ? Yes, I did. 

Did you not call ? Yes, I did. 

We waited for four hours. 

Has she not put her hat on ? 

5. Traduisez en anglais les mots suivants en italique 

et montrez la difilsrence de signification produite 
par Taccent — • 

Cru and cril, la tache and la tache, jeune 
and le jeHne, mal and male, pecker et pecker 
rdcreer et reorder, reformer et reformer, 
reprouver et rdprouver. 

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pass and honours paper. 

Second Paper. 

Time : One hour and a half. 
The Board of' Hxamtners, 

Candidates must satisfy tlie Examiners in SACK Part 
of tbe Paper. 

6'. — Histoire de la LittSrature and Histoire de Fraaice, 

(Questions 1 and 2 are to be answered in 

1. Dites tr^s bri^vement qui ^taient Montaigne^ 

Villon, Malherhe, Victor Hugo. A quelles 
branches de la litt^rature appartiennent-ils ? 
Citez quelques-uns de leurs ouvrages et donnez 
les faits principaux de la vie de ces auteurs et les 
dates qui s'y rapportent. 

2. Qu'entend-on par Texpression Steele de Louie XIV. 

et en quoi ce sidcle est-il si remarquable au point 
de vue de Phistoire et de la litterature ? 

3. Candidates for Pass should write in French an 

essay of not less than 250 words on one, and 

candidates for Honours on two, of the following 


(a) Ce qu'on en tend par Langue d!oc et Langue 


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DECEMBEBy 1906. 95 

(6) ChaTisoH de Roland et son importance dans 

r^popee frangaise. 
{c) Corneille et la tragedie classique franQaise. 
{d) Traits caracteristiques et principaux 6crivains 

du mouvement romantique au XlXe. Si^cle 

en France. 


First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

C^AdidateB aiiut satisQr the BxamlnerB in SACK 
part of the paper. 

A. — ^Translation. 

Translate into English — 

Auf der ganzen weiten Erde war wohl sonst 
kein anmutigeres Land zu finden als das kleine 
Furstentum, worin sich das alles begab, was ich 
zu erzahlen eben im Begriif stehe. Von einem 
hohen Gebirge umschlossen, ^lich das LMndchen 
mit seinen griinen, duftenden Waldern^ mit 
seinen blumen-besaeten Wiesen, mit seinen 
rauschenden Stromen und lustig platscbernden 
Springquellen, zumal da es gar keine Stadte, 
sondern nur ireundliche Dorfer und bin und 
vtrieder einzeln-stebende Palaste darin gab^ einem 
wunderbar herrlichen Garten, in welchem die 
Bewohner wie zu ihrer Lust wandelten, frei von 
jeder drlickenden Burde des Lebens. Jeder 
wusste, dass Fiirst Demetrius das Land beherr- 
scbe ; niemand merkte indessen das mindeste 

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von der Re^ierung, und alle waren wohl damit 
zufrieden. Personea^ welche die yoUe Freiheit 
in allem ihrem Tun, eine schone Gegend, ein 
mildes Klima liebten, konnten ihren Aufenthalt 

far nicht besser wahlen als in dem kleinen 

2. Translate into English — 

Die Frau trat ans dem Hause, eine saubere 
(neat) Gestalt, gefolgt von einem krauskopfigen 
Knaben, der beim Anblick der Fremden schnell 
seine Finger in den Mund steckte und sich 
hinter der Schiirze der Mutter verbarg. Karl 
fragte nach dem Mann. ''' Er kann Ihren Wagen 
vom Felde sehen, er wird sogleich hier sein," 
sagte die errotende Frau. Sie bat die Herren 
in die Stube zu treten und staubte mit ihrer 
Schurze eilig zwei Holzstuhle ab. Es war ein 
kleines Zimmer, die Wande weiss, die Mobel 
mit roter Farbe angestrichen, aber sauber gewa- 
schen, im Ofen brodelte (simmered) der Kaf- 
feetopf, in der Ecke tickte die Wanduhr, 
und auf einen kleinen Holzgestelle (brcuiket) 
standen zwei gemalte Porzellanfiguren und 
einige Tassen, darunter wohl ein Dutzend Bucher. 
Es war der erste behagliche Raum, den sie auf 
dem 6ute gefunden batten. 

3. Translate into English — 

(a) Das Alter ist ein hoflicher Mann, 
Einmal liber's andre klopft er an^ 
Aber nun sagt Niemancl : " Herein ! " 
Und vor der Tiire will er nicht sein. 
Da klinkt er auf (turns the handle) y tritt ein 

so schnell, 
Und nun heisst'S; er sei ein grober Gesell. 

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DECESfBEK^ 1906. 97 

(6) Aus einer grossen Gesellschaft heraus 
Ging- einst ein stiller Gelehrter zu Haus. 
Man fragte : " Wie seid Ihr zufrieden gewe- 

sen ? " 
*' Waren's Biicher," sagt er, " ich wiird' sie 

nicht lesen." 

B. — Composition and Grammar. 

4. Translate into German — 

One day an English tourist was overtaken by 
a thunderstorm. Perishing with cold he arrived 
at a country-inn, but there were so many people 
there already that he could not get near the nre 
to warm himself. "Take a dish with four 
dozen oysters {Aaster f.), some bread and cheese, 
and a glass of ale to my horse," he said to the 
landlord. " To your horse, Sir ? Do you think 
he would like that ? " ** Do as I tell you and 
you will see." The landlord shakes his head, 
but obeys. Curious to see a horse that eats 
oysters, everybody leaves the room and accom- 
panies him to the stables. In the meantime 
\inzwischen) the traveller chooses the most com- 
fortable seat at the fire. '*Sir," said the 
landlord, returning — ** It is just as I thought 
it would be; your horse will not touch the supper 
you ordered for him." " Very well, then I will 
take it myself," said the guest; '^ give him some 
oats and let me have the oysters." 

6. Give, with the definite article, the genitive singular 
and the nominative plural of — Fiiratentumy Be- 
g'f^ffy Gebirge, Fiirst, Gegend^ Klima, Gestalt, 
Wagen, Mund, Feldy Ofen, Topf^ Uhr, Haum', 

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6. Give the imperative (three forms, corresponding to 

the three forms of address : du, ihr^ Sie) and 
the past participle, of zuschliessen, wisseriy treten, 
sick entfemen, 

7. Translate into German — 

(a) Your house is m%Lch higher than ours. Which 
of you has taken my pencil ? I havenH, I haverCt 
either. Which of the two brothers do you 
prefer ? I don^t like either of them. Everybody 
knows that, 

{h) I am tired of waiting for them. He is leaving 
to-day for Berlin. The sailing of the vessel ha^ 
been postponed. Arriving at the door we found 
it locked, I heard him playing upstairs, 

(c) He opened his book in order to learn his lesson, 
I have looked for him without finding him. We 
might go for a walk,, if it were not raining. The 
farther one travels northward, the colder it gets, 

8. Give the German for — library^ bookcase^ railway 

station, pin, to press, to print, veil, match*box, 
painful, fur, to row, modesty, conceit, pious. 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 99 



pass and honours paper. 

Second Paper. 

Time : One hour and a half. 

The Board of Exammeti. 

Candidates mast satis^ tbe Szaminers in SACK 
part of the paper. 

C— Deutsche Geschichte uni> 

(Questions 1 and 2 are to be answered in English. ) 

1. State briefly what you know of Gustav Freytagj 

Hans Sachs, Wieland, Uhland, 

2. Give a short account, with dates, of— (a) the 

Hohenstaufen ; (6) the ffohenzollem, indicating 
the part these two families have pUyed in 
German history. 

3. Candidates for Honours should write an essay of 

not less than 260 words each on two of the 
following subjects, candidates for a Pass one 
such essay : — 

(a) Der Minnegesang. 

(b) Goethe und Schiller als Freunde. 

(c) " Minna von Barnhelm." 

(<f) Die deutsche Litteratur seit dem Tode Goethes^ 
o 2 




# The Board of Examiners. 


Candidates should torite equations, where possible ^ as 
well as verbal descriptions of chemical reactions. 

1. Describe the process of purification of a soluble 

salt by recrjstallization. Illustrate by reference 
to some particular instance, and shew how tbe 
removal of the impurities may be tested 

2. Shew how the atomic theory, as developed by 

Dal ton and Gay-Lussac, was amplified and cor- 
rected by Avogadro's hypothesis. 

3. What is the averag^e composition of the atmosphere? 

The air of a room of 600 cubic metres capacity 
was found to contain 01 per cent, of carbon 
dioxide by volume; what weight of barium 
hydroxide would be required to absorb this 
amount of carbon dioxide ? 

[Given that H = 1-01, C = 12, Ba = 1374 ; 
Temp. z= 14° C, Bar. = 768 mm.] 

4. Describe the action of hydrochloric acid (in 

aqueous solution) on sodium thiosulphate, man- 
ganese dioxide, silver nitrate, nitric acid and 

o. How is aluminium commercially extracted from its 
ores ? 

6. Describe the manufacture of bleaching powder and 

its more important properties. 

7. What are the chief homologous series of hydro- 

carbons, and how are they related to each other ? 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 101 

The Board of JSxaminen. 

1. Obtain an expression for the time of vibration of a 

conical pendulum in terms of its length, inclina- 
tion, and the acceleration due to gravity. 

Find correct to the nearest millimetre the 
length of the so-called ** Seconds' Pendulum " in 
Melbourne (<7 = 979-9). 

2. State the Laws of Limiting Friction, and define 

Coefficient of Friction. Describe an experi- 
mental method of determining this coefficient, 
and explain why it cannot be deduced from lees 
than two experiments made with the ordinaiy 

3. Give the theory of the Diving Bell. 

The pressure of the air inside an immersed 
cylindrical Diving Bell, 8 feet high, is just great 
enough to keep the water out ; if the bell sink 
30 feet deeper the water rises 3 feet inside it. 
Find the original depth of the belFs mouth. 

4.. Describe the experiments you would make and give 
the Cidculations necessary for determining the 
true coefficient of expansion of alcohol, supposing 
you knew that of mercury. 

5. Describe and give the theory of one method of 
measuring the latent heat of steam, applying all 
necessary corrections. 

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0. Describe the conBtruction of DanielPs hygrometer, 
• and explain fully how you would use it to 
determine the relative humidity of the air. 

7. A horizontal magnet, of pole strength 5 c.g.s. units 

is 60 centimetres long ; find by scale and 
compasses the direction and magnitude of the 
magnetic force at a point 20 centimetres above 
the magnetos north pole. 

8. State the definition of unit quantity of electricity, 

and explain why this particular unit was 

Describe any experimental method of com- 
paring the quantities of electricity on two small 

9. Give a short account of Faraday's experiments on 

electro-magnetic induction. State and explain 
the law deduced from these experiments by 


The Board of Examiners. 

rZVS questions only to be attempted. 

1. What is meant by the term enzym" ? Name the 
enzymes found in the alimenta 7 tract of a 
mammal, and state briefly their actions. 

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DECEMBER^ 1936. 10 

2. What muscular mechanisms are concerned with 

respiration in man ? What conditions may 
brings about increased rate of breathing ? 

3. Describe, with the aid of drawings, the circulatory 

system of a fish. In what respects is the 
circulatory system of a mammal superior to that 
of a fish? 

4. Enumerate the connective tissues of the body, and 

describe one of them with the aid of diagrams. 

5. How would you distinguish between the anterior 

(ventral) and the posterior (dorsal) part of an 
excised portion of mammalian spinal cord ? 

6. In what manner is excretion of urine dependent 

upon changes in blood pressure ? 

The Board of JSxaminers, 

Draw an outline map of Asia ; name and mark on 
it the positions of six of each of the following ; — 
Mountain ranges, rivers, towns, islands. 

A heavy ball is freely suspended by a wire 100 feet 
long from the roof of a building, and is set 

State and explain what is observed if the 
experiment is continuously watched for six 

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3. Explain the principles of Mercator's and of conical 

projection as applied to the construction of maps, 
and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of 

4. Describe the method of government of Canada, its 

principal products, and the trade routes from 
Canada to Melbourne and London respectively. 

5. Describe and account for the appearance of an 

earthquake record from a seismometer, and men- 
tion tne most important causes to which earth- 
quakes are commonly attributed. 

6. Name and describe the modes of origin of the chief 

types of plains. 

7. Account for the importance of the following places: 

— Singapore, Astrakhan, Buda-Pest, Milan, 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. State and prove the remainder theorem. 

Resolve into factors 
a\b^ - (?) + 62(c8 - a^) + c\a^ - ^). 

2. Simplifv 

{a + x) (g + y) 

a{a — h) {a ^ c) 

(b + x){b + y) 

h{b •^c)ib -- a) 

^ (c + a?) (g + y) 

c(c — a) ((?— b) 

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DECEMBER, 1006. 105 

3. Shew that any rational proper fraction AlPQwhere 

Py Q have no common factor can be expressed in 
the form FjP -^ QIQ where P'lP, Q'jQ are 
proper fractions. 

Express a^lQe*' + a:* + 1) as the sum of two 
proper fractions. 

4. Shew how to solve the simultaneous equations 

ax^ + bxy + cy^ z=i dy 

a'a^ + b'xy + cy = d!. 

Find the condition that two of the solutions 
may be identical, and, in that case, state 
explicitly all the solutions. 

5. Shew that a ratio, whose terms are positive, is 
made more nearly equal to unity by adding the 
same quantity to each of its terms. 

In a years a father will be m times as old as 
his son, and a years ago he was n times as old as 
his son. Find their present ages. 

6. If aja' = bjb' = c/c' then each of these ratios 

is equal to 

la + mb + nc 
la! + mb' + nc'* 

(J) -— c)x + ({?-— a)y + (rt — b)z =: 0, 
a(b - c)x^ + b{c — a)y^ + c{a — b")!^ = 0, 
find X : y : z, 

7. Define «"* when m is fractional or negative, and 

for expressious so defined, prove that— 

a"* «** = n"' "^ ". 

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Simplify — 

(yz)''-^* (zxy-^^ (ayV'^"' 

8. Define a logparitbm, and state and prove the rules 

for finding the logarithms of a product^ quotient, 
and power. 

Find the number of digits in 2^'^ having giren 
logi,2 = 0-301030. 

9. State and prove the formula for the number of 

combinations of n different things r at a time. 

In how many ways can 8 crews, each of 8 
men, be chosen from 64 men ? 

10. State and prove the binomial theorem for a 
positive integral exponent. 

If 6,, bif b^y ••..b^ are in arithmetical pro- 
gression, and 

(1 + a)* = a« + a^x +....+a,«*, 

prove that 

tto^o + a\hx + .... + ajbn 

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DECEMBER; 1906. 107 

The Board of Examiners 

1. Describe a circle about a given triang'le. 

An isosceles triangle has its vertical angle 
equal to the exterior angle of an equilateral 
triangle. Prove that the radius of its circum- 
circle is equal to one of the equal sides of the 

2. F is any point on the arc APB. Show that the 

bisector of the angle APB passes through a 
iixed point, and that the bisector of its sup- 
plementary angle passes through another fixed 

3. If a quadrilateral have its opposite angles supple- 

mentary a circle may be described about it. 

Four circles, A^ B, C, D, are such that A 
touches J) and B, B touches J. and C, C touches 
B and B, and B touches C and A. Prove that 
the four points of contact are concyclic. 

4. Tangents OAy OB are drawn from an external 

point to a circle. P^ is any chord through the 
middle point of AB. Show that the line joining 
to the centre bisects the angle POQ- 

6. Define similar polygons, and prove that triangles 
which are equiangular to one another are 

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6. If the exterior vertical angle of a triangle be 

bisected by a straight line which cuts the base, 
the square on the bisector is equal to the 
difference between the rectangle contained by 
the segments of the base and that contained by 
the sides of the triangle. 

7. If a straight line be at right angles to each of two 

straight lines at their point of intersection, it is 
perpendicular to the plane in which they lie. 

AB and BC are two straight lines at right 
angles, and iiP is a straight line at right angles 
to the plane ABC. Prove that if PB be joined 
it will be at right angles to BC, 

8. If any two straight lines be cut by parallel planes 

they are cut proportionally. 

9. In a parabola, prove that — 

{a) If the tangent at P meet the directrix in Zy 
PZ subtends a right angle at the focus. 

(6) The subnormal is constant. 

1. Prove that 


The Board of Examiners, 

cot A -— cosec A + I ^ sin A 

cot A + cosec J. — 1 1 + cos A 

Verify the identity when sin A zz ^y A being 
an acute angle. 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 109 

2. Define the trigonometrical ratios of an angle of any 

magnitude^ and express the sine, cosine, and 
tangent of 180 — ^, 180 + A, and — JL, in 
terms of the trigonometrical ratios of A, 

3. Find an expression for all angles having the same 

tangent as a. 

Solve completely the equation 

tan 6 + cos = sec 6. 

4. Prove the formula for sin (A + B) in terms of 

sines and cosines of A and B, when A and B 
are positive angles, and A + B less than 90°. 

If8in^ = ,^,andcos-B=-7^ , find the values 

of sin {A — B).^ 

5. Shew that 

sin (y — 2) + sin (z -^ x) + sin (a? — y) 

zz — 4 sm ^-^ — sm sm . ^ 

2 2 2 

6. If ^ + ^ + C = 180^, prove that 

cot B + cotC . cot C+cotA 
tan ^ + tan C tan C + tan il 

cot JL + cot -B _ 2 
tan A + tan B 

7. Prove that in any triangle 

sinil flin B 

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Also prove that 

a» sin (jB - C) + ^' sin (C - A) 
+ (^ sin (A -B) = 0. 

8. Shew how to solve a triangle having given two 

sides and the included angle. 

If a = VS + l,b=:2, Czz 30°, solve the 

9. If a z= 19-22, 6 = 23-01,^ = 35° 12', find B and 

C having given 

log 1-922 = 0-28375 

log 2-804 = 0-36247 

Z sin 35° 12' = 9-76076 

Z sin 43° 42' = 9-83940 

diffforr= ■ 13 

10. Shew how to find the height of an inaccessible 


A vertical tower stands on a slope inclined to 
the horizontal at an angle of 15°. At the foot 
of the slope the tower subtends an angle of 15°. 
On walking 200 feet up the slope it is found to 
subtend an angle of 60°. Find the height of the 
tower to the nearest tenth of a foot. 

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BECEMBUR^ 1006. Ill 


The Board of Examiners. 

[^Illustrate your answers with figures wherever possible. 
Five Questions only to be atte^npted,"] 

1. What is meant by a cambium 7 Where do cam- 

biums occur? Describe a typical cambium 

2. Give an account of the life history of a Moss, 

paying special attention to the origin of the 

3. Describe experiments to shew the influence of light 

and darkness upon the growth and shape of 

4. What is meant by geotropic irritability? How 

does the geotropic irritability of a stem differ 
from that of a root, and how would you proceed 
to determine whether an organ was positively 
or negatively geotropic ? 

5. Explain fully how the wood of a Conifer differs from 

that of a Dicotyledon, and explain why the rings 
in the wood do not always give the age of the 
tree exactly. 

6. What are stomata, where do they occur^ and what 

is their structure and function ? 

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pass and honours paper. 

1. Practical Geometry. 

Time allowed : One hour and a half. 

The Board of Examiners, 
Instructions to the Candidate. 

You are to attempt odIv five questions ; one of these 
must be either question No. 7 or No. 9. 

Put the number of the question beside each answer. 

Results must be obtained by construction, and must 
not be result of trial or guessing*. 

All construction lines must be allowed to remain. 

Parallel and perpendicular lines may be drawn by 
means of the straight edge and set square. 

Neat and accurate workmanship is expected. 

H.P. = Horizontal Co-ordinate Plane. 

V.P. = Vertical Co-ordinate Plane. 


A scalene triangle has a base 2" long, a vertical 
angle of 30°, and an altitude of IJ". Construct 
the triangle. — [16 marks.] 

Given three lines AB ^\ CD 3|", and EF2^\ 
Find a fourth line Gff, such that AB : CD : : 
EF : Gff. —[10 marks.] 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 113 

3. A semi-circle and a straig^ht line are given in diagram 

QS. Describe a circle which shall touch the 
semi-circle and the straight line in point A tan- 
gentially. — [20 marks.] 

4. Describe an ellipse, the major axis of which is 3^" 

long and the distance between the foci 2 J". At 
any point in the curve other than the ends of the 
axes draw a normaL 

Use any method in describing the ellipse 
except that of the thread and pins. 

— [20 marks.] 

5. Construct a square equal in area to the quadrilateral 

figure given in diagram Q6. — [15 marks.] 

6. Find graphically the sum of (9 + 3 -h 7 -6 + 2) 

unit = -25". —[10 marks.] 

7. The plan and ele^vation of a cube and square pyra- 

mid are given in diagram Q7, Draw a second 
elevation when the horizontal edges of the solids 
make an gles of 30" with the V.P. 

— [25 marks.] 

8. The side and end elevations of an ordinary building 

brick are given in diagram ^8. 

Make an isometric projection of the brick 
employing the natural scale of ^" to 1'. 

—[30 marks.] 

9. A right cone, axis 3", diameter of base 2", stands 

on the H.P. on its apex, with its axis vertical. 
Draw the plan and elevation of the cone, and 
draw the plan of the section made by a plane 
perpendicular to the V.P., making an angle of 45® 
with the H.P., and containing a diameter of the 
base of the solid. — [85 marks.] 


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pa8s and honours paper. 

2. Drawing in Light and Shade. 

The Board of JSxaminers, 

Time allowed : One hour. 

For this examination select either cast No. 141 or 
Cast No. 136 (or Ed. Dept. casts No. 13 or 16). 

Place on a level with the Candidate's eyes^ and in a 
good light, which should come from the left of the 

Not more than three Candidates should work from 
the same cast. 

Before the examination begins the following 
Instructions must be read to the Candidates : — 

1. You are to make a shaded drawing of the cast in 

front of you, and to a slightly larger scale than 
the cast. 

2. Your drawing may be executed in any medium you 

choose, such as lead pencil, chalk, charcoal, pen 
and ink, or water colour. A complete rendering 
of the cast is not expected, but the chief shades 
and shadows should be shown, and a portion 
should be finished. 

3. One hour is allowed for the work 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 115 


pass and honours paper. 

3. Perspective. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Time allowed : One hour arid a half. 

1. The front and side elevations of a hanging book- 

case are given in the diagram on next page. 

Give the perspective representation of the 
book-case when it hangs flat against a wall , the 
highest point being 6 feet above the ground, 2 ft. 
6 :n. into the picture, and 1 foot to the right of the 
spectator, the vertical surface of the wall vanish- 
ing towards the left at an angle of 45^ with the 

Height of the eye above the ground, 4 feet. 

Distance of the eye in front of the picture, 
6 feet. 

Scale, 1^ inches to 1 foot. 

Dinaensions may be taken directly from the 

2. Height of eye, 5 feet. . 

Distance of eye in front of picture, 10 feet. 

Scale, ^ inch to 1 foot. 

A square sheet of tin of 8 feet sides stands 
upon the ground on one of its edges. The 
plane of the square is perpendicular to the 
ground, and makes an angle of 60° with the 
picture towards the right. The nearest point on 
the ground is 1 foot to the left and 1 foot into 
the picture. 

H 2 

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DBCBMBER; 1906. 117 

Put the sheet of tin into perspective, and show 
the shade on and the shadow cast by it when the 
sun is in the plane of the picture, on the left of 
the spectator, and its rajs make angles of 45^ 
with the ground. 



4. Drawing from Memory. 

Time allowed : Thirty minutes. 

Instructions to the Candidate. 

Fifteen minutes will be allowed for each drawing, 
and both sides of your drawing paper may be used. 

Your drawings must be of fair size — full size, 
where possible — and they should not be over- 

You are to make a drawing in lead pencil, and 
from memory, of two of the following subjects : — 

A wine glass. 

A cup and saucer. 

A cricket bat. 

A mug. 

A book, closed, and lying on its side. 

A cigar box, with the lid raised into a vertica 

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First Paper. 

TJie Board of Examtner$, 

L. Translate, with brief notes upon any points which 
appear to require them — 

(a) AYK. ovKOvv Tpa<l>ivTiav T&vhe Tifnapovt IfjLoi 
Xpp^ctf Xiiriadai t&v Z^hpafiivutv hiKtiv, 
AM. r^ Tov Acoc ficV Zcvc afivvirw fupei 

iraihog' to S* eic t/u', ^HpwcXeiQ, ifiol fiiXet 
Xoyoitrt n)v tov^* afAaSiay vvtp tridev 
helSaC KaKufQ yap tr ovk kariov kXvuv, 
irpioTov fjiep ovy r&ppriTy ev appriToitn yap 
TtfP trrjr vofiiiw ^eiXiav, *Hpair\£€c> 
(Tvp ptaprvtriv Oeolg ^ec ft awaXXa^ai aiBir. 

(6) TOV iTrTrevTav r ^Afiai^ovwv (TTparov 

MaiufTiy d/x^« iroXworafiov 
f/3a ^i' Evfcti'ov ol^fia XlfivaQf 
Tiy OVK a^' *E\XaWac 
ayopov aXiaag ifiiXwVy 
Kopag ^Aptiag iriirXov 
ypvfTeoiJToXov /Jitra, 
^(jjffrfjpoc oXedpiovQ aypag. 

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DECEMBER; 1906. Il9 

^iraprrj^ te OrflSdv 6\ dig avrifinivoi KoKiDQ 
wpvfiyrfffioKTi fMov e\oit Elthaifiova, 
kqX ravra ^povla* fiETafiakovaa S* fi rv^ri 
vvfji<l>ag fXEv vfuv Kfjpac avriliaK £X**''> 
€/iO( Ze ZcLKpva XovTpd' ^vtrrrivog <l>p£r(Miv. 
narijp he varpog evti^ ydfxovc o3c, 
"Aihriv vofii(wv irEpOepoyy Kfjhog iriKpov, 

(d) el he Oeoig ^y ivytfrtg icai vo^ia Kar 6.yhpag, 
hihvfioy av ijl^av eiftEpov 

<l>ayep6y \apaKTiip 

dpETCLQ oaoioiv 

fiiraf KarBarovTEc r 

elg avyiiQ irdXiv dXiov 

hfffTovQ ar c/3av hiavXovg, 

cL hvtyyiyeia 5' iLirXdv av 

€}')(£ iutag fiioTciv, 

Kai T^c* Jjy Tovg n KaKovg av 

yvCJvai Kai TOvg dyadovgy 

\<rov 6t Ev v€<l>EXai(Tiy &- 

(rrpwv vavraig dptOfiog iriXei, 

(e) 6 5' EEeXi*r<T(ov naJha Kiorog KVKXt^f 
TOpvEVfxa ^Etvov nohocy EvavTiov (rraOEig 
fiaXXei irpog ^trap' vimog ^e Xaivovg 
opOoffTaTag E^EViTEV EKirviwy fiiov. 

2. Describe a (ir«ek sacrifice (with the Greek terms). 

3. Give an exact ezpla nation of the appearance of a 

for Attic rj in dramatic lyrics. 

4. Scan the first three lines of the first passage 1 (a). 

6. Comment on — 
(a) The. forms — c/Bai^, ayu)')(de, oraSco^/oa^ov/iai : 

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(6) The grammar of— ro xpfjy viv eiitr^iev — tov 
\ptitv fUra-^^eyKapTtpiitru Oavaroy — ti^clq 5' c^w 
TatFl\ oitK ayauBrivai tpikoiQ^—iihri h* ktrfjXBi fi,ei 
vapairrfeaifuda <^vyac I 

(e) The meaning of — Trpoarpovawv al/ia — KvKXojviav 
voXiv — "Ai^ov l3aK\0Q — v7roypa<l>€iv. 

6. Ti anslata verbatim, with any comment — 

(a) o 'xp^ yap ovheiQ firi xpetjy Qiitru itotL 

(h) varrip Sc riv 

diyutv KparaiaQ X€ip6^ kvvivti ra^e, 

7. Translate, with notes as above — 

(a) rove ^k XoyovQ fiwcpOTipovq oh vapa to eidtSoc 
jjiriKvvovfAEV, dXX* BTrixtitpioy oy 4/lc7i', o5 fuv 
/3paY€Tc apKunri fAtj ttoXXoIc xpfjtrdai, irXeioffi Be 
iy ^ ay Kaipoe p Bi^dtrKoyrag ri rCjy irpovpyov 
X6yoiQ TO liov Trpdtrtruy, 

(b) yofiH^ofxiy Tt tclq fieydXac t^dpag fidXiar av 
BiaXvetrdai /Bc/^a/iiic, ohK tjy ayTafivyofxeyog tiq koi 
EiriKpaTiiaaQ tcl nXiw tov noXifioy Kar aydyKtiy 
opKOLQ kyKaTaXafifidytay fit) utto tov Itrov ^vfipy, 
aXV i/y Trapoy to avTO Bpdaai irpoQ to eTuiKeg 
k'al dpETi avToy yiK^iffag irapd d irpo(Te^i\iTO 
/jieTpiwc IvyaXXayrj. 

(c) Kai TO fJLEy wpog Tovg ^Adrjvaiovg TOtrovrov 
dyadoy ev (^ovXevo/Jiiroig EvplaKETaC Tt)y ^e viro 
7ruyTU)v OfJioXoyovfiEyriy dpiaroy Eiyai Elprjyrjy wwg 
00 xpfj ^'a^ '*' ^ifJ'ly avTolg TronjaatrQai ; Jj hoicElrt, 
(L rw Ti EffTiy dy adov y €i r^ rd kyayTia, ovv 
*ll(Tv\ia fJidXXoy f/ noXEfxoQ to fXEy Ttavtrai ay 
EKaTEpi^y TO Be ^vyBiaautrraiy teal Tag Tiudg icai 
Xaf.nrp6TrjTag dKiyovvoTEpag EXEiy Trjy ^Ipnvnr^Jiw 
TE oaa Ey fjirfKEt Xoywy ay Tig occAao^ ^ , 
TOV TToXefiely ; ^^ '■^iL ^ 

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DECEHBER, 1906. 121 

(id) icai &fjia TUfy EiXurttty liovXofiiyoic ^y iwl vpo^dtTE 
iKvifjL\paif fxij n irpog ra trapoyra r^c IIvXov i\0' 
fJieyriQ veioTtpiffuftny iirn Kal roBe eTrpa^ay <^o(iov' 
fityoi avrHy rrlv vtorrfra Kal to ttXtjOoq' — atl yap 
TO. iroXXa AaK€^ai fiovioiQ npoQ tovq EiXwrac r^c 
^vXaiC^C irept fiaXurra Kadei<rrffK€i — vpoeiiroy avrCJy 
otroi a^iovtriy kv toIq iroXefJiioic yeyevijaBai inpiviv 
aptffTOif Kpiyetrddi, utg iXevdepuftroyTtCf ireJpay ttoiov- 
fxeyoi Kal fiyovfievoi tovtovq ai^itFiy vvo i^poyrifiaTOQf 
oiirep Kal ij^iburay vpStrog cicaoroc iXivQepovfrdaiy 
fiaXifrra ay Kal liriOitrdaC 

(e) &<TT£ 3^iy afjuporipoie /Jtiy hoKovy avax^^pcTv ^ca 
TO ^ioQ avTwy oyTwy aydputvwy iia^ifiwy, KvpatOey ^e 
ovhey €K TTJQ ^tafpopag birqvLKa XP*) opfiaffSaif 
vvKTOc T€ iir ly iyofiiyriCf oi //cv MaKeioyeg Kal to 
nXfiOoQ Tu>y j^ap^aptiiy evdve <l>ofir)QiyTeQ, otrep 
<piXu fjieyaXa (rrpaTOvela, haa^Stq eKirXiiyyvtrSaif 
Kal yofjiffavTeg woXXarrXaaiovg fxey t/ JjXdoy eiriiyaiy 
Offov ie oviru) Trapeiyai, KaraaTayTcg eg ai^yi^iov 
<l>vyffy i^wpovy iv o*ikov. 

8. What view do you take of the actuality of the 

speeches in Thucydides ? 

9. What indications do you discover of the sense of 

justice or honour possessed by the Athenians 
and Spartans respectively ? 

10. Draw a rough outline map, and place upon it — 

Pallene, Plataea, Cythera, Nisaea, Leucas, Cam- 
arina, Sphacteria, Rhegium, Tegea, Cenchrea, 
TJiebes, Amphipolis. 

11. Explain — Ta^iap\oi — STrajoredrai, AaKidaifxoyioif 

neploiKOi — ')^olyiif kotvXi] — ol daXdfiioi — nepiTroXoi 
• — Orjlialoi Kal oi Ivfifiopoi — 'Aica/iavrtc i'TpvTd' 
yiveyj '^iKidhrig circorarct — tov Kia^ufyog Trapeye^'- 

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12. Comment briefly on the grammar of — ^t;\a<ro'o- 

fiit*ovg T&v reur — ^latpOeipovtrit* ahrovQ XaOoyreg T^y 
airoi^aaiv — rag Xilpag avivtitraVy IriKovvrtg vpo- 
tritaOai ra Kekyfpvyfiiya — ^elScn Srtf Stv fuv iiftUvraij 
wpog rove afivyofjiivovc ^Triovreg icratrdwtrav — Kara 
vu)Tov ati tfieWov avrolg ^ ^lapiiaeiav ol voXifuoi 
eaetrdai — irpotriipxoyTO wc aOXrfry, 

13. Translate, with notes as above — 

{(l) Karday* ofAutQ o t* arv/i/Boc avyjp og t e\\a\e 

€v ^c ip Tifxy^lpog Kpeiufv t 'Aya^i/ivwv' 
OepalTTi h* Jffog Oiri^og walg tivko/jioio, 
navreg ?' eltriy ofidg vcicvwv a/ie vi^va i:a/aiyva, 
yvfivoi T€ ^ripoi re kut a(r<po^i\6y Xeifi&ya, 

{b) 20K. vol ^€ ri, ^EfiweioKKeig, ^ojcel ; 

£Mn. eg Tovg Kparijpag efxiretreiy avroyy wc 
fiady fiil XoidopetoBai Toig Kpelrrotn. 

IIAAT. Kal fit)v apitrroy Jjy KaHavip tivcl 
Heydia ij ^Op(^ia 

XaKierroy ky irirpaitriv evpitrSai fiopov, 
tv' ay Kal to fJiipog ahrov sKairrog exuy awi;X- 
Xarrtro Kal — 

AOYK. fxrjdafibjg' dWa irpog iKeatov (jteitratrOi 


2AK. apapey' ovk ay a^iQdrig tri. 

(c) ITAAT. TovT cKtlyOy eg vihiov roy "iTciroyy itg 
napaKpovau/jievog TOvg ^iKatrrag anEXOrig' ^acrt 
yovy piiTopd tre Kal BiKayiKoy rira el vat irat Travov- 
pyoy iy roJg Xoyoig, riVa de Kal hiKatrrffy IdiXeig 
yeyltrOai, oyriya firj (rv ^wpoloKrirrag, ola voXXa 
TTOicTrc, 6,^iKa 'Treiaug virep trov v//»7^tora<r0ac; 

AOYK. OappEiTE rovTOv ye tyiKa' ovZiva toiovtov 
BiaiTTfTrly viroirroy y a}i<pij^oXov aEiuKTaifj.^ ay yeyiff- 
Oat Kal OffTig airoBunnrai fioi rijy v//»]^ov. 

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DKCEMBER^ 1906. 123 

(d) AlOr. Kai avTOQy i (piXotrofiaj iravv evaivii 
Tov av^pa Kai ayariSefiai to. KarrfyopoviJteya Kai 
ipiXoy iroiovfiat avTov ytvvaioy ovTa. 

OIA. ev ye, & Ila/apiyffid^iy' d^cc/icV ai Tijg 
ahlaQf Kai rate natraig Kpareig Kai to Xoiiroy 'itrdi 
^fjLETepog &y. 

IIAPP. npotreKvyritTa rfiy ye. Ttpitrriy' fiaWoy 
}>t TpayiK(jJT€poy avTO ttoi^cciv fioi ^okQ' (refiyoTepoy 

14. Give a very succinct account of Lucian, his Greek, 

and his models. 

15. Explain — 6 nX^yrfg AiaKog — Ij irpodtvula — atia" 

<l>opoy 6 irXovTOQ — (toi yap to yvy pel — jrepi^eivyoy. 

16. To what sects did the following belong — Chry- 

sippus, Diogenes, Epicurus ? State their chief 


First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

, Translate, with notes : — 

(a) EgOy si quis de pace consulet seu deferenda 
hostibus seu accipienda, habeo, quid sententiae 
dicam ; si de iis, quae Mago postnlat, refertis, 
nee victoribus mitti attinere puto, et frusiran- 
tibus nos falsa atque inani spe luulto minus 
censeo mittenda esse. 

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(b) £t de trecentis equitibus Campanis, qui in 
Sicilia cum fide stipendiis emeiitis Homam 
venerant, latum ad populum^ ut cifes Romani 
essent ; item uc muoicipes Cumani assent pridie, 
Quam populus Campanus a populo Romano 

(e) Nee te nee exercitum tuum norim, nisi, a qno 
tot acies Romanas fusas stratasque esse sciam, 
ei facile esse ducam opprimere populatores 
nostros vagos sine signis palates, quo quemque 
trahit quamvis vana praedae spes. 

(d) Siciliam ac Sardiniam, quae ante bellum vec- 
tigales fuissent, vix praesides provinciarum 
exercitus alere ; tribute sumptus suppeditari ; 
[euro] ipsum tributum conferentium numerum 
tantis exercituum stragibus et ad Trasumennum 
lacum et ad Cannas imminutum ; qui superessent 
pauci, si multiplici gravarentur stipendio, alia 
perituros peste. Itaque nisi fide staret res 
publica, opibus non staturam. Prodeundum in 
contionem Fulvio pi aetori esse, indicandas populo 
publicas necessitates cohortandosque, qui re- 
dempturis auxisseut patrimonia, ut rei publicae, 
ex qua crevissent, tempus commedarent, c6n- 
ducerentque ea lege praebenda, quae ad exercitum 
Ilispaniensem opus essent, ut quum pecunia in 
aemrio esset, iis primis selveretur. 

( 6 ) An vero obliti estis, iudices, recenti illo nuntio 
Decis Clodianae, non mode inimicorum Milonis 
sermones e.t opiniones sed non nuUorum etiam 
imperitorum ? negabant eum Romam esse redi- 
turum. Sive enim illud animo irate ac percito 
fecisset ut incensus odio trucidaret inimicum. 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 125 

arbitrabantur eum tanti mortem P. Clodii putassse 
ut aequo animo patria careret, quum sang-uine 
iDimici explesset odium suum : sive etium illius 
morte patriam liberare voluisset, non dubitaturum 
fortem virum quin, quum suo periculo salutem 
populo Romano attnlisset, cederet aequo animo 
leg^ibus, secum auferret (^loriam sempiternam, 
nobis haec fruenda relinqueret quae ipse servasset. 

(t) Neg-at enim ne^at ingratis civibus fecisse se 
quae fecerit ; tiraidis et omnia circumspicientibus 
pericula non neg^at. Plebem et infimam multi- 
tudinem quae P. Clodio duce fortunis vestris 
imminebat, eam, quo tutior esset vestra vita, se 
fecisse commemorat ut non modo virtnte flecteret, 
sed etiam tribus suis patrimoniis deleniret ; nee 
timet ne, quum plebem muneribus placarit,vo8non 
conciliarit meritis in rem publicam singularibus. 
Senatus erga se benevolentiam temporibus his 
ipsis saepe esse perspectam ; vestras vero et 
vestrorum ordinumoccursationes studia sermones, 
quemcumque cursum fortuna dedeiit, secum se 
ablaturum esse dicit. 

(g) desierat lanus. nee longa silentia feci, 

sed tetigi verbis ultima verba meis : 
** quid volt palma sibi rugosaque carica," dixi 

** et data sub niveo condita mella cado ?" 
" omen " ait "causa est, ut res sapor ille sequatur, 

et peragat coeptum dulcis ut annus iter." 
" dulcia cur dentur, video, stipis adice causam, 

pars mihi de festo ne labet ulla tuo." 
risit, et ** quam te fallunt tua saecula," dixit 

*^ qui stipe mel sumpta dulcius esse putes ! 
vix ego Saturno quemquam regnante videbam, 

cuius non animo dulcia lucra forent.'' 

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(A) hac [arte] te merentem, Bacche pater, tuae 
vexere tigres indocili ia<rum 
collo trahentes ; bac Quirinus 
Martis equis Acheron ta fugit, 
gratum elocuta consiliantibus 
luDODe divis : Iliou, Ilion 
fatalis incestusque iudex 
et mulier pereg-rina vertit 
in pulverem, ex quo destituit deos 
mercede pacta Laomedon, mihi 
castaeque damnatum Minervae 
cum popuio et duce fraudulento. 
(i) hie dies anno redeunte festun 

corticem ads trie turn pice dimovebit 
amphorae fumum bibere institutae 

sume, Maecenas, cyathos amici 
sospitis centum et vi smiles lucernas 
perier in lucem : procul omnis esto 
clamor et ira. 
(j) rumpat et serpens iter institutum, 
si per obliquum similis sagittae 
terruit mannos : ego cui timebo 

providus auspex, 
antequam stantes repetat paludes 
imbrium divina avis imminentum, 
oscinem corvum prece suscitabo 
solis ab ortu. 

2. Show how the last stanzas in (h) and (t) of the 

previous question scan. What are those metres 
called ? 

3. Translate, with short grammatical notes — 

(a) Colligor ex ipso dominae placuisse sepulchro; 
ora fuere mihi plus ave docta loqui. 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 12? 

(h) Nee Maaris animum mitior ang^uibus. 

(c) Catus idem per apertum fugientes ao^itato 

grege cervos iaculari. 

(d) Segetis certa fides meae 
fiilgentem imperio fertilis Africae 

fallit sorte beatior. 

(e) Cum famulis operum solutis. 

(y ) Ibit insignem repetens Nearchum, 
grande certamen, tibi praeda cedat 
maior an illi. 

(g) Uxor invicti lovis esse nescis. 

4. Translate explaining allusions — 

(a) Poma negat regio, nee haberet Acontius, in quo 
seriberet hie dominae verba legenda suae. 

(6) Eque viris quondam pars tribus una fui. 

Curia restabat; clavi mensura eoacta est. 

(e) Esset perpetuo sua quam vita bills Ascra, 
ansa est agrieolae Musa docere senis. 

5. Explain — bigati, sub pellibus haberi, *' minime sis 

eantherium in fossam/' desultor, obire facinoris 
loeum tempusque, multam inrogare, antestari, de 
tenero ungui. 

6. How does Livy diiFer from Cicero in the use of (a) 

the subjunetive mood, (b) the aceusative case ? 

7. Give some account of the career of Clodius with 

special reference to his relations with Cicero and 

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8. '^Corvino iubente promere lan^idiora vina." 

Who was this Corvinus thus referred to by 
Horace ? In what way was he connected with 

9. Who were Pacuvius Calavius, Decius Magius, 

Q. Fabius Pictor, L. Bantius, M. Fabius Buteo, 
Hampsicora ? 


Second Paper. 

The Board of' Examiners. 

1. Translate, with brief notes in the margin when 
you think them required — 

{(l) olffd* OT €<Tirov^ai^ee ip^eiy Aavdt^atQ irpoc^lXioy, 
wc TaireiyoQ ^aOa vaarig ^e^lcLq irpotrQiyyayiav , 
Kat Svpag c^wv cucXptrTOvg t^ OiXoyri drifjiorufyy 
Kai hi^ovQ TpotTprjtnv f^fjg tglo'i, kcI jJiii Tig OiXoiy 
Toig TpOTTOig 'CriTwy irpLaaQai to fiXoTifwy ek fiitrov' 
Kqr CTTCt Karia^tg ap^ag, /JLeTafiaXuty aXXovg 

Toig iplXoiffiv ovkIt Jitrda Toig vpiy tag irpotrOev 

hvtnrpoaiTogy etruf te KX^Spufy arrdytog, &y^pa 3* 

oh ^peiijy 
Toy dyaSby irpdfftroyTa fieydXa Tovg rpoirovg 

dX\a Kal (Mj^ioy clvai rore fidXitrra Tolg ^iXoigy 
rjyiK iixpeXeiy fioXiara dvyaTog itrriy tvTv\Cjy. 

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DKCKMBKR, 1906. 129 

{b) Kai yap avrr} fj \i6oc oh fxovov tovq ^aKTvXiovg 
ayti rovt; (TihripovQ^ aWd Kai ^vra/Aiv evTiOrjfri TOig 
daKTvXioiQf &tTT av luvacriiai ravroy rovro voielr, 
OTrep ^ \idog, aWovg ay eiy ^aicrvXiovg, &(tt kvioTt 
opfiadog TTavv fiaKpoQ ^aKTvXtLjy cf aXX^Xb^v {jprriTaC 
natri Ce TOVTOig il eKeirrfQ rfjg Xidov ?/ ^vyafiig 
ayfipTYfTai, ovtu) ^e Kal >/ Movca IvBiovg fxey voul, 
dia ^£ rQy eyOiioy rovrtoy aXXtoy kvdovtTia'CoyTiav 
opiiaOog ktapTCLTni, irayrtg yap tn te rdy evuy 
voirjTal 01 ayaOol ovk £k re^*''?? aXX' tyOeoi oyreg 
irayra ravra to. KaXa Xeyovai ironj/uiaTay kai uKnrep oc 
Kopvj^avrt&yTig ovk ijJLffipoyEg oyrtg 6p\ovyTai, ovtw 
ical oi fieXoTTOioi ovt: efii^poyeg oyreg ra KaXa fiiXri 
ravTa Troiovtriy, aXX' eireicay efAfiuftriy eig Ti)y 
apfjioyiay icat tie foy pyd^iov, /3aK*xfvoi;fft, Ka\ dKrirtp 
a I jSoLKxai apvrovrai ik tCjv Trorafjiwy fxiXi Kal yaXa 
fjiaiyo/ieyai, efitppoyeg Be ovtrai ov, rujy jmeXoiroiLJy 
ff ;//v)(»/ TovTO epya^eTai, oircp avroi Xiyovdi. 

2. Translate into Greek — 

Do you remember that famous Grecian, wh . 
was so far mad that he would sit by himsei 
whole days in the theatre laughing" and 
clapping hi.<) hands, as if he had seen some 
tragedy acting, whereas in truth there was 
nothing presented ; yet in other things a man 
reasonable enough, and so good a master to 
his servants, that if they had broken the seal 
of his most precious wine he would not have 
run mad for it ? But at last, when by the 
care of his friends and by physic he was freed 
from his distemper and become his own man 
again, he thus expostulated with them. " Now, 
by Pollux, my friends, I am in a miserable con- 
dition, thanks to you. You have rather killed 
than saved me in thus forcing me from my 

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pleasure." And, indeed, I think they were 
the madder of |the two that thought fit to look 
upon so pleasant a madness as an evil which 
must he got rid of hj physic. In my judgment 
every man is the more happy in proportion as 
he is the more mad. See, therefore, that no one 
cures you under the delusion that he is doing 
you a service. 

3. Write very succinct accounts of the following 

matters, giving chief dates and facts — 

(a) The political actions of Solon. 

{h) The confederacy of Delos. 

({?) Events connected with Naupactus, Chaero- 
nea, Artemisium, Deceleia, Arginusae. 

{d) The functions of Bould and Ecclesia. 

4. Comment on the syntax in — 

(i) epafjiai olov aov ay^pog, 

(ii) oh yiyovev, ov^e fi^ yivrirau 

(iii) dXXa /xj) oh rovro xaXeTroy f,, 

(iv) oXiyov ZeJv cmiQavt. 

(v) airij\i(Tav avrbv to kirX <T(l>dQ eJyai. 

5. Turn into the normal Attic passive form — 

airsKTovatriy ahrov — KUKug fit Xiyei — e^c/SaXey 
avTOv £K rijg iroXnog — redfiKafxev tov vofioy. 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 131 


Secoisid Paper. 
The Board of Examiners. 

1 . Translate into Latin — 

But before he would assemble them in arms, 
or urge them to any attempt which, if unfortu- 
nate, might in their present despondency prove 
fatal, he resolved to inspect himself the situation 
of the enemy, and to judge of the probability of 
success. For this purpose he entered their camp 
under the disguise of a harper and passed un- 
suspected through every quarter. He so enter- 
tained them with his music and facetious 
humours, that he met with a welcome rece])tion 
and was even introduced to the tentof Guthrum, 
their prince, where he remained some days. He 
remarked the supine security of the Danes, their 
contempt of the English, their negligence in 
foraging and plundering, and their dissolute 
wasting of what they gained by rapine and 
violence. Encouraged by these favourable 
appearances, he secretly sent emissaries to the 
most considerable of his subjects, and summoned 
them to a rendezvous, attended by their warlike 
followers, at Biixtoo. The English, who had 
hoped to put an end to their calamities by 
servile submission, now found the insolence and 
rapine of the conqueror more intolerable than 
all past fatigues and dangers ; and at the 
appointed day they joyfully resorted to their 

1 2 

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2. Translate— 

,Haec efiatu.s equum in medios, moriturus et ipse^ 
concitat et Venule adversum se turbidus infert, 
derepturcqueab equo dextra complectiturhostem 
et gTemiurn ante suum multa vi concitus aufert. 
Tollitur in caelum clamor, cunctique Latini 
convertere oculos. Volat igneus aequore Tarchon 
arma virumque ferens ; turn summa ipsius ab 

def'ringit ferrum et partes rimatur apertas, 
qua vulnus letale ferat ; contra ille repuo^nans 
sustinet a iugulo dextram et vim viribus exit. 
TJtque volans alte raptum cum fulva draconem 
fert aquila implicuitque pedes atque unguibus 

saucius at serpens sinuosa volumina versat 
arrectisque horret squamis et sibilat ore, 
arduus insurgens ; ilia baud minus urget 

luctantem rostro, simul aeibera verberat alis : 
baud a liter praedam Tiburtum ex ag'mine 

portat ovans. 

3. Translate— 

Tribuni reclamantibus consulibus refecti* 
Patres quoque, ne quid cederent plebi, et ipsi L. 
Quinctium consulem reficiebant. Nulla toto 
anno vehementior actio con sulis fuit. '^ Mirer" 
inquit, '* si vana vestra, patres conscripti, 
auctoritas ad plebem est? Vos elevatis eam; 
quippe, quia plebs senatus consultum continu- 
andis mag^istratibus solvit, ipsi quoque solutum 
vultis, ne temeritati multitudinis cedatis, tan- 
quam id sit plus posse in civitate^ plus leritatit 

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D£CBMBER, 1906. 133 

ac licentiae habere. Levius enim vaniusque 
profiecto est sua decreta et consulta tollere quam 
aliorum. ImitamiDi, patres conscripti, turbam 
inconsultam, et, qui exemplo aliis esse debetis, 
aliorum exemplo peccate potius, quam alii vestro 
recta faciant, dum ego ne imiter tribunos nee me 
contra senatus consultum consulem renuntiari 
patiar. Te vero^ C. Claudi, adhortor, ut et ipse 
populum Romanum hac licentia arceas et de me 
hoc tibi persuadeaS; me ita accepturum, ut non 
honorem meum a te impeditum, sed gloriam 
spreti honoris auctam invidiamque, quae ex 
continuato eo impenderet, levatam putem." 

4. Show in tabular form the names and dates of the 
wars in which Rome was engaged — {a) between 
350 and 260 b.c; (6) between 200 and 160. 

6, Give some account of the two Triumvirates. 

6. Construct and translate sentences illustrating 
the use of baud scio an. prae (owing to), erga^ 
abhinc, quis (any one), quisquam, ecquis, quin 
with the Indicative, and distinguish between 
dum with the Present Indicative and dum with 
the Imperfect Indicative. 

Second Paper 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Dpscribe the fouh chief " Cycles of Romance." 
At what period were they popular in England ? 

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2. By what Italian writers was Chancer influenced ? 

Mention the names of some of his poems written 
during his ** Italian Period." 

3. Describe ihe Elizabethan theatre. 

4. Explain the following- terms : — (a) blank verse f 

(b) sonnet; (c) Spenserian stanza. 

5. Give a concise account of one work by each of the 

following: — Marlowe, Lyly, Dryden, Hume, 
Cowper, Shelley. Give in each case the (approxi- 
mate) date of publication. 

6. P]xplain Trench's statement that '* Wamba, the 

Saxon jester in Ivanhoe, plays the philologer." 

7. Give an account, in your own words, of the first 

day's proceedings at the Passage of Arms at 

8. Compare the lives and characters of Rowena and 


9. Explain the following words as used by Tenny- 

son : — Tinct, scaur, boon, rathe, tarriance, dole, 

10. Who is referred to in each of the following 

passages ? — 
(a) . . . an old, dumb, myriad-wrinkled man. 
(^) . . . I never saw his like: there lives 

No greater leader, 
(c) A moral child without the craft to rule. 
{d) ... A good knight, but therewithal 
Sir Modred's brother, and the child of Lot, 
Nor often loyal to his word. 

11. What was the chief addition made by Tennyson to 

the story of Elaine as told by Malory ? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

DECEMBER^ 1936. 135 

The Board of Examiners, 

1. Give an account of each of the following : — The 

Danelagh ; The Salisbury Gemot ; The Grand 
Remonstrance; The Humble Petition and 
Advice; The Seven Men of Moidart; The Holy 

2. Show the importance of the English wool trade in 

the Middle Ages. 

3. Trace the influence ot **The New Learning" in 

England to the close of the reign of Henry the 

4. What were the aims of the ecclesiastical policy ot 

Elizabeth ? What was her attitude towards the 
toleration of differences in religion ? 

5. Trace the leading causes of the downfall of the 

House of Stuart. 

6. Show the importance of each of the following 

battles : — Camperdown ; Cape St. Vincent ; 
Navarino; The Nile; Quebec; Wandewash. 

7. Trace the history of legislation regarding tha 

Grown lands of any one of the Australian 

8. Give an account of the public career of Benjamin 


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First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners. 

Candidftttts must satisfy the •xaminers in BACK^part 
of th% paper. 



1. Traduisez en anglais idiomatique : 

(a) Boileau a dit que : " Le frangais, ne malin, 
cr6a le vaudeville." Cette malice per^ait d^j^ 
dans hs fabliaux qui eurent tant de vogue en 
France, durant tout le Xllle Si^cle. 

Les fabliaux ou romans se distinguent dej^ 
par des qualit^s toutes fran Raises; le bon sens, 
la saillie, la mecbancete naive, la bonhomie 
mordante. D^s cette epoque recul6e, la nation 
pr^sente une alliance de qualites ou de d^fauts 
qui sembleraient devoir s'exclure : une raison 
eclairee, un coeur crojant, un esprit sceptique. 
Bien des leg^ret6s — comme on les appelle — si 
souvent reproch^es au peuple frangais, tiennent 
a cette reunion ancienne de contrastes qui 
etonnent, mais qui plaisent, et qui n'ont point 
et^ sans exercer une heureuse influence sur le 
developpement de I'histoire. — BARRi:R£. 

(b) 11 fallut que le maire, la commune de Paris, 
pousses, forces par I'exemple et les pri^res des 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

DECEMBER; 1906. 137 

autres villes, vinssent demander k TAssemblee 
une federation gen^rale. II fallut que I'Assembl^e, 
bon gT6, mal gi-6 Taccord^t. On fit ce qu'on 
put du moins pour reduire le nombre de ceux 
qui voulaient venir. La chose fut decid6e fort 
tard, de sorte que ceux qui venaient a pied des 
extr^nait^s du royaume n'avaient gudre mojen 
d'arriver k temps. La deppnse fut k la charge 
des localit^s, obstacle peut-^tre insurmontable 
pour les pays plus pauvres. 

Mais, dans un si grand mouvement, y avait-il 
des obstacles? On se cotisa, comme on put; 
comme on put; on habilla ceux qui faisaient le 
voyage ; plusieurs vinrent sans uniformes, 
L'hospitalite fut immense, admirable, sur toute 
la route ; on arr^tait, on se disputait les p^lerins 
de la grande fi^te. On les forgait de faire halte^ 
de loger, manger, tout au moins boire au 
passage. Point d'etranger, point d'inconnu : 
tons parents. Gardes nationaux, soldats, 
marins; tons allaient ensemble. Ces bandes 
qui traversaient les villages oifraient un touch ant 
spectacle. C'etaient les plus anciens de Tarm^e, 
de la marine qu'on appelait k Paris. Pauvres 
soldats tout courbes de la guerre de sept ans, 
sous-officiers en cheveux blancs, braves o£Bciers 
de fortune, qui avaient perc6 le granit avec leur 
iiront, vieux pilotes us^s k la mer, toutes ces 
mines vivantes de I'ancien regime, avaient voula 
pourtant venir; C'etait leur jour, c'etait leur 
f^te. On vit au 14 juillet des marins de 
quatre-vingts ans qui march^rent douze heures 
de suite ; ils avaient retrouv^ leurs forces, ils se 
sentaient, au moment de la mort, participer k la 
jeunesse de la France, k Teternite de la patrie. 


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(c) D'oti viens-tu ? — Du pays de misdre et de 

Qu*as-tu fait ? — J'ai peche : je me sens avili. 
Oil vas-tu ? — Je p^ravis le sen tier qui remonte. 
Que veux-tu ? — Du travail. Qu'esp^res-tu ? — 

Crois-tu qu'il est un Dieu, pauvre ^me encore 

obscure ? 
Que ta bont^ le prouve et j'y croirai demain. 
Crois-tu que le rearet peut laver la souillure ? 
Je n'en douterai plus si tu me tends la main. 

— E. Manuel. 


Version et Grammaire. 

2. Traduisez en frangais : 

(a) But all this was sixty years Ago, Nowadays 
the children are supposed to go, at least some- 
times and when possible, to the nearest village 
school (for education is compulsory in France); 
the young men are obliged to serve their 
time in the regiment ; the girls enter domestic 
service. And so difficult is it to find recruits for 
the woodman's free but rough and lonely life, 
that the lack of woodcutters is becoming a gi'ave 
question among foresters in France. 

When March is well out, and the trees are 
felled, when the wood is piled in stacks, the 
woodman consults the sky, and, on the first 
mild and growing morning, he begins to bark 
(ecorcer) his oaks or at least such of them as 
are devoted to that tragic end. It is a nice and 
delicate business, which must be undertaken 
before the leaves are ffreen. 

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DECEMBER; 1906. 139 

(6) The Nile was deified by the old inhabitants. 
It was a g>od to the mass, and at least one of the 
manifestations of deity to the priestly (des pretres) 
class. As it was the immediate cause of all 
they had, and all they hoped for, it was to 
them the good power, and the desert was the 
evil one. 

3. Montrez au moyen d'exemples la proposition que 

Ton doit employer apr^s chacun des verbes 
suivants ; s'approcher, punir, jouer^ triompher, 
ressemhlei*, succ^der, manquer, se moquer, 

4. Donnez d'autres noms lies par F^tymologie aux 

noms suivants: le poirier, Is cerisier, la banane^ 
hi pSche, le fruit, le prunier, Ui carnpagne^ le 
village^ le paySy le rai. 

5. Traduisez: 

Less rich than formerly; the least details; 
prouder than ever ; all men are equal before the 
law; they cast a glance at each other; they do not 
agree ; do not trust her ; look at that large dog, 
it is his. 

6. Corrigez les phrases suivantes et expliquez bri^ve- 

ment vos corrections : 
L'assemblee, etant reuni, commenc^rent leurs 


L'assemblee finie, chacun rentr^rent chez eux. 

II ne croit pas Phistoire qu'on viennent de 

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7. Compl^tez les phrases suiyantes, en mettant en 

frangais et dans leurs propres modes ou temps, 
les verbes anglais suivants en italique : 

J*ai peur qu' to rain, 
II I'a fait pour que vous to he happy, 
Nous attendrons jusqu'a ce que tu to c^me. 
Lorsqu '11 to arrive, nous nous to sit down to 

8. Traduisez: 

The next meeting will take place next day in 
the next village. 

Here is a nice child, who lives in a nice house, 
and who has taste for nice things. 

According to the order of departure, they 
started in good order and in good time. 


First Paper. 

The Board of Examiners, 

Candidates mnst satisfy tli* Examiners in BACK part of 
the Paper. 

A. — Translation. 

1. Translate into English — 

Mein Grossvater hat mir ofters erzahlt : 
sie waren nur ein kleiner Haufen Leute, 
kaum hundert an der Zahl ; er selhst ein 
Junge Yon funfzehn Jahren. Sechs Tage seien 

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sie herumgezog-en, kreuz und quer, bis sich von 
fern auf einem blanken klaren See etwas 
Dunkles g^ezeiget, recht wie ein steinernes 
Wundergewachs anzusehen. Als aber einig-e 
von ihnen auf der schmalen Landzunge vordran- 
gen, die dort wie eine Briicke hiniiberfiihrt iiber 
den See, da war es eine ganze Stadt mit gewal- 
tigen Mauern, Zinnen und Tiirmen Da er- 
scbraken sie anfangs und meinten man kame libel 
an ; sie lagen auch die ganze Nacht, wo es in 
einen) fort regnete, unter den Felsen vor den 
Mauern. Nun es aber nach und nacb tagte, 
kain sie beinahe noch ein argeres Grauen (terror) 
an. Es krabten keine Hahne, kein Wagen liess 
sich horen, kein Backer schlug den Laden auf, 
es stieg kein Kauch von den Dachern. Endlich 
traten sie sacht in die Wolbung der offenen Tore 
und sahen sich in den breifen Strassen um. Man 
vernahm keinen Laut als den eigenen Fusstritt 
und den Regen, der noch von den Dachern 
abtropfte. Nichts riihrte sich in dem Innern der 

Translate into English — 

Sie haben wohlgetan, dasli Sie, um Deutsch zu 
lerneD, zu uns heriibergekommen sind^ wo Sie 
nicht allein die Sprache scbnell und leicbt 
gewinnen, sondern auch die Elemente, worauf 
sie raht, unsern Boden, Klima, Lebensart, Sitten, 
gesellschaftlichen Yerkehr, Verfassung und 
dergleicben mit sich nach England nehmen. 
Und dann verdient es auch nicht allein 
unsere eigene Litteratur an sich, sandern es 
ist auch nicht zu leugnen, dass wenn 
Einer jetzt das Deutsche gut versteht, er viele 
andere Sprachen entbehren kann. Von der 

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franzosischen rede ich nicht, sie ist die Sprache 
des Um^ano^s und ganz besonders auf Reisen 
unentbehrlich, well sie jeder versteht und man 
sicb in alien Landern mit ihr statt eines guten 
Dolmetscbers (tn/^r/?r£?*^) aushelfenkann. Was 
aber die anderen anbetrifft, so konnen wir die 
vorziiglicbsten Werke aller Nationen in so guten 
deutschen Uebersetzungen lesen, dass wir ohne 
ganz besondere Zwecke nicbt Ursache haben, auf 
ihre muhsame Erlernung viel Zeit zu verwenden. 
Es liegt in der deutschen Natur, alles Auslandi- 
sche in seiner Art zu wiirdigen, und dieses 
zusammen mit dergrossen Fiigsamkeit {pliancy) 
unsrer Sprache macht die deutschen ueberse- 
tzungen durchaus treu und vollkommen. 

B. — Composition and Grammar. 

3. Translate into German — 

I was not surprised, when I ran down into 
the hall, to see that a brilliant June morning 
had succeeded to the tempest of the night ; and 
to feel, through the open glass door, the breath- 
ing of a fresh aud fragrant breeze. Nature 
must be glad When I was so happy. A beggar 
woman and her little boy, pale, ragged objects 
both, were coming up the walk, and I ran down 
and gave them all the money I happened to have 
in my purse, some three or four shillings ; good 
or bad, they must partake of my delight. All 
around me the birds were chirping and singing, 
but nothing was so merry or so musical as my 
own rejoicing heart. 

Fragrant=c?w/i{ewrf; walk=P/*ac?; to chirp:= 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 143 

4. Translate into German — 

My first visit was to my friend, Major Ponto. 
The Major, in his little phaeton, was in waiting 
to take me up at the station. The vehicle cer- 
tainly was -pot splendid, but such a carriage as 
would accommodate a plain man (as Ponto said 
he was) and a numerous family. We drove by 
beautiful fresh fields and green hedges, through 
a cheerful English landscape ; the road was as 
smooth and trim as the way in a nobleman's 
park. Children, with cheeks as red as the apples 
in the oichards, curtsied to us at the cottage 
doors. Blue church spires rose here and there 
in the distance; and as the gardener's wife 
opened the white gate at the Major's little 
lodge, and we drove up to the house, my heart 
felt a joy which I thought it was impossible to 
experience in the smoky atmosphere of a town. 

Phaeton z^ Pliaethon m.; vehicle i= Gefdhrt: to 
accommodate z=/?ass6/i/ttr; to curtsy =: knicksen 
vor ; lodgen: F*7^a f.; to experience i=«mp^?io?ew. 

5. Give the first person singular of the present, im- 

perfect, and perfect indicative of the following 
verbs occurring in Questions Nos. 1 and 2 : — 

Verschlagen, ausgestorbeuy herumgezogen, vor- 
drangen, erschrakeii, wohlgetan, entbehren, aushel- 
fen, verwenden, 

6. Re-write the first two sentences of Question No. 2, 

turning them into " indirect speech" (from ^^Sie 
hahen " to " entbehren kann " ; thus : " Ich 
sagte zu dem jungen EngUinder, er hdtte wokU 
getan^'^ Ac.) 

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7. Translate the following sentences, and re-write them 

in German, changing^ the present tense of the 
verbs into the perfect : — 

Er kann nicht ausgehen ; Ich mochte gem 
wisseriy oh das wahr ist ; sie glarf nicht zu uns 
kommen ; er muss ahreisen ; muss er das toirh^ 
lich ? Was soil aus ikm iverden ? 

8. Beantworten Sie auf deutsch die folo^enden Frag-en. 

(Die Antwort muss einen vollstandigen Satz 
bilden ; das Verbum darf nicht feblen) : 

Welches sind Ihre tdglichen Mahlzeiten ? 
Woran erkennt man^ dass es Fruhling wird ? 
Was hdben Sie alles avf der Schule gelernt ? 
Welche ofentlichen Gebdude findet man in 

jeder grosseren Stadt ? 
Nennen Sie filnf der Hauptstaaten Eurojpas 

und die Namen der Volker, die darin 


Welche Befdrderungsmittel (means of loco- 
motion) kennen Sie ? 

The Board of Examiners, 


Candidates slionld write equations, where possible, as 
well as verbal descriptions of Chemical reactions. 

1. How may the atomic weight of an element be 
determined^ and what data are required ? 

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DECBMBEB, 1906. 145 

2. Describe the preparation, chemical properties, and 
industrial and chemical uses of hydrogen 
peroxide and one of its metallic derivaUves. 

8. Describe one process of manufacturing soap, indica- 
ting the chief chemical reactions which occur. 
To what causes may the ** hardness '* of a water 
be due and what methods of overcoming the 
difficulty of obtaining a '* lather" are available ? 

4. Shew how the physical properties of the halogens 

and the formation and stability of their hydrides 
illustrate the gradual transition of properties 
with increase of atomic weight. 

5. What is meant by a reversible action ? Discuss 

the precipitation of cadmium and zinc sulphides 
in acid and neutral solutions. 

Hie Board of' Examiners, 

1. Describe the construction, and give the mathe- 

matical theory of the constant volume air ther- 

Explain fully how you would use it to deter- 
mine the erroi'S of a mercurial thermometer. 

2. Give a full account of Regnault's investigation of 

the relation between the boiling point of water 
and the external pressure. What was the 
general character of his results P 

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8. Describe the construction of the Dip Circle^ and 
give a full account of the mode of using it, 
pointing out the purposes served by the dif- 
ferent experiments, and explaining how they 
achieve them. 

4. Describe, in full detail, the construction of an 

astatic mirror galvanometer. 

A galvanometer with a 100 ohm shunt across 
its terminals, joined up in circuit with a 2,000 
ohm coil and a battery of negligible resistance, 
gave a certain deflection ; on removing the shunt 
and inserting an additional resistance of 20,000 
ohms in the circuit the same deflection was 
obtained. Find the resistance of the galvano- 

5. Describe the construction of the copper voltameter 

and the experiments which must be made with 
it in order to measure the electro-chemical 
equivalent of copper, giving all necessary cal- 

6. Explain the terms Longitudinal Vibration, Wave 

Motion, Wave Length. 

Draw to scale a diagram representing one 
complete wave length of a simple harmonic 

7. An object is placed on the axis of a concave mirror 

at a distance of 20 centimetres ; the real image 
formed is half the size of the object. Find the 
radius of the mirror. 

8. Describe and explain a method of determining the 

velocity of sound by experiments carried out in 
an ordinary- sized room. 

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DECEMBER, 1906. ]47 


The Board of Directors- 
FIVE Questions only to be attempted. 

1. What are the essential histological features of 

epithelial tissue.^ Enumerate the organs in 
which this tissue is found. 

2. What differences are to be found between blood 

entering and blood leaving each of the following 
organs : — Lung, kidney, liver, bowel ? 

8. What evidence is there that accommodation is 
effected by changes in the lens ? Describe these 
changes, and state how you think they are 
brought about. 

4. What factors are concerned in the coagulation of 

blood? By what means may coagulation be 
prevented ? 

5. What are the functions, origin, and composition of 

lymph, and how may variations in its amount be 
produced ? 

6. What are the essential structural differences be- 

tween the brain of a frog and a mammal ? 


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Tlie Board of Examiners, 

1. State and prove the polygon law of composition 
of relative velocities and accelerations. 

A railway carnage is travelling at 60 km./hr. 
on a straight track. A small heavy body- 
is thrown out horizontally with a velocity rela- 
tive to the carriage of 10 m./sec. at right 
angles to its length. Neglecting the resistance 
of the air, find where the body reaches the level 
ground 3 m. below the point of projection. 

State Newton^s laws of motion, and explain care 
fully the reason for the statement that the tension 
of a cord by which a mass of m gms. is sus- 
pended is about 980 m dynes. 

A rough mass can slide along the upper 
horizontal surface of a straight bar which has a 
simple harmonic oscillation of 1 sec. period and 
10 cm. amplitude in the direction of its length. 
The mass is placed on the bar when the latter is 
instantaneously at rest at one end of its range. 
Taking a coefficient of friction 1/6, sketch the 
velocity-time graphs of the bar and the mass 
and shew how to find the motion of the latter 

Find the range of an unresisted projectile on an 
inclined plane through the point of projection. 

Projectiles are discharged with a maximum 
velocity of 60 ft. /sec, from a point on a 
horizontal plane, at a boy who shelters himself 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 149 

behind a wall 10 feet high at a horizontal dis- 
tance of 60 feet from O, Shew that of the 
projectiles which get over the wall, those get 
nearest the boy which are discharged with the 
highest elevation, and find the safe distance 
from the wall 5 feet above the ground. 

4. Find the acceleration of a particle moving with a 
speed of v cm./sec. in a circle of radius r cmt 
and find in gms. wt. the force per gm. required 
to maintain the motion. 

A mass P on a smooth horizontal plane is 
attached to a fixed point A in the plane by an 
inextensible cord of length r and moves with 
velocity v in its circular path. A point B of 
the cord, distant a from A is suddenly seized 
and held fixed and then the string is allowed to 
run out from ^ until P is again describing a 
circle of radius r. Find the new velocity of P. 

6. A mass of M lbs. is moving with a velocity of 
V ft./sec. and is brought to rest by a constant 
resistance in T sees. Find the work done by 
the resistance in ft. lbs. and its initial rate of 
work in H.P. 

If the same mass is brought to rest by a 
buffer spring which gives a thrust of P lbs. wt. 
per foot of compression, find the greatest com- 
pression of the spring and the time in which the 
mass is brought to rest. 

6. Shew that the work in ft. lbs. of a constant couple 
on a rigid body is equal to the product of its 
moment in ft. lbs. and the angle turned through 
by the body in radians. 

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A fly-wheel makes each revolution in a 
second, and has a mean kinetic energy of 
20 ft. ton.' The wheel is driven by a con- 
stant force actin«;: on a pin A fixed in it at a 
distance of 2 ft. from its centre C» This force 
is always parallel to a fixed direction but changes 
its sense so as to be always driving. The re- 
sistance on the wheel is a constant couple of 
moment ^ ft. ton. Find the magnitude of the 
driving force, and the H.P. 

Shew that the fractional variation of the 
angular velocity is about '008. 

[Take 6 :=: -881 rad. for the smallest positive 
root of cos = 2/7r.] 

7, A OB is a straight horizontal lever, the fulcrum, 
OA = «, OB =z b, Cy D are fixed pulleys at 
equal distances h above and below respectively. 
A cord attached to the lever at A runs in turn 
around the pulleys C^ D and a third pulley fixed 
to the lever at B, The driving force is a vertical 
pull on the cord hanging from B, The resis- 
tance is a vertical force at A, Find the 
mechanical advantage of the lever. 

8. ABCD is a plane quadrilateral area, CM^ DN 

are perpendiculars from C, D to AB, CM 
= 1, BN = 2, AM =z 4, AN = S, AB z=: 6. 
Find the distance of the centroid G of the 
quadrilateral from A and the ^ GAB, 

9. Shew that if a body is in equilibrium under three 

forces in one plane, they are either all parallel 
or they meet at a point. State the further con- 
ditions of equilibrium. 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 151 

The points A,BoiB, body and its centroid are 
in a vertical plane perpendicular to a wall. A wheel 
in the same plane is pivoted in the body with its 
centre at A, The body is in rough contact at 
' B with a horizontal floor BO and the wheel is 
in contact at C with the wall OC. M is the 
foot of the perpendicular from the centroid O of 
the body and wheel to AB and AM z= a, BM 
= b, OM = c, ^ ABO = 0. Find the re- 
actions at the two points of support B, C in 
terms of the total weight W. 

10. Two light bars AO, BO in a vertical plane are 
jointed to fixed points at A^B and are also jointed 
together at 0, A weight W is carried by -4 O 
at a point C, Sketch the figures for the 
graphical determination of the reactions at the 

Shew that the reaction at is 
^ ^Csin tf 
^ (? sin ^ ' 
where 6, are the inclinations of AO to the 
vertical and OB respectively, and find an ex- 
pression for the reaction at A, 


The Board of Examinere. 

1. Enunciate and prove the remainder theorem. 

^2 + ^ ^ C^ - 2BC - ^CA - 2AB 
into factors, having given that 
A = a\h^c)\Bzz h\c'^a)\ C zz c^ {a - hf. 

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2. Find the conditions that, for real values of x, a 
fraction whose numerator and denominator are 
given quadratic functions of x may be capable of 
all real values. 

If Ay B, C are positive, and a, b, c are real> 
the equation 

X ^- a X — b X ^ e 
cannot have equal roots unless azz b zn c. 

3. State and prove the relations between the roots 

and coefficients of a rational integral equation. 

If «, b, c are the roots of a:* — pa^ + ^a? — r =z 0, 
shew that 

{a - 6)2 (a - cy + (6 - cy (b - ay 
+ (c _ ay {c - by = (/)« - 3^)». 

4. Shew that the elimination of y from two equations 

of the second order in x and y leads in general 
to an equation of the fourth order in x, and 
explain how the values of «/ are to be found when 
those of X have been found. 
{x - a) (y « fl) + (a: - b) (y - h) zz 0. 

a + X b + y 

5. Define a determinant of the third order, and shew 

from the definition that the determinant changes 
sign if two rows are interchanged. 
Eliminate x, y, z from 
(6 — c) a; + (^? — a) y + (a — 6) 2f = 0. 
(6 + c) »! + (c + a)y + (a + 6) 2; = 0. 
or + 2^ + 2 =: 0. 

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DBOEMBERy 1906. 153 

6. Express a proper fraction whose denominator is 
the product of different simple factors as a sum 
of partial fractions. 

If there are n letters a, b, c, Ac, and ^ is a 
positive integer less than n — 1^ shew that 

= 0. 

(a — 5) (a — c) {a — d). 

Find the value of the first member when k has 
the values n — 1, n. 

7. Find, without using the permutation formula, the 

number of combinations of n different things r at 
a time. 

If there are m sorts of things andii of each sort, 
find the number of ways in which a selection of 
one or more things can be made from them. 

8. Define a convergent series, and shew that a series 

is convergent if from and after some fixed term 
the ratio of each term to the preceding is 
numerically less than some quantity which is 
itself numerically less than unity. 

Shew that the series 

Pa? + 2^a?2 +S^x^ + . . + n^af" + . . . 

is convergent if x is numerically less tlian unity, 
and find the term at which the series begins to 
converge if a? = '999. 

9. State the principal steps in the proof of the bi- 

nomial theorem for a fractional or negative 

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If a, b are two numbers whose difference is 
small compared with one of them, shew that^ 
neglecting cubes of small quantities^ the n^ root 
of afb is 

(/I + 1) g + (« - 1) h 
(« + 1) 6 + (» - 1) a ' 
10. Define a logarithm, and find the relation between 
the logarithms of the same number to different 

Eliminate x, y, z from 

logy^ ^ = «, log«, y = 6> log^ zz=,c. 

The Board of Examiners. 

1. Define the radical axis of two circles, and show 

that if there be three circles, their three radical 
axes— taking the circles in pairs — are con- 

Two points are taken on each side of a 
triangle — Dy and D^ on BC^ Ui and JB^ on CA, 
F, and i^^on^ J5— such that jB7, JBiFii^,, F.F^D^D^, 
D^D^E^E^ are three sets of coney die points. 
Prove that all six points lie on the same circle. 

2. FOQ is any chord of a circle, and RS is the 

polar of 0. U OS be parallel to (^B, then 
FB will bisect OS. 

3. The rectangle contained by the diagonals of a 

quadrilateral is less than the sum of the rectangles 
contained by its opposite sides unless it be a 
cyclic quadrilateral. 

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DECEMBER^ 1906. 155 

AB, CD are the diagonals of a cyclic quadri- 
lateral, and U, -Pare their middle points. If CD 
bisects the angle AFB, then will AB bisect the 
angle CJSD. 

4. Of three plane angles which form a trihedral angle 

any two are together greater than the third. 

5. Define a parallelopiped. Prove that its four 

diagonals are concurrent, and that they are all 
bisected at their common intersection. 

Show also that the sum of the squares on its 
four diagonals is equal to the sum of the squares 
on its twelve edges. 

6. If two small circles on a sphere have equal radii 

their planes are equidistant from the centre of 
the sphere. 

7. Prove by pure geometry that the tangents drawn 

from any point to a parabola subtend equal 
angles at the focus, and have equal projections on 
the dii'ectrix. 

8. Find the condition that the straight lines 

ax + by + c zn 0, 
o!x + Vy + c' = 0, 
may be at right angles. 

Prove that the straight line which passes 
through the intersection of 
X cos (a+/3) + y sin (a + /3) = c(cos/3 + sin )3), 
X cos (a— /3) + y sin (a — /3) = c (cos /3 — sin /3), 
and is perpendicular to 

X cos y + y sin 7 :=: JO, 
has for equation 
— y sin /y-fy cosy = c{sin(a— y) + cos(a— y)}. 

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9. Investigate the. equation to the tangent to the 
circle a;* + y* = c^ at the point (A, A). 

Prove that y = a? tan 6 + <? sec 6 touches 
this circle for all values of 6 ; and find in terms 
of 6 the co-ordinates of the point of contact. 

10. Find the co-ordinates of the points P^Q, wherein 

the straight line (m -f n) y— 2a?=2«wm cuts the 
parabola y' := 4aa?. 

If PQ cut the axis in a fixed point whose 
abscissa is c, prove that the normals at P and Q 
meet on a fixed parabola whose latus rectum is 


11. In the elh'pse f. + '^^ = 1, prove that the locus 

of the middle points of chords parallel to the 
line y zz. ttix, is the line ma^y + b^x i= 0. 

Shew also that if chords through any point 
on the ellipse be drawn parallel to these two lines 
they will cut the ellipse again at the extremities 
of a diameter. 


The Board of Examiners. 

1. Solve the equations 
(a) 8 cos 2d + tan »0 = 7. 
(h) tan + tan ^ = 2. 

tan w + tan ^ = i5. \ 

tan 20 + tan 20 = ~ ^ [ 

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DECEMBER, 1906. 167 

2. Prove that sin " = ± 1 1(\ -h___l__^ 

Shew that the ambiguous signs are both positive 
if a lies between (8 m + 1) -g and (8m +3) 5-, 

and find the limits for a when the signs are both 

3. If sin a + sin /3 = a, 

and cos a + cos /3 z= 5, 

find the value of tan a + tan /3. 

4. If 6i, 02, 63, are difierent solutions of 

tan (0 + a) + tan (0 + /3) + tan (6 + y) = 0, 
no two of which differ by a multiple of two 
right angles, prove that 

01 + fis + 03 + a + /3 + y = «7r. 

5. A pole on a horizontal plane is of length /, and leans 

to the south at an angle I with the horizontal. 
The sun is at an elevation 0, and the vertical 
plane containing the sun makes an angle a with 
the meridian. Find the length and direction of 
the shadow. 

6. Shew that in general the change in the cotangent 

of an angle is proportional to the change in the 
angle itself. For what values of the angle does 
this cease to be true ? 

The area of a triangle is determined from 
measurements of the three sides. If there are 
small errors x^y^z^ in these, prove that the error in 
the area is \ {ax cot A + bt/ cot B + cz cot C), 

7. Prove that (cos + i sin 0)" = cos nB + * sin nO 

for real values of n. 

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Deduce the value of cos 96 in terms of cos 6, 
X x^ 

8. Prove that tan ~*aj = a? — ^ + ^ 

if 1 > a; > — 1. 

Hence deduce a useful series for calculating x. 

9. Find the sum to n terms of 

sin «a + sin « (« + /5) + sin « (a + 2/3) + .... 
and to infinity (when convergent) of 

X sin ^ +J3 sin 30 + ^ sin 60 + 

10. Explain carefully what is meant by a spherical 
triangle and its polar trwngle, and state the 
relations between the sides and angles of the 
triangle and its polar. 

Prove that in any spherical triangle 

cos a 1= cos 6 cos c ■{• sinh sin c cos A, 


The Board of Examiners. 

Illustrate your answers by figures wherever possible.] 

1. Explain fully the influence of the following factors 

upon the distribution of plants : — (a) calcium^ 
{h) common salt, {c) ants, (d) wind. 

2. Describe the structure of the ovule of a typical 

Dicotyledon, and trace its development after 
pollination until the cotyledons of the embryo 
are formed. 

3. Give an account of the structure, reproduction, and 

life history of a typical member of the Uredineae. 

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DECEMBER^ 1906. 159 

4. Give an account of the chief forms of tactic re- 
sponse shewn by freely motile plant org-anisms, 
giving instances of each. 

6. Write a brief synopsis of the Natural Order 
RanunculacesB, mentioning six genera included 
in it, and giving the floral diagram of two 
dissimilar flowers belonging to the order. 


5. Drawing Plant Forms from Nature. 

The Board of Examiners. 

Time allowed : One hour. 

For this examination select a branch of Pittos- 
porum bearing ten or twelve leaves. 

Arrange the branch in front of, hut without pressing 
it against, a plain white background, and with the 
light on the Candidate's left. 

Before the examination * begins, the following In- 
structions must be read to the Candidates :— 

1. You are to make a drawing in outline of the 

branch in front of you and to the scale or 

2. Your drawing may be executed in lead pencil, 

in pen and ink, or with the brush and water 
colour, as you choose. 

3. One hour is allowed for your work. 

J. Kemp, Actikq Government Printer, Melbourne 

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