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THIS little book is limited to the historical aspect 
of Architecture, and only deals incidentally with 
words used in art and art criticism and in building. 
But at the same time many technical terms are to be 
found, and constructional terms in particular ; for con- 
struction lies at the very root of the matter. 

More attention than is usual in books of this kind is 
devoted to that part of the subject which bears on 
social and religious life. Thus more space is given to 
houses and churches and proportionately less to purely 
architectural terms such as capitals and vaults. 

Definitions are in most cases unnecessary ; they are 
sometimes given, as in ARCH, because it is interesting 
to work out a definition ; and this particular instance, 
by the by, illustrates the importance I attach to con- 
struction. Derivations are given where they are illu- 
minating or curious. When there has been a choice 
the most familiar word or form of word has generally 
been adopted without much regard to philology on the 
one hand or to medieval use or monkish slang on the 

Many terms used in Greek and Roman architecture 
are included because they are necessary to a proper 
understanding of Renaissance architecture and church- 
building. For this reason the general principle has 
been to include those terms which have a direct bear- 
ing on English architecture, whether they deal with 
decorative forms or with the planning of buildings. 


Thus the Orders and Basilicas are described, but not 
Roman baths. A few other words of this class are 
included on account of their intrinsic interest and 
because they are omitted from many books. 

It is hardly necessary to say that I am deeply indebted 
to the published works of others. I have briefly but 
I trust sufficiently acknowledged this in each case. 
Where I am more peculiarly indebted to any one work 
I have made a fuller acknowledgment at the end of 
the article. 

I have to thank the following gentlemen for lending, 
or for giving me permission to copy, illustrations : 
Messrs. Batsford, Messrs. A. and C. Black, J. W. Clark, 
M.A., F.S.A., W. M. Fawcett, M.A., F.S.A., W. H. 
St. John Hope, M.A., Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A., 
Mr. William Poel, E. S. Prior, M.A., F.S.A., Mr. 
Quaritch, the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of 
Winchester, the Presidents and Councils of the Alcuin 
Club, of the Society of Antiquaries of London, of the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, of the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute, of the Hellenic Society, of the 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society and the Syndics of 
the Cambridge University Press. Where no statement 
to the contrary is made the illustrations are from 
drawings old and new made by myself. 

I have to thank my father for the use of an un- 
published paper on the development of the English 
play-house. To several other friends I am very grate- 
ful for their kindness in reading proofs and in making 
valuable suggestions and criticisms. 

T. D. A. 

Cambridge, July, 1906. 


E text has been carefully revised for the present 
edition, and some new articles have been added. 
I have to thank many friends for corrections and 
suggestions. I am especially indebted to the Reverend 
A. M. G. Baylay, M.A., the Reverend D. H. S. Cran- 
age, M.A., Mr. F. C. Eeles, who has kindly contributed 
the article on Scottish Church Architecture printed in 
the Appendix, the late Mr. Clement Gutch, M.A., 
M. R. James, Litt.D., M.B.A., the Rev. Professor 
Nairne, M.A., Mr. E. S. Prior, M.A., F.S.A. 

T. D. A. 



THE text has been again revised. Material in- 
cluded in the Appendixes of the Second Edition 
has been brought into the text, and an additional 
illustration lias been supplied. 

T. D. A. 

May, 1922 



PREFACES . . . . . . vii 

GLOSSARY .....! 







TECTURE . . . . . . .319 

INDEX . , , 323 



1. Abacus of Corinthian capital i 

2. Norman abacus ; section r 

3. Gothic abacus, 13th century ; section i 

4. Greek acanthus ........ 2 

5. Roman acanthus 2 

6. Acroteria 2 

7. Annulet, St. Peter's Church, Northampton . . 6 

8. Apophyge . 6 

9. Arabesque on a half-column in the church of S. Trinita, 

Florence, 1520-1550 7 

10. An arch in form only, being cut in a single stone . 7 

11. An archi n form only, Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, 

Greece ; a dome formed by corbelling in horizontal 
courses ; section . 8 

12. Relieving arch, Boxford Church, Suffolk . . .10 

13. Diagrams of arches of various forms . . . .11 

14. Ball-flower 13 

15. Barge-board, the Close, Winchester . . . .14 

16. Bartizan 14 

17. Classical bases ; sections 15 

1 8. Ionic base, Temple on the Ilisus, Greece . . .15 

1 9. Attic base, Temple of Jupiter Olympus, Athens. From 

Stuart and Revett 15 

20. Twelfth-century base 16 

2 1 . Thirteenth-century base ; section ; the column is 1 foot 

10 inches in diameter 16 

22. Fourteenth- century base ; section . . . .16 

23. Fifteenth-century base 17 

24. Pagan basilica : plan of Basilica Ulpia, Rome. From 

J. H. Middleton's "Remains of Ancient Rome'" . 18 

25. Battlements 18 

26. Stone bell-cote 20 



27. Wood bell-cote 20 

28. Billet . . 21 

29. Bird's-beak ornament, St. Chad's Church, Stafford . 21 

30. Blocking course z \ 

31. Selection moulding ; section 21 

32. English bond ; plans of two courses and elevation . 22 

33. Flemish bond ; plans of two courses and elevation . 2.2. 

34. Braced door 23 

35. Principle of the flying buttress ; diagram section of an 

aisled building; the directions of the thrusts are 

shown by arrows 27 

36. Greek Doric capital 29 

37. Cushion capital, 12th century 30 

38. Scolloped capital, 12th century 30 

39. Scolloped capital : a variation ; monastic infirmary, 

Ely ; 12th century 30 

40. Capital with rude volutes, Ely Cathedral, north tran- 

sept, r. 1090. Drawn by Miss II. A. S. Atkinson . 30 

41. Reversed volute 30 

42. Early foliage, St. Leonard's Priory, Stamford . -31 

43. Capital with volute-like foliage 31 

44. Moulded capital, Westminster Abbey . . . .31 

45. Fifteenth -century capitals, St. Andrew's Church, 

Norwich 32 

46. Cartouche 33 

47. Casement moulding ; section 33 

48. The square Norman keep, White Tower, Tower of 

London ; plan. From G. T. Clark's " Mediceval 
Military Architecture " 37 

49. The sheh 1 keep and dwelling-house, Farnham Castle, 

Surrey ; plan. Most of the buildings dute from about 
1150. The plan shows walls actually existing, con- 
jectural restorations being distinguished by dotted 
lines. A staircase and many walls and partitions 
erected soon after the Restoration are omitted. The 
columns of the hall are conjecturally restored ; one 
of them, at least, remains in position ; it is of wood, 
and has a scolloped Norman capital. The column 
between the nave and aisle of the chapel is of stone 
and dates from the 13th century. The chapel is at a 
higher level than the other rooms, and it is suggested, 
as shewn by the dotted lines, that the screens pas- 
sage passed under the chancel. The 15th-century 



work is of brick (see fig. 133). The drawbridge has 
been replaced by a permanent raised causeway. 
The walls of the keep act as ' retaining walls ' to a 
mound of earth. The ditch surrounding the keep (fig. 
.30) and the bank dividing the conrt are conjectural. 

The general outline is taken, by the kind permis- 
sion of the Lord Bishop of Winchester, from a rough 
plan preserved in the Castle, showing the buildings 
approximately in their present state. For details 
and conjectural restorations the author is responsible 39 

50. Farnham Castle ; general plan (see above, notes on 

fig. 49) 42 

51. Chalice and paten, Hamstall Ridware, Staffordshire, 

15th century. Communion cup, Sail, Norfolk, 1568 46 

52. The chamfer ; sections 47 

53. Chequer-work 48 

54. Chimney-stack of moulded brick ; time of Henry VIII. 50 

55. The Basilica plan, Wing Church, Buckinghamshire. 

From " The Archceological Journal," vol. liii. . . 52 

56. Plan of Confessio, Wing (enlarged). From the same . 52 

57. Basilica plan and western altar, Old St. Peter's, Rome. 

From O. O. Scoffs "English Church Architecture" 1 . 52 

58. Romano - British Church, Silchester ; plan. From 

" Archceologia " 54 

59. Church of Basilica type, St. Gall, Switzerland. The 

aisle round each apse is named Paradise in the 
original. From 0. O. iScott's " English Church 
Architecture " . -55 

60. Transitional plan, Worth Church, Sussex. From " The 

Archcpological Journal,''' vol. liii. "Transitional in 
type, uniting elements from the Italian and the 
Scottish [or Irish] traditions, and leading up to the 
purely English cross church." Micklethioaite . . 56 

61. The Celtic plan, Escomb church, Durham. From "The 

Archceological Journal" vol. liii 57 

62. The small Norman Church with apse, Bengeo, Herts. 57 

Church with east end of French type : aisled apse and 

radiating chapels, Norwich Cathedral . . .58 
64, Church with east end of Oriental type, with ' parallel 
apses,' St. Alban's Abbey, Hertfordshire. From 
E. S. Prior's " History of Gothic Art in England " . 58 



no PAGE 

65. The two types of apse and the eastward extension, 

Canterbury Cathedral (diagram plan). 

The original termination in "parallel apses "(shown 
black); the later addition ending in an aisled ;ipsc 
and chapels (hatched) ; further extension ending in 
an aisled apse (in outline) 58 

66. The French plan, Westminster Abbey 

67. Coffered half-dome over an alcove .... <>.=; 

68. Coffin-lid, Little Shelford, Cambridgeshire . 

69. College, Cambridge type : Queens'; plan. /'Vow Willis 

and Clark's '"Architectural J/utory of Cambridfft" . 68 

70. College, Oxford type : New ; plan. From the wme . 68 

71. Haddon Hall, Derbyshire ; plan . . . . . 69 

72. Plans of columns, 13th and Uth centuries . . .73 

73. Plan of column, 1.5th century 74 

74. Internal painted consecration cross, Landwade Church, 75 

75. External consecration cross of flint, Fordham Church. 7" 

76. External carved consecration cross, Exeter Cathedral 76 
76.A External painted consecration cross, Helion Bumpstead 

Church, Essex 76 

77. Console 76 

78. Corbel under inner order of the chancel arch, Kinnerslry 

Church, Salop 77 

79. Brick corbelling of a house at a street corner . -77 

80. Corbel-table, Beaumaris Castle 77 

8 1. Corbie-stones 78 

82. Crockets 79 

83. Types of cross 80 

84. Head of a churchyard cross, Reepham Church, Norfolk. 

On the other side are carved representations of St. 
Michael, St. Andrew, and St. Christopher. The top 
of the cross is broken off and is here conjecturally re- 
stored. Originally about two feet four inches High. 
From a photograph by the Rev. O. B. Atkinson . . 80 

85. Cross of Celtic character near Penmon, Anglesea . 81 

86. Cusped arch, 15th century 83 

87. Trefoil arch, 13th century 83 

88. Dentil enrichment ....... 84 

89. Diaper, Westminster Abbey, 13th century . . -85 

90. Dog-tooth enrichment, 13th century . . . .85 



91. Doorway with double hood-mould, 15th century . 88 
t>2. Eaves with plaster-cove, IfiTO . . . . -9' 
93 Egg-and-dart enrichment . ... 92 

94. Egg-and-dart enrichment with enriched bead below. 

From Stinirt and Rrrrtt, ml. ii. fhap. it. pi. xrli. . 92 

95. GuiQoche enrichment. From Sfiiarf and Rt-reff, rol. i. 

clmp. Hi. ........ 93 

96. Honeysuckle enrichment, temple at Bassae. From 

Stuart <uul llf.-i'ftt''s, tl A>it!(jnitifs of Athens," rol. v. 93 

97. Leaf and spear enrichment. From Stuart ami Rrrett, 

vol. it. elmp. ii. pi. rill 93 

98. Fanlight Q5 

99. Internal cornice with festoons, University Library, 

Cambridge, east room, 1758 95 

100. Bowtel moulding with fillet ..... 96 

101. Flint-and stone work, Swanington Church, Norfolk. 

The letter u, crowned, under a canopy, forming 
part of the inscription MAIU;AIF.TA. 15th century . 96 

102. Doric column ; Ionic and Corinthian column with 

cabled flutes in one quarter ; plans ... 97 

103. Carved capital of the 13th century, Berkley Church 98 

104. Foliage of the 13th century, Raunds Church, North- 

amptonshire ........ 99 

105. Foliage of the 13th century . . . . .100 

106. Natural foliage of the 14th century, Southwell . 

Minster. From a photograph by the Rev. G. B. 
Atkinson 100 

107. Carved capital of the 15th century .... 100 
108.. Free carving of the 18th century . . . . 102 

109. Frets 104 

no. Curved gable 105 

in. Curved gable, Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire . . 106 

112. Lattice glazing, probably 17th century, Coniston . 108 

113. Lead glazing, probably of the 18th century, in 

the head of a 15th-century window, Sudbury, 
Suffolk 108 

1 14. Herring-bone brick-work at the back of a fireplace . 117 

115. A hipped roof 117 

116. A medieval hospital : The Great Hospital, Norwich ; 

plan of the buildings previous to the Reforma- 
tion 1 19 


Hi,. PAT.F. 

117. A typical medieval hous<- plan, Horham Hall, Essex. 
l-'rom the " TVorvW/;///* of flw Cambridge .///// 
(/imriiin Sorii'/i/," fill, rii. . . . . .12 

u 8. A medieval manor-house, Horham Hall . . .12. 

1 19. Haddon Hall, Derbyshire ; diagram plan showing 

the normal arrangements or the l.>th -century 
central block, extensions forming courts* and Eliza- 
bethan galleries. The chapel is Norman . -124 

120. The 18th-century plan, Goodwood House, Sussex ; 

a central block with advanced pavilions con- 
nected by quadrant corridors. Never built, i'rutn 
" Vitrurhis ISritunnicus" . . . . .126 

121. Impost and arch, Alsop-in-the-Dale, Derbyshire . 127 

122. An interpenetration. From W. II. St. Joint IInj>i'.i 

" Engluh Altar" (A Icuin Club) . . . .129 
122 A Swastica 129 

123. A 13th-century hinge, Reepham, Norfolk. Missing 

parts are restored in the drawing from the marks 
on the woodwork ; the design of the central band 
is not so clear ; the scroll at the top of the door is 
obviously misplaced and may have been one of a 
pajr of scrolls at the end of the central band. 
From a photograph by the Rw. O. B. Atkinson . 130 

1 24. Chest, Meole Brace Church, Salop ; perhaps 13th cent. 1 3 1 

125. A lock plate, King's College Chapel, Cambridge; 

early 16th century. Pierced work with red cloth 

at tne back 132 

126. A keyhole escutcheon, Coton Church, Cambridge- 

shire; dated 162-2 133 

127. Head of gateway, Clare College, Cambridge; 18th 

century i^ 

128. An 18th-century scroll 134 

129. A book -case of the ' stall ' type, Hereford Cathedral 

Library 143 

130. Linen pattern 146 

131. Long-and-short quoins 147 

132. Ordinary quoins 147 

133. Machicolations, Farnham Castle; early 16th century 149 

134. Mask-stop; 14th century 150 

135. Carved modillion 152 

136. Plain modillions 152 



137. Cathedral church and Benedictine monastery, Ely . 155 


D J =West door and Galilee 


D 2 = Bishop's door 
D s = Door to church of St. 


D 4 = Door from W. part of 
cloister to the nave, 
called the Prior's 

D f = Door from the E. part 

of cloister to the choir 

D 9 =Door from cloister to 


D 7 = Door from transept to 
the passage leading 
from the cloister to 
the cemetery. (See 
SCC below) 

T=Part of W. transept de- 
stroyed or not finished 
D 8 Door from Presbytery 
to Lady Chapel. The 
passage had rooms 
over it 
N A = Nave altar 
CA = Choir altar 
HA = High altar 
R A = Relics altar 
"ATA"= "Ad Tria Altaria" 
BVM = Old chapel of the 

Blessed Virgin 
SE = Shrine and altar of 
St. Etheldreda 

B A = Chapel of Bishop 

BW = Chapel of Bp. West 

C Chapel 
ME = Monks' entrance to 

Lady Chapel 
PE = Prior's entrance to 

Lady Chapel 
GPE = Gallery to PE 

V = Vestry 
SCC = St. Catherine's 

chapel, formerly 
passage from 
cloister to monks 
A = Armarium 
L = Lavatory 
CH = Prior's chapel 
ST = Prior's study 
PR = Parlour attached to 

the Great Hall 
BY = Buttery of Great Hall 
CL Cellarer's lodging 
DC =" Dark Cloister" 

leading from great 
cloister to Infirm- 
ary ; with Singing 
School over 

S = Stairs to Dormitory 
Necess = Necessarium 

SS = Stairs to Fair Hall 
A CH = Almonry chapel on 
upper floor with 
seven shops below 

The foundations of the original east apse are 
shown in outline. 

138. Entrance to the chapter-house, St. Radegund's Priory, 

now Jesus College, Cambridge; about 1180 . . 157 

139. Lectern in refectory, Chester Cathedral . . ,158 


no. PAGE 

140. The Cistercian plan, Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire, 

Diagram plan reduced from a large detailed plan 
by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope in The Yorkshire 
Arch&ological Journal, Vol. xr 161 

RA - Rood altar B = Book closet 

BVM = Chapel of Our Lady P= Parlour (next to 

SB -Chapel of St. Ber- chapter-house) 

nard P- Pulpit (in refectory) 

C = Chapel WH = Warming-house 

S = Sacristy Yd -- Yard 

SC = Sacrist's Checker Necess" Necessaritua 

XX - Form of original east OP = Outer parlour 

end Bu Buttery 

The foundations of the original east end are shown in outline. 

141. Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Cambridge ; plan . 163 

142. Gravestone, Little Shelford Church, Cambridgeshire ; 

llth century 165 

143. Cross on gravestone, Little Shelford ; early 13th 

century 166 

144. Cross on grave-slab, Rhuddlan Church, Flint . . 166 

145. Gravestone, Rhuddlan Church ; llth century . . 166 

146. Norman arch-mould 177 

147. Norman arch-mould 177 

148. The bowtel : its development 177 

149. Pointed bowtel and plain hood-mould of early 

character ; capital and base ; Hadstock Church, 
Essex; late 12th century 178 

150. Mouldings on recessed orders and with wide hollows ; 

abacus and base ; doorway, Heacham Church, 
Norfolk; late 12th century 179 

151. Bold mouldings of the 13th century . . .180 

152. Elaborate mouldings of the 14-th century and loss of 

the recessed orders 1 80 

153. The hollow chamfer; arch and hood-mould of a 

recess on one stone ; Swanington Church, Norfolk 180 

154. The bowtel pushed back from the angle ; 14th century 180 

155. Arches with square edges and with splayed faces . 181 

156. The wave moulding 181 

157. The sunk chamfer 181 



1 58.. Moulding of a small arch over a tomb recess ; church 

of St. Mary the Great, Cambridge; 14th century 181 

159. Mouldings on the splayed face ; church of St. Mary 

the Less, Cambridge ; 14th century . . . 182 

160. Arch-mould; 15th century 182 

161. The casement moulding ; 15th century . . . 182 

162. Norman abacus 182 

-163. String courses ; 12th to 15th centuries , . .182 

164. Norman base 183 

165. Transitional base 183 

166. Thirteenth-century base ; Ely Cathedral . . . 183 

167. Fourteenth-century base 183 

1 68. Fifteenth-century base ; the Deanery, Norwich . 183 

169. Capital and base ; 13th century . . . -183 

170. Capital, Wilby Church, Northants; late 13th century 185 

171. Simple capital ; 14th century 185 

172. Elaborate capital ; 14th century .... 185 

173. Capitals ; 15th century 185 

174. Internal wood cornice with battlement enrichment, 185 

175. Astragal and apophyge 185 

176. Bead 185 

177. Bird's-beak moulding; Coragic monument of Thra- 

syllus. From Stuart and Hevett, vol. v. . .187 

178. Cavetto 187 

179. Cyma : recta and reversa 187 

1 80. Ovolo : Greek and Roman 187 

181. Architrave moulding 187 

182. Scotia and torus 187 

183. Ogee 187 

184. Quirk 187 

185. Reeding 187 

186. Mullions : Gothic and Elizabethan .... 189 

187. Wood mullion ; 15th or early 16th century . . 189 

188. Niche, Bishop's Palace, Ely ; about 1490 . . . 190 

1 89. Intersecting arches and other arcades ; west transept, 

Ely Cathedral; about 1170 191 

190. Norman enrichments 192 

191. Ogee arch : diagram ...... 192 

192. The Greek Orders 194 



193. Corinthian capital 

194. Composite capital, arch of Titus, Rome . 

195. Methods of framing panelling .... 

196. Parapet with stepped battlements 

197. Broken pediment 

198. Dome on pendentives, which are marked with a P 

199! Pigeon-house, Haslingfield Hall, Cambridgeshire . ^14 

200. Plinth, Cockfield Church, Suffolk, 15th century 

201 Banqueting House, Whitehall, London ; by Inigo 

Jones, 1620 

202. Trussed-rafter roof, partly ceiled 

203. Trussed-rafter roof, with rudimentary principal 

204. Fourteenth-century roof, with arched principals and 


205. Roof with wind-braces, porch, Con way Church 

206. Hammer-beam roof, Cochwillan, Carnarvonshire 

207. Hammer-beam roofs, diagrams 

208. Double hammer-beam roof, diagram 

209. King-post roof 

210. Queen-post roof 

211. Mansard roof 

212. Saxon tower, St. Benedict's Church, Cambridge . 

213. Plans of Saxon windows 

214. Early form of sedile . 

215. Shop of medieval form, North Elmham, Norfolk . 

216. Splockets 

a 1 7. Norman base with spurs 

218. Squinch arch 

219. Spire, probably of Saxon form, Sompting, Sussex . 

220. Shingle-covered wood spire 

221. Broach spire, King's Cliff, Northamptonshire . 

222. Greek stele. From Stuart and Revetf s " Antiquities 

of Athens" vol. iv., chap, vi., pi. vii. . 
221 Strap-work over oriel, St. John's College, Cambridge, 
about 1600 

224. String course, Renaissance 

225. String course, Gothic 

326. Portico in antit, distyle 

aa;. Temple with two porticoes in antit, distyle . . 



Prostyle portico, tetrastyle ; temple of Empedokles, 

Selinus. Sicily 261 

Hoxastyle peripteral temple of Poseidon, Paestum. 

Italy' 262 

Tetrastyle pseudo-peripteral temple of Fortuna 
Virilis, Rome. From J. JI. Mirldhtons "Ancient 

Rome in 1885 " 262 

Octastyle peripteral temple; the Parthenon, Athens. 
From J. H. Middletonx " JTelltnir Soc. Suppl. 

1'aper Jfo. 3" . 262 

Decastyle dipteral temple of Apollo Diclymaeus, 

Miletus, Asia Minor 262 

Tenon and mortice ....... 264 

Interior of the Fortune Theatre, Golden Lane, 
Cripplegate, London, as built in 1600. From a 
model made l<\i Mr. William Poel based on the 

original contract 268 

Red and buff paving tile ; 13th century . . . 269 
Tile paving, Icklingham Church, Suffolk. From 

a drawing by Mr. \V. M. Fawcett .... 269 
Pavement of incised tiles, Bangor Cathedral, prob- 
ably 14th century 270 

Detail of ornamental timber framing . . . 272 
Timber house, Market Place, Shrewsbury . . 273 
Framing of the floor of a corner house . . . 274 

Round cusped window 276 

Triforium arcade, St. Bartholomew's Church, Smith- 
field, London 276 

Earliest plate-tracery, Great Abington, Cambridge . 277 
Developed plate-tracery, Balsham, Cambridgeshire 278 
Early bar-tracery. Castor, Northamptonshire . . 278 
Soffit cusping and later cusping .... 279 

Geometrical tracery, triforium arcade, Westminster 
Abbey ...... . . 279 

Geometrical tracery with soffit cusping, cloisters, 

Westminster Abbey ; late 13th century . . 279 
Geometrical tracery, Lichfield Cathedral; early 14th 

century 280 

Flowing tracery, Grantchester Church, Cambridge- 
shire, middle of the 14th century .... 280 
Flamboyant tracery, Elsing Church, Norfolk; late 
14th century 280 



252. Reticulated tracery, Merton College, Oxford ; 1 l-tli 

century 281 

253. Kentish tracery, Bcauniaris Church. Anglesey . 28^ 
2154. Flowing tracery approaching to Flamboyant, Chestci 

Cathedral 283 

^255. The beginning of Perpendicular tracery . . . 283 

256. Advance towards Perpendicular tracery . . . 283 

257. Perpendicular tracery; late l.itli century ; School, 

Highain Ferrers, Northamptonshire . . . 284 

258. Tudor flower or brattishing 286 

259. Plans of vaults . 289 

260. Vaulting ribs ; plan 290 

261. Vaulting surfaces : arrangement of courses . . 290 

262. Lierne vaulting 29 1 

263. Plan of fan-vaulting 292 

264. Weathering of a buttress ; 1 1th century . . . 294 

265. Coffin-lid ; 13th century ...... 296 


B. = Professor G. Baldwin Brown : Various works. 
Bl. =M. H. Bloxnm : Essays on Church Vestments, the 
nrraiu/emenl of Churches and Sepulchral Monu- 
ments, 1903. (A reprint of the third volume of 
Principles of (lotlilc Ettdefiattical Architecture, 
Bu. W. Burgess: Contributions to Sir G. G. Scott's 

''liinntii/x from Westminster Abbey, 1863. 
C.=J. VV. Clark : The Care of Books, 1901. 
Cl. G. T. Clark : Med!a>i'al Mil itari/ Architecture in Eng- 

l<i ud, 188k 

Cr. rrW. J. Cripps : Old English Plate, 1903. 
D. = Tin- Kites of Durham, Surtees Society, 1903. (The 

quotation on p. 90 is abbreviated.) 
G. = J. Gwilt : Encyclojjcedia of Architecture, 1903. 
Ga. =J. Starkie Gardner: Ironwork, 1893, 1896. 
H. = W. H. St. John Hope: The English Altar, Alcuin 

Club, 18f)!>. 

Ha. H. Haines : Manual of Monumental Brasses, 1861. 
Hn. = J. F. Hodgson : Archa'ologia A^liana, xxiii. 
K. =C. E. Keyser : List of Build int/s !>i 'irt-at Britain and 
Ireland liarimi Mural and other Painted Decorations, 
L. = Professor W. R. Lethaby : Leadwork, old and orna- 

mentdl and for the most part English, 1893. 
M. = J. T. Micklethwaite : Ornaments of the Rubric, Alcuin 
Club, 1898. Something about Saxon building, Arch- 
aeological Journal. 

Ma. =H. W. Macklin : Monumental Brasses, 1891. 
N.E.D. =J. A. H. Murray: New English Dictionary. 


P. = Glosiary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, Italian, 

and Gothic Architecture, Parker, 1850. 
Pr. =E. S. Prior, History of Gothic Art in England, 1900. 
English Mediaeval Figure Sculpture (Architectural 
Review, 1902-3). 

S. = Professor W. W. Skeat: Concise Etymological Dic- 
tionary of the English Language, 1890. 

Schultz and Barnsley-=R. W. Schultz (now Weir) and S. H. 
Banisley : The Monastery of Saint Luke of Stirit. 
(Britith School at Athtnt, 1901 J 

W. = H. C. Windley : Journal Ryl Inst. Brit. Archts., 1905. 
W.&C. = Professor R. Willis and J. W. Clark: Architectural 
History of the University of Cambridge, 1886. 


ABACUS (pi. ABACI). Lit. a table, a slab ; in architec- 
ture the top member of a capital/ In Greek Doric it 
is square in plan and has square edges (fig. 36) ; in Greek 
Ionic and in Roman Doric and Tuscan it is square in 
plan and the lower edge is moulded ; in the remaining 



orders* it has concave sides and the angles are cut off, 
the face is moulded and sometimes enriched (fig. 1). 
The Norman abacus (fig. 2) is always square in plan 
in small capitals and generally in large capitals ; the 
upper edge is square and the lower edge chamfered. 
In Gothic work it is round or octagonal on plan and has 

ABBEY. A monastery* ruled over by an abbot (lit. 
a father) or abbess. (See also PRIORY.) 

ABUTMENT. A mass of masonry or other material 
to resist a thrust such as that of an arch. 

* See article thereon. 


ACANTHUS. The leaf of the Corinthian capital 
(figs. 4, 5) copied, according to Vitruvius, from the 
variety of thistle found in Greece. Called in English 
' Bear's-breech ' (p.). 




ACROPOLIS. The citadel of a Greek city, usually 
a naturally defensive position, rendered stronger by 
works ; on it were placed the principal buildings. 


An ornament on the apex and at 
the lower angles of a Greek or 
Roman pediment (fig. 6). 

AISLE. A wing of a building 
separated from the central part by a row of columns. 

ALABASTER. A soft, slightly translucent, white 
and pink limestone (sulphate of lime) used for sculpture 
and for conversion (by burning) into Plaster of Paris 

ALCOVE. A semi-circular or semi elliptical recess 
in a wall. A building of the form of an alcove or apse, 
erected over the grave of a saint or martyr near Rome 
in early Christian days. 


ALLEY. A narrow lane in a town. An enclosed 
walk in a garden. A narrow part of a building, such 
as an aisle or cloister. 

ALLURE. The walk along the top of a castle 

ALMERY, AUMBRY. A cupboard in the thickness 
of a wall (medieval). Besides those of ordinary size, a 
church sometimes has a very high one (generally near 
the west end) to contain a processional cross or its staff. 

ALMONRY. A place in which alms were distri- 
buted, e.g. the place in a religious house in which food 
was given to the indigent. 

ALTAR. In Greek and Roman buildings a stone 
pedestal-like table for sacrifices ; in Christian churches 
a table for the celebration of the Sacrament of the 
Holy Eucharist. 

Christian altars in the earliest times were generally 
of wood, but in A.D. 509 it was ordered that they were 
to be of stone (P.). The top was often if not always a 
single slab of stone or marble, and was supported on 
walls of masonry or on columns. The altar was gener- 
ally raised on one or more steps ; there seems to have 
been no rule as to the number. The masonry was 
always hidden by a frontal of drapery or metal, and 
was covered by a white linen cloth. It seems that the 
shelf now often placed at the back of the Holy Table 
and generally called a super-altar or retable, was not 
used in the middle ages. 

" From the time that Stone Altars were introduced, it 
was usual to enclose the relics of saints in them, so that 
in many cases they were the actual tombs of saints, and 
they were always supposed to be so, some relics being 
considered indispensable " (p.) ; but it was not universal 
in England. There were sometimes small niches in 
the end, in which to place the cruets (H.). The slab 


was marked with five small crosses, one in the centre 
and one at each angle, cut in the stone at the places 
anointed by the bishop at the consecration. 

The number of altars in a church depended upon cir- 
cumstances; even the smallest churches appear to have 
had two besides the high altar, and the piscinas belong- 
ing to them may generally be seen at the east end of 
each aisle. A large parish church seems usually to 
have had five altars (M.), while a cathedral church had 
many more. Saint Gregory, so early as 590, mentions a 
church with thirteen altars (P.). There was often an 
altar in the sacristy or vestry, at least a piscina is often 
found, and in early times in the porch. 

The destruction of altars by the Reformers appears 
to have begun in 1548, and an order for the removal of 
those that remained and for providing ' an honest table ' 
was issued in 1550. The stone altars were restored by 
Queen Mary, and again removed under Queen Elizabeth. 
It was then ordered that a table should be set in the 
place of the altar "and so to stand, saving when the 
communion of the sacrament is to be distributed ; at 
which time the same shall be so placed in good sort 
within the chancel as whereby the minister may be 
more conveniently heard of the communicants in his 
prayer and ministration, and the communicants also 
more conveniently and in more number communicate 
with the said minister." It is thought that the result 
of this order was that the table was brought from the 
east end and placed lengthwise down the centre of the 
chancel. Many good plain tables of this period and of 
the times of the Stuarts still remain, though very many 
have been destroyed in the last few years during the 
' restoration ' of the churches. 


twelve inches by six, used for the consecration of the 
elements in places where there was no fixed altar. A 


licence from the Pope seems to have been necessary to 
entitle any to the use of a portable altar (p.). 

For the modern use of the term super-altar, see 
ALTAR, above. 

ALTAR-CLOTH. A cloth of white linen placed 
upon an altar. An altar-frontal (rare). 

ALTAR-FRONTAL. An ornamental cloth of velvet, 
silk or other rich material hung in front of an altar. 

FRONTLET. A short frontal hung from the edge of the 
altar over the frontal. 


ALTAR-TOMB. A modern term for a tomb or 
monument resembling an altar in form and -height ; 
formerly called a 'high-tomb.' 


AMBO. A stone or marble lectern of pulpit-like 
form in early churches. There were two one on the 
north side for the epistle, and one on the south for the 

AMBULATORY. A path: a place in which to walk, 
such as a cloister or an aisle ; sometimes more particu- 
larly applied to an aisle round an apse. 


AMPHITHEATRE. An elliptical (rarely circular) 
building with tiers of seats rising round a central 
arena. Used by the Romans for gladiatorial fights 
and so forth. 

ANDIRON. A fire-dog. 





ANNULET. A ring, e.g. one 
of the fillets round the lower 
part of the Greek Doric capital ; 
a moulded band round a Nor- 
man column (fig. 7) or connect- 
ing a group of shafts in Gothic 
architecture. (See also MOULD- 

ANT A (pi. ANTAE). A short 
wall enclosing or partly enclosing 
the side of a portico ; a pilaster 
projecting from the back wall 
of a portico behind the angle 
column. (See also TEMPLE.) 

ANTE-CHAPEL. The western part of a chapel, 
separated from the rest by a screen, and often not 

ANTEFIX. A marble or terra-cotta 
ornament placed on the top of the cor- 
nice along the side of a Greek build- 
ing, opposite the covering tile over the 
joint between two rows of flat tiles. 

APOPHYGE (escape). A slight 
concave expansion at the top and 
bottom of Greek and Roman columns 
(fig. 8, a). Not used in Greek Doric. 

APSE, APSIS. A semi-circular or 
polygonal wing of a building. Much 
used in Roman buildings and at one or 
both ends of early Christian churches * 
in which it was of semi - circular 
form, and in Gothic churches on the 
Continent, in which it is more often 


* See article thereon. 



ARABESQUE. A decorative scroll 
carved in low relief or painted ; so 
called after a somewhat similar form 
of ornament in Arabian architecture. 
Though the ornament is much used in 
all styles the term is generally applied 
only to Classical and Renaissance archi- 
tecture (fig. 9). 

ARCADE. A row of arches. 
ARCH (Lat. arcus, a bow). A struc- 
ture consisting of several wedge-shaped 
pieces so arranged as to be supported 
by their mutual pressure without the 
aid of a cementing material. This 
definition limits the term to a system 
of construction and disregards the form. 
The term is often applied to a structure 
which is an arch in form only, 
as a single stone (fig. 10) or a 
mass of concrete shaped like 
an arch, but such are essenti- 
ally lintels in their function. 
Another arched form which 
does not fall within the defini- 
tion given above is the dome 

AN AkCH IN ,rr> C * . 

over the ' 1 reasury ot Atreus 




(fig. 11), which is really a system of corbelling. 

The Orientals have a saying that ' the arch never 
sleeps'; this agrees with what has been said above, for it 
follows as a corollary to our definition that the true 
arch always exerts an outward pressure on its supports. 

Voussoirs are the stones or bricks which go to make 
up an arch. The upper or outer surface of an arch is 
called the extrados, as distinguished from the inner or 


lower surface which is called the intrados or soffit. 
The haunch is the part between the springing and the 
apex, more particularly (in common speech) the portion 
about half-way between. In a rough brick arch in 
which the bricks are not wedge-shaped, the n ortar 
in each joint assumes the form of a wedge and acts 
as a ' voussoir.' 

The arch was known to the Greeks but hardly ever 
used by them. The Romans employed the arch or 
the arched form extensively, always for constructive 
reasons, never for decoration ; many of their arches 
and vaults are such in form only, being really masses 
of concrete ; the form is always semi-circular. 

Both round and pointed arches with radiating joints 
were used in the East in remote times : in Assyria 
and in Ethiopia and elsewhere centuries before the 
Christian era. It is possible that the pointed arch is 
the earliest form, for it seems not unlikely that the 
primitive construction consisted of corbelling in hori- 
zontal courses, as in the ' Treasury of Atreus ' (fig. 1 1 ) 


and an arch or dome of this construction would be 
more easily brought to a pointed apex than to a semi- 
circle. 1 However that may be, the pointed form and 
the true arch-construction with radiating voussoirs 

1 I owe this suggestion to my Father. 


continued in use and is found in various lands and of 
various centuries of the Christian era. It was used by 
the Mahometans and was probably introduced by them 
into Sicily and other countries which they conquered 
in the eighth and ninth centuries ; it is found in Spain 
in the ninth and tenth centuries. In the south of 
France it was used early in the eleventh century, but 
not in the north of France for at least a hundred years 
later, and it was not brought over to England till about 
1 1 30. Many other theories, which it is unnecessary to 
notice here, have been put forward to account for the 
invention of the pointed arch. Its adoption when 
once introduced was no doubt due, in great part, to 
the facilities it gave in the construction of vaults. 

Ogee (der. thro' O.Fr. and Span. fr. Arab, divj, 
summit s) arches, also probably of Oriental origin, were 
used in England from the first quarter of the fourteenth 
century (fig. 1 3 K). 

Arches struck from four centres (fig. 13 H) are found 
in English work of between 1350 and 1370 onwards; 
after 1500 they became very flat, especially in narrow 
spans such as doorways. On the introduction of Re- 
naissance architecture about 1550, the round arch 
gradually superseded the pointed. Elliptical arches 
were used a good deal in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century (fig. 13 u). 

RELIEVING ARCH. A plain arch built over a lintel or 
over an arch which is not strong enough, in order to 
relieve it of some of the weight of the superstructure 
(fig. 12). Called also a 'discharging arch.' 

RERE-ARCH. One which supports the wall over the 
recess of a window or door as distinct from the outer 

SCONCHEON or scoiNsoN ARCH. The same as a rere-arch. 

SKEW-ARCH. One in which the axis is not at right 
angles to the face, as when a railway passes obliquely 



over a road ; in this case the courses are kept at right 
angles to the face of the arch and not parallel with the 
axis ; they are in consequence inclined to the horizon. 



Names of various forms of arch 

A Round M 

B Stilted N 

C Horseshoe O 

D Segmental P 

E Equilateral Q 

F Acute R 

G Drop S 

H Four-centred T 

I Three-centred 

J Elliptical U 

K Ogee V 

L Round trefoil 

(fig- 13): 

Pointed trefoil 
Round cusped 
Pointed cusped 
Italian pointed 
Italian round 
Joggled lintel, with 

relieving arch 

ARCHITECT (Gk. o.p\i-, chief; TKTO>V, builder, crafts- 
man). "A master builder ; especially a skilled professor 


of the art of building, whose business it is to prepare 
plans of edifices, and exercise a general superintend- 
ence over the course of their erection" (N. E. D.). 

ARCHITECTURE. " The art or science of building 
or constructing edifices of any kind for human use. . . . 
But Architecture is sometimes regarded solely as a fine 
art, and then has the narrower meaning explained . . . 
below (N. E. D.). 

" 1849. RUSKIK, Seven Lamps, i. 1, 7. Architecture is the 
art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by man . . . 
that the sight of them contributes to his mental health, power 
and pleasure. 1879. G. SCOTT, Lect. Archit., n. 292. Architec- 
ture as distinguished from mere building is the decoration of 

ARCHITRAVE. The lowest division of the entabla- 
ture in Classical architecture. When an entablature was 
used over a doorway or window the mouldings of the 
architrave were carried down the sides and are often 
thus used when the rest of the entablature is omitted. 
Similar mouldings were applied to an arch in Classical 
and Renaissance architecture and are also called the 
architrave. (See also MOULDING and ORDER.) 

ARCH I VOLT. Architrave mouldings applied to an 

ARCISOLIUM, Lat. (pi. ARCISOLIA). A recess for a 
tomb in the confessio * or crypt of an early Christian 
church, or in a catacomb.* 

ARMARIUM. A cupboard; in a monastic cloister a 
cupboard for books, usually near the entrance to the 
church. (See also LIBRARY.) 

ARRIS. A sharp edge of stone or wood or metal. 

ASHLAR. Masonry of rectangular blocks accur- 
ately worked and in continuous and equal courses. 

ASTRAGAL. See MOULDING (fig. 175). 

ATRIUM. The first court of a Roman house, sur- 
rounded by rooms, and serving both as a court and as a 


hall ; it was partly covered in, but in the centre of the 
roof there was an opening under which was a tank ; 
sometimes wholly covered. 

ATTIC. A garret* or chamber constructed in the 
roof. (See ATTIC ORDER.) 

ATTIC BASE. The most common moulding for the 
base* in the Ionic and Corinthian orders. 

ATTIC ORDER OR STOREY. In Classical and 
Renaissance architecture a storey above the main en- 
tablature. (See ORDER, CLASSICAL.) 

AULA (Lat.). A hall. 

BAILEY. The court of a castle* between the keep 
and the outer wall. 

BALDACHINO (Ital.). A canopy over an altar in 
Italian churches. The original meaning was "a rich 
embroidered cloth of gold and silk used for copes, palls, 
etc. ; also the portable canopy which was borne over 
shrines, etc., in processions. The .,. 

bronze nuoniuM of St. Peter at 
Rome was termed the Baldachino, 
and hence the modern applica- 
tion of this word to a fixed 
CANOPY over an altar or throne, 
whether supported on pillars or 
suspended from above" (P.). 

BALISTRARIA. A loophole 
in the wall of a fortress. 

richment carved in the hollow 
of a moulding in the latter part 
of the thirteenth and during the 
greater part of the fourteenth 
centuries (fig. 14). 

* See article thereon. 




BALUSTER. A small shaft, round or square, the 
diameter of which varies at different levels. 

BALUSTRADE. A row of balusters. 

BAPTISTERY. A building or part of a building set 
aside for the sacrament of baptism. In Italy it was 
sometimes a distinct building which served for the 
whole town. It was never used in England, the font 
always standing in a conspicuous position in the church, 
and generally in the centre of 
the nave near the west end. 


An advance work defending the 
entrance to a castle or fortified 

BARGE-BOARD. A board, 
often decorated, under an over- 
hanging gable (fig. 15). 

BARTIZAN. A small turret 
projecting from the angle of a 
building (fig. 16). 

BASE. The projecting foot 
of a wall of column. It was 
used in all the Greek and Roman 
orders except the Greek Doric, 
and is ornamented with mould- 
ings.* The commonest form for 
Ionic and Corinthian was what 
is called the Attic base (fig. 1 7 a 
and fig. 1 9), but the forms shown 
at fig. 176 and fig. 1 8 were also 
used. The Tuscan base is shown 
at fig. 17 c. The Romans used 
the section d for pedestals. 

* See article thereon. Fir,. 16. BARTIZ,. 








The Norman base, though 
derived from the Classical 
base, was of slight projection, 
rude, and undeveloped ; the 
plinth was square (fig. 20), 
the angle being often filled 
with a spur* of carving. 

Karly Gothic profiles ap- 
proximated more to the Attic 
base (fig. 21). About the 
middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury (though sometimes ear- 
lier) the bold hollow which 
separated the upper and lower 






rolls was omitted and a third 
roll took its place (fig. 22). 
The base mould of a wall was 
most commonly a simple cham- 
fer, though mouldings were 
also used. (See PLINTH.) In the 
latter part of the fourteenth 
century, and during the fif- 
teenth, the base of the column 
gradually became higher, the 
mouldings being more elon- 
gated and of less projection 
(fig. 23). The Renaissance 
base of course followed Classical 

BASE-COURT. The lower 
or outer court of a large 
medieval house, generally sur- 
rounded by stables and offices. 

BASEMENT. 1 (Classical 
and Renaissance). A storey 
or high plinth below the main 
order (see PODIUM). 2 (Modern). 
A storey partly below ground. 



royal). A large hall. The 
origin of the term, as applied 
to a building, is obscure. The 
Roman basilica, primarily an 
exchange and secondarily a 
law-court, was of various forms : 
enclosed by solid walls, or by columns and screens 
(cancelli) only ; rectangular or with an apse at one or 
each end. Most examples have one or two aisles on 
each side, with galleries above them. The seat of the 
judge was in the apse, and in front of it there was an 



altar. The hall of a private house was also sometimes 
called a basilica. (See also CHURCHES.) 



BASTILE. A fort, castle or bulwark ; often used 
as a prison (P.). 

BASTION. A bulwark projecting from the outer 
wall of a castle or fort. 

BATTERING WALL. A wall the face of which 
slopes back, generally used for sustaining the pressure 
of earth or water. (See RETAINING WALL.) 

BATTLEMENT. A parapet* with a succession of 
rectangular notches called crenels or embrasures, the 
higher parts being called merlons. Originally used in 
castles for defence, but from the fourteenth century in 


parapets of other buildings and also on a diminutive scale 
as an enrichment on mouldings, etc. In the early battle- 
ments the sides of the merlons are plain (fig. 25 A), but 
in later examples the moulding of the coping is often 
carried down them (fig. 25 B). 

* See article thereon. 


BAY, SEVERY. A compartment of a building 
between two columns, roof principals, buttresses or 
other repeated constructional feature. 

BAY-WINDOW. The same as bow-window (p.). 
A window in a recess ; not the same as bow-window 
(s.). Possibly a window occupying a whole bay. 

BEAD. A small convex moulding of semi-circular 
section (fig. 176). 



BED-MOULDING. A moulding or series of mould- 
ings under the corona of a cornice or other similar pro- 

BED OF A STONE. The lower surface of a stone ; 
the upper surface, if prepared to receive another stone, 
is called the top bed. The natural bed is the natural 

BELFRY, (l) The chamber of a tower in which 
the bells are hung; (2) a bell-tower. Properly a 
watch-tower ; corrupted from Mid. Eng. berfray ; no 
connection with ' bell ' ; originally a guard tower, one 
on wheels used in sieges (s.) Seldom used in England 
except in connection with churches. The tower was 
sometimes detached from the building, as at Salisbury, 
Norwich (both destroyed), and Chichester, and at some 
parish churches, and was intended to be so at King's 
College, Cambridge. 

BELL OP A CAPITAL. The body of the capital be- 
tween the astragal or necking (p. 186) and the abacus. 

BELL-COTE, BELL-TURRET. A small bell-tower ; 
a bell-house. The most common forms are the follow- 
ing : (l) The west or east wall of the nave is carried 
up and has one or two piercings, occasionally three, in 


which the bells are hung ; it 
is finished with a steep gable 
(fig. 26) ; examples of this type 
at the west end of the church 
and forming the only belfry, 
are common in the southern 
midlands ; the same sort is used 
in other parts for a special small 
bell over the chancel arch. 
(2) A low timber framing 
covered with boarding or shing- 
les and having a pyramidal roof, 
is supported on 
the west wall and 
the west part of 
the nave roof (fig. 
27) ; it is used in 
the west and in 
the south-east of 

A bench of solid 
masonry against 
the inside of the 
wall of a medieval 


t .; 


BEVEL. The plane formed by cutting off the edge 
of a surface at a slight angle, e.g. a bevelled mirror. 
(See also CHAMFER.) 

BILLET ORNAMENT. An enrichment used in 
Romanesque architecture, consisting of short cylinders 
or square block* at intervals in a hoi low moulding (fig. 28). 


BIRD'S-BKAK ORNAMENT. An enrichment used 
in Romanesque architecture consisting of a series of 
grotesque beaked heads crossing the mouldings (fig. 29- 
See also p. 188). 




BLOCKING COURSE. A plain course of masonry 
over a cornice (fig. 30). 


BOLECTION MOULDING. A moulding placed 
round a panel and projecting beyond the face of the 
framing (fig. 31). 

22 BOND 

BOND. The overlapping of the courses of stones 
or bricks in a wall. In masonry the method depends 
upon the regularity or otherwise of the stones. In" 
brickwork there are two systems : (l) English bond 
(fig. 32) ; all the bricks in one course are laid as 
' headers/ that is, showing their ends, and in the next 





course as 'stretchers/ showing their sides, and so on 
alternately. This system is the strongest ; it was in 
use in England from the sixteenth century to the end 
of the seventeenth, and was revived in the nineteenth. 
(2) Flemish bond (fig. 33) ; in every course the bricks 
are laid as headers and stretchers alternately. 


BOSS. A carved stone at the meeting of any of the 
ribs of a vault, or at the termination of some architec- 
tural feature. 

BOUDOIR. A private room for a lady; literally, a 
place to sulk in ; from French bonder. 

BOW-WINDOW. A projecting window, semi-circu- 
lar or polygonal on plan. In the middle ages seldom 
used but in the hall, where it was on one or both sides 


near the dais end. In Elizabeth's reign it became com- 
mon in other rooms. Corrupt form of bay-window* (p.). 
BOWER. (Medieval.) A lady's private room. 

BOWTEL. A projecting moulding* of cylindrical 
form or approximating to a cylinder. 

BRACE. In carpentry a short piece of timber placed 
in the angle formed by two principal 
timbers in order that the angle may be 
kept true and the shape of the framework 
preserved (fig. 34i). 

BRACKET. A support projecting from 
a wall or column. In medieval work, if 
of stone, it is usually called a corbel ;* in 
Classical and Renaissance architecture, a 
console* or modillion;* in modern build- 
ings, if of iron, a cantilever. 

BRANDR1TH. A fence or rail round 
the opening of a well (o.). 


BRASS (METAL). An alloy, consisting of one part of 
zinc and from three to seven parts of copper. 

BRATTISHING. A cresting, e.g. a pierced or 
ornamented parapet of a wall ; a row of upright leaves 
on the cornice of a fifteenth-century screen or round a 
ducal coronet. (See TUDOR-FLOWER). 

summer supporting the front of a building, etc., after 
the manner of a lintel. It is distinguished from a lintel 
by its bearing the whole superstructure of wall, etc., 
instead of only a small portion over the opening ; thus 
the beam over a common shop-front which carries the 
wall of the house above it is a bressummer (P.). 


* See article thereon. 

FIG. 34. 


BRICK, BRICKWORK. Bricks were much used by 
the Romans ; in Britain Roman bricks vary in size 
from about 6 inches square to about 18 inches by 
12, the smaller sizes being more commonly used 
for the pillars of hypocausts (see ROMAN ARCHITECTURE) 
and the larger sizes for walls. The thickness varies 
from 1^ inches to If inches. They were frequently 
used for bonding courses and as quoins in walls of flint 
and small stones. The practice of brick-making seems 
to have died out after the departure of the Romans, 
and the bricks used by the Saxons and Normans were 
apparently taken from Roman buildings. In the 
eastern counties bricks were occasionally used from 
the thirteenth century ; they were perhaps imported 
from the Netherlands ; they measure about 9 inches by 
4^ by 2 to L 2\ thick. In the fifteenth century they 
became fairly common especially in fireplaces, because 
they will stand the heat better than stone : they are 
generally about 10 inches by 5, and are \\ to 2 inches 
thick. In other parts of England where good stone 
was obtainable they were not much used till a century 
later, nor generally till the eighteenth century. In 
the nineteenth century the thickness increased to 2J 
and 3 inches (figs. 114, 133). 

Bricks were laid without method till the sixteenth 
century when English bond* was introduced. Orna- 
mental brickwork then became very elaborate and 
was practised with skill, as in chimney* stacks (fig. 
54). These forms gave way to a simpler and more 
appropriate treatment in the seventeenth century. 
Moulded cornices with carved enrichments were used 
with good effect in the eighteenth century. On the 
invention of Roman cement and the general decay of 
taste early in the nineteenth century, brickwork^ 
as a means of architectural expression fell into dis- 

* See article thereon. 


BRICK-NOGGINO. Brickwork filling the spaces between 
the timbers of a framed partition. 

BRIDGE. A few medieval bridges still remain. 
The arches are generally of small span and pointed, 
and they are strengthened by a number of parallel 
ribs. The piers are sharply pointed especially up 
stream, forming a ' cut-water.' A bridge approaching a 
town was defended by a gateway tower in the middle, 
as at Monmouth, or at one end, as at Sandwich. In 
some instances there is a chapel, perhaps endowed be- 
fore the bridge was built, that travellers might pray 
for protection in crossing the ford or ferry ; examples 
may be seen at Wakefield, Rotherham, St. Ives (Hunts). 
Houses were also built over the roadway, as on London 
Bridge, the rents from them being of value to the town. 

BRITISH ARCHITECTURE. The architecture of 
pre-Roman times. The houses are said to have each 
consisted of a single room, round or square. Stone- 
henge is far the most important work extant. 

BROACH. When a square tower is surmounted by 
an octagonal spire each angle is covered by a half- 
pyramid, the apex of which is in the centre of one of 
the sides of the spire (fig. 221); these half-pyramids 
are called broaches ; the spire is called a broach spire ; 
usually its cardinal faces rise from the faces of the 
tower without a parapet. The term is alse occasionally 
applied to the spire itself. 

BUHL WORK. Formerly called 'Boule' work 
from the name of its inventor. It consists of one or 
more metals inlaid upon a ground of tortoiseshell, or 
tortoiseshell inlaid upon a ground of metal. The process 
is as follows : Two pieces of veneer are placed together, 
with paper between them, each being glued to the 
paper. Upon the surface of the upper one is placed 
the drawing of the pattern to be cut, and then the out- 

26 BURH 

lines of it are cut through by means of a very fine 
watch spring saw. The parts are then separated, that 
which is taken from the darker material is let into the 
lighter and vice versa (o.). 

BUTTERY. A ' butlery/ a room at the lower end 
of a medieval hall in which victuals and especially 
liquors were kept. It opened into the screens passage. 
The door was in two heights like a stable door, the 
lower part having a shelf on the top for convenience in 
serving out provisions. (See HOUSE.) 

BUTTRESS. A mass of masonry or other like 
material built up against a wall (or at a short distance 
from it, and connected with it by an arch) in order to 
resist the thrust of a roof or vault, or otherwise to 
strengthen the building. 

The Romanesque buttress derived from Roman archi- 
tecture was wide and of slight projection, and was of nc 
structural use. The angles were often ornamente' 
with abowtel moulding. When the pressures 
roofs* and vaults* began to be concentrated at par- 
ticular points it became necessary to increase the 
projection of the buttress, and at the same time th< 
thickness of the wall was reduced. At the beginning 
of the thirteenth century the projection at the bast 
was about ecfual to the width ; it was gradually reducec 
by weathered, i.e. sloping, offsets, the top being finishe 
with a weathering or with a gablet, or, in large builc 
ings, with a pinnacle; the angles were chamfered 
at the corner of a building there were two buttresse 
at right angles to the walls. At the end of the thii 
teenth century the projection had increased and the 
corners were not chamfered. In the fourteenth centur 
one buttress was placed diagonally at the corner of 
* See article thereon. 


building. The projection increased still more in the 
fifteenth century ; the corners of buildings had either 
one diagonal buttress or two placed square ; pinnacles 
were used more often than formerly. 

FLYING BUTTRESS. In order to carry the thrust of a 
nave vault over an aisle or cloister, a ' flying buttress ' 
was used (fig. 35). A vertical buttress was built on the 
further side of the aisle, and a 
half-arch was thrown from this 
to the point at which the thrust 
had to be met. This half-arch 
carried the pressure across the 
space, producing an oblique 
thrust on the buttress some little 
distance below its head. The 
weight of the head of the but- 
tress and of the pinnacle which 
generally crowned it gave to 
the oblique thrust a direction 
more nearly vertical, as indicated 
by the arrows in the diagram 
(fig. 35). As the pressure de- 
scended it became more vertical, 
owing to the weight of the 
masonry itself, so that when the ground was reached," 
the direction of the pressure fell within the foot of the 
buttress, which was a necessary condition of stability. 


CABINET. A small room used as a study or for the 
preservation of curios. 

CABLE MOULDING. A spiral moulding like a 
cable, used in Romanesque architecture (fig. 7). 

CALEFACTORY. A warming room; a room in a 
monastery where a fire was kept burning in cold 



weather, to which the monks were occasionally allowed 
to resort when chilled by the church services or by 
study in the cloister. 

CAMBER. The upward rise towards the centre in 
the tie-beam of a roof, or in other similar beam, or in a 
straight arch, 

CAMPANILE (Ital.). A bell-tower. 

CANCELLUS (Lat.). A lattice-work screen be- 
tween the columns of a portico or round the altar in 
a basilica* or early Christian church.* 

CANDLESTICK. In the middle ages the use of 
lights varied in different churches ; one or more lights 
were placed on the altar during mass ; well-furnished 
churches commonly had a pair of tall candlesticks on 
each side in front of the high altar (M.). The Pascal 
candlestick stood on the north side of the presbytery 
(M.) ; at Durham it was in the middle, and was set up 
on the Thursday before Easter and removed on the 
Wednesday after Ascension Day. 

CANOPY. A roof or projection to protect a door, 
altar, statue, or other object. Canopies over doors 
have been in general use in domestic architecture at 
all times ; they are usually of wood, supported on 
brackets, and are finished with a gable or with a flat 
roof or otherwise. They were also placed over altars 
in the middle ages and were either of wood or con- 
sisted of curtains hung on iron rods. Similar canopies 
sometimes projected over the high-table in a medieval 
hall, the original object in both cases being to afford a 
protection from falling dust and from draughts. From 
the thirteenth to the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
turies canopies were also placed over important sepul- 
chral monuments." They were also used above niches * 
during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

* See article thereon. 


CANT. An oblique face ; the term is usually 
applied to large objects, e.g. a bow -window which 
is a half octagon or half hexagon on plan is said to 
have canted angles, whereas the terms chamfer* and 
bevel* and splay* are applied to small solid objects. 

CANTILEVER. A bracket. 

CAPITAL. A stone placed on the top of a column 
to make a wider bearing for the superstructure, or to 
effect a transition from a round column to a square 
superstructure. It consists of two principal parts, the 
bell* and the abacus.* 

The Greek Doric capital consists of an echinus, 1 
circular in plan, surmounted by an abacus, square 
in plan and with square edges (fig. 36). 
The capital of the Ionic order* is rect- 
angular in plan, with two large spirals or 
volutes in front and two behind ; the 
Corinthian capital has a high circular 
bell ornamented with acanthus* leaves, FIG 36 GREEK 
the abacus having four concave sides ; DORIC CAPITAL 
the Roman Doric has a moulded capital ; 
the Roman Ionic and Corinthian have a general resem- 
blance to the Greek ; the Tuscan is like the Doric ; 
the Composite combines the acanthus leaves of the 
Corinthian with the volutes of the Ionic. 

In Saxon architecture the capital is a rude imitation 
of Roman Work, with mouldings or with leaf forms and 
volutes disposed somewhat at random. In the Norman 
capita], as in the Saxon, the bell and the abacus are 
worked on separate stones. In plan the abacus of a 
large pier generally follows approximately the plan of 
the pier itself ; for small shafts it is invariably square ; 
in section the upper edge is square and the lower edge 
is chamfered. The lower part of the bell is made round 
to fit the column, while the upper part is square to fit 

* See article thereon. l See MOULDING, p. 188. 



the abacus ; this gives a form which is known as the 
cushion capital (fig. 37). The most common way of 
decorating this plain block is by cutting vertical flu tes 
producing the scolloped capital (figs. 38, 39). Some 

FIG. 37- 

FIG. 38. 

FIG. 3Q. 

times it is covered with involved interlacing scroll 
work. Other varieties are a rude imitation of the 
volute (fig. 40), and a curious reversed volute formed 
by a leaf curling upwards under the corner of the 
abacus instead of bending downwards (fig. 41). 

FIG. 40. 

FIG. 4t. 

Some Norman capitals have foliage which shows very 
clearly its derivation from the Roman acanthus, and 
this gradually developed into the characteristic foliage* 
of the thirteenth century, forming a succession of very 

* See article thereon. 




free sprays (figs. 42, 
103). In another type 
the foliage is gathered 
up into knobs (fig. 

During the latter part 
of the twelfth century 
another form was de- 
veloped, namely the 
moulded capital which 
is ornamented with 
rings of mouldings* 
round the upper part 
of the bell (fig. 44). 
This form soon became 
more common than the carved capital 
and eventually superseded it entirely. 
At first the mouldings* are simply treated, 
but afterwards become more coplex. 

At the beginning of the fourteenth cen- 
tury the remarkable change in the foliage* 
from forms of abstract beauty to close 
imitations of particular species is seen 
in the carved capital. The leaves are 
disposed in a wreath-like man- 
ner round the bell (fig. 106) 
and they lose the bold lights 
and shadows of the earlier 
wor k The moulded capital 
has .not the deep hollows 
of the thirteenth century. 
In the fifteenth century the 
mouldings became weaker, 
and sculpture is rarely used 
except as little rosettes and 
leaves stuck round the bell ; 
* See article thereon. 






the top of the abacus is some- 
times surrounded by a row 
of battlements. The capital 
was a less important feature 
and in some cases had ceased 
to be functional, many of 
the arch - mouldings being 
tarried down the column (fig. 

The capitals of the Renais- 
sance were copied from the 
Roman varieties of the classi- 
cal orders/ with slight varia 

CARRELL. Asmall boarded 
enclosure erected in a monastic 
cloister to serve as a study 
for a monk; one was placed 
against each window or each 
light, according to the char- 
acter of the window, and was 
just large enough to contain a 
seat and a desk for one person. 
Their object was to afford the 
monks some protection from 
the cold of the cloister during 
the long hours of reading or 
transcribing. The date of their introduction i 
known, but they were in use in the latter half of the 
thirteenth century. At Gloucester Cathedral provision 
was made for them when the cloister was built, between 
1370 and 1412, by recessing the windows in a peculiar 
way; or these recesses were themselves the carrels and 
were fitted with doors. 

CARTOUCHE (Fr., a roll of paper), (l) A tablet, 
most often used for an inscription or for a coat of arms, 
* See article thereon. 

FIG. 45. 


resembling a sheet of paper with the edges curled up 
(fig. 46). (2) A modillion of a cornice with 
a scroll-like form. 


CARYATID. Columns. in the form of 
human figures, as in the porch of the Erech- 
theum, Athens ; or pilasters as satyrs, half 
man and half goat; or human bodies growing 
out of square tapering columns, or other grotesque forms. 

CASEMENT. (1) A window; (2) that part of a 
window which opens on hinges at the side. A French 
casement is continued to the floor and is divided down 
the middle so as to make a pair of glass folding-doors. 

CASEMENT MOULDING. A wide shallow mould- 
ing much used in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, especially in the internal arches 
and jambs of windows (fig. 4-7). 

CASTLE. There is much differ- 
ence of opinion on the subject of 
Saxon and Norman strongholds. 

Till recently it has been held that 
the Saxon ' burh ' was a conical 
mound surrounded by a ditch and 
wooden palisade, and that these CASEMENT MOULDING 
burhs were numerous and occupied 
good strategic positions, so that the Conqueror possessed 
himself of them and gave them to his followers, 
and he and his successors simply strengthened them 
and gradually substituted stone walls for the wooden 
palisades (CL.). Thus there was created a type of 
Norman castle known as the shell keep consisting of a 
high circular wall containing sufficient buildings to serve 
the garrison when the place was besieged, in marked 
contrast to the 'square keep' which was the type 
chosen by the Norman when he occupied a new site. 



The Round Tower at Windsor and the White Tower of 
the Tower of London are examples of these two types, 
which will be more fully described presently. 

The later view is that the Saxon 'burh' was a 
fortified town, that the circular 'shell keeps' of the 
Normans were entirely new creations on new sites, 
that palisades were first put up, and that these were 
replaced by stone walls when the artificial mound had 
become sufficiently consolidated to bear their weight (H.). 

Many of the castles begun by his father and brother 
were completed by Henry I., and perhaps most of our 
square keeps may be attributed to him. Many castles 
were in private hands, having been rebuilt by the 
barons in the preceding reigns. These strong private 
castles were objectionable to both the king and people, 
as they made the owners powerful and too independent 
of the one, while they gave them too much opportunity 
of tyrannizing over the other. The old English fortified 
house, besides being owned and garrisoned by a fellow- 
countryman of the surrounding population, had not been 
strong enough to give much consequence to its lord. 

Castle-building was always considered a royal pre- 
rogative, and though circumstances sometimes com- 
pelled the king to wink at its infringement, a subject 
could fortify his house only under special licence. An 
immense number of unlicensed castles castra adul- 
terina were erected during the troubles of Stephen's 
reign by the lesser nobility and used by them for 
purposes not far removed from brigandage. One of 
the first acts of Henry II. was to order the destruction 
of these and of some castles of the greater nobility. 
This measure, although necessary, gave great and 
undue prominence to the great old castles. After the 
suppression of the rebellion of 1173, therefore, Henry 
dismantled many castles or took them into his own 
hands and strengthened them whenever opportunity 


The Norman keeps were succeeded in the latter part 
of the twelfth century and the first half of the thir- 
teenth by round towers, known as Donjons or Juliets. 
They were entered on the first floor by stone steps or a 
drawbridge. Conisborough in Yorkshire is a remarkable 
example ; it measures only 25 feet in diameter internally 
and as much as 52 feet externally, the walls being 14 
feet thick, and it is near 90 feet high. These towers 
did not contain dungeons*; the basements were above 
ground and were not used as prisons. 

With Henry II. the great period of castle-building 
ends, at least so far as quantity goes. At the close of 
his reign there were, it is estimated, more than a thou- 
sand castles in England and Wales. Henry III. gave 
his attention chiefly to repairing and improving halls, 
chapels and outer wards. The strong rule of Edward I. 
very much minished the value of castles. Those 
which he himself built in Wales were a new type and 
show a great advance in the science. They have been 
called ' Concentric' castles (see p. 39). But even 
these ceased to be of use and fell into decay when once 
the country had been subdued. 

Castles gradually gave place to more or less fortified 
houses, for which a great number of licences, called 
Licences to Crenellate, were granted by the three Ed- 
wards and by Richard II. In Richard's reign also the 
royal castles were handed over to the county authori- 
ties to serve as prisons. 

THE SQUARE KEEP. This type was used by the Nor- 
mans, both in Normandy and in England, during the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries. A large and strongly 
walled outer court, generally of irregular shape, con- 
tained the hall, the kitchen and other domestic 
buildings ordinarily in use, the size and arrangement 
of which varied according to circumstances. The 
keep was used only during a siege. It was placed on 

* See article thereon. 


the highest part of the site and was itself much higher 
than any of the other buildings. It was rarely in the 
centre of the castle and was sometimes very near to, or 
even formed part of, the enceinte. 

The square keeps vary in size from 25 feet to 80 feet 
or even 100 feet along each side (externally), and are 
usually from one and a half to two diameters high. 
Broad flat pilasters are placed on the sides and at the 
angles, those at the angles being carried up above the 
parapet as turrets. The walls are from 7 feet to 14 feet 
thick, and at the base 20 feet or even more. The allure 
or walk on the top of the wall behind the parapet is 
6 or 8 feet wide. 

The keep was invariably entered at the level of the 
first floor. The door was reached through a small and 
strongly defended building running along one side of 
the keep and containing a straight stone staircase. In 
the smaller keeps and sometimes in the larger, the 
staircase is of wood and has no enclosure. 

Internally the keep was divided by a cross wall 
which, on the principal floor, was pierced by one or 
more large arches. All keeps have a basement, used as 
a store-house, above ground. In the small keeps there 
was only one storey above this, forming a large general 
room, but in the larger keeps this room formed a barrack, 
and the chief room or hall, some 30 feet high, was on 
the second storey, and sometimes there was a third 
floor over this (fig. 48). The staircase was generally a 
spiral in one angle, the whole height of the building. 
The basement walls are usually solid, but those of the 
upper storeys contain numerous small chambers, about 
5 feet wide, used as sleeping-rooms, and as an ora- 
tory, a well-chamber, and privies. The smaller keeps 
had generally a single high-pitched roof, probably 
covered with shingles or with stone tiles, but in the 
larger examples the roof was double, forming an inverted 
W resting on the side walls and on the dividing wall 


mentioned above. The external walls were carried up 
to the level of the ridge. Flat lead-covered roofs were 
substituted for these high-pitched roofs at an early date. 
The square keep was not, it must be remembered, a 
residence, except during an actual siege, when it formed 
a secure refuge till relief came from outside. And it 
was not in a military sense a scientific building. It 
was not easily defended ; in order to reply to the attack 
the garrison had to expose themselves ; there were no 


'salients' or flanking projections commanding the base 
of the wall. But its mere passive strength made it 
almost impregnable if well provisioned and defended by 
faithful retainers. Mercenaries could not be entirely 
trusted. " Indeed, the builders of some keeps seem to 
have mistrusted their own troops as much as they feared 
those of the enemy. The staircases and galleries are 
often contrived quite as much to check free communi- 
cation between the several parts of the building as 
between its inside and its outside." (CL.) 

Notable examples are the White Tower, London; 


Colchester and Hedinghain, Essex ; Dover and Roches- 
ter in Kent; Norwich and Castle Rising, Norfolk; 
Kenilworth, Warwickshire; Porchester, Hampshire; 
Carlisle, Cumberland ; Scarborough, Yorkshire ; Nor- 
ham, Durham ; Hamburgh, Northumberland. 

THE SHELL KEEP. This was the type of keep which 
is found on sites which had been already defended 
by earthworks and timber buildings, whether of Saxon 
or Norman origin. These it appears were found to be 
very defensible, and the necessity of replacing the 
timber by stone often did not arise till long after the 
Conquest, in some cases not for a century. Thus it 
happens that the shell keep, though it may be said to 
be the earlier type, is generally later than the square 
keep. (CL.) 

As the castles occupying old sites were more numerous 
than those founded on new sites, it follows that the 
shell keep formed the largest class ; but being less 
massive they have suffered more from the ravages of 
time and are now less common than the square keep. 

The shell keep like the square keep forms the nucleus^, 
of a large irregular base-court containing the usual 
buildings (fig. 49). It is generally placed upon and 
forms a part of the outer line of defence. It is how- 
ever entirely surrounded by its own ditch across which 
the outer wall of the castle is carried. Occasionally 
the keep occupies a central position, and then it is 
placed on the line of a ditch which divides the base- 
court into two wards. 

The configuration of the mound, which is always 
entirely or partly artificial, governs the size and shape 
of the keep. Most keeps are polygons of ten or twelve 
sides ; some are round. The diameter varies from 30 to 
100 feet. The walls are usually 8 or 10 feet thick and 
from 20 feet to 25 feet high. 

The keep was approached by a wooden bridge across 
the ditch on the side within the base court and thence 


(See List of Illustrations) 


by steps up the mound ; the actual entrance was a mere 
door in the wall. There was also another entrance from 
the top of the wall surrounding the base-court. 

The shell keep, except in the smaller examples, was 
an open court, and the various buildings were built up 
against the inner face of its wall. The ramparts were 
reached by an open internal staircase of stone or wood. 

Notable examples are: Windsor; Berkeley, Glouces- 
tershire; Arundel, Sussex; Warwick; Cardiff; Pickering, 
Yorkshire; Farnham, Surrey (figs. 49, 50. See also List 
of Illustrations). 

TRANSITION. The castl e -building of the reign of 
Henry III. consisted chiefly of the addition, enlarge- 
ment and improvement of the outer wards of already 
existing castles. It seems probable that it was from 
these that the succeeding type, the concentric castle, 
was developed. 

The castles of this period show an advance in refine- 
ment and comfort. A feature which seems to be peculiar 
to them is the bretasche, or temporary timber gallery 
corbelled out from the top of the wall in time of siege ; 
from this missiles could be showered on an enemy at- 
tacking the base of the wall. The machicolations of 
the Edwardian castle would appear to take its place. 


was not actually invented or introduced by Edward I., 
for the earliest and grandest example, Caerphilly, was 
built in the reign of Henry III. while Edward was still 
in the Holy Land. 

The castle of this type consisted of a series of defen- 
sive walls forming concentric rings ; the inner court 
contains the domestic buildings ; the keep is abandoned ; 
the parts are so disposed as give every advantage to the 

The outer line of defence consisted of a wall with 
salients or projecting towers which enfiladed the curtain 


or length of wall between two towers ; and the whole 
of this line of defence was enfiladed by the inner and 
higher ring of towers. Sometimes however there was 
a very large third ward for the protection of the neigh- 
bouring peasantry and their cattle ; this contained a 
ditch or even a small lake formed by damming up 
a streamlet, the dam itself being well defended. 

The middle ward that between the innermost ring 
and the next was too narrow to give scope for a large 
number of attackers or for them to work a catapult, 
and the projecting towers were often mere half-circles 
open in the rear, so that when captured they could not 
be held. The gatehouse is usually flanked by round 
towers with loops, and is so planned that it could be 
defended independently against attack from within if 
the outer ward was taken. The parapet is corbelled 
out on machicolations.* Outside the gate there was a 
barbican, which was sometimes a mere walled enclosure, 
sometimes a detached building on the further side of 
the moat. The postern or smaller gateway is often 
elaborate ; that at Windsor was intended for tht use of 
cavalry. Sometimes the postern is a water-gate. 

The walls of an Edwardian castle are from 25 feet 
to 40 feet high and from 6 to 8 feet thick. The 
parapet has wide merlons or battlements and narrow 
embrasures with wood shutters ; often each merlon is 
pierced with a loop. 

The buildings of the inner ward, consisting of hall, 
kitchen, chapel, and general living and sleeping-rooms 
and storehouses, were large and handsome ; they were 
usually built up against the curtain. Very complete 
arrangements were made for sanitation. The castles 
of this period, indeed, were part palace part fortress, 
though the latter characteristic is always the more 

Notable examples are: Caerphilly, Glamorganshire, 
* See article thereon. 

e t -& 



the largest in Wales ; Beaumaris, Anglesey, very 
complete and regular ; Conway, Carnarvonshire, where 
the castle and town " form together the most complete 
and best preserved example of mediaeval military 
architecture in Britain. The works are all of one date 
and design, apparently by one engineer, at the com- 
mand of a monarch specially skilled in the art of war" 
(CL.); Kidwelly, Caermarthenshire ; Harlech, Merioneth; 
Leeds or Ledes in Kent ; Caernarvon, of the noblest 
architecture, is not concentric. The Tower of London 
has by successive additions become a good example 
of the concentric type ; to Farnham also (fig. 50) the 
outer wall and ditch give something of the character 
of a concentric castle. (G. T. Clark, Mediaeval Military 

CATACOMB (Gk. KOTO, down; KVfiftrj, a hollow 
place). A system of underground passages formed 
by the early Christians in the neighbourhood of Rome 
as a secret place of burial during the age of perse- 
cution. There are about sixty of such cemeteries 
round the city and they are of very great extent, some 
of them occupying an area of several acres. They 
are of various ages, from the time of the martyrdom of 
St. Peter to the middle of the second century, but 
they continued in use as cemeteries, as places of 
worship and as objects "*of pilgrimage till the sixth 

The catacombs are excavated in the dry spongy 
volcanic stone called tufa. The passages are about 
8 feet high and from 3 to 5 feet wide, and they are 
generally at right angles to one another. The sides of 
the passages contain loculi or graves, one above another, 
generally five in a tier. The recesses were closed with 
slabs of marble or with tiles, bearing inscriptions and 
pictures. There are occasional larger arched recesses 
called arcisolia (see ARCISOLIUM). Besides these, there 
are distinct chambers opening out of the passages 


called cubicula, in the sides of which ordinary loculi 
were cut. There were also larger chambers which 
were used as places of meeting and for worship ; one 
catacomb contains a large and complete church, with 
nave and aisles, apse and narthex. In some catacombs 
there are several distinct series of galleries at different 

In later times oratories and churches were erected 
over the entrances to the principal catacombs, to which 
more convenient access was made, thus St. Peter's was 
built over the cemetery of the Vatican. 

The catacombs are rich in inscriptions, sculptures, 
paintings and utensils of great beauty and extra- 
ordinary interest. (Murray's Handbook of Rome.) 

CATHEDRAL (from Kad&pa, a seat). A church in 
which there is the throne of a bishop. 

window with mullions radiating from the centre. (See 


CAULICOLE (pi. CAULICOLI). A stalk; in the 
Corinthian capital the thick stalk (of which there are 
two on each side of the capital) from which spring the 
leaves which support the volutes (fig. 193). 

CAVETTO. See MOULDING (fig. 178). 

CEILING. In the middle ages church ceilings were 
either of stone vaulting* or of wood in imitation of vault- 
ing; or they were plastered or boarded and followed 
the cants of a trussed rafter roof/ forming a sort of 
polygonal tunnel ; this was sometimes divided into 
square panels by small ribs and decorated with gilding 
and colour. In domestic buildings the most common 
plan for the lower rooms seems to have been to mould 
the joists of the floor above, and either to let the floor- 
boards be seen from below or to plaster them. The 

* See article thereon. 


plaster was laid on a mass of reeds. In the time of 
Elizabeth the ceiling was covered with a rich pattern 
in plaster work, forming panels of various shapes., en- 
riched with scrolls of vine in low relief. In the 
seventeenth century the pattern was given up, the 
ceiling was formed into coffers * or into a few large 
divisions consisting of a central circle, oval or other 
form with smaller panels disposed round it, the decora- 
tion consisting of acanthus, lotus and so on, in bold 
relief, and the usual mouldings and enrichments. 

CELL. (1) A small room in which to confine a 
prisoner. (2) A small chamber or set of chambers for 
one occupant in a religious house ; in England required 
only by the Carthusian Rule. (3) A small religious 
house, the offshoot from a larger house, and continuing 
in some respects in subordination to it. 

CELLA. The part of a Greek or Roman temple* 
which was enclosed by walls. 

CELLAR. Now an underground room used for 
storage, but in the middle ages a store-room often 
entirely above ground. 

CEMETERY (from Greek, a sleeping-place). The 
practice of associating a burial ground with a place of 
worship appears to be of Christian origin. The church- 
yard usually lay to the south of the church ; it was 
entered through a lych-gate* and contained a large 

CENSER OR THURIBLE. A small metal cup hung 
on chains and with a perforated cover, in which to 
burn incense. 


sacramental wine. In 847 it was ordered that chalices 
should be of gold or silver. The examples of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries have a bowl of a flat 

* See article thereon. 


hemispherical form, a knob in the centre of the stem, 
and a round foot. In the fourteenth century the bowl 
becomes conical and the foot is a hexagon with concave 
sides (fig. 51 a). Towards the close of the fifteenth cen- 
tury the bowl is more hemispherical, the tendency con- 
tinues in the reign of He'nry VIII., and the foot has six 
convex lobes. A chalice, generally of tin or pewter, 
was placed on the breast of everv priest at his burial. 
Orders for the destruction of ' chalices ' and for the 
provision of ' communion cups ' were issued during the 
reigns of Edward VI. and Elizabeth ; in consequence 
of the inquiries by Archbishop Parker many cups were 



made in or about 1570 (fig. 51 6). The bowl is larger 
than that of the chalice as the wine was now received 
by the laity ; it is cylindrical with a swelling lip, and is 
often inscribed with the name of the parish ; the stem 
is concave and the foot a very flat dome with mouldings. 
At the beginning of the following century a cup with 
a somewhat conical bowl and a baluster stem was in 
vogue for a time. From 1630 to 1640 (CR.) the bowl 
was tumbler-shaped and the stem of the form of a 
trumpet with the mouth downwards. In the latter 
part of the seventeenth century and during the 
eighteenth century cups were shaped somewhat like 
the Elizabethan cup but taller and plainer, often very 
rude and of enormous size. 


CHAMFER. A plane formed by cutting off the 
edge made by two surfaces. 


a b c 


a Plain chamfer, i Hollow chamfer, c Sunk chamfer 

CHANCEL. The part of a church which was till 
recently separated from the rest by a screen. The 
word is derived from Latin caneelli (pi.), a lattice-work 
screen ; compare cancel, chancellor, etc., (s.). 

CHANTRY. An endowment for the singing of 
masses for the dead. 

CHANTRY CHAPEL. A chapel, generally consisting of 
an enclosure within a church, provided for such masses. 

CHAPEL (Low Lat. capella, orig. a shrine in which 
was preserved the capa or cope of St. Martin, s.). 
(1) A small church other than a parish church or 
conventual or cathedral church, such as in the middle 
ages had "no proper priest attached to it or in which 
the sacrament of baptism was not to be administered 
or had no burying ground annexed to it or which was 
dependent on a superior church " (p.). (2) A church 
for the particular use of a college* or other similar body 
or of a household (see HOUSE). (3) A small building at- 
tached to a larger church, or to a particular part of a 
church or monastery,* and used for a special purpose 
or dedicated to some particular saint. (4) A building 
provided for the services of Nonconformists (recent). 
* See article thereoa. 


CHAPTER-HOUSE. A room in a monastery* or 
attached to a cathedral for meetings of the chapter or 
governing body. 

ing in or near a churchyard and often attached to a 
church, for the preservation of bones disturbed in 
digging graves. It was often partly below ground and 
was generally vaulted ; there was sometimes a chapel 
over it. Examples : The Cathedral School, Norwich, 
with a chapel above and a house for priests to the 
west ; St. Mary the Less, Cambridge, under the vestry. 

CHECKER. The office of one of the obedientiaries 
or heads of departments in a monastery. So called from 
the checker or chequer pattern marked 011 the table on 
which accounts were reckoned by means of counters ; 
or abbreviated from exchequer, which has the same 
derivation (s.). 

CHEQUER- WORK. Walling built of two materials, 
usually flint and stone or 
brick and stone, so arranged 

as to make a 
pattern (fig. 53). The con- 
struction, and perhaps the 
appearance also, is improved 
by making the stones longer 
than the blocks of other " G - S3- CHKQUER-WORK 

material, so that they overlap and the ' straight joints ' 
are avoided, as shown on the right of the figure. 

CHEST. An important piece of furniture in the 
middle ages in which was kept bulky goods such as 
clothing and also money; hence an endowment or fund 
was called a chest. In early times to the thirteenth 
century the woodwork was generally very simple and 
was strengthened with ornamental ironwork (fig. 124) ; 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the woodwork 
* See article thereon. 


was more elaborate, being panelled and decorated with 
tracery and carving and sometimes with paintings, and 
the ironwork was simpler ; in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries the work was much plainer, 
consisting of moulded panelling, plain or ornamented 
with shallow and poor carving. The rude chests 
with barrel-shaped lids often seen in churches are 
believed to be generally of the sixteenth or early 
seventeenth centuries. The medieval chest, as for 
instance the chest for parish registers, was often 
secured by two, three or more padlocks, the keys being 
kept by different persons, and many ingenious contri- 
vances were resorted to for concealing the keyhole and 
so forth. 

CHEVET. An apsidal east end of a church,* in 
which the aisle is continued round the end of the 
presbytery, with chapels radiating from it. A form 
common in France and introduced into England at the 
Conquest but soon abandoned by the English ; adopted 
by Henry III. at Westminster Abbey (fig. 66) but with- 
out effect on the national style. 

CHEVRON. A Norman enrichment formed by two 
zigzags deeply cut (fig. 190); not to be confounded with 
the shallow zigzag.* Compare chevron, an heraldic 
bearing and (Fr.)a pair of rafters. 


appears that before the Conquest the fire was in- 
variably in the middle of the room and that therefore 
there were no chimneys. In Norman castles and 
houses these are fairly common. In the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries the recess was generally shallow 
and the smoke was caught by a projecting hood or 
mantle (whence ' mantel-piece ') carried on corbels 
and sloping back to the wall ; they were generally at 
the side of the room, so that a tall chimney-shaft rose 
* See article thereon. 



from the eaves of the roof. In the fourteenth century 
the same form continued, though the work was rather 
more elaborate ; the chimney-stack was sometimes short 
and rose from the gable, and was commonly octagonal ; 
it is frequently crowned with a spire and has openings 
at the side for the escape of the smoke. In the 
fifteenth century the hood was gradually discarded and 
the lintel of the fireplace becomes highly ornamental. 
The recess is commonly about six feet wide. It is 
remarkable that generally the hall had still a central 
hearth, even when every other room in the house had a 
fireplace at the side ; if the 
hall had a side fireplace it 
was large, often 12 feet 
wide. Towards the end of 
the fifteenth and at the 
beginning of the sixteenth 
century clustered chimneys 
became common, each flue 
in the stack being taken 
up a separate shaft, which 
was often richly decorated 
(fig. 54). Hitherto the flue 
had been excessively large, 
being the whole width of tZr* 
the fireplace recess at the f 
bottom and gradually nar- 
rowing as it rose. The 
fireplace became much 
smaller but more elaborate 

in the latter part of the sixteenth century and in tl 
seventeenth, and the chimney-stack was simpler, beii 
generally a group of plain octagons and squares. 
the eighteenth century the use of iron grates brougl 
about a further reduction in the size of the fireplac 
and the chimney-stack ceased to be an architectui 


CHOIR. Strictly the part of a church occupied by 
the singers, the part east of this being the presbytery. 
The term is often applied to the whole of the eastern 
limb and also to the whole of the space east of the 
great screen. In cathedral and monastic churches 
the choir as a rule included a large part of the nave. 


CHURCH. (G reek Ku/aiciKos, belonging to the Lord,s.). 
The English church plan is the result of a gradual 
development from two primitive types, one of southern, 
the other of northern origin. These types are generally 
known as the Basilican and the Celtic. It will be 
necessary to give some account of these before describ- 
ing their introduction into England and their effect 
ion English architecture. 

The Basilican church varies in some important re- 
spects in different examples, but the normal plan may be 
thus described. The building consists of a nave with 
one or sometimes two aisles on each side, with spacious 
galleries for women above them. It is entered from 
the east, as will be more particularly noticed presently. 
At the west end of the nave there is a semi-circular 
apse forming the presbytery, with a stone bench for the 
clergy round it, the middle seat being a raised chair for 
*the bishop. In front of the bishop's chair, and nearly 
Ion the chord of the apse, is the altar. The western 
[part of the nave is enclosed by screens (cancelli, whence 
lour word ' chancel,'* ) and forms a quire for the singers. 
The presbytery, and perhaps the quire, are raised con- 
siderably above the nave over a crypt called a confessio* 
the burial-place of saints (rigs. 55, 56). There are two 
entrances from the church to the confessio, and if 
possible there is a window in the wall between the con- 
nfcssio and the nave. There are sometimes transepts ; 
Im some cases these are as long as the nave, while in 

* See article thereon. 

FIG. 55 



FIG. 56 



FIG. & 


others they hardly project beyond the aisles. The 
church is entered by three doors through a narthex* or 
large porch extending across the east end. On this 
side of the church there is a forecourt surrounded by 
a cloister and with a laver in the middle. Occasionally 
the entrances to the church are at the sides and there 
is an apse at the east end as well as at the west. 

The development of this plan in its main outlines 
may be traced back to several sources, but the exact 
degree to which it was influenced by each of these is 
still a matter of dispute. It has a general resemblance 
to the secular basilicas/ or large halls, both public and 
private, of the Romans. 

When at the end of the third century and in the 
time of Constantine the increased number of converts 
made large buildings necessary, the simplest way of 
providing them was by a hall with nave and aisles, 
with a gallery over the aisles and with a clear-storey, 
like the secular basilicas and other pagan buildings. 
The apse with its seats and altar had without doubt 
long since become stereotyped. The cloistered fore- 
court had always been familiar in the atrium of the pri- 
vate house. The alcove* or cella erected in the ceme- 
tery outside the town over the tomb of the saint, was 
rebuilt as a confessio, when the great numbers who 
visited the spot made it necessary to provide a large 
church. The end of the church at which the apse was 
placed was sometimes enlarged by the addition of tran- 
septs, thus forming a T-shaped plan (fig. 57), from which 
the cruciform plan was afterwards developed ; thus in 
this as in so many other instances, a symbolical mean- 
ing was attached to what was at first purely practical 
and utilitarian. The great halls of palaces as well as 
public buildings had been called basilicas, and the term 
was applied to the typical church plan early in the 
fourth century. 

* See article thereon. 


The Basilican church plan was introduced into 
England by the Romans. A good example of a small 
church is that at Silchestcr, though unfortunately only 
tin- foundations and part of the pavement remain 
(fig. 58). It consists of a nave with an apse at the 
west end, aisles, transepts and a narthex or portico. 
The foundation-walls between the nave and aisles 

Vfc-l t 



Scale of Feet 


doubtless supported a row of columns, but one at least 
of the transepts appears to have been separated by 
walls from the rest of the church ; the narthex 
probably was an open portico with three doorways 
leading into the church. The pavement is a mosaic of 
tesserae made of red tiles cut into one-inch squares in 
the manner common in Roman work. In the middle 
of the apse however there is a square with a pattern 
of black, white and red iesserac, on which stood a wood 
altar. To the east of the church there was a laver at 
which the worshippers washed before entering, and 
near it was a well. There are no distinct remains of 
the iitrium which, it has been suggested, surrounded 
the church instead of lying to the east of it as 
usual (n.). 

The eastward position of the entjrance is an arrange- 
ment which the earlier Christian churches share with 



the places of worship built by peoples of other faiths 
(see ORIENTATION). The subsequent turning round of 
the church is involved in obscurity. It has been sug- 
gested that churches with two apses \vere fairly com- 
mon (fig. 59), and that the western apse, which had 
originally contained the high altar, was gradually 
superseded in importance by the east apse, and that 
then its altar was moved to the east part of the nave. 



The cruciform plan was, it would seem, developed in 
England more or less independently of, though no 
doubt influenced by, the Continental development. 
The north and south porches were not porches only, 
but also contained altars. These projecting wings, it 
has been argued, were then moved farther east and 
their outer doors omitted, thus forming small transepts 
(fig. 60) with very narrow arches towards the nave (M.). 
The Basilican plan was again introduced in 598 by 
St. Augustine. 

Something must now be said about that other, and 
perhaps more important, influence on English church 
architecture, namely, the Celtic tradition. 

The Irish church has worked out for itself a simple 



but quite definite system of architecture. Its build- 
ings were a development, it would appear, of ;i pagan 
cell or tomb, circular in plan, and in section of the 
form known as ' bee-hive,' that is with a stone roof 


T T 

I Scale 


made by corbelling out every course beyond the one 
below it till the opposite sides met at the top. This 
cell the Christians gradually made square in plan. 
Sometimes there is an oblong sanctuary at the east 
end ; this perhaps originated in a rectangular recess 
for the altar. The towers are narrow and lofty. 

St. Aidan and his fellow-missionaries arrived in 
Northumbria from St. Columba's Irish settlement 
in lona in 635, and were established at Lindisfarne. 
They naturally continued to build in the style to which 
they had been accustomed, and the tradition was 
carried on by the great building abbot, Benedic Biscop, 
and to some extent by St. Wilfrid, in the latter half of 
the century. Their churches are small and without 
aisles, they have a square-ended chancel opening into 
the nave by a narrow archway (fig. 6l). There are 




often side porches and a western tower. This northern 
influence was far more widely felt and of greater 
permanence than that of St. Augustine, although 
coming thirty or forty years later. 

In the second half of the seventh century the 
Basilican and Celtic types 
were combined into some- 
thing of a compromise, with 
a balance in favour of the 
Celtic. The apse is aban- 
doned for the square pres- 
bytery ; the tall west tower is adopted ; side entrances 
are preferred to one at the west end. The confossio, 
the result of the peculiar conditions at Rome, is 
dropped ; nor are aisles required in such small churches 
as are at first built. There is a central tower in addi- 
tion to that at the west end in some cases. 

Immediately after the Conquest Norman influence 
of course made itself felt 
for a time. The apse ap- 
pears again (fig. 62) ; some- 
times even the smallest 
churches have a central 
tower and often tran- 
septs ; also the western 
door becomes more com- 

Two types of east end were introduced by the 
Normans. In one the aisle is carried round the apse, 
and from it chapels project, as at Norwich (fig. 63). 
This plan which came to be called a chevet continued, 
with modifications, to be the typical French ending 
(fig. 66). The other or Normandy type has a Lom- 
bardic, and perhaps primarily an Oriental origin 
(fig. 64). The aisles terminate in apses on a line 
with the chord of the great apse. Outside these short 
aisles project from the transepts, and beyond these 


m<*=m f^r^TrBj p rmnr+rjb 


* f f 



I 1070 . WZl 1096 ; rebuilt 1174 . [Z] 1180 . 



again other apses. St. Albans is given as an instance. 
The English however soon abandoned both these 
typ in favour of the indigenous square east end, 
an es Iso at an early period began to lengthen the 
presbytery (fig. 65.) 

The vast Norman naves on the other hand have 
been little altered, and they have to a great extent 
given the keynote to work of a later period. This 
is especially noticeable in the proportions of the three 

; storeys of the building : main arcade, triforium and 
clear-storey. The Norman church still gave to the 
triforium that importance which it had inherited from 
the basilica. When a presbytery was rebuilt or 
lengthened the same proportions were preserved, so 
that the new work might range with the old. A tra- 
dition was thus established which influenced English 
design even where, as at Salisbury, there was no earlier 
work to hamper the artist. Consequently in England 

! the triforium dies hard. But it does gradually dwindle, 
is incorporated with the clear-storey as a mere wall 
j)assage and finally disappears. 

The east end retained for some time after the 
Conquest something of the Basilican arrangement ; 
the altar was. placed somewhat in advance of the apse; 

I behind it were ranged the seats of the clergy ; the 

i central seat was considerably raised and was reached 
by a flight of steps, which projected in a semi-circle 
towards the west. The arrangement probably con- 
tinued till the general enlargement of presbyteries in 

the thirteenth century, when the seats were moved to 

I the south side of the altar (M.). In one instance 
only, namely Norwich, are the remains of the ancient 

f throne preserved in situ (fig. C3). 

The choir of the monks generally occupied the cross- 
ing and often the east part of the nave ; that of the 

j,canons was east of the crossing. The screen which 
separates choir and nave varies in details in different 



examples. In its simplest form (for the monastic and 
cathedral churches) it consisted of the following parts. 
(1) A wall against which the choir stalls are 'returned' 
and in the centre of which there is a doorway. (2) A 
second wall one bay further west, also with a doorway 


in the centre ; the space between these two walls was 
covered by an upper floor forming a gallery or loft 
called the pulpitum, supporting the great cross or rood 
and containing the organs. (3) A screen wall one bay 
further west forming a reredos to the principal nave 
altar on each side of which was a doorway. 

In the ordinary parish churches a variety of causes 
have led to a gradual and remarkably uniform 
series of alterations. The first of these was the sub- 
stitution of a square east end for the apse. The re- 
moval of the central tower generally followed next, 
the reason in most cases perhaps being that it had 
become unsafe, though the fact that it was never 
rebuilt in the same place seems to indicate a change of 
fashion ; the new tower was almost invariably built at 
the west end of the nave. As the population grew it 
became necessary to add an aisle if, as was more 
commonly the case, the Norman church had not aisles. 
It was usually more convenient to do this on the north 
side because there were more graves to the south. The 
aisle wall was built first and then the arches were 
made, being often cut through the nave wall without 
taking it down. Thus it comes about that the upper 
part of the wall is sometimes older than the arches. 
Soon it was found necessary to enlarge the building 
still further, and a south aisle was built in the same 
way ; then the aisles were made wider, and as this 
required a corresponding increase of height, flat lead 
roofs were put over them level with the eaves of the 
nave roof, and so we find the small, early clear-storey 
windows of the nave look into the aisle ; a new clear- 
storey was then built above the old one. 

In the aisleless church there had been, at the end of 
the nave, an altar enclosed by screens on each side 
of the chancel arch. Sometimes the altar stood against 
the chancel screen. When aisles were added these 
altars were moved into them and enclosed by screens ; 


the marks of the screens are generally visible on the 
responds and on the first columns. Finally, the aisles 
were often continued up to the extreme east end and 
arches made through into the chancel. One of the 
chancel aisles, or a part of it, was sometimes used as a 
sacristy in which were kept the vessels and vestments 
and other things required in the service. When the 
chancel has not aisles there often still remains on its 
north side a sacristy, which also generally contained an 
altar. There is sometimes a vaulted chamber below it, 
half underground, in which might be placed any 
human bones disturbed in making graves or in digging 
the foundations of any additions to the church. (6ee 
CHARNEL HOUSE.) Over the porch there is very often a 
chamber communicating by a winding staircase with 
the church. Its uses seem to have been various; 
sometimes it appears to have contained an altar, but 
more often to have been a living-room, presumably 
either for a priest or for the guardian of the church, 
and it is not unlikely that it was used for occasional 
meetings and other purposes. 

The first of the changes made in churches during the 
sixteenth century was the destruction of images, relics 
and shrines between 1538 and 1541. The suppression 
of the gilds and chantries in 1545 and 1517 caused the 
discontinuance of many services and ceremonies and 
the extinguishing of the lights which had been main- 
tained by the payments of the gild brethren and by the 
chantry endowments. Candles were definitely forbidden 
by the Injunctions of 1547 except two upon the altar, 
and these appear to have been disallowed soon after- 
wards. A pulpit was to be provided and the Epistle 
and Gospel were to be read from there or other con- 
venient place. It would seem that it was at this time 
that the Royal Arms were first put up. 

In 1550 orders were issued to destroy all altars, and 
to provide one table in their stead. It appears that 


texts from Scripture were painted on the walls in place 
of the destroyed pictures, for in the reign of Queen 
Mary orders were issued (1 554) that these should be 
obliterated. The old ornaments were then of course 
restored so far as possible, with "a. rood of a decent 
stature, with Mary and John and an image of the patron 
of the same church." 

In the first year of Queen Elizabeth injunctions very 
similar to those of Edward VI. were issued. The open 
decay and ruin of churches at this time (1560) is de- 
scribed in a letter issued by the Queen, in which she 
instructs commissioners to determine some means of 
reformation, " and among other things to order that the 
tables of the commandments may be comlye set or hung 
up in the east end of the chauncell." The old service- 
books were ordered to be defaced and abolished in the 
following year. 

In 1569 Archbishop Parker issued inquiries as to 
whether baptism was ministered in a basin or in the 
font, and " whether the roode lofte be pulled down ac- 
cording to the order l prescribed ; and if the partition 
between the chauncel and church be kepte." 

The position of the altar or communion table was 
still a burning question in the reign of Charles I. Laud 
decided in favour of altars as against tables. He also 
introduced altar-rails and the credence." His party 
were accused of taking down galleries, some of which 
had been built early in the seventeenth century, and of 
restraining the building of them in parishes which were 
very populous. 

During the Civil War arid the Commonwealth the 
ornaments and other improvements introduced by 
Laud, and also much of the older work which the 
first reformers had spared, were destroyed. 

After the Restoration matters improved, but the 
process of repair was very slow in the poorer villages, 
* See article thereon. l Issued in 1561-2. 


and for years afterwards many churches were reported 
to be in a state of ruin. The most characteristic work 
of the eighteenth century is seen in the high pews, the 
west gallery for the choir and band, and the 'three- 
decker' clerk's desk and seat, parson's desk and seat, 
and pulpit forming a strange but often picturesque 

CIBORIUM. (l) A canopy supported on four 
columns over an altar (see BALDACHINO) ; (2) a receptacle 
for the reservation of the Eucharist. 

CINQUE- CENTO. Lit. five hundred. A short ex- 
pression for the century which began in 1501, used 
especially in connexion with art. 

CINQUE- FOIL. A five-leaf form in the head of a 
window or in a circle, produced by cusping. 

CLEAR-STOREY (also spelt clere-storey but pron. 
clear storey). A part of a building lighted with windows 
above the roof of some other part, e.g. in a church the 
windows of the nave which are above the aisle roof. 

CLOISTER. Lit. an enclosure. A covered way, 
open at the sides, round a court, as in a monastery. 
The monastic cloister was introduced into England with 
monachism from Italy. It was the place of study, 
and in short the living-place of the monks. For such 
a purpose, though quite suited to the Italian climate, 
it was singularly unsuitable to that of England. 
At first it was enclosed by a low wall on which 
stood columns of wood or stone, single or in couples, 
supporting arches or lintels carrying a lean-to roof. 
Probably all Norman cloisters were of this character. 
The form of the arches changed as architecture ad- 
vanced and were converted into windows with stone 
tracery but without glass. Not till the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, and in some cases perhaps not till 
the fifteenth century, were the windows entirely glazed. 



The alleys, ambulatories, panes, or walks, as they 
are called, of the cloisters of the larger monasteries 
were also vaulted in later times. The cloister served 
the several purposes of a passage connecting the 
various buildings, a place of study for the monks (see 
AHMARIUM, CARRELL, LIBRARY) and a place of instruction 
for the novices. There was a stone seat against the 
wall on which are often to be seen the marks of the 
' morris ' game, a sort of ' fox-and-geese.' Burials were 
sometimes made in the alleys of the cloister, but never 
in the cloister-garth till after the Reformation. 

CLOISTER-GARTH. The space enclosed by the cloister. 

CLUSTERED COLUMN. A group of small shafts 
surrounding a large column,* much used in the thirteenth 

COB-WALL. A wall built of blocks called 'clay- 
bats ' made of unburnt clay or chalk mixed with straw. 


COFFER. (1) A chest.* (2) A lacunar or deeply- 
sunk panel in a ceiling, vault or dome (fig. 67) origin- 

* See article thereon. 




ally formed by the beams of a ceiling crossing one 

COFFIN. In the middle ages coffin meant coffer, 
from which word it is derived. "Burial in a coffin 
was the exception, but many 
churches had one with a hinged 
lid which used to be lent to 
bring bodies to the grave in" 
(M.). Stone coffins may have been 
comparatively common, as their 
sculptured lids, mostly of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies (fig. 68), have been so often 
found, though some of these may 
be merely gravestones. Stone 
coffins, it is said (P.), were never 
deeply buried and were fre- 
quently so close to the surface that the lid formed 
part of the pavement. (See MONUMENT and fig. 265.) 


COLLEGE. "A number of persons incorporated 
as colleagues for certain common purposes " (w. & c.). 
The term is also commonly applied to the buildings in 
which the members of the college are housed. It is 
this secondary sense only with which we are here con- 
cerned, and we shall confine our remarks to the ancient 
collegiate buildings of Oxford and Cambridge, with 
those of the allied foundations of Winchester and Eton. 

" It may be assumed that at first the University took 
no cognisance whatever of the way in which students 
obtained lodgings. The inconvenience and discomfort 
of this system soon led to the establishment of what 
were afterwards termed Hostels, apparently by volun- 
tary action on the part of the students themselves" 


(w. & c.). These hostels were therefore mere private 
houses hired by the students, but before long they were 
to some extent regulated by the University authorities. 
A further step was made by the bequest to each Uni- 
versity of sums for the maintenance of scholars, and by 
the purchase on the part of the University of Oxford 
of houses in which such scholars should live. 

The collegiate system was however really inaugu- 
rated somewhat later by Walter de Merton, Lord 
Chancellor and Bishop of Rochester, who founded at 
Oxford in 1264. the college called by his name. His 
example was soon afterwards followed at Cambridge by 
Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. 

In these two colleges and in all the early foundations 
the scholars were at first placed in already existing 
private houses, to which necessary additions, such as a 
hall and kitchen, were afterwards made. The devotions 
of the scholars " were performed in the parish church, 
their books were kept in a chest in the strong room, 
and the master . . . occupied an ordinary chamber, so 
that the chapel, the library, the master's lodge, and the 
stately gateways, which supply so many distinctive 
features in the later colleges, were wholly wanting in 
the earlier ones" (w. & c.). As the collegiate system 
developed these were gradually added and grouped 
round a rectangular court as convenience might re- 
quire, until certain recognisable types of plan were 
evolved ; a similar process was going on at about the 
same period in the analogous case of the manorial 
house. But neither college nor hall was started with 
the idea of a quadrangle. 

It is to be noted that neither at its inception nor in 
its later development does the collegiate arrangement 
owe anything to monastic influence. The fact that we 
have two communities each living a life in common 
might lead us to expect a similarity of plan in their 
buildings, but a little consideration will show that there 



were many points of divergence. A convent began by 
building the church, but a private chapel was not con- 
templated by the founders of early colleges and was 
generally the last thing to be added ; colleges did not 
require a chapter-house nor a guest-house. In the one 
case all the inmates occupied a common dormitory and 
studied together in the cloister, while in the other the 
principle was adopted of dividing up the community 



into groups of about four students who, under the car 
of a senior, occupied a single room both as a sleeping 
place and for study. And finally the student had, befor 
the foundation of colleges, learned habits of indepen- 
dence unknown to the monk. The requirements of 



college,, therefore, more nearly approached the require- 
ments of the large private establishment of a great 
manorial lord than those of a monastery. 

As the college plan became fully developed the re- 
semblance to the manor house became very marked. 
This was especially the case at Cambridge. The strong 
likeness between the plan of Queens' College (fig. 69), 
founded in the middle of the fifteenth century,, and that 
of Haddon Hall in Derbyshire (fig. 71) is very striking. 


Both are built round courts. The hall is on the opposite 
side of the court to the gateway ; at one end is the 
' screens passage ' with buttery and kitchen beyond ; at 
the upper end of the hall are the common parlour and 
master's lodging, in a position analogous to that of the 
solar or withdrawing- room of the private house. The 
library is in proximity to these, and beyond it is the 
chapel which occupies a part of the north side of 
the court as at Haddon. A second court on the other 
side of the hall was subsequently formed by the ad- 
dition of other buildings, the most remarkable of which 


was the long Klixubethan gallery attached to the mas- 
ter's lodge, built in imitation of those which were beinu 
added at that time to large private houses. St. John's 
College was almost the counterpart of Queens', and 
other colleges had the same arrangement but have 
since been altered. 

At Oxford the similarity to the manor-house is not 
so close. The building of New College (fig. 70) by 
William of Wykeham in the latter part of the four- 
teenth century on a very original plan formed a new 
departure in collegiate arrangement which was followed 
in several respects by some of the later colleges. The 
principal features of this plan, which Wykeham also 
adopted to some extent in his foundation of Winchester 
College, were as follows. A large chapel, with an ante 
chapel in the form of a western transept, was included 
in the original design and forms an important feature 
in the quadrangle. Continuous with the chapel and 
abutting on its east wall is the hall ; there is, therefore, 
no east window to the chapel. Beyond the hall is the 
kitchen without the usual intervening screens passage. 
The lodge of the master, here called the warden, is near 
the gate. To the west of the chapel and separate from 
the principal quadrangle is a cloistered cemetery. Each 
of these features was a departure from the normal ar- 
rangement. The plan was copied, in respect of the 
relative positions of the chapel and hall, at St. John's, 
All Souls' (in a modified form), and Magdalen Colleges ; 
the transeptal ante-chapel was adopted at All Souls', 
Magdalen, and Wadham ; and the detached cloister 
cemetery at the colleges of All Souls' and Corpus 
Christi. King Henry VI. was strongly influenced by 
Wykeham's foundations in his college at Eton and his 
King's College, Cambridge ; the latter was to have had 
a cloistered cemetery. Otherwise the influence of New 
College was not felt at Cambridge. 

It remains to notice a few details. The early 


colleges had made use of the parish church with 
which they were sometimes connected by a raised 
gallery ; in one or two instances the parish church 
seems to have been rebuilt with a specially large choir 
to accommodate the members of the college. When 
colleges began to have chapels of their own they 
were fitted with stalls facing north and south like 
a choir. 

The hall was very much like the hall of a private 
house. There were no rooms over it, and it had an 
open-timber roof with a louvre or lantern on the ridge 
for the escape of the smoke from the fire, which was 
generally on a hearth in the centre. The tables ran 
lengthways down the hall except the high table which 
ran across on a dais or platform raised one step above 
the general floor level. At this end of the hall there 
was an oriel or bow-window 011 one or both sides. At 
the other or lower end of the hall there was a wooden 
screen to cover the outer doors and the doors to the 
kitchen and buttery, and to allow passage through 
the building without entering the hall itself. Over 
this passage-way was a gallery. 

The library* was not often a detached building, but 
consisted of a large room on the upper floor. It may 
usually be distinguished by its range of windows which 
are larger and more uniformly spaced than the windows 
of chambers. 

The chambers were arranged in groups in such a 
way that a single staircase gave access to two rooms on 
each floor. The rooms were of fair size and ran 
through the building, so that they were lighted by 
windows on opposite sides. In each corner of the 
room wood partitions were put up so as to form a small 
rectangular closet which would serve as a study for a 
single scholar, the closets being lighted by windows 
somewhat smaller than those of the large chamber and 
* See article thereon. 


staircases. The chamber served as a general living- 
room- and bedroom for about four persons. The 
senior who was placed in charge of the scholars 
slept in a large bed, while the boys, who it must 
be remembered were mere children of fourteen or 
fifteen, had small truckle beds which could be pushed 
away under the larger one in the daytime. (Willis 
and Clark, Architectural History of the University oj 

COLONNADE. A row of columns, generally ap- 
plied to one bearing an entablature rather than 

COLUMBARIUM (Lat. columba, a dove). A pigeon- 

COLUMBARIA. A term applied to any small recesses 
resembling pigeon-holes. 

pillar may be considered as synonymous terms, including 
all varieties except very large piers ; the tenn pier is 
usually applied to those large masses of masonry form- 
ing in fact short walls, such as the great divisions 
between the nave and aisles in a Norman cathedral ; 
shaft is used in Gothic architecture for a very slender 

Saxon columns are round and are sometimes orna- 
mented with vertical or spiral flutes, or they are baluster 
shaped and are spoken of as ' turned,' though it may 
be doubted if they were actually shaped by that pro- 
cess ; large piers are generally plain rectangular masses 
of masonry. 

Norman piers are even more massive, and have 
merely a facing of ashlar with a rubble core ; they are 
rectangular, either plain or with a series of recesses at 
the angles corresponding with the orders of the arch, 
or they are circular, or a combination of the circle and 

* See article thereon. 


square : round columns sometimes have spiral or chevron 
flutes ; in the nave arcades of a church piers of two 
patterns are often used alternately ; shafts are round 
and sometimes have an annulet in the centre. 

In the latter part of the twelfth century piers are 
abandoned and true columns are built, that is they are 
composed of large blocks of dressed stone carefully laid, 
instead of an ashlar facing with a core of rubble. They 
are much more slender and are generally round ; in the 
nave arcade of a church round and octagonal columns 
are frequently used alternately. 

O-0- O * 

a b c d 

Thirteenth ceatuiy Fourteenth century 


About the middle of the thirteenth century this 
alternate arrangement is abandoned. Columns often 
are in the form of a quatrefoil of four semi-circles (fig. 
72 a). In the Norman compound pier the shafts had 
been placed more often in recesses than on the face ; 
they are now grouped round a circular column (fig. 
72 6) ; the small shafts are generally of Purbeck marble 
and about four inches in diameter ; they are connected 
with the central stone column by one or more annulets. 

In the latter part of the thirteenth century and in 
the fourteenth century the grouped arrangement con- 
tinued, but the shafts are of stone and are worked on 
the same piece as the central column (fig. 72 c] ; mould- 
ings are also introduced (fig. 72 d), and both mouldings 
and shafts have fillets ; the general outline makes a 
square or a lozenge set diagonally to the general line 


of the columns. The round column is less med but 
octagons are common. 

In the fifteenth century the composition becomes 
meagre, the shafts are separated by wide shallow 
f casement ' mouldings corresponding with 
those of the arch (figs. 45, 73). Each shaft 
has a separate capital, the mouldings between 
i*,hem running uninterrupted into the arch. 
The whole column generally makes a lozenge 
with the shorter diagonal from east to west. 

^. L ill f 1 FIFTEENTH 

1 he simple column is comparatively rare. CENTURY 

The Classical and Renaissance styles have no 
compound column. The large pier is a mass of masonry 
with pilasters or half-columns placed against it and is 
surmounted by an entablature. The column instead of 
being of uniform diameter throughout diminishes as it 
rises, and the rate of diminution gradually increases ; 
thus the sides are convex. This counteracts the 
tendency the shaft would have to look concave when 
seen against a bright sky. (See ORDERS.) 


CONDUIT. (1) A cistern. (2) A pipe for the con- 
veyance of water. 

CONFESSIO. A crypt for the burial of martyrs 
and saints under the presbytery of a church* (fig. 56). 
It has been suggested (B.) that shrines or alcoves were 
erectett over the graves of early Christian martyrs in 
the neighbourhood of Rome, and that afterwards 
churches were built over these, and that thus a custom 
was established. There are many examples of con- 
fessios in Italy. They were introduced into England 
* See article thereon. 


with the Basilican form of church by St. Augustine 
(A.D. 598). They arc partly below ground and partly 
above, so that the floor of the presbytery under which 
they were placed is raised considerably above that of 
the nave. The wall between the nave and confessio 
sometimes contains a window, and there is a staircase 
leading down to the confessio from the east end of 
each aisle. The confessio consists of a central place 
for a tomb, surrounded by walls or columns to support 
the vault; outside these there is a passage-way running 
round the confessio ; in the outer walls there are 
recesses (arcisolid) for other tombs. This plan and the 
provision of the two staircases are probably an arrange- 
ment to allow for the convenient and rapid passage of 
large numbers of pilgrims. Examples may be seen 
at Wing, Bucks ; Repton, Derbyshire ; Brixworth, 
Xorthants ; Ripon ; Hexham. 

CONFESSIONAL. A small enclosure formerly 
called the ' shriving pew,' in which the priest sits for 
hearing confession. It is in use in Roman Catholic 
churches ; it is usually of wood, and has a door in front 
and a small window on one or both sides for penitents 
to speak through. Nothing appears to be known of its 
form in England in the middle ages. " It seems to 
have been common in London, and existed in other 
places, but I do not think it was in general use. It is 
sometimes called the shriving house and the shriving stool. 
We do not know anything of its form 
beyond what is suggested by the names " 
(M.). But in the middle ages the word 
pew* often meant a high enclosure, and 
does not preclude the idea of an erection 
like a modern confessional. 


carved or painted or otherwise marked on INTERNAL PAINTED 


* See article thereon. 



the wall of a church and anointed by the bishop with 
holy water or oil at the consecration of the building. 
There were to be twelve such crosses inside and twelve 
outside, enclosed in circles ten palms (7 ft. 5 in.) from 

Fro. 75. OUTSIDE 




the ground ; in practice they were often placed loxver 
and not in circles. Inside crosses were almost in- 
variably, and outside crosses generally, painted ; so nios 
of the latter have perished. The circles are about 
foot in diameter. Sometimes the crosses were of metal, 
as at Glastonbury on the outside of St. Joseph's Chapel, 
where the pin-holes for fixing them remain. 

deep bracket of slight projection, 
consisting of two reversed volutes 
supporting the end of the cornice 
of an Ionic doorway (fig. 77, and 


COPING. A covering of stone 
or other material on the top of a 
wall to protect it from the weather. 



CORBEL. A projection from 
a wall, generally of stone, to 
carry a weight (figs. 78, 79). 


corbels supporting lintels or 
small arches (fig. 80), gener- 
ally used to carry a slightly 
overhanging parapet (see also 

tish). The stones used for 
covering the stepped gables 
which were introduced from 
Holland in the fifteenth cen- 
tury (fig. 81, next page). 



CORNICE. The uppermost 
of the three parts of the en- 
tablature. (See ORDER.) 






CORONA. The middle member of the cornice ; it 
has a vertical face and a wide horizontal soffit, some- 
times ' sunk ' or recessed. (See OHOER, CLASSICAL). 


CORPORAS. A folded linen cloth with which to 
cover the chalice. "The square of pasteboard cased 
in linen which has been introduced from abroad into 
a few of our churches lately and is called a pall has no 
English authority, and the use of pasteboard or paper 
in the place of linen about the Blessed Sacrament is 
contrary to some ol the oldest canons " (M.). 

COUPLED COLUMNS. Columns grouped in pairs. 
In the classical orders they are half a diameter apart ; 
this arrangement allows the other intervals to be 
wider than they otherwise might be without giving 
an appearance of weakness. Good examples may be 
seen at St. Paul's Cathedral in the west portico. 

COVE. A large concave moulding such as is used 
in the cornice of a room or under the eaves of a roof. 

CREDENCE. (Ital. credenza, a side table). A small 
table in a church near the altar, generally on the 
south side near the piscina.* On it the Bread and 
Wine are kept previous to their consecration. It is 
rather rare in medieval churches, and even a shelf in 
* See article thereon. 



the recess of the piscina, though common, is the 
exception, as it was the practice to place the elements 
on the altar at the beginning of the service. It was 
introduced into the English church by Laud. There 
are some seventeenth-century examples made of wood, 
now they are usually of stone. 

CRENEL, CRENELLE. A battlement for defensive 
purposes. (See CASTLE, p. 35.) 

CRESSET (lit., 'a cup for holding grease' s). A 
small lamp in the form of a cup, 
of metal, stone, or earthenware, 
in which fat was burnt ; used in 
churches in the middle ages. 

CREST. Brattishing ; * also 
ornamental ridge-tiling. 

CROCKET. Probably the 
same word as crochet, a little 
hook ; a hook-shaped bunch of 
foliage placed at intervals on 
the coping of a gable (fig. 82), 
on the angles of a spire or pin- 
nacle, or round a capital. Before 
the end of the thirteenth century 
they lose the hook-form. 

CROMLECH. A prehistoric building consisting of a 
stone of great size supported on others in a vertical 
position and often partly sunk in the ground. 

CROSS. The simple cross was used in the earliest 
times as the symbol of the Christian faith, the crucifix, 
or crucified figure, being a much later form. The 
cross has been used in Christian architecture in endless 
ways and of every variety of shape : carried in proces- 
sion, placed on the altar and on the gable, painted on 
the walls to mark the places of the act of consecration, 
carved on gravestones ; it formed the plan of the church, 
* See article thereon. 


Thirteenth century 



and it was set up in the churchyard, at the wayside 
and in the market-place. 

The following are the various common forms of 
cross (fig. 83): 1 Greek or St. George's, (2) Latin, 


(3) St. Peter's, (4) St. Andrew's or Saltire, (5) Tau, (6) 
Lorraine (from being the armorial bearing of the 
Dukes of Lorraine) or Patri- 
archal ; the upper arm repre- 
sents the inscription over Our 
Lord's Head, (7) Papal, (8) 
Patee or Maltese, (9) Moline 
(shaped like a ' mill- iron '), 
(10) Flory. 


CROSSES. No doubt every 
churchyard had a cross of 
some sort, and probably they 
were mostly large and of 
stone. The cross usually 
stood, it would seem, on the 
south side of the church (the 
churchyard was usually south 
of the church). It consisted 

of a tall tanf rincr shaft r * IG> 8 *' HEAD or A CHURCHYARD 
01 a iau tapering snait, per- CROSS, RBEFHAM 



haps twelve feet high, raised on several steps and 
surmounted by a capital on which stood the cross 
proper, bearing the figure of Our Saviour and some- 
times those of St. John and the Virgin on a bracket 
on each side (fig. 84), while on the reverse there was 
another subject. Wayside crosses appear to have been 
very numerous : 

she doth stray about 
By holy crosses, where she kneels and prays. 




GABLE CROSS. The gables of churches were almost 
always surmounted by a cross of a decorative character 
and without the figure of Our Lord. Those of the 
thirteenth century are usually either placed in a circle 
or are richly floriated, often so much so as to assume a 
circular form. In the fourteenth century they become 
more architectural and the angles are filled with tracery. 
In the fifteenth century the cross is often plain or only 
slightly decorated. 


ally had a figure of Our Lord crucified and sometimes 
figures of the Virgin and St. John on brackets at the 
sides ; the same cross often served for the altar and for 
the procession, being made with a socket to fit into 
either a staff or a foot (M.). A very high aumbry 
may sometimes be seen in a church for the processions 
cross or for its staff 

CRUET, CREWET. A vessel of silver or 
used in the middle ages for holding sacramental wine ; 
there was another for the water. They are now usually 
of glass. t 

CRYPT. A chamber under a building, either whollj 
or partly below ground. A crypt under a church* 
usually limited to a small proportion of the whole area 
extending under the presbytery only. (See CONFESSIO.) 

CUPOLA (Ital. from Low Lat. cupa, a cup), 
dome*: sometimes the word is applied to the whole of 
the little dome-covered erection for a bell on the roof 
or tower of a Renaissance building. 

CURTAIN-WALL. A wall between two towers 
a castle or fort. ^ artide thereon> 


CUSP (Lat. cuspis, a point). A pointed member 
projecting from a Gothic arch towards its centre, 
formed by two arcs springing from the curve of the 
arch (fig. 86), or by the arcs of the arch itself (fig. 87). 


Both forms (fig. 13 l.m. and o.p.) were used at all 
periods from the twelfth century. They are, for struc- 
tural reasons, confined to small arches. Doors are more 
often cusped in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
than in later times. (See TRACERY.) 

CYMA. See MOULDING (p. 188). 


DADO. The plain part between the base and cor- 
nice of the pedestal of a column, usually forming about 
two cubes. (See ORDER, CLASSICAL, p. 199-) 

DAIS. A platform, raised one step above the floor, 
on which stands the high table in a medieval dining- 
hall or an altar in a church ; also called a FOOT-PACE." 

DANCETTE. A Norman enrichment generally 
called the zigzag.* 


DECORATED PERIOD. The name given by Rick- 
man to a phase of English architecture without definite 
limits but considered by him to begin about 1280 and 
to end about 1377. (See also Appendix.) Its chief 
characteristics are as follows : window tracery consists 
at first of simple geometrical forms such as circles and 

* See article thereon. 


quatrefoils, and afterwards of irregular shapes and 
flowing lines ; the ogee arch is used (except in the 
earliest part of the period) in narrow openings such as 
niches and in the heads of window lights ; the foliage 
has at first the conventional sprays with three or five 
lobes each of the Early English period, and afterwards 
is a close imitation of distinct species ; the mouldings 
of the capital and base have no deep hollows ; those of 
the arch are at first on recessed orders, but later are 
usually on a general splayed face (see MOULDINGS), the 
rolls have numerous fillets, and the wave-moulding is 
used in the latter half of the period ; the usual enrich- 
ments are the ball-flower and the four-leaved flower, 
and in the latter part of the period the battlement ; 
sn vaulting the number of ribs is increased, and in the 
lourteenth century lierne ribs are used ; roof principals 
are of arched form. 


DENTIL. A Classic and Renais- 

fance enrichment, consisjing of a 

small plain rectangular block, used ' ' I 1 1 | ' | ' 

mostly in the bed -mould of the . " 88 

Cornice (fig. 88). DKNTIL "NRICHMBNT 

DEVONSHIRE FOLIAGE. A debased form of 
foliage forming a wreath round the capital, used in 
Devonshire late in the fifteenth century. 

DIAPER. A pattern carved or painted on a wall in 
a medieval building, consisting generally of squares, 
but occasionally of some other simple figures, each of 
which contains a flower or a spray of leaves, or similar 
device (fig. 89). 




DIAGONAL-RIB. In Gothic vaulting* the rib which 

crosses the bay diagonally (fig. 259). 


Thirteenth century 

DOG-TOOTH. The only enrichment used in the 
thirteenth century ; it consists of a 
pyramid, the sides of which are 
split upwards from the base nearly 
to the point and slightly opened 
out ; it is used chiefly in the hollows 
of arch mouldings (fig. 90). 

DOME. A roof or ceiling of a 
building, of hemispherical form or 
approximating thereto. It is built 
in horizontal courses each of which 
makes a complete circle. Each 
course is therefore self-supporting as soon as it is 
finished, and thus no ribs are required. As a dome is 
* See article thereon. 

FIG. 90 


usually placed on a square space some special arrange- 
ment is necessary to effect the transition from the square 
to the circle. This is usually done by a system of cor- 
belling beginning in each angle and spreading out as it 
rises till each corbel meets the next one, thus forming 
a complete horizontal circle. Each of these corbels is 
called a pendentive* (fig. 198, P.). A vertical drum 
usually intervenes between the pendentives and the 

The dome was used by the Romans but not by the 
medieval builders except when under Oriental influence, 
hence it is confined to Spain and Italy. It became 
popular in Italy at the Renaissance (sixteenth century) 
probably on account of the Classical precedent, but it 
was scarcely used in England till Wren built St. Paul's. 
All the earliest domes were doubtless of brick ; the 
Romans in the Pantheon used brick and concrete, but 
the method of construction is still under dispute. The 
medieval domes of Italy and the dome of St. Peter's 
consist of inner and outer shells, concentric and with 
but a comparatively narrow cavity between. At St. 
Mark's in Venice there are inner domes of brick, each 
with an outer shell of timber covered with lead, added 
at a much later date ; the springing of the outer dome 
is higher than the crown of the inner. This system 
was adopted by Wren at St. Paul's and has since been 
used by others. The lantern of Wren's dome is carried 
on a brick cone between the inner and outer dome. In 
Renaissance vaulting each bay is generally covered with 
a flat saucer-shaped dome on pendentives, e.g. the nave 
and aisles of St. Paul's Cathedral. 


DOM US CONVERSORUM. The house of the 
conversi, the building in a Cistercian monastery in which 
lived the fratres conversi, the lay brothers, men who 

* See article thereon. 

DOOR 87 

could not read and who did most of the manual work 
of the establishment. 

DONJON. A stronghold or small castle consisting 
of a round tower. (See CASTLE, p. 35.) 

DOOR, DOORWAY. Saxon doorways are generally 
covered by a plain round arch of a single order,* but 
occasionally they have a triangular head formed by two 
stones leaning against one another. Norman doorways 
are often very elaborately ornamented ; they are usually 
roundheaded, but sometimes there is a lintel and carved 
tympanum under the arch ; the arch consists of many 
orders, most of which are carried on detached nook- 
shafts* in the jamb ; the tympanum is occasionally 
carried on a flat segmental arch instead of a lintel. The 
early Gothic doorways are not so rich, and of course the 
details are different, but they are similar in general 
arrangement ; the lintel, though less common, is used 
and is occasionally supported in the centre by a column 
if the doorway is large : these double doorways have 
more often, instead of a lintel, sub-arches with tracery 
above ;' small doorways have often a plain lintel sup- 
ported on corbels and no arch. The woodwork of 
Norman and thirteenth-century doors is usually simple, 
but the hinges are elaborately treated and are worked 
into large scrolls which sometimes cover the whole 
door. (See IRONWORK.) In the fourteenth century 
doorways are usually simpler and with fewer orders ; 
shafts are gradually abandoned, the arch mouldings 
being carried down the jamb. The principal change of 
the fifteenth century, apart from the details such as 
mouldings which of course were in accordance with 
those employed elsewhere, is that the arch is placed in 
a rectangular frame formed by a repetition of the hood- 
mould carried up vertically from the springing and 
horizontally level with the apex (fig. 91)5 ^ e spandrels 
thus enclosed are filled with sculpture, tracery or 
* See article thereon. 




Fifteenth century 

heraldry ; sometimes the outer mouldings of the jamb 
follow the rectangular form of the hood-mould. The 
four-centred arch is of course com- 
mon ; generally some of the mould- 
ings are carried down the jamb, 
while others spring from one or 
more very small shafts ; the hood- 
mould is sometimes carried up in 
an ogee form and is ornamented 
with crockets and a finial. The 
woodwork of the door itself be- 
comes elaborate, the head being 
often filled with tracery and taber- 
nacle work ; the ironwork is correspondingly simple. 

During the long transition from Gothic to Renaissance 
doorways are in one style or the other or are a mixture 
of the two, having debased Gothic mouldings on the 
jambs and on the arch or lintel, within a framework of 
pilasters and entablature of crude classical detail. The 
simple Renaissance doorway has a round arch with an 
architrave *- moulding springing from an impost, the 
jamb being plain or panelled; or it has a lintel and the 
architrave mouldings are carried round ; in rusticated 
work there is a flat arch.* In the more elaborate 
buildings the same arrangement is preserved but it is 
surrounded by pilasters or half columns supporting an 
entablature, with or without a pediment; sometimes 
the pediment is 'broken,' that is the centre is omit- 
ted (fig. 197) and the space is filled by a shield of 
arms or a bust. Eighteenth-century doorways often 
have a fanlight* (fig. 98). 

The door itself is panelled in two, four, or six panels ; 
the hinges in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
have commonly two ornamental plates of similar design, 
one being fixed to the door and the other to the frame ; 
these were given up in the eighteenth century ; the 

* See article thereon. 


handles were brass pendant rings and continued in use 
till the nineteenth century. 


DORMER WINDOW. (Dormer, a sleeping-room). 
A window projecting from the slope of a roof. 

DORTER. A dormitory, esp. monastic; fr. O.F. 

DORTER. A monkish abbreviation of dormitory. 

DOSSAL. (Lat. dorsum, the back). A curtain 
hung behind an altar or behind the seats in a hall. 


DRAFT. A smooth strip on the face of a stone 
made by one line of following strokes with the chisel. 
The whole face of every smooth stone is worked smooth 
by forming a series of such strips. Commonly, in 
rusticated work (masonry left rough or artificially 
roughened), the edges of each stone are generally 
worked smooth, and the stone is then said to have 
drafted edges. 


DRAWING-ROOM. A contraction of Vithdrawing- 
room,' a room to retire to from the dining-hall. 

DRESSINGS. All those brick or stone parts of a 
building which may be distinguished from plain walling, 
such as columns, arches, copings, quoins, etc. 



DUNGEON. A lower chamber in a castle, partly 
or wholly underground. 

EARLY ENGLISH PERIOD. The name given by 
Rickman to a phase of English architecture without 
definite limits, but considered by him to begin about 
1189 and uto end abot 1280 (see Appendix). Its chief 
characteristics are as follows : The work is much more 
refined than formerly, and the masonry has much 
thinner joints; the arches are pointed, or in the case oi 
some small arches, trefoiled ; windows are long, narrow 


lancets, single or in groups; two are sometimes em- 
braced under one arch, and the tympanum is pierced, 
producing plate-tracery (see TRACERY); the projection of 
the buttress is greater than in the twelfth century, and 
the width is less, the two being about equal ; flying but- 
tresses are used; columns are slight, and are round, 
octagonal pr multifoil, and a large round column is often 
surrounded by a number of small shafts ; the foliage of 
the capital consists of broad flat leaves ranged verti- 
cally round the bell and curling over at the top with a 
boldly projecting knob, or breaking into five-lobed 
tufts ; the foliage of crockets and of spandrels, etc., is 
of the same character; most capitals are not carved, 
but have rings of simple mouldings round the upper 
part of the bell ; the abacus is deeply undercut ; the 
base is widely spreading and has two rolls separated by 
a deep hollow ; the arch consists of a series of recessed 
orders which are moulded on their edges ; the only en- 
richment is the dog-tooth ; in vaulting the ribs are at 
first few, but they rapidly increase in number ; the 
spandrels next to the walls have a ploughshare form ; 
roofs are of a trussed-rafter form, or there is a rudi- 
mentary truss consisting of a tie-beam with a post 
standing on it. 

EASTER SEPULCHRE. A place provided in medi- 
eval churches for a representation of the burial and 
resurrection of Our Lord. Its position was in the chan- 
cel -on the north side. Generally it was of wood and 
removable ; it was sometimes placed on an altar-tomb, 
and doubtless people often desired that their tomb 
should be on the north side of the chancel in order 
that it might be so used. Often it was a permanent 
stone recess in the wall and was occasionally of elabo- 
rate architectural character. The service of the caster 
sepulchre at Durham was briefly as follows : 

Uppon good friday theire was maruelous solemne seruice, in 
the wch after the passion was sung, two of the eldest monkes 


did take a goodly large crucifix bringinge that betwixt them 
to the lowest steppes in the quire, and then one of the sd 
moiikes did rise and went a prettye way from it with his 
shooes put of, and uerye reuerently did creepe uppon his 
knees unto the sd crosse and most reuerently did kisse it, and 
all the other monkes after him, in the meanetime all the whole 
quire singinge an himne, the service beinge ended, the two 
moukes did carrye it to the sepulchre wch was sett upp in the 
moruiuge on the north side of the quire nigh to the high 
altar, and there did lay it, with another picture [i.e. statue] 
of our sauiour Christ, in whose breast they did enclose the 
blessed sacrament of the altar, senceinge and prayinge into it 
upon theire knees. 

There was uerye solemne seruice uppon easter day 
between 3 and 4 of the clocke in the morninge, where 2 of 
the oldest monkes came to the sepulchre and did sence it 
sittinge on theire knees, then they both risinge came to the 
sepulchre, out of which they tooke a maruelous beautifull 
Image of our saviour representinge the resurrection, in the 
breast whereof was enclosed in bright Christall the holy sac- 
rament, throughe the wch christall the blessed host was con- 
spicuous to the behoulders, then after the elevation of the sd 
picture, singinge the anthem of christus resurgens, they 
brought it to the high altar, the which anthem beinge ended 
the 2 moukes tooke up the picture from the altar, proceeding 
in procession to the south quire dore, where there were 4 
antient gentlemen belonginge to the prior holdinge upp a 
most rich cannopye of purple ueluet, to beare it over the 
Image carried by two monkes round about the church, the 
whole quire waitinge uppon it with goodly torches and great 
store of other lights, all singinge, reioyceinge, 
and praising god, till they came to the high altar 
againe, whereon they did place the Image, there 
to remaine untill the assencion day (D). 

EAVES. The lower edge ot a roof. If 
they overhang the wall they are finished 
with a cornice or a cove (fig. 92), or with a 
level boarded or plaster soffit, or are left 
plain so that the feet of the rafters or FIG - 9 3 

* ... ,. , i EAVES WITH 

splockets are seen from below. PLASTER COVE 




enrichment used on the echinus moulding * ; it consists 
of eggs placed on end alternat- . 9 l\ , IT 
ing with arrows with their Jfc& A<4>1 
points downwards (Greek, fig. 

., no\ 

94 ; human . ng. yo)- 

ELEMOS1NARIA. An almonry.* 


EMBATTLED. Having battlements.* 



ENGAGED COLUMNS. Columns attached to a 
wall from which they stand out from one-half to three- 
quarters of their diameter or occasionally moe. 


ENRICHMENT. An ornament carved or painted on 
a moulding and repeated either at long or short intervals 
or without interruption. It is distinguished from a 
running ornament, such as a scroll of foliage, in being 
a repetition of a form which is complete in itself; the 



term is moreover generally confined to well-recognized 
forms of a conventional character. 

In Classical work the enrichments are always carved 
in low relief on convex mouldings or on those with 
* See article thereon. 



compound curves,and the principal outline of the enrich- 
ment is similar to the section of the moulding. Thus 
the egg enrichment (fig. 94) is carved on the convex 
ovolo (fig. 180), the honeysuckle (fig. 96) on the com- 
pound curve of the cyma (fig. 
179)- The numerous enrich- 
ments of our Norman* are 
no doubt an inheritance from 
the Romans ; they were aban- 
doned during the twelfth 
century, and in the three 
following centuries two differ- 
ent enrichments were never used in the same piece of 
work and were scarcely in vogue at the same time. 




Elizabethan enrichments are numerous, and are 
mostly a corrupt following of the Roman ; in Stuart 
times they of course became more correct. 


ENTABLATURE. In classical architecture the 
horizontal superstructure on the columns. It consists 

* See article thereon. 


of three principal parts : the architrave, the lowest or 
weight-carrying member ; the frieze ; and the cornice, 
formed by the projection of the roof. (See ORDERS.) 

ENTASIS. The slight swelling towards the centre 
of a classical column ; its object is to correct the 
illusion that the column is smaller in the middle, an 
effect which is sometimes produced in a bright climate. 
The column diminished towards the top, so that the 
entasis did not make the shaft actually larger in the 
centre than at the bottom, but merely made the dimi- 
nution in the lower half less than in the upper half. 
Entasis is seen also in some medieval spires. 

French and Italian houses of the Renaissance, a low 
storey over the ground storey, the two together being 
included in one order and being equal in height to the 
entrance archway to the court. 

ESCUTCHEON. (1) A shield charged with armor- 
ial bearings. (2) A metal plate round a keyhole 
(fig. 126). 


FACIA, FASCIA. A flat face in an entablature. 

FALDSTOOL. The true meaning is 'folding- 
stool/ a portable seat which would fold up. When the 
bishop officiated in any but his own cathedral church a 
faldstool was placed for him in the choir (P.) ; possibly 
this was derived from the portable seat of the Roman 
magistrate. The term is now curiously applied to the 
Litany* desk. 

FANLIGHT. A window in the tympanum over a 
square-headed door and under an arch, common in 

* See article thereon. 



town houses of the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies. The divisions between the panes radiated, pro- 


ducing a fan-like form (fig. 98, in which the fan form 
is retained, although the window has a straight top). 

FEATHERING. The same as cusping. * 

FERETORY. A wooden structure placed on the top 
of a tomb. Example : the shrine of Edward the Con 
fessor at Westminster Abbey. (See MONUMENT, p. 1 69.) 


FESTOON. Used as a decoration in the frieze in 
Roman and Renaissance architecture (fig. 99)- 

* See article thereon. 



FIG. 100. BOWTEl 


FILLET. A narrow flat band on a moulding (fig. 
100) or shaft, or between flutes* of a shaft, 
or elsewhere. 

FINIAL. The ornament on the top of 
a spire, pinnacle, gable, etc. 

FIRE-BACK. A cast-iron plate, with a 
picture or other decoration in relief, placed 
at the back of a grate in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries. (See IRONWORK.) 

FIRE-DOGS. A pair of horizontal iron bars sup- 
ported on legs about six inches high, on which to rest 
the ends of logs placed on a fire ; the ends were turned 
up and rose vertically to a height of a foot or two, to 
keep the logs from falling off, and were terminated in 
animals' heads. 




FLINT-AND-STONE WORK. A system of exter- 
nal decoration of buildings in use in East Anglia in the 
middle ages (fig. 101) ; by this means 
tracery or inscriptions or other devices 
are produced in stone on a ground of 
flints, which have been split so as to 
show a black surface ; in the more com- 
plex forms the surface of the stone is 
sunk about two inches, and the flints 
are let into it. In some late fifteenth- 
century work the stone is sunk about a 

. J f . , , . , . FIG. 101. FLINT-At< 

quarter of an inch, and the sinking is STONE WORK 
filled with a sort of black mortar. SWANINGTON CHURC 

FLAGON. A tall vessel with a handle and lid for 
holding liquor. It was first used in the service of the 
Sacrament after the Reformation to take the place of 

* See article thereon. 


the cruets which had held the water and wine ; this 
probably explains why it was usual to have a pair when 
one would have been enough ; they are usually cylin- 
drical orslightly tapering. 

FLECHE (PR.). A small wooden spire usually 
covered with lead, placed on the roof at the crossing 
of the nave and transepts in French churches. 


FLLTES. Grooves in a column ; generally vertical 
as in the Classical columns (see ORDERS), but sometimes 
spiral as in Norman work. The Doric (fig. 102 a) has 
twenty flutes (early work sixteen) with sharp edges 
between ; the other orders have twenty-four flutes 
separated by fillets (fig. 1026). 

a. 6 



CABLED FLUTES. The flutes of Roman and Renaissance 
columns are sometimes filled for one-third of their 
height with a plain convex member, and are then said 
to be cabled ; the cables never have a spiral form like 
a rope (fig. 1 02 6, cables are shown in one quarter of the 

FOLIAGE. The earliest sculptured foliage of which 
it is necessary to take account here is the interlacing 
scroll-work used both before and immediately after the 


Conquest on crosses, on door jambs and arches, and on 
capitals. These involved patterns form a kind of rude 
arabesque,* but they are probably northern in origin. 

Soon after the Norman Conquest the most important 
position in which foliage is used is in the sculpture of 
the capital.* The block of convex form covered with 
twining sprays is soon given up for the more animate 
and beautiful capital of concave outline ornamented 
witli leaves growing upright from the necking and 
bending over beneath the projecting angles of the 


capital (figs. 42, 43). The form of these leaves varies 
a good deal in different examples, but it is clear that 
either directly or indirectly they are derived from the 
classical acanthus* (fig. 5). Like it the leaves are 
serrated, are ranged symmetrically round the bell of 
the capital and curl over at the top or are gathered up 
at the angles of the capital (the upper part of which 
was square) into volute-like knobs. The best examples 
of this Romanesque acanthus foliage are to be seen in 
France and in English buildings where French influence 
was felt, like the choir of Canterbury. 

But most examples show a departure from the acan- 
" See article thereon. 



thus. The serrations are omitted or suppressed and 
the broad leaves end in boldly projecting knobs ranged 
in two rows round the bell. These knobs of three- 
lobed or five-lobed foliage gradually expand in the first 
half of the thirteenth century and form very exquisite 
sprays, thrown about with careless grace in strong con- 
trast with the stiff crockets from which they grew 
(fig. 103). Another line of development can be traced 

FIG. 104. 


from the little detached sprigs which are set rather 
formally round the bell (fig. 42). This foliage reached 
perfection about 1250, when it still retained the some- 
what formal arrangement appropriate to its position ; 
but later it became more free, perhaps a little too free, 
and grew rather confused. 

Foliage is used in the hollows of mouldings, both as 

detached sprays and as a running arabesque ; scrolls are 

also used in the spandrels of arches ; the crockets* on 

gables (fig. 82) are similarly treated. In all these 

* See article thereon. 



cases the general character of the foliage is the same ; 

the lobes are, unlike those of the acanthus, rounded at 

the ends; the outer lobes are curled 

up tightly, and the central lobe has a 

strong rib lying in a deep hollow, 

which stops abruptly near the end 

of the lobe (fig. 105).* 

In the latter part of the thirteenth 
century or early in the fourteenth 
the character of the foliage changes 
rapidly and entirely ; an exact imita- 
tion of partic ular species is now aimed THI R T i 
at and achieved (fig. 106); but there 
is a great loss in strength, in abstract beauty of line 
and modelling, and in architectural fitness. This is 
especially the case in capitals where the foliage is 



FIG. 107 


arranged as a heavy wreath round the bell rather than 
as living shoots. The diaper,* instead of having a 
complete little pattern in each square, is often treated 
as a trellis with a rose tree or what-not rambling through 

1 An English characteristic. * See article thereon. 


it. The plants most commonly copied were the oak, 
rose, maple and vine. 

This adoption of a particular species as a motive was by 
no means a mere direct and literal copying of a single 
plant. Much skill was shown in the disposition of the 
masses to produce effective light and shade, and in the 
hands of a master, or when the art of the nation was 
at its height, very beautiful results were obtained. But 
these natural forms are not so suitable for reproduc- 
tion in stone and wood, nor are they so appropriate to 
their architectural surroundings or to their decorative 
functions as the carving of the thirteenth century. 
Nor did this treatment lend itself to adoption as a 
national and traditional style to be used by all men of 
very various degrees of skill. Early in the fourteenth 
century it settled down to a mere convention, and 
later on assumed a somewhat cabbage-like form of no 
decorative value (fig. 107). 

This mannerism continued throughout the fifteenth 
century, gradually becoming more formal and lifeless. 
The fully carved capital was now seldom used. Isolated 
leaves are placed round the bell and in the hollows of 
string courses, or they are ranged, not without skill and 
sometimes with good modelling, to form a cresting 
called brattishing* on the top of a cornice. Spandrels 
are commonly filled with a spray, which also is some- 
times well carved. (See TUDOR-FLOWER.) 

The influence of the Renaissance is first seen in the 
delicate arabesques both in stone and wood which are 
found early in the sixteenth century introduced into 
otherwise pure Gothic. When the classical orders were 
used the acanthus followed the Roman variety or an 
Italian version of the Roman. The rich Elizabethan 
ceilings were decorated with scrolls of vine, but after 
the introduction of pure Pallaclian architecture by 
Inigo Jones these were abandoned. Two or three 
* See article thereon. 



varieties of foliage were then used : the acanthus on 
Corinthian capitals, under consoles and in such-like 
places ; arabesques, with leaves of somewhat the same 
character as the acanthus in pilasters, in spandrels and so 
forth ; festoons* (fig. 99) of quite natural fruit, flowers 
and leaves in friezes or hanging down the walls tied 
with ribbons a style familiar in the work of Grinling 
Gibbons and his school ; and palm-branches used in 
spandrels round coats-of-arms and trophies. All these 
continued in use throughout 
the seventeenth and eighteenth 

The fancy of the carver, how- 
ever, occasionally broke away 
from these formalities; a good 
traditional arrangement of com- 
mon field flowers mingles with 
the cherub heads on the grave- 
stones of the country church- 
yard, and appears even on one 

of the Severest productions of FIG. 108. FREE CARVING OF THE 

the eighteenth century (fig. 108). KIGHT1 

FOLIATION. The trefoil, cinque-foil, or other leaf- 
form given to an arch* or to piercings in tracery 
either by breaks hxthe main curves or by subordinate 
cusps branching out from them. 

FONT. The old fonts occupied a conspicuous 
and open place towards the west end of the church, 
any sort of baptistery in the form of a separate 
building or a part of the church divided from the rest 
being unknown in England. In 1236 it was ordered 
that the font should be kept covered and locked (p.), 
for it was the practice to change the consecrated water 
only occasionally (M.). The cover often became a very 

See article thereon. 


elaborate and lofty wooden erection, and was in some 
instances fixed and had an opening at the side; this 
form was, perhaps, an introduction from Italy. The 
usual material for the font was stone, though there 
are some thirty examples of lead, mostly found in those 
parts of the country where the metal was easily pro- 
cured ; some early fonts are of black marble or of 
Purbeck marble ; for the post-Restoration fonts white 
marble is commonly used. 

The Norman fonts were generally either square or 
round on a plain massive pedestal and were decorated 
with small arcades or with sculpture. In the thirteenth 
century groups of shafts, so characteristic of the period, 
were used in the pedestal, and the bowl is octagonal. 
In the later middle ages the bowl was of the same shape 
and the pedestal was also a plain octagon. In the 
fifteenth century the bowl is often decorated with 
tracery, heraldry or sculpture and the cover assumes 
the form of a spire. After the Restoration the bowl is 
commonly very small and stands on a baluster-shaped 

FOOT-PACE. A dais*; the term is now usually 
applied only to the dais for an altar. 

PRATER (from Old Fr.fraitur, short form of re fret- 
tor from Low Lat. refectorium, a dining-hall H). The 
monks' dining-hall in a monastery.* 

FREEMASON. In the middle ages this term meant 
one who worked freestone* as distinguished from a 
rough mason. Of the gilds of freemasons little is 
known and perhaps there is little to know. Their 
rules must have differed somewhat from those of other 
trade gilds because they had to move about from place 
to place ; that they did not usually travel far seems to 
be proved by the very distinct peculiarities of style in 
different districts. 

* See article thereon. 



FREESTONE. Any stone which can be easily 
dressed with the chisel, as distinguished from those 
which cannot be shaped or can only be roughly squared 
with the hammer. 

FRESCO PAINTING (It&l fresco, fresh, cool). Paint- 
ing done on fresh plaster while it is still wet ; only 
so much of the wall or ceiling is plastered with the 
finishing coat as can be painted the same day. The 
colour sinks into the plaster so that the process is more 
permanent than others, but it is practically impossible 
to make alterations. This method of painting was prac- 
tised by the ancients and in medieval Italy, but not in 
England, where tempera* painting only was used. 

FRET. An enrichment cut on a flat surface ; some- 
times called the key-pattern (fig. 1 09) ; there are several 
varieties. In the middle ages the term was used in 
many senses, e.g. cusped, embossed, set with jewels. 

FIG. 109. FRETS 

FRIEZE. The middle division of the entablature. 


FRITHSTOOL. "Literally the seat of peace. A 
seat or chair placed near the altar in some churches, 
the last and most sacred refuge for those who claimed 
the privilege of sanctuary within them, and for the 
violation of which the severest punishment was decreed; 
they were frequently if not always of stone " (p.). 
Examples, Hexham Abbey and Beverley Minster (p.). 
* See article thereon. 

GABLE 105 


FRONTISPIECE. The front of a building, more 
often the decorated entrance (G.). 


GABLE. The end of a roof of triangular or other 
form ; the term is generally applied only to steep 
pitched Gothic roofs, the low classical gable being 
called a pediment.* There are two principal methods 
of construction : (l) the outer part of the wall is 
carried up above the roof and is finished with a 
coping ; (2) the roof is carried over the wall and 
projects more or less beyond : this method is the more 
appropriate for timber buildings. The gable was 
almost invariably triangular in the middle ages ; in 
the sixteenth century and early part of the seventeenth 


its outline was a succession of small curves (figs, 1 1 0, 
111) or was stepped (see CORBIE STONES, fig. 81), the 
coping being either stone or brick ; in the latter part 

* See article thereon. 


of the seventeenth century large ogee ctuves are more 
common. When the roof projected beyond the wall, 
the edge or ' verge ' was finished with an ornamental 


/>oard called a barge -board,* which was carved or 
pierced with tracery in the middle ages and till the 
middle of the seventeenth century, after which time 
it was moulded ; the apex of the gable has an orna- 
mental post. 

OABLET. A small gable, e.g. over a niche or buttress. 

GALILEE. A term of various meanings and of 
unknown origin. At Durham Cathedral it is applied 
to a chapel at the west end, at Ely to the west porch, 
at Lincoln to a porch on the west side of the south 

GALLERY. (1 ) An upper floor extending over a part 
of a church, hall, theatre, or other room ; (2) a wide 
passage or room on an upper floor connecting distant 
parts of a house and providing wall space for pictures; 
hence (3) a whole building intended for the exhibition 
of pictures. 

(1) In a medieval church there was a gallery over 
the rood-screen (see UOOD-LOFT and PULPITOM) ; the 
private chapel of a large house* had a gallery at the 

* See article thereon. 

GESSO 107 

west end for the family; and a medieval hall had 
a gallery over the screens passage. Early in the 
seventeenth century galleries were erected at the west 
end and in the aisles of churches/ and Laud was 
accused of removing them and of preventing their 
erection ; the west gallery contained the choir and 
band, and was common in churches till the middle 
of the nineteenth century; a small gallery for the band 
was also common in the assembly rooms of the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A rather curious 
variation of this meaning of the term is its application 
to the gradually rising platform in a school for infants. 
(2) The gallery, which forms an important feature in 
a large Elizabethan house/ is derived from the covered 
passages which connected the various half-detached 
portions of a medieval house, and its development 
is in great part due to the fashion of having portrait 
paintings. It sometimes joined buildings which were 
otherwise separated ; other examples are built against 
the side of another building, e.g. a hall which rises to 
the whole height of a house. 

GARGOYLE (usually pron. gurgoyle). A project- 
ing spout which drains the gutter behind a parapet and 
shoots the water clear of the walls. It is sometimes a 
lead trough, but more usually it is of stone and is 
carved into a grotesque creature. It was gradually 
superseded by rain-water-heads* and pipes. 

GARRETT (from Old Fr. garite, a place of refuge, 
a look-out). A chamber constructed in the roof, an 


TURE and p. 305. 

GESSO. A hard fine plaster. (See PAINTING.) 
* See article thereon. 



GLASS. The knowledge and use of glass is very 
ancient, but its application to windows seems to be 


Probably seventeenth century 

comparatively recent. It appears to have been used 
in this way by the Romans to only a very limited 
extent. It was known to 
the Saxons, but did not 
become common till the 
thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. Coloured glass 
has been used almost as 
long as white glass. De- 
corative effects have also 
been produced at different ' FIG . II3 LEAD GLAZING ' 

periods by using white Probably eighteenth century 

glass in leaded patterns. 

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. The style of archi- 
tecture in use from the latter part of the twelfth 
century till near the middle of the sixteenth. 

" A certain Fantastical aud Licentious manner of Build- 
ing, which we have since call'd Modern (or Gothic rather) 
Congestions of Heavy, Dark, Melancholy and Monkish Piles, 
without any just Proportion, Use or Beauty, compared with 
the truly Antient" (John Evelyn, 1696-7). 

In France the style ran a course fairly parallel with 
English Gothic, and it is there that it reaches its 


highest perfection. Its decline is characterised by 
fantastic elaboration, while ours became on the whole 
more severe. In Germany Romanesque continued 
longer and was developed to a high degree of refine- 
ment before Gothic was introduced from France. 
Gothic architecture seems never to have become a 
natural manner to the Italians ; they were late in 
adopting it and they gladly threw it over for the 
classical style in the fifteenth century. 

In the seventeenth century, under the influence of 
Laud, some attempts were made to build in a Gothic 
style, "which," says Walpole, "we call King James' 
Gothic." This revival, however, was prompted entirely 
by religion and had no artistic spontaneity. 

The Gothic revival of the nineteenth century was 
the inevitable reaction against the excessive formalism 
and the unnatural Italian imitations of the latter hall 
of the eighteenth century. It formed a part only of 
a general movement which included other arts and 

To say that the revived Gothic style has so far 
failed to re-establish itself as a natural and general 
mode of artistic expression, and that there has even 
set in a reaction in favour of the Renaissance architec- 
ture, is not to say that the Gothic Revival has been 
without results or produced no effect. That is very 
far from being the case and might with as much truth 
be said of the pre-Raphaelite movement or of the 
Romantic literature of the early nineteenth century. 
But, like these, the Gothic Revival was to some extent 
merely a symptom of a general tendency. 

That Gothic architecture should fail to take root 
seems to us almost a foregone conclusion. The condi- 
tions of the middle ages and of the present day are 
so entirely different; not only the conditions which 
buildings are required to fill, great as is the change 


in this respect, but the conditions under which build- 
ings are produced have changed even more have been 
revolutionised. Medieval architecture was a purely 
traditional art, passed on from father to son and from 
master to apprentice, and slowly developed and as 
slowly let die by the slight improvements and slight 
lapses of successive generations. There were no 
written rules. In the middle ages consequently there 
were no architects a most healthy state. It might 
almost as truly be said that there were no builders. 
The contractor and his contract appear towards the 
end of the period, but in earlier times the employer 
gave his directions, bought his materials and paid 
the workmen weekly wages till the work was finished 
or the money had come to an end. But at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century architectural tra- 
dition was almost dead killed by a succession of im- 
portations from Italy, China, Greece ; while there 
had been well-nigh a flood of books for a hundred 
years past giving rules and patterns for everything. 

It is clear that such different conditions must pro- 
duce very different results, and that an art which 
flourishes and grows rapidly at the one period is im- 
possible at the other. But after all, and quite inde- 
pendently of this, the great overmastering and 
inexplicable fact is that at the one time the country 
and indeed Europe was full of artistic and especially 
architectural energy and feeling, while at the other it 
was lifeless. But for this the revived art would have 
blossomed and perhaps borne fruit, contracts and im- 
portations and pattern books notwithstanding. 

To state in a few words the qualities of medieval art 
is impossible. Its most obvious characteristics speak- 
ing not of England only but of Europe generally are 
perhaps the restless energy with which it was pushed 
on through many mutations in the comparatively short 
period of three centuries ; the extraordinary daring of 


the builders in construction, their carelessness or lack 
of sensitiveness as to the attainment of perfection, 
their exuberance and want of artistic reserve or re- 
straint, the lively fancy which gives so much in- 
dividuality to the work, and, most remarkable of all, 
the outcome of their merits and their frailties, that 
indescribable humanity in the very stones. 

This extraordinary outburst of artistic production 
becomes more rather than less mysterious as we 
examine it. Its rapid development in the thirteenth 
century is remarkable, but its complete and almost 
sudden ending in the sixteenth is dramatic. For 
the end was complete. The art of the seven- 
teenth century was of an altogether different order. 
Great architecture was produced, and the smaller 
buildings retained much of the character and much 
of the charm of medieval work, but the universality 
of medieval art and the lavishness of its beauty were 
past. Medieval art was not merely an aflair of 
splendid masonry and carpentry, which are almost 
all that remain to us now. Along with these went 
magnificent schools of sculpture and painting of pro- 
foundly poetical conceptions and masterly technique, 
a school of glass painting which has never been 
approached, working in iron and casting in bronze and 
lead and engraving on brass, gold and silver work 
perfect alike in design and in execution, enamelling 
applied to the minutest vessels and to the broad 
surface of the shield, tapestry, embroidery and weaving, 
carvings in wood and in ivory, and illuminating on 
vellum. No'r was it only the arts that were artistic, 
but every common object of furniture and household 
use had form, colour and character. Dress, armour, 
heraldry and coins were treated with a sense of design 
with which the nations seem to have been infused. 
And all these crafts, and this faculty for giving to 
everything some of the character of a work of art, 


may be said to have reached their climax between the 
years 1 300 and 1 400. 

So extraordinary is this manifestation, so far removed 
from anything that is possible to us, and so impressive 
are the works which it produced, that it is common 
to find them, or at least those of the greatest period, 
spoken of and even written about as if they were 
altogether above criticism. This position has only to 
be stated to show its falseness. Produced under a 
strong unwritten tradition the art perhaps maintained 
a more uniform level than at periods when individual 
architects impart to their work their weakness and 
their strength. But, nevertheless, there is much differ- 
ence in quality between one building and another, 
between district and district, between nation and 

Medieval architecture itself and not a few of those 
other arts mentioned above were entirely the creations 
of the northern mind ; others came by contact with 
the East or by inheritance from ancient times. Some 
have been surpassed at other periods and in other 
lands. But considering their number and variety, 
ncluding as they do every branch of art from the 
greatest to the least, and remembering the height to 
which all were carried, it may be said that Gothic 
art taken as a whole will rank above that of any other 
people or time of which we have knowledge. 

GRANGE (Lat. from granum, corn), (l) A barn; 
granary. (2) A farmhouse ; an old country house some 
what larger than the ordinary farmhouse. (3) The 
house and barns on an outlying property of a monastery. 

of architecture adopted by many architects in England 
at the end of the last [eighteenth] century, in which 
the severity of the ancient Greek style is modified by 
the richness and elaborate details of that of the Roman, 


together with the introduction of features such as the 
arch, adapted to the requirements of the style and of 
the present era " (G). 

GREEK ARCHITECTURE. The term is commonly 
used in the limited sense of the three Greek Orders* 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian as perfectly developed, 
and the arrangement of temples* and their porticoes 
as represented by the perfected types of Athens. It is 
clear, however, that these buildings are the outcome of 
a long period of growth either on the mainland or in 
the islands, which has left practically no remains. For 
the earliest buildings of the classical age are to all 
intents and purposes perfect, and differ only in slight 
respects from the latest : in sturdiness of proportions 
and in lack of refinement. The Doric forms are, it is 
thought, derived from buildings of timber. But if the 
details suggest a timber origin, the general proportions 
are very far from doing so. A portico constructed of 
timber would have thin columns placed at wide in- 
tervals, for the weight they would have to support is 
immaterial, and they would be kept upright by being 
planted in the ground, while the transverse strength of 
timber allows the lintel to be long in proportion to its 
depth. But in the Doric stone portico the columns are 
massive and very close together, while the architrave 
is deep ; and moreover the earlier buildings have the 
more massive proportions. This contrast between the 
actual stone buildings and what we suppose wood 
buildings to have been indicates a long interval of 

The Ionic and Corinthian Orders are used in buildings 
somewhat later in date than the Doric, but they appear 
fully developed. The invention of the Ionic capital 
with its great spirals, has been accounted for by many 
theories, and the invention of the Corinthian acanthus- 

* See article thereon. 


capital by a pretty story (see p. 1 96). But architect- 
ural forms, like most other things, arc not invented, 
they grow. 

And so the foundations of Greek architecture must 
be sought for not in invention and perhaps not on the 
mainland, but in prehistoric cities, and probably in 
those of the Archipelago and of Crete ; perhaps some 
of the stages, which connect them, through what has 
hitherto been known as Mycenaean art, with the per- 
fected Greek art may yet be revealed. 

The genius of the Greek as an artist lay not in 
inventing the new but in perfecting the old. In this 
adherence to tradition he is an Oriental ; as a master 
of form rather than of colour, he belongs to the West. 
His stern suppression of self and his rather cold 
pursuit of the ideal are his own peculiar contributions 
to art. In his severity he leaves the East. His aim 
at perfection involved loss of individuality ; the Gothic 
nations in their assertion of individuality necessarily 
rejected the ideal. 

This striving after perfection by the refining of an 
accepted model is illustrated in a remarkable way in 
the subtile ' optical corrections ' of the best buildings. 
The diminution of the column and its entasis, the 
closer spacing of the columns at the angles of the 
portico, the inward lean of the columns, and the arch- 
ing of the horizontal lines are all means to an end : the 
counteracting of optical illusions. 

It is not surprising to find that a people who showed 
by these precautions what importance they attached to 
the most absolute repose should altogether reject the 
arch. The Greeks knew of and understood the arch, 
and there are one or two instances of its employment, 
but this fact only emphasises their refusal. 

To most people who have seen the actual buildings, 
their white marble mellowed and stained with gold, it 
will always remain a mystery that the Greeks should 


have entirely covered their buildings with plaster (ex- 
tremely fine and hard, and no thicker than paper) 1 and 
should have painted that plaster. But they did not see 
them as we see them, mellowed by time ; and no doubt 
the effect of large masses of white marble with its 
hard lustrous surface was painful to them. It must be 
remembered that the dislike of plaster is entirely 
English and modern, and we may take it that the 
Greek judgement was sound. 

GRESE, GRECE, GRYSE. The medieval term for 
a step. 

GROIN (lit. a fork or branch). The salient angle 
formed by the intersection of two vaulting surfaces. 

GROINED VAULTING. Vaulting* consisting of 
intersecting surfaces forming salient angles with or 
without ribs, as distinguished from barrel vaults, 
domes and, to speak accurately, fan vaulting. 

GROTESQUE (from Fr. grotte, a grotto, cave). A 
fantastic representation of a man or animal. 

GUESTHOUSE. A building provided for the 
accommodation of guests in a monastery.* 

TOLBOOTH. It would seem that it was originally 
built as a booth, a mere roof on wooden posts, at 
which to collect market tolls. When a room was 
required as a place of meeting for the Gild Merchant 
or the Town Council, the easiest and most con- 
venient way of providing one without encroaching 
on the market-place, the rents for which were of 
value to the town, was to build a chamber over the 
Tolbooth. And when, in later times, the Town Hall 
was rebuilt in stone or brick, the same arrangement 
was kept. Thus it happens that so many of our old 

* See article thereon. 1 The rough stone was thickly plastered. 


Town Halls are entirely on the upper floor and have 
a space open to the market underneath. Occasionally 
they are built solid from the ground like ordinary 

GUILLOCHE. An enrichment consisting of two 
wavy bauds interlaced (fig. 95). 


GUTTAE (from Lat. gutta, a drop). Small project- 
ing discs on the mutules of the Doric cornice ; also 
cylinders or truncated cones appearing to hang with the 
large end downwards from the fillet under the triglyphs. 
They are supposed to represent the pins used in a 
building constructed of timber. (See ORDER, CLASSICAL.) 

HAGIOSCOPE (Gk. ayios, holy, and O-KOTTOS, a 
watcher). A modern term for a small window, loop- 
hole or squint,* through which to watch an altar. 


HALL. (1) The principal room in a medieval 
house ; whence (2) a manor-house, and (3) the entrance 
vestibule of a house. 

HAMMER BEAM. A bracket forming part of the 
principal truss of an open timber roof. 

HAWK'S BEAK MOULDING. The same as Bird's 
beak moulding (fig. 177). Not to be confounded with 
Bird's beak ornament (fig. 29). 

HELIX. A small leaf in the Corinthian capital ; two 
spring from each of the eight caulicoli (see fig. 1 93). 

HERRING-BONE WORK. Walling in which a 
row of bricks or stones is laid sloping, followed by 
another row sloping the other way. It has been 
used occasionally at all periods from Roman times 
to the present day. The brickwork at the back of 



a medieval fireplace was commonly worked in this 
way (fig. 114). 



HIP. The salient angle formed by the intersection 
of two roofs (fig. 1 1 5, line c rf.) 

FIG. 115. A ini'1't.u kouF. fi, b, valley, c, d, hip 

HIPPED ROOF. A roof* with hips (fig. 115). 

consecrated water was generally placed in a recess to 
the right of the principal door of the church either 
inside or outside. * See article thereon. 


ment* of the Ionic and Corinthian orders (fig. 96). 

outermost ring of an arch, projecting beyond the face of 
the wall. It is used for architectural effect only, being 
of insufficient thickness to be of structural value. It 
is of some use outside a building if it is undercut, as it 
throws off the rain-water which runs down the wall 
and keeps it from staining the arch. But it is not 
this which led to its use, for it is used inside as well as 
outside a building, and the early hood-moulds were not 
undercut. It is doubtless the successor of the archi- 
trave-moulding used by the Romans in their arches. 
Its section generally corresponds to that of the abacus. 

HOSPITAL. The present sense of the word and 
the present character of the institution are both 
modern. Till recently there were no houses solely for 
the temporary reception of the sick except the 'pest 
houses ' in times of plague. In the middle ages there 
were hospitals for leprosy till that disease disappeared 
from England in the fifteenth century. The medieval 
hospital ministered to the sick, but its first objects 
seem to have been to provide a refuge for the aged, 
infirm and destitute, to distribute alms to poor, and to 
support a certain number of chaplains who should sing 
masses for the soul of the founder. 

The building was in some examples arranged like 
those of a monastic infirmary, that is, it resembled 
a church, of which the nave and aisles were the 
hospital proper and the chancel formed a chapel. 
The Great Hospital, Norwich (fig. 11 6), was of this 
type. In this instance the other necessary buildings 
are grouped round a cloister in a curious compromise 
between a monastery and a private house. In other 
hospitals (e.g. St. Cross, Winchester) the church is 
* See article thereon. 



quite distinct from the other buildings and the general 
arrangement somewhat resembles a college.* 

ft OAO 


HOSTEL. An inn ; also a dwelling-house for a 
number of persons, but not public, e.g. a house of 
residence for students ; there were a considerable 
number of hostels of this sort at Oxford and Cambridge 
in the middle ages. (See COLLEGE.) 

HOUR-GLASS STAND. An iron frame and bracket 
attached to a pulpit to hold the preacher's hour-glass. 
* See article thereon. 

120 HOUSE 

Several seventeenth-century examples remain ; they 
probably were not in use earlier. 

HOUSE. The earliest domestic buildings in England 
date from the twelfth century. Stone was then more 
commonly used than formerly, and consequently several 
houses of the Norman period have been preserved. 
The stone-built town houses which still remain appear 
to have belonged in most cases to Jews, the rich men 
of the period, and a class which must often have found 
it necessary to have houses that were capable of defence. 
The best known are those at Lincoln and Bury St. 
Edmund's, in which the principal rooms are on the 
upper floor. It was a common plan, in the larger 
private houses, to reserve the ground floor for offices 
and store rooms, and to cover it with a stone vault 
supported on a row of columns running down the middle 
to the building ; the living rooms were placed above 
and were sometimes reached by an outside staircase 
only. When the hall was on the ground floor it was 
sometimes divided by arches into a nave and aisles like 
a church ; Westminster Hall, built by William II., was 
thus divided originally. Probably the columns were 
often of wood, like those in the Bishop's Palace at 
Hereford and in Farnham Castle. Whether the hall 
was above or below stairs, it occupied the greater part 
of the house. Hence the application of the word Hall 
in very early times to the whole house. The only 
other rooms were a cellar, not necessarily below ground, 
at one end of the hall with a room over it, and at the 
other end of the hall the kitchen offices. 

It is in the reign of Edward I. that we see the 
gradual development of the typical medieval plan, 
which continued with but little change in its essentials 
till the time of Elizabeth (fig. 117). The medieval 
house consisted of a hall going the whole height of the 
building, with a wing of two storeys at each end 
(fig. 1 1 8). The hall had an open-timber roof, and 



usually a central hearth. It was lighted from both 
sides, and on each side there was a door at the ' lower ' 
end, which was that nearest to the kitchen. The 
'upper' end of the hall was raised a step to form a 
dai's for the high-table, which stretched across the hall, 
while the tables for the retainers ran down the sides. 
To check the draughts from the doors, short screens, 


called 'spurs/ were projected from each of the side 
walls ; afterwards a third screen was placed between 
them, leaving two intervals, which may perhaps have 
been hung with curtains; then the passage between 
the doors, which itself came to be called the ' screens/ 
was ceiled over and thus a gallery was formed ; finally 
the intervals between the three screens were fitted 
with doors. The bay, or oriel window as we call it, is 

HOUSE 123 

another development of late times; it formed a con- 
venient retired corner when houses had so few rooms. 

The ground-floor room at the upper end of the hall 
was often a sort of store-room or cellar; over it there 
was the chamber or ' solar/ the private sitting-room 
and bedroom of the family, to which they could retire 
after supper, leaving the hall to the servants. The 
room sometimes commanded a view of the hall through 
a small loophole. 

Large houses had a private chapel adjoining or near 
to the solar. In some cases a gallery extended over 
part of the chapel for the accommodation of the family, 
while the retainers sat below. 

Returning to the lower end of the hall : the end wall 
beyond the screens contained two doors, one opening 
into the buttery, the other into a passage leading to the 
kitchen and larder ; frequently there was a third door 
to the pantry, where bread, butter, etc., were served 
out. The rooms over the offices were probably bedrooms 
for women-servants, the men sleeping, as of old, in the 
hall ; but there is still a good deal of uncertainty as to 
the sleeping accommodation for the opposite sexes. 

The house was gradually enlarged by adding room to 
room, especially by extending laterally the wings at 
each end of the hall. In course of time this led to the 
formation of a courtyard surrounded by buildings, and 
sometimes of two courts, one on each side of the hall 
(fig. 1 1 9). From these three stages of development 
the central hall with a projecting wing at each end, the 
single court, and the double court the normal plan of 
later times was derived. The smaller houses, of course, 
continued the simple primitive arrangement more or 
less, according to circumstances. They were almost 
always of timber, as indeed were most of the larger 
houses except in districts where stone was the more 
easily obtainable. 

The only other changes made in this plan during 

124 HOUSE 

the middle ages were in matters of detail, tending 
chiefly to the greater seclusion of the family. The 
solar became more important, and separate bedrooms 
were provided. The upper rooms at each end of the 
house, formerly separated by the high central hall, are 
now sometimes connected by a gallery built out from 
the side wall of the hall. The staircase remains an 
insignificant feature. Glass gradually becomes more 


common, the window is divided by a transom, the lower 
part having bars and a wood shutter to open, while the 
upper part has glass fixed. 

The town house was less susceptible of variety in 
plan than the country house. The lower storey was 
usually a shop, and there was a somewhat insignificant 
staircase at the back to the living rooms above. 

In the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth the 
larger country houses generally followed the courtyard 
plan. The plan of the smaller house, and sometimes 
also of the larger, assumes the well-known E shape, 
commonly supposed to be an allusion to the Queen's 

HOUSE 125 

name ; but the arrangement is simply a central range 
with a wing at each end and a porch in the middle, a 
plan which has been common at all periods. The fourth 
side of the court was left open or was closed only by a 
wall with a gateway. 

The rooms at either end of the hall are now more 
conveniently arranged. Though many rooms still open 
out of one another, and some rooms, even bedrooms, 
cannot be reached without passing through several 
others, they are ingeniously grouped and are connected 
by wide galleries, and numerous staircases are dis- 
tributed about the building. The galleries occupy one 
side of a range, not the middle like a modern passage 
with rooms on each side. They are a development of 
the light covered ways which connected various parts of 
a large medieval building, and they form an important 
step towards the modern compact block of building as 
distinct from the medieval narrow and straggling range. 
The gallery built on the upper floor behind the hall, 
with small rooms or an open colonnade below it, becomes 
the great picture gallery, which is one of the most 
striking features of the Elizabethan and Jacobean house. 

The hall has now become little more than an 
entrance-hall and lounge, though it retains its former 
grardeur and is still used for Christmas revels. The 
stately reception-rooms on the upper floor necessitated 
a corresponding enlargement of the staircase which had 
hitherto been rather a neglected feature. It is still 
kept apart and separate from the hall. It is wide, 
massive, and richly decorated with carving. The screen, 
though often now of no use, is retained as an orna- 
mental feature. Fireplaces have become universal hi 
private houses, and splendid marbles and luxuriant 
carving are lavished upon them. It is only in a few 
college halls that the primitive central brazier and 
lantern on the roof are still used. 

Inigo Jones broke entirely with the traditions of the 



past in his plans as in his architecture. The house 
becomes a solid block instead of a narrow range with 
numerous projections and broken outline. All the 
reception-rooms, as they were now called, were placed 
on the upper floors. The offices were placed in a base- 
ment below them. The main floor was reached by a 


wide flight of stone steps outside the house. The inside 
staircase, leading only to the bedrooms, is treated as 
simply as possible. 

For the largest class of country house the favourite 
plan of the eighteenth-century architects consisted of a 
central block connected with low advanced lodges by 
quadrant galleries (fig. 120). These advanced wings 
usually contained on one side the laundries and so on, 



and on the other side the stables. The reception-rooms 
were often effectively grouped, but the arrangement of 
the bedrooms is still defective. 

HUNTING TOWER. A tower built in a park in 
Elizabethan days from which ladies could watch deer- 

HUTCH. A chest/ 

HYP^THRAL TEMPLE. A temple* which is 
partly open to the sky. 

HYPOCAUST. A heating-chamber under the floor 
of Roman baths and houses in Britain and elsewhere. 
There are two principal varieties : the pillar hypocaust 
and the channel hypocaust. In the first the floor of the 
room, which is of concrete, is supported on small brick 
columns. The low underground chamber thus formed 
had a stoke-hole outside the building, and very small 
flues from it were carried up the walls in different 
angles of the room. In the channel hypocaust the 
concrete floor rests on the ground, and flues are formed 
under it, radiating from the stoke-hole to the various 
vertical flues. 

IMAGE. This term was in 
the middle ages often applied 
to a painting as well as to a 
statue ; both painter and sculptor 
were called 'imageour.' 

IMPOST. A flat horizontal 
projecting stone placed at the 
springing of an arch (fig. 121). 

of silver or any other metal of 
boat-like shape in which was 
kept the incense to be burned 
in the censers in a medieval 

* See article thereon. 





INFIRMARY. (1) A hospital* for the sick. (2) 
The department of a monastery* in which the old and 
infirm, the sick and those who had been recently bled 
were received. 

INN. (l) A house of public entertainment/ The 
inns of the middle ages appear to have been poor and 
uncomfortable ; the monasteries and the town and 
village gilds supplied, and probably well supplied, the 
wants of the traveller. But the suppression of the 
monasteries and gilds and the increase in the number 
of travellers brought about an improvement in the 
inns in the sixteenth century. The ordinary Eliza- 
bethan hostelry is built entirely of timber and presents 
a street front similar to the private house except that 
it has a large archway leading through to a court- 
yard. The court is square or more commonly long 
and narrow, and it is surrounded by an open gallery 
at the level of each storey. The lowest rooms are 
offices; the bedrooms for guests are on the upper floors 
and open on to the galleries. (2) A place of residence 
for students, a hostel, a sort of college, e.g. Lincoln's 
Inn, London. 

INSCRIPTION. Writings of all ages are found on 
buildings but they are rare till the latter part of 
the fifteenth century. The buildings of that period, 
especially the churches, sometimes have an inscription 
in bold characters running round the plinth, parapet 
or cornice ; and in painted windows the figures often 
hold scrolls bearing texts. At the Reformation texts 
were painted on the walls of churches in place of 
the earlier subject pictures. Great Elizabethan houses 
sometimes have an inscription round the top formed 
by piercing the parapet so as to leave the letters 
silhouetted against the sky like a ' sky-sign ' ; texts 
* See article thereon. 



and moral sayings are sometimes painted on the walls 
of the rooms, such as the following : 

Wysdom knowledge and understanding 
Ar the sowles most gloryus clothing 
Geue the glory to god only. 

Church bells almost always have an inscription, and 
Elizabethan communion-plate often has the name of 
the parish. (See MONUMENT.) 

INTERCOLUMNIATION. The distance , , 

apart at which columns are placed. (See 


making mouldings intersect, so that they ap- 
pear to run through one another; practised in 
England in the fifteenth century, but more 
common in work of that period on the Con- 
tinent (fig. 122). 



IRONWORK. In England as in France, 
the art of the smith reached a high level in 
early times. The designs are bold and well 
suited to the material, and the workmanship is 
excellent. Most of the examples of an early 
date that now remain are hinges of doors. Each hinge 
generally consists of a horizontal band carried right 
across the door, with scrolls branching out from it. 
Besides the two hinges there is often a central band 
which is similarly treated. Thus the whole door was 
more or less covered with ironwork which added to its 
strength and produced a rich effect. 

In the first half of the eleventh century the com- 
monest type of hinge has the central rib, 
with branches springing out from it ab- 
ruptly from behind the stonework and form- 
ing a crescent. Mystic figures such as the 
swastica and grotesque animal heads which SW ASTICA 

FIG. 112. 



FIG. 122 A 



occur are probably due to the Danes, and there are also 
representations of Vikings' ships. The door is some- 
times surrounded by a plain or ornamental band 
of iron. Norman work has the same general char- 
acter ; the scrolls sometimes end in elaborate spirals, 
and geometrical patterns are used. The most remark- 
able example remaining is the fragment preserved in 
Winchester Cathedral, one of the few remains of the 
grates which were once common. It formerly pro- 
tected the shrine of St. Swithin and is thought to date 
from 1093. (GA.) 




In the thir - 
teenth century 
the branch work 
is more elaborate 
and the spiral is 
more commonly 
used ; the crescent ,. 
is less pronounced / 
or is abandoned, / 
the curve of the 
branches being in 
the opposite di- 
rection. Animal 
forms give place 
to those of foliage, 
the branches are 
often ribbed and 
the ends modelled 
into leaf-like forms 
(fig. 123). The 
screen of Queen 
Eleanor's tomb 
in Westminster 
Abbey by Thomas 
de Leghtone in 
1294 is a rich and 
characteristic ex- 

In the four- 
teenth centuiy 
the making of 
ornamental door 
hinges died out, 
probably owing to 
the practice of de- 
corating the wood- 
work. A good 


deal of screen-work was done, but the old and appro- 
priate methods of welding and modelling the iron while 
hot were given up, and the screens were built up of 
many separate pieces, fastened together with tenon and 
mortice like joiners' work. A good early example is 
the screen round the shrine of St. Alban, of the time of 
Edward I. (GA.) This method, introduced from Venice, 


is of Oriental origin. A later example is the screen 
of the chapel of Henry V. in Westminster Abbey, by 
Roger Johnson of London. The system gave little 
opportunity to the smith for the practice of his skill 
either in design or in technique ; he lost interest in his 
work and his art languished, save in the departments 
of the armourer and locksmith. (GA.) 

In its relation to architecture the most important 
smith's work of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
was the lock plate (fig. 125). This was a work of great 
beauty and of extraordinary delicacy, chased and en- 
graved and pierced into elaborate and minute tracery, 
and sometimes even carved in the solid. All this work 
and the joinery system of construction were done on the 
cold iron, and can hardly be considered as appropriate 
to the metal. 

In the beginning of the sixteenth century some 
Flemish work was imported, such as the piece of work 
(originally a pair of gates) in St. George's Chapel, 


Windsor, and the gates to Bishop West's chapel in Ely 
Cathedral, and such examples no doubt influenced 
English design. But English ironwork became prac- 
tically extinct as an art. Very simple railings with 
ornamental cresting and finials were made to protect 
monuments, as they had been throughout the middle 
ages. (GA.) 

The supporting irons of inn-signs and weather vanes 
were elaborate and decorative, and carried on the old 
traditions. Except for these only 
small objects such as casement 
fasteners, hinges of small doors, 
and keyhole scutcheons (fig. 126), 
were made in Elizabethan and 
Stuart times. 

It is an interesting circumstance 
that an elaborately decorative treat- 
ment of wrought ironwork should 
have been revived at the end of 
the seventeenth century when the FIG. n6. A KEYHOLE 
severest classicism held sway. But ESCUTCH N . DATBD 6 " 
already was the nation beginning to break away from 
these bonds, and the splendid gates made for Hampton 
Court by a Frenchman, Jean Tijou, in 1690, set a 
fashion which immediately spread over the whole 
country and revived the art, as it were, at a stroke 
(fig. 127). 

The new style was very limited in its application. 
It was almost confined to gates, generally with elaborate 
fixed compositions over them, and the like. Good 
examples are to be found in front of many suburban 
houses both of London and provincial towns ; the scrolls 
on the top of the area railings of town houses at the 
point where they join the house wall on either side of 
the front door are generally good designs of the same 
school. Ornamental hinges were never used, and all 
the internal metal work of the house was of brass. 



The most obvious characteristics of the style are : the 
frequent use of leaves, either the acanthus or one with 


Eighteenth century 

crinkled edges like an elongated dock-leaf; the use oi 
the C spiral, and of a spiral of which the outermost 
coil is sharply bent in (fig. 128) and then 
curved to form a new spiral in an opposite 
direction ; the absence of the S spiral and 
of geometrical or architectural forms. 

Ornamental wrought ironwork died out 
almost as suddenly as it had been revived, 
early in the nineteenth century. This was FIG 
no doubt due partly to the increase in EIGHTEENTH- 
the use of cast-iron, but probably still more CE 
to the general meanness of the architecture of the 
time. There is no reason why cast-iron should super- 
sede wrought, indeed there are many reasons why it 




should not do so ; the two are in no way rivals and 
serve quite different purposes. Castings have in late 
times fallen into discredit through their use for unsuit- 
able purposes and through the coarseness and hideous- 
ness of the designs. But for many years after its 
introduction cast work was designed with robust good 
sense. The earliest examples appear to be the fire- 
backs ornamented with reliefs of mythological subjects 
and other devices; they are generally rather clumsy 
designs in low relief, quite good enough for their 
situation. There are some examples of the sixteenth 
century, while those of the seventeenth are common. 
All through the eighteenth century and during the 
earlier part of the nineteenth century grates and 
similar objects are treated with the greatest delicacy 
and judgment. These works kept to the old tra- 
ditional ornaments, and the old founders seem to 
have understood the importance of keeping their 
decoration minute and in very low relief. Heavy 
cast-iron railings of good design were also used early 
in the eighteenth century, as at St. Paul's Cathedral. 
Cast- and wrought-iron were sometimes used together, 
as in some wrought railings where the principal stan- 
dards have little vase-shaped cast finials. 

Until recent times smelting furnaces in which the 
iron is extracted from the ore were heated with 
charcoal because of the difficulty in getting a blast 
sufficiently strong for coal. Consequently the furnaces 
were situated in well-wooded districts such as Surrey 
and Sussex and the Forest of Dean. Forges, some of 
which are still working, were, it is said, founded by 
the Cistercian monasteries, such as Tintern, Kirkstall 
and Furness. Restrictions were put on Ihe felling 
of timber by Parliament which apprehended danger to 
the State from the rapid destruction of forests ; iron 
was consequently imported, especially from Spain and 
afterwards from Sweden. Some smelting with coke 

136 JAMB 

was done in 1624, but it was not till about 1750 that 
the process was generally understood and employed. 
At that time the chief output was from Cheshire, 
Gloucestershire, Hereford, Salop and Worcester ; the 
Sussex trade was declining. By 1785 the use of char- 
coal was entirely abandoned and works were moved to 
districts where coal for fuel and water-power for the 
blast could be obtained. A few years later by the 
application of the steam-engine the difficulties of 
the blast and consequently of fuel were finally sur- 
mounted, for it was now possible to use crude coal. 
From this time the trade began to assume its modern 

JAMB. The face of a recess or opening in a wall. 

JESSE WINDOW. A window filled with painted 
glass representing^the descent of Our Lord from Jesse. 
The latter is represented prostrate at the bottom of 
the window, and from his body springs a tree on the 
branches of which are figures of his descendants, and 
at the top Our Lord. They are chiefly of the four- 
teenth century. A good example is the east window of 
St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury. At Dorchester Church, 
Oxfordshire, stone branches spring from the mullions. 

JOIST. One of the smaller timbers of a floor on 
which the boards immediately rest. 

JULIET. See CASTLE (p. 35). 

KEEP. The stronghold of a medieval castle.* 


KEYSTONE. The central stone of an arch. It is 
seldom used in Gothic work in England, our pointed 
arches generally having a joint at the apex. In 
Renaissance architecture there is always a keystone; 
it sometimes projects as a bracket to carry the entab- 
lature. . gee article thereon 



KITCHEN. In the middle ages the kitchen was 
generally a large building with one or more wide 
ranges, proportionately to the large number of retainers 
who eat in the hall. In monasteries they are lofty, with 
vaults or open timber roofs ; these and also, it would 
seem, those of the larger houses were often detached 
and connected with the other offices by a covered way. 


LADY CHAPEL. The altar of the Blessed Virgin 
was at first placed in any convenient position ; it was 
only in the fourteenth century, when the adoration of 
her so much increased, that it became common to build 
a large special chapel. This was an almost detached 
building at some cathedrals and large monastic 
churches, as Westminster (Henry VII.'s Chapel), and 
Ely, and (though very rarely) at some parish churches, 
such as Long Melford. The Lady chapel, in this later 
development, was in most cases at the east end of 
the presbytery. For parish churches and the smaller 
religious houses it was more usual to lengthen the aisle, 
thus forming a large chapel alongside the chancel. 

LANCET. A high narrow window used in the end 
of the twelfth century and beginning of the thirteenth 
century ; the earliest examples have round heads. 

At the side of a building they are used singly or in 
groups of two or three, but in gable-ends, as the east 
ends of churches, there are usually three, five or seven. 
The glass is generally near the outer face of the wall 
and there is a wide splay inside. The inner arch is 
often distinct from the outer arch, and drops down in 
front of it, and is called a ' drop-arch.' 

LANTERN. (1) A small wood tower on the ridge 
of the roof of a medieval hall or other large building 
to provide an outlet for the smoke from the central 


hearth (fig. 118); in the middle ages called a louver.* 
(2) An open-work erection of timber or stone found on 
a few church towers, such as those at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne and All Saints' Pavement, York. (3) A tower of 
which the whole or a considerable part is open to and 
visible from the floor, as for instance, the central tower 
of Durham Cathedral. The unique central tower of 
Ely Cathedral, the upper part of which is of timber, is 
called the Lantern. 

LARDER. Old French lardier, a tub to keep bacon 
in (from Lat. larda, lard) ; hence a room in which 
to keep bacon and meat (s.). Before the introduction 
of turnips and other winter food for cattle it was neces- 
sary to kill in the autumn, while they were still fat, as 
many animals as would be required to provide food for 
the household till the following spring. The larder 
therefore had to be large enough for larding or salting 
and hanging great quantities of meat. 

LATTEN. Germ, latte, a lath, thin plate, "be- 
cause this metal was hammered out into thin plates " 
(s.). A mixed metal resembling brass frequently 
mentioned in medieval inventories, etc., composed 
chiefly of copper and zinc. A Flemish brass of 1504 
which has been analysed gives the following result : 
copper 64- per cent., zinc 29|, lead 3, tin 3 (MA). 
It was used for engraved monumental brasses, cast 
effigies Sj^ch as those in Westminster Abbey (see 
MONUMENT, p. 170), and for the less important utensils 
in churches and for ordinary domestic utensils. 

LATTICE (Germ, latte, a lath). An open-work 
screen made of laths, generally used to fill a window 
which had not glass, hence diamond panes in lead 
are called lattice-work. The wood lattice was prob- 
ably very common when glass was expensive. (Cf. 
Second Part of Henry IV., II., ii., 86.) 
* See article thereon. 


LAVATORY. The only lavatories of which any 
account need be given here are those in the religious 
houses, though a stone wash-hand basin is occasionally 
seen in a medieval house and in the sacristy or other 
part of a church, as at Salisbury Cathedral. The 
monastic lavatory was in the cloister near the door to 
the refectory, so that the brethren could wash their 
hands before and after meals. The most common 
arrangement consisted of a long stone trough in a 
recess in the wall opposite the windows as at Norwich, 
and the towels hung from rollers near by. At West- 
minster Abbey the lavatory is a small room opening 
out of the west alley in the bay next to the angle, 
while the towels hung in the corresponding bay of the 
south alley. At Durham it was an octagonal building 
projecting into the cloister-garth with the basins in the 

LAZAR-HOUSE. A hospital for lepers on the out- 
skirts of a medieval town. The chapels of some still 
exist ; there is a good example at Cambridge. There 
are no remains of any of the domestic buildings. 

LEADWORK. Lead was used for covering roofs in 
early Saxon times and all through the middle ages, 
but not quite so extensively afterwards except on 
domes. There are about thirty lead fonts* in England 
chiefly of the Norman period, most of them in the 
southern counties (L.). Till the nineteenth century 
lead formed the material for cisterns, pump-heads, 
rain-water-heads* and pipes, and received appropriate 
decoration in relief. In the seventeenth century 
gardens often contained admirable lead vases and 
statues. The mode of manufacture consisted of cast- 
ing into sheets and building up these into the re- 
quired form, or casting the object entire in one piece, 
according to its size and character. The material 

* See article thereon. 

140 LEAN-TO 

is now little used except for roofing, and rolling has 
almost entirely superseded the old method of casting. 
(See GLASS.) 


LEAVES. A medieval term for the folding-doors 
of a cupboard or of a wooden reredos. (See TRIPTYCH.) 

LECTERN (Low Lat. lectrinum, a reading-desk ; 
no connection with 'lecture.' s.) In medieval churches 
a lectern stood at the north end of the high altar 
for reading the epistle and gospel from, and there 
was another in the middle of the chancel for music- 
books (M.). There were generally two desks made to 
turn on a single column ; sometimes the book rested on 
the outstretched wings of an eagle or a pelican ; 
generally the latter were of bronze and the simple 
desks of wood. The lectern appears to have been 
superseded by the reading-pew in 1603, and its reintro- 
duction into Anglican churches is so recent that in 
Parker's Glossary, published in 1850, it is described as 
a desk "used in the services of the Roman Catholic 

A lectern or reading-desk of some form was pro- 
vided in a college hall, and in the frater or refectory 
of a monastery,* where it was often a sort of stone 
pulpit, sometimes very elaborate, bracketed out from 
the wall. 

LENTEN VEIL. A curtain which, before the 
Reformation, was drawn across the chancel in front of 
the altar during Lent. 

LIBRARY. In England, as elsewhere, the only col- 
lections of books in the early middle ages were those 
of the religious houses. The cloister was the living- 
room of the monks, and as almost every hour which 

* See article thereon. 


was not spent in the church was devoted to reading 
and copying, the cloister was the library. The books 
were kept in a cupboard called the armarium, formed in 
the thickness of the wall in the east walk of the cloister, 
between the door of the church and that of the chapter- 
house, as at Norwich and Kirkstall, or in the east part 
of the north walk, as at Ely. The precentor, acting as 
librarian (armarius), gave out books to the brethren ; 
books were also lent to other houses, to churches and 
to private persons. 

The windows of the cloister were in early times not 
glazed, and in order to give the monks- some protection 
from the weather little studies scarcely larger than 
sentry-boxes were erected. These were called carrells. 
Each of them accommodated one person and contained 
a desk and stool. They are first mentioned in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century. At Gloucester 
recesses or carrells of stone were formed against the 
windows when the cloister was rebuilt between 1370 
and 1412. 

As books increased in number it became necessary 
to provide more accommodation for them ; the Benedic- 
tines made detached wooden presses ; the Cistercians 
commonly built a room adjoining the sacristy which was 
at the end of the south transept, as at Kirkstall, Tintern, 
and Netley, and later they formed two rooms at the west 
end of the chapter-house, one on either side of the 
entrance, as at Furness and Fountains. These rooms 
and presses becoming after a time insufficient, various 
other rooms were fitted up for the storage of books, 
which thus became inconveniently scattered. But it was 
not until the fifteenth century that special rooms were 
provided ; these were generally built over some already 
existing building, such as the cloister or the sacristy at 
the end of the south transept; they were for the 
storage of books only : reading continued to be done in 
the cloister. The libraries of secular cathedrals of the 


fifteenth century were built over a part of the cloister, 
as at Lincoln, Salisbury, St. Paul's, Wells and Hereford, 
or were detached buildings as at Lichfield. Some at 
least of these libraries were used by the canons as 

Old Library arrangements may best be studied at 
the ancient universities. Books were lent to students 
on deposit of a pledge before colleges were founded 
and colleges themselves had libraries (that is, collec- 
tions of books) from very early times. The erection of 
a library in the sense of a special building to contain 
books was an afterthought, the books being originally 
kept in chests along with muniments and other 
valuables. The first college which contained a library 
among its original buildings was New College, Oxford, 
founded in 1 380 ; in every college founded after this, 
a special room was provided. The position varies in 
different foundations, but it was generally if not 
invariably on the upper floor. It may be easily re- 
cognised from the outside by its uniform range of 
windows placed rather close together, on both sides 
of the building. 

The interior arrangement was as follows. High 
substantial desks about six feet long with a steep slope 
projected from the pier or piece of wall between each 
pair of windows on either side of the room, leaving a 
passage down the middle. These desks were double, 
that is, there were two slopes, back to back, like a 
double lectern in a church, and this sort of desk has 
been called the lectern-type. There were no shelves, 
the books lay upon the desk and were secured against 
removal by an iron chain which was fastened to some 
part of the cover like an ordinary clasp ; the other end 
of the chain was connected by a ring to an iron bar 
just above the desks ; the end of this bar was fastened 
with a lock in such a manner that the ring could not 
be slipped off. Between each pair of these double 



desks there was a bench for the use of readers. This 
system was common, with variations,, to England, 
France, Holland, Germany and Italy. 


The lectern-system was extravagant of space, for 
each double desk would accommodate only from 
fifteen to twenty volumes. It was modified by separa- 
ting the two halves of the desk and placing shelves 
above them (fig. 1 29). The books were still chained ; 


the bars to which the chains were attached were placed 
just in front of each shelf; the chains were fastened 
to the front edge of the book cover, and the book 
was placed on the shelf with the edges of the leaves 
outwards, hence these are still called ' fore-edges,' 
while the part which covers the binding is called 
the ' back ' ; the title of the book was written on 
the fore-edges. On the end of each case was a 
frame containing a list of the books to be found 
in it. This system, which has been called the ' stall 
system,' was introduced early in the sixteenth century. 
It was generally adopted in England and France, 
but in Italy a system came into use which some- 
what resembles the seating of a modern church ; all 
the readers faced the same way, and each row used a 
desk which was attached to the back of the row next 
in front of them. 

Medieval libraries were generally divided into two 
classes: a chained library of reference or 'outer library' 
such as has been described and an ' inner library* 
containing books to be lent. The buildings were 
usually decorated in a simple but beautiful and ap- 
propriate manner, the glass of the windows especially 
being enriched with various devices and inscriptions. 
The desks were massive and handsome and occasionally 
elaborately ornamented. 

The enormous destruction of books at the Reforma- 
tion made room on the shelves for new printed books 
for a long time afterwards. Consequently for the next 
hundred years no new feature appears in libraries. 
But towards the middle of the seventeenth century 
chaining was generally abandoned, and it was there- 
fore unnecessary to have seats between the desks. A 
seat is sometimes attached to the book-case ; the desk 
is gradually given up, and the shelves are continued 
almost to the floor. 

But in the seventeenth century a more important 


change was made than mere modifications in the form 
of the book -case. The whole arrangement of the 
library altered. Instead of projecting from the walls 
into the middle of the room, the bookshelves were now 
placed against the wall. This plan had been developed 
on the Continent, and was introduced at the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, in 1 610-1 2. It was used by Wren 
at Lincoln in 1674 and at St. Paul's in 1708; at the 
latter the upper shelves are reached from a gallery. 
At Trinity College, Cambridge, Wren combined in a 
masterly fashion the new system of cases against the 
walls with the old system of projecting stalls; the 
stalls were placed in this instance at considerable 
intervals, thus forming a series of cubicles, with a table 
and chairs in the middle of each. The new arrange- 
ment required that the windows should be placed high 
in the wall ; it was thus inapplicable to the old build- 
ings which had low windows ; in these, therefore, the 
old arrangement was preserved, even when they were 
fitted up with new furniture. 

Private collections in the middle ages were small 
and easily accommodated. In the twelfth century 
books were kept in a chest, on the edge of which they 
were rested when being read. In the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries they were kept in a cupboard ; 
while being read the book was laid on a desk, the 
support of which was in the form of a screw, so that 
the desk could be raised or lowered by turning it 
round like a modern music-stool. Another form of 
private lectern had no screw, but the supporting 
standard was cranked, so that the desk could easily 
be pushed aside. An infinite variety of lecterns in 
private rooms may be seen in the pictures in medieval 
manuscripts. (J. W. Clark, The Care of Books.') 

LICH-GATE (from Middle English lich, a corpse). 
A churchyard gateway with a roof over it, under which 
the bier might be rested at a funeral. 




LIGHT OF A WINDOW. The part of a window 
between two mullions; thus a window with two 
mullions is called a three-light window ; each piercing 
in the head is called a tracery-light. 

LINEN PATTERN. A decoration used on panels 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, consisting 
of shallow mouldings almost covering the panel ; so 
named from a supposed resemblance to folded linen. 

iiii .1.1 



LINTEL. A horizontal piece or stone, wood or 
other material placed over a door or window or over 
columns to support the weight above. 

LITANY DESK. This was probably introduced into 
English churches in the reign of Edward VI. 

LOBBY. An inner vestibule or ante-chamber. 


LOCKER. A small cupboard in a wall. (See 


LOCUTORY. The parlour of a monastery.* 
* See article thereon. 



LOFT. An upper room, a gallery (e.g. rood-loft) ; 
now usually a room in the roof of a barn or stable. 

LOGGIA (Ital. loggia, a lodge, an open gallery). A 
small building forming a shelter, with open arches on 
one or more sides ; much used in Italy v 

LOXG-AND-SHORT WORK. The method of form- 
ing angles of stone walls in late Saxon times, in which 
flat horizontal slabs alternate with tall pillar-like stones 
(fig. 131). The quoins projected a little from the 
face of the wall, but their rough ends were sunk or 
' rebated/ and the plaster which covered the wall was 

FIG. 131. 


FIG. 132. 


carried over the rough edges, thus leaving a pilaster 
of uniform width at the angle of the building ; and so 
until the plaster was hacked off at the recent ' restora- 
tion ' of buildings, the quoins appeared to be of uni- 
form width and alternately long and short, whence 
the name. Occasionally found in early Saxon work. 

LOOP. A narrow window in the parapet of a castle 
for the discharge of arrows, or in a small staircase or 
chamber to admit light, or in a barn for ventilation. 

LOUVER (formerly LOVER, from Old French loitvert, 
an opening, put for I'ouvert s.). A ventilator on the 
roof of a medieval hall, a lantern.* The sloping boards 
which are placed in the louver and in belfry windows 
are also called louver-boards. 

* See article thereon. 


LOW SIDE WINDOW. A name recently given to 
the window commonly found near the west end of a 
chancel, usually in the south wall, but very often in 
the north wall. It differs from other windows of a 
church, the commonest type having a sill considerably 
nearer the floor, and the lights being divided by a tran- 
som, below which there are bars and a shutter, but no 
glass, while the upper part is glazed like other windows. 
Some few examples are on a level with the floor. In 
some chancels which are raised very much above the 
ground the window is quite inaccessible from the out- 

The use of these windows is unknown. Many guesses 
have been made, but few have any approach to prob- 
ability. Referring to some few of them, it may be said 
that they were not for handing out to lepers the sacra- 
mental bread (they used to be called ( leper windows ' a 
few years ago), nor for allowing lepers or others to 
watch the Mass, nor yet (though this is much less 
improbable than either of the above) to allow a small 
hand sanctus-bell, rung at the elevation of the Host, to 
be heard by those who happened to be near. The 
latest theory is that a lantern was placed in the window, 
the light of which gave protection from evil spirits 
to the dead who lay in the churchyard (HN.). Though 
there are some objections to this view, it is not impos- 

LOZENGE MOULDING. An enrichment used in 
Norman architecture, consisting of lozenges in relief 
placed end to end. 

LUCARNE. A dormer window.* 

LUNETTE. A round or oval window in a ceiling, 
vault or dome. 

LYCHNOSCOPE. A low-side* window. 
* See article thereou. 



FIG. 133 


MACHICOLATIONS. Boldly projecting corbels * 
carrying the parapet of a castle wall, openings being 
left between the corbels so that de- 
fenders behind the parapet could 
shoot at or throw down missiles on 
an attacking force (fig. 133.) 


MANSE. The house provided for 
a clergyman in Scotland. The term 
was formerly used in the same sense 
in England. 


MARBLE. A limestone which has 
been subjected to such great natural 
heat as to lose entirely all trace of 
fossil remains and other characteristics 
of its original structure. Many varie- 
ties of English limestone are called marbles because 
they will take a polish, e.g. Purbeck marble. True 
marbles are found in Devonshire and in Ireland, but 
are little used in building. In the middle ages 
Purbeck was very popular, but true marble, either 
British or foreign, was very rarely used. In the reign 
of Elizabeth a good deal was imported for fireplaces 
in great houses and for monuments in churches. 
Much larger quantities have lately been used owing to 
the reduction in price due to the application of 
machinery for sawing it up and to the rediscovery of 
long-lost quarries in Greece. 

MARKET CROSS. No doubt these were originally 
simply devotional crosses, like those of the churchyard 
and wayside, erected for the protection of the town. 
They afterwards became large and elaborate, and were 
surrounded by columns supporting a roof, above which 

* See article thereon. 


rose the cross. These probably are due to a shelter 
having been erected over the cross itself, and some 
appear to retain their original character though the 
head of the cross has always been destroyed. In some 
few examples the shelter has an upper chamber. (See 


MARQUETRY. Inlaid work of wood or ivory. 

MARTELLO TOWER. A small circular tower, 
generally two storeys high. The lower is intended for 
stores, the upper for troops ; the roof had a shell-proof 
vault, and was armed with artillery ; the entrance was 
a considerable height above the ground, and over it 
were machicolations * ; the building was generally sur- 
rounded by a ditch and glacis. Many of these towers 
vere erected on the south coast and in Ireland, Jersey 
and elsewhere during the Napoleonic wars. The name 
"is supposed to have been derived from that of a 
fort in Mortella (Myrtle) Bay, Corsica, which after a 
gallant resistance was taken in 1794 by a British 
naval force. After a period of disuse many of these 
towers have recently been supplied with an 
improved armament." (English Cyclopaedia, 
1 860). Needless to say they are now entirely 

MASK-STOP. A peculiar termination to 
a hood-mould used in the thirteenth century ; 
some examples have a slight resemblance to a 
human face (fig. 134). 

MAUSOLEUM. A private building intended to 
contain one or more tombs. So called after the magnifi- 
cent sepulchre erected at Halicarnassos, in Asia Minor, 
by his widow Artemisia in memory of Mausolus, King 
of Caria, who died 353 B.C. 

* See article thereon. 

MIT,RE 151 

MEGALITHIC MASONRY. Prehistoric work in 
which stones of very great size are used, such as Stone- 

M ERLON. One of the higher parts of a battlement.* 

METOPE. A space between two triglyphs in the 
Doric frieze. (See ORDERS.) 

MEMBER. A single item in a series of mouldings. 




MID-WALL SHAFT. A single shaft dividing the 
lights of a Saxon* belfry window. 

MINSTER (shortened form of monasterium, a 
monastery). The term is now habitually applied to 
certain cathedral churches, e.g. York, which was not 
monastic, while some which were monastic churches 
are not so called. It is a component part of some 
place names (e.g. Whitminster) and may indicate the 
presence of monks in early Saxon days, but monasterium 
was in early times used for any large church. 

MINARET. A tall thin tower of a mosque. 

MISERERE (from Lat. misereri, to pity). A 
peculiar sort of seat in a choir-stall of a church ; it 
has hinges at the back so that it can be lifted up and 
leant against the back ; on the under side of the seat 
was fixed a bracket which formed a small seat on which 
aged priests and monks were allowed to rest when 
others were standing. 

MISERICORDE. A room in a monastery* forming 
a second dining-hall. In this room it was permissible 
to eat meat, which was not allowed in the refectory. 

MITRE. The line formed by the intersection of two 
similar surfaces or mouldings ; e.g., by the mouldings at 
* See article thereon. 



the corner of an ordinary picture-frame. In joinery the 
joint generally coincides with the mitre and is called a 
mitre-joint ; in masonry the joint cuts square across one 
set of mouldings, and the mitre is worked on the other 
piece. (See fig. 195.) 


MODILLION. A bracket under the projecting part 
of a cornice. It commonly consists of two volutes 
curving in opposite directions and has an acanthus leaf 
under it (figs. 135, 136). 



MODULE. The unit of measurement used in de- 
scribing the classical orders ; the module generally used 
is the diameter or semi-diameter (usually the latter) of 
the column at the bottom of the shaft. 

MONASTERY (Lat. monasterium, a monastery, 
from Gk. povturr-qs, one dwelling alone). A house for 
members of one of the religious orders, Monks, Friars 
or Canons Regular. 1 It will perhaps be convenient to 
say a few words on these three classes of 'the religious' 
as they were called, before describing their houses. 

Monks are members of a community which dwells 
apart from general society, as distinguished from 
Secular Canons, Canons Regular, Friars, and Hermits. 
In the Greek Church monks have continued to follow 

1 See Appendix. 


the Rule of Basil the Great (329-79) without varia- 
tion ; monachism in the Latin Church, though based 
upon the Rule of St. Benedict (480-542), is very 
varied owing to the successive reformations of the 
Benedictines leading to the establishment of practi- 
cally new orders. Moreover in England, Scotland and 
Ireland there existed, at the time of the landing of 
St. Augustine, monasteries not under the Rule of St. 
Benedict which had survived the Saxon invasion ; 
these were, however, brought under obedience to 
Rome. The monks' life was to be one of seclusion, of 
prayer and study. Their houses, therefore, were built 
in lonely places. If the remains are now found in 
towns, it is these which have grown up round the 
monasteries. The canons regular, i.e. canons living 
under a Rule, held a position between the monks and 
the secular canons of the cathedrals, though approxi- 
mating more nearly to the former. They are said to 
have been founded in the middle of the eleventh 
century, but their origin is acknowledged to be 
obscure. The institution of the friars formed a new 
departure. The monk had no personal possessions, 
but the community could hold property. With the 
friars there was neither individual nor collective 
ownership ; they maintained themselves by begging. 
Their ideal, the reverse of that of the monk, was one 
of work among worldly men. The friary was there- 
fore placed in the heart of the city.** The monastery 
contained all the buildings necessary to the sedentary 
life, to a self-supporting community and a community 
which became a very large landowner, while their 
church, however large, was practically the private 
chapel of the monastery. The friary gave bare ac- 
commodation to the brethren, while its church was 
essentially a preaching church. (See Appendix.) 

Each of the religious orders developed a special 
arrangement of its buildings, to which every house 


of the order adhered fairly closely. The plan of the 
church grew out of the common traditional plan, with 
variations to suit the views and ritual of each order ; 
the arrangement of the secular buildings was dictated 
by the practical requirements of the Rule. The 
differences, whatever their o'rigin, are in most cases 
confined to details. As the Benedictines were the 
first to develop a typical plan, and as their houses 
became more numerous in England than those of any 
other order, it will be convenient to describe the ordinary 
arrangement of one of these, and then to notice the 
points in which other orders departed from it. 

The church* was generally cruciform, and in most 
of the larger examples the transepts, as well as the 
nave and presbytery, had aisles. In Norman times 
the east end terminated in an apse or in a group of 
apses, but towards the end of the twelfth century 
or early in the thirteenth century the presbytery was 
lengthened and the end made square. The presbytery 
generally occupied the eastern limb of the cross. The 
choir of the monks stretched across the transepts and 
about one-third of the way down the nave. It was 
separated by the pulpitum* from the rest of the nave, 
which formed the church of the novices and servants, 
being entirely distinct from the choir, with separate 
entrances, altars and stalls. 

The cloister and secular buildings were placed on 
the south side of the church for the sake of warmth, 
unless, as was often the case, some peculiarity of th 
site made it more convenient to put them on the 
north. Round the cloister were ranged the common 
buildings used daily by the monks, and beyond these 
fay various special buildings (fig. 137). 

The cloister, which was the living-place of the 
monks, was at first covered by a simple lean-to roof, 
supported on stone or wood posts standing on a low 
* See article thereon. 






wall. Then a high wall with windows took the place 
of the posts, and the passages were often vaulted and 
covered with lead roofs. But the cloister long retained 
its character of a mere covered way with open sides. 
Gradually more shelter was obtained by glazing first 
the upper parts of the windows and then the whole. 
Often a series of little studies like sentry-boxes and not 
very much larger, called carrells,* were placed against 
the windows. Books were kept in an armarium* or 
cupboard, or in later times in a library. 

In another part of the cloister, sometimes the west 
walk, the novices were taught. The stone bench 
which runs round the cloister is often marked with 
little sinkings about the size of the bowl of a salt-spoon 
in groups of nine. These were doubtless for playing 
some such game as ' Morris,' which still survives 
in our villages. There is another door into the church 
in the north-west angle of the cloister ; it led into the 
part west of the pulpitum, and so would serve for 
novices and others who were not admitted to the 

In the east pane or walk of the cloister there is 
a series of doors leading into several buildings of 
importance. The first opens, in many examples, 
into a passage leading to the monks' cemetery. Next 
comes a large doorway with a window on each side : 
this is the entrance to the Chapter-house (fig. 138). 
The normal shape for the chapter-house was oblong, 
either square-ended or apsidal. The grand polygonal 
chapter-houses with which we are familiar were built 
chiefly in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 
for the most part by the secular canons ; these and 
some few of the rectangular chapter-houses have 
vestibules, but usually there is none, and the entrance 
has not even a door. 

Proceeding south, we come to the staircase which 
* See article thereon. 



goes up to the dormitory, and then to a series of small 
rooms under the dormitory, such as the Common- 
house or room in which great fires were kept burning 
in winter to which the monks were allowed occasion- 
ally to go to warm themselves, and a passage leading to 


the infirmary. Over the whole of this range is the 
Dormitory. From it another staircase, in addition 
to that from the cloister, descends direct into the 
transept, so that when the monks rose for matins 
at midnight they could enter the church and return 
without going out into the cloister. At the south end 
of the dormitory and on the same floor is a large 



Necessary-house, containing a great number of closets 
divided by wood partitions ; a stream of water was 
carried under it in an artificial cut. 

To the south of the cloister stands the Refectory or 
Prater, the common dining-hall of the monks, entered 



by the doorway in the south-west angle of the cloister. 
It is usually on the ground floor, but is sometimes 
raised on vaulted cellars. Within the frater there is a 
lectern corbelled out from one of the side walls, from 
which one of the brethren read aloud while the others 
ate in silence (fig. 139). The Lavatory* is in the 

* See article thereon. 


cloister near the frater door. It consists of a long 
stone trough in a recess, and roller towels hung near 
by; there is a good example at Norwich. The 
Kitchen, in the greater houses at least, is often a large 
and lofty detached building at the west end of the 
frater ; that at Durham is a well-known example. On 
the west side of the cloister there are usually the 
Cellarer's Hall, where the ordinary guests were 
entertained, and cellars used for storage and other 
purposes. Here also is commonly a Parlour, where 
monks might see their friends or deal with traders, 
The almoner who dispensed broken victuals to the 
indigent had his quarters near the gate. 

The most important of the outer ring of buildings is 
the Infirmary for the aged and the sick and infirm. 
Those who had recently been bled were also admitted 
in order to recover their strength. The building is 
usually to the east of the cloister, and connected with 
it by a covered way. It is planned like a church, 
with a very long nave and aisles and a chancel. The 
east part of the nave is cut off by a cross wall with a 
doorway. The part to the west of this wall is the 
infirmary proper, and the part to the east formed, 
with the chancel, a chapel. The aisles were in later 
times often cut up into a series of small rooms by 
blocking up the arches and building cross walls. 

The Misericorde* was a hall which generally had 
some connection with the infirmary, but its position 
and name vary in different monasteries ; it was 
provided for those who were allowed to eat meat, 
for meat might not be eaten in the frater, and hence 
occasionally the whole convent dined there. As time 
went on these occasions" became more and more frequent, 
till at last the frater was deserted for almost the whole 

* See article thereon. 


The Cemetery of the monks was usually to the east 
and south-east of the church. It was distinct from that 
of the lay brothers and the public. Burials were some- 
times made in the church, in the chapter-house, in the 
cloister ; never in the cloister-garth. 

Early in the tenth century an order of reformed 
Benedictines was founded at Cluny ; hence they were 
called Cluniacs. They came to England in the second 
half of the eleventh century. They observed a very 
gorgeous ritual ; their buildings were elaborately 
decorated but did not differ very materially from those 
of the Benedictines. 

The Cistercian order, the second offshoot from the 
Benedictines, took its rise about 1100 at Citeaux 
(Latin, Cistercium). It came to England in 1128 and 
spread rapidly, especially in Yorkshire. In its archi- 
tectural development it is one of the most interesting 
and important of the monastic orders. The Rule, 
which was drawn up chiefly, if not entirely, by an 
Englishman, Stephen Harding, was one of extreme 
severity. Houses were to be planted in wild and 
desolate places. Manual work, as well as devotion 
and study, was required of the brethren ; each 
establishment was to be self-supporting, was to pro- 
duce all that it required. It is due to this cause that 
towns did not grow up round their monasteries, as 
they did round those of the Benedictines such as 
Bury. Absolute simplicity was to be observed both in 
ritual and in architecture. There was to be but one 
tower, central and low, no unnecessary turrets or 
pinnacles, no triforium, no pictures on walls or in glass, 
crosses were to be of wood and candlesticks of iron. 
From these causes Cistercian houses differ both in 
their architectural character and in the number and 
disposition of their buildings from those of the 
Benedictines (fig. 140). 

The Church has a very short eastern limb (until 


lengthened in later times) with a square end. Chapels, 
divided by solid walls, project from the east side of the 
transepts. The monks' choir was in the crossing and 
the eastern part of the nave; the west part of the 
nave was the church of the fratres conversi, or lay 
brothers. These conversi formed a distinct and im- 
portant class in a Cistercian house, where so many 
industries were practised. The aisles were separated 
from the nave by high screen-walls, against which 
stalls were placed. 

The Chapter-house was square or oblong and divided 
by columns and arches. The Refectory which was 
similarly divided was placed at right angles to the 
south pane of the cloisters, instead of parallel with it. 
The kitchen abutted on the cloister. In other respects 
the secular buildings have a general resemblance to 
those of the Benedictines. A small library* is pro- 
vided between the transept and the chapter-house or 
between the cloister and the chapter-house. 

The Carthusian order was founded in 1086 at 
Chartreuse, near Grenoble, whence they took their 
name. (Hence, also, the ' Charterhouse ' in London 
and the ' Certosa ' at Pavia.) The life was extremely 
ascetic, and not only was the separation of the com- 
munity from the world required, but the isolation 
of each individual from his brother monks. The 
buildings, therefore, differ radically from those of all 
other orders. A separate cell and garden is provided 
for each monk. On certain days the brethren all 
dined together, but ordinarily they met only at Matins 
and Mass. The church, refectory, chapter-house, and 
other buildings common to the whole community 
are small. The cells, which are really small houses, 
are ranged round a court and connected by a cloister. 
Between the houses and the cloister there is a corridor, 
accessible only to the Superior. Food was passed into 
* See article thereon. 


each house through a hatch so contrived that the 
occupant could not see out through it. The house 
contains a living-room, a bedroom, a closet for keeping 
fuel (for the room was warmed by a fire in winter), 

Scale of feet 


and there was a garden in which the occupant might 
work. The order was introduced into England by 
King Henry II. The best -preserved buildings are 
those of Mount Grace, Yorkshire, founded about 1397. 


After the Benedictines the most numerous were the 
Augustinians, an order of Canons living under rule. 
Their churches often had no aisle or only one. The 
dining-hall is often on the upper floor. 

The Gilbertine order, the only one of English origin, 
was founded in 1148 by Gilbert of Sempringham, 
at Sempringham, in Lincolnshire. Monasteries were 
double, with a men's part and a women's part. 

The Friars' churches consisted of long, simple build- 
ings, with large naves for great congregations. They 
were sometimes built without aisles or transepts, some- 
times they had one very large transept. There is occa- 
sionally a large open space on one side, and an outside 
pulpit for outdoor preaching. 

The only one of the Military orders whose buildings 
require notice is that of the Knights Templars. The 
famous Temple Church in London is said to have been 
built in imitation of the church of the Holy Sepulchre 
at Jerusalem. The few other round churches were 
probably founded with the same idea and under the 
influence of the Templars (fig. 141). 


MONOLITH. A column cut out of a single stone. 

MONSTRANCE (Lat. monstrare, to show). A vessel 
of silver or other metal with a glass side, used in 
medieval churches to contain and show the Host. 
The word is sometimes applied to a reliquary.* 

MONUMENT. EXTERNAL. The memorials of the 
Saxons are not numerous owing, no doubt, to the 
ravages of the Danes. They used headstones with 
crosses and interlacing wicker-work pattern carved 
in low relief (fig. 142); some of their sculptured 
stones appear to be coffin -lids. The Danes them- 
selves have left a number of stones carved with crosses 

* See article thereon. 



and bearing inscriptions in Runic characters cut on 
the angle (BL.). 

After the Norman Conquest both the recumbent 
slab and the upright headstone were used, sometimes 
both together, the foot of the headstone being fitted 
into a notch in the slab, and sometimes there was a 


cross at the foot as well as at the head. Probably the 
graves of the poor had wooden crosses only. The 
headstones seem generally to have had circular heads 
carved with more or less ornamented crosses. The 
slabs, which taper like coffin -lids, were, no doubt, 
generally merely coverings of graves, for burial in a 
coffin was exceptional (BL.). The slabs are carved 
with a cross in low relief (fig. 143) ; those of the 
thirteenth century are often sloped down on each side 
from a central ridge like a roof (fig. 68), and they are 
then described as 'coped,' i.e. worked like the coping* 
of a wall. More rarely the stone was carved with an 
effigy, in low relief during the twelfth century but 
becoming bolder or being fully in the round in the 
thirteenth. Sometimes the device is done in incised 
lines filled with black composition, and the profession 
or trade of the person commemorated is indicated by a 
symbol, as a priest by a chalice, a mason by a pair of 
compasses. V f ery rarely is there any inscription, and 
it is not improbable that they were ready-made things 
kept in stock (BL.). The crosses on the recumbent 
* See article thereon. 



slabs of the thirteenth century usually have circular 
heads (fig. 68) ; there is a peculiar scroll design issuing 
from about the middle of the shaft, which may perhaps 
represent the cords by which a processional cross was 



steadied while being carried (fig. 265). The slabs of the 
fourteenth century are more usually flat, they taper 
towards the foot like those of the thirteenth century. 
The cross is foliated and there are no scrolls (fig. 145). 
The slabs of the fifteenth century are rectangular, (BL.) 
being as wide at the foot as at the head. The head- 


stone, in the few examples remaining, is an actual 
cross, not a cross carved on a circle ; it is decorated 
with cusps and with the other ornaments commonly 
used at the time. 

It is generally difficult to say whether these slabs 
were originally in the church or churchyard. Prob- 
ably almost all were in the churchyard. Burial in the 
church became more common as time advanced, but in 
early days it was rare. 

Built-up churchyard monuments covered by a slab 
were used in the fourteenth century, but they appear 
to have been low hardly so high as the knee. But 
in the fifteenth century they were made as high as 
a table ; they were formerly called ' high tombs,' and 
are now commonly spoken of as ' altar tombs ' from 
their resemblance to stone altars. The slab seems 
generally to have been plain, the sides are ornamented 
with traceried panels and there is often, towards the 
end of the century and in the first half of the sixteenth 
century, a short inscription, such as "Here lieth 
Thomas Brond whos soule God Pardon." 

Churchyard monuments of the period from the Re- 
formation to the Restoration are rare. Crosses of any 
kind were disallowed during a great part of the time, 
though as a matter of fact they were put up. Some 
high tombs of a plain character were built. 

After the Restoration, besides the high tombs of the 
well-to-do, there were two common forms used by the 
poorer folk : the straight-sided headstone with the top 
cut into an ornamental profile and the upper part 
of the face above the inscription carved with cherubs' 
heads and flowers ; and the long plain board supported 
on two posts at the head and foot of the grave. 
Though both kinds are devoid of any Christian symbol- 
ism and their uncouth rhymes have become proverbial, 
these humble memorials are in their way well designed 
and are infinitely superior to the productions which 


have followed upon the ' revival of taste ' in the nine- 
teenth century. 

INTERNAL MONUMENTS. We now come to the con- 
sideration of monuments within the church. 

The earliest memorials are the flat slabs which 
formed part of the pavement of the church. A cross 
was carved or incised upon them, or they were sculp- 
tured with an effigy in low relief like the monuments 
of the churchyard. Effigies in high relief or com- 
pletely in the round must generally have been in an 
arched recess in the wall ; the arch is generally low in 
the thirteenth century and the slab raised but slightly 
above the floor. This type of monument increased in 
magnificence in the thirteenth century ; the arch was 
made more lofty and its hood -mould, pinnacles and 
heraldry occupy the wall space above ; the tomb 
itself is raised to the height of an altar and is 
frequently made wide enough to receive the effigies 
of both man and wife ; its front is decorated with little 
niches containing statuettes. The slab at this stage 
is seldom carved in relief. It is sometimes plain, but 
generally has an effigy in the round or a brass. In 
cathedrals and large churches these tombs are often 
placed under one of the arches between the choir 
and aisle or between the nave and aisle, so that they 
can be seen from both sides. The canopy is in these 
cases of every degree of elaboration, from the flat 
wooden ceiling over the tomb of the Black Prince at 
Canterbury to the rich stone arch of the Valance tomb 
at Westminster. The idea of this type " was doubtless 
taken from the hearse [i.e. the canopy] and the lights 
which covered the coffin when the funeral service was 
performed. Thus first we see a basement with little 
figures of the relatives as mourners ; on the top of this 
is the recumbent effigy of the deceased, with angels 
at the head and an animal at the feet, while over all 
is a lofty pedimented stone canopy supported by 


columns and buttresses rising from the angles of the 
basement" (BU.). In some of the great monuments 
of this class made in the fifteenth century the space 
covered by the canopy includes a chantry chapel ; the 
tomb is placed at the west end of the space, leaving at 
the east end just sufficient room for a small altar and 
for a celebrant. 

The favourite position for a tomb was on the north 
side of the choir. This position may have been chosen 
in order that the top of the tomb might be used as 
an Easter Sepulchre,* which was on the north side. 

The great shrines* of the patron saints of some of our 
abbey churches occupied a central position immediately 
behind the high altar. The tomb of Edward the 
Confessor, built by Henry III., in Westminster Abbey, 
is almost the only example remaining, though the exact 
positions in which others formerly stood is well known, 
and the worn pavement still bears witness to the 
stream of pilgrims who came 

The holy blisful martir for to seke, 

That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seke. 

A shrine of this class consisted of at least four distincr 
parts : (a) the stone or marble basement ; (6) the altat 
at one end of it ; (c) the feretory, that is the actual 
shrine or wooden coffin ; (d) the cover of the feretory, 
a wooden framework hung from the vaulting above 
and raised by means of a counterpoise (BU.). The 
feretory was covered with gold and silver plates and 
decorated in various ways. The fourteenth-century 
basement of the supposed shrine of St. Etheldreda at 
Ely is a vaulted space open at the sides ; at Westminster 
it is solid, but the north and south sides are pierced with 
three niches each ; " it was in these that sick people 
were frequently left during the night, in the hopes of a 
cure being effected by the intercession of the Saint" (BU.). 
* See article thereon. 


Some of these high shrines had near-by a chambet 
provided for a special watcher; there is an example 
at St. Albans. 

The treatment of effigies varies at different periods. 
Some, especially in early times, are inappropriately 
treated as though they had been standing in a niche, 
and as if figure and niche together had been laid down. 
They sometimes have also at the head two figures of 
angels, or these only without the niche, kneeling or 
flying down or bearing away the soul the most beau- 
tiful treatment which this part of the tomb can receive. 
Generally the head rests on a pillow or on a tilting- 
helmet. The hands are raised or joined in prayer, or 
occasionally in late figures are parted as if meant to 
suggest ecstasy. In the twelfth and thirteenth centu- 
ries the figures of knights have the legs crossed a 
conventional attitude having no reference to crusades 
as is sometimes supposed. 

The figures are generally cut in stone, but some of 
the early examples are of Purbeck marble. Some of 
the greatest, such as those of Henry III. and Queen 
Eleanor, the wife of Edward I. (superb works by the 
Englishman William Torel), were cast in bronze and 
gilt. The figure of William de Valence (1296) is of 
oak covered with thin plates of copper, engraved and 
enamelled a work probably of Limoges, for " the 
artistic execution of the figure is very much worse than 
would have been the case in England in 12.Q6" (BU.). 
The effigy of Henry V. was of oak overlaid with silver. 
There are some few effigies remaining of plain oak ; it 
is said that after 1 280 they were as common as stone, 
but that their use was discontinued about fifty years 
later (PH.). In late medieval times alabaster was much 
used. It was frequently, perhaps generally, covered 
with a thin coat of gesso* and painted. Important 
tombs were protected by strong ironwork. 
* See article thereon. 


In the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. several new 
types of monument were used. 

The canopied tomb is no doubt a development of the 
medieval tomb, but instead of being placed under an 
arch it stands clear in a transept or chapel. The tomb 
resembles the medieval tomb and bears a recumbent 
effigy. % The side is carved with small figures in relief, 
not placed in niches as formerly, but kneeling in two 
files facing one another, boys on one side and girls on 
the other : they are the children of the deceased. 
There are a few weeping cherubim. The canopy is a 
classical entablature supported on four columns, and 
surmounted by pediment-like arrangements of strap- 
ornament* with great displays of heraldry. 

A class of monument holding a half-way position 
between these and the mural monuments is the monu- 
ment of rather large dimensions containing a full- 
sized sarcophagus or a life-size figure, but placed high 
up on the wall, half recessed and half projecting on 

The mural monument was perhaps suggested partly 
by the medieval niche, and partly by the mural brasses 
contained in little flat canopied slabs, which had come 
into fashion in the fifteenth century. (See BRASSES belotv.) 
They generally consist of a round-arched recess, con- 
taining a kneeling figure or a bust, and surrounded 
by a classical composition ; these are often of a modest 
and satisfactory design. 

The best Elizabethan figures retain the medieval 
feeling, and are dignified ; but some are placed in a 
would-be easy attitude, resting<*he head on the hand, 
as if suffering, as contemporary writers satirically 
suggest, from a tooth-ache. Lord Bacon sits in his 
chair above the altar with his hat on. 

A great variety of material was used. Parts of the 
tomb, the figure and the entablature, were commonly 

* See article thereon. 


of plain marble or alabaster, the top of the tomb of 
black touchstone, the columns of richly -coloured 
marbles with white capitals; and coloured marble 
panels and friezes were inserted. The effigies were 
generally painted. The larger monuments were railed 

After the time of James I. the great tomb became 
less common. The canopy and architecture generally 
were gradually abandoned and the composition became 
more and more an affair of sculpture. There is the 
greatest diversity of idea and arrangement ; the most 
common variety consists of a representation of a marble 
sarcophagus, and above it a group of allegorical and 
other figures, such as Fame crowning the departed with 
a laurel wreath ; the background to the figures is usually 
a large plain slab of marble. 

At the same time the mural monument became more 
common ; it was also smaller and simpler. The elabor- 
ate architecture with the deep recess was abandoned 
for a flat treatment more appropriate to the position. 
The later mural monuments are usually devoid of sculp- 
ture except perhaps for a portrait medallion. There 
is a coat-of-arms under a simple pediment, and a long 
inscription. The last form that need be noticed is the 
white marble coffer or urn on a black slab. 

The medieval custom of placing over the tomb of a 
man his helmet, shield, sword and gauntlets was con- 
tinued till comparatively late times, and the trophies 
retained something of their medieval form. The 
painted heraldic achievements which we call hatch- 
ments are also a survival of medieval use. 

BRASSES. The great authority on this subject considers 
that monumental brasses were derived from two older 
forms of monument, namely : (a) Incised stone slabs ; 
(6) Limoges enamels (HA.). Of incised slabs there are 
few examples in this country ; they were probably from 
the first more common on the Continent, and certainly 


were so in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when 
they were still as much used as brasses. The design 
whether a figure or a cross was cut into the stone 
and the incision filled with lead or some composition. 
The resemblance between the two forms of memorial is 
obvious, and they would clearly require no very great 
difference in general design or treatment of detail. 
The change of material was due to the enamellers. 
The art of enamelling was introduced from Byzantium 
into France and Western Europe in the twelfth cen- 
tury, and it was applied to the memorials of the dead 
by the craftsmen of Limoges. The whole surface of 
the copper-plate was covered with enamel. The design 
consisted of a figure on a diapered ground, under a 
niche, and with an inscription. These works of art 
were necessarily small on account of their costliness. 
After a while the effigy is left as a plain metal surface 
surrounded by an enamelled ground. The details of 
the costume, and to a slight extent the modelling of 
the figure and folds of the drapery, were indicated by 
engraved lines, as had been done in the incised stone 
slabs, and the lines were filled with enamel. Till the 
end of the middle ages enamel continued to be used 
very commonly in the heraldic bearings and some other 
parts. Work of this class may be described as parcel- 
enamel. In the next stage the enamelled background 
is omitted, and finally the brass plate is cut to the out- 
line of the figure and let into a corresponding sinking 
in the stone (MA.). 

The material used for brasses was a mixture of copper 
and zinc called laton or latten,* prepared chiefly at 
Cologne. Most English brasses were engraved at 
Isleworth, near London, but there were also some 
provincial manufactories (MA.). A few particularly 
magnificent examples are entirely the work of 
foreigners and are known as ' Flemish brasses.' The 
* See article thereon. 


matrix or stone into which the plate is sunk is almost 
invariably Purbeck marble. 

The most usual position for brasses is the floor, but 
they are also, after the fourteenth century, placed on 
the slabs of altar tombs and occasionally on the walls. 

The art was probably introduced into England in 
the first half of the thirteenth century, but the earliest 
example remaining is dated 1277. The works done in 
the reigns of the two first Edwards are of greater 
artistic and technical excellence than any of a later 
time; the figures are life-size and boldly drawn with 
deeply incised lines. The inscription runs round the 
margin of the slab and the letters are commonly each 
cut on a separate piece of metal (MA.). Canopies 
inappropriate to a recumbent figure were introduced 
in the reign of Edward II. In the two following 
reigns brasses became more varied and magnificent, 
and most classes are represented instead of only great 
personages and their wives as formerly. The figures 
are now of all sizes, but are usually about four feet 
high. The drawing is rather more conventional than 
formerly but is nevertheless of great beauty (MA.). 
The border inscription is always on a continuous strij 
of metal and a second inscription is placed below the 
figure. Floriated crosses are used sometimes inste 
of effigies, and some of them have quatrefoil heads 
enclosing whole or half figures. " Bracket brasses 
appear at the same time, in which the figures are 
represented upon a canopied bracket, or sometimes 
kneeling at its foot, and supplicating certain saints 
above" (MA.). These were discontinued in the first 
half of the fifteenth century, and in figure brasses the 
figures are smaller. 

The decline in the art begins to be more evident in 
the third quarter of the fifteenth century. The simple 
recumbent attitudes of the early brasses with the 
hands raised in prayer are abandoned and the figures 


are often represented in half-profile with the hands 
apart and standing on grassy ground. Shading begins 
to take the place of the earlier flat and more suitable 
treatment. Brasses representing shrouded skeletons 
become common especially in the eastern counties. 
These faults are much more conspicuous in the last 
quarter of the fifteenth century and in the first half of 
the sixteenth ; the drawing is often bad and the treat- 
ment is pictorial ; the figures are represented kneeling 
at desks. Mural brasses become common. The art 
continued to decline till its practice was abandoned in 
the latter part of the seventeenth century (MA.). 

MORTICE OR MORTISE. A hole cut in a piece 
of wood to receive the end, called a tenon,* of another 

MOSAIC (Gk. /xoweios, belonging to the Muses, 
artistic s). A surface formed of small pieces of stone, 
marble, tile or glass, used on walls, vaults, floors and 
columns. Much employed by the ancients and in the 
early Christian churches in Italy and in the East. It 
was used by the Romans in Britain for their floors and 
probably also for walls and vaults. The art was never 
practised by the English ; all the work in Westminster 
Abbey, namely the shrine of Edward the Confessor, 
the pavement round it, the tomb of Henry III., and 
the pavement in front of the altar, was done by Italians. 
These works date from the latter half of the thirteenth 
century, and are the only or almost the only medieval 
examples in England. 

MOULDING. A concave or convex surface forming 
a groove or staff, or a combination of the two, of 
uniform profile at all points throughout its length, 
sunk in or projecting from the face or edge of some 
part of a building or piece of furniture. 

* See article thereon. 


An individual and definite part of a moulding or a 
single moulding in a series is called a member. A 
carved or painted ornament repeated at regular inter- 
vals on a moulding is called an enrichment.* A plain 
or slightly concave surface cutting off an edge is called 
a chamfer.* 

In Gothic architecture the art of moulding steadily 
develops by a series of slight changes. It is used 
principally for capitals and bases, string courses and 
plinths, mullions and tracery, and particularly for 
arches. In Renaissance architecture, as in its parent 
Roman, the arch is scarcely moulded at all, nor is 
the string course and plinth, but the cornice is elabor- 
ately moulded. In short each style employed mould- 
ings to emphasise and ornament the feature which was 
its special characteristic in Gothic the arch,* in Classic 
the entablature.* In any style the positions in which 
mouldings are used, the general arrangement of a 
group, and the plane on which it is worked, is of as 
great or greater importance than the form of the indi- 
vidual mouldings. 

Saxon work shows the influence of Roman archi- 
tecture in nothing more plainly than in its mouldings. 
Those of the arch, which is of one order* only, are few, 
simple and shallow ; they are worked on the face, the 
soffit being plain, and they spring often from an impost 
which is a rude copy of the entablature. 

The half-way position which Romanesque holds be- 
tween Roman and Gothic is illustrated by its treatment 
of the arch. Like Gothic and unlike Roman work it 
is of many orders and is elaborately ornamented, but 
the ornaments, though much corrupted, are borrowed 
indirectly from the Roman entablature and consist of 
enrichments rather than mouldings (fig. 190). Norman 
mouldings were in fact very few and very simple. 
They consist of a hollow chamfer under the hood-mould 
* See article thereon. 



(fig. 146) and a bowtel, round or pointed, on the edge of 
the outer order with a shallow hollow on the face, while 
the inner order is often plain (fig. 147). Thus the 
arrangement of recessed orders is well preserved. 

FIG. 146. 

FIG. 147. 


It is this recessed arrangement rather than the shape 
of the individual members which distinguishes early 
work from late. As the mouldings are elaborated the 



separation between the orders is lost, and the edges of 
the orders become rounded off till the face of the arch 
gradually becomes a wide 
splay instead of a series of 
recesses (fig. 155 c, d). 

In the thirteenth century 
the bowtel* is still used, and 
there are deep and wide 
hollows on the face and on 
the soffit. Before long these 
hollows are followed by 
smaller rolls (fig. 150), and 
in the latter part of the 
century fillets are added in 
larger numbers (fig. 148^). 
In plain work the hollow 
chamfer is used (fig. 153). 
The hood-mould has a deep 
hollow and the upper edge is 
rounded (fig. 151). 

In the fourteenth century 
the angle bowtel is pushed 
back (fig. 154), and the 
smaller rolls are developed 
(fig. 1 52). The hollows are 
still deep, but they are less open 
tween two orders is sometimes concealed by a hollow, 
and so the division is lost (fig. 152). There is a 
growing liking for the chamfer, but instead of the 
earlier concave form it is given a wavy profile and 
is called the 'wave' moulding (fig. 156); often the 
outer order of an arch has this moulding and the 
inner order a plain chamfer ; the ' sunk chamfer ' 
is also used. The hood-mould loses its hollow (fig. 

The wave moulding changes : it is smaller, and the con- 

* See article thereon. 


Early thirteenth century 

The joint be- 




vex part is reduced. The f ogee ' is perhaps the most char- 
acteristic moulding of the fifteenth century (fig. 159); 
it is sometimes followed by a fillet and hollow, 
times by the 
same moulding 
reversed, form- 
ing a ' double 
ogee' (fig. 160). 
The hollows are 
contracted, or 
else they are 
made extremely 
shallow and open 
and are called 
'casements' (fig. 
161). The hood- 
mould mostoften 
has a sloping or 
wavy top and a 
hollow or an 
' ogee ' under- 
neath (fig. 160). 
The mouldings 
are now worked 
so exactly on a 
splayed face that 
they all die into 
a plain splayed 
jamb or pier (fig. 
159). They are 
often, however, 
continued down to the floor, or the hood-mould or other 
single member springs from a tiny shaft and capital. 

The general character of other mouldings agrees 
with that of the arch mould. Thus the abacus* of 
the capital* (fig. 1 62), the annulet* (except in Norman 
* See article thereon. 



Early thirteenth century 

a, hood-mould ; i, arch-mould ; c, shaft ; d, jamb 
e, plan of abacus ; f, section of abacus ; g, base 









Fourteenth century 



times) and the string course* (fig. 163) are at all 
periods very similar to the hood-mould. 

The base* in Norman times is poorly moulded 
(figs. 20, 164), but it gradually develops (figs, 165, 149, 
150), and in the thirteenth century 
it has two rolls with a deep hollow 
between (fig. 169), and has a re- 
semblance to the Attic* base (fig. 
17 a) only it is much wider and shal- 
lower. The hollow is lost at about 
the same time the end of the thir- 
teenth century as the hollow in the 
hood-mould and abacus (figs. 167, 22). 
In the fifteenth century the base is 
drawn out into a series of small 
mouldings, high but of slight pro- 
jection (figs. 168, 23). 

The curious idea of ornamenting ARC ^ S D X V 
the capital with a series of horizontal 
rings was developed in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries (fig. 44). 





Fourteenth century 

* See article thereon. 


Fourteenth century 

FIG. 159. Fourteenth century FIG. 160. Fifteenth century 



b c d t f 


. | Norman ; c, thirteenth century ; d, fourteenth century 
'if > fifteenth century 

tin. 164. 


FIG. 165. 


FIG. l66. BASE 

Thirteenth century 

FIG. 167. BASK 
Fourteenth century 

FIG. 168. BASE 
Fifteenth century 

FIG. 169. 

Thirteenth century 


At first they are simply treated (figs. 169, 170), but in 
the fourteenth century they are often over-elaborated 
(fig. 1 72) ; they dwindle again, however, in the follow- 
ing century, leaving little or nothing but the ' necking ' 
or small moulding at the bottom of the capital and the 
abacus (fig. 1 73) ; the mouldings and the general out- 
line are weak. 

The Renaissance architects followed the Romans in 
their mouldings though they sometimes refined them 
and varied them. The Romans had betrayed their in- 
artistic temperament in their mouldings as much as in 
anything. They were as coarse and clumsy as those of 
the Greeks were subtile and refined (fig. 180). Both 
peoples made less use of mouldings than the medieval 
builders. The individual mouldings were not so 
numerous nor were the combinations so varied ; they 
followed more closely a traditional arrangement. 

The Greek Doric order (fig. 192) has hardly any 
mouldings : a single member under the abacus and not 
much more on the cornice. The Ionic and Corinthian 
orders are rather more elaborate ; they have the 
beautiful Attic base (fig. 17 a) ; the entablature has more 
mouldings, but the effect is produced chiefly by the 
projection of the cornice and by the mutules* or 
brackets and by enrichments. 

The Romans used scarcely more mouldings than the 
Greeks ; their ostentation chiefly found vent in the 
excessive use of enrichments. When they used the 
arch, however, they had the sense to give it the very 
simple moulding of the architrave and no more 
(fig. 181). They used the same moulding round doors 
and windows ; hence it is that we get this section 
almost universally used round our doors and windows. 

MOULDINGS IN WOOD are always much smaller than 
those of stone, as is only suitable to the material and to 
the character of the objects for which it is used. The 
chief examples of the middle ages arc those on the 


Late thirteenth century Fourteenth century Fourteenth century 


Fifteenth century 



timbers of open roofs (fig. 174), on church screens and 
mullions (fig. 187). 

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the mould- 
ings are always refined and effective, but they often 
resemble diminutive stone mouldings. This is not quite 
fortunate, for a fibrous material like wood demands a 
different treatment from a granular one like stone. In 
the fifteenth century this was better understood. The 
framing of panelling has mouldings running down the 
middle of the framing (fig. 195 a), and the panels them- 
selves, in late work, have a peculiar sort of moulding 
worked upon them called the linen* pattern. 

Till the end of the sixteenth century all wood mould- 
ings were ' stopped,' that is, they are finished off in 
some way near the end of the piece of timber on which 
they are worked, or they are ( returned,' that is, they 
are turned round in such a way as to meet the mould- 
ings of some other piece of timber (fig. 195 A). In 
later work the timbers are cut so that the joint between 
them follows the mitre* of the mouldings (fig. 195 
An ' Oxford frame ' and an ordinary picture-frame illus- 
trate the first and last of these three methods. The 
mouldings of panelling of the later period are always 
worked on the edge of the framework. 

In panelling of the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies the mouldings are much larger, and are often on 
a separate piece of wood, which is nailed on the edge 
of the framework. In that case they are made to pro- 
ject beyond the face of the panelling, and are called 
'bolection'* mouldings. But in many buildings till the 
end of the seventeenth century the old style of small 
stopped mouldings is used. 

The following are the names of the commonest Clas- 
sical and Renaissance mouldings : 

ASTRAGAL. A small convex moulding used at the 
bottom of the Corinthian capital (fig. 1 75). 
* See article thereon. 


a, Cyma recta 
PIG. 177. HAWK'S BEAK 6> Cy ma reversa 

FIG. l8l. FIG. l8a. 


MOULDING *, Torus 

PIG. 183. OGEK PIG. 184. QUIRK PIG. t8 5. REEDING 

a, Simple ogee 
t. Quirked ogee 


BEAD. A small circular convex moulding either on 
an angle or flush with a surface (fig. 1 76). 

BIRD'S BEAK. An undercut moulding used on the 
capital of the Greek anta (fig. 177). 

CAVETTO. A concave moulding approximating to a 
quarter of a circle (fig. 178). 

CYMA. Called also the cyma recta. A moulding of 
which the upper part is concave and the lower part 
convex (fig. 1 79 ). In the cyma reversa the upper part 
is convex and the lower part concave (fig. 1 79 &) 

CYMATIUM. "A name given by Vitruvius to the 
groups of mouldings which serve to cap each part or 
subdivision of the entablature, or separate it from the 
next. The name has no reference to the form or number 
of the mouldings. . . . But another set of writers 
. . . have strangely applied the name to the ogee 
moulding, and this error is generally adopted " (P.). 
The word is from Kvpdriov, a little wave, so perhaps 
Vitruvius is wrong and the other set of writers " right. 

ECHINUS. The ovolo of the Greek Doric capital. 

OVOLO (ovum, an egg) or ECHINUS A convex moulding 
approximating to the quadrant of a circle (fig. 1 80) ; its 
enrichment is the egg-and-dart. 

SCOTIA. A concave moulding, forming half an ellipse, 
in the Attic base (fig. 182). 

TORUS. A semi-circular convex moulding, similar 
to the astragal but larger (fig. 1 82). 


MULLION OR MONIAL. A vertical division in a 
window. In England it is generally of stone or wood, 
according to the character of the building, but occa- 
sionally of brick. It originated in the gradual reduction 
of the pier between two coupled lancets. (See TRACERY.) 
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries it generally 
has plain splays or chamfers, but often in the four- 
teenth century, and nearly always in the fifteenth, the 
chamfers are slightly hollowed (fig. 186 a); in woodwork 


they are sometimes entirely moulded (fig. 187). Tudor 
mullions have convex mouldings (fig. 1866). In pure 
Renaissance work the mullion is not used. 


MUTULE. A broad flat member projecting slightly 
from the soffit of the corona of the cornice in the 
Doric order* and supposed to have originated in the 
boards pinned to the overhanging ends of the rafters. 

NAIL-HEAD ORNAMENT. An enrichment some- 
what like nail heads, used in the Norman* period. 


NARTHEX. A large porch across the end of a 
basilican church/ to which were admitted those who 
were not in full communion. 

NAVE (Lat. navis, a ship; because the Church of 
Christ was commonly likened to a ship). The central 
part of a church ; the term is sometimes applied to the 
corresponding part of a secular building. 

NEBULE ORNAMENT. A shallow Norman en- 
richment consisting of a wavy line; the term is perhaps 
borrowed from heraldry. 

NECESSARIUM. A necessary house, a privy. In 
the middle ages they were carefully arranged, either 
singly or in groups, in private houses ; in monasteries* 
they were ranged in a long row in a separate building 
under which a ditch or stream was carried. 
* See article thereon. 



NECK OF A CAPITAL. The part of a capital 
from the neck moulding up to the bell mould- 
ings or to the bend over of the foliage. The neck 
moulding is the small projecting ring quite at the 
bottom of the capital. 

NEWEL (from La,t. mtc-, stem of mix, a nut ; from 
its central position s.). Formerly the central post or 
pillar of a spiral staircase, whether of wood or stone ; 
the term is now used also of the angle posts in a 
straight staircase. 

NICHE (Ital. nicchia, a niche, a shell-like recess 
in a wall ; from Ital. nicchio, a shell s. ; the head of 
a Renaissance niche was 
often shaped like a shell.) 
A recess in a wall for a 
statue or other object ; 
in the middle ages called 
a tabernacle,* and Inigo 
Jones applies this term 
to the niches of classical 
architecture (P.). 

Previous to the end of 
the thirteenth century 
the niche had generally 
a flat or rounded back 
and was covered by a 
simple arch with perhaps : ^- 
a gablet over it. In the 
fourteenth century there 
is often a projecting 
canopy formed by pend- 
ing out the arch, which 
in this case is an ogee, 
from the face of the wall 
as it rises ; it is orna- 


* See article thereon. 



mented with crockets and a finial. In the fifteenth 
century there are three small arches carrying a half 
hexagonal dome or spire (fig. 188); the back of the 
niche is also a half hexagon ; the ceiling which is con- 
sequently a complete hexagon is ornamented with 
minute vaulting. 

Elizabethan niches vary, according to circumstances, 
from a debased Gothic to pure classic. The Renais- 
sance niche is generally semi-circular or semi-elliptical 
in plan. It is covered by a half dome which is either 
plain or coffered or is ornamented with a large shell, 
(fig. 67). A niche for a lamp is sometimes found in 
medieval churches and other buildings ; occasionally 
there is a small flue to carry off the smoke (M.). 

NOOK-SHAFT. A shaft in the nook or recess of 
a jamb (fig. 1 50). 

given by Rickman to a phase of 
English architecture during the 
time of the Norman kings ; it is 
without definite limits, but con- 
sidered by him to begin at 1066 
and to end about 1 1 89 (see Appen- 
dix). Its chief characteristics are 
as follows : The construction is 
massive ; the masonry is rough 
with thick joints ; the arches* are 
round, or in some of those of small 
span are trefoil ; the walls are often 
decorated by small arcades of 
various forms, in some of these the 
adjoining arches intersect in a 
peculiar way (fig. 1 89) ; the parapet 
often projects and is carried on a 
corbel table ; the buttresses are 

* See article thereon. INTERSECTING ARCHES 



doorways are often 
are round, or are 

very wide and of slight projection 
very highly decorated ; columns 
rectangles either simple or with 
recesses at the angles contain- 
ing small shafts, or are a com- 
bination of these forms ; the 
bases are low and insignificant ; 
the capitals * are of various 
forms ; vaults are either barrel- 
shaped or groined ; large build- 
ings generally had wooden roofs 
of the 'trussed -rafter' form; FIG ' I9 " 
the mouldings are few and simple ; the enrichments 
(fig. l.QO) are various and elaborate, the commonest 
being the zigzag, billet, chevron, bird's beak, star, 


OFF-SET, SET-OFF. A ledge formed by the upper 
part of a wall being thinner than the lower part. 
Often formed inside a building to carry floor-joists, and 
outside for architectural effect or economy or for other 
reasons ; the latter are always more or less weathered, 
i.e. sloped, to throw off the rain. The most familiar 
examples are afforded by Gothic buttresses.* 

OGEE. A compound curve partly convex 
and partly concave ; the term is applied es- 
pecially to arches* and mouldings.* 

OILLET. A small loophole in the wall of 
a castle for the discharge of missiles. 


ORATORY. A small private chapel or closet for 
prayer in a house or church. 

* See article thereon. 


ORDER 193 

ORDER, CLASSICAL. The column and entabla- 
ture in Greek and Roman architecture. It includes 
the capital, the base (if any), the pedestal (if any), 
and the stylobate or platform if this is low, but if it is 
high enough to contain rooms and form a storey it is 
usually considered as a separate order. 

The term Order means not only the features men- 
tioned above, but it supposes a definite architectural 
treatment. For the several orders do not represent 
styles in vogue at different periods or in different coun- 
tries, but merely recognised types. One order is not 
the parent of another, like the various phases of Gothic 
architecture ; nor do they merge into one another in 
any way, but each remains a distinct type which varies 
but slightly in different buildings. Each order is seen 
well advanced towards full development in the earliest 
examples ; we know little of its period of growth. 

The principal orders are the Doric, the Ionic and 
the Corinthian. These were all perfected by the 
Greeks. The sequence in which they have been named 
is to some extent chronological ; that is, Doric buildings 
are generally the oldest; but the orders overlap and are 
even used together in the same building. The Romans 
adopted and varied them and added others which are 
really modifications of them, as will be described 

The general principles of all are the same : Columns 
support a lintel, above which is a decorated band and a 
projecting cornice. There is a difference in the pro- 
portions of the three, but even this is slight as com- 
pared, for example, with the difference between 
different periods, or even between different buildings 
of the same period in Western architecture. The 
difference is chiefly in the details and especially in the 

The Greek Orders. The Greek Doric order is the 
simplest and the most massive (fig. 192). It has a 



ORDER 195 

stylobate, usually of three high steps. The columns 
are thick in proportion to their height : they have 
twenty elliptical flutes separated only by sharp edges ; 
there is no base and the capital consists only of an 
abacus square in plan and in section, with a single 
moulding under it. The architrave is plain ; the frieze 
is divided by triglyphs, or slight projections with 
vertical grooves, leaving square spaces called metopes 
which are sometimes carved ; the cornice is simple, 
its soffit or lower side has flat mutules studded with 
guttae. The columns are about five and a half diameters 
high, and the intercolumniation or clear space between 
the columns is about one diameter and a third ; the 
height of the entablature is rather more than twice 
the diameter of the column. 

The Greek Doric order is, it is thought, derived 
from buildings of timber. The architrave is said to 
be the successor of the wooden beam placed on the top 
of wooden posts stuck in the ground ; the triglyphs to 
represent the ends of beams resting on the lintel and 
running back to the wall, the metopes being the fill- 
ing in of the spaces between the beams ; the sloping 
soffit of the cornice is the projection of the roof, the 
rafter-feet being reproduced in the mutules, and the 
pins used for the framing, in the guttae ; this theory 
accounts also for the absence of a base to the column. 
The hypothesis must be accepted till we have good 
grounds for abandoning it. We have similar examples 
(e.g. in Egypt) of archaic forms perpetuated in per- 
fected architecture. 

The Ionic order is much more slender in its pro- 
portions and more ornamented (fig. 192). It has a 
stylobate of three steps, rather similar to that of the 
Doric ; the column has twenty-four semi-circular flutes 
separated by flat fillets ; it has a moulded base and a 
remarkable square capital, which shows two large 
volutes or spirals on the front face and two on the 

196 ORDER 

back. (A general idea of its form can be gained by 
rolling up a strip of paper from" each end and then 
placing it with the scrolls downwards over an inverted 
tumbler.) The capital of the angle column had volutes 
on both its outer faces, the outermost angle having 
a single volute placed diagonally. The entablature 
is light and slightly decorated with mouldings and 
enrichments. The columns are between eight and 
nine diameters high and a little more than two 
diameters apart. The entablature is about two diameters 
high, that is, rather less than the intercolumniation. 

The origin of the Ionic capital has been explained 
by various theories, none of which has for long com- 
manded acceptance. The difficulty lies in the want 
of early examples showing different stages of develop- 
ment. It may be noted that the spiral is a favourite 
device of many primitive peoples, and had been an 
especially favourite device in Mycenaean art. 

In its general proportions the Corinthian order is 
very like the Ionic (fig. 192). It was the latest to 
develop, and there are very few Greek examples. It 
will be more particularly described in speaking of the 
Roman orders. Its most striking feature is its capital, 
carved with foliage. 

The explanation of the origin of the Corinthian 
capital is more venerable and more poetical, but it is 
not more satisfactory than the theories as to the volute. 

"A virgin of Corinth being now grown up, fell sick and 
died : The Day after her Funeral, her Nurse having put into 
a Basket certain small Vessels and Trifles with which she was 
wont to divertise her self whilst she lived, went out and set 
them upon her Tomb ; and least the Air and Weather should 
do them any injury, She cover'd them with a Tyle : Now the 
Basket being accidentally plac'd upon the Root of an 
Acanthus, or great Dock, the Herb beginning to sprout at 
the spring of the Year, and put forth Leaves, the Stalks 
thereof creeping up along the Sides of the Basket, and meet- 
ing with the Edge of the Tyle (which jetted out beyond the 

ORDER 197 

Margine of the Basket) were found (being a little more 
ponderous at the Extremes) to bend their Tops downwards, 
and form a pretty kind of Valuta. At this very time it was 
that the Sculptor CalKmacktu (who for the Delicateness of 
his Work upon Marble and Genteelness of his Invention, 
was by the Athenians surnamed Catatcchnos, that is to say, 
Industrious) passing near this Monument, began to cast an 
Eye upon this Basket, and to consider the pretty Tenderness 
of that ornamental Foliage which grew about it, the Manner 
and Form whereof so much pleased him for the Novelty, 
that he shortly after made Columns at Corinth resembling 
this Model, and ordain'd its Symmetries, distributing after- 
wards in his Works Proportions agreeable to each of its 
other Members in Conformity to this Corinthian Mode." 
(A Parallel of the Antient Architecture ivith the Modern. 
By Roland Freart. Ed. by John Evelyn, Lond., 1723.) 

There may be nothing impossible in this pretty story, 
but it is to the last degree improbable and need not be 
seriously considered. 'Invention,' however 'genteel/ 
has never been the parent of architectural features : 
these are the fruit of a slow growth. 

The Greeks occasionally used another order, the 
Caryatid or Persian, in which human figures take the 
place of columns. The side portico of the Erechthaeum 
at Athens is a famous example. The figures of Persians 
were used in another building. 

The Greeks carried their architectural forms to an 
extraordinary pitch of refinement. Every curve was of 
the most subtile delicacy, not only of volutes and the 
like, but in the sections of all mouldings. The greatest 
judgment was exercised in the general proportions, in 
the details and in the character and disposition of the 

Their sensitiveness to form is perhaps most strikingly 
shown in the ' optical corrections ' which they made in 
their buildings and especially in those of the Doric 
order. The diminution of the column upwards gives it 
great apparent rather than actual stability ; its entasis 

198 ORDER 

or swelling in the middle is to counteract an appearance 
of hollowness which it would otherwise have, principally 
through the strong sunlight behind it flowing round the 
edges to a greater extent in the middle part of the 
column than near the entablature and stylobate. In 
order to prevent the appearance of weakness at the 
angle of a temple which is entirely surrounded by 
columns, the angle column is made rather thicker than 
the others and the space between it and the next is 
reduced. But in order to give a look of still greater 
stability to the whole building, all the columns are 
given a very slight slope inwards. The horizontal lines 
are subjected to similar corrections. To prevent any 
possible appearance of sinking in the middle they are 
all bowed upwards ; this is so boldly done that to any- 
one standing at the corner of the Parthenon the 
arching of the steps is quite obvious. Even the sloping 
lines of the pediment are curved in this way. It will 
be hardly necessary to point out that these minute 
corrections required extraordinary accuracy and enor- 
mously increased the trouble and cost of building. 

The Roman Orders. The Roman Doric has a general 
resemblance to the Greek Doric, but is less massive. 
The flutes of the column are sometimes omitted, the 
capital is elaborated and spoilt. 

The Romans used another variety of this order which 
they called the Tuscan ; the triglyphs and ornaments 
are omitted and the mouldings are fewer and bolder. 

Again, in the Ionic order the Romans followed the 
Greeks. The volutes are smaller and less beautifully 

It was in the Corinthian order that the Roman most 
delighted (fig. 193); he used it with many variations 
and with great effect. The capital was very similar 
to that of the Greek order. There was generally 
added a small volute in the centre of each side, 
making eight volutes in all. The acanthus leaves 



were elaborated, giving great richness with a loss of 
refinement. The abacus was sometimes enriched with 
egg and dart, as were also parts of the architrave. The 
cornice was very richly treated and often has modillions 
carved with acanthus ; the frieze was sometimes sculp- 
tured with vulgar ornament, and sometimes instead of 
being flat had a convex section ; the column was fluted 
or plain. (See also CAULICOLE and HELIX.) 

The Romans used yet another order, which is called 
the Composite, because its capital is a combination of 
the Ionic and Corinthian (fig. 19'1)- The order is really 
a variety of the Corinthian. The abacus has the plan 
of the Corinthian abacus a square with convex sides. 
Under the projecting angles there are large volutes 
placed diagonally and, in some cases, springing from 
behind the band of egg and dart borrowed from the 
Ionic. The lower part of the capital has rows of 
acanthus like the Corinthian. The column is sometimes 



plain, sometimes fluted; in some examples the flutes 
are filled to one-third of their height with a staff or 
bead, and are said to be ' cabled.' 

In the Ionic, Corinthian and Composite the Romans 
sometimes placed each column on a square pedestal 
with moulded capital and base. They raised some of 

200 ORDER 

their buildings on a stylobate or podium high enough 
to constitute a separate order, and they also sometimes 
used an ' Attic order,' a low plain wall, over their main 
order. In buildings of several storeys they decorated 
each storey with an order, placing the Doric, as the 
most sturdy, at the bottom, and the Corinthian, as the 
most ornate, at the top. 

The orders were also used in connexion with arches. 
It is, however, only in rare instances that the arch 
springs from the entablature ; generally it rises from 
a pilaster placed against the column, which is high 
enough to allow the entablature to pass over the top of 
the arch. The order in such a case is in fact a mere 
ornament placed against the wall. This use of the 
order allowed the Romans to widen the intercolumnia- 
tion to any extent, for the entablature was carried by 
the wall, and its strength had not to be considered. 

The terms which are used to describe the various 
forms of porticoes and the spacing of the columns are 
given in the article TEMPLE (p. 26 1). 

These terms and the rules for the proportions of the 
orders and their parts are the work of Vitruvius (first 
century B.C.), the only ancient writer on architecture 
whose works are extant, and of the Italian architects of 
the Renaissance. The rules were carried to an absurd 
degree of elaboration, being applied to the minutest 
members. They were not followed by the Romans, 
and doubtless were undreamed of by the Greeks. 

But even in ancient work each order does fqjlow to 
some extent the same general proportions in most ex- 
amples, and thus it is possible, within wide limits, to 
lay down rules. The fact is that the proportions of the 
orders were based on a different principle from that to 
which we are accustomed in Gothic architecture. With 
us the number of members or parts is increased or 
diminished according as the building is large or small, 
but their size does not vary much. In the classical 


orders the number of members remains constant, and 
their size is increased or diminished. The unit of 
measurement is usually half the diameter of the column 
at the base, and is called a module. 

ORDER OF AN ARCH. One ring of stones or 
bricks in an arch. If the arch consists of several con- 
centric rings it is said to be of several orders. 

ORIEL. A bow-window in a Gothic building eithe 
standing on the ground or corbelled out from the wall 
There is some obscurity about the use of the term in 
the middle ages. Professor Skeat suggests that it is 
derived from uureolum, that which is ornamented with 
gold, as the vault of a bow-window frequently was in 
the middle ages. 

ORIENTATION. The placing of a building with 
one end towards the east. There has been a tendency 
at all times and in many religions to make the door of 
a place of worship on the east side so that the rising 
sun should shine in. The earliest Christian churches * 
had the entrance to the east, perhaps in imitation of 
the Temple at Jerusalem or of Greek temples. 

OVOLO. See MOULDING (fig. 180). 


PAINTING. Colour has at all times been used on 
the walls, ceilings and other parts of buildings in 
England, both in pictures and in decorative devices. 
In medieval buildings, both sacred and secular, the 
subjects were chosen from the Scriptures, from legends 
of the saints, and from myths or moral tales and 
* See article thereon. 


miracles. In motive they were perhaps more often 
devotional than educational or purely decorative. After 
the Reformation there was very much less painting ; 
in churches the subjects were limited to the Scriptures, 
and to portions only of these ; in secular buildings pro- 
fane subjects were more common. 

Few, if any, examples earlier than the Conquest 
remain, but buildings were certainly painted and there 
are contemporary allusions to the fact ; for example, in 
8l6 a canon was issued requiring bishops to see that 
before consecrating a church it contained a picture of 
its patron saint (K.). Norman paintings are fairly 
numerous. They consist of pictures of Christ in Majesty 
and of scenes from His life ; figures of St. Michael and 
of St. Thomas of Canterbury and of apostles and saints; 
a great variety of decorative patterns, architectural 
forms, scrolls and stiff foliage, imitation hangings and 
occasionally sentences. The work retains some of its 
Norman characteristics as late as 1 220 (K.). 

In the reign of Henry III. the art made good pro- 
gress owing, no doubt, to the encouragement of the 
king and the introduction of foreign artists. Most of 
the work was, however, done by Englishmen, as is clear 
from the character of the work and from the recorded 
names of the painters who were often (perhaps 
generally) professional laymen whether the building 
was ecclesiastical or secular (K.) The work of this and 
the following reigns, though not without some archaic 
mannerisms, is full of beautiful feeling, and will compare 
with the contemporary work of Italy and perhaps with 
that of France. The principal subjects are scenes from 
the life of Our Lord; and the Virgin, St. Catherine, 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, St. Edmund and other 
saints, the figures being often placed in medallions; 
St. Michael weighing souls ; myths or moralities such as 
the wheel of Fortune. The curious practice prevailed 
of plastering even the finest work and then painting it 


with a representation of masonry. Diapered hangings 
were also represented and rather formal scrolls of 
foliage are very common. Examples of painting are 
also found outside buildings. 

" The paintings of the fourteenth century do not 
show any marked advance over those of the preceding 
era, though a greater diversity of subjects was then 
introduced and the pictures seem on the whole to have 
been more skilfully executed. The same careful atten- 
tion to the due preparation of the wall surface appears 
often to have been neglected" (K.). The subjects in 
the chancel are generally scenes from the New Testa- 
ment, though these are also often found in other 
parts of the church, with legends of the saints and 
' moralities ' ; the ' Doom ' or Last Judgment is usually 
painted on the wall above the chancel arch. The most 
popular saints were St. Margaret, St. Edward the 
Confessor, St. Anthony, St. Sebastian, and especially 
St. Catherine of Alexandria and St. Thomas a Becket. 
St. Nicholas who was very popular is comparatively 
seldom found. The moralities are 'The Seven Deadly 
Sins,' 'The Seven Acts of Mercy' and 'The Seven 
Sacraments ' (K.). The decorative patterns are elabor- 
ate and beautiful ; arabesques of flowers and fruit are 
naturally treated, powderings and scrolls are also used, 
and heraldry becomes more common. Architectural 
members are in this as in the preceding and succeed- 
ing periods emphasised with colour and gilding, and 
the naturally carved foliage of this period seems to 
have been boldly and yet delicately treated in this way. 

The greater number of extant examples of medieval 
painting appear to belong to the fifteenth century, but 
these are often found to have been painted over earlier 
pictures which, where exposed, are generally found to 
be still in a state of good preservation. There is a 
very great variety of subjects owing to the increased 
intercourse with other countries and the settlement of 


foreigners in the eastern counties. The most common 
are scenes from the life of Our Lord, from the long 
apocryphal life of the Virgin, the Doom, the life of 
St. Catherine, the murder of St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury, St. George the patron saint of England and of 
soldiers, the moralities of the preceding period to which 
were added, ' Les Trois Rois morts et les Trois Rois 
Vifs ' and the ' Dance of Death ' (K.). 

Perhaps the most remarkable phenomenon is the 
growth in the popularity of St. Christopher. A picture 
of him carrying the infant Christ across the river was 
probably painted on every church and is still found in 
many. The painting was large and in a conspicuous 
position, generally near the principal entrance, for the 
belief was that anyone who looked on it was safe for 
that day from violent death. Pictures of the Holy 
Trinity seem also to have been common, but most were 
destroyed by special order during the Commonwealth 
(K.). Usually the Father is seated on the Throne sup- 
porting the crucified Saviour in front of him while the 
Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, hovers above. The 
coronation of the Virgin was probably common also, 
though it is not found very often now. Decorative 
painting includes many patterns, powderings, natural 
foliage, birds and beasts ; architectural features are 
enriched with jwitterns, such as the spiral scroll, the 
chevron ; the monograms of Christ, the Virgin and 
some of the most well-known saints are common. 

The screens which formerly existed in every church 
were, beyond question, invariably richly coloured. The 
great majority of the remaining examples are of the 
fifteenth century ; there are some few of the four- 
teenth, while those of the thirteenth are rare. The 
panels of the lower part were sometimes decorated 
with a pattern, but were often painted with the figures 
of the apostles and evangelists, St. Paul and St. John 
Baptist, the Doctors of the Western Church (SS. Am- 


brose, Augustine,, Gregory, Jerome), SS. Mary Magda- 
lene, Catherine, Margaret, Agatha, Agnes, George, 
Anthony, Apollonia, Blaise, Lawrence, Sebastian, and 
others, and the English saints Edmund, Edward the 
Confessor, Edward, King and Martyr, Wolstan, and 
Thomas of Canterbury. The mullions and tracery of 
the upper part were entirely covered with colour and 
gilding, the various mouldings being painted with dif- 
ferent colours and enriched with patterns and spirals 
and powderings of flowers and leaves. The panels 
forming the front of the rood gallery were doubtless 
painted with figures of saints like those of the lower 
part, but few examples remain. The chancel arch was 
often filled with a partition on which was painted the 
scene of the Crucifixion or other subject. 

A few examples of painted wood reredoses remain. 
The best known are those at Westminster Abbey and 
Norwich Cathedral. Sculptured stone and alabaster 
reredoses and monuments were also painted. 

Open timber roofs were decorated with monograms 
and sprays of foliage and other devices on the rafters 
and boarding, while the mouldings were enriched with 
the chevron and spiral. Wood ceilings, both flat and 
canted, and wood vaults were treated rather more 
elaborately. Peterborough Cathedral, St. Albans Abbey, 
and the Great Hospital at Norwich are good examples. 
In the case of a church the whole roof or ceiling is 
sometimes decorated, but often only the easternmost 
bay of the chancel or aisle or nave, because that part 
would be over an altar or the rood. 

Although churches now contain, and no doubt always 
did possess, the greater number of paintings, it must be 
remembered that other buildings the secular parts of 
monasteries, castles, and private houses were also 
decorated in this way. 

At the Reformation the first order for the destruc- 


tion of images, relics and shrines was made in 154-1. 
This order probably applied also to paintings. Texts 
from Scripture were painted in their place. These 
were destroyed by Queen Mary, and were painted 
again in the reign of Elizabeth. Fragments of them 
are not uncommon. With this exception little paint- 
ing has been done in churches since the reign of 
Henry VIII. There was sometimes at the east end an 
oil-painting of some scene from the Old or New Testa- 
ment, or figures of Moses and Aaron, or of Time and 
Death, and sometimes the Ten Commandments, painted 
on wood, surrounded with a decorative border. 

Wall painting in secular buildings was killed by 
the introduction of easel pictures on canvas or panel, 
and these do not fall within the scope of this article. 
There are a few instances of subject-pictures, verses 
and decorative patterns, architectural forms, such as 
square or arched panels, and imitation of marble. The 
ceilings of great houses were occasionally painted with 
pictures after the Restoration. 

A few words may be said about the processes. The 
wall paintings were done in tempera or 'distemper.' 
The wall was finished with a coat of very fine plaster, 
which was allowed to dry. The colours were mixed 
with ' size,' a sort of glue made by boiling down parch- 
ment. Some paintings, even as early as the fourteenth 
century, are believed to be in oil colours. Fresco ' was 
not used. In paintings on wood the process was simi- 
lar, but more delicate and minute in finish. The surface 
was covered with a thin coat of gesso, that is, fine hard 
plaster about as thick as notepaper, and the size used 
for mixing the colours was made from eggs beaten up 
with the juice of shoots of the fig-tree. Oil colours 
seem also to have been used on gesso as a ground or 
preparation for lempera (K.). 

PALACE (from Lat. palatium, originally a building 
on the Palatine hill in Rome, especially a palace of 

PANEL 207 

Nero on this hill s.). In England the term is applied 
only to royal and episcopal residences and to one or 
two great country houses, e.g. Blenheim. 

style of architecture founded upon the work of 
Andrea Palladio, 1518-80, an architect of Vicenza and 
Venice, whose manner was adopted by Inigo Jones 
in his Whitehall Palace and other buildings and thus 
introduced into England. 

PALMETTE. An ornament in classical architecture 
like a palm leaf, carved or painted on mouldings, etc. 

PANE (Fr. pan, a pane, piece, pannell,' from Lat. 
pannus, a cloth, rag, patch s.). (l) A piece of glass 
in a window. (2) [rare] A subdivision of some part of 
a building, e.g. one walk or alley of a cloister, the 
space between two timbers in a half-timber building. 

PANEL (dim. of PANE). A board placed in a frame ; 
hence any surface, no matter what the material, sur- 
rounded by a frame or by a moulding. 

Single panels of various shapes, as trefoil, quatrefoil, 
are used in masonry of all periods as a decoration or to 
contain sculpture or painting. 

PANELLING. A series of panels. Used in woodwork, 
as decoration in stonework and in the plaster-work of 
walls and ceilings. 

Wood panelling on walls was probably used at all 
periods, certainly very extensively from the time of 
Henry VII. From his time to the middle of the seven- 
teenth century the panels are small and nearly square ; 
the mouldings are worked partly on the edges of the 
styles and rails, dying away as they approach the angle 
of the panel, and partly as grooves on the centre of the 
framing. The panels themselves are often worked with 
a peculiar series of mouldings bearing some resem- 
blance to a folded cloth, whence they are called ' linen- 
panels.' * From the beginning of the seventeenth 



century the more correctly classical buildings have very 
large panels, with an ovolo moulding on the edge of the 
framing or a bolection moulding, that is, one projecting 


1 a b c 


beyond the face of the framework ; the mouldings are 
always mitred, that is, they intersect at the angles 
like an ordinary picture-frame. 


PARADISE, PAR VIS. "A court or atrium in 
front of a church, usually surrounded with cloisters, 
either wholly or in part. Sometimes the term is 
applied to a churchyard or cemetery or to the principal 
or regular cloister-garth of a monastery. In the latter 
sense it may be used to include the buildings that sur- 
round the regular cloister. It is not unusual to find a 
memorial of the paradise preserved in the name of a 
street or court. Many towns which once possessed 
monasteries have a paradise street. . . . The ancient 
plan of St. Gall shows a ' paradisus ' at each end of the 
church (fig. 59). Spon, in the account of his travels 
in 1675, calls the pronaos (see TEMPLE) of the Parthenon 
at Athens a parvis. Some modern writers have applied 
the term parvis to the room often found over church 
porches, but apparently without any authority" (P.). 
A room over a church porch (s.). Not a room over a 
church porch (N.E.D.). 


PARAPET. A low wall rising above the gutter of 
a roof. In a castle it is generally battlemented and 
has oillets, in churches and other buildings it varies 
according to the fashion of the period. 

The Norman parapet is low and has a continuous 
coping; in the thirteenth century it has sometimes 
battlements l and sometimes is 
pierced with tracery ; these features 
become more common in the four- 
teenth century; in the fifteenth 
century, though it has generally 
plain battlements (fig. 196), the 
parapet is, in elaborate worK, some- FIG. 196. PARAPET WITH 
times pierced with tracery as well STEPPED BATTLEMENTS 
as battlemented. Elizabethan parapets are sometimes 
pierced with strapwork* or have a large inscription.* 
The later parapets are plain or take the form of a 

PARCLOSE. A screen- to separate a chapel from 
the rest of a church or for other similar purpose. 

PARGETTING. Plaster-work.* The term appears 
formerly to have been used in several senses, some- 
times for plain plastering on walls, but usually for such 
as was made ornamental ; it is now seldom used. 

PARLOUR. (1) A private sitting-room in a 
medieval house at the upper end of the hall ; not 
always to be distinguished from the solar* ; the family 
withdrew into it more and more as time went on, as 
Piers Ploughman complains. Its place was taken by 
the modern drawing-room (the 'withdrawing room'), 
but the name was transferred to the smaller room 
which the family used more habitually than the 
drawing-room. This room being now almost a thing 
of the past the word parlour is becoming rare, except 
in some special buildings, e.g. the ' Mayor's parlour ' in 

* See article thereon. 1 Except in churches. 


a town hall, the parlour of an inn. (2) A room in a 
monastery in which monks were allowed to see their 
friends from the outer world. 

PARQUETRY. Flooring formed of a veneer of hard 
polished wood on a ground of ordinary deal boards. 



PATEN. A flat 'open* dish, especially that usec 
for the bread at the Holy Communion. In the middle 
ages they were of silver or gold as prescribed for 
chalices in 84-7. They have usually a depression of 
four, eight or ten lobes, with an engraving of the 
Manus Dei, or of the head of Our Lord, or other device. 

The paten of the sixteenth century was made, when 
tnrned upside down, to fit on to the Communion cuj 
as a cover. It has a saucer-shaped depression, a narro\ 
rim with a standing flange to keep it in position wher 
placed on the cup, and a short concave stem. The 
date is often engraved on the foot, and in the dish tht 
initials IHS. The patens of the seventeenth anc 
eighteenth centuries are not fitted to make a cover to 
the cup ; they are much larger and resemble ordinary 
domestic salvers. 

PATERA (Lat. patera, a dish). A flat circular 
ornament on an architrave or frieze. 

PAVEMENT. A floor of tile, marble or stone. 
Pavements of stone and Purbeck marble were used in 
the middle ages, but tile seems to have been preferred 
for the best buildings. At the Renaissance stone and 
true marble, or the two mixed, were more common. 

PAVILION (Fr. pavilion, a tent, ' so called because 
spread out like the wings of a butterfly ' ; from Lat. 
papilio, a butterfly, a tent s.). A name given to parts 
of a Renaissance house which are detached or nearly 



detached from the main building, such as corner towers 
in Elizabethan houses, and the low projecting wings 
of a Georgian house. They are usually square and 
covered with a pyramidal roof. 

PEDESTAL. The columns of the classical orders * 
were sometimes raised on square pedestals. 

PEDIMENT. The gable of a 
Classical or Renaissance building. 
It is generally triangular, but is 
sometimes bowed and sometimes, 
in both triangular and bowed pedi- 
ments, the central part is omitted, 
forming what is called a 'broken 
pediment' (fig. 197). FIG. 197. BROKEN PEDIMENT 

PELE-TOWER. "This term is almost peculiar to the 
northern parts of the kingdom ; it seems to have 
signified a small fortress, dwelling, or tower capable of 
being defended against any sudden marauding expe- 
dition " (P.). 

PELLET ORNAMENT. A Norman enrichment 
consisting of balls or flat discs. 

PENDANT. (1) A boss or other part hanging 
down from a stone vault, characteristic of late Gothic 
work. (2) A similar feature in an Elizabethan plaster 
ceiling. (3) A post forming part of the truss of an 
open timber roof, placed against the wall to receive the 
curved brace. 

PENDENTIVE. "The portion of 
a groined ceiling supported by one 
pillar or impost and bounded by the 
ridges of the longitudinal and trans- 
verse vaults. . . . Also the portion 
of a domical vault which descends 
into the corner of an angular building 
* See article thereon. 

FIG. 1C, 


when a ceiling of this kind is placed over a straight- 
sided area" (P.) (fig. 198). See also DOME. 


PENTHOUSE (Lat. appendicium, an appendage ; 
corrupted from pentice, but the present form of the 
word is as old as Shakespeare). A hanging roof, a 
lean-to roof bracketed out from a wall. (See SHOP.) 


PERPENDICULAR PERIOD. The name given by 
Rickman to a phase of English architecture without 
definite limits, but considered by him to begin about 
1377 and to end about 1547. (See Appendix.) Its 
chief characteristics are as follows : Window tracery 
consists entirely of vertical members ; doorways often 
have two hood-moulds, one following the arch, the 
other being horizontal and turned down at each end to 
meet the inner hood-mould at the springing of the 
arch ; the columns usually consist of small half-shafts 
alternating with wide shallow hollows, the half-shafts 
only having capitals and bases ; capitals are small 
and are more usually moulded than carved ; the 
bases are high but are of slight projection ; the 
arches are either of two arcs forming a blunt point 
or they consist of four arcs and are known as 'four- 
centred ' ; mouldings are worked on the splayed face 
and consist of small members, such as ogees, separ- 
ated by a wide shallow hollow called a casement, they 
are usually carried down the jambs of doors and often 
also down large columns ; enrichments are () leaves 
placed in hollow mouldings at intervals, (6) leaves join- 
ing one another as an upright cresting on a cornice, 
(c) small battlements; two kinds of vault are used, 
(l) groining somewhat similar to that of the preced- 
ing periods, (2) fan-vaulting ; roofs are often of 

PEW 218 

the hammer-beam type and then are of fairly steep 
pitch, but in late work especially they become flat and 
the purlins rest directly on a heavy tie-beam. 


PEW (< Old Fr. put, an elevated space ; puye, an open 
gallery with rails hence applied to an enclosed space 
or to a raised desk to kneel at from Lat. podium* a 
balcony ' s.). The original sense is preserved in the 
term 'Royal Pew' at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
the ' Prior's Pew ' in conventual churches, as at 
St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield. The family pew in 
the private chapel was sometimes in a raised gallery, 
the servants sitting below. The transition from the 
original sense to the more common secondary meaning 
was perhaps due to the large family pews made in 
some churches after the Reformation ; they were 
enclosed by screens, but were not raised above the 
floor of the church. The term was applied to ordinary 
seats in the middle of the fifteenth century (p.) and 
perhaps earlier. It is uncertain when churches were 
first furnished with seats in the present fashion, but 
numerous examples of the fifteenth century remain. 
The passages are wide, and the seats which are fixed 
to a continuous kerb have plenty of room between 
them. They are often low benches without backs, 
but with ends finished with poppy-heads.* Another 
and probably a later type has a panelled back and 
square-framed ends with traceried panels and little 
buttresses stuck against the framing. Probably the same 
patterns were followed in the sixteenth century with 
little change except in details. In the first half of the 
seventeenth century the seats had sometimes low, 
square -framed ends and backs, but there are also 
examples of the high-panelled pews with doors, which 
became universal in the eighteenth century and con- 

* See article thereon. 



tinued to be so till the middle of the nineteenth 
century. Laud had ordered in 1636 that pews were 
not to be much above a yard high. 

PICTURE. This word is often used in old writings 
for carved reliefs. (See also PAINTING.) 

PIER. An isolated mass of masonry, e.g. the wall 
between two windows if these are at all near together; 
a large column such as those of the arcade between the 
nave and aisles in a Norman church as distinguished 
from the more slender pillars and columns,* or the still 
slighter and often purely decorative shaft.* 

PIER-ARCHES. A name given by some modern 
writers to the nave-arcades, i.e. the arches between 
the nave and aisles. 

pigeons were an important 
article of food the pigeon- 
house of the manor and of 
the monastery was a large 
detached building with 
nests for several thousand 
birds. It was generally 
square or round in plan 
(fig. 199) and had at the 
apex of the roof an open- 
ing, protected by a small 
upper roof, for the entrance 
and exit of the birds. The 
inner face of the walls was 
honeycombed with small 
recesses for the nests. In 
the centre there was a 
revolving post with two 
horizontal arms at right 

* See article thereon. 

the middle ages when 



angles to each other projecting from the top and 
bottom ; on the ends of these arms a ladder was fixed. 
By this means easy access could be had to every nest. 

PILASTER. A flat rectangular column, fluted or 
unfluted, placed against a wall. 


PINNACLE. A small solid tower, usually sur- 
mounted by a spire, rising from the top of a wall or 
buttress. Pinnacles are rare at the end of the twelfth 
and in the first half of the thirteenth centuries, but 
become more and, more common up to the end of the 
medieval period. The early examples are generally in 
the form of an octagonal column with a capital and a 
low spire, or a cluster of shafts with or without arches 
above them. From the latter part of the thirteenth 
century the smaller pinnacles are usually square and 
have a gablet on each side from which rises a crocketed 
spire ; the sides sometimes have niches ; the larger 
pinnacles, such as those at the angles of a building, 
are small octagonal turrets, often pierced ; in late work 
they are elaborated with diminutive architecture, 
having pinnacles, buttresses and even flying buttresses 
of their own. 

PISCINA. A lavatory. It is found in almost every 
church and consists of a shallow stone bowl in a small 
niche in the south wall of the chancel near the altar ; 
it has a drain and was used for washing the Communion 
vessels. The niche is often double and has two bowls. 
There is sometimes a narrow stone shelf at the back of 
the niche. 

PLASTER-WORK. There can be little doubt that 
at every period and in every part of the world most 
buildings have been covered with plaster internally 
and, unless built of the finest masonry (though not 


even all those buildings are to be excepted), externally 
also. The practice of leaving rubble or other rough 
walls uncovered is entirely English and modern. (See 
also pp. 147, 209). 

Plaster-work in relief, called 'pargetting,'* was pro- 
bably used in the middle ages, though it seems that 
no examples earlier than the sixteenth century remain. 
It was used by Henry VIII. at his palace of Nonesuch 
and there are many examples of Elizabeth's reign. 
Of these examples the most remarkable are the deco- 
rated ceilings. The whole surface is divided into 
panels of varied shapes containing devices, the broad 
bands which divide the panels being moulded and 
ornamented with a scroll of vine. The outsides of 
houses are also decorated with patterns which are 
often similar to those of lead -glazing in windows, 
only larger. Human and grotesque figures are also 
moulded in low relief, especially in some parts of the 
eastern counties where elaborate half-timber work was 
less used. These methods continued till the Civil War 
and perhaps later. Another form of decoration, com- 
mon in the humbler buildings, still practised but 
probably of remote antiquity, consists of large panels 
filled with a small stamped pattern divided by broad 
flat bands. 

The ceilings of the later Renaissance, that is, sub- 
sequent to the Restoration, are enriched with plaster- 
work, but the treatment is quite different from that of 
Elizabethan times. Instead of a repeating pattern of 
small panels, there is a central device with scroll-work 
disposed round it, or the ceiling is divided up into 
large deeply recessed square cells or coffers* richly 
moulded ; this latter method is much used for vaults 
and domes.* (See also GESSO, STUCCO.) 

* See article thereon. 



PLINTH (TrXfvflos, a brick, tile, 
plinth). A projecting base of a wall 
or column. In most buildings of the 
middle ages it has a plain chamfer 
(fig. 200), in the more elaborate it is 
richly moulded, and in late buildings 
panelled and otherwise decorated. In 
the early buildings of the Renaissance 
the plinth is moulded, but from the 
beginning of the seventeeth century it 
is a plain square projection. 

PODIUM (Gk. TroSiov, a little foot). 
The base, plinth, or stylobate of a 
Classical or Renaissance building ; it 
is either plain or consists of steps or is 
treated like the pedestal of a column, 
with base and cornice. 

POPPY- HEAD. The finial of a 

PORCH (Lat. porticus, a porch). FIG. 200. PLINTH 
The early church* of the Celtic type Fifteenth century 
had a small porch at the west end ; 
that of the basilican type had a large narthex stretching 
across the end of the building with three outer and 
three inner doorways ; in the fully developed Saxon 
church the porches were on the north and south sides. 
The medieval church and the medieval house had 
commonly a porch only in front of the principal side- 
entrance. In the fifteenth century there is often a 
room over the porch, and occasionally in earlier work. 

The south porch of the cathedral church of Canter- 
bury is described by Eadmer, writing in the first 
quarter of the twelfth century, as being habitually used 
as a supreme court of law which was known as the 

* See article thereon. 


Sidhdure. Porches also contained altars in early times. 
Before the Reformation parts of the marriage, baptism, 
and churching services were performed at the church 
door ; it was probably rather to serve as a shelter on 
such occasions than to keep the church warm that a 
porch was erected, for there was generally no outer 
door nor glass in the windows. 

PORTCULLIS (a 'sliding door ' s. ; according to p. 
cullis is ' a gutter, groove, channel '). An open grating 
in the gateway of a castle* made to rise and fall in a 
groove like a sash window. 


POSTERN. A small private entrance to a castle,* 
town, monastery, or other building. (See p. 41.) 


POWDERING ROOM. A small closet partitioned 
off in the corner of a bedroom in a house of the eight- 
eenth century, into which the occupant could retire to 
have his or her hair powdered. 

The powder was showered on from a 'powdering- 
horn ' like salt from a muffineer, and it was therefore 
necessary to protect the clothes. There seem to have 
been several ways of doing this ; either the person put 
on a ' powdering gown ' ; or two curtains were hung 
across the powdering room and the hairdresser stood 
on one side and the person to be powdered stood on 
the other and put his head through the division 
between the curtains, drawing them round his neck ; 
or the hairdresser went into the powdering room and 
closed the door, and the person to be operated upon 
stood outside and put his head through a hole con- 
trived in the door and fitted with a falling shutter, 
the lower part of the hole and the bottom edge of the 
shutter being so shaped as to fit closely round the neck. 

* See article thereon. 


PRECEPTORY. A subordinate establishment of the 
Knights Templars, governed by a Preceptor. 

PRESBYTERY. The part of a church occupied by 
the priests. In the Canons churches of cross-plan the 
east part only of the east limb of the cross is generally 
the presbytery and the west part the choir ; in a 
monastic church the presbytery often extends up to 
the east arch of the crossing. (See CHURCH). 

PRIORY. A monastery governed by a prior or 
prioress ; of lower standing than an abbey ; but many 
of the greatest monasteries were priories from the fact 
that, originally abbeys, the churches had been made 
cathedrals and the abbacy had been merged in the 

PROCESSION PATH. The whole route covered 
by the procession in going round the church before 
High Mass on Sundays. 


PULPIT (Lat. pulpilum, a stage, scaffold). There are 
no early pulpits in England, and it may be doubted if 
there were many pulpits in churches. The earliest 
that remain appear to be very late fourteenth century ; 
but even these are very rare, and the greater number 
of medieval examples are late fifteenth century or early 
sixteenth. They are of wood and of stone, and some- 
times stand at some distance from the east end of the 
nave. In the Injunctions of Edward VI. in 1547 it was 
ordered that the parish "shall provide a comely and 
honest pulpit " in those churches which have not one, 
and the epistle and gospel were to be read from there 
or from other convenient place. Many pulpits of 
inferior workmanship evidently date from the reigns of 


Elizabeth and James I. Later pulpits were often made 
very high on account of the erection of galleries. They, 
and some of the earlier examples, often had sound- 
ing-boards,* but these, though frequently of excellent 
design and good workmanship, have been very generally 
removed in the process of ' restoration.' 

PULPITUM. A gallery or loft between the nave 
and the ritual choir of a cathedral or conventual 
church. The choir often extended into the nave. 1 
The pulpitum was supported by two solid walls which 
crossed the nave thus enclosing one of its bays ; in the 
middle of each of these walls there was a doorway. 
One bay further west there was generally another wall 
forming a reredos to the principal altar of the nave ; 
there were two doors in this wall, one at each end. 
A screen of some sort was also extended across each 
aisle so as to make the separation of the choir from 
the nave complete. The pulpitum supported the great 
crucifix or rood with its attendant figures of the Virgin, 
St. John and angels, and also the organs and perhaps 
singers. (See also MONASTERY, PULPIT, SCREEN.) 

PURBECK MARBLE. A hard limestone capable 
of taking a high polish, found in the isle of Purbeck 
on the Dorsetshire coast. It was much used in the 
thirteenth century for thin shafts and sometimes also 
for carved capitals, and in the fifteenth century for 
altar tombs and for the matrixes of brasses. 

PURLIN. A horizontal longitudinal beam in a roof, 
supported by the principals and strengthening the 
common rafters. 


PYX. A vessel to contain the reserved sacrament. 
It was hung over the high altar. " A pulley or a sort 
of crane was fixed there with gear for raising and 

* See article thereon. 1 See Appendix. 


lowering, and the pyx was hung by a cord or chain 
attached to a ring on its top. Above it was hung the 
canopy, a round tent-shaped thing of linen or silk, 
kept in form by a metal ring, and sometimes highly 
ornamented. The pyx itself was veiled in the pyx 
cloth, which was a square napkin with a hole in the 
middle through which the suspending cord passed, and 
weighted tassels at the four corners which kept it down 
close by the pyx" (M.). 

QUADRANGLE. A term used at Oxford for the 
courtyard of a college ; called at Cambridge and other 
places a court. 

QUARREL, QUARRY (Lat. quadrus, square). A 
square or diamond pane of glass ; a square paving- 
stone or tile. 

QUATREFOIL. A window, or compartment of a 
window, or panel formed into four leaves by cusping. 

QUATRO-CENTO (lit. 'four hundred'). A short 
expression for the century which began in 1401, used 
especially in connexion with art. 

QUIRK (from Welsh chwiori, to turn briskly s.). A 
sharp groove between a moulding and a fillet (fig. 1 84). 

QUOIN. A corner-stone. (See LONG-AND-SHORT WORK.) 


iron or lead tank at the top of a pipe acting as a funnel 
to receive the rain-water from a roof-gutter. 

In early times, if there was a parapet, the roof 
water was discharged through a gargoyle* by which it 
was thrown clear of the building. It seems that it 
was in the fifteenth century that this system began to 
be superseded by pipes. But in some buildings, even 
late in the seventeenth century, the pipes were not 
* See article thereon. 

222 RAMP 

continued to the ground, but were bent out about half- 
way down the wall to form gargoyles. Lead was used 
for both the heads and the pipes (which were generally 
square) till the nineteenth century, when it was super- 
seded by iron as being cheaper. Iron gutters were 
fixed to overhanging eaves at the same period. In the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there had been 
a lead gutter on the top of a wood or stone cornice, 
and before the seventeenth or at least before the 
sixteenth century there was probably not often a 
gutter of any sort. Where the eaves overhang, the 
gutter can be conveniently connected to the pipe by 
a ' swan-neck ' without any cistern head, hence they 
are much less used than formerly. 

Rain-water heads were generally treated in a more 
or less decorative way. They frequently bear the date 
of the building or heraldic or other devices. The 
early examples are generally rectangular boxes, some- 
times of considerable length, with decorated fronts, 
but in later times the form becomes elaborate. 

RAMP. A steep slope, e.g. in the part of a hand- 
rail of a staircase which is steeper than the rest ; the 
slope of a garden wall which is higher in one place 
than in another. 

cupied by the clergyman in English churches * during 
the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth 
centuries. It formed a part of what was nicknamed 
a ' three-decker ' after the old man-of-war, the clerk's 
pew being at A rather lower level just in front of it 
and the pulpit behind it being raised considerably 
above it (See also LECTERN.) 

REBATE, RABBET. A continuous rectangular 
recess cut on the edge of a solid. It is used chiefly 

* See article thereon. 


for jointing boards or for fitting one object to another, 
e.g. in a picture-frame for holding the glass, but it is 
also used as an architectural feature. 

REBUS (Lat. rebus, by things). The representation 
of a proper name by means of a picture. A very 
favourite form of pun in the middle ages, both 
in heraldry and in architecture. The rebus of Walter 
Lyhart, Bishop of Norwich, was a hart lying in the 
water. Anyone whose name ended in 'ton' always 
used a barrel or tun as a part of his rebus. 


REEDING. See MOULDING (fig. 185). 

REFECTORY. A dining-hall, especially that of a 
monastery* (p. 158). 

REGULA. A band below the taenia* under each 

REGULARS. Religious orders living under a 
' Rule.' 

RELIC CHAMBER. A chamber in a cathedral or 
other large church in which the relics of saints were 


RELIEVO, RELIEF. A modelled surface, as dis- 
tinguished from sculpture which is ' in the round,' i.e. 
completely detached from any background. Basso- 
relievo : low relief, in which the object has less than 
half its natural projection. Mezzo-relievo : middle re- 
lief, in which the object has half its natural projection. 
Alto-relievo: in which the object has more than half its 
natural projection. 

* See article thereon. 


RELIQUARY. A vessel to contain the relic of a 
saint, such as a piece of bone. It often had a glass 
side so that the relic could be shown : whence it 
is sometimes called a ' monstrance/ which is a term 
more properly applied to a vessel for showing the 

ture founded upon the classical styles at the period of 
the general revival of letters. The term is used in the 
following article as including the work of the sixteenth, 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, notwithstanding 
that in the first part of this period there is a strong, 
and even preponderating admixture of Gothic feeling 
and detail, and that this reappears in the middle of 
the seventeenth century, while the term 'new birth' is 
scarcely applicable to the decadent work of 1790. The 
period may be .divided into (a) Tudor or Elizabethan, 
the period of transition from medievalism ; (6) Stuart 
or Jacobean, the climax, which begins with Inigo Jones 
and ends with Wren ; (c) Hanoverian or Georgian, the 
period of decline. 

transition from Gothic to pure classical architecture. 
It coincides fairly closely with the sixteenth century ; 
and is exemplified in the great houses of the nobility, 
many of which were built at this time, especially in 
Elizabeth's reign. Very little church work was done. 
The general disposition of a building is medieval : a 
skyline broken with many chimneys, gables, and 
turrets ; wide square-headed windows, with mullions 
and transoms ; numerous^ oriel windows. But the walls 
are often covered with classical pilasters and entabla- 
tures, and the doorways and fireplaces were enriched 
with classical compositions. These details are thought 
by some to have been generally executed by foreign 
workmen, Italians at the beginning of the sixteenth 


century, and afterwards by Germans; others consider 
them to be the work of Englishmen. The wall is often 
finished with a parapet pierced with a sort of tracery 
known as strap-work,* more Gothic than classical in 
feeling. The rooms are panelled in small square panels 
with minute mouldings, and the ceilings are decorated 
with plaster-work in relief. 

The half-timber houses are picturesquely treated, and 
are decorated with fantastic carvings or with modelled 
plaster-work. In the general plan of the large houses 
as well as of the small there is a tendency to abandon 
the courtyard and to adopt an E-shaped figure. 

STUART PERIOD. This period coincides closely with 
the seventeenth century and with the Stuart dynasty, 
for it may be said to begin with the first appearance of 
Inigo Jones as an architect in 1610 and to end in 1701 
when Wren had finished the bulk of his work. Inigo 
Jones revolutionised English architecture. He brought 
back from Italy a thorough knowledge of classical 
architecture as practised by Palladio and other Italian 
architects ; he discarded the lingering Gothic traditions 
and the straggling medieval plan (fig. 201). He was 
the first English architect in the modern sense of 
the word, that is to say, he was the first to design 
buildings from beginning to end without taking upon 
himself in addition the duties of builder or clerk of 
works or general supervisor and accountant. 

The Roman Orders* are now used for the first time 
with discrimination and restraint. Sometimes each 
storey is marked by a separate order in which case the 
most substantial, the Doric or Tuscan, is placed lowest, 
the Ionic or Composite next, and the lightest, the Corin- 
thian, at the top. Often two storeys are included in one 
order. In either case the lowest storey, especially if not 
the most important, may be treated as a podium* and 
rusticated.* When arches are used they spring from 
* See article thereon. 


pilasters between the main columns, though in some 
cases it was permissible to let them spring from the 
entablature of a main order. They are invariably 
round, and generally have a projecting keystone, either 
plain or shaped like a corbel to support the entablature. 
The ' flat-arch ' is very commonly used over windows in 
rusticated stonework and in brickwork. The vaulting 
is quadripartite in square bays and has no ribs. Win- 
dows are high and narrow, sometimes arched but 
usually square-headed ; the jambs and head have the 
usual architrave moulding * ; there is sometimes a com- 
plete entablature, with or without a pediment, over the 
head. Large windows are divided into three lights ; 
the side lights are narrow and are covered by an entabla- 
ture, the central light is wide and arched ; these are called 
Venetian windows. Doorways are made to correspond 
to them. Ceilings are often enriched with elaborate 
plaster-work* on a large scale. The framework of the 
roof never shows internally. In the more correctly 
classical buildings the roof is low-pitched and as it is 
almost always hipped there are no gables except where 
a pediment is required for architectural effect. The 
simpler buildings often have steep roofs with curved 
gables,* and overhanging eaves instead of a balustrade 
(fig. 92). In the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury the 'mansard roof was introduced from France. 
Panelling is now on a large scale, the mouldings are 
mitred at the angles and sometimes bolection mouldings 
are used. 

While Palladian architecture was at its height a sort 
of picturesque Gothic, called ' King James' Gothic,' was 
still occasionally used, especially in churches, and was 
continued till the Civil War. 

HANOVERIAN. 1 The work of the eighteenth century 
does not differ from that of the seventeenth so much 

* See article thereon. l Or Georgian. 


in the use of new forms or new combinations, as in 
a general deterioration in the quality of the design. 
Wren was not appreciated by his pedantic contem- 
poraries who aimed at what they considered greater 
correctness. Architecture became a fashionable amuse- 
ment for the gentleman of leisure. About the middle 
of the century Chinese and other exotic fashions began 
to appear, and soon afterwards the publication of 
Stuart and Revett's Antiquities of Athens introduced 
for the first time a knowledge of Greek architecture, 
the taste for which soon became a mania. At the 
same time or soon after there began that revived taste 
for Gothic art, which was to engross the talent of the 
nineteenth century. 


REREDOS (tautological, from Middle English rere, 
rear, back, and Fr. dos, from Lat. dorsum, back s. Cf. 
dossal). A wall or screen of stone or wood with sculp- 
tured or coloured decoration behind an altar. A large 
medieval reredos was perhaps most often of the 
elaborately sculptured type, containing subjects from 
Scripture or legend with many single figures of saints 
in niches or tabernacles, as at Winchester. Many 
small churches contained sculptures in stone or ala- 
baster in a simple architectural framework. These 
sculptures were no doubt invariably coloured. Other 
churches had pictures painted on stone or on wood like 
those at Westminster and Norwich ; these were called 
'tables.' A 'table with leaves' was what is now 
called a triptych, a painted wood panel with folding 
leaves. Frequently instead of a reredos there was a 

RERE-DORTER. A necessarium.* 
RESONATOR. In some medieval churches a row 
* See article thereon. 

RIDEL 229 

of large earthenware jars has been found under the 
choir stalls or in the walls. These have been called 
resonators or acoustic jars because it is supposed that 
their object was to increase the sound of the singing. 
Similar jars are described by Vitruvius, V, 5. 

RESPOND. A half-column terminating an arcade. 

RETABLE. A name apparently modern, given to 
the shelf at the back of an altar on which are placed 
the cross and candlesticks. 

RETABULUM. This name has been given to a 
painted wood reredos. 

RETAINING-WALL. A wall which supports a 
terrace of earth. 


RETRO-CHOIR. That part of the choir which is 
behind the high altar. 

RETURN. A change in the direction of any con- 
tinuing or repeating object; for examplej a cornice 
returns at the angle of a building ; in a chancel where 
there are stalls against the side walls, and two or three 
more stalls against the screen facing east, the stalls are 
said to be ' returned,' and those against the screen are 
called ' return stalls.' 

REVEAL. The surface between the outer face of a 
wall and the frame of a door or window. 


RIB. The narrjw arch on the groin or on the 
surface of a vault or a similar member at the ridge ; 
the narrow mouldings on a panelled wood ceiling. 

RIDEL. A curtain projecting from the wall at each 
end of an altar. 

230 RIDGE 

RIDGE. The angle at the apex of a roof; tile roofs 
are covered with a ridge-tile made for the purpose and 
orten of a decorative character. 

RINGING GALLERY. The west tower of a church 
often has a gallery for the ringers about twelve feet 
from the floor ; they are common in Norfolk. 

ROCOCO (Fr. rococo, from roc, rock-work). A style 
characterised by a peculiar grotto-like style of orna- 
ment, in vogue during the reigns of Louis XIV. and 
Louis XV. 

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The Romans adopted 
the architectural forms of the Greeks, that is to say 
they adopted the three Greek orders/ Doric, Ionic and 
Corinthian. On these they made variations ; one form 
of their Doric we call Roman Doric, and it is held 
by some that Tuscan is a variation on Greek Doric. 
They made a curious compound of Ionic and Corin- 
thian which is called Composite but is really a form 
of Corinthian with volutes borrowed from the Ionic 
capital. The Corinthian was their favourite order and 
the one with which they were most successful. 

In Roman architecture the column and entablature 
are often used structurally, as the Greek had used 
them. But in many buildings, such as the Colosseum, 
they are merely decorative and are attached to a wall 
which is pierced with arches. In buildings of this 
class consisting of several storeys, one order is used as 
a decoration for each storey, the entablatures marking 
the levels of the several floors. The arches usually 
spring from low pilasters placed against the main 
columns and the entablature passes over them. The 
same system is followed in the triumphal arches, like 
that of Titus, where the arch played a still more 
important part. 

* See article thereon. 


The arch in one form or another was used with great 
boldness and became the really dominant feature in 
Roman architecture. Vaults of immense size like those 
of the Basilica of Maxentius at Rome, domes like 
that of the Pantheon, and the long arched aqueducts 
which supplied the city with water, are the buildings 
in which the Roman shows his strength. 

The Roman was essentially an engineer ; his art was 
always coarse and was often brutal. His greatest 
successes after his purely utilitarian works were pro- 
bably the vast complex buildings, such as the baths 
and palaces and the many-columned basilicas or public 
halls. He was a first-rate planner. He had an extra- 
ordinary knowledge of materials, and his mortar and 
concrete have become almost proverbial. His appli- 
ances for warming his houses, for draining them and 
for supplying them with water and making them 
generally comfortable were wonderful. His power as 
an engineer lay in these directions and in the splendid 
strength of his construction, for it is doubtful if he 
had inventive genius even as an engineer, and he had 
not to deal with the nicely opposed thruste and the 
slender frame of Gothic construction. 

tecture in England and on the Continent in which the 
influence of Roman buildings and tradition is seen; 
our Norman* is one phase of it. 

ROOD (the same word as rod). The Cross. The early 
Christians used the cross as a symbol,* but it was 
without the figure of Our Lord, and they never repre- 
sented the scene of the Passion. In the earliest 
crucifixes the figure is draped in a long plain coat and 
the arms are horizontal ; it is only in later times that 
the attitude becomes more natural and the treatment 
generally more realistic. 

* See article thereon. 


The crucifixes on the rood-lofts in churches were 
generally large, often life-size, and were probably 
coloured more or less naturally ; figures of the Virgin 
and St. John, with angels, were often placed on either 
side. No crucifix of this class remains in England, 
but there are some examples both of painted and 
sculptured roods in other positions, and there are several 
contemporary descriptions. 

ROOD - LOFT AND SCREEN. In the earliest 
churches* the presbytery or chancel* had been separ- 
ated from the nave by a screen. Through all the 
changes in church arrangement this separation was 
kept. It survived in very many places the Reforma- 
tion and the reign of Puritanism, and in not a few 
was only removed in the eighteenth or nineteenth 
centuries. Screens are still fairly common ; they are 
most numerous in the eastern counties and in Devon- 
shire. The lower part is always panelled, the panels 
being often painted with figures of saints. The upper 
part is open, with mullions and tracery, which were 
also decorated with colour. There is a wide opening 
in the middle fitted with folding doors. 

The erection of a loft or gallery on the top of the 
screen was probably a development of comparatively 
late times (p. says the fourteenth century or later) ; the 
rood is much earlier. The loft of a parish church is not 
the same thing as the pulpitum * of a cathedral or con- 
ventual church, but it was suggested by it and served 
some of the same uses (M.). On it was placed the repre- 
centation of the Passion. It was often large enough to 
contain also the small organs of the period and a 
number of singers. It has been thought by some that 
the epistle and gospel were read from the rood-loft, but 
this seems doubtful. The loft was reached by a ladder 
or wooden staircase or by a small stone staircase con- 
trived in one of the piers of the chancel arch or built 

ROOF 233 

purposely in a turret ; this staircase with its upper and 
lower doors generally remains. 

In some large churches the screen and loft extended 
across the aisles as well as the nave. In a small aisle- 
less church altars were placed against the screen on- 
each side of the doorway. 

There are a number of rood-lofts extant in fairly 
perfect condition, chiefly in Wales and the West 
of England. Under the projection of the loft there 
is generally a cove or vaulting, above which there is 
a rich cornice and a piece of panelling forming the 
front of the gallery. It seems that the loft itself was 
sometimes called the ' candle-beam ' ; in other cases the 
candle-beam is the beam on which the rood and figures 
stood, and on which were placed numerous lights from 
which it derives its name. 

In many churches the chancel arch was partly or 
entirely filled with a tympanum of boarding. On 
this was painted the whole scene of the Passion or 
accessories to the figures which stood on the loft ; or 
there was a picture of the Last Judgement. 

ROOF. So far as regards construction roofs may be 
conveniently divided into two classes, namely, open 
timber roofs in which the constructive timbers are 
visible from below and are, therefore, of a more or less 
decorative character ; concealed roofs, below which . 
there is a ceiling, consisting either of an independent 
vault, or of boarding or plaster either flat or arched 
or of any other form, attached to the timbers of the 
roof. Some roofs partake of the characteristics of both 

The open timber roof was the form most commonly 
used in England throughout the middle ages for 
churches, halls and other large one-storeyed buildings. 
It is a peculiar characteristic of English architecture 
and was gradually developed into very elaborate and 

234 ROOF 

beautiful forms. On the Continent, from the compara- 
tive scarcity of good timber and from other causes, 
it was little used and stone vaulting was more common. 
Of Norman roofs few, if any, remain ; they probably 
resembled those of the thirteenth century, of which 
there are a fair number of examples. These belong to 


the class known as trussed-rafter roofs, that is, each 
pair of rafters is framed together by a system of ties 
and struts so as to form a complete truss in itself 
(fig. 202). In later roofs the rafters are not so framed, 
but were strengthened by purlins, carried on framed 
trusses or principals, placed at considerable intervals. 
The two methods are often, in the thirteenth cen- 
tury and sometimes also at later periods, combined 
in a somewhat unscientific way, by using a rudimentary 
principal in a trussed-rafter roof (fig. 203). There are 
no principal rafters ; the principal truss consists of a very 
strong tie-beam, on the centre of which stands a post 
cut into the form of a column, with capital and base. 
This column supports a central purlin. The purlin 
helps to support the collars which stiffen the rafters. 
The purlin, therefore, gives but an indirect support 

ROOF 235 

to the rafter, and any weight which the tie-beam 
carries comes upon the very middle of it. The heavy 
tie-beam is, however, of use in tying in the wall-plates, 
and thus preventing the rafters from spreading and 
pushing out the walls. The central post is sometimes 


called a king-post ; it must not be confused with the 
modern king-post, which hangs from the ridge and 
supports the middle of the tie-beam (fig. 209). 

The simple trussed-rafter roof had very frequently, 
perhaps more often than not, a ceiling either of 
boarding divided up into panels by small ribs, or of 
plain plaster, attached to the struts and collars and 
thus forming a polygonal barrel, sometimes called a 
'waggon-ceiling.' Each side of the polygon is called 
a ' cant/ whether there is a ceiling or not ; thus the 
roof shown in fig. 202 is said to be of seven cants. 

236 ROOF 

In the fourteenth century the trussed-rafter roof 
continues to be used, but roofs with framed principals 
and purlins become much more common. The princi- 
pal truss has generally an arched form which exerts a 
considerable thrust on the walls (fig. 204) ; this thrust 
is, however, reduced as much as possible by making 


the arched struts spring from corbels a good distance 
below the top of the wall. When the principals are 
far apart intermediate principals of a slightly different 
form are used (fig. 204), or the purlins and ridge are 
strengthened by wind-braces or struts springing from 
the sides of the principal ratter (fig. 205). 

About the middle of the fourteenth century an im- 
portant modification was made. The arched strut oi 
the principal instead of resting on the wall springs 
from a horizontal bracket called a hammer-beam, rest- 
ing on the top of the wall and supported by a curved 

ROOF 237 

strut ; hence this form of roof is called a hammer- 
beam roof (fig. 206). The bracket supports a vertical 
post placed under the principal rafter at the point 
where the weight of the purlin comes. The weight 
of this post is counteracted, partly by the weight of 


the principal rafter, which rests on the other end of 
the hammer-beam, and partly by a strut under it, 
springing from a corbel some way down the wall. The 
upper part of the principal is strengthened by a collar 
or by another hammer-beam and post, or by curved 
struts, forming an arch with its apex quite close to 
the ridge. The hammer-beam is sometimes carved 



into the form of an angel, or an angel stands upon 
it in front of the vertical post. The spandrels above 
and below the hammer-beam are generally filled with 
rich and delicate tracery. This form of roof lends it- 
self to many variations and to a highly decorative treat- 


ment. The finest and best-known examples, and also 
the earliest, is that of Westminster Hall, 1397. The 
hammer-beam roof continued throughout the fifteenth 
century, and was occasionally in use till late in the 
seventeenth century ; but as architecture declined in 
the latter half of the fifteenth century it was to a 
great extent superseded by nearly flat roofs. In these 




240 ROOF 

a heavy tie-beam is used which either has sufficient 
camber to give the necessary slope to the roof or else 
it carries a principal rafter of rather greater inclina- 
tion. The trussed rafter-roof continues in use. 

The open timber roof derives its chief beauty from 
the admirable form of the timbers, from its delicate 
gradations of light and shade, and from the just balance 
in the system of framing, giving it something of the 
character of a living organic structure. But it also 
received other decorations of form and colour. The 
members of the principal truss, and often also the 
common rafters, were moulded, the spandrels were 
filled with delicate tracery, the cornice and hammer- 
beam were enriched with carving. The mouldings 
and other parts were coloured, and monograms and 
sprays of foliage were painted on the rafters and on 
the boarding between them. 

From the beginning of the seventeenth century the 
roof is generally hidden by a ceiling, the form of 
which has no relation to that of the roof and is 
generally flat. Only practical considerations, therefore, 
have to be taken into account in designing the roof. 
For roofs of from 25 feet to 40 feet span the com- 
monest form is a 'king-post' roof (fig. 209), and for 
spans of more than 40 feet a ' queen-post' roof (fig. 210). 

The material used in the middle ages was oak. It 
is often contended that a roof is of chestnut, but the 
many specimens submitted to the Cambridge School 
of Forestry have proved to be oak. In the seven- 
teenth century the use of foreign deal became more 
common and is now practically the invariable rule. 
Occasionally in the middle ages a small roof was made 
entirely of stone by corbelli ng out the courses tillthey 
met at the ridge, the structure being strengthened by 
arched ribs. Thatch was a common, probably the 
most common roof-covering for medieval houses both 


in town and country ; for churches and for the greater 
houses tiles were generally used. Roofs were covered 
with lead even in Norman and Saxon times ; in many 
fifteenth -century churches the pitch is too flat to 
admit of any other material. In some parts of the 
country, e.g. Gloucestershire and Northamptonshire, 
thin slabs of stone were and still are used like slates, 
but slates do not seem to have been in general use 
till the latter part of the seventeenth century, when 
thatch becomes less and less common. 

In the latter part of the seventeenth century a new 
sort of roof was introduced from France, called a 
Mansard roof, after the inventor. The lower part of 
the roof is steep pitched and the upper part much 
flatter. Both slopes are slated or the steep part 
covered with plain tiles and the flat part with pan tiles. 
This sort of roof was the result of planning buildings 
in square blocks, which became common in the seven- 
teenth century ; these would have required a roof 
of great height if one of ordinary construction had 
been used. Sometimes such a building is covered by a 
number of small roofs which are concealed behind a 
high parapet, but these do not afford space for garrets 
as does the Mansard. 

The following are the most common terms in use. 
Span : the clear space between the opposite walls. Span- 
roof: one which has a central ridge. Lean-to roof: one 
which has only one slope, generally placed against a 
higher building, e.g. over the aisle of a church. Pitch : 
the angle the roof makes with the horizon. Hipped roof: 
one which does not terminate in a gable, but in a slope 
like the sides of the roof; the angle formed by the 
meeting of two slopes is called a hip. Valley : the line 
of intersection where one roof joins another. 

ROSE-WINDOW. A name sometimes given to a 
large circular window filled with tracery. (See also 



ROUGH-CAST. A rough plaster used for covering 
the outsides of buildings, made with lime and gravel 
and thrown on to the wall. 

RUBBLE. Masonry of unshaped stones. 

crosses (generally covered with interlacing patterns) 
found in Ireland, Wales, lona, etc. They are Celtic or 
derived from Celtic work. So called from rune, one of 
the old characters used for incised inscriptions (s.). 
The elaborate interlacing patterns are believed to be 
derived from wicker-work. They continued in use into 
Norman times. 

RUSTICATION. Masonry in which the beds and 
joints are squared but the faces of the stones are left 
rough. The term is also applied to the following 
variations on this treatment : the stone is worked to 
a true surface, projecting slightly beyond the face of 
the wall, and is then artificially roughened ; the stone 
is worked to a smooth projecting surface and the edges 
are chamfered, rebated or moulded. Rustication is used 
chiefly in the basement storey to give an appearance 
of strength, in Renaissance buildings. 


SACRISTY. The sacrist's room or vestry*; a room 
in or attached to a church, in which were kept the 
vessels belonging to the altar, the vestments and other 
ornaments. It stood generally on the north side of 
the chancel, and often contained an altar. Sometimes 
there was a chamber over it, and occasionally a charnel- 
house* or place for bones below. 

SADDLE-BACK COPING. A coping which rises to 
a sharp ridge like a roof. 

* See article thereon. 


SADDLE-BACK ROOF. The roof of a tower which 
has a ridge and terminates in gables instead of being 
of the usual pyramidal form. 

SADDLE-BAR. A horizontal iron bar placed across 
a window partly for the purpose of securing the glass 
and partly to prevent persons from entering the build- 
ing through the window. 

SALIENT. An angular projection from a castle* 
wall, commanding a length of wall on each side of it. 

SALON, SALOON. A large state apartment in a 
palace or great house. 

SANCTUARY, SACRARIUM. (1) A chancel ; the 
east part of a chancel. (2) The precincts of a church, 
including the churchyard, which gave protection to a 
fugitive criminal. While he remained there the culprit 
could be watched to prevent his escape, but he could 
not be molested. If he chose to confess his crime he 
was given a definite time in which to make his way to 
the nearest port and to leave the country. Particulars 
of the way in which anyone c taking sanctuary ' was 
received at Durham are given in the Rites of Durham. 
(See also FRITHSTOOL.) 

at the consecration of the Host. Sometimes a small 
hand-bell; sometimes a larger bell hung in the bell- 
cote over the chancel arch. 

SARCOPHAGUS. A stone tomb. ' Made of lime- 
stone which was supposed to consume the corpses 
(Pliny); from the Gk. <rap/<o<ayos, flesh-consuming' (s). 

SAXON ARCHITECTURE. The architecture of 
England from the time of the settlement of the Saxons 
to the Norman Conquest. It seems to have been in- 

See article thereon. 



Huenced to some extent by the buildings which the 
Romans had left in England, 
and Roman materials were 
re-used. The construction 
was at first good, and it was 
therefore possible to make 
the walls thin. In the 
eleventh century, after the 
devastation wrought by the 
Danes, the quality of the 
work deteriorated (M.). 
No buildings other than 
churches now remain. The 
houses were doubtless al- 
most invariably of wood and 
so probably were many of 
the churches. 

Saxon towers are usually 
tall and thin. They are 
divided into stages of about 
equal height by a series of 
off-sets, each stage being 
rather narrower than the 
one below it (fig. 212). 
The belfry windows have a 
strongly marked character 
of their own. They are 
divided by baluster-shaped 

Columns Set in the middle FIG. 212. SAXON TOWER, ST. BENET'S, 
of the wall and Supporting CAMBRIDGE 

a long stone running from inside to outside to carry 
the arches. Thus the Saxon towers strongly resemble 
those of the early churches in Rome, by which they 
were no doubt largely influenced. They were pro- 
bably surmounted by a low pyramidal spire of stone or 
wood, or by a roof with a gable over each face of the 
tower. The baluster-shafts were copied from Roman 


work and were used in other parts besides the towers. 
Arches are always round and of a single order* or ring. 
Door jambs are not splayed or rebated. Windows are 
small, and in early churches are splayed on the inside 
(fig. 213 a). They are sometimes complete circles. 

It is in the inferior buildings of later times that 
those features which are so readily recognised as 
Saxon are found. The angles are built in <long-and- 
short" work (fig. 212), whereas [in the earlier build- 
ings they had been done in the usual way ; windows 

a 6 


are splayed outside as well as inside so that the open- 
ing is narrowest in the middle of the wall (fig. 2136); 
the head of a door is sometimes a triangle formed by 
two stones leaning against one another; capitals are 
rudely sculptured or moulded; barrel vaults are used 
over small spans. A remarkable and curious feature 
is the pattern formed on the face of a wall by narrow 
vertical strips of stone, with some diagonal and arch- 
shaped pieces. It is rather suggestive of wood- 
framing and is by some thought to be derived from 
timber buildings ; it is probably a Danish feature (w.). 
Others maintain that the system is a rude imitation of 
the pilasters and entablatures of the Romans. 

The walls were plastered inside and outside. Roofs 
were probably covered with thatch or oak shingles. 
Glass was not unknown but was rarely used. 

SCAGLIOLA. " A species of plaster or stucco in- 
vented at Carpi in the state of Modena by Guido 
Sassi, between 1600 and 1649- It is sometimes called 
mischia, from the mixture of colours introduced in it. 
* See article thereon. 


It was not, however, till the middle of the eighteenth 
century that the art of making scagliola was brought 
to perfection " (G.). 

SCALLAGE, SCALLENGE. A term used in Here- 
fordshire and the west of England for a lichgate (G.). 

SCANTLING. The dimensions of a piece of timber 
in breadth and thickness. 

SCOTIA. See MOULDING (fig. 182). 


SCREEN. (1) In the earliest Christian churches* 
screens were used for separating the chancel* from 
the nave. In the middle ages, as the number of altars 
increased, numerous screens were erected to form sepa- 
rate chapels. They were generally of wood but some- 
times of stone and occasionally of iron. In the ordi- 
nary parish church the evidence of five screens is 
usually to be seen, namely, the rood-screen* cutting 
off the chancel, a screen under the easternmost arch 
of each aisle, and a screen crossing each aisle from the 
easternmost column thus forming an enclosed chapel 
at the end of each aisle. The lower part of these 
screens was filled with boarding; the upper part had 
mullions and tracery. (2) The lower end of the hall in 
a medieval house * was crossed by a screen, forming a 
passage between the two opposite doors. It would 
seem that at first there were two short screens called 
'spurs' projecting from the side walls of the hall, a 
third screen was then placed between them ; finally 
doors were fitted in the openings, and a floor built 
from the screen to the end wall of the hall, forming 
a gallery over the passage, which passage itself came 
to be called 'the screens.' (3) A stone colonnade in 
front of a building, forming a sort of fence, is sometimes 
called a screen. This is more common in Renaissance 
architecture than in Gothic. 


SCULPTURE. The word is commonly limited 
to representations of the figures of human beings and 
of animals to the exclusion of the carving of foliage.* 
It will be taken in this sense here, and it will, more- 
over, be considered only in its application to, or 
association with architecture. 

The earliest remaining sculpture of which we shall 
take account here the Saxon and early Norman is 
almost always in relief; early sculpture completely in 
the round is rare. The relief is shallow and there is 
little or no modelling; indeed the subject is almost 
entirely on one plane. Low relief is susceptible oi 
the highest possible artistic treatment, but almost 
everything depends on the most delicate modelling oi 
the surface. Early sculpture however is not, strictly 
speaking, modelled at all; the outline is very distinctly 
shown against the background, and the rest of the 
form, such as the features and folds of the drapery, 
is indicated by incised lines. But the design, though 
rude, is vigorous and is well composed to fill the 
required space. Most of the remaining examples 
are figures in niches and subjects in the tympana 
of doorways. The 'Prior's door/ Ely, is a good ex- 

The art made extraordinary progress during the 
latter part of the twelfth century, and the work of the 
second quarter of the thirteenth century is very fine. 
There are some good monumental effigies of that period 
in stone and in Purbeck marble. The figures still have 
some archaic stiffness and the attitudes are occasion- 
ally strained. But the work continues to improve, and 
in the latter part of the thirteenth century it is 
particularly beautiful, the attitudes have a simple 
grace and the expression of the features is very sweet. 
This is perhaps the greatest period of sculpture as 

* See article thereon. 


applied to building, for the Greek simplicity of the 
drapery harmonises perfectly with, and seems to form 
part of, the architecture. The bronze effigy of Queen 
Eleanor on her monument in Westminster Abbey 
and the figures in stone on the Eleanor monuments 
are the most famous examples of this period. 

In the fourteenth century some of the early manner- 
isms are dropped, such as the conventional treatment 
of the hair and the peculiar and at the same time 
beautiful modelling of the lower eyelid. The work is 
less idyllic and the expression less cheerful. The por- 
traiture of the individual becomes much more pro- 
nounced. This is analogous to the natural foliage 
of the period. There is no attempt at portraiture 
in the Eleanor monument, but the figure of Queen 
Philippa is clearly a good likeness. The principal 
effigy of a monument and the statuettes in the niches 
round it are simply and very beautifully treated. 

The Purbeck marble used for the sepulchral effigies 
of the thirteenth century was abandoned. Figures 
were carved in stone or marble or wood, others were 
of wood overlaid with metal, either silver or copper, 
and a few were cast in bronze. 

In the fifteenth century there is a still further 
advance to naturalness of attitude and individuality of 
feature. The drapery is not so simple and the whole 
treatment is richer and more elaborate. 

The work at this time varies very much in quality. 
Many examples are careless and clumsy. A great 
number of small alabaster reredoses, for example, were 
turned out presumably at 'popular' prices from the 
works in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. These, 
like all the work of this and of the previous cen- 
tury, with doubtless much of the thirteenth century, 
were coated with a fine layer of plaster and richly 

The Reformation of course killed architectural sculp- 


ture as completely as it killed mural painting, and 
it has never been used on a large scale since. Monu- 
mental effigies of the reigns of Elizabeth and James 
are often finely conceived and dignified in pose, but the 
artist was seriously handicapped by the costume of the 

In later Renaissance the work of Inigo Jones and 
of Wren figures of saints are occasionally placed in 
niches, but more often Justice, Science and so forth, 
recline on the slopes of the pediment or stand on the 
pedestals of the balustraded parapet, or a group is 
placed in the tympanum. "The Statues," says Wren 
in his description of one of his designs, "will be a 
noble ornament, they are supposed of plaister, there 
are Flemish artists that doe them cheape" (w. & c.). 
Evelyn, Wren's contemporary, has some interesting 
remarks about medieval sculpture : 

" When we meet with the greatest Industry and expen- 
sive Carving, full of Fret and lamentable Imagry; sparing 
neither of Pains nor Cost ; a Judicious Spectator is rather Dis- 
tracted and quite Confounded, than touch'd with that 
Admiration, which results from the true and just Symmetric, 
regular Proportion, Union and Disposition ; Great and Noble 
manner, which those August and Glorious Fabrics of the 
Antients still Produce." (Evelyn : An Account of Architects 
and Architecture.) 

SEDILE (pi. SEDILIA, Lat.). A seat, especially one 
for clergy on the south side of the chancel. This is a 
survival of the stone bench which ran round the apse 
in early churches (M.), and there are some examples of 
early sedilia which retain the form 
of an ordinary bench terminated by 
a massive stone arm-rest (fig. 214). 
The medieval sedilia are recessed 
and consist of three seats, "except in 
great ' quires,' where they were 
generally four" (M.), and in a few 


examples which have only two seats. The seats were 
often arranged at three different levels corresponding to 
three steps in the floor. The recesses are arched and 
sometimes elaborately treated and the piscina* is often 
included in the same architectural composition. In 
small plain churches the sedilia is sometimes formed 
by carrying down the recess of a window. 


(Ital. sgraffiaio, scratched). A method of wall decor- 
ation effected by putting on a coat of coloured plaster 
and then a coat of white plaster ; parts of the second 
coat are then scratched off showing the coloured coat 
underneath. By this means a design in two flat 
colours can be easily carried out. 

SHAFT (Anglo-Saxon scafan, to shavCj from being 
shaved smooth s. Cf. shaft of a' spear or arrow). A 
column* excluding the capital and base and annulet. 

SHINGLE (Lat. scindere, to cleave s.). A tile 
made of split oak ; frequently used on steep roofs in 
the middle ages. . . 


SHOP. The medieval shop was a place where 
goods were made as well as sold, and the master with 
his family and apprentices lived in the upper storeys 
of the house. The building was almost invariably of 
wood till the eighteenth century. The shop window 
was fitted with two folding shutters ; the lower of these 
was hinged at the bottom, and was let down during 
the day into a horizontal position to form a table 
* See article thereon. 


standing out in the street, on which were exhibited 

objects for sale ; the top 

shutter was hung by its 

upper edge, and was raised 

to form a pent-house roof 

to shelter the stall. "With 

your hat pent - house like 

o'er the shop of your eyes," 

says Moth, in Loves Labour s 

Lost. The door was like 

the stable door of the pre- " G - " 5 - MEDIEV AL SHOP 

. J rrvi . _. f- lL NORTH ELMHAM 

sent day. This sort of shop 

front was general till the first half of the eighteenth 

century, when glass windows were gradually introduced. 

SHRINE (Lat. scrinium, a chest, box s). A sepul- 
chre to contain the relics of a saint, generally erected 
behind the high altar in a cathedral or monastic 
church. A shrine of the first class consisted of "at 
least four distinct parts : (1) the stone basement, at the 
east [or west] end of which was (2) the altar. The use 
of the stone or marble basement, which was frequently 
perforated with small niches, was to support (3) a 
wooden structure covered with plates of gold or silver, 
and often enriched with jewels and enamels. In order 
to preserve the precious metals from the atmosphere, 
and at the same time to cover up the feretory, as the 
top part was called, when it was not desired to show it, 
there was (4) the cooperculum, or a wooden covering, 
suspended from the vaulting above by ropes, and lifted 
by means of a counterpoise. Shrines of lesser dimen- 
sions were kept in all sorts of places, such as above 
and within altars, and were moreover often carried in 
procession.'' In the niches of the basement, mentioned 
above, "sick people were frequently left during the 
night, in the hopes of a cure being effected by the 
intercession of the Saint " (BU.). 

The only shrine in England of which any part re- 


mains undisturbed is that of Edward the Confessor in 
Westminster Abbey ; the basement is believed to have 
stood since it was first built by Henry III. ; it is the 
work of an Italian ; the upper part is of the time of 
Queen Mary. At St. Albans there is the thirteenth- 
century shrine of the patron saint recently recon- 
structed in its original place. At Ely the fifteenth- 
century shrine of St. Etheldreda had been re-erected, 
but not in its original position. At Canterbury there 
are no remains of Becket's shrine, but its position is 
known and the old pavement is worn by the pilgrims 
who visited it. 


SKIRTING. A low plinth or base, generally of 
wood, placed against the walls of a room because it 
offers a better resistance to injury than plaster. 

SOFFIT. The under side of a cornice, lintel, arch, 
staircase, etc. 

SOLAR, (prob. from Lat. solarium, a part of the 
house exposed to the sun, a balcony). A loft or upper 
chamber, a rood-loft (occasionally) ; especially the 
upper chamber reserved for the private use of the 
family in a medieval house.* 

SOMMER. A principal beam in a floor or partition 
into which smaller joists or studs are framed. Rare. 


SOUNDING-BOARD. A wooden canopy, generally 
flat, over a pulpit.* The earliest examples are of the 
seventeenth century ; they were common then and in 
the eighteenth century. (See TYPE.) 

SPAN OF A ROOF OR ARCH. The clear space 
between the supporting walls or piers. 

SPANDREL. A space enclosed between the ex- 
trados of an arch and some rectangular lines such as a 

* See article thereon. 



label, or between an arch and its foliation, or other 
triangular area such as the surface of a vault between 
two adjacent ribs. 

SPIRE. The tapering roof of a tower, turret or 
pinnacle as distinct from the tower itself; the word 
steeple includes both tower and spire. (See STEEPLE.) 
SPITAL. The medieval abbreviation of hospital.* 
SPLAY. A large chamfer*; a surface which is 
oblique to the general wall surface, as the splayed jamb 
of a window. 

SPLOCKET, SPROCKET. A piece of wood nailed 
on to the foot of a rafter and overhanging the wall, so 
as to form a projecting eaves to the roof (fig. 21 6). 



SPUR. When a circular base* of a column stands on 
a square or octagonal plinth the spandrel* is often filled 
by a spray of foliage, a tongue or a grotesque, called a 
spur, particularly in work previous to the middle of the 
thirteenth century (fig. 217). 

The screen* of a medieval hall was sometimes called 
the spur. 

* See article thereon. 



SQUINCH. An arch or lintel built across the angle 
of a tower to carry the side 
of an octagonal spire (fig. 218). 

SQUINT. A small loophole 
cut obliquely through a wall 
or pier in a church to allow 
a view of the high altar ; they 
seem not infrequently to have 
been arranged for the con- 
venience of the lord of the 
manor who occupied a transept 
as a private pew. FIG . ai8 . SQUINCH ARCH 


STALL. A seat separated by arms from others 
adjoining it ; used especially of seats in church choirs. 
They are arranged along the north and south walls 
and are returned along the chancel screen ; hence 
those facing east are called 'return* stalls.' The seat is 
generally made to rise on hinges at the back so as to 
form a small elevated seat called a miserere* for the 
ease of the aged. Cathedral and monastic stalls have 
generally high canopies of rich tabernacle work. 

STANCHION. An upright bar of iron in a window 
fixed to the saddle-bars.* 

STAR ORNAMENT. An enrichment used in 
Norman* architecture. 

STEEPLE. A tower including any superstructure 
whether spire or lantern; the term seems to have 
been used for church * towers only ; it is now less 
common, but is still used in the villages. 

Saxon towers were usually tall and thin ; they had 
no buttresses and were divided into well-marked stages 
by off-sets, each stage being rather narrower than the 
one below it (fig. 212). The lower windows are mere 

* See article thereon. 


loopholes ; the belfry stage has generally a two-light 
window divided by a mid-wall shaft. The top of the 
tower in almost every example has been altered at 
a later date ; it probably had a low pyramidal spire of 
stone or wood. At Sompting each face of the tower 
is finished with a gable, from the apex of which rises 
the hip of the spire (fig. 219). Norman towers are 
low and massive, they have sometimes the flat pilaster 
buttress of the period ; the lower windows are larger 
and the belfry stage is often arcaded and has a pair 
of two-light windows on each side. No spires remain ; 
probably they were low pyramids. 

In the Gothic period, while the details follow the 
variations of the style, neither the general proportions 
nor the degree of richness afford much indication of 
the date ; there is however a good deal of local 
character. In the south-east of England the tower 
is usually rather low and plain without spire or pin- 
nacles, and the staircase turret is carried up above the 
parapet ; when there is a spire it is commonly of timber 
covered with lead or with shingles (fig. 220). Small 
churches have often a small wooden tower with a spire 
erected on the nave roof at the west end (fig. 27). 
On the other hand, in the south-west, especially in 
Somersetshire, the towers, particularly those of the 
fifteenth century, are lofty and elaborate and are 
crowned with pinnacles. 

In the south midlands there is often no tower, but 
the west wall is carried up above the roof to form a 
bell-cote,* being pierced with one or more arched open- 
ings in which the bells hang, and finished with a gable 
(fig. 26). Further north we come to stone spires, at 
first springing from the face of the wall and with 
broaches at the angles (fig. 221), but in later times 
rising from behind a parapet. In East Anglia there 
are no spires with the solitary but very notable 
* See article thereon. 



exception of Norwich Cathedral. Small towers were 
sometimes circular because they were built of flint, 
and stone for the quoins was difficult to come by. The 
several parts of Cambridgeshire show in a rather 

FIG. 219. SPIRE 


FIG. 220. 


remarkable way the influence of the neighbouring 
counties. Thus the west tower of Ely follows a type 
which is found in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire, 
that is, the upper stage is octagonal while high 
detached turrets rise from the angles of the square 
lower part. This arrangement is rather French and 
did not spread far or become common in England. 



On the Welsh border the towers are usually rather 
low with a flat pyramidal roof, or they are small wooden 
turrets on the roof like those in the south-east. In 
the north there are no spires, and the towers are 
usually severe. 

After the Reformation few 
churches and consequently few 
steeples were built till after 
the Fire of London, when Sir 
Christopher Wren produced his 
remarkably varied and original 
designs for the City churches. 
These steeples consist of a 
tower of which the lower part 
is always perfectly plain while 
the top stage contains a large 
belfry window and is enriched 
with pilasters and entablature. 
The spire never follows the 
simple Gothic form, and it is 
generally an elaborate com- 
position. These steeples served 
as models for the eighteenth- 
century architects. 

STELE. The stone often 
placed at the head of the grave 
of a Greek : it was about five 
feet high, two and a half feet 
wide and nine inches thick, 
and was carved in low relief with a scene supposed to 
represent the death of the person commemorated or 
some other subject (fig. 222). Early stele are narrow ; 
fourth-century examples when carved are : height is to 
width as six is to five, or thereabouts. 

STILL-ROOM. A room in which cordials and 
home-made liqueurs were prepared. 






STRAIGHT JOINT. A vertical joint in a wall 
continuing through two or more courses. 

STRAP WORK. A kind of tracery used in parapets 
and elsewhere in Elizabethan architecture (fig. 223). 


STRING COURSE. A projecting horizontal course 
in a wall. In Classical and Renaissance architecture it 
is deep and plain (fig. 224) ; in Gothic it is shallow and 
moulded (fig. 225). 

FIG. 334. 



STRUT. " In carpentry, any piece that keeps two 
others from approaching and is therefore in a state of 
compression in contradistinction to a tie " (p.). 


STUCCO (Ital.). The term seems to have been 
introduced into England in the nineteenth century; 
it is generally confined to smooth, hard plaster of 
various kinds applied to the outside walls of buildings 
to imitate masonry. 

STUD. One of a series of vertical members in a 
timber partition or wall ; laths, to carry the plaster, are 
nailed to them, or the spaces between them are filled 
with brick or pugging. (See p. 274.) 

STYLOBATE, STYLOBATA. The platform upon 
which stand the columns in front of or surrounding a 
classical building (compare PODIUM). 


SYMBOL, SYMBOLISM. The pagan practice of 
using symbols to represent ideas was continued by the 
early Christians, but it gradually gave way to the desire 
to depict actual scenes. For instance the Cross is used 
in early days; the scene of the crucifixion only in 
later times ; the symbols of the peacock for the 
Resurrection and the circle for Eternity are found 
in the Catacombs, but rarely in the later middle 

Pictures of saints and martyrs bearing the instru- 
ments of their death or of their torture, or other 
emblems, are common throughout the middle ages and 
in later times, but these are not strictly symbols. (See 

It may be safely said that symbolism has not given 
birth to any architectural form, but has been invari- 
ably invented to suit already existing features which 


had arisen from practical considerations ; in a few 
instances it has perpetuated a feature, as, for instance, 
the cruciform plan of a church. 

TABERNACLE. A niche.* 

TABLE. A medieval term for a panel on which a 
picture was painted ; a triptych* was called a ' table 
with leaves.' 

TAENIA, TENIA. The fillet* at the top of the 
architrave and of the frieze in the Doric entablature. 
(See ORDERS.) 

TAPESTRY. A woven material, decorated with 
embroidery, used for covering the walls of medieval 
buildings. It was superseded in the sixteenth century 
by a cheaper material known as 'painted cloths.' 

TEMENOS. The sacred enclosure surrounding a 
Greek temple. 

TEMPERA. Painting in transparent colours made 
by mixing the powdered pigment with water and 
parchment-size for wall paintings on plaster, or with 
water and yolk of egg for paintings on panel. The 
ground is a hard surface of very fine plaster, about as 
thick as drawing-paper, by the Italians called gesso. 
Most English medieval paintings were done in this 
way. (See FRESCO and PAINTING.) 

TEMPLE. The arrangement of the Greek temple 
varies in different examples, but the normal plan may 
be described as follows. There was a chamber or 
naos (cell(i) which, in the larger peripteral examples, 
was divided by columns supporting a gallery into 
central space and aisles. Behind the naos there ws 
in some instances an inner ceFa, The naos might 
be entered through a vestibule (fig. 232), and in front 
* See article thereon. 



was the pronaos or portico. Behind the naos was a 
similar portico called the oplsthodomos or posticum 
(fig. 227). 

FIG. 226. 

PORTICO in anfis, 

FIG. 227. 

PORTICO in ant is, 


FIG. 328. 


The pronaos or principal entrance was almost always 
towards the east, and at the further end of the 
naos, facing the entrance, was the statue of the god, 
and in front of it an altar. The building was often 
surrounded by a row of columns forming a peristyle, 
and is said to be peripteral, or by two rows, when 
it is called dipteral. If there is a wide peristyle with 
one row of columns the building is said to be 
pseudo-dipteral. There were no windows, and the 
method of lighting is still doubtful. ' Hypaethral ' 
temples had apparently a large hole in the roof called 
an opaion. Where the roof was covered with Parian 
marble it is said that sufficient light would pass 
through the slabs, which were about two inches thick ; 
there seems to be evidence that some of these slabs 
were pierced with holes through which light was 
admitted. The suggestion that there was an hypaethral 

FIG. 230. 



FIG. 229. 



FIG. 231. 

FIG. 233. 


opening over the gallery above the aisles, forming it 
into a sort of clear-storey, is unsupported by evidence. 
In considering any theory it must be remembered, 
firstly, that in the bright climate of Greece a very 
small aperture, very often the mere open door, would 
admit enough light even for a congregational service ; 
and secondly, that the Greek temple was not built for 
congregational services, but as a shrine for the statue 
of a god, before which sacrifice was offered to him, 
only the priest and the privileged few entering the 
naos, the people remaining without in the temenos* or 
enclosure ; and lastly, for a ritual such as this a well- 
lighted temple was not required, and the mystery of 
gloom was perhaps preferred. 

The Romans seem to have been indifferent to orienta- 
tion. At the end opposite to the entrance there was 
often an apse or alcove ; the temples dedicated to Vesta 
were circular. Sometimes instead of a peristyle they 
placed half-columns against the side walls ; the building 
is then described as pseudo-peripteral. This had been 
seldom or never done by the Greeks. 

The portico is described by the number and arrange- 
ment of the columns. In small and early temples the 
sides were enclosed by walls and two columns were 
placed between the ends of these. The walls are 
called antce and the portico is said to be in antis. In 
the larger porticoes the side walls are very short or 
become mere pilasters, and columns are placed in 
front of them ; the portico is then called prostyle. 
If there is a portico of this sort at each end the 
building is called amphi-prostyle. A portico of two 
columns is called distyle ; one of four columns, tetra- 
atyle ; of six columns, hexastyle ; eight columns, octostyle; 
ten, decastyle ; twelve (rare), dodecastyle. Examples of 
an uneven number of columns are very rare. Pente- 
style has five columns. The addition of a peristyle gives, 
in many examples, two rows of columns to the portico ; 



in that case it is the number in the outer row which 
gives its name to the portico. 

When the intercolumniation or space between the 
columns is one diameter and a half of a column it is 
said to be pycnostyle ; when two diameters, systyle ; 
when two diameters and a quarter, euslyle ; when three 
or four diameters, diasfyle; when 
four or five diameters, arceostyle. 
When columns are grouped in 
couples the arrangement is called 

TENON. The end of a piece 
of wood shaped so as to fit into 
a mortice or hole, in another 
piece (fig. 233.) 

TERCENTO (lit. 'three hun- 
dred '). Italian work of the 
fourteenth century. 

TERRA -COTTA (Ital., lit. 
baked earth). A variety of brick FIG 
made from a specially prepared 
clay and baked at a high temperature, so that the 
surface becomes partially vitrified. It was used from 
very early times and was common in Italy throughout 
the middle ages. It was imported into England from 
Italy early in the sixteenth century, chiefly as medal- 
lions. Since about the middle of the nineteenth 
century great quantities have been manufactured in 
England and it is now largely used, especially in towns, 
owing to its power of resisting the disintegrating 
influences of a smoky atmosphere. 

TESSELLATED (from Lat. tessellatus, checkered, 
from lessella, a small cube of stone, dimin. of tessera, a 
die used for playing s.). A mosaic* on a floor, wall or 

* See article thereon. 



vault, composed of small cubes (tesserae) of stone, marble, 
earthenware or glass. 


TESTER. A canopy over a bed, pulpit or altar. 


THATCH. Formerly (and still in rural parts) 
called thack, which would seem to be more correct. 
"The old word to thack, theak, or thatch, frequently 
signifies no more than to cover, and is used in reference 
to tiles, lead, or other materials " (P.). Thatch is now 
made of reed (the most durable material), straw, sedge 
or flags. 

THEATRE (Gk. 0eao/zou, I see). The earliest 
form of theatre, or place especially intended for shows, 
in England was the Round or amphitheatre, a circular 
area surrounded by earth- banks, of pre- Roman age. 
It is said that these were at one time common all over 
the country and that they were used for bull-baiting, 
bear-baiting, sports and pastimes and for spectacles of 
all kinds, including, in some cases at least, miracle- 
plays. There are some remarkable examples remain- 
ing in Cornwall. The sloping ban^ is cut into steps 
to form tiers of seats, though one at St. Just, which 
is one hundred and twenty-six feet in diameter, 
formerly had stone seats. With these may be com- 
pared Chaucer's description of the lists in the Knight's 

That swich a noble theatre as it was 
1 dar vvel seyn that in this world ther nas. 
The circuit a myle was aboute, 
Walled of stoon, and diched al with-oute. 
Round was the shap, in maner of compas, 
Ful of degrees, the heighte of sixty pas, 
That, whan a man was set on o degree 
He letted nat his felawe for to see. 


But the early drama the Miracle-plays and Passion- 
plays, the Morals or Moralities, and the Interludes and 
Pageants, generally had no fixed abode. Often the 
performance was in a church. Sometimes it formed 
part of a great annual procession, being given in the 
street on a high stage on wheels ; this perambulating 
theatre was of two storeys, the upper being the stage 
and the lower a room where the actors apparelled 

In the reign of Elizabeth a great number of com- 
panies of actors were formed, each under the protection 
of the sovereign or a noble, and called his 'servants.' 
These companies travelled about the country and gave 
their performance in any place that was available, such 
as the inn-yard of a country town. An inn-yard was in 
many ways suitable. It was entirely surrounded by 
buildings, the various rooms of which were entered 
from galleries open to the yard. These galleries gave 
good covered accommodation to the well-to-do ; the 
poorer folk or ' groundlings ' stood about on the ground. 
A rude stage was erected in the centre of the yard ; 
there was, of course, no scenery. At the end of the 
sixteenth century or at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth the stage was probably moved to one side of the 
yard, and the part of the lowest gallery over it could be 
used by the players for the upper stage which was 
required by the early drama. 

Plays were also given in the halls of large country- 
houses and of the Inns of Court and of the colleges at 
Oxford and Cambridge both before and after the estab- 
lishment of regular theatres. The spectators sat at the 
dais end of the hall; the players occupied the lower 
end against the screen, the two doors of which served 
for their entrances and exits, and the musicians' gallery 
no doubt served for the upper stage already alluded to. 

The first theatre of modern type in England was 
The Theatre, built in 1576 in Finsbury Fields. In 1598 


it was rebuilt on the Bankside (on the Surrey side of 
the river) as The Globe. It was octagonal in form, and 
was built of timber ; the central space, the pit, was 
open to the sky, only the galleries and a part of the 
stage being covered in. 

In this and other early theatres, as the Curtain, 
Fortune, Rose, Hope, Swan, Newington Butts, Black- 
friars, there was a small gallery over the back part of 
the stage. This gallery was required by the form of 
many of the old plays, and it was put to a variety 
of uses (fig. 234). It served for a balcony or upper 
window, as in ' Romeo and Juliet,' or for the ram- 
parts o r ihe walls of Angiers in ' King John ' ; or 
for the performance of a play within a play, as in 
' Hamlet.' But its chief use was that it enabled the 
actors to present two scenes at the same time, as, for 
instance, the Council-chamber and the ante-chamber 
in ' Henry VIII.' (v. 2). 

Both the gallery and the part of the stage under it 
were hung with curtains, which parted in the middle 
and were drawn aside. The stage projected boldly out 
into the central area, so that the sides as well as the 
front were exposed. There was no scenery beyond a 
few conventional properties, such as a tomb or a smoking 
cauldron. A trap-door in the floor seems to have been 
considered necessary. Some of the early playhouses 
were large ' public ' theatres, others were smaller, called 
private, and entirely covered in. Theatres were also 
distinguished as ' summer' or open, and 'winter' or 
covered theatres. 

The theatre of Shakespeare's day seems to owe 
something to each of those places which have been 
mentioned above as the scene of early play-acting. The 
circular or polygonal form was probably derived from 
the ' round ' ; some of the details of the stage from the 
miracle-play, the stage of which was provided with a 
trap-door. In the tiers of wooden galleries we see the 


hostelry, in the open central space the hostelry-yard 
in which the 'groundlings' stood. The two doors in 
the screen at the lower end of a hall in a private house 
or college continued as features in the background of 
the stage into the eighteenth century. 

Scenery was very much elaborated in the masques 


designed by Inigo Jones early in the seventeenth 
century and was carried still further by Sir William 
Davenant fifty years later. 

In the time of Charles II. there were but two 
small theatres in London. The stage still projected 
and the central space was still open to the sky. The 
whole building was covered in towards the end of the 


seventeenth century or early in the eighteenth. Foot- 
lights were introduced by.Garrick in 1765 after a visit 
to France. The stage still projected boldly into the 
auditorium in the middle of the nineteenth century 
although it was at the same time deeply recessed. 


TIE-BEAM. A horizontal timber forming part of a 
roof* and resting on the two side walls of the build- 
ing (figs. 203,209,210.) 

TILE FLOOR. Most medieval paving tiles are 
square, from four to six inches each way and about an 
inch thick. They are either plain or have a simple 
pattern on each tile (fig. 235) ; sometimes the design 


Thirteenth century ICKLINGHAM 

extends over several tiles. Occasionally tiles of several 
different shapes are used, fitting into one another to 
form a pattern (fig. 236), and there are a few ex- 
amples, as in Prior Crauden's Chapel at Ely, in which 
a large picture is wrought in tiles of two colours. 
The body of the tile is usually red with the device of 
foliage, figures, heraldry or grotesques in buff. A deep 
sinking was made in the red clay and this was filled 

* See article thereon. 


Probably early fourteenth century 


with white clay; the whole was then covered with 
a glaze which turned the white into yellow and gave the 
red a richer colour. Sometimes the pattern was simply 
incised (fig. 237). Black tiles are occasionally found 
and sometimes a green glaze was used. In and after 
the sixteenth century pavements of tile were less 
used for the better class of buildings and stone and 
marble became more general. The art of making orna- 
mental tiles died out and was not revived till the nine- 
teenth century. 

TILE HANGING. The walls of timber houses, 
especially in the south of England, are commonly pro- 
tected by tiles fixed like those of a roof, and the 
practice is an old one. The tiles are either plain 
rectangles or the lower edges are curved. The system 
affords a good protection against driving rains and is 
known as ' weather tiling.' ^ 

TILE, ROOF. Roof-tiles may be divided into two 
classes : (1) Plain tiles, which are flat and are laid edge to 
edge like slates, each course overlapping by about three 
inches the course next but one below it. (2) Curved tiles 
of various forms ; in these the vertical edges overlap, 
in consequence of which a course need only overlap the 
next course below it, instead of the next but one. The 
reason of this will at once be apparent by arranging on 
a table sheets of paper about twice as long as they are 
wide. The commonest and oldest form is the pantile, 
which resembles the marble tile used by the Greeks. 
Sometimes, instead of the edges overlapping, both edges 
are turned up and covered by another tile ; this is the 
Italian method and was used by the Greeks and Romans. 

TIMBER BUILDING. Half-timber-work as it is 
now called, because the timbers which show on the face 
are about the same width as the spaces between, was the 
general method of construction for houses* in the middle 

* See article thereon. 


ages and remained the most common till the eighteenth 

The artistic treatment varies in different districts. 
The system reached its highest development in the 
well-timbered districts of Gloucestershire, Hereford- 
shire, Shropshire, Cheshire, and south Lancashire. It 
would seem that in East Anglia it was not much used 
and that the houses were entirely covered with plaster 
and were at an earlier period than in other parts built 
of brick. 

The practice of making the upper storeys of houses 
overhang was due to the use of timber. It not only 
gave more space in the upper rooms, but it was, if any- 
thing, rather stronger than if the wall had been 
vertical : the weight of the upper wall on the ends of 
the joists counter-balanced the weight of the floor ; 
some of the timbers could be more strongly joined, and 
^;he brackets under each projection, which would have 
been in the way inside the house, gave rigidity to the 
building. Each projection also pro- 
tected the wall below it from the rain. 

The normal system of framing was 
as follows (fig. 239) : A plate was laid 
on a low wall about level with the floor 
and into this were tenoned upright 
studs about 8 inches by 5 inches with 
their broad faces outwards, and from 
8 inches to 12 inches apart. Stronger 
posts were placed at intervals of o or 
6 feet. The studs and posts were 
framed into another plate at the top. On this plate 
rested the floor joists of the upper storey. They were 
of similar scantlings to the stud, and there were 
stronger beams over the large posts. 

The beams and the common joists projected beyond 
the wall a distance of from one foot to three feet. 
Curved brackets, springing from the large posts, 



supported the ends of the principal beams. On the 
ends of the beams and joists was laid another plate, 
and on this was constructed the framing of the upper 
storey in the same way as that of the lower storey ; 
and so with the third storey. To give the house 
lateral stiffness, curved struts were placed along its 


face in the angles between the posts and plates (fig 
239). If the house was at the corner of a street, so 
that its upper storey had to project on two sides, the 
angle post was very substantial and was shaped out of 
a naturally curved piece of timber so as in itself to form 
a strong bracket under the angle post of the upper 
storey ; in order that the floor joists might project on 



both sides of the house they were framed in a peculiar 
way into a diagonal beam (fig. 240). 

The spaces between the timbers are usually filled 
with a mixture of clay and straw called pugging in 


which stakes are embedded, the pugging being covered 
inside and out with a thin coat of plaster. Sometime 
' brick-nogging '* is used instead of pugging and is lef 
exposed to view. In the western counties the timbers 

* See article thereon. 


are commonly tarred and the plaster is whitewashed, 
but in the south-east the timber is allowed to weather 
a natural grey and the plaster is coloured yellow. 

In the plainer buildings the framing was generally 
simple ; the plates were moulded or carved with a 
scroll, the brackets sprang from small shafts cut on the 
posts, the angle posts were rather more richly orna- 
mented, the barge-boards were moulded, carved or 
traceried. In the west the framing itself was often 
elaborated, being divided into square panels containing 
devices formed by variously cut timbers (fig. 238) ; 
small oriel windows project under the overhanging 
storey and sometimes have tracery. 

TORUS. See MOULDING (fig. 182). 

TOUCH -STONE. A medieval name for a hard 
black stone capable of taking a polish ; sometimes used 
for the tops of tombs in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries ; ' so called from its supposed identity with 
or resemblance to the lapis Lydius, or touch-stone, used 
by goldsmiths in assaying the quality of gold by the 
test of aqua fortis ' (p.). 


TOWER-LIGHT. A loophole in a tower; any 
window in a tower ; one of the tracery-lights, like a 
loophole, in a Perpendicular window. 


TRABEATED (Lat. trabs, a beam). A system of 
architecture in which the lintel is used. 

TRACERY. The beginnings of tracery are to be 
found in the blind-storey or triforium of large churches 
and in the windows, but it was in early times copied in 



FIG. 241. ROUND 

wood screens and this use of it continually increased 
till in the fifteenth century; it was also applied to solid 
surfaces such as sides of chests and finally to walls. 

It is remarkable that tracery and cusping were used 
much earlier in circular windows than in others, and at 
most periods were in a more advanced stage of elabora- 
tion (fig. 241). The commonest form in 
early round windows is a series of straight 
mullions radiating from a central circle 
to a ring of tracery round the circum- 
ference. These are sometimes called 
wheel windows. Otherwise the tracery 
follows the vogue of the period. Round 
windows were little used in the later 
middle ages. 

In the twelfth century it became a common practice 
to group together two or more lancet windows, or a 
number of small arches forming the triforium-gallery 
arcade (fig. 242). The flat piece of masonry left above 
the small arches was sometimes pierced with a circle or 
quatrefoil or by a group of circles 
(fig. 243.) This forms what is 
known as Plate-tracery and it is 
the parent of all later forms of 
tracery. The decorative effect 
of this treatment must have 
been at once apparent, and the 
idea was rapidly developed in the 
first half of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Gradually the two windows 
were brought close together with FIG - '** TRIFOR ;CADB 
only a narrow mullion between them ; inside the 
building they were placed in a single arched recess, 
and outside the whole group was embraced under one 
hood-mould (figs. 244, 245). 

Broad and irregular pieces of the stone ' plate ' were 
still left between the lancets and the piercing in the 



head. These spaces were gradually reduced by en- 
larging the top piercing and so shaping it as to make 
it fill as much of the tympanum as possible. The 
remaining spaces were next pierced so that the stone 
bar between any two lights was never wider than the 


mullion (fig. 245). This is called Bar-tracery, a term 
which includes all the later forms of tracery. This 
stage was reached rather before the middle of the 
thirteenth century. The more important members are 
emphasised by being made wider and thicker from 
inside to outside than the less important. 



At first the heads of the lights are plain arches, 
although in plate tracery they had sometimes been 
foliated ; but the circle in the head has bold cusps, 
usually three, four or five. In the latter part of the 
thirteenth century the heads of the lights are cusped 

FIG. 244. 



also, but never with more than two cusps. The cusping 
springs from the flat soffit of the arch or circle, and 
is called soffit cusping (figs. 246 a, 248). In the latter 
part of the thirteenth century the cusp is no longer 
confined to the soffit, but includes nearly the whole of 
the chamfer or moulding which forms the innermost 
member of the tracery bar (fig. 246 6). Sometimes 
the whole bar follows the line of foliation (fig. 253, 



Hitherto the tracery had consisted of simple 
symmetrical forms such as circles, trefoils and quatre- 
foils, whose perimeters, although they touch at points, 
are distinct ; the heads of the lights are simple two- 
centred arches. This is called Geometrical tracery. 

In the earliest tracery attention was concentrated on 


the piercings, and the aim was to give these a good form. 
Pieces of stone of awkward shape were left between 
them (fig. 244). In later work, as we shall presently 
see, the lines of the stonework were the chief con- 
sideration, and the graceful flow of these was the first 
thought of the designer, the form of the tracery-lights 



FIG. 250. 


Early fourteenth century 

Kli;. 251. 



received less attention (fig. 254). At the period we 
have now reached there is a fairly equal balance 
between the claims of the piercing and of the masonry 
(figs. 247, 249). 

Early in the fourteenth century the heads of the 
lights become ogee-shaped (fig. 252), the boundary 
lines of adjacent piercings coincide, the lines are sinu- 
ous, the piercings are no longer symmetrical (fig. 250) ; 
this tracery is called Flowing. The cusps are sharper 
and more numerous, the heads of the lights having 
four instead of only two, and the cusping of the tracery 
corresponds. Geometrical tracery continues in use 
and the two are sometimes combined. At the same 




time also another variety called Reticulated tracery 
is used (fig. 252) : in this the window head is filled 
with a simple pattern repeated without variety, with- 
out subordination and without conformity to the arch 
in which it was placed. Occasionally a peculiar form 
of cusping is used consisting of two cusps close to- 
gether, or, as it might be called, of a split cusp. This 
is called Kentish tracery (fig. 253). 



In English flowing tracery the forms are generally 
full and round and the design as a whole keeps some- 
thing of its geometrical character (fig. 250). But 


occasionally in England and more often in Scotland 
the influence of France is seen in a loss of all structural 
form and in a peculiar upward tendency giving a flame- 
like form to the tracery, whence it is called Flam- 
boyant (fig. 251). This variety has often a very weak 
appearance. But it is possible ttiat it was the upward 
trend of the lines which led to the next development, 
in the latter part of the fourteenth century, in the 
direction of greater strength. Some of the bars are 
made quite straight and vertical (fig. 255). This 
characteristic becomes more and more pronounced 
(fig. 256) till all flowing lines are lost (fig. 257). 
Hence it is called Perpendicular tracery. This form 
is peculiar to Great Britain. Windows of the fifteenth 
century often have a transom with sub-arches and 
sometimes short pieces of transom are introduced into 
the tracery. The cusps are more pronounced than 



Late fourteenth century 

FIG. 256. 




formerly and have blunt points. Sometimes, especially 
in niches and screens, there are minor cusps on the arcs 
of the main cusps. 

At the end of the 
fifteenth century 
tracery had become 
very monotonous and 
lifeless, and of course 
it ceased altogether 
with the rest 01 
Gothic architecture 
in the sixteenth 
century. It was oc- 
casionally used in 
the Gothic revival in ^ 
the time of Charles "I 
I. (See also WINDOW.) "\ 


Late fifteenth century 

late German Gothic 
" a kind of tracery which is formed of flowing lines with 
the ramifications ending abruptly with projecting 
stumps or stool-pieces, as if they had been cut off, 
producing in some degree the effect of feathering 
[or cusping]. Professor Willis has designated this stump 
tracery" (P.). 

TRANSEPT. The cross arm of a church* or other 
building. Sometimes the north and south transepts 
together are spoken of in the singular, sometimes in 
the plural. In England additional transepts besides 
the main transepts were often built, sometimes further 
east as at Canterbury, at the extreme east end as at 
Durham or at the west end as at Ely. 

Sharpe to a phase of English architecture without 
* See article thereon. 


definite limits, but considered by him to begin about 
1 145 and to end about 1 lf)0. (See Appendix.) Its charac- 
teristic is, as its name implies, a mingling of Norman 
and Gothic features. (See NORMAN, EARLY ENGLISH.) 

TRANSOM. A horizontal bar in a window. It was 
first used in the thirteenth century. Its object was in 
some cases to stiffen the mullions,* in others to form a 
convenient division between the shutter with which, in 
domestic work, the lower part of the window was 
closed, and the upper part which was filled with glass. 
It was rarely used in churches before the fifteenth 
century, but it then became common and had a small 
arch under it. (See TRACERY, WINDOW.) 

TREFOIL. (1) A three-lobed panel or tracery- 
light. (2) A three-lobed leaf characteristic of thir- 
teenth-century carving. 

TRELLIS. A lattice or grating formed of cross- 

TRIBUNE. A raised seat or throne for the emperor 
or judge in a Roman basilica. It was placed in a 
central position against the wall of the apse ; it was 
the origin of the seat of the bishop or celebrant in the 
early Christian churches.* 

TRIFORIUM. An upper storey over the aisle of a 
cathedral or large church, with arches (called the 
triforium arcade) in the wall between it and the nave. 
It is derived from the Roman pagan basilica and was in 
early Christian days used for the accommodation of 
women. In English work of the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries it is lofty, being about the same height 
as the clear-storey and nearly as high as the lowest 
storey. But it is gradually reduced in height and 
finally is omitted. 

* See article thereon. 


TRIGLYPH (Gk., lit. thrice-cut, hence presum- 
ably ' cut into three '). An ornament of the Doric 
frieze consisting of a slightly projecting block with 
two vertical V-shaped grooves and two half-grooves or 
chamfers on the edges. One is placed over each column 
and one over each interval. They are supposed to 
represent the end of beams used in early timber 
buildings. (See GREEK ARCHITECTURE and ORDER.) 

TRIL1THON. A prehistoric erection consisting of 
three large stones : two pillars and a lintel, like those 
at Stonehenge. 

TR1PTICH, TRIPTYCH. A wooden reredos con- 
sisting of a central painted panel with two folding doors, 
on the inner sides of which also pictures were painted. 
It was a common form of reredos in England in the 
middle ages and was called ' a table with leaves.' 

TRIUMPHAL ARCH. (1) An archway erected 
over a road or street as a memorial, e.g. the Arch of 
Titus and others in Rome. (2) The arch forming the 
entrance from the nave to the apse in a basilican 
church, always highly decorated. 

TRUSS. A system of timbers so framed together 
as to be self-supporting and capable of bridging over a 
space or forming a bracket, e.g. a framed principal of 
a roof. 


TUDOR FLOWER. An upright leaf used in close 
repetition as a cresting in work of the fifteenth century 
called also brattishing* (fig. 258). 

VAULT 287 


TURRET. A small tower; in churches generally 
used for a staircase, or for a bell ; in castles for various 


TYMPANUM (Lat. tympanum, a drum, tympanum). 
The space enclosed between a lintel and an arch or 
between an entablature and the sloping cornice of a 
pediment (fig. 6). 

TYPE. 'The canopy over a pulpit, also called a 
sound-board'* (o.). 

UNDERCROFT. A storey in a medieval building 
on the level of the ground, or partly underground, 
used as a store place or as menial offices, the principal 
rooms being on the first floor. 

URN A common ornament in Roman and Re- 
naissance architecture, especially on the pedestals of a 
balustrade, on gate piers and similar places. Urns made 
of lead were much used in gardens in the eighteenth 
century. Probably derived from the sepulchral urns 
of the Romans. 

VALLEY. A re-entering angle formed by the 
intersection of two roofs* (fig. 115, line a b.) 

VANE A weathercock ; vanes were in use in the 
times of' the Saxons, and in after ages were very 
extensively employed (P.). 


VAULT (1) An arched ceiling or roof of brick, 
stone, etc.'; hence (2) a chamber so covered ; and 
hence (3) a tomb. 

Probably there are no pre-Conquest vaults in fcng- 

* See article thereon. 

288 VAULT 

land except those which cover the narrow spaces in the 
confessios * of Saxon churches. 

Small Norman buildings were sometimes covered 
with a barrel-vault like a railway tunnel, also called a 
waggon-vault from its resemblance to the tilt of a 
waggon. More often the aisles of a church have 
groined vaulting, while the nave being wider and 
higher has a wooden roof only. A groined vault is 
one formed by the intersection of two barrel-vaults at 
right angles, the groin being the angle formed by the 
meeting of the two surfaces and crossing the area 
diagonally. The transept of Durham about 1100 is an 
early example of a large vault. The early groined 
vaults like those of the Romans, of which they were 
rude copies, have no ribs, but about 1 1 00 both trans- 
verse and diagonal ribs were added. 

The introduction of ribs allows a change in con- 
struction. The vault without ribs retains its tunnel- 
like construction, the whole vault surface forming an 
arch across the building. But when ribs are used 
these are built first and the spandrel filling is then 
thrown across from rib to rib in a succession of oblique 
arches, each course being arched so that when com- 
pleted it is self-supporting. This apparently sudden 
change in construction was perhaps a development of 
the system of ribs which was sometimes used under 
Norman barrel-vaults and which continued throughout 
the middle ages wherever, as in bridges, a barrel-vault 
was used. 

The construction of ribbed groining with the round 
arch involves some difficulties. The diagonal ribs 
being much longer than the transverse ribs, rose to a 
greater height if both were made semi-circular. This 
produced inconvenient forms in the spandrels, and 
various expedients were resorted to, such as stilting the 
transverse ribs and depressing the diagonals, in order 
* See article thereon. 


FIG. 259. 

i. Without and with ridge-ribs. 2. Sexpartite vault over nave. 3. Inter- 
mediate ribs (a) added ; the ridge-rib (6) stopped against them, and (c) 
continued beyond to the wall. 4. The same. 5. More intermediate 
ribs added. 6. Fourteenth-century lierne vault. 



to make the crowns of the two more nearly at the same 

By the introduction of the pointed arch at the end of 
the twelfth century these difficulties were got over. 
The number of ribs is small, a cross rib, wall rib and 
diagonal rib only being used (fig. 259, !) The diagonal 
rib is made semi-circular or nearly so, while the wall 
rib forms a sharply -pointed arch. This produces a 
twist in the spandrel-filling between the two ribs, 
especially in oblong vaults where the difference be- 
tween the diagonal and the shorter side is consider- 
able, and the twist is sometimes increased by stilting 
the shorter rib. Hence this form of vault has been 
called ploughshare vaulting. The courses in each 
spandrel form approximately equal angles with the 
two ribs on which they rest ; consequently the courses 
meet the ridge at an angle (fig. 26 1). 


(c) Cross rib ; (d) diagonal rib ; 
(r) ridge rib ; (>) wall rib 

PIG. 261. 

Arrangement of courses 

In large churches the bays of the aisles are generally 
nearly square, while the nave, being about twice as 
wide, has oblong bays about twice as wide as they are 
long (fig. 259, -0- And so sometimes two bays of the nave 
are included under one square vault (fig. 259, #) In 
this case an additional groin is used, similar to the 
diagonals but crossing the building at right angles. 
The bay has, therefore, three groins instead of two 
dividing it into six cells instead of four, and it is there- 
fore called a sexpartite vault, the ordinary plan being 

* See article thereon. 



quadripartite. This kind is more common in France 
than in England. 

Before the end of the thirteenth century the number 
of ribs was increased. Intermediate ribs are introduced 
between the diagonal and transverse and between the 
diagonal and wall (fig. 259, plans 3, 4 a). Now a pair 
of these ribs forms an arch which leans towards the 


centre of the vault. It has therefore a tendency to fall 
in that direction. In order to counteract this a ridge 
rib (6) is placed between the apex of the inclined ribs 
and the centre of the vault. This ridge rib was after- 
wards extended to the extremity of the vault (c) ; but 
this continuation is of no structural use. 

Early in the fourteenth century an important altera- 
tion is made in the curvature of the ribs. The curve of 
the diagonal rib approximates to the ellipse which 
would be formed by the intersection of two cylindrical 
spandrel surfaces of regular form. This change makes 
a considerable difference in the appearance of the vault. 



The ploughshare form is also abandoned. Thus the 
form of the vault approximates more to a series of 
intersecting cylinders. The courses of the spandrel- 
filling are now made horizontal, so that they are parallel 
with the ridge (fig. ~J()l). 

About the middle of the fourteenth century a further 
modification is made by the introduction of lierne ribs, 
that is, ribs which do not spring from the shaft or wall, 


but cross the spandrels from rib to rib, producing star- 
shaped patterns. This variety is known as lierne vault- 
ing (fig. 259, plan 6, and fig. 262). 

No further change of importance was made in the 
ordinary vault. But in the fifteenth century a new 
form known as fan-vaulting was developed and was 
frequently used, especially in diminutive work, though 
the ordinaiy groined vault continued to be the more 
common. In this variety numerous ribs spread out at 
equal angles and with the same curve, producing, when 
seen from below, a fan-like appearance (fig. 263). 

The character of any vault is determined by con- 
sidering the form of the mass of masonry above any 
one shaft. In the early vaults one of these masses 


forms, roughly, an inverted half-pyramid with concave 
sides, and a plan taken through it gives a parallelo- 
gram. The angles of the half-pyramid were gradually 
rounded off by altering the curve of the groins so as to 
make them less prominent. In fan-vaulting the bundle 
of ribs forms an inverted half-cone with concave sides, 
and its plan is a semicircle. It is this which gives to 
fan-vaulting its distinctive character. The method 
of construction was also different. In a groined vault 
the ribs are true arches ; they were built first indepen- 
dently of the spandrels which were filled in afterwards 
and rested on the ribs. In the fan-vault the ribs and 
spandrels are one ; there is a complication of ribs, but 
they are mere ornaments worked on the surface of the 
cone. Towards the close of the fifteenth century fan- 
vaulting achieved some remarkable developments, such 
as at Christ Church, Oxford; Henry VII.'s Chapel, 
Westminster ; and St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

Renaissance vaults followed those of the Romans, 
that is, they were groined vaults formed by intersecting 
barrels and had no ribs. The centre of each bay was 
sometimes formed into a low saucer-shaped dome. 

VAULTING SHAFT. A shaft placed against a 
wall to carry vaulting. 

guese). A slightly-built loggia or portico for sitting 
under ; strictly a covered balcony (s.). Introduced into 
England early in the nineteenth century 


VESICA PISCIS (Lat., a fish's bladder). A name 
given by Albert Dtirer (p.) to a pointed oval form used 
frequently in the middle ages as an aureole or glory 
round the figure of Our Lord or of the Virgin in sculp- 
ture, pictures, glass and seals. 

VESTIBULE. A porch, entrance-hall, lobby, ante- 


attached to a church in which to keep and put on 
vestments. It was commonly on the north side of the 
chancel in medieval times. (See SACRISTY.) 

VILLA (Lat. villa, a farm-house, lit. small village s.). 
A detached suburban house. Among the Romans a 

VISE, VICE. An old term for a spiral staircase 
round a column called a newel. It is sometimes of 
wood but generally of stone. 

VITRUVIAN SCROLL. An ornament consisting 
of a series of spirals somewhat resembling waves. 

VOLUTE. A spiral ; the distinguishing feature of 
the Ionic capital, surviving in early Norman capitals. 
Seldom or never used in the middle ages. (Sec ORDER.) 

VOUSSOIR. One of the stones or bricks of an arch. 

VAULT (p. 288). 

WAINSCOT (from Old Dutch tvaeghc-schot , wall- 
boarding s.). (1) Wood panelling on a wall. (2) Oak 
imported from the Baltic ; originally for 
making panelling but now used for other 

WALL-PLATE. A piece of timber lying 
on a wall to receive the ends of rafters or 




A sloping surface covering an off-set or FIC 2(5 
projection of a wall or buttress to throw WEATHERING OF 
off the rain (fig. 264). 


WEATHER-BOARDING. Horizontal boards nailed 
on to the wall of a timber- framed building; the boards 
overlap and the upper edges are made thin so that 
they may fit more closely. 

WICKET. A small door formed in a large one. 

WIND-BEAM, WIND-BRACE. A diagonal strut 
in a roof from a principal rafter to a purlin to prevent 
the roof* from swaying longitudinally. 

WINDOW. In the early middle ages when glass 
was expensive windows were small and frequently un- 
glazed even in churches. Early windows (to about 1250) 
are rebated probably to receive a wooden frame which 
held the glass. In later times the glass was fixed into 
a groove in the wood or stonework. Windows which 
were not glazed were perhaps sometimes filled with 
horn or with a wooden lattice/ as those of butchers' shops 
in the country still are. All through the middle ages 
the glass was not made to open ; the window was divi- 
ded by a horizontal transom, the part above the transom 
being glazed and the part below fitted with iron bars 
and a wooden shutter. Subsequently (probably in the 
sixteenth century) the glass was fitted into iron case- 
ments. Sashes were introduced in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century. A 'Venetian' window is a 
triple window, the central division being wide and 
arched, while the side openings are narrow (generally 
one-third of the central part) and covered by an entab- 
lature. These have been in use since the time of Inigo 
Jones. (Sec also GLASS, TRACERY.) 

ZIGZAG. A shallow Norman enrichment used 
chiefly on string-courses. 

* See article thereon. 


Thirteenth century 



ture of Byzantium, the ancient Constantinople, an 
ecclesiastical style which may be said to have begun 
with the removal of the seat of Empire from Rome by 
Constantine about A.D. 330, and to have continued till 
the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in the 
fifteenth century. During this long period, or at least 
from the sixth century to the fifteenth, although it had 
its periods of greatness and of decline, it changed but 
little in character ; it did not develop by a steady 
progress as did the architecture of Western Europe. 

The building work done under Constantine was re- 
markable in quantity, costly, sumptuous, and elaborate, 
but it was done in hot haste with poor materials, and 
art was at that time in a degraded state, as may be 
seen, for instance, in the Arch of Constantine at Rome. 
None of Constantine's work remains at Constantinople 
except the two vast columned cisterns. The Church 
of the Nativity at Bethlehem was built by him, and 
resembles his church of St. Peter at Rome in being a 
simple basilica church (fig. 57). The style was based 
on a combination of Roman ideas and Oriental feeling. 
Much of the plan and arrangement of the building is 



Human, such as the apse and the narthex and the 
marble lining a system which the Romans had 
borrowed from the East. The scheme of decoration, 
on the other hand, was Eastern, in being a scheme 
of colour rather than of form. 

Byzantine architecture reached* its climax, appar- 
ently somewhat suddenly, in the reign of the Emperor 
Justinian (527-565). He did a vast amount of build- 
ing of every sort. Besides his great church of Sta 
Sophia he built or rebuilt twenty-five other churches, 
many hospitals, bridges, aqueducts, and fortresses. Sta 
Sophia (the Divine Wisdom) was built about 532. Its 
plan may be described as a Greek cross inscribed in a 
square, with a narthex at the west end. The chief 
feature is the great dome over the central square 
formed by the crossing of the arms. Domes had been 
used before this, but in a tentative way and on a small 
scale. The dome of Sta Sophia is more than a hundred 
feet across, and pendentives are boldly used to bring 
the square to a circle and so form a base for the dome. 

During the same period notable buildings, more 
or less Byzantine in style, were produced in Italy. 
S. Apollinare Nuovo, S. Vitale, S. Apollinare in Classe, 
all at Ravenna, were built in the first half of the sixth 
century. But the incursions of the Northmen and 
an accumulation of other misfortunes in the year 566' 
checked art in Italy for a century and a half. Early 
in the eighth century there was a revival, and S. Maria 
in Cosmedin at Rome was built between 772 and 795. 

Sta Sophia was left without a rival. No great dome 
was again attempted. The later churches are small, 
scarcely larger than an ordinary sitting-room, and 
though they all have domes these are on a diminutive 
scale. The churches in Athens are of the eighth and 
ninth centuries. The two monastic churches of S. Luke 
of Stiris in Phocis (just north of the Gulf of Corinth) 
are of the eleventh century, which has been called the 


second great period of Byzantine architecture (Messrs. 
Schultz and Barusley). The beautiful little church at 
Daphni, near Athens, is probably of the twelfth or 
thirteenth century. S. Mark's at Venice is of the 
eleventh century. 

The general plan of the Byzantine church is based 
on the Greek cross of four equal arms, with wide 
aisles projecting as much as the transepts, and with a 
dome over the crossing. In Sta Sophia and in early 
buildings generally the dome springs direct from the 
pendentives, but in later work it is mounted on a 
drum. The church is entered through a large porch 
or narthex extending across the west end. The east 
end terminates in three apses, circular within and 
polygonal outside. The sanctuary is cut off by a 
screen called the iconostasis, consisting of columns 
supporting a lintel or entablature. The choir is en- 
closed by a low screen carved and pierced with very 
delicate patterns. 

In the bright climate of the East windows are not 
important. They are small and simple round arched 
openings, sometimes filled with thin pierced slabs of 
white marble. The base of the dome or the drum, if 
there- is one, is surrounded by a number of small 

Construction is simple and direct. In some im- 
portant respects a departure is made from the Roman 
tradition. First, thrusts of arches are to some extent 
met by counter thrusts instead of by dead weights. 
Second and this is the chief contribution of the 
Byzantine style to the architecture of the world the 
dome rising from pendentives is fully developed. 
Third, the arch is sprung direct from a detached 
column instead of from a mass of masonry decorated 
with columns and entablature. Incidentally this latter 
change brought about the introduction of a new 
feature. In order to obtain a larger and stronger 


surface for the arch to spring from than that afforded 
by the abacus of the capital, a block of marble was 
placed on the latter. This has been named a dosseret. 
It has been thought by some to be a relic of the 
Roman entablature, but it seems more likely that it 
was introduced for the practical reason suggested above. 
The columns are monoliths of marble, but the arches, 
walls, vaults, and domes are built of very large thin 
bricks. Outside the building the brickwork is exposed 
to view, but internally the walls are covered with 
marble and the domes and vaults with mosaic. The 
domes and vaults are unprotected by roofs. 

Byzantine architecture is an architecture of colour, 
not of form ; in this it is thoroughly Oriental. The 
elaboration of the colour scheme necessitates a corre- 
sponding simplicity of form. The columns are mono- 
liths, unfluted and unclustered ; arches are not 
moulded, and are of one order only ; there is no 
window tracery, and the Roman entablature is dis- 
carded. The dome is the simplest architectural 
feature that can be conceived, and though groined 
vaults are used they not only have no ribs, but the 
angles are rounded off so that the surfaces melt into 
one another. The carving gives no bold lights and 
shadows, and is confined to capitals and cornices. 
The capitals are commonly of the cushion form. The 
foliage has lost the bold modelling of the Corinthian 
capital, although it retains something of the acanthi 
form. It does not seem to grow round the bell as ii 
the Corinthian capital, but is distributed somewhat 
a pattern over the face of the stone, very delicatelj 
carved but with little or no modelling. 

Sculptured representations of the human figure wer 
not allowed. The mosaic pictures of coloured and gilt 
glass which cover the vaults and part of the walls are 
full of solemn feeling, and are often of high artistic 
merit. The icons or panel paintings of saints are 


enriched by having garments and crowns of gold 

The floor is of opus alexandrinum that is, it is com- 
posed partly of large pieces of marble and partly of 
mosaic bands of small marble tesserae. 

The exterior of the Byzantine church was almost 
neglected. The broken sky-line and the varied light 
and shade produced by the different wall-planes often 
give a picturesque effect, but this seems to be unstudied 
and even accidental. Only the simplest means are em- 
ployed for architectural decoration such as cornices and 
patterns in brickwork. This was to a great extent due 
to the nature of the building materials to hand, namely, 
brick and, to a limited extent, stone of indifferent 
quality. The use of marbles brought about a corre- 
ponding development of the interior. 


earliest architectural remains in what is now Scotland 
are the primitive churches and oratories of Celtic type, 
of which many are to be found in the western and 
northern islands. As in the more numerous Irish 
examples, to which these are similar, the very small size 
and the square east end are the most characteristic 
features, and in several cases the small chancel arch 
no larger than a doorway. Coeval with some of these 
early churches are many sculptured cross-bearing 
stones. Most of these, however, occur, not side by 
side with the early churches, but on the mainland. 
Peculiar to Scotland and unknown elsewhere are the 
strange and at present unintelligible symbols which 
constantly occur on the sculptured stones of the north- 
east. While these symbols are found incised on an 
early class of stones upon which are no crosses, they 
also occur on the richest of the cross-bearing slabs 
which are chiefly found in the north-eastern counties 
beyond the Forth. The stones usually date from the 
seventh and eighth, and the crosses from the ninth and 


tenth centuries. 1 Of earlier date is a little group more 
like the crosses of Man, Wales and Cumbria, in the 
extreme south-west of Scotland, to which belong the 
well-known Kirkmadrine crosses with Latin inscrip- 
tions commemorating early missionaries of the church 
founded by St. Ninian, who died at Whithorn (Candida 
Casa) about 432. The crosses of Argyllshire and the 
West Highlands are of a later date and more like the 
Irish crosses ; like them and unlike the great crosses 
of the north-eastern counties, they stand free and not 
combined with or cut upon slabs. Their Celtic art 
survived all through the middle ages, and some of 
them are of quite late date. 

The architectural remains of the later or more 
developed Celtic period are few ; there is a fine round 
tower of the Irish type at Brechin and another at 
Abernethy, and there are remains of others in Orkney. 
But the church of St. Regulus at St. Andrews with its 
tall square tower is definitely Romanesque and probably 
as late as the twelfth century, and so are the similar 
towers at Markinch, Dunblane, Dunning, etc., although 
tinged with a strong local character. This local charac- 
ter is fainter or wellnigh non-existent when we come 
to the great churches of the latter part of the twelfth 
century, in which we see the beginning of the English 
influence which continued until the wars of the four- 
teenth century. It was during the twelfth century 
that the parochial and diocesan organisation in Scot- 
land was practically completed, and it was then that 
the larger religious houses were founded. The first of 
them, Dunfermline, has a Norman nave which resembles 
Durham ; the two small Romanesque churches of Dal- 
meny and Leuchars. are well known, and there is a 

1 Exhaustively illustrated and described in The Early 
Christian Monuments of Scotland, J. Romilly Allen and Joseph 
Anderson, Edinburgh, 1903. A fine series of examples of each 
kind is in the National Museum, Queen Street, Edinburgh. 


good deal of work of this period in Scotland, though 
chiefly south of the Forth, as for example at Kelso and 

There is transitional work in the ruins of St. Andrew's 
Cathedral and of Arbroath Abbey, but it is when we 
come to the thirteenth century that we realise how 
great an era of prosperity and of church building in 
Scotland that period was, and how strong was the 
influence of England. Notwithstanding this English 
influence several thirteenth-century buildings show 
signs of the development of local characteristics. Chief 
among them all of course is the choir of Glasgow 
Cathedral with its magnificent crypt or rather lower 
story, for it has windows all round which is un- 
surpassed even in England. The vaulting of this 
lower church is perhaps the most elaborate of its 
date in the whole of Britain, and its windows and 
many of its arches probably the most acutely pointed. 
The arcade of the choir above has massive clus- 
tered pillars not unlike those of Exeter, and the 
plate-tracery of the aisle windows is very elaborate. 
Thirteenth-century work is to be found in most 
of the great churches of Scotland 2 and in a very 
large proportion of the small churches in country 
districts. Small aisleless churches with plain lancet 
windows and no tower were built in great numbers at 
this time all over Scotland, and more or less work of 
this date remains in almost every existing medieval 
parish church that was not made collegiate in the 
fifteenth or sixteenth century. The prosperity of Scot- 
land, and with it the thirteenth century building era, 
came to an abrupt end with the death of Alexander III 
in 1286. With the wars that ensued the country was 
impoverished, and even after the victory of Bannock- 
burn in 1314 very few buildings of importance were 

2 Coldingham, Dryburgh, Dundrennan, Kilwinning, Dun- 
blane, Brechin, Elgin, PJuscarden. 


erected. The Decorated or Middle Pointed period is 
wellnigh absent from Scottish architecture.* Sweet- 
heart Abbey and the nave of Glasgow show an advanced 
form of First-Pointed rather than a new style, although 
after the breach with England national character cer- 
tainly reasserts itself. 

In the latter half of the fourteenth century we see 
the growth of a national style that persisted with certain 
variations of form for some two hundred years. This 
Scottish Third-Pointed is neither Flamboyant nor Per- 
pendicular, nor yet a mixture of the two, nor a mere 
copy of any foreign style, but an entirely national 
growth, influenced of course by the architecture of other 
countries of the Netherlands and France much more 
than of England. Its chief characteristics are its 
extraordinary massiveness and the strong contrasts 
formed by the arrangement of large plain surfaces 
side by side with very rich details. Perhaps equally 
characteristic is the way in which features of the earlier 
styles continued to be employed side by side with 
the later forms. Heavy pillars, clustered, octagonal, 
or cylindrical ; deeply-cut mouldings and foliage ; the 
semicircular arch ; a form of lancet window ; geo- 
metrical tracery ; the saddle-back tower; the cruciform 
plan ; the barrel vault all these never went out of 
use in Scotland. 

The four-centred arch was practically unknown, and 
Perpendicular tracery is only found (and that merelj 
as a variant among other forms) in less than half 
dozen churches, all south of the Forth and east 
Stirling Castle. 8 Apses generally three-sided ar 
not infrequent in the later churches/ and wer 

* Unless it be held that the subsequent style was but 
development of it. There is real Decorated work at Melrose 

3 Stirling, Linlithgow, Carnwath, Corstorphine, Melrose. 

4 Stirling, Linlithgow, Seton, Biggar, Midcalder, etc. 


undoubtedly due to foreign inence. The crowns 
surmounting the towers of St. Biles', Edinburgh, and 
King's College, Aberdeen, are^ell known ; there were 
others at Haddington and jmlithgow, and a seven- 
teenth-century example is stfl left on tne Cross Steeple 
at Glasgow. The pointed brrel vault, with 5 or without 6 
ornamental ribs and bosses is ver y characteristic of the 
later work and is one of tfe many features of the church 
architecture of the tipe which appear to have been 
adopted from domest^ and defensive practice. The 
builders of the last lalf of the fifteenth century and 
of the first part of t je sixteenth, seem to have done all 
they could to avoU the use of intersecting vaults and 
mitreing roofs, "he windows often large were set 
low down in the *alk so as n t * break into the barrel 
vaults and the fcairel vault of a transept or side chapel 
and the roof ab've it were stopped against a gable built 
on the side Wl of the nave so as to leave the main 
vault unbroten. These barrel vaults usually carry a 
fire-proof rjof of enormous stone slabs. The whole 
construction is often exceedingly picturesque though 
very hearr. Work of this kind, however, was not 
universal, and some of the later windows are exceed- 
ingly large and evidently intended to show off Nether- 
landish stained glass. The Flamboyant type of tracery 
was never made very elaborate, and the simpler forms 
seem to have been preferred. Windows of later date 
were generally set in the centre of the wall, and the 
English construction of a deep splay and rear-vault 
inside is almost unknown. 

In England the great window filled with painted 
glass was the principal feature of the east end, and the 
reredos nearly always retained its earlier form of a 
strip of rich work of no great height between the 
altar and the window ; this was the usual treatment of 

e.g. Seton, BothwelL 8 Crichton, Dunglass, etc. 



the wall space at t. e east ends of aisles and above 
side altars in transept^ we ll a s of that behind the high 
altar. In Scotland, h wev er, although this arrange- 
ment was quite commor a blank or nearly blank east 
wall was not unknown; and was the rule behind 
the side altars of the fiftbnth and sixteenth century 
churches. 8 Altars were ne^-ly always placed against 
the unpierced east walls of he transepts of the late 
type of cruciform church. TU treatment of the altar 
itself was, of course, that comt on to all altars of the 
late Gothic period in this part ^f Europe, decoration 
on the wall behind taking the pace of the English 
window. The altars do not seem v> have been of the 
great length of contemporary Engish altars, and in 
the richer churches there was a tenancy to the use 
of more candles above the riddel pos 4 a t the ends of 
the altars, or hanging from the roof. 9 One may gather 
from contemporary Netherlandish pictures, such as 
those of the Van Eyck school, a very fair idea of 
the arrangements usual in Scotland in the period 
immediately preceding the Reformation. 10 

While in England the reserved Eucharist was almost 
invariably suspended above the altar in the hanging 
pyx, in Scotland the pyx was placed in a richly adorned 
ambry or " Sacrament House" in the wall of the 
sanctuary on the north side of the high altar. The 
hanging pyx was used in some places, but latterly 

7 As at Whitekirk, Fowlis Easter, or Innerpeffray. But 
Sweetheart, Melrose, Haddington, St Giles, Perth and Tan 
provide examples of the large east window. 

8 As at Linlithgow, Stirling, Dunkeld, and elsewhere. 

9 See the inventories of the Cathedral and King's College, 
Aberdeen, Registrant, Episcopatus Aberdonensis, ii, Edin., 1845, 
and Fasti Aberdonenses . . . Records of the University and 
King's College, Aberdeen, 1854. 

Irf e.g. " The Exhumation of St Hubert," in the National 
Gallery, and the Flemish pictures reproduced in the Alcuin 
Club Collections, Nos. V, X. 


the Sacrament House became general, at any rate 
in the north and east of Scotland. 11 Very large 
credence niches are to be found in many Scottish 
chancels, usually in the south wall but frequently also 
in the east wall. In one or two cases there are curious 
outside spouts to piscinae, as at Guthrie. 

Stone rood lofts remain at Glasgow and lona Cathe- 
drals, Melrose Abbey and Lincluden Collegiate church. 
The wall above the chancel arch is pierced by a 
second and smaller arch at Dunblane Cathedral, and 
Brechin Cathedral has a large shallow recess in the 
same position. There is a magnificent set of early 
sixteenth-century canopied stalls in King's College 
chapel, Aberdeen, with a wooden rood loft, and there 
are remains of a rood screen at the collegiate church 
of Fowlis Easter in Forfarshire. At Guthrie is a very 
remarkable waggon roof with paintings on the panels, 
and Aberdeen Cathedral has a very richly carved and 
painted flat roof upon the nave. But very little 
medieval woodwork has survived. 

No medieval church plate remains, but that of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is often of great 
interest. 12 Besides the early square handbells of Celtic 
type, there are numerous interesting bells, many of 
them Dutch or Flemish, dating from the end of the 
fifteenth century to the beginning of the eighteenth. 
While the larger churches had several bells and occa- 
sionally carillons, Netherlandish practice was taken as 
the model, and the English "ring," tuned to the 
diatonic scale, was unknown. 

The Reformation put an end to church building, but 

11 Good examples, chiefly in Perthshire and Forfarshire, as 
at Fowlis Easter, Bendochy and Cortachy, and in Aberdeen- 
shire and Banffshire, as at Kintore, Kinkell, Auchindoir, Cullen 
and Deskford. See Transactions of Aberdeen and Scottish 
Eccltsiological Societies, passim. 

a Fully illustrated in Old Scottish Communion Plait, T. 
Burns, Edinburgh, n.d. 


there was a slight revival in the seventeenth century, 
when some very good and picturesque work was done, 
full of the old Gothic feeling. 18 In Scotland the 
Renaissance makes itself felt in architecture earlier 
than in England, but on the other hand Gothic feeling 
and tradition lingered on all through the seventeenth 
century in out of the way places, though the architec- 
tural remains of that date are mostly domestic and not 

The old churches of Scotland are little known in 
England, because so many of them are off the tourist 
track and unseen by most English visitors. But Scot- 
land was never rich in large parish churches. The 
parishes were of great extent, and there were numerous 
outlying chapels, and even in medieval times churches 
with aisles or with a tower were the exception in 
country districts. In the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, rich people, instead of enlarging perhaps more 
than one parish church, erected collegiate churches on 
a very expensive scale, with ashlar walls and stone 
vaulting, and a costly foundation for canons, preben- 
daries and singers. Some of these churches were also 
parochial, but others were separate foundations. Some, 
like the famous college church of Roslin, 14 were never 

Next to Glasgow Cathedral, perhaps the finest 
church was Elgin Cathedral (now in ruins), which had 
three towers and double aisles to the nave. Its fine 
octagonal chapter house is still standing. Aberdeen 
Cathedral has a remarkable granite nave of the fifteenth 
century, and a fine west front flanked by two towers 
bearing spires which have triple crowns of small battle- 

18 As at Dairsie, Fife. 

14 This extraordinary marvel of richness is not due to the 
importation of foreign workmen or designs, but merely to a 
remarkable development and combination of the national 
Atures of the time. 


ments round them at intervals. The central tower and 
choir are gone. 

No account of Scottish church architecture would 
be complete without some mention of the old cathedral 
of the diocese of Orkney at Kirkwall, though really 
Norse and not Scottish work. Largely Romanesque 
and transitional in style, it has aisles its whole length, 
a central tower, and apsidal chapels on the east of the 
transepts; although but 218 feet long, its proportions 
are such that it looks double the size. The diocese of 
Orkney formed a part of the Norwegian province of 
Throndhjem until 1468. 

The standard book on Scottish Church Architecture 
is Messrs. Macgibbon and Ross's Ecclesiastical Archi- 
tecture of Scotland, 3 vols., Edinburgh. 

THEATRE (p. 267, line 18, and fig. 234). Some 
authorities hold' that the Fortune Theatre was rectan- 




St. Adrian : d. 290 ; anvil ; lion ; patron saint of Germany and 

Flanders and of soldiers ; protector from the plague. 
St. Agatha : d. 251 ; holding a dish containing her breasts ; 

pincers or shears. 

St. Agnes : d. 304 ; branch of olive, lamb, palm. 
St. Aidan: d. 651; Bishop; evangelist of Northumbria; a stag 

at his feet. 
St. Alban : d, 304 ? ; protomartyr of England ; sword ; fountain ; 

sometimes his head in his hand ; civilian dress and mace. 
St. Alphege: 954?- 1012; Archbishop of Canterbury; his 

chasuble full of stones. 
St Ambrose : 340 P-397 ; Bishop ; beehive, books, two human 

bones ; scourge. 

St. Andrew : Apostle ; a St. Andrew's cross. 
St. Anne : teaching the Virgin to read. 
St Anthony : 251-356 ; Hermit ; a bell, sometimes hung from 

a crutch ; a hog ; fire near ; a T-cross on his shoulder. 
St. Antony of Padua: 1195-1231; Franciscan; Infant Jesus 

in his arms or on a book ; flame in his hand or on his breast ; 

a mule kneeling. 

St Apollonia : d. 250 ; pincers holding a tooth. 
St Augustine of Canterbury : d. 604. 
St. Augustine of Hippo : 354-430 ; Bishop ; books, sometimes 

a heart, flaming or transfixed by a sword. 
St Barbara : d. 303 ; patron of armourers ; cup and wafer, 

tower, feather, sword, crown. 
St Barnabas : Apostle. 

St Bartholomew : Apostle ; knife ; his skin held over his arm. 
St Benedict : 480 P-542 ? ; founder of Western monachism ; 

Benedictine habit ; a broken cup ; asperges or sprinkler ; a 

raven with a loaf in its beak ; a (broken sieve. 


St. Bernard of Clairvaux: 1091-1153; beehive, inkhorn, pen, 
etc. ; sometimes a demon bound ; white habit ; three mitres. 
St. Blaise : d. 289 ; Bishop ; patron of woolcombers ; iron comb. 
St. Boniface: 680P-755; Archbishop, Benedictine ; book trans- 
fixed by a sword or stained with blood ; foot on prostrate tree. 
St. Botolph : d. 680 ; Abbot. 
St. Bridget of Sweden : d. 1373 ; founder of Order of Brigitines ; 

crozier ; pilgrim's staff; red band across her forehead. 
St Catherine of Alexandria : d. 307 ; patron of Venice and of 

places of education ; a wheel ; head of a man under her feet. 
St Cecilia : d. 280 ; crown of roses ; musical instruments ; 

patron saint of music. 

SL Chad : d. 672 ; patron saint of Lichfield. 
St. Christopher: d. 364; carrying the Infant Jesus across a 


St. Chrysostom. See St John Chrysostom. 
St. Clara: 1193-1253; founder of Order of Franciscan nuns; 

cross, lily, pyx. 

St Clement : 30 P-100 ; an anchor ; Pope's or Bishop's robes. 
St. Constantine : 272 P-337 ; Emperor ; holds the Labarum or 

standard bearing the Greek letters X P. 
St. Cosmas and St Damian : d. 301 ; always together ; red 

robes ; vessels, surgical instruments ; patrons of medicine. 
St Cuthbert: d. 687; Bishop; an otter by his side; patron 

saint of Durham ; holds St. Oswald's head. 
St Denis : first century ; Bishop ; patron saint of France ; 

carries his own head. 
St. Dominic: 1170-1221 ; founder of Dominican Order; black 

and white habit; black and white dogs ('Domini canes') 

with torches in their mouths ; star on forehead ; hly. 
St Dorothy : d. 303 ; crown of roses or holding roses in her 


St Dunstan : 924-988 ; Archbishop of Canterbury. 
St Edith of Wilton : 962 P-984 ; washing a beggar's feet. 
St Edmund : 841-870 ; King and martyr ; an arrow, sometimes 

piercing a crown ; a wolf near, or a wolf guarding his head. 
St Edward : d. 1066 ; King and Confessor ; royal robes ; 

sceptre surmounted by a dove ; a ring. 
St Edward : 963P-978 ; King and martyr. 
St. Egidio. See St Giles. 
St Eloy, Lo, or Eligius : d. 659 ; Bishop ; patron of Bologna 

and of blacksmiths ; an anvil. 


St. Elizabeth : mother of John Baptist ; usually in the scene of 

the salutation. 
St. Etheldreda : 630 P-679 ; nun's habit, crowned ; building a 

church ; asleep under a tree ; patron saint of Ely. 
St. Erasmus, or Elmo : d. 296 ; bishop. 

St. Euphemia : d. 307 ; a sword through her breast ; lion ; lily. 
St. Eustace : d. 118 ; stag with crucifix (as St. Hubert) ; or 

carries two children across a river ; or stands in river, two 

children carried off by beasts. 

St. Faith : d. 290 ; carries a bundle of rods ; iron hook. 
St. Francis of Assisi : 1^82-1226 ; founder of the Franciscan 

Order ; the Stigmata or wounds of Christ ; lamb ; lily. 
St. Genevieve: d. 512 ; patron saint of Paris; a distaff; sheep; 

sometimes a basket of loaves ; a candle lighted, a demon 

trying to blow it out with bellows, angel lighting it 
St George : d. 303 ; patron saint of England, Germany and 

Venice, and of soldiers ; a dragon ; red cross on white 

ground on banner or on breast ; white horse. 
St Giles or Egidius : d. 725 ; an arrow piercing his breast or 

through his hand (very rare) ; or a hind near, pierced by 

an 'arrow; patron saint of Edinburgh, of cripples, etc. 
St. Gregory the Great : 544 P-604 ; Pope's robes ; dove on his 

shoulder or hovering over his head. 
St Guthlac: 663P-714; patron saint of Crowland. 
St. Helen : d. 328 ; empress ; holds large cross. 
St. Henry : 1421-1471 ; King of England. 
St Hubert : d. 727 ; Bishop ; patron of the chase ; stag with 

crucifix between its horns. 
St Hugh of Lincoln: 1135-1200; Bishop; Carthusian habit; 

swan ; three flowers. 

St Hugh of Lincoln : 1246 P-1255 ; boy-martyr. 
St. Ives or Yvo : d. 1303 ; patron saint of lawyers ; lawyer's 

robes ; sometimes surrounded by widows ana orphans. 
St James the Great : Apostle ; patron of Spain ; staff, bottle, 


St James the Less : Apostle ; a fuller's staff or club. 
St Jerome: 345-420; in his study, or in the desert; a cardinal's 

hat, a lion, a partridge. 
St. Joachim : father of the Virgin ; meeting St. Anna at the 

gate ; carries a staff and a basket containing two doves. 
St John Baptist : a lamb ; a tall staff with a cross-piece ; hairy 



St. John Chrysostom : d. 407 ; patriarch of Constantinople ; 

chalice and book of gospels ; beehive. 

St. John de Matha : d. 1213 ; founder of the Order of Trini- 
tarians for the redemption of captives ; white habit, with blue 

and red cross on breast ; fetters, or angel leading captives. 
St John : Evangelist ; eagle ; cup with serpent. 
St. Joseph : a lily. 

St Jude : Apostle ; a halberd or boat. 
St. Juliana : end of third century ; holds dragon or devil by 

a chain ; hanging by her hair. 
St. Laurence : d. 258 ; a gridiron. 
St. Lazarus of Bethany : patron of Marseilles. 
St. Leonard : d. 559 ; patron of prisoners and slaves ; vested as 

deacon or abbot ; holds chains. 
St. Louis (IX): 1215-1270 ; King of France; royal robes, crown 

and sceptre or Franciscan habit ; crown of thorns. 
St. Lucy : d. 303; patron of Syracuse; protectress from diseases 

of the eye ; eyes in a dish ; sword or wound in her neck ; 


St. Luke : Evangelist ; an ox ; a picture of the Virgin. 
St. Margaret : d. 306 ; a dragon. 
St. Mark : Evangelist ; lion ; pen, ink and scroll. 
St. Martha of Bethany: patron of housewives and cooks; keys 

at her girdle ; pot of holy water ; ladle ; dragon bound at 

her feet. 
St. Martin of Tours : d. 397 ; beggar at his feet or receiving 

half his cloak. 
St. Mary, the wife of Cleophas : mother of SS. James and John 

and of SS. Simeon and Joseph ; with her four sons bearing 

their emblems. 

St. Mary, the Blessed Virgin : a lily. 

St. Mary Magdalene : patron of penitent women and of Mar- 
seilles ; box or vase of alabaster ; long hair. 
St Matthew: evangelist; an angel or man; pen, ink and 

scroll ; bag of money ; a knife or dagger. 
St. Matthias : Apostle ; an axe. 
St. Nicholas of Myra or Bari : d. 326 ; Bishop ; ship ; anchor ; 

sometimes with three balls ; or three children in a tub ; 

patron saint of Russia, of sailors and children, and others. 
St. Norbert : 1092 P-1134 ; founder of Order of Premonstraten- 

sians ; white habit over black ; demon bound at his feet ; 

monstrance or cup, spider over it 


St. Olaf : eleventh century ; with loaves. 

St. Oswald : 605 P-642 ; King ; royal robes, large cross. 

St. Osyth, Osith, or Sytha : second century ; queen and 

abbess ; carries her head. 
St. Paul : Apostle ; sword. 
St Peter : Apostle ; keys ; fish. 

St. Peter Martyr : d. 1252 ; Dominican ; a wound in the head. 
St Philip : Apostle ; a cross, sometimes T-shaped. 
St. Radegunda : 519 P-587 ; crowned abbess ; captive kneeling at 

her feet ; broken fetters in her hand. 
St. Koch : d. 1327 ; points to a wound in his leg ; pilgrim's 

staff and shell ; dog by his side, an angel 
St. Sebastian : d. 288 ; bound to a tree or column and pierced 

with arrows. 
St. Sidwell, or Sativola : eighth century ; scythe and well ; 

carries her head. 

St Simon : Apostle ; a saw ; sometimes fishes. 
St Sitha. See St. Zita. 
St Stephen : protomartyr ; deacon's robes ; a stone striking 

his head. 

St Swithin : d. 862 ; Bishop of Winchester. 
St Sytha. See St. Osyth. 
St. Thomas : Apostle ; patron of builders and architects ; a 

builder's square. 
St Thomas Aquinas: 1224P-1274; Dominican; chalice, star in 

his breast 
St Thomas 4 Becket: 1119P-1170; Archbishop; Benedictine; 

a wound in the head. 
St Ursula : a banner with a red cross, sometimes surrounded 

by many virgins ; patron saint of young girls. 
St Veronica: holding a cloth on which is the face of Our 

St Vincent of Saragossa : third century ; deacon ; raven and 

lion by him ; iron hook. 
St. Vitus : d. 303 ; a cauldron of oil ; a boy with a palm ; 

generally a cock, sometimes a lion or wolf. 
St. Walstan : 1016 ; confessor ; crowned and in king's robes ; 

holding a scythe and styled opifer ; two calves below. 
St Werberga : d. 708 ; patron of Chester. 
St Wilfrid, or Wilfrith : 709 ; Bishop of the Northumbrians ; 

baptising Pagans ; broken idols. 


St. Winefred : seventh century ; carries her head ; beheaded 
before an altar. 

St. William of Norwich: 1132-1144; depicted as being cruci- 
fied by Jews. 

St Withburgha : 743 ; a church in her hand ; two dovhs at her 

St Wulfstan, Wulstan, or Wolstan : d. 1095 ; bishop ; fixing 

his crozier in St. Edward's tomb ; devil behind him with a 

book ; giving sight to a blind man. 
St Zita, Citha, or Sitha : fourteenth century ; as a housekeeper 

with keys, loaves ; or with rosary, bag, book. 


SS. Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory, Jerome. 


SS. Gregory Nazianzen, John Chrysostom, Basil the Great, 
Athanasius ; a fifth is sometimes added, namely St. Cyril of 


Gabriel, the angel of the Annunciation. 

Michael : the angel of the Resurrection, receives and weighs 

the souls of the departed, hence has scales. 
Raphael : accompanied Tobias ; represented with Tobias, who 

carries a fish. 

For much of the matter in this list I am indebted to Saints and 
their Symbols, by E. A. G. (2nd ed., Lond., 1882) ; and to Emblems 
f Saints, by F. C. Husenbeth, 3rd ed. by A. Jessop, 1882. 



Henry Hawthorne, fl. temp. Qu. Elizabeth ; Surveyor to the 

Queen ; gallery at Windsor Castle. 
John Shute, fl. 1550-1570, architect and limner; wrote Tht 

First and Chief Groundes of Architecture. 
John Thorpe, fl. 1570-c. 1610, surveyor ; Longford Castle, 


Huntingdon Smithson, d. 1648, surveyor ; Wollaton Hall, Notts. 
Thomas Holt, 1578?-! 624, carpenter; Oxford: Wadham College. 
Ralph Symonds, fl. 1600, builder ; Cambridge : Trinity College 


Bernard Jansen,/. 1610-1630, architect? ; Audley End, Essex. 
John Westley, d. 1656, bricklayer ; and Thomas Grumbald, 

mason ; Cambridge : Clare College, east and south ranges 

and bridge. 
Inigo Jones, 1573-1652, architect; London: Banqueting House, 

John Abel, 1597-1694, carpenter ; Leominster, Herefordshire : 

Market Hall (now " The Grange"). 

John Webb, 1611-1672, architect; Ashdown Park, Berkshire. 
Sir Christopher Wren, 1632-1723, architect; London: St Paul's 


Robert Hooke; 1635-1703, astronomer, etc. ; London: Bethle- 
hem Hospital. 

William Talnian, d. 1700, architect; Chatsworth House, Derby- 
Henry Aldrich, 1647-1710, Dean of Christchurch, Oxford; 

Oxford : Peckwater Quadrangle, Christchurch. 
Henry Bell, d. 1717, architect; King's Lynn, Norfolk: Customs 

George Clark, 1660-1736, statesman (Secretary of State 

War, etc.); Oxford: Christchurch Library. 
Sir John Vanbrugh, 1664-1726, dramatist and architect ; 

hcim Palace, Oxfordshire. 



Colin Campbell, d. 1734, architect; Houghton House, Norfolk. 
Nicholas Hawkesmoor, 1666-1736, architect; London: St. 
George's Church, Bloomsbury. 

Thomas Archer, d. 1743, architect ; Birmingham : St Philip's 

John James, d. 1746, architect; London: St George's Church, 
Hanover Square. 

William Kent, 1684-1748, architect ; London : Horse Guards. 

Giacomo Leoni, 1686-1746, architect; Moor Park, Hertford- 

James Gibbs, 1682-1754, architect ; London : St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields (Trafalgar Square). 

Thomas Ripley, d. 1758, architect ; London : The Admiralty. 

Sir James Borough, 1690-1764, Master of Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge; worked with James Essex, architect; 
Cambridge : Clare College ChapeL 

Earl of Burlington, 1695-1753, amateur ; worked with Camp- 
bell, Kent, Leoni, Flitcroft 

Henry Flitcroft, 1697-1769, architect; Woburn Abbey, Bed- 

George Dance, senior, 1698-1768, architect; London: Mansion 

Isaac Ware, d. 1766, architect ; London : Chesterfield House. 

William Adam, fl. 1750, architect ; buildings in Edinburgh and 

John Wood, senior, 1705?-! 754, architect ; Prior Park, Bath. 

Stephen Wright,/. 1750, architect; Cambridge: University 
Library, east front. 

John Vardy, d. 1765, architect ; London : Spencer House. 

James Paine, c. 1720-1789, architect ; Kedleston Hall, Derby- 

Sir Robert Taylor, 1714-1788, architect ; London : stone build- 
ings, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

John Carr, 1723-1807, architect ; Harewood House, Yorkshire. 

James Essex, 1722-1784, architect ; buildings at Cambridge. 

Sir William Chambers, 1726-1796, architect; London: Somerset 

Robert Adam, 1728-1792, architect ; Luton House, Bedford- 

Thomas Cooley, 1740-1784, architect; Royal Exchange, Dublin. 

George Dance, junior, 1741-1825, architect; London, St. Luke's 
Hospital, Old Street. 


Thomas Harrison, 1744-1829, architect ; buildings in Lancashire. 
Henry Holland, 1746P-1806, architect; London: Brooks 's Club. 
James Gandon, 1742-1823; architect; Dublin: Customs House. 
James Wyatt, 1746-1813, architect ; Fonthill Abbey. 
Sir John Soane, 1752-1836, architect; London: Bank of 

John Nash, 1752-1835, architect ; London : Buckingham 

William Inwood, 1771-1843, architect ; London : St. Pancras 

Church, Marylebone. 
Sir Jeffery WyatviUe, 1766-1840, architect ; Windsor Castle, 

alterations (Gothic). 
Thomas Rickman, 1776-1841, architect ; writer on Gothic 

architecture ; Cambridge : St. John's College, new court. 
William Wilkins, 1778-1839, architect; London: National 

Sir John Smirke, 1781-1867, architect ; London : British 

Edward Blore, 1787 (or 1790)- 1879, architect and draughtsman ; 

Moreton Hall, Cheshire ; published Monumental Remaint. 
Charles Robert Cockerell, 1788-1863, architect; Oxford: 

Taylorian Institute. 
George Basevi, 1794-1845, architect; Cambridge: Fitzwilliam 


Sir William Tite, 1798-1873, architect ; London : Royal Ex- 
Sir Charles Barry, 1795-1860, architect ; London : Houses of 

Deciruus Burton, 1800-1881, architect ; London : Athenaeum 

Club, Pall Mali 




Saxon to 1066 

William I. . 




William II. . 




Henry I. . 




Henry II. . 



Richard I. . 


Early English 


John . . . 




Henry III. . 


Edward I. . 




Edward II. . 




Edward III. 



Richard II. . 




Henry IV. . 




Henry V. . 


Henry VI. . 


Edward IV. 


Edward V. . 


Richard III. 



Henry VII. 


Henry VIII. 



Edward VI. 



Mary . . . 


Elizabeth . 


James I. . . 


Stuart or Jacobean 

Charles I. . 



Commonwealth . 


Charles II. . 


James II. 
William and Mary 


Hanoverian or Georgian, 
including Queen Anne 

Anne . 



George I. . . 


George II. . 


George III. . . 
George IV. . 


Revived styles 

William IV. 



Victoria . . 


Edward VII. 



le, habit, etc. 
oduced into E 



2 o 










: l 



G< <O 




n t-~* 

* * 

The only English order. 
Double houses for men and 
women, ruled by prioress. 
cassock. Women, black 
cloak, hood, and tunic. 
Grey cloak and hood, grey 


i cT 

'fi O j^ 

No houses of women in Eng- 
land. Long black gown, 
with wide sleeves and hood; 

white cassock. 1250. 
White cloak over brown 
tunic. 1240. 

Franciscan nuns. 1293. 

Gown like a sack. 1257. 
White, red, or blue cross. 

1 OAA 

Rule of St. Augustine. Black 
cassock. 1257. 




Black mantle, with eight- 
pointed white cross. 1100 
White mantle with red cross; 
c. 1140. Suppressed 1310. 





I-H ^ 



Q< 00 

l^ "" 






St. Gilbert of Sem- 
pringham, Lin- 

St. Francis, at 



_' c 
S2 o 


Amalgamated by 



O cS 

St. Francis and St. 
Clara, at Assisi. 

St. John of Matha. 



Gerard of Jeru- 
Hugh de Payens, 
at Jerusalem. 


i- CO 


co o t, 

o ^ 

o .S 



r- ^ E 




cu CB cu 

>H CO _T5 


S sf 

eg coiS 

o % : 


^ Ic 



"^ o o 


.2^ u 

*-.S 2 


M v 









iS 2 


* * 



. . 






'S ca 




s gi 


* ai 





Carmelite . 


CD *" .5 

t- '? t 

^S S.3 

O PkS 

+s ,^'E 

55 OH 


Crossed Fri 

S h 

O * 

*3 i 

S'i- 1 



Abbess : i 
Abbot: i 

Abel, J., carpenter: 316 
Aberdeen cathedral : painted 
roof, 307; granite nave, 308; 
west front, ibid. 

King's college: tower, 305; 
stalls, 307; rood-loft, ibid. 
Abernethy tower : 302 
Adam, R., architect : 317 
Adam, W., architect: 317 
Agatha, St. , pictures of : 205 
Agnes, St., pictures of: 205 
Aidan, St. : his influence on 

architecture, 56 
Alabaster reredoses : 205, 248 
Alban, St., shrine of: 132 
Albert of Jerusalem : founds 

Carmelite order, 322 
Aldrich, H., amateur archi- 
tect: 316 

Alexander III, King of Scot- 
land: his death, 303 
Alsop-in-the-Dale: impost and 

arch: Fig. 121 
Altar-rails, 63 

Ambrose, St., pictures of: 205 
Andrew, St., effigy of: xvi. 
Anthony, St., pictures of: 203, 

Apollonia, St., pictures of : 


Apse : 2, 49 

d'Arbrissel, Robert : founds 
order of Fontevraud, 320 

Arbroath abbey: 303 

Archangels, 315 

Archer, T., architect: 317 

Architects, English : chrono- 
logical list of, 316 

Argyllshire : crosses, 302 

Armariu* : 141 

Arris : 12 

Artemisia builds mausoleum: 

Arundel castle : 40 

Ashdown Park : 316 

Assisi : 321 

Assyria : 8 

Athens : Byzantine churches, 

Church at Daphni : 299 
Erechtheum, 33 
Parthenon, 198, 208 
Temple of Jupiter Olym- 
pus, base, Fig. 19 (see p. 

Auchindoir church : sacrament 
house, 307 

Audley End, 316 

Augustine, St., of Canterbury: 
his influence on architec- 
ture, 57 ; introduces basili- 
can plan, 55, 75 ; not the 
founder of English mona- 
chism, 153 

Augustine, St., of Hippo, 
pictures of : 205 

Augustinian canons : 164, 

This index does not include the alphabetical List of Saints. 



Augustinian friars, 321 
Avignon : 320 

Bacon,Francis, Lord Verulam, 

effigy of: 171 
Balsham, Bishop Hugh de : 

founds Peterhouse : 67 
Balsham church : window, Fig. 


Bamburgh castle, 38 

Bangor cathedral : tile pave- 
ment, Fig. 237 (see p. xxiii.) 

Barnack church : capital, Fig. 

Barry, Sir C., architect : 3*8 

Basevi, G., architect 318 

Basil the Great, St. : founds 
eastern monachism, 153 

Bath, Prior Park: 317 

Bear's-breach : 2 

Beaumaris castle : 43 ; corbel- 
table, Fig. 80 (tee p. xvf.) 

church : tracery, Fig. 252 
(tee p. xxiv.) 

Bee-hive cell, 56 

Bell, H., architect: 316 

Bendochy church : sacrament 
house, 307 

Benedic Biscop : his buildings, 

Benedict, St. : founds religious 
order, 153, 320 

Benedictine order: 154, 320; 
presses for books, 141; re- 
formed branches of, 160 ; 
typical plan of monastery, 

fig- *37 

Bengeo church plan: Fig. 62 
Berkeley castle, 40 

church : capital, Fig. 103 
Berno : founds order of 

Cluniacs, 320 
Bethlehem : church of the 

Nativity, 297 
Bethlehem Hospital : 316 

Beverley minster : frith stool, 


Biggar: 304 
Birmingham : St. Phillip's 

church, 317 

Blaise, St. , pictures of : 205 
Blenheim Palace: the name, 

207; built, 316 
Bologna, 323 
Bonahommes : religious order, 


Borough, Sir J,, amateur 
architect : 317 

Bothwell : 305 

Boule, Monseiur : invents buhl 
work, 25 

Boxford church : relieving 
arch, Fig. 12 (tee p. xiii.) 

Boyle, Richard, third Earl of 
Burlington. Set Burlington 

Brechin : cathedral, 303, 307 ; 
round tower : 302 

Brixworth church : 75 

Bruno, St. : founds Carthusian 
order, 320 

Burlington, Richard, Earl of, 
amateur architect 1317 

Burton, D., architect: 318 

Bury St. Edmunds : growth 
of the town round the mon- 
astery, 1 60; Jew's house, 1 20 

Byzantium: enamelling intro- 
duced from, 173; architec- 
ture of, 297 

Caernarvon castle : 43 
Caerphilly castle : 40, 41 
Callimachus, sculptor : 197 
Cambridge : church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, plan, Fig. 
141 ; church of St. Bene't, 
tower, Fig. 212; church of 
St. Mary the Great, mould- 
ing, Fig. 158 (gee p. xxi.); 
church of St. Mary the Less, 



charnel-house, 48 ; mould- 
ing, Fig. 159 (tee p. xxi.) 

Clare college built: 316; 
chapel built, 317 ; gateway, 
fig. 127 

Colleges: 66, 221; plays 
acted in, 266 

Fitzwilliam Museum : 318 
Hostels: 119 
King's college belfry : 19 ; 
lock plate in chapel, Fig. 125 
Lazar house : 139 
Queen's college, plan : 
Fig. 69 ; St. John's college, 
new court built, 318 ; strap- 
work, Fig. 223 

St. Radegund's priory : en- 
trance to chapter-house, 
Fig. 138 

Trinity college : hall built, 
317; library built, 145 

University Library : cor- 
nice, Fig. 99 (see p. xvii.) ; 
east front built, 318 
Cambridgeshire steeples : 256 
Campbell, C., architect: 317 
Candle-beam, 233 
Canons regular: 152, 164, 


Canons secular : their chapter- 
houses, 156 

Canterbury cathedral : de- 
scribed by Eadmer, 217 ; 
eastern transept, 284 ; 
foliage, 98; plan, Fig. 65; 
shrine of "Becket, 252 
Carlisle castle : 38, 40 
Carmelite Friars : 321 
Carnwath : 304 
Carpi: scagliola invented at, 


Carr, J., architect: 317 
Carthusian order: 162, 320; 

rule, 45, 162 
Castle Rising : 38 
Castorchurch: window,^. 245 

Catacombs : 259 

Cathedrals of secular canons : 
their chapter-houses, 156 ; 
their libraries, 141 

Catherine, St., of Alexandria : 
pictures of, 202, 203, 204 

Certosa, Pavia: 162 

Chambers, Sir W., architect: 

Chartreuse: 162, 320 

Chatsworth House : 316 

Chaucer, quoted: 169, 265 

Cheshire: ironworks, 136; tim- 
ber building: 272 

Chester cathedral : lectern in 
refectory, Fig. 158 ; tracery, 
Fig. 254 (tee p. xxiv.) 

Chestnut used for roofs : 240 

Chichester cathedral : 19 

China, its architecture imi- 
tated: no, 228 

Christ, image of: 210, 231; 
pictures of: 202, 204, 205 

Christopher, St. , effigy of: xvi. ; 
pictures of, 204 

Cistercian order: 160, 320; 
book-room, 141 ; domu$ eon- 
versorum, 86 ; iron works, 
135 ; rule, 160 ; typical plan 
of monastery, Fig. 140 

Citeaux: 160, 320 

Clara, St. : founds religious 
order, 321 

Clare, St., nuns of: 321 

Clark, G., amateur architect: 

Clay-bats: 65 

Clement IV., Pope: amalga- 
mates Augustinian Friars, 

Cluniac order : 160, 320 

Cluny : 160, 320 

Cochwillan : roof, Fig. 206 

Cockerell, C. R., architect : 

Colchester castle : 38 



Coldingham : 303 

Collegiate churches of Scot- 
land: 308 

Cologne brasses : 173 

Columba, St. : his mission to 
lona, 56 

Conisborough castle : 35 

Coniston: lead glazing, Fig. 
112 (tee p. xvii.) 

Constantine : Emperor, 297 

Constantinople : 297 ; church 
of Sta Sophia, 298, 299 

Conway castle : 43 

church roof : Fig. 205 

Cooley, T., architect: 317 

Cornwall: 265 

Corstorphine : 304 

Cortachy church : sacrament 
house, 307 

Coton church : keyhole es- 
cutcheon. Fig. 126 (tee p. 

Crete: 114 

Crichton : 305 

Cross, processional, aumbry 
for: 3 


Crossed Friars : 321 

Crucifix : 220, 231 

Crucifixion, pictures of : 205, 

Cullen church : sacrament 
house, 307 

Dairsie : 308 
Dalmeny church : 302 
Dance, G., senior, architect : 

Dance, G. , junior, architect : 


Dance ol Death, pictures of : 

Danes : destruction by, 164, 
244 ; their monuments, ib. ; 
their influence on architec- 
ture : 130, 245 

Daphni, church at : 299 

Davenant, Sir W. : improves 
theatre scenery, 268 

De Penitentia, friars : 321 

Derbyshire : alabaster works, 

Deskford church : sacrament 
house, 307 

Devonshire: marble, 149; 
screens in churches, 232 

Doctors of the Greek and 
Latin Churches : 315 

Dominic St. : founds order 
of friars, 321 

Dominican order: 321 

Doom, pictures of the: 203,204 

Dorchester church, Oxford- 
shire : 136 

Dosseret : 300 

Dover castle : 38 

Dryburgh : 303 

Dublin : Customs House, 318 ; 
Royal Exchange, 317 

Dunblane : 302, 303, 307 

Dundrennan : 303 

Dunfermline monastery : 302 

Dunglass : 305 

Dunkeld : 306 

Dunning church : tower, 302 

Diirer, Albert : 293 

Durham cathedral : eastern 
transept, 284 ; galilee, 106 ; 
lantern, 138 ; lavatory, 139 ; 
monastic kitchen, 159 ; pas- 
cal candlestick, 28 ; service 
of the Easter sepulchre, 90 ; 
taking sanctuary, 243; vault- 
ing, 288 

Eadmer, describes Canterbury 
cathedral: 217 

East Anglia : flint and stone- 
work, 96 ; church steeples, 
255 ; screens in churches, 
232 ; timber building, 272 



Edinburgh: St. Giles' cathe- 
dral, 305, 306 

Edmund, St., pictures of: 202, 

Edward the Confessor : pic- 
tures of, 203, 205 ; his 
shrine, 169, 175, 252 

Edward, St., King and Mar- 
tyr, pictures of, 205 

Egypt, its architecture, 195 

Eleanor, Queen, effigy of, 170, 

Elgin cathedral : 303, 308 

Elsing church : tracery, Fig. 
251 (tee p. xxiii.) 

Ely, Bishop's Palace : niche, 
Fig. 1 88 

Cathedral: armarium, 141; 
base, Fig. 166 (gee p. xxi.); 
capital, Fig. 40 ; church and 
conventual buildings, plan, 
Fig. 137; galilee, 106; in- 
tersecting arches, Fig. 189 
(tee p. xxi.) ; ironwork, 133; 
Lady chapel, 137; lantern, 
138; shrine of St. Ethel- 
dreda, 169, 252; tile pave- 
ment, 269; west tower, 256; 
west transept, 284 

Enamel: 170, 172, 173 

England : apse introduced, 49 ; 
basilican planintroduced,54, 
55; celic plan introduced, 
56 ; cloister introduced, 64 ; 
confessio introduced, 73 ; 
dome introduced, 86 ; Gothic 
style, 108; influenceon Scot- 
tish architecture, 302, 303, 
304; ogee arch introduced, 
9 ; open timber roofs peculiar 
to, 233 ; paintings com- 
pared with those of Italy 
and France, 202 ; painting 
in tempera, 104 ; pointed 
arch introduced, 9 ; renais- 
sance architecture intro- 

duced, 9 ; sculpture, 1 70 ; 
table of periods of architect 
ture, 319 

Erechtheum : 33 

Escomb church : plan, Fig. 61 

Essex, J., architect, 317 

Etheldreda, St., shrine of: 252 

Ethiopia : 8 

Eton college: 66 

Evelyn, John : quoted, 108,197, 

Exeter cathedral : consecration 
cross, Fig. 76 

Farnham castle : 40, 43, 120 ; 
machicolations, Fig. 123; 
plan, Figt. 49, 50 

Fen Ditton : gables, Fig. 1 1 1 

Fire-dog: 5 

First and Chief Groundet of 
Architecture: 316 

Flemish ironwork, 132; monu- 
mental brasses, 138, 173; 
sculptors, 249. See also 
Holland and Netherlands 

Flitcroft, H., architect: 317 

Florence, S. Trinita: ara- 
besque, Fig. 9 (tee p. xiii.) 

Fontevraud, order of: 322 

Fonthill abbey : 320 

Fordham ch. : consecration 
cross, Fig. 75 

Forest of Dean : 135 

Fountains abbey : book-room, 
141 ; plan, Fig. 140 

Fowlis Easter : church, 306 ; 
rood-screen, 307 ; sacrament 
house, ibid. 

France : apse used, 49, 57 ; 
entresol used, 94 ; footlights 
introduced from, 2 69 ; Gothic 
style, 108; influence on Eng- 
lish architecture^ 7, Figt. 63, 
66, 256, 282 ; influence on 
Scottish architecture, 304; 
pointed arch introduced, 9 ; 
type of book-case used, 143. 



Francis, St. : founds order of 

friars, 321 

Franciscan order : 32 1 
Fratres conversi : 86 
Friars, orders of: 164, 321 
Frontlet : 5 
Furness abbey : book-room, 

141 ; ironworks, 135 

Games in cloisters : 65 

Gandon, J., architect : 318 

Garrick, D. : introduces foot- 
lights, 269 

George, St. , pictures of : 2 04 , 205 

Georgian architecture : 227, 

Gerard of Jerusalem : founds 
order of Hospitallers, 321 

Germans working in England: 

Germany : Gothic style, 109 ; 
Romanesque, ib. ; type of 
bookcase used, 143 

Gibbons, Grinling : 102 

Gibbs, J., architect: 317 

Gilbert, St., of Sempringham, 
founds order of canons, 164, 

Gilbertine order : 164,321 

Glasgow : cathedral, 303, 304, 
308 ; stone rood-loft, 307; 
Cross Steeple, 305 

Glastonbury : consecration 
crosses, 76 

Gloucester cathedral: carrells, 
32, 141 

Gloucestershire : ironworks, 
136 ; stone slates, 241 ; tim- 
ber building, 272 

Goodwood House : plan and 
elevation, Fig. 120 

Grantchester church : tracery, 
Fig. 250 

Great Abington church : trac- 
ery, Fig. 243 

Greece : architecture imitated, 
no ; marble, 149 

Greek Church : monastic sys- 
tem, 152 

Grumbald, T., mason : 316 

Guthrie: 307 

Haddington: 305, 306 
Haddon Hall: plan, 69, Figt. 

71, 119 
Hadstock church : moulding, 

Fig. 149 (see p. xx.) 
Halicarnassos : 150 
Hall: 120; its Latin name, 


Hampton Court : gates, 133 
Hamstall Ridware church : 

chalice and paten, Fig. 51 

(see p. xv.) 

Hanoverian architecture : 227 
Harding, St. Stephen. See 

Stephen Harding, St. 
Harewood House : 317 
Harlech castle : 43 
Harrison, T., architect: 318 
Haslingfield hall : pigeon- 
house, Fig. 199 (tee p. xxii.) 
Hatchments : 172 
Haunch of arch : 8 
Hawkesmoor, N. , architect : 


Hawthorne, H. , surveyor 1316 
Heacham church : moulding, 

Fig. 150 (tee p. xx.) 
Header : 22 
Hedingham castle : 38 
Helion Bumpstead ch. : con- 
secration cross, Fig. j6a. 
Henry III, King : his effigy, 

170; his tomb, 175 
Henry V, King : his effigy, 

Henry VI, King: foundsKing's 

and Eton colleges, 70 
Hereford: Bishop's Palace, 120 

cathedral : book-case, Fig. 



129; Lady chapel, 137; 
library, 142 
Herefordshire: ironworks, 136; 

timber building, 272 
Hexham abbey : confessio, 75; 

frith stool, 104 

Higham Ferrers school : tra- 
cery, Fig. 257 (see p. xxiv.) 
High tomb : 5 

Holland : bricks imported 
from, 24 ; stepped gables, 
77 type of bookcase used, 
143. See also Flemish and 

Holland, H., architect, 318 
Holt, T. , carpenter : 316 
Hooke, R. , amateur architect : 


Horham Hall : plan, Fig. 117 
(see p. xviii.) ; view of east 
side, Fig. 118 
Hospitallers, Knights : 321 
Houghton House : 317 
Hugh de Payens : founds 
order of Templars, 321 

Icklingham church : pave- 
ment, Fig. 236 

Icon : 300 

Iconottasis : 299 

Illisus, temple on the : base, 
Fig. 1 8 (see p. xiii.) 

Innerpedray : 306 

Inns of Court, plays acted in : 

Inwood, W., architect : 318 

lona : stone rood-loft in ca- 
thedral, 307 : missionaries 
from, 56 ; runic patterns, 

Ireland : crosses, 302 ; marble, 
149; martello towers, 150; 
runic patterns, 242 

Isleworth : brasses made at, 

Italians working in England : 
224, 252 

Italy : its architecture imi- 
tated, no; baptisteries in 
churches, 14; type of 
bookcase, 143 ; cloisters 
introduced from, 64 ; dome 
used, 86 ; fresco painting, 
104 ; Gothic style, 1091 
mezzanine floor used, 94; 
mosaic used, 1 75 ; terra- 
cottas imported from, 264 

James, J., architect: 317 
Jansen, B., architect: 316 
Jedburgh : 303 
Jersey : martello towers, 1 50 
Jerusalem : church of the 

Holy Sepulchre, 164 ; order 

of Templars founded at, 3 1 1 ; 

Temple at, 201 
Jews' houses ; 1 20 
John Baptist, St., pictures of : 

John the Evangelist, St., 

statues of: 220, 232 
John of Matha, St. : 321 
Johnson, Roger, blacksmith: 


Jones, Inigo, architect : 316 ; 
designs masques, 268 ; the 
first English architect, 225 ; 
introduces Palladian archi- 
tecture, 101,207, 2 25; adopts 
new type of house-plan, 125; 
sculpture in his buildings, 
249; uses Venetian window, 


Justinian, Emperor: architec- 
ture under, 298 

Kedleston Hall: 317 
Kelso : 303 
Kenilworth castle : 38 



Kent, W. , architect : 3 1 7 
Kentish tracery: 281, Fit;. 25 3 
Kidwelly castle : 43 
Kilwinning: 303 
King James' Gothic : 109, 227 
King's Cliff church : steeple, 

Fig. 221 (tee p. xxii.) 
King's Lynn : Customs House, 

Kinkell church : sacrament 

house, 307 
Kinnersley church : corbel, 

Fig. 78 (tee p. xvi.) 
Kintone church : sacrament 

house, 307 

Kirkmadrine : crosses, 302 
Kirkstall abbey : armarium, 

141 ; book-room, ib. ; iron- 
works, 135 

Kirkwall cathedral : 309 

Lacunar: 65 

Lancashire: timber building, 

Landwade church : consecra- 
tion cross,J r ip.74 (fee p. xvi.) 

Lapis Lydiut : 275 

Laud, Archbishop : decides 
question of altars, 63 ; in- 
troduces credence, 79 ; at- 
tempts Gothic revival, 109 

Lawrence, St., pictures of: 205 

Lectern : 5 

Leeds castle : 43 

Leightone, Tho:nas de, black- 
smith : 131 

Leorainster: market hall, 3 1 6 

Leoni, G., architect: 317 

Leper windows : 1 48 

Leuchars : church, 302 

Lichfield cathedral : library, 

142 ; tracery, Fig. 249 
Limoges: enamels, 170, 172, 

Lincluden collegiate church : 


Lincoln cathedral : galilee, 
106; library, 142, 145 
Jew's house, 120 

Lincolnshire : steeples, 256 

Lindisfarne : 56 

Linlithgow : 304, 305, 306 

Litany desk : 94, 146 

Little Shelford church : coffin 
lids, Figt. 68, 142, 143 

Lombardic apse, 57 

London : 

Admiralty: 317 
Atheneeum club : 318 
Bank of England : 318 
Bridge: 25 
British Museum : 3 1 8 
Brooks's club : 318 
Buckingham Palace : 318 
Charterhouse : 162 
Chesterfield House : 317 
City churches : 257 
The Fire : 257 
Fortune Theatre: 267,309, 

fig. 234 

Horse Guards : 317 
Houses of Parliament: 318 
Lincoln's Inn : 128 
Lincoln's Inn Fields : 317 
Mansion House : 317 
National Gallery : 3 1 8 
Royal Exchange : 318 
St. Bartholomew's church, 

Smithfield : triforium, Fig. 

242 (tee p. xxiii.) ; prior's 

pew, 213 

St. George's church, 

Bloomsbury: 318 

St. George's church, Han- 
over Square =317 

St. Luke's Hospital : 317 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields: 

church, 317 

St. Pancras church, Mary- 

lebone: 318 

St. Paul's cathedral: built, 

316; coupled columns, 78; 



dome, 86 ; old library, 142 ; 
present library, 145; rail- 
ings, 135 

Somerset House : 317 
Spencer House : 317 
Temple church : 1 64 
The Tower: 34, 37. 43 ; 
plan of the White Tower, 
Fig. 48 

Whitehall Palace: Fig. 
201, 316 

Longford castle : 316 
Long M elf ord church : 137 
Luton house: 317 
Lyhart, Walter, bishop of 
Norwich : his rebus, 223 

Mahometans: 9 

Mansard, Monsieur, inventor 

of mansard roof: 241 
Margaret, St., pictures of: 

203, 205 

Markinch church tower : 302 
Mary, the Blessed Virgin, 

pictures of, 202 , 204 ; statues 

of: 220, 232 
Mary Magdalene, St., pictures 

of: 205 

Mausolus, tomb of : 150 
Melrose abbey : 304, 306 ; 

stone rood-loft, 307 
Meole Brace church : chest, 

Fig. 124 

Merton, Walter de : inaugur- 
ates collegiate system, 67 
Michael, St., effigy of: xvi. ; 

pictures of: 202 
Midcalder, 305 
Miletus, Temple of Apollo 

Didymaeus : plan, Fig. 232 

(tee p. xxiii.) 
Military orders : 323 
Mitchia or scagliola, 245 
Mole'me, Robert of : founds 

Cistercian order, 320 
Monks: 152, 320 

Monmouth: 25 

Monte Cassino : 320 

Moor Park: 317 

Morris, the game of: 65, 


Mortella Bay, Corsica : 150 
Moses and Aaron, pictures of: 


Mount Carmel ; 320 
Mount Grace, Yorkshire : 163 
Mycenaean art : 114, 196 

Nash, G. : architect, 317 
Netherlands : bricks from, 24 ; 
influence on Scottish archi- 
tecture, 305 ; stained glass 
sent to Scotland, 305 ; 
church bells sent to Scot- 
land, 307. See also Flemish 
and Holland 

Netley abbey : book-room, 141 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne church : 


Nicholas, St., pictures of: 203 
Ninian, St. : 302 
Nonesuch Palace : 216 
Norbert, St. : founds Praemon- 

stratensian order ; 320 
Norfolk: ringinggalleries: 230 
Norham castle : 38 
Norse work at Kirkwall : 309 
Northampton, St. Peter's 

church : annulet, Fig. 7 
Northamptonshire steeples : 

256; stone slates, 241 
North Elmham : shop, Fig. 


Norway: province of Throndh- 
jem includes diocese of Ork- 
ney. 39 

Norwich : castle, 38 

Cathedral : armarium, 141; 
detached belfry, 19 ; lava- 
tory, 139, 159; plan, Fig. 
63 ; rebus of Bishop Lyhart, 



223; reredos, 228, 205; 
school, 48; spire, 256 

Deanery: base, Fig. 168 
(tee p. xxi.) 

Great Hospital: described, 
118; painted ceiling, 205; 
plan, Fig. i L6 

St. Andrew's church : 

capitals, Fig. 45 (tee p. xiv.) 

Nottinghamshire : alabaster 

works, 248 
Nuns: 321, 322 

Opus Alexandrinum, 301 
Oriental art: 7, 8, 9, 27, 57, 

86, 114, 132, 175, Fig. 63 
Orkney : diocese of, 309 ; 

round towers, 302 
Oxford : 

Bodleian Library : 145 
Christ Church library : 
316; Peckwater quad- 
rangle, 316; vaulting, 293 
Colleges : 66, 221 ; plays 
acted in : 266 
Hostels: 119 
Merton college : founded, 
67 : tracery, Fig. 252 

New college : 70, 142 ; 
plan, Fig. 70 

Taylorian Institute: 317 
Wadham college : 316 

Paestum : temple of Poseidon, 
plan, Fig. 229 (tee p. xxiii.) 

Paine, J., architect: 317 

Palladian architecture : 227 

Palladio, Andrea, architect : 
207 ; his works studied by 
Inigo Jones, 225 

Parian marble : 261 

Parker, Archbishop : issues in- 
quiries as to churches, 63 

Parthenon : optical corrections, 
198 ; parvis, 208 

Parvis, 208 

Paul, St., pictures of: 204 

Pavia: Certosa, 162 

Pediment : 2 

Penmon : cross, Fig. 85 

Pentice : 212 

Periods of English architec- 
ture : 319 

Perth, 306 

Peterborough cathedral: 
painted ceiling, 205 

Philippa, Queen, effigy of: 248 

Phocis, 298 

Pickering castle : 40 

Piers Ploughman : quoted, 209 

Plaster of Paris : 2 

Pluscarden, 303 

Porchester castle : 38 

Portico : 6 

Praemonstratensian canons : 

Pre"montr : 320 

Pre - Raphaelite movement : 

Purbeck marble : 73, 103, 149, 
170, 174, 210, 248 

Raunds church : capital, Fig. 

Ravenna : churches of, 298 

Reepham church : door hinge, 
Fig. 123; head of church- 
yard cross, Fig. 84 

Reformation, the : 4, 46, 62, 
65, 144, 167, 205, 218, 219, 
232, 249, 257 

Religious orders, table of : 320 

Repton church : 75 

Restoration of ancient build- 
ings : 147, 220 

Restoration, the : 63, 167, 103, 

Rhuddlan church: grave slabs, 
Figs. 144, 145 

Rickman, Thos., architect: 
names periods of architec- 
ture, 83, 89, 191. 212, 319; 



builds new court, St. John's 
college, Cambridge, 318 

Ripley, T., architect: 317 

Ripon cathedral : 75 

Rites of Durham : quoted, 90, 


Robert, Abbot of Molerae : 

founds Cistercian order, 320 

Robert d' Arbrissel: founds 

order of Fontevraud, 320 
Rochester castle : 38 
Rome: arch of Constantine, 

Arch of Titus : 230, 286, 
Fig, 194 (tee p. xxii.) 

Basilica of Maxentinus, 

Basilica Ulpia : plan, Fig. 
24 (tee p. xiii.) 

Church of S. Maria in 
Cosmedin, 298 
Churches : 244 
Colosseum: 230 
Pantheon: 86, 231 
St. Peter's: 13, 44, 86 
St. Peter's, Old : Fig. 57 
Temple of Fortuna Virilis : 
plan, tig. 230 (see p. xxiii.) 
Roslin collegiate church, 308 
Rotherham : 25 
Round or amphitheatre : 265 
Round towers : in England, 

256 ; in Scotland, 302 
Royal Arms in churches : 62 
Runic characters : 165, 242 
Ruskin, J. : quoted, 12 

Sacrament house, 307 
Sacraments : pictures of, 203 
St. Alban's abbey : painted 

ceiling, 205 ; plan, 59 (Fig. 

64); screen, 132; shrine, 

252 ; watcher's chamber, 

St. Andrew's : cathedral, 304 ; 

church of St. Regulus, 302 

St. Cross hospital, Winchester: 

St. Gall : plan of church, Fig. 

59 ; "paradise " at each end, 


St. Ives, Hunts : 25 
St. Just, Cornwall : 25 
S. Luke of Stiris in Phocis : 

monastery, 298 
Saints, alphabetical list of : 

Salisbury cathedral : detached 

belfry, 19 ; proportions, 59; 

lavatory, 139; library, 142 
Sail church : communion cup, 

Fig. 51 (tee p. xv.) 
Salop. See Shropshire 
Sandwich : 25 
Sassi, Guido : invents *cag- 

liolu, 245 

Scarborough castle : 38 
Scotland : church architecture 

of, 301 ; stepped gables, 77; 

window tracery, 282 
Scott, Sir G., quoted, 12 
Sebastian, St., pictures of: 

203, 205 
Selinus: temple of Empe- 

dokles, plan, Fig. 228 (te 

p. xxiii.) 

Sempringham : 164, 320 
Seton : 304, 35 
Seven Acts of Mercy, pictures 

of: 203 
Seven Deadly Sins, pictures 

of: 203 

Seven Sacraments. See Sacra- 
Shakespeare: quoted, 81, 138, 

212, 251, 267 

Sharpe, Edmund: 284, 319 
Shrewsbury: St. Mary's 

church, 136; timber house, 

Fig. 239 
Shropshire : timber building, 

272; ironworks, 136 



Shute, J., architect: 316 
Sicily : pointed arch intro- 
duced, 9 
Silchester : Romano - British 

church, plan 54, Fig. 58 
Smirke, Sir J., architect : 


Smithson, H., surveyor: 316 
Soane, Sir J., architect: 318 
Somersetshire : church towers, 


Sompting church : steeple, 255, 
Fig. 219 (fee p. xxii.) 

Southwell minster : capital, 
Fig. 1 06 

Spain : dome used, 86 ; iron 
imported from, 1 35 ; pointed 
arch used, 9 

Spiral: its use as an orna- 
ment, 196 

Spon, Monsieur : quoted, 208 

Stafford: St. Chad's church, 
bird's-beak ornament, Fig. 
29 (tee p. xiv.) 

Stamford : St. Leonard's 
priory, capital, Fig. 42 ' 

Stephen Harding, St. : 
founds Cistercian order, 
160, 322 

Stirling : 304, 306 

Stonehenge: 25, 151, 286 

Stretcher: 22 

Stuart and Revett's Antiqui- 
ties of Athens: 228 

Sudbury : lead glazing, Fig. 
113 (tee p. xvii.) 

Surrey ironworks : 1 35 

Sussex ironworks : 135, 136 

Suthdure : an early court of 
law, 218 

Swanington church : flint and 
stone work, Fig. 101 ; mould- 
ing, Fig. 153 (tee p. xx.) 

Swastica: Fig. 122 A 

Sweden, iron imported from: 

Sweetheart abbey : 304, 306 
Symonds, R. , builder : 316 

Tain : 306 

Talman, W. , architect : 316 

Taylor, Sir R., architect: 

Templars, Knights: 164, 219, 


Terra-cotta: 6 
Tesserae : 301 
Theatre: 5 
Thomas of Canterbury, St. : 

pictures of, 202, 203, 204, 

205 ; shrine of, 252 
Thorpe, J. , surveyor : 317 
Thrasyllus, monument of : 

moulding, Fig. 177 (see p. 

Three-decker : reading-desk 

and pulpit, so called : 222 
Throndhjem : province of, 309 
Tijou, Jean, blacksmith: 133 
Tile, roof : b 
Timber construction imitated 

in stone : 113, iq6 
Tintern abbey : book-room, 

141 ; ironworks, 135 
Tite, Sir W. , architect : 318 
Torel, William, sculptor : 170 
Tortoiseshell : 25 
Treasury of Atreus : 7, 3, Fig. 


Trinitarians, order of: 321 
Trinity, the Holy, pictures of : 

Trois Rois morts et les Trois 

Rois Vifs, les, pictures of : 

Tufa: 43 

Valance, William de, effigy of: 

Vanbrugh, Sir J., architect: 

Vardy, J., architect : 317 



Vatican : 44 
Vaulting: 9 
Veneer: 25 
Venice church of S. Mark, 

86, 299 ; influences English 

ironwork, 132 
Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus : 2, 

i 88, 200, 229 

Wakefield: 25 

Wales : rood lofts, 233 ; runic 

patterns, 242 
Wales, borders of steeples, 


Walpole, Horace, quoted: 109 
Ware, I., architect: 317 
Webb, J., architect =316 
Wells cathedral : library, 142 
Westley, J., bricklayer : 316 
Westminster abbey : apse, 49 ; 
diaper. Fig. 89 ; effigies, 138, 
248; ironwork, 131, 132; 
lady chapel (Henry VII. 's), 
137; lavatory, 1 39 ; moulded 
capital, Fig. 44 (see p. xiv. ) ; 
mosaics, 175; plan, Fig. 66; 
reredos, 205, 228 ; tomb of 
Edward the Confessor, 95, 
169, 252 ; tracery, Figt. 247, 
248 ; vaulting, 293 
Westminster Hall: 120, 238 
Wheel of Fortune, pictures of : 


Whitehall Palace, style of: 207 
Whitekirk : 306 
Whithorn: 302 
Whitminster: 151 
Wilby church : capital. Fig. 

170 (see p. xxi.) 
Wilfrid, St. : his buildings, 56 

Wilkins, W., architect =318 
William of Wykeham : 70 
Winchester cathedral : iron- 
work, 130; reredos, 228 
College, 66 

House in the close, barge- 
board, Fig. 15 (gee p. xiii.) 
Windsor Castle : 

Alterations by Wyatville, 

Gallery, 316 

Round tower or keep, 34, 
40 ; postern, 4 1 

St. George's chapel: iron- 
work, 133; pew, 213; vault- 
ing, 293 
Wing church: 75, Figt. 55, 


Woburn Abbey : 317 
Wollaton Hall, 316 
Wolstan, St., pictures of: 

Wood, J., senior, architect: 

Worcester ironworks, 136 
Worth church : plan, Fig. 60 
Wren, Sir C., architect: 316; 
climax of renaissance archi- 
tecture, 224, 225; library at 
Lincoln cathedral, 145; St. 
Paul's, 86, 302 ; steeples of 
city churches, 257 ; sculpture 
in his buildings, 249 
Wright, S., architect: 317 
Wyatt, J., architect: 318 
Wyatville, Sir J., architect: 

York cathedral, called " Min- 
ster": 151 

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