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Full text of "A handbook of petroleum, asphalt and natural gas, methods of analysis, specifications, properties, refining processes, statistics, tables and bibliography"

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A handbook of petroleijm, 
asphalt and natural gas 



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A HANDBOOK 
of 

PETROLEUM ASPHALT 

and 

NATURAL GAS 

Methods of Analysis, Specifications, Properties, Refining 
Processes, Statistics, Tables and Bibliography 

by 
ROY CROSS 

Member of American Chemical Society, American Society for Testing 

Materials, American Association for Advancement of Science, 

American Society for Municipal Improvements, 

Kansas City Engineers Club "^^^ 

Published as -•'/'/'' 

BULLETIN NO. i6 

I n M J "^ ^ - 

by ~^'^-^'^' 

KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 
KANSAS CITY, MO. 



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Digitized by Ifhe^l^t^Pliet Archive 

in 2009 witiT'fQippEl^ng from 

University of Toronto 



littp://www.arcliive.org/details/liandbookofpetrolOOcros 



Preface to Bulletin No. 16. 

This handbook includes the following new matter, as well as ad- 
dition to and revision of: 

Universal gauging tables for horizontal cylindrical tanks. 

Gauging tables for the bumped ends of horizontal cylindrical 
tanks. 

Methods for the determination of the capacity of oil pipe lines. 

Detail cost on the refining and cracking of oil. 

The laws and taxes governing the sale and transportation of re- 
fined petroleum. 

The detailed description of the decomposition of petroleum hydro- 
carbons in the presence of aluminum chloride. 

The most recent specifications for the quality of petroleum prod- 
ucts as used by the trade. 

Standard method of drilling oil wells. 

Detailed and explicit methods of analysis of all types of petro- 
leum products giving preference to accepted or standardized methods. 

New developments in the decomposition of heavy hydrocarbons 
for the production of gasoline. 

Formulae for the calculation of the total gasoline obtainable by 
any means from crude oil of different gravities and bases. 

The properties of crude oils from all of the important fields. 

New matter on the uses, properties and value of fuel oil. 

Specific gravity and Baume' gravity correction tables for very 
light petroleum oils and for very heavy petroleum oils. 

Baume' gravity and Specific gravity equivalents for oils heavier 
than water, but on the lighter than water scale. 

The combustion of gasoline and the products of combustion of 
internal combustion engines. 

The properties of gasoline made by present methods of decom- 
position. 

The properties of average gasoline as now sold on the market. 

The vapor volumes of petroleum distillates and different tem- 
peratures and of different gravities. 

Processes and U. S. patents issued to 1922. 

The statistics of the production, transportation and refining of 
petroleum up to 1922. 



Preface to Bulletin No. 15. 

The purpose of this publication is to set forth in con- 
cise form for the petroleum producer, seller, refiner, and 
technolo^st, scientific information and statistics on the 
production, properties, handling, refining and methods of 
valuation of petroleum and related products. 

All matter formerly published in Bulletin No. 14 has 
been revised and included in this publication. In addition 
there has been added fifty-five new illustrations, complete 
temperature — Baume' correction tables, extensive tank 
gauging tables, refinery engineering formulae, complete 
specifications for petroleum products, much additional data 
on oil cracking, geology, lubricants and asphalt, a complete 
set of methods of analysis of petroleum, asphalt and natural 
gas and a fairly complete bibliography. 

The sources of original information have been from the 
research, commercial and engineering departments of the 
Kansas City Testing Laboratory and from the bibliography 
published at the end of the book. 

November 1, 1919, 
Kansas City, Missouri. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

(General outline only. See index for detailed subject matter.) 

1. Economics of Petroleum 2-112 

Uses, statistics, geographical distribution, geology, produc- 
tion, prices, depletion of wells, drilling methods. 

2. Transportatio-n, Storage and jauging 113-183 

Pipe lines, storage losses, tank specifications, fire regula- 
tions, tank cars, loading, storage tanks, gauging, measurements. 

3. Properties of Crude Petroleum 184-191 

General and chemical constitution, distillation properties, 
physical properties. Special commercial petroleums. 

4. Refining of Petroleum, Including Cracking 192-246 

Refinery practice. Refinery designs. Cost of refining. 
Chemical nature of cracking. Properties of gasoline and naphtha 
made by various processes of decomposition. Aluminum chlo- 
ride process. Classification of oil cracking processes. Benton 
process. Dewar & Redwood process. Burton process. Cross 
process. Cracking and refinery engineering. Calculation of 
cracking yields and refinery profits. 
•5. Properties of Refined Petroleum 247-310 

Gasoline. Benzol. Kerosene. Gas oil. Distillate oil. Straw 
oil. Lubricating oil. Grease. Paraffin wax. Transformer oils. 
Petroleum. Miscellaneous refined oils. Complete detailed speci- 
fications. State laws. 

6. Fuel Oil 311-347 

Chemical and physical properties. Advantages over other 
fuels. Comparison with other fuels. Sampling. Relative costs. 
Specifications. Combustion. 

7. Oil Shale, Shale Oil and Coal Naphtha 348-366 

Occurrence, properties, distillation products, by-product 
coal distillation plants, gas manufacturing. 

8. Asphalt 367-392 

Refining oil for road building and paying purposes. Prop 
erties of asphaltic and bituminous materials. Various types of 
asphalt pavements with their properties and specifications. Spe- 
cifications for brick filler. Asphalt for water-proofing. Road oils. 

9. Natural Gas 393-424 

Occurrence of natural gas. Production. Prices. Composi- 
tion. Manufacture. Gasoline by absorption method. Capacity 
of absorption towers. Manufacture of carbon black. Properties 
and production of helium. Explosions of natural gas. Measur- 
ing the capacity of gas wells. Capacities of gas pipe lines. 

10. Methods of Analysis of Petroleum, Asphalt, Natural Gas. .425-519 

Standardized and commercial methods. 

11. Tables 520-561 

Gravity correction tables, temperature correction tables. 
Mensuration conversion tables. 

12. Bibliography 562-595 

Publications and Patents. 

13. Index 595-622 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM— GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF USES. 

The word petroleum has its derivation from the Latin "petra," 
rock, and "oleum," oil. Synonymous terms are mineral oil, rock oil, 
crude oil and crude naphtha. In the widest sense, the word embraces 
the whole of the hydrocarbons, gases, liquids and solids occurring in 
nature. In a commercial or practical sense, the word applies to 
natural liquid hydrocarbons, and the term asphalt applies to the solid 
forms, such as asphaltum, albertite, elaterite, gilsonite, ozokerite, 
glance pitch and hatchettite. 

The occurrence of petroleum has been recorded from the earliest 
times and has been spoken of as oil springs, burning water and the 
like. The first probable exploitation of petroleum in the way of dis- 
tillation was by Jas. Young, an Englishman, in 1850. Petroleum 
was obtained by well drilling first in 18-58 by E. L. Drake. The 
depth of this well was 70 feet and the yield of oil was 25 barrel? 
per day. 

The original use of petroleum was in the preparation of illumi- 
nating oil to replace coal oil. After the production of illuminating 
oil from petroleum, it was soon shown that the heavy petroleum oil 
had far superior lubricating properties to vegetable and animal fats 
and oils so that at the present time, practically all lubricating oils 
are obtained from petroleum. 

The development of the gasoline engine is due principally to the 
need of a commercial outlet for gasoline. Gasoline was originally 
used for lighting purposes and domestic stoves. It is now the most 
valuable and important product of petroleum, being approached in 
value only by that of lubricating oil. There are 10,000,000 gasoline 
automobiles in the United States at this time. 

The following outlines some of the main uses of petroleum 
products: 

Gasoline and Naphtha — Gas lighting, laboratory solvents, 
cleansing, gasoline stoves, automobiles, extraction of seed oils, metal 
polishes, gasoline engines, paint vehicles, asphalt paint and road 
binder solvent, refrigerant. 

Kerosene and Illuminating Oils — Lamps, distillate engines, sig- 
nal lights, gas washing and absorbents, portable stoves. 

Gas Oil— Pintsch gas, Blaugas, town gas, straw oil, heating, 
cracking, anti-corrosives. 

Heavy Distillates — Lubricants, spindle oil, auto oil, machine oil, 
engine oil, cylinder oil, greases, vaseline, wax, medicinal oil, water- 
proofing for fabrics, candles, soap filler, paints, polishes. 

Liquid Residua — Steam fuel, heating, concrete waterproofing, 
road and macadam oils, dust prevention, cracking, cylinder oil. 

Semi-solid Residua — Asphalt pavement, waterproofing, brick 
filler, roofing, rubber filler or substitute. 

Crude Oils — Diesel engines, dust prevention, waterproofing, 
steam fuel. 

The following statistics show the extent of the petroleum indus- 
try at this time: 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



PETROLEUM IN 1919, 1920 AND 1921. 
CRUDE OIL BALANCE SHEET. (U. S.) 

1919 1920 1921 

Stocks on handJanuary 1st. 117,204,000 123,344,000 133,690,000 

Crude oil produced during year . . 377,719,000 443,402,000 472,439,000 

Crude oil imported 52,822,000 106,175,000 125,307,000 

547,745,000 672,921,000 731,436,000 

Stocks on hand December 31st. . . 123,344,000 133,690,000 197,089,000 

Crude oil consumed during year. . 418,477,000 531,186,000 525,407,000 

Crude oil exported 5,924,000 8,045,000 8,940,000 

547,745,000 672,921,000 731,436,000 



PRODUCTION BY STATES IN UNITED STATES. 

1919 1920 1921 

Oklahoma 87,000,000 105,725,700 115,680,000 

California 101,564,000 105,668,000 114,900,000 

Texas 85,900,000 96,000,000 105,200,000 

Kansas 30,000,000 38,501,000 35,750,000 

Louisiana 14,853,000 35,649,000 25,835,000 

Wyoming 13,000,000 17,071,000 19,550,000 

Kentucky 9,346,700 8,680,000 8,975,000 

Illinois 10,165,000 10,772,000 10,000,000 

Pennsylvania 7,500,000 7,454,000 7,425,000 

West Virginia 7,900,000 8,173,000 7,990,000 

Ohio 7,300,000 7,412,000 7,275,000 

Indiana 9000,00 932,000 1,155,000 

New York 890,000 906,000 970,000 

Colorado 120,000 110,000 109,000 

Arkansas 0,000 0,000 9,850,000 

Montana 297,300 348,700 1,775,000 

Total 377,719,000 443,400,700 472,439,000 



PRODUCTION BY DISTRICTS IN UNITED STATES. 

Mid Continent. . ." 115,897,000 144,226,000 258,885,000 

California 101,764,000 105,668,000 114,709,000 

Central and North Texas 67,419,000 70,952,000 Incl. Midco. 

Gulf Coast 20,568,000 26,801,000 34,160,000 

Appalachian 29,232,000 30,511,000 30,574,000 

North Louisiana 13,575,000 33,896,000 Incl. Midco. 

Illinois ■ 12,436,000 10,772,000 10,935,000 

Lima-Indiana 3,444,000 3,059,000 2,411,000 

Rocky Mountain 13,584,000 17,517,000 20,765,000 



Total 377,919,000 443,402,700 472,439,000 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



* 



WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF PETROLEUM. 

1919 1920 1921 

United States 377,919,000 443,402,700 472,439,000 

Mexico 87,359,000 163,039,000 191,418,000 

Russia 34,284,000 34,284,000* 34,284,000* 

Dutch East Indies 15,780,000 15,780,000* 16,000,000* 

India 8,453,000 8,453,000* 8,500,000* 

Roumania 6,353,000 7,200,000 7,500,000* 

Galicia 6,255,000 6,255,000* 6,000,000* 

Trinidad 2,780,000 2,780,000* 3,000,000* 

Peru 2,561,000 2,561,000* 3,600,000 

Japan 2,120,000 2,120,000* 2,000,000 

Germany 1,000,000 1,000,000* 500,000* 

Argentina, Egypt, Persia, Canada, 

Italy, etc 14,028,000 14,028,000* 17,000,000 

Total 558,892,000 700,902,700 762,241,000 

*Estimated 

PRODUCTS OF PETROLEUM. (U. S.) 

1919 1920 1921 
Total crude oil consumed 

(all purposes) 418,477,000 bbl. 531,186,000 525,407,000 

Crude oil refined 361,520,000 bbl. 433,915,000 443,363,000 

Gasoline produced 94,210,000 bbl. 116,250,000 120,939,000 

Kerosene produced 55,740,000 bbl. 55,240,000 46,300,000 

Lubricating oils 20,160,000 bbl. 24,900,000 20,900,000 

Gas oil, fuel oils, distillates, 

road oils, flux oils 181,540,000 bbl. 246,500,000 230,100,000 

Crude oil used for fuel 56,957,000 bbl. 97,271,000 82,044,000 

Wax 467,235,000 lb. 541,404,000 433,887,000 

Coke 603,460 ton 576,613 604,465 

Asphalt 901,885 ton 1,290,614 1,214,536 

Losses (cracking, etc.^ 15,000,000 bbl. 18,742,939 11,280,000' 

FIELD OPERATIONS. 

Wells drilled during the 

year 28,512 33,385 21,152 

Dry wells or gas 7,833 9,647 5,013 

Per cent producing at end 

of year 72.54% . 71.10% 76.30% 

Producing wells in U. S. 

December 31st 239,650 263,388 279,520 

Average production per 

well per day 4.41 bbl. 4.60 bbl. 4.63 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



Geographical Distribution of Petroleum. 
(U. S. Geological Survey.) 

United States — The oil pools of the United States are grouped 
in certain major areas or fields which originally were delimited 
according to their geographical position alone. As the fields have 
been extended areally, the geographic boundaries of some of them 
have become in places less distinct and the gi-ouping has been deter- 
mined more and more by commercial usage which in turn is in part 
determined by the quality of the oils. 

The Appalachian field embraces all the oil pools that lie east 
of Central Ohio and north of Alabama, including those of New 
York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Eastern Ohio, Kentucky and 
Tennessee. Most of the strata that yield oil in this field are sand- 
stones and conglomerates of Devonian and Carboniferous age. The 
typical oils are of paraffin base, are free from asphalt and objection- 
able sulphur, and yield by ordinary methods of refining, large per- 
centages of gasoline and illuminating oil. They range in color from 
black to light amber, but most of them are of some shade of green. 
In gravity they range from 25° to 53° Baume' and average about 
43° Be'. 

The Lima-Indiana field embraces all the pools in Northwestern 
Ohio and most of those in Indiana. The oil-bearing beds in this field 
belong to the Ordovician, Silurian and Carboniferous systems, but 
the most productive are lenses of porous dolomitic rock in the 
"Trenton" limestone, a member of the Ordovician system and the old- 
est known oil-bearing rock in the United States. The oil obtained 
from the Carboniferous rocks in Southwestern Indiana properly 
belongs to the Illinois field, next to be considered, for the formations 
lie in the same structural basin and the two fields are continuous. 
The oil in the pre-Carboniferous rocks of the Lima-Indiana field is 
of lower grade than that from the pre-Carboniferous rocks of some 
parts of the Appalachian field and contains sulphur compounds that 
must be removed by special treatment. In color the oils obtained in 
this field range from green to brown and their average gravity is 
probably about 39° Baume', although some of them are much heavier. 

The principal productive area in the Illinois field is in the south- 
eastern part of the state, along the LaSalle anticlinal axis, but there 
are also small scattered pools in Central and Western Illinois. Most 
of the oil is obtained from beds of sandstone in the Pennsylvania and 
Mississippian series of the Carboniferous system. The oils in the 
northern part of the field are heavy, have an asphaltic base and 
carry sulphur. The oils in the southern part of the field are of 
be^'-er grade. In gravity the oils range from 27° to 37° Baume'. 

The Mid-Continent field includes the oil-producing area in Kan- 
sas, Oklahoma, Northern and Central Texas and Northern Louisiana. 
Most of the oil produced in Kansas, Oklahoma and Northern Texas 
i i obtained from beds of sandstone in formations of the Pennsyl- 
vania series (upper Carboniferous). The oil produced in Southern 
Oklahoma is obtained mainly from several pools in beds of sandstone 
of the Pennsylvania series, though some oil is found in the "Red 
Beds" of the Permian series (latest Carboniferous). 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




Kjg 1 — .Map of the Tnited States Showing Refineri's. Production 
Fields and Main Trunli Pipe Lin-es of Petroleum. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



The oil found in Northern Louisiana and Central Texas is ob- 
tained from sandstones or other porous rocks of the Cretaceous and 
Tertiary systems. In the Mid-Continent field the oil has accumulated 
in anticlines, domes and terraces throughout an extensive region 
where the strata have a general westerly dip. The oil grades in ap- 
pearance and gravity from the thick, black oil of some of the 
Louisiana fields, which have a gravity of 21° Baume', to the almost 
colorless product of the so-called "gasoline well" near Cushing, Okla., 
which has a gravity that is reported to be above 55° Baume'. How- 
ever, the average oil from the Mid-Continent field is light green and 
has a gravity of about 35° Baume'. 

The Gulf Coast field includes that part of the Gulf Coastal Plain 
of Texas and Louisiana in which petroleum is associated with masses 
of rock salt and gypsum in domes. The age of the oil bearing strata 
ranges from Ci-etaceous to Quarternary, and the reservoir rock is 
generally either sandstone or porous dolomitic limestone. The field 
includes a great number of small, scattered pools, few of them more 
than three miles in diameter, which produce oil having an asphaltic 
base. The productivity of some of the wells is enormous but the pro- 
duction of most of the pools soon reaches a maximum and then 
steadily declines. The value of some of the oil is impaired by its 
high content of sulphur, which may be as much as 2.3 per cent. 
The gravity ranges from 15° to 30° Baume', and averages about 22° 
Be'. Most of the oil is dark brown to black but some of it is green. 
There is no apparent relation between color, gravity and content 
of sulphur. 

The Rocky Mountain field embraces all areas that produce pe- 
troleum in Colorado, Wyoming and Montana as well as some areas 
of prospective production in Utah and New Mexico. The petroleum 
now obtained in this field is derived from strata of Pennsylvanian, 
Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous age. Most of the oils from Paleo- 
zoic and Mesozoic strata are dark and heavy with gravities averag- 
ing about 23° Baume', although some of them have a gravity as low 
as 11° Baume'. The Cretaceous oils are remarkably light in color 
and their gravity ranges from 25° to 50° Baume'. "rhe average 
gravity for the Rocky Mountain field is about 32° Baume'. 

The California oil fields may be roughly divided into two geo- 
graphic groups, one occupying two sides of San Joaquin Valley and 
commonly knov/n as the Valley fields, and the other occupying a 
large area along the coast and commonly known as the Coastal 
fields. All the Valley fields, except one, lie on the west side of San 
Joaquin Valley and the oil in most of them is obtained from porous 
Tertiary sandstones that have been folded into anticlines and syn- 
clines. The conditions in the Coastal fields are in many respects 
similar to those in the Valley fields, but the structure is much more 
varied. A very small part of the oil produced in California is 
obtained from Cretaceous formations. The oils range in color from 
black to honey-yellow and in gravity from 9.9° to 54° Baume'. 
Heavy dark oils that contain little sulphur predominate. A fair 
average gravity is about 21° Be'. 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




FiSJ. - 



lap .Sliowin.e Producins- .\rcas an.l Pipe Lines 
in the Mid Continent and Gulf Fields. 



for retroleum 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



Nearly all the petroleum produced in the United States is carried 
to refineries through buried pipes. Some pipe lines extend from the 
fields in the interior of the country to the Gulf of Mexico and 
to the Atlantic seaboai'd for the distances of many hundreds of 
miles. The trunk pipe lines, that is, the main lines only, not the 
subsidiary branches, now cover moi'e than 34,000 miles. 

Canada — Indications of petroleum have been observed in many 
parts of Canada but no fields have been much exploited, except 
those in Ontario, vv^here the oil occurs in sandstones and limestones 
of Silurian and Devonian age. Most of the Ontario oil has a paraf- 
fin base but contains large quantities of sulphur. The Calgary 
field in Alberta has produced only a small quantity of oil, but a 
field in Northern Alberta, where the famous Tar sands of early 
Cretaceous age occur, gives promise of commercial production 

Mexico — The petroleum fields of Mexico that now seem to promise 
the greatest production are in the eastern part of the country in 
the Gulf Coastal Plain. There are two fields which are distinct 
geographically and geologically and which produce different kinds 
of petroleum. 

The Tampico — Tuxpan field lies in the northern part of the State 
of Vera Cruz and the southern part of the State of Tamaulipas. 
In this field indications of oil are found in a region about 250 miles 
long and 40 miles wide. The Tehuantepec field forms a similar long, 
narrow area which extends along the Gulf coast from southern Vera 
Cruz about 200 miles eastward to the eastern limit of Tabasco. 

Most of the oil in both fields is found in porous limestone of 
Cretaceous or Eocene age but some oil in the Tehuantepec field is 
found in later Tertiary rocks. In the Tampico-Tuxpan field, the oil 
accumulates either in anticlines or at underground dams formed by 
intrusive necks and dikes of igneous rocks by which the oil pushed up 
or along by salt water has been impounded. In the Tehuantepec field, 
the oil is associated with rock salt and gypsum in domes similar to the 
domes in the Coastal Plain of Texas and Louisiana. The oil gener- 
ally becomes lighter from north to south through the two fields but 
nearly all of it should be classed as heavy. Its gravity ranges from 
about 10' to 43° Baume'. 

Pronounced indications of oil are reported in western Mexico but 
no development has yet been undertaken there. 

Mexico, which has furnished the largest gushers known, is now 
the second largest producer of petroleum in the world. 

Central America — Oil seepages are reported to occur in Honduras, 
Costa Rica, Guatemala and Panama but no oil has been developed 
commercially in any of these countries. 

South America — Much interest centers in the known and pros- 
pective oil fields in South America along the Caribbean Sea. Exuda- 
tions and seepages of oil and deposits of asphalt are scattered 
through northern Columbia and Venezuela from the Gulf of Darien 
to the delta of the Orinoco. The oil is found in porous sandstones 
that afford good reservoirs at horizons extending through several 
thousand feet of Cretaceous and Tertiary beds which are both folded 
and faulted. Most of the oil has a heavy asphaltic base but some is 
lighter. The production has been small but development has been 
carried far enough to prove that both Colombia and Venezuela con- 
tain large reserves of petroleum. 



10 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




Fig. 3 — Map Show-in;? Producing- Areas and Pipe Lines for Petroleum 

in Eastern Urtited States. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 11 



Peru is the only country on the Pacific coast of South America 
that has contributed much petroleum to the world's supply. Most of 
the indications of oil are. found in the broad promontory at the north 
end of Peru in a belt that extends along the coast from the frontier 
of Ecuador southward for about 200 miles to a point south of Payta. 
The oil occurs at several horizons throughout 2,000 feet or more of 
folded and faulted beds of rather soft sandstone and shale of early 
Tertiary age. It escapes at numerous seeps and asphaltic outcrops 
and is an excellent refining oil. 

Bolivia, Ecuador, Argentina and Chile appear to contain con- 
siderable reserves of petroleum which however are apparently not 
comparable in extent to those of Colombia and Venezuela. Argen- 
tina has produced oil since 1908 from the Comodoro Rivadavia field 
on the coast of Patagonia where oil occurs in nearly horizontal sup- 
posedly Cretaceous beds which are covered by Tertiary beds. The 
oil is heavy, black and of asphaltic base. Indications cf oil have been 
found at intervals in a belt that extends along the eastern flanks of 
the Andes from Tierra del Fuego northward to Colombia. The whole 
belt has produced only a few thousand tons of oil but probably con- 
tains extensive reserves. 

So far as known, Brazil contains no marked surface indications 
of petroleum but it does contain extensive deposits of oil shale. 

West Indies — Traces of petroleum are scattered through Cuba, 
Porto Rico, Santo Domingo, Trinidad and Barbados but Trinidad is 
the only one of these islands that has produced it in any considerable 
quantity. The oil fields of Trinidad are mainly in its southern part 
and the oil is obtained from lenses of sandstone of Tertiary age which 
are closely folded into a series of parallel synclines and anticlines. 
Trinidad gives promise of large future production. 

Africa — In Africa, oil has so far been produced only in Egypt but 
Algeria contains encouraging prospects. The Egyptian oil fields lie 
along the Gulf of Suez. The oil occurs in sandstone and in cavernous 
dolomitic limestone associated with thick beds of gypsum in Miocene 
(Tertiary) age, accompanied in some places by thick beds of salt. 
The underlying Nubian (Cretaceous) sandstone also contains some 
oil. This field occupies a strategic position on a great trade route 
and shows promise of considerable production. 

Little work has been done in Algeria but some oil has been ob- 
tained in the Cheliff River area, in the Oran province, northwestern 
Algeria. The oil bearing formation is probably upper Miocene, and 
its structure is complex. 

Promising indications of petroleum have been reported in the 
Tertiary coastal plain formations in Angola and Ashanti (Gold Coast) 
and oil seepages are reported to extend over a large area in Western 
Madagascar. 



12 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




Fig. 4— Mai) Showing r'r.,(hi(inf;- Aroas and Pipe Lines for Petroleum 

111 Wyoming. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 13 



Europe — Most of the known deposits of oil in Europe are in its 
southeastern part. More than half of the oil thus far produced in 
Europe has been taken from an area of not more than 50 square 
miles in the Apsheron Peninsula, in southeastern Russia, on the Cas- 
pian Sea, and a large part of the remainder from Rumania and 
Galicia. A second reserve in the Caspian region, discovered only 
recently but undoubtedly very large, lies in the Ural-Caspian area 
along the north shore of the Caspian Sea east of the Volga. Most 
of this area appears to lie east of the political boundary between 
Asia and Europe but there is no insurmountable barrier to trans- 
portation to Europe and the oil there will doubtless become of great 
commercial value throughout southeastei'n Europe. 

Probably more than 90 percent of the oil found in Europe occurs 
in highly disturbed formations of comparatively recent age (Ter- 
tiary) similar to those of California. Beds of this type offer great 
difficulties to the driller and the average wells make a high initial 
yield and decline rapidly in production. 

The oil fields of Russia are scattered among ten provinces but 
the field in the province of Baku has been by far the most productive. 
This relatively small area has produced more than a quarter of the 
world's total output of oil and though it reached a peak in its pro- 
duction in 1901 when Russia furnished more than half the world's out- 
put, its decline has been a decline in world rank rather than in 
actual quantity of oil produced. Other highly productive oil fields 
of Russia are the Grosny, Maikop, Ural-Caspian and Tcheleken fields. 
A number of smaller fields also have excellent prospects. The Grosny 
field lies on a sharp anticline of Miocene beds about 500 miles north- 
west of Baku, north of the Caucasus range. The Maikop field is in 
the province of Kuban, on the north flank of the Caucasus, northeast 
of the Black Sea. The other fields of Russia have not produced large 
quantities of oil but extensive showings of oil are found in the Ural- 
Caspian and Tcheleken fekls of Asiatic Russia, the former covering a 
large area in the Emba-Uralsk region and around the north end of 
the Caspian Sea and the latter lying on the east shore of the Caspian 
Sea in the Trans-Caspian province. 

The oil fields of both Galicia and Rumania I'e in a narrow belt 
that follows the northern, eastern and southern foothills of the Car- 
pathian Mountains. Throughout this belt, oil is obtained from highly 
disturbed Tertiary strata. In Rumania most of the oil is obtained 
from Miocene and Pliocene beds but part of it is obtained from Eocene 
and Oligocene and possibly from Cretaceous beds. In Galicia, the 
largest output is obtained from Eocene beds The geology of this 
zone is very complex, the rocks being sharply folded and in some 
places faulted by overthrust In 1913 the chief producing area in 
Rumania was the Prahova, although Buzeu and Bacau also produced 
some oil. Promising indications of oil are also found in Bukowina, 
Hungary which also lies in this productive belt. 

The oil produced in Germany is obtained largely from fields in 
Hanover where it occurs in domes associated with rock salt similar to 
those of the Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States. The rocks that 
contain it are chiefly limestones and sandstones of Upper Jurassic 
age. In Batavia some oil has been obtained from sandstone of Eocene 
age. 



14 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



6 COAL W^OA 

/« lojAnati.Mt -Jik"* LA/re 
II WMir Tis/* - rt/LL f *r*rt 




- mp£ Line 3 

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y 




toj A 1-^ C C I. C I 



e-' 



o/i nCLDs & Pipe una 

CAuroRniPi 






Fig-. 5 — Map Showing- Producing- Areas and Pipe Lines for Petroleur 

in California. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 15 



In Alsace some oil has been produced from sandstone of Eocene 
and Olig-ocene age but the general structure is not such as would ordi- 
narily be considered favorable. 

In Italy oil occurs in the Emilia district, on the northeast slope 
of the Appenines in disturbed lenticular sandstones of Eocene and 
Miocene age. A small output of petroleum has. been obtained in two 
other districts in Italy — in the Pescari Valley, central Italy and in the 
Liri Valley, midway between Naples and Rome. 

Indications of petroleum are found at many places in Europe 
other than those described including England. In fact, practically 
every country in Europe contains some indications of petroleum. In- 
telligent and efficient search is likely to lead to further discoveries 
of oil in many areas, including some where the presence of oil is not 
now suspected. 

Asia — The principal producing oil fields of Asia are in India, 
Persia and Japan. Almost the entire output of India is produced in 
Burma. The main oil field is in rocks of Miocene age along the Irra- 
waddy in Upper Burma about midway between Rangoon and Man- 
dalay. In Assam and in Punjab, coal bearing rocks of Eocene age 
have yielded oil in small quantities. 

The chief oil fields in Japan are on the island of Nippon, about 
200 miles northwest of Tokyo but indications of petroleum have been 
found and a small output has been obtained at many other places in 
Japan as well as in Taiwan (Formosa). Most of the oil is obtained 
from loosely cemented sandstones that lie on the flanks of well devel- 
oped closely folded anticlines. 

In Persia and Mesopotamia, along the northeast side of the Per- 
sian Gulf and the Tigris-Euphrates basin, lies what is probably des- 
tined to be one of the large oil fields of the world. The indications 
of oil extend over an immense area and oil has been produced in 
small quantities here for many years. The only notable development 
however is in Persia, 150 miles north of the head of the Persian Gulf, 
where about 1,000,000 metric tons of crude oil was produced in 1918. 

Other promising oil fields lie in the Ural-Caspian and Trans- 
Caspian regions of Russia, in Ferghana (eastern Turkestan) in Chinca 
and on Sakhalin Island. In the Ferghana basin^ oil occurs in Lower 
Tertiary beds in rather closely folded anticlines on the borders of the 
mountains around the basin. In China, small quantities of oil have 
been obtained for centuries in the Shensi province, from which large 
future production may be expected. The oil occurs in Carboniferous 
strata and the general geologic conditions are similar to those in the 
Appalachian and Mid-Continent fields of the United States. Indi- 
cations of oil have been noted in other provinces. In Sakhalin (Sag- 
halien) Island the oil is similar to that in Japan in quality and mode 
of occurrence. Oil springs and asphalt deposits are scattered through 
a belt that extends along the greater part of the eastern coast of 
the Russian part of the island. Pronounced indications of oil are also 
reported from Palestine and from the vicinity of Lake Baikal in Si- 
beria. 

Oceanica and the Malay Archipelago — The islands of Borneo, 
Sumatra and Java in the Dutch East Indies contain oil fields that may 
be of immense value and other neighboring islands show promising 
signs of productive fields The oil is found in anticlinal folds that 
have sharply dipping flanks. Most of the oil bearing rocks are as- 



16 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




Oil riCLOs i pipc una 

or 

MtAICO 

PiPC una 

' lOOO a0L PRODVCTIOfI 



yf\ 



^ 



' pom Loaostcoftrex cc^ 









TAf«m<u<i\\ ¥ iiLAnO<JiLi.TRAfiSPOKr COR^ 



rcpnrr, cnAi. 0ST C9 



O 



cmconrtPic 






Fig. t>— Map Showin-g- Producing Areas and Pipe Lines for Petroleum 

in Mexico. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 17 



sociated with beds of coal and lignite of Miocene age. In Borneo, oils 
of both asphaltic and paraffin base are found at different depths in 
the same fields. Sumatra produces some oils that are very rich in 
the lighter products and make a much larger output than the other 
two islands of the group. 

Indications of oil are found at many places in the Philippine 
Islands and small quantities have been obtained there for nearly 50 
years. 

PRODUCTION AND PROSPECTS. 

The most notable contributions to the world's supply of petroleum 
in the next decade will undoubtedly be made by the South American 
countries that border the Caribbean Sea, by Mexico and by Mesopo- 
tamia and Persia. 

The annual production of petroleum in Mexico increased from 
21,000,000 barrels in 1913 to nearly 64,000,000 barrels in 1918 and the 
future production in that country will certainly be very great. Ex- 
ploratory work done in Venezuela and Colombia shows that both 
those countries may become large contributors to the world's supply 
of peti'oleum within the next decade. In Trinidad, the production of 
petroleum which for several years has exceeded 1,500,000 barrels a 
year, has been doubled within the last four years and with the im- 
proved facilities for ocean transportation cf oil that are now avail- 
able will no doubt be further increased. Argentine and Bolivia give 
promise of considerable production. Cuba is not likely to become a 
large producer of petroleum and our present knowledge of the pe- 
troleum resoui'ces of the Central American countries is not sufficient 
to warrant the assertion that oil fields of great output will be devel- 
oped in them. 

The production of petroleum in the United States has probably 
nearly reached its maximum and is likely to decline slowly but rather 
steadily, though this country may remain the leading oil producer of 
the world for many years. 

The oil fields of Persia produced about 7.000,000 barrels of oil 
in 1918 and the wells already drilled are reported to be capable of 
producing five times that quantity. The capabilities of the field are 
practically undetermined. Difficulties of transportation have greatly 
retarded development but an enormous increase in production in the 
near future is predicted. 

The petroleum resources of Russia are believed to be sufficient 
to make that country the leading producer of petroleum in the East- 
ern Hemisphere for a long time. The oil fields of both Rumania and 
Galicia are believed to have passed their maximum yield and val- 
uable new fields will probably not be found in those countries. 

The next decade will doubtless witness a steady increase in the 
production of oil in India and Persia and the development of one or 
more highly productive oil fields in Mesopotamia and possibly in 
Asia Minor, Ferghana and China. The same period will doubtless wit- 
ness a material increase in the production of petroleum in Taiwan 
(Formosa) and Sakhalin and in the Dutch East Indies and possibly 
also the opening of new fields in Papua (New Guinea). The oil re- 
sources of the Philippine Islands are untested. Africa, including 
Madagascar, will doubtless receive attention f>"om oil operators dur- 
ing the next ten years, but the output there during that period will 
probably not be large enough to affect the world's peti'oleum market 
seriously. 



18 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



19 



Geologic Occurrence of Petroleum and Natural Gas. 

Petroleum and natural gas are formed by the decomposition of 
organic matter of any kind under the proper conditions. Usually it 
originates from plant and animal remains that have been deposited 
with sediment in the sea. They are never found in commercial quan- 
tities in igneous rocks, in the metamorphosed rocks or in fresh water 
sediments not associated with marine formations. They generally 
originate in shales, marls or limestones. Petroleum cannot ordinarily 
accumulate in shales in large quantities because of their close tex- 
ture. Sands or sandstone are distributed more or less through all 
shales and these sands as vvell as porous limestones offer adequate 
reservoirs for the accumulation of petroleum and gas. • 




Fig. 7 — Diagra-ii Showing- Accumulation of Oil and Gas in Anticlines 



The following summarizes the geological conditions under which 
petroleum and natural gas occur: 

1. They occur in sedimentary rocks of all geologic ages from Si- 
lurian upward. The most productive areas are the Paleozoic in North 
America and the Miocene in Russia. 

2. There is no relation of the occurrence of petroleum to vol- 
canic or igneous action. There seems to be some relation particularly 
in the Carboniferous and the Mississippian to the deposits of coal. 

3. The most productive areas for oil in great quantity are where 
the strata are comparatively undisturbed. Oil frequently occurs 
where the strata are highly contorted and disturbed but in less abun- 
dance and gas is usually absent. 

4. In comparatively undisturbed as well as in disturbed areas a 
folded or domed structure often favors the accumulation of oil and 
gas in the domes or anticlines. 

5. Important requisites for a productive oil or gas field are an 
impervious cap rock or cover and a porous reservoir. 

6. Salt water almost universally accompanies oil and eas in the 
same sand. 



20 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



In the United States, oil is found most abundantly in the Ter- 
tiary rocks in California and the Gulf Coast, in upper Cretaceous in 
Wyoming, in Carboniferous locally known as the Cherokee Shales in 
the Mid-Continent field, in the sub-Carboniferous or Mississippian 
and the Upper Devonian in the Appalachian field and in Illinois, and 
in the Ordovician in Ohio and Indiana. The oils from the Tertiary are 
heavy and of low grade, those from the Cretaceous, Carboniferous 
and sub-Carboniferous are light, high grade oils. The Mississippian 
in the Mid-Continent field is not believed to carry any oil and very 
little is known of it or deeper strata in this territory. It is assumed 
that the deeper strata have vanished west of the Ozark uplift. 




Fig. 8 — Diagram Showing Accumulation of Oil in Synclines. 



The accumulation of petroleum occurs in a pervious reservoir 
which usually consists of a loose sand though it may be a coarse gravel 
or a disrupted shale or limestone. It is merely necessary that the 
rock should contain a considerable amount of voids. The ordinary 
sand v.ill have from 15 to 35 percent of voids and the amount of 
oil contained and the ease with which it is discharged into a well 
vary greatly. As a general rule, one gallon of oil may be obtained 
from one cubic foot of oil sand. It is probable that never over 75 
percent of the oil surrounding a well is discharged into it even with 
the lighter oils, and the percent abstracted is much lower with the 
heavier and more viscous oils. Porous sand and gravel and heavy 
gas pressure are conducive to rapid expulsion of oil. Fine sand and 
low pressure give steadily producing wells of great longevity. The 
ultimate production of a well would be determined by the depth and 
extent of the sand, the physical character of the sand, the physical 
character of the oil and the pressure. Water is a very important ele- 
ment in the actual production of a well. It frequently causes very 
extensive subterranean oil movements destroying one productive 
structure and making new productive structures. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



21 



In nearly every oil sand there occur together, gas, oil and salt 
water. Salt water is believed to be sea water that filled the pores 
of the sand when it was deposited in the sea. Water from oil 
bearing strata differs from sea water in concentration and composi- 
tion but changes might readily have taken place in the original sea 
water while stored in the rocks. In rare instances, oil bearing strata 
are associated with fresh water and in some cases there is no water 
at all. When these three substances are associated, the gas of course 
occupies the uppermost portion of the sand, the salt water the bot- 
tom, and the oil, the intermediate portion. The sand commonly 
lies at the same angle or dip as the stratum in which it is contained. 
This fact offers the basis to a great extent, of the engineer's work 
in locating the favorable formations. The strata that contain petro- 




I'ig-. 9 — Diagram Showing- Accumulation- of Oil in Faults. 



leum are folded. In some places, the folding is very slight, in others 
the strata are thrown into sharp folds, the beds dipping as much as 
30°. In consolidated rocks such as shales, limestones and sandstone 
which have besn intensely deformed by faulting and sharp folding, 
oil is generally not found in large amounts. In loose or uncom- 
pressed rocks such as clays, marls, sands and conglomerates, large 
accumulations are known in areas of highly complicated structures. 
The tops of the folds or the anticlines offer the cover for the prin- 
cipal accumulation of petroleum, particularly when water and gas are 
associated. The bottom of the folds or the synclines may carry oil 
when water is absent in the porous stratum. Many oil fields are 
on monoclines on which are developed secondary folds such as anti- 
clines, domes and terraces. In rocks that are highly saturated with 
oil and in beds that dip very gently, the oil gathers in domes if these 
exist, but accumulation takes place also in gentle folds and in some 
structures such as terraces which are not completely closed. Surface 
topography as a general rule, bsars no relation to the probable loca- 
tion of oil or the strike of the formation beneath the surface. 



22 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Asphalt exposures or oil springs are not usually good indications 
of oil in immediate vicinities. If oil is found in the immediate vi- 
cinity, it is likely to be of heavy asphaltic character. 

Asphalt exposures, however, are of value in that they indicate 
that oil of good quality may be found where this same geologic 
structure is capped by an impervious cover. The depth at which oil 
is found of course varies greatly. Oil of good quality is usually 
found at sufficient depth that the lighter fractions have not evap- 
orated, though some good wells are found at depths as shallow as 
250 feet. The best wells of the Mid-Continent field vary from 1,000 
to 3,500 feet in depth. The deepest well in the United States is the 
Lake Well in Harrison County, West Virginia, and is 7,579 feet deep. 
Wells at Ranger, Texas, are about 3,400 feet deep. A well in Banner 
County, Nebraska, is 5,600 feet deep. Named in order of depth the 

SALT DOME 




Fig. 10 — Diagram Sliowing- Tlieoretical Salt Domes of Texas Coast 
District. (Oil and Gas Journal.) 

three deepest wells in the world are the Lake; the Goff, West Virginia, 
7,386 feet and a well at Czuchow, Germany, 7,348 feet. In compari- 
son with these great depths, other depths reached by wells or mines 
sunk in the crust of the earth are rather insignificant. The deepest 
mine in the world is Shaft No. 3 of the Tamarack mine in Hough- 
ton County, Michigan, which has reached a depth of 5,200 feet. 

The temperature at which oil issues from the ground depends 
more upon the depth than upon the latitude of the country in which 
the well is located. The temperature of the oil issuing from wells 
near the Arctic circle is very much the same as that from the Tem- 
perate zone. Gradients as to increase of temperature from the sur- 
face of the earth inward have very little bearing upon the average 
yearly air temperature. As a general rule, the temperature increases 
at the rate of about 1° F. for each fifty feet in depth. On this basis, 
the temperature of the earth at a depth of ten miles would be 1000° F. 
This is a far greater temperature than necessary for the decomposi- 
tion of organic matter or heavy petroleums into light hydrocarbons. 
The record of a well in West Virginia as to increase in temperature 
is as follows: iqo feet 55 6° 

1,000 feet 63.5° 

2,000 feet 74 9° 

3,000 feet 87.6° 

5,000 feet 114.2° 

6.000 feet 132.1° 

7,000 feet 153.2° 

7,310 feet 158.3° 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



23 



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Fig-. 11 — Correlation Chart of Oil Sands of Oklahoma. 



24 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The rate of temperatuie increase varies continuo.sly from 1° F. 
in 97.5 feet at the surface to 1° F. in 46.5 feet over the interval 
6,000 to 7,000 feet. In the Texas and Oklahoma fields, temperatures 
at a given depth differ widely from those found in Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia. The temperature of the oil in two wells near Man- 
nington, West Va., is 83.2° F. at a depth of about 2,900 feet. In the 
Ranger field, Texas, the temperature of the oil at 3,400 feet is esti- 
mated from measurements at higher levels, to be about 135° F. The 
average rate of temperature increase at the surface for thirteen wells 
in Texas and Oklahoma is about 1° F. in 51 feet as compared with 
1° in 91.5 feet for twelve wells in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. 
Mexican oil issues at an average temperature of 165° F. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 27 



General Description of Oil Well Drilling. 

Ihe usual method of drilling for oil and gas is the cable system 
which depends upon the weight of a heavy string of tools hung on a 
stretched rope or cable, lijpe is more satisfactory than cable for 
shallow depths. Wire cable is satisfactory below 1,00U feet. The 
general equipment requued excepting the power plant is shown in 
figure 12. a timber or metal derrick 6U to luO feet nigh with a 16 
to 20 foot base is mounted on heavy frame. On one side of the der- 
rick, the rig is erected. The main drive is transmitted from the en- 
gine to a large wooden wheel known as the band wheel which is from 
8 to 12 feet in diameter. The shaft of the band wheel at one end is 
attached to a crank that transmits through a connecting rod an os- 
cillating movement to an overhead beam known as the walking 
beam. Holes are bored in the crank enabling the pin to be placed at 
varying distances from the center thus allowing an adjustment of the 
stroke of the walking beam to suit requirements. From the end of 
the walking beam just overlying the mouth of the well is hung a 
temper screw and rope clamp to which the cable is attached when 
the string of tools is lowered into the well. The string of tools is 
suspended from a cable which is coiled on the bull wheel shaft on 
the side of the derrick opposite the rig. The bull wheel is driven by 
a chain or crossed drive-ropes leading from a tug wheel on the side 
of the band wheel to a corresponding bull wheel about 8 feet in di- 
ameter on the end of the bull wheel shaft. Immediately behind the 
band wheel is the sand reel at the inner side of which is fitted a 
small pulley that can be drawn against the face of the revolving 
band wheel by levers thus causing its rapid rotation. The sand line 
is coiled on the sand reel and carries the bailer. The bailer is al- 
lowed to descend by gravity, its speed being regulated by forcing the 
lever backwards and bringing the friction pulley in contact with a 
stationary wood block brake. Many combinations of the bailer opera- 
tion are used to facilitate and speed the operation of drilling. 

The calf wheel is used for manipulating the line from the cas- 
ing block. It is mounted on a shaft on the rig side of the framing 
and is operated by ropes from a groove or sprocket pulley on the 
end of the band wheel shaft. 

Three pulleys are placed at the summit of the derrick over which 
pass respectively, the drilling cable, the sand line and the casing line. 
For cable drilling, a reversing engine is necessary, enabling the op- 
erator by means of a rope or rod to have full control from the der- 
rick. 

The string of tools is shown in fig. 14 and is about 40 feet long. 
It consists of a bit or drill, auger stem, jars, sinker and rope socket. 
When attached to the rope, they are suspended in the dei'rick and 
lowered into the well, a band brake on one end of the bull wheel shaft 
being used to retard the speed of descent. When the tools are at or 
near the bottom of the well, the temper screw is attached to the 
cable, the weight then being thrown onto the walking beam and the 
bull wheel shaft is released. Some slack cable is uncoiled from the 



28 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




P'iS. 12— Standard Derrick and Equipment for Drilling Deep Oil Well 



■■ells. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



29 



bull wheel shaft. The engine is started and the speed is adjusted to 
correspond with the vibration of the drill rope. The temper screw 
is fed out a little at a time, lowering the bit until a blow is delivered 
on the bottom of the well. The tools are then fed out with the tem- 
per screw so that the bit strikes an effective blow. When the bit 
shows signs of not falling freely, the slack rope is taken up and the 
temper screw is relieved of weight, the connecting rod or pitman is 
disconnected from the crank pin, the beam is allowed to take an in- 
clined position and the tools are raised to the surface. The bailer is 
now lowered and the well is cleaned out, sufficient water having pre- 
viously been run into the well to make a thin mud such as can be 
taken up by the bailer. 

In starting a well, it is not possible to operate with the cumber- 
some stx'ing of tools so that the first 100 to 150 feet are drilled by 
the method known as spudding. The method of spudding is shown 
in fig. 15. A special spudding shoe is connected by a rope to the 
roller, gripping the drilling cable near the bull wheel shaft. The 
figure clearly shows how the vertical motion is imparted to the tools. 

The proper operation of a drill is a matter of expert manipula- 
tion as considerable judgment is needed to secure the full capacity 
of a cable drilling outfit. The speed of drilling must be carefully 
regulated to accord with the depth of the well, the nature of the 
foraiation and the amount of fluid in the well. Ordinarily, it is not 
necessary to rotate the rope to get equal distribution of the attrition 
of the bit as the changeable strains in the cable and beam take care 
of this. 




Fig. 13 — Individual Simplex Pumping- Jack for Connection witli Central 

Power.s. 



30 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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Fig-. 14 — Standard String of Cable Drilling Tools. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 31 



Rotary or Flush Drilling. 

Rotary flush drills are successfully used on a large scale par- 
ticularly in Texas and Louisiana. They have the advantage that very 
rapid speed may be made, as much as 3,100 feet of hole being drilled 
in a month. Rotary drilling is not advisable nor is it used in wild cat 
or pi'ospect work when it is necessary to know the character of all 
formations that are passed through. It is very easy for a rotary 
drill to pass through a rich formation without any evidence of its 
presence. This type of drilling then is used where the producing 
horizon is very definitely known and the well is drilled to within a 
hundred feet or so of this producing horizon and is finished with the 
ordinary cable tools. 

The main feature of all rotary flush drills is a rotating table 
driven by a gear erected on one side of the derrick. The rotary mo- 
tion is transferred by means of pipe to a special bit. A typical bit 
is a double cone shaped affair with numerous wedge shaped knives 
which turn with the bit. The circulating fluid for removing the cut- 
tings is set over the bit under a pressure of about 150 to 200 pounds 
per square inch by pum.ps with a capacity of about 200 gallons per 
minute. For rotary drilling, derricks of 120 feet in height are desir- 
able for convenience in withdrawing the drill pipe. 

Percussion Drilling. 

A system of drilling by percussion is used to a very limited ex- 
tent. Very rapid blows at ths rate of 100 to 150 per minute are 
struck by using an eccentric instead of a walking beam. 

Fishing Operations. 

The most difficult features in drilling wells are those occasioned 
by the losing of tools, collapsing of casing or locking of tools by 
caving. These accidents occasion weeks and even months of delay 
and sometimes cause abandonment of the wells. To recover these 
tools or to proceed with the drilling it is necessary to clear the hole 
by means of special fishing tools. Almost every conceivable type of 
tool has been produced for this service. 

Under-Reaming. 

On the end of the casing is applied a special steel ring known 
as the casing shoe to protect the end of the casing from bending or 
distortion. The casing shoe is larger than the drill and when it is 
necessary to lower the casing, the hole below the casing shoe must 
be enlarged. This is done by under-reaming. Under-reamers are in- 
struments provided with side cutters which are opened automatically 
when the under-reamers are lowered below the casing. Some under- 
reamers provide for both drilling and under-reaming at the same time. 
Under-reamers are used whenever it is desirable to enlarge the hole 
at any point. 

Portable Rigs. 

When wells of slight depth are to be drilled, light portable rigs 
are used to avoid the expense of dismantling and re-erecting a der- 
rick and rig at each well site. For depths less than 1,000 feet, port- 
able rigs are satisfactory but are not ordinarily used for depths 
greater than 1,000 feet. 



32 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




15 — Adaptation of Drilling Rig- for Spudding- In. 

Shooting of Wells. 

When an oil well is drilled in, in some sections, the formation is 
so hard that it is necessary to break it up so that the oil will flow. 
In Oklahoma and Kansas, wells are nearly always shot soon after 
they are drilled in. The shooting consists in setting off a large 
charge of explosive placed in the well at the level of the oil sand. The 
explosive used is usually nitro-glycerin. The explosive is set in the 
bore of the well corresponding as nearly as possible to the producing 
sand. The amount of the charge depends upon the thickness of the 
producing sand. A sand 40 feet thick is usually given a charge of 
about 150 quarts of nitro-glycerin. The nitro-glycerin is introduced 
into the well by means of a shell containing 20 quarts. Whenever it 
is thought that the shooting may have a bad effect and cause a well 
to be flooded out with salt water or whenever any other damage ma> 
possibly result, shooting is eliminated. Hard compact sands are uni- 
versally benefited by shooting. Some sands will not produce at all 
until they are shot. The action is to form cracks and crevices in the 
oil bearing formation for a considerable distance from the hole. 

Sand Screens or Strainers. 

In pumping the oil from the well, the fine sand cuts away the 
valves and plungers so rapidly thai the plungers must be frequently 
removed and replaced. The sand also clogs up the well so. that the 
flow of oil is considerably diminished. To overcome these difficulties, 
sand screens are set in the bottom of the well to keep out the sand. 
These screens consist of perforated brass cylinders wound with heavy 
copper or brass wire. The screens are commonly used in the Gulf 
Coast territory but not in the Mid-Continent field. The screens them- 
selves frequently clog up so that the production can often be much 
increased by removing them. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



33 



Bailers. 

Bailers are long cylindrical vessels fitted on the bottom with a 
lift valve and of sufficient flexibility that they can be lowered to 
the bottom of a well. When the lift valve strikes the bottom of the 
well, fluid is admitted until the bailer is full. It is then withdrawn 
and emptied at the top of the well. Bailers are used particularly for 
cleaning out the well and sometimes for obtaining the actual oil 
production. 

Swabbing. 

The swab consists of a steel bar with an internal ball valve made 
to closely fit the casing by means of rubber rings. The swabbing 
consists in very rapidly pulling the swab upwards in the casing so 
that it suddenly creates diminished pressure with much agitation of 
the fluid contents of the well. It momentarily removes the pressure 
head due to the height of the fluid in the well as well as producing 
a partial vacuum beneath the swab. This causes the oil or gas in 
the formation to flow out readily and cleans off the wax, mud or 
other adherent matter on the exposed face of the sand. When there 
is a high pressure against the oil sand or a tendency for the well 
to wax up, swabbing is extensively used for obtaining the actual oil 
production of the well. 




J'ig. 16 — Effect of Spacing- Oil Wells on Their Ultimate Production. 



34 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Pumping of Oil. 

The production of oil when there is no natural flow or the natural 
flow has subsided is obtained by the use of ordinary lifting pumps. 
The kind of pumps used are practically the same as those used for 
deep pumping of water. Some pumps are double acting in which each 
stroke lifts oil and balances against a counter stroke. In this case, 
a sucker rod operates on a piston which is inside of a pipe which 
operates the other piston. Oil is produced to a limited extent by the 
use of compressed air in the same manner that it is used for water. 
A very common method of lifting oil is by means of free air. In 
this case a double pipe is introduced into the oil in the bottom of 
the well, the inner pipe being perforated at the bottom with holes, 
the air being introduced in the annular space between the two pipes. 
The air in entering the inside pipe greatly diminishes the length of 
the column of oil so that it is raised in the well. This causes it to 
overflow at the top of the well. This operates on the same principle 
as the original gas found in the crude oil which is a frequent cause of 
the gushing of the oil. 

Pump Equipment, 

The pumping equipment above ground on a lease consists of a 
power plant which operates a horizontal spindle eccentrically at- 
tached to several wheels. On the periphery of each wheel are at- 
tached several pins on which are connected the wire jerker lines. 
These jerker lines radiate to the various wells where they are at- 
tached to the pumping jack which operates the pump. 



€ri/?r/ on of f. 'Est >2v ^i^'s 0/l 

P/iODUCT/On TO (jLT/fl/ITE 

P/soDUcr/ory -7yp/C/^l &iS£S 




J. 000 /ox 00 /S.OOO so 000 



000 600,000 600,000 1,000000 



C/i. T//^/^T r P/^ ODL CT/Or/ p. -/S IVSL L 



Fig. 17— Relation of Fir.st Year's Production of Oil to the Ultimate 

Production Per Well. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



35 



Casinghead. 

When a well is first brought in, the walking beam of the drill- 
ing rig is generally used for operating the pump. The casinghead 
is attached to the top of the casing and from it are side outlets, one 
at the top for conducting the gas and the other at the bottom for 
conducting the oil. The gas is usually conducted to the gas engine 
for the source of power and the oil is carried in pipes to the flow 
tank where the water is separated by a swing pipe on the outside. 
Oil flows from the top of the flow tank to another tank in which the 
gauging is done when the pipe line takes the oil. The flow of the 
oil into the flow tank usually does not correspond exactly with the 
stroke of the plunger. It is discharged at times more or less vio- 
lently, usually with a slow expulsion of foam followed by rapid ejec- 
tion of oil or oil and gas. This lack of uniformity of flow is caused 
chiefly by the expansion of the gas that is dissolved in the oil when 
the pressure is lowered as the oil reaches the surface. 



Well Drilling by Motor. 

A test by Empire Gas & Fuel Co. at 2,500 feet in Kansas showed 
the following costs: 



Boiler and 
Engine 



Motor 



Loss 



432.50 *768.03 $335.53 



290. 
480. 



32.50 
60.00 



Initial cost $1,862.00 $1,625.00 

Cost of installation (includ- 
ing belts, etc.) 

Estimated depreciation per 
well 

Cost of water 

Estimated cost of fuel oil at 

$36 per day 2,160 

Cost of electric power 

Saving'in cost of power 

Savingjin installing pumping 
motor in same house on 
same foundation 

Saving in oil production dur- 
ing change to pump 



00 
00 

.00 



574.93 



Total . 



Saving 
$237.00 



257.50 
420.00 



1,585.07 

186.16 
1,305.00 



$335.00 $3,990.73 



Net estimated saving of electric drilling over steam $3,955.20 

* The installation charge of the motor drilling equipment was high 
due to the fact that the equipment was new and changes had to be made 
which involved labor charges that will not be necessary in future outfits. 
It also includes the cost of building the motor house. 



36 BULLS'. N NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Table Showing Price Per Foot for Drilling Oil and Gas 
Wells in Various Fields. 

(Oklahoma Geological Survey) 

Feb. 22, 1916 June 23, 1917 July 27, 1917 

To shallow sand in Bartles- 
ville, Nowata and Tulsa 
districts $0.80to$1.00 $1.00to$1.25 $1.25 

To Layton sand in Gushing 
field $1.35 $1.50- $2.50 

To Bartlesville sand in Gush- 
ing field, northwest 1 . 50 2 . 00 3 . 50 

To Bartlesville sand in Gush- 
ing field, southesat 2.00 2.25 $3.50-$4.00 

To shallow sand in Newkirk, 
Ponca Gity and Garber 
fields 1.50 1.50 1.50 

To deeper sands in Newkirk 
and Ponca City fields (over 
2,500 feet) 2.50 3.50 3.50-4.00 

Healdton field 1.40-1.50 1.75 1.75 

Electra and Burkburnett to 

1200 feet depth 2.00 NOTE.— Price for rotary 

Electra and Burkburnett to drilling to 2,000 feet 

2100 feet depth 8 . 50 is $3.00. 

Electra and Burkburnett to 

more than 2,500 ft. depth. 5.00 

The regular charge for work by the day Feb. 22, 1917, was $50.00 fo r 
a double shift. This held good thorughout the above fields. All wild- 
cat propositions some distance (50 miles or more) from any of the above 
mentioned fields demanded $3.00 per foot. Contracts were let in 1918- 
1919, in Pine Island, La., at $11,000 to $15,000 per well. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



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38 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The Exploitation of Petroleum by Means of Pits and 

Galleries. 

M. Couran, ex-engineer of the Corps des Mines and a former 
member of the French General Committee on Petroleum, calls at- 
tention to the exploitation of petroleum by means of pits and gal- 
leries in Technique des Petroles, according to L'Echo des Mines et 
de la Metsillurgie. "The complete exploitation of a deposit," says 
M. Couran, "should logically pass through three distinct phases, 
whose abilities of extraction should correspond approximately to the 
following proportions of the total volume of oil originally contained 
by the sandstone: Drilling, 10% to 20%; drainage by means of 
subterranean galleries, 30% to 40%, and mining of the sandstones 
and washing with boiling water, 30% to 40 %o." 

These figures given by Paul de Chambrier, director general of 
the Pechelbronn mines are not absolute and may vary from one de- 
posit to another, but at least they give an idea of the order of 
magnitude of the phenomena involved. It is certainly true that 
the quantity of oil discharged through a boring that taps a 
petroleum deposit represents but a small fraction of the crude oil 
saturating it. 

De Chambrier's method, which is described in a small publica- 
tion, offers the following advantages over ordinary well drilling: It 
permits the recovery of two or three times as much oil as that 
already secured from the same deposit by means of boring; it in- 
creases to the above extent the value of a concession by permitting 
one to at least estimate with sufficient accuracy, if not to calcu- 
late precisely, the oil reserves still held in the ground; from the 
economic point of view it offers possibilities in countries where 
oil deposits appear to have reached the limits of their yield; from 
the scientific standpoint, it is destined to solve a multitude of prob- 
lems that have remained obscure heretofore involving the origin 
of crude oil, its migration, its concentration in the lower strata, 
the behavior of the natural gas associated with the petroleum and 
the stratification of the porus rocks. 

It is probably that the first mining of petroleum was by means 
of pits, even before the drilling of wells. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 39 



Oil Gushers. 

In many cases wells drilled for oil penetrate porous reservoirs 
that yield at the outset large amounts of oil that flows strongly from 
the well and is often thrown under high pressure above the derrick 
floor. Such wells are termed "gushers" in the United States and 
"spouters" or "fountains" in Europe and Asia. This type of flow is 
characteristic of oil under high gas pressure. In some cases, the oil 
is forced out by hydrostatic pressure in the same manner as the 
flow of artesian water. The gas pressure may force the oil out with- 
out being itself discharged to any material extent. Usually both oil 
and gas come out, the oil being sprayed high into the air with the 
escape of the gas. When the formation is loosened, sand, gravel and 
mud are frequently thrown out. Some wells in Mexico throw out gravel 
particles weighing as much as 3 to 4 pounds. This blowing out of the 
sand often causes the well to "drill itself in." This is commonly 
attended by increased production in the early stages of the well's 
life. 

Gushers usually very rapidly diminish in volume due to the de- 
crease in gas pressure and to the rapid exhaustion of the sand in 
the immediate vicinity of the oil. Some wells that yield only gas 
at first, gradually are converted into oil wells. For this reason, the 
wasteful practice of allowing the gas to escape in order to get the 
oil is still carried out where it has not been made illegal. 

The largest oil well in the world is one which came in near Tam- 
pico, Mexico, February 10, 1916. It was known as Cerro Azul No. 
4 and was drilled by the Pan-American Petroleum and Transport Co. 
The first twenty-four hours of oil flow yielded 260,000 barrels. In 
two years it is said to have produced approximately 60 million bar- 
rels of oil or about one-half of the total production of oil from Mex- 
ico. Its initial pressure was 1,035 pounds per square inch and the 
gravity of the oil is 21° Baume' and without sediment or water. This 
well continued to produce at its usual rate during 1918. 

In September, 1910, the Mexican Petroleum Co. brought in a 
well in the Juan Casiano field. It showed on a test that it was cap- 
able of giving a daily yield of something more than 100,000 barrels 
of oil. Pipeline connections were made, however, but not until more 
than 1,500,000 barrels of the inflammable product had been burned 
in order to prevent it from flowing into Lake Tamaihua, thus endan- 
gering boats and other property. • It was throttled down to a flow of 
20,000 barrels a day and for more than eight years it has been giv- 
ing this yield. It has yielded, up to the present time, more than 65,- 
000,000 barrels of crude petroleum. Accompanying this oil is a gas 
pressure of 265 pounds per square inch. This natural gas is piped 
to the top of a hill a mile and a half distant from the well and is 
there burned in twelve great flares day and night, lighting up the 
country for a long way around. On account of the lack of trans- 
portation facilities, it has not been allowed to flow at its maximum, 
being restrained to one million barrels per month at this time. 

In June, 1921, the Mexican Petroleum Co. again brought in a 
well twenty-five miles south of the celebrated Cerro Azul No. 4 well 
above described, which started flowing at the rate of 15,000 barrels 



40 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



per day and quickly increased to 75,000 or 100,000 barrels per day 
with a pressure of 500 pounds per square inch. 

A number of wells in the Saboontchy-Romany oil fields of Rus- 
sia have given daily yields of from 75,000 to 120,000 barrels for 
weeks and as much as 7,500,000 barrels in a year. 

Another Mexican well at Dos Bocas, south of Tampico, yielded 
approximately five million barrels within two months. 

A well in the Jennings pool in Louisiana, in 1904, is reputed 
to be the largest gusher in the United States and gave 1,275,000 
barrels of oil in four months. 

Wells in Texas, California and Rumania have yielded 60,000 
to 75,000 barrels of oil per day on the initial production. 

The largest wells in the Mid-Continent field were in Butler 
County, Kansas, where, in the Towanda pool, gushers as large as 
25,000 barrels per day, initial production, were struck in 1917. 

Wells in the Homer, Louisiana, and El Dorado, Arkansas, dis- 
trict started in originally from 10,000 to 30,000 barrels per day 
but quickly dropped to 2,000 barrels or less of high grade oil. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 41 

PRODUCTION AND DECLINE OF INDIVIDUAL OIL WELLS. 

Mid-Continent Field, 1916. 

Total number of wells drilled during year 11,240 

Total number of dry holes (including gas) 1,970 

Total number with gas 475 

Total production at end of year 9,270 

Average production of this year's producing wells drilled during 

the year 26 bbls. 

Average production of this year's producing wells, including dry 

holes 21.5 bbls. 

Per cent producing at end of year 92 . 5% 

Total number of wells drilled up to end of this year 81,150 

Total number of wells drilled and producing at end of this year 43,420 

Per cent of wells drilled now productive 53 .2% 

Average production of all producing wells in field per day, in- 
cluding this year 8 bbls. 

Average production of all producing wells drilled, excluding this 

year 3 bbls. 

OIL WELLS DRILLED IN UNITED STATES IN 1917-1918. 

Completed Dry 

DISTRICT 1917 1918 1917 1918 

Pennsylvania 5,435 4,400 985 738 

Lima-Indiana 800 793 140 140 

Central Ohio 582 605 139 159 

Kentucky-Tennessee 1,651 2,191 411 360 

Illinois 647 396 151 108 

Kansas 3,469 4,671 547 925 

Oklahoma-Arkansas 6,717 8,381 1,334 2,116 

Texas Panhandle 1,020 ,1140 262 625 

North Louisiana 472 534 110 105 

Gulf Coast 1,562 1,597 639 625 



Total 22,355 24,708 4,718 5,901 



OIL WELLS IN MEXICO, 1919. 

Wells drilled during 1917 producing oil at end of year 70. 11% 

Wells drilled durign 1918 producing oil at end of year 76 . 12% 

The total number of wells is 1,056, as follows: 

Wells located 131 

Wells being driven 114 

Wells in production 298 

Wells not profitable 27 

Wells exhausted 64 

Wells not producing 422 

Total 1,056 



42 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



OIL WELLS IN MEXICO, 1919 

The largest number of productive wells belong to the following com- 
panies: 

Aguila Company (Lord Cowdray) 55 

Mexican Petroleum Company of California 33 

The Corona Company 10 

Union Petroleum Company, Hispano-Americano 17 

The Texas Company of Mexico ' 10 

Mexican Gulf Oil Company 8 

Chicholes Oil Company, Ltd 7 

Mexican Combustible Co 9 

Penn. Mex. Fuel Oil Co 7 

Freeport & Mexican Fuel Oil Co 7 

Transcontinental Petroleum Co 12 

Oil Fields of Mexico 12 



DAILY PRODUCTION OF CRUDE OIL BY POOLS (JAN., 1922). 

ARKANSAS— Barrels 

El Dorado 38,000 

CALIFORNIA 337,101 

Coalinga 39,592 

Huntington Beach 5,397 

Kern River 21,155 

Lompoc and Santa Maria 14,663 

Los Angeles and Salt Lake ■ 4,065 

Lost Hills-Belridge 10,744 

McKittrick 6,730 

Midway-Sunset 138,773 

Summerland, Watsonville. etc 213 

Ventura County and Newhall 6,249 

Whittier-FuUerton 89 520 

COLORADO ' 300 

ILLINOIS ; ; ■ 30,000 

INDIANA 4,000 

KANSAS 109 412 

Au&usta 12,968 ' 

E bing. 9,965 

El Dorado 30,592 

Covert-Sellers 3 592 

Florence 25975 

Greenwood County 4*200 

Peabody '..".'.'.'.'. 4*680 

Southeastern Kansas and Miscellaneous. . . 17*440 

KENTUCKY . .. , 

LOUISIANA 21,000 

North Louisiana qo onn 1"«''^«" 

Caddo, heavy '.'.].[ 4106 

Caddo, light 7'5qq 

DeSoto and Red River 7*500 

HomeT^'"'' • '.■.'.'.■.'.■.■.■.■.■.■.■. 59;700 

South LouL'iana.'.' .■.'.■.' ^^'^^^ „ .„„ 

Edgerly •.;•.■.•.; ,„„ 9'500 

Vinton and others o ^nn 

Jennings ;; ^'IH 

MONTANA 

Winnett and Cat Creek! .' •^'^"" 

NEW YORK 

OHIO 2'°"" 

29,000 



. 1 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



43 



DAILY PRODUCTION OF CRUDE OIL BY POOLS (Concluded) 



OKLAHOMA 

Washington County 

Nowata County, 

Osage County 

Tulsa County 

Bixby, Bird Creek Jenks, Broken Arrow, Flat Rock, 

etc. 
Okmulgee County 

Beggs, Bald Hill, etc. 

Okfuskee County 

Muskogee and Wagner Counties 

Creek County 

Gushing, Shamrock, Glenn, Kiefer, Bristcw, etc. 
Pawnee County '. 

Jennings and Cleveland. 
Payne County 

Yale, Quay, etc. 

Kay County — Blackwell, Ponca 

Garfield and Noble Counties 

Garber and Billings. 
Carter County 

Healdton, Hewitt, Fox. 
Cotton and Stephens (Duncan) 

PENNSYLVANIA 



6,620 

6,150 

54,625 

10,274 



38,943 

11,445 

5,825 

58,405 

10,677 

9,800 

5,935 
10,173 

67,004 

31,222 



327,459 



TEXAS 

Burkburnett 

Iowa Park, Holliday 

Electra 

Eastland County (Ranger) 

Stephens County (Breckenridge) 

Commanche, Young, Brcwn, Ccleman, Shackel- 
ford : 

Total North Texas 

East Texas 

Corsicana, Mexia, Wortham. . 
Total South Texas 

Goose Creek 

Humble 

Hull 

Damon Mound 

Sour Lake 

West Columbia 

Orange 

Saratoga 

Pierce Juncti on 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Cabin Creek, etc. 

WYOMING 

Salt Creek 

Grass Creek 

Elk Basin 

Big Muddy 

Pilot Butte 

Rock River 

I>ost Soldier 

Mule Creek 

Osage 



35,000 
5,500 
11,800 
12,500 
51,000 

15,700 



11,000 
6.800 

14,500 
2,600 
4,700 

42,700 

11,700 
2,000 
8,000 



40,000 
4,000 
3,000 
5,600 
200 
7,000 
7,280 
3,870 
6,550 



CANADA 

Eastern 

Northwest 

MEXICO 

Panuco .... 

Topila 

Tamaulipas. 
Chihuahua . 



22,000 
388,800 



131,500 
165,000 

32,300 



22,500 



77,500 



500,000 



44 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PRICES OF PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS 

June 1, 1921 

Crude at Wells 

The following prices are those paid by the pipe lines for crude 
as delivered from the wells, with a comparison for the corresponding 
period of 1920: 



PENNSYLVANIA-OHIO-WEST VIRGINIA 



Cabell, West Virginia. 

Coming, Ohio 

Lima 

McKinney 

Pennsylvania 

Waterloo 

Wooster, Ohio 



Illinois 

Indiana 

Plymouth, Dl.. 
Princeton, Ind. 



INDIANA-ILLINOIS 



Per Barrel 


June 1st, 


June 1st 


1921 


1920 


$1.81 


$3.42 


1.90 


4.00 


2.08 


3.73 


2.00 




3.00 


6.10 


1.25 




2.30 


4.05 


2.02 


3.77 


2.13 


3.63 


1.15 


3.63 


1.77 


3.77 



J-50 



^so 




— 




-r-;- 


i"-r— »-— - 





MANSA5 CJTY TfSTJJVa LABOSAra^r.-. 



I90Z "■# , oi, , OS /9/0 , 'is ' 7? 76 ••■'fe " f^e»--^^'2z 

03 OS 07 09 /I /3 /S /7 '/9 £/ 

Kig. IS— Chart Showing Principal Price Changes of Crude Oil in 

Twenty Years. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



45 



PRICES OF PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS (Continued) 



Crude at Wells. 



KENTUCKY-TENNESSEE 



Ragland . 

Somerset, 



light, 



38 gravity and above. 
32 to 38 gravity 



OKLAHOMA-KANSAS 



Healdton 

Mid-Continent 

Wlters and Beaver Creek. 



WESTERN KENTUCKY 



Wester Kentucky . 



LOUISIANA AND ARKANSAS 



Bull Bayou, 38 gravity and above 
32 to 34.9° gravity... 

35 to 37.9° 

heavy, below 32 

Caddo, 38 gravity and above 

35 to 37.9° gravity 

32 to 34.9° gravity 

heavy 

Crichton, light 

DeSoto 

E) Dorado, 35 gravitv and above . 
33 to 34.9° gravity . . 
below 33° gravity. . . . 

Homer, 36 gravitv and above 

35 to 35.9° gravity 

32 to 34.9° gravity , 

below 32° gravity 

Pine Island 



NORTH TEXAS AND NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS 



Burkburnett 

Corsicana, light 

Heavy 

Electra 

Henrietta 

Moran 

North Central Texas . 

Petrolia 

Ranger 

Stephens 

Strawn 

Thrall 



GULF COAST 



Batson 

Dayton 

Edgerly 

Goose Creek . . . . 

Hull 

Humble 

Jennings 

Markham 

Saratoga 

Somerset 

Sour Lake 

Spindletop 

Vinton 

West Columbia . 



June 1st, 


June 1st, 


1921 


1920 


1.25 


1.75 


1.80 


4.00 


1.60 


4.00 


1.00 


2.75 


1.50 


3.50 


1.00 




1.28 




1.40 


3.15 


1.25 


3.00 


1.30 


3.05 


.25 


2.00 


1.75 


3.50 


1.65 


3.40 


1.60 


3.35 


1.00 


2.50 


1.25 


3.00 


1.65 


3.40 


0.70 




0.60 




0.50 




1.50 


3.25 


1.40 


3.15 


1.35 


3.10 


1.00 


1.75 


1.00 


2.50 


TEXAS 




$1.50 


$3.50 


1.25 


3.00 


.75 


1.75 


1.50 


3.50 


1.50 


3.50 


1.50 


3.50 


1.50 


3.50 


1.50 


3.50 


1.50 


3.50 


1.50 


3.50 


1.50 


3.50 


1.50 


3.50 


1.00 @ 1.25 


3.00 


1.25 


3.00 


1.00 


3.00 


1.00® 1.25 


3.00 


1.00 


3.00 


1.00 @ 1.25 


3.00 


1.00 


3.00 


1.00 


3.00 


1.00 


3.00 


1.50 


3.00 


1.00® 1.25 


3.00 


1.00® 1.25 


3.00 


1.00® 1.25 


3.00 


1.00® 1.25 


3.00 



46 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PRICES OF PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS (Continued) 



Crude at Wells. 



WYOMING 

Big Muddy 

Elk Basin 

Grass Creek 

Greybull 

Lance Creek 

Mule Creek 

Rock Creek 

Salt Creek 

Torchlight 



ine 1st, 


June 1st, 


1921 


1920 


1.00 


2.25 


1.50 


2.60 


1.50 


2.60 


1.50 


2.85 


1.45 


2.25 


.80 




1.10 




1.10 


2.50 


1.50 


2.85 



CALIFORNIA 

San Joaquin Valley and Whittier-FuUerton Fields — 

14° to and including 17° gravity 

18° gravity 

19° gravitv 

20° gravity 

21° gravity 

22° gravity 

23° gravitv 

24° gravity 

25° gravity 

26° gravity 

27° to and including 27.9° gravity 

28° gravity to and including 28.9° gravity 

29° gravity to and including 29.9° gravity 

30° gravity to and including 30.9° gravity . 

31° to and including 31.9° 

32° to and including 32.9° 

33° to and including 33.9° 

34° to and including 34.9° 

35° gravity and above 

Prices for each increase in gravity of 1 full degree above 26° 
gravity up to and including 34.9° gravity, 10c per barrel additional. 



1.35 


1.48 


1.36 


1.49 


1.38 


1.51 


1.41 


1.54 


1.45 


1.58 


1.50 


1.63 


1.56 


1.69 


1.63 


1.76 


1.71 


1.84 


1.80 


1.93 


1.90 


2.03 


2.00 


2.13 


2.10 


2.33 


2.20 


2.33 


2.30 


2.43 


2.40 


2.53 


2.50 


2.63 


2.60 


2.73 


2.70 


2.83 



Mexican Crude 12-14° 

Texas points $0 . 90 

CANADA 

Oil Springs $2.55 

Petrolia 2.48 

Add 52J-2C per barrel to each grade to include allowance by 
government to producers. 



19-21° 
$1.50 



$2.83 
2.58 



Road and Paving Materials 

ROAD OILS. — Following are prices per gallon in tank cars 8,000 
gallons minimum f. o. b. place named: 

New York, 45':; asphalt (at terminal) $0.06^ 

New York, 65'/; asphalt (at terminal) .06 

New York, binder (at terminal) 07 

New York, flux (at terminal) 0634 

New York, liquid asphalt (at terminal) 08 

Chicago, 40-50'; asphalt '/' ' 06 

Chicago, 60-70' ; asphalt ' ' " ' 0614" 

IJallas, 40-50'. ; asphalt ' lo 

I )allas, 60-70';; asphalt 13 

Dallas, 75-90';; a.sphalt '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 13 

San Francisco, binder, per ton 15 00 



$0.13 
.13 

.14 
.10 
.08 
.08J^ 
.07 
.08 
.10 
12.25 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



47 



ASPHALT. — Price per ton in packages (350-lb. bbls. or 425-lb. 
drums) and in bulk, in carload lots: 

Package Bulk 

New York (Bayonne, N. J.) $28 . 00 $16 . 00 

Boston 

Chicago 28.50 

San Francisco 21 . 50 

Dallas 35.00 

Seattle 27.50 

Denver 

Minneapolis 

Baltimore 40 . 00 

Los Angeles at factory 22 . 15 

Montreal 28.00 

Atlanta 33.00 

Detroit (petroleum asphalt) : 24 . 50 

Cincinnati.. 37.50 

Maurer, N. J. (asphalt) 27 @ 38 

Maurer, N. J. (asphaltic cement) 29 @ 36 25 (t^ 31 



21 
15 

27 


00 
00 
00 


50@70 
25.93 


15 
21 


00 
.00 


20 
31 


.00 
00 




/?/^ /9/^ /9/S /9/6 /9/T /<9/e /9/9 /9Z0 /93/ /922 



i'ig. 19 — Chart Showing Price Changes of Gasoline, Crude Oil and Fuel 

Oils. 



48 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



49 



PRICES OF PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS 
January 3, 1922 

REFINED PRODUCTS. 
(Tank Car Quotations at Refineries) 



Gasoline and Naplitha 

Per 
Gal. 

Cts. 
NORTH TEXAS 

56-57, 450 end point \2}4 

58-60, 437 end point (new navy) 13 1^ 

60-61, 400 end point 15 

OKLAHOMA 

80-86 grav. casinghead 12 

66-68 grav. blend 14J^ 

50-52, 450 end point. 13 

56-57, 450 end point 14 

60-61, 400 end point 16 

62-63, 365 end point 16J^ 

64-66, 365 end point 17 

58-60, 140 I. B. P. @ 428 E. P 15 

60-62, blend 435 end point 14 ' 

58-60, blend 440(5(450 E. P 1314 

74-76, absorpt. gasoline, 300 end pt.. 14 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Painters' Naphtha 18 

54 gravity 16 

56 gravity 17 

58 gravity 173^ 

60 gravity, S. R 20K 

62 gravity, S. R 21 

64-66 gravity 21M 

68 gravity, S. R 22^ 

64 gravity, blend, f . o. b. W.Va 18 ' 

68-70 gravity blend 18 

66-68 gravity blend, 450 E. P 20 

68-70 gravity blend, 420 E. P 20}^ 

60-62 gravity blend 17 

Burning Oils 

OKLAHOMA 
42-44 water white kerosene 2 

NORTH TEXAS 

40-41 prime winter 2 

42-44 water white 23^ 

PENNSYLVANIA 

45 prime white S}4 

45 water white 6J^ 

46 water white 7 

47 water white 71^ 

48 water white 8}^ 

300 mineral seal 71-^ 

Fuel and Gas Oil 

BAYONNE 

28-36 degrees 6 

24-28 degrees 51^ 

18-20 degrees 5 

14 plus 4 

NORTH TEXAS 

34-36 gas oil 2 

32-34 gas oil 2 

30-32 gas oil 2 

24-28 fuel, per bbl 80 



Fuel and Gas Oil 



PENNSYLVANIA 

36-40 fuel oil 

38-42 gravity 

OKLAHOMA 
32-36 gas oil, f. o. b. group 3, Okla. 

24-26 fuel oil, bbl 

35-37 gas oil, straw 

Road oil, 50 (a}, 60 asphalt 

45-50 asphalt 



100 vise, 
200 vise. 
160 vise. 
200 vise. 
200 vise. 

200 vise. 
180 vise. 
150 vise. 

75 vise. 
100 vise, 
150 vise. 
200 vise. 
300 vise., 
500 vise. 
750 vise.! 

70 vise., 
100 vise., 
150 vise., 
200 vise., 
300 vise., 
500 vise., 
750 vise., 
200 vise., 
300 vise., 
500 vise.. 



Neutral Oils 

OKLAHOMA 

No. 2 color 

No. 3 color 

, No. 4 color . . 

No. 4 color 

No. 5 color 

PENNSYLVANIA 

No. 3 color 

No . 3 color 

No. 3 color 

SOUTH TEXAS 



No. 2 
No. 2 



color, unfil. pale . 
color, unfil. pale . 



No. 23-2 color, unfil. pale . 
No. 3 color, unfil. pale. . 
No. 3 color, unfil. pale . . 
No. 4 color, unfil. pale. . 
No. 4 color, unfil. pale . . 
No. 1'2 color, filtered pale. 
No. 1}2 color, filtered pale. 
No. IJ^ color, filtered pale. 
No. 2 color, filtered pale. 
No. 2 color, filtered pale. 
No. 2^2 color, filtered pale. 
No. 2(2 color, filtered pale. 

No. 5}'2 color, red oil 

No. 51^ color, red oil 

No. 6 color, red oil 

Natural 



Per 
Gal. 
Cts. 

5 

50 
2M 
5J^ 
5 



5^ 
14 

103^ 
12 M 
12 

18J^ 
163^ 
1434 

4 

5 
10 
18 
19 
20 
25 



12 
14 
19 



WEST VIRGINIA 

30 degrees, carloads 24 

29 degrees, carloads 25 

28 degrees, carloads 26 

Cylinder Stocks 

PENNSYLVANIA 

600 steam refined 10 

650 steam refined 15 

600 filtered E 15 

600 filtered D 18 

OKLAHOMA 

600 steam refined 4 

650 steam refined 

Wax 

OKLAHOMA 
122-124 white cr. sc. N. Y., carloads. 23^ 

Oxidized Asphalt 

Asphalt f. o. b. N. J. refinery $23.00 

F. a. s. New Orleans in cont 23.00 



50 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PRICES OF PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS 
June 1, 1921 

Petrolatums 
(Prices Per Pound in Barrels, Carloads) 



Snow White 

Lily Cream 

Cream Petrolatvim Jelly. 

Amber 

Dark Amber 

Veterinary 

Dark Green 



12 
9 
7 
5 

3 

2H 



Heavy White Mineral Medicinal Oil 

Gallon 

880-885 specific gravity *1 ' i n 

865-870 specific gravity • i • ^" 

Ex. Russian crude oil, 885-890 sp. gr., m bbls. to arrive 1 .8& 



$2.00 



GASOLINE AND KEROSENE SERVICE STATION PRICES 



Gaso- Kero- 

line sene 

Augusta, Maine 17c 

Bartlesville, Okla 21.4 9.8 

Beaumont, Tex 23 13 

Buffalo, N.Y 28 15 

Butte, Mont 30 15 

Calgary, Canada 41.5 26 

Montreal, Canada 38 21 . 5 

Toronto, Canada 40 23 

Winnipeg, Can 42 24 

Casper, Wyo 23 14.5 

Chicago, 111 22 10.5 

Cincinnati, Ohio 25 14 

Columbus, Ohio 25% 14 

Dallas, Tex 18 8 

Denver, Col 24 17 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hou.ston, Tex 18 8 

Joplin. Mo 18 12.3 

Kan.HaH City, Mo 18 9.5 



Place 



Gaso- 
line 



Little Rock, Ark 18 

Memphis, Tenn 25 

Miami, Fla 28 

New Orleans, La 23 . 5 

New York City 29 

Oklahoma City, Okla • 18 

Omaha, Neb 22.5 

Philadelphia, Pa 27 

Pittsburgh, Pa 27 

Portland, Ore 28 

Portland, Me 

Providence, R. I 

St. Louis, Mo 20.1 

Salt Lake City, Utah 29 

Seattle, Wash 28 

Topeka, Kan 20.4 

Tulsa, Okla 18 

Washington, D. C 25 

Wichita, Kan 21.5 



Kero- 
sene 

8 
14 
17 
14 
14 

8 
WU. 
13 
14 

17.5 
15 
15 

10.2 
16.5 
17.5 

9.8 

8 
11 
10 



PRICE SCHEDULE FOR CALIFORNIA CRUDE OIL 1919 



Gravity Price 

14 to 17.9 $1.23 

18 to 18.9 1 24 

19 to 19.9 1 25 

20 to 20.9 1 27 

21 to 21.9 129 

22 to 22.9 1 31 

2:j to2:j.9 ;.::: 1:33 

24 to 24.9 1 35 

25 to 25.9 ■ ■ ■ 1 37 

2« to 26.9 1 39 

27 to 27.9 1 41 

28 to 28.9 1 43 

29 to 29.9 ... 145 

.10 Uj :I0.9 1 47 

31 to 31.9 i4q 

•'2to:t2.9 ••::;; i-^i 

33to.X'1.9 153 

•'■>t"-'<«" ..;; 1.55 



Gravity Price 

35 to 35.9 $1.57 

36 to 36.9 1.59 

37 to 37.9 1.62 

38 to 38.9 1.65 

39 to 39.9 1.68 

40 to 40.9 1.71 

41 to 41.9 1.75 

42 to 42.9 1.77 

43 to 43.9 1.80 

44 to 44.9 1 83 

45 to 45.9 1.86 

46 to 46.9 1.89 

47 to 47.9 1.92 

48 to 48.9 1.95 

49 to 49.9 1.98 

69 to 50.9 2.01 

51 to 51.9 2 04 

52 to 52.9 ' 2 07 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



51 



HIGHEST AND LOWEST PRICES OF CRUDE PETROLEUM OF 
PENNSYLVANIA GRADE, 1859-1918, PER BARREL 



Year 

1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 

1904 
1905 
1906 

1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1918 



HIGHEST LOWEST 

Month Price Month Price 

December $20 . 00 

December 2 . 00 

December 10 

January 10 

January 2 . 00 

February 3.75 

August 4 . 00 

December 1.35 

June 1 . 50 

January 1 . 70 

December 4.25 

Augxist 2.75 

January 3.25 

December 2 . 67>^ 

November S2}4 

November .62>g 

January 75 

January 1.4714 

June 1.53% 

September 78 

June 62 5^8 

April 71M 

July 72M 

July 49^ 

January 83}^ 

June 51 J^ 

January 68 

August 59% 

July 54 

June 71 J^ 

April 791^ 

December 60% 

August 50 

October 50 

January 52 Vg 

January 78J^ 

January 95'4 

December 90 

October 65 

January ■. 65 

February 1.13 

November 1 . 05 

May 80 

January, February, March 1.15 

Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, 

June, July 1 . 50 

1 . 85 July, December 1 . 50 

1.61 May 1.27 

1.64 Jan., Feb., Mch., Apr., Aug., 

Sept., Oct, Nov., Dec 1.58 

1 . 78 January 1 . 58 

1.78 No change 1.78 

1.78 December 1.43 

1 .43 June to December, incl 1 .30 

1 .35 January to December 1 .30 

2.00 January 1.35 

2.50 January 2.00 

2 . 50 September to December, incl. . . 1.45 

2.25 Apiil to August, incl 1.35 

2.85 January 2.25 

3.75 January 2 to 5, incl 2.85 

4.00 January 1 to February 8, inch. 3.75 



September $20 . 00 

January . 20.00 

January 1.75 

December 2 . 50 

December 4 . 00 

July 14.00 

January 10.00 

January 5 . 50 

October 4.00 

July 5.75 

January 7.00 

January 4 . 90 

June 5.25 

October 4.55 

January 2.75 

February 2.25 

February 1 . 82 ^ 

December 4.23% 

January 3 . 69 J g 

February 1 .8114 

December 1.28% 

June 1.24^8 

September 1.01»4 

November 1.37 

June 1.24% 

January 1 . 15 5^ 

October 1.12 5^ 

January 92% 

December 90 

March 1.00 

November 1.12'^ 

January 1 . 07 5^ 

February 81?^ 

January 64 J^ 

December 80 

December 95% 

April 2 . 60 

January 1 . 50 

March 96 

December 1.19 

December 1 . 66 

January 1 . 68 

January, September 1.45 

December 1 . 54 

December 1.90 



January 

October 

April, May, June, July. 



March to December, incl 

No change 

January, February, March . . . 

January 

December 

December 

March to December, incl 

January to March, inclusive. . 

December 

December 

August 22, December 30 

February 8, December 31, incl 



52 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



MID-CONTINENT CRUDE OIL MARKET 



1902 



Date Field 

Dec. Neodesha 

1903 
Jan. South Neodesha 
Apr. South Neodesha . 
May South Neodesha . 
July 1 South Neodesha . 

North Neodesha . 

Bartlesville 

Coisicana light. . 

Coisicana heavy. 
July 23 South Neodesha 

North Neodesha. 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light . 
Sep. 28 South Neodesha. 

North Neodesha. 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light. . 
Sep. 30 South Neodesha. 

North Neodesha 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light. . 
Oct. 8 South Neodesha . 

North Neodesha 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light . 
Oct. 11 South Neodesha 

North Neodesha 

Kansas Humboldt heavy 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light 

Oct. 26 South Neodesha 

North Neodesha 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light 
Nov. 20 South Neodesha 

North Neodesha 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light. . 
Dec. 2 South Neodesha 

North Neodesha 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light 
Dec. 9 South Neodesha. . 

North Neodesha 

Kan.sas Humboldt, heavy 

Bartlesville 

Corsicana light 

Corsicana heavv 
Dec. 29 South Neodesha 

North Neodesha 

Kan.sa.s Humboldt heavy. 

Cornirana light. . 

t'orsioana Heavy. . 

Bartlesville. 

1904 
Jan. 1 South Neodesha 

North Neodesha 

Bartlesville 

KansiLM heavy 

<'or«ifana light 

(.'orHirana In ;i . . 
Feb. 12 South Neo.i. i . 

N"^'" V I. -I,., 



<^orhiiuiiia light 
Contirana heav, 



Price 
SI. 12 

1.15 
1.16 
1.14 
1.16 

.96 

.94 
1.10 

.60 

1,18 

98 

.96 



12 

20 

00 

98 

14 

22 

02 

00 

16 

24 

1.04 

1.02 

1.18 

1.26 

1.06 

.60 



.04 
.20 
.30 
.10 
.08 
1.26 
1.35 
1.15 
1.13 
1.29 
1.37 
1.17 
1.15 
1.31 
1.38 
1.18 
.60 
16 
32 
60 
36 
16 
.60 
1.27 
.55 
1.14 

$1.36 



16 
1 14 

.60 
1.27 

.55 
1.31 
1.11 
1.15 

.55 
1.02 

.40 



Date 
Mch. 1 

Mch. 4 

Mch. 12 

Mch. 29 

Apr. 8 

Apr. 29 

June 7 

June 17 

July 9 

July 13 

Aug. 12 
Sep. 1 



Field 



Pi ice 



1904 



South Neodesha 1 .28 

North Neodesha 1 .08 

Bartlesville 1 . 12 

Corsicana light 99 

South Neodesha 1.25 

North Neodesha 1.05 

Bartlesville 1.09 

Corsicana light 96 

South Neodesha 1 .22 

South Neodesha 1 . 02 

Bartlesville 1.06 

Corsi cana light 93 

South Neodesha 1 . 19 

North Neodesha 99 

Bartlesville 1.03 

Corsicana light 90 

South Neodesha 1 . 16 

North Neodesha 96 

Bartlesville 1.00 

Corsicana light 87 

South Neodesha 1 . 13 

North Neodesha 93 

Bartlesville 97 

Corsicana light 84 

South Neodesha 1.08 

North Neodesha 88 

Bartlesville 92 

Corsicana light 81 

South Neodesha 1 .03 

North Neodesha 83 

Bartlesville 87 

Corsicana light 78 

South Neodesha 95 

North Neodesha 75 

Bartlesville 95 

Kansas heavy 50 

Corsicana light , 73 

South Neodesha 88 

North Neodesha 68 

Bartlesville .88 

Kansas heavy 47 

Corsicana light 70 

Corsicana 1 ight '. . .80 

Corsicana heavy 45 

South Neodesha 90 

North Neodesha 70 

Bartlesville 90 

Kansas heavy 49 

Corsicana light 85 

Corsicana heavy 50 

Oct. 18 South Neodesha 87 

North Neodesha 67 

Bartlesville 87 

Kansas heavy 46 

Dec. 16 South Neodesha 82 

North Neodesha 67 

Bartlesville 82 

Kansas heavy 41 

Dec. 29 South Neod sha 80 

Bartlesville 80 

Corsicana light 80 

Corsicana heavy 50 

1905 

Jan. 1 Kansas heavy .41 

South Neodesha 80 

Bartlesville ^ 80 

Corsicana light 80 

Corsicana heavy 50 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



53 



MID-CONTINENT CRUDE OIL MARKET (Continued) 



Date Field Pi ice 

1905 

Jan. 5 Kansas heavy ". 36 

South Neodesha 77 

Bartlesville 77 

Corsicana light 82 

Jan. 11 Kansas heavy • .31 

South Neodesha 72 

Bartlesville 74 

Corsicana heavy 45 

Jan. 31 Kansas heavy 50 

South Neodesha 70 

Corsicana heavy 50 

Mch. 25 South Neodesha 68 

Apr. 12 South Neodesha 66 

Apr. 18 South Neodesha 61 

Apr. 25 South Neodesha 57 

May 27 South Neodesha 53 

Corsicana light 81 

June 17 South Neodesha 50 

Sep. 12 Corsicana light 83 

Corsicana heavy 50 

Sep. 16 Corsicana light 85 

Sep. 19 Corsicana light 87 

Sep. 28 Kansas heavy 35 

South Neodesha 51 

Corsicana light 89 

Oct. 20 South Neodesha 52 

Corsicana light 91 

Nov. 11 Kansas heavy 35 

South Neodesha 52 

Corsicana light 89 

Corsicana heavy 50 

1906 

Jan. 1 Kansas 52 

Corsicana light 89 

Corsicana heavy 50 

Apr. 25 Kansas fuel 35 

Corsicana light 91 

Corsicana heavy 52 

July 28 Kansas 50 

Corsicana light 89 

Corsicana heavy 50 

Aug. 2 Kansas 48 

Corsicana light 87 

Corsicana heavy 48 

Aug. 9 Kansas fuel 32 

Kansas 45 

Aug. 15 Kansas fuel 29 

Kansas 42 

Corsicana light 89 

Corsicana heavy 50 

Aug. 28 Kansas 39 

1907 

Jan. 1 Kansas 32° 39 

Kansas heavy 26 

Corsicana light 1.00 

Corsicana heavy 60 

Henrietta 60 

Feb. 11 Kansas 32° 40 

Kansas heavy 27 

Corsicana light 1 .02 

Feb. 26 Corsicana heavy 65 

Mch. 9 Kansas 32° 41 

Kansas heavy 28 

Mch. 21 Corsicana heavy 70 

Dec. 1 Corsicana light 1 . 00 

1908 

Jan. 1 Kansas 42° 41 

Corsicana light 1 . 00 

Corsicana heavy 70 



Date Field Price 

1908 

Mch. 30 Henrietta 75 

Corsicana light 85 

Corsicana heavy 65 

Apr. 24 Henrietta 70 

Corsicana light 82 

Corsicana heavy 60 

June 1 Henrietta 65 

Corsicana light 75 

Corsicana heavy 55 

June 10 Henrietta 60 

Corsicana light 72 

Corsicana heavy 50 

1909" 

Jan. 1 Kansas 41 

Kansas heavy 28 

Corsicana light 01 

Corsicana heavy 47 

Henrietta 89 

1909 

Mch. 13 Corsicana heavy 50 

Henrietta 50 

Apr. 27 Coisicana heavy 53 

Henrietta 53 

July 22 Kansas 35 

1910 

Jan. 1 Kansas light 35 

Kansas heavy 28 

Mch. 17 Kansas light 38 

Kansas heavy 30 

May 23 Corsicana light 60 

Sep. 2 Corsicana light 58 

Corsicana heavy 53 

Caddo light 40 

Kansas light .40 

Sep. 20 Kansas heavy 40 

Nov. 14 Kansas heavy. . . 42 

Corsicana light 55 

Corsicana heavy 50 

1911 

Jan. 2 Kansas 44 

Caddo light 44 

Caddo litavy 44 

Corsicana light 55 

Corsicana heavy 50 

Mch. 14 Caddo 1 ight 50 

May 2 Kansas 46 

Caddo light 55 

Caddo heavy 50 

June 14 Kansas 48 

Caddo light 60 

Aug. 9 Caddo heavy 40 

Sep. 15 Kansas 50 

Caddo light 62 

1912 

Jan. 1 Kansas-Oklahoma 53 

Caddo light 62 

Caddo heavy 40 

Corsicana light 55 

Corsicana heavy .50 

Jan. 15 Kansas -Oklahoma 55 

Jan. 18 Caddo light 65 

Jan. 18 Caddo light 65 

Jan. 26 Kansas-Oklahoma 57 

Jan. 27 Caddo light 69 

Feb. 1 Corsicana light 60 

Electra-Henrietta 60 

Feb. 5 Kansas -Oklahoma 60 

Feb. 7 Caddo light 72 



54 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Mch. 20 

Apr. 9 
Apr. 16 

May 7 
May 17 
May 20 

June 17 

June 17 



Sep. 10 
Oct. 25 
Nov. 7 
Nov. 9 

Nov. 14 

Nov. 27 
Dec. 12 

Dec. 14 



Dec. 16 
Dec. 17 

Dec. 24 
Dec. 26 



Jan. 1 



Jan. 


7 


Jan. 


<J 


Jan. 


29 


Feb. 


1 


Apr. 7 
July 7 
July 10 



July 24 

July 21 
July 19 



MID-CONTINENT CRUDE 

Fijld P"'=' 

Corsicana light «» 

Corsicana heavy 55 

Kansas-Oklahoma o-i 

Kansas -Oklahoma 64 

Electra-Henrietta 65 

Kansas-Oklahoma 66 

Kansas-Oklahoma 68 

Caddo light 77 

Corsicana light ' JJ 

Electra-Henrietta 70 

Kansas-Oklahoma 70 

Caddo light 80 

Electra-Henrietta 70 

Kansas-Oklahoma 70 

Caddo light 80 

Caddo heavy 6o 

Corsicana light 75 

Electra-Henri etta 75 

Corsicana heavy 60 

Corsicana heavy 65 

Kansas -Oklahoma 73 

Caddo light 83 

Caddo heavy 68 

Corsicana light 80 

Electra-Henrietta 80 

Kansas-Oklahoma 76 

Kansas-Oklahoma 78 

Caddo light 88 

Corsicana light 85 

Corsicana heavy 70 

Electra-Henrietta 85 

Kansas-Oklahoma 80 

Caddo light 91 

Caddo heavy 81 

Kansas-Oklahoma 83 

Corsicana light 88 

Electra-Henrietta. 88 

1913 

Kansas-Oklahoma 83 

Caddo 38° up 91 

Caddo 35-37.9° 81 

Caddo 32-34.9° 76 

Caddo heavy 70 

Corsicana light 88 

('oisicana heavy 70 

Electra 88 

Henrietta 88 

Caddo 38° up 93 

Caddo 35-37.9° 83 

( ■addo-32-34.9° 78 

Corsicana light 90 

Electra 90 

Henrietta \^q 

CoiHicana light !96 

Electra '95 

Henrietta 1 95 

("addo 38 up '98 

Caddo 35-37.9° gg 

Caddo 33-34.9°...; ',\ [33 

('orwioana light 80 

KanHa.M -Oklahoma 93 

('addu :i«° up 1 05 

("addo 35-37.9°... 95 

Caddo 32-34.9° 90 

Conticana light.., ., . gs 

•"il'-'-lr" '. l.QO 

Hi-nriftla j 05 

KunHUH-Oklahoma 98 

KanHan-Oklahoma . l'o3 



OIL MARKET (Continued) 

Date Field Price 

1913 

Aug. 21 Caddo 38° up 1.05 

Caddo 35-37.9° 95 

Caddo 32-34.9° 90 

Aug. 25 Corsicana light 1 .05 

Electra 1.05 

Henrietta 1 . 05 

1914 

Jan. 1 Kansas-Oklahoma 1 . 03 

Caddo 38 1.05 

Caddo 35-37.9° 95 

Caddo 32-34.9° 95 

Caddo heavy 70 

Electra heavy 1 .05 

Henrietta 1.05 

Corsicana light 1 .05 

Corsicana heavy 80 

Feb. 2 Kansas-Oklahoma 1 . 05 

Mch. 2 Corsicana heavy 70 

Mch. 26 Healdton 70 

Apr. 4 Caddo heavy 60 

Apr. 8 Kansas-Oklahoma 1 .00 

Corsicana heavy 65 

Apr. 10 Kansas-Oklahoma 95 

Apr. 13 Kansas-Oklahoma 90 

Electra 95 

Henrietta 95 

Corsicana light 95 

Corsicana heavy 60 

Healdton 60 

Apr. 15 Kansas-Oklahoma 85 

Apr. 16 Caddo heavy 60 

Apr. 20 Electra 85 

Henrietta 85 

Corsicana light 85 

Corsicana heavy 50 

Healdton 50 

Apr. 27 Kansas-Oklahoma 80 

Apr. 30 Kansas-Oklahoma 75 

May 5 Corsicana 75 

Electra 75 

Henrietta 75 

July 9 Caddo 38° 1.00 

Caddo 35-37.9° 90 

^, , Caddo 32-34.9° 85 

July 15 DeSoto 95 

Aug- 8 Caddo 38° 95 

Caddo 35-37.9° 85 

Caddo 32-34.9° 80 

Caddo heavy 45 

Aug. 12 DeSoto 85 

Aug. 13 Caddo 38° 85 

Caddo 35-37.9° 75 

„ ,„ Caddo 32-34.9° 70 

bep. 12 Kansas-Oklahoma 65 

Sep. 14 Caddo 38° 80 

Caddo 35-37.9° 70 

Caddo 32-34.9° 65 

DeSoto 80 

bep. Zi Kansas-Oklahoma 55 

Electra 65 

Henrietta 65 

,- ^ Corsicana light 65 

Oct. 6 Electra 60 

Henrietta .'. 60 

., Corsicana light 60 

Nov. 13 Electra 55 

Henrietta 55 

Corsicana ; 55 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



55 



MID-CONTINENT CRUDE OIL MARKET (Continued) 



Date Field Price Date 

1915 
Jan. 1 Kansas-Oklahoma 55 Sep. 15 

Caddo 38° up 80 

Caddo 34-37.9° 70 

Caddo 32-34.9° 65 

Caddo heavy 45 

DeSoto .80 Sep. 23 

Electra 55 , 

Henrietta 55 

Corsicana 55 

Healdton 50 

Feb. 8 Healdton 30 Sep. 28 

Feb. 16 Electra 45 

Henrietta 45 Oct. 6 

Corsicana light 45 

Corsicana heavy 40 

Feb. 18 Kansas-Oklahoma 40 

Caddo 38° up 70 

Caddo 34-37.9° 60 

Caddo 32-34.9° 55 Oct. 11 

DeSoto 70 Oct. 13 

Mch. 3 DeSoto 60 Nov. 13 

Mch. 24 Caddo 38° up 60 Nov. 15 

Caddo 34-37.9° 50 

Caddo 34-32.9° 45 

Caddo heavy 35 

DeSoto 70 

Aug. 2 Kansas-Oklahoma 50 

Aug. 4 Kansas 55 

Electra 55 

Henrietta 55 Nov. 18 

Corsicana light 55 

Aug. 6 Electra 60 

Henrietta 60 

Corsicana light 60 

Corsicana light 60 

Thrall 55 Nov. 20 

Strawn 55 

Aug. 11 Kansas-Oklahoma 60 

Aug. 11 Kansas-Oklahoma 60 

Aug. 13 Electra 65 

Henrietta 65 

Corsicana light 65 Dec. 14 

Thrall 60 

Strawn 60 

Aug. 19 Kansas-Oklahoma 65 

Aug. 21 Kansas-Oklahoma 75 

Electra 70 

Henrietta 70 

Corsicana light 70 

Aug. 26 Electra 75 Dec. 17 

Heimetta 75 

Corsicana light 75 

Thrall 65 

Strawn 65 

Aug. 27 Caddo 38° up 65 

Caddo 34-37.9° 55 Dec. 28 

Caddo 34-32.9° 50 

Caddo heavy 45 

DeSoto 55 

Crichton 45 

Sep. 11 Kansas-Oklahoma 80 

Thrall 70 Jan. 1 

Strawn 70 

Sep. 15 Caddo 38° up 70 

Caddo 34-37.9° 60 

Caddo 32-34.9° 55 

Caddo heavy 45 

DeSoto 60 

Electra 80 



Field Pi ice 

1915 

Henrietta 80 

Corsicana light 80 

Crichton 50 

Thrall 75 

Strawn 75 

Caddo 38° up 75 

Caddo 34-37.9° 65 

Caddo 32-34.9° 60 

Caddo heavy 50 

DeSoto 65 

Healdton 35 

Cri chton .55 

Caddo 38° up 80 

Caddo 34-37.9° .70 

Caddo 32-34.9° .65 

Caddo heavy .55 

DeSoto .70 

Crichton .60 

Healdton .40 

Kansas-Oklahoma .90 

Kansas-Oklahoma 1 . 00 

Electra 1.00 

Henrietta 1 . 00 

Corsicana light 1.00 

Corsicana heavy .55 

Healdton .55 

Thrall .95 

Strawn .95 

Moran 95 

Caddo 38° up -90 

Caddo 34-37.9° 80 

Caddo 32-34.9° 75 

Caddo heavy 65 

DeSoto 80 

Crichton 70 

Caddo 38° up 1.00 

Caddo 34-37.9° 90 

Caddo 32-34.9° 85 

Caddo heavy 75 

DeSoto .90 

Crichton .80 

Kansas-Oklahoma 1 .20 

Henrietta 1.20 

Corsicana light 1 .20 

Corsicana heavy .60 

Healdton .60 

Thrall 1.05 

Strawn 1.05 

Moran 1.05 

Caddo 38° up 1.10 

Caddo 34-37.9° 1.00 

Caddo 32-34.9° .95 

DeSoto 1.00 

Caddo heavy .80 

Crichton .85 

Caddo 38° up 1.20 

Caddo 34-37.9° 1.10 

Caddo 32-34.9° 1 .00 

Caddo heavy .80 

DeSoto 1.10 

1916 

Kansas and Oklahoma 1 .20 

Healdton 60 

Corsicana heavy 60 

Corsicana light 1.20 

Electra 1.20 

Henrietta 1.20 

Thrall 1.05 

Strawn 1.05 



56 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



MID-CONTINENT CRUDE OIL MARKET (Continued) 



Date Field 

1916 
Jan. 1 Moran 

Crichton. 

DeSoto 

Caddo 32-34.9°.. 
Caddo 34-37.9°.. 
Caddo 38° up . 
Caddo heavy . . 
Jan. 7 Healdton 

Corsicana heav'v 

Jan. 21 Healdton 

Corsicana heav^" 
Corsicana light. 

Electra 

Henrietta 

Jan. 25 Crichton 

DeSoto 

Caddo 32-34.9°.. 
Caddo 35-37.9°. 
Caddo 38° up 
Caddo heav-j- . 
Jan. 26 Kansas-Oklahoma 

Jan. 27 Healdton 

Corsicana heavy . . 
Corsicana light. . 

Electra 

Henrietta 

Thrall 

Strawn 

Moran 

Crichton 

Jan. 28 Caddo 32-34.9°. . 
Caddo 35-37.9°. 
Caddo 38° up. 
Caddo heavy . 

Feb. 2 Caddo heavy 

Mch. 4 Kansas-Oklahoma 
Mch. 6 Corsicana light. . 

Electra 

Henrietta 

Thrall 

Strawn 

Moran 

Mch. 11 Kansa.s-Oklahoma 
Crichton . . . ■ 
DeSoto ... 
Caddo 32-34.9° 
Caddo 34-37.9° 

Mch. 13 DeSoto 

.Mch. 13 Caddo 32-34.9° 
Caddo 34-37.9° 

Mch. 27 DeSoto 

C:addo 32-34.9° 
Caddo 34-37.9° 
June 16 fTJchton 
Jum- 24 Crichton 

<]ad(|() ;i8'' up 
< addii heavy 
Mrh. l.J Healdton. 

Corxirana lji{ht 

Electra 

Henrietta . 
Strawn 
Thrall 
Moran 
Mrh. U KanmiM-Oklahomii 
Mch. 15 CofKirana HkHI 
Klecl ra 
Henrietta . 



Price 



Date 



Field 



1.05 

.85 

1.10 

1.05 

1.10 

1.20 

.55 

.75 

.67 

.60 

.70 

1.25 

1.25 

1.25 

.90 

1.15 

1.10 

1.15 

1.25 

.80 

1.30 

.75 

.75 

1.30 

1.30 

1.30 

1.30 

1.40 

1.30 

.95 

1.15 

1.20 

1.30 

.85 

.90 

.40 

,40 



1 
1 
1.40 



1.40 
1.40 
1.40 
1.40 
1.45 
1 00 
1 30 
1.25 
1.30 
1.35 
1.30 
1.35 
1.45 
1.40 
1.45 

.90 

80 

1.40 

1.00 

.80 
1.45 
1.45 
1.45 
1.45 
1.45 
1.45 
1.55 
1.50 



1916 



Price 



50 
50 



Mch. 15 Thrall.. 

Strawn 

Moran 

Crichton 

July 15 Crichton. . 

Caddo 32-34.9°..., 

Caddo 35-37.9°.... 

July|24 Kansas-Oklahoma . 

Healdton 

Corsicana heavy. . 
Corsicana light. . 

Electra 

Henrietta 

Thrall 

Strawn . . 
Moran . 
July 29 Crichton 

Kansas-Oklahoma 

Caddo 38° up 

July 31 Healdton 

Corsicana heavy. . 
Corsicana light . . 

Electra 

Henrietta . 
Thrall.... 

Strawn 

Moran 

Aug. 1 Kansas-Oklahoma 
Caddo 32-34.9°... 
Caddo 35-37.9°.... 

Aug. 2 Healdton 

Corsicana heavy. . . 
Corsicana light. . 

Electra 

Henrietta 

Thrall 

Strawn 

Moran 

DeSoto 

Caddo 32-34.9°.... 
Caddo 35-37.9°... . 
Aug. 7 Kansas-Oklahoma 
Corsicana light.. . . 

Electra . , 

Henrietta 

Thrall.... 
Strawn . . . 

Moran 

Aug. 8 DeSoto 

Caddo 32-34.9°... . 

Caddo 35-37.9° 

Caddo 38° up 

Aug. 12 Kansas-Oklahoma . 

Corsicana light 

Electra 

Henrietta 

Thrall 

Strawn 

Moran 

Aug. 12 Healdton 

Corsicana heavy. . . . 

Corsicana light 

Electra 

Henri Ata 

Thrall 

Strawn 

Moran 

DeSoto 



1.50 

1.50 

1.50 

1.05 

.70 

1.30 

1.35 

.45 

.65 

.65 

1.40 

1.40 

1.40 

1.40 

1.40 

1.40 

.65 

1.35 

1.35 

.60 

.55 

1.30 

1.30 

1.30 

1.30 

1.30 

1.30 

1.25 



1.20 


1.25 


.50 


.45 


1.20 


1.20 


1.20 


1.20 


1.20 


1.20 


1.35 


1.10 


1.15 


1.15 


1.10 


1. 10 


1.10 


1.10 


1.10 


1.10 


1.25 


1.10 


1.05 


1.25 


1.05 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


.45 


.40 


.90 


.90 


.90 


.90 


.90 


.90 


1.15 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



57 



MID-CONTINENT CRUDE OIL MARKET (Continued) 



Date 



Field 



1916 



Price 



Aug. 


12 
15 


Caddo 32-34.9°... 


90 




Caddo 35-37.9° 


95 


Aug. 


Kansas-Oklahoma 


85 




DeSoto 


1.05 






Caddo 32-34.9° 


. .80 






Caddo 35-37.9° 


.85 


Aug. 


16 


Corsicana heavy 


.30 






Corsicana light 


80 






Electra 


80 






Henrietta 


80 


Aug. 


16 


Thrall 


,80 






Strawn 


.80 






Moran 


80 


Aug. 


17 


Kansas-Oklahoma . 


.75 






Corsicana light 


75 






Electra 


75 






Henrietta 


75 






Thrall 


75 






Strawn ■. . . 


,75 






Moran 


75 




DeSoto 


95 






Caddo 32-34.9°... 


70 






Caddo 35-37.9°... 


75 






Caddo heavy 


. .65 


Aug. 


26 


Crichton 


. .60 






DeSoto 


90 




29 


Caddo 32-34.9° 


60 




Caddo 35-37.9°. . 


65 


Aug. 


Crichton 


55 






DeSoto 


85 






Caddo 32-34.9° . 


55 




Caddo 35-37.9° 


60 


Dec. 


2 


Kansas-Oklahoma 


. .00 






Healdton 


45 






Corsicana heavy. 


.. .45 






Corsicana light. . 


. . 1.00 






Electra 


1.00 






Henrietta 


1 . 00 






Thrall 


. .. 1.00 






Strawn 


1 . 00 






Moran 


1 . 00 






Caddo 32-34.9° 


.85 






Caddo 35-37.9° 


90 






Caddo 38° up 


1 . 00 






Caddo heavy 


63 


Dec. 


4 


Crichton 


90 


Dec. 


12 


Kansas-Oklahoma 


1.10 


Dec. 


13 


Healdton 


. .50 






Corsicana heavy. . . 


.50 






Corsicana light . . 


1.10 






Electra 


1.10 






Henrietta 


1 10 






Thrall 


1 10 






Strawn 


1 10 






Moran 


1,10 






Crichton. . . 


. 1 . 00 






DeSoto 


. 1.00 






Caddo 35-37.9° 


1 00 






Caddo 38° up . 


. 110 


Dec. 


14 


Crichton 


. ... 1.10 






Caddo .32-34.9° 


95 




Caddo 35-37.9° 


.... 1.10 






Caddo 38° up 


.... 1.20 






Caddo heavy 


73 


Dec. 


18 


Kansas-Oklahoma 


. 1.20 


Dec. 


19 


Healdton 


60 






Corsicana heavy 


55 






Corsicana light 


.... 1.20 






Electra 


. .. . 1.20 



Date 
Dec. 19 



Field Price 

1916 

Henrietta 1.20 

Thrall 1.20 

Strawn 1.20 

Moran 1 . 20 

Crichton 1.20 

DeSoto 1.20 

Caddo heavy 78 

Dec. 23 Kansas-Oklahoma .- . . . 1 .40 

Healdton 70 

Corsicana heavy 63 

Corsicana light 1 .30 

Electra 1 . 30 







Henrietta 


. . . . 1.30 






Thrall 


. . 1.30 






Strawn 


.... 1.30 






Moran 


.... 1.30 


Dec 


27 


Crichton 


.... 1.20 






Caddo 32-34.9° 


. . . 1.15 






Caddo 35-37.9° 


... 1.20 






Caddo 38° up 


1.30 






Caddo heavy 


. . 88 


Dec. 


28 


Kansas-Oklahoma 


. . 1.50 


Dec. 


29 


Healdton 


75 






Corsicana heavy 


70 






Corsicana light 


.. . 1.40 






Electra 


1.40 






Henrietta 


. . 1.40 






Thrall 


... 1.40 






Strawn 


1.40 






Moran 


. . 1.40 






Crichton 


. 1.30 






DeSoto 


1 . 30 






Caddo 32-34.9° 


. .. . 1.25 






Caddo 35-37.9° 


. . .. 1.30 






Caddo 38° up 


... . 1.40 






1917 




Jan. 


3 


Kansas-Oklahoma ... 


... 1.60 






Corsicana light 


. . 1.50 






DeSoto 


. . . 1.40 


Jan. 


4 


Healdton 


80 



Jan. 6 



Jan. 8 



Jan. 12 
Jan. 13 



Corsicana light 1 .60 

Corsicana heavy 75 

Electra 1 . 50 

Thrall 1.50 

Strawn 1.50 

Moran 1 . 50 

DeSoto .1.50 

Caddo 32-34.9° . .1.35 

Caddo 35-37.9° 1.40 

Caddo 38° up 1 . 50 

Caddo heavy 98 

Kansas-Oklahoma 1.30 

Corsicana light 1.70 

Caddo 32-34.9° 1.45 

Caddo 35-37.9° 1.50 

Caddo 38° up 1.60 

Caddo heavy 1 .08 

Healdton 85 

Corsicana heavy 80 

Corsicana light 1.80 

Electra 1.50 

Henrietta 1.60 

Thrall 1.60 

Strawn 1.60 

Moran 1 . 60 

Kansas-Oklahoma 1 .40 

Corsicana light 1 .90 

Healdton 90 

Electra 1.70 



58 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



MID-CONTINENT CRUDE OIL MARKET (Concluded) 



Date 
Jan. 13 

Jan. 23 
Mch. 9 



Mch. 14 
Mch. 17 



Field Price 
1917 

Henrietta I'^O 

Thrall 1 70 

Strawn I'O 

Moran 1-70 

Crichton 1 10 

DeSoto 1 60 

Caddo 32-34.9° 155 

Caddo 35-37.9° 160 

Caddo 38° up 170 

DeSoto 1 75 

Caddo 32-34.9° 1.65 

Caddo 35-37.9° 170 

Caddo 38° up 1.80 

Caddo heavy 95 

Caddo heavy 1 . 00 

Caddo 32-34.9° 1.75 

Caddo 35-37.9° 1.80 

Caddo 38° up 1.90 

DeSoto 1.80 

.\ug. 1 Healdton 95 

Corsicana heavy 85 

Aug. 7 Healdton 1 . 05 

Corsicana light 1.95 

Aug. 15 Kansas-Oklahoma 1 .60 

Aug. 16 Healdton 1.10 

Corsicana heavy 90 

Electra 1.90 

HenrietU 1.90 

Thrall 1.90 

Strawn 1.90 

Moran 1.90 

Aug. 20 Kansas-Oklahoma 2.05 

Healdton 1.10 

Corsicana light 2.05 

Electra 2.00 

Henrietta 2.00 

Thrall 2.00 

Strawn 2.00 

Moran 2 00 

Aug. 22 DeSoto 1 90 

Caddo 32-34.9° 1 

Caddo 35-37.9° 1 

Caddo 38° up 2 

Crichton 1 

1918 

Mch. 16 Healdton 1 

Corsicana heavy 1 

Mch. 19 Kan.xas-Oklahoma 2 

Mch. 20 Corsicana light 2 

Electra ] 2 

Henrietta 2 

DeSoto 2 



80 

90 
00 
50 

45 
40 
25 
25 
25 
25 
15 



Caddo 38° up 2.25 



Date Field 

1918 
Mch. 20 Caddo 35-37.9° 

Caddo 32-34.9° 

Caddo heavy 

Crichton 

Aug. 12 DeSoto 

Caddo 38° up 

Caddo 35-37.9° 

Caddo 35-34.9° 

Caddo heavy . . 
1919 
Mch. 21 Healdton 

Corsicanan heavy 

Caddo below 32° 

June Homer 

Oct. 4 Burkburnett 

Henrietta 

Nov. 21 Healdton 

Nov. 20 Corsicana light 

Kansas-Oklahoma 

Electra 

Dee. 2 Henrietta 

Strawn 

Moran 

Dec. 19 Healdton 

DeSoto 

Caddo 38° up 

Caddo 35-37.9° 

Caddo 32-34.9° 

Caddo heavy 

Hewitt . 

Dec. 22 Healdton 

Kansas-Oklahoma all grades 

Electra 

Henrietta 

Moran 

Thrall 

Brukburnett 

Corsicana light 

Corsicana heavy 

Strawn 

Ranger 

Desdemona 

Caddo 38° up 

Caddo 35-37.9° 

Caddo 32-34.9° 

Caddo heavy 

DeSoto 

Crichton 

Homer 

Burkburnett 

Ranger 

Hewitt 

Crichton crude 



Prica 

2.15 
2.10 
1.25 
1.75 
2.25 
2.25 
2 25 
2.25 
1 55 

1.20 
1.05 
.75 
2.25 
2.00 
2.25 
1.35 
2.50 
2,50 
2.50 
2.50 
2.50 
2.50 
1.85 
2.40 
2.50 
2.40 
2.25 
1.00 



75 
00 
75 
75 
75 
75 
2.75 
2.75 
2.75 
1.30 
2.75 
2.75 
2.75 
2.75 
2.65 
2.50 
1.25 
2.65 
2.25 
2.50 
2.75 
2.75 
2.75 
2.25 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 59 

PETROLEUM PRODUCTION CONDITIONS IN MEXICO. 

(Roy H. Flamm in U. S. Commerce Reports.) 

Mexico's Increasing Contribution to World's Oil Supply. 

A comparison of the following figures of oil production in 
Mexico, in the United States and in the world since 1901 indicates 
the phenomenal growth of this industry in Mexico. While in 1913, 
Mexico furnished but one-fifteenth of the world's supply of oil, in 
1920 it furnished nearly one-fourth. The production in the table 
below is given in barrels of 42 gallons each: 

Production of Oil Since 1901. 

Total World 
Years Mexico United States Production 

1901 10,345 G9,G20,529 167,434,434 

1902 ... 40,200 88,766,916 182,006,076 

1903 75,375 100,461,337 194,879,669 

1904 125,625 117,080,960 218,204,391 

1905 - 251,250 134,717,580 215,292,167 

1906 502,500 126,493,936 213,415,360 

1907 1,005,000 166,095,335 264,245,419 

1908 3,932,900 178,527,355 285,552,746 

1909 2,713,500 183,170,874 298,616,405 

1910 3,634,080 209,557,248 327,937,629 

1911 12,552,798 220,449,391 344,174,355 

1912 16,558,215 222,935,044 352,446,598 

1913 25,696,291 248,446,230 383,547,399 

1914 26,235,403 265,762,535 403,745,342 

1915 32,910,508 281,104,104 427,740,129 

1916 40,545,712 300,767,158 461,493,226 

1917 55,292,770 335,315,601 506,702,902 

1918 63,828,326 355,927,716 514,729,354 

1919 87,072,955 377,719,000 544,885,000 

1920....- 163,540,000 443,402,000 688,474,251 

Potential and Actual Production of Oil. 

The above statistics show the world's actual production of oil in 
1920 to have been approximately 688,000,000 barrels. The potential 
production in Mexico during 1920, according to Mexican official fig- 
ures, was nearly 800,000,000 barrels. By the term "potential pro- 
duction" is meant the amount of oil that would be produced if each 
well were permitted to flow without restraint. This estimate of 
the Mexican government is undoubtedly too high, as it fails to take 
into consideration the failing wells and has been based on the 
initial production of large gushers which quickly settle down to a 
flow of only one-half or two-thirds of their initial production. Con- 
servative estimates as of August 1, 1921, give about 1,500,000 barrels 
as the daily potential capacity of existing wells. The actual produc- 
tion, based on statistics of the oil movement, amounts to 600,000 
barrels daily. The daily potential production of the fields fluctu- 
ates greatly, as new wells are being constantly developed and salt 
water encroachments show up frequently without warning. 



60 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The Mexican wells flow continuously under their own Pressure 
wells often coming in with an initial flow of more than 100,000 
barrels daily, under a water and gas pressure as high as 1,085 pounds 
to the square inch, but averaging between 300 and 800 pounds. 
Pumps are never required as the wells produce under their own pres- 
sure until exhausted. There is no "oil sand" (in our use of the 
term) found in the producing fields of Mexico, although recent bor- 
ings in the "Tehuantepec-Tabasco" region indicate the presence of 
oil-bearing sands. A notable characteristic of Mexican oil is the 
great heat of the oil produced, the temperature ranging from 
90° to 181°F (32° to 83°C). The average temperature at the Ebano 
fields is 105 °F and that of the salt water and oil of the Dos Bocas 
is 165°F. The temperature of the oil is of great importance from 
an economic viewpoint, in that it decreases the viscosity of the oil 
and permits it to flow more freely. Since viscosity retards the move- 
ment of oil in the containing formation, the heat is of importance as 
a factor in determining the rate of daily production. In most of the 
producing fields of Mexico large amounts of gas are present under 
considerable pressure, but very little attempt has been made to 
divert the gas to economic usefulness. 

Mexican oil, because of its low gravity, is of low gasoline con- 
tent, averaging from 5% to 16%. American oil, averaging a higher 
gravity, produces 20% to 40% gasoline, besides kerosene, lubricating 
oils, paraffin, etc. One authority averages Mexican oil as composed 
of about 9% naphtha, 10% illuminants, 50% to 75% fuel and the 
remainder lubricants, paraffin, asphalt, etc. 

An average of 300 wells produced in Mexico during 1920 ap- 
proximately 164,000,000 barrels of oil, or an average actual daily 
production of 1,800 barrels per well. From January 1 to May 1, 
1921, the Mexican Government reports 42 new wells completed with 
a daily potential production of 828,728 barrels. During the week 
ending September 4, 1921, nine wells were completed in Mexico 
with a daily actual production of 140,000 barrels. 

Geographical Division and Production of American Wells. 

The oil wells of the United States may be geographically divided 
into the following fields: 

Number of producing wells. 

Appalachian 109,000 

Lima-Indiana ; 42 000 

'''"'^» ;: ; 16,800 

Mid-Contment 78 360 

'lUlf Coast 1 840 

Rocky Mountains • i'n7n 

California :::: ::::::;:::::::::::::::::z:::::z;::;:::::;;:;;;::::: lilo 

'^"^"^ ^58^560 

Wi»h'^bi,."Tir'"'''^'\-''''''^.r°'''''^*''^" P^^ we" averages 4.9 barrels. 

i^umno ifr,!^ fh'.'r^''"?u ^^' ^f.l'^ ^" ^^^ United States must be 
F»umpp(l from the time they are "brought in." 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 61 



Oil Producing Areas of Mexico. 

The known oil-producing areas of Mexico may be divided into 
three main regions, as follows: Panuco River region, Tampico- 
Tuxpan or "South Fields" region, and the Tehuantepec-Tabasco region. 

In the Panuco River region the Ebano field is situated 40 miles 
west of Tampico. The oil from this field has a very high percentage 
of asphaltum and averages about 12° Be' (0.986 specific gravity). 
The Panuco field, comprising the productive areas between the 
Tamesi and Panuco rivers, is 20 to 30 miles southwest of Tampico 
and the Topila field is situated a few miles east of the Panuco. 
Both the Panuco and Topila production is a heavy viscous oil of from 
10° to 15° Be', the deposits being found at approximately 2,200 feet. 
These fields have been noted for the relatively few failures in 
drilling. From the east end of the Topila field to the west end of 
the Panuco field (a distance of 17 miles) is an undrilled gap of 
nearly 3 miles, which is being closed by exploitation. From this 
Panuco-Topila district there has been produced to date 130,000,000 
barrels of oil, or 20 '/r of Mexico's total output and there is a present 
daily production of 130,000 barrels. From the Ebano field there has 
been produced to date 24,000,000 barrels of oil, or SV27r of Mexico's 
total output. Today there is a daily production of 4,000 barrels. 
While there is a general salt water table below which no oil will 
be found, neither of these fields has been finally delineated by dry 
holes and there is good reason to believe that they will be extended. 

Developments in the Tampico-Tuxpan or "South Fields" region 
have been made upon a long, narrow strip of productive territory 
running in a north and south direction from Dos Bocas to Alamo. 
This strip has been developed to a length of about 40 miles and to 
a width of about 1 mile. Local elevations and variations in struc- 
ture make some portions of the strip more productive than others, 
but over the entire 40 miles it is remarkably uniform. The oil from 
this territory averages from 19° to 21° Be' (0.9395 to 9271 specific 
gravity). This region has produced 492,446,170 bbls. of oil or 75% 
of Mexico's output and is now producing daily at the rate of nearly 
400,000 bbls. The various sectors or pools of the "South Fields" re- 
gions have been given various names. A short description of each 
of the various sectors or pools of this region follows: 

Dos Bocas — This is the most northern pool of the area. The first 
large well was brought in in 1908 with an initial flow accoi'ding to 
its owners of more than 100,000 bbls. daily. After catching fire and 
running wild for three months, the well turned to hot salt water and 
is not now productive. Many well versed oil men believe Dos Bocas 
was a "gasser" as it burned without smoke. 

Tepetate-Chinampa — This pool has produced more than 100,000,- 
000 bbls. of oil, but production is only obtained from this pool at this 
time by stripping. The salt water table started at 2,175 feet and 
rapidly rose to 1,800 feet. The average depth of the wells was 2,000 
feet. 

Casiano Pool — The famous Juan Casiano well No. 7 was com- 
pleted in this pool in 1910, flowing continuously for 10 years and pro- 
duced 85,000,000 bbls. of oil. Contrary to a popular belief this pool 



62 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



is not a part of the Chinampa pool from which it is separated by 
volcanic dikes. 

Amatlan-Naranjos-Zacamixtle-This district^has^ ^^^^^^^^ 

120,000,000 bbls,of oil up to Ju^y i. 1921 f ^^^^t saK water table 
l^^^^^'ri^S^feet'at'XTorfher^e'nfand'rose to 1,660 while on the 
Shern eYd n Lower'Amatlan the salt water has reached the 1,800 
f ; w.l Arnatlan is being intensely developed by a score of op- 
frlrs 1th o"d Une'ompTnies and independents and will probably 
not have a long life. The average depth of wells m this area is 1,900 
feet. 

Toteco— This pool was not drilled until early in 1921. The fee 
title to the pool is held partly by the Huasteca ^^^^'^l^^T ^\, ^^^ 
International and Mexican Gulf Companies hold leasehold rights on 
the remainder. The average depth of wells is 1,800 feet. 

Cerro Azul and Juan Felipe— The most famous well in this area 
is the Huasteca Petroleum Co.'s No. 4 brought in in 1916, and which 
has produced 60,000,000 bbls. The Juan Felipe area is held by some 
authorities to be separate from Cerro Azul, being cut off by a well 
defined basalt dike. One well in the Juan Felipe boundaries now 
shows the extraordinary pressure of 1,080 pounds, and has not been 
exploited due to the more convenient location of the Cerro Azul wells 
belonging to the same American company. 

Potrero del Llano and Atazan — The Potrero del Llano well was 
completed in 1910 and produced 94,000,000 bbls. of oil before it went 
to salt water in 1918. By strategic drilling and pinching in oil wells 
a considerable production has been developed since 1918 and it is 
being maintained. The average depth of wells in this district is 
2,000 feet. 

Cerro-Viejo — This large property, lying south of Cerro Azul and 
adjoining Potrero del Llano, is just beginning to be drilled. It belongs 
to the Huasteca Petroleum Co. and the Aguila Co. Indications point 
to its overlying a separate pool which, judged by surface indications, 
will equal any of the larger pools. It contains a small well at a shal- 
low depth which was drilled in 1878. The recent drilling has encoun- 
tered oil at the 1,600-foot level. 

Tierra Blanca and Chapapote Nuenz — This is a non-competitive 
pool controlled by the Huasteca Petroleum Co., the first well having 
been completed in May, 1921, with a potential production of 75,000 
barrels per day. 

Tanhuijo and Tierra Amarilla — Drilling has been deferred in this 
district because of the greater production of wells to the west, which 
produce lighter oils. 

Molino Pool— One well has been drilled in this pool at 2,710 feet, 
producing a heavy viscous oil of 11° Be'. While exceptionally heavy, 
the oil from this well has been discharged successfully under the well 
pressure through a pipe line to a pumping station at a distance of 
20 kilometers. 

Alamo — This pool is controlled by the Penn.-Mex. Fuel Co. Ap- 
proximately 35,000,000 barrels of oil have been produced, consisting 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 63 



of two distinct grades. Salt water has seriously invaded the pool and 
stripping has been resorted to. 

Furbrero — This area is located about 40 miles southwest of 
Tuxpan. The oil found is of very high grade, being 24° Be', but the 
yield has not been large and the district is not now producing. 
Between Alamo and Furbrero are some of the best indications of oil 
pools in Mexico on lands which are largely taken up by American 
companies. South of Furbrero, at Pahuatatempa and Vega, are 
extensive seepages, although no development has yet been undertaken 
in this region. 

In the Tehuantepec-Tabasco region, the Tabasco-Chiapas field is 
noted for the quality of its oil, which has a paraffin base, is very 
light, and contains a large proportion of illuminating oils. Exploita- 
tion of this field promises to become active after having been dor- 
mant since 1917. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec field produces an oil 
of from 25 to 32° Be' and is characterized by the short productivity 
and the shallow depth to oil. Operations in this field have not been 
of great importance in the past few years. Oil is found at a depth 
of 500 to 600 feet. 

The following table shows all of the Mexican oil fields discovered 
up to June 1, 1921, with the date of discovery, number of wells drilled 
number of productive wells and the production of these wells: 

Number and Production of Wells in Mexican Oil Fields. 

Production 

Year No. of Wells Present 

Dis- Produc- Averages 

REGION AND FIELDS covered Drilled tive Total Daily 
Panuco, Topila, Ebano fields: 

Panuco ... 1910 218 112 121,000,000 127,000 

Topila. ... 1910 75 18 8,539,000 3,500 

Ebano 1910 71 38 22,400,000 4,000 

Total 364 168 151,939,000 134,500 

South Fields: 

Tepetate and Upper Chinampa 1910 28 17 126,874,000 (o) 

Lower Chinampa and Amatlan 1913 89 43 141,566,000 240,000 

Zacamixtle 1920 10 8 12,039,000 50,000 

Toteco 1921 3 3 1,000,000 30,000 

Cerro Azul 1916 6 2 59,002,364 60,000 

Potrero del Llano & Alazan 1910 21 11 115,650,000 (o) 

Tanhuijo & Tierra Amarilla 1919 39 21 500,000 (v) 

Alamo 1913 9 6 35,803,806 15,000 

Molino 1917 2 1 11,000 500 

Total 207 112 492,446,170 395,500 

Tehauntepec region 1904 220 54 7,000,000 

Miscellaneous 500,000 200 

Grand total 791 334 651,885,170 530,200 

oSa t water. 
vAbandoned. 



64 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Explanation of Mexican Gushers. 

Mr. E. de Golyer, geologist, in a paper read before the Society of 

Automotive Engineers is quoted as follows: 

"We have been so impressed with the unprecedented size of some 
of the Mexican gushers and by their continued production of large 
quantities of petroleum over long periods of time without any ap- 
preciable decline in the amount of production, that we have perhaps 
overestimated the total amount of petroleum to be accrued from any 
<!ino-le pool The explanation of the great gushers seems to lie in the 
very great porosity of the rock in which the petroleum occurs It col- 
lects in a network of caves and channels previously dissolved out of 
a bed of thick limestone. This condition allows the petroleum to 
move about very freely while still underground. Furthermore, the 
petroleum generally lies over water under an artesian head, and as 
a consequence the 'field pressure is largely hydrostatic rather than 
gas pressure, which, in most fields is the expulsive force causing the 
oil to flow. The result of these conditions is deposits of petroleum 
which can be exhausted with a single well, whereas a deposit of 
the same size under different conditions of occuri-ence would require 
hundreds if not thousands of wells to exhaust it." 

Salt Water Invasion. 

No salt water has yet appeared in the Cerro Azul and Toteco 
fields. In all other fields some of the wells have been damaged or 
destroyed by the encroachment of salt water. An unwarranted im- 
pression as to the significance of the invasion of salt water in the 
various Mexican fields has recently been created by articles appear- 
ing in the press. The wells now producing oil in Mexico are doing 
so under a great hydrostatic pressure, the flow of oil continuing un- 
til exhausted, and the salt water then following the oil to the sur- 
face. The "salt water menace" so-called, does not usually appear 
until after vast quantities of oil have been taken from a pool and 
the exhaustion of one pool has no more bearing on an unconnected 
virgin pool than does the exhaustion of a sector in the United States 
condemn a sector not yet developed. 

The other fields of Mexico will continue to give oil for a con- 
siderable t'me to come, but such production probably will be in- 
creasingly smaller from the peak of 1920-21. Many of the wells now 
being developed in the Amatlan pool show tendencies to develop salt 
water more rapidly than heretofore. This condition may be ac- 
counted for, in a mea;sure, because the producers in competing pools 
have been forcing production to the limit in order to get out as 
mich oil as possible before a rival concern drains the pool. The 
exten.sively developed pools in the South fields region have been 
pu led on by every pipe line and storage available in the region in a 
wild sr-ramhle to get the oil to the surface and they are now witness- 
mg the mevitable result— a rapid exhaustion of the pools and the early 
aj)[)earanc-e of salt water. Even after a pool has apparently been 
(iraincd substantial amounts of oil may be produced by "pinching in" 
ihe wills. I his consists in closing the flow valve, creating a back 
pressure and pemiitting the oil to flow through a smaller aperature; 
the water, as the heavier material, going to the bottom. This process 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 65 



is repeated so long as clear oil can be made to flow. Pinching in 
or stripping was resorted to after the Chinampa pool was drained 
and is now being done to Alamo and Potrero and will be resorted to 
in Zacamixtle and Amatlan. 

Estimation of Mexican Fields. 

The following recent estimate of the Mexican fields has been 
made by Messrs. L. G. Huntley and Stirling Huntley, prominent 
American geologists: 

Estimating the life of Cerro Azul and Tierra Blanca, with an 
estimated reserve of 200,000,000 bbls. at 1,000 days (on the assump- 
tion that they produce at the combined rate of 200.000 bbls. per day 
after the Amatlan pool is drained) at the time of their being finally 
flooded, they in their turn should strip 10 000 bbls. or more per day 
each from wells on the crests. This reserve will be partly sold to 
other companies and therefore will probably be pulled on much faster 
than this. While it is impossible to say how long this stripping can 
go on, there is good evidence that such wells will be long lived, as 
they are probably fed by oil working up the flanks of the structure 
over the entire former producing area. Much of this oil must have 
been cut off by the sudden flooding of the pools and will now be 
largely available to such strategic wells as those mentioned. This 
will allow one to est-mate that after all the Southern pools have been 
flooded there will still be a production in the Mexican fields of 250,000 
bbls. per day at the end of 1.000 days from July 1, 1921 (December 
1, 1924) on the assumption that the new drilling in the Panuco River 
field increases production. 

This alone is sufficient to be a considerable factor in the oil 
market, particularly the fuel oil market. Meanwhile it can be as- 
sumed that the prospecting will have probably extended the producing 
areas in the Panuco River district and those to the south and west 
of the Alamo. In the latter region there are good indications that 
there will be found pools of relatively light oil in sand and lime- 
stone formations above the Tamasopa, as well as in the latter forma- 
tion itself. In the case of the probable pools yielding from reser- 
voirs above the Tamasopa, these will undoubtedly have smaller wells 
producing over a longer period of time in comparison with the large 
Tamasopa wells to the north. It is even possible, if later and higher 
prices warrant it, that th's region will see pumps installed for the 
first time in Mexico. 

"The present reserves in producing pools may be shown as fol- 
lows: Barrels 

Amatlan Zacamixtle 50,000,000 

Cerro Azul-Toteco 150,000,000 

Tierra Blanca 50,000,000 

Total 250,000,000 

"In addition to the above reserves are the Panuco River pools 
which have not been limited and seem capable of considerable exten- 
sion. 

"These amounts disregard later recoveries from the same areas 
through stripping wells, as the factor used in the calculations was 



66 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



derived from the data in the Tepetate-Chinampa area, which excludes 
later recoveries. Early in 1921, before the market decline, the daily 

production was. i^cnnn 

Panuco River fields 14o,000 

Amatlan-Naranjos-Zacamixtle on'nnn 

Cerro Azul and Toteco f"-"^" 

Alamo - • ^"'""" 

Total 585,000 

Less Amatlan, in 125 days will lower production to 185,000 

"But this disregards oil reserves from various sources, which 
may therefore be added and summarized, giving the following esti- 
mated possible production by fields after Amatlan goes to sea water: 

Barrels 

Panuco River fields 145,000 

Tepetate-Chinampa (stripping) 10,000 

Naranjos-Amatlan-Zacamixtle (stripping) 20,000 

Cerro Azul (3 companies) 140,000* 

Tierra Amarilla (stripping) 10,000 

Potrero Alazon (stripping) 10,000 

Alamo (stripping) 7,000 

Tierra Blanca (noncompetitive) 60,000** 

Total 402,000 

^Probably greater on account of the sales to other companies. 
**Depending on company's policy. 

Operations in Panuco and Topila. 

The American consul at Tampico has observed that production 
operations in the Panuco and Topila fields are somewhat different in 
character than in the Southern fields, in that part of them are con- 
ducted by individuals and small companies or aggregations of in- 
dividuals; whereas the major part of development work in the South- 
ern fields is conducted by large corporations which not only drill the 
wells but construct refineries, pipe line, pumping stations, and loading 
terminals, and ship the oil by their own tank steamers. Thus they 
conduct all the operations of production and marketing and the mat- 
ter of cost price or value at the well concerns them but little. Many 
of these companies also have valuable properties in the Panuco dis- 
trict. Shipments of Panuco oil have been practically confined to 
such companies. Lately much activity has been noted among inde- 
pendent producers (confined largely to the Panuco field) finding out- 
lets for their product through brokers and as a result, something re- 
sembling a trading market has been formed and a value for the dif- 
ferent oils established. 

Formerly the big producing pools of Mexico were controlled in 
most cases by a single company and neither fear of having their 
property drained by a rival nor competition operated to force pro- 
duction by the individual companies. From the standpoint of con- 
Beryation of the oil supply, such an arrangement was desirable for a 
minimum amount of oil was wasted through over-production and in- 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 67 



sufficient storage. At the present time, the heavy producing pools, 
particularly in the South fields region, are in most instances being 
pulled on by competing companies with little regard to conserva- 
tion of the supply. 

Exploration of New Fields. 

George Otis Smith, director of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, puts the proved area of Mexican oil lands at about 10,000 
square miles, with resources of 4.500,000,000 bbls. and the potential 
output of unproved territory at 1.250,000,000 bbls.; a total estimate 
of 5,750,000,000 bbls. or a supply adequate for 45 years at the 1920 
rate of exports. A greater part of the unproven territory in the 
known oil zones is already in the hands of the large corporations. 
The exhaustion of the Amatlan pool will mark the passing of the 
independent operator in the South fields region to a considerable 
extent. The Panuco River region has always been essentially a small 
man's field. The enormous reserves of petroleum lands situated 
in the producing regions held by the Mexican Petroleum Co. (Doheny) 
and the Aguila Co. (British) allow these companies to regard the in- 
trusion of salt water in their present wells with a certain degree of 
equanimity. The Royal Dutch Shell interests control nearly 400 
square miles of valuable fee-simple and leasehold oil lands. The Mex- 
ican Petroleum Co. has obtained a 40 year lease on nearly 800,000 
acres in the Tampico district on land which shows extensive oil seep- 
ages. This addition increases greatly the life of the extensive prop- 
erties already owned by this company. The Marland Oil Co. of Mexico 
has extensive holdings of undeveloped lands in Mexico, including 280,- 
000 acres in the Tuxpan-Tampico area, 65,000 acres in the Tabasco- 
Chiapas region and large concessions in Lower California and Sonora. 

Increasing attention is now being given to exploration or "wild- 
catting" in various parts of Mexico for the discovery of oil. Geological 
conditions indicate that other petroleum fields of great importance 
will be discovered in Mexico, and that such discoveries will be of a 
petroleum of a much better quality than that now being produced. 
A report of the Mexican Petroleum Section of the Department of 
Commerce, Industry and Labor, places the zone of possible produc- 
tion in the Gulf States at more than 80,000,000 acres and in Lower 
California at about 18.000,000 acres. Of this immense area, only 
about 10,000,000 acres have been investigated which illustrates the 
scope offered for wildcat operations in Mexico. The combined area 
of the fields now being exploited in Mexico does not. exceed 1,200 
square miles. 

Exploitation has now extended into the districts of Tlacalulu and 
Cobos. The Tlacalulu district is in an oil bearing formation, situated 
in the extreme southeast corner of the State of San Luis Potosi, 50 
miles southwest of Tampico. The Cobos district lies directly across 
the Gonzales River from Tuxpan and extends southwest for 50 miles. 
It is regarded as a determined field and exploitation is going on. 
Exploration is particularly active in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and 
in the region south of Vera Cruz. Many seepages occur in this re- 
gion. The Tabasco district is the oldest oil field in Mexico, the oil 
produced being of 32° Be' but former production was in such small 



68 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



amounts that competition with the richer Panuco and South fields 
wSsii possible. Extensive leasing is under way and actual devel- 
opment again in progress, principally by the Roya Dutch-Shell in- 
herits althorgh the Standard Oil and Mexican Gulf companies are 
active/ The Grijalva River is being deepened at Frontera, which city 
is to be the port of the Tabasco field. 



Possibilities in Scattered Regions. 

The discovery of what is believed to be extensive petroleum de- 
posits on some islands in the Gulf of California has been announced. 
These islands are close to the shore of Sinaloa, due west of Her- 
mosillo, and the deposit is thought to extend to the mainland of Lower 
California. The proximity of these areas to the producing areas of 
the State of California, the probability that portions of Lower Cali- 
fornia and Sonora are underlaid by a counterpart of the producing 
horizon of the California fields in the United States, the evidence of 
petroleum on the surrounding waters and the continued extension of 
the California fields southward leads to the belief that these areas 
on the west coast will yet produce petroleum in commercial quantities. 

Explorations are being carried on in other parts of Mexico as fol- 
lows: Durango, in the neighborhood of Mapimi; Oaxaxa, near Puerto 
Angel; Colima, in the vicinity of Santa Rosalia and of Manzanillo; 
Chihuahua, in the vicinity of Casas Grandes, Guzman, Trinidad, Santa 
Maria, and southwest of Ojinaja; Coahuila, at Ubalde, near Piedras 
Negras, and Nuevo Laredo; Chiapas, in the Departments of Palenque 
and Mezcalapa; San Luis Potosi in the Valles district; Jalisco in the 
vicinity of Lake Chapala, and in various parts of Yucatan. On Sep- 
tember 1, 1921, there were 240 strings of drilling tools in operation 
throughout Mexico as follows: 



FIELDS Dig. 

Panuco 24 

Topila 3 

South Fields 64 

Wildcat 19 

Total 110 42 88 240 

While the cost of drilling wells in Mexico is high, there are other 
costs which precede drilling and which amounts to a considerable fig- 
ure. These include the cost of prospecting by highly-paid geologists, 
the expense's of negotiating the purchase and lease of oil territory, the 
amount paid for the properties if purchased, or the rentals if leased, 
the very substantial recording and stamp fees encountered in Mex- 
ico, the expense of perfecting title (which is considerable, due to the 
successive divisions of the land) the cost of clearing the land, the con- 
struction of roads and water lines, materials for transporting sup- 
plies thn.ugh the jungles, and many other items of expense peculiar 
to operations in Mexico. 



Der. 


Loc. 


Ttl. 


10 


11 


45 


2 


5 


10 


19 


48 


131 


11 


24 


54 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



69 



ACTUAL PRODUCTION BY COMPANIES IN MEXICO. 



COMPANIES 

Cia. Pet. La Victoria 

Topila Petroleum Company 

Cia. Mex. Pet. del Golfo 

National Oil Company 

Panuco Petro. Maat. (Royal Dutch) 

Cia. Exp. de Pet. La Universal 

Hispano Mexicana (Tex. Mex. Fuel) . ' 

Mexico y Espana 

Mexican Oil Company 

Cia. Pet. Monterrey 

Chijoles Oil Ltd. (R. Dutch) 

Oil Fields of Mexico 

Vera Cruz Mexico (S. O. N. J.) 

La Petrolera Poblana 

Cia. Mex. de Combustible (Pierce O 1) 

La Corona (Royal Dutch) 

Transcontinental de Petroleo (S. O. N. J.) 

Panuco Bost. Oil (Atlan. Ref.) 

Tampascas Oil Company 

Internat. Pet. (J. H. Hamm'd) 

Cia. Pet. Tal. Vez. (So. O. & T.) 

Tex. Co. of Mex. (Texas Co.) 

Cia. Mex. de Petroleo (Mex. Pet. of Calif.) 

Cia. Mex. de Pet. La Libertad (Island O. & T.) . 

Mex. Gulf Oil (Gulf Oil Co.) 

Cortez Oil Corp. (Port Lobos Pet. Corp.) 

East Coast Oil (So. Pac. Co.) 

Freeport & Mex. F. O. Corp. (Sinclair Gulf) 

Penn. Mex. Fuel Co. (South Penn. Oil) 

Cia. Mex. de Pet. El Aguila (Mex. Eagle Oil) . . . 
Huasteca Pet. Co. (Mex. Pet. of Delaware) 



1918 
Bbls. 



2,748 

3,075 

4,226 

5,459 

3,490 

25,021 

25,266 

29,906 

51,716 

91,311 

300,064 

337,603 

382,029 

531,511 

578,478 

609,733 

1,152,063 

1,279,746 

1,445,976 

1,550,869 

1,728,190 

2,161,775 

3,457,235 

4,119,654 

6,854,080 

16,910,646 

20,186,459 



1917 

Bbls. 
1,574 
2,000 
29,993 

753,589 



873 

29,625 

288,770 

24,958 

1,515 

34,689 

360,258 

32,871 

60,852 

740,576 

119,315 

828,067 

174,924 

619,828 

989,561 

,315,433 

,125,702 



Totals 63,828,329 



1,160,794 

3,143,220 

4,076,982 

4,129,296 

16,922,322 

17,325,171 

55,292,758 



PIPE LINES IN MEXICO. 

The pipe lines in Mexico on November 30, 1919, with the name of 
the owners and the capacity of the pipe lines are as follows: 

Total 



No. 

3 

11 

1 

1 

3 

1 

3 

3 

7 

4 

4 

6 

7 

1 

2 

29 

1 

5 

1 

6 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

_6 

Total. 113 



OWNERS 
Freeport & Mexican Fuel Oil Corporation. 

Cia. Transcontinental de Patroleo 

Tampascas Oil Co 

National Petroleum Corporation 

National Oil Co 

Oil Fields of Mexico Co 

New England Fuel Oil Co 

Standard Oil Co 

Cortez Oil Corporation 

Cia. de Petrolio La Corona 

Mexican Gulf Oil Co 

East Coast Oil 

Texas Co. of Mexico 

Mexican Oil Co 

Cia. Mexicana de Combustible 

El Aguila S. A 

Cia. Mexicana de Petroleo 

Huasteca Petroleum Co 

Tampico Oil Ltd 

Penn. Mex. Fuel Co 

Panuco Boston Oil 

Cia. Regiones Pet. Mexicanas 

Cia. Terminal de Lobos 

Pierce Oil Corporation 

Cia. Mex. de Oleoductos Imperio 

La Atlanti ca Cia 

Cia. Terminal Union S. A 

Cia. de Fomento del Sureste 

Cia. Metrolopitana de Oleoductos 



Lengths, 

Meters 

4,750 

20,743 

1,470 

350 

10,985 

88,950 

2,276 

8,953 

78,603 

68,188 

113,276 

44,843 

49,534 

2,707 

6,499 

421,498 

11,260 

362,724 

8,500 

62,367 

1,380 

1,357 

812 

2,463 

1,213 

2,674 

875 

1,100 

40.570 



Daily 
Capacity, 

Cubic 
Meters 
7,950 

40,131 
1,590 

5,724 
2,880 
1,590 

14,000 
6,930 

48,472 
9,641 

11,144 

11,888 

17,195 
1,590 
3,338 

79,876 

138 

7,950 

318 

41,657 
1,145 
4,190 

11,400 
1,590 
5,540 
9,000 

10,000 
1,000 

19,302 



1,420,920 377,169 



70 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The number of storage tanks in Mexico January 1, 1920, with the 
name of the owners, the capacity of the tanks, are as follows: 



TO 



No. 

4 

20 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

4 

9 

4 

23 

6 

37 

1 

.'. 76 

3 

4 

18 

Texas Co. of Mexico 17 

Mexican Oil Co 2 

Cia. Mex. de Combustible 8 

El Aguila S. A '.'.'.'.'..'.. 374 

Cia. Mexicana de Pet 16 

Huasteca Pet. Co 129 

Tampico Oil Ltd 5 

Penn. Mex. Fuel Co. . . I7 

Eureka Pet. Co. S. A 

Panuco Boston Oil Co 3 

Cia. Terminalde de Lobos 5 

Pierce Oil Corporation , _ , II4 

I-a Atlantica Cia 

Ferrocarril Interoceanico 1 

North American Dredging Co. ...... 1 

Cia. de Fomento del Sureste. ... 

Cia. Metrop. de Oleoductos 4 

915 



Freeport & Mexican Oil Corp. 
Cia. Transcont. de Pet. S. A.. 

English Oil Co 

Tampascas Oil Co 

National Petrol. Corp 

Interocean Oil Co 

Hispana Mex. S. A 

Cia. Pet. Tal. Vez 

National Oil Co 

Oil Fields of Mexico 

New England Fuel Oil Co. . 

SUndard Oil Co 

Cortez Oil Corporation 

Cia. de Pet. La Corona 

Topila Pet. Co.... 

Mexican Gulf Oil Co 

Chijoles Oil (Ltd.) , 

Producers Terminal Corp 

East Coast Oil Co 

Felix de Martino Diaz. 



TO 

DEC. 31, 1919 

Capacity, 

Cubic 

Meters 

26,234 

153,420 

1,590 

3,180 

8,745 

17,488 

8,745 

3,180 

34,980 

28,303 

35,980 

212,800 

52,470 

345,467 

5,962 

91,031 

3,180 

34,976 

129,572 

8,745 

118,400 

4,212 

41,914 

4,501,900 

96,089 

1,169,951 

12,918 

148,665 



17,806 

43,720 

111,722 

8,745 

5,962 

17,490 

34,980 



CONSTRUCTED 
DURING 1919 

Capacity, 

Cubic 

Meters 



No. 
1 
2 



5,962 
17,598 



i 


'5,961 


i 


8,744 


'4 
4 


33,980 
21,218 


5 


31,409 


1 
12 


8,745 
20,150 


2 


11,925 


3 


3,968 


3 


25,232 


5 


42,533 


4 


34,980 



7,540,531 48 



272.406 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



71 



OIL TANKERS IN USE JUNE, 1921, HANDLING MEXICAN 

PETROLEUM. 



Name of Tanker 



Barrels 
Capacity, 



Name of Tanker 



HQASTECA PETROLEUM CO. 

I-a Habra 68,200 

I. C. White 54,000 

E. L. Doheny 61,200 

C. E. Harwood 30,800 

Sunshine 67,100 

Solana 63,200 

C. Anderson 79,500 

San Joaquin 60,600 

Tamaha 72,100 

G. G. Henry 64,100 

Caloric 58,600 

Franklin K. Lane 66,900 

E. Walker 66,400 

Montana 64,300 

G. W. Barnes 60,600 

C. A. Canfield 61,400 

Cerro Ebano 74,000 

H. G. Wylie 39,700 

Mendocino 54,300 

J. Macy 77,400 

J. M. Danziger 61,300 

Norman Bridge 39,600 

Mantilla 53,100 

Wm. Green 66,400 

Wyneric 38,700 

Nora 95,800 

Oyleric 53,500 

Ario 73,200 

MEXICAN GULF OIL CO. 

Gulf Oil 50,400 

Shenango 25,300 

Gulf Trade 65,700 

Currier 46,000 

Gulfstar 72,900 

Gulflight 32,200 

Ligonier 30,000 

Oural 19,500 

Agwisea 78,700 

FREEPORT & MEXICAN FUEL OIL 
CORP. 

Darden 53,200 

Farnum 32,100 

Tamesi 20,400 

Madrone 55,400 

•Panuco 25,800 

J. M. Cudahy 69,200 

E. R. Kemp 44,500 

Hardcastle 34,200 

Hugenot 61,600 

A. E. Watts 64,800 



Barrels 

Capacity, 



MEXICAN EAGLE OIL CO., LTD. 

War Shikari 49,000 

War Begum 49,100 

War Ranee 52,200 

San Florentine 67,600 

San Leon 50,500 

San Dunstano 68,800 

Camden 60,900 

Anomia 41,400 

San Lorenzo 81,800 

San Narario 82,500 

British Maple 58,600 

San Tiburcio 62,000 

War Glackwar 49,500 

Bloomfield 43,300 

El Cano 45,700 

San Silvestro 7,500 

-San Zotico 49,600 

San Ubaldo 46,500 

Grenella 46,200 

San Teodore 57,4.00 

San Fernando 18,300 

Kekoskee 47,600 

San Geronimo 108,200 

San Ricardo 49,100 

Borgestad 36,600 

San Patricio 107,500 

TRANSCONTINENTAL PETROLEUM 
CO. 

Comet & Brg. S2 47,200 

Princeton 19,500 

H. H. Rogers 51,600 

Caloria 37,200 

Gedania 31,900 

Corning 20,300 

H. M. Flagler 23,300 

Glenpool 48,000 

Baytown 20,700 

C. M. Everest 53,100 

Geo. H. Jones 61,000 

Baton Rouge 46,500 

James McGee 68,400 

Sandtows 1-2 38,200 

Wm. G. Warden 51,900 

F. W. Weller 41,200 

W. Jennings 97,800 

F. Q. Barstow 103,700 

Zoppot 106,000 

Bradford 58,200 

Chinampa 63,600 

Richconcal 62,900 

Bostwick 77,300 

J. D. Rockefeller 72,500 



72 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



OIL TANKERS IN USE JUNE, 
PETROLEUM 

Xame of Tanker ^Ban^.ls_ 

EAST COAST OIL CO. 

F Sulphur 6 3^,500 

Torres ".000 

F-Sulphur 1 21,u00 

Gladsbye '*'^-»*'<' 

Topila 52,200 

PEXX. MEX. FUEL OIL CO. 

Mattole 64,500 

Standard 119,300 

XEW EXGLAXD FUEL OIL CO. 

Radian! 24,300 

Socony 90 1S.300 

Gen. Pettibone 8,300 

Socony 85 23,800 

Perfection 14,900 

M. P. 7 17,700 

Chagres 9,800 

LA COROXA PETROLEUM CO. 

Utaearbon 53,000 

Alabama 26,600 

William Isom 28,800 

Lucellum 42,100 

Ar. Von Gwinner 28,800 

NATIOXAL OIL CO. 

Kathrrlne 17,300 

W. A. Ibsen 31,200 

V. J. Reilly 27,100 

DauBhtTty 26,200 

TEXAS COMPANY 

Pennsylvania 56,300 

Texas 58,800 

Ocddr.ntal 58,900 

Harvester 60,500 

Hucrosa 52,300 

Shenandoah 65,500 

-Murli opa 35,000 

Yurl,a Linda 66,200 

K'UV'T 64,000 

LouiHiina 25,900 

"••''■'dKe 68 300 

NATIONAL PETROLEUM CORP. 

Newona 22.200 

Tani'iirvllle 19 400 

"""^"« 34!o00 

PIKUCE OIL CORPORATION 

Mexicnna 21,400 

llumpt'in Rondf .42 100 



1921, HANDLING MEXICAN 
(Concluded) 

Xame of Tanker Barrels 

Capacity, 

FRVXCE & CANADA OIL TRANS- 
PORT CO. 

Swiftarrow 43,800 

Swiftsuie 41,300 

Winapie 18.000 

INTEROCEAX OIL CO. 

Aztec 51.300 

Pinthis 8.600 

ISLAXD OIL & TRANSPORT CORP. 

Uncas 4-l.-'00 

Sabine Sun 70.700 

Clement Smith 72.000 

Massassoit 45.000 

S. B. Hunt 69,000 

Xelson 43,800 

Crowe 29,500 

Hahira 67,700 

Muskogee 62.700 

Liberty Minguas 48,300 

Warden 48,000 

Trontolite 61.200 

TALVEZ OIL CO. 

Sunset Una 14,800 

CIA. REFINADORA DEL AGWI 

Baldhill 62,100 

Remulus 48,300 

Agwison 71,800 

Hadnot 65,300 

Chestnut Hill 43,600 

Mevania 66,500 

Baldbutte 62.400 

Chestersun 75.900 

Hoven 66,600 

Agwiworld 68.900 

Hulaco 67.300 

Agwimoon 72.200 

CORTEZ OIL CORPORATION 

Donnell 105.300 

S. L. Fuller 71,700 

Japan Arrow 86,000 

Halsey 64,200 

W. M. Burton 71,900 

Devolente 64,900 

Tonawanda 28,200 

Coalinga 74,900 

Montebello 76,000 

Laramie 56,500 

INTERNATIONAL PETROLEUM CO. 

De Soto 55,700 

W. C. Teagle 108.500 

J. Worthington 79,500 

Mottole 64,600 

Rapidan 78,300 

Chas. Pratt 102,800 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



73 



RECORD OF ALL MEXICAN OPERATIONS TO DATE— 1919 

Prepared by Mexican Petroleum Department, Secretary of Industry. 
1 Cubic Meter = 6 29 Barrels. 



DRILLED BY 

La Universal 

Mexico y Espana 

La Libertad 

Cantabros en Panuco. 

La Nacional 

Panuco Tamesi 

Alamo de Panuco .... 

Tux. Ozuluama 

Pet. Maritima 

Preeport & Mex 

Esfuerzo Tampiqueno. 

El Caiman 

Panuco Valley 

Southern Co 

Expl. Topila 

La Transatlantica . ... 

Panuco Mahuaves 

Lluvia de Oro 

Esfuerzo Nacional 

Vado Oil Fields 

La Victoria 

Transcontinental 

R. A. Mestres 

English Oil Co 

El Espino 

Pedro Irisari 

Tampascas Oil 

National Pet 

Gulf Coast Corp 

Los Perforadores 

Hispana Mexicana . . . . 

Tal Vez, S. A 

Monterrey, S. A 

International Pet 

Orbananos et al 

Margenes del Pam . . . . 

Panuco Topila 

El Penix, S. A 

Las Dos Estrellas 

Productora de Pet 

National Oil Co 

Mex. National Oil 

Zaleta Mar Oil Co 

La Herradura 

Continental Mex 

El Indio 

La Oaxaquena 

Oil Fields of Mex 

New England Fuel . . . . 

La Oriental Mex 

La Esperanza 

Abastecedora 

Panuco Excelsior 

Adrian Petroleum 

Cortez Oil Corp 

Inglesa Explot 

Tantoyuca y Anexas. . , 

A. p. Wiechers 

Mex. Pet. del Golfo . . . 

La Corona S. A 

Byrd et al 

Oro Mexicano 

La Bonanza 

Am. Fuel Oil 



Drilling 
Loca- Feb. 28, 
tions 1919 



Pro- 
duc- 
ing 
1 
1 
1 



1 
12 



12 

4 



1 
10 



Potential Daily 

Production Aban- 

in Cubic Meters doned 

511.00 

626.00 

8,000.00 



5,794.90 



66.77 
800 . 00 
160.00 



6.00 
15,804.04 

' 1,444 ' 66 

8.00 

713.00 

" '22^96 
319.00 
1,600.00 
1,155.00 
16.00 
6,661.22 



80.00 



238 . 50 
598 . 90 



1,500.00 



60.37 
3,900.02 



190.00 
5,000.00 
804 . 38 



95.45 
8,095.42 



16.00 
802.95 



1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 

"i 

23 



1 
12 



Total 
No. of 
Wells 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 

14 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

24 
3 

10 
1 
1 
7 
1 
6 
2 
3 
3 
1 

17 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
6 
3 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 

37 
4 
1 
1 
3 
1 
4 
5 
2 
2 
5 
2 

26 
2 
1 
1 
2 



74 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



RECORD OF ALL MEXICAN OPERATIONS TO DATE— 1919- 

Continued. 



DRILLED BY 



Topila Petroleum 

Mexican Gulf 

Tampico Panuco 

Chijoles Oil 

American Inter 

Hispano Amer 

East Coast Oil 

Soria y Socios 

Texas Co. of Mex 

Mexican Oil Co 

Smith's Oil Co 

Pan American Oil 

Orillas de Panuco 

Nuevo Leon 

Mex. de Combust 

Hispano Cubana 

M. C. Anderson 

Piedras Devel. Co 

Lt Seventeen Co 

Punta Arena y Anex 

Comercio de Peubla .... 

La Argentina 

Mexico Fuel Oil 

Hidalgo Oil Co 

El Nayarit 

Financiera de Pet 

Mex. Development 

El Azadon, S. A 

La Concordia 

Nueva Bonanza 

El Aguila, S. A 

Aamiahua Pet 

Mex. Pet. Co. Cal 

Huasteca Pet. Co 

Tuxpam Pet. Co 

.Mundacadiz, S. A 

Juan (°a.siana Tux 

Harry Hummel 

!..a Tolteca 

Tampico Oil Ltd 

Tampico Oil Co 

Penn. Mex. Fuel 

La Kfjuidad 

EHpana, S. A 

Pet. de Ti'petate 

Cnnsolidala de Pet 

Eugfnio K. Jiuiz 

Seifuranza, S. A 

I<a Ciiralda 

1^ .Meridional 

Tampiqucna-San Javier 

T<x. M.x. Fuel Oil 

Narional de Petr 

Mexican premier 

Eureka \\" 

Panuco Tuxpan , . 

Sun Oil Co ; 

pi-troliTu I'oblana. ....'. 

I Ji (omiTrial 

I'iiriuro litmlon 

It'-Ki"ni'»i I'd Mex..... 
I'ui-hla en panuco 
Alliwm W. Smith 
Kodi.lfci H. Kader 
CapurhinuH Oil 
Komcnto do ('hapala 



Drilling 
Loca- Feb. 28, 
tions 1919 



32 
2 

21 
3 



18 
1 
1 

11 
1 
1 



22 
1 



Pro- 
duc- 
ing 
1 
8 

' 7 
1 

17 

10 
3 



1 
9 
1 
2 



5 

i 
i 

55 

33 

4 



Potential Daily 

Production 
in Cubic Meters 
63.60 
22,370.50 



154.33 

4.77 



4,561.06 

17,072.19 
639 . 98 

' 875.00 

is! 90 

5,051.62 

397 . 00 

22.25 

6^40 



367.13 
2,666; 00 



20,590.18 

2,497.65 
48,553.70 



47.00 
13,969! 35 



21,462.86 



160.05 
494.52 



400.00 



1,072.00 
223 . 00 
127.20 

2,400.00 
5.00 

1,113.00 

3,465.10 



Aban- 
doned 

8 
3 

■7 

9 

2 

i 



1 
1 

i 

284 

4 

36 

19 



4 

1 

13 



Total 
No. of 

Wells 

1 

20 

8 

7 

8 

1 

27 

1 

17 

4 

1 

3 

1 

2 

16 

1 

2 

1 

3 

1 

1 

2 

9 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

389 

7 

91 

36 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

9 

1 

26 

1 

1 

9 

1 

1 

3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

3 

2 

4 

4 

1 

1 

2 

1 



KANiSA:S CITY T1^:ST1I\U L,AtlUKATUKl 



70 



RECORD OF ALL MEXICAN OPERATIONS TO DATE— 1919— 



DRILLED BY 

Mexican Sinclair 

Pat. Agric. Mex. San Jose. 

Scottish Mex. Oil 

Los Brujos 

Catopico Oil Co 

Dos Banderas Oil 

Clipton & Smith 

Freggs Oil Co 

Hidalgo Petrol. Co 

W. H. Miliken 

Ohio Mex. Oil 

I>roducers Oil Co 

Rio Vista 

Sims & Bowser 

Spanish Mex. Oil 

J. W. Sloan 

J. R. Sharp 

Tampico Banking 

Tampico Fuel Oil 

Boston Mex. Leasing 

H. McKeever 

Mex. Tex. Pet 

Tamesi Pet. & Asph 

Gobiorno de la Fed 

Fom. del Sureste 



Totals 132 



(Cone 

Loca- 
tions 

1 
1 


luded) 

Drilling 

Feb. 28, 

1919 

5 

1 

"i 
i 

■ i 

' i 
1 

' i 
"i 

109 


Pre 
due 
ing 

' '] 
1 

I 

2\t 


- Potential Daily 

Production 
' in Cubic Meters 
1 2,951.00 


A 

do 


Total 

ban- No. of 

ned Wells 

1 11 

2 






5 5 






2 2 


1 




1 






1 


1 




1 






1 1 






1 


i 


L 3.18 
L 795.00 
> 1,224.30 


1 

1 

4 

1 • 1 




L 79.50 


1 2 
1 






1 




L 39.75 
J 2.24 
I 127.20 
I 12,720.00 


1 
2 
1 
1 
1 






1 1 






2 2 




I 3.86 


5 9 








132 


I 253,217.93 


J13 1056 



LARGE PRODUCERS OF KANSAS— WITH PRODUCTION. 



DAILY PRODUCTION IN 1918 



NAME 



Augusta, El Dorado, Outside, 
Barrels Barrels Barrels 



Carter Oil Co 

Carter & S. W. Oil Co 

Magnolia petrol. Co 

Mid-Kansas Oil Co ^. 

Prairie Oil & Gas Co 

Tidal Oil Co 

Cosden Oil & Gas Co 

Empire Gas & Fuel Co 12,041 

Gypsy Oil Co 

Monitor Oil & Gas Co 

Oklahoma Prod. & Ref. Co. . . '. 

Producers Oi 1 Co 

C. B. Shaffer 

Sinclair Oil & Gas Co 



Totals 

All other companies . 



154 


6,799 




9,445 


3,i26 




2,108 




747 


47 




1,073 


1,562 




12,041 


31,376 




18,812 


1,539 




220 


31 


83 






1,502 




1,940 


21,580 


71,025 


1,613 


14,643 



13,000 



Total, 
Barrels 

6,945 

9,426 

3,108 

2,196 

773 

1,027 

1,562 

43 419 

18,811 

1,535 

253 

80 

1,594 

1,320 

92,607 
29,256 



23,193 85,668 13,000 121,863 



LARGE PRODUCERS IN CALIFORNIA. 

Per Cent Proved Land, No. 
OPERATOR Total Oil Acres of Wells 

Associated Oi Co 9.1 7,347 1,708 

Doheny (various companies) 7.3 4,286 348 

General petroleum Corporation 4.3 2,584 400 

Honolulu Consolidated Oil Co 1.3 2,701 35 

A. T. & S. F. Ry. (oil subsidiaries) 4.0 3,097 12 

ShellCo. of California 6.8 2,442 236 



76 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



C4SINGHEAD GASOLINE MANUFACTURERS. 

Name Address Plant 

CALIFORNIA . 

American Gas Co 1005 Central Bldg., Los Angeles Santa Mana 

^TZToTco"-.:: Sn I W HelWn Bldg F^lmore 

Gllm:"e''A"F "ci"' : . 700 VaTfes Bldg.. Los Angeles Z ; : ! ! ! Los Angeles 

Huriev Smith Co 339 Consol. Realty Bldg., Lcs Ange es Brea 

H^ Pv Sm th Co 339 Consol. Realty Bldg., Lcs Angeles near Sherman Jet. 

li Habra GaLohne Co: . . .... 339 Central Realty Bldg.. Lcs Angeles .Brea 

h Sab a Crsollne Co. 339 Central Realty Bldg., Los Angeles. .Maricopa 

La Habra Ga.soline Co 339 Central Realty Bldg Los Angeles. .Taft 

Olie Crude Oil Co 2827 LaSalle Ave., Los Angeles S?."T^ ^ 

Olinda Gasoline Co Van Nuys Bldg.. Los Angeles . Ohnda, Orange Co. 

Pacific Gascline Co 501 I. W. Hellman Bldg., Los Angeles. . . .Brea 

Purity Gasoline Co 339 Consol. Realty Bldg., Los Angeles Bicknell 

Rancho La Brea Oil Co . 908 Merch. Natl. Bank Bldg., Los Angeles.Los Angeles 

Richfield Oil Co 933 Van Nuys Bldg.. Los Angeles Maricopa 

Sunset Gasoline Co 932 Van Nuys Bldg.. Los Angeles Taft 

Union Oil Co. of California. . .Union Oil Bldg., Los Angeles Avila 

Union Oil Co. of California. . Union Oil Bldg., Los Angeles Brea 

Union Oil Co. of California Union Oil Bldg., Los Angeles Maltha 

Union Oil Co. of California Union Oil Bldg.. Los Angeles Oleum 

Union Oil Co. of California. . Union Oil Bldg.. Los Angeles Santa Paula 

Union Oil Co. of California. . Union Oil Bldg.. Los Angeles San Pedro 

Ventura Refining Co 458 S. Spring St.. Los Angeles Fillmore 

Wilshire Oil Co 2455 E. Market St.. Los Angeles Fellows 

Honolulu Consol. Oil Co 120 Market St., San Francisco Kern Co. 

New Pa. Petroleum Co Santa Maria Santa Maria 

COLORADO 
Midwest Refining Co First National Bank Bldg., Denver Salt Creek, Wye. 

DELAWARE 
Leonard Oil Co 901 Market St., Wilmington Cherry Grove, Pa. 

ILLINOIS 

Vacuum Oil Co West Chestnut St., Bridgeport 

Atla.s Oil Co 144 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago Shreveport, La. 

Atlas Oil Co 144 S. Wabash Ave., Chiacgo Monroe, La. 

Royalties Corporation 140 S. Dearborn St., Chicago Lenapah, Okla. 

Central Refining Co Lawrenceville Lawrenceville, 111. 

KANSAS 

Continental Oil & Ref. Co Independence Independence 

I>>June Oil & Gas Co Independence Independence 

Roth Gasoline Co p. O. Box 392, Independence Elgin, Kan. 

KENTUCKY 
Collier Oil & Gas Co West Liberty Cannel City, Ky. 

LOUISIANA 

Standard Oil Co. of Ixjuisiana Baton Rouge Northern Louisiana 

A»«)c. prod. & Ref. Corp Shreveport Commercial Bank Bldg Mansfield. La. 

Awtoc. prod. & Ref. Corp Shreveport Commercial Bank Bldg Monroe, La. 

( entral Oil & Ga.soline Co Shreveport Vivian, La. 

,. ^^ ,. ^, , MASSACHUSETTS 

Cabot. Godfrey L Boston West Va. and La. 

..„,.„ MISSOURI 

aIu V.T r "/• J°^2 Baltimore Ave., Kansas City Delaware, Okla. 

AllBM I'., roleum ( o .1012 Baltimore Ave.. Kansas City Jennings, Okla 

D..w..y Portland Cement Co.. Mutual Bldg.. Kansas City . Dewey Okla 

lulT?, ;"■•"""" ." 1012 Baltimore Ave., Kansas City [ ! Jenks, Okla. ' 

)^«mo ,.l(,a.ohn.. ( o 1012 Baltimore Ave., Kansas City Nowata, Okla. 

u" "'l ,''""""*^ " ='24 Kialto Bldg., Kansas City. .... Bixby Okla 

L»k.- ..rk K..|.„,nK Co 324 Rialto Bldg., Kansas City. (2) Sapulpa Okla 

i"ll..'si :: "o"!? •:: ^^l commerce Bldg.. Kansas City. . . . . : . Neodesha^ Kas 

w»«K" <.K.K.,l,n.- < o 1012 Baltimore Ave.. Kan.sas City Ochelata, Okla. 

T.-.I fiiif NEW YORK 

rlr ..V ) I " •„ Vr u"\ ^'- ^a^-'^'i} Dewey, Okla. 

Polti-r ( L. r . .f,' i^oa'lway. New York City 

^"'"^ ''""'" 2' K- "Oth St., New York City Shinglehouse, Pa. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 77 



CASINGHEAD GASOLINE MANUFACTURERS— Continued. 

Name Address Plant 

OHIO 

Buckeye State Gas & Fuel Co . Coshocton near Coshocton 

Medina Gas & Fuel Co P. O. Box 390, Wooster Mansfield, Ohio 

OKLAHOMA 

Cull nan Oil Association Ardmore near Ardmore 

Dahlgren, Paul F 227 Masonic Temple, Bartlesville Bigheart, Okla. 

Dahlgren, Paul F 227 Masonic Temple, Bartlasville Osage Junction 

Foster, H. V 202 Masonic Temple, Bartlesville Bigheart 

Foster, H. V • 202 Masonic Temple, Bartlesville Osage Junction 

Foster & Davis, Inc 227 Masonic Temple, Bartlesville Osage, Okla. 

Foster & Norwood Oil Co 227 Masonic Temple, Bartlesville Bigheart 

Phillips Petroleum Co Bartlesville Washington and 

Osage Co. 

Four Gasoline Co Bixby near Bixby 

Aureli US-Thomas Gasoline Co. Box 707, Drumright Drumright 

Rav Flood Gas Co Drumright Lawton 

Champlin Refining Co First National Bank Bldg., Enid. . . near Enid 

Peppers Gasoline Co Rm. 9, First Natl. Bank Bldg., Enid near Enid 

Lawton Refining Co Lawton Lawton 

Barnes Oil & Gas Co 712 Barnes Bldg., Muskogee 

Boynton Oil & Gas Co Muskogee 

Motor Gasoline Co Muskogee near Muskogee 

Seaboard Oil & Gas Co Muskogee Okmulgee Co. 

Stoutz Bros Box 1433, Muskogee near Muskogee 

Childers Gasoline Co Nowata Nowata 

Henderson Gasoline Co Nowata near Delaware 

All-American Oil & Gas Co. . . .816 Colcord Bldg., Oklahoma City Healdton field 

Triumph Gasoline Co 209 Mercantile Co., Oklahoma City Okmulgee Co. 

Kingwood Oil Co 316 Parkinson Bldg., Okmulgee Okmulgee, Okla. 

Kingwood Oil Co 316 Parkinson Bldg., Okmulgee Weleetka, Okla. 

Okmulgee Prod. & Ref. Co. . . 505 S. Boulder Ave., Okmulgee Bartlett, Okla. 

Okmulgee Prod. & Ref. Co . . 505 S. Boulder Ave., Okmulgee Kusa, Okla. 

Bluff Gasoline Co Sapulpa Sapulpa 

Brighton Gasoline Co Berryhill Bldg., Sapulpa near Sapulpa 

Akin Gasoline Co 503 Exchange Natl. Bank Bldg., Tulsa. Bartlesville 

Akin Gasoline Co 503 Exchange Natl. Bank Bldg., Tulsa. . Bartlesville 

Akin Gasoline Co 503 Exchange Natl. Bank Bldg., Tulsa. . Bixby 

Benmo Oil Co 420 S. Cheyenne St., Tulsa Bald Hill 

Bixby Gasoline Co Tulsa near Bixby 

Boynton Gasoline Co Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa near Tulsa 

Chestnut & Smith Corporation 306 Exchange Natl. Bank Bldg., Tulsa. Okla., Kas. & Texas 

Cloco Gasoline Co 401-15 Unitv Bldg., Tulsa Shamrock, Okla. 

Clover-Dietz Gas Co 409 Unity Bldg., Tulsa Mohawk, Okla. 

Consumers Oil & Refining Co. Tulsa Broken Arrow 

Cosden & Co Tulsa Stone Bluff 

Cosden & Co Tulsa Gushing field 

Cosden & Co Tulsa Garber field 

Elliott, W. C 420 Palace Bldg., Tulsa Sperry, Okla. 

GiUiland Oil Co First National Bank Bldg., Tulsa Gushing 

Gilliland Oil Co First National Bank Bldg., Tulsa Shamrock 

Gilliland Oil Co First National Bank Bldg., Tulsa Oilton 

Gilliland Oil Co First National Bank Bldg., Tulsa Drumright 

Gillilnad Oil Co First National Bank Bldg., Tulsa Bigheart 

Gilliland Oil Co First National Bank Bldg., Tulsa Burkburnett, Tex. 

GiUiland Oil Co First National Bank Bldg., Tulsa Homer, La. 

Highway Oil Refining Corp. . . .207-8-9-10-11 Lynch Bldg., Tulsa Red Fork, Okla. 

Highway Oil Refining Corp. . . .207-8-9-10-11 Lynch Bldg., Tulsa Jenks 

Highway Oil Refining Corp. . . .207-8-9-10-11 Lynch Bldg., Tulsa T>eonard 

Highway Oil Refining Corp. . . .207-8-9-10-11 Lynch Bldg., Tulsa Broken Arrow 

Highway Oil Refining Corp. . . .207-8-9-10-11 Lynch Bldg., Tulsa Okmulgee (2) 

Highway Oil Refining Corp. . . .207-8-9-10-11 Lvnch Bldg., Tulsa Beggs (3) 

Highway Oil Refining Corp. . . .207-8-9-10-11 Lynch Bldg., Tulsa Kellyville 

Hope Gasoline Co 1005-13 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa Turkey Mountam 

Hygrade Pet. & Gasoline Co. .1005-13 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa Stone Bluff 

Hygrade Pet. & Gasoline Co. 1005-13 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa (Wagoner Co.) 

Hygrade Pet. & Gasoline Co. .1005-13 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa Bird Creek pool 

Hygrade Pet. & Gasoline Co.. .1005-13 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa Avant (Osage Co.) 

Hygrade Pet. & Gasoline Co.. .1005-13 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa Hogshooter pool 

Hygrade Pet. & Gasoline Co. .1005-13 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa (Bartlesville) 



78 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



CASIXGHEAD GASOLINE MANUFACTURERS (Continued) 

Name Address Plant 

OKLAHOMA 
Hygrade Pet. & Gasoline Co. . 100_^1| Kennedy Bldg Tulsa . . . , . . -^^f^^- K-^^,^ 

Indian Gasoline Co o38-9 Kennedy mag., i u Gushing field 

Jefferson Gasoline Co :}rrt ,' ii j„ -r.-'icci 

&S-SS1 o„ CO. : :MrS£dJ&.; Tuu.;.:: : : : :c>.^. »... «, 
SiSlS oal cS'c'i""' : . : : p 5>ifo7-'¥,i.: :::::;:::;:;:;;.: Bu,kbu„.t.. Tex. 

Midco Gasoline Co Midco B dg., Tuba Uewey 

Moon Gasoline Co Tulsa . ■ „,_ . ^ Bixby field 

Kowata Oil & Ref Co 206-8 Cheyenne Ave., Tulsa 

Oil^t^te Gat.line Co 407 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa Jenks & Beggs 

8^a'pXo?& Gas^'oUn^Co: . :SNational Bank Bldg.. Tulsa..: l ! l ! .Bixby ^J?^VlJl- 

Cleveland, Glenn 
Pool, Haywood, 
Spur, Jenks, Mo- 
hawk, Wateva, 
Standard Spur, 
Stone Bluff. 

Okla. Prod. & Ref. Corp O. P. & R. Bldg., Tulsa 

Old Dominion Oil Co 810-13 Mayo Bldg., Tulsa Yale, Olda. 

Olsan Bros Tulsa .^ - . • . ^ • Broken Arrow 

Pleasant Hill Oil Co 318-9 Cent. Natl. Bank Bldg., Tulsa Drumnght 

Revere Oil Co., Ltd 2131$ S. Boston St., Tulsa 

Samallen Oil Co 502 Exchg. Natl. Bank Bldg., Tulsa Bixby Dewey, Bar- 
ties ville 

Sapulpa Refining Co Sapulpa Drumnght 

Scaw Oil Co Tulsa . . Tulsa field 

Sinclair Oil & Gas Co Sinclair Bldg., Tulsa 

Stebbins Oil & Gasoline Co. . . Box 1970, Tulsa Inola and Boynton 

T. B. Gasoline Co First National Bank Bldg., Tuka Nowata field 

Tidal Gasoline Co 602 S. Cheyenne ST., Tulsa Delaware, Nowata 

Ochelata, Drum- 
right 

ToK-m Gasoline Co Tulsa Jenks 

Triangle Pet. & Gas. Co Tulsa near Bixby 

Tulsa Gasoline Co Bank of Commerce Bldg., Tulsa Glen Pool 

Victor Gasoline Co Tulsa Gushing field 

Walker, p. G., Jr 307 Cosden Bldg., Tulsa Boynton 

Western Oil Corporation 504 Cosden Bldg., Tulsa Burkbumett, Tex. 

HarriH, W. A. and J. A Wagoner, Okla Wagoner 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Bradford Oil & Gasoline Co. . .287 Congress St., Bradford Bell's Camp 

fiilmoH' Gajtoline Co Bradford Gilmore, Pa. 

Gilmore Ga.soljne Co Bradford Wafferty Hollow 

Jellenton Gasoline Co 43 Main St., Bradford Limestone, Ohio 

Kane Oa-wline Co 101 Main St., Bradford Kane, Pa. 

I'enn«ylvania Gasoline Co 9 Main St., Bradford Bradford, Pa. 

penmtylvania Gasoline Co 9 Main St., Bradford Bolivar, B. Y 

Sloan & Zook f^o. of Ohio 101 Main St., Bradford Carrollton, Ohio 

Stroud, H. B. Co 130 Main St., Bradford Coleville, Pa. 

Warren GaHoline Co 101 Min St., Bradford Eldred, Pa. 

Vogt, C.J Bruin, Pa Bruin, Pa. 

Johnw.n & Ounlap Chicora, Pa Chicora, Pa. 

Ililfhland Oil Co Clarion, Pa 

Home (Jan Co Clarion, Pa .'..'.'.'.. 

Jane ( )j| ( V) Emlenlon, ¥&.......'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'. Emlenton, Pa. 

Baru- * Snov, Karns City, Pa Butler Co.Pa. 

< rawford Oil & Cas Co Meadville . . . . Friendly, W. Va. 

C»»iinifhea'l C.ai, fo Oil City Oil City 

7."",' •■ • Finance Bldg., Philadelphia 

'•"• ,.ie Oil Co Union Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh Billings, Okla. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 79 



CASINGHEAD GASOLINE MANUFACTURERS (Concluded) 

Name Address Plant 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Hope Natural Gas Co 424 Sixth Ave., Pittsburgh West Virginia 

Imperial Oil & Gas Prod. Co.. .1106 Union Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh Hannahdale, W.Va. 

Laughner, E. E 1107 Standard Life Bldg., Pittsburgh. . . .near Ambridge, Pa. 

Manufacturers Light & Heat Co.248 Fourth Ave., Pittsburgh West Virginia 

Ohio Fuel Oil Co 2017 Farmers Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh. . . .West Virginia 

Penn. Mex. Fuel Co 424 Sixth Ave., Pittsburgh Tuxpan, Mex. 

Showalter, J. B Pittsburgh Butler Co., Pa. 

Transcontinental Oil Co Benedum-Trees Bldg., Pittsburgh 

Wavne Naphtha Co 308 Columbia Bk. Bldg., Pittsburgh near Waynesburg, Pa. 

Haskell, H. H Pleasantville Venango and War- 
ren County, Pa. 

Deerlick Oil Co Russell 

Wolcott Gas Co Shinglehouse Shinglehouse, Pa. 

Tidioute Refining Co Tidioute Warren Co., Pa. 

Warren Oil Co., of Pa Warren, Pa Henrys Mills, Pa. 

Henry Farm Oil Co Warren, Pa Warren 

Pavania Oil Co Warren, Pa 

Sayre, J. J West Sunbury Forest Co., Pa. 

TEXAS 

DeSoto Gasoline Co P. O. Box 929, Beaumont Goss, La., Musko- 
gee and Wann, 
Okla. 

Higgins Oil & Fuel Co Beaumont Caddo, La. 

Lone Star Gas Co Fallas Petrolia, Tex. 

Panhandle Refining Co 1412 Royal St., Dallas 

Phoenix Oil Co 411 F. & M. Bank Bldg., Ft. Worth Erath Co., Tex. 

Higgins Oil & Fuel Co Scanlan Bldg., Houston Daddo Field, La. 

Humble Oil & Ref. Co Coggan Bldg., Houston Iowa Park, 

Healdton, Okla. 

Parties & Jones P. O. Box 84, Ranger Ranger District 

Ranger Gulf Corp Ranger Burkburnett, Tex. 

Grayburg Oil Co Box 1097, San Antonio Somerset, Tex. 

Internat'l Petroleum Co 234 Bedell Bldg., San Antonio White Point, Tex. 

UTAH 
Utah- Wyoming Consol. Oil Co.McIntyre Bldg., Salt Lake City Byron, Wyo. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Transylvania Oil & Gas Corp. Day and Night Bldg., Huntington Lawrence Co. 

O'Brien, Wm New Cumberland — same 

Petterson Bros. Co Parkersburg Elizabeth, W.Va. 

Robert Bros Parkersburg Burning Spring, 

W.Va. 

McKelvy Oil & Gas Co Sisterville West Virginia 

LaSalle Oil & Gas Co 93 11th St., Wheeling Jefferson Co. 

Penn.-Ky. Oil & Gas Ref. Corp.City Bank Bldg., Wheeling Hancock Co., W.Va. 

WYOMING 

Enalpac Oil & Gsa Co Casper Mineral Wells, 

Desdemona and 
Burkburnett, Tex. 



so 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



STANDARD OIL CO. (N. J) AND SUBSIDIARIES CON- 
SOLIDATED GENERAL BALANCE SHEET. 

DEC. 31, 1918. 

Assets. 

Total value of plant stable and floating equipment ^^_^^ 

(less depreciation) 23 009 449 64 

Stock in other companies Zd,uuy.44y,D* 

Government bonds and other investment 

securities *^ 9^,4t.^,ciby./ j 

Inventories of merchandise 160,505,280.15 

Accounts receivable 151,320,085.90 

r^^}, 13 201,851.66 

'"^^" : 418,479,587.48 

Total assets $691,316,969.04 

Less accounts payable ...- $116,816,714 77 

Marine insurance reserves - 11,957,228,46 „ 

Net value --- $562,543,025.81 

Nominal Liabilities. 

Capital stock - $ 98,338,300 00 

Reserve for annuities 492,315.84 

Surplus including reserve for working capital 463,712,409.97 

$562,543,025 81 

STATEMENT OF EARNINGS AND DIVIDENDS FOR THE YEARS 

1912-1918 INCLUSIVE, WITH INCOME AND WAR TAXES 

DEDUCTED FROM THE EARNINGS OF THE YEAR 

ON WHICH SAME WERE CALCULATED. (S. O. Co.) 



Year 
1912 
I'JIU 
1UI4 
VJ}h 
]'.nr, 
l!tl7 
lUIK 

•Under "Dividunds paid" for the year 1913 there is included the 
distribution of $40 per share made from repayments by former sub- 
.sidiaries of cash which had previously been advanced by this com- 
pany. 

11918 taxes subject to adjustments. 



Earnings Before 


Federal Taxes 


Earnings After 


Dividends 


Deducting 


Paid and 


Deducting 


Paid 


Federal Taxts 


Accrued 


Federal Taxes 




.*:i.5,:i<»7,717.:J7 


289,830.33 


$35,107,887.04 


19,667,660 


■Ifi, 168,955. 06 


7,085.57 


45,691,869.49 


*59,002,980 


31,898,849.62 


341,215.45 


31,457,634.17 


19,667,660 


61,396,922 73 


619,679.39 


60,777,243.34 


19,667,660 


72,126,692.36 


1,634,633.19 


70,792,059.17 


19,667,660 


105, 785,8.58. 91 


25,019,916.97 


80,765,941.94 


19,667,660 


101,614,143.84 


t44,330,359.15 


57,283,784.69 


19,667,660 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



81 



BY-PRODUCT COKE PLANTS IN UNITED STATES 
CANADA (BENZOL PRODUCERS). 



OWNER OR OPERATOR 



LOCATION 



Coal 
Used 



Calhoun Gas Co Battle Creek, Mich 36,000 

Ford Motor Co Detroit, Mich 864,000 

Semet-Solvay Co Detroit, Mich 1,343,300 

Michigan Light Co Flint, Mich 96,400 

Michigan Light Co Kalamazoo, Mich 43,800 

Michigan Alkali Co Wyandotte, Mich 94,000 

Minnesota Steel Co Duluth, Mich 600,000 

Zenith Furnace Co Duluth, Minn 200,000 

Minnesota By-Products Coke St. Paul, Minn 380,000 

Laclede Gas Light Co St. Louis, Mo 320,000 

Camden Coke Co Camden, N. J 360,000 

Seaboard By- Product Coke Co Jersey City, N. J 340,500 

Seaboard By-Product Coke Co Jersey City, N. J 681,000 

Semet-Solvay Co Buffalo, N. Y 386,000 

Empire Coke Co Geneva, N. Y 146,000 

Solvay Process Co Syracuse, N. Y 65,000 

Dominion Iron & Steel Co . .Sydney, N. S 720,000 

Dominion Iron & Steel Co Sydney, N. S 1,664,000 

Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co Sydney Mines 159,000 

Dover By-Products Coke Co Canal Dover, Ohio 120,000 

United Furnace Co Canton, Ohio 280,000 

Cleveland Furnace Co Cleveland, Ohio 450,000 

River Furnace Co Cleveland, Ohio 1,300,000 

American Steel & Wire Co Cleveland, Ohio 1,150,000 

Hamilton Otto Coke Co Hamilton, Ohio 240,000 

Ironton Solvay Coke Co Ironton, Ohio 432,000 

National Tube Co Lorain, Ohio 1,320,000 

Portsmouth Solvay Coke Co Portsmouth, Ohio 770,000 

Toledo Furnace Co Toledo, Ohio 560,000 

Brier Hill Steel Co Youngstown, Ohio 520,000 

Republic Iron & Steel Co Youngstown, Ohio 1,020,000 

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co Youngstown, Ohio 1,300,000 



Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co Youngstown, Ohio. 

Steel Co. of Canada Hamilton, Ont 

Algoma Steel Co Sault Ste. Marie, Ont . 

Algoma Steel Co Sault Ste. Marie, Ont . 

Philadelphia Subiu-ban Gas & Electric Co. Chester, Pa 

Carnegie Steel Co Clairton, Pa 

Carnegie Steel Co Clairton, Pa 

Semet-Solvay Co Dunbar, Pa 

Carnegie Steel Co Farrell, Pa 

Allegheny By-Products Coke Co Glassport, Pa . 



650,000 
342,000 
285,000 
681,000 
125,000 
4,000,000 
800,000 
280,000 
830,000 
260,000 

Jones & Laughlin Steel Co Hazelwood, Pa 2,000,000 

Cambria Steel Co Johnstown, Pa 529,200 

Cambria Steel Co Johnstown, Pa 1,529,500 



Bethlehem Steel Co Lebanon, Pa . 

Bethlehem Steel Co Steelton, Pa 

Bethlehem Steel Co Steelton, Pa 

Lehigh Coke Co South Bethlehem, Pa . 

Providence Gas Co Providence Gas Co . . . 

Memphis Gas & Electric Co Memphis, Tenn 

Seattle Lighting Co Seattle, Wash 

Fairmount By-Products Co Fairmount, W. Va. . . . 

LaBelle Iron Works Follansbee, W. Va . . . . 

National Tube Co Benwood, W. Va 

Northwestern Iron Co Mayville, Wis 

Milwaukee Coke & Gas Co Milwaukee, Wis 

Northwestern Iron Co Mayville, Wis 

Chattanooga Coke & Gas Co Chattanooga, Tenn. . . . 



887,000 
375,000 
516,000 
2,400,000 
240,000 
59,000 
48,600 

610,606 
270,000 
320,000 
732,000 
197,000 
173,000 



AND 



Coke 

Made 

25,300 
622,000 

1,009,000 

67,500 

30,700 

65,800 

450,000 

144,000 

273,600 

240,000 

252,000 

255,350 

510,700 

289,500 

102,200 

45,000 

518,400 

1,198,080 
110,000 
87,600 
204,400 
337,500 
949,000 
839,500 
168,000 
270,000 
963,600 
559,900 
408,800 
397,600 
744,600 
949,000 
474,500 
260,400 
217,000 
510,700 
87,500 

2,800,000 
560,000 
173,600 
581,000 
195,000 

1,300,000 
338,888 

1,223,700 
638,000 
270,000 
371,500 

1,920,000 

172,800 

41,300 

29,200 

445,366 
189,000 
230,400 
549,000 
147,000 
124,000 



82 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF TEXAS FOR 1921. 

The following producing companies, partnerships and individ- 
uals operating in the state of Texas, by their sworn statements have 
reported to the Oil & Gas Department of the Railroad Commission, 
their gross oil production and value of same for the months of Jan- 
uary, February and March, 1921. 

Total production was 22,693,414.47 bbls. and the sales value of 
same, $48,032,959.11. 

Number of companies, partnerships and individuals that have 
reported to date 680 as against 709 for the last quarter of 1920. 

The Humble Oil & Refining Co. of Houston for the first quar- 
ter of 1921 was first in production, 3,766,622 bbls., value $6,943,956. 
The Texas Co. was second in value, $5,404,692 and third in produc- 
tion, 2,608,512 bbls. The Gulf Production Co. third in value, $5,026,- 
030 and second in production, 2,783,376 bbls. 

For the last quarter 1920, the Texas Co. was first in produc- 
tion 4 072,104 bbls, value $12,805,648. Gulf Production Co. was sec- 
ond 2,742,108 bbls., value $8,661,216. Humble Oil & Refining Co. 
was third with 2,954,747 bbls., value $8,213,768. 

Total production in the last quarter of 1920 was 23,689,504 bbls. 
valued at $76,168,108. 



Company Location 

Afom Oil Co Beaumont 

American Texas Oii Co Somerset 

ApDle. C. B Wichita Falls 

Apple, S. A., E. Dunlap & Sykes 

Ardmore, Okla. 

Apple, Uunlap & Claude Bell. Ardmore, Okla. 

Arcade Oil Co Beaumont 

Arkajisas-Texas Co Little Rock, Ark. 

Ameriran tU-fining Co Wichita Falls 

Andorer Texas Oil & Drilling Co 

Wellsvllle, N. T. 

.\rmstrunit. Jas. R Wichita Falls, N. T. 

Aclanui (111 Co Wlcliita Falls, N. Y. 

.Vshley & AHliley McKinney 

Atlantic Oil Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

Argonaut Oil Co Fort Worth 

AMoclatrd Oil Co Wichita Falls 

.\malKamat«d Oil Co Houston 

A No. 1 OII Co Lawlon, Okla. 

Ada-nvllo Oil Co Independence, Kas. 

Adam*, D. C Aurora, Mo. 

Alajc Oil Co Dallas 

Ardlzzona-Hraden Oil Co Dallas 

Anna Belle oil Co Fort Worth 

American f»ll Kngineering Corporation 

• ■■ Fort Worth 

AllcB Oil Co Tulsa. Okla. 

All-Amerlcan Oil & Oas Co 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Amorlcan Ounaolldated Oil Co 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

AnUllry, J, n j,„ur L^^g 

MiFX r'iiln>li-um Co... New York City, N. Y. 

Arkiiiaax .Votural Gai Co PltLsburRh Pa 

AlllM Oil Co Wichita Falls 

llniu.n. Mm. n,-wie y Houston 

Mrrcki-nrldiio Crude Oil Syndicate 

Brcckcnrldg* 

l.--k Jl Oil Syndicate Bre-kcnrldRe 

HrtHlerlck. A.J Now York City N Y 

Buhara. M. J Wichita Falli 



Company Location 

Barkley & Meadows Wichita Falls 

Burnett -Van Cleave Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Wm. Bartlett Co Electra 

Bell Bros. & McDonald Eastland 

Birkeland, K. B Humble 

Baker Oil Co. of Houston Houston 

Burgess, Burgess, Chrestman & Brundldge. . 

Dallas 

Bradley Co Fort Worth 

Burk Venus Oil Co Dallas 

Brock Lundy Oil Co Bowie 

Buchanan, S. B Batson 

Bullington, Orville Wichita Falls 

Bell Burke Oil Co Waco 

Brooks & strong Breekenridge 

Bass Petroleum Co Houston 

Birkeland, K. B Minneapolis, Minn. 

Buffalo-Texas Oil Co Buffalo, N. Y. 

Burk Noel Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Bell Burke Oil Co Waco 

Big Four Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Belen Oil Co Belen, N. M. 

Burkbumett Oil Co Custer City, Okla. 

Geo. Beggs Oil Co Fort Worth 

Bowers & Witherspoon Palestine 

Beverly Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Bryan Oil Corporation Wichita Falls 

Big Pool Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Bailey-Winkler Oil & Gas Co. . .Breekenridge 

Burk- Mack Oil Co Sheridan, Ind. 

Breekenridge Production Co Breekenridge 

Blue Bonnet Petroleum Co San Antonio 

Brinkley Petroleum & Refining Co 

Wichita Falls 

Biggs Oil & Gas Co McKinney 

Ba.ss & Dillard Wichita Falls 

Bexata Oil Co San Antonio 

Bowen Olympic Oil Co.. New York City, N. T. 

B. B. Oil Co Electra 

Bessley, Lincoln & McDonald Electra 

Brooks Producing Co. No. 1 Wichita Falls 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



83 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF TEXAS FOR 1921. 

(Continued) 



Company Location 
Brown & Co., Inc Dalla3 

B. O. 0. G. Oil Co Iowa Park 

Barkley, T. G Sour Laiie 

Bankers & Merchants Petroleum Co 

Fort Wortli 

Belle City Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Big i Consolidated Oil Co El Paso 

Big John Oil Co Beaumont 

Bower & Pillard Wichita Falls 

Brown, Geo. I San Antonio 

Buckeye Development Co Columbus, Ohio 

Burney, I. H San Antonio 

Castles Oil Co Corsicana 

Chapman, O. H Waxahatchie 

Calilwell Oil Co Oklahoma City. Okla 

Commercial Petroleum Co San Antonio 

Castell Oil Co Houston 

Cooper. Henderson & JIartin. . . .Breckenridge 
Continental Oil & Refining Co.. Tulsa. Okla. 

Cactus Oil Co Fort Worth 

Crown Oil & Refining Co Houston 

Corsicana Oil & Refining Co Corsicana 

Clara Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Cornucopia Oil Co Fort Worth 

Centerfield OU Co Wichita Falls 

C. A. L. Oil Co Eastland 

Connell. W. E. Fort Worth 

Cohen & Lebow Wichita Falls 

Christian, W. G Houston 

Crescent Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Cezreaux & Martin Humble 

Craven Oil & Refining Co Jakeliamon 

Clint Woods Oil Cori)oration. . .Wichita Falls 

Consolidated Oil Co Cisco 

Crosbie, T. S San Antonio 

Crystal Oil Corporation Denver, Colo. 

Crosbie. J. E Tulsa, Okla. 

Comanche Northern Oil Co Fort Worth 

Chappell Oil Co Denver, Colo. 

Champliu & Winkler (T. & P. Co.) . .Thurber 

Cheley. W. .T Denver, Colo. 

Continental Petroleum Co Dallas 

Considine-Martin Oil Co. San Francisco, Calif. 
Central Texas Oil & Gas Association 

De Leon 

Crowell, L. R Dallas 

Carteret Oil Co Fort Worth 

Caroline Oil Co Nacogdoches 

Central Oil Development Co Cisco 

Chapman, P. A., .Tr Eastland 

Consolidated Producing Co Fort Worth 

C. H. B. C. Oil Co Breckenridge 

Cooper-Henderson Oil Co Breckenridge 

Cline Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Camp Oil & Gas Co Fort Worth 

Chenault, N. B Wichita Falls 

Crosbie, J. E Tulsa. Okla. 

Cabiness. C. C Wichita Falls 

Canadian Park Oil Co Canadian 

C. Y. T. Oil Co Beaumont 

Cedar Creek Oil Co Houston 

Clem Oil Co., Inc Houston 

Colorado Oil & Gas Co Denver, Colo. 

Comanche Duke Oil Co Fort Worth 

W. F. Corts Drilling Co. .. .Columbus. Ohio 

Cosden Oil & Gas Co Tulsa, Okla. 

Cosa. Aubrey N Corsicana 

Dale-Knotts Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Duggan Oil Co Dallas 

Duke of Dublin Oil Co Fort Worth 

Daniel, W Wichita Falls 

Developers Oil & Gas Co Wichita Falls 

Davis. L. R Tulsa, Okla. 



Company Location 

Deibel Oil Co Thrall 

Dale. E. A. (Perkins lease) Electia 

Dominion Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Danciger. M. O Wichita Falls 

Double Standard Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Dayton Oil Co Dayton, Ohio 

Dennie Roberts Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Dugueane Oil Co Eastland 

Deep Sand Oil & Gas Co Corsicana 

Deshler Oil & Refining Co Breckenridge 

Denver Petroleum Co Denver, Colo. 

Dalso Oil Co Mineral Wells 

Doodlebug Oil Co Sour Lake 

Elm Hill Oil Co Corsicana 

Ellis & Anderson San Antonio 

Ennis Oil & Development Co Ennia 

Kconomy Oil Co Fort Worth 

Erie Gas & Oil Co Huntington. Ind. 

Eddy Oil Co Guffey 

Eagle Petroleum Co Houston 

Eaton, B. E Electra 

Emerick Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Empire Texas Oil Co Brocton, N. Y. 

Ellis, Thos S San Antonio 

East Batson Oil Co Batson 

Eldorado Oil & Gas Co Ranger 

Empire Gas & Fuel Co Bartlesville, Okla. 

Evangeline Oil Co Brockton, N. Y. 

Elliott, Jones & Co., Inc San Antonio 

Foster. H. V., et al Bartlesville 

Fensland Oil Co Fort Worth 

Ferris-Seay Co Wichita Falls 

Fisher & Gilliland Wichita Falls 

Flynn-TutUe .Oil Co Electra 

Fern Glen Oil Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Frontit r Oil Co San Antonio 

Fisher-Parker Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Four &■ Four Oil Co Dallas 

Franklin. J. M., et al Wichita Falls 

Fox & Lamb Drilling Co Brownwood 

Fidelity Oil Corporation Louisville, Ky. 

Freedman, Alex Corsicana 

Fowler. M Wichita Falls 

Ferguson Wells No. 1 and No. 2 

Wichita Falls 

Forest Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Fisher, Gates & Co Wichita Falls 

Fiver Rivers Oil & Gas Co Wichita Falls 

Franklin. Wirt Ardmore, Okla. 

Parish & Ireland lease Houston 

Farmer, Robt Wichita Falls 

Ferguson, C. J Wichita Falls 

Foster & Allen lease Wichita Falls 

Foster & Watson Wichita Falls 

Federal Oil Co Cleveland, Ohio 

Freene Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Farquherson Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Findley-Minnick Oil & Gas Co. .. .Benjamin 

Forty-One Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Fletcher Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Gulf Production Co Houston 

Gabler & Brannon Eastland 

Gladstone Oil & Refining Co Fort Worth 

Galvez Oil Corporation New York City 

Galloway Consolidated Oil Co Fort Worth 

Gwynn. O. F. (trustee) Iowa Park 

Gilliert Co Beaumont 

Golconda Oil Co.. No. 2 Wichita Falls 

Gonzales Creek Oil Co Houston 

Goose Creek Oil Corporation Houston 

Gotham Oil Association Fort Worth 

Gatewfmd Oil Co Ennis 

Glenridge Oil Corporation St, Xx)uis. Mo. 



84 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF TEXAS FOR 1921. 

(Continued) 

Location Company ,^^fTu< 

Jones, Thos. H ClevelanJ, Ohio 

Japhet & Suthcrlaiul ■ • Houston 



Company 



Grisdale. J. A McInt>Te, Iowa 

Glasscoik Leasing Syndicate. .. .San Antonio 

GriswoM Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Golden Cycle Oil Co Dalhart 

Gatewood Oil Co Knnis 

Galve/.-Burk Petroleum Co Galveston 

Gulf Coast Oil Corporation Houston 

Gates Oil Co Ardmore, Okla. 

Gohlke & Gerard Wichita Falls 

Great States Petrol. Co. of Texas Dallas 

Gf tzicr, W. F Burkbumett 

Gladiolus Oil Co Wichita FaUs 

Gooih & Davis Tract No. 1 Lawton, Okla. 

Goo<h & Davis Tract No. 2 Lawton, Okla. 

Guffey-Gillespie Oil Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Golciiiida Oil Co. No. 1 Wichita Falls 

GiMilaiul Oil Co Tulsa. Okla. 

Godfrey. F. L Enid, Okla. 

Glenridge Oil Corporation S:. Louis. Mo. 

Gallasher & Lawson Desdemona 

Gladys IM'.e Oil Co Tulsa, Okla. 

Grayburs Oil Co San Antonio 

Grand Duke Oil Co Fort Worth 

Greater Breckenridge Oil Co Breckenridge 

(ialena Signal Oil Co. of Houston. .. .Houston 

<;ul/liT A: Cottingham Bluffton. Ind. 

Gat«, T. M Wichita Falls 

Guaranty Oil & Gas Co Breckenridge 

Granite Oil Co E'.ectra 

Houston & Wel'h Abilene 

lliio lliio Oil Co Burkbumett 

lli-rri-n. II. H Breckenridge 

llunilile Oil & Refining Co Hotiston 

Kaninn, Jake L Ardmore. Okla. 

Ilaney. U. O Wichita Falls 

llar\cy Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Hawkins. W. L Wichita Falls 

Ibifim-lr & Deegans Dallas 

Hum, J. C Wichita Falls 

llalinack Oil Co Dallas 

Houseman, H. D. Co Dallas 

lll,-k-iiis on & Fuel Co Houston 

1 1 V' I.'. Geo Houston 

Mill k Jones Burkbumett 

llil.y & Vrooman Electra 

ll.ii i.lriy & Cttffell Beaumont 

llluh-Lind Oil & Gas Co Electra 

lI'MiKloii OH Co. of Texas Houston 

Hilwila Copper Oil Co San Antonio 

Hub Oil Co Dallas 

11. .11-1. .n Production Co Houston 

11 IM1I..I1 Krupp New York City 

H.irr.ii, Ja*. G. (attorney) Brwkenridge 

ll..tru..ri & Dale Wichita Falls 

"•""■ Mwrs Trust Wichita Falls 

ll.iii.itiin Oil tc Gas Co Marlow 

M.-iMl,.r..,n, K. G ...Nowata 

"»" '•'■'■• Brownwood 

II. r.f.ird (III Co Electra 

llm liiH ri'Hiiiirkp Constr. Co Dallas 

"'"""" * WpHilielnier Ardmore, Okla. 

"•>'""" Krupp New York Cily 

I'''" <"l ••<• Fort Worth 

I .< I I'nrk Proiluclng «'o i,nvu park 

!''"'"' ."" •'" Wichita Falls 

IrimUnil on Ic Gas Development Co 

„■•■;•;•• Ouluth, Mli'in. 

]'•' '" •;"••■ Wichita Falls 

'"'■'"' ''••"•"'••um Co Plalnvlew 

'•""', ..-^ ." Fort Worth 

'"•."" '" New York City 

lii»»d..r (Ml ft HcflnlnK Co. Munkogee Okla 
Jai.rlirn on Co lulaa, okla! 



.Tones Light Petroleum Co Pilot Point 

John & ,Teff Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Julia Oil Co Sour Lake 

Jackson, J. S. (trustee) Sour Lake 

Jackson Co San Antonio 

Jeffers, S. L San Antonio 

.Jefferson Oil Co Dallas 

Kernp-Munger-Allen Oil Co Wichita FaHs 

Kein, Frank D Wichita Falls 

Kerr, T. P Corsicana 

Koons DeU Tulsa. Okla. 

King Petroleum Co Wichita Falls 

Keoury Mike Waco 

Knotts, F. F Wichita Falls 

Keen & Woolf Co Shreveport, La. 

Kirl-y, Harder R Austin 

Kansas City Petroleum Co Wichita Falls 

Kepley & Bright Wichita Falls 

Kavanaugh Petroleum Co Houston 

Kemp, G. G Vernon 

Kentucky River Oil Co Fort W'orth 

Keystone Drilling Co De Leon 

Kauth Oil Co Wichita Falls 

King Petroleum Co Milwood, West Va. 

Keever & Gordon Oil Co Sour Lake 

Kansas Gulf Co Chicago, III. 

Kurz Oil Co Somerset 

Lincoln Oil Co Electra 

Levely-JIaxwell Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Lesh Bros. Oil Co Wichita Falls 

LaRue Oil Association Electra 

Long, Taylor & Thomas Houston 

Lou Ellen Oil Co Denison 

Lone Star Gas Co Dallas 

Low e Oil Co De Leon 

Little Wonder Oil Co. .. .Bowling Green, Ky. 

P. J. Lee & Co Wichita Falls 

Le Sil Oil Corporation Wichita Falls 

Lucky Seven Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Lockhart, Parker & Glasscock Ranger 

Landreth, E. A. Co Breckenridge 

Lawton Oil Co Lawton. Okla. 

Lowry Oil Corporation Muskogee, Okla. 

Liberty Petroleum Co Wichita Fal's 

Lone Star Oil Co Burkbumett 

Lake Oil Co Beaumont 

Louisiana- Stephens Oil Corporation 

, .Fort Worth 

Lake View Oil Co Sour Lake 

Lincoln McDonald Oil Co Electra 

Mahon, P. J. (receiver) Beauniont 

Manhattan Oil & Refining Co.. Wichita Falls 

Marathon Oil Co San Antonio 

Martin Oil Co Beaumont 

Mary D. Oil Co Sherman 

.Mennis, G. W' Wichita Falls 

Minor Oil Co Beaumont 

Montour Oil Co Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Mooney. L. E. (trustee) Wichita Falls 

McDonald Oil & Gas Co. New Middleton, Ohio 

McDowell, H. B El Paso 

Mid-Kansas Oil & Gas Co Findlay, Ohio 

Moore & McKinney Houston. 

.Mulual Oil Co LaPorte 

Miller. Herbert G Eastland 

Medina Oil & Gas Co San Antonio 

MiH)k Texas Co Fort Worth 

Macr & Shappell Wichita Falls 

McDorman. C. R Ardmore, Okla. 

Montrose Oil Ref. Co Fort Worth 

.Montrose Oil Ref. Co Fort Worth 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



85 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF TEXAS FOR 1921. 

(Continued) 



('umpaiiy Location 

MrAIan Oil & Gas Co Tulsa, Okla. 

Maigay Oil Corporation Tulsa. Okla. 

Mi-15an Oil Co Wichita Falls 

M'Allister & Brown Wichita Falls 

5[cKen7.ie Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Monarch Oil & Refining Co Houston 

Metroiiolitan Oil Co Houston 

Maxon Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Mary Elizabeth Oil Co Dallas 

Moiris & White Carbon 

Matador Oil & Gas Co Quannah 

Murphy Oil Co. of Pa Thrall 

Mi-SQuite Oil Co Fort Worth 

Meyers, Green, Wilson & Brannon 

Wichita Falls 

Mitchani & Morrison Fort Worth 

Majestic Oil & Hefining Co Wichita Falls 

McLain Oil & Coal Co Columbus, Ohio 

McCamey, Geo. B Cross Plains 

Mildren Oil Co Le.vington, Ky. 

Mimet Oil & Gas Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Moore, Edward T Dallas 

Martin, G. A Humble 

Mann & Ilseng (W. L. Mann) . .Wichita Falls 

Mana-M-Pahil Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Mann-Power Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Mann Oil Co Wichita Falls 

M. & P. Burke Extension Oil Co 

Lawrence, Kansas 

iloore. N. A Eastland 

Moore, F. L Tulsa, Okla. 

Madden & Madden Rising .Star 

Mahlstedt-Mook Oil Co Fort Worth 

McXamara Oil Co Beaumont 

Minntex Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Mitchell Producing Co Fort Worth 

Mackenzie f )il Co Fort Worth 

M & V Tank Co Wichita Falls 

Mc:Goldriek, E. W Batson 

Morrissey. Thos. & Heydrick, L. A.... Dallas 

Monarch Petroleum Co Dallas 

Mayfield. .Jos. L. Oil Co Wichita Falls 

McQuaid, M. W Fort Worth 

Magnolia Petroleum Co Dallas 

Mack. Theodore Fort Worth 

Markham. John H., Jr. & Tidal Oil Co. 

(T & P) Tliurber 

N'utt. Horace Austin 

Xew Domain Oil & Gas Co Dallas 

Northwest Oil & Gas Co Wichita Falls 

Nineteen Oil Co Beaumont 

Nortex Drilling & Development Co 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Necona Burk Oil Co Burkburnett 

North American Oil & Ref. Corjioration . . . 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Nutt. Horace Austin 

North Texas Oil Co Vernon 

Norton & Cline Wichita Falls 

Numljcr 77 Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Northwest Burk Oil & Gas Co..Lawton, Okla. 

Noble, Chas. F Wichita Falls 

Natural Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Nineteen Oil & Gas Co Wichita Falls 

Nortex Drilling Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Oil Dominion Oil Co Houston 

Oriental f)il Co Dallas 

O'Neill, H. A Wichita Falls 

Odell Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Oil Development Co St. Louis. Mo. 

Oktaha Co Tulsa, Ok. 

Old Colony Oil Co Dayton 

Owon, Burkett & Wheeler Mineral Wells 



Comjiany Location 

Oil Development Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Olil Colony i;nited Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Osage Production Co Wichita Falls 

Otex Oil Co Columbus, Ohio 

Okla. Prod. & Ref, Corp. of America 

Tulsa, Okla. 

Okla. Petroleum & Gas Co. of Texas 

Tulsa, Okla. 

Old Dominion Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Ohio Fuel Oil Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Plateau Oil Co Fort Worth 

Planet Petroleum Co Fort Worth 

Pennok Oil Co Tulsa. Okla. 

Petroleum Development Co Wichita Falls 

Primrose Oil Co Houston 

Placid Petroleum Co Wichita Falls 

Powell, ,L h Wichita Falls 

Perkins. J. J Wichita Falls 

Pace, Geo. L Dallas 

Palmer Oil Co Henrietta 

Chas. Paggi & Co Saratoga 

Portland-Texas Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Paraffine Oil Co Beaumont 

Pure Oil Co Columhus, Ohio 

Phillips Bros Beaumont 

Priddy, W. M Wichita Falls 

Patton, H. H Fort Worth 

Pierce Oil Corporation New York City 

Paradox Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Paine Oil & Refining Co Houston 

Pioneer Oil Corporation Wichita Falls 

Prairie Oil & Gas Co. .Independence, Kansas 

Patton, H. H Fort Wortli 

Panhandle Refining Co Dallas 

Paris-Wichita Oil Co Paris 

Pivoto, M. E Sour Lake 

Pinto Oil Co Mineral Wells 

Parker, Arthur G Eastland 

Pipiiin Oil Co Brownvvood 

P & M Oil Co Houston 

Pilot Point Oil & Gas Co Pilot Point 

Pioneer Producing Co Wichita Falls 

Porter, Works & Hicks Wichita Falls 

Southside Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Staley, M. L Wichita Falls 

Shackelford, F. L Wichita Falls 

Sfrawii Petroleum Co Denver, Colo. 

Silb-Erman Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Schlicher Oil Co Sour Lake 

Stephens Oil Co Sour Lake 

San Diego Oil & Gas Co Alice 

Sankey, John S Fort Worth 

Speed, C. D Corsicana 

Seibel Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Seaystone Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Sinims. E. F. & Co Houston 

Sink. Jeel Corsicana 

Southern Pelroleiun & Refining Co... Houston 
Standard Oil Land & Leasing Co.. Beaumont 

Sure Pop Oil Co Dallas 

Sterling Oil Co Titusville 

States Oil Corporation Eastland 

Swensondale Oil Co Fort Worth 

Shawmut Petroleum Corp., Inc.. Fort W<irth 

Shappell. T. O Wichita Falls 

Stump Oil & Refining Co Burkburnett 

Saxon Oil Co Sour Lake 

Slaughter & Hutchinson Bowie 

Smoot, Geo. A Wichita Falls 

Stull, R. O Wichita Falls 

Shaffer-Mankin Dallas 

Stella Oil Co Beaumont 

Spencer Petroleum Co Cisco 



86 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF TEXAS FOR 1921. 

(Continued) 

Cumiiany Location 

Texas Amalgamated Oil Co Fort Worth 

Tliomas. Leon Wichita Falls 

T. Y. Oil Co Sour Lake 

Texas Operating Syndicate Wichita Falls 



Company Location 

Snowden. Geo. il Wichita Falls 

Su,, Qo Beaumont 

Striblmg.' ' J. C. Houston 

Star-Tex Petroleiun Co WichiU FaUs 

Sipe-Tex Oil Co Moody 

Seturity Oil Co Breckenridge 

S<-hutt, R. K Wirhita FaUs 

Silirian Oil Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Schram. J. F Brenham 

Simms Oil Co Dallas 

Somerset Oil Co San Antonio 

Sinclair Oil Co Houston 

Sextettt Oil Co Lawton. Okla. 

Sixty-Six Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Seventy-Two Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Superior Oil Co Superior, Wise. 

Scanlon & McCourtie Dallas 

Sioux Oil & Refining Co Wichita Falls 

San Bernard Oil Co Beaumont 

Southwestern Oil Development Co.. Eastland 

Swastika Oil Co Beaumont 

Smith-Hess Oil Co .' CisfO 

Snowden & MrSweeney Co New York City 

Seaboard Oil & Gas Co Muskogee, Okla. 

Silk. W. W Wichita Falls 

Street«r-Electra Oil Co Streeter, N. Dak. 

Snider, C. W Wichita Falls 

Standiford Bros Iowa Park 

Sutherland, W. C. & Cox, C. B.Wichita Falls 

Sun Co. (North Te.vas Division) Dallas 

Skelly Oil Co Tulsa. Okla. 

Southwestern Petroleum Co Tulsa, Okla. 

Stevenson Lease (A. J. Powell) Waco 

Shamrock Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Sutherland Oil Co Houston 

Skinner. E. W. OU Co Saratoga 

Silver Lake Co Abilene 

Suley. J. A Wicliita Falls 

Texas Southern Oil Co San Antonio 

Texola Petroleum Co Electra 

Tarvcr Oil Co Dallas 

Tidtwrt. .lohn Oil Co Midlothian 

Texts-Virginia Oil Co Paris 

Texas Oil Corporation Dallas 

T.-vao Wcinder Pools Wichita Falls 

T.-\m.x Oil Co Fort Worth 

Th.imas. Mack Wichita Falls 

Texa- Standard Oil Co Houston 

Tr1;.'l.i-h. Ikanlfl Wichita Falls 

T.xii., riii,.f Oil & Gas Co Wicliita Falls 

Trl.iik-lc on Co Wichita Falls 

T.-va.. Blue Bonnet Oil Asso Wichita Falls 

P'"'""- W. H Austin 

Tmm oh a Drilling Co Houston 

Tidal Wi-Hti-m Oil Corp Tulsa, Okla. 

1"" ['" Houston 

Tpi« Pacific Coal & Oil Co Thurber 

l^ '"• V" '" &<""• Lake 

TMa» on Proiluelng Co Dallas 

2:'"" ""/'" Sour Lake 

Tr.i,«-oMtlnenul Oil Co PItlslnirgh, P.-i 

l""'"" "" '■" Wichita Falls 

T.-.lM.i>,a on St ReflnInK Co. .. .Wichita Falls 
£'"■'"'*'" * M.KInnl.H Ranger 

T ■."' ',;f:'", '"! •'" «"" Antonio 

r..>»» oil A Land InveMmcnt Co.. Fort Worth 

Tpx« p.. in,, c,,,! 4 on Co ThurUei 

J ' '•, ," •• Fort Worth 

7' l'dn|«l on Co nanas 

'' ' ■ ''i <o Columbus, Ohio 

T.fr.iii on Co P,"'.° 

Tun.l«,w OU CoriKiratlon '.'.'.'.' Houston 

Trxa, Kr.ler.1 Oil Co ! ! FJ^tra 



Taylor, T. J & Sibley, S. W Wichita FaUs 

Texana Production Co Fort Worth 

Tri-Mutual Oil Development Co 

Rapid City, S. Dak. 

Texas Southern Oil & Devel. Co. San Antonio 
United Drilling & Develop. Co.. Wichita FaUs 

Unity Oil Co Beaumont 

United Petroleum Co Chicago, 111. 

United OU & Fuel Co Philadelphia, Fa. 

Union .National Oil Co Houston 

Lnderwriters Prod. & Ref. Co 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Underwood Drilling Co Wichita Falls 

Universal Drilling & Develop. Co 

\\'ichita Falls 

Universal Texas Oil & Gas Co DaUaB 

U n ited Oil Co Shreveport, La. 

Victory Oil Producing Co.. Little Rock, Ark. 

Vulcan Oil Co Tiffin 

Van Cleave Oil Trust Wichita Falls 

Volcanic Producing Co Brenham 

Val Verde Oil Co Del Bio 

Valley Oil Co Petrolia 

Vat fJil & Gas Co Byers 

Volunteer Oil Co Nashville, Teun. 

A'enus Oil Co Denison 

Virginia Oil Co Fort Worth 

Vulcan Oil Co (T & P) Thurber 

Williams, J. L Brownwood 

Western Prod. & Drilling Co Wichita Falls 

Wagonner, B. M Wichita Falls 

Wood. Cranfield Wichita Falls 

Western-Keoughhan-Hurst Syndicate 

StravTO 

Worth Oil Co Tulsa. Okla. 

Wonder Oil Co Houston 

Woods Oil Co Beaumont 

Wood, C. C Wichita Falls 

Wichita Clay OU Co Wichita FaUs 

Wichita Petroleum Co Wichita Falls 

Walker Consolidated Co Dallas 

Wilson Breach Co Beaumont 

Walker, B. S Breckenridge 

Watkins Pool Oil Co Dallas 

Waseco Oil Co Fort Worth 

Waggoner, Abe W. (trustee 3) Houston 

Waggoner. Abe W. (trustee 4) Hoiiston 

Weber, Mark U Casper, Wyo. 

Webb, W. G Albany 

WichUa Burk Oil Co Wichita Falls 

Winner Oil & Gas Co Wisner, Nebr. 

Woodbum OU Corporation. .Philadelphia, Pa. 

Witherspoon Oil Co San Antonio 

Wilkoff, B. A. Syndicate Pittsburgh, Pa. 

White, S. V Wichita Falls 

Walker. P. G., Jr Tulsa. Okla. 

Webb OU Co Humble 

White & Scarbrough Burkbumett 

Woodrow-Lee Trust Wichita FaUs 

Wills & Garity Corsicana 

Weona OU Co Burkburnett 

Weitern Petroleum Co Vemon 

Wyatt Oil Co Sour Lake 

Webb, W. G Albany 

U est Tennessee Lease Wichita Falls 

West Virgmia Ranger OU Co 

Charleston, West Vt. 

Webb, J. R Corsicana 

Wichita Southern Oil Prod. Co Houston 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



87 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF TEXAS FOR 1921. 

(Concluded) 



Company Location 

Witr-her, W. C Wichita Falls 

Westlieimer & Daube Ardmore. Okla. 

Welden Oil Co Houston 

Walker Caldwell Producing Co Dallas 

Weber, Howard Bartlesville. Okla. 



Company Location 

Young. Simmons Drilling Co. .. .Wichita Falls 

York Production Co Wichita Falls 

Yount-Lee Oil Co Sour Lake 

Young Bros. & Kennedy Wichita Falls 

Y. M. C. A. Block Breckenridge 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF OKLAHOMA 

FOR 1P21. 



Company Location 

Aaronson, L. E. Z Tulsa 

Abraham, Joe Bristow 

Acme Oil Co Tulsa 

Ackerman, F. T Tulsa 

Advance Oil Co Fort Worth, Texas 

Adams, E. H. , et al Okmulgee 

Adams Oil & Gas Co Washington. D. C. 

Aetna Petroleiun Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Aiken Oil Co Xowata 

Akin Oil Co Tulsa 

Aladdin Oil Co Tulsa 

Albion Oil Co Tulsa 

Alexander-Shakely Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Alluwe Oil Co Nowata 

Almeda Oil Co Bartlesville 

Almy, C. C Okmulgee 

All- American Oil & Gas Co.. Oklahoma City 

American Gas & Carbon Co Tulsa 

American Oil Co Oklahoma City 

Amerada Petroleum Co Tulsa 

American Oil & Gas Co 

Anderson & Simpson Ardmore 

Anglo-Texas OU Co Okmulgee 

Apex Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Arthur Oil Co Sisterville, W. Va. 

Arm Oil Co Walters 

Argue & Compton Tulsa 

Ashland Oil Co New York City 

Atlas Petroleum Co Kansas City. Mo. 

Ajlantic Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Atlantic Petroleum Co Boston. Mass. 

Atlantic Oil Prod. Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

Aubyme Oil & Gas Co Garber 

Ault & Boss Vinita 

Avery, C. S Tulsa 

Acme Oil Corp Tulsa 

Avery Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Avon Oil Co Tulsa 

Aztec Oil Co Houston. Texas 

B. Jack Oil Co Sapulpa 

Bagley Oil & Gas Co Auburn, Xebr. ^ 

Banford Oil Co Tulsa* 

Banowetz. M. Coffeyville. Kas. 

Baker Oil & Gas Co Independence, Kas. 

Bass. C. W Tulsa 

Bassett, W. O Okmulgee 

Barber Oil Co Tulsa 

Bartlesville Oil & Gas Co Bartlesville 

Bartles-Johnson OU Co Bartlesville 

Barbara Oil Co Okmulgee 

Barnsdall Oil Co Bartlesville 

Baughman, R. P Ponca City 

Bay State Oil & Gas Co Kansas City. Mo. 

Baxter, L. W Tu!sa 

Beacon Oil Co., et al Bartlesville 

Beatty, E. F Oil City. Pa. 

Bell Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Bell Oil & Gas Co Warren, Pa. 

Belvy Oil Co St. Louis. Mo. 

Benmo Oil Co Tuka 



Company Location 

Berger Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Berry, B. H Tulsa 

Best Prod. Co Okmulgee 

Betty, G. Petroleiun Co Cement 

Betty Ruth Oil Co Broken Arrow 

Benedum Trees Oil Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Big Sioux Oil & Gas Co Okmulgee 

Big Fifty Oil Co Tulsa 

Bigheart Producing & Ref. Co Tulsa 

Biddle Oil Co Tulsa 

Bird Creek Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Bird Creek Oil Co Tulsa 

Bird, Gaffney & Simons Bradford, Pa. 

Billy Oil Co Chelsea 

Black, E. L Henryetta 

Black, Geo. E Pasadena. Calif. 

Blackwell Oil & Gas Co Blackwell, Kas. 

Bloch Oil Co Tulsa 

Blue Ridge Oil & Gas Co Oklahoma City 

Boesche. F. E. C Coffeyville. Kas. 

Bolivar Run OU Co Tulsa 

Bole. Geo Tulsa 

Bokma Oil Co Chicago. 111. 

Bradstreet, J. G. & Co Tulsa 

Bradley OU Co Tulsa 

Braik OU & Gas Co Henryetta 

Braley, C. A Kansas City. Mo. 

Brann, Jas. (receiver) Bartlesville 

Brandes Oil Co Nowata 

Breene. Frank M Tulsa 

Breener Oil Co Pawhuska 

Breene, Mabel V Tulsa 

Bright. Samuel Okmulgee 

Brilling, Geo. Co Tulsa 

Bridgman Oil Co Xowata 

Bridgman, Welsh & Haner Muskogee 

Briggs, R Tulsa 

Brown, F. B. & W. H Bartlesville 

Brown Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Brundred Oil Corp. of OU City, Pa. 

Bruner Oil Co Independence. Kan. 

Bucher Petroleum Co Bartlesville 

Biu-ket, J. G Mineral Wells, Tex. 

Burke Hoffeld OU Co Tulsa 

Bull-Head Oil Co Ardmore 

Bull Dog OU Co Tulsa 

Bunvell, H. B Broken Arrow 

Burton. N. S Ardmore 

Bums. Robt Tulsa 

Burt W. & Lyon M. J Joplin, Mo. 

Butler & Lafferty Muskogee 

Cabin Valley Mining Co ; Chelsea 

Cala-Belle Oil Co Cement 

Cameron. Mrs. Lillian Tulsa 

Campbell. H. C Nowata 

Campbell, A. P Wichita. Kan. 

Campbell. H. B Welch 

Canada Oil Co Nowata 

Canary & Sinclair Denver, Colo. 

Canary & Canary Denver, Colo. 



88 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF OKLAHOMA 
FOR 1921 (Continued) 



Company Location 

Canary-. J. D °'"'''' T^ua 

Canary, S. C Tuls* 

Cantield, W. E. & G. W -^ale 

Cappeau. J. P XV V 

Carr. J. M Okmu gee 

Carr. M. L Okmulgee 

Carlork & Pexter Ardmore 

Carey Oil & Gas Co Wellsville. Ky. 

Canit-'iter, I. Mor"S 

Carter Bros Tulsa 

Carter Oil Co T" sa 

Cassidy. Alice M Guthne 

Cash Oil & Gas Co Nowata 

Caswell. Clias. H 

Catlett-Davis Oil Corp Tulsa 

Celestine Oil Co Tulsa 

Central Union Oil Co .Tulsa 

Central Refining Co Tulsa 

Central National Oil Co Okmulgee 

Chamlierlain. H. G Marietta. Ohio 

Chapman. 0. H Waxaliachie. Tex. 

ChaJKller. T. A Viuita 

Chapman. Fretl A Ardmore 

Chicago Oil Co Chicago. HI. 

Chief Bighcart Oil & Gas Co 

Childers Gasoline Co 

Nowata and Wichita. Kan. 

rhinango Oil & Gas Co New York City 

Choctaw Oil Co Tulsa 

Cimarron River Oil & Gas Co. Oklahoma City 

Clark. L. P Indejjendence. Kan. 

Cleve Oil & Gas Co Bartlesville 

('line Oil Co Wichita Falls. Tex. 

Clover Oil Co Tulsa 

Clover. Marvin K Tulsa 

Coo. R. W Ardmore 

Collhis Oil Co Vinita 

Ciiliiie Oil Co Ardmore 

Columhla Petroleum Co Oklahoma City 

CommoMHialth Oil Co Warren, Pa. 

Commercial Refining Co Wichita, Kan. 

Ciimolop Oil Co Tulsa 

Compton, ct al Independence. Kan. 

Concord Oil Co Oklahoma City 

Congri-ss f»ll Co Kansas City. Mo. 

Cimsumcrs (111 Co., ct al Okmulgee 

Ciiinlnemal Oil Co Independence, Kan. 

Ccinliiicntal Oil Co Okmulgee 

Corner, Akin & Argue Bartlesville 

Corlnc Oil & Oa» Co Guthrie 

• •iTnriBdii Oil tc (Jas Co Cleveland 

(••■rhlri Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Comlcn & Co Tulsa 

foiMlcn on tc Oag Co Tulsa 

Conmo* (III Co Okmulgee 

(•••lion Farm Oil Co Independence, Kan. 

C'liiioii Belt Petroleum Co Ardmore 

'■ " "" Co Garher 

«..«|.., ic l,»wlon Nowata 

""■' •»" Co Tulsa 

" '"■ *• W- » Ardmore 

< ' III.' tc IiavlH Ttilsa 

' "■ • "'"''s. ct al !.".'! !!!TuIsa 

' ' " '■ * '*"""'■ Ardmore 

' ' '*'"*"> * Cruco Ardmore 

' ■" '•" Co Itochestcr, N. Y 

C.PIUI on Cm Okmulgee 

"" '" Inilopeiiilenco, Kan. 

' "~ '/ ,"". •■" Okmulgee 

' '""' * ■^'"" Tulsa 



Company Location 

Cushing Gasoline Co Tulsa 

Cudahy Oil Co Cleveland, O 

D. & S. Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Dallas Osage Co Tulsa 

Danciger Oil & Refining Co Tulsa 

Dana Oil Co Bartlesville 

Davis. R. I) Cleveland 

Davis. L. B Tulsa 

Davis & Younger Oklahoma City 

Daisy Belle Petroleum Co \rdmore 

Dover Oil Co Bart'esville 

Daw Bell Oil Co Oklahoma City 

Day, B. L Oklahoma, City 

Deep Fork Oil Co Marietta, O. 

Delokee Gas & Oil Co Bartlesville 

Devonian Oil Co Tulsa 

Dekoma Development Co Tulsa 

Deaver, J. J ' Okmulgee 

Delmar Oil Co Bartlesville 

DeSoto Gasoline Co Beaumont. Tex. 

Dempsey. J. J Oklahoma City 

Doneghy Lease Tulsa 

Delco Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Dierk Fred H Kansas City. Mo. 

Dominion Oil Co Muskogee 

Dock Oil & Gas Co Bartlesville 

Done Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Douglass Harvey, Atty Chelsea 

Dresser Oil Co Tulsa 

Duffield, L. C. & Co Caney, Kan. 

Duffey. J. B. et al Tulsa 

Dundee Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Dunn Oil Co Tulsa 

Duffield & Howard Tulsa 

Dubbs, E. E Indiana Harbor. Ind. 

Dubeth & Okla. Oil Co Dilworth 

Eachob. Trumbo & McKay Muskogee 

Eag'e Oil & Gas Co Lyons. Kan. 

Easteni Oil Co Buffalo. X. Y. 

Ebling. L. P. & Co Bartlesville 

Echo Oil Co Tulsa 

Edgar Oil Co BartlesviUe 

Eddystone Oil Co Tulsa 

Ellis. M Tulsa 

Elliott & Vensel Tulsa 

Elin Oil Co Tulsa 

Elliott. W. C Tulsa 

Elmer Oil Co Elmira. N. Y. 

Empire Gas & Fuel Co Bartlesville 

Enid 80 Oil & Gas Co Enid 

Eafisco Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

English. W. H Ponca City 

Enterprise Transit Co 

Evidence Oil Co Caney. Kan. 

Exchange Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Exchange Oil Co Tulsa 

Eysenbach, O. K., et al Tulsa 

Fagundus Oil Co Chelsea 

Farmer. A. L. & A. E Tulsa 

Fay Drilling Co Tulsa 

Fee Oil Co Muskogee 

Fever, M. M Marietta, O. 

Fcwel, Green A Muskogee 

59 Osage Oil Co Bartlesville 

Fitzgerald. J. W Bartlesville 

Fitzgerald. D. C Ardmore 

Finance Oil Co., et al Pawhuska 

Flat Rock Oil Co Tulsa 

Flesher Petroleum Co., et al. .Lexington. Ky. 
Fort Ring Oil & Gas Co... Fort Worth. Tex. 
Foster. 11. V Tulsa 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



89 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF OKLAHOMA 

FOR 1921 (Continued) 



Coniiiany 



Location 



Coni;>any 



Location 



Fortuiia Oil Co Dallas, Tex. 

FDSter Oil ("o Tulsa 

Fox Petroleum Co Ardmore 

Fox. \V. T Sapuliia 

Franrhot, D. W. & Co ;.. Tulsa 

Foster & Davis. Inc I?artlesville 

Freese Oil & Gas Co Okmulgee 

Freehold Oil & (ias Co Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Friedman. Louis Muncie, Ind. 

French, M. C Okmulgee 

Fierce, C. A Bartlesville 

Force Oil Co Tulsa 

Francoma Oil Co Ponca City 

Franklin, Wirt Ardmore 

Fredora Oil & Gas Co Okmulgee 

Funk. A. L Tulsa 

Gadf uy, F. J Olmiulgee 

Gardner Oil Co Tulsa 

Gardner & Avery Tulsa 

Galbraith, H. H., et al. .Independence, Kan. 

Gates Oil Co Ardmore 

Gaffney, H. B Bradford. Pa. 

Gardner Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Garco Oil Co Enid 

Gardner, J. L Okmulgee 

Gamo Oil Co Claremore 

Georgia Petroleum Co Okmulgee 

Getty Oil Co Los Angeles, Cal. 

Getty, Geo. F Los Angeles, Cal. 

Gilmond Oil Corp Pawhuska 

Giddings, F. C, et al Tulsa 

Gilliland Oil Co Tulsa 

Gillespie. F. A Tulsa 

Gillespie. Joe Coffeyville, Kan. 

Gilmer Oil Co Lamine. Mo. 

Gilbert, X. T Tulsa 

Gladstone Oil & Refining Co 

Fort Wortli, Tex. 

Gorton Trust Cement 

Greenwalt, H. L Okmulgee 

Guardian Oil Co Tulsa 

Gypsy Oil Co., J. J. McGraw, et al 

Bartlesville 

Gypsy Oil Co Tulsa 

Geneva Pearl Oil Co Ardmore 

Gibney, H. J Bartlesville 

Guillot & Hall Ardmore 

Goldie Oil & Gas Co Kansas City. Mo. 

Grimes, Elliott, et al Tulsa 

Guffey-GUlespie Oil Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Grimes, Blair, et al Tulsa 

Griffen Refining Co Tulsa 

Gillespie, F. A., et al Tulsa 

Gore, Harry Tulsa 

Gray. \V. B '. Tulsa 

Gnome Oil Corp Chicago, 111. 

Great .Southwestern Petroleum Co 

Oklahoma City 

Grimes, et al Tulsa 

Halfmoon Oil Co Dewey 

Hillside Oil Co Muskogee 

Heenan, .T. A Ardmore 

Harris, T. D Okmulgee 

Hartley & Suggs Oldahoma City 

Heggem & Davis Tulsa 

Hulings. M. C Tidsa 

Hulings, F. W. Tr Okmulgee 

Hull, J. A Tulsa 

Hennessey, .T. E Okmulgee 

Hoge, .1. B Nowata 

Hastings, W. T Marietta, O 



Harrington. Wm Marietta. O 

Hamilton & Jack Dewey 

Hamilton \V. R Dewey 

Hutchinson. E. A Muskogee 

Hill Oil & Gas Co Muskogee 

Hazel Oil Co Inde;)endence, Kan. 

Home Gas Co Cushing 

Howard Duf field & Berlin Tulsa 

Harhn, E. C Wel.h 

Hummel. C. S Chelsea 

Hazlett. Bradford, et al 

Haley Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Hollis, Elsie Los Angeles. Cal. 

Hmnphreys. E. P Okmulgee 

Harrington. L. F Tulsa 

Houston. H M Bixby 

Harvey Crude Oil Co Tulsa 

Humphreys Petroleum Co.. et al Tulsa 

Hummel. Sadie L Chelsea 

Hayner Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Haney. Pliil P Coffeyville. Kan. 

Hamill, A. W Tulsa 

Hivick, L. C Ardmore 

Hivlck & Slack Ardmore 

Harris, T. D Okmulgee 

Healdton Oil & Gas Co Marlow 

Huckleberry, J. H Kansas City. Mo. 

Haskogee Oil & Gas Co Haskell 

Himible Oil & Gas Co Houston. Tex. 

Hill Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

HaiTington. W. J Coffeyville. Kan. 

Houbert. H. J Tulsa 

Haler. W. T Oklahoma City 

Hughes, B. H Tidsa 

Hane. C. E., Agt Tulsa 

Harris-Strawn Oil Co Ardmore 

Hamon. J. L Ardmore 

Henton, E. L., et al Chelsea 

Henderson Co Nowata 

HaverhiU Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Hamon & Walls Ardmore 

Howard. O. R Tulsa 

H. C. W. Oil Co Chelsea 

H. M. Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Halco Oil Co Tulsa 

Harris Oil & Gas Co. . .Independence. Kan. 

HaiTis, L. C Rising Sun, I?ul. 

Harter Drilling Co Tulsa 

Heni-y Oil Co Chicago, 111. 

Henson Prod. Co Tulsa 

Hojoco Oil Co Tulsa 

Holbeck Oil Co Artlmore 

Huntly Oil Corp Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Hull & Bradstreet Tulsa 

Hutchinson, E. A Muskogee 

Hyman. T. J Chicago. 111. 

Ideal Oil Co Ardmore 

Imperial Osage Develop. Co Bartlesville 

Interstate Oil & Gas Co Bartlesville 

Indiana Oil & Gas Co ;... Tulsa 

Invincible Oil Co Fort Worth. Tex. 

Iiidiahuma Refining Co St. Louis. Mo. 

Invader Oil & Refining Co Muskogee 

Independence Oil Co Independence. Kan. 

Inilian Territory Illuminating Co 

Indian Petrolemn Co Okmulgee 

lokla Oil & Gas Co Healdtcm 

Illinois-Kansas Oil & Gas Co. . .Chicago, 111. 

Illinois Oil Co Chicago, 111. 

Ideal Royalty Co Tulsa 

Irwin & Miller Bartlesville 



90 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF OKLAHOMA 
FOR 1921 (Continued) 



Company Location 

Irwin, John S Bartlesrtlle 

Iron Mountain Oil Co Tulsa 

Jitney Oil Co UV^l? , 

Jenson, H. A Bed Fork 

Jolly. M. V Tulsa 

Jane Gwinn Oil Co Tulsa 

Jennings. E. H. Bros. Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Jay Bee Oil Co Bartlesville 

Johnson Farm Oil Co Warren, Pa. 

Jameson, J. B Concord, N. H. 

Jomack Oil Co Bristow 

JeweU Oil & Gas Co Lawton 

Johnson, Ike Bartlesville 

Josey Oil Co Oklahoma City 

Jennie Oil Co Chelsea 

.Johnson Oil Befining Co Chicago, 111. 

Jennings, B. G. & Lawrence Gas Co 

New York City 

Jackson, Wise & American Pet. Co...Sapulpa 

Jackson, Wise & Bovaird Sapulpa 

Jackson. WTse & JIarkham Sapulpa 

Johnson. W. J Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Kansas & Gulf Co Chicago. 111. 

Katheryne Oil Co Tulsa 

Kent Oil Co DUworth 

Ke>stone Oil & Gas Co. .Independence. Kan. 

Kingwood Oil Co Okmulgee 

Knupp. W. J., et al Warren. Pa. 

Keeche Oil & Gas Co Oklahoma City 

Klnkaicl. W. B Delmare 

King Carlie Oil & Gas Co 

Klstler, K. P Tulsa 

Kraeer. 0. A., & Co Bartlesville 

K ames, H. E Independence, Kan. 

Kay tc Kiowa Oil Co Tulsa 

Kames. H. E Independence, Kan. 

King, Newbert, Shufflin, et al Nowata 

Kay-Wagoner Oil & Gas Co. . .Oklahoma City 

Kawfield Oil Co Tulsa 

Kama, Jxl Coffeyville, Kan. 

King. Frank 

Kl.«tler. el al Okmulgee 

Kaiiola Oil & Refining Co Tulsa 

Klefer. B. L 

Kirk. H. C Wooven, O. 

Klncstnlth Refining To Tulsa 

Kmanee Oil tc Gas Co Titusville. Pa. 

Kuiikel. W. A Bluffton, Ind. 

Kemp. B. R Tulsa 

Kn«pi«iberger. D. L Sapulpa 

K.-nill Oil Co Tuisa 

KatiHw-Ogtge Petroleum Co Bartlesville 

'ii itn. A. M Independence, Kan. 

l.i'-l (Ml & G«» Co Tulsa 

I ■ oil & (iui Co Bartlesville 

i . I.<.af (III ft (j„ Co BlackwcU 

I . ^.Mer. ei al Tulsa 

i^'"'"- <'• '' Bartlesville 

LotHI, I)oi. L Gdn Marietta, O. 

,■'■"• •>■ A Marietta. O. 

■ '■"" ..Marietta. O. 

,,';""■""* ""' C" Sapulpa 

l.i«liiiilnK Croek Oil & Gas Co.Wellsville Ky 

I-.i.r Oil Co Tu,^^ 

I--r,H.r., Oil Co ■.'.Ardmore 

nm' ^" Kl\ Bartlesville 

lll'l^ Kay (Nl Co Tulsa 

l.in-t.t.m (III Coni Tulsa 

l,«i„l«.ri (III A Oi« Co ""Tulsa 

l,rmon (;. .v,.,iy c„ Tulsa 

Uk' Maramrc Oil ft Om Co .M^mec 



Company Location 

Lane E Nowata 

Locol Oil Co Warren, Pa. 

Lucky Tiger Oil Co Oklahoma City 

Lowry Oil Corp Muskogee 

Layton Oil Co Tulsa 

Lucado OU & Gas Co Coffeyville, Kan. 

Leopold & Brett Muskogee 

Lawrence Gas Co New York City 

Larkin & Reynolds Bartlesville 

Lawton, E. B Nowata 

Lawton, et al Nowata 

Leahy Oil Co Pawhuska 

Link Oil Co Tulsa 

Longfellow, J. M Bristow 

Lasoya Oil Co Otuwa. Pa. 

Lewis OU Co PitUburgh. Pa. 

Loett Oil Co Tulsa 

Long Green Oil & Gas Co.. Kansas City. Mo. 

Lone Star Gas Co Dallas, Tex. 

Lorber, C. C Cleveland 

Lebow, Max Tulsa 

Lahoma Oil & Gas Co Oklahoma City 

Leonard, J. M Joplin, Mo. 

Ltacohi Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Louvain OU Co Bartlesville 

Ludlow, Leo TtUsa 

MacMuUen, G. W. Co Tulsa 

Magnolia OU & Befining Co Tulsa 

Mallory, J. F. , et al Tulsa 

Marland Refining Co Ponca City 

Mason, D. B Tulsa 

McLaughlin & Co Tulsa 

Melba Oil Co Tulsa 

Minnehoma Oil Co Los Angeles, Cal. 

ilid-Co. Petroleum Co Tulsa 

MlUiken, J. F. et al Tulsa 

Mitchell & Marrow Independence, Kan. 

Mitchell, Mark D. & Co .. Independence, Kan. 

Moran, M Tulsa 

Montrose OU & Kef. Co... Fort Worth, Tex. 

Mountain State Oil Co BartlesviUe 

Mourlson & Jackson Sapulpa 

Mudge Oil Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Magnolia Petroleum Co Dallas 

Midland Sec. Co Tulsa 

McClintock B. Otis TtUsa 

Murray, Jas. M Cleveland 

Moore Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Merrick F. W' Ardmore 

iUd-Southwestem OU Co Cement 

Midgert Oil & Gas Co 

Monarch Oil & GasoUne Co Tulsa 

McKeys Oil & Gas Co Ardmore 

McBamme, L. W Gary, Ind. 

Markham, John H. Jr. . et al Tulsa 

McGraw, Henry Tulsa 

McKinney, J. E Tulsa 

Minshall. E. R Tulsa 

Minsball OU & Gas Co Tulsa 

Modern OU Co WeUsville, N. Y. 

Marshall Oil Co Nowata 

McCaskey, J. G. & Wentz. Louis 

Ponca City 

Moore. Clint Tulsa 

Malou OU Co Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Midwest & Gulf OU Corp Tulsa 

McGraw, J. J Ponca City 

McClelland Bros Okmulgee 

Mcl>imnell, J. V Tulsa 

McCann, Wni. L Oklahoma City 

Martin, B. C 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



91 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF OKLAHOMA 

FOR 1921 (Continued) 



Comi)any Location 

McCoy, S Okmulgee 

McDougal. D. A Sapulpa 

McLaiiie Farm Oil Co TiJsa 

McCurmick, Matt Nowata 

Mooney, D. B Ponca City 

McCray, W. S Tulsa 

Miller, G. L Ponca City 

Mead, C. J Kansas City, Mo. 

Majestic Oil & Gas Co DeQuein, 111. 

Manhattan Oil Co Tulsa 

Marshall Oil Co Tulsa 

Martin Mamie Lease Nowata 

McGraw, T. F Newkirk 

Mid-Kansas Oil & Gas Co Flndlay, Ohio 

Mallory et al Tulsa 

Milroy Petroleum Co Duncan 

M. O. Oil Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Marietta Oil Co Marietta, Ohio 

Maple Leaf Oil Corporation Bartlesville 

Mooney, L. E Chelsea 

Misener, F. D.. et al Tulsa 

Mooney & Holtxendorff Claremore 

M. T. C. Oil & Gas Co Wagoner 

McMan Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

McFarlin & Chapman Tulsa 

Mutual Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Miehihoma Oil & Gas Co Muskogee 

Midland Oil Co Bartlesville 

Morton Petroleum Co Bartlesville 

Mustul Oil Co Tulsa 

Mohawk Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Minnehoha Oil Co Newasha, Wis. 

Mercer Oil Co Oklahoma City 

Metropolitan Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Margay Oil Corporation Tulsa 

McKay, M. C, Gdn Sapulpa 

Mack Oil & Gas Co Bartlesville 

Myers & Twichel Okmulgee 

Nile Oil Co Tulsa 

Newblock Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Nancy Oil Co Sapulpa 

Neal, D. F., & Co Cleveland 

National Explor. Co Tulsa 

Noco Prod. Co Tulsa 

Northrop, C Ponca City 

New England Oil Co Boston, Mass. 

North American Oil & Gas Co 

Oklahoma City 

National Oil & Development Co. . .Okmulgee 

Nuco Oil Co Indianapolis, Ind. 

N. Y. Oil Co Tulsa 

Nyanza Refining Co Ardmore 

National Union Oil & Gas Co Blackwell 

Newman. Wm. C Okmulgee 

Nolan Lease Sapulpa 

Nowata Oil & Refining Co Tulsa 

Noble, Chas. F Tulsa 

Neutadt. Walter Ardmore 

New Haven Oil Co Bartlesville 

Oregon Oil Co Tulsa 

Offenbacher Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Osage Develop. Co Bartlesville 

Oklahoma Syndicate, Ltd Tulsa 

Oliphant Petroleum Co Pawhuska 

Osage Foraker Oil Co Tulsa 

Oil Issues Co Tulsa 

Ohio Fuel Oil Co Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Okla. Penn Oil Co Tulsa 

Oil State Petroleum Co Enid 

Okeh Oil & Refining Co Okmulgee 

Okla. Prod. & Bef. Co Tulsa 



Company 



Location 



O'Conner, Martin Portville, N. Y. 

Oklahoma Central Oil Co Tulsa 

Okliana Oil Co Tulsa 

Okla. Petroleum & Gasoline Co Tulsa 

Oklalioma Natural Gas Co Tulsa 

Oklarado Oil Co Okmulgee 

Osage Arrow Oil Co Ponca City 

Osage Nat'l Oil Syndicate 

New York City, N. Y. 

Osage Indian Oil Co 

Overton, C. H Tulsa 

Old Colony Petroleum Co Oklahoma City 

Osage Prod. & Ref. Co Bartlesville 

Old Dominion Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Oglesby. Robt Tulsa 

Oklavania Oil Co Tulsa 

Owsley, D. L Tulsa 

Owens, B., Est Buffalo, N. Y. 

Obins & Weber Bartlesville 

Okla. Natural Gas Co Sapulpa 

Parmenter, L. C Muskogee 

Paragon Oil Co Tulsa 

Panhandle Refining Co Dallas, Tex. 

Panama Oil Co Holdenville 

Parks Oil Co Chelsea 

Patterson, M. P 

Pauline Oil & Gas Co Duncan 

Pennhoma Oil Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Paraffine Oil Co ! Beaumont, Tex. 

Papoose Oil Co Tulsa 

Page Chas, Tr Sand Springs 

Paw Paw Oil Co Baltimore, Md. 

Painter & Stager et al Nowata 

Page. W. B Tulsa 

Petroleum Corp. of America Okmulgee 

Penn Osage Oil Co Bartlesville 

Periscope Oil Co Tulsa 

Pensy Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Pennok Oil Co Tulsa 

Pet. Lock Oil Co 

Peters-Leahy Oil Co Pawhuska 

Pennsylvania Oil Co Warren, Pa. 

Peters, Chas. B Pawhuska 

Phillips Petroleum Co Bartlesville 

Phillips Pet Co. & Skelly Oil Co. Bartlesville 
Phillips Pet. Co. & Gypsy Oil Co. Bartlesville 
Phillips Pet. Co. & Beard Bros. . .Bartlesville 
Phillips Pet. Co. & A. D. Morton . Bartlesville 
Phillips Pet. Co. & Standish Oil Co 

Bartlesville 

Phillips, W. G., et al Chelsea 

Phillips Oil Co Chelsea 

Phillips & Milam Chelsea 

Phillips, Waite Tulsa 

Phillips, J Sapulpa 

Phyems, Scott Chelsea 

Phillip King Oil Co New Bedford, Mass. 

Pieri'e Oil Cori> New York City 

Pioneer Oil Co Tulsa 

Pilgrim Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Pioneer Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Pine, W. B Okmulgee 

Planet Petroleum Co Fort Worth. Tex. 

Plover Drilling Co Bartlesville 

Plymouth Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Plew, W. L Gary 

Planters Oil Co Nowata 

Polecat Oil Co Tulsa 

Potomac Oil Co Tulsa 

Powell & Wasson Muskogee 



92 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF OKLAHOMA 
FOR 1921 (Continued) 



Cum; any LocatU.ii 

roiur Oil Co New York City 

I'ollyanna Oil & Gas Co 

Poiica OU Co Ponca City 

Producers & Kefiuers Corp Tulsa 

Preston & Straijlit Bartlesville 

Prolwt, Geo. C.. et al Tulsa 

Prairie Oil & Gas Co Independence, Kas. 

Pulaski Oil Co Tulsa 

Pure Oil Co Columbus, Ohio 

Quadrangle Oil Co Wichita. Kas. 

Quaker Oil Co Coffey ville, Kas. 

Quiidin, G. P ....Tulsa 

Quaker Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Ka.vcdiue Oil & Gas Co Orrick, Mo. 

Kabliit Foot Oil Co 

Kamsey Oil Co Caney. Kas. 

Hanger Oil Con) Tulsa 

Keliance Oil Co 

Keynulds, W. G 

Reliance Oil Co Beaumont, Tex. 

Reno Oil Co Sisterville, \V. Va. 

Iteimblir Oil & Pipe Line Co 

Regal Oil Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Relx)lil, .1. H Okmulgee 

Helxdd. .1. H., et al Okmulgee 

Red Bank Oil Co Denver, Colo. 

Reliu Oil Co Tulsa 

Reynolds Oil & Gas Co. . .Independence, Kas. 

He.d. II. W Nowata 

Kflxdil Drill Co Okmulgee 

Rhode Island Oil Co Independence, Kas. 

Hhc..le.< (HI Corp Tulsa 

Rlner. .1. .1 Nowata 

Rliiille, T. L.. Kst Marietta. Ohij 

R'riiarils, A. A Tulsa 

Rli-e ("reck Prod. Co Tulsa 

Riverland Co Tulsa 

RiiKcpf, A. H Car.hage. Mo. 

Rimil. Foster, Meloy .Bartlesville 

Riiblnwn, E. L Tulsa 

RolxTU, C. M Okmulgee 

Riivana Petroleum Co St. Louis, Mo. 

R"ViT. K. 11 Ardmore 

II.-.- City (III & Gas Co Kansas 

Id" kland (III Co Ardmore 

RiH'kwell Petroleum Corp Tulsa 

Rime I'elroleum Corp Okmulgee 

R. * M. Oil Co Hominy 

RoHtdnid Oil Co Muskogee 

Riixidlne Petroleum Co Oklahoma City 

Rom. C. O Ci>ffeyville, Kas. 

lUith Kniii Independenie. Kas. 

Roth tc Hhaffcr Independence, Kas. 

">■••'• •' » Tulsa 

Ryan Conwdlilated Pet. Co Bartlesville 

Kwmnore Oil tc Cu.h Co Tulsa 

Harniillen Oil Co Marietta, Ohio 

Ktvoy (Ml Co Tulsa 

H«iif..rd Oil Co ...Bartlesville 

Htmuel.. .M X,.„, Y„rk ,.j,j. 

H.iitiina oil Co Oklahoma City 

K»lilii.. (Ill tc MarketlnK Co Tulsa 

"»•""• '■'■ » Ardmore 

Hind Hprliiifn Home el al Sand Springs 

Maiiter. Thomaa Okmulgee 

H..I.I.. '•■ H^....... Okmulgee 

Mnpiilp. lurinlnii (■; , Sapulpa 

;;"""•" •;" *•• Tuisa 

•^7' *,'"•" ; TuLsa 

Hi'lioeniiolil. choji 

*^""» • ••• '■ Uit Aii'geie^,' '(''I'liir. 



Company Location 

Security Oil Co Denver, Colo. 

Seamans Oil Co Oklahoma City 

Sellas, Geo Chicago. 111. 

Shipley, J. M Nowata 

Shaffer. Danner & Lawrence Gas Co 

Shertzer Bros Dewey 

Shear, M Bradford, Pa. 

Shear & Marcus Oil Co Bradford, Pa. 

Shertzer, C. W Dewey 

Shulthis, A. \V Independence, Kas. 

Showalter & Cutr'hell . . Sapulpa 

Shuler, I Tulsa 

Shamiock Oil Co Tulsa 

Sheeders Oil & Gas Co Pawhuska 

Shaffer Oil & Refining Co Chicago. 111. 

Sheridan Oil Co Tulsa 

Shufnin, M. B Coffeyville. Kas. 

Shaffer-Markin Oil Co Dallas, Tex. 

Smiplex Oil Co Okmulgee 

Silurian Oil Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Sitrin, Sam Tulsa 

SUers. Marshall & Co Skiat/)ok 

Simpson, B. A Ardmore 

Siaco Oil Co New York City 

Sinclair Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Skelly, W. G Tulsa 

Skelly Oil Co Tulsa 

Skelly Oil Co. et al Tulsa 

Skelly Oil Co. & Gyp.sy Oil Co. et al 

Bartlesville 

Skelton-Moore Oil Co Bartlesville 

Skiatook Oil & Gas Co Copan 

Shrk, T. B Clarion. Pa. 

Smith, W. T Okmulgee 

Smith, W. S., Special Tulsa 

Smith & Cleage Tulsa 

Smith & Weathers Okmulgee 

Smltli, H. E Marietta, Ohio-Vinita 

Smitli Oil Syndicate Tulsa 

Smith & Daugherty Nowata 

South Dakota Oil & Gas Co 

Southwestern OD Fields Co Bartlesville 

Southwestern Oil & Gas Co 

Independence. Kas. 

Southwestern Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Southern Oil & Gas Co Coffey Vile, Kas. 

Spring Oil Co Independence, Kas. 

Spangler, C. W., et al Tulsa 

Sperata Oil Co BartlesvUe 

Spurgin, J. G BLxby 

Stinson & Matthews Tulsa 

Studebaker, E. H South Bend. Ind. 

Stephens, C. S Coffeyville. Kas. 

Stralem, C. I New York City 

Steyner Oil Co Bartlesville 

Stut. J. A .TiJsa 

Standish Oil Co Bartlesville 

Stanford, .1. W Nowata 

States Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Stebbins Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Stake Oil Co Independence, Kas. 

Stevens Oil & Gas Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Sterling Oil & Gas Co 

Stahl, E. S ...Ardmore 

Steiidjerger, C. B Tulsa 

Sun Ga.soline Co Tulsa 

Sunlieam Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Surpass Petroleum Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Summit Oil Co Bartlesville 

Sunuiiers. Jack Haskell 

Sweeney, J. F. & Co Tulsa 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



93 



PETROLEUM PRODUCING COMPANIES OF OKLAHOMA 

FOR 1921 (Concluded) 



Company 



Location 



Company 



Location 



Swaiison et al Tulsa 

Sykes, C. E Animore 

Symsor. A. .1 Bartlesville 

System Oil Co Tulsa 

Taft Oil Co Independence, Kas. 

T. B. Gasoline Co Tulsa 

Terrell Co Terrell, Tex. 

Texas Co Tulsa 

Terriokla Oil & Gas Co Muskogee 

Texas-Oklahoma Invest. Co 

Independence, Kas. 

Testlog Oil Co Tulsa 

Texas Prod; Co Independence. Kas. 

Test Oil Co Bartlesville 

Thefts. John C Buffalo, X. Y. 

Tliompson, K. B. & \V. M Tulsa 

Thompson. J. N Tulsa 

Tulman Oil Co Tulsa 

Thompson, Roy B.. et al Tulsa 

Thompson, J. L Gas City, Ind. 

Thompson, \Vm. O Gas City, Ind. 

Thompson, Welder & Neal Cleveland 

The Hefner Co Ardmore 

Thurvan Oil Co Bartlesville 

Thompson Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

The Keno Oil Co Tulsa 

Tim Eliza Oil Co Sapulpa 

Tidal Oil Co Tulsa 

Titus, C. W Tulsa 

Tibbens, 0. G Tulsa 

Tittle, Mrs. Bertha Gary, Ind. 

Togo Oil Co Tulsa 

Tom Games Oil Co Ponca City 

Traders Oil Corporation Claremore 

Trumbo, A. C Muskogee 

Travis, L. R Tulsa 

Travis, D. R Tulsa 

Transcontinental Oil Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Troy Oil & Gas Co Sapulpa 

202 Oil Co Bartlesville 

Tuxedo Oil Co Tulsa 

31 Oil Co Lawton 

32 Oil & Gas Co Ardmore 

25 OU Co Tulsa 

Tiunnan Oil Co Okmulgee 

Twin States Oil Co Tulsa 

Tyrell. H. C Tulsa 

Twin Hills OU & Gas Co Tulsa 

Two Rivers Oil & Gas Co Bartlesville 

Twlchel, J. A Okmulgee 

Tulsa Interstate Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Union Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Upland Oil Co Tulsa 

U. S. Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Union Oil Co Tulsa 

Urbana Oil Co Lawton 

Vance, S. B Tulsa 

Victoria Oil Co Tulsa 

Viwell Lease Sapulpa 

Victor Oil Co Tulsa 

Verland Oil & Gas Co Tulsa 

Van Hay Oil Co Tulsa 

Vesta Oil & Gas Co Kansas City, Mo. 

Vensel, F. E Tulsa 

Van Nostrand, H. I., Tr Claremore 

Van Dall Bros Bartlesville 

Van Moss Oil Co Bartlesville 



Van Horn. R. V Clifton Forge, Va. 

Valos. T. K Chicago, 111. 

Victor Oil Co Pavilion, N. Y. 

Victor Oil Co Tulsa 

Walker, J. W Mounds 

Watklns, F. B Waurika 

Wigwam Oil Co Tulsa 

Wrightsman, C. J Tulsa 

Wrightsman Oil Co Tulsa 

Wrightsman, Eklna Tulsa 

Western American Oil Co Bartlesville 

Wilcox, Oswalt & Wilcox. .Indianapolis, Ind. 

Wilcox, H. E Inilianapolis, Ind. 

Whittier, M. H Tulsa 

Wesely, C.' T Ochelata 

Wolverine Oil Co Tulsa 

Weber, Howard Bartlesville 

Warren Oil Co St. Louis, Mo. 

Welsh, M. P., et al Nowata 

Wilkinson, Eugene Miami 

White Rose Oil & Gas Co Oklahoma City 

Ward Oil & Gas Co Nowata 

Wright, J. H Sapulpa 

Walsh Oil Co Tulsa 

Wilcox, H. F. Tulsa 

Wilcox Oil Co Tulsa 

Warner-Caldwell Oil Co Titusville, Pa. 

Wagoner Oil & Gas Co Wagoner 

Washington, J. E Tulsa 

Walker, Wm. H Tulsa 

Warren Co Bartlesville 

Woodward et al Tulsa 

Woodward & Reed Tulsa 

Woodward, Geo. E Tulsa 

Woodward & Robertsop Nowata 

Woodward & Crenshaw McMjrris. .. .Nowata 

\Miitehall, Donovan, et al 

Wliltehall, B. F Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

West Hazlett Oil & Gas Co 

Inde.sendence, Kas. 

Walter Oil Co Pawhuska 

Wah-Shah-She Oil Co BartlesvUle 

Winona Oil Co Tulsa 

Wolf, F Tulsa 

Walker, P. M Tulsa 

Walker, P. G Tulsa 

Wall Oil Co Tulsa 

Warren Petroleum Co Warren, Pa. 

Wettack, Maude T Nowata 

Welsh, J. D Kansas City, Mo. 

Welsh Oil & Gas Co Stillwater 

Wells, N. D Tulsa 

Wertzenberger, D. D Tulsa 

SVestheimer & Daube Ardmore 

Whitehall Petroleum Co Tulsa 

Wiser Oil Co Bartlesville 

Wise & Jackson Sapulpa 

Winters Oil Co Bradford, Pa. 

Wilcox, M. A Dewey 

Wooster Oil Co Okmulgee 

Workman Oil & Gas Co Oklahoma City 

Xetloc Oil Co Denver, Colo. 

Y'orkhoraa Oil Co Bartlesville 

Zaline Oil Co Muskogee 

Zahn, S. A Tulsa 

Zola Oil Co Tulsa 



94 EJITXETU^NUMBER ^SIXTEEN OF 

PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

BuMding Completed Daily Capacity 

Year j^^g 

1914 .... 267 1,186,155 Bbls. 

1918 ■ \\ 2*9 1,295,115 Bbls. 

1919 99 373 1,530,565 Bbis 

1920 ^^ 415 1,888.800 Bbls. 

1921 

In the following table, the refining plants are divided into eleven 
classes for the convenience of those desiring to know the products 
that are generally manufactured by each refinery: 

rnmnlPte Plant (Comp.)— Gasoline, kerosene, gas and fuel oils, lubricating oils, 
piraffin wax petroleum coke or asphalt, or both coke and asphalt. 

Skimming Plant (Skim.)— Gasoline, kerosene, gas and fuel oils. 

Skimming and Lube (S. & L.)— Gasoline, kerosene, gas and fuel oils, lubricating 
oils. 

Skimming and Asphalt (S. & A.)— Gasoline, kerosene, gas and fuel oils, asphalt. 

.Skimming and Coke (S. & C.)— Gasoline, kerosene, gas and fuel oils, coke. 

Skimming, Lube and Asphalt (S.-L. & A.)— Gasoline, kerosene, gas and fuel oils, 
lubricating oils, asphalt. 

Skimming, Lube and Coke (S.-L. & C.)— Gasoline, kerosene, gas and fuel oils, 
lubricating oils, coke. 

Wax Plant (Wax)— Gasoline, kerosene, gas and fuel oils, lubricating oils, paraffin 
wax. 

Lube Plant (Lube) — Gas and fuel oil-s, lubricating oils. 

Asphalt Plant (Asphalt) — Distillates, gas and fuel oils, asphalt. 

Topping I'huil (Top) — Tops, distillates, gas and fuel oils. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



95 



PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

(Continued) 



COMPANY 



LOCATION 
ARKANSAS 



Daily 
Capacity 



Arkansas Prod. & Refining Co EI Dorado . 1 

Dav,s, Abner. ^ ■ e1 Dorado. . ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ' 

Shipper s Petroleum Co El Dorado 

Union Oil & Pipe Line Co .El Dorado 

Arkansas Oil Refining Co Port Smith . i!:: I" ' 

Lion Oi & Refining Co El Dorado. . 

New Arkansas Petroleum Co EI Dorado 

Petroleum Products Co . (Root Refineries) . . El Dorado 

Jones Bros. & Tatum El Dorado 

Red River Oil & Refining Co El Dorado'. '. 

Gnson Refining Co EI Dorado .■.■.■;" 4 000 

National Petroleum Products Co El Dorado. . 1 000 



000 
250 
2,000 
3,000 
500 
4,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 



Crude Oil Marketing Co '.■..■'.■ . .' .' .' .' .El Dorado.' 

CALIFORNIA 
Union Oil Co. of California Avila 

Rf^^fi^M OM^^^" ■ -Avon (San Francisco) .' 

Richfield Oi Co. . Bakersfleld. ......... 

Standard Oil Co. (California) Bakersfleld . 

Union Oil Co. of California Brea 

Puente Oil Co Chino! .■.'.'.".■ 

Am?-ican Petroleum Co Coalinga 

Col:i^^atal Patroleam Rj5iin? Cd. . . " Coalinga 

Shsll Cx of California Coalinga 

Standard Oil Co. (Cilifo-nia) ' EI S-gjndo 

A nvicai Oilfields Co F>]lows 

Wilshire Oil Co., Inc ' " ' Fellows 

Ventura Refining Co ' ' Fillmore 

California-Fresno Oil Co Fresno 

St. Helens Petroleum Co .'.'.■.'.'." .Fallerton Field 

Associated Oil Co Gaviota (Santo Barbra) 

King Refining Co. . Kern River ... 

Producers Refining Co Kern River 

Amalgamated Oil Co Los Angeles 

Asphaltum & Oil Refining Co Los Angeles 

c'^fi°7i ^■■,^^^° Los Angeles .'.■.'.■.' .' .' .' .' .' 

Richfield Oil Co Los Angeles 

T"^ner Oil Co. ^ Los Angeles 

Union Oil Co. of California Maltha 

Tr),fnn*^n-l°r '^^H^?-'"'^-f • ' ■• Martinez (San Franc.) 

Union Oil Co. of California Oleum 

fl^t^^nfA^ ^°; i'^?.yf°'"?'^) • ■ Richmond (San Fran.) 

Union Oil Co. of California San Pedro (L. A.) . 

Capitol Crude Oil Co Santa Paula 

Union Oil Co. of California Santa Paula 

f?^?f^' P- L. . _^ Tulare 

California Oil & Asphalt Co Vernon 

General Petroleum Corporation Vernon 

Gilmore Petroleum Co Vernon^ ! '.'..'. 

Jordon Oil Co Vernon 

Pacific American Petroleum Co ... . Vernon 

Petroleum Lubricants Co ... . ' Vernon 

Pioneer Paper Co .' . ; ; .' Vernon. .'.'. '. '. ' .' .' .' .'.■'■ 

Union bales Corporation Vernon 

Vernon Oil Refining Co ; ; .Vernon! ! ;:::::;::::: 

Wilshire Oil Co., Inc Vernon 

COLORADO 

United Oil Co Florence 

Apex Refining Co Loomis 

Raven Oil & Refining Co Rangeley 

GEORGIA 
Atlantic Refining Co Brunswick 



3,000 



17,000 

22,000 

3,500 

20,000 

10,000 

1,300 

3,600 

2,500 

2,000 

35,500 

10,000 

5,000 

4,200 

500 

200 

10,000 

450 

150 

3,500 

600 

260 

900 

1,000 

3,000 

30,000 

22,000 

60,000 

12,000 

40 

800 

150 

.500 

20,000 

700 

600 

300 

200 

400 

4.000 

1,500 

3,000 



1,500 

200 

50 



4,000 



Type of 
Plant 



S 
S 

s 
s 

S. & L. 

s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 
s 



Top 

S. & L. 

Skim. 

S. & A. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Top. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Comp. 

Top. 

Top. 

Wax 

Skim. 

Top. 

Skim. 

Asphalt 

S. L. & 

Top. 

S. & A. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

S. L. & 

Skim. 

S. &L. 

S. L. & 

Comp. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim.-^ 

Skim. 

Top. 

Skim. 

S. & L. 

Skim. 

Asphalt 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 



Comp. 
S. & L. 
Skim. 



S. & L. 



96 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM 



COMPANY 



REFINERIES IN THE 
(Continued) 

LOCATION 



UNITED STATES. 



Daily 
Capacity 



300 
3,500 
1,000 
1,000 
4,000 



ILLINOIS 

Leader Oil Co S^®^' ' t ' ^ 

Indiahoma Refining Co East St. Louis 

Lubfite Refining Co East St. Louis 

Warren Oil Co. of Pennsylvania Joilet 

Central Refining Co. (Indian) Lawrenceville ,o =nn 

Indian Refining Co Lawrenceville ^?'?"a 

The Texas Co Lockport 4,500 

Interocean Refining Co McCook 1,000 

Wabash Refining Co Robinson 1,000 

Roxana Petroleum Corporation Wood River 15,000 

Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) Wood River 12,000 

White Star Refining Co Wood River 1,000 

INDLANA 

Indiana Oil Refining Co Columbus 700 

Consjlidated Oil Refining Co East Chicago 2,000 

Sinclair Refining Co East Chicago 10,000 

Service Oil Refining Co Fairmount 1,200 

Po.-tland Oil & Refining Co Portland 500 

Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) Whiting 40,000 

KANSAS 

The Kanotex Refining Co Arkansas City 3,000 

Ti.e Lesh Refiaing Corporation .Arkansas City 2,500 

Midco Petroleum Co Arkansas City 4,500 

Augusta Oil Refining Co Augusta 1,000 

Harvey Crude Oil Co Augusta 2,000 

White Eagle Oil & Refining Co Augusta 5,000 

General American Oil Co Baxter Springs 1,000 

McWhorter-Chanute Refining Co Chanute 200 

Mutual Oil Co Chanute 1,000 

Sinclair Refining Co Chanute 2,000 

The Uncle Sam Oil Co Cherryvale 2,400 

Kansas Oil Refining Co Coffeyville 2,000 

National Refining Co Coffeyville 4,000 

Sinclair Refining Co Coffeyville 3,500 

Atlas Refining Corporation El Dorado 1,000 

El Dorado Refining Co El Dorado 3,000 

Fide ity Refining Co El Dorado 2,500 

Midland Refining Co El Dorado 4,000 

St. Louis Oil & Refining Co El Dorado 1,500 

Tfi-State Oil & Refining Corporation El Dorado 1,200 

(.reat Western Oil Refining Co Erie ' 1 500 

Miller Petroleum Co Humboldt .'.".■ 2,000 

Hutchinson Petroleum Co Hutchinson . 1,000 

fcmpire Refineries, Inc Independence 500 

Kan.sas City R.-fining Co Kansas City 2,500 

Wi f"i^fi "'"^^^ Kansas City 1,000 

Sinclair Ht'fin'ng Co Kansas City 5 000 

C jmmonweallh O.I & Refining Co Moran .... 800 

rhem,V»l '• ^*°r ' '^?"'^^ Neodesha 12,000 

VirkTml V 1* ^^-^^ Osawatomie 2 000 

Virker.H T'etroleum ( o Potwin 2 000 

North American Refining Co. (PuritanRefinery)Rosedaie; '.■.■.■.;■.■. V ' '. LOOO 

Su.rl,ng<.il&K..,iningCo 1 ! i i i : ;wS: ;■.■. l •. l ■.; •.•.•. ! 4,000 



KENTUCKY 

.'ixieueiiRe^i„,cr::::::::::::;:::;::teS::::::::: 



1,000 
800 
1,800 
1,500 
3,000 
1,500 



Type of 
Plant 



S. & L. 

Skim. 

Lube 

Lubr 

S. &L. 

Comp. 

Skim. 

Lube 

Comp. 

Skim. 

Comp. 

Skim. 



Skim. 

Comp. 

Skim. 

Comp. 



Skim. 

Skim. 

Wax 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

S. &L, 

Comp. 

Wax 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Wax 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

S. L. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

S. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 



& C. 



Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



97 



PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

(Continued) 



COMPANY 



LOCATION 
KENTUCKY 



Stoll Oil Refining Co Louisville 

Oleum Refining Co Pryse 

Standard Oil Co. (Kentucky) Riverside (Louisville) 

Massey Refining Co Scottsville 

Mutual Oil & Refining Co Winchester 



LOUISIANA 

Delart Refining Co Anse La Butte. 

Great Southern Prod. & Refining Co Ardia 

Standard Oil Co. of Louisiana Baton Rouge. . 

Louisiana Petroleum Products Co Bossier City . . . 

Caddo Central Oil & Refining Co Cedar Grove. . . 

Caddo Central Oil & Refining Co Cedar Grove. . . 

Crescent Oil & Refining Co Cedar Grove. . . 

International Oil & Gas Corporation Cedar Grove. . . 

Red River Refining Co Crichton 

Mexican Petroleum Corporation of Louisiana . Destrehan 

Loaisiana Oil Refining Corporation Gas Center. . . . 

New Orleans Refining Co Good Hope . . . . 

General Oil & Refining Co Homer 

Homer Refining Co Homer 

Shreveport Prod. & Refining Co Jewella 

Sinclair Refining Co. of Louisiana Meraux 

Liberty Oil Co., Ltd New Orleans. . . 

General Oil & Refining Co Oil City 

Island Refining Corporation Sarpy 

Paramount Petroleum Corporation Sheehan 

Louisiana Oil Refining Corporation Shreveport. . . . 

The Texas Co Shreveport . . . . 

U. S. Producers Refining Co Shreveport . . . . 

Paramount Petroleum Co Superior 

Calcausieu Oil Refining Co Westlake 



MARYLAND 

Interocean Oil Co Baltimore . 

Standard Oil Co. (N. J.) Baltimore . 

United States Asphalt Refining Co Baltimore . 

Prudential Oil Corporation Fairfield. . 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Massachusetts Oil Refining Co East Braintree . 

Beacon Oil Co Everett 

New England Oil Refining Co Fall River 



Daily 
Capacity 

2,000 

1,100 

5,000 

500 


Type of 
Plant 

S. & L. 
Skim. 
S. &C. 


500 




100 
2,000 


Skim. 


40,000 
3,000 


Comp. 


3,000 
3,600 
6,000 
1,000 
2,000 
20,000 
5.000 
7,000 


Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Lube 
Skim. 
S. & A. 
Skim. 
S. & A. 


250 




3,000 

10,000 

1,000 

2,000 

10,000 


Skim. 
S. & A. 
Skim. 
S. &L. 
Skim. 


1,800 
3,000 


Skim. 
Top. 






650 

1,000 

32,000 

3,000 

6,000 

5,000 
10,000 
20,000 


Skim. 

S. & L. 
Comp. 
Asphalt 
Comp. 

S. & A. 
Skim. 
S. & A. 



Pure Oil Co . 



MINNESOTA 
Minneapolis. 



MISSOURI 

Wilhoit Refining Co Joplin 

North American Oil & Refining Corporation . . Kansas City . 

Ranger Refining & Pipe Line Co Kansas City. 

St. Joseph Viscosity Oil Co St. Joseph . . . 

Standard Oil Co Sugar Creek . 



Montana Refining Co. 



MONTANA 
Billings. 



NEBRASKA 

Nicholas, L. V., Oil Co. (White Eagle) Omaha. 

Omaha Refining Co Omaha. 



1,000 



S. & L. 



1,000 


Skim. 


1,500 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


500 


Skim. 


2,000 


Comp. 



1,000 Skim. 



500 
1,000 



Skim. 



98 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

(Continued) 



COMPANY 



LOCATION 



Daily 
Capacity 



NEW JERSEY 

SUndardOi!Co.(N.J.) Bayonne 20.000 

V^^^Z^h^'^'oi^e. Yo..: ; :::::::::: |=e hoou: ; ; : : : 1.000 

Standard Oil Co. (N. J.) Jersey City 180.000 

ISriS'-M/. 1:.:: :::::::,: : m'S' ;, : :;:.::;::: |.»s 

Warner-Quinlan Co Warner -2,500 



NEW MEXICO 
Tucumcari . 



2.000 



Pecos Prod. & Refining Co. 

NEW YORK 

Standard Oil Co. of N. Y BrookI>Ti 

Standard Oil Co. of N. Y Brooklyn. ._ 

Standard Oil Co. of N. Y Long Island City 23,000 

Standard Oil Co. of N. Y Long Island City 

Standard Oil Co. of N. Y Buffalo 

Vacuum Oil Co Olean. 

Welbv-ille Refining Co . Wellsville 

OHIO 

Ohio Refining Co Cincinnati 

The Canfield Oil Co Cleveland 

Standard Oil Co. (Ohio) Cleveland 

Anderson & Gustafson. Inc Columbus 

National Refining Co Findlay 

The Pure Oil Co Heath 

The Craig Oil Co Ironville 

Solar Refining Co Lima 

National Refining Co Marietta 

Paragon Refining Co Toledo 

Standard Oil Co. (Ohio) Toledo 

Sun Co Toledo. 

Rajah Oil & Refining Co. . 



. Youngstown . 



OKLAHOMA 



Big Diamond Oil & Refining Co Addington. 

Harvey Crude Oil Co Allen 

Arbuckle Refining Co Ardmore . . 

CamfTon Refining Co. . Ardmore. . 

Chickasaw R<-fining Co Ardmore. . 

Imp«-ial Refining Co Ardmore. . 

The Pure Oil Co Ardmore . . 

Bigh« art Prod. & Refining Co Bigheart . 

r. U. & W. Oil & Gas Co .■ Blackwell 

Glo»H> Oil & Refining Co Blackwell. 

Modern Kefining Co Bladkwell . 

ProduriTH & Refiners C;orporation Blackwell. . 

TranHcontinental Oil Co Boynton 

lUim in liefining Co Bristow 

CarU-r Oil Co Cartoco 

American Oil & Tank Line Co. Cleveland 

Marland lU-fining Co Covington. 

AndcrHon & (iustafson, Inc. Cushing 

Bi.-ry OilCo... . . . ! Xushing! . ! 

Kmpire Ri-tinerieH, Inc. . Cushing 

IlllnoiHOilCo _ ..Cushing.. 

Inland Ki-tining (o Cushing 

Marigold Oil & ll»-fining Co. . Cushine 

Occident Oil & Refining Co. . Cush-ne ' 

Iw V"!;'; I 'i' ['.". . ;; Cushing ;: : 

ShafT.-r ( )i 1 & R.-fining Co . Cushin| 



Type of 
Plant 



Comp. 

Comp. 

S. &L. 

Comp. 
S. & A. 



4.000 


Comp. 


7.000 


Comp. 


1.000 


Wax 


1,200 


Skim. 


1,000 


Wax 


8.400 


Comp. 


400 


Skim. 


1.000 


Comp. 


3,000 


Skim. 


1,500 


Wax 


6,500 


Caomp. 


400 


Wax 


8,000 


Comp. 


3,000 


Comp. 


100 


S. & L. 


1,500 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


3,000 


Skim. 


7,500 


Skim. 


4,000 


Skim. 


7.000 


Skim. 


2,500 


S. &L. 


1,800 


S. &L. 


1,000 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


3,000 


S. &L. 


2.500 


Skim. 


15.000 


Skim. 


1,250 


Skm. 


1.000 


Skim. 


1,500 


Skim. 


1,800 


Skim. 


4,000 


Skim. 


2,500 


Skim. 


2,500 


Skim. 


2,0o0 


Skim. 


1,200 


Skim. 


6,500 


Skim. 


6,000 


Wax 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



99 



PETROLEUM 



COMPANY 



REFINERIES IN THE 
(Continued) 

LOCATION 
OKLAHOMA 



UNITED STATES. 



Daily 
Capacity 



Type of 
plant 



Sinclair Refining Co Cushing 6,500 Skim. 

Cyril Refining Co Cyril 600 Skim. 

Constantin Refining Co Devol 8,000 Skim. 

Beaver Petroleum Refining Co Dilworth Skim. 

Tidal Gasoline Co Drumright 

Duncan Refining Co Duncan 

Bolene Refining Co Enid 

Champlin Refining Co Enid 

Oil State Refining Co Enid 

Francis Oil & Refining Co Francis 

Frederick Oil & Refining Co Frederick 

Garber Refinery, Inc Garber 

Grandfield Oil & Refining Co Grandfield 

Oklahoma-Texas Refining Co Grandfield 

Union Oil & Refining Co Grandfield 

Rock Island Petroleum Co Guthrie 

Bay State Refining Co Heal dton 

Cogswell Refining Co Henryetta ■ . . . . 

Southern Refining Co Haskell 

Meridian Petroleum Corporation Hominy 

Great American Refining Co Jennings 

Republic Refining Co Jennings 

Damascus Refining & Manufacturing Co Lawton 

Lawton Refining Co Lawton 

Oklahoma Prod. & Refining Corp. of A Muskogee 

Sinclair Refining Co Muskogee 

Nyanza Refining Co New Wilson 

Choctaw Oil & Refining Co Oil City 

Cherokee Refining Co Oilton 

Cushing Petroleum Corporation Oilton 

Pirtle-Pitman Oil Co Oilkirk 

Atwood Refining Co Oklahoma City 

Choate Oil Corporation Oklahoma City 

Empire Refineries, Inc Oklahoma City 

Home Petroleum Co Oklahoma City 

Allied Refining Co Okmulgee 

Empire Refineries, Inc Okmulgee 

Indiahoma Refining Co Okmulgee 

Meridian Petroleum Co Okmulgee 

Phillips Higgrade Refining Co Okmulgee 

Oneta Refining Co Oneta 

Empire Refineries, Inc Ponca City 

Marland Refining Co Ponca City 

Meridian Petroleum Co Ponca City 

Osage Mutual Oil & Refining Co Pawhuska 

North American Oil & Refining Co Pemeta 

Bison Refinery Co Quay 

Mid-Continent Refining Co Ringling 

Chestnut & Smith Corporation Sand Springs 

Pierce Oil Corporation Sand Springs 

Big Six Prod. & Refining Co Sapulpa 

Pol ar Prod. & Gasoline Co Sapulpa 

Sapulpa Refining Co Sapulpa 

Constantin Refining Co Tulsa 

Consumers Oil & Refining Co Tulsa 

Cosden & Co Tulsa 25,000 

Mid-Co Gasoline Tulsa 

Pan American Refining Co Tulsa 

The Texas Co Tulsa 

Tidal Gasoline Co Tulsa 

Sin-lair Refining Co Vinita 10,000 

Blue Ribbon Oil & Refining Co Walters 

Li vingston Refiners Corporation Walters 3,000 Skim. 

Southern Oi 1 Corporation Walters 1,500 

Canfield Refining Co Yale 500 Skim. 

Home Oil Refining Co. of Texas Yale 2,000 Skim. 



2,500 


Skim. 


1,000 




2,000 


Skim. 


8,000 


Skim. 


1,800 


Skim. 


1,000 




600 


Skim. 


800 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


1,200 


Skim. 


2,000 




1,500 


Skim. 


1,000 


Lube. 


2.000 




1,000 


Skim. 


800 


Skim. 


4,000 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


2,000 


Wax 


600 


S. & L. 


3,500 


Skim. 


50 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


1,000 


S. & L. 


2,000 


S. & L. 


2,000 


Skim. 


2,500 


Skim. 


1,000 


S. & L. 


2,500 


Wax 


10,000 


Skim. 


3,000 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


1,500 


S. &L. 


2,500 


Wax 


5,000 


Wax 


2,000 


S. & L. 


1,000 


Skim. 


1,500 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


5,000 


Skim. 


9,000 


Wax 


800 


Skim. 


1,500 


Skim. 


7,500 


S. & L. 


4,000 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


25,000 


Wax 


4,000 


S. & L. 


5,000 


Skim. 


8,000 


S. & L. 


1,200 


Skim. 


10,000 


S. & L. 



100 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

(Continued) 



COMPANY 



LOCATION 



OKLAHOMA 

„ o . ^ Yalp 2,000 

Ok-In Prod. & Refining Co i.a e 

Pawnee Bill Oil & Refining Co ^a'e 

Southern Oil Corporation ^ale 



The Sun Oil Co. 



Yale 



Victor Refining Co Yale 

Worth Oil & Refining Co ^a e 

Yale Oil Corporation ''ale 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Emery Manufacturing Co 5''^ j^°''4 

Kendall Refining Co Bradford^ 

Chippewa Oil Co Bndgewater 

Butler County Oil Refining Co 5''")" 

Valvoline Oil Works, Ltd Mj* "" J 

Interior Oil & Gas Corporation Clarendon 

Levi Smith Refining Co Clarendon 

Tiona Refining Co Clarendon 

White Oil Corporation Clarendon 

The Canfield Oil Co Coraopolis 

Glenshaw Development Co Coraopolis 

Pittsburgh Oil Refining Corporation Coraopolis 

Vulcan Oil Refining Co Coraopolis 

Pennsylvania Oil Products Refining Co Eldred 

Emlenton Refining Co Emlenton 

Atlantic Refining Co Franklin 

Foco Oil Co Franklin 

Franklin Quality Refining Co Franklin 

Freedom Oi 1 Works Co Freedom 

Pann. Refining Co ... Karns City 

SUrlight Refining Co Karns City 

Conewango Refining Co Langdale and Warren. 

Pure Oil Co Marcus Hook 

Sun Company Marcus Hook 

The Texas Co Marcus Hook 

Island Petroleum Co Neville Island 

Atlantic Refining Co Oak Grove 

Continental Refining Co Oil City 

Independent Refining Co Oil City 

Penn-American Refining Co Oil City 

W. H. Daugherty & Son Refining Co Petrolia 

Petrolia Refining Co Petrolia 

Atlantic Refining Co Philadelphia 

Atlantic Refining Co Pittsburgh 

A. I). Miller Sons Co Pittsburgh 

Waverly Oil Works Co Pittsburgh 

Empire Oil Works Reno... . 

CryHUl Oil Works Rouseville 

Penn. American Refining Co. . '. Rouseville 

Ea«U-rn Oil Refining Co Russell. . 

AmiMT Oil & Realty Co Stoneham 

Tidiouli' Refining f'o Tidioute. 



American Oil Works 
Oi'W lycvick fo . 
Oil CrM-k Refining Co 
TItUHvilleOil Works 
Crew U-vick Co. . . 
Mutual Refining Co 
Svni-ca Oil Works 
Pure Oil Co 
SutMTior Oil Works. 
United Refining Co. 
Warren Refining Co 
Warr-I'enn Refining Co 



Titusville.. 
Titus vi lie.. 
Titusville.. 
Tutusville . 
Warren . . . 
Warren . . . 
Warren. . . 
Warren. . . 
Warren . . . 
Warren . . . 
Warren . . . 
Warren. . . 



WllbUrine Oil Works, Ltd [ \ \ ■.Warren 



Daily 


Type of 


Capacity 


Plant 


2,000 
1,000 




Skim. 


6,000 


Skim. 


5,000 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


100 


Lube 


1,200 


Skim. 


1,200 


Wax 


650 


Wax 


200 


S. &L. 


1,000 


Wax 


1,000 


Wax 


300 


S. &L. 


1,050 


S. &L. 


1,000 


Wax 


1,000 


S. &L. 


400 


S. &L. 


600 


Skim. 


1,000 


Wax 


850 


Wax 


1,000 


Wax 


600 


Wax 


6,500 


Comp. 


600 


S. &L. 


700 


S. &L. 


1,500 


Wax 


100 


Skim. 


100 


Skim. 


1,400 


S. &L. 


3,000 


Comp. 


10,000 


S. L. & A 


5,000 


Asphalt 


1,000 


Was 


200 


Skim. 


750 


Wax 


1,000 


Wax 


3,000 


Wax 


200 


Skim. 


30 


Skim. 


50,000 


Domp. 


4,000 


Wax 


1,000 


S. &L. 


800 


Lube. 


600 


Wax 


1,000 


W^ax 


3,000 


Wax 


400 


S. &L. 


75 


Skim. 


600 


S. &L. 


800 


S. &L. 


2,000 


Wax 


1,000 


S. &L. 


1,000 


S. &L. 


935 


Wax 


500 


S. &L. 


560 


Wax 


1,500 


Wax 


400 


Wax 


800 


Wax 


1,700 


Wax 


400 


S. & L. 


600 


Wax 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



101 



PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



COMPANY 



(Continued) 

LOCATION 



RHODE ISLAND 

Standard Oil Co. of N. Y East Providence. 

The Texas Co Providence 



SOUTH CAROLINA 
Standard Oil Co. (N. J.) Charleston. . 



TENNESSEE 
Victor Refining & Distributing Co Nashville 

TEXAS 

General Oil & Refining Co Abilene 

Allen Reese S. Refining Co Amarillo 

Humble Oil & Refining Co Baytown 

Magnolia Petroleum Co Beaumont. . . . 

World Refining Co Bridgeport. . . . 

Baney Refining Corporation Brownwood. . . 

Brownwood Refining Co Brownwood. . . 

Carson Refining Co Brownwood. . . 

Freeport Gas Co Bryanmound . . 

Bear Refining Co Burkburnett . . 

Burk-Tex. Refining & Pipe Lin Co Burkburnett. . 

Crystal Petroleum & Refining Co Burkburnett. . 

Invader Oil & Refining Co. of Texas Burkburnett. . 

Manhattan Oil Refining Co Burkburnett. . 

Chas. F. Noble Oil & Gas Co Burkburnett. 

Nortex Refining Co Burkburnett . . 

Taxoil Refining Co Burkburnett . . 

Tidal- Western Oil Corporation Burkburnett. . 

Uniform Gasoline & Petroleum Co Burkburnett. . 

Victor Refining Co Burkburnett . . 

Liberty Refining Co Cisco 

Keen & Woolf Oil Co Clinton 

Magnolia Petroleum Co Corsicana .... 

Aetna Petroleum Corporation Dallas 

Hercules Petroleum Co Dallas 

Sun Rise Refining Co DeLeon 

Dublin Oil & Refining Co Dublin 

Keystone Refining Co Dublin 

Keystone Refining Co Dublin 

Rex Refining Co DeLeon 

General Oil & Refining Co Eastland 

Beavers-Electra Refining Co Electra 

Waggoner Refining Co Electra 

Rio Grande Oil Co El Paso 

Gulf Refining Co Fort Worth. . . 

Home Oil Refining Co. of Texas Fort Worth. . . 

Magnolia Petroleum Co Fort Worth. . . 

Montrose Oil Refining Co., Inc Fort Worth. . . 

Ok-In Prod. & Refining Co Fort Worth. . . 

Pierce Oil Corporation Fort Worth. . . 

Souther Oil & Refining Co Fort Worth. . . 

Star Refining & Prod. Co Fort Worth . . . 

Texas-Arizona Petroleum Co Fort Worth. . . 

Texas Eagle Oil & Ref. Co., Inc Fort Worth . . . 

Transcontinental Oil Co Fort Worth. . . 

White Eagle Oil & Refining Co Fort Worth. . . 

Empires Refineries, Inc Gainesville . . . 

The Texas Co Gater 

Gorman Home Refinery Gorman 

State Refining Association Grand Prairie. 

North Texas Oil & Refining Co Greenville . . . . 

Beacon Refining Co Henrietta 

Galena Signal Oil Co. of Texas Houston 

Transatlantic Petroleum Co Houston 

Deepwater Oil Refineries Houston 

Burk Pipe Line & Refining Co Iowa Park. . . . 



Daily 
Capacity 



10,000 
5,000 



500 



Type of 
Plant 



Skim. 
Asphalt 



10,000 Skim 



Skim. 



3,000 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


10,000 


S. & L. 


25,000 


Comp. 


500 




500 


Skim. 


200 


Skim. 


400 


Skim. 


5,000 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


4,000 




600 


Skim. 


1,500 


Skim. 


3,500 


Skim. 


5,000 


Skim. 


1,200 


Skim. 


300 


Skim. 


1,500 


Skim. 


4,000 


Top. 


1,500 


Skim. 


4,000 


Skim. 


750 


Top. 


2,000 


Skim. 


2,500 


Skim. 


3,500 


S. ;L. 


700 




2,500 


Skim. 


1,000 


Skim. 


5,000 




1,500 




2,000 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


1,500 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


5,000 


Skim. 


5,000 


Skim. 


10,000 


Skim. 


4,000 


Skim. 


5,000 




8,000 


S. &L. 


1,000 




1,000 


Skim. 


4,000 




5,000 




5,000 


S. &L. 


5,000 


S. & L. 


10,000 


Skim. 


15,000 


Skim. 


2,000 


Skim. 


1,200 


Skim. 


2,500 


Skim. 


3,000 


S. &L. 


1,000 


Jube. 


1,000 


Lube. 


2,500 


Skim. 



102 



BULLETIN NUMB ER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

(Continued) 






COMPANY 



LOCATION 



Daily 
Capacity 



Type of 
Plant 



TEXAS 

Walker consolidated Petroleum Co Iowa Pfrk. 

K. M. A. Refining Co KM A. Held. . 

Golden Star Refining Co Mex a 

Texas-Mexia Refining Co VJ V ■^:,:„t ' 

L Porte Oil Refining Co Morgan s Po nt , 

•^ (^o Morgan s Point. 



Pa-Tex Petroleum Co '<i ^ AZ^X^li 

Carolina Oil Co Nacogodoches 



Mogul Prod. & Refining Co 9'^^^^^ \ 

Orienul Oil Co ^ °"?u^' 

Panther City Oil & Refining Co Panther 

Port Houston Oil & Refining Co Pasadena 

White Oil Corporation E^^? * "I 

Gulf Refining Co Port Arthur 

The Texas Co Port Arthur . . . 

Turnbow Oil Corporation Port Houston . . 

The Texas Co Port Neches 

Consolidated Prod. & Refining Co Ranger 

Ranger Refining & Pipe Line Co Ranger 

Great Eastern Oil & Refining Co Riverside 

Great Texas Oil & Refining Co Saginaw 

Southern Refining Co San Antonio .... 

Gravburg Oil Co San Antonio 

Humble Oil & Refining Co San Antonio . 

Elliott Jones & Co., Inc San Antonio. 

Mogul Prod. & Refining Co San Jacinto 

Buffalo Oil & Refining Co Sherman 

Rex Oil & Refining Co Sweetwater 

Sinclair Refining Co Sinco (Houston). 

Farmers Oil & Refining Co Texarkana 

Four States Refining Co Texarkana 

Pierce Oil Corporation Texas City 

Thrall Oil Refining Co Thrall 

Ranger Refining & Pipe Line Co Tiffin 

Toyah Oil & Refinery Co Toyah 

Waco Refining Co Waco 

Ti-xa.s f)il Products Co W^axahachie . . . . 

W<'alhi-rford Refining Co Weatherford . . 

American Refining Co Wichita Falls . . . 

Bankers Petroleum & Refining Co Wichita Falls . 

Mears Gasoline Co Wichita Falls. . . 

Ix)ne Star Refining Co Wichita Falls. . . 

Miller Petroleum Co Wichita Falls. . . 

New Tex Refining Co Wichita Falls. . . 

I'anhandle Refining Co Wichita Falls . . . 

powf-r Oil Refining Co Wichita Falls. . 

KangiT-Wirhita Oil & Refining Co Wichita Falls. 

SduthwesU-rn prod. & Refining Co Wichita Falls. . . 

Sunxhine Slate Oil & Refining Co Wichita Falls. 

Texhoma Oil & Refining Co Wichita Falls . 



t'lah Oil Refining Co. 
Dixie Oil Co 



UTAH 

. . North Salt Lake. 
. . .Virgin 



3,000 

1,250 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

350 

400 

3,000 

2,400 

2,000 

200 

3,000 

65,00 

40,000 

'15,666 

3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
3,000 

500 
1,800 
2,000 
4,000 

600 

500 
1,000 
5,000 
2,000 

400 
3,000 

300 

1,500 

50 

2,500 

500 
5,000 
1,000 
2,000 
3,500 
2,500 
1,500 
5,500 
1,500 
3,000 
1,000 
2,500 
2,500 



4,000 
50 



The Texan f'o 



Th.- pur., on 
U art,, r i^iilnlan Co 
I.Ik Itiliiung Co , 
Sluiidurd Oil (U,. (N. J.i 
Ohio Valley iteflning Co 



VIRGINIA 
Norfolk. 



WEST VIRGINIA 

Cabin Creek Junction. 

Cairo 

Falling Rock 
Parkersburg 
St. Mary's 



Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Lube. 

Skim. 

Wax 

Lube. 

Comp. 

Comp. 

Asphalt 

Skim. 

Skim! . .' '. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 

Skim. 
Skim. 
S. & L. 

Skim. 
Wax 
Skim. 
Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 



Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 
Skim. 



Wax 



5,000 Asphalt 



3,000 


Wax 


500 


Skim. 


1,000 


S. &L. 


2,200 


Wax 


1,000 


Wax 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



103 



PETROLEUM 



COMPANY 



REFINERIES IN THE 

(Concluded) 

LOCATION 
WYOMING 



UNITED STATES. 



Daily 
Capacity 



Midwest Refining Co Casper ^^-^^^ 

Standard Oil Co. (Ind.) Casper 

Northwestern Oil Refining Co Cowley 

Wyatt Oil & Refining Co Fetterman 

Mutual Refining & Prod. Co Glenrock 

Midwest Refining Co Greybull 

■Wind River Refining Co Lander 

Standard Oil Co. (Ind.) Laramie , 

Midwest Refining Co Laramie 

Lovell Refinery Lovell 

McWhorter Oil & Refining Co Lusk 

McWhorter Oil & Refining Co Osage 

Alliance Oil & Refining Co Thermopolis 



8,100 

1,000 

500 

2,500 

10,000 

900 

1,700 

5,000 

500 

250 

250 

1,000 



Type of 
Plant 



Wax 

S. & C. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Slim. 

Skim- 

S. & ^■ 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Skim. 

Top. 



PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN CANADA. 



COMPANY 



LOCATION 



Imperial Oil Co. (L) Dartsmouth, N. 

Imperial Oil Co. (L) loco, B. C 

Imperial Oil Co. (L) Montreal , Que . 

Calgary Petroleum Products, Ltd Okotoks, Alt. . . 

Canada Southern Oil & Refining Co Okotoks, Alt. . . 

Southern Alberta Ref ., Ltd Okotoks, Alt 

Canadian Oil Companies, Ltd. (L) Petrolia, Ont. . . 

Canadian Oil Prod. & Ref. Co. (L) Petrolia, Ont. . . 

British Columbia Refining Co Moody, B.C.. 

Continental Oil Co Regina, Sask. . . 

Imperial Oil Co. (L) Regina, Sask . . . 

Imperial Oil Co. (L) Sarnia, Ontario. 

British-American Oil Co. (L) Toronto 

Great Lakes Oil & Ref. Co Wallaceburg . . . 

North Star Oil & Ref. Co Winnipeg 



Daily 
Capacity 

3,000 

3,500 

2,500 

30 

25 

30 

800 

150 

500 



2,500 

20,000 

800 

250 

1000 



PETROLEUM REFINERIES IN MEXICO. 



COMPANY 



LOCATION 



Atlantic Refining Co Port Lobos 

(Cia. Refinadores y Productori de Petroleo La Atlantica). 

Texas Company Port Lobos 

Mexican Eagle Co., Ltd Puerto Minatitlan 

(Isthmus of Tehaun tepee.) 

La Corona Petroleum Co Tampico 

Mexican Eagle Oil Co., Ltd Tampico 

Pierce Oil Corporation Tampico 

Huasteca Petroleum Co Tampico 

Standard Oil Co. (N. J.) Tampico 

Texas Company Tampico 

Mexican Eagle Oil Co., Ltd Tuxpan 

Pierce Oil Corporation. . . . Vera Cruz 



Daily 
Capacity 

10,000 



15,000 

6,000 

■12,.500 

10,000 

60,000 

6,000 

6,000 

5,000 

2,500 



104 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The producing, distributing and marketing organizations owned 
and controlled by the Royal Dutch-Shell oil combine: (Oil, Paint, Drug 
Reporter) 

1. Acetylene Gas and Benzine Maat. 

2 Alliance Co. (Mexico). 

Operates 16,000 acres held in dispute by Mexican Eagle and Mexican Petro- 
leum (Doheny) companies. 

3 Anglo-Mexican Petroleum Co., Ltd. (London). 

Marketers for Mexican Eagle and Eagle Transport Co.; hence now closely 
related to Shell-Dutch. Markets in Central and South American and British 
Isles. 

4. Anglo-Egj'ptian Oilfields, Ltd. (Egypt). 

July 6, 1911. $6,561,000. Managed by Anglo-Saxon. 

5. Anglo-Persian Oil Co. (Persia). 

Marketing agreement until 1922 with Dutch-Shell. 

6. Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co., Ltd. (London). 
June 29, 1907. $38,880,000. 

7. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (Ceylon). 

Refiners, distributors, June 29, 1903. $9,720,000. 

8. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (Ceylon). 

Refiners, distributors, carriers. Nov. 13, 1917. $972,000. 

9. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (Egypt). 

Property acquired from Anglo-Saxon. March 25, 1911. $972,000. 

10. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (Federated Malay States). 

Feb. 29, 1911. $243,000. Property acquired from Anglo-Saxon. 

11. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (North China). 
Aug. 11, 1913. From Anglo-Saxon. $2,430,000. 

12. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (India). 

Property acquired from Anglo-Saxon. $2,673,000. 

13. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (Philippine Islands). 
Registered Jan. 30, 1914. $72,900. 

14. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (Siam). 

Aug. 11, 1913. From Anglo-Saxon. $364,500. 

15. Asiatic Petroleum Co (South China). 

Property acquired from Anglo-Saxon. Aug. 11, 1913. $1,701,000. 

16. Asiatic Petroleum Co., Ltd. (Straits Settlements). 
Feb. 28, 1911. From Anglo-Saxon. $1,215,000. 

17. Astra Romana Societe Anonyme (Rumania). 

Geconsolidceerde HoUandsche Maat. is heavily interested. $13,027,500. 

18. Astra Refining Co. (Rumania)). $960,000. 

19. Atjan Mining Co. (Sumatra). 

20. ISataafche Petroleum Maatschappij (Holland). 
Jan. 1, 1907. Anglo-Saxon, managers. $56,000,000. 

21. Belgian Benzine Co. $100,000. 

22. Benzine Lagerungs Geselschaft (Blexien). $121,500. 

23. Benzine Lagerungs Geselschaft (Breslau). $12,150. 

24. B.-nzine Lagerungs Geselschaft (Hamburg). $7,000. 
26. B.-nzlne Lagerungs Geselschaft (Madgeburg). $85,050. 

26. Hi-nzlnwerke Regensburg Geselschaft. $170,000. 

27. Btnzlnwerke Rhenania (Dusseldorf). $204 120 

-*■ .!;''T,'""'^!? ^'°' V**^- (Venezuela). Sub. of General Asphalt Co. 
•Bolivar (.oncesalons (1917), Ltd. (Venezuela) 

not"rpa't o" rheTu'tch%°hi,r|?Srp"°"^' '^*^- °"'^- ^ ^""^^'^ °^ ''''""' "''' 
Jirltlah-Amerlcan Oil Co. (Toronto). 



29 



30 
31 
32 

11 l/".'.*^"^'-', "'^^",""-" Tom Angio-.Saxon, Aug. 7, 1912. $97 200 

''• AUK 1" TsT'" ^n'"°-.^'^- 4^°"'^ ^f'-*<=a 
u ifi K i.r . ^""^ Anglo-Saxon, $4S,600, 




3&. 
36. 
37. 



v!il'A """"•"'• ^'^- <I^'^"idated). (Shell Company of California.) 
Caribbean Potroloum Syndicate, Ltd. (Venezuela^ 
Own.-,l Jointly by General Asphalt and Dutch^Shel 



-SheU. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 105 



38. Ceram Oil Syndicate, Ltd. (Island of Cerani). (Dutch-Shell.) $972,000. 

39. Ceram Petroleum Co. (Dutch East Indies). (Dutch-Shell.) 

40. Chijoles Oil, Ltd. (Mexico). (See Tampico Panuco Oilfiilds, Ltd.) 
$972,000. Tampico Panuco Petroleum Maat. 

41. Cleophane Oil & Gas Company (Oklahoma). (Liquidated.) 

42. *Colon Development Co., Ltd. (Venezuela). 

Friendly to, but probably not as yet a part of the group. $486,000. 

43. Commercial & Mining Company (London). $48,600. 

44. Curacoa Petroleum Co. $1,600,000. 

45. Curacoasche Scheepvaart Maatschappij (Island of Curacoa). 
Sept., 1916. Subsidiary of Bat. Peet. Maat. $800,000. 

46. Danske Engelske Benzin Petroleum Akt. (Denmark). $135,000. 

47. Danske Tyske Petroleum Company, Ltd. (Denmark). $240,000. 

48. Dordlsche Petroleum Maatschappij. 

Dutch-Shell selling and refining agency in Dutch East Indies. $12,000,000. 
49.- Eagle Oil Transport Company. Ltd. (Tank steamers for Mexican crude and 
fuel. Now related to Dutch-Shell through Mexican-Eagle purchase.) 

50. East Borneo Maat. (Borneo). $883,600. 

51. Ernste Bayerische Petroleum Geselschaft. $346,500. 

52. Finnische Petroleum Import, Geselschaft (Finland). 

53. Geconsolidceerde Hollandsche Petroleum Co. (Holland). 

Interested in .\stra Romana, and Dutch-Shell companies are largely inter- 
ested in it. Jan., 1907. $9,600,000. 

54. General Asphalt Company, U. S. A. (Trinidad and Venezuela). 
$31,000,000. (The Dutch-Shell controls the petroleum production of all of 
this company's Trinidad and Venezuela holdings, but is apparently not inter- 
ested in its asphalt business). 

55. Gravenhag Association ^London). (Liquidated.) 

56. Grozny-Sundja Oil Fields, Ltd. (Russia). 

Managed by Anglo-Saxon. SI, 438, 000. March 31, 1913. 

57. Helouan Petroleum Co. (Liquidted.) $243,000. 

58. Java Petroleum Co. (Liquidated.) $280,000. 

59. Kasbee Syndicate, Ltd. (Russia). $6,240,000. 

60. Koetei Exploratie Maat. $520,000. 

61. Koninkliijke Nederlandsche ilaatschappij tot Exploitatie van Petroleum in 
Nederlandsche Indie. 

Incorporated. Holland, June 16, 1890, and amalgamated with Shell Transport 
& Trading Co., Ltd., as from Jan. 1, 1907. $60,700,000. (Royal Dutch.) 

62. King Oil Company (Oklahoma). (Liquidated.) 

63. La Corona Petroleum Maatschappiji (Holland). 

- To consolidate Dutch-Shell interests in Mexico. $10,000,000. Steamships. 

64. La Corona Petroleum Company (Mexico). 

65. Lubricating & Fuel Oils, Ltd. (London). $486,000. 

66. Mexican Eagle Oil Co., Ltd. (Mexico). $30,000,000. 

67. Mineralol & Benzine Werke (Rhenia). $240,000. 

68. Mineralolwerke (Rhena nia). 

69. Moeara Enim (Sumatra). $4,000,000. 

70. Moesillir (Sumatra). $3,840,000. 

71. Nederlandsche-Indische Eploration Syndicate. 

72. Nederland-Indische Industrie and Handel. Maat. 
Anglo-Saxon, manager. $8,000,000. Blaik Papes, Koete. 

73. Nederlandsche-Indische Petroleum Maat. $144,000. 

74. Nederlandsche-Indische Tank Stoom-boot Company. 
Anglo-Saxon and B. P. M., managers. $1,200,000. 

75. New Orleans Refining Co., Roxana Petroleum Corporation. $40n,000. 

76. New Schibaieff Petroleum Co., Ltd. (South Russia). 
$5,637,000. Anglo-Saxon is manager. 

77. Norske Engelske Mineral Oil Akt. (Norway). $147,420. 

78. North Caucasian Oil Fields, Ltd. (Grosny, South Russia). 
Jan. 29, 1901. Anglo-Saxon, manager. $3,645,000. 

79. Nouvelie Societe du Standard Russe de Grosny. (Dutch-Shell.) $6,240,000 

80. Oilfields of Mexico Company. 

Marketing and shipping obligations with Mexican Eagle. $8,500,000. 

81. Panama Canal Storage Company. 



106 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



82. Petroleum Development Co., Ltd. (Trinidad). 

Subsidiary of General Asphalt Co. 
S3. Puova Oil Company (Oklahoma). (Roxana Corporation.) 

84. Periak Petroleum Maatschappij (North Sumatra). Dutch-Shell. 4,000,000. 

85. Quintuple Oil Company (Oklahoma). Roxana Corporation. (Liquidated.) 

86. Regatul-Roman. $4,632,000. 

87. Rising Sun Petroleum Company (Japan). $2,000,000. 

88. Red Sea Oilfields, Ltd. (Liquidated.) $2,187,000. 

89 Roxana Petroleum Corporation (New Jersey). 

Holding company for Mid-Continent and Wyoming propertie.s. $60,000,000. 
Mar. S. 1917. 

90 Roxana Petroleum Company of Oklahoma. Roxana Petroleum Corporation. 
$8,000,000. 1914. 

91. Sarawak Brunei (Borneo). 

92. Sebatik Petroleum Maat. $800,000. 

93. Shanghai Langkat Maat. (Sumatra). $1,095,000. 

94. Shell Company of Canada. $243,000. 

95. Shell Company of California. 

To consolidate Dutch-Shell interests in California. $45,000,000. July, 1915. 

96. •'.Shell" Marketing Company, Ltd. (London). 
Marketing in United Kingdom. $7,290,000. 

97. Shell Transport & Trading Company, Ltd. (London). 

Registered Oct. 18, 1887, as a transporter and marketer of oil. Amalgamated 
with the Royal Dutch as from Jan. 1, 1907. $111,880,000. 

98. Signal Oil Company (Oklahoma). (Roxana Corporation.) (Liquidated.) 

99. Simplex Refining Company (California). 

100. Soclete Commerciale et Industrielle de Eaphte Caspienne et de la Mer Noire 
(Russia). (Rothschilds.) Feb., 1912. $5,200,000. Dutch-Shell. 

101. Societa Anonima Italiana. $291,000. 
101-a. Societa Nafta (Genoa). 

102. Societe de Mazout (Russia). Dutch-Shell, (Rothschilds.) 
Feb., 1912. $12,000,000. 

103. Sumatra Palembang (Sumatra). $2,800,000. 

104. Sumatra Petroleum Company. (Liquidated.) $1,458,000. 

105. Svensk Engelske Mineral Oil Akt. (Sweden). $540,000. 

106. Tampico-Panuco Oil Fields, Ltd. (Mexico). Held by the Tampico-Panuco 
Petroleum Maat., which in turn is held the Bat. Pet. Maat. $1,550,000. Dec, 
1916. 

107. Tampico-Panuco Petroleum Maatschappij (Holland). Holds the Tampico- 
Panuco Oilfield!?, Ltd., the Chijol Oil, Ltd., and the Tampico-Panuco Valley 

Railway Co. $2,880,000. 
lOS. Tampico-Panuco Valley Railway Company (Mexico). (See above.) 

109. Tatakan Petroleum Companj- (?). $1,560,000. 

110. Trinidad Lake Petroleum Company, Ltd, .A. subsidiary of the General Asphalt 
Company. All oil production controlled bv Dutch-Shell. 

111. Trinidad Oilfields, Ltd. Assets taken over by United Britain Oilfields of 

Irinidad, Ltd. Aug., 1913. $1,940,000. 

"'• T-",'"P^'L'-"' t^onipany (California). Bought out by Shell of California. 
$:>00,000. 

113. United British Oilfields of Trinidad, Ltd. Managed by the United British 
West Indies Petroleum Syndicate, Ltd. $3,152,000. July 1 1913 

114. l^nit.-d British Producing Company, Ltd. (Trinidad). Managed by the United 
Hrlti.-ih West Inilies Petroleum Syndicate, Ltd. $1,458 000 

11;,. United Briti-sh Refineries, Ltd. (Trinidad). Managed by United British West 

Indies Petroleum Syndicate, Ltd. $486,000 
116. l.-nlled British \yest Indies Petroleum Syndicate, Ltd. (West Indies British 
.ulana or .Isewhere) Anglo-Saxon Company heavily interested along with 
11- !"','*"''mah and Anglo-Persian crowd. July 18, 1912. $972,000. 

.;''.''!.;'?''/.*"„?" Corporation Ltd. 10,000 square miles on northeastern sea- 
ii« vi 1 V. i.it. n'^'*'?> ^^''^ April 15, 1910. $4,860,000. Looks like Dutch-Shell, 
$10,000,000 Company (California). (Dutch-Shell of California.) 

*'"■ h'.'tr,h!^'er«°i'„r^^rT?l°'^V^*'^- Dutch-Shell financially interested, and to 
i-jn {;••"''""»'''''•« for at least 15 years from 1915. $2,430,000. 
120, Ver.-lgntf Henzlnfabriken Ces, $21 870 

'"'■ f^mU "t'so^'ooo"""'' '^^"f""""'*)- Liquidated and owned by Shell of Cali- 

1": zS[.?'^trM"a;t^°('?uTa^ra)^.^T60roo^^'^ Corporation.) $10,000,000. 

•Not a part of the combine— associated by marketing or other agreements. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 107 



STANDARD OIL GROUP. 
Refiners and Marketers. 

Company Capitalization Market Price Market Value 

Anglo-American $15,000,000 25 $ 75,000,000 

Atlantic Refining 5,000,000 1350 67,000,000 

Borne-Scrymser 200,000 500 1,000,000 

Chesebrough Mfg ; 1,500,000 310 4,650,000 

Continental Can 3.000,000 655 19,650,000 

Galena Signal, 2d pfd 6,000,000 107 6,420,000 

Galena Signal Oil, 1st pfd 2,000,000 125 2.500,000 

'alena Signal, common 16,000,000 13S 22,080,000 

nternational Pet 6,265,000 31 38,844,000 

Solar Refining 2,000,000 370 7,400,000 

S. O. of California 99,373,310 2S2 280,282,706 

S. O. of Indiana 30,000,000 800 240,000,000 

'S. O. of Kansas 2,000,000 600 12,000,000 

S. O. of Kentucky . 6.000,000 400 24,000,000 

S. O. of Nebraska 1,000,000 550 5,500,000 

S. O. of New Jersey 98,338.300 710 698,201,930 

S. O. of New York 75,000.000 382 286,500,000 

S. O. of Ohio 7.000,000 525 36,750,000 

Swan & Finch 1,450,000 100 1,450,000 

Vacuum Oil 15,000,000 440 66,000,000 

Midwest Refining Co. (Wyoming) ... 



Producing Companies. 

Ohio Oil Company $15,000,000 

Prairie Oil & Gas Company 18,000,000 

South West Penn 20,000,000 

Washington Oil 100,000 

Carter Oil Co 25,000,000 



Pipe Lines and Carriers. 

Buckeye Pipe Line $10,000,000 100 $ 20.000,000 

Crescent Pipe Line 3,000,000 36 2,160,000 

Cumberland Pipe Line 1,488,851 200 2,977,6(J0 

Eureka Pipe Line 5,000,000 167 8,320,000 

Illinois Pipe Line 20,000,000 184 36,800,000 

Indiana Pipe Line 5,000,000 105 10,500,000 

National Transit 6,362,500 22 11,198,000 

New York Transit Company 5.000,000 185 9,250,000 

Northern Pipe Line 4,000,000 112 4,480,000 

Prairie Pipe Line 27,000,000 300 81,000,000 

Southern Pipe Line 10,000,000 165 16,500,000 

South West Penn 3,500,000 100 3.500,000 

Union Tank Line 12,000,000 130 15,600,000 

Total market values all companies $2,486,214,236 

Market value refining and marketing companies 1,834,928,630 

Market value producing companies 429,000,000 

Market value pipe line and carrying companies 222,282,600 



386 


$231,000,000 


750 


135,000,000 


313 


62,600,000 


40 


400,000 



108 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



DIRECTORY OF OIL ASSOCIATIONS. 

■n- =,»rn PPtroleum Refiners' Association— President, W. D. Richardson Meridian 
Petroreum Co^p. 324 Rialto Bldg.. Kansas City, Mo.; Secretary. H. O. James, 
800 Republic Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 

Kansas Oil Mens Association— Presidtnt, John .S Longshore care Sunllower Oil & 

lupply Co!, Topeka, Kas. ; Secretary, H. F. Bagby. Wichita. Has. 
American Independent Petroleum Association— President, L. V. Nicholas. Nicholas 

Bldg, Omaha; Nebr.; Secretary, H. F. Reynolds, 14 East Jackson Blvd., 

Chicago, 111. , „ ^ t,. 

Oklahoma Oil Jobbers' Association— President, D. L. Gilland, 118 \V est 6th bt., 
Oklahoma ^^\^;'."gppretary, John E. Hutchens. Box 811, Enid. Okla. 
Independent Oil Men's Association— President, T. J. Gay, Gay Oil Co Little Rock, 

Ark° Secretary, E. E. Grant, 110 South Dearborn St., Chicago. 111. 
Texas Oil Jobbers' Association— President, D. E. Little, Fort Worth, Tex.; Secre- 
tary, Albert W. Wolters, Taylor, Texas. 
Minnesota Petroleum Club— Secretary, W. B. Cline, care Manhattan Oil Products 

Co.. St. Paul. Minn. 
Nebraska Independent Oil Mens Association— President, T. Wilbur Thornhill, 

Charleston Oil Co., Charleston, S. C. 
Southern Petroleum Dealers' Association — President, L. V. Nicholas, Howard and 

17th St., Omaha, Nebr.; Secretary, D. C. Patterson. Camden, S. C. 
South Dakota Oil Jobbers' Association — President, H. L. Freeman. Lake Park 

Corp.. Sioux Falls. S. D 
New Mexico Petroleum Association — Address, Allison Bldg.. Roswell, N. M. 
Independent Oil Marketers' Association — President. W. L. Moore, Dixie Oil & 

Grease Co., Atlanta, Ga. 
Louisiana Petroleum Refiners' Association — President, I. G. Abney. Louisana Oil 

Refining Corporation, Shieveport, La.; Secretary, E. F. Buchanan, Crichton 

Refining Co., Crichton, La. 
Wisconsin Independent Oil Men's Association — President, S. G. Hastings, Jr., Bark- 

housen Oil Co., Green Bay, Wis. 
Indiana Oil Jobbers' Association — President, Paul Moorehead, Moorehead Oil Co.. 

Hammond. Ind. ; Vice-President, F. C. Enz, Evansville; Secretary, Russell 

Galloway, Hammond. 

Arkansas-Tennessee OH Jobbers' Association — -President, T. G. Gay, Gay Oil Co., 
Little Rock, Ark. 

Central West Oil Men's Association — Bowling Green, Ky. — President, Edward R. 
List; Secretary, F. L. Reeves. 

Kentucky Oil Men's Association — Lexington, Ky. — President, Albert R. Marshall; 
Secretary, E. E. Loomis. 

Central New York Oil Jobbers' Association — Syracuse, X. Y. — President, Alfred M. 
Cady, Syracu.se. N. Y. ; Secretary, W. D. Metzger, Syracuse, N. Y. 

MI<l-Contlnent Oil & Gas Association — 213-14 Kennedy Bldg., Tulsa, Okla. — Presi- 
dent. W. N. Davis; Secretary-Counsel. Harry H. Smith. 

''""r-^-'^"*'''' ""'^ Louisiana Oil & Gas Association — 14 Rossonian Bldg.. Houston, 
Texas — President, W. S. Parish; Vice-President, I. R. Bordages; Secretary, 
NIelH Esperson. 

Mill-Continent OH & Gas Association — Texas-Louisiana Division, Apartment 14, 
UosBonian Bldg.. Houston. Texas — President. W. D. CUne; Secretary, Howard 
Hennette. 

Gulf Coast OH Producers' Association — Beaumont, Texas— President, J. C. Wilson; 
.Secretary-Treasurer, R, J. Braud. 

National OH Exchange— Harri.s Trust Bldg., Chicago, III.— President W. D. Sim- 
mon«. Viscosity OH Co., Chicago; Secretary, T. J. Gay, Gay Oil Co., Little 
i{o( k. Ark. 

Ind-pendent Oil and Gas Producers' Association of Louisiana— Shreveport, La.— 

I r.Hldent, ( . I). Keen; Secretary, Thos. O. Harris. 
New York State OH Producers' Association— Bolivar, N. Y.— President. John P. 

ii.-rrKK. (il.-an, N. \.: Secretary-Treasurer. W. Frank Richart, Wellsville, N. Y. 

'"'''■-?«n.'^'T' n"o.^''';!;''i'"''^' Agency- Union OH Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif —Presi- 
dent, I,. P. Hi. flair; Seen lary-Treasurer, W. B. Robb. 

^'"Vcr^^^"v''Ti"„„^V■"''' x-^,*""'",'?"^?— ^'°'"'"^"«' Ohio-Presidem, F. O. Levering- 
wccrctary-TruaBur.T, Wm, H, Thompson. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 109 



DIRECTORY OF OIL ASSOCIATIONS— Continued. 

InUepemlent Petroleum Marketers' Assutiation — y:{0-ol Marsh-Strong Bldg., L,os 
Angeles, Calit. — I'resiiUnt, H. tj. Botsford; Secretary-Manager, H. H. Maxson. 

Northwestern Oil I'ruilucers' Association — Bradford, Pa. — President, F. D. Wood; 
Secetary-Treasurer, Earl Weher. 

Oil and Gas Producers' Association — Okmulgee, Okla. — President, John R. Rebold; 
Secrttary, W. R. Alexander. 

Oil Producers' Association — 60.S Main St., Bradlord, Pa. — President, Wm. J. 

Healey ; Secretary, Earl S. Weber. 
O.l Traders Association of New York — .'!.5 South William St., New York — President, 

P. J. Snyder; Secretary, Jos. C. Smith. 
Oil Trade Association of Philadelphia, Inc. — Philadelphia, Pa. — President, T. G. 

Cooper, T. G. Cooper .t Co. ; Secretary, James Stevenson, Stevenson Bros. & Co. 
West Texas Oil Men's Association — .Mineral Wells, Texas — President, J. Edgar 

Pew; Secretary, W. E. O'Neal. 



no BUL LETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 

AMERICAN GAS SYNDICATES. 

CALIFORNIA 
Southern California Gas Co Sf/^^l^'i^ St LCs Inlelel 

W% Boardman Co 718 Mission St San Francisco 

Coast Counties Gas & Electric Co 454 California St San Francisco 

Northern California Power Co 995 Market St San Francisco 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co 445 Sutter St Stan Francisco 

COLORADO 
Western Light & Power Co Boulder 

FLORIDA 
Southern Utilities Co Palatka 

ILLINOIS 

Copley Gas & Electric Syndicate Aurora 

Illinois Traction System Champaign 

American Coke & Chemical Co 208 S. LaSalle St Chicago 

H. M. Bylksby & Co Cont. & Coml. Natl. Bank Chicago 

Gas & Electric Improvement Co 33 S. LaSalle St Chicago 

Metropolitan Gas & Electric Co Harris Trust Bldg Chicago 

L. E. Myers Co Monadnock Block Chicago 

Peoples Gas Co 108 S. LaSalle St Chicago 

Middle West Utilities Co 72 W. Adams St Chicago 

North American Light & Power Co 2013 Peoples Gas Bldg Chicago 

Public Service Co. of Northern Illinois 72 W. Adams St Chicago 

Union Utilities Co 39 S. LaSalle St Chicago 

Wisconsin Power, Light & Heat Co 72 W. Adams St Chicago 

United Light & Railways Co 836 Edison Bldg Chicago 

E. A. Potter Rector Bldg Chicago 

Southern Illinois Light & Power Co Hillsboro 

INDIANA 

Northern Indiana Gas & Electric Co Hammond 

Interstate Public Service Co 510 Board of Trade Bldg Indianapolis 

W. A. Martin Gas Syndicate LaPorte 

Consolidated Gas & Oil Co Ridgeville 

IOWA 

Iowa Railway & Light Co. . Cedar Rapids 

Runner Gas Co ... Charles City 

American Gas Construction Co Newton 

Iowa Gas & Electric Co '.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ! Washington 

LOUISIANA 
American Cities Co . . 201 Barone St New Or eans 

MARYLAND 

General Utilities & Operating Co Munsey Bldg . . Baltimore 

Southern Gas & Electric Corporation 213 Courtland St. . . ; ; .Baltimore 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Commonwealth Gas & Electric Co 78 Devonshire St. Boston 

MBHHarhuwtt^ Ga.s ( o. Ill Devonshire St. . . Boston 

MaMHarhuH.- Ls L.^htrng Co 77 Franklin St Boston 

M""'; *u ':^''"^"' v.. • • • 1'" Milk St Boston 

T^"''':r, ' ■ T'*"7 t^l- ■ -^ • • ■ • 201 Devonshire St. . . . B^stoS 

Tw n StaU- dan & Electric Co r>obion 

MICHIGAN 

AppU-by & Wagner , , 

W. K. MoHH & Co 7in TT«i„r, T \ ou Alma 

Am.T|.-an I'ubli.- Uiiliiies Co ™ ^"•''" ^'"^^ ^^'^« Detroit 

llnlli-d I.JKhl & Railways Co Grand Rapids 

Mirhiitan LJKht Co Grand Rapida 

utiiiu™ o,..rating Co 31Q peck Bldg :;;::::::;:::;:; ;SSLoo 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 111 



AMERICAN GAS SYNDICATES (Continued) 

MINNESOTA 
Public Improvement Co 348 Security Bldg Minneapolis 

MISSOURI 

Union Public Service Co 1116 Commerce Bldg Kansas City 

Central Power & Light Co 1420 Chemical Bldg St. Louis 

Southern Illinois Light & Power Co St. Louis 

Light & Development Co. of St. Louis 750 Railway Exchange Bldg St. Louis 

NEBRASKA 

Gas Construction Co 48th and Leavenworth Sts Omaha 

Union Power & Light Co 424 First Natl. Bank Bldg Omaha 

NEVADA 
Sierra-Pacific Electric Co Reno 

NEW JERSEY 

Cumberland County Gas Co Millville 

Public Service Gas Co 80 Park Place Newark 

Florida Utilities Co 715 Broad St Trenton 

NEW YORK 

Brooklyn Union Gas Co 176 Remsen St BrookljTi 

Eastern Oil Co Buffalo 

South Shore National Gas & Fuel Co Marine Trust Co. Bldg Buflalo 

Republic Light, Heat & Power Co Marine Trust Co. Bldg Buffalo 

Empire Coke Co 103 Castle St Geneva 

New York State Gas & Electric Co Ithaca 

Associated Gas & Electric Co 43 Exchange Place New York City 

American Light & Traction Co 120 Broadway New York City 

American Power & Light Co 71 Broadway New York City 

Consolidated Gas Co 124-130 E. 15th St New York City 

Henrv L. Doherty & Co 60 Wall St New York City 

Electric Bond & Share Co 71 Broadway New York City 

Federal Light & Traction Co 60 Broadway New York City 

General Gas & Electric Co 50 Pine St New York City 

Commonweal th Power, Railway & Light Co . 14 Wal 1 St New York City 

General Engr. & Management Corporation. 141 Broadway New York City 

General Engr. & Management Corporation. 141 Broadway New York City 

Lehigh Power Securities Corporation 71 Broadway New York City 

Nassau & Suffolk Light Co 149 Broadway New York City 

National Fuel Gas Co 26 Broadway New York City 

National Utilities Co 61 Broadway New York City 

North American Co 30 Broad St New York City 

Pearson Engineering Corporation 115 Broadway New York City 

United Gas & Electric Engineering Corp ... 61 Broadway New York City 

H. D. Wallbridge & Co 14 Wall St New York City 

J. G. White Management Corporation 43 Exchange Place New York City 

Peck-Shannahan-Cherry, Inc Savings Bank Bldg Syracuse 

Utica Gas & Electric Co Utica 

NORTH CAROLINA 

North Carolina Public Service Co Greensboro 

Carolina Power & Light Co Raleigh 

OHIO 

Consolidated Gas, Electric & Water Co 1123 Ilium Bldg Cleveland 

Continental Gas & Electric Corporation Cuyahoga Bldg Cleveland 

Ohio Cities Gas Co Columbus 

Ohio Fuel Supply Co Columbus 

Ohio Gas Light & Coke Co Napoleon 

OKLAHOMA 
Empire Gas & Fuel Co Bartlesvlle 

OREGON 
Pacific Power & Light Co Gasco Bldg Portland 



112 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



AMERICAN GAS SYNDICATES (Concluded) 

PENNSYLVANIA 

American Gas Co West Washington Square Philadelphia 

Eastern Light & Fuel Co Real Estate Trust Bldg Philadelphia 

Day & Zimmermann .... Philadelphia 

C. H. Geist Co Land Trust Bldg Philadelphia 

Girardville Gas Co 4014 Chestnut St Philadelphia 

Gribbel Sj-ndicate Co 1513 Race St Philadelphia 

United Chemical & Industrial Co Widener Bldg Philadelphia 

National Gas, Elec. St. & Power Co Witherspoon Bldg Philadelphia 

Public Service Co 1142 Real Estate Trust Bldg Philadelphia 

Philadelphia Suburban Gas & Elec. Co. . . S. W. Cor. 7th and Locust Philadelphia 

J. C. Reed & Co Finance Bldg Philadelphia 

Union Railway Supply Co Real Estate Trust Bldg Philadelphia 

United Gas Improvement Co Broad and Arch Sts Philadelphia 

Arkansas Natural Gas Co 223 Fourth Ave Pittsburgh 

Manufacturers Light & Heat Co 248 Fourth Ave Pittsburgh 

Ohio Fuel Supply Co Pittsburgh 

Philadelphia Co 435 Sixth Ave Pittsburgh 

Union Natural Gas Corporation Union Bank Bldg Pittsburgh 

Wabash GasCo Benedum-Trees Bldg Pittsburgh 

United Service Co 700 Scranton Life Bldg Scranton 

RHODE ISLAND 
Blackstone Valley Gas & Electric Co Pawtucket 

TEXAS 

North Texas Gas Co .• Dallas 

Texas Power & Light Co Interurban Bldg Dallas 

VIRGINIA 

Southern Gas & Electric Corporation. Richmond 

Virginia Railway & Power Co Richmond 

WASHINGTON 
North J>acific Public Service Co Tacoma Bldg Tacoma 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Boyd E. Horner Syndicate Clarksburg 

Columbia Gas & Electric Co '.'..'.'.'.'.'.'.['.'.. Huntington 

WISCONSIN 

Wisconsin Power, Light & Heat Co 900 Gay Bldg Madison 

Wisconsin Securities Co 1408 First Natl. Bank Bldg". '.'.'.'.. Milwaukee 

CANADA 

Dominion Gas Co tto,«;h^«^ r,^<- 

Quebec Railway, Light. Heat & Power Co! .' . .' .• .' ; qSc 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 113 



PRINCIPAL PIPELINES. 

Capacity, 

ripeline Mileage Barrels 

Alluwe Pipeline Co. (Kas. Oil Ref. Co.), Alluwe Dist., Ckli., to 

Col'feyville, Kas 40 2.500 

Amalgamated Petroleum Co., Salt, Lake Di^t., Cal., to Los Angeles, 

Cal. . 70 9,000 

American Petroleum Co., Humble to E. Houston, Tex 20 .... 

Associated Oil Co., Coalinga Dist., Cal., to Monterey, Cal 105 15,000 

Associated Oil Co., Santa Barbara Co., Cal., to Gaviota, Cal 60 23,000 

Arkansas City Pipeline Co., Blackwell to Arkansas City, Kas .... 

Associated Pipeline Co., Kern River Dist., Cal., to Port Costa, Cal. 2S1 13,000 

Associated Pipeline Co., Kern. River Dist., Cal., to Port Costa, Cal. 27S 26,000 

Bessemer Pipeline, Tltusville, Pa., to W. Pa .... 

Buckeye Pipeline Co., Lima Division, Ohio-Ind. state boundary to 

Ohio-Penn. state boundary TOO 75,000 

Buckeye Pipeline Co., Macksburg Divi.sinn, Eastern Ohio to Ohio- 
Penn. and Ohio-W. Va. bound.ary 330 10,000 

Colive Oil Co., Healdton to Ardmore .... 

Cosden & Co., adjacent wells to Bigheart, Okia 500 

Cosden Pipeline Co., various Okla. oil Dist. to West Tulsa, Okla. . . 30,000 

Crescent Pipeline Co., Greggs, Pa., to Marcus Hook, Pa 315 5,600 

Crown Pipeline Co., Okmulgee, Okla., to Muskogee, Okla 58 .... 

Cumberland Pipeline Co., Southeastern Kentucky to Kentucky-W. 

Va. boundary 475 10,000 

Emery Pipeline Co., adjacent oil Dist. to Bradford, Pa 4S0 1,000 

Empire Pipeline Co., Eldorado and Augusta, Kas., to Ponca City, 

Okla S5 .... 

Empire Pipeline Co., Ponca City, Okla., to Norfolk, Okla 67 .... 

Empire Pipeline Co., northern Oklahoma to Independence, Kas.. 70 .... 

Empire Pipeline Co., Healdton, Okla., to Gainesville, Tex. (Total) 55 35,000 

Empire Pipeline Co., Gainesville, Tex., to Red River, Tex 17 8 inch 

Eureka Pipeline Co., Kentucky-W. Va. boundary and Ohio-W. Va. 

boundary to W. Va.-Pa. boundary 4,300 65,000 

Franklin Pipe Co., adjacent fields to Franklin, Pa 150 

General Pipeline Co., Midway Dist., Cal., to Los Angeles and San 

Pedro 156 25,000 

General Pipeline Co., Liebere, Cal., to Mojave. Cal 52 5,000 

Gulf Pipeline Co., Tex. -Okla. State Line to Port Arthur, Tex 458 28,000 

Gulf Pipeline Co., Batson, Tex., to Sour Lake and Houston 76 14,000 

Gulf Pipeline Co., La. -Tex. State Line to Lufkin Station, Tex.... 117 9,600 

Gulf Pipeline Co., Saltillo Station, Tex., to Fort Worth, Tex 124 7,000 

Gulf Pipeline Co. of Okla., Bartlesville, Okla., to Okla. -Tex. bound- 
ary 275 25,000 

Gulf Refining Co., of La., Mansfield, La., to La. -Tex. boundary.. 21 10,000 

Gulf Pipeline Co., Olean, Tex., to Red River, Tex 305 8 inch 

Gulf Pipeline Co., Fort Worth, Tex., to Saltillo, Tex 124 6 inch 

Gulf Pipeline Co., Caddo, Tex., to Lufkin, Tex 98 6 inch 

Gulf Pipeline Co., Ranger, Tex., to Fort Worth, Tex 86 8 inch 

Gulf Pipeline Co., Houston to Sour Lake, Tex 63 6 inch 

Hale Petroleum Co., Eldorado, Kas., to Wichita, Kas 20 7,500 

Illinois Pipeline Co., Alton, 111., to Centerbritlge, Pa 1,300 60,000 

Illinois Pipeline Co., Grass Crei k, Wyo., to Chatham, Wyo 25 .... 

Illinois Pipeline Co., Elk Basin, Wyo., to Frannie, Wyo 20 .... 

Illinois Pipeline Co., Big Muddy, Wyo.. to Casper, Wyo 20 20,000 

Imperial Pipeline Co., Ltd.. Sarnia, Ont., to Cygnet, O l.')5 8 inch 

Indiana Pipeline Co., Griffith, Ind., to Indiana-Ohio boundary.. 800 110,000 

Magnolia Petroleum Co., Electra, Tex., to Sabine, Tex .t69 60.000 

Magnolia Petrokum Co., Healdton, Okla.. to Fort Worth, Tex.. 137 60,oo0 

Magnolia Petroleum Co., Gushing Dist., Okla., to Addington, Okla. 150 50,000 



114 B ULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 

PRINCIPAL PIPELINES— (Continued). 

Capacity, 

Pipeline Mileage Barrels 
Magnolia Petroleum Co. (Double Line) Red River, Tex., to Beau- 

mont, Tex ^O" ^ '"•^" 

Magnolia Petroleum Co., Electra, Tex., to Bowie, Tex 76 8 inch 

Maryland Pipeline Co., Kay County, Okla., to Ponca City, Okla.. .. 

Midwest Refining Co., Salt Creek Dist., Wye. to Casper, Wyo 90 13,000 

National Pipeline Co., Oil Fields in Wood Co., Ohio, to Findlay, O. 60 1,000 
.National Pipeline Co., Oil Fields in Southeastern Ohio to Mari- 
etta, Ohio 110 S'"* 

National Transit Co., Nedska, Pa., to New York-Pa. boundary.. 205 

National Transit Co., Colegrave, Pa., to Milway, Pa ITS 

National Transit Co., Milway, Pa., to Fawn Grove, Pa :!r. id, 000 

National Transit Co., Milway, Pa., to Point Breeze, P.i 70 .... 

National Transit Co., Milway, Pa., to Centerbridge, Pa 70 .... 

Natrona Pipeline Co., Salt Creek, Wyo., to Casper, Wyo 90 fi inch 

New York Transit Co., Pa.-New York boundary to Buffalo, N. Y. 130 55,000 
New York Transit Co., Olean, N. Y., to Bayonne, N. J., and Long 

Island. N. Y 1,100 

Northern Pipe Co., Pa.-Ohlo boundary to Pa.-N. Y. boundary.... 525 60.000 

Oklahoma Pipeline Co., Creek County, Okla., to McCurtain, Okla. 229 35.000 

Paragon Refining Co., Sandusky County, Ohio, to Toledo, Ohio.. 237 4,000 

Pierce Pipeline Co., Healdton, Okla., to Fort Worth, Tex 135 .... 

Prairie Pipeline Co., Drumright, Okla., to Ranger, Tex S inch 

Prairie Pipeline Co. (Double Line), Ranger, Tex., to Red River, 

Tex 260 S inch 

Prairie Pipeline Co., Cushing Dist., Okla., to Humboldt, Kan.... 701 100,000 
Prairie Pipeline Co., From Humboldt, Kan., to Sugar Creek, Mo., 

and Wood River, 111 1,820 94,000 

Prairie Pipeline Co., McCurtain. Okla., to Ida, La 90 31,000 

Prairie Pipeline Co., Eldorado-Augusta, Kan., to Neodesha, Kan. S5 .... 

Pierce Pipeline Co., Healdton, Okla., to Fort Worth, Tex 135 .... 

villf. Pa 210 9,000 

Producers' Transportation Co., Coalinga Dist., Cal., to Junction, 

• Cal 41 15,000 

Producers" Transportation Co., Sunset Dist., Cal., to Junction, Cal. 50 20,000 

Producers' Transportation Co., Kern River Dist., Cal., to McKitt- 

rlck, Cal 3<j 

Producers' Transportation Co., Lost Hills Dist., Cal., to Trunk 

Line, Cal 13 

Producers' Transportation Co., Lost Hills Dist., Cal., to Trunk 

Line, Cal 3 

Producers' Transportation Co., Junction, Cal., to Port San Luis, 

Ca' 74 30,000 

Pure Oil Pipeline Co., Morgantown, W. Va., to Marcus Hook, Pa. 250 10,000 

Hlo Brava Oil Co., Saratoga, Tex., to Sour Lake, Tex 13 1,500 

Pierce Pipeline Co., Fort Worth, Tex., to Red River, Tex 76 8 inch 

SInclalr-Cudahy Pipeline Co., Cushing Dist., Okla., to Kansas Citv 

and Chicago " -jq 

.SInclalr-Cudahy Pipeline Co., Cushing Dist, Okla., to CoffevviUe, 

'^^" : 70 

SInrliilr-Cudnhy Pipeline Co.. branches and lateral in Okla. and 

'^""""" 340 50,000 

.SInclalr-Cudahy Pipeline Co.. Cushing field, Okla., to Whiting, 

^ '"" 8 inch 

Rlncliilr-Cudahy Pipeline Co.. Cushing field to Healdton, Okla.. .. 8 inch 

Southern Plpellno Co., Pa.-W. Va. boundary to Philadelphia, Pa.. 1,130 51.000 

SoulhwcHtcrn Penn. Pipelines, exclusively in southwestern Pa.... 1,650 45,000 

atan.Inra Oil Co.. Cal., Kern River Dist, Cal., to Richmond, Cal.. 2S1 65,000 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 115 



PRINCIPAL PIPELINES (Concluded). 

Pipeline Mileage 

Standard Oil Co., Cal., Midway Dist., Cal., to Bakersfield, Cal. . 32 

Standard Oil Co., Cal., Coalinga Dist., Cal., to Mendota, Cal 29 

Standard Oil Co., Cal., Lost Hills Dist., Cal., to Pond, Cal 21 

Standard Oil Co., Cal., Xorthan Dist., Ca!., to El Segundo, Cal.. 24 

Standard Oil Co., Cal., Newhall Dist., Cal., to Ventura, Cal 45 

Standard Oil Co., Cal., Santa .Mina Dist., Cal., to Port Hartford, 

Cal 32 

Standard Oil Co. of La., Ida, La., to Baton Rouge, La 522 

Sun Co., Seneca and Wood Co., O., to Toledo, 250 

Sun Pipeline Co., Humble. Tex. (also Yale, Okla.) to Sabine Pass, 

Tex 100 

Sun Pipeline Co., Humble, Tex., to Sour J^ake, Te.x 53 

Sun Pipeline Co., Sour Lake, Tex., to Spindle Top. Tex 23 

Sun Pipeline Co., Spindle Top, Tex., to Sabine Pass, Tex 25 

Sun Pipeline Co., Batson, Tex., to Sour Lake, Tex 16 

Sun Pipeline Co., Spindletop, Tex., to Sun Station, Tox 4 

Texas Co. (main lines) Bartlesville, Okla., to Port Arthur, Tex. . 742 

Texas Co. (main lines) Electra, Tex., to West Dallas, Tex 160 

Texas Co. (main lines) Vivian, La., to Port Arthur, Tex 253 

Texas Co. (main lines) Evangaline, Tex., to Garrison, Tex 96 

Texas Co. (main lines) Healdton, Okla., to Sherman, Tex 60 

Texas Co. (laterals) in Oklahoma and Texas 222 

Texas Co. Dennison, Tex., to Port Arthur 400 

Texas Co., Logansport, Tex., to Port Arthur, Tex 155 

Texas Co. Ranger. Tex., to Fort Worth, Tex S5 

Texas Co. (two lints) Dallas, Tex., to Fort Worth, Tex 60 

Texas Co., Dayton, Tex., to Goose Creek 25 

Texas Co., Electia, Tex., to Fort Worth, Tex 130 

Texas Co., Humble, Tex., to Houston, Tex 15 

Texas Co., Healdton, Okla., to Gates Station, Tex 

Tidewater Pipe Co. (main line) Stoy, 111., to Bayonne. N. J S30 11,000 

Tidewater Pipe Co. (laterals) in Pennsylvania, N. Y., 111. and 

Ind 1,929 

Union Oil Co., Orcutt, Cal., to Port San Luis, Cal 65 .... 

Union Oil Co., local lines in Ventura County, Cal 43 .... 

Union Oil Co.. local lines in Los Angeles, Orange County, Fit Ids, 

Cal 51 

Valley Pipeline Co., Coalinga Dist., Cal., to San Francisco Bay... 170 25,000 

War Pipeline Co., Cushing Field, Okla., to Humboldt, Kan S inch 

Wilburine Pipeline Co., Shannopin, Pa., to Warren, Pa 125 5,000 

Yarhola Pipeline Co., Healdton, Okla., to Cushing, Okla 135 9,000 

Yarhola Pipeline Co., Cushing, Okla., to St. Louis, Mo., and Wood 

River, 111 400 36,000 



Capacity, 
Barrels 


65.000 


28,000 


20,000 


27,000 


1,400 


20,000 


35,000 


1,000 


21,000 


6 inch 


S inch 


S inch 


8 inch 


6 inch 


20,000 


17,000 


20,000 


9,600 


12,000 


6 inch 


8 inch 


8 inch 


S inch 


8 inch 


6 inch 


6 inch 


S inch 



116 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PIPE LINE TRANSPORTATION. 

The oil pipe line was fi^st introduced about 56 years ago and 
since that time has so demonstrated its superiority as a means of 
carrying- crude oil from the well to the refinery, that this method of 
transportation has largely superseded all others This has made pos- 
Mble the building of refineries in or near the large consuniing cen- 
ters, rather than at the wells, which are usually remote from the 
centers of population. 

The pipes for conveying the oil are laid on the surface of the 
ground or at a depth varying from 18 inches to 3 feet beneath the 
surface and the main lines are generally eight inches in diameter. 
The oil is forced through the pipes by means of pumps operated either 
by steam or by internal combustion engines. The pump stations are 
located from IVo to 90 miles apart, varying with the condition of 
the country through which the pipe lines extend, and the viscosity of 
the oil to be handled. 

Some of the large pipe line systems are hundreds of miles in 
length. It is estimated by the U. S. Geological Survey that the total 
mileage of oil trunk lines in the United States today is approximately 
34,000 and that the gathering systems, which are a fundamental part 
of the trunk systems, aggregate about 11,500 miles in length, making 
a total of 45,500 miles. 

At the tim.e most of the lines were constructed, the average cost 
per mile based on eight inch pipe was about $6,500. The cost of the 
average pump station at that time varied from $130,000 to $250,000. 
The fixed investment in pipe lines is estimated to be approximately 
$500,000,000. 

The difference between the published pipe line tariff rates and 
the railroad rates for shipping crude oil have always been so large 
that refiners and producers even though they have no pipe line sys- 
tems of their own, cannot afford to ship by rail except for compara- 
tively short distances. The pipe line rates, although greatly increased 
in recent years, are still much lower than those charged by the rail- 
roads for tank car shipments. 

In the construction of oil trunk lines, a reconnaissance survey 
is first made of the route for the line. In making the choice, at- 
tention is given to avoiding as much as possible excessively rough 
country, swamps, rivers, etc., and selecting a route which will admit 
of pumping stations being located near suitable supplies of water. 
Where possible, the lines are routed along or near the lines of rail- 
roads. In some instances they have been placed in the railroad right 
of way, the construction and maintenance of the pipe lines being 
greatly facilitated thereby. As soon as the route is definitely de- 
cided upon, careful surveys are made and maps prepared showing 
the exact locations, grades and contours. Rights of way for one or 
more Imes of pipes and for telegraph and telephone lines are pur- 
chased outright; in others, they amount to a perpetual easement for 
the use of the land upon which the pipe lines and telegraph lines 
are constructeo, giving the owners of the lines ingress and egress 
to and from the property for the purpose of laying new lines and 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 117 



operating and maintaining the ones in use. In some states pipe line 
companies have been granted powers of acquiring rights of way 
by condemnation proceedings. 

The specifications for the pipe require that it be of a uniform 
quality of steel, that the threads be carefully made so as to make as 
perfect a union between the joints as possible, and that it be capable 
of safely withstanding an internal pressure of 2,000 pounds per square 
inch. 

The actual construction work is commenced by the "right-of-way 
gang" who prepare the difficult places of the route selected. They 
remove the trees where these will interfere with the construction 
work, dig ditches and place casings at railroad crossings, build bridges 
across rivers and where necessary, build roads to facilitate the haul- 
ing and handling of the pipe. 

Behind the "right-of-way gang" come the "stringing gang" who 
distribute the pipe. 

The "stringing gang" is followed by the "pipe-laying gang." 
Where the work is done by hand, that is, using ordinary pipe tongs, 
this gang consists of about forty men. In its group are stabbers, 
tongsmen, rope men, bar men, jack men, etc., each of whom has his 
special work to perform in joining one length of pipe to another. In 
some instances the pipes have been joined by pipe machine. This is 
a more modern method enabling a very much smaller laying gang 
to be used and doing much more rapid work. Cases are on record 
where one pipe machine operated by a gang of 28 men has laid as 
much as 8,700 feet of eight-inch pipe in one day of nine hours, where- 
as the usual accomplishment of an ordinary gang of 40 men is from 
2,500 to 4,000 feet per day. 

Following the pipe gang comes the "ditching gang" whose duty 
is to dig the ditch and bury the pipe. Where the route is through 
comparatively level country free from rock in place, ditching ma- 
chines can be used to good advantage. Where the country is hilly, 
plowing the ditch with teams and shoveling the dirt out by hand, 
is often advisable, but where rocky country is encountered, it is often 
necessary to dig the ditch entirely by hand, blasting much of the 
material to be removed. In some instances, the ditch has been dug 
first and the pipe joints, resting on skids or sleepers, were screwed 
into place over the open ditch. Where rivers or large bodies of water 
are to be crossed, it is customaiy to join the pipe on a flat boat or 
raft, which is moved along as the w^ork proceeds. In places where 
the cost of digging ditches would be excessive, or where the pipe 
lines if buried would pass through sti'ongly alkaline soil, it is usual 
to paint the pipe with asphalt, then before the asphalt has had op- 
portunity to dry, to cover the painted pipe with a good grade of 
roofing paper, applying on the outside of the paper a second coat of 
asphalt. 

The viscosity of the oil to be transported and the topography of 
the country through which the pipe lines pass, are the governing 
factors determining the distance between pumping stations. The 
average distance between pumping stations in the midwestern and 



118 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



<^astern States is about 35 miles, while the average distance between 
stations in California, where a relatively thick, viscous oil is han- 
dled, is about 12 miles, although stations are sometimes not more 
than a mile and a half apart, and in extreme cases are placed as 
much as 90 miles apart. 

The operating equipment of a pumping station consists of a 
pump house, boiler house, tool house, garage or barn, office, prob- 
ably two oil tanks, ranging in size from 10,000 to 55,000 barrels ca- 
pacity, water tower, fuel oil tanks and feed water tanks. 

Equipment is usually provided in excess of ordinary demands 
so that there is always in reserve extra pump power to meet un- 
usual demands, thereby avoiding shut-downs where repairs are needed 
to pumps and boilers. The usual forms of power are steam pumps 
and internal combustion engines. The pumps are designed to deliver 
through an eight inch pipe line approximately 30,000 barrels of oil 
in 24 hours, working under a line pressure of 700 to 900 pounds per 
square inch. 

Practically all the pipe line companies engaged in the transpoi'ta- 
tion of petroleum have, in addition to their trunk lines, extensive 
systems of gathering lines. These are provided for the purpose of 
collecting the oil from the produceis' tanks and running it to a tank 
farm or to some point where it can conveniently enter the main trunk 
lines. In some cases, however, these gathering systems are owned 
by the producing companies, and not by the same companies that 
operate the trunk lines. The pipe used in such systems is usually 
smaller than that in the trunk line, most of it being from four to 
six inches in diameter. 

As in the case of railroad operations, it is necessary to pro- 
vide means for instant communication between different parts of a 
pipe line system. For this reason it is usual for the pipe line com- 
ganies to own and operate their own telegraph and telephone sys- 
tems. The telephone lines usually parallel the pipe lines, and are 
constructed along the same right of way, so that the line walker who 
patrols the pipe lines can also look after the condition of the tele- 
phone and telegraph system. 

A pipe line system such as described is administered from a gen- 
eral office, and from branch offices located at convenient points in 
the territory served. The system is divided into divisions, each 
division being under the supervision of a superintendent, who looks 
after the operations of the line within his territory. The division is 
in turn sometimes subdivided into districts, each district being in 
charge of a foreman. Foremen report directly to the superintendents 
of their districts, and the superintendents to the general manager 
who has his office at the headquarters of the company. 

The office is divided into several departments, such as an oil 
transportation department, an engineering department, a legal de- 
partment, a tax department, an accounting department and a treas- 
ury deparment. (The above matter v/as furnished by C. P. Bowie in 
report of Bureau of Mines No. 2161.) 

In general it may be said that the cost of transportation of 
petroleum is 4c to 10c per 100 barrels per mile. This widely varies 



Without 


Typical Oil 


Booster 


capacity per 


Stations 


day @ 800 lbs 


$6,500 


6,000 


8,500 


18,000 


11,000 


30,000 


18,500 


60,000 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 119 



because of the different ground contours, temperatures and oil vis- 
cosities. 

Typical costs per mile of pipe line are as follows: (Sulentic 
in "Petroleum") 

Including 
Booster 
Stations 

4 inch line .....$9,000 

6 inch line 12,500 

8 inch line 16.000 

10 inch line 19,000 

In order to make a very crude e.-timats of the cost of transport- 
ing oil by pipeline when using equipment of the highest economy, 
assume a single line operating under the following conditions at a 
load factor of 80 per cent for 300 d.nys per year: 

Size of line, 8 inches. 

Length of line, 33 miles. 

Pressure in line, 700 pounds per sqrare inch. 

Rate of discharge, fOO barrels per hour. 

At this rate, the discharge would be 21 600 barrels per day or 
6.480,000 barrels per year of 300 days. Assuming 6.5 barrels per ton, 
the yearly discharge would approx'mate 1,000,000 tons. The work 
equivalent of this discharge would be 33,000,000 ton-miles, calling 
for the continuous expenditure of 257 hp. Assuming the mechanical 
efficiency of the engine to be 75 per cent, the actual horsepower 
necessary to install would be 342. 

The assumed costs would be as follows: 

Line: 33 miles at $165 per foot $287,500 

Right of way at $0 25 per rod 2,640 

Freight: 79 cars at $250 19,750 

Haulage: TOO tons at $14 50 13,050 

laying pipe at $0,075 per foot 13,060 

Burying pipe at $0.20 per foot 34,850 

Engines, pumps, installed accessories 68,500 

Pump stations, buildings and foundations 30,000 

Tanks- 
Two 55,000 barrel at $18,500 each 37,000 

Two 500 barrel at $500 each 1,000 

Telegraph line: 33 miles at $550 18,150 

Superintendence and incidentals 8,500 



Total assumed costs $534,000 

The operating expense, including fixed charges based on the total 
assumed costs would be as follows: 

Interest at 6 per cent $32,040 

Depreciation at 5 per cent 26,700 

Administration 10,000 

Attendance at pump stations and lines 11,500 

Repairs to equipment, lines, etc 4,000 

Fuel for pumping— 3,000 barrels at $2.65 7,950 



Total operating expense $92,190 



120 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



From which the cost of operation per ton-mile under the assumed 

conditions would be 

92,190 

= $0.0028 

33,000,000 

The relation between the cost of pipe line transportation and 
rail transportation is in the ratio of 1 to 10. 

It should be noted that most of the pipeline costs are fixed and. 
are mainly independent of the amount of oil pumped. As a result 
the transportation cost per ton-mile will vary almost inversely with 
the load factor of the line. If this hypothetical pipe line should be 
operated only one-tenth of the time assumed, the unit transportation 
cost would equal the rail cost. FurLhermore, these figures are based 
on a life of 20 years (5 per cent amortization). A railroad would 
probably be used for various classes of freight as long as it existed, 
but a pipe line is of service only as long as oil is present for trans- 
portation. If the pipe line in question were to become obsolete in 10 
years through the exhaustion of the oil fields or other causes, the 
ton-mile cost would be greatly increased. 

The following examples show the relations existing between pres- 
sure, capacity, diameter, length of line and power required. 

Disregarding viscosity, the general hydraulic formula for friction 
head in a pipe discharging a uniform volume is 

v-"L 
F = k (1) 

2gD 

in which 

F = friction head in feet of water = lb. per sq. in. -^ 0.433 

k = friction coefficient for 38 gravity oil = 0.024 

V = velocity of flow, ft. per sec. 

g = acceleration of gravity = 32 2 ft. per sec. 

L = length of line, ft. 

D = diameter of line, ft. 

The formula for pressure in the line may be stated as 
v=L 

P = 0.433 k (2) 

2gD 
m which P - pressure in line in pounds per sq. in. 

The discharge Q of the line, cu. ft. per sec. can be easily de- 
rived and stated as ^ j 

3.1416 D^r 

^ = — r- (^) 

i"orn,nr\?/'"'i'',^ directly as v. Since P varies directly as v=^ in 
I' varies ifrec'tly ^s'q"'' "^ '' ' '" ^''™"^' ^^^ '' ^""'''' '^^^ 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 121 



The net horsepower required for a pipe line may be most readily 
calculated by noting that the pressure per square foot is equal to 
the number of foot-pounds required to displace 1 cu. ft. of oil or 
144 PQ 

Hp. = (4) 

550 

The following data in regard to the 36-mile, 8-inch Alton pipe 
line operating between Carlton and Wood River, is given by S. A. 
Sulentic, in "Petroleum." This line, constructed in 1913, has four 
stations, in each of which are installed four units each consisting of 
a 100 horsepower type of engine direct-connected to a 6 inch by 18 
inch herringbone-geared power pump with 8 inch suction and 6 inch 
discharge. The performance of one station equipment (three units) 
is as follows: 

Oil pumped during 10 days, barrels... 140,000 

Oil pumped per day, average, barrels 14,000 

Pressure maintained in line, pounds per sq. in 700 

Brake horsepower, average 196 

Pump efficiency, estimated, per cent 85 

Fuel consumed by engines during 10 days, barrels.... 65.8 

Fuel consumed by engines per day, pounds 2,020 

Brake-horsepower-hours per day = 196 X 24 4,704 

Fuel consumption per b.hp..-hr. pounds 0.43 

Ft.-lb. of work per day developed by the engine 

1£6 X 33,000 X 24 X 60 9,320,000,000 

Ft.-lb. of work per day in oil pumped = 9,320,000,- 

000 X 0.85 (85% efficiency) 7,900,000,000 

B.T.U. in fuel consumed per day = 2,000 X 18,000 36 000,000 

Ft.-lb. of work per 1,000,000 B.T.U 217,000,000 

Daily operating cost: 

Fuel oil: 6.58 barrels at $150 9.87 

Lubricating oil: 2 gallons at SO. 22 0.44 

Cylinder oil: 16 gallons at $0.21 0.34 

Attendance: Total salaries of 2 engineers, 2 
assistant engineers, 1 chief engineer and 2 
telegraph operators 41.50 

$52.15 

Cost per b.hp.-hr. ($52.15 ^ 4,704) 0.011 

Cost per barrel of oil pumped ($52.15 -4- 14 000).... 0.0037 

Bbl. of oil pumped per barrel of fuel consumed 

(14,000 ^ 6.58) 2,130 



122 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 






^6 

sso' 
soo 

-tec" 

4ZO" 
400' 

aso 



^ I \ I \ I t \ \ ^ "^ % ^ ^ \ 











" " ^"^ ^ 



ae 



HSEn 



• Z-? " - t~ 



:»ccir/1r/ t^^ryAl-t^C 



-iMrvTirn» i i -w3 



5^ /c? /J so a^ JO js '/o '-ij? so ss ao as 
Kir. 20— ViMfOHity and I'hysical Properties of Typical Pipe I^ine Oil. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 123 

FRICTION PRESSURE LOSS AND CAPACITY OF OIL PIPE 
LINES AS AFFECTED BY VISCOSITY OF THE OIL. 



cgq- 
P= or 



c g 



P = friction pressure loss in pounds per square inch per 1000 ft. of pipe. 

g = density of the oil at temperature of pumping. 

q=gallons of oil per minute. 

d= internal diameter of the pipe in inches. 

c = coefficient from following table. 

s q 

M= (from the value found for M look up the value of c in the 

d V table below. Use this value in the formulae given above.) 

1.8 

V=absolute viscosity = g (.00220 S ) 

S 

S = Saybolt viscosity in seconds (for viscosity conversion factors see 
section on method of testing for viscosity). (See fig. 21). 

M C M C M C 



10,000 


0.190 


750 


0.355 


85 


0.600 


9,000 


0.195 


700 


0.360 


80 


0.550 


8,000 


0.200 


650 


0.370 


75 


0.500 


7,000 


0.210 


600 


0.380 


70 


0.460 


6,000 


0.220 


550 


0.390 


65 


0.425 


5,000 


0.230 


500 


0.395 


60 


0.450 


4,000 


0.240 


450 


0.400 


55 


0.500 


3,000 


0.250 


400 


0.415 


50 


0.550 


2,500 


0.260 


350 


0.430 


45 


0.600 


2,000 


0.270 


300 


0.440 


40 


0.675 


1,800 


0.285 


250 


. 0.460 


35 


0.775 


1,600 


0.300 


200 


0.480 


30 


0.900 


1,400 


0.310 


180 


0.500 


25 


1.100 


1,200 


0.320 


160 


0.515 


20 


1.350 


1,000 


0.330 


140 


0.520 


18 


1.500 


950 


0.335 


120 


0.550 


16 


1.700 


900 


0.340 


100 


0.555 


14 


1.950 


850 


0.345 


95 


0.570 


12 


2.200 


800 


0.350 


90 


0.585 


, , 





124 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



DIAMETER FUNCTIONS OF STANDARD IRON AND STEEL 

PIPE. 



Nominal 


Actual 






Diameter, 


Diameter, 






Inches 


Inches (d) 


d* 


d' 




.622 


.14968 


.09310 


.824 


.46101 


.37987 


/4 

1 


1.049 


1.2109 


1.2702 


VA 


1.510 


6.7190 


10.818 


2 


2.067 


18.254 


37.731 


ly, 


2.496 


37.161 


91.750 


3 


3.068 


88.597 


271 . 82 


4 


4.026 


262.72 


1057.7 


6 


6.065 


1353.1 


8206.4 


8 


8.071 


4243.3 


34248.0 


8 


7.981 


4057.2 


32381. 


10 


10.192 


10790. 


109980. 


10 


10.136 


10555. 


106990. 


10 


10.020 


10080. 


101000. 


12 


12.000 


20736. 


248830. 


14 


14.250 


41234. 


587590. 


15 


15.250 


54085. 


824800. 



PIPE LINE FORMULA. 
Compiled by the National Transit Co. 

P = Gauge pressure in pounds per square inch. 
M = Number of miles. 

B = Discharge in barrels (42 gal ) per hour. 
C = Constant for pipe sizes. 



B 



-V 



CxP 



M 



C for 2-inch pipe = 36 
C for 3-inch pipe = 289 
C for 4-inch pipe = 1225 
C for 5-inch pipe = 3600 
C for 6-inch pipe = 9025 
C for 8-inch pipe = 38416 
C for 10-inch pipe = 116964 
C for 12-inch pipe = 289444 

For every 3 degrees above 35 degrees Be' add 1% to B. 

For every 3 degrees below 38 degrees Be' deduct 1% from B. 

Net H. P. = BxPx.00041. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



125 



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126 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




Fife' 21.— Relation of Viscosity to Temperature of Typical Crude 

Petroleums. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 127 



STORAGE OF PETROLEUM. 

P'itroleum is usually stored above ground in cylindrical steel or 
iron tanks of convenient proportions for requirements. A roof is 
provided to prevent admission of rain water and contamination. In 
the case of light oils evaporation losses are diminished by the use 
of an air tight roof but in the latter case, a special equilibrium valve 
is needed to allows the escape of the gas if the pressure exceeds a pre- 
determined safe degree and to admit air when oil is abstracted. The 
main features characterizing an oil tank are: 

1. Large draw-off valve at lowest point to remove water and sedi- 
ment. 

2. One or two manholes near base for entry. 

3. Inlet pipe leading above top of tank and either discharging on 
base or flowing into second large pipe that conducts new oil to 
the base of tank and prevents undue splashing and consequently 
liberation of light products. 

4. Garge glass or succession of gauge glasses to read off oil level. 

5. Sometimes a float and outside measuring board and indicator to 
show level of liquid. 

6. Floating or adjustable suction pipe to draw oil from top of 
liquid when discharging. 

7. Sometimes for light oils in hot climates a water spray for roof 
or a dished roof for holding water. 

8. The construction of an earthen embankment round the tank en- 
closing a space from one and a half to twice the volume of the 
tank so that in the event of a fire, the burning oil may be pre- 
vented from spreading. 

9. All oil tanks should be painted outside: the finishing coat should 
be white or nearly so in a hot climate to prevent undue absorp- 
tion of heat. 

10. Oil tanks, especially when intended for light gravity oil, should 
be very closely riveted, and great care should be taken to close 
the seams before the rivets are inserted and driven. 

11. One or more dipping pipes, sometimes combined with the escape 
valves are usually fitted for sampling. 

The cost of steel tankage varies with the price of metal and 
labor, but for standard sized tanks the price varies from about 
$1.00 per barrel of capacity for 1,000 barrel tanks to $0.30 per 
barrel for .55,000 barrel tanks (1921). 



128 BUL LETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 

LOSSES IN THEf STORAGE OF CRUDE PETROLEUM. 

The principal losses in the storage of crude petroleum are due 
to evaporation, to fire and to seepage. 

Oils having the greatest loss are the crude oils containing the 
most gasoline, since they are the most volatile, most readily form 
explosive and inflammable mixtures and due to their low viscosity 
most readily flow through walls of loose texture. 

The loss from evaporation is greater the larger the amount of 
gasoline. The loss also depends upon the temperatures of storage and 
upon the amount of surface exposed to atmospheric circulation. If 
the tank or container is perfectly tight, then there will be no loss 
by evaporation. 

There are three general types of storage now in use in the Mid- 
Continent fields; — the earthen reservoir, the steel tank with wooden 
roof and the steel tank with a steel, gas-tight roof. 

The 55,000 and 35,000 barrel steel tanks are the usual sizes. Al- 
together there are more than 3500 of these large steel tanks in use 
in the Mid-Continent field. 

The earthen storage is extremely wasteful from both seepage and 
evaporation. Petroleum standing in this type of reservoir has been 
known to shrink ^Q';'c in volume in two or three weeks. The shrink- 
age in value is of course much greater as the portion lost by evap- 
oration is the best of the gasoline. 

The following losses by evaporation took place in steel tanks 
with no seepage, with wooden roof covered with paper and tarred and 
apparently tight. The oil was of 40° Be' gravity and the tanks were 
of a diameter of 114% feet. 

Capacity Loss in Gauge Actual Loss Period Per Cent Loss 
55,000 bbls. 1 ft. 1% in. 2101 bbls. 5 mos. 4.2 

55,000 bbls. 1 ft. 2% in. 2235 bbls. 4^/2 mos. 4.6 

55,000 bbls. 11 Vs in. 1700 bbls. 31/2 mos. 3.4 

55,000 bbls. 1 ft. % in. 1910 bbls. 31/4 mos. 3.8 

The above figures indicate that there might be a loss of 1% 
per month of storage in wood roof steel tanks and this might amount 
to as muc'h as 6,000 barrels per year per tank. 

It has been claimed that oil stored in white tanks is subjected to 
1 to IVo'-zr less evaporation than in red tanks and 2y2% less evap- 
oration than in black tanks. 

Various types of insulation have been used with success. 
A typical storage temperature for the Mid-Continent field for 
oil stored above ground would be 80° F. A typical temperature of the 
ground for a submerged tank would be 60° F. which would more 
nearly approach the storage temperature of the air for the whole year. 
♦ u , 1 u ^''"^l ^^ successfully and cheaply built in the ground, 

they would have the advantage of almost perfect insulation from out- 

Jf Ljfk •;'" %"'^ "^"u"'"' ^^ '^'^^^^^ ^t practically the temperature 
at which It comes from the ground. For this submerged type of tank, 

t on ' /; irnM^K""'' ^""^It ^^ ^I'^P'^^' '^ ^^P^ble of perfect construe! 
imnnrvio,^« f f mono ith.c, well reinforced and lined with a coatine 

impervious to water and gasoline. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 129 

APPORTIONMENT OF THE LOSS SUSTAINED BY CRUDE ON 
ITS JOURNEY FROM THE WELL TO THE REFINERY. 

Per Cent Volume Evaporated. 

Autumn 

Location of Loss — Summer Spring Winter Ave. 

Flow tank 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.0 

Filling lease tank 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.0 

Lease storage 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.5 

Gathering 1.3 0.9 0.8 1.0 

Transportation 1.2 0.9 0.8 1.0 

Tankfarm 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.7 

Total 7.6 5.9 5.0 6.2 

Next in quantity after the evaporation losses in the storage of 
crude oil is the loss due to fire. Petroleum fires destroyed 12,850,000 
barrels of oil in the United States in 1918. From Januarv 1. 1908, to 
January 1, 1918, approximately 12,850,000 barrels of oil and 5,024,506,- 
000 cubic feet of gas were destroyed by fire in the United States en- 
tailing a total estimated property loss of iR25,254.000. During this 
period 503 fires were reported. Of these fires 310 were caused by 
lightning and 193 by other causes. The losses from the fires caused 
by lightning were estimated to be $11,148 000 and from those due 
to other causes, $14,106,200. Directly and indirectly the fires resulted 
in the deaths of nearly 150 persons and were responsible for almost 
as many more being permanently disabled. 

Loss from fire in the oil field storage in the year 1916 amounted 
to about $4,000,000. 

The causes of fires are electrical discharges or open flames in 
the presence of an inflammable or explosive mixture of gasoline and 
air. The amount of gasoline vapor in air necessary for an explosive 
mixture is within the limits of iy2 per cent and 5 per cent by weight. 
Less than the lower limit or more than the upper limit will not ignite. 
In an open tank if the amount at the surface of the oil exceeds 1% 
per cent there is at some point an explosive mixture and an igniting 
temperature of 900 degrees F. or over will cause it to take fire. 
In a perfectly tight tank with gasoline vapor in excess of the upper 
limit for an explosive mixture, there will be no fire unless the roof 
of the tank is open at some point. 

The ingress of a flame through an opening may be prevented in 
the same way that the flame in the Davy miner's lamp is prevented 
from passing outward. This operates by having some metal screen 
or other material cool the flame and prevent it being propagated into 
the tank. This will not prevent ignition from an electrostatic dis- 
charge in the vapor space of the tank. 

Methods for prevention of fires of oil in storage are as follows: 

1. Means of preventing the passage of the spark in a portion of 
the unfilled space of the tank. 

2. The maintenance of a mixture in the unfilled portion of the 
tank which is not an explosive mixture. 



130 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 131 



3. A tank so placed and constructed that the cooling effect of 
the walls will tend to smother the flames and the ingx'ess of air will 
be so arranged that the fire is not readily fed. 

4. A means for quickly eradicating the fire after it is ignited. 

Several more or less successful methods for extinction of oil 
tank fires have been in use. The best involves the use of mixtures of 
sodium bicarbonate and sulphuric acid which produce sufficient carbon 
dioxide to smother the flame. If some sort of saponifying agent is 
used the carbon dioxide will make a froth which will float on the sur- 
face of the oil and is very effective in extinguishing the flame. 

The application of steam is very effective but in the storage of 
a very large amount of oil the steam is not always available when 
needed and at the point where needed. 

For small oil fires dust or other finely divided mineral matter is 
effective in extinguishing the fire. 



132 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



ST\NDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR BRICK OR TILE 
ENCLOSED TANKS. 

A concrete foundation must be built around base of tank and upon 
this must be built a 12 inch brick or interlocking tile wall leaving 
an airspace between wall and tank of not less than 6 inches. At 
the ba«e of the air space a concrete gutter must be formed having 
a Frade from the quarter points each way to a sewer opening: sewer 
to be carried underneath the wall to a running trap just outside and 
at least 2 feet underground. 

The roof of the structure is to consist of a steel supporting frame 
upon which is to be placed successively No. 24 gauge dove-tailed plate 
reinforcement, concrete, metallic lath and a finish coat of cement 
mortar. The metallic lath to be carried over the cornice and fastened 
to the top of the wall and beneath the reinforced concrete ring which 
forms the wall plate: by this the whole concrete surface will have a 
protection of metallic lath. Walls of structure to be plastered on the 
outside with cement mortar. 

The structure must have a 24 inch concrete or other incombustible 
ventilator resting on a steel ring, lower side of ring to be covered 
with No. 4 mesh wire screen: upper side of ring to be sealed with 
two flap (butterfly) doors, normally held open by chain with fusible 
link which, in case of the presence of heat, will allow the doors to 
close and, in case of gas pressure inside of structure, will force the 
flap doors open, and when pressure is relieved will allow them to close. 

There should be placed about one foot above top of foundation a 
cast iron ventilating shutter on the end of a standard 8 inch nipple 
pipe, with flap door normally held open by wire rope with two fusible 
links, one near top of tank and one near flap door. Flap door to be 
provided with brass pin to insure easy operation. The face of the 
casting should have such bevel that when the flap door is closed it 
will be held closed by gravity. Tanks 20 feet or less in diameter to 
be provided with four, over 20 feet and under 50 feet m diameter to 
be provided with six, and 50 feet or over in diameter to be provided 
with eight such ventilators: to be equally spaced around tank in each 
case. 

An opening must be left in the roof of the structure to allow of 
entrance to the top manhole of the tank, same to be covered with a 
door built of tile in steel frame, sealed lightly on asbestos gaskets 
and to bo kept closed and locked at all times, except when in use for 
repairs. 

Opposite the bottom manhole of the tank a door opening must be 
left in the wall, same to be covered with a door built of tile in steel 
frame, sealed lightly with asbestos gaskets, and to be kept closed and 
locked at all times, except when in use for repairs. 

At the apex of the tank there must be placed a ring spray capa- 
ble of handling all water that may come to it through a 2 inch pipe 
under T.*") pounds pressure: pipe to be carried up inside the structure 
and to l)c controlled l)y a valve accessibly located at a distance and to 
be made automatic by means of a fuse. 

All pump connections are to be carried underground into the 
nousang. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 133 



FUEL OIL STORAGE TANKS KEGULATIONS— DRAFTED BY 
FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. 

The Committee on Inflammable Liquids of the National Fire Pro- 
tection Association has submitted the following: tentative regulations 
covering the construction of concrete tanks for fuel oil storage. 

Setting of Tanks. — (a) Tanks, if underground, shall be buried 
so that the top of the tank will be not less than three feet below the 
level of the surface of the ground and below the level of any piping 
to which the tanks may be connected. 

(b) Tanks shall be set on a firm foundation. 

(c) All tanks shall be provided with a concrete or other non- 
bustible roof. 

Material and Construction of Tanks. — (a) Reinforcement — Suf- 
ficient steel reinforcement shall be used to resist the oil pressure, 
and the horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be proportioned 
properly and located to reduce the shrinkage cracks, so that they 
will be too minute to permit leakage. The fiber stress in the steel 
shall not exceed 10,000 pounds per square inch. (Note. A fiber 
stress of 10,000 pounds per sq. in. should prevent shrinkage cracks 
although a number of tanks have been designed with a fiber stress of 
6,000 to 8,000 pounds.) 

(b) Concrete. — The concrete for floor and walls should be at 
least 8 inches thick, mixed in the proportion of 1:2:3 or better 1:1% :3 
and having the coarse aggregate of clean, dense, crushed rock or 
gravel ranging in size from one inch down. The concrete shall be 
thoroughly mixed, carefully placed and worked around the reinforce- 
ment. The forms should not be held together by wire as is fre- 
quently done in building construction because leakage is likely to 
take place along the wire. The concrete shall preferably be poured 
in a continuous operation so as to foiTn a monolithic construction. 
(Note. Where this cannot be done the bottom shall be poured with- 
out joints and the walls as a second continuous operation. One 
method of making a tight joint between the bottom of the tank and 
the walls is by means of a strip of galvanized iron six inches wide 
with joints riveted and soldered, so as to form a continuous band. 
This strip should be vertically embedded three inches in the floor 
slab and on the center line of tVie wall. The floor slab under the 
walls should be thoroughly cleaned, and before pouring the walls a 
mixture of 1:1 mortar should be placed in the bottom of the forms 
and around the galvanized strip to make a tight joint.) 

(c) Finish. — As soon as the w&ll and sides have been poured 
the floor shall be floated and troweled smooth. The wall forms shall 
be removed as soon as the concrete has hardened sufficiently to be 
self-sustaining and all projections and irregularities shall be removed 
from the surface and all cavities filled with a 1:1 mortar thoroughly 
rubbed in and troweled smooth. No plastering shall be applied. 

(d) Aging. — The concrete shall be allowed to harden at least 
30 days and longer if possible. (Note. To assist in the setting of the 
concrete before it beccmes oil soaked it is advantageous to use sev- 



134 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



eral priming coats of a 1:4 solution of 40° Baume' sodium silicate, 
followed by a finish coat of a 1:2 solution. This forms a glazed 
surface on the concrete, which although it is not permanent, gives the 
concrete an opportunity to harden until the protection from the sili- 
cate of soda is no longer necessary.) 

Location of Pipe Connections. — All pipe connections to the tank 
shall be made through the top. 

Venting of Tanks. — (a) Tanks shall be provided with a perma- 
nently open vent, or with a combined fill and vent fitting so arranged 
that the fill pipe cannot be opened without opening the vent pipe. 

(b) Vent openings shall be screened with (30x30) brass mesh 
or equivalent, and shall provide sufficient area for allowing proper 
flow of liquid during the filling operation. Permanently open vent 
pipes shall be provided with weather-proof hoods and terminate at a 
point at least twelve feet above the top of the fill pipe and never 
within less than three feet, measured horizontally and vertically, 
from any window or other building opening. Where a battery of 
tanks is installed vent pipes may be run into a main header. Individ- 
ual vent pipes should, however, be screened between tank and header 
and connection to the header should be not less than one foot above 
the level of the top of the highest reservoir from which the tanks 
may be filled. 

(c) Fill pipes shall be screened and when installed in the vi- 
cinity of a building, shall not be located within five feet of any door 
or other opening and shall terminate in a metal box or casting pro- 
vided with means for locking. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



135 



PROPERTIES OF STANDARD STEEL ROOF STORAGE TANKS. 









Barrels 


U.S. Gall 


5. Lbs. 




Relative 


Relative 


Relative 


Ca- 






par 


par 


per 


Weight 


Cost 


Sailing 


Cost per 


pacity 


Dim 


snsions 


Inch 


1 In. 


Bbl. 


Pounds 


per Bbl. 


Price 


Pound 


55,000 


114. 


5x30 


152.80 


6420 


7.47 


411,000 


$0.3673 


$20,200 


$0.04916 


37,500 


95 


x30 


105.20 


4420 


8.00 


300,000 


0.4134 


15,500 


.05168 


30,000 


85 


x30 


84.24 


3538 


7.83 


235,000 


0.4133 


12,400 


.05277 


25,000 


75 


x30 


65.57 


2754 


8.08 


202,000 


0.4340 


10,850 


.05370 


20,000 


70 


x30 


57.12 


2399 


8.80 


176,000 


0.4750 


9,500 


.05398 


15,000 


60 


x30 


41.98 


1763 


8.67 


130,000 


0.4833 


7,250 


.05577 


10,000 


50 


x30 


29.15 


1224 


9.67 


96,700 


0.5400 


5,400 


.05582 


5,000 


35 


x30 


14.28 


600 


10.46 


52,300 


0.5800 


2,900 


.05545 


2,000 


35 


xl2 


14.28 


600 


16.00 


32,000 


0.9300 


1,860 


.05810 


1.700 


35 


xlO 


14.28 


600 


17.06 


29,000 


1.0240 


1,740 


.06000 


3,800 


30 


x30 


10.50 


441 


11.84 


45,000 


0.662 


2,515 


.05590 


3,200 


30 


x25 


10.50 


441 


12.06 


38,600 


0.688 


2,200 


.0570 


2,500 


30 


x20 


10.50 


441 


13.60 


34,000 


0.784 


1,960 


.0577 


1,250 


30 


xlO 


10.50 


441 


19.20 


24,000 


1.164 


1,455 


.0606 


1,000 


30 


X 8 


10.50 


441 


22.00 


22,000 


1.355 


1,355 


.0616 


2,000 


25 


x25 


7.29 


306 


15.50 


31,000 


0.8875 


1,775 


.0572 


1,500 


25 


xl7'6" 


7.29 


306 


15.80 


23,700 


0.943 


1,415 


.059 


875 


25 


XlO 


7.29 


306 


20.23 


17,700 


1.257 


1,100 


.0621 


1,000 


20 


x20 


4.66 


196 


20.60 


20,600 


1.190 


1,190 


.0578 


500 


20 


XlO 


4.66 


196 


27.60 


13,800 


1.74 


870 


.0631 


1,000 


30 


X 8 


10.50 


441 


24.40 


24,400 


3.10 


1,550 


Bleacher 


760 


30 


X 6 


10.50 


441 


31.19 


23,700 


1.89 


1,435 


Bleacher 



Miscellaneous tanks: 
U. S. gallons per inch of vertical tank = 0.4897 d'. 
Barrels per inch of vertical tank = 0.01166 d". 
d — diameter of tank in feet. 



136 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 137 

RULES FOR FREIGHT SHU'MENTS OF GASOLINE AND 

NAPHTHAS. 

(See Pamphlet No. 9 — Bureau of Explosives — 30 Vesey St., New 
York) 

INFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS— RED LABEL, 

1824 (a) All inflammable liquids must be shipped in packages 
complying with specifications that apply, as follows: 

(b) In tightly closed metal cans of not exceeding ten gallons 
capacity, packed in wooden boxes complying with Specification No. 11. 

(c) In well-stoppered glass or earthenware vessels of not ex- 
ceeding one gallon capacity, cushioned in wooden boxes complying 
with Specification No. 2, or cushioned in wooden barrels or kegs com- 
plying with Specification No. 11, or in a well-stoppered glass or 
earthenware vessel of not exceeding five gallons capacity, well cush- 
ioned in a wooden box and not more than one such vessel in the box. 
The completed package must comply with swing and drop tests pre- 
scribed for boxed carboys by Specification No. 1. 

(d) In well-stoppered glass, earthenware, or metal vessels of 
not exceeding one pint capacity when flash point is 20 °F or lower 
in wooden boxes complying with specification No. 2, or cushioned in 
fiber board or corrugated strawboard containers complying with Speci- 
fication No. 24. 

(e) In wooden kits of not exceeding ten gallons capacity, packed 
in wooden boxes complying with Specification No. 2, or cushioned in 
wooden barrels or kegs complying with Specification No. 11. 

(f) In metal-jacketed cans of not exceeding ten gallons capac- 
ity, complying with Specification No. 23. 

(g) In well-stoppered carboys of not exceeding thirteen gallons 
capacity, cushioned in wooden boxes complying with Specification 
No. 1. 

(h) In wooden barrels or kegs complying with Specification No. 
10 when the flash point of the liquid is not lower than 20°F, or in 
wooden barrels or kegs complying with Specification No. 9 when the 
flash point is lower than 20 °F unless otherwise provided in the tariffs 
under which shipment moves. 

(i) In metal barrels or drums complying with Specification 
No. 5. 

(j) In tank cars complying with Master Car Builders' specifica- 
tions provided the vapor tension of the inflammable liquid corre- 
sponding to a temperature of 100° F does not exceed ten pounds per 
square inch. A tank car must not be used for shipping inflammable 
liquids with flash point lower than 20 °F unless it has been tested 
with cold water pressure of sixty pounds per square inch and sten- 



I 



138 BULL ETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 

ciled as required by Master Car Builders' specifications and is 
equipped with safety valves set to operate at 25 pounds per square 
inch, and with mechanical arrangement for closing dome cover as 
specified in paragraph 1824 (k). 

(k) Liquid condensates from natural gas or from casinghead 
gas of oil wells, made either by the compression or absorption process, M 

alone or blended with other petroleum products, must be described as I 

Liquefied Petroleum Gas when the vapor pressure at 100°F (90°F ^ 

Nov. 1 to Mch. 1 ) exceeds ten pounds per square inch. 

When the liquid condensate alone or blended with other petroleum 
products has a vapor pressure not exceeding ten pounds per square 
inch, it must be described and shipped as Gasoline or Casinghead 
Gasoline. 

Liquefied petroleum gas of vapor pressure exceeding ten pounds 
per square inch and not exceeding 15 pounds per square inch from 
April 1 to October 1 and 20 pounds per square inch from October 1 
to April 1, must be shipped in metal drums or barrels which com- 
ply with Shipping Container Specification No. 5, or in special in- 
sulated tank cars approved for this service by the Master Car Build- 
ers' Association. 

Liquefied petroleum gas of vapor pressure exceeding 15 or 20 
pounds per square inch as provided herein, and not exceeding 25 
pounds per square inch must be shipped only in metal drums or bar- 
rels which comply with Shipping Container Specification No. 5. 

Liquefied petroleum gas of vapor pressure exceeding 25 pounds 
per square inch m.ust be shipped in cylinders as prescribed for com- 
pressed gases. 

When the liquid condensate, alone or blended with other petroleum 
products has a vapor pressure not exceeding 10 pounds per square 
mch, it must be described as Gasoline or Casinghead Gasoline and 
must be shipped m metal drums or barrels complying with Specifica- 
tion No. 5, or in ordinary tank cars, 60 pounds test class equipped 
with mechanical arrangement for closing of dome covers as speci- 
fied in Master Car Builders' specifications for tank cars. 

Every tank car containing liquid condensates, either blended or 
unblended including liquefied petroleum gas, as defined herein must 
have safety valves set to operate at 25 pounds per square inch with 
a toerance of 3 pounds above or below, and the mechanical arrange- 
»H ?r. n!"[ -f "^ ^r" ,f "?^ '"''^^' «^ ^"^h cars must either be such 
tho^nu.rtl 'V'^r^^t'^'^lly impossible to remove the dome cover while 
wil be onpmJl^nf'''' K 'V^^?^'^ ^^ pressure, or suitable vents that 

rhc\Le^:o";i^n?u:rbe^pio'vide'd.^'"'"^ '""^ ^^^^^^^^^ '' ^^^^^^^ 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 139 



The shipper must attach securely and conspicuously to the dome 
and dome cover three special white dome placards measuring 4x10 
inches, bearing the following wording: 



CAUTION 

Avoid Accidents 

DO NOT REMOVE THIS DOME COVER WHILE GAS 
PRESSURE EXISTS IN TANK. 

Keep Lighted Lanterns Away. 



10 Inches 

One placard must be attached to each side of the dome and one 
placard be attached to the dome cover. The presence of these spe- 
cial dome placards must be noted on the shipping order by the ship- 
per and by the carrier on the billing accompanying the car. Pla- 
cards must conform to samples furnished by the Chief Inspector of 
the Bureau of Explosives. 

(1) Carbon bisulphide in interior packages of capacity greater 
than one-half gallon must be shipped in metal cans of not less than 
28 gauge boxed, complying with Specification No. 2, or in metal bar- 
rels or drums complying with Specification No. 5, such barrels or 
drums not to exceed 55 gallons capacity. Carbon bisulphide may also 
be shipped in tank cars complying with paragraph 1824 (j). 

1825. (a) Packages containing inflammable liquids must not 
be entirely filled. Sufficient interior space must be left vacant to 
prevent leakage or distortion of containers due to increase of tem- 
perature during transit. In all such packages this vacant space 
must not be less than 2% of the total capacity of the container. In 
tank cars the vacant space must not be less than 2'';(- of the total ca- 
pacity of the tank, i. e., the shell and dome capacity combined. If 
the dome of tank cars does not provide this 2%, sufficient vacant 
space must be left in the shell of the tank to make up the differ- 
ence. 

(b) In packages containing alcohol, cologne spirits, high wines 
or other distilled spirits of 150 proof or over, the vacant interior 
space or allowance for wantage or ullage must be the maximum per- 
mitted by the United States Internal Revenue Regulations. 

1826. Interior packages containing one quai't or more of an in- 
flammable liquid must be packed with their filling holes up and the 
top of the outside package must be plainly marked "THIS SIDE UP." 

1827. Wooden-jacketed cans and wooden kits must not be used 
for the shipment of inflammable liquids, except as inside container.<5 
as provided by Specifications No. 2 or 11. 



140 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



RULES FOR THE SHIPMENT OF PETROLEUM BY EXPRESS. 

All shipments of articles subject to these regulations offered 
for the transportation by express in interstate commerce must be 
properly described by the shipper, and the proper and definite name 
of the " dancrerous article must be plainly marked on the outside 
of the package, in addition to the labels required herein, (a) Ar- 
ticles for which detailed instructions for packing are not given herein 
must be securely packed in containers strong enough to stand with- 
out rupture or leakage of contents, a drop of four feet to solid brick 
or concrete. 

(b) Whenever orders are placed in foreign countries for the 
importation of dangerous articles to be forwarded from port of entry 
by express, the importer must furnish with the order to the for- 
eign shipper and also to the forwarding agent at the port of entry, 
full and complete information as to the necessary packing, marking 
and labeling required by these regulations. The foi^'arding agent 
must see that the packages are properly packed, marked and labeled. 

35 (d) Interior packages containing 1 pint or more of an in- 
flammable or corrosive liquid must be packed with their filling holes 
up ard the outside package must be plainly marked "THIS SIDE UP." 

Inflammable Liquids — Red Label, 

(37) Except as herein prescribed, the maximum quantity of 
any inflammable liquid packed in one outside container must not ex- 
ceed 1 gallon when the flash point is 20 °F or below and must not ex- 
ceed 5 gallons when the flash point is above 20°F and below 80°F. 

(38a) Packages containing inflammable I'quids must not be en- 
tirely filled. Sufficient interior space must be left vacant to pre- 
vent leakage or distortion of containers due to increase of tempera- 
ture during transit. In all such packages this vacant space must 
not be less than 37r of the capacity of the container. 

(39a) All inflammable liquids must be shipped in packages com- 
plying with specifications that apply, as follows: 

(b) In tightly closed metal cans of not exceeding 5 gallons ca- 
pacity packed in wooden boxes complying with Specification No. 2 
or cushioned m wooden barrels or kegs complying with Specifica- 
tion No. 11. •■'.Of 

(c) In well-stoppered glass or earthenware vessels of not ex- 
ceeding 1 /luart capacity cushioned in wooden boxes complying with 
Specification No. 2 or cushioned in wooden barrels or kegs comply- 
ing with Specification No. 11. & i j' 

n»» Iv^ ^" well-stoppered glass, earthenware, or metal vessels of 

r« 90»v ; 1"^ °"'' F?* ^^^^"^^ ^ P°""^l> capacity when flash point 

.JwuJx V'^'^V'^"*' 1 nuart capacity when flash point is above 20°F, 

,lvin' within ^"'i"' "m '-o^'ugated strawboard containers com- 

'ul ,7 Specification No. 24 and not exceeding 8 quarts in one 



i^.J 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 141 



(e) In metal-jacketed cans of not exceeding 5 gallons capacity, 
complying with Specification No. 23. 

(f) In metal drums of capacity not exceeding 5 gallons, com- 
plying with Specification No. 5. 

(h) Liquefied petroleum gas, blended or unblended, when its 
vapor tension corresponding to a temperature of 100 °F exceeds 10 
pounds per square inch, must not be shipped by express except in 
steel containers conforming to paragraphs 57, 58 and 59. 

For complete directions see the Bureau of Explosive pamphlet 
No. 9, Interstate Commerce Commission Regulations, 30 Vesey St., 
New York City. 



142 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



OWNERSHIP OF TANK CARS. 
Tank Cars Owned By Railroads. 

Name and Location. Tank Cars 

Colorado & Southern 14 

Delaware River & Union R. R -ill 

Denver & Rio Grande ** 

East Jersey R. R 120 

El Paso & Western »» 

Kansas City Southern Ry. Co 19-'* 

Los Angeles .t Salt Lake R. R. Co 214 

Midland Valley R. R. Co 97 

Missouri, Kansas & Texas Ry 6*^' 

Moreno: Southern Ry. Co • 2 

New Orleans, Texas & Mexico R. R 75 

Northern Pacific R. R. Co 34 

Oregon-Washington R. R. & Nav. Co 44 

Pacific Electric Ry Co 29 

Pennsylvania R. R. Co 514 

Philadelphia & Reading Ry. Co. 20 

St. Louis & San Francisco R. R. Co 629 

St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico Ry 59 

St. Louis, Southwestern Ry. Co SI 

San Antonio & Arkansas I'ass Ry. Co 81 

Santa Fe Ry. Co 3,178 

Santa Fe & Arizona Ry 4 

Southern Pacific Ry 2.963 

Texas & New Orleans R. R. Co 459 

Trinity & Brazos Valley R. R. Co 25 

9,813 

Tank Cars Owned By Oil Industries. 

Name and Location. Tank Cars 

\imo Petroleum Co., Kansa.s City, Mo 60 

.■\"ina Riflnini? Co., I.ouisville, Ky 50 

.\.iax Casoline Co., Kansas <?ity, .Mo 3-3 

.Akin Oiisoline Co. Tulsa, Okl-i 34 

Allied Refining Co., The, Tulsa, Okia 80 

American Oil Co., Baltimore, Md 10 

.\merican Refining Co., Wichita Falls, Texas 248 

.American Oil Works, Ltd., Titusville, Pa 42 

Anderson & Gustafson, Chicago, 111 ...!!.......... 105 

.\pex Refining & Drilling Co.. Loomis, Col 8 

Ardmore Producing & Refining Co., Ardmore, Okla 16 

.\rrow Rffiniiig Co., Waco, Texas ..72 

Associated Oil Co., Los Angeles, Cal . . ] 31.^ 

Atlanta Refining & Mfg. Co., Atlanta, Ga 7 

Allantle Petroleum Co., The. Tulsa, Okla 25 

.Vilas Petroleum Co.. Kansas Citv. Mo 10 

Atwon.l Rellning Co., Oklahoma Citv, Okla 39 

AureliuB Thoma.s Gasoline Co., Drumright, Okla 15 

HarlM r Co., W. H., Minneapolis, Minn... 15 

H.-rry'M Son.s Co , J. B., Oil City, Pa. . . . 14S 

Hl.-ry Oil Co., Franklin, Pa 95 

Hjif Ifeart Petrol, urn Co., Big Heart, Okia .' ] .' .' .' n^ 

MIlfH Oil * Refining Co., Augusta, Kansas 34 

Boynloii Gasoline Co., TuKsa Okla 15 

Hoynlon Refining Co., Bovnton. Okla... . 60 

Hurkl.urnett Refining Co., Burkburnett, Texas • ' 36 

... .W.. ......... . 324 

les. Cal 15 

,, „,,,.,, - Imore, Okla 50 

•inrirM llefinlnc Co., Vale, Okla... . 4" 

•iirl.o Oil Co., Guthrie, Okla... ,c 

Ciipltol Reflnlnif Co., Buffalo. N. Y 70 

arneifle Refining Co., Carneeie, Pa {? 

rvn^r". ';;•';,"';•"'" •'■-'•. Chicago. Ill .■.■::;;:.■; 4^ 

fenlrnl R.flning Co., Lawrenoevllle, HI. . zV^ 

hamplln Refining Co., H. H., Fnid Okli oa? 

;h..N, nul * Smith Corp., Tulsa Okla'. .' ] ] : l^l 

hkaHaw U,.flnlng Co., Ardmore, Okla . i%4 

< iiiiderH Gnnoiine fo.. N-waia, Okla . .' . ! . .' ! ! .' .' .' ! ; ." .' .' ;:;;:: .' ." ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 35 



Hurkl.urnett Refining Co., Burkburnett Te 
IJntler County Oil Refining Cc. Bruin, Pa 
fa. do on & Refining Co., Shreveport, La.. 
Callfo'nln Petroleum Exchange, Los Angele- 
."'"'■'■'.'" •<• fining Co., Ardmore. Okla. " 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 143 



Tank Cars Owned By Oil Industry — Continued. 

Name aiid Location. Tank Cars 

Choate Oil Corp., Oklahoma City, Okla 184 

Clarendon Rcrining Co., Clarendon, Pa 7J! 

Cleveland Petroleum Refining Co., Cleveland, Okla 21 

Climax Refining Co., Corsicana, Texas 11 

Commonwealth Oil & Refining Co., Jloran, Kans 2Z 

Conewango Refining Co., Warren, Pa 152 

Constantin Refining Co., We.st Tulsa, Okla 1,150 

Continental Oil Co., The, Denver. Col 11 

Continental Refining Co., Ltd., Oil City, Pa TO 

Continental Refining Co., Bristow, Okla 76 

Cosden & Co., Tulsa, Okla 2,030 

Craig Oil Co., The, Toledo, Ohio 175 

Crew Levick Co., Philadelphia, Pa 250 

Crystal Oil Works, Oil City, Pa 32 

Cushing Refining Co., (Cars operated by Empire Refineries, Inc.) Ponca 

City, Okla 150 

Daugherty & Son Refining Co., W. H., Petrolia, Pa S 

Deepwater Oil Refineries, Houston, Texas 50 

De Soto Gasoline Co., Beaumont, Texas S 

Diamond Gasoline Co., Kansas City, Mo 40 

Doty Oil Co., Oklahoma City, Okla 5 

Eagle Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 34 

Eagle Refining Co., ^^■ichira Falls, Texas 6u 

EI Dorado Refining Co., El Dorado, Kans 186 

Elk Refining Co., Charleston, W. Va 72 

Emery Mfg. Co., Bradford, Pa 90 

Emlenton Refining Co., Emienton, Pa 78 

Empire Oil Works, Oil City, Pa 90 

Empire Refineries, Inc., Tulsa, Okla 1,860 

Ensign Oil Co., of Pa., Pittsburgh, Pa 7 

Evans-Thwing Refining Co., Kansas City, Mo 100 

Falling Rock Cannel Coal Co., Charleston, W. Va 26 

Federal Oil & Refining Co., Cushing, Okla 30 

Fidelity Petroleum Co., (Cars operated bv Uncle Sam Oil Co.) TuLsa, Okla.. 75 

Foco Oil Co., Franklin, Pa 20 

Franchot & Co., D. W., Tulsa, Okla 12 

Franklin Qu:illty Refining Co., Franklin, Pa 24 

Freedom Oil Works Co., The, Freedom, Pa 195 

Preeport & Mexican Fuel Oil Corp., Houston, Texas 348 

Galena-Signal Oil Co., of Texas, Houston, Texas SO 

Gasoline Corp., New York, N. Y 30 

General Petroleum Corporation, Los Angeles, Cal 66 

Golden Rule Refining Co., Wichita, Kans 48 

Great American Refining Co., Tulsa, Okla 100 

Great Western Gil Refining Co., Erie, Kans 100 

Gulf Refining Co., Pitt.sburgh, Pa 2,150 

Hawkeye Oil Co., Waterloo, la 10 

Hercules Petroleum Co., Dallas, Texas 272 

Higrade Petroltum & Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 22 

High Grade Petroleum Products Co., St. Marys, W. Va 50 

Home Oil Refining Co.. of Texas, Ft. Worth, Texas 135 

Home Petroleum Co., Oklahoma City, Okla 50 

Hope Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 10 

Humble Oil & Refining Co., Houston, Texas 188 

Illinois Oil Co., of Rock Island, Rock Island, 111 176 

Imperial Refining Co., Ardmore. Okla 216 

Independent Refining Co., Ltd., ' Oil City, Pa 120 

Indiahoma Refining Co., St. I>ouis, Mo 765 

Indian Refining Co., Lawrenceville, 111 1,300 

Inland Refining Co., Tulsa, Okla 100 

Interior Oil & Gas Corp., Clarendon, Pa 10 

International-Ardmore Ref. Div., Tulsa, Okla., (The Ohio Cities Gas Co.).. 16 

International Oil & Gas Corp., Shreveport, La 20 

Interocean Refining Co., Chicago, 111 90 

Invader Oil & Refining Co., Muskogee, Okla 25 

Invincible Oil Refining Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas 175 

Island Refining Co., The Pittsbur.gh, Pa 75 

Johnson Oil Refining Co., Chicago Heights, 111 40 

Kanotex Refining Co., The, Arkansas (Tity, Kans 220 

Kansas City Refining Co., Kansas City, Kans 180 

Kansas Oil Refining Co., Coffeyville, Kans 1"0 

Kendall Refining Co., Bradford, Pa 50 

Lake Park Refining Co., Kansas City, Mo 270 

LaPorte Oil & Refining Co., Houston, Texas 10 



144 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Tank Cars Owned By Oil Industry— Continued. 

^ X *■„„ Tank Cars 

Name and Location. ^ 

Leader Oil Co., Casey, 111 ■ ■ Z. 

Lesh Refining Co., Arkansas City, Kans ^J 

Liberty Oil Co., Ltd., New Orleans, La ■ ; • • • •; °5 

Llbertv Pipe Line & Refining Co.. Wichita, Kans 5 

Liquefied Petroleum Gas Co., Tulsa, Okla 

Lisle Refining Division, Arkansas City Kans ' » 

Livingston Refining Corp., Tulsa Okla ' ^" 

Lone Star Refining Co., Wichita Falls Texas ,,^0 

Louisiana Oil Refining Co., Shreveport La -*" 

Lubrite Refining Co., East St. Louis, 111 ....... »^ 

McCombs Producing & Refining Co., Louisville, Ky ■>» 

Magnolia Petroleum Co., Dallas, Texas »"" 

Marland Refining Co., Ponca City, Okla . . . • . . ■ »" 

Mexican Petroleum Corporation, New ^ork, N. Y \(,n 

Midco Gasoline Co., Tulsa. Okla ■''J" 

Mid Continent Refining Co., Tulsa, Okla ^'a 

Midland Refining Co., El Dorado, Kans -»" 

Midwest Refining Co., The, Denver, Col ^^ 

Miller's Oil Refining Works, Allegheny, Pa o" 

Miller Petroleum Refining Co., Chanute, Kans »" 

Montrose Oil Refining Co., Ft. Worth, Texas 50 

Mutual Oil Co., Kansas City, Mo lf» 

Mutual Refining & Producing Co., Kansas City, Mo »« 

Mutual Refining Co., Warren, Pa ^JJ 

Mutual Sales Co., Warren, Pa 1 " 

National Refining Co., Cleveland. Ohio 1.0«4 

National Oil Co., New York, N. Y fa 

Noble Oil * Gas Co., Chas. F., Tulsa, Okla 200 

Nortex Refining Co., Burkburnett, Texas 68 

Northern American Refining Co.. Oklahoma City, Okla 4(o 

Northern Petroleum Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 26 

Northern Oil Co., Wilmar, Jlinn 10 

Nyanza Refining Co.. New Wilson, Okla 10 

Oconee Oil Refining Co., Athens, Ga 10 

Ohio Cities Gas Co.. Columbus, Ohio 1,400 

Ohio Valley Refining Co., St. Marys, W. Va 75 

Oil Products Corp., New York, N, Y 7 

Oil State Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 12 

Oil State Refining Co., Enid, Okla 50 

Oklahoma Natural Gasoline Co., Sapulpa, Okla 5 

Oklahoma Petroleum & Gasoline Co., Tulsi, Okla 280 

Oklahoma Producing & Refining Corp., Muskogee, Okla 275 

Okmulgee Producing & Refining Co., Okmulgee, Okla 115 

O. K. Refining Co. (Cars operated by The Home Refining Co. of Texas) 

Ft. Worth, Texas 15 

Olsan Petroleum Co., Tulsa, Okla 11 

Omaha Refining Co., Omaha, Neb 25 

Oneta Refining Co., Tulsa, Okla 52 

OHage Gasoline Co., Kansas Citv, Mo 25 

(Jzark Refining Co., Ft. Smith, Ark 17 

Pan-Amirlcan Refining Co., Tulsa, Okla 310 

P.Hnhaiidle Refining Co., Wichita Falls, Texas 200 

Paragon Refining Co., Toledo, Ohio 600 

Pawnee Bill Oil & Refining Co., Yale, Okla 25 

l"«ll<-an Oil Refining Co., Inc.. New Orleans, La 19 

Pt-nn American Koflning Co., Oil Citv, Pa 250 

I'<-nngylvanla & Delaware Oil Co., New York, N. Y 20 

I'ennMylvanIa Gasoline Co.. Bradford, Pa 13 

P.-nnnylvanla on Products Refining Co., Eldred, Pa 40 

I'>-nni4>lvanla Itefining Co., Ltd., The, Karns Citv, Pa 7 

P.tt.T.Mon Co.. Geo. C, Chicago, 111 " . 5 

ivirolcum Products Co., The, Pittsburgh, Pa 12 

Pitroleum Refining Co., Latonia, Ky .47 

Phoonlx U.flnlng Co., Tulsa. Okla 180 

I'hllllpB Petroleum Co., The, Bartlesvllle, Okla 10 

IMirc. on Corp., SI. Loul.s, Mo 1,500 

I'lllBburgh Oil Refining Co., Pittsburgh. Pa '....".'. ['.".'.]]]... 85 

I'itlHburgh-Texa.s Oil & Gas Co., Muskogee, Okla.. 12 

I nlar PrMlu.ing * Gasoline Co., Okmulgee, Okla 10 

I rlin.t I'.lrii|r-um Products Co., Chicago 111 92 

T.Mlu.i.rH & Hoflnern Corp., Blackwell. Okla.. '. . . . 185 

I nid.-ntlal Oil Cdip., Haltimorc. Md . 300 

run- Oil c.i., Mlnni-apoliB, Minn 92 

Ititndolrih P.ir.il.um Co., Tul.sa, Okla! '.'. 10 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 145 



Tank Cars Owned By Oil Industry — Concluded 

Name and Location. Tank Cars 

Ranger Refining Co., Kansas City 80 

Record Oil Refining Co., The, New Orleans, La 35 

Red C Oil Co., Baltimore, Sid 1.5 

Red River Refining Co., Crichton, La 30 

Red River Refining Co. of Texas, Wichita Falls, Texas 50 

Richfield Oil Co.. Los Angeles, Cal ' 8 

Rio Grande Oil Co., EI Paso, Texas 22 

Riverside Eastern Oil Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 45 

Riverside Western Oil Co.. Tulsa, Okia 100 

Robinson Oil Refining Co., Robinson, 111 9 

Roth Gasoline Co., Independence, Kans 10 

Roxana Petroleum Co., Tulsa, Okla 750 

St. Louis Oil & Refining Co., Eldorado, Kans 25 

Sapulpa Refining Co., Sapulpa, Okla 445 

Seneca Oil Works, Warren. Pa 65 

Service Petroleum Co., The, Tulsa, Okla 15 

Schaffer Oil & Refining Co., Chicago, 111 450 

Shell Co., of California, San Francisco, Cal 100 

Simms Oil Co., Houston, Texas 500 

Sinclair Refining Co., Chicago, III 3,700 

Skagway Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 6 

Skelly Oil Co., Tulsa, Okla 12 

Sloan & Zook, Bradford, Pa 62 

Smiley Petroleum Co., Kansas City, Mo 95 

Smith Refining Co., Levi, Clarendon, Pa 20 

Southern Oil Corp., Kansas City, Mo 4 60 

Southland Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 16 

Southwestern Producing & Refining Co.. Wichita Falls, Texas 40 

Sterling Oil & Refining Co., Wichita, Kans 175 

Sterling Refining Co., Oklahoma City, Okla 20 

Stewart Petroleum Co., Tulsa. Okla 20 

StoU Oil Co., Inc., Louisville, Kv 35 

Stroud Co., B. B Bradford, Pa 25 

Sunland Oil Co., Tulsa, Okla 2S 

Sunshine State Oil & Refining Co., Wichita Falls, Tex:is 110 

Superior Oil Works, Ltd., Warren, Pa 35 

Texas Co., The, New York, N. Y 4,100 

Texhoma Oil it Refining Co., Wichita Falls, Ttxas SO 

Tidal Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 70 

Tiona Refining Co., Clarendon, Pa 50 

Titusville Oil Works, Titiisvillc, Pa 60 

Totem Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 10 

Transcontinental Refining Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 815 

Travis Oil Co., Tulsa, Okla 50 

Tribes Gasoline Co., Tulsa, Okla 15 

Turner Oil Co., Los Angeles, Cal 6 

Twin Hills Gasoline Co., Okmulgee, Okla 7 

Union Oil Co. of California, Los Angeles, Cal 325 

Union Petroleum Co.. Philadelphia, Pa 200 

United Oil Co., The, Denver, Col 20 

United Oil Refining Co., West Lake, La 15 

United Refining Co., Warren, Pa 45 

Union Tank Line (Standard) 25,000 

Valvoline Oil AVorks, Ltd., East Butler, Pa 130 

Ventura Refining Co., Los Angeles, Cal 15 

Vickers Petroleum Co., Pot win, Kans 25 

Vulcan Oil Refining Co., Cleveland, Ohio 48 

Wabash Refining Co., Robinson, 111 160 

Wadhams Oil Co., Milwaukee, Wis 10 

Waggoner Refining Co., Electra, Texas 80 

Walker Oil & Refining Co., Houston, Texas 10 

Warren Oil Co., Warren, Pa 415 

Warren Refining Co., Warren, Pa ' 70 

Waverly Oil Works Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 50 

Webster Oil & Gasoline Co., Yale, Okla 5 

Western Oil Corp., Tulsa, Okla 80 

Western Petroleum Co., Chicago, 111 10 

White Eagle Petroleum Co., Augusta, Kans 450 

White Oil Corp., Houston, Texas 335 

Wichita Valley Refining Co., Iowa Park, Texas 125 

Wilburne Oil Works, Ltd., Warren, Pa 75 

Wilhoit Refining Co., Springfield, Mo 110 

Wight Producing & Refining Corp., Tulsa, Okla 11 

Tank Car Companies 10,000 



146 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



RULES GOVERNING THE LOCATION OF NEW LOADING RACKS 
AND NEW UNLOADING POINTS FOR CASINGHEAD GASO- 
LINE, REFINERY GASOLINE, NAPHTHA OR IN- 
FLAMMABLE LIQUID WITH FLASH POINT 
BELOW 30 °F. 

The location of new loading racks and unloading points for 
volatile inflammable liquids is considered of great importance, and 
there is at present lack of uniformity in the enforcement of proper 
safe-guards for the protection of life and property. The following 
rules for the location of new installations shall govern all carriers 
under Federal control. These rules are not applicable to present 
locations. 

For the purpose of these rules casinghead gasoline is defined 
to be any mixture containing a condensate from casinghead gas or 
natural gas obtained by either the compression or the absorption pro- 
cess, and having a vapor tension in excess of 8 pounds per square 
inch. 

Loading. 

1. (a) New loading racks for refinery gasoline, naphtha, or 
any liquid (other than casinghead gasoline) with flash point below 
30 °F. Must not be located nearer than 50 feet to a track over which 
passenger trains are moved when physical conditions permit and in 
no case less than 25 feet. 

(b) New loading racks for casinghead gasoline must be located 
not less than 100 feet distant from a track over which passenger 
trains are moved when physical conditions permit, and in no case 
less than 50 feet. When within 75 feet of such a track a retaining 
wall, dike or earthen embankment shall be placed between the in- 
stallation and the track, so constructed as effectually to prevent 
liquids from flowing on to the track in case of accident. 

(c) In loading casinghead gasoline, the tank car and the stor- 
age tank shall be so connected as effectually to permit the free flow 
of the gasohne vapors from the tank car to the storage tank and to 
positively prevent the escape of these vapors to the air, or the vapors 
must be carried by a vent line to a point not less than 100 feet dis- 
tant from the nearest track over which passenger trains are moved. 

Unloading. 

t h ^^\ Y^^^ i^^^ unloading points requiring railroad service 
Hmn- I ) "Jh ?r^ ""^ ^^"u '^,''' ^^ refinery gasoline, benzine, or any 
liquid (other than casinghead gasoline) with flash point below 30 °F 

?I^W .n7 ;v, • ^^"^""^T. "'^f " ^^ '"^J^^t to negotiation between the 
carrier and the interested oil company. 

be nl«cld^,'''^!nf''**'''"'r°5 *^^ ""jo^ding of casinghead gasoline shall 
nasscn^^i tr..Tn« """ '^''^^"'u^ ^^ ^° *^^* ^^^"^ ^ ^^^^^ over which 
^Jca er di.So ' r'""'' '^•'''''' P^^'^^^' conditions do not permit a 
Svrwh.rf nh;J^"V "^?.'^!'"»'" distance of 100 feet shall be re- 
tioni Lr^ n n ./ ^ 'vf-' ';?"i''H^"^ P^™it' ^here old or new installa- 
tions are placed within 75 feet of a track over which passenger trains 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 147 



are moved a retaining: wall, dike or earthen embankment shall be 
placed between the installation and the track, so constructed as ef- 
fectually to prevent liquids from flowing on to the track in case of 
accident. 

Storage. 

3 (a) These regulations apply only to above-ground tanks for 
which railroad service is required. Under-ground tanks should be 
considered by interested railroads as occasion may arise. All stor- 
age tanks will be considered above ground unless they are buried so 
that the top of the tank is covered with at least three feet of earth. 

(b) All tanks should be set upon a firm foundation and be 
electrically grounded. 

(c) Each tank over 1,000 gallons in capacity shall have all man- 
holes, hand holes, vent openings, and other openings which may con- 
tain inflammable vapor, provided with 20x20 mesh brass wire screen 
or its equivalent, so attached as to completely cover the openings and 
be protected against clogging, these screens may be made removable 
but should be kept, normally, firmly attached. Such a tank must also 
be properly vented or provided with a suitable safety valve set to 
operate at not more than 5 pounds per square inch for both in- 
terior pressure and vacuum, manhole covers kept closed by their 
weight only will be considered satisfactory. 

(d) Tanks used with a pressure discharge system must have a 
safety valve set at not more than one-half of the pressure to which 
the tank was originallj' tested. 

(e) Tanks containing over 500 gallons and not exceeding 18,000 
gallons of gasoline, benzine, naphtha, casinghead gasoline, or any 
liquid with flash point below SCF, must be located not less than 20 
feet from a track over which passenger trains are moved. 

(f) For capacities exceeding 18,000 gallons, the following dis- 
tances shall govern: 

Capacity of tanks Minimum distance from a track over which 

(in gallons) passenger trains are moved. 

18,001 to 30,000 40 feet 

30,001 to 48,000 50 feet 

48.001 to 100,000 60 feet 

100,001 to 150,000 80 feet 

150,001 to 250,000 100 feet 

250,001 to 500,000 150 feet 

Over 500,000 200 feet 

(g) Where practicable, tanks should be located on ground slop- 
ing away from railroad property. If this is impracticable, then the 
tanks must be surrounded by dikes of earth, or concrete, or other 
suitable material, of sufficient capacity to hold all the contents of 
the tanks, or of such nature and location that in case of breakage of 
the tanks the liquid will be diverted to points such that railroad prop- 
ertj'^ and passing trains will not be endangered. 

General. 

4 (a) In measuring distance from any railroad track the near- 
est rail shall be considered as the starting point. 



148 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



(b) During the time that the tank car is connected by loading 
or unloading connections, there must be signs placed on track or car 
so as to give necessary warning. Such signs must be at least 12x15 
inches in size and bear the words "Stop — Tank Car Connected" or 
"Stop— Men at Work," the word "Stop" being in letters at least 4 
inches high and the other words in letters at least 2 inches high. The 
letters must be white on a blue background. The party loading or 
unloading the tank car is rsspansible for furnishing, maintaining, and 
placing these signs. 

(c) In laying pipe lines on railroad p;operty for the loading or 
unloading of tank cars, they must be la'd at a depth of at least three 
feet, and at points where such pipe lines pass under tracks they must 
be laid at least four feet below the bottom of the ties. 

(d) All connections between tank cars and pipe lines must be in 
good condition and must not permit any leakage. They must be fre- 
quently examined and replaced when they have become worn in order 
to insure at all times absolutely tight connections. Tank cars must 
not be left connected to pipe lines except when loading or unloading 
is going on and while a competent man is present and in charge. 

(e) The ends of the pipe lines for loading or unloading tank 
cars from their bottom opening, when on railroad property should 
be placed in shallow pits with brick or concrete walls not closer than 
8 feet from center line of track. These pits should be ventilated 
and be protected by substantial one-piece covers, level with the sur- 
face of the ground, which must be kept locked in place when the pits 
are not in use. These pits should not be drained into a sewer or run- 
ning stream. 

(f ) Except when closed electric lights are available, the loading 
or unloadmg of tank cars on railroad property shall not be permitted 
except during daylight when artificial light is not required. The 
presence of flame lanterns, nearby flame switch lights or other ex- 
posed flame lights or fires during the process of loading or unload- 
mg IS prohibited. 

B. W. DUNN, 
Chief Inspector. 



i 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 149 



THE MEASUREMENT AND GAUGING OF PETROLEUM. 

The unit of measurement of petroleum in the United States is 
the barrel of 42 U. S. gallons. The important units of measurement 
with factors for their conversion to one another are given below. 
Other units of measurement are to be found on pages 554-5-6. In 
measuring petroleum, it is necessary to strap the tanks in which 
it is contained and to prepare gauging tables for each tank. The 
tanks are usually identified by number. In the case of the vertical 
cylindrical tanks it is very simple to prepare gauging tables as the 
amount per inch is figured from formulae (1) on pages 135, 151, 182. 
Using an adding machine each inch is added and summed until the 
height of the tank is reached. 

In making gauging tables for horizontal cylindrical tanks formula 
(4), page 151, may be used but this is rather tedious. With flat 
ends and with diameters up to 10 feet the tables on pages 159 to 173 
are useful as it is only necessary to multiply the total capacity 
of the tank by the factor given for the depth desired. The result is 
in gallons. For horizontal tanks of any size, the tables given on 
pages 155-6 are most suitable. It is only necessary to first make 
a table showing the per cent of the total diameter represented 
by each inch in diameter and to multiply the corresponding per 
cent of capacity by the total capacity. 

The capacity of tanks with standard bumped ends is derived 
from formula (3) on page 151. The contents of tanks with bumped 
ends may be found as described on pages 153-4. For irregular 
tanks and tanks with coils and pipe, tables are made by measur- 
ing out water from the tank. On a lease or at the refinery it is 
usual to gauge all tanks every morning. The measurement may be 
done with a steel tap plumb bob at the end for the total amount 
of fluid and with a "thief" which measures the water in the bot- 
tom of the tank. A gauging stick may be used which is chalked with 
special chalk or carries a strip of sensitive paper showing the de- 
marcation between it and water may be used. A formula for im- 
pregnating paper indicator for this purpose is as follows: 

Calcium chloride 10 grams 

Gum Dextrin 15 grams 

Glycerin 5 C. C. 

Acetic Acid 99% 3 C. C. 

Water 30 C. C. 

Umber 10 grams 

For the correction of the volume of oil to a temperature of 
60 °F use the table on page 152. 



150 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 151 



HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TANKS. 

(1) Total capacity of horizontal cylindrical tank in gallons. 
C - .0034 d'L 

d = diameter in inches. L = length in inches. 

c = capacity in U. S. gallons. 

(2) Total capacity of horizontal cylindrical tanks in barrels with- 
out bumped ends. 

O r- 0.14 d-1 

d = diameter in feet. 

1 = length in feet. 

c = capacity in barrels. 

(3) Total capacity of horizontal cylindrical tank in barrels with 
bumped ends (when radius of bumped end = d ft.) 

C = d^' (0.14 1 + .019 d) 

Capacity of each bumped end = .019 d' bbls. =: .4024 d^ gallons 

(.000233d' if d = inches) 

(4) Liquid contents of partially filled tanks. 

C — Liquid contents in gallons. 

L = Length of tank in inches. 

d = Diameter of tank in inches. 

X =: Depth of liquid contents in inches. 



C .= 



(d— 2x d— 2x \ / \ 

0.004363 d- Cos-^ y x(d— x) 1 



231 

d— 2x 

Cos-' means the value of the angular degrees whose cosine 

d 

d— 2x 

is 



The cosine of an angle is the ratio in its right angled triangle, of the 
side adjacent the angle to the hypothenuse of the triangle. 

When L = 300 inches 
d = 100 inches 
X = 30 inches 
d— 2x 

= .4 

d 
Cos-^ .4 = 66.42" (From Trigonometric tables) 



300 
C =r 



231 
300 



I 0.004363 (10000) (66 42) — 20 \/ 2100 I 



231 
= 2617 gallons. 



(2897 — 882.) 



152 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



CORRECTIONS OF GAUGED VOLUME OF OIL TO 60° F. 

Multiply the volume in the tank or car at the observed tem- 
perature by the following factor to get the volume at 60' 
F. for each- commodity. 



Observed 
Temperature 


Casinghead 
Gasoline 


Gasoline and 
Naphtha 


Kerosene 


Gas Oil 


Fuel Oil 


Asphalt 


30 
32 
34 
36 
38 


1.0240 
1.0224 
1.0208 
1.0193 
1.0177 


1.0178 
1.0166 
1.0154 
1.0142 
1.0130 


1.0151 
1.0141 
1.0131 
1.0121 
1.0111 


1.0135 

1.0126 
1.0117 
1.0108 
1.0099 


1.0123 

1.0115 
1.0107 
1.0099 
1.0091 


1.0111 
1.0103 
1.0095 
1.0088 
1.0080 


40 
42 
44 
46 
48 


1.0161 
1.0145 
1 0129 
1.0113 
1.0098 


1.0118 
1.0106 
1.0095 
1.0083 
1.0071 


1.0101 
1.0091 
1.0080 
1.0070 
1.0060 


1.0090 
1.0081 
1.0072 
1.0063 
1.0054 


1 . 0082 
1.0074 
1.0066 
1.0058 
1.0050 


1.0073 
1.0066 
1.0059 
1.0051 
1.0044 


50 
52 

54 
56 

58 


1.0082 
1.0065 
1 . 0048 
1.0032 
1.0016 


1.0059 
1 . 0048 
1.0036 
1.0024 
1.0012 


1.0050 
1.0040 
1.0030 
1.0020 
1.0010 


1.0045 
1.0036 
1.0027 
1.0018 
1.0009 


1.0041 
1.0033 
1.0025 
1.0017 
1.0009 


1.0037 
1.0029 
1.0021 
1.0014 
1.0007 


60 
62 
64 
66 
68 


1.0000 
0.9984 
0.9968 
0.9952 
0.9936 


1.0000 
0.9988 
0.9976 
0.9964 
0.9952 


1.0000 
0.9990 
0.9980 
0.9970 
0.9960 


1.0000 
0.9991 
0.9982 
0.9973 
0.9964 


1 . 0000 
0.9992 
0.9984 
0.9976 
0.9967 


1.0000 
0.9992 
0.9985 
0.9978 
0.9971 


70 

72 
74 
76 
78 


0.9919 
0.9903 
0.9887 
0.9871 
0.9855 


0.9940 
0.9928 
0.9917 
0.9905 
0.9893 


. 9950 
0.9940 
0.9930 
0.9920 
0.9909 


0.9955 
0.9946 
0.9937 
0.9928 
0.9919 


0.9959 
0.9951 
. 9943 
0.9935 
0.9927 


0.9963 
0.9956 
0.9948 
0.9941 
0.9934 


80 

82 

84 
86 

88 


0.9839 
0.9823 
. 9807 
0.9790 
0.9774 


0.9881 
0.9869 
0.9857 
0.9845 
0.9833 


0.9899 
0.9889 
0.9879 
0.9868 
0.9856 


0.9910 
0.9901 
0.9892 
0.9883 
0.9875 


0.9918 
0.9910 
0.9902 
0.9893 
0.9885 


0.9927 
0.9920 
0.9912 
0.9905 
0.9898 


90 
92 
94 
96 
98 

100 
102 
104 
106 

108 

110 
112 
114 
116 
118 

120 


0.9758 
0.9741 
0.9725 
0.9708 
. 9692 

0.9676 
0.9660 
0.9643 
0.9626 
0.9610 


0.9821 
0.9809 
0.9798 
0.9786 
0.9774 


0.9848 
0.9838 
0.9828 
0.9818 
0.9808 


0.9865 
0.9856 
. 9847 
0.9838 
0.9829 


0.9877 
0.9869 
0.9860 
0.9852 
. 9844 


0.9891 
0.9884 
0.9877 
0.9870 
0.9862 


0.9762 
0.9750 
0.9738 
0.9726 
0.9714 


0.9797 
0.9787 
0.9777 
0.9767 
0.9757 


0.9820 
0.9811 
. 9802 
0.9793 
0.9784 


0.9836 
0.9828 
. 9820 
0.9812 
. 9804 


0.9855 
0.9848 
0.9841 
0.9834 
0.9827 


0.9594 

9578 
9562 
0.9545 
0.9529 

0.9513 


0.9702 
9690 
0.9678 
9666 
0.9654 
0.9642 


0.9747 
0.9736 
0.9726 
0.9716 
0.9706 

0.9696 


0.9776 
0.9767 
9758 
0.9749 
. 9740 


0.9796 
0.9788 
. 9880 
0.9772 
0.9764 


0.9819 
0.9812 
. 9805 
0.9798 
0.9791 


0.9731 


0.9756 


0.9784 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



153 



METHOD OF GAUGING A HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TANK 
WITH BUMPED ENDS (RADIUS OF CURVATURE = d). 




- / ~ 



Fig. 22 — Horizontal Cylindrical Tank Diagram. 

d = diameter of tank in inches. 

c =: total capacity of cylindrical portion of tank in U. S. gallons. 

f = liquid depth of the contents of the tank in inches. 

c = 0.0034 d=l 

b = 0.0004666 d' = capacity of both bumped ends in U. S. gallons. 



lOOf 



= % liquid depth of total diameter. 



EXAMPLE: 



then 
and 



and 



d = 87.0 inches 
1 = 378.2 inches 
f = 21.1 inches 

c = 9733. gallons 
b = 307. gallons 

10040. gallons = total capacity of tank 



lOOf 



= 24.25% 



From the tables of the following pages 155-158. 
24.25% of d = 12.06% of b = 37. gallons 
and = 18.78% of c = 1828. gallons 

Therefore total contents = 1865. gallons 



Take the temperature of the oil with a tank thermometer and in 
the preceding table giving the corrections for gauged volume of oil 
to 60°F, look up this temperature. Multiply the above calculated 
volume by the factor corresponding to this temperature and use the 
product as contents of the tank. This gives the volume at 60 °F. In 
the case of the above tank containing 1865 gallons of gasoline at a 
temperature, for instance of 80 °F the factor used would be 0.9881 
and the net contents of the tank at 60 °F would be 1843 gallons. 



154 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Method of Constructing a Gauging Table for Horizontal Cylindrical 
Tank With Standard Bumped Ends, (r = d) for Each .1 Inch. 



Assume tank diameter = 87.0 inches, 
length = 378.2 inches. 



Total capacity of cylindrical portion 

bumped ends 
total capacity 



9,733 gallons. 

s = 307 gallons. 

10,040 gallons. 



To construct this table, a slide rule (Thacher) reading to the 
fifth place is very convenient. Set the rule w^ith a divisor of 87.0 
and with the one setting of the rule, read off the per cent of diameter 
for each 0.1 inch in depth to one-half of the diameter of the tank, 
that is 43.5 inches. Now look up in the tables on following pages, 
the corresponding values, interpolating if that accuracy is desired, 
for the capacity of the cylindrical portion and the bumped end por- 
tions of the tank and record these values as shown below. Now set 
the slide rule with the total capacity of the cylindrical portion in 
gallons as multiplier and read off and record the capacities corre- 
sponding to each 0.1 inch of diameter as already set out. Do the same 
with the bumped ends. Add the two values and the gauging table is 
complete up to half full. Now subtract the preceding value from 
each value of total gallons and with the adding machine sum each 
value. This completes the table. The following sets forth enough 
to illustrate the method: 



Depth, 




% of Cyl- 


%of 


Actual Gallons 


m 


%of 


inder 


Bumped 


Cylinder 


Bumped 




Inches Diameter 


Capacity 


Capacity 


Part 


Part 


Total 


0.1.. 


.. 0.12. 


... .007. 


... 0.00.. 


.. 0.7. . 


... 0.0... 


0.7 


1.0.. 


.. 1.15. 


... .21 . 


... 0.01.. 


.. 20.4.. 


... 0.0... 


. 20.4 


1.1.. 


.. 1.26.. 


... .24 . 


... 0.01.. 


.. 23.4.. 


... 0.0... 


. 23.4 


2.0. . 


.. 2.30.. 


... .59 . 


... 0.03.. 


.. 57.4.. 


. .. 0.1.. . 


. 57.5 


2.1.. 


.. 2.41.. 


... .63 . 


... 0.04.. 


.. 61.3.. 


... 0.1... 


. 61.4 


3.0.. 


.. 3.45. 


... 1.07 . 


... 0.11.. 


.. 104.1.. 


... 0.4... 


. 104.5 


3.1.. 


.. 3.56. 


... 1.12 . 


... 0.12.. 


.. 109.0.. 


... 0.4... 


. 109.4 


4.0. . 


.. 4.64.. 


... 1.67 . 


... 0.23.. 


.. 162.5.. 


... 0.7... 


. 163.2 


4.1.. 


.. 4.71.. 


... 1.71 . 


... 0.24.. 


.. 166.4.. 


... 0.7... 


. 167.1 


5.0. . 


.. 5.75.. 


... 2.30 . 


... 0.44.. 


.. 223.8.. 


... 1.4.. . 


. 225.2 


6.0. . 


.. 6.90.. 


... 3.01 . 


... 0.64.. 


.. 292.9.. 


... 2.0... 


. 294.9 


7.J0. . 


.. 8.05.. 


... 3.78 . 


... 0.92.. 


.. 367.9.. 


... 2.8... 


. 370.7 


43 . . . 


..49.42.. 


...49.26 . 


...48.96.. 


..4794.5.. 


. ..150.3... 


.4944.8 


43.5. . 


. . 50 . 00 . . 


...50.00 . 


...50.00.. 


..4866.5.. 


. ..153.5... 


. 5020 . 


44.0. . 












5095 2 


«0.0. . 












.9669.3 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



155 



TABLE FOR GAUGING THE CONTENTS AT VARIOUS 
DEPTHS OF HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TAN 
For Bumped Ends, See Next Table. 

% d = percentage of total diameter of tank. 
% c = percentage of total capacity of tank. 



LIQUID 
KS. 



%d 


%c 


%d 


%c 


%d 


C7p 


%d 


%c 


%d 


%c 


0.1 


0.0053 


5.1 


1 . 9250 


10.1 


5.2805 


15.1 


9.497 


20.1 


14.341 


0.2 


0.0152 


5.2 


1.9814 


10.2 


5.3580 


15.2 


9.588 


20.2 


14.444 


0.3 


0.0279 


5.3 


2.0383 


10.3 


5.4350 


15.3 


9.679 


20.3 


14.547 


0.4 


0.0429 


5.4 


2.0956 


10.4 


5.5122 


15.4 


9.771 


20.4 


14.649 


0.5 


0.0600 


5.5 


2.1535 


10.5 


5 . 5902 


15.5 


9.863 


20.5 


14.751 


0.6 


0.0788 


5.6 


2.2116 


10.6 


5.6690 


15.6 


9.956 


20.6 


14.854 


0.7 


0.0992 


5.7 


2.2705 


10.7 


5.7472 


15.7 


10.048 


20.7 


14.957 


0.8 


0.1212 


5.8 


2 . 3297 


10.8 


5.8258 


15.8 


10.142 


20.8 


15.060 


0.9 


0.1445 


5.9 


2.3895 


10.9 


5.9050 


15.9 


10.234 


20.9 


15.163 


1.0 


0.1692 


6.0 


2.4497 


11.0 


5.9848 
6.0645 


16.0 


10.327 


21.0 


15.267 


1.1 


0.1952 


6.1 


2.5105 


11.1 


16.1 


10.422 


21.1 


15.371 


1.2 


0.2223 


6.2 


2.5715 


11.2 


6.1445 


16.2 


10.515 


21.2 


15.475 


1.3 


0.2508 


6.3 


2.6333 


11.3 


6.2255 


16.3 


10.609 


21.3 


15.579 


1.4 


0.2800 


6.4 


2.6952 


11.4 


6.3060 


16.4 


10.703 


21.4 


15.683 


1.5 


0.3104 


6.5 


2.7579 


11.5 


6.3870 


16.5 


10.797 


21.5 


15.787 


1.6 


0.3419 


6.6 


2.8211 


11.6 


6.4685 


16.6 


10.893 


21.6 


15.892 


1.7 


0.3744 


6.7 


2 . 8845 


11.7 


6.5500 


16.7 


10.986 


21.7 


15.998 


1.8 


0.4077 


6.8 


2.9483 


11.8 


6.6320 


16.8 


11.082 


21.8 


16.101 


1.9 


0.4421 


6.9 


3.0127 


11.9 


6.7145 


16.9 


11.178 


21.9 


16.206 


2.0 


0.4773 


7.0 


3.0771 


12.0 


6.7970 


17.0 
17.1 


11.273 
11.369 


22.0 
22.1 


16.312 


2.1 


0.5134 


7.1 


3.1426 


12.1 


6.8795 


16.418 


2.2 


0.5501 


7.2 


3.2082 


12.2 


6.9630 


17.2 


11.465 


22.2 


16.524 


2.3 


0.5881 


7.3 


3.2742 


12.3 


7 . 0460 


17.3 


11.561 


22.3 


16.630 


2.4 


0.6263 


7.4 


3.3408 


12.4 


7.1305 


17.4 


11.657 


22.4 


16.737 


2.5 


0.6660 


7.5 


3.4075 


12.5 


7.2145 


17.5 


11.754 


22.5 


16.842 


2.6 


0.7061 


7.6 


3.4749 


12.6 


7.2990 


17.6 


11.851 


22.6 


16.949 


2.7 


0.7470 


7.7 


3 . 5426 


12.7 


7.3830 


17.7 


11.949 


22.7 


17.055 


2.8 


0.7886 


7.8 


3.6106 


12.8 


7.4680 


17.8 


12.046 


22.8 


17.161 


2.9 


0.8310 


7.9 


3.6790 


12.9 


7.5540 


17.9 


12.143 


22.9 


17.269 


3.0 


0.8742 


8.0 


3.7480 


13.0 


7.6390 

7.7245 


18.0 


12.240 


23.0 
23.1 


17.376 


3.1 


0.9179 


8.1 


3.8171 


13.1 


18.1 


12.338 


17.483 


3.2 


0.9625 


8.2 


3.8869 


13.2 


7.8110 


18.2 


12.437 


23.2 


17.590 


3.3 


1.0075 


8.3 


3 . 9570 


13.3 


7.8970 


18.3 


12.535 


23.3 


17.698 


3.4 


1.0533 


8.4 


4.0276 


13.4 


7.9840 


18.4 


12.633 


23.4 


17.806 


3.5 


1.0998 


8.5 


4 . 0983 


13.5 


8.0710 


18.5 


12.732 


23.5 


17.913 


3.6 


1 . 1470 


8.6 


4.1696 


13.6 


8.1580 


18.6 


12.831 


23.6 


18.022 


3.7 


1.1947 


8.7 


4.2411 


13.7 


8.2450 


18.7 


12.930 


23.7 


18.130 


3.8 


1.2432 


8.8 


4.3131 


13.8 


8.3330 


18.8 


13.030 


23.8 


18.240 


3.9 


1.2921 


8.9 


4.3855 


13.9 


8.4210 


18.9 


13.130 


23.9 


18.348 


4.0 


1.3418 


9.0 


4.4582 


14.0 


8.5090 
8.5975 


19.0 


13.229 


24.0 
24.1 


18.457 


4.1 


1.3920 


9.1 


4.5312 


14.1 


19.1 


13.329 


18.566 


4.2 


1 .4429 


9.2 


4.6045 


14.2 


8.6860 


19.2 


13.429 


24.2 


18.675 


4.3 


1.4941 


9.3 


4.6782 


14.3 


8.7755 


19.3 


13.529 


24.3 


18.784 


4.4 


1.5461 


9.4 


4.7525 


14.4 


8.8645 


19.4 


13.630 


24.4 


18.892 


4.5 


1 . 5986 


9.5 


4.8270 


14.5 


8.9545 


19.5 


13.731 


24.5 


19.010 


4.6 


1.6515 


9.6 


4.9015 


14.6 


9.0440 


19.6 


13.832 


24.6 


19.110 


4.7 


1.7052 


9.7 


4.9769 


14.7 


9.1345 


19.7 


13.934 


24.7 


19.220 


4.8 


1.7594 


9.8 


5.0523 


14.8 


9.2240 


19.8 


14.035 


24.8 


19.330 


4.9 


1.8142 


9.9 


5.1280 


14.9 


9.3150 


19.9 


14.146 


24.9 


19.440 


5.0 


1.8693 


10.0 


5.2040 


15.0 


9.406 


20.0 


14.238 


25.0 


19.551 



156 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



TABLE FOR GAUGING HORIZONTAL CYLINDRICAL TANKS— 

Continued. 

% d = percentage of total capacity of tank. 
% c = percentage of total capacity of tank. 



%d 


%c 


%d 


%c 


%d 


%c 


%d 


%c 


%d 
45.1 
45.2 
45.3 
45.4 
45.5 
45.6 
45.7 
45.8 
45.9 
46.0 


%c 


25.1 
25.2 
25.3 
25.4 
25.5 
25.6 
25.7 
25.8 
25.9 
26.0 


19.662 
19.773 
19.884 
19.995 
20.106 
20.217 
20.328 
20.439 
20.550 
20.661 


30,1 
30.2 
30,3 
30,4 
30,5 
30,6 
30.7 
30.8 
30.9 
31.0 


25.350 
25.467 
25,584 
25,701 
25,818 
25.935 
26,052 
26,170 
26,288 
26,407 

26,524 
26,642 
26,760 
26.878 
26.996 
27.114 
27,232 
27,351 
27.470 
27.589 
27.708 
27.827 
27.946 
28.C65 
28.184 
28.302 
28.422 
28.543 
28.660 
28.781 


35.1 
35.2 
35.3 
35.4 
35.5 
35.6 
35.7 
35.8 
35.9 
36.0 


31.314 
31.436 
31.558 
31.680 
31.802 
31.924 
32.046 
32.168 
32.290 
32.412 


40.1 
40.2 
40.3 
40.4 
40.5 
40.6 
40.7 
40.8 
40.9 
41.0 


37.480 
37 . 606 
37.731 
37.856 
37.981 
38.106 
38.231 
38.355 
38.479 
38 . 604 

38.730 
38 . 856 
38.982 
39.108 
39.233 
39.358 
39 , 482 
39,608 
39,735 
39.862 


43.775 
43.902 
44.028 
44.155 
44.282 
44.409 
44.538 
44.663 
44.790 
44.918 


26.1 
26.2 
26.3 
26.4 
26.5 
26.6 
26.7 
26.8 
26.9 
27.0 


20.773 
20.886 
20.998 
21.110 
21.222 
21.334 
21.447 
21.560 
21.672 
21.785 


31.1 
31.2 
31.3 
31.4 
31.5 
31.6 
31.7 
31.8 
31.9 
32.0 


36 1 
36.2 
36.3 
36.4 
36.5 
.36.6 
36.7 
36.8 
36.9 
37.0 

37.1 
37.2 
37.3 
37.4 
37.5 
37.6 
37.7 
37.8 
37.9 
38.0 


32 . 534 
32.657 
32.780 
32.902 
33.025 
33.147 
33.269 
33.392 
33.515 
S3. 638 
33.762 
33 . 885 
34.003 
34.131 
34.254 
34.377 
34.501 
34.625 
34.759 
34 . 873 

34.996 
35,119 
35.242 
35.368 
35.491 
35.615 
35.739 
35.865 
35.988 
36.110 


41.1 
41.2 
41.3 
41.4 
41.5 
41.6 
41.7 
41.8 
41.9 
42.0 


46.1 
46.2 
46.3 
46.4 
46.5 
46.6 
46.7 
46.8 
46.9 
47.0 


45.043 
45.171 
45.298 
45.424 
45.550 
45.678 
45.803 
45 . 930 
46.058 
46.183 


27.1 
27.2 
27.3 
27.4 
27.5 
27.6 
27.7 
27.8 
27.9 
28.0 


21.898 
22.011 
22 . 125 
22.239 
22.353 
22.467 
22,581 
22.695 
22.810 
22.923 

23.038 
23 . 152 
23.266 
23.380 
23.494 
23.611 
23.728 
23.842 
23.957 
24.072 
24 . 187 
24.302 
24.418 
24.535 
24.651 
24.769 
24.884 
25.000 
25,116 
25.233 


32.1 
32.2 
32.3 
32,4 
32.5 
32.6 
32.7 
32.8 
32.9 
33.0 


42.1 
42.2 
42.3 
42.4 
42.5 
42.6 
42.7 
42.8 
42.9 
43.0 

43.1 
43.2 
43.3 
43.4 
43.5 
43.6 
43.7 
43.8 
43.9 
44.0 


39.988 
40.114 
40.240 
40.365 
40.490 
40.615 
40.741 
40.869 
40.994 
41.120 

41.246 
41 . 372 
41.499 
41.628 
41.749 
41.876 
42.002 
42 . 129 
42.257 
42.383 

42.510 
42.637 
42.762 
42 . 890 
43.018 
43.142 
43.268 
43.397 
43.521 
43.648 


47.1 
47.2 
47.3 
47.4 
47.5 
47.6 
47.7 
47.8 
47.9 
48.0 


46.311 
46.438 
46,565 
46.693 
46.819 
46.947 
47 . 074 
47.201 
47.329 
47.457 


28.1 
28.2 
28.3 
28.4 
28.5 
28.6 
28.7 
28.8 
28.9 
29.0 


33.1 
33.2 
33.3 
33.4 
33.5 
33.6 
33.7 
33.8 
33.9 
34.0 
34.1 
34,2 
34.3 
34.4 
34.5 
34.6 
34.7 
34.8 
34.9 
35,0 


28.899 
29.020 
29.140 
29,260 
29,380 
29,500 
29.620 
29.740 
29.860 
29.981 

30.102 
30.223 
30.344 
30.465 
30.587 
30.708 
30.829 
30.950 
31.071 
31.192 


38.1 
38.2 
38.3 
38.4 
38.5 
38.6 
38.7 
38.8 
38.9 
39.0 
39.1 
39.2 
39.3 
39.4 
39.5 
39.6 
39.7 
39.8 
39.9 
40.0 


48.1 
48.2 
48.3 
48.4 
48.5 
48.6 
48.7 
48.8 
48.9 
49.0 


47.583 
47.710 
47.837 
47.965 
48.093 
48.220 
48.348 
48.475 
48.603 
48.729 


29.1 
29.2 
29.3 
29.4 
29.5 
29.6 
29.7 
29.8 
29.9 
30.0 


36.234 
36.359 
36.483 
36.608 
36.732 
36.856 
36.981 
37.106 
37.230 
37.355 


44.1 
44.2 
44.3 
44.4 
44.5 
44.6 
44.7 
44.8 
44.9 
45.0 


49.1 
49.2 
49.3 
49.4 
49.5 
49.6 
49.7 
49.8 
49.9 
50.0 


48.857 
48.983 
49.112 
49.239 
49.366 
49.494 
49.621 
49.748 
49.877 
50.000 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



157 



TABLE FOR GAUGING THE CONTENTS AT VARIOUS LIQUID 

DEPTHS OF BUMPED ENDS OF HORIZONTAL 

CYLINDRICAL TANKS. 

% d = percentage of total diameter of tank. 

% h = percentage of total contents of both bumped ends. 



%d 


%b 


%d 


%b 


%d 


%b 


%d 


%b 


%d 


%b 


0.1 


0.00 


5.1 


0.32 


10.1 


1.62 


15.1 


4.18 


20.1 


7.99 


0.2 


0.00 


5.2 


0.34 


10.2 


1.66 


15.2 


4.24 


20.2 


8.09 


0.3 


i).00 


5.3 


0.36 


10.3 


1.69 


15.3 


4.31 


20.3 


8.19 


0.4 


0.00 


5.4 


0.38 


10.4 


1.73 


15.4 


4.38 


20.4 


8.28 


0.5 


0.01 


5 5 


0.40 


10.5 


1.77 


15.5 


4.44 


20.5 


8.38 


0.6 


0.01 


5.6 


0.41 


10.6 


1.81 


15.6 


4.50 


20.6 


8.46 


0.7 


0.01 


5.7 


0.43 


10.7 


1.85 


15.7 


4.57 


20.7 


8.54 


0.8 


0.01 


5.8 


0.45 


10.8 


1.89 


15.8 


4.63 


20.8 


8.63 


0.9 


0.01 


5.9 


0.47 


10.9 


1.94 


15.9 


4.70 


20.9 


8.72 


1.0 


0.01 


6.0 


0.49 


11.0 


1.98 


16.0 


4.77 


21.0 
21.1 


8.81 


1.1 


0.01 


6.1 


0.50 


11.1 


2.03 


16.1 


4.83 


8.89 


1.2 


0.01 


6.2 


0.52 


11.2 


2.07 


16.2 


4.90 


21.2 


8.97 


1.3 


0.01 


6.3 


0.53 


11.3 


2.11 


16.3 


4.96 


21.3 


9.06 


1.4 


0.02 


6.4 


0.54 


11.4 


2.15 


16.4 


5.03 


21.4 


9.15 


1.5 


0.02 


6.5 


0.56 


11.5 


2.20 


16.5 


5.10 


21.5 


9.24 


1.6 


0.02 


6.6 


0.58 


11.6 


2.24 


16.6 


5.17 


21.6 


9.34 


1.7 


0.02 


6.7 


0.60 


11.7 


2.29 


16.7 


5.25 


21.7 


9.44 


1.8 


0.02 


6.8 


0.62 


11.8 


2.33 


16.8 


5.32 


21.8 


9.54 


1.9 


0.02 


6.9 


0.64 


11.9 


2.38 


16.9 


5.40 


21.9 


9.64 


2.0 


0.02 


7.0 


0.66 


12.0 


2.43 


17.0 


5.48 


22.0 


9.74 


2.1 


0.03 


7.1 


0.68 


12.1 


2.48 


17.1 


5.55 


22.1 


9.84 


2.2 


0.03 


7.2 


0.70 


12.2 


2.54 


17.2 


5.63 


22.2 


9.93 


2.3 


0.04 


7.3 


0.73 


12.3 


2.59 


17.3 


5.71 


22.3 


10.03 


2.4 


0.04 


7.4 


0.75 


12.4 


2.65 


17.4 


5.78 


22.4 


10.12 


2.5 


0.05 


7.5 


0.78 


12.5 


2.70 


17.5 


5.86 


22.5 


10.22 


2.6 


0.05 


7.6 


0.81 


12.6 


2.75 


17.6 


5.94 


22.6 


10.32 


2.7 


0.06 


7.7 


0.84 


12.7 


2.80 


17.7 


6.02 


22.7 


10.42 


2.8 


0.06 


7.8 


0.87 


12.8 


2.85 


17.8 


6.10 


22.8 


10.52 


2.9 


0.07 


7.9 


0.90 


12.9 


2.90 


17.9 


6.17 


22.9 


10.62 


3.0 


0.07 


8.0 


0.92 


13.0 


2.95 


18.0 


6.25 


23.0 


10.72 


3.1 


0.08 


8.1 


0.95 


13.1 


3.01 


18.1 


6.33 


23.1 


10.82 


3.2 


0.08 


8.2 


0.98 


13.2 


3.06 


18.2 


6.41 


23.2 


10.93 


3.3 


0.09 


8.3 


1.01 


13.3 


3.12 


18.3 


6.49 


23.3 


11.04 


3.4 


0.10 


8.4 


1.05 


13.4 


3.17 


18.4 


6.57 


23.4 


11.14 


3.5 


0.11 


8.5 


1.08 


13.5 


3.22 


18.5 


6.64 


23.5 


11.25 


3.6 


0.12 


8.6 


1.11 


13.6 


3.28 


18.6 


6.72 


23.6 


11.36 


3.7 


0.13 


8.7 


1.14 


13.7 


3.33 


18.7 


6.80 


23.7 


11.47 


3.8 


0.14 


8.8 


1.17 


13.8 


3.39 


18.8 


6.88 


23.8 


11.58 


3.9 


0.15 


8.9 


1.20 


13.9 


3.44 


18.9 


6.96 


23.9 


11.69 


4.0 


0.16 


9.0 


1.23 


14.0 


3.50 


19.0 


7.05 


24.0 


11.80 


4.1 


0.17 


9.1 


1.26 


14.1 


3.56 


19.1 


7.13 


24.1 


11.90 


4.2 


0.18 


9.2 


1.30 


14.2 


3.62 


19.2 


7.21 


24.2 


12.01 


4.3 


0.19 


9.3 


1.33 


14.3 


3.68 


19.3 


7.29 


24.3 


12.12 


4.4 


0.20 


9.4 


1.36 


14.4 


3.74 


19.4 


7.37 


24.4 


12.22 


4.5 


0.21 


9.5 


1.40 


14.5 


3.80 


19.5 


7.46 


24.5 


12.32 


4.6 


0.22 


9.6 


1.43 


14.6 


3.87 


19.6 


7.55 


24.6 


12.43 


4.7 


0.24 


9.7 


1.46 


14.7 


3.93 


19.7 


7.63 


24.7 


12.54 


4.8 


0.26 


9.8 


1.50 


14.8 


4.00 


19.8 


7.72 


24.8 


12.66 


4.9 


0.28 


9.9 


1.54 


14.9 


4.06 


19.9 


7.81 


24.9 


12.77 


5.0 


0.30 


10.0 


1.58 


15.0 


4.12 


20.0 


7.90 


25.0 


12.89 



158 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



T\BLE FOR GAUGING THE CONTENTS AT VARIOUS LIQUID 
^ DEPTHS OF BUMPED ENDS OF HORIZONTAL 

CYLINDRICAL TANKS (Concluded) 

% d = percentage of total diameter of tank. 

e^^ ^ — percentage of total contents of both bumped ends. 



%d 



25.1 
25.2 
25.3 
25.4 
25.5 
25.6 
25.7 
25.8 
25.9 
26.0 



26.1 
26.2 
26.3 
26.4 
26.5 
26.6 
26.7 
26.8 
26.9 
27.0 



27.1 
27.2 
27,3 
27.4 
27.5 
27.6 
27.7 
27.8 
27.9 
28.0 
28.1 
28.2 
28.3 
28.4 
28,5 
28.6 
28.7 
28,8 
28,9 
29,0 

29, 1 
29,2 
29,3 
29.4 
29,5 
29,6 
29.7 
29.8 
29,9 
30,0 



%b 



%d 






12.95 
13.06 
13,17 
13,29 
13.40 
13,51 
13.63 
13,75 
13,87 
13,98 



14,10 
14.22 
14,34 
14 46 
14,58 
14,70 
14,82 
14,94 
15,16 
15,19 



30,1 
30,2 



15,31 
15,43 
15,56 
15,68 
15.80 
15.92 
16.04 
16.16 
16,28 
16,40 



16,53 
16,65 
16,77 
16,90 
17,02 
17,14 
17,27 
17.39 
17,51 
17.63 

17.76 
17.89 
18.02 
18.15 
18.27 
18,40 
18,53 
18,66 
18,80 
18,93 



30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
31 



31,1 
31.2 
31,3 



31 

31 

31 

31 

31,8 

31.9 

32.0 



32.1 
32.2 
32.3 
32.4 
32,5 
32,6 
32,7 
32,8 
32,9 
33,0 



33,1 
33,2 
33.3 
33.4 
33.5 
33.6 
33.7 
33,8 
33,9 
34,0 



34.1 
34.2 
34.3 
34.4 
34.5 
34.6 
34.7 
34.8 
34.9 
35.0 



19.06 
19,19 
19,32 
19,43 
19,55 
19.68 
19.81 
19.94 
20.07 
20.22 



%d I %b 



20.37 
20.52 
20,67 



20 
20 
21 
21 
21 



82 
97 
11 
25 
39 



21,52 
21,65 



21.79 
21.93 
22.07 
22.20 
22.34 
22.47 
22.60 
22.74 
22.87 
23.00 



23.14 
23.28 
23.41 
23.55 



23 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 



69 
84 
99 
15 
31 
45 



35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
36 



36.1 
36.2 
36.3 
36.4 
36.5 
36.6 
36.7 
36.8 
36.9 
37.0 



37.1 

37.2 
37.3 
37.4 
37.5 
37.6 
37.7 
37.8 
37.9 
38.0 



24.59 
24.74 
24.89 
25.05 
25.20 
25.36 
25.52 
25.68 
25.84 
25.90 



38 

38 

38 

38 

38 

38 

38.7 

38.8 

38.9 

39.0 



39.1 
39.2 
39.3 
39.4 
39.5 
39.6 
39,7 
39.8 
39.9 
40.0 



26.05 

26.20 
26.35 
26.50 
26.65 
26.80 
26.95 
27.10 
27.25 
27,40 



27,55 

27.70 
27.84 
27.99 
28.13 
28.28 
28.43 
28,59 
28.75 
28.90 



29.05 
29.20 
29.35 
29.50 
29.65 
29.80 
29.95 
30.10 
30.26 
30.42 



30.58 
30.74 
30.91 
31.08 
31.25 
31.40 
31.56 
31.72 
31.87 
32.02 



32.16 
32.31 
32.46 
32.60 
32.75 
32.91 
33.06 
33.32 
33,45 
33.58 



%b 
40.1 
40.2 
40.3 
40.4 
40.5 
40,6 
40,7 
40,8 
40,9 
41,0 



41,1 

41,2 

41 

41 

41 

41 

41,7 

41,8 

41,9 

42,0 



42.1 
42.2 
42.3 
42.4 
42.5 
42.6 
42,7 
42,8 
42,9 
43,0 



%b 



43 

43 

43 

43 

43 

43 

43 

43.8 

43.9 

44.0 



.1 
.2 
.3 
.4 
.5 
.6 
.7 



44.1 

44.2 
44,3 
44,4 
44,5 
44,6 
44,7 
44:8 
44,9 
45,0 



33,74 
33,90 
34.05 
34.20 
34.35 
34.50 
34.65 
34.80 
34.95 
35.10 

35.26 
35.42 
35.58 
35.75 
35.92 
36.08 
36.24 
36.39 
36.55 
36 . 70 



%d 



36.86 
37.02 
37.18 
37.34 
37.50 
37.67 
37.83 
37.99 
38.16 
38.32 



38.49 
38.65 
38.81 
38.97 
39.13 
39.30 
39.46 
39.62 
39.78 
39.95 



40.12 
40.29 
40.46 



40 
40 
40 
41 
41 
41 
41 



62 

,79 
95 
,11 
,27 
,44 
,60 



45.1 
45.2 
45.3 
45.4 
45.5 
45.6 
45.7 
45.8 
45.9 
46.0 



46.1 
46.2 
46.3 
46.4 
46.5 
46.6 
46.7 
46.8 
46.9 
47.0 



47.1 
47.2 
47.3 
47.4 
47.5 
47.6 
47.7 
47.8 
47.9 
48.0 



%b 



48.1 
48.2 
48.3 
48.4 
48.5 
48.6 
48.7 
48.8 
48.9 
49.0 



49.1 
49.2 
49.3 
49.4 
49.5 
49.6 
49.7 
49.8 
49.9 
50.0 



41.77 
41.94 
42,11 
42,28 
42,45 
42,61 
42,77 
42,93 
43,09 
43,25 
43.41 
43 . 57 
43.73 
43.89 
44.05 
44.22 
44.38 
44.54 
44.71 
44.88 

45.05 
45.23 
45,31 
45,59 

45 , 77 
45,95 

46 , 12 
46,29 
46,46 
46,63 



46,80 
46,96 
47,13 
47,30 
47,46 
47,62 
47,77 
47,93 
48.09 
48.25 



48 
48 
48 
48 
49 
49 



42 
59 
76 
93 
10 
28 



49.46 
49.64 
49.82 
50.00 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



159 



CONTENTS OF HORIZONTAL TANKS (GALLONS). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tanks in Inches. 



36 Inches in 


37 Inches in 


38 Inches in 


Depth 


39 Inches in 


40 Inches in 


41 Inches in 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 








20y2 
20 
193^ 
19 

im 

18 






2 858 










2.720 


2 769 








2.586 
2.501 








2.445 


2.547 


2 951 




2.327 
2.247 




2 203 


2.290 


2.332 


2.374 


2.415 


2.047 


2.087 


2.126 


17 


2 165 


2 202 


2.239 


1 893 


1.92S 


I 963 


16 


1.998 


2.032 


2.065 


1.739 


1.770 


1.801 


15 


1.832 


1 863 


1.894 


1.585 


1.613 


1 . 643 


14 


1.669 


1 697 


1.724 


1.434 


1 459 


1.484 


13 


1 509 


1 533 


1.557 


1.286 


1 . 308 


1 330 


12 


1 351 


1 372 


1.393 


1.140 


1.159 


1.179 


11 


1.198 


1.216 


1.233 


.999 


1.015 


1.032 


10 


1.047 


1.063 


1.079 


.861 


.875 


.889 


■ 9 


.903 


.916 


.929 


.729 


.740 


.752 


8 


.763 


.774 


.785 


.603 


.612 


.621 


7 


.631 


.639 


.648 


.483 


.490 


.497 


6 


.505 


.512 


.518 


.371 


.376 


.382 


5 


.387 


.392 


.398 


.268 


.271 


.275 


4 


.280 


.283 


.287 


.175 


.178 


.180 


3 


.183 


.185 


.188 


.096 


.098 


.099 


2 


.100 


.102 


.103 


.034 


.035 


.035 


1 


.036 


.036 


.037 



42 Inches in 


43 Inches in 


44 Inches in 


Depth 


45 Inches in 


46 Inches in 


47 Inches in 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 








2VA 

23 

22^ 

22 

21Ji 

21 






2.755 










3.597 


3.653 








3.442 








3.291 


3.344 


3.337 


3.453 




3.143 
3.050 




2.998 


3.100 


3 149 


3 199 


3 218 


2.817 


2.864 


2.908 


20 


2.955 


3.002 


3 047 


2.633 


2.679 


2.721 


19 


2.763 


2.805 


2.846 


2.455 


2.495 


2.533 


18 


2 572 


2.609 


2,647 


2.276 


2.313 


2.347 


17 


2 381 


2.416 


2.450 


2.098 


2.132 


2.163 


16 


2.193 


2 225 


2 256 


1.922 


1.952 


1.981 


15 


2.009 


2.037 


2.064 


1.750 


1.776 


1.802 


14 


1.827 


1 852 


1.876 


1.580 


1 . 603 


1.623 • 


13 


1 648 


1.672 


1.693 


1 414 


1 4.34 


1 454 


12 


1,473 


1 494 


1,513 


1.252 


1.269 


1.287 


11 


I 304 


1.321 


1 338 


1.094 


1.110 


1 . 125 


10 


1 139 


1 154 


1.168 


.942 


.955 


.968 


9 


.980 


.993 


1.005 


.797 


.807 


.817 


8 


.827 


.838 


.848 


.657 


.668 


.675 


7 


.6B2 


.691 


.699 


.526 


.532 


.540 


6 


.543 


.552 


.558 


.403 


.408 


.414 


5 


.418 


.424 


.428 


.291 


.294 


.297 


4 


.301 


.3)4 


.308 


.190 


.193 


.194 


3 


.197 


.199 


.200 


.104 


.103 


.107 


2 


.108 


.110 


• 111 


037 


.038 


.038 


1 


.038 


.039 


.039 



160 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tanks m Inches. 



48 Inches in 
Diameter 


49 Inches in 
Diameter 


50 Inches in 
Diameter 


Depth 
Inches 


51 Inches in 
Diameter 


52 Inches in 
Diameter 


53 Inches in 
Diameter 








2m 

26 

25y2 

25 

2iy2 

24 






4.776 








i i99 


4.597 


4.660 






■■■■4!256" 


4.309 


4.371 


4.431 


3.m" 

3 707 


4.082 
3 975 


"i.m" 


4.085 


4.146 


4 203 


3.765 


3.817 


23 


3.865 


3.922 


3.976 


3.498 
' 289 


3 555 


3.602 


22 


3.647 


3.700 


3.749 


3.345 


3.388 


21 


3.431 


3.479 


3.523 


3 084 


3 136 


3.175 


20 


3.216 


3.259 


3 300 


2 881 


2.928 


2.964 


19 


3.002 


3.044 


3.078 


■' 679 


2 722 


2.755 


18 


2.790 


2.825 


2.859 


2 478 


2.517 


2.548 


17 


2.580 


2.613 


2 644 


2 281 


2.316 


2.344 


16 


2 374 


2.405 


2.243 


2 087 


2.118 


1.145 


15 


2.170 


2.199 


2.222 




1.924 


1.948 


14 


1.971 


1.996 


2.016 


1 716 


1.734 


1.756 


13 


1.777 


1 797 


1.815 




1.550 


1.509 


12 


1.585 


1 605 


1.622 


1.353 


1.370 


1.386 


11 


1.402 


1 417 


1.4.33 




1 195 


1.210 


10 


1.223 


1.235 


1.251 


1.017 


1.027 


1.040 


9 


1.052 


1.063 


1.077 




.866 


.878 


8 


.888 


.897 


.907 


.708 


.716 


.723 


7 


.729 


.737 


.746 


.565 


.575 


.578 


6 


.583 


.587 


.595 


.432 


.440 


.442 


5 


.447 


.451 


.454 


.310 


.317 


.319 


4 


.319 


.326 


.329 


.201 


.205 


.208 


3 


.211 


.214 


.214 


.133 


.114 


.114 


2 


.114 


.117 


.119 


040 


.041 


.041 


1 


.041 


.041 


.042 


54 Inches in 


55 Inches in 


56 Inches in 


Depth 


57 Inches in 


58 Inches in 


59 Inches in 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 








2m 

29 

28^ 

28 

27y2 

27 






5.918 










5.719 


5.790 








5.523 








5.331 


5.390 


5.467 


5 535 




5.143 




4.957 


5.023 


5.089 


5.153 


5.217 


5.280 


4 723 


4.785 


4.847 


23 


4.907 


4.967 


5.026 


4.490 


4.547 


4.605 


25 


4.662 


4.717 


4.773 


4.258 


4.311 


4.365 


24 


4.417 


4.469 


4.521 


4.490 


4 547 


4.005 


25 


4.662 


4.717 


4.773 


4 258 


4.311 


4.365 


24 


4.417 


4.469 


4.521 


4 026 


4.076 


4.125 


23 


4.175 


4.223 


4.271 


3 794 


3.842 


3.886 


22 


3.934 


3.987 


4.023 


3.566 


3 611 


3.651 


21 


3.694 


3.736 


3.777 


3 340 


3.381 


3.418 


20 


3.456 


3.495 


3.534 


3 116 


3 152 


3.188 


19 


3 222 


3.256 


3.293 


2.893 


2 926 


2.950 


18 


2.992 


3.020 


3.057 


2.674 


2.704 


2.734 


17 


2.766 


2.788 


2.823 


2 459 


2.486 


2.513 


16 


2 543 


2.563 


2.594 


2 248 


2.271 


2.296 


15 


2.321 


2 344 


2.369 


2 04! 


2 061 


2.084 


14 


2 104 


2.128 


2.149 


1 838 


1,857 


1.878 


13 


1.805 


1 916 


1.934 


1 6-10 


1 657 


1.675 


12 


1 692 


1 710 


1.726 


1 449 


1 461 


1 478 


11 


1 496 


1 509 


1..524 


1 2tW 


1 279 


1.290 


10 


1.304 


1 316 


1.329 


I 086 


1 099 


1.108 


9 


1.120 


1 . 130 


1.141 


.915 


.926 


.936 


8 


.943 


.953 


.961 


755 


.759 


.769 


7 


.776 


.784 


.791 


.tKK! 


.607 


.614 


6 


.620 


.626 


.631 


461 


.466 


.470 


5 


.473 


.479 


.483 


.331 
217 


.335 


.3.37 


4 


.340 


.344 


.347 


.210 


.220 


3 


.223 


.425 


.227 


119 


.120 


.121 


2 


122 


.123 


.124 


• AH2 


.0'»2 


.043 


1 


.043 


.044 


.044 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



161 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tanks in Inches. 



60 Inches in 


61 Inches in 


62 Inches in 


Depth 


63 Inches in 


64 Inches in 


65 Inches in 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 








323^ 






7.182 








32 

3IJ2 
31 

30}^2 
30 




6.963 


7.039 








6.747 
6.610 








6.535 


6.686 


6.755 




6.326 
6.193 




6.119 


6.267 


6.3.37 


6.410 


6.4/2 


5.858 


5.929 


5.999 


29 


6.065 


6.134 


6.193 


5.598 


5.668 


5.732 


28 


5.794 


5.858 


5.915 


5.339 


5.407 


5 465 


27 


5 523 


.5.584 


5.639 


5.082 


5 146 


5.199 


26 


5.254 


5.310 


5.363 


4.826 


4.885 


4.935 


25 


4.986 


5.038 


5.089 


4.572 


4.625 


4.672 


24 


4.722 


4.709 


4.817 


4.318 


4.366 


4.412 


23 


4.458 


4.503 


4.547 


4.066 


4.111 


4.153 


22 


4 196 


4.239 


4.281 


3.818 


3.859 


3.898 


21 


3.937 


3.976 


4.016 


3.572 


3.609 


3.645 


20 


3.683 


3.718 


3.756 


3.328 


3.363 


3.397 


19 


3.490 


3.464 


3.496 


3.088 


3.120 


3.151 


18 


3.181 


3.213 


3.242 


2.582 


2.881 


2.910 


17 


2.937 


2.964 


2.992 


2.621 


2.646 


2.672 


16 


2.608 


2.723 


2.748 


2.392 


2.417 


2.440 


15 


2.463- 


2.486 


2.508 


2.171 


2.192 


2 213 


14 


2.232 


2.254 


2.274 


1.954 


1.972 


1.991 


13 


2.008 


2.027 


2.045 


1 743 


1.759 


1 776 


12 


1.791 


1.808 


1.823 


1.538 


1.552 


1 567 


11 


1.581 


1.505 


1.608 


1.341 


1.352 


1.366 


10 


1.378 


1.390 


1.401 


1.152 


1.161 


1 . 173 


9 


1.183 


1.192 


1.203 


.971 


.980 


.988 


8 


.906 


1.005 


1.013 


.799 


.806 


.812 


7 


.819 


.827 


.833 


.634 


.642 


.648 


6 


.653 


.659 


.664 


.487 


.491 


.496 


5 


.500 


.504 


.506 


.349 


.354 


.357 


4 


.359 


.362 


.365 


.229 


.230 


.233 


3 


.235 


.2.38 


.238 


.125 


.126 


.128 


2 


.128 


.129 


.131 


.045 


.045 


.045 


1 


.046 


.046 


.047 



162 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



66 Inches in 


67 Inches in 


68 Inches in 


Depth 


69 Inches in 


70 Inches in 


71 Inches in 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 








35 Ji 
35 

34 

33^ 

33 






8.570 










8.330 


8 413 








8.094 
7.944 








7.861 


8.026 


8.107 




7.631 
7.485 




7.406 


7.567 


7.640 


7.723 


7 801 


7.120 


7.194 


7.273 


32 


7.348 


7.421 


7.495 


6.834 


6.904 


6.979 


31 


7.051 


7.120 


7.190 


6.549 


6 617 


6 687 


30 


6 755 


6.819 


6.886 


6.264 


6.327 


6.395 


29 


6.459 


6 519 


6.583 


5,981 


6.041 


6.104 


28 


6 164 


6.222 


6.283 


5.699 


5.756 


5 814 


27 


5.870 


5 927 


5.983 


5.419 


5.473 


5 528 


26 


5 580 


5.6.34 


5.686 


5.141 


5 191 


5 244 


25 


5.292 


5 343 


5.291 


4.865 


4 913 


4.961 


24 


5.006 


5.052 


5.098 


4.592 


4 637 


4.681 


23 


4.724 


4.764 


4.809 


4.322 


4.363 


4.403 


22 


4 444 


4 481 


4 524 


4.054 


4.092 


4.128 


21 


4.167 


4.204 


4 241 


3.789 


3 824 


3.859 


20 


3.893 


3.929 


3 962 


3.529 


3.561 


3.593 


19 


3.625 


3.657 


3.688 


3.273 


3.302 


3.331 


18 


3.. 360 


3. 388 


3.418 


3.020 


3.046 


3.074 


17 


3.101 


3 125 


3 152 


2.772 


2.797 


2 821 


16 


2.846 


2.868 


2.894 


2.530 


2.553 


2.575 


15 


2.595 


2.617 


2.640 


2.294 


2.314 


2 333 


14 


2.352 


2.372 


2.391 


2.064 


2.080 


2.099 


13 


2.116 


2 135 


2.150 


1.839 


1 855 


1.871 


12 


1.886 


1 901 


1.916 


1.622 


1.635 


1.6.50 


11 


1 . 663 


1.674 


1.693 


1.413 


1.426 


1 439 


10 


1.449 


1.459 


1 476 


1.213 


1 223 


1.235 


9 


1 242 


1.254 


1 264 


1.022 


1.030 


1.041 


8 


1.047 


1.060 


1 063 


.841 


.847 


.855 


1 


.859 


.871 


.874 


.670 


.675 


.680 


6 


.687 


.689 


.697 


.512 


.516 


.529 


5 


.524 


.528 


.531 


.368 


.371 


.374 


4 


.377 


.378 


382 


.240 
.131 
.047 


.243 


.244 


3 


.246 


.249 


250 


.132 


.133 


2 


.1.34 


.135 


136 


047 


.047 


1 


.048 


.048 


.048 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



163 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



72 Inches in 


73 Inches in 


74 Inches in 


Depth 


75 Inches in 


76 Inches in 


77 In ,],'. 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 








38J^o 






10.079 








38 ' 

37 
36) i 
36 




■'"9;819" 


9.912 









""9.562 " 
9.400 








"■■9'369 "■ 


■■■9!489 '" 


9^579 ' 




""oioM " 
8.899 




s.m" 


■'■■8'989" 


""9'076"' 


"9'i66"' 


""9.2A6"" 


8 500 


8-582 


8.669 


35 


8.752 


8.832 


8.914 


8 188 


8.267 


8.349 


34 


8.428 


8.505 


8.583 


7.887 


7 953 


8.030 


33 


8.104 


8,178 


8.253 


7.887 


7 953 


8 030 


33 


8.104 


8.178 


8.253 


7.567 


7.639 


7 712 


32 


7.782 


7,782 


7.924 


7.259 


7.326 


7,395 


31 


7.461 


7.528 


7.596 


6.952 


7.015 


7.080 


30 


7.142 


7.205 


7,268 


6.645 


6.706 


6.766 


29 


6.824 


6.885 


6 944 


6 341 


6.397 


6.454 


28 


6.509 


6 567 


6,622 


6.038 


6.091 


6 145 


27 


6 195 


6.250 


6,302 


5.736 


5.786 


5 839 


26 


5.885 


5.938 


5,988 


5 439 


5.485 


5 535 


25 


5.578 


5,628 


5,675 


5 144 


5-188 


5 232 


24 


5 274 


5.320 


5,364 


4.852 


4.892 


4 934 


23 


4.975 


5.014 


5.056 


4 563 


4.599 


4.639 


22 


4.677 


4.715 


4.753 


4,278 


4 311 


4 374 


21 


4.383 


4.418 


4.453 


3.997 


4.025 


4.062 


20 


4.094 


4.127 


4.161 


3.719 


3.748 


3.781 


19 


3.809 


3.839 


3 871 


3.446 


3.474 


3.501 


18 


3 529 


3.556 


3.585 


3.179 


3.204 


3.229 


17 


3.255 


3.280 


3.305 


2.917 


2.938 


2.962 


16 


2 985 


3.008 


3.032 


2.658 


2.681 


2.702 


15 


2 723 


2.744 


2.764 


2.408 


2.429 


2.447 


14 


2 467 


2.485 


2.503 


2.167 


1.184 


2.200 


13 


2 216 


2.234 


2.250 


1.932 


1.946 


1.960 


12 


1.978 


1.990 


2.003 


1.703 


1.716 


1.727 


11 


1.742 


1.753 


1.767 


1.483 


1.494 


1 505 


10 


1 515 


1.527 


1.538 


1.272 


1.281 


1.291 


9 


1 300 


1.309 


1.318 


1.071 


1.079 


1.086 


8 


1 095 


1.102 


1.110 


.880 


.887 


.893 


7 


899 


.906 


.912 


.701 


.707 


.712 


6 


.717 


.722 


.727 


.536 


.540 


.544 


5 


,548 


.651 


.555 


.386 


.388 


.391 


4 


.393 


.396 


.399 


.252 


.253 


.254 


3 


.256 


.259 


.260 


.138 


.138 


.139 


2 


.140 


.141 


.142 


.048 


.049 


.049 


1 


.050 


.050 


.050 



164 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tanks in Inches. 



78 Inches in 


79 Inches in 


80 Inches in 


Depth 


81 Inches in 


82 Inches in 


83 Inches in 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 








41H 
41 

40 

39J4 

39 






11.711 










"■ir.43r" 


11.531 








"ilJM" 
10.978 








"io^sso" 


■■■li;075'" 


" ii!i72 ■" 




"io^eio " 

10.439 




■ "i6'343 " 


■"i6;533 "■ 


'■'i6;627 " 


■' l6'726'' 


"'i0^814 "" 


10.000 


10.097 


10.187 


38 


10.277 


10.365 


10.456 


9.666 


9.756 


9.841 


37 


9.927 


10.012 


10.098 


9.329 


9 416 


9.496 


36 


9.578 


9.659 


9.741 


8.994 


9.076 


9.151 


35 


9.231 


9.307 


9.385 


8.659 


8.737 


8.809 


34 


8.884 


8.958 


9.032 


8.325 


8.398 


8.468 


33 


8.538 


8.608 


8.679 


7.992 


8.060 


8.128 


32 


8.194 


8.260 


8.328 


7.660 


7.724 


7.789 


31 


7.854 


7.916 


7.980 


7.330 


7.391 


7.454 


30 


7.514 


7.575 


7.633 


7.001 


7.059 


7.120 


29 


7.176 


7.234 


7.286 


6.676 


6.7.34 


6.788 


28 


6.842 


6.893 


6.947 


6.354 


6.407 


6.458 


27 


6.508 


6.557 


6.610 


6.035 


6.085 


6.132 


26 


6.181 


6.228 


6.274 


5.719 


5.764 


5.809 


25 


5.583 


5.899 


5.943 


5.406 


5.449 


5 490 


24 


5.532 


5.574 


5.615 


5 096 


5 138 


5.175 


23 


5.212 


5.252 


5.291 


4 791 


4.829 


4.864 


22 


4.900 


4.933 


4.970 


4.487 


4.523 


4.557 


21 


4.592 


4.624 


4.657 


4.189 


4.224 


4.254 


20 


4.286 


4.316 


4.436 


3.897 


3.928 


3.956 


19 


3.987 


4.013 


4.043 


3.610 


3.637 


3.665 


18 


3.691 


3.717 


3.742 


3 329 


3.355 


3.377 


17 


3.403 


3.426 


3.450 


3.053 


3 076 


3.098 


16 


3.120 


3.141 


3.164 


2 784 


2.804 


2.825 


15 


2.846 


2.863 


2.883 


2 522 


2.540 


2.558 


14 


2.576 


2.592 


2.612 


2 267 


2.282 


2.299 


13 


2.315 


2.329 


2.345 


2.019 


2.033 


2.047 


12 


2.062 


2.074 


2.089 


1.779 


1 791 


1.804 


11 


1.816 


1.827 


1.840 


1.548 


1 560 


1.570 


10 


1.582 


1.501 


1.606 


1.328 


1 3.36 


1 345 


9 


1.355 


1.365 


1.372 


1.118 


1.126 


1.132 


8 


1.141 


1.148 


1.156 


.919 


.925 


.931 


7 


.937 


.943 


.950 


.731 


.736 


.742 


6 


.746 


.752 


.757 


.559 


.563 


.565 


5 


.569 


.574 


.576 


.401 


.404 


.407 


4 


.409 


.412 


.415 


.261 


.264 


.265 


3 


.267 


.269 


.269 


.143 


.143 


.145 


2 


.146 


.147 


.148 


.051 


.051 


.051 


1 


.052 


.052 


.053 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



165 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



84 Inches in 


85 Inches in 


86 Inches in 


Depth 


87 Inches in 


88 Inches in 


89 Inches in 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Diameter 








44J^ 
44 
43}^ 
43 

421-2 
42 






13.466 










"n.m" 










■■■i2!867" 
12.679 








"■i2!573" 


"'i2:783"' 


"V2.8S7 




" i2'283" 
12 099 




""11.995 " 


"i2!26r" 


■■■i2',303' ■ 


'"'i2'46i"' 


"'i2!56i'"" 


11.632 


11.731 


11.829 


41 


11.927 


12 019 


12.116 


11.269 


11 363 


11 457 


40 


11 552 


11.6.38 


11-734 


10.906 


10.997 


11.086 


39 


11.177 


11 261 


11.352 


10.544 


10 632 


10.716 


38 


10.802 


10.884 


10.970 


10.183 


10.267 


10.347 


37 


10.430 


10 .508 


10.589 


9.822 


9.903 


9 979 


36 


10 058 


10 1.32 


10.209 


9.462 


9.540 


9.611 


35 


9.759 


9.759 


9.832 


9.104 


9.177 


9 245 


34 


9.318 


9.387 


9.458 


8.747 


8.816 


8.883 


33 


8.951 


9.018 


9.085 


8.392 


8.459 


8.523 


32 


8.587 


8.651 


8 713 


8.040 


8.105 


8 164 


31 


8.226 


8.287 


8 .345 


7.690 


7.751 


7.807 


30 


7.865 


7.925 


7.978 


7.344 


7.401 


7.454 


29 


7.509 


7.566 


7.617 


7.000 


7.054 


7.104 


28 


7.156 


7.210 


7.258 


6 658 


6.710 


6.756 


27 


6.805 


6.856 


6.901 


6.320 


6.. 369 


6.413 


26 


6.458 


6.504 


6.549 


5.986 


6.030 


6.074 


25 


6.118 


6.158 


6.201 


5.656 


5.699 


5 7.38 


24 


5.773 


5.816 


5.858 


5 330 


5. 368 


5 404 


23 


5.445 


5.482 


5.516 


5.007 


5.043 


5.078 


22 


5.114 


5.150 


5.182 


4.690 


4 724 


4.756 


21 


4.790 


4.821 


4.855 


4.378 


4.410 


4.440 


20 


4.469 


4.499 


4.528 


4.071 


4.098 


4.126 


19 


4 155 


4.181 


4 211 


3.770 


3.796 


3.821 


18 


3.847 


3.872 


3,896 


3.475 


3.497 


3 522 


17 


3.544 


3.576 


3 590 


3.186 


3.206 


3,227 


16 


3.249 


3.269 


3 291 


2.904 


2.924 


2.941 


15 


2.961 


2 980 


2.999 


2.629 


2.646 


2.663 


14 


2.679 


2,699 


2.714 


2.362 


2.378 


2.393 


13 


2.406 


2 421 


2.4.39 


2.104 


2.116 


2.129 


12 


2.142 


2 154 


2.169 


1.853 


1.865 


1.876 


11 


1.888 


1.900 


1.200 


1.613 


1.621 


1.633 


10 


1.641 


1.656 


1.663 


1.383 


1.391 


1.400 


9 


1.407 


1.416 


1.425 


1.162 


1.169 


1.176 


8 


1 . 185 


I 190 


1.200 


.954 


.962 


.967 


7 


.973 


.979 


.983 


.760 


.765 


.770 


6 


.776 


.778 


.784 


.580 


.585 


.587 


5 


.592 


.595 


.598 


.417 


.420 


.422 


4 


.429 


.429 


.4.30 


.272 


.274 


.275 


3 


.278 


.279 


.280 


.148 


.149 


.151 


2 


.151 


.153 


.154 


.053 


053 


.053 


1 


.0.54 


.055 


.055 



166 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tanks in Inches. 



90 Inches in 
Diameter 


91 Inches in 
Diameter 


92 Inches in 
Diameter 


Depth 
Inches 


93 Inches in 
Diameter 


94 Inches in 
Diameter 


95 Inches in 
Diameter 








47}^ 
47 

46H 
46 
45H 
45 






15 .342 










i i 7n'? 


■■'i5:62i' ' 


15 1.36 






"14:388 " 
"'i3!988" 


14 501 


■ 14:6i2" 


' 14^726' ' 


is 770 


14.078 
13.880 


■■■l4'.098' ' 


■ 14'207"' 


" i4!3i6" ' 


13.378 


13.487 


13 590 


44 


13.696 


13.802 


13.905 


12 987 


13.094 


13 194 


43 


13.296 


13.397 


13.495 


12.597 


12.701 


12.798 


42 


12.896 


12.993 


13.086 


12.209 


12.308 


12.403 


41 


12.497 


12 590 


12 679 


11.822 


11.915 


12.008 


40 


12.098 


12 187 


12 273 


11.436 


11.525 


11.613 


39 


11.699 


11.785 


11.867 


11.051 


11.137 


11.218 


38 


11.301 


11 384 


11 463 


10.667 


10.750 


10.826 


37 


10.906 


10 983 


11 061 


10.284 


10.363 


10.438 


36 


10.513 


10 587 


10.662 


9.903 


9.977 


10.050 


35 


10.123 


10.193 


10.265 


9.524 


9.596 


9.665 


34 


9.733 


9.800 


9.870 


9.184 


9.216 


9.281 


33 


9.344 


9.410 


9.476 




8.837 


8.900 


32 


8.962 


9.024 


9.084 


8.403 


8.463 


8.523 


31 


8.580 


8.639 


8.697 




8.093 


8.149 


30 


8 200 


8.257 


8.313 


7 670 


7.724 


7.777 


29 


7.827 


7.880 


7.932 




7.358 


7.409 


28 


7.456 


7.506 


7.553 


6 948 


6.996 


7.046 


27 


7.089 


7.1.38 


7.182 




6.638 


6.687 


26 


6.727 


6.771 


6.812 


6 242 


6.283 


6-331 


25 


6. 367 


6.407 


6.450 




5.934 


5 976 


24 


6.013 


6.052 


6.090 


5 .5.52 


5.588 


5.626 


23 


5.662 


5.700 


5.734 


5 215 


5 248 


5.284 


22 


5.320 


5.352 


5.386 


4 88.-i 


4.916 


4.948 


21 


4.979 


5.010 


5.042 


4 6.56 


4.587 


4.617 


20 


4 647 


4.673 


4.701 


4 2:i5 


4.264 


4.292 


19 


4.317 


4.343 


4.368 


3 921 


3.946 


3.972 


18 


3.996 


4.021 


4.045 


3 611 


3.6.35 


3.657 


17 


3.681 


3.703 


3.727 


3 .309 


3.331 


3.353 


16 


3.375 


3.393 


3.414 


3 014 


3.035 


3.056 


15 


3.073 


3.091 


3.109 


2.729 


2.747 


2.763 


14 


2.781 


2.796 


2.814 


2 452 


2.468 


2.480 


13 


2.497 


2 510 


2.524 


2 183 


2.196 


2.210 


12 


2.222 


2.232 


2.248 


1 'J22 


1.934 


1.946 


11 


1 957 


1.966 


1.981 


1 673 


1.682 


1.696 


10 


1 703 


1.714 


1.723 


1 433 


1.443 


1.455 


9 


1.455 


1.469 


1.474 


1 2()4 


1 214 


1.216 


8 


1.226 


1.232 


1.240 


.989 


.995 


1.000 


7 


1.007 


1.010 


1.019 


.787 


.793 


.799 


6 


.803 


.807 


.812 


.601 


.605 


.608 


5 


.613 


.616 


.618 


.4.32 


.435 


.440 


4 


.440 


.445 


.445 


281 


.284 


.290 


3 


.290 


.291 


.292 


154 


155 


.156 


2 


.157 


.158 


.160 


055 


055 


.056 


1 


.056 


.056 


056 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



167 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tanks in Inches. 



96 Inches in 


Depth 


97 Inches in 


96 Inches in 


Depth 


97 Inches in 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 




48H 
48 


15.995 
15 785 


6.128 
5 770 


24 
23 


6 163 


15.668 


5.803 


15.248 


47 


15.365 


5.416 


22 


5.450 


14.828 


46 


14 945 


5 066 


21 


5.101 


14.410 


45 


14.525 


4.726 


20 


4.757 


13.992 


44 


14.108 


4 394 


19 


4.421 


13.574 


43 


13.692 


4.068 


18 


4.092 


13.158 


42 


13.276 


3 752 


17 


3.770 


12.744 


41 


12 860 


3 444 


16 


3.455 


12.336 


40 


12 446 


3 139 


15 


3.145 


11 930 


39 


12 033 


2.838 


14 


2.844 


11.524 


38 


11 622 


2 546 


13 


2.554 


11.119 


37 


11.214 


2.260 


12 


2.273 


10.716 


36 


10.807 


1.990 


11 


2.001 


10.315 


35 


10.400 


1.728 


10 


1.742 


9.915 


34 


9.997 


1.480 


9 


1.492 


9.518 


33 


9.599 


1.240 


8 


1 254 


9.124 


32 


9.204 


1.016 


7 


1 032 


8.736 


31 


8.810 


.804 


6 


.821 


8 352 


30 


8.420 


.620 


5 


.625 


7.974 


29 


8.035 


.447 


4 


.448 


7.600 


28 


7 654 


.292 


3 


.293 


7.230 


27 


7.274 


.160 


2 


.160 


6.862 


26 


6.897 


.057 


1 


.057 


6.494 


25 


6.526 









98 Inches in 


Depth 


99 Inch33 in 


98 Inches in 


Depth 


99 Inches in 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 




49,1 2 
49 


166.662 
16.446 


6.569 
6.203 


25 
24 


6 607 


16.327 


6 239 


15.898 


48 


16.016 


5 841 


23 


5.874 


15.473 


47 


15 587 


5.484 


22 


5.514 


15 049 


46 


15.159 


5.131 


21 


5.160 


14.626 


45 


14.732 


4.786 


20 


4.814 


14 205 


44 


14.305 


4.449 


19 


4.472 


13 784 


43 


13.880 


4.116 


18 


4.138 


13.363 


42 


13.458 


3.792 


17 


3.811 


12.944 


41 


13.036 


3 472 


16 


3.941 


12.527 


40 


12.615 


3.160 


15 


3.181 


12.111 


39 


12 197 


2 856 


14 


2.878 


11 698 


38 


11 780 


2 565 


13 


2 583 


11 287 


37 


11 365 


2 282 


12 


2.298 


10.877 


36 


10.952 


2.016 


11 


2.025 


10 468 


35 


10.539 


1.754 


10 


1.759 


10.063 


34 


10.128 


1.501 


9 


1.508 


9.661 


33 


9.723 


1.260 


8 


1.266 


9.263 


32 


9 , 322 


1.035 


7 


1.040 


8.867 


31 


8 921 


.823 


6 


.828 


8.473 


30 


8 526 


.628 


5 


.633 


8.085 


29 


8 136 


.453 


4 


.453 


7.700 


28 


7.747 


.295 


3 


.297 


7.318 


27 


7.362 


.162 


2 


.162 


6.940 


26 


6 982 


.058 


1 


.058 



168 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



100 Inches in 
Diameter 


Depth 
Inches 


101 Inches in 
Diameter 


100 Inches in 
Diameter 


Depth 
Inches 


101 Inches in 
Diameter 




503^ 
50 


17.342 
17.122 


6.647 
6.274 


25 
24 


6.685 


17 000 


6.311 


16 565 


49 


16.683 


5.908 


23 


5.942 


16 132 


48 


16.247 


5.546 


22 


5 579 


15 699 


47 


15.812 


5.190 


21 


5.221 


15 267 


46 


15.377 


4.841 


20 


4.808 


14 837 


45 


14.942 


4.498 


19 


4.523 


14.407 


44 


14.507 


4.162 


18 


4,185 


13 987 


43 


14.073 


3.833 


17 


3.855 


13.551 


42 


13.642 


3.511 


16 


3.531 


13.125 


41 


13.213 


3.198 


15 


3.215 


12.700 


40 


12 784 


2.893 


14 


2.908 


12.277 


39 


12.356 


2.597 


13 


2.612 


11.855 


38 


11.931 


2.311 


12 


2.324 


11.436 


37 


11 508 


2.035 


11 


2.041 


11.020 


36 


11.000 


1.769 


10 


1 779 


10.605 


35 


10.672 


1.516 


9 


1.524 


10.194 


34 


10.257 


1.274 


8 


1.282 




33 


9.846 


1.040 


7 


1.053 


9.379 


32 


9 437 


.833 


6 


.838 


8.977 


31 


9.032 


.636 


5 


.640 


8.578 


30 


8.630 


.456 


4 


.458 


8.184 


29 


8.233 


.297 


3 


.298 


7.793 


28 


7.840 


.162 


2 


.162 


7.407 


27 


7 450 


.058 


1 


.158 


7.024 


26 


7.065 









102 Inches in 


Depth 


103 Inches in 


102 Inches in 


Depth 


103 Inches in 


Diameter 


Inchei 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Incties 


Diameter 




51H 
51 


18 033 


7 108 


26 


7.148 
6.764 


17.687 


17 811 


6.722 


25 


17 246 


50 


17.. 364 


6 340 


24 


6.387 


16 805 


49 


16 918 


5.972 


23 


6.010 


16 364 


48 


16.473 


5.608 


22 


5.644 


15 924 


47 


16 030 


5 251 


21 


5 281 


15 485 


46 


15.587 


4.895 


20 


4 924 


15 047 


45 


15.144 


4.549 


19 


4 576 


14 6(J9 


44 


14.701 


4.208 


18 


4.230 


14.172 


43 


14.259 


3.877 


17 


3 896 


13 738 


42 


13.819 


3.554 


16 


3 508 


13 .304 


41 


13.384 


3,235 


15 


3.250 


12 871 


40 


12.950 


2.916 


14 


2 938 


12 440 


39 


12 516 


2.622 


13 


2.639 


12 Oil 


38 


12.083 


2.333 


12 


2.348 


11 587 


37 


11.655 


2.056 


11 


2.069 


II l&l 


36 


11.229 


1.787 


10 


1.798 


10 74.) 


35 


10 805 


1.531 


9 


1.542 


10 .(25 


34 


10.386 


2.178 


8 


1 295 


9 911 


33 


9.968 


2.057 


7 


1.064 


9.498 
9.087 


32 
31 


9.556 
9.147 


.854 
.642 


6 
5 


.844 
.646 


30 


8 738 


.458 


4 


.462 


■ 


29 


8.331 


.300 


3 


.301 


7.497 


28 
27 


7.930 
7.537 


.163 
.058 


2 
1 


.164 
.059 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



169 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



104 Inches in 


Depth 


105 Inches in 


104 Inches in 


Depth 


105 Inches in 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 




52' i 


18.742 


7 190 


26 


7 229 


18.'387 


52 


18.513 


6.804 


25 


6:841 


17.936 


51 


18.057 


6.423 


24 


6.457 


17.485 


50 


17.603 


6.046 


23 


6.075 


17.035 


49 


17.150 


5.671 


22 


5.704 


16.587 


48 


16.697 


5.308 


21 


5.336 


16.140 


47 


16.245 


4.950 


20 


4.978 


15.693 


46 


15.794 


4.599 


19 


4.626 


15.247 


45 


15.343 


4.255 


18 


4.277 


14.802 


44 


14.893 


3.920 


17 


3.938 


14.357 


43 


14.447 


3.588 


16 


3.608 


13.912 


42 


14.002 


3.267 


15 


3.285 


13.470 


41 


13.558 


2.955 


14 


2.971 


13.032 


40 


13.116 


2.653 


13 


2.667 


12.597 


39 


12.675 


2.361 


12 


2.373 


12.164 


38 


12.237 


2.080 


11 


2.090 


11.732 


37 


11.802 


1.809 


10 


1.814 


11.297 


36 


11.371 


1.548 


9 


1.556 


10.872 


35 


10.940 


1.300 


8 


1..308 


10.450 


34 


10.511 


1.068 


7 


1.074 


10.029 


33 


10.088 


.850 


6 


.853 


9.610 


32 


9.666 


.649 


5 


.652 


9.198 


31 


9.249 


.467 


4 


.469 


8.789 


30 


8.837 


.302 


3 


.304 


8.382 


29 


8.430 


.164 


2 


.165 


7.978 


28 


8.025 


.059 


1 


.059 


7.582 


27 


7.623 









t08 Inches in 


Depth 


107 Inches in 


106 Inches in 


Depth 


107 Inches in 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 




53J'2 


19.463 


7.668 


'27 


7.710 


19.101 


53 


19.230 


7.272 


26 


7.312 


18.639 


52 


18.766 


6.877 


25 


6.919 


18.180 


51 


18.303 


6.491 


24 


6.526 


17.723 


50 


17.841 


6.111 


23 


6.14 


17.266 


49 


17. .381 


5.733 


22 


5.767 


16.810 


48 


16.922 


5.366 


21 


5.395 


16.354 


47 


16.463 


5,005 


20 


5.029 


15.898 


46 


16.004 


4.648 


19 


4.673 


15.444 


45 


15.545 


4.300 


18 


4.323 


14.991 


44 


15.087 


3.960 


17 


3.980 


14.539 


43 


14.629 


3.626 


16 


3.643 


14.089 


42 


14.176 


3.302 


15 


3.. 320 


13.642 


41 


13.724 


2.988 


14 


3.001 


13.196 


40 


13.275 


2.680 


13 


2.696 


12.752 


39 


12.828 


2.384 


12 


2.398 


12.310 


38 


12.384 


2.101 


11 


2.110 


11.869 


37 


11.943 


1.824 


10 


1.8.34 


11.434 


36 


11.503 


1.564 


9 


1.571 


11.005 


35 


11.069 


1.314 


8 


1.320 


10.576 


34 


10.635 


1.077 


7 


1.084 


10.150 


33 


10.205 


.858 


6 


.862 


9.725 


32 


9.779 


.655 


5 


.658 


9.303 


31 


9 354 


.470 


4 


.473 


8.888 


30 


8.937 


.306 


3 


.306 


8.474 


29 


8.523 


.166 


2 


.167 


8.069 


28 


8.116 


.059 


1 


060 



170 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



108 Inches in 
Diameter 


Depth 
Inches 


109 Inches in 
Diameter 


108 Inches in 
Diameter 


Depth 
Inches 


109 Inc.:es in 
Diameter 




54H 
54 


20.198 
19.962 


7.756 
7.352 


27 
26 


7 796 
7 391 


19 828 


19 359 


53 


19-490 


6.953 


25 


6 993 


18 892 


52 


19 019 


6.560 


24 


6.597 


18 426 


51 


18.548 


6.176 


23 


6.209 


17 961 


50 


18.077 


5.797 


22 


5.827 


17 496 


49 


17.607 


5.428 


21 


5 453 


17 031 


48 


17 137 


5.059 


20 


5 084 


16.567 


47 


16.670 


4.696 


19 


4.720 


16 103 


46 


16.203 


4.343 


18 


4 367 


15.639 


45 


15.737 


4.000 


17 


4.022 


15 178 


44 


15.272 


3.661 


16 


3.682 


14 719 


43 


14 810 


3.335 


15 


3.3.53 


14 263 


42 


14.349 


3.020 


14 


3 032 


13 810 


41 


13.890 


2.711 


13 


2 723 


13 359 


40 


13.435 


2.409 


12 


2.422 


12.910 


39 


12.983 


2.121 


11 


2 131 




38 


12 531 


1.843 


10 


1 852 


12 019 


37 


12.083 


1.575 


9 


1 586 


11 576 


36 


11.639 


1.323 


8 


1.336 


11.135 


35 


11.197 


1.085 


7 


1.095 


10.698 


34 


10 758 


.868 


6 


.871 


10.265 


33 


10 322 


.662 


5 


.665 


9.836 


32 


9 892 


.476 


4 


.477 


9 412 


31 


9 463 


.309 


3 


.309 


9 992 


30 


9.037 


.169 


2 


.170 


8.576 


29 


8 619 


.060 


1 


.060 


8.165 


28 


8.207 









110 Inches in 


Depth 


111 Inches in 


110 Inches in 


Depth 


111 Inches in 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 




55>^ 
55 


20 946 


8 244 


28 


8 290 


20 570 


20.703 


7.833 


27 


7.878 


20.093 


54 


20.219 


7.428 


26 


7.468 


19 616 


53 


19.738 


7.026 


25 


7.063 


19.140 


52 


19.259 


6.628 


24 


6.665 


18 664 


51 


18.781 


6.238 


23 


6.274 


18 188 


50 


18.. 305 


5.?56 


22 


5.888 


17 715 


49 


17.829 


5.481 


21 


5.509 


17 214 


48 


17.353 


0.116 


20 


5.136 


Hi 774 


47 


16.877 


4.754 


19 


4.771 


16 .(04 


46 


16.403 


4.396 


18 


4.413 


15 K.'<6 


45 


15.932 


4.046 


17 


4.059 


IS .iliS 


44 


15.461 


3.704 


16 


3.718 


14 !«)5 


43 


14.992 


3.366 


15 


3.385 


14 444 


42 


14.523 


3.036 


14 


3.062 


13 98.3 


41 


14.064 


2.724 


13 


2.748 


13 .524 


40 


13.589 


2.428 


12 


2.445 


13 066 


39 


13.1.30 


2.140 


11 


1.153 


12 (108 


38 


12.676 


1.864 


10 


1.870 


12 1.55 


37 


12.223 


1.599 


9 


1.600 


II 704 


36 


11.772 


1.347 


8 


1.347 


11 2.58 


35 


11.323 


1.102 


7 


1 106 


10 N16 


34 


10.879 


.876 


6 


880 


10 378 


33 


10.437 


.671 


5 


671 


« 944 


32 


10.002 


.479 


4 


480 


9 514 


31 


9 570 


.310 


.3 


312 


« 087 
8 664 


30 
20 


9 141 
8.714 


.170 
.060 


2 

1 


.170 
.061 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



171 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



112 Inches .n 


Depth 


113 Inches in 


112 Inches in 


Depth 


113 Inche.s in 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 




56,1 i 
56 


21.707 
21.461 


8.338 
7.919 


28 
27 


8.383 


21^325 


7.962 


20.837 


55 


20 971 


7 507 


26 


7.548 


20.349 


54 


20.481 


7 101 


25 


7.139 


19.863 


53 


19 991 


6 703 


24 


6.736 


19.379 


52 


19.504 


6 307 


23 


6.339 


18.897 


51 


19.017 


5.916 


22 


5 948 


18.415 


50 


18.530 


5.536 


21 


5.560 


17 936 


49 


18.044 


5 163 


20 


5.188 


17.457 


48 


17.559 


4.795 


19 


4.817 


16 980 


47 


17.074 


4 434 


18 


4.457 


16.503 


46 


16.590 


4.081 


17 


4.101 


16.028 


45 


16.112 


3.738 


16 


3.755 


15.554 


44 


15.638 


3 402 


15 


3.419 


15.080 


43 


15.165 


3.077 


14 


3.091 


14.610 


42 


14.692 


2.764 


13 


2.772 


14.141 


41 


14.221 


2.457 


12 


2.468 


13.672 


40 


13.751 


2.162 


11 


2.171 


13.210 


39 


13.283 


1.881 


10 


1.887 


12 751 


38 


12.821 


1.610 


9 


1.615 


12.292 


37 


12.361 


1.350 


8 


1.357 


11.838 


36 


11.904 


1.111 


7 


1.113 


11.388 


35 


11.449 


.885 


6 


.886 


10.942 


34 


10.999 


.674 


5 


.675 


10.497 


33 


10.552 


.482 


4 


.486 


10.055 


32 


10 108 


.314 


3 


.317 


9 620 


31 


9.669 


.171 


2 


.171 


9.188 


30 


9 235 


.061 


1 


.062 


8 761 


29 


8 805 









114 Inches in 


Depth 


115 Inches in 


114 Inches in 


Depth 


115 Inches in 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 




573.. 
57 " 


22.482 
22.230 


8.856 
8.425 


29 
28 


8.898 


22 093 


8.468 


21.599 


56 


21.733 


8.003 


27 


8.040 


21.105 


55 


21.236 


7.583 


26 


7.622 


20.611 


54 


20.740 


7.176 


25 


7.213 


20.117 


53 


20.244 


6.770 


24 


6 806 


19 624 


52 


19.748 


6.369 


23 


6.401 


19.132 


51 


19 252 


5.978 


22 


6.007 


18.643 


50 


18.756 


5 .592 


21 


5.619 


18.155 


49 


18.262 


5 212 


20 


5.238 


17.668 


48 


17.772 


4 841 


19 


4 865 


17.181 


47 


17.282 


4.476 


18 


4 499 


16 695 


46 


16.795 


4 120 


17 


4 139 


16 212 


45 


16.309 


3.771 


16 


3 786 


15.731 


44 


15.823 


3.4.36 


15 


3 451 


15.253 


43 


15.341 


3.109 


14 


3 121 


14.775 


42 


14.862 


2.786 


13 


2.799 


14.299 


41 


14.383 


2.481 


12 


2.491 


13 828 


40 


13.906 


2 183 


11 


2.192 


13 360 


39 


13 431 


1.898 


10 


1.907 


12.893 


38 


12 964 


1 624 


9 


1 632 


12.428 


37 


12.497 


1 365 


8 


1.371 


11.967 


36 


12.033 


1.120 


7 


1.126 


11.511 


35 


11 572 


.890 


6 


.895 


11 057 


34 


11.116 


.681 


5 


.684 


10.609 


33 


10.664 


.488 


4 


.490 


10.165 


32 


10.217 


.317 


3 


.319 


9.722 


31 


9.771 


.172 


2 


.173 


9 288 


30 


9.331 


062 


I 


.062 



172 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Continued). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



116 Inches in 


Depth 


117 Inches 'n 


116 Inches in 


Depth 


117 Inches in 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Diameter 


Incics 


Diameter 




58J/2 
58 


23.271 
23.016 


8.944 
8.513 


29 

28 


8.988 


22.875 


8 555 


22.371 


57 


22.506 


8.086 


27 


8 125 


21.868 


56 


21.998 


7 663 


26 


7.701 


21. 366 


55 


21.493 


7.247 


25 


7 282 


2;j.865 


54 


20.989 


6.8.38 


24 


6 870 


20 365 


53 


2 J. 485 


6.4.34 


23 


6 460 


19.866 


52 


19,992 


6.036 


22 


6 065 • 


19 .368 


51 


19.479 


5.645 


21 


5.675 


18.870 


50 


18.977 


5.262 


20 


5 292 


18.373 


49 


18.476 


4.888 


19 


4 913 


17.877 


48 


17.975 


4.519 


18 


4 541 


17 .382 


47 


17.478 


4.160 


17 


4.179 


16.888 


46 


16.984 


3.813 


16 


3 826 


16 398 


45 


16.491 


3.468 


15 


3.483 


15 911 


44 


15.999 


3.136 


14 


3.149 


15 427 


43 


15.510 


2.813 


13 


2 828 


14.944 


42 


15 024 


2.502 


12 


2.516 


14.462 


41 


14.540 


2.291 


11 


2 215 


13 981 


40 


14.056 


1.914 


10 


1.925 


13 501 


39 


13.578 


1.639 


9 


1.645 


13 023 


38 


13.102 


1.376 


8 


1.385 


12 549 


37 


12.632 


1.131 


7 


1.136 


12.079 


36 


12.162 


.899 


6 


.903 


11.613 


35 


11.698 


.686 


5 


.689 


11 1.52 


34 


11. 2.38 


.492 


4 


.496 


10 697 


33 


10 778 


.320 


3 


.321 


10 2.50 


32 


10.323 


.175 


2 


175 


9 SIL' 
'.1 .■!77 


31 
30 


9.872 
9.428 


.062 


1 


.063 


118 Inches in 
Diameter 


Depth 
Inches 


119 Inches in 
Diameter 


118 Inches in 
Diameter 


Depth 
Inches 


119 Inches in 
Diameter 




59^2 


24.074 


9.476 


30 




23.'67i 

23 160 


9.524 


59 

58 


23.816 
23.301 


9.031 
8.595 


29 

28 


9' 082 
8 643 


22 649 
22 138 

91 ( ' '> 7 


57 
56 
55 
54 
53 
.52 
51 
50 
49 
48 
47 
46 
45 
44 
43 
42 
41 
40 
39 
38 
37 
36 
35 
34 
33 
32 
31 


22.787 
22.273 


8.165 
7.739 


27 
26 


8^207 
7 779 


^1 Uzi 

21 117 
20 (!0» 
20 102 
19 .597 
19 092 
IN .5h7 
IN iih:; 
17 .5H2 
17 0K2 
H. .5N1 
|i; 0N8 
1.5 .595 
15 105 

11 1120 
H 137 
13 1151 
13 171 

12 (198 
12 225 
II 7.5K 
II 29;.' 
II) N.'!2 
10 377 

9 KM 


21.760 
21.247 
20.734 
20 221 
19 710 
19 203 
18.697 
18 191 
. 17.685 
17.182 
16 081 
16 180 
15 682 
15 188 
14.697 
14.209 
13 725 
13 245 
12 767 
12.291 
11 818 
II .350 
10.888 
10.429 
0.975 


7.319 

6 905 

6.496 

6.094 

5.702 

5.317 

4.937 

4 562 

4.197 

3.845 

3.501 

3.163 

2.841 

2.526 

2.223 

1.932 

1.655 

1.390 

1.141 

.909 

.694 

.497 

.322 

.175 

.063 


25 

24 
23 
22 
21 
23 
19 
18 
17 
16 
15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

S 

4 

3 

2 

1 


7.357 

6.940 

6 529 

6.127 

5 7.30 

5 .342 

4.959 

4.587 

4.220 

3.867 

3.520 

3.180 

2.853 

2.535 

2.232 

1 . 938 

1.659 

1.396 

1.146 

.910 

.696 

.498 

.325 

.178 

.063 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



173 



HORIZONTAL TANKS— (Concluded). 

Multiply Capacity in Tables by Length of Tank in Inches. 



120 Inches in 


Depth 


121 Inches in 


Depth 


120 Inches in 


Depth 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Inches 


Diameter 


Inches 


24.479 


60 


14.287 


40 


5.363 


20 


23.954 


59 


13.797 


39 


4.981 


19 


23.434 


58 


13 314 


33 


4.608 


18 


22.914 


57 


12.833 


37 


4.240 


17 


22.395 


56 


12.354 


36 


3.882 


16 


21.877 


55 


11.881 


35 


3.538 


15 


21.359 


54 


11 411 


34 


3.198 


14 


20.842 


53 


10 944 


33 


2.866 


13 


20.328 


52 


10.483 


32 


2.537 


12 


19 815 


51 


10.024 


31 


2.239 


11 


19.305 


50 


9.567 


30 


1.949 


10 


18.795 


49 


9 124 


29 


1.668 


• 9 


18.287 


48 


8.683 


28 


1.396 


8 


17.780 


47 


8.244 


27 


1.151 


7 


17.273 


46 


7.816 


26 


.915 


6 


16.767 


45 


7.393 


25 


.699 


5 


16 265 


44 


6.976 


24 


.501 


4 


15.768 


43 


6 561 


23 


.326 


3 


15.273 


42 


6.153 


22 


.178 


2 


14.779 


41 


5.751 


21 


.063 


1 



174 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 






GAUGING T\BLE FOR EACH ONE-QUARTER INCH IN DEPTH 
FOR T\NK AS DETAILED ON PETROLEUM IRON WORKS 
COMPANY DRAWING No. 2050-A 

8050-Gallon 78-Inch Diameter Tank With Steam Coils for Type 

"A" and "A-1" Cars 



1 


a 

o 
c 

pa 




c 
o 

O 


(X, 


2 

a 


1 


m 




c 
O 


O) 

£ 


00 

J 

o 


1 


Gallons 


1 


1 

Gallons 







1 


731 
754 


2 
H 


2037 
2067 


3 


3565 
3598 


4 

y 


5241 
5174 


5 

y 


6583 
6611 


6 


7695 
7713 


7 

M 


80S5 




y 




H 
14 
H 

1 

H 
H 
H 

2 


8088 




O 1 

1 }4 


777 


14 


2097 


1^ 


3631 


y 


5206 


y 


6638 


y-i 


7731 


Vz 


8091 




801 


H 


2128 


^ 


3664 


y 


5238 


y 


6665 


y 


7749 


y 


8094 


20 
28 


825 
849 


1 

^4 


2159 
2189 


1 


3697 
3730 


1 

y 


5269 
5301 


1 
y 


6692 
6719 


1 

y 


7766 
7783 


1 

y 


8097 
8100 


37 


875 


Vn 


2220 


1^ 


3765 


y 


5332 


y. 


6746 


V2 


7800 


y 


8103 


46 


■2 3/ 


898 


H 


2251 


y 


3796 


y 


5364 


y 


6772 


y 


7816 


y 


8106 


55 
65 


2 


823 


2 


2282 
2313 


2 

y 


3830 
3863 


2 

y 


5395 
5427 


2 

y 


6798 
6824 


2 

y 


7832 
7847 


2 

y 


8109 


l^ 


\i 


948 


8112 


H 


76 


>i 


973 


U 


2344 


u 


3896 


y 


5458 


y. 


6850 


Vt. 


7862 


^2 


8115 


H 


88 


M 


998 


y. 


2375 


y 


3929 


y 


5489 


y 


6876 


y 


7877 


y 


8118 


3 


100 


3 


1024 


3 


2406 


3 


3963 


3 


5520 


3 


6901 


3 


7891 


3 


8120 


H 


113 


% 


1050 


¥ 


2437 


y 


3997 


y 


5551 


y 


6927 


y 


7905 


y 


8123 


H 


126 


Vi 


1076 


V-, 


2468 


Vn 


4030 


H 


5582 


'A 


6952 


Vi 


7918 


Vi 


8126 


H 


139 


H 


1102 


y 


2499 


y 


4063 


y 


5613 


y 


6977 


y 


7931 


y 


8129 


4 


153 


4 


1128 


4 


2531 


4 


4096 


4 


5644 


4 


7002 


4 


7943 


4 


8132 


H 


167 


'4 


1154 


'4 


2562 


y 


4130 


y 


5675 


y 


7027 


y 


7954 


y 


8235 


'A 


181 


H 


1180 


y? 


2594 


Vn 


4163 


y 


5703 


y. 


7052 


Vi 


7965 


Vi 


8138 


H 


196 


V^ 


1207 


H 


2625 


y 


4196 


y 


5737 


y 


7077 


y 


7976 


y 


8141 


5 


211 


5 


1234 


5 


2657 


5 


4229 


5 


5767 


5 


7101 


5 


7986 


5 


8144 


H 


226 


Vi 


1261 


'4 


2688 


y 


4262 


y 


5799 


y 


7125 


y 


7995 


y 


8147 


Vi 


241 


H 


1288 


V4 


2720 


Vo 


4295 


y 


5829 


y 


7149 


y 


8003 


y. 


8150 


% 


256 


'4 


1315 


'4 


2752 


y 


4328 


y 


5859 


y 


7173 


y 


8010 


y 


8153 


6 


272 
287 


6 


1343 
1370 


6 

'4 


2784 
2816 


6 

y 


4361 
4394 


6 

y 


5889 
5919 


6 

y 


7197 
7221 


6 

y 


8015 


6 


8155 


1 / 


8018 


y 




H 


305 


V7. 


1398 


H 


2848 


Vo 


4427 


y 


5949 


Vi 


7244 


y 


8021 


y. 




M 


319 


% 


1426 


'4 


2880 


y 


4460 


y 


5979 


y 


7267 


H 


8024 


y 




7 


335 


7 


1454 


7 


2912 


7 


4493 


7 


6009 


7 


7290 


7 


8027 


7 




M 


352 


H 


1482 


'4 


2944 


'4 


4526 


y 


6039 


y 


7313 


y 


8030 


y 




I-; 


369 


'/?. 


1510 


'/9 


2976 


y 


4559 


\i 


6069 


Vo 


7335 


y 


8033 


y 




386 


H 


1538 


'4 


3008 


y 


4592 


y 


6098 


y 


7357 


y 


8036 


y 




S 8 


403 


8 


1567 


8 


3041 


8 


4624 


8 


6127 


8 


7379 


8 


8039 


8 




.^ H 


42) 


'4 


1595 


¥ 


3073 


'4 


4657 


H 


6157 


y 


7401 


y 


8042 


y 




"t i» 


439 


h 


1624 


^ 


3106 


y 


4690 


y 


6186 


y 


7422 


Vt. 


8045 


y 




I ^* 


457 


H 


1653 


»4 


3138 


y 


4723 


y 


6215 


y 


7443 


y 


8048 


y 




:| 9 


476 


9 


1682 


9 


3171 


9 


4755 


9 


6244 


9 


7484 


9 


8050 


9 




496 


Y* 


1711 


J^ 


3203 


'4 


4788 


'4 


6273 


y 


7485 


y 


8053 


y 




2 ^ 


516 


'A 


1740 


)/2 


3236 


y 


4820 


y 


6302 


y 


7506 


Vi 


8056 


y 




* t?. 


536 


h 


1769 


?4 


3269 


y 


4853 


y 


6351 


y 


7526 


y 


8059 


y 




^ " 


556 


10 


1799 


10 


3302 


10 


4885 


10 


6359 


10 


7546 


loH 


8062 


10 




£ -4 


577 


y* 


1826 


M 


3334 


J4 


4918 


y* 


6388 


y 


7566 


yi 


8065 


y 




\^ 


598 


i» 


1857 


A 


3367 


'/? 


4950 


y 


6416 


y 


7585 


8068 


y 




619 


?« 


1887 


y* 


3400 


y 


4982 


y 


6444 


y 


7604 


y 


8071 


y 




!}. 11 


640 


11 


1917 


11 


3433 


11 


5014 


11 


6472 


11 


7623 


11 


8074 


11 




» 


662 


'4 


1047 


J4 


3466 


ki 


5046 


y 


6500 


y 


7641 


H 


8077 


y 




^ 


684 


i"^ 


1977 


H 


3499 


Hi 


5078 


Vf 


6528 


'4 


7659 


H 


8080 


Vo 




\ 


707 


!« 


2007 


'4 


3532 


'4 


5110 


y 


6556 


y 


7677 


y 


8083 


y 





I 



DOME 244 gallons = 1L60 gallons to one inch. 

Furnished by Pennsylvania Tank Car Company, Sharon, Pa. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



175 



Outage Table for Standard 6,000 Gallons Capacity Tank Car. 

Table for gauging tanks by the inch. Capacity in U. S. gallons of a 
72%" diameter tank. Official dome capacity, including dish in head, 
222 gallons. Length of tank, bend line to bend line, 27' 8M". 



Inches 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 



Gallons 

16.62 

46.94 

85.99 

131.84 

183.44 

240.16 

301.30 

366.47 

435.23 

507.47 

582 . 80 

660.96 

741.73 

825.15 

910.70 

998.43 

1088.20 

1179.82 

1273.13 

1368.11 

1464.53 

1562.11 

1661.17 

1761.46 

1862.72 



Inches 

26 

27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 

37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 



Gallons 

1964.88 
2067.94 
2171.75 
2276.29 
2381.39 
2487.05 
2593.30 
2699.71 
2806.40 
2913.24 
3020.24 
3047.00 
3127.26 
3234.18 
3340.95 
3447.50 
3553.82 
3659.78 
3765.16 
3869.98 
3974.15 
4077.59 
4180.20 
4281.91 
4382.69 



Inches 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
72U 



Gallon 

4482.36 

4580.68 

4677.68 

4773.38 

4868.52 

4959.99 

5050.69 

5139.43 

5226.07 

5310.56 

5392.65 

5472 . 12 

5548.86 

5622 . 65 

5693.60 

5760.64 

5823 . 88 

5882 . 82 

5937.01 

5985.74 

6028.37 

6063.41 

6088.36 

6094 . 



Dome capacity is 9.914 gallons per inch. 



TANK CAR OUTAGE TABLES 

Calculated From 25 Inch to 5 Inches Out of Shell, at 60° F. 
Capacity of Car in Gallons at 60° F, 





4,231 


6,000 


6,641 


7,000 


8,087 


8,102 


8,505 


10,000 


Inches 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


Gallons 


0.25 


3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


0.5 


6 


8 


8 


8 


10 


10 


10 


12 


0.75 


9 


13 


13 


13 


16 


16 


17 


19 


1. 


13 


18 


18 


18 


23 


23 


25 


26 


1.25 


18 


24 


25 


25 


31 


31 


33 


36 


1.5 


23 


31 


33 


33 


39 


39 


45 


46 


1 75 


29 


38 


41 


41 


48 


48 


56 


58 


2. 


35 


46 


49 


50 


58 


58 


67 


71 


2.25 


41 


54 


58 


59 


69 


69 


79 


84 


2.5 


48 


63 


68 


69 


80 


80 


92 


98 


2.75 


55 


72 


78 


79 


90 


91 


105 


111 


3. 


63 


82 


88 


90 


103 


103 


119 


125 


3.25 


71 


92 


99 


101 


115 


115 


133 


140 


3.5 


79 


103 


110 


113 


128 


128 


148 


156 


3.75 


87 


114 


123 


125 


141 


141 


163 


171 


4. 


96 


125 


134 


137 


154 


154 


178 


186 


4 25 


105 


136 


146 


150 


167 


167 


194 


203 


4.5 


114 


148 


159 


163 


181 


181 


211 


220 


4.75 


123 


160 


172 


176 


195 


195 


288 


237 


5. 


133 


173 


186 


190 


210 


210 


244 


254 



176 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



TANK CAR OUTAGE TABLES (Continued) 
Outage Table for Standard 6,648 Gallons Capacity Car Tank. 

Table for gauging tanks by the inch. Capacity in U. S. Gallons of a 
7414" diameter tank. 29' V2" long. Official dome capacity, including 
dish in head, 87.9 gallons. 

Inches Gallons Inches Gallons Inches Gallons 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 



17.35 

47.28 

87.99 

138.36 

195.85 

259.34 

325.55 

394.82 

467.81 

544.49 

623.44 

795.18 

790.00 

877 . 85 

967 . 02 

1059 . 55 

1154.35 

1250.30 

1348.07 

1447.30 

1548.89 

1651.71 

1756.36 

1861.57 

1968.52 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 



2076.40 
2186.05 
2296.28 
2407.45 
2519.24 
2631.44 
2744.43 
2858.07 
2972.14 
3087.13 
3202 . 94 
3319.12 
3436.02 
3552.30 
3668 .07 
3782 . 59 
3895.89 
4008 . 87 
4120.85 
4232 . 14 
4343.13 
4453.32 
4562.90 
4670.73 
4777.60 



51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 

74 M 
74 



4883 33 
4986.74 
5089 . 50 
5190.91 
5290 . 73 
5389.40 
5485 . 82 
5578.96 
5670.70 
5759.71 
5847 . 58 
5933.25 
6014.58 
6091.75 
6165.89 
6236.98 
6306.66 
6373.20 
6436.49 
6494 . 53 
6544.95 
6587.26 
6622.29 
6643.02 
6647.69 



Dome Capacity is 3.06 gallons per inch. 



Outage Table for Standard 7,191 Gallons Capacity Car Tank. 

Table for gauging tanks by the inch. Capacity in U. S. gallons of an 
83" diameter tank. Length of tank 25'. 



Inches 


Gallons 


1 


16.50 


2 


44.86 


3 


79.72 


4 


120.47 


5 


167.45 


6 


210.30 


7 


276.14 


8 


337.48 


9 


403.44 


10 


474.27 


11 


550.22 


12 


630.21 


13 


712.19 


14 


795.58 


15 


881.37 


16 


969.07 


17 


1058.47 


18 


1149.46 


19 


1241.56 


20 


1334.68 


21 


1428.73 


22 


1623.83 


23 


1620.03 


21 


1717.33 


25 


1815.68 


26 


1915 19 


27 


2015 49 


2H 


2116 84 



Inches 


Gallons 


29 


2219.32 


30 


2322.74 


31 


2427.17 


32 


2532 . 58 


33 


2638.98 


34 


2746.36 


35 


2854.66 


36 


2963.76 


37 


3073.76 


38 


3184.66 


39 


3296.31 


40 


3408 . 65 


41 


3521 . 68 


42 


3635.18 


43 


3748.21 


44 


3860.56 


45 


3972.23 


46 


4083.15 


47 


4193.17 


48 


4302.29 


49 


4410.59 


50 


4517.97 


51 


4624.37 


52 


4729.78 


53 


4834.25 


54 


4937.71 


55 


5040.21 


56 


5141.59 



.Dome capacity is 9.914 gallons per inch. 



Inches 


Gallons 


57 


5242.01 


58 


5341.46 


59 


5439.84 


60 


5537.19 


61 


5633.39 


62 


5728.54 


63 


5822 . 64 


64 


5915.82 


65 


6007.92 


66 


6098.91 


67 


6188.90 


68 


6277.35 


69 


6364.33 


70 


6450.11 


71 


6533.50 


72 


6615.38 


73 


6695.37 


74 


6772.35 


75 


6843.28 


76 


6909.26 


77 


6970.01 


78 


7025.01 


79 


7073.85 


80 


7114.80 


81 


7145.76 


82 


7173.96 


83 


7191.00 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



177 



TANK CAR OUTAGE TABLES (Continued) 
Outage Table for Standard 10,676 Gallons Capacity Car Tank 

Table for gauging tanks by the inch. Capacity 



i9^^" diameter tai 


Inches 


Gallons 


1 


21.32 


2 


60.13 


3 


110.07 


4 


168.83 


5 


235.30 


6 


308.16 


7 


387.04 


8 


471.14 


9 


560.20 


10 


653.72 


11 


751.57 


12 


853.15 


13 


958.45 


14 


1067.06 


15 


1178.93 


16 


1294.34 


17 


1411.24 


18 


1531.95 


19 


1655.37 


20 


1780.97 


21 


1907.80 


22 


2037.89 


23 


2170.01 


24 


2302.82 


25 


2438.48 


26 


2576.04 


27 


2714.82 


28 


2854.15 


29 


2995.93 


30 


3137.84 


Dome 


capacity, 



Official dome 

Inches 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 



capacity, 
Gallons 
3282.20 
3427.51 
3573.91 
3720 . 04 
3868.20 
4017.80 
4166.71 
4315.69 
4466.30 
4617.59 
4769.17 
4920 . 99 
5072.96 
5223.85 
5376.24 
5527 . 88 
5679.31 
5831.21 
5982 . 91 
6134.34 
6285.29 
6435.08 
6584.34 
6733.59 
6882.16 
7029.31 
7175.57 
7321.43 
7466.26 
7609.40 



in U. S. gallons of an 
ncluding dish in head. 



11.532 gallons per inch. 



Inches 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
89 H 



Gallons 

7751.24 

7891.79 

8030 . 85 

8169.02 

8305.63 

8439 . 87 

8572.33 

8703.44 

8831 . 89 

8958 . 11 

9082 . 62 

9204.69 

9323.49 

9439 . 58 

9553 . 62 

9663.93 

9770.98 

9874 . 42 

9974.14 

10069.89 

10161.18 

10247 80 

10329.37 

10405.33 

10475.05 

10537.75 

10592.43 

10637.17 

10668.70 

10676.28 



Outage Table for Standard 7,900 Gallons Capacity Tank 



Car. 



[•able 


for 


gauging 


tanks 


by the inch 


Capacity in 


U. S. gallo 


ns of an 


:2%" 


diameter tank. Official dome 


capacity, including dish 


in head. 


55.6 gall( 


3ns. Len 


gth of 


tank 27' 8' 








Inches 




Gallons 




Inches 


Gallons 


Inches 


Gallons 


1 




17.91 




29 


2483.84 


56 


6718.90 


2 




50.36 




30 


2600.79 


57 


5832.27 


3 




92.19 




31 


2718.82 


58 


5944 . 38 


4 




141.43 




32 


2837 . 52 


59 


6055.17 


5 




196.90 




33 


2956.90 


60 


6164.53 


6 




257.78 




34 


3076.85 


61 


6272.41 


7 




323.66 




35 


3197.29 


62 


6378.66 


8 




393 . 89 




36 


3318.29 


63 


6483.10 


9 




468.15 




37 


3439.58 


64 


6585.79 


10 




546.16 




38 


3561.20 


65 


6686.43 


11 




627.60 




39 


3683.09 


66 


6784.99 


12 




712.18 




40 


3805.00 


67 


6881.33 


13 




799.82 




41 


3927.12 


68 


6975.25 


14 




890.26 




41 A 


3950.00 


69 


7066.62 


15 




983.16 




42 


4049.19 


70 


7155.32 


16 




1078.63 




43 


4171.20 


71 


7241.05 


17 




1176.38 




44 


4293.11 


72 


7323.69 


18 




1276.30 




45 


4414.89 


73 


7403 . 02 


19 




1378.19 




46 


4536.28 


74 


7478.73 


20 




1481.96 




47 


4657.37 


75 


7550.54 


21 




1587.57 




48 


4778.04 


76 


7618.05 


22 




1694.81 




49 


4898.23 


77 


7680.90 


23 




1803.62 




50 


5017.81 


78 


7738.46 


24 




1913.92 




51 


5136.76 


79 


7790.17 


25 




2025.51 




52 


5254.99 


80 


7834 89 


26 




2138.42 




53 


5372.40 


81 


7871.23 


27 




2252.48 




54 


5488.83 


82 


7895.80 


28 




2367.65 




55 


5604.40 


82^ 


7900.00 


Dome 


capacity 


is 6.00 


gallons per 


inch. 







178 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



TANK CAR OUTAGE TABLES (Continued) 
Outage Table for Standard 7,920 Gallons Capacity Tank Car. 

Table for gauging tanks bv the inch. Capacity in U. S. gallons of an 
80" diameter tank. Official dome capacity, including dish in head, 
155.6 gallons. Length of tank 28'. 



■ CD — 

Inches 


Gallons 


Inches 


Gallons 


Inches 


Gallons 


1 
2 
3 
4 


18.76 


28 


2470.39 


55 


7568.45 


52 74 


29 


2591.10 


56 


5021.64 


96.50 


30 


2712.71 


57 


6936 . 50 


149 04 


31 


2835.18 


58 


0149.84 


5 


206.12 


32 


2958.36 


59 


6261 . 58 


6 


269 . 85 


33 


3082.19 


60 


6371.59 


7 


338.72 


34 


3206 . 53 


61 


6479 . 85 


8 


412.14 


35 


3331.42 


62 


6586.18 


9 


489 . 83 


36 


3456.61 


63 


6690.35 


10 


571.36 


37 


3582.21 


64 


6792 . 40 


11 


656.43 


38 


3708.01 


65 


■ 6892.03 


12 


744.91 


39 


3833.96 


66 


6989.14 


13 


836.47 


40 


3960.00 


67 


7083.53 


14 


930.86 


41 


4086.04 


68 


7175.09 


15 


1027.97 


42 


4211.99 


69 


7263 . 57 


16 


1127.60 


43 


4337.79 


70 


7348 . 64 


17 


1229.65 


44 


4463.39 


71 


7430.17 


18 


1333 . 82 


45 


4588.58 


72 


7507.86 


19 


1440.15 


46 


4713.47 


73 


7581.28 


20 


1548.41 


47 


4837 . 81 


74 


7650.15 


21 


1658.42 


48 


4961.64 


75 


7713.88 


22 


1770.16 


49 


5084 . 82 


76 


7771.96 


23 


1883.50 


50 


5208.29 


77 


7823 . 50 


24 


1998.36 


51 


5328.90 


78 


7867.26 


25 


2114.53 


52 


5449.61 


79 


7901.24 


26 


2232.01 


53 


5569.36 


80 


7920.00 


27 


2350.64 


54 


5687.99 







Dome capacity 6.00 gallons per inch. 



Outage Table for Standard 8,050 Gallons Capacity Car Tank. 

Table for gauging tanks by the inch. Capacity in U. S. gallons of a 
78" diameter tank. Official dome capacity, including dish in head, 243 
gallons. Length of tank, 31' 10 14". 

Inches Gallons Inches Gallons Inches Gallons 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

U 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 



Dome 



23.18 


27 


54.59 


28 


100.65 


29 


153 87 


30 


215 71 


31 


282.54 


32 


;J55.29 


33 


431 29 


34 


511.91 


35 


596 41 


36 


681.52 


37 


775.44 


38 


870.74 


39 


968 .59 


40 


1069.73 


41 


1172.93 


42 


1278 57 


43 


1385 70 


44 


1497.69 


45 


1611 06 


46 


1725.65 


47 


1841 72 


48 


1960 51 


49 


2080 01 


50 


2201 24 


51 


2323 93 


62 


capacity is 


11.532 



2447.86 
2573.08 
2699.27 
2826 . 66 
2954 . 68 
3083.27 
3212.28 
3341.94 
3472.16 
3603.20 
3735.00 
3867.38 
4000.38 
4133.38 
4265.76 
4397 . 56 
4528.60 
4658.82 
4788.48 
4917.49 
5046.08 
5174.10 
5301.49 
5427.68 
5552.90 
5676.83 



53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 



5799.53 
5920 . 70 
6040.30 
6159.02 
6275.09 
6389.68 
6503.05 
6615.04 
6722 . 17 
6826.81 
6929.01 
7030.15 
7129.00 
7223 . 34 
7314.39 
7402.87 
7487.97 
7569.50 
7646 82 
7721.31 
7789.58 
7854.54 
7911.72 
7962.83 
8000.71 
8033 . 10 



11.532 gallons per inch. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



179 



TANK CAR OUTAGE TABLES (Continued) 



Outage Table for Cars Nos. EIRX-3101 to 3150, inclusive, and 
3180 to 3i98, inclusive, of Empire Refineries, Inc. Table for gauging 
S.OfiO gallons capacity Car Tank by the half inch. Capacity in U. S. 
gallons of a 77" diameter tank. Length of tank 31' 8". Official dome 
capacity, including dish head, 274 5 gallons. 



Inches 


Gallon 


.>2 


8 


1 


20 


H 


38 


2 


57 


'A 


80 


3 


104 


'A 


131 


4 


159 


A 


189 


5 


221 


A 


255 


6 


290 


A 


326 


7 


364 


A 


403 


8 


443 


A 


484 


9 


526 


A 


569 


10 


614 


A 


659 


11 


706 


'^ 


753 


1 foot 


801 


A 


849 


1 


899 


A 


949 


2 


1000 


A 


1052 


3 


1105 


A 


1158 


4 


1212 


A 


1266 


5 


1321 


A 


1376 


6 


1433 


A 


1490 


7 


1547 


A 


1605 


8 


1663 


A 


1721 


9 


1780 


A 


1840 


10 


1900 


A 


1960 


11 


2021 


A 


2082 


2 feet 


2144 


A. 


2206 


1 


2268 


A 


2330 



Inches 


Gallons 


3-2 


2456 


3 


2520 


A. 


2584 


4 


2648 


A. 


2712 


5 


2776 


Ai 


2840 


6 


2905 


A 


2970 


7 


3036 


A. 


3102 


8 


3168 


Yi 


3234 


9 


3300 


A 


3366 


10 


3432 


A. 


3498 


11 


3564 


A 


3630 


3 feet 


3696 


A. 


3762 


1 


3829 


A. 


3896 


2 


3963 


I.', 


4030 (1 


3 ■ 


4097 


Yj. 


4164 


4 


4231 


A 


4298 


5 


4364 


A. 


4430 


6 


4496 


Vi 


4562 


7 


4628 


A. 


4694 


8 


4760 


A. 


4826 


9 


4892 


A. 


4958 


10 


5024 


Yi 


5090 


11 


5155 


H 


5220 


4 feet 


5284 


Yi 


5476 


Yi 


5348 


1 


5412 


2 


5540 


Y% 


5604 


3 


5667 


4K 


5730 



Inches 



car) 



Gallons 



M 


5854 


5^ 


5916 


Yz 


5978 


6 


6039 


Y^ 


6100 


7 


6160 


Yi 


6220 


8 


6280 


I / 

72 


6339 


9 


6397 


Yi 


6455 


10 


6513 


Yi 


6570 


11 


6627 


Yi 


6684 


5 feet 


6739 


Vi 


6794 


1 


6848 


Yi 


6902 


2 


6955 


Yi 


7008 


3 


7060 


Yi 


7111 


4 


7161 


Yi 


7211 


5 


7259 


Yi 


7307 


6 


7354 


Yi 


7401 


7 


7446 


Yi 


7491 


8 


7534 


Yi 


7576 


9 


7617 


Yi 


7657 


10 


7696 


Yi 


7734 


11 


7770 


Yi 


7805 


6 feet 


7839 


'9 


7871 


1 


7901 


Yi 


7929 


2 


7956 


Yi 


8022 


Yi 


7980 


3 


8003 


4H 


8040 


Vi 


8052 


5 


8060 



Dome Capacity is 11.5 gallons per inch. 



180 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



TANK CAR OUTAGE TABLES (Continued) 

Outage Table for Cars Nos. EIRX-2000 to 2016, inclusive, and 
2018 to 2C34, inclusive, of Empire Refineries, Inc. Table for gauging 
8090 gallons capacitv car tank by the half inch. Capacity in U. S. 
gallons of an 83" diameter tank. Length of tank 28' 2". Official 
dome capacity, including dish head, 158 gallons. 



Inchts 


Gallons 


Inches 


Gallons 


Inches 


Gallons 






4 


2397 


8 


5809 


M 


7 


V2 


2456 


A 


5866 


1 


18 


5 


2516 


9 


5923 


'A 


33 


A 


2576 


A 


5980 


2 


51 


6 


2636 


10 


6037 


H 


70 


V" 


2696 


A 


6094 


3 


92 


7 ' 


2756 


11 


6150 


Vt. 


117 


A 


2816 


A 


6206 


4 


143 


8 


2876 






Vi 


170 


A 


2936 


5 feet 


6262 


5 


198 


9 


2997 


A 


6318 


H 


229 


A 


3058 


1 


6374 


6 


261 


10 


3119 


A 


6428 


Vi 


294 


A 


3180 


2 


6482 


1 


326 


11 


3241 


A 


6533 


Vi 


363 


A 


3302 


3 


6588 


8 


399 






A. 


6641 


'A 


435 


3 feet 


3363 


4 


6693 


9 


473 


A 


3424 


A 


6745 


Vi 


513 


1 


3486 


5 


6797 


10 


554 


A 


3548 


Yi 


6848 


,,^ 


596 


2 


3610 


6 


6898 


11 


636 


A 


3672 


Yi 


6948 


'A 


678 


3 


3734 


7 


6998 


1 foot 


721 


A 


3796 


Yi 


7046 


H 


765 


4 


3858 


8 


7094 


1 


809 


A 


3920 


Yi 


7142 


A 


854 


5 


3982 


9 


7189 


2 


900 


A 


4045 {A car) 


H 


7235 


Q*^ 


947 


6 


4108 


10 


7280 


3 


995 


A 


4170 


Y2 


7324 


A 


104:J 


1 


4232 


11 


7368 


4 


1091 
1141 


A 
8 


4294 
4356 


Yi 


7411 


5 

6^ 


1191 
1241 
1292 


A 
9 
A 


4418 
4480 
4542 


6 feet 

Yi 
1 


7453 
7495 
7537 


7^ 

/^ 

A 
9 

n^ 

A 


1344 
l.'J96 
1448 
1501 
1554 
1607 
1661 
1715 
1771 
1827 
1883 


10 

11^ 
A 

4 feet 

A 

1 

2^ 
A 


4604 
4666 
4727 
4788 

4849 
4910 
4971 
5032 
5093 
5154 


Yi 
2 

Yi 
3 

Yi 
4 

Yi 
5 

6^^ 

Yi 


7578 
7617 
7655 
7691 
7727 
7762 
7796 
7829 
7861 
7892 
7920 






3 


5214 


7 


7947 


2 feet 

A 
2 


1939 
1995 
2052 
2109 
2166 


A 
4 

5 

A 
6 

J^ 
7 


5274 
5334 
5394 
5454 
5514 


8 

9^ 
Yi 


7973 
7998 
8020 
8039 
8057 


3^ 


2223 
2280 


5574 
5634 
5693 


10 

Yi 
11 


8072 
8083 
8090 



Dome Capacity, 6.582 gallons per inch. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



181 



TANK CAR OUTAGE TABLES (Concluded). 
Outage Table for Standard 10,050 Gallons Capacity Car Tank, 

Table for gauging- tanks by tlie inch. Capacity in U. S. gallons of an 



i>7%" diameter tank (with Nteain 

eluding dish in head, 326 gallons. 



Inches 
1 
2 

a 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Gallons 
20.02 
55.90 

102.61 

160.73 

225.73 

300 . 02 

379.20 I 

461.47 ' 

548.31 

637 . 56 

739.72 

826.80 

929 21 J 
1034.44 
1141.50 
1252.09 
1366.70 
1483.62 
1602.46 
1723.04 
1846.79 
1973.75 * 
2101 74 
2230 . 82 
2361.19 
2492.21 
2626.10 
2762.09 ^ 
2898.32 
3034.76 



Inches 
31 



I 



r _v 



32 
33 
34 

35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 

1 42 
43 

f 44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
It 58 
59 
60 



coils). Official dome capacity, 
Length of tank 31' 61^". 

Gallons 

3172.20 

3310.90 

3449.61 

3589.91 

3731.11 

3873.26 

4016.67 

4161.06 

4305.62 

4450.47 

4596.08 

4741.74 

4887.77 

5033 . 84 

5180.28 

2326.35 

5471.99 

5617.23 

5762.39 

5906.98 
E \ 6050.86 

6194.57 

6336 . 64 
: ^l 6478.51 

6619 . 66 

6760.43 

6900 . 32 
I P 7039.31 

7175.36 

7311.17 



Inches 


Gallons 


61 


7445.20 


62 


7578.94 


63 


7711.09 


64 


7841.63 


65 


7970.41 


66 


8096 . 54 


67 


8220 . 57 


68 


8342.93 


69 


8462.40 


70 


8580.25 


71 


8695.02 


72 


8806.73 


73 


8915.39 


74 


9023.22 


75 


9125.44 


76 


9224.51 


77 


9329.18 


78 


9412.58 


79 


9501.30 


80 


9586.34 


81 


9664.76 


82 


9741.15 


83 


9809.25 


84 


9871.97 


85 


9926.75 


86 


9972.59 


87 


10006.52 


SIH 


10019.99 







Dome capacity is 11.532 gallons per inch. 



Outage 

Table for 
an 871/2" d 
326 gallon 

Inches 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
Dome 



Table for Standard 10 

gauging tanks by the 
iameter tank. Official d 
s. Length of tank, 31' 



Gallons Inches 

20.02 31 

55.90 32 

102 . 60 33 

160.73 34 

225.73 35 

300.02 36 

379.20 37 
461.47 38 
548.31 39 
637 . 56 40 
729.72 41 
826 . 80 42 

929.21 43 
1034.44 44 
1141.50 45 

1252.09 46 
1366.70 47 
1483.62 48 
1602.46 49 
1723.04 50 
1846.79 51 

1973.75 52 
2101.74 53 
2230 . 82 54 
2361.19 55 
2492.21 56 

2626 . 10 57 
2762.08 58 
2898 . 32 59 

3035.76 60 
capacity is 11.532 gallon 



,050 Gallons 

inch. Capaci 
ome capacity, 
61/4". 

Gallons 

3174.20 

3313.20 

3453.61 

3594.91 

3737.11 

3880.26 

4024 . 67 

4170.06 

4315.62 

4461.47 

4608.08 

4754.74 

4901.77 

5048.84 

5196.28 

5348.35 

5489.99 

5636,23 

5782.39 

5927 . 98 

6072.86 

6217.57 

6360 . 64 

6503.51 

6645.66 

6787.43 

6928.32 

7068.31 

7205.36 

7342.17 
s per inch. 



Capacity Car Tank. 

ty in U. S. gallons of 
including dish in head, 



Inches 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
8TA 



Gallons 
7477.20 
7611.94 
7744.09 
7874.63 
8003.41 
8129.54 
8253 . 57 
8375.93 
8495.40 
8613.25 
8728.02 
8839.73 
8948.39 
9056,22 
9158.44 
9257,51 
9353,18 
9445,58 
9534,30 
9619.34 
9697.76 
9774,15 
9842,25 
9904 , 97 
9959,75 
10005 59 
10039,52 
10052.99 



182 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



CYLINDRICAL VESSELS, TANKS AND CISTERNS. 

Diameter in Ft. and Ins., Area in Sq. Ft. and Capacity in U. S. 

Gals, for 1 Ft. in Depth. 

(1 gallon=231 cubic inches = 1 cubic foot/7.4805 = 0.13368 cubic foot.) 



Diam- 


Area, 


Gallons, 


Diam- 


Area, 


Gallons, 


Diam- 


Area, 


Gallons, 


eter. 


Square 


1 Foot 


eter, 


Square 


1 Foot 


eter, 


Square 


1 Foot 


Ft. 


In. 


Feet 


Depth 


Ft. 


In. 


Feet 


Depth 


Ft. 


In. 


Feet 


Depth 







.785 


5.87 


5 


8 


25.22 


188.66 


19 





283.53 


2120.9 




1 


.922 


6.89 


5 


9 


25.97 


194.25 


19 


3 


291.04 


2177.1 




2 


1.069 


8.00 


5 


10 


26.73 


199.92 


19 


6 


298.65 


2234.0 




3 


1.227 


9.18 


5 


11 


27.49 


205.67 


19 


9 


306.35 


2291.7 




4 


1.396 


10.44 


6 





28.27 


211.51 


20 





314.16 


2350.1 




5 


1.567 


11.79 


6 


3 


30.68 


229.50 


20 


3 


.322.06 


2409.2 




6 


1.767 


13.22 


6 


6 


33.18 


248.23 


20 


6 


330.06 


2469.1 




7 


1.969 


14.73 


6 


9 


35.78 


267.69 


20 


9 


338.16 


2529.6 




8 


2.182 


16.32 


7 





38.48 


287.88 


21 





346.36 


2591.0 




9 


2.405 


17.99 


7 


3 


41.28 


308.81 


21 


3 


354.66 


2653.0 




10 


2.640 


19.75 


7 


6 


44.18 


330.48 


21 


6 


363.05 


2715.8 




11 


2.885 


21.58 


7 


9 


47.17 


352.88 


21 


9 


371.54 


2779.3 


2 





3.142 


23.50 


8 





50.27 


376.01 


22 





380.13 


2843.6 


2 


1 


3.409 


25.50 


8 


3 


53.46 


399.88 


22 


3 


388.82 


2908.6 


2 


2 


3.687 


27.58 


8 


6 


56.75 


424.48 


22 


6 


397.61 


2974.3 


2 


3 


3.976 


29.74 


8 


9 


60.13 


449.82 


22 


9 


406.49 


3040.8 


2 


4 


4.276 


31.99 


9 





63.62 


475.89 


23 





415.48 


3108.0 


2 


5 


4.587 


34.31 


9 


3 


67.20 


502.70 


23 


3 


424.56 


3175.9 


2 


6 


4.909 


36.72 


9 


6 


70.88 


530.24 


23 


6 


433.74 


3244.6 


2 


7 


5.241 


39.21 


9 


9 


74.66 


558.51 


23 


9 


443.01 


3314.0 


2 


8 


5.585 


41.78 


10 





78.54 


587.52 


24 





452.39 


3384.1 


2 


9 


5.940 


44.43 


10 


3 


82.52 


617.26 


24 


3 


461.86 


3455.0 


2 


10 


6.305 


47.16 


10 


6 


86.59 


647.74 


24 


6 


471.44 


3526.6 


2 


11 


6.681 


49.98 


10 


9 


90.76 


678.95 


24 


9 


481.11 


3598.9 


3 





7.069 


52.88 


11 





95.03 


710.90 


25 





490.87 


3672.0 


3 


1 


7.467 


55.86 


11 


3 


99.40 


743.58 


25 


3 


500.74 


3745.8 


3 


2 


7.876 


58.92 


11 


6 


103.87 


776.99 


25 


6 


510.71 


3820.3 


3 


3 


8.296 


62.06 


11 


9 


108.43 


811.14 


25 


9 


520.77 


3895.6 


3 


4 


8.727 


65.28 


12 





113.10 


846.03 


26 





530.93 


3971.6 


3 


5 


9.168 


68.58 


12 


3 


177.86 


881.65 


26 


3 


541.19 


4048.4 


3 


6 


9.621 


71.97 


12 


6 


122.72 


918.00 


26 


6 


551.55 


4125.9 


3 


7 


10.085 


75.44 


12 


9 


127.68 


955.09 


26 


9 


562.00 


4204.1 


3 


8 


10.559 


78.99 


13 





132.73 


992.91 


27 





572.56 


4283.0 


3 


9 


11.045 


82.62 


13 


3 


137.89 


1031.5 


27 


3 


583.21 


4362.7 


3 


10 


11.541 


86.33 


13 


6 


143.14 


1070.8 


27 


6 


593.96 


4443.1 


3 


11 


12.048 


90.13 


13 


9 


148.49 


1110.8 


27 


9 


604.81 


4524.3 







12.566 


94.00 


14 





153.94 


1151.5 


28 





615.75 


4606.2 




1 


13.095 


97.96 


14 


3 


159.48 


1193.0 


28 


3 


626.80 


4688.8 




2 


13.635 


102.00 


14 


6 


165.13 


1235.3 


28 


6 


637.94 


4772.1 




3 


14.186 


106.12 


14 


9 


170.87 


1278.2 


28 


9 


649.18 


4856.2 


1 

5 


14.748 


110.32 


15 





176.71 


1321.9 


29 





660.52 


4941.0 


15.321 


114.61 


15 


3 


182.65 


1366.4 


29 


3 


671.96 


5026.6 


fi 

7 
H 
9 
10 
11 

1 
2 
■3 
4 
6 
6 
7 


15.90 


118.97 


15 


6 


188.69 


1411.5 


29 


6 


683.49 


5112.9 


16.50 


123.42 


15 


9 


194.83 


1457.4 


29 


9 


695.13 


5199.9 


17.10 


127.95 


16 





201.06 


1504.1 


30 





706.86 


5287.7 


17.72 


132.56 


16 


3 


207.39 


1551.4 


30 


3 


718.69 


5376.2 


18.35 


137.25 


16 


6 


213.82 


1599.5 


30 


6 


730.62 


5465.4 


5 
5 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
6 


18.99 
19.63 
20.29 
20.97 
21.65 
22.34 
23.04 
23.76 
24.48 


142.02 
146.88 


16 

17 


9 



220.35 
226.98 


1648.4 
1697.9 


30 
31 


9 



742.64 

754.77 


5555.4 
5646 1 


151.82 
1.56.83 
161.93 
167.12 
172.38 
177.72 
183.16 


17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
18 
18 


3 
6 
9 

3 
6 
9 


233.71 
240.53 
247.45 
254.47 
261.59 
268.80 
276.12 


1748.2 
1799.3 
1851.1 
1903.6 
1956.8 
2010.8 
2065.5 


31 
31 
31 
32 
32 
32 
32 


3 
6 
9 

3 
6 
9 


766.99 
779.31 
791.73 
804.25 
816.86 
829.58 
842.39 


5737.5 
5829.7 
5922.6 
6016.2 
6110.6 
6205.7 
6301.5 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 18[ 



GAUGING TABLE FOR STANDARD 50-GALLON OIL BARREL. 

Depth of Fluid, Laying on Side, Standing on End, 

Inches Gallons Gallons 

1 0.27 1.35 

2 1.15 2.74 

3 2.64 4.20 

4 4 . 50 5 . 72 

5 6.63 7.29 



6 


8.93 


8.91 


7 


11.50 


10.59 


8 


14.16 


12.31 


9 


16.90 


14.08 


10 


19.70 


15.90 


11 


22.56 


17.76 


12 


25.49 


19.65 


13 


28.42 


21.58 


14 


31.28 


23.53 


15 


34.08 


25.49 


16 


36.82 


27.45 


17 


39.48 


29.40 


18 


42.00 


31.33 


19 


44.35 


33.22 


20 


46.48 


35.08 



21 48.34 36.90 

22 49 . 83 38 . 67 

23 50 . 71 . • 40.39 

24 50.98 42.07 



25 


43.69 


26 


45.26 


27 


46.78 




28 


48.24 


29 


49.63 


30 


50.98 



184 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF PETROLEUM. 

Petroleum is composed of carbon and hydrogen in chemical com- 
bination known as hydrocarbons. In conjunction with the carbon and 
hydrogen there frequently is oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur in much 
smaller amounts. 

In crude oils the amount of carbon varies from 80 to 89%, the 
hydrogen from 10 to l^'/c , oxygen from to 5.07<^, nitrogen from 
0.0 to 1.89'f, and sulphur from .01 to 5.0%. 

Typical ultimate analyses of petroleum products are as follows: 

Carbon Hydrogen Sulphur Nitrogen Oxygen 

Pennsylvania Crude 86.06% 13.88% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 

TexasCrude 85.05 12.30 1.75 0.70 0.00 

California Crude 84.00 12.70 0.75 1.70 1.20 

Mexican Crude 83.70 10.20 4,15 

Oklahoma Crude 85.70 13.11 0.40 0.30 

Kansas Crude (Towanda) 84.15 13.00 1.90 0.45 

Kansas Residuum 85.51 11.88 0.71 0.32 0.63 

Healdton (Oklahoma) Crude 85.00 12.90 0.76 

Kansas Air Blown Residuum 84.37 10.39 0.42 0.21 4.61 

Byerlite Pitch 87.61 9.97 0.55 0.29 1.58 

Grahamite 87.20 7.50 2.00 0.20 

Trinidad Asphalt 82.60 10.50 6.50 0.50 

Commercial Gasoline 84.27 15.73 0.00 00 0.00 

Kerosene 84.74 15.26 0.01 0.00 0.00 

Lubricating Oil (Paraffin) 85.13 14.87 0.01 

Lubricating Oil (Naphthene) 87 . 49 12.51 0.01 

Benzol 92.24 7.76 00 0.00 00 

Paraffin (CnH2n+2) hydrocarbons largely compose the light or 
more volatile constituents of all petroleum. They are "sat'jrated" 
hydrocarbons and have a very low ratio of specific gravity to distilling 
tempei'ature, are not acted upon by concentrated sulphuric acid or by 
fuming sulphuric acid (oleum), are not nitrated by nitric acid and are 
extremely resistant to all chemical reactions. The chief differences in 
petroleum are in the heavy constituents, the heavy hydrocarbons of 
th paraffin series being found chiefly in Pennsylvania and some Mid- 
Continent oils. 

Naphthenes (CnHon), ring or cyclic compounds, are less common 
hydrocarbons in lighter portions of petroleum, but are commonly 
found as heavy hydrocarbons of petroleum. Thev have a higher ratio 
of specific gravity to distilling temperature than the paraffin com- 
pounds, are resistant to the action of sulphuric acid and some types 
may be distinguished by the "formolit" reaction.* Oils containing 
light naphthenes are found in Russia and Louisiana. All heavy oils 
contam naphthenes. 



*Holde — Examination of Hydrocarbons. 

Cnll.n (NAPHTHENES) POLYMETHYLENE SERIES. 

Boiling 
r. , Formula Temperature 

Cyc opropane C, H^ — 35°C =— 31°F 

Cyclohutane C4 Hg -M2°C = 54°F 

Cyc opentane C5 H,„ 49°C = 120°F 

Cycohexane Ce H,, srC = 178°F 

M 1 ,T^^",^ • • • ; Cv Hm 117°C = 243°F 

Methyl Cyclopentane Or, H,, 72°C = 162°F 

mIT^ W-i^^;''uP^"*^"^-- C^Hm 9rC= 136°F 

nitl fi Vr^->'"';'''u""^ C; H,., 98°C = 208°F 

Tr.^ fK^iW''^''''"*'-- C.H,^ 118°C= 244°F 

inmethyl Cyclohexane Ca H.s 198°C = 388°F 



Gravity 



.709 
.769 
.799^ 
.809: 

.766: 

.778: 
.778: 

.781 = 

.787: 



67.5° Be' 
52.1° Be' 
45.2' 
43.1' 
52.8' 
50.0° Be' 
50.0° Be' 
49.3' 
47.9' 



Be' 
Be' 
Be' 



Be' 
Be' 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 185 



Aromatic or Benzene Hydrocarbons (Cn H211-6) exist to some 
extent in certain California petroleums and have a very high ratio of 
specific gravity to distilling temperature. Gasoline made from the 
California petroleum is heavier than light gasoline with the same end 
point made from Mid-Continent petroleum. The aromatic compounds 
are acted upon by nitric acid forming nitro pi'oducts. They are 
formed from paraffin and naphthene hydrocarbons by pyrogenic de- 
composition at temperatures above 1000° F. The production of aro- 
matic compounds from petroleum has not been commercially satisfac- 
tory on account of incomplete conversion and difficulty of freeing 
from paraffin hydrocarbons. 

Olefines or Ethylenes (CnHon) are "unsaturated" hydrocarbons, 
rarely if ever existing naturally in crude oil, but commonly resulting 
from its exposure to high temperatures. These compounds contain 
less hydrogen and more carbon than paraffin hydrocarbons and are 
capable of taking in more hydrogen. They are removed from aromatic 
compounds, paraffin compounds and naphthene compounds by the 
action of concentrated sulphuric acid in the usual process of refining 
gasoline. These hydrocarbons give gasoline, to a large extent, its dis- 
agreeable odor before refining. Their combination with sulphur gives 
a more intense odor. Each of these groups of hydrocarbons is sup- 
posed to exist in a complete series, represented by the general formula 
given. The paraffin or methane series of "saturated" hydrocarbons 
has been fairly well worked out and is given in the table on page 186. 

According to Hofer, the following olefines have been isolated from 
"North American" petroleum: 

Ethylene Co H4 Heptylene. . . .C7 Hu Dodecylene. . .C12 H24 

Propylene C3 He Octylene Cg Hie Decatrilene. . . C13 H26 

Butylene C4 Hg Nonylene C9 His Cetene C14 H28 

Amylene C5 Hio Decylene Cio H20 Cerotene Cu H30 

Hexylene Ce H12 Undecylene. . .Cn H22 Melene Cie H42 

If the residue contains much wax, the crude is known as paraffin 
base oil, but if naphthenes or similar hydrocarbons predominate, it is 
an "asphalt" base oil. Practically the "asphalt" is determined by the 
solubility of the solid hydrocarbons in pentane and by the gravity and 
physical character of the residue. (See pages 501-2.) 

Among the light hydrocarbons of petroleum, either existing nat- 
urally or pyrogenically produced, the relation of the specific gravity 
to the distilling temperature affords a simple and practical method 
of estimating the amount of olefin, paraffin and aromatic compounds. 
This relation is set forth in the curves on pages 232 and 2-36. 

The value of crude oil is not measured by its ultimate analysis or 
by its "base" so much as by the amount of volatile constituents which 
it contains. The amount of volatile constituents obtained from various 
crude oils is shown on pages 179 to 190. 



186 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PARAFFIN HYDROCARBONS IN PETROLEUM. 



GASEOUS HYDROCARBONS (Natural Gas) 

Sp. Gr. 
Baume' Liquid Melting 

Name Gravity 15.5°C Formula Point 



Molec- 
Boiling ular 
Point Weight 



Methane 

Ethane 194 

Propane 142 

Butane 109 



0.432 
0.525 
0.585 



C H4 

C2 He 

C.I Hs 
C4 Hiu 



— 184.0°C — 165.0°C 16.03 
—171.4 — 93.0 30.05 
—195.0 — 45.0 44.07 
—135.0 + 1.0 58.08 



"GASOLINE" HYDROCARBONS 



Pentane 92.2 

Hexane 78 . 9 

Heptane 70.9 

Octane 65.0 

Nonane 59.2 

Decane 56.7 

Undecane 54 . 2 



0.630 
0.670 
0.697 
718 
0.740 
0.750 
0.760 







C5H,.: 
Cf, Hi4 
C? H16 
Cg H18 

C9 1X20 

C11H24 



—51.0 

— 31.0 

— 26.0 



HEAVY LIQUID HYDROCARBONS (Kerosene) 



Duodecane 51.8 0.770 

Tridecane 46.8 0.792 

Tetradecane . . . . 45.0 0.800 

Pentadecane .... 43 . 5 . 807 

Hexadecane 41.8 0.815 

Heptadecane 40.3 0.822 

Octadecane 38.6 . 830 



C12H26 

Cl,3H28 
C14H30 
C15H32 
C K,H34 
C17H36 

CigHss 



+ 



HEAVY SOLID HYDROCARBONS 



Eicosane 37.2 

Tricosane 36.5 

Tetracosane 

Pentacosane 

Hexacosane 

Mericyl 

Octocosane 

Nonocosane. . . . 

Ceryl 

Untriacontane 

Duotriacontane 

Tetratriacontane .... 
Pentatriacontane 35.4 



837 
841 



846 



t 20H42 
C23H48 
C24H50 
C20H52 
C26H54 

C2TH56 
C28H58 

C29H60 
C30H62 
C31H64 
C32HCC 
C34H70 
C36H72 



12.0 
6.0 
5.0 
10.0 
28.0 
22.0 
28.0 



37.0 
48.0 
51.0 
54.0 
56.0 
59.4 
60.0 
63.0 
65.6 
68.0 
70.0 
72.0 
75.0 



36.3 
69.0 
98.4 
125.5 
150.0 
173.0 
195.0 



214.0 
234.0 
252.0 
270.0 
287.0 
295.0 
317.0 

(vacuo) 
117.5 
138.0 
145.5 
152.5 
160.0 
167 
173.5 
179.0 
186.0 
193.5 
201.0 
215.0 
222.0 



72.10 
86.12 
100 . 13 
114.15 
128.16 
142.18 
156.20 



170.22 
184.24 
198.25 
212.26 
226.27 
240.28 
254.30 



282 . 34 
325.38 
338.39 
352.41 
366.43 
370.45 
384.47 
398.48 
422.49 

436 . 52 

450 . 53 
478.56 
492.58 



RpriJnf L 1 "; ""^ petroleum composed exclusivelv of the paraffin 
dlsh-ivn^r^^lf '''"';' !r" Pennsylvania and Garber, Oklahoma, crude 
Ts m : U .H of n '''ffi^ °u^T '"""^ 'Th^ "^^i" b«dy of the light petroleum 
made up o niphtaes ^^^'•^^^''^^^^ -"^ the heavy residues are largely 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 187 

NATURAL CONTENT OF CRUDE OILS. 

(Typical samples, analyses by Kansas City Testing Laboratory^ 

Specific 
Source Gravity 

Arkansas — El Dorado 851 

California — Heavy 984 

Santa Maria 900 

Kansas — Moran, Allen Co. . . .871 

Neodesha (Wilson Co.) 860 

Paola 873 

Peabody 860 

Sallyards (Butler Co.) 835 

Towanda (Butler Co.) 850 

Kentucky 876 

Wayne Co 835 

Louisiana, Homer 832 

Pine Island 902 

Mexico — Panuco 982 

Tuxpan 935 

Montana— Winnett 777 

Bozeman (Big Horn Co. ) . .942 
Oklahoma — Beggs 862 

Billings 812 

Bixby 845 

Cushing 823 

Duncan 857 

Garber, Garfield Co 780 

Healdton 920 

Kingwood 829 

Newkirk 822 

Osage Co 836 

Pennsylvania (light) 802 

Russia .874 

South Dakota— Mule Creek . .863 
Texas — Beaumont 912 

Breckenridge 811 

Burkburnett 824 

Mexia 842 

Ranger 829 

San Antonio . 861 

Wortham 800 

West Virginia— Cabin Creek . . 788 
Wyoming — Big Muddy 860 

Elk Basin 805 

Ferris Dome 831 

Grass Creek 801 

Hamilton Dome 891 

Lander Co 909 

Lance Creek 815 

Lost Soldier 865 

Maverick Springs 918 

Pilot Butte 836 

Rock Creek 838 

Salt Creek 838 

Canada — Fort Norman 833 



Baume' 

Gravity 

34.8° 
12.3 


Auto- 
mobile 
Gasoline 
% by Vol. 

30.0% 
0.0 


Naphtha 

and 
Kerosene 
7c, by Vol. 

20.0% 
12.3 


Fuel 
Oil 
Resi- 
due 

50.0% 

82.7 


25.7 


20.0 


20.0 


60.0 


30.7 


15.0 


17.5 


67.5 


33.3 


25.0 


17.0 


58.0 


30.6 


20.5 


19.5 


60.0 


33.3 


20.0 


20.0 


60.0 


38.0 


30.0 


22,5 


47.5 


34.7 


20.5 


27.5 


52.0 


42.0 


40.0 


20,0 


40.0 


37.7 


28.0 


21,0 


51.0 


38.6 


30.0 


25,0 


45.0 


25.4 


0.0 


25,0 


75.0 


12.8 


2.0 


8,0 


90.0 


19.8 


15.0 


15.0 


70.0 


50.6 


55.0 


40,0 


5.0 


18.7 


2.5 


17.5 


80.0 


32.7 


15,0 


21.8 


63.2 


42.8 


40.0 


22.5 


37.5 


36.0 


25.0 


20,0 


55.0 


40.1 


35.0 


15.0 


50.0 


33.7 


20.0 


22.5 


57.5 


49.5 


55.0 


15.8 


29,2 


22.1 


8.5 


17.5 


74.0 


39.2 


30.0 


20.0 


50.0 


40.3 


32.5 


24,0 


43,5 


37.7 


25.0 


20.0 


55,0 


44.5 


37.5 


12.7 


49.8 


30.2 


15.0 


20.0 


65,0 


32.5 


2.5 


27.5 


70.0 


23.4 


4,0 


16.0 


80.0 


42.0 


35.0 


25.0 


40.0 


40.1 


41.0 


20.0 


39.0 


36.6 


5.0 


50.0 


45.0 


39.2 


30.0 


25.0 


45.0 


32.8 


15.0 


21.5 


63.5 


45.5 


37.5 


35.0 


27.5 


48.0 


36.0 


24.0 


40.0 


33.0 


10,0 


25.0 


65.0 


44.3 


45,0 


20.0 


35.0 


38.8 


30,0 


20.0 


50.0 


45,1 


45.0 


20.0 


35.0 


27.3 


17.5 


15.0 


67.5 


24.0 


13.0 


13.0 


74.0 


42.1 


32.5 


27.5 


40.0 


33.8 


0,0 


35.0 


65,0 


22,6 


0.0 


25 


75.0 


37.7 


20,0 


35.0 


45.0 


37.4 


30,0 


15.0 


55.0 


37.3 


25,0 


20.0 


55.0 


38.0 


30.0 


32.0 


38.0 



188 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



SULPHUR, ASPHALT, CYLINDER STOCK AND GASOLINE IN 
IMPORTANT CRUDE PETROLEUMS. 

The following tables give an index of the constitution of impor- 
tant crude petroleums. 

The values are chiefly from the reports of investigations of the 
Bureau of Mines. The item marked "carbon residue" refers to the 
carbon determined by the Conradson method on the residue from the 
distillation. It is an approximate measure of the amount of asphalt in 
the oil. Asphalt is a very broad term usually in practical testing com- 
prising waxy material. Asphalt with good ductility and cementing 
properties is obtainable from the petroleums of high carbon content. 
Cylinder stock of good quality is obtainable from the oils of low carbon 
and low sulphur content. 

Source of Crude Gravity 

New York — 

Alleghany Co 828 =39.1° Be' 

Pennsylvania — 

McKean Co 823 =40.1 ° Be' 

Venango Co 819 =40.9° Be' 

Venango Co 832 =38.3° Be' 

Franklin 863 =32.2° Be' 

Alleghany and Washing- 
ton Counties 800 =45.0° Be' 

Green Co 815 =41.8° Be' 

Composite 811 =42.6° Be' 

West Virginia — 

Maryland Pool 805 =43.9° Be' 

Eureka Pool 806 =43.7° Be' 

Cabin Creek 797 =45.7° Be' 

Kelly Creek 799 =45.2° Be' 

Ohio (East)— 

Washington Co 805 =43.9° Be' 

Corning 838 =37.1° Be' 

North Lima 835 =37.7° Be' 

Oklahoma — 

Big Heart 846 =35.5° Be' 

Gushing 828 =39.1° Be' 

Kentucky — 

Ross Creek 838 =37.1° Be' 

Cow Creek 866 =31.7° Be' 

Big Sinking 844 =35.9° Be' 

Compton Pool 842 =36.3° Be' 

Wayne Co 869 =31.1° Be' 

f^K'and 902 =25.2° Be' 

'"'""'■''• 863 =32.2° Be' 

Indiana 

Lima Pool 846 =35.5° Be' 

(Colorado — 

Florence 880 =29.1° Be' 

Kangely gjg =40.90 gg- 

KanHttH — 

/^"K""tV .865 =31.9° Be' 

SallyardH... .836 =37.8° Be' 

f'alifornia 

Sunjietlii-Id .878 =29.5° Be' 

Moxiro — 

''■""''" .982 =12.6° Be' 

T^""!""' .935 =19.8° Be' 





Gasoline 
to 392° F 


Carbon 
Residue 


Sul- 
phur 


30.07c =57.2° Be' 


2.9% 


0.109; 


32.5 

29.6 

24.4 

9.0 


= 59.4° Be' 
= 57.7° Be' 
= 54.0° Be' 
= 39.9° Be' 


2.6 
2.1 
2.0 
2.2 


0.10 
0.10 
0.08 
0.09 


37.8 
29.0 
33.9 


= 61.0° Be' 
= 57.9° Be' 
= 60.7° Be' 


1.6 
1.6 
3.2 


0.08 
0.08 
0.08 


38.3 
37.7 
40.5 
39.6 


= 60.7° Be' 
= 60.7° Be' 
= 61.8° Be' 
= 61.5° Be' 


2.1 

2.4 
1.2 


0.28 
0.24 
0.19 
0.11 


33.5 

27.8 


= 59.4° Be' 
= 59.2° Be' 


3.1 
7.4 


0.05 
0.10 


31.0 


= 56.9° Be' 


6.2 


0.55 


28.0 
37.5 


= 55.7° Be' 
= 58.4° Be' 


5.3 
6.8 


0.19 
0.12 


35.9 
19.7 
31.2 
30.8 
35.9 
12.6 


= 58.2° Be' 
= 51.6° Be' 
= 56.4° Be' 
= 57.4° Be' 
= 56.4° Be' 
= 52.5° Be' 


8.4 
6.5 
7.5 
5.3 
6.4 
17.7 


0.12 
0.13 
0.14 
0.23 
0.49 
0.31 


20.4 


= 52.1° Be' 


10.6 


0.24 


26.0 


= 55.9° Be' 


6.0 


0.48 


8.9 
34.6 


= 54.7° Be' 
= 57.2° Be' 


6.0 
2.6 


0.17 
0.06 


24.2 
30.0 


= 54.0° Be' 
= 61.0° Be' 


10.2 
6.0 


0.41 
0.40 


21.5 


= 47.4° Be' 


16.4 


0.73 


6.0 
11.0 


= 51.0° Be' 
= 60.0° Be' 


23.0 
19.0 


5.34 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



189 



SULPHUR. ASPHALT, CYLINDER STOCK AND GASOLINE IN 
IMPORTANT CRUDE PETROLEUMS— (Continued). 



Source of Crude ( 

Montana — • 

Winnett 781 = 

Wyoming^ 

Hamilton Dome 903 = 

Shannon 909 = 

Newcastle 840 = 

Salt Creek 841 = 

Rock Creek 843 = 

Lost Soldier 875 = 

Mule Creek 867 = 

Big Muddy 863 = 

Ferris 842 = 

Warm Spring 987 = 

Lander 913 = 

Dallas 914 = 

Pilot Butte 848 = 

Maverick Springs 922 = 

Plunkett 846 = 

Greybull 803 = 

Grass Creek 809 = 

Elk Basin 827 = 

Osage 837 = 

Lance Creek 823 = 

Missouri — 

Kansas City 874 = 

Texas — 

Burkburnett 821 = 

Ranger 829 = 

Mexia 842 = 

Wortham (Currie) .800 = 

Groesbeck 839 = 







Gasoline 


Carbon 


Sul- 


ravity 


to 892° F 


Residue 


Piur 


49.3° Be' 


63.2 


= 57.4° Be' 


trace 


0.36 


25.0° Be' 


17.6 


= 57.7° Be' 


19.0 


2.09 


24.0° Be' 


3.1 


= 37.1° Be' 


5.1 


0.20 


36.7° Be' 


31.6 


= 55.7° Be' 


7.5 


0.15 


36.5° Be' 


29.3 


= 56.7° Be' 


6.1 


0.18 


36.1° Be' 


31.4 


= 58.2° Be' 


6.8 


0.27 


30.0° Be' 


16.7 


= 44.1° Be' 


6.5 


0.11 


31.5° Be' 


11.7 


= 52.3° Be' 


4.8 


0.14 


32.2° Be' 


22.2 


= 53.7° Be' 


6.0 


0.17 


36.3° Be' 


31.1 


= 57.4° Be' 


5.5 


0.19 


11.8° Be' 


5.4 


=49.9° Be' 


21.2 


2.61 


23.3° Be' 


11.0 


= 55.4° Be' 


15.1 


2.62 


23.2° Be' 


12.8 


= 51.3° Be' 


18.9 


2.42 


35.1° Be' 


24.0 


= 53.0° Be' 


5.5 


0.22 


21.8° Be' 


8.6 


= 53.0° Be' 


17.9 


2.46 


35.5° Be' 


21.0 


• =49.7° Be' 


2.1 


0.55 


44.3° Be' 


38.6 


= 59.7° Be' 


2.3 


0.08 


43.1° Be' 


42.6 


= 58.9° Be' 


4.6 


0.14 


39.3° Be' 


40.5 


= 57.2° Be' 


5.3 


0.14 


37.3° Be' 


34.8 


= 57.7° Be' 


5.2 


0.29 


40.1° Be' 


33.5 


= 55.7° Be' 


2.0 


0.18 


30.2° Be' 


16.0 


= 52.0° Be' 


4.3 


0.45 


40.9° Be' 


37.5 


= 60.5° Be' 


6.5 




39.2° Be' 


30.0 


= 57.4° Be' 


2.2 


o.ib 


36.6° Be' 


12.0 


= 53.2° Be' 


2.4 


0.23 


45.5° Be' 


32.0 


= 60.8° Be' 


1.8 


0.08 


37.2° Be' 


17.5 


= 56.6° Be' 


3.5 


0.30 



COLOR OF CRUDE OILS. 



Gravity Color 

Cabin Creek, W. Va 48.0° Be' 48 

Lander, Wyo 43.4° Be' 100 

Stevens Co., Tex 42.0° Be' 150 

Grass Creek, Wyo 45.1° Be' 570 

Elk Basin, Wyo 44.3° Be' 670 

Ranger, Tex 39.2° Be' 1,100 

Lance Creek, Wyo 42.1° Be' 1,270 

Bull Bayou, La 38.0° Be' 1.350 

Winnett, Mont 50.6° Be' 1.350 

Garber, Okla 49.5° Be' 1.670 

Ferris Dome, Wyo 38.8° Be' 2,250 

Homer, La 38.6° Be' 3,020 

Pilot Butte, Wyo 37.7° Be' 3,200 

Caddo, La 3,900 

Big Muddy, Wyo 33.0° Be' 4,745 



Salt Creek, Wyo 

Lost Soldier, Wyo 

Healdton, Okla 

Rock Creek, Wyo 

Edgemont, S. D 

Mexia, Tex 

Burkburnett, Tex 

pine Island, La 

Moran, Kas 

Maverick Springs, Wyo- 
Hamilton Dome, Wyo . . 

Tuxpan, Mexico 

Panuco, Mexico 

Soap Creek, Mont 



Gravity 


Color 


37.3° Be' 


5,100 


33.8° Be' 


5,100 


22.1° Be' 


5,420 


37.4° Be' 


6,550 


32.5° Be' 


6,730 


36.6° Be' 


7,285 


40.1° Be' 


9,000 


25.4° Be' 


10,200 


29.7° Be' 


13,000 


22.6° Be' 


39,400 


27.3° Be' 


47,750 


19.8° Be' 


68,000 


12.8° Be' 


156,000 


18.2° Be' 


51,000 



See page 427 for method of determining color. 



190 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Regional Character of Crude Oils 
Fraction Distilling from 250° 



New York and Pennsylvania . 

West Virginia 

Eastern Ohio 

Western Ohio 

Kentucky 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Kansas 

Oklahoma 

Wyoming 

California 



as Shown by the Gravity of the 
C.-275° C. (482° F.-527° P.). 





Saybolt Viscosity 




at 100° F. 


Gravity 


(Vacuum Distilled 


0.813 =42.2° Be' 


111 


0.809 =43.1° Be' 


110 


0.813=42.2° Be' 


129 


0.826 =39.5° Be' 


143 


0.836 =37.5° Be' 


151 


0.826 =39.5° Be' 


140 


0.845=35.7° Be' 


148 


0.843 =36.1° Be' 


153 


0.840=36.7° Be' 


170 


0.836 =37.5° Be' 


130 


0.878=29.5° Be' 


470 



PROPERTIES USEFUL IN THE DISTILLATION OF IMPORTANT 

CRUDE PETROLEUMS. 



SOURCE 
OF CRUDE 






El Dorado, Arkansas 851 

Winnett, Montana 777 

Homer, Louisiana 832 

Pine Island, Ix)uisiana. . . .902 

Sallyards, Kansas 836 

Cushing, Oklahoma 824 

Moran, Kansas 877 

Garber, Oklahoma 780 

Kingwood, Oklahoma 829 

Billings, Oklahoma 812 

Bixby, Oklahoma 845 

Bristow, Oklahoma 824 

Burkburnett, Texas 821 

Ranger. Texas 829 

Worlham, Texas 800 

Oroesberk, Texas 839 

Mexia, Texas 842 

Big Muddy, Wyoming. . . .860 

Osage, Wyoming 819 

I.ana' C;r«'ek, Wyoming 815 

Salt Creek, Wyoming 838 

Crass Cre<'k, Wyoming 801 

Elk Basin, Wyoming 805 

KerrJH Dome, Wyoming.. . .831 
Ixwt Soldier, Wyoming. . . .864 
Rork Cre«'k, Wyoming. . . .838 

IjaniU-r, Wyoming 809 

Tuxpan, Mexico 934 

I'anuco, Mexico , .982 



34. 
50. 
38. 
25. 
37. 
40. 
29. 
49. 
39. 
42. 
36. 
40. 
40. 
39. 
45. 
37. 
36. 
33. 
41. 
42. 
37. 
45. 
44. 
38. 
33. 
37. 
43. 
20. 
12. 






140° 
180° 

98° 
365° 

84° 
120° 
180° 
110° 
140° 
116° 
121° 
100° 
121° 
154° 
100° 
130° 
220° 
165° 
110 
170° 
119 
110° 

88 

94° 
172 

96° 

95° 
135 



E 

U5 



212° 

235° 

194° 

471° 

179° 

179° 

342° 

165° 

220° 

191° 

213° 

183° 

197° 

239° 

237° 

293 

314° 

210° 

186° 

216° 

218 

178 

170° 

192° 

282° 

194 

187° 

184 



U5 



73. 

68. 

80. 

37. 

78. 

75. 

56. 

81. 

68. 

76. 

72. 

78. 

74. 

69, 

75. 

62. 

55 

61 

75 

70 

71 

74 

78 

75 

53 

76 

76 

67 






30.0 
65.0 
30 °0 
2.0 
31.3 
37.5 
13.3 
57.5 
30.5 
42.0 
25.1 
39.5 
40.0 



31 
37 
20 
15 
20 
33 
33 
27 
44 
45 
28.5 
18.7 
28.7 
37.3 
15.0 
8.3 



06§ 



Wt1> 



5° 
8° 
2° 
0° 
8° 
9° 
5° 
4° 
1° 
7° 
6° 
3° 
5° 
0° 
4° 
9° 
,2° 
,0° 
,2° 
.8° 
.7° 
.1 
.1° 
.2° 
.4 
.8° 
.5° 
.2 



S5Q 



462 °F 
412° F 
473° F 



14. 
33. 
33. 
26. 
47. 
48 
32, 


30 
38 
14 

2 



■ m 






454 

437° 

300 

425 

410 

450° F 

410° F 

455 

437 

385 

448 

365 



350° 

410° 

410° 

392° 

454° F 

390° F 

441° 



426° F 
420° F 
395° F 



s° 



35.6° 

38.5° 

41°1. 

28.5° 

35.8° 

37.0° 

36.8° 

34.0° 

38.4° 

36.9° 

37.3 

35.4° 

36.7° 

37.0° 

41.5° 

39.0° 

39.6 

36.0 

36.6° 

38.6° 

37.6 

36.2° 

36.0° 

38.0° 

32.4' 

37.0° 

36.6° 

36.0' 






^! 



50.0 
93.9 
44.8 
25.5 
53.0 
58.8 
36.6 
75.0 
50.0 
62.5 
45.0 
62.5 
62.4 
58.0 
71.0 
54.0 
50.0 
38.0 
55.0 
57.5 
51.2 
65.0 
65.0 
49.5 
40.0 
46.0 
60.0 
32.5 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 191 



Typical Refinery Practice. 

There is much variation in the practice of petroleum distillation 
in different refineries. This depends to a large extent upon the 
character of the crude oil used, the market to which the refiner sells 
^nd the ability of the refiner as to knowledge and equipment. 

The following outlines the progressive distillation and treatment 
of crude oil in a typical refinery: (See figures 23 and 24). 

Crude Benzine (Gasoline and Naphtha) includes all of the light 
distillate which vaporizes up to 410° F. In the ordinary Mid-Continent 
or Texas petroleum, 420 °F indicates a gravity of the stream of dis- 
tillate from the condenser in the receiving house of 46.5° Be' to 
47.0° Be'. The gravity of the total distillate at this point varies with 
different types of crude. In some crudes this will be as high as 64.0° 
gravity, in others as low as 50°. For example, Burkburnett crude 
distilled up to 410°F has a gravity of 59.7° Be' of the total benzine 
and a stream gravity of 46.5° Be'; Bixby, Okla., crude benzine at 
410°F has a gravity of 58 0° Be' and a stream gravity of 46.7° Be'; 
Cushing, Okla., crude benzine at 410 °F has a gravity of 59.7° and 
a stream gravity of 47.0° Be'; Billings, Okla., crude gives a gravity 
of 60° Be' at 410°F and a stream gravity of 46.5° Be'; Ranger, Tex., 
crude oil gives a benzine gravity at 410 °F of 56.6° Be' and a stream 
gravity of 46.7° Be'. The gravity of crude benzine depends upon the 
initial boiling point of the crude, the relative proportion of the dif- 
ferent paraffin constituents and the chemical series of hydrocarbons 
to which the crude belongs. (See page 236.) 

The crude benzine is run off with direct fire under the still, though 
after a temperature of 220 °F is reached some open steam may be 
put in. The steam decidedly sweetens the product and brings over 
the benzine at a lower temperature. In the use of steam, the dis- 
tillation must be entirely governed by the gravity of the stream in the 
receiving house and not by temperatures. In cases where the crude 
is of good quality, it is not necessary to treat the benzine as it may 
merely be redistilled with steam coils. In many cases the refiner 
puts a good dephlegmator over on his crude still and makes a market- 
able gasoline without either treating it with acid or redistilling it with 
steam. 

When a high sulphur or low grade petroleum is treated, the dis- 
tillate is put into an agitator with sulphuric acid, the mixing being 
perfected by blowing air through the acid in the bottom of the agi- 
tator, thus contacting it with all portions of the benzine. The acid 
is drained out and the benzine washed with water. Caustic soda or 
"doctor" solution is added to neutralize the acid and the benzine is 
thoroughly washed to remove the last traces of caustic or sulfonates. 
The benzine is redistilled in a steam still to give a gasoline of 58 to 
60 gravity and about 430 end point, this depending largely upon the 
perfection of the dephlegmator. The last portion of the distillate is 
naphtha if a gasoline of high Baume' is desired. High gravity crudes 
are blended with low gravity crudes to eliminate the naphtha fraction. 

Kerosene or Water White Distillate comes over just after the 
crude benzine, with the gravity of the stream in the receiving house 



192 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



r^oM cfiuc 



WAX 
DISTILLPlTC 



firrRiocf((\7\(iri 



PR ESS CO 
OlSTlLLf\T£. 





OIL 

o ntrcRs 






Fie- 23— ri(.w Sheet for Complete Petroleum Refinery. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 193 



at about 37.0° and a vapor temperature of 572° F. This will give 
a kerosene ordinarily of a 41° gravity, but this again varies greatly 
with the type of the oil. For example, a certain Wyoming crude 
oil under these conditions gives a 31.0° kerosene, whereas Gushing, 
Okla. and Bixby, Okla., crude oils give a 41.0° to 42.0° gravity kero- 
sene. Pine Island cracked oil gives a 33-34° Be' kerosene and 
Wortham, Tex., light crude gives a 46° Be' gravity kerosene. In 
distilling kerosene from the crude it is desirable to stop before there 
is discoloration from decomposition or cracking. Cracking may be 
very largely prevented and kerosene very greatly sweetened by us- 
ing open steam throughout the entire distillation. The water white 
distillate or first run kerosene is now treated with acid and caustic 
in the agitator and exposed to heat, air and light in a shallow tank 
or bleacher in which all water is settled out. If the kerosene after 
treatment is not water white or has too high an end point, it may be 
redistilled with superheated open steam. The residue in the still 
may be mixed with the solar oil. 

Solar Oil or Distillate Oil is taken out immediately following 
the kerosene, being a crude distillate not subjected to refining and 
sold for use in explosion engines, as a high grade special fuel oil 
or for cracking stock. The making of this product depends upon 
the market. It may be about a 36 gravity product or it may be 
combined with gas oil or straw oil. 

Gas Oil is taken immediately following the distillate oil or kero- 
sene and its distillation is continued until the residuum in the still 
has a gravity of 23 to 26° Be'. It is distinctly a destructive distilla- 
tion and the yield depends largely upon the method and rate of fir- 
ing. Gas oil is used in making gas and contains a considerable 
amount of olefins and cracked products, and is not refined except for 
special purposes. It is also used as cracking stock. By the Burton 
process or the Cross process, gas oil commercially yields 60 to 65 
per cent of gasoline. If a gas oil fraction low in olefins (straw oil) 
is desired, it is necessary to distill using open steam and direct fire. 
Straight firing gives a more fluid residue on account of cracking. 

Residuum or tar is sold as fuel oil or it may be used to produce 
lubricating oil. In the latter case, it may be put into tar or tower 
stills and run dftwn to coke (see figure 25). If the crude oil con- 
tains no wax, then the lubricants may be made by vacuum, steam 
or gas distillation, and the distillate is only filtered through Ful- 
ler's earth for use. 

Wax distillate is collected following the gas oil and furnishes 
the stock from which lubricating oils and wax are made. Wax dis- 
tillate usually has a gravity of 30-32° Be', viscosity 50-80 at 100' 
F and a cold test of 55-100° F. The amount from different crudes 
varies from none up to 35 per cent. About 10 per cent is a usual 
amount. 

The wax distillate is cooled and the solidified wax pressed out 
at a low temperature under a high pressure. The wax-free oil, known 
as "pressed distillate" is then reduced in a still to the desired viscos- 
ity lubricating stock. When reducing, considerable steam is used 
in the distillation in order to prevent the oil from "cracking" or as 
stillmen frequently say, from "burning." Heavy benzine, gas oil 



194 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



< 



"o 
U4M0 

Q 



k 














^0 






5; 10 iC If) Q 5; (0 



" !i- 5 «5 



\i C) If i<^ vg K 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 195 



and light lubricating distillate are obtained as overhead products, 
the residue being the base for the heavy lubricating oil. The light 
lubricating distillate contains volatile products, which must be re- 
moved. This is performed by reducing as before with fire and steam 
to the viscosity desired. 

The reduced lubricating stocks are further refined by treating 
and filtering. The oils are agitated, by means of air, with strong sul- 
phuric acid in lai-ge agitators. It has been found that better re- 
sults are obtained if the acid is added in small portions instead of 
adding the acid all at once. A small quantity, known as "water 
acid" usually one pound per bai-rel of oil treated, is added and agi- 
tated with the oil for a short time. The agitation is then discon- 
tinued and the acid sludge is permitted to settle, after which it is 
drawn off. Then about four pounds of new acid, known as the "first 
body acid" is agitated with the oil. The agitation is again stopped 
and the acid sludge drawn off. The larger portion of the acid, "sec- 
ond body acid" is then added. This quantity varies with the nature 
of the oil treated but is frequently 4 to 10 pounds per barrel of oil. 
This is then agitated an hour or more with the oil, after which a 
sufficient quantity of water is added to coagulate the asphaltic mate- 
rial in the oil. This operation is known as "coking." The acid sludge 
is drawn off as quickly as possible and the asphaltic material or 
"coke" permitted to settle. If the proper quantity of water is not 
added, the asphaltic material becomes finely divided and is difficult 
to separate fi'om the oil. The oil which is still acid is pumped into 
another agitator where it is neutralized with caustic soda, a 5° Baume' 
solution being used. After the acid has been neutralized, the caus- 
tic soda is permitted to settle and is drawn off. The oil is then 
freed of moisture by heating to about 120 to 140° F and then blow- 
ing with air until the oil is bright. During the neutralization, the 
oil sometimes becomes emulsified. The emulsion is often broken by 
heating or sometimes by heating and agitating with a demulsifying 
compound. The oil should be treated in such a manner that a mini- 
mum quantity of salts are formed during this process as these cause 
the finished oil to have a poor emulsion test. Th acid treatment 
the finished oil to have a poor emulsion test. The acid treatment 
meet color specifications. The oil is then filtered through Fuller's 
earth until the desired color is obtained. The filtering also improves 
the emulsion test. After filtering, the oil is ready for the market. 

Refiners frequently manufacture two grades -of lubricating oil, 
a light and a heavy oil. These oils generally have the following tests: 

Light Oil Heavy Oil 

Gravity 25 0—32,0° Be' 20.0—27.0° Be' 

Hash point 300—400° F 375—425° F 

Fire test 400—460° F 460—500° F 

Viscosity at 100° F 50—150 200—400 

Cold test 10— 30° F 20— 35° F 

Color (N. P. A.) 2 3, dark red 



196 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




-J 
Q 

I 



i^"^ 



^1 



5 
I 

•i ''J O S 



-J -N 
<o C 5 k4 

<5f ■« ;^ "0 







■9 

i5 



p 0- 



5 



^ IT -T ^ 



w * o < 1 

S ^ ? "o :J 

<v S S '<' 5 



5 



6^ 






> 



I 



^5 
5'^ 



^°>^^5^5;^ 



^ »< L' >o $ 



■^ VI t 



»v"\i 10 > V) ION 



l-'iK. 25 — C 



Joniliinalion Pipe and Tower Still. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 197 



All lubricating oils should have a fair emulsion test arid a low 
carbon residue. Many purchasers of lubricating oils demand a light 
colored oil, but a good color does not necessarily signify a good lubri- 
cant. 

Paraffin Wax is also obtained from the wax distillate cut. The 
wax distillate is cooled to about 5° F in chillers by means of a cold 
brine solution. The solidified mass is granulated and carried for- 
ward to the presses by a helicoid conveyor. The wax is then sep- 
arated from the oil by forcing the cooled mass of oil and wax through 
filter presses under a high pressure, approximately 350 pounds per 
square inch. The crude wax remains upon the canvas filter and the 
oil drops into the pan below. 

The crude wax known as "slack wax" is removed from the press 
and conveyed to a tank where it is melted. The slack wax contains 
a large percentage of oil, which must be removed. This is done by 
a process known as "sweating." The "sweaters" are large shallow 
pans which contain wire screens a few inches above the bottom. Suf- 
ficient water is placed in the pan to cover the screen. The melted 
wax is then pumped on the water and permitted to solidify slowly. 
When solid, the water is drawn off at the bottom of the pan, the 
cake of wax being supported by the screen. The temperature of the 
sweater room is gi'adually increased by means of steam in closed 
steam coils. 

The oil known as "foots oil" first separates from the wax fol- 
lowed by the low melting point or "intermediate wax." The wax 
from the sweater is known as "scale wax." The scale wax usually 
has a yellow color, which is removed by treating and filtering. The 
scale wax is melted and treated with a few pounds of 66° Baume' 
sulphuric acid, usually with 1 and 3 pounds in succession. The acid, 
is drawn off and the remaining acid in the wax neutralized with 1 
to 3° Baume' caustic soda. The alkali is settled from the wax, the 
temperature being maintained at about 140° F during the entire pro- 
cess. The melted wax is then filtered through Fuller's earth to the 
desired color. Wax has a specific gravity of about 9, a melting 
point of 120 to 140° F and not more than 1 per cent of oil and mois- 
ture. 

After the wax distillate has been removed from the crude oil, 
a fraction containing considerable amorphovs wax, known as "wax 
tailings" distills over. The wax tailings are not passed through the 
condenser coils, but are permitted to pass directly from the vapor 
line to a small tank known as the "wax pot." They are of little 
value but may be used for cracking stock. 

Crude oil which has a bright green color is distilled with consid- 
erable steam in order that a heavy oil may be obtained after the gas 
oil and a portion of the wax distillate have been removed. This 
product is known as Cylinder Stock. Cylinder stock should have a 
high flash and fire test; the color should be green to red, not brown 
nor black. If a brighter color is desired, the oil is treated and filtered. 



198 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Cylinder stock from Mid Continent crude oils usually has the 
following tests: 

Gravity 19.0—23.0° Be' 

Flash point 490—600° F 

Fire test 575—700° F 

Cold test 40— 70° F 

Viscosity at 212° F 130—250 

Color brown or green 

When asphalt is desired the residue from the gasoline and kero- 
sene may be distilled by blowing superheated steam through it until 
the desired consistency is reached. Asphalt base oils or cracked 
paraffin base oils are necessary to make first class asphalt. An out- 
line of the methods used for producing asphalts and road oils is given 
on page 367. Frequently, particularly for road oils, the stock remain- 
ing after cracking heavy gas oil is run down to a semi-solid or solid 
consistency. This gives a specially valuable road oil on account of 
its high asphalt content, good hardening or drying properties, low 
viscosity and excellent penetration. 

For refining by cracking see pages 204 to 242. 

For illustration of a refinery operation, see flow sheets on pages 
23 and 222. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 199 



Color and Odor in Refined Petroleum. 

Most distillates from petroleum contain sufficient foreign matter 
to give an undesirable odor or a yellowish to red color. 

The odor in natural distillates is due ordinarily to sulphur com- 
pounds, characteristic of which is hydi'ogen sulphide. Gasoline or 
light hydrocarbons produced by cracking have a more or less offensive 
odor even though sulphur is not present in appreciable quantity. In 
a general way, color is present in proportion as the odor is more dis- 
agreeable. The color of petroleum products is thought to be partly 
due to nitrogen compounds. Light hydrocarbons produced by crack- 
ing have a higher color the larger the amount of nitrogen in the 
heavy oils cracked, as' a general rule. Cracked products from paraf- 
fin hydrocarbons such as those from Oklahoma give a yellowish color 
in the distillate above 300° F though they may be colorless below 
300 °F. California and Mexican cracked gasoline gives a red color, 
which is not noticeable immediately upon distilling, but becomes more 
intense as the gasoline is exposed to the action of the air. This col- 
oring matter on standing largely settles out or is oxidised so that the 
redistilled gasoline may be free from color. 

Kerosene, the first refined product of petroleum marketed on a 
large scale, was a yellow or dark red liquid. It was first produced 
from coal, and it was found in 1857 that "coal oil" could be deodor- 
ized and decolorized by treatment with sulphuric acid and this is the 
process that is in general use at the present time. 66° Be' sulphuric 
acid is ordinarily used, as it reacts upon the unsaturated compounds, 
the sulphur compounds and the nitrogenous compounds in the oil by 
forming substances which dissolve largely in the sulphuric acid. The 
shrinkage of the oil treated may vary from almost nothing up to 
10 per cent, depending upon the character of the oil being refined. 
In ordinary natural distillates, one pound of acid per barrel is com- 
monly sufficient, but with cracked oil as much as 10 pounds of acid 
are often required. Even then the treatment is often not sufficiently 
severe and oleum or Nordhausen sulphuric acid, which contains an 
excess of sulphur trioxide is necessary. This is the case with Cali- 
fornia oil. After treatment with sulphuric acid, thorough washing 
and neutralization with caustic soda is always necessary. Other sub- 
stances used for neutralizing the acid and acid sulfonates are soda 
ash, lime, silicate of soda and sodium plumbite. 

Other chemicals may be quite successfully used in removing the 
odor of cracked gasoline, among these being sodium plumbite, cop- 
per oxide, manganese dioxide, potassium permangate, sodium chro- 
mate, aluminum chloride, chlorine and stannic chloride. 

Dry hydrochloric acid gas (hydrogen chloride, HCl) and alum- 
inum chloride are often highly effective in treating gasoline to re- 
move the color. 

The "bloom" or fluorescence of mineral oils is supposed to be due 
to the presence of asphalt-like or pitchy material in colloidal condi- 
tion. This is overcome by the use of mono-nitro-naphthalene 
C10H7NO2) in small amounts. 



200 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The most useful agent in the improvement of the color of refined 
petroleum oil is fuller's earth. Chemically, fuller's earth is a hydrous 
silicate of alumina, containing small quantities of other substances 
such as calcium, magnesia, and iron. Usually it contains about 15 
per cent of combined water. 

The ability of fuller's earth to remove color from oil is purely 
Dhvsical in character. Fuller's earth is not a definite chemical com- 
pound and many varieties of fuller's earth will give equally varying 
results. A sample of fuller's earth which is perfectly satisfactory 
for bleaching vegetable oils may not be satisfactory for the bleaching 
of mineral oils. Some fuller's earths have so marked an oxidizing 
action on vegetable and animal oils that they cause the oil to catch 
fire spontaneously when air is blown through the filter presses to 
remove the adhering oil. This type of fuller's earth is of course not 
satisfactory for vegetable oils but is quite satisfactory for mineral 
oils. This is why the Florida earth is almost exclusively used for 
bleaching mineral oils. 

Fuller's earth for refining petroleum oil is usually bolted to defi- 
nite sized grains and is placed on the market on the basis of 15-30 
mesh, 30-60 mesh, 60-80 mesh, etc. The coarser sizes are in greatest 
demand for the reason that after treatment of the oils, they are 
easier to clarify. The finer sizes are more effective in bleaching 
but are more difficult to clarify. The fine material may be used for 
the decolorization of gasoline. Fuller's eax'th is ordinarily used but 
slightly for decolorizing kerosene, though it is customary to treat 
kerosene with a small proportion of fuller's earth to aid in remov- 
ing the turbidity. 

In its use, fuller's earth of the grade chosen is placed in a tali 
cylindrical percolator with closed, rounded ends. Through this col- 
umn about 15 feet in height, the oil is forced under sufficient pres- 
sure to allow it to run freely from the bottom. The fuller's earth 
is classified according to the color which comes through. The per- 
colator carries ordinarily fi'om 18 to 25 tons at one time. The de- 
coloi'ization capacity of fuller's earth varies from 30 barrels for one 
ton of earth down to 7 barrels for one ton of earth on each treatment. 
Since fuller's earth may be used satisfactorily from 10 to 16 times, 
the amount of fuller's earth consumed varies from one ton of fuller's 
earth to 500 barrels of oil down to one ton of fuller's earth for 60 
barrels of oil. In each treatment, when the fuller's earth has be- 
came useless for decolorizing, the percolator is blown out with air 
to remove as much of the oil as is possible and the residue is washed 
with naphtha to recover the oil adhering to the particles. The ex- 
tractor is then blown out with steam to remove the residual matter. 
The naphtha is recovered by distillation and the residual oil is re- 
treated in the following batches. The recovered fuller's earth is 
conveyed to a rotary kiln similar to those used in burning Portland 
cement. The earth is heated at a low red temperature, about 900°F, 
to revivify the earth. About 3 per cent of the material is lost in 
burning. It is usual to burn the earth before using it for bleach- 
ing, thus removing all of the moisture and water of hydration. Great 
care must be taken that the temperature of incipient fusion is not 
reached. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 201 



Fuller's earth is also highly effective in the treatment of off 
color naphthas, benzines and gasolines where fairly good results 
can often be had by treatment in the same manner as in the case of 
illuminating and lubricating oils. The best results can be had by 
distilling while agitating with fuller's earth. In this manner, yellow 
pressure distillates, such as are obtained in cracking,- can be decol- 
orized completely by one distillation if proper towers are used. While 
this makes water white gasoline it does not greatly improve the odor 
and the usual treatment is necessary for eliminating the odor. On 
the other hand, a very light dilute acid treatment may be used for 
improving the odor and this may be followed by the distillation with 
fuller's earth. 

Good results may be had by the use of Bentonite* in the decol- 
orization of petroleum. This material is a hydrous silicate of alumina 
or zeolite. The material used for examination was greenish white in 
its natural state with a greasy consistency and formed a perfect sus- 
pension with water. The samples used for test were dried at 300° 
F. After drying the material was white. The composition is as 
follows. 

Natural Dried Ignited 

Moisture 35.33% 0.00 0.00 

Combined water 4.61 7.13 0.00 

Silica _ 38.70 59.85 64.45 

Alumina 15.49 23.96 25 80 

Iron Oxide _ 2.18 3.38 3.64 

Lime 0.83 1.29 1.39 

Magnesia ....- 1.81 2.80 3.01 

Sulphur 0.71 1.07 1.15 

Alkalies 0.34 0.52 0.56 

By distilling pressure benzine of very dark color once with this 
material of 100 mesh fineness a water white gasoline is obtained. 

*See Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. 112, p. 819, Novem- 
ber 19, 1921 and Vol. 112, Page 860, November 26, 1921. 

*See A. Seidell J. Am. Chem. Soc, Vol. 40, p. 312, January, 1918. 



202 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Petroleum Emulsions and Their Dehydration. 

Producers of petroleum are usually little concerned with the 
refining of petroleum except as they receive a price dependent upon 
the refining properties. Often particularly in the case of asphaltic 
or heavy waxy crude oils a large amount of water, brine and col- 
loidal mineral matter is suspended in the oil. Oil in such condition 
may contain as much as 60 to 90 per cent of water. These emul- 
sions are variously spoken of as B. S., sediment, roily oil, cut oil 
and tank bottoms. Much of this B. S. is often asphaltic and waxy 
matter precipitated by the mixing of crudes or the lowering of the 
temperature when the oil exudes from the sand due to the release 
of pressure. Most crude oil as it comes from the ground carries 
some water but anything less than 2 per cent is accepted by the 
pipe line companies or the refineries. The actual production of 
emulsions probably occurs when the oil and the water mix as they 
exude through the fine interstices in the sand. 

The main emulsifying agents are probably hydrous silicates of 
alumina which though in very small quantities form colloids with 
water, asphaltenes or naphthenic acid which form colloidal solu- 
tions with the oil and colloidal oxide of iron which separates out 
from oil bearing brines. Any finely divided solid may, however, 
act as an emulsifying agent. The chief requirement for a stable 
emulsion is that the solid substance insoluble in one fluid and in- 
soluble or slightly soluble in the other, separate on the surface of 
the globule constituting the internal phase. A common condition 
is that the liquid in which the emulsifying agent is less soluble con- 
stitutes the internal phase. For example, metal soaps such as cal- 
cium oleate and copper oleate are more soluble in oil than in water 
and the oil is therefore in the external phase. Even in these cases, 
however, the emulsion may separate into two layers of emulsion, 
in the lower of which, the water is in the external phase and the 
upper of which, the water is in the internal phase. If the crude oil 
as naturally existing in the oil sand and containing a small amount 
of naphthenic acid or similar substance while being forced by pres- 
sure through the interstices in the sand is brought into contact 
w;ith water containmg calcium bicarbonate, the corresponding cal- 
cium soap is precipitated and forms a film on the globules of water, 
thus tending to produce a more or less permanent emulsion. 

There are two general methods of removing water from oil in 
^♦u^ '^^J^ emulsified. One is by vaporization of the water, the 
other IS by encouragement of the coalescence of the water globules. 
Vaporization IS usually the method employed and merely consists 
in heating the oil in pipes to a temperature of approximately 300° 
t and (hscharging it into a hot still or vaporizing container. The 
water thus goes completely into the vapor phase and condenses in 
the coil together with any light oil. This condensate shows no ten- 
dency whatever to again emulsify, on account of the absence of 
emulsifymg agents and on account of the low viscosity of the oil. 

The same effect may be accomplished without coils by heating 
the oil to a pressure of about 100 pounds and condensing the vapors 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 203 



including all of the water vapor at the same pressure. This is the 
same method as that for producing synthetic gasoline by pressure dis- 
tillation. At the ordinary refinery, the oil is heated to a temperature 
not exceeding 212° F and the water separates and is drawn out 
through the tar plug. This, however, can only be done in the case 
of the lighter crudes. 

Various methods are used to induce coalescence of the water 
globules. In all of these, the oil is heated. Often by heating alone, 
there is sufficient settling out of the water to make the oil accept- 
able. A temperature of 160° F is commonly used. As an aid to 
this sedimentation, chemicals are frequently successfully employed. 
A common formula is the use of a sodium soap containing resin, 
wax and sodium silicate in small quantity. Sodium carbonate alone 
is occasionally sufficient. The most recent method of coalescing the 
water globules is the application of the centrifuge. This is used 
in many large producing plants in the Gulf Coast and Mid Continent 
region. The Cottrell Electric Precipitation method is claimed to be 
quite effective and it is stated that it requires a consumption of 
only about 100 watts of electricity per barrel of oil treated. 

References on Dehydration of Petroleum. 

C. V. Fornes, Petroleum Age, 10, 33, 1921. 

E. E. Ayres, Petroleum World, 18, 406, 1921; 18,401. 

J. H. Wiggins, National Pet. News, 13, No. 26, 59, 1921. 

C. P. Buck, Oil and Gas Journal, 20, 80, 1921. 



204 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Chemical Nature of Cracking of Oil. 

When crude oil is subjected to ordinary distillation by fire the 
light products naturally present in the oil are distilled off as such 
up to a temperature of about 300° C (572° F) comprising both the 
gasoline and the kerosene. Above this temperatui-e, the hydrocarbons 
undergo partial decomposition while distilling, with the result that 
some light products are produced and distilled along with the heavy 
products. Olefins as well as paraffin compounds of lower molecular 
weight than the oil being heated are formed. By vigorous firing the 
entire oil residue may be distilled, leaving only a variable amount 
of residual carbon as' a product of decomposition. The amount of 
carbon and gas formed by this pyrogenic decomposition is greater 
with the asphaltic or naphthene petroleums than with the paraffin 
base petroleums. A typical heavy Mid Continent petroleum gives 
4.5 per cent of carbon and 4.0 per cent of gas on distillation to coke 
or carbon. With pure paraffin base oils the amounts of carbon and 
gas formed are comparatively slight. Mexican oils from Panuco 
give 20 per cent of coke. 

This property of all heavy petroleums in decomposing into hydro- 
carbons of lower molecular weight by heating is generally known as 
cracking. The chemical reactions involved in cracking are not def- 
inite, it was originally supposed that cracking involved the for- 
mation of a large amount of olefins according to the following re- 
action: (Redwood) 

CnH2n+2 = Cn-mH2'n-ni)4-2 ' -l-CniH2m 

a specific illustration of which would be 

C|sH32 =C8Hl8 +C7H14 

Pentadecane -fHeptylene = Octane 

This reaction does not, h-wever, accord -with the facts, since gas 
and carbon are always formed in varying amount. A reactian which 
corresponds to the yields as experimentally found under certain con- 
ditions is the following: 

2CnH2n+2 =2 Cn-mH2(n-m)+2 +mCH4+mC 

or as a specific illustration 

C1.SH32 =CsH„ +7 CH4 +7C 

Pentadecane = Octane +Methane -f Carbon 

Yet under certain other conditions the amount of gas formed is 
very small, indicating that the following reaction was partly car- 
ried out. 

(jm+s) CnH2n+2 =(2n+2) CmH2n+o +2(n-m) C 

or as an illustration 

i^''}'^'' =16C8H,8 +7C 

Pentadecane = Octane + Carbon. 

This last reaction is also indicated by the large yields of gaso- 
nne obtamod from some crude oils. 

•« ^I"n^^,'^"''^^^'" w^^ of melting point of 130° F and specific grav- 
ity ot U.8J2 on repeated cracking confined under pressure up to 57 
atmospheres at temperature of 400° C and with a vapor space twice 
the volume of the liquid, yielded 32.5 per cent bv volume of gaso- 
me of 724rrG.3.4 Be' gravity or 29.1 per cent by weight by each 
treatment or a total of 94.7 per cent bv weight, or 104 per cent bv 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 205 

The amount produced on first six treatments was as follows: 

First 29.1% by weight of original paraffin 

Second 19.9% by weight of original paraffin 

Third 14.5% by weight of original paraffin 

Fourth 9.9% by weight of original paraffin 

Fifth 6.8% by weight of original paraffin 

Sixth 4.7% by weight of original paraffin 

84.9% 

The gasoline produced consisted of paraffin hydrocarbons as 
shown in fig. 42. 

That the cracking of oil is not simply a decomposition of the 
hydrocarbon molecules is shown in fig. 44. These curves show 
the relation between the distilling temperature and the specific 
gravity of water white Cabin Creek distillate. Before cracking, it 
had an end point of about 540° F and its heaviest ends had a spe- 
cific gravity of 0.815. After cracking, the end point was above 
640° F and the end gravity above 0.900. Both heavier and higher 
boiling hydrocarbons as well as lighter and lower boiling hydrocar- 
bons were produced simultaneously. There must have been poly- 
merization to yield hydrocarbons of both higher boiling point and 
higher specific gravity. By continued cracking there may be made 
from water white distillate, solid and ductile asphaltic cement of 
typical conchoidal fracture. 

The gases produced by cracking likewise are not simple split- 
off hydrocarbons but vary according to the method of cracking. In 
liquid phase cracking, the chief variation is in the olefin and hy- 
drogen content. In a general way, there seems to be a tendency 
for low percentages of hydrogen to be associated with low per- 
centages of olefins. A typical gas made in a Burton still has the 
following composition: 

Methane and Ethane (CnH2n+.2)=82.0% 
Olefins = 8.5% 

Hydrogen = 9.5% 



One of the problems in cracking is to limit the amount of hydro- 
gen. This has been partially done by allowing the hydrogen to re- 
main in contact with the cracked distillate under high pressure and 
at a temperature somewhat below the ordinary temperature of crack- 
ing (see U. S. Patent 1,255,138). (See Figs. 72 and 73.) 

Figures 39 and 40 shows some of the relative properties of light 
hydi'ocarbons made by various pro:-esses used more or less in a com- 
mercial way for the production of gasoline from heavy oil. 



206 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Classification of Systems of Cracking. 

I — Vapor Phase. 

A. Atmospheric pressure. 

(1) High temperature. Oil gas, Pintscb gas at very high 
temperature. Blaugas and liquefiable gas at high tempera- 
ture (1200° F). Gasoline substitutes such as Greenstreet 
process — cherry red temperature. 

(2) Low temperature (700-900° F). 

B. Increased Pressure. 

(1) High temperatures. Rittman at 950° F and 200-300 
pounds. Hall at 1100° F and 75 lbs. 

(2) Low temperatures (750-900° F). 

II — Liquid Phase. 

A. With distillation (distillation necessary). 

(1) Atmospheric pressure. 

(a) Without chemicals. Atwood (1860) — illuminating 
oil practice. 

(b) With chemicals. Aluminum chloride and related 
chemicals (McAfee, Gray). 

(2) Above atmospheric pressure — no differential pressures. 
Dewar & Redwood, Dubbs, Burton, Bacon & Clark, E. M. 
Clark, Jenkins, Fleming. 

(3) Very high pressure — distilling at reduced pressure. Ben- 
ton. 

B. Without distillation (necessarily high pressure). 

(1) Intermittent. Palmer, Snelling, Hubbard. 

(2) Continuous. 

(a) Identical heating and reaction zones. 

(b) Separated heating and reaction zones. 

The above outline of the general systems of cracking gasoline 
is not based upon any general mechanical arrangement. Most of 
the patents relating to the cracking of oil cover mechanical arrange- 
ment. Of more than 1,000 patents on this subject, very few of them 
are basic. 

Those systems that heat the oil vapor at atmospheric pressure 
are principally used for making gas. On account of the low spe- 
cific heat of the oil vapor the temperatures are very high and are 
not subject to exact control. The result is that the product contains 
a large percentage of olefins and aromatics and a large proportion 
of the heavy oil stock is converted into fixed gas. Possibly the only 
chance of making a first class gasoline according to these systems 
is to heat the vapor at a temperature of from 700 to 900° F. This 
involves a very large apparatus or one in which the oil vapor is put 
through at a very high rate of speed. The difficulties in tempera- 
ture control are so great that they have not yet been satisfactorily 
overcome, althoi-gh some experimental work is being done in the 
design of furnaces for holding the vapors at the limited tempera- 
ture required. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 207 



Much of the pioneering work in the cracking of oil was done 
in heating in the vapor phase under increased pressure. These also 
have the fault that the temperatures are ordinarily kept too high; 
1100° F and a pressure of 75 pounds ai"e typical. Increase of pres- 
sure is of interest because of the deceased cost of operation. Like- 
wise low temperatures of from 750 to 900° F with vapor phase crack- 
ing might prove successful but the question of carbon deposition on 
the walls of the tubes present a new difficulty. 

The really successful processes that have proved profitable are 
those in which the cracking is accomplished by applying the heat 
to the liquid phase of the oil. The original work on cracking by 
Atwood in 1860 was done at atmospheric pressure and it has been 
the practice ever since that time to increase the amount of illum- 
inating oil by refluxing while distilling. This method, however, does 
not accomplish enough in the production of gasoline unless some 
chemical agent is added which causes the reaction of cracking to go 
on at a lower temperature. The most common chemical used for 
this purpose is technical dry aluminum chloride, the operation of 
which is explained more fully further on. By this process, com- 
pletely refined gasoline may be made with one operation. Other 
chemicals such as tin chloride, ferric chloride, manganic chloride, 
zinc chloride and phosphorus pentoxide have the same effect but to 
a lesser degree. 

The method by which a large proportion of the synthetic gaso- 
line is now made is by distillation at pressui'es considerably above 
the atmospheric pressure. The reaction and distillation take place 
in the same still. An enormous amount of refluxing is necessary and 
the gasoline must be removed as fast as it is formed. An enormous 
amount of heat is lost by reason of this refluxing and the reaction 
is considerably retarded, but nevertheless, the distillation is a neces- 
sity as otherwise excessive pressure would develop. 

By the use of very high pressure, more reaction can be accom- 
plished in a shorter time and methods exist whereby this is done 
followed by distillation at a lower pressure. 

The most recent development, however, has been the accom- 
plishment of the cracking without distillation as a separate and 
distinct refinery operation. This is necessarily carried on at a 
high pressure and most of these processes provide for intermittent 
operation. Intermittent operation is of course not commercial in 
handling a cheap material like petroleum as a very long period of 
time is necessary for cooling between operations. Continuous sys- 
tems have been devised in which the heating zone and the reaction 
zone have been one and the same. This brought on difficulties in 
continuing the operation for long periods of time without the forma- 
tion of an excess of carbon. Possibly one of the most basic patents 
has been developed in which the heating zone is separate and dis- 
tinct from the reaction zone. This allows an operation to be con- 
tinuous for a period of from 3 to 15 days without the necessity of 
cleaning carbon as the reaction zone may be changed without in- 
terfering with the heating zone. 

Electrical processes continue to attract considerable attention 
chiefly because of their novel claims rather than because of any 



208 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



"""'''•' G.L.BENTON. 

PROCESS OF EEFINING CRUDE PETROLEUM OIL. 

No. 342,564. Patented May 25, 1886. 




INVENTOR 



Fitr. 20 — Ronton Process for Cracking'. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 209 



virtues which they possess. Electrical processes have not been dem- 
onstrated as having any commercial value though heat from elec- 
trical sources is doubtless as effective in cracking as heat from 
cheaper sources. No true catalytic processes have been developed 
for the cracking of oil. No substance has been found which will 
cause the cracking reaction to go on any more rapidly than occurs 
in the case of cracking in the liquid phase with high pressure and 
without distillation. The highest speed probably attained by the 
use of aluminum chloride is 5 per cent conversion per hour whereas 
with high pressure and without distillation, conversion can readily 
be carried out at the rate of 2 per cent per minute. Many chemical 
substances, however, are effective in producing a sweeter and whiter 
product. 

Advantages of Liquid Phase Cracking. 

All processes of making gasoline which have not involved the 
treatment of the oil strictly in the liquid phase are said to have 
met with only a questionable degree of success. 

While the cracking of oil in the vapor phase would be highly 
desirable if the product and other conditions were satisfactory, it 
has been claimed by many that the advantages of applying the heat 
to the liquid phase are as follows: 

1. A lower temperature is sufficient to induce cracking. 

2. The rate of reaction is greatly increased, being greater the 
higher the pressure within certain limits. 

3. A product containing smaller amounts of olefins and aromat- 
ics is produced. 

4. A higher yield of refined gasoline is obtained. 

5. There is a better economy of heat. 

6. There is a selective action on the oil or heavy portions of 
the petroleum by reason of the automatic conversion of the desired 
pi'oduct into the vapor phase, thus freeing it from further liability 
to decomposition. 

7. There is a high oil capacity with small plant dimensions. 

8. There is a perfect control of temperatures. 

9. There is a rapid and more complete absorption of heat from 
the furnace and less tendency to local overheating on account of the 
much higher specific heat of oil than of the oil vapor. 

10. There is the possibility of operating either by intermittent 
charging or by continuous treatment and distillation. 

11. The carbon is deposited in a suspended condition in the oil 
and not on the retaining walls. 

12. There is the possibility of the use of the automatically 
developed pressure for mechanical and condensing purposes. 

The chief disadvantage in cracking oil in the vapor phase and 
under high pressure seems to be the danger attendant upon a pos- 
sible failure of steel parts, but this is entirely overcome with proper 
design. 



210 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The following- special physical properties of hydrocarbons enter 
into the considerations of liquid phase cracking: 

Gasoline Hydrocarbons. 

Critical Pressure 
Critical Temperature Atmospheres 

Pentane 390° F. 24 

Hexane 450° F. 22 

Heptane 515° F. 20 

Octane 565° F. 18 

Nonane - 640° F. 16 

Decane 680° F. 15 

Undecane 720° F. 14 

Kerosene Hydrocarbons. 

Duodecane 760° F. 13 

Tridecane 860° F. 10.5 

Tetradecane 900° F. 9 

The critical temperatures are somewhat increased by the presence 
of the heavier hydrocarbons so that at pressures above about 150 lbs. 
per square inch only gasoline and gaseous hydrocarbons would be 
removed from the liquid phase. With pressures below this there would 
be some difficulty in maintaining the lighter kerosene in the liquid 
phase. 

References: See Fig. 41 on vapor pressure of gasoline. Denig, 
Chem. & Met. Engr., Vol. 25, p. 751; Young, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dub. 
Soc, 12, 374. 



I 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



211 



^No Model.') 

J. DEWAR & B. REDWOOD. 

APPARATUS FOR THE DISTILLATION OP MINERAL OILS AND 

LIKE PRODUCTS. 

No. 426.173. 



^Sffl 



Patented Apr. 22. 1890. 










cz:^ 



:««<^V 



2Z3^' 



l^iS^ 



Fig-. 27 — Dewar & Redwood Process for Cracking. 



212 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Development of Commercial Practice in Cracking of Oil. 

It has been stated that the commercial cracking of oil was acci- 
dentally discovered in the winter of 1861 by a stillman at Newark, 
New Jersey. However, this is probably not the case, since a patent 
was granted to Luther Atwood, of New York, May 15, 1860, No. 
28,246, in the U. S. Patent Office, which provides for the production 
of light hydrocarbon illuminating oils from heavy oils, paraffin, etc. 
The apparatus provides for the cooling of the heavy oil vapors and 
their return to the still for further cracking. This is all carried out 
at atmospheric pressure. 

The first record of pressure distillation is apparently set forth 
by James Young in his patent. No. 3,345 (English) of 1865, in which 
a distillation is described as being conducted in a vessel having a 
loaded valve or a partially closed stop-cock through which the con- 
fined vapors escape under any desired pressure. IJnder these condi- 
tions, distillation takes place at higher temperatures than the normal 
boiling points of the heavy hydrocarbons and partial cracking results. 
The patent was taken out for treatment of shale oil and in practice a 
pressure of 20 pounds to the square inch was recommended. 

The first extremely high pressure process was that of Benton, 
U. S. Patent No. 342,564, May 25. 1886. In this the oil is heated at 
a temperature of from 700° to 1,000° F. through a pipe leading to 
a low pressure expansion chamber, where it was vaporized, and then 
the vapors were condensed. The pressure used was as high as 500 
pounds per square inch. 

A very important patent in the present development of crackinp- 
processes is that issued to Dewar & Redwood, which is partly de'^ 
scribed as follows: 

Specifications and Claims of Dewar and Redwood. 

"In distilling mineral oils— such as natural petroleum or similar 
ml made from shale, coal or other bituminous substances— in order 
to separate the lighter oils, suitable for lamps and other purposes, 
trom the heavier oils, there is frequently a very large residue of 
neavy oil. Attempts have been made to obtain lighter oils from such 
resulues or from heavy natural petroleums by causing the vapor gen- 
erated in the stiU-boiler to pass a heavily-loaded valve, so that 
ine vaporization takes place under considerable pressure. It has 
r^l.1 !" Frr^fu'^ i*"" arrange the still-boiler with its upper part 
moio ^r ?p1 ^Y ^'f "^f ^i*'^ P"^t'«" «f the vapor mav become 
moch. of on! 'T^^^'l^'- '''"'' ^^" ^^^k ^"t« the hot liquid below, this 
n thCls ..?o nf • "*;• '""^'."f commonly termed 'cracking.' Both -these 
of the di:^fninr^ '^'^"/i',^' }^^ ^"""^^^ «" «^c«'^'"t of the irregularity 
•onluctinJ Si " ^v ^^"^ ^^"^'^ «" ''^"^^"t of the waste of heat in 
of th" nsults ""^"^'"^ P'^'^^^^ «"d the slowness and insufficiency 

l>v suinhli'^nnnn^of''^^^*^' K"" "'^thod of conducting the distillation 

n^guTat vimfrKfn^^ '1 '"' i ^ "'•^"""'' t^^^t we get the benefit of 

vc mrvirthos^mrf-"^' conden.sation under high pressure, and that 

may at the same time get such advantage as can be obtained from 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



213 



W. M. BORTON. 

MAN0FAC7UEE OF GASOLENE. 

AFFUCAIIOR FILED JOIT 3, l»12 



1,049,667. 



Patented Jan. 7, 1913. 




Z^f^jGJ^G^ . 



^^0--^^^^ 






Fig. 28 — Burton Process for Cracking. 



214 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



cracking. For this purpose, we arrange a suitable boiler or retort, 
and a condenser in free communication with one another, without 
interposing any valve between them; but we provide a regulated out- 
let for condensed liquid from the condenser. We charge and keep 
charged the space in the boiler or retort and condenser that is not 
occupied by liquid with gas under considerable pressure, it may be 
with air or it may be with carbonic-acid gas or other gas that cannot 
act chemically on" the matter treated. The distillation and condensa- 
tion being thus conducted under considerable pressure, which can 
be regulated at will, we obtain from the heavy residue a quantity 
of more or less light oil suitable for illuminating and other pur- 
poses, which cannot be obtained by distillation under atmospheric 
pressure. We may also arrange the still-head or upper part of the 
boiler or retort so as to operate according to the cracking method 
above referred to, the cracking in this case taking place under high 
pressure instead of being carried on under atmospheric pressure." 

"The apparatus for effecting distillation in the manner described 
may be arranged in various ways. The accompanying drawings show 
one fcim of apparatus for this purpose. 

"By a pipe and cock or a suitably loaded safety-valve D-, gas may 
be withdrawn from the space above the liquid in the column D2. 

"By regulating the heat and pressure to which the retort is sub- 
jected, the character of the distillate may be varied and thus oils 
more or less light can be obtained to suit various uses. Also the 
proportions of the parts may be varied, and if necessary, means of 
cooling may be applied to the still-head C2. 

"Having thus described the nature of our invention and the 
manner of carrying the same into effect, we claim — the herein- 
described method of distilling mineral oils and like products, which 
consists in both vaporizing them and condensing the generated vapor 
under a regulated pressure of air or gas substantially as specified." 

THE BURTON PROCESS. 

This is the process by which much of the artificial gasoline now 
on the market is made. Dr. Wm Burton states that the total Burton 
sti capacity is eight million gallons with an output of two million 
gallons of gasoline per day in 1921. 

The drawing in the patent is shown in fig. 28. 

In the practical operation of this process, a very hot furnace is 
required on account of the very great radiation of heat from the 
return conduit 7. 

Novelty in this process is claimed to lie in the maintenance of 
pressure on the condenser, though this is done in the Dewar & 
Redwood process with inert gas. The fact is, however, that the 
Kurton Process is being successfully operated on a large scale and 
presumaby with profit In one of the Burton patents (1,105,961) it is 
claimed that 03'^% of the original charge of oil is converted into 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



215 



The actual operation of the Burton process has been described as 
follows: 

The stills have a capacity of 200-250 barrels each, and are heavy, 
horizontal steel cylinders, with walls one-half inch thick, thoroughly 
insulated with asbestos. From the top of the still are long run-backs, 
exposed to the air, which return for cracking any undecomposed oil. 
The stills, the run-backs and the condenser are all maintained under 
a pressure of about eighty-five pounds per square inch, the oil being 
heated to a temperature of about 750° F. Each still is charged every 
forty-eight hours, the yield being about 50 '^r of 48-52° "pressure 
distillate." The carbon tends to be of a granular or mealy nature, 
rather than hard and adherent, and is cleaned out after each run. 



or fixiiator 




To Starnys tatkojtd 

tJi£rt ta the fisruft SUtCs 



BURTON STILL WfTH VARIOUS MODiriCATIOnS 



Fig-. 29 — Modified Burton- Still Practice. 

Important modifications of the Burton process are shown in the 
Clark patents, 1,119,496, 1,129.034, and 1,132,163; A. S. Hopkins, 
1,199,464; R. E. Humphreys, 1,122,002, 1,122,033, and 1,119,700. 

One of the Clark modifications allows the application of heat to 
tubes and seeks to overcome the danger of heating a large bulk of oil 
directly. 

The Hopkins patent provides for introducing fresh oil supply into 
the run-back 7 with a heat exchanger effect. 

One of the Humphreys patents provides for plates in the bottom 
of the still to prevent the bad effect of carbon and to give a large 
metallic heating area. One provides for starting stills under pressure. 

The original Burton claims are as follows (Patent 1,049,667, 
filed July 3, 1912): 

"1. The method of treating the liquid portions of the paraffin 
series of petroleum distillation having a boiling point upward of 
500° F. to obtain therefrom low-boiling point products of the same 



216 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



series, which consists in distilling at a temperature of from about 
650 to about 850° F. the volatile constituents of said liquid, conduct- 
ing off and condensing said constituents and maintaining a pressure 
of from about 4 to about 5 atmospheres on said liquid of said vapors 
throughout their course to and while undergoing condensation. 




3n— Dubbs Process for Cracking. 
THE DUBBS PATENT. 

t.IicaUon'Vit" P^^^^' ?''*^?.^ ^°- 1'123,502, Patented Jan. 5, 1915. Ap- 
plication filed November 20, 1909. 

of th!!''n!?vlK''''p^. ""? excerpts from the specifications and the claims 
«.f the Dubbs Patent which discloses a method of making gasoline. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 217 



This patent is claimed to be a prior invention to that of W. M. Burton: 
"This invention relates to improvements in treating oil and refers 
more particularly to a process of subjecting the oil to heat and 
pressure. 

"Among the salient objects of the invention are to provide an 
improved method of treating oil v^herein both the vaporization and 
condensation take place under the pressure of the generated vapors; 
to provide a method which is particularly adapted for the removal 
of the finely divided particles of water from emulsified hydrocarbon 
oils; to provide a method which will permit of the oil being continu- 
ously subjected to the required heat and pressure in both the still 
and condenser without the interruption of its flow. . . 

"As for example, in oil containing about 28% of water (which 
is the case of oil of the Santa Maria field of California), a pressure 
of about 25 pounds, and a temperature of 325° F., more or less, has 
given very good results, as regard the segregation of the water, 
although I have performed my operation under pressure ranging 
from three to two hundred and fifty pounds above atmospheric. . . 

"Claim 9. The herein described process of treating hydrocarbon 
oil which consists in subjecting such oil in a receptacle to a tempera- 
ture in excess of 300° F., permitting the volatilized products generated 
from the oil under treatment to pass freely to a condenser where 
they are condensed, and maintaining substantially the entire pressure 
exceeding ten pounds to the square inch in both the receptacle and 
condenser during the whole process solely by the vapors generated 
from the material under treatment." 



ILLUSTRATIVE COMMERCIAL OPERATION OF DUBBS 

PROCESS. 

(Furnished by Gustav Egloff of Universal Oil Products Co.) 

A. . On Fuel Oil. — Two typical runs on fuel oil were a 15.6 
Baume Gravity Mexican Fuel resulting from the topping of a southern 
field Mexican crude oil and a fuel oil of 25 Baume Gravity from a 
mixture of Healdton, Peabody and Gushing crude oil were cracked in 
a coil, thirty-six continuous tubes, each twenty feet long 4-in. diam- 
eter and heated in a furnace. The liquid from the last tube passes 
into one end of a 30-in. expansion chamber, the vapors from which 
enter a dephlegmator, where they are partially condensed and the 
reflux returned to heating coil. The pressure distillate condensed 
passes on to a run-down tank from the receiver. The residuum from 
the expansion chamber is continuously drawn off during operation. 
The operating pressure of the Mexican Fuel Oil was 110 pounds and 
for the Mid-Continent Fuel Oil 135 pounds. It is noteworthy that in 
the illustrative runs the carbon produced on the Mid-Continent 
Fuel Oil was 2.77 tons while the Mexican Fuel Oil produced 5.86 tons 
of carbon, and that these amounts were successfully handled and were 
deposited outside of the heating zone where no damage to the ap- 
paratus was possible. The detailed data of the two illustrative runs 
follows : 



218 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Mid-Continent 
Mexican Fuel Oil Fuel Oil 

Hours fire to steam 3 AV2 

Hours on stream 13 21 

Pressure (pounds) HO 135 

Total Charge (gallons) 21,054 30,213 

Pressure Distillate 10,834 18,355 

Percent Pressure Distillate 51.45 60.75 

Residuum 7,906 10,348 

Percent Residuum of Charge 37.55 34.25 

Percent Gasoline (Navy Spec.) 26.23 26.3 

Baume Gravity 58.4 59.6 

(Gallons Per Hour) 

Raw Oil 1,620 1,439 

Pressure Distillate 833 874 

Gasoline 425 379 

Tons Carbon Produced 5.86 2.77 

Percent bv Weight Oil Cracked to Carbon.... 6.69 2.44 

Raw Oil, per Day 452 486 

Gasoline, per Day 118 128 

B. On Gas Oil. — The Gas Oil runs were made in a cracking unit 
composed of forty-eight 4-in. diameter tubes 20-ft. lengths in coils of 
twelve each connected to a common header. The heated oil passed 
into a 16-in. diameter expansion chamber, from which the vapors 
traveled to the bottom of a dephlegmator, wherein they are frac- 
tionated and the reflux condensate returned to the cracking coils, 
while pressure distillate oil is collected in a receiver from which it 
passes on to a run-down tank. While pressure distillate oil is being 
collected, the residuum from the 16-in. expansion chamber is being 
drawTi off and collected in a run-down tank. Four typical runs in the 
commercial unit are tabulated as follows: 

MID-CONTINENT GAS OIL (35.3 BAUME GRAVITY). 

Hours Fire to Stream 9 16 14^/4 13% 

Hours on Stream 196y2 336 263% 154^4 

Pressure (Pounds) 135 135 135 135 

Total Charge (Gallons) 87,031 139,684 123,550 105,352 

Pressure Distillate 54,578 86,053 77,485 64,747 

Percent Pressure Distillate 62 71 61 61 62 7 61 5 

Residuum 30,664 54 566 46,345 42,398 

Percent Residuum of 

„ Charge 35.23 39.06 37.5 40.2 

Percent Gasoline (Navy 

„ Spec^) 33.16 26.23 28.9 262 

Baume Gravity 58.5 58.3 58 58.0 

„ ,,., (Gallons Per Hour on Stream) 

^^^ ' ^K:-"-.-,;-"-- 443 416 469 683 

Pressure Distillate 278 256 294 420 

(.a.soline^ . 147 ^^g ^gg ^^9 

1 ons Carbon Produced 10 5 11 1 

Percent by Weight Oil 

Cracked (to Carbon).... 0.4 0.16 0.3 0.21 

Raw Oil, per Day 240 228 252 5 334 

tiasoline, Bbls. per Day.... 79.4 58 8 73 87 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 219 



THE CROSS PROCESS. 

This process is a system of producing a synthetic crude oil. The 
patents thoroughly cover that type of process in which there is no 
material distillation and in which the reaction zone and the heating 
zone are separate and distinct. Distillation is avoided to prevent 
retardation of the cracking. The heating zone is free from carbon 
as the oil is discharged into the reaction zone before carbon can sep- 
arate out. 

A test run on 10,000 bbls. of 33° Be' gas oil was as follows: 

Gas oil used 10,475 bbls. = 100.00% 

Gasoline 6,789 bbls. = 64.8 % 

Fuel oil residue 2,600 bbls. = 24 8 % 

Loss — gas and carbon 1,086 bbls. = 10 4 % 

Some important facts about the operation of the Cross process 
are as follows: 

1. Heat is applied to the oil in tubes arranged in series. The 
tubes are placed horizontally in a heavily constructed, well insulated 
furnace in such manner that should a tube fail, the only damage is 
from loss of the tube as the small amount of oil discharged is burned 
and mostly goes up the chimney or is discharged into a tank. 

2. The oil is pumped through the tubes in one direction only 
and no oil that has undergone reaction with the separation of carbon 
vs returned to the tubes. 

3. Decomposition does not take place in the tubes sufficiently to 
deposit an excessive amount of carbon. 

4. The heated oil is passed from the tubes to a reaction cham- 
ber where conversion of the heavy oil into gasoline takes place and 
where the carbon is deposited. 

5. No heat is applied to the reaction chamber but this chamber 
fes well as all pai'ts of the plant are heavily insulated against losses 
ftt' heat to the atmosphere. 

6. No distillation takes place from the reaction chamber or 
from any portion of the system as this would retard the conversion 
by reason of its cooling effect. 

7. A small amount of oil is in the apparatus at one time. 

8. About one-half barrel of oil is pumped through per minute. 
About 15 minutes is required for the reaction. Seven hundred bar- 
rels of oil are treated per day in one unit of the process. 

9. The treated oil and the gas produced come out together, any 
gasoline in the vapor phase being absorbed back into the oil when 
cooled together, or distillation of the hot oil is carried out in the 
ordinary tower still without cooling and with very little additional 
firing. 

10. Plant operation is very simple, requiring careful observa- 
tion but little manipulation by the attendants. 

11. No oil level devices are required. Pressure relief valves 
regulate the oil level at the point of discharge. 

12. The treated oil or synthetic crude requires no more treat- 
ment than the pressure distillate and bottoms as made in the pres- 
sure distillate system of cracking. 



220 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 









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5 






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3 






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=!®i=Se. 



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Ji 



g 

a- 

^* 
C 




©% 



'Ji 



g 

s 

So 

a 






V 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 221 



13. The factors of safety on the steel stresses in the different 
parts of the plant are approximately 5:1. 

14. The fittings on the end of the tubes are outside of the 
furnace and the openings of these tubes are quickly closed and opened 
without loss of time. 

15. In the normal operation, the plant is kept on stream for 
6 days and is cleaned on the 7th day. The complete cycle is 1 week 
with the treatment of about 4,500 barrels of oil. 

16. One or more units of the Cross process may be added to 
any refinery merely as an adjunct without any change in ordinary 
refinery operation. With this process added, a greater still capacity 
is necessary for a given amount of crude oil or greater yields may be 
obtained with the same still capacity and with a smaller amount of 
crude oil available. 

The scheme of operation is shown by the diagram in figure 32. 

The steam pump (1) forces the charging stock against the pres- 
sure in the apparatus through line (2) passing it from above dawn- 
ward through the preheating tubes (3) in the upper part of the 
furnace. No decomposition or cracking takes place in these upper 
tubes since they merely serve as fuel economizers while the pressure 
in the apparatus is sufficient to maintain the oil in the liquid condi- 
tion. The oil passes from these preheater tubes into the lower fur- 
nace tubes (4) starting in at the bottom. In this furnace, the main 
absorption of heat takes place. The oil temperature is registered as 
it issues from the heating tubes at the point (13). The temperature 
of the oil and the character of the oil under treatment govern the 
rate of pumping At the point (13) all of the heat has been applied 
10 the tubes but the oil has not yet been converted as the time ele- 
ment is lacking It is therefore discharged into the reaction chamber 
(7) where it is held a sufficient length of time for an equilibrium to 
be reached between the vapor phase and the liquid phase. Ordi- 
narily, this requires less than 15 minutes. The discharge line through 
the valve (8) is set at the liquid level and perfectly controls this 
level without any other automatic device than an ordinary relief 
valve. The oil is then discharged oat through the cooling coil (9) 
line under a pressure of approximately 40 pounds and into the gas 
separator (10) from which the gas goes out through the line (11) 
and the oil is discharged through the line (12) to storage. This 
synthetic crude is run in the ordinary skimming plant in the usual 
manner. 

A flow sheet for a complete gasoline plant in which all of the 
crude is made into gasoline and fuel oil is shown in figure 33. It 
is of course not advisable to run all of the residue into gasoline as a 
point is eventually reached at which the fuel oil becomes so heavy 
that the gasoline yields are relatively poor. The yields that can be 
obtained from various crudes may be calculated from the formulae 
on page 242. 



222 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 223 

CROSS PROCESS PLANT No. 1 (Small Reaction Chamber). 
Run No. 44, Jan. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 1922. 

3,030 bbls. oil used. 
2,909 bbls. cracked oil delivered. 
727 bbls. gasoline produced. 
91 bbls. fuel used. 

Vs bbl. fuel used per bbl. of gasoline produced. 
96 hours on stream. 
98 hours on fire. 
31.5 bbls. cracked per hour. 
.95 bbl. fuel per hour 
915 °F maximum oil temperature. 
900° F average oil temperature. 
1,375 °F maximum furnace temperature. 
765° F maximum stack temperature. 
700 °F average stack temperature. 
RESULTS OF ONE UNIT CROSS PROCESS PLANT No 1 
(Small Reaction Chamber) For Month of January, 1922. 
CHARGES: 

15,427 bbls. gas oil used @ $1.575 $24 297.53 

420 bbls. fuel used @ $1.575 661.50 

Total payroll charge for month 1,363.79 

Storeroom charges for month 55.78 

Fixed charge, 31 davs @ $32 00 992 00 

Steam, air, etc, 31 days @ $20 CO 620.00 

Distilling and treating 14,852 bbls. @ $0.35 5,201.70 

Total charge $33,192.30 

CREDITS: 

4,186 bbls. gasoline @ $6.09 $25,492.74 

10,622 bbls. oil returned @ $1 47 15,614.34 

Total credits $41,108.08 

Less charges 33,192.30 

Estimated profit for month $ 7,914.78 

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF MAKING GASOLINE. 

While there is much variation in the absolute cost of making 
gasoline by any process, the following outlines comparative costs of 
operation of one unit of three principal systems: No satisfactory 
information is available for vapor phase processe^. 

Synthetic 
crude 
system 

Labor "$0 30 

Materials 0.16 

Fuel oil at $1.00 per bbl 0.10 

Overhead 20 

Fixed charges 25 

Re-running 1.20 

Gas oil equivalent to converted gasoline.. 1.25 

Refining los» 20 

Degrading of gas oil 0.06 

License charges 0.20 



Pressure 


Alummum 


istillate 


chloride 


system 


system 


$0.90 


$0 90 


0.20 


2.60 


40 


0.40 


0.20 


0.20 


0.75 


60 


1.20 


000 


1.25 


1.25 


0.20 


0.20 


0.06 


0.60 


0.20 


0.20 



Cost per bbl $3.92 $5 36 $6.95 



224 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



3ecTiof*^L PLJ^f t/i£tv Of r<jmni^ce /^Boi^e Pvchc^tihq Tubcs 








=O.OjO<K); 
ObO<»C 





1^1 "-wvy- 






u^:^-^ I — .... ^-1--" 



:^.fc^- 



•5/oc Etcu^TioN or futerf^c£ 



Fig:. 34— Double Unit Cross Process Plant. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



225 



'/•Mf* Ar-jj**^ SfSftm Cto^'f t'a- 




Coi^reoL Moi/sr 



r 








-O-r^/^-f /y// 



I 



^tS 



5*oe lirt"*Tio'^ Hr^oTioM C^^/^Mecit-CooLinc 3o* f*^o Cofrieo*. Ho</sr 



Ceosj Pi?oc£S5 0/fJoi/n£ Pimr 



0*1'*'' O' C-Jf* ScfLT •/'*■ ■ I O' 



Fig. 34 — Double Unit Cross Process Plant (continued). 



226 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Refinery Engineering Data on Distilling and Cracking 

of Petroleum. 

The total capacity of a horizontal still is approximately 0.14 d1, 
d being the diameter and 1 the length of the still in feet. 

The heating area of a horizontal still is 1,0472 d 1 on the as- 
sumption that one-third of the shell is fired. In continuous stills a 
larger area may be fired on account of a higher minimum oil level. 

Continuous stills give a greater crude oil capacity than batch 
stills on account of the time required for charging and discharging 
batch stills. The amount of benzine or crude gasoline distilled is 
1.5 d 1 barrel per day with continuous operation and with no other 
products distilled. 

The approximate amount of gasoline from crude oil stills per day 
per square foot of still bottom area not including charging time or 
time for bringing to distillation temperature is 1.0 barrel. This may 
vary according to the intensity of firing and the character of the 
crude. 

The approximate total fuel consumption in producing one gallon 
of 58° Be' gasoline in a still by cracking at 85 pounds pressure is 
50,000 B.T.U. or 0.4 gallon of fuel oil. 

The total fuel consum^ption by cracking in tubes at 600 pounds 
pressure in producing one gallon of 58° Be' gasoline is 26,000 B.T.U. 
or 0.20 gallon of fuel oil. 

The report of the Western Petroleum Refiners' Association of 
September, 1919, on a pressure distillation process operating at 135 
pounds per square inch pressure may be analyzed as follows: 

0.164 gallons of 58° Be' gasoline was produced per square foot 
of heating area per hour after the oil was brought to the cracking 
temperature. 

0.8 gallon of fuel oil equivalent to 112,000 B.T.U. was required 
to produce 1 gallon of 58° Be' gasoline. 

200 cubic feet of gas was produced for each barrel of 58° Be' 
gasoline. 

7.0 pounds of still carbon was produced per barrel of 58° Be' 
gasoline. 

A typical composition of the so-called carbon deposited in crack- 
ing stills is as follows. This sample was extracted with 70° Be' 
petroleum naphtha before testing: 

Moisture (volatile at 105°C) . 00% 

Volatile (500°C) ZZZIZZZl!! islos 

Fixed carbon 80^42 

Ash H;!I"!;i;!H';! 6!50 



„ , , 100.00% 

Sulpfiur T Ig3% 

1^0" 2.76% 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



227 



X 

O 



§ 



^- "^ ^^ ^ -^ ^ g\ N Cti vfl <:b 




^ ^^^^^^g^^zis^i^^sg 







Fie. 35 — Volume of Oil Vapors at Different Temperatures. 



228 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The following data represents the operation covering a long 
period of time of a very extensively used process for cracking oil, 
based on one still. 

Gallons of oil charged 8,000 

Gallons of oil run in.. 1,800 

Gallons of oil treated 9,800 

Average time feeding in oil 15 hours 

Total hours distilled 37 hours 

Pounds coal used to distill 11,000 lbs. per run 

Total distillate produced 5,295 gallons 

Total 58.5° gasoline produced 3,018 gallons 

% distillate •- 54 04% 

% 58.5° Be' gasoline in distillate 57.0 % 

%. 58.5° Be' gasoline of oil treated 30.8 % 

Amount of distillate per hour of distilling 143.1 gallons 

% distillate of total charge per hour of distillation 1.469'c 

Amount of 58.5° Be' gasoline per hour of distilling 81 6 gallons 

% of 58.5° Be' gasoline per hour of distilling 0.83% 

Area of still bottom 270 sq. ft. 

Gallons of 58.5° Be' gasoline per hour per sq. ft. of heat- 
ing area 302 

Pounds of coal per gallon of gasoline (58.5° Be') 3.625 lbs. 

Equivalent gallons of fuel oil per gallon of 58.5° Be' 

gasoline 0.25 

CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGES IN REFINERY 

CONDENSERS. 

In calculating amount of water required for condenser, use the 
following formula: 2OO g 

w = 

t^-ti 

w = gallons of water required per hour. 

ti = incoming temperature of condensed water. 

t; = outgoing temperature of condenser water. 

g = gallons of gasoline to be condensed per hour. 

Heat absorbed in condensing 1 gallon of gasoline to 60°F = 1,550 
B.T.U. 

Heat absorbed in condensing 1 gallon of kerosene to 60°F = 2,400 
B.T.U. 

Heat absorbed by oil in distilling off 50% from it as gasoline 
and kerosene is 2,100 B.T.U. per gallon of crude oil. 

Heat absorbed by oil in distilling to coke is approximately 3,000 
B.T.U. per gallon. 

Amount of condenser surface required to propei'ly condense one 
gallon of gasoline per hour = 2 sq. ft; 1 gallon of kerosene per 
hour = 1 sq. ft. This is lessened with cold water and with larger 
quantities of water and varies with the length and cross section of 
the condenser tubes. 

'The cross section of the vapor line should be .05 sq. in. per gal- 
lon of gasoline per hour. The cross section of the condenser tubes 
may be reduced Vz after first % of length and 14 more after second 
Va of length. 

'The same water used for condensing the benzine or gasoline frac- 
tion in crude distillation may be used to condense the kerosene frac- 
tion. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



229 



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Fie. 30 — Volunif of Oil Vapors and Steam at Different Temperatures 



230 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Aluminum Chloride in the Production of Gasoline. 

When the heavy fractions of petroleum distillates such as kero- 
sene, gas oil, lubricating oils or paraffins are slowly heated with a 
small quantity of perfectly dry aluminum chloride, the salt dissolves, 
imparting a dark color to the solution. If this dark liquor is then 
submitted to slow fractional distillation at a temperature below that 
at which aluminum chloride volatilizes, a sweet water white, light 
distillate is obtained having all of the properties of high grade light 
gasoline that has been subjected to complete refining with sulphuric 
acid. 

The first use of aluminum chloride for its "catalytic" action in 
hastening the synthesis or decomposition of hydrocarbons is set forth 
in the well known Friedel & Crafts reaction in a British patent of 
1877. Aluminum chloride has long been known to have special action 
on various types of hydrocarbons in forming complex compounds of 

the hydrocarbons with the 
aluminum chloride. The 
heating of aluminum 
y/^\avff4i chloride with unsaturated 
hydrocarbons or olefins 
such as amylene leads to 
the formation of saturated 
hydrocarbons or paraffins 
of the series CnH2n+2. 
This series of hydrocar- 
bons is the one which pre- 
dominates in refined gaso- 
line made from paraffin 
base petroleum. This is 
set forth in a paper by 
Engler & Routala in 1909 
in which amylene gives 
yields of pentane, hexane, 
heptane, octane and de- 
, . , , . , cane by the action of 

aluminum chloride. These are the usual paraffin hydrocarbons in 
gasoline. The nature of artificial gasoline obtained by the use of 
aluminum chloride varies with the nature and origin of the petroleum 
products treated. 

According to Pictet, kerosene oil of Galicia furnishes 50% and 
Kussian oil, 40% of its weight in the form of light gasoline. The 
practical use of aluminum chloride as a means of refining petro- 
leum and producing gasoline has been set forth bv A. M. McAfee 
\l <j, aF^^^'^'I No. 1,127,465 of February 9, 1915. The character of 
the McAfee patent is set forth by the following claim: 

r.»,«^^i!l^^'U ^?' "^" the treating of petroleum oil, the process which 
comprises heating such oil with aluminum chloride for 36 to 48 hours 

nil fn^""!""'"^ "'"'^u? ?t secondary gasoline, cooling and separating 
oil and aluminum chloride." ' & i' & 




«o seo tM 



KiK. 37— Yields on Distillation of Heavy 
Oils in the Presence of Aluminum 
< nlorirle. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



231 



It has been the experience of the writer that the action of alumi- 
num chloride at high pressures is not effective in producing gasoline 
at any faster rate or with any greater facility than with the use of 
high temperature and pressure alone. However, when the light gaso- 
line is removed as rapidly as it is formed by distillation at atmos- 
pheric pressure or slightly above, the rate of formation of gasoline 
is infinitely increased over that obtainable in exactly the same con- 
dition without the use of aluminum chloride. 

At very high pressures, heavy hydrocai'bons may be converted 
into gasoline at a rate of I'/f per minute or a 30% conversion in 
one-half hour. 

In the experiments set 
forth herewith, it was 
assumed that 3.3% of 
gasoline produced per 
hour would be a prac- 
tical rate for a large 
still. The amount of 
aluminum chloride con- 
sidered necessary for at- 
taining this rate is from 
5% to 10% and in these 
tests 8% or 24 pounds 
per barrel of freshly pre- 
pared anhydrous alumi- 
num chloride were used. 
The stock used for the 
test was the same as 
that used in charging the 
Burton pressure stills, 
being a mixed gas oil 
containing about 15% 
of olefins. 

The following table shows the normal distillation of this gas oil 
without aluminum chloride and at the rate of 3.37c per hour. 

Distillation of Burton Still charging stock at rate of 3.3% per 
hour without the use of aluminum chloride. Gravity of original 
charge = .864 = 32.3° Be', 

















































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Fig. 38 — Comparison of Distillation Curves 
of Aluminum Chloride Gasoline with 
Natural Gasoline. 









Gravity of 


Gra\'ity of 




% 


Time 


Temp. ° F. 


Fraction 


Total Over 


Oil Temp., ° F 





11:06 
12:30 


262 
300 






52.7° Be' 


410 


5 


52.7° 


Be' 


480 


10 


1:00 


370 


41.1 




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1:30 


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39.0 




44.1 


540 


20 


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499 


37.8 




42.6 


550 


25 


4:00 P.M. 


508 


36.2 




41.3 


560 


30 


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518 


35.2 




40.2 


570 


35 


9:21 


530 


33.8 




39.2 


580 


40 


9:27 


542 


33.4 




38.6 


585 


45 


9:35 


550 


32.8 




38.0 


595 


50 


9:47 


558 


32.5 




37.4 


610 


55 


10:00 


570 


31.9 




36.8 


625 


60 


10:06 


582 


31.1 




36.4 


640 


65 


10:13 


598 


30.4 




36.0 


655 


70 


10:15 


612 


29.8 




35.4 


670 


75 


10:21 


628 


29.3 




35.0 


680 


80 


10:34 


636 


28.2 




34.6 


690 



232 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




The next table shows the distilla- 
tion of the same oil with the 8% 
of aluminum chloride. In the dis- 
tillation with aluminum chloride, 
the rate of 3.3% per hour was 
fairly closely adhered to until such 
a temperature was obtained in the 
oil at which the aluminum chloride 
began to volatilize. To prevent 
this, a temperature was maintained 
from this point on, such that the 
aluminum chloride would not vola- 
tilize. At approximately 60%, it 
was not possible to get further 
gasoline distillate without carry- 
ing over tarry matter or aluminum 
chloride compounds. 30% of 58.2° 
Be' gasoline, water white and free 
from olefins was obtained and 60% 
of 55° Be' water white naphtha was 
obtained. 



TEMPTTBO zoo 280 360 AiO 520 600 



FiK. 3y — Comparison of Gravity 
of Fractions of Aluminum 
Chloride Gasoline and Gasoline 
from Other Sources. 



% 


5 
10 
15 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 



Temp. °F. 
70 
220 
250 
274 
300 
320 
330 
335 
340 
345 
350 
360 
366 
380 



Gravity of 
Fraction 
Start 

Initial B.P. 
69.1° Be' 
62.0 
57.9 
54.7 
54.5 
52.3 
52.5 
52.0 
50.9 
52.1 
53.5 
50.0 



Distillation of Burton Still 
Charging Stock at rate of 3.3% 
per hour with the use of 8% of 
aluminum chloride. Gravity of 
original charge = .864 = 32.3° Be'. 

Gravity of 
Total Over 



69.1° Be' 

65.4 

62.9 

60.9 

59.5 

58.2 

57.4 

56.9 

56.2 

55.2 

55.1 

55.0 



Color 
Water 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 
White 



Total Time 

15' 

105' 

200' 

290' 

375' 

455' 

540' 

680' 

800' 

920' 
1105' 
1410' 
1795' 



Interval 

15' 

90' 

95' 

90' 

85' 

80' 

85' 

140' 

120' 

120' 

185' 

305' 

385' 



DossibL nlSfll K "^^"1«" at rate of 3.3% per hour as long as 
that wonUl ^fl^ °"0^^' ^^-l^ continued at the fastest possible rate 
that uould allow cracking without volatilizing the aluminum chloride, 
flifferpnf .V.li ^^^^Ph showing the vapor and oil temperature at 
aiunJn'uni thfoHde'.' ''' distillation with and without t'he use of 

alumSm^chJo^r n^^ '^"^i^^^ -^l ^^ ^^'«""^ "^^^e by the use of 
tieTrend point ^^'''^ ''''^ '^' ^"^"^^ «* "«™^1 ^^^^^^"^ «f 
« i^l^' ^^ ^^^'""P ^^^ relation of the specific eravitv of various 
wif'^hruse-o^'ir ''"P"l^' "i^^ ^he naphtha or^'asofineprodS 
That the lowov ■.ni^-""'" chlor.de. It is to be noted in these curves 
much the samo nfti^ ' ^'^^'^^ ,^"^ '^^^^ '^«'li"g Poi"t fractions are 
"mrcos but Th .r.,f ^"'[^^^pondrng paraffin hydrocarbons from other 

of aluminum rhol^-'"^" ^'""^''^^ «* ^^^^^ 800 the product by use 
ol alummum chloiide is more strictly of a paraffin nature. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



233 




660 700 740 7^ 

F.g. 40 — Olefins 



n Aluminum 
Chloride Gasoline. 



Fig. 40 sets forth the olefin 
content of gasoline made by dif- 
ferent processes for treating 
heavier petroleum hydrocarbons. 

Curve No. 1 is that using 
aluminum chloride which is es- 
sentially free from olefins. 

Curve No. 2 shov^^s the olefin 
content of Burkburnett crude oil. 

Curve No. 3 shows the olefin 
content of gasoline produced by 
very high pressure cracking. 

Curves No. 4 and No. 5 shows 
the olefin content of gasoline made 
by cracking at 80 to 100 pounds. 

Curves No. 6 and No. 7 
show the olefin content of gaso- 
line produced by cracking at 
high temperature, such as vapor 
phase processes. 



Important Literature on the Subject. 

Friedel & Crafts — Aluminum chloride for chemical reactions. Brit- 
ish Patent No. 4,769—1877. 

C. Engler & 0. Routala — The action of aluminum chloride on amy- 
lene. Ber. 42— pages 4,613-20—1909. 

Wm. Steinkopf & Michael Freund — The formation of naphthenes 
and paraffins from olefins by synthesis of the latter with aluminum 
chloride— Ber. 47— pages 411-20—1914. 

A. M. McAfee — Aluminum Chloride in the production of gasoline 
and its recovery. U. S. Patents Nos. 1,099,096, 1914; 1,127,465, 1915; 
1,144,304, 1915; 1,202,081, 1916; 1,277,092, 1918; 1, 277, 328-9, 1918. 

Pictet & Lerczynska — The action of aluminum chloride on petro- 
leum. Bull. Soc. Chim. No. 19, pages 326-34—1914. 

A. M. McAfee — Improvements of high boiling petroleum oil and 
manufacturing of gasoline by the action of aluminum chloride. Jour- 
nal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, Sept., 1915. 

W. E. Henderson & W. C. Gangloff — Action of anhydrous alumi- 
num chloride upon unsaturated compounds. Journal of American 
Chemical Society No. 38, pages 1,382-4—1916. Journal of. Am. Chem. 
Soc. No. 39, pages 1,420-7—1917. 

A. M. McAfee — Manufacture of gasoline. Metallurgical & Chem- 
ical Engineering No. 13, pages 592-7 — 1915. 

G. W. Gray— Manufacture of gasoline bv the use of aluminum 
chloride. U. S. Patents No. 1,193,540-1—1916. 

Alexander and Taber— Producing low boiling hydrocarbons by 
heating vapors with Al CU, Fe Cb, or Zn Cb— U. S. Patent, 1,381,098— 
June 14, 1921. 

Danckwardt— Pat. No. 1,373,653— Apr. 5, 1921. 



234 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 











































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KiK. 41 — Vapfjr Pressu 



re- of Heavy Oils and Gasoline Under Cracking 
Temperatures. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



235 



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KIg. 41;— IToperties of Various Types of Synthetic Gasoline. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



237 



Effect of Varying Pressure on the Products of Cracking. 

KEROSENE. 

Using kerosene of specific gravity 8155 in vessel with relation 
of vapor space to oil of 2 to 1. 

Pressure, atmospheres 30 40 55 75 90 

% distillate to 410°F 28.0 32.5 38 43.7 45 9 

Shrinkage, volume 7r 0.0 0,4 2.4 5.0 7.0 

Specific gravity of cracked oil.. .810 .808 .807 .806 .805 

Specific gravity of residue 828 .833 .845 .871 .888 

Cold pressure, atmospheres 2.5 4.0 6 5 10.0 11,8 

\ FUEL OIL. 

Fuel oil with specific gravity of 0.908 in vessel with relation of 
vapor space to oil of 2 to 1. 

Pressure, atmospheres 30 40 55 75 90 

% distillate to 410°F 14.3 22.3 25.4 32 5 38.7 

Shrinkage, volume % 3 3.3 9.0 12.0 14.0 

Specific gravity of cracked oil .879 .869 .862 .837 .818 

Specific gravity of residue 914 .918 .926 .930 .932 

Cold pressure, atmospheres 5 6 10 13 15.5 



IOC 


BEFORE 1 ^,y^ 


so 


/ yAFTEa 


as 

80 
7S 


WATER WHTTE DISTILLATE / / 
^°Be— BEFORE CRACHIne \ 1 
A»D53°Be -AFTEO CRACKING \ 1 




TTl 


PEflCENT DISTILLED— \ / 




65 

60 
55 
X 


GRAVITY CUR^/ES \ / 




3 / 
^ 1/ 




45 


\ 




40 
35 


^ A 




ZS 


\ / 


20 


y^ [before 

y^FTER ^RACKING 


10 


yORACHING 1 


5 







DEGREES - ' BA UME GRAVITY 




>5 90 6680 75 7065605550454035 


30 25 20 



Fig. 43 — Relation of Gravity 
to Percent Distilled of Water 
White Distillate Before unJ 
After Cracking. 



238 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Properties of Water White Kerosene Distillate Before 

and After Cracking. 



% 



Distilling Temperature 
Before After 

Cracking Cracking 



Gravity of Stream 



Before 
Cracking 



After 
Cracking 





2.5 
5 


294° F. 

355 

363 


Room 
Room 
80' F. 










.766=53.2° Be' 


.614=98.9° Be' 


7 5 


366 


105 


.767 = 52.9° Be' 


.634 = 91.7° Be' 


10.0 


367 


130 


.768=52.7° Be' 


.654 = 84.8° Be' 


12 5 


370 


158 


769 = 52.5° Be' 


.6 7 = 80.6° Be' 


15 


379 


188 


.770 = 52.2° Be' 


.680 = 76.6° Be' 


17 5 


381 


218 


.771 = 52.0° Be' 


.695 = 72.1° Be' 


20.0 


382 


237 


.772 = 51.8° Be' 


.710 = 67.8° Be' 


22.5 


384 


256 


.773 = 51.5° Be' 


.720 = 65.0° Be' 


25.0 


391 


269 


.774 = 51 3° Be' 


.730 = 63.3° Be' 


27.5 


395 


282 


.774 = 51.3° Be' 


.739 = 59.9° Be' 


30.0 


399 


296 


.775=51.0° Be' 


.749 = 57.4° Be' 


32.5 


402 


310 


.776 = 50.8° Be' 


.756 = 55.6° Be' 


35.0 


406 


319 


.777 = 50.6° Be' 


.764 = 53.7° Be' 


37.5 


408 


328 


.777 = 50.6° Be' 


.769 = 52 5° Be' 


40.0 


410 


340 


.778=50.3° Be' 


.775=51 0°Be' 


42.5 


414 


352 


.779=50.1° Be' 


.777 = 50.6° Be' 


45.0 


417 


359 


.780 = 49.9° Be' 


.780 = 49.9° Be' 


47.5 


420 


366 


.780=49.9° Be' 


.782 = 49.4° Be' 


50.0 


423 


371 


.781 = 49.6° Be' 


.785 = 48.7° Be' 


52.5 


425 


376 


.782 = 49.4° Be' 


.787 = 48.3° Be' 


55.0 


431 


386 


.783 = 49.2° Be' 


.790 = 47.6° Be' 


57 . 5 


433 


396 


.784 = 48.9° Be' 


.792 = 47.1° Be' 


60.0 


437 


405 


.785=48.7° Be' 


.793 = 46.9° Be' 


62.5 


440 


414 


.786 = 48.5° Be' 


.795=46.4° Be' 


65.0 


444 


418 


.787 = 48.3° Be' 


.798=45.8 Be' 


67.5 


448 


422 


.788 = 48.0° Be' 


.798 = 45.8° Be' 


70.0 


453 


429 


.789 = 47.8° Be' 


.800=45.4° Be' 


72.5 


457 


436 


.790 = 47.6° Be' 


.802 = 44.9° Be' 


75 


462 


443 


.792 = 47.1° Be' 


.805=44.2° Be' 


77 5 


468 


450 


.793=46.9° Be' 


.808 = 43.6° Be' 


80.0 


473 


459 


.794=46.7° Be' 


.812 = 42.7° Be' 


82.5 


479 


468 


.795 = 46.4° Be' 


.817 = 41.7° Be' 


85 


485 


484 


.797 = 46.0° Be' 


.823 = 40.4° Be' 


87.5 


493 


500 


.800 = 45.3° Be' 


.830 = 38.9° Be' 


90.0 


506 


523 


.803 = 44.7° Be' 


.837 = 37.5° Be' 


92 5 


516 


547 


.807=43.8° Be' 


.851 = 34.7° Be' 


95 


533 


600 


.812=42.7° Be' 


.866=31.9° Be' 


97 5 


560 
608 


648 
700 




936-19.6° Be' 


100 







Gravity of sample 



.7845=48.9° Be' 



.766=53.2° Be' 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



239 









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1 



Fig-. 44- 



3 S s § § .§ ^ 

-Relation Between Gravity and Distilling Temperature of 
Paraffin Base Oils Before and After Cracking. 



240 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



FRACTIONAL GRAVITY DISTILLATION ANALYSIS OF COAL 

TAR BENZOL. 

Laboratory Number, 44118; Specific Gravity, 0.880; °Be' U. S., 
29.0°; Cold Test, 40°G. 







Temp. 


Gravity of 


Gravity of 


Gravity of 


% 


Time 


°F. 


Fraction 


Total Over 


Stream 




3:25 













3:31 


173 
178 








5 


3:37 


179 
180 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.881 = 29.1° Be' 


10 


3:42 


180 
180 


0.881 =29. l°_Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


15 


3:47 


180 
180 


0.883=28.7° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


20 


3:51 


180 
180 


0.882=28.9°^Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


25 


3:56 


180 
180 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


30 


4:00 


181 
181 


0. 882=28. 9°^Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


35 


4:05 


182 
182 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.882=28.9° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


40 


4:10 


182 
182 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.881 = 29.1° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


45 


4:15 


182 
182 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


50 


4:19 


182 
183 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


55 


4:23 


183 
183 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


60 


4:28 


184 
184 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


65 


4:33 


184 
185 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


70 


4:38 


186 
186 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.881 = 29.1° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


75 


4:43 


187 
188 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.881 = 29.1° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


80 


4:48 


189 
190 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.881=29.1° Be' 


0.879=29.4° Be' 


85 


4:53 


192 
196 


0.879 = 29.4° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.879=29.4° Be' 


90 


4:57 


199 
205 


0.879=29.4° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.877=29.8° Be' 


95 


5:01 


216 


0,876=30.0° Be' 


0.888=29.3° Be' 


0.876=30.0° Be' 


100 


5:10 


225 


0.876=30.0° Be' 


0.880=29.3° Be' 


0.876=30.0° Be' 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



241 



FRACTIONAL GRAVITY DISTILLATION ANALYSIS 

of Benton Process Gasoline; Specific Gravity, 0.758; °Be' U. S., 54.7 
°Be' Tag, 55.1°; Olefins, 16.0%. 







Temp. 


Gravity of 


Gravity of 


Gravity of 


% 


Time 


°F. 


Fraction 


Total Over 


Stream 




10:09 













10:14 


85 
155 








5 


10:22 


164 
171 


0.694 = 72.4° Be' 


0.694=72.4° Be' 


0.694=72.4° Be' 


10 


10:28 


176 

184 


0.695 = 72.1° Be' 


0.694 = 72.4° Be' 


0.689 = 71.2° Be' 


15 


10:35 


188 
193 


0.701 = 70.3° Be' 


0.696 = 71.8° Be' 


0.705 = 69.2° Be' 


,20 


10:42 


199 
206 


0.710 = 67.8° Be' 


0.700 = 70.6° Be' 


0.714 = 66.6° Be' 


25 


10:48 


211 
216 


0.718=65.5° Be' 


0.704 = 69.5° Be' 


0.722 = 64.4° Be' 


30 


10:54 


222 
228 


0.727 = 63.1° Be' 


0.707 = 68.6° Be' 


0.731 = 62.0° Be' 


35 


10:58 


234 
238 


0.735 = 61.0° Be' 


0.711 = 67.5° Be' 


0.738 = 60.2° Be' 


40 


11:03 


244 

248 


0.742 = 59.2° Be' 


0.715 = 66.4° Be' 


0.745 = 58.4° Be'" 


45 


11:09 


254 

258 


0.748 = 57.6° Be' 


0.719=65.3° Be' 


0.751 = 56.9° Be' 


50 


11:14 


264 
270 

278 


0.755 = 55.9° Be' 


0.722 = 64.4° Be' 


0.758 = 55.1° Be' 


55 


11:19 


0.761=54.4° Be' 


0.729 = 62.6° Be' 


0.770 = 52.2° Be' 






283 








60 


11:25 


290 
297 


0.767=52.9° Be' 


0.729 = 62.6° Be' 


0.770 = 52.2° Be' 


65 


11:29 


306 
312 


0.773 = 51.5° Be' 


0.732 = 61.8° Be' 


0.776=50.8° Be' 


70 


11:34 


320 
328 


0.779 = 50.1° Be' 


0.736 = 60.7° Be' 


0.781 = 49.6° Be' 


75 


11:41 


336 
348 


0.784 = 48.9° Be' 


0.739=59.9° Be' 


0.788 = 48.0° Be' 


80 


11:46 


362 
371 


0.793 = 46.9° Be' 


0.742 = 59.2° Be' 


0.797 = 46.0° Be' 


85 


11:53 


388 
406 


0.801 = 45.1° Be' 


0.746 = 58.1° Be' 


0.808=43.6° Be' 


90 


11:59 


428 
460 


0.815=42.1° Be' 


0.749 = 57.4° Be' 


0.823=40.4° Be' 


95 


12:05 


492 


0.832=38.5° Be' 


0.754 = 56.1° Be' 









Remarks: 36 cc. residuum; loss, M%. 



242 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 

Formulae for Calculating the Cost of Manufacture of 
Natural and Synthetic Gasoline. 

Key to Symbols. 

Be' = gravity of crude oil in degrees Baume'. 
n = per cent of natural gasoline of 58 gravity in the crude, 
c = value of crude oil at refinery in dollars per bbl. 
f = value of fuel oil at refinery in dollars per bbl. 
s = value of gas oil at refinery in dollars per bbl. 
a = per cent of artificial or synthetic gasoline in crude. 

(1) % artificial gasoline obtainable by commercial cracking. 

[100 — n] [25 + 1.45 (Be — 10 — .3n)] 

a = — 

100 
Total gasoline = n + a 

(2) Cost of gasoline per gallon vi^hen made by skimming only = 

c + 35 — f (.95 — .Oln) 

.42 n 

(3) Cost of gasoline per gallon when made by cracking and skim- 

ming = 
c + .40 + a (.0202 + .015 f ) — f (.95 — .01 n) 

.42 (a +n) 

(4) Cost of gasoline per gallon when made by cracking gas oil = 

$2.02 + 1.41 s — .05 f 

42 
ILLUSTRATION OF ABOVE FORMULAE. 

(1) Total gasoline from crude oils. 

Gravity Natural Artificial Total 

Mexia, Texas crude 37°Be' 5 68 73 

Burkburnett, Texas 40 40 37 77 

Ranger, Texas 38 25 49 74 

Mexico, Panuco 12 5 34 39 

Tuxpan, Mexico 17.5 15 32 47 

(2) Cost of gasoline bv skimming only — 

c = $2.00 per bbl. 
n = 25% Be' = 37 
f = $1.00 per bbl. 

2.35— (.95 — .25) 

= 15.7c per gallon 

.42) (25) 

(3) Cost of gasoline by skimming and cracking — using values given 

above. 
2.00 + .40 + 47.4 (.0202 + .015) — (.95 — .25) 

= lie per gallon 

.42 (47.4 + 25.0) 

(4) Cost of gasoline made from gas oil. 

With s = $1.25 and f = $1.00 
Cost of cracked gasoline. 
$2 02 + 1.75 — .05 

^c— — 8 9c per gallon 

42 



KANSAS CITY TESTING. LABORATORY 243 

Costs of Refining Petroleum. 
(By Benner in "Petroleum," May, 1920) 

COST 
(Figured on Daily Basis) 

2,000 barrels crude per day @ ?3.75 per barrel |7,500.00 

Pipe line charges, 30c per barrel 600. no 

Sala^ie^3 and labor . . 250.00 

Fuel, power and water 200.00 

Taxes and insurance 30.00 

Incidentals 50 00 

Plant depreciation 50.00 

$8,680.00 

OUTPUT 
(Figured on Daily Basis Burkburnett Crude) 

Gasoline, 34 per cent, 28,560 gals. @ 21c per gal. (wholesale) $ 5,997.60 

Kerosene, 12 per cent, 10.080 gals. @ 14c per gal. (wholesale) 1,411.20 

Fuel oil, 50 per cent, 1,000 bbls. @ $2.60 per bbl. (wholesale) 2,600.00 

$10,008.80 
Loss, 4 per cent. 

Daily profit 1,328.80 

Yearly profit 478,440 00 



Profits from Petroleum Refining. 

(By F. W. Freeborn in Oil & Gas Journal, 1920) 

Profits of Skiinniing: Plant (191G) 
Based on aiarket Price Aug., 1916, and Charg:ins 2,500 Bbls. of Crude Oil Per 

34-Hour Day. 

YIELD PER DAY. 

Gasoline 30% 31,500 gal. @ $0.18 'i ^^•?"-^2 

Kerosene W. W. 6% 6,300 gal. @ .OS ??iXn 

Kerosene P. W. 9% 9,450 gal. @ .06 56(.00 

Gas oil 5% 5,250 gal. @ .04% 236. 2» 

Fuel oil 48% 50,400 gal. @ .04y2 2.268.00 

Loss 2% 2,100 gal. 0.00 

100% 105,000 gal. _^___ 

Total sales per day $9,402.75 

COST PER DAY. 

Crude oil run 2,500 bbls. @ $2.05 $5,125.00 

pnael oil to burners & stills, 397 bbls. @ $1.89 7o0.33 

Electric light & power for motors 10.00 

Chemicals for treating oil and water 15.00 

Salaries charged @ 2.7c per barrel 67.50 



Total cost per day $5 .967.83 

Net profit per day ^'^■''''I'?^ 

Net profit per barrel '•^^c 

Cost to refine one barrel of crude ■"'•'^ 



244 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Profits of Skimming Plant, 1920 (Freeborn) 

Based on Market Prices April, 1920, and Charging 2,500 Barrels of 
Crude Oil Per 24-Hour Day. 

Yield Per Day. 

GasoMne 30% 31,500 gals. @ $0.21 Vj % 6,77:; r,0 

W. W. Kerosene 6% 6,300 gals. @ .12 756.00 

P W. Kerosene 9% 9,450 gals. (S' .lOVj 992.25 

Gts oil 5% 5,250 gals. (» .0^ 472.50 

Fuel oil 48% 50,400 gals. @ .0725 3.654.00 

Loss 2% 2,100 gals. 0.00 

100% 105,000 gals. 
Total sales per day $12,647.25 

Cost Per Day. 

Crude oil run, 2,500 barrels H |4.00 110,000.00 

Fuel oil to stills & boilers, 397 bbls. @ $3.05 1,210.85 

Light & Electric power for motors 13.00 

Chemicals for treating oil & water 18.75 

Sal-tries charged to operation 249.38 

Total cost per day 11,491.98 



Net profits per day $ 1,155 27 

Net profit per barrel .47 

Cost to refine one barrel crude .597 

Profits From Lubricating and Paraffin Plant (1920). 

Ba£e<l on market pricesof April, 1920, and h?ndling distillate from 2,500 
barrels of crude oil per day. Distillate han^Jled 33% of crude run. (Freeborn.) 

Yield Per Day. 

Light lubricating oil 15% 8,347.5 gals. @ .$0.35 $ 2,92163 

Medium lubricating oil 11% 6,121.5 gals. @ .35 2,142.52 

Heavy lubrjcaiing oil 9% 5,008.5 gals. (S> .45 ...... .. 2.253.83 

Heavy motor oil 5% 2,782.5 gals. @ .60 1.669.50 

raraffin wax 6% 3.339 gals. 

22.026 lbs. @ .08 1,762.08 

T^Uf' "'• 48% 26,712 gals. @ .0725 1,936.62 

J-"»» 6% 3,339 gals @ .00 0.00 

100% 55,650 gals. 
Total sale per day ^ 12, 868. 18 

Cost Per Day. 

Fuel oil 1,325 bnrrel.« @ $3.95 $4 nil "5 

Fuel oil to boilers & stills 154 bbl. $3.05.. '4«'i'70 

Klectric light & power iVoO 

ChemlcaUs and fuller's earth "50 00 

Salaries charged to operation .30o! 00 

TotuI costs per day 77777777. 5.075.95 

Ni t profit per day "^ T^eioTis 

Net profit per barrel ' r 74 

«'o.-l to refine one barrel.... -o 

.Net profit per year on 80% operating Vinie.' .'.".' ■> 990 15716 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 245 



PROFITS OF COMPLETE REFINERY (FREEBORN). 
Based on Market Price April, 1920, and Charging 2,500 Bbls. of Crude 

Oil Per 24-Hour Day. 
Yield Per Day. 

Gasoline 30% 31,500 gals. r« $0.21V2 $ 6,772.50 

AV. W. Kerosene, 45° 6% 6,300 gals. @ .12 756 00 

P. W. Kerosene, 42° 9% 9,450 gals, (ffi .lOVs 992 25 

Gas oil 5% 5,250 gals, ip' .03 472.50 

Paraffin Dist. 25% 26,250 Return stock for lub. oils and wax 

Flux 22% 23.100 gals. @ .0725 1,674.75 

Loss 03% 3,150 gals. 000.00 

100% 

2,500 bbls. crude oil charged 100% 

625 bbls. of paraffin distillate 25% off 

Light lubricating oil 2S% 7,350 gals. @ SO. 35 '. 2.572.50 

Medium lubricating oil 24% 6,300 gals. @ .35 2,205.00 

Heavy lubricating oil 16% 4,200 gals. @ .45 1,890 00 

Heavv motor oil 14% 3.675 gals. @ .60 2,205.00 

Paraffin wax 12% 20,790 lbs. @ .08 1,663.20 

3,150 gals. 
Loss 6% 1,575 gals. 

100% 26,250 gal.s. 

Total sales $ 21,203.70 

Total Costs. 

Crude oil run 2,500 bbls. fi' $4.00 $10,000.00 

P'uel oil to boilf-rs & stills, 432 bbls. @ $3.03 1,317.60 

Electric light for power and motors 25.00 

Chemicals and fuller's earth 265.00 

Salaries charged to operation 550.00 

Total costs 12.157 60 

Net profits per day $ 9,046.10 

Xet profit per barrel 3.61 

Cost to refine one barrel .86 

Net profit operating on S0% time basis 2,641,461.20 

Profits From Filtering and Cold Settling Plant (Freeborn). 

Filtering and Cold Settling Plant for rr.akm? Bright Stocks from Cylinder 
Stock, installed in conjunction with Skimming Plants having a charging capicity 
of 2.500 bbls. of crude per day. Yield of Cylinder stock from crude will average 
from 10% to 20%. The following figures based on 15%: 
15% of 2,500 — 375 bbls. or 15,750 gallons to he handled. Co'd settled 

stock, 15% or 15,750 gal. @ $0.75 $11,812.50 

Cost to produce: 

Fuel oil— 375 bbls. @ $3.05 $1,113.75 

Steam and electric power 10.00 

Chemicals and fuller's earth 175.00 

Salary charged to operation 95.00 

Loss of 56" naphtha in mix and wash 141.00 

General maintenance, etc IQiVOO $ 1,664.75 

Total net profit per d.ay 10,147.75 

Net profit per barrel 27.06 

Cost to refine one barrel 1.39 

Net profit per year figuring on operating 80% or 292 days 2,963,143.00 

The nece.ssary equipment to be added to a skimming plant to make bright 
stocks froiTi cylinder stocks, such as refrigerating plant, filtering plant, cold 
.settling tanks and steam stills for reclaiming naphtha from cold settled stocks 
and filter wash, will cost approximatelv $151,146.25. 

Net profits per day $10,147. 75x292 diys. 80% time — $2,963,143.00. 

Cost of Construction (Freeborn). 

This represents a profit on the investment of much more than 1000%. 

The question is often asked, what will a refinery cost? We are giving 
below in a general way these costs. These include neither tank cars nor work- 
ing capital but only cost of refinery ready to operate. 

We have assumed a capacity of 2,500 barrels and will s.iy that a smaller 
plant will co.st a little more and a larger one a little less per barrel. 

Topping plant 2,500 bbl.«. @ $100 per barrel or $250,000.00 

Complete refinery, 2,500 bbls. (» $300 per barrel or 750.000 00 

Complete lubricating plant — Added to present topping plant of 2,500 

bbls. would be ?S00 per bbl. of lubricants which is 625 bbls. or.. 500.000.00 
Filtering and cold settling plant — .\dded to 2,500 bbl. topping pi »nt, 

$400 per bbl. for 400 bbls. or 160.000.00 



246 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



c 



COSTS OF REFINING IN 1922. 

In 1922 (April) it may be assumed that a skimming plant will cost $100 
per barrel ptr dav capacity including limited storage hut not including pipe 
lines outside of refinery or tank cars. It costs approximately 50 cents to distill 
a barrel of crude oil to coke. The cost of making 1 barrel of gasoline by 
cracking is $2 to |5 and 1 H to 1% barrels of gas oil Is required to make it. 
With ''as oil at $1.40 per barrel, the total cost of a barrel of cracked gasoline 
is $3 75 to $10.00. With fuel oil at $1.00 and gas oil at $1.26 a plant in 
Illinois is able to make 600 barrels of gasoline per day at a total cost of $:i.70 
per barrel. 
The profit derived from a refinery depends upon: 

The price of crude oil. 

The location of the particular refinery in respect to availability of crude oil 
and the markets for the refined products. 

The general market for refined products. 

The quality of the crude oil available. 

The amount of fuel oil, gas oil and unprofitable products. 

The method of refining and refinery management. 

The working and reserve capital. 

The refinery making the most profit as a general rule is the one that 
makes the greatest amount of gasoline and lubricating oils as they are the most 
."table products of petroleum. 

COST OF REFINING CALIFORNIA PETROLEUM. 
(Report of Federal Trade Commission, 1921) 

The cost of refining crude petroleum is shown in detail for five companies 
named for the period 1916 — June 30, 1919, and for two companies from igi* 
to the latter date. The cost of refining a barrel of crude petroleum including 
the cost of the crude for all companies combined increased from $0,738 per 
barrel in 1916 to $1,259 for the first half of 1919. The crude petroleum costs 
ar<-- taken at the actual cost of production, or at purchase price, if bought. TTiere 
was a wide range in the costs for individual companies. In 1916, the lowest 
cost for a particular company was $0,602 and the highest $0.S45. In 1919, the 
lowest cost was $0.95 and the highest $1,631. The companies showing high 
costs are those purchasing a large proportion of the crude petroleum they refine. 

The principal element of cost for a barrel of refined petroleum products is 
the raw material — crude prtrcleum — even when the crude is charged to rhe 
refinery at its cost of production plus transportation cost. On this basis, the 
raw material represented 79.4% of the total cost in 1914 and ab'-ut 74%. in 
1919. The refinery operating expense was about 13.5% in 1914 and 17.7% in 
1919. while the general and administrative and depreciation combined were 7.1% 
in 1914 and S.3% in 1919. The refining labor cost is a very small factor in 
the cost of a barrel of refined petroleum products, and during the period cov- 
ered, it varied from only $0,012 in 1914 to $0,046 in 1919. 



Typical 



Actual STANDARD STILLS. .,^.,^ 

Capacity Dimensions Weight Cost 

III 1^11 22,000 $2,120.00 

\M .V'll 24.000 2,250.00 

m 10x30 2S,000 2,550.00 

y^i IJ'^IO 36,000 3,225.00 

B?ft WHl ^^'"^J" 3,685.00 

fijX J2X30 36,000 2,810.00 K. D. 

"" 12x30 36.000 3,580.00 Riveted 

.i'Tf, AGITATORS. Tvpicai 

i^apHouy Dimensions Weight Cost 

ill \V^ll l^'SOO 2.085.00 

Yil lO^^O 22,000 2.260.00 

600 Ir'';^ '''•"OO 2,500.00 

?nS VV^lt 36,000 2,680.00 

innn 15x35 44,400 3 120 00 

Wll ;^?« 55,000 3.845.06 

""' ''Ox.fS 61.000 4,260 00 

STANDARD CONDENSER BOXES. 
si,p ^ Riveted Up. Seiung 

Sxsi"-. Compartments Weight Price 

10.000 $ 855.00 

10,700 920.00 

12,700 1,100.00 

20x8x,io , Knocl^ed Down. 

.lOxfx.'tO ? 22,600 1,450.00 

J 32,400 2,040.00 

■• 42,000 2,610.00 



I 0x6x30 
10x8x30 



lOxHx.lO 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



247 



Gasoline. 

Gasoline as now found.on the market is %"}i^ture of petroleum 

hydrocarbons, having an initial boilmg point of f^^™/^ o^. ^'^./o^?.J' 
anendboilingpointof from 360° F to 4bO°F, gravity of 55 to 61 Be., 




/9/e 



/9/r 



~J^ /9I4 1^/^ /^/'^ 

Fig 47 — The Demand for Gasoline. 



a sweet to oily aroma, a water white color, specific heat of 0.50, and 
heat of vaporization of 130 B.T.U. per pound. 

The particular hydrocarbons composing it belong to a general 
group'knoTn'rthe p'araffins. Other types of hydrocarbons are ^^c^^^ 



Name 

1. Pentane 

2. Hexane 

3. Heptane 

4. Octane 

5. Nonane 

6. Decane 

7. Undecane 



Boiling 
point 
97°F 



156^ 

209" 

258° 

302= 

343°F 

383°F 



'F 

°F 

'F 



Specific 
gravity 
630 
0.670 
697 
0.718 
740 
0.750 
0.760 



Baume' vaporization cal- 

eravitv ories per gram 

92.2° 84 

78.9° 80.5 

79.9° 74.0 

65.0° 71.5 

59.2° 67.5 

56.7° 64.5 

542° 61.5 



248 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The following aromatic compounds are produced by pyrogenic de- 
composition of heavy hydrocarbons and rarely exist naturally in crude 
petroleum. 

They are produced by the cracking of oil in the vapor phase 
and at high temperatures and occur in artificial or what has been 
called "synthetic" gasoline. Their chief origin is in byproducts from 
the coking of coal. 

Name Boiling Point Specific gravity Baume' gravity 

Benzol (CoH«) 176 °F 0.880 29.1° 

Toluol (CoH=CH3) 232 °F 0.872 30.6° 

Xylene (C«H.(CH3)2 29rF 0.882 28.7° 

A small amount of these hydrocarbons in commercial gasoline 
very materially affects the gravity. 

The character of gasoline is governed almost entirely by its 
use for automobiles. It is also used to some extent for stove gasoline 
and for cleaning purposes, in which case it has lower end point and 
a higher Baume' gravity. 

Gasoline originates from one or more of the following sources: 

1. The natural product distilled from crude oil. This constitutes 
about 70% of the total on the market (1921). 

2. As a condensate from natural gas and known as casinghead 
gasoline. This constitutes about 59f of all gasoline and is always in- 
corporated with heavy hydrocarbons such as naphtha or with gasoline 
distilled from a heavy crude or with gasoline made by cracking. 

3. The light hydrocarbons produced by the pyrogenic decompo- 
sition of heavy petroleum residua. This constitutes about 25% of the 
market gasoline and tends to have a slight amount of aromatic com- 
pounds. 




/S'/i/ /9/9 /9eO' 

I' IK. IS— Productior>, Consumption and Stock 



s of Gasoline. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 249 



The most desirable properties of gasoline are low end point and 
a low initial boiling point, the usual refiner's practice being to call 
everything gasoline which distills up to a temperature of 410°F. This 
practice in a light crude gives a 58° Be' product, although in the un- 
usually light crudes a 61° product is obtained and in heavy crudes a 
gravity as low as 54° may be obtained. Light crudes such as those 
from Mexia, Tex., give as high as 20';/c of naphtha without any gaso- 
line but when this naphtha is blended with about 25% of casinghead 
gasoline it gives a good motor gasoline. 

Figure 39 shows the relation of the boiling point to the specific 
gravity of ordinary market gasoline. Gasolines containing consider- 
able olefins, aromatics or naphthenes have a higher relation of specific 
gravity to boiling point than do gasolines composed entirely of par- 
affin hydrocarbons. 

Figure 49 shows the relation of the boiling temperature to the 
percentage distilled over in ordinary commercial gasoline. These 
curves show that the gravity alone is not a good measure of the 
quality of a gasoline. For example, a 58° gravity gasoline in one 
case has an initial boiling point of less than 100 °F and in another 
case has an initial boiling point of 190 °F. A naphtha blended with 
casinghead will have a very high gravity test, but will show a very 
low initial boiling point and a very high end point. 

COMPARISON OF GASOLINE SAMPLES COLLECTED BY BU- 
REAU OF MINES. 

January, 1921 and July, 1921. 

First End Avg. 

District Date Drop 20% 50% 90% Point B. P. 

New York Jan., 1921 117 206 264 363 417 265 

Julv, 1921 125 208 265 365 422 268 

Difference " +8 +2 +1 +2 +5 +3 

Washington Jan., 1921 118 201 259 385 439 270 

July, 1921 130 204 263 387 442 274 

Difference +12 +3 -|-4 +2 +3 +A 

Pittsburgh Jan., 1921 92 171 248 391 430 244 

July, 1921 112 181 247 382 435 259 

Difference +20 +10 —1 —9 +5 +15 

Chicago Jan., 1921 117 191 248 387 439 264 

July, 1921 125 202 261 389 444 273 

Difference +8 +11 +13 +2 +5 +9 

New Orleans Jan., 1921 123 211 270 366 428 272 

July, 1921 131 214 279 376 427 279 

Difference +8 +3 +9 +10 —1 +7 

St. Louis Jan., 1921 114 202 271 381 444 274 

July, 1921 128 205 268 383 441 276 

Difference +14 +3 —3 +2 —3 +2 

Salt Lake City Jan., 1921 112 206 282 397 439 285 

July, 1921 126 200 256 353 401 259 

Difference +14 —6 —26 —44 —38 —26 

San Francisco Jan., 1921 121 210 267 355 417 265 

July, 1921 129 206 258 356 421 265 

Difference +8 — 4 —9 +1 +4 Same 

8 Districts Jan., 1921 113 197 261 378 431 265 

July, 1921 125 201 261 376 432 269 

Difference +12 +4 Same —2 +1 +4 

Federal Specifications Nov. 25, 1919 140 221 284 374 437 



250 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



600 




f/r^t /O 20 30 40 30 60 70 80 



90 fr?a 
Po/nf 



FiK. 49— Di.stillation Curves of Gasoline Sold in 1921 (U. S. B. M.) 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



THE COMBUSTION OF GASOLINE. 

Average Results of Tests on Eleven 5-passenger Cars. 

(See J. I. and E. Chem. Jan. 1921, Page 51.) 



251 



CONDITION 
OF TEST 



Engine racing 

Engine idling 

Three per cent grade (up) 

15 miles per hour 

10 miles per hour 

3 miles per hour 

Down 3'^c grade — 

15 miles per hour 

10 miles per hour 

3 miles per hour 

Level grade — 

15 miles per hour 

10 miles per hour 

3 miles per hour 



Miles 

per 
Gallon 



13.2 

12.7 

6.2 



24.5 

22.8 

9 



16 
16 

7 



Com- 
pleteness 
of Com- 
bustion 



70 
69 

75 
75 

72 

70 
70 
72 

76 
72 
72 



Lbs. Air 
per Lb. 
of Gaso- 
line 



12.2- 
11.8 

12.6 
13.0 
12.2 

12.3 
12.3 
12.9 

14.4 
12.7 
12.6 



Analysis of Exhaust Gas 
Per Cent by Volume 



CO2 O2 CO CH4 H 



9.1 
8.9 

10.2 
9.9 
9.8 

9.5 
8.6 
9.5 

9.3 
9.3 
9.1 



1.5 

1.4 

1.1 
1.5 
0.9 

1.4 
1.4 
1.5 

2.2 
1.9 
1.6 



6.9 
7.6 

5.7 
5.7 
6.5 

6.5 
7.0 
6.0 

5.6 
6.3 
6.7 



0.8 
0.6 

0.6 
0.5 
0.6 

0.9 
0.7 
0.7 

0.8 
0.6 
0.6 



3.0 
3.7 

2.6 
2.5 
3.0 

2.9 
3.1 
2.7 

2.8 
3.1 
3.0 



N2 



78.8 
77.8 

79.8 
79.8 
79.2 

78.8 
79.2 
79.6 

79.3 

78.8 
79.0 



EFFECT OF CARBURETOR ADJUSTMENT ON GASOLINE CON- 
SUMPTION AND EXHAUST GAS COMPOSITION. 

Four-cylinder roadster, engine 4% in. bore x 4% in. stroke; 

Johnson carburetor; intake air and manifold heated; using gasoline 

66.4°Be' distillation lO'/r, 127°F; 50%, 225°F, dry 441°F; average 

239°F. Tests at 15 miles per hour ascending a 39''^ grade of asphalt 

in good condition. 

Gasoline consumption, 

miles per gallon 14.9 13.9 10.6 8.8 

Exhaust gas analyses, per 
cent — 

CO. 13.4 12.0 10.2 6.5 

0. 1.7 1.4 3 1.2 

CO 1.2 2.0 6.4 11 6 

CH4 0.2 1.1 0.8 1.0 

H. .... 0.0 0.0 24 6.4 

N. ._. 83.5 83.5 79.9 73.3 

Carburetor Adjust- 
ment, lbs. air per lb. 
gasoline 14.5 14.2 11.8 9.9 

Per cent completeness of 

combustion 95 85 74 56 

Condition of exhaust clear clear slightly smoky smoky 

Operation irregular smooth excellent poor povi^er 

TABLES FOR COMPUTING AUTOMOBILE HORSE POWER. 
(S. A. E. Horse Power Table.) 

Four cycle Two cycle 

Limit of error, .005 Limit of error, .005 

D^'N D-N 

HP = HP = 

2.5 1-5151 

D = diameter or bore of cylinder in inches. 
N = number of cylinders. 



252 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 







KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



IWc 



AVERAGE COMPOSITION BY VOLUME OF EXHAUST GAS 

FROM TESTS OF 23 CARS AT 15 MILES PER HOUR. 

Level grade Ascending 3% grade 

8.9 7o 9.6% 

2.3 1.3 

6.3 6 4 

0.9 0.6 

3.0 2 9 



Carbon dioxide ... 

Oxygen 

Carbon monoxide 

Methane 

Hydrogen 



Nitrogen 78.6 



79 2 



Total 100.0% 100.0% 

Exhaust gas at 65 °F and 29.92 in Hg., level grade = 988 cu. ft. 
per gallon of gasoline. 




eO /9 /<? /T- /6 /5" M /7 /? // /O 9 



V\S- 51 — Relation of Power and Combustion Efficiency in Gasoline 

Engines. 

ULTIMATE COMPOSITION OF GASOLINE. 

Specific gravity 0.713 

Carbon 84 3% 

Hydrogen 15.7% 

Calorific value, 21,300 B.T.U. per lb. = 130,000 B.T.U. per gal. 

EXHAUST GAS FROM 1 GAL. GASOLINE ON LEVEL GRADE 

TESTS CONTAINS: 

988x6 3 = 62.2 cu. ft. CO 
988x0.9= 9.1 cu. ft. CH. 
988x3.0= 2.9 cu. f t. H^ 



254 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



; 



I 



5v- 
It* 



/yv Exj^Auar Gas. 



\ 



Fig. 52 — Relation of Car- 
bon Monoxide to tlie Gaso- 
line Mixture in Gasoline 
Engines. 



N. 



tA r/O "aF'A/j^ ta CiASiii-iMii^iROUfJ&S 




/6 



TOTAL HEAT IN UNBURNED GASES PER GALLON GASOLINE. 

62.2x320 =19,900 B.T.U. 
9.1x1000= 9,100 B.T.U. 
29.6X 332= 9,500 B.T.U. 



38,500 

Gross B. T. U. per cu. ft. at 65= 
38,500 
=29.6% 



F. and 29.92 in Hg. 



130,000 
29.6% of the total heat of the gasoline goes out in the exhaust in the 
form of combustible gases. 

EFFICIENCY OF AUTOMOBILES MOVING ON LEVEL GROUND 

AT 35 MILES PER HR. 

Water radiator and engine radiation 40% 

Exhaust gas heat and pipe resistance of pipe 36% 

Engine friction 6% 

Engine power — transmitted 18% 

Transmission friction 3.5% 

Rear tire friction 5.0% 

Front tires and wheels 2.5% 

Air resistance 7.0% 

Total .18.0% 

The apparent flexibility of the engine is governed largely by re- 
ducing the last four items. This is largely accomplished by lubrica- 
tion and tire inflation. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 255 

U. S. Specifications for Gasoline. 
(Technical Paper 298 Bureau of Mines.) 

AVIATION GASOLINE, FIGHTING GRADE. 
General : 

1. This specification covers the grade of gasoline used by the 
United States Government and its agencies as a fuel for fighting 
planes where the highest efficiency is required. 

2. The gasoline shall be free from undissolved water and sus- 
pended matter. 

Properties and Tests: 

3. Color: The color shall be not darker than 25 Saybolt. 

4. Doctor test: The doctor test shall be negative. 

5. Corrosion test: One hundred cc of the gasoline shall cause 
no gray or black corrosion and no weighable amount of deposit when 
evaporated in a polished copper dish. 

6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: Not more than 1.09'c of the gaso- 
line shall be soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid. 

7. Distillation range: 

When 5'^/c of the sample has been recovered in the graduated re- 
ceiver, the thermometer shall not read more than 65°C (149°F) or 
less than 50° C. (122° P.). 

When 50 7f has been recovered in the receiver, the thermometer 
shall not read more than 95 °C (203 °F). 

When 90% has been recovered, in the receiver, the thermometer 
shall not read more than 125°C (257°F). 

When 96 7c has been recovered in. the receiver, the thermometer 
shall not read more than 150°C (302°F). The end point shall not be 
higher than 165° C. (329° F.). 

At least 96% shall be recovered as distillate in the receiver from 
the distillation. 

The distillation loss shall not exceed 2% when the residue in the 
flask is cooled and added to the distillate in the receiver. 

8. Acidity: The residue remaining in the flask after the dis- 
tillation is completed shall not show an acid reaction. 

9. The United States War Department requires the fighting 
grade to be colored red after inspection and acceptance. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
gasoline adopted by the Interdepartmental Petroleum Specifications 
Committee. 

AVIATION GASOLINE. DOMESTIC GRADE. 
General: 

1. This specification covers the grade of gasoline used by the 
United States Government and its agencies for aviation fuel where 
the fighting grade is not required. 

2. The gasoline shall be free from undissolved water and sus- 
pended matter. 

Properties and Tests: .,r n i n. 

3. Color: The color shall be not darker than 25 baybolt. 

4. Doctor test: The doctor test shall be negative. 



256 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



5. Corrosion test: One hundred cc of the prasoline shall cause 
no gray black corrosion and not weighable amount of deposit when 
evaporated in a polished copper dish. 

6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: Not more than 2.0% of the 
gasoline shall be soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid. 

7. Distillation range: 

When 5% of the sample has been recovered in the graduated re- 
ceiver, the thermometer shall not read more than 75°C (167°F) or 
less than 50°C (122°F). 

When 50% has been recovered in the receiver, the thermometer 
shall not read more than 105°C (221°F). 

When 90% has been recovered in the receiver, the thermometer 
shall not read more than 155°C (311°F). 

When 96% has been recovered in the receiver, the thermometer 
shall not read more than 175°C (347°F). 

The end point shall not be higher than 190° C. (374" F.). 

At least 967o shall be recovered as distillate in the receiver 
from distillation. 

The distillation loss shall not exceed 2% when the residue in the 
flask is cooled and added to the distillate in the heceiver. 

8. Acidity: The residue remaining in the flask after the dis- 
tillation is completed shall not show an acid reaction. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing gaso- 
line adopted by the Interdepartmental Petroleum Specifications Com- 
mittee. 

MOTOR GASOLINE ("NEW NAVY"). 
General: 

1. This specification covers the grade of gasoline used by the 
United States Government and its agencies as a "fuel for automobiles, 
motor boats and similar engines. 

2. The color shall be not darker than No. 16 Saybolt. 

3. A clean copper strip shall not be discolored when submerged 
m gasoline for 3 hours at 122°F. 

Properties and Tests: 

4. Distillation range: 

When the first drop has been recovered in the graduated re- 
ceiver, the thermometer shall not read more than 60°C (140°F). 

When 20% has been recovered in the receiver, the thermometer 
fchali not read more than 105°C (221°F). 

When 50% has been recovered in the receiver, the thermometer 
Khali not read more than 140°C (284°F). 

When 90% has been recovered in the receiver, the thermometer 
shall not read more than lOO^C (374°F). 

The end point shall not be higher than 225°C (437°F). 

.u •^M^^^^^ ^'^''^" ^^^^^ ^'^ recovered as distillate in the receiver from 
the distillation. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
gasoline adopted by the Interdepartmental Petroleum Specifications 
Committee. ^ 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 257 

TURPENTINE SUBSTITUTE. 
General: 

1. This specification covers the grade of mineral spirits used 
by the United States Government and its agencies for thinning paints 
and varnishes and as a substitute for turpentine. 

2. This material shall be free from undissolved water and sus- 
pended matter. 

Properties and Tests: 

3. Color: The color shall be water white. 

4. Spot test: It shall evaporate completely from filter paper 
in 30 minutes. 

5. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 30°G 
(86° F.). (Tag. Closed Tester.) 

6. Sulphur: The sulphur test shall be negative. 

7. Distillation range: Not over 59f shall distill below 130°C 
(266°F). 

Not less than 97Vc shall distill below 230°C (446°F). 

8. Acidity: The residue remaining in the flask after the dis- 
tillation is completed shall not show an acid reaction. 

All tests shall be made in accordance with the methods for testing 
gasoline adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

Specifications for Natural Gasoline. 
(Adopted by Association of Natural Gasoline Manufacturers.) 

GRADE "A". GRADE "B". 

Gravity Not below 72° Be' Not below 76° Be' 

Not above 76° Be' Not above 80° Be' 

End point Not over 375° F. Not over 375° F. 

Color Water white Water white 

Recovery Not less than 90% Not less than 85% 

Vapor tension Not over 10 pounds Not over 10 pounds 

GRADE "C." GRADE "D". 

Gravity Not below 80° Be' Not below 80° Be' 

Not above 84° Be' Not above 84° Be' 

End point Not above 375° F. Not above 330° F. 

Color Water white Water white 

Recovery Not less than 85% Not less than 80% 

Vapor tension Not over 10 pounds 12 pounds maximum 

GRADE "E". GRADE "F". 

Gravity Not below 84° Be' Not below 87° Be' 

Not above 87° Be' Not above 90° Be' 

Initial boiling point Not below 65° F. Not below 60° F. 

End point Not above 330° F. Not above 330° F. 

Color Water white Water white 

Vapor tension 15 pounds maximum Under maximum required 

by Bureau of Explos- 
ives. 
GRADE "G". 

Gravity Specified by seller 

Color Water white 

Recovery Not less than 85% 

Vapor tension Specified by seller 



258 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Specifications for Motor Natural Gasoline. 
(Adopted by Association of Natural Gasoline Manufacturers.) 

GRADE "1". 

Gravity Not below 60° Be' 

Not above 62° Be' 

Initial boiling point Not less than 87° F. 

End point Not over 450° F. 

Color Water white 

Recovery Not less than 90% 

Vapor tension Not over 6 pounds 

GRADE "2". 

Gravity Not below 62° Be' 

Not above 66° Be' 

Initial boiling point Not less than 80° F. 

End point Not over 450° F. 

Color Water white 

Recovery Not less than 86% 

Vapor tension Not over 8 pounds 

GRADE "3". 

Gravity Not below 66° Be' 

- . . , ^ .,. Not above 70° Be' 

Initial boiling point Not less than 70° F. 

^"P point Not over 450° F. 

^olor Water white 

Recovery. Not less than 83% 

Vapor tension Not over 10 pounds 

GRADE "4". 

P'";^>l'fY ;,. Specified by seller 

FnH n °i "^ P°'"* Not less than 85° F. 

^"f P°'"t Not over 465° F. 

p3,_ Water white 

VpTtion Sr/'^r"'"!" 

'^ Not over 8 pounds 

addit^o^nll^nrn"!^!'-*^^*^ ^""^^ determined by methods of A. S. T. M. with 
additional provisions, condenser water temperature 32-34° F. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 259 



Summary of Refined Oil Inspection Laws and Taxes. 

ALABAMA. 

Gasoline — The distillation test shall show an initial boiling point 
of 140°F, 18% over at 250°F or below and an end point below 
437° F. Tax on gasoline is l/20c per gallon. 

Kerosene — Shall have a fire test of 120° F. or over. Tax on 
kerosene is %c per gallon. 

ARIZONA. 

Has no requirements for quality of gasoline or kerosene, but 
levies a road tax of Ic per gallon on gasoline. 

ARKANSAS. 

Gasoline — The gravity shall be taken at 60° F. and marked on 
the container. The tax on gasoline is Ic per gallon, to be applied 
on road improvements. Inspection tax of %c per gallon. 

Kerosene — Shall have a fire test of 150° F. by Tagliabue open 
cup. Tax on kerosene, Vhc per gallon. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Has no laws in regard to quality of gasoline or kerosene. Levies 
no general tax. 

COLORADO. 

Gasoline — Gravity shall be taken. Gasoline shall contain not 
more than 5% of solid matter. Road tax of Ic per gallon. 

Kerosene — Shall have a flash point of not less than 90° F. by 
Foster cup. 

CONNECTICUT. 

Has no gasoline laws. Levies a road tax of Ic per gallon on 
gasoline. 

Kerosene— Shall have a flash point of 110° F., fire test, 140° F. 
by Tag. open tester. 

DELAWARE. 

Has no gasoline laws. Levies no tax on gasoline. 
Kerosene — Shall have burning point of 115° F. by Tag. open 
tester. 

FLORIDA. 

Gasoline — Gravity shall be placed on the label. Road tax of Ic 
per gallon is levied on gasoline and an inspection tax of %c per 
gallon on all petroleum products. 

Kerosene — Shall be free from glue, water and suspended mat- 
ter. The color shall be at least 21 Saybolt, flash point over 100° F., 
end point shall be below 600° F. 

GEORGIA. 

Gasoline — Container shall be properly labeled with the gravity 
and name of the product. Road tax of Ic per gallon is levied. Gen- 
eral tax of ^/4c per gallon for oil inspection. 

Kerosene — Shall have flash point of over 100° F. by Elliott 
closed tester. 



260 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



IDAHO. 

Gasoline — Shall be of the quality standardized by the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines and shall be labeled and sold as to true name and 
grade. No tax levied. 

Kerosene — Shall have fire test of over 120° F. by Tag. open 
tester. 

ILLINOIS. 

Gasoline — Must be branded "Condemned for illuminating pur- 
poses." No other requirements. No tax levied. 

Kerosene — Shall have fire test of over 150° F. by Tag. open cup. 

INDIANA. 

Gasoline — Gravity shall not be less than 56° Be'. 

Kerosene — Shall have flash point of over 120° F. by Foster cup. 

IOWA. 

Gasoline— Gravitv shall be between 70° Be' and 80° Be' and 
shall distill from 150° F. to 210° F. All other products shall be 
branded "substitute for gasoline." Shall show percentage boiling 
below 135° F., from 135° F. to 210° F., from 210° F. to 302° F., 
percentage above 302° F. No tax levied. 

Kerosene — Shall flash above 100° F. by Elliott closed tester, 
tester. 

KANSAS. 

Gasoline — Shall be water white, contain no acid, shall be sweet 
by the doctor test, have an end point of 450° F. or below, 20% shall 
be distilled at 230° F., 50% at 325° F. Gravity test is required. 

Kerosene — Shall flash at a temperature above 110° F. by Foster 
cup. Tax levied on both gasoline and kerosene. 

KENTUCKY. 

Gasoline — No gasoline laws. Road tax of Ic per gallon is levied 
on gasoline. 

Kerosene— Shall have fire test of over 130° F. by Tag. open cup. 
An inspection tax of l/20c per gallon is levied on all oil. 

LOUISIANA. 

Gasoline — No gasoline law except that Ic per gallon is levied 
for roads. 

Kerosene— Shall have flash point above 125° F. Any oil flash- 
mg below this temperature shall be labeled "dangerous and explo- 
sive." 

MAINE. 

Gasoline— Must be labeled "unsafe for illuminating purposes." 
Kerosene- Must have a fire test above 120° F. by Tag. open 

cup. No provision is made for state inspection of oil, this being in 

charge of local government. 

MARYLAND. 

Has no laws governing quality of petroleum products. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 

Kerosene— Flash point of 100° F., fire test, 110° F. or more by 
lag. open cup. No other petroleum requirements. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 261 



MICHIGAN. 

Gasoline — Must be correctly labeled. 

Kerosene — Flash point 120° F. by Foster cup. Local laws in 
Detroit and other cities are such as to accept Navy specification 
gasoline. 

MINNESOTA. 

Gasoline — Shall have initial boiling point of 140° F., 20% over 
at 221° F., 50% at 315° F., 90% at 420° F., end point not over 450° 
F., residue not over 3%, 86% shall be recovered. Shall be marked 
"unsafe for illuminating purposes." Test shall be placed on label. 
Gasoline marked "high test" shall be a superior product. 

Kerosene — Shall be water white, contain no glue, suspended 
matter or water, residue at 600'' F. shall not be over 5%. Flash 
point 100° F., fire test 120' F. by Tag. open cup. Certificate as to 
quality shall be on package. Inspection tax of 5c per barrel is 
levied on all refined petroleum. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Has no laws governing quality of refined petroleum. 

MISSOURI. 

Gasoline — Gravity over 58° Be' is to be sold as gasoline Grav- 
ity of 50° Be' to 58° Be' is to be sold as mixed gasoline or naphtha. 

Kerosene — Shall be water white containing no water or tar. 
Flash point over 120° F. by Tag. open cup. Gravity not less than 
40° Be'. Not more than 4% residue at 570° F. 

MONTANA. 

Gasoline— Shall be free from water and other foreign matter 
and shall be deodorized and contain no acid. Have initial boiling 
point below 140° F., 20% between 158 and 221° F., 50% below 
275° F., 90% below 390° F., end point below 460° F. Gasoline 
acceptable if sum of 20% and 90% temperatures is below 611. 

Kerosene — Flash point over 110° F. by Tag. open cup. Shall 
contain no water or foreign matter. No fee for inspection and no 
tax. 

NEBRASKA. 

Gasoline — Shall be water white and contain no water or impuri- 
ties. Other requirements are new Navy specifications. 

Kerosene — Shall be water white, free from water or tar. On 
distillation shall have residue not over 7% at 570° F. Flash point 
over 112° F. by Foster cup. Gravity over 40° Be'. Inspection fee 
6c per barrel. 

NEVADA. 

No inspection laws. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Gasoline — No law. 

Kerosene— Flash point 100° F., fire test 120° F. by open cup. 
This law more specifically for liquid polishes. 

NEW JERSEY. 

Gasoline — Shall be properly labeled. 

Kerosene— Flash po'nt on the label which shall be more than 
100° F. 



262 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



NEW MEXICO. „ , X, , . 

Gasoline — Gravity of over 46° Be . Road tax of Ic per gallon. 
Kerosene — Flash point of over 120° F. 

NEW YORK. ^ , ^ .T ., 

Kerosene— Flash point of 110° F. by Tag. open cup. No other 

laws. 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Gasoline — Shall have initial boiling point of 140° F., 20Vc over 
at 221° F., 50% over at 284° F., 907f over at 374° F. end point 
below 437° F., loss not over 5%. Manufacturer must send notice of 
shipment with full information to Commissioner of Agriculture, 
Raleigh, N. C. Road tax, Ic per gallon, and inspection tax of V^c 
per gallon. 

Kerosene — Flash point of not over 100° F. by Elliott cup. Not 
over 6% residue on distilling at 572° F. 

NORTH DAKOTA. 

Gasoline — Class I or household gasoline on distillation shall 
yield less than 3% at 158° F. and not over 6% residue at 284° F. 
Class I is not subject to tax. Class II gasoline on distillation shall 
yield from 3% to 15% at 158° F. 96% shall distill over. End point 
shall be below 428° F. Shall not be over 36% residue at 284° F. 
Class II is taxed at ^ic per gallon. Class III comprises all other 
gasoline and is taxed at Ic per gallon. 

Kerosene— Flash point 100° F., fire test 125° F. by Elliott 
closed cup. Shall be water white. Not over 6% shall be distilled at 
310° F. and residue shall not be over 4%c at 570° F. 

OHIO. 

Gasoline — Shall be labeled "dangerous." 

Kerosene — Flash point over 120° F. by Foster cup. 

OKLAHOMA. 

Gasoline — High grade or aero gasoline shall be water white, 
free from acid, 5% distilled at 122° F., 97% at 350° F. Other 
gasoline shall be labeled with the quality and brand "Motor fuel 
oil." 

Kerosene— First grade shall have gravity of 40 to 48° Be' flash 
pomt above 120° F. A. S. T. M. tester. Second grade kerosene, 
flash point above 110° F. A. S. T. M. tester. 

OREGON. 

Gasoline — Gravity shall be over 56° Be'. Road tax of 2c per 
gallon on gasoline. No law on refined oil. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Gasoline — Road tax of Ic per gallon. 

Kerosene— Fire test 110° F. by Tag. open cup. 
RHODE ISLAND. 

Kerosene— Flash point 110° F. by Tag. open cup. 
SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Gasoline— New Navy gasoline with an end point 225° C. Inspec- 
tion tax Vsc per gallon. 

^i.f ir^''"^?™'?,^^ P^'"^ 1^0° ^- with Elliott tester. Residue on 
di.-5tilling at 570° F. shall be less than 6%. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 26J 



SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Gasoline — Gravity shall be recorded. 

Kerosene — Shall be water white and contain no tar. Shall 
distill not over 10% at 300° F., residue not over 4% at 570°. Flash 
point above 105" F. with New York closed tester. Gravity shall be 
over 41° Be'. Road tax of Ic per gallon on gasoline. Inspection tax 
of 5c per barrel. 

TENNESSEE. 

Gasoline — Shall be labeled "unsafe for illuminating purposes." 
Kerosene — Flash point shall be over 120° F. Tag. open cup. 
Inspection fee on gasoline, 20c per barrel; 25c per barrel on kero- 
sene. 

TEXAS 

Gasoline— Initial boiling point shall be 140° F., 20% at 221° F., 
45% at 275° F., 90%, at 356° F., end point 428° F., 95% shall be 
recovered on distillation. Vapor tension shall be below 10 pounds 
at 100° F. 

Kerosene — No kerosene law. 

UTAH. 

Kerosene — No state laws. Salt Lake City requires that kero- 
sene be water white, free from water or tar, flash point 110° F. by 
Foster or Tag. cup. 

Gasoline — Gasoline in Salt Lake City shall be the quality set 
forth by specifications of Bureau of Mines. Products shall be 
properly labeled. 

VERMONT. 

Kerosene — Fire test 110° F. by Tag. open cup. 

VIRGINIA. 

No law on petroleum products. 

WASHINGTON. 

Gasoline — Containers shall be branded with gravity. Road tax, 
Ic per gallon. 

Kerosene — Fire test 120° F. with Tag. open cup. 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

No law. 

WISCONSIN. 

Gasoline — Containers shall be marked with gravity. Inspection 
tax, 5c per barrel. 

Kerosene— Flash point 105° F., fire test 120° F. with Tag. open 
cup. 

WYOMING. 

Gasoline — New navy gasoline containing not over 2'}c of un- 
saturated hydrocarbons. End point 437° F. 

Kerosene — Shall be water white, containing no water or tar. 
Flash point 110° F. with Foster closed cup. On distillation shall 
have a residue of not over 59f at 572° F. 



264 BULL ETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 

Possible Savings in Use of Gasoline. 

The Bureau of Mines estimates that the following savings can be 
effected daily: ^^^^^^^ 

Tank wagon losses _; .- -• oJ'^aa 

Leaky carburetors, average 1/17 of a pint per car J^l't^jl 

Poorly adjusted carburetors, V2 pint per car Tr^ nnn 

Motors running idle, % pint per car ESS 

Wasted in garages, 10 pints per day -.no'nnn 

Saved by using kerosene m garages or a'^nn 

Needless use of passenger cars, 1% pints per car 897,400 

This makes a total of 1,500,000 gallons a day, or 561,000,000 gal- 
lons a year, whereas our war needs were 350,000,000 gallons a year, 
or less than two-thirds of what may be considered as wasted at the 
present time. 

SUGGESTIONS TO GASOLINE USERS. 

The following important suggestions for avoiding waste will not 
only save gasoline, but users of motor vehicles will be benefitted per- 
sonally and individually through more efficient and more economical 
operation of cars: 

1. Store gasoline in underground steel tanks. Use wheeled steel 
tanks with measuring pump and hose. They prevent loss by fire, 
evaporation and spilling. 

2. Don't spill or expose gasoline to air — it evaporates rapidly 
and is dangerous. 

3. Don't use gasoline for cleaning and washing — use kerosene or 
other materials to cut grease. 

4. Stop all gasoline leakages. Form habit of shutting off gas at 
tank or feed pipe. 

5. Adjust brake bands so they do not drag. See that all bearings 
run freely. 

6. Don't let engine run when car is standing. It is good for 
starter battery to be used frequently. 

7. Have carburetors adjusted at service stations of carburetor or 
automobile companies— they will make adjustments without charge. 

8. Keep needle valve clean and adjust carburetor (while engine is 
hot) to use as lean mixture as possible. A rich mixture fouls the 
engine and is wasteful. 

9. Pre-heat air entering carburetor and keep radiator covered 
in cold weather — this will insure better vaporization. 

10. See that spark is timed correctly with engine and drive with 
spark full advanced — a late spark increases gas consumption. , 

11. Have a hot spark, keep plugs clean and spark points properly 
adjusted. 

12. Avoid high speed. The average car is most economical at 15 
to 25 miles an hour. 

. 13. Don't accelerate and stop quickly — it wastes gas and wears 
out tires. Stop engine and coast long hills. 

14. Cut down aimless and needless use of cars. Do a number of 
errands in one trip. 

15. Know your mileage per gallon. Fill tank full and divide 
odometer mileage by gallons consumed. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 265 



Benzinum Purificatum (U. S. Pharmacopoeia). 

Purified Petroleum Benzin. 

Benzin. Purif. — Petroleum Ether. 

A purified distillate from American petroleum consisting of hy- 
drocarbons, chiefly of the marsh-gas series. Preserve it carefully in 
well-closed containers, in a cool place, remote from fire. 

Purified Petroleum Benzin is a clear, colorless, non-fluorescent, 
volatile liquid, cf an ethereal, or faint, petroleum-like odor, and having 
a neutral reaction. It is high'y inflammable and its vapor, w^hen 
mixed with air and ignited, explodes violently. 

It is pract'cally insoluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, and 
miscible with ether, chloroform, benzene, volatile oils and fixed oils, 
with the exception of castor oil. 

Specific gravity: 0.638 to 0.660 at 25°C. 

It distills completely between 40°C and 80°C (104°F to 176°F). 

Evaporate 10 mils of Purified Petroleum Benzm from a piece of 
clean filter paper; no greasy stain remains, and the odor is not dis- 
agreeable or notably sulphuretted. Not more than 0.0015 Gm. of res- 
idue remains on evaporating 50 mils of Purified Petroleum Benzin at 
a temperature not exceeding 40° C. 

Boil 10 mils of Purified Petroleum Benzin for a few minutes with 
one-fourth its volume of an alcoholic solution of ammonia (1 in 10) 
and a few drops of silver nitrate T. S ; the liquid does not turn brown 
(pyrogenous products and sulphur compounds). 

Add 5 drops of Purified Peti'oleum Benzin to a mixture ofo 40 
drops of sulphuric acid and 10 drops of nitric acid in a test tube, warm 
the liquid for about ten minutes, set it aside for half an hour, and 
dilute it in a shallow dish with water; no odor of nitrobenzene is 
evolved. 

Comparison of Gasoline and Benzol as Motor Fuel. 

Heat of combustion: Benzol Gasoline 

B. T. U. per gallon 132330 129060 

B. T. U. per pound 18054 20750 

Freezing temperature 41°F 50°F below Zero 

Boiling temperature 170-180 130-400°F 

Rate of evaporation ..: Slower Faster 

Mileage per gallon (comparative) 110. 100. 

Ignition temperature Higher Low 

Pre-lgnition from carbon Less trouble More trouble 

Carbon formed More Less 

Relative volume of air required per 

gallon 1.04 1.00 

Relative volume of explosive gases 

produced per gallon .92 1.00 

Temperature of explosion Higher Lower 

Rapidity of explosive force Less sudden More sudden 

Benzol is most satisfactory if used mixed with gasoline or alco- 
hol, preferably the latter. 



266 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Kerosene, Coal Oil, Illuminating Oil, Burning Oil. 

Kerosene in a general way may be defined as that fraction of 
crude petroleum or oil made bv the pyrogenic decomposition of shales 
or coal which distills at a temperature of from 302°F to 572°F, (150- 
300°C) and contams no gasoline or residuum. Its flash point is al- 
ways greater than 100°F and usually greater than 120°F. Its color 
may be standard white, prime white, superfine white or water white. 
Its gravity ranges from 31 to 48° Be'. Typical kerosene has a gravity 
of 41 to 42''Be'. Sulphur is usually almost completely absent from 
kerosene, being less than 0.03%. It consists chiefly of the paraffin 
series, particularly when the gravity is greater than 38. The principal 
constituents are nonane, decane, undecane, duodecane, tridecane, tetra- 
decane, pentadecane, hexadecane and heptadecane. With lower grav- 
ities it contains naphthenes and aromatic compounds. This is par- 
ticularly true of Louisiana oils and California oils. 

The quality of good kerosene has been found to be within the 
following limits: 

1. Specific gravity is between 760-0.860 (54.2-32 8°Be'). 

2. Flash point is over 100°F by closed tester. 

3. Color is water white with no turbidity. 

4. Cold test is below 10°F. 

5. End point is below 600 °F. 

6. Sulphur is below 0.05%. 

7. Acid is absent. 

8. It does not lose more than 1% on treatment with 66° sul- 
phuric acid. 

9. It burns without incrustation or smoking in an ordinary kero- 
sene lamp. 

The grades of burning oils are shown in the following table 
with the relative value of each grade in cents per gallon at refinery. 

North Texas. 

40@42 prime white distillate 2%c 

40@43 prime white kerosene 2i/^c 

42@43 prime white kerosene 3 c 

Oklahoma. 

41@43 3%c 

42(5)43 4 c 

44@46 5 c 

42(5)43 distillate 31/20 

Pennsylvania. 
45 prime white 6 c 

45 water white 6%c 

46 water white 7 c 

47 water white 8 c 

48 water white 9 c 

30 mineral seal 6^/40 

West Virginia. 

45 water white 6 c 

47 water white '^^!!"!!''"'!"!''!!!^^'^^'^8 c 

Kerosene is produced in amounts that greatlv exceed the market 
dornand so that the surplus is used for house ' heating and mixed 
with gas oil for cracking stock. It is specially adapted for high 
pressure (600 lbs.) cracking. ^ ^ f 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 267 



U. S. Specifications for Burning Oil (1921). 

WATER WHITE KEROSENE. 
General: 

1. This specification covers the grade of kerosene used by the 
United States Government and its agencies as an illuminating oil. 
This oil may be used as fuel and for cleaning in case of necessity. 

2. The oil shall be free from water, glue and suspended matter. 
Properties and Tests: 

3. Color: The color shall not be darker than No. 21 Saybolt. 

4. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 115°F 
(closed tester-tag). 

5. Sulphur: The sulphur shall not be more than 0.06%. 

6. Floe: The floe test shall be negative. 

7. Distillation; The end point shall not be higher than 600°F. 

8. Cloud test: The oil shall not show a cloud at 0°F. 

9. Doctor test: The doctor test shall be negative. 

10. Burning test: The oil shall burn freely and steadily for 
18 hours. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
burning oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petro- 
leum Specifications. 

SPECIAL NOTE COVERING KEROSENE FOR U. S. NAVY. 

When specifically provided for, a representative sample of the 
oil delivered will be tested photometrically after burning for one 
hour in a lamp fitted with a No. 1 sun hinge burner. Five hours 
later, another photometric test will be made to determine any change 
in intensity of the light; the maximum allowable loss shall be 5%. 
The flame shall show at least 6 candlepower when compared photo- 
metrically with an incandescent lamp which has been standardized 
by the Bureau of Standards. 

Otherwise specifications enumerated above apply for United 
States Navy Kerosene. 

PRIME WHITE KEROSENE. 
General : 

1. This specification covers the grade of kerosene used by the 
United States Government and its agencies where kerosene is re- 
quired primarily as a fuel and for cleaning purposes. This oil can 
be used as an illuminant in case of necessity. 

2. The oil shall be free from water, glue and suspended matter. 
Properties and Tests: 

3. Color: The color shall not be darker than No. 16 Saybolt. 

4. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than IIST 
(tag closed tester). 

5. Sulphur: The sulphur shall not be more than 0.09%. 

6. Floe: The floe test shall be negative. 

7. Distillation: The end point shall not be higher than 625°F. 

8. Cloud test: The oil shall not show a cloud at 5°F. 

9. Burning test: The oil shall burn freely and steadily for 
8 hours. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testmg 
burning oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petro- 
leum Specifications. 



268 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



LONG TIME BURNING OIL. 

General : 

1. This specification covers the grade of burning oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies where a long time 
burning oil is required. 

2. The oil must be free from v^^ater, glue and suspended matter. 
Properties and Tests: 

3. Color: The color shall not be darker than No. 21 Saybolt. 

4. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 115°F 
(tag closed tester). 

5. Floe: The floe test shall be negative. 

6. Cloud test: The oil shall not show a cloud at 0°F. 

Note: Temperature of 0°F can be varied either up or down to 
suit the climatic conditions in the territory in which the oil is to 
be used. 

7. Burning test: The oil must burn freely and steadily for 
120 hours or until the oil is consumed. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
burning oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petro- 
leum Specifications. 

Oil for use by the Bureau of Lighthouses shall be as described 
by the Department of Commerce, which specifications, etc., at the 
present time are as follows: 

1. The kerosene must have a flash point of not less than 140° F 
and fire point of not less than 160°F (tag closed tester). 

2. The kerosene must contain no free acids or mineral salts. 
Litmus paper immersed in it for five hours must remain unchanged. 

3. One hundred grams of kerosene shaken with 40 grams of 
sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1.73) must show little or no coloration. 

4. When distilled from a still so jacketed as not to allow of 
local heating at a rate of not over 10 % in ten minutes, the kero- 
sene shall not distill below 350°F and 98';-'r shall distill under 515°F, 
the temperature taken being that of the condensing vapor. 

5. When burned for 120 hours in a lens lantern supplied with 
a fifth order oil lamp, the kerosene must burn steadily and clearly 
without smoking, with minimum incrustation of wick, slight discol- 
oration of chimney and less than 10% loss of candlepower. A lamp 
of this description will be loaned to successful bidder. 



300 DEGREE MINERAL SEAL OIL. 
General : 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies for lamps in passenger coaches 
and for illuminating railroad equipment, and where a high flash 
illummant is required. 



ter. 



2. The oil must be free from water, glue and suspended mat- 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 269 



Properties and Tests: 

3. Color: The color must not be darker than No. 16 Saybolt. 

4. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 250°F 
(Cleveland open cup). 

5. Fire point: The fire point shall not be lower than 300° F 
(Cleveland open cup). 

6. Floe test: The floe test shall be negative. 

7. Cloud test: The oil shall not show a cloud at 32°F. 

8. Reaction: The oil shall be neutral. 

9. Burning test: The lamp shall give a symmetrical flame, 
free from smoke, when burned continuously without readjustment 
until all of the oil is consumed. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
burning oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petro- 
leum Specifications. 



SIGNAL OIL. 

General : 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies for railroad signal lamps. 

2. The oil shall be free from water, glue and suspended matter. 

3. The oil shall be compounded from 300 degree mineral seal 
oil, as adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications with pure prime winter strained lard oil or sperm 
oil, or with a mixture of pure prime winter strained lard oil and 
sperm oil. 

Grade A shall not contain less than 30% of fatty oil by volume. 
Grade B shall not contain less than 22% of fatty oil by volume. 
Grade A shall always be furnished unless Grade B is specifically 
ordered. 

Properties and Tests: 

4. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 250 °F 
(Cleveland open cup). 

5. Fire point: The fire point shall not be lower than 300° 
F (Cleveland open cup). 

6. Cloud test: The oil shall not show a cloud at 32°F. 

7. Free fatty acids: Grade A shall not contain over 60% of 
free fatty acid calculated as oleic acid. Grade B shall not contain over 
0.45% free fatty acid calculated as oleic acid. 

8. Burning test: The oil shall burn 24 hours without trimming 
or adjusting the wick. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
burning oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petro- 
leum Specifications. 



270 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



GAS OIL. 

Gas oil is that fraction of petroleum distillation coming off after 
the kerosene or other illuminating oil. It is usually a destructive 
distillation resulting in a distilled product carrying a considerable 
amount of olefins and a residue having a lovi^er viscosity than would 
be the case without a partially destructive distillation. When it is 
desired to avoid a destructive distillation, steam may be used, giving 
an oil suitable for absorption purposes sometimes known as straw oil. 

Gas oil is used for making gas and for carbireting coal gas or 
water gas. It is also used to make Blaugas, which is a product liqui- 
fied under a pressure of about 1,500 pounds. It is also used for 
Pintsch gas. A typical gas oil has the following properties: 

Specific gravity 0.843 = 36.1°Be' 

Flash point 90°C 

Burning test \\%''C 

Distillation test: 

0°C-150°C - 0% 

150°C-300°C - : 44.07c 

300°C up : 55.3% 

Coke - 0.7% 



GAS OIL FOR DIESEL ENGINES (U. S. NAVY). 

1. Flash point not lower than 150 °F (Abel or Pennsky-Mar- 
ten's closed cup). 

2. Water and sediment — trace only. 

3. Asphaltum — none. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 271 



STRAW OIL (U. S. BUREAU OF STANDARDS). 

The characteristics of a straw oil for absorption of light oils from 
gas as recommended by some operators and which are concurred in 
by the committee of coal-tar products are substantially as follows: 

1. Specific gravity not less than 0.860 (34°Be') at 15.5°C (60°F). 

2. Flash point in open cup tester not less than 135°C (275°F). 

3. Viscosity in Saybolt viscosimeter at 37.7° C (100°F) not more 
than 70 seconds. 

4. The pour test shall not be over 1.1°C (30°F). 

5. When 500 cc of the oil are distilled with steam at atmospheric 
pressure collecting 500 cc of condensed water, not over 5 cc of oil 
shall have distilled over. 

6. The oil remaining after the steam distillatioa shall be poured 
into a 500 cc cylinder and shall show no permanent emulsion. 

7. The oil shall not lose more than 10% by volume in washing 
with 2V2 times its volume of 10091^ sulphuric acid when vigorously 
agitated with acid for five minutes and allowed to stand for two 
hours. 

An additional set of specifications for wash oil which is used by 
one Government department is as follows: 

Specific gravity shall not be greater than thirty-five and nine- 
tenths degrees (35.9°) Baume' at 60 °F, equivalent to specific gravity 
0.844. 

Viscosity shall not be more than 56 seconds in a Saybolt viscosi- 
meter at 100° Fahrenheit. 

The oil shall not thicken or cloud at 25°F in the cold test. 

At least 95 ^r of the oil shall separate as a clear layer within 10 
minutes after 100 cubic centimeters of oil and 100 cubic centimeters 
of water have been shaken together vigorously for 20 seconds at a 
temperature of 70 °F. 

There shall not be more than 14';'^: of loss in volume of oil when 
1 volume of oil and 2^/2 volumes of 1009f sulphuric acid are vigor- 
ously agitated for 5 minutes and allowed to settle for 2 hours. 

The oil shall not begin to distill below 240°C. 



272 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Quality of Absorption Oil for Extracting Gasoline from Natural Gas 
(Westcott "Casinghead Gasoline"). 

Gravity 35.6° 

Initial boiling point 536 °F 

End point 698 °F 

Fire test 312.8°F 

Saybolt viscosity@100°F 40.5 

Distillation. 

Initial 273 °C 

5% 295 °C 

10% 300 °C 

20% 305 °C 

30% 308.6°C 

40% 311 °C 

50% 316 °C 

60% 322 °C 

70% 329 °C 

80% 336.5°C 

90% 360 °C 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 273 



LUBRICATING OILS. 

The principal source of lubricating oil is petroleum from which 
the lighter components, naphtha, kerosene, solar oil and gas oil have 
been removed by distillation, the residue thus obtained being used 
directly as a lubricant or separated by distillation into various frac- 
tions. By removing some of the fractions, as well as by mixing 
others, a variety of products may be obtained with special properties 
(viscosity, flash point, cold test and specific gravity). 

This is the principle on which the industry is based. The sep- 
arate fractions are further refined to remove odor, resinous materials, 
etc., as well as to attain the desired lightness of color. This is ac- 
complished by means of sulphuric acid, agitating with a stream of 
air, the acid being later removed by washing with alkali or water; 
the purification may also be brought about by filtration through ful- 
ler's earth (see chapter on refining). 

The oil may be distilled with superheated steam or with partial 
vacuum, excessive direct firing being avoided to prevent decomposi- 
tion. The temperature of the superheated steam is kept somewhat 
higher than that of the still. Commercially, the distillates are cooled 
and separated according to specific gravity, flash point and viscosity. 

Direct firing is much used in separating the crude oil fractions, 
thus increasing the yield of illuminating oils and producing a raw 
wax distillate. The refining, however, is cai'ried on with superheated 
steam. 

ECONOMY OF LUBRICATION. 

The economical transmission of power is largely dependent upon 
the maximum reduction of friction. 

The purpose of lubrication is to overcome friction in so far 
as possible and to prevent wear and deterioration of adjacent mov- 
ing parts. 

It is claimed that from 40 9r to 80 '/r of all power produced by 
machinery is lost in friction, and a very considerable part of this is 
lost in avoidable friction due to improper lubrication. 

THEORY OF LUBRICATION. 

A lubricant should prevent direct contact between the bear- 
ings and the moving parts of machinery, thus substituting for 
metallic friction and wear the much smaller internal friction of the 
lubricant. The more completely this result is attained under the 
conditions of temperature, speed and pressure, the more valuable 
the lubricant from a mechanical point of view. Whether the mechan- 
ically most efficient lubricant is the most economical depends some- 
what on the ratio of efficiency, the amount used and the price of 
the material. Greases have a low mechanical efficiency compared 
with liquid oils, but from the point of economy and cleanliness they 
are far superior. 

Only liquids with great tendency to adhere are suited for lubri- 
cation, since only these have the property to penetrate by capillarity 
where journal and bearings are the closest and where the danger of 
contact and wear is the greatest. The lubricating oils prevent direct 



274 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



contact of the metal surfaces because of their adhesion to these sur- 
faces and because their viscosity keeps them from being squeezed 
out by the pressure on the bearing. 

Experience has shown that the power to adhere to metals in- 
creases with the viscosity of the oil. Since the danger that an oil 
will be pressed out increases with the pressure on the bearings, it 
is advisable for high pressures to use oils of considerable viscosity. 

With low pressure and high speed there should be used a very 
mobile oil, with higher pressure and low velocity more viscous oils. 
If, for example, a spindle rotating with practically no pressure but 
very rapidly were lubricated with a very viscous oil, it would mean 
a lavish waste of power. But to lubricate a ti'ansmission gear with 
a mobile oil would be a waste of lubricant, while the use of a heavy 
grease would be entirely suitable. In fact, the use of a solid lubri- 
cant, graphite, with heavy oils as a vehicle, has proven most de- 
sirable in the case of very heavy bearings and transmission gears 
with enormous pressures. 

The oil should not lose its power of reducing friction by evapora- 
tion, gumming or by acting chemically on the metal of the bearings 
or journal. 

The oil or gi'ease should not solidify or greatly change its vis- 
cosity under conditions of use. 

The qualities of various types of lubricating oils are as follows: 

Light Heavj' Auto- Steam Large 

Viscosity at — Spindle M'ch'n'y M'ch'n'y mobile Engine Cylinder Cylinder 

70° F 75-500 375-750 1750-875 470-1100 300-400 2800-400 

100° F 180-220 160-400 130-150 ... 

122° F 75-90 ., 110-280 1100 300-560 

210° F 40-50 45- 60 40- 55 44-47 120-150 

Flash point, °F Min. 140 160 390 350 430 525 450 

Cold test, °F 10 5 10- 40 10 25 45 40 

Gravity, Be' 19 32 23-30 24-30 

Flash and burning points of lubricants are the respective tem- 
peratures at which the vapors arise in sufficient amount to ignite 
and to burn continuously. They should be high enough to prevent 
any danger of fire in using the oil and to be assured that a light 
oil has not been added to a heavy oil to regulate viscosity. With the 
same viscosity asphaltic base oils (Texas, California and Mexico) 
has a lower flash point and a higher specific gravity than paraffin 
base oils (Pennsylvania and West Virginia). 

Specific gravity is the relation of the weight of a given volume 
of 01 to the weight of the same volume of water. The oil trade 
vsually u.ses the Baume' scale of gravity, which is entirely arbitrary. 
ihe paraffm oils with the same viscosity are lighter (have a 
higher gravity-Baume') than the asphaltic or semi-asphaltic oil. Grav- 
ity IS not a measure of the quality of a lubricating oil. 

_ Viscosity is a most important propertv for lubrication. The 
viscosity IS expressed in the terms of the Savbolt Universal Viscosi- 
Vni'iLT o^ '■i^""*''Y; ^he Engler in Germany and the Redwood in 
i^ngland. Paraffin oils are said to lose their viscosity most readily 
r!^mnf •" ^? ^7.Pl«sion cylinder by reason of the greater ease in de- 
ho ,« ; • ^' 5t-''[ P^'Ofl^cts than do asphaltic oils. They tend to 

vL,fn» ?"1 ^^^^y temperatures as asphalt base oils though less 

viscous at atmospheric temperature. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



275 



9^ SO 70 60 50 ^o JO eo /O 




-^ " ' 10 ZO 30 ^O SO 60 70 80 90 
Fig. 5 4 — Viscosity Blending- Chart for Lubricating- Oils. 



276 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The residual carbon is a most harmful property in lubricants 
for explosion motors, such as automobiles. High residual carbon is 
found in poorly refined and blended oils. It is usually found in oils 
that are not entirely made from overhead or distilled stock but part- 
ly from cylinder or residual stocks or fatty oils. 

Cold test determines the lowest temperature at which the oil 
will flow. A low cold test is desirable for ease in circulating and 
handling in cold weather. A low cold test for motor oils indicates the 
absence of heavy ends that produce excessive carbon in the cylinder. 

Color is not an index of the value of a lubricating oil. The light- 
er the color, other things being equal, the purer the oil. 

Free acid should be, and usually is, absent. It is an indication 
of mineral acid that has not been neutralized and washed out in re- 
fining or of the presence of naphthenic acids, or of the use of ani- 
mal or vegetable oils. 

A lubricating oil for use in internal combustion engines should 
have a good viscosity at all temperatures under which the engine 
will operate. This means that the oil should remain fluid in the 
coldest weather and should have some decrree of viscosity up to 
250°F. The piston walls of the engine attain temperatures as high 
as 400 °F. At this high temperature, however, practically all oils 
have the same viscosity. However, it is quite important that the 
oils also have a good viscosity at the lower temperatures. An engine 
motor oil should be a completely distilled oil and should contain no 
residual or fatty matter. On evaporation in air at 500 °F it should 
yield a minimum amount of pitch and by the Conradson carbon test 
rhDuld have the minimum amount of carbon. The flash point is main- 
ly of importance in that it md'cstes that the oil contains no light 
oils. So far as operating conditions are concerned, it is of little 
importance for the reason that a motor oil in a short time after 
being used, has a very low flash point. After the oil has served its 
purpose and gotten by the piston rings, then it should readily evap- 
-ate and leave a minimum amount of carbonaceous matter. A motor 
cil containing vegetable or animal oil produces acid on being sub- 
jected to heat and pressure. 



/so' TO 350'/= 



HEfJT Of eycPL. OS/O/V 2000 " TO 3000 '^ 



P/STOfy/ MefiPS 

300° ro /ooo */f 



P/5TON IV/QLLS 

zoo'ro ^-oo'f. 



cet^fvk- g£fii?/NG o/ 

I'iO'TO iSO °P. 




surtf o?L 

90* 70 zoo '/=■ 



Fii 



•porating: Temperatures of Various Tarts of a Gasoline 
Engine. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 277 



Summary of Tests of Motor Lubricants of Standard 

Quality as Purchased on the Kansas City Market 

in January 1922*. 

1. Key Number 123456789 

3. Retail price $1.20 SI. 20 SI. 20 SI. 20 SI. 00 SI. 00 $1.20 SI. 20 $1.00 

4. Specific gravity 9325 .908 .912 .917 .896 .874 .920 .938 .S>03 

5. Baume' Gra\'ity 20.2° 24.3° 23.6° 22.8° 26.4° 30.4° 22.3° 19.3° 25.1° 

6. Color— N.P.A g E M M N 4^ OPS^PSeji E+ N 4}i 

7. Color— lodimetric... 351 1480 52 51 70 247 219 2048 88 

8. Flow test 15° F 47° F +5° F +3° F +4° F 35° F 28° F 27° F +10° F 

9. Flashpoint— open... 355° F 430° F 360° F 365= F 250° F 300° F 365° F 325° F 350° F 

10. Fire test 430° F 496° F 415° F 420° F 375° F 465° F 425° F 410° F 405° F 

11. Viscosity— Say bolt — 

Stand'd Univ. 70° F 2400 4410 710 810 336 720 1035 4775 505 

100° F 650 1300 250 285 155 300 327 992 198 

150° F 150 305 85 91 65 105 99 203 75 

210° F 61 97 49 52 44 56 52 71 46 

12. Carbon (ASTM) 0.48% 1.43% 0.08% 0.08% 0.09% 0.39% 0.18% 1.05% .085% 

13. Gumming and Coking 

(Pitcn) 18.4% 45.6% 10.8% 11.6% 14.0% 29.2% 12.8% 30.0% 12.8% 

14. Heat-pressure tests — 

Pressure— maximum. 2 1.5a 28.9 23.5 32.3 24.5 22.5 28.9 36.0 29 2 

Gravity increase Be' . 4 . 6 6.3 4.3 6.4 4.1 6.9 5.3 5.1 4.5 

Gasoline produced % 19.0 23.0 20.0 24.0 21.0 24.0 23.0 18.0 21.0 

Gasoline gravity Be 56 7 60.0 57.2 58.5 56.8 60 5 58.2 57.2 59.1 

Kerosene produced % 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 20.0 17.0 16.0 16.0 17.0 

Kerosene gravity Be' 29.8 38.0 33.6 34.0 36.2 40.6 33.8 32.9 35,4 

Residue% 65.0 61.0 64.0 60.0 59.0 59.0 61.0 66.0 62 

Gravity residue Be' 17.0 19.2 22.0 17.1 20.9 27.0 16.7 16.1 19.5 

Pitch in residue % 26.5 45.9 11.6 20.0 14.9 26.4 32.1 29.7 19.4 

AcidityN/10% 8.0 3.5 7.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.0 9.0 4.0 

*The tests include Mobiloil, Monogram, Polarine, Texaco, Enarco, 
Vedol, Havoline and Sinclair brands. 



278 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Summary of Tests of Motor Lubricants of Standard 

Quality as Purchased on the Kansas City Market 

in January, 1 922 — Continued. 

1 10 11 12 13 14 1') 10 17 18 19 20 

3 SI. 00 SI. 00 $100 .«0 'JO SO. 90 81.00 SI 00 SI 00 SI 20 Si 05 $1.50 

4 915 915 .927 .897 .913 .8685 869 .922 .927 .902 .963 

5 23.1° 23.1° 21.1° a*) 2° 23.5° 31 4° 31.4° 22.0° 21 1° 25.4° 15.4° 

6 0-5 D IJ2I4' I.J2I4 E M-4 M-4 N 43-^ OPS^i P-6 G 

7 152 749 15 13 1100 44 154 79 190 155 2 

8 29° F 41° F — 21° F +24° F 43° F +23° F 34° F +5° F 5° F 40° F — 14° F 

■9 370° F 390° F 360° F 380° F 410° F 380° F 390° F 330° F 355° F 395° F 530° F 

10 420° F 475° F 420° F 435° F 470° F 460° F 475° F 395° F 420° F 460° F 590° F 

11 

856 ISOO 1835 556 2776 441 732 884 2345 655 5350 

315 570 510 214 660 187 297 295 666 248 1365 

105 157 127 79 173 76 106 91 159 86 320 

52 65 62 47 68 47 56 50 63 48 104 

'2 014% 0.72% 0.04% 0.06% 0.98% .044% 25% 0.12% 26% 0.08% 0.195% 

'•■' '2.0% 25.6%. 10.4% 7.6% 30.4% 11.2% 20.0% 10.4% 21.2% 11.6% 67.0% 

11 

24.5 30 6 215 22.0 27.2 25.0 32.3 23.0 28.9 28 9 80.0 

*^ '^0 48 5.6 5.9 5.9 51 5.8 48 11.4 

18.0 220 20.0 20.0 21.0 25 26 19 20 21.0 25.0 

57 58 9 57 9 607 59.8 61.1 61.9 59 1 59.4 60.1 56.7 

'•^ " '"" "■'" 150 16.0 18.0 180 18 17 16.0 20.0 

M.6 36.1 41.5 37 2 38.8 40 4 40.2 33.0 33.8 37.8 31.5 

«»0 «10 64 65 63.0 57.0 56.0 63.0 63.0 63.0 55.0 

'"" ■'- •'" 22.0 19.3 27.3 25.5 18.1 16.8 19.7 16.7 

200 32.1 11.9 10.0 20.4 10.0 17 6 12 17 6 17.6 42.4 

'"*" '•'* '" '^0 4.0 2.5 2.5 4.5 4 5 766.0 

Sample No. 20 is castor oil. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



279 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 281 



NATURAL HYDROCARBONS— VACUUM DISTILLED. 

Table showing the properties of vacuum distilled hydrocarbons 
and atmospheric pressure forced fire distilled hydrocarbons of a heavy 
residuum from Mid-Continent oil. 



Fraction 


Gravitji 


Viscosity 


Sulphur 


107c 


0.868 
31.3°Be 




46 


0.39 7o 


10 20% 


0.877 
29.6°Be 




60 


0.35 7o 


20—30% 


0.895 
26.4°Be 




143 


0.43 7o 


30—40% 


0.909 
24.0°Be 




293 


0.537c 


40 50% 


0.920 
22.1°Be 




740 


0.767c 


50—60% 


0.920 
22.1°Be 




745 


0.687o 


60 70% 


0.920 
22.1°Be 




1058 


0.707c 


70 80% 


0.920 
22.rBe 




2600 


0.567c 


HYDROCARBONS 


FROM FORCED FIRE DISTILLATION OF 




SAME OIL. 






Fraction 




Gravity 




Viscosity 


107c 




0.864 
32.1°Be' 




51 


10— 207o 




0.877 
29.6°Be' 




69 


20 30 7o 




0.888 
27.6°Be' 




109 


30— 407o 




0893 
26.7°Be' 




141 


40 50 7o 




0.894 
26.6°Be' 




141 


50—60 7<^ 




0.887 
27.0°Be' 




106 


60 70 7o 




0.878 
29.4°Be' 




75 


70— 807o 




0.877 
29.6°Be' 




69 


EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY OF NATURAL MID- 




CONTINENT HEAVY OILS. 








Av'ge Mid-Conti- 


Heavy Kansas 






nent Fuel Oil 


Crude 






26.8"Be' 


19.6°Be' 


60°F 


:=z 


294. 




......... 


70°F 


^^ 


190. 




3360. 


100°F 


^^ 


94. 




1250. 


120°F 


^: 


70. 




680. 


120°F 


;;^ 


55. 




328. 


212°F 


— 


41. 




105. 



(Viscosity is expressed in terms of the Saybolt Universal) 



282 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



EFFECT OF CRACKING ON THE LUBRICATING QUALITIES OF 

OIL. 

In the cracking of petroleum by heat the paraffin hydrocarbons 
are most readily decomposed into lighter hydrocarbons. The lubri- 
cating hydrocarbonb remaining in cracked oil are therefore not par- 
affin but consist chiefly of naphthenes and aromatics. In other words, 
cracking reduces the viscosity of heavy hydrocarbon oils based on the 
same gravity. This fact is set forth in the patent to Burton (U. S. 
No. 1,167,884, Jan. 11, 1916) as follows: 

Lubricating fractions made from Mid-Continent Crude Petroleum: 



Baume' Gravity 




Viscosity at 100° 
(Saybolt Viscosimeter) 


25.0 




235 


26.0 




190 


26.0 




165 


26.5 




145 


27.5 




100 


Lubricating fractions made from California Crude Petroleum: 


Baume' Gravity 




Viscosity at 100° 


18.8 




449 


20.4 




235 


20.6 




339 


21.6 




146 


21.8 




167 


22.5 




139 


Lubricating fractions made 


from 


Cracked Petroleum Residua: 


Baume' Gravity Viscosity 




Gravity Viscosity 


28.9 36 




15.2 88 


26.5 38 




15.0 89 


23.8 42 




14.7 97 


21.5 45 




14.1 105 


21.1 51 




13.2 110 


20.2 52 




13.0 116 


18.7 58 




12.0 158 


17.8 62 




10.8 198 


17.2 65 






16.7 66 






15.8 76 







KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 283 

U. S. Specifications for Lubricating Oils. 

CLASS "A". 
General : 

1. This specification covers the grades of petroleum oil used 
by the United States Government and its agencies for the general lub- 
rication of engines and machinery where a highly refined oil is not 
required. This oil is not to be used for steam cylinder lubrication. 

2. Only refined petroleum oils without the admixture of fatty 
oils, resins, soap or other compounds not derived from crude petro- 
leum will be considered. 

3. These oils shall be supplied in five grades, known as extra 
light, light, medium, heavy and extra heavy. 

Properties and Tests: 

4. Flash and Fire Points: The flash and fire points of the five 
grades shall not be lower than the following: 

Flash Deg. F Fire Deg. F 

Extra light _. 315 355 

Light 325 365 

Medium 335 380 

Heavy , 345 390 

Extra heavy 355 400 

5. Viscosity: The viscosity of the five grades of oil at 100°F 
shall be within the following limits: 

Extra light 140-160 seconds 

Light 175-210 seconds 

Medium 275-310 seconds 

Heavy 370-410 seconds 

Extra heavy 470-520 seconds 

6. Color: The color of the extra heavy grade shall not be 
darker than No. 6 National Petroleum Association Standard, or its 
equivalent. The color of the oth6r grades shall not be darker than 
No. 5 National Petroleum Association Standard, or its equivalent. 

7. Pour Test: The pour test shall not be above the following 
temperatures: 

Extra light :....35°F 

Light : 35°F 

Medium 40°F 

Heavy 45 °F 

Extra heavy 50 °F 

8. Acidity: Not more than 0.10 milligram of potassium hy- 
droxide shall be required to neutralize 1 gram of the oil. 

9. Corrosion: A clean copper plate shall not be discolored when 
submerged in the oil for 24 hours at room temperature. 

10. All tests shall be made according to the methods for test- 
ing lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Pe- 
troleum Specifications. 



284 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



U. S. Specifications for Lubricating Oils. 

CLASS "B" 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for the lubrication 
of turbines, dynamos, high speed engines and other classes of ma- 
chinery where an oil better than Class A is required. The oil shall 
be satisfactory for use in circulating and forced feed systems. 

2. Only refined petroleum oils without the admixture of fatty 
oils, resins, soaps or other compounds not derived from crude petro- 
leums will be considered. 

3. These oils shall be supplied in five grades known as extra 
light, light, medium, heavy and extra heavy. 

4. Flash and Fire Points: The flash and fire points of the five 
grades shall not be lower than the following: 

Flash Deg.F Fire Deg.F 

Extra light 315 355 

Light 325 365 

Medium 335 380 

Heavy 345 390 

Extra heavy 355 400 

5. Viscosity: The viscosity of the five grades at 100 °F shall 
be within the following limits: 

Extra light 140-160 seconds 

Light 175-210 seconds 

Medium 275-310 seconds 

Heavy 370-410 seconds 

Extra heavy 470-520 seconds 

6. Color: The color of the extra heavy grade shall not be 
darker than No. 6 National Petroleum Association Standard or its 
equivalent. The color of the other grades shall not be darker than 
No. 5 National Petroleum Association Standard or its equivalent. 

7. Pour Test: The pour test shall not be above the following 
temperatures: 

Extra light 35°F 

Light , 35°F 

Medium 40°F 

Heavy 45°F 

Extra heavy 50 °F 

8. Acidity: Not more than 0.07 milligram of potassium hy- 
droxide shall be required to neutralize 1 gram of oil. 

9. Corrosion: A clean copper plate shall not be discolored when 
submerged in the oil for 24 hours at room temperature. 

^ 10. Emulsifying properties: The oil shall separate (see note) 
m 30 minutes from an emulsion with 1 — Distilled water, 2 — 1% salt 
solution, 3 — Normal caustic soda solution. 

Note:— This means that there shall be only a slight cuff between 
the water and the oil. 

The demulsibility shall not be less than 300. 

11. All tests shall be made according to the methods for test- 
ing lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Pe- 
troleum Specifications. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 285 

Specifications for Lubricating Oils. 

CLASS "C" 
GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grades of petroleum oil used 
by the United States Government and its agencies for lubrication of 
air compressors and international combustion engines, except aircraft, 
motorcycle and Diesel engines; also for the lubrication of turbines 
and other machinery where an oil better than Class B is required. 
This oil shall be satisfactory for use in circulation and forced feed 
systems. 

2. Only refined petroleum oils without the admixture of fatty 
oils, resins, soaps or other compounds not derived from crude pe- 
troleum will be considered. 

3. These oils shall be supplied in five grades, known as extra 
light, light, medium, heavy and extra heavy. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

4. Flash and fire points: The flash and fire points of the five 
grades shall not be lower than the following: 

Flash Deg.F. Fire Deg.F 

Extra light 315 355 

Light 325 365 

Medium -—335 380 

Heavy 345 390 

Extra heavy 355 400 

Oil for use in oil compressors where the air leaving any stage or 
cylinder has a temperature above 212 °F shall have a flash point not 
lower than 400°F. 

5. Viscosity: The viscosity of the five grades at 100 °F shall be 
within the following limits: 

Extra light 140-160 seconds 

Light 175-210 seconds 

Medium 275-310 seconds 

Heavy 370-410 seconds 

Extra heavy 470-520 seconds 

6. Color: The color of the extra heavy grade shall not be 
darker than No. 6 National Petroleum Association Standard or its 
equivalent. The color of the other grades shall not be darker than 
No. 5 National Petroleum Association Standard or its equivalent. 

7. Pour test: The pour test shall not be above the following 
temperatures: 

Extra light 35^ 

Light ... 35 F 

Medium 40 F 

Heavy 45 F 

Extra heavy 50 F 

8. Acidity: Not more than 0.05 milligrams of potassium hy- 
droxide shall be required to neutralize one gram of the oil. 



286 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



CLASS C— LUBRICATING OILS— Continued. 

9. Corrosion: A clean copper plate shall not be discolored when 
submerged in the oil for 24 hours at room temperature. 

10. Emulsifying Properties: The oil shall separate (see note) 
in 30 minutes from an emulsion with: 

I Distilled water. 2 — I've salt solution. 3 — Normal caustic solution. 

Note: — This means that there shall be only a slight cuff between 
the water and the oil. 

The demulsibility shall not be less than 300. 

11. Carbon Residue: The carbon residue shall not exceed the 
following : 

Extra light 0.10% 

Light 0.20% 

Medium 0.30% 

Heavy 0.40% 

Extra heavy 0.60% 

12. Further tests on oils of Class C may be required at th© 
option of the Department of the Government using the oils. 

13. All tests shall be made according to the methods for test- 
ing lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Pe- 
troleum Specifications. 

AIRCRAFT MACHINE GUN OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for the lubrication of 
machine guns on aircraft, for the c.c. interrupter gears and for gun 
oil for cleaning and oiling machine guns and small arms. 

2. The oil shall be a highly refined, filtered, straight-run pe- 
troleum oil, suitable in every way for the uses specified in Paragraph 
1. It shall be a pure petroleum product, without the addition of veg- 
etable or animal oils or fats of any kind. It shall not contain any 
material which might gum or corrode metals under any conditions. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. Flash point: The flash point shall not be less than 200°F. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity at lOO^F shall be within the follow- 
ing limits: 80 to 115 seconds. 

5. Pour test: The pour test shall be 45 degrees or more below 
zero Fahr. 

6. Acidity: Not more than 0.03 milligrams of potassium hy- 
droxide shall be required to neutralize 1 gram of oil. 

7. Carbon residue: The carbon residue shall not be more than 
0.03%. 

.8- All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
55pecifications. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 287 



BUFFER OIL FOR RECOIL AND RECUPERATOR CYLINDERS 

OF ALL BRITISH TYPES OF HOWITZERS 

AND GUN CARRIAGES. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for filling the recoil 
and recuperator cylinders of all British type howitzers and gun car- 
riages. 

2. The oil shall be a pure refined petroleum oil. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. The flash point shall not be lower than 265 °F. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity at 100°F shall be within the follow- 
ing limits: 65 to 75 seconds. 

5. Pour Test: The pour test shall not be above 0°F. 

6. Acidity: Not more than 0.05 milligrams of potassium hy- 
droxide shall be required to neutralize 1 gram of the oil. 

7. All tests shall be made according to the methods for test- 
ing lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization for Pe- 
troleum Specifications. 

CUP GREASE. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grades of cup grease used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for the lubrication 
of such parts of motor equipment and other machinery as are lubri- 
cated by means of compression cups; S Vz and $1 to be used in spindle 
cups or transmissions. 

2. The grease shall be a well manufactured product, composed 
of a calcium soap made from high grade animal or vegetable oils or 
fatty acids, and a highly refined mineral oil. 

3. The mineral oil used in reducing the soaps shall be a straight 
well refined mineral oil with a viscosity at 100 °F of not less than 
100 seconds. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

4. Soap Content: 

(a) t V2 cup grease shall contain approximately 13% calcium soap 

(b) f 1 cup grease shall contain approximately 14'/r calcium soap 

(c) $ 3 cup grease shall contain approximately 18% calcium soap 

(d) tt 5 cup grease shall contain approximately 24% calcium soap 

5. Consistency: These greases shall be similar in consistency 
to the approved trade standards for # V2, tf 1, S 3 and JJ 5 grease. 

6. Moisture: The grease shall be a boiled grease, containing 
not less than one or more than three per cent of water when finished. 

7. Corrosion: A clean copper plate shall not be discolored when 
submerged in the grease for 24 hours at room temperature. 

8. Ash: 

# V2 grease. The ash shall not be greater than 1.7% 
Jf 1 grease. The ash shall not be greater than 1.8% 
tf 3 grease. The ash shall not be greater than 2.3% 
t 5 grease. The ash shall not be greater than 3.5% 



288 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



9. Fillers: The grease shall contain no fillers such as resins, 
resinous oils, soap-stone, wax, talc, powdered mica or graphite, sul- 
phur, clay, asbestos or any other filler. 

10. All tests shall be made according to the methods for test- 
ing lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Pe- 
troleum Specifications. 

TRANSMISSION LUBRICANT. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for the lubrication 
of transmission gears and bearings, differential gears, worm drives, 
winch drives and roller and ball bearings used in connection with 
such parts of the equipment of motor vehicles. 

2. The lubricant shall be a refined petroleum product, without 
the addition of any vegetable or animal oils or products derived from 
them and be entirely free from fillers. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 460°F. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity at 210°F shall be within the fol- 
lowing limits: 175 to 220 seconds. 

5. All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

MARINE ENGINE OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies for the lubrication of recipro- 
cating steam engines in marine service where a compound engine 
oil is required. 

This oil must not be used in circulating or forced feed systems. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

2. The oil shall be a compounded oil made from refined pe- 
troleum oil and 10% to 20% of blown refined rapeseed or blown re- 
fined peanut oil; so compounded that it will not separate or break 
down in any way either before or while in service. 

3. Viscosity: The viscosity shall be: 

65 to 75 seconds at 210°F. 
Not over 700 seconds at 100 °F. 

4. Pour Test: The pour test shall not be above 32°F. 

5. Acidity: The oil shall not contain more than 1.50% of acid 
calculated as oleic acid (equivalent to 3.0 mg K.O.H. per gram of 
oil). 

6. Corrosion: A clean copper plate shall not be discolored when 
submerged in oil for 24 hours at room temperature. 

7. Emulsifying Properties: The oil shall remain completely 
emulsified for an hour from an emulsion with: 

1. Distilled water. 2. 1% salt solution. 

8. Wick Feed: The oil shall show a flow at the end of 14 days 
of at least 30% of its flow at the end of the first 24 hour period. 

9. All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 289 



MINERAL STEAM CYLINDER OIL FOR NON-CONDENSING 

ENGINES. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers tlie grade of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for non-condensing 
steam engine cylinder lubrication where a mineral oil is required; 
also as a stock oil for compounding. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

2. The oil shall be a well refined petroleum oil without com- 
pounding of any nature. 

3. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 475°F. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity at 210 °F shall be within the fol- 
lowing limits: 135 to 165 seconds. 

5. Cold test: The cold test shall not be above 45°F. 

6. Precipitation test: When 5 cc of the oil is mixed with 95 
cc of petroleum ether and allowed to stand 24 hours, it shall not show 
a precipitate or sediment of more than 0,25 cc (5% by volume of the 
original oil). 

7. All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 



COMPOUNDED STEAM CYLINDER OIL FOR NON-CON- 
DENSING ENGINES. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for the lubrication 
of steam cylinders of non-condensing engines and pumps where a 
compounded oil is required. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

2. The oil shall be a well refined petroleum oil, compounded 
with not less than 5 nor more than 7% of acidless tallow oil or lard 
oil. 

3. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 475°F. 
Viscosity: The viscosity at 210°F shall be within the following 

limits: 120 to 150 seconds. 

5. Cold test: The cold test shall not be above 45 °F. 

6. Precipitation test: When 5 cc of the oil is mixed with 95 cc 
of petroleum ether and allowed to stand 24 hours, it shall not show 
a precipitate or sediment of more than 0.25 cc (5% by volume of the 
original oil.) 

7. Acidity: The oil shall not contain more than 0.40'/^ of acid 
calculated as oleic acid (equivalent to 0.80 mg. KOH per gm. of oil). 

8. All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 



290 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



FLOOR OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies for polishing and preserving 
wooden floors. 

2. The oil shall be a well refined straight petroleum oil. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 300°F. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity at 100 °F shall be within the fol- 
lowing limits: 60 to 100 seconds. 

5. Color: The oil shall be pale or red in color. Black oil will 
not be accepted. 

6. Pour test: The pour test shall not be above 35°F. 

7. All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

GEAR CHAIN AND WIRE ROPE LUBRICANT. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil used' by 
the United States Government and its agencies for the lubrication 
and protection of chains, wire ropes and gears of cranes, dredges, 
steam shovels and all other heavy equipment, for the lubrication and 
protection of the gears and ropes of balloon hoists; and for swabbing 
the wires and cables of aircraft. 

2. The oil shall be a petroleum product only, free from veg- 
etable or animal oils or products derived from them. It shall be 
entirely free from fillers, such as talc, resin, and all materials of 
every nature not related to the original product. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. Viscosity: The viscosity at 210°F shall be within the fol- 
lowing limits: 900 to 1,100 seconds. 

4. Protection: When applied to a plate of polished steel the 
lubricant shall protect the steel for a period of thirty days when im- 
mersed in a 10% salt solution. 

5. All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

GUN AND ICE MACHINE OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1- .This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for cleaning and oil- 
mg guns and small arms where Aircraft Machine Gun Oil is not re- 
quired; also for lubrication of the cylinders of Ice Machines; for 
lubrication of pneumatic tools and for hydraulic systems. 

2 The oil shall be a straight-run, highly refined petroleum oil, 
iree trom vegetable or animal oils or products derived from them; 
sha be suitable in every way for the uses listed in Paragraph 1; and 
snail not gum or corrode metals under any conditions. 

I $12^ "'^^ ^^^^^ ^^ supplied in two grades known as # 100 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 291 



PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

4. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 290 °F. 

5. Viscosity: The viscosity at 100°F shall be within the fol- 
lowing limits: 

# 100 oil 95 to 110 seconds 
t 125 oil 120 to 135 seconds 

6. Pour test: The pour test shall not be above 5°F. 

7. Acidity: Not more than 0.03 milligram of potassium hy- 
droxide shall be required to neutralize 1 gram of the oil. 

8. Emulsifying properties: The oil shall separate completely 
in 30 minutes from an emulsion with: 

1. Distilled water. 

2. 19c salt solution. 

9. Normal caustic soda solution. 
The demulsibility shall not be less than 300. 

9. All tests shall be made according to the methods for test- 
ing lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Pe- 
troleum Specifications. 

RECOIL OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grades of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies to fill the recoil 
cylinders of gun carriages. 

2. Only refined petroleum oils without the admixture of fatty 
oils, resins, soap or other compounds not derived from crude petro- 
leum will be considered. 

3. These oils shall be supplied in three grades, known as light, 
medium and heavy. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

4. Flash and fire points: The flash and fire points of the three 
grades will not be lower than the following: 

Flash Deg.F Fire Deg.F 

Light 225 250 

Medium 315 355 

Heavy : 345 390 

5. Viscosity: The viscosity of the three grades of oil at 100°F 
shall be within the following limits: 

Light 40- 45 seconds 

Medium 140-160 seconds 

Heavy 385-430 seconds 

6. Color: The oil shail be pale or red in color. Black oil will 
not be accepted. 

7. Pour test: The pour test shall be 5 or more degrees below 
zero F. 

8. Acidity: Not more than 0.05 milligram of potassium hy- 
droxide shall be required to neutralize 1 gram of the oil. 

9. Corrosion: A clean copper plate shall not be discolored when 
submerged in the oil for 24 hours at room temperature. 

10. All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petro- 
leum Specifications. 



292 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



LIBERTY AERO AND MOTOR CYCLE OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies for the lubrication of stationary- 
cylinder air-craft engines and motor cycles. 

2. The oil shall be made from pure, highly refined petroleum 
products and must be suitable in every way for the entire lubrica- 
tion of stationary cylinder air-craft engines and motorcycle engines 
operating under all conditions. The oil shall not contain moisture, 
sulphonates, soap, resin, or tarry constituents which would indicate 
adulteration or lack of proper refining. 

3. These oils shall be supplied in two grades, to be known as 
Grade 1 and Grade 2. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

4. Flash point: The flash point of the two grades shall not be 
lower than the following: 

Grade 1— 400°F. Grade 2— 500°F. 

5. Viscosity: The viscosity of the two grades at 210 °F shall 
be within the following limits: 

Grade 1 (Summer) 90-100 seconds 

(Winter) 75- 85 seconds 

Grade 2 125-135 seconds 

6. Pour Test: The pour test of Grade 1 shall not be above tho 
following limits: 

Summer 45°F, Winter 15°F. 

7. Cold Test: The cold test of Grade 2 shall not be above 35°]"' 

8. Acidity: Not more than 0.10 mg. of potassium hydroxid* 
shall be required to neutralize one gram of Grade 1 oil. 

9. Emulsifying Properties: The oil shall separate completed 
in one hour from an emulsion from distilled water at a temperatur* 
of 180°F. 

10. Carbon Residue: The carbon residue on Grade 1 shall not 
be over 1.5%; on Grade 2, not over 2.00%. 

11. Precipitation test: When 5 cc of the oil is mixed with 95 cc 
of petroleum ether and allowed to stand 24 hours, it shall not show 
a precipitate or sediment of more than 0.25 cc (5% by volume of the 
original oil). 

12. All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 293 



OIL AND GREASE USED IN RECOIL MECHANISM OF 75 AND 
155 MM GUN CARRIAGE (French). 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil and 
grease used by the Un'ted States Government and its agencies for 
the recoil mechanism of 75 and 155 mm French gun carriages. 
RECUPERATOR OIL: 

2. Recoil oil (heavv) shall be used. 
RECUPERATOR GREASE: 

3. The grease shall be a well manufactured product composed 
of a calcium soap made from high grade animal or vegetable oils or 
fatty acids and a highly refined mineral oil. 

4. The minei'al oil used in reducing the soap shall have a vis- 
cosity at 100 °F of not less than 180 seconds. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

5. Soap Content: The grease shall contain approximately 18% 
of a calcium soap. 

6. Consistency: This grease shall be similar in consistency to 
the approved trade standard for No. 3 grease. 

7. Moisture: The grease shall be a boiled grease containing not 
less than 1 nor more than 3% of water when finished. 

8. Corrosion: A clean copper plate shall not be discolored when 
submerged in the grease for 24 hours at room temperature. 

9. Ash: The ash shall not be greater than 2.3%. 

10. Fillers: The grease shall contain no fillers, such as rosin, 
resinous oils, soapstone. wax, talc, powdered mica or graphite, sulphur, 
clay, asbestos or any other filler. 

11. All tests shall be made according to the methods for test- 
ing lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Pe- 
troleum Specifications. 

PARAFFIN WAX. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grades of paraffin wax used 
by the United States Government and its agencies. 

2. This wax shall be a highly refined petroleum product, free 
from animal or vegetable wax or other adulterants. 

3. This wax shall be supplied in three grades known as 130-132, 
124-127, and 117-120. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

4. Color: The color shall be water-white. 

5. Melting point: The melting points shall be as indicated: 

Grade ^F °C 

Melting point 
130-132 130-132 approx. 55 

124-127 124-127 approx. 52 

117-120 117-120 approx. 48 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for te.sting 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 



294 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



TRANSFORMER OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of petroleum oil used by 
the United States Government and its agencies for oil switches, oil 
circuit breakers and transformers. 

2. The oil shall be made from pure, highly refined petroleum 
products, free from animal or vegetable oils or fats of any kind and 
shall be suitable in every way for the purpose listed in paragraph 
one. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. Flash point: The flash point shall not be lower than 290 °F. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity at 100° F shall be within the follow- 
ing limits: 95-110 seconds. 

5. Pour test: The pour test shall not be above 20°F. 

6. Acidity: Not more than 0.03 mg. of potassium hydroxide 
shall be required to neutralize one gram of the oil. 

7. Heat Test: The oil shall not show a deposit or any change 
other than a darkening of color when heated to 450 °F. 

8. Corrosion test: A clean copper plate shall not be discolored 
when submerged in the oil for 24 hours at room temperature. 

9. Break down test: The break down value shall not be less 
than 23,000 volts. 

10. Unsaturation test: The oil shall not contain more than 4.0% 
of hydrocarbons soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods of testing lubri- 
cants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

CAR OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies as a lubricant on journals of all 
cars, passenger coaches, steam and electric locomotives. 

2. Only refined petroleum oils, without the admixture of fatty 
oils or other compounds not derived from crude petroleum will be 
considered. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. Flash point: The flash point of this oil shall not be lower 
than 300^ F. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity at 210° F shall be within the foUow- 
mg limits: 65-75 seconds. 

5. Cold test: The cold test shall not be above 32°F, 

6. Precipitation test: When 5 cc of the oil is mixed with 95 cc 
of. petroleum ether and allowed to stand 24 hours, it shall not show 
a precipitate or sediment of more than 0.25 cc (5% by volume of the 
original oil). 

7. All tests shall be made according to the method for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
opacifications. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 295 



LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE OIL. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies as a lubricant (by the Panama 
Canal) for all locomotives, running gears of all locomotive cranes, 
deck machinery of dredges (except engines) and for cold-saws in ma- 
chine shops. 

2. Only refined petroleum oils, w^ithout the admixture of fatty 
oils or other compounds not derived from crude petroleum, will be 
considered. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. These specifications are identical with those of Car Oil (Pan- 
ama Canal). 

4. Flash point: The flash point of this oil shall not be lower 
than 300°F. 

5. Viscositj": The viscosity at 210°F shall be within the fol- 
lowing limits: 65 to 75 seconds. 

6. Cold Test: The cold test shall not be above 32°F. 

7. Precipitati'on test: When 5 cc of the oil is mixed with 95 cc 
of petroleum ether and allowed to stand 24 hours, it shall not show a 
precipitate or sediment of more than 0.25 cc (5% by volume of the 
original oil). 

8. All tests shall be made according to the method for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

CRANK PIN GREASE, DRIVING JOURNAL COMPOUND, ROD 

CUP GREASE. 

GENERAL: 

1. This specification covers the grade of grease used by the 
United States Government and its agencies for the lubrication of driv- 
ing journal on locomotives (provided with gi-ease cellars) and for the 
lubrication of cranks and rods on locomotives (provided with grease 
cups). 

2. The grease must be a well manufactured product, suitable 
in every way for the purpose listed in paragraph No. 1. It shall be 
composed of a soda soap (made from tallow) combined with a well 
refined cvlinder stock petroleum oil. 

PROPERTIES AND TESTS: 

3. It shall be smooth, unifoi'm and must not crumble under 
pressure. 

4. Color: Driving Journal Compound shall be green or green- 
ish in color. Rod Cup Grease and Crank Pin Grease shall be slightly 
yellowish, in color. 

5. Soap Content: The soap content shall not be less than the 
following: 

Driving Journal Compound 45% 

Rod Cup Grease 40% 

6. Free Alkali: Neither grade shall contain less than 0.50% 
nor more than 2.5% of free alkali, calculated as NaOH. 

7. The total water, glycerin and impurities present shall not ex- 
ceed one-third of the total dry soap content. 

8. All tests shall be made according to the method for testing 
lubricants adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 



296 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLEUM GREASE. 

Petroleum grease is a sort of amorphous wax. It is obtained as 
follows: 

Wfien refining to cylinder stock, the residue in the still, which 
is a cylinder stock, is mixed with naphtha. This mixture is then al- 
lowed to settle, while being kept at a low temperature. The mixture 
separates into two parts, the lower being the petroleum grease and 
the upper part is drawn off. This upper part is then heated to drive 
off the naphtha which can be used again and the remaining residue 
is a low cold-test stock. 

The petroleum grease may be filtered to produce the different 
colored petrolatums. With some crudes, it is possible to obtain the 
petrolatum stock by straight refinement; that is, it remains as a 
residue in the still, after the lighter parts of the crude have been 
distilled off. These crudes are very few, however, and come from 
certain sections of Pennsylvania. 



PETROLATUM. 

Petrolatum consists of the higher members of the Paraffin series, 
which settle from certain kinds of petroleum mixed and inseparable 
from some of the oily constituents of the oil. Its uses for the light- 
colored or filtered material are medicinal and for the toilet, or as 
dark-colored material, it is used by makers of oiled paper and for the 
purposes as outlined elsewhere. 

Bacon & Hamor, "American Petroleum Industry" classify the 
commercial varieties of petrolatum under two heads: 

1. Those which are obtained as a ready-formed mixture of hy- 
drocarbons of gelatinous consistency. 

2. Those made by directly mixing solid paraffins of low melt- 
ing-point with heavy lubricating oils. The latter varieties are less 
homogeneous and are liable to deposit granules of paraffin on keep- 
ing, and they are therefore not suited for the preparation of ointments 
as is the true American petrolatum. 

The viscosity of natural American petrolatum is given as: 

45°C 50°C 80°C 100°C 
Engler Vise 4.8 3.7 2.1 1.6 

Petrolatum is also called petroleum jelly, petrolatum ointment, 
petrolatum album and white petrolatum jelly, according to its degree 
of refinement by the medical profession. 

It is insoluble in water ^nd easily soluble in ether, chloroform, 
oil of turpentine,, benzine, carbon bisulphide, petroleum benzine and 
also most of the fixed or volatile oils. 

The specific gravity ranges from about .820 to .865 at 60° F. 

It does not oxidize on exposure to the air and is not readily acted 
upon by chemical reagents. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 297 

Some of the main types of greases and their uses are as follows: 

(a) Axle Grease Carriage and wagon axles. 

(b) Cup Greases Used in compression cups, funnel cups, 

or in the bearing by packing. 

(c) Gear Greases Tacky, waterproof grease for gears, 

racks, etc. 

(d) Curve or Track Greases Applied with brush or dauber to railway 

track curves. 

(e) Launching Grease Used on shipways. 

(f) Tunnel-bearing Grease Made in small blocks, about 56 lbs. 

Used in standard grease boxes to lubri- 
cate shaft bearings of steam ships. 

(g) Semi-fluid Grease Used in textile mills, high-speed ma- 

chinery, etc., also in mine cars. 

(h) Steel-mill Greases Cold-neck grease. Usually a cold-set 

resin grease. For toll necks running at 
ordinary temperatures. 
Hot neck grease: An adhesive, high- 
melting-point grease, waterproof. 

(i) Elevator Greases Plunger grease: Waterproof, acid-less 

. grease. Must not injure rod packings. 

Slide grease: Used on elevator slides. 

Usually No. 3 consistency graphited. 

(j) Gear-shield Grease or Pinion 

Glaze Usually made in 3 consistencies of dif- 
ferent melting points. Used on steel 
mills, etc., where gears are exposed to 
intense heat. The grease in cooling 
forms a cushion which adheres to the 
gear. Usually the heavy grade re- 
quires melting before application to 
the gear. 

(k) Railroad Grease Rod grease. Usually hard. Used in driv- 
ing rod cups. 

Driving-journal compound: hard. Made 
to fit the grease boxes. 

Wool-mixed grease: Made of long-fibre 
woolen yarn and a small percentage of 
cotton waste, impregnated with a 
high-melting-point grease. Used for 
journal lubrication, instead of usual 
oil and waste. 

Air-brake grease: Usually a graphited 
waterproof grease. 

(1) Paper-mill Greases Usually fiber type. High melting point. 

Bearings are very hot, due to steam 
passing through them. Wool-mixed 
grease often used, or box is packed with 
wool, and from time to time fresh 
grease is added. 



298 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 299 



PETROLEUM LIQUIDUM, U. S. P. 
Liquid Petrolatum. 

Petrolat. Liq. — Liquid Paraffin, Mineral OiL 

A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. Pre- 
serve it in well closed containers, protected from light. 

Heavy Liquid Petrolatum. — Heavy Liquid Petrolatum has a vis- 
cosity of not less than 3.1 when determined by the test given below. 

Light Liquid Petrolatum. — Light Liquid Petrolatum has a vis- 
cosity of not more than 3 when determined by the test given below 
and vaporizes freely. 

Each variety conforms to the following description and tests: 

Specific gravity for Liquid Petrolatum, 828 to 0.905 at 25°C. 

A colorless, transparent, oil liquid, free or nearly free from fluo- 
rescence, odorless and tasteless when cold and possessing not more 
than a faint petroleum odor when heated. 

When cooled to 10 °C Liquid Petrolatum does not become more 
than opalescent (solid paraffins). 

Insoluble in water or alcohol; soluble in ether, chloroform, petro- 
leum benzin or in fixed or volatile oils. Camphor, menthol, thymol 
and many similar substances are dissolved by Liquid Petrolatum. 

Boil 10 mils, of Liquid Petrolatum with an equal volume of al- 
cohol, the alcoholic liquid is not acid to litmus (acids). 

Introduce into a glass-stoppered cylinder which has been pre- 
viously rinsed with sulphuric acid 5 mils, of Liquid Petrolatum and 
5 mils, of colorless sulphuric acid, heat in a water bath during 10 
minutes, shaking well at intervals of 30 seconds; the oil remains un- 
changed in color and the acid does not become darker than pale 
amber (carbonized impurities). 

Prepare a clear, colorless saturated solution of lead oxide in an 
aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (1 in 5) and mix 2 drops of 
this solution with 4 mils, of Liquid Petrolatum and 2 mils, of de- 
hydrated alcohol; the mixture does not darken after heating for 10 
minutes at 70 °C and cooling (sulphur compounds). 

Viscosity. — Make a permanent mark about 2 cm. below the bulb 
of a 50 mil. pipet of the usual type and note the time in seconds 
required at 25'C for the level of distilled water to fall from the 
upper to the lower mark as the liquid flows from the pipet. The 
time should not be less than 25 seconds nor more than 30 seconds 
for the pipet selected. 

Draw the Liquid Petrolatum to be tested into this pipet, which 
should be clean and dry, and note the time in seconds required at 
25 °C for it's level to fall from the same upper to the lower mark as 
above determined. The quotient indicates the viscosity. Distilled 
water at 25°C is taken as 1. 

Average Dose. — Metric, 15 mils.; apothecaries, 4 fluidrachnis. 



300 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PETROLATUM, U. S. P. 

Petrolat. — Petrolatum Ointment, Petroleum Jelly. 

A purified mixture of semi-solid hydrocarbons obtained from 
petroleum. 

Petrolatum is an unctuous mass, varying in color from yellowish 
to light amber, having not more than a slight fluorescence even after 
being melted. It is transparent in thin layers, completely amorphous, 
free or nearly free from odor or taste. 

Petrolatum is insoluble in water, almost insoluble in cold or hot 
alcohol or in cold dehydrated alcohol, freely soluble in ether, chloro- 
form, carbon bisulphide, oil of turpentine, petroleum benzin, benzene 
or in most fixed or volatile oils. 

Specific gravity, 0.820 to 0.865 at 60°C. 

It melts between 38° and 54°C. 

Heat about 2 gms. of Petrolatum in an open porcelain or platinum 
dish over a Bunsen burner flame. It volatilizes without emitting an 
acrid odor and on incineration not more than 0.05 '/c of ash remains. 

Shake melted Petrolatum with an equal volume of hot distilled 
water; the latter remains neutral to litmus (acid or alkalies). 

Digest 10 grams of Petrolatum at 100 °C for half an hour with 
10 grms. of sodium hydroxide and 50 mils, of distilled water, then 
separate the aqueous layer and supersaturate it with sulphuric acid; 
no oils or solid substance separates (fixed oils, fats or rosin). 

PETROLATUM ALBUM, U. S. P. 

White Petrolatum. 

Petrolat. Alb.— White Petroleum Jelly. 

Petrolatum wholly or nearly decolorized. 

White Petrolatum is a white or faintly yellowish unctuous mass, 
transparent in thin layers even after cooling to 0°C, completely 
amorphous. 

In other respects White Petrolatum has the characteristics of 
and responds to the tests for identity and purity under Petrolatum. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 301 



Paraffin Wax. 

After the gasoline, kerosene, naphtha and gas oil have been 
removed from crude petroleum by distillation, the residue is run in- 
to a special still. This may be the ordinary cylindrical horizontal 
still or the tower still. In the horizontal still, the entire distillate 
is generally collected for the wax distillate. In the tower still, the 
distillate is usually taken off in three portions, a light distillate, 
an intermediate distillate and a heavy distillate, coke only remain- 
ing in the still. 

The heavy distillate contains the wax and is generally known 
as "wax distillate," and contains from 596 to 12% of wax and has 
a gravity of about 30 to 35° Be'. The amount of paraffin wax in 
the usual crude petroleum varies from nothing up to 29c. In rare 
instances, petroleum has been found containing as much as 109c of 
wax. In the crude petroleum, the wax exists in the amorphous form 
known as protoparaffin which is converted into pyroparaffin or 
crystalline wax by the action of high temperature. 

Distillate carrying the crystalline wax is pumped to the chill- 
ing machine in which it is passed through cylinders, inside of 
which are inner cylinders containing brine at a very low tempera- 
ture. These inner brine cylinders are revolved to get good distri- 
bution of the heat. On the outside of the revolving cylinders are 
scrapers which prevent the oil flow from becoming sluggish, due to 
the solidification of the wax. The chilled wax distillate is pumped 
from the chilling machines to the wax press. In the wax press the 
cylinders and the plunger push the plates against each other and 
the iron rings around the outer edge of the plates form a tight leak 
proof joint. The pump pressure on the oil forces it through a can- 
vas sheet on which the wax collects. The oil drips down into a trough 
where it is collected and pumped into the lubricating stock. The 
wax collected on the canvas plates is removed with chipping chisels 
or "spuds" and falls into a conveyor which carries it to the slack 
wax tank. This slack wax is about 509'f pure, wax and 509c oil. The 
slack wax is now melted and pumped into a sweating pan. Each 
pan is equipped with a coil of pipe near the bottom. The melted 
wax is run into the pans and is chilled by water running through 
the pipe coils until it is solid. The temperature of the solid mass 
is now slowly raised and under these conditions the oil is gradually 
squeezed from the wax and flows away. Most of the color in the 
slack wax is carried away with the oil in sweating. The wax that 
is obtained from the first process of sweating is commonly spoken 
of as paraffin scale. The wax that is re-sweated is spoken of as 
sweated wax. The yellow sweated wax is now melted and filtered 
through bone meal or fuller's earth. The product ordinarily is col- 
orless, odorless and tasteless. The fuller's earth absorbs all tarry and 
asphaltic compounds and is used in the proportion of about one ton 
of fuller's earth to five tons of wax. The filtration and decoloriza- 
tion of the wax is usually carried on by gravity in large upright 
cylinders. The fuller's earth may be used over and over again if 
burned out to remove coloring matter and residual waxy and oily 
material. The oil taken from the slack wax in sweating is com- 
monly spoken of as foot's oil. (See also p. 197.) 



302 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Paraffin wax is usually sold according to melting point. Differ- 
ent methods of determining melting point are used. Paraffin wax 
is marketed according to the melting point which varies from 105 °F 
for what is known as match wax to 140 °F which is the highest grade 
wax such as is used for wax paper for packing edible articles. Most 
of the high melting point wax is imported and comes from East In- 
dian crude petroleum. 

Chemically, paraffin wax consists of paraffin hydrocarbons hav- 
ing a general formula of CnH2n-h2 and ranging from C23H48 to C3oH72- 

Uses of Paraffin Wax.— "Crude Wax": This product is sold 
to match factories as "Match Wax" for use on the heads of matches. 
It is also used in leather tanneries as a stuffing or loading for the 
leather. It is sometimes used for burning in special lamps used 
by miners and for marine bunker lights. It is useful also for wax- 
ing yarn in the textile industry, to act as a softener and lubricant 
for the yarn during winding. The customarv melting ranges for 
the two regular grades of wax are 117°F— 119°F and 124°F— 126°F. 
Crude wax may be used for any purpose where a petroleum taste 
and odor are not objectionable. It is shipped either in slabs or sold 
in barrels. The slabs are packed in cases of about 250 pounds, or 
in jute bags of about 225 pounds. 

"Refined Wax." This product should be free from taste and 
odor. It is used for such purposes as a coating for cheese, elec- 
trical insulation, coating for beer vats, artificial flower manufacture, 
coating vinegar and cider barrels, lining butter tubs, coating butter 
cartons, coating paper milk bottle tops, coating paper dinnking cups 
and milk bottles, sealing preserves and jams, coating the necks of 
drug bottles, etching, also for coating meats, sausages and any pro- 
duct which must be prevented from drying out and losing weight. 
Some other uses are: Coatings for whisky, alcohol, molasses and 
sour kraut barrels, polishing wooden handles, spokes and wooden 
ware, saturating paper used in waterproof signs, oyster and ice 
cream pails. 

It is usually shipped in 20-pound slabs and packed either in 
jute bags or wooden cases. A brief description of the method of 
using wax to coat cheese is as follows: The wax is used to improve 
the appearance of the cheese and to prevent the accumulation of 
the green mold which may appear on cheese that is not frequently 
handled. It also prevents shrinkage and evaporation of the cheese. 
The wax is melted in a large vat, which is heated by steam pipes or 
hot water baths. A direct flame cannot be used, because of the 
danger of charring the wax. The cheese is immersed in the melted 
wax for a few seconds and it is then placed on a rack for cooling. 
Usually the cheese is waxed when it is received at the storage ware- 
house and when it is from one to two weeks old. This coating for 
cheese boxes and butter tubs permits them to be shipped dry, im- 
proving their appearance and preventing burst hoops from water- 
stocked staves. (J. R. Battle.) 

Paraffin wax is valued by the color, melting point and the spe- 
cific gravity. The price of the crude wax having a melting point 
of from 120°F to 126°F is about 2c p4r pound, while the highly 
refined wax having a melting point of up to 140°F is worth about 
7c per pound. (1922.) 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



303 



Paraffin wax is ordinarily obtained from petroleum; also from 
shale oil and ozocerite. Paraffin exists in crude petroleum in the 
form of protoparaffin, in which condition it does not crystallize out 
and cannot be expressed from oil at low temperatures. In order 
to obtain it in condition for refrigeration and filtration, the heavy 
oil is subjected to a destructive distillation, thereby producing the 
crystalline pyroparaffin. 



I Grams per lOO ce 



f &. 




o'r wr aoT sot ^ot jot 6o°r 

Fig. 56 — Solubility of Wax. 



70'r 



Pennsylvania petroleum furnishes from 1%% to 2'/f paraffin 
wax, some petroleum such as one in Roumania giving as much as 
10%. 

The wax distillate from which paraffin is obtained contains ordi- 
narily about 10% of wax. This distillate has a gravity of from 
33° Be' to 35° Be' and distills over at a temperature of 500 1< to 
700 °F. The paraffin is freed from oil by the sweatmg process alter 
filtration. 



304 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



PARAFFINUM, U. S. P. 
Paraffin, 

A purified mixture of solid hydrocarbons usually obtained from 
petroleum. 

Paraffin is a colorless or white more or less translucent mass, 
crystalline when separating from solution, without odor or taste 
and slightly greasy to the touch. 

It is insoluble in water or alcohol, slightly soluble in dehydrated 
alcohol, freely soluble in ether, petroleum benzine, benzene, carbon 
disulphide, volatile oils or in most warm fixed oils. 

Specific gravity, about 0.900 at 25 °C. 

It melts between 50° and 57 °C. 

When strongly heated it ignites, burns with a luminous flame 
and deposits carbon. 

Heat about 0.5 gm. of paraffin in a dry test tube with an equal 
weight of sulphur; the mixture becomes black from separated car- 
bon and hydrogen sulphide gas is evolved. 

Paraffin is not acted upon or colored by concentrated sulphuric 
or nitric acid in the cold. 

Shake melted paraffin with an equal volume of hot alcohol; the 
separated alcohol does not redden moistened blue litmus paper (acids). 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 305 



Miscellaneous Oils and Their Uses. 

Recoil Cylinder Oil or Hydroline Oil is used to fill the recoil 
cylinders of gun carriages. It should have a viscosity (S. U.) of 
less than 145 at 32 °F and over 43 at 100 °F with a cold test below 
0°F. Loss at 212°F for 2 hours, under 57c. 

Recuperator Oil is used for the recoil mechanism of 75 and 155 
mm French gun carriages. Free from saponifiable matter, flash 
point over 345°F, viscosity lOO'F, 385 to 430. Pour test, below 
— 5°F. 

Recuperator Grease consists of 18% of lime soap; of tallow 
oil, neatsfoot oil, lard oil or equivalent, and 82% mineral oil of 180 
viscosity at 100°F; maximum water content, 3%; ash, below 2.3%. 

Air Compressor Oil quality varies according to the character 
of the compressor. In single stage compressors the maximum tem- 
perature developed per stroke without cooling by air or water varies 
from 145 °F for 10 pounds to 750 °F for 250 pounds pressure. For 
a compressor operating at 125 pounds pressure, the lubricating oil 
for air cylinders should have the following properties: Viscosity 
at 100 °F, 270-350; flash point over 375 °F. For higher pressure, a 
high viscosity oil is required. Oils should be distilled or of paraffin 
base. 

Oxygen Gas Compressors. Oil cannot be used for this purpose. 
Water solutions of soft soap (potassium linolate) or glycerin is used. 

Carbon Dioxide Compressors. Glycerin is commonly used, but 
same oils as for air compressors are satisfactory but must not give 
a flavor to the carbon dioxide. 

Ammonia Compressors. A pure mineral oil, cold test — 5°F, 
flash 365 °F, viscosity 100 at 100 °F. 

Airplane Oil (see special specifications). Castor Oil was orig- 
inally used and first grade had following properties: Pale yellow, 
clear, specific gravity .964, flash point 550°F, fire test, 618°F, cold 
test — 10°F, Saybolt Universal Viscosity 100°Fi=1440, 150°F = 308, 
200°F=:117, 210°F = 95, 250°F = 64. Acid value 1, free acid 0.5, 
iodine value 88.3. 

Brick Oil, Repress Oil or Brockie is oil used on the die through 
which the plastic clay is pressed for forming the brick. The oil 
covers the clay column when it leaves the die and prevents sticking 
to the steel plate over which it travels. The column is again oiled 
before entering the cutting machine to prevent stickmg to the cut- 
ting wires and again to the wire cut sides. About 90% of 27 Be 
distillate with 10% of De Gras oil is commonly used for this purpose. 

Car Oil, Axle Oil, Summer Black Oil are used for saturating 
waste for packing the journal boxes of car axles. It should be suf- 
ficiently viscous not to readily drip from the waste. A flash test 
of 380°F and cold test of 5°F is usually required. 



306 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Thread Cutting Oil, Bolt Oil is a compounded product used as a 
combination of a lubricant and cooling agent. It is usually com- 
posed of a water insoluble metallic soap such as calcium stearate, 
copper oleate, zinc oleate which acts as an emulsifying agent, and 
a viscous neutral oil about 200 viscosity. A small amount of am- 
monia or alkali greatly aids the emulsion. Instead of the metallic 
soap, sulphonated oils, naphthenic acids and agitator sludge oils 
may be used to produce the emulsions. 

Quenching Oils are used for slower cooling of steel than is ac- 
complished with water. It must be a pure mineral oil with a high 
flash point. 

Condenser, Compounded and Blown Oils are mixtures of min- 
eral lubricating oils with seed oil, the seed oil usually being blown 
to increase the viscosity. 

Cylinder Oil or Cylinder Stock is the residue obtained from dis- 
tilling special grades of light crude oils with a very large amount 
of steam, avoiding cracking as much as possible and from which 
the wax distillate has been removed. Cylinder oils vary in gravity 
from 20° to 27°Be', flash point from 475°F to 650°F, viscosity at 
210°F Saybolt, 100 to 350, cold test 30 to 60°F. They usually are 
not filtered but may be refined by filtering through Fuller's earth 
or bone black. 

Core Oil is 36° gravity mineral oil compounded with boiled lin- 
seed oil or china wood oil. 

Cream Separator Oils are nonviscous oils of about 30° to 34°Be' 
cavity, 70 to 200 viscosity at 70 °F. 

Cup Greases are mixtures of petroleum oil and lime soap with 
or without rosin oil. 

Floor Oil is a light non-viscous neutral oil. 

Gear Case Oil or Transmission Oil is a steam refined cylinder 
oil with a gravity of about 25°Be', flash point 600 °F, cold test of 
30 F, Saybolt viscosity at 210°F of 240. 

Harness Oil is a compounded oil or a mineral oil of 175 viscosity 
at 100 F and about 25°Be' to 30°Be' gravity containing petrolatum, 
leather oil and wax and some fatty oils. 

Ichthyol is an artificial preparation obtained by the distillation 
of certain bituminous shales and subsequent sulphonation and neu- 
tralization with ammonia or soda. It comes on the market under 

u ?™al "a"ie of Ammonii Icythyo-sulphonas or Ammonium Sul- 
pho-ichthyolate. The specific gravity of the preparation is ap- 
proximately 1.0, and it has a viscosity of 17.7 (Engler). A typical 
preparation contains 15% to 16% of sulphur, and it is to the sul- 

fJu rL-,J^^^^ ^* *^^ preparation is largely due. On account 
01 the dilficulty in duplicating exactly the original product and the 
scarcity of the original product, it has now attained a very high 
price. '' ^ 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 307 

Knitting Machine Oil is a spindle oil of 70-200 viscosity@70°F. 

Leather Oil is a non-viscous neutral oil of low viscosity. 

Motor-Cycle Oil is a high viscosity lubricating oil similar to 
aeroplane oil. 

Neutral Oils are oils obtained from pressed distillate. 

Non Viscous Neutral Oil is neutral oil having a viscosity be- 
low 135 Saybolt at 100 °F. 

Viscous Neutral Oil is neutral oil having a viscosity above 135 
at 100°F. 

Mazout is the term applied to residual fuel oil in Russia. 

Mineral Seal Oil is heavy burning oil obtained in the distilla- 
tion for cylinder stock. 

Oildag is a compound of deflocculated graphite suspended in 
petroleum lubricating oil covered by U. S. Patent No. 911,358 by 
Acheson. 

Paraffin Oil is the wax-free oil obtained by pressing wax dis- 
tillate. 

Petrolatum is a semi-solid paraffin oil or wax composed of suf- 
ficient varieties of petroleum hydrocarbons to give an indistinct melt- 
ing point. It has a flow point of about 105 °F (see Petrolatum Mol- 
lum). 

Petroleum Coke is the residue in coking or tar stills and usually 
constitutes about 5'7f of the crude oil. Mid-Continent crude leaves 
a residue ordinarily about 6 inches thick in the still and Mexican 
crude petroleum leaves a residue about 30 inches thick in the bot- 
tom of the still. One ton of Panuco (Mexico) crude oil gives 365 
pounds of coke. 

Roll Oil for tin, copper and brass rolls has the same qualities 
as engine oil. 

Sewing Machine Oil is light neutral oil with a viscosity of 75 
at 70°F, cold test 20°F or below, fire test 400°F, flash point 340°F 
and gravity of 34.5°Be'. 

Spindle Oil is the lighter lubricating oil usually of a gravity 
of 25-35'Be', flash point^300-450°F, viscosity 40-400 at 70°F, cold 
test at 0°F-40°F, colorless to dark red. 

Stitching Oil is a light non-viscous neutral oil used in stitching 
shoes. 

Summer Black Oil is a black lubricating oil of about 500-600 
fire test and is used for tempering and for concrete waterproofmg. 

Tempering Oil is a viscous neutral oil frequently the same as 
hammer oil and summer black oil. 



308 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



mmt. 






._^ ^^v r^ jTf^r 



{?. Of so 



.S£iLM-&lLJllj:l— Of^ Wi^y rfT 



_/*- ■ /g c T ^OL f= ^ a:^ 



-aoti^ 



Thickened Oil is a mineral oil in which the viscosity is increased 
by the addition of unvulcanized rubber, aluminum soap or blown 
vegetable oil. 

Turbine Oil is a non-emulsifyins: oil of about 150 viscosity at 
70°F and a flash point of about 420°F. 

Watch Oil is usually a non-petroleum oil and is ordinarily Dol- 
phin oil. Good watch oil is, however, made from petroleum and 
is a close distillation cut just above kerosene with a very low cold 
test. 

Wool Oil is a sun bleached neutral oil sometimes compounded 
with lard oil and with a viscosity of 140-160- Saybolt, gravity of 
about 32°Be' and flash paint of 375°F. It is used to aid in carding 
the wool fibers. 

Transformer Oils are 

used for cooling transfor- 
mer coils used for chang- 
ing the voltage of electric 
currents. Oil serves in 
distributing the heat and 
conducting it to the 
radiating surfaces. It 
prevents oxidation and 
hardening of the wire in- 
sulation. Transformer oil 
must be a poor conductor 
of electricity (a high 
dielectric strength) for 
which reason, it must 
contain no moisture, acid, 
soaps, suspended matter, 
dissolved salts or sapon- 
ifiable matter. The effect 
of moisture on the dielec- 
tric strength is shown in 
Fig. 59. Coils of copper 
are most satisfactory for 
circulating water to cool 
transformer oil. Lead 
coils have been known to 
react with pure mineral 
oil to form lead soap. 
P r e s u m ably sufficient 
oxygen dissolves in the 



Wi^i w 



WSi 



■&i>t4C 



■a 






t3:i?/«(? 



M 



o.o/oo '• 





r^rff y^ 



/O so 30 fO 

Fig. 57— Solubility of Water in Petroleum, 
oil to allow this reaction to take place. 

(t '^'iu ^^i^oyi"g method is used to test the dielectric strength 
(lor other tests see general methods of testing lubricants). 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



309 



Method of Testing the Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oils. 

The apparatus used for this test is shown in Figure 58, and 
is manufactured by the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company for this purpose. It consists of a graduated glass cylinder 
in which is placed two testing terminals, each a brass sphere V2 in. 
in diameter. The lower sphere is fixed and the upper sphere is 
adjustable in its distance from the lower sphere. In making the 
test, the cylinder is filled with the oil and the gap between the two 
terminals is adjusted. The oil is allowed to stand for 10 minutes so 
that any air bubbles may escape. The testing voltage is now ap- 
plied, beginning low and gradually inci'easing and without opening 
the circuit until the breakdown occurs. The oil is then shaken up 
and the test is repeated until at least five breakdowns have occurred. 
The average of these breakdowns is taken as the dielectric strength. 

Instead of having a fixed distance between the terminals a con- 
stant voltage may be used and the grap decreased by adjusting the 
upper terminal with a slow motion screw until the breakdown occurs. 

As a general thing, the dielectr'c strength is proportional to the 
amount of moisture in the oil. It is also effected by the presence 
of saponifiable oil. 



I 



m 



ur 




\NeST/NOHOUS£ T£ST//V(5 3eT 



\ 



Fig. 58 — Apparatus for Te.sting Dielectric Strength. 



310 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




^ ,e/C SrjP/TA'GT/i - /C/COVOLT 



Fig. 59— Relation of Water Content to Dielectric Stength of Trans- 
former Oils. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



311 



Fuel Oil. 

Liquid fuel is chiefly crude petroleum and its residues. Shale 
oil, coal tars, wood tars and vegetable and animal oils are also used 
as fuel to a very limited extent. Petroleum as a fuel for use in 
steam or power plants has considerable variations. Its most dis- 
tinctive chemical features are the practical absence of mineral mat- 
ter, water and light gasoline and the presence of a large amount 
of hydrogen. Ordinarily when fuel oil is mentioned, reference is 
made to the residue from petroleum distillation, the gasoline and 
kerosene having first been removed. 



r^/fi j^fdu/eerrcNrs n £(?c//\//ii£/vrj/vjp/92/ 



ACTUAL 



COAL 
£(3UIVAL£NT3 



COAL 



7454^ 



eso.ooQOooTo/vs 6so,ooo,oooro/vs 



The chief properties making fuel oil available for use are the 
ease with which it flows, the low cost of handling and the absence 
of residue. Fuel oil has a remarkably constant heat of combus- 
tion. The heat of combustion in terms of B. T. U. per pound of oil 
is higher with lighter oils but is lower in B. T. U. per gallon with 
lighter oils, therefore it is obvious that the heavier oils are cheaper 
for fuel at the same price per gallon, which is the unit of measure- 
ment. Ordinarily, fuel oil 
obtained from petroleum 
when dry and free from 
sediment has a very defi- 
nite heating value in rela- 
tion to gravity as is shown 
by the accompanying 
tables on page 318. 

The chief impurities 
found in fuel oil are water 
or brine and asphaltic 
sediment. The asphaltic 
sediment or tarry matter 
has almost as great heat- 
ing value as the dry oil 
itself but the brine or 
water very greatly dimin- 
ishes the heating value as 
well as interferes with the 
mechanical use of the oil. 
Feel oil is ordinarily only 
used under conditions of 
its greater convenience 
than coal. In so far as 
the cost of heat obtained 
from fuel oil is concerned 
it is in most localities 

Fig-. 60 — Fuel Requirements of tlie United much higher than coal. 
States. The price of coal is the 

governing feature in the 

price of fuel oil. In general practice, three barrels of fuel oil are 

equivalent to one ton of coal screenings. 



f£TeOL£l/Ai 



nnrse/vw£^ 



NATaeAiaAs 



//■^^■^ 



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27000,00070/^3 

/z.sooroi's 



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£S.OOOrOA/S 



312 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The gravity varies according to the character of the oil and the 
amount of light constituents that have been distilled out of it. The 
following table shows typical gravities of fuel oil from different 
sources: 

Gravity 

Mexican fuel oil 12.6°Be' 

Paraffin base fuel oil 27.5°Be' 

California fuel oil 15.5°Be' 

Towanda fuel oil 26.0°Be' 

Mid-Continent heavy fuel oil 23.5°Be' 

Typical Mid-Continent oil 26.5°Be' 

Garber, Oklahoma fuel oil 31.3°Be' 

The viscosity of fuel oil is not proportional to the gravity as 
is indicated by the following tables: 

Viscosity and Gravity of Fuel Oils. (See Pages 313-4.) 

Gravity Viscosity at 70 ° T 

California Crude 16.9°Be' 5400 

Residuum from same after cracking 15.5 414 

Heavy Kansas Crude 19.7 3360 

Residuum from same after cracking 21.2 178 

Heavy Mid-Continent fuel oil : 23.5 810 

Residuum from same after cracking 21 2 135 

Garber, Okla., fuel oil 31.3 183 

Residuum from same after cracking 28.0 70 

Heavy Mexican flux oil 10 8 14500 

Residuum from same after cracking 12. 6 530 

Average Mid-Continent fuel oil 27.5 272 

Residuum from same after cracking. ...23. 7 88 
As compared with other sources of heat, the theoretical amount 

of heat obtainable from petroleum or fuel oil as determined when 

the combustion is complete and the absorption of heat is complete 
IS as follows: 

!'Snn'2^n ^- '^- ^- "^ Petroleum at $1.00 per bbl. costs ...$0,165 

1,000,000 B. T. U. of good slack coal at S3.00 per ton 0.136 

! n^n'^^^ 5 Z: U- °^ natural gas at $0.30 per 1,000 cu. ft 0.33 

1,000,000 B. T. U. of coal gas at $0.50 per 1,000 cu. ft 0.79 

1,000,000 B. T. U. of electricity at Ic per k. w. hour 2 93 

^*^®n^^?7^ '^ ^^^^^ "PO" the following: Fuel oil of specific 
^?9i*^,r,2-^^^Tf^^'^°^^'' ^^'ght Pe^ ga"on 7.5 lbs., weight per bar- 
i^/onn Ibs^ B. T. U. per lb. = 19,225, per ton = 38,450,000, per gallon= 
144,200, cubic foot = 1,078,500, per barrels 6,056,000. 

Slack coal = 11, 000 B. T. U. per pound. 

Natural gas = 900 B. T. U. per cubic foot. 

Theoretical Equivalents. 

1 ton of coal = 36 bbls oil=24,500 cu. ft. of natural gas. 

wl^ °M ""nf.^c?-^ '^"- ^«al = 160 cu. ft. of natural gas. 

ba re o. =0278 ton coal = 6806 cu. ft. of natural |as. 
1 pound 011 = 1.75 lbs. coal = 21.3 cu. ft. of natural gas 
1 pound coal = 0.763 gallon oil = 12.2 cu. ft. of natural gas. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



313 



As to the actual heating value of fuel oils from various sources 
the table on page 315 is representative: 

KEY TO FIGURE 61. 



Curve 
No. 



a 
b 
c 
d 
e 
f 

g 

h 

i 

J 

J' 

k 

1 

r 

m 

n 
n' 
o 
P 

q 

r 

s 
t 
u 

V 

w 
w' 

X 

y 

z 
z' 



A. 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 
G 



TYPE OF OIL 



SOLID CURVES 

Mexican residue 

"Toltec fuel oil," Inter-Ocean Oil Co., N. Y 

"Toltec or Panuco oil," Inter-Ocean Oil Co 

"No. 102," Union Oil Co., Bakersfield, Cal 

"No. 18," Union Oil Co., Bakersfield, Cal 

"Standard" Mexican crude (lot 2) 

"No. 25," Union Oil Co., Bakersfield, Cal 

Mexican crude, Texas Co 

Sample No. 3, Angol-Mex. Pet. Products Co 

"Gaviota Refinery," Associated Oil Co., Cal 

Mexican oil, Atlantic torpedo flotilla, March, 1914. . 

Standard Mexican crude (lot 1) 

Mexican oil, U. S. S. Arethusa 

"Nos. 1, 2, 3," Anglo-Mexican Pet. Products Co.. . . 

Producers Crude No. 1 fuel oil. Union Oil Co., Cali- 
fornia 

"Coalinga Field," Associated Oil Co., Monterey, Cal 

"Avon Refinery," Associated Oil Co., Avon, Cal. . . . 

Richmond, California 

Sun Co., Louisiana 

"Standard," Illinois 

Gulf Refining Co., Navy standard oil, U. S. S. Per 
kins 

"Standard," Indiana 

"Standard Star," California 

"Standard," Illinois (lot 4) 

"Standard," Indiana (lot 4) 

Gulf Refining Co., Navy contract 

"Standard," Lima, Ohio, crude 

Camden Chemical Co., by-product of coal tar. 

"Star," California 

Gulf Refining Co., Navy standard oil, U. S. S. Roe 

Standard Mexican gas oil 

Indicates test results. 

DOTTED CURVES 

Panuca crude, Inter-Ocean Oil Co 

Mexican petroleum, Texas Co 

Associated Oil Co., California 

Bakersfield, Cal., pipe line to Port Costa 

California Standard Oil Co., steamer Santa Barbara 

Beaumont, Tex., Gulf Refining Co 

Navy standard oil, Texas Co 



GRAVITY 



Specific 



1.000 
.988 
.986 
.980 
.980 
.964 
.978 
.952 
.952 
.953 
.947 
.954 
.950 
.955 

.959 
.957 
.953 
.953 
.936 
.893 

.892 
.880 
.912 
.893 
.880 
.882 
.876 

.912 
.885 
.856 



.975 
.938 
.971 
.970 
.962 
.907 
.911 to .900 



°Be' 



Plash 
Point, 

o p 



10.0 

11.7 

12.0 

12 

12 

13 

13 

17 

17 

17 

18. 

17.0 

17.6 

16.8 

16.1 
16.5 
17.1 
17.1 
19.8 
27.3 

27.5 
29.6 
23.9 
27.3 
29.6 
29.3 
30.4 

23.9 

28.7 
34.2 



13.7 
19.5 
14.2 
14.4 
15.7 
24.8 
24 to 26 



374 
220 
124 
280 
285 
202 
262 
126 
164 
230 
182 
145 
182 
188 

174 
186 
168 
228 
275 
146 

180 
144 
180 
146 
144 
170 
149 

180 
182 
151 



146 
234 
257 
260 
282 
222 
195 to 220 



From "Oil Fuel Handbook." 



314 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



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BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The advantages of the use of fuel oil are as follows: 

1. Handling costs are reduced; fewer firemen, coal passers, 
helpers, etc., are required, the reduction being approximately in the 

ratio of 5 to 1. . . , , . 

2. Ease of fire control, ignition, regulation. In an emergency 
such as, for instance, a failure in water supply, the oil fire can be 
promptly extinguished. Much time is saved in bringing up the steam 
pressure; 150 pounds can be secured from cold water in a half hour. 

3. Since combustion is nearly perfect, much higher capacities 
and efficiencies obtain. Excess air is held to a minimum. The 
opening of furnace doors for cleaning or working of fires is dis- 
pensed with; furnace temperatures are accordingly almost constant. 

4. Smaller storage space is required and this may be at a much 
greater distance from furnace. 

5. Oil in storage does not diminish in calorific value as does 
coal, and there is little danger from spontaneous combustion. 

6. The refuse from the combustion of fuel oil is insignificant 
and easy of disposal. The boiler room is free of ashes and dust. 
Annoyance and damage to surrounding property is minimized. Tubes 
do not collect ashes. 

7. No banking of fire occurs with the consequent loss. 

8. Smoke can be practically eliminated. 

9. The heat is largely isolated to the furnace and the boiler 
room temperatures are much lowered. 

10. Since there is less excess air, the stack area may be slight- 
ly less than that required for coal. Stacks having insufficient draft 
with coal may with oil, be sufficient. 




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V\k. 63— Relative Cost of Coal and Fuel Oil. 



f:SV"'^.0O 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



321 



11. In oil burning furnaces the heat is more uniformly dis- 
tributed. There is less burning out of boiler tubes. Firing tools 
are unnecessary. 

The disadvantages of the use of fuel oil are: 

1. The fire and explosion hazard. Oil must have a flash point 
of 140°F or more. Some city ordinances prohibit the use of oil be- 
cause of the fire risk, and require the tanks to be under ground and 
many feet from the nearest building. 

2. Cost of oil storage. 

3. A more intense temperature due to smaller excess of air with 
consequently increased cost of maintenance of furnace and boiler. 

4. The noise in combustion and the odor is sometimes objec- 
tionable in home furnaces as well as apparent danger of fire or 
explosion with complicated method of burning. 

5. The liability of leakage and wastage. 

6. The deposition of carbon or soot on tubes and furnace walls. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR BURNING FUEL OIL. 

In the successful combustion of fuel oil, certain conditions must 
be complied with as follows: 

1. A burner which gives proper atomization of the oil must be 
used. 

2. Following atomization, the oil must be correctly mixed with 
air in order to give complete combustion. Air is introduced through 
the checker work under the burners. The quantity so admitted is 
varied with the amount of oil being fed; 225-250 cubic feet of air 
is good practice. 



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Fig. 61 — Relative Cost of Coal and Natural Gas. 



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322 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



3. Unless the combustion is complete before the gases reach 
the boiler heating surfaces, it will not be completed at all until 
after oil and air reach the stack, when it will be wasted. To pre- 
vent this occurrence, large combustion spaces are necessary so that 
there is a gas travel of sufficient length. 

4. Proper selection and location of burners will prevent local- 
ization of heat. Otherwise, blistering from overheating may result. 

The oil burner atomizes or vaporizes the fuel so that it may be 
burned like a gas. There are the following types: 

1. The Spray Burner. In this type the oil is atomized by 
compressed air or steam. 

2. The Vapor Burner. In this type the oil is vaporized and 
passed into the furnace. 

3. The Mechanical Burner. In this type, the oil is subjected 
to high pressure, then vaporized by forcing through a small nozzle. 

The first and third types are in use in power plants, the second 
or carburetor type is extensively employed in Europe and in house- 
heaters using distillate fuel oil. 

Stationary boiler plant engineers prefer spray burners over me- 
chanical burners. Marine engineers prefer mechanical burners. 

Steam spray burners are divided into two groups; outside mixers 
and inside mixers. Preference for the mechanical obtains where feed 
water is difficult or expensive to secure. The steam spray atomizer 
has certain advantages of flexibility, superior range of capacity and 
lower installation cost, notwithstanding the fact that both oil and 
steam lines are required, whereas the mechanical needs only the 
oil line. The spray burner is more easily installed in and removed 



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i 



/o .eo ^o .-M .50 .do .70 "':Sff"" 

FiK. G.",— Relative Cost of Gas and Fuel Oil. 




:90" 



•'/OO 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



323 



from the coal-burning furnace. It requires a lower oil pressure than 
the mechanical. The steam required for atomization runs from 2 
to 4 per cent of the boiler output. The spray burner may be oper- 
ated to induce a suction on the oil supply for small installations. 



OPERATION OF BURNERS. 

From 25 to 50 pounds pressure is adequate where steam spray 
atomizers are used. The mechanical burners require pressures rang- 
ing from 50 to 250 pounds. A preferred pressure is about 200 
pounds. Whatever the pressure, it must be steady with all oil burn- 
ers. In the case of the mechanical, large air chambers on the oil 
line are a necessity if duplex reciprocating pumps furnish the pres- 
sure. There air chambers are an inconvenience in vessels where 
floor space is limited and the navy has overcome their need by using 

PER CENT OF CO2 



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Fig-. 66 — Relation of Air 



U.sed to CO. 
Fuol Oil. 



in Stack Combustion of 



324 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



rotary and screw pumps which give a steady pressure of oil with 
little or no air cushioning. 

Fuel oil is heated to decrease the viscosity. The steam spray 
atomizer has the advantage over the mechanical in that it will 
handle oils of greater viscosity. Exhaust steam passed through 
coils is sufficient to raise the temperature to 12.5 °F which is usu- 
ally satisfactory. With the mechanical burner, the oil must be more 
mobile and a temperature of from 120 to 180 °F is required. A spe- 
cial oil heater may be used. 

In burning oil a bright, intense white flame ordinarily indi- 
cates an excess of air. The air should be regulated until the light 
brown haze just disappears at the top of stack. 

In lighting of fires a lighted torch is placed directly under the 
burner pit and then the oil is turned on. This order of operation 
must never be reversed. If the spray is started before the torch 
is lighted, the oil will be injected into a dark furnace and an ex- 
plosive mixture is likely to be formed by the time the torch has 
been lighted. 

The usual feeding system consists of an installation of steam- 
driven pumps in duplicate. These deliver the fuel from the supply 
tank to the burner under pressure. Either pump may be shut 
down for repairs without interfering with the operation of the boil- 
er, due to a by-passing of the piping. 

In using exhaust steam to heat oil, care must be taken that 
the oil temperature is not raised above its flash point. A strainer 
should be placed on the suction line between storage tank and oil 
pressure pump, to keep foreign matter from stopping up the burner. 
A relief valve set at a maximum oil pressure should be provided 
between the pumps and burners to relieve excessive pressure. 

A meter may be installed to record the oil consumption of each 
boiler. The oil piping system should be installed so that the oil 
can be drained back to the storage tanks when necessary. Many 
plants doubly insure their continuous operation by installing the 
equipment in duplicate sets. The supply of steam and oil may be 
regulated by hand to meet the requirements of the individual burner. 

Standpipe pressures provide satisfactory means of operating 
low-pressure systems. The steam pump which runs continuously 
draws the oil from an underground storage tank and keeps the stand- 
pipe supplied. 

The design of the oil-burning furnace is highly important. In- 
candescent brickwork around the flame is desirable but where this is 
impossible, a flat, broad flame, burning close to a white-hot check- 
crwork floor through which the air is continuously admitted is ad- 
visable. The flame should not impinge directly on the heating sur- 
faces and an even heat distribution should be the aim. 

The flame should never extend into the tubes. Where the fur- 
nace is located under the first pass of the boiler, the heating sur- 
faces of the boiler easily absorb radiant energy from the incan- 
(k'.scent firebrick. Such constructions as arches, target walls and 
the like are of questionable value; by localizing the heat, tubes may 
be burned out and the capacity of the boiler limited. 

The burning of oil results in a fluffy soot deposit with a trace 
of oil and adheres to the tubes. If this deposit is not regularly 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



325 



removed, it crystallizes and carbonizes on the tubes and is difficult 
to scrape off. The frequent use of steam jets will result in clean 
tubes, the soot being easily removed in the early stages of its de- 
position. 

Since the soot deposits which result from the combustion of 
oil are in the nature of pure carbon and are very adhesive their 
insulating effects are much increased over those from coal. With 
coal, the deposits settle on the top of the tube, leaving the balance 
of the circumference comparatively free. Oil burning causes deposits 
which are more evenly distributed, covering rather uniformly the 
entire firing areas. 

Prices of Fuel Oil (U. S. G. S.) 



0. 



1915— 

January 

Ftbruary 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

Xo\ ember 

December 

1916 — 

January 1 

February 1 

March 1 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 1 

December 1 

1917 — 

January 1 



40@0.50 
40@ .50 
30@ .40 
35@ .40 
35@ .40 
35@ .40 
35@ .40 
50@ .55 
50@ .55 
60@ .65 
75@ .80 
90@1.00 

00@1.05 
05@1.10 
10@1.20 
S.T@ .95 
60@ 
60@ 
55@ 
55@ 
55@ 
60@ 
,00@1.25 
,00@1.25 



.80 
.80 
.75 
.75 
.75 
.80 



i.oo@2.on 

February 1.00@2.00 

March 1.00@2.00 

April 1.00@2.00 

May 1.00@2.00 

June 1.25@1.50 

July 1.25@1..';0 

August 1.25@1.50 

September 1.25@1.5n 

October 1.60@2.00 

November 1.25@2.25 

December 1.25@2.25 

1918 — 

January 1.25@2.2 

Februarv 1.25@2.2 

March 1.25@2.2 

April 1.75@2.2 

May l.T5(g2.2 

The following table gives the 
United States from 1909 to 1920, 
U. S. Geological Survey: 

Barrels 

1920 41,772,000 

1919 35,225,000 

1918 36,713,667 

1917 42,238,565 

1916 38,208,516 

1915 32,830,187 



June 1 

July 1. 

August 1 

September 1 

October 1. 

November 1. 

December 1. 

1919 — 

January 1. 

February 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 1. 

December 1. 

1920 — 

January 2. 

February 2. 

March 2. 

April 3. 

May 3. 

June 3. 

July 

.\u.gust 3. 

September 3. 

October 2. 

November 2. 

December 1. 

1921— 

January 1. 

February 

March 

April 

May 

.Tune 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

Deci mber 



75@2.25 
75@2.25 
85@1.90 
S5@1.90 
S5@1.90 
85@1.90 
7o@1.90 

15@2.00 

90@1.00 

1.00 

.90 

.90 

.80 

80@ .85 

S0@ .90 

S0@ .90 

00(n>1.50 

50@2.50 

20@2.55 
15(n2.20 
25@2.80 
00(53.25 
3 5 (ft' 3. 50 
15(?'3.50 
3.20 
25@3.35 
00(<f3.30 
50@'2.S5 
,15(Si2.30 
,70@2.05 



25(n>1.70 

55(S)1.00 

60(a) .85 

70(n' 

•10(.i> 

40(0) 

35(n> 

4 0(ft' 

45(S) 

75(<i)1.10 

90(riil.25 

S0(S1.10 



.80 
.70 
.50 
.45 
.50 
.55 



fuel oil consumption of railroads of the 
figures prior to 1919 being those of the 

Barrels 

1914 31,093,266 

1913 33,004.815 

1912 33,605,598 

1911 29,748,845 

1910 :: 23,187.346 

1909 19,905 335 



326 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Miscellaneous Facts Concerning Heating By Oil. 

Good practice in the atomization of fuel oil requires an average 
of 0.3 pound of steam per pound of oil burned. 

One pound of fuel oil requires 14 to 15 pounds or 200 cubic 
feet of air for complete combustion; 225 cubic feet is good practice. 

The stack gases from an oil furnace for the highest efficiency 
should not contain less than IS^-f of carbon dioxide (over 13% is 
good). 

The temperature of an oil flame with complete combustion and 
without an excess of air is about 3,750° F. (Natural gas flame, 
3,250° F.) 

One pound of oil will yield on combustion 16 to 17 pounds of 
gases of combustion or 400-500 cubic feet at a temperature of 400° F. 

Oil is successfully used in melting iron and steel scrap. For this 
purpose it is much superior to coal on account of the absence of 
mineral matter and the very much smaller amount of sulphur. 

One barrel of oil will melt one ton of steel in the reverberatory 
furnace, with the furnace walls already hot. 

A typical malleable ii'on foundry by the changing of the fur- 
naces from coal to oil fuel increased the strength of their castings 
lOO'/f and increased the output 209'c 

Diesel engines consume from .45 to .7 pound of heavy oil per 
brake H. P. per hour. 

Oil requires 60 7f of stack area needed for coal firing. 

Oil gives a fuel efficiency at least 10% greater than coal. 

The advantages of oil fuel installations for locomotives and boats 
have been found to be as follows: 

(a) Economy of space reserved for carrying fuel; 507f more fuel 
value per unit space. 

(b) Ease in filling tanks. 

(c) Rapidity of time in meeting a varying load on boiler. Fires 
may be instantly lighted. 











































































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100 iW 30O 400 MM eOO 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1600 1600 170O 1800 1900 2000 

TEMPERATURE - DEGREES CENTIGRADE 
32 212 >»2 M2 762 tS! 1112 1292 1472 1«{2 1832 2012 2192 2372 2662 2732 2912 3092 3272 W62 363^ 
T.'icr CI rri c TEMPERATURE - OF'^PFES FAHRENHEIT 

A ig. 1,^— Jhc Specific Hc-at of Flue Gases, (G, F. Gebhardt.) 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



327 



(d) Ability to force boiler to extreme duty in case of emergency. 

(e) Short height of stack. 

(g) Superior personnel available for the operation of the burners. 

(h) Ability to secure and maintain higher speed with oil fuel 
than with coal. No deterioration in storage. 

In the distillation of crude oil in which 50% of the crude is dis- 
tilled off as benzine and kerosene, in good practice, 2.8 barrels of fuel 
oil are used per 100 barrels of crude oil treated. 



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jTheoretical draft with various flue gas and air temperatures, for % chimney 100 feet high and assuming an area 
•uiBcient that friction in the chimney may be neglected. For a chimney of any other bagbt, multiply the tabular hgure Dy 

i where H is 'the height of the chimney in feet 

FiK. 6<S — Influence of Temperaturo.s of Stack on Draft.'! In- oil Furnaces 

Based Upon 100-Foot Stack. 



328 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



For all refining purposes in the production of gasoline, naphtha 
and kerosene only, from 6 to 7 barrels of fuel oil are required for each 
100 barrels of crude treated, assuming that 50% of the lighter hydro- 
carbons are distilled from the crude. 

One-fourth of a gallon of fuel oil is required to produce one 
gallon of 58° Baunie' gasoline by cracking according to a pressure 
distillation process now extensively used. 

The specific heat of petroleum is about 0.5 (.49-.53), the heat of 
vaporization averages about 130 B. T. U. per pound and the heat of 
fusion 63 B. T. U. per pound (Paraffin). 

For Natural Dry Petroleum of Paraffin or Semi-Paraffin Base 
the following relation of gravity (Baume'-U. S.) and heating value 
holds: 

B. T. U. per pound = 18700 -f 40 (Be'-lO). 

Of the world's total tonnage of vessels of 100 tons and upward 
on Lloyd's Register, an approximate division as to the fuel motive 
power is as follows, according to Westgarth Brown, president of the 
South Wales Institute of Engineers: 

Per Cent 
1919 1920 

Using coal as fuel 76 82 

Fitted to use oil as fuel for boilers 16.3 10.5 

Using oil in internal combustion engines 1.7 1.5 

Using sail power only 6 6 

3% bbls. oil (42 gallons per bbl.) is the equivalent of 5,000 pounds 
hickory or 4,550 pounds white oak. 

6 gallons oil equals 1.000 cubic feet of natural gas of calorific 
value of 1,000 B.T.U. per cubic foot. 

3^4 gallons oil equals 1,000 cubic feet of commercial or water gas 
of calorific value of 620 B.T.U. per cubic foot. 

2V4 gallons oil equals 1,000 cubic feet by-nroduct coke-oven gas 
at 440 B T.U. per cubic foot. 

0.42 gallons oil equals 1,000 cubic feet blast-furnace gas at 90 
B.T.U. per cubic feet. 

SAMPLING FUEL OIL. 

The accuracy of tests depends upon the care with which an aver- 
age representative sample of fuel oil delivery has been taken and the 
importance of obtaining such a sample cannot be over-estimated. Top, 
middle and bottom samples should be taken with a standard "car thief" 
and these samples should be combined and thoroughly mixed to form 
one sample for car deliveries. Where oil is received in tanks or 
reservoirs the swing pipe should first be locked at a position well 
above the level of the water and sediment usually found in the bottom 
of such tanks. Tanks should be sampled every foot for the first five 
feet above the bottom of the swing pipe, and at five-foot intervals 
from there to the surface of the oil. This sampling should be done 
with a standard tank thief, the samples tested individually, and 
deductions for impurities made on the separate volumes which these 
samples represent. If the tank is a large one, it should be sampled 
through at least two hatches. In receiving large deliveries of the 
more viscous oils it is necessary to take many samples in order to 
insure fair and average impurity (M. & B. S) deductions. This is 
because water and sediment do not readily settle out of such oils. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



329 




S 6 7 8 9 /O // /^ IJ /^ /5 

Fig. 69 — Heat Losses in Flue Gases From Oil Furnaces. 



330 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Natural and Producer Gas Costs. 

The following table of Producer Gas Costs includes fuel, power, 
repairs and maintenance, labor and supervision, interest and deprecia- 
tion; in fact, every item of cost except the interest and taxes on the 
land occupied. (Courtesy of Steere Engr. Co., Detroit, Mich.) 



Producer Gas Costs per 


Costs at Which Other Fuels Must be Bought to Obtain the 


1000 Cu. Ft. for Coal 


Same Number of B. T. U. 


as When Buying 


Producer 


Costs Given 




Gas With Coal at the Price Given 
















Coal Gas or 

Carburetted 

Water Gas per 






Hot 




Natural Gas 


Fuel Oil 


Blue Gas per 




Raw 


Clean 


per 1000 Cu. Ft. 


per Gallon 


1000 Cu. Ft. 


1000 Cu. Ft. 


Cost of 


Pio- 
ducer 


Cold 
Pro- 












One 


















Ton of 


Gas at 


ducer 


Hot 


Clean 


Hot 


Clean 


Hot 


Clean 


Hot 


Clean 


Coal 


Offtake 


Gas 


Raw 


Cold 


Raw 


Cold 


Raw 


Cold 


Raw 


Cold 








Gas 


Gas 


Gas 


Gas 


Gas 


Gas 


Gas 


Gas 


$2.00 


3.13c 


4.15c 


23.7c 


31.5c 


2.91c 


3.86c 


12.6c 


16.72c 


6.45c 


8.59c 


2.50 


3.55 


4.57 


26.9 


34.67 


3.3 


4.25 


14.3 


18.40 


7.34 


9.45 


3.00 


3.96 


4.98 


30.1 


37.84 


3.69 


4.64 


16.6 


20.09 


8.20 


10.32 


3.50 


4.38 


5.40 


33.3 


41.01 


4.08 


5.03 


17.65 


21.77 


9.07 


11.18 


4.00 


4.79 


5.82 


36.3 


44.18 


4.46 


5.42 


19.3 


23.45 


9.92 


12.05 


4.50 


5.21 


6.24 


39.5 


47.35 


4.85 


5.81 


21. 


25.13 


10.78 


12.91 


5.00 


5.63 


6.66 


42.7 


50.52 


5.24 


6.20 


22.7 


26.82 


11.65 


13.78 


5.50 


6.05 


7.08 


45.9 


53.69 


5.63 


6.59 


24.35 


28.50 


12.5 


14.64 


6.00 


6.46 


7.49 


49.1 


56.85 


6.01 


6.97 


26.0 


30.18 


13.36 


15.50 



HEATING VALUES USED. 

Producer Gas 145 B. T. U. per cu. ft. 

Natural Gas 1,100 B. T. U. per cu. ft. 

Fuel Oil 135.000 B. T. U. per gallon 

Coal Gas or Carburetted Water Gas 585 B. T. U. per cu. ft. 

Blue Gas 300 B. T. U. per cu. ft. 

Note: These costs are based on the plant operating with a 100% 
load factor; that is, operating at rated capacity 24 hours per day, 365 
day-s per year. Comparatively few plants have a lOO^c load factor; 
therefore, it is necessary to take this very important point into con- 
sideration when estimating the cost of gas. 

The cost of Producer Gas, with a i-easonable degree of accuracy 
may be estimated for any load factor by applying the formula: 

K400R \ T 

Where C = Cost of Producer Gas per 1000 cu. ft. under conditions 
specified. 
A = Number of feet of gas used per day. 
B = Days per week plant is in operation. 
T = Cost figures shown in table at 100% load factor. 
R = Rated hourly capacity of plant in cubic feet. 
It also must be kept in mind that furnace efficiencies have a very 
great bearing on the cost of the finished product. Without regenera- 
tion or recuperation Producer Gas cannot be used as efficiently as the 
more concentrated fuels. 

The expense of the distribution system and the furnaces also 
have an important bearing on the total cost of doing the work. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 331 



Colloidal Fuel. 

So-called Colloidal Fuel is a mixture of fuel oil and powdered 
coal. The coal is suspended in the oil to an extent of as much as 
65% by weight and yet remains sufficiently fluid that it may be 
pumped and atomized. The usual amount of coal is about 40% with 
possibly 1% of some emulsifying agent. 

The suspended matter may be low grade pulverized combustible 
matter. This incorporated with fuel oil makes possible the use of 
low grade coals of the high fixed carbon or high ash types which have 
not heretofore been successfully burned. 

This colloidal fuel has a specific gravity of 1.00 to 1.25, a weight 
of 8.3 to 11.0 pounds per gallon, a flash point the same as the fuel oil, 
a heating value of from 14,500 to 17,000 B.T.U. per lb. 

Some practical advantages are: 

(a) It is about 20% more valuable in thermal efficiency in all 
types of boilers, on account of clean combustion. 

(b) It can be handled by pumping. 

(c) It can be fired by atomization. 

(d) It can be stored indefinitely without deterioration, or fire 
hazard. 

(e) The same volume has nearly twice the power value of coal 
and 10% more than fuel oil. 

(f) Labor costs are reduced (70% for boats). 

(g) It can be covered with water and sinks in water, thus reduc- 
ing the fire danger for boats. 

The following table summarizes the principal properties of vari- 
ous fuels compared with colloidal fuel. Essentially, colloidal fuel is 
nothing more than powdered coal, the voids in which have been filled 
with fuel oil. It is quite obvious that such a mixture will be suffi- 
ciently stable that the coal particles will not settle out. 



COMPARISON OF VARIOUS FUEL PRODUCTS. 

Ratio of 
Heating 
Weight B.T.U. Lbs. B.T.U. Value 
Spec. Voids per per per per per 

Grav. % Cu. Ft. Lb. Gal. Gal. Cu.Ft. 

Bituminous Coal, crushed 1 . 33 39 . 7 50 1 3,000 6 . 685 86,900 1 000 

PowderedCoal, 85%, 200-mesh . . 1.35 52.5 40 14,000 5,35 '4,900 0.862 

FuelOil 0.90 0.0 56.14 19,500 7.51 146,400 1.685 

Mixture — Powdered Coal with voids „,„ 

filled with fuel oil 1.115 0.0 69.6 16,200 9.30 151,800 1.747 



332 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



U. S. Specifications for Fuel Oils (1921). 

FUEL OIL FOR DIESEL ENGINES. 

General: 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies as a fuel for Diesel engines. 

2. Fuel oil shall be a hydrocarbon oil, free from grit, acid, and 
fibrous or other foreign matters likely to clo^ or injure the burners 
or valves. If required, it shall be strained by being drawn through 
filters of wire gauze of 16 meshes to the inch. The clearance through 
the strainer shall be at least twice the area of the suction pipe, and 
the strainers shall be in duplicate. 

Properties and Tests: 

3. Flash Point: The flash point shall not be lower than 150°F 
(Pensky-Martens closed tester). 

4. Water and Sediment: Water and sediment combined shall 
not amount to more than 0.19f. 

5. Carbon Residue: The carbon residue shall not exceed 0.5'/c. 

6. Precipitation Test: When 5 cc of the oil is mixed with 9.5 cc 
of petroleum ether and allowed to stand 24 hours, it shall not show a 
precipitate or sediment of more than 0.25 cc (5% by volume of the 
original oil). 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing fuel 
oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum Speci- 
fications. 

FUEL OIL (NAVY STANDARD). 
General : 

1. This specification covers the grade of oil used by the United 
States Government and its agencies where a high grade fuel oil is 
required. 

2. Fuel oil shall be a hydrocarbon oil, free from grit, acid and 
importanc of obtaining such a sample cannot be over-estimated. Top, 
fibrous or other foreign matters likely to clog or injure the burners 
filters of wire gauze of 16 meshes to the inch. The clearance through 
the strainer shall be at least twice the area of the suction pipe and 
the strainers shall be in duplicate. 

Properties and Tests: 

3. Flash Point: The flash point shall not be lower than 150°F 
(Pensky-Martens closed tester). In case of oils having viscosity 
greater than 30 seconds at 150 °F (Saybolt Furol Viscosimeter) (8° 
Engler) the flash point shall not be below the temperature at which 
the oil has a viscosity of 30 seconds. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity shall not be greater than 140 seconds 
at 70°F (Saybolt Furol Viscosimeter). (40° Engler.) 

5. Sulphur: Sulphur shall not be over 1.59?. 

6. Water and Sediment: Water and sediment combined shall 
not amount to over 1.07^. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing fuel 
oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum Speci- 
fications. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 333 



BUNKER FUEL OIL "A." 
General: 

1. This specification covers the grade of fuel oil used by the 
United States Government and its agencies where a low viscosity oil 
is required. 

2. Fuel oil shall be a hydrocarbon oil, free from grit, acid and 
fibrous or other foreign matters likely to clog or injure the burners 
or valves. If required, it shall be strained by being drawn through 
filters of wire gauze of 16 meshes to the inch. The clearance through 
the strainer shall be at least twice the area of the suction pipe and 
the strainers shall be in duplicate. 

Properties and Tests: 

3. Flash Point: The flash point shall not be lower than 150°F 
(Pensky-Martens closed tester). In case of oils having viscosity 
greater than 30 seconds at 150°F (Saybolt Furol Viscosimeter) (8° 
Engler) the flash point shall not be below the temperature at which 
the oil has a viscosity of 30 seconds. 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity shall not be greater than 140 seconds 
at 70°F (Saybolt Furol Viscosimeter) (40° Engler). 

5. Water and Sediment: Water and sediment combined shall 
not amount to over 1.0%. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing fuel 
oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

BUNKER FUEL OIL "B." 
General : 

1. This specification covers the grade of fuel oil used by the 
United States Government and its agencies where a more viscous oil 
than Bunker Oil "A" can be used. 

2. Fuel oil shall be a hydrocarbon oil, free from grit, acid and 
fibrous or other foreign matters likely to clog or injure the burners 
or valves. If required, it shall be strained by being drawn through 
filters of wire gauze of 16 meshes to the inch. The clearance through 
the strainer shall be at least twice the area of the suction pipe, and 
the strainers shall be in duplicate. 

Properties and Tests: 

3. Flash Point: The flash point shall be not lower than 150° F 
(Pensky-Martens closed tester). 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity shall not be greater than 100 seconds 
at 122°F (Saybolt Furol Viscosimeter). 

5. Sediment and Water: The sediment and water combined 
shall not amount to over 1.0%. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing fuel 
oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

BUNKER FUEL OIL "C." 
General: 

1. This specification covers the grade of fuel oil used by the 
United States Government and its agencies where a high viscosity oil 
is satisfactory. 



334 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



2. Fuel oil shall be a hydrocarbon oil, free from grit, acid, and 
fibrous or other foreign matters likely to clog or injure the burners 
or valves. If required, it shall be strained by being drawn through 
filters of wire gauze of 16 meshes to the inch. The clearance through 
the strainers shall be at least twice the area of the suction pipe and 
the strainers shall be in duplicate. 

Properties and Tests: 

3. Flash Point: The flash point shall be not lower than 1.50°F 
(Pensky-Martens closed tester). 

4. Viscosity: The viscosity shall not be greater than 350 sec- 
onds at 122 °F (Saybolt Furol Viscosimeter). 

5. Water and Sediment : Water and sediment combined shall 
not amount to over 1.0%. 

All tests shall be made according to the methods for testing 
fuel oils adopted by the Committee on Standardization of Petroleum 
Specifications. 

Air Supply Required for Different Grades of Fuel. 

(William Kent) 

Pounds air per pound coal = 1.0.5 [11.52 C + 34.56 (H- -) ] 

8 



ULTIMATE COMPOSITION OF FUELS. 

Ultimate analysis of coal dried at 105°C. 



KIND OF COAL 


Anthra- 
cite 


Semi- 
Anthra- 
cite 


Semi- 
Bitum- 
inous 


Bitum- 
inous, 
Pa. 


Bitum- 
inous, 
Ohio 


Lig- 
nite, 
Tex. 


Crude 
Oil, 
Tex. 


Carbon 


76.86 
2.63 
2.27 
0.82 
0.78 

16.64 


78.32 
3.63 
2.25 
1.41 
2.03 

12.36 


86.47 
4.54 
2.68 
1.08 
0.57 
4.66 


77.10 
4.57 
6.67 
1.58 
0.90 
9.18 


75.82 
5.06 

10.47 
1.50 
0.82 
6.33 


64.84 
4.47 

16.52 
1.30 
1.44 

11.43 


84.8 

11.6 

1 \ 


Hydrogen 


Oxygen 


Nitrogen. 
Sulphur. . 


0.8 
1.7 


Ash 



Pounds of Air Required for Combustion. 



Per Lb. Dry Coal. . . . 
Per Lb. Combustible . 
Per Lb. Carbon 



14.50 
17.39 
18.86 



15.27 
17.42 
19.50 



17.12 
17.96 
19.40 



15.26 
16.81 
19.65 



15.04 
16.05 
19.84 



12.45 
14.06 
19.21 



20.60 
24.29 



fv, ^^'^'"^ ^^^ proximate analysis only, a close approximation to 
the number of pounds or air required per pound of combustible, in 
order to have the air supply SO'/r in excess, is as follows: 

A iu • Pounds 

Anthracite and semi-anthracite 17.4 

Semi-bituminous •_ , Ig 

Bituminous, Pennsylvania ' 17 

Bituminous, Ohio 16 

Lignite, Texas 140 

Crude Oil, Texas 20 6 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 335 



Total Heat Losses Due to Chimney Gases. 

L' + U + v. 

Loss From Unburned Carbon Monoxide. 

101.5 m c 

Lt = 

m + d 
Li = heat lost in B.T.U. per lb. of fuel due to incomplete combustion 

of carbon in flue gases, 
m = percent carbon monoxide in flue gas. 
c = percent carbon in fuel, 
d = percent carbon dioxide in flue gas. 

Loss From Specific Heat of Gases. 

L. = 0.24 W (T.-T,) 

Lj = heat lost in B.T.U. per lb. of fuel due to temperature of stack 

gases. 
T2 = stack temperature. 
Ti = air temperature. 
W : weight of flue gases per pound of fuel as found by flue gas 

analysis or = A + 1, A being pounds air used per one pound 

of fuel. 

Loss From Water Vapor. 

L, =: V (Ti-T.) + 965. (V-Va). 

Lt = Loss due to water vapor in the flue gases per pound of fuel. 
V = Pounds water vapor in flue gas per pound of fuel used. 
Va = Pounds water vapor in air per pound of fuel used. 

Fuel Loss in Ashes. 
H a, 
L4 = or = A P. 

H = heating value of ashes or refuse per pound of fuel. 

a, = percent mineral matter or ash in fuel used. 

as = percent mineral matter or ash in i-efuse. 

P = pounds of ashes or refuse per pound of fuel used. 

A = B.T.U. per pound of refuse. 

hi = loss in B.T.U. per pound of original fuel. 



336 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Properties and Requirements of One Pound of Various 

Fuel Elements. 





Carbon (C) 


Hydrogen (H) 


Sulphur (S) 




Carbon 


Water 


Sulphur 


Product 


Dioxide 




Dioxide 




CO2 


H,0 


SO2 


B. T. U. per pound burned 


14,600 


62,000 


4,050 


Oxygen consumed, pounds 


2.67 


7.94 


0.998 


Nitrogen in air, pounds 


8.89 


26.59 


3.342 


Air used, pounds 


11.56 


34.53 


4.34 


Oxygen consumed, cu. ft 


29.9 


89.0 


11.2 


Nitrogen in air, cu. ft 


113.3 


338.7 


42.6 


Air used, cu. ft., 32° F 


143.2 


427.7 


53.8 


Flue gas, pounds 


12.56 


35.53 


5.34 


Flue gas at 32° F., cu. ft 


143.2 


338.7 


53.8 


Flue gas at 525° F., cu. ft 


286.4 


1033.0 


107.6 



Total amount of flue gas at 525° F per lb. of fuel: 

In cubic feet z= 2.86 C + 10.33 H 4 25 N + 1.07 S — 1.30 

In pounds = .126C + .355H 4- .01 N + .053S — .0550 

C = Vf Carbon, H = % Hydrogen, N = % Nitrogen, S = % Sul- 
phur, = % Oxygen. 

Pounds water vapor in flue gas per pound of fuel = .0894 H. 

B.T.U. lost per lb. fuel on account of water vapor in flue gas at 
525°F = 117. H. 

Heating value of fuel (Dulong I'ormula adopted by A.S.M.E.) 

B.T.U. per lb. = 146 C + 620 (H--) + 40 S. 

8 

Pounds air required per lb. fuel = .116 C+ .345 (H--) +.438. 

8 

Cu. ft. air at 100°F per lb. fuel = 1.63 C + 4.87 (H--) + .628. 

8 



used. 



Add 50% to these values for practice in which 50% excess air is 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



337 



Fuel Losses in Practice. 



Heat Absorbed 
and Losses Itemized 



Heat absorbed by boiler 

Loss due to free moisture in 
coal 

Loss due to water vapor 

Loss due to heat in dry flue 
gases 

Loss due to carbon monoxide . . 

Loss due to combustible in ash 
and refuse 

Loss due to heating moisture in 
air 

Loss due to unconsumed hydro- 
gen, hydrocarbon, radiation 
and unaccounted for 



Calorific value of coal . 



Highest 
Attain- 
able 
Efli- 
ciency 



89.86 

0.50 

4.20 

5.33 
0.00 

0.00 

0.11 

0.00 



100.00% 



Excel- 
lent 

Prac- 
tice 



80.0 

0.5 

4.2 

10.0 
0.2 

1.5 

0.2 

3.4 



100.0 



/c 



Good 
Prac- 
tice 



75.0 

0.6 
4.3 

13.0 
0.3 

2.4 

0.2 

4.2 



Aver- 
age 

Prac- 
tice 



65.0 

0.6 
4.3 

17.5 
0.5 

^•• 
4.5 

0.3 



7.3 



100.07c 100. 07f 



Poor 
Prac- 
tice 



60.0 

f 

0.7 

4.4 

20.0 
1.0 
It 

5.5 
rpi 
0.4 



8.0 



100.0% 



ZO^J^^.TU S,OpO 



laoo 



/5,000 



eoooo 




e% 4 7o ex &% /ox. /e% mz /^ -. 's-. 
Fig. 70 — Heat Losses in Oil Furnaces Due to Excess of Air. 



338 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Radiant Heat. 

With poorly installed setting where insulation is not properly at- 
tended to, radiation losses may amount to as much as from 6 to 87c. 
Whatever the extent of the loss may be, it is usually neglected in 
the average plant and it is an actual fact that in 9 plants out of 
10 it can be cut in two with a comparatively small expenditure 
for insulating material and careful attention to the work. 




^^ff//)r/^<f mmr^mm^^m^ 



/,000 £,000 3,000 -^,000 
Kir. 71- II. at Transmission of Iladiant Heat in Fuel Oil 



Furnaces. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 339 



Stack Design for Oil Furnaces. 

Stacks for oil-burning equipment differ considerably from those 
for solid fuels as relatively slight drafts are required. 

The following table prepared by Weymouth is based on actual 
test data. Centrally situated stacks, short flues, average operating 
efficiencies and a permissible overload of 50 per cent are assumed. 

STACK SIZES FOR OIL FUEL. 





Height Above Boiler-room Floor, Feet 


Stack Diameter, 


80 


90 100 


120 


140 


160 


Inches 














Nominal Rated Boiler, Horsepower 


33 


161 


206 


233 


270 


306 


315 


36 


208 


253 295 


331 


363 


387 


39 


251 


303 343 


399 


488 


467 


42 


295 


359 i 403 


474 


521 


557 


48 


399 


486 ' 551 


645 


713 


760 


54 


519 


634 


720 


847 


933 


1,000 


60 


657 


800 


913 


1,073 


1,193 


1,280 


66 


813 


993 1,133 


1,333 


1,480 


1,593 


72 


980 


1,206 1,373 


1,620 


1,807 


1,940 


84 


1,373 


1,587 


1,933 


2,293 


2,560 


2,767 


96 


1,833 


2,260 


2,587 


3,087 


3,453 


3,740 


108 


2,367 


2,920 3,347 


4,000 


4,483 


4,867 


120 


3,060 


3,660 4,207 


5,040 


5,660 


6,160 



340 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Heat of Combustion of Various Substances. 



Acetylene 

Alcohol, grain 

Alcohol, wood 

Asphalt, 60° penetration 

Asphalt, hard, from petroleum . . 
Asphalt, blown, from petroleum . 

Benzol 

Cane sugar 

Carbon or coke 

Carbon Monoxide (CO) 

Cellulose 

Coal, Penn. Anthracite 

Coal, West Va. Bituminous 

Coal, Wyo. Lignite 

Coal, No. Dak. Lignite 

Coal, Kansas Bituminous 

Coal, Illinois Bituminous 

Coal, cannel (Missouri) 

Coal, peat 

Coke (from bituminous coal) . . . . 

Coke, Petroleum 

Cottonseed oil 

Fuel oil 

Gas, coal, min 

max 

Gas, methane 

Gas, water 

Gas, hydrogen 

Gasoline, average 

Gilsonite 

Glycerin 

Graphite 

Hydrogen (Ha) 

Iron 

Methane (CHJ ....'. 

Naphthalene 

Oil Gas 

Paraffin wax 

Producer gas 

Shale oil 

Shale (Bituminous — Colorado) 

Shale (spent) 

Starch 

Stearic acid 

Sulphur 

Tallow .... 
Wood 



Calories 


B. T. U. 


per Gram 


per Lb. 


Combustible 


of Combustible 


Matter 


Matter 


11,527 


20,749 


7,054 


12,697 


5,330 


9,594 


9,532 


17,159 


9,989 


17,980 


10,210 


18,380 


10,030 


18,054 


3,961 


7,130 


8,137 


14,647 


2,435 


4,383 


4,208 


7,575 


8,266 


14,880 


8,778 


15,800 


7,444 


13,400 


6,411 


11,540 


8,461 


15,230 


8,056 


14,500 


8,980 


16,165 


5,940 


10,692 


8,047 


14,485 


8,017 


14,503 


9,500 


17,100 


10,833 


19,500 


4,440 


7,990 


7,370 


12,266 


13,344 


24,019 


2,350 


4,230 


34,462 


62,032 


11,528 


20,750 


9,944 


17,900 


4,316 


7,769 


7,901 


14,222 


34,500 


62,100 


1,582 


2,848 


13,343 


24,017 


9,690 


17,442 


10,800 


19,440 


11,140 


20,050 


773 + 


1,391 + 


10,970 


19,750 


4,430 


7,975 


1,080 


1,944 


4,228 


7,610 


9,374 


16,873 


2,241 


4,034 


9,500 


17,100 


4,750 


8,550 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



341 



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342 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



343 



Melting Point and Heat of Fusion of Various 

Substances. 





MELTING POINT 


Heat of Fusion 


NAME 


Calories 
per Gram 


B. T.U. 
per Lb. 


Acetic acid 


3 °C= 37.4° F 
—75 ° C= 103.0° F 
—7 ° C = +19.4° F 1 
62 ° C= 143.6° F 
2 °C= 35.6° F 
266.8° C= 514.0° F 
— 7.3°C= 18.8° F 
321 ° C= 610.0° F 
774 °C=1426.0°F 
—56.3° C= 133.4° F 
1221 °C=2330.0°F 
1093 °C=2000.0°F 
—103.5° C= 154.0° F 
1055 °C=1930.0°F 
34 °C= 93.2° F 
13 °C= 55.4° F 
13 °C= 55.4° F 
° C = 32 ° F 
325 ° C= 617.0° F 
38.7° C- 37.7° F 
79.2° C= 175.0° F 
— 9.2°C= 15.4° F 
1500.0° C =2732.0° F 
50.0° C= 122.0° F 
25.4° C= 77.9° F 
27.4° C= 81.4° F 
1779.0° C =3234.0° F 
58.0° C= 136.4° F 
360.4° C= 681.0° F 
999.0° C =1830.0° F 
1750.0° C =3183.0° F 
96.5° C= 206.0° F 
804.0° C =1479.0° F 
992.0° C =1818.0° F 
318.0° C= 604.0° F 
45.0° C= 113.0° F 
64.0° C=- 147.0° F 
115 0° C= 239.0° F 
290.0° C= 554.0° F 
228 0° C= 442.0° F 
415.3° C= 780.0° F 


43.7 
108.1 

21.0 1 
42.3 

29 . 1 
12.64 
16.2 
13.7 
54.6 
43.8 
23.0 ; 
32.0 : 
22.96 
43.0 
26.3 
19.1 
42.5 
80.0 

5 86 
2.75 
35.5 
22.3 
36.3 
35.1 
24.9 

4.74 

27.2 

15.7 

28.6 

21.1 

258.0 

31.7 

123.5 

186.1 

40,0 

37.0 

47.6 

9.37 

7.2 

13.3 

28.1 


78.7 


Ammonia (NH3) 

Anilin 


194.6 

37.8 


Beeswax 


76.1 


Benzol 


52.4 


Bismuth 


22.7 


Bromine 


29.2 


Cadmium 

Calcium Chloride (CaCl^; 
Carbon dioxide 


24.7 
98.3 
78.8 


Cast Iron — gray 

white 

Chlorine 


41.4 
57.6 
41.4 


Copper 


77.4 


Cresol .... 


47.3 


Gallium 


34.4 


Glycerin 


76.5 


Ice 


144.0 


Lead 


10.5 


Mercury 


4.95 


Naphthalene 


63.9 


Nitrobenzol 


40.1 


Palladium 


65.3 


Paraffin 


63.3 


Phenol 


44.8 


Phosphorus 


^^ 


Platinum 


49.0 


Potassium 


28.3 


Potassium Hydroxide . . . 

Silver 

Silica 


51.5 

38.0 

464.5 


Sodium 


57.1 


Sodium Chloride 

Sodium Fluoride 

Sodium Hydroxide 

Spermeceti . 


222.3 

335.0 

72.0 

66.6 


Stearic Acid 


85.7 


Sulphur 


16.9 


Thallium 


12.9 


Tin 


23 9 


Zinc 


50.6 



344 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Heat of Vaporization and Boiling Point of Various 

Substances. 



NAME 



Temperature of Boiling 
(Pressure not given) 



Heat of Vaporization 



Calories 
per Gram 



B. T. U. 

per Lb. 



Acetic acid 

Acetone 

Alcohol (ethyl) 

Alcohol (methyl, wood) 
Ammonia (1 atmos.) . . . 

Ammonia 

Ammonium Chloride . . 

Amyl Alcohol 

Amyl Chloride 

Amylene 

Aniline 

Benzol 

Butyl Alcohol 

Butyric Acid 

Carbon Dioxide 

Carbon Bisulphide .... 
Carbon Tetrachloride. . 

Chloroform 

Cresol 

Chlorine 

Decane 

Ether 

Ethyl Acetate 

Formic Acid 

Gasoline 

Heptane 

Hexane 

Hexylene 

Hydrogen Sulphide. . . . 

Iodine 

Mercury 

Methyl Acetate ^ . . . . . 

Nitric Acid 

Nitrogen 

Nitrous Oxide 

Nitrobenzol 

Octane 

Oxygen 

Pentane 

Propyl Alcohol . . . . 

Sulphur 

Sulphur Dioxide 

Sulj)huric Acid 

Sulphur Trioxide. 

Toluol 

Turpentine. . . 

Xylol.... 

Water 



40 



110 

56 

70 

64 

-33 

17 

350 

131 

107 

12 

183 

80 

83 

163 

46 
76 
60 

201 
-22 

159 
34 
73 

100 

-150 

90 

68 

-61 

174 

350 

57 

86 

-195 

-20 

151 

120 

-188 

30 

90 

316 



326 

18 

110 

160 

139 

108 



.0° 

.6° 

.0° 

.5° 

.5° 

.0° 

.0° 

.0° 

.0 ' 

.5° 

.0° 

.0° 

.0° 

.0° 

.0° 

.2° 

.2° 

.9° 

.6° 

.0° 



.6^ 
.6= 
.5^ 



5° C 
9° C 



.1° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.4° 
.0° 
.0° 

.1° 

.0° 
.6° 
.0° 
.5° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.0° 
.8° 
.0° 
.9° 
.0° 



= 230.0° 

= 133.8° 

= 158.0° 

= 148.2° 

= —28.3° 

= 62.6° 

= 662.0° 

= 268.0° 

= 224 

= 54 

-- 360 

= 176.0' 

= 181.4' 

= 325.4' 

= 32.0' 

= 115.2' 

= 169.2' 

= 141.6' 

= 395.0' 
7.6' 

= 319.0" 

= 94.8' 

= 163.6' 

= 212.0' 
=104-300' 

= 194.0' 

= 154.4' 

= 32.0' 

= 78.5' 

= 345.0' 

= 662.0' 

= 134.8' 

= 186.8' 

= 320.0' 

= —4.0' 

= 305.0' 

= 248.0' 
= —306.0' 

= 86.0' 

= 194.0' 

= 601.0' 
32.0' 

= 619.0' 

= 64.4= 

= 231.0' 

= 320.0' 

= 284.0' 

= 226.0' 



92.8 
155.2 
208.92 
267.5 
341.0 
297.0 
709.0 
120.0 
56.3 
75.0 
104.2 
93.45 
130.4 
114.0 
56.25 
86.67 
46.4 
58.49 
100.5 
67.4 
60.8 



91 

84 

120 



.11 
.3 

.4 



75.00 

77.8 



.4 

.7 



79. 
92. 

132.0 
23.95 
62.0 
97.0 

115.1 
47.65 
67.0 
79.2 
71.4 
58.0 
85.8 

169.0 

362.0 
91.7 



.1 

.4 



122. 

147. 
84.0 
74.0 
82.0 

535.9 



167.0 
279.3 
376.0 
481.5 
614.0 
534.6 
1276.0 
216.0 
101 3 
135.0 
187.5 
168.2 
234.7 
205.2 
101.25 
156.0 

83.5 
105.30 
180.9 
121.3 
109.4 
164.0 
151.7 
216.7 
135.0 
140.0 
142.9 
166.8 
237.6 

43.10 
111.60 
174.6 
207.2 

85.8 
120.6 
142.5 
128.5 
104.4 
154.4 
304.2 
651.5 
165.0 
219.8 
265.3 
151.2 
133.2 
147.6 
964.6 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



345 



Specific Heat of Various 

Acetic acid— solid . 627 

liquid . 502 

Acetone . 528 

Alcohol Methyl— absolute . 600 

Alcohol Ethyl— 95 % . 700 

Alumina 0.197 

Aluminum 0.2185 

AUyl Alcohol 0.665 

Ammonia (0° C) 0.876 

(20° C) 1.190 

(70° C) 1.233 

Ammonium Nitrate (64%) 0.610 

Amyl Alcohol . 455 

Amylene 1 . 060 

Anilin 0.512 

Antimony . 495 

Asphalt . 550 

Benzol— fluid . 407 

solid 0.397 

Beeswax 0.820 

Bismuth 0.305 

Bismuth— liquid . 0308 

Brass 0.0939 

Brick work and masonry . . 200 

Brine, 25% 0.8073 

Cadmium 0.1804 

Carbon bisulphide 0.240 

Carbon (diamond) . 145 

Carbon dioxide . 215 

Carbon (graohite) . 186 

Carbon tetrachloride 0.2C3 

Calcium chloride sol.(407c) . 636 

Cast Iron O.ISO 

Cellulose . 33 

Chalk 0.215 

Charcoal 0.214 

Chlorine— solid f 108° C).. 0.1446 
Chlorine— liquid (0° C).. . 0.2230 

Coal, average . 220 

Coke 0.203 

Copper 0.0933 

Concrete . 20 

Corundum 0.198 

Cresol 0.553 

Ether . 5034 

Flint and rocks in general. 0.200 

Fuel oil . 550 

Fusel oil . 5640 

Gallium— solid . 079 

Gallium— liquid . 80 

Gasoline 0.475 

Gas oil . 500 

Glass— plate 0.186 

Glass — common 0.117 



Substances Solid and Liquid 

Glycerin 0.576 

Gold 0.316 

Granite 0.190 

Graphite 0.202 

Gypsum, sulphate of lime. 0.197 

Heptane 0.487 

Hexane . 504 

Hexadecane 0.496 

Ice 0.505 

Iodine 0.057 

Iron 0.1130 

Kerosene . 490 

Lead— liquid 0.0402 

Lead 0.0315 

Limestone . 210 

Manganese . 1217 

Magnesium 0.245 

Marble 0.208 

Mercury . 0331 

Naphthalene 0.314 

Nickel 0.1091 

Nonane . 503 

Octane 0.505 

Paraffin Wax . 563 

Pentane 0.476 

Petroleum . 505 

Phenol 0.561 

Phosphorus (red) . 1698 

Phosphorus (yellow) . 202 

Platinum 0.0323 

Quartz and sand . 190 

Quicklime 0.217 

Rubber 0.481 

Selerium (cryst.) 0.084 

Seler.ium (amorph.) . 112 

Seawater ^51 

Silver 0.0568 

Soda Ash 0.231 

Solium chloride (26%). . . 0.780 
Sodium nitrate (47%).... 0.708 
Sulphuric acid (solid) .... 0.2349 
Sulphuric acid (liquid). . . 0.3315 
Sulphuric acid (85%,). ... 0.406 

Sulphur chloride 0.202 

Sulphur 0.1844 

Sulphur liquid 0.2340 

Sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1.87) . 3350 

Tin 0-.0559 

Toluol 0.363 

Turpentine 472 

Wood (dry) 0.327 

Wood (wet) . 500 

Zinc Chloride (68%).... 0.437 
Zinc 0.0938 



346 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Specific Heat of Gases and Vapors. 



Acetone 

Acetic acid 

Air 

Alcohol 

Ammonia 

Argon 

Benzol 

Blast furnace gas 

Carbonic acid, CO2 

Carbon monoxide CO 

Chlorine 

Chloroform 

Ether 

Flue Gas, 10%, CO2 

Hydrogen 

Hydrogen chloride 

Methane, CH., ]][ 

Nitrous Oxide 

Nitrogen 

Olefiant gas, C2H4 (ethylene) ................. 

Oxygen 

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 

Superheated steam (water vapor) (atmospheric 

pressure 

Helium 

Carbon bisulphide (CS2) 
Nhric oxide 



Constant 
Pressure 



. 3740 

0.4125 

0.23751 

0.4534 

0.508 

0.123 

0.332 

0.2277 

0.217 

0.2479 

0.124 

0.1567 

0.4797 

0.318 

3.40900 

0.194 

0.5929 

0.224 

0.24380 

0.404 

0.21751 

0.1553 

0.4805 
1.250 
0.1596 
0.2317 



Constant 
Volume 



0.16847 

0.399 

0.299 



0.171 
. 1758 



0.3411 
'2. 41226 



0.4683 



. 17273 
0.332 
0.15507 
0.1246 

0.346 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 347 



Thermal Units. 

The BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (B. T. U.) is the heat required 
to raise the temperature of one pound of water, one degree Fahr. 
(average between 32° and 212° F). As one kilogram is equal to 
2.20462 pounds and one degree Cent, is equal to 9/5 degrees Fahr. the 
large calorie is 3.96832 (2.20462 X 9/5) times as great as the Brit- 
ish Thermal Unit, the small calorie being 0.00396832 times the Brit- 
ish thermal unit. 

The SxMALL CALORIE is the amount of heat required to raise 
the temperature of one gram of water one degree Cent, (from 0° to 
1°, 4° to 5°, or 15° to 16° being used, giving slightly different 
values.) 

The LARGE CALORIE is the amount of heat required to raise 
the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Cent. It is 
therefore one thousand times as large as the small calorie. 

The HEAT OF COMBUSTION of a substance is the number of 
small or large calories of heat evolved during the combustion of a 
gram or a kilogram of the substance. 

Using the English weights and measures, it is the number of 
B.T.U. of heat evolved during the combustion of one pound of the 
substance. To convert the former into the latter value the number 
of calories must be multiplied by 1.8 (3.96832 -^ 2.20462). 

The HEAT OF FORMATION of a substance is the number of 
calories of heat evolved or absorbed when a gram molecular weight 
of the substance is formed. When heat is absorbed, the value found 
is negative. 

The MELTING POINT of the substance is the temperature at 
which the solid or liquid forms are capable of existing together in 
equilibrium. 

The BOILING POINT of a liquid is the highest temperature at 
which the liquid and its pure vapor can exist together in equilibrium. 
This temperature varies with the pressure. 

The SPECIFIC HEAT of a substance is the ratio of the number 
of thermal units necessary to raise the temperature of a substance 
one degree, divided by the number of thermal units necessary to raise 
the same weight of water at 60 °F one degree. It may also be de- 
fined as the number of thermal units required to raise the tempera- 
ture of one gram of a substance one degree Centigrade. 

The HEAT OF FUSION of a substance is the number of thermal 
units required to change a unit mass of the solid at its melting point 
into liquid at the same temperature. 

The HEAT OF VAPORIZATION of a liquid is the number of 
thermal units required to change a unit mass of the liquid at its boil- 
ing point into vapor at the same temperature. 

TEMPERATURE UNIT. or thermal intensity is measured in 
degrees Centigrade (Celsius)' or degrees Fahrenheit. One degree 
Cent, is one one-hundredth of the fliffcrence of temperature between 
the freezing point of water and its boiling point at 760 millimeters 
pressure as indicated by the expansion of mercury. A degree Fahr. 
is one one-hundred eightieth of the difference of temperature between 
the freezing point of water and the boiling point of water. 

MECHANICAL EQUIVALENT OF HEAT— 779.4 ft. pounds = 1 
B.T.U. 



348 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



^ ^ BAUhfE' ^n 


AVtTY 

S i$ K K Gi 






































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Fit,'. 72- SI. ale Oil Fractional Gravity Before and After Cracking. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 349 



Distillation Products of Coal and Oil Shale. 

Oil shale is a stratified sedimentary rock in which are found 
numerous fragments of fossil plants and animals, principally aquatic 
form. Oil shale in its natural form does" not contain any oil what- 
ever but it does contain on the average about 35% of organic matter. 
The mineral base of oil shale presents a suggestion as to the origin 
of the organic matter. The mineral is a hydrous silicate of alumina 
and as a general rule hydrous silicates of alumina have great ab- 
sorptive power for hydrocarbons of large molecular weight. A typical 
one, Bentonite, as well as Fuller's Earth, has the property of decol- 
orizing and removing complex matter from hydrocarbon oils. Oil 
shale may then be compared with Fuller's Earth which has turned 
black or greenish black after absorbing a large amount of coloring 
matter from petroleum. This may readily have taken place while 
the petroleum was vaporizing. This organic matter when subjected 
to pyrogenic distillation forms the following products: 

Fuel oil or shale oil, 20.25% equal to 405 lbs. or 54 gal. per ton. 

Water, 4.08% equal to 83 lbs. or 10 gal. 

Combustible gas 8.86% equal to 1,605 cubic cubic feet. 

Ammonia as ammonium sulphate, 0.90% = 34 lbs. ammonium 
sulphate. 

Mineral matter and carbonaceous residue 66.0%. 

With a low temperature distillation, larger amounts of heavier 
fuel oil are obtained. With the higher temperature distillation, 
smaller amounts of shale oil containing more or less naphtha and 
burning oil are obtained. 

A typical distillation of oil shale is as follows: 
Commercial Fractions : 

Naphtha (410°F) "gasoline" 10.0% (46° Baume') 

Burning oil 18.2% 

Gas and lubricating oil 61.8% 

Residue 10.0% 

Fractional Distillation of Oil: 

Fraction Boiling point Gravity (25°C) 

0- 10 100°C 0.794 = 46.3°Be' 

10- 20 194 0.822 = 40.3°Be' 

20- 30 230 0.846 = 35.5°Be' 

30- 40 255 0.867 = 31.5°Be' 

40- 50 285 0.885 =: 28.2''Be' 

50- 60 309 0.899 = 25.7°Be' 

60- 70 328 0.912 = 23.5°Be' 

70- 80 337 0.900 = 25.5°Be' 

80- 90 345 0.910 = 23.8°Be' 

90-100 350 0.910 = 23.8°Be' 

This product in many respects resembles ordinary crude petro- 
leum and for this reason the shale oil industry has aroused great 
interest on account of its possible substitution for petroleum. Shale 
oil, however, is utilized in only a few countries, chiefly Scotland, 
though oil shale is very widely distributed throughout the world. The 
oil shale resources of the United States are so extensive as to fur- 
nish an effective guarantee for the future when the underground 
reservoirs of petroleum are exhausted. The cost of obtaining the 



350 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



shale oil, however, will in all probability far exceed the present cost 
of obtaining- petroleum. It is possible that the mining of petroleum 
by shafts will be resorted to before it is necessary to depend upon 
oil shale as a source of fuel oil. Many difficulties of mining, pro- 
duction, refining and marketing of shale oil must be overcome. Much 
of the known oil shale is remote from routes of transportation in a 
territory difficult of access and is far removed from points of fuel 
oil consumption. Methods of mining and transportation must be 
developed; processes of extracting the oil from the shale must be 
perfected; improved methods of refining which do not entail large 
losses must be worked out. Present methods of refining crude oil 
cannot be profitably applied to the refining of shale oil on account of 
the different chemical character. Most oil shale is a tough, brown- 
ish to black fine grained rock. It is riot an article of commerce ex- 
cept possibly as a road building material and it cannot be transported 
any great distance from the point where it is mined. The mineral mat- 
ter is the greater portion of its content and is essentially a disin- 
tegrated feldspar impregnated with the organic matter. The com- 
position of the mineral ash of a shale found in Colorado is as follows: 

Loss on ignition 11.05% 

Silica (SiO.) 37.10% 

Alumina (AKOs) 20.30% 

Iron Oxide (Fe.Os) 9.20% 

Lime (CaO) 12.05% 

Magnesia ,..(MgO) 5.10% 

Sulphur (SO3) 4.80% 

Alkalies and difference 0.40% 



100.00% 



It is estimated that in Colorado alone there is enough shale to 
produce 20,000 million barrels of oil and 300 million tons of am- 
monium sulphate. 

Oil shale is mined somewhat like coal and is then crushed to con- 
venient size and roasted in retorts, in which its volatile constituents 
are driven off. In Scotland and France, the only countries where 
the oil shale industry has yet been established, the shale is fed by 
gravity from a storage hopper into the top of a vertical cylindrical 
retort; in which it is allowed to move slowly downward while it is 
being roasted until it is discharged from the lower end as waste. The 
heat is applied externally in such a manner that the temperature in- 
creases downward in the retort. The temperature in the upper third 
\. n^!^o^ where all the oil gases are driven off does not rise 
above 900 F; the temperature in the lower part of the retort is 
raised to about 1600°F in order to convert the maximum amount of 
nitrogen in the shale into ammonia. The gases and vapors formed in 
the retort are conveyed through condensing and scrubbing apparatus 
to separate and clean the oil and ammonia. The oil is then refined 
by methods similar to those used in refining petroleum and the am- 
monia IS converted into ammonium sulphate by treatment with sul- 
phuric acid. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



351 



TEMP. 

5 § 8 g g g 



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Fig. 73 — Shale Oi! Distilling Temperature Before and After Cracking. 



352 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Occurrence and Distribution. — Oil shale, like coal, occurs in beds 
that range in age from Devonian to Tertiary. The principal beds 
of oil shale in Scotland, France and Canada are in the older forma- 
tions, but the richest and largest deposits in the United States are in 
the Green River formation, of Eocene (Tertiary) age. 

Shale from which oil can he distilled probably occurs in nearly 
all countries but it has been reported in comparatively few, either 
because it is so similar in appearance to ordinary carbonaceous shale 
or because there has been so little demand for it while petroleum 
has been plentiful that no special search has been made for it. 

In North America, oil shale occurs in both Canada and the United 
States but is commercially undeveloped. The richest shales in the 
Rocky Mountains region of the United States are of Tertiary age but 
large areas in the eastern part of the United States and eastern 
Canada are underlain by dark shales of Paleozoic age that are in 
many places as rich in organic matter from which oil can be dis- 
tilled as those that are mined commercially in Scotland and France. 

Comparatively little is known about oil shale in South America 
though it is said to occur in Argentina, at several localities in Brazil 
and in Chile. Unsuccessful attempts have been made to distill oil 
profitably from oil shale in eastern Brazil but the failure is reported 
to have been due to mismanagement rather than to the poor quality 
of the shale. 

In Africa, thin beds of shale capable of yielding oil when dis- 
tilled are reported from Angola, the Belgian Congo, Natal and the 
Transvaal but the shale is mined in none of these countries and the 
thickness, richness and extent of most of the deposits are not re-, 
ported. Perhaps the largest area underlain by oil shale is in the Bel- 
gian Congo. 

In Europe, the commercial development of the oil shale industry 
began early in the nineteenth century before the rise of the modern 
petroleum industry. In 1913, the world's output of oil shale was 
3,591,810 metric tons of which 3,573.810 tons were mined in Europe. 
About 91 per cent was produced in Scotland, 8 per cent in the Autun 
and Aumance districts in France and the remainder in Australia, 
Germany and Italy. In Scotland, the oil shale industry has been 
able to compete successfully with the petroleum industry because of 
the output of valuable by-products made in connection with the oil 
and because of the remoteness of Scotland from the principal sources 
of petroleum — southern Russia and the United States. Large de- 
posits of oil shale are reported to occur in northern Russia. 

Oil shale in Asia is not mentioned in reports but valuable de- 
posits may nevertheless exist there even in areas that have been cov- 
ered by geologic studies. 

In Oceanica some oil shale has been mined and distilled at sev- 
eral places in Australia (most of them in New South Wales) and in 
New Zealand, but the total shale of oil produced in all these places 
has been less than one per cent of the world's output and in none 
of them is oil shale now mined. In all the areas where oil shale is 
reported the beds are thin. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 353 



Position of the United States. — When petroleum was discovered 
in quantity in the United States in 1859, oil was being distilled from 
cannel coal (whence the term "coal oil") but no record has been 
found of large production of oil from shale in this country. There 
are, however, extensive reserves of material sufficiently rich to justify 
the hope that it may form the basis of a great industry and during 
the last ten years progress has been made in perfecting processes 
for the commercial distillation of oil from domestic oil shale. The 
valuable deposits of oil shale in North America are widely distributed 
and include beds ranging in age from Devonian to Eocene. Local 
conditions such as remoteness from, a supply of petroleum and near- 
ness to a sufficient market, have heretofore made it possible to de- 
velop an oil shale industry in Scotland, France, Australia and New 
Zealand and in view of a possible shortage in the world's supply of 
petroleum in the near future, it seems probable that an oil shale in- 
dustry may be developed even in such countries as the United States 
where petroleum is now abundant. The largest foreign deposits of 
oil sTiale are apparently in Brazil and Russia but the most valuable 
deposits in the world are probably those of Colorado, Utah and Wy- 
oming. 

While shale unquestionably is an enormous reserve for fuel oil, 
it is not so valuable for gasoline. Shale oil holds a position between 
petroleum and coal tar. Coal, tar is not yet satisfactorily treated or 
cracked for the production of gasoline. Shale oil makes a very poor 
naphtha in that it contains a very large per cent of olefins. The ole- 
fins are (decreased materially by cracking at high pressures particu- 
larly in the presence of hydrogen. The accompanying graphs show 
the effect of high pressure cracking in the character of the hydro- 
carbons in shale oil. 

Refining Practice for Shale Oil.* 

In refining Scotch shale oil a loss of about 22 per cent is in- 
curred, chiefly in the form of compounds with chemicals used in the 
treatment. This is over four times the average loss incurred in re- 
fining American petroleum. Products made from the crude oil are 
naphtha, including scrubber naphtha, 9.9 per cent; burning oils, 24.7 
per cent; gas and fuel oils, 24.4 per cent; lubricating oils, 6.6 per cent; 
paraffin wax, 9.5 per cent; still coke, 2 per cent. Satisfactory mo- 
tor fuels, burning oils and fuel oils are produced. The lubricating 
oils are not particularly viscous and are not, thercfoi'e, adapted for 
heavy duty work, such as use in internal combustion motors, high 
pressure bearings, and the like. A very good quality of paraffin wax 
is produced which is used chiefly for candle making. The still coke 
is of rather poor quality, being contaminated with the chemicals used 
in refining the oils, and on this account does not bring a very good 
price. Some oil is recovered from the compounds or sludges formed 
in chemical treatment of the oils, and this recovered oil is used as 
part of the fuel in the refinery. At the same time considerable acid 
is recovered from the sludges, and is used either in treating other 
oil or in the production of ammonium sulphate. 

At the present time it is imposnble to accurately estmiate the 
cost of producing shale oil from American oil shales, and therefore im- 



354 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



possible to arrive at any satisfactory estimate of possible profit. By 
basing our calculations on Scotch practice, however, it is possible 
to give an idea of some of the requirements for an oil shale 
industry in this country. Assume that an industry producing and re- 
fining 50,000 barrels of shale oil per day had been developed in the 
State of Colorado. This could hardly be termed a large industry nor 
would it go far in supplying the demands of the nation, which at 
the present time is using nearly ] ,250,000 barrels of petroleum per 
day, but if we assume that the shale yielded forty-two gallons of oil 
to the ton, 50,000 tons of shale would have to be mined each day. I 
will not venture to predict how many tons of shale a man can mine 
in this country per day, but in Scotland each man produces about 
four and one-half tons. Knowing that the American coal miner is 
a better producer than the British coal miner, for the sake of mak- 
ing an illustration, assume that the American miner will produce ten 
tons per day. The assumed industry would then require at least 
5,000 miners, nearly half as many miners as are employed in pro- 
ducing coal in Colorado at the present time. 

If Scotch shale i-etorts were used the retorting plant investment 
necessary for the 50,000-barrel industry would be over $160,000,000, 
based on present estimates of the cost of Scotch retorts, and the 
refining equipment necessary would require another $50,000,000, if we 
base estimates on the capital required for building refineries for the 
complete refining of petroleum. Of course, these figures may not 
apply to American shales and practice, but they give an idea of the 
capital required by an oil shale industry. 

In addition to the large capital required for an oil shale industry^ 
there are many serious technical and economic problems to be solved 
before the industry can hope to succeed in a large way. As yet we do 
not know what type of process will be required to handle our shales 
successfully and at a profit, and we know very little regarding the 
methods of refining these oils or what quality of finished products 
can be made from them. A large oil shale industry will require a 
large quantity of labor, and this labor must be obtained and housed. 

Starting with shale, adding heat and steam, and treating the 
water and gas removed, there has now been produced spent shale of 
no value, gas which is burned in the retort furnaces to supply heat 
for the distillation operations, sulphate of ammonia which is ready 
for the market, and a crude oil which requires refining to yield mar- 
ketable products. A ton of Scotch oil shale, in the treatment of which 
about 100 gallons of water have been used, produces at the present 
time about 24.5 gallons of crude oil, 36 pounds of ammonium sul- 
phate, 10,000 cubic feet of gas of about 240 B. T. U. heat value and 
about 1,600 pounds of spent shale. 

In general Scotch shale oil refining is similar to petroleum re- 
tming, but because shale oil contains a greater percentage of ob- 
jectionable compounds than ordinary petroleum the refinery operation 
^ more complicated and more costly than average petroleum refining, 
briefly stated, Scotch shale oils are subjected to more distillation 
ami more chemical treatments than is petroleum when the latter is 
refined. 

*For complete references on oil shale see Reports of Investiga- 
tions of Bureau of Mines No. 2256, 2176. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



355 



FRACTIONAL GRAA^ITY DISTILLATION ANALYSIS OF 
SHALE OIL BEFORE CRACKING. 

Laboratory Number 46258, Original Shale Oil. 

Specific Gravity, 0.920; °Be' U. S. 22.1°; °Be' Tag. 22.3°. 

Color, Brownish Black; Sulphur=0.49% B.T.U.%18,425. 



% 


Temp. °F. 


Gravity of Fract on 


Gravity of 
Total Over 


Gravity of 
Stream 










0.790=47.6° Be' 


5 


330 
368 


0.790 = 47.6° Be' 


0.790=47.6° Be' 


0.802=44.9° Be' 
0.814=42.3° Be' 


10 


378 
398 


0.814=42.3° Be' 


0.802 = 44.9° Be' 


0.823=40.4° Be' 
0.833 = 38.3° Be' 


15 


413 
426 


0.833=38.3° Be' 


0.812=42.7° Be' 


0.839=37.1° Be' 
0.845=35.9° Be' 


20 


446 
464 


0.845=35.9° Be' 


0.820 = 41.0° Be' 


0.853=34.4° Be' 
0.861=32.8° Be' 


25 


479 
494 


0.861 = 32.8° Be' 


0.828=39.4° Be' 


0.869 = 31.3° Be' 
0.876=30.0° Be' 


30 


516 
530 


0.876=30.0° Be' 


0.836=37.7° Be' 


0.883=28.7° Be' 
0.890=27.5° Be' 


35 


543 
552 


0.890 = 27.5° Be' 


0.844=36.1° Be' 


0.895=26.6° Be' 
0.900=25.7° Be' 


40 


576 
586 


0.900 = 25.7° Be' 


0.851 = 34.8° Be' 


0.905=24.8° Be' 
909=24.1° Be' 


45 


599 
604 


0.909 = 24.2° Be' 


0.857 = 33.6° Be' 


0.910 = 24.0° Be' 
0.911=23.8° Be' 


50 


613 


0.911=23.8° Be' 


0.867 = 31.7° Be' 


0.916=23.0° Be' 
0.922=21,9° Be' 


55 


Gas 


0.922=21.9° Be' 


0.872=30.7° Be' 


0.928=21.0° Be' 
0.934=20.0° Be' 


60 


Gas 


0.934 = 20.0° Be' 


0.877=29.8° Be' 


0.937 = 19.5° Be' 
0.940 = 19.1° Be' 


65 


Gas 


0.940 = 19.0° Be' 


0.882 = 28.9° Be' 


0.943 = 18.5° Be' 
0.947 = 17.9° Be' 


70 


Gas 


0.947 = 17.9° Be' 


0.887=28.0° Be' 


0.950 = 17.4° Be' 



Summary: 

Water 2.1% 

42.7° Benzine or Naphtha 12.9% 

31° Illuminating oil, unrefined 25.0% 

24° Gas, Oil or Distillate 10.0% 

18.5° Wax Distillate 30.0%, 

Residue 20.0% 



Olefins 

Aromatics 

Naphthenes and Paraffins . 



58.0% 

27.0%, 
15.0% 



Ammonia in water portion = 0.422% as NHs. 



356 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



FRACTIONAL GRAVITY DISTILLATION ANALYSIS OF 
SHALE OIL AFTER CRACKING. 

Laboratory Number 46258, Shale Oil Residue Cracked 
at 800 lbs. Pressure. 

Specific Gravity, 0.896; °Be' U. S. 26 2; °Be' Tag. 26.4. 
;, ,f Color, Dark Red; 



% 


Temp. °F. 


Gravity of Fraction 


Gravity of 
Total Over 


Gravity of 
Stream 





119 














0.681=76.3° Be' 


5 


210 


0.681 = 76.3° Be' 


0.681 = 76.2° Be' 


0.690 = 73.6° Be' 
0.699 = 70.9° Be' 


10 


281 


0.717=65.8° Be' 


0.699=70.9° Be' 


0.710=67.8° Be' 
0.721 = C4 7°Be' 


15 


334 


0.765 = 53.5° Be' 


0.721 = 64.7° Be' 


0.730 = 62.3° Be' 
0.740 = 59.7° Be' 


20 


368 


0.798 = 45.8° Be' 


0.740=59.7° Be' 


0.748=57.7° Be' 
0.757 = 55.4° Be' 


25 


395 


0.823 = 40.4° Be' 


0.757=55.4° Be' 


0.764 = 53.7° Be' 
0.771 = 53 0°Be' 


30 


435 


0.846=35.7° Be' 


0.771 = 52.0° Be' 


0.777 = 50.6° Be' 
0.784 = 49.0° Be' 


35 


454 


0.861=32.8° Be' 


0.784 = 49.0° Be' 


0.790 = 47.6° Be' 
0.796 = 46.2° Be' 


40 


486 


0.881 = 29.1° Be' 


0.796=46.2° Be' 


0.801=45.1° Be' 
0.807 = 43.8° Be' 


45 


518 


0.898=26.1° Be' 


0.807 = 43.8° Be' 


0.812 = 42.7° Be' 
0.818 = 41.5° Be' 


50 


543 


0.911=23.8° Be' 


0.818 = 41.5° Be' 


0.823 = 40.4° Be' 
0.828 = 39.4° Be' 


55 


582 


0.930 = 20.7° Be' 


0.828=39.4° Be' 


0.833 = 38.3° Be' 
0.838=37.3° Be' 


60 


623 


0.945=18.2° Be' 


0.838=37.3° Be' 


0,844 = 36.1° Be' 
0.855 = 34.0° Be' 


65 


651 


0.959 = 16.0° Be' 


0.855 = 34.0° Be' 


0.859 = 33.2° Be' 
0.862 = 32.6° Be' 


70 


679 


0.965 = 15.1° Be' 


0.862 = 32.6° Be' 


0.865 = 32.0° Be' 



Naphtha in oil charged . . . None 

Synthetic Oil- 
Naphtha 30.0% 

Illuminants 25 0% 

Olefins 27.5%. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



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360 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Products of Distillation of Coal — (a) 



PRODUCT 



1917 



Quantity 



Value 



1918 



Quantity 



Value 



Gas (M cubic feet)- 

Coal gas 

Water gas 

Oil gas 

By-product gas. . 



Coke (short tons) , b- 
Coal gas 



Tar (gallons) — 

Coal gas 

Water gas 

Oil gas 

By-product gas. 



Ammonia Sulphate or equivalent 
(lbs.)— 

Coal gas 

By-product gas 



Light oils (gals.), d- 

Coal gas 

Water gas 

Oil gas 

By-product gas. . 



Naphthalene (Ibs.)- 

Coal gas 

Water gas ...... 

By-product 



Retort carbon (short tons)- 

Coal gas 

Water gas 

By-product 



42,927,728 
153,457,318 

14,739,508 
131,026,575 



$38,324,113 

131,876,065 

13,470,911 

11,360,335 



42,630,448 
175,431,370 

14,100,601 
158,358,479 



$43,016,085 

156,150,576 

13,619,264 

13,699,515 



342,151,129 



1,857,248 
c22,439,280 



$195,031,424 



$10,953,693 
cl38,643,153 



390,520,898 



1,813,660 
025,997,580 



$226,485,440 



$14,022,818 
cl93,018,785 



24,296,528 



53,318,413 

59,533,208 

727,556 

221,999,264 



$149,596,846 



$1,774,326 

1,258,683 

32,682 

5,566,302 



27,811.240 



48,522,987 

53,419,753 

550,006 

200,233,002 



$207,041,603 



$1,886,629 

1,731,714 

15,967 

6,364,972 



335,578,441 



88,547,975 
560,792,322 



$8,631,993 



$1,362,125 
17,903,864 



302,725,748 



56,900,464 
697,308,770 



$9,999,282 



$1,453,070 
26,442,951 



649,340,297 



770,298 

6,420,717 

205,475 

54,427,266 



$19,265,989 



$448,855 

1,655,204 

74,035 

28,655,204 



754,209,234 



12,292,026 

20,376 

59,564,376 



$27,896,021 



$6,978,281 

4,274 

25,688,446 



61,823,756 

399,897 
17,276,044 



$30,833,298 

$9,687 
569,449 



71,876,778 

508,202 
15,890,447 



$32,671,001 

$14,282 
650,229 



17,675,941 



252 
1,068 



$579,136 



$ 2,733 
12,067 



16,398,649 



1,007 
251 
655 



$664,511 



$13,275 
2,230 
2,732 



Lampblack and carbon residue 
(Hhort tons) — 
Oil gas 



1,320 
31,205 



$14,800 
$169,425 



1,913 
17,678 



$18,237 



$95,211 



. ./f„^ 0*,^^.'" products not included in this table, valued at $807,147 
in 1J17 and $1,808,515 in 1918 were: From coal-gas plants, creosote, 
tar, distillery products, pitch, coke breeze and spent iron oxide. From 
oil-gas plants: Sodium ferrocyanide. From by-product coke oven 
plants: Coke breeze, sodium ferrocyanide, residue, drip oil, spent 
oxide and pyridin oil. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



861 



Products from One Ton of Dry Coal at Different 

Temperatures. 

(COAL WITH 35% VOLATILE AND 7% ASH.) 



Coke or Carbonized Coal 


Coke Oven 

(1700° F) 

66% 

(1% Volatile) 


Low Temperature 
Carbonization 

68% 
(3% Volatile) 


Gas, cubic feet per ton 

Light oil from gas, gallons per ton . . . 
Ammonium sulphate, pounds per ton 

Tar oils, gallons per ton 

Pitch, gallons 


10,000 
3 
20 
3.8 
8.2 


9,000 

2 

20 

15 





Fuel Consumed or Lost in Coking. 





BEE HIVE 


BY-PRODUCT 




Millions 
of B. T. U. 


Millions 
of B. T. U. 


Gas 


11,000 cu. ft. = 6.160 

9 gallons= 1.401 

4 gallons= 0.527 

100 pounds= 1.300 


4,300 cu. ft. = 2.480 


Tar 


none 


Light oil 


none 


Coke 


none 






Total coal equivalent .... 


671 pounds=9.388 
33.55% 


172 pounds=2.408 
8.6% 



One ton of coal tar may yield: 

Pitch 1,000 

Naphthalene 112 

Anthracite oils 34 

Creosote oils : 20 

Cresylic acid ■ 2 

Carbolic acid 2^ gals 

Heavy naphtha 1 gal. 

Solvent naphtha IH gals. 

Toluol 3 gal. 

Benzol h gal. 



lbs. 

lbs. 
gals, 
gals, 
gals. 



362 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Composition of Pitch: 

Carbon 

Hydrogen 

B. T. U. per pound 

Moisture 

Volatile 

Fixed carbon 

Ash 

Specific gravity 



Hard 


Soft 


93.2 % 


91.8% 


4.4 % 


4.6% 


15,930 




0.05% 




66.85% 




32.55% 




0.60% • 




1.35 





Yield from Distillation of Eastern High Grade Coals. 
(Howard N. Eavenson in Coal Age.) 

Kentuck}- Coals, 24 Samples: 

Average 

Ash, per cent 4 . 78 

Sulphur, per cent . 75 

Phosphorus, per cent . 006 

By-product yield per net ton — 

Tar, gallon 7.8 

Benzol, free, gallon 2.6 

Ammonium sulphate, pound 28 . 1 

Surplus gas, cu. ft 5,068 

Yield of coke, per cent 69 . 5 

Fusing point of ash, degrees F 2654 

West Virginia Coals, 31 Samples: 

Ash, per cent 5.29 

Sulphur, per cent . 99 

Phosphorus, per cent 0.006 

By-product jield, per net ton — 

Tar, gallon 8.0 

Benzol, free, gallon 2.6 

Ammonium sulphate, pounds 24 . 5 

Surplus gas, cu. ft 5,069 

Yield of coke, per cent 72 . 8 

Fusing point of ash, degrees F 2743 

Pennsylvania Coals, 20 Samples: 

Ash, per cent 7 27 

Sulphur, per cent 1 18 

Phosphorus, per cent 012 

By-product yield, per net ton- 
Tar, gallon 7 8 

Benzol, gallons 22 

Ammonium sulphate, pounds 25 1 

Surplus gas, cu. ft 5^497 

Yield of coke, per cent [ ] // 67 5 

Fusing point of ash, degrees F. . . ! . . . . . . 2366 



Maximum 


Minimum 


9.32 
1.78 
0.027 


1.56 
0.44 
0.001 


10.2 

3.2 
34.1 

5,520 
75.0 
2940 


5.4 

2.3 

22.4 

4,740 
67.0 
2430 


9.09 
2.76 
0.019 


2.59 
0.63 
0.002 


10.6 

3.3 
31.0 

5,340 
76.8 
2970 


5.8 

2.1 
21.2 

4,770 
68.2 
2610 


10.44 
2.14 
0.018 


5.32 
0.77 
0.005 


10.1 


5.8 


29 .'8 " 
5,654 

70.0 
2390 


22 .'8*' 
5,304 

64.2 
2350 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 363 

Gas-Manufacturing Processes in Use in the United 

States. 

The manufactured gas distributed in the United States is of three 
principal kinds: Coal gas, carbureted water gas and oil gas. 

The manufacture of water gas consists essentially of an inter- 
mittent process in which a bed of anthracite coal or coke is brought 
to a high temperature by an air blast and then steam under pressure 
is blown through the fuel, forming carbon monoxide, hydrogen and 
a small amount of carbon dioxide by reaction with the carbon in the 
fuel. The resultant gas, called blue water gas, has a heating value of 
approximately 300 B.T.U. per cubic foot and almost no luminosity 
when burned in an open flame. It is conducted into a fire-brick-lined 
chamber called the carburetor, which contains staggered rows of fire 
bricks, called checker brick, heated to incandescence during the blow 
period. Gas oil or fuel is sprayed into the carburetor while the gas is 
passing through, forming an oil gas which enriches the blue water 
gas to any desired heating value or candlepower. Another checker- 
brick-filled chamber, called the superheater, converts most of the oil- 
gas vapors into permanent gases, which will not condense again upon 
cooling. During the formation of the oil gas certain portions of the 
hydrocarbons which compose the oil are changed in their composition 
to form benzol, toluol and related hydrocarbons called aromatic com- 
pounds. Considerable tar is formed at the same time. This is con- 
densed, scrubbed and washed out of the gas by various means, but 
usually at a temperature which permits most of the aromatics to go 
forward with the gas. The sulphur in the gas is removed by iron- 
oxide purifiers and the gas is metered and leaves the plant at or 
slightly above atmospheric temperature. 

The manufacture of coal gas is essentially different from that of 
water gas. In this process certain classes of bituminous coals are 
distilled in fire clay or silica retorts or ovens and the resulting gases 
are condensed, scrubbed, washed and purified to remove water vapor, 
tar, ammonia and sulphur. As in the water gas process, certain of 
the hydrocarbons given off by the coal are transformed by the heat of 
the retort to aromatic compounds. A small part of these aromatics 
is washed out of the gas by the wash water and tar, but the larger 
part remains in the gas. In fact, the cooling of the gas is usually so 
regulated that most of these substances will remain in the gas to 
increase its heating value and candlepower. Coal gas retorts take a 
variety of forms. Among these are coke ovens, chamber ovens, hori- 
zontal D-shaped retorts, vertical retorts, inclined retorts, etc. Even 
those of a given class differ among themselves in details of construc- 
tion. In most of them the distillation is an intermittent process, but 
some continuous methods are used. In all these processes the gas 
produced consists of the same constituents in somewhat different pro- 
portions. The form of apparatus used in a given case depends largely 
upon economic considerations or is governed by certain special quali- 
ties which are desired in one or more of the products produced. In all 
of these coal gas processes coke remains in the retort after distilla- 
tion. In some of them, as for example in coke ovens, coke is the prin- 
cipal product, but in city gas plants gas is the chief product. The 
operation is carried out in any case to give most satisfactory qualities 



364 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



to the principal product and at the same time obtain as high yields 
and good quality as possible of the secondary or by-products. 

Mixed gas is usually understood to be a mixture of carbureted 
water gas and coal or coke-oven gas. It is supplied in many cities 
in the United States where the requirements permit of a mixed gas 
being supplied. The manufacturing installation for mixed gas is 
practically two complete installations, one for coal gas and one for 
carbureted water gas, with their auxiliary scrubbing, condensing, puri- 
fying, and metering apparatus entirely independent and separate. 
The manufactured mixed gas, however, is stored in common holders 
and delivered through a single distribution system. The coal and 
water gas thus supplement each other. The uniform but more cum- 
bersome coal-gas. production furnishes coke as fuel for the water-gas 
plant. This in turn takes care of the irregularities of the output, and, 
where necessary, increases the quality of the gas production, especially 
where a high candlepower standard is in force. 

The oil gas process is at present confined chiefly to the Pacific 
Coast States, where comparatively cheap oil and expensive coal make 
the coal and water gas processes less feasible. In oil gas manufac- 
ture oil alone is used as fuel for heating the checker bricks of the fix- 
ing chambers and oil is sprayed by steam into the chambers where, 
in contact with the bricks, lampblack and permanent gases are formed. 
In this process also aromatic compounds are included among the con- 
stituents of the gas. 

Note. — See Bulletin of Bureau of Standards. 

Products of Refining of Light Oil of Gas Works. 





Carbon 
Disul- 
phide 


Benzene 


Toulene 


M-zylene 


Naph- 
thalene 


Molecular weight 


76.12 
10.57 
1.2921 
1.2773 
1 . 2698 
1.2623 
1 2473 
.00125 
46.2 

.041 
127.9 
198 5 
244.1 
298.0 
434.6 
.202 
3.42 

.3480 
.4420 
.6260 
66.100 
11 550 
.1.300 
0.240 
83.8 
.219 
.765 
—108.6 


78.05 
7.36 
.8999 
.8883 
.8839 
.8786 
.8679 
.0012 
80.36 
.043 
26.63 
45.68 
58.90 
75 21 
119.34 
.209 
3 54 

.9960 
.8805 
17.930 
132 100 
33 . 600 
.3780 
419 
92.9 
.072 
.241 
+ 5.4 


92.. 06 
7.27 
.8845 
.8757 
.8714 
.8659 
.8573 
.0010 
110.3 
.047 
7.20 
13.02 
17.22 
22.53 
37.46 
.244 
4 14 

10.150 
.8850 
18.270 
132 600 
40 150 
.4.500 
0.440 
83 55 
Insol. 
Insol. 
—92.4 


106.08 

7.26 
.8823 
.8738 
.8697 
.8655 
.8574 
.00095 
139.1 
.052 

1.75 

3.45 

4.74 

6.43 
11.43 
.281 

4.76 

10.230 
.8910 
18.410 
133,500 
46.500 
.5210 
0,383 
78.25 
Insol. 
Insol. 
—54.8 


128.06 


Pounds per United States Gal. (60° F) 

Specific Kravity ( 0°C/4°C) 


9.60 


Specificgravity (10°Cy4°C).., . . .. 

Specific gravity ri5°C/4°C) . , 

Specific gravity (20°C/4°C) 


"i:i517' 


Specific gravity (30°C/4°C) 




Change of Specific Gravity per 1° C 




Boiling point at 760 mm.Hg. {°C) 


217.7 


Increase in boiling point (°ram.Hg.) 


.059 


Vapor pressure mmHg ( 0°C) 


.022 


Vapor pressure mrnHg (10°C) 


.047 


Vapor [)res.sure mniHg (I5°C) 


.062 


Vapnr pressure mmHg (2U°C) 


.080 


\'ai)or |)rc,ssure mmHg (3n°C") 


.135 


I'ounils Dcr cu ft. vapor (60° F = 30 in.) 

Kil prr cu. m, vapor 10° C-760 mm.). . . . 


.339 
5.72 


Heat comliustion (net) 1.5°C-760 mmHg. 
Calorics per kil. liriuid 


.9700 


Calories per liter, li(|uid 


11.170 


B. T. U. per pound, liquid 


17.460 


B. T. U. per U. S. gal., linuid 


167.300 


C;alori(s per cu. meter, vapor 

B. T. U. per cu. ft, vapor 


52.400 
.5910 


Specific h«it (calorics per kil.) 


314 


I cat of vaporii. (calorics per kil.). 




Sol. in waUT (22°(;) grm subs, in 100 gHjO. . . 
(irains HjO in lOOg subs 


Insol. 
Insol. 


Melting point (°C) 


+80.0 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



365 



Average Content of Light Oils in Various Gases. 

The amount of benzol and toluol formed in any one of these 
processes is bj' no means definite. It depends upon the operating 
conditions and the quality of the raw materials (coal or oil). It 
would therefore be impossible to predict exactly what the yield of 
products in a given case would be, but an extensive inquiry into the 
operation of a number of typical plants has given the following tabula- 
tion as the usual range of figures for the various processes. Individual 
results may vary widely from them in a particular case. 

TABLE 1, — Approximate Yields of Crude Light Oil and Pure Products 
and Approximate Composition of Crude Light Oil. 

APPROXIMATE YIELD OF CRUDE LIGHT OIL. 

Coal gas — 

Horizontal retort 3.0-4.0 gallons per short ton coal carbonized 

Continuous vertical retort . .1.5-2.5 gallons per short ton coal carbonized 

Inclined retort 1.8-2.3 gallons per short ton coal carbonized 

Coke-oven gas, run of oven. . .2.6-3.6 gallons per short ton coal carbonized 

Carbureted water gas 8-10 per cent of vol. of gas oil used 

Oil gas 0.2-0.3 gal. per 1000 cu. ft. of gas. 

APPROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF CRUDE LIGHT OIL. 

Solvent 
Naphtha, 
Wash Oil, 
Benzol Toluol, Naphthalene, 
Coal gas: Per Cent Per Cent Per Cent 

Horizontal retort 50 13-18 35 

Continuous vertical retort 30 10-15 55 

Inclined retort 45 13-18 40 

Coke-oven gas, run of oven 50 14-18 35 

Carbureted water gas 40 20-25 37 

Oil gas 80 8-10 10 



APPROXIMATE YIELD OF PURE PRODUCTS. 

Gallons per short ton coal carbonized: Benzol Toluol 

Coal gas — 

Horizontal retort 15 ^ • J"^ ■ ^ 

Continuous vertical retort .6 o" a 

Inclined retort -9 ' q~ ' c 

Coke-oven gas, run of oven 1-5 . 3- . 5 

Gallons per 1000 cubic feet of gas: 

Carbureted water gas 15 • 06- . lU 

Oil gas 25 .02-. 03 

Degrees 
Boiling 
Point in 
Paraffins Specific Gravity Centigrade 

N— heptane 0.712, at 16° C 97 

Triethylmethane 689, at 27° C 96 

N-octane 708, at 12.5° C 125 

Diispbutyl 714, at 0° C 108.5 



366 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Yields of Oil from Distillation of Cannel Coal. 

Yield of Crude Oil 
Locality Per Ton, Gallons 

England: 

Derbyshire °^ 

Wigan cannel 74 

Newcastle 48 

Scotland: 

Boghead cannel 120 

Scotch cannel 40 

Lesmahago cannel 96 

iCtew Brunswick: 

Albertite 110 

American: 

Breckenridge, Ky., cannel 130 

Erie R. R., Pa 47 

Falling Rock cannel 80 

Pittsburgh 49 

Kanawha semi-cannel 71 

Elk River semi-cannel 60 

Cannelton, Ind. cannel 86 

Coshocton, Ohio 74 

Darlington, Pa. (Cannelton) 56 

Camden lignite, Ark. 64 

Missouri, Cooper Co 75 

The coke resulting from cannel coal is not of satisfactory quality 
for ordinary purposes. However, it is satisfactory for making pro- 
ducer gas or burning as a domestic fuel in hard coal burners, provided 
a small amount of bituminous matter remains in it. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 367 



Refining of Oil for Road Building and Paving 

Purposes. 

The various methods of refining which yield residues adaptable 
or used for road building and paving purposes are as follows: 

Sedimentation. 

Dehydration. 

Fractional distillation by direct fire. 

Forced fire distillation with direct fire. 

Steam distillation. 

Inert gas distillation. 

Air blowing. 

In the types of oil which are ordinarily used for making asphalt 
or road binders, water is one of the most common impurities. The 
water is ordinarily salt water and may contain more or less other 
mineral matter than the salt. These impurities are insoluble in the 
bitumen proper and as they differ from the bitumen in specific grav- 
ity, they may be removed wholly or in part by the process of sedi- 
mentation or separation by gravity. In the more fluid petroleums, 
sedimentation occurs during storage in the large tanks and the water 
is ordinarily automatically drawn off from the bottom of the tank by 
reason of the different heads produced by the salt water and by the 
oil. However, a small amount of emulsified water nearly always 
remains in all petroleums, so that there will always be a small amount 
of sediment. If the petroleum is very heavy and viscous, approxi- 
mately equal in gravity to water, then the water will remain emulsi- 
fied and will not separate by gravity. This type of oil happens to be 
the most suitable in quality for producing asphalt and special means 
of removing this water is necessary before the oil can be reduced to 
the desired consistency. The dehydration processes are designed 
primarily for removal of the water in the bituminous material which 
will not completely separate by sedimentation. It is desirable to do 
this before distillation because of the fact that the presence of the 
water will cause foaming when the mixture is heated to the tempera- 
ture of boiling water. Dehydrating plants vary considerably in design, 
but those more commonly used for petroleum in California are spoken 
of as topping plants. In this sort of plant the oil is pumped with or 
without pressure through a length of pipe containing many bends 
and turns, so that the oil is considerably stirred. The pipe coils are 
set in furnaces, so that they may be suitably heated to a tempera- 
ture above that of boiling water. This pipe discharges the foam into 
a large expansion chamber, where the water and more volatile con- 
stituents separate in the form of vapor which is condensed in an ordi- 
nary condenser for the recovery of the light products. This sort of 
plant is commonly spoken of as a pipe still. From the pipe still, the 
oil passes through another line, direct to a large batch still, where it 
is subjected to the ordinary fractional distillation. 

The essential principle in the distillation of an oil for road pur- 
poses is that it shall distill at a temperature sufficiently low to pre- 



368 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



vent the decomposition of the hydrocarbons. Since asphalt hydrocar- 
bons begin to decompose at a temperature of 600 °F or slightly below, 
it is desirable that the fire distillation be carried only to that tem- 
perature After this temperature has been reached, the usual method 
is to blow superheated steam, which mechanically carries over the 
more volatile hydrocarbons at a temperature much below the actual 
boiling point. 

This distillation has a special action in removing the paraffin 
compounds which are particularly undesirable in that they have very 
little ductility and cementation value. The distillate will contain any 
light oils such as are used as spindle oils and for general lubrica- 
tion, as well as any paraffin wax. It is particularly desirable m this 
distillation to prevent the formation of free carbon or coke. The dis- 
tillation with steam may be carried down until the residue shows a 
penetration of about 10 millimeters. 

A method of distillation which gives very great yields of solid or 
semi-solid asphalt even from semi-paraffin base oils is that of blow- 
ing the oil at moderately high temperature with air. The amount of 
air and rate in blowing is usually about 300 cubic feet per barrel of 
oil per hour (see p. 375). For delivering air to an asphalt blowing 
still with the oil at a temperature of 400°F and producing about 
2.50 bbls. per day, 100 H. P. is required. Air blowing in many Mid- 
Continent oils gives much more asphalt than naturally exists in the 
oil. The action of the air is to produce a more viscous product which 
is very much less susceptible to temperature changes than the nat- 
ural asphalt. It is strictly a chemical fransformation process formed 
from the hydrocarbons in the oil which are ordinarily not useful for 
asphalt making purposes. It has been found from practical experience 
that this type of asphalt is not sufficiently cementitious and ductile 
to be used for ordinary paving purposes in producing first class 
asphalt pavement. It can, however, be successfully used and is in 
great demand for water-proofing purposes, for filler in brick and wood 
block pavement, for roofing purposes and for fluxing ductile asphalt. 

The best types of petroleum for asphalt paving purposes are those 
from California, Mexico, Trinidad and Texas. 

ASPHALT PAVEMENT. 

Asphalt is a black non-oxidized bituminous hj'drocarbon, semi- 
fluid to hard in consistency, the heavy residuum from petroleum or 
occurring naturally. The residua from petroleum are known as oil 
asphalts and come most largely from California, Mexican, Texas and 
Mid-Continent petroleums. The most commonly used natural asphalts 
are Trinidad, Bermudez, Cuban and Gilsonite. 

The term asphalt is commonly applied to bituminous pavements, 
being mixtures usually of oil asphalt with dust, sand, gravel or rock 
in varying proportions from 6% to 20%. The terms "bitumen" or 
"asphaltic cement" are commonly applied to the pure asphalt material. 

The types of asphalt construction now commonly used are: 
1. Asphaltic concrete. This mixture is very common in localities 
where Joplin chats are available. It is known also as "Topeka Specifi- 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



369 



cation Pavement" and "Bituminous Concrete," but it might be called 
bituminous gravel. The stone it carries is of V2" and %" size. (Fig. 
76.) 

2. Sheet asphalt is the original type of asphalt pavement laid in 
two courses, the bottom one with coarse stone, the top with sand 
mixed with the bitumen. (Fig. 77.) 

3. Bituminous concrete (Warren) is laid with coarse stone in 
the wearing surface. (Fig. 78.) 

4. Bituminous earth is laid without an appreciable amount of 
sand or rock. (Fig. 79.) 

There are two different basic principles involved in proportioning 
the mineral matter of an asphalt pavement. One is to so grade the 
coarse mineral particles that they support each other and intex'lock. 
The other is to produce a mastic of bitumen and finely divided earthy 
material that is rigid and self-supporting because of surface tension 
action. This mastic fills the voids in the coarse material and has a 
much higher melting point than the pure bitumen and does not so 
readily allow softening or movement of the pavement. 



COMPOSITION OF NATURAL ASPHALT. 



Natural 
Trinidad 

Bitumen 56.0% 

Mineral Matter 36.8% 

Specific Gravity 1.400 

Fixed Carbon 11.0% 

Melting Point, °F 190 

Penetration 0.5 

Free Carbon " 6 0% 

Sulphur (ash free basis).... 6.5% 
Petroleum ether soluble .... 65.0% 
Total Carbon (ash free).... 82.6% 

Hydrogen (ash free) 10.5% 

Nitrogen (ash free) 0.5% 



Ber- 
mudez 

94.0 



% 



2.0% 

1.085 

13.5% 

180 

2.5 

4.0% 

5.6% 

70.07o 

82 5% 

10.3% 

0.7% 



Gilsonite 
99.4% 
0.5% 
1.045 
13.0% 
300 


0.1% 

1.3% 

30.0% 



Gra- 

hamite 

94.1% 

5.7% 

1.171 

53.3% 

Cokes 



0.2% 
2.0% 
0.4% 
87.2% 
7.5% 
0.2% 



Cuban 

75.1% 
21.4% 

1.305 
25.0% 
240 



3.5% 

8.3% 
41.1% 



COMPOSITION OF OIL ASPHALTS. 



Mexican 

Bitumen 99.5% 

Mineral Matter 0.3% 

Specific Gravity 1.040 

Fixed Carbon 17.5% 

Melting Point, °F 140 

Penetration 55 

Free Carbon 0.0% 

Sulphur (ash free basis) 4.50% 

Petroleum Ether Soluble 70.0% 

Cementing Properties good 

Ductility 45 cm 

Loss at 325°F 5 hrs 0.2% 

Heat Test adherent 



Mid-Con- 
tinent Air 

Blown 

99.2% 
0.7% 
0.990 

12.0% 
180 

40 
0.0% 
0.60% 

72.0% 
poor 

2 cm 
0.1% 

smooth 



Stanolind 
(cracked- 
pressure tar 
California residue) 



99.5% 
0.3% 
1.045 
15.0% 
140 
60 
0.0% 
1.65% 
670%' 
good 
70 cm 
0.2% 
adherent 



99 8% 
0.3%. 
1060 

17.5% 
135 

50 
0.0% 
0.35% 

70.0% 

good 

1004- 
0. 
scaly 



.1% 



370 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Composition of Rock Asphalt. Buckhorn, 

Ragusa, Seyssel, Mons, Cass Co., Okla- 

Sicily France France Missouri homa 

Bitumen 9.9% 5 9% 8.9% 6.9% 5.9% 

Passing 200 mesh 37.1 44.1 53.1 20.0 9.0 

80 mesh 23.0 15.0 13.0 21.0 8.4 

50 mesh 14.0 9.0 7.0 17.0 9.0 

40 mesh 4.0 7.0 5.0 6.0 9.9 

30 mesh 2.0 7.0 3.0 6.5 15.0 

20 mesh 5.0 6.0 5.0 5.1 8.8 

10 mesh 5.0 6.0 5.0 7.5 8.0 

4 mesh 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 26.0 

Calcium carbonate 89.0 91.3 90.0 92.9 96.0 

ASPHALTIC SANDSTONES. 

Breckenridge Higginsville, 

County, Ky. Oklahoma Missouri 

Bitumen 9.2% 9.2% 7.9% 

Passing 200 mesh 5.2 1.5 25.7 

80 mesh 45.5 56.5 71.3 

40 mesh 36.3 30.4 3.0 

10 mesh 3.8 2.4 0.0 

Calcium carbonate 0.0 0.0 0.0 

SHEET ASPHALT PAVEMENT. 

Sheet asphalt is the standard asphalt pavement. Specifications 
call for two courses of the following composition and properties: 

BINDER OR BOTTOM COURSE. 

Limits Standard 

Bitumen 51/2%— 8% 6.0% 

Mineral passing 200 mesh 7 12 8.0 

Mineral passing 80 mesh 10 20 12.0 

Mineral passing 40 mesh 10 20 15^0 

Mineral passing 10 mesh 7 20 13.0 

Mineral passing 4 mesh 10 20 17!o 

Mineral passing 2 mesh 10 20 16.0 

Mineral passing 1 mesh 10 20 13!o 

Thickness \i/^ in 

Density "ZZZZZZZ^er 2.30 

TOP COURSE. 

,-,., Limits Standard 

Bitumen 9.75%— 11.0% 10.0% 

Mmeral passing 200 mesh 12 18 13.0 

Mineral passing 80 mesh 20 34 23!o 

Mineral passing 40 mesh 20 40 27!5 

Mineral passing 10 mesh 12 35 26!5 

Mineral passing 4 mesh 0.0 

Mineral passing 2 mesh 

Mineral passing 1 mesh '.' 0.0 

rru- 1 100.0 

Thickness 1^ in, 

Density o^er 2.17 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



371 



Composition of Asphalt Pavements. 

The following table gives a comparison of a typical composition 
and properties of good mixtures representing the various types of 
asphalt wearing surface pavements: 

Bituminous Bitumi- 

Concrete nous Bitumi- 

(Topeka Concrete Sheet nous 

Spec.) (Warren) Asphalt Earth 

Asphaltic cement 8.0% 6.0% 10 0% 20.0% 

Dust passing 200 mesh screen 12.0 5 5 12.0 62.0 

Dust passing 80 mesh screen 12.0 2.8 16.0 15.0 

Dust passing 40 mesh screen 20.0 6.7 38.0 3.0 

Dust passing 10 mesh screen 20.0 24.5 24 0.0 

Dust passing 4 mesh screen 18.0 15.3 0.0 0.0 

Dust passing 2 mesh screen 10.0 13.3 0.0 0.0 

Dust passing 1 mesh screen 0.0 25 0.0 0.0 

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 
Weight per sq. yd. 2 in. surface, 

lbs 215 225 205 185 

EFFECT OF MINERAL MATTER 0^^ THE PENETRATION OF 
ASPHALTIC CEMENT (Typical Case). 

% Dust Penetration Melting Point 

200 100 

35 . 128 110 

55 92 120 

70 34 150 

In a general way, 1% of dust in asphaltic cement decreases the 
penetration 2 points with A. C. of ordinary penetration. This will vary 
somewhat according to the character of the asphaltic cement. A pave- 
ment having a relation of 2 parts dust and 1 part bitumen cannot 
soften or flow in hot weather. 

FLUXING OF HARD ASPHALT. 

As a general rule, 30% of 10-12° Be' asphaltic flux is required to 
bring Trinidad asnhalt to a penetration of 50. Less of paraffm flux is 
required. For each 1% of asphaltic flux added to about 50° asphalt 
the penetration is raised 3 points. For exact results a test should be 
made with the actual materials in question. 

MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR 1000 YARDS OF ASPHALTIC CON- 
CRETE PAVEMENT ARE AS FOLLOWS (Typical): 



For wearing surface: 
"Chats" or Gravel = 32 tons 
Sand (Coarse) = 32 tons 

Sand (Fine) = 32 tons 

Dust = 7 tons 

Asphaltic Cement = SVi tons 



For concrete base: 
(6 inches of 1:3:6 mix.) 
Cement - 732 sacks = 183 bbls. 
Sand — - 77 cubic yards — 
Rock = 155 cubic yards 
Water = 7,000 gallons 



372 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



RELATION OF THE DEFECTS OF AN ASPHALT PAVEMENT TO 
ITS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 

Cracking is- caused by asphaltic cement without sufficient ductility, 
with too low penetration, insufficient in quantity or that has 
been over-heated; Imperfections in the base, such as a cracking 
in the base or the lack of a rigid base or lateral support; Insuf- 
ficient compression when laid; Lack of traffic. 

Disintegration and Hole Formation are caused by asphaltic cement 
with poor ductility and cementing value, or insufficient to coat 
mineral aggregate and fill voids; Dirty sand; Non-uniform thick- 
ness of surface mixture; Weak foundations in spots; Water from 
beneath. 

Scaling of the Surface Mixture is caused by asphaltic cement lacking 
in cementing power, insufficient in quantity or subject to decom- 
position by the weather; Improper grading of mineral, particularly 
insufficient dust; Dirt conglomerates in sand; Insufficient density. 

Waviness and Displacement are caused by asphaltic cement without 
cement power, too soft or in too large quantity; Irregularity of 
surface thickness, or of composition of asphaltic surface mixture; 
Insufficient dust or filler; Non-rigid base or expansion of the 
base; Street with heavy grade. 

Marking is caused by asphaltic cement that is too soft or in too large 
quantity; and that is too uniform; Insufficient dust or filler; 
Insufficient density. 



FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS CONSTITUENTS OF ASPHALTIC 

SURFACE MIXTURE. 

Gravel and Coarse Sand in proper relation diminish voids, insure 
greater stability and increase density, allow the use of less 
asphaltic cement, decrease tendency to displacement, waviness 
and marking, increase susceptibility to damage by erosion and 
abrasion. 

Sand in proper relation increases stability by filling voids in stone, 
increases capacity to resist abrasion, diminishes tendency to 
raveling. 

Filler or Very Fine Dust in proper relation increases density and 
stability by filling voids in sand, increases capacity to resist 
abrasion, allows wider range in penetration of A. C, diminishes 
or overcomes tendency to marking, displacement and waviness, 
increases cementation of mixture, increases capacitv for A. C, 
increases the need for much compression and softer A. C. in lay- 
ing mixture, eliminates lakes of A. C, decreases brittleness of 
pavement. 

A. C. in proper quantity and relation cements mineral particles to- 
gether, keeps out water, imparts pliabilitv, resiliency and noise- 
lessness, prevents erosion and disintegration of coarse mineral o* 
pavement, 



KANSAS CITf TESTING LABORATORY 373 



Specifications for Asphaltic Cement for Asphalt 

Surface Mixture. 

Impurities. 

The asphaltic cement shall contain no water, decomposition prod- 
ucts, granular particles or other impurities, and it shall be homo- 
geneous. 

Ash passing the 200-mesh screen shall not be considered an im- 
purity, but if greater than 1% corrections in gross weights shall be 
made to allow for the proper percentage of bitumen. 

Specific Gravity. 

The specific gravity of the asphaltic cement shall not be less than 
1,000 at 77°F. 

Fixed Carbon. 

The fixed carbon shall not be greater than 18%. 

Solubility in Carbon Bisulphide. 

The asphaltic cement shall be soluble to the extent of at least 
99% in chemically pure carbon bisulphide at air temperature and 
based upon ash free material. 

Solubility in Carbon Tetrachloride. 

The asphaltic cement shall be soluble to the extent of at least 
98.5% in chemically pure carbon bisulphide at air temperature and 
based upon ash free material. 
Melting Point. 

The melting point shall be greater than 128° F and less than 
160°F (General Electric method). 
Flash Point. 

The flash point shall be not less than 400°F by a closed test. 

Penetration. 

The asphaltic cement shall be of such consistency that at a tem- 
perature of 77 °F a No, 2 needle weighted with 100 grams in five 
seconds shall not penetrate more than 9.0 nor less than 5.0 milli- 
meters. For asphaltic cement containing ash 0.2 millimeter may be 
added for each 1.0% of asli to give the true penetration. 

Loss by Volatilization. 

The loss by volatilization shall not exceed 2%, and the penetra- 
tion after such loss shall be more than 50% of the origmal penetra- 
tion. The ductility after heating as above shall have been reduced 
not more than 20%, the value of the ductility in each case bemg the 
number of centimeters of elongation at the temperature at which the 
asphaltic cement has a penetration of 5.0 milhmeters. The volatiliza- 
tion test shall be carried out essentially as follows: 

Fifty grams of the asphaltic cement in a cylindrical vessel 55 mil- 
limeters' in diameter and 35 millimeters high shall be placed in an 
electrically heated oven at a temperature of 325 °F and so maintained 



374 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



for a period of 5 hours. The oven shall have one vent in the top 1 
centimeter in diameter, and the bulb of the thermometer shall be 
placed adjacent the vessel containing the asphaltic cement. 

Ductility. 

When pulled vertically or horizontally by a motor at a uniform 
rate of 5 centimeters per minute in a bath of water, a cylinder of 
asphaltic cement 1 centimeter in diameter at a temperature at which 
its penetration is 5 millimeters shall be elongated to the extent of not 
less than 10 centimeters before breaking. 



EPITOME OF THE PURPOSES OF CERTAIN SPECIFICATIONS 
FOR ASPHALTIC CEMENT. 

Impurities are a measure of the care with which the asphaltic ce- 
ment has been refined and handled. Usually the presence of impuri- 
ties in large quantities indicates a poor grade of asphalt. Water as an 
impurity would act as a diluent and would cause foaming in the kettle. 
Ash or mineral matter is not considered an impurity if it is a natural 
constituent of the asphaltic cement, but the mix and cementing value 
must be figured on the bitumen alone. 

Specific Gravity of the asphaltic cement should be over 1.000. The 
advantage of a specific gravity more than 1.000 is that there will be 
less tendency for water to float out the asphaltic cement. The specific 
gravity is raised by the presence of mineral matter. Asphaltic oils of 
a penetration satisfactory for paving purposes always have a specific 
gravity greater than 1.000. Paraffin base oil and air -blown products 
usually have a specific gravity less than 1.000. 

Fixed Carbon is a measure of the chemical constitution of an 
asphalt to some extent. Certain types of asphalt such as Mexican 
have naturally a constitution that yields a large amount of fixed car- 
bon. Fixed carbon is largely used for determining the source and 
uniformity of an asphalt. Fixed carbon is not free carbon, but in- 
cludes free carbon, which is practically absent in asphaltic cements. 

Solubility in Carbon Bisulphide is a measure of the purity of an 
asphaltic cement. The cementing value, other things being equal, is 
proportional to the carbon bisulphide solubility. Any carbonaceous 
material such as coal tar or pitch is detected by the carbon bisulphide 
solubility test. 

Solubility in Carbon Tetrachloride is very nearly the same as the 
solubility in carbon bisulphide. It is claimed that an asphalt having 
more than 1%% difference in the solubility in carbon bisulphide and 
carbon tetrachloride has been subjected to excessive heat in refining. 

Melting Point is the temperature at which the asphaltic cement 
will flow readily. The melting point desired is dependent upon the mix- 
ture. If the amount of fine dust in the mineral aggregate is low, the 
asphalt should have a melting point higher than the highest tempera- 
ture to which the pavement is subjected. 

Flash Point is a measure of the amount of volatile hydrocarbons 
that are present in the asphalt and its readiness to decompose by heat. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



375 



Penetration is a measure of the consistency of the asphaltic ce- 
ment. It is merely a quick, convenient test for checking up numerous 
individual samples. The penetration is expressed in degrees and in 
accordance with the method of the American Society for Testing Ma- 
terials, each degree representing 1-10 of a millimeter or 1-250 of an 
inch. The penetration, then, is the number of degrees that a No. 2 
sewing needle when weighted with 100 grams will pass vertically 
into the A. C. at a temperature of 77°F (2o°C) in 5 seconds. The pene- 
tration to be desired will depend upon the climate, the nature of the 
traffic, the grading of the mineral particles, the amount of \oids, the 
amount of compression attainable, the ductility and cementing strength 
of the A. C. and the amount of dust filler. 

Loss of Volatilization is a measure of the amount of light hydro- 
carbons that are present in asphalt and is also a measure of the tend- 
ency of an asphalt to oxidize and to lose its ductility and penetra- 
tion. Asphalt cement which has no ductility after this volatilization 
test will not be satisfactory for paving purposes. '. 

Ductility is the measure of the ability of an asphaltic cement to 
expand and contract without breaking or cracking. The same asphalt 

at a higher pene- __^ , i 

tration should ^ssniisaigfci N^-^^^^-^-'is sd- , :-.^'zJ '.t ■ i , 

have a higher 
ductility, so all 
ductility tests 
should be based 
on a certain defi- 
nite penetration 
regardless of the 
temperature, or 
should be based 
upon a tempera- 
ture of 32 °F. 
Ductility is also 
a measure of the 
cementing 
strength. 

Viscosity is a 
measure of abil- 
ity of the asphal- , ,„. ., . - . x,, • 

tic cement to im- of Asphalt Produced by A.r Blowing 

part plasticity and malleability. 



- P^G^^ycirc a-y^:ii 



"■■'-.' J 



Fij 



.•OC too zoo ^^O i^O ^OO ^90 



20 *0 00 6Q '00 /2Q /-^O 

Relation of Penetration tq^ Melting Point 



i ' 



Typical Specifications for Wearing Surface of 
Asphaltic Concrete 

The wearing surface shall be composed of a properly prepared 
mixture of bitumen, dust, sand and chats, gravel or trap rock. 

The amount of asphaltic cement, dust, sand and chats shall be 
so regulated that the average mixture shall be within the following 



ts by weignt: 






Size of 














Opening, 


Lower 


Upper 


Average 


Bitumen ....--. 






In. Square 


Limit 
7.0 7f) 


Limit 
lO.OVc 


Typical 

8.0% 


Dust passing 


200 


mesh ... 


." 0029 


8.0 


18.0 


12.0 


Sand passing 


80 


mesh . 


. 0.0068 


100 


20.0 


12.0 


Sand passing 


40 


mesh . 


. 0.0150 


15.0 


25.0 


20.0 


Sand passing 


10 


mesh . 


. 0.065 


15.0 


40.0 


20.0 


Sand passing 


4 


mesh . 


. 0.185 


10.0 


22.0 


200 


Sand passing 


2 


mesh . 


. 380 


0.0 


10.0 


8.0 



Ordinarily this mixture is to be obtained by the use of rock, 
coarse sand, fine bank sand and limestone dust or cement. 

All of the mineral ingredients except the dust shall be heated and 
mixed in a suitable drier to a temperature of from 300 to 350 °F. The 
bin containing the mineral shall be permanently equipped with a re- 
cording or an observation thermometer. 

The asphaltic cement shall be added after it has been heated to a 
temperature not exceeding 360 °F. The heating of the asphaltic ce- 
ment must be by steam or if by direct fire vigorous mechanical stir- 
ring must be used. A recording thermometer should be used in the 
A. C. kettle and the aggregate. 

The dust shall be added dry to each batch separately prior to 
the addition of the A. C. All materials shall be weighed. 

The mixing shall be for a sufficient time to thoroughly and uni- 
formly mix all materials and for a period of not less than one minute. 

The temperature of the mixture shall be between 270°F and 350°F 
when it leaves the plant. 

It shall be between 250°F and 350°F on the street (preferably 
300°F). 

The surface of the concrete shall be dry and clean at the time the 
surface mixture is applied. 

Tbe mixture shall be applied and raked to a uniform thickness, 
none being allowed to remain at the point of dumping and all lumps 
being thoroughly raked out. 

The amount of hot mix applied shall be at least 210 pounds per 
square yard and shall be of a uniform thickness of 2 inches after 
rolling. 

The compression shall be applied with a 5-torI roller until com- 
plete and sufficient in the judgment of the inspector and as indicated 
by the tests of the preceding day's laid surface. Hydraulic cement 
may be dusted over and rolled into the finished pavement. 

The specific gravity of the compressed surface mixture shall 
average 2.20 or more and shall not at any time be less than 2.16. A. 
piece of the compressed surface mixture after being placed in water 
for 24 hours shall not have absorbed water and shall not have become 
crumbly or weakened. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



377 



Table for Calculating Voids in Sand and Limestone. 



Weight in 




Weight' in 




Pounds per 




Pounds per 




Cubic Foot 


% Voids 


Cubic Foot 


% Voids 


60 


63.9 






61 


63.3 


96 


42.2 


62 


62.6 


97 


41.6 


63 


62.1 


98 


41.0 


64 


61.5 


99 


40.4 


65 


60.9 


100 


39.8 


66 


60.3 


101 


39.2 


67 


59.6 


102 


38.6 


68 


59.1 


103 


38.0 


69 


58.5 


104 


37.4 


70 


57.9 


105 


36.7 


71 


57.3 


106 


36.2 


72 


56.7 


107 


35.6 


73 


56.0 


108 


35.0 


74 


55.4 


109 


34.4 


75 


54.8 


110 


33.8 


76 


54.2 


111 


33.2 


77 


53.6 


112 


32.5 


78 


53.0 


113 


32.0 


79 


52.4 


114 


31.4 


80 


51.8 


115 


30.7 


81 


51.2 


116 


30.2 


82 


50.6 


117 


29.6 


83 


50.0 


118 


28.9 


84 


49.4 


119 


28.3 


85 


48.8 


120 


27.8 


86 


48.2 


121 


27.2 


87 


47.6 


122 


26 6 


88 


47.0 


123 


26.0 


89 


46.4 


124 


25.4 


90 


45.8 


125 


24.7 


91 


45.2 


126 


24.1 


92 


44.6 


127 


23.5 


93 


44.0 


128 


22.9 


94 


43.4 


129 


22.3 


95 


42.8 


130 


21.7 



Grams per 100 cc X .6243 - pounds per cubic foot. 
% voids - 100 — (0.376 X grams per 100 cc). 



378 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 

Specifications of the National Paving Brick Mfgrs. 

Assn. 

Oil Asphalt Filler, 
(Squeegee Method.) 

Section 1. Description: Asphalt filler shall be homogeneous, 
free from water and shall not foam when heated to 200°C (392°F). 
It shall meet the following requirements: 

(a) Flash point— Not less than 200°C (392°F). 

(b) Melting point— (Ring and Ball) Not less than 65°C 
(149°F). 

(c) Penetration: At 0°C (32°F) 200 gms. 1 min. not less than 
10. At 25°C (77°F) 100 gms. 5 sec. (30-50). At 46°C (115°F) 50 
gms. 5 sec. not more than 110. 

(d) Loss on evaporation: 163^C (325°F) 5 hrs. less than 1%. 

(e) Ductility — Not less than 3. 

(f) 9c total bitumen (soluble in carbon tetrachloride) not less 
than 99%. 

(g) 7c total bitumen (soluble in carbon bisulphide) not less 
than 99%. 

(h) Reduction in penetration — At 25 °C (77 °F) due to heating 
specified under loss on evaporation, not more than 50%. 

Section 2. Tests: Tests for the above requirements shall be 
made according to the following methods: 

(a) Flash point — (open cup). U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture Bulletin 314, page 17. 

(b) Melting point — American Society for Testing Materials, 
Standard Method, Serial Designation D 36-19. 

(c) Penetration — American Society for Testing Materials, 
Standard Method, Serial Designation D 36-19. 

(d) Loss on evaporation — (Volatilization). U. S. Department 
of Agriculture Bulletin 314, page 19, 50 gram sample. 

(e) Ductility — American Society of Civil Engineers, Transac- 
tions. Vol. LXXXII, 1918, page 1460. 

(f) Total Bitumen — U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 
314, page 25. 

(g) Percent of Total Bitumen — (Carbon Tetrachloride). U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 314, page 29. 

(h) Reduction in Penetration: See test for Penetration. 

Section 3. Samples: The contractor shall submit with his bid 
a one (1) pound sample of the asphalt filler proposed to be used in 
the work, together with a statement as to its source and character. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 379 



Section 4. Heating: Filler shall be heated to a temperature 
not exceeding 200 °C (392°F). It shall be applied at a temperature 
of not less than 150° C (300° F). The heater shall be equipped with 
a thermometer capable of registering at all times the temperature 
of the filler. 

Section 5. Cleaning the Surface: Brick shall be clean and dry 
when the filler is applied. Immediately before filling the joints, the 
surface of the brick shall be swept clean. All brick shall be filled 
and a surface dressing applied on the day of laying. Filler shall not 
be applied if the brick are wet nor if air temperatures are such that 
the filler will not flow freely to the bottom of the joints. 

Section 6. Filling and Squeegeeing: Filler shall be removed 
from the heater and applied promptly to the pavement before cool- 
ing. Filler shall be worked into the joints by means of hot iron 
squeegees operated slowly backward and forward at an angle with the 
joints. Squeegee irons shall be kept hot and every precaution taken 
completely to fill the joints. Squeegeeing shall continue until the 
joints are full and a thin coating of asphalt remains upon the sui'- 
face of the brick. Filler shall be applied and squeegeed until the 
joints remain full. 

Section 7. Surface Dressing: Immediately after the joints are 
filled, a thin coating of dry stone screenings, sand or granulated 
slag shall be spread upon the surface of the pavement, provided the 
wearing surface of the brick is wire-cut. Top dressing shall be of 
such sizes that all will pass a number 4 sieve. As soon as the dress- 
ing is spread the surface of the pavement shall be rolled thoroughly 
to bed the dressing into the asphalt coating. 

Section 8. Opening to Traffic: The brick roadway may be 
opened to traffic immediately upon completion of the surface dress- 
ing. 



380 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



383 



Properties of Typical Road Oils. 







Viscosity 








Loss 


No. 


Gravity and 


210° F 


Viscosity 


As- 


Character 


350° C 




Weight 


Uni- 


Furol 


phalt, 


of Asphalt 


24 hrs., 




per Gallon 


versal 


104° F 


% 




% 


1 


.933=20.2° Be' 
7.77 lbs. 


46.0 


20.8 


55.0 


waxy 


50.2 


2 


.933 = 20.2° Be' 

7.77 lbs. 


126.0 


172.0 


65.0 


ductile 


22.2 


3 


.951 = 17.3° Be' 
7 . 92 lbs. 


80.0 


79.0 


66.0 


granular 


30.8 


4 


.973=13.9° Be' 
8.10 lbs. 


47.0 


25.0 


51.5 


ductile 
excellent 


60.2 


5 


1.028= 6.1° Be' 
8.57 lbs. 


124.0 


430.0 


66.0 


ductile 
excellent 


27.0 


6 


1.005= 9.3° Be' 
8.38 lbs. 


99.0 


72.0 


60.0 


ductile 
excellent 


33.0 


7 


0.953 = 17.0° Be' 

7.93 lbs. 


139.0 


252.0 


75.0 


waxy 


15.0 


8 


0.940=19.0° Be' 
7 . 83 lbs. 


122.0 


182.0 


69.0 


ductile 
good 


29.6 


9 


0.940=19.0° Be' 
7.83 lbs. 


127.0 


183.0 


69.0 


ductile 
good 


29.5 


10 


0.950=17.5° Be' 
7.91 lbs. 


135.0 


252.0 


75.0 


waxy 


15.0 


11 


0.935=19.8° Be. 

7.79 lbs. 


99.0 


117.0 


63.5 


ductile 
good 


32.6 


12 


0.931 = 20.5^ Be. 
7.75 lbs. 


115.6 


159.0 


66.0 


ductile 
good 


26.4 



Open Specifications for Road Oil. 

Water None 

Specific gravity Over .940 

Soluble in carbon bisulphide 99.5% 

Per cent asphalt O^^"" ^^ 

Ductility of 100° asphalt at 77° F Over 5 cm. 

Viscosity S. U. at 210° F= 100-150 (must be under 100 if for cold 

application). 
Viscosity Furol at 104° F= 100-500 (must be under 199 if for cold 
application). 



384 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Illinois State Highway Specification for Road Oil. 

SPECIFICATION SI. 
(Heavy Oil, Hot Application.) 

HEAVY OIL FOR SURFACE TREATMENT OF BITUMIN- 
OUS OR WATERBOUND MACADAM ROADS. The road oil shall 
be homogeneous, free from water and shall not foam when heated 
to 150°C (302°F). It shall conform to the following requirements: 
Specific gravity 25"C/25°C (77°F/77°F), not less than 0.980. 
Flash point, not less than 150°C (302^F). 
Specific viscosity at 100°C (212°F), 30.0 to 70.0. 
Float test at 50°C (122° F), 100 seconds to 200 seconds. 
Loss at 163°C (325°F) 5 hours, not over 5.0%. 
Float test of residue at 50 °C (122°F), 120 seconds to 240 seconds. 
Total bitumen, not less than 99.5%. 

Per cent of total bitumen insoluble in 86° Be' naphtha, 10 to 25%. 
Fixed carbon, 7 to 15%. 

SPECIFICATION S2. 

(Medium Oil, Hot Application.) 

MEDIUM OIL FOR SURFACE TREATMENT OF BITUMIN- 
OUS OR WATERBOUND MACADAM ROADS. The road oil shall 
be homogeneous, free from water and shall not foam when heated 
to 100°C (212°F). It shall conform to the following specifications: 
Specific gravity 25°C/25°C (77°F/77'F), 0.960 to 1,010. 
Flash point, not less than 100°C (212°F). 
Specific viscosity at 100°C (212°F), 5.0 to 15.0. 
Float test at 32°C (90°F), 30 seconds to 90 seconds. 
Loss at 163°C (325°F) 5 hours, not over 15.0%. 
Float test of residue at 50°C (122°F), 90 seconds to 180 seconds. 
Total bitumen, not less than 99.5%. 

% total bitumen insoluble in 86° Be' naphtha, 7.0% to 20.0%. 
Fixed carbon, 5.0% to 10.0%. 

SPECIFICATION S3. 

(Light Oil, Cold Application.) 

LIGHT OIL FOR SURFACE TREATMENT OF BITUMINOUS 
OR WATERBOUND MACADAM OR OF GRAVEL ROADS: The 
road oil shall be homogeneous and free from water. It shall conform 
to the following requirements: 

Specific gravity 25°C/25°C (77°F/77'F), 0.920 to 0.970. 
Specific viscosity at 25°C (77°F), 30.0 to 70.0. 
Loss at 163°C (325°F) 5 hours, 20.0% to 30.0%. 
Total bitumen, not less than 99.5%. 

% total bitumen insoluble in 86° Be' naphtha, 5.0% to 20.0%. 
Fixed carbon, 4.0% to 10.0%. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



385 




10 



12 



14 



le 15 to 22 24 

Wid+h of Road, Fee+ 



ee 



GAI.LONS OF ROAD OIL REQUIRED PER MILE OF ROAD 
AT GIVEN WIDTH AND RATE 



j,-ig. 75 — Amount of Road Oil Required 

Application. 



£oi 



Different Rates ot 



386 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Bituminous Acid-Proof Coatings for Acid-Proofing 
Concrete Surfaces. (Bureau of Standards.) , 

Acid-Proof Black. 

This material shall be composed of a high grade of bitumen 
thinned with suitable volatile solvents to furnish a smooth, black 
product which shall dry in twenty-four hours and be unaffected by 
mineral acids of specified concentration. 

It must contain at least 40% of non-volatile, shall not settle, liver 
or thicken in the container and shall conform to the following re- 
quirements. 

(a) When flowed on a piece of clean sheet iron approximately 
4x6 in. and 0.016 in. thick and allowed to dry for one week at room 
temperature the film must withstand bending double quickly over a 
rod of 5 mm. in diameter without cracking or flaking. 

(b) A test piece prepared as above and dried for one week at 
room temperature shall be laid flat and in different places several 
drops each of sulphuric acid, specific gravity 1.3, nitric acid, specific 
gravity 1.23 and hydrochloric acid, specific gravity 1.09 shall be al- 
lowed to remain on the surface of the film for six hours. On exam- 
iiiation. the film shall show only slight dulling and the metal beneath 
shall show no corrosion. 

Bituminous Enamel. 

The enamel shall consist of a homogeneous mixture of a bitumen 
of relatively high melting point and finely powdered siliceous min- 
eral filler. The total amount of mineral filler as determined from 
the ash, shall not exceed 40% nor be less than 15% by weight. Within 
the above limits the satisfactox-y working qualities of the enamel shall 
control the quantity of mineral filler to be used. The mineral filler 
must be resistant to hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric acids, and must 
pass a sieve the openings of which are not greater than 0.14 mm. 
(0.0055 in.) (This corresponds to about 100 mesh sieve). 
Bituminous Primer. 

The primer shall consist of a like bituminous material containing 
no added mineral matter, thinned with a solvent to a satisfactory 
brushing consistency. It shall dry to a tacky state in thirty minutes 
and shall not flash "below 30 °C by the Abel closed tester. The solvent 
used shall have a minimum toxic effect upon workmen appljnng the 
primer within an enclosed space. 
Bituminous Acid-Proof Mastic. 

The bituminous mastic shall be composed of asphalt cement, clean, 
sharp grained sand, and fine absorbent siliceous dust. These ma- 
terials shall be mixed in the proper proportions and shall be applied 
hot to the concrete surface, which shall be dry and free from dust 
and shall have been previously coated with a priming or bonding 
solution which has just reached the tacky state. 
Asphalt Cement. 

The asphalt cement must be of refined- asphalt and shall be homo- 
geneous and free from water. 

It shall meet the following requirements: 

Melting point (ring and ball) 150 to 180 °F. 

Penetration at 25°C, 100 g. 5 sec. 15 to 40. 
Total bitumen .=oluble in carbon bisulphide, not less than 90%. 

The sand shall be clean, hard grained and moderately sharp, and 
shall be free from clay, silt and organic matter. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 387 



It shall be well graded from coarse to fine, and when tested by 
means of the laboratory sieves, shall meet the following requirements: 

Passing 4 mesh sieve, 100%. 

Total passing 20 mesh sieve, 50 to 80%. 

Total passing 50 mesh sieve, not more than 30%. 

Passing 100 mesh sieve, not more than 5%. 

Mineral Filler. 

The mineral filler shall be any finely powdered acid-resistant 
siliceous material, 85% of which shall pass a 100 mesh screen. 

Priming Solution. 

The priming solution shall consist of an asphaltic base similar 
to the asphalt cement and shall be thinned to a good brushing consist- 
ency with a suitable volatile solvent. 

Mixing. 

The sand or the mixture of the sand and mineral matter and the 
asphalt cement shall be heated separately to about 300 °F. When 
the asphalt cement is completely fluid, the hot dry aggregate is 
stirred in and thoroughly mixed until the mass is homogeneous and 
sufficiently fluid for pouring. The temperature of pouring should 
be between 350 and 400 °F. The aggregate if dry may be stirred in 
without previous heating but in that case a longer period of heatmg 
and stirring will be required. 

Laying. 

The concrete surface shall be primed and allowed to dry to the 
tacky state. The hot mixture, prepared as above, shall then be poured 
spread on, soothed out and worked into place with suitable tools. 
After the surface has begun to set, it shall be sprmkled with hard- 
grained sand and a little mineral dust and rubbed down until it is 
smooth. The finished layer should be at least 1 in. thick. 

Approximate Formula. 

The composition varies within narrow limits according to the 
service required of the material, and when ready for laying should 
be as follows: "^ 

Asphalt cement 12 to 15% 

Mineral filler 20 to Zb/c 

Sand or other aggregate - b" to w /o 



388 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




Vig. 76— Topeka Bituminous Concrete. 




Fig-. 77 — Sheet Asphalt. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



389 




Fig. 7S — ^Asphaltic Concrete (Warrenite.) 




Fig. 70 — Bituminous Earth Pavemont. 



390 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




Fig-. SO — Brick Pavement With Asphalt Filler. 




Fig. 81 — Wood Block With Asphalt Filler. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



391 




Fig. 82 — Asphalt Macadam Pavement. 




Fig. 83— Two-Course Concrete Pavement. 



392 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 




Fig. 84 — Oil Treated Macadam Pavement. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 393 



Natural Gas. 

Natural gas is an ideal domestic fuel and an almost equally ideal 
industrial fuel. It is a large item in interstate but not in interna- 
tional trade. About one-fourth of the natural gas consumed in 
the United States is used for generating power, and its use af- 
fects international industry and commerce, for it supplements the 
supply of coal and oil. 

As it saves man power, is especially adapted to certain indus- 
trial processes and is cheap, natural gas is used as fuel in many 
glass works, cement plants, brickyards, factories and metallurgical 
plants. It is also used in large quantities as raw material in mak- 
ing carbon black, 30 per cent of the natural gas consumed indus- 
trially in West Virginia in 1917 having been used in the carbon black 
industry. 

Some natural gas is valuable because of its content of gaso- 
line, and the extraction of gasoline from natural gas is now an in- 
dustry of increasing magnitude. Some of the gasoline thus obtained 
is so light that it must be blended with naphthas and other distillates 
obtained from crude oil before it can be used as a motor fuel. A re- 
cently developed process is that of extracting the gas helium from 
natural gas. It is used in balloons as a non-inflammable substitute 
for hydrogen. 

Natural gas is now used by about 16,500 industrial consumers 
of whom more than 10,000 employ it for generating power and by 
about 2,500,000 domestic consumers. The field operations undertaken 
to exploit natural gas have been accompanied by enormous waste, 
which will hasten the exhaustion of this fuel. 

Character and Occurrence — Pure natural gas is odorless and col- 
orless, burns with a luminous flame and is highly explosive when 
mixed with air. Its chief constituent is marsh gas, or methane, a 
member of the paraffin series. Besides methane, it may contain 
ethane, a closely related gas and varying amounts of ethylene or 
defiant gas, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as well 
as a little oxygen and helium. 

Natural gas is classified as either "wet" or "dry" according to 
its content of gasoline. Wet gas is commonly associated with oil in 
oil fields and is generally obtained from the same sand or formation 
that yields the oil or even from the same well. It contains not only 
ethane, propane, butane and pentane, the lighter members of the 
methane series, which predominate in the dry gas, but some heavier 
hydrocarbons. Dry gas contains chiefly methane or marsh gas, the 
lightest known hydrocarbon, which has a specific gravity of 0.559. 
It is usually not associated with oil in the sand and is generally un- 
der high pressure. 

The close association of oil and gas in both occurrence and ori- 
gin makes it difficult to consider the two re.sources separately. Gas 
invariably accompanies oil wherever the conditions arc favorable to 
its accumulation but it is also found in places far removed from oil 
fields. Many of the natural gas fields coincide areally with oil fieUls 
and the production of oil and that of natural gas are closely related. 



394 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



The gas being lighter usually accumulates in the upper parts of the 
oil and gas bearing deposits. The accumulation of natural gas is 
governed by features of geologic structure similar to those that gov- 
ern the accumulation of oil and the origin of natural gas is accounted 
for by the same theories that account for the origin of oil. Natural 
gas is found in rocks that range i.i geologic age from Cambrian to 
Recent, but most of the vi^orld's supply of natural gas is derived from 
beds of Devonian, Carboniferous and Tertiary age. 

Geographic Distribution — The chief natural gas fields of the United 
States are the Appalachian field, comprising parts of the States of 
West Virginia, Pennsj^lvania, New York, Ohio, Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee; the Mid-Continent field, including parts of Kansas and Okla- 
homa; and isolated fields in the states of Louisiana, Texas, Arkan- 
sas, California, Illinois and Indiana. Gas is also found in small 
quantities in Wyoming, Washington, Colorado, Oregon, South Dakota, 
North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, lov/a, Michigan, Missouri, New Mex- 
ico, Utah and Alabama. In foreign countries, natural gas is found 
in considerable quantities in the provinces of Ontario, Alberta and 
New Brunswick in Canada and in Great Britain, Italy, Rumania, 
Galicia, Hungarj', Russia, Persia, India, Japan, Mexico, Peru and 
Argentina. Undoubtedly as the search for petroleum is continued, 
productive gas fields will be discovered in foreign countries even in 
countries where natural gas is not now supposed to be present in 
great quantities. 

Production — The commercial production of natural gas is re- 
stricted almost wholly to the United States, the available statistics 
showing that about 95 per cent of the world's output is produced 
in this country. Canada stands second in rank. The United States 
is likely to lose this remarkable predominance, for she has already 
apparently passed her maximum production. (See U. S. Geol. Survey.) 

The table on page 395 shows the production of the principal 
natui'al gas producing countries in the woi'ld in 1913 and 1917: 

Typical Composition of Commercial Gases. 





Me- 


















thane 


Ethyl- 


Hydro- 


Carbon 


Carbon 


Nitro- 


Oxy- 


B.T.U. 




CnHjn 


enes 


gen 


monox. 


diox. 


gen 


gen 


per 




+ 2 


CnHsn 


H2 


CO 


CO2 


N2 


02 


cu. ft. 


Coal gas, Germany 


34.02 


5.09 


46.20 


8.88 


3.01 


2.15 


0.65 


700 


Coal Gas, United States. 


40.00 


4.00 


46.00 


6.00 


0.45 


2.05 


1.50 


755 


Li^ite gas 


15.59 


3.25 


45.16 


17.24 


11.51 


5.49 


1.76 


500 


Wood distillation gas. . . . 


21.70 


6.00 


18.30 


31.50 


17.40 


5.10 


0.00 




Cannel coal gas, low tem- 


















perature 

Cannel coal gas, high 


60 10 


6 30 


21 20 




























temperature 


34 20 


3 50 


54 50 












Water gas 


2.00 
91.58 
73.92 


0.00 

0.00 

10.43 


45.00 
0.00 
9.30 


45.50 
0.00 
0.45 


4.00 
0.00 
0.22 


2.00 
7.95 
5.46 


1.50 
0.00 
0.22 


350 


Natural gas 


970 


Pressure still gas 




Oil gas 


57.70 
1.20 
0.5 

77.0 


38.10 


"3:5" 


3.40 

12.00 

3.00 


0.50 
27.00 
26.00 
16.5 


0.30 
2.50 
9.5 
3.0 






1390 


Producer gas 


57.30 
56.0 




154 


Blast furnace gas 

*Still gases from lub stills 
*Still ga-ses from coking 














stills 


71.0 


17.0 


5.0 


5.0 


1.0 

















KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



395 



NATURAL GAS PRODUCED BY PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 
1913 AND 1917 IN THOUSANDS OF CUBIC FEET. 



Countrv— 1913 

United States 581.898,239 

Canada 20,487,000 

Austria 250,000 

Italy 210,525 

Great Britain 87 

Japan Small Amount 

Russia - Small Amount 



World 603,000,000 



1917 
795,110,376 
27,408,940 

6,750,000 
85 



829,000,000 



REPORT OF BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS ON PRICE OF 

1,000 CUBIC FEET OF GAS USED FOR HOUSEHOLD 

PURPOSES IN VARIOUS CITIES. 

Natural Gas. 



Buffalo $0.35 

Cincinnati 35 

Cleveland 35 

Columbus 30 

Dallas 45 



Kansas City $0.80 

Little Rock 45 

Louisville 648 

Pittsburgh Co 35 



Manufactured and Natural Mixed. 
Los Angeles $0.75 



;^*v; 



Ma 

1919. 

Atlanta $1 

Baltimore 

Birmingham 

Boston Co. — A 1 

Boston Co.— B 1 

Boston Co. — C 

Bridgeport 1 



nufactured Gas. 

1919. 

Mobile $1- 



Buffalo 

Butte 

Charleston (S. C). 

Chicago 

Cleveland 

Denver 

Detroit 

Fall River 

Houston 

Indianapolis 

Jacksonville 

Manchester 

Memphis 

Milwaukee 

Minneapolis 



,00 

.75 

.95 

.00 

.10 

.95 

.10 

.45 

.485 

.10 

.88 

.80 

.95 

.79 

.95 

.00 

.60 

.25 

.10 

.00 

.75 

.95 



New Haven 1 

New Orleans 1 

Newark 

New York 

Norfolk 1 

Omaha 1 

Peoria 

Philadelphia l 

Pittsburgh 1 

Portland, Me 1 

Portland, Ore 

Providence | 

Richmond ^ 

Rochester 

San Francisco 

Scranton | 

Seattle ^ 

St. Louis 

St. Paul 

Washington 



35 

10 

.30 

.97 

.80 

.20 

.15 

.85 

.00 

.00 

.40 

.779 

.30 

.00 

.95 

.90 

.30 

.25 

.75 

.85 

.95 



396 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Natural gas is found trapped in the various strata of the earth, 
principally in sandstone formations of loose texture, in shale seams 
and in cavities. It is usually associated with petroleum or coal and 
occurs in the carboniferous strata or in more recent formations. In 
coal mines it constitutes what is known as fire damp, being given 
off from the exposed seams of coal. It is most commonly associated 
with peti'oleum in petroleum bearing sand and occupies the space in 
the sand above the oil. Occasionally it occurs in strata without any 
oil being present, in which case it is of a slightly different composi- 
tion than the gas which is found in contact with the oil. In many 
cases it appears that the gas has been obtained from the atmosphere, 
the oxygen having been removed by its combination with reducible 
substances such as sulphides, leaving a residue of nitrogen. This 
gives to such natural gases the peculiarity of having a very large 
amount of nitrogen. Associated with the nitrogen there occasionally 
is found a small amount of helium which is also an ordinary con- 
stituent of air in small quantities. It may be that the difference of 
solubility of the different gases of the air in water may account for 
the tendency of accumulation of helium in such instances. As a rule, 
however, natural gas consists of hydrocarbons of the same type as 
petroleum and identical with the hydrocarbons which are given off 
by the cracking of petroleum. 

The proportions in which the different hydrocarbons exist in ordi- 
nary gas such as is delivered to Kansas City, Missouri, is something 
like the following: 

Methane 84.7% 

Ethane 9.4% 

Propane 3.0% 

Butane 1.3% 

Nitrogen 1.6% 

This gas has the greater portion of the heavy hydrocarbons con- 
densed out on account of the high pressure in the pipe lines. Such a 
gas is a mixture of methane with a varying amount of the other gases. 
As shown by the above table, the gases ethane, propane and butane 
furnish much of the heating value of the gas. A gas with a consider- 
able amount of gasoline vapor in it will have a considerably higher 
heating value than one from which it has been removed, or known as 
a dry gas. 

The compositions of the natural gas used in eight cities in the 
United States are as follows: 

Methane, Ethane, Nitrogen, 

City Percent Per Cent Per Cent 

Pittsburgh, Pa 79.2 19.6 1.2 

Louisville, Ky 77.8 20.4 1.8 

Buffalo, N. Y 79.9 15.2 4.9 

Cincinnati, 89.8 19.5 .7 

Cleveland, 80.5 18.2 1.3 

Springfield, 80.3 14.7 5.0 

Columbus, 80.4 18.1 1.5 

Chelsea, Okla 75.4 17.7 6.6 

These analyses were made by the ordinary combustion method 
and hence show only the two predominating paraffin hydrocarbons. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 397 



The composition of gases found in Kansas and Oklahoma as given 
by Allen and Lyder are shown by the following table: 

,. , B.T.U. per 

Location Methane Ethane Nitrogen Cubic Foot 

Augusta, Kas 10.54 1 64 87.69 129 

Cowley County, Kas 16.27 3.01 80.23 209 

Chautauqua County, Kas 42.38 1.85 55.29 441 

Chautauqua County, Kas 49 01 3.89 46.67 541 

Elsworth, Kas 61.09 1.09 37.20 609 

Ponca City, Okla 44.60 14.86 40.10 688 

Kay County, Okla 57.91 9.89 31.65 735 

Chautauqua County, Kas 85.53 0.15 12.95 839 

Chautauqua County, Kas 79.13 7.79 11.39 894 

Butler County, Kas 62 15 18.38 18.64 930 

Montgomery County, Kas. ..83.04 8.54 "^.95 970 

Blackwell, Okla 70.69 18.65 9.32 1025 

Cushing, Okla 70.74 2164 7.49 1059 

Bartlesville, Okla 70.50 24.60 3.21 1125 

The presence of such a large amount of nitrogen in some cases 
makes the gas almost valueless unless some process is used whereby 
the nitrogen may be adapted to chemical processes. 

While natural gas has a very high heating value in comparison 
with water gas, water gas has the advantage in that it gives a more 
intense flame. The comparison of various commercial gases is shown 
in the following table: 

Natural gas may have its origin from a sand which is entirely 
separated from sand containing oil or it may come from above the oil 
in the same sand as oil. 

In the latter case the lighter portions of the oil will have been 
volatilized and carried into the gas. Such a gas is known as a "wet" 
gas. In other words, the wet gas is composed of the usual constitu- 
ents of dry gas; that is, methane, ethane, propane and butane, and in 
addition pentane, hexane and heptane. These last three are liquid at 
ordinary temperatures and are the most desirable components of 
gasoline. 

Gas coming from a sand containing no oil is "dry" gas and does 
not contain the pentane, hexane and heptane. 

A "wet" gas coming from an unknown sand indicates the presence 
of oil in that sand. 

In the ordinary oil well the gas is allowed to escape between the 
casing of the well and the tube which has been inserted for withciniwal 
of the oil. The gas so collecting in the casing is known as casinghoan 
gas and may be used or allowed to escape. 

This gas collecting in the casinghead of an oil well is "wet" gas 
and contains some of the gasoline from the oil. The gasoline which 
may be compressed from it or refrigerated from it is then known as 
"casinghead" gasoline. 



398 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 399 



The lighter the oil with which the casinghead gas has been asso- 
ciated, the greater ordinarily will be the amount of gasoline contained 
in the gas. 

Ever since natural gas has been conducted in pipe lines it has been 
known that gasoline could be separated by pressure and much has been 
incidentally so produced. More recently the great demand for gasoline 
has encouraged the design of hundreds of special plants for the extrac- 
tion of gasoline from natural gas. 

In 1904, at Titusville, Pennsylvania, Fasenmeyer made casinghead 
gasoline by pumping the gas under pressure through a coil under 
water. 

In the early methods pressures of about 50 pounds per square inch 
were used. Later condensing with a pressure of 400 pounds per 
square inch was found to produce too "wild" a gasoline or one that 
escaped too easily on handling. A pressure of 250 pounds per square 
inch is now used, and the pressure of the condensed liquid is con- 
trolled by absorbing it directly into heavier naphtha. 

At first the compression was done in one stage, but it is the cus- 
tom now to do it in two stages. The gravity of the product is from 
80 to 100° Baume'. 

The amount of casinghead gasoline present in a gas well depend 
upon the character of the oil associated with it, the temperature, the 
pressure, the compactness of the sand and the condition in the sand 
at the point tapped. 

The amount of gasoline obtained from casinghead gas in the Mid- 
Continent field varies from % to 8 gallons per 1,000 cubic feet. A 
typical gas yields 2y2 gallons per 1,000 cubic feet. Many yield 3 to 4 
gallons -per 1,000 cubic feet. 

The total production of casinghead gasoline in the United States 
is shown on page 400. 

The cost of plants for producing casinghead gasoline has varied 
from $12 to $25 per thousand cubic feet of gas handled, and the oper- 
ation of the plants has been uniformly successful and highly 
profitable. 

While the type of plant ordinarily constructed is for compression 
methods, it is probable that the absorption method will be more gen- 
erally adopted. The operation of the absorption method is similar to 
that of extracting toluol from coal gas and may be applied to a natural 
gas capable of yielding 1 pint of gasoline per 1,000 cu. ft. By the use 
of the absorption process 50 million cu. ft. of natural gas wou d be 
available per day and 100 million gallons of light gasoline would be 
made. 



400 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Natural Gas Gasoline Produced in the United States, 

1911-1920. 

Prepared by U. S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior. 









GASOLINE PRODUCED 






Number 
of 


Number 
of 






Av. Yield 


YEAR 






Gasoline per 




Operators 


Plants 


Quantity 


Average Price 


M Cu. Ft. 








(Gallons) 


per Gallon 
(Cents) 


(Gallons) 


1911 


132 


176 


7,425,839 


7.16 


3.00 


1912 


186 


250 


12,081,179 


9.60 


2.60 


1913 


232 


341 


24,060,817 


10.22 


2.43 


1914 


254 


386 


42,652,632 


7.28 


2.43 


1915 


287 


414 


65,364,665 


7.88 


2.57 


1916 


460 


596 


103,492,689 


13.85 


.496 


1917 


750 


886 


217,884,104 


18.45 


.508 


1918 


503 


1,004 


282,535,550 


17.83 


.63 


1919 


611 


1,191 


351,535,026 


18.26 


.73 


1920 


577 


1,151 


383,311,817 


18.7 


.772 


1921 (Est.) 


600 


1,200 


410,000,000 











Unblended Natural Gas -Gasoline Produced in the 
United States in 1920. (By States). 





No. of 
Oper- 
ators 


No. of 
Plants 


GASOLINE PRODUCED 


Perc. 

Prod, of 

State 




STATE 


Quantity 
(Gallons) 


Av. 
Price 

(Cts.) 


Av. 
Yield 
(Gals.) 


% 
Total 


Oklahoma 


141 

74 

29 

20 

207 

14 

32 

4 

38 

6 

8 

4 


312 

210 

70 

42 

306 

31 

59 

4 

92 

9 

10 

4 


177,424,824 

58,941,488 

48,207,976 

32,956,028 

21,151,135 

10,609,629 

10,015,638 

8,711,037 

6,054,916 

4,497,320 

4,330,748 

411,078 


18.0 
22.0 
17.3 
18.0 
21.0 
16.1 
22.0 
20.0 
22.0 
24.0 
19.0 
18.4 


2.10 

.34 

1.10 

2.10 

.35 

.28 

.25 

1.81 

2.09 

.24 

.37 

2.53 


91.7 
27.0 
73.3 
91.5 
52.0 
57.3 
23.0 
94.0 

100.0 

4.0 

36.4 

100.0 


46.3 


West Virginia 


15.4 


California 


12.6 


Texas 


8.6 


Pennsylvania 


5.5 


Louisiana 


2.8 


Ohio 


2.6 


Wyoming 


2.3 


Illinois 


1.6 


Kentucky 


1.2 


Kansas 


1.1 


New York 


.1 






Totals, 1920 


577 


1,149 


383,311,817 


18.7 


.772 


73.0 


100.0 







KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 401 



Charcoal is now used for the absorption of the gasoline from 
natural gas at atmospheric pressure. Activated charcoal with the gas 
passing at the right velocity will absorb all of the gasoline and 
22-25% of its weight in gasoline. The gasoline is distilled from the 
charcoal by means of superheated steam. Bentonite or similar hydrous 
silicates of alumina have somewhat the same absorption qualities as 
charcoal. 

References for Casinghead Gasoline: Auerswald, Mech. Engr., 
43,601, 1921. Oil & Gas Journal, 20, 74, 1921. U. S. Patent 1402340, 
Jan. 3, 1922. 

FORMULA FOR THE CAPACITY OF ABSORPTION TOWERS OF 
CASINGHEAD GAS PLANTS. 

C=2d^h s p 

C = capacity in cubic feet of gas per day. 

d= diameter of tower in inches 

h = height of tower in feet— baffled portion 

s=fraction of unobstructed cross section 

p=pressure of gas in pounds 

With S = .50 

C=d=h p 

Amount of Absorption Oil required. 
O = .02 C G 

0=gallons of oil necessary to circulate per day 
C = capacity in cu. ft. of gas per day 
G=gallons of extractable gasoline per 1000 cu. ft. 

Azz2 g 

A = area of condenser in square feet 

g=: gallons of gasoline to condense per hour. 



402 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Properties of Hydrocarbons Found in Natural Gas and 

Casinghead Gas. 



01 



c. 
o 



3 

n 



c 



» 



» 



Formula 

Molecular Weight 

Specific Gravity of Liquid. 

Specific Gravity of Gas. . . 



Boiling point at atmospheric 
pressure 



Pressure to liquefy at 60° F 
lbs 



CH4 
16.03 

0.555 



-165° C 
=265° F 



Vapor pressure 70° F in per 
cent of atmosphere 



100+ 



Gallons per 1000 cu. ft. at 
B. P. reduced to 60° F... 



Weight 1000 cu. ft. vapor at 
B. P. reduced to 60° F, lbs. 

Shrinkage in volume by 1 gal. 
liquid removed per 1000 
cu. ft 



42 



CjHe 

30.05 

.432 = 
194° Be' 

1.049 



-93° C 
=135° F 

475 



100+ 
4.13 

79.7 



CjHa! 

44.07 

.515 = 
142° Be' 

1.526 



-45° C 
=49° F 

105 



100+ 

7.17 

116 



CiHio 

58.08 

.585= 
109° Be' 

2.008 



+ 1°C 
34=° F 

35 



100+ 
10.72 
152.6 



Max. possible removable gal. 
per 1000 cu. ft. at 70° F, 



Heating value in B. T. U. per 
cu. ft 



B. T. U. per lb 

Cu. ft air to burn 1 cu. ft. gas 
Carbon per cent 



Explosive mixture per cent in 

air, maximum 

Minimum 



1065 
25360 
9.57 
75.0 



14.5 
5.6 



1861 
23350 
16.72 
80.0 



5.0 
3.0 



2685 
23150 
23.92 
81.8 



3.5 
2.1 



3447 
22590 
31.10 

82.8 

3.0 
1.6 



CiHij 

72.10 

.630= 
92.2° Be' 

2.496 



36.3° C 
=97° F 

6.5 



00 

14.35 

189.7 

7.0% 

7.8 

4250 
22400 
38.28 
83.3 



2.5 
1.3 



CeHu 

86.12 

.670= 
78.9° Be' 

2.982 



69° C= 
156° F 

1.8 



10 
18.22 
226.6 

5.5% 

1.8 

5012 
22120 
46.46 
83.7 

2.2 



CtHh 

100.13 

.697 = 
70.9° 

3.467 



98.4° C 
=200° F 

0.5 



2.7 
22.05 
263.5 

4.5% 

0.6 

5780 
21935 
53.6 
84.0 

1.9 



CsHit 

114.15 

.718= 
65.0° 

3.952 



125.5° C 
=258° F 

0.15 



0.7 

25.86 

300 

3.9% 

0.18 
6542 

kin 

21807 

m 

60.8 

84.2 

1.6 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 403 



About Natural Gas and Its Usefulness. 

An average sample of natural gas has 950 B.T.U. per cubic foot. 
1 lb. mill coal will evaporate 9 lbs. water. 
1 gal. oil will evaporate 100 lbs. water. 
1 cu. ft. gas will evaporate 0.85 water. 
1 ton coal used under boilers = 18,500 cu. ft. of gas. 
1 bbl. oil (42 gal.) under boilers = 5,000 cu. ft. of gas. 
40 to 50 cu. ft. of gas = 1 boiler H.P. 
Gas Engines: 

Highest grade gas engines develop a brake H.P. on 8,500 B.T.U. 

Average engine develops a H.P. on 10^500 B.T.U. 

Oil well engine develops a H.P. on 20,000 B T.U. 

In a steam turbine plant of over 500 K.W. capacity 30 cut. ft. gas 

per K.W. is a fair average. 
It requires 40,000 cu. ft. of gas to pump one million gallons of 
water against 200-foot head. 
Brick Plants — Gas Used per Thousand Brick Made: 
1,800 cubic feet for power. 
1,800 cubic feet for drying. 
15,000 cubic feet for kilns. 
Ice Plants: 

2,000 feet gas per ton of refrigeration. 
Zinc Plants: 

15,000 cubic feet for roasting per ton of metal produced. 
65,000 cubic feet for smelting per ton of metal produced. 
20,000 cubic feet for power and miscellaneous uses per ton of 
metal produced. 
Cement Plants: 

60 to 100 cubic feet per barrel for power. 
80 to 100 cubic feet per barrel for roasters. 
1,800 to 2,600 cubic feet per barrel for kilns. 
Salt Plants: 

Direct-fire pans, 9,000 cubic feet per ton. 
Steam pans, 10,000 cubic feet per ton. 
Single-effect vacuum pan, 15,000 cubic feet per ton. 
Double-effect vacuum pan, 10,000 cubic feet per ton. 
Triple-effect vacuum pan, 6,000 cubic feet per ton. 
Flour Mills: 

200 to 400 cubic feet per barrel. 
Gas Compressors: , , • ^ 

Horsepower required to compress 1,000 cu. ft. of gas per mmute. 
To 15 lbs. 50 H.P. 

To 30 lbs. 85 H.P. 

To 45 lbs. Ill H.P. 

To 60 lbs 134 H.P. 

To 80 lbs' 117 H.P. (2 stages) 

To 100 lbs' 151 H.P. (2 stages) 

To 200 lbs' 212 H.P. (2 stages) 

Horsepower required to compress 1,000 cu. ft. of gas per hr. 
To 15 lbs. 1 ^^ H.P. 

To 30 lbs. 1-75 H.P. 

To 45 lbs. 8.25 H P. 

The specie hea^of average natural gas is 0.60 B.T.U. per pound, 
or 0.028 BT.U. per cubic foot at 32 F. 



404 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Gasoline, Natural Gas and Coal Dust Elxplosions. . 

An explosion or a detonation is a chemical reaction which goes 
on with increasing velocity and is accompanied by a rise of tempera- 
ture. The lowest temperature at which combustion or explosion of a 
mixture may take place is called the ignition temperature. This 
varies greatly with different kinds of gas, about 650°C. The vapors 
of some substances such as carbon bisulphide and hydrogen sulphide 
are capable of ignition at much lower temperatures, even as low as 
100 °C. Some gases even inflame spontaneously at room temperature. 
These are phosphorus tri-hydride, boron and silicon hydride and caco- 
dyl. Ordinarily, explosive mixtures are ignited by the presence of a 
flame or spark at any point in the mixture ordinarily greater than 
.2 of a millimeter in length. In order that the gaseous mixture ex- 
plodes it is necessary that the heat generated by the local combustion 
be greater than the heat absorbed by the surrounding gases. This 
means of course that if the mixture is heated to a high temperature 
it will be more readily explosive though the pressure will exert ver5' 
little influence. An excess of either the combustible agent or the 
oxidizing agent in the mixture will have the sam.e cooling effect tha*" 
is exerted by any inert gas. The result is that the limits of explosi 
bility of various mixtures of combustible gases and air are depend- 
ent upon the heat generated by the combination and by the heat ab- 
sorbed jn raising the temperature of the gases. 

In the same manner that mixtures of gas or vapor and air will 
explode, coal dust, oil m.ists and dusts of other combustible materials 
will explode. As a general fact, these explosions will not take place 
at ordinary room temperature unless there is over one-half pound of 
dust of suspended matter per 500 cubic feet of air. 

For ordinary gases the following limits hold as to the range of 
combustion with combustible mixtures when air is the oxidising agent: 

Limits of Explosibility of Mixtures of Combustible Gases and Air. 

Gasoline vapor 1.5- 6.0% by vol. of mixture 

Methane 5.5-14.5% by vol. of mixture 

Ethane 2 5- 5.0% by vol. of mixture 

Natural gas 5.0-12.0% by vol. of mixture 

Acetylene 3.0-73.0% by vol. of mixture 

Artificial illuminating gas 7.0-21.0% by vol. of mixture 

Hydrogen 5.0-72.0% by vol. of mixture 

Carbon m.onoxide 15.0-73.0% by vol. of mixture 

Blast furnace gas 36.0-65.0% by vol. of mixture 

Water gas 9.0-55.0% by vol. of mixture- 
Coal gas 6.0-29.0%) by vol. of mixture 

Ethylene 4.0-22.0% by vol. of mixture 

Coal dust + 1 lb. per 500 cu. ft. of air 

The striking back of a flame in a burner is caused by the pres- 
ence of an explosive mixture in the burner. While the usual rate of 
striking back of the flame or the propagation of an explosion is over 
6,000 feet per second and about seven times the rate of sound in the 
same medium, this rate exists only when there is no retardation of 
the explosive wave caused by the cooling effect of the orifice or tube 
through which it passes. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 405 



Chemical Products from Natural Gas. 

Natural gas offers peculiar opportunities for research on the de- 
velopment of various oxidized and chlorinated products of methane 
and ethane. It is well known that the ordinary natural gas burner 
if not properly adjusted will emit great quantities of formaldehyde 
gas probably according to the following reaction: CH4 + O2 = CH2O 
+ H2O. The conditions governing the quantitative production of for- 
maldehyde by partial oxidation of natural gas are those of proper 
mixing, exact temperature and catalysis. Many different methods 
have been attempted in the production of formaldehyde but most of 
them will not produce more than 25 7f of the theoretical yield. Other 
remote possibilities in the controlled oxidation of natural gas include 
the production of alcohol and acetone. 

The greatest success in the manufacture of chemical compounds 
has resulted from the chlorination of natural gas. The commercial 
preparation of mono-chloro-methane or methyl chloride CHsCl is now 
being carried out successfully by a firm of manufacturing chemists. 
This compound is used largely as a refrigerant and in the dye stuff 
industry. Other chlorination products such as chloroform, CHCb 
and carbon tetrachloride CCU are not yet made cheaply enough from 
natural gas to compete with other established ways of making them. 
They are however successfully made. These chlorination processes 
are ordinarily carried out by the slow action of chlorine on the nat- 
ural gas at carefully regulated temperatures and with a proper cata- 
lyzer. Catalyzers that have been successfully used are finely di- 
vided tin, nickel, copper, lead, dense charcoal, palladium, platinum 
and the like. Unless low temperatures are used, the chlorine reacts 
explosively forming only hydrochloric acid and carbon. 

Hydrogen may also be made by the heating of natural gas at 
very high temperature. However, this method of manufacture has 
always been a method of convenience rather than a commercial method 
where the making of hydrogen is a business. Amyl acetate may also 
be indirectly made from natural gas by means of a chlorination pro- 
cess but it is not yet done in competition comni3:-cially with other 
methods of making this chemical. 



406 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Methods of Manufacture of Carbon Black. 

The processes of manufacturing carbon black now in use or con- 
templation are as follows: 

(1) Channel Process. This process consists in the use of steel 
channels carried on trucks above gas flames burning from lava tips. 
The lava tips are fitted so that they bum without sufficient air giv- 
ing a yellow smoky flame. This flame impinges upon the bottom of 
the channel bars which are moving slowly so as to present a cool 
surface to the flame. The channel bars usually are about seven 
inches wide and weigh about twelve pounds per foot. Scrapers are 
adjusted to the bottom of the channels to take off the carbon as col- 
lected. The carbon falls as the channel passes over the scraper and 
is conveyed to the packing department. Each lava tip burns from 
four to fourteen cubic feet of gas per hour and one tip produces about 
3-5 grams of carbon per day. Thirteen tips produce one pound of car- 
bon per day. A sixty barrel plant or one making 3,000 pounds of 
•'arbon black per day requires 38,400 lava tips. 

(2) Disc Process. This process was invented by Blood in 1883 
and in principle is the same as the channel process except that the 
cold surface on which the gas flame impinges is a cast iron disc 
about 40 inches in diameter. The disc rotates at the rate of about 
four revolutions per hour. The carbon is scraped off in much the 
same manner as the channel process. 

(3) Plate Process. This is known also as the Cabot Process. 
This consists in perforated circular plates about 24 feet in diameter 
and is essentially the same in principle as the disc and channel 
processes. The spent gas passes through the perforated or ven- 
tilator holes whereas in the disc process, they pass out over the edge 
of the disc and in the channel process, between the channel bars. 

(4) Roller or Cylinder Process. In this process, the face of the 
cylinder is exposed to the gas flame. The cylinders are from three 
to eight feet long and about eight to nine inches in diameter, each 
weighing about 100 pounds. The cylinder rotates on a horizontal 
axis. 

(5) Thermal Decomposition Methods. In this, the primary ob- 
ject has been to produce hydrogen. There is no o;:idation of the gas 
and the carbon is produced purely by cracking. The carbon in this 
method is comparatively poor, being rather hard and containing some 
bituminous matter. The temperature of cracking usually is about 
1500°F. 

(6) Explosion Method. This method is not operated at present 
on a commercial scale but has the advantage of being highly efficient 
and giving a good grade of carbon. A charge of the gas mixed with 
either air or oxygen is compressed into a heavy metal cylinder and ig- 
nited by a spark. The explosion wave goes through the whole cylin- 
der. The cylinder is opened and the carbon brushed out and a new 
charge placed in. This is repeated indefinitelv. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



407 



YIELD OF CARBON BLACK IN DIFFERENT FIELDS. 



Plant No. 


State 


Process 


Lbs. of Carbon Black 
per 1000 Cu. Ft. Gas 


1 


Louisiana 


Channel, 2-table 

Channel, 1-table 

Channel, 1-table 

Large plate 

Large plate 

Rotary disc 

Roller 

Rotary disc 

Channel, 2-table.... 

Channel, 1-table 

Rotary disc 

Channel 


78 


2 


Louisiana . . . 




95 


3 


Louisiana .... 




80 


4 


Louisiana. . . . 




80 


5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 


West Virginia 
West Virginia 
West Virginia 
West Virginia 
West Virginia 
West Virginia 
West Virginia 
Oklahoma . . . 




1.10 
0.95 
0.80 
1.00 
1.12 
1.30 
1.40 
1.20 


13 


Wyoming 




Channel 


1.40 



COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS. 



Plant 
No. 



Location 



Louisiana 

Louisiana 

West Virginia. 
West Virginia . 
West Virginia . 
West Virginia 
Oklahoma . . . . 



Method 



*Sq. ft. per 

Burner 

Tip 



2-table. 
1-table. 



Channel 
Channel 

Roller 

Large plate 

Channel, 2 table 

Small disc 

Channel. 1-table 



0.21 
0.26 



Sq. ft. per Lb. | Sq. ft. per 100 
of Carbon Cu. ft. of 

Black Gas Burned 



4.87 


3.73 


4.23 


4 04 


9.10 


7.33 


6.53 


7.16 


5.05 


6.75 


3.10 


2.90 


3.70 


3.50 



*Square foot of depositing surface. 

The total quantity of carbon black produced from natural gas in 
the United States in 1920 was 51,320.892 pounds, according to E. G- 
Sievers of the U. S. Geological Survey, a decrease of 1.4 per cent 
from 1919, notwithstanding an increase in the number of plants. In 
1919, the plants were still operating at or near full capacity on ac- 
count of the war, but since normal conditions have been restored the 
production has decreased. The output in 1920 was made by 39 plants 
operated bv 19 producers. The total value was $4,032,286 as com- 
puted from' the prices received by the producers. The prices ranged 
from 4 cents to 27 cents a pound. The average daily production in 
1918 was 120,830 pounds, in 1919 it was 144,600 pounds, and m IJ^d 
it was 140,608 pounds. 

About 40,600,000 cubic feet of natural Kfs was consumed in the 
manufacture of carbon black in 1920. I" 1919, the ^"^^"tty con- 
sumed was 49,896.200,000 cubic feet and in 1918 it was estimated at 
45,000,000,000 cubic feet. In 1920 the productiori of carbon black 
per thousand cubic feet of gas consumed ranged from 45 to ^ 
pounds, but the average production during the year foi all states was 
about 1.26 pounds. 



408 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Range in Production of Carbon Black at Plants in the United States 

in 1919 and 1920. 
Production Plants 

1919 1920 

Less than 1 pound 6 6 

From 1 to 1.2 pounds 17 19 

From 1.3 to 1.6 pounds 11 . 6 

From 1.7 to 2.0 pounds 2 8 

Totals 36 39 

The daily capacity of the plants in volume of gas treated ranges 

from 172,000 to 20,350,000 cubic feet and in quantity of carbon black 

produced from 90 to 23,250 pounds. 

Production in 1919. 

State Plants Pounds 

West Virginia 23 29,925,614 

Louisiana 7 14,024,606 

Wyoming and Montana 2 4,868,947 

Oklahoma and Kentucky 2 2,922,274 

Pennsylvania 2 315,500 

Totals 36 52,056,491 

Gas = 49.9 X 10' cu. ft. 

Production in 1920. 
State Plants Pounds 

West Virginia 19 26,659,469 

Louisiana 15 18,565,498 

Wyoming 1 1 

Montana 1 j" 5,850,313 

Kentucky 1 J 

Pennsylvania 2 246,612 

Totals 39 51,321,892 

Gas = 40.6 X 10" cu. ft. 

Uses of Carbon Black. 

The uses of carbon black are, in order of importance: (1) the 
manufacture of printing inks, (2) incorporation with rubber, (3) 
varnishes and black points, (4) the blackening of ironware, (5) phono- 
graphic records, pencils, carbon paper, typewriter ribbons, Chinese 
inks, artificial stones, insulators and crucibles for steel. 

The quantities employed in 1918 were: Printing ink, 5,000 to 
6,000 tons, rubber, 10,000 tons, ironware, 2,000 to 3,000 tons and 
other uses, 500 tons. In regard to printing inks, lamp black has 
been used since the invention of the printing press and was used ex- 
clusively up to 1864. For certain qualities, where a very fine grain 
of black was required, much trouble was taken to purify it, but after 
the discovery of carbon black in 1864 and the lowering of the price 
of the latter in 1880, the use of the former diminished and at the 
present day very small quantities of lamp black are being used. 

Before 1914, the use of carbon black in the rubber industry was 
scarcely known, and no differentiation was made between it and lamp 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



409 



black. The rise in price of zinc oxide then led to the employment of 
carbon black as a filler in rubber and its valuable properties were 
for the first time realized. It increases resistance to abrasion, gives 
softness and in the opinion of many chemists has a favorable ef- 
fect upon the aging of the rubber. From the economic point of 
view, carbon black is cheaper than zinc oxide. Its density is 1.8, that 
of zinc oxide is 5.8, so taking equal volumes and the price of carbon 
black at 10c per pound, the black costs 33 per cent less than the zinc 
oxide. 

By reason of its fine state of division, carbon black constitutes 
an ideal filling material for rubber, because it can be so intimately 
mixed with the plastic rubber. It also protects the rubber against 
the destructive effects of light and it possibly retards oxidation. Car- 
bon black for the rubber industry is usually required to comply with 
the following specifications: 

(1) Moisture, less than 4 per cent. 

(2) Acetone soluble matter, less than 5%. 

(3) Ash, less than 0.25 '/f. 

(4) No gritty particles to be present. 



SPECIFIC HEAT OF GASES ENCOUNTERED IN NATURAL GAS 

AND "CRACKED" GAS. 

(H. L. Payne, J. A. & Appl. Chem.) 

B.T.U.perlb. B.T.U. 
perl°F 

Air 0.234 

Carbon dioxide 0.234 

Carbonic oxide 0.245 

Hydrogen 3.41 

"Illuminants" 0.404 

Methane 0.593 

Nitrogen 0.244 

Oxygen ^'^on 

Aqueous vapor 0.480 



per cu. ft. 
perl°F 
0.018 
0.027 
0.019 
0.019 
0.040 
0.027 
0.019 
0.019 



CALORIFIC VALUE OF NATURAL AND OIL GASES IN BRITISH 
THERMAL UNITS PER CUBIC FOOT. 



Name Symbol 

Hydrogen H: 

Carbonic oxide CO 

Methane CH, 

Illuminants 

Ethane C-H„ 

Propane n u 

Butane n w'" 

Pentane Cr,Hi; 

Hexane ^U'* 

Ethylene C^H^ 

Propylene CsHb 

Benzene ru 

Acetylene C^H: 



60°F 

Initial 

326.2 

323.5 

1009.2 

1764.4 

2521 

3274 



1588 
2347.2 
3807.4 
1476.7 



From and Ignition 
to32°F Point "F 



345.4 
341.2 
1065.0 
2000.0 
1861.0 
2657.0 
3441.0 
4255.0 
5017.0 
1674.0 
2509.0 
4012 
1477.0 



1085 
1200 
1230 

ii'4b 

1015 



1400 

1010 

940 



788 



410 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



NATURAL GAS PRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1916. 

Quantity Price, cents 

State M. cu. ft. per M. cu. ft. Value 

West Virginia 299,318,907 15.90 47,603,396 

Pennsylvania 129,925,150 18.74 24,344,324 

Oklahoma 123,517,358 9.70 11,983,774 

Ohio 69,888,070 22.32 15,601,144 

Louisiana 32,080,975 8.29 2,660,445 

Kansas 31,710,438 15.31 4,855,389 

California 31,643,266 17.19 5,440,277 

Texas 15,809,579 18.89 3,143,871 

New York 8,594,187 29.37 2,524,115 

Illinois 3,533,701 11.22 396,357 

Arkansas 2,387,935 10.13 241,896 

Kentucky 2,106,542 35.73 7.52,635 

Indiana 1,715,499 29.34 503,373 

Wyoming and Colorado 575,044 14.97 86,077 

Montana 213,315 18.21 38,855 

Dakotas and Alabama 77,478 40.75 31,573 

Missouri 69,236 25.41 17,594 

Tennessee 2,000 57.50 1,150 

Michigan 1,298 73.04 948 

Iowa ._ 275 100.00 275 

Totals 753,170,253 15.96 120,227,468 

Testing of Capacity of Casinghead Gas Wells. 

To use the orifice well tester the specific gravity of the gas must 
be taken. This is fully described on page 419. 

To test a well, close all openings but one or if the well is shut 
in at the casinghead, blow off the well before inserting the orifice well 
tester. Allow the well to blow into the atmosphere for half an hour 
or until there is no appreciable decrease in the volume of the gas 
flowing from it. Screw in the orifice well tester, which carries a 
two-inch thread, and allow the gas to flow into the atmosphere 
through the proper size of orifice. 

Connect a syphon gauge to the nipple on the side of the orifice 
well tester, using a short piece of common three-eighths-inch rubber 
hose. The syphon gauge should be filled with water up to the zero 
mark on the scale. If the well appears to be large use the large-sized 
orifice. To correctly determine the proper size of orifice it is neces- 
sary to read the gauge and note the height of the water in the glass. 
Read both sides of the scale and add them together. In other words, 
measure the difference between the two water levels which is the true 
pressure in inches of water. By referring to tables that accompany 
each instrument, or as found on pages 420-424, the flow of a well 
for a twenty-four hour period will be found under the proper gravity 
and opposite the pressure. 

The specific gravity bottle can be used to take the water pressure 
of the gas flowing through the orifice in place of the syphon gauge. 
In this case measure the difference between the two levels of the 
water. 

Use as large an orifice as possible so as not to permit the gas 
to create a back pressure in the well. A back pressure in the well 
will decrease the flow of the gas. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



411 



Pitot Tube for Testing Open Flow of Gas Wells. 

The most accurate way of testing the flow of a gas well is by 
means of the Pitot tube, which is an instrument for determining the 
velocity of flowing gas by means of its momentum. The instrument, 



a 




Fig. 85 — Pitot Tube. 



as shown in figure usually consists of %,^"^J,"^^t''.af iusrinsTdo 
bent at right angles, which is inserted in the flowing gas, just ins.cit 



412 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



the pipe or tubing a, at a point between one-third and one-fourth 
of the pipe's diameter from the outer edge of the pipe. The plane 
of the opening in the tube is held at right angles to the flowing 
gas. At a convenient distance, varying from 1 to 2 feet, an inverted 
siphon or U-shaped gage, usually half filled with mercury or water, 
is attached to the other end. If the pressure of the flow is more 
than 5 pounds per square inch, a pressure gage is required. 

In small-sized wells with a flow of not more than 4,000,000 cubic 
feet per 24 hours, a 12-inch U-gage with water can be used for flows 
ranging from 4,000,000 to 15,000,000 feet, mercury in a 12-inch U- 
gage; for 15,000,000 to 35,000,000 feet, a 50-pound spring gage, and 
for more than 35,000,000 feet, a 100-pound spring gage should be 
used. The foregoing figures are based on a 6-inch hole. 

For convenience, a scale graduated from the center in inches 
and tenths of an inch is attached between the two limbs of the U- 
gage. The distance above and below this center line at which the 
liquid in the gage stands should be added, the object being to de- 
termine the exact distance between the high and low side of the fluid 
in inches and tenths of an inch. 

The top joint of the tubing or casing should be free from fittings 
for a distance of 10 feet below the mouth of the well where the test 
is made. The test should not be made in a collar or gate or at the 
mouth of any fitting. The well should be blown off at least three 
hours prior to making the test. 

After the velocity pressure of the gas flowing from the well 
tubing has been determined in inches of water, inches of mercury, or 
pounds per square inch, as outlined above, the corresponding flow 
may be obtained from the following table*. The quantities of gas 
stated in the table are based on a pressure of 4 ounces above atmos- 
pheric, or 14.65 pounds per square inch absolute pressure, a flowing 
temperature of 60°F., a storage temperature of 60°F., and a specific 
gravity of 0.60 (air = 1). If the specific gravity is other than 0.60 the 



/ 



0.60 



flow should be multiplied by 



/- 



V specific gravity of gas 



*Westcott, H. P.: Handbook of Natural Gas, 1915, pp. 176, 177. 
For pipe diameters other than those given in the following table, 
the following multipliers should be applied to the figures for 1-inch 
tubing given in the table. 

Multipliers for Pipe Diameters Ranging from V/z to 12 Inches. 



Diameter of 


Multi- 


Diameter of 


Multi- 


Diameter of 


Multi- 


Pipe, Inches 


plier 


Pipe, Inches 


pUer 


Pipe, Inches 


plier 


1^ 


2.25 


5 


25 


8 


64 


2M 


6.25 


5^ 


31.64 


8H 


68 


AH 


18 


6 


36 


9 


81 


^Vs 


21.39 


en 


39 


10 


100 






GVs 


43.9 


12 


144 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



413 



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414 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 

Flow of Gas in Pipes — Low Pressure. 

The following formulae are intended for low pressure distribution 
of gas, with comparatively small differences between the initial and 
final pressurp'?* 

Pole's Formula Q = 1350 y 

Molesworth's Formula Q — 1000 a , 



Gill's Formula Q = 1291 ,, ,. , ,. 

^ V s (1 + d) 

Where Q = quantity of gas discharged in cubic feet per hour, 
d = inside diameter of pipe in inches, 
h = pressure in inches of water, 
s = specific gravity of gas, air being 1. 
1 = length of main in yards. 

Oliphant's Formula. A formula determined by F. H. Oliphant for 
the discharge of gas when the specific gravity is 0.60 is 



/ 


d-h 


si 


/ 


d^h 


si 


/ 


d'h 



/Pi'— P2= 

Q = 42a y l 

Where Q = discharge in cubic feet per hour at atmospheric pressure. 

Pi = initial pressure in pounds per square inch (absolute) 

Pj = final pressure in pounds per square inch (absolute). 

L = length of main in miles. 

a = coefficient (see table below). 

For gas of any other specific gravity, s, multiply the discharge by 



/ 0.60 
■y . for temperature of flowing gas when observed above 60 °F 

* s 

deduct 1 per cent for each 5° and add a like amount for temperatures 
less than 60°F. 

According to Oliphant, the discharge is not strictly proportional to 



/ 1 

^.| . Using a coefficient of unity for 1-inch pipe he gives 

V d' 



/ 1 



d"' 30 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



415 



Inside 

diameter 

inches 

% 
1 

11/2 
2 

2% 



Values of Coefficient "a' 

Inside 
diameter 
inches a 



.0317 
.1810 
.5012 

1.00 

2.93 

5.92 
10.37 



3 
4 
5 

5% 
6 
8 
10 



16. 
34. 
60 
81 
95 
198 
350 



Inside 

diameter 

inches 

12 
16 
18 
20 
24 
30 
36 



For 15 inch outside diameter pipe, 14% inches inside dia. a 
For 16 inch outside diameter pipe, 15^/4 inches inside dia. a 
For 18 inch outside diameter pipe, nVi inches inside dia. a 
For 20 inch outside diameter pipe, 19 Vi inches inside dia. a 



a 

556 
1160 
1570 
2055 
3285 
5830 
9330 

= 863 

= 1025 

= 1410 

= 1860 



Capacity of Pipe Lines. 

(Metric Metal Works.) 

Tables to Find the Cubic Feet, Per Day of 24 Hours, of Gas of .6 

Specific Gravity at Certain Pressure in Pipe Lines 

of Various Diameter and Lengths. 

Select in table A the number opposite the gauge pressures, in 
pounds, then from table B select the number opposite the length of 
line in miles. Multiply these two numbers together and result is the 
cubic feet that a 1-inch line will discharge for the pressures and 
length named in twenty-four hours. If the diameter of the pipe is 
other than one inch, select the number in table C which corresponds 
with the diameter and multiply this number by the discharge for one 
inch already secured. The result is the quantity in cubic feet in 
twenty-four hours discharged by a line whose diameter was selected. 

If there are other pressures and lengths not given in the table 
they can be secured by interpolation. Example— Suppose it is re- 
quired to find the discharge per day of twenty-four hours of a pipe 
line having an intake of 200-pound gauge pressure and 2i) pounds at 
the discharge end, the length being 20 miles, and the il''>n\^'ter « 
inches. In table A we find opposite 200 and 25 the number 21.i5. 
and in table B opposite 20 miles, 22.5, multiplying these two numbers 
the result being 47.637 cubic feet that under the above condition ot 
pressure and length a 1-inch pipe would convey, but the required 
diameter is 8 inches. Under this number in table ^' "t ^\;' .' '^^' ';"' , 
that 198 corresponds; therefore 47,637 X 198 = 9,433,120. which is 
the cubic feet discharged in 24 hours. 

If the pressure were twenty pounds instead of twenty-five at the 
discharge end it would be found very closely by »;>;''"»^'thc figures 
opposite 15 and 25 and dividing by 2. the result would be 9,4(.fi.1.. «• 



416 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



TABLE A. 










Dis- 






Dis- 






Dis- 




Intake, 


charge, 


Re- 


Intake, 


charge, 


Re- 


Intake, 


charge, 


Re- 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


sultant 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


sultant 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


sultant 


1 


H 


4.7 


40 • 


5 


51,2 


110 


75 


86.8 


1 


14 


3.9 


40 


10 


49,0 


110 


85 


75,0 


2 


Vi 


6.9 


40 


15 


46.1 


110 


100 


49,0 


2 


1 


4.7 


40 


20 


42.4 


125 


5 


138.6 


2 


IJ^ 


4.0 


40 


25 


37.8 


125 


15 


136.8 


3 


1 


8.1 


40 


30 


31.6 


125 


25 


134,2 


3 


2 


5.8 


40 


35 


22.9 


125 


35 


130,8 


4 


1 


10.1 


50 


5 


61.8 


125 


50 


124,0 


4 


2 


8.4 


50 


10 


60,0 


125 


75 


107.2 


4 


3 


6.0 


50 


15 


57,7 


125 


100 


79,8 


5 


1 


11.8 


50 


20 


54,8 


125 


110 


63,1 


5 


2 


10.4 


50 


25 


51,2 


135 


5 


148.7 


5 


3 


8.6 


50 


30 


46.9 


135 


15 


147,0 


5 


4 


6.2 


50 


35 


41,5 


135 


25 


144,6 


6 


1 


13.4 


50 


40 


34,6 


135 


35 


141,4 


6 


3 


10.6 


50 


45 


25,0 


135 


50 


135,2 


6 


5 


6,3 


60 


5 


72,3 


135 


75 


120,0 


7 


1 


14.9 


60 


10 


70,7 


135 


100 


96,3 


7 


3 


12.5 


60 


15 


68,8 


150 


5 


168,3 


7 


5 


9.0 


60 


20 


66,3 


150 


15 


163,3 


7 


6 


6:5 


60 


25 


63,4 


150 


25 


160,1 


8 


1 


16.3 


60 


30 


60,0 


150 


40 


155,6 


8 


3 


14.1 


60 


40 


51,0 


150 


50 


151,7 


8 


5 


11.2 


60 


50 


37,4 


150 


75 


138.3 


8 


7 


6,6 


60 


55 


26,9 


150 


100 


118.3 


9 


1 


17.6 


70 


5 


82,6 


150 


120 


94.9 


9 


3 


15.6 


70 


10 


81,2 


175 


5 


188.9 


9 


5 


13.1 


70 


20 


77.5 


175 


15 


187.6 


9 


8 


6.8 


70 


30 


72,1 


175 


25 


185.7 


10 


1 


19.2 


70 


40 


64,8 


175 


35 


183.3 


10 


2 


18.3 


70 


50 


54,7 


175 


50 


178.5 


10 


4 


16.3 


70 


60 


40,0 


175 


75 


167.3 


10 


6 


13.6 


80 


5 


92,8 


175 


100 


151.2 


10 


8 


9.8 


80 


10 


91,6 


175 


150 


94.2 


10 


9 


7.0 


80 


20 


88,3 


200 


5 


214.1 


12 


1 


21.8 


80 


30 


83,7 


200 


15 


212.9 


12 


3 


20.1 


80 


40 


77,5 


200 


25 


211.3 


12 


6 


17.0 


80 


50 


69.2 


200 


35 


209.1 


12 


8 


14.1 


80 


60 


58.3 


200 


50 


204.9 


12 


10 


10.2 


80 


70 


42.4 


200 


75 


195.3 


15 


1 


25.4 


90 


5 


103.1 


200 


100 


181.7 


15 


3 


24.0 


90 


10 


102.0 


200 


125 


163.2 


15 


6 


21.4 


90 


20 


99.0 


200 


150 


137.9 


15 


9 


18.0 


90 


30 


94.9 


200 


175 


100.6 


15 


12 


13.1 


90 


40 


89.4 


200 


190 


64.8 


20 


1 


31.1 


90 


50 


82.5 


220 


5 


234.2 


20 


4 


29.4 


90 


60 


73,5 


220 


15 


233.1 


20 


8 


26.4 


90 


70 


61,6 


220 


25 


231.6 


20 


10 


24.5 


90 


80 


44,7 


220 


35 


229.6 


20 


15 


18.0 


100 


5 


113,3 


220 


50 


225.8 


20 


18 


11.7 


100 


10 


112,3 


220 


75 


217.1 


25 


1 


36.7 


100 


15 


111 


220 


100 


204.9 


25 


3 


35.7 


100 


20 


109,5 


220 


125 


188.8 


25 


6 


34.0 


100 


25 


107.8 


220 


150 


167.3 


25 


10 


31,2 


100 


35 


103.6 


220 


175 


138.3 


25 


15 


26,5 


100 


50 


94.9 


220 


200 


94.9 


25 


18 


22,6 


100 


75 


71.6 


230 


5 


244.1 


30 


1 


42.1 


100 


85 


56.8 


230 


15 


243.2 


30 


3 


41,2 


100 


95 


33.5 


230 


25 


241.7 


30 


6 


39,8 


110 


5 


123.4 


230 


35 


239.8 


30 


10 


37,4 


110 


15 


121.4 


230 


50 


236.2 


30 


15 


33,5 


110 


25 


118.4 


230 


75 


227.9 


30 


20 


28.3 


110 


35 


114.6 


230 


100 


216.3 


30 


25 


20,0 


110 


50 


106.8 


230 


150 


181.5 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



An 



TABLE A— Continued. 





Dis- 






Dis- 






Dis- 




Intake, 


charge, 


Re- 


Intake, 


charge, 


Re- 


Intake, 


charge, 


I Re- 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


sultant 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


sultant 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 
225 


sultant 


230 


200 


117.5 


325 


250 


213.0 


400 


338.6 


230 


215 


84.4 


325 


275 


177.5 


400 


250 


319.4 


250 


6 


264.2 


325 


285 


160.0 


400 


275 


296.9 


250 


15 


263.3 


325 


300 


128.0 


400 


300 


270.2 


250 


25 


262.0 


350 


5 


364.5 


400 


325 


238.0 


250 


35 


269.2 


350 


15 


363.8 


400 


350 


197.5 


250 


50 


256.9 


350 


25 


362.8 


400 


375 


141.9 


250 


75 


249.3 


350 


35 


361.6 


425 


5 


439.6 


250 


100 


238.3 


350 


50 


359.2 


425 


15 


439.0 


250 


125 


225.0 


350 


75 


353.7 


425 


25 


438.2 


250 


150 


207.4 


350 


100 


346.4 


425 


35 


437.2 


250 


175 


184.7 


350 


125 


337.1 


425 


50 


435.2 


250 


200 


154.9 


350 


150 


325.6 


425 


75 


430.7 


250 


230 


101.0 


350 


175 


311.7 


425 


100 


424.7 


275 


5 


289.3 


350 


200 


295.0 


425 


125 


417.1 


275 


15 


288.4 


350 


225 


275.0 


425 


150 


407.9 


275 


25 


287.2 


350 


250 


251.0 


425 


175 


396.9 


275 


35 


285.7 


350 


275 


221.6 


425 


200 


383.9 


275 


50 


282.6 


350 


300 


184.4 


425 


225 


368.8 


275 


75 


275.7 


350 


325 


132.8 


425 


250 


351.3 


275 


100 


266.2 


375 


5 


389.5 


425 


275 


330.9 


275 


150 


238.5 


375 


15 


388.8 


425 


300 


307.2 


275 


200 


194.6 


375 


25 


387.9 


425 


325 


279.3 


275 


250 


117.8 


375 


35 


286.8 


425 


350 


245.7 


300 


5 


314.4 


375 


50 


384.6 


425 


375 


203.7 


300 


15 


313.6 


375 


75 


379.5 


425 


400 


146.2 


300 


25 


312.5 


375 


100 


372.7 


450 


5 


464.6 


300 


35 


311.0 


375 


125 


364.0 


450 


15 


464.0 


300 


50 


308.2 


375 


150 


353.4 


450 


25 


463.3 


300 


75 


301.9 


375 


175 


340.6 


450 


35 


462.3 


300 


100 


293.8 


375 


200 


325.4 


450 


50 


460.4 


300 


125 


282.2 


375 


225 


307.4 


450 


75 


456.2 


300 


150 


268.3 


375 


250 


286.1 


450 


100 


450.5 


300 


175 


251.3 


375 


275 


260.8 


450 


135 


443.4 


300 


200 


230.2 


375 


300 


230.0 


450 


150 


434.7 


300 


250 


170.3 


375 


325 


191.1 


450 


175 


424.4 


300 


275 


123.0 


375 


350 


137.4 


450 


200 


412.3 
398.3 


325 


5 


339.4 


400 


5 


414.5 


450 


225 


325 


15 


338.7 


400 


15 


413.9 


450 


250 


382.1 
363.5 
342 . 1 
317.2 
288.1 
263.2 
209.8 
150.4 
486.7 
610.0 


325 


25 


337.6 


400 


25 


413.1 


450 


275 


325 


35 


336 3 


400 


35 


412.0 


450 


300 


325 
325 
325 
325 
325 
325 


50 
75 
100 
125 
150 
175 


333.7 
327.9 
320.0 
309.8 
297.3 
281.9 


400 
400 
400 
400 
400 
400 


50 
75 
100 
125 
150 
175 


409.9 
405.1 
398.8 
390.2 
380.8 
369.0 


450 
450 
450 
450 
450 
475 


325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
50 
50 


325 


200 


263.4 


400 


200 


355.0 


500 



418 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



TABLE B. 



Miles 


Multipliers 


Miles 


Multipliers 


Miles 


Multipliers 


h 


2880. 


19 


231.2 


61 


129.1 


H 


2016. 


20 


225.5 


62 


128.1 


Vs 


1652.4 


21 


220.1 


63 


126.9 


Yi 


1419.7 


22 


214.9 


64 


126.0 


il 


1275.9 


23 


210.0 


65 


125.1 


M 


1158.6 


24 


205.7 


66 


124.1 


Vi 


1083.7 


25 


201.6 


67 


123.1 


1 


1008.0 


26 


197.6 


68 


122.2 


Wi 


826.2 


27 


193.8 


69 


121.3 


IM 


763.6 


28 


190.5 


70 


120.4 


2 


714.9 


29 


187.0 


72 


118.7 


2J^ 


638.0 


30 


183.9 


74 


117.2 


2M 


607.2 


31 


181.0 


76 


115.6 


3 


582.7 


32 


178.0 


78 


114.2 


^Vi 


539.0 


33 


175.6 


80 


112.7 


4 


504.0 


34 


172.9 


82 


111.2 


Wi 


475.5 


35 


170.3 


84 


109.9 


5 


450.0 


36 


168.0 


86 


108.7 


5.4 


428.9 


37 


165.8 


88 


107.5 


6 


411.4 


38 


163.6 


90 


106.2 


6J^ 


395.3 


39 


161.3 


92 


105.1 


7 


380.4 


40 


159.5 


94 


103.9 


•7M 


367.9 


41 


157.5 


96 


102.9 




356.2 


42 


155.6 


98 


101.8 


8H 


345.2 


43 


153.7 


100 


100.8 


9 


336.0 


44 


152.0 


102 


99.8 


9J^ 


327.3 


45 


150.2 


105 


98.3 




319.0 


46 


148.7 


107 


97.5 


311.1 


47 


146.9 


110 


96.0 


11 


303.6 


48 


145.4 


112 


95.3 


11 K 


297.3 


49 


144.0 


115 


93.9 


J2 

I2H 


291.3 


50 


142.6 


118 


92.8 


284.7 


51 


141.2 


120 


92.0 


13 


276.4 


52 


139.8 


122 


91.2 


13J^ 


274.6 


53 


138.5 


125 


90.2 


14 


269.5 


54 


137.1 


130 


88.4 


14H 


264.6 


55 


135.8 


135 


86.8 


15 


260.5 


56 


134.8 


140 


85.2 


15J^ 


255.8 


. 57 


133.5 


145 


83.7 


16 


252.0 


58 


132.3 


150 


82.3 


17 


244.7 
237 . 5 


59 
60 


131.2 
130.1 






18 













TABLE C. 

Multipliers for diameters other than 1 inch. 



M 


inch 


= 


.0317 


Vz 


inch 




.1810 


% 


inch 


=r 


.5012 


1 


inch 


= 


1.0000 


Wi 


inch 


= 


2.9300 


2 


inch 


= 


5.9200 


21/2 


inch 


= 


10.3700 



3 


inch 


= 16.50 


4 


inch 


= 34.10 


5 


inch 


= 60.00 


5% 


inch 


= 81.00 


6 


inch 


= 95.00 


8 


inch 


= 198.00 



10 



12 inch = 556 



16 


inch 


= 


1160 


18 


inch 


3Z 


1570 


20 


inch 





2055 


24 


inch 


r= 


3285 


30 


inch 


ZIZ 


5830 



36 inch = 9330 



inch = 350.00 

For wrought iron pipes greater than 12 inches in diameter the 
measure is taken from outside, and for pipes of ordinary thick- 
ness the corresponding inside diameters and multipliers are as follows: 
Outside dia. of 15-inch pipe gives 14^/4 in. inside dia. = 863 
Outside dia. of 16-inch pipe gives 15^4 in. inside dia. = 1025 
Outside dia. of 18-inch pipe gives 17% in. inside dia. = 1410 
Outside dia. of 20-inch pipe gives 19% in. inside dia. = 1860 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



419 



Measuring the Flow of Natural Gas. 

ORIFICE METER. 

An instrument known as the orifice meter, for testing small flows 
of natural gas, is shown in the figure. This instrument is simple in 
construction, consisting of a short 2-inch nipple, b, with pipe thread 
on one end and a thin 
plate disk on the other. 
The disk carries a 1- 
inch orifice, a, and a 
hose connection, c, for 
taking the pressure. 
The meter is especially 
intended for testing 
small gas wells and 
"casinghead" gas from 
oil wells. As a rule 
the flow of gas from 
an oil well is rather 
small, and it is not ad- 
visable to test the flow 
with a Pitot tube such 
as is used in testing 
large gas wells. In 
using the orifice tester, 
it is necessary to know 
the specific gravity of 
the gas in order to ob- 
tain the flow. 

Before the. orifice 
well tester is attached 
to the casinghead the 
well should be per- 
mitted to blow into the 
atmosphere until the 
head of the gas is re- 
duced and the flow has 
become normal. Then 
the tester is attached 
by simply screwing it 
into the end of a 3-foot 
length of 2-inch pipe 
and the pressure is 
read in inches of water 
on the siphon gage, d. 
In the tables * on pages 
420-21, the flow of the . . . -„„,,-if,. the 

well with values for the gas of different gravities _ is opiK)siU the 

ig. The orifice in \ 
uninjured; otherwise the page 




(I 



Fig. 86— Orifice .Meter. 

'. S. Bureau "f Pi Miidards.) 



well with values lor tne gas ui uixx^i'^wv ^--•■-■~-, ,'\ , „,,,! 
gage reading. The orifice in the instrument should be kept dr> and 
nnfniured; otherwise the page reading will not be coiroct. 

^Westcott H. P.: Handbook of Natural Gas, 1915. pp. 545-548. 



420 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



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KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



421 



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«PS'*'«"0«' 



422 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



Orifice Capacity. 



Diameter, Inches 






Cubic Feet per Hour 






Area 


Morse 
Drill 
























Gage 


Coal Gas, 


Water Gas, 


Natural Gas 


Frac. 


Decimal 


Square Inch 


Size 


0.32 sp. gr. 
2" Press 


0.62 sp. gr. 
2" Press 


0.62 sp. gr. 
43^-cz. Press 




0.0135 


0.000143 


80 


1.04 


0.86 


1.67 




0.0145 


0.000165 


79 


1.16 


0.97 


1.89 


1/64 


0.0156 


0.00019 




1.26 


1.05 


2.05 




0.016 


. 00020 


■ 7g-- 


1.32 


1.10 


2.14 




0.018 


0.00025 


77 


1.35 


1.13 


2.20 




0.020 


0.00031 


76 


1.62 


1.35 


2,63 




0.021 


0.00035 


75 


1.80 


1.52 


2 96 




0.0225 


. 00040 


74 


2.16 


1.80 


3.51 




0.024 


0.000.45 


73 


2.29 


1.90 


3.70 




0.025 


0.00049 


72 


2.46 


2.05 


4.00 




0.026 


0.00053 


71 


2.70 


2.25 


4.38 




0.028 


0.00062 


70 


2.79 


2.33 


4.54 




0.0292 


0.00067 


69 


3.08 


2.57 


4.97 




0.031 


0.00075 


68 


2.23 


2.70 


5.26 


1/32 


0.031 


0.00076 




3.26 


2.73 


5.32 




0.032 


0.00080 


67 ' 


3.42 


2.85 


5.56 




0.033 


0.00086 


66 


3.53 


2.94 


5.73 




0.035 


0.00096 ^ 


65 


3.69 


3.08 


6.00 




0.036 


0.00102 


64 


3.86 


3.23 


6.30 




0.038 


0.00108 


63 


4.05 


3.38 


6.60 




0.038 


0.00113 I 


62 


4.11 


3.51 


6:84 




0.039 


0.00119 ► 


61 


4.50 


3.75 


7.31 




0.040 


0.00126 


60 


4.95 


4.12 


8.04 




0.041 


0.00132 


59 


5.22 


4.35 


8.48 




0.042 


0.00138 


58 


5.40 


4.50 


8.67 




0.043 


0.00145 


57 


5.67 


4.71 


9.2 




0.0465 


0.00170 


56 


6.57 


5.47 


10.6 


3/64 


0.0469 


0.00173 




6.75 


5.63 


11.0 




. 0520 


0.0021 


'55" 


8.9 


6.75 


13.2 




0.0550 


0.0023 


54 


9.0 


7.50 


14.6 




0.0595 


0.0028 


53 


10 8 


9.0 


17.5 


1/16 


0.0625 


0.0031 




11.7 


7.7 


19.0 




0.0635 


0.0032 


52 " 


11.9 


9.9 


19.3 




0.0670 


0.0035 


51 


12.6 


10.5 


20 5 




0.070 


. 0038 


50 


13 5 


11.2 


21.8 




0.0730 


. 0042 


49 


14.4 


12 


23.4 




0.076 


0.0043 


48 


15.3 


12 7 


24.8 


6/64 


0.0781 


0.0048 




15.7 


13.1 


25 5 




0.0785 


0.0018 


■■■47' ■' 


15.8 


13.2 


25 7 




0.081 


0.0051 


46 


16 


13.5 


26 




0.082 


0.0053 


45 ■• 


17 


14.3 


28 




0.086 


0.0058 


44' 


18 


15 


29 




0.089 


0.0062 


43' 


19 


16.5 


32 




0.0935 


. 0069 


42 


20 


17 


33 


3/32 


0.0937 i 


. 0069 




21 


18 


35 




0.096 


0.0072 


■ 41" 


22 


19 


37 




0.098 


0.0075 


40 


23 


20 


39 




0.0995 


0.0078 


39 


24 


20.5 


40 : 




0.1015 


0.0081 


38 


25 


21 


41 




0.104 


0.0085 


37 


26 


22 


43 




0.1065 


0.0090 


36 


27 


22.5 


44 


7/64 


0.1093 


. 0094 




28 


23 


45 




0.110 =, 


0.0095 


"35 


29 


24 


47 




0.111 


0.0097 


34 


30 


25 


49 




0.113 


0.0100 


33 


31 


26 


51 




0.116 


0.0106 


32 


32 


27 


53 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



423 



ORIFICE CAPACITY— Continued. 



Diameter, Inches 






Cubic Feet per Hour 






Area, 


Morse 
Drill 
















Square Inch 


Gage 


Coal Gas, 


Water Gas. 


Natural Gas, 


Frac. 


Decimal 




Sizej 


0.43 sp. gr. 
2" Press 


0.62 sp. gr. 
2" Press 


0.62 sp. gr. 
434-oz. Press 




0.120 


0.0113 


31 


33 


28 


55 


1/8 


0.125 


0.0123 




36 


30 


58 




0.1285 


0.0130 


30 


39 


32 


62 




0.136 


0.0145 


29 


43 


35 


68 




0.1405 


0.0155 


28 


44 


37 


72 


9/64 


. 1406 


0.0155 




45 


38 


74 




0.144 


0.0163 


27 


47 


39 


76 




0.147 


0.0174 


26 


48 


40 


78 




0.1495 


0.0175 


25 


51 


42 


82 




0.152 


0.0181 


24 


52 


43 


84 




0.154 


0.0186 


23 


53 


44 


86 


5/32 


0.156 


0.0192 




54 


45 


88 




0.157 


0.0192 


22 


55 


46 


90 




0.159 


0.0198 


21 


57 


47 


91 




0.161 


. 0203 


20 


58 


48 


95 




0.166 


0.0216 


19 


60 


50 


97 




0.1695 


0.0226 


18 


62 


52 


101 


11/64 


0.1719 


0.0232 




63 


53 


103 




0.173 


0.0235 


17 


65 


54 


105 




0.177 


0.0246 


16 


68 


56 


109 




0.180 


. 0254 


15 


69 


58 


113 




0.182 


0.0260 


14 


71 


59 


115 




0.185 


0.0269 


13 


72 


61 


119 


3/16 


0.1875 


0.0276 




75 


62 


121 




0.189 


0.0280 


i2 


76 


63 


123 




0.191 


0.0286 


11 


77 


64 


125 




0.1935 


0.0294 


10 


79 


66 


129 




0.196 


0.0302 


9 


80 


67 


131 




0.199 


0.0311 


8 


83 


69 


134 




0.201 


0.0317 


7 


84 


70 


136 


13/64 


0.203 


0.0324 




86 


71 


138 




0.204 


0.0327 


6 


87 


72 


140 




0.205 


. 0332 


5 


89 


74 


144 




0.209 


0.0343 


4 


93 


77 


150 




0.213 


0.0356 


3 


95 


79 


154 


7/32 


0.2187 
221 


0.0375 
0384 


2 '" 


97 
99 


80 
82 


156 
160 




228 


0.0408 


1 


104 


86 


168 


15/64 

1/4 
17/64 

9/32 
19/64 

5/16 
21/64 
11/32 
23/64 

3/8 
25/64 


0.2344 

0.250 

0.2656 

0.2812 

0.2969 

0.3125 

0.3281 

0.3437 

0.3594 

0.375 

0.3906 


0.0442 
0.0491 
0.0554 
0.0621 
0.0692 
0.0767 
0.0845 
0.0928 
0.1014 
0.1104 
0.1198 




108 
119 
131 
142 
163 
164 
176 
187 
198 
209 
221 
231 
241 
254 
264 
277 
286 
299 
309 
320 
331 
340 
353 


90 
99 
109 
119 
128 
136 
146 
155 
165 
174 
184 
193 


175 
193 
212 
232 
260 
166 
285 
302 
322 
340 
360 
376 


■ 13/32 


0.4062 


. 1296 




9ni 


392 


27/64 


0.4219 


! 0.1398 




211 


412 


7/16 


0.4375 


0.1503 




220 


430 


29/64 


0.4531 


0.1612 




230 


448 


15/32 


0.4687 


0.1725 




239 


466 


31/64 

1/2 


0.4844 
0.500 


0.1843 
0.1963 




249 
267 


486 
600 


33/64 


0.5156 


. 2088 




267 


620 


17/32 


0.5312 


0.2216 




276 


639 


35/64 


0.5469 


0.2349 




285 


656 


9/16 


0.5625 


0.2485 




296 


676 


37/64 


0.5781 


0.2625 




■jna 


690 


19/32 


0.5937 


0.2769 




1 





424 



BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



ORIFICE CAPACITY— Continued. 



Diameter, Inches 


Area, 
Square Inch 


Morse 
Drill 
Gage 

Size 


Cubic Feet per Hour 


Frac. 


Decimal 


Coal Gas, 

0.43 sp. gr. 

2" Press 


Water Gas 

0.62 sp. gr. 

2" Press 


Natural Gas, 
0.62 sp. gr. 
4K-OZ. Press 


39/69 

5/8 
41/64 
21/32 
43/64 
11/16 
45/64 
23/32 
47/64 

3/4 
49/64 
25/32 
51/64 
13/16 
53/64 
27/32 
25/64 

7/8 
57/64 
29/32 
59/64 
15/16 
61/64 
31/32 
63/64 
1 


0.6094 

0.625 

0.6406 

0.6562 

0.0719 

0,6875 

0.7031 

0.7187 

0.7344 

0.750 

0.7656 

0.7812 

0.7969 

0.8125 

0.8281 

0.8438 

0.8594 

0.875 

0.8906 

0.9062 

0.9219 

0.9375 

0.9531 

0.9687 

9.9844 

1.0000 


0.2917 
0.3068 
0.3223 
0.3382 
0.3546 
0.3712 
0.3883 
0.4057 
0.4236 
0.4418 
0.4604 
0.4794 
0.4988 
0.5185 
0.5386 
0.5591 
0.5801 
0.6013 
0.6229 
0.6450 
0.6675 
0.6903 
0.7134 
0.7371 
0.7611 
0.7854 




376 
387 
399 
410 
421 
431 
443 
454 
466 
476 
488 
499 
510 
520 
532 
543 
554 
565 
576 
588 
599 
510 
620 
632 
644 
655 


313 
323 
333 
341 
350 
369 
370 
378 
387 
397 
406 
415 
424 
433 
443 
453 
461 
472 
480 
490 
500 
507 
517 
526 
536 
545 


610 
630 
650 
665 
682 
720 
722 
737 
755 
774 
792 
810 
827 
845 
865 
884 
900 
920 
938 
955 
976 
985 
1010 
1025 
1047 
1062 



NOTE: — The above table is based upon data obtained from gas 
orifices that are ordinarily used in gas appliances such as the ones 
used in Hale Gas Mixers. 



ARTIFICIAL GAS:— The above figures are based upon 2-inch 
pressure; for higher pressures these figures should be increased by 
a percentage as shown below: 



3-inch 
4-inch 
5-inch 
6-inch 
7-inch 



25 
50 
62.5 

75 
87.5 



% 



10-inch 
12-inch 
16-inch 
20-inch 



120 % 
140 
180 
210 



NATURAL GAS: — The above figures for natural gas are based 
on a gas under 4% oz. pressure having a specific gravity of 0.62, 
which is the ordinary gravity of natural gas sold in cities supplied by 
gas from the Mid-Continent. Pennsylvania and West Virginia fields. 
When the pressure is greater than 4V2 oz. the figures in the table 
should be increased as shown below: 



5 oz. = 10% 

6 oz. = 20 

7 oz. = 30 



8 oz. = 39 % 

9 oz. = 47.5 
10 oz. = 60 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 425 



Outline of Methods of Analysis of Petroleum Products. 

1. Specific Gravity and Baume' Gravity. 

(a) With hydrometer. (d) By fluid suspension. 

(b) With picnometer. (e) By displacement. 

(c) With Westphal balance. (f) Asphaltic Cement. 

2. Color of Petroleum. 

(a) Saybolt Chromometer. (d) lodimetric. 

(b) Lovibond Tintometer. (e) Union Colorimeter. 

(c) Potassium Bichromate. 

3. Odor of Oil. 

4. Transparency. 

5. Viscosity or Fluidity. 

(a) Saybolt Universal, Engler and Redvfood Viscosimeters. 

(b) Furol Viscosity for fuel oil and road oil. 

(c) Ubbelohde Viscosimeter for thin petroleum products. 

(d) MacMichael Disk Friction Viscosimeter. 

(e) Float test for viscosity of road oils. 

(f ) Zero Viscosity for semi-solid petroleum products. 

(g) Petrolatum. 

6. Melting Point. 

(a) Ring and Ball. 

(b) Cube method. 

(c) "General Electric" method. 

(d) Wax. 

7. Cold Test. 

(a) Cloud test. 

(b) Pour test. 

(c) Cold test. 

8. Water and Bottom Settlings. 

(a) By centrifuge. 

(b) By distillation. 

9. Distillation Tests for Petroleum. 

(a) End point distillation. 

(b) Fractional— Gravity distillation analysis. 

(c) Proximate distillation for water, gasolme, kerosene and re- 
siduum. 

(d) Fractional — Sample distillation. 

10. Flash and Burning Points. 

(a) Illuminating oils with closed tester (lag.). 

(b) All types of petroleum products with the Elliott or New York 
closed tester. 

(c) Lubricants and asphalt with Cleveland open cup. 

(d) Fuel oil with Pensky-Martens. 

11. Pressure— Heat Tests. f^,^r,^rMfiirP 

(a) Cracking test under high pressure and temperature. 

(b) Vapor pressure test at high pressure. . . „„j nrp<»<»ure 

(c) Motor oil lubricant test for stability under heat and pressure. 

(d) Vapor pressure of light gasohne. 

12. Carbon residue. 

(a) Conradson carbon test. 

(b) Fixed carbon and ash m asphalt. 

(c) Asphaltic carbon in lubricating oils. 



426 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



13. Emulsification test of lubricating oils. 

14. Heat of combustion. 

(a) By bomb calorimeter. 

(b) By calculation from gravity. 

15. Sulphur in Petroleum Products. 

(a) By bomb calorimeter. 

(b) By Eschka method. 

(c) By chemical bomb. 

(d) In illuminating oils by lamp method. 

(e) For Naphtha and turpentine substitute, white lead test. 

16. Ultimate Analysis. 

(a) Carbon and Hydrogen. 

(b) Nitrogen. 

17. Doctor Test for Refined Distillates. 

18. Olefins, Ethylenes or Unsaturated Hydrocarbons. 

(a) Babcock method. 

(b) Cylinder method. 

(c) Refining loss. 

19. Aromatic and Paraffin Hydrocarbons in Petroleum. 

(a) Nitrating method. 

(b) Distillation method. 

20. Acid. 

(a) Free acid in petroleum products. 

(b) Combined fatty acid. 

21. Floe Test. 

22. Corrosion and Gumming Test of Gasoline. 

23. Penetration or Consistency of Asphalt. 

24. Ductility of Asphalt. 

25. Resistance of Asphalt and Oil to Evaporation. 

26. Determination of Natural Asphalt or Semi-Solid HydrocarboM in 

Petroleum. Oxidation of Lubricating Oils. 

27. Solubility of Petroleum and Asphalts. 

(a) In petroleum ether — 

(1) A.S.T.M. precipitation number of lubricating oils. 

(2) Tar in lubricating oils, asphaltenes in asphaltic cement. 

(b) In carbon bisulphide — total bitumen. 

(c) In carbon tetrachloride — carbene free bitumen. 

28. Resistance of asphalt to oxidation. 

29. Paraffin wax or scale determination. 

30. Bitumen and Grading of Asphalt-Mineral Mixtures. 

(a) By burning. 

(b) By extraction. 

31. Tensile and Cementing Strength of Asphaltic Surface Mixtures. 

32. Specific Gravity of Gas. 

(a) Effusion or viscosity method. 

33. Gasoline Determination in Gas. 

(a) By absorption test. 

(b) Freezing test. 

34. Complete Chemical Analysis of Gas with Preparation of Reagents. 

35. Heat of Combustion of Gas. 

(a) By the calorimeter. 

(b) By oxygen consumption. 

(c) By calculation from chemical analysis. 



KANSAS CITY TESTING LABORATORY 



427 



Index to Applications of Methods of Analysis. 



, PRODUCT 


Routine Test 


Occasional Tesi 


Rarely Used 


A. Crude Petroleum ... 


lA, 2D, 3, 4, 
8, 9B, 9C, 15 


7C,9D,10,5A, 
9C, 14, 26, 29 


2D, 7B, 9D, 
12, 16, 18 


B. Gasoline, Benzine and 

Naphtha 


1, 2, 3, 4, 9A, 
17, 18, 22 


9B, 14, 19,20, 
IID 


5B, 7A, 15, 16 
20 


C. Kerosene and Illumi- 
nating Oils 


1,2ABC,3,4, 
5B, 7, 9B, 
lOA, 15. 17, 
21 


lOB, 14, 18, 
20,22 


9C,11B, 16,19 


D. Gas Oil, Straw Oil, 
Absorption Oil. . . . 


1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 
9C, 10, 14, 15 


5, llA, 12A, 
13, 17, 18 


16, 19, 20, 21 


E. Lubricants, Paraffin 
Oils 


1, 2, 3, 4, 5A, 
7, 10, 12A, 13, 
15, 20, 27A 


14, 17, 18, lie. 
12C 


16, 19, 21 


F. Fuel Oil, Diesel En- 
gine Oil 


1,5C, 7, 8, 10, 
14, 15 


5, 11,26,27A, 
29 


2D,3, 9, 12, 16 
18, 19 


G. Road Oil, Flux Oil . . 


lAB, 5AD, 8, 
10, 12, 25, 26, 

27 


7B, 14, 15,29 


2D, 11, 16 


H. Asphalt and Pitch . . . 


IDF, 5F, 
6ABC, IOC, 
12, 23, 24, 27 


8B, 15, 28. 
29 


2D, 3, 14, 16. 
25 


I. Wax 


1, 2, 3, 6D 


4,25 


llA, 12A, 14, 
15, 16, 17, 18, 
19,20 


J. Grease 


1, 2, 3, 4, 
5DE, 8, 12B, 
27 


20,25 


16 


K. Asphalt Surface Mix. 


IE, 30, 31 






L. Gas 


32. 33, 34, 35 




16 



Note— See special specifications for other tests of Petroleum 
Products. 



428 BULLETIN NUMBER SIXTEEN OF 



1. Specific Gravity and Baume' Gravity (General Discussion). 

Specific gravity is the relation by weight of the same volume of 
oil and of water. Unless some other temperature is specifically men- 
tioned the gravity refers to 60 °F. Specific gravity is determined by 
means of the hydrometei', the Westphal balance, the picnometer and 
by displacement methods. The absolute specific gravity scale is not 
commonly used in the oil industry. Instead, the Baume' gravity 
scale, an entirely arbitrary standard is used. Two Baume' gravity 
scales are in use in the oil industry; one is that adopted by the U. S. 
Bureau of Standards and its relation to specific gravity is indicated 
by the following formula: 

140 

Specific Gravity = for liquids lighter than water. 

130 + Baume' 

Another scale possibly more commonly used is that of the Amer- 
ican Petroleum Associati