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.... - .
ADELAIDE WALKER NUGENT
A GLOSSARY OF
OF TERMS USED IN
THOMAS DINHAM ATKINSON
WITH 265 ILLUSTRATIONS
THIRD EDITIOS REVISED
THE WILLIAM T. COMSTOCK CO.
LONDON: METHUEN & CO. LTD.
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
THIS little book is limited to the historical aspect
of Architecture, and only deals incidentally with
words used in art and art criticism and in building.
But at the same time many technical terms are to be
found, and constructional terms in particular ; for con-
struction lies at the very root of the matter.
More attention than is usual in books of this kind is
devoted to that part of the subject which bears on
social and religious life. Thus more space is given to
houses and churches and proportionately less to purely
architectural terms such as capitals and vaults.
Definitions are in most cases unnecessary ; they are
sometimes given, as in ARCH, because it is interesting
to work out a definition ; and this particular instance,
by the by, illustrates the importance I attach to con-
struction. Derivations are given where they are illu-
minating or curious. When there has been a choice
the most familiar word or form of word has generally
been adopted without much regard to philology on the
one hand or to medieval use or monkish slang on the
Many terms used in Greek and Roman architecture
are included because they are necessary to a proper
understanding of Renaissance architecture and church-
building. For this reason the general principle has
been to include those terms which have a direct bear-
ing on English architecture, whether they deal with
decorative forms or with the planning of buildings.
Thus the Orders and Basilicas are described, but not
Roman baths. A few other words of this class are
included on account of their intrinsic interest and
because they are omitted from many books.
It is hardly necessary to say that I am deeply indebted
to the published works of others. I have briefly but
I trust sufficiently acknowledged this in each case.
Where I am more peculiarly indebted to any one work
I have made a fuller acknowledgment at the end of
I have to thank the following gentlemen for lending,
or for giving me permission to copy, illustrations :
Messrs. Batsford, Messrs. A. and C. Black, J. W. Clark,
M.A., F.S.A., W. M. Fawcett, M.A., F.S.A., W. H.
St. John Hope, M.A., Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A.,
Mr. William Poel, E. S. Prior, M.A., F.S.A., Mr.
Quaritch, the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of
Winchester, the Presidents and Councils of the Alcuin
Club, of the Society of Antiquaries of London, of the
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, of the Royal Archaeo-
logical Institute, of the Hellenic Society, of the
Yorkshire Archaeological Society and the Syndics of
the Cambridge University Press. Where no statement
to the contrary is made the illustrations are from
drawings old and new made by myself.
I have to thank my father for the use of an un-
published paper on the development of the English
play-house. To several other friends I am very grate-
ful for their kindness in reading proofs and in making
valuable suggestions and criticisms.
T. D. A.
Cambridge, July, 1906.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
E text has been carefully revised for the present
edition, and some new articles have been added.
I have to thank many friends for corrections and
suggestions. I am especially indebted to the Reverend
A. M. G. Baylay, M.A., the Reverend D. H. S. Cran-
age, M.A., Mr. F. C. Eeles, who has kindly contributed
the article on Scottish Church Architecture printed in
the Appendix, the late Mr. Clement Gutch, M.A.,
M. R. James, Litt.D., M.B.A., the Rev. Professor
Nairne, M.A., Mr. E. S. Prior, M.A., F.S.A.
T. D. A.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION
THE text has been again revised. Material in-
cluded in the Appendixes of the Second Edition
has been brought into the text, and an additional
illustration lias been supplied.
T. D. A.
PREFACES . . . . . . vii
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . . xiii
LIST OF AUTHORITIES . . . xxv
I. ADDITIONAL ARTICLES . ... 297
II. LIST OF SAINTS, WITH THE MANNER IN WHICH
THEY ARE REPRESENTED . . . .110
III. LIST OK ENGLISH ARCHITECTS . . .116
IV. TABLE OF THE PERIODS OF ENGLISH ARCHI-
TECTURE . . . . . . .319
V. TABLE or THE RELIGIOUS ORDERS , . 320
INDEX . , , 323
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Abacus of Corinthian capital i
2. Norman abacus ; section r
3. Gothic abacus, 13th century ; section i
4. Greek acanthus ........ 2
5. Roman acanthus 2
6. Acroteria 2
7. Annulet, St. Peter's Church, Northampton . . 6
8. Apophyge . 6
9. Arabesque on a half-column in the church of S. Trinita,
Florence, 1520-1550 7
10. An arch in form only, being cut in a single stone . 7
11. An archi n form only, Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae,
Greece ; a dome formed by corbelling in horizontal
courses ; section . 8
12. Relieving arch, Boxford Church, Suffolk . . .10
13. Diagrams of arches of various forms . . . .11
14. Ball-flower 13
15. Barge-board, the Close, Winchester . . . .14
16. Bartizan 14
17. Classical bases ; sections 15
1 8. Ionic base, Temple on the Ilisus, Greece . . .15
1 9. Attic base, Temple of Jupiter Olympus, Athens. From
Stuart and Revett 15
20. Twelfth-century base 16
2 1 . Thirteenth-century base ; section ; the column is 1 foot
10 inches in diameter 16
22. Fourteenth- century base ; section . . . .16
23. Fifteenth-century base 17
24. Pagan basilica : plan of Basilica Ulpia, Rome. From
J. H. Middleton's "Remains of Ancient Rome'" . 18
25. Battlements 18
26. Stone bell-cote 20
xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
27. Wood bell-cote 20
28. Billet . . 21
29. Bird's-beak ornament, St. Chad's Church, Stafford . 21
30. Blocking course z \
31. Selection moulding ; section 21
32. English bond ; plans of two courses and elevation . 22
33. Flemish bond ; plans of two courses and elevation . 2.2.
34. Braced door 23
35. Principle of the flying buttress ; diagram section of an
aisled building; the directions of the thrusts are
shown by arrows 27
36. Greek Doric capital 29
37. Cushion capital, 12th century 30
38. Scolloped capital, 12th century 30
39. Scolloped capital : a variation ; monastic infirmary,
Ely ; 12th century 30
40. Capital with rude volutes, Ely Cathedral, north tran-
sept, r. 1090. Drawn by Miss II. A. S. Atkinson . 30
41. Reversed volute 30
42. Early foliage, St. Leonard's Priory, Stamford . -31
43. Capital with volute-like foliage 31
44. Moulded capital, Westminster Abbey . . . .31
45. Fifteenth -century capitals, St. Andrew's Church,
46. Cartouche 33
47. Casement moulding ; section 33
48. The square Norman keep, White Tower, Tower of
London ; plan. From G. T. Clark's " Mediceval
Military Architecture " 37
49. The sheh 1 keep and dwelling-house, Farnham Castle,
Surrey ; plan. Most of the buildings dute from about
1150. The plan shows walls actually existing, con-
jectural restorations being distinguished by dotted
lines. A staircase and many walls and partitions
erected soon after the Restoration are omitted. The
columns of the hall are conjecturally restored ; one
of them, at least, remains in position ; it is of wood,
and has a scolloped Norman capital. The column
between the nave and aisle of the chapel is of stone
and dates from the 13th century. The chapel is at a
higher level than the other rooms, and it is suggested,
as shewn by the dotted lines, that the screens pas-
sage passed under the chancel. The 15th-century
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv
work is of brick (see fig. 133). The drawbridge has
been replaced by a permanent raised causeway.
The walls of the keep act as ' retaining walls ' to a
mound of earth. The ditch surrounding the keep (fig.
.30) and the bank dividing the conrt are conjectural.
The general outline is taken, by the kind permis-
sion of the Lord Bishop of Winchester, from a rough
plan preserved in the Castle, showing the buildings
approximately in their present state. For details
and conjectural restorations the author is responsible 39
50. Farnham Castle ; general plan (see above, notes on
fig. 49) 42
51. Chalice and paten, Hamstall Ridware, Staffordshire,
15th century. Communion cup, Sail, Norfolk, 1568 46
52. The chamfer ; sections 47
53. Chequer-work 48
54. Chimney-stack of moulded brick ; time of Henry VIII. 50
55. The Basilica plan, Wing Church, Buckinghamshire.
From " The Archceological Journal," vol. liii. . . 52
56. Plan of Confessio, Wing (enlarged). From the same . 52
57. Basilica plan and western altar, Old St. Peter's, Rome.
From O. O. Scoffs "English Church Architecture" 1 . 52
58. Romano - British Church, Silchester ; plan. From
" Archceologia " 54
59. Church of Basilica type, St. Gall, Switzerland. The
aisle round each apse is named Paradise in the
original. From 0. O. iScott's " English Church
Architecture " . -55
60. Transitional plan, Worth Church, Sussex. From " The
Archcpological Journal,''' vol. liii. "Transitional in
type, uniting elements from the Italian and the
Scottish [or Irish] traditions, and leading up to the
purely English cross church." Micklethioaite . . 56
61. The Celtic plan, Escomb church, Durham. From "The
Archceological Journal" vol. liii 57
62. The small Norman Church with apse, Bengeo, Herts. 57
Church with east end of French type : aisled apse and
radiating chapels, Norwich Cathedral . . .58
64, Church with east end of Oriental type, with ' parallel
apses,' St. Alban's Abbey, Hertfordshire. From
E. S. Prior's " History of Gothic Art in England " . 58
xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
65. The two types of apse and the eastward extension,
Canterbury Cathedral (diagram plan).
The original termination in "parallel apses "(shown
black); the later addition ending in an aisled ;ipsc
and chapels (hatched) ; further extension ending in
an aisled apse (in outline) 58
66. The French plan, Westminster Abbey
67. Coffered half-dome over an alcove .... <>.=;
68. Coffin-lid, Little Shelford, Cambridgeshire .
69. College, Cambridge type : Queens'; plan. /'Vow Willis
and Clark's '"Architectural J/utory of Cambridfft" . 68
70. College, Oxford type : New ; plan. From the wme . 68
71. Haddon Hall, Derbyshire ; plan . . . . . 69
72. Plans of columns, 13th and Uth centuries . . .73
73. Plan of column, 1.5th century 74
74. Internal painted consecration cross, Landwade Church, 75
75. External consecration cross of flint, Fordham Church. 7"
76. External carved consecration cross, Exeter Cathedral 76
76.A External painted consecration cross, Helion Bumpstead
Church, Essex 76
77. Console 76
78. Corbel under inner order of the chancel arch, Kinnerslry
Church, Salop 77
79. Brick corbelling of a house at a street corner . -77
80. Corbel-table, Beaumaris Castle 77
8 1. Corbie-stones 78
82. Crockets 79
83. Types of cross 80
84. Head of a churchyard cross, Reepham Church, Norfolk.
On the other side are carved representations of St.
Michael, St. Andrew, and St. Christopher. The top
of the cross is broken off and is here conjecturally re-
stored. Originally about two feet four inches High.
From a photograph by the Rev. O. B. Atkinson . . 80
85. Cross of Celtic character near Penmon, Anglesea . 81
86. Cusped arch, 15th century 83
87. Trefoil arch, 13th century 83
88. Dentil enrichment ....... 84
89. Diaper, Westminster Abbey, 13th century . . -85
90. Dog-tooth enrichment, 13th century . . . .85
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xvii
91. Doorway with double hood-mould, 15th century . 88
t>2. Eaves with plaster-cove, IfiTO . . . . -9'
93 Egg-and-dart enrichment . ... 92
94. Egg-and-dart enrichment with enriched bead below.
From Stinirt and Rrrrtt, ml. ii. fhap. it. pi. xrli. . 92
95. GuiQoche enrichment. From Sfiiarf and Rt-reff, rol. i.
clmp. Hi. ........ 93
96. Honeysuckle enrichment, temple at Bassae. From
Stuart <uul llf.-i'ftt''s, tl A>it!(jnitifs of Athens," rol. v. 93
97. Leaf and spear enrichment. From Stuart ami Rrrett,
vol. it. elmp. ii. pi. rill 93
98. Fanlight Q5
99. Internal cornice with festoons, University Library,
Cambridge, east room, 1758 95
100. Bowtel moulding with fillet ..... 96
101. Flint-and stone work, Swanington Church, Norfolk.
The letter u, crowned, under a canopy, forming
part of the inscription MAIU;AIF.TA. 15th century . 96
102. Doric column ; Ionic and Corinthian column with
cabled flutes in one quarter ; plans ... 97
103. Carved capital of the 13th century, Berkley Church 98
104. Foliage of the 13th century, Raunds Church, North-
amptonshire ........ 99
105. Foliage of the 13th century . . . . .100
106. Natural foliage of the 14th century, Southwell .
Minster. From a photograph by the Rev. G. B.
107. Carved capital of the 15th century .... 100
108.. Free carving of the 18th century . . . . 102
109. Frets 104
no. Curved gable 105
in. Curved gable, Fen Ditton, Cambridgeshire . . 106
112. Lattice glazing, probably 17th century, Coniston . 108
113. Lead glazing, probably of the 18th century, in
the head of a 15th-century window, Sudbury,
1 14. Herring-bone brick-work at the back of a fireplace . 117
115. A hipped roof 117
116. A medieval hospital : The Great Hospital, Norwich ;
plan of the buildings previous to the Reforma-
tion 1 19
xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
117. A typical medieval hous<- plan, Horham Hall, Essex.
l-'rom the " TVorvW/;///* of flw Cambridge ./////
(/imriiin Sorii'/i/," fill, rii. . . . . .12
u 8. A medieval manor-house, Horham Hall . . .12.
1 19. Haddon Hall, Derbyshire ; diagram plan showing
the normal arrangements or the l.>th -century
central block, extensions forming courts* and Eliza-
bethan galleries. The chapel is Norman . -124
120. The 18th-century plan, Goodwood House, Sussex ;
a central block with advanced pavilions con-
nected by quadrant corridors. Never built, i'rutn
" Vitrurhis ISritunnicus" . . . . .126
121. Impost and arch, Alsop-in-the-Dale, Derbyshire . 127
122. An interpenetration. From W. II. St. Joint IInj>i'.i
" Engluh Altar" (A Icuin Club) . . . .129
122 A Swastica 129
123. A 13th-century hinge, Reepham, Norfolk. Missing
parts are restored in the drawing from the marks
on the woodwork ; the design of the central band
is not so clear ; the scroll at the top of the door is
obviously misplaced and may have been one of a
pajr of scrolls at the end of the central band.
From a photograph by the Rw. O. B. Atkinson . 130
1 24. Chest, Meole Brace Church, Salop ; perhaps 13th cent. 1 3 1
125. A lock plate, King's College Chapel, Cambridge;
early 16th century. Pierced work with red cloth
at tne back 132
126. A keyhole escutcheon, Coton Church, Cambridge-
shire; dated 162-2 133
127. Head of gateway, Clare College, Cambridge; 18th
128. An 18th-century scroll 134
129. A book -case of the ' stall ' type, Hereford Cathedral
130. Linen pattern 146
131. Long-and-short quoins 147
132. Ordinary quoins 147
133. Machicolations, Farnham Castle; early 16th century 149
134. Mask-stop; 14th century 150
135. Carved modillion 152
136. Plain modillions 152
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
137. Cathedral church and Benedictine monastery, Ely . 155
EXPLANATION OF REFERENCES
D J =West door and Galilee
D 2 = Bishop's door
D s = Door to church of St.
D 4 = Door from W. part of
cloister to the nave,
called the Prior's
D f = Door from the E. part
of cloister to the choir
D 9 =Door from cloister to
D 7 = Door from transept to
the passage leading
from the cloister to
the cemetery. (See
T=Part of W. transept de-
stroyed or not finished
D 8 Door from Presbytery
to Lady Chapel. The
passage had rooms
N A = Nave altar
CA = Choir altar
HA = High altar
R A = Relics altar
"ATA"= "Ad Tria Altaria"
BVM = Old chapel of the
SE = Shrine and altar of
B A = Chapel of Bishop
BW = Chapel of Bp. West
ME = Monks' entrance to
PE = Prior's entrance to
GPE = Gallery to PE
V = Vestry
SCC = St. Catherine's
cloister to monks
A = Armarium
L = Lavatory
CH = Prior's chapel
ST = Prior's study
PR = Parlour attached to
the Great Hall
BY = Buttery of Great Hall
CL Cellarer's lodging
DC =" Dark Cloister"
leading from great
cloister to Infirm-
ary ; with Singing
S = Stairs to Dormitory
Necess = Necessarium
SS = Stairs to Fair Hall
A CH = Almonry chapel on
upper floor with
seven shops below
The foundations of the original east apse are
shown in outline.
138. Entrance to the chapter-house, St. Radegund's Priory,
now Jesus College, Cambridge; about 1180 . . 157
139. Lectern in refectory, Chester Cathedral . . ,158
xx LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
140. The Cistercian plan, Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire,
Diagram plan reduced from a large detailed plan
by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope in The Yorkshire
Arch&ological Journal, Vol. xr 161
EXPLANATION OF REFEU KATES
RA - Rood altar B = Book closet
BVM = Chapel of Our Lady P= Parlour (next to
SB -Chapel of St. Ber- chapter-house)
nard P- Pulpit (in refectory)
C = Chapel WH = Warming-house
S = Sacristy Yd -- Yard
SC = Sacrist's Checker Necess" Necessaritua
XX - Form of original east OP = Outer parlour
end Bu Buttery
The foundations of the original east end are shown in outline.
141. Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Cambridge ; plan . 163
142. Gravestone, Little Shelford Church, Cambridgeshire ;
llth century 165
143. Cross on gravestone, Little Shelford ; early 13th
144. Cross on grave-slab, Rhuddlan Church, Flint . . 166
145. Gravestone, Rhuddlan Church ; llth century . . 166
146. Norman arch-mould 177
147. Norman arch-mould 177
148. The bowtel : its development 177
149. Pointed bowtel and plain hood-mould of early
character ; capital and base ; Hadstock Church,
Essex; late 12th century 178
150. Mouldings on recessed orders and with wide hollows ;
abacus and base ; doorway, Heacham Church,
Norfolk; late 12th century 179
151. Bold mouldings of the 13th century . . .180
152. Elaborate mouldings of the 14-th century and loss of
the recessed orders 1 80
153. The hollow chamfer; arch and hood-mould of a
recess on one stone ; Swanington Church, Norfolk 180
154. The bowtel pushed back from the angle ; 14th century 180
155. Arches with square edges and with splayed faces . 181
156. The wave moulding 181
157. The sunk chamfer 181
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxi
1 58.. Moulding of a small arch over a tomb recess ; church
of St. Mary the Great, Cambridge; 14th century 181
159. Mouldings on the splayed face ; church of St. Mary
the Less, Cambridge ; 14th century . . . 182
160. Arch-mould; 15th century 182
161. The casement moulding ; 15th century . . . 182
162. Norman abacus 182
-163. String courses ; 12th to 15th centuries , . .182
164. Norman base 183
165. Transitional base 183
166. Thirteenth-century base ; Ely Cathedral . . . 183
167. Fourteenth-century base 183
1 68. Fifteenth-century base ; the Deanery, Norwich . 183
169. Capital and base ; 13th century . . . -183
170. Capital, Wilby Church, Northants; late 13th century 185
171. Simple capital ; 14th century 185
172. Elaborate capital ; 14th century .... 185
173. Capitals ; 15th century 185
174. Internal wood cornice with battlement enrichment, 185
175. Astragal and apophyge 185
176. Bead 185
177. Bird's-beak moulding; Coragic monument of Thra-
syllus. From Stuart and Hevett, vol. v. . .187
178. Cavetto 187
179. Cyma : recta and reversa 187
1 80. Ovolo : Greek and Roman 187
181. Architrave moulding 187
182. Scotia and torus 187
183. Ogee 187
184. Quirk 187
185. Reeding 187
186. Mullions : Gothic and Elizabethan .... 189
187. Wood mullion ; 15th or early 16th century . . 189
188. Niche, Bishop's Palace, Ely ; about 1490 . . . 190
1 89. Intersecting arches and other arcades ; west transept,
Ely Cathedral; about 1170 191
190. Norman enrichments 192
191. Ogee arch : diagram ...... 192
192. The Greek Orders 194
xxii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
193. Corinthian capital
194. Composite capital, arch of Titus, Rome .
195. Methods of framing panelling ....
196. Parapet with stepped battlements
197. Broken pediment
198. Dome on pendentives, which are marked with a P
199! Pigeon-house, Haslingfield Hall, Cambridgeshire . ^14
200. Plinth, Cockfield Church, Suffolk, 15th century
201 Banqueting House, Whitehall, London ; by Inigo
202. Trussed-rafter roof, partly ceiled
203. Trussed-rafter roof, with rudimentary principal
204. Fourteenth-century roof, with arched principals and
205. Roof with wind-braces, porch, Con way Church
206. Hammer-beam roof, Cochwillan, Carnarvonshire
207. Hammer-beam roofs, diagrams
208. Double hammer-beam roof, diagram
209. King-post roof
210. Queen-post roof
211. Mansard roof
212. Saxon tower, St. Benedict's Church, Cambridge .
213. Plans of Saxon windows
214. Early form of sedile .
215. Shop of medieval form, North Elmham, Norfolk .
a 1 7. Norman base with spurs
218. Squinch arch
219. Spire, probably of Saxon form, Sompting, Sussex .
220. Shingle-covered wood spire
221. Broach spire, King's Cliff, Northamptonshire .
222. Greek stele. From Stuart and Revetf s " Antiquities
of Athens" vol. iv., chap, vi., pi. vii. .
221 Strap-work over oriel, St. John's College, Cambridge,
224. String course, Renaissance
225. String course, Gothic
326. Portico in antit, distyle
aa;. Temple with two porticoes in antit, distyle . .
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xxiii
Prostyle portico, tetrastyle ; temple of Empedokles,
Selinus. Sicily 261
Hoxastyle peripteral temple of Poseidon, Paestum.
Tetrastyle pseudo-peripteral temple of Fortuna
Virilis, Rome. From J. JI. Mirldhtons "Ancient
Rome in 1885 " 262
Octastyle peripteral temple; the Parthenon, Athens.
From J. H. Middletonx " JTelltnir Soc. Suppl.
1'aper Jfo. 3" . 262
Decastyle dipteral temple of Apollo Diclymaeus,
Miletus, Asia Minor 262
Tenon and mortice ....... 264
Interior of the Fortune Theatre, Golden Lane,
Cripplegate, London, as built in 1600. From a
model made l<\i Mr. William Poel based on the
original contract 268
Red and buff paving tile ; 13th century . . . 269
Tile paving, Icklingham Church, Suffolk. From
a drawing by Mr. \V. M. Fawcett .... 269
Pavement of incised tiles, Bangor Cathedral, prob-
ably 14th century 270
Detail of ornamental timber framing . . . 272
Timber house, Market Place, Shrewsbury . . 273
Framing of the floor of a corner house . . . 274
Round cusped window 276
Triforium arcade, St. Bartholomew's Church, Smith-
field, London 276
Earliest plate-tracery, Great Abington, Cambridge . 277
Developed plate-tracery, Balsham, Cambridgeshire 278
Early bar-tracery. Castor, Northamptonshire . . 278
Soffit cusping and later cusping .... 279
Geometrical tracery, triforium arcade, Westminster
Abbey ...... . . 279
Geometrical tracery with soffit cusping, cloisters,
Westminster Abbey ; late 13th century . . 279
Geometrical tracery, Lichfield Cathedral; early 14th
Flowing tracery, Grantchester Church, Cambridge-
shire, middle of the 14th century .... 280
Flamboyant tracery, Elsing Church, Norfolk; late
14th century 280
xxiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
252. Reticulated tracery, Merton College, Oxford ; 1 l-tli
253. Kentish tracery, Bcauniaris Church. Anglesey . 28^
2154. Flowing tracery approaching to Flamboyant, Chestci
^255. The beginning of Perpendicular tracery . . . 283
256. Advance towards Perpendicular tracery . . . 283
257. Perpendicular tracery; late l.itli century ; School,
Highain Ferrers, Northamptonshire . . . 284
258. Tudor flower or brattishing 286
259. Plans of vaults . 289
260. Vaulting ribs ; plan 290
261. Vaulting surfaces : arrangement of courses . . 290
262. Lierne vaulting 29 1
263. Plan of fan-vaulting 292
264. Weathering of a buttress ; 1 1th century . . . 294
265. Coffin-lid ; 13th century ...... 296
LIST OF AUTHORITIES
B. = Professor G. Baldwin Brown : Various works.
Bl. =M. H. Bloxnm : Essays on Church Vestments, the
nrraiu/emenl of Churches and Sepulchral Monu-
ments, 1903. (A reprint of the third volume of
Principles of (lotlilc Ettdefiattical Architecture,
Bu. W. Burgess: Contributions to Sir G. G. Scott's
''liinntii/x from Westminster Abbey, 1863.
C.=J. VV. Clark : The Care of Books, 1901.
Cl. G. T. Clark : Med!a>i'al Mil itari/ Architecture in Eng-
l<i ud, 188k
Cr. rrW. J. Cripps : Old English Plate, 1903.
D. = Tin- Kites of Durham, Surtees Society, 1903. (The
quotation on p. 90 is abbreviated.)
G. = J. Gwilt : Encyclojjcedia of Architecture, 1903.
Ga. =J. Starkie Gardner: Ironwork, 1893, 1896.
H. = W. H. St. John Hope: The English Altar, Alcuin
Ha. H. Haines : Manual of Monumental Brasses, 1861.
Hn. = J. F. Hodgson : Archa'ologia A^liana, xxiii.
K. =C. E. Keyser : List of Build int/s !>i 'irt-at Britain and
Ireland liarimi Mural and other Painted Decorations,
L. = Professor W. R. Lethaby : Leadwork, old and orna-
mentdl and for the most part English, 1893.
M. = J. T. Micklethwaite : Ornaments of the Rubric, Alcuin
Club, 1898. Something about Saxon building, Arch-
Ma. =H. W. Macklin : Monumental Brasses, 1891.
N.E.D. =J. A. H. Murray: New English Dictionary.
xxvi LIST OF AUTHORITIES
P. = Glosiary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, Italian,
and Gothic Architecture, Parker, 1850.
Pr. =E. S. Prior, History of Gothic Art in England, 1900.
English Mediaeval Figure Sculpture (Architectural
S. = Professor W. W. Skeat: Concise Etymological Dic-
tionary of the English Language, 1890.
Schultz and Barnsley-=R. W. Schultz (now Weir) and S. H.
Banisley : The Monastery of Saint Luke of Stirit.
(Britith School at Athtnt, 1901 J
W. = H. C. Windley : Journal Ryl Inst. Brit. Archts., 1905.
W.&C. = Professor R. Willis and J. W. Clark: Architectural
History of the University of Cambridge, 1886.
A GLOSSARY OF
ABACUS (pi. ABACI). Lit. a table, a slab ; in architec-
ture the top member of a capital/ In Greek Doric it
is square in plan and has square edges (fig. 36) ; in Greek
Ionic and in Roman Doric and Tuscan it is square in
plan and the lower edge is moulded ; in the remaining
FIG. I. ABACUS OF CORINTHIAN FIG. 2. NORMAN FIG. 3. GOTHIC
CAPITAL ABACUS ABACUS
orders* it has concave sides and the angles are cut off,
the face is moulded and sometimes enriched (fig. 1).
The Norman abacus (fig. 2) is always square in plan
in small capitals and generally in large capitals ; the
upper edge is square and the lower edge chamfered.
In Gothic work it is round or octagonal on plan and has
ABBEY. A monastery* ruled over by an abbot (lit.
a father) or abbess. (See also PRIORY.)
ABUTMENT. A mass of masonry or other material
to resist a thrust such as that of an arch.
* See article thereon.
ACANTHUS. The leaf of the Corinthian capital
(figs. 4, 5) copied, according to Vitruvius, from the
variety of thistle found in Greece. Called in English
' Bear's-breech ' (p.).
FIG. 4. GREEK ACANTHUS
He,. 5. ROMAN ACANTHUS
FIG. 6. ACROTBRIA
ACROPOLIS. The citadel of a Greek city, usually
a naturally defensive position, rendered stronger by
works ; on it were placed the principal buildings.
ACOUSTIC JAR. .^RESONATOR.
ACROTERION (pi. ACROTERIA)-
An ornament on the apex and at
the lower angles of a Greek or
Roman pediment (fig. 6).
AISLE. A wing of a building
separated from the central part by a row of columns.
ALABASTER. A soft, slightly translucent, white
and pink limestone (sulphate of lime) used for sculpture
and for conversion (by burning) into Plaster of Paris
ALCOVE. A semi-circular or semi elliptical recess
in a wall. A building of the form of an alcove or apse,
erected over the grave of a saint or martyr near Rome
in early Christian days.
ALLEY. A narrow lane in a town. An enclosed
walk in a garden. A narrow part of a building, such
as an aisle or cloister.
ALLURE. The walk along the top of a castle
ALMERY, AUMBRY. A cupboard in the thickness
of a wall (medieval). Besides those of ordinary size, a
church sometimes has a very high one (generally near
the west end) to contain a processional cross or its staff.
ALMONRY. A place in which alms were distri-
buted, e.g. the place in a religious house in which food
was given to the indigent.
ALTAR. In Greek and Roman buildings a stone
pedestal-like table for sacrifices ; in Christian churches
a table for the celebration of the Sacrament of the
Christian altars in the earliest times were generally
of wood, but in A.D. 509 it was ordered that they were
to be of stone (P.). The top was often if not always a
single slab of stone or marble, and was supported on
walls of masonry or on columns. The altar was gener-
ally raised on one or more steps ; there seems to have
been no rule as to the number. The masonry was
always hidden by a frontal of drapery or metal, and
was covered by a white linen cloth. It seems that the
shelf now often placed at the back of the Holy Table
and generally called a super-altar or retable, was not
used in the middle ages.
" From the time that Stone Altars were introduced, it
was usual to enclose the relics of saints in them, so that
in many cases they were the actual tombs of saints, and
they were always supposed to be so, some relics being
considered indispensable " (p.) ; but it was not universal
in England. There were sometimes small niches in
the end, in which to place the cruets (H.). The slab
was marked with five small crosses, one in the centre
and one at each angle, cut in the stone at the places
anointed by the bishop at the consecration.
The number of altars in a church depended upon cir-
cumstances; even the smallest churches appear to have
had two besides the high altar, and the piscinas belong-
ing to them may generally be seen at the east end of
each aisle. A large parish church seems usually to
have had five altars (M.), while a cathedral church had
many more. Saint Gregory, so early as 590, mentions a
church with thirteen altars (P.). There was often an
altar in the sacristy or vestry, at least a piscina is often
found, and in early times in the porch.
The destruction of altars by the Reformers appears
to have begun in 1548, and an order for the removal of
those that remained and for providing ' an honest table '
was issued in 1550. The stone altars were restored by
Queen Mary, and again removed under Queen Elizabeth.
It was then ordered that a table should be set in the
place of the altar "and so to stand, saving when the
communion of the sacrament is to be distributed ; at
which time the same shall be so placed in good sort
within the chancel as whereby the minister may be
more conveniently heard of the communicants in his
prayer and ministration, and the communicants also
more conveniently and in more number communicate
with the said minister." It is thought that the result
of this order was that the table was brought from the
east end and placed lengthwise down the centre of the
chancel. Many good plain tables of this period and of
the times of the Stuarts still remain, though very many
have been destroyed in the last few years during the
' restoration ' of the churches.
SUPER -ALTAR OR PORTABLE ALTAR. A tablet about
twelve inches by six, used for the consecration of the
elements in places where there was no fixed altar. A
ANGLO SAXON ARCHITECTURE 5
licence from the Pope seems to have been necessary to
entitle any to the use of a portable altar (p.).
For the modern use of the term super-altar, see
ALTAR-CLOTH. A cloth of white linen placed
upon an altar. An altar-frontal (rare).
ALTAR-FRONTAL. An ornamental cloth of velvet,
silk or other rich material hung in front of an altar.
FRONTLET. A short frontal hung from the edge of the
altar over the frontal.
ALTAR-PIECE. See REREDOS.
ALTAR-TOMB. A modern term for a tomb or
monument resembling an altar in form and -height ;
formerly called a 'high-tomb.'
ALTO-RELIEVO. See RELIEVO.
AMBO. A stone or marble lectern of pulpit-like
form in early churches. There were two one on the
north side for the epistle, and one on the south for the
AMBULATORY. A path: a place in which to walk,
such as a cloister or an aisle ; sometimes more particu-
larly applied to an aisle round an apse.
AMPHIPROSTYLE. See TEMPLE.
AMPHITHEATRE. An elliptical (rarely circular)
building with tiers of seats rising round a central
arena. Used by the Romans for gladiatorial fights
and so forth.
ANCONE. See CONSOLE.
ANDIRON. A fire-dog.
ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE. See SAXON
FIG. 7. ANNULET
ST. PETER'S, NORTHAMPTON
ANNULET. A ring, e.g. one
of the fillets round the lower
part of the Greek Doric capital ;
a moulded band round a Nor-
man column (fig. 7) or connect-
ing a group of shafts in Gothic
architecture. (See also MOULD-
ANT A (pi. ANTAE). A short
wall enclosing or partly enclosing
the side of a portico ; a pilaster
projecting from the back wall
of a portico behind the angle
column. (See also TEMPLE.)
ANTE-CHAPEL. The western part of a chapel,
separated from the rest by a screen, and often not
ANTEFIX. A marble or terra-cotta
ornament placed on the top of the cor-
nice along the side of a Greek build-
ing, opposite the covering tile over the
joint between two rows of flat tiles.
APOPHYGE (escape). A slight
concave expansion at the top and
bottom of Greek and Roman columns
(fig. 8, a). Not used in Greek Doric.
APSE, APSIS. A semi-circular or
polygonal wing of a building. Much
used in Roman buildings and at one or
both ends of early Christian churches *
in which it was of semi - circular
form, and in Gothic churches on the
Continent, in which it is more often
* See article thereon.
FIG. 8. AFOPHYGI
ARABESQUE. A decorative scroll
carved in low relief or painted ; so
called after a somewhat similar form
of ornament in Arabian architecture.
Though the ornament is much used in
all styles the term is generally applied
only to Classical and Renaissance archi-
tecture (fig. 9).
AR^OSTYLE. See TEMPLE.
AR^OSYSTYLE. See TEMPLE.
ARCADE. A row of arches.
ARCH (Lat. arcus, a bow). A struc-
ture consisting of several wedge-shaped
pieces so arranged as to be supported
by their mutual pressure without the
aid of a cementing material. This
definition limits the term to a system
of construction and disregards the form.
The term is often applied to a structure
which is an arch in form only,
as a single stone (fig. 10) or a
mass of concrete shaped like
an arch, but such are essenti-
ally lintels in their function.
Another arched form which
does not fall within the defini-
tion given above is the dome
AN AkCH IN ,rr> C * .
over the ' 1 reasury ot Atreus
FIG. 9. ARABESQUE
(fig. 11), which is really a system of corbelling.
The Orientals have a saying that ' the arch never
sleeps'; this agrees with what has been said above, for it
follows as a corollary to our definition that the true
arch always exerts an outward pressure on its supports.
Voussoirs are the stones or bricks which go to make
up an arch. The upper or outer surface of an arch is
called the extrados, as distinguished from the inner or
lower surface which is called the intrados or soffit.
The haunch is the part between the springing and the
apex, more particularly (in common speech) the portion
about half-way between. In a rough brick arch in
which the bricks are not wedge-shaped, the n ortar
in each joint assumes the form of a wedge and acts
as a ' voussoir.'
The arch was known to the Greeks but hardly ever
used by them. The Romans employed the arch or
the arched form extensively, always for constructive
reasons, never for decoration ; many of their arches
and vaults are such in form only, being really masses
of concrete ; the form is always semi-circular.
Both round and pointed arches with radiating joints
were used in the East in remote times : in Assyria
and in Ethiopia and elsewhere centuries before the
Christian era. It is possible that the pointed arch is
the earliest form, for it seems not unlikely that the
primitive construction consisted of corbelling in hori-
zontal courses, as in the ' Treasury of Atreus ' (fig. 1 1 )
FIG. II. AN ARC IN FORM ONLY
TREASURY OF ATKKUS
and an arch or dome of this construction would be
more easily brought to a pointed apex than to a semi-
circle. 1 However that may be, the pointed form and
the true arch-construction with radiating voussoirs
1 I owe this suggestion to my Father.
continued in use and is found in various lands and of
various centuries of the Christian era. It was used by
the Mahometans and was probably introduced by them
into Sicily and other countries which they conquered
in the eighth and ninth centuries ; it is found in Spain
in the ninth and tenth centuries. In the south of
France it was used early in the eleventh century, but
not in the north of France for at least a hundred years
later, and it was not brought over to England till about
1 1 30. Many other theories, which it is unnecessary to
notice here, have been put forward to account for the
invention of the pointed arch. Its adoption when
once introduced was no doubt due, in great part, to
the facilities it gave in the construction of vaults.
Ogee (der. thro' O.Fr. and Span. fr. Arab, divj,
summit s) arches, also probably of Oriental origin, were
used in England from the first quarter of the fourteenth
century (fig. 1 3 K).
Arches struck from four centres (fig. 13 H) are found
in English work of between 1350 and 1370 onwards;
after 1500 they became very flat, especially in narrow
spans such as doorways. On the introduction of Re-
naissance architecture about 1550, the round arch
gradually superseded the pointed. Elliptical arches
were used a good deal in the latter part of the
eighteenth century (fig. 13 u).
RELIEVING ARCH. A plain arch built over a lintel or
over an arch which is not strong enough, in order to
relieve it of some of the weight of the superstructure
(fig. 12). Called also a 'discharging arch.'
RERE-ARCH. One which supports the wall over the
recess of a window or door as distinct from the outer
SCONCHEON or scoiNsoN ARCH. The same as a rere-arch.
SKEW-ARCH. One in which the axis is not at right
angles to the face, as when a railway passes obliquely
over a road ; in this case the courses are kept at right
angles to the face of the arch and not parallel with the
axis ; they are in consequence inclined to the horizon.
SQU1NCH-ARCH. See SQUINCH.
FIG. 12. RELIEVING ARCH
Names of various forms of arch
A Round M
B Stilted N
C Horseshoe O
D Segmental P
E Equilateral Q
F Acute R
G Drop S
H Four-centred T
J Elliptical U
K Ogee V
L Round trefoil
Joggled lintel, with
ARCHITECT (Gk. o.p\i-, chief; TKTO>V, builder, crafts-
man). "A master builder ; especially a skilled professor
of the art of building, whose business it is to prepare
plans of edifices, and exercise a general superintend-
ence over the course of their erection" (N. E. D.).
ARCHITECTURE. " The art or science of building
or constructing edifices of any kind for human use. . . .
But Architecture is sometimes regarded solely as a fine
art, and then has the narrower meaning explained . . .
below (N. E. D.).
" 1849. RUSKIK, Seven Lamps, i. 1, 7. Architecture is the
art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by man . . .
that the sight of them contributes to his mental health, power
and pleasure. 1879. G. SCOTT, Lect. Archit., n. 292. Architec-
ture as distinguished from mere building is the decoration of
ARCHITRAVE. The lowest division of the entabla-
ture in Classical architecture. When an entablature was
used over a doorway or window the mouldings of the
architrave were carried down the sides and are often
thus used when the rest of the entablature is omitted.
Similar mouldings were applied to an arch in Classical
and Renaissance architecture and are also called the
architrave. (See also MOULDING and ORDER.)
ARCH I VOLT. Architrave mouldings applied to an
ARCISOLIUM, Lat. (pi. ARCISOLIA). A recess for a
tomb in the confessio * or crypt of an early Christian
church, or in a catacomb.*
ARMARIUM. A cupboard; in a monastic cloister a
cupboard for books, usually near the entrance to the
church. (See also LIBRARY.)
ARRIS. A sharp edge of stone or wood or metal.
ASHLAR. Masonry of rectangular blocks accur-
ately worked and in continuous and equal courses.
ASTRAGAL. See MOULDING (fig. 175).
ATRIUM. The first court of a Roman house, sur-
rounded by rooms, and serving both as a court and as a
hall ; it was partly covered in, but in the centre of the
roof there was an opening under which was a tank ;
sometimes wholly covered.
ATTIC. A garret* or chamber constructed in the
roof. (See ATTIC ORDER.)
ATTIC BASE. The most common moulding for the
base* in the Ionic and Corinthian orders.
ATTIC ORDER OR STOREY. In Classical and
Renaissance architecture a storey above the main en-
tablature. (See ORDER, CLASSICAL.)
AULA (Lat.). A hall.
AUMBRY. See ALMERY.
BAILEY. The court of a castle* between the keep
and the outer wall.
BALDACHINO (Ital.). A canopy over an altar in
Italian churches. The original meaning was "a rich
embroidered cloth of gold and silk used for copes, palls,
etc. ; also the portable canopy which was borne over
shrines, etc., in processions. The .,.
bronze nuoniuM of St. Peter at
Rome was termed the Baldachino,
and hence the modern applica-
tion of this word to a fixed
CANOPY over an altar or throne,
whether supported on pillars or
suspended from above" (P.).
BALISTRARIA. A loophole
in the wall of a fortress.
BALL -FLOWER. An en-
richment carved in the hollow
of a moulding in the latter part
of the thirteenth and during the
greater part of the fourteenth
centuries (fig. 14).
* See article thereon.
FIG. 14. BALL-FLOWER
BALUSTER. A small shaft, round or square, the
diameter of which varies at different levels.
BALUSTRADE. A row of balusters.
BAPTISTERY. A building or part of a building set
aside for the sacrament of baptism. In Italy it was
sometimes a distinct building which served for the
whole town. It was never used in England, the font
always standing in a conspicuous position in the church,
and generally in the centre of
the nave near the west end.
An advance work defending the
entrance to a castle or fortified
BARGE-BOARD. A board,
often decorated, under an over-
hanging gable (fig. 15).
BARTIZAN. A small turret
projecting from the angle of a
building (fig. 16).
BASE. The projecting foot
of a wall of column. It was
used in all the Greek and Roman
orders except the Greek Doric,
and is ornamented with mould-
ings.* The commonest form for
Ionic and Corinthian was what
is called the Attic base (fig. 1 7 a
and fig. 1 9), but the forms shown
at fig. 176 and fig. 1 8 were also
used. The Tuscan base is shown
at fig. 17 c. The Romans used
the section d for pedestals.
* See article thereon. Fir,. 16. BARTIZ,.
FIG. 15. BARGE-BOARD
FIG. 17. CLASSICAL BASES
FIG. l8. IONIC BASK
FIG. 19. ATTIC BASE
The Norman base, though
derived from the Classical
base, was of slight projection,
rude, and undeveloped ; the
plinth was square (fig. 20),
the angle being often filled
with a spur* of carving.
Karly Gothic profiles ap-
proximated more to the Attic
base (fig. 21). About the
middle of the thirteenth cen-
tury (though sometimes ear-
lier) the bold hollow which
separated the upper and lower
FIG. 20. TWELFTH-CENTURY BA
FIG. 21. THIRTEENTH-CBNTUKY FIG. 22. FOURTEENTH-CENTURA
rolls was omitted and a third
roll took its place (fig. 22).
The base mould of a wall was
most commonly a simple cham-
fer, though mouldings were
also used. (See PLINTH.) In the
latter part of the fourteenth
century, and during the fif-
teenth, the base of the column
gradually became higher, the
mouldings being more elon-
gated and of less projection
(fig. 23). The Renaissance
base of course followed Classical
BASE-COURT. The lower
or outer court of a large
medieval house, generally sur-
rounded by stables and offices.
BASEMENT. 1 (Classical
and Renaissance). A storey
or high plinth below the main
order (see PODIUM). 2 (Modern).
A storey partly below ground.
royal). A large hall. The
origin of the term, as applied
to a building, is obscure. The
Roman basilica, primarily an
exchange and secondarily a
law-court, was of various forms :
enclosed by solid walls, or by columns and screens
(cancelli) only ; rectangular or with an apse at one or
each end. Most examples have one or two aisles on
each side, with galleries above them. The seat of the
judge was in the apse, and in front of it there was an
altar. The hall of a private house was also sometimes
called a basilica. (See also CHURCHES.)
FIG. 24. PAGAN BASILICA
BASSO-RELIEVO. See RELIEVO.
BASTILE. A fort, castle or bulwark ; often used
as a prison (P.).
BASTION. A bulwark projecting from the outer
wall of a castle or fort.
BATTERING WALL. A wall the face of which
slopes back, generally used for sustaining the pressure
of earth or water. (See RETAINING WALL.)
BATTLEMENT. A parapet* with a succession of
rectangular notches called crenels or embrasures, the
higher parts being called merlons. Originally used in
castles for defence, but from the fourteenth century in
FIG. 25. BATTLEMENTS
parapets of other buildings and also on a diminutive scale
as an enrichment on mouldings, etc. In the early battle-
ments the sides of the merlons are plain (fig. 25 A), but
in later examples the moulding of the coping is often
carried down them (fig. 25 B).
* See article thereon.
BAY, SEVERY. A compartment of a building
between two columns, roof principals, buttresses or
other repeated constructional feature.
BAY-WINDOW. The same as bow-window (p.).
A window in a recess ; not the same as bow-window
(s.). Possibly a window occupying a whole bay.
BEAD. A small convex moulding of semi-circular
section (fig. 176).
BEAK-HEAD ORNAMENT. See BIRD'S -BEAK
BED-MOULDING. A moulding or series of mould-
ings under the corona of a cornice or other similar pro-
BED OF A STONE. The lower surface of a stone ;
the upper surface, if prepared to receive another stone,
is called the top bed. The natural bed is the natural
BELFRY, (l) The chamber of a tower in which
the bells are hung; (2) a bell-tower. Properly a
watch-tower ; corrupted from Mid. Eng. berfray ; no
connection with ' bell ' ; originally a guard tower, one
on wheels used in sieges (s.) Seldom used in England
except in connection with churches. The tower was
sometimes detached from the building, as at Salisbury,
Norwich (both destroyed), and Chichester, and at some
parish churches, and was intended to be so at King's
BELL OP A CAPITAL. The body of the capital be-
tween the astragal or necking (p. 186) and the abacus.
BELL-COTE, BELL-TURRET. A small bell-tower ;
a bell-house. The most common forms are the follow-
ing : (l) The west or east wall of the nave is carried
up and has one or two piercings, occasionally three, in
which the bells are hung ; it
is finished with a steep gable
(fig. 26) ; examples of this type
at the west end of the church
and forming the only belfry,
are common in the southern
midlands ; the same sort is used
in other parts for a special small
bell over the chancel arch.
(2) A low timber framing
covered with boarding or shing-
les and having a pyramidal roof,
is supported on
the west wall and
the west part of
the nave roof (fig.
27) ; it is used in
the west and in
the south-east of
A bench of solid
the inside of the
wall of a medieval
TIG. 26. STONE BELL-COT!
FIG. 27. WOOD BELL-COTE
BEVEL. The plane formed by cutting off the edge
of a surface at a slight angle, e.g. a bevelled mirror.
(See also CHAMFER.)
BILLET ORNAMENT. An enrichment used in
Romanesque architecture, consisting of short cylinders
or square block* at intervals in a hoi low moulding (fig. 28).
BOLECTION MOULDING 21
BIRD'S-BKAK ORNAMENT. An enrichment used
in Romanesque architecture consisting of a series of
grotesque beaked heads crossing the mouldings (fig. 29-
See also p. 188).
FIG. 28. BILLET
FIG. 29. BIRDS-BEAK ORNAMENT
BLIND-STOREY. See TRIFORIUM.
BLOCKING COURSE. A plain course of masonry
over a cornice (fig. 30).
FIG. 30 BLOCKING COURSE KIG. 31. BOLECTION MOULDING
BOLECTION MOULDING. A moulding placed
round a panel and projecting beyond the face of the
framing (fig. 31).
BOND. The overlapping of the courses of stones
or bricks in a wall. In masonry the method depends
upon the regularity or otherwise of the stones. In"
brickwork there are two systems : (l) English bond
(fig. 32) ; all the bricks in one course are laid as
' headers/ that is, showing their ends, and in the next
FIG. 32. ENGLISH BONO
FIG. 33. FLEMISH BOND
course as 'stretchers/ showing their sides, and so on
alternately. This system is the strongest ; it was in
use in England from the sixteenth century to the end
of the seventeenth, and was revived in the nineteenth.
(2) Flemish bond (fig. 33) ; in every course the bricks
are laid as headers and stretchers alternately.
BONE HOUSE. See CHARNEL HOUSE.
BOSS. A carved stone at the meeting of any of the
ribs of a vault, or at the termination of some architec-
BOUDOIR. A private room for a lady; literally, a
place to sulk in ; from French bonder.
BOW-WINDOW. A projecting window, semi-circu-
lar or polygonal on plan. In the middle ages seldom
used but in the hall, where it was on one or both sides
near the dais end. In Elizabeth's reign it became com-
mon in other rooms. Corrupt form of bay-window* (p.).
BOWER. (Medieval.) A lady's private room.
BOWTEL. A projecting moulding* of cylindrical
form or approximating to a cylinder.
BRACE. In carpentry a short piece of timber placed
in the angle formed by two principal
timbers in order that the angle may be
kept true and the shape of the framework
preserved (fig. 34i).
BRACKET. A support projecting from
a wall or column. In medieval work, if
of stone, it is usually called a corbel ;* in
Classical and Renaissance architecture, a
console* or modillion;* in modern build-
ings, if of iron, a cantilever.
BRANDR1TH. A fence or rail round
the opening of a well (o.).
BRASS (SEPULCHRAL). See MONUMENT.
BRASS (METAL). An alloy, consisting of one part of
zinc and from three to seven parts of copper.
BRATTISHING. A cresting, e.g. a pierced or
ornamented parapet of a wall ; a row of upright leaves
on the cornice of a fifteenth-century screen or round a
ducal coronet. (See TUDOR-FLOWER).
BREAST-SOMMER, BRESSUMMER. A beam or
summer supporting the front of a building, etc., after
the manner of a lintel. It is distinguished from a lintel
by its bearing the whole superstructure of wall, etc.,
instead of only a small portion over the opening ; thus
the beam over a common shop-front which carries the
wall of the house above it is a bressummer (P.).
BRETASCHE. See CASTLE.
* See article thereon.
24 BRICK, BRICKWORK
BRICK, BRICKWORK. Bricks were much used by
the Romans ; in Britain Roman bricks vary in size
from about 6 inches square to about 18 inches by
12, the smaller sizes being more commonly used
for the pillars of hypocausts (see ROMAN ARCHITECTURE)
and the larger sizes for walls. The thickness varies
from 1^ inches to If inches. They were frequently
used for bonding courses and as quoins in walls of flint
and small stones. The practice of brick-making seems
to have died out after the departure of the Romans,
and the bricks used by the Saxons and Normans were
apparently taken from Roman buildings. In the
eastern counties bricks were occasionally used from
the thirteenth century ; they were perhaps imported
from the Netherlands ; they measure about 9 inches by
4^ by 2 to L 2\ thick. In the fifteenth century they
became fairly common especially in fireplaces, because
they will stand the heat better than stone : they are
generally about 10 inches by 5, and are \\ to 2 inches
thick. In other parts of England where good stone
was obtainable they were not much used till a century
later, nor generally till the eighteenth century. In
the nineteenth century the thickness increased to 2J
and 3 inches (figs. 114, 133).
Bricks were laid without method till the sixteenth
century when English bond* was introduced. Orna-
mental brickwork then became very elaborate and
was practised with skill, as in chimney* stacks (fig.
54). These forms gave way to a simpler and more
appropriate treatment in the seventeenth century.
Moulded cornices with carved enrichments were used
with good effect in the eighteenth century. On the
invention of Roman cement and the general decay of
taste early in the nineteenth century, brickwork^
as a means of architectural expression fell into dis-
* See article thereon.
BUHL WORK 25
BRICK-NOGGINO. Brickwork filling the spaces between
the timbers of a framed partition.
BRIDGE. A few medieval bridges still remain.
The arches are generally of small span and pointed,
and they are strengthened by a number of parallel
ribs. The piers are sharply pointed especially up
stream, forming a ' cut-water.' A bridge approaching a
town was defended by a gateway tower in the middle,
as at Monmouth, or at one end, as at Sandwich. In
some instances there is a chapel, perhaps endowed be-
fore the bridge was built, that travellers might pray
for protection in crossing the ford or ferry ; examples
may be seen at Wakefield, Rotherham, St. Ives (Hunts).
Houses were also built over the roadway, as on London
Bridge, the rents from them being of value to the town.
BRITISH ARCHITECTURE. The architecture of
pre-Roman times. The houses are said to have each
consisted of a single room, round or square. Stone-
henge is far the most important work extant.
BROACH. When a square tower is surmounted by
an octagonal spire each angle is covered by a half-
pyramid, the apex of which is in the centre of one of
the sides of the spire (fig. 221); these half-pyramids
are called broaches ; the spire is called a broach spire ;
usually its cardinal faces rise from the faces of the
tower without a parapet. The term is alse occasionally
applied to the spire itself.
BRONZE. See L.VTTEN.
BUHL WORK. Formerly called 'Boule' work
from the name of its inventor. It consists of one or
more metals inlaid upon a ground of tortoiseshell, or
tortoiseshell inlaid upon a ground of metal. The process
is as follows : Two pieces of veneer are placed together,
with paper between them, each being glued to the
paper. Upon the surface of the upper one is placed
the drawing of the pattern to be cut, and then the out-
lines of it are cut through by means of a very fine
watch spring saw. The parts are then separated, that
which is taken from the darker material is let into the
lighter and vice versa (o.).
BURH. See CASTLE.
BUTTERY. A ' butlery/ a room at the lower end
of a medieval hall in which victuals and especially
liquors were kept. It opened into the screens passage.
The door was in two heights like a stable door, the
lower part having a shelf on the top for convenience in
serving out provisions. (See HOUSE.)
BUTTRESS. A mass of masonry or other like
material built up against a wall (or at a short distance
from it, and connected with it by an arch) in order to
resist the thrust of a roof or vault, or otherwise to
strengthen the building.
The Romanesque buttress derived from Roman archi-
tecture was wide and of slight projection, and was of nc
structural use. The angles were often ornamente'
with abowtel moulding. When the pressures
roofs* and vaults* began to be concentrated at par-
ticular points it became necessary to increase the
projection of the buttress, and at the same time th<
thickness of the wall was reduced. At the beginning
of the thirteenth century the projection at the bast
was about ecfual to the width ; it was gradually reducec
by weathered, i.e. sloping, offsets, the top being finishe
with a weathering or with a gablet, or, in large builc
ings, with a pinnacle; the angles were chamfered
at the corner of a building there were two buttresse
at right angles to the walls. At the end of the thii
teenth century the projection had increased and the
corners were not chamfered. In the fourteenth centur
one buttress was placed diagonally at the corner of
* See article thereon.
building. The projection increased still more in the
fifteenth century ; the corners of buildings had either
one diagonal buttress or two placed square ; pinnacles
were used more often than formerly.
FLYING BUTTRESS. In order to carry the thrust of a
nave vault over an aisle or cloister, a ' flying buttress '
was used (fig. 35). A vertical buttress was built on the
further side of the aisle, and a
half-arch was thrown from this
to the point at which the thrust
had to be met. This half-arch
carried the pressure across the
space, producing an oblique
thrust on the buttress some little
distance below its head. The
weight of the head of the but-
tress and of the pinnacle which
generally crowned it gave to
the oblique thrust a direction
more nearly vertical, as indicated
by the arrows in the diagram
(fig. 35). As the pressure de-
scended it became more vertical,
owing to the weight of the
masonry itself, so that when the ground was reached,"
the direction of the pressure fell within the foot of the
buttress, which was a necessary condition of stability.
BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. See APPENDIX.
CABINET. A small room used as a study or for the
preservation of curios.
CABLE MOULDING. A spiral moulding like a
cable, used in Romanesque architecture (fig. 7).
CALEFACTORY. A warming room; a room in a
monastery where a fire was kept burning in cold
FIG. 35. PRINCIPLE OF THB
weather, to which the monks were occasionally allowed
to resort when chilled by the church services or by
study in the cloister.
CAMBER. The upward rise towards the centre in
the tie-beam of a roof, or in other similar beam, or in a
CAMPANILE (Ital.). A bell-tower.
CANCELLUS (Lat.). A lattice-work screen be-
tween the columns of a portico or round the altar in
a basilica* or early Christian church.*
CANDLESTICK. In the middle ages the use of
lights varied in different churches ; one or more lights
were placed on the altar during mass ; well-furnished
churches commonly had a pair of tall candlesticks on
each side in front of the high altar (M.). The Pascal
candlestick stood on the north side of the presbytery
(M.) ; at Durham it was in the middle, and was set up
on the Thursday before Easter and removed on the
Wednesday after Ascension Day.
CANOPY. A roof or projection to protect a door,
altar, statue, or other object. Canopies over doors
have been in general use in domestic architecture at
all times ; they are usually of wood, supported on
brackets, and are finished with a gable or with a flat
roof or otherwise. They were also placed over altars
in the middle ages and were either of wood or con-
sisted of curtains hung on iron rods. Similar canopies
sometimes projected over the high-table in a medieval
hall, the original object in both cases being to afford a
protection from falling dust and from draughts. From
the thirteenth to the middle of the seventeenth cen-
turies canopies were also placed over important sepul-
chral monuments." They were also used above niches *
during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
* See article thereon.
CANT. An oblique face ; the term is usually
applied to large objects, e.g. a bow -window which
is a half octagon or half hexagon on plan is said to
have canted angles, whereas the terms chamfer* and
bevel* and splay* are applied to small solid objects.
CANTILEVER. A bracket.
CAPITAL. A stone placed on the top of a column
to make a wider bearing for the superstructure, or to
effect a transition from a round column to a square
superstructure. It consists of two principal parts, the
bell* and the abacus.*
The Greek Doric capital consists of an echinus, 1
circular in plan, surmounted by an abacus, square
in plan and with square edges (fig. 36).
The capital of the Ionic order* is rect-
angular in plan, with two large spirals or
volutes in front and two behind ; the
Corinthian capital has a high circular
bell ornamented with acanthus* leaves, FIG 36 GREEK
the abacus having four concave sides ; DORIC CAPITAL
the Roman Doric has a moulded capital ;
the Roman Ionic and Corinthian have a general resem-
blance to the Greek ; the Tuscan is like the Doric ;
the Composite combines the acanthus leaves of the
Corinthian with the volutes of the Ionic.
In Saxon architecture the capital is a rude imitation
of Roman Work, with mouldings or with leaf forms and
volutes disposed somewhat at random. In the Norman
capita], as in the Saxon, the bell and the abacus are
worked on separate stones. In plan the abacus of a
large pier generally follows approximately the plan of
the pier itself ; for small shafts it is invariably square ;
in section the upper edge is square and the lower edge
is chamfered. The lower part of the bell is made round
to fit the column, while the upper part is square to fit
* See article thereon. l See MOULDING, p. 188.
the abacus ; this gives a form which is known as the
cushion capital (fig. 37). The most common way of
decorating this plain block is by cutting vertical flu tes
producing the scolloped capital (figs. 38, 39). Some
times it is covered with involved interlacing scroll
work. Other varieties are a rude imitation of the
volute (fig. 40), and a curious reversed volute formed
by a leaf curling upwards under the corner of the
abacus instead of bending downwards (fig. 41).
CAPITAL WITH RUDE VOLUTES. ELY
Some Norman capitals have foliage which shows very
clearly its derivation from the Roman acanthus, and
this gradually developed into the characteristic foliage*
of the thirteenth century, forming a succession of very
* See article thereon.
FIG. 42. EARLY FOLIAGE
ST. LEONARD'S PRIORY, STAMFORD
free sprays (figs. 42,
103). In another type
the foliage is gathered
up into knobs (fig.
During the latter part
of the twelfth century
another form was de-
veloped, namely the
moulded capital which
is ornamented with
rings of mouldings*
round the upper part
of the bell (fig. 44).
This form soon became
more common than the carved capital
and eventually superseded it entirely.
At first the mouldings* are simply treated,
but afterwards become more coplex.
At the beginning of the fourteenth cen-
tury the remarkable change in the foliage*
from forms of abstract beauty to close
imitations of particular species is seen
in the carved capital. The leaves are
disposed in a wreath-like man-
ner round the bell (fig. 106)
and they lose the bold lights
and shadows of the earlier
wor k The moulded capital
has .not the deep hollows
of the thirteenth century.
In the fifteenth century the
mouldings became weaker,
and sculpture is rarely used
except as little rosettes and
leaves stuck round the bell ;
* See article thereon.
FIG. 43. CAPITAL
FIG. 44. MOULOBD CAPITAL
the top of the abacus is some-
times surrounded by a row
of battlements. The capital
was a less important feature
and in some cases had ceased
to be functional, many of
the arch - mouldings being
tarried down the column (fig.
The capitals of the Renais-
sance were copied from the
Roman varieties of the classi-
cal orders/ with slight varia
CARRELL. Asmall boarded
enclosure erected in a monastic
cloister to serve as a study
for a monk; one was placed
against each window or each
light, according to the char-
acter of the window, and was
just large enough to contain a
seat and a desk for one person.
Their object was to afford the
monks some protection from
the cold of the cloister during
the long hours of reading or
transcribing. The date of their introduction i
known, but they were in use in the latter half of the
thirteenth century. At Gloucester Cathedral provision
was made for them when the cloister was built, between
1370 and 1412, by recessing the windows in a peculiar
way; or these recesses were themselves the carrels and
were fitted with doors.
CARTOUCHE (Fr., a roll of paper), (l) A tablet,
most often used for an inscription or for a coat of arms,
* See article thereon.
resembling a sheet of paper with the edges curled up
(fig. 46). (2) A modillion of a cornice with
a scroll-like form.
CARVING. See FOLIAGE and SCULPTURE.
CARYATID. Columns. in the form of
human figures, as in the porch of the Erech-
theum, Athens ; or pilasters as satyrs, half
man and half goat; or human bodies growing
out of square tapering columns, or other grotesque forms.
CASEMENT. (1) A window; (2) that part of a
window which opens on hinges at the side. A French
casement is continued to the floor and is divided down
the middle so as to make a pair of glass folding-doors.
CASEMENT MOULDING. A wide shallow mould-
ing much used in the fifteenth cen-
tury, especially in the internal arches
and jambs of windows (fig. 4-7).
CASTLE. There is much differ-
ence of opinion on the subject of
Saxon and Norman strongholds.
Till recently it has been held that
the Saxon ' burh ' was a conical
mound surrounded by a ditch and
wooden palisade, and that these CASEMENT MOULDING
burhs were numerous and occupied
good strategic positions, so that the Conqueror possessed
himself of them and gave them to his followers,
and he and his successors simply strengthened them
and gradually substituted stone walls for the wooden
palisades (CL.). Thus there was created a type of
Norman castle known as the shell keep consisting of a
high circular wall containing sufficient buildings to serve
the garrison when the place was besieged, in marked
contrast to the 'square keep' which was the type
chosen by the Norman when he occupied a new site.
The Round Tower at Windsor and the White Tower of
the Tower of London are examples of these two types,
which will be more fully described presently.
The later view is that the Saxon 'burh' was a
fortified town, that the circular 'shell keeps' of the
Normans were entirely new creations on new sites,
that palisades were first put up, and that these were
replaced by stone walls when the artificial mound had
become sufficiently consolidated to bear their weight (H.).
Many of the castles begun by his father and brother
were completed by Henry I., and perhaps most of our
square keeps may be attributed to him. Many castles
were in private hands, having been rebuilt by the
barons in the preceding reigns. These strong private
castles were objectionable to both the king and people,
as they made the owners powerful and too independent
of the one, while they gave them too much opportunity
of tyrannizing over the other. The old English fortified
house, besides being owned and garrisoned by a fellow-
countryman of the surrounding population, had not been
strong enough to give much consequence to its lord.
Castle-building was always considered a royal pre-
rogative, and though circumstances sometimes com-
pelled the king to wink at its infringement, a subject
could fortify his house only under special licence. An
immense number of unlicensed castles castra adul-
terina were erected during the troubles of Stephen's
reign by the lesser nobility and used by them for
purposes not far removed from brigandage. One of
the first acts of Henry II. was to order the destruction
of these and of some castles of the greater nobility.
This measure, although necessary, gave great and
undue prominence to the great old castles. After the
suppression of the rebellion of 1173, therefore, Henry
dismantled many castles or took them into his own
hands and strengthened them whenever opportunity
The Norman keeps were succeeded in the latter part
of the twelfth century and the first half of the thir-
teenth by round towers, known as Donjons or Juliets.
They were entered on the first floor by stone steps or a
drawbridge. Conisborough in Yorkshire is a remarkable
example ; it measures only 25 feet in diameter internally
and as much as 52 feet externally, the walls being 14
feet thick, and it is near 90 feet high. These towers
did not contain dungeons*; the basements were above
ground and were not used as prisons.
With Henry II. the great period of castle-building
ends, at least so far as quantity goes. At the close of
his reign there were, it is estimated, more than a thou-
sand castles in England and Wales. Henry III. gave
his attention chiefly to repairing and improving halls,
chapels and outer wards. The strong rule of Edward I.
very much minished the value of castles. Those
which he himself built in Wales were a new type and
show a great advance in the science. They have been
called ' Concentric' castles (see p. 39). But even
these ceased to be of use and fell into decay when once
the country had been subdued.
Castles gradually gave place to more or less fortified
houses, for which a great number of licences, called
Licences to Crenellate, were granted by the three Ed-
wards and by Richard II. In Richard's reign also the
royal castles were handed over to the county authori-
ties to serve as prisons.
THE SQUARE KEEP. This type was used by the Nor-
mans, both in Normandy and in England, during the
eleventh and twelfth centuries. A large and strongly
walled outer court, generally of irregular shape, con-
tained the hall, the kitchen and other domestic
buildings ordinarily in use, the size and arrangement
of which varied according to circumstances. The
keep was used only during a siege. It was placed on
* See article thereon.
the highest part of the site and was itself much higher
than any of the other buildings. It was rarely in the
centre of the castle and was sometimes very near to, or
even formed part of, the enceinte.
The square keeps vary in size from 25 feet to 80 feet
or even 100 feet along each side (externally), and are
usually from one and a half to two diameters high.
Broad flat pilasters are placed on the sides and at the
angles, those at the angles being carried up above the
parapet as turrets. The walls are from 7 feet to 14 feet
thick, and at the base 20 feet or even more. The allure
or walk on the top of the wall behind the parapet is
6 or 8 feet wide.
The keep was invariably entered at the level of the
first floor. The door was reached through a small and
strongly defended building running along one side of
the keep and containing a straight stone staircase. In
the smaller keeps and sometimes in the larger, the
staircase is of wood and has no enclosure.
Internally the keep was divided by a cross wall
which, on the principal floor, was pierced by one or
more large arches. All keeps have a basement, used as
a store-house, above ground. In the small keeps there
was only one storey above this, forming a large general
room, but in the larger keeps this room formed a barrack,
and the chief room or hall, some 30 feet high, was on
the second storey, and sometimes there was a third
floor over this (fig. 48). The staircase was generally a
spiral in one angle, the whole height of the building.
The basement walls are usually solid, but those of the
upper storeys contain numerous small chambers, about
5 feet wide, used as sleeping-rooms, and as an ora-
tory, a well-chamber, and privies. The smaller keeps
had generally a single high-pitched roof, probably
covered with shingles or with stone tiles, but in the
larger examples the roof was double, forming an inverted
W resting on the side walls and on the dividing wall
mentioned above. The external walls were carried up
to the level of the ridge. Flat lead-covered roofs were
substituted for these high-pitched roofs at an early date.
The square keep was not, it must be remembered, a
residence, except during an actual siege, when it formed
a secure refuge till relief came from outside. And it
was not in a military sense a scientific building. It
was not easily defended ; in order to reply to the attack
the garrison had to expose themselves ; there were no
FIG. 48. THE SQUARE NORMAN KEEP
WHITE TOWER, TOWER OF LONDON
'salients' or flanking projections commanding the base
of the wall. But its mere passive strength made it
almost impregnable if well provisioned and defended by
faithful retainers. Mercenaries could not be entirely
trusted. " Indeed, the builders of some keeps seem to
have mistrusted their own troops as much as they feared
those of the enemy. The staircases and galleries are
often contrived quite as much to check free communi-
cation between the several parts of the building as
between its inside and its outside." (CL.)
Notable examples are the White Tower, London;
Colchester and Hedinghain, Essex ; Dover and Roches-
ter in Kent; Norwich and Castle Rising, Norfolk;
Kenilworth, Warwickshire; Porchester, Hampshire;
Carlisle, Cumberland ; Scarborough, Yorkshire ; Nor-
ham, Durham ; Hamburgh, Northumberland.
THE SHELL KEEP. This was the type of keep which
is found on sites which had been already defended
by earthworks and timber buildings, whether of Saxon
or Norman origin. These it appears were found to be
very defensible, and the necessity of replacing the
timber by stone often did not arise till long after the
Conquest, in some cases not for a century. Thus it
happens that the shell keep, though it may be said to
be the earlier type, is generally later than the square
As the castles occupying old sites were more numerous
than those founded on new sites, it follows that the
shell keep formed the largest class ; but being less
massive they have suffered more from the ravages of
time and are now less common than the square keep.
The shell keep like the square keep forms the nucleus^,
of a large irregular base-court containing the usual
buildings (fig. 49). It is generally placed upon and
forms a part of the outer line of defence. It is how-
ever entirely surrounded by its own ditch across which
the outer wall of the castle is carried. Occasionally
the keep occupies a central position, and then it is
placed on the line of a ditch which divides the base-
court into two wards.
The configuration of the mound, which is always
entirely or partly artificial, governs the size and shape
of the keep. Most keeps are polygons of ten or twelve
sides ; some are round. The diameter varies from 30 to
100 feet. The walls are usually 8 or 10 feet thick and
from 20 feet to 25 feet high.
The keep was approached by a wooden bridge across
the ditch on the side within the base court and thence
49- THE SHELL KEEP AND DWELLING HOUSE
(See List of Illustrations)
by steps up the mound ; the actual entrance was a mere
door in the wall. There was also another entrance from
the top of the wall surrounding the base-court.
The shell keep, except in the smaller examples, was
an open court, and the various buildings were built up
against the inner face of its wall. The ramparts were
reached by an open internal staircase of stone or wood.
Notable examples are: Windsor; Berkeley, Glouces-
tershire; Arundel, Sussex; Warwick; Cardiff; Pickering,
Yorkshire; Farnham, Surrey (figs. 49, 50. See also List
TRANSITION. The castl e -building of the reign of
Henry III. consisted chiefly of the addition, enlarge-
ment and improvement of the outer wards of already
existing castles. It seems probable that it was from
these that the succeeding type, the concentric castle,
The castles of this period show an advance in refine-
ment and comfort. A feature which seems to be peculiar
to them is the bretasche, or temporary timber gallery
corbelled out from the top of the wall in time of siege ;
from this missiles could be showered on an enemy at-
tacking the base of the wall. The machicolations of
the Edwardian castle would appear to take its place.
THE EDWARDIAN OR CONCENTRIC CASTLE. This type
was not actually invented or introduced by Edward I.,
for the earliest and grandest example, Caerphilly, was
built in the reign of Henry III. while Edward was still
in the Holy Land.
The castle of this type consisted of a series of defen-
sive walls forming concentric rings ; the inner court
contains the domestic buildings ; the keep is abandoned ;
the parts are so disposed as give every advantage to the
The outer line of defence consisted of a wall with
salients or projecting towers which enfiladed the curtain
or length of wall between two towers ; and the whole
of this line of defence was enfiladed by the inner and
higher ring of towers. Sometimes however there was
a very large third ward for the protection of the neigh-
bouring peasantry and their cattle ; this contained a
ditch or even a small lake formed by damming up
a streamlet, the dam itself being well defended.
The middle ward that between the innermost ring
and the next was too narrow to give scope for a large
number of attackers or for them to work a catapult,
and the projecting towers were often mere half-circles
open in the rear, so that when captured they could not
be held. The gatehouse is usually flanked by round
towers with loops, and is so planned that it could be
defended independently against attack from within if
the outer ward was taken. The parapet is corbelled
out on machicolations.* Outside the gate there was a
barbican, which was sometimes a mere walled enclosure,
sometimes a detached building on the further side of
the moat. The postern or smaller gateway is often
elaborate ; that at Windsor was intended for tht use of
cavalry. Sometimes the postern is a water-gate.
The walls of an Edwardian castle are from 25 feet
to 40 feet high and from 6 to 8 feet thick. The
parapet has wide merlons or battlements and narrow
embrasures with wood shutters ; often each merlon is
pierced with a loop.
The buildings of the inner ward, consisting of hall,
kitchen, chapel, and general living and sleeping-rooms
and storehouses, were large and handsome ; they were
usually built up against the curtain. Very complete
arrangements were made for sanitation. The castles
of this period, indeed, were part palace part fortress,
though the latter characteristic is always the more
Notable examples are: Caerphilly, Glamorganshire,
* See article thereon.
e t -&
VIC. 50. FARNHAM CASTLE. GENERAL 1'LAN
the largest in Wales ; Beaumaris, Anglesey, very
complete and regular ; Conway, Carnarvonshire, where
the castle and town " form together the most complete
and best preserved example of mediaeval military
architecture in Britain. The works are all of one date
and design, apparently by one engineer, at the com-
mand of a monarch specially skilled in the art of war"
(CL.); Kidwelly, Caermarthenshire ; Harlech, Merioneth;
Leeds or Ledes in Kent ; Caernarvon, of the noblest
architecture, is not concentric. The Tower of London
has by successive additions become a good example
of the concentric type ; to Farnham also (fig. 50) the
outer wall and ditch give something of the character
of a concentric castle. (G. T. Clark, Mediaeval Military
CATACOMB (Gk. KOTO, down; KVfiftrj, a hollow
place). A system of underground passages formed
by the early Christians in the neighbourhood of Rome
as a secret place of burial during the age of perse-
cution. There are about sixty of such cemeteries
round the city and they are of very great extent, some
of them occupying an area of several acres. They
are of various ages, from the time of the martyrdom of
St. Peter to the middle of the second century, but
they continued in use as cemeteries, as places of
worship and as objects "*of pilgrimage till the sixth
The catacombs are excavated in the dry spongy
volcanic stone called tufa. The passages are about
8 feet high and from 3 to 5 feet wide, and they are
generally at right angles to one another. The sides of
the passages contain loculi or graves, one above another,
generally five in a tier. The recesses were closed with
slabs of marble or with tiles, bearing inscriptions and
pictures. There are occasional larger arched recesses
called arcisolia (see ARCISOLIUM). Besides these, there
are distinct chambers opening out of the passages
called cubicula, in the sides of which ordinary loculi
were cut. There were also larger chambers which
were used as places of meeting and for worship ; one
catacomb contains a large and complete church, with
nave and aisles, apse and narthex. In some catacombs
there are several distinct series of galleries at different
In later times oratories and churches were erected
over the entrances to the principal catacombs, to which
more convenient access was made, thus St. Peter's was
built over the cemetery of the Vatican.
The catacombs are rich in inscriptions, sculptures,
paintings and utensils of great beauty and extra-
ordinary interest. (Murray's Handbook of Rome.)
CATHEDRAL (from Kad&pa, a seat). A church in
which there is the throne of a bishop.
CATHERINE-WHEEL WINDOW. A circular
window with mullions radiating from the centre. (See
CAULICOLE (pi. CAULICOLI). A stalk; in the
Corinthian capital the thick stalk (of which there are
two on each side of the capital) from which spring the
leaves which support the volutes (fig. 193).
CAVETTO. See MOULDING (fig. 178).
CEILING. In the middle ages church ceilings were
either of stone vaulting* or of wood in imitation of vault-
ing; or they were plastered or boarded and followed
the cants of a trussed rafter roof/ forming a sort of
polygonal tunnel ; this was sometimes divided into
square panels by small ribs and decorated with gilding
and colour. In domestic buildings the most common
plan for the lower rooms seems to have been to mould
the joists of the floor above, and either to let the floor-
boards be seen from below or to plaster them. The
* See article thereon.
plaster was laid on a mass of reeds. In the time of
Elizabeth the ceiling was covered with a rich pattern
in plaster work, forming panels of various shapes., en-
riched with scrolls of vine in low relief. In the
seventeenth century the pattern was given up, the
ceiling was formed into coffers * or into a few large
divisions consisting of a central circle, oval or other
form with smaller panels disposed round it, the decora-
tion consisting of acanthus, lotus and so on, in bold
relief, and the usual mouldings and enrichments.
CELL. (1) A small room in which to confine a
prisoner. (2) A small chamber or set of chambers for
one occupant in a religious house ; in England required
only by the Carthusian Rule. (3) A small religious
house, the offshoot from a larger house, and continuing
in some respects in subordination to it.
CELLA. The part of a Greek or Roman temple*
which was enclosed by walls.
CELLAR. Now an underground room used for
storage, but in the middle ages a store-room often
entirely above ground.
CEMETERY (from Greek, a sleeping-place). The
practice of associating a burial ground with a place of
worship appears to be of Christian origin. The church-
yard usually lay to the south of the church ; it was
entered through a lych-gate* and contained a large
CENSER OR THURIBLE. A small metal cup hung
on chains and with a perforated cover, in which to
CHALICE, COMMUNION CUP. A cup for the
sacramental wine. In 847 it was ordered that chalices
should be of gold or silver. The examples of the
twelfth and thirteenth centuries have a bowl of a flat
* See article thereon.
hemispherical form, a knob in the centre of the stem,
and a round foot. In the fourteenth century the bowl
becomes conical and the foot is a hexagon with concave
sides (fig. 51 a). Towards the close of the fifteenth cen-
tury the bowl is more hemispherical, the tendency con-
tinues in the reign of He'nry VIII., and the foot has six
convex lobes. A chalice, generally of tin or pewter,
was placed on the breast of everv priest at his burial.
Orders for the destruction of ' chalices ' and for the
provision of ' communion cups ' were issued during the
reigns of Edward VI. and Elizabeth ; in consequence
of the inquiries by Archbishop Parker many cups were
FIG. 51. O. CHALICE AND PATBN. b. COMMUNION CUP
made in or about 1570 (fig. 51 6). The bowl is larger
than that of the chalice as the wine was now received
by the laity ; it is cylindrical with a swelling lip, and is
often inscribed with the name of the parish ; the stem
is concave and the foot a very flat dome with mouldings.
At the beginning of the following century a cup with
a somewhat conical bowl and a baluster stem was in
vogue for a time. From 1630 to 1640 (CR.) the bowl
was tumbler-shaped and the stem of the form of a
trumpet with the mouth downwards. In the latter
part of the seventeenth century and during the
eighteenth century cups were shaped somewhat like
the Elizabethan cup but taller and plainer, often very
rude and of enormous size.
CHAMFER. A plane formed by cutting off the
edge made by two surfaces.
a b c
FIG. 52. THE CHAMFER
a Plain chamfer, i Hollow chamfer, c Sunk chamfer
CHANCEL. The part of a church which was till
recently separated from the rest by a screen. The
word is derived from Latin caneelli (pi.), a lattice-work
screen ; compare cancel, chancellor, etc., (s.).
CHANTRY. An endowment for the singing of
masses for the dead.
CHANTRY CHAPEL. A chapel, generally consisting of
an enclosure within a church, provided for such masses.
CHAPEL (Low Lat. capella, orig. a shrine in which
was preserved the capa or cope of St. Martin, s.).
(1) A small church other than a parish church or
conventual or cathedral church, such as in the middle
ages had "no proper priest attached to it or in which
the sacrament of baptism was not to be administered
or had no burying ground annexed to it or which was
dependent on a superior church " (p.). (2) A church
for the particular use of a college* or other similar body
or of a household (see HOUSE). (3) A small building at-
tached to a larger church, or to a particular part of a
church or monastery,* and used for a special purpose
or dedicated to some particular saint. (4) A building
provided for the services of Nonconformists (recent).
* See article thereoa.
CHAPTER-HOUSE. A room in a monastery* or
attached to a cathedral for meetings of the chapter or
CHARNEL HOUSE OR BONE HOUSE. A build
ing in or near a churchyard and often attached to a
church, for the preservation of bones disturbed in
digging graves. It was often partly below ground and
was generally vaulted ; there was sometimes a chapel
over it. Examples : The Cathedral School, Norwich,
with a chapel above and a house for priests to the
west ; St. Mary the Less, Cambridge, under the vestry.
CHECKER. The office of one of the obedientiaries
or heads of departments in a monastery. So called from
the checker or chequer pattern marked 011 the table on
which accounts were reckoned by means of counters ;
or abbreviated from exchequer, which has the same
CHEQUER- WORK. Walling built of two materials,
usually flint and stone or
brick and stone, so arranged
as to make a
pattern (fig. 53). The con-
struction, and perhaps the
appearance also, is improved
by making the stones longer
than the blocks of other " G - S3- CHKQUER-WORK
material, so that they overlap and the ' straight joints '
are avoided, as shown on the right of the figure.
CHEST. An important piece of furniture in the
middle ages in which was kept bulky goods such as
clothing and also money; hence an endowment or fund
was called a chest. In early times to the thirteenth
century the woodwork was generally very simple and
was strengthened with ornamental ironwork (fig. 124) ;
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the woodwork
* See article thereon.
was more elaborate, being panelled and decorated with
tracery and carving and sometimes with paintings, and
the ironwork was simpler ; in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries the work was much plainer,
consisting of moulded panelling, plain or ornamented
with shallow and poor carving. The rude chests
with barrel-shaped lids often seen in churches are
believed to be generally of the sixteenth or early
seventeenth centuries. The medieval chest, as for
instance the chest for parish registers, was often
secured by two, three or more padlocks, the keys being
kept by different persons, and many ingenious contri-
vances were resorted to for concealing the keyhole and
CHEVET. An apsidal east end of a church,* in
which the aisle is continued round the end of the
presbytery, with chapels radiating from it. A form
common in France and introduced into England at the
Conquest but soon abandoned by the English ; adopted
by Henry III. at Westminster Abbey (fig. 66) but with-
out effect on the national style.
CHEVRON. A Norman enrichment formed by two
zigzags deeply cut (fig. 190); not to be confounded with
the shallow zigzag.* Compare chevron, an heraldic
bearing and (Fr.)a pair of rafters.
CHIMNEY, CHIMNEYPIECE, FIREPLACE. It
appears that before the Conquest the fire was in-
variably in the middle of the room and that therefore
there were no chimneys. In Norman castles and
houses these are fairly common. In the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries the recess was generally shallow
and the smoke was caught by a projecting hood or
mantle (whence ' mantel-piece ') carried on corbels
and sloping back to the wall ; they were generally at
the side of the room, so that a tall chimney-shaft rose
* See article thereon.
from the eaves of the roof. In the fourteenth century
the same form continued, though the work was rather
more elaborate ; the chimney-stack was sometimes short
and rose from the gable, and was commonly octagonal ;
it is frequently crowned with a spire and has openings
at the side for the escape of the smoke. In the
fifteenth century the hood was gradually discarded and
the lintel of the fireplace becomes highly ornamental.
The recess is commonly about six feet wide. It is
remarkable that generally the hall had still a central
hearth, even when every other room in the house had a
fireplace at the side ; if the
hall had a side fireplace it
was large, often 12 feet
wide. Towards the end of
the fifteenth and at the
beginning of the sixteenth
century clustered chimneys
became common, each flue
in the stack being taken
up a separate shaft, which
was often richly decorated
(fig. 54). Hitherto the flue
had been excessively large,
being the whole width of tZr*
the fireplace recess at the f
bottom and gradually nar-
rowing as it rose. The
fireplace became much
smaller but more elaborate
in the latter part of the sixteenth century and in tl
seventeenth, and the chimney-stack was simpler, beii
generally a group of plain octagons and squares.
the eighteenth century the use of iron grates brougl
about a further reduction in the size of the fireplac
and the chimney-stack ceased to be an architectui
CHOIR. Strictly the part of a church occupied by
the singers, the part east of this being the presbytery.
The term is often applied to the whole of the eastern
limb and also to the whole of the space east of the
great screen. In cathedral and monastic churches
the choir as a rule included a large part of the nave.
CHOIR SCREEN. See SCREEN.
CHURCH. (G reek Ku/aiciKos, belonging to the Lord,s.).
The English church plan is the result of a gradual
development from two primitive types, one of southern,
the other of northern origin. These types are generally
known as the Basilican and the Celtic. It will be
necessary to give some account of these before describ-
ing their introduction into England and their effect
ion English architecture.
The Basilican church varies in some important re-
spects in different examples, but the normal plan may be
thus described. The building consists of a nave with
one or sometimes two aisles on each side, with spacious
galleries for women above them. It is entered from
the east, as will be more particularly noticed presently.
At the west end of the nave there is a semi-circular
apse forming the presbytery, with a stone bench for the
clergy round it, the middle seat being a raised chair for
*the bishop. In front of the bishop's chair, and nearly
Ion the chord of the apse, is the altar. The western
[part of the nave is enclosed by screens (cancelli, whence
lour word ' chancel,'* ) and forms a quire for the singers.
The presbytery, and perhaps the quire, are raised con-
siderably above the nave over a crypt called a confessio*
the burial-place of saints (rigs. 55, 56). There are two
entrances from the church to the confessio, and if
possible there is a window in the wall between the con-
nfcssio and the nave. There are sometimes transepts ;
Im some cases these are as long as the nave, while in
* See article thereon.
FLAN OF CONFESSIC
BASILICA FLAM ANI
OLD ST. PETER'S, RC
others they hardly project beyond the aisles. The
church is entered by three doors through a narthex* or
large porch extending across the east end. On this
side of the church there is a forecourt surrounded by
a cloister and with a laver in the middle. Occasionally
the entrances to the church are at the sides and there
is an apse at the east end as well as at the west.
The development of this plan in its main outlines
may be traced back to several sources, but the exact
degree to which it was influenced by each of these is
still a matter of dispute. It has a general resemblance
to the secular basilicas/ or large halls, both public and
private, of the Romans.
When at the end of the third century and in the
time of Constantine the increased number of converts
made large buildings necessary, the simplest way of
providing them was by a hall with nave and aisles,
with a gallery over the aisles and with a clear-storey,
like the secular basilicas and other pagan buildings.
The apse with its seats and altar had without doubt
long since become stereotyped. The cloistered fore-
court had always been familiar in the atrium of the pri-
vate house. The alcove* or cella erected in the ceme-
tery outside the town over the tomb of the saint, was
rebuilt as a confessio, when the great numbers who
visited the spot made it necessary to provide a large
church. The end of the church at which the apse was
placed was sometimes enlarged by the addition of tran-
septs, thus forming a T-shaped plan (fig. 57), from which
the cruciform plan was afterwards developed ; thus in
this as in so many other instances, a symbolical mean-
ing was attached to what was at first purely practical
and utilitarian. The great halls of palaces as well as
public buildings had been called basilicas, and the term
was applied to the typical church plan early in the
* See article thereon.
The Basilican church plan was introduced into
England by the Romans. A good example of a small
church is that at Silchestcr, though unfortunately only
tin- foundations and part of the pavement remain
(fig. 58). It consists of a nave with an apse at the
west end, aisles, transepts and a narthex or portico.
The foundation-walls between the nave and aisles
Scale of Feet
FIG. 58. ROMANO-BRITISH CHURCH, SILCHESTER
doubtless supported a row of columns, but one at least
of the transepts appears to have been separated by
walls from the rest of the church ; the narthex
probably was an open portico with three doorways
leading into the church. The pavement is a mosaic of
tesserae made of red tiles cut into one-inch squares in
the manner common in Roman work. In the middle
of the apse however there is a square with a pattern
of black, white and red iesserac, on which stood a wood
altar. To the east of the church there was a laver at
which the worshippers washed before entering, and
near it was a well. There are no distinct remains of
the iitrium which, it has been suggested, surrounded
the church instead of lying to the east of it as
The eastward position of the entjrance is an arrange-
ment which the earlier Christian churches share with
the places of worship built by peoples of other faiths
(see ORIENTATION). The subsequent turning round of
the church is involved in obscurity. It has been sug-
gested that churches with two apses \vere fairly com-
mon (fig. 59), and that the western apse, which had
originally contained the high altar, was gradually
superseded in importance by the east apse, and that
then its altar was moved to the east part of the nave.
FIG. 59. CHURCH OF BASILICA TYPE, ST. GALL
The cruciform plan was, it would seem, developed in
England more or less independently of, though no
doubt influenced by, the Continental development.
The north and south porches were not porches only,
but also contained altars. These projecting wings, it
has been argued, were then moved farther east and
their outer doors omitted, thus forming small transepts
(fig. 60) with very narrow arches towards the nave (M.).
The Basilican plan was again introduced in 598 by
Something must now be said about that other, and
perhaps more important, influence on English church
architecture, namely, the Celtic tradition.
The Irish church has worked out for itself a simple
but quite definite system of architecture. Its build-
ings were a development, it would appear, of ;i pagan
cell or tomb, circular in plan, and in section of the
form known as ' bee-hive,' that is with a stone roof
FIG. 60. TRANSITIONAL PLAN, WORTH
made by corbelling out every course beyond the one
below it till the opposite sides met at the top. This
cell the Christians gradually made square in plan.
Sometimes there is an oblong sanctuary at the east
end ; this perhaps originated in a rectangular recess
for the altar. The towers are narrow and lofty.
St. Aidan and his fellow-missionaries arrived in
Northumbria from St. Columba's Irish settlement
in lona in 635, and were established at Lindisfarne.
They naturally continued to build in the style to which
they had been accustomed, and the tradition was
carried on by the great building abbot, Benedic Biscop,
and to some extent by St. Wilfrid, in the latter half of
the century. Their churches are small and without
aisles, they have a square-ended chancel opening into
the nave by a narrow archway (fig. 6l). There are
FIG. 6l. THE CELTIC PLAN, ESCOMB
often side porches and a western tower. This northern
influence was far more widely felt and of greater
permanence than that of St. Augustine, although
coming thirty or forty years later.
In the second half of the seventh century the
Basilican and Celtic types
were combined into some-
thing of a compromise, with
a balance in favour of the
Celtic. The apse is aban-
doned for the square pres-
bytery ; the tall west tower is adopted ; side entrances
are preferred to one at the west end. The confossio,
the result of the peculiar conditions at Rome, is
dropped ; nor are aisles required in such small churches
as are at first built. There is a central tower in addi-
tion to that at the west end in some cases.
Immediately after the Conquest Norman influence
of course made itself felt
for a time. The apse ap-
pears again (fig. 62) ; some-
times even the smallest
churches have a central
tower and often tran-
septs ; also the western
door becomes more com-
Two types of east end were introduced by the
Normans. In one the aisle is carried round the apse,
and from it chapels project, as at Norwich (fig. 63).
This plan which came to be called a chevet continued,
with modifications, to be the typical French ending
(fig. 66). The other or Normandy type has a Lom-
bardic, and perhaps primarily an Oriental origin
(fig. 64). The aisles terminate in apses on a line
with the chord of the great apse. Outside these short
aisles project from the transepts, and beyond these
FIG. 62. THE SMALL NORMAN CHURCH,
m<*=m f^r^TrBj p rmnr+rjb
* f f
FIG. 63. THE CHEVET, NOKW1CH
I 1070 . WZl 1096 ; rebuilt 1174 . [Z] 1180 .
FIG. 65. THE TWO TYPES OF APSE AND THE EASTWARD
again other apses. St. Albans is given as an instance.
The English however soon abandoned both these
typ in favour of the indigenous square east end,
an es Iso at an early period began to lengthen the
presbytery (fig. 65.)
The vast Norman naves on the other hand have
been little altered, and they have to a great extent
given the keynote to work of a later period. This
is especially noticeable in the proportions of the three
; storeys of the building : main arcade, triforium and
clear-storey. The Norman church still gave to the
triforium that importance which it had inherited from
the basilica. When a presbytery was rebuilt or
lengthened the same proportions were preserved, so
that the new work might range with the old. A tra-
dition was thus established which influenced English
design even where, as at Salisbury, there was no earlier
work to hamper the artist. Consequently in England
! the triforium dies hard. But it does gradually dwindle,
is incorporated with the clear-storey as a mere wall
j)assage and finally disappears.
The east end retained for some time after the
Conquest something of the Basilican arrangement ;
the altar was. placed somewhat in advance of the apse;
I behind it were ranged the seats of the clergy ; the
i central seat was considerably raised and was reached
by a flight of steps, which projected in a semi-circle
towards the west. The arrangement probably con-
tinued till the general enlargement of presbyteries in
the thirteenth century, when the seats were moved to
I the south side of the altar (M.). In one instance
only, namely Norwich, are the remains of the ancient
f throne preserved in situ (fig. C3).
The choir of the monks generally occupied the cross-
ing and often the east part of the nave ; that of the
j,canons was east of the crossing. The screen which
separates choir and nave varies in details in different
examples. In its simplest form (for the monastic and
cathedral churches) it consisted of the following parts.
(1) A wall against which the choir stalls are 'returned'
and in the centre of which there is a doorway. (2) A
second wall one bay further west, also with a doorway
in the centre ; the space between these two walls was
covered by an upper floor forming a gallery or loft
called the pulpitum, supporting the great cross or rood
and containing the organs. (3) A screen wall one bay
further west forming a reredos to the principal nave
altar on each side of which was a doorway.
In the ordinary parish churches a variety of causes
have led to a gradual and remarkably uniform
series of alterations. The first of these was the sub-
stitution of a square east end for the apse. The re-
moval of the central tower generally followed next,
the reason in most cases perhaps being that it had
become unsafe, though the fact that it was never
rebuilt in the same place seems to indicate a change of
fashion ; the new tower was almost invariably built at
the west end of the nave. As the population grew it
became necessary to add an aisle if, as was more
commonly the case, the Norman church had not aisles.
It was usually more convenient to do this on the north
side because there were more graves to the south. The
aisle wall was built first and then the arches were
made, being often cut through the nave wall without
taking it down. Thus it comes about that the upper
part of the wall is sometimes older than the arches.
Soon it was found necessary to enlarge the building
still further, and a south aisle was built in the same
way ; then the aisles were made wider, and as this
required a corresponding increase of height, flat lead
roofs were put over them level with the eaves of the
nave roof, and so we find the small, early clear-storey
windows of the nave look into the aisle ; a new clear-
storey was then built above the old one.
In the aisleless church there had been, at the end of
the nave, an altar enclosed by screens on each side
of the chancel arch. Sometimes the altar stood against
the chancel screen. When aisles were added these
altars were moved into them and enclosed by screens ;
the marks of the screens are generally visible on the
responds and on the first columns. Finally, the aisles
were often continued up to the extreme east end and
arches made through into the chancel. One of the
chancel aisles, or a part of it, was sometimes used as a
sacristy in which were kept the vessels and vestments
and other things required in the service. When the
chancel has not aisles there often still remains on its
north side a sacristy, which also generally contained an
altar. There is sometimes a vaulted chamber below it,
half underground, in which might be placed any
human bones disturbed in making graves or in digging
the foundations of any additions to the church. (6ee
CHARNEL HOUSE.) Over the porch there is very often a
chamber communicating by a winding staircase with
the church. Its uses seem to have been various;
sometimes it appears to have contained an altar, but
more often to have been a living-room, presumably
either for a priest or for the guardian of the church,
and it is not unlikely that it was used for occasional
meetings and other purposes.
The first of the changes made in churches during the
sixteenth century was the destruction of images, relics
and shrines between 1538 and 1541. The suppression
of the gilds and chantries in 1545 and 1517 caused the
discontinuance of many services and ceremonies and
the extinguishing of the lights which had been main-
tained by the payments of the gild brethren and by the
chantry endowments. Candles were definitely forbidden
by the Injunctions of 1547 except two upon the altar,
and these appear to have been disallowed soon after-
wards. A pulpit was to be provided and the Epistle
and Gospel were to be read from there or other con-
venient place. It would seem that it was at this time
that the Royal Arms were first put up.
In 1550 orders were issued to destroy all altars, and
to provide one table in their stead. It appears that
texts from Scripture were painted on the walls in place
of the destroyed pictures, for in the reign of Queen
Mary orders were issued (1 554) that these should be
obliterated. The old ornaments were then of course
restored so far as possible, with "a. rood of a decent
stature, with Mary and John and an image of the patron
of the same church."
In the first year of Queen Elizabeth injunctions very
similar to those of Edward VI. were issued. The open
decay and ruin of churches at this time (1560) is de-
scribed in a letter issued by the Queen, in which she
instructs commissioners to determine some means of
reformation, " and among other things to order that the
tables of the commandments may be comlye set or hung
up in the east end of the chauncell." The old service-
books were ordered to be defaced and abolished in the
In 1569 Archbishop Parker issued inquiries as to
whether baptism was ministered in a basin or in the
font, and " whether the roode lofte be pulled down ac-
cording to the order l prescribed ; and if the partition
between the chauncel and church be kepte."
The position of the altar or communion table was
still a burning question in the reign of Charles I. Laud
decided in favour of altars as against tables. He also
introduced altar-rails and the credence." His party
were accused of taking down galleries, some of which
had been built early in the seventeenth century, and of
restraining the building of them in parishes which were
During the Civil War arid the Commonwealth the
ornaments and other improvements introduced by
Laud, and also much of the older work which the
first reformers had spared, were destroyed.
After the Restoration matters improved, but the
process of repair was very slow in the poorer villages,
* See article thereon. l Issued in 1561-2.
and for years afterwards many churches were reported
to be in a state of ruin. The most characteristic work
of the eighteenth century is seen in the high pews, the
west gallery for the choir and band, and the 'three-
decker' clerk's desk and seat, parson's desk and seat,
and pulpit forming a strange but often picturesque
CIBORIUM. (l) A canopy supported on four
columns over an altar (see BALDACHINO) ; (2) a receptacle
for the reservation of the Eucharist.
CINQUE- CENTO. Lit. five hundred. A short ex-
pression for the century which began in 1501, used
especially in connexion with art.
CINQUE- FOIL. A five-leaf form in the head of a
window or in a circle, produced by cusping.
CLEAR-STOREY (also spelt clere-storey but pron.
clear storey). A part of a building lighted with windows
above the roof of some other part, e.g. in a church the
windows of the nave which are above the aisle roof.
CLOISTER. Lit. an enclosure. A covered way,
open at the sides, round a court, as in a monastery.
The monastic cloister was introduced into England with
monachism from Italy. It was the place of study,
and in short the living-place of the monks. For such
a purpose, though quite suited to the Italian climate,
it was singularly unsuitable to that of England.
At first it was enclosed by a low wall on which
stood columns of wood or stone, single or in couples,
supporting arches or lintels carrying a lean-to roof.
Probably all Norman cloisters were of this character.
The form of the arches changed as architecture ad-
vanced and were converted into windows with stone
tracery but without glass. Not till the thirteenth and
fourteenth centuries, and in some cases perhaps not till
the fifteenth century, were the windows entirely glazed.
The alleys, ambulatories, panes, or walks, as they
are called, of the cloisters of the larger monasteries
were also vaulted in later times. The cloister served
the several purposes of a passage connecting the
various buildings, a place of study for the monks (see
AHMARIUM, CARRELL, LIBRARY) and a place of instruction
for the novices. There was a stone seat against the
wall on which are often to be seen the marks of the
' morris ' game, a sort of ' fox-and-geese.' Burials were
sometimes made in the alleys of the cloister, but never
in the cloister-garth till after the Reformation.
CLOISTER-GARTH. The space enclosed by the cloister.
CLUSTERED COLUMN. A group of small shafts
surrounding a large column,* much used in the thirteenth
COB-WALL. A wall built of blocks called 'clay-
bats ' made of unburnt clay or chalk mixed with straw.
FIG. 67. COFFERED HALF-DOME
COFFER. (1) A chest.* (2) A lacunar or deeply-
sunk panel in a ceiling, vault or dome (fig. 67) origin-
* See article thereon.
ally formed by the beams of a ceiling crossing one
COFFIN. In the middle ages coffin meant coffer,
from which word it is derived. "Burial in a coffin
was the exception, but many
churches had one with a hinged
lid which used to be lent to
bring bodies to the grave in"
(M.). Stone coffins may have been
comparatively common, as their
sculptured lids, mostly of the
thirteenth and fourteenth cen-
turies (fig. 68), have been so often
found, though some of these may
be merely gravestones. Stone
coffins, it is said (P.), were never
deeply buried and were fre-
quently so close to the surface that the lid formed
part of the pavement. (See MONUMENT and fig. 265.)
COIGN OR COIN. See QUOIN.
COLLAR-BEAM. See ROOF.
COLLEGE. "A number of persons incorporated
as colleagues for certain common purposes " (w. & c.).
The term is also commonly applied to the buildings in
which the members of the college are housed. It is
this secondary sense only with which we are here con-
cerned, and we shall confine our remarks to the ancient
collegiate buildings of Oxford and Cambridge, with
those of the allied foundations of Winchester and Eton.
" It may be assumed that at first the University took
no cognisance whatever of the way in which students
obtained lodgings. The inconvenience and discomfort
of this system soon led to the establishment of what
were afterwards termed Hostels, apparently by volun-
tary action on the part of the students themselves"
(w. & c.). These hostels were therefore mere private
houses hired by the students, but before long they were
to some extent regulated by the University authorities.
A further step was made by the bequest to each Uni-
versity of sums for the maintenance of scholars, and by
the purchase on the part of the University of Oxford
of houses in which such scholars should live.
The collegiate system was however really inaugu-
rated somewhat later by Walter de Merton, Lord
Chancellor and Bishop of Rochester, who founded at
Oxford in 1264. the college called by his name. His
example was soon afterwards followed at Cambridge by
Hugh de Balsham, Bishop of Ely.
In these two colleges and in all the early foundations
the scholars were at first placed in already existing
private houses, to which necessary additions, such as a
hall and kitchen, were afterwards made. The devotions
of the scholars " were performed in the parish church,
their books were kept in a chest in the strong room,
and the master . . . occupied an ordinary chamber, so
that the chapel, the library, the master's lodge, and the
stately gateways, which supply so many distinctive
features in the later colleges, were wholly wanting in
the earlier ones" (w. & c.). As the collegiate system
developed these were gradually added and grouped
round a rectangular court as convenience might re-
quire, until certain recognisable types of plan were
evolved ; a similar process was going on at about the
same period in the analogous case of the manorial
house. But neither college nor hall was started with
the idea of a quadrangle.
It is to be noted that neither at its inception nor in
its later development does the collegiate arrangement
owe anything to monastic influence. The fact that we
have two communities each living a life in common
might lead us to expect a similarity of plan in their
buildings, but a little consideration will show that there
were many points of divergence. A convent began by
building the church, but a private chapel was not con-
templated by the founders of early colleges and was
generally the last thing to be added ; colleges did not
require a chapter-house nor a guest-house. In the one
case all the inmates occupied a common dormitory and
studied together in the cloister, while in the other the
principle was adopted of dividing up the community
FIC. 69. THE CAMBRIDGE PLAN
FIG. 70. THE OXFORD PLAN
into groups of about four students who, under the car
of a senior, occupied a single room both as a sleeping
place and for study. And finally the student had, befor
the foundation of colleges, learned habits of indepen-
dence unknown to the monk. The requirements of
college,, therefore, more nearly approached the require-
ments of the large private establishment of a great
manorial lord than those of a monastery.
As the college plan became fully developed the re-
semblance to the manor house became very marked.
This was especially the case at Cambridge. The strong
likeness between the plan of Queens' College (fig. 69),
founded in the middle of the fifteenth century,, and that
of Haddon Hall in Derbyshire (fig. 71) is very striking.
FIG 71. HADDON HALL
Both are built round courts. The hall is on the opposite
side of the court to the gateway ; at one end is the
' screens passage ' with buttery and kitchen beyond ; at
the upper end of the hall are the common parlour and
master's lodging, in a position analogous to that of the
solar or withdrawing- room of the private house. The
library is in proximity to these, and beyond it is the
chapel which occupies a part of the north side of
the court as at Haddon. A second court on the other
side of the hall was subsequently formed by the ad-
dition of other buildings, the most remarkable of which
was the long Klixubethan gallery attached to the mas-
ter's lodge, built in imitation of those which were beinu
added at that time to large private houses. St. John's
College was almost the counterpart of Queens', and
other colleges had the same arrangement but have
since been altered.
At Oxford the similarity to the manor-house is not
so close. The building of New College (fig. 70) by
William of Wykeham in the latter part of the four-
teenth century on a very original plan formed a new
departure in collegiate arrangement which was followed
in several respects by some of the later colleges. The
principal features of this plan, which Wykeham also
adopted to some extent in his foundation of Winchester
College, were as follows. A large chapel, with an ante
chapel in the form of a western transept, was included
in the original design and forms an important feature
in the quadrangle. Continuous with the chapel and
abutting on its east wall is the hall ; there is, therefore,
no east window to the chapel. Beyond the hall is the
kitchen without the usual intervening screens passage.
The lodge of the master, here called the warden, is near
the gate. To the west of the chapel and separate from
the principal quadrangle is a cloistered cemetery. Each
of these features was a departure from the normal ar-
rangement. The plan was copied, in respect of the
relative positions of the chapel and hall, at St. John's,
All Souls' (in a modified form), and Magdalen Colleges ;
the transeptal ante-chapel was adopted at All Souls',
Magdalen, and Wadham ; and the detached cloister
cemetery at the colleges of All Souls' and Corpus
Christi. King Henry VI. was strongly influenced by
Wykeham's foundations in his college at Eton and his
King's College, Cambridge ; the latter was to have had
a cloistered cemetery. Otherwise the influence of New
College was not felt at Cambridge.
It remains to notice a few details. The early
colleges had made use of the parish church with
which they were sometimes connected by a raised
gallery ; in one or two instances the parish church
seems to have been rebuilt with a specially large choir
to accommodate the members of the college. When
colleges began to have chapels of their own they
were fitted with stalls facing north and south like
The hall was very much like the hall of a private
house. There were no rooms over it, and it had an
open-timber roof with a louvre or lantern on the ridge
for the escape of the smoke from the fire, which was
generally on a hearth in the centre. The tables ran
lengthways down the hall except the high table which
ran across on a dais or platform raised one step above
the general floor level. At this end of the hall there
was an oriel or bow-window 011 one or both sides. At
the other or lower end of the hall there was a wooden
screen to cover the outer doors and the doors to the
kitchen and buttery, and to allow passage through
the building without entering the hall itself. Over
this passage-way was a gallery.
The library* was not often a detached building, but
consisted of a large room on the upper floor. It may
usually be distinguished by its range of windows which
are larger and more uniformly spaced than the windows
The chambers were arranged in groups in such a
way that a single staircase gave access to two rooms on
each floor. The rooms were of fair size and ran
through the building, so that they were lighted by
windows on opposite sides. In each corner of the
room wood partitions were put up so as to form a small
rectangular closet which would serve as a study for a
single scholar, the closets being lighted by windows
somewhat smaller than those of the large chamber and
* See article thereon.
staircases. The chamber served as a general living-
room- and bedroom for about four persons. The
senior who was placed in charge of the scholars
slept in a large bed, while the boys, who it must
be remembered were mere children of fourteen or
fifteen, had small truckle beds which could be pushed
away under the larger one in the daytime. (Willis
and Clark, Architectural History of the University oj
COLONNADE. A row of columns, generally ap-
plied to one bearing an entablature rather than
COLUMBARIUM (Lat. columba, a dove). A pigeon-
COLUMBARIA. A term applied to any small recesses
COLUMN, PIER, PILLAR, SHAFT. Column and
pillar may be considered as synonymous terms, including
all varieties except very large piers ; the tenn pier is
usually applied to those large masses of masonry form-
ing in fact short walls, such as the great divisions
between the nave and aisles in a Norman cathedral ;
shaft is used in Gothic architecture for a very slender
Saxon columns are round and are sometimes orna-
mented with vertical or spiral flutes, or they are baluster
shaped and are spoken of as ' turned,' though it may
be doubted if they were actually shaped by that pro-
cess ; large piers are generally plain rectangular masses
Norman piers are even more massive, and have
merely a facing of ashlar with a rubble core ; they are
rectangular, either plain or with a series of recesses at
the angles corresponding with the orders of the arch,
or they are circular, or a combination of the circle and
* See article thereon.
square : round columns sometimes have spiral or chevron
flutes ; in the nave arcades of a church piers of two
patterns are often used alternately ; shafts are round
and sometimes have an annulet in the centre.
In the latter part of the twelfth century piers are
abandoned and true columns are built, that is they are
composed of large blocks of dressed stone carefully laid,
instead of an ashlar facing with a core of rubble. They
are much more slender and are generally round ; in the
nave arcade of a church round and octagonal columns
are frequently used alternately.
O-0- O *
a b c d
Thirteenth ceatuiy Fourteenth century
FIG. 72. PLANS OP COLUMNS
About the middle of the thirteenth century this
alternate arrangement is abandoned. Columns often
are in the form of a quatrefoil of four semi-circles (fig.
72 a). In the Norman compound pier the shafts had
been placed more often in recesses than on the face ;
they are now grouped round a circular column (fig.
72 6) ; the small shafts are generally of Purbeck marble
and about four inches in diameter ; they are connected
with the central stone column by one or more annulets.
In the latter part of the thirteenth century and in
the fourteenth century the grouped arrangement con-
tinued, but the shafts are of stone and are worked on
the same piece as the central column (fig. 72 c] ; mould-
ings are also introduced (fig. 72 d), and both mouldings
and shafts have fillets ; the general outline makes a
square or a lozenge set diagonally to the general line
74 COMMON HOUSE
of the columns. The round column is less med but
octagons are common.
In the fifteenth century the composition becomes
meagre, the shafts are separated by wide shallow
f casement ' mouldings corresponding with
those of the arch (figs. 45, 73). Each shaft
has a separate capital, the mouldings between
i*,hem running uninterrupted into the arch.
The whole column generally makes a lozenge
with the shorter diagonal from east to west.
^. L ill f 1 FIFTEENTH
1 he simple column is comparatively rare. CENTURY
The Classical and Renaissance styles have no
compound column. The large pier is a mass of masonry
with pilasters or half-columns placed against it and is
surmounted by an entablature. The column instead of
being of uniform diameter throughout diminishes as it
rises, and the rate of diminution gradually increases ;
thus the sides are convex. This counteracts the
tendency the shaft would have to look concave when
seen against a bright sky. (See ORDERS.)
COMMON-HOUSE. See CALEFACTORY.
COMMUNION-CUP. See CHALICE.
COMMUNION-TABLE. See ALTAR.
COMPOSITE ORDER. See ORDER, CLASSICAL.
CONDUIT. (1) A cistern. (2) A pipe for the con-
veyance of water.
CONFESSIO. A crypt for the burial of martyrs
and saints under the presbytery of a church* (fig. 56).
It has been suggested (B.) that shrines or alcoves were
erectett over the graves of early Christian martyrs in
the neighbourhood of Rome, and that afterwards
churches were built over these, and that thus a custom
was established. There are many examples of con-
fessios in Italy. They were introduced into England
* See article thereon.
CONSECRATION CROSS 75
with the Basilican form of church by St. Augustine
(A.D. 598). They arc partly below ground and partly
above, so that the floor of the presbytery under which
they were placed is raised considerably above that of
the nave. The wall between the nave and confessio
sometimes contains a window, and there is a staircase
leading down to the confessio from the east end of
each aisle. The confessio consists of a central place
for a tomb, surrounded by walls or columns to support
the vault; outside these there is a passage-way running
round the confessio ; in the outer walls there are
recesses (arcisolid) for other tombs. This plan and the
provision of the two staircases are probably an arrange-
ment to allow for the convenient and rapid passage of
large numbers of pilgrims. Examples may be seen
at Wing, Bucks ; Repton, Derbyshire ; Brixworth,
Xorthants ; Ripon ; Hexham.
CONFESSIONAL. A small enclosure formerly
called the ' shriving pew,' in which the priest sits for
hearing confession. It is in use in Roman Catholic
churches ; it is usually of wood, and has a door in front
and a small window on one or both sides for penitents
to speak through. Nothing appears to be known of its
form in England in the middle ages. " It seems to
have been common in London, and existed in other
places, but I do not think it was in general use. It is
sometimes called the shriving house and the shriving stool.
We do not know anything of its form
beyond what is suggested by the names "
(M.). But in the middle ages the word
pew* often meant a high enclosure, and
does not preclude the idea of an erection
like a modern confessional.
CONSECRATION CROSS. A cross FIG. 74
carved or painted or otherwise marked on INTERNAL PAINTED
* See article thereon.
the wall of a church and anointed by the bishop with
holy water or oil at the consecration of the building.
There were to be twelve such crosses inside and twelve
outside, enclosed in circles ten palms (7 ft. 5 in.) from
Fro. 75. OUTSIDE
FIG. 76. OUTSIDE
the ground ; in practice they were often placed loxver
and not in circles. Inside crosses were almost in-
variably, and outside crosses generally, painted ; so nios
of the latter have perished. The circles are about
foot in diameter. Sometimes the crosses were of metal,
as at Glastonbury on the outside of St. Joseph's Chapel,
where the pin-holes for fixing them remain.
CONSOLE OR AN CONE. A
deep bracket of slight projection,
consisting of two reversed volutes
supporting the end of the cornice
of an Ionic doorway (fig. 77, and
CHURCH. See MONASTERY.
COPING. A covering of stone
or other material on the top of a
wall to protect it from the weather.
FIG. 77. CONSOLS
CORBEL. A projection from
a wall, generally of stone, to
carry a weight (figs. 78, 79).
CORBEL - TABLE. A TOW of
corbels supporting lintels or
small arches (fig. 80), gener-
ally used to carry a slightly
overhanging parapet (see also
CORBIE - STEPS. (Scot
tish). The stones used for
covering the stepped gables
which were introduced from
Holland in the fifteenth cen-
tury (fig. 81, next page).
See ORDER, CLASSICAL.
CORNICE. The uppermost
of the three parts of the en-
tablature. (See ORDER.)
FIG. 7>. CORBEL
FIG. 79. BRICK CORBELLING
FIG. So. CORBEL-TABLB
CORONA. The middle member of the cornice ; it
has a vertical face and a wide horizontal soffit, some-
times ' sunk ' or recessed. (See OHOER, CLASSICAL).
FIG. 8l. CORBIE STE1S
CORPORAS. A folded linen cloth with which to
cover the chalice. "The square of pasteboard cased
in linen which has been introduced from abroad into
a few of our churches lately and is called a pall has no
English authority, and the use of pasteboard or paper
in the place of linen about the Blessed Sacrament is
contrary to some ol the oldest canons " (M.).
COUPLED COLUMNS. Columns grouped in pairs.
In the classical orders they are half a diameter apart ;
this arrangement allows the other intervals to be
wider than they otherwise might be without giving
an appearance of weakness. Good examples may be
seen at St. Paul's Cathedral in the west portico.
COVE. A large concave moulding such as is used
in the cornice of a room or under the eaves of a roof.
CREDENCE. (Ital. credenza, a side table). A small
table in a church near the altar, generally on the
south side near the piscina.* On it the Bread and
Wine are kept previous to their consecration. It is
rather rare in medieval churches, and even a shelf in
* See article thereon.
the recess of the piscina, though common, is the
exception, as it was the practice to place the elements
on the altar at the beginning of the service. It was
introduced into the English church by Laud. There
are some seventeenth-century examples made of wood,
now they are usually of stone.
CRENEL, CRENELLE. A battlement for defensive
purposes. (See CASTLE, p. 35.)
CRESSET (lit., 'a cup for holding grease' s). A
small lamp in the form of a cup,
of metal, stone, or earthenware,
in which fat was burnt ; used in
churches in the middle ages.
CREST. Brattishing ; * also
CROCKET. Probably the
same word as crochet, a little
hook ; a hook-shaped bunch of
foliage placed at intervals on
the coping of a gable (fig. 82),
on the angles of a spire or pin-
nacle, or round a capital. Before
the end of the thirteenth century
they lose the hook-form.
CROMLECH. A prehistoric building consisting of a
stone of great size supported on others in a vertical
position and often partly sunk in the ground.
CROSS. The simple cross was used in the earliest
times as the symbol of the Christian faith, the crucifix,
or crucified figure, being a much later form. The
cross has been used in Christian architecture in endless
ways and of every variety of shape : carried in proces-
sion, placed on the altar and on the gable, painted on
the walls to mark the places of the act of consecration,
carved on gravestones ; it formed the plan of the church,
* See article thereon.
FIG. 82. CROCKETS
and it was set up in the churchyard, at the wayside
and in the market-place.
The following are the various common forms of
cross (fig. 83): 1 Greek or St. George's, (2) Latin,
FIG. 83. TYPES Of CROSS
(3) St. Peter's, (4) St. Andrew's or Saltire, (5) Tau, (6)
Lorraine (from being the armorial bearing of the
Dukes of Lorraine) or Patri-
archal ; the upper arm repre-
sents the inscription over Our
Lord's Head, (7) Papal, (8)
Patee or Maltese, (9) Moline
(shaped like a ' mill- iron '),
CHURCHYARD AND WAYSIDE
CROSSES. No doubt every
churchyard had a cross of
some sort, and probably they
were mostly large and of
stone. The cross usually
stood, it would seem, on the
south side of the church (the
churchyard was usually south
of the church). It consisted
of a tall tanf rincr shaft r * IG> 8 *' HEAD or A CHURCHYARD
01 a iau tapering snait, per- CROSS, RBEFHAM
haps twelve feet high, raised on several steps and
surmounted by a capital on which stood the cross
proper, bearing the figure of Our Saviour and some-
times those of St. John and the Virgin on a bracket
on each side (fig. 84), while on the reverse there was
another subject. Wayside crosses appear to have been
very numerous :
she doth stray about
By holy crosses, where she kneels and prays.
FIG. 85. CROSS NEAR PBNMOM
COFFIN-LID CROSS. See MONUMENT.
CONSECRATION CROSS. See CONSECRATION CROSS.
CROSS-PLAN IN CHURCHES. See CHURCH.
GABLE CROSS. The gables of churches were almost
always surmounted by a cross of a decorative character
and without the figure of Our Lord. Those of the
thirteenth century are usually either placed in a circle
or are richly floriated, often so much so as to assume a
circular form. In the fourteenth century they become
more architectural and the angles are filled with tracery.
In the fifteenth century the cross is often plain or only
MARKET CROSS. See MARKET CROSS.
PROCESSIONAL CROSS AND ALTAR CROSS. These gener-
ally had a figure of Our Lord crucified and sometimes
figures of the Virgin and St. John on brackets at the
sides ; the same cross often served for the altar and for
the procession, being made with a socket to fit into
either a staff or a foot (M.). A very high aumbry
may sometimes be seen in a church for the processions
cross or for its staff
CRUET, CREWET. A vessel of silver or
used in the middle ages for holding sacramental wine ;
there was another for the water. They are now usually
of glass. t
CRYPT. A chamber under a building, either whollj
or partly below ground. A crypt under a church*
usually limited to a small proportion of the whole area
extending under the presbytery only. (See CONFESSIO.)
CUPOLA (Ital. from Low Lat. cupa, a cup),
dome*: sometimes the word is applied to the whole of
the little dome-covered erection for a bell on the roof
or tower of a Renaissance building.
CURTAIN-WALL. A wall between two towers
a castle or fort. ^ artide thereon>
DECORATED PERIOD 83
CUSP (Lat. cuspis, a point). A pointed member
projecting from a Gothic arch towards its centre,
formed by two arcs springing from the curve of the
arch (fig. 86), or by the arcs of the arch itself (fig. 87).
FIG. 86. CUSP FIG. 87. TREFOIL ARCH
Both forms (fig. 13 l.m. and o.p.) were used at all
periods from the twelfth century. They are, for struc-
tural reasons, confined to small arches. Doors are more
often cusped in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries
than in later times. (See TRACERY.)
CYMA. See MOULDING (p. 188).
CYMATIUM. See MOULDING (p. 188).
DADO. The plain part between the base and cor-
nice of the pedestal of a column, usually forming about
two cubes. (See ORDER, CLASSICAL, p. 199-)
DAIS. A platform, raised one step above the floor,
on which stands the high table in a medieval dining-
hall or an altar in a church ; also called a FOOT-PACE."
DANCETTE. A Norman enrichment generally
called the zigzag.*
DECASTYLE. See TEMPLE.
DECORATED PERIOD. The name given by Rick-
man to a phase of English architecture without definite
limits but considered by him to begin about 1280 and
to end about 1377. (See also Appendix.) Its chief
characteristics are as follows : window tracery consists
at first of simple geometrical forms such as circles and
* See article thereon.
quatrefoils, and afterwards of irregular shapes and
flowing lines ; the ogee arch is used (except in the
earliest part of the period) in narrow openings such as
niches and in the heads of window lights ; the foliage
has at first the conventional sprays with three or five
lobes each of the Early English period, and afterwards
is a close imitation of distinct species ; the mouldings
of the capital and base have no deep hollows ; those of
the arch are at first on recessed orders, but later are
usually on a general splayed face (see MOULDINGS), the
rolls have numerous fillets, and the wave-moulding is
used in the latter half of the period ; the usual enrich-
ments are the ball-flower and the four-leaved flower,
and in the latter part of the period the battlement ;
sn vaulting the number of ribs is increased, and in the
lourteenth century lierne ribs are used ; roof principals
are of arched form.
DEDICATION CROSS. See CONSECRATION CROSS.
DENTIL. A Classic and Renais-
fance enrichment, consisjing of a
small plain rectangular block, used ' ' I 1 1 | ' | '
mostly in the bed -mould of the . " 88
Cornice (fig. 88). DKNTIL "NRICHMBNT
DEVONSHIRE FOLIAGE. A debased form of
foliage forming a wreath round the capital, used in
Devonshire late in the fifteenth century.
DIAPER. A pattern carved or painted on a wall in
a medieval building, consisting generally of squares,
but occasionally of some other simple figures, each of
which contains a flower or a spray of leaves, or similar
device (fig. 89).
DIASTYLE. See TEMPLB.
DIPTERAL. See TEMPLB.
DIAGONAL-RIB. In Gothic vaulting* the rib which
crosses the bay diagonally (fig. 259).
FIG. 89. DIAPER, WESTMINSTER ABBEY
DOG-TOOTH. The only enrichment used in the
thirteenth century ; it consists of a
pyramid, the sides of which are
split upwards from the base nearly
to the point and slightly opened
out ; it is used chiefly in the hollows
of arch mouldings (fig. 90).
DOME. A roof or ceiling of a
building, of hemispherical form or
approximating thereto. It is built
in horizontal courses each of which
makes a complete circle. Each
course is therefore self-supporting as soon as it is
finished, and thus no ribs are required. As a dome is
* See article thereon.
86 DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE
usually placed on a square space some special arrange-
ment is necessary to effect the transition from the square
to the circle. This is usually done by a system of cor-
belling beginning in each angle and spreading out as it
rises till each corbel meets the next one, thus forming
a complete horizontal circle. Each of these corbels is
called a pendentive* (fig. 198, P.). A vertical drum
usually intervenes between the pendentives and the
The dome was used by the Romans but not by the
medieval builders except when under Oriental influence,
hence it is confined to Spain and Italy. It became
popular in Italy at the Renaissance (sixteenth century)
probably on account of the Classical precedent, but it
was scarcely used in England till Wren built St. Paul's.
All the earliest domes were doubtless of brick ; the
Romans in the Pantheon used brick and concrete, but
the method of construction is still under dispute. The
medieval domes of Italy and the dome of St. Peter's
consist of inner and outer shells, concentric and with
but a comparatively narrow cavity between. At St.
Mark's in Venice there are inner domes of brick, each
with an outer shell of timber covered with lead, added
at a much later date ; the springing of the outer dome
is higher than the crown of the inner. This system
was adopted by Wren at St. Paul's and has since been
used by others. The lantern of Wren's dome is carried
on a brick cone between the inner and outer dome. In
Renaissance vaulting each bay is generally covered with
a flat saucer-shaped dome on pendentives, e.g. the nave
and aisles of St. Paul's Cathedral.
DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. See HOUSES.
DOM US CONVERSORUM. The house of the
conversi, the building in a Cistercian monastery in which
lived the fratres conversi, the lay brothers, men who
* See article thereon.
could not read and who did most of the manual work
of the establishment.
DONJON. A stronghold or small castle consisting
of a round tower. (See CASTLE, p. 35.)
DOOR, DOORWAY. Saxon doorways are generally
covered by a plain round arch of a single order,* but
occasionally they have a triangular head formed by two
stones leaning against one another. Norman doorways
are often very elaborately ornamented ; they are usually
roundheaded, but sometimes there is a lintel and carved
tympanum under the arch ; the arch consists of many
orders, most of which are carried on detached nook-
shafts* in the jamb ; the tympanum is occasionally
carried on a flat segmental arch instead of a lintel. The
early Gothic doorways are not so rich, and of course the
details are different, but they are similar in general
arrangement ; the lintel, though less common, is used
and is occasionally supported in the centre by a column
if the doorway is large : these double doorways have
more often, instead of a lintel, sub-arches with tracery
above ;' small doorways have often a plain lintel sup-
ported on corbels and no arch. The woodwork of
Norman and thirteenth-century doors is usually simple,
but the hinges are elaborately treated and are worked
into large scrolls which sometimes cover the whole
door. (See IRONWORK.) In the fourteenth century
doorways are usually simpler and with fewer orders ;
shafts are gradually abandoned, the arch mouldings
being carried down the jamb. The principal change of
the fifteenth century, apart from the details such as
mouldings which of course were in accordance with
those employed elsewhere, is that the arch is placed in
a rectangular frame formed by a repetition of the hood-
mould carried up vertically from the springing and
horizontally level with the apex (fig. 91)5 ^ e spandrels
thus enclosed are filled with sculpture, tracery or
* See article thereon.
FIG. 91. DOORWAY WITH
heraldry ; sometimes the outer mouldings of the jamb
follow the rectangular form of the hood-mould. The
four-centred arch is of course com-
mon ; generally some of the mould-
ings are carried down the jamb,
while others spring from one or
more very small shafts ; the hood-
mould is sometimes carried up in
an ogee form and is ornamented
with crockets and a finial. The
woodwork of the door itself be-
comes elaborate, the head being
often filled with tracery and taber-
nacle work ; the ironwork is correspondingly simple.
During the long transition from Gothic to Renaissance
doorways are in one style or the other or are a mixture
of the two, having debased Gothic mouldings on the
jambs and on the arch or lintel, within a framework of
pilasters and entablature of crude classical detail. The
simple Renaissance doorway has a round arch with an
architrave *- moulding springing from an impost, the
jamb being plain or panelled; or it has a lintel and the
architrave mouldings are carried round ; in rusticated
work there is a flat arch.* In the more elaborate
buildings the same arrangement is preserved but it is
surrounded by pilasters or half columns supporting an
entablature, with or without a pediment; sometimes
the pediment is 'broken,' that is the centre is omit-
ted (fig. 197) and the space is filled by a shield of
arms or a bust. Eighteenth-century doorways often
have a fanlight* (fig. 98).
The door itself is panelled in two, four, or six panels ;
the hinges in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
have commonly two ornamental plates of similar design,
one being fixed to the door and the other to the frame ;
these were given up in the eighteenth century ; the
* See article thereon.
EARLY ENGLISH PERIOD 89
handles were brass pendant rings and continued in use
till the nineteenth century.
DORIC ORDER. See ORDER, CLASSICAL.
DORMER WINDOW. (Dormer, a sleeping-room).
A window projecting from the slope of a roof.
DORTER. A dormitory, esp. monastic; fr. O.F.
DORTER. A monkish abbreviation of dormitory.
DOSSAL. (Lat. dorsum, the back). A curtain
hung behind an altar or behind the seats in a hall.
DOVEHOUSE. See PIGEON-HOUSE.
DRAFT. A smooth strip on the face of a stone
made by one line of following strokes with the chisel.
The whole face of every smooth stone is worked smooth
by forming a series of such strips. Commonly, in
rusticated work (masonry left rough or artificially
roughened), the edges of each stone are generally
worked smooth, and the stone is then said to have
DRAWBRIDGE. See CASTLE.
DRAWING-ROOM. A contraction of Vithdrawing-
room,' a room to retire to from the dining-hall.
DRESSINGS. All those brick or stone parts of a
building which may be distinguished from plain walling,
such as columns, arches, copings, quoins, etc.
DRIPSTONE. See HOOD-MOULD.
DROPS. See GUTTAE.
DUNGEON. A lower chamber in a castle, partly
or wholly underground.
EARLY ENGLISH PERIOD. The name given by
Rickman to a phase of English architecture without
definite limits, but considered by him to begin about
1189 and uto end abot 1280 (see Appendix). Its chief
characteristics are as follows : The work is much more
refined than formerly, and the masonry has much
thinner joints; the arches are pointed, or in the case oi
some small arches, trefoiled ; windows are long, narrow
90 EASTER SEPULCHRE
lancets, single or in groups; two are sometimes em-
braced under one arch, and the tympanum is pierced,
producing plate-tracery (see TRACERY); the projection of
the buttress is greater than in the twelfth century, and
the width is less, the two being about equal ; flying but-
tresses are used; columns are slight, and are round,
octagonal pr multifoil, and a large round column is often
surrounded by a number of small shafts ; the foliage of
the capital consists of broad flat leaves ranged verti-
cally round the bell and curling over at the top with a
boldly projecting knob, or breaking into five-lobed
tufts ; the foliage of crockets and of spandrels, etc., is
of the same character; most capitals are not carved,
but have rings of simple mouldings round the upper
part of the bell ; the abacus is deeply undercut ; the
base is widely spreading and has two rolls separated by
a deep hollow ; the arch consists of a series of recessed
orders which are moulded on their edges ; the only en-
richment is the dog-tooth ; in vaulting the ribs are at
first few, but they rapidly increase in number ; the
spandrels next to the walls have a ploughshare form ;
roofs are of a trussed-rafter form, or there is a rudi-
mentary truss consisting of a tie-beam with a post
standing on it.
EASTER SEPULCHRE. A place provided in medi-
eval churches for a representation of the burial and
resurrection of Our Lord. Its position was in the chan-
cel -on the north side. Generally it was of wood and
removable ; it was sometimes placed on an altar-tomb,
and doubtless people often desired that their tomb
should be on the north side of the chancel in order
that it might be so used. Often it was a permanent
stone recess in the wall and was occasionally of elabo-
rate architectural character. The service of the caster
sepulchre at Durham was briefly as follows :
Uppon good friday theire was maruelous solemne seruice, in
the wch after the passion was sung, two of the eldest monkes
did take a goodly large crucifix bringinge that betwixt them
to the lowest steppes in the quire, and then one of the sd
moiikes did rise and went a prettye way from it with his
shooes put of, and uerye reuerently did creepe uppon his
knees unto the sd crosse and most reuerently did kisse it, and
all the other monkes after him, in the meanetime all the whole
quire singinge an himne, the service beinge ended, the two
moukes did carrye it to the sepulchre wch was sett upp in the
moruiuge on the north side of the quire nigh to the high
altar, and there did lay it, with another picture [i.e. statue]
of our sauiour Christ, in whose breast they did enclose the
blessed sacrament of the altar, senceinge and prayinge into it
upon theire knees.
There was uerye solemne seruice uppon easter day
between 3 and 4 of the clocke in the morninge, where 2 of
the oldest monkes came to the sepulchre and did sence it
sittinge on theire knees, then they both risinge came to the
sepulchre, out of which they tooke a maruelous beautifull
Image of our saviour representinge the resurrection, in the
breast whereof was enclosed in bright Christall the holy sac-
rament, throughe the wch christall the blessed host was con-
spicuous to the behoulders, then after the elevation of the sd
picture, singinge the anthem of christus resurgens, they
brought it to the high altar, the which anthem beinge ended
the 2 moukes tooke up the picture from the altar, proceeding
in procession to the south quire dore, where there were 4
antient gentlemen belonginge to the prior holdinge upp a
most rich cannopye of purple ueluet, to beare it over the
Image carried by two monkes round about the church, the
whole quire waitinge uppon it with goodly torches and great
store of other lights, all singinge, reioyceinge,
and praising god, till they came to the high altar
againe, whereon they did place the Image, there
to remaine untill the assencion day (D).
EAVES. The lower edge ot a roof. If
they overhang the wall they are finished
with a cornice or a cove (fig. 92), or with a
level boarded or plaster soffit, or are left
plain so that the feet of the rafters or FIG - 9 3
* ... ,. , i EAVES WITH
splockets are seen from below. PLASTER COVE
FIG - 93- EGG AND DART
ECHINUS. See MOULDING.
EGG AND DART OR EGG AND TONGUE. An
enrichment used on the echinus moulding * ; it consists
of eggs placed on end alternat- . 9 l\ , IT
ing with arrows with their Jfc& A<4>1
points downwards (Greek, fig.
94 ; human . ng. yo)-
ELEMOS1NARIA. An almonry.*
ELIZABETHAN PERIOD. See RENAISSANCE ARCHI-
EMBATTLED. Having battlements.*
EMBLEM. See SYMBOL.
EMBRASURE. See BATTLEMENT.
ENGAGED COLUMNS. Columns attached to a
wall from which they stand out from one-half to three-
quarters of their diameter or occasionally moe.
ENGLISH BOND. See BOND.
ENRICHMENT. An ornament carved or painted on
a moulding and repeated either at long or short intervals
or without interruption. It is distinguished from a
running ornament, such as a scroll of foliage, in being
a repetition of a form which is complete in itself; the
FIG. 94. EGG AND DART ABOVE AND ENRICHED
term is moreover generally confined to well-recognized
forms of a conventional character.
In Classical work the enrichments are always carved
in low relief on convex mouldings or on those with
* See article thereon.
compound curves,and the principal outline of the enrich-
ment is similar to the section of the moulding. Thus
the egg enrichment (fig. 94) is carved on the convex
ovolo (fig. 180), the honeysuckle (fig. 96) on the com-
pound curve of the cyma (fig.
179)- The numerous enrich-
ments of our Norman* are
no doubt an inheritance from
the Romans ; they were aban-
doned during the twelfth
century, and in the three
following centuries two differ-
ent enrichments were never used in the same piece of
work and were scarcely in vogue at the same time.
(See EARLY ENGLISH, DECORATED, ORDER, PERPENDICULAR.)
FIG. 95. GUILLOCHE
FIG. 96. HONEYSUCKLE
Elizabethan enrichments are numerous, and are
mostly a corrupt following of the Roman ; in Stuart
times they of course became more correct.
FIG. 97. LEAF AND SPEAR
ENTABLATURE. In classical architecture the
horizontal superstructure on the columns. It consists
* See article thereon.
of three principal parts : the architrave, the lowest or
weight-carrying member ; the frieze ; and the cornice,
formed by the projection of the roof. (See ORDERS.)
ENTASIS. The slight swelling towards the centre
of a classical column ; its object is to correct the
illusion that the column is smaller in the middle, an
effect which is sometimes produced in a bright climate.
The column diminished towards the top, so that the
entasis did not make the shaft actually larger in the
centre than at the bottom, but merely made the dimi-
nution in the lower half less than in the upper half.
Entasis is seen also in some medieval spires.
ENTRESOL (FR.) OR MEZZANINE (!TAL.). In
French and Italian houses of the Renaissance, a low
storey over the ground storey, the two together being
included in one order and being equal in height to the
entrance archway to the court.
ESCUTCHEON. (1) A shield charged with armor-
ial bearings. (2) A metal plate round a keyhole
EUSTYLE. See TEMPLE.
EXTRADOS. See ARCH.
FACIA, FASCIA. A flat face in an entablature.
FALDSTOOL. The true meaning is 'folding-
stool/ a portable seat which would fold up. When the
bishop officiated in any but his own cathedral church a
faldstool was placed for him in the choir (P.) ; possibly
this was derived from the portable seat of the Roman
magistrate. The term is now curiously applied to the
FANLIGHT. A window in the tympanum over a
square-headed door and under an arch, common in
* See article thereon.
town houses of the eighteenth and nineteenth cen-
turies. The divisions between the panes radiated, pro-
FIG. 98. FANLIGHT
ducing a fan-like form (fig. 98, in which the fan form
is retained, although the window has a straight top).
FAN-TRACERY VAULT. See VAULT.
FEATHERING. The same as cusping. *
FERETORY. A wooden structure placed on the top
of a tomb. Example : the shrine of Edward the Con
fessor at Westminster Abbey. (See MONUMENT, p. 1 69.)
FIG. 99. INTERNAL CORNICE WITH FESTOONS
FESTOON. Used as a decoration in the frieze in
Roman and Renaissance architecture (fig. 99)-
* See article thereon.
FIG. 100. BOWTEl
WITH FILLET AT *
FILLET. A narrow flat band on a moulding (fig.
100) or shaft, or between flutes* of a shaft,
FINIAL. The ornament on the top of
a spire, pinnacle, gable, etc.
FIRE-BACK. A cast-iron plate, with a
picture or other decoration in relief, placed
at the back of a grate in the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries. (See IRONWORK.)
FIRE-DOGS. A pair of horizontal iron bars sup-
ported on legs about six inches high, on which to rest
the ends of logs placed on a fire ; the ends were turned
up and rose vertically to a height of a foot or two, to
keep the logs from falling off, and were terminated in
FIRE-PLACE. See CHIMNEY.
FLAMBOYANT. See TRACERY.
FLEMISH BOND. See BOND.
FLINT-AND-STONE WORK. A system of exter-
nal decoration of buildings in use in East Anglia in the
middle ages (fig. 101) ; by this means
tracery or inscriptions or other devices
are produced in stone on a ground of
flints, which have been split so as to
show a black surface ; in the more com-
plex forms the surface of the stone is
sunk about two inches, and the flints
are let into it. In some late fifteenth-
century work the stone is sunk about a
. J f . , , . , . FIG. 101. FLINT-At<
quarter of an inch, and the sinking is STONE WORK
filled with a sort of black mortar. SWANINGTON CHURC
FLAGON. A tall vessel with a handle and lid for
holding liquor. It was first used in the service of the
Sacrament after the Reformation to take the place of
* See article thereon.
the cruets which had held the water and wine ; this
probably explains why it was usual to have a pair when
one would have been enough ; they are usually cylin-
drical orslightly tapering.
FLECHE (PR.). A small wooden spire usually
covered with lead, placed on the roof at the crossing
of the nave and transepts in French churches.
FLOOR. See PARQUETRY, PAVEMENT, TILE.
FLLTES. Grooves in a column ; generally vertical
as in the Classical columns (see ORDERS), but sometimes
spiral as in Norman work. The Doric (fig. 102 a) has
twenty flutes (early work sixteen) with sharp edges
between ; the other orders have twenty-four flutes
separated by fillets (fig. 1026).
FIG. 102. a DORIC COLUMN. b IONIC AND CORINTHIAN, WITH
CABLED FLUTES IN ONE QUARTER
CABLED FLUTES. The flutes of Roman and Renaissance
columns are sometimes filled for one-third of their
height with a plain convex member, and are then said
to be cabled ; the cables never have a spiral form like
a rope (fig. 1 02 6, cables are shown in one quarter of the
FOLIAGE. The earliest sculptured foliage of which
it is necessary to take account here is the interlacing
scroll-work used both before and immediately after the
Conquest on crosses, on door jambs and arches, and on
capitals. These involved patterns form a kind of rude
arabesque,* but they are probably northern in origin.
Soon after the Norman Conquest the most important
position in which foliage is used is in the sculpture of
the capital.* The block of convex form covered with
twining sprays is soon given up for the more animate
and beautiful capital of concave outline ornamented
witli leaves growing upright from the necking and
bending over beneath the projecting angles of the
riO. 103. CARVED CAPITAL OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURT
capital (figs. 42, 43). The form of these leaves varies
a good deal in different examples, but it is clear that
either directly or indirectly they are derived from the
classical acanthus* (fig. 5). Like it the leaves are
serrated, are ranged symmetrically round the bell of
the capital and curl over at the top or are gathered up
at the angles of the capital (the upper part of which
was square) into volute-like knobs. The best examples
of this Romanesque acanthus foliage are to be seen in
France and in English buildings where French influence
was felt, like the choir of Canterbury.
But most examples show a departure from the acan-
" See article thereon.
thus. The serrations are omitted or suppressed and
the broad leaves end in boldly projecting knobs ranged
in two rows round the bell. These knobs of three-
lobed or five-lobed foliage gradually expand in the first
half of the thirteenth century and form very exquisite
sprays, thrown about with careless grace in strong con-
trast with the stiff crockets from which they grew
(fig. 103). Another line of development can be traced
FOLIAGE OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY
from the little detached sprigs which are set rather
formally round the bell (fig. 42). This foliage reached
perfection about 1250, when it still retained the some-
what formal arrangement appropriate to its position ;
but later it became more free, perhaps a little too free,
and grew rather confused.
Foliage is used in the hollows of mouldings, both as
detached sprays and as a running arabesque ; scrolls are
also used in the spandrels of arches ; the crockets* on
gables (fig. 82) are similarly treated. In all these
* See article thereon.
cases the general character of the foliage is the same ;
the lobes are, unlike those of the acanthus, rounded at
the ends; the outer lobes are curled
up tightly, and the central lobe has a
strong rib lying in a deep hollow,
which stops abruptly near the end
of the lobe (fig. 105).*
In the latter part of the thirteenth
century or early in the fourteenth
the character of the foliage changes
rapidly and entirely ; an exact imita-
tion of partic ular species is now aimed THI R T i
at and achieved (fig. 106); but there
is a great loss in strength, in abstract beauty of line
and modelling, and in architectural fitness. This is
especially the case in capitals where the foliage is
FOLIAGE OF TJ
FIG. 106. NATURAL FOLIAGE
arranged as a heavy wreath round the bell rather than
as living shoots. The diaper,* instead of having a
complete little pattern in each square, is often treated
as a trellis with a rose tree or what-not rambling through
1 An English characteristic. * See article thereon.
it. The plants most commonly copied were the oak,
rose, maple and vine.
This adoption of a particular species as a motive was by
no means a mere direct and literal copying of a single
plant. Much skill was shown in the disposition of the
masses to produce effective light and shade, and in the
hands of a master, or when the art of the nation was
at its height, very beautiful results were obtained. But
these natural forms are not so suitable for reproduc-
tion in stone and wood, nor are they so appropriate to
their architectural surroundings or to their decorative
functions as the carving of the thirteenth century.
Nor did this treatment lend itself to adoption as a
national and traditional style to be used by all men of
very various degrees of skill. Early in the fourteenth
century it settled down to a mere convention, and
later on assumed a somewhat cabbage-like form of no
decorative value (fig. 107).
This mannerism continued throughout the fifteenth
century, gradually becoming more formal and lifeless.
The fully carved capital was now seldom used. Isolated
leaves are placed round the bell and in the hollows of
string courses, or they are ranged, not without skill and
sometimes with good modelling, to form a cresting
called brattishing* on the top of a cornice. Spandrels
are commonly filled with a spray, which also is some-
times well carved. (See TUDOR-FLOWER.)
The influence of the Renaissance is first seen in the
delicate arabesques both in stone and wood which are
found early in the sixteenth century introduced into
otherwise pure Gothic. When the classical orders were
used the acanthus followed the Roman variety or an
Italian version of the Roman. The rich Elizabethan
ceilings were decorated with scrolls of vine, but after
the introduction of pure Pallaclian architecture by
Inigo Jones these were abandoned. Two or three
* See article thereon.
varieties of foliage were then used : the acanthus on
Corinthian capitals, under consoles and in such-like
places ; arabesques, with leaves of somewhat the same
character as the acanthus in pilasters, in spandrels and so
forth ; festoons* (fig. 99) of quite natural fruit, flowers
and leaves in friezes or hanging down the walls tied
with ribbons a style familiar in the work of Grinling
Gibbons and his school ; and palm-branches used in
spandrels round coats-of-arms and trophies. All these
continued in use throughout
the seventeenth and eighteenth
The fancy of the carver, how-
ever, occasionally broke away
from these formalities; a good
traditional arrangement of com-
mon field flowers mingles with
the cherub heads on the grave-
stones of the country church-
yard, and appears even on one
of the Severest productions of FIG. 108. FREE CARVING OF THE
the eighteenth century (fig. 108). KIGHT1
FOLIATION. The trefoil, cinque-foil, or other leaf-
form given to an arch* or to piercings in tracery
either by breaks hxthe main curves or by subordinate
cusps branching out from them.
FONT. The old fonts occupied a conspicuous
and open place towards the west end of the church,
any sort of baptistery in the form of a separate
building or a part of the church divided from the rest
being unknown in England. In 1236 it was ordered
that the font should be kept covered and locked (p.),
for it was the practice to change the consecrated water
only occasionally (M.). The cover often became a very
See article thereon.
elaborate and lofty wooden erection, and was in some
instances fixed and had an opening at the side; this
form was, perhaps, an introduction from Italy. The
usual material for the font was stone, though there
are some thirty examples of lead, mostly found in those
parts of the country where the metal was easily pro-
cured ; some early fonts are of black marble or of
Purbeck marble ; for the post-Restoration fonts white
marble is commonly used.
The Norman fonts were generally either square or
round on a plain massive pedestal and were decorated
with small arcades or with sculpture. In the thirteenth
century groups of shafts, so characteristic of the period,
were used in the pedestal, and the bowl is octagonal.
In the later middle ages the bowl was of the same shape
and the pedestal was also a plain octagon. In the
fifteenth century the bowl is often decorated with
tracery, heraldry or sculpture and the cover assumes
the form of a spire. After the Restoration the bowl is
commonly very small and stands on a baluster-shaped
FOOT-PACE. A dais*; the term is now usually
applied only to the dais for an altar.
PRATER (from Old Fr.fraitur, short form of re fret-
tor from Low Lat. refectorium, a dining-hall H). The
monks' dining-hall in a monastery.*
FREEMASON. In the middle ages this term meant
one who worked freestone* as distinguished from a
rough mason. Of the gilds of freemasons little is
known and perhaps there is little to know. Their
rules must have differed somewhat from those of other
trade gilds because they had to move about from place
to place ; that they did not usually travel far seems to
be proved by the very distinct peculiarities of style in
* See article thereon.
FREESTONE. Any stone which can be easily
dressed with the chisel, as distinguished from those
which cannot be shaped or can only be roughly squared
with the hammer.
FRESCO PAINTING (It&l fresco, fresh, cool). Paint-
ing done on fresh plaster while it is still wet ; only
so much of the wall or ceiling is plastered with the
finishing coat as can be painted the same day. The
colour sinks into the plaster so that the process is more
permanent than others, but it is practically impossible
to make alterations. This method of painting was prac-
tised by the ancients and in medieval Italy, but not in
England, where tempera* painting only was used.
FRET. An enrichment cut on a flat surface ; some-
times called the key-pattern (fig. 1 09) ; there are several
varieties. In the middle ages the term was used in
many senses, e.g. cusped, embossed, set with jewels.
FIG. 109. FRETS
FRIEZE. The middle division of the entablature.
(See ORDER, CLASSICAL.)
FRITHSTOOL. "Literally the seat of peace. A
seat or chair placed near the altar in some churches,
the last and most sacred refuge for those who claimed
the privilege of sanctuary within them, and for the
violation of which the severest punishment was decreed;
they were frequently if not always of stone " (p.).
Examples, Hexham Abbey and Beverley Minster (p.).
* See article thereon.
FRONTAL. See ALTAR-FRONTAL.
FRONTISPIECE. The front of a building, more
often the decorated entrance (G.).
GABLE. The end of a roof of triangular or other
form ; the term is generally applied only to steep
pitched Gothic roofs, the low classical gable being
called a pediment.* There are two principal methods
of construction : (l) the outer part of the wall is
carried up above the roof and is finished with a
coping ; (2) the roof is carried over the wall and
projects more or less beyond : this method is the more
appropriate for timber buildings. The gable was
almost invariably triangular in the middle ages ; in
the sixteenth century and early part of the seventeenth
FIG. HO. CURVED GABLB
its outline was a succession of small curves (figs, 1 1 0,
111) or was stepped (see CORBIE STONES, fig. 81), the
coping being either stone or brick ; in the latter part
* See article thereon.
of the seventeenth century large ogee ctuves are more
common. When the roof projected beyond the wall,
the edge or ' verge ' was finished with an ornamental
FIG. III. CURVED GABLES. FEN DITTON
/>oard called a barge -board,* which was carved or
pierced with tracery in the middle ages and till the
middle of the seventeenth century, after which time
it was moulded ; the apex of the gable has an orna-
OABLET. A small gable, e.g. over a niche or buttress.
GALILEE. A term of various meanings and of
unknown origin. At Durham Cathedral it is applied
to a chapel at the west end, at Ely to the west porch,
at Lincoln to a porch on the west side of the south
GALLERY. (1 ) An upper floor extending over a part
of a church, hall, theatre, or other room ; (2) a wide
passage or room on an upper floor connecting distant
parts of a house and providing wall space for pictures;
hence (3) a whole building intended for the exhibition
(1) In a medieval church there was a gallery over
the rood-screen (see UOOD-LOFT and PULPITOM) ; the
private chapel of a large house* had a gallery at the
* See article thereon.
west end for the family; and a medieval hall had
a gallery over the screens passage. Early in the
seventeenth century galleries were erected at the west
end and in the aisles of churches/ and Laud was
accused of removing them and of preventing their
erection ; the west gallery contained the choir and
band, and was common in churches till the middle
of the nineteenth century; a small gallery for the band
was also common in the assembly rooms of the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A rather curious
variation of this meaning of the term is its application
to the gradually rising platform in a school for infants.
(2) The gallery, which forms an important feature in
a large Elizabethan house/ is derived from the covered
passages which connected the various half-detached
portions of a medieval house, and its development
is in great part due to the fashion of having portrait
paintings. It sometimes joined buildings which were
otherwise separated ; other examples are built against
the side of another building, e.g. a hall which rises to
the whole height of a house.
GARGOYLE (usually pron. gurgoyle). A project-
ing spout which drains the gutter behind a parapet and
shoots the water clear of the walls. It is sometimes a
lead trough, but more usually it is of stone and is
carved into a grotesque creature. It was gradually
superseded by rain-water-heads* and pipes.
GARRETT (from Old Fr. garite, a place of refuge,
a look-out). A chamber constructed in the roof, an
GEOMETRICAL TRACERY. See TRACERY.
GEORGIAN PERIOD. See RENAISSANCE ARCHITEC-
TURE and p. 305.
GESSO. A hard fine plaster. (See PAINTING.)
* See article thereon.
GLASS. The knowledge and use of glass is very
ancient, but its application to windows seems to be
PIG. 113. LEAD LATTICE GLAZING
Probably seventeenth century
comparatively recent. It appears to have been used
in this way by the Romans to only a very limited
extent. It was known to
the Saxons, but did not
become common till the
thirteenth and fourteenth
centuries. Coloured glass
has been used almost as
long as white glass. De-
corative effects have also
been produced at different ' FIG . II3 LEAD GLAZING '
periods by using white Probably eighteenth century
glass in leaded patterns.
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. The style of archi-
tecture in use from the latter part of the twelfth
century till near the middle of the sixteenth.
" A certain Fantastical aud Licentious manner of Build-
ing, which we have since call'd Modern (or Gothic rather)
Congestions of Heavy, Dark, Melancholy and Monkish Piles,
without any just Proportion, Use or Beauty, compared with
the truly Antient" (John Evelyn, 1696-7).
In France the style ran a course fairly parallel with
English Gothic, and it is there that it reaches its
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 109
highest perfection. Its decline is characterised by
fantastic elaboration, while ours became on the whole
more severe. In Germany Romanesque continued
longer and was developed to a high degree of refine-
ment before Gothic was introduced from France.
Gothic architecture seems never to have become a
natural manner to the Italians ; they were late in
adopting it and they gladly threw it over for the
classical style in the fifteenth century.
In the seventeenth century, under the influence of
Laud, some attempts were made to build in a Gothic
style, "which," says Walpole, "we call King James'
Gothic." This revival, however, was prompted entirely
by religion and had no artistic spontaneity.
The Gothic revival of the nineteenth century was
the inevitable reaction against the excessive formalism
and the unnatural Italian imitations of the latter hall
of the eighteenth century. It formed a part only of
a general movement which included other arts and
To say that the revived Gothic style has so far
failed to re-establish itself as a natural and general
mode of artistic expression, and that there has even
set in a reaction in favour of the Renaissance architec-
ture, is not to say that the Gothic Revival has been
without results or produced no effect. That is very
far from being the case and might with as much truth
be said of the pre-Raphaelite movement or of the
Romantic literature of the early nineteenth century.
But, like these, the Gothic Revival was to some extent
merely a symptom of a general tendency.
That Gothic architecture should fail to take root
seems to us almost a foregone conclusion. The condi-
tions of the middle ages and of the present day are
so entirely different; not only the conditions which
buildings are required to fill, great as is the change
110 GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
in this respect, but the conditions under which build-
ings are produced have changed even more have been
revolutionised. Medieval architecture was a purely
traditional art, passed on from father to son and from
master to apprentice, and slowly developed and as
slowly let die by the slight improvements and slight
lapses of successive generations. There were no
written rules. In the middle ages consequently there
were no architects a most healthy state. It might
almost as truly be said that there were no builders.
The contractor and his contract appear towards the
end of the period, but in earlier times the employer
gave his directions, bought his materials and paid
the workmen weekly wages till the work was finished
or the money had come to an end. But at the
beginning of the nineteenth century architectural tra-
dition was almost dead killed by a succession of im-
portations from Italy, China, Greece ; while there
had been well-nigh a flood of books for a hundred
years past giving rules and patterns for everything.
It is clear that such different conditions must pro-
duce very different results, and that an art which
flourishes and grows rapidly at the one period is im-
possible at the other. But after all, and quite inde-
pendently of this, the great overmastering and
inexplicable fact is that at the one time the country
and indeed Europe was full of artistic and especially
architectural energy and feeling, while at the other it
was lifeless. But for this the revived art would have
blossomed and perhaps borne fruit, contracts and im-
portations and pattern books notwithstanding.
To state in a few words the qualities of medieval art
is impossible. Its most obvious characteristics speak-
ing not of England only but of Europe generally are
perhaps the restless energy with which it was pushed
on through many mutations in the comparatively short
period of three centuries ; the extraordinary daring of
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 111
the builders in construction, their carelessness or lack
of sensitiveness as to the attainment of perfection,
their exuberance and want of artistic reserve or re-
straint, the lively fancy which gives so much in-
dividuality to the work, and, most remarkable of all,
the outcome of their merits and their frailties, that
indescribable humanity in the very stones.
This extraordinary outburst of artistic production
becomes more rather than less mysterious as we
examine it. Its rapid development in the thirteenth
century is remarkable, but its complete and almost
sudden ending in the sixteenth is dramatic. For
the end was complete. The art of the seven-
teenth century was of an altogether different order.
Great architecture was produced, and the smaller
buildings retained much of the character and much
of the charm of medieval work, but the universality
of medieval art and the lavishness of its beauty were
past. Medieval art was not merely an aflair of
splendid masonry and carpentry, which are almost
all that remain to us now. Along with these went
magnificent schools of sculpture and painting of pro-
foundly poetical conceptions and masterly technique,
a school of glass painting which has never been
approached, working in iron and casting in bronze and
lead and engraving on brass, gold and silver work
perfect alike in design and in execution, enamelling
applied to the minutest vessels and to the broad
surface of the shield, tapestry, embroidery and weaving,
carvings in wood and in ivory, and illuminating on
vellum. No'r was it only the arts that were artistic,
but every common object of furniture and household
use had form, colour and character. Dress, armour,
heraldry and coins were treated with a sense of design
with which the nations seem to have been infused.
And all these crafts, and this faculty for giving to
everything some of the character of a work of art,
may be said to have reached their climax between the
years 1 300 and 1 400.
So extraordinary is this manifestation, so far removed
from anything that is possible to us, and so impressive
are the works which it produced, that it is common
to find them, or at least those of the greatest period,
spoken of and even written about as if they were
altogether above criticism. This position has only to
be stated to show its falseness. Produced under a
strong unwritten tradition the art perhaps maintained
a more uniform level than at periods when individual
architects impart to their work their weakness and
their strength. But, nevertheless, there is much differ-
ence in quality between one building and another,
between district and district, between nation and
Medieval architecture itself and not a few of those
other arts mentioned above were entirely the creations
of the northern mind ; others came by contact with
the East or by inheritance from ancient times. Some
have been surpassed at other periods and in other
lands. But considering their number and variety,
ncluding as they do every branch of art from the
greatest to the least, and remembering the height to
which all were carried, it may be said that Gothic
art taken as a whole will rank above that of any other
people or time of which we have knowledge.
GRANGE (Lat. from granum, corn), (l) A barn;
granary. (2) A farmhouse ; an old country house some
what larger than the ordinary farmhouse. (3) The
house and barns on an outlying property of a monastery.
GRECO-ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. "The style
of architecture adopted by many architects in England
at the end of the last [eighteenth] century, in which
the severity of the ancient Greek style is modified by
the richness and elaborate details of that of the Roman,
GREEK ARCHITECTURE 113
together with the introduction of features such as the
arch, adapted to the requirements of the style and of
the present era " (G).
GREEK ARCHITECTURE. The term is commonly
used in the limited sense of the three Greek Orders*
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian as perfectly developed,
and the arrangement of temples* and their porticoes
as represented by the perfected types of Athens. It is
clear, however, that these buildings are the outcome of
a long period of growth either on the mainland or in
the islands, which has left practically no remains. For
the earliest buildings of the classical age are to all
intents and purposes perfect, and differ only in slight
respects from the latest : in sturdiness of proportions
and in lack of refinement. The Doric forms are, it is
thought, derived from buildings of timber. But if the
details suggest a timber origin, the general proportions
are very far from doing so. A portico constructed of
timber would have thin columns placed at wide in-
tervals, for the weight they would have to support is
immaterial, and they would be kept upright by being
planted in the ground, while the transverse strength of
timber allows the lintel to be long in proportion to its
depth. But in the Doric stone portico the columns are
massive and very close together, while the architrave
is deep ; and moreover the earlier buildings have the
more massive proportions. This contrast between the
actual stone buildings and what we suppose wood
buildings to have been indicates a long interval of
The Ionic and Corinthian Orders are used in buildings
somewhat later in date than the Doric, but they appear
fully developed. The invention of the Ionic capital
with its great spirals, has been accounted for by many
theories, and the invention of the Corinthian acanthus-
* See article thereon.
114 GREEK ARCHITECTURE
capital by a pretty story (see p. 1 96). But architect-
ural forms, like most other things, arc not invented,
And so the foundations of Greek architecture must
be sought for not in invention and perhaps not on the
mainland, but in prehistoric cities, and probably in
those of the Archipelago and of Crete ; perhaps some
of the stages, which connect them, through what has
hitherto been known as Mycenaean art, with the per-
fected Greek art may yet be revealed.
The genius of the Greek as an artist lay not in
inventing the new but in perfecting the old. In this
adherence to tradition he is an Oriental ; as a master
of form rather than of colour, he belongs to the West.
His stern suppression of self and his rather cold
pursuit of the ideal are his own peculiar contributions
to art. In his severity he leaves the East. His aim
at perfection involved loss of individuality ; the Gothic
nations in their assertion of individuality necessarily
rejected the ideal.
This striving after perfection by the refining of an
accepted model is illustrated in a remarkable way in
the subtile ' optical corrections ' of the best buildings.
The diminution of the column and its entasis, the
closer spacing of the columns at the angles of the
portico, the inward lean of the columns, and the arch-
ing of the horizontal lines are all means to an end : the
counteracting of optical illusions.
It is not surprising to find that a people who showed
by these precautions what importance they attached to
the most absolute repose should altogether reject the
arch. The Greeks knew of and understood the arch,
and there are one or two instances of its employment,
but this fact only emphasises their refusal.
To most people who have seen the actual buildings,
their white marble mellowed and stained with gold, it
will always remain a mystery that the Greeks should
have entirely covered their buildings with plaster (ex-
tremely fine and hard, and no thicker than paper) 1 and
should have painted that plaster. But they did not see
them as we see them, mellowed by time ; and no doubt
the effect of large masses of white marble with its
hard lustrous surface was painful to them. It must be
remembered that the dislike of plaster is entirely
English and modern, and we may take it that the
Greek judgement was sound.
GRESE, GRECE, GRYSE. The medieval term for
GROIN (lit. a fork or branch). The salient angle
formed by the intersection of two vaulting surfaces.
GROINED VAULTING. Vaulting* consisting of
intersecting surfaces forming salient angles with or
without ribs, as distinguished from barrel vaults,
domes and, to speak accurately, fan vaulting.
GROTESQUE (from Fr. grotte, a grotto, cave). A
fantastic representation of a man or animal.
GUESTHOUSE. A building provided for the
accommodation of guests in a monastery.*
GUILDHALL (properly GILDHALL), TOWN HALL,
TOLBOOTH. It would seem that it was originally
built as a booth, a mere roof on wooden posts, at
which to collect market tolls. When a room was
required as a place of meeting for the Gild Merchant
or the Town Council, the easiest and most con-
venient way of providing one without encroaching
on the market-place, the rents for which were of
value to the town, was to build a chamber over the
Tolbooth. And when, in later times, the Town Hall
was rebuilt in stone or brick, the same arrangement
was kept. Thus it happens that so many of our old
* See article thereon. 1 The rough stone was thickly plastered.
Town Halls are entirely on the upper floor and have
a space open to the market underneath. Occasionally
they are built solid from the ground like ordinary
GUILLOCHE. An enrichment consisting of two
wavy bauds interlaced (fig. 95).
GURGOYLE. See GARGOYLE.
GUTTAE (from Lat. gutta, a drop). Small project-
ing discs on the mutules of the Doric cornice ; also
cylinders or truncated cones appearing to hang with the
large end downwards from the fillet under the triglyphs.
They are supposed to represent the pins used in a
building constructed of timber. (See ORDER, CLASSICAL.)
HAGIOSCOPE (Gk. ayios, holy, and O-KOTTOS, a
watcher). A modern term for a small window, loop-
hole or squint,* through which to watch an altar.
HALF-TIMBER WORK. See TIMBER BUILDINGS.
HALL. (1) The principal room in a medieval
house ; whence (2) a manor-house, and (3) the entrance
vestibule of a house.
HAMMER BEAM. A bracket forming part of the
principal truss of an open timber roof.
HAWK'S BEAK MOULDING. The same as Bird's
beak moulding (fig. 177). Not to be confounded with
Bird's beak ornament (fig. 29).
HELIX. A small leaf in the Corinthian capital ; two
spring from each of the eight caulicoli (see fig. 1 93).
HERRING-BONE WORK. Walling in which a
row of bricks or stones is laid sloping, followed by
another row sloping the other way. It has been
used occasionally at all periods from Roman times
to the present day. The brickwork at the back of
HOLY -WATER STOUP
a medieval fireplace was commonly worked in this
way (fig. 114).
FIG. 114. HKRRING-BONB BRICKWORK AT THK BACK OF A FIREPLACE
HEXASTYLE. See TEMPLE.
HIP. The salient angle formed by the intersection
of two roofs (fig. 1 1 5, line c rf.)
FIG. 115. A ini'1't.u kouF. fi, b, valley, c, d, hip
HIPPED ROOF. A roof* with hips (fig. 115).
HOLY- WATER STOUP OR STOCK. The basin for
consecrated water was generally placed in a recess to
the right of the principal door of the church either
inside or outside. * See article thereon.
118 HONEYSUCKLE ENRICHMENT
HONEYSUCKLE ENRICHMENT. An enrich-
ment* of the Ionic and Corinthian orders (fig. 96).
HOOD -MOULD, DRIP-STONE, LABEL. The
outermost ring of an arch, projecting beyond the face of
the wall. It is used for architectural effect only, being
of insufficient thickness to be of structural value. It
is of some use outside a building if it is undercut, as it
throws off the rain-water which runs down the wall
and keeps it from staining the arch. But it is not
this which led to its use, for it is used inside as well as
outside a building, and the early hood-moulds were not
undercut. It is doubtless the successor of the archi-
trave-moulding used by the Romans in their arches.
Its section generally corresponds to that of the abacus.
HOSPITAL. The present sense of the word and
the present character of the institution are both
modern. Till recently there were no houses solely for
the temporary reception of the sick except the 'pest
houses ' in times of plague. In the middle ages there
were hospitals for leprosy till that disease disappeared
from England in the fifteenth century. The medieval
hospital ministered to the sick, but its first objects
seem to have been to provide a refuge for the aged,
infirm and destitute, to distribute alms to poor, and to
support a certain number of chaplains who should sing
masses for the soul of the founder.
The building was in some examples arranged like
those of a monastic infirmary, that is, it resembled
a church, of which the nave and aisles were the
hospital proper and the chancel formed a chapel.
The Great Hospital, Norwich (fig. 11 6), was of this
type. In this instance the other necessary buildings
are grouped round a cloister in a curious compromise
between a monastery and a private house. In other
hospitals (e.g. St. Cross, Winchester) the church is
* See article thereon.
quite distinct from the other buildings and the general
arrangement somewhat resembles a college.*
FIG. Il6. A MEDIEVAL HOSPITAL, NORWICH
HOSTEL. An inn ; also a dwelling-house for a
number of persons, but not public, e.g. a house of
residence for students ; there were a considerable
number of hostels of this sort at Oxford and Cambridge
in the middle ages. (See COLLEGE.)
HOUR-GLASS STAND. An iron frame and bracket
attached to a pulpit to hold the preacher's hour-glass.
* See article thereon.
Several seventeenth-century examples remain ; they
probably were not in use earlier.
HOUSE. The earliest domestic buildings in England
date from the twelfth century. Stone was then more
commonly used than formerly, and consequently several
houses of the Norman period have been preserved.
The stone-built town houses which still remain appear
to have belonged in most cases to Jews, the rich men
of the period, and a class which must often have found
it necessary to have houses that were capable of defence.
The best known are those at Lincoln and Bury St.
Edmund's, in which the principal rooms are on the
upper floor. It was a common plan, in the larger
private houses, to reserve the ground floor for offices
and store rooms, and to cover it with a stone vault
supported on a row of columns running down the middle
to the building ; the living rooms were placed above
and were sometimes reached by an outside staircase
only. When the hall was on the ground floor it was
sometimes divided by arches into a nave and aisles like
a church ; Westminster Hall, built by William II., was
thus divided originally. Probably the columns were
often of wood, like those in the Bishop's Palace at
Hereford and in Farnham Castle. Whether the hall
was above or below stairs, it occupied the greater part
of the house. Hence the application of the word Hall
in very early times to the whole house. The only
other rooms were a cellar, not necessarily below ground,
at one end of the hall with a room over it, and at the
other end of the hall the kitchen offices.
It is in the reign of Edward I. that we see the
gradual development of the typical medieval plan,
which continued with but little change in its essentials
till the time of Elizabeth (fig. 117). The medieval
house consisted of a hall going the whole height of the
building, with a wing of two storeys at each end
(fig. 1 1 8). The hall had an open-timber roof, and
usually a central hearth. It was lighted from both
sides, and on each side there was a door at the ' lower '
end, which was that nearest to the kitchen. The
'upper' end of the hall was raised a step to form a
dai's for the high-table, which stretched across the hall,
while the tables for the retainers ran down the sides.
To check the draughts from the doors, short screens,
Il8. A MEDIEVAL MANOR-HOUSE, HORHAM HALL
called 'spurs/ were projected from each of the side
walls ; afterwards a third screen was placed between
them, leaving two intervals, which may perhaps have
been hung with curtains; then the passage between
the doors, which itself came to be called the ' screens/
was ceiled over and thus a gallery was formed ; finally
the intervals between the three screens were fitted
with doors. The bay, or oriel window as we call it, is
another development of late times; it formed a con-
venient retired corner when houses had so few rooms.
The ground-floor room at the upper end of the hall
was often a sort of store-room or cellar; over it there
was the chamber or ' solar/ the private sitting-room
and bedroom of the family, to which they could retire
after supper, leaving the hall to the servants. The
room sometimes commanded a view of the hall through
a small loophole.
Large houses had a private chapel adjoining or near
to the solar. In some cases a gallery extended over
part of the chapel for the accommodation of the family,
while the retainers sat below.
Returning to the lower end of the hall : the end wall
beyond the screens contained two doors, one opening
into the buttery, the other into a passage leading to the
kitchen and larder ; frequently there was a third door
to the pantry, where bread, butter, etc., were served
out. The rooms over the offices were probably bedrooms
for women-servants, the men sleeping, as of old, in the
hall ; but there is still a good deal of uncertainty as to
the sleeping accommodation for the opposite sexes.
The house was gradually enlarged by adding room to
room, especially by extending laterally the wings at
each end of the hall. In course of time this led to the
formation of a courtyard surrounded by buildings, and
sometimes of two courts, one on each side of the hall
(fig. 1 1 9). From these three stages of development
the central hall with a projecting wing at each end, the
single court, and the double court the normal plan of
later times was derived. The smaller houses, of course,
continued the simple primitive arrangement more or
less, according to circumstances. They were almost
always of timber, as indeed were most of the larger
houses except in districts where stone was the more
The only other changes made in this plan during
the middle ages were in matters of detail, tending
chiefly to the greater seclusion of the family. The
solar became more important, and separate bedrooms
were provided. The upper rooms at each end of the
house, formerly separated by the high central hall, are
now sometimes connected by a gallery built out from
the side wall of the hall. The staircase remains an
insignificant feature. Glass gradually becomes more
FIG. IIQ. HADDON HALL
common, the window is divided by a transom, the lower
part having bars and a wood shutter to open, while the
upper part has glass fixed.
The town house was less susceptible of variety in
plan than the country house. The lower storey was
usually a shop, and there was a somewhat insignificant
staircase at the back to the living rooms above.
In the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth the
larger country houses generally followed the courtyard
plan. The plan of the smaller house, and sometimes
also of the larger, assumes the well-known E shape,
commonly supposed to be an allusion to the Queen's
name ; but the arrangement is simply a central range
with a wing at each end and a porch in the middle, a
plan which has been common at all periods. The fourth
side of the court was left open or was closed only by a
wall with a gateway.
The rooms at either end of the hall are now more
conveniently arranged. Though many rooms still open
out of one another, and some rooms, even bedrooms,
cannot be reached without passing through several
others, they are ingeniously grouped and are connected
by wide galleries, and numerous staircases are dis-
tributed about the building. The galleries occupy one
side of a range, not the middle like a modern passage
with rooms on each side. They are a development of
the light covered ways which connected various parts of
a large medieval building, and they form an important
step towards the modern compact block of building as
distinct from the medieval narrow and straggling range.
The gallery built on the upper floor behind the hall,
with small rooms or an open colonnade below it, becomes
the great picture gallery, which is one of the most
striking features of the Elizabethan and Jacobean house.
The hall has now become little more than an
entrance-hall and lounge, though it retains its former
grardeur and is still used for Christmas revels. The
stately reception-rooms on the upper floor necessitated
a corresponding enlargement of the staircase which had
hitherto been rather a neglected feature. It is still
kept apart and separate from the hall. It is wide,
massive, and richly decorated with carving. The screen,
though often now of no use, is retained as an orna-
mental feature. Fireplaces have become universal hi
private houses, and splendid marbles and luxuriant
carving are lavished upon them. It is only in a few
college halls that the primitive central brazier and
lantern on the roof are still used.
Inigo Jones broke entirely with the traditions of the
past in his plans as in his architecture. The house
becomes a solid block instead of a narrow range with
numerous projections and broken outline. All the
reception-rooms, as they were now called, were placed
on the upper floors. The offices were placed in a base-
ment below them. The main floor was reached by a
FIG. 120. THB EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY PLAN, GOODWOOD
wide flight of stone steps outside the house. The inside
staircase, leading only to the bedrooms, is treated as
simply as possible.
For the largest class of country house the favourite
plan of the eighteenth-century architects consisted of a
central block connected with low advanced lodges by
quadrant galleries (fig. 120). These advanced wings
usually contained on one side the laundries and so on,
and on the other side the stables. The reception-rooms
were often effectively grouped, but the arrangement of
the bedrooms is still defective.
HUNTING TOWER. A tower built in a park in
Elizabethan days from which ladies could watch deer-
HUTCH. A chest/
HYP^THRAL TEMPLE. A temple* which is
partly open to the sky.
HYPOCAUST. A heating-chamber under the floor
of Roman baths and houses in Britain and elsewhere.
There are two principal varieties : the pillar hypocaust
and the channel hypocaust. In the first the floor of the
room, which is of concrete, is supported on small brick
columns. The low underground chamber thus formed
had a stoke-hole outside the building, and very small
flues from it were carried up the walls in different
angles of the room. In the channel hypocaust the
concrete floor rests on the ground, and flues are formed
under it, radiating from the stoke-hole to the various
IMAGE. This term was in
the middle ages often applied
to a painting as well as to a
statue ; both painter and sculptor
were called 'imageour.'
IMPOST. A flat horizontal
projecting stone placed at the
springing of an arch (fig. 121).
INCENSE SHIP. A vessel
of silver or any other metal of
boat-like shape in which was
kept the incense to be burned
in the censers in a medieval
* See article thereon.
FJC IM mposr AND ARCH
128 INCISED SLABS
INCISED SLABS. See MONUMENT.
INFIRMARY. (1) A hospital* for the sick. (2)
The department of a monastery* in which the old and
infirm, the sick and those who had been recently bled
INN. (l) A house of public entertainment/ The
inns of the middle ages appear to have been poor and
uncomfortable ; the monasteries and the town and
village gilds supplied, and probably well supplied, the
wants of the traveller. But the suppression of the
monasteries and gilds and the increase in the number
of travellers brought about an improvement in the
inns in the sixteenth century. The ordinary Eliza-
bethan hostelry is built entirely of timber and presents
a street front similar to the private house except that
it has a large archway leading through to a court-
yard. The court is square or more commonly long
and narrow, and it is surrounded by an open gallery
at the level of each storey. The lowest rooms are
offices; the bedrooms for guests are on the upper floors
and open on to the galleries. (2) A place of residence
for students, a hostel, a sort of college, e.g. Lincoln's
INSCRIPTION. Writings of all ages are found on
buildings but they are rare till the latter part of
the fifteenth century. The buildings of that period,
especially the churches, sometimes have an inscription
in bold characters running round the plinth, parapet
or cornice ; and in painted windows the figures often
hold scrolls bearing texts. At the Reformation texts
were painted on the walls of churches in place of
the earlier subject pictures. Great Elizabethan houses
sometimes have an inscription round the top formed
by piercing the parapet so as to leave the letters
silhouetted against the sky like a ' sky-sign ' ; texts
* See article thereon.
and moral sayings are sometimes painted on the walls
of the rooms, such as the following :
Wysdom knowledge and understanding
Ar the sowles most gloryus clothing
Geue the glory to god only.
Church bells almost always have an inscription, and
Elizabethan communion-plate often has the name of
the parish. (See MONUMENT.)
INTERCOLUMNIATION. The distance , ,
apart at which columns are placed. (See
INTERPENETRATIONS. The system of
making mouldings intersect, so that they ap-
pear to run through one another; practised in
England in the fifteenth century, but more
common in work of that period on the Con-
tinent (fig. 122).
INTRADOS. See ARCH.
IONIC ORDER. See ORDER, CLASSICAL.
IRONWORK. In England as in France,
the art of the smith reached a high level in
early times. The designs are bold and well
suited to the material, and the workmanship is
excellent. Most of the examples of an early
date that now remain are hinges of doors. Each hinge
generally consists of a horizontal band carried right
across the door, with scrolls branching out from it.
Besides the two hinges there is often a central band
which is similarly treated. Thus the whole door was
more or less covered with ironwork which added to its
strength and produced a rich effect.
In the first half of the eleventh century the com-
monest type of hinge has the central rib,
with branches springing out from it ab-
ruptly from behind the stonework and form-
ing a crescent. Mystic figures such as the
swastica and grotesque animal heads which SW ASTICA
FIG. 122 A
occur are probably due to the Danes, and there are also
representations of Vikings' ships. The door is some-
times surrounded by a plain or ornamental band
of iron. Norman work has the same general char-
acter ; the scrolls sometimes end in elaborate spirals,
and geometrical patterns are used. The most remark-
able example remaining is the fragment preserved in
Winchester Cathedral, one of the few remains of the
grates which were once common. It formerly pro-
tected the shrine of St. Swithin and is thought to date
from 1093. (GA.)
FIG. 123. A THIRTEENTH-CENTURY HINGE, REEPHAM
In the thir -
the branch work
is more elaborate
and the spiral is
used ; the crescent ,.
is less pronounced /
or is abandoned, /
the curve of the
branches being in
the opposite di-
forms give place
to those of foliage,
the branches are
often ribbed and
the ends modelled
into leaf-like forms
(fig. 123). The
screen of Queen
Abbey by Thomas
de Leghtone in
1294 is a rich and
In the four-
the making of
hinges died out,
probably owing to
the practice of de-
corating the wood-
work. A good
deal of screen-work was done, but the old and appro-
priate methods of welding and modelling the iron while
hot were given up, and the screens were built up of
many separate pieces, fastened together with tenon and
mortice like joiners' work. A good early example is
the screen round the shrine of St. Alban, of the time of
Edward I. (GA.) This method, introduced from Venice,
PIG. 135. LOCK PLATE, KING'S COLLEGE CHAPEL, CAMBRIDGE
is of Oriental origin. A later example is the screen
of the chapel of Henry V. in Westminster Abbey, by
Roger Johnson of London. The system gave little
opportunity to the smith for the practice of his skill
either in design or in technique ; he lost interest in his
work and his art languished, save in the departments
of the armourer and locksmith. (GA.)
In its relation to architecture the most important
smith's work of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
was the lock plate (fig. 125). This was a work of great
beauty and of extraordinary delicacy, chased and en-
graved and pierced into elaborate and minute tracery,
and sometimes even carved in the solid. All this work
and the joinery system of construction were done on the
cold iron, and can hardly be considered as appropriate
to the metal.
In the beginning of the sixteenth century some
Flemish work was imported, such as the piece of work
(originally a pair of gates) in St. George's Chapel,
Windsor, and the gates to Bishop West's chapel in Ely
Cathedral, and such examples no doubt influenced
English design. But English ironwork became prac-
tically extinct as an art. Very simple railings with
ornamental cresting and finials were made to protect
monuments, as they had been throughout the middle
The supporting irons of inn-signs and weather vanes
were elaborate and decorative, and carried on the old
traditions. Except for these only
small objects such as casement
fasteners, hinges of small doors,
and keyhole scutcheons (fig. 126),
were made in Elizabethan and
It is an interesting circumstance
that an elaborately decorative treat-
ment of wrought ironwork should
have been revived at the end of
the seventeenth century when the FIG. n6. A KEYHOLE
severest classicism held sway. But ESCUTCH N . DATBD 6 "
already was the nation beginning to break away from
these bonds, and the splendid gates made for Hampton
Court by a Frenchman, Jean Tijou, in 1690, set a
fashion which immediately spread over the whole
country and revived the art, as it were, at a stroke
The new style was very limited in its application.
It was almost confined to gates, generally with elaborate
fixed compositions over them, and the like. Good
examples are to be found in front of many suburban
houses both of London and provincial towns ; the scrolls
on the top of the area railings of town houses at the
point where they join the house wall on either side of
the front door are generally good designs of the same
school. Ornamental hinges were never used, and all
the internal metal work of the house was of brass.
The most obvious characteristics of the style are : the
frequent use of leaves, either the acanthus or one with
FIG. 127. HEAD OF GATE, CLARE COLLEGK, CAMBRIDGE
crinkled edges like an elongated dock-leaf; the use oi
the C spiral, and of a spiral of which the outermost
coil is sharply bent in (fig. 128) and then
curved to form a new spiral in an opposite
direction ; the absence of the S spiral and
of geometrical or architectural forms.
Ornamental wrought ironwork died out
almost as suddenly as it had been revived,
early in the nineteenth century. This was FIG
no doubt due partly to the increase in EIGHTEENTH-
the use of cast-iron, but probably still more CE
to the general meanness of the architecture of the
time. There is no reason why cast-iron should super-
sede wrought, indeed there are many reasons why it
should not do so ; the two are in no way rivals and
serve quite different purposes. Castings have in late
times fallen into discredit through their use for unsuit-
able purposes and through the coarseness and hideous-
ness of the designs. But for many years after its
introduction cast work was designed with robust good
sense. The earliest examples appear to be the fire-
backs ornamented with reliefs of mythological subjects
and other devices; they are generally rather clumsy
designs in low relief, quite good enough for their
situation. There are some examples of the sixteenth
century, while those of the seventeenth are common.
All through the eighteenth century and during the
earlier part of the nineteenth century grates and
similar objects are treated with the greatest delicacy
and judgment. These works kept to the old tra-
ditional ornaments, and the old founders seem to
have understood the importance of keeping their
decoration minute and in very low relief. Heavy
cast-iron railings of good design were also used early
in the eighteenth century, as at St. Paul's Cathedral.
Cast- and wrought-iron were sometimes used together,
as in some wrought railings where the principal stan-
dards have little vase-shaped cast finials.
Until recent times smelting furnaces in which the
iron is extracted from the ore were heated with
charcoal because of the difficulty in getting a blast
sufficiently strong for coal. Consequently the furnaces
were situated in well-wooded districts such as Surrey
and Sussex and the Forest of Dean. Forges, some of
which are still working, were, it is said, founded by
the Cistercian monasteries, such as Tintern, Kirkstall
and Furness. Restrictions were put on Ihe felling
of timber by Parliament which apprehended danger to
the State from the rapid destruction of forests ; iron
was consequently imported, especially from Spain and
afterwards from Sweden. Some smelting with coke
was done in 1624, but it was not till about 1750 that
the process was generally understood and employed.
At that time the chief output was from Cheshire,
Gloucestershire, Hereford, Salop and Worcester ; the
Sussex trade was declining. By 1785 the use of char-
coal was entirely abandoned and works were moved to
districts where coal for fuel and water-power for the
blast could be obtained. A few years later by the
application of the steam-engine the difficulties of
the blast and consequently of fuel were finally sur-
mounted, for it was now possible to use crude coal.
From this time the trade began to assume its modern
JAMB. The face of a recess or opening in a wall.
JESSE WINDOW. A window filled with painted
glass representing^the descent of Our Lord from Jesse.
The latter is represented prostrate at the bottom of
the window, and from his body springs a tree on the
branches of which are figures of his descendants, and
at the top Our Lord. They are chiefly of the four-
teenth century. A good example is the east window of
St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury. At Dorchester Church,
Oxfordshire, stone branches spring from the mullions.
JOIST. One of the smaller timbers of a floor on
which the boards immediately rest.
JULIET. See CASTLE (p. 35).
KEEP. The stronghold of a medieval castle.*
KENTISH TRACERY. -See TRACERY.
KEYSTONE. The central stone of an arch. It is
seldom used in Gothic work in England, our pointed
arches generally having a joint at the apex. In
Renaissance architecture there is always a keystone;
it sometimes projects as a bracket to carry the entab-
lature. . gee article thereon
KING-POST. See ROOF.
KITCHEN. In the middle ages the kitchen was
generally a large building with one or more wide
ranges, proportionately to the large number of retainers
who eat in the hall. In monasteries they are lofty, with
vaults or open timber roofs ; these and also, it would
seem, those of the larger houses were often detached
and connected with the other offices by a covered way.
LABEL. See HOOD-MOULD.
LADY CHAPEL. The altar of the Blessed Virgin
was at first placed in any convenient position ; it was
only in the fourteenth century, when the adoration of
her so much increased, that it became common to build
a large special chapel. This was an almost detached
building at some cathedrals and large monastic
churches, as Westminster (Henry VII.'s Chapel), and
Ely, and (though very rarely) at some parish churches,
such as Long Melford. The Lady chapel, in this later
development, was in most cases at the east end of
the presbytery. For parish churches and the smaller
religious houses it was more usual to lengthen the aisle,
thus forming a large chapel alongside the chancel.
LANCET. A high narrow window used in the end
of the twelfth century and beginning of the thirteenth
century ; the earliest examples have round heads.
At the side of a building they are used singly or in
groups of two or three, but in gable-ends, as the east
ends of churches, there are usually three, five or seven.
The glass is generally near the outer face of the wall
and there is a wide splay inside. The inner arch is
often distinct from the outer arch, and drops down in
front of it, and is called a ' drop-arch.'
LANTERN. (1) A small wood tower on the ridge
of the roof of a medieval hall or other large building
to provide an outlet for the smoke from the central
hearth (fig. 118); in the middle ages called a louver.*
(2) An open-work erection of timber or stone found on
a few church towers, such as those at Newcastle-upon-
Tyne and All Saints' Pavement, York. (3) A tower of
which the whole or a considerable part is open to and
visible from the floor, as for instance, the central tower
of Durham Cathedral. The unique central tower of
Ely Cathedral, the upper part of which is of timber, is
called the Lantern.
LARDER. Old French lardier, a tub to keep bacon
in (from Lat. larda, lard) ; hence a room in which
to keep bacon and meat (s.). Before the introduction
of turnips and other winter food for cattle it was neces-
sary to kill in the autumn, while they were still fat, as
many animals as would be required to provide food for
the household till the following spring. The larder
therefore had to be large enough for larding or salting
and hanging great quantities of meat.
LATTEN. Germ, latte, a lath, thin plate, "be-
cause this metal was hammered out into thin plates "
(s.). A mixed metal resembling brass frequently
mentioned in medieval inventories, etc., composed
chiefly of copper and zinc. A Flemish brass of 1504
which has been analysed gives the following result :
copper 64- per cent., zinc 29|, lead 3, tin 3 (MA).
It was used for engraved monumental brasses, cast
effigies Sj^ch as those in Westminster Abbey (see
MONUMENT, p. 170), and for the less important utensils
in churches and for ordinary domestic utensils.
LATTICE (Germ, latte, a lath). An open-work
screen made of laths, generally used to fill a window
which had not glass, hence diamond panes in lead
are called lattice-work. The wood lattice was prob-
ably very common when glass was expensive. (Cf.
Second Part of Henry IV., II., ii., 86.)
* See article thereon.
LAVATORY. The only lavatories of which any
account need be given here are those in the religious
houses, though a stone wash-hand basin is occasionally
seen in a medieval house and in the sacristy or other
part of a church, as at Salisbury Cathedral. The
monastic lavatory was in the cloister near the door to
the refectory, so that the brethren could wash their
hands before and after meals. The most common
arrangement consisted of a long stone trough in a
recess in the wall opposite the windows as at Norwich,
and the towels hung from rollers near by. At West-
minster Abbey the lavatory is a small room opening
out of the west alley in the bay next to the angle,
while the towels hung in the corresponding bay of the
south alley. At Durham it was an octagonal building
projecting into the cloister-garth with the basins in the
LAZAR-HOUSE. A hospital for lepers on the out-
skirts of a medieval town. The chapels of some still
exist ; there is a good example at Cambridge. There
are no remains of any of the domestic buildings.
LEADWORK. Lead was used for covering roofs in
early Saxon times and all through the middle ages,
but not quite so extensively afterwards except on
domes. There are about thirty lead fonts* in England
chiefly of the Norman period, most of them in the
southern counties (L.). Till the nineteenth century
lead formed the material for cisterns, pump-heads,
rain-water-heads* and pipes, and received appropriate
decoration in relief. In the seventeenth century
gardens often contained admirable lead vases and
statues. The mode of manufacture consisted of cast-
ing into sheets and building up these into the re-
quired form, or casting the object entire in one piece,
according to its size and character. The material
* See article thereon.
is now little used except for roofing, and rolling has
almost entirely superseded the old method of casting.
LEAN-TO. See ROOF.
LEAVES. A medieval term for the folding-doors
of a cupboard or of a wooden reredos. (See TRIPTYCH.)
LECTERN (Low Lat. lectrinum, a reading-desk ;
no connection with 'lecture.' s.) In medieval churches
a lectern stood at the north end of the high altar
for reading the epistle and gospel from, and there
was another in the middle of the chancel for music-
books (M.). There were generally two desks made to
turn on a single column ; sometimes the book rested on
the outstretched wings of an eagle or a pelican ;
generally the latter were of bronze and the simple
desks of wood. The lectern appears to have been
superseded by the reading-pew in 1603, and its reintro-
duction into Anglican churches is so recent that in
Parker's Glossary, published in 1850, it is described as
a desk "used in the services of the Roman Catholic
A lectern or reading-desk of some form was pro-
vided in a college hall, and in the frater or refectory
of a monastery,* where it was often a sort of stone
pulpit, sometimes very elaborate, bracketed out from
LENTEN VEIL. A curtain which, before the
Reformation, was drawn across the chancel in front of
the altar during Lent.
LIBRARY. In England, as elsewhere, the only col-
lections of books in the early middle ages were those
of the religious houses. The cloister was the living-
room of the monks, and as almost every hour which
* See article thereon.
was not spent in the church was devoted to reading
and copying, the cloister was the library. The books
were kept in a cupboard called the armarium, formed in
the thickness of the wall in the east walk of the cloister,
between the door of the church and that of the chapter-
house, as at Norwich and Kirkstall, or in the east part
of the north walk, as at Ely. The precentor, acting as
librarian (armarius), gave out books to the brethren ;
books were also lent to other houses, to churches and
to private persons.
The windows of the cloister were in early times not
glazed, and in order to give the monks- some protection
from the weather little studies scarcely larger than
sentry-boxes were erected. These were called carrells.
Each of them accommodated one person and contained
a desk and stool. They are first mentioned in the
latter part of the thirteenth century. At Gloucester
recesses or carrells of stone were formed against the
windows when the cloister was rebuilt between 1370
As books increased in number it became necessary
to provide more accommodation for them ; the Benedic-
tines made detached wooden presses ; the Cistercians
commonly built a room adjoining the sacristy which was
at the end of the south transept, as at Kirkstall, Tintern,
and Netley, and later they formed two rooms at the west
end of the chapter-house, one on either side of the
entrance, as at Furness and Fountains. These rooms
and presses becoming after a time insufficient, various
other rooms were fitted up for the storage of books,
which thus became inconveniently scattered. But it was
not until the fifteenth century that special rooms were
provided ; these were generally built over some already
existing building, such as the cloister or the sacristy at
the end of the south transept; they were for the
storage of books only : reading continued to be done in
the cloister. The libraries of secular cathedrals of the
fifteenth century were built over a part of the cloister,
as at Lincoln, Salisbury, St. Paul's, Wells and Hereford,
or were detached buildings as at Lichfield. Some at
least of these libraries were used by the canons as
Old Library arrangements may best be studied at
the ancient universities. Books were lent to students
on deposit of a pledge before colleges were founded
and colleges themselves had libraries (that is, collec-
tions of books) from very early times. The erection of
a library in the sense of a special building to contain
books was an afterthought, the books being originally
kept in chests along with muniments and other
valuables. The first college which contained a library
among its original buildings was New College, Oxford,
founded in 1 380 ; in every college founded after this,
a special room was provided. The position varies in
different foundations, but it was generally if not
invariably on the upper floor. It may be easily re-
cognised from the outside by its uniform range of
windows placed rather close together, on both sides
of the building.
The interior arrangement was as follows. High
substantial desks about six feet long with a steep slope
projected from the pier or piece of wall between each
pair of windows on either side of the room, leaving a
passage down the middle. These desks were double,
that is, there were two slopes, back to back, like a
double lectern in a church, and this sort of desk has
been called the lectern-type. There were no shelves,
the books lay upon the desk and were secured against
removal by an iron chain which was fastened to some
part of the cover like an ordinary clasp ; the other end
of the chain was connected by a ring to an iron bar
just above the desks ; the end of this bar was fastened
with a lock in such a manner that the ring could not
be slipped off. Between each pair of these double
desks there was a bench for the use of readers. This
system was common, with variations,, to England,
France, Holland, Germany and Italy.
FIG. 129. A BOOK-CASK OF THK ; STALL ' TYPB, HEREFORD
The lectern-system was extravagant of space, for
each double desk would accommodate only from
fifteen to twenty volumes. It was modified by separa-
ting the two halves of the desk and placing shelves
above them (fig. 1 29). The books were still chained ;
the bars to which the chains were attached were placed
just in front of each shelf; the chains were fastened
to the front edge of the book cover, and the book
was placed on the shelf with the edges of the leaves
outwards, hence these are still called ' fore-edges,'
while the part which covers the binding is called
the ' back ' ; the title of the book was written on
the fore-edges. On the end of each case was a
frame containing a list of the books to be found
in it. This system, which has been called the ' stall
system,' was introduced early in the sixteenth century.
It was generally adopted in England and France,
but in Italy a system came into use which some-
what resembles the seating of a modern church ; all
the readers faced the same way, and each row used a
desk which was attached to the back of the row next
in front of them.
Medieval libraries were generally divided into two
classes: a chained library of reference or 'outer library'
such as has been described and an ' inner library*
containing books to be lent. The buildings were
usually decorated in a simple but beautiful and ap-
propriate manner, the glass of the windows especially
being enriched with various devices and inscriptions.
The desks were massive and handsome and occasionally
The enormous destruction of books at the Reforma-
tion made room on the shelves for new printed books
for a long time afterwards. Consequently for the next
hundred years no new feature appears in libraries.
But towards the middle of the seventeenth century
chaining was generally abandoned, and it was there-
fore unnecessary to have seats between the desks. A
seat is sometimes attached to the book-case ; the desk
is gradually given up, and the shelves are continued
almost to the floor.
But in the seventeenth century a more important
change was made than mere modifications in the form
of the book -case. The whole arrangement of the
library altered. Instead of projecting from the walls
into the middle of the room, the bookshelves were now
placed against the wall. This plan had been developed
on the Continent, and was introduced at the Bodleian
Library, Oxford, in 1 610-1 2. It was used by Wren
at Lincoln in 1674 and at St. Paul's in 1708; at the
latter the upper shelves are reached from a gallery.
At Trinity College, Cambridge, Wren combined in a
masterly fashion the new system of cases against the
walls with the old system of projecting stalls; the
stalls were placed in this instance at considerable
intervals, thus forming a series of cubicles, with a table
and chairs in the middle of each. The new arrange-
ment required that the windows should be placed high
in the wall ; it was thus inapplicable to the old build-
ings which had low windows ; in these, therefore, the
old arrangement was preserved, even when they were
fitted up with new furniture.
Private collections in the middle ages were small
and easily accommodated. In the twelfth century
books were kept in a chest, on the edge of which they
were rested when being read. In the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries they were kept in a cupboard ;
while being read the book was laid on a desk, the
support of which was in the form of a screw, so that
the desk could be raised or lowered by turning it
round like a modern music-stool. Another form of
private lectern had no screw, but the supporting
standard was cranked, so that the desk could easily
be pushed aside. An infinite variety of lecterns in
private rooms may be seen in the pictures in medieval
manuscripts. (J. W. Clark, The Care of Books.')
LICH-GATE (from Middle English lich, a corpse).
A churchyard gateway with a roof over it, under which
the bier might be rested at a funeral.
LIERNE RIB, LIERNE VAULT. See VAULT (p.
LIGHT OF A WINDOW. The part of a window
between two mullions; thus a window with two
mullions is called a three-light window ; each piercing
in the head is called a tracery-light.
LINEN PATTERN. A decoration used on panels
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, consisting
of shallow mouldings almost covering the panel ; so
named from a supposed resemblance to folded linen.
FIG. 130. LINEN PATTERN
LINTEL. A horizontal piece or stone, wood or
other material placed over a door or window or over
columns to support the weight above.
LITANY DESK. This was probably introduced into
English churches in the reign of Edward VI.
LOBBY. An inner vestibule or ante-chamber.
LOCK. See IRONWORK.
LOCKER. A small cupboard in a wall. (See
LOCUTORY. The parlour of a monastery.*
* See article thereon.
LOFT. An upper room, a gallery (e.g. rood-loft) ;
now usually a room in the roof of a barn or stable.
LOGGIA (Ital. loggia, a lodge, an open gallery). A
small building forming a shelter, with open arches on
one or more sides ; much used in Italy v
LOXG-AND-SHORT WORK. The method of form-
ing angles of stone walls in late Saxon times, in which
flat horizontal slabs alternate with tall pillar-like stones
(fig. 131). The quoins projected a little from the
face of the wall, but their rough ends were sunk or
' rebated/ and the plaster which covered the wall was
carried over the rough edges, thus leaving a pilaster
of uniform width at the angle of the building ; and so
until the plaster was hacked off at the recent ' restora-
tion ' of buildings, the quoins appeared to be of uni-
form width and alternately long and short, whence
the name. Occasionally found in early Saxon work.
LOOP. A narrow window in the parapet of a castle
for the discharge of arrows, or in a small staircase or
chamber to admit light, or in a barn for ventilation.
LOUVER (formerly LOVER, from Old French loitvert,
an opening, put for I'ouvert s.). A ventilator on the
roof of a medieval hall, a lantern.* The sloping boards
which are placed in the louver and in belfry windows
are also called louver-boards.
* See article thereon.
148 LOW-SIDE WINDOW
LOW SIDE WINDOW. A name recently given to
the window commonly found near the west end of a
chancel, usually in the south wall, but very often in
the north wall. It differs from other windows of a
church, the commonest type having a sill considerably
nearer the floor, and the lights being divided by a tran-
som, below which there are bars and a shutter, but no
glass, while the upper part is glazed like other windows.
Some few examples are on a level with the floor. In
some chancels which are raised very much above the
ground the window is quite inaccessible from the out-
The use of these windows is unknown. Many guesses
have been made, but few have any approach to prob-
ability. Referring to some few of them, it may be said
that they were not for handing out to lepers the sacra-
mental bread (they used to be called ( leper windows ' a
few years ago), nor for allowing lepers or others to
watch the Mass, nor yet (though this is much less
improbable than either of the above) to allow a small
hand sanctus-bell, rung at the elevation of the Host, to
be heard by those who happened to be near. The
latest theory is that a lantern was placed in the window,
the light of which gave protection from evil spirits
to the dead who lay in the churchyard (HN.). Though
there are some objections to this view, it is not impos-
LOZENGE MOULDING. An enrichment used in
Norman architecture, consisting of lozenges in relief
placed end to end.
LUCARNE. A dormer window.*
LUNETTE. A round or oval window in a ceiling,
vault or dome.
LYCH-GATE. See LICH-GATE.
LYCHNOSCOPE. A low-side* window.
* See article thereou.
MACHICOLATIONS. Boldly projecting corbels *
carrying the parapet of a castle wall, openings being
left between the corbels so that de-
fenders behind the parapet could
shoot at or throw down missiles on
an attacking force (fig. 133.)
MANSARD ROOF. See ROOF.
MANSE. The house provided for
a clergyman in Scotland. The term
was formerly used in the same sense
MANTELPIECE. See CHIMNEY.
MARBLE. A limestone which has
been subjected to such great natural
heat as to lose entirely all trace of
fossil remains and other characteristics
of its original structure. Many varie-
ties of English limestone are called marbles because
they will take a polish, e.g. Purbeck marble. True
marbles are found in Devonshire and in Ireland, but
are little used in building. In the middle ages
Purbeck was very popular, but true marble, either
British or foreign, was very rarely used. In the reign
of Elizabeth a good deal was imported for fireplaces
in great houses and for monuments in churches.
Much larger quantities have lately been used owing to
the reduction in price due to the application of
machinery for sawing it up and to the rediscovery of
long-lost quarries in Greece.
MARKET CROSS. No doubt these were originally
simply devotional crosses, like those of the churchyard
and wayside, erected for the protection of the town.
They afterwards became large and elaborate, and were
surrounded by columns supporting a roof, above which
* See article thereon.
rose the cross. These probably are due to a shelter
having been erected over the cross itself, and some
appear to retain their original character though the
head of the cross has always been destroyed. In some
few examples the shelter has an upper chamber. (See
MARQUETRY. Inlaid work of wood or ivory.
MARTELLO TOWER. A small circular tower,
generally two storeys high. The lower is intended for
stores, the upper for troops ; the roof had a shell-proof
vault, and was armed with artillery ; the entrance was
a considerable height above the ground, and over it
were machicolations * ; the building was generally sur-
rounded by a ditch and glacis. Many of these towers
vere erected on the south coast and in Ireland, Jersey
and elsewhere during the Napoleonic wars. The name
"is supposed to have been derived from that of a
fort in Mortella (Myrtle) Bay, Corsica, which after a
gallant resistance was taken in 1794 by a British
naval force. After a period of disuse many of these
towers have recently been supplied with an
improved armament." (English Cyclopaedia,
1 860). Needless to say they are now entirely
MASK-STOP. A peculiar termination to
a hood-mould used in the thirteenth century ;
some examples have a slight resemblance to a
human face (fig. 134).
MAUSOLEUM. A private building intended to
contain one or more tombs. So called after the magnifi-
cent sepulchre erected at Halicarnassos, in Asia Minor,
by his widow Artemisia in memory of Mausolus, King
of Caria, who died 353 B.C.
* See article thereon.
MEGALITHIC MASONRY. Prehistoric work in
which stones of very great size are used, such as Stone-
M ERLON. One of the higher parts of a battlement.*
METOPE. A space between two triglyphs in the
Doric frieze. (See ORDERS.)
MEMBER. A single item in a series of mouldings.
METAL-WORK. (See IRONWORK, LEADWORK, LATTEN.)
MEZZANINE. (See ENTRESOL.)
MEZZO-RELIEVO. (See RELIEVO.)
MID-WALL SHAFT. A single shaft dividing the
lights of a Saxon* belfry window.
MINSTER (shortened form of monasterium, a
monastery). The term is now habitually applied to
certain cathedral churches, e.g. York, which was not
monastic, while some which were monastic churches
are not so called. It is a component part of some
place names (e.g. Whitminster) and may indicate the
presence of monks in early Saxon days, but monasterium
was in early times used for any large church.
MINARET. A tall thin tower of a mosque.
MISERERE (from Lat. misereri, to pity). A
peculiar sort of seat in a choir-stall of a church ; it
has hinges at the back so that it can be lifted up and
leant against the back ; on the under side of the seat
was fixed a bracket which formed a small seat on which
aged priests and monks were allowed to rest when
others were standing.
MISERICORDE. A room in a monastery* forming
a second dining-hall. In this room it was permissible
to eat meat, which was not allowed in the refectory.
MITRE. The line formed by the intersection of two
similar surfaces or mouldings ; e.g., by the mouldings at
* See article thereon.
the corner of an ordinary picture-frame. In joinery the
joint generally coincides with the mitre and is called a
mitre-joint ; in masonry the joint cuts square across one
set of mouldings, and the mitre is worked on the other
piece. (See fig. 195.)
MOAT. See CASTLE.
MODILLION. A bracket under the projecting part
of a cornice. It commonly consists of two volutes
curving in opposite directions and has an acanthus leaf
under it (figs. 135, 136).
PIG. 135. CARVED MODILLION
FIG. 136. PLAIN MODILLIONS
MODULE. The unit of measurement used in de-
scribing the classical orders ; the module generally used
is the diameter or semi-diameter (usually the latter) of
the column at the bottom of the shaft.
MONASTERY (Lat. monasterium, a monastery,
from Gk. povturr-qs, one dwelling alone). A house for
members of one of the religious orders, Monks, Friars
or Canons Regular. 1 It will perhaps be convenient to
say a few words on these three classes of 'the religious'
as they were called, before describing their houses.
Monks are members of a community which dwells
apart from general society, as distinguished from
Secular Canons, Canons Regular, Friars, and Hermits.
In the Greek Church monks have continued to follow
1 See Appendix.
the Rule of Basil the Great (329-79) without varia-
tion ; monachism in the Latin Church, though based
upon the Rule of St. Benedict (480-542), is very
varied owing to the successive reformations of the
Benedictines leading to the establishment of practi-
cally new orders. Moreover in England, Scotland and
Ireland there existed, at the time of the landing of
St. Augustine, monasteries not under the Rule of St.
Benedict which had survived the Saxon invasion ;
these were, however, brought under obedience to
Rome. The monks' life was to be one of seclusion, of
prayer and study. Their houses, therefore, were built
in lonely places. If the remains are now found in
towns, it is these which have grown up round the
monasteries. The canons regular, i.e. canons living
under a Rule, held a position between the monks and
the secular canons of the cathedrals, though approxi-
mating more nearly to the former. They are said to
have been founded in the middle of the eleventh
century, but their origin is acknowledged to be
obscure. The institution of the friars formed a new
departure. The monk had no personal possessions,
but the community could hold property. With the
friars there was neither individual nor collective
ownership ; they maintained themselves by begging.
Their ideal, the reverse of that of the monk, was one
of work among worldly men. The friary was there-
fore placed in the heart of the city.** The monastery
contained all the buildings necessary to the sedentary
life, to a self-supporting community and a community
which became a very large landowner, while their
church, however large, was practically the private
chapel of the monastery. The friary gave bare ac-
commodation to the brethren, while its church was
essentially a preaching church. (See Appendix.)
Each of the religious orders developed a special
arrangement of its buildings, to which every house
of the order adhered fairly closely. The plan of the
church grew out of the common traditional plan, with
variations to suit the views and ritual of each order ;
the arrangement of the secular buildings was dictated
by the practical requirements of the Rule. The
differences, whatever their o'rigin, are in most cases
confined to details. As the Benedictines were the
first to develop a typical plan, and as their houses
became more numerous in England than those of any
other order, it will be convenient to describe the ordinary
arrangement of one of these, and then to notice the
points in which other orders departed from it.
The church* was generally cruciform, and in most
of the larger examples the transepts, as well as the
nave and presbytery, had aisles. In Norman times
the east end terminated in an apse or in a group of
apses, but towards the end of the twelfth century
or early in the thirteenth century the presbytery was
lengthened and the end made square. The presbytery
generally occupied the eastern limb of the cross. The
choir of the monks stretched across the transepts and
about one-third of the way down the nave. It was
separated by the pulpitum* from the rest of the nave,
which formed the church of the novices and servants,
being entirely distinct from the choir, with separate
entrances, altars and stalls.
The cloister and secular buildings were placed on
the south side of the church for the sake of warmth,
unless, as was often the case, some peculiarity of th
site made it more convenient to put them on the
north. Round the cloister were ranged the common
buildings used daily by the monks, and beyond these
fay various special buildings (fig. 137).
The cloister, which was the living-place of the
monks, was at first covered by a simple lean-to roof,
supported on stone or wood posts standing on a low
* See article thereon.
CATHEDRAL, CHURCH 8t
PIG. 137. CATHEDRAL CHURCH AKD BEKBDICTINB MONASTERY, KLT
wall. Then a high wall with windows took the place
of the posts, and the passages were often vaulted and
covered with lead roofs. But the cloister long retained
its character of a mere covered way with open sides.
Gradually more shelter was obtained by glazing first
the upper parts of the windows and then the whole.
Often a series of little studies like sentry-boxes and not
very much larger, called carrells,* were placed against
the windows. Books were kept in an armarium* or
cupboard, or in later times in a library.
In another part of the cloister, sometimes the west
walk, the novices were taught. The stone bench
which runs round the cloister is often marked with
little sinkings about the size of the bowl of a salt-spoon
in groups of nine. These were doubtless for playing
some such game as ' Morris,' which still survives
in our villages. There is another door into the church
in the north-west angle of the cloister ; it led into the
part west of the pulpitum, and so would serve for
novices and others who were not admitted to the
In the east pane or walk of the cloister there is
a series of doors leading into several buildings of
importance. The first opens, in many examples,
into a passage leading to the monks' cemetery. Next
comes a large doorway with a window on each side :
this is the entrance to the Chapter-house (fig. 138).
The normal shape for the chapter-house was oblong,
either square-ended or apsidal. The grand polygonal
chapter-houses with which we are familiar were built
chiefly in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and
for the most part by the secular canons ; these and
some few of the rectangular chapter-houses have
vestibules, but usually there is none, and the entrance
has not even a door.
Proceeding south, we come to the staircase which
* See article thereon.
goes up to the dormitory, and then to a series of small
rooms under the dormitory, such as the Common-
house or room in which great fires were kept burning
in winter to which the monks were allowed occasion-
ally to go to warm themselves, and a passage leading to
FIG. 138. ENTRANCE TO CHAPTER-HOUSE, ST. RADEGUND'S
CAMBRIDGE. C. Il8o
the infirmary. Over the whole of this range is the
Dormitory. From it another staircase, in addition
to that from the cloister, descends direct into the
transept, so that when the monks rose for matins
at midnight they could enter the church and return
without going out into the cloister. At the south end
of the dormitory and on the same floor is a large
Necessary-house, containing a great number of closets
divided by wood partitions ; a stream of water was
carried under it in an artificial cut.
To the south of the cloister stands the Refectory or
Prater, the common dining-hall of the monks, entered
FIG. 139. REFECTORY LECTERN, CHESTER
by the doorway in the south-west angle of the cloister.
It is usually on the ground floor, but is sometimes
raised on vaulted cellars. Within the frater there is a
lectern corbelled out from one of the side walls, from
which one of the brethren read aloud while the others
ate in silence (fig. 139). The Lavatory* is in the
* See article thereon.
cloister near the frater door. It consists of a long
stone trough in a recess, and roller towels hung near
by; there is a good example at Norwich. The
Kitchen, in the greater houses at least, is often a large
and lofty detached building at the west end of the
frater ; that at Durham is a well-known example. On
the west side of the cloister there are usually the
Cellarer's Hall, where the ordinary guests were
entertained, and cellars used for storage and other
purposes. Here also is commonly a Parlour, where
monks might see their friends or deal with traders,
The almoner who dispensed broken victuals to the
indigent had his quarters near the gate.
The most important of the outer ring of buildings is
the Infirmary for the aged and the sick and infirm.
Those who had recently been bled were also admitted
in order to recover their strength. The building is
usually to the east of the cloister, and connected with
it by a covered way. It is planned like a church,
with a very long nave and aisles and a chancel. The
east part of the nave is cut off by a cross wall with a
doorway. The part to the west of this wall is the
infirmary proper, and the part to the east formed,
with the chancel, a chapel. The aisles were in later
times often cut up into a series of small rooms by
blocking up the arches and building cross walls.
The Misericorde* was a hall which generally had
some connection with the infirmary, but its position
and name vary in different monasteries ; it was
provided for those who were allowed to eat meat,
for meat might not be eaten in the frater, and hence
occasionally the whole convent dined there. As time
went on these occasions" became more and more frequent,
till at last the frater was deserted for almost the whole
* See article thereon.
The Cemetery of the monks was usually to the east
and south-east of the church. It was distinct from that
of the lay brothers and the public. Burials were some-
times made in the church, in the chapter-house, in the
cloister ; never in the cloister-garth.
Early in the tenth century an order of reformed
Benedictines was founded at Cluny ; hence they were
called Cluniacs. They came to England in the second
half of the eleventh century. They observed a very
gorgeous ritual ; their buildings were elaborately
decorated but did not differ very materially from those
of the Benedictines.
The Cistercian order, the second offshoot from the
Benedictines, took its rise about 1100 at Citeaux
(Latin, Cistercium). It came to England in 1128 and
spread rapidly, especially in Yorkshire. In its archi-
tectural development it is one of the most interesting
and important of the monastic orders. The Rule,
which was drawn up chiefly, if not entirely, by an
Englishman, Stephen Harding, was one of extreme
severity. Houses were to be planted in wild and
desolate places. Manual work, as well as devotion
and study, was required of the brethren ; each
establishment was to be self-supporting, was to pro-
duce all that it required. It is due to this cause that
towns did not grow up round their monasteries, as
they did round those of the Benedictines such as
Bury. Absolute simplicity was to be observed both in
ritual and in architecture. There was to be but one
tower, central and low, no unnecessary turrets or
pinnacles, no triforium, no pictures on walls or in glass,
crosses were to be of wood and candlesticks of iron.
From these causes Cistercian houses differ both in
their architectural character and in the number and
disposition of their buildings from those of the
Benedictines (fig. 140).
The Church has a very short eastern limb (until
lengthened in later times) with a square end. Chapels,
divided by solid walls, project from the east side of the
transepts. The monks' choir was in the crossing and
the eastern part of the nave; the west part of the
nave was the church of the fratres conversi, or lay
brothers. These conversi formed a distinct and im-
portant class in a Cistercian house, where so many
industries were practised. The aisles were separated
from the nave by high screen-walls, against which
stalls were placed.
The Chapter-house was square or oblong and divided
by columns and arches. The Refectory which was
similarly divided was placed at right angles to the
south pane of the cloisters, instead of parallel with it.
The kitchen abutted on the cloister. In other respects
the secular buildings have a general resemblance to
those of the Benedictines. A small library* is pro-
vided between the transept and the chapter-house or
between the cloister and the chapter-house.
The Carthusian order was founded in 1086 at
Chartreuse, near Grenoble, whence they took their
name. (Hence, also, the ' Charterhouse ' in London
and the ' Certosa ' at Pavia.) The life was extremely
ascetic, and not only was the separation of the com-
munity from the world required, but the isolation
of each individual from his brother monks. The
buildings, therefore, differ radically from those of all
other orders. A separate cell and garden is provided
for each monk. On certain days the brethren all
dined together, but ordinarily they met only at Matins
and Mass. The church, refectory, chapter-house, and
other buildings common to the whole community
are small. The cells, which are really small houses,
are ranged round a court and connected by a cloister.
Between the houses and the cloister there is a corridor,
accessible only to the Superior. Food was passed into
* See article thereon.
each house through a hatch so contrived that the
occupant could not see out through it. The house
contains a living-room, a bedroom, a closet for keeping
fuel (for the room was warmed by a fire in winter),
Scale of feet
FIG. 141. CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE, CAMBRIDGE
and there was a garden in which the occupant might
work. The order was introduced into England by
King Henry II. The best -preserved buildings are
those of Mount Grace, Yorkshire, founded about 1397.
After the Benedictines the most numerous were the
Augustinians, an order of Canons living under rule.
Their churches often had no aisle or only one. The
dining-hall is often on the upper floor.
The Gilbertine order, the only one of English origin,
was founded in 1148 by Gilbert of Sempringham,
at Sempringham, in Lincolnshire. Monasteries were
double, with a men's part and a women's part.
The Friars' churches consisted of long, simple build-
ings, with large naves for great congregations. They
were sometimes built without aisles or transepts, some-
times they had one very large transept. There is occa-
sionally a large open space on one side, and an outside
pulpit for outdoor preaching.
The only one of the Military orders whose buildings
require notice is that of the Knights Templars. The
famous Temple Church in London is said to have been
built in imitation of the church of the Holy Sepulchre
at Jerusalem. The few other round churches were
probably founded with the same idea and under the
influence of the Templars (fig. 141).
MONIAL. See MULLION.
MONOLITH. A column cut out of a single stone.
MONSTRANCE (Lat. monstrare, to show). A vessel
of silver or other metal with a glass side, used in
medieval churches to contain and show the Host.
The word is sometimes applied to a reliquary.*
MONUMENT. EXTERNAL. The memorials of the
Saxons are not numerous owing, no doubt, to the
ravages of the Danes. They used headstones with
crosses and interlacing wicker-work pattern carved
in low relief (fig. 142); some of their sculptured
stones appear to be coffin -lids. The Danes them-
selves have left a number of stones carved with crosses
* See article thereon.
and bearing inscriptions in Runic characters cut on
the angle (BL.).
After the Norman Conquest both the recumbent
slab and the upright headstone were used, sometimes
both together, the foot of the headstone being fitted
into a notch in the slab, and sometimes there was a
FIG. 149. GRAVBSTONK, LITTLB SHELFORD
cross at the foot as well as at the head. Probably the
graves of the poor had wooden crosses only. The
headstones seem generally to have had circular heads
carved with more or less ornamented crosses. The
slabs, which taper like coffin -lids, were, no doubt,
generally merely coverings of graves, for burial in a
coffin was exceptional (BL.). The slabs are carved
with a cross in low relief (fig. 143) ; those of the
thirteenth century are often sloped down on each side
from a central ridge like a roof (fig. 68), and they are
then described as 'coped,' i.e. worked like the coping*
of a wall. More rarely the stone was carved with an
effigy, in low relief during the twelfth century but
becoming bolder or being fully in the round in the
thirteenth. Sometimes the device is done in incised
lines filled with black composition, and the profession
or trade of the person commemorated is indicated by a
symbol, as a priest by a chalice, a mason by a pair of
compasses. V f ery rarely is there any inscription, and
it is not improbable that they were ready-made things
kept in stock (BL.). The crosses on the recumbent
* See article thereon.
slabs of the thirteenth century usually have circular
heads (fig. 68) ; there is a peculiar scroll design issuing
from about the middle of the shaft, which may perhaps
represent the cords by which a processional cross was
FIG. 144. CROSS, RHUODLAM
PIG. 145. GRAVE-SLAB, RHUDDLAN
steadied while being carried (fig. 265). The slabs of the
fourteenth century are more usually flat, they taper
towards the foot like those of the thirteenth century.
The cross is foliated and there are no scrolls (fig. 145).
The slabs of the fifteenth century are rectangular, (BL.)
being as wide at the foot as at the head. The head-
stone, in the few examples remaining, is an actual
cross, not a cross carved on a circle ; it is decorated
with cusps and with the other ornaments commonly
used at the time.
It is generally difficult to say whether these slabs
were originally in the church or churchyard. Prob-
ably almost all were in the churchyard. Burial in the
church became more common as time advanced, but in
early days it was rare.
Built-up churchyard monuments covered by a slab
were used in the fourteenth century, but they appear
to have been low hardly so high as the knee. But
in the fifteenth century they were made as high as
a table ; they were formerly called ' high tombs,' and
are now commonly spoken of as ' altar tombs ' from
their resemblance to stone altars. The slab seems
generally to have been plain, the sides are ornamented
with traceried panels and there is often, towards the
end of the century and in the first half of the sixteenth
century, a short inscription, such as "Here lieth
Thomas Brond whos soule God Pardon."
Churchyard monuments of the period from the Re-
formation to the Restoration are rare. Crosses of any
kind were disallowed during a great part of the time,
though as a matter of fact they were put up. Some
high tombs of a plain character were built.
After the Restoration, besides the high tombs of the
well-to-do, there were two common forms used by the
poorer folk : the straight-sided headstone with the top
cut into an ornamental profile and the upper part
of the face above the inscription carved with cherubs'
heads and flowers ; and the long plain board supported
on two posts at the head and foot of the grave.
Though both kinds are devoid of any Christian symbol-
ism and their uncouth rhymes have become proverbial,
these humble memorials are in their way well designed
and are infinitely superior to the productions which
have followed upon the ' revival of taste ' in the nine-
INTERNAL MONUMENTS. We now come to the con-
sideration of monuments within the church.
The earliest memorials are the flat slabs which
formed part of the pavement of the church. A cross
was carved or incised upon them, or they were sculp-
tured with an effigy in low relief like the monuments
of the churchyard. Effigies in high relief or com-
pletely in the round must generally have been in an
arched recess in the wall ; the arch is generally low in
the thirteenth century and the slab raised but slightly
above the floor. This type of monument increased in
magnificence in the thirteenth century ; the arch was
made more lofty and its hood -mould, pinnacles and
heraldry occupy the wall space above ; the tomb
itself is raised to the height of an altar and is
frequently made wide enough to receive the effigies
of both man and wife ; its front is decorated with little
niches containing statuettes. The slab at this stage
is seldom carved in relief. It is sometimes plain, but
generally has an effigy in the round or a brass. In
cathedrals and large churches these tombs are often
placed under one of the arches between the choir
and aisle or between the nave and aisle, so that they
can be seen from both sides. The canopy is in these
cases of every degree of elaboration, from the flat
wooden ceiling over the tomb of the Black Prince at
Canterbury to the rich stone arch of the Valance tomb
at Westminster. The idea of this type " was doubtless
taken from the hearse [i.e. the canopy] and the lights
which covered the coffin when the funeral service was
performed. Thus first we see a basement with little
figures of the relatives as mourners ; on the top of this
is the recumbent effigy of the deceased, with angels
at the head and an animal at the feet, while over all
is a lofty pedimented stone canopy supported by
columns and buttresses rising from the angles of the
basement" (BU.). In some of the great monuments
of this class made in the fifteenth century the space
covered by the canopy includes a chantry chapel ; the
tomb is placed at the west end of the space, leaving at
the east end just sufficient room for a small altar and
for a celebrant.
The favourite position for a tomb was on the north
side of the choir. This position may have been chosen
in order that the top of the tomb might be used as
an Easter Sepulchre,* which was on the north side.
The great shrines* of the patron saints of some of our
abbey churches occupied a central position immediately
behind the high altar. The tomb of Edward the
Confessor, built by Henry III., in Westminster Abbey,
is almost the only example remaining, though the exact
positions in which others formerly stood is well known,
and the worn pavement still bears witness to the
stream of pilgrims who came
The holy blisful martir for to seke,
That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seke.
A shrine of this class consisted of at least four distincr
parts : (a) the stone or marble basement ; (6) the altat
at one end of it ; (c) the feretory, that is the actual
shrine or wooden coffin ; (d) the cover of the feretory,
a wooden framework hung from the vaulting above
and raised by means of a counterpoise (BU.). The
feretory was covered with gold and silver plates and
decorated in various ways. The fourteenth-century
basement of the supposed shrine of St. Etheldreda at
Ely is a vaulted space open at the sides ; at Westminster
it is solid, but the north and south sides are pierced with
three niches each ; " it was in these that sick people
were frequently left during the night, in the hopes of a
cure being effected by the intercession of the Saint" (BU.).
* See article thereon.
Some of these high shrines had near-by a chambet
provided for a special watcher; there is an example
at St. Albans.
The treatment of effigies varies at different periods.
Some, especially in early times, are inappropriately
treated as though they had been standing in a niche,
and as if figure and niche together had been laid down.
They sometimes have also at the head two figures of
angels, or these only without the niche, kneeling or
flying down or bearing away the soul the most beau-
tiful treatment which this part of the tomb can receive.
Generally the head rests on a pillow or on a tilting-
helmet. The hands are raised or joined in prayer, or
occasionally in late figures are parted as if meant to
suggest ecstasy. In the twelfth and thirteenth centu-
ries the figures of knights have the legs crossed a
conventional attitude having no reference to crusades
as is sometimes supposed.
The figures are generally cut in stone, but some of
the early examples are of Purbeck marble. Some of
the greatest, such as those of Henry III. and Queen
Eleanor, the wife of Edward I. (superb works by the
Englishman William Torel), were cast in bronze and
gilt. The figure of William de Valence (1296) is of
oak covered with thin plates of copper, engraved and
enamelled a work probably of Limoges, for " the
artistic execution of the figure is very much worse than
would have been the case in England in 12.Q6" (BU.).
The effigy of Henry V. was of oak overlaid with silver.
There are some few effigies remaining of plain oak ; it
is said that after 1 280 they were as common as stone,
but that their use was discontinued about fifty years
later (PH.). In late medieval times alabaster was much
used. It was frequently, perhaps generally, covered
with a thin coat of gesso* and painted. Important
tombs were protected by strong ironwork.
* See article thereon.
In the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. several new
types of monument were used.
The canopied tomb is no doubt a development of the
medieval tomb, but instead of being placed under an
arch it stands clear in a transept or chapel. The tomb
resembles the medieval tomb and bears a recumbent
effigy. % The side is carved with small figures in relief,
not placed in niches as formerly, but kneeling in two
files facing one another, boys on one side and girls on
the other : they are the children of the deceased.
There are a few weeping cherubim. The canopy is a
classical entablature supported on four columns, and
surmounted by pediment-like arrangements of strap-
ornament* with great displays of heraldry.
A class of monument holding a half-way position
between these and the mural monuments is the monu-
ment of rather large dimensions containing a full-
sized sarcophagus or a life-size figure, but placed high
up on the wall, half recessed and half projecting on
The mural monument was perhaps suggested partly
by the medieval niche, and partly by the mural brasses
contained in little flat canopied slabs, which had come
into fashion in the fifteenth century. (See BRASSES belotv.)
They generally consist of a round-arched recess, con-
taining a kneeling figure or a bust, and surrounded
by a classical composition ; these are often of a modest
and satisfactory design.
The best Elizabethan figures retain the medieval
feeling, and are dignified ; but some are placed in a
would-be easy attitude, resting<*he head on the hand,
as if suffering, as contemporary writers satirically
suggest, from a tooth-ache. Lord Bacon sits in his
chair above the altar with his hat on.
A great variety of material was used. Parts of the
tomb, the figure and the entablature, were commonly
* See article thereon.
of plain marble or alabaster, the top of the tomb of
black touchstone, the columns of richly -coloured
marbles with white capitals; and coloured marble
panels and friezes were inserted. The effigies were
generally painted. The larger monuments were railed
After the time of James I. the great tomb became
less common. The canopy and architecture generally
were gradually abandoned and the composition became
more and more an affair of sculpture. There is the
greatest diversity of idea and arrangement ; the most
common variety consists of a representation of a marble
sarcophagus, and above it a group of allegorical and
other figures, such as Fame crowning the departed with
a laurel wreath ; the background to the figures is usually
a large plain slab of marble.
At the same time the mural monument became more
common ; it was also smaller and simpler. The elabor-
ate architecture with the deep recess was abandoned
for a flat treatment more appropriate to the position.
The later mural monuments are usually devoid of sculp-
ture except perhaps for a portrait medallion. There
is a coat-of-arms under a simple pediment, and a long
inscription. The last form that need be noticed is the
white marble coffer or urn on a black slab.
The medieval custom of placing over the tomb of a
man his helmet, shield, sword and gauntlets was con-
tinued till comparatively late times, and the trophies
retained something of their medieval form. The
painted heraldic achievements which we call hatch-
ments are also a survival of medieval use.
BRASSES. The great authority on this subject considers
that monumental brasses were derived from two older
forms of monument, namely : (a) Incised stone slabs ;
(6) Limoges enamels (HA.). Of incised slabs there are
few examples in this country ; they were probably from
the first more common on the Continent, and certainly
were so in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when
they were still as much used as brasses. The design
whether a figure or a cross was cut into the stone
and the incision filled with lead or some composition.
The resemblance between the two forms of memorial is
obvious, and they would clearly require no very great
difference in general design or treatment of detail.
The change of material was due to the enamellers.
The art of enamelling was introduced from Byzantium
into France and Western Europe in the twelfth cen-
tury, and it was applied to the memorials of the dead
by the craftsmen of Limoges. The whole surface of
the copper-plate was covered with enamel. The design
consisted of a figure on a diapered ground, under a
niche, and with an inscription. These works of art
were necessarily small on account of their costliness.
After a while the effigy is left as a plain metal surface
surrounded by an enamelled ground. The details of
the costume, and to a slight extent the modelling of
the figure and folds of the drapery, were indicated by
engraved lines, as had been done in the incised stone
slabs, and the lines were filled with enamel. Till the
end of the middle ages enamel continued to be used
very commonly in the heraldic bearings and some other
parts. Work of this class may be described as parcel-
enamel. In the next stage the enamelled background
is omitted, and finally the brass plate is cut to the out-
line of the figure and let into a corresponding sinking
in the stone (MA.).
The material used for brasses was a mixture of copper
and zinc called laton or latten,* prepared chiefly at
Cologne. Most English brasses were engraved at
Isleworth, near London, but there were also some
provincial manufactories (MA.). A few particularly
magnificent examples are entirely the work of
foreigners and are known as ' Flemish brasses.' The
* See article thereon.
matrix or stone into which the plate is sunk is almost
invariably Purbeck marble.
The most usual position for brasses is the floor, but
they are also, after the fourteenth century, placed on
the slabs of altar tombs and occasionally on the walls.
The art was probably introduced into England in
the first half of the thirteenth century, but the earliest
example remaining is dated 1277. The works done in
the reigns of the two first Edwards are of greater
artistic and technical excellence than any of a later
time; the figures are life-size and boldly drawn with
deeply incised lines. The inscription runs round the
margin of the slab and the letters are commonly each
cut on a separate piece of metal (MA.). Canopies
inappropriate to a recumbent figure were introduced
in the reign of Edward II. In the two following
reigns brasses became more varied and magnificent,
and most classes are represented instead of only great
personages and their wives as formerly. The figures
are now of all sizes, but are usually about four feet
high. The drawing is rather more conventional than
formerly but is nevertheless of great beauty (MA.).
The border inscription is always on a continuous strij
of metal and a second inscription is placed below the
figure. Floriated crosses are used sometimes inste
of effigies, and some of them have quatrefoil heads
enclosing whole or half figures. " Bracket brasses
appear at the same time, in which the figures are
represented upon a canopied bracket, or sometimes
kneeling at its foot, and supplicating certain saints
above" (MA.). These were discontinued in the first
half of the fifteenth century, and in figure brasses the
figures are smaller.
The decline in the art begins to be more evident in
the third quarter of the fifteenth century. The simple
recumbent attitudes of the early brasses with the
hands raised in prayer are abandoned and the figures
are often represented in half-profile with the hands
apart and standing on grassy ground. Shading begins
to take the place of the earlier flat and more suitable
treatment. Brasses representing shrouded skeletons
become common especially in the eastern counties.
These faults are much more conspicuous in the last
quarter of the fifteenth century and in the first half of
the sixteenth ; the drawing is often bad and the treat-
ment is pictorial ; the figures are represented kneeling
at desks. Mural brasses become common. The art
continued to decline till its practice was abandoned in
the latter part of the seventeenth century (MA.).
MORTICE OR MORTISE. A hole cut in a piece
of wood to receive the end, called a tenon,* of another
MOSAIC (Gk. /xoweios, belonging to the Muses,
artistic s). A surface formed of small pieces of stone,
marble, tile or glass, used on walls, vaults, floors and
columns. Much employed by the ancients and in the
early Christian churches in Italy and in the East. It
was used by the Romans in Britain for their floors and
probably also for walls and vaults. The art was never
practised by the English ; all the work in Westminster
Abbey, namely the shrine of Edward the Confessor,
the pavement round it, the tomb of Henry III., and
the pavement in front of the altar, was done by Italians.
These works date from the latter half of the thirteenth
century, and are the only or almost the only medieval
examples in England.
MOULDING. A concave or convex surface forming
a groove or staff, or a combination of the two, of
uniform profile at all points throughout its length,
sunk in or projecting from the face or edge of some
part of a building or piece of furniture.
* See article thereon.
An individual and definite part of a moulding or a
single moulding in a series is called a member. A
carved or painted ornament repeated at regular inter-
vals on a moulding is called an enrichment.* A plain
or slightly concave surface cutting off an edge is called
In Gothic architecture the art of moulding steadily
develops by a series of slight changes. It is used
principally for capitals and bases, string courses and
plinths, mullions and tracery, and particularly for
arches. In Renaissance architecture, as in its parent
Roman, the arch is scarcely moulded at all, nor is
the string course and plinth, but the cornice is elabor-
ately moulded. In short each style employed mould-
ings to emphasise and ornament the feature which was
its special characteristic in Gothic the arch,* in Classic
the entablature.* In any style the positions in which
mouldings are used, the general arrangement of a
group, and the plane on which it is worked, is of as
great or greater importance than the form of the indi-
Saxon work shows the influence of Roman archi-
tecture in nothing more plainly than in its mouldings.
Those of the arch, which is of one order* only, are few,
simple and shallow ; they are worked on the face, the
soffit being plain, and they spring often from an impost
which is a rude copy of the entablature.
The half-way position which Romanesque holds be-
tween Roman and Gothic is illustrated by its treatment
of the arch. Like Gothic and unlike Roman work it
is of many orders and is elaborately ornamented, but
the ornaments, though much corrupted, are borrowed
indirectly from the Roman entablature and consist of
enrichments rather than mouldings (fig. 190). Norman
mouldings were in fact very few and very simple.
They consist of a hollow chamfer under the hood-mould
* See article thereon.
(fig. 146) and a bowtel, round or pointed, on the edge of
the outer order with a shallow hollow on the face, while
the inner order is often plain (fig. 147). Thus the
arrangement of recessed orders is well preserved.
FIG. 148. THE BOWTEI.
It is this recessed arrangement rather than the shape
of the individual members which distinguishes early
work from late. As the mouldings are elaborated the
separation between the orders is lost, and the edges of
the orders become rounded off till the face of the arch
gradually becomes a wide
splay instead of a series of
recesses (fig. 155 c, d).
In the thirteenth century
the bowtel* is still used, and
there are deep and wide
hollows on the face and on
the soffit. Before long these
hollows are followed by
smaller rolls (fig. 150), and
in the latter part of the
century fillets are added in
larger numbers (fig. 148^).
In plain work the hollow
chamfer is used (fig. 153).
The hood-mould has a deep
hollow and the upper edge is
rounded (fig. 151).
In the fourteenth century
the angle bowtel is pushed
back (fig. 154), and the
smaller rolls are developed
(fig. 1 52). The hollows are
still deep, but they are less open
tween two orders is sometimes concealed by a hollow,
and so the division is lost (fig. 152). There is a
growing liking for the chamfer, but instead of the
earlier concave form it is given a wavy profile and
is called the 'wave' moulding (fig. 156); often the
outer order of an arch has this moulding and the
inner order a plain chamfer ; the ' sunk chamfer '
is also used. The hood-mould loses its hollow (fig.
The wave moulding changes : it is smaller, and the con-
* See article thereon.
149. POINTED BOWTKL AND
Early thirteenth century
The joint be-
vex part is reduced. The f ogee ' is perhaps the most char-
acteristic moulding of the fifteenth century (fig. 159);
it is sometimes followed by a fillet and hollow,
times by the
ing a ' double
ogee' (fig. 160).
The hollows are
else they are
shallow and open
and are called
161). The hood-
has a sloping or
wavy top and a
hollow or an
' ogee ' under-
neath (fig. 160).
are now worked
so exactly on a
splayed face that
they all die into
a plain splayed
jamb or pier (fig.
159). They are
continued down to the floor, or the hood-mould or other
single member springs from a tiny shaft and capital.
The general character of other mouldings agrees
with that of the arch mould. Thus the abacus* of
the capital* (fig. 1 62), the annulet* (except in Norman
* See article thereon.
FIG. ISO. MOULDINGS ON RECESSED ORDERS AND
WITH WIDE HOLLOWS
Early thirteenth century
a, hood-mould ; i, arch-mould ; c, shaft ; d, jamb
e, plan of abacus ; f, section of abacus ; g, base
FIG. 151. BOLD MOULDINGS
OF THE THIRTEENTH
FIG. IS. ELABORATE MOULDINGS OF THE FOURTEENTH
CENTURY. LOSS OF THE RECESSED ORDERS
FIG. 153. THE HOLLOW CHAMFER.
ARCH AND HOOD OF A RECESS
ON ONE STONE.
FIG. 154. THE BOWTEL PUSHED BACK
times) and the string course* (fig. 163) are at all
periods very similar to the hood-mould.
The base* in Norman times is poorly moulded
(figs. 20, 164), but it gradually develops (figs, 165, 149,
150), and in the thirteenth century
it has two rolls with a deep hollow
between (fig. 169), and has a re-
semblance to the Attic* base (fig.
17 a) only it is much wider and shal-
lower. The hollow is lost at about
the same time the end of the thir-
teenth century as the hollow in the
hood-mould and abacus (figs. 167, 22).
In the fifteenth century the base is
drawn out into a series of small
mouldings, high but of slight pro-
jection (figs. 168, 23).
The curious idea of ornamenting ARC ^ S D X V
the capital with a series of horizontal
rings was developed in the twelfth
and thirteenth centuries (fig. 44).
FIG. 155- DIAGRAM OP
FIG. 156. WAVE MOULDING
FIG. 157. THE SUNK CHAMFER
* See article thereon.
FIG. 158. MOULDING OF SMALL ARCH
FIG. 159. Fourteenth century FIG. 160. Fifteenth century
MOULDINGS ON THE SPLAYED FACE
FIG. l6l. THE CASEMENT. FIG. 162. NORMAN ABACUS
b c d t f
FIG. 163. STRING COURSES
. | Norman ; c, thirteenth century ; d, fourteenth century
'if > fifteenth century
FIG. l66. BASE
FIG. 167. BASK
FIG. 168. BASE
CAPITAL AND BASK
At first they are simply treated (figs. 169, 170), but in
the fourteenth century they are often over-elaborated
(fig. 1 72) ; they dwindle again, however, in the follow-
ing century, leaving little or nothing but the ' necking '
or small moulding at the bottom of the capital and the
abacus (fig. 1 73) ; the mouldings and the general out-
line are weak.
The Renaissance architects followed the Romans in
their mouldings though they sometimes refined them
and varied them. The Romans had betrayed their in-
artistic temperament in their mouldings as much as in
anything. They were as coarse and clumsy as those of
the Greeks were subtile and refined (fig. 180). Both
peoples made less use of mouldings than the medieval
builders. The individual mouldings were not so
numerous nor were the combinations so varied ; they
followed more closely a traditional arrangement.
The Greek Doric order (fig. 192) has hardly any
mouldings : a single member under the abacus and not
much more on the cornice. The Ionic and Corinthian
orders are rather more elaborate ; they have the
beautiful Attic base (fig. 17 a) ; the entablature has more
mouldings, but the effect is produced chiefly by the
projection of the cornice and by the mutules* or
brackets and by enrichments.
The Romans used scarcely more mouldings than the
Greeks ; their ostentation chiefly found vent in the
excessive use of enrichments. When they used the
arch, however, they had the sense to give it the very
simple moulding of the architrave and no more
(fig. 181). They used the same moulding round doors
and windows ; hence it is that we get this section
almost universally used round our doors and windows.
MOULDINGS IN WOOD are always much smaller than
those of stone, as is only suitable to the material and to
the character of the objects for which it is used. The
chief examples of the middle ages arc those on the
FIG. 170. CAPITAL FIG. 171. CAPITAL PIG. Iy. CAPITAL
Late thirteenth century Fourteenth century Fourteenth century
FIG. 173. CAPITALS FIG. 174. INTERNAL WOOD CORNICE
FIG. 175. ASTRAGAL () AND APOPHYGE (*) FIG. 176. BEAD
timbers of open roofs (fig. 174), on church screens and
mullions (fig. 187).
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the mould-
ings are always refined and effective, but they often
resemble diminutive stone mouldings. This is not quite
fortunate, for a fibrous material like wood demands a
different treatment from a granular one like stone. In
the fifteenth century this was better understood. The
framing of panelling has mouldings running down the
middle of the framing (fig. 195 a), and the panels them-
selves, in late work, have a peculiar sort of moulding
worked upon them called the linen* pattern.
Till the end of the sixteenth century all wood mould-
ings were ' stopped,' that is, they are finished off in
some way near the end of the piece of timber on which
they are worked, or they are ( returned,' that is, they
are turned round in such a way as to meet the mould-
ings of some other piece of timber (fig. 195 A). In
later work the timbers are cut so that the joint between
them follows the mitre* of the mouldings (fig. 195
An ' Oxford frame ' and an ordinary picture-frame illus-
trate the first and last of these three methods. The
mouldings of panelling of the later period are always
worked on the edge of the framework.
In panelling of the seventeenth and eighteenth cen-
turies the mouldings are much larger, and are often on
a separate piece of wood, which is nailed on the edge
of the framework. In that case they are made to pro-
ject beyond the face of the panelling, and are called
'bolection'* mouldings. But in many buildings till the
end of the seventeenth century the old style of small
stopped mouldings is used.
The following are the names of the commonest Clas-
sical and Renaissance mouldings :
ASTRAGAL. A small convex moulding used at the
bottom of the Corinthian capital (fig. 1 75).
* See article thereon.
FIG. 178. CAVETTO FIG. 179. CYMA
a, Cyma recta
PIG. 177. HAWK'S BEAK 6> Cy ma reversa
FIG. l8l. FIG. l8a.
ARCHITRAVE a, Scotia
MOULDING *, Torus
PIG. 183. OGEK PIG. 184. QUIRK PIG. t8 5. REEDING
a, Simple ogee
t. Quirked ogee
BEAD. A small circular convex moulding either on
an angle or flush with a surface (fig. 1 76).
BIRD'S BEAK. An undercut moulding used on the
capital of the Greek anta (fig. 177).
CAVETTO. A concave moulding approximating to a
quarter of a circle (fig. 178).
CYMA. Called also the cyma recta. A moulding of
which the upper part is concave and the lower part
convex (fig. 1 79 ). In the cyma reversa the upper part
is convex and the lower part concave (fig. 1 79 &)
CYMATIUM. "A name given by Vitruvius to the
groups of mouldings which serve to cap each part or
subdivision of the entablature, or separate it from the
next. The name has no reference to the form or number
of the mouldings. . . . But another set of writers
. . . have strangely applied the name to the ogee
moulding, and this error is generally adopted " (P.).
The word is from Kvpdriov, a little wave, so perhaps
Vitruvius is wrong and the other set of writers " right.
ECHINUS. The ovolo of the Greek Doric capital.
OVOLO (ovum, an egg) or ECHINUS A convex moulding
approximating to the quadrant of a circle (fig. 1 80) ; its
enrichment is the egg-and-dart.
SCOTIA. A concave moulding, forming half an ellipse,
in the Attic base (fig. 182).
TORUS. A semi-circular convex moulding, similar
to the astragal but larger (fig. 1 82).
(See also ABACUS, APOPHYGE, BED-MOULDING, CORONA.)
MULLION OR MONIAL. A vertical division in a
window. In England it is generally of stone or wood,
according to the character of the building, but occa-
sionally of brick. It originated in the gradual reduction
of the pier between two coupled lancets. (See TRACERY.)
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries it generally
has plain splays or chamfers, but often in the four-
teenth century, and nearly always in the fifteenth, the
chamfers are slightly hollowed (fig. 186 a); in woodwork
they are sometimes entirely moulded (fig. 187). Tudor
mullions have convex mouldings (fig. 1866). In pure
Renaissance work the mullion is not used.
FIG. l86. MULLION FIG. 187. WOOD MULLION
MUTULE. A broad flat member projecting slightly
from the soffit of the corona of the cornice in the
Doric order* and supposed to have originated in the
boards pinned to the overhanging ends of the rafters.
NAIL-HEAD ORNAMENT. An enrichment some-
what like nail heads, used in the Norman* period.
NAGS. Sec TEMPLE.
NARTHEX. A large porch across the end of a
basilican church/ to which were admitted those who
were not in full communion.
NAVE (Lat. navis, a ship; because the Church of
Christ was commonly likened to a ship). The central
part of a church ; the term is sometimes applied to the
corresponding part of a secular building.
NEBULE ORNAMENT. A shallow Norman en-
richment consisting of a wavy line; the term is perhaps
borrowed from heraldry.
NECESSARIUM. A necessary house, a privy. In
the middle ages they were carefully arranged, either
singly or in groups, in private houses ; in monasteries*
they were ranged in a long row in a separate building
under which a ditch or stream was carried.
* See article thereon.
NECK OF A CAPITAL
NECK OF A CAPITAL. The part of a capital
from the neck moulding up to the bell mould-
ings or to the bend over of the foliage. The neck
moulding is the small projecting ring quite at the
bottom of the capital.
NEWEL (from La,t. mtc-, stem of mix, a nut ; from
its central position s.). Formerly the central post or
pillar of a spiral staircase, whether of wood or stone ;
the term is now used also of the angle posts in a
NICHE (Ital. nicchia, a niche, a shell-like recess
in a wall ; from Ital. nicchio, a shell s. ; the head of
a Renaissance niche was
often shaped like a shell.)
A recess in a wall for a
statue or other object ;
in the middle ages called
a tabernacle,* and Inigo
Jones applies this term
to the niches of classical
Previous to the end of
the thirteenth century
the niche had generally
a flat or rounded back
and was covered by a
simple arch with perhaps : ^-
a gablet over it. In the
fourteenth century there
is often a projecting
canopy formed by pend-
ing out the arch, which
in this case is an ogee,
from the face of the wall
as it rises ; it is orna-
BISHOPS PALACE, ELY
* See article thereon.
mented with crockets and a finial. In the fifteenth
century there are three small arches carrying a half
hexagonal dome or spire (fig. 188); the back of the
niche is also a half hexagon ; the ceiling which is con-
sequently a complete hexagon is ornamented with
Elizabethan niches vary, according to circumstances,
from a debased Gothic to pure classic. The Renais-
sance niche is generally semi-circular or semi-elliptical
in plan. It is covered by a half dome which is either
plain or coffered or is ornamented with a large shell,
(fig. 67). A niche for a lamp is sometimes found in
medieval churches and other buildings ; occasionally
there is a small flue to carry off the smoke (M.).
NOOK-SHAFT. A shaft in the nook or recess of
a jamb (fig. 1 50).
NORMAN PERIOD. The name
given by Rickman to a phase of
English architecture during the
time of the Norman kings ; it is
without definite limits, but con-
sidered by him to begin at 1066
and to end about 1 1 89 (see Appen-
dix). Its chief characteristics are
as follows : The construction is
massive ; the masonry is rough
with thick joints ; the arches* are
round, or in some of those of small
span are trefoil ; the walls are often
decorated by small arcades of
various forms, in some of these the
adjoining arches intersect in a
peculiar way (fig. 1 89) ; the parapet
often projects and is carried on a
corbel table ; the buttresses are
* See article thereon. INTERSECTING ARCHES
doorways are often
are round, or are
very wide and of slight projection
very highly decorated ; columns
rectangles either simple or with
recesses at the angles contain-
ing small shafts, or are a com-
bination of these forms ; the
bases are low and insignificant ;
the capitals * are of various
forms ; vaults are either barrel-
shaped or groined ; large build-
ings generally had wooden roofs
of the 'trussed -rafter' form; FIG ' I9 "
the mouldings are few and simple ; the enrichments
(fig. l.QO) are various and elaborate, the commonest
being the zigzag, billet, chevron, bird's beak, star,
OCTOSTYLE. See TEMPLE.
OFF-SET, SET-OFF. A ledge formed by the upper
part of a wall being thinner than the lower part.
Often formed inside a building to carry floor-joists, and
outside for architectural effect or economy or for other
reasons ; the latter are always more or less weathered,
i.e. sloped, to throw off the rain. The most familiar
examples are afforded by Gothic buttresses.*
OGEE. A compound curve partly convex
and partly concave ; the term is applied es-
pecially to arches* and mouldings.*
OILLET. A small loophole in the wall of
a castle for the discharge of missiles.
OPISTHODOMUS. See TEMPLE.
ORATORY. A small private chapel or closet for
prayer in a house or church.
* See article thereon.
ORDER, CLASSICAL. The column and entabla-
ture in Greek and Roman architecture. It includes
the capital, the base (if any), the pedestal (if any),
and the stylobate or platform if this is low, but if it is
high enough to contain rooms and form a storey it is
usually considered as a separate order.
The term Order means not only the features men-
tioned above, but it supposes a definite architectural
treatment. For the several orders do not represent
styles in vogue at different periods or in different coun-
tries, but merely recognised types. One order is not
the parent of another, like the various phases of Gothic
architecture ; nor do they merge into one another in
any way, but each remains a distinct type which varies
but slightly in different buildings. Each order is seen
well advanced towards full development in the earliest
examples ; we know little of its period of growth.
The principal orders are the Doric, the Ionic and
the Corinthian. These were all perfected by the
Greeks. The sequence in which they have been named
is to some extent chronological ; that is, Doric buildings
are generally the oldest; but the orders overlap and are
even used together in the same building. The Romans
adopted and varied them and added others which are
really modifications of them, as will be described
The general principles of all are the same : Columns
support a lintel, above which is a decorated band and a
projecting cornice. There is a difference in the pro-
portions of the three, but even this is slight as com-
pared, for example, with the difference between
different periods, or even between different buildings
of the same period in Western architecture. The
difference is chiefly in the details and especially in the
The Greek Orders. The Greek Doric order is the
simplest and the most massive (fig. 192). It has a
stylobate, usually of three high steps. The columns
are thick in proportion to their height : they have
twenty elliptical flutes separated only by sharp edges ;
there is no base and the capital consists only of an
abacus square in plan and in section, with a single
moulding under it. The architrave is plain ; the frieze
is divided by triglyphs, or slight projections with
vertical grooves, leaving square spaces called metopes
which are sometimes carved ; the cornice is simple,
its soffit or lower side has flat mutules studded with
guttae. The columns are about five and a half diameters
high, and the intercolumniation or clear space between
the columns is about one diameter and a third ; the
height of the entablature is rather more than twice
the diameter of the column.
The Greek Doric order is, it is thought, derived
from buildings of timber. The architrave is said to
be the successor of the wooden beam placed on the top
of wooden posts stuck in the ground ; the triglyphs to
represent the ends of beams resting on the lintel and
running back to the wall, the metopes being the fill-
ing in of the spaces between the beams ; the sloping
soffit of the cornice is the projection of the roof, the
rafter-feet being reproduced in the mutules, and the
pins used for the framing, in the guttae ; this theory
accounts also for the absence of a base to the column.
The hypothesis must be accepted till we have good
grounds for abandoning it. We have similar examples
(e.g. in Egypt) of archaic forms perpetuated in per-
The Ionic order is much more slender in its pro-
portions and more ornamented (fig. 192). It has a
stylobate of three steps, rather similar to that of the
Doric ; the column has twenty-four semi-circular flutes
separated by flat fillets ; it has a moulded base and a
remarkable square capital, which shows two large
volutes or spirals on the front face and two on the
back. (A general idea of its form can be gained by
rolling up a strip of paper from" each end and then
placing it with the scrolls downwards over an inverted
tumbler.) The capital of the angle column had volutes
on both its outer faces, the outermost angle having
a single volute placed diagonally. The entablature
is light and slightly decorated with mouldings and
enrichments. The columns are between eight and
nine diameters high and a little more than two
diameters apart. The entablature is about two diameters
high, that is, rather less than the intercolumniation.
The origin of the Ionic capital has been explained
by various theories, none of which has for long com-
manded acceptance. The difficulty lies in the want
of early examples showing different stages of develop-
ment. It may be noted that the spiral is a favourite
device of many primitive peoples, and had been an
especially favourite device in Mycenaean art.
In its general proportions the Corinthian order is
very like the Ionic (fig. 192). It was the latest to
develop, and there are very few Greek examples. It
will be more particularly described in speaking of the
Roman orders. Its most striking feature is its capital,
carved with foliage.
The explanation of the origin of the Corinthian
capital is more venerable and more poetical, but it is
not more satisfactory than the theories as to the volute.
"A virgin of Corinth being now grown up, fell sick and
died : The Day after her Funeral, her Nurse having put into
a Basket certain small Vessels and Trifles with which she was
wont to divertise her self whilst she lived, went out and set
them upon her Tomb ; and least the Air and Weather should
do them any injury, She cover'd them with a Tyle : Now the
Basket being accidentally plac'd upon the Root of an
Acanthus, or great Dock, the Herb beginning to sprout at
the spring of the Year, and put forth Leaves, the Stalks
thereof creeping up along the Sides of the Basket, and meet-
ing with the Edge of the Tyle (which jetted out beyond the
Margine of the Basket) were found (being a little more
ponderous at the Extremes) to bend their Tops downwards,
and form a pretty kind of Valuta. At this very time it was
that the Sculptor CalKmacktu (who for the Delicateness of
his Work upon Marble and Genteelness of his Invention,
was by the Athenians surnamed Catatcchnos, that is to say,
Industrious) passing near this Monument, began to cast an
Eye upon this Basket, and to consider the pretty Tenderness
of that ornamental Foliage which grew about it, the Manner
and Form whereof so much pleased him for the Novelty,
that he shortly after made Columns at Corinth resembling
this Model, and ordain'd its Symmetries, distributing after-
wards in his Works Proportions agreeable to each of its
other Members in Conformity to this Corinthian Mode."
(A Parallel of the Antient Architecture ivith the Modern.
By Roland Freart. Ed. by John Evelyn, Lond., 1723.)
There may be nothing impossible in this pretty story,
but it is to the last degree improbable and need not be
seriously considered. 'Invention,' however 'genteel/
has never been the parent of architectural features :
these are the fruit of a slow growth.
The Greeks occasionally used another order, the
Caryatid or Persian, in which human figures take the
place of columns. The side portico of the Erechthaeum
at Athens is a famous example. The figures of Persians
were used in another building.
The Greeks carried their architectural forms to an
extraordinary pitch of refinement. Every curve was of
the most subtile delicacy, not only of volutes and the
like, but in the sections of all mouldings. The greatest
judgment was exercised in the general proportions, in
the details and in the character and disposition of the
Their sensitiveness to form is perhaps most strikingly
shown in the ' optical corrections ' which they made in
their buildings and especially in those of the Doric
order. The diminution of the column upwards gives it
great apparent rather than actual stability ; its entasis
or swelling in the middle is to counteract an appearance
of hollowness which it would otherwise have, principally
through the strong sunlight behind it flowing round the
edges to a greater extent in the middle part of the
column than near the entablature and stylobate. In
order to prevent the appearance of weakness at the
angle of a temple which is entirely surrounded by
columns, the angle column is made rather thicker than
the others and the space between it and the next is
reduced. But in order to give a look of still greater
stability to the whole building, all the columns are
given a very slight slope inwards. The horizontal lines
are subjected to similar corrections. To prevent any
possible appearance of sinking in the middle they are
all bowed upwards ; this is so boldly done that to any-
one standing at the corner of the Parthenon the
arching of the steps is quite obvious. Even the sloping
lines of the pediment are curved in this way. It will
be hardly necessary to point out that these minute
corrections required extraordinary accuracy and enor-
mously increased the trouble and cost of building.
The Roman Orders. The Roman Doric has a general
resemblance to the Greek Doric, but is less massive.
The flutes of the column are sometimes omitted, the
capital is elaborated and spoilt.
The Romans used another variety of this order which
they called the Tuscan ; the triglyphs and ornaments
are omitted and the mouldings are fewer and bolder.
Again, in the Ionic order the Romans followed the
Greeks. The volutes are smaller and less beautifully
It was in the Corinthian order that the Roman most
delighted (fig. 193); he used it with many variations
and with great effect. The capital was very similar
to that of the Greek order. There was generally
added a small volute in the centre of each side,
making eight volutes in all. The acanthus leaves
were elaborated, giving great richness with a loss of
refinement. The abacus was sometimes enriched with
egg and dart, as were also parts of the architrave. The
cornice was very richly treated and often has modillions
carved with acanthus ; the frieze was sometimes sculp-
tured with vulgar ornament, and sometimes instead of
being flat had a convex section ; the column was fluted
or plain. (See also CAULICOLE and HELIX.)
The Romans used yet another order, which is called
the Composite, because its capital is a combination of
the Ionic and Corinthian (fig. 19'1)- The order is really
a variety of the Corinthian. The abacus has the plan
of the Corinthian abacus a square with convex sides.
Under the projecting angles there are large volutes
placed diagonally and, in some cases, springing from
behind the band of egg and dart borrowed from the
Ionic. The lower part of the capital has rows of
acanthus like the Corinthian. The column is sometimes
FIG. 193. CORINTHIAN CAPITAL
FIG. 194. COMPOSITE CAPITAL
plain, sometimes fluted; in some examples the flutes
are filled to one-third of their height with a staff or
bead, and are said to be ' cabled.'
In the Ionic, Corinthian and Composite the Romans
sometimes placed each column on a square pedestal
with moulded capital and base. They raised some of
their buildings on a stylobate or podium high enough
to constitute a separate order, and they also sometimes
used an ' Attic order,' a low plain wall, over their main
order. In buildings of several storeys they decorated
each storey with an order, placing the Doric, as the
most sturdy, at the bottom, and the Corinthian, as the
most ornate, at the top.
The orders were also used in connexion with arches.
It is, however, only in rare instances that the arch
springs from the entablature ; generally it rises from
a pilaster placed against the column, which is high
enough to allow the entablature to pass over the top of
the arch. The order in such a case is in fact a mere
ornament placed against the wall. This use of the
order allowed the Romans to widen the intercolumnia-
tion to any extent, for the entablature was carried by
the wall, and its strength had not to be considered.
The terms which are used to describe the various
forms of porticoes and the spacing of the columns are
given in the article TEMPLE (p. 26 1).
These terms and the rules for the proportions of the
orders and their parts are the work of Vitruvius (first
century B.C.), the only ancient writer on architecture
whose works are extant, and of the Italian architects of
the Renaissance. The rules were carried to an absurd
degree of elaboration, being applied to the minutest
members. They were not followed by the Romans,
and doubtless were undreamed of by the Greeks.
But even in ancient work each order does fqjlow to
some extent the same general proportions in most ex-
amples, and thus it is possible, within wide limits, to
lay down rules. The fact is that the proportions of the
orders were based on a different principle from that to
which we are accustomed in Gothic architecture. With
us the number of members or parts is increased or
diminished according as the building is large or small,
but their size does not vary much. In the classical
orders the number of members remains constant, and
their size is increased or diminished. The unit of
measurement is usually half the diameter of the column
at the base, and is called a module.
ORDER OF AN ARCH. One ring of stones or
bricks in an arch. If the arch consists of several con-
centric rings it is said to be of several orders.
ORIEL. A bow-window in a Gothic building eithe
standing on the ground or corbelled out from the wall
There is some obscurity about the use of the term in
the middle ages. Professor Skeat suggests that it is
derived from uureolum, that which is ornamented with
gold, as the vault of a bow-window frequently was in
the middle ages.
ORIENTATION. The placing of a building with
one end towards the east. There has been a tendency
at all times and in many religions to make the door of
a place of worship on the east side so that the rising
sun should shine in. The earliest Christian churches *
had the entrance to the east, perhaps in imitation of
the Temple at Jerusalem or of Greek temples.
OSSUARIUM. A bone-house. See CHARNEL HOUSE.
OVOLO. See MOULDING (fig. 180).
PACE. See FOOT-PACE.
PAINTED GLASS. See GLASS.
PAINTING. Colour has at all times been used on
the walls, ceilings and other parts of buildings in
England, both in pictures and in decorative devices.
In medieval buildings, both sacred and secular, the
subjects were chosen from the Scriptures, from legends
of the saints, and from myths or moral tales and
* See article thereon.
miracles. In motive they were perhaps more often
devotional than educational or purely decorative. After
the Reformation there was very much less painting ;
in churches the subjects were limited to the Scriptures,
and to portions only of these ; in secular buildings pro-
fane subjects were more common.
Few, if any, examples earlier than the Conquest
remain, but buildings were certainly painted and there
are contemporary allusions to the fact ; for example, in
8l6 a canon was issued requiring bishops to see that
before consecrating a church it contained a picture of
its patron saint (K.). Norman paintings are fairly
numerous. They consist of pictures of Christ in Majesty
and of scenes from His life ; figures of St. Michael and
of St. Thomas of Canterbury and of apostles and saints;
a great variety of decorative patterns, architectural
forms, scrolls and stiff foliage, imitation hangings and
occasionally sentences. The work retains some of its
Norman characteristics as late as 1 220 (K.).
In the reign of Henry III. the art made good pro-
gress owing, no doubt, to the encouragement of the
king and the introduction of foreign artists. Most of
the work was, however, done by Englishmen, as is clear
from the character of the work and from the recorded
names of the painters who were often (perhaps
generally) professional laymen whether the building
was ecclesiastical or secular (K.) The work of this and
the following reigns, though not without some archaic
mannerisms, is full of beautiful feeling, and will compare
with the contemporary work of Italy and perhaps with
that of France. The principal subjects are scenes from
the life of Our Lord; and the Virgin, St. Catherine,
St. Thomas of Canterbury, St. Edmund and other
saints, the figures being often placed in medallions;
St. Michael weighing souls ; myths or moralities such as
the wheel of Fortune. The curious practice prevailed
of plastering even the finest work and then painting it
with a representation of masonry. Diapered hangings
were also represented and rather formal scrolls of
foliage are very common. Examples of painting are
also found outside buildings.
" The paintings of the fourteenth century do not
show any marked advance over those of the preceding
era, though a greater diversity of subjects was then
introduced and the pictures seem on the whole to have
been more skilfully executed. The same careful atten-
tion to the due preparation of the wall surface appears
often to have been neglected" (K.). The subjects in
the chancel are generally scenes from the New Testa-
ment, though these are also often found in other
parts of the church, with legends of the saints and
' moralities ' ; the ' Doom ' or Last Judgment is usually
painted on the wall above the chancel arch. The most
popular saints were St. Margaret, St. Edward the
Confessor, St. Anthony, St. Sebastian, and especially
St. Catherine of Alexandria and St. Thomas a Becket.
St. Nicholas who was very popular is comparatively
seldom found. The moralities are 'The Seven Deadly
Sins,' 'The Seven Acts of Mercy' and 'The Seven
Sacraments ' (K.). The decorative patterns are elabor-
ate and beautiful ; arabesques of flowers and fruit are
naturally treated, powderings and scrolls are also used,
and heraldry becomes more common. Architectural
members are in this as in the preceding and succeed-
ing periods emphasised with colour and gilding, and
the naturally carved foliage of this period seems to
have been boldly and yet delicately treated in this way.
The greater number of extant examples of medieval
painting appear to belong to the fifteenth century, but
these are often found to have been painted over earlier
pictures which, where exposed, are generally found to
be still in a state of good preservation. There is a
very great variety of subjects owing to the increased
intercourse with other countries and the settlement of
foreigners in the eastern counties. The most common
are scenes from the life of Our Lord, from the long
apocryphal life of the Virgin, the Doom, the life of
St. Catherine, the murder of St. Thomas of Canter-
bury, St. George the patron saint of England and of
soldiers, the moralities of the preceding period to which
were added, ' Les Trois Rois morts et les Trois Rois
Vifs ' and the ' Dance of Death ' (K.).
Perhaps the most remarkable phenomenon is the
growth in the popularity of St. Christopher. A picture
of him carrying the infant Christ across the river was
probably painted on every church and is still found in
many. The painting was large and in a conspicuous
position, generally near the principal entrance, for the
belief was that anyone who looked on it was safe for
that day from violent death. Pictures of the Holy
Trinity seem also to have been common, but most were
destroyed by special order during the Commonwealth
(K.). Usually the Father is seated on the Throne sup-
porting the crucified Saviour in front of him while the
Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, hovers above. The
coronation of the Virgin was probably common also,
though it is not found very often now. Decorative
painting includes many patterns, powderings, natural
foliage, birds and beasts ; architectural features are
enriched with jwitterns, such as the spiral scroll, the
chevron ; the monograms of Christ, the Virgin and
some of the most well-known saints are common.
The screens which formerly existed in every church
were, beyond question, invariably richly coloured. The
great majority of the remaining examples are of the
fifteenth century ; there are some few of the four-
teenth, while those of the thirteenth are rare. The
panels of the lower part were sometimes decorated
with a pattern, but were often painted with the figures
of the apostles and evangelists, St. Paul and St. John
Baptist, the Doctors of the Western Church (SS. Am-
brose, Augustine,, Gregory, Jerome), SS. Mary Magda-
lene, Catherine, Margaret, Agatha, Agnes, George,
Anthony, Apollonia, Blaise, Lawrence, Sebastian, and
others, and the English saints Edmund, Edward the
Confessor, Edward, King and Martyr, Wolstan, and
Thomas of Canterbury. The mullions and tracery of
the upper part were entirely covered with colour and
gilding, the various mouldings being painted with dif-
ferent colours and enriched with patterns and spirals
and powderings of flowers and leaves. The panels
forming the front of the rood gallery were doubtless
painted with figures of saints like those of the lower
part, but few examples remain. The chancel arch was
often filled with a partition on which was painted the
scene of the Crucifixion or other subject.
A few examples of painted wood reredoses remain.
The best known are those at Westminster Abbey and
Norwich Cathedral. Sculptured stone and alabaster
reredoses and monuments were also painted.
Open timber roofs were decorated with monograms
and sprays of foliage and other devices on the rafters
and boarding, while the mouldings were enriched with
the chevron and spiral. Wood ceilings, both flat and
canted, and wood vaults were treated rather more
elaborately. Peterborough Cathedral, St. Albans Abbey,
and the Great Hospital at Norwich are good examples.
In the case of a church the whole roof or ceiling is
sometimes decorated, but often only the easternmost
bay of the chancel or aisle or nave, because that part
would be over an altar or the rood.
Although churches now contain, and no doubt always
did possess, the greater number of paintings, it must be
remembered that other buildings the secular parts of
monasteries, castles, and private houses were also
decorated in this way.
At the Reformation the first order for the destruc-
tion of images, relics and shrines was made in 154-1.
This order probably applied also to paintings. Texts
from Scripture were painted in their place. These
were destroyed by Queen Mary, and were painted
again in the reign of Elizabeth. Fragments of them
are not uncommon. With this exception little paint-
ing has been done in churches since the reign of
Henry VIII. There was sometimes at the east end an
oil-painting of some scene from the Old or New Testa-
ment, or figures of Moses and Aaron, or of Time and
Death, and sometimes the Ten Commandments, painted
on wood, surrounded with a decorative border.
Wall painting in secular buildings was killed by
the introduction of easel pictures on canvas or panel,
and these do not fall within the scope of this article.
There are a few instances of subject-pictures, verses
and decorative patterns, architectural forms, such as
square or arched panels, and imitation of marble. The
ceilings of great houses were occasionally painted with
pictures after the Restoration.
A few words may be said about the processes. The
wall paintings were done in tempera or 'distemper.'
The wall was finished with a coat of very fine plaster,
which was allowed to dry. The colours were mixed
with ' size,' a sort of glue made by boiling down parch-
ment. Some paintings, even as early as the fourteenth
century, are believed to be in oil colours. Fresco ' was
not used. In paintings on wood the process was simi-
lar, but more delicate and minute in finish. The surface
was covered with a thin coat of gesso, that is, fine hard
plaster about as thick as notepaper, and the size used
for mixing the colours was made from eggs beaten up
with the juice of shoots of the fig-tree. Oil colours
seem also to have been used on gesso as a ground or
preparation for lempera (K.).
PALACE (from Lat. palatium, originally a building
on the Palatine hill in Rome, especially a palace of
Nero on this hill s.). In England the term is applied
only to royal and episcopal residences and to one or
two great country houses, e.g. Blenheim.
PALLADIAN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE. A
style of architecture founded upon the work of
Andrea Palladio, 1518-80, an architect of Vicenza and
Venice, whose manner was adopted by Inigo Jones
in his Whitehall Palace and other buildings and thus
introduced into England.
PALMETTE. An ornament in classical architecture
like a palm leaf, carved or painted on mouldings, etc.
PANE (Fr. pan, a pane, piece, pannell,' from Lat.
pannus, a cloth, rag, patch s.). (l) A piece of glass
in a window. (2) [rare] A subdivision of some part of
a building, e.g. one walk or alley of a cloister, the
space between two timbers in a half-timber building.
PANEL (dim. of PANE). A board placed in a frame ;
hence any surface, no matter what the material, sur-
rounded by a frame or by a moulding.
Single panels of various shapes, as trefoil, quatrefoil,
are used in masonry of all periods as a decoration or to
contain sculpture or painting.
PANELLING. A series of panels. Used in woodwork,
as decoration in stonework and in the plaster-work of
walls and ceilings.
Wood panelling on walls was probably used at all
periods, certainly very extensively from the time of
Henry VII. From his time to the middle of the seven-
teenth century the panels are small and nearly square ;
the mouldings are worked partly on the edges of the
styles and rails, dying away as they approach the angle
of the panel, and partly as grooves on the centre of the
framing. The panels themselves are often worked with
a peculiar series of mouldings bearing some resem-
blance to a folded cloth, whence they are called ' linen-
panels.' * From the beginning of the seventeenth
century the more correctly classical buildings have very
large panels, with an ovolo moulding on the edge of the
framing or a bolection moulding, that is, one projecting
1 a b c
riG. 195. METHODS OP FRAMING PANELLING
beyond the face of the framework ; the mouldings are
always mitred, that is, they intersect at the angles
like an ordinary picture-frame.
PAN TILE. See TILE, ROOK.
PARADISE, PAR VIS. "A court or atrium in
front of a church, usually surrounded with cloisters,
either wholly or in part. Sometimes the term is
applied to a churchyard or cemetery or to the principal
or regular cloister-garth of a monastery. In the latter
sense it may be used to include the buildings that sur-
round the regular cloister. It is not unusual to find a
memorial of the paradise preserved in the name of a
street or court. Many towns which once possessed
monasteries have a paradise street. . . . The ancient
plan of St. Gall shows a ' paradisus ' at each end of the
church (fig. 59). Spon, in the account of his travels
in 1675, calls the pronaos (see TEMPLE) of the Parthenon
at Athens a parvis. Some modern writers have applied
the term parvis to the room often found over church
porches, but apparently without any authority" (P.).
A room over a church porch (s.). Not a room over a
church porch (N.E.D.).
PARAPET. A low wall rising above the gutter of
a roof. In a castle it is generally battlemented and
has oillets, in churches and other buildings it varies
according to the fashion of the period.
The Norman parapet is low and has a continuous
coping; in the thirteenth century it has sometimes
battlements l and sometimes is
pierced with tracery ; these features
become more common in the four-
teenth century; in the fifteenth
century, though it has generally
plain battlements (fig. 196), the
parapet is, in elaborate worK, some- FIG. 196. PARAPET WITH
times pierced with tracery as well STEPPED BATTLEMENTS
as battlemented. Elizabethan parapets are sometimes
pierced with strapwork* or have a large inscription.*
The later parapets are plain or take the form of a
PARCLOSE. A screen- to separate a chapel from
the rest of a church or for other similar purpose.
PARGETTING. Plaster-work.* The term appears
formerly to have been used in several senses, some-
times for plain plastering on walls, but usually for such
as was made ornamental ; it is now seldom used.
PARLOUR. (1) A private sitting-room in a
medieval house at the upper end of the hall ; not
always to be distinguished from the solar* ; the family
withdrew into it more and more as time went on, as
Piers Ploughman complains. Its place was taken by
the modern drawing-room (the 'withdrawing room'),
but the name was transferred to the smaller room
which the family used more habitually than the
drawing-room. This room being now almost a thing
of the past the word parlour is becoming rare, except
in some special buildings, e.g. the ' Mayor's parlour ' in
* See article thereon. 1 Except in churches.
a town hall, the parlour of an inn. (2) A room in a
monastery in which monks were allowed to see their
friends from the outer world.
PARQUETRY. Flooring formed of a veneer of hard
polished wood on a ground of ordinary deal boards.
PARVIS. See PARADISE.
PASCAL CANDLESTICK. See CANDLESTICK.
PATEN. A flat 'open* dish, especially that usec
for the bread at the Holy Communion. In the middle
ages they were of silver or gold as prescribed for
chalices in 84-7. They have usually a depression of
four, eight or ten lobes, with an engraving of the
Manus Dei, or of the head of Our Lord, or other device.
The paten of the sixteenth century was made, when
tnrned upside down, to fit on to the Communion cuj
as a cover. It has a saucer-shaped depression, a narro\
rim with a standing flange to keep it in position wher
placed on the cup, and a short concave stem. The
date is often engraved on the foot, and in the dish tht
initials IHS. The patens of the seventeenth anc
eighteenth centuries are not fitted to make a cover to
the cup ; they are much larger and resemble ordinary
PATERA (Lat. patera, a dish). A flat circular
ornament on an architrave or frieze.
PAVEMENT. A floor of tile, marble or stone.
Pavements of stone and Purbeck marble were used in
the middle ages, but tile seems to have been preferred
for the best buildings. At the Renaissance stone and
true marble, or the two mixed, were more common.
PAVILION (Fr. pavilion, a tent, ' so called because
spread out like the wings of a butterfly ' ; from Lat.
papilio, a butterfly, a tent s.). A name given to parts
of a Renaissance house which are detached or nearly
detached from the main building, such as corner towers
in Elizabethan houses, and the low projecting wings
of a Georgian house. They are usually square and
covered with a pyramidal roof.
PEDESTAL. The columns of the classical orders *
were sometimes raised on square pedestals.
PEDIMENT. The gable of a
Classical or Renaissance building.
It is generally triangular, but is
sometimes bowed and sometimes,
in both triangular and bowed pedi-
ments, the central part is omitted,
forming what is called a 'broken
pediment' (fig. 197). FIG. 197. BROKEN PEDIMENT
PELE-TOWER. "This term is almost peculiar to the
northern parts of the kingdom ; it seems to have
signified a small fortress, dwelling, or tower capable of
being defended against any sudden marauding expe-
dition " (P.).
PELLET ORNAMENT. A Norman enrichment
consisting of balls or flat discs.
PENDANT. (1) A boss or other part hanging
down from a stone vault, characteristic of late Gothic
work. (2) A similar feature in an Elizabethan plaster
ceiling. (3) A post forming part of the truss of an
open timber roof, placed against the wall to receive the
PENDENTIVE. "The portion of
a groined ceiling supported by one
pillar or impost and bounded by the
ridges of the longitudinal and trans-
verse vaults. . . . Also the portion
of a domical vault which descends
into the corner of an angular building
* See article thereon.
DOME ON PENDENT IVE?
when a ceiling of this kind is placed over a straight-
sided area" (P.) (fig. 198). See also DOME.
PENTESTYLE or PENTASTYLE. See TEMPLE.
PENTHOUSE (Lat. appendicium, an appendage ;
corrupted from pentice, but the present form of the
word is as old as Shakespeare). A hanging roof, a
lean-to roof bracketed out from a wall. (See SHOP.)
PERIPTERAL. See TEMPLE.
PERISTYLE. See TEMPLE.
PERPENDICULAR PERIOD. The name given by
Rickman to a phase of English architecture without
definite limits, but considered by him to begin about
1377 and to end about 1547. (See Appendix.) Its
chief characteristics are as follows : Window tracery
consists entirely of vertical members ; doorways often
have two hood-moulds, one following the arch, the
other being horizontal and turned down at each end to
meet the inner hood-mould at the springing of the
arch ; the columns usually consist of small half-shafts
alternating with wide shallow hollows, the half-shafts
only having capitals and bases ; capitals are small
and are more usually moulded than carved ; the
bases are high but are of slight projection ; the
arches are either of two arcs forming a blunt point
or they consist of four arcs and are known as 'four-
centred ' ; mouldings are worked on the splayed face
and consist of small members, such as ogees, separ-
ated by a wide shallow hollow called a casement, they
are usually carried down the jambs of doors and often
also down large columns ; enrichments are () leaves
placed in hollow mouldings at intervals, (6) leaves join-
ing one another as an upright cresting on a cornice,
(c) small battlements; two kinds of vault are used,
(l) groining somewhat similar to that of the preced-
ing periods, (2) fan-vaulting ; roofs are often of
the hammer-beam type and then are of fairly steep
pitch, but in late work especially they become flat and
the purlins rest directly on a heavy tie-beam.
PERSIAN ORDER. See ORDER: CLASSICAL, p. 199.
PEW (< Old Fr. put, an elevated space ; puye, an open
gallery with rails hence applied to an enclosed space
or to a raised desk to kneel at from Lat. podium* a
balcony ' s.). The original sense is preserved in the
term 'Royal Pew' at St. George's Chapel, Windsor,
the ' Prior's Pew ' in conventual churches, as at
St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield. The family pew in
the private chapel was sometimes in a raised gallery,
the servants sitting below. The transition from the
original sense to the more common secondary meaning
was perhaps due to the large family pews made in
some churches after the Reformation ; they were
enclosed by screens, but were not raised above the
floor of the church. The term was applied to ordinary
seats in the middle of the fifteenth century (p.) and
perhaps earlier. It is uncertain when churches were
first furnished with seats in the present fashion, but
numerous examples of the fifteenth century remain.
The passages are wide, and the seats which are fixed
to a continuous kerb have plenty of room between
them. They are often low benches without backs,
but with ends finished with poppy-heads.* Another
and probably a later type has a panelled back and
square-framed ends with traceried panels and little
buttresses stuck against the framing. Probably the same
patterns were followed in the sixteenth century with
little change except in details. In the first half of the
seventeenth century the seats had sometimes low,
square -framed ends and backs, but there are also
examples of the high-panelled pews with doors, which
became universal in the eighteenth century and con-
* See article thereon.
tinued to be so till the middle of the nineteenth
century. Laud had ordered in 1636 that pews were
not to be much above a yard high.
PICTURE. This word is often used in old writings
for carved reliefs. (See also PAINTING.)
PIER. An isolated mass of masonry, e.g. the wall
between two windows if these are at all near together;
a large column such as those of the arcade between the
nave and aisles in a Norman church as distinguished
from the more slender pillars and columns,* or the still
slighter and often purely decorative shaft.*
PIER-ARCHES. A name given by some modern
writers to the nave-arcades, i.e. the arches between
the nave and aisles.
pigeons were an important
article of food the pigeon-
house of the manor and of
the monastery was a large
detached building with
nests for several thousand
birds. It was generally
square or round in plan
(fig. 199) and had at the
apex of the roof an open-
ing, protected by a small
upper roof, for the entrance
and exit of the birds. The
inner face of the walls was
honeycombed with small
recesses for the nests. In
the centre there was a
revolving post with two
horizontal arms at right
* See article thereon.
the middle ages when
angles to each other projecting from the top and
bottom ; on the ends of these arms a ladder was fixed.
By this means easy access could be had to every nest.
PILASTER. A flat rectangular column, fluted or
unfluted, placed against a wall.
PILLAR. See COLUMN.
PINNACLE. A small solid tower, usually sur-
mounted by a spire, rising from the top of a wall or
buttress. Pinnacles are rare at the end of the twelfth
and in the first half of the thirteenth centuries, but
become more and, more common up to the end of the
medieval period. The early examples are generally in
the form of an octagonal column with a capital and a
low spire, or a cluster of shafts with or without arches
above them. From the latter part of the thirteenth
century the smaller pinnacles are usually square and
have a gablet on each side from which rises a crocketed
spire ; the sides sometimes have niches ; the larger
pinnacles, such as those at the angles of a building,
are small octagonal turrets, often pierced ; in late work
they are elaborated with diminutive architecture,
having pinnacles, buttresses and even flying buttresses
of their own.
PISCINA. A lavatory. It is found in almost every
church and consists of a shallow stone bowl in a small
niche in the south wall of the chancel near the altar ;
it has a drain and was used for washing the Communion
vessels. The niche is often double and has two bowls.
There is sometimes a narrow stone shelf at the back of
PLASTER-WORK. There can be little doubt that
at every period and in every part of the world most
buildings have been covered with plaster internally
and, unless built of the finest masonry (though not
even all those buildings are to be excepted), externally
also. The practice of leaving rubble or other rough
walls uncovered is entirely English and modern. (See
also pp. 147, 209).
Plaster-work in relief, called 'pargetting,'* was pro-
bably used in the middle ages, though it seems that
no examples earlier than the sixteenth century remain.
It was used by Henry VIII. at his palace of Nonesuch
and there are many examples of Elizabeth's reign.
Of these examples the most remarkable are the deco-
rated ceilings. The whole surface is divided into
panels of varied shapes containing devices, the broad
bands which divide the panels being moulded and
ornamented with a scroll of vine. The outsides of
houses are also decorated with patterns which are
often similar to those of lead -glazing in windows,
only larger. Human and grotesque figures are also
moulded in low relief, especially in some parts of the
eastern counties where elaborate half-timber work was
less used. These methods continued till the Civil War
and perhaps later. Another form of decoration, com-
mon in the humbler buildings, still practised but
probably of remote antiquity, consists of large panels
filled with a small stamped pattern divided by broad
The ceilings of the later Renaissance, that is, sub-
sequent to the Restoration, are enriched with plaster-
work, but the treatment is quite different from that of
Elizabethan times. Instead of a repeating pattern of
small panels, there is a central device with scroll-work
disposed round it, or the ceiling is divided up into
large deeply recessed square cells or coffers* richly
moulded ; this latter method is much used for vaults
and domes.* (See also GESSO, STUCCO.)
PLATE-TRACERY. See TRACERY.
* See article thereon.
PLINTH (TrXfvflos, a brick, tile,
plinth). A projecting base of a wall
or column. In most buildings of the
middle ages it has a plain chamfer
(fig. 200), in the more elaborate it is
richly moulded, and in late buildings
panelled and otherwise decorated. In
the early buildings of the Renaissance
the plinth is moulded, but from the
beginning of the seventeeth century it
is a plain square projection.
PODIUM (Gk. TroSiov, a little foot).
The base, plinth, or stylobate of a
Classical or Renaissance building ; it
is either plain or consists of steps or is
treated like the pedestal of a column,
with base and cornice.
POPPY- HEAD. The finial of a
PORCH (Lat. porticus, a porch). FIG. 200. PLINTH
The early church* of the Celtic type Fifteenth century
had a small porch at the west end ;
that of the basilican type had a large narthex stretching
across the end of the building with three outer and
three inner doorways ; in the fully developed Saxon
church the porches were on the north and south sides.
The medieval church and the medieval house had
commonly a porch only in front of the principal side-
entrance. In the fifteenth century there is often a
room over the porch, and occasionally in earlier work.
The south porch of the cathedral church of Canter-
bury is described by Eadmer, writing in the first
quarter of the twelfth century, as being habitually used
as a supreme court of law which was known as the
* See article thereon.
Sidhdure. Porches also contained altars in early times.
Before the Reformation parts of the marriage, baptism,
and churching services were performed at the church
door ; it was probably rather to serve as a shelter on
such occasions than to keep the church warm that a
porch was erected, for there was generally no outer
door nor glass in the windows.
PORTCULLIS (a 'sliding door ' s. ; according to p.
cullis is ' a gutter, groove, channel '). An open grating
in the gateway of a castle* made to rise and fall in a
groove like a sash window.
PORTICO. See TEMPLE.
POSTERN. A small private entrance to a castle,*
town, monastery, or other building. (See p. 41.)
POST1CUM. See TEMPLE.
POWDERING ROOM. A small closet partitioned
off in the corner of a bedroom in a house of the eight-
eenth century, into which the occupant could retire to
have his or her hair powdered.
The powder was showered on from a 'powdering-
horn ' like salt from a muffineer, and it was therefore
necessary to protect the clothes. There seem to have
been several ways of doing this ; either the person put
on a ' powdering gown ' ; or two curtains were hung
across the powdering room and the hairdresser stood
on one side and the person to be powdered stood on
the other and put his head through the division
between the curtains, drawing them round his neck ;
or the hairdresser went into the powdering room and
closed the door, and the person to be operated upon
stood outside and put his head through a hole con-
trived in the door and fitted with a falling shutter,
the lower part of the hole and the bottom edge of the
shutter being so shaped as to fit closely round the neck.
* See article thereon.
PRECEPTORY. A subordinate establishment of the
Knights Templars, governed by a Preceptor.
PRESBYTERY. The part of a church occupied by
the priests. In the Canons churches of cross-plan the
east part only of the east limb of the cross is generally
the presbytery and the west part the choir ; in a
monastic church the presbytery often extends up to
the east arch of the crossing. (See CHURCH).
PRIORY. A monastery governed by a prior or
prioress ; of lower standing than an abbey ; but many
of the greatest monasteries were priories from the fact
that, originally abbeys, the churches had been made
cathedrals and the abbacy had been merged in the
PROCESSION PATH. The whole route covered
by the procession in going round the church before
High Mass on Sundays.
PRODOMUS. See TEMPLE.
PROSTYLE. See TEMPLE.
PSEUDO-DIPTERAL. See TEMPLE.
PSEUDO-PERIPTERAL. See TEMPLE.
PULPIT (Lat. pulpilum, a stage, scaffold). There are
no early pulpits in England, and it may be doubted if
there were many pulpits in churches. The earliest
that remain appear to be very late fourteenth century ;
but even these are very rare, and the greater number
of medieval examples are late fifteenth century or early
sixteenth. They are of wood and of stone, and some-
times stand at some distance from the east end of the
nave. In the Injunctions of Edward VI. in 1547 it was
ordered that the parish "shall provide a comely and
honest pulpit " in those churches which have not one,
and the epistle and gospel were to be read from there
or from other convenient place. Many pulpits of
inferior workmanship evidently date from the reigns of
Elizabeth and James I. Later pulpits were often made
very high on account of the erection of galleries. They,
and some of the earlier examples, often had sound-
ing-boards,* but these, though frequently of excellent
design and good workmanship, have been very generally
removed in the process of ' restoration.'
PULPITUM. A gallery or loft between the nave
and the ritual choir of a cathedral or conventual
church. The choir often extended into the nave. 1
The pulpitum was supported by two solid walls which
crossed the nave thus enclosing one of its bays ; in the
middle of each of these walls there was a doorway.
One bay further west there was generally another wall
forming a reredos to the principal altar of the nave ;
there were two doors in this wall, one at each end.
A screen of some sort was also extended across each
aisle so as to make the separation of the choir from
the nave complete. The pulpitum supported the great
crucifix or rood with its attendant figures of the Virgin,
St. John and angels, and also the organs and perhaps
singers. (See also MONASTERY, PULPIT, SCREEN.)
PURBECK MARBLE. A hard limestone capable
of taking a high polish, found in the isle of Purbeck
on the Dorsetshire coast. It was much used in the
thirteenth century for thin shafts and sometimes also
for carved capitals, and in the fifteenth century for
altar tombs and for the matrixes of brasses.
PURLIN. A horizontal longitudinal beam in a roof,
supported by the principals and strengthening the
PYCNOSTYLE. See TEMPLE.
PYX. A vessel to contain the reserved sacrament.
It was hung over the high altar. " A pulley or a sort
of crane was fixed there with gear for raising and
* See article thereon. 1 See Appendix.
RAIN-WATER HEAD 221
lowering, and the pyx was hung by a cord or chain
attached to a ring on its top. Above it was hung the
canopy, a round tent-shaped thing of linen or silk,
kept in form by a metal ring, and sometimes highly
ornamented. The pyx itself was veiled in the pyx
cloth, which was a square napkin with a hole in the
middle through which the suspending cord passed, and
weighted tassels at the four corners which kept it down
close by the pyx" (M.).
QUADRANGLE. A term used at Oxford for the
courtyard of a college ; called at Cambridge and other
places a court.
QUARREL, QUARRY (Lat. quadrus, square). A
square or diamond pane of glass ; a square paving-
stone or tile.
QUATREFOIL. A window, or compartment of a
window, or panel formed into four leaves by cusping.
QUATRO-CENTO (lit. 'four hundred'). A short
expression for the century which began in 1401, used
especially in connexion with art.
QUIRK (from Welsh chwiori, to turn briskly s.). A
sharp groove between a moulding and a fillet (fig. 1 84).
QUOIN. A corner-stone. (See LONG-AND-SHORT WORK.)
RAFTER. See ROOF.
RAIN-WATER HEAD, CISTERN HEAD. An
iron or lead tank at the top of a pipe acting as a funnel
to receive the rain-water from a roof-gutter.
In early times, if there was a parapet, the roof
water was discharged through a gargoyle* by which it
was thrown clear of the building. It seems that it
was in the fifteenth century that this system began to
be superseded by pipes. But in some buildings, even
late in the seventeenth century, the pipes were not
* See article thereon.
continued to the ground, but were bent out about half-
way down the wall to form gargoyles. Lead was used
for both the heads and the pipes (which were generally
square) till the nineteenth century, when it was super-
seded by iron as being cheaper. Iron gutters were
fixed to overhanging eaves at the same period. In the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there had been
a lead gutter on the top of a wood or stone cornice,
and before the seventeenth or at least before the
sixteenth century there was probably not often a
gutter of any sort. Where the eaves overhang, the
gutter can be conveniently connected to the pipe by
a ' swan-neck ' without any cistern head, hence they
are much less used than formerly.
Rain-water heads were generally treated in a more
or less decorative way. They frequently bear the date
of the building or heraldic or other devices. The
early examples are generally rectangular boxes, some-
times of considerable length, with decorated fronts,
but in later times the form becomes elaborate.
RAMP. A steep slope, e.g. in the part of a hand-
rail of a staircase which is steeper than the rest ; the
slope of a garden wall which is higher in one place
than in another.
READING-DESK, READING-PEW. A pew oc-
cupied by the clergyman in English churches * during
the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth
centuries. It formed a part of what was nicknamed
a ' three-decker ' after the old man-of-war, the clerk's
pew being at A rather lower level just in front of it
and the pulpit behind it being raised considerably
above it (See also LECTERN.)
REBATE, RABBET. A continuous rectangular
recess cut on the edge of a solid. It is used chiefly
* See article thereon.
RELIGIOUS HOUSE 223
for jointing boards or for fitting one object to another,
e.g. in a picture-frame for holding the glass, but it is
also used as an architectural feature.
REBUS (Lat. rebus, by things). The representation
of a proper name by means of a picture. A very
favourite form of pun in the middle ages, both
in heraldry and in architecture. The rebus of Walter
Lyhart, Bishop of Norwich, was a hart lying in the
water. Anyone whose name ended in 'ton' always
used a barrel or tun as a part of his rebus.
RECTILINEAR PERIOD. The same as PERPEN-
REEDING. See MOULDING (fig. 185).
REFECTORY. A dining-hall, especially that of a
monastery* (p. 158).
REGULA. A band below the taenia* under each
REGULARS. Religious orders living under a
RELIC CHAMBER. A chamber in a cathedral or
other large church in which the relics of saints were
RELIEVING ARCH. See ARCH.
RELIEVO, RELIEF. A modelled surface, as dis-
tinguished from sculpture which is ' in the round,' i.e.
completely detached from any background. Basso-
relievo : low relief, in which the object has less than
half its natural projection. Mezzo-relievo : middle re-
lief, in which the object has half its natural projection.
Alto-relievo: in which the object has more than half its
RELIGIOUS HOUSE. See MONASTERY.
* See article thereon.
RELIQUARY. A vessel to contain the relic of a
saint, such as a piece of bone. It often had a glass
side so that the relic could be shown : whence it
is sometimes called a ' monstrance/ which is a term
more properly applied to a vessel for showing the
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE. The architec-
ture founded upon the classical styles at the period of
the general revival of letters. The term is used in the
following article as including the work of the sixteenth,
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, notwithstanding
that in the first part of this period there is a strong,
and even preponderating admixture of Gothic feeling
and detail, and that this reappears in the middle of
the seventeenth century, while the term 'new birth' is
scarcely applicable to the decadent work of 1790. The
period may be .divided into (a) Tudor or Elizabethan,
the period of transition from medievalism ; (6) Stuart
or Jacobean, the climax, which begins with Inigo Jones
and ends with Wren ; (c) Hanoverian or Georgian, the
period of decline.
TUDOR OR ELIZABETHAN PERIOD. This was an age of
transition from Gothic to pure classical architecture.
It coincides fairly closely with the sixteenth century ;
and is exemplified in the great houses of the nobility,
many of which were built at this time, especially in
Elizabeth's reign. Very little church work was done.
The general disposition of a building is medieval : a
skyline broken with many chimneys, gables, and
turrets ; wide square-headed windows, with mullions
and transoms ; numerous^ oriel windows. But the walls
are often covered with classical pilasters and entabla-
tures, and the doorways and fireplaces were enriched
with classical compositions. These details are thought
by some to have been generally executed by foreign
workmen, Italians at the beginning of the sixteenth
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 225
century, and afterwards by Germans; others consider
them to be the work of Englishmen. The wall is often
finished with a parapet pierced with a sort of tracery
known as strap-work,* more Gothic than classical in
feeling. The rooms are panelled in small square panels
with minute mouldings, and the ceilings are decorated
with plaster-work in relief.
The half-timber houses are picturesquely treated, and
are decorated with fantastic carvings or with modelled
plaster-work. In the general plan of the large houses
as well as of the small there is a tendency to abandon
the courtyard and to adopt an E-shaped figure.
STUART PERIOD. This period coincides closely with
the seventeenth century and with the Stuart dynasty,
for it may be said to begin with the first appearance of
Inigo Jones as an architect in 1610 and to end in 1701
when Wren had finished the bulk of his work. Inigo
Jones revolutionised English architecture. He brought
back from Italy a thorough knowledge of classical
architecture as practised by Palladio and other Italian
architects ; he discarded the lingering Gothic traditions
and the straggling medieval plan (fig. 201). He was
the first English architect in the modern sense of
the word, that is to say, he was the first to design
buildings from beginning to end without taking upon
himself in addition the duties of builder or clerk of
works or general supervisor and accountant.
The Roman Orders* are now used for the first time
with discrimination and restraint. Sometimes each
storey is marked by a separate order in which case the
most substantial, the Doric or Tuscan, is placed lowest,
the Ionic or Composite next, and the lightest, the Corin-
thian, at the top. Often two storeys are included in one
order. In either case the lowest storey, especially if not
the most important, may be treated as a podium* and
rusticated.* When arches are used they spring from
* See article thereon.
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 227
pilasters between the main columns, though in some
cases it was permissible to let them spring from the
entablature of a main order. They are invariably
round, and generally have a projecting keystone, either
plain or shaped like a corbel to support the entablature.
The ' flat-arch ' is very commonly used over windows in
rusticated stonework and in brickwork. The vaulting
is quadripartite in square bays and has no ribs. Win-
dows are high and narrow, sometimes arched but
usually square-headed ; the jambs and head have the
usual architrave moulding * ; there is sometimes a com-
plete entablature, with or without a pediment, over the
head. Large windows are divided into three lights ;
the side lights are narrow and are covered by an entabla-
ture, the central light is wide and arched ; these are called
Venetian windows. Doorways are made to correspond
to them. Ceilings are often enriched with elaborate
plaster-work* on a large scale. The framework of the
roof never shows internally. In the more correctly
classical buildings the roof is low-pitched and as it is
almost always hipped there are no gables except where
a pediment is required for architectural effect. The
simpler buildings often have steep roofs with curved
gables,* and overhanging eaves instead of a balustrade
(fig. 92). In the latter part of the seventeenth cen-
tury the 'mansard roof was introduced from France.
Panelling is now on a large scale, the mouldings are
mitred at the angles and sometimes bolection mouldings
While Palladian architecture was at its height a sort
of picturesque Gothic, called ' King James' Gothic,' was
still occasionally used, especially in churches, and was
continued till the Civil War.
HANOVERIAN. 1 The work of the eighteenth century
does not differ from that of the seventeenth so much
* See article thereon. l Or Georgian.
in the use of new forms or new combinations, as in
a general deterioration in the quality of the design.
Wren was not appreciated by his pedantic contem-
poraries who aimed at what they considered greater
correctness. Architecture became a fashionable amuse-
ment for the gentleman of leisure. About the middle
of the century Chinese and other exotic fashions began
to appear, and soon afterwards the publication of
Stuart and Revett's Antiquities of Athens introduced
for the first time a knowledge of Greek architecture,
the taste for which soon became a mania. At the
same time or soon after there began that revived taste
for Gothic art, which was to engross the talent of the
RERE-ARCH. See ARCH.
REREDOS (tautological, from Middle English rere,
rear, back, and Fr. dos, from Lat. dorsum, back s. Cf.
dossal). A wall or screen of stone or wood with sculp-
tured or coloured decoration behind an altar. A large
medieval reredos was perhaps most often of the
elaborately sculptured type, containing subjects from
Scripture or legend with many single figures of saints
in niches or tabernacles, as at Winchester. Many
small churches contained sculptures in stone or ala-
baster in a simple architectural framework. These
sculptures were no doubt invariably coloured. Other
churches had pictures painted on stone or on wood like
those at Westminster and Norwich ; these were called
'tables.' A 'table with leaves' was what is now
called a triptych, a painted wood panel with folding
leaves. Frequently instead of a reredos there was a
RERE-DORTER. A necessarium.*
RESONATOR. In some medieval churches a row
* See article thereon.
of large earthenware jars has been found under the
choir stalls or in the walls. These have been called
resonators or acoustic jars because it is supposed that
their object was to increase the sound of the singing.
Similar jars are described by Vitruvius, V, 5.
RESPOND. A half-column terminating an arcade.
RETABLE. A name apparently modern, given to
the shelf at the back of an altar on which are placed
the cross and candlesticks.
RETABULUM. This name has been given to a
painted wood reredos.
RETAINING-WALL. A wall which supports a
terrace of earth.
RETICULATED TRACERY. See TRACERY.
RETRO-CHOIR. That part of the choir which is
behind the high altar.
RETURN. A change in the direction of any con-
tinuing or repeating object; for examplej a cornice
returns at the angle of a building ; in a chancel where
there are stalls against the side walls, and two or three
more stalls against the screen facing east, the stalls are
said to be ' returned,' and those against the screen are
called ' return stalls.'
REVEAL. The surface between the outer face of a
wall and the frame of a door or window.
REVESTRY. See VESTRY.
RIB. The narrjw arch on the groin or on the
surface of a vault or a similar member at the ridge ;
the narrow mouldings on a panelled wood ceiling.
RIDEL. A curtain projecting from the wall at each
end of an altar.
RIDGE. The angle at the apex of a roof; tile roofs
are covered with a ridge-tile made for the purpose and
orten of a decorative character.
RINGING GALLERY. The west tower of a church
often has a gallery for the ringers about twelve feet
from the floor ; they are common in Norfolk.
ROCOCO (Fr. rococo, from roc, rock-work). A style
characterised by a peculiar grotto-like style of orna-
ment, in vogue during the reigns of Louis XIV. and
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE. The Romans adopted
the architectural forms of the Greeks, that is to say
they adopted the three Greek orders/ Doric, Ionic and
Corinthian. On these they made variations ; one form
of their Doric we call Roman Doric, and it is held
by some that Tuscan is a variation on Greek Doric.
They made a curious compound of Ionic and Corin-
thian which is called Composite but is really a form
of Corinthian with volutes borrowed from the Ionic
capital. The Corinthian was their favourite order and
the one with which they were most successful.
In Roman architecture the column and entablature
are often used structurally, as the Greek had used
them. But in many buildings, such as the Colosseum,
they are merely decorative and are attached to a wall
which is pierced with arches. In buildings of this
class consisting of several storeys, one order is used as
a decoration for each storey, the entablatures marking
the levels of the several floors. The arches usually
spring from low pilasters placed against the main
columns and the entablature passes over them. The
same system is followed in the triumphal arches, like
that of Titus, where the arch played a still more
* See article thereon.
The arch in one form or another was used with great
boldness and became the really dominant feature in
Roman architecture. Vaults of immense size like those
of the Basilica of Maxentius at Rome, domes like
that of the Pantheon, and the long arched aqueducts
which supplied the city with water, are the buildings
in which the Roman shows his strength.
The Roman was essentially an engineer ; his art was
always coarse and was often brutal. His greatest
successes after his purely utilitarian works were pro-
bably the vast complex buildings, such as the baths
and palaces and the many-columned basilicas or public
halls. He was a first-rate planner. He had an extra-
ordinary knowledge of materials, and his mortar and
concrete have become almost proverbial. His appli-
ances for warming his houses, for draining them and
for supplying them with water and making them
generally comfortable were wonderful. His power as
an engineer lay in these directions and in the splendid
strength of his construction, for it is doubtful if he
had inventive genius even as an engineer, and he had
not to deal with the nicely opposed thruste and the
slender frame of Gothic construction.
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE. The archi-
tecture in England and on the Continent in which the
influence of Roman buildings and tradition is seen;
our Norman* is one phase of it.
ROOD (the same word as rod). The Cross. The early
Christians used the cross as a symbol,* but it was
without the figure of Our Lord, and they never repre-
sented the scene of the Passion. In the earliest
crucifixes the figure is draped in a long plain coat and
the arms are horizontal ; it is only in later times that
the attitude becomes more natural and the treatment
generally more realistic.
* See article thereon.
232 ROOD-LOFT AND SCREEN
The crucifixes on the rood-lofts in churches were
generally large, often life-size, and were probably
coloured more or less naturally ; figures of the Virgin
and St. John, with angels, were often placed on either
side. No crucifix of this class remains in England,
but there are some examples both of painted and
sculptured roods in other positions, and there are several
ROOD - LOFT AND SCREEN. In the earliest
churches* the presbytery or chancel* had been separ-
ated from the nave by a screen. Through all the
changes in church arrangement this separation was
kept. It survived in very many places the Reforma-
tion and the reign of Puritanism, and in not a few
was only removed in the eighteenth or nineteenth
centuries. Screens are still fairly common ; they are
most numerous in the eastern counties and in Devon-
shire. The lower part is always panelled, the panels
being often painted with figures of saints. The upper
part is open, with mullions and tracery, which were
also decorated with colour. There is a wide opening
in the middle fitted with folding doors.
The erection of a loft or gallery on the top of the
screen was probably a development of comparatively
late times (p. says the fourteenth century or later) ; the
rood is much earlier. The loft of a parish church is not
the same thing as the pulpitum * of a cathedral or con-
ventual church, but it was suggested by it and served
some of the same uses (M.). On it was placed the repre-
centation of the Passion. It was often large enough to
contain also the small organs of the period and a
number of singers. It has been thought by some that
the epistle and gospel were read from the rood-loft, but
this seems doubtful. The loft was reached by a ladder
or wooden staircase or by a small stone staircase con-
trived in one of the piers of the chancel arch or built
purposely in a turret ; this staircase with its upper and
lower doors generally remains.
In some large churches the screen and loft extended
across the aisles as well as the nave. In a small aisle-
less church altars were placed against the screen on-
each side of the doorway.
There are a number of rood-lofts extant in fairly
perfect condition, chiefly in Wales and the West
of England. Under the projection of the loft there
is generally a cove or vaulting, above which there is
a rich cornice and a piece of panelling forming the
front of the gallery. It seems that the loft itself was
sometimes called the ' candle-beam ' ; in other cases the
candle-beam is the beam on which the rood and figures
stood, and on which were placed numerous lights from
which it derives its name.
In many churches the chancel arch was partly or
entirely filled with a tympanum of boarding. On
this was painted the whole scene of the Passion or
accessories to the figures which stood on the loft ; or
there was a picture of the Last Judgement.
ROOF. So far as regards construction roofs may be
conveniently divided into two classes, namely, open
timber roofs in which the constructive timbers are
visible from below and are, therefore, of a more or less
decorative character ; concealed roofs, below which .
there is a ceiling, consisting either of an independent
vault, or of boarding or plaster either flat or arched
or of any other form, attached to the timbers of the
roof. Some roofs partake of the characteristics of both
The open timber roof was the form most commonly
used in England throughout the middle ages for
churches, halls and other large one-storeyed buildings.
It is a peculiar characteristic of English architecture
and was gradually developed into very elaborate and
beautiful forms. On the Continent, from the compara-
tive scarcity of good timber and from other causes,
it was little used and stone vaulting was more common.
Of Norman roofs few, if any, remain ; they probably
resembled those of the thirteenth century, of which
there are a fair number of examples. These belong to
FIG. 202. TRUSSED-RAFTKR ROOF, PARTLY CEILED
the class known as trussed-rafter roofs, that is, each
pair of rafters is framed together by a system of ties
and struts so as to form a complete truss in itself
(fig. 202). In later roofs the rafters are not so framed,
but were strengthened by purlins, carried on framed
trusses or principals, placed at considerable intervals.
The two methods are often, in the thirteenth cen-
tury and sometimes also at later periods, combined
in a somewhat unscientific way, by using a rudimentary
principal in a trussed-rafter roof (fig. 203). There are
no principal rafters ; the principal truss consists of a very
strong tie-beam, on the centre of which stands a post
cut into the form of a column, with capital and base.
This column supports a central purlin. The purlin
helps to support the collars which stiffen the rafters.
The purlin, therefore, gives but an indirect support
to the rafter, and any weight which the tie-beam
carries comes upon the very middle of it. The heavy
tie-beam is, however, of use in tying in the wall-plates,
and thus preventing the rafters from spreading and
pushing out the walls. The central post is sometimes
FIG. 203. TRUSSED-RAFTER ROOF, WITH RUDIMENTARY PRINCIPAL
called a king-post ; it must not be confused with the
modern king-post, which hangs from the ridge and
supports the middle of the tie-beam (fig. 209).
The simple trussed-rafter roof had very frequently,
perhaps more often than not, a ceiling either of
boarding divided up into panels by small ribs, or of
plain plaster, attached to the struts and collars and
thus forming a polygonal barrel, sometimes called a
'waggon-ceiling.' Each side of the polygon is called
a ' cant/ whether there is a ceiling or not ; thus the
roof shown in fig. 202 is said to be of seven cants.
In the fourteenth century the trussed-rafter roof
continues to be used, but roofs with framed principals
and purlins become much more common. The princi-
pal truss has generally an arched form which exerts a
considerable thrust on the walls (fig. 204) ; this thrust
is, however, reduced as much as possible by making
FIG. 204. FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ROOF
the arched struts spring from corbels a good distance
below the top of the wall. When the principals are
far apart intermediate principals of a slightly different
form are used (fig. 204), or the purlins and ridge are
strengthened by wind-braces or struts springing from
the sides of the principal ratter (fig. 205).
About the middle of the fourteenth century an im-
portant modification was made. The arched strut oi
the principal instead of resting on the wall springs
from a horizontal bracket called a hammer-beam, rest-
ing on the top of the wall and supported by a curved
strut ; hence this form of roof is called a hammer-
beam roof (fig. 206). The bracket supports a vertical
post placed under the principal rafter at the point
where the weight of the purlin comes. The weight
of this post is counteracted, partly by the weight of
FIG. 805. ROOF WITH WIND-BRACES, CONWAY CHURCH
the principal rafter, which rests on the other end of
the hammer-beam, and partly by a strut under it,
springing from a corbel some way down the wall. The
upper part of the principal is strengthened by a collar
or by another hammer-beam and post, or by curved
struts, forming an arch with its apex quite close to
the ridge. The hammer-beam is sometimes carved
into the form of an angel, or an angel stands upon
it in front of the vertical post. The spandrels above
and below the hammer-beam are generally filled with
rich and delicate tracery. This form of roof lends it-
self to many variations and to a highly decorative treat-
no. 90& HAMMER-BEAM ROOF, COCHWILLAK
ment. The finest and best-known examples, and also
the earliest, is that of Westminster Hall, 1397. The
hammer-beam roof continued throughout the fifteenth
century, and was occasionally in use till late in the
seventeenth century ; but as architecture declined in
the latter half of the fifteenth century it was to a
great extent superseded by nearly flat roofs. In these
FIG. 207. HAMMER-BEAM ROOFS
FIG. 20g. KING-POST ROOF FIG. 2tO. QUEEN-POST ROOF.
FIG. ail. MANSARD ROOF
a heavy tie-beam is used which either has sufficient
camber to give the necessary slope to the roof or else
it carries a principal rafter of rather greater inclina-
tion. The trussed rafter-roof continues in use.
The open timber roof derives its chief beauty from
the admirable form of the timbers, from its delicate
gradations of light and shade, and from the just balance
in the system of framing, giving it something of the
character of a living organic structure. But it also
received other decorations of form and colour. The
members of the principal truss, and often also the
common rafters, were moulded, the spandrels were
filled with delicate tracery, the cornice and hammer-
beam were enriched with carving. The mouldings
and other parts were coloured, and monograms and
sprays of foliage were painted on the rafters and on
the boarding between them.
From the beginning of the seventeenth century the
roof is generally hidden by a ceiling, the form of
which has no relation to that of the roof and is
generally flat. Only practical considerations, therefore,
have to be taken into account in designing the roof.
For roofs of from 25 feet to 40 feet span the com-
monest form is a 'king-post' roof (fig. 209), and for
spans of more than 40 feet a ' queen-post' roof (fig. 210).
The material used in the middle ages was oak. It
is often contended that a roof is of chestnut, but the
many specimens submitted to the Cambridge School
of Forestry have proved to be oak. In the seven-
teenth century the use of foreign deal became more
common and is now practically the invariable rule.
Occasionally in the middle ages a small roof was made
entirely of stone by corbelli ng out the courses tillthey
met at the ridge, the structure being strengthened by
arched ribs. Thatch was a common, probably the
most common roof-covering for medieval houses both
ROSE. WINDOW 241
in town and country ; for churches and for the greater
houses tiles were generally used. Roofs were covered
with lead even in Norman and Saxon times ; in many
fifteenth -century churches the pitch is too flat to
admit of any other material. In some parts of the
country, e.g. Gloucestershire and Northamptonshire,
thin slabs of stone were and still are used like slates,
but slates do not seem to have been in general use
till the latter part of the seventeenth century, when
thatch becomes less and less common.
In the latter part of the seventeenth century a new
sort of roof was introduced from France, called a
Mansard roof, after the inventor. The lower part of
the roof is steep pitched and the upper part much
flatter. Both slopes are slated or the steep part
covered with plain tiles and the flat part with pan tiles.
This sort of roof was the result of planning buildings
in square blocks, which became common in the seven-
teenth century ; these would have required a roof
of great height if one of ordinary construction had
been used. Sometimes such a building is covered by a
number of small roofs which are concealed behind a
high parapet, but these do not afford space for garrets
as does the Mansard.
The following are the most common terms in use.
Span : the clear space between the opposite walls. Span-
roof: one which has a central ridge. Lean-to roof: one
which has only one slope, generally placed against a
higher building, e.g. over the aisle of a church. Pitch :
the angle the roof makes with the horizon. Hipped roof:
one which does not terminate in a gable, but in a slope
like the sides of the roof; the angle formed by the
meeting of two slopes is called a hip. Valley : the line
of intersection where one roof joins another.
ROSE-WINDOW. A name sometimes given to a
large circular window filled with tracery. (See also
CATHERINE-WHEEL WINDOW, TRACERY.)
242 ROUGH -CAST
ROUGH-CAST. A rough plaster used for covering
the outsides of buildings, made with lime and gravel
and thrown on to the wall.
RUBBLE. Masonry of unshaped stones.
RUNIC CROSS, RUNIC PATTERN. The early
crosses (generally covered with interlacing patterns)
found in Ireland, Wales, lona, etc. They are Celtic or
derived from Celtic work. So called from rune, one of
the old characters used for incised inscriptions (s.).
The elaborate interlacing patterns are believed to be
derived from wicker-work. They continued in use into
RUSTICATION. Masonry in which the beds and
joints are squared but the faces of the stones are left
rough. The term is also applied to the following
variations on this treatment : the stone is worked to
a true surface, projecting slightly beyond the face of
the wall, and is then artificially roughened ; the stone
is worked to a smooth projecting surface and the edges
are chamfered, rebated or moulded. Rustication is used
chiefly in the basement storey to give an appearance
of strength, in Renaissance buildings.
SACRARIUM. See SANCTUARY.
SACRING BELL. See SANCTUS BELL.
SACRISTY. The sacrist's room or vestry*; a room
in or attached to a church, in which were kept the
vessels belonging to the altar, the vestments and other
ornaments. It stood generally on the north side of
the chancel, and often contained an altar. Sometimes
there was a chamber over it, and occasionally a charnel-
house* or place for bones below.
SADDLE-BACK COPING. A coping which rises to
a sharp ridge like a roof.
* See article thereon.
SAXON ARCHITECTURE 243
SADDLE-BACK ROOF. The roof of a tower which
has a ridge and terminates in gables instead of being
of the usual pyramidal form.
SADDLE-BAR. A horizontal iron bar placed across
a window partly for the purpose of securing the glass
and partly to prevent persons from entering the build-
ing through the window.
SALIENT. An angular projection from a castle*
wall, commanding a length of wall on each side of it.
SALON, SALOON. A large state apartment in a
palace or great house.
SANCTUARY, SACRARIUM. (1) A chancel ; the
east part of a chancel. (2) The precincts of a church,
including the churchyard, which gave protection to a
fugitive criminal. While he remained there the culprit
could be watched to prevent his escape, but he could
not be molested. If he chose to confess his crime he
was given a definite time in which to make his way to
the nearest port and to leave the country. Particulars
of the way in which anyone c taking sanctuary ' was
received at Durham are given in the Rites of Durham.
(See also FRITHSTOOL.)
SANCTUS BELL, SACKING BEL*L. A bell rung
at the consecration of the Host. Sometimes a small
hand-bell; sometimes a larger bell hung in the bell-
cote over the chancel arch.
SARCOPHAGUS. A stone tomb. ' Made of lime-
stone which was supposed to consume the corpses
(Pliny); from the Gk. <rap/<o<ayos, flesh-consuming' (s).
SAXON ARCHITECTURE. The architecture of
England from the time of the settlement of the Saxons
to the Norman Conquest. It seems to have been in-
See article thereon.
Huenced to some extent by the buildings which the
Romans had left in England,
and Roman materials were
re-used. The construction
was at first good, and it was
therefore possible to make
the walls thin. In the
eleventh century, after the
devastation wrought by the
Danes, the quality of the
work deteriorated (M.).
No buildings other than
churches now remain. The
houses were doubtless al-
most invariably of wood and
so probably were many of
Saxon towers are usually
tall and thin. They are
divided into stages of about
equal height by a series of
off-sets, each stage being
rather narrower than the
one below it (fig. 212).
The belfry windows have a
strongly marked character
of their own. They are
divided by baluster-shaped
Columns Set in the middle FIG. 212. SAXON TOWER, ST. BENET'S,
of the wall and Supporting CAMBRIDGE
a long stone running from inside to outside to carry
the arches. Thus the Saxon towers strongly resemble
those of the early churches in Rome, by which they
were no doubt largely influenced. They were pro-
bably surmounted by a low pyramidal spire of stone or
wood, or by a roof with a gable over each face of the
tower. The baluster-shafts were copied from Roman
work and were used in other parts besides the towers.
Arches are always round and of a single order* or ring.
Door jambs are not splayed or rebated. Windows are
small, and in early churches are splayed on the inside
(fig. 213 a). They are sometimes complete circles.
It is in the inferior buildings of later times that
those features which are so readily recognised as
Saxon are found. The angles are built in <long-and-
short" work (fig. 212), whereas [in the earlier build-
ings they had been done in the usual way ; windows
FIG. SI3. PLANS OF SAXON WINDOWS
are splayed outside as well as inside so that the open-
ing is narrowest in the middle of the wall (fig. 2136);
the head of a door is sometimes a triangle formed by
two stones leaning against one another; capitals are
rudely sculptured or moulded; barrel vaults are used
over small spans. A remarkable and curious feature
is the pattern formed on the face of a wall by narrow
vertical strips of stone, with some diagonal and arch-
shaped pieces. It is rather suggestive of wood-
framing and is by some thought to be derived from
timber buildings ; it is probably a Danish feature (w.).
Others maintain that the system is a rude imitation of
the pilasters and entablatures of the Romans.
The walls were plastered inside and outside. Roofs
were probably covered with thatch or oak shingles.
Glass was not unknown but was rarely used.
SCAGLIOLA. " A species of plaster or stucco in-
vented at Carpi in the state of Modena by Guido
Sassi, between 1600 and 1649- It is sometimes called
mischia, from the mixture of colours introduced in it.
* See article thereon.
It was not, however, till the middle of the eighteenth
century that the art of making scagliola was brought
to perfection " (G.).
SCALLAGE, SCALLENGE. A term used in Here-
fordshire and the west of England for a lichgate (G.).
SCANTLING. The dimensions of a piece of timber
in breadth and thickness.
SCOTIA. See MOULDING (fig. 182).
SCOTTISH ARCHITECTURE. See Appendix.
SCREEN. (1) In the earliest Christian churches*
screens were used for separating the chancel* from
the nave. In the middle ages, as the number of altars
increased, numerous screens were erected to form sepa-
rate chapels. They were generally of wood but some-
times of stone and occasionally of iron. In the ordi-
nary parish church the evidence of five screens is
usually to be seen, namely, the rood-screen* cutting
off the chancel, a screen under the easternmost arch
of each aisle, and a screen crossing each aisle from the
easternmost column thus forming an enclosed chapel
at the end of each aisle. The lower part of these
screens was filled with boarding; the upper part had
mullions and tracery. (2) The lower end of the hall in
a medieval house * was crossed by a screen, forming a
passage between the two opposite doors. It would
seem that at first there were two short screens called
'spurs' projecting from the side walls of the hall, a
third screen was then placed between them ; finally
doors were fitted in the openings, and a floor built
from the screen to the end wall of the hall, forming
a gallery over the passage, which passage itself came
to be called 'the screens.' (3) A stone colonnade in
front of a building, forming a sort of fence, is sometimes
called a screen. This is more common in Renaissance
architecture than in Gothic.
SCULPTURE. The word is commonly limited
to representations of the figures of human beings and
of animals to the exclusion of the carving of foliage.*
It will be taken in this sense here, and it will, more-
over, be considered only in its application to, or
association with architecture.
The earliest remaining sculpture of which we shall
take account here the Saxon and early Norman is
almost always in relief; early sculpture completely in
the round is rare. The relief is shallow and there is
little or no modelling; indeed the subject is almost
entirely on one plane. Low relief is susceptible oi
the highest possible artistic treatment, but almost
everything depends on the most delicate modelling oi
the surface. Early sculpture however is not, strictly
speaking, modelled at all; the outline is very distinctly
shown against the background, and the rest of the
form, such as the features and folds of the drapery,
is indicated by incised lines. But the design, though
rude, is vigorous and is well composed to fill the
required space. Most of the remaining examples
are figures in niches and subjects in the tympana
of doorways. The 'Prior's door/ Ely, is a good ex-
The art made extraordinary progress during the
latter part of the twelfth century, and the work of the
second quarter of the thirteenth century is very fine.
There are some good monumental effigies of that period
in stone and in Purbeck marble. The figures still have
some archaic stiffness and the attitudes are occasion-
ally strained. But the work continues to improve, and
in the latter part of the thirteenth century it is
particularly beautiful, the attitudes have a simple
grace and the expression of the features is very sweet.
This is perhaps the greatest period of sculpture as
* See article thereon.
applied to building, for the Greek simplicity of the
drapery harmonises perfectly with, and seems to form
part of, the architecture. The bronze effigy of Queen
Eleanor on her monument in Westminster Abbey
and the figures in stone on the Eleanor monuments
are the most famous examples of this period.
In the fourteenth century some of the early manner-
isms are dropped, such as the conventional treatment
of the hair and the peculiar and at the same time
beautiful modelling of the lower eyelid. The work is
less idyllic and the expression less cheerful. The por-
traiture of the individual becomes much more pro-
nounced. This is analogous to the natural foliage
of the period. There is no attempt at portraiture
in the Eleanor monument, but the figure of Queen
Philippa is clearly a good likeness. The principal
effigy of a monument and the statuettes in the niches
round it are simply and very beautifully treated.
The Purbeck marble used for the sepulchral effigies
of the thirteenth century was abandoned. Figures
were carved in stone or marble or wood, others were
of wood overlaid with metal, either silver or copper,
and a few were cast in bronze.
In the fifteenth century there is a still further
advance to naturalness of attitude and individuality of
feature. The drapery is not so simple and the whole
treatment is richer and more elaborate.
The work at this time varies very much in quality.
Many examples are careless and clumsy. A great
number of small alabaster reredoses, for example, were
turned out presumably at 'popular' prices from the
works in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. These,
like all the work of this and of the previous cen-
tury, with doubtless much of the thirteenth century,
were coated with a fine layer of plaster and richly
The Reformation of course killed architectural sculp-
ture as completely as it killed mural painting, and
it has never been used on a large scale since. Monu-
mental effigies of the reigns of Elizabeth and James
are often finely conceived and dignified in pose, but the
artist was seriously handicapped by the costume of the
In later Renaissance the work of Inigo Jones and
of Wren figures of saints are occasionally placed in
niches, but more often Justice, Science and so forth,
recline on the slopes of the pediment or stand on the
pedestals of the balustraded parapet, or a group is
placed in the tympanum. "The Statues," says Wren
in his description of one of his designs, "will be a
noble ornament, they are supposed of plaister, there
are Flemish artists that doe them cheape" (w. & c.).
Evelyn, Wren's contemporary, has some interesting
remarks about medieval sculpture :
" When we meet with the greatest Industry and expen-
sive Carving, full of Fret and lamentable Imagry; sparing
neither of Pains nor Cost ; a Judicious Spectator is rather Dis-
tracted and quite Confounded, than touch'd with that
Admiration, which results from the true and just Symmetric,
regular Proportion, Union and Disposition ; Great and Noble
manner, which those August and Glorious Fabrics of the
Antients still Produce." (Evelyn : An Account of Architects
SEDILE (pi. SEDILIA, Lat.). A seat, especially one
for clergy on the south side of the chancel. This is a
survival of the stone bench which ran round the apse
in early churches (M.), and there are some examples of
early sedilia which retain the form
of an ordinary bench terminated by
a massive stone arm-rest (fig. 214).
The medieval sedilia are recessed
and consist of three seats, "except in
great ' quires,' where they were
generally four" (M.), and in a few
250 SEPULCHRAL MONUMENT
examples which have only two seats. The seats were
often arranged at three different levels corresponding to
three steps in the floor. The recesses are arched and
sometimes elaborately treated and the piscina* is often
included in the same architectural composition. In
small plain churches the sedilia is sometimes formed
by carrying down the recess of a window.
SEPULCHRAL MONUMENT. See MONUMENT.
SEPULCHRE, EASTER. See EASTER SEPULCHRE.
SET-OFF. See OFF-SET.
SEVERY. See BAY.
SGRAFFIATO-WORK, SGRAFFITO- WORK.
(Ital. sgraffiaio, scratched). A method of wall decor-
ation effected by putting on a coat of coloured plaster
and then a coat of white plaster ; parts of the second
coat are then scratched off showing the coloured coat
underneath. By this means a design in two flat
colours can be easily carried out.
SHAFT (Anglo-Saxon scafan, to shavCj from being
shaved smooth s. Cf. shaft of a' spear or arrow). A
column* excluding the capital and base and annulet.
SHINGLE (Lat. scindere, to cleave s.). A tile
made of split oak ; frequently used on steep roofs in
the middle ages. . .
SHIP. See INCENSE SHIP.
SHOP. The medieval shop was a place where
goods were made as well as sold, and the master with
his family and apprentices lived in the upper storeys
of the house. The building was almost invariably of
wood till the eighteenth century. The shop window
was fitted with two folding shutters ; the lower of these
was hinged at the bottom, and was let down during
the day into a horizontal position to form a table
* See article thereon.
standing out in the street, on which were exhibited
objects for sale ; the top
shutter was hung by its
upper edge, and was raised
to form a pent-house roof
to shelter the stall. "With
your hat pent - house like
o'er the shop of your eyes,"
says Moth, in Loves Labour s
Lost. The door was like
the stable door of the pre- " G - " 5 - MEDIEV AL SHOP
. J rrvi . _. f- lL NORTH ELMHAM
sent day. This sort of shop
front was general till the first half of the eighteenth
century, when glass windows were gradually introduced.
SHRINE (Lat. scrinium, a chest, box s). A sepul-
chre to contain the relics of a saint, generally erected
behind the high altar in a cathedral or monastic
church. A shrine of the first class consisted of "at
least four distinct parts : (1) the stone basement, at the
east [or west] end of which was (2) the altar. The use
of the stone or marble basement, which was frequently
perforated with small niches, was to support (3) a
wooden structure covered with plates of gold or silver,
and often enriched with jewels and enamels. In order
to preserve the precious metals from the atmosphere,
and at the same time to cover up the feretory, as the
top part was called, when it was not desired to show it,
there was (4) the cooperculum, or a wooden covering,
suspended from the vaulting above by ropes, and lifted
by means of a counterpoise. Shrines of lesser dimen-
sions were kept in all sorts of places, such as above
and within altars, and were moreover often carried in
procession.'' In the niches of the basement, mentioned
above, "sick people were frequently left during the
night, in the hopes of a cure being effected by the
intercession of the Saint " (BU.).
The only shrine in England of which any part re-
25* SHRIVING -PEW
mains undisturbed is that of Edward the Confessor in
Westminster Abbey ; the basement is believed to have
stood since it was first built by Henry III. ; it is the
work of an Italian ; the upper part is of the time of
Queen Mary. At St. Albans there is the thirteenth-
century shrine of the patron saint recently recon-
structed in its original place. At Ely the fifteenth-
century shrine of St. Etheldreda had been re-erected,
but not in its original position. At Canterbury there
are no remains of Becket's shrine, but its position is
known and the old pavement is worn by the pilgrims
who visited it.
SHRIVING-PEW. See CONFESSIONAL.
SKIRTING. A low plinth or base, generally of
wood, placed against the walls of a room because it
offers a better resistance to injury than plaster.
SOFFIT. The under side of a cornice, lintel, arch,
SOLAR, (prob. from Lat. solarium, a part of the
house exposed to the sun, a balcony). A loft or upper
chamber, a rood-loft (occasionally) ; especially the
upper chamber reserved for the private use of the
family in a medieval house.*
SOMMER. A principal beam in a floor or partition
into which smaller joists or studs are framed. Rare.
SOUNDING-BOARD. A wooden canopy, generally
flat, over a pulpit.* The earliest examples are of the
seventeenth century ; they were common then and in
the eighteenth century. (See TYPE.)
SPAN OF A ROOF OR ARCH. The clear space
between the supporting walls or piers.
SPANDREL. A space enclosed between the ex-
trados of an arch and some rectangular lines such as a
* See article thereon.
label, or between an arch and its foliation, or other
triangular area such as the surface of a vault between
two adjacent ribs.
SPIRE. The tapering roof of a tower, turret or
pinnacle as distinct from the tower itself; the word
steeple includes both tower and spire. (See STEEPLE.)
SPITAL. The medieval abbreviation of hospital.*
SPLAY. A large chamfer*; a surface which is
oblique to the general wall surface, as the splayed jamb
of a window.
SPLOCKET, SPROCKET. A piece of wood nailed
on to the foot of a rafter and overhanging the wall, so
as to form a projecting eaves to the roof (fig. 21 6).
FIG. ai6. SPLOCKETS
FIG. 217. NORMAN BASE WITH SPURS
SPUR. When a circular base* of a column stands on
a square or octagonal plinth the spandrel* is often filled
by a spray of foliage, a tongue or a grotesque, called a
spur, particularly in work previous to the middle of the
thirteenth century (fig. 217).
The screen* of a medieval hall was sometimes called
* See article thereon.
SQUINCH. An arch or lintel built across the angle
of a tower to carry the side
of an octagonal spire (fig. 218).
SQUINT. A small loophole
cut obliquely through a wall
or pier in a church to allow
a view of the high altar ; they
seem not infrequently to have
been arranged for the con-
venience of the lord of the
manor who occupied a transept
as a private pew. FIG . ai8 . SQUINCH ARCH
STAINED GLASS. See GLASS.
STALL. A seat separated by arms from others
adjoining it ; used especially of seats in church choirs.
They are arranged along the north and south walls
and are returned along the chancel screen ; hence
those facing east are called 'return* stalls.' The seat is
generally made to rise on hinges at the back so as to
form a small elevated seat called a miserere* for the
ease of the aged. Cathedral and monastic stalls have
generally high canopies of rich tabernacle work.
STANCHION. An upright bar of iron in a window
fixed to the saddle-bars.*
STAR ORNAMENT. An enrichment used in
STEEPLE. A tower including any superstructure
whether spire or lantern; the term seems to have
been used for church * towers only ; it is now less
common, but is still used in the villages.
Saxon towers were usually tall and thin ; they had
no buttresses and were divided into well-marked stages
by off-sets, each stage being rather narrower than the
one below it (fig. 212). The lower windows are mere
* See article thereon.
loopholes ; the belfry stage has generally a two-light
window divided by a mid-wall shaft. The top of the
tower in almost every example has been altered at
a later date ; it probably had a low pyramidal spire of
stone or wood. At Sompting each face of the tower
is finished with a gable, from the apex of which rises
the hip of the spire (fig. 219). Norman towers are
low and massive, they have sometimes the flat pilaster
buttress of the period ; the lower windows are larger
and the belfry stage is often arcaded and has a pair
of two-light windows on each side. No spires remain ;
probably they were low pyramids.
In the Gothic period, while the details follow the
variations of the style, neither the general proportions
nor the degree of richness afford much indication of
the date ; there is however a good deal of local
character. In the south-east of England the tower
is usually rather low and plain without spire or pin-
nacles, and the staircase turret is carried up above the
parapet ; when there is a spire it is commonly of timber
covered with lead or with shingles (fig. 220). Small
churches have often a small wooden tower with a spire
erected on the nave roof at the west end (fig. 27).
On the other hand, in the south-west, especially in
Somersetshire, the towers, particularly those of the
fifteenth century, are lofty and elaborate and are
crowned with pinnacles.
In the south midlands there is often no tower, but
the west wall is carried up above the roof to form a
bell-cote,* being pierced with one or more arched open-
ings in which the bells hang, and finished with a gable
(fig. 26). Further north we come to stone spires, at
first springing from the face of the wall and with
broaches at the angles (fig. 221), but in later times
rising from behind a parapet. In East Anglia there
are no spires with the solitary but very notable
* See article thereon.
exception of Norwich Cathedral. Small towers were
sometimes circular because they were built of flint,
and stone for the quoins was difficult to come by. The
several parts of Cambridgeshire show in a rather
FIG. 219. SPIRE
PROBABLY OP SAXON
FIG. 221. BROACH SPIRE
KING'S CLIFF, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE
remarkable way the influence of the neighbouring
counties. Thus the west tower of Ely follows a type
which is found in Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire,
that is, the upper stage is octagonal while high
detached turrets rise from the angles of the square
lower part. This arrangement is rather French and
did not spread far or become common in England.
On the Welsh border the towers are usually rather
low with a flat pyramidal roof, or they are small wooden
turrets on the roof like those in the south-east. In
the north there are no spires, and the towers are
After the Reformation few
churches and consequently few
steeples were built till after
the Fire of London, when Sir
Christopher Wren produced his
remarkably varied and original
designs for the City churches.
These steeples consist of a
tower of which the lower part
is always perfectly plain while
the top stage contains a large
belfry window and is enriched
with pilasters and entablature.
The spire never follows the
simple Gothic form, and it is
generally an elaborate com-
position. These steeples served
as models for the eighteenth-
STELE. The stone often
placed at the head of the grave
of a Greek : it was about five
feet high, two and a half feet
wide and nine inches thick,
and was carved in low relief with a scene supposed to
represent the death of the person commemorated or
some other subject (fig. 222). Early stele are narrow ;
fourth-century examples when carved are : height is to
width as six is to five, or thereabouts.
STILL-ROOM. A room in which cordials and
home-made liqueurs were prepared.
FIG. 332. GREEK STELE
258 STOCK FOR HOLY WATER
STOCK OR STOUP FOR HOLY WATER. See
STRAIGHT JOINT. A vertical joint in a wall
continuing through two or more courses.
STRAP WORK. A kind of tracery used in parapets
and elsewhere in Elizabethan architecture (fig. 223).
FIG. 223. STRAP-WORK, ST. JOHN S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGB
STRING COURSE. A projecting horizontal course
in a wall. In Classical and Renaissance architecture it
is deep and plain (fig. 224) ; in Gothic it is shallow and
moulded (fig. 225).
RENAISSANCE STRING COURSE
GOTHIC STRING COURSE
STRUT. " In carpentry, any piece that keeps two
others from approaching and is therefore in a state of
compression in contradistinction to a tie " (p.).
STUART PERIOD. See RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE.
STUCCO (Ital.). The term seems to have been
introduced into England in the nineteenth century;
it is generally confined to smooth, hard plaster of
various kinds applied to the outside walls of buildings
to imitate masonry.
STUD. One of a series of vertical members in a
timber partition or wall ; laths, to carry the plaster, are
nailed to them, or the spaces between them are filled
with brick or pugging. (See p. 274.)
STYLOBATE, STYLOBATA. The platform upon
which stand the columns in front of or surrounding a
classical building (compare PODIUM).
SUMMER. See SOMMER.
SYMBOL, SYMBOLISM. The pagan practice of
using symbols to represent ideas was continued by the
early Christians, but it gradually gave way to the desire
to depict actual scenes. For instance the Cross is used
in early days; the scene of the crucifixion only in
later times ; the symbols of the peacock for the
Resurrection and the circle for Eternity are found
in the Catacombs, but rarely in the later middle
Pictures of saints and martyrs bearing the instru-
ments of their death or of their torture, or other
emblems, are common throughout the middle ages and
in later times, but these are not strictly symbols. (See
It may be safely said that symbolism has not given
birth to any architectural form, but has been invari-
ably invented to suit already existing features which
had arisen from practical considerations ; in a few
instances it has perpetuated a feature, as, for instance,
the cruciform plan of a church.
SYSTYLE. See TEMPLK.
TABERNACLE. A niche.*
TABLE. A medieval term for a panel on which a
picture was painted ; a triptych* was called a ' table
TAENIA, TENIA. The fillet* at the top of the
architrave and of the frieze in the Doric entablature.
TAPESTRY. A woven material, decorated with
embroidery, used for covering the walls of medieval
buildings. It was superseded in the sixteenth century
by a cheaper material known as 'painted cloths.'
TEMENOS. The sacred enclosure surrounding a
TEMPERA. Painting in transparent colours made
by mixing the powdered pigment with water and
parchment-size for wall paintings on plaster, or with
water and yolk of egg for paintings on panel. The
ground is a hard surface of very fine plaster, about as
thick as drawing-paper, by the Italians called gesso.
Most English medieval paintings were done in this
way. (See FRESCO and PAINTING.)
TEMPLE. The arrangement of the Greek temple
varies in different examples, but the normal plan may
be described as follows. There was a chamber or
naos (cell(i) which, in the larger peripteral examples,
was divided by columns supporting a gallery into
central space and aisles. Behind the naos there ws
in some instances an inner ceFa, The naos might
be entered through a vestibule (fig. 232), and in front
* See article thereon.
was the pronaos or portico. Behind the naos was a
similar portico called the oplsthodomos or posticum
PORTICO in anfis,
PORTICO in ant is,
The pronaos or principal entrance was almost always
towards the east, and at the further end of the
naos, facing the entrance, was the statue of the god,
and in front of it an altar. The building was often
surrounded by a row of columns forming a peristyle,
and is said to be peripteral, or by two rows, when
it is called dipteral. If there is a wide peristyle with
one row of columns the building is said to be
pseudo-dipteral. There were no windows, and the
method of lighting is still doubtful. ' Hypaethral '
temples had apparently a large hole in the roof called
an opaion. Where the roof was covered with Parian
marble it is said that sufficient light would pass
through the slabs, which were about two inches thick ;
there seems to be evidence that some of these slabs
were pierced with holes through which light was
admitted. The suggestion that there was an hypaethral
DBCASTYLE DIPTERAL TEMPLE
opening over the gallery above the aisles, forming it
into a sort of clear-storey, is unsupported by evidence.
In considering any theory it must be remembered,
firstly, that in the bright climate of Greece a very
small aperture, very often the mere open door, would
admit enough light even for a congregational service ;
and secondly, that the Greek temple was not built for
congregational services, but as a shrine for the statue
of a god, before which sacrifice was offered to him,
only the priest and the privileged few entering the
naos, the people remaining without in the temenos* or
enclosure ; and lastly, for a ritual such as this a well-
lighted temple was not required, and the mystery of
gloom was perhaps preferred.
The Romans seem to have been indifferent to orienta-
tion. At the end opposite to the entrance there was
often an apse or alcove ; the temples dedicated to Vesta
were circular. Sometimes instead of a peristyle they
placed half-columns against the side walls ; the building
is then described as pseudo-peripteral. This had been
seldom or never done by the Greeks.
The portico is described by the number and arrange-
ment of the columns. In small and early temples the
sides were enclosed by walls and two columns were
placed between the ends of these. The walls are
called antce and the portico is said to be in antis. In
the larger porticoes the side walls are very short or
become mere pilasters, and columns are placed in
front of them ; the portico is then called prostyle.
If there is a portico of this sort at each end the
building is called amphi-prostyle. A portico of two
columns is called distyle ; one of four columns, tetra-
atyle ; of six columns, hexastyle ; eight columns, octostyle;
ten, decastyle ; twelve (rare), dodecastyle. Examples of
an uneven number of columns are very rare. Pente-
style has five columns. The addition of a peristyle gives,
in many examples, two rows of columns to the portico ;
in that case it is the number in the outer row which
gives its name to the portico.
When the intercolumniation or space between the
columns is one diameter and a half of a column it is
said to be pycnostyle ; when two diameters, systyle ;
when two diameters and a quarter, euslyle ; when three
or four diameters, diasfyle; when
four or five diameters, arceostyle.
When columns are grouped in
couples the arrangement is called
TENON. The end of a piece
of wood shaped so as to fit into
a mortice or hole, in another
piece (fig. 233.)
TERCENTO (lit. 'three hun-
dred '). Italian work of the
TERRA -COTTA (Ital., lit.
baked earth). A variety of brick FIG
made from a specially prepared
clay and baked at a high temperature, so that the
surface becomes partially vitrified. It was used from
very early times and was common in Italy throughout
the middle ages. It was imported into England from
Italy early in the sixteenth century, chiefly as medal-
lions. Since about the middle of the nineteenth
century great quantities have been manufactured in
England and it is now largely used, especially in towns,
owing to its power of resisting the disintegrating
influences of a smoky atmosphere.
TESSELLATED (from Lat. tessellatus, checkered,
from lessella, a small cube of stone, dimin. of tessera, a
die used for playing s.). A mosaic* on a floor, wall or
* See article thereon.
TENON AND MORTICE
vault, composed of small cubes (tesserae) of stone, marble,
earthenware or glass.
TESSERA. See TESSELLATED.
TESTER. A canopy over a bed, pulpit or altar.
TETRASTYLE. See TEMPLE.
THATCH. Formerly (and still in rural parts)
called thack, which would seem to be more correct.
"The old word to thack, theak, or thatch, frequently
signifies no more than to cover, and is used in reference
to tiles, lead, or other materials " (P.). Thatch is now
made of reed (the most durable material), straw, sedge
THEATRE (Gk. 0eao/zou, I see). The earliest
form of theatre, or place especially intended for shows,
in England was the Round or amphitheatre, a circular
area surrounded by earth- banks, of pre- Roman age.
It is said that these were at one time common all over
the country and that they were used for bull-baiting,
bear-baiting, sports and pastimes and for spectacles of
all kinds, including, in some cases at least, miracle-
plays. There are some remarkable examples remain-
ing in Cornwall. The sloping ban^ is cut into steps
to form tiers of seats, though one at St. Just, which
is one hundred and twenty-six feet in diameter,
formerly had stone seats. With these may be com-
pared Chaucer's description of the lists in the Knight's
That swich a noble theatre as it was
1 dar vvel seyn that in this world ther nas.
The circuit a myle was aboute,
Walled of stoon, and diched al with-oute.
Round was the shap, in maner of compas,
Ful of degrees, the heighte of sixty pas,
That, whan a man was set on o degree
He letted nat his felawe for to see.
But the early drama the Miracle-plays and Passion-
plays, the Morals or Moralities, and the Interludes and
Pageants, generally had no fixed abode. Often the
performance was in a church. Sometimes it formed
part of a great annual procession, being given in the
street on a high stage on wheels ; this perambulating
theatre was of two storeys, the upper being the stage
and the lower a room where the actors apparelled
In the reign of Elizabeth a great number of com-
panies of actors were formed, each under the protection
of the sovereign or a noble, and called his 'servants.'
These companies travelled about the country and gave
their performance in any place that was available, such
as the inn-yard of a country town. An inn-yard was in
many ways suitable. It was entirely surrounded by
buildings, the various rooms of which were entered
from galleries open to the yard. These galleries gave
good covered accommodation to the well-to-do ; the
poorer folk or ' groundlings ' stood about on the ground.
A rude stage was erected in the centre of the yard ;
there was, of course, no scenery. At the end of the
sixteenth century or at the beginning of the seven-
teenth the stage was probably moved to one side of the
yard, and the part of the lowest gallery over it could be
used by the players for the upper stage which was
required by the early drama.
Plays were also given in the halls of large country-
houses and of the Inns of Court and of the colleges at
Oxford and Cambridge both before and after the estab-
lishment of regular theatres. The spectators sat at the
dais end of the hall; the players occupied the lower
end against the screen, the two doors of which served
for their entrances and exits, and the musicians' gallery
no doubt served for the upper stage already alluded to.
The first theatre of modern type in England was
The Theatre, built in 1576 in Finsbury Fields. In 1598
it was rebuilt on the Bankside (on the Surrey side of
the river) as The Globe. It was octagonal in form, and
was built of timber ; the central space, the pit, was
open to the sky, only the galleries and a part of the
stage being covered in.
In this and other early theatres, as the Curtain,
Fortune, Rose, Hope, Swan, Newington Butts, Black-
friars, there was a small gallery over the back part of
the stage. This gallery was required by the form of
many of the old plays, and it was put to a variety
of uses (fig. 234). It served for a balcony or upper
window, as in ' Romeo and Juliet,' or for the ram-
parts o r ihe walls of Angiers in ' King John ' ; or
for the performance of a play within a play, as in
' Hamlet.' But its chief use was that it enabled the
actors to present two scenes at the same time, as, for
instance, the Council-chamber and the ante-chamber
in ' Henry VIII.' (v. 2).
Both the gallery and the part of the stage under it
were hung with curtains, which parted in the middle
and were drawn aside. The stage projected boldly out
into the central area, so that the sides as well as the
front were exposed. There was no scenery beyond a
few conventional properties, such as a tomb or a smoking
cauldron. A trap-door in the floor seems to have been
considered necessary. Some of the early playhouses
were large ' public ' theatres, others were smaller, called
private, and entirely covered in. Theatres were also
distinguished as ' summer' or open, and 'winter' or
The theatre of Shakespeare's day seems to owe
something to each of those places which have been
mentioned above as the scene of early play-acting. The
circular or polygonal form was probably derived from
the ' round ' ; some of the details of the stage from the
miracle-play, the stage of which was provided with a
trap-door. In the tiers of wooden galleries we see the
hostelry, in the open central space the hostelry-yard
in which the 'groundlings' stood. The two doors in
the screen at the lower end of a hall in a private house
or college continued as features in the background of
the stage into the eighteenth century.
Scenery was very much elaborated in the masques
FIG. 234. THE FORTUNE THEATRE, LONDON
designed by Inigo Jones early in the seventeenth
century and was carried still further by Sir William
Davenant fifty years later.
In the time of Charles II. there were but two
small theatres in London. The stage still projected
and the central space was still open to the sky. The
whole building was covered in towards the end of the
TILE FLOOR 269
seventeenth century or early in the eighteenth. Foot-
lights were introduced by.Garrick in 1765 after a visit
to France. The stage still projected boldly into the
auditorium in the middle of the nineteenth century
although it was at the same time deeply recessed.
THURIBLE. See CENSER.
TIE-BEAM. A horizontal timber forming part of a
roof* and resting on the two side walls of the build-
ing (figs. 203,209,210.)
TILE FLOOR. Most medieval paving tiles are
square, from four to six inches each way and about an
inch thick. They are either plain or have a simple
pattern on each tile (fig. 235) ; sometimes the design
FIG. 235. RED AND BUFF PAVING TILE FIG. 236. TILE PAVEMENT
Thirteenth century ICKLINGHAM
extends over several tiles. Occasionally tiles of several
different shapes are used, fitting into one another to
form a pattern (fig. 236), and there are a few ex-
amples, as in Prior Crauden's Chapel at Ely, in which
a large picture is wrought in tiles of two colours.
The body of the tile is usually red with the device of
foliage, figures, heraldry or grotesques in buff. A deep
sinking was made in the red clay and this was filled
* See article thereon.
FIG. 237. PAVEMENT OF INCISED TILES, BANGOR
Probably early fourteenth century
TIMBER BUILDING 271
with white clay; the whole was then covered with
a glaze which turned the white into yellow and gave the
red a richer colour. Sometimes the pattern was simply
incised (fig. 237). Black tiles are occasionally found
and sometimes a green glaze was used. In and after
the sixteenth century pavements of tile were less
used for the better class of buildings and stone and
marble became more general. The art of making orna-
mental tiles died out and was not revived till the nine-
TILE HANGING. The walls of timber houses,
especially in the south of England, are commonly pro-
tected by tiles fixed like those of a roof, and the
practice is an old one. The tiles are either plain
rectangles or the lower edges are curved. The system
affords a good protection against driving rains and is
known as ' weather tiling.' ^
TILE, ROOF. Roof-tiles may be divided into two
classes : (1) Plain tiles, which are flat and are laid edge to
edge like slates, each course overlapping by about three
inches the course next but one below it. (2) Curved tiles
of various forms ; in these the vertical edges overlap,
in consequence of which a course need only overlap the
next course below it, instead of the next but one. The
reason of this will at once be apparent by arranging on
a table sheets of paper about twice as long as they are
wide. The commonest and oldest form is the pantile,
which resembles the marble tile used by the Greeks.
Sometimes, instead of the edges overlapping, both edges
are turned up and covered by another tile ; this is the
Italian method and was used by the Greeks and Romans.
TIMBER BUILDING. Half-timber-work as it is
now called, because the timbers which show on the face
are about the same width as the spaces between, was the
general method of construction for houses* in the middle
* See article thereon.
272 TIMBER BUILDING
ages and remained the most common till the eighteenth
The artistic treatment varies in different districts.
The system reached its highest development in the
well-timbered districts of Gloucestershire, Hereford-
shire, Shropshire, Cheshire, and south Lancashire. It
would seem that in East Anglia it was not much used
and that the houses were entirely covered with plaster
and were at an earlier period than in other parts built
The practice of making the upper storeys of houses
overhang was due to the use of timber. It not only
gave more space in the upper rooms, but it was, if any-
thing, rather stronger than if the wall had been
vertical : the weight of the upper wall on the ends of
the joists counter-balanced the weight of the floor ;
some of the timbers could be more strongly joined, and
^;he brackets under each projection, which would have
been in the way inside the house, gave rigidity to the
building. Each projection also pro-
tected the wall below it from the rain.
The normal system of framing was
as follows (fig. 239) : A plate was laid
on a low wall about level with the floor
and into this were tenoned upright
studs about 8 inches by 5 inches with
their broad faces outwards, and from
8 inches to 12 inches apart. Stronger
posts were placed at intervals of o or
6 feet. The studs and posts were
framed into another plate at the top. On this plate
rested the floor joists of the upper storey. They were
of similar scantlings to the stud, and there were
stronger beams over the large posts.
The beams and the common joists projected beyond
the wall a distance of from one foot to three feet.
Curved brackets, springing from the large posts,
supported the ends of the principal beams. On the
ends of the beams and joists was laid another plate,
and on this was constructed the framing of the upper
storey in the same way as that of the lower storey ;
and so with the third storey. To give the house
lateral stiffness, curved struts were placed along its
FIG. 239. TIMBER HOUSE, SHREWSBURY
face in the angles between the posts and plates (fig
239). If the house was at the corner of a street, so
that its upper storey had to project on two sides, the
angle post was very substantial and was shaped out of
a naturally curved piece of timber so as in itself to form
a strong bracket under the angle post of the upper
storey ; in order that the floor joists might project on
both sides of the house they were framed in a peculiar
way into a diagonal beam (fig. 240).
The spaces between the timbers are usually filled
with a mixture of clay and straw called pugging in
FIG. 840. FRAMING OF THE FLOOR IN A CORNER HOUSE
which stakes are embedded, the pugging being covered
inside and out with a thin coat of plaster. Sometime
' brick-nogging '* is used instead of pugging and is lef
exposed to view. In the western counties the timbers
* See article thereon.
are commonly tarred and the plaster is whitewashed,
but in the south-east the timber is allowed to weather
a natural grey and the plaster is coloured yellow.
In the plainer buildings the framing was generally
simple ; the plates were moulded or carved with a
scroll, the brackets sprang from small shafts cut on the
posts, the angle posts were rather more richly orna-
mented, the barge-boards were moulded, carved or
traceried. In the west the framing itself was often
elaborated, being divided into square panels containing
devices formed by variously cut timbers (fig. 238) ;
small oriel windows project under the overhanging
storey and sometimes have tracery.
TOLBOOTH. See GUILDHALL.
TOMB. See MONUMENT, SHRINE.
TOOTH ORNAMENT. See DOG-TOOTH.
TORUS. See MOULDING (fig. 182).
TOUCH -STONE. A medieval name for a hard
black stone capable of taking a polish ; sometimes used
for the tops of tombs in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries ; ' so called from its supposed identity with
or resemblance to the lapis Lydius, or touch-stone, used
by goldsmiths in assaying the quality of gold by the
test of aqua fortis ' (p.).
TOWER. See CASTLE, CHURCH, HOUSE, STEEPLE.
TOWER-LIGHT. A loophole in a tower; any
window in a tower ; one of the tracery-lights, like a
loophole, in a Perpendicular window.
TOWN-HALL. See GUILDHALL.
TRABEATED (Lat. trabs, a beam). A system of
architecture in which the lintel is used.
TRACERY. The beginnings of tracery are to be
found in the blind-storey or triforium of large churches
and in the windows, but it was in early times copied in
FIG. 241. ROUND
wood screens and this use of it continually increased
till in the fifteenth century; it was also applied to solid
surfaces such as sides of chests and finally to walls.
It is remarkable that tracery and cusping were used
much earlier in circular windows than in others, and at
most periods were in a more advanced stage of elabora-
tion (fig. 241). The commonest form in
early round windows is a series of straight
mullions radiating from a central circle
to a ring of tracery round the circum-
ference. These are sometimes called
wheel windows. Otherwise the tracery
follows the vogue of the period. Round
windows were little used in the later
In the twelfth century it became a common practice
to group together two or more lancet windows, or a
number of small arches forming the triforium-gallery
arcade (fig. 242). The flat piece of masonry left above
the small arches was sometimes pierced with a circle or
quatrefoil or by a group of circles
(fig. 243.) This forms what is
known as Plate-tracery and it is
the parent of all later forms of
tracery. The decorative effect
of this treatment must have
been at once apparent, and the
idea was rapidly developed in the
first half of the thirteenth cen-
tury. Gradually the two windows
were brought close together with FIG - '** TRIFOR ;CADB
only a narrow mullion between them ; inside the
building they were placed in a single arched recess,
and outside the whole group was embraced under one
hood-mould (figs. 244, 245).
Broad and irregular pieces of the stone ' plate ' were
still left between the lancets and the piercing in the
head. These spaces were gradually reduced by en-
larging the top piercing and so shaping it as to make
it fill as much of the tympanum as possible. The
remaining spaces were next pierced so that the stone
bar between any two lights was never wider than the
FIG. 243. EARLIEST PLATE TRACERY, GREAT ABINGTOK
mullion (fig. 245). This is called Bar-tracery, a term
which includes all the later forms of tracery. This
stage was reached rather before the middle of the
thirteenth century. The more important members are
emphasised by being made wider and thicker from
inside to outside than the less important.
At first the heads of the lights are plain arches,
although in plate tracery they had sometimes been
foliated ; but the circle in the head has bold cusps,
usually three, four or five. In the latter part of the
thirteenth century the heads of the lights are cusped
FIG. 245. EARLY BAR-TRACERY
also, but never with more than two cusps. The cusping
springs from the flat soffit of the arch or circle, and
is called soffit cusping (figs. 246 a, 248). In the latter
part of the thirteenth century the cusp is no longer
confined to the soffit, but includes nearly the whole of
the chamfer or moulding which forms the innermost
member of the tracery bar (fig. 246 6). Sometimes
the whole bar follows the line of foliation (fig. 253,
Hitherto the tracery had consisted of simple
symmetrical forms such as circles, trefoils and quatre-
foils, whose perimeters, although they touch at points,
are distinct ; the heads of the lights are simple two-
centred arches. This is called Geometrical tracery.
In the earliest tracery attention was concentrated on
FIG. 346. a, SOFFIT CUSPING. 6, LATER CUSPING
the piercings, and the aim was to give these a good form.
Pieces of stone of awkward shape were left between
them (fig. 244). In later work, as we shall presently
see, the lines of the stonework were the chief con-
sideration, and the graceful flow of these was the first
thought of the designer, the form of the tracery-lights
FIG. 247. GEOMETRICAL TRACERY
FIG. 248. GEOMETRICAL TRACERY
WITH SOFFIT CUSPING
FLOWING TRACERY, GRANTCHESTKR
FIO. 849. GEOMETRICAL TRACF.RV
Early fourteenth century
received less attention (fig. 254). At the period we
have now reached there is a fairly equal balance
between the claims of the piercing and of the masonry
(figs. 247, 249).
Early in the fourteenth century the heads of the
lights become ogee-shaped (fig. 252), the boundary
lines of adjacent piercings coincide, the lines are sinu-
ous, the piercings are no longer symmetrical (fig. 250) ;
this tracery is called Flowing. The cusps are sharper
and more numerous, the heads of the lights having
four instead of only two, and the cusping of the tracery
corresponds. Geometrical tracery continues in use
and the two are sometimes combined. At the same
FIG. a5a. RETICULATED TRACERV, MERTON COLLEGE, OXFORD
time also another variety called Reticulated tracery
is used (fig. 252) : in this the window head is filled
with a simple pattern repeated without variety, with-
out subordination and without conformity to the arch
in which it was placed. Occasionally a peculiar form
of cusping is used consisting of two cusps close to-
gether, or, as it might be called, of a split cusp. This
is called Kentish tracery (fig. 253).
In English flowing tracery the forms are generally
full and round and the design as a whole keeps some-
thing of its geometrical character (fig. 250). But
PIG. 253. KENTISH TRACERY
occasionally in England and more often in Scotland
the influence of France is seen in a loss of all structural
form and in a peculiar upward tendency giving a flame-
like form to the tracery, whence it is called Flam-
boyant (fig. 251). This variety has often a very weak
appearance. But it is possible ttiat it was the upward
trend of the lines which led to the next development,
in the latter part of the fourteenth century, in the
direction of greater strength. Some of the bars are
made quite straight and vertical (fig. 255). This
characteristic becomes more and more pronounced
(fig. 256) till all flowing lines are lost (fig. 257).
Hence it is called Perpendicular tracery. This form
is peculiar to Great Britain. Windows of the fifteenth
century often have a transom with sub-arches and
sometimes short pieces of transom are introduced into
the tracery. The cusps are more pronounced than
254. FLOWING TRACERY APPROACHING TO FLAMBOYANT
FIG. 255. THE BEGINNING OF
Late fourteenth century
formerly and have blunt points. Sometimes, especially
in niches and screens, there are minor cusps on the arcs
of the main cusps.
At the end of the
tracery had become
very monotonous and
lifeless, and of course
it ceased altogether
with the rest 01
in the sixteenth
century. It was oc-
casionally used in
the Gothic revival in ^
the time of Charles "I
I. (See also WINDOW.) "\
FIG. 357. PERPENDICULAR TRACERY
Late fifteenth century
STUMP TRACERY. In
late German Gothic
" a kind of tracery which is formed of flowing lines with
the ramifications ending abruptly with projecting
stumps or stool-pieces, as if they had been cut off,
producing in some degree the effect of feathering
[or cusping]. Professor Willis has designated this stump
TRANSEPT. The cross arm of a church* or other
building. Sometimes the north and south transepts
together are spoken of in the singular, sometimes in
the plural. In England additional transepts besides
the main transepts were often built, sometimes further
east as at Canterbury, at the extreme east end as at
Durham or at the west end as at Ely.
TRANSITIONAL PERIOD. A name given by
Sharpe to a phase of English architecture without
* See article thereon.
definite limits, but considered by him to begin about
1 145 and to end about 1 lf)0. (See Appendix.) Its charac-
teristic is, as its name implies, a mingling of Norman
and Gothic features. (See NORMAN, EARLY ENGLISH.)
TRANSOM. A horizontal bar in a window. It was
first used in the thirteenth century. Its object was in
some cases to stiffen the mullions,* in others to form a
convenient division between the shutter with which, in
domestic work, the lower part of the window was
closed, and the upper part which was filled with glass.
It was rarely used in churches before the fifteenth
century, but it then became common and had a small
arch under it. (See TRACERY, WINDOW.)
TREFOIL. (1) A three-lobed panel or tracery-
light. (2) A three-lobed leaf characteristic of thir-
TRELLIS. A lattice or grating formed of cross-
TRIBUNE. A raised seat or throne for the emperor
or judge in a Roman basilica. It was placed in a
central position against the wall of the apse ; it was
the origin of the seat of the bishop or celebrant in the
early Christian churches.*
TRIFORIUM. An upper storey over the aisle of a
cathedral or large church, with arches (called the
triforium arcade) in the wall between it and the nave.
It is derived from the Roman pagan basilica and was in
early Christian days used for the accommodation of
women. In English work of the eleventh and twelfth
centuries it is lofty, being about the same height
as the clear-storey and nearly as high as the lowest
storey. But it is gradually reduced in height and
finally is omitted.
* See article thereon.
TRIGLYPH (Gk., lit. thrice-cut, hence presum-
ably ' cut into three '). An ornament of the Doric
frieze consisting of a slightly projecting block with
two vertical V-shaped grooves and two half-grooves or
chamfers on the edges. One is placed over each column
and one over each interval. They are supposed to
represent the end of beams used in early timber
buildings. (See GREEK ARCHITECTURE and ORDER.)
TRIL1THON. A prehistoric erection consisting of
three large stones : two pillars and a lintel, like those
TR1PTICH, TRIPTYCH. A wooden reredos con-
sisting of a central painted panel with two folding doors,
on the inner sides of which also pictures were painted.
It was a common form of reredos in England in the
middle ages and was called ' a table with leaves.'
TRIUMPHAL ARCH. (1) An archway erected
over a road or street as a memorial, e.g. the Arch of
Titus and others in Rome. (2) The arch forming the
entrance from the nave to the apse in a basilican
church, always highly decorated.
TRUSS. A system of timbers so framed together
as to be self-supporting and capable of bridging over a
space or forming a bracket, e.g. a framed principal of
FIG. 858. TUDOR FLOWER OR BRATTISHING
TUDOR FLOWER. An upright leaf used in close
repetition as a cresting in work of the fifteenth century
called also brattishing* (fig. 258).
TUDOR PERIOD. See RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE.
TURRET. A small tower; in churches generally
used for a staircase, or for a bell ; in castles for various
TUSCAN ORDER. See ORDER.
TYMPANUM (Lat. tympanum, a drum, tympanum).
The space enclosed between a lintel and an arch or
between an entablature and the sloping cornice of a
pediment (fig. 6).
TYPE. 'The canopy over a pulpit, also called a
UNDERCROFT. A storey in a medieval building
on the level of the ground, or partly underground,
used as a store place or as menial offices, the principal
rooms being on the first floor.
URN A common ornament in Roman and Re-
naissance architecture, especially on the pedestals of a
balustrade, on gate piers and similar places. Urns made
of lead were much used in gardens in the eighteenth
century. Probably derived from the sepulchral urns
of the Romans.
VALLEY. A re-entering angle formed by the
intersection of two roofs* (fig. 115, line a b.)
VANE A weathercock ; vanes were in use in the
times of' the Saxons, and in after ages were very
extensively employed (P.).
VASE. See URN.
VAULT (1) An arched ceiling or roof of brick,
stone, etc.'; hence (2) a chamber so covered ; and
hence (3) a tomb.
Probably there are no pre-Conquest vaults in fcng-
* See article thereon.
land except those which cover the narrow spaces in the
confessios * of Saxon churches.
Small Norman buildings were sometimes covered
with a barrel-vault like a railway tunnel, also called a
waggon-vault from its resemblance to the tilt of a
waggon. More often the aisles of a church have
groined vaulting, while the nave being wider and
higher has a wooden roof only. A groined vault is
one formed by the intersection of two barrel-vaults at
right angles, the groin being the angle formed by the
meeting of the two surfaces and crossing the area
diagonally. The transept of Durham about 1100 is an
early example of a large vault. The early groined
vaults like those of the Romans, of which they were
rude copies, have no ribs, but about 1 1 00 both trans-
verse and diagonal ribs were added.
The introduction of ribs allows a change in con-
struction. The vault without ribs retains its tunnel-
like construction, the whole vault surface forming an
arch across the building. But when ribs are used
these are built first and the spandrel filling is then
thrown across from rib to rib in a succession of oblique
arches, each course being arched so that when com-
pleted it is self-supporting. This apparently sudden
change in construction was perhaps a development of
the system of ribs which was sometimes used under
Norman barrel-vaults and which continued throughout
the middle ages wherever, as in bridges, a barrel-vault
The construction of ribbed groining with the round
arch involves some difficulties. The diagonal ribs
being much longer than the transverse ribs, rose to a
greater height if both were made semi-circular. This
produced inconvenient forms in the spandrels, and
various expedients were resorted to, such as stilting the
transverse ribs and depressing the diagonals, in order
* See article thereon.
PLANS OF VAULTS
i. Without and with ridge-ribs. 2. Sexpartite vault over nave. 3. Inter-
mediate ribs (a) added ; the ridge-rib (6) stopped against them, and (c)
continued beyond to the wall. 4. The same. 5. More intermediate
ribs added. 6. Fourteenth-century lierne vault.
to make the crowns of the two more nearly at the same
By the introduction of the pointed arch at the end of
the twelfth century these difficulties were got over.
The number of ribs is small, a cross rib, wall rib and
diagonal rib only being used (fig. 259, !) The diagonal
rib is made semi-circular or nearly so, while the wall
rib forms a sharply -pointed arch. This produces a
twist in the spandrel-filling between the two ribs,
especially in oblong vaults where the difference be-
tween the diagonal and the shorter side is consider-
able, and the twist is sometimes increased by stilting
the shorter rib. Hence this form of vault has been
called ploughshare vaulting. The courses in each
spandrel form approximately equal angles with the
two ribs on which they rest ; consequently the courses
meet the ridge at an angle (fig. 26 1).
FIG. 260. VAULTING RIBS
(c) Cross rib ; (d) diagonal rib ;
(r) ridge rib ; (>) wall rib
Arrangement of courses
In large churches the bays of the aisles are generally
nearly square, while the nave, being about twice as
wide, has oblong bays about twice as wide as they are
long (fig. 259, -0- And so sometimes two bays of the nave
are included under one square vault (fig. 259, #) In
this case an additional groin is used, similar to the
diagonals but crossing the building at right angles.
The bay has, therefore, three groins instead of two
dividing it into six cells instead of four, and it is there-
fore called a sexpartite vault, the ordinary plan being
* See article thereon.
quadripartite. This kind is more common in France
than in England.
Before the end of the thirteenth century the number
of ribs was increased. Intermediate ribs are introduced
between the diagonal and transverse and between the
diagonal and wall (fig. 259, plans 3, 4 a). Now a pair
of these ribs forms an arch which leans towards the
FIG. 262. L1ERNE VAULTING
centre of the vault. It has therefore a tendency to fall
in that direction. In order to counteract this a ridge
rib (6) is placed between the apex of the inclined ribs
and the centre of the vault. This ridge rib was after-
wards extended to the extremity of the vault (c) ; but
this continuation is of no structural use.
Early in the fourteenth century an important altera-
tion is made in the curvature of the ribs. The curve of
the diagonal rib approximates to the ellipse which
would be formed by the intersection of two cylindrical
spandrel surfaces of regular form. This change makes
a considerable difference in the appearance of the vault.
The ploughshare form is also abandoned. Thus the
form of the vault approximates more to a series of
intersecting cylinders. The courses of the spandrel-
filling are now made horizontal, so that they are parallel
with the ridge (fig. ~J()l).
About the middle of the fourteenth century a further
modification is made by the introduction of lierne ribs,
that is, ribs which do not spring from the shaft or wall,
FIG. 263. PLAN OK KAN-VAULTING
but cross the spandrels from rib to rib, producing star-
shaped patterns. This variety is known as lierne vault-
ing (fig. 259, plan 6, and fig. 262).
No further change of importance was made in the
ordinary vault. But in the fifteenth century a new
form known as fan-vaulting was developed and was
frequently used, especially in diminutive work, though
the ordinaiy groined vault continued to be the more
common. In this variety numerous ribs spread out at
equal angles and with the same curve, producing, when
seen from below, a fan-like appearance (fig. 263).
The character of any vault is determined by con-
sidering the form of the mass of masonry above any
one shaft. In the early vaults one of these masses
forms, roughly, an inverted half-pyramid with concave
sides, and a plan taken through it gives a parallelo-
gram. The angles of the half-pyramid were gradually
rounded off by altering the curve of the groins so as to
make them less prominent. In fan-vaulting the bundle
of ribs forms an inverted half-cone with concave sides,
and its plan is a semicircle. It is this which gives to
fan-vaulting its distinctive character. The method
of construction was also different. In a groined vault
the ribs are true arches ; they were built first indepen-
dently of the spandrels which were filled in afterwards
and rested on the ribs. In the fan-vault the ribs and
spandrels are one ; there is a complication of ribs, but
they are mere ornaments worked on the surface of the
cone. Towards the close of the fifteenth century fan-
vaulting achieved some remarkable developments, such
as at Christ Church, Oxford; Henry VII.'s Chapel,
Westminster ; and St. George's Chapel, Windsor.
Renaissance vaults followed those of the Romans,
that is, they were groined vaults formed by intersecting
barrels and had no ribs. The centre of each bay was
sometimes formed into a low saucer-shaped dome.
VAULTING SHAFT. A shaft placed against a
wall to carry vaulting.
VERANDAH, VARANDAH, VERANDA (Portu-
guese). A slightly-built loggia or portico for sitting
under ; strictly a covered balcony (s.). Introduced into
England early in the nineteenth century
VERGE-BOARD. See BARGE-BOARD.
VESICA PISCIS (Lat., a fish's bladder). A name
given by Albert Dtirer (p.) to a pointed oval form used
frequently in the middle ages as an aureole or glory
round the figure of Our Lord or of the Virgin in sculp-
ture, pictures, glass and seals.
VESTIBULE. A porch, entrance-hall, lobby, ante-
VESTRY, REVESTRY, SACRISTY. A room
attached to a church in which to keep and put on
vestments. It was commonly on the north side of the
chancel in medieval times. (See SACRISTY.)
VILLA (Lat. villa, a farm-house, lit. small village s.).
A detached suburban house. Among the Romans a
VISE, VICE. An old term for a spiral staircase
round a column called a newel. It is sometimes of
wood but generally of stone.
VITRUVIAN SCROLL. An ornament consisting
of a series of spirals somewhat resembling waves.
VOLUTE. A spiral ; the distinguishing feature of
the Ionic capital, surviving in early Norman capitals.
Seldom or never used in the middle ages. (Sec ORDER.)
VOUSSOIR. One of the stones or bricks of an arch.
WAGGON-VAULT OR CEILING. See ROOF (p. 235),
VAULT (p. 288).
WAINSCOT (from Old Dutch tvaeghc-schot , wall-
boarding s.). (1) Wood panelling on a wall. (2) Oak
imported from the Baltic ; originally for
making panelling but now used for other
WALL-PLATE. A piece of timber lying
on a wall to receive the ends of rafters or
WARD. See CASTLE.
WARMING-HOUSE. See CALEFACTORY.
WATER-TABLE. See WEATHERING.
WEATHERING OR WATER-TABLE.
A sloping surface covering an off-set or FIC 2(5
projection of a wall or buttress to throw WEATHERING OF
off the rain (fig. 264).
WEATHER-BOARDING. Horizontal boards nailed
on to the wall of a timber- framed building; the boards
overlap and the upper edges are made thin so that
they may fit more closely.
WEATHERCOCK. See VANE.
WEATHER-TILING. See TILE HANGING.
WICKET. A small door formed in a large one.
WIND-BEAM, WIND-BRACE. A diagonal strut
in a roof from a principal rafter to a purlin to prevent
the roof* from swaying longitudinally.
WINDOW. In the early middle ages when glass
was expensive windows were small and frequently un-
glazed even in churches. Early windows (to about 1250)
are rebated probably to receive a wooden frame which
held the glass. In later times the glass was fixed into
a groove in the wood or stonework. Windows which
were not glazed were perhaps sometimes filled with
horn or with a wooden lattice/ as those of butchers' shops
in the country still are. All through the middle ages
the glass was not made to open ; the window was divi-
ded by a horizontal transom, the part above the transom
being glazed and the part below fitted with iron bars
and a wooden shutter. Subsequently (probably in the
sixteenth century) the glass was fitted into iron case-
ments. Sashes were introduced in the latter part of
the seventeenth century. A 'Venetian' window is a
triple window, the central division being wide and
arched, while the side openings are narrow (generally
one-third of the central part) and covered by an entab-
lature. These have been in use since the time of Inigo
Jones. (Sec also GLASS, TRACERY.)
ZIGZAG. A shallow Norman enrichment used
chiefly on string-courses.
* See article thereon.
PIG. 965. COFFIN-LID
I. ADDITIONAL ARTICLES.
BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE. The architec-
ture of Byzantium, the ancient Constantinople, an
ecclesiastical style which may be said to have begun
with the removal of the seat of Empire from Rome by
Constantine about A.D. 330, and to have continued till
the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in the
fifteenth century. During this long period, or at least
from the sixth century to the fifteenth, although it had
its periods of greatness and of decline, it changed but
little in character ; it did not develop by a steady
progress as did the architecture of Western Europe.
The building work done under Constantine was re-
markable in quantity, costly, sumptuous, and elaborate,
but it was done in hot haste with poor materials, and
art was at that time in a degraded state, as may be
seen, for instance, in the Arch of Constantine at Rome.
None of Constantine's work remains at Constantinople
except the two vast columned cisterns. The Church
of the Nativity at Bethlehem was built by him, and
resembles his church of St. Peter at Rome in being a
simple basilica church (fig. 57). The style was based
on a combination of Roman ideas and Oriental feeling.
Much of the plan and arrangement of the building is
Human, such as the apse and the narthex and the
marble lining a system which the Romans had
borrowed from the East. The scheme of decoration,
on the other hand, was Eastern, in being a scheme
of colour rather than of form.
Byzantine architecture reached* its climax, appar-
ently somewhat suddenly, in the reign of the Emperor
Justinian (527-565). He did a vast amount of build-
ing of every sort. Besides his great church of Sta
Sophia he built or rebuilt twenty-five other churches,
many hospitals, bridges, aqueducts, and fortresses. Sta
Sophia (the Divine Wisdom) was built about 532. Its
plan may be described as a Greek cross inscribed in a
square, with a narthex at the west end. The chief
feature is the great dome over the central square
formed by the crossing of the arms. Domes had been
used before this, but in a tentative way and on a small
scale. The dome of Sta Sophia is more than a hundred
feet across, and pendentives are boldly used to bring
the square to a circle and so form a base for the dome.
During the same period notable buildings, more
or less Byzantine in style, were produced in Italy.
S. Apollinare Nuovo, S. Vitale, S. Apollinare in Classe,
all at Ravenna, were built in the first half of the sixth
century. But the incursions of the Northmen and
an accumulation of other misfortunes in the year 566'
checked art in Italy for a century and a half. Early
in the eighth century there was a revival, and S. Maria
in Cosmedin at Rome was built between 772 and 795.
Sta Sophia was left without a rival. No great dome
was again attempted. The later churches are small,
scarcely larger than an ordinary sitting-room, and
though they all have domes these are on a diminutive
scale. The churches in Athens are of the eighth and
ninth centuries. The two monastic churches of S. Luke
of Stiris in Phocis (just north of the Gulf of Corinth)
are of the eleventh century, which has been called the
BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 299
second great period of Byzantine architecture (Messrs.
Schultz and Barusley). The beautiful little church at
Daphni, near Athens, is probably of the twelfth or
thirteenth century. S. Mark's at Venice is of the
The general plan of the Byzantine church is based
on the Greek cross of four equal arms, with wide
aisles projecting as much as the transepts, and with a
dome over the crossing. In Sta Sophia and in early
buildings generally the dome springs direct from the
pendentives, but in later work it is mounted on a
drum. The church is entered through a large porch
or narthex extending across the west end. The east
end terminates in three apses, circular within and
polygonal outside. The sanctuary is cut off by a
screen called the iconostasis, consisting of columns
supporting a lintel or entablature. The choir is en-
closed by a low screen carved and pierced with very
In the bright climate of the East windows are not
important. They are small and simple round arched
openings, sometimes filled with thin pierced slabs of
white marble. The base of the dome or the drum, if
there- is one, is surrounded by a number of small
Construction is simple and direct. In some im-
portant respects a departure is made from the Roman
tradition. First, thrusts of arches are to some extent
met by counter thrusts instead of by dead weights.
Second and this is the chief contribution of the
Byzantine style to the architecture of the world the
dome rising from pendentives is fully developed.
Third, the arch is sprung direct from a detached
column instead of from a mass of masonry decorated
with columns and entablature. Incidentally this latter
change brought about the introduction of a new
feature. In order to obtain a larger and stronger
surface for the arch to spring from than that afforded
by the abacus of the capital, a block of marble was
placed on the latter. This has been named a dosseret.
It has been thought by some to be a relic of the
Roman entablature, but it seems more likely that it
was introduced for the practical reason suggested above.
The columns are monoliths of marble, but the arches,
walls, vaults, and domes are built of very large thin
bricks. Outside the building the brickwork is exposed
to view, but internally the walls are covered with
marble and the domes and vaults with mosaic. The
domes and vaults are unprotected by roofs.
Byzantine architecture is an architecture of colour,
not of form ; in this it is thoroughly Oriental. The
elaboration of the colour scheme necessitates a corre-
sponding simplicity of form. The columns are mono-
liths, unfluted and unclustered ; arches are not
moulded, and are of one order only ; there is no
window tracery, and the Roman entablature is dis-
carded. The dome is the simplest architectural
feature that can be conceived, and though groined
vaults are used they not only have no ribs, but the
angles are rounded off so that the surfaces melt into
one another. The carving gives no bold lights and
shadows, and is confined to capitals and cornices.
The capitals are commonly of the cushion form. The
foliage has lost the bold modelling of the Corinthian
capital, although it retains something of the acanthi
form. It does not seem to grow round the bell as ii
the Corinthian capital, but is distributed somewhat
a pattern over the face of the stone, very delicatelj
carved but with little or no modelling.
Sculptured representations of the human figure wer
not allowed. The mosaic pictures of coloured and gilt
glass which cover the vaults and part of the walls are
full of solemn feeling, and are often of high artistic
merit. The icons or panel paintings of saints are
SCOTTISH CHURCH ARCHITECTURE 801
enriched by having garments and crowns of gold
The floor is of opus alexandrinum that is, it is com-
posed partly of large pieces of marble and partly of
mosaic bands of small marble tesserae.
The exterior of the Byzantine church was almost
neglected. The broken sky-line and the varied light
and shade produced by the different wall-planes often
give a picturesque effect, but this seems to be unstudied
and even accidental. Only the simplest means are em-
ployed for architectural decoration such as cornices and
patterns in brickwork. This was to a great extent due
to the nature of the building materials to hand, namely,
brick and, to a limited extent, stone of indifferent
quality. The use of marbles brought about a corre-
ponding development of the interior.
SCOTTISH CHURCH ARCHITECTURE. The
earliest architectural remains in what is now Scotland
are the primitive churches and oratories of Celtic type,
of which many are to be found in the western and
northern islands. As in the more numerous Irish
examples, to which these are similar, the very small size
and the square east end are the most characteristic
features, and in several cases the small chancel arch
no larger than a doorway. Coeval with some of these
early churches are many sculptured cross-bearing
stones. Most of these, however, occur, not side by
side with the early churches, but on the mainland.
Peculiar to Scotland and unknown elsewhere are the
strange and at present unintelligible symbols which
constantly occur on the sculptured stones of the north-
east. While these symbols are found incised on an
early class of stones upon which are no crosses, they
also occur on the richest of the cross-bearing slabs
which are chiefly found in the north-eastern counties
beyond the Forth. The stones usually date from the
seventh and eighth, and the crosses from the ninth and
tenth centuries. 1 Of earlier date is a little group more
like the crosses of Man, Wales and Cumbria, in the
extreme south-west of Scotland, to which belong the
well-known Kirkmadrine crosses with Latin inscrip-
tions commemorating early missionaries of the church
founded by St. Ninian, who died at Whithorn (Candida
Casa) about 432. The crosses of Argyllshire and the
West Highlands are of a later date and more like the
Irish crosses ; like them and unlike the great crosses
of the north-eastern counties, they stand free and not
combined with or cut upon slabs. Their Celtic art
survived all through the middle ages, and some of
them are of quite late date.
The architectural remains of the later or more
developed Celtic period are few ; there is a fine round
tower of the Irish type at Brechin and another at
Abernethy, and there are remains of others in Orkney.
But the church of St. Regulus at St. Andrews with its
tall square tower is definitely Romanesque and probably
as late as the twelfth century, and so are the similar
towers at Markinch, Dunblane, Dunning, etc., although
tinged with a strong local character. This local charac-
ter is fainter or wellnigh non-existent when we come
to the great churches of the latter part of the twelfth
century, in which we see the beginning of the English
influence which continued until the wars of the four-
teenth century. It was during the twelfth century
that the parochial and diocesan organisation in Scot-
land was practically completed, and it was then that
the larger religious houses were founded. The first of
them, Dunfermline, has a Norman nave which resembles
Durham ; the two small Romanesque churches of Dal-
meny and Leuchars. are well known, and there is a
1 Exhaustively illustrated and described in The Early
Christian Monuments of Scotland, J. Romilly Allen and Joseph
Anderson, Edinburgh, 1903. A fine series of examples of each
kind is in the National Museum, Queen Street, Edinburgh.
SCOTTISH CHURCH ARCHITECTURE 303
good deal of work of this period in Scotland, though
chiefly south of the Forth, as for example at Kelso and
There is transitional work in the ruins of St. Andrew's
Cathedral and of Arbroath Abbey, but it is when we
come to the thirteenth century that we realise how
great an era of prosperity and of church building in
Scotland that period was, and how strong was the
influence of England. Notwithstanding this English
influence several thirteenth-century buildings show
signs of the development of local characteristics. Chief
among them all of course is the choir of Glasgow
Cathedral with its magnificent crypt or rather lower
story, for it has windows all round which is un-
surpassed even in England. The vaulting of this
lower church is perhaps the most elaborate of its
date in the whole of Britain, and its windows and
many of its arches probably the most acutely pointed.
The arcade of the choir above has massive clus-
tered pillars not unlike those of Exeter, and the
plate-tracery of the aisle windows is very elaborate.
Thirteenth-century work is to be found in most
of the great churches of Scotland 2 and in a very
large proportion of the small churches in country
districts. Small aisleless churches with plain lancet
windows and no tower were built in great numbers at
this time all over Scotland, and more or less work of
this date remains in almost every existing medieval
parish church that was not made collegiate in the
fifteenth or sixteenth century. The prosperity of Scot-
land, and with it the thirteenth century building era,
came to an abrupt end with the death of Alexander III
in 1286. With the wars that ensued the country was
impoverished, and even after the victory of Bannock-
burn in 1314 very few buildings of importance were
2 Coldingham, Dryburgh, Dundrennan, Kilwinning, Dun-
blane, Brechin, Elgin, PJuscarden.
erected. The Decorated or Middle Pointed period is
wellnigh absent from Scottish architecture.* Sweet-
heart Abbey and the nave of Glasgow show an advanced
form of First-Pointed rather than a new style, although
after the breach with England national character cer-
tainly reasserts itself.
In the latter half of the fourteenth century we see
the growth of a national style that persisted with certain
variations of form for some two hundred years. This
Scottish Third-Pointed is neither Flamboyant nor Per-
pendicular, nor yet a mixture of the two, nor a mere
copy of any foreign style, but an entirely national
growth, influenced of course by the architecture of other
countries of the Netherlands and France much more
than of England. Its chief characteristics are its
extraordinary massiveness and the strong contrasts
formed by the arrangement of large plain surfaces
side by side with very rich details. Perhaps equally
characteristic is the way in which features of the earlier
styles continued to be employed side by side with
the later forms. Heavy pillars, clustered, octagonal,
or cylindrical ; deeply-cut mouldings and foliage ; the
semicircular arch ; a form of lancet window ; geo-
metrical tracery ; the saddle-back tower; the cruciform
plan ; the barrel vault all these never went out of
use in Scotland.
The four-centred arch was practically unknown, and
Perpendicular tracery is only found (and that merelj
as a variant among other forms) in less than half
dozen churches, all south of the Forth and east
Stirling Castle. 8 Apses generally three-sided ar
not infrequent in the later churches/ and wer
* Unless it be held that the subsequent style was but
development of it. There is real Decorated work at Melrose
3 Stirling, Linlithgow, Carnwath, Corstorphine, Melrose.
4 Stirling, Linlithgow, Seton, Biggar, Midcalder, etc.
SCOTTISH CHURCH ARCH^ECTURE 305
undoubtedly due to foreign inence. The crowns
surmounting the towers of St. Biles', Edinburgh, and
King's College, Aberdeen, are^ell known ; there were
others at Haddington and jmlithgow, and a seven-
teenth-century example is stfl left on tne Cross Steeple
at Glasgow. The pointed brrel vault, with 5 or without 6
ornamental ribs and bosses is ver y characteristic of the
later work and is one of tfe many features of the church
architecture of the tipe which appear to have been
adopted from domest^ and defensive practice. The
builders of the last lalf of the fifteenth century and
of the first part of t je sixteenth, seem to have done all
they could to avoU the use of intersecting vaults and
mitreing roofs, "he windows often large were set
low down in the *alk so as n t * break into the barrel
vaults and the fcairel vault of a transept or side chapel
and the roof ab've it were stopped against a gable built
on the side Wl of the nave so as to leave the main
vault unbroten. These barrel vaults usually carry a
fire-proof rjof of enormous stone slabs. The whole
construction is often exceedingly picturesque though
very hearr. Work of this kind, however, was not
universal, and some of the later windows are exceed-
ingly large and evidently intended to show off Nether-
landish stained glass. The Flamboyant type of tracery
was never made very elaborate, and the simpler forms
seem to have been preferred. Windows of later date
were generally set in the centre of the wall, and the
English construction of a deep splay and rear-vault
inside is almost unknown.
In England the great window filled with painted
glass was the principal feature of the east end, and the
reredos nearly always retained its earlier form of a
strip of rich work of no great height between the
altar and the window ; this was the usual treatment of
e.g. Seton, BothwelL 8 Crichton, Dunglass, etc.
the wall space at t. e east ends of aisles and above
side altars in transept^ we ll a s of that behind the high
altar. In Scotland, h wev er, although this arrange-
ment was quite commor a blank or nearly blank east
wall was not unknown; and was the rule behind
the side altars of the fiftbnth and sixteenth century
churches. 8 Altars were ne^-ly always placed against
the unpierced east walls of he transepts of the late
type of cruciform church. TU treatment of the altar
itself was, of course, that comt on to all altars of the
late Gothic period in this part ^f Europe, decoration
on the wall behind taking the pace of the English
window. The altars do not seem v> have been of the
great length of contemporary Engish altars, and in
the richer churches there was a tenancy to the use
of more candles above the riddel pos 4 a t the ends of
the altars, or hanging from the roof. 9 One may gather
from contemporary Netherlandish pictures, such as
those of the Van Eyck school, a very fair idea of
the arrangements usual in Scotland in the period
immediately preceding the Reformation. 10
While in England the reserved Eucharist was almost
invariably suspended above the altar in the hanging
pyx, in Scotland the pyx was placed in a richly adorned
ambry or " Sacrament House" in the wall of the
sanctuary on the north side of the high altar. The
hanging pyx was used in some places, but latterly
7 As at Whitekirk, Fowlis Easter, or Innerpeffray. But
Sweetheart, Melrose, Haddington, St Giles, Perth and Tan
provide examples of the large east window.
8 As at Linlithgow, Stirling, Dunkeld, and elsewhere.
9 See the inventories of the Cathedral and King's College,
Aberdeen, Registrant, Episcopatus Aberdonensis, ii, Edin., 1845,
and Fasti Aberdonenses . . . Records of the University and
King's College, Aberdeen, 1854.
Irf e.g. " The Exhumation of St Hubert," in the National
Gallery, and the Flemish pictures reproduced in the Alcuin
Club Collections, Nos. V, X.
SCOTTISH CHURCH ARCHITECTURE 307
the Sacrament House became general, at any rate
in the north and east of Scotland. 11 Very large
credence niches are to be found in many Scottish
chancels, usually in the south wall but frequently also
in the east wall. In one or two cases there are curious
outside spouts to piscinae, as at Guthrie.
Stone rood lofts remain at Glasgow and lona Cathe-
drals, Melrose Abbey and Lincluden Collegiate church.
The wall above the chancel arch is pierced by a
second and smaller arch at Dunblane Cathedral, and
Brechin Cathedral has a large shallow recess in the
same position. There is a magnificent set of early
sixteenth-century canopied stalls in King's College
chapel, Aberdeen, with a wooden rood loft, and there
are remains of a rood screen at the collegiate church
of Fowlis Easter in Forfarshire. At Guthrie is a very
remarkable waggon roof with paintings on the panels,
and Aberdeen Cathedral has a very richly carved and
painted flat roof upon the nave. But very little
medieval woodwork has survived.
No medieval church plate remains, but that of the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is often of great
interest. 12 Besides the early square handbells of Celtic
type, there are numerous interesting bells, many of
them Dutch or Flemish, dating from the end of the
fifteenth century to the beginning of the eighteenth.
While the larger churches had several bells and occa-
sionally carillons, Netherlandish practice was taken as
the model, and the English "ring," tuned to the
diatonic scale, was unknown.
The Reformation put an end to church building, but
11 Good examples, chiefly in Perthshire and Forfarshire, as
at Fowlis Easter, Bendochy and Cortachy, and in Aberdeen-
shire and Banffshire, as at Kintore, Kinkell, Auchindoir, Cullen
and Deskford. See Transactions of Aberdeen and Scottish
Eccltsiological Societies, passim.
a Fully illustrated in Old Scottish Communion Plait, T.
Burns, Edinburgh, n.d.
there was a slight revival in the seventeenth century,
when some very good and picturesque work was done,
full of the old Gothic feeling. 18 In Scotland the
Renaissance makes itself felt in architecture earlier
than in England, but on the other hand Gothic feeling
and tradition lingered on all through the seventeenth
century in out of the way places, though the architec-
tural remains of that date are mostly domestic and not
The old churches of Scotland are little known in
England, because so many of them are off the tourist
track and unseen by most English visitors. But Scot-
land was never rich in large parish churches. The
parishes were of great extent, and there were numerous
outlying chapels, and even in medieval times churches
with aisles or with a tower were the exception in
country districts. In the fifteenth and sixteenth cen-
turies, rich people, instead of enlarging perhaps more
than one parish church, erected collegiate churches on
a very expensive scale, with ashlar walls and stone
vaulting, and a costly foundation for canons, preben-
daries and singers. Some of these churches were also
parochial, but others were separate foundations. Some,
like the famous college church of Roslin, 14 were never
Next to Glasgow Cathedral, perhaps the finest
church was Elgin Cathedral (now in ruins), which had
three towers and double aisles to the nave. Its fine
octagonal chapter house is still standing. Aberdeen
Cathedral has a remarkable granite nave of the fifteenth
century, and a fine west front flanked by two towers
bearing spires which have triple crowns of small battle-
18 As at Dairsie, Fife.
14 This extraordinary marvel of richness is not due to the
importation of foreign workmen or designs, but merely to a
remarkable development and combination of the national
Atures of the time.
SCOTTISH CHURCH ARCHITECTURE 809
ments round them at intervals. The central tower and
choir are gone.
No account of Scottish church architecture would
be complete without some mention of the old cathedral
of the diocese of Orkney at Kirkwall, though really
Norse and not Scottish work. Largely Romanesque
and transitional in style, it has aisles its whole length,
a central tower, and apsidal chapels on the east of the
transepts; although but 218 feet long, its proportions
are such that it looks double the size. The diocese of
Orkney formed a part of the Norwegian province of
Throndhjem until 1468.
The standard book on Scottish Church Architecture
is Messrs. Macgibbon and Ross's Ecclesiastical Archi-
tecture of Scotland, 3 vols., Edinburgh.
THEATRE (p. 267, line 18, and fig. 234). Some
authorities hold' that the Fortune Theatre was rectan-
II. A LIST OF SAINTS
WHO ARE MOST COMMONLY FOUND IN
PAINTING AND SCULPTURE IN ENGLAND
WITH THE MANNER IN WHICH THEY ARE REPRESENTED
St. Adrian : d. 290 ; anvil ; lion ; patron saint of Germany and
Flanders and of soldiers ; protector from the plague.
St. Agatha : d. 251 ; holding a dish containing her breasts ;
pincers or shears.
St. Agnes : d. 304 ; branch of olive, lamb, palm.
St. Aidan: d. 651; Bishop; evangelist of Northumbria; a stag
at his feet.
St. Alban : d, 304 ? ; protomartyr of England ; sword ; fountain ;
sometimes his head in his hand ; civilian dress and mace.
St. Alphege: 954?- 1012; Archbishop of Canterbury; his
chasuble full of stones.
St Ambrose : 340 P-397 ; Bishop ; beehive, books, two human
bones ; scourge.
St. Andrew : Apostle ; a St. Andrew's cross.
St. Anne : teaching the Virgin to read.
St Anthony : 251-356 ; Hermit ; a bell, sometimes hung from
a crutch ; a hog ; fire near ; a T-cross on his shoulder.
St. Antony of Padua: 1195-1231; Franciscan; Infant Jesus
in his arms or on a book ; flame in his hand or on his breast ;
a mule kneeling.
St Apollonia : d. 250 ; pincers holding a tooth.
St Augustine of Canterbury : d. 604.
St. Augustine of Hippo : 354-430 ; Bishop ; books, sometimes
a heart, flaming or transfixed by a sword.
St Barbara : d. 303 ; patron of armourers ; cup and wafer,
tower, feather, sword, crown.
St Barnabas : Apostle.
St Bartholomew : Apostle ; knife ; his skin held over his arm.
St Benedict : 480 P-542 ? ; founder of Western monachism ;
Benedictine habit ; a broken cup ; asperges or sprinkler ; a
raven with a loaf in its beak ; a (broken sieve.
A LIST OF SAINTS 811
St. Bernard of Clairvaux: 1091-1153; beehive, inkhorn, pen,
etc. ; sometimes a demon bound ; white habit ; three mitres.
St. Blaise : d. 289 ; Bishop ; patron of woolcombers ; iron comb.
St. Boniface: 680P-755; Archbishop, Benedictine ; book trans-
fixed by a sword or stained with blood ; foot on prostrate tree.
St. Botolph : d. 680 ; Abbot.
St. Bridget of Sweden : d. 1373 ; founder of Order of Brigitines ;
crozier ; pilgrim's staff; red band across her forehead.
St Catherine of Alexandria : d. 307 ; patron of Venice and of
places of education ; a wheel ; head of a man under her feet.
St Cecilia : d. 280 ; crown of roses ; musical instruments ;
patron saint of music.
SL Chad : d. 672 ; patron saint of Lichfield.
St. Christopher: d. 364; carrying the Infant Jesus across a
St. Chrysostom. See St John Chrysostom.
St. Clara: 1193-1253; founder of Order of Franciscan nuns;
cross, lily, pyx.
St Clement : 30 P-100 ; an anchor ; Pope's or Bishop's robes.
St. Constantine : 272 P-337 ; Emperor ; holds the Labarum or
standard bearing the Greek letters X P.
St. Cosmas and St Damian : d. 301 ; always together ; red
robes ; vessels, surgical instruments ; patrons of medicine.
St Cuthbert: d. 687; Bishop; an otter by his side; patron
saint of Durham ; holds St. Oswald's head.
St Denis : first century ; Bishop ; patron saint of France ;
carries his own head.
St. Dominic: 1170-1221 ; founder of Dominican Order; black
and white habit; black and white dogs ('Domini canes')
with torches in their mouths ; star on forehead ; hly.
St Dorothy : d. 303 ; crown of roses or holding roses in her
St Dunstan : 924-988 ; Archbishop of Canterbury.
St Edith of Wilton : 962 P-984 ; washing a beggar's feet.
St Edmund : 841-870 ; King and martyr ; an arrow, sometimes
piercing a crown ; a wolf near, or a wolf guarding his head.
St Edward : d. 1066 ; King and Confessor ; royal robes ;
sceptre surmounted by a dove ; a ring.
St Edward : 963P-978 ; King and martyr.
St. Egidio. See St Giles.
St Eloy, Lo, or Eligius : d. 659 ; Bishop ; patron of Bologna
and of blacksmiths ; an anvil.
St. Elizabeth : mother of John Baptist ; usually in the scene of
St. Etheldreda : 630 P-679 ; nun's habit, crowned ; building a
church ; asleep under a tree ; patron saint of Ely.
St. Erasmus, or Elmo : d. 296 ; bishop.
St. Euphemia : d. 307 ; a sword through her breast ; lion ; lily.
St. Eustace : d. 118 ; stag with crucifix (as St. Hubert) ; or
carries two children across a river ; or stands in river, two
children carried off by beasts.
St. Faith : d. 290 ; carries a bundle of rods ; iron hook.
St. Francis of Assisi : 1^82-1226 ; founder of the Franciscan
Order ; the Stigmata or wounds of Christ ; lamb ; lily.
St. Genevieve: d. 512 ; patron saint of Paris; a distaff; sheep;
sometimes a basket of loaves ; a candle lighted, a demon
trying to blow it out with bellows, angel lighting it
St George : d. 303 ; patron saint of England, Germany and
Venice, and of soldiers ; a dragon ; red cross on white
ground on banner or on breast ; white horse.
St Giles or Egidius : d. 725 ; an arrow piercing his breast or
through his hand (very rare) ; or a hind near, pierced by
an 'arrow; patron saint of Edinburgh, of cripples, etc.
St. Gregory the Great : 544 P-604 ; Pope's robes ; dove on his
shoulder or hovering over his head.
St Guthlac: 663P-714; patron saint of Crowland.
St. Helen : d. 328 ; empress ; holds large cross.
St. Henry : 1421-1471 ; King of England.
St Hubert : d. 727 ; Bishop ; patron of the chase ; stag with
crucifix between its horns.
St Hugh of Lincoln: 1135-1200; Bishop; Carthusian habit;
swan ; three flowers.
St Hugh of Lincoln : 1246 P-1255 ; boy-martyr.
St. Ives or Yvo : d. 1303 ; patron saint of lawyers ; lawyer's
robes ; sometimes surrounded by widows ana orphans.
St James the Great : Apostle ; patron of Spain ; staff, bottle,
St James the Less : Apostle ; a fuller's staff or club.
St Jerome: 345-420; in his study, or in the desert; a cardinal's
hat, a lion, a partridge.
St. Joachim : father of the Virgin ; meeting St. Anna at the
gate ; carries a staff and a basket containing two doves.
St John Baptist : a lamb ; a tall staff with a cross-piece ; hairy
A LIST OF SAINTS 813
St. John Chrysostom : d. 407 ; patriarch of Constantinople ;
chalice and book of gospels ; beehive.
St. John de Matha : d. 1213 ; founder of the Order of Trini-
tarians for the redemption of captives ; white habit, with blue
and red cross on breast ; fetters, or angel leading captives.
St John : Evangelist ; eagle ; cup with serpent.
St. Joseph : a lily.
St Jude : Apostle ; a halberd or boat.
St. Juliana : end of third century ; holds dragon or devil by
a chain ; hanging by her hair.
St. Laurence : d. 258 ; a gridiron.
St. Lazarus of Bethany : patron of Marseilles.
St. Leonard : d. 559 ; patron of prisoners and slaves ; vested as
deacon or abbot ; holds chains.
St. Louis (IX): 1215-1270 ; King of France; royal robes, crown
and sceptre or Franciscan habit ; crown of thorns.
St. Lucy : d. 303; patron of Syracuse; protectress from diseases
of the eye ; eyes in a dish ; sword or wound in her neck ;
St. Luke : Evangelist ; an ox ; a picture of the Virgin.
St. Margaret : d. 306 ; a dragon.
St. Mark : Evangelist ; lion ; pen, ink and scroll.
St. Martha of Bethany: patron of housewives and cooks; keys
at her girdle ; pot of holy water ; ladle ; dragon bound at
St. Martin of Tours : d. 397 ; beggar at his feet or receiving
half his cloak.
St. Mary, the wife of Cleophas : mother of SS. James and John
and of SS. Simeon and Joseph ; with her four sons bearing
St. Mary, the Blessed Virgin : a lily.
St. Mary Magdalene : patron of penitent women and of Mar-
seilles ; box or vase of alabaster ; long hair.
St Matthew: evangelist; an angel or man; pen, ink and
scroll ; bag of money ; a knife or dagger.
St. Matthias : Apostle ; an axe.
St. Nicholas of Myra or Bari : d. 326 ; Bishop ; ship ; anchor ;
sometimes with three balls ; or three children in a tub ;
patron saint of Russia, of sailors and children, and others.
St. Norbert : 1092 P-1134 ; founder of Order of Premonstraten-
sians ; white habit over black ; demon bound at his feet ;
monstrance or cup, spider over it
St. Olaf : eleventh century ; with loaves.
St. Oswald : 605 P-642 ; King ; royal robes, large cross.
St. Osyth, Osith, or Sytha : second century ; queen and
abbess ; carries her head.
St. Paul : Apostle ; sword.
St Peter : Apostle ; keys ; fish.
St. Peter Martyr : d. 1252 ; Dominican ; a wound in the head.
St Philip : Apostle ; a cross, sometimes T-shaped.
St. Radegunda : 519 P-587 ; crowned abbess ; captive kneeling at
her feet ; broken fetters in her hand.
St. Koch : d. 1327 ; points to a wound in his leg ; pilgrim's
staff and shell ; dog by his side, an angel
St. Sebastian : d. 288 ; bound to a tree or column and pierced
St. Sidwell, or Sativola : eighth century ; scythe and well ;
carries her head.
St Simon : Apostle ; a saw ; sometimes fishes.
St Sitha. See St. Zita.
St Stephen : protomartyr ; deacon's robes ; a stone striking
St Swithin : d. 862 ; Bishop of Winchester.
St Sytha. See St. Osyth.
St. Thomas : Apostle ; patron of builders and architects ; a
St Thomas Aquinas: 1224P-1274; Dominican; chalice, star in
St Thomas 4 Becket: 1119P-1170; Archbishop; Benedictine;
a wound in the head.
St Ursula : a banner with a red cross, sometimes surrounded
by many virgins ; patron saint of young girls.
St Veronica: holding a cloth on which is the face of Our
St Vincent of Saragossa : third century ; deacon ; raven and
lion by him ; iron hook.
St. Vitus : d. 303 ; a cauldron of oil ; a boy with a palm ;
generally a cock, sometimes a lion or wolf.
St. Walstan : 1016 ; confessor ; crowned and in king's robes ;
holding a scythe and styled opifer ; two calves below.
St Werberga : d. 708 ; patron of Chester.
St Wilfrid, or Wilfrith : 709 ; Bishop of the Northumbrians ;
baptising Pagans ; broken idols.
A LIST OF SAINTS 815
St. Winefred : seventh century ; carries her head ; beheaded
before an altar.
St. William of Norwich: 1132-1144; depicted as being cruci-
fied by Jews.
St Withburgha : 743 ; a church in her hand ; two dovhs at her
St Wulfstan, Wulstan, or Wolstan : d. 1095 ; bishop ; fixing
his crozier in St. Edward's tomb ; devil behind him with a
book ; giving sight to a blind man.
St Zita, Citha, or Sitha : fourteenth century ; as a housekeeper
with keys, loaves ; or with rosary, bag, book.
THE FOUR DOCTORS OF THE GREEK CHURCH
SS. Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory, Jerome.
THE FOUR DOCTORS OF THE LATIN CHURCH
SS. Gregory Nazianzen, John Chrysostom, Basil the Great,
Athanasius ; a fifth is sometimes added, namely St. Cyril of
Gabriel, the angel of the Annunciation.
Michael : the angel of the Resurrection, receives and weighs
the souls of the departed, hence has scales.
Raphael : accompanied Tobias ; represented with Tobias, who
carries a fish.
For much of the matter in this list I am indebted to Saints and
their Symbols, by E. A. G. (2nd ed., Lond., 1882) ; and to Emblems
f Saints, by F. C. Husenbeth, 3rd ed. by A. Jessop, 1882.
III. A LIST OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTS
BORN BEFORE THE END OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
Henry Hawthorne, fl. temp. Qu. Elizabeth ; Surveyor to the
Queen ; gallery at Windsor Castle.
John Shute, fl. 1550-1570, architect and limner; wrote Tht
First and Chief Groundes of Architecture.
John Thorpe, fl. 1570-c. 1610, surveyor ; Longford Castle,
Huntingdon Smithson, d. 1648, surveyor ; Wollaton Hall, Notts.
Thomas Holt, 1578?-! 624, carpenter; Oxford: Wadham College.
Ralph Symonds, fl. 1600, builder ; Cambridge : Trinity College
Bernard Jansen,/. 1610-1630, architect? ; Audley End, Essex.
John Westley, d. 1656, bricklayer ; and Thomas Grumbald,
mason ; Cambridge : Clare College, east and south ranges
Inigo Jones, 1573-1652, architect; London: Banqueting House,
John Abel, 1597-1694, carpenter ; Leominster, Herefordshire :
Market Hall (now " The Grange").
John Webb, 1611-1672, architect; Ashdown Park, Berkshire.
Sir Christopher Wren, 1632-1723, architect; London: St Paul's
Robert Hooke; 1635-1703, astronomer, etc. ; London: Bethle-
William Talnian, d. 1700, architect; Chatsworth House, Derby-
Henry Aldrich, 1647-1710, Dean of Christchurch, Oxford;
Oxford : Peckwater Quadrangle, Christchurch.
Henry Bell, d. 1717, architect; King's Lynn, Norfolk: Customs
George Clark, 1660-1736, statesman (Secretary of State
War, etc.); Oxford: Christchurch Library.
Sir John Vanbrugh, 1664-1726, dramatist and architect ;
hcim Palace, Oxfordshire.
LIST OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTS 317
Colin Campbell, d. 1734, architect; Houghton House, Norfolk.
Nicholas Hawkesmoor, 1666-1736, architect; London: St.
George's Church, Bloomsbury.
Thomas Archer, d. 1743, architect ; Birmingham : St Philip's
John James, d. 1746, architect; London: St George's Church,
William Kent, 1684-1748, architect ; London : Horse Guards.
Giacomo Leoni, 1686-1746, architect; Moor Park, Hertford-
James Gibbs, 1682-1754, architect ; London : St. Martin's-in-
the-Fields (Trafalgar Square).
Thomas Ripley, d. 1758, architect ; London : The Admiralty.
Sir James Borough, 1690-1764, Master of Gonville and Caius
College, Cambridge; worked with James Essex, architect;
Cambridge : Clare College ChapeL
Earl of Burlington, 1695-1753, amateur ; worked with Camp-
bell, Kent, Leoni, Flitcroft
Henry Flitcroft, 1697-1769, architect; Woburn Abbey, Bed-
George Dance, senior, 1698-1768, architect; London: Mansion
Isaac Ware, d. 1766, architect ; London : Chesterfield House.
William Adam, fl. 1750, architect ; buildings in Edinburgh and
John Wood, senior, 1705?-! 754, architect ; Prior Park, Bath.
Stephen Wright,/. 1750, architect; Cambridge: University
Library, east front.
John Vardy, d. 1765, architect ; London : Spencer House.
James Paine, c. 1720-1789, architect ; Kedleston Hall, Derby-
Sir Robert Taylor, 1714-1788, architect ; London : stone build-
ings, Lincoln's Inn Fields.
John Carr, 1723-1807, architect ; Harewood House, Yorkshire.
James Essex, 1722-1784, architect ; buildings at Cambridge.
Sir William Chambers, 1726-1796, architect; London: Somerset
Robert Adam, 1728-1792, architect ; Luton House, Bedford-
Thomas Cooley, 1740-1784, architect; Royal Exchange, Dublin.
George Dance, junior, 1741-1825, architect; London, St. Luke's
Hospital, Old Street.
Thomas Harrison, 1744-1829, architect ; buildings in Lancashire.
Henry Holland, 1746P-1806, architect; London: Brooks 's Club.
James Gandon, 1742-1823; architect; Dublin: Customs House.
James Wyatt, 1746-1813, architect ; Fonthill Abbey.
Sir John Soane, 1752-1836, architect; London: Bank of
John Nash, 1752-1835, architect ; London : Buckingham
William Inwood, 1771-1843, architect ; London : St. Pancras
Sir Jeffery WyatviUe, 1766-1840, architect ; Windsor Castle,
Thomas Rickman, 1776-1841, architect ; writer on Gothic
architecture ; Cambridge : St. John's College, new court.
William Wilkins, 1778-1839, architect; London: National
Sir John Smirke, 1781-1867, architect ; London : British
Edward Blore, 1787 (or 1790)- 1879, architect and draughtsman ;
Moreton Hall, Cheshire ; published Monumental Remaint.
Charles Robert Cockerell, 1788-1863, architect; Oxford:
George Basevi, 1794-1845, architect; Cambridge: Fitzwilliam
Sir William Tite, 1798-1873, architect ; London : Royal Ex-
Sir Charles Barry, 1795-1860, architect ; London : Houses of
Deciruus Burton, 1800-1881, architect ; London : Athenaeum
Club, Pall Mali
IV. A TABLE OF THE
PERIODS OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE
Saxon to 1066
William I. .
William II. .
Henry I. .
Henry II. .
Richard I. .
John . . .
Henry III. .
Edward I. .
Edward II. .
Richard II. .
Henry IV. .
Henry V. .
Henry VI. .
Edward V. .
Mary . . .
James I. . .
Stuart or Jacobean
Charles I. .
Charles II. .
William and Mary
Hanoverian or Georgian,
including Queen Anne
George I. . .
George II. .
George III. . .
George IV. .
Victoria . .
le, habit, etc.
oduced into E
The only English order.
Double houses for men and
women, ruled by prioress.
cassock. Women, black
cloak, hood, and tunic.
Grey cloak and hood, grey
'fi O j^
No houses of women in Eng-
land. Long black gown,
with wide sleeves and hood;
white cassock. 1250.
White cloak over brown
Franciscan nuns. 1293.
Gown like a sack. 1257.
White, red, or blue cross.
Rule of St. Augustine. Black
Black mantle, with eight-
pointed white cross. 1100
White mantle with red cross;
c. 1140. Suppressed 1310.
St. Gilbert of Sem-
St. Francis, at
St. Francis and St.
Clara, at Assisi.
St. John of Matha.
Gerard of Jeru-
Hugh de Payens,
co o t,
r- ^ E
cu CB cu
>H CO _T5
o % :
"^ o o
CD *" .5
t- '? t
Abbess : i
Abel, J., carpenter: 316
Aberdeen cathedral : painted
roof, 307; granite nave, 308;
west front, ibid.
King's college: tower, 305;
stalls, 307; rood-loft, ibid.
Abernethy tower : 302
Adam, R., architect : 317
Adam, W., architect: 317
Agatha, St. , pictures of : 205
Agnes, St., pictures of: 205
Aidan, St. : his influence on
Alabaster reredoses : 205, 248
Alban, St., shrine of: 132
Albert of Jerusalem : founds
Carmelite order, 322
Aldrich, H., amateur archi-
Alexander III, King of Scot-
land: his death, 303
Alsop-in-the-Dale: impost and
arch: Fig. 121
Ambrose, St., pictures of: 205
Andrew, St., effigy of: xvi.
Anthony, St., pictures of: 203,
Apollonia, St., pictures of :
Apse : 2, 49
d'Arbrissel, Robert : founds
order of Fontevraud, 320
Arbroath abbey: 303
Archer, T., architect: 317
Architects, English : chrono-
logical list of, 316
Argyllshire : crosses, 302
Armariu* : 141
Arris : 12
Artemisia builds mausoleum:
Arundel castle : 40
Ashdown Park : 316
Assisi : 321
Assyria : 8
Athens : Byzantine churches,
Church at Daphni : 299
Parthenon, 198, 208
Temple of Jupiter Olym-
pus, base, Fig. 19 (see p.
Auchindoir church : sacrament
Audley End, 316
Augustine, St., of Canterbury:
his influence on architec-
ture, 57 ; introduces basili-
can plan, 55, 75 ; not the
founder of English mona-
Augustine, St., of Hippo,
pictures of : 205
Augustinian canons : 164,
This index does not include the alphabetical List of Saints.
Augustinian friars, 321
Avignon : 320
Bacon,Francis, Lord Verulam,
effigy of: 171
Balsham, Bishop Hugh de :
founds Peterhouse : 67
Balsham church : window, Fig.
Bamburgh castle, 38
Bangor cathedral : tile pave-
ment, Fig. 237 (see p. xxiii.)
Barnack church : capital, Fig.
Barry, Sir C., architect : 3*8
Basevi, G., architect 318
Basil the Great, St. : founds
eastern monachism, 153
Bath, Prior Park: 317
Bear's-breach : 2
Beaumaris castle : 43 ; corbel-
table, Fig. 80 (tee p. xvf.)
church : tracery, Fig. 252
(tee p. xxiv.)
Bee-hive cell, 56
Bell, H., architect: 316
Bendochy church : sacrament
Benedic Biscop : his buildings,
Benedict, St. : founds religious
order, 153, 320
Benedictine order: 154, 320;
presses for books, 141; re-
formed branches of, 160 ;
typical plan of monastery,
Bengeo church plan: Fig. 62
Berkeley castle, 40
church : capital, Fig. 103
Berno : founds order of
Bethlehem : church of the
Bethlehem Hospital : 316
Beverley minster : frith stool,
Birmingham : St. Phillip's
Blaise, St. , pictures of : 205
Blenheim Palace: the name,
207; built, 316
Bonahommes : religious order,
Borough, Sir J,, amateur
architect : 317
Bothwell : 305
Boule, Monseiur : invents buhl
Boxford church : relieving
arch, Fig. 12 (tee p. xiii.)
Boyle, Richard, third Earl of
Burlington. Set Burlington
Brechin : cathedral, 303, 307 ;
round tower : 302
Brixworth church : 75
Bruno, St. : founds Carthusian
Burlington, Richard, Earl of,
amateur architect 1317
Burton, D., architect: 318
Bury St. Edmunds : growth
of the town round the mon-
astery, 1 60; Jew's house, 1 20
Byzantium: enamelling intro-
duced from, 173; architec-
ture of, 297
Caernarvon castle : 43
Caerphilly castle : 40, 41
Callimachus, sculptor : 197
Cambridge : church of the
Holy Sepulchre, plan, Fig.
141 ; church of St. Bene't,
tower, Fig. 212; church of
St. Mary the Great, mould-
ing, Fig. 158 (gee p. xxi.);
church of St. Mary the Less,
charnel-house, 48 ; mould-
ing, Fig. 159 (tee p. xxi.)
Clare college built: 316;
chapel built, 317 ; gateway,
Colleges: 66, 221; plays
acted in, 266
Fitzwilliam Museum : 318
King's college belfry : 19 ;
lock plate in chapel, Fig. 125
Lazar house : 139
Queen's college, plan :
Fig. 69 ; St. John's college,
new court built, 318 ; strap-
work, Fig. 223
St. Radegund's priory : en-
trance to chapter-house,
Trinity college : hall built,
317; library built, 145
University Library : cor-
nice, Fig. 99 (see p. xvii.) ;
east front built, 318
Cambridgeshire steeples : 256
Campbell, C., architect: 317
Canons regular: 152, 164,
Canons secular : their chapter-
Canterbury cathedral : de-
scribed by Eadmer, 217 ;
eastern transept, 284 ;
foliage, 98; plan, Fig. 65;
shrine of "Becket, 252
Carlisle castle : 38, 40
Carmelite Friars : 321
Carnwath : 304
Carpi: scagliola invented at,
Carr, J., architect: 317
Carthusian order: 162, 320;
rule, 45, 162
Castle Rising : 38
Castorchurch: window,^. 245
Catacombs : 259
Cathedrals of secular canons :
their chapter-houses, 156 ;
their libraries, 141
Catherine, St., of Alexandria :
pictures of, 202, 203, 204
Certosa, Pavia: 162
Chambers, Sir W., architect:
Chartreuse: 162, 320
Chatsworth House : 316
Chaucer, quoted: 169, 265
Cheshire: ironworks, 136; tim-
ber building: 272
Chester cathedral : lectern in
refectory, Fig. 158 ; tracery,
Fig. 254 (tee p. xxiv.)
Chestnut used for roofs : 240
Chichester cathedral : 19
China, its architecture imi-
tated: no, 228
Christ, image of: 210, 231;
pictures of: 202, 204, 205
Christopher, St. , effigy of: xvi. ;
pictures of, 204
Cistercian order: 160, 320;
book-room, 141 ; domu$ eon-
versorum, 86 ; iron works,
135 ; rule, 160 ; typical plan
of monastery, Fig. 140
Citeaux: 160, 320
Clara, St. : founds religious
Clare, St., nuns of: 321
Clark, G., amateur architect:
Clement IV., Pope: amalga-
mates Augustinian Friars,
Cluniac order : 160, 320
Cluny : 160, 320
Cochwillan : roof, Fig. 206
Cockerell, C. R., architect :
Colchester castle : 38
Coldingham : 303
Collegiate churches of Scot-
Cologne brasses : 173
Columba, St. : his mission to
Conisborough castle : 35
Coniston: lead glazing, Fig.
112 (tee p. xvii.)
Constantine : Emperor, 297
Constantinople : 297 ; church
of Sta Sophia, 298, 299
Conway castle : 43
church roof : Fig. 205
Cooley, T., architect: 317
Corstorphine : 304
Cortachy church : sacrament
Coton church : keyhole es-
cutcheon. Fig. 126 (tee p.
Crichton : 305
Cross, processional, aumbry
Crossed Friars : 321
Crucifix : 220, 231
Crucifixion, pictures of : 205,
Cullen church : sacrament
Dairsie : 308
Dalmeny church : 302
Dance, G., senior, architect :
Dance, G. , junior, architect :
Dance ol Death, pictures of :
Danes : destruction by, 164,
244 ; their monuments, ib. ;
their influence on architec-
ture : 130, 245
Daphni, church at : 299
Davenant, Sir W. : improves
theatre scenery, 268
De Penitentia, friars : 321
Derbyshire : alabaster works,
Deskford church : sacrament
Devonshire: marble, 149;
screens in churches, 232
Doctors of the Greek and
Latin Churches : 315
Dominic St. : founds order
of friars, 321
Dominican order: 321
Doom, pictures of the: 203,204
Dorchester church, Oxford-
shire : 136
Dosseret : 300
Dover castle : 38
Dryburgh : 303
Dublin : Customs House, 318 ;
Royal Exchange, 317
Dunblane : 302, 303, 307
Dundrennan : 303
Dunfermline monastery : 302
Dunglass : 305
Dunkeld : 306
Dunning church : tower, 302
Diirer, Albert : 293
Durham cathedral : eastern
transept, 284 ; galilee, 106 ;
lantern, 138 ; lavatory, 139 ;
monastic kitchen, 159 ; pas-
cal candlestick, 28 ; service
of the Easter sepulchre, 90 ;
taking sanctuary, 243; vault-
Eadmer, describes Canterbury
East Anglia : flint and stone-
work, 96 ; church steeples,
255 ; screens in churches,
232 ; timber building, 272
Edinburgh: St. Giles' cathe-
dral, 305, 306
Edmund, St., pictures of: 202,
Edward the Confessor : pic-
tures of, 203, 205 ; his
shrine, 169, 175, 252
Edward, St., King and Mar-
tyr, pictures of, 205
Egypt, its architecture, 195
Eleanor, Queen, effigy of, 170,
Elgin cathedral : 303, 308
Elsing church : tracery, Fig.
251 (tee p. xxiii.)
Ely, Bishop's Palace : niche,
Fig. 1 88
Cathedral: armarium, 141;
base, Fig. 166 (gee p. xxi.);
capital, Fig. 40 ; church and
conventual buildings, plan,
Fig. 137; galilee, 106; in-
tersecting arches, Fig. 189
(tee p. xxi.) ; ironwork, 133;
Lady chapel, 137; lantern,
138; shrine of St. Ethel-
dreda, 169, 252; tile pave-
ment, 269; west tower, 256;
west transept, 284
Enamel: 170, 172, 173
England : apse introduced, 49 ;
55; celic plan introduced,
56 ; cloister introduced, 64 ;
confessio introduced, 73 ;
dome introduced, 86 ; Gothic
style, 108; influenceon Scot-
tish architecture, 302, 303,
304; ogee arch introduced,
9 ; open timber roofs peculiar
to, 233 ; paintings com-
pared with those of Italy
and France, 202 ; painting
in tempera, 104 ; pointed
arch introduced, 9 ; renais-
sance architecture intro-
duced, 9 ; sculpture, 1 70 ;
table of periods of architect
Erechtheum : 33
Escomb church : plan, Fig. 61
Essex, J., architect, 317
Etheldreda, St., shrine of: 252
Ethiopia : 8
Eton college: 66
Evelyn, John : quoted, 108,197,
Exeter cathedral : consecration
cross, Fig. 76
Farnham castle : 40, 43, 120 ;
machicolations, Fig. 123;
plan, Figt. 49, 50
Fen Ditton : gables, Fig. 1 1 1
First and Chief Groundet of
Flemish ironwork, 132; monu-
mental brasses, 138, 173;
sculptors, 249. See also
Holland and Netherlands
Flitcroft, H., architect: 317
Florence, S. Trinita: ara-
besque, Fig. 9 (tee p. xiii.)
Fontevraud, order of: 322
Fonthill abbey : 320
Fordham ch. : consecration
cross, Fig. 75
Forest of Dean : 135
Fountains abbey : book-room,
141 ; plan, Fig. 140
Fowlis Easter : church, 306 ;
rood-screen, 307 ; sacrament
France : apse used, 49, 57 ;
entresol used, 94 ; footlights
introduced from, 2 69 ; Gothic
style, 108; influence on Eng-
lish architecture^ 7, Figt. 63,
66, 256, 282 ; influence on
Scottish architecture, 304;
pointed arch introduced, 9 ;
type of book-case used, 143.
Francis, St. : founds order of
Franciscan order : 32 1
Fratres conversi : 86
Friars, orders of: 164, 321
Frontlet : 5
Furness abbey : book-room,
141 ; ironworks, 135
Games in cloisters : 65
Gandon, J., architect : 318
Garrick, D. : introduces foot-
George, St. , pictures of : 2 04 , 205
Georgian architecture : 227,
Gerard of Jerusalem : founds
order of Hospitallers, 321
Germans working in England:
Germany : Gothic style, 109 ;
Romanesque, ib. ; type of
bookcase used, 143
Gibbons, Grinling : 102
Gibbs, J., architect: 317
Gilbert, St., of Sempringham,
founds order of canons, 164,
Gilbertine order : 164,321
Glasgow : cathedral, 303, 304,
308 ; stone rood-loft, 307;
Cross Steeple, 305
Glastonbury : consecration
Gloucester cathedral: carrells,
Gloucestershire : ironworks,
136 ; stone slates, 241 ; tim-
ber building, 272
Goodwood House : plan and
elevation, Fig. 120
Grantchester church : tracery,
Great Abington church : trac-
ery, Fig. 243
Greece : architecture imitated,
no ; marble, 149
Greek Church : monastic sys-
Grumbald, T., mason : 316
Haddington: 305, 306
Haddon Hall: plan, 69, Figt.
Hadstock church : moulding,
Fig. 149 (see p. xx.)
Halicarnassos : 150
Hall: 120; its Latin name,
Hampton Court : gates, 133
Hamstall Ridware church :
chalice and paten, Fig. 51
(see p. xv.)
Hanoverian architecture : 227
Harding, St. Stephen. See
Stephen Harding, St.
Harewood House : 317
Harlech castle : 43
Harrison, T., architect: 318
Haslingfield hall : pigeon-
house, Fig. 199 (tee p. xxii.)
Hatchments : 172
Haunch of arch : 8
Hawkesmoor, N. , architect :
Hawthorne, H. , surveyor 1316
Heacham church : moulding,
Fig. 150 (tee p. xx.)
Header : 22
Hedingham castle : 38
Helion Bumpstead ch. : con-
secration cross, Fig. j6a.
Henry III, King : his effigy,
170; his tomb, 175
Henry V, King : his effigy,
Henry VI, King: foundsKing's
and Eton colleges, 70
Hereford: Bishop's Palace, 120
cathedral : book-case, Fig.
129; Lady chapel, 137;
Herefordshire: ironworks, 136;
timber building, 272
Hexham abbey : confessio, 75;
frith stool, 104
Higham Ferrers school : tra-
cery, Fig. 257 (see p. xxiv.)
High tomb : 5
Holland : bricks imported
from, 24 ; stepped gables,
77 type of bookcase used,
143. See also Flemish and
Holland, H., architect, 318
Holt, T. , carpenter : 316
Hooke, R. , amateur architect :
Horham Hall : plan, Fig. 117
(see p. xviii.) ; view of east
side, Fig. 118
Hospitallers, Knights : 321
Houghton House : 317
Hugh de Payens : founds
order of Templars, 321
Icklingham church : pave-
ment, Fig. 236
Icon : 300
Iconottasis : 299
Illisus, temple on the : base,
Fig. 1 8 (see p. xiii.)
Innerpedray : 306
Inns of Court, plays acted in :
Inwood, W., architect : 318
lona : stone rood-loft in ca-
thedral, 307 : missionaries
from, 56 ; runic patterns,
Ireland : crosses, 302 ; marble,
149; martello towers, 150;
runic patterns, 242
Isleworth : brasses made at,
Italians working in England :
Italy : its architecture imi-
tated, no; baptisteries in
churches, 14; type of
bookcase, 143 ; cloisters
introduced from, 64 ; dome
used, 86 ; fresco painting,
104 ; Gothic style, 1091
mezzanine floor used, 94;
mosaic used, 1 75 ; terra-
cottas imported from, 264
James, J., architect: 317
Jansen, B., architect: 316
Jedburgh : 303
Jersey : martello towers, 1 50
Jerusalem : church of the
Holy Sepulchre, 164 ; order
of Templars founded at, 3 1 1 ;
Temple at, 201
Jews' houses ; 1 20
John Baptist, St., pictures of :
John the Evangelist, St.,
statues of: 220, 232
John of Matha, St. : 321
Johnson, Roger, blacksmith:
Jones, Inigo, architect : 316 ;
designs masques, 268 ; the
first English architect, 225 ;
introduces Palladian archi-
tecture, 101,207, 2 25; adopts
new type of house-plan, 125;
sculpture in his buildings,
249; uses Venetian window,
Justinian, Emperor: architec-
ture under, 298
Kedleston Hall: 317
Kelso : 303
Kenilworth castle : 38
Kent, W. , architect : 3 1 7
Kentish tracery: 281, Fit;. 25 3
Kidwelly castle : 43
King James' Gothic : 109, 227
King's Cliff church : steeple,
Fig. 221 (tee p. xxii.)
King's Lynn : Customs House,
Kinkell church : sacrament
Kinnersley church : corbel,
Fig. 78 (tee p. xvi.)
Kintone church : sacrament
Kirkmadrine : crosses, 302
Kirkstall abbey : armarium,
141 ; book-room, ib. ; iron-
Kirkwall cathedral : 309
Lancashire: timber building,
Landwade church : consecra-
tion cross,J r ip.74 (fee p. xvi.)
Lapis Lydiut : 275
Laud, Archbishop : decides
question of altars, 63 ; in-
troduces credence, 79 ; at-
tempts Gothic revival, 109
Lawrence, St., pictures of: 205
Lectern : 5
Leeds castle : 43
Leightone, Tho:nas de, black-
smith : 131
Leorainster: market hall, 3 1 6
Leoni, G., architect: 317
Leper windows : 1 48
Leuchars : church, 302
Lichfield cathedral : library,
142 ; tracery, Fig. 249
Limoges: enamels, 170, 172,
Lincluden collegiate church :
Lincoln cathedral : galilee,
106; library, 142, 145
Jew's house, 120
Lincolnshire : steeples, 256
Lindisfarne : 56
Linlithgow : 304, 305, 306
Litany desk : 94, 146
Little Shelford church : coffin
lids, Figt. 68, 142, 143
Lombardic apse, 57
Atheneeum club : 318
Bank of England : 318
British Museum : 3 1 8
Brooks's club : 318
Buckingham Palace : 318
Charterhouse : 162
Chesterfield House : 317
City churches : 257
The Fire : 257
Fortune Theatre: 267,309,
Horse Guards : 317
Houses of Parliament: 318
Lincoln's Inn : 128
Lincoln's Inn Fields : 317
Mansion House : 317
National Gallery : 3 1 8
Royal Exchange : 318
St. Bartholomew's church,
Smithfield : triforium, Fig.
242 (tee p. xxiii.) ; prior's
St. George's church,
St. George's church, Han-
over Square =317
St. Luke's Hospital : 317
St. Pancras church, Mary-
St. Paul's cathedral: built,
316; coupled columns, 78;
dome, 86 ; old library, 142 ;
present library, 145; rail-
Somerset House : 317
Spencer House : 317
Temple church : 1 64
The Tower: 34, 37. 43 ;
plan of the White Tower,
Whitehall Palace: Fig.
Longford castle : 316
Long M elf ord church : 137
Luton house: 317
Lyhart, Walter, bishop of
Norwich : his rebus, 223
Mansard, Monsieur, inventor
of mansard roof: 241
Margaret, St., pictures of:
Markinch church tower : 302
Mary, the Blessed Virgin,
pictures of, 202 , 204 ; statues
of: 220, 232
Mary Magdalene, St., pictures
Mausolus, tomb of : 150
Melrose abbey : 304, 306 ;
stone rood-loft, 307
Meole Brace church : chest,
Merton, Walter de : inaugur-
ates collegiate system, 67
Michael, St., effigy of: xvi. ;
pictures of: 202
Miletus, Temple of Apollo
Didymaeus : plan, Fig. 232
(tee p. xxiii.)
Military orders : 323
Mitchia or scagliola, 245
Mole'me, Robert of : founds
Cistercian order, 320
Monks: 152, 320
Monte Cassino : 320
Moor Park: 317
Morris, the game of: 65,
Mortella Bay, Corsica : 150
Moses and Aaron, pictures of:
Mount Carmel ; 320
Mount Grace, Yorkshire : 163
Mycenaean art : 114, 196
Nash, G. : architect, 317
Netherlands : bricks from, 24 ;
influence on Scottish archi-
tecture, 305 ; stained glass
sent to Scotland, 305 ;
church bells sent to Scot-
land, 307. See also Flemish
Netley abbey : book-room, 141
Newcastle-upon-Tyne church :
Nicholas, St., pictures of: 203
Ninian, St. : 302
Nonesuch Palace : 216
Norbert, St. : founds Praemon-
stratensian order ; 320
Norfolk: ringinggalleries: 230
Norham castle : 38
Norse work at Kirkwall : 309
Northampton, St. Peter's
church : annulet, Fig. 7
Northamptonshire steeples :
256; stone slates, 241
North Elmham : shop, Fig.
Norway: province of Throndh-
jem includes diocese of Ork-
Norwich : castle, 38
Cathedral : armarium, 141;
detached belfry, 19 ; lava-
tory, 139, 159; plan, Fig.
63 ; rebus of Bishop Lyhart,
223; reredos, 228, 205;
school, 48; spire, 256
Deanery: base, Fig. 168
(tee p. xxi.)
Great Hospital: described,
118; painted ceiling, 205;
plan, Fig. i L6
St. Andrew's church :
capitals, Fig. 45 (tee p. xiv.)
Nottinghamshire : alabaster
Nuns: 321, 322
Opus Alexandrinum, 301
Oriental art: 7, 8, 9, 27, 57,
86, 114, 132, 175, Fig. 63
Orkney : diocese of, 309 ;
round towers, 302
Bodleian Library : 145
Christ Church library :
316; Peckwater quad-
rangle, 316; vaulting, 293
Colleges : 66, 221 ; plays
acted in : 266
Merton college : founded,
67 : tracery, Fig. 252
New college : 70, 142 ;
plan, Fig. 70
Taylorian Institute: 317
Wadham college : 316
Paestum : temple of Poseidon,
plan, Fig. 229 (tee p. xxiii.)
Paine, J., architect: 317
Palladian architecture : 227
Palladio, Andrea, architect :
207 ; his works studied by
Inigo Jones, 225
Parian marble : 261
Parker, Archbishop : issues in-
quiries as to churches, 63
Parthenon : optical corrections,
198 ; parvis, 208
Paul, St., pictures of: 204
Pavia: Certosa, 162
Pediment : 2
Penmon : cross, Fig. 85
Pentice : 212
Periods of English architec-
ture : 319
painted ceiling, 205
Philippa, Queen, effigy of: 248
Pickering castle : 40
Piers Ploughman : quoted, 209
Plaster of Paris : 2
Porchester castle : 38
Portico : 6
Praemonstratensian canons :
Pre"montr : 320
Pre - Raphaelite movement :
Purbeck marble : 73, 103, 149,
170, 174, 210, 248
Raunds church : capital, Fig.
Ravenna : churches of, 298
Reepham church : door hinge,
Fig. 123; head of church-
yard cross, Fig. 84
Reformation, the : 4, 46, 62,
65, 144, 167, 205, 218, 219,
232, 249, 257
Religious orders, table of : 320
Repton church : 75
Restoration of ancient build-
ings : 147, 220
Restoration, the : 63, 167, 103,
Rhuddlan church: grave slabs,
Figs. 144, 145
Rickman, Thos., architect:
names periods of architec-
ture, 83, 89, 191. 212, 319;
builds new court, St. John's
college, Cambridge, 318
Ripley, T., architect: 317
Ripon cathedral : 75
Rites of Durham : quoted, 90,
Robert, Abbot of Molerae :
founds Cistercian order, 320
Robert d' Arbrissel: founds
order of Fontevraud, 320
Rochester castle : 38
Rome: arch of Constantine,
Arch of Titus : 230, 286,
Fig, 194 (tee p. xxii.)
Basilica of Maxentinus,
Basilica Ulpia : plan, Fig.
24 (tee p. xiii.)
Church of S. Maria in
Churches : 244
Pantheon: 86, 231
St. Peter's: 13, 44, 86
St. Peter's, Old : Fig. 57
Temple of Fortuna Virilis :
plan, tig. 230 (see p. xxiii.)
Roslin collegiate church, 308
Rotherham : 25
Round or amphitheatre : 265
Round towers : in England,
256 ; in Scotland, 302
Royal Arms in churches : 62
Runic characters : 165, 242
Ruskin, J. : quoted, 12
Sacrament house, 307
Sacraments : pictures of, 203
St. Alban's abbey : painted
ceiling, 205 ; plan, 59 (Fig.
64); screen, 132; shrine,
252 ; watcher's chamber,
St. Andrew's : cathedral, 304 ;
church of St. Regulus, 302
St. Cross hospital, Winchester:
St. Gall : plan of church, Fig.
59 ; "paradise " at each end,
St. Ives, Hunts : 25
St. Just, Cornwall : 25
S. Luke of Stiris in Phocis :
Saints, alphabetical list of :
Salisbury cathedral : detached
belfry, 19 ; proportions, 59;
lavatory, 139; library, 142
Sail church : communion cup,
Fig. 51 (tee p. xv.)
Salop. See Shropshire
Sandwich : 25
Sassi, Guido : invents *cag-
Scarborough castle : 38
Scotland : church architecture
of, 301 ; stepped gables, 77;
window tracery, 282
Scott, Sir G., quoted, 12
Sebastian, St., pictures of:
Selinus: temple of Empe-
dokles, plan, Fig. 228 (te
Sempringham : 164, 320
Seton : 304, 35
Seven Acts of Mercy, pictures
Seven Deadly Sins, pictures
Seven Sacraments. See Sacra-
Shakespeare: quoted, 81, 138,
212, 251, 267
Sharpe, Edmund: 284, 319
Shrewsbury: St. Mary's
church, 136; timber house,
Shropshire : timber building,
272; ironworks, 136
Shute, J., architect: 316
Sicily : pointed arch intro-
Silchester : Romano - British
church, plan 54, Fig. 58
Smirke, Sir J., architect :
Smithson, H., surveyor: 316
Soane, Sir J., architect: 318
Somersetshire : church towers,
Sompting church : steeple, 255,
Fig. 219 (fee p. xxii.)
Southwell minster : capital,
Fig. 1 06
Spain : dome used, 86 ; iron
imported from, 1 35 ; pointed
arch used, 9
Spiral: its use as an orna-
Spon, Monsieur : quoted, 208
Stafford: St. Chad's church,
bird's-beak ornament, Fig.
29 (tee p. xiv.)
Stamford : St. Leonard's
priory, capital, Fig. 42 '
Stephen Harding, St. :
founds Cistercian order,
Stirling : 304, 306
Stonehenge: 25, 151, 286
Stuart and Revett's Antiqui-
ties of Athens: 228
Sudbury : lead glazing, Fig.
113 (tee p. xvii.)
Surrey ironworks : 1 35
Sussex ironworks : 135, 136
Suthdure : an early court of
Swanington church : flint and
stone work, Fig. 101 ; mould-
ing, Fig. 153 (tee p. xx.)
Swastica: Fig. 122 A
Sweden, iron imported from:
Sweetheart abbey : 304, 306
Symonds, R. , builder : 316
Tain : 306
Talman, W. , architect : 316
Taylor, Sir R., architect:
Templars, Knights: 164, 219,
Tesserae : 301
Thomas of Canterbury, St. :
pictures of, 202, 203, 204,
205 ; shrine of, 252
Thorpe, J. , surveyor : 317
Thrasyllus, monument of :
moulding, Fig. 177 (see p.
Three-decker : reading-desk
and pulpit, so called : 222
Throndhjem : province of, 309
Tijou, Jean, blacksmith: 133
Tile, roof : b
Timber construction imitated
in stone : 113, iq6
Tintern abbey : book-room,
141 ; ironworks, 135
Tite, Sir W. , architect : 318
Torel, William, sculptor : 170
Tortoiseshell : 25
Treasury of Atreus : 7, 3, Fig.
Trinitarians, order of: 321
Trinity, the Holy, pictures of :
Trois Rois morts et les Trois
Rois Vifs, les, pictures of :
Valance, William de, effigy of:
Vanbrugh, Sir J., architect:
Vardy, J., architect : 317
Vatican : 44
Venice church of S. Mark,
86, 299 ; influences English
Vitruvius Pollio, Marcus : 2,
i 88, 200, 229
Wales : rood lofts, 233 ; runic
Wales, borders of steeples,
Walpole, Horace, quoted: 109
Ware, I., architect: 317
Webb, J., architect =316
Wells cathedral : library, 142
Westley, J., bricklayer : 316
Westminster abbey : apse, 49 ;
diaper. Fig. 89 ; effigies, 138,
248; ironwork, 131, 132;
lady chapel (Henry VII. 's),
137; lavatory, 1 39 ; moulded
capital, Fig. 44 (see p. xiv. ) ;
mosaics, 175; plan, Fig. 66;
reredos, 205, 228 ; tomb of
Edward the Confessor, 95,
169, 252 ; tracery, Figt. 247,
248 ; vaulting, 293
Westminster Hall: 120, 238
Wheel of Fortune, pictures of :
Whitehall Palace, style of: 207
Whitekirk : 306
Wilby church : capital. Fig.
170 (see p. xxi.)
Wilfrid, St. : his buildings, 56
Wilkins, W., architect =318
William of Wykeham : 70
Winchester cathedral : iron-
work, 130; reredos, 228
House in the close, barge-
board, Fig. 15 (gee p. xiii.)
Windsor Castle :
Alterations by Wyatville,
Round tower or keep, 34,
40 ; postern, 4 1
St. George's chapel: iron-
work, 133; pew, 213; vault-
Wing church: 75, Figt. 55,
Woburn Abbey : 317
Wollaton Hall, 316
Wolstan, St., pictures of:
Wood, J., senior, architect:
Worcester ironworks, 136
Worth church : plan, Fig. 60
Wren, Sir C., architect: 316;
climax of renaissance archi-
tecture, 224, 225; library at
Lincoln cathedral, 145; St.
Paul's, 86, 302 ; steeples of
city churches, 257 ; sculpture
in his buildings, 249
Wright, S., architect: 317
Wyatt, J., architect: 318
Wyatville, Sir J., architect:
York cathedral, called " Min-
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