(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Journal"

THE 



V 



u 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



MANCHESTER GEOGRAPHICAL 



/// 



SOCIETY 




VOL. XXIX. 



®i 



PUBLISHED FOR THE 
MANCHESTER GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

BY 

SHERRATT & HUGHES 

LONDON AND MANCHESTER 

1913 



7 






VI ^ 



THE 

COUNCIL AND OFFICERS 

OF THE 

MANCHESTER GEOGRAPHICAL 

FOR 19 1 3. 

Ipatron. 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 
Mb. harry NUTTALL, M.P., F.R.G.S. 

IDlccspresiDents, 



SOCIETY 



the Earl of Derby, 



Earl Egerton of 



The Right Hon. 

G.C.V.O. 
The Right Hon. 

Tatton. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rotherham of 

Broughtox. 
The Right Rev. the Bishop of Salford. 
The Right Rev. Bishop Welldon, 

D.D., Dean of Manchester. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of 

Manchester. 
His Worship the Mayor of Salford. 
The Vice-Chancellor of Manchester 

University. 
The Right Hon. Sir William Mather. 
The Rt. Hon. J. F. Cheetham. 
Sir W. H. Houldsworth, Bart. 
Sir C. W. Macara, Bart. 



Sir Frank Forbes Adam, CLE. 
Alderman Sir J, Duckworth, J. P., 

F.R.G.S. 
Mr. Frederick Burton, J. P. 
Colonel H. T. Crook, J. P., V.D. 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, J. P., 

F.R.S. 
Colonel E, W. Greg, J.P., C.C, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. J. G. Groves, D.L., J.P. 
Mr. J. S. Hicham, M.P. 
Mr. John McFarlane, M.A., M.Com., 

F.R.G.S. 
Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S., 

Vice-Chairman of the Council. 
Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. C. P. Scott, J.P. 
Mr. Hermann Woolley, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. F. ZiMMERN, F.R.G.S., Chairman 

of the Council. 



Sir Humphrey F. de Trafford, Bart 

trustees. 

Mr. H. Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S. Mr. Sidney L. Keymer, F.R.G.S. 

Mr. E. W. Mellor, J. P., F.R.G.S. 





Ibonorar^ Q:rea6urer. 

Mr. David A. Little. 


Ibonorars Secretaries. 

Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. Egbert Steinthal. 




Ibonorar^ Secretary (Dictorians). 

Mr. C. A. Ciarke. 


Mr. 


Cou 
W. S. AscoLi, F.R.G.S. 


iictl. 

Mr. T. C. Middleton, J.P. 


Mr. 


J. E. Balmer, F.R.G.S. 


Mr. F. S. Oppenheim, M.A. 


Miss S. A. Burstall, M.A. 


Mr. T. W. F. Parkinson, M.Sc. 


Mr. 


C. A. Clarke. 


F.G.S. 


Mr. 


C. Collmann. 


Mr. Alfred Re'e, Ph.D. 


Mr. 


George Ginger. 


Mr. Wm. Robinow. 


Mr. 


J. Howard Hall. 


Mr. J. Walter Robson, J.P. 


Mr. 
Mr 


Alderman T. Hassall, J.P. 
Richard Kalisch, F.R.G.S. 


Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 

Mr. T. W. Sowerbutts, F.S.A.A. 


Mr. 
Mr. 


H. C. Martin, F.R.G.S. 

L. Emerson Mather, F.R.G.S. 


Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 

Miss L. Edna Walter, B.Sc, H.M.I 



tbonorarg BuMtor. 

Mr. Theodore Gregory, J. P., F.C.A. 

Sccrctari^. 

Harry Sowerbutts, Assoc.R.C.Sc. 



CONTENTS. 



A 

PAGE 

Accounts for 1912 61 

Additions to the Library 165 

Administration of British East 

Africa 17 

Adriatic Coast, Journey down the 38 

Advent Bay, Spitsbergen 119 

Africa, British East 10 

Africa, South, Dr. Livingstone's 

Explorations 1 

America, Colorado, Mesa Verde 

National Park 94 

Ainsworth, John, C.M.G. — British 

East Africa 10 

Anglo -E(jypf/ian Sudan : A Report 

on the Band Settlement of the 

Gezira 154 

Annual Meeting, 1913 57 

Antarctic Expedition, British 122 

Antarctic Expedition, disaster 67 

Arctic Regions, Lost in the 66 

Atlases added to the Library 167 



B 



Bainbridge Oliver — Native Life 

and Customs in Southern Seas 65 

Balance Sheet, 1912 62 

Balkans and Turkey 23 

Balkans, Highways and Byways 

in the 35,95 

Banquet, Livingstone Centenary... 4 

Belgrade 33, 111 

Bellamy, C. H., F.R.G.S.— The 

Balkans and Turkey 23, 69 

Books added to the Library 168 

Bosnia, Journey through 51 

Bosnia, travelling in 95 

Bosphorus, Sail down the 27 

Bowers, Lieut., death of 139 

British Antarctic Expedition, 

1910-13 122, 160 

British Corresponding Societies... 172 
British East Africa Protectorate- 
John Ainsworth, C.M.G 10 

Broussa, The Green Mosque, &c.... 30 
Brownell, Thos. W. — Visits to the 
Holy Land and Northern 

Egypt 67 

Bruce, W. S., LL.D.— Spitsbergen 115 

Bucharest, description of 27 

Bulgaria and its History 24 



C 

PAGE 

Carpathian Mountains 144 

Carter, James A., B.A. — Glaciers... 163 
Cause of Yorkshire Coast Erosion 76 

Cliff Dwellings, Prehistoric 94 

Coal in Spitsbergen 119 

Coast, Yorkshire, lost towns 74 

Colonial Corresponding Societies... 174 
Colorado, Mesa Verde National 

Park 94 

Commerce and Education 6 

Congress of Pedology, International 153 

Constantinople 28 

Constanza 27 

Corresponding Societies 172 

D 

Danube, River, Course of 144 

Death of Captain Gates 139 

Death of Captain Scott 139 

Death of Dr. Wilson 139 

Death of Lieut, Bowers 139 

Deaths of Members, 60, 65, 69, 156, 162 

Death of Seaman Evans 138 

Dixon, Prof. H. B., Ph.D.— 
Climbing in the Canadian 

Rockies 163 

Dobrun 56 

E 

Easington 84 

Education — Sir H. H. Johnston, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 4 

Eller, Wm.— Lubeck 164 

Erosion of Yorkshire Coast 76 

Europe, England, East Yorkshire 73 

Europe, Hungary, Geology of 143 

Europe, the Balkans 35, 95 

Europe, the Balkans and Turkey... 23 
Evans, Commander E. R. G. R. — 

British Antarctic Expedition... 

122, 160 

Evans, Seaman, Death of 138 

Exchanges with other Societies... 172 

Expedition, British Antarctic 122 

Explorations of Dr. Livingstone... 1 

F 

Foreign Corresponding Societies... 175 
Formation of the Soil of Hun- 
gary — B. de Inkey 143 



CONTENTS 



a 

PAGE 

Gamble, Dr. M.— Life in San 

Salvador do Congo 157 

Geography, importance of, in edu- 
cation 6 

Geography of East Yorkshire— T. 

Sheppard, F.G.S 73 

Geology of Hungary 143 

Gravosa 45 

Greenland, Eastern, Lost in 66 

Gregory, Theodore, J. P., F.C.A., 

long service of 64 

H 

Healey, Alderman Wm., death of 162 

Hercegovina, Journey across 47 

Highways and Byways in the Bal- 
kans — Gilbert Waterhouse, 

FiR.G.S 35, 95 

Hilditch, J., M.R.A.S.— Japan... 162 

History of British East Africa 10 

History of East Yorkshire 73 

Hornsea 88 

Humber Estuary, Changes of 

Shores of 79 

Hungary, formation of the Soil... 143 
Hunting in Spitsbergen 117 

I 

Inkey, B. de — Formation of the 

Soil of Hungary 143 

Irvine, James, F.R,G.S., at the 
Livingstone Banquet 71 

J 

Johnston, Sir H. H., G.C.M.G., 
K.C.B. — Dr. Livingstone's Ex- 
plorations 1 

Johnston, Sir H. H., G.C.M.G., 

K.C.B.— Education 4 

K 

Kenya, Mount, discovery of 14 

Kilindini, Port, British East Africa 22 

Kilnsea 82 

Kisumu, Victoria Nyanza 22 

Kon j itza 51 

Kremna, Servia 106 

L 

Langdon, E. H., B.A., at the 

Livingstone Banquet 71 

Lantern Slides added to the 

Library..' 167 

Larpent, G. de H,, B. A.— Rhodesia 68 
Lees, Mrs. H. L., F.R.G.S.— A 

Visit to New Zealand 157 

Library Additions 165 

List of Corresponding Societies... 172 
List of Maps, Books, &c., added 

to the Library 165 



PAGE 

List of Members of the Society... 181 

Livingstone Centenary Banquet... 70 
Livingstone Centenary Celebrationl, 70 

Livingstone's Explorations 1 

Loess of Hungary 148 

Lord Mayor (Mr. S. W. Royse) at 

Annual Meeting 63 

Lost in the Polar Regions — Capt. 

E. Mikkelsen 66 

Lost Towns of the Yorkshire Coast 74 

Lussinpiccolo 39 

M 

Manchester Geographical Society 

and its Membership 6 

Maps added to the Library 165 

Maps, Early, of East Yorkshire... 77 

Marriage Customs in East Africa 19 

McMurdo Sound 123 

Meeting, Annual 57 

Meetings of the Society, see Pro- 
ceedings. 
Members, Deaths of, see Deaths 
of Members. 

Membership of the Society 6 

Members, List of 181 

Mesa Verde National Park 94 

Mikkelsen, Captain E., F.R.G.S.— 

Lost in the Polar Regions 66 

Minerals in Spitsbergen 118 

Missionary Societies 173 

Mokra Gora, Servia 99 

Mombasa and its History 11 

Mostar 49 

Muscovy Company in Spitsbergen 115 

Museum, Additions to 167 

N 

Nairobi, Early History 16 

National Park, Mesa Verde, Colo- 
rado 94 

Native Administration 18 

Native Customs in East Africa... 19 

New Members 

65, 67, 68, 69, 156, 157, 159, 162, 
163 
New Zealand, A Visit to — Mrs. 

H. L. Lees, F.R.G.S 157 

Nicholas, Rev. T. F., M.A.— The 

Gambia River and Protectorate 161 
Nuttall, Harry, M.P., introduc- 
tory remarks at Free Trade 

Hall 159 

Nyanza Province, Commissioner of 17 



Gates, Captain, Death of 139 

Oppenheim, F.S., M.A., at Annual 

Meeting 63 

Oppenheim, S., J. P., death of 156 

Osborn, J. A.— The Rhine 163 

Osborn, John A. — The Swiss Rhine 69 



CONTENTS 



vu 



Pedology, International Congress of 153 

Pedology of Hungary 152 

Philippopolis 31 

Photogra'pliic Supplement to Stan- 
ford's Geological Atlas 154 

Photographs added to the Library 167 
Phythian, J. Ernest— Old Castles 

of England and Wales 65 

Pola 38 

Polar Regions, Lost in the — Cap- 
tain E. Mikkelsen 66 

Population of British East Africa 
Prehistoric Cliff Dwellings in the 

Mesa Verde National Park... 94 
Proceedings of the Society 65, 156 



14 



Ragusa 

Ravenser 

Report of the Council, 1912. 

Reviews 

Rules of the Society 



S 

Sara j e vo 

Scutari, Asia Minor 

Scott, C. H., J.P., death of 

Scott, Captain R. F., Expedition of 

Scott, Captain, death of 67, 

Servia and its History 

Servia, Travel in 

Sheppard, T., E.G. S.— Geography 
of East Yorkshire 68. 

Shrubsole, W. H., E.G. S.— Among 
the Carpathians 

Shrubsole, W. H., E.G. S.— Buda- 
pest and the Great Hungarian 
Plain 

Sinaia, Royal Residence, &c 

Skipsea 

Smeerenburg 

Societies, Corresponding 

Society, Meetings of, see Proceed- 
ings. 

Society, Members of the 

Society, Rules of the 

Sofia 

Soil of Hungary, formation of 

Southern Party, start of 

South Pole attained by Capt. Scott 



46 

80 

57 

154 

189 



51 
29 
65 
122 
139 
24 
99 

73 

162 



65 

26 

91 

116 

172 



181 
189 
32 
143 
131 
138 



PAGE 

Spalato 43 

Spitsbergen : Past and Present — 

W. S. Bruce, LL.D 115 

Spurn Point, Changes of ." 79 

Stair, Earl of, at the Livingstone 

Banquet 71 

T 

The Balkans and Turkey— C. H. 

Bellamy, F.R.G.S 23 

The Change in the Climate and 

its Cause 154 

Towns, Lost, of Yorkshire Coast 74 

Trade in East Africa 21 

Turkey and the Balkans 23 

U 

Uganda Railway 16, 21 

Ukambani, East Africa 15 

Uzhitze, Servia 110 

V 

Vardishte, Bosnia 95 

Vishegrad 55 

Visit to New Zealand — Mrs. H. 

L. Lees, F.R.G.S 157 

W 

Wainwright, Joel, J. P., at Annual 

Meeting 64 

Warren, G. H. — Romance of the 

North- West Passage 164 

Waterhouse, Gilbert, F.R.G.S.— 

The Balkans 35, 69, 95 

Whaling in Spitsbergen Seas 115 

Wilmore, Dr. A., E.G. S.— Com- 
mercial Geography of Lanca- 
shire 68 

Wilson, Dr., death of 139 

Withernsea 86 

Women, position of, in East Africa 19 

Y 

Yorkshire, East, Geography of 73 

Z 

Zanzibar 13 

Zara, Dalmatia 40 

Zimmern, F., F.R.G.S., re death 
of Captain Scott 67 



MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

Dr David Livingstone Frontispiece. 

Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.G.S 4 

AVTARCTICA — 

Map of District round McMurdo Sound, showing Routes of Expe- 
ditions J28 

Map showing route of British Antarctic Expedition 124 

Map showing route of Southern Party.... 134 

Asia, Asia Minor— 

Broussa, Entrance to Green Mosque 28 

Broussa, Tower of the Citadel 26 

Mudania, Water-seller on the Station 28 

Europe — 

Balkans, Sketch Map 36 

Bulgaria, Sofia, Entrance to the Palace Grounds 32 

Bulgaria, Sofia, Private Residences 30 

Bulgaria, Sofia, Statae of Czar Liberator 30 

Bulgaria, Sofia, The New Cathedral 32 

Dalmatia, Spalato, Wall of Diocletian's Palace 42 

Dalmatia, Zara, Market • 42 

England, East Yorkshire, Bowen's Map, 1750 84 

England, East Yorkshire, Leland's Map of the Humber District 76 

England, East Yorkshire, Lord Burleigh's Chart (temp. Henry VIII) 78 
England, East Yorkshire, Map by T. Sheppard, showing the Lost 

Towns 89 

England, East Yorkshire, Saxton's Map, 1577 80 

England, East Yorkshire, Speed's Map, 1610 82 

England, East Yorkshire, Tuke's Map, 1766 86 

Hungary, Lowland Landscape 152 

Hungary, Mount Szentgyorgy 150 

Hungary, Orographical Map 143 

Hungary, St. Anna's Lake 148 

Hungary, The High Tatra 144 

Hungary^ The Szulyo Valley 146 

Rumania, Constanza, Statue of Ovid 26 

Rumania, Sinaia, The Greek Church 24 

Rumania, Sinaia, the King's Palace 24 

Servia, Belgrade, National Mortgage Bank with Statue of Prince 

Michael 106 

Servia, Belgrade, Old Gateway in Fortress 110 

Servia, Belgrade, Palinula Church, Old Cemetery 110 

Servia, Belgrade, River Sdve from Fortress 102 

Servia, Belgrade, Royal Palace 106 

Servia, Belgrade, Statue of Prince Michel 34 

Servia, Belgrade, The King's Palace 34 

Servia, Belgrade, view from Fortress towards Semlin 102 

Servia, Kavarna, near Bioska 98 

Servia, Village, near Stapari 98 



,•. THE WBITEBS OF PAPEBS ARE ALONE RESPONSIBLE FOR '^HEIR OPINIONS. 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 




6'^^>^' 



1813-1873 



Cl)e Journal 



OF THE 

mancbester Geoarapblcal Societp* 

^ ^ ^ 

DAYID LIVINGSTONE CENTENAEY CELEBRATION. 

" Dr. Livingstone's Explorations and their Results." 

By Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.G.S. 

(Addressed to the Society at a Meeting held in the Albert Hall, 
Manchester, on Friday, March 28th, 1913, to celebrate the 
Centenary of the Birth of Dr. David Livingstone.) 

The lecturer dealt on this occasion mainly with the aspect of 
Livingstone as an African explorer, describing to the Society — 
and illustrating his description copiously with lantern slides — 
the problems of South African geography solved by Livingstone, 
and others started by him which only received solution at a 
relatively recent date; he also touched on the great advantages 
which the British Empire derived from Livingstone's journeys; 
on the gain they had been to the knowledge of the world in 
general and to the cause of philanthropy. Livingstone, he 
reminded his hearers, was before all things a practical man who 
never gushed, and his policy of regeneration for the negro was 
eminently sound. 

Commencing with the arrival of Livingstone at Algoa Bay 
in the early spring of 1841, he took his hearers step by step 
along the route followed by the great traveller to Bechuanaland ; 
showing us the style of Cape wagon in which Livingstone 
travelled, with its long team of sturdy oxen. These oxen were 
also illustrated by a slide which enabled us to realise their very 
long horns, horns that were mostly set back in their angle with 
the skull . The lecturer pointed out that the type of draught-ox 
used in Livingstone's day was more or less of indigenous origin, 
derived from the oxen of the Hottentot and even from those of 
the Damara and Lake Ngami tribes; oxen descended lineally 
from the first race domesticated by the ancient Egyptians — the 
so-called Bos taurus aegyptiacuSy which attained such extrava- 
gant dimensions in its size and wide-spreading horns in the 
Vol. XXIX. Parts I. and II., 1913. 



2 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

domestic races of Uganda and Lake Cbad. By means of tlie 
lantern slides we were enabled to see the harsh, stony country 
of the karoo and the rugged plateau-mountains of South Africa, 
with their vegetation of mesembryanthema, aloes and euphor- 
bias. We saw the Orange River at the ford where it was 
crossed by Livingstone in his many journeys backwards and 
forwards, and stretching away northwards the track over a 
desolate stony country between ranges of sterile hills towards 
Bechuanaland, a country peopled in Livingstone's earlier days 
solely by bushmen and Korana Hottentots, with here and there 
an adventurous Grikwa half-caste. All these types were well 
illustrated by the lecturer's slides. We were enabled to realise 
the three principal types of bushman still existing — that of 
Cape Colony proper, with its relatively vertical facial angle 
and round head ; that of the Kalahari Desert, often exceedingly 
prognathous ; and the type of the taller bushmen of the northern 
regions of German South-west Africa, with its projecting brow- 
ridges and savage physiognomy. From Bechuanaland, with its 
goat-keeping people, we passed across the north-east angle of the 
Kalahari Desert; we saw the type of water-hole at which 
travellers would pause to obtain refreshment for themselves and 
their teams of oxen, and of the women — drudges whose business 
of life it was in those days to suck up the water from the wet 
sand or mud and pass it into ostrich shells. Then, having in 
imagination followed Livingstone and Oswell in their toilsome 
route over this hot desert of sand and stones, we reached with 
them the reedy shores of the Botletle River and noted the 
contrast in the scenery. Down the Botletle we floated in canoes 
or pursued an imaginary wagon route beset with many game 
pitfalls, till we reached the swamps and open water of Lake 
Ngami, with its natives in their fishing canoes and its herds 
of big game, mostly water-frequenting antelopes. From Ngami 
we passed over a flat region of water-courses and reed-beds till 
we reached the broad Chobe River at Linyanti. From here the 
survey of Livingstone's adventures passed on to the main Zambezi 
at Sesheke. We were shown the typical papyrus swamps, where 
this great rush grows to heights of nearly twenty feet, and the 
equally extravagant development of Phragmites reeds, with 
their pampas-like plumes of creamy-white. Up the Zambezi 
we travelled in imagination till we reached the rich forest 
country on the flanks of the mountains which give rise to the 
southern affluents of the Congo. We passed with Livingstone 



David Livingstone Centenary Celebration 3 

througli the soutliern limits of tlie empire of Mwata Yanvo, 
crossed the Kwango River, where it flows through dense, sombre 
forests, since the scene of much wrong-doing and turbulence in 
rubber collecting; then we journeyed over the beautiful hill 
scenery of Central Angola until we reached with Livingstone 
the shores of the Atlantic at the city of Sao Paulo de Loanda. 

Once more gaining the Upper Zambezi, we were shown the 
splendid scenery of the Victoria Falls, the " rain forest " and 
the tree on which Livingstone carved his initials. Types of the 
natives of this region were also exhibited, and in the company 
of Livingstone the lecturer's listeners were taken down the 
Zambezi to Tete and to Quilimane. 

Resuming the story of Livingstone in the next phase, we 
passed in review his six years of martyrdom when he and his 
companions — Sir John Kirk and others — were attempting in the 
face of tremendous obstacles to survey the Zambezi and all its 
principal tributaries, and to find practical ways of reaching 
the waters of Lake Nyasa on the one hand, and the smooth 
navigable reaches of the Upper Zambezi on the other. The 
scenery of Nyasa, the Shire Highlands and the beautiful Shire 
Eiver was well illustrated by slides; so also were the lofty 
Livingstone Mountains at the north end of Nyasa ; together with 
the impassable Quebra Bago rapids of the central Zambezi. 
Photographs actually taken by Livingstone and Kirk were 
thrown on the screen, and we saw the Lady Nyasa in course of 
construction, the unsuitable Ma-Robert steamer with which 
Livingstone commenced his exploratory work in 1859, and the 
better constructed Pioneer, 

The last seven years of Livingstone's life as an explorer were 
dealt with in detail. The lecturer described Zanzibar as it was 
in 1866, and the scenery along the upper reaches of the Ruvuma 
River, as well as in Yaoland, south-east of Lake Nyasa. Reach- 
ing the south-west coast of that lake with Livingstone, we saw 
the superb groves of Raphia palms, which he so much admired. 
We crossed with him in spirit the Luangwa River, seeing the 
actual track over which he must have passed as it wound 
through a scrubby forest of hyphaene palms and gum-trees. We 
scrambled up the rugged slopes of the Muchinga Mountains, 
crossed the swampy Chambezi more or less where it was first 
discovered by Livingstone, and were shown the beautiful rock, 
mountain and forest scenery round the south end of Lake 
Tanganyika as described by the great traveller and as illus- 



4 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

trated by modern pliotograplis. The lecturer exhibited draw- 
ings of his own showing the approaches to the towns of great 
chiefs in former days through ghastly avenues of skulls, 
skeletons, and half-decayed corpses, erected on trees and stumps 
to testify to the greatness of the chief dwelling within the 
neighbouring enclosure. It was scenes like these that were 
vividly described by Livingstone in his Journals of 1867-68. 
We followed his course as he discovered first the south end of 
Tanganyika, next the north end of Lake Mweru and the great 
Biver Luapula (the Upper Congo), then we passed southwards 
to Lake Bangweolo, and again north to Tanganyika, and across 
Tanganyika to Ujiji, and once more westwards till we had 
reached the Lualaba-Congo at Nyangwe. Then we were shown 
the mighty forests of Manyuema, with their giant chimpanzis 
and pygmy elephants ; the villages of the inhabitants, their fine 
physical type, and many other things seen and recorded by 
Livingstone. A photograph was shown of the tree, still 
existing, under which Livingstone and Stanley met at Ujiji. 
Then followed the last scenes and landscapes of Livingstone's 
exertions, together with the people whom he must have 
encountered on the way — the handsome Batusi, the ruffianly 
Ruga-ruga; the mountains he had to traverse, and, above all, 
the rivers and swamps he had to wade through or be carried 
over before he reached the village of Chitambo near the south 
end of Bangweulu, where he finally laid down his life on 
May 1st, 1873. 

The lecturer was careful, with many slides, to show us all 
the principal tribes of African natives with whom Livingstone 
came into contact ; and he spoke warmly of the remembrance of 
Livingstone which still lingers in the minds of the oldest Arabs 
and negroes who dealt with him on his last journeys. 



" Education." 

By Sir Harry H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.E.G.S. 

(Addressed to the Society on Saturday, March 29th, 1913, in 
the Midland Hotel at a Banquet held to complete the 
Celebration of the Livingstone Centenary.)* 

You have entertained me here to-night with direct reference 
to the celebration of the hundredth year since the birth of 
David Livingstone, and in a very kind acknowledgment of my 

• See also page 70. 




SIR HARRY H. JOHNvSTON, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.G.S. 



David Livingstone Centenary Celebration 5 

attempts yesterday evening to illustrate tlie exploring work of 
David Livingstone in South and Central Africa. In a sense, 
therefore, it may have been expected from some of you that 
in returning thanks for your reception of me I should once more 
speak on the subject of Livingstone. But I feel that though 
the subject of Livingstone is far from exhaustible in one 
address, I have said enough about him for the present, at any 
rate, to a Manchester audience, which is pretty well conversant 
with the main facts of Livingstone's life. I prefer, therefore, 
to take up your time rather by pointing the moral of Living- 
stone's work, in the direction of the importance of educating 
the young of all classes of our community so that they may 
be able to make the utmost use of the opportunities offered to 
the members of a roving race outside the limits of the United 
Kingdom. What was it that made Livingstone's journeys of 
such exceptional interest and far-reaching importance, even to 
those who study them at the present day, when he has been in 
his grave in Westminster Abbey for nearly forty years? The 
fact that Livingstone took full advantage of his educational 
opportunities, which, it must be admitted, were of a very excep- 
tional nature for the period in which his youth was spent. It 
required the exceptional greed for knowledge which a Scot 
possesses and the exceptional importance attached in Scotland 
a hundred years ago to the value of education, for Livingstone — 
a poor factory boy and factory operative in later years — to pick 
up such wonderful and such varied learning in Blantyre and in 
Glasgow in the 'twenties and 'thirties of the last century. But 
just as James Bruce and Mungo Park made their journeys in 
North-east Africa and in Nigeria so profoundly interesting 
because they started on them equipped with a sound Scottish 
education, so Livingstone's work would not have attained the 
permanent value it possesses if he had not before he entered 
Africa at the age of twenty-seven years, acquired some know- 
ledge of Egyptology, botany, geology, zoology, philology, 
history, and even ethnology — for we may class as a department 
of the Science of Man, the astrology and ancient magic which 
in a half-forbidden way he endeavoured to study whilst still 
working at the loom. His researches in this direction at once 
interested him in the imperfect religions, fables, and empiric 
practices of the Africans, and created for him soon after he 
settled in South-central Africa a means of unlocking the native 
mind. 



6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Education is tlie most crying of all needs for the people of 
the British Islands at the present day. It is one of those 
directions in which we cannot afford to sit down contented 
and to say that we have enough. Competition in education is 
akin to competition in physical fitness and in perfection of 
warlike armaments. Unless we are mentally and physically 
equal to the best, and superior to the mass of the world's 
population, we shall lose the foremost place amongst the 
civilised peoples of the world. 

Manchester of all cities next to London, should feel this, 
for increase of education means increase of knowledge, and that 
tends to increase the commercial activity of Great Britain. 
Manchester exists for little else than commerce. Though a 
healthy city, and though its climate and that of Lancashire 
generally is exceptionally suited to the promotion of certain 
manufactures, it would never be able to offer the attractions 
of a health resort or a playground, though it might become a 
great educational centre. 

Since, therefore, Commerce is the raison d'etre of Man- 
chester and commerce depends so exceptionally on geographical 
knowledge, I am amazed at learning on this visit to Manchester, 
after something like ten years, that the Manchester Geographical 
Society has only a fellowship of about TOO, instead of numbering 
amongst its members every adult man and woman of Man- 
chester and its suburbs with incomes of £150 a year and 
upwards. We have most of us been startled to learn from his 
own lips that the present Chairman of the Manchester Chamber 
of Commerce has hitherto remained outside the Manchester 
Geographical Society; and although he makes full amends 
to-night by securing his election, it is an important indication 
how much Manchester wants waking up, how little she appre- 
ciates the value of the right kind of education and the excep- 
tional importance of geography in local education. 

At the present time several political pontiffs have come 
northwards into the busy parts of industrial England to orate on 
the subject of education. But you will observe that all their 
arguments and all the long and acrimonious disputes that have 
gone on in the Press during the last ten years, or in Parliament, 
are solely directed to the question of who is to educate our 
youth and how and where the education is to be carried out. 
Nothing has been said by anyone, at any rate of any political 
prominence, as to what the education is to be, what the infants, 



David Livingstone Centenary Celebration 7 

the children, the youths and the young men and women are to 
be taught. Consequently, those who frame the curricula of our 
State schools, our public schools, and our universities, are still 
allowed to continue their worship of ancient fetishes and to 
waste the time and the eyesight of our young people in teaching 
them things which are either best reserved for specialists or 
which, even, have grown absolutely useless to the present 
generation. Take, for example, the time-wasting nonsense 
known as Logic with a capital L. This is mainly based on the 
tedious catch-phrases, puzzle-pages and vaticinations which 
have come down to us from Aristotle and his predecessors — 
Greeks of acute minds but with the limitations of their age — 
people who had a great deal of time to spare, who were little 
concerned about what they ate and drank and wore, owing to 
the delightful climate in which they lived and the rude plenty 
with which they were surrounded, and who delighted to spend 
their time in the porch, the temple, or the shady orange grove, 
in cross talk and back chat. To all sane people of the present 
day it must surely seem that Logic as a solemn subject of study 
is sheer waste of time. The best logic is the accomplished fact, 
the fist, the dollar, the sovereign, the kiss, or the policeman. 
Yet we find in the examination papers set for entry into one of 
our great Government Departments two years ago, a high ratio 
of marks given for logic of the Aristotelean brand and such 
questions as these solemnly propounded : — 

''What has been the relation of intuitionism to utilitarianism 
in British Moral theory before Mill ?" ; and " What reasons 
have we to believe that other persons exist ?" ; " All idealism 
must be a subjective idealism. Criticise this." " Can the 
claim that the Dictum de omni et de nullo is the fundamental 
number of syllogistic inference, be sustained?" 

Can one conceive that a future consul or a diplomatist who 
has wasted time over this nonsenical word-spinning is any the 
better fitted for pushing — as he ought to do — the sale of 
Manchester goods in China? Or for securing better terms 
for British commerce in any new commercial treaty with 
France, Germany or Russia? Do you suppose that those 
remarkable men who command the great liners of our never- 
sufficiently-honoured-or-appreciated mercantile marine, equip 
themselves with the study of Logic, or learn to make Latin 
verses, or to waste their time in other educational futilities, 
before embarking on a career which is one of the most heroic 



8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

we know of, and one in which mental balance, acuteness of 
judgment, and moral stamina are required to a high degree? 
Have any of the great manufacturers of Lancashire scored 
high marks in Logic? Are there even, I would venture to ask, 
many that have retained any particular knowledge of Euclid, or 
that have shone in the making of Latin verses, or in " moral and 
metaphysical philosophy " ? The farce of the whole thing is 
that from the type that is educated at Eton and the older 
universities we derive most of our modern statesmen, and we 
may have a Chancellor of the Exchequer like the late Lord 
Randolph Churchill, who arrives to take charge of the national 
finance, and yet has not even mastered the principle of decimal 
arithmetic, and who asks his private secretary, when he is 
glancing at statistics, the meaning v.f those " damned dots." 
Until recently a great proportion ot the time of the youth 
of this country was practically wasted on the uncritical study of 
what was called Scriptural history, that is to say, the history in 
ancient times of the countries of the ISTear East. This is a 
subject of profound interest to the specialist, but may well be 
reserved for those who are going to specialise in Oriental history. 
As regards the mass of the people in these Islands, all that they 
need to know of history — and tbey need to know a great deal — 
is Tnodern history, dating back, it may be, no farther than the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. All that goes before can 
be taught them pleasantly and easily in a few chapters, as it 
were. If they desire as students of mankind to take up ancient, 
classical, or mediaeval history as a special subject they can 
pursue this, that, and the other ramification ; but merely to be 
practical citizens of Great Britain and of the world they 
require chiefly to know the history of the nineteenth century 
and the early twentieth, and something of what occurred in the 
eighteenth, seventeenth, and sixteenth, and led up to the great 
nations of to-day and set going the rivalries and ambitions with 
which we now have to contend. As a matter of fact, much of 
the geography and history which is taught in our elementary 
State schools, and even in our great public schools, is very 
faulty, ancient, prejudiced, and not sufficiently brought up to 
date. 

This last is more especially the feature of our teaching of 
Geography. The average clerk in a Manchester house of 
business ought to know all the geography of South and Central 
America (for example). It is little use to him to be instructed 



David Livingstone Centenary Celebration 9 

in the condition of Guatemala as it was thirteen or twenty years 
ago, or Haiti in the 'seventies of the last century, or Siam as 
described by pioneers of exploration twenty-five years ago. 
Though our universities have no reason to blush for the admir- 
able works on geography, ancient and modern, which they issue 
from their presses, the manuals which are in use in the 
elementary, and even the public schools, are often sadly lacking 
in recent and accurate information. But as there are other 
speakers to come after me, I do not wish to waste your time, 
and I want to come to the point and make a full, concrete 
suggestion in regard to the kind of education that Manchester 
should promote. I do not mean for specialists, for Egypt- 
ologists, for students of the balance of power in the Mediter- 
ranean basin 3,000 and 2,000 years ago, but for young men 
and young women who have to earn their living and who have 
to unite in continuing to maintain us as the greatest trading 
nation on the surface of the globe. The following, therefore, 
in my opinion, are all subjects of elementary importance, 
though not all of them need be dealt with in great detail : — 

(1) A knowledge of the English language and its derivation. 
This can include just that slight amount of Latin and Greek 
that all educated people require to know in order to be able to 
appreciate the meaning and pronunciation of many British 
words. (2) French. (3) German. (4) Just sufficient mathe- 
matics — that is to say, arithmetic and book-keeping, but no 
Euclid or Algebra — to enable people to keep accurate accounts 
and to do business. Higher mathematics need only to be taken 
up specially by those who are going to become engineers, 
astronomers or statisticians. (5) History^ mainly modern, 
especially the English history for the last 150 years. (6) 
Natural science — principally an elementary knowledge of 
botany (so that people may appreciate the value and the beauty 
of plants and trees), zoology (including a glimpse into the 
nefarious work of insects and the origin of germ-diseases), 
geology (so that they may realise something of the past history 
of the earth), chemistry, and geography. Geography , indeed, 
might be regarded as the mother of natural science teaching. 
The earth should be treated as a newer and vaster Bible in 
which the purpose of God may be spelt out for our education 
and enlightenment as it is written in rock and gas, in crystal 
and basalt, in fossil and in flint implement, in the carving 
of the Alps and the history of the nations. 



lo Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



BRITISH EAST AFRICA PROTECTORATE. 

Early History, Development. The Native Tribes and 
THEIR Progress. 

By John AiNSwoRTH, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall, on 
Thursday, October 2nd, 1913.) 

I WOULD preface my remarks by an allusion to the early history 
of what is now known as British East Africa. 

The coast of East Africa has a very ancient history, dating 
back to the days of the Phoenicians, some 600 years b.c. A 
detailed account of the coast, however, was not attempted until 
about 150 A.D., when Ptolemy's writings were produced. Subse- 
quently an Egyptian wrote " A Pilot's Guide to the Indian 
Ocean " (date unknown) wherein reference is made to certain 
points on the East African Coast. There is considerable 
evidence of ancient forms of civilization at various points on 
the coast to-day, notably on the islands forming the Lamu 
archipelago, where there are to-day the remains of ancient towns 
or cities which in several instances bear signs of interference 
and alteration by people subsequent to the date of the original 
buildings; also at Mambrui, Malindi, Mombasa and Wasin, 
all of which are places on the coast. Many of these buildings 
are probably due to the migration of Himyarites, who came 
from Southern Arabia; of these movements, however, there is 
no accurate history, and even tradition is somewhat vague on 
the point. 

It is believed, from the evidence of coins dating between 
712 A.D. and 116-3 a.d., found at Makadishu in Italian East 
Africa and at Kilwa in German East Africa, that the Chinese 
visited East Africa at varying intervals. There exist also 
slight traces of Egyptian influences at Malindi. 

Up to about the tenth century tradition is, as I have said, 
very vague as to any migratory movements affecting East 
Africa, but from the tenth century the information obtainable 
is more accurate as regards the colonisation of the coast. Some 
time before the year 1000 Arab chronicles ascribe the foundation 
of the town of Mombasa, or Mvita, to the Arabs, and at a 
somewhat later period the foundation of Malindi, Kilifi and the 



British East Africa Protectorate ii 

towns in the Lamu archipelago to Arabs and Persians. These 
towns apparently reached a considerable degree of prosperity 
and civilization, for somewhere about the year 1328 the Arab 
geographer Ibn Batuta, who at that time visited the coast, 
described them in that sense. 

The authentic history of the coast commenced from the 
7th April, 1498, when the first Portuguese expedition, under 
the command of Vasco da Gama, anchored off Mombasa; he, 
however, failed to enter the harbour owing to difficulties of 
navigation, and consequently sailed for Malindi (about 65 miles 
further north), where he was well received. From this time 
commenced the Portuguese conquest of the East Coast. They 
carried on various wars, but remained in possession until 1585, 
when a Turkish Corsair named Ali Bey visited the coast and 
claimed the sovereignty for his Sultan. He was well received 
by the people of Lamu, Faza and Mombasa, and with their help 
he succeeded in driving the Portuguese from most of their 
settlements ; the next year, however, he left the country with a 
large amount of plunder estimated at about £600,000. The 
Portuguese immediately sent an expedition from Goa in India 
and severely punished the people who had aided the Turks. 

Between 1586 and 1589 a warlike tribe called the Zimbas, 
hailing from somewhere south of the Zambezi, .over-ran East 
Africa, and even laid siege to Mombasa. 

The Turks again invaded the coast in 1588 and took Mombasa 
in that year, but were finally repulsed by{ the Portuguese in 
1589, when the Turkish Leader Ali Bey was captured. In the 
same year the Portuguese finally defeated the Zimbas. 

In 1592 the Portuguese made Mombasa the capital of their 
East Africa possessions. The present fort of Mombasa, com- 
menced in 1593, was partially completed in 1595. The Portu- 
guese occupation of the coast continued through many happen- 
ixkgs up to 1698. 

On March 15th, 1696, the Arabs laid siege to Mombasa. 
This siege, which is known as the great siege, lasted for thirty- 
three months, when the Portuguese garrison, reduced to eleven 
men and two native women were put to the sword. This 
occurred on December 12th, 1698. Subsequent expeditions were 
organised by the Portuguese, and sent to reconquer the coast, 
but met with no success. In 1727, however, owing to internal 
troubles amongst the Arabs, one party sent a deputation to 
Goa offering to place themselves under Portuguese protection. 



12 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

In response a Portuguese fleet left Goa for East Africa, and as a 
result of several operations Mombasa capitulated to the 
Portuguese General on the 12th March, 1728. Within a few 
weeks the whole coast was again under Portuguese rule, which, 
however, was of short duration, for on the 29th November, 1729, 
they were again driven from Mombasa and from East Africa. 
This was the end of Portuguese authority in this part of the 
world. 

The Arabs thereafter retained their hold of East Africa. 
In 1739 the Imam of Oman appointed a Governor (Wali) to 
Mombasa. This oflS.cial, however, subsequently threw over his 
allegiance and transformed himself into an independent chief. 
His example was followed by the King of Pate (near Lamu). 
For eighty years the families of these chiefs ruled their respec- 
tive areas and were at constant war with one another. 

In 1809 the Court of Muscat again commenced to be active 
in East Africa affairs. The result of its activities was that 
Mombasa itself was threatened and the Maztui chief, the 
descendant of the transformed Governor of eighty years 
previous, applied in 1823 to Capt. Yidal, of H.B.M.'s ship 
" Barracouta,'' who was at that time cruising in East African 
waters, for assistance, which was refused. Notwithstanding 
this refusal, the Mazrui chief hoisted the British flag on his 
own authority. This resulted in Capt. Owen, of H.B.M.'s ship 
" Leven," in February 1824, establishing a provisional Protec- 
torate subject to the approval of the British Government. The 
British Government, however, repudiated the Protectorate, 
which was withdrawn two years later. 

The power of the Mazrui family was broken by Muscat in 
1837. In 1832 Seyid Said transferred his capital from Muscat 
to Zanzibar, where an oflB.cer appointed from Oman had 
governed from 1784. Under Seyid Said's rule Mombasa, Lamu 
and other East African ports developed in importance. 

Seyid Said died at sea in 1856, when a dispute arose between 
his two sons, which resulted in the total separation of Muscat 
and Zanzibar. The Governor- General of India arbitrated in 
the rival claims, and the result was that the East Africa 
possessions became the property of Zanzibar. 

In 1875 the Egyptians, in furtherance of their policy at that 
that time of Imperial expansion made an attempt to occupy the 
northern part of the coast and did occupy Kismayu for some 



British East Africa Protectorate 13 

months that year, but subsequently departed on representations 
being made to the Khedive by the British Government. 

Seyid Bargash succeeded to the throne of Zanzibar in 1870. 
In 1877 Seyid Bargash offered to the late Sir William 
Mackinnon (or to a company to be formed by him) a concession 
under lease for seventy years of the customs and administration 
of the dominions with certain reservations in respect of the 
islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. The negotiations were, how- 
ever, not proceeded with because the British Foreign Office 
would not at the time support the matter. The 1886 the limits 
of the dominions of the Sultan were settled by an international 
convention. 

In 1887 the Sultan granted a concession of his mainland 
dominions lying between the Umba river and Kipini to the 
British East Africa Association (this meant a strip ten miles 
deep along the coast). Witu, on the mainland opposite Lamu, 
was at this time deemed an independent Sultanate, while Lamu 
remained Zanzibar territory. Germany, in 1885, declared a 
Protectorate over Witu, and subsequently claimed Lamu. 
After considerable negotiations and the definite cession of that 
part of the Sultan of Zanzibar's mainland dominion situate 
south of the Umba river, and which was already occupied by 
Germany, and of the island of Heligoland in the North Sea, any 
differences between Germany and ourselves were set right, and 
Witu and other territory north of the Tana river came under the 
company's rule. The British East Africa Association was re- 
constructed as the Imperial British East Africa Company and 
received a Royal Charter on September 3rd, 1888. The 
Chartered Company commenced the administration of the 
country early in 1889. No serious attempt, however, was made 
to administer the interior until 1891. Up to that time our 
efforts were directed to the occupation of the coast towns, to 
exploring expeditions and to the acquisition of Uganda. A 
route was opened from Mombasa to Uganda, and food depots 
with officers in charge were established at intervals along the 
route. 

It must be understood that the authority of the Sultan of 
Zanzibar did not extend into the interior beyond the ten mile 
limit, and that the country outside the ten mile strip was at 
the time of the advent of the company almost unknown. It 
had been but seldom penetrated. In 1849 the late Doctor 
Krapp explored part of the interior, and reported the existence 



14 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

of Mount Kenya. In 1882 Doctor Fisclier, a German, made a 
journey from Mount Kilima-Njaro to Lake Naivasha where lie 
was prevented from proceeding any further, and was obliged 
to return. The late Joseph Thomson succeeded, in 1883, in 
journeying through Masai-land to the north-east corner of the 
Victoria Nyanza. A Hungarian named Count Teleki accom- 
panied by Lt. Yon Hohnel, explored the interior during 1887 
and 1888. And then came the work of the officers of the 
Imperial British East Africa Company. The company's 
pioneer officers include the names of Sir F. Lugard, Sir F. J. 
Jackson, the late Sir Francis de Winton, the late Sir George 
Mackenzie, J. R. "VV. Piggott, the late Clifford Crawford, 
E. J. L. Berkeley, C.B., C. W. Hobley, C.M.G., A. D. 
Mackinnon, C.M.G., S. S. Bagge, C.M.G., Col. Eric Smith, 
C.B., the late C. W. Jenner and my own. 

The Chartered Company surrendered its charter on July 1, 
1896, when the Imperial Government, through the medium of 
the Foreign Office, took over charge of the country. More than 
a year previously the Foreign Office had taken over Uganda. The 
East Africa Protectorate therefore really dates from July 1st, 
1895. At this time, however, its western boundary extended 
only to the Great Hift and to the western confines of Kikuyu. 
In 1902 the limits of the territory were extended to the Victoria 
Nyanza and Mount Elgon. In 1905 the control of the Pro- 
tectorate was transferred from the Foreign Office to the Colonial 
Office. 

The Protectorate, as now constituted, comprises about 
180,000 square miles, and contains a population of approxi- 
mately 3,000,000 blacks, about 18,000 Indians and some 3,500 
whites, including traders, settlers, missionaries and officials. 
The principal coast town is Mombasa, with a total population 
of about 20,000. Mombasa was the capital of the Protectorate 
until 1908 when the new town of Nairobi, 327 miles in the 
interior, took its place. 

VTith regard to the Indian population, it is as well to 
remember that Indian traders came to the country about two 
hundred years ago ; the descendants of these early pioneers had 
amassed considerable interests on the coast long before we came 
upon the scene. With the advent of the railway their trading 
instincts forced them along with the construction, which in itself 
was carried out by Indian coolie labour. These traders have 
now spread out into the uttermost corners of the Protectorate ; 



I 



British East Africa Protectorate 15 

they are also established in Uganda, along the higher waters of 
the Nile, and also in German East Africa. Their interests are 
therefore very extensive in East Africa to-day. 

The Arabs, once the predominant factor on the coast, now 
remain a more or less picturesque reminder of the past. 

My first introduction to East Africa was in 1889, when I 
proceeded there in the service of the late Imperial British East 
Africa Company. I remained at Mombasa, with the exception 
of an interval of three months, during which time I was in 
India, until the end of January, 1892, when I proceeded into the 
interior. From 1892 to July, 1895, I was in administrative 
charge, under the Chartered Company, of the district of 
Ukambani. 

The company, after five years' control, during which time a 
good deal of pioneer work was performed and a basis of adminis- 
tration commenced amongst most of the tribes, handed over 
their responsibilities to Her Majesty's Government. Nominally 
the Chartered Company handed over on the 1st July, 1895; 
actually, however, the transfer was effected in November of that 
year. 

In 1892 I commenced what eventually proved a satisfactory 
connection with the important tribe of Wakamba and succeeded 
in five years in bringing them under administrative control. 
Towards the end of 1892 I got into touch with the warlike Masai, 
resulting three years later in a most friendly understanding and 
the voluntary submission of this tribe to our rule. During the 
same period we succeeded in extending our administration over 
the important Kikuyu tribe. 

I do not wish it to be understood that these times were 
entirely peaceful ones or free from anxiety; on the contrary, 
from time to time it was necessary to undertake punitive 
measures in different districts, but never against a whole tribe; 
there were for some time factions among the more distant tribes- 
men who delighted in continuing some of their old barbaric 
customs in the way of murder and pillage, and who resented 
interference in such amusements. With such people it was 
necessary to deal. Patience, tact and perseverance, however, 
added to the increasing conviction that the white regime had 
come to stay and meant to keep the peace had its result, and 
peace and order came to be more or less the normal state of 
affairs. 

The Imperial Government, through the medium of the 



i6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Foreign OflS.ce, took over the active work of administratioii in 
November, 1895, when I was appointed to the charge of the 
interior territory of what then became the East Africa Protec- 
torate which at that time extended from outside the ten mile 
coast strip to the Great Rift Yalley (half-way to the Victoria 
Nyanza). The area placed in my charge was termed the 
Ukamba Province, and contained some 38,000 square miles of 
territory with about one million native inhabitants. The head- 
quarters were at a place called Machakos. Subsequently the 
area was found too large for one Province, consequently it was 
divided and an additional Province was formed. 

The Government extended its administration beyond the 
limits actually occupied by the Chartered Company, and so the 
pioneer work continued. We were a handful of British officials 
imbued with a definite determination to do our best for the 
native tribes and the country. At times, what with climate, new 
conditions, languages to master, native stupidity, conservatism 
and superstition, the task seemed almost hopeless; it was, 
however, apparently ordained that progress should be made, 
and so we are succeeding. In the early days all the natives 
viewed us with suspicion ; they would not help us in any way ; 
very often they would not sell us food; in many and various 
ways either passive or deliberate obstruction faced us. Our 
supplies were carried on the heads of coast porters, and our 
mails, which only reached us on the average once a month, 
were brought up by the same means. Ultimately all this 
changed and the natives became ready and willing helpers. 
Our police, once recruited in Zanzibar and on the coast, were 
gradually replaced by picked men from amongst the different 
interior tribes. 

At the end of 1895 the first rails of the Uganda Railway 
were laid at Kilindini, on the island of Mombasa. The rails 
reached what is now Nairobi (327 miles from Mombasa) in 1899. 
In that year I moved from Machakos to Nairobi, which was then 
a large extent of grass plain with low hills and forest on the 
west and north. The laying out of a town was commenced in 
1900. To-day the town of Nairobi contains some very fine 
streets, some imposing buildings, it is lighted by electric light, 
and has a most excellent water supply piped in from the hills. 
It contains four churches, a masonic hall, several hotels, some 
very fine shops, banks, a theatre, and has an up-to-date telephone 
service. Some thousands of trees have been planted along the 



British East Africa Protectorate 17 

roads. There is a racecourse, where meetings are held under 
the auspices of the East Africa Turf Club. Cricket, football, 
tennis, golf and other sports are common at all centres in 
the country. Some of the tribesmen have taken to football. 
' I remained in charge of the Ukamba Province with Nairobi 
as my headquarters until 1906. 

In 1907 I was appointed to the Commissionership of the 
Nyanza Province where I have since been. 

The railway reached Kisumu at the head of the Kavirondo 
Gulf on Yictoria Nyanza in 1901 and the first passenger train 
from the coast arrived there in December of that year. Kisumu, 
which is now a well-laid-out and thriving town, is the terminus 
of the line. 

The railway had occupied just six years in building ; it cost, 
inclusive of steamers placed on the great lake, nearly six 
millions sterling. Its completion meant a new era for East 
Africa. Without the railway East Africa could never have 
reached any degree of importance or prosperity, as there are no 
navigable waterways leading into the real interior. With the 
railway East Africa is undoubtedly prospering and will 
ultimately become an important country. 

I propose later on giving you a few figures to show you how 
the undertaking has progressed commercially. 

The Administration. 

The Protectorate as a whole is administered by a Governor 
with Executive and Legislative Councils. The whole area is 
divided into seven provinces, each in charge of a Commissioner. 
Each province is divided into a number of districts, each in 
charge of a District Commissioner with Assistant District Com- 
missioners. 

The country originally consisted of a number of native 
districts and of large areas of uninhabited lands. Of the latter 
large tracts have been marked out for European settlement, and 
have already to a considerable extent become occupied by 
settlers. Forest reserve areas have been marked out, while we 
have some extensive game reserves wherein the fauna peculiar 
to the country is preserved. Small settlements of Indian 
cultivators have also been established where suitable. The 
boundaries of the native districts have been defined and all 
native rights therein respected. Our policy in these districts 
is to use the native authorities to rule their own people, but 



l8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

subject to our supervision. We consider that in these districts 
their own laws, purified where necessary, are best suited to their 
own requirements and are best calculated to make for peace, 
order and contentment in the land. Outside the native districts 
the ordinary law of the Protectorate applies. 

Native Administration. 

The native form of administration varies in different 
districts; generally, however, it is worked under one of the 
following two systems — (1) by the chief, with the assistance of a 
council or councils of elders ; (2) by the elders themselves under 
a patriarchal system. No native authority under (1) can 
deal with anyone except members of their own tribe ; under (2) 
with any but members of their village. Under (2) inter-village 
matters are arranged by a joint meeting of elders. 

In native locations persons who are not natives of the 
particular tribe who may be accused of offences inside the tribal 
limits must be tried by the Protectorate Courts. 

Natives convicted by a native court can appeal to the District 
Commissioner. The Provincial Commissioner can, when con- 
sidered necessary or desirable, require any case to be re-heard 
either before himself or before a District Commissioner, either 
in the presence or otherwise, of the Council, and may reverse 
or confirm the original judgment. 

Tribes consist of clans; each clan has its own local council. 
Inside the clan or tribe individuals are held responsible for acts 
against a meriiber of the clan or tribe, but family of offender, 
where the latter is unable to pay a fine, may be joined in 
responsibility. 

Offences by a member or members of one tribe against a 
member or members of another tribe were deemed by native law 
as tribal acts; in other words, an individual act was taken as 
the act of the tribe, and any reprisal might be attempted against 
the tribe as a whole. Now, however, inter-tribal offences are 
dealt with by the administration. 

Land, 

Land within the tribal limits is the common property of the 
tribe, and so long as any member of the tribe beneficially 
occupies he maintains the right to occupation. No non-member 
of the tribe can occupy land without the consent of the chief 
and council. A non-native cannot acquire land in a native 



British East Africa Protectorate 19 

district except by consent of the Crown, which would not be 
given if the application applied to native land. 

It is highly probable that in the process of time, when the 
native occupants realise the value of land from the producing 
point of view, they will themselves move in the direction of 
demanding a change in the communal system of tenure and will 
wish to become individual holders or owners. 

Police, etc. 

In native locations the local councils and elders maintain 
peace and order. They have a system of village police and 
headmen. Protectorate police, i.e. the Government police, are, 
under normal conditions, not employed in the native districts. 
They may, however, in exceptional cases and under a magis- 
trate's warrant, proceed into a native location or district. 

Boads. 

The Protectorate Government constructs main roads, both 
inside and outside of native locations. Subsidiary roads and 
tracks in the native areas are made and maintained by the local 
councils. 

WoTnen. 

Amongst all the tribes woman occupies a subordinate position 
to man. Her lot is, however, not a hard one. In particular 
young marriageable girls have as a rule a fairly good time, and 
amongst most tribes, a fair amount of liberty. As, however, a 
prospective husband is required to pay a marriage price to the 
father of the lady they are in fact a more or less valuable asset 
to the family. A girl may choose her own husband, and so 
long as he is not of her clan (marriage in the clan is usually 
prohibited amongst many of the tribes), and, further, provided 
that he is not an imbecile or a confirmed cripple (marriage of 
imbeciles or cripples is practically forbidden), and he is able to 
make the necessary payment there is no objection. The pre- 
liminaries are then arranged, but in some of the districts it is 
necessary, as a very important part of the ceremony for the 
bridegroom to capture the bride, as she is not supposed to leave 
her clan except by capture. The bridegroom collects some 
friends and proceeds to the bride's village, where, on arrival, 
he is opposed by the male relatives of the bride, the rival parties 
indulging in, at times, a severe struggle with sticks. If the 
bridegroom's party is defeated he must try again, and so on 



20 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

up to three times. If he succeeds his party carries the bride 
to the bridegroom's home where she settles down. If he fails 
on the third attempt to capture the bride her parents arrange 
to bring her over and are given presents by the bridegroom. 

A woman cannot own property (tools for tillage, cooking 
pots, clothes, personal ornaments and such like things are not 
deemed to be property in this connection). She can, however, 
hold property. With many tribes a married woman has certain 
cattle handed to her on the birth of a male child ; any increase 
from such stock remains with her. The male children, on 
reaching maturity, have a claim on such cattle. Female 
children belonging to the same mother share in the milk pro- 
duced by such cattle or receive milk from other cattle belonging 
to the father, but have no claim on any stock. Therefore a girl 
on being married takes no property to her husband. A widow 
goes to the eldest male survivor of her late husband, and any 
children she may have become his children. (The idea under- 
lying this custom would seem to be to prevent the poverty of 
the widow and her children, particularly female children. The 
male survivor is required to assume responsibilities of the late 
husband; the successor would be the eldest son if of age.) A 
widow can, with the consent of the eldest male relative, re- 
marry, but must leave her children. 

Women do most of the work in the fields, but are amongst 
most tribes assisted by the men. She does all the cooking, the 
cutting and carrying of firewood, the carrying of water, the 
grinding of corn. Huts are usually built by the men. 

Amongst all the tribes polygamy is practised, the number 
of wives being limited by the man's wealth. Each wife has her 
own hut. 

Women have no direct voice in the affairs of native govern- 
ment; they have, however, in some things considerable influence 
with their husbands and sons. Most of them are very conserva- 
tive and slow to advance with the times; there are, however, 
not wanting present day signs to show that a change is coming. 
Up to a year or two ago the women of Kavirondo were almost 
universally naked, to-day large numbers of them have taken to 
covering themselves. 

Native Development. 

I have already stated that we use the native authorities to 
look after their own people. We are doing what is possible to 



British East Africa Protectorate 21 

educate the tribes to a system of developing their tribal lands 
and producing economic produce for export. The basis of all 
native development is industry. Industrious natives mean a 
prosperous country and also mean increased trade in the way 
of export of raw produce to Europe and the demand for manu- 
factured articles in return. The following figures which deal 
with the Nyanza Province will serve to show you how we are 
progressing in this connection : — 

1907, native raw produce exported, nil. 

1912, „ ,, ,, over 17,000 tons. 

During the same periods the revenue paid in by the natives of 
the Nyanza Province in the form of direct taxation reads as 
follows : 

1907 £18,900 

1912 72,100 

I must allude to the good work being performed by many 
of the mission societies in the country. I am glad to say that 
between missionaries and ourselves there exists the most sym- 
pathetic understanding on the subject of native development 
and betterment. 

Trade . 

Trade in the country is growing yearly in importance. The 
raw products exported from East Africa consist principally of 
sesame, copra, ground nuts, various grains, hides, skins, cotton, 
wild rubber, coffee and fibres. The total exports in 1912 were 
valued at £333,000. 

As regards the import trade, East Africa is, to a considerable 
extent, a distributing centre for Uganda and parts of German 
East Africa. The total imports are therefore not all consumed 
in East Africa; how the proportions work out I cannot say. 
The total imports during 1912 reached a value of £1,330,000, 
including cotton goods valued at £394,000. 

Up to a few years ago the whole of the trade with the natives 
was conducted under a system of barter. To-day money in the 
shape of rupees and cents has taken its place practically every- 
where. 

The Uganda Railway. 

The line runs from Mombasa to Kisumu, its length is 583 
miles; the time required for the journey is two days and two 
nights. The line ascends from nearly sea level to an altitude of 



22 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

8,320 feet, and then descends to just under 4,000 feet at Kisumu, 
the terminus on Victoria Nyanza. 

Kilindini, on the island of Mombasa, is the coast port, and 
here we have railway piers and sidings, large storage and 
custom's sheds, heavy cranes and very considerable bustle. We 
are now proposing to build a deep water pier so that ocean 
steamers can lie alongside the railway piers. At the terminus 
we have extensive piers and warehouses . The trains run along- 
side the steamers and passengers and luggage can be transferred 
in a few minutes from the train to the steamer. There are at 
present five fine steamers launched ; four of these are passenger 
and cargo boats combined, each having superior accommodation, 
twin screws, electric light and other up-to-date conveniences. 
A few years ago native canoes provided the only means of 
crossing the lake; then came a small steamer, the ''William 
Mackinnon " ; then some sailing craft, and now these fine steam- 
boats. There is also a well-equipped dockyard and a dry dock 
at this point. 

The railway, which was run at a loss of £60,000 in 1903-4, 
realised a profit of £2,600 in 1904-5, and in 1911-12 a profit of 
£131,000. A great deal of this success is due to the develop- 
ment of Uganda, that part of German East Africa near the lake 
and the Nyanza Province. 

The gross railway earnings include the earnings of the lake 
steamers. The total earnings of the railway and steamers in 
1911-12 amounted to £360,000 and the expenditure to £229,000. 
The tra£&c from the lake during the last year necessitated the 
ordering from home of additional trucks and engines which are 
being supplied as quickly as possible. 

A branch line has been constructed by the Magadi Soda 
Company from Magadi Junction (281 miles on the Uganda 
Railway) to Soda Lake, nearly one hundred miles west of the 
main line. Very shortly large quantities of soda will be 
exported from East Africa. A branch line is also being pushed 
out from Nairobi towards Kenya. Other branch lines are 
contemplated . 

There are signs of progress in most parts of the country. 
With these remarks I bring this address to a close. 



The Balkans and Turkey 23 



THE BALKANS AND TURKEY. 

By C. H. Bellamy, F.R.G.S. 

(Addressed to tlie Society in the Geographical Hall on Tuesday, 
March 11th, 1913.) 

Amongst the many romantic pages of European history there 
are certainly none more romantic nor more interesting than 
those recording the histories of the Balkan States, either as 
independent kingdoms and empires, or in subjugation to their 
once all-potent lord, the Sultan of Turkey; or in their revolt 
from his domination, and their gradual assumption of inde- 
pendence, national wealth, and the advantages and blessings 
of modern progress. 

The pity of it all is that this advance in material prosperity 
should have been checked by the terrible war which has been 
raging for the last few months, and which, when I was in 
these countries in July 1912, was threatened, but no one, so far 
as I could gather, really expected would ever take place. 

Fortunately for the Balkan States, their countries have not 
been the theatre of the war, as they attacked the Turk in his 
own country, but the immense amount of treasure expended, 
the thousands of valuable lives lost, will no doubt check their 
progress and cripple their resources for many years to come. 

The Balkan Peninsula has been in modern times what the 
Low Countries were in the Middle Ages — the cockpit of Europe. 
It is there that the eternal Eastern question had its origin; it 
is there, too, that the West and the East, the Cross and the 
Crescent, meet. But to understand the great problems which 
still await solution in South-eastern Europe, and are once more 
pressing themselves upon the attention of all thoughtful men, 
it is important to have some knowledge of Balkan history. 
The mutual jealousies of Bulgaria and Servia, the struggle of 
various races for supremacy in Macedonia, the alternate friend- 
ship and enmity of the Eussian and the Turk, are all facts 
which have their root deep down in the past annals of the 
Balkan States. Few persons in Western Europe seem to 
remember what has never been forgotten in the Peninsula, — 
and this is forced upon you over and over again as you visit 
their towns — ^that there was a time when the Servian and 
Bulgarian Empires were great Powers, and their respective 



24 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

rulers governed with the proud title of Czar a vast realm, which 
is still the dream of ardent patriots. Bearing this in mind, we 
shall the better understand many things we shall see. 

The Bulgarian Empire of nine hundred and a thousand 
years ago, under the Czars Simeon and Samuel, ran from 
Mesembric, on the shore of the Black Sea, to Mount Rhodope, 
and then right across the Peninsula from Mount Olympus to the 
Albanian coast opposite Corfu. With the exception of a few 
ports, all Albania was Bulgarian, as was also nearly the whole 
of the present kingdom of Servia. Before the Magyar invasion, 
Czar Simeon seems to have included part of Roumania in his 
dominions, and it is possible that portions of Hungary and 
Transylvania owned his sway. Bulgaria, under his auspices, 
was — what she has never been again, but what she still aspires 
to be — the dominant state of the Balkan Peninsula. 

Then, like a page of romance, we learn how this mighty 
empire crumbled away before the assaults of its enemies, and 
came under the power of the Greek Emperors; and how, one 
hundred and sixty-eight years later, Bulgaria was delivered by 
John Asen, who founded and consolidated the second Bulgarian 
Empire, of almost equal territorial importance to the first. 

After the lapse of two centuries this empire fell, and the 
nation came under the domination of the Turks for nearly five 
hundred years. In the early part of the nineteenth century the 
revival of the spirit of independence began. One result of the 
Turco-Russian War was the constitution of the principality of 
Bulgaria, and the autonomous province of Eastern Roumelia, 
and the election by the National Assembly at Tirnova in 1879 
of Prince Alexander of Battenberg as their first Prince. 

Nor does the history of Servia lack its romance. Out of a 
loose federation of chiefs the Servian monarchy was gradually 
developed, its golden age beginning with the accession of 
Stephen Dusan in 1336. Never has the power of Servia been 
so great or the Servian dominions so vast as under the sway of 
this mighty ruler, who raised his country to the rank of an 
empire, equipped it with a complete code of laws, and made it 
respected all over Eastern Europe. Under the weak rule of his 
son his empire slowly melted away, and in the struggle with 
the Turks the Servians were vanquished at the famous battle of 
Kossovo, on June 15, 1389, a battle which for five centuries 
decided the fate of the Balkan Peninsula. 

In the first quarter of the last century Servia began to feel 



% 




Fig. I. Sinaia. The King's Palace. 



C.H.B. 




C.H.B. 



Fig. 2. Sinaia. The Greek Church. 



The Balkans and Turkey 25 

after her lost independence, and in 1817 Milosh Obrenovic was 
elected Prince of Servia, which dignity lasted in his family 
until it was exchanged in 1882 for the title of King. 

Nor are the histories of the other Balkan States wanting in 
romance and interest. Eonmania, the name adopted at the 
union of the two principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, has 
been subject to Hungary and Poland, to Austria and E-ussia, as 
well as Turkey; and only emerged from the supremacy of this 
latter Power in 1859, the coping-stone of Roumanian inde- 
pendence being set by the proclamation, on March 26, 1881, of 
Prince Charles as King of Roumania. 

Montenegro was an independent State in the fourteenth 
century, from which time to the nineteenth, its history has been 
a record of battles and raids against its neighbours, and at a time 
when the whole of south-eastern Europe, to the very gates of 
Vienna was trembling before the Turks, the Montenegrins 
managed to vindicate and maintain their independence. A 
new era began with the reign of Peter II, from 1830-51, and 
the present ruler, now a King, waged successful wars against 
the Turks, and by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878, obtained full 
recognition of his sovereignty. 

Mediaeval and modem Greece affords the student of history 
one of the most remarkable romances he can desire. The great 
Byzantine Empire dwindled away, especially under the inrush 
of the Ottomans, and in the later middle ages she became 
subject to the Venetians and other foreign rulers, eventually 
seeming to lose all national character and spirit under the 
Turkish subjection. Byron's scathing lines fitly express this 
condition : — 

" 'Tis Greece, but living Greece no more ! 
So coldly sweet, so deadly fair. 
We start, for soul is wanting there." 

But her national soul woke in the War of Independence in 
1821, and success followed the uprising. King Otho was elected 
in 1832, and henceforth Greece has existed as a recognised 
independent kingdom. 

About the Turks I need not say much . When they came to 
Europe they were a great people — a great military people. In 
manners and customs they were probably not more cruel or 
barbarous than the peoples they conquered; in the middle 
ages everywhere folk were cruel beyond belief. In point of 



26 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

power and organisation and military skill, however, they were 
greatly superior, and they were led by Sultans who, in many 
cases, had a genius for generalship. But beyond conquest they 
had no ideas. They camped on vanquished territory, and 
forced the people to feed them, and this policy they have 
pursued right to our time. 

I entered the Balkan Peninsula by way of Roumania, 
coming from Budapest by the northern route via Arad and 
Brasso, crossing the Eastern Carpathians by the Tomos Pass, 
3,330 feet high. My first stop was at Sinaia, where is the 
King's summer residence in the mountains. It is a little 
paradise, and the Roumanian aristocracy fly here in the summer 
to their charming villas in order to escape the heat of the 
capital. The King's chateau, a building in a mixture of styles, 
is on an eminence, a good height from the road, but not enclosed 
by hedges, fences, or railings, so I wandered up the height right 
to the doors, and all around the grounds, without the slightest 
let or hindrance. King Charles is greatly honoured by his 
subjects, and his popular consort " Carmen Sylva," is adored 
by the people. In the town is the Greek Church and Monastery, 
the service at the former, with its hidden choir and no instru- 
mental music, giving me one of those thrills that I had 
experienced at similar services of the Greek Church in Russia. 
Peculiarities in costume were very noticeable. All the drivers 
of carriages have a long robe of dark velvet, with a belt of a 
bright colour, or some gorgeous and fearful thing of mystic 
design. The workmen and peasants wear their shirts outside 
their trousers, or perhaps it is a second shirt or smock, coming 
down to the knees, and pleated. 

The railway ride from Sinaia to Bucharest, the capital, 
revealed some of the natural riches of the country. We passed 
a number of extensive salt works and innumerable oil tank 
waggons; even the locomotive of our train was driven by oil, 
so we were quite prepared to find an important city, Bucharest 
having over 300,000 inhabitants, with many fine public 
buildings. It is one of the gayest capitals that I know, and 
in proportion to its size rivals Vienna and Paris in animation, 
for at midnight it is as lively and gay in the centre of the city 
as at midday, and some of the cafes never close, day or night. 

The city is divided into two unequal portions by the dirty 
river Dimbovitza, which is crossed by fifteen bridges, one side 
being the modern and the other the old town. In this latter are 




C.H.B. 



Fig. 3. Coiistaiiza. vStatiie of Ovid 




C.H.B. 



Fig. 5. BioUvSsa. The Tower of the Citadel. 



The Balkans and Turkey 27 

found the Arsenal, Barracks, Law Courts, the Parliament 
House, and several interesting old churches, especially the 
Metropolitan Church. It was built in 1656, and its interior is 
adorned in the lavish manner peculiar to churches of the Greek 
faith, the precious stones in the ikons being reputed to be worth 
many thousands of pounds; but the city's finest church is the 
Domnitza Balasha, in the new town, recently erected in the 
true Byzantine style. 

Bucharest claims that she has got the finest Post Office in 
the world, and there is some foundation for her claim. Her 
streets are being widened and embellished on every hand. The 
railway system of the country is being reorganised, no expense 
is being spared, the immense bridge over the Danube being a 
remarkable engineering achievement. She is exploiting her 
vast stores of natural oil, and if she has given concessions to 
foreign companies, they are hedged round with restrictions for 
the benefit of the country. But, as in many another new 
country, corruption and bribery are rampant in official circles ; 
the taxes are very onerous, and press heavily ujDon all classes. 
However, under the enlightened sway of King Carol, Roumania 
is working out her own redemption, and, with her immense 
natural resources of oil and magnificent steppes for the cultiva- 
tion of corn, maize, etc., will undoubtedly occupy a leading 
place in the Balkan States. 

As I travelled down to the coast I saw how well the fertile 
country is cultivated, and at Constanza are the largest and most 
substantial grain elevators I have ever seen — larger even than 
the Canadian ones. Constanza, besides being a busy Black Sea 
port, formerly known as Kustendje, is a pretty watering-place, 
which, with its casino, revived memories of Ostend and Monte 
Carlo. In the centre of the town is a bronze monument to Ovid, 
as this is practically the site of the ancient Tomis, the place of 
his banishment and death. 

Here we embarked on a splendid Roumanian Government 
mail steamer for Constantinople, leaving at nearly midnight. 
Next morning, soon after breakfast, we had traversed the so- 
called Black Sea, and were nearing the entrance to the 
Bosphorus. 

The sail down this narrow strait, dividing Europe from Asia, 
is of enchanting interest, not only on account of the teeming 
recollections of past events, which have helped to make the 
world's history, some of them sometimes tinged with mytho- 



28 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

logical and legendary garnishings, but also because of tbe 
seductive beauty of the landscape. The sentinel lighthouses, 
Anaduli and Rumili, guarding the entrance, with their 
reminiscences of Jason and his Argonauts; the two Genoese 
fortresses, with their moles, from which a chain was stretched 
across the narrow strait in times of necessity; the famous Gulf 
of Buyukdere; Therapia, the summer residences of the 
Ambassadors; the Giant's Mountain; the Castles of Europe and 
of Asia; the place where Darius crossed on a bridge of boats 
with his army of 700,000 Persians; ''The Sweet Waters of 
Asia," so well known to readers of Pierre Loti's charming 
romance of " Desenchantees " ; the modern palaces of Charagan, 
Yildiz Kiosk, Dolma Baghtcheh, and Beylerby, all these and 
other intensely interesting sights, lead up to the point where 
right ahead was Stamboul, with domes and minarets stand- 
ing out against the sky, stretched on her broad hills, upon 
each of which rises a gigantic mosque with leaden domes and 
golden pinnacles, — Saint Sophia, white and rose-coloured; 
Sultan Ahmed, flanked by six minarets; Suleiman the Great, 
crowned with ten domes ; Sultana Yalide, mirrored in the waters 
of the Golden Horn; the mosque of Mahomet the Conqueror; 
and the conspicuous mosque of Selim; whilst houses and other 
buildings reached down to the water's edge in what appeared 
to be inextricable confusion, ending with Seraglio Point. On 
the left is Scutari, extending her amphitheatre of hills, covered 
with gardens and villas; and so the legendary fairy-like scene 
gradually increases in splendour till we reach the crowning 
apotheosis at the moment when the Sea of Marmora opens out 
before us, and we see the tout ensemble of Constantinople. 
Great and magnificent city, the dream of my boyhood, the 
aspiration of my youth, indelible memory of my life ! 

Surely in no other way should the traveller approach this 
classic site, even the approach by the Sea of Marmora is not so 
interesting; but to enter the city by the railway, the greater 
part of which is in a cutting, and then to detrain in a very 
ordinary railway station, to emerge in an evil-smelling quarter, 
is to lose all that is beautiful, and is enough to destroy all the 
glamour of a visit. 

Constantinople teems with curiosities, which are so well 
known that I need only mention a few in passing. The Galata 
Tower, which is in Galata, the business portion of the city, is 
nearly six hundred years old, and is now used as a watch-tower 




C.H.B. 



Fig. 6. Broussa. Kntraiice to the Green Mosque. 



The Balkans and Turkey 29 

for the firemen. Galata Bridge, connecting with Stamboul on 
the other side of the Golden Horn, the microcosm of the Orient. 
The Hippodrome, which in the golden days of the great 
Byzantine Empire was " the axis round which the Byzantine 
world revolved." Here emperors were proclaimed, and 
victorious generals celebrated their triumphs; here criminals 
were executed and heretics burned; here wild animals were 
exhibited and athletic sports held. The Egyptian obelisk came 
from Heliopolis, and was placed here by Theodosius the Great ; 
the Serpent Column brought by Constantine from Delphi, and 
the obelisk of masonry of unknown constitution add to the 
interest of this famous square. Then there is Stamboul, with 
its wealth of mosques, and I can only speak of one — ^that of 
St. Sophia, with an interior which has a stupefying effect on 
the visitor as he enters, with its enormous vault, a bold 
architecture of semi-domes, measureless pilasters, gigantic 
arches, colossal columns, galleries, tribunes and porticoes, upon 
all of which a flood of light descends from a thousand windows. 
Knowing well all the great cathedrals of the world, I am bound 
to place it first in respect to its majesty and stupendous effect. 

One of the ceremonies to be seen in Constantinople is that 
of the Sultan going to Selamlik, as his going publicly to pray 
is called. This is every Friday at about noon, this being the 
Moslem Sabbath. I was fortunately stationed so near to where 
the carriage of His Majesty stopped, that I was able to take 
snapshots 0+ him. The Dancing and Howling Dervishes must 
be seen, as well as the Turkish Priests and Softas. 

Pera is the modern or European quarter of the city, and a 
complete contrast to Stamboul. It is a small edition of Paris, 
full of shops and better-class residences. All the Embassies 
are here. 

Scutari is the fourth division of the city, and is on the 
Asiatic shore. Being on the same continent as the holy cities 
of Mecca and Medina, it is considered to be holy ground, and 
so all pious Turks wish to be buried here if they can afford 
the expense, the result being an immense cemetery, three miles 
long. But to English people its chief interest is the English 
Cemetery, where so many of the soldiers who died during the 
Crimean war lie buried, and behind which is the hospital where 
Florence Nightingale ministered. 

Also on the Asiatic shore, I visited Mudania, a fairly 
prosperous seaport, and took train for Broussa, the old capital of 



30 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the Ottoman Empire, at the foot of Mount Olympus, that giant 
of the Bithynian Mountains. The town is one of the most 
oriental that I have ever visited. Modernity has not yet 
reached it ; this makes it one of the most interesting places in all 
Turkey, and at the same time it is one of the most beautiful. 
In the period of its wonderful prosperity and at the zenith of 
its glory, it became the resort of the then world of literature, 
art and fame. Soldiers of fortune, artists, poets, historians, 
holy men, and dervishes thronged to it from Persia, Khorassan, 
and the far-distant Bokhara ; mosques, colleges and other public 
buildings arose, and a palace upon the size and grandeur of 
which Osmanli historians love to dwell, was erected. Earth- 
quakes, fires and wars have done much to destroy this glory, 
but even to-day the number of mosques is so great that it is 
playfully said that there is one for each day of the year, and 
that the pious Moslem need never enter the same mosque twice 
in the same year. Beside the mosques there are the tombs of 
several Sultans, some of which are perhaps more remarkable 
than the mosques. The Green Mosque alone is worth going a 
pilgrimage to see, for it is one of the most perfect specimens of 
Mussulman art, in which are seen the blending of the 
Arabic and Persian styles. Its principal entrance reminded me 
of the Moorish work at the Alhambra, in its marvellous hanging 
honeycomb carved work and its arabesques. In the Great 
Mosque, in the centre of the great dome is an opening, through 
which rain and snow may enter, and below is a fountain or 
tank, the latter having goldfish in it. I must not omit to 
mention the Citadel, from the top of whose rocky escarpment 
may be seen the whole of the city, a strange picture to Western 
eyes, with its domes and minarets, the background being the 
long range of mountains, with the giant peak of Olympus still 
exposing patches of snow in July. 

Leaving Constantinople by rail, we soon passed San Stefano, 
where the Treaty was signed at the conclusion of the Russo- 
Turkish War of 1878, then crossed the Lines of Tchatalja, 
where so much fighting took place during the late war; then 
passed Lule Burgas, where the Turks were so badly defeated, 
and after a nine hours' journey arrived at Adrianople. The 
railway station is at Karagatch, two miles away from the town, 
on the way to which I crossed the Rivers Maritza and Tundja, 
the former being a very important river in Turkey and 
Roumelia. The town is very well protected by forts on the hills 



^^ 




C.H.B 



Fio-. 7. Sofia. Private Residences. 




C.H.B. 



Fig. 8. vSofia. Statue of Czar Liberator. 



The Balkans and Turkey 31 

all round, as becomes a city near the frontier of the country. 
Amongst its numerous mosques that of Selim II is the most 
noteworthy, the dome being one metre higher than that of 
St, Sophia at Constantinople. The city takes its name from 
the Emperor Adrian, who founded it a.d. 117 — 136. 

At the next station of importance we quitted Turkish 
territory, and entered Eastern Roumelia, making a stop at 
Philippopolis, its capital, a town of about 45,000 inhabitants, 
on the River Maritza. There are not many buildings of interest 
beyond the old mosque, its churches and military club; but its 
chief interest lies in the fact of its having been the scene of the 
revolution which separated it and Bulgaria from Turkey in 
1885. 

Here we had one of those experiences that all travellers in 
the heart of the Balkans must expect, unless they are polyglots. 
It is said that there is only one hotel where a meal in the 
European sense of the word can be obtained, and we set out to 
find it. But from one end of the town to the otherwe absolutely 
failed to find a single sign in Roman characters. So whilst 
the name of the hotel was affixed to it, yeiy it was in those 
barbaric characters that only an Oxford pundit — or his 
equivalent — can read. Then we hit upon the happy idea of 
showing the natives the name of the hotel in our guide book, but 
if their characters were Greek to us, ours were also Greek to 
them, and not even the intelligent policeman could read them. 
Eventually we got there, and perhaps enjoyed our lunch all the 
more for the hunt we had had after it. 

The Bulgars are a fine race of men, especially the hearty 
young countrymen in homespun garments and hide sandals, all 
well clad ; clean-limbed, upstanding young fellows of eleven or 
twelve stone, with healthy, smiling faces. The peasant people 
own the land which they till so carefully. Even amongst the 
poorest in the villages it is the exception to find a man who is 
not a landowner, 

Bv Igaria is one of the greatest rose gardens of the world. 
Few parts of Europe have been so often laid waste ; in few has 
the ground been so plentifully drenched with blood, century 
after century. In none, perhaps, have so many different races 
fought for the mastery. But when the warlike storm has spent 
its force fresh roses spring up, filling the land with fragrance 
and bringing a rich material reward to its children. Some of 



32 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

these rose gardens are sixty miles long, and from them the 
world gets its principal supply of attar of roses. We are told 
that the damask roses, one hundred thousand of which give 
only one ounce of attar, must be picked before the sun shines 
on them else they withhold half their fragrance. A pound of 
tie oil fetchevs from £15 to £18. 

Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, is one of the cleanest cities 
in Europe. All the principal streets are paved with tiles, the 
shape and size of a brick, and they appear to stand the traffic 
admirably, and all of these streets have electrical trams running 
through them. At the time of my visit there was quite a 
mania for building and re-building, the climax being a 
magnificent new cathedral, which, after six years' work, was 
nearly completed. Sofia is the only town in the country of 
over 50,000 inhabitants. In 1887 it was estimated to have a 
population of about 20,000, whilst to-day (that is, before the 
war) its inhabitants number about 100,000; and in these 
twenty-five years it has been completely metamorphosed, the 
same quarter of a century having entirely changed the country. 
Then, there were no railways in Bulgaria proper — only some 
two hundred miles of line, constructed under the auspices of 
the Turkish Government, were open to traffic in Eastern 
Roumelia — now, Bulgaria possesses some twelve hundred miles 
of railways, besides nearly two hundred under construction. 

I was fortunate in seeing the people dressed in holiday 
attire, and was struck with the great diversity of costumes to be 
seen. Here was a peasant in his skeep-skin coat, his baggy 
trousers, and his gaiters of strips of cloth ; then comes a young 
Sofian exquisite, who might have been imported direct from 
Bond Street or Paris. During a service in the old cathedral I 
saw the ladies in Parisian or Viennese costumes elbowed by 
peasant women who had come in from the country all dressed in 
their Sunday costumes — the yellow or white handkerchief on 
the head, the short goat's hair coat, the white skirt, embroidered 
with black, the heavy silver chains and clasps, the brilliantly- 
coloured knitted stockings, showing some way above the ankle, 
and then the pointed Balkan shoes, like a man's. Out of 
curiosity I counted the plaits in which one girl's hair was 
braided and hanging down her back, and found there were 
twenty, and entwined into the plaits were a quantity of coins, 
besides which she had a number of coins and medals stitched 



r^ ^'' '- 






Si i 






1^^' 


'^^H 






-n^ 



C.H.B. 



Fig. 9. Sofia. Entrance to the Palace Grounds. 




c.n.Ji. 



Fig. 10. Sofia. The New Cathedral. 



The Balkans and Turkey 33 

into the plastron on her breast. All were dark and swarthy, 
and seemed to be exceedingly devout in the performance of 
their religious duties, but I doubted whether any real religious 
life penetrated below the surface. 

Leaving Bulgaria and entering Servia, Nisch is the first 
large town we stop at, — an important centre on the railway 
system, as here is the junction for Uskub and Salonica, — and 
once the capital of the country. It is defended by several forts 
and a citadel, and is noted as having been the birthplace of 
Constantine the Great. 

Right across the country, a hundred and thirty miles away, 
is Belgrade, the present capital, its Servian name signifying 
" White Town." It is quite on the frontier line of the country, 
being bounded by the Rivers Save and Danube, and, despite 
the blue colour given to the Danube by a well-known song, I 
found that here its waters are yellow, whilst those of the Save 
are blue, and they flow along side by side for some distance 
without mixing. The opposite shores of these rivers are 
Hungarian. From the old Citadel, which is full of historical 
associations, we had a splendid view of the city, and also the 
confluence of the two rivers. 

The city is being gradually transformed; it has some fine 
streets of shops, a cathedral, a statue of Prince Michel — the 
great emancipator of the Servian nation from the Turkish 
domination, a rather mean Parliament House, called the 
Skouptshina (a modern building being in course of erection), and 
a royal Palace ; but the most interesting spot to me was the site 
of the old Palace, where King Alexander and Queen Draga 
were so barbarously butchered some half-dozen years ago, to 
the eternal disgrace of the present King Peter and his party. 
I made a pilgrimage to the spot where, a few hours after their 
assassination, they were buried like dogs, and the only 
memorial of them is a withered wreath, which I was told only 
cost six francs when new ! Sic transit gloria mundi ! 

What the future may have in store for these valiant Balkan 
States is difficult to predict, but certain it is that the tide has 
turned, and they have now got the Turk under their heel. 
Whether or not they are destined to be the means of driving 
him out of Europe, they will now have the opportunity of 
showing that they can govern the greater part of his territory 
in Europe in a more righteous and humane manner than his. 



34 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

That they will do so, my observations during my journey lead 
me to believe is a certainty, although my reading of history 
shows that neither side have been without faults in the past, and 
even the present war, avowedly undertaken to uproot Turkish 
oppression and misrule, has apparently degenerated into a war 
of conquest. 

The illustrations are from photographs talien hy the writer. 



*# "m^^^ ^y% 



/ 

11 ■ 




r. //. /;. 



Fig. II. Belgrade. The King's Talace. 




C.H.B. 



Fig. 12. Belgrade. Statue of Prince Michel. 



Highways and B3rways in the Balkans 35 



HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS IN THE BALKANS. 

By Gilbert Waterhouse, F.E.G.S., 
English Lecturer in the University of Leipzig, 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on 
Tuesday, March 4th, 1913.) 

I. 

A JOURNEY to the Balkan States usually implies to the ordinary 
traveller a monotonous ride in the Orient Express via Yienna 
and Budapest to Belgrade and Sofia, with perhaps — if he be 
more than usually enterprising — a return journey via Constantza 
and Bucharest. This may be called entry in state by the front 
door. The tourist who wishes to come into real contact with 
the people — and, incidentally, obtain better value for his money 
— will do well to try one of the numerous " backdoors " and 
travel third class on the railway. This involves of course a 
certain amount of discomfort, though much can be done with 
an air-cushion and patience. Of course a knowledge of at least 
two languages, German and Serbo-Croatian, is a sine qua non. 
Servian and Croatian are two names for what is practically the 
same thing, though the Servians, being members of the Greek 
Orthodox Church, use the Cyrillic characters, whereas the 
Croatians are Homan Catholics and use the ordinary Latin 
type. German, or better Italian, will carry one right down 
the Adriatic coast from Triest to Cattaro, the usual port of 
entry for Montenegro and Albania. In Bosnia and Hercegovina 
German is generally understood, except by the peasants, who 
speak as a rule Croatian only. In Belgrade one can manage with 
German and French, less easily with English. For the country 
districts and provincial towns of Servia away from the main 
line of railway a knowledge of the native tongue is indispens- 
able. This is not a very terrible matter, as the present writer 
learnt sufficient in two months, working two or three hours a 
week, to carry him from Sarajevo to Belgrade. 

I left Leipzig on July 31st, 1912, by the 1-20 a.m. in the 
through carriage for Triest, and by seven had crossed the 
Danube and was drinking a welcome cup of coffee in historic 
Regensburg. At Landshut we left the Munich line, and the 
country grew more and more interesting, until finally the 



36 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 




Highways and Byways in the Balkans 37 

Tyrolese Alps came into view at Freilassing, whence a short 
run took ns across the Austrian frontier to lovely Salzburg, 
with its castled rock rising proudly from the plain and the 
snow-clad peaks behind. Then the train entered the rugged 
valley of the Bruck and climbed in painful spirals to Bad 
Gastein. Higher still and higher we crawled, amidst scenery 
of a grandeur that baffles description, until we reached the 
summit of the Tauern. Then down we thundered along the 
foaming Drave to Yillach. Beyond Yillach the line left 
Carinthia and entered Carniola, passing through Yeldes, one of 
the most romantic spots in Europe, but as yet quite unknown to 
English tourists. The eye had just time to take in a lake, an 
island in the lake, a chapel on the island, a castle, and the sun- 
kissed Karawanken, before the train entered the side of the 
mighty Triglav and left the scene behind. Up we crawled to 
the Julian Alps, and down we flew into the vale of Isonzo. 
Beyond the picturesque old town of Gorz, which stands on the 
bluest of blue rivers, appeared the forbidding mass of the 
Karst, a stony mountain range on which scarcely a blade of 
grass will grow. For over an hour we pounded slowly uphill 
through a land of stones and stunted bushes until we reached 
Opchina, the last halt. From here there was a glorious view of 
the Gulf of Triest, with the city lights twinkling brightly far 
below. 

Twenty minutes later I was picking my way along the dusty, 
evil-smelling quay to the Piazza Grande. The Hotel Delorme, 
where I had intended to spend the night, was deserted and 
closed, so I installed myself at the Hotel Volpich close by. 
Early next morning I boarded the Austrian Lloyd steamer 
Baron Ganitsch at the Molo San Carlo. She is one of two large 
turbine vessels that maintain the tri-weekly service between 
Triest and Cattaro. They were both built in England. I 
emphasize this fact because they were the only articles of 
British manufacture that I did see throughout the whole of 
my journey, with the single exception of the old suspension 
bridge at Budapest. I am told that neither the Baron Gautsch 
nor her sister ship, the Prinz Hohenlohe, gave complete satisfac- 
tion to the Austrian Lloyd (presumably owing to faulty specifi- 
cations), and both had to be partly rebuilt to adapt them to 
the requirements of the service. 

Apparently there was nothing wrong with the engines of the 
Baron Gautsch, for we were soon moving at a good speed across 



38 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the Gulf of Triest and down the rocky coast of Istria. This 
portion of the voyage is about the only place on the Austrian 
side of the Adriatic where it can be really rough, for beyond 
the island of Lussin the vessel enters the land-locked waters of 
the Dalmatian Archipelago, which it never leaves, except for 
an hour or so round the Punta Planka, until G!ravosa is 
reached. The whole coast is barren, and, with a few intervals, 
monotonous. It is said that in former days dense forests 
extended right down to the sea, but the Venetians, who 
established their rule from Triest to Montenegro, cut down all 
the trees to build their houses and ships. Then the rain washed 
the soil into the sea until only the bare rock was left and 
nothing more could grow. In many places low stone walls have 
been built across the hill-sides to hold back the soil and 
attempts made to grow vines and olives. The phylloxera has 
wrought havoc with the former, and I am told the imported 
American vines do not thrive very well in the shallow soil. A 
quantity of very tolerable red wine is produced, notwithstand- 
ing. 

Our first stop after leaving Triest, was Pola, th© first of the 
wonderful natural harbours with which the Adriatic coast is so 
richly endowed. The entrance is strongly fortified and the 
inner harbour has two basins, one for commerce and the other 
for warships. Across the entrance a stone mole, designed to 
repel the attacks of submarines and about three-quarters of a 
mile long, is in course of construction. There is a big naval 
workshop, with an enormous cantilever crane, visible from the 
sea, and three floating docks. Photography was out of the 
question here. Indeed, I had been requested to leave my 
camera in charge of the steward and was unable to make 
use of it until I landed at Zara in the evening. 

There was a large crowd on the quay to see us in, and 
the arrival of our sister ship, the Hohenlohe, from the other 
direction, added to the noise and bustle. The vivid colours 
worn by the Italian women and a sprinkling of picturesque 
Slavonic costumes made a pretty picture. The inhabitants of 
the coast towns of Istria and Dalmatia, as far south as Zara 
at least, are practically Italians, though their blood is probably 
as mongrel as the dialect they speak. However, the near 
future will see the substitution of Croatian for Italian as the 
principal language of Dalmatia, owing to the encouragement of 
the former and neglect of the latter language in the schools. 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 39 

As the Baron Gautsch stopped for tliree-quarters of an hour 
in Pola, I had time to go ashore for a meal, which I obtained in 
a plain, barn-like restaurant about a hundred yards from the 
quay. It was crude but satisfying, and cost less than a crown 
and a half (1/3) including beer, about one-third the price of 
the luncheon on board the steamer. 

In addition to being the principal naval station of Austria- 
Hungary, Pola has much to interest the antiquarian. It was 
originally a Roman colony, founded a generation before our 
era, and was honoured more than once with the residence of 
different Roman emperors within its walls. The principal 
remains are the great amphitheatre (198 — 211), the Temple 
of Augustus (8a.d.), and the Triumphal Arch of the Sergii 
(erected soon after the battle of Actium, 31 B.C.), all of which 
are in an excellent state of preservation. 

Leaving Pola we soon left the Cap Promontore, the most 
southerly point of Istria, behind and entered the Quarnero, an 
expanse of open sea which can become decidedly unpleasant 
when the erratic Bora blows. Gradually the first islands came 
into view, Unie, Cherso, and Lussin, and shortly after three 
o'clock we were lying in the sheltered and commodious harbour 
of Lussinpiccolo. 

What surprised me in most of these harbours on the Adriatic 
coast was the depth of water and the nearness of the landing- 
stage to the centre of the town. Only in Spalato had I to walk 
any distance to and from the steamer. Here in Lussinpiccolo 
the Baron Gautsch lay moored on one side of the street, so that 
from the deck I could see into the houses on the other side. 
As in Pola, the arrival of the boat seemed to be the great event 
of the day, and the town woke up from its afternoon nap to see 
us in, and by the time we were berthed the quay was thronged 
with elegant idlers, perspiring travellers, importunate hawkers, 
and noisy luggage-porters. 

Lussinpiccolo rises gently from the sea, and the slopes are 
dotted with trim gardens of sub-tropical plants. I believe figs 
and dates, agaves and eucalyptus, as well as oranges and lemons 
flourish here, but had no time to go ashore and investigate. The 
island is only about half a mile wide at this point, so the houses 
on the crest of the hill have a sea-view on both sides. Thanks 
to its sheltered situation and mild climate, Lussinpiccolo enjoys 
great favour as a winter resort. Somewhat similar, but quieter, 
is Lussingrande, about two miles away on the eastern side of 



40 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the island, which is ahout twenty miles long, but nowhere more 
than three miles wide. The name Lussingrande is misleading, 
as Lussinpiccolo is now four times as large. 

Another run of about three hours between islands of no 
particular importance, brought me to Zara, the capital of 
Dalmatia. The only feature of interest in the landscape was 
the Yelebit, a curious range of barren mountains on the 
Croatian mainland. Running parallel with the coast for about 
sixty miles it forms a spur of the Dinaric Alps and consists of a 
series of rugged peaks, which resemble the teeth of a saw. 
The average height is between ^ye and six thousand feet. 
They become more distinct towards Zara, but beyond that point 
recede again towards the Bosnian frontier. 

Zara is picturesquely situated with the sea on three sides. 
The Riva Nuova forms a pleasant promenade about half a mile 
long, and has a stone pier for ships, most of which, however, 
still seem to use the old harbour behind the town. As we 
sailed up to the quay I noticed one of the hotels mentioned in 
my guide-book, and determined to make my way to it. There 
is really only one first-class hotel in Zara — the Bristol, on the 
E-iva Nuova — but I had made up my mind to be economical 
and *' rough it " if necessary, as by always putting up at the 
best hotels one misses a good deal of the local colour. But I 
had reckoned without the local odour. This is an offensive and 
penetrating compound of hot air, kitchen smells, stale food, 
putrefying street refuse and deplorable sanitation. I had met 
it before in Prague, where a glass of water means cholera or 
typhoid, and have since learned to regard it as peculiar to 
Slavonic countries. 

It took me some time to push my way through the crowd 
of shrieking, gesticulating villains who wanted to relieve me of 
my luggage. As I carried all my belongings on my shoulders 
in two capacious rucksacks, I had no need to spend a penny on 
luggage porters from start to finish of my two thousand mile 
journey. Opposite the landing-stage is the Porta Marina, the 
principal entrance to the city from this side. Thinking to take 
a short cut I ascended some steps and found myself on the old 
fortifications, now a pleasant promenade. After making a 
considerable circuit I discovered the entrance to the Hotel de 
Ville in a wretched alley dignified with the name of Via San 
Demetrio. The proprietor and his satellites at once swooped 
down on me and hustled me through the evil-smelling ground- 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 41 

floor premises up a horribly dark and creaky staircase. How- 
ever, I obtained a tolerably clean and bright room with a 
pleasant outlook over the old harbour for 2K. 40, i.e. two 
shillings. 

The position of the peninsula of Zara with regard to the 
mainland is precisely that of the right thumb with regard to 
the rest of the hand. Between the thumb and forefinger lies 
the old harbour, entered from the north, while the Riva Nuova 
represents the nail-side of the thumb. The town was formerly 
fortified, but the old wall has been entirely demolished along 
the sea-front and turned into a promenade on the other three 
sides. I found the walk round the north end very pleasant, 
though short^ — in fact, one could walk right round the town in 
about twenty minutes. 

There are only three things to do in Zara. In the morning 
it is interesting to visit the daily market held on the Piazza 
deir Erbe, in the afternoon it pays to doze in the coolest possible 
place, and in the evening everybody who is anybody strolls up 
and down the Riva or sits at a dirty table in the only cafe and 
watches the rest stroll up and down. While I was there an 
orchestra of three performers was doing its worst. 

The Riva Nuova is rather imposing, as it possesses the only 
row of tolerably clean-looking buildings in the town. Behind 
this screen is one of the most appalling collections of dark 
entries and filthy hovels in Europe, though parts of Spalato run 
it very close. Few of the streets are even four yards wide, the 
majority, I should think, considerably less. I always had the 
impression while in Zara that I had taken the wrong turning 
and was somewhere on the back-premises, but should presently 
reach the street. Many of the buildings are historically and 
architecturally interesting. The old church of S. Donato 
dates from the beginning of the ninth century, when Zara and 
the adjacent country were under Byzantine rule. The founda- 
tions are Roman, and likewise much of the material utilised in 
the construction. Close by stands the Cathedral of S. 
Anastasia, one of the most noteworthy ecclesiastical buildings of 
Dalmatia. The campanile was coiapleted in 1893 from the 
plans of Sir T. G. Jackson. Of the existing city gates the 
finest is the Porta Terra Ferma on the land-side. It is the 
work of Sanmichele, and the great lion of St. Mark over the 
archway reminds us that Zara was once subject to Venice. 
The language of the inhabitants is still Italian, and German 



42 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

is not always understood. The country people speak Croatian. 
It seems probable that Italian will eventually yield to tbe 
combined attacks of German and Croatian and disappear from 
the Dalmatian coast. 

Zara being the capital, and therefore crammed with officers 
and government clerks, aspires to be fashionable. I found it 
intensely amusing to sit in the cafe on the Riva and watch 
most elegantly apparelled ladies walk through the ruts and dust 
of the quay with the utmost indifference. They seem to spend 
most of the day somewhere indoors. I say somewhere, for the 
houses that come up to a Western Eviropean standard of decency 
would not total a score. 

The principal attraction of Zara is decidedly the market, 
held every morning on the Piazza delF Erbe. When I looked 
out of my window about six a.m., I could see a stream of 
peasants disembarking from the rude sailing vessels in which 
they had come over from the neighbouring islands. A sleepy 
gendarme examined their baskets and parcels before allowing 
them to pass through the gate, so I presume a local duty is 
levied on certain articles. The men wore as a rule handsome 
waistcoats and curious little round, red caps, barely covering 
the crown of the head. I never could understand why they 
did not fall off at the slightest movement, unless the natural 
grease of the hair kept them on. The accompanying photo- 
graph gives a fairly good idea of the costumes worn by the 
women, though the vivid colours must be left to the imagination 
(see Fig. 1). Like the men they wear rough sheepskin sandals 
and a kind of coarse woollen gaiter. The skirt is of dark 
material, but a brightly coloured apron is often worn as well. 
The bodice is usually a dazzling white with wide, embroidered 
sleeves. The most beautiful part of the dress is the head-cloth 
or scarf. These vary in quality, the better ones being richly 
embroidered in colours. They are usually on sale in the 
market or the adjoining streets, and the best can be had for 
five or six crowns (4-5 shillings). Thinking I might do even 
better further down the coast, I did not buy, and have regretted 
it ever since. Two days later, in Spalato, I was asked thirty 
crowns for a scarf which would have cost me five in the market 
at Zara. 

I left Zara about midday in the Danuhio, of the Consortium 
Dalmatia line. She was neither so large nor so vspeedy as the 
Baron Gautsch, but far more free and easy, the passengers 




G.W. 



Fig. 1. Market, Zara. 




Q.W. 



Fig. 2. Wall of Diocletian's Palace, Spalato. 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 43 

numbering barely a score, and the absence of turbine-vibration 
added greatly to the pleasure of the voyage. It was a lovely 
day and the sea as calm as a pond. Indeed, it can scarcely be 
anything else here owing to the innumerable islands which 
protect the channel almost the whole way. The coast was 
much the same as the part I have already described — barren 
headlands, with here and there a few vines and olive-trees. 
Further inland, I believe, the cherry is much cultivated for 
the preparation of maraschino, also a kind of pyrethrum, the 
blooms of which are employed in the manufacture of insect 
powder. 

About four o'clock I noticed a castle on a hill apparently 
about a mile inland. I had no idea it was the port of Sebenico, 
but presently a little gap in the coast-line appeared, the ship 
turned almost at right-angles and entered the narrow but deep 
channel which leads between strongly fortified cliffs into the 
wonderful land-locked harbour. After Pola and Cattaro, 
Sebenico is the most important naval station on this coast, so 
the camera had to repose unused at the bottom of a rucksack 
for a while. This was a pity, for there are few places so 
picturesque in all Dalmatia. I went ashore for a few minutes 
and visited the Cathedral, which was begun about the middle 
of the fifteenth century and occupied nearly a hundred years 
in construction. 

As most of the officers and crew went ashore to stretch their 
legs, the aborigines were able to wander on and off the ship as 
they liked, and we were so pestered with the attentions of filthy 
children whining for kreutzers that I was well pleased when we 
again got under way. Shortly before nine in the evening the 
lights of Spalato appeared, and within half an hour I had 
established myself beneath the roof of the Hotel Troccoli. 

Although Zara is the official capital of Dalmatia, Spalato is 
the largest town, having a population of 31,000, of whom over 
3,000 reside in the Stari Grad or Old Town. This portion of 
the city is quite the most interesting feature of Dalmatia, for it 
is contained within the four walls of the Emperor Diocletian's 
palace, which was commenced about 290 and completed about 
305 A.D. It presents indeed a vastly different appearance from 
what it did in Roman days. The four outer walls, though still 
preserved almost in their entirety, are disfigured by thousands 
of windows, added by the inhabitants in the course of centuries 
(see Fig. 2). Huts and hovels of all kinds have been built in 



44 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

all situations, in front of the walls, outside them, and even on 
the top. The interior is honeycombed with narrow alleys, 
many of them barely five or six feet wide. Even the principal 
square, the Piazza del Duomo, is only about twenty yards by 
ten. This space is really the old peristyle of the palace, and 
much of the original architecture is preserved. The Cathedral 
of St. Doimo, dating from the fifteenth century, stands on the 
site of the mausoleum of Diocletian, which is now preserved 
in the local Archaeological Museum . Three of the four gates of 
the palace. Porta Aurea, Porta Argentea, and Porta Ferrea, 
still remain, although the original thresholds are several feet 
below the present surface of the ground. 

About four miles away to the north-east is the site of the 
Roman colony of Salona. Tor many years it was one of the 
most important ports on the Adriatic, but with the decline of 
Roman power, it suffered repeatedly from the attacks of the 
Goths and Huns, and was finally sacked and almost entirely 
destroyed by the Avars in 639. The inhabitants fled to the 
Dalmatian islands, but returned to the mainland to found a 
new city within the walls of Diocletian's palace. The site of 
Salona was not completely deserted until the twelfth century. 
Excavations were systematically undertaken in 1818, and, 
though the work is still in progress, practically the whole of 
the city has been laid bare. 

The new town of Spalato is clustered round the stari grad, 
and, with the exception of a few quite modern buildings, the 
general character and atmosphere are the same. The streets 
are generally narrow and filthy, the houses low and evil- 
smelling. The lowness of the buildings and the narrowness of 
the streets are to a certain extent unavoidable owing to the 
violence of the " bora," a peculiar land-wind to which the 
whole Dalmatian coast is exposed. So furiously does it blow 
at times that not only men and animals but also houses are 
swept into the sea. In certain towns it is the custom to stretch 
ropes across the streets, to which unfortunate wayfarers may 
cling, and so avoid being swept off their feet. 

The part of Spalato through which I passed on my way to 
the summit of the Monte Mar j an was typical of Dalmatian 
towns. It consisted of one steep narrow street, rising in broad, 
shallow steps between two rows of low, whitewashed hovels, 
from which the foulest odours emanated. The hard cobbles 
were strewn with garbage, and whenever I put my foot down a 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 45 

cloud of bloated flies rose noisily into tlie air. Hideous liags 
and filthy children were squatting on the steps and in the door- 
ways, and as evening fell a procession of men and pack-animals 
returning from market filled the place with strident cries. I 
noticed one tiny donkey heavily laden with two large packs 
and carrying a man and boy as well. 

The view from the summit of the Monte Mar j an amply 
repaid me for the hot climb. The mountain takes the form of 
a promontory almost entirely surrounded by water, the wide 
bay of Spalato with its busy harbour lying to the south, and 
the Salona inlet extending to the north-east. A brand-new 
road has been cut to the summit through a growing forest of 
young pines, so that within a very few years the Monte Mar j an 
will provide the traveller with a pleasant retreat from the heat 
and stench of the town. 

As I had planned to leave Spalato by the Austrian Lloyd 
midnight boat, in order to travel as far as Gravosa with an old 
college friend who was taking his annual trip to Albania, I 
spent the evening at a dirty cafe near the quay. It boasted an 
orchestra of one player, his instrument being a harp, to the 
accompaniment of which he sang a number of Italian ditties. 
The audience consisted for the most part of dirty but not in- 
appreciative Dalmatian labourers, and the general effect, with 
the gentle ripple of the water close by and the city lights across 
the bay, was not unpleasant. 

Shortly before midnight the Prinz Hohenlohe came along- 
side, and I was glad to see a familiar face again. We ignored 
the conventions, spread our belongings over a quiet corner of the 
deck, compared notes, and dozed as well as we could until some 
cold water was swilled on to us in the early morning from the 
deck above. During the night we had called at Lesina, and 
about seven we made fast in the spacious harbour of Gravosa, 
the starting-point of the railway to Hercegovina and Bosnia. 
Here I disembarked, leaving my friend to continue his journey 
to Cattaro, and found modest but decent quarters in the Hotel 
Austria. 

Gravosa itself is little more than a timber-yard, but it is the 
port for Ragusa, which lies about a mile and a half away, 
beyond the Lapad peninsula. 

In former days Ragusa was a port of considerable note, but 
nowadays cannot be approached by large vessels. A republic 
was established here in 663 by Byzantine refugees from 



46 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Epidaurus, whicli had been destroyed by the Avars in 656. 
It remained under Byzantine protection until 1204, and then 
acknowledg-ed the sway of Yenice until 1356, and subsequently 
of Hungary until 1453. Its golden age lay in the short period 
from 1427 — 1437. In 1453 Ragusa was again threatened by 
Yenice and sought the protection of the Osmanli Turks, paying 
a tribute which rapidly rose from 1,500 to 12,500 ducats. 
In 1684 the authority of Hungary was again asserted, and the 
little republic remained under the protection of that kingdom 
for over 100 years. In 1796 the French levied a tax of one 
million lire and definitely occupied the place in 1806. Two 
years later Ragusa ceased to be a free republic, and in 1809 was 
incorporated with the kingdom of lUyria, all of which passed to 
Austria in 1814. 

At the present day Ragusa is a sleepy town of 14,000 
inhabitants, mostly Slavonic, Italian being very little spoken. 
Its Slavonic name is Dubrovnik. The climate is mild in winter 
and the vegetation sub-tropical, agaves and cactus growing 
luxuriantly in the open air. 

During my stay the heat was so terrific that sight-seeing 
offered no attraction. The inhabitants were huddled together 
motionless wherever there was shade to be found. The sea was 
as smooth as glass and the air so still that the flags on the city 
walls hung without a quiver for half an hour at a stretch. As 
night fell, however, it grew cooler, and I walked down the 
Stradone, the finest street in Dalmatia, and through the Porta 
Ploce, along the road which leads to Ragusa Yecchia and 
Castelnuovo. 

Facing the harbour of Ragusa lies the beautiful island 
of Lacroma, on which King Richard Coeur-de-Lion is said to 
have been wrecked when returning from Palestine. A storm 
rising and the ship being in great danger, the king made a vow 
to erect a church wherever he might safely land . The ship was 
driven ashore on the island of Lacroma, and Richard would 
have built a church on the spot had not the Raguseans 
persuaded him to build them a cathedral instead. This he did, 
but the building perished in the great earthquake of 1667, 
which laid most of the town in ruins. This disaster also 
accounts for the uniform architectural style of the Stradone, 
all the houses — formerly the residences of the local nobility — 
having been erected soon after. 

It is a pleasant walk from Ragusa to Gravosa in the cool of 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 47 

the evening. For some distance pleasant villas, with gardens 
gay with all kinds of delicate plants and shrubs, line both sides 
of the road; but from the top of the hill there is a fine, un- 
obstructed view over the whole Adriatic. When I reached 
Gravosa, it was quite dark, so after a good supper in the Petka 
Restaurant, which must have improved out of all recognition 
since Mr. de Windt described it, I returned to my own modest 
inn, ready for a good night's rest. Early next morning I left 
by train for Mostar. 

The line from Gravosa into the interior proceeds first along 
the picturesque valley of the Ombla, a curious river which 
emerges as a broad stream from beneath a wall of rock, only 
two or three miles from the coast. The train mounts slowly 
but persistently, doubles on its own tracks and penetrates the 
most mysterious tunnels, in which it performs queer evolutions, 
often changing direction completely. Besides offering magnifi- 
cent panoramic views of the Hercegovinian highlands and the 
Adriatic, the line is interesting for technical reasons, for 
in the space of a very few miles it climbs about 2,000 feet. At 
last the gradient grows less severe, the train gathers speed, the 
sea disappears from view, and nothing is to be seen except the 
vstony tableland of Hercegovina extending on every side. 

As far as the eye can see there is nothing but rocks and 
stones, with dwarf trees struggling to obtain a scanty nourish- 
ment in the crevices. Occasionally one sees in some hollow a 
little pocket of soil, only a few square yards in area, but 
carefully cultivated. And all day long the sun beats down, hot 
and blinding, upon the white stones. Such is the general 
aspect of southern Hercegovina. 

Not that the country is entirely without fertile portions. 
Beyond Hum the line enters the Pqpovopolje (Priest's field), a 
truly wonderful valley, drained — and watered — by the curious 
river Trebinjchitza, which rises nearTrebinje on the Montenegrin 
frontier, fiows through the Popovopolje and disappears into the 
earth near the village of Hutovo. Whether the waters pass by 
some subterranean way to the swamps of Gabela or return to 
form the mysterious Ombla is uncertain. The great feature of 
the Popovopolje is the fact that in the winter it is a lake twenty 
miles long, one-half to two miles wide, and 50 to 120 feet deep. 
As spring advances the water subsides, disappearing into holes 
called ponori, until only the river Trebinjchitza is left, and this 
too disappears in the hot season. At the end of autumn the 



48 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

water rises again, and the whole valley is submerged. After 
each inundation the land is of course sufficiently enriched ; it 
never requires manure. The climate is mild both in summer 
and winter, and is favourable to the cultivation of vines, olives, 
apples, plums, figs, cherries, quinces, tobacco, and various 
kinds of grain, principally maize. The surrounding mountains 
are bare and stony, with scarcely a trace of vegetation. On 
their lower slopes, just above the winter level of the lake, are 
scattered about twenty villages, with some 5,000 inhabitants in 
all. The population is almost entirely Orthodox Christian and 
has a reputation for skill in masonry. 

Curiously enough, the lake, in spite of its periodical 
disappearance, contains fish, though of one kind only, called 
gaovice. They are about the size of an anchovy and are said 
to have a good flavour. When the water subsides they dis- 
appear into the 'ponori, or ground-holes, and remain there 
during the summer. 

ThePopovopolje is rich in antiquities of various kinds, graves 
tumuli, castle ruins, etc. I heard also of a cave at Yjetrinitza, 
which contains rock-carvings. 

The valley ends at Hutovo, beyond which place the train 
enters a bare mountain pass and descends rapidly to the valley 
of the Narenta, which it crosses at Gabela, the junction for 
the port of Metkovitj. From time immemorial the Narenta 
estuary has afforded the easiest access from the coast to the 
interior, and near Gabela can be seen the remains of the old 
Venetian fortress which protected this trade route. The district 
is low-lying and unhealthy. Rice is cultivated and malaria is 
common. 

Henceforward the scene became more lively. The natives 
exhibited a greater variety of dress, owing to the presence of a 
strong Mohammedan element. Fez and turban began to 
mingle with the round, embroidered caps of the Orthodox 
Christians. At each station appeared a Turk, selling water or 
syrup, with his huge, fantastic pitcher and limited supply of 
drinking-vessels. On such occasions Western European notions 
of decency are apt to become irksome to the thirsty traveller. 

It was between Gabela and Mostar that I first saw the 
costume of the Hercegovinian Mohammedan women. It 
resembles nothing so much as a military overcoat, with the 
collar turned up and so adjusted that it covers the head and 
projects forward horizontally over the face. The sleeves, not 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 49 

being utilised, are stitched up and hang limply, the person of 
the wearer being entirely concealed in the body of the coat. 

Proceeding up stream from Gabela, the train passes an old 
Roman camp, and then the picturesque town of Pochitelj, 
formerly a nest of bandits. It is spread like an amphitheatre 
over a steep hillside and is remarkable for its mosque and castle. 

Mostar did not belie its reputation for being one of the 
hottest places in Europe, for when I arrived about noon the 
heat was terrific and I was glad to take refuge in the cool 
chambers of the Hotel Narenta. Here all visitors to Mostar 
must stay, or run the risk of being eaten up by papadaci and 
kindred insects in the common hans. The place certainly 
deserves the excellent reputation it enjoys. On one side flow 
the clear, blue waters of the Narenta, on the other lies a shady, 
well-kept garden. 

The capital of Hercegovina is surrounded by bare and 
rugged mountains, on whose lower slopes are a few 
struggling vineyards, which produce a surprisingly good red 
wine. The climate is tropical, 90° in the shade being an every- 
day occurrence in the summer, so that walking about is a 
torture. The nights too are hot, though often enlivened by 
the attentions of papadaci, busy little creatures of the mosquito 
type. Vegetation is scanty, except in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the river, where pomegranates, mulberries and figs 
fiourish . 

The population is largely Mohammedan, though the Greek 
Orthodox and Eoman Catholic communities are considerable. 
There are about thirty mosques, with graceful minarets, from 
which at sunset the mujezins sonorously proclaim the aksham 
or evening prayer. 

The Greek orthodox Christians of Hercegovina make an 
excellent impression, being generally tall, fine, independent 
fellows. I am told they differ considerably in character from 
the Bosniaks. 

The Roman Catholic community in Mostar has had a 
precarious existence. Until 1850 the Vicar of Hercegovina was 
not allowed to walk the streets, except at night or in disguise, 
and the local Turks opposed the erection of a church or 
ecclesiastical building of any kind. In 1847 Raphael Barishitj, 
being Vicar, obtained a jirman from the Sultan sanctioning the 
erection of a bishop's house. The local Mohammedans would 
have killed him in spite of this permission, had not the Vizier 



50 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

All Pascha supported him. Even then the workmen had to 
construct the house with weapons by their side. But these 
exciting days have passed, and the Turks of Mostar have been 
tamed. 

Before the annexation by Austria of Bosnia and Herce- 
govina, little hindrance was offered to the photographer in 
Mostar, but since that date the regulations have been made 
more stringent. Foreign visitors are no longer allowed to make 
use of a camera at all without the express permission of the 
Corps Commander. That would not be so bad perhaps, if he 
were accessible, but I was politely informed that the gentleman 
in question was stationed at Ragusa, the place I had left five 
hours before. Those who wish to take photographs in Mostar 
must therefore enter the country by way of Ragusa and inter- 
view the Corps Commander there. 

The chief feature of the town is the bridge, which some have 
supposed gave it its name (7nost = hTid.ge; star = old), a con- 
jecture not accepted by the best authorities. It was built in 
1566, in the reign of Suleyman II, by a local architect, and 
has a height of 95 feet and a width of 75 feet. At each end 
stand guard-towers, which formerly served as powder-magazines 
and prisons. With its construction the Orthodox Christians 
connect a legend, according to which two young lovers were 
walled up alive in the masonry to propitiate the vila, or river 
fairy. On each side of the bridge extends the bazaar, which, 
though inferior to that at Sarajevo, is not without interest. 

The streets of Mostar are fairly clean, the hard stone with 
which they are paved giving off little dust. In the mornings 
they are thronged with caravans from the surrounding country, 
led by dirty ugly women. Water is too precious to be used for 
any purpose except drinking. 

North of Mostar the valley of the river Narenta becomes 
more fertile, especially round Tablanit^a. Cherries, plums, 
chestnuts, walnuts, and wild pears grow in profusion, and fine 
forests clothe the mountain sides. The Prenj range rises close 
at hand, culminating in the Lupoglav, a distinctly striking 
peak of about 6,500 feet. 

The railway between Mostar and Sarajevo is again a fine 
piece of engineering, one section of nine miles being worked, 
owing to the steepness of the gradient, on the rack-system. At 
Ivan, f3,000 feet above sea-level, it crosses the watershed 
between the basins of the Adriatic and the Black Sea, 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 51 

The most interesting spot between Mostar and Sarajevo is 
the little Hercegovinian town of Konjitza, on the Narenta. 
The river is crossed by a fine bridge, built by Yizier Achmed 
Sokolovitj in 1715, though the local Christians wrongly ascribe 
it to the Bosnian king Hvalimir, who lived at the end of the 
seventh century. 

Konjitza, now a quiet little town of about 2,000 inhabitants, 
was formerly a centre of the most violent fanaticism. In the 
Middle Ages it was an important frontier station between 
Bosnia and Hercegovina, and became associated with the 
curious sect of the Bogumils, who appeared in the twelfth 
century as an heretical offshoot from the Greek Church. They 
were probably of Bulgarian origin and the name is generally 
taken to mean " God, have mercy." The principal feature of 
their creed was the position they gave Satan, regarding him as 
the first-born son of God, who rebelled and founded the race of 
man. In 1446 they were persecuted by the Bosnian Diet and 
allowed neither to build new churches nor to repair old ones. 
Over forty thousand emigrated to the neighbouring Principality 
of Hercegovina and many settled at Konjitza. But when the 
Turks overran the country, Mohammedan fanaticism took the 
place of Christian intolerance, and the Bogumils were driven 
into hiding, emerging only to turn Mohammedan. A few 
families kept their faith for centuries, and the last, the Helezh 
family, is said to have done so almost until the Austrian occupa- 
tion in 1878. 

Beyond Konjitza the line leaves the Narenta and enters the 
valley of the Treschinitza. Here the gradient is sometimes as 
much as 1 in 2, and of course the rack-system has to be used. 
Towards the summit at Ivan, where a German colony from 
South Tyrol is settled, the air grows cooler, and emerging from 
a long tunnel we find ourselves in the more temperate climate 
of Bosnia. After a short run through fertile and well-watered 
country the train enters Sarajevo, the capital. 

It was quite dark when I arrived, and as the few inns near 
the station were full to overflowing, I had to tramp to the town, 
about a mile away, before I could find quarters. The next 
morning, I was kindly received by our Consul, Mr. Freeman, 
and Mrs. Freeman, and was able to inquire about the remoter 
parts of Bosnia through which I proposed to pass. As the 
Consular Secretary, Mr. MacFarran, was familiar with a 
portion of my intended route, he was able to give met much 



52 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

valuable information. The district beyond tbe Drina, in tbe 
neighbourhood of Yishegrad, was apparently little visited, and 
the Servian frontier village of Mokra Gora had acquired an 
evil reputation — which, as far as my own journey was con- 
cerned, I found to be quite undeserved. Mr. MacFarran 
thought that only two English travellers had ever crossed the 
Serbo-Bosnian frontier at this point before. 

The population of Sarajevo is about 52,000, of whom almost 
20,000 are Mohammedans. The Greek Orthodox Christians 
form the next largest section of the community, then come the 
Roman Catholics and the Jews, in about equal numbers. These 
latter are of a peculiar race and are called Spanioles. They 
were expelled from Spain in 1571, and settled by the Turks in 
Bosnia, where they have prospered exceedingly. Their 
language is a mongrel form of Spanish. 

Sarajevo offers many interesting features of Oriental life. 
On Easter Monday, for example, a marriage market is held in 
the yard of the Greek Orthodox Church, and every Thursday 
the dance of the Howling Dervishes may be witnessed at Sinan 
Tekija. My time, unfortunately, was too short to allow me to 
see this. 

The centre of interest is the Charshija or Turkish Bazaar, 
which consists of about sixty lanes of crazy shops, and presents 
a fascinating picture with its variety of wares and costumes. 
The merchants are nearly all Turks, the Spanioles having 
removed to the more modern streets. Business is carried on, 
with short intervals for prayer and ablution, from early morning 
until sunset, when the mujezin proclaims the aksham or evening 
prayer from the minaret. Then every good Mohammedan shuts 
up his shop and goes home to his family in the suburbs. There 
is no hurry here, but a good deal of noise on market-days when 
the alleys are thronged with a picturesque crowd, and the 
cobbles covered with mountains of melons, gherkins, paprika, 
onions, and the like. On the butchers' stalls, strips of meat, 
chiefly mutton, are exposed to the delicate attentions of swarms 
of flies, and are examined, fingered, and rejected again and 
again before the customer makes a purchase. Beggars sit 
whining at every corner, but the pariah dogs that used to keep 
them company have been exterminated. 

The merchant sits cross-legged on a strip of carpet, and 
philosophically drinks his thimbleful of coffee or rolls a 
cigarette. In the winter he warms his hands at a little fire 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 53 

burning in a metal brazier. There is no hurry and purchases 
are never effected without a lengthy argument, which usually 
ends in the vendor's receiving, without the slightest sign of 
disappointment, two-thirds or one-half of the original price. 

Cheap European goods are now sold in large quantities in 
the bazaar, but genuine Oriental work is neither dear nor rare. 
Beautiful embroidery, beaten copper, knives, swords and inlaid 
work can be obtained on all sides. With reference to native 
industries it must be mentioned that the Austrian Government 
has done much for their encouragement. A Persian carpet- 
designer, for example, was engaged to instruct native work- 
people in the art of carpet-weaving. 

In the Charshij a stands theBegovaDzhamija, a mosque famous 
throughout Islam, built by Ghazi Husrev Beg, 1526-30. It is 
the largest of vSarajevo's hundred mosques. In the court-yard 
stands an ancient lime-tree, beneath which is the fountain 
where the devotional ablutions are performed. Europeans are 
allowed to enter the building, and I should have availed myself 
of the privilege but for the presence of numerous filthy beggars, 
in various stages of disease and affliction. To crown all a 
corpse was stretched beneath the portico. 

There are about fifty Turkish cemeteries in Sarajevo, but 
as they are never attended to, their appearance, though 
picturesque, is dilapidated. The headstones, which have 
assumed almost every position except the perpendicular, vary 
in form according to the rank of the deceased. A low turban 
carved on the headstone denotes a merchant, a pointed one a 
Dervish, an egg-shaped one a janissary. A sort of stone canopy 
resting on columns is often erected over unusually important 
people. The grave-stones of women are all alike, except that a 
pointed one denotes a wife or mother. 

As I again had difficulties with the military authorities 
about photography, I stayed only two days in Sarajevo, leaving 
at 8a.m. by the new Eastern Ilailway. The line encircles the 
south-east of the town, near the cemetery of the Spanish Jews, 
and passes through the suburb of Bistrik, whence a fine view of 
the city is obtained. Then it enters a tunnel and emerges in 
the land which the Bosniaks vaguely describe as " behind God's 
back." 

Like the main line from Gravosa, the Eastern Railway is a 
splendid feat of engineering. Its object is, I believe, mainly 
military, for it leads to Vardishte and Uvatz, two tiny stations 



54 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

situated respectively on the fioutiers of Servia and the Sanjak 
of Novibazar. The total length of the lino is about 105 miles, and 
there are 99 tunnels which together have a length of 8 miles. 
There are 30 long bridges and TOO smaller viaducts. During 
construction over 2^ millions cubic yards of earth were removed 
and 4J million cubic yards of rock, and IJ million cubic yards 
of masonry were laid down. 

The line crosses the Bosna-Drina watershed at Pale and 
enters the vallew of the Pracha, following the old trade route to 
the East. The little village of Pracha was formerly an important 
settlement of Ragusean merchants. In the fourteenth century 
it was the seat of a bishop and one of the principal markets of 
Eastern Europe. The population at one time is said to have 
been 60,000. It was a very busy place during the operation of 
Napoleon's Berlin Decrees, because the fear of confiscation by 
sea forced European merchants to import goods from Asia 
overland, and the principal trade route from Saloniki passed 
through Pracha . About one hundred years ago the plague swept 
away the entire population with the exception of two, Fatma 
Barushitjka, who lived to be over 100, and Mustafa Fazlitj, who 
died at the age of 104. The latter remembered having seen 
more than a hundred fine shops, where only a few miserable 
daub and wattle huts now stand. 

The railway certainly has opened up a new expanse of 
splendid scenery in these valleys of eastern Bosnia. The forests 
and ravines, through which the river Pracha has torn its way, 
were formerly the haunt of Haiduks, and are still inhabited by 
bears, especially in the neighbourhood of Megjegje, which name 
means approximately "bears' ford." 

This part of my journey was performed entirely in the 
company of natives, and their costumes and manners afforded 
me the liveliest entertainment. A little incident at a wayside 
station brought me into contact with the Bosnian gypsies, who 
number several thousand. They are not such great beggars as 
in other European countries and enjoy, on the whole, a slightly 
higher standing. They are counted as Mohammedans, but are 
not allowed to enter the mosques. They live a nomadic life, 
the men taking service as agricultural labourers or drivers 
of horses, the women telling fortunes and selling medicinal 
herbs. 

The Pracha Hows into the Drina, which is the largest river in 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 55 

Bosnia, aud for many miles forms the boundary between that 
country and Servia. It rises about four hours south of Focha, 
and flows for the most part through a narrow ravine, which can 
only be crossed at a very few places. The lower reaches are 
navigable for large vessels as far as Zvornik for most of the 
year, but the upper waters are broken and available for rafts 
only. 

The only ford for many miles round is at Megjegje, where 
the line divides, one branch proceeding via Yishegrad to 
Yardishte, the other terminating at Uvatz on the frontier of 
Novibazar. Megjegje is said to have a wonderful climate, 
knowing neither wind nor snow nor prolonged dull weather. 

The line to Uvatz follows the Lim Yalley and provides the 
easiest route to Priboj, Priepolje, Plevlje, Sjenitza and Novi- 
bazar, all in the Sanjak. Yishegrad, on the other branch, is 
imposingly situated on the Drina. In early times it was merely 
a ford, commanded by a citadel, but it grew rapidly in import- 
ance under Turkish rule. The bridge was built in 1571 at the 
command of Mehmed Pasha vSokolovitj, who afterwards became 
Grand Yizier, by Macedonian masons from Kiiprili. It is 
nearly 200 yards long and has 11 arches, and in the middle are 
two long inscriptions in Turkish. Many legends are connected 
with its construction. Bags of gold are said to have been 
thrown into the Drina to propitiate the river fairy, and the 
Orthodox Christians tell the usual story of the walling up of 
two Christian girls as a sacrifice for the same purpose. 

Yishegrad was the first important Mohammedan city on 
Bosnian soil, and the strength of the bridge gave rise to the 
proverb ostade kao cup^^ija 7ta Visegradu, (It stands like the 
bridge at Yishegrad.) It is now a town of about 1,600 inhabi- 
tants with a fair trade in cattle, plums, and slivovitz (plum 
brandy) . 

Beyond Yishegrad the line enters the valley of the Rzav, 
which is romantic but sparsely populated. Except for an occa- 
sional wayside han there are few houses to be seen. The only 
village of importance is Dobrun, inhabited principally by 
Orthodox Christians, though there are about 250 Mohammedans 
in the neighbourhood. Everything looks dilapidated, though 
most of the buildings have been erected since 1878, the whole 
district having been laid waste during J;lie Servian insurrections 
against Turkish rule. Its history scarcely goes back beyond 
Karagjorgje, who fought with varying success against the Turks 



56 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

about 1804 and became one of the national heroes of the 
Servians and the founder of the reigning dynasty. Politically, 
this region beyond the Drina belongs to Bosnia, but in sentiment 
to Servia. The natives are called Osnostranci, i.e. "those 
dwelling beyond (the Drina)," by the Bosniaks, with whom they 
do not get on particularly well, being more akin to the Herce- 
govinians and Servians . They look towards Uzhitze in Servia as 
their capital, not towards Bosnia. 

At Dobrun the curious custom of marriage by capture is 
still extant. On August 15th the Zbor, or Assembly, is held 
in the yard of the Orthodox Church amidst a scene of festivity 
and merry-making. The girls appear in their best dresses, and 
the young men ride up on horseback; each seizes the lady of 
his choice and gallops away, pursued by her male relatives. It 
often happens that the Bosniaks from across the river, who have 
the finer horses, take the prettiest girls, a circumstance which 
by no means improves their relations with the Osnostranci. 
After a few days the husband compounds with the parents for 
the lady by sending a couple of oxen. 

I was not so fortunate as to witness this ceremony myself, 
but I did fall in with a wedding party at Dobrun, who a:fforded 
me considerable amusement. They travelled with me to 
Vardishte, and the last I saw of them was when they left that 
station. The bridegroom strutted along in front with the 
bride's trousseau slung over his shoulder in a yellow handker- 
chief tied to a stick. Then came the bride with an elderly 
woman, both weeping, and finally a bodyguard of six of the 
bridegroom's friends, presumably to prevent the bride from 
running away. In these parts a wedding is the only gleam of 
romance in a life of incessant toil. 

[To be continued.) 



Annual Meeting 57 



TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
SOCIETY, 1913. 

The 28th Annual Meeting of the Society was held, by kind 
permission, in the Lord Mayor's Parlour, Town Hall, Man- 
chester, on Tuesday, May 6th, 1913, at 3-30 p.m. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor (Mr. S. W. Royse) presided. 

The following members and friends attended : — Miss 
Qualtrough, Mrs. H. Sowerbutts and Mrs. Tatham, Messrs. 
Balmforth, G. I. Blake, C. A. Clarke, J. W. Goodwin, J. W. 
O'Leary, F. S. Oppenheim, M.A., J. A. Osborn, Alfred Ree, 
Ph.D., J. Stephenson Reid, Harry Sowerbutts, A.R.C.Sc, 
George Thomas, J. P., W. J. Tyne, Joel Wainwright, J. P., 
Thos. Wilcock, S. W. Williams, W. H. Zimmern and others. 

Apologies were read from Messrs. Harry Nuttall, M.P., 
F.R.G.S., F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S., D. A. Little, and J. Howard 
Reed, F.R.G.S., the Rt. Rev. Bishop Welldon, D.D., Professor 
W. Boyd Hawkins, F.R.S., J.P., and Mr J. G. Groves, D.L., 
J.P. 

The Lord Mayor read the letter which he had received from 
the Chairman of the Council. Mr. Zimmern said — " that it had 
been his privilege and pleasure to attend these meetings for 
25 years and more. The welfare and useful influence of the 
Society were a real concern to him, and he should be happy to 
devote thereto such services as lay in his power." 

The Minutes of the Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting, held 
on May 9th, 1912, were taken as read, a full report appearing in 
the Journal, Yol. XXYIII, page 37. 

The following Annual Report and Balance Sheet were sub- 
mitted by the Secretary, who made explanatory references to 
the principal matters dealt with in the Report. 

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL 

For the Year ending December 31st, 1912. 

The Council have the pleasure to report that the work of the 
Society has been actively maintained during the year. 

The weekly meetings held during the winter months have 



58 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

been well attended, and tlie Council desire to express their 
thanks to all those who have given valuable help. 

The important and comprehensive character of the lectures 
delivered will be seen from the following list : — 

•* Portsmouth and the British Association." Mr. J. Howard 

Reed, F.R.G.S. 
*' From the Dogger to the Dowsing." Mr. E. Hare Wakefield. 
" The Canyon of the Tarn." Mr. A. H. Garstang, F.R.S.L. 
" Italy." Mr. M. Seifert. 
" Some Thoughts upon Iceland." Rt. Rev. Bishop Welldon, 

D.D. 
" Persia." Mr. W. Leonard Flinn. 
" China, Past and Present." Mr. R. Kalisch, F.R.G.S. 
" The Tragedy of Philae." Mr. F. F. Ogilvie. 
" Ancient Egypt." Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 
•* The White Nile." Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S. 
" On vSafari in East Africa." Mr. H. K. Eustace, F.R.G.S. 
" East Africa." Mr. T. A. Edwards, F.R.G.S. 
" South Africa revisited." Mr. T. A. Edwards, F.R.G.S. 
" Life among the Hottentots and Bushmen." Rev. Austin S. 

Rogers. 
" Atlantic to Pacific, across the Canadian Rockies." Mr. C. H. 

Bellamy, F.R.G.S. 
" My Life among the Indians." Mr. W. McClintock, M.A. 
" British Guiana." Rev. W. L. Broadbent. 
" A Visit to the Highlands of Brazil." Mr. J. Cardwell Quinn. 
" The Mafulu Mountain People of British New Guinea." Mr. 

R. W. Williamson. 
" Among the Pigmies in Dutch New Guinea." Dr. Eric Marshall. 
" My Visit to New Zealand." Dr. Tempest Anderson, F.G.S. 
** To the Tonga Islands in pursuit of a Shadow. Rev. A. L. 

Cortie, S.J., F.R.A.S. 
*' How we reached the South Pole." Capt. R. Amundsen, 

F.R.G.S. 
" Pathways of the Past." Miss Kate Qualtrough. 
" Farthest West." Mrs. S. Simon. 
" A Journey round the World." Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 

These addresses, with the exception of five, were delivered 
in our own Hall; three being given in the Ilouldsworth Hall, 
one in the Free Trade Hall, and the other at the University. 

The lecture given in the Free Trade Hall on November 29th 
by Captain Eoald Amundsen proved financially successful, and 
the Council are pleased that this eminent explorer had such a 
magnificent reception when he described his journey to the 
South Pole. 



Annual Meeting 59 

The lectures by Mr. F. F. Ogilvie and Mr. E. W. Mellor, 
J. P., F.R.G.S., in the Houldsworth Hall, were well attended and 
the large audiences fully appreciated the able addresses delivered 
and the fine lantern illustrations (including many photographs 
in colour) and cinematograph views shown. 

The Council thank the Yice-Chairman for the use of his 
powerful electric lantern for the three lectures in the Houlds- 
worth Hall, and for the Free Trade Hall Lecture, also for 
engaging the Houldsworth Hall for the three lectures given 
therein. His generosity and skill are highly appreciated. 

The Society maintains its good relations with the Manchester 
University, and the lecture by Mr. W. McClintock, M.A., 
proved a great success. 

The Council desire to record the indebtedness which the 
Society owed to the late Mr. N. Kolp, who for some years 
defrayed the expense of the special prize awarded on the result 
of the Examination in Geography at the Manchester University. 

The Council thank the Rev. J. H. and Mrs. Harris for the 
loan of about 500 photographs taken by them in West Central 
Africa. These photographs were well displayed in the Society's 
Hall, and the Exhibition, which was open for two days in 
December, was well attended. 

The Journal for the whole of 1911 has been issued during the 
year. 

Valuable additions to the Library and Map Collection have 
been made during the year, full particulars of which will appear 
in the Journal. The following presentations are worthy of 
special mention, and the thanks of the Society are due 
to Mr. W. Booth Leech for his collection of West African books 
and a large number of lantern slides, to Mr. W. H. Ward for 
his books on Arctic Exploration, to the Secretary of State for 
India for the Gazetteers of the States, Districts, etc., of India 
and Burma, and to the Director of Military Operations for 
copies of the Maps issued by the War Office, all of which the 
members are invited to examine and study. 

The Council cordially acknowledge the gift from Messrs. 
Lafayette, Ltd., of the large Portrait Group of the Members 
prepared in celebration of the Twenty-first Anniversary. 

The services so freely given by the Yictorians in lecturing, 
and in acting as Stewards at the Free Trade Hall and other 
meetings are highly appreciated. 



6o Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

The Council deplore the exceptionally heavy loss by death 
of members during the year, as follows : — 

Mr. Kudolph Bornmiiller. ^ 

Mr. J. C. Blake, F.E.G.S. 

Mr. John Cocks, J. P. 

Mr. G. T. Cook. 

Mr. George Galloway, J. P. 

Mr. J. Hall, J.P. 

Mr. N. Kolp. 

Mr. Julius Kullmann. 

Alderman Sir Bosdin T. Leech, J.P. 

Mr. George Pearson. 

Mr. Thomas Pearson. 

Mr. R. Cobden Phillips. 

Mr. H. Lloyd Price, F.S.A.A. 

Mr. Daniel Shar rocks, J.P. 

Mr. John E. Smith. 

Mr. H. Stadelbauer. 

Mr. S. T. Woodhouse. 

Mr. x^oah Kolp, Alderman Sir Bosdin Leech, and Mr. R. C. 
Phillips were members of the Council, and Messrs. J. C. Blake, 
Geo. Galloway, N. Kolp, and J. Kullmann were original mem- 
bers. 

The Balance Sheet for the year with the Report of the 
Honorary Auditor is appended. 

It will be seen that there is a deficiency of £34 on the 
Revenue Account for the year. 

The number of members on December 31st, 1912, was 690, 
the elections during the year having considerably outnumbered 
the losses by death and resignation. 

This large accession of new members will be a great help to 
the Council for the immediate future, but further additions to 
the membership are urgently needed to advance the work of the 
Society, and especially to enable the library and map collection 
to be improved. Donations for this object will be welcomed. 



Annual Meeting 



6i 





CI 




On 








♦, 


, 


«o 


H 


CO 


/^ 




D 




O 


cq 


U 


^ 


C) 


ttj 


< 






Cl 


w 




D 


O 


:z; 


'^; 


w 


Q 


> 


^ 


w 


^ 


D^ 


fti 




^ 




tij 




>. 



to 



O H O vO 



»0 ^ O M 



J J 
I- 

o (U 2 

a 3 



ON H 



o 

U 

bJo 



&^^ ^ 



C3 .iij 






O < eg 



C> eo O 






(U 






^« 

. 'd 

n& 
o a 

O (U 



(0 



MQOroO-^ OLOOO 

M M M 

OOmvOOOO ooooc* 



> 

'd 

(u rt CO 

s ^ s 

X o 

w ^ 

o 



U 

to 

bo 
'■^-» 

bjO 



i 

M 8 






biO d 

&6 



en : 

d • 

•^^ 

o ^ 

d r 

CO u 

o 

■? 1 ^ 

d ^ o 

^ O Pi 












»-. M ^^ 



Q> vo C) 00 

lo ^ t:^ OS 



N< ©4 ■^S*' Ui »S *N 



62 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 






w 
Q 

5 

m 

a 
u 

< 



S? 









*:0 



CO 



vO O 
t^ o 



CO O 

o ^ 



9 1 



:3 h4 






o 



H lO 
H 



'-^W -fi -fi 



o CO 



O 



_a ^ 









o o o o 



vD CO O O 






VO 



VO lO o 

VO M lO 



CO 



O VO 



o Ph 

'-5 ^ 

S3 ;3 
CO CO 



^ a C 

^ (V <v 

^ '-O rl 






*3 W 



CO 


1-1 
o 


u 


t+H 


V 




Xi 


►>> 




o 


J5 


a 


(LI 


(U 


u 




a; 


'a 


Q 


(U 


-M 


'TS 


a 






C/3 


flj 


CO 


a 


<U 


fl 


h-J 


r5 




'rt 




« 





<L» )-H to 



•^ <^ -s 



d 
•"^ — ' -+^ 

o ^ 
P 

o 

w 

til 



<L> 
O 4-. 



,13 
CO 

a 

m 

P. 















Annual Meeting: 63 

The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, in moving the adoption 
of the Report and Balance Sheet, said that the work of the 
vSociety was very important to the people of the district. The 
lectures were of great interest and also of educational value, and 
enabled the members to form opinions about parts of the earth 
which they were unable to visit. He had attended many of the 
meetings, especially since he became Lord Mayor, and had 
always found them both interesting and most profitable. The 
Society deserved a larger measure of support than it now 
received from the citizens of Manchester, and should not be 
handicapped by a deficiency. For a very small subscription the 
members had at their command a fund of useful knowledge, and 
he hoped that all the members that were needed would be forth- 
coming in the near future. 

Mr. F. S. Oppenheim, M.A., in seconding the resolution, 
which was carried unanimously, spoke of the valuable series of 
weekly lectures given during the year, and of the special 
meetings, when distinguished explorers, men of world-wide 
reputation, such as Captain Amundsen, described their experi- 
ences. In such a centre of industry and commerce, where raw 
materials were obtained from and finished goods sent to practi- 
cally every part of the world, civilised and uncivilised, it was an 
extraordinary thing that only 690 ladies and gentlemen should 
support the Geographical vSociety, and that, too, after it had 
existed for 28 years . There could be only one reason for it — the 
work of the Society was not sufiiciently known. Their members 
could do much to remedy this, and the press might aid them by 
adequate encouragement in its columns. 

The Society had done much to advance the knowledge of 
geography in various directions, particularly in regard to the 
teaching of geography. The members of the Society had given 
great assistance to the University in connection with the two 
previous Lecturers in Geography, and the Council were at 
present considering a proposed Scholarship or Fellowship in 
Geography at the University. 

In conclusion, he referred to the Journal of the Society, 
which could be brought up to date and improved if the Society 
was adequately supported. 

The Secretary announced that the retiring officers and 
Council, with the addition of Miss S. A. Burstall, M.A., Miss 
L, Edna Walter, H.M.I., B.Sc, Messrs, L. Emerson Mather, 



64 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

F.R.G.S., T. W. F. Parkinson, M.Sc, F.G.S., W. Eobinow, 
J. Walter Robson, J.P., to the Council, had been nominated. 

Mr. J. A. Osborn, in moving the Resolution: — "That the 
ofl&cers and Council, as nominated, be elected," expressed, on 
behalf of the members, thanks to the retiring officers and 
Council for their services during the year. Mr. A. Balmforth 
seconded the resolution, and it was passed unanimously. 
(See list with title-page.) 

Mr. C. A. Clarke referred in appreciative terms to the great 
indebtedness of the Society to Mr. Gregory for his valuable 
services to the Society as Hon. Auditor for the 28 years of its 
existence, and moved the following resolution : — " That the best 
thanks of the Society be given to Mr. Theodore Gregory, F.C. A., 
for his services as Hon. Auditor, and that he be re-elected." 
Mr. J". W. O'Leary seconded the resolution, which was carried 
unanimously. 

Mr. Joel Wainwright, J. P., mentioned the great courtesy 
and kindness with which the Lord Mayor met the heavy 
demands upon his time by the various societies and public 
institutions of Manchester, and, after expressing the Society's 
appreciation of the interest which the Lord Mayor evinced in 
its work, moved : — "That the best thanks of this meeting be 
tendered to the Lord Mayor for the use of his Parlour, and 
especially for his kindness in presiding over the meeting." 
Mr. J. Stephenson Reid seconded the Resolution, which was 
passed unanimously with applause, and suitably acknowledged 
by the Lord Mayor. 



Proceedings of the Society 65 

IproceeMnga of tbe Societ?** 

January ist to June 30th, 1913. 

The 924th Meeting of the vSociety was held on Tuesday, January 
7th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. David A. Little. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on December 20th, 191 2, were 
taken as read. 

The election of Mr. A. R. Whitfield as an Ordinary Member was 
announced. 

The Chairman referred to the death of Mr. C. H. Scott, J. P., who 
had been a valued supporter of the Society for twenty years, and 
moved that the sympathy of the members present be conveyed to his 
relatives. The resolution was passed by the members rising in 
silence. 

Mr. J. Ernest Phythian gave a lecture on " The Old Castles of 
England and Wales." The address was illustrated with lantern 
slides, many prepared from photographs of celebrated paintings of 
the castles. 

On the motion of the Chairman, it was resolved that the sincere 
thanks of those present be tendered £0 Mr. Phythian for his very 
interesting and instructive address. 



The 925th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, January 
14th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on January 7th were taken as 
read. 

Mr. W. H. Shrubsole, F.G.S., gave a lecture on " Budapest and 
the Great Hungarian Plain," illustrating his remarks with many fine 
coloured and other vSlides. 

On the motion of the Chairman it was unanimously resolved that 
the best thanks of the meeting be given to Mr. Shrubsole for his 
intensely interesting address so well illustrated. 



The 926th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, January 
2ist, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on January 14th were taken as 
read. 

The election of the following Members was announced : — Ordinary : 
Messrs. Arthur Carr, John Hilditch, S. P. Leah, T. F. Wilkinson, and 
Robert Young; Associate : Miss vS. Boyes and Mr. H. S. Beck. 

Mr. Oliver Bainbridge gave a lecture on " Native Life and Customs 
in Southern Seas." The address was illustrated with original 
lantern views. 

* The Meetings are held in the Geographical Hall, unless otherwise 
stated. 



66 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

On the motion of the Chairman, seconded by Thakur vShri 
Jessrajsinghji vSeesodia, a hearty vote of thanks was passed to the 
lecturer for his verj^ interesting and instructive lecture, so splendidly 
illustrated. 



The 927th Meeting of the Society was held in the Houldsworth 
Hall, on Tuesday, January 28th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.O.S,, Chairman of the Council. 

Captain Ejnar Mikkelsen, F.R.G.vS., gave a lecture entitled "Lost 
in the Polar Regions." 

A short report of the lecture is here given : — 

** Captain Mikkelsen was the leader of the expedition which 
set out from Copenhagen in June, 1909, to search for the bodies 
of Erichsen and his companions and also for the records of their 
disastrous expedition to the north-eastern portion of Greenland. 
In April, 1910, Captain Mikkelsen and Engineer Iversen left the 
rest of the party and set oft' northwards alone. They were 
successful in finding Erichsen 's records, but on returning to the 
place where they had left the ship found that she had been 
sunk by the ice. For over two years they were lost, but 
late in 191 2 they were found on Bass Rock Island, where they 
had spent three winters, by a Norwegian fishing vessel and 
were rescued. Lord Curzon, who presided at the lecture which 
Captain Mikkelsen gave to the Royal Geographical Society, said 
that the explorer had * endured privations such as had seldom 
fallen to the lot of any living man.' Last night Captain Mikkelsen, 
who was heard by a large audience, showed a great number of 
views illustrating the course of his travels^first the Esquimaux, 
who welcomed him to the East Coast of Greenland, the dogs of the 
expedition, and a view of an Arctic hare watching the strangers 
observantly and without nervousness. He gossiped pleasantly 
about the habits of life on Polar expeditions. It appears that after 
about ten days of the real hardship the habit of washing begins to 
seem unnecessary and to be dropped, and Captain Mikkelsen 
showed views of his party which fully bore out this statement. 
There was an exciting bear-hunt in the recesses of a cavern. The 
bear was very necessary for food, and had to be sought for in the 
dark. The narrative reached the point at which Captain Mikkelsen 
and Engineer Iversen set off northwards alone with provisions for 
100 days and 15 dogs. The lecturer described the finding of a 
kitchen of the Erichsen expedition, and the cairns containing the 
results of the scientific work which that expedition had done. 
After this the lecture was a description of the sufferings on the 
unlucky return journey of the two men. Captain Mikkelsen 's own 
illness, cured at last by a fortunate ' bag ' of seagulls, accounts 
of daylight delirium, dreams of ' sandwiches,' and so on. When 
the two men at last reached Shannon Island, in November, they 
found that the ship had been destroyed and abandoned, and that 
their companions had been taken home by a sealer. They remained 
on Shannon Island till the following June. Many months were 



Proceedings of the Society ffi 

afterwards spent on Bass Rock — there was a third winter in the 
course of which they smoked 5olb. of tea. * One night Iverson 
heard someone speaking down on the beach. It was 28 months 
since we had heard anyone speak but ourselves. Then we saw a 
great big man who said " How do you do? " Behind that man 
we seemed to see an army of men, though there were only eight. 
In two days we had smoked all the tobacco they had on the ship ; 
in four days we had eaten all their potatoes.' Captain Mikkelsen 
had shown photographs of himself and his companion, almost 
beyond the likeness of humanity from the sufferings they had under- 
gone. These photographs were taken when twenty-two months 
more had to be undergone. They were in astonishing contrast 
with the splendidly set-up young man who was giving the lecture 
and who was so warmly applauded at the end." 

— Manchester Guardian. 
The slides were well shown by the Vice-Chairman, Mr. E. W. 

Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.vS., with his powerful electric lantern. 

Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S., moved, and the Chairman seconded 

a resolution thanking the lecturer for the intensely interesting account 

which he had given of his expedition. The resolution was carried 

with acclamation. 



The 928th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, February 
4th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. George Ginger. 

The Minutes of the Meetings held on January 21st and 28th were 
taken as read. 

The election of the following Ordinary Members was announced : 
Messrs. Leo. Crosland, C. J. Siijipson, Charles McDougall, and Robert 
McDougall. 

Mr. Thomas W. Brownell lectured on ' Some Impressions of 
Visits to the Holy Land and Northern Egypt," and illustrated his 
remarks with a large number of fine slides, mostly original. 

The Chairman moved and it was unanimously resolved that the 
thanks of those present be given to the lecturer for his very interesting 
address. 

The 929th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, February 
nth, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S., and later on, Mr. R. 
Kalisch, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on February 4th were taken as 
read. 

The Chairman (Mr. Zimmern) referred to the death of Captain 
Scott and his four companions in the following words : — " We meet 
to-day in exceedingly sad circumstances. A great calamity has 
befallen us, our vSociety, all geographical societies, and the world at 
large by the death of a noble man and his noble companions. I feel, 
as you will feel with me, that societies like ours must give expression 
to their grief at such a calamity. Captain vScott was a friend of ours. 
I may perhaps be allowed to tell you that he was an intimate personal 
friend of mine— he and his wife and boy. If you also knew him, as 
some of you no doubt did, you would know him for an extraordinary' 



6S Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

man, a lovable man, a man of sterling qualities, courage, bravery, 
intelligence — a leader of men. What lie has gone through ; how he 
died ; what records he left you have seen in the newspapers. I need 
not repeat it but his appeal to the public to look to those who were 
dependent on him is a true sign of his splendid character. There he 
lies, buried in those desolate regions at a time when we were thinking 
of preparing a hearty welcome on his return, in order to assure him 
of our admiration for his deeds. Unhappily that welcome cannot now 
be given. He fell a victim to duty. His was real British valour — 
the valour which has made this country great. He was a true 
English sailor, intelligent, resourceful, full of scientific enthusiasm. 
In memorj^ of our friend I ask you to rise from your places in silence." 

The large audience then rose. 

Mr. Albert Wilmore, D.Sc, F.G.S., addressed the members on 
** Some Studies in the Commercial Geography of Lancashire," illus- 
trating his remarks with diagrams prepared mainly from the 
Commercial pages of the Manchester Gtiurdian. 

Mr. Kalisch, on behalf of the Meeting, offered sincere thanks to 
the lecturer for his very instructive address. 



The 930th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, February 
i8tii, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. T. W. Sowerbutts, F.S.A.A. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on February nth were taken as 
read. 

The Election of the following Members was announced : — Ordinary : 
Messrs. W. H. Colt, Charles Garnett, and Walter Green ; Associates : 
Mrs. Prescott, Miss Prescott, Miss Ruth Taylor, Miss Mary Taylor, and 
Mr. C. H. Cox, B.Sc, L.C.P. 

Mr. Thomas Sheppard, F.G.S., gave a lecture on " The Geography 
of East Yorkshire, illustrated by Chart and Plan." The lecture, which 
was illustrated with many lantern slides, dealt mainly with the 
changes which had taken place at the mouth of the Humber. 

The Chairman moved, and it was unanimously resolved, that the 
thanks of the Meeting be given to Mr. Sheppard for his very interest- 
ing lecture. 



The 931st Meeting of the vSociety . vvas held on Tuesday, February 
25th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on February i8th were taken as 
read. 

The Chairman mentioned that a Manchester Fund in memory of 
Captain Scott and his Companions had been inaugurated, and made 
an appeal for each Member to contribute to the Fund, to show his 
sympathy with the relatives. 

Mr. Gerrard de Hockspied Larpent, B.A., gave a leture on 
*' Rhodesia." (See vol. xxviii, page 30.) The lecture was illustrated 
with a large number of fine lantern views. 

The Chairman, on behalf of the Meeting, thanked the lecturer for 
his interesting address, so well illustrated. 



Proceedings of the Society 69 

The 932nd Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, March 4th, 
1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on February 25th were taken as 
read. 

The Election of Mr. E. Segalla as an Ordinary Member was 
announced. 

Mr. Gilbert Waterhouse, lecturer at Leipzig University, gave a 
lecture on "Highways and Byways in Dalmatia, Hercegovina, Bosnia, 
and Servia." (vSee page 35.) The lecture was illustrated with lantern 
slides from photographs, mainly taken by the lecturer, supplemented 
by photographs supplied by the Austrian Government of places 
where permission to use the camera could not be obtained. 

Mrs. H. ly. Lees, F.R.G.S., moved, and it was unanimously 
resolved, that the appreciative thanks of the Meeting be given to 
Mr. Waterhouse for the very interesting account which he had given 
of his journey. 



The 933rd Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, March nth, 
1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. J. vStephenson Reid. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on March 4th were taken as read. 

Mr. C. H. Bellamy, F.R.G.S., of Tourcoing, gave a lecture on 
"A Journey in the Balkans and Turkey." (See page 23.) The 
lecture was illustrated with lantern views prepared from photographs 
taken by the lecturer on the journey. 

Mr. R. Kalisch, F.R.G.S., moved, Mr. W. T. Blease, who accom- 
panied the lecturer on the journey, seconded, and it was unanimously 
resolved that the hearty thanks of those present be given to Mr. 
Bellamy for his very interesting account of the journey, and for the 
lantern views shown. 



The 934th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, March i8th, 
1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on March nth were taken as read. 

The Election of Messrs. Councillor C. E. B. Russell, M.A., Gilbert 
Waterhouse, and A. Blass as Ordinary Members was announced.. 

The Chairman mentioned the loss by death of Mr. R. H. Watt, 
a member for twenty-two years, and the members showed their 
sympathy with Mrs. Watt by rising in silence. 

Mr. John A. Osborn gave a lecture on " The Swiss Rhine : a 
Scientific Study of Scenery." The lecture was illustrated with many 
fine lantern views. 

On the motion of the Chairman, it was unanimously resolved that 
hearty thanks be given to Mr. Osborn for his very interesting and 
instructive address, so well illustrated. 



The 935th Meeting of the Society was held in the Albert Hall, 
Peter vStreet, on Friday, March 28th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m., and was 
arranged in celebration of the Centenary of the birth of Dr. David 
Livingstone. 



5^ Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S., presided. 

Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.G.S., gave a lecture 
on *' Dr. Livingstone's Explorations, and their Results," illustrated 
with lantern views. (See page i.) 

The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor moved, and the Right Rev. Bishop 
Welldon seconded, a resolution thanking the lecturer for his interest- 
ing address. The resolution was passed unanimously. 



The 936th Meeeting of the Society took the form of a Banquet, in 
celebration of the Livingstone Centenary and in honour of Sir Harry 
Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.G.S., and was held at the Midland 
Hotel, on Saturday, March 29th, 1913, at 7-0 p.m. 

The President of the Society, Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S., 
presided, and, in addition to the distinguished guest, there were 
present among others : — 

The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor (Mr. S. W. Royse) and Mrs. 
Frazer; the Right Rev. Bishop Welldon, D.D., Dean of Manchester; 
the Right Rev. the Dean of Christ Church; Mrs. Harry Nuttall; 
the President of the Chamber of Commerce and Mrs. Langdon; 
the Right Hon. the Barl of Stair, President of the Royal Scottish 
Geographical Society; Mr. James Irvine, F.R.G.S., Vice-Chairman 
of the Liverpool Geographical Society; Mr. B. R. Wethey, F.R.G.S., 
Vice-Chairman of the Leeds Geographical Society; Mr. W. S. Ascoli, 
F.R.G.S. ; Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Ashworth ; Mr. J. E. Balmer, F.R.G.S. ; 
Mr. E. Bermudez, Consul for Nicaragua, and Mrs. Bermudez; Rev. 
CanonW. H. Binney, F.R.G.S. ; Mrs. A. de Bolivar ; Mr. E. J. Broadlield, 
LL.D. ; Mr. Harry Cousins, A.M.I.C.E. ; Mr. C. Dreyfus, J.P., and 
Mrs. Dreyius; Mr. T. A. Edwards, F.R.G.S., and Mrs. Edwards; 
Mr. E. Roose Evans ; Mr. and Mrs. H. ForS3rth ; Mr. and Mrs. F. C. 
Gibbons; Mr. George Ginger ; Mr. J.H. Greenhow Norwegian Consul, 
and Mrs. Greenhow; Alderman J. Griffiths; Mr. and Mrs. W. Harper; 
Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Hesketh; Mr. John Houghton; Mr. and Mrs. 
E. Hoyle; Mr. and Mrs. Richard Jones; Mr. and Mrs. M. Kalisch ; 
Mr. H. Kirkpatrick, J. P. ; Mr. A. Knudsen, Danish Consul, and Mrs. 
Knudsen; Mr. H. G. Langley, Consul for Peru and Bolivia, and 
Mrs. Langley ; Mrs. H. L. Lees, F.R.G.S. ; Mr. and Mrs. Walter Lees ; 
Mr. D. A. Little; Mr. W. Macmillan; Mr. McPherson; Rev. J. Ross 
Murray, M.A. ; Miss Neild ; Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Nicholson ; Mr. 
Norbury Nuttall; Mr. Raymond Nuttall; Mr. F. S. Oppenheim, M.A. ; 
Mr. S. Oppenheim, J. P., Consul for Austria-Hungary, and Mrs. 
Oppenheim; Miss Qualtrough; Dr. and Mrs. A. Ree; Mr. J. Howard 
Reed, F.R.G.S., and Mrs. Reed; Mr. and Mrs. W. M. Reekie; 
Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Reid; Mrs. R. H. Reynolds; Mr. and Mrs. Thomas 
Robinson ; Councillor and Mrs. C. E. B. Russell ; Captain T. 
Schlagintweit, German Consul, and Miss vSchlagintweit ; Mr. Harry 
Sowerbutts, A.R.C.vSc. ; Dr. and Mrs. W. J. Sprott; Mr. S. Sternberg; 
Mr. Walter Taylor; Mr. Wm. Thomson, F.R.S.Ed. ; Mr. W. H. Ward; 
Mr. Gilbert Waterhouse ; Mr. W. Welsh ; Mr. and Mrs. Vv . H. Whitby ; 
Mr. and Mrs. S. W. Williams ; Mr. R. T. Williamson, M.D., F.R.G.S. ; 
Mr. J.Woolfenden; Mr. Hermann Woolley, F.R.G.S. ; Mr. F. Zimmern, 
F.R.G.S., and Mrs. Zimmern. 

The loyal toasts were proposed from the Chair, and duly honoured. 



Proceedings of the Society 71 

The Chairman, in proposing the toast of Sir Harry H. Johnston, said 
that in Sir Harry Johnston they had a worthy successor to Livingstone, 
and one whose life had indeed been varied, and whose explorations 
had been of a most important character. vSir Harry Johnston had 
occupied a very prominent position in the Livingstone Centenary 
Celebrations in different parts of the Kingdom, and had suggested a 
definite and permanent shape to the ideas in regard to a Memorial. 

vSir Harry H. Johnston, in responding to the toast, said : — (see 
page 4.) 

Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S., Chairman of the Council, in proposing 
the toast of " The Lord Mayor and Corporation of the City of 
Manchester," gave some personal reminiscences of his life in 
Manchester, and contrasted the present conditions of the City with 
its condition a generation ago. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, in responding to the toast, gave 
much information in proof of the importance of the work of the 
Corporation, and in illustration of its extension during the period 
referred to by the proposer of the toast. 

Mr. E. H. Langdon, B.A., President of the Chamber of Commerce, 
in proposing the toast of the vSociety, first referred to the remarks by 
Sir Harry H. Johnston on Education. He claimed for Manchester 
that it was doing all it could for the promotion of the useful education 
of which vSir Harry Johnston had spoken. He pointed to the work 
of the evening continuation schools and the general endeavour of the 
municipality to further commercial education. Mr. Langdon also 
called attention to the work of the Manchester University in the 
Faculties of Commerce and Art for instruction in Geography and in 
the subjects needed for traders. One complaint Mr. Langdon made 
was that the consular service was so underpaid that it was difficult 
to find able men to enter it. Mr. Langdon concluded b}- giving some 
particulars of the history of the Society, and by commending the 
useful work it was doing in spreading a knowledge of Geography. 

Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.vS., Hon. Secretary, responded to the 
toast, giving further details of the history of the Society, and hinting 
at some of the work which could be done if the vSociety was adequately 
supported, 

Mr. F. S. Oppenheim, M.A., propOvSed the toast of " Kindred 
vSocieties and Guests," and made special reference to the Royal 
vScottish and Liverpool Geographical Societies. 

The Right Hon .the Earl of vStair, President of the Royal Scottish 
Geographical vSociety, in responding, said that in vScotland the 
memory of Livingstone was held very dear. He was the pioneer of 
civilisation in Central Africa, he put forth great efforts in the 
suppression of the vSlave trade and he led an exemplary Christian life. 
It was to the great city of Manchester, whose cotton trade was known 
throughout the world, an interesting fact that David Livingstone 
began life as a worker in a cotton factory. He then mentioned the 
large gathering which vSir Harry Johnston had addressed in Scotland 
in celebration of the Centenary of Dr. Livingstone's birth, and he 
hoped that something in Education of a permanent nature might be 
arranged as a result of these celebrations. 

Mr. James Irvine, F.R.G.S., said : — I have the honour to represent 



72 . Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the Liverpool Geographical Society, and in supporting the Right 
Hon. Earl of Stair in response to the toast of " Kindred Societies," 
I desire first to say for my Council that they have always received 
the most hearty advice and cooperation, in connection with Geogra- 
phical matters, from the Manchester Geographical Society, and I am 
requested to take this public opportunity of conveying their thanks 
to Mr. Harry Sowerbutts, the experienced and courteous Secretary 
of the Society. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, we are assembled here to-night in memory 
of Livingstone, bom in very impoverished surroundings, buried at 
the close of a magnificent life in Westminster Abbey, and leaving a 
record behind him which for all time must continue an inspiration 
not to Great Britain alone but to the world. 

We are also assembled to do honour to one who caught up that 
inspiration in his early manhood, and who has given the best years 
of a strenuous life to carry on the great work begun by Livingstone. 

The guest of the evening is also a great traveller, and still better, 
a great worker in the cause of African civilisation and the general' 
elevation of the countries which he has visited and more than one of 
which he has so wisely and courageously governed. 

It is now over thirty years since I first had the honour of knowing 
Sir Harry Johnston personally, and during the generation which has 
passed since then his name has been prominently before all who have 
thought of Africa ; Geographically, Scientifically, or Philanthropically . 

Geography owes much to the guest of the evening, as British East 
Africa and Uganda are alike indebted to Sir Harry Johnston for 
magnificent exploratory work when these countries were practically 
unknown : Science owes much, for Has he not in all his books, 
especially in those two great and beautiful volumes on Uganda, done 
splendid service, including the discovery of the Okapi, and the same 
recognition must be accorded to the two epoch-making volumes on 
Liberia : then lastly, and I am inclined to appreciate most of all, that 
Philanthropy, as touching Africa, owes much to Sir Harry Johnston. 
There is evidence on every page which he has written that his 
primary impulse was towards the natives, elevating them and obtain- 
ing for them advantages which led to comfort and happiness hitherto 
unknown — and in this direction I rejoice to recall that, from first to 
last, he has on one public occasion after another, boldly asserted his 
favourable experience of the work of Christian missions among the 
heathen. 

I close with two estimates of our guest, directly opposite of each 
other. The first is contained in the preface to his volume on the 
" Congo "; he vSays, " I have not ventured to make this work a 
record of novel exploration, nor of scientific research, for I lack the 
necessary ability." The other side of the picture is from an able 
publication recently issued, and is brief, thus : — " Sir Harry H. 
Johnston knows more about Africa than any other man living." We 
honour vSir Harry for his modesty, but we all prefer to believe the 
evidence of the last witness. 

vSir Harry Johnston, in propOvSing the toast of " The Chairman," 
referred to various points which had been raised by the various 
speakers. 



\ ^ 



CDe 3ourtial 



OF THE 

mancDester 6eosrapl)ical Societp. 

THE GEOGEAPHY OF EAST YOEKSHIEE, 
ILLUSTEATED BY CHAET AND PLAN. 

By T. Sheppard, F.G.S., E. S.A.Scot. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on 
Tuesday, February ISth, 1913.) 

Where life and beauty. 
Dwelt long ago, 
The oozy rushes 
And seaweeds grow 
And no one sees 
And no one hears 
And none remembers 
The far off years. 

It is the olden. 

The sunken town 

Which faintly murmurs 

Far fathoms down 

Like sea-winds breathing 

It murmurs by. 

And the sweet waters tremble. 

And sink and die. 

These beautiful lines, translated from the Danish, might have 
been written in reference to some of our old Yorkshire coast 
towns, though they really well describe a similar story in the 
Baltic. And of our Danish ancestors in the Baltic, as of more 
recent Danish ancestors on our own shores, as well as of tbe 
places in which they dwelt, it can be said tbat " Nothing of them 
that doth fade, but doth suffer a sea change, into something rich 
and strange. Sea nymphs hourly ring their knell. Hark, 
now I hear them, ding dong bell ! " These words, or some 
much, like them, were written centuries ago, but the same 
changes then recorded yet take place, and as one town vanishes 
another appears. Like our own little lives, these places go and 
Vol. XXIX. Parts III. and IV., 19 13. 
A 



74 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

leave not a wrack beliind. But the world still goes on, and the 
alterations wrought are of little moment save to the antiquary 
and historian. 

Seas more late in form and date 

Spredde owre the self-same strande ; 

And many a chaunge most wylde and straunge 

Reversedd the sea and lande. 

Thus if wee Nature's workes exhume 
Or owre past history raunge_, 
We find both mann and Nature's doome 
Is one perpetual chaunge. 

Antiquaries revel in dipping into the past history of their 
country, and when they have got as far back as they can they 
leave the task to the geologists, who " rin up the hill and down 
dale, knapping the chucky stanes to pieces wi hammers like sae 
many road-makers run daft. They say 'tis to see how the warld 
was made." At any rate, that is the opinion expressed in 
" St. Eonan's Well." 

When, therefore, it so happens that one has delved a little 
in both geological and archaeological fields he is able to give a 
less prejudiced narrative of the past history of a changing dis- 
trict such as East Yorkshire, than one who views it through a 
single set of spectacles. 

Twenty-four years ago the late John Roberts Boyle wrote 
his " Lost Towns of the Humber," in which he carefully sum- 
marised the information bearing upon the area, contained in 
such works as Thompson's ^' Ocellum Promontorium," Poulson's 
" History of Holderness," '' The Meaux Chronicle," and papers 
on early maps of Spurn, by Lewis L. Kropf, published in the 
" Hull and East Riding Portfolio." He also quoted from 
documents in the Public Record Office and elsewhere, and 
brought the whole together in the learned style that was so 
much his own. 

As a frontispiece to the book was a map showing the positions 
of the Lost Towns of the Humber, as he considered them to be, 
of which, however, more will be said later. 

The preface to that work contained the following sentence : 
" I hope hereafter to supplement this book by a similar one on 
' The Lost Towns and Churches of the Yorkshire Coast." 

I understand that this hope was realised as far as the first 
chapter was concerned, and that it was actually written, put 



The Geography of East Yorkshire 75 

into type, and a proof sent to the author. A copperplate of 
Hornsea Church was also engraved. Biit that was all. The 
copperplate was lost, though I have seen a print from it. The 
proof was never returned to the printers, and, as so often 
happens, the work was never completed. 

Often I urged Mr. Boyle to do this work, and, as this cannot 
now be, I have tried to do it myself . The work has given me 
the advantage of finding out the various sources from which he 
obtained information, and in addition I have secured many 
interesting facts which were apparently unknown to him. 
Furthermore, it has revealed a few ways in which " literary 
men '' occasionally endeavour to bridge over the gaps in the 
history of the places with which they are dealing. 

First, with regard to the cause of our Lost Towns. In some 
parts of the world, notably in Scandinavia and the Baltic, there 
is an actual change taking place in the land levels. One part 
of the coast is gradually rising above the waters ; another is as 
surely sinking. 

These changes are gradual, and in the mere lifetime of a 
man may not seem of much moment ; but as centuries roll on the 
changes are more pronounced; seaports become dry and away 
from the shore, or inland towns and villages are gradually sub- 
merged beneath the waves. In other parts of the world, as in 
the Mediterranean, the West Indies, or the Far East, volcanoes 
and earthquakes cause more sudden changes, and in a few 
weeks, or even a few hours, towns are overwhelmed, are buried, 
or sink beneath the sea, or, as quickly, new land is thrown up 
and the waters recede. In other areas, as at the mouths of the 
Mississippi and the Nile, the land grows seaward by the mere 
accumulation of debris brought down from the higher ground, 
such detritus being deposited as the rivers' waters reach the sea. 
On these deltas the sea-coast villages of one race are the inland 
homes of the next. 

But none of these causes operated in Yorkshire. Volcanic 
action, though not unknown, is here a thing of the geological 
past. There has certainly been no upheaval nor depression 
since the earliest appearance of man in the area. The Humber, 
though a mighty estuary, is fed by a few comparatively small 
streams, and even much of the sediment within its banks has 
been brought from the Holderness coast outside. It is not 
responsible for any seaward extension of the land, nor for very 
much erosion within its area. 



76 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



No, the coast changes in East Yorkshire are simply and 
solely due to the ceaseless and merciless wearing away of our 
shores by the frosts and rains and storms and currents and 
tides, and by the accumulation of this eroded material at Spurn 
and within the Humber. 

Our soft glacial clays and gravels and sands, which form the 
coast from Bridlington to Easington, are eroded at the rate of 






Harncfey 




Leland's Map of the Humber District 

(Temp. Henry VIII.) 

seven feet a year for the whole thirty-four miles . A moderate 
calculation shows that nearly two million tons of material are 
washed away yearly. This is equal to a loss of an acre or more 
a mile each year. On the basis named, it means that a strip of 
land about three and a half miles wide has disappeared since the 
Roman invasion, representing 115 square miles of land, an area 
equivalent to that upon which London is built. 



The Geography of East Yorkshire 77 

And these are not merely fancy figures. They aro based 
upon reliable geological and antiquarian evidence, upon actual 
measurements, upon fair calculations, upon the evidence of the 
Domesday Book and other old documents, upon reports and 
monographs and papers innumerable, and, perhaps more 
important than all, the evidence afforded by maps. 

I would like to emphasize the value and importance and 
interest of the study of old maps. Among the many hobbies 
that I have to keep me out of mischief is that of collecting old 
maps and charts, and as these date back to the time of 
Henry YIII. it will be readily understood that they contain 
much information of value to our inquiry, especially as many 
include representations of churches and houses and villages 
which are remindful of the well-known inscriptions on the tomb- 
stones of ancient mariners, viz., " The sea gat 'em." It is also 
curious to observe, in the older days of publishing maps, how a 
cartographer " revised and brought up to date " a map by 
erasing the date from the plate, by altering the design of the 
scroll, by inserting a ship in the sea, or by taking one out ; or 
even by omitting the name of the " generous benefactor " by 
whose financial assistance the plate was prepared in the first 
instance, this particular change probably taking place after the 
death of the person in question ! These methods of issuing 
" revised editions " (not altogether unknown to-day) explain 
how it is that a map bears the arms and initials of Queen Eliza- 
beth, and is even dedicated to her Most Gracious Majesty, 
though bearing a date well on in the reign of Charles II. 

However, taking the reliable maps and charts, we can get a 
remarkable record of our coast changes. Beginning with Lord 
Burleigh's wonderful parchment of the time of Henry YIII., 
then examining Saxton's map of 1577 (the first engraved map 
of Yorkshire), Speed's better-known map of 1610, the fine series 
engraved by various Dutchmen in the seventeenth century, 
Greenvile Collins' Chart of 1684, Warburton's map of 1720, 
Moll's, Scott's, Jeffreys', Tuke's, Smeaton's, and other later 
maps, down to our own time, we see how first one landmark goes, 
one church, one village, followed by another and another as we 
come to more recent times ; and on Tuke's map of 1786 we find 
indications merely of " Hartburn washed away by the sea," 
" Hyde washed away b}^ the sea," " Site of the Town of Hornsea 
Beck," " Site of Hornsea Burton," " Site of the ancient church 
at Withernsea," and so on. 



78 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Of course, we have a Kilnsea, a Withernsea, and a Hornsea 
with us to-day. But these are not the same places that are 
shown on these earlier maps. As the sea has washed a house or 
church or a stable away new buildings have taken their places, 
and these have naturally been built further inland; thus 
gradually the places have made a strategic movement to the 
rear. We possess plans of Kilnsea, Owthorne, Withernsea, 
etc., with their garths and fields and drains, even showing 
churches, churchyards, and vicarages, tEe very sites of which 
to-day, after a lapse of a single century, are out to sea. 

We can see these changes ourselves. I do not confess to 
being particularly patriarchal, but at many points along the 
coast I can remember having seen houses, farm buildings, roads, 
and fields which are now washed away. I even have photo- 
graphs of places that have gone, and photography is a compara- 
tively modern art. 

T^Taturally, at times reports of land losses get exaggerated, 
and writers are apparently tempted to let their imagination run 
riot. But I think the following gem, quoted from one of the 
weekly papers issued in 1906, is the most glaring instance of 
journalist '^ enthusiasm " that I have ever read : — 

" On the coast of Yorkshire there are two noses of hard rock 
that the sea can eat but slowly [a poetic thought !] . They are 
Flamborough Head and Spurn Point [I], and between them lie 
33 miles of coast, which the North Sea is swallowing at the rate 
of three yards in every twelve months. At Withernsea, just to 
the north of Spurn Point, houses go over the cliff almost daily 
[!]. Some little time ago there lived at Withernsea an old 
fisherman who, despite the warnings of his friends, persisted in 
declaring that the sea would never harm him or his. . . . 
There were two houses between the old fellow's cottage and the 
crumbling cliff edge. . . . One rough night, however, a 
" biting nor-easter " hurled the " ramping breakers " against the 
shore to such purpose that first one house went and then the 
other. Then the wall of the old fisherman's cottage collapsed 
because of the disturbance to the foundations, and he awoke in 
the grey of the morning [so far he had slept!] to find himself 
looking straight from his bed on to the green waters of the 
North Sea." 

'Tis perhaps some satisfaction to know that Ananias was a 
journalist ! 



^' ^mm 




I 







Fig. 2. East Yorkshire. Lord Burleigh's Chart (temp. Henry VIII). 
Upon which several lost towns are represented. 



J 



The Geog^raphy of East Yorkshire 79 

It is this so-called '' nose of hard rock," Spurn Point, upon 
which so very much depends when we come to consider changes 
ill the area and the positions of the important lost towns of 
South-east Yorkshire. It is made up entirely of fine sand and 
gravel brought down the east coast by the tide. This material, on 
reaching the w^aters of the Humber estuary, is precipitated, and 
forms the growing tongue of land which slowly and irresistibly 
is approaching the Lincolnshire shore. At present it is about 
four miles long — the hardest four-mile walk I know ! — yet is so 
narrow that at high tide a person can easily throw a stone 
into the sea on one side, and another into the Humber on the 
other, without moving his position. Its rate of growth can 
fairly well be ascertained by the distances at which the light- 
houses have been moved from time to time in order to keep near 
the point. We have details of these from the time of Charles II, 
who granted a patent to Justinian Angell (the only Yorkshire 
male angel that I know of!) to continue, renew, and maintain 
lights at Spurn, to the present time. 

In the year 1428 Eichard Reedbarrow had a light at Spurn, 
but its position is not known. A little time ago I was fortunate 
enough to secure the original reports, sketches, maps, plans, 
etc., prepared by Smeaton when he was asked to report upon 
the changes at Spurn and make suggestions for its proper light- 
ing. It has also been my good fortune to examine MSS. and 
charts in the British Museum, dating as far back as the 
sixteenth century, some of which have not been seen by previous 
workers; as well as a remarkably fine sequence of maps and 
navigators' charts, showing the various phases in the history 
of this long, narrow sandbank. 

It will be understood that as the Spurn grows and extends 
there must come a time when the space between the Point and 
the Lincolnshire shore is hardly sufficient for the tidal waters 
of the estuary to pass in and out, and a break must occur in the 
bank, thus forming an island. If we go back to geological 
times it is possible that a number of such extensions, and a 
number of such islands, have existed. Doubtless it was at some 
such period in its history that an island was formed upon 
which Ravenser and Ravenser Odd were built. Then, as the 
sandbank gradually extended southwards, the waters rushing 
in and out of the Humber would wash away the sand island, 
and the town built upon it became *' entirely blotted out and 
consumed." In quite recent times breaks have occurred, 



8o Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

allowing water to pass through; but these have been repaired 
by groynes or similar artificial structures. 

I wish it to be clearly understood that Spurn Point the sand- 
bank is distinctly an appendage to the south-east corner of our 
Riding. It is fastened on, as it were, like a tail. And as the 
coast-line has changed its position by denudation, so must the 
position of the dependent sandbank have altered. If, there- 
fore, in Roman times, the Holderness cliffs were two or three 
miles to the east of their present position, it seems clear that 
the Spurn must have been thus far out to sea. In this way it 
becomes evident that when the Danes landed in the year 867 
and planted their standard, the Raven, originating the town of 
Ravenser; when Baliol with his army embarked there is 1332; 
when Bolingbroke, afterwards Henry lY, landed there in 1399, 
when Edward IV arrived there in 1471 ; when, in fact, this 
important town, which sent two members to Parliament, 
existed; it was much to the east of the present Spurn Point. 

This fact seems to have been overlooked by Boyle ; hence the 
great difference between the positions of Ravenser and Ravenser 
Odd as represented on his map, and as shown on one I have 
prepared. Boyle apparently assumed that the position of the 
Spurn Point has been stationary, and he had not allowed for its 
westerly trend as the cliffs were worn away. 

This town of Ravenser, referred to in ancient Sagas, men- 
tioned in Shakespeare (I still stick to Shakespeare in spite of 
the cranks) which supplied Hull and Grimsby with merchants 
when it fell, and earlier was far more than a rival to either, is 
a fair example of the thorough way in which all trace of a place 
may disappear. If it had been possible for a photographic 
survey to have been taken — as is now being done with dis- 
appearing Hull — what a valuable record we should possess ! 

There may possibly be a church bell or two in the East 
Riding, removed from the church at Ravenser; it is just 
possible that the cross now at Hedon, formerly at Burton 
Constable, still earlier at Kilnsea, may have been at Ravenser, 
though I can find no evidence ; but with these possible exceptions 
we have nothing whatever belonging to the place. 

Some time ago in reading an anonymous article on coast 
erosion in one of of the popular monthly magazines, I saw a 
small view of " Ravenser " said to have been copied from a 
fifteenth century illuminated MS. Later the article was re- 
printed almost entirely in a little book on Lost England, by 




Fig. 3. East Yorkshire. Saxton's Map 1577, the earliest engraved Map 

of the County. 



The Geography of East Yorkshire 8i 

a Mr. Beckles Willson, but the view did not again appear. It 
seemed clear therefore either that the author of the book was 
the author of the anonymous article, or he had " lifted " it, 
without acknowledgment, into hi-s book. So I wrote him asking 
the source of his drawing, but he had forgotten ! The pub- 
lishers knew nothing of it. It was certainly not at the British 
Museum, and the authorities there agreed with my view that 
it was probably a forgery. The miniature showed a wide lane 
leading to a church, partly hidden by a dark building : a row 
of houses on each side, (but they were not, as we should have 
expected, gable-end on with the street) ; trees behind the houses, 
and with a nondescript churchyard cross to the right of the road. 
The whole thing was a mystery. 

However, quite recently, in examining Poulson's " Holder- 
ness " (which Mr. Willson quoted) I came upon a practically 
identical view; the church in the distance, hidden by a dark 
building; the wide street, the houses on each side, and even the 
windows and doors identical, and the trees all there ; but instead 
of the cross was the initial letter I. But it was labelled Sutton, 
and represents Sutton-in-Holderness as it is to-day ! Thus, by 
a strange coincidence, the long-lost Ravenser — washed away 
hundreds of years ago — was identical with our adjacent village 
of Sutton-upon-Hull. Or is it possible that the author was 
inspired by the view of Sutton in making an alleged view of 
Eavenser, and forgot to say so? 

The other lost Humber towns enumerated in Boyle's book 
are ^' Tharlesthorpe, Frismersk, East Somerte, Orwithfleet, 
Sunthorpe, Old Ravenser, and Eavenser Odd." It is quite 
possible that, as he suggests, the sites of some may be covered 
by the great growth of land now known as Sunk Island, though 
an island no longer. This land, of course, was originally an 
island, which was sunk at high water, but it gradually grew and 
extended until it was eventually j oined to the mainland ; in the 
same way as is Broomfleet Island near Brough. Read's Island, 
still an island, is another great area of land reclaimed in recent 
years, and doubtless owes its origin to the material brought 
down from the denuded Holderness cliffs, aided by the detritus 
carried down the Ouse, Trent, and Hull. Other places have 
disappeared, including Burstall Priory, a view of which was 
published by Buck early in the eighteenth century. The 
buildings of this priory eventually provided the material for 
protecting the Humber shore close by, just as Her Most 



82 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Gracious Majesty, Queen Elizabeth, generously gave permission 
to the people of Bridlington to build piers from the stones of 
Bridlington Priory, left by her father, Henry YIII, after he 
had pillaged the place and even stripped the roof for its lead ! 

Whether the sites of the Humber's lost towns, as indicated 
by Boyle, are correct, we may never know. With the exception 
of Ravenser and Ravenser Odd, already referred to, it seems 
likely that he has located their probable positions as definitely 
as is possible with the meagre records available. 

When we come to the lost towns of the coast, however, we 
seem to be on firmer ground, so to speak; at any rate there 
seems to be fairly substantial evidence of the positions of the 
numerous places mentioned. 

To a large extent this evidence occurs upon maps and charts, 
which were prepared years ago, but in the cases where the places 
have been washed away before the date of our earliest known 
charts, the documentary evidence has been so complete that 
there has been little difficulty in placing them. 

To begin with, then, I have taken Ravenser or Ravenspurn, 
and Ravenser Odd, away from the Humber, and placed them 
outside the present Spurn, thus claiming the^n as lost towns of 
the coast. Ravenser sent members to Parliament in 1305 ; two 
years later it taxed its inhabitants in order to defend its walls. 
In 1346 a ship was sent from Ravenser to the King's Navy; 
nine years later bodies were washed from the town's graveyards, 
and by 1361 the floods drove the merchants to Grimsby and 
Dry pool, on the east of Kingston-upon-Hull. In 1390 all 
trace of the town was lost. 

Had Ravenspurn remained, with its wharves and quays and 
warehouses, what insignificant places Hull and Grimsby might 
have been to-day ! 

Kilnsea, the " Chilnesse " or '^ Cold 'Nose " of Domesday, is 
the southernmost coast town that has gone. In Allen's " York- 
shire " (1829) is a charming picture showing the ruined church 
and tower on the edge of the cliff; and part of the building 
on the beach. Seven years previously, in addition to the 
church, there were thirty houses. On the ordnance map of 
1852 there were still six or seven houses shown, and the founda- 
tions of the church were at the then half tide-mark. 

The " Blue-Bell " at Kilnsea (the Blue Bell is the name of 
an inn !) was erected in 1847, and built into its walls is a 
slab with the information that it was then 534 vards from the 




Oh 



be 



The Geography of East Yorkshire 83 

cliff. The last time I was there I stepped the distance out, as 
carefully as the circumstances permitted, and estimated it to be 
200 yards. In 1899, at an exceptionally low tide, a party of us 
saw the few remains of old Kilnsea church, just as far out as it 
was possible to go — about 250 yards from the cliff edge. That 
was probably the last occasion upon which any trace of the 
building Avas ever seen. Fortunately a map exists showing the 
disposition of the church and churchyard, pond, street, etc., 
and we have some views of the church and cross. In the few 
houses which to-day are flattered by the name of " village " are 
numerous alleged relics from the old township, but I notice that 
each time I go there seem to be more, and soon, doubtless, the 
very beer and cheese will have been rescued from '' owd Kilnsa 
choch." 

In early times Kilnsea was of some importance, and even in 
the middle of the sixteenth century we find Holinshed, in his 
" list of ports and creeks as our seafaring men doe note for 
their benefit upon the coasts of England " includes Kilnsea, or 
as he called it Kelseie, as the place is still pronounced by 
Holdernessians. In Lord Burleigh's chart, issued a little later, 
there is a note opposite Kilnsea to the effect that " ships of good 
Burden may ride and land here to no annoyaunce to the 
countreye." 

In 1837 a work was published by one " Geffrey de Sawtry, 
Abbot," and was innocently entitled " The Churches of Holder- 
ness." The book is exceedingly scarce, but I obtained the late 
E. S. Wilson's copy. It is really a scurrilous record of the 
immoral practices and robberies and neglects of apparently all 
the various vicars of the churches of Holderness. Of Kilnsea 
it states : " The church has long since been swept away ; and the 
tower, which stood many years after, a valuable landmark for 
seamen, fell with a tremendous crash, in the autumn of 1830. 
This is therefore another churchless village; but having a 
population of nearly 200, they have set apart a room for divine 
service in which it is performed every third Sunday, weather 
permitting ; otherwise, it is reported, the worthy pastor, feeling 
for his flock, grants them an indulgence to remain indoors, and 
takes the same himself." For many years, the bell, which was 
dated 1700, was suspended over a beam in a stackyard, and was 
" tolled " by throwing stones at it ! which seems to have been an 
improvement on Hood's " And they told the Sexton and the 
Sexton tolled the bell." 



-84 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

In recent years the low cliffs of Kilnsea have heen washed 
away, together with the artificial embankments which had been 
erected ; and hundreds of acres have been covered by sea-water, 
which wasted the crops, spoilt the wells, and ruined the district 
generally. 

To the east of Kilnsea there was once a place called 
Sunthorpe. The village is referred to in the Meaux Chronicle. 
To-day the " oldest inhabitant " knows not even its name. 

Easington, which yet has a church, one or two public-houses, 
a fine aisled tithe-barn, and a few shops, was a place of influence 
in Domesday times. Drogo the brewer (there was beer in 
Norman days) had 13 villanes, four borders and a plough there, 
and Morcar had 15 carucates of land to be taxed, presumably on 
'' Form 4 " or something of that sort. Chancellors of the 
Exchequer existed in those good old days, but usually died 
young! There were then 2,400 acres in Easington. In 1880 
there were only 1,300 acres. There was a haven for ships at 
Easington in the sixteenth century, judging from a passage in 
the Meaux Chronicle, but this had apparently disappeared two 
centuries later when Holinshed compiled his " List of Creeks." 

The loss of land here is perhaps as great as anywhere on the 
coast. In 1776 the church was 1,056 yards from the cliff edge; 
in 1882 it was 850 yards only, a loss of two yards a year for over 
a century. A practical example of the way land has here 
depreciated by sea and flood occurred quite recently, when 
Firthholme House Farm, with buildings and 130 acres of land, 
was sold for £650, whereas the mortgagees had lent £4,000 on 
it some years ago ! 

" Mount Pleasant Cottage," Easington, built in 1876, bears 
a stone which records that it was then 616 yards away from the 
sea. To-day it is about 460 yards away; a loss of over four 
yards a year. 

Other places near Easington, referred to in old documents, 
but which are now no more, are Northorp, Hoton, and Turmarr. 
The last place had disappeared as long ago as the fourteenth 
century. Yet as a remarkable instance of the way in which 
names cling to a district, a field north of Easington, where there 
is a depression in the cliffs, is still known as Turmarr Bottoms, 
though no one can tell us why. 

The district round Easington was evidently of importance 
in Roman times, and I have obtained some vases, coins, oyster 










PQ rt 









The Geography of East Yorkshire 85 

shells, etc., from an old Roman refuse heap, and from the sites 
of their dwellings there. 

At Hollym, Withernsea, Aldbro', and other coast townships, 
Roman remains are recorded; formerly much more frequently 
than is the case nowadays. Inland in Holderness, except at 
Swine, and Halsham, there are no such records. This seems to 
point to the fact that in Roman times there was a road along the 
cliffs, with a station at its southern extremity, guarding the 
Humber. Yet this road has gone as completely as have the 
Romans themselves. But the Goths and Yandals were the wind 
and the waves ! 

In 1346 the Abbot of Meaux complained that his lands at 
Dymelton (Dimlington) had been reduced considerably in value- 
because of the waters of the sea. Were he living to-day he 
would probably have joined a doctors' panel for a living ! Of 
Dimlington nothing now remains. For twenty years I have 
measured the distance between the beach and the ruins of the 
old "■ chapel " near the cliff top. I have seen the distance get 
less and less. When I measured it first it was nearly forty 
yards away. The last time I measured it, it was ten yards, 
distant. The tenant of the adjoining farm then pulled down 
the last of this ruin, which had stood the storms of six or seven 
centuries, and probably it now forms part of a pigsty e. 

At Out Newton, close by, was once a village, with its church. 
A list of the plate and vestments therein is given in "Inventories- 
of Chirch Goods, York, East Riding," in 1552. In a Parlia- 
mentary Survey of the East Riding in 1650, it is recorded that 
" there is a chapel at Out Newton — and is much decayed ; the 
hamlet being fit to be annexed to Holmpton parish, being not a 
mile distant !" Those who know anything of the village of 
Holmpton will understand what a low ebb Out Newton had 
reached even at that early time. 

In the reign of Henry III there was a " Lord of Out 
Newton " — it mouths well, and I would suggest the name for 
some of the un-numbered lords yet to be created. 

The present Withernsea is all that is left of two former 
important townships, Owthorne, or Sister Kirke, and Withern- 
sea. Each had its church, the sites of which are now far out 
to sea. The nearness of the two edifices gave rise to the legend 
that they were built by two rival sisters. This not uncommon 
theory is applied to many others, including the two churches at 



86 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Barton-on-Humber, althougli tlie difference in tiie dates of tliem 
is several hundred j^ears. 

Witherusea itself, sometimes described as Seathorne (though, 
the Seathorne of Domesday was Owthorne), contained 800 acres 
at the Inclosure in 1794. A century later there were 745 acres, 
a loss of 55. To-day there are less. 

The original Withernsea (Witforness) township and church 
were much to the east of the present place, it being decided 
to re-erect the church on Priest Hill, as long ago as 1444. In 
1488 the new (present) church was consecrated, but in the time 
of good King Hal it was described as " much decayed,*' and 
remained in ruins — as shown by several photographs and 
engravings^ — until about fifty years ago. 

Owthorne, sometimes referred to in early times as Torne, has 
shared a usual fate. According to Reid's " Geology of Holder- 
ness,'' " Even since 1822, the date of the old Ordnance Survey, 
the village of Owthorne, with a church and twelve houses, 
has been entirely swept away, and Owthorne and Withernsea 
Meres have both disappeared." 

In Thompson's '^ Ocellum Promontorium " is a fine view of 
Owthorne Church as it was in 1800; quite close to the cliff edge. 
Poulson, in his " History of Holderness," gives a very similar 
Tiew — the main difference in Poulson' s sketch being that a flag 
is shown as flying on the tower ! Poulson also gives an excellent 
side view, showing the church as it was in 1797, and this one 
does not seem to have been pirated from any other source ! 

Poulson, although not usually poetical, gives the following 
quaint account of Owthorne, under date 1841 : — 

"A few years since, before the sea engulfed the last relict 
[sic) of Owthorne Church, a more touching and interesting 
spectacle could scarcely be witnessed by a reflecting mind than 
these " Sister Churches." Owthorne Church, standing like a 
solitary beacon on the verge of the cliff, perpetually undermined 
by the billows of the ocean, and offering a powerless resistance 
to their encroachments. The churchyard, and its slumbering 
inmates, removed from time to time down the cliff by the force 
of the tempest, whitened bones projecting from the cliff, and 
gradually drawn away by the successful lashing of the waves ; 
and after a fearful storm, old persons tottering on the verge 
of life, have been slowly moving forth and recognising (!) on 
the shore the remains of those whom in early life they had known 
and revered. The old church still remained; but the wide 




Fig. 6. East Yorkshire. Tuke's Map. 1766. 



The Geography of East Yorkshire 87 

fissures in the walls, and the shattered buttresses, plainly told 
it must soon fall in the common wreck. In 1786 the sea began 
to waste the foundation of the churchyard. In 1787 there were 
two bells in the tower, and the third broken. In 1796 the 
church was dismantled; and in 1816, after an awful storm of 
unusual violence, the waves having undermined the foundations, 
a large part of the eastern end of the church fell with an awful 
crash, and was washed down the cliff into the sea ; many coffins 
and bodies in various states of preservation were dislodged 
from their gloomy repositories, and strewn upon the shore in 
frightful disorder. These relics of departed greatness found a 
new place of sepulture in Eimswell. In 1822 the chancel, nave 
and part of the tower were gone. In 1838 there was scarcely a 
remnant of the churchyard left." 

The book on " The Churches of Holderness," to which refer- 
ence has already been made, informs us that '" during the wash- 
ing away of the chancel of the old church, the coffin of a former 
rector was exposed, and the rector and clerk at that time fought 
for the ownership of the lead coffin !" and *' a skull, which 
projected from the cliff of Owthorne burial-ground was observed 
to be occupied by a robin redbreast, where she, undisturbed, 
built her nest and reared her brood." 

In E/imswell Church there is a plan of Owthorne prepared 
in connection with the Inclosure Act of 1806. Though of so 
comparatively recent a date, it seems strange to see the positions 
of the streets, fields, houses, public drains, church and vicarage, 
the sites of all of which to-day are at dead low -water mark. 

Newesham or Newsom, formerly within the parish of 
Owthorne, has likewise disappeared, and little information in 
reference to it seems available. Someday, possibly, some of our 
" popular " writers may provide us with a sketch of its 
main street, but at present I am not able to show one. The 
place is referred to in a deed as late as 1662. In the times of 
Domesday the scribe spelt the word as N I U F E H U S F M, 
probably as near the phonetic as he was able. In the reign of 
Richard II the chapel at Newsome was " conveyed " to Kirkstall. 
Later, the sea conveyed it, whither? 

Waxholme is another township of which but little remains. 
In Speed's map (1610) a mere is shown at Waxholme, with a 
stream which joined tho river Hull. Of the fourteenth, fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries are many documents in which are 



88 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

references to Waxliolme. It once had a chapel, which was 
given to Kirkstall by the Abbot of Albermarle in 1394. 

Sand-le-Mere, or Sandlemarr, north of Withernsea, shared a 
similar fate. What is left of the mere, now dry, remains so 
by an artificial embankment which keeps out the sea. A 
" preventive watch-house," which was built at Sand-le-Marr in 
1800, was over 84 yards from the clifi: in 18313. To-day part of it 
is in pieces, on the sands. Even so long ago as 1841 the 
following by no means glowing account of the place was written 
by the Holderness historian : — 

" Sandley Marr is now the site of a poor cottage on the cliff, 
on© mile from Tunstall, and is destitute of all attraction except 
the green luxuriance of broad acres, and the wide and solitary 
expanse of the German Ocean. The beach affords excellent 
materials for the repair of the Holderness roads." 

Monkwike (Domesday MONCUUIC) has gone. In the 
reign of William the Norman there were in Monkwike "two 
carucates of land to be taxed, land to two ploughs. Six villanes 
have there three ploughs, and they pay ten shillings." Not a 
bad record for those days. 

At Hilston, too, there has been great waste. The church 
contains remains from a much earlier building . There has been 
also much loss at Grimston. 

Monkwell, like Monkwike, is another lost township; it was 
once near Ringborough . 

The present Aldborough is much to the west of the original 
village of that name, and even in the quaint present-day church 
there are Saxon remains which were probably rescued from the 
former building — now washed away. This will be understood 
when it is borne in mind that actual measurements show that in 
less than eighty years — a man's lifetime — there has been lost a 
strip of land 370 feet in width, along the whole front of the 
township. 

At Golden Parva, or Little Golden, was once a chapel, which, 
like so many in Holderness, was conveyed to Kirkstall in the 
reign of Richard II. But the chapel, and the village, were 
swept away about 1690, though Poulson records that " the living 
exists though the chapel has been destroyed !" 

At Hornsea, perhaps, have been some of the most remarkable 
changes in our coast-line. Not only was there once an 
important port there, with pier and landing-stages for ships, but 
ihere were townships of a considerable size at Hornsea Burton 



The Geography of East Yorkshire 



89 





rLA IBOROUCH < jL FLAMBOROUCH HEAD. 


yF^ / MAP 

.R.0L.NCTON^^ / SMOW.NO TME 


V v/ R'*"""'"^ T. SHEPPARD. F.C.S. 


^^\ H • h*<»tJbubm 


-pS. / ,,«o„,. \^X^^r NORTH SEA. 


i \ ^ • ■ ^wlTMow 




/ ) -■^'^'^'^•m, f 


1 ( \-No;THO«Pt T 


\ J - /™\ \ • 




< < A- \ \ 




\ ,^ / %»CBt*f.COLOeN 




1 ^ / ^Sk 

/ / ^M COLOCH PARVA 
• BtVcCcV ^ J ^» OLD ./ILDBOROUWf 




J V / JK CARTON • ^ 
^ '4 ^— ^ \V\ ORIMSTON C*RTM • >a^ 


\ {) / \S^ "'"" •V.-«.y... 




I ^^^^^ nl ^V WITMCRNSt* 3rp''^*'^T««'««»«* 




\ ^^ ' "rTRI^eTON. V , Oy, «WTON 

% M, ^^ ''''^'^^'^'''°^' ^''"'"'"'^'^^^.o. \-^m1:^h 
^^ ^V^' ^^ --a.pr,orJ .^«-._/.. 

■ LOST TOWNS. ^J:s. ^mv «»■ • 
siTt Of M[Rts. '*r *. ^^s. 'aw '• 

ROMAN COAST-UNE. Kr ^ks Jfa* t 

RAILWAYS ^%^^ ^ S;,. ^ anCCLLS L.C«T,,^5f "•««*""•• 

• PRtUMT TOWNS t VILLAGES. ^^i=J^ J^ • f 
«« ARtA rLOOOtO IN I.O., ^^^^ SPORN HEAD '^^ •*»"«» 000 



90 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

and Hornsea Beck. In addition were Northorp and Southorpe 
— the north village and south village respectively; which have 
likewise gone. 

Lord Burleigh's chart shows a large creek at Hornsea. In 
the reign of James I Hornsea pier was repaired at a cost of 
£3,000, a very considerable sum in those days; and 2,500 trees 
were used for the work. 

Meaux Abbey held 26 acres of arable land in Hornsea 
Burton in 1334. About sixty years later only one acre 
remained ! 

In the reign of Charles II., when small copper currency was 
so scarce that publicans and traders issued their own tokens for 
purposes of exchange, there was one Benjamin Ehodes at 
Hornsea, who in 1670 issued a halfpenny token; on the obverse 
of which is a representation of a ship. This seems to be an 
indication that shipping was of some moment at Hornsea, even 
in those days. 

In connection with Sornsea Church there is a tradition, often 
quoted, that the following lines were formerly inscribed on the 
steeple : — 

Hornsea steeple, when I built thee 

Thou was ten miles off Burlington 

10 miles off Beverley, and 10 miles off sea 

Hornsea Church has no steeple ; and certainly at no time since 
the church was built was it anything like " ten miles off sea." 

That coast erosion is occasionally an advantage is shown by 
the fact that in 1770 the corpse of a murderer and smuggler 
named Pennel (or Pannell) was bound round with iron hoops 
and hung on a gibbet on the north cliff, until such time as the 
" ornament" was washed away. 

Hornsea Mere is the last of the Holderness Meres. There 
were formerly very many, but all are either artificially drained 
or" have been "tapped" by the sea. E-emains of a former 
Hornsea Mere, to the east of the present one, were exposed in 
the recent storms, and in the peat which once formed the margin 
of that mere, I found bones of pike, shells of the swan mussel, 
and remains of other animals ; and of plants, showing that this 
second Hornsea Mere much resembled the present one. 

The fishing in the mere has always been of some importance, 
and it is interesting to find that so long ago as 1260 both the 
Abbot of Meaux and the Abbot of St. Mary's, York, claimed 



The Geography of East Yorkshire 91 

tlie right of fishing there. They were evidently both sportsmen, 
and decided to settle the dispute by combat. After a fight which 
lasted all day, the Abbot of St. Mary's champion beat that of 
the Abbot of Meaiix, and the Abbot of Meaux fished there no 
more. 

An interesting MS. plan, dated 1778, has recently come 
into my possession. It shows a " fish-honse," and, what 
apparently was previously unknown, a duck decoy. A '' spaw " 
is also shown near the village. That was in the days when 
" spaws " were favshionable, and we are informed that this 
Hornsea spring had a " Yictriolic (sic) Quality nearly as strong 
as Scarborough Spaw." 

A little north of Hornsea is Atwick (Domesday, Attingwick, 
the town of Attings) ; with its old-time market cross, which 
has been an admirable base for measurements to the cliff edge. 
During the past century the land has been washed away here 
at the rate of six feet a year. This village, however, is still 
intact. But to the north-eavst of it was Cleeton or Clayton, 
{said to be the "clay town" from the nature of its subsoil), 
every vestige of which has gone. In Skipsea to-day certain 
fields are known as " Cleeton-lands," which name seems to be 
about the only remaining record of this one-time township. 

In Domesday times, however, Skipsea was apparently 
included in Cleeton, the latter being by far the most important 
place. In '' Cletune " Harold had 28 carucates of land, and as 
many ploughs. " Drogo has there two ploughs and six villanes 
with one plough, and one hundred acres of meadow." 

Even Skipsea formerly had its mere, and I well remember 
that one of my earliest geological excursions — a quarter of a 
century ago — was to Skipsea, where I obtained the skull and 
antlers of a red deer from the old mere bed, and was told by a 
villager that they often dug up the bones of the animals which 
had been drowned in the Flood. This Skipsea mere, like that at 
Hornsea, was formerly famous for its fishing; and from an 
Inquisition held at Waglien alx)ut 1288 it appears that Robert 
de Chester then enjoyed the tithe of fish in Skipsea Marr, and 
no doubt quite as large fish were caught, and quite as interest- 
ing fish stories were told, in the thirteenth century as are to-day. 

I examined Poulsen's " Holderness " to see what he had to 
say about this section of the coast line ; but from the following 
sentence which occurs there I can only conclude that the author 
had been revelling :~' Mr. Pennant, the tourist, states that in 



92 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

his time large masses of amber are found here upon this coast, 
but it has disappeared about seven years ago," 

At Skipsea is an unusually fine British earthwork, and close 
by the oldest lake-dwelling ever found in England, also of 
British date, was discovered some years ago ; but " that is 
another story." 

Hyde or Hyth, " in Saxon a port or haven," is another lost 
town respecting which we know little, except that its site is now 
far out to sea. It is not specifically referred to in the Domesday 
book, and was no doubt then included in the five and a half 
miles of Cleeton. Hyth was referred to in the days of Edward II, 
and even so early as the reign of Edward III the people of 
Hyth had some twentieth century methods; inasmuch as they 
petitioned for a reduction in the assessments, though in their 
case the cause was the " devastations of the sea." 

From an Inquisition held at Hedon in the year 1400, it 
seems that the convent of Meaux had been receiving a total of 
£46. 13s. 4d. from Ulram (Ulrome), Cleeton and Skipsea (the 
last place including '' Yillam de Hythe "). And it is important 
to notice that of this amount (a very large one for those days) 
no less a sum than £30 was received from Hyth " chiefly on the 
tythe of fish" which was reported to be "all destroyed." 
This tithe therefore obviously referred to the fresh water fish, 
which would disappear as the sea waters reached the lake. The 
Chronicler of Meaux enables us to date the loss of Hythe, as he 
distinctly records that it took place in 1396. This means that 
the site of Hythe is further out to sea than any place of which 
we have a record . 

Withow, an adjoining village, was referred to in the 
Waghen Inquisition of 1288. To-day, on the Skipsea cliffs, a 
hollow, once the bed of a mere, is still referred to by the people 
there as Withow Hole. They know not why; that part of 
the cliff has always been called Withow Hole. They never 
heard of a lost village of Withow, and in that name is still 
preserved the last surviving relic of the long-lost village. 

Hartburn or Hertburn, is another place with a similar story. 
On Tuke's map of 1786 it is merely recorded as " washed away 
by the sea," whereas Dade refers to it as " a little vill. or 
tything, in conjunction with Winkton, depopulated and totally 
extinguished." 

Auburn. As one walks along the sands and sand-dunes 
south of Bridlington to-day a convenient place for a refreshing 



The Geography of East Yorkshire 93 

cup of tea is Auburn House — or what is left of it. Perched at 
the cliff edge is half a house, the sea has got the other. This 
half is all that remains of the village of Auburn. For years 
and years first one house and then another has gone. But, 
oddly enough, when part of the last building had been taken 
the sea ceased its work, and formed protecting sand-dunes 
instead. These preserve for us the last of Auburn. This 
change is no doubt due to the coast protective work in recent 
years at Bridlington. 

At Burton Agnes, when the wind is in a certain quarter, the 
murmuring of the sea at Auburn can be heard. 'Tis said to be 
a sign of rain. But the good people of Burton Agnes say they 
hear "Auburn Dolls Sobbering " or "Auburn Dolls Soddering." 
They can't tell you what it means, but that's what they have 
"always said." It may possibly have some reference to the 
sighing and sobbing of the people of Auburn as their homes 
were washed away long, long ago. 

Formerly the main highway from Hull to Bridlington was 
along these cliffs, and the old stage coach owners, in their 
printed bills, drew special attention to the glorious coast scenery 
along the route. To-day the road has all gone until we reach 
Bridlington, where what is left of a one-time important 
thoroughfare leads to a golf course ! Eecently, while walking 
along the sand-dunes near Auburn House, I found the old iron 
milestone, which announced that to Bridlington was three miles, 
and Beverley twenty, though the traveller would find it a long 
twenty miles, that way, to-day. On the Cardigan Road at 
Bridlington is a smaller milestone and a mounting block ; but if 
the traveller were to follow its direction he would find himself 
toppling over thirty feet of cliff*, " on the road to Beverley !" 

Wilsthorpe, nearer Bridlington, has a similar history, or lack 
of it. And even in Bridlington itself we have records of great 
changes; though artificial sea-walls, groynes, and piers will 
probably stay the sea for many years to come. But I must not 
begin with records of the past at Bridlington ; the story, though 
of great interest, is too long to commence here. 

Such is the story of our lost towns. A story of great 
changes ; a story of the manner in which one part of our country 
has gone, and another has been formed. And thus : 

The Earth hath gathered to her breast again 
And yet again, the milHons that were born 
Of her unnumbered, unremembered tribes. 



94 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

But for all that it is pleasant to reflect, as we walk along our 
ever varying coast-line that 

*^ There is not lost 
One of earth's charms ; upon her bosom yet. 
After the flight of untold centuries. 
The freshness of her far-beginning lies. 
And yet shall live." 



PEEHISTORIC CLIFF DWELLINGS IN THE MESA 
YEEDE NATIONAL PARK. 

A new wagon road to the prehistoric Cliff Dwellings in the 
Mesa Yerde National Park, located in South-western Colorado, 
twenty-five miles from the town of Mancos, on the Rio Grande 
Southern Railroad, has just been completed by the United 
States Interior Department. This road will also be available 
for automobiles by June 1st if the Department consents to allow 
motor-cars in the Park. Heretofore these picturesque and 
mysterious ruins, which are said by archaeologists to be the 
best-preserved of any in North America, have been all but 
inaccessible by reason of the long horseback ride over a preci- 
pitous mountain trail ; now, however, two seasons' work by the 
Government has made the trip an easy and enjoyable one for 
all classes of tourists. A new lodging camp, with excellent 
accommodations, has been established at Spruce Tree House, 
one of the principal ruins. 

Dr. Joseph Kossuth Dixon, leader of the Rodman "Wana- 
maker Expedition, who visited the ruins last fall, said : " If 
the people of the United States and of foreign countries knew 
about these wonderful Clift' Dwellings the Mesa Yerde National 
Park would become the Mecca for sightseers." 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 95 



HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS IN THE BALKANS. 

By Gilbert Waterhouse, F.R.G.S., 
English Lecturer in the University of Leiyzig, 

II.* 

The Austrian police-lieutenant at Yardishte strongly advised 
me not to attempt to reach Novibazar under the prevailing 
circumstances. The ordinary Turkish frontier guards would 
probably have been replaced by Albanians, who might make it 
very difficult for me to cross the frontier from Servia, and the 
district generally was so disturbed that it would be wiser to 
keep away from the Sanjak altogether. As it was, I was doing 
a sufficiently risky thing in entering Servia from the west at all, 
as the natives were exceedingly difficult to get on with, not to 
say treacherous. His own countrymen never crossed the frontier, 
as all German-speaking people were sure to meet with a hostile 
reception, and lucky if they escaped without pecuniary loss or 
physical injury. Perhaps, as I was English, I might be better 
treated, but he could not say for certain. He remembered an 
Englishman coming once before — a tall, muscular man, who 
spoke broken German. He thought he was an engineer, but 
could not learn exactly what sort of a time the Servians had 
given him. Did I carry a revolver? Thus encouraged I 
produced an automatic pistol, which he eyed approvingly. I 
might have to use it, he said, but would do well to keep it out 
of sight until needed. With this parting injunction ringing 
in my ears I prepared to enter the land of the Serb for the first 
time. 

I had come that day by the Eastern railway from Sarajevo to 
the frontier station of Yardishte. My companions in the third 
class carriage had been principally picturesque Bosnian 
peasants, with whom I maintained a stumbling conversation in 
the Serbo-Croatian tongue, relieved occasionally by a chat 
with the train-guards in German. At Yardishte my exit was 
barred by a stalwart gendarme who demanded my papers. He 
pretended to read my passport with great solemnity for several 

* See page 36 for map in the first part of the Paper. 



96 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

minutes and then returned it with the air of a man who had 
done his duty. I was now free to leave the station, but as the 
gendarme was the only civilised person in sight, with the 
exception of the railway officials, I determined to get as much 
out of him as I could. I was going across the frontier to 
Servia, I said, and should be exceedingly obliged if he would 
use his influence with the peasants to procure me a couple of 
horses and a guide to take me to Uzhitze, the first important 
Servian town. The English Consul in Sarajevo, I added, had 
told me that the gendarmes as a rule were very fine fellows and 
usually very willing to assist travellers. The authority he 
could assume with the natives by virtue of his position would no 
doubt induce them to meet my requirements, if he would kindly 
exert his influence on my behalf. Thereupon he unbent a little 
and said that if ordinary baggage-animals would do, he thought 
he could arrange for a couple to be brought early next morning 
to the station inn. I thanked him profusely, and, as it was now 
nearly four o'clock, proceeded to look for lodgings. 

They could not accommodate me at the inn, as it was full of 
soldiers. In fact, the population of Vardishte consists mostly 
of soldiers. However, I was directed to the Post Office, a long, 
low building about a quarter of a mile up the hill, and told 
they had a spare room there. The interior of the Post Office, 
which was also the only grocery -shop in Vardishte and a tavern 
as well, consisted of one long room with a portion curtained off. 
The woman in charge spoke Croatian only, but as my study of 
the language had been confined principally to the words and 
phrases I was likely to use, I had no difficulty, here or subse- 
quently, in obtaining what I required. She said I could have 
a room for the night and indicated the space behind, or rather 
beyond the curtain, for this article was more of an ornament 
than a screen, two beds, a table, and most of the other furniture 
being in full view of customers at the counter. As everything 
seemed fairly clean, and I had set out on my journey prepared 
for all kinds of discomfort, I did not much mind this lack of 
privacy. 

After enjoying a wash— by which I mean going outside with 
about a gill of water in a glass decanter, pouring it over my 
hands, and moistening my face with a damp handkerchief — I 
set out to explore the neighbourhood, leaving my camera at the 
bottom of my rucksack. 

Vardishte is not much of a place, though important as being 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 97 

the terminus of the Eastern railway, by which Austrian troops 
can be rapidly concentrated on the Servian frontier. Another 
branch, designed for a similar purpose, terminates at Uvatz, 
opposite Priboj in the Sanjak of Novibazar. The Servian 
frontier station of Mokra G-ora, less than two miles distant, is 
hidden from Yardishte by a hill, on the top of which a Servian 
custom-house is perched. Within a mile of the station there are 
less than a score of wooden farm-houses, with perhaps eight or 
nine larger and more solid buildings for the garrison. I 
followed a road up a hill to the north-west until I obtained a 
fairly extensive view and then sat down to enjoy the cool of the 
evening. 

On my return I met my friend the gendarme, who was 
apparently coming off duty for the day. He stopped and 
explained very sheepishly that I could not have the horses, 
as he had just remembered that animals were not allowed to 
cross from Bosnia to Servia, owing to the risk of spreading 
disease. Would I come with him and see the lieutenant, who 
might see some way out of the difficulty and would in any case 
like to see me? I did so, and was very courteously received. 
After again showing my papers and answering a few formal 
questions I enjoyed a very pleasant chat, the substance of which 
I have already set down. Before the evacuation of the Sanjak 
by Austria, I was informed, travellers could come and go fairly 
freely, but since then conditions had become much more un- 
certain. I should certainly do well if I got through to Belgrade 
without mishap. The lieutenant then pointed out the Servian 
custom-house on the hill, and told me I must be quite sure 
to go there immediately and have my luggage examined in 
due form and then present myself again at the chief custom- 
house in Mokra Gora. He was afraid it was quite impossible 
to get horses in Vardishte to take me to Uzhitze and very unlikely 
that I should get one at Mokra Gora either, as the Servians 
regarded all strangers — all German-speaking strangers at least, 
as possible spies, and would probably refuse to supply me 
with a horse, even though there were one available in the 
village. I should almost certainly have to walk the forty-eight 
kilometres to Uzhitze. On arriving there I must not fail to call 
on the naclielnik (burgomaster) at once to present my papers. 
Above all I must be exceedingly careful how I used my camera, 
unless I wished to be arrested on suspicion of being a spy. On 
the whole, I had better not use it at all until I reached Belgrade. 



98 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

I inquired if I might take a photo in Yardishte, but lie regretted 
the responsibility was more than he cared to assume. There- 
upon he again expressed the hope that I should receive better 
treatment than Austro-Hungarians and Germans usually 
received, wished me a safe arrival in Belgrade and left me to 
my own devices. 

I felt sure that these fears on my behalf were genuine 
and not dictated by a desire to discourage Englishmen from 
poking into these regions. Still, I had acquired sufficient 
knowledge of the Servian character from other sources to feel 
confident that the way the natives treated me would depend 
entirely on the way in which I approached them. Nevertheless, 
I had heard evil things of Mokra Gora in the English Consulate 
at Sarajevo, and was fully prepared to walk to Uzhitze if 
necessary. I felt no embarrassment on account of my luggage, 
as it was compressed into two capacious rucksacks, weighing 
together between thirty and forty pounds. 

Eeturning to my quarters, I obtained some eggs, bread, and 
milk, and boiled myself some soup over my portable spirit- 
stove. Then the proprietor of the establishment, who, unlike 
his wife, spoke a little German, informed me that I might find 
the room rather noisy and could have another at the back of 
the house if I preferred. It seemed fairly clean, so after a 
perfunctory examination of the bed by the light of my electric 
pocket-lamp, and a precautionary spraying of the bed-clothes, I 
took off my putties and boots and enjoyed a good night's rest. 
The removal of so much apparel was all the undressing I did 
until I reached Belgrade. More than once I wished I had 
kept my boots on . 

The next morning I made an early start, and by half-past 
five had reached the crest of the hill along which the frontier 
runs. A little group of two or three figures perched on the 
sky-line some distance away personified the suspicion with 
which Servia regards her big neighbour. They were frontier 
guards, ever on the alert for signs of military preparations in the 
vale below. Before me rose the low, square, whitewashed 
watch-house. Another figure in a neat grey uniform appeared, 
eyed me with astonishment as I mounted the last rise, and 
awaited my arrival with dignity. I wished him good-morning, 
dropped my bags at his feet, and the dreaded ordeal began. 

I soon made friends with the Customs officer on the hill. He 
pretended to read my passport with the same solemnity as the 




Fig. 3. Servia. Kavarna, or Inn, near Bioska. 




Fig. 4. Servia. Village, near Stapari. 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 99 

Austrian gendavTne, but waxed very sociable when I introduced 
myself as an Englishman interested in tbe Servian people and 
anxious to see the country. I was going to empty the contents 
of one rucksack on tbe ground while he examined the other, but 
he stopped me and said he had seen enough. He could not 
speak German ; in fact, the Servians did not care to see Germans 
and Austrians in their country, but Englishmen were different. 
I apologised for my scanty knowledge of Servian, but he 
laughed, and said, Razumjete vetj dosta {" You understand 
enough already "). He supposed I was going to Belgrade. I 
said I was, and hoped to procure a horse in Mokra Gora to take 
me to Uzhitze . Thereupon he offered to accompany me back to 
the village and see what could be done. On the way he changed 
me ten Austrian crowns into Servian money with scrupulous 
exactness, and resolutely refused to accept a single para for his 
trouble. 

Half-way down the hill we met two peasants, who eyed me in 
a manner the reverse of friendly. My companion then 
explained that I was English, and wished to hire a horse to take 
me to Uzhitze. I passed my cigarettes round, which were 
graciously accepted, and the ice was broken. Yes, they had a 
horse, but it was working in the mountains, and would have to 
be fetched. They would want eight dinars for the trip to 
Uzhitze, and I must pay them something down, as it would take 
several hours to bring the horse down from the mountains, 
and they did not want to find me gone when it canie. I handed 
over an Austrian two-crown piece, which the elder man spat on, 
either for luck or in contempt, and pocketed. I had reason to 
remember this coin, as I shall presently relate. 

They were a pair of magnificent brigands, these peasants, 
and their dark, drooping moustaches gave them an air of great 
fierceness, which was perhaps more apparent than real. They 
wore sandals of sheepskin and loose gaiters, bound round the 
calves with thongs of the same material, through which a knife 
of crude native workmanship was thrust ready for use . I after- 
wards secured one of these trophies for a dinar (tenpence) from 
a peasant in the train on the way to Kraljevo. The Servian men 
wear white breeches and a kilt or apron of the same colour, 
which reaches almost to the knees. These garments are 
secured about the waist by a sash, the many folds of which 
serve as a receptacle for provisions, weapons, and other odds and 
ends. The shirt is also white, and partly covered by a small, 



100 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

open waistcoat, which varies in magnificence according to the 
means of the wearer. The outfit is completed by a blue serge 
cap, which fits fairly tightly on the head, and has a peak at 
each side. 

When the earnest money had been paid over a noisy dialogue 
ensued between my companions and a little figure in a farmyard 
down below, beyond the stream. Presently I was informed 
that a woman had been sent for the horse, and I must wait for it 
at the chief Custom-house, which lay immediately below. With 
this the two peasants bade me a curt good-morning and 
departed . 

It was about six o'clock when we reached the Custom-house, 
and after my new friend had introduced me to two of his col- 
leagues and explained my requirements he returned to his post, 
though not before all three had posed for a photograph. The 
others then did their best to entertain me with a concertina until 
about eight, when the arrival of one or two superior officers put 
an end to their hilarity. At nine I was still waiting. Shortly 
afterwards the monotony was broken by the arrival of a stout, 
j ovial Servian from Yardishte . He said he had not been allowed 
to leave the station, being without passport, and had been 
obliged to return to Yishegrad and wait two days until it 
arrived. He was delighted to meet me, and assured me the 
landscape at Mokra Gora was a hundred times more beautiful 
than the accursed country beyond the hill, shaking his fist vehe- 
mently in that direction. He regretted he could not go with 
me to Uzhitze, as his business was taking him through the forest 
to Bajina Bashta, but assured me that the horse would arrive in 
due course, and that I should complete my journey without the 
slightest difficulty. He pointed out with pride a coloured 
picture of King Peter inside the Custom-house, and also a 
fearful medley of men, horses, artillery, and smoke, which he 
said was a picture of Servians in battle. He assured me that 
there was no nation in the world to equal them in martial 
valour, a sentiment I heard expressed at least once a day by 
every man with whom I conversed until I crossed the Save. 

When the commanding officer arrived about ten I was sitting 
on the steps trying to kill time by shaving with cold water and 
no mirror. He seemed amused, but heard all about me from 
his colleagues within, and sent for my passport, which he deco- 
rated on the back with an inscription in Cyrillic characters. I 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans loi 

expect he entered my name in his register as " Grey." Before 
the present Government came into power I believe English 
travellers in the Balkans were all set down as " Lansdowne." 
The prominence given to the Foreign Secretary's name and the 
insignificance of one's own is the greatest beauty of the English 
passport. I shall long remember the fellow-traveller in the 
train between Budapest and Yienna, who asked to see my pass- 
port out of curiosity, read it with awe, and returned it gingerly 
with the assurance that he could not too highly appreciate the 
singular honour of having met a member of the English Parlia- 
ment of such high distinction as myself. 

At eleven I was still sitting on the steps, making soup from 
tabloids over a spirit-lamp. Again I was interrupted, this 
time by a young peasant who introduced himself as Lazar Some- 
thingovich, and said he was going to be my guide to Uzhitze. 
The horse had not yet arrived, but would I go with him to the 
farm and have some dinner? I decided that they had had 
enough of me at the Custom-house and went. The farm was 
a mere collection of hovels on a hill-side, but I welcomed it as 
an agreeable change of scene. Pigs, fowls, and small children 
were scrambling sociably about the yard, and a woman, who was 
either Lazar's wife or sister-in-law — I could not quite gather 
which — grabbed at my hand to kiss it. I was rather startled at 
first, though I soon afterwards discovered that it was the custom 
for women in these parts to kiss the hands of strangers, even 
their own countrymen, presumably in token of subjection. 
There is evidently scope for a women's suffrage crusade in 
Western Servia. 

Whenever my conversation with Lazar broke down — and my 
powers were, of course, very limited — the woman had a turn, 
speaking at twice the speed and with less than half the success. 
However, after putting minute questions concerning my person, 
occupation, and ancestry, and getting little out of me except 
Ne razumijem (I don't understand), they reverted to the subject 
of food, and I understood a little more. Taking me into the 
principal hovel, they asked me if I would have some mutton, 
indicating a piece of meat which was just visible through a film 
of blue-bottles. I said I was passionately fond of eggs. They 
have their faults sometimes, but are impervious to blue-bottles 
until the shell is broken. And so I had two eggs and Lazar 
devoured the mutton. About half -past twelve he gave a shout 
of joy, and pointed out a black speck moving rapidly down a 



102 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

steep trail. It resolved itself into- the horse, in charge of 
Lazar's sister, and in due course reached the farm. 

It really seemed now as though my troubles were at an end. 
The horse was fed and watered ; Lazar put on his best cap, and 
devoted his energies to packing my luggage in the saddle-bags. 
When all was ready he told the elder woman to bring the horse, 
which was now quietly grazing close by, and I thought another 
five minutes would see me in the saddle and on the road to 
Uzhitze. But apparently the horse had ideas of his own on the 
subject. As the woman approached to seize his halter he 
blinked suspiciously, wagged his ears, and moved on a little. 
She began to run, so did he, and before we had time to realise 
what was happening he had hopped over the low fence which 
surrounded the yard and was galloping at full speed through a 
field of Indian corn, with the woman running after him. Her 
frantic shouts only served to spur him on, and, leaving the field, 
he gave his heels a final fling and vanished into the forest. 
Meanwhile Lazar was stamping about the yard, fuming and 
cursing. He now sent the other woman to join the chase, and 
kept up a running fire of invective until their answering voices 
died away in the distance. Then he decided it was about time 
he went himself, and left me with the pigs and two small chil- 
dren. 

As I had quite made up my mind not to be disconcerted or 
annoyed by anything, I amused myself with my camera for 
about an hour until the younger woman returned, thoroughly 
exhausted, and disappeared into the hut without a word about 
the horse. About half an hour later the elder woman came 
back, equally done up. She informed me that Lazar was still 
after the horse, and would no doubt catch it. But when he 
turned up, about half-past two, furious and weary, with his 
face streaming with perspiration and clothes soiled and torn 
with scrambling over the stones, the horse was not with him. 
After again cursing the two women systematically for what he 
regarded as their negligence, he besought me to wait an hour or 
so and then he would try again. I said that if the horse did 
not return by three o'clock I should proceed on foot. Then, to 
the surprise of everybody, it actually did appear. It left the 
forest and began to graze unconcernedly at the top of the maize 
field. Thus encouraged Lazar and his satellites set off again, 
with some corn in a box this time. As they approached, the 
animal seemed to reflect a little, then tiirned round and ambled 




Fig. 5. vServia. River vSave from Fortress, Belgrade. 




Fi.< 



Servia. Belgrade, view from Fortress towards Semliii (Hungary), 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 103 

gently into tlio wood, increased its pace to a trot, tlien to a 
gallop, and the chase began once more. Within half an hour 
the three were back again, breathless and bad-tempered, but 
without the horse. By this time I had had enough of the game, 
and told Lazar I was going to walk to Uzhitze, or at least until I 
found a horse that could be caught. In vain did he assure me 
that it would come back of its own accord at nightfall, and pro- 
mise to make an early start next morning, if I would only spend 
the night in the village kavarna, or inn, a wretched shanty at 
the foot of the hill. I was so sick of Mokra Gora that I did not 
care where I slept as long as it was somewhere else, I said, 
remembering that I might have been more than half way to 
Uzhitze if I had trusted to my own legs at the beginning of the 
day. With these words I shouldered my rucksacks and left 
him on the verge of tears. I expect he took it out of the horse 
when he caught it. 

Leaving the steep path which led to the farm, I descended 
into a fairly wide road, which I presumed would take me to 
Uzhitze, as there was a line of telegraph wires along it. A 
young Servian was walking a few yards ahead, so I hastened to 
overtake him and inquire the way. As he seemed a pleasant 
sort of fellow I introduced myself as an English teacher, 
whereat he was much interested. It seemed he was himself 
going to Kremna, a little village some ten or twelve miles away, 
where I had planned to spend the night. He was apparently 
not averse to having a companion, and shared with me some deli- 
cious apples he was carrying. I, too, was glad to make a new 
friend, though I should have liked him better if he had walked 
more slowly. Either he did not realise that I was carrying 
nearly forty pounds of baggage on my shoulders, or else he was 
secretly amusing himself by trying to run me off my legs. How- 
ever, after we had been going about two hours, he did offer to 
take one of my rucksacks, and I was glad to see that he soon 
began to grunt and slacken speed. 

We had not been long on the way before another man over- 
took us. My companion told him all about me, although they 
spoke so rapidly that I could not understand half they said. 
The newcomer was apparently a Post Office clerk. He had a 
bag full of money, and evidently saw a chance of doing business 
as a money-changer. I fear he was disappointed in me. Pre- 
sently we reached the cluster of houses which forms the prin- 
cipal portion of the village of Mokra Gora. A battered old tin 



104 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

box hung up outside one of them seemed to indicate the Post 
Office, so I told the clerk I wanted some stamps for a postcard I 
had written earlier in the day. About a dozen men were loafing 
about the doorway, and, of course, they were all astonished 
to see a stranger and curious to know my business. I heard 
surly growls of suspicion, but the youth with the apples 
explained that I was English; the atmosphere cleared, and a 
more friendly interest was shown in me. The man who seemed 
to be in charge asked me to go inside, and the crowd surged in 
after me. Had a Martian suddenly left his planet to visit the 
earth he could scarcely have made a greater sensation than I did 
in the Post Office at Mokra Gora. They asked me my name, 
but it sounded so uncouth that I was requested to write it down 
on a large sheet of official paper. Even then they could not 
read it until I wrote it a second time in Cyrillic capitals, where- 
upon they managed to pronounce it quite tolerably. Only when 
the general curiosity had been satisfied did the postmaster 
remember that my business with him was to buy a ten-para 
stamp, not to recite an autobiography. 

Eventually I got clear, and continued my journey with some 
satisfaction, confident that the general atmosphere was friendly 
and that I had little to fear from the natives as long as I 
approached them openly and cheerfully answered all questions. 
The Post Office clerk came no further, but the youth with the 
apples in his handkerchief was still tearing along at breakneck 
speed talking to me over his shoulder. He seemed very anxious 
to learn what I carried in my rucksacks, and was much inter- 
ested to hear I had some books with me. Indeed, he could 
scarcely believe me until I showed him a German-Croatian 
dictionary, which he fingered with awe, being quite unable to 
decipher the Latin characters. This curious reverence for 
books reappeared when we happened to pass a priest. Just for 
the sake of conversation I inquired who it was, and he replied : 
" The pope. He reads books ! " as though the ability to read 
were the height of human wisdom. 

It was on this walk to Kremna that I first fully realised the 
subordinate position of Servian peasant women. We met at 
least a dozen, and not a single one failed to stoop and kiss our 
hands. An incident also occurred which impressed me very 
strongly, and testifies to the simplicity and sturdy honesty of 
the people of these parts. A group of men were standing talk- 
ing by the wayside, and as we exchanged the usual greeting one 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 105 

of them called to me to stop, and came to me, holding out a coin 
in his open hand. I looked at the coin, which was an Austrian 
two-crown piece, then at the man, and recognised the peasant to 
whom I had given the earnest-money for the horse nearly twelve 
hours before. "Where is the horse?" he asked. I replied 
that it had run away into the forest and Lazar had not been able 
to catch it. Thereupon the man pushed the coin into my hand, 
wished me a brief good-afternoon, and turned away. I soon 
discovered that this refreshing straightforwardness was a charac- 
teristic of all the Servian peasants with whom I came into con- 
tact. When I reached Belgrade the British Minister, to whom 
I told the story, said that the Servian is at his best in theaie 
remote western parts of the country, but often demoralised and 
treacherous to the east of the main line of railway. 

Presently we reached a high hill, round the side of which the 
road, which was in a fair state of repair, wound in long zigzags. 
Taking what he called a short cut, my companion proceeded to 
give me the severest gruelling I have ever had. But for the 
few springs of clear, cold water at which he stopped to quench 
his thirst — the Servians drink gallons of water and little of 
anything else — thus allowing me to get my breath at intervals, I 
think I must have collapsed by the way. I had eaten practically 
nothing all day except two eggs and a few lozenges of concen- 
trated food, and was consequently feeling tired and hungry. It 
seemed ages before we reached the top of the pass, where we 
rested by mutual consent, and the cool evening breeze revived 
me. My companion now thought the opportunity had come for 
a thorough investigation of my luggage, so I emptied my ruck- 
sacks for his inspection. He gazed in wonder on my camera, 
and when I had explained its use as well as my knowledge of 
Servian would allow wanted to have his photo taken on the spot, 
although the sun had now set. After replenishing my voca- 
bulary from a pocket-dictionary I tried to point out that the 
presence oi sunce (sun) was necessary for the production of a 
slika (picture), but he seemed only half convinced. Then my 
spirit-lamp claimed his attention for a while, but what charmed 
him most was a collapsible knife and fork. He sadly wished 
to buy it from me, and was very downcast when I said I needed 
it for my own use . However, I succeeded in restoring his good 
spirits with a present of two safety-pins, with which I proceeded 
to fasten his shirt-sleeves, and I can honestly say that I have 
never seen a man more delighted with a present in my life. 



io6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

The village of Kremna now lay below us — part of it, at least, 
for Servian villages are very elusive. It is always difficult to 
tell where one finishes and the next begins, so scattered are the 
houses. Indeed, it is possible to walk for an hour or more and 
still be in the same village. For instance, Stapari, through 
part of which I passed the next afternoon, was indicated on my 
map in three different places five or six miles apart, and the 
same is true of many others, 

My companion had now reached his destination, and pre- 
pared to leave me. He said there were two kavarnas, or inns, 
in Kremna ; in fact, one was close at hand, and ho indicated a 
building I should have mistaken for a cowshed. I said I 
should prefer the other, whereupon he told me to follow the road 
a little further and I should pass it. Although my feet were 
weary, I plodded along for another half -hour, and then decided 
to camp out for the night. It was a lovely evening, fine and 
warm. Darkness was rapidly falling, and in the distance I 
could hear the peasant women calling the cattle home. About 
two hundred yards away a straggling line of bushes betrayed the 
neighbourhood of a river. Altogether it was a pleasant spot, 
so I spread out my things on a grassy slope about fifty yards 
below the road, filled my can with water from the river — no easy 
task owing to the steepness of the banks, the thick bushes, and 
the shallowness of the stream — lit my lamp, and prepared to 
enjoy a well-earned rest. Then suddenly, as I was meditatively 
listening to the bubbling of the water and grinding a soup 
square to powder, somebody came galloping along the road at a 
great pace, caught sight of me and my belongings in the field, 
and shouted, ^' Who is that ? " I waited for the question to be 
repeated, and then answered wearily : " I don't understand 
Servian. I am an English traveller." Contrary to my hopes, 
my questioner, instead of minding his own business and going 
away, dismounted and came to me in the field, bringing his 
horse with him. As it seemed a superior sort of animal I saw 
the man must be a person of authority, and I should have to be 
careful. He pointed at my lamp, over which the water was 
now boiling merrily, and kept on saying it was not allowed. I 
answered his observations with a monotonous chant of Ne 
razumijem, thinking he would get tired and leave me to my own 
devices. But he really was in earnest, and almost foamed at 
the mouth, so I thought it convenient to understand a little 
more. When he saw me make a move to extinguish the lamp 




Fig. 7. Servia. Belgrade, National Mortgage Bank with vStatue of 

Prince Michael. 




Fig. 8. Servia. Belgrade. Royal Palace. 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 107 

and pack up lie grew quite amiable, and said that the English 
were a fine nation, but I really could not sleep out and make 
fires in the open. There was a farmhouse close by, he informed 
me, and a kavarna about fifteen minutes further along the road. 
I thought it hopeless to attempt to explain that I wished, to sleep 
out to avoid sleeping in, so I left the field, whereupon my dis- 
turber shook hands very affably, mounted his horse, and 
galloped away in the direction of Mokra Gora. 

After about ten minutes I began to feel tired, and sat down 
on a heap of stones to chew another food tablet and think things 
over. A mouthful of wine from my flask put me on my feet 
again, so, shouldering my rucksacks once more, I trudged for- 
ward. As I was leaving a small wood I heard a curious howl- 
ing, and saw a light coming from a building just ahead. As 
the door was open I guessed it was the inn, and entered. When 
I stepped out of the darkness into the dimly-lighted room the 
noise, which proceeded from a quartette of natives, apparently 
drunk, ceased abruptly, and all eyes were turned on me. The 
inn consisted of one long, whitewashed room only, with a sort of 
counter in one corner, which served as a bar. Round the four 
or five rickety tables perhaps a score of Servians were gathered 
playing cards, singing, and drinking rakia, or sugar and water. 
The host, with an assistant or two, was attending to a small fire 
placed breast high on a raised hearth in the wall opposite the 
doorway. He immediately brought me the customary glass of 
sugar and water, and inquired my wishes with courtesy and 
dignity. Yes, he said, I could have a room for the night, also 
eggs, bread, and milk. While the food was being prepared the 
other guests were gazing at me open-mouthed in wonder, and I 
answered the usual round of questions, and also took the oppor- 
tunity of inquiring if I could hire a horse to take me to Uzhitze 
the next day. The host said it was a long journey, and would 
cost me eight dinars (about six-and-sixpence). Considering 
that a man would have to go with me to bring the horse back, 
it was very cheap, so I made the bargain, and was told the horse 
would be ready at six o'clock the next morning. 

The ladder outside the building, up which I was conducted 
to my sleeping quarters, looked as though it might have led to a 
fowl-house, and the room itself looked a mere loft in the dim 
light of the lantern, but I was too tired to be fastidious. One 
of the young men knelt down to remove my boots, but my putties 
were beyond his powers, so I dismissed him and began to explore 



I08 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the apartment. It contained a table and two beds, nothing 
more. Fortunately the walls had been recently whitewashed, 
so the place was not obviously verminous. Perhaps I was too 
tired to notice much, for I slept soundly until five. Neverthe- 
less, when morning dawned I saw enough to make me draw on 
my boots without delay and make a speedy exit. 

Then came the fearful ceremony of washing. Producing a 
decanter, which held about half a pint, the innkeeper poured 
the contents over my hands as I rubbed them together. This is 
usually the beginning and end of the proceedings, so he seemed 
mildly surprised when I brought out a cake of soap and asked 
him to repeat the operation. However, he submitted with a 
good grace, and I kept him busy for some time. Not knowing 
the Servian for " bucket," I was rather at a disadvantage, 
though I doubt whether the establishment possessed such an 
article, and, even if it had, I might perhaps have been loth to 
use it. 

While I was busy with my breakfast a man came up the road 
leading a horse, which he proceeded to tie up at the inn door. 
After contemplating the animal for some time, I began to 
wonder whether this could really be my horse. After my experi- 
ence of the previous day I had begun to regard horses as beyond 
the bounds of possibility for me. Still, as this one remained 
quietly standing by the door, and nobody seemed ready to take 
it away, I ventured to inquire whether the horse was for me or 
not. /' Oh, yes ! " said the innkeeper; " it is only waiting for 
you." The owner then arranged my rucksacks on the saddle. 
I mounted, and off we set at a dignified walk. Presently we 
reached a farm, and my new companion said he was not going 
with me himself, but would send a Tnornak, or servant, with me. 
I could pay for the horse at the end of the journey. 

Milosh, the Tnornak, was a quaint figure. He was shorty 
thick-set, and elderly. He limped badly, had only one eye, 
and his neck was swollen to twice its natural size with goitre. 
He plodded steadily ahead, and the horse followed patiently 
and tirelessly, bearing me and my luggage. Like all Servian 
horses, it was small, but very tough and wiry, and as nimble a& 
a cat. It carried me uphill and down until late in the after- 
noon without the slightest sign of distress. Occasionally, when 
the path became so steep as to be dangerous or so stony that the 
horse could scarcely pick its way, it would stop as a sign that I 
must get off and walk a little. 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 109 

For the first few miles the road was good, and I felt that I 
was really making progress. After the previous day's delay it 
was a relief to be moving even at a walking pace. My way 
lay through a pleasant valley, fertile and fairly well populated. 
We passed through one or two straggling villages, Meany, 
Bioska, and it was at the latter, I think, that we stopped for 
lunch (see Fig. 3). The inn was similar to the one in which 
I had spent the previous night, though somewhat larger. Water 
with sugar was brought, and Milosh produced from some part 
of his person a piece of coarse bread, resembling a door-mat in 
appearance and texture, also a wooden box containing thick, 
yellow fat of some kind. H© divided the bread, lathered his 
own share with the grease, and pushed both across to me. I 
asked him if we could have some beer, and he asked the pro- 
prietor, who replied, '' Ima " (there is), and went on smoking. 
Milosh said we would have some, so a large wooden case, which 
seemed to have been reposing for years in one corner of the inn, 
was opened, and I was supplied with a bottle that held nearer a 
quart than a pint. It was villainous stuff, so I did not wonder 
that Milosh preferred another glass of rakia, a low-grade spirit 
consumed by the poorer classes. Slivovitz, or plum brandy, is 
a more expensive beverage. The ordinary Servian is tem- 
perate, and drinks more water than anything else. 

When we had finished and the horse was sufficiently rested 
I paid the bill, which amounted to about sixpence all told, 
and off we set again. Passing through a small village 
(Fig. 4), we came to a high hill, up which we toiled for about 
an hour. The road then led across a high plateau, which com- 
manded an extensive view towards the Sanjak of Novibazar. 
Presently my guide left the main track for a path to the right, 
saying that we should in this way save an hour. For a mile 
or two it led through a fine glade of oak trees, but then emerged 
on to a wild expanse of barren and stony moorland. So rough 
did the road now become that my horse could scarcely find a 
foothold between the stones, and I was obliged to dismount 
several times and walk a mile or two. At last we reached the 
north-eastern edge of the plateau, and came in sight of our 
•destination, the town of Uzhitze, lying some two or three miles 
ahead in the deep valley below our feet. The descent was at 
first extremely steep, and the path at one point so narrow that I 
had to walk behind the horse. Since midday we had seen very 
few people, but now began to meet the peasants returning from 



no Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

market. We stopped beside a spring where a small party was 
halted, and Milosh proceeded to explain me and my business 
to everybody present. They were all consumed with curiosity, 
but very friendly, and wished me a pleasant journey. It is 
astonishing what quantities of water these Servians drink. 
Whenever we passed a spring Milosh would stop, put his head 
into it, and take in long draughts like a horse. I fancy this 
rough-and-ready method of drinking any kind of water any- 
where has something to do with the prevalence of goitre in these 
parts. 

I shall never forget the awful cobbles with which the streets 
of Uzhitze are paved. The descent into the town was fairly 
steep, and we plunged into a crowd of peasants returning from 
market with horses, cattle, and other animals. By the wayside 
sat a beggar, who was producing weird sounds from a fearful 
weapon of music called a guzla. At last we entered the main 
street, and drew up at a little den with which Milosh was 
apparently familiar. He seemed to think that I should be 
satisfied to spend the night there, but I was firm, and insisted 
on being taken to the best hotel. Here we parted — I glad to 
have reached a more or less civilised place, he delighted with a 
present of 60 paras (6d.) over and above the hire of the horse. 

The Hotel Ilija Grbitj is the leading hostelry in Uzhitze, 
which is not saying much. For a dinar and a half (Is. 3d.) I 
was provided with a room which boasted two beds, two pairs of 
slippers, a jug with about a pint of water, and a washbowl about 
eight inches across. Luxury indeed after Yardishte and 
Kremna ! However, the cooking was very good, and I really 
enjoyed my supper on the little ramshackle verandah before the 
door. Here I got into conversation with several officers and 
Customs officials, who waxed eloquent, and gave me much 
advice and information when I told them I was English. 

Uzhitze is an enterprising little place with about 7,000 
inhabitants and a brisk trade in cattle and agricultural produce. 
I was informed with pride by my new acquaintances that it 
boasted electric light, a luxury enjoyed by no other Servian 
town except Belgrade . They told me I had done well to visit 
Uzhitze, as I was thus seeing the real Servia. Belgrade was 
merely a degenerate cosmopolitan city. 

It was too late in the day to take photographs, so after a dis- 
jointed but friendly conversation on the verandah, in the course 
of which I learned, to my great surprise, that the railway had 



Hlf/ 





Fig. 9. Servia. Belgrade, Old (ratewa}^ in Fortress with Lieut. Djuritj 

and Mr. Todorovich. 




Fig. 10. Servia. Belgrade, l*alinula Church, Old Cemetery. Burial place 
of King Alexander and Queen Draga. 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans iii 

just been completed as far as Uzhitze and that one train was 
running to Stalatj daily at 6 a.m., I retired for the night. By 
this time I had given up my intention of proceeding to Novi- 
bazar. It was clear to me that my equipment scarcely provided 
for delays and emergencies, the distances seemed to be much 
greater than I had calculated, and I realised that if I had any 
further difficulties in obtaining horses I might find myself 
stranded miles from anywhere. The next morning, therefore, 
found me at the station along with a crowd of travellers 
and spectators, for the inhabitants had not yet grown accus- 
tomed to their new toy, and turned out in large numbers to look 
at the trains. The carriages, I observed, were made in Berlin, 
the locomotives in France or Belgium, I forget which. I am 
inclined to think that Britain does not share as largely in the 
trade of Servia as she might. 

Leaving Uzhitze, the train entered a narrow gorge, and then 
proceeded to Pozhega along the broad and fertile valley of the 
Morava. The general character of the country is hilly, but 
well wooded and watered. Along the banks of the river there 
are fine stretches of rich pasture and fields of maize and tobacco. 
My companions in the train were, of course, all natives. 
Opposite to me sat two women, who rolled cigarettes and 
spat about incessantly. One man, who sold me his knife for a 
dinar, asked me the usual string of questions, and, learning that 
I was unmarried, pointed to three or four women in the carriage, 
who were listening intently, and suggested that I should take 
my choice. I extricated myself with difficulty. Meanwhile 
we passed several important towns — Chachak, Trstenik, and 
Kraljevo, the latter only a good day's ride from Novibazar. The 
heat was intense, and at every station my companions left the 
train to refill their water bottles at the pump. At last, about 
two in the afternoon, we reached Stalatj, an important junction 
between Belgrade and Sofia, and I had time for a good lunch 
before proceeding northwards. 

Then followed a long but not uninteresting ride in a badly- 
lighted and abominably stuffy carriage via Jagodina and Lapovo 
to Belgrade. On the way the weather changed completely, and 
I felt glad that I was not on the road to Novibazar. Lightning 
flashed, thunder rolled, and by the time I reached the capital, 
about 9.30 p.m., the rain was falling in torrents. After some 
difficulty I reached the Hotel Balkan. The streets were in an 
appalling condition. Where they were paved the cobbles 



112 Journal ot the Manchester Geographical Society 

seemed to come right through my boots, and elsewhere I sank 
up to the ankles in mud. Repairs were apparently in progress. 
The cobbles were being taken up all over the town, and wood 
blocks were being laid down. I saw only the first stage of this 
process, and as the war broke out immediately after I left I 
very much doubt whether any progress has been made with the 
wood blocks. 

Next morning, as I was leisurely breakfasting in the 
restaurant, I fell into conversation with a talkative Servian 
gentleman at the next table. He was busy spicing his food 
with paprika, which, he remarked, was a fiery stuff — like the 
Servian character. Then he proceeded to dilate on the warlike 
temper of his race, a subject on which I was already singularly 
well informed. However, learning that I was English, he 
became even more amiable, introduced himself, and volunteered 
to show me the town, an offer which I gladly accepted, espe- 
cially as he said he was on good terms with the military 
authorities, and I might take photographs practically anywhere 
I pleased. 

Few towns in Europe are more picturesquely situated than 
Belgrade. On the western side it is washed by the Save 
(Fig. 5) ; on the east by the Danube, which here receives the 
waters of its great tributary. The old fortress, crowning the 
heights at their confluence, commands a fine view of both rivers 
(Fig. 6), together with the low, flat island known as the great 
""War Island," and in the distance the Hungarian fortress of 
Zimony (Germ. Semlin, Serv. Zemun). 

Belgrade (Serv. Beograd, i.e.. White Town) was, when I 
saw it, a flourishing city of about 60,000 inhabitants, with a 
large proportion of foreign residents. True, the streets were 
in an appalling state, being either rudely paved with cobbles or 
uneven setts (Fig. 7), or else, like the main thoroughfare 
(Fig. 8), in a condition of utter upheaval. Still, several fine 
buildings were in process of construction, and some were 
already completed, e.g., the National Bank, before which is a 
fine statue of Prince Michael Obrenovich, who was assassinated 
in 1868 (Fig. 7) The Eoyal Palace (Fig. 8) is a very respect- 
able structure, and will certainly look much better when the 
street in which it stands is set in order. Other important build- 
ings are the Cathedral and the University. 

The most imposing feature of Belgrade is the fortress. 
Originally known by the name of Singidunum, it was first a 



Highways and Byways in the Balkans 113 

Celtic, then a E-oman strongliold. After changing hands at 
least a dozen times before the fourteenth century, it was held 
by the Servian kings until 1427. Then it became a bone of 
contention between the Hungarians and the Turks. After 
being repeatedly captured and recaptured, it was again held by 
the Servians from 1807 to 1813, when it was wrested from them 
by the Turks, in whose possession it remained until 1866. In 
that year the energy of Prince Michael, helped by diplomatic 
pressure from the Great Powers, procured its restoration to 
Servia. 

My new friend, Mr. Kosta Todorovich, was of great help to 
me here. He introduced me to Lieutenant Djuritj, the 
Adjutant, who introduced me to a Colonel, who passed me on to 
a General, who presented me to the Governor, who graciously 
gave me permission to take photographs within the fortress itself. 
I was informed that this privilege had never been granted to 
any foreign visitor before, in which case the pictures shown in 
Figs. 5, 6, and 9 are unique. 

I shall always remember with the deepest gratitude the 
trouble my new friends gave themselves on my behalf. They 
explained to me the history of the fortress and explored with me 
some of its innermost recesses, taking me to parts to which 
ordinary visitors are not allowed access. The most I could do 
in return was to take their photographs, and so Fig. 9 shows 
Mr. Todorovich and the Adjutant standing by one of the gates 
overlooking the Save. The marks of bullet and shell are 
plainly visible on the heavy wooden door and adjoining wall. 
After a long scramble round the ramparts (Fig. 6) I was taken 
down a deep shaft, at the bottom of which lies an inexhaustible 
well of drinking water. Tunnels have been constructed in all 
directions beneath the hill, and great was my astonishment 
when, after a long descent through dark and damp subterranean 
passages, I was told that I was standing beneath the river 
bed. In spite of all these devices the citadel is not equal to 
the task of resisting a modern siege, and I was informed that in 
case of attack by Austria the Servians would not defend 
Belgrade but retire into the interior. 

It may sound incredible, but it is none the less true, that 
during my journey through Servia, only about a month before 
the outbreak of the war, I never heard the slightest rumour that 
any such event was likely to take place. It is true that every- 
body I met in Belgrade was talking about war, but it was war 



114 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

with Austria, not with Turkey. Austria-Hungary was the 
possible enemy, and my Servian friends were so confident in 
their courage and military skill that in imagination they were 
already before the gates of Vienna. I often wonder whether 
they took the field against the Turks and whether they are 
still alive. 

After leaving the fortress I paid a short visit to the British 
Minister, and then turned my steps to the gloomy Palinula 
Chapel in the Old Cemetery (Fig. 10). Here, in 1903, the 
bodies of the slaughtered Alexander and his Queen were uncere- 
moniously interred — not even side by side. The history of the 
Servian princes during the nineteenth century is little more 
than that of a blood feud between the Obrenovich and Kara- 
gjorgjevich families. In 1804 Gjorgje Petrovich, or 
Karagjorgje (Black George), the son of a swineherd, fought 
with temporary success against the Turks, but was eventually 
defeated and forced to leave the country. In 1815 Milosh 
Obrenovich, of equally illustrious descent, headed another 
national rising with better success, and became a sort of prince. 
Presently Kara-Gjorgje returned, and there were two Rich- 
monds in the field, each apparently jealous of the other. In 
1817 Kara-Gjorgje was murdered, and Milosh Obrenovich 
reigned undisturbed until 1839, when he abdicated and went 
abroad. He was succeeded by his son Milan, who died the 
same year. Milan's brother, Michael, followed, and reigned 
until 1842, when he was deposed, and a Karagjorgjevich came 
to the throne in the person of Alexander, son of Kara-Gjorgje. 
In 1859 he too was deposed, and old Milosh was recalled. His 
death in 1860 again made room for Michael, who reigned until 
1868, when he was murdered, presumably by partisans of the 
other side. His successor was his cousin, Milan Obrenovich, 
who made the ill-fated match with Natalie and abdicated in 
favour of his son, Alexander, in 1889. The murder of 
Alexander and Draga put an end to the Obrenovich dynasty, 
and so King Peter Kara-Gjorgjevich has some prospect of dying 
a natural death. 

In the evening I left Belgrade by steamer, and spent a night 
at Semlin, whence a pleasant run of about six hours took me to 
Budapest and Western civilisation. 

N.B. For typographical reasons it has not been possible to 
keep the correct spelling of Serbo-Croatian words and names in 
all cases. 

Erratum, p. 37, 1, 5 : for Bruck read Salzach. 



Spitsbergen : Past and Present 115 

SPITSBERGEN: PAST AND PRESENT. 

By William S. Bruce, LL.D., F.R.S.E. 

[Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on 
Tuesday, October 2Ut, 1913.) 

Spitsbergen, along with Bear Island, was discovered by the 
Dutch in 1596. But the British were the first to exploit the 
commercial resources of the country when, in 1604, the Muscovy 
Company, of London, sent a ship thither which brought back a 
valuable cargo of walrus ivory from Bear Island. In 1609 
Captain Poole, of the Muscovy Company, discovered good coal 
in Spitsbergen, and it is a striking fact that this valuable dis- 
covery was not followed up until the present century. Hudson 
visited Spitsbergen in 1607 in the " Hopewell," and reported 
many whales; and in 1610 Poole visited and explored Prince 
Charles Foreland, and named some bays and anchorages on the 
west coast. He captured 120 walruses, 21 reindeer, and 30 
bears, besides reporting an abundance of whales. Britain 
followed up the reports of Hudson and Poole, and started 
regular whale fishing with two ships sent by the Muscovy Com- 
pany in 1611. The following year there were four British 
whalers on the scene, and one Dutch and one Spanish whaler in 
charge of two British masters. In 1613 King James granted 
a charter to the Muscovy Company, giving them sole right to 
the whaling industry in Spitsbergen seas, with power to exclude 
all other ships, British or alien. This year eight British ships 
visited Spitsbergen, including one for discovery and the 
"Tiger," 250 tons with 21 guns, for protection. While King 
James had given British whalers the charter of whaling mono- 
poly, the Dutch also received a commission granted " by the 
Grave Maurice for to fish in Spitsbergen," and the Dutch fared 
badly at the hands of the British. In 1618, however, the Dutch 
made serious reprisals, having no less than 23 ships in Spits- 
bergen waters compared with the Muscovy Company's 13 with 
two pinnaces. Many inducements had been made by the 
Muscovy Company to get men to winter in Spitsbergen, but 
without success. In 1630, however, a British party deserted 



ii6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

by their ship, consisting of Edward Pelham and seven others, 
successfully wintered at Recherche Bay, and were found alive 
and well the next year. 

British, Dutch, French, and Danes were fishing at this time, 
and it was nearly all harbour fishing . Ships anchored close to 
the shore, and huts were built. Besides huts they had ware- 
houses, furnaces, coppers, and boilers for the boiling out of the 
blubber. The shores were busy with coopers and other work- 
men, and the whales were towed ashore and there flensed, the 
blubber was boiled down, the oil casked, and the casks floated 
off and hoisted on board. The division of bays amongst the 
nations had been a matter of much divspute and trouble. 
Britain, first in the field, claimed exclusive rights, but the 
Dutch resisted the claim, and Danes and French Basques also 
claimed right of access. But all the bays from Clase Cove 
(Cross Bay) and Deer Sound (King's Bay) down to Horn Sound 
were generally admitted to be British. The principal resort of 
the Dutch was at Mauritius Bay, in the north-west of Spits- 
bergen, where Smeerenburg (or Blubber-town) developed, 
which is now known as Smeerenburg Sound. The remnants of 
this and other Spitsbergen settlements are marked to-day by 
traces of the boiling furnaces, by remains of wooden houses, and 
by many graves of men and women. In Smeerenburg Sound 
there is a place known as Grave Point, where about 200 coffins 
and skeletons lie half unearthed, and there are many similar 
sights on a smaller scale all round the shores of western Spits- 
bergen. At this time the Dutch had both a chapel and a fort 
at Spitsbergen, and sent up about 4,000 tons of shipping, or 
fully 20 ships. In 1632 the Danes attempted to assert rights 
over Spitsbergen, and, being prevented by the Dutch, went to 
Jan Mayen and pillaged and destroyed the Dutch station there 
selling the plunder at Eouen. Consequent on this, and the 
successful British wintering by Pelham in 1630, the Dutch 
received a new charter to keep in continuous occupation — in 
short, to colonize in Smeerenburg and Jan Mayen. Wintering 
parties were left at both places ; those at Jan Mayen all died, 
but the seven in Spitsbergen survived the winter. Next year, 
1634-35, other seven wintered in Spitsbergen, but all died by 
February, because they largely lived on " all manner of neces- 
saries " provided for them instead of living a healthy life hunt- 
ing for reindeer, bears, and other fresh food. 

In the British whaling fleet at this time the Muscovy Com- 



Spitsbergen : Past and Present 117 

pany alone brought home 1,100 tons of oil and employed 1,000 
men, and their annual tonnage- was 3,500. Soon after this 
Hamburg ships took part in the fishery, and then French ships 
increased, but the bay whaling declined, and then the Dutch 
especially took to whaling at sea. The Dutch ceased to fish at 
the end of the eighteenth century, and during the nineteenth it 
passed entirely to British, and more especially to Scottish 
ships, but this fishing was mostly away from Spitsbergen in the 
open sea. In recent years Scotland alone has held the field in 
this bowhead, or Greenland whale fishing, but mostly in Green- 
land waters and Davis Straits. Alas ! two years ago for the 
first time the Dundee whaling fleet was lying idle in the docks 
with not a single ship sent out to Arctic seas. On the other 
hand, the twentieth century has seen a revival of whaling in 
Spitsbergen by Norwegians, but the results, at first satisfactory, 
are now no longer so, and it seems likely that it will not be 
worth while continuing much longer. This whaling was for 
the finner and not for the bowhead whale. 

Many of these British whalers were also explorers, and, as 
already noted, British men-of-war and exploring ships often 
accompanied the whaling fleet to Spitsbergen. Fotherby made 
extensive discoveries, especially in the north, while Poole 
explored Prince Charles Foreland and many of the western 
bays. Marmaduke discovered Hope Island and Edge Island. 
The British also discovered Wiche's Land and North-East Land. 

Russian trappers frequented Spitsbergen in the eighteenth 
century and till the middle of the nineteenth, and Norwegian 
trappers have hunted there during the latter half of the nine- 
teenth century. There are still some few of these so-called 
hunters left, but they have done such wholesale slaughter, with 
not only firearms and traps but with poison, that now Western 
Spitsbergen is a desert. In many places that I visited in 1912 
and in 1909 not a single fox was to be seen where arctic and 
blue foxes abounded in previous years, and in fertile valleys 
where herds of reindeer used to roam only skeletons and carcases 
are now to met with. Ptarmigans have also been slaughtered, 
and only wild pink geese re-echo their warning cries in glens 
where there is no other living creature to respond to them. 
During the recent British expedition (1912) very few eider 
ducks, no white whales, and one seal were met with in Icefiord, 
and everywhere in Spitsbergen all were scarce. The walrus is 
never seen in West Spitsbergen now, and only a few bears 



Ii8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

wander there in winter time. The sooner such brutal massacre 
by so-called hunters is stopped the better, if the fauna of Spits- 
bergen is not to be entirely wiped out. Nor have so-called sports- 
men been free from blame in this matter. The only way to stop it 
is for one strong country to take Spitsbergen under its wing and 
to stop all killing for a number of years until the animals have 
time to recover, and then to regulate hunting, both on sea and 
ashore. 

Economic development in Spitsbergen at the present day is 
almost confined to the west coast. The warm surface drift 
from the Atlantic and the prevailing westerly winds make that 
coast readily accessible all summer. Ice seldom interferes with 
navigation at that season; in fact, but for the freezing of the 
fjords, the west coast could often be reached in winter. The 
east coast is much less accessible owing to pack ice. 

British interests, which, together with American, are the 
most important in Spitsbergen, are chiefly centred in Bell 
Sound, Ice Fjord, and Deer Sound (King's Bay), as well as 
Prince Charles Foreland, but a British company also claims land 
in Stor Fjord, on the east. 

Most of the west coast and its hinterland has been prospected 
for minerals, and almost every part of any value has been laid 
claim to. In fact, so numerous are these claims, though many 
of them are derelict, that they have begun to overlap. 

Almost every mile of the long and much-lauded Ice Fjord 
has been claimed by one company or another. In Green Harbour 
is situated a Norwegian whaling station and a Norwegian 
Government wireless telegraphy station. Th^ whaling station, 
we learnt in 1912 on our last visit, had had little success in 
whaling that season, and was likely to be given up. The 
powerful wireless station which was set up in 1911 by the Nor- 
wegian Government seems to be out of all proportion to the 
commercial claims Norway has in Spitsberg^^r , which are not 
nearly of such great im])ortance as the American and British 
ones. It is true there is a land whaling station and another 
floating one in Gbeen Harbour, but the wireless station is of no 
use to them, and especially also in view of recent results. There 
are also many claim boards here and in Spitsbergen elsewhere 
set up by Norwegians and Swedes, and in too many cases those 
individuals or companies attempt to " jump " territory pre- 
viously claimed by others. In Green Harbour one Norwegian 
company has made several holes along a coal seam where the 



Spitsbergen : Past and Present 119 

chief work has been done by the Americans. There are also the 
so-called Norwegian hunters, who have practically exterminated 
the game in Western Spitsbergen, and in summer two or three 
Norwegian tourists' boats go to Spitsbergen. But these Nor- 
wegian interests cannot justify the erection of a costly wireless 
station, the subsidising of a small boat to carry the mails to and 
from Tromso, and the financing of survey expeditions, which 
must one and all be of political significance only. 

In Advent Bay the Americans, after about ten years' work, 
have wonderfully developed the country, and it was reported 
that the company had orders for 45,000 tons of coal for ship- 
ment during the summer of 1912. This coal has a high calo- 
rific value, and is very well suited to steam-raising purposes. 
The engineers on board two ships with which I have been asso- 
ciated assured me that this coal is almost equal to South 
Wales coal ; this is borne out by analysis. The seams are of a 
good thickness, and crop out on fairly steep faces above the sea, 
where they are reached by level adits. The coal is carried to 
the jetty by a wire ropeway. The American company is well 
supported with capital, and is continuing to extend the equip- 
ment of its well-equipped coal workings and settlement. This 
summer a veritable forest of timber has been put ashore, and 
rapid progress was being made with the erection of many more 
houses and stores. Wireless communication to Europe, via Green 
Harbour, has been established. The demand, in fact, for this 
Spitsbergen coal has apparently increased at such a rate that 
during the summer of 1912 there was insufficient accommoda- 
tion for the number of miners and others, about 300, employed. 
This, indeed, appears to have been the cause of a serious strike, 
which the Americans faced with successful results by replacing 
all the malcontents, mostly Fins and Swedes, with other more 
willing workers. Some of the leading workers are British, and 
this contingent of expert miners, who have given great satisfac- 
tion, seems likely to be increased. Our American cousins are 
to be congratulated on the businesslike way in which they have 
developed these Spitsbergen coal deposits. As mentioned above, 
they have been backed with plenty of capital. That capital has 
been used judiciously but freely, and with satisfactory results ; 
and if the mineral resources of Spitsbergen are to be fully 
developed it is necessary to have, in the first place, plenty of 
capital, a considerable part of which must be spent in pro- 
specting by capable geologists and expert mining engineers, and 



120 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

to have that preliminary work followed up in the way the 
Americans have done in spending freely and wisely large sums 
on equipment. Besides the present workings another mine is 
being opened on the opposite, i.e., the east side of Longyear 
Valley. A busy coal jetty, steam shovels, wire ropeway, ships, 
coaling, and stores going ashore for the winter all indicate 
serious business, while a herd of a hundred pigs, a bull, and 
some cows, as well as fowls, indicate present domestic comforts 
of the inhabitants of the rapidly-developing Longyear City. 

The fact that during the winter the temperature, on account 
of the proximity of the warm Atlantic waters, is higher than 
that of many large American cities, and the prevalence of fine 
weather in that season add to the progress of this American 
settlement. The darkness of winter is easily overcome by 
electric light. 

Next to the American, British capital has done most to 
develop the mineral resources of Spitsbergen. On the opposite 
side of Advent Bay a British company has a coal mine, and has 
shipped a large quantity of coal, but the work has not been 
followed up as at the American mine. In Bell Sound two British 
companies have extensive claims, and have done detailed pro- 
specting work, especially in relation to coal deposits, while 
active work in marble-quarrying by a British company is going 
on in Deer Sound. Prince Charles Foreland, English Bay, and 
the land from Sassen Bay to Klaas Billen Bay have all been 
exploited by British companies, as well as extensive territory 
right across Spitsbergen to Wybe Janzs Water (Stor Fiord). 
Altogether over 7,000 square miles of territory are claimed and 
have been worked upon by British companies. 

In 1911 a conference was held in Christiania at which 
Russia, Sweden and Norway were represented, and it was pro- 
posed that these three countries should select two representa- 
tives each to a common Council for the government of Spits- 
bergen. Britain was not represented at this conference, though 
she probably holds at present, and has held in the past, the 
greatest stake in the country. Naturally America is not 
interested in the annexation of an outlying archipelago of 
Europe, but it is probable that American claimants would 
favour the idea that one country should be responsible for the 
government of Spitsbergen and not a nondescript international 
council of three countries, not one of which have the stake in 
the country that American and British citizens have. No doubt 



Spitsbergen : Past and Present 121 

also Americans would desire to have the protection of a country 
where mining laws would be conducive to the development of 
their enterprise in the country. There can be no doubt, in 
short, that American citizens would be satisfied with, nay, 
desire, British protection. The clear duty, therefore, of the 
British Government is to take this step either a£B.rming her act 
of annexation in 1615 or re-annexing now, instead of giving her 
adherence to this scheme of triple control. 

Organised protection there must be because at present 
property is not respected in Spitsbergen and there is no security 
of tenure in mining claims; and the strongest reason of all is 
that there is an unlimited supply of coal practically equal to 
the best Welsh coal (within fifty-three hours of British shores) 
which should not be allowed to be at the disposal of any other 
European navy but the British Navy. 



122 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

THE BftlTISH ANTAECTIC EXPEDITION, 1910-13.* 

By Commander E. E. G. E. Evans, C.B., E.N. 

{Addressed to the Society in the Free Trade Hall on Friday, 
October Slst, 1913.) 

So much has been piiblislied concerning tlie British Antarctic 
Expedition, the tragic loss of its gallant leader and his four 
brave companions, whose names we know so well, that there is 
no need to preface the story by telling you at length how 
Captain Scott made his preparations. His organisation was 
complete, his equipment splendid, and no expedition ever left 
our shores wth a better outfit or a more enthusiastic and deter- 
mined personnel. Thanks to Captain Scott's fine organisation 
our expedition remained self-contained, even after his death. 

On June 1, 1910, the Terra Nova left London with most of 
the members of the expedition. She finally left New 
Zealand on November 29. Captain Scott had with him fifty- 
nine officers, scientists and seamen. The Terra Nova left New 
Zealand a very full ship ; besides four hundred tons of coal she 
carried provisions for three years, two huts, forty sledges, fur 
sleeping bags, bales of clothing, all kinds of instruments, and 
the hundreds of little items of equipment necessary to a Polar 
expedition with an ambitious scientific programme. Besides 
these things which filled our ship's holds and the between deck 
spaces, we carried nineteen Siberian ponies, thirty-four dogs, 
three motor sledges, 2,500 gallons of petrol, and our paraffin on 
the upper deck. The animals were under the charge of Mr. 
Cecil Meares, who with Lieutenant Bruce had brought them 
down from Siberia. The ponies after we left New Zealand 
were taken charge of by Captain Oates, of the Inniskilling 
Dragoons. 

The first exciting incident on the southward voyage 
occurred on December 2, when we encountered a gale which, in 
the deeply laden condition of the ship, nearly caused the loss of 
the expedition. First the engine-room choked, and then the 

" Reprinted, with the Maps from the '* Geographical Journal " by the kind 
permission of the Royal Geographical Society. 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 123 

hand pumps. Heavy seas washed over the vessel, and fires had 
to be extinguished as the engine-room was feet deep in water. 
"While the pump suctions were being cleared the after-guard 
formed a bucket discharge party and baled the ship out con- 
tinuously for twenty-four hours. At the end of this time the 
gale abated, and we proceeded southward, having come through 
with no loss save two ponies, and one dog which was drowned. 

Proceeding south on the meridian of 179° W., the first ice 
was seen in lat. 64° S. The ship passed all kinds of icebergs, 
from huge tabular to little weathered water-worn bergs. The 
Antarctic pack was reached on December 9, in lat. 65° S., and 
the ship boldly pushed through for some 200 miles under steam 
and sail, when her progress was retarded to such an extent that, 
to save coal, engines were stopped, sail was furled, and the ship 
lay under banked fires for some days. We spent three weeks 
in the pack, and emerged on December 30, after pushing 
through 380 miles of ice. The time was not wasted : magnetic 
observations, deep-sea soundings, and serial sea-temperatures 
were obtained. The zoologists and marine biologists secured 
valuable specimens. Once in open water we proceeded full 
speed to Cape Crozier, as Dr. Wilson wished to study the 
embryology of the Emperor penguins during the winter 
season. Captain Scott was quite prepared to make Cape 
Crozier our base, if a suitable landing-place was to be found. 
As no good place was to be seen, we rounded Cape Bird at mid- 
night and entered McMurdo Sound. It was remarkably clear 
of ice. We passed Shackleton's winter quarters, and noticed 
his hut at Cape Royds looking quite new and fresh. Six miles 
farther south the ship brought up against the fast ice, which 
extended right across the Sound. 

On January 4, 1911, thirty-six days out from New Zealand, 
Captain Scott, Wilson, and myself went across the ice and 
visited a little cape which looked, and subsequently proved to 
be, an ideal spot for wintering. This place Captain Scott 
named Cape Evans. Immediately the winter quarters were 
selected, out came the stores and transport. Lieutenant 
Pennell took charge of the ship. Lieutenant Campbell the trans- 
port, over the mile and a half of sea-ice; the charge of the base 
was given to me, while Captain Scott supervised, planned, and 
improved . 

Meares' dogs, Oates' ponies, and Day's motors, supple- 
anented by man-hauling parties, bustled between ship and 



124 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

shore, transporting stores over the frozen sea. At the cape, 
Davis, the carpenter, with his willing crew, put up the tent. 
In less than a week the main party had their equipment ashore. 
We will now follow Captain Scott and his companions at the 
principal base. The weather was so hot when first we landed 
that the ice melted, and we could wash in fresh water and even 
draw our drinking water from a cascade. We built ice-caves 



IGO^Loug". 170 East J80 LongM70 Vest 160 




BRITISH 

ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION 

1910-13. 



to stow our fresh mutton in and for magnetic observations. 
Outside the hut we soon had fine stables. Directly the con- 
struction of the base station was assured away went every avail- 
able man to lay a depot. We said good-bye to the ship, and 
on January 24, 1911, Captain Scott and eleven companions left 
with two dog teams and eight ponies to lay out a depot of food- 
stuffs before the Antarctic winter set in. Nearly one ton of 
provisions was taken out to a point 144 miles from our base. 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 125 

This spot was named One Ton Depot. The party for the 
return journey was split up into three detachments. Captain 
Scott, with Meares, Wilson, and Cherry Garrard, came home 
with the dogs. Scott and Meares had the misfortune to run 
along the snow bridge of a crevasse. The bridge gave way, 
and all the dogs but Osman, the leader, and the two rear 
animals, disappeared down a yawning chasm. With the 
greatest difficulty the dogs were rescued. Scott and Meares 
were lowered by, Wilson and Cherry Garrard into the crevasse. 
They found the dogs twisting round suspended by the harness, 
fighting, howling, and snapping. One by one they were freed 
from the trace and hauled up on to solid ice; as each animal 
regained safety he lay down and slept. It was an anxious 
period for all concerned. Captain Scott spoke most highly of 
Wilson, Meares, and Cherry Garrard's behaviour and resource 
on this occasion. 

One party, consisting of the second in command and two 
seamen, returned from the depot with the three oldest and 
weakest ponies — Blossom, Blucher, and James Pig. The ponies 
were in very poor condition, and Oates, their master, expected 
all three to give out on their return march. They were chris- 
tened by the seamen '^ The Baltic Fleet." Two of them died 
owing to the severe weather conditions that obtained at the end 
of February, but the third pony, James Pig, was a pluck}' little 
animal, and he survived. Lieutenant Bowers, in charge of the 
detachment which built up " One Ton Depot," returned after 
the other two parties. He had with him Cherry Garrard and 
Crean when on March 1 he was sent across the sea-ice to reach 
Hut Point. The ponies were tired and listless after their 
hard journey and in bad condition, and they had to be fre- 
quently rested. As they advanced towards Hut Point cracks 
in the ice became apparent, and when the party reached a crack 
which showed the ice to be actually on the move, they turned 
and hastened back — but the ice was drifting out to sea ! The 
ponies behaved splendidly, jumping the ever-widening cracks 
with extraordinary sagacity. Bowers, Cherry Garrard, and 
Crean launched the sledges back over the cracks in order not to 
risk the ponies' legs. Eventually they reached what looked 
like a safe place. Men and ponies were thoroughly exhausted. 
Camp was pitched, and the weary party soon fell asleep. 
Bowers soon awoke, hearing a strange noise. He found the 
party in a dreadful plight — the ice had again commenced to 



126 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

break up, and tliey were surrounded by water. One of their 
four ponies had disappeared in the sea. Camp was again 
struck, and for five hours this noble little party fought their 
way over three-quarters of a mile of drifting ice. They never 
thought of abandoning their charge, realising that Scott's 
Polar plans might be ruined if four more ponies were lost with 
their sledges and equipment. Crean, with great gallantry, 
went for support, clambering with diflS.culty over the ice. He 
jumped from floe to floe, and at last climbed up the face of the 
Barrier from a piece of ice which touched the ice-cliff at the 
right .moment. Cherry Garrard stayed with Bowers at his 
request, for little Bowers would never give up his charge while 
a gleam of hope remained. For a whole day these two were 
afloat, and eventually Captain Scott, Gates, Gran, and Crean 
appeared on the Barrier edge, and on seeing them Bowers and 
Cherry Garrard jumped some floes till they reached a piece of 
ice resting against the Barrier face, thanks to the returti of the 
tide. Bowers and Cherry Garrard were rescued, and after a 
further piece of manoeuvring a pony and all the sledges were 
recovered. The other three ponies were drowned. During 
this trying time Killer whales were about almost continuously, 
blowing and snorting in the intervening water spaces. Only 
those who have served in the Antarctic can realise fully what 
Bowers' party, and also Scott's own rescue party, went through. 

By March 4 all the depot parties were safely, if not com- 
fortably, housed at Hut Point, with the two dog teams and the 
two remaining ponies. We were unable to return to Cape 
Evans for six weeks, as the sea would not freeze over properly 
on account of persistent high winds. "We lived in the old hut 
left by the Discovery, and our existence was rather primitive. 
Meares and Gates perfected a blubber stove. We killed seals, 
and thus obtained food and fuel. Although rather short of 
luxuries, such as sugar, we were never in any great want of 
good plain food, and the time passed agreeably enough. On 
March 14 the depot party was joined by Grifiith Taylor, Deben- 
ham, Wright, and Petty-Officer Evans. 

Taylor's party had been landed by the Terra Nova on 
January 27, after the start of the depot party, to make a geo- 
graphical reconnaissance. They traversed the Ferrar glacier, 
and then came down a new glacier, which Scott named after 
Taylor, and descended into Dry Valley, so called because it 
was entirely free from snow. Their way led over a deep 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 127 

freshwater lake four miles long, which was only surface frozen. 
This lake was full of algse. The gravels below — a promising 
region of limestones, rich in garnets — were washed for gold, 
but only magnetite was found. When Taylor had thoroughly 
explored and examined this region his party retraced their 
footsteps and proceeded southward to examine the Koettlitz 
glacier. They returned from the Koettlitz glacier along the 
edge of the almost impenetrable pinnacle ice, and part of their 
journey actually led them through an extraordinary and diffi- 
cult ice-field. It took two days to negotiate six miles of this 
surface; the party were then able to get back on to sea-ice, and 
without mishap marched to Hut Point. 

We now numbered sixteen at this congested station, and 15 
miles of open water separated us from Cape Evans. The gales 
were so bad that spray dashed over the hut sometimes, and all 
round the low-lying parts of the coast spray ridges of ice 
formed . But at last ice formed which was not blown out, first 
in little pancakes, which cemented together and formed floes, 
these in their turn were frozen together, and at last a party of 
nine made the passage over the new sea-ice to Cape Evans, and 
on April 13, 1911, they marched into the hut at our main base, 
dirty but cheerful. The cook soon had all kinds of luxuries 
prepared for us. Captain Scott was delighted at the progress 
made by those left in our hut under Dr. Simpson. 

And now that communication was established between Hut 
Point and Cape Evans we settled down for the winter. Thanks 
to Pouting, our photographic artist, we have a magnificent pic- 
torial record of events. Pouting went everywhere with his 
camera and kinematograph machine. Even when .we came 
south in the ship he kinematographed the bow of the Terra 
Nova breaking the ice. If a sledge party set out, a penguin 
appeared, or a pony " played up," or even if a dog broke adrift. 
Pouting was there with his artillery ready for action. He 
even had a galloping carriage with his quick-firing cameras 
drawn by dogs. He would get seals to pose for him if he 
wished, by his persuasive methods, or by exciting their 
curiosity. Pouting never missed an opportunity of making an 
artistic photograph. 

We must now hurry through four months' darkness. The 
first winter seemed to pass very quickly. Every one was busy 
at his special subject. Dr. Wilson, the chief of our scientific 
staff, helped us all. He was our Solomon. To " Uncle Bill " 



128 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

we all went for sound practical advice. Wilson was a friend 
and companion of Captain Scott, and, indeed, to all in tlie 
Expedition. 

During the winter months holes were made in the sea-ice 
through which we lowered a wire fish tray. By this means we 
caught a number of Notathenia. When Atkinson, the Helmin- 
thologist, had examined these fish, they were handed to the 



166^ 




Routes of 
I St Year -^ 

1/T~.. \Criffiths Ta-ylor 

Wilson 



Stafute Miles 

10 O lO 20 30 40 50 



JI60 



cook, who served them up for breakfast. These fish were a 
great delicacy. 

A small hut was erected some 50 yards from the main station 
to contain the magnetic observatory under Dr. G. C, Simpson, 
of Simla. His place was at the base station; his important 
work as physicist and meteorologist prevented him from taking 
an active part in our sledge journeys. When he was recalled 
to Simla in 1912, his work was ably continued by Wright, the 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 129 

Canadian chemist, who made a special study of ice structure 
and glaciation. 

On June 27 Dr. Wilson, with Bowers and Cherry Garrard, 
started on a remarkable journey to Cape Crozier. Their object 
was to observe the incubation of the Emperor penguins at their 
rookery. During this first Antarctic mid-winter journey the 
temperatures were seldom above 60°, and they actually fell to 
77° below zero, that is 109° of frost. The party took a fort- 
night to reach Cape Crozier, meeting with good weather — that 
is, calm weather — but bad surfaces, which handicapped them 
severely. After rounding Cape Mackay they reached a wind- 
swept area, and experienced a series of blizzards. Their best 
light was moonlight, and they were denied this practically by 
overcast skies. Picture their hardships — frozen bags to sleep 
in, frozen finneskoe to put their feet in every time they struck 
camp. They scarcely slept at all. And when they reached 
Cape Crozier, only about one hundred Emperor penguins could 
be seen. In the Discovery days this rookery was found to con- 
tain two or three thousand birds. Possibly the early date 
accounted for the absence of Emperors. However, half a dozen 
Q^g% were collected, and three of these are now in our pos- 
session. Wilson on his return told us that he picked up 
rounded pieces of ice which the stupid birds had. been cherish- 
ing, fondly imagining they were eggs. The maternal instinct 
of the penguin is very strong. 

At Cape Crjozier, Wilson's party had built a stone hut 
behind a land ridge on the slopes of Mount Terror. This hut 
was roofed with canvas. The same night that the eggs were 
collected a terrific storm arose. One of the hurricane gusts of 
wind swept the roof of the hut away, and for two days the 
unfortunate party lay in their bags half-smothered with fine 
drifting snow. The second day was Dr. Wilson's birthday. 
He told me afterwards that had the gale not abated, then they 
must all three have perished. They dare not stir out of the 
meagre shelter afforded by their bags. Wilson prayed hard 
that they might be spared. His prayer was answered; but, as 
you know, two of this courageous little band lost their lives 
later on in their eager thirst for scientific knowledge. When 
the three men crept out of their bags into the dull winter gloom 
they groped about and searched for their tent, which had blown 
away from its pitch near the stone hut. By an extraordinary 
piece of good fortune it was recovered, scarcely damaged, a 



130 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

quarter of a mile away. Wilson, Bowers, and Cherry Garrard 
started home the next day. They were caught by another 
blizzard, which imprisoned them in their tent for forty-eight 
hours. After a very rough march, full of horrible hardships 
and discomforts, the little band won through and reached Cape 
Evans on August 1, having faced the dreadful winter weather 
conditions on the great ice barrier for five weeks. On their return 
they wanted bread, butter, and jam most, and loaves disappeared 
with extraordinary speed. They were suffering from want of 
sleep, but were all right in a few days. A remarkable feature of 
this journey was the increase of weights due to ice collecting in 
the sleeping-bags, tent, and clothing. The three sleeping-bags 
weighed 47 lbs. at the start, and 118 lbs. on their return. 
Other weights increased in the same proportion, and their 
sledge had dragged very heavily in consequence. The three 
men, when they arrived in the hut, were almost encased with 
ice. I well remember undressing poor Wilson in the cubicle 
he and I shared. His clothes had almost to be cut off him. 

From this journey we derived additional experience in the 
matter of sledging rations. Thanks to the experiments made, 
we arrived at the most suitable ration. This was for the colder 
weather expected during the second half of the forthcoming 
Polar journey. It was to consist of 16 ozs. biscuit, 12 ozs. 
pemmican, 3 ozs. sugar, 2 ozs. butter, 0.7 oz. tea, 0.6 oz. 
cocoa — equals 34.4 ozs. food daily. This is one man's food per 
day. No one could possibly eat this in a temperate climate; 
it was a fine filling ration even for the Antarctic. The pem- 
mican consists of beef extract with 60 per cent, pure fat. 

No casualties occurred during the winter, but Dr. Atkinson 
had a severely frostbitten hand. He had gone out to read a 
thermometer on the sea-ice 800 yards from the hut. It was 
blowing and drifting, and Atkinson lost his way in the blizzard. 
He was adrift for eight hours, but luckily found his way back 
during a lull in the weather. 

During the second half of the winter we were all busy pre- 
paring for the sledge expedition to the Pole. Food rations had 
to be prepared, instruments calibrated, sledges specially fitted 
to carry the travelling equipment, and our own clothes adapted 
for sledging according to experience gained in the depot and 
winter journeys. Meares and the second in command took parties 
out and laid depots during the early spring, and Captain Scott 
made a coastal journey to the west. These spring journeys 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 131 

were all interesting in their way, but cannot now be dwelt on 
owing to time limit. 

On October 24 the advance guard of the Southern party, 
consisting of Day, Lashly, Hooper and myself, left with two 
motor sledges. We had with us three tons of stores, pony food 
and petrol, carried on six sledges. The object of sending for- 
ward such a weight of stores was to save the ponies' legs over 
the variable sea-ice, which was in some places hummocky, and 
in others too slippery to stand on. The first 30 miles of Barrier 
was known to be bad travelling. The motor party had rather 
trying experiences, owing to the frequent over-heating of the 
air-cooled engines. Directly the engines became too hot we 
had to stop, and by the time they were reasonably cooled the 
carburetter would refuse duty — it had often to be warmed up 
with a blowlamp. Day and Lashly, the engineers, had great 
trouble in starting the motor-sledges . We all four would heave 
on the spans of the towing-sledges, to ease the starting strain ; 
the engines would generally give a few sniffs, and then stop. 
It is true that the motors advanced the necessaries for the 
Southern journey 51 miles, but at the expense of the men who 
had charge of them. The engineers continually got their 
fingers frost-bitten tinkering with the engines and replacing 
big end brasses, which several times gave out. But although 
the temperatures were low, we were all very happy, and Day 
was most keen to bring the motors through with credit. They 
were abandoned a mile south of Corner Camp, but had ad- 
vanced their weights in turn over rough, slippery and crevassed 
ice, and thus given the ponies a chance to march light. 

The first 30 miles of barrier surface led over very deep soft 
snow, and, in fairness to the despised motors, they went better 
over soft snow than any other part of our transport. The man- 
hauling party, as we now became, marching for a fortnight, 
covered nearly 180 miles, and halted at a rendezvous on 
November 15 in lat. 80° 32^ south. We waited here six days, 
and built an enormous snow cairn 15 feet high. We called this 
rendezvous Mount Hooper, after our youngest member. 

On November 21, Captain Scott arrived with eleven men, 
ten ponies and two dog teams. We heard that they had been 
delayed partly by bad weather, and had purposely kept down 
the marches to give the weaker animals a chance. However, 
every one was well and eager to advance southward. Captain 
Scott ordered us to continue to go forward in advance of the 



132 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

dogs and ponies. We marched exactly 15 miles daily, erecting 
cairns at certain pre-arranged distances, surveying, navigating, 
and selecting the camping site. The ponies marching by night 
were able to rest when the sun was high and the air warmer. 
Meares' dogs would bring up the rear ; they started some hours 
after the ponies, as their speed was so much greater. 

Captain Scott's plans worked easily and well. The ponies 
pulled splendidly, and their masters vied with each other in 
their care and management. Oates always kept a very careful 
look-out on his charges. The tough little beasts pulled about 
650 lbs. each, and were fed daily on 10 lbs. of oats and 3 lbs. 
of oilcake. On camping, large walls would be erected by the 
pony leaders to shelter their animals from the wind, and while 
this was being done the cook of each tent would prepare the 
supper hoosh. We were all so happy and full of life on the 
march over the great ice barrier that we often would wrestle 
and skylark at the end of the day. We had our good and bad 
weather, and we had our turns of snow blindness. This ail- 
ment was common to the ponies and dogs as well as to our- 
selves. Depots were made every 65 miles. They were marked 
by big black flags, and we saw one of them, Mount Hooper, 
9 miles away. Each depot contained one week's rations for 
every returning unit. That outward barrier march will long 
be remembered — it was so full of life, health and hope. Our 
sad days came when the ponies were killed one by one. But 
hunger soon defeated sentiment, and we used to relish our 
pony meat, which made the hoosh more solid and satisfactory. 
Day and Hooper were the first to return, their places being 
taken in the man-hauling party by Atkinson and Wright, 
whose ponies, Jehu and Chinaman, were first shot. With two 
invalid dogs. Day and Hooper left us at 81° 15^ and marched 
back to the base. With only two they had great difficulty in 
pulling their sledge home, so cut it in half and saved them- 
selves considerable labour. On December 4 we arrived within 
12 miles of Shackleton's Gap or Southern Gateway. We could 
see the outflow of the Beardmore glacier stretching away to our 
left as we advanced southward that day. Hopes ran high, 
for we still had the dogs and five ponies to help us. Captain 
Scott expected to camp on the Beardmore itself after the next 
march. Luck was against us. On December 5 we encountered 
a blizzard which lasted four whole days. The temperature 
rose to 35° Fahrenheit, and the drift was very bad indeed. 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 133 

The snow was in big flakes, driving from tlie S.S.E., but as 
the gale took its course snow was succeeded by sleet, and even 
rain. The barrier surface was covered with 18 inches of slush. 
The poor ponies had continually to be dug out from the snow- 
drifts, which accumulated behind their walls. The dogs 
suffered less, but they themselves looked like wet rats when 
Meares and Demitri went to feed them. All our tents, clothing 
and sleeping-bags were soaked. On December 9 the blizzard 
was over, and all hands dug out sledges and stores. We 
wallowed sometimes thigh deep in this Antarctic morass, and 
after marching for fourteen days on end the remaining five 
ponies were shot, as no food was left for them. Poor things ! 
they did their job well, and I believe every pony leader gave 
half his biscuits to his own animal, so they had some little 
reward for their last march. 

As arranged, three teams of four, pulling 170 lbs. per 
man, now advanced up the glacier. Meares and his Russian 
dog-boy came along with us for two marches, and then turned 
homeward. To help us Meares had travelled further south 
than his return rations allowed for, and for the 450-mile north- 
ward march to Cape Evans he and his companion Demitri 
went short one meal a day, rather than deplete the depots. It 
is a dreadful thing on an Antarctic sledge journey to forfeit 
a whole meal daily, and Meares' generosity should not be for- 
gotten. The advance of the twelve men up the Beardmore was 
retarded considerably by the soft wet snow which had accumu- 
lated in the lower reaches of the glacier. Panting and sweat- 
ing, we could only make four-mile marches until the 15th. But 
after that the surfaces were better, and we were far less tired 
in doing more than twice the distances. 

On December 16 we reached Blue Ice, 3,000 feet above the 
barrier, and, with the exception of little delays caused by 
people falling into crevasses, our progress was not impeded. 
Wilson did a large amount of sketching on the Beardmore. 
His sketches, besides being wonderful works of art, helped us 
very much in our surveys. We had fine weather generally, 
and with twelve men the Beardmore glacier was overcome 
without great difficulty. Of course, we had Shackleton's 
charts, diaries, and experience to help us. We often discussed 
Shackleton's journey, and were amazed at his fine performance. 
We always had full rations, which Shackleton's party never 
enjoyed at this stage. Our marches from December 16 worked 
up from 13 to 23 miles a day. 



Xong.S. 



Xoiv|."W., 



BRITISH 
ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION 
1910- 13. 



ScaJe 1:13,000,000 orlIttnh.= 205StBt.Maec 

300 




The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 135 

On December 21 we were on the plateau in lat. 85° 7^ S., 
6,800 feet above tbe barrier, and fit and ready to go forward. 
Here we established tbe Upper Glacier depot. The third 
supporting party, consisting of Atkinson, Wright, Cherry 
Garrard, and Keohane, left us the next day, and marched 
home 584 miles. They spent Christmas Day collecting geo- 
logical specimens, and reached Cape Evans on January 28, 
after a strenuous journey of 1,164 miles. They had some sick- 
ness in the shape of enteritis and scurvy. But Dr. Atkinson's 
care and medical knowledge brought them through safely. 

Captain Scott with his two sledge teams now pushed for- 
ward, keeping an average speed of 15 miles a day wij:h full 
loads of 190 lbs. a man. We steered south-west for the first 
two days after leaving the Beardmore, to avoid the great 
pressure ridges and icefalls which were plainly visible to the 
south. On December 23 we came across enormous crevasses 
which were as big as Regent Street. They were nearly all well 
bridged with snow, but we took them at the rush and had no 
serious falls. The dangerous part is at the edge of the snow 
bridge, and we frequently fell through up to our armpits, just 
stepping on to or leaving the bridge. We experienced on this 
plateau the same tingling southerly wind that Shackleton 
speaks of, and men's noses were frequently frost-bitten. On 
Christmas Eve we were 8,000 feet above the barrier, and we 
imagined we were clear of crevasses and pressure ridges. We 
now felt the cold far more, when marching, than we had done 
on the Beardmore. The wind all the time turned our breath 
into cakes of ice on our beards. Taking sights when we stopped 
was a bitterly cold job, fingers had to be bared to work the 
little theodolite screws, and in the biting wind one's finger-tips 
soon went. On Christmas Day we marched 17 J miles, and 
during the forenoon again crossed a badly crevassed area. 
Lashly celebrated his forty-fourth birthday by falling into a 
crevasse 8 feet wide. The laden sledge just bridged the chasm, 
and poor Lashly was suspended below spinning round with 80 
feet of clear space beneath him. We had great difficulty in 
hauling him up on account of his being directly under the 
sledge. When he reached the surface, one of the party wished 
him a happy Christmas and another many happy returns. I 
will not tell you what Lashly 's reply was. 

At 7.30 we camped and had our Christmas dinner — extra 
thick pemmican with pony meat in it, a chocolate and biscuit 



136 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

hoosh, plum pudding, cocoa, ginger, and caramels, and a mug 
of water each. We were all so full that we could hardly 
shift our foot-gear, and although the temperature was well 
below zero, we lay on our sleeping-bags unable to muster the 
energy to get into them. The 87th parallel was reached on 
New Year's Eve, after a short march; we made a depot here, 
and the seamen of the party converted the 12-foot sledges 
into 10-foot ones by the spare short runners we had brought 
along. This took nine hours, but the reduction in bearing 
surface was worth it. "We saw the New Year in that night 
with a fine feed of pemmican and a stick of chocolate which 
Bowers had kept for the occasion. 

On January 3, Captain Scott came into our tent and told 
us that he was sure that he could reach the Pole if my party 
gave up one man and made the homeward journey short- 
handed. Of course we consented, and Bowers was taken into 
the Polar party. On January 4 the last supporting party, 
consisting of Lashly, Crean, and myself, marched south to 
lat, 87° 34^ with the Polar party, and seeing that they were 
travelling rapidly, yet easily, we halted, shook hands all round, 
and said good-bye. 

Up to this time no traces of the successful Norwegians had 
been seen, and we all fondly imagined that our flag would 
be the first to fly at the South Pole. We gave three huge 
cheers for the Southern party as they stepped ofl, and then 
turned our sledge and commenced our homeward march of 
nearly 800 miles. We frequently looked back until we saw 
the last of Captain Scott and his four companions, a tiny black 
speck on the horizon, and little did we think that we were 
the last to see them alive, that our three cheers were the last 
appreciation they would ever know. 

The return of the last supporting party nearly ended in 
disaster, After the flrst day's homeward march, we found 
that we could not do the necessary distances in the nine hours, 
owing to being a man short. This was serious, and in order 
not to make my seamen companions anxious, that night I 
handspiked my watch, putting the hands on one hour, so that 
we therefore turned out about 4 a.m., making: from ten to 
twelve hours a day. On January 8 we were overtaken by a 
blizzard, which continued for three days. We dare not stop 
our marches, and thanks to the wind being with us we were 
able to push on. But the soft snow spoilt the surface, and 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 137 

the outlook was so bad we cut off a big corner and saved two 
days' marcli, by shaping course direct for the Upper Glacier 
Depot under Mount Darwin. This led us over Shackleton's 
ice-falls at the head of the Beardmore glacier. We descended 
many hundred feet, mostly riding on the sledge; we had 
frequent capsizes and broke the bow of the sledge. Crean had 
the misfortune to catch his trousers somehow in our headlong 
flight and had them torn to shreds. We reached the Upper 
Glacier Depot the same day, however, and reclothed Crean, 
who had left a pair of Mandleberg wind-proof trousers in the 
depot cairn with some of his tobacco wrapped up in them. 

Returning down the Beardmore, we had some misty weather 
which hid the land, and we were embarrassed by getting into 
a mass of ice-falls, pressure ridges, and crevasses. We fell 
about a great deal, and were two days getting clear. We had 
no food left, and when we reached the next depot under 
Cloudmaker mountain we had marched 17 miles without any- 
thing to eat except one biscuit and a mug of tea. To make 
things worse, I developed scurvy about January 17, when we 
had 500 miles to go. My condition became daily more serious, 
until I entirely lost the use of my legs. But I could not 
afford to give up as I was the only one in the party who knew 
anything about navigation, and I had to keep them marching 
until they could see Mount Erebus, or some known landmark. 
When 75 miles from Hut Point I ordered Crean and Lashly 
to leave me with my sleeping-bag and some food, and go on, 
sending out relief if possible. They refused to do this, and 
strapping me on the sledge, dragged me 40 miles in four days, 
helped by a southerly wind. When 35 miles from Hut Point 
we had a heavy snowfall, which made it impossible for Lashly 
and Crean to move the sledge. 

Crean then left us on February 19, and marched for 
eighteen hours with nothing to eat but a few biscuits. He 
plodded on solidly through the soft snow, and eventually 
reached Hut Point utterly exhausted and numbed with cold; 
but he gave our whereabouts to Dr. Atkinson, who was there 
with Demetri and the dog-teams, and they came out and 
rescued us. Lashly undoubtedly saved my life by his careful 
nursing. It was very brave of him to stay with me, as he only 
had three meals left, and if relief had not come in time he 
could never have walked in without food, as he himself waa 
very done after hauling in my sledge-team for over 1,500 miles. 



138 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Crean Yolunteered to come out again with Atkinson, but was, 
of course, not allowed to. 

And now we will turn again to the Polar party itself. They 
covered the 145 geographical miles that remained in a fort- 
night. Captain Scott came across Amundsen's dog-tracks 
soon after lat. 88°, and followed them to the Polar area. Scott, 
Wilson, Gates, Bowers, and Seaman Evans reached the South 
Pole on January 17, 1912. They fixed the exact spot by 
means of a 4-inch theodolite, and the result of their careful 
observations located the Pole at a point which only differed 
from Amundsen's by half a mile, as shown by his flag. This 
difference actually meant that the British and Norwegian 
observers differed by one scale division on the theodolite, which 
was graduated to half a minute of arc. Experts in naviga- 
tion and surveying will always look on this splendidly accurate 
determination as a fine piece of work by our own people as well 
as by the Norwegian expedition. 

Lady Scott has remarked on the magnificent spirit shown by 
her husband and his four specially selected tent-mates, when they 
knew that Queen Alexandra's little silk Union Jack had been 
anticipated by the flag of another nation. Scott and his com- 
panions had done their best, and never from one of them came an 
uncharitable remark. On January 19 the homeward march was 
commenced; the party had before them a distance of over 900 
miles. They came back at a fine pace over the ice-capped 
plateau. A blizzard stopped them from travelling on January 
25, but otherwise their progress was. not retarded materially. 
Seaman Evans was causing anxiety, and his condition 
naturally worried Captain Scott and his comrades. But, how- 
ever great their anxieties, they looked after Evans most care- 
fully, and hoped to pull him through. He was rested on the 
Beardmore glacier. Gates looking after him while the others 
made a halt for geographical investigation by the Cloudmaker 
depot. But Evans also sustained a serious concussion through 
falling and hitting his head, and then the party were greatly 
hampered. They were so delayed that the surplus foodstuffs 
rapidly diminished, and the outlook became serious. Bad 
weather was encountered, and near the foot of the Beardmore 
poor Seaman Evans died. He was a man of enormous strength, 
a tried sledger, and a veteran in Antarctic experience. Cap- 
tain Scott had the highest opinion of this British seaman. He 
was the sledge-master, and to Evans we owed the splendid 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 139 

fitting of our travelling- equipment, every detail of whicli came 
under his charge. 

Seaman Evans' death took place on February 17, and then 
the bereaved littlo band pushed northward with fine per- 
severance, although they must have known by their gradually 
shortening marches that little hope of reaching their winter 
quarters remained. Their best march on the Barrier was only 

9 miles, and in the later vstages their marches dropped to 3 
miles. The depots were 65 miles apart, and contained six 
weeks' provisions; they knew their slow progress was not good 
enough, but they could not increase their speed over such bad 
surfaces. The temperature fell as they advanced, instead of 
rising as expected, and we find them recording a temperature 
of — 46.2 one night. 

Poor Gates' feet and hands were badly frost-bitten — he con- 
fitantly appealed to Wilson for advice. What should he do, 
what could he doi^ Poor gallant soldier, we thought such 
worlds of him. Wilson could only answer, "Slog on^ — just 
slog on." On March 17, which was Gates' birthday, he walked 
out to his death in a noble endeavour to save his three comrades 
beset with hardships, and as our dead leader wrote, " It was the 
act of a brave man and an English gentleman.^' 

Scott, Wilson and Bowers fought on until March 21, only 
doing about 20 miles in the four days, and then they wer6 
forced to camp 11 miles south of Gne Ton Depot. They were 
kept here by a blizzard, which was too violent to permit them 
to move, and on March 25 Captain Scott wrote his great 
message to the public. 

Thanks to Atkinson and the search party, we have all the 
records of these brave men, and so the surviving members 
of the expedition can work on them, and for Scott's and 
Wilson's sakes particularly let us hope justice will be done to 
these same records. 

I must now take you right away from the main party to 
give you an insight into Lieut. Victor Campbell's work. 
Campbell's party consisted of Surgeon Levick, Raymond 
Priestley, geologist, and Seamen Abbott, Browning and 
Dickason. Lieut. Pennell, who now commanded the Terra 
Nova, took this expedition along the Barrier to King Edward's 
Land in the beginning of February, 1911. They got within 

10 miles of Cape Colbeck, but the most formidable pack ice 
yet seen lay between them and the ice cliffs of this inhospitable- 



140 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

looking land. It was out of the question for Campbell to put 
his hut and gear out on to sea-ice, with no certain prospect 
of heing able to climb the cliffs of King Edward YII. Land. 
So he and Pennell reluctantly returned to seek a landing else- 
where. 

Coal was short, and the season drawing on. The Terra 
Nova steamed back along the face of the Great Ice Barrier, and 
in the Bay of Whales sighted the Fram, The two ships' com- 
panies soon made friends, and the commanding officers ex- 
changed calls. Amundsen was anxious for Campbell to winter 
alongside of him, but Campbell decided to make his winter 
quarters in another region — it being undesirable to have two 
expeditions wintering at the same base. Campbell eventually 
landed at Cape Adare, after vainly searching for a more pro- 
fitable wintering place. He was most handicapped by the 
shortage of coal in the Terra Nova, which limited the radius of 
their search. 

Campbell and his party did excellent meteorological, geo- 
logical and magnetic work, and he himself made some very> 
good surveys. Levick made a special study of the penguins, 
and Priestley, with his previous Antarctic knowledge, made him- 
self invaluable, apart from his own scientific work. Campbell 
was loud in his praise of the seamen in this party. 

Lieut. Pennell, in the Terra Nova, revisited Cape Adare 
after the first winter, took off the party and their collections, 
and landed them again on January 8 at the Terra Nova Bay, 
to sledge round Mount Melbourne to "Wood bay, and examine 
this part of Victoria Land. Campbell and his crew returned, 
after a month's sledge journey to Terra Nova bay, on February 
6. They had found garnets and many excellent fossils on 
this trip. Campbell did some very good work surveying, and 
has added a good deal to the existing maps. 

On February 17, the party began to look for the Terra Novo, 
but as time went on and she did not put in an appearance, 
Campbell prepared to winter. Pennell, who had brought the 
Terra Nova back to pick this sledge team up, met with ice con- 
ditions that were insuperable, and never got within 30 miles 
of Terra Nova bay. Pennell, Rennick and Bruce did all that 
any men could do to work their ship through, but communica- 
tion was impossible that season, and so Campbell was left with 
only four weeks' sledging provisions to face an Antarctic 
winter. His party could not have been better chosen to help 
him through this ordeal. Campbell knew his men absolutely, 



The British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-13 141 

and they themselves were lucky in having such a resourceful 
and determined officer in charge. 

On March 1 Campbell selected a hard snow slope for their 
winter home, and into this they cut and burrowed until they 
had constructed an igloo or snow house, 13 feet by 9 feet. This 
they insulated with blocks of snow and seaweed. A trench 
roofed with sealskins and snow formed the entrance, and at the 
sides of this passage they had their store rooms and larder. 

All the time this house was under construction a party was 
employed killing penguins and seals, for which they kept a 
constant look-out. By March 15 their larder contained 120 
penguins and 11 seals. After this date gale succeeded gale, and 
the winter set in with a long round of bad weather. 

Campbell and his companions led a very primitive existence 
here for six and a half months. They only had their light 
summer sledging clothes to wear, and these soon became 
saturated with blubber; their hair and beards grew, and they 
were soon recognizable only by their voices. Some idea of 
their discomforts will be gleaned by a description of their 
diet. Owing to their prospective journey to Cape Evans, 
Campbell had to first reduce the biscuit supply from eight to 
two biscuits a day, and then to one. 

Generally their diet consisted of one mug of pemmican and 
seal hoosh and one biscuit for breakfast. Nothing for lunch. 
One and a half mug of seal, one biscuit and three-quarters 
pint of thin cocoa for supper. On Sunday, weak tea was sub- 
stituted for cocoa ; this they reboiled for Monday's supper, and 
they used the dried tea-leaves for tobacco on Tuesday. Their 
only luxuries were a piece of chocolate and twelve lumps of 
sugar weekly. They sometimes used tea-leaves and wood 
shavings for tobacco. They kept twenty-five raisins each for 
birthdays. One lucky find was thirty-six fish in the stomach 
of a seal, which, fried in blubber, proved excellent. The 
biscuit ration bad to be stopped entirely from July to September. 
The six men cooked their food in sea-water as they had no 
salt, and seaweed was used as a vegetable. Priestley did not 
like it, and no wonder, for it had probably rotted in the sun for 
years, and the penguins had trampled it all down, etc. 

Campbell kept a wonderful discipline in his party, and as 
they were sometimes confined to the igloo for days, Swedish 
drill was introduced to keep them healthy. A glance at their 
weather record shows how necessary this was. We find one day 



l4Ji Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

snowing hard, next day blowing hard, and the third day 
blowing and snowing, nearly all through the winter. But 
there was never a complaint. On Sundays divine service was 
performed. This consisted of Campbell reading a chapter of 
the Bible, followed by hymns. They had no hymn-book, but 
Priestley remembered several, while Abbot and Browning and 
Dickason had all been at some time or other in a choir. 

To add to their discomforts, owing to the state of their 
clothing and meagre food supply, they were very susceptible to 
frost-bites, and Jack Frost made havoc with feet, fingers and 
faces. Then sickness set in, in the shape of enteritis — 
Browning suffering dreadfully, but always remaining cheerful. 
The sickness was undoubtedly due to their meat diet, and its 
ravages weakened the party sadly. 

On May 6 Campbell's party sustained a severe disappoint- 
ment, for they saw what appeared to be four men coming to- 
wards them. Immediately they jumped to the conclusion that 
the ship had been frozen in and this was a search party. The 
four figures turned out to be Emperor penguins, and although 
disappointing in one way they served to replenish the larder, 
and so had their use. 

Campbell and his five companions started for Cape Evans 
on September 30. Progress was slow and the party weak, but 
thanks to their grit and to Campbell's splendid leadership, this 
party all got through to the winter quarters alive. Browning 
had to be carried on the sledge part of the way, but fortunately 
they picked up one of Griffith Taylor's depots, and the biscuit 
found here quite altered Browning's condition. 

It seems a pity that full justice cannot be done to all the 
parties who went forth sledging in various directions, but a 
single lecture does not permit very full descriptions. Grifiith 
Taylor, the Australian physiographer, with Debenham, Gran, 
and Seaman Forde, made a most valuable journey along the 
coast of Victoria Land for geological and surveying purposes. 
I hope Taylor will deliver a paper on this expedition at some 
future date. The work of the Terra Nova is also worthy of a 
special lecture; and here I would like to say that Lieut. 
Pennell, her commander, Lieuts. Rennick and Bruce, Mr. 
Drake and Mr. Lillie, have worked incessantly in the ship and 
on the less frequented coasts of New Zealand for nearly three 
years. They have been ably and loyally assisted by the seamen 
and stokers of the Terra Nova — worthy fellows, whose bye-word 
has been, " Play the game.'' 



The Formation of the Soil of Hungary 143 

THE FORMATION OF THE SOIL OF HUNGARY * 
By Bela de Inkey (Ex-Professor of Geology). 

{Communicated by Mr. W. H. Shrubsole, F.G.S,, in place 

of a Report of the Lecture delivered by him, on 

Tuesday, November 18th, 1913.) 

About a thousand years ago seven tribes of Magyars, conducted 
by their elected chief Arpad, crossed the Eastern Carpathians 
and took possession of all the land encircled by these moun- 
tains and the Danube. 

There these hitherto nomadic people settled down and laid 
the foundation of the Hungarian State. 

The land, which thus became national property, also has its 
history, the opening chapter of which may be found by tracing 
backward the stages of geological evolution to the period when 
the outlines of the present features of the land began to be 
visible. 

This period is marked with sufficient exactness as being in 
the middle of the Tertiary Period, when enormous changes took 
place in the features of ancient Europe; when, by horizontal 
movements of large masses of the earth's crust and by compres- 
sion of the formerly level strata, most of the mountain chains of 
Europe were uplifted. 

Supervening on these changes volcanic energy revived with 
extraordinary force, and began to build up its own monuments ; 
while elsewhere large tracts of land subsided and formed new 
sea-basins. 

The result was the present contour of the south of Europe, 
the formation of the Alps, the Apennines, the Carpathians, and 
the Balkans, as well as the Mediterranean Sea, 

The Alps of Switzerland and Austria consist of a group of 
highly-compressed folds running mainly west and east. But 
towards the east the pressure seems to have relaxed, and the 
folds begin to diverge like the ribs of an open fan. On the 
southern side the folded ridges turn to the south-east, and form 
the Dinaric Alps around the Adriatic Sea. 

* The Society is in lebted to the Hungarian State Railways, through Mr. 
Shrubsole, for the illustrations. 



144 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

The northern part of the mountain folds turns north-east 
till it reaches the Danube near Hainburg, the low chain on the 
opposite bank being the beginning of the Carpathians. 

In the angle formed by the divergence of the Alpine folds 
lies the bay of Gratz, filled up now with the sediment of 
Tertiary seas. 

Around it some of the central branches of the Alpine system 
extend their diminishing ends eastward, but soon disappear in 
the Hungarian plains; only one of them seems to survive in 
the mountain-chain, known as the Bakony Forest, that runs 
east-north-east, and divides the lesser Hungarian Plain from 
the Great Alfold. 

Differing from the Alps in structure and composition, but 
due to the same process of side pressure and folding, the Car- 
pathian range describes part of a vast circle around Hungary, 
enclosing that country on three sides. In the south-east corner 
of Transylvania the chain bends sharply to the west, and, still 
marking the boundary of Hungary, extends to Orsova, where 
for the second time it encounters the Danube, whose picturesque 
channel separates it from the Balkans. 

The land area within the Carpathian ring is mainly a 
sunken lowland traversed by the Danube, whose entrance into 
the circle we have noticed as occurring between Hainburg and 
Deveny. 

Crossing first the smaller Hungarian Plain, the mighty 
stream flows through a lovely channel between large masses of 
plutonic rocks before it reaches Budapest, and enters with a 
sharp southward bend into the Great Plain. Unimpeded by 
any other obstacle, it reaches the southern frontier at Belgrade, 
and, turning again to the east, runs between Hungary and 
Servia, soon entering the magnificent gorges between Bazias 
and Orsova that give the sole outlet to nearly all the waters of 
Hungary. 

For in its course the Danube collects, with some trifling 
exceptions, all the tributaries that drain the Hungarian soil, as 
well as those that, coming from the west, have their source in 
the Alps, and also the northern and eastern afiluents which rise 
within the Carpathian circle. 

"Westward from Belgrade, or rather from Zimony, the Save 
indicates the natural limit of the Hungarian State, whereas to 
the north of it the Drave serves as the boundary between Hun- 
gary proper and the annexed kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. 










bo 



The Formation of the Soil of Hungary 145 

So it is seen that the political boundaries of Hungary are 
marked out on three sides either by mountain ranges or by 
rivers. 

Only the west side is devoid of natural limits, as the political 
frontier between Austria and Hungary runs across river valleys 
and the somewhat hilly land of Styria and Lower Austria. 

This geographical configuration proved to be of deciding 
influence in the historical evolution of the Hungarian State. 
This is also symbolised by the armorial bearings of Hungary, 
which show on the right side four white bars, signifying its 
principal rivers, the Danube, the Tisza, the Save, and the 
Drave ; and on the left three green hills surmounted by the 
double cross of the Apostolic King Stephen I., showing that the 
dominions of the Hungarian Crown extend as far as the moun- 
tains and the rivers. And so it is, in fact, for the natural 
boundaries thus traced encircle the land which was first occu- 
pied by the conquering Magyars and held throughout all the 
vicissitudes of history during ten centuries down to the present 
day. 

Whenever the domination of the Hungarian kings was 
extended beyond these natural limits — as it was more than once 
in the Middle Ages — it proved to be unstable and of short dura- 
tion. 

These natural boundaries impeded communications on three 
sides while the facility of intercourse on the west invited com- 
munication with the higher civilisation of the western European 
nations. Therefore the Magyars were drawn into the sphere of 
western religion and culture, while their natural boundaries 
sometimes served to keep at bay aggressive barbarians. 

The Carpathian mountains are not so lofty as the Alps, and 
their crests do not reach the line of permanent snow. Still, in 
many parts of that long chain, the zone of forest trees is far 
exceeded, and there are found either wild, rocky crests and 
peaks, with occasional patches of snow in summer, which are 
the haunts of chamois, bears, and eagles; or softer slopes and 
grass-covered ridges offering good pasture for cattle and sheep. 

The highest summits crown the splendid group known as 
the High Tatra, where the altitude of 7,000 feet is surpassed 
by many peaks. 

Next in height is the mighty wall of the Southern Carpa- 
thians, consisting, as in the Tatra, of granite or closely allied 
rocks of igneous character. Where the mountain range is 



146 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

built up mostly by sandstone the elevation is less and the forms 
are softer, but even here, as well as in several groups of the 
inner chains, the height of 6,000 feet is attained, and the forest 
is confined to the lower parts of the slopes. These forests con- 
sist of various species of pine and, lower down, of beech and 
oak. They are more than sufficient to supply other parts of 
the country with wood, and the rivers descending towards the 
central lowland facilitate its transport. 

While the process of folding and uplifting was shaping the 
mountainous margin of Hungary, as well as some inner eleva- 
tions, the interior of this circle was subjected to the contrary 
process of depression, and was occupied first by the sea, forming 
a large bay, which was connected with the southern sea-basins, 
the predecessors of the existing Mediterranean. In fact, the 
fossil shells found in the Miocene strata lying on the inner 
slopes of the Hungarian mountains are the direct predecessors 
of the marine fauna living to-day in the Mediterranean Sea. 
Therefore this group of sediments bears the name of Mediter- 
ranean. 

Later on this connection with the sea in the west and south 
seems to have been interrupted by the continual uplifting of the 
Dinaric Alps. But then the Hungarian depression found 
another communication eastward, over the lower part of the 
mountain margin, with the waters that covered at that time 
Poland and the south of Russia — that is, the ancient Sarmatia . 
In consequence we call Sarmatian the sea deposits of this 
period, whose fossil mollusca are related to forms living now in 
the Black Sea and in the Caspian Lake. 

After some time this connection was broken, and the Hun- 
garian bay changed its character, and became first a brackish 
and then a fresh-water lake. This was in the period known 
as the Pontic, or Pannonian. It corresponds to the English 
Lower Pliocene, and its sandy and clayey deposits, often con- 
taining beds of brown coal, occupy large tracts of low, undu- 
lating land. 

The next period, corresponding to the Upper Pliocene, when 
the large Pannonian lake was greatly diminished and broken up 
into smaller basins, is called the Levantine. 

During these periods the water level of the Hungarian bay 
was being continually lowered, the rivers flowing from all 
sides into it and bringing enormous quantities of sedimentary 
matter, the central depression was filled up and converted into 







be 

a 



bfi 



The Formation of the Soil of Hungary 147 

a plain diversified by some- shallow lakes and extensive swamps. 
But at tlie same time the rivers were cutting through the older 
Miocene and Pliocene deposits, leaving a range of low hills 
between the plain and the higher mountains. 

At the time when great movements in the earth's crust were 
most active in building the principal mountain chains of 
Europe — that is, in the Miocene Period — volcanic forces also 
contributed in great measure to the formation of the present 
geographical features of Hungary. 

Along fissures, probably caused by the one-sided strain that 
raised the Carpathians, innumerable volcanic vents were 
opened ; enormous masses of molten material and fragmentary 
ejections issued from them to the surface and accumulated over 
them, forming either isolated cones, or groups or chains of 
hills, some being of considerable height. 

The volcanic formations are spread over nearly the whole 
land, but especially on the shores of what was then the Miocene 
bay, and later on the Pliocene lake. This volcanic activity 
lasted, according to geological evidence, from the end of the 
Miocene to the later Pliocene Period, producing first different 
kinds of andesites and liparites, and, finally, basaltic cones. 

After the extinction of the subterraneous fires the volcanic 
formations were subjected to the destructive powers of the atmo- 
sphere, and have lost much of their original height and form; 
still, what is left contributes many beautiful features to Hun- 
garian landscapes, as, for instance, the fine basaltic cones on 
the shore of Lake Balaton, the vine-covered hills of Tokay, or 
the curious hills of Transylvania, from which more gold is 
obtained than from the whole of the other European mines. 

In the preceding pages it has been shown that the principal 
features of Hungarian territory were worked out in the Tertiary 
Age, at the end of which not only was every connection with the 
sea interrupted, but also the Pliocene freshwater lake of the 
interior was drained and filled up by sediments. 

Destruction by running water and accumulation of pebbles, 
sand, and silt in the lower districts took place in the last stages 
of this age, and was continued throughout the Pleistocene 
Period. 

Then the climate grew colder; the Scandinavian ice-cap 
extended far over central Europe, and reached even to the out- 
ward rim of the Carpathians, and glaciers descended far down 
into the valleys. 



148 1 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Such vestiges of the Great Ice Age as are found in the Alps 
do not occur in the Carpathians, whose summits and ridges are 
much lower, yet traces of ancient glaciers are not entirely want- 
ing, and ancient moraines, circuses, ice-formed lakes, erratic 
blocks, and rocks polished and striated by ice, can be seen in 
many parts of the higher mountain groups, especially in the 
Tatra and in the Transylvanian Carpathians. 

It is certain that the northern ice-drift did not pass over the 
wall of the Carpathians, although in the inner basin enormous 
masses of Pleistocene sediments were deposited. Artesian 
borings on the great Plain have shown that such deposits there 
attain the thickness of more than 400 feet — that is, some hun- 
dred feet beneath the present sea-level, — which proves that the 
downward movement went on throughout the Pleistocene 
Period, and possibly this is still going on. 

After the Ice Age the climate of these regions became drier 
and less severe. The land was converted into treeless, grassy 
plains resembling the great steppes of the interior of Asia. 
Enormous clouds of dust were swept from the decaying rocks of 
the mountains and scattered over the lowland, where herds of 
mammoth, antelopes, horses, and other grass eaters swarmed. 
Retained between the grass blades, this dust accumulated 
during many centuries, and formed a loamy soil of yellow colour 
and fine-grained texture, containing no pebbles nor any remains 
of animals that live in water, but only small shells of land snails 
and occasionally the bones of mammals. 

The seolian origin of this yellow earth, called " Loess " by 
the Germans, has been demonstrated by Hichthofen, who 
observed its development in the western part of China. The 
Loess forms a coating many yards in thickness over nearly all 
the lower hills and plains of Hungary, and is a very valuable 
part of its geological deposits, which is highly appreciated by 
agriculturists as being one of the best soils. 

At the close of the Pleistocene Period the geographical 
aspect of the land was as we find it to-day, and a glance at an 
orographical map shows the final result of all the changes and 
processes we have considered in the preceding pages. It is, in 
fact, a well-defined geographical unity, whose boundaries are 
traced out by an almost uninteiTupted circle of mountains, 
whose interior plains are watered by the mightiest stream of 
Central Europe and its confluents, and bordered by lower hills of 




a 

o 






The Formation of the Soil of Hungary 149 

various forms and origin. Now man has taken possession of 
this land, and lives on the products of its soil. 

In considering the quality of the various Hungarian soils it 
is well to begin by noticing its geological formation, which 
explains the topographical forms underlying the soil and 
reveals the raw material from which the soil has been derived. 

Crystalline rocks — such as gneiss, primitive schists, granite, 
diorite, syenite, and eruptive rocks generally — must be regarded 
as the primary source of all sedimentary formations. Their 
fine particles, resulting from weathering, are carried off, and 
give the material for sedimentary layers, or the rocks, remain- 
ing in situ, are covered by fresh deposits. By chemical 
decomposition of their silicates clay is produced, and soluble 
salts necessary for the nutrition of plants are mingled there- 
with. 

The geological map of Hungary shows that granite, diorite, 
and crystalline schists enter in large measure into the composi- 
tion of the Carpathians and of many of the mountain groups in 
the interior of the land. Even more than these old formations, 
the numerous Tertiary eruptive rocks, with their easily decom- 
posed masses of tufa and conglomerates, supply the soil with 
much useful mineral matter. 

A certain brown loam called " Nyirok," which covers the 
surface of these volcanic rocks, is considered to be one of the 
best soils in Hungary, and the highly-renowned Hungarian 
wine known as Tokay is grown on decomposed crystalline rocks. 

Limestone and dolomite, although frequent in the Hun- 
garian mountains, do not occupy extensive areas by themselves 
except in that part of the Dinaric Alps in Croatia, which, 
because of its sterility, has been named the '* Karst." 

In the Carpathians and in the Bakony the limestone and 
dolomite hills have retained their soil-covering, and are adorned 
with fine forests. 

A large part of the outer Carpathian chain consists of sand- 
stone called " Karpatensandstein " by Austrian geologists. Its 
age is partly Cretaceous and partly Eocene. This friable 
rock does not yield a very fertile soil, but as it is frequently 
intermingled with layers of clay and marl it is able to produce 
fine timber, and forms good pasture land. 

Rain and rivers have carried the detritus of the sandstones 
down to the lowlands, and this explains the large amount of 
sand on the Great Plain. Where this is not protected, either by 



150 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

a sheet of water or by dense vegetation, it is acted upon by the 
wind and piled up into unstable dunes, such as are seen in 
several parts of the Plain, or spread out in sandy wastes. 

Great care has always been bestowed by the State authori- 
ties on plantations on these sandy tracts in order to arrest the 
formation of dunes, and edicts and laws to this end are known 
which were issued in the Middle Ages; yet the most efficacious 
measure proved to be the planting of *' Robinia pseudacacia," 
commonly known as the " False Acacia," which was introduced 
from America in the eighteenth century. 

About forty years ago, when the Hungarian vineyards were 
devastated by the phylloxera, experiments in the sandy districts 
proved that vines grown there were immune from attacks of 
that injurious insect. 

The areas formed by Tertiary deposits offer a great variety 
of soils, some of them being highly valued for agricultural use, 
as, for instance, the so-called " Mezoseg," in the centre of the 
Transylvanian basin. 

The origin in the Quaternary Period of the finely-grained 
marly clay called " Loess " has been already noticed. Owing 
to its formation by wind-blown dust the Loess is not stratified, 
and its loose stiTicture, showing a network of small, vertical 
fissures and tubes, the vestiges of grass-blades and roots, makes 
it able to absorb a large part of the rainfall, and at the same 
time assures easy working of the soil. 

The subsoil beneath the Loess always contains a considerable 
quantity of carbonate of lime, which is often found concen- 
trated into marly nodules. It also contains hydrate of iron 
oxide in the form of small pisolitic granules. 

The Loess formation covers a large part of the land, and it 
may be said that nearly half of the best soils for wheat-growing 
either rests on it or is derived from it. On the slopes of the 
hills and on higher plateaus, where it has been carved into 
gently undulating hills, the Loess has not been altered since its 
formation, and there the light-yellow colour of the subsoil is 
seen merging by degrees into a light-brown upper soil. But in 
the level tracts of the lowland, the original Loess stratum has 
been frequently inundated and changed into swampy grounds, 
in which abundant humus was produced which tinted the upper 
layer two or three feet thick with a dark brown or even black 
colour that strongly contrasts with the yellow subsoil. This 
kind of Loess soil is remarkably fertile. 




Anna's Lake, near Tusnad. (Ancient Crater.) 





Mount Szentgyorgy, with its Basaltic Columns, 



The Formation of the Soil of Hungary 151 

Travelling across the seemingly endless Plain in the middle 
of Hungary, where alternating fields of wheat and Indian corn 
testify to the fertility of that brown soil, one is surprised to 
encounter at times large stretches of barren land destitute of 
crops, trees, or any other vegetation, except a short, bluish grass 
turf trodden by herds of cattle and horses, who from a distance 
seem to float on the trembling waters of the " Fata Morgana." 

These alkaline regions, called " Szikesfold " in Hungarian, 
resemble the alkaline areas in the west of the United States of 
America or in the interior of the Asiatic continent. 

Their origin, also, is evidently due to similar rapid evapora- 
tion of water. On the Great Plain the rivers Tisza, Koros, 
Maros, and Berettyo tend with sluggish flow toward the 
Danube, with its sole outlet through the rapids of Bazias and 
the Iron Gates. Frequent inundation having been, as it still 
is, the consequence of the outlet being very narrow, much of the 
widespread waters evaporated and left their soluble salts in the 
ground. Some of these salts are profitable to vegetation; some 
others, especially the salts of sodium, have a directly noxious 
effect, not only upon the roots of plants, but also on the soil 
itself, rendering it heavy and impermeable by water and air. 

In fact, the alkali soils, containing even a very small per- 
centage of carbonate of sodium, are, when dry, so hard that 
neither plough nor spade can work them, whereas in wet weather 
the uppermost layer turns into a dark, slimy mud equally unfit 
for agricultural labour. 

In ponds and miry depressions the carbonate of sodium 
accumulates to such a degree that after desiccation in summer 
time the ground is covered with a snow-like efflorescence which 
formerly was collected and used as soda. 

In less quantity than the carbonate, the sulphates of sodium 
and magnesium occur in the stagnant waters of the Szik soils, 
and in some places near to habitations and stables saltpetre is 
found in efflorescence, evidently formed on a calciferous soil by 
the nitric acid derived from animal dejections. 

Various methods for the reclamation of these alkaline soils 
for agricultural purposes have been tried, and experiments are 
still being carried on by the State. The use of gypsum as a 
means of converting the injurious carbonate into a neutral 
sulphate of sodium, as recommended by Mr. Hilgard in Cali- 
fornia, has been proved to be in some degree efficient, but it is 
too expensive for general application. 



152 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Evidently the best method would be the cleansing of the soil 
by irrigating water, and several schemes of canalisation and 
irrigation are being prepared, and experiments on a small scale 
are now going on. 

In the description of his journey to the camp of Attila, on 
the banks of the Tisza, Prisons Ehetor, the Bysantine Emperor's 
ambassador, mentions with horror the endless swamps and 
morasses he had to pass through. And maps of Hungary made 
in the eighteenth century show a wide expansion of marshy 
ground in the Great Plain. At the present day most of the 
morasses have disappeared owing to canalisation and regulation 
of the rivers. Yet some still exist, and peaty soils occupy con- 
siderable areas, not only near the rivers, but also near to the 
great freshwater lakes, Balaton and Ferto, in Western Hun- 
gary. They are partly used for turf-cutting and partly 
drained and reclaimed as plough land. 

This short review has shown a large amount of fertile land 
at the disposal of the Hungarian nation. Farming is the 
occupation of the greatest part of the people, and the produce 
of the soil is the principal source of wealth in Hungary. But 
we know that the simple practice of farming inherited from our 
fathers is no longer sufficient to keep up the standard of agricul- 
ture required in our time . 

Modern agriculture has to avail itself of the results of 
modern science, and among these the scientific investigation of 
the soil stands foremost. Pedology, as the science of soil is 
called, is one of the youngest branches of natural science, yet 
Hungary does not stand behind other nations in regard to this 
science. 

More than fifty years ago, long before our Western neigh- 
bours thought of such work, soil investigations were carried on 
in Hungary. 

The systematical survey of Hungarian soils, based on the 
geological maps, began more than twenty years ago, and is 
going on with satisfactory results. The sciences of chemistry, 
biology, and climatology contribute their share to the progress 
of knowledge of the soil, and the agricultural experimental 
stations in different parts of the land stand between the prac- 
tical experience of the farmer and the result of scientific 
investigation. 

Allusion has been made to the care of the Hungarian 
Government in promoting the reclamation of alkaline tracts, 




bjo 



.2f 



The Formation of the Soil of Hungary 153 

moying sands, and peaty land, all of tliese works requiring tlie 
aid of scientific inquiry. 

But as no science can develop well if confined witliin the 
limits of a single land contact with the scientific work of other 
nations has to be sought. Other branches of natural science 
have felt that need, and have found periodical international 
congresses to be the best means of creating that contact. 

The first international meetings of pedologists was proposed 
by the Hungarian Government, and was held at Budapest in the 
year 1909. 

The second was in Sweden, and the third will soon follow in 
Russia. It is to be hoped that soon all civilised nations will 
join in the ever-increasing work of soil investigation, which 
must have very valuable results, both for science and for the 
practice of farming. 



154 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



IReviewa* 



" Photographic Supplement to Stanford's Geological Atlas of Great Britain 
and Ireland." Arranged and Edited by H. B. Woodward, F.R.S., 
F.G.S., with the Co-operation of Miss Hilda D. Sharpe. London : E. 
Stanford Ltd., 1913. 
This photographic Supplement to Stanford's Geological Atlas of Great 
Britain and Ireland is an excellent book. The photographs are well arranged 
and illustrate the typical points of the atlas. Great care and discrimination 
have been shown in the selection of the views. A great step in advance, 
however, would be the use of parallel views with the actual colours repro- 
duced. This of course is a matter of much further expense. 

The book owes much to the personal work of Miss H. D. Sharpe, and the 
editor is to be congratulated on the production of a very useful book. J.H.B. 



"Anglo-Egyptian Sudan : A Report on the Land Settlement of the Gezira 

(Mesellemia District)." By H. St. G. Peacock, Judge of Sudan Civil 

Courts, Settlement Officer, Gezira Land Settlement, 1906—1910. (Sale 

Agents — London : Sifton Praed & Co., Ltd., 1913.) 

The attention of the members is directed to this Report. It forms a very 

valuable compendium of information on the work already accomplished and 

still being carried on. The Registration and Settlement Officers have per 

formed a great work and have an extremely busy time. The plans and 

illustrations add greatly to the value of the Report. 



"The Change in the Climate and its Cause." By Major R. A. Marriott, 
D.S.O. London: E. Marlborough & Co. 1/6. 
This book attempts to give the date of the last ice age. This is supposed 
to have ended about 7,000 years ago and to have lasted about 15,000 years, — 
to be precise, "the last glaciation began 23,700 B.C., and came to an end in 
5,624 B.C." (p. 17). The cause of the Ice age is stated to be the increased 
obliquity of the earth's axis, which, according to Major-General Drayson, 
varies between the limits 35" 25^ 47 // and 23" 25^ 47//. When the obliquity 
was at the maximum in 13,544 b.c. there would be very hot summers and very 
cold winters. We are now (according to this theory) only 385 years from 
the time of minimum obliquity, when the contrasts between the seasons will 
be least. It follows that the Arctic circle must have varied between 54" 34/ 
13// and 66" 34/ 13//, so that all Scotland and Northumberland would be in 
the frigid zone. 



Reviews 155 

This theory is worked out by Major Marriott in a very interesting way, 
and he thoroughly believes in his master, Dray son. One remembers the like 
enthusiasm for the theories of Croll a generation ago, and these seem to have 
been abandoned. (By the way, is the author quite fair to the astronomers 
when he assumes them to support Croll's theory ? The astronomers can, no 
doubt, take care of themselves.) Then there came the very plausible modifi- 
cation of the late Sir Robt. Ball with its tempting 63 and 37 per cent, of the 
sun's available heat, distributed over 199 days and 166 days respectively. 
When the greater amount of heat was distributed over the shorter time, and 
the lesser amount of heat over the longer time, then were the conditions of 
maximum glaciation in one hemisphere, and, at the same time, the minimum 
glaciation in the other. And this very plausible and tempting theory seems 
to have gone too. Will Major-General Drayson's theory have any better luck ? 
We must follow the advice of the politicians and " wait and see." The book 
is, as far as the present writer can judge, a fair statement of the case, and 
should be read by all interested in glacial geology and in the study of pre- 
historic man. 

One might ask the writer two or three pertinent questions. If glaciations 
came every 31,000 years what becomes of the apparently long warm period 
of the Eocene, and the apparent gradual cooling through the later Tertiary? 
We refer, of course, to the teachings of British deposits. 

Again, what is the meaning of the almost complete unanimity of the later 
school of British glacialists in accepting only one Pleistocene ice age, and not 
a series with a large number of inter-glacial periods? (See the work of Mr. 
Lamplugh, Prof. Kendall, Dr. Jowett, Dr. Wilmore, Mr. Stather, Mr. 
Shepheard — chiefly in the North of England — and others.) 

Thirdly, is it really necessary to have an astronomical theory at all? 
Kamschatka is in the same latitude as the British Isles, and it has at least an 
approximation to a glacial period. The same is true of Tierra del Fuego in 
the southern hemisphere. Lastly, is it quite certain <hat the winters are 
becoming warmer and the summers cooler? Do not both Greenwich and 
Stonyhurst refuse to commit themselves to such a change? It is not long 
since we had the warmest simimer day for about a hundred years, and we have 
had very severe winters within the lifetime of the present generation, just as 
there were mild winters in the British Isles a hundred years ago. A.W. 



156 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



lprocecMnQ0 of tbe Society* 

July I St to December 31st, 191 3. 

The 937tli Meeting of the Society was held on Thursday, October 
2nd, 1913. 

The Library and Museum were open for inspection from 6-30 p.m. 
special objects of interest in the latter being the shields, spears, and 
other curios brought by Mr. Ains worth from East Africa, mostly 
presented by him to the Society, some being specially lent by him 
for the evening's exhibition. 

At 7-30 the President, Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S., took the 
Chair in the Lecture Hall. 

The Minutes of the Meetings held on March i8th, 28th and 29th 
were taken as read. 

The Chairman announced that the following members had been 
elected since the last meeting : — Life : Mr. Arthur Holt. Ordinary : 
Miss S. A. Burstall, M.A., Mrs. C. Garnett, Miss G. E. Mort, Mrs. 
N. Tatham, Messrs. F. S. Abbott, F.C.A., John Dugdill, C. V. Groves, 
E. H. Langdon (President, Chamber of Commerce), W. A. McGrath, 
A. McPherson, W. J. Medlyn, T. H. Nightingale, G. R. Swaine, 
C. Taylor, W. J. Tyrie and S. W. Williams. Associate : Miss M. 
Groves. 

Mr. Nuttall, by special request of the Executive Committee, 
announced that the following six ordinary members had become Life 
Members in order to enable the Society to acquire Shares in the 
Building Company : — Messrs. A. Burgon, T. E. Edwards, F.R.G.S., 
Alderman T. Hassall, J.P., W. Morton Johnson, F.R.G.S., L. Emerson 
Mather, F.R.G.S., and the President himself. 

The Chairman also mentioned that since the last Meeting the 
Society had lost the following Members by death : — Messrs. S. Oppen- 
heim, J. P., J. C. Waterhouse, Joseph Donnell, J.P., J. Lanyon, J.P.,^ 
J. Tetlow Lewis, J.P., and R. H. Reynolds. 

The first two were Original Members and the first, Mr. vS. Oppen- 
heim, had been Vice-President for many years. Previously he had 
served as Hon. Treasurer, and of late he had helped as a Member of 
the Executive Committee. He had in many ways supported the 
Society, and his loss would be keenly felt. His last and splendid 
gift to the Society was the bequest of his holding of Shares in the 
Building Company, and he thus provides a worthy example for the 
other Shareholders of the Building Company, who have the interests 
of the Society at heart. 

• The Meetings are held in the Geographical Hall, unless other- 
wise stated. 



Proceedings of the Society 157 

The President then welcomed Mr. John Ainsworth, C.M.G., 
F.R.G.S., in his third visit to the Society during his over twenty- 
years' administrative work in East Africa, first at Machakos, then 
at Nairobi, and finally at Kisumu. 

Mr. Ainsworth gave an address on " East Africa," illustrating 
his remarks with about 70 splendid slides prepared from his own 
photographs. (See p. 10.) 

Mr. T. E. Edwards, F.R.G.S., moved a vote of thanks to the 
Lecturer for his interesting account of East Africa and its Govern- 
ment, and for the fine illustrations shown. The Chairman seconded 
the resolution, which was carried unanimously. 



The 938th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, October 
7th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. T. W. vSowerbutts, F.S.A.A. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on October 7th were taken as read. 

The Election of the following members was announced : — 
Ordinary : Mrs. Heigh way, Mrs. A. T. Johnson, Miss Woolf, Messrs. 
A. Grime, Dr. Larmuth, A. C. Morris, E. Keith-Roach, and Norman 
H. Zimmern. Associate : Miss J. Hamilton and Miss Harden. 

Dr. Mercier Gamble gave a lecture on " Life in San vSalvador do 
Congo," illustrating his remarks with original lantern views. 

The Lecturer described the journey up the Congo and over- 
land to San Salvador, then gave his experiences as a Medical 
Missionary in charge of the Hospital, concluding with an interesting 
account of " vSleeping Sickness," and their method of treating it, 
which had been attended with success in many cases. 

The Chairman, on behalf of the Meeting, tendered hearty thanks 
to Dr. Gamble for his intensely interesting address. 



The 939th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesdaj^ October 
14th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on October 7th were taken as read. 

The Chairman mentioned the death of Mr. W. Ha worth, J. P., who 
had been a member for many years. It was resolved that the 
sympathy ot those present be conveyed to Mr. Ha worth's relatives 
in their sad bereavement. 

Mrs. H. L. Lees, F.R.G.S., A.R.C.I., described a " Visit to New 
Zealand," illustrating her remarks with slides kindly lent by the 
High Commissioner for New Zealand. 

The Chairman, on behalf of the meeting offered hearty thanks to 
Mrs. Lees for the intensely interesting account which she had given 
of her journey. 



158 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 
A short report of the Lecture is here given : — 

Mrs. Lees gave an account of Sydney Harbour and its favourable 
geographical position from a commercial point of view. A dramatic 
reception was accorded the lecturer on the evening of her arrival 
at the Hot Lake District, Rotorua, a severe earthquake occurring. 
The Thermal district, or " Nature's Dispensary," with its wonderful 
curative baths reputed to cure almost every ailment known to man, 
including cold feet, was next described. The Hamurana spring 
across Lake Rotorua is the only place on earth where one cannot 
** sink money," owing to the immense volume of water given out, 
which prevents anything sinking to the bottom, and it was recom- 
mended by the lecturer to investors as being absolutely safe. A 
description of the " conception and birth " of minerals was 
explained in several areas, including sulphur, oxide of iron, silica, 
alum, pumice, fuller's earth, and slate. In places remote from the 
tourists' track are rivers where iodine and quicksilver are found. 
The Tarawera eruption of 1886 was described, also the eruption of 
Wairnunga geyser. A photograph was shown of a group of 
tourists, four of whom, through being too venturesome, were 
enveloped in the boiling water and steam and literally boiled to 
death. 

The Maoris believe that the mountain at the foot of which the 
Waidaupo Hotel stands will soon be in eruption, "as no animal 
will graze on it, no bird ever alights on it, and it is hot to the 
touch." The lecturer spent a night alone at this hotel, and whilst 
in conversation with some Maori women remarked that a storm 
was approaching because of the distant thunder that was heard, 
and was told ** that the thunder was under her feet, not over her 
head." The " Rainbow Mountain," so called because of the 
beautiful shades of colour of which it consists (a specimen of 
which the lecturer produced), was explained to be volcanic dust, 
the various colours being produced by the presence of minerals. A 
beautiful specimen of jade, or New Zealand greenstone, so intensely 
valuable to the Maoris, and from which they made their battle-axes, 
their only means of defence, was also exhibited. 

Mrs. Lees next gave a description of a journey down the 
Wanganui River, navigable for 140 miles. At Fairlie the lecturer 
met Miss du Faur, of Sydney, the only lady at that time who had 
made the ascent of Mount Cook, 12,349 feet. A drive was taken of 
a hundred miles by motor-car through the Mackenzie country to 
the hermitage at the base of Mount Cook. From there a sixteen- 
mile journey on horseback led across the Hooker River and along 
the Hooker Valley, the road being only a bridle path, two or three 
hundred feet high, winding in and out of the mountain side, with 
many " devil's elbows " to negotiate. The " Ball Hut," on the 
Tasman glacier, was reached, and a night spent there. Next day 
a walk of five miles was taken across the glacier with the guide, 
who often had to cut steps in the ice and make many detours to 



Proceedings of the Society 159 

avoid crevasses. On the return journey to Ball Hut Mrs. Lindon, 
of Geelong, with two guides, came into the hut. This party of 
three had started the day before to make the ascent of Mount Cook, 
and for several hours had had to cut themselves steps on the face 
of the mountain. The adventure without mishap was warmly 
applauded, and the whole party returned together on horseback to 
the Hermitage. Thus the lecturer had been fortunate in meeting 
the only two ladies who had made the ascent of Mount Cook. 

{Manchester City News.) 



The 940th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, October 
2ist, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on October 14th were taken 
as read. 

The Chairman announced the election of the following members : — 
Ordinary : Miss E. N. Openshaw, Messrs. J. C. Aldred, Edwin 
Barlow, Henry Briggs, B. Jordan, and H. L. Littler. Associate : 
Miss E. Pearson. 

Dr. W. vS. Bruce, F.R.S.E., Director of the Scottish Oceano- 
graphical Laboratory, gave a lecture on " Spitsbergen : Past and 
Present." (Seepage 115.) 

The Lecturer gave an account of the discovery, exploration, and 
recent important commercial and political development of the Archi- 
pelago, and illustrated his remarks with many original lantern views. 

A hearty vote of thanks was passed to Dr. Bruce for his interesting 
and instructive address so well illustrated. 



The 941st Meeting of the Society was held in the Free Trade Hall 
on Friday, October 31st, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

The President of the Society, Mr. Hany- Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S., 
presided and was accompanied on the platform by the lecturer. 
Commander E. R. G. R. Evans, C.B., R.N. (See p. 122.) They 
were supported by the following Officers and Members of the 
Council :— Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S., Rt. Rev. Bishop Welldon,D.D., 
Colonel H. T. Crook, V.D., J.P., Messrs. J. McFarlane, M.A., M.Com., 
F.R.G.S., D. A Little, Egbert vSteinthal, W S. Ascoli, F.R.G.S., 
J. E. Balmer, F.R.G.S., C. A Clarke, G. Ginger, J. Howard Hall, 
T. C. Middleton, J.P., F.C.A., F. S. Oppenheim, M.A., T. W. F. 
Parkinson, M.Sc.,F.G.S., A. Ree., Ph.D., T. W. Sowerbutts, F.S.A.A., 
T. Gregory, J.P., F.C.A., and Harry vSowerbutts, Assoc.R.C.Sc. 

Mr. Nuttall, in introducing the Lecturer, offered him, the Second 
in Command of the Expedition, on behalf of the Geographical 
Society, the heartiest possible welcome to Manchester. Remembering 
as they did that Commander Evans accompanied Captain Scott to 



i6o Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

within 150 miles of the Pole, they were delighted to see him looking 
so strong and well. Commander Evans, in accordance with Captain 
Scott's arrangements, returned in charge of the last supporting party, 
and travelled 750 miles in conditions which nearly cost him his life. 
The Scott Expedition had given the world a most striking example 
of nobility of character and extensive and important scientific 
results. 

Commander Evans pointed out that the story of this last British 
expedition to the Antarctic was indissolubly bound up with the 
life-story of its leader, Robert Falcon Scott, who after having 
achieved his object and penetrated to the Pole itself, perished with 
his brave companions within a few miles of the food depot at One 
Ton Camp about March 27, 1912. On his previous expedition 
Captain Scott got to within 463 miles of the Pole. The work in 
the South was continued by Sir Ernest vShackleton, who on January 
9, 1909, planted the Union Jack 100 miles from the Pole. Captain 
Scott left England on July 16, 1910, on his final quest. On October 
30, 191 1, just before the last advance was made, he reported that 
ofi&cers and men were all in splendid health and anxious to go 
forward. When within 150 miles of the Pole, and the last sup- 
porting party was returning, all was still well, although the snow-- 
storms and blizzards had been unusually severe. On January 3, 
1912, he went forward into the darkness with four others — Dr. 
Wilson, Captain Oates, Lieutenant Bowers, and Petty Ofiicer Evans. 
The Union Jack w^as planted at the South Pole within easy reach 
of the flag which Amundsen had left there a few^ weeks earlier. 
The rest of the story was soon told. Evans died from concussion 
on February 17. On March 17 Oates heroically walked out to his 
death, and as near as could be told the others, Scott last of all, 
joined the immortal band of heroes about March 27. Captain 
Scott's ** Message to the public," one of the most tragic diaries ever 
penned, described the end. (Manchester City News.) 

Commander Evans told the story of the return of the " last sup- 
porting party," which consisted of himself and two seamen, Crean 
and Lashley On the way Commander Evans developed scurvy, 
and was for a time paralysed. He was brought back to 
safety by these two men, to whose courage and almost super- 
human endurance he paid a high tribute. He showed pictures of 
the two men. " It will interest some of you to know," he said, 
" that Lashley had been a teetotaller and a non-smoker all his life. 
— (Cheers.) It will interest others to know that Crean had been 
neither." At this sudden turn of thought the audience laughed a 
great deal. The passage was characteristic of the whole lecture, 
which was a most boyish and winning performance. The narrative 
was naturally saddened by the shadow of death, but Commander 
Evans wisely avoided the process of making things worse, and he 
warmed and illuminated the evening with many touches of humour 
and humanity. 



Proceedings of the Society i6i 

At one point " Pickwick " appeared as the only literary work 
the party possessed. The reader came to the passage in which Mr. 
Weller is invited by a select company of the Bath footmen " to a 
friendly swarry." This passage had a very powerful and moving 
effect upon the audience of explorers, but it was not exactly the 
effect contemplated by the author, the humour of the affair being 
quite overlooked in the painful and concentrated interest excited 
by the " boiled leg of mutton with the usual trimmings." At 
another point the familiar penguin appeared, this time as the most 
stupid bird on earth, so stupid that it not infrequently cherishes 
a round piece of ice, thinking it to be an egg. The lecture was 
full of little character sketches and appreciations — Commander 
Evans had a good word for everybody except himself. There was 
the sweet strong influence of Dr. Wilson, a man of learning and 
a man of affairs ; there was Lieutenant Bowers, evidently Com- 
mander Evans's hero; Captain Gates, the doer of the bravest act 
on record, who died as he had lived, magnificently. There were 
testimonials for the common seamen for their " sportsmanship " 
and for their all-round splendid behaviour. Many very vivid and 
beautiful photographs illustrated the lecture, and at the end there 
were kinematographic views of Antarctic life. It was a large 
audience, and probably no lecture on Polar expeditions of the many 
which have been given in this hall has been more enjoyed. 

{Manchester Guardian.) 

Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S., moved, and the Rt. Rev. Bishop Well- 
don, Dean of Manchester, seconded, a vote of thanks to Commander 
Evans, which was carried with acclamation. 

Commander Evans said in reply : I think you have already heard 
me talking at some length, but before I go I should like to thank 
you very much for the way in which you have received my story. I 
am only a simple sailor, and it is not given to sailors to soar into 
flights of eloquence. We simply have to say what we have got to 
say. I should be very ungrateful if I left this hall without expressing 
the gratitude of every member of our Expedition for the help which 
Manchester gave to it. Manchester put up the money at the begin- 
ning, when it was wanted. England has put up the mone}^ when 
her heart was touched, to provide for those who are left, but Man- 
chester was most generous in making the Expedition possible. The 
Chairman of this meeting was very conspicuous in helping Captain 
Scott. In conclusion Commissioner Evans thanked the Vice-Chairman of 
the Council of the Society (Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S.) for his 
services with the lantern which illustrated the lecture. 



The 942nd Meeting of the Society was held in the Houldsworth 
Hall, Deansgate, on Tuesday, November 4th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Rev. T. F. Nicholas, M.A., gave a lecture on " The Gambia 
River and Protectorate." The Lecturer dealt with the results of his 



i62 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

explorations during a nine years' residence, after some reference to 
its history, general features and expanding trade. 

The lecture was illustrated with original lantern views, shown by 
the electric lantern of the Vice-Chairman. 

The Chairman moved, and it was unanimously resolved, that the 
hearty thanks of the meeting be given to the lecturer for the interest- 
ing account of his experiences, and to Mr. Mellor for his services 
with the lantern. 



The 943rd Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, November 
nth, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 

The Minutes of the Meetings held on October 21st, 31st, and 
November 4th were taken as read. 

The election of the following members was announced : — 
Ordinary : Messrs. E. Bowen and T. Coop. Associate : Mrs. Char- 
nock and Miss J. Kewley. 

The Chairman mentioned that letters of condolence had been sent 
by direction of the Council to the relatives of Mrs. Oram and Alder- 
man Wm. Healey, both of whom had died since the last meeting after 
a membership of twenty years in each case. The Society was 
represented at the funeral of the late Alderman Healey by the Hon. 
Treasurer. Mrs. Oram died on the voyage home from South Africa. 

Mr. J. Hilditch, M.R.A.S., M.J.S., gave a lecture on ** Japan : Its 
Beauties in Nature and Art." The address w^as illustrated with 
native coloured slides of photographic views and reproductions of 
Paintings in the ** Hilditch " collection. 

On the motion of the Chairman, it was unanimously resolved that 
the best thanks of the Meeting be given to Mr. Hilditch for his 
intensely interesting lecture so splendidly illustrated. 



The 944th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, November 
i8th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on November nth were taken 
as read. 

The Chairman announced that Mr. G. H. Warren had presented 
a specimen of Tappa Cloth (made from the bark of a tree) from Tonga 
or Friendly Islands for the Museum. 

Mr. W. H. Shrubsole, F.G.S., gave a lecture entitled ** Among the 
Carpathians." 

The address was illustrated with original and other lantern views, 
mostly artistically coloured. 

The Chairman moved, and it was unanimously resolved, that the 
hearty thanks of the Meeting be given to Mr. Shrubsole for his 
extremely interesting address, so very well illustrated. 



Proceedings of the Society 163 

The 945th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, November 
25th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. George Ginger. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on November i8th were taken 
as read. 

The election of the following members was announced : — 
Ordinary : Mr. George Heigh way. Associate : Mrs. Lightowler and 
Miss Wardle. 

Mr. John A. Osborn gave a lecture on " The Rhine : From Basel 
to the Sea," illustrating his remarks with a large number of original 
and other lantern views. 

The Chairman moved, and it was unanimously resolved, that 
hearty thanks be given to Mr. Osborn for his interesting address, 
and for the illustrations shown. 



The 946th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, December 
2nd, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S . 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on November 25th were taken 
as read. 

Professor Harold B. Dixon, Ph.D., F.R.S., described his experi- 
ences of " Climbing in the Canadian Rocky Mountains." The lecture 
was illustrated with original lantern views. 

The Chairman moved, and it was unanimously resolved, that the 
hearty thanks of those present be given to the Professor for the very 
interesting account which he had given of his journeys, so well 
illustrated. 



The 947th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, December 
9th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. J. Howard Hall. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on December 2nd were taken 
as read. 

The election of the following members was announced : — 
Ordinary : Miss Nanson and Rev. R .M. Tuke. Associate : Miss E. 
Fullerton, Miss P. M. Garner, and Miss E. Cockshaw. 

The Chairman mentioned the death of Mr. G. A. Harrop, and it 
was resolved that the sympathy of his fellow members be conveyed 
to his relatives. 

Mr. James A. Carter, B.A., gave a lecture on " Glaciers : What 
they are, how they are formed, and what they look like — viewed from 
a distance and seen at close quarters," and illustrated his remarks 
with over one hundred lantern views. 

The Chairman spoke in very appreciative terms of the fine lantern 
views shown and of the interesting and instructive account given by 



l64 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Mr. Carter, and it was unanimously resolved that the best thanks of 
the Meeting be given to the Lecturer. 



The 948th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, December 
i6th, 1913, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on Tuesday, December 9th, were 
taken as read. 

Mr. Wm. Eller gave a lecture on " Liibeck," illustrating his 
remarks with a collection of slides kindly lent by the Municipal 
Authorities of that town. 

The Chairman moved, and it was unanimously resolved, that 
hearty thanks be given to the Lecturer for his interesting remarks, 
and to the Ltibeck Authorities for the loan of the slides. 



The 949th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, December 
?3rd, 1913, at 7-0 p.m., and took the form of a lecture to the children 
of Members. Miss Kate Qualtrough, F.R.G.S., presided. 

Mr. G. H. Warren gave a lecture on " The Romance of the North- 
West Passage," and illustrated his remarks with a large number 
of lantern views. 

At the conclusion of the lecture the Chairman thanked the Lecturer 
on behalf of those present, and the children showed their appreciation 
by hearty applause. 



List of Maps 165 



Xl0t Of flDap0, Book0, 3ournal0, etc, 

ACQUIRED BY THE SOCIETY 
FROM JANUARY 1st TO DECEMBER 31st, 1913. 



flDap6* 

THE WORLD. 

The New Graphic Map of the World. By A. Clark, A.M.I.C.E., and J. P. 

Strachan. Edinburgh : W. and A. K. Johnston Ltd., 1913. *The 

Authors. 
Map of the World on a new Projection. By B. J. S. Cahill, F.R.G.S. (See 

Books, General.) 
Planisphere montrant la Repartition du Globe terrestre entre les 24 fuseaux 

horaires. Paris ; Service Geographique des Colonies. 1913. *Ministere 

des Colonies, 

EUROPE. 

Norway. Den Norske Kyst. Sheet : 230, Fysf jorden og Ofotf jorden. Scale 

1/100,000. Kristiania : Norges Geografiske Opmaaling, 1913. *Norges 

Geografiske Opmaaling. 
Norway. Den Norske Kyst. Sheets : 76, fra Raftsund og Stokkmarknes til 

Hovden og Sortlandsund ; 78, fra Hovden til Langenes og Risoysund ; 

88, fra Hekkingen til Kvalsund. Scale 1/50,000. Kristiania : Norges 

Geografiske Opmaaling, 1913. *Norges Geografiske Opmaaling. 
Katalog over Norske Sjokarter. Den 1 Januar, 1913. Kristiania : Norges 

Sjokartverk, 1913. *The Publishers. 
Carta Amministrativa Stradale della Provincia di Torino. Scala 1/250,000. 

Novara : Instituto Geografico de Agostini. (Price, Lire 1,20.) *The 

Publishers. 
Carta Amministrativa Stradale della Provincia di Alessandria. Scala 1/250,000. 

Novara : Instituto Geografico de Agostini. (Price, Lire 0.60.) *The 

Publishers. 
Carta Amministrativa Stradale della Provincia di Milano. Scala di 1/250,000. 

Novara : Instituto Geografico de Agostini. (Price, Lire 0.50.) *The Pub- 
lishers. 
Carta Amministrativa Stradale della Provincia di Padova. Scala 1/250,000. 

Novara : Instituto Geografico de Agostini. (Price, Lire 0.50.) *The 

Publishers. 

ASIA. 

Hong Kong and part of Leased Territory. Scale 2^ inches to 1 mile. (2 
Sheets.) Geographical Section, General Staff, No. 2667a. *The Director 
of Military Operations. 



i66 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

AFRICA. 

Carte de Adrar des Ifoghas. (Mission Cortier.) By Captain Cortier and 
others. Scale 1/500,000. 2 Sheets. Paris : Service Geographique des 
Colonies, 1912. *Ministere des Colonies. 

Carte du Ouadai, dressee sous la direction du Colonel Largeau, Commandant 
le Territoire Militaire du Tehad. Echelle 1/500,000. Two Sheets. Paris : 
Service Geographique des Colonies, 1913. *Ministere des Colonies. 

Africa. 1/250,000. Cape of Good Hope. South-H-34, D, Upington ; Q, 
Carnarvon; X, Victoria West; South-H-35, Q, Mount Fletcher; S. 
Naauwpoort. G.S., G.S. No. 1764. London : War Office, 1913. *The 
Director of Military Operations. 

Map of the German Emin Pasha Expedition according to the Itinerary of Dr. 
Carl Peters. Scale 1/1,750,000. London : Ward, Lock & Co. *Mr. John 
Ainsworth, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

Sketch Map of East Africa Protectorate. Scale 54 miles to 1 inch. Prepared 
by Public Works Department. London : E. Stanford. *Mr. John Ains- 
worth, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

Map of the Southern Portion of British East Africa. Compiled in the Intel- 
ligence Division, War Office, July, 1893. Scale 1/1,584,000. I.D., W.O. 
No. 991. *Mr. John Ainsworth, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

East Africa Protectorate. Map (Provisional) Shewing Alienated and Sur- 
veyed Lands, Native, Game, and Forest Reserves, Provincial and District 
Boundaries. April, 1909. Scale 25 miles to 1 inch. Southampton : 
Ordnance Survey Office, 1911. *Mr. John Aiijsworth, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

Africa. 1/250,000. East Africa Protectorate. Sheets : North-A-37, T, 
Meru; South-A-37, C, Mumoni. G.S., G.S. No. 1764. London: War 
Office, 1912. *The Director of Military Operations. 

Africa. 1/250,000. East Africa Protectorate. (Provisional) Sheets : North- 
A- 36, Q, Elgon; X, Uasin Gishu ; South-A-37, A, Nakuru-Nyeri. G.S., 
G.S. No. 1764. London : War Office, 1913. *The Director of Military 
Operations. 

AMERICA. 

Map of the Dominion of Canada, 1912. Scale 58 miles to 1 inch. Issued by 
Direction of the Minister of the Interior. Ottawa, 1912. *The High 
Commissioner for Canada, 

Map (Railways) of the Dominion of Canada. Scale 100 miles to 1 inch. 
Ottawa : Department of the Interior, 1912. *The High Commissioner for 
Canada. 

Canada. 2 miles to 1 inch. Quebec. Lachine Sheet. G.S., G.S., No. 2336. 
London : War Office, 1913. *The Director of Military Operations. 

Canada. Department of Militia and Defence. Topographic Map. Scale 
1/63,360, or 1 inch to 1 mile. Sheets: No. 37, St. Thomas; 38, Strath- 
roy; 41, Wallaceburg ; 44, Chatham; 46, Essex; 48, Windsor; 49, Am- 
herstbury; 50, Pelee ; 51, Perch. G.S., G.S. No. 2197. London: War 
Office. *The Director of Military Operations. 

Panoramic View (Coloured) of the Crater Lake, National Park, Oregon. 
Prepared by John H. Renshawe. Scale 1/62,500. Washington : United 
States Geological Survey, 1913. *The Director of the Survey. 



List of Atlases 167 

OCEANIA. 
Tasmania. Scale 12 miles =1 inch. Hobart : Surveyor General's Office. *The 
Agent-General for Tasmania. 

POLAE REGIONS. 

Map of the Arctic Regions. Projected and Drawn by A. Briesemeister. 
Scale 1/6,300,000. New York : American Musemn of Natural History 
and the American Geographical Society, 1912. *American Geographical 
Society. 

Spitsbergen. Sheet 198. Farvand og Ankerpladser paa Vest- og Nordkysten : 
1. Forland Sundet— King's Bay— Cross Bay, 1/200,000. 2. Blomstrand 
Hamn, 1/25,000. 3. Ferrier Hamn, 1/25,000. 4. Farm Hamn, 1/25,000. 
5. Vulkan Hamn i Bock Bay, 1/25,000. 6. Green Harbour, 1/100,000. 
7. Heela Hamn og Finnes Hamn i Green Harbour, 1/25,000. 8, Norske 
Hamn paa Bjorn Oya, 1/25,000. (One Sheet.) Kristiania : Norges 
Geografiske Opmaaling, 1912. *Norges Geografiske Opmaaling. 

ATLASES, PHOTOGRAPHS, Etc. 

Testo-Atlante delle Ferrovie e Tramvie Italiane e di quelle estere in comtatto 
Francia, Svizzera ed Austria-Ungheria con un indice-prontuario di tutte 
le linee, stazioni, fermate, Scali, ecc, delle ferrovie, tramvie e laghi 
italiani, di Leonida Leoni. Prefazione dell' Ing. Pietro Lanino. Novara : 
Instituto Geografico de Agostini, 1913. (Price, Lire 5.) *The Publishers. 

Metodo di Esercizi Cartografici Scolastici in 24 Tavole con testo illustrativo. 
Achille Dardano. Novaro : Instituto Geografico de Agostini 1913. *The 
Publishers. 

Barograms recorded by the Right Rev. the Bishop of Salford's Barograph, at 
Alexander Park, Whalley Range. Vol. 1. 11th October to 18th May, 
1913. (With a few unavoidable gaps.) *The Right Rev. the Bishop of 
Salford. 

Photographic Supplement to Stanford's Geological Atlas of Great Britain and 
Ireland. Arranged and Edited by Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S., 
with the co-operation of Miss Hilda D. Sharpe. London : Edward 
Stanford Ltd., 1913. (Price 4/- net.) *The Publisher. 

Model of the Panama Canal. *Mr. J. Herbert Cooke. 

Portrait of Captain R. F. Scott, C.V.O. 

S.S. "Terra Nova" in the Ice. A drawing by Mr. F. H. Overmann, F.M.S.A. 
*The Manchester Captain Scott Memorial Fund Committee. 

Fifteen Lantern Slides of Venice. *Mr. J. S. Blake Reed. 

Fifty-two Lantern Slides of Hong Kong and Canton. *Dr. R. Gibson. 

Picture Postcards (50). Mainly Australian Scenes. *Mr. T. J. Gough. 

ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

Rupee (Silver). Originally issued by the Imperial British East Africa Com- 
pany, 1888. *Mr. John Ainsworth, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

Half Rupee (Silver). East Africa and Uganda Protectorate. King George V. 
1911. *Mr. John Ainsworth, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

East Africa and Uganda. Subsidiary Coinage. 1 Cent., 5 Cents., and 10 
Cents. (100 Cents. = 1 Rupee). *Mr. John Ainsworth, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

Tappa Cloth, Tonga Islards. *Mr. G. H. Warren. 



i68 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



GENERAL. 

Influences of Geographic Environment : on the Basis of Ratzel's System of 
Anthropo-Geography, by Ellen Churchill Semple. Maps. London : Con- 
stable & Co., 1913. 

A Regional Geography of America, Africa and Australasia, by T. W. F. 
Parkinson, M.Sc, F.G.S. Maps and Diagrams. London and Glasgow : 
Collins' Clear Type Press, 1913. (Price 2/-.) *The Author. 

An Account of a Land Map of the World on a New and Original Projection, 
invented by B. J. S. Cahill, A.I.A., F.R.G.S. Maps. Reprinted from 
the Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies for October, 1913. 
San Francisco : The Cahill World Map Co., 1913. *The Inventor. 

The Geographical Teacher. The Organ of the Geographical Association. No. 
35, Vol. VII, Part I; 36, Part II; 37, Part III. *Mr. H. Sowerbutts, 
A.R.C.Sc. 

Cartografia. Elementare Pratica con figure nel testo e 4 tavole. Achille 
Dardano. Novaro : Instituto Geografico de Agostini, 1913. *The Pub- 
lishers. 

The Framework of Union. A comparison of some Union Constitutions. 
With a Sketch of the Development of Union in Canada, Australia and 
Germany ; and the text of the Constitutions of the United States, Canada, 
Germany, Switzerland, and Australia. Prepared for and issued by the 
Closer Union Society. Cape Town : Central News Agency, 1908. *Mac- 
millan & Co. 

The Traveller's Gazette. Illustrated. Vol. LXIII. Nos. 1—12. London : 
Thos. Cook & Son, 1913. *The Publishers. 

Lloyd-Zeitung. Organ des Norddeutschen Lloyd. Jahrgang XIV, Nos. 6 — 24 ; 
Jahrgang, XV, No. 1-6. Bremen, 1913. *The Publishers. 

An Almanack for the Year of Our Lord 1913, by Joseph Whitaker, F.S.A. 
London, 1913. 

The Co-operative Wholesale Societies Limited. Annual, 1913. *Mr. G. H. 
Warren. 

A Series of Cotton Tables, including the prices of six of the principal kinds 
and the total stock of Cotton, also comparative prices of Cotton and Corn, 
at the end of each week, together with a supplementary annual digest 
thereof from 1837 to 1854 inclusive. Compiled by S. Adolphus Meyer. 
Manchester : Ernst & Co., 1855. *Mr. David A. Little. 

Library Cataloguing, by J. Henry Quinn. London : Truslove and Hanson, 
Ltd., 1913. 

BRITISH ISLES. 

The Incorporated Accountants' Year Book, 1913-14. *The Council of the 
Society of Incorporated Accountants and Auditors. 

Guide Through and Round Bath. Plan and Illustrations. Seventh Edition. 
Bath : Frederick Curtis, *Mr. Isaac Chorlton. 

A Handbook for Birmingham and the Neighbourhood. Prepared for the 
83rd Annual Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 



List of Books 169 

Science. Edited by George A. Auden, M.D., M.A., F.S.A. Maps, 
Plans, etc. Birmingham : Cornish Brothers, Ltd., 1913. *British Asso- 
ciation, per Mr. J, McFarlane, M.A., M.Com. 

Excursions Guide-Book for Birmingham and Neighbourhood. British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science Meeting, 1913. Illustrations. 
Birmingham : Cornish Brothers, Ltd., 1913. *British Association, per 
Mr. J. McFarlane, M.A., M.Com. 

The Keuper Marls around Charnwood, by T. 0. Bosworth, B.A., B.Sc, 
F.G.S. Being the results of researches in Leicestershire, 1904 — 1911. 
Maps, Diagrams and Illustrations. Leicester : Leicester Literary and 
Philosophical Society. (Price, Paper 3/6, cloth 4/6.) *The Publishers. 

The Official Handbook of Manchester and Salford and Surrounding District, 
with information on local Institutions and Societies, 1913. Manchester : 
Manchester Corporation, 1913. 

The Manchester and Salford Official Red Book for 1913. Manchester ; Little- 
bury Bros., 1913. 

Maijchester Field Naturalists and Archaeologists' Society. Report and Pro- 
ceedings for the year 1912. *Mr. W. H. Ward. 

History of Halton Castle and its Court Leet, by Joseph Walker. Illustra- 
tions. Runcorn : Arthur Dutton, 1910. *Mr. Isaac Chorlton. 

EUROPE. 

Den Norske Lods utgit av Norges Geografiske Opmaaling, 1871. Iste Hefte. 
Kyststraekningen fra Idefjorden til Langesund. Omarbeidet, 1913. 
*Norges Sjokartverk, Kristiania. 

Den Norske Lods utgit av Norges Geografiske Opmaaling, 1893. 7de Hefte. 
Fra Aalesund til Beian og Trondhjem, samt Smolen. Omarbeidet, 1913. 
*Norges Sjokartverk, Kristiania. 

Svenska Turistforeningens Arsskrift, 1913. Maps and Illustrations. Stock- 
holm, 1913. *The Swedish Touring Club. 

Souvenirs et Croquis Madrilenes. Chroniques du Regne d'Alphonse XIII. 
par Gaston-Routier. Paris : Editions de "L'Epoque Moderne," 1913. 
*The Author. 

The Times Russian Supplement. Nos. 4, 5, 6. *Mr. Isaac Chorlton. 

The British Chamber of Commerce of Turkey and the Balkan States. Quar- 
terly Trade Journal. Nos. 21, March; 22 June; 23 September; 24 
December. 1913. Report for the year 1912. *Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 

ASIA. 

Palestine Exploration Fund. Quarterly Statements, 1913. Annual Report, 
1912. 

Punjab District Gazetteers. B. Vols. II, Hissar District and Loharu State; 
III, Rohtak District and Dujana State ; IV, Gurgaon District and Patandi 
State; V, Delhi; VI, Karnal District; VII, Ambala District and Kalsia 
State ; VIII, Simla District ; IX, Sirmur State ; X, Kangra District ; XII, 
Mandi and Suket States; XIII, Hoshiarpur ; XIV, Jullundur District; 
XVI, Ferozepore District; XVII, Phulkian States; XVIH, Montgomery; 
XIX, Lahore District; XX, Amritsar ; XXI, Gurdaspur ; XXIH, Sialkot 



170 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

District ; XXV, Gujrat District ; XXVI, Shakpur District ; XXVII, Jhelum ; 
XXVIII, Eawalpindi District; XXIX, Attock District; XXXII, Jhang 
District; XXXIII, Multan ; XXXIV, Muzaffargarh District; XXXV, D. G. 
Khan District; XXXVI, Bahawalpur State. Lahore: 1912-13. *H.M. 
Secretary of State for India. 

Gazetteers of the Bombay Presidency. Vols. IV-B, Ahmedabad ; X-B, Ratna 
giri and Sa'vantwa'diffi XI-B, Kola'ba and Janjira; XIII-B, Tha'na and 
Jawha'r ; XV-B, Ka'nara ; XVII-B, Ahmednagar ; XXII-B, Dharwar and 
Savaniir. 1913. *H.M. Secretary of State for India. 

Central Provinces District Gazetteers. Mandia District. Vols. A and B. 
*H.M. Secretary of State for India. 

Bengal District Gazetteers. B. Vols. Birbhum, Bogra, Darjeeling, Dinajpur, 
Faridpur, Howrah, Jalpaiguri, Khulna, Midnapore, M^rshidabad. 24 — 
Parganas, Rajshahi. *H.M. Secretary of State for India. 

Burma Gazetteers. A Vols. Amherst District ; Pakokku District ; Upper 
Chindwin District. Rangoon, 1913. *H.M. Secretary of State for India. 

Burma Gazetteers. B. Volumes Nos. 1, Akyab ; 3, Kyaukpyu ; 5, City of 
Rangoon (Census tables only); 6, Insein; 7, Hanthawaddy (Syriam) ; 9, 
Pegu; 10, Prome; 11, Rassein ; 12, Henzada; 13, Myaungmya ; 14, Ma- 
Ubin ; 15, Pyapon ; 16, Toungoo ; 17, Salween ; 18, Thaton ; 19, Amherst ; 
20, Tavoy; 21, Mergui; 22, Thayetmyo ; 23, Pakokku; 24, Minbu ; 25, 
Magwe; 26, Mandalay ; 27, Bhamo ; 28, Myilkyina; 29, Katha ; 30, Ruby 
Mines; 31, Shwebo ; 32, Sagaing ; 33, Lower Chindwin; 34, Upper Chind- 
win ; 35, Kyaukse ; 36, Meiktila ; 37, Yamethin ; 38, Myingyan. Rangoon, 
1912-13. *H.M. Secretary of State for India. 

Madrolle's Guide Book. Northern China, the Valley of the Blue River, 
Korea. 43 Maps and Plans. London and Paris : Hachette & Co., 1912. 
(Price 15/-.) *The Publishers. 

AFRICA. 

Sierra Leone Messenger. Illustrated. Nos. 81, 82, 83, 84. 1913. *The Rev. 
Canon F. C. Smith, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Essai sur L' Amelioration du Regime du Fleuve Congo par la Regularisation 
du d^bit des lacs et Anciens lacs Congolais. Capitaine Robert Thys. 
Maps and Illustrations. Bruxelles : Compagnie du Congo pour le Com- 
merce et rindustrie, 1913. *The Publishers and the Author. 

The Government of South Africa. Maps and Diagrams. 2 Vols. Cape 
Town : Central News Agency, 1908. *Macmillan & Co. 

South Africa. An Illustrated Booklet of Information for Travellers. Map 
and Illustrations. London : Thos. Cook & Son, 1913. *The Publishers. 

Big Game Shooting in Rhodesia. Maps and Illustrations. London : The 
British South Africa Company, 1912. *The Publishers. 

Rhodesia. A Book for Tourists. Map and Illustrations. London : The 
British South Africa Company, 1912. *The Publishers. 

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. A Report on the Land Settlement of the Gezira 
(Mesellemia District), by H. St. G. Peacock, Judge of Sudan Civil Courts, 
Settlement Officer, 1906—1910. Maps, Diagrams and Illustrations. 
London : Sifton Praed & Co., 1913. (Sale Agents.) *The Sale Agents. 



List 01 Books 171 

AMERICA. 

The Canada Year Book, 1911. Second Series. Ottawa, 1912. *The High 

Commissioner for Canada. 
A Study of Maya Art, its subject matter and historical development, by 

Herbert J. Spinden. Map and Illustrations. Cambridge : Peabody 

Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 

Memoirs, Vol. VI, 1913. *The Museum. 
The Times South American Supplement. Nos. 31 — 42, 1913. *Mr. Isaac 

Chorlton. 
Paginas Historicas Colombianas. Ricardo Castro. Medellin, 1912. *The 

Author. 
Brazil in 1912. By J. C. Oakenfull. Maps and Illustrations. London : 

Robert Atkinson (London) Ltd., 1913. *The Pan American Union. 
Through the Heart of the Andes. Illustrations. *Argentine Gt. Western 

Railway Co. 

OCEANIA. 

The Handbook of Western Australia. Maps and Illustrations. Perth : The 
Immigration and Tourist Department, 1912. *The Agent-General for 
Western Australia. 

The Year Book of South Australia, 1912. Map and Illustrations. *The 
Agent-General for South Australia. 

The Official Year Book of New South Wales, 1911. Map. Sydney : Bureau 
of Statistics, 1912. *The Agent-General for New South Wales. 

The Year Book of Queensland, 1913. ^Nlap and Illustrations. *The Agent- 
General for Queensland. 

Glimpses of Sunny Queensland. Illustrations. Second Edition. *The Agent- 
General for Queensland. 

The Pocket Queensland, containing general information regarding the Great 
North-Eastern State of the Australian Commonwealth. Maps and Illus- 
trations. ^ Revised Edition. Brisbane, 1912. *The Agent-General for 
Queensland. 

Papua : "A Grandchild of the Empire." By Gordon Inglis. Illustrations. 
London : Charles Hooper & Co., 1912. *The High Commissioner for 
Australasia. 

The New Zealand Official Year-Book, 1912. Wellington, N.Z., 1912. *The 
High Commissioner for New Zealand. 

POLAR REGIONS. 

The North Pole and Bradley Land, by Edwin Swift Balch.. Philadelphia : 
Campion & Co., 1913. *The Author. 

To the South Pole : Captain Scott's Own Story. Told from His Journals. 
Photographs by H. G. Pouting, F.R.G.S. London : Strand Magazine, 
July, August, September, October, 1913. *Mr. H. Sowerbutts. 



172 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



%\Bt of Correaponbing Societiea, etc* 
(leycbangee)* 



BRITISH. 

Belfast. Natural History and Philosophical Society. Report and Proceedings 
for the Session 1912—1913. 

Birmingham. Natural History and Philosophical Society. Annual Report 
for the Year 1912. Proceedings, Vol. XIII, No. 1. 

Cardiff. Naturalists' Society. Report and Transactions, Vol. XLV, 1912. 

Croydon. Natural History and Scientific Society. Proceedings and Tran- 
sactions, 1912—1913. 

Edinburgh. The Royal Scottish Geographical Society. The Scottish Geo- 
graphical Magazine, 1913, Vol. XXIX, Nos. 1-12, and Index. 

Glasgow. Geological Society. Transactions, Vol. XIV, Part III, 1911-12. 

Glasgow. Royal Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Vol. XLIV, 1912-13. 

Hertford. Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club. Transac- 
tions, Vol. XV, Part I. 

Hull. Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. (Nothing received.) 

Leeds. Geological Association. Transactions. (Nothing received.) 

Leeds. Yorkshire Geological Society. Proceedings. (Nothing received.) 

Leicester. Literary and Philosophical Society. Transactions and Annual 
Report, Vol. XVII, 1913. 

Liverpool. Geographical Society. Transactions and Twenty-First Annual 
Report for the Year 1912. 

London, The Anti-Slavery Reporter and Aborigines' Friend. Series V, Vol. 
n. No. 8^ III, 1, 2, 3. 

London. British Association for the Advancement of Science. Report of 
the Eighty-Second Meeting, Dundee, 1912. Report of the Corresponding 
Societies' Committee and of the Conference of Delegates held in Dundee,. 
1912. 

London. The Colliery Guardian, 1913, Nos. 2714—2765. 

London. The Colonial Office Journal. Vol. VI, Nos. 3, 4 ; VII, 1, 2. 

London. The Royal Colonial Institute. Journal, "United Empire." Vol. 
IV, Nos. 1—12. Year Book, 1913. 

London. Emigrants' Information Office. Combined Circulars on Canada, 
Australasia and South Africa. 1913, Quarterly. 

London. Royal Geographical Society. The Geographical Journal, 1913, Jan. 
to Dec. Year Book and Record. 

London. Imperial Institute. Bulletin. Vol, XI, Nos. 1-4. 

London. India Office. (See list of Books.) 

London. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 1—10, and 
Appendices I — IV. 



List of Exchanges 173 

London. Royal Society of Literature. Transactions. Vol. XXXII, Parts I, 
II, III. The Academic Committee. Addresses of Reception to John 
Masefield by Sir Walter Raleigh, to Mrs. Margaret Louisa Woods by 
Maurice Hewlett, to the Dean of St. Paul's by A. C. Benson, to Max 
Beerbohm by Laurence Binyon. Award of the Edmond De Polignac 
Prize to James Stephens by W. B. Yeats, Nov. 28th, 1913. 

London. The Near East. 1913, Nos. 87 — 138, with Supplement "Egypt and 
the Sudan." 

London. War Office. Geographical Section, General Staff. (See List of 
Maps.) 

London. War Office. Catalogue of Maps. Accessions. 1913, Jan. to Dec. 

London. War Office Library. Accessions. 1913, January to December. 
Catalogue of the Library, Part III (Subject — Index). First Annual Sup- 
plement, 1912. 

London. War Office. Catalogue of Maps in Books and Periodicals contained 
in the War Office Library. Accessions, 1913. 

Manchester. The British Cotton Growing Association. Publications. Nos. 
53, 54 (Nos. 51, 52 not received). 

Manchester. Godlee Observatory. The Municipal School of Technology. 
Annual Report for the Year 1912. 

Manchester. Literary and Philosophical Society. Memoirs and Proceedings. 
Vol. 57, Parts I, II, III. 

Manchester. Museum. The University. Museum Publication 74. Report 
for 1912—1913. 

Manchester. Public Libraries Committee. Sixty-First Annual Report, 1912-13. 

Manchester. The Textile Recorder. 1913, January to December. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Tyneside Geographical Society. Journal. (Nothing 
received.) 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne. North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers. Transactions. Vol. LXIII, Parts 1-8; LXIV, 1, 2. Annual 
Report, 1912—1913. 

Oxford. Clarendon Press. (Nothing received.) 

Penzance. Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Transactions. Vol. XIII, 
Part IX. 

Rochdale. Literary and Scientific Society. Transactions. ( Nothing received.) 

Salford. Museum, Libraries and Parks Committee. Sixty-Fifth Report, 
1912-13. 

York. Yorkshire Philosophical Society. Annual Report for 1912. 

MISSIONARY. 

Freiburg-im-Breisgau. Die Katholischen Missionen. 1913, January to Dec. 
London. Baptist Missionary Society. The Herald. 1913, January to Dec. 
London. British and Foreign Bible Society. 109th Annual Report, 1913. 

"Have ye never read?" A Popular Illustrated Report, 1912-13. "The 

Bible in the World." 1913, January to December. Manchester and 

Salford Auxiliary. 102nd Annual Report, 1912. 
London. Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East. Report of 

Proceedings, 114th year, 1912-13. 



174 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

London. Church Missionary Eeview. 1913, January to December, 

London. Colonial and Continental Church Society. Greater Britain Mes- 
senger. 1913, January to December. 

London. The London Missionary Society. 118th Report for the year ending 
March 1913. 

London. Illustrated Catholic Missions. 1913, January to December. 

London, The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 
Report of the year 1912. 

London. Universities Mission to Central Africa. "Central Africa." 1913, 
January to December. 

London. The United Methodist Church. "Missionary Echo." 1913, Jan. 
to December. 

Mangalore. Basel German Evangelical Mission in South Western India. 
Report for the year 1912. 

COLONIAL. 
Adelaide. Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. South Australian 

Branch. Proceedings. Vol. XIV, 1912—1913. 
Brisbane. Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. Queensland Branch. 

Queensland Geographical Journal. Vols. XXVI— XXVII, 1910—1912. 
Brisbane. Queensland Museum. Memoirs. Vol. II, 1913. 
Brisbane. Department of Mines. Geological Survey of Queensland. Publi- 
cations. (Nothing received.) 
Bulawayo. Rhodesia Scientific Association. Proceedings. Vol. XII, 1912-13. 
Cape Town. Royal Society of South Africa. Transactions. Vol. Ill, Parts 

1, 2, 3. 
Georgetown. The Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British 

Guiana. The Journal. "Timehri." Vol. Ill, No. 1. 
Halifax. Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Proceedings and Transactions. 

Vol. XII, Part 4, 1909—1910. 
Melbourne. Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. Victorian Branch. 

Victorian Geographical Journal. Vol. XXIX, 1912. 
Melbourne. Department of Agriculture of Victoria (per the favour of the 

Agent General). Journal. Vol. XI, Parts 1-12. 
Melbourne. Victorian Statistical Department. Year Book, 1912-13. 
Perth, Western Australia. Geological Survey (per the favour of the Agent 

General). Bulletin. Nos. 42, 44. 
Port ^loresby, Papua. Annual Report for the year ended 30th June, 1913. 
Quebec. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. Vol. VII, Nos. 1-6. 
Sydney. New South Wales. Department of Mines. Annual Report for the 

year 1912. 
Sydney. New South Wales. Department of Mines. Geological Survey. 

Mineral Resources. Nos. 7, 17. 
Toronto. Canadian Institute. Transactions. Vol. X, Part 1, November, 

1913 (No. 23). Year Book and Annual Report, 1912—1913. 
Victoria. Department of Mines. Province of British Columbia. Annual 

Report for the year ending 3l8t December, 1912. 
Wellington. New Zealand. Department of Lands and Survey. (Nothing 

received.) 



List of Exchanges 175 

FOREIGN. 

Alger. Societe de Geographie d'AIger et de L'Afrique du Nord. Bulletin. 

1913, 1, 2. 
Ann Arbor. The Michigan Academy of Science. University of Michigan. 

14th Report, 1912. 
Antwerp. Societe Royale de Geographie. d'Anvers. Bulletin. Tome 

XXXVI, Fascicules 3, 4; XXXVII, 1-4. 
Baltimore. Johns Hopkins University. Studies in Historical and Political 

Science. Series XXXI, Nos. 1, 2. Circulars. 1913, Nos. 1-6. 
Baltimore. Maryland Geological Survey. (Nothing received.) 
Barcelona. Sociedad de Geografia Comercial. Publicaciones. 1913, No. 8. 
Belgrade. Sociehe Serbe de Geographie. Bulletin. 1912, Vol. II. 
Bergamo. Rivista Mensile lUustrata D'Arte-Letteratura-Scienze e Varieta. 

"Emporium." 1913, January to December. 
Berkeley. University of California. Publications in American Archaeology 

and Ethnology. Vol. X, No. 5. Publications in Geography. Vol. I, 

Nos. 1, 2. 
Berlin. Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde. Zeitschrift. 1913, Nos. 1-10. 
Berlin. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung. 1913, Nos. 1 — 52. 

Bern. Geographische Gesellschaft. Jahresbericht. Band XXIII, 1911 — 1912. 
Bordeaux. Societe de Geographie Commerciale. Revue de Geographie Com- 

merciale. 1913, January to December. 
Bremen. Deutsche Geographische Gesellschaft. Blatter. Band XXXVI, 

Hefte 1-4. 
Brussels. Congo Beige. Bulletin Official. 1913, Nos. 1 — 14 et supplements. 
Brussels. Societe Royale Beige de Geographie. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 1-6. 
Brussels. Le Mouvement Geographique. 1913, Nos. 1 — 52. 
Brussels. Institut Colonial International. (Nothing received.) 
Brussels. Societe Beige d'Etudes Coloniales. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 1 — 11. 

(1912, No. 12, and 1913, No. 12 not received.) 
Brussels. Commission Polaire Internationale. Proces- Verbal de la Session 

Tenue a Rome en 1913. 
Budapest. Hungarian Geographical Society. Bulletin. Tome XLI, .Fasci- 
cules 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10; XLII, 1. International Ed., Vol. XL, Parts MO. 
Buenos Aires. Instituto Geografico Argentino. Boletin. (Nothing received.) 
Buenos Aires. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires. Anales. 

Tomo XXIV. 
Buenos Aires. Monthly Bulletin of Municipal Statistics. 1913, Nos. 1 — 12. 

Year Books of the City of Buenos Aires. Year XXII — 1912. 
Buenos Aires. Ministerio de Agricultura. Boletin. (Nothing received.) 
Cairo. Societe Khediviale de Geographie. Bulletin. (Nothing received.) 
Cambridge. Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Harvard University. Memoirs. Vol. V, No. 3; Vol. VI. Papers, Vol. 

Ill, No. 5. Contents and Index. 
Cassel. Gesellschaft fiir Erd-und Volkerkunde. Jahresbericht XXX und XXXI. 
Christiania. Norges Geografiske Opmaaling. (See List of Maps.) 
Copenhagen. Geografisk Tidskrift udgivet af Bestyrelsen for det Kongelige 

Danske Geografiske Selskab. Bind XXII, Hefte 1-4. 



176 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Darmstadt. Verein fiir Erdkunde. Notizblatt. Folge IV, Heft 33. 

Dijon. Societe Bourguignonne de Geographie et d'Histoire. Memoires. 

Tome XXVIII, 1913. 
Douai. Union Geographique du Nord de la France. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 1-4. 
Dresden. Verein fiir Erdkunde. Mitteilungen. Band II, Heft 7, 8. Mit- 

glieder Verzeichnis, April, 1913. Satzung und Geschafts-Ordnung, 1910. 
Dunkerque. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. No. 39. 
Firenze (Florence). Kivista Geografica Italiana e Bollettino della Societa di 

Studi Geografici e Coloniali. Annata XX, Fascs 1 — 10. 
Firenze (Florence). L'Opinione Geografica. Rassegna dell' Insegnamento di 

Geografia. Anno IX, Fascs. 1-2. 
Frankfurt. Verein fiir Geographie und Statistik. Jahresbericht. (Nothing 

received.) 
Geneva. "Le Globe." Organe de la Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. Tome 

LII, Nos. 1, 2, et Memoires. Numero Special, XVIIe Congres des 

Societes Suisses de Geographie, 1913. 
Geneva. Societe des Anciens Eleves de I'Ecole Superieure de Commerce. 

Bulletin. Nos. 98, 99, 100, 101. 
Giessen. Geographische Mitteilungen aus Hessen. (Nothing received.) 
Griefswald. Geographische Gesellschaft zu Greifswald. Jahresbericht. XIII, 

1911—1912. 
Halle. Sachsisch-Thiiringischen Vereins fiir Erdkunde. Mitteilungen. 

(Nothing received.) 
Halle. Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der 

Naturforscher. Leopoldina. Heft 49. 
Hamburg. Geographischen Gesellschaft. Mitteilungen. Band XXVII. 
Hamburg. Haupstation fiir Erdbebenforschung. Professor Dr. R. Schiitt. 

Mitteilungen. 1913, Nos. 1 — 43. Neuere Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete 

der Erdbebenforschung, vom Dr. E. Tams. 
Hannover. Geographische Gesellschaft. Neunter Nachtrag zum Kataloge der 

Stadt-Bibliothek zu Hannover. 
Havre. Societe de Geographie Commerciale. Bulletin. 1913, Trimestres 1, 2, 
Havre. Societe Geologique de Normandie. Bulletin. (Nothing received.) 
Helsingfors. Societe de Geographie de Finlande. Fennia 33. 
Helsingfors. Meddelanden af Geografiska Foreningen. (Nothing received.) 
Irkutsk. Imperial Russian Geographical Society. East Siberian Section. 

Journal. (Nothing received.) 
Jena. Geographische Gesellschaft. Mitteilungen. (Nothing received.) 
Kazan. Naturalists' Society of the Imperial University. Journal. (Nothing 

received.) 
Konigsberg. Physikalisch-okonomischen Gesellschaft. Schriften. Jahrgang 

LIII, 1912. 
La Paz. Sociedad Geografica de La Paz. Boletin. Nos. 39, 40. 
La Paz. Republica de Bolivia. Direccion General de Estadistica y Estudios 

Geograficos. Boletin. Ano IX, No. 86. 
La Plata. Direccion General de Estadistica de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. 

Boletin Mensual. Ano XIII, Nos. 147—149. 
La Plata. Museo de La Plata. Revista. (Nothing received.) 



List of Exchanges 177 

Leipsic. Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde. Mitteilungen. 1912. 

Lille. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 1 — 12. 

Lima. Sociedad Geografica. Boletin. (Nothing received.) 

Lima. Cuerpo de Ingenieres de Minas del Peru. (Nothing received.) 

Lisbon. Sociedade de Geographia, Boletin. 1913, Nos. 1-9. Eapport au 

sujet de I'Etude des Problemes Coloniaux. 
Liibeck. Geographische Gesellschaft und Naturhistorische Museums. Mit- 
teilungen. (Nothing received.) 
Lwowie (Lemberg). Towarzystwo Ludozonaweze Kwartalnik Etnografiezny. 

"Lud." Tom. XVIII, Zeszyt 1-4. 
Madison. Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters. Transactions. 

(Nothing received.) 
Madison. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin. No. 

XXVI. 
Madison. Journal of Geography. Vol. XI, Nos. 5 — 10 ; XII, 1, 2. 
Madrid. Real Sociedad Geografica. Boletin. Tomo LV, Trim. 1-4. Revista. 

Tomo X, Nos. 1—12. 
Madrid. Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Boletin, Nos. 836 — 887. Estadistica 

Demografica. Resumen del Ano 1910. 
Magdeburg. Museum fiir Natur-und Heimatkunde und Dem Naturwissen- 

Schaftlichen Verein in Magdeburg. Abhandlungen und Berichte. (Noth- 
ing received.) 
Marseille. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. Tome XXXVI, No. 4. 
Metz. Verein fiir Erdkunde. Jahresbericht. XXVII, 1908—1911. 
Mexico. Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica. Boletin. Tomo VI, 

Nos. 1 — 10. "Noticias de Nutka." Manuscritos, Mandados publicar por 

Acuerdo de 17 de Julio de 1913. 
Mexico. Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate." Memorias y Revista. Tomo 

XXX, Nos. 7—12 ; XXXI, 1—12 ; XXXII, 1-8 ; XXXIII, 1-8. 
Milan. L'Esplorazione Commerciale. Anno XXVIII, Fasc. 1 — 12. 
Missoula. University of Montana. Bulletin. Nos. 75, 77, 78, 83, 84, 87, 88. 
Montevideo. Museo Nacional. Anales. (Nothing received.) 
Montpellier. Societe Languedocienne de Geographie. Bulletin. Tome XXXVI, 

Trim 1-4. 
Moscow. Geographical Section of the Imperial Society of Natural Science of 

the University. Journal. 1913, Vol. XX, Nos. 1, 2, 4. 
Munich. Geographische Gesellschaft in Miinchen. Mitteilungen. Band 

VIII, Hefte, 1-4. 
Nancy. Societe de Geographie de L'Est. Bulletin. 1913, Trim. 1. 
Nantes. Societe de Geographie Commerciale. Bulletin. 1913, Trim. 1-4. 
Naples. Societa Africana d'ltalia. Bollettino. "L'Africa Italiana." Anno 

XXXII, Fasc. 1—10. 
Neuchatel. Societe Neuchateloise de Geographie. Bulletin. Tome XXII, 

1913. 
New Haven. Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. Transactions. 

Vol. 18, June, October 
New York. American Geographical Society. Bulletin. Vol. XLV, Nos. 1-12. 



178 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

New York. American INIuseum of Natural History. Forty-Fourth Annual 

Report for the Year IbVJ.. 
New York. Public Library, Astor Lenox and Tilden Foundations. Bulletin. 

1913, January to December. 
Novara. Instituto Geografico de Agostini. "La Geografia." Nos. 3, 4, 5. 
Nurnberg. Naturhistorische Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen. Band XX. Mit- 

teilungen. 1909, Band III, No. 2; 1910, IV, 1, 2. 
Odessa. Club Alpin de Crimee et du Caucase. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 1-4. 
Omsk. Imperial Russian Geographical Society. West Siberian Branch. 

Journal. Vol. I, Nos. 1, 2. Report of Proceedings. Vol. XXXVI, No. 2. 

Report, 1912. 
Oran. Societe de Geographic et d'Archeologie. Bulletin. Tome XXXIII, 

Fascicules 134—137. 
Para (Brazil). Museu GoeJdi (Museu Paraense) de Historia Natural e Ethno- 

graphia. Boletim. Vol. VII, 1910. 
Paris. Societe de Geographie. "La Geographic." Bulletin. Tome XXVII, 

Nos. 1-6 ; XXVIII, Nos. 1-6. 
Paris. Societe de Geographie Commerciale. Bulletin. Tome XXXV, Nos. 

1-12. 
Paris. Societe de Speleologie. Bulletin et Memoires. Spelunca. Tome IX, 

No. 71. 
Paris. Societe de Topographic de France. Bulletin. Tome XXXVII, Nos. 

1-6. 
Paris. Comite de L'Afrique Fran^aise et du Comite du Maroc. Bulletin. 

1913, Nos. 1—12. Renseignements Coloniaux. 1913, Nos. 1—12. 
Paris. Service Geographique et des Missions du Ministere des Colonies. 

Revue Coloniale. (Nothing received.) 
Philadelphia. American Philosophical Society. Proceedings. Vol. LII, Nos. 

208—212. 
Philadelphia. The Philadelphia Museums. (The Commercial Museum.) 

Annual Report for the Year 1912. "Commercial America." 1913, 

January to December. 
Philadelphia. Geographical Society of Philadelphia. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 

1—4. 
Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania. Free Museum of Science and 

Art. The Museum Journal. Vol. IV, Nos. 1-4. 
Prague. Societe de Geographie tcheque a Prague. Revue. (Nothing 

received.) 
Rochefort. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 1-4. 
Rolla, Mo. Missouri Bureau of Geology and Mines. Publications. (Nothing 

received.) 
Roma. Reale Societa Geografica. Bollettino. 1913, Nos. 1 — 12. 
Roma. Direzione Generale della Statistica e del Lavoro. Annuario Statistico 

Italiano. Seconda Serie Vol. II, 1912. 
Roma. Commissariato dell' Emigrazione. Bollettino. 1913, Nos. 1 — 14. 
Roma. Cosmos. Del Prof. Guido Cora. Serie 11, Vol. XIII, No. V. 
Rome. International Institute of Agriculture. Monthly Bulletin of Agricul- 
tural Intelligence and of Plant Diseases. 1913, Nos. 4 — 12. 



List of Exchanges i7<) 

Rouen. Societe Normande de Geographie. Bulletin. 1912, Trims. 1-4. 
San Francisco. Geographical Society of the Pacific. (Nothing received.) 
San Francisco. Southern Pacific Eailway (per the favour of Mr. Rud Falck, 

Liverpool.) "Sunset." — The Pacific Monthly. 1913, January to Dec. 
San Jose. Museo Nacional. Boletin de Fomento, organo del Ministerio de 

Fomento. Ano III, Nos. 1—12. 
St. Louis, Mo. Washington University Studies. Vol. I, Part I, II. 
St. Nazaire. Societe de Geographie Commerciale. Bulletin. (Nothing 

received.) 
St. Petersburg. Imperial Russian Geographical Society. Journal. Vol. 

XLIX, Nos. 1-3. 
San Salvador. Direccion General de Estadistica. Monografias Departamen- 

tales. Vol. X. Departamento de la Union. 
Santiago de Chile. Deutschen Wissenschaftlichen Vereins. Verhandlungen. 

Band VI, Heft 3. Deutsche Arbeit in Chile. Band II. 
Shanghai. China. The Maritime Customs. Gazette. I. Statistical Series. 

Nos. 3 and 4. Returns of Trade and Trade Reports, 1912. Part I ; II, 

Vols. I— V; III, Vols. 1, 2. 
Shanghai. China. Ministry of Communications. Directorate General of 

Posts. II. Public Series ; No. 2. Report on the Working of the Chinese 

Post Office for the First Year of Chung-Hua Min-Kuo (1912). 
Stettin. Gesellschaft fiir Volker und Erdkunde. (Nothing received.) 
Stockholm. Svenska Sallskapet for Antropologi och Geografi. Ymer. 1913, 

Haft 1-4^. 
Strassburg. Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde und Kolonialwesen. Mitteilungen. 

(Nothing received.) 
Stuttgart. Wiirttembergische Vereins fiir Handelsgeographie. (Nothing 

received.) 
Tokyo. Tokyo Geographical Society. Journal of Geography. 1913, Nos. 

289—295. 
Toulouse. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. 1913, Nos. 1, 2. 
Tours. Societe de Geographie. Revue. 1913. Nos. 1-4. 
Upsala. University of Upsala. (Nothing received.) 
Urbana. Illinois State Geological Survey. Bulletin. No. 25. 
Vienna. K. K. Geographischen Gesellschaft. Mitteilungen. Band 56, Nos. 

1—12. Abhandlungen. Band X, No. 3. 
Vienna. Verein der Geographen an der K. K. Universitat in Wien. (Nothing 

received.) 
Vienna. K. K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. Annalen. Band XXVII, 

Nos. 1-3. 
Washington. D. C. National Geographic Society. Magazine. 1913, Vol. 

XXIV, January to December. 
Washington. D. C. United States Department of Commerce. Coast and 

Geodetic Survey. Reports for the Fiscal Years ended June 30th, 1912, 

and June 30th, 1913. Results of Observations made at the Magnetic 

Observatories at Cheltenham, Maryland, 1911 and 1912; near Honolulu, 

Hawaii, 1911 and 1912. Special Publications :— "Geodesy," No. 13, 16, 

17. "Astronomy" No. 14. 



l8o Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



United States Geological Survey. Mineral Resources. 

U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin. Nos. 522, 525—539. 
U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Papers. Nos. 76, 



Washington. D.C. United States Geological Survey. Annual Report for 

the Year ended June 30th, 1913. 
Washington. D.C. United States Geological Survey. Monograph. (None 

received.) 
Washington. D.C. 

(Not received.) 
Washington. D.C. 
Washington. D.C. 

78, 79, 80. 
Washington. D.C. U.S. Geological Survey. Water Supply Papers. Nos. 

292, 295, 302—305, 307, 308, 310, 311, 313—320. 
Washington. D.C. Smithsonian Institution. Reprints from the Report for 

1912. Publications 2201, 2221, 2222, 2224. 
Washington. D.C, United States National Museum. Report for the year 

ending June 30, 1912. 
Washington. D.C. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Weather Bureau. 

Bulletms. X, Y. Nos. 42, 43. Farmers' Bulletins. Nos. 561, 562, 563, 

566, 570. 
Washington. D.C. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Statistics. 

Bulletin. No. 103. 
Washington. War Department. Annual Reports, 1912, Vols. I, II, III, IV. 
Washington. D.C. United States Bureau of Education. Report of the 

Commissioner for the year ended June 30, 1912. Vols. 1 and 2. 
Washington. D.C. Library of Congress. Report for the Fiscal Year ending 

June 30th, 1913. 
Washington. Pan American Union. Bulletin. 1913, January to December. 
Washington. D.C. Carnegie Institution. Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism. Annual Report for 1913. 
Washington, Conn. Association of American Geographers. Annals. (Noth- 
ing received.) 
Zurich. Geographisch-Ethnographischen Gesellschaft in Zurich. Jahres- 

bericht, 1912—1913. 



List of Members 



i8i 



Xi0t Of fll>ember0. 

DECEMBER, 31st, 1913. 

Note. — H signifies Honorary, C — Corresponding, L — Life, A — Associate, 
* Affiliated Societies. All others are Ordinary Members. 

Abbott, F. S., F.C.A. Baronian, Z. S. Iplicjian 

Abbott, James H. Bax, Wm. Robert 

Adam, Sir Frank Forbes, CLE. ABaxandall, Miss C. 

LAinsworth, John, C.M.G., F.R.G.S.ABayley, Mrs. C. H. 
(Kisumu). ABebie, Alfred 

Aldred, John C, A.C.A. ABeck, H. S. 

AAlexander, Miss M. N. Beer, Walter 

Alexander, W. T., J.P. Behrens, Councillor Sir Charles, J.P. 

Allen, John W. Behrens, Gustav, J.P. 

HAmundsen, Captain Roald. Bell, G. H. 

HArgyll, His Grace the Duke of, K.T.cBellamy, C. H., F.R.G.S., Tourcoing 

Armitage, G. F., J.P. (His WorshipABellamy, Reginald C, A.C.A. 



the Mayor of Altrincham). 

Armstrong, F. 

Arning, A. W. 

Arnold, W, A. 

Aron, L. 

Ascoli, E. 

Ascoli, W. S., F.R.G.S. 
AAshworth, Mrs. Ada 
AAshworth, Miss D. 

Ashworth, Francis, J.P. 
AAshworth, Miss R. 
AAshworth, S. 

Ashworth, Wm., F.C.A. 

Ashworth, W. E. 

Atkinson, George, F.R.G.S. 

Bacon, W. C. 

Baerlein, H. A. 
ABagnall, John H. 

Bailey, W. D. 
LBalmer, J. E., F.R.G.S. 
LBalmforth, Alfred. 

Barber, G. 

Bardsley, G. W. 

Barlow, Edwin. 

Barlow, John R., J.P. 

Barningham, Mrs. James 

Barningham, Thomas, J.P. 

Baron, J. W., C.C. 



Bentley, John Howard, F.R.G.S. 

Berry, G. F. 

Berry, R. H. 

Berry, W. H., Free Public Library, 
Oldham. 

Beving, C. 
ABickerton, Richard 

Bishop, J. K. 

Blaikie, W. V. 

Blake, George Ingle 
ABlanchoud, Miss 

Blass, A. 

Bles, Marcus S., J.P. 

Bles, Philip 

Bock, Richard 
LBoddington, Henry, J.P. 
HBodio, Senator Luigi, Rome 
ABolivar, Mrs. A. de 
nBonaparte, S. A. Prince Roland, Paris 
HBond, Rt. Hon. Sir R., K.C.M.G., 

Newfoundland 
HBotha, Rt. Hon. Louis, Pretoria 

Bourne, Thomas 

Bowen, E. 
ABoyes, Miss S. 

Bradley, N., J.P. 

Bradshaw, Wm. 

Bramwell, Samuel 
cBrice, A. Montefiore, F.R.G.S. 



i82 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



Brier, Charles 
xBrierley, James, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Briggs, Henry 

Briggs, Herbert 

Broadhurst, E. Tootal, D.L., J.P. 
ABrobson, Miss 
LBrooks, Mrs. S. H. 
LBrooks, S. H., J.P., F.R.G.S. 

Broome, Henry 

Brown, A. E. Buchanan 
i.Brown, James, J.P. 

Brownell, Thos. W. 

Brumm, Charles, J.P. 

Bryant, James 
cBryce, J. Annan, M.P. 

Buckley, W. S. 

Burgess, Alfred, A.C.A. 
i^Burgon, Anthony 

Burke, Thomas 
*Burnley Literary and Scientific 

Burstall, Miss S. A., M.A. 

Butterworth, Walter, J.P. 

Bythell, J. K., J.P. 

Bythell, W. J. S., B.A., M.D. 

Byrne, Miss T. G. 

Calvert, D. R. 

Campbell, Richardson 
jvCardwell, J. J. 

Carr, Arthur 

Carson, Isaac Pitman 
xCarver, W. Oswald 

Chadwick, J. J. 

Champ, F. 
ACharnock, Mrs. E. 

Cheetham, Rt. Hon. J. F., J.P 

Chorlton, Isaac 

Chorlton, James 

Clapham, Col. W. W. 

Clapham, Thomas, F.R.G.S. 

Clarke, Charles A. 
AClegg, Miss C. E. 
ACockshaw, Miss E. 
cCoIbeck, Rev. A. 
LColley, T. H. Davies 
ACollinge, Miss A. 

Collmann, C. 
^Colquhoun, A.R., F.R.G.S., M.I, 



Colt, W. H. 

Cooke, J. Herbert 

Cookson, G. P. 

Coop, Thos. 
LCooper, Mrs. A. H. 
aCox, C. H., B.Sc, L.C.P. 

Cox, Dr. Frederic 

Crawford, A. 

Crawford, W. L. 

Crewdson, Alfred 

Crompton, Mrs. 

Crompton, Thos. A. 

Crook, Col. H. T., D.L., V.D. 
M.Inst.C.E. 

Crosland, Leo. 
ACrosthwaite, Robert, M.A., B.Sc. 

Crowther, Miss E. 

Darbyshire, Alfred 
ClubADaves, Miss A. 

David, Henry E. 
ADavies, Charles J. 

Dawkins, Prof. W. Boyd, J. P., M.A. 
F.R.S. 

Dawson, Arnold 
nDeakin, Hon. Alfred, Australia 

Deakin, G. G. D. 

Deakin, Thos. S. 

Dean, J. 

Dean, J. N. 

Dehn, Gustav 

Dennis, Cammack, J.P. 
LDerby, Rt. Hon. Earl, G.C.V.O. 

Dixon, H. C. 

Donner, Sir Edward, Bart. 

Dowson, Rev. H. E., B.A. 
LDoxey, Alex. S. 

Duckworth, Charles 

Duckworth, Alderman Sir James, J. P. 
F.R.G.S. 

Dugdill, John 

Dunkerley, Frank B. 

Dyckhoff, C. 

Earnshaw, John A. 
Eason, Edward A. 
*Eccles Prov. Ind. Co-op. Soc, Ltd. 
• C.E. Eckhard, Gustav, J.P. 



List of Members 



183 



Edleston, C. V. M. 
LEdwards, T. A., F.R.G.S. 

Egerton of Tatton, Rt. Hon. Lord 

Ellinger, George 

Ellinger, Martin 

England, A. 
LErmen, Charles 

Evans, E. Roose 

Evans, E. Russell 

Evans, J. H. 

Evans, L. C. 

Fairhurst, Thomas 
cFedotoff, A., Moscow 

Ferguson, Wm. 

Fern, George 
cFisher, Rev. A. B., F.R.G.S. 

Fison, K. G. 

Fletcher, R. 

Flinn, W. Leonard 

Follows, F. W. 

Forsyth, Henry 

Franc, Henry 

Frank, Ernest 

Frankenburg, Alderman I., J. P. 
HFreshfield, Douglas. W., F.R.G.S. 

Frischmann, A. 
AFuchs, Paul 
AFullerton, Miss E. 

Gamble, J, 
AGarner, Miss P. M. 
AGarner, Charles T. I. 

Garnett, Mrs. Charles 

Garnett, Charles 

Geiler, Hermann 

Gibbons, Fred C. 
LGinger, George 

Glazebrook, Philip K., M.P. 

Gleave, Joseph James 

Glossop, J. P. B. 

Godbert, Councillor Chas. W. 

Godlee, Francis 

Goodbehere, Frederick G. 

Goodwin, J. W. 

Gordon, T. Hodgetts, C.C, B.A. 

Green, H., M.A. 

Green, Walter 



Greenhow, J. H., Vice-Consul for 
Norway 
AGreenough, Richard, Leigh 

Greg, Colonel Ernest W., J.P., C.C, 
F.R.G.S. 

Gregory, Theodore, F.C.A., J.P. 

Grey, Dr. Edgar 
LGriffiths, Albert, D.Sc. 

Grifl&ths, Alderman John 

Grifl&ths, Horatio 

Grime, A. 
AGroves, Miss M. 

Groves, Charles V. 
LGroves, J. G., J.P., D.L. 
LGroves, W. G. 

Guest, R, 

Guggenheim, A. 

Gumbrell, Mrs, 

Giiterbock, Alfred 

Giiterbock, Richard 

Guthrie, Mrs. S. F. 

Hacking, Nicholas H., J.P, 

Hahlo, Charles 

Hailwood, Councillor Anthony, J.P. 

Hailwood, R. Emmett 
AHalksworth, Miss M. 
AHall, Miss Hilda 
LHall, Mrs, J, Howard 
lHrII, J. Howard 

Hall, Robert, J.P. 

Hallworth, Joseph 

Halsall, Frank, F.CA,, J.P. 
AHamilton, Mrs. 
A Hamilton, Miss Joyce 

Hammond, G. S. 

Hamp, E. H. 

Hancock, J. 
AHandcock, H. C. 

Hanemann, A. 
cHanlon, Rt. Rev, Henry, Bishop of 
Teos, and Vicar Apostolic of the 
Upper Nile 

Hardcastle, G. L. 
AHarden, Miss C. 

Hardy, H, Waters 
LHargreaves, George 
AHarper, William 



i84 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



Harrap, Thomas 
AHarris, Miss E. M. 

Harris, Mrs. Isabella M. 

Harrop, James 
LHassall, Alderman Thomas, J.P. 

Hawkins, William 

Haworth, Alfred, J.P. 

Haworth, G. C, J.P. 

Heap, Alderman, W. T., J.P. 
HHedin, Sir Sven, K.C.I.E., F.R.G.S 

Heighway, Mrs. 

Heighway, George 

Helm, John 
cHerbertson, Professor A. J., M.A., 
Ph.D. 

Herd, Harry 

Hertz, F. M. 

Hesketh, W. R. 
AHewit, R. P., J.P. 

Heycock, A. H. 
LHeys, John, J.P. 

Hey wood, Abel, J.P. 

Hiersemann, K. W., Leipzig 

Higginbottom, Walter 

Higham, J. Sharp, M.P. 

Hilditch, John, M.R.A.S., M.J.S. 

Hindle, James, L.R.A.M. 

Hinrichsen, S. 

Hockin, C. Owen 

Hodgson, Jas. T. 

Hodgson, William 
AHolden, Henry 
AHollingworth, Edgar W. 
LHolt, Arthur 

Hopkinson, Sir A., Q.C. 

Hopkinson, Edward, D.Sc. 

Horsfall, T. C, J.P. 

Houghton, John 

Houldsworth, Sir W. H., Bart. 

Hoyle, E. 
cHoyle, W. E., M.A. 

Hudson, James H., M.A. 

Hughes, Joseph David 

Hulme, C. J. 

Hutton, D. W. 
LHutton, J. Arthur 

Hyde, Thomas 

Illingworth, Charles 



Irving, R. J. 

Jackson, Fred J. 

Jameson, John W. 
nJameson, Rt. Hon. Sir L. S., C.B. 

Janovski, R. 

Janus, H. 

Jefferson, Alfred Hy. 

Jenkins, Alderman T. H., J.P. 

Johnson, Mrs. A. T. 

Johnson, E., J.P. 

Johnson, James 

Johnson, Lionel M. 
LJohnson, Wm. Morton, F.R.G.S. 
cJohnston, Sir H. H., G.C.M.G., 
K.C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Johnstone, Charles Andrew 

Johnstone, P. T. 

Jones, Frederick A. 

Jones, R. Lomas 

Jones, Wm., J.P., Eccles 

Jones, Wm., Didsbury 

Jordan, Bernard 

Kalisch, Max 

Kalisch, Moritz 

Kalisch, Richard, F.R.G.S. 
AKay, Miss Katie 
AKay, Miss L. 
cKeiffer, F., Moscow 

Keith-Roach, Edward 
AKelley, H. F. 

Kelley, J. Macpherson 
HKeltie, J. Scott, LL.D., F.R.G.S. 

Kershaw, B. 

Kessler, Philip W. 
AKewley, Miss Jane 

Keymer, Sidney L., F.R.G.S. 
AKiesling, A. E. 

Kinch, W. S., C.C. 

Kirkpatrick, Henry, J.P. 

Knowles, Peter 

Knudsen, A., Consul for Denmark 

Kolp, Ernest 

Kukla, Charles 

Kullmann, Herbert C. 

cLabbe, Paul, Paris 
ALancaster, James, J.P. 

Langdon, E. H. 

Larmuth, Dr. 



List of Members 185 

HLaurier, Rt. Hon. Sir W., G.C.M.G. Mandleberg, S. L., J.P. 
ALaw, Miss Annie E., L.L.A. AMarkham, Mrs, M. 

Lawson, R. G. cMarrs, F. W., M.A., Bombay 

ALea, Miss F. LMarsden, James, J.P. 

Lea, John Martin, Horace C, F.R.G.S. 

Leah, S. P. Martin, Thomas 

Lederer, Robert, I. and R. Austro- Marx, Charles 

Hungarian Consul Massey, Harold F. 

ALedward, H. Davenport Massey, L. F. 

Leech, Miss AMassey, Samuel 

cLeech, Wm. Booth LMather, Loris Emerson, F.R.G.S. 

Leemann, E. Mather, Rt. Hon. Sir William, J.P. 

Lees, Mrs. H. L., F.R.G.S., A.R.C.L May, Wm. 

Lees, Walter AMaybury, J. H. 

Leigh, James AMaybury, W. H. 

*Leigh Literary Society Medlyn, Wm.- John 

Leite, J. Pinto, Vice Consul for Melland, Councillor Will. 

Portugal LMellor, E. W., J.P., F.R.G.S. 

Lemon, Miss Ada LMellor, Geoffrey Robert 

LLemos, Professor Angel Ma Diaz Middleton, T. C, J.P. 

Levinstein, Herbert Midwood, T. C. 

Levinstein, Ivan Miller, Fred. 

ALightowIer, Mrs. E. Miller, Paul C. 

Little, David Ainsworth Miller, T. 

Littler, Henry Landon Millers, R. Townley 

Lomas, J. A. Milligan, Wm., M.D., CM. 

Longden, A. W. Mills, Albert 

Lord, Charles nMoor, Rt. Hon. F. R., Natal 

ALowe, Miss M. E. Moore, A. E. 

Lowe, Wm. AMoore, Miss Isabel 

Lunn, Joseph Morehouse, James T. 

Morreau, M. 

Macara, Sir C. W., Bart., J.P. Morris, A. C. 

cMcDermott, Rev. P. A., C.S.Sp. Mort, Miss G. E. 

HMacdonald, Major-Gen. Sir J. R, L. Moxon, Thomas Bouchier 
R.E. Murton, T. P., London 

McDougall, Charles 

McDougall, Robert nNansen, Dr. F., G.C.V.O. 

McFarlane, H. H. Nanson, Miss W. 

McFarlane, John, M.A., M.Com., Nathan, Fred P. 
F.R.G.S. LNeil, Alexander 

M'Grath, W. A. Neild, F. E., F.C.A. 

HMacGregor, H. E. Sir Wm., M.D.. Neild, Jesse 

K.C.M.G. ANewbigging, Thos.. D.Sc, M.Inst.C.E. 

McPherson, Alexander Newton, Geo. D. 

Makin, E., junr. Nichol. Wm. 

*MancheRter Corporation, Free Libra- Nichols, Geo. Wm. 
ries Committee Nicholson, Joseph 

Mandleberg, G. C, J.P. Nightingale, Thos. H. 

H 



i86 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



ANoar, H. 

Norbury, Thos. 
LNuttalC Harry, M.P., F.R.G.S. 
Nuttall, Mrs. Harry 

cOederlin, F. 

Ogden, A. 

Oldham, Edwin, J.P. 

OWham, H. Yule, M.A., F.R.G.S 
Cambridge 

O'Leary, J. W. 
cO'Neill, H. E., F.R.G.S. 

Openshaw, Miss E. N. 

Oppenheim, F. S., M.A. 

Ormrod, Miss B. 

Osborn, John A. 

Ost, Emil 

Parkinson, J. B. 

Parkinson, T. W. F., M.Sc, F.G.S 
Peace, Alfred 
APearson, Miss E. 
Pearson, J. A. 
nPeary, Rear-Admiral R. E. 

Peters, Miss S. Kate 
APeters, Ralph 
Philips, Miss 

Phythian, J. Ernest 

Pickstone, E. 

Pidd, Arthur J. 
APidd, Leslie S. 
APidd, Mrs. Eli 
APidd, Miss Maggie 

Pigott, A. W. 

Pilcher, Colonel Jesse, V.D. 

Pilkington, Charles, J.P. 
LPilkington, Edward, J.P. 

Pilkington, Lawrence, J.P. 
cPing.stone, G. A. 

Pingstone, H. C. 

Poole, James 
APotts, Mrs. 
APres?cott, Mrs. 
APrescott, Miss E. M. 

Prestwich, R. H. 

Proctor, Mrs. 
AProctor, Miss 

Pro vis, Frank M, 

Prusmann, Robert Henry 

Putz, F. R. 



Qualtrough, Miss Kate 

Quine, Dr. R. H., L.R.C.P., etc. 

Raby, C. R. 
ARadcliffe, F. 
Ramsay, P. J., J.P. 
ARawlinson, Miss Maud 
Reade, Charles E. 
' Ree, Alfred, Ph.D. 
Reed, J. Howard, F.R.G.S. 
Reekie, W. M. 
Reid, James Stephenson 
LReiss, Alec 
Reiss, Gustav 
Renold, Hans 
Renshaw, James 
ARenshaw, Miss L. W. 
Reynolds, Mrs. R. H. 
Rhodes, Edward 

Richmond, Wm., J.P. 

Rigby, Wm, 

Riley, R. J. 

HRoberts, Field Marshal the Right 
Hon. Earl, V.C, K.G., etc. 

Robertshaw, James 

Robertson, W. J. 

Robinow, W. 

Robinson, W. H. 

Robson, J. Walter, J.P. 

Rogerson, James 

Rothband, H. L. 

Rotherham of Broughton, the Right 
Hon. Lord 

Rothwell, Alderman W. T., J.P. 

Royse, Councillor Sir S. W., J.P. 

Rudolph, Henry B. 

Russell, A. C. 

Russell, C. E. B. 

Ruttenau, Wm. 

Saalfeld, A. 

Salford, the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of 
*Salford Corporation Free Libraries 
Committee 
Samson, Oscar 

Schlagintweit, T., Imperial Germr^n 
Consul 
, Schofield, Edwin, J.P. 
Scholfield, Councillor A Y. 



List of Members 



187 



Schiitt, Professor Dr. R,, Hamburg 

Scott, C. Archibald 

Scott, C. P., J.P. 

Scott, J. E. P. 

Scott, John G. 
• Scott, W. 

Segalla, Emil 

Sever, John 
HShackleton, Sir E. H., C.V.O. 
F.R.G.S. 

Shann, Alderman Sir T. T., J.P. 

Shaw, A. E. 
AShaw, Miss A. E. 

Shaw, Matthew 

Sheppard, E. F. 

Shipman, Mrs. W. M. 

Shorrocks, Henry 
ASidebotham, J. F. 

Sidebotham, John Jas. 

Siegler, H. 

Simmons, C. L. 

Simon, Alfred 

Simon, Louis 

Simon, Salis, Swedish Consul 

Simpson, Alfred, J.P. 

Simpson, C. J. 
ASimpson, Miss F. 

Sivewright, Wm. 
LSmith, Rev. Canon F. C, M.A 

F.R.G.S. 
ASmith, Miss E. 

Smith, James 

Smith, J. 

Smith, J. H. H., J.P. 

Smith, R. Heaton 
ASmith, Mrs. R. Heaton 

Smith, Mrs. Samuel 

Smith, Sidney 

Smith, T. M. 

Somerset, Henry 

Southam, T. Frank, M.D., F.R.G.S. 
ASouthern, John E. 
nSowerbutts, Mrs. Eli 
ASowerbutts, Harry, A.R.C.Sc. 

Sowerbutts, T. W., F.S.A.A. 

Speakman, Walter 
ASpencer, Miss M. R. 
ASpencer, S. 

Spencer, Wm. 



Sprott, W. J., M.D., xM.R.C.S. 

Staniforth, R. A. 
LSteinthal, Egbert 

Stephens, Alderman Sir W., J.P. 

Sternberg, S. 

Stevenson, Frederick 

Stevenson, John 
AStevenson, Miss W. 
,AStewart, Robert 

Stoker, R. B., F.R.G.S. 
LStonehewer, Walter 

Stordy, Mrs. 

Storey, Henry E. 
AStott, Miss 
AStott, Miss Gladys 
AStott, Miss G. A. 

Stowell, Hugh 

Stubbs, Wm. T. 

Susmann, Councillor E. F. M., J.P. 

Sussum, Geo. H. 

Sutton, Charles 

Swaine, Geo. Raymond 

Swallow, Miss Eunice 
HSwallow, Rev. R., M.D. 

Swallow, R. W., B.Sc. 
LSykes, Arthur H., D.L., J.P. 

Symonds, The Rev. Canon 

, Tatham, Mrs. N. 
ATatton, Lees W. 
ATaylor, Albert 

Taylor, Miss A. I. 

Taylor, B. A. 

Taylor, C. 

Taylor, Frederick 

Taylor, John Tyson 
ATaylor, Miss M. 
ATaylor, Miss Ruth 

Taylor, Walter 

Taylor, William 

Tejeria, Antonio Maria, Spanish Con- 
sul 

Terry, Henry 

Thewlis, Councillor J. Herbert, J.P. 
LThomas, George, J.P. 

Thomson, A. E. 
cThomson, J.P., F.R.S.G.S., Brisbane 

Thomson, R. 

Thomson, Wm., F.R.S. (Ed.) 



i88 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



Thorpe, Walter Whalley, Joseph, F.R.G.S. 

Tout, Prof. T. F., xM.A. Whitby, W. H. 
LTrafford, Su* Humphrey F. de, Bart. Whitehouse, E. C. 

Tuke, Rev. R. M. Whitfield, A. R. 

LTulloch, Angus A. G. LWhittaker, Mrs. A. H. 

Turner, Mrs. S. A. AWhittaker, Miss F. 

ATydeman, B. R. Whitworth, Herbert 
ATyldesley Higher Education Commit- Wihl, G. 



tee 
Tyne, W. J. 

Vallance, A. C. 

Vaudrey, Alderman Sir W. H., J. P. 

Viehoff, Miss F. 

H Wain Wright, Joel, J. P. 

Wainwright, Thomas Foster, J. P. 

Walkden, Arthur 

Walker, George 

Walker, G. H. 

Walker, J. Alan 

Walker, John 

Walker, Sam 
AWallace, Miss M. W. 
LWallace, Reginald W. 

Wallwork, Herbert 

Walmsley, R. 



Wilde, Miss 

Wilde, J. J. 

Wilkinson, T. F. 

Wilkinson, Wm. 

Willcock, Thomas 
nWillcocks, Major-General Sir Jame.s, 
K.C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Williams, James 

Williams, S. W. 

Williamson, R. T., M.D., F.R.G.S. 

Williamson, William Henry 

Wilmore, Albert, D.Sc, F.G.S. 
AWinstanley, T. G. 

Wood, A. W. 

Wood, George Hervey 
LWood, George W. Rayner, J. P. 

Wood, Henry 

Woodhouse, J. H., F.R.I.B.A. 

Woodruff, Herbert 



Walter, Miss L. Edna, B.Sc, H.M.I. Woods, W. D. 



Warburton, Miss L. M. 
HWard, Sir A. W., M.A., Litt.D. 
HWard, Rt. Hon. Sir J. G., K.C.M.G. 

New Zealand 
LWard, Wm. H. 

Ward, Ziba Armitage 
AWardle, Miss 



Woolf, Miss M. A. 

Woolfenden, Miss Alice H. 
, Woolfenden, Joseph 

Woolfenden, R. S. H. 

Woolley, George Stephen 
LWoolley, Hermann, F.R.G.S. 

Worthington, S. Barton 



cWardrop, Capt. A. Tucker, F.R.G.S.LWrathmell, T. 
AWarren, Geo. H. Wright, Reginald 

A Warrington, Miss M. 

Waterhouse, Gilbert, F.R.G.S. Young, Harold 

AWatson, Col. Sir C. M., K.C.M.G., Young, Leonard 
R.E. Young, Robert 

AWebster, John 
Welldon, Rt. Rev. Bishop, Dean of Zabern, T. von 

Manchester AZellweger, I. 

Welsh, W. Zimmern, Fritz, F.R.G.S. 

Welter, H. (Bibliotheque Nationale Zimmern, N. H. 
Section des Cartes, Paris.) Zimmern, W. H. 



r 



Rules 189 

IRwlce. 

L OBJECT AND WORK. 

The object of the Manchester Geographical Society is to promote the study 
of all branches of Geographical Science, especially in its relations to commerce 
and civilisation. 

The work of the Society shall be : — 

1. To further in every way the pursuit of the science; as, by the study of 
official and scientific documents, by communications with learned, industrial 
and commercial societies, by correspondence with consuls, men of science, 
explorers, missionaries, and travellers, and by the encouragement of the 
teaching of geography in schools and colleges. 

2. To hold meetings at which papers shall be read, or lectures delivered by 
members or others. 

3. To examine the possibility of opening new markets to commerce and to 
collect information as to the number, character, needs, natural products and 
resources of such populations as have not yet been brought into relation with 
British commerce and industry. 

4. To promote and encourage, in such way as may be found expedient, 
either alone or in conjunction with other Societies, the exploration of the less 
known regions of the earth. 

5. To inquire into all questions relating to British and Foreign colonisation 
and emigration. 

6. To publish a Journal of the proceedings of the Society, with a summary 
of geographical information. 

7. To form a collection of maps, charts, geographical works of reference, 
and specimens of raw materials and commercial products. 

8. The Society shall not enter into any financial transactions beyond those 
necessarily attached to its declared object, and shall not make any dividend, 
gift, division, or bonus in money unto or between any of its members. 

II. ORGANISATION. 

9. The Society shall consist of ordinary, associate, corresponding, and 
honorary members. 

10. A Council shall be chosen annually from the ordinary members to con- 
duct the affairs of the Society. It shall consist of a President, four or more 
Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, two or more Honorary Secretaries (including a 
Secretary for Foreign Correspondence), and twenty-one Councillors. 

11. There shall be three Trustees elected by the Society, who shall hold 
office until death, disability, insolvency or resignation. They shall be members 
of the Council by virtue of their office, 

12. Any vacancy occurring in the Council during the current year may be 
filled up by the Council. 

III. ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

13. Every candidate for admission into the Society as an ordinary or an 
associate member must be proposed by a member. The proposal shall be read 
out at the next Ordinary Meeting of the members, and any objection shall be 
forwarded in writing to the Secretary within seven days. 

14. The election of members is entrusted to the Council. The names of 
those elected shall be announced from the chair at the next Ordinary Meeting 
after the election. 



XQO Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

15. The Secretary shall within three days forward to every newly-elected 
member notice of his election, a copy of the Rules of the Society, and a card 
announcing the days on which the Ordinary Meetings will be held during the 
session. But the election of an ordinary or associate member shall not be com- 
plete, nor shall he be permitted to enjoy the privileges of a member, until he 
shall have paid his first year's subscription. Unless such a payment be made 
within three calendar months from the date of election the election shall be 
void. 

16. The Council shall have power to elect honorary and corresponding 
members. 

17. Women shall be elipble as members and officers of the Society. 

IV. PAYMENTS. 

18. An ordinary member shall pay an annual subscription of £1. Is., or he 
may compound by one payment of £10. 10s. An associate member shall pay 
an annual subscription of 10s. 6d. The Society's year shall begin on the first 
day of January. 

19. Members shall not be entitled to vote or to enjoy any other privilege of 
the Society so long as their payment shall continue in arrear, but associate 
members shall not vote nor shall they take any part in the government of the 
Society. 

20. The first annual payment of a member elected in November or December 
shall cover his subscription to the 31st of December in the year following. 

21. On the first day of January in each year there shall be put up in the 
rooms of the Society a complete list of the members with the amount of their 
subscription due, and as the amounts are paid the fact shall be marked on the 
list. 

22. Notice shall be sent to every member whose subscription shall not have 
been paid by the first of February, and if the arrears are not discharged by 
the first of July the Council may remove the member from the list of members. 
Any member, whose subscription is in arrear for two years shall not be entitled 
to receive the Journal of the Society. 

V. MEETINGS. 

23. The meetings of the Society shall be of three kinds — Ordinary, Annual, 
and Special. 

24. In all meetings a majority of those present shall decide on all questions, 
the President or Chairman having a casting vote in addition to his own. 

Ordinary Meetings. 

25. The Ordinary Meetings of the Society shall be held once a month, from 
the month of October to the month of May, or oftener, if judged expedient by 
the Council. 

26. All members whose subscriptions are not in arrear shall have a right to 
be present. All ordinary members shall have the privilege of introducing one 
visitor. 

27. The order of the proceedings shall be as follows : — 

(a) The minutes of the last meeting to be read and if correctly recorded 

they shall be signed by the Chairman, 

(b) Presents, whether of money, books, maps, charts, instruments or 
specimens, made to the Society to be announced. 

(c) The election of new members to be declared and the names of 

candidates to be read. 

(d) Papers and communications to be read and discussed. 



Rules 191 

28. At these meetings nothing relating to the rules or management shall be 
brought forward, but the minute book of the Council shall be on the table at 
each meeting for the inspection of any member, and extracts therefrom may, 
with the consent of the chairman, be read to the meeting on the requisition of 
any member. 

29. On occasions of exceptional interest the Council may make provision for 
a larger admission of visitors. 

Annual Meetings. 

30. The Annual Meeting of the members shall be held at such time and 
place as the Council may determine. 

31. Fourteen days' Notice of such meeting shall be sent to every member 
within the United Kingdom who has given his address to the Secretary, and 
notice of the meeting shall be advertised in such newspapers as the Council 
may direct. 

32. The object of this meeting shall be to receive the Annual Report of the 
Council and the Treasurer's Balance Sheet, to hear the President's address, to 
elect the Council and officers for the ensuing year, and to transact any other 
business. 

33. Any two ordinary members may nominate candidates for the Council or 
for office not later than one week prior to the day of election, and the names 
of candidates so nominated shall be at once put up in the rooms of the Society. 
The election of the Council and officers shall be by ballot. 

Special General Meetings. 

34. The Council may call a Special General Meeting of the Society when- 
ever they shall consider it necessary, and they shall do so if required by 20 
ordinary members. 

35. A week's notice of the time and object of every Special Meeting shall 
be sent to all members. No other business shall be entertained than that of 
which notice has been thus given. 

36. Twenty ordinary members shall form a quorum. 

VI. COUNCIL AND OFFICERS. 

The Council. 

37. The government of the Society shall be entrusted to the Council, sub- 
ject to the rules of the Society. 

38. The Council shall annually elect a Chairman and Vice-Chairman. 

39. The President or the Chairman, or any three members of the Council, 
may at any time call a meeting thereof, to which every member of the Council 
shall be summoned. 

40. Seven shall form a quorum. 

41. In order to secure the most efficient study and treatment of the various 
subjects which constitute the chief work ot the Society, the Council may 
appoint Committees for special purposes. These Committees, with the appro- 
bation of the Council, may associate with themselves any persons — whether 
members of the Society or not — from whom they may desire to obtain special 
assistance or information. The Committees shall report to the Council the 
results of their proceedings. 

42. The President, Chairman, Vice-Chairman of the Council, and the 
Honorary Secretaries, shall, by virtue of their offices, be members of all Com- 
mittees appointed by the Council. 

President and Vice-Presidents. 

43. The President, is, by virtue of his office, the chairman of all the 



192 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

meetings of the Society. In the absence of the President, one of the Vice 
Presidents may preside. 

Chairman of the Council . 

44. It is the duty of the Chairman of the Council to see that the rules are 
properly observed, to call for reports and accounts from Committees and 
Officers, and to summon, when necessary, special meetings of the Council and 
of Committees. 

Treasurer. 

45. The Treasurer has the charge of all accounts;. he shall pay all accounts 
due by the Society after they have been examined and approved by the 
Council. 

46. He shall see that all moneys due to the Society are collected, and shall 
have power, with the approval of the Council, to appoint a Collector. All 
moneys received shall be immediately paid to the bankers of the Society. 

47. The bank passbook and the book of accounts shall be laid upon the 
table at every ordinary meeting of the Council. 

48. The accounts shall be audited annually by two members, who shall be 
elected at an ordinary meeting at least one month before the Annual Meeting. 

Secretaries. 

49. The duty of the Honorary Secretaries shall be : — 

(a) To conduct the correspondence of the Society and of the Council. 

(b) To attend the meetings of the members and of the Council, and 
minute their proceedings. 

(c) At the ordinary meetings, to announce gifts presented to the Society 

since their last meeting ; to read the names of all new members and 
of candidates for admission, and the papers communicated to the 
Society, which have been directed by the Council to be read. 

(d) To have immediate superintendence of all persons employed, to make 
arrangements for the meetings of the Society, and to take charge of 
all maps, books, furniture and other effects. 

50. It shall be the more especial duty of one of the Honorary Secretaries to 
conduct, as may be directed by the Council, correspondence with Foreign 
Societies, and with persons resident abroad. 

51. In addition to the Honorary Secretaries, there shall be a paid Secretary 
appointed by the Council, whose duties shall be to assist the Honorary Secre- 
taries, to issue the notices of the Council and of the Society, and to act under 
the instructions of the Council. 

The foregoing Rules, as now amended, were approved and adopted at a 
meeting of the members of the Society, of which due notice had been given to 
the members, held in the Town Hall, Manchester, Wednesday, October 3rd, 
1894. (Signed) GEORGE, President. 

S. ALFRED STEINTHAL, Chairman. 

F. ZIMMERN, Honorary Secretary. 

JAS. D. WILDE, M.A., Honorary Secretary. 

ELI SOWERBUTTS, Secretary. 



[Copy.] 
It is hereby certified that this Society is entitled to the benefit of the Act 6 
and 7 Vict., Cap. 36, intituled "An Act to exempt from County, Borough, 
Parochial, and other Local Rates, Lands and Buildings, occupied by Scientific 
or Literary Societies." Seal of Registry of 

Friendly Societies. 
This 15th day of January, 1895. E. W. B. 



^-^^-^-«>fp-^ 




E. W. M. 1, 



Chhatris at Udaipur. 



THE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



MANCHESTER GEOGRAPHICAL 



SOCIETY 




VOL. XXX. 



PUBLISHED FOR THE 
MANCHESTER GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

BY 

SHERRATT & HUGHES 

LONDON AND MANCHESTER 

X914 



THE 

COUNCIL AND OFFICERS 

OF THE 

MANCHESTER GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

FOR I914. 

patron. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

iprcsiDent. 
Mr. harry NUTTALL, M.P., F.R.G.S. 

lDtce*ipre6iDent6» 



The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, 

G.C.V.O. 
The Right Hon. Earl Egerton of 

Tatton. 
The Right Hon. Lord Rotherham of 

Broughton. 
The Right Rev. the Bishop of Salford. 
The Right Rev. Bishop Welldon, 

D.D., Dean of Manchester. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of 

Manchester. 
His Worship the Mayor of Salford. 
The Right Hon. Sir William Mather. 
The Rt. Hon. J, F. Cheetham. 
Sir W. H. HouLDSwoRTH, Bart. 
Sir C. W. Macara, Bart. 
Sir Humphrey F. de Trafford, Bart. 
Sir Frank Forbes Adam, CLE. 
Alderman Sir J. Duckworth, J. P., 



Crook, J. P., V.D. 
Boyd Dawkins, J. P., 



F.R.G.S. 

trustees. 

Mr. H. NuTTALL, M.P., F.R.G.S. Mr. 

Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P 

Ibonorarg treasurer. 

Mr. David A. Little. | 

Ibonoravg Secretary (IDictorians). 

Mr. C. A. Ciarke. 



Colonel H. T. 
Professor W. 

F.R.S. 
Major P. K. Glazebrook, M.P. 
Colonel E, W. Greg, J.P., C.C, F.R.G.S 
Mr. J. G. Groves, D.L., J.P. 
Mr. J. S. Hicham, M.P. 
Mr. John McFarlane, M.A., M.Com., 

F.R.G.S. 
Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S., 

Vice-Chairman of the Council. 
Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. C. P. Scott, J.P. 
Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 
Mr. Hermann Woolley, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S., Chairman 

of the Council. 



Sidney L. Keymer, F.R.G.S. 
F.R.G.S. 

Ibonorar^ Secretary. 

Mr. Egbert Steinthal. 



Mr. W. S. AscoLi, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. J. E. Balmer, F.R.G.S. 
Miss S. A. BuRSTALL, M.A. 
Mr. C. A. Clarke. 

Mr. C. COLLMANN. 

Mr. George Ginger. 

Mr. J. Howard Hall. 

Mr. Alderman T. Hassall, J.P. 

Mr Richard Kalisch, F.R.G.S. 

Mr. H. C. Martin, F.R.G.S. 

Mr. L. Emerson Mather, F.R.G.S. 



Council. 

Mr, 



T. C. Middleton, J.P. 
Mr. F. S. Oppenheim, M.A. 
Mr. J. A. OsBORN. 
Mr. T. W. F. Parkinson, M.Sc, 

F.G.S. 
Mr. Alfred Re'e, Ph.D. 
Mr. Wm. Robinow. 
Mr. J. Walter Robson, J.P. 
Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 
Mr. T. W. Sowerbutts, F.S.A.A. 
Miss L. Edna Walter, B.Sc, H.M.I. 



Ibonorars BuDltor. 

Mr. Theodore Gregory, J. P., F.C.A. 

Secretary. 

Harry Sowerbutts, Assoc. R.C.Sc. 



MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Asia — 

China, Bamboo Suspension Bridge at Kuanhsien 12 

China, Lamasery at Tsakulao 16 

China, Tachienlu from the South 20 

China, The River Yalung 12 

China, The State of Kanpo 24 

China, View to the South from Tachienlu 20 

China, Water-driven Prayer Wheel at Tachienlu 24 

China, Young Prince of Wassu and his Chinese Tutor 16 

India, Ajmir, the Arhai-din-ka-jhompra 122 

India, Dilwarra, Interior of Dome, Temple of Vimala Sah 120 

India, Dilwarra, Interior of Temple of Tejapala and Vastupala 120 

India, Kathiawar, Apes and Pilgrims before a Jain Temple on 

the Girnar Mountain 122 

India, Udaipur, Chhatris Frontis'piece 

India, Udaipur, Entrance to Juggernath Temple 110 

India, Udaipur, Steps to Juggernath Temple 110 

Europe — 

Belgium, Bruges 140 

Belgium, Simplified Regional Geological Map 126 

Holland, Sluis 140 

Map, 14 A.D 132 

Map, 814 A.D 132 

Map, 1204 A.D 136 

Map, 1648 A.D 136 

Oceania — 

New Zealand, Bush 42 

New Zealand, Canoe Hurdle Race, Ngaruawahia 36 

New Zealand, Clinton Canyon and McKinnon's Pass 42 

New Zealand, Cooking Pond, Whakarewarewa 28 

• New Zealand, Kiwi 38 

New Zealand, Lake Te Anau, South Island 36 

New Zealand, Milford Sound, South Island 38 

New Zealand, Tattooed Head of Maori Chief 28 

New Zealand, The White Terraces, Rotomahana 32 

New Zealand, Waimangu Geyser and Frying Pan Flat 32 



^\ THE WRITERS OF THE PAPERS ARE ALONE RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR 
OPINIONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



CONTENTS. 



A 

PAGE 

Abu Mount, and its temples 117 

Accessions, list of 164 

Accounts, 1913 92 

Achilgar Group of Temples 118 

Address by President — Geographical 

Progress 94 

Africa, South, and Geography 145 

Africa, South, Development 149 

Agricultural Geography 149 

Ainscough, Thos. M., M.Com., 

F.R.G.S.— The Marches of 

Chinese Tibet 1, 102 

Ajmir City 112 

Ajmir-Merwara 112 

Albert Hall, Jaipur 114 

Alligator Tank, Jaipur 115 

Amber, the Ancient Capital of 

Jaipur 115 

Anniversary, 30th 157 

Annual Meeting, 1914 88 

Anthropology and Geography 149 

Ararat, Mount, from the South ... 55 

Aravalli Range of Mountains 107 

Architecture, Indian 110 

Ardennes, The 125 

Armenia, population 52 

Armenia, Turkish 45 

Arthur River, South Island 43 

Asia, Chinese Tibet, the Marches 

of 1 

Asia, Geographical Conditions 45 

Asia, India, Rajputana 105 

Asia Minor North Coast 47 

Asia, Persian Khurdistan 45 

Asia, Turkish Armenia 45 

Atlases added to the Library 166 

B 

Babylonians or Chaldeans and their 

inscriptions 70 

Bailey, Captain : discovery of the 

Brahmaputra-Tsangpo junction 9 

Balance Sheet, 1913 93 

Battleground of Europe in Central 

Belgium 128 

Bayazid 56 

Belgian Cities, origin of 134 

Belgian independence, 1830 142 

Belgian Refugees' Fund, Collection 

for 158 

Belgium and Charlemagne 133 



PAGE 

Belgium and Feudalism 134 

Belgium and the Romans 132 

Belgium as a Buffer State 129 

Belgium, geology 125 

Belgium, history of 130 

Belgium, industrial prosperity 127 

Belgium in the time of Caesar 132 

Belgium, invasion by the Germans 131 

Belgium, revolution of 1830 142 

Belgium : the Battleground of 

Europe— Dr. A. Wilmore, F.G.S. 125 
Belgium, the land of Art — Arnold 

Williams 130 

Belgium under the Habsburgs 139 

Belgium under the House of 

Burgundy 137 

Belloc, Hilaire— The Strategy of 

the War in the West 160 

Bonpa, or black sect of Lamaism ... 12 

Books added to the Library 167 

British Corresponding Societies ... 173 
Bruges, commercial prosperity of... 136 
Burgundy, House of, and Belgium 137 

C 

Caesar and Belgium 132 

Caravanserais of Shah Abbas 64 

Carboniferous Basin, Belgium 127 

Cartography, future of 151 

Caste system of India 10l5 

Cenotaph, or Chhatri, of the 

Rajputs Ill 

Chaldeans and the inscriptions ... 70 

Chambal River 107 

Changlam, or Great North Road of 

Tibet 8 

Charlemagne and Belgium 133 

Chiamdo Valley, Tibet 3 

Chiarung States, Chinese Tibet 10 

Chinese Expedition to Tibet in 1792 5 

Chinese Tibet, the Marches of 1 

Cities of Belgium, Rise of 134 

Cold Lakes district. South Island 36 
Colonial Corresponding Societies ... 175 
Coracles of Skin, construction of ... 17 
Corresponding Societies, List of ... 173 
Cotelingham, E. G. P.— British 

Burma 101 

Council, Report of 89 

Crook, Colonel H. T., V.D., J.P.— 

Recent Changes in our National 

Maps 100 



VI 



CONTENTS 



D 

PAGE 

Damme 136 

Darchendo, or Tachienlu 20 

Deaths of members announced 

100, 101, 102, 157, 168, 159, 160j 

Deaths of members in 1913 91 

Derge Valley, Tibet 3 

Development of South Africa 149 

Dilwarra Temples on Mount Abu 119 

E 

Earthquakes, Recent Great 102 

Egypt, Inscription of Ancient 68 

Ekkas, at Jaipur 113 

Election of Members... 99, 101, 102, 

10*3, 157, 158, 159, 160, 163 
" Elementary Studies in Geogra'phy 

and History " 154 

Environment as affecting Man 150 

Eruption of Mount Tarawera 31 

Erzerum, fortress and town 50 

Euphrates and its source 50 

Europe, Belgium, the land of Art... 130 
Europe, Belgium the Battleground 

of 125 

Exchanges, list of 173 

Exchanges suspended 173 

F 
Financial position of the Society... 91 
Flanders and its municipalities ... 135 

Flanders and Van Artevelde 136 

Flemish Cities in the Middle Ages 135 
Foreign Corresponding Societies ... 176 
Future of Geography 151 

G 

Garrison, W. H. F.RG.S.— 

Newfoundland 99 

Gelupa, or yellow-capped sect of, 

Lamaism 12 

Genesis of Geography 68 

Geographical Conditions of Persia 62 
Geographical Progress — Address by 

President 94 

Geography and Anthropology 149 

Geography and Geology 148 

Geography and History 149 

Geography at the Universities 146 

Geography, future of 151 

Geography, its field, its fascination 
and its future. — J. Hutcheon, 

M.A 145 

Geography of Asia 45 

Geography, the Genesis of 68 

Geography, with special reference 

to South Africa 145 

Geology and Geography 148 

Geology of Belgium 125 

German treatment of Belgium 131 

Ghent 136 

Ginger, George — Sunny Sicily 160 

Gimar Mountain in Kathiawar 121 



PAGE 

Green, T. E., F.R.G.S.— In the 
Zuider Zee 100 

Gregory, T., J.P., F.C.A., election 

as Hon. Auditor \ 98 

Gurkhas, defeat by Chinese, 1792... 6 

H 

Habsburgs and Belgium 139 

Hancock, John — Holiday in the 

Indian Empire 104 

^'Hannibal Once More" 155 

History and Geography 149 

History of Belgium 130 

History of Geography as a Science 145 

History of Mankind 71 

History of New Zealand 27 

Hot Lakes District, New Zealand... 29 
Hutcheon, J., M.A. — Geography, 
with special reference to South 

Africa 145 

Hydrographical Surveys 151 

I 

Independence of Belgium 142 

Indian Architecture 110 

Indian Population 105 

India, Rajputana 105 

*' Industrial and Commercial Geo- 
graphy^' 155 

Industrial Prosperity of Belgium... 127 
Invasion of Belgium by the 

Germans 131 

Iron Works of Liege 127 

Irrigation of Chengtu Plain 15 

J 

Jagniwas Palace, Udaipur 108 

Jain Temples on Mount Abu 119 

Jain Temples on the Gimar 

Mountain 121 

Jaipur, State and City 113 

Jaipur State Prison, work done at 114 
Jantra, or Ancient Astronomical 

Observatory of Jaipur 115 

Jodhpur Fort 107 

Jodhpur, State and City 107 

Jogi, or Hindu devotee 119 

Joseland, H, L., M.A. — Southern 

Sweden 104 

Journey through Turkish Armenia 

and Persian Khurdistan — M. P. 

Price 45 

Juggemath Temple, Udaipur 110 

Junagadh City, Kathiawar 121 

Junglam, or official highway, from 

Lhasa to China 3 

K 

Kathiawar, Girnar Mountain 121 

Khoi, Oasis and Town of 61 

Khurdistan, Persian 45 

Kiwi, or Wingless Bird 39 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Kizil Bashis, nomad tribe in 

Armenia 53 

Kuanhsien Irrigation Works 15 

L 

Lamaism in Tibet 12 

Lamas and Trapas in Tibet 24 

Lamaseries and their power in 

Tibet 24 

Lantern Views added to the 

Library 166 

Lees, Mrs. H. L., F.R.G.S.— 

Journey round the World 158 

Lehmann-Haupt, Prof. C. F. — 

Armenia 101 

Leopold, I, King of Belgium 143 

Leopold II, King of Belgium 143 

Library additions 164 

Liege and its iron works 127 

List of Accessions, 1914 164 

List of Members 181 

Little, D.A., remarks on the Finan- 
cial Positon 88 

Local Option in New Zealand 35 

Lowland of Flanders 129 

Luni River 107 

M 
McKinnon's Pass to Milford 

Sound 41 

Mahabat Circle, Junagadh 122 

Maharajah of Jaipur 114 

Maharajah of Jodhpur 108 

Maharana of Udaipur 109 

Mahasati, or Royal Palace of 

Cremation Ill 

Maku, the Khan of 59 

Mankind, History of 71 

Mantzu Women, Life of 14 

Maori Regatta 33 

Maoris in New Zealand 27 

Maoris, Tattooing .*. 28 

Maps added to the Library 164 

Mayo College, Ajmir 112 

Meeting, Annual, 1914 88 

Meetings, Reports of, See Proceed- 
ings. 
Melland, Mrs. E. — Personal Experi- 
ences among Maoris and 

Mountains in New Zealand... 27, 101 
Mellor, E. W., J. P., F.R.G.S.— In 

the Home of the Rajput... 100, 105 

Members, Deaths of, in 1913- 91 

Members, New, Elected, see 

Election of Members. 

Members of the Society, List of... 181 

Mesozoic Terrains, Belgium 128 

Meuse Valley, Belgium 127 

Milford Sound to Lake Te Anau... 41 

Min River in dry and wet weather 16 

Missionary Corresponding Societies 174 

Monkeys on the Girnar Mountain... 124 

Mount Abu Hill Station 117 

Museum, additions to 166 



N 

PAGE 

New Zealand, Cold Lakes District 36 

New Zealand, History 27 

New Zealand, Hot Lakes District 29 

New Zealand, Local Option 35 

New Zealand, Maoris in 27 

New Zealand, Personal Experi- 
ences 27 

Nomad Khurds in Persia 58 

Norgate, Rev. T. T., F.R.G.S.— 

The Theatre of the War 157 

Nuttall, Harry, M.P., F.R.G.S.— 

Geographical Progress in 1913 94 

Nyingpa, or Red Lamas 12 


Oceania, New Zealand, Personal 

Experiences 27 

Ourthe Valley, Belgium 125 

P 

Palace of the Maharana of Udaipur 108 
Pass from Lake Te Anau to Milford 

Sound 41 

Persia, Geographical Conditions.... 62 

Persian Khurdistan 45 

Persian Village in Azerbaijan, 

Typical 63 

Personal Experiences among Maoris 

and Mountains in New 

Zealand— Mrs. E. Melland 27 

'* Physical Geogra'phy " 153 

Pichola Lake, Udaipur 108 

Pigs, Wild, in Udaipur Ill 

Place-names in Geography 150 

Polyandry in Tibet 8 

Polygamy in Tibet 8 

Population of Armenia 52 

Population of Marches of Chinese 

Tibet 7 

Poyul Valley, Tibet 3 

President's Address 94 

Price, M. Philips, F.R.G.S. 

Turkish Armenia and Persian 

Khurdistan 45, 103 

Proceedings of the Society 99, 157 

Productions of Chinese Tibet 3 

Q 

Qualtrough, Miss Kate, F.RG.S.— 

The Genesis of Geography... 68, 157 

R 

Race by Maoris 33 

Rajah's Palace at Amber, Jaipur ... 115 

Rajputs, the Home of the 105 

Reed, J. Howard, F.R.G.S.; 

Remarks at Annual Meeting ... 98 
Reed, J. Howard, F.R.G.S.; 
Resignation of Honorary Secre- 
taryship 94 

Relation of Geography to other 

Sciences 147 

Relief Funds, Lectures in Aid of... 158 
Religion of Chinese Tibet 7 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Report of the Council for 1913 89 

Rev^enue Account 92 

Reviews 144, 153 

Revolution of 1830 in Belgium 142 

Romans in Belgium 132 

Rope Bridges in Chinese Tibet 16 

Rotomahana Lake, and Mount 

Tarawera Eruption 31 

Rules of the Society 189 

Russian Political Expansion 45 

S 

Sambre-Meuse Trough 127 

Sambur, Udaipur Ill 

Scope of Geography 146 

Shrubsole, W. H., E.G. S.— The 

Yellowstone Park 159 

Skin Coracles on the Tung and 

MinRivers 17 

Societies, Corresponding 173 

Society, Financial Position of 91 

Society, List of Members of the ... 181 
Society, Meetings of, see Proceed- 
ings. 

Society, Rules of the 189 

So, King, of Wassu 18 

South Africa and Geography 145 

Steveni, W. Barnes — River Volga 

and its Towns 99 

Strategy of the War — Hilaire 

Belloc 161 

Sultanieh and its Ruined Mosque 64 

Surajpol, Udaipur 110 

Sutton, Charles — Manchester to the 
Highlands of Scotland by 

Road 163 

Sutton, Charles — The Rhine and 

the Black Forest 159 

Swaine, G. R. — Influences of Geo- 
graphical Environment 104 

T 

Tabriz 61 

Tachienlu, Capital of Chala 20 

Tattooing of Maoris 28 

Te Anau Lake, New Zealand 36 

Tea Trade of Tachienlu 21 

Teheran 66 

Tejapala and Vastupala Temple ... 120 
Temples, Jain, on Mount Abu .... 119 
Temples, Jain, on the Gimar 

Mountain 122 

Temples on Mount Abu 117 

The Genesis Of Geography — Miss 

Kate Qualtrough, F.R.G.S. ... 68 
The Home of the Rajputs— E. W. 

Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S 105 

The Marches of Chinese Tibet — 

Thos. M. Ainscough, M.Com., 

F.R.G.S 1 

"The Surface of the Earth" 144 

"The Teaching of Geograj)hy'' ... 156 
Thomas, George— Gift of Shares... 89 
Tibet, Boundaries of 2 



PAGE 
Tibet, Chinese Expedition to, in 

1792 6 

Tibet, Productions of 3 

Tibet, the Marches of Chinese 1 

Tillemont-Thomason, F.E., C.E.— 

Recent Great Earthquakes 102 

Trade between Western China and 

Tibet 4 

Trade of Tachienlu 21 

Trebizond and its Trade 47 

Tung Ling Shan, capital of Wassu 

14, 18 

Turco-Persian Frontier 55 

Turkish Armenia 45 

U 

Udaipur, State and City 108 

Ula, or transport service in Tibet 4 
Uparkot, an Ancient Fort at 

Junagadh 121 

Universities and Geography 146 

V 

Van Artevelde in Flanders 136 

Variscan-Armorican System, Bel- 
gium 125 

Varzahan and its Ruins 50 

Verviers, Woollen Mills of 127 

Village, Typical Persian 63 

Vimala Sah Temple 120 

W 

Waimangu Geyser and its Short 

Life 32 

Wainwright, Joel, J. P., Remarks 

at Annual Meeting 98 

Ward, Wm. H.— To and Over the 

Simplon 163 

War in the West, Strategy of ... 161 

Wassu State and People 18 

Waterhouse, Gilbert, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

— Tramps in Tyrol 159 

Welldon, Rt. R^ev. Bishop, Remarks 

at Annual Meeting 97 

Wells, Samuel, F.R.G.S.— Poland... 160 
Williams, Arnold, A.C.A. — Belgium, 

the Land of Art 130, 163 

Wilmore, Dr. A., F.G.S.— Belgium 

125, 158 
Wilmore, Dr. A., F.G.S.— Rhine 

and the Rhineland 103 

Wingless Birds of New Zealand... 39 

Work of the Geographer 145 

Women of Chinese Tibet 14 

Woollen Mills of Verviers 127 

Y 

Yezides, Nomads found in Armenia 53 
Ypres 136 

Z 

Zayul Valley, Tibet 3 

Zimmem, F., F.R.G.S., Remarks at 
Annual Meeting 97 



CDe Journal 



OF THE 



mancbester Geosrapbical Societp. 

THE MARCHES OF CHINESE TIBET. 

By Thos. M. Ainscough, M.Com., F.R.G.S. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall, on 
Tuesday, February 24th, 191 4.) 

The study of frontiers and borderlands forms one of the most 
attractive and enlightening subjects in the whole field of 
geographical research. Lord Curzon in his celebrated 
Romanes lecture at Oxford said : " Frontiers are the razor's 
edge on which hang suspended the modern issues of peace 
or war, of life or death to nations." I propose to-night to 
deal with one of the most complex and involved frontier 
questions in the whole of Asia — with a land interesting, not 
only on account of its wonderful physical configuration, but 
mainly on account of the manners and customs of its many 
and varied tribes, and the vital political issues which are being 
fought out at the present moment on its bleak, treeless 
plateaux. 

A good deal of misconception prevails with regard to 
Tibet. Tibet may be said to be little more than a geographical 
expression. With the exception of the rich and fertile valley 
of the Tsangpo, and the regions in the immediate vicinity of 
Lhasa, which form Tibet proper, the country may be described 
as a vast agglomeration of semi-independent and nomadic 
tribes, united only in acknowledging the spiritual supremacy 
of the Dalai Lama at Lhasa, and recognising in a general way 
the vague and shadowy suzerainty of China. ^ 

It is practically impossible to define the political boundary 
between Tibet and China on the east. The whole question is 
being threshed out at a conference which has been sitting at 
Simla during the last few months between the Longchen 
Shatra, or Prime Minister of Tibet, and an Envoy of the 
Vol. XXX. Parts I. and II., 19 14. 



2 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Chinese Government, the negotiations being held under the 
auspices of the government • of India. The Chinese claim 
absolute sovereignty as far as Chiamdo and the line of the 
Mekong. The true frontier of Tibet, however, lies some 500 
miles to the eastward, and extends almost due north and south 
from Sungpau along the banks of the Min to Kuanhsien, and 
then through Yachow and the Chien Ch'ang valley to the 
Yangtse. Along this line the rounded hills of the red basin 
of Szechuen province are left behind, and the traveller sees 
before him a mighty buttress of snow peaks, which seem to 
keep watch and ward over the plateaux beyond. 

To the west of this boundary the inhabitants of the bleak 
inhospitable uplands are tribes of Tibetan origin steeped in 
Lamaism and in that esoteric Bon cult which is the survival 
of the ancient nature worship of Tibet, the Chinese being 
confined to the high roads and a few trading centres and 
mihtary depots such as Tachienlu, Mengkung and Li Fan 
Ting. 

It is this vast stretch of country extending from the true 
frontier of Tibet at Tachienlu westwards for some 500 miles 
to the upper reaches of the Mekong at Chiamdo, which is 
known as the Marches of Chinese Tibet, the Marches of the 
Mantze. or more frequently as the tribes country. (See Fig. i.) 

In the east the country consists of wind-swept treeless 
plateaux from 12,000 to 14,000 feet above sea level, surrounded 
by high ranges with an elevation of from 17,000 to 20,000 feet, 
but as one proceeds westwards one encounters a series of 
stupendous mountain ranges, separated by narrow valleys, 
well forested in the lower parts with all the higher peaks 
extending above the snowline, while on the confines of Tibet 
proper we find one of the most remarkable features in Asiatic 
orography. 

To the east of where the Brahmaputra, after pursuing its 
placid eastward course through the heart of Tibet, plunges 
southward through the mountain barrier in a series of rapids 
before it reaches the plains of Assam at Sadiya — to the east- 
ward of this bend we find a containing mountain chain, 
distinct and apart from the Himalayan system, rounding off 
the heads of shelving valleys which slope westwards to the 
Brahmaputra, and dominating a series of enormous parallel 
mountain folds, which enclose between their successive crests 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 3 

the deep troughs of some of the greatest rivers in Asia. So 
close set are the successive ridges and ranges which part the 
Salwin from the Mekong and the Mekong from the Yangtse, 
that, at a point level with the head of the Assam valley, one 
hundred miles would bridge them all and would also include 
the Nmai Kha — the source of the Irawadi. It is this region of 
eastern Tibet which contains the greatest present wealth and 
the greatest promise for the future. Travellers leaving the 
cold altitudes of the Chang Tang behind them and descending 
gradually through the long narrow valleys to the Chinese 
frontier, are never weary of recounting the delightful change 
of climate and scenery which they encounter. There are 
magnificent forest-covered slopes beneath the snow-clad crests 
of the main ridges ; there are numbers of w^ell-watered, well- 
cultivated and well-populated valleys hidden away amongst 
the folds of the main chains. The larger and better known 
valleys such as Derge on the Dre Chu or Upper Yangtse or 
Chiamdo on the Nam Chu or Upper Mekong, are populous, 
prosperous and priest-ridden, while the lesser known valleys 
such as Poyul and Zayul are great centres of Tibetan art and 
industry. The whole region is full of unexploited mineral 
wealth. Gold is washed in the bed of the Upper Yangtse, 
while silver, mercury, iron, copper and lead are found through- 
out the region. There is one great drawback, however, to the 
development of this country, and that is the lack of good 
communications. The piling up of a succession of mountain 
chains and river valleys bearing north and south entails for all 
routes running east and west the constant crossing of one 
divide after another. The road through the Marches is only 
once — and that in the valley of the Yalung — below 12,500 
feet, while twelve passes, not one of which is under 14,500 feet, 
must be crossed. Despite these great physical obstacles the 
country is traversed by one of the most celebrated roads in all 
Asia, and certainly the most elevated trade route in the world. 
This is the great '' Junglam," or official highway, from Lhasa 
to China. It is the most important of all the routes connect- 
ing Lhasa with the outside world, and is that by which Tibet 
has been conquered by China on successive occasions. It 
must be remembered that while the gates of Tibet have always 
been jealously guarded against European advance from the 
west and south, and the wild, bleak steppes of the Chang Tang 
have effectually hindered trade development from the north, 



4 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

there has always been a steady intercourse carried on with the 
western provinces of China, and practically the whole of this 
trade flows through the marches to the frontier town of 
Tachienlu. The distance between Tachienlu and Lhasa is 
roughly i,ooo miles, and the journey occupies two months. 
Leaving Tachienlu the road strikes westward over the Jedo 
Pass and across the Kaji La to the Yalung at Ho K'ou. Here 
a new steel suspension bridge has recently been constructed 
by French engineers to the orders of the Chinese Government 
and replaces the old method of crossing the river by raft. 
Three more passes of over 14,000 feet bring us to Litang with 
its Lamasery and Palace, and after a further five days of 
strenuous climbing the traveller arrives at Batang on the 
Upper Yangtse. From Batang the road strikes through the 
country of the Draya nomads to Chiamdo, and thence over a 
series of tremendous passes, reaching 18,000 feet in altitude, 
and not one of them falling below the height of Mont Blanc, 
finally descends to Shobando, from whence the remainder of 
the journey to Lhasa is comparatively easy. Along this road 
every three years the two Ambans, or Chinese High Commis- 
sioners, proceed to Lhasa with an enormous train of officials, 
soldiers and couriers, themselves returning three years later 
with all the spoils collected during their term of office. To 
travel along the Junglam is to realise what a prodigious task 
the administration of Tibet really is. The changing of 
officials and the upkeep of the garrison in Lhasa means a 
constant stream of ingoing and outgoing Yamen runners, 
soldiers, couriers, and tribute-bearers connected with the 
Tibetan administration, and the problem of their sustenance 
and transport is one of the greatest grievances among the 
peoples of the Marches. The method employed by the 
Chinese is known as '' Ula.*' Ula is a species of socage 
service rendered to princes, government officials, and priests. 
By this system, in return for a grant of lands adjacent to the 
highways, the native tenants are obliged to provide means of 
transport from one stage to another. The control of the 
system is in the hands of the native chiefs, who form settle- 
ments at convenient places along the main roads, where a fixed 
number of animals are kept for the transport service. The 
nature of the Ula varies in different districts, but the transport 
is usually effected by mules, horses, cattle or yak. The system 
has been greatly abused by both Chinese and Tibetan officials, 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 5 

and it has afforded an opportunity for squeezes which the 
avaricious Lama has not failed to turn to his own profit. The 
result is that in the region between Tachienlu and Batang, 
families are constantly migrating to less public districts away 
from the main roads in order to escape the exactions of Ula. 
In order to accommodate travellers, solid stone rest houses 
have now been erected at the end of each day's march, and a 
regular service of postal couriers has been inaugurated between 
Chengtu and Lhasa, while the telegraph line has been 
extended as far as Batang. 

One of the main points of interest, however, connected 
with the Junglam is that it is over this most remarkable moun- 
tain road that the Chinese armies have constantly passed to 
the conquest of Tibet. There is certainly no military route 
in the world to compare with it for altitude. The retreat of 
the Greeks under Xenophon from Persia, the advance of 
Alexander to India over the northern passes, and his subse- 
quent retreat from India through the Makran defiles are all 
marvellous records surpassing those of modern times, but they 
will not bear examination when compared with the crossing 
of these awful passes and gorges of Eastern Tibet by succes- 
sive Chinese armies. There is, however, one of these expedi- 
tions which must rank for all time as one of the greatest of 
military achievements, and as it is of special interest as illus- 
trating the military possibilities of the eastern and most direct 
route between Lhasa and Peking, a brief reference will not be 
out of place here. 

In 1792, during the reign of the great Manchu Emperor 
Ch'ien Lung, the Gurkhas of Nepal inspired by the lust of 
loot invaded Tibet. An expedition numbering 18,000 men 
crossed the Kuti pass and advanced with great rapidity on 
Shigatse. They captured the city and looted the palace. The 
cowardly Tibetans fled in a panic. The infant Tashi Lama 
was carried off to Lhasa, and Chinese assistance was at once 
invoked to repel the invasion. Then followed one of the most 
remarkable retributions that the world has ever seen. Over 
the gigantic mountains and snowbound passes of Eastern 
Tibet a force of no less than 70,000 Chinese was led in two 
columns by General Sand Fo into the elevated regions of the 
plateau. The Gurkhas rapidly retreated to a position near 
their frontier called Tengri Maidan. Here the first battle was 
fought and they were completely defeated. The Kuti post 



6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

was captured after a second fight, and the Chinese advanced 
by way of Kirong to Khatmandu, the capital of Nepal. The 
Chinese artillery consisted of light field guns made of leather, 
which fired a few rounds and then burst. The Gurkhas had 
no guns, and they made their last stand on the river banks at 
Tadi, about twenty miles from Khatmandu. 

To appreciate the position it must be remembered that this 
unwieldy force of 70,000 Chinese had marched across one 
of the most difficult mountain districts in the world for 800 
miles from their own frontier before reaching Lhasa. They 
had then advanced at least another 400 miles over uplands at 
elevations which were never less than 10,000 feet, involving 
the passage of many passes higher than Mont Blanc before 
meeting the enemy. Practically they were without artillery 
and they had in front of them the most tenacious and most 
valiant foe that ever stood up to fight in Asia — a foe, too, that 
was flushed with recent success. It is true that the strength 
of the Chinese at starting may be reckoned to be vastly greater 
than that of the Gurkhas in the field against them, and it is 
improbable that they dispersed that strength by holding 
positions on the line of advance. But they must have lost 
numbers in the passes of the mountains which barred their 
progress through that 1,200 miles of route from their frontier 
(2,000 miles at least from the populated district of China), and 
it could have been little more than an advance guard that faced 
the Gurkhas on the river at Tadi. The Gurkhas on the other 
hand in falling back on their base, were consolidating their 
strength from day to day, and as they turned with their backs 
to the river (Hke terriers against a wall), they were fighting 
for their women and their homes behind them, and they knew 
well what defeat would mean. The Chinese wavered. They 
w^ere massed in front of the Gurkhas, who were between them 
and Khatmandu, and they were terribly spent with the length 
and the trials of that long march in the thin atmosphere of 
the Tibetan highlands. There seemed a chance that the 
attack would fail at the critical moment. It is under such 
circumstances as these that great generals prove their right 
and title to the confidence which their country has bestowed 
upon them. Sand Fo was a great general and he rose to the 
occasion. He turned his leather guns on to the rear of his 
own wavering troops and drove them and the Gurkhas in 
front of them in one comprehensive sweep into the river. The 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 7 

Chinese trampled over friend and foe alike, and they speedily- 
sacked Khatmandu. Oriental methods of treating the van- 
quished are usually distinguished by deeds of the most 
ingenious and repulsive barbarity. Even the Gurkha of 
to-day is not gentle with a foe. But ingenious as he is in his 
methods of savage reprisal he is probably more than equalled 
by the Chinaman. Khatmandu has never forgotten the 
lesson that was learnt at that blood-stained time. Every five 
years a deputation proceeds from Nepal through Lhasa to 
Peking, and there oifers tribute at the foot of the Chinese 
throne. 

Such at least is the story as culled from the lips of an 
ancient Gurkha official by Mr. Brian Hodgson, and retold by 
Sir Clements Markham in his '^ Tibet." As Sir Thomas 
Holdich aptly states : " There may be other ways of account- 
ing for the defeat of the valiant Gurkha than those narrated 
by this ancient Gurkha warrior, but the fact remains as a 
marvellous record of Chinese persistency that Nepal was 
utterly subjugated by the Chinese at a distance of some 2,000 
miles (stretching across a solid barrier of mountains) from 
their base. It is a useful commentary, first on the usual state- 
ments of Tibetan accessibility, and secondly on the usual 
criticisms applied to the Chinese soldier. 

The Marches of Chinese Tibet are peopled by a number 
of independent and semi-independent tribes, whose origin and 
early history is still to a large extent veiled in obscurity, 
presenting problems of the greatest ethnological interest. 
They may be divided into two distinct groups : — The indepen- 
dent Tibetan states to the west, and the tributary Mantze and 
Chiarung tribes inhabiting the uplands on the eastern border. 

The western states include the kingdoms of Derg6, 
Chantui and Sanai, and the territory inhabited by the Draya 
nomads. The states are virtually independent and even 
hostile towards China, and are directly controlled by the 
Dalai Lama and his Council. The people are indistinguish- 
able from those inhabiting anterior Tibet generally. In the 
north, along the upper waters of the Dre Chu or Yangtse, are 
numerous pastoral tribes, which in 1732 were organised by the 
Chinese Government into thirty-nine hundreds each under a 
Deba or chieftain. These tribes comprise the Khampa, but 
the name is generally applied by western Tibetans to all the 
people of Kham or anterior Tibet. The Khampa, the most 



8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

dreaded warriors of the Tibetan army, are fine horsemen, tall 
and athletic hut quarrelsome and untrustworthy. They 
usually belong to the G61upa or orthodox sect of Lamaism, 
but in Derg6 the Nyingpa, or red cap Lamas, are more 
numerous and influential. In the pastoral regions to the 
north polyandry prevails, while in the agricultural districts 
to the south of Jyekundo monogamy is the rule, and polygamy 
is met with among the richer classes. In Tibetan countries 
the distinction between lowlands and highlands, ploughland 
and pasture, is most marked, and it is a general rule that 
polygamy obtains in the valley while polyandry prevails in 
the uplands. In the valley farms the work is lighter and 
more suitable for women, but the rough life and hard fare of 
a shepherd on pastures 13,000 feet or more above sea level is 
too severe for the sex. The two systems, working side by 
side, seem to mutually compensate the evils of each, but it 
is a somewhat singular fact that the conduct of courtship and 
matrimony should be regulated by the barometrical pressure. 
Temporary marriages are, however, recognised throughout 
the tribes country, and are not considered immoral — in fact 
the matrimonial relations existing throughout all Eastern 
Tibet are little removed from promiscuity. Family names 
are unknown, and children are spoken of as of such and such 
a woman. The father's name is hardly ever mentioned. This 
country is almost a terra incognita to Europeans beyond the 
limits of the '' Changlam," or Great North Road, which 
passes through it. This trade highway strikes to the north- 
west at Tachienlu and follows up a succession of valleys 
through Romei Chango, Dawo, and Kanze until it finally 
drops into the Dre Chu valley at Derge, where the best 
saddlery, guns, and swords in all Tibet are made. From here 
it passes northward to Jyekundo, and then strikes almost due 
west across the Chang Tang highlands for three hundred 
miles till it reaches the great pilgrim route connecting the 
Kuku Lor with Lhasa. On account of the easy gradients, 
most of the brick tea and other articles of trade with China 
pass along this highway. The Changlam is essentially the 
trade route to Lhasa, just as the Junglam is the official or 
Mandarin road. Very few European explorers have pene- 
trated this north-western portion of the Marches. Both 
Rockhill and Bower, after being turned away from Lhasa, 
were forced to return to China by this route. It was near 



XheMarchesof Chinese Tibet 9 

Jyekundo that the ill-fated French traveller Dutreuil de Rhins 
was murdered in 1894, and of late years these valleys have 
received considerable attention from Captain Kozlor and other 
Russian explorers, who have proved that there is no great 
difficulty in reaching them from the Kuku Lor and Mongolia. 
With a firm pied a terre at Urga, Russia now practically 
controls Mongolia, and dominates the Kuku Lor region of 
northern Tibet. It is but a step southward down the long 
curving valleys of the Yangtse or Mekong to the rich and 
populous Tibetan centres of Poyul and Zayul, while beyond 
these lie the Brahmaputra basin, Assam, and the plains of 
India. The tireless activity of Russia in Mongolia and N.E. 
Tibet, together with recent Chinese pressure upon the fron- 
tiers of Assam and Upper Burma has necessitated a complete 
revision of Indian frontier policy. The storm centre has, in 
fact, shifted from the north-west to the north-east. That the 
Indian Government has been fully aware of this fact for some 
time was shown by the change in status of Assam by decree 
at the last Durbar, a change which foreshadowed the early 
formation of a North-East Frontier Province on the lines of 
that province, which has been so ably administered for many 
years on the north-west border. In 191 1 we saw the Abor 
expedition with the Miri and Mishmi political missions 
extending our knowledge of the country beyond the Assam 
border. This last spring has witnessed the advance of 
exploring columns from Myitkyina in Upper Burma up the 
headwaters of the Irawadi almost to its source, and the creation 
of a new Deputy-Commissionership to administer the wild 
region to the north of Myitkyina and lying between that 
station and Assam. In this way the Hukong valley and the 
scattered Shan villages about the head-streams of the Irawadi 
have been taken under British administration, and the whole 
region placed in charge of one of the ablest frontier officers 
that the government of Burma has in its service. 

Before leaving this corner of Asia I should like to mention 
the great achievement of Captain Bailey of the Indian Army ; 
who, accompanied by Captain Morshead, set out some months 
ago from Sadiya in Assam to discover whether the Tsangpo 
of Tibet is in fact the Brahmaputra of Assam. After a most 
arduous journey through terribly involved Abor country. 
Captain Bailey established beyond all question the fact that 
the Tsangpo, the Dihang, and the Brahmaputra are one and 



lo Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the same stream. He also satisfied himself that the reports of 
the Indian pundit Kinthup, and the information given to 
Colonel Waddell with regard to a series of great Falls are 
very much exaggerated. To quote Captain Bailey's own 
words: — "The river nearly the whole way from Gyala is a 
foaming rapid. At Kinthup's Falls the rapid develops into 
a Fall of about thirty feet; here rainbows were seen." Again, 
referring to the river lower down, he writes : — " We met a 
great many people who had seen this part of the river, all of 
whom agreed that there was nothing in the way of Falls on 
it, though at the confluence of the rivers at Gompo Ne there 
are remarkable rapids and whirlpools." I quote these words 
in extenso because they refer to the solution of a problem 
which has engaged the minds of geographers for the past cen- 
tury. It was a problem which I had hoped to solve myself 
in the course of my journey last year, but I was obliged to 
alter all my plans and route, and finally reached the head- 
waters of the Irawadi instead of the basin of the Brahmaputra 
as originally planned. 

We will now consider the agglomeration of semi-indepen- 
dent and tributary tribes lying to the east of the Sino-Tibetan 
borderland, who are collectively spoken of by the Chinese as 
the Chiarung States, the tribesmen being 'known as Mantzu, 
Sifan, or occassionally as Kon Sifan — adulterous Sifan, on 
account of their low standard of morality. It is among these 
tribes that I was privileged to make two journeys in the spring 
of last year, but before giving you an account of my travels, 
I will first describe a few of the points of interest connected 
with these peoples. 

The Chiarung States are eighteen in number, and cover the 
mountainous stretch of country from the line of the Min river 
westwards to the valley of the Tachin or Great Gold river. 
This territory seems to have puzzled geographers ; and, as a 
rule, the states are either not marked on the map or else their 
relative positions are incorrectly given. As a matter of fact 
all these states are independent, their rulers being thorough- 
going despots, who seldom, if ever, pay any attention to 
China's claims of suzerainty. They wage inter-tribal wars 
without either asking China's permission or invoking her aid. 
They are not — as is the case with feudal states — bound to 
render China military service, and as a rule there are no 
Chinese permanently settled in the territory. The origin of 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet ii 

the Mantzu is veiled in obscurity, but from scraps of history 
I have been able to pick up from the people themselves, there 
seems little doubt that they are descended from emigrants 
from Ngari near Khamba Zong in Western Tibet, who came 
over either with Genghis Khan or his son Ogotai at the 
commencement of the thirteenth century to help the Chinese 
to subdue the warlike tribes of the upper Min river. As a 
reward for these military services they were given the land 
they occupy to-day. Hereditary titles were conferred on the 
Chiefs or '' T'ussu," who were left in control of these moun- 
tainous regions if only they would check the raids of the 
aborigines, and render tribute to the Chinese Government as 
an acknowledgment of China's sovereign right over the 
country. The Chinese character Mantzu means '' One who 
cannot be overcome," but this has now been altered to the 
character signifying "barbarous, unruly," which is con- 
temptuously used by the Chinese and is much resented by the 
tribesmen. 

The Chiarung are essentially agriculturists cultivating 
with skill crops of wheat, barley, buckwheat, maize, and mis- 
cellaneous vegetables. Sheep, cattle, ponies and goats are 
kept by the more wealthy, the ponies being sold to Chinese 
traders, but the wool is woven into cloth for their own use. 
Like the western Tibetans, they live largely on milk, butter, 
and meat. They are skilled gunsmiths and swordsmiths, and 
in the state of Somo are manufactured most of the gunbarrels 
in use throughout Eastern Tibet. Among the Chinese they 
have a great reputation for building embankments, and other 
irrigation works, and all the wells on the Chengtu plain are 
sunk and kept in repair by Chiarung tribesmen. 

The Mantzu live in settlements of from fifty to a hundred 
families, invariably perched like an eagle's aerie, crowning 
some eminence on the steep mountain side. Each settlement 
is dominated by one or more tall, chimney-like towers, some 
sixty to eighty feet high, which resemble from a distance the 
smokestack of some Lancashire factory. These towers serve 
a double purpose — firstly as beacons in case of a sudden raid, 
when a fire is kindled on the top and friendly villagers rush 
to the aid of the inmates, and secondly as storehouses for 
valuables and grain. The cattle are driven into the lower 
storey and shut in by great heavy doors. In case of being 
hard-pressed, the inhabitants take their stand around the tower 



12 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

and finally retreat to the upper storeys, from whence stones 
are flung on the enemy. They resemble in many respects the 
Peel towers of Great Britain. It is also extremely likely that 
these towers have some obscure connection with religious 
matters, and in this respect they may have some remote affinity 
with the pagodas of China and Burma. 

The T'ussu or Chiefs always inter-marry within their own 
circle. The son of a chief always marries the daughter of 
another chief so that the hereditary rights may be passed on 
from one generation to another. The chiefs are absolute 
despots within their own boundaries, possessing the power of 
life and death over their subjects. Although theoretically the 
Chiarung States are tributary to China and under the nominal 
jurisdiction of the Viceroy of Szechuen, practically they 
acknowledge no obedience save that of fear, and their position 
is to a certain extent analogous to that of the independent and 
semi-independent states in India. In spiritual matters they 
acknowledge the supremacy and direction of the Lama 
hierarchy at Lhasa. Lamaism is all-powerful in the Chiarung 
States, and appears in all three forms — the Gelupa, the 
Nyingpa, and the Bonpa — the yellow, the red, and the black 
systems. 

The Gelupa, or yellow-capped sect, is the state religion of 
Tibet founded by the great reformer Tsongkapa in the four- 
teenth century. It owns as its head the pontiffs of Lhasa 
and Tashilunpo, usually known as the Dalai Lama and the 
Tashi Lama, and is first in importance and numbers through- 
out all Tibet. The inhabitants of the Marches, are bound by 
the strongest ties of race, instincts, education, and religion to 
Lhasa. It is their holy city, and to it all Lamas who wish 
to exert any influence at all must go for study, as all appoint- 
ments to official posts in the Church are made by Lhasa. 

The Nyingpa, or Red Lamas, are regarded as unorthodox, 
but except that their ritual is not so elaborate as that of the 
G61upa, their temples and religious symbols differ little from 
those of the Established Church. The priests are allowed to 
marry and are therefore objects of scorn to their orthodox 
brethren. The temples of red Lamaism are few and far 
between in the tribes country, but in the state of Derge they 
are the most numerous. 

Lastly we come to the mysterious Bonpa, or black sect 
of Lamaism, which exerts an enormous influence throughout 




T. M, A. 

Fig. 1. The River Yaluiig (an unmapped portion). 




r. M. A, 



Fig. 2. Bamboo Suspension Bridge at Kuanhsien. 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 13 

the Marches, and whose phalHc tendencies are largely account- 
able for the low state of morality in certain regions. The 
Bon creed is really a branch of Shamanism, and is the survival 
of the old nature worship of Tibet, which probably underlies 
most of the religious systems of the East. The greatest 
prominence is given to the procreative force in nature, the 
idols usually representing giants and demons with their female 
energies. This is most interesting in view of the Tibetan 
conception of the origin of the race. The Tibetans claim as 
their first parent a monkey, which crossed the Himalayas and 
there married a she-devil of the mountains. The young 
progeny of apes ate some magical grain given to them by the 
Compassionate Spirit of the Mountains (now incarnate in the 
Dalai Lama), and wonderful were the results which happened. 
Their tails and hair grew shorter and shorter and finally 
disappeared. They began to speak — they were men ! and 
noticing the change they clothed themselves with leaves. 
Thus they account for their chief traits of character and 
disposition — from their father's side they say they have 
derived their love of piety, whilst from their mother (as can 
only be expected) they have inherited their roughness, cruelty, 
ferocity and deceit. 

The Bon religion without doubt survives from pre- 
Buddhist times, and is to be found in Lhasa itself in the form 
of the oracles, wizards, and the black-hatted devil dancers who 
are attached to the principal state Lamasery of Depung. In 
the ritual, however, the Bonpa deliberately defy the orthodox 
Lamas, and this strange and perverse feature must be due to 
persecution in post-Buddhistic times. Prayer wheels and 
cylinders are wilfully turned from left to right, sacred objects 
and Chortens are passed with the left instead of the right side 
turned towards the image. The Bonpa refuse to repeat the 
mystic formula ''Om mani padme hung," which is continually 
on the lips of every orthodox Lamaist throughout Asia, and 
have substituted a mantra of their own. Sacred books are 
read in the temples, which are the exact counterpart of the 
chief Buddhist Sutras with each direction wilfully reversed. 
The Bon temples differ entirely from those of the Gelupa and 
Nyingpa. They are usually strikingly picturesque, and are 
frequently built in places difficult of access, an atmosphere of 
secrecy and mystery thus surrounds them which is probably 
due to centuries of persecution at the hands of orthodox 



14 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Lamaists, yet notwithstanding this, Bonism retains a firmer 
hold on the people of the Chiarung States than any other 
religion. The principal symbol in use is the well-known 
swastika, fylfot, or flying cross, which is known as Yung- 
drung. A mystical bird — the Chiung or Garuda (resembling 
a Chinese phoenix), is also regarded with great favour as an 
emblem of fruitfulness. I was awarded the privilege of going 
through the Bon temple attached to the chief's palace at Tung 
Ling Shan, the capital of the state of Wassu, and here 
obtained indisputable proofs of the phallic tendencies of the 
worship. Aphrodisia is the one topic of all the representa- 
tions in the temple at Tung Ling Shan. The most persistent 
prominence is given to obscene Vidam groups which are not 
only represented in the usual idol form, but also in frescoes 
which literally cover the walls. 

The effects of this esoteric cult of Bonism on the lives and 
manners of the Chiarung tribesmen are most marked.Wher- 
ever Bonism is most strongly intrenched, there the morality 
of the people is at the lowest ebb. It seems extremely likely 
that in mediaeval times the Chiarung States formed part of a 
confederation known as the Nii Kuo, or matriarchal kingdoms. 
The rulers appear to have been women, and inheritance of 
power and property passed down in the female line. Relics 
of this system are still to be found. The state of Damba is 
still ruled by a woman, and females occasionally act as Chiefs 
of Somo. In Badi-Bawang the matriarchal system is in full 
force, and the present occupant of the throne is the descendant 
of a long line of queens going back for some thirty genera- 
tions. It is in Badi-Bawang' that Bonism is the recognised 
state religion, and the ancient Bon form of marriage is still 
in vogue. 

The Mantzu women lead a strenuous life. They cultivate 
the fields, tend the flocks, take the farm produce to market, 
hew wood and carry water. The domestic duties of cooking, 
mending clothes, washing, and housekeeping generally 
devolve upon the men, yet the women are not unkindly 
treated, and are far from being downtrodden. They are 
usually short in stature (averaging about five feet), are sturdy 
and buxom with dark olive complexions. When young they 
are often good-looking, but once past the early twenties they 
age rapidly, and the old women verge on the hideous. The 
ordinary garb is a gown of grey homespun serge reaching to 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 15 

just below the knee and bound around the waist with a scarf. 
The legs and feet are usually bare. Their long black hair is 
commonly parted down the middle, and hangs down the back 
in a large plait. Bangles, earrings, and amulets, made of 
silver inlaid with turquoise or coral, are invariably worn, while 
the more wealthy women decorate themselves lavishly with 
silver ornaments, and cover their heads with a piece of cloth 
held down by the plait of hair, which is wound round and 
decorated with silver and beads of coral and turquoise, the 
lower part of the cloth hanging free over the back of the neck 
and shoulders. 

The men average about five feet seven inches in height. 
The face is usually oval with pointed chin and straight nose, 
sometimes almost aquiline. Their dress is the usual attire of 
Eastern Tibet. A pelisse of undyed '' pulu " cloth of local 
make or else of sheepskin gathered round the waist by a girdle 
from which are suspended flint and steel, tobacco pouch, and 
dirk. Round the neck is usually a leather cord from which 
is hung over the chest a silver charm-box containing relics. 
The legs are swathed in felt putties or else in leather boots 
with cloth uppers extending to the knee. The headgear is 
usually either a blue cloth turban, or else a pudding basin 
shaped black felt hat. 

Towards the end of March last year I found myself for the 
first time on the borderland of Chinese Tibet, and it may 
interest you to trace for a short time the course of my wander- 
ings in the frontier regions. After a long journey across the 
whole breadth of China, I had decided to come over to 
Kuanhsien and attend the official opening of the barrage 
which controls the irrigation for the rich Chengtu plain. We 
had formed a party of three, the other members being the 
British Consul-General at Chengtu, and Mr. W. N. Fergusson 
of the British and Foreign Bible Society, one of the greatest 
authorities on the Chiarung States and a born traveller and 
observer. < The irrigation works at Kuanhsien are among the 
most wonderful of Chinese engineering feats. A barrage is 
built across the river Min at the spot where it gushes forth 
from the mountains of the borderland, and a canal was cut 
a thousand years ago which sub-divides into thousands of 
channels and dykes, forming a network which efficiently 
irrigates the whole of the Chengtu plain with its four millions 
of people. (See Fig. 2.) 



i6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

We were sitting in the Taoist temple at Kuanhsien one 
evening after a hard day's climbing. We had just heard the 
news from native sources that a rising was imminent among 
the Chiarung States, and that a coalition of all the tribes from 
the Min to the Mekong had been formed, and a great upheaval 
against Chinese suzerainty was on the eve of breaking out. 
I at once decided to leave the following morning on 4 rapid 
tour through the feudal states and Wassu in order to ascertain 
whether this rumour was correct before proceeding on the 
main journey westward to India. Mr. Fergusson very kindly 
provided me with letters of introduction to King So of Wassu 
and Colonel Kao, the Chinese Superintendent of the feudal 
states, and the following morning I was away at daybreak 
with one servant, a headman, and ten coolies. 

Our immediate objective was the castle of Tung Ling 
Shan, the seat of the Chiefs of Wassu and the capital of that 
state, situated across the river Min two days' hard "journey 
to the north. The road follows the banks of the Min the 
whole way, now along a rock cornice one thousand feet above 
the stream, now crossing a small affluent on an improvised 
wooden bridge. 

The gorge of the Min as seen in the early spring is per- 
fectly glorious. High on either side the gaunt bare cliffs 
rise almost sheer to a height of three thousand feet and then 
gradually recede to the snow-clad summits. In March the 
Min was a clear pure stream breaking over a succession of 
boulders in foaming cataracts, but upon our return three weeks 
later, the melting of the snows in the Tibetan hinterland had 
begun, and the waters were already turbid and muddy. A 
most striking feature is the number of logs which float down 
with the stream. Hundreds of square logs about fifteen feet 
long are marked and dropped into the river at Mao Chon, and 
then float down on the current as far as Kuanhsien and even 
Chiating, some two hundred miles away. The fall of the 
river is twenty feet to the mile. Bands of men come down 
and set the logs free from places where they pile up on the 
banks, but each village usually attends to the logs piling up 
on its shores. This practice is a very ancient one and the 
logs are never stolen. 

I entered the state of Wassu by the undignified expedient 
of sliding down a rope, or rather I should say across a rope 
bridge. These single rope bridges are found throughout the 



Cs 




T. M. A. 



Fig. 3. The young Prince of Wassu and his Chinese Tutor. 




T. M. A. 



Fig. 4. The Lamaser^^ at Tsakulao. 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 17 

Chiarung States. They differ entirely from any bridges 
found in China proper, but are of similar designs to those in 
constant use in Sikhim, Nepal, and Bhutan, and thus furnish 
additional evidence of the affinity of these peoples. A hawser 
made of three strands of bamboo and usually from eight 
inches to a foot thick is stretched across a stream from cliff 
to cliff, usually from a higher to a lower point. The ends of 
the hawser are stretched over a wooden frame on each bank 
and usually made fast to boulders. To cross the bridge one 
is supplied with a length of strong hempen rope hanging free 
from a circular runner of oak or some other tough wood. The 
runner clips the cable, and the rope is fastened under and 
around the legs and waist to form a cradle. When all is 
properly secured, one grips the runner with both hands, gives 
a slight spring or push-off with the feet, and then shoots away 
down the rope at increasing speed. The momentum obtained 
in the downward rush carries the passenger as far as the 
bottom of the sag in the cable, which is usually three-quarters 
of the way across, and the remainder of the distance has to 
be covered by laboriously hauling-up, hand over hand. 
Crossing these bridges is somewhat fearsome work to the 
novice, and for a heavy man the hauling-up is exceedingly 
laborious. The essentials are to keep a cool head and to see 
that one's hands are clear of the cable, otherwise they would 
be cut open by the terrific friction. The tribespeople, both 
male and female, hardly ever use ropes. They simply throw 
one arm over the runner and suspend from that. It is a 
common sight to see men with loads and women with children 
on their backs cross these bridges. Heavy loads and animals 
are slung from the runners and hauled across by a rope. 

The rivers of the tribal territory are not navigable in the 
ordinary sense of the word, but on certain stretches of the 
Tung river, and also on the Min, skin coracles are used, which 
vie with the rope bridges for sheer, crude sensation and 
excitement. I never was called upon to travel by coracle 
during the course of my wanderings, but saw them in use on 
the Min. The construction is exceedingly simple. A willow 
framework in the form of a husfe basket is covered with a coat 
of bullock hide, the seams of which are carefully sewn together 
and coated with pine pitch. The structure when complete is 
quite watertight and looks like a huge oyster shell some four 
feet in diameter and three feet deep. The problem on these 



i8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

waterways is to have a craft which can stand the strain of the 
fierce rapids and be steered with almost no sweep. It must 
also be light enough to be carried to the starting point. The 
coracle, weighing about 70 lbs., answers these purposes, but 
by no means inspires the novice with confidence as to its 
construction and mode of progress. Fergusson, who has used 
the coracles on many occasions, describes one river crossing 
as follows : ^ 

""AH hands huddle down in the bottom with their legs 
curled up in a most uncomfortable position, and it is fatal to 
move after the craft is shoved off. As for ourselves, we shot 
upstream in the backwater until we struck the current, when 
the coracle was sent swirling round and round in the vortex, 
and bobbing like a cork on the waves. One moment we were 
down in the trough with the feeling that we would surely be 
engulfed ; the next, we were riding the crest of the waves, but 
all the time being carried down stream at the rate of fifteen to 
twenty miles an hour. Just below the landing stage the river 
foamed over some boulders, and cut the shape of the letter S. 
To a stranger it looked as though we must surely be carried 
on to the boulders. But the ferryman, by means of his paddle, 
steered and propelled the coracle forward in a wonderful way 
and safely landed us." 

As a novelty productive of excitement not unmixed with 
danger these coracles and single rope bridges may, with 
confidence, be recommended to '' World's Fair " promoters 
and showmen generally. 

But — to continue our journey. After reaching Wenchuan 
and sending a special messenger up to the castle with my 
card and letter of introduction, the Chief sent down word that, 
although he was unwell and would not be able to look after 
me himself, he would be glad if I would stay a few days with 
him. The castle of Tung Ling Shan is some 2,000 feet above 
the river Min and occupies a perfect strategic position. The 
fastness itself is a settlement of some sixty families in the 
centre of which is the palace of the king — the whole being 
dominated by a tall watch tower. The houses are built of 
stone and present a well-cared for appearance, but the streets 
and alleys are indescribably dirty and evil-smelling. We 
were hospitably received by the Chief's private secretary, a 
Chinese, who also acts as tutor to King So's only son — a 
bright youth of fourteen, who is also the heir to the neigh- 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 19 

bouring Kingdom of Druckagi. Both King So and his son 
speak fluent Chinese, and so we were able to converse freely. 
The king himself was brought in to see me, being carried on 
the back of a serving man, and looking very much pulled 
down by fever and the effects of excessive opium smoking and 
drinking. He is a man of 52 years of age and is the tw^enty- 
eighth Chief of Wassu in a direct line of succession extending 
back over 800 years. He is a great sportsman, and as the 
mountains, forests, and ravines of his kingdom teem with wild 
animals (among which may be counted such rare specimens 
as the takin, seron, and goral) he has been occasionally visited 
by European sportsmen on shooting expeditions. (See Fig 

3.) 

The state of Wassu is one of the wildest and most beautiful 
of the Chiarung States, but is most sparsely peopled, and the 
total population would not exceed 20,000. The state is 
divided into twenty-eight *' Chai " or districts, each under a 
headman, and they take it in turn to supply the personal 
servants at the castle and also the men who till the king's 
private lands. The religion of the people is Bonism, but the 
presence of Chortens, mani mounds, and prayer flags indicate 
the influence of orthodox Lamaism. The chief denied the 
existence of an anti-Chinese league, but was open in his 
contempt for the new republican authorities, describing the 
new officials as children, having — as he put it in the vernacu- 
lar — " neither reason nor a knowledge of custom." Under 
the Manchu regime tribute was paid to Peking every twelve 
years, and to the Viceroy at Chengtu every five years, but 
since the revolution, these customs have been allowed to lapse. 
The opium question, however, proved to be the main 
grievance. Poppy cultivation has always been extensively 
carried on in the tribes country, and the Chinese have, of late 
years, made an effort to stop this without success. Since 
Wassu is the nearest of the Chiarung states to Chengtu, the 
chief has been pestered with Chinese spies and emissaries 
seeking information with regard to opium. This is the more 
annoying inasmuch as the poppy has never been extensively 
grown in Wassu, the tribesmen not being sufficiently skilled 
in slitting the pods and extracting the opium. # 

We spent the remainder of the day in feasting and tea 
drinking, and the chief placed the contents of his cellar at my 
disposal. It was amusing to see the various bottles of cheap 



20 Journal of -the Manchester Geographical Society 

liqueurs, which had either been left by previous travellers or 
else purchased in Chengtu, but as the labels betrayed names 
which seemed strangely uncouth, I deemed it wiser to confine 
mvself to the usual native spirit, distilled from maize, and to 
the tea which is grown on the Kuanhsien foothills. After a 
comfortable night spent in the official guest-room, I expressed 
a wish to see the chief's private temple, and was taken round 
by the young prince, who explained the significance of the 
various phallic emblems with the greatest sang froid. The 
head Lama is a cousin of the chief. This relationship between 
Lamas and rulers is quite common. In the Tsakulao 
Lamasery the principal Lamas are all relatives of native chiefs, 
and the present king of Chala belongs to a family of Lamas. 
(See Fig. 4.) 

After a further long chat with the chief, a meal was served 
at noon and he begged me to stay a few days longer, but it 
was necessary that I should continue my journey in order to 
reach Tachienlu in May, so we were obliged to leave. As the 
bearers set down my chair and all was ready for departure, the 
old chief was carried out to say good-bye. He asked me 
which way I intended to travel on my long journey to India. 
I said, '' Through Tachienlu and Batang." He put his hand 
on my shoulder and said : '' What is the use of running into 
danger unless it be in battle. Go by the main road, and do 
not be like my old friend Po Lu Ke." (This refers to Mr. J. 
W. Brooke, the daring explorer, who was murdered in the 
independent Lolo country in 1908). I told him that it was 
the custom of Englishmen to find out new roads. He replied, 
*' I fear it will be with you as it was with Po Lu Ke, and I 
don't want to lose my friends." He gave my men a lot of 
food and presented me with a large pod of musk and a leopard 
skin, and we retraced our steps down the hillside to the foam- 
ing Min. I hope I may see him again. Despite his many 
failings he is every inch a man. 

About two months after the journey which has just been 
described we found ourselves in the wonderful frontier town 
of Tachienlu, the capital of the state of Chala, ^nd the starting 
point of the great trade routes to Lhasa and ulterior Tibet. 
Constituting, as it does, the gate into a corner of Tibet which 
is by far the richest in cultivation, the best in climate, and the 
most productive in mineral wealth, the importance of 
Tachienlu cannot be overestimated. The town of Darchendo 




T. M. A. 



Fig. 5. Tacliieiilu from the vSouth, 




T. M. A. 



Fig. 6. The View to the vSouth from Tachienlu. 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 21 

or Tachienlu lies at an elevation of 8,500 feet and is built, as 
its name implies, at the confluence of the Dar and the Chen, 
at the western end of a narrow valley, so narrow that for miles 
together it has no floor but the path and the torrent, which — 
after fifteen miles of cataracts — plunges into the Tung at 
Wassu Kon. The town itself is hemmed in on all sides by 
steep treeless mountains, whose grassy slopes lead up to peaks 
clothed in eternal snow. Formerly Tachienlu occupied a site 
about half a mile above the present town, but about one 
hundred years ago it was totally destroyed by a landslip due 
to a moving glacier, and earthquake shocks are frequently felt. 
(See Figs. 5 and 6.) 

Notwithstanding its great political and commercial impor- 
tance, Tachienlu is a meanly built and filthy city. The houses 
are usually of one storey and are built of wood resting on 
foundations of shale rocks. Disastrous fires are of constant 
occurrence^ when the whole town is gutted with the exception 
of the few fine old stone Tibetan '' Gochuang," or Hongs. 
The population consists of about 700 Tibetan families and 400 
Chinese families, and with its floating members may be 
reckoned at a total of 9,000 souls. Tachienlu may be said to 
be impregnated with a nomadic atmosphere. It is one of 
those wonderful frontier towns where one meets all the types 
and hears all the dialects of Central Asia. Yak caravans from 
the Horba states and even from Lhasa and the remote regions 
of Western Tibet swing in daily over the Jedo pass and the 
great north road bringing musk, wool, skins, deerhorns, gold 
dust, and medicines for Chinese use, and taking back brick 
tea and Chinese fancy articles. The annual trade through the 
town reaches the total of Tls. 2,800,000 (nearly ;^40o,ooo), of 
which brick tea alone accounts for ;^ 120,000 in value, and 
amounts to the prodigious total of 11,400,000 pounds in 
weight. Inasmuch as tea is perhaps the most important item 
in the diet of the Tibetan, a few remarks concerning this 
enormous trade may not be out of place. 

The tea, which is exported in such tremendous quantities 
from China to Tibet, consists almost entirely of the merest 
refuse, which is grown in the district of Yachou in Western 
Szechuen. I have seen it myself being taken into Yachou to 
be packed, and at first thought it was fuel. It looks like 
brushwood, and is, in fact, merely branches broken off the 
trees and dried in the sun without any pretence at picking. 



22 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

In Yachou it is taken to the Chinese factories and made up 
into bricks for the ignorant Tibetan — as the Chinese call him. 
It is no exaggeration to say that the tea of the Tibetan market 
is ten times worse than the worst tea in China. The leaves 
and twigs, already sun-dried, are steamed in a cloth suspended 
over a boiler. The mould consists of four stout boards, inside 
which is a neatly-woven mat basket, and the steamed and 
softened leaves and twigs are dropped into it. A little rice 
water is added to agglutinate the mass, which is then con- 
solidated, layer after layer, by blows from a heavy iron-shod 
rammer. The mould is afterwards taken to pieces, the cake 
with its mat envelope is brought back to the fire, and when it 
is thoroughly dried the ends are closed up and the long narrow 
package is ready for transport to Tachienlu on the backs of 
porters. 

The coolie's burden is arranged on a light wooden frame- 
work disposed along the whole of his back and rising in a 
curve over his shoulders and high above his head, the struc- 
ture being supported by a couple of coir strings, through 
which his arms are passed. The great weights which can be 
carried in this manner are incredible. On one occasion I 
passed a man with as many as eighteen packages, each of 
eighteen catties in weight^ — a total of over 400 pounds on his 
back. The greatest burdens are carried not by the most 
muscular men but by those of the straightest conformation. 
Every few hundred yards or so a rest is taken, and as it would 
be impossible for the carrier to raise his burden if it were 
deposited on the ground, he carries a kind of short crutch, 
which is slipped beneath as a support. Travelling six or 
seven miles a day, and resting in wretched hovels of inns at 
night, these porters toil with their prodigious loads over two 
mountain passes, 7,000 feet above their starting place, along 
an execrable road where every step of the way must be picked, 
making the 120 miles from Yachou to Tachienlu in 20 days 
or less, and receiving 250 to 300 Cash a day (approximately 
5d.), only half the sum received by a good chair coolie. 

Before leaving the question of the tea trade with Tibet, I 
would like to refer to the ingenious attempts which have been 
made to estimate the population by the amount of tea entering 
the country. Fergusson, who is an authority on the subject, 
has estimated the total quantity of tea annually consumed in 
Tibet to be roughly 28^ million pounds. Allowing four 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 23 

pounds of tea per person per annum, he arrives at a population 
of 7,100,000 souls. This is obviously excessive. I would 
incline to the opinion that an allowance of six pounds per 
head should be made, although I am aware that the Tibetans 
use a family pot and stew the tea until every ounce of tannin 
is extracted. This is a very poor method of computing the 
population of a country, but as there are no statistics available, 
and the estimates of experts vary from one and a half millions 
to eight millions, one is reduced to crude methods. The only 
general census we have to guide us was one taken by the 
Chinese in 1737 for the two provinces of U and Tsang only, 
which gave a total of 316,000 Lamas and 636,000 laity. 
Making a liberal allowance of over 500,000 people for the 
province of Kham this only gives one and a half millions as 
the total population of the country. There seems to be no 
doubt whatever that the population is dwindling. The cause 
of this decrease is chiefly the enormous tax of celibate Lamas, 
which the present priestly government extracts from the 
people — about one out of every two males ; and to a lesser 
degree the practice of polyandry and promiscuity, decimating 
epidemics of smallpox, and excessive infantile mortality. The 
high death-rate among the infants is largely due to the rough, 
exposed life led by the Tibetans, though excessive altitudes 
have their effect, which has been proved by the distressing 
experience of the Moravian missionaries in Ladak, where the 
cemetery is filled with infant graves, few or no children having 
survived their second year. 

Tachienlu is a great religious centre, both the yellow and 
red sects of Lamaism being represented. In and near the 
town are as many as eight monasteries, while the symbols of 
the Faith are everywhere apparent in the form of prayer- 
wheels, prayer-flags flying from the roofs and the summits of 
the hills, mani stones and cairns. Everywhere is kept revolv- 
ing the mystic spell of '' Om mani padme hung." According 
to the Lamaist creed the Dalai Lama at Lhasa is the reincarna- 
tion of the most powerful of the early kings of Tibet — the 
great Srongtsan Gampo, who in his turn was an earthly 
incarnation of that compassionate spirit of the mountains, 
who had given the early Tibetans the magical food which 
transformed them from monkeys to men. This compassionate 
spirit is identified with the most popular of the Bodhisattras — 
namely Aralokita, the '' Lord of Mercy," who relinquished 



24 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

his prospect of becoming a Buddha and passing into the 
Nirvana of extinction, in order to remain in heaven and be 
available to assist all men on earth who may call upon him to 
deliver them from earthly danger, to help them to reach 
paradise, and escape hell. All of these three great objects are 
secured by the mere utterance of the spell of this Lord of 
Mercy, namely ''Om mani padme hung," which means 
'' Hail ! oh thou Jewel in the Lotus." It is not even necessary 
to utter this spell to secure its efficacy. The mere looking at 
it in its written form is of equal benefit. Hence the spell is 
everywhere made to revolve before the eyes. It is twirled in 
myriads of prayer-wheels, incised on stones in cairns or mani 
mounds, carved on buildings, as well as uttered by every lip 
throughout Tibet, Mongolia, Ladak, and the Himalayan 
Buddhist states down to Bhutan, and from Baikal to Western 
China. (See Fig. 7.) 

Strictly speaking only the abbot of a monastery has the 
right to be called a Lama, which means '' Superior One." 
All the other inmates of monasteries are called Trapa or 
students. The monastic life is open to all men or women who 
are pure Tibetans or Mongols, with the exception of butchers, 
who are regarded as outcastes. Meat is a staple diet with the 
monks of Tibet excepting the few who have taken the higher 
vows. The Lamas evade the Buddhist prohibition to take life 
for this purpose by employing butchers to do it for them, 
whilst they assign to the butchers for doing this the position 
of outcastes. When no butchers are available it is usual for 
the Lamaist to drive the cattle over a precipice or make the 
beast strangle himself. Roughly speaking, one half the 
population of Tibet are Lamas. In the villages and towns 
most families contribute one member to the fraternity, and this 
is often exceeded by two or three. Most orphans and nearly 
all illegitimate offspring are sent to the Lamasery, while super- 
fluous girls (due to polyandry) enter the nunneries. Under 
these circumstances one can realise the force of the Tibetan 
proverb : " Without a Lama in front, one cannot approach 
God." 

In Tibet proper the Lamaseries control the wholesale 
commerce of the country, and the enormous tea trade with 
China is also in priestly hands, although in buying an article 
from a Chinese merchant the Lama has to deal with very 
different mettle to what he would encounter in a bargain with 




T. M. A. 

Fig. 7. A Water-driven Prayer Cj'linder at Tachienlu. 




T. M. A 



Fig. 8. The State of Kanpo. 



The Marches of Chinese Tibet 25 

one of his own unsophisticated countrymen. I would 
shrewdly suspect that the honours in the tea trade rest with 
the Chinese. 

During- my stay in Tachienlu I called on the king of 
Chala at his castle of Se To, and obtained an interesting 
insight into New China's methods of dealing with subject 
chiefs. The Ming Cheng T'u Ssu, or "" Clear bright Ruler'* 
as he is known in the vernacular, is a pleasant-mannered 
gentleman of forty-five years of age, and is the twenty-fifth of 
his line to sit upon the throne of Chala. He does not seem to 
possess the ability, and certainly has not the regal bearing 
which characterised King So of Wassu. I am told that the 
principal hobbies of the Chala chief are mending clocks and 
extracting teeth. His prowess with the forceps is well known 
throughout his kingdom. He received me very kindly and 
offered us tsamba and buttered tea. The tea is really quite a 
warming and refreshing beverage if one only entirely rejects 
the idea of tea from one's mind, and imagines that one is 
drinking soup. The tea was offered in a silver-lined bowl, 
and a plate of tsamba or parched barley meal was placed 
before us. The correct procedure is to drink the tea until 
there is just a little left at the bottom of the bowl, then add a 
lump of butter and several spoonsful of tsamba, and work the 
whole into a paste with four fingers of the right hand, keeping 
the thumb clear ; then break a piece off, roll it into a ball in the 
palm of the hand, and eat it, finally washing all down with a 
draught of tea. Tsamba is quite good as a rule, it is the 
sourness of the yak butter, which spoils the flavour of every- 
thing it touches. 

The Chief had a horse brought round and we rode out 
together to his summer palace at Yii Lin Kung, twelve miles 
to the south of Tachienlu, where we spent the day inspecting 
his flocks, bathing in a hot natural sulphur spring, and dis- 
cussing the past, present and future of Chinese Tibet. The 
Chief has been shamefully treated by the Chinese officials. 
Much of his temporal power had been appropriated by the 
Chinese during H.E. Chao Erh-Feng's regime, but now all 
the state revenues have been taken over, his brother has been 
executed on a trumped-up charge of treason, and even some 
of his private lands and cattle have been confiscated. As a 
sop to his injured feelings the Chinese Governor of the 
Marches has presented him with medals, uniform, a sword, 



26 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

and a pension of 200 Taels a month. Although most of the 
other Chiefs in the Marches have been placed on the pension 
list, this is the only case where their personal property has 
not been respected, and it is the more unjust inasmuch as the 
help and co-operation of the Chala T'ussu have been essential 
to the Chinese advance. Since I returned to England I have 
received news that the king disappeared the very night last 
August on which the Chinese Governor of the Marches 
entered Tachienlu. His whereabouts are unknown, but he is 
believed to have fled westward to join the revolted tribes. 

If the true history of this first Chinese republican expedi- 
tion is ever published, it will provide an amazing record of 
inefficiency and incompetence. Although the men are better 
armed and equipped than the frontier guards of the last 
expedition, as a fighting force they cannot be compared with 
the old troops, whose discipline was excellent, and who are 
still feared throughout all Tibet. Although glowing accounts 
have been written of Chinese successes in the field, there is no 
doubt whatever that, had there been the merest semblance of 
cohesion among the revolted Tibetans, the expeditionary force 
would have been driven out of the country beyond Tachienlu. 
The fighting has never been other than guerilla warfare. 
There is not the slightest doubt that a division of northern 
troops could have crushed the rebellion a year ago. Should, 
however, the present peace conference prove abortive, it is 
doubtful whether even the whole Chinese army could hold the 
borderland in face of the open hostility of Lhasa. 

The future lies in the hands of the peace delegates now 
sitting in conference at Simla, upon whom the task has 
devolved of demarcating for all time the political frontier 
between China and Tibet. We can only hope — and after all 
the consideration and kindness I have received at the hands 
of the Tibetans I sincerely do hope — that the results of their 
deliberations will be to the benefit and the amelioration of the 
conditions of life of the tribesmen of Chinese Tibet. 



*' Personal Experiences in New Zealand " 27 



" PERSONAL EXPERIENCES AMONG MAORIS 
AND MOUNTAINS IN NEW ZEALAND." 

By Mrs. Edward Melland. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on 
Tuesday, February lyth, 1914.) 

The Maoris of New Zealand are acknowledged to be the 
finest and most intelligent of what we call savages yet dis- 
covered in the world. It is true they were cannibals about 
eighty years ago, eating their enemies, more as a matter of 
custom than as food, in order to acquire the courage and skill 
of the deceased. But very quickly they adapted themselves 
to circumstances after the white people came to settle in the 
land. They took to European clothes, afterwards some became 
members of Parliament, and now we have Maori lawyers, 
doctors, schoolmasters, editors of newspapers, and so on. 
They take a real interest in the welfare of their own people, 
who they at last realise are in danger of dying out from 
disease, ignorance, neglect, and the insanitary state of some 
of their villages. They are, as a rule, of a cheerful, happy 
disposition, with a keen sense of humour, intensely fond of 
sport of all kinds, and distinctly interesting and attractive 
as a race. 

The Maoris came to New Zealand somewhere about six 
hundred years ago, for they were really the first colonists. 
They used to arrive in large numbers from Raratonga, and 
some other Polynesian islands, in their old double canoes 
(two lashed together), travelling about 2,000 miles of lonely 
ocean, steering by the stars, until they arrived at New Zealand 
nearly starved to death. When they first sighted the country 
they took it to be a cloud, so ever afterwards called it 
*' Ao-tea-Roa," meaning '' The Long White Cloud." The 
coming of the white man to New Zealand in any considerable 
numbers did not take place until a very much more recent 
date, and it is just about 73 years since England took the 
country for her own. During the pioneer days which 
followed, the voyage from the old to the new country was 
still a very serious business — being undertaken entirely by 
small sailing vessels, in one of which, years afterwards, I was 



28 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

taken out as a tiny child. Our family party consisted of the 
parents, ten brothers and sisters, some servants, and — a cow ! 
The cow must not be forgotten, because the food and drink 
part of the business was a difficult matter in those early days, 
especially where so many young children were concerned, 
and considering the voyage might occupy anything from three 
to six months. There was no such thing as condensed milk 
or tinned meats or fish, or food of that sort, neither had it 
been discovered that it was possible to make fresh water out 
of sea water. So, besides live sheep, pigs, and fowls, many 
of which succumbed to bad weather, the captain had to 
calculate how many tanks full of water he would have to take 
on board at the London docks for all his passengers and crew. 
Although first-class passengers, we were obliged to completely 
furnish all our cabins, including candles, soap, etc., etc. 

Previous to the annexation, when the white people began 
to come and live in the country, the chief occupation of the 
Maoris was fighting against neighbouring tribes. At the 
close of a battle any chiefs taken prisoners would have their 
heads cut off, and after they had been dried they would be 
stuck up on poles round the fortification, while their bodies 
would be eaten. The accompanying illustration (Fig. i) gives 
a good idea of the tattoo marks on one of these heads. It is 
from a fine drawing in my possession, done by Major-General 
Robley, who was out in New Zealand in the early days, and 
is the first authority on tattooing. He has written a book 
on the subject, beautifully illustrated by himself, and also at 
one time possessed the largest collection of these dried tattooed 
heads. 

Only the very upper class Maoris, the aristocrats, were 
permitted to have themselves beautifully decorated like this : 
it was a sign of high birth. Tattooing was a very painful 
operation as performed in those early days, and occupied 
weeks, and months when the body was done as well as the 
face. The instruments used were sharp chisels made of bone 
or stone (they had no metal), and into the little bleeding 
trenches thus made in the flesh they rubbed a vegetable pig- 
ment to give the blue colour. These chiefs' heads were left 
sticking round the fortifications as trophies of victory. When 
the old whalers and stray white traders began to visit the 
shores of New Zealand they took a fancy to the dried heads 
and exchanged tomahawks, nails, rifles, or scrap iron for 




Fig. I. Tattooed Head of Maori Chief. 




Fig. 2. Cooking Pond, Whakarewarevva, Hot Lakes District, 



*' Personal Experiences in New Zealand " 29 

them. The white men knew very well collectors in England 
would give as much as ;^i8 apiece for them, so a brisk trade 
in these heads set in, and chiefs began to tattoo their slaves 
in order to sell their heads. But the missionaries called in 
the help of a Governor of Australia, and the whole thing was 
put down. 

About the middle of the North Island, the Hot Lakes 
district, the crust of the earth is so thin that w hat is down 
inside breaks through in all kinds of wonderful ways. There 
are boiling lakes and boiling pools, and ponds and pools of 
every degree of temperature one could wish. Thick boiling 
sulphurous mud ponds, bubbling up like porridge, some 
fearsome and terrible, with loathsome smells, while some 
springs are exquisitely beautiful, with hot, clear, sparkling 
water flowing over white or primrose-coloured alabaster- 
looking material. 

Most of the natives live in the North Island and many 
in the Hot Lakes district. It is all so deliciously warm and 
convenient — never any need of fires in their houses: Nature 
does all that for them. Several years ago two of my daughters 
and I were in these parts at the native village of Whakare- 
warewa — our home being in the South Island. As we 
wandered about alone we came upon a little Maori child 
cautiously placing some Indian corn cobs to cook in the 
shallow edge of the boiling cooking pool ; the rest of the 
dinner was cooking in a tin, and the little kettle boiling for 
a cup of tea, as shown in the accompanying illustration (see 
Fig. 2). The story of how the first chimney came to be 
built in this village is always told as follows : A white man 
had a tiny hut here, where he lived and sold groceries, bad 
peaches, and oranges (the natives used to prefer their food 
decayed). One day steam began to pour up out of the middle 
of his floor. But he was not going to move; he just buih 
a chimney round that steam and let it ,carry itself through the 
roof and went on living happily on that uncertain ground ! 

Washing day has no terrors for the Maori wife in those 
parts. She finds convenient ponds of various temperatures 
all close together. And, as we would gather round the fire 
on a coldish day, they get into a hot pond instead, up to their 
necks, they and their families and their friends' families, 
enjoying a smoke and a chat. The women invariably carry 



30 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

their babies on their backs, secured by a shawl. I remember 
hearing years ago of a fine young married woman who was 
placing her dinner at the edge of a boiling pond. Somehow 
the baby shot over her head into the centre of it. Without 
stopping to think she dived in after the baby, and both were 
instantly scalded to death. But it is wonderful how seldom 
there are accidents of that kind. At Rotorua we had oppor- 
tunities of sampling the many kinds of delicious baths 
established by the Government utilising the natural hot 
springs. 

While strolling about in the neighbourhood of the Hot 
Lakes village of Ohinemutu, we quite unexpectedly came 
upon a memorial the Maoris erected to " Our beloved White 
Queen," as they called Queen Victoria in later days. They 
are very proud of it, and there is some good work about it. 
A picturesque group of natives, in bright coloured clothing, 
were sitting round it, busily engaged in making flax bags 
and mats. Some natives have a strong objection to cameras ; 
they think that by taking a photograph of one of their precious 
buildings or of themselves it gives the photographer some 
claim over the thing taken, and also that the " evil eye " 
may pursue them for life. These men and women did not 
seem to notice us at first, till the click of the camera made one 
woman look up. Then the fat was in the fire ! They all 
rose up angrily, shouting and gesticulating. I said, " Throw 
the camera in amongst them and let's run!" But an old 
Maori spread out his arms crying, " Ka pai, ka pai!" 
meaning " Very good — it's all right," and things were 
quietening down as we hurried off as fast as the boiling pools 
and steaming holes would allow us. 

By far the best part of this bit of Wonderland was 
destroyed in a fearful eruption about 29 years ago. It 
comprised the Pink and the White Terraces, with their 
charming pools and ponds of any temperature, from 
boiling hot to nearly cold (see Fig. 3). The basins 
were all of pure silica, and those of the Pink as 
beautiful as alabaster, but not quite so hard, slightly 
yielding. One theory is that Lake Rotomahana in the 
immediate neighbourhood did the damage. Although a 
fairly cold lake, it had always had boiling springs in parts 
of^ it. The crust of the earth under the waters was very 
thin and could no longer hold up the increasing weight of 



" Personal Experiences in New Zealand " 31 

waters. So part of the bottom of the lake, so to speak, fell 
out one night, and water poured down into the earth where 
everything is so hot. You can imagine the steam and 
commotion that would set up. It blew out the side of Mount 
Tarawera, which poured forth hot ashes, cinders, boiling 
liquid mud, and all kinds of horrible material on many miles 
round. It ruined lovely country, beautiful bush land, and 
destroyed the world-famous Pink and White Terraces, besides 
burying several native villages with all the people in them. 
As we rowed in a small open boat across Lake Rotomahana, 
with some half-caste Maori guides and three Englishmen 
tourists, it was a very hot day. I was trailing my hand in 
the cold water when suddenly the Maoris shouted to me to 
take it in or it would be scalded in a minute. We then 
passed over the boiling part of the lake. I put my hand to 
the flooring of the boat; it was piping hot. You usually feel 
the thud and throbbing of the boilmg water under the keel 
if the men stop rowing for a minute. 

I honestly did not trust that lake, and was glad when we 
were landed. Some tourists shirk it altogether, for you 
never know what the wonder parts are going to do next. 
After negotiating that wicked lake Rotomahana, we walked 
for some distance to Lake Tarawera, and boated to the usual 
landing beach. Between the two lakes we walked over two 
lovely little Maori villages, houses and natives all smothered 
up and buried, beneath a deposit of 40 feet at the tune of 
the eruption. 

On the night of the trouble, when the terraces were des- 
troyed, Mr. Morgan, Government surveyor, was camped in a 
hut with his Maori workmen, and although some distance from 
the scene of action things were "growing very serious indeed. 
During the night he heard one of his native men praying 
fervently in the Maori language for things to stop and his life 
be spared. Things were going from bad to worse — the 
surrounding bush country had caught fire in places from the 
red hot cinders and deposit ; the earth was heaving up and 
down continually. Mr. Morgan had given up all hopes of 
any of them seeing the light of another day when, above all 
the din, he heard the Maori praying in English this time : 
*' Oh, Lord, if you will only stop all this and spare my life 
I will give you £2^ and Morgan can stop it out of my wages !" 
Some time after this Mr. Morgan called in at one of our 



32 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

sheep runs in the South Island, and while discussing the 
subject told our manager that this story, which had appeared 
in all the newspapers at the time, was absolutely correct. 

One day, about fourteen years ago, great excitement was 
caused in the Hot Lakes district by the birth of what tourists 
called **The greatest geyser on earth." For those who 
flocked out to see it, all the accommodation at first was a 
couple of canvas tents, so if these were full visitors had either 
to lie down in the fern for the night or drive away unsatisfied 
if " she " did not happen to be going off at the time. Then 
the Government built a long wooden one-storey hotel, with a 
large verandah commanding a splendid view at a safe distance. 
The Maoris christened the geyser Waimangu, which means 
'* Black Water," while the half-caste guides and some of the 
people at the hotel spoke of it, with bated breath, as " She." 
We engaged beds in the hotel not by the day, but until we 
had seen a shot, as it was called. The geyser went off pretty 
regularly, about once in 36 hours, occasionally at shorter or 
longer intervals. We had to stay two days and nights before 
we saw one, and did not sleep during that time for fear of 
missing something. We were, however, rewarded by an 
extra high shot of 1,000 feet in the air! At the hotel they 
had some means of gauging the height — these, and descrip- 
tions of each shot, were preserved. Waimangu in action was 
a marvellous sight. When she was quiet there was just a 
large 5unken pond, about six times the size of the Manchester 
Geographical Hall, of steaming grey water, then with an 
awful rush and roar what looked like hundreds of tons of 
black boiling water, rock and stones and steam, shot up out 
of the earth by the pond 1,000 feet into the air— sometimes 
higher, sometimes lower. Eighten months before we arrived 
here two girl iriends of my nieces were killed by the geyser. 
They, along with a guide and two other men, were taking 
snapshots of the steaming sunken pond when all of a sudden 
the geyser went off. When the mass of black water, rocks, 
stones, etc., sank back into the pond again it could not get 
away into the earth quick enough so it overflowed, and a 
boiling water river was formed for the time, which dashed 
over huge volcanic rocks. A' mile down this temporary 
boiling water river the girls' bodies were found, also those of 
the guide and tourists — all sweprt away and killed together. 
(See Fig. 4.) 




Fig. 3. The White Terraces, Rotomahana^ Hot Lakes District. 




Fig. 4. W'aimangu Geyser and Frying Pan Flat. 



" Personal Experiences in New Zealand " 33 

While we were waiting for the geyser to go off, one 
day we engaged a guide and asked him to take us as near 
as we dare go to the sunken steaming pond. This involved 
crossing " Frying Pan Flat," so called because it was com- 
posed of fairly firm dark grey sand, with boiling water 
bubbling up through it, exactly like a little fat boiling in a 
frying pan. Several tourists joined us, until we were fourteen 
of a party. Our feet soon felt burned through our boots, 
the steam became denser and denser, one by one the people 
dropped out and turned back — it was so fearsome — till only 
two of us were left, and we were not exactly happy. At last 
I lost sight of the guide altogether, and could not see two 
yards in front of me for masses of steam rising up from the 
sand rolling past and giving a suffocating sensation. I 
shouted out into space where I had last seen the guide 
disappear that I had had enough, and groped my way back 
more than satisfied. Our feet had a scorched feeling till 
next day. 

Four and a half months after this we were all in England, 
where I read in the English newspapers that '* three acres 
of Frying Pan Flat, in New Zealand, have collapsed, and a 
boiling lake api>eared instead." That was exactly where 
we had been walking four and a half months before ! Next 
mail brought me a letter from one of my sisters in New Zealand 
to say, " Waimangu has gone to sleep," and she has been 
asleep ever since, that is to say for the last ten years. So 
"she," Waimangu, "the greatest geyser on earth," had a 
short but a merry life of about three and a half years, and I 
am very glad I was fortunate enough to see her. No photo- 
graphs or descriptions can really give any idea of what a shot 
was like. 

At Ngaruawahia, in the North Island, where two immense 
rivers join (cold rivers), we went to see a quaint and very 
interesting Maori regatta. One of the many events was 
called, "A Race for a Bride." In the first act, two pretty 
young Maori girls competed, each in her own canoe, as to 
which should take the important part of the bride. That 
having been decided, the race proper began. The bride 
started at a |X)int up the river to paddle her little canoe at a 
great rate down stream; she was quickly followed by large 
canoes full of native men. When one of them overtook her 
she hurriedly but gracefully stepped from her own into that 



34 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

of the men. Those who had captured her now had a start, 
and the other canoes came in hot pursuit. When one over- 
hauled the canoe in which she sat, she quickly left it, stepped 
in amongst the successful crew, and so it went on till the crew 
who had her sitting amongst them when they reached the 
finishing post had won. Unfortunately, half way through 
there was a sad dispute over the bride, and the event had to be 
postponed. 

But quaintest of all were the canoe hurdle races. 
Several things like goalposts, with the crossbar a couple of 
feet or so above the surface of the water, had been erected, 
at fairly long distances, not very far from shore. Competitors 
started up the river and paddled their hardest down the 
course. They had to get such impetus on that the canoe 
bows would slide up on top of the hurdles, the occupants 
scramble forward, their weight making the canoe splash down 
by the bows safely over the hurdle. With this operation the 
Maoris w^ere usually thrown into the river, and the canoe 
nearly filled with water, but they hurriedly baled out and 
started off for the next hurdle. (See Fig. 5.) 

The illustration shows a snapshot we secured during the 
wahines's (women *s) race, taken just at the second the canoe 
was balanced on top of the round hurdle. There was an 
amusing incident in connection with this event. Only three 
canoes entered — two wahines in each ; the first and second 
finished successfully, but the third capsized on the wrong 
side, at the last hurdle, close to the winning post. They went 
up stream to the starting point and had another try, but with 
no better luck. As there was half-a-crown for third prize — 
to be divided — these two wahines were not going to give it 
up for anyone ! So, during the remainder of that long 
summer's day, whenever there was a slight pause in the 
proceedings, down they would come, paddling their hardest, 
but always happy and contented looking. Just as they 
would come opposite us they would capsize on the wrong 
side of the hurdle, sink under the water, but come up smiling, 
bale out, and start again for another try. 

The sun was beginning to set, and we to think of tearing 
ourselves away from this fascinating spot, when shouts and 
cheers made us look round, just in time to see the two wahines 
safely over the last hurdle — the half-crown won ! 



'* Personal Experiences in New Zealand *' 35 

In large parts of New Zealand no alcoholic drinks are to 
be had. They hay^ had local option out there since 1893. 
The same year the Women's Suffrage Bill was passed, so 
all women as well as men can vote as to whether there shall 
be any sale of strong drink in the constituency. As we women 
went to the polling booth to cast our votes for members of 
Parliament, at the same time we voted on the drink question. 
At the first vote prohibition was carried in one constituency 
only. After some years the constituencies on either side, 
seeing it had not been ruined by its experiment, boldly 
followed its example, and now there are twelve ** no licence '* 
constituencies. 

To carry prohibition a bare majority is not enough — 60 
per cent, of the votes polled have to be in favour. This is a 
rather wise provision, to prevent too many changes. At the 
last general election for the first time a vote could be given 
for what they call national prohibition — that is to say, for 
preventing the sale of drink in the whole dominion, and its 
importation, too. The result was an actual majority for 
national prohibition, but as the majority was 56 instead of 
60 per cent, the proposal was not carried. Both sides, 
however, expect it to be carried in the near future. If such 
were the case, I dare say the chemists would be allowed to 
sell some for medical pur|x>ses, but if so it would have to 
come into the country under the Poisons Act, and be sold 
with the same precautions. 

At one time large numbers of Chinese used to come over 
to New Zealand, attracted by the discovery of gold. Many 
of them took to market gardening, and for years grew almost 
all the vegetables for the colony — bringing them to our doors 
for sale. We always found those who came were most 
{peaceful, honest, quiet men, though they had a curious idea 
of English law sometimes. I remember one day a batch of 
about 100 landed at the jetty in our town, straight from China. 
Some boys started to tease them beyond endurance, and in 
the scuffle a policeman was wounded, a Chinaman arrested 
and sentenced to fourteen days' hard labour. Next morning 
very early there was a loud knocking at the prison door. 
When opened, thirteen Chinamen presented themselves. 
They said they did not want to leave their friend behind ; 
they had made plans to travel all together to the goldfields. 



36 Journal of the Manchester Geographicail Society 

So thirteen of them had come to do one day's hard labour 
each for the Government. 

We have left the North Island, with its Hot Lakes district, 
whose chief interest is its strangeness. There is nothing- 
quite like it in the world, and we shall go for a little to the 
Cold Lakes district of the South Island, where the scenery is 
a little more like what may be seen in other countries, with 
the additional charm of wildness, for much of it has yet to be 
explored by man. 

For very many years we have been closely connected with 
this part of New Zealand, a beauty spot of a beautiful country. 
Large lakes stretch long arms back into the huge range of 
mountains, while the Pacific Ocean on the other side has 
worked its way in amongst the mountains too, and sends huge 
arms running inland, as if trying to meet the lakes. These 
are the world-famous sounds, and much of the high wooded 
mountains lying between them and some of the lakes is still 
unexplored (see Fig. 6). One of these lakes is Te Anau, 
our lake, as we called it, where we rented a sheep run from the 
Government of 80,000 acres, not counting forest country, 
which we could have for miles and miles for no rent at all, 
if we could make any use of it. Lake Te Anau is about 40 
miles long by about six miles at its broadest, and, in addition,, 
it has huge fiords running into the mountains. On the shores. 
of Station Bay, half way up, our homestead buildings stood. 
We had the lake for years all to ourselves; there were no 
other human habitations near, and it has been most interesting 
to watch it and Lake Manipouri being gradually opened up 
for tourists. At one end of our Te Anau sheep run our 
boundary was a whole degree of latitude — you may say — no 
need of fences; there was nothing to fence out, but the unex- 
plored, evergreen, bush-clad mountains. 

Opposite our homestead buildings, across the lake, which 
was here six rniles broad, one of our men was exploring one 
year in the slack season when he discovered a lovely little 
lake. It was about three and a half miles long, shut in by 
high wooded mountains, and the surface of its -syaters was 
crowded with wild duck and teal of different kinds, grebe, 
and other wild fowl. Neither they nor their ancestors had 
ever seen a human being, dog, or gun, so they knew no fear, 
and allowed our man to come as close as he liked and never 




Fig. 5. Canoe Hurdle Race, Ngaruawahia. 




Fig. 6. Lake Te Anau, Cold Lakes District, South Island. 



" Personal Experiences in New Zealand '* 37 

offered to fly. This is Lake Katharine, called after myself. 
Our Te Anau sheep station was at the uttermost ends of the 
earth, so to speak, the very back blocks, and no place for 
women and children. So we lived near a town, in civilisation, 
and went up to the lake in summer, or at busy seasons of the 
year — a three days' journey from home. Formerly, the last 
day's travelling tO' get to Te Anau homestead took me between 
eleven and twelve hours in the saddle, no roads at all, and 
fording innumerable streams and large rivers. One, the 
Upukerora, we had to cross twelve times as we wandered up 
its narrow valley. This may sound commonplace, but, 
remember, those snowfed mountain rivers have very strong 
currents and are very often in high flood when they are 
discoloured, and there is no telling how deep they are. And 
the ** get out " is no joke when your horse, finding the shingle 
banks undermined, and too steep, begins to fall back upon 
you, and you throw yourself off his back into the flooded river 
for safety, as happened to me one day. Then you think of 
the New Zealand death, as it is called. The newspapers, in 
giving an obituary notice of some one, will say, " He fell 
a victim to the New Zealand death." They do not stop to 
explain. We all know what that means — drowning. 

All the same, life in these wild parts is very fascinating. 
The charm of the unexplored is strong, with its feeling of 
expectancy, of wondering what you may discover next, while 
the danger which enters into it all makes it all the more 
enthralling. Adam Lindsay Gordon, the Australian poet, 

said : — 

" No game was ever worth a rap 
For a sensible man to play, 
Into which no accident — no mishap 
Could possibly find its way." 

The New Zealand Government had offered to reward 
anyone who would discover a pass over the mountains from 
Lake Te Anau to Milford Sound, or to any of the sounds, 
so that a good walking track might be made for hardy tourists. 
(See Fig. 7.) 

As I mentioned before, although Lake Te Anau was fully 
40 miles long, ours were the only buildings anywhere near 
it. Some years after we had taken over the sheep run, stray 
men began to come about the lake and pitch their tents about 



38 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

i8 miles from us. They were men who had had an unhappy- 
past and who wanted to get as far away from civiHsation 
as possible; they would come and offer to work for us at the 
busy seasons, and we were thankful to have them. One of 
these waifs and strays was '* Dick " ;' he built the first mansion 
on the lake (that is to say not counting our own), a one-roomed 
hut thatched with scrub. It was through no fault of his that 
he had fled from his fellow creatures, but through the fault 
of another. An honest, clever, sober, entirely self-educated 
man, a boat builder by trade, he developed into a great 
naturalist, and became an authority on the strange wingless 
birds, and flightless ones too, which have their home in these 
wild wooded mountains, across th6 lake from our homestead. 
During nine years he worked for us whenever we needed 
him. Life in these wilds makes people self-reliant and 
resourceful. Dick took us to see his htit one day, and on 
entering I was met by an overpowering smell of decayed 
animal matter and quickly backed out. " Oh, it's only my 
mousetrap, which has been catching mice while I've been 
away from home the last three months. You see, they would 
destroy all these valuable wingless bird skins up in the rafters, 
so I had to think of something that would go on killing the 
mice while I was away." It was such an ingenious trap. 
I must describe it. He had a large, square, empty oil tin, 
with the top cut off, which he had filled three parts full of 
water. He had made a tiny Wooden wheel, like a treadmill, 
and fixed it across the top of the tin and baited it. The oil 
tin was sunk beneath the floor of the hut— which was on piles, 
only a hole cut in the boards to show the wheel. The mouse 
ran across the floor to the bait, stepped on the small wooden 
platform, the wheel revolved with the weight of the mouse, 
round it went depositing the mouse in the water, and was 
so nicely balanced that it set itself again, ready for the next 
victim. 

Here, when at home, Dick would sit in the evenings 
studying natural history. He had a fishing line from he 
hut to the lake baited for eels, and after dark, as the eel took 
the bait, it rang a bell at the other end of the line in the hut- 
Dick would quietly lay aside his volume, go down to the lake, 
and haul in to-morrow's dinner for himself and his dogs. 

We call New Zealand a new country ; it is only new so far 




Fig. 7. Milford Sound, West Coast, South Island. 






Fig. 8. Kiwi. (Apteryx Australis). 



" Personal Experiences in New Zealand " 



39 



as white people are concerried.* Running up through the two 
large islands is a high range of mountains, the whole of 
which are older and have been longer above the sea than 
almost any other part of the world. If the New Zealand 
Islands were not so old we would not have that curious bird 
life out there, the birds without wings, such as the kiwi, and 
those like the kakapo, that have large wings but cannot fly 
(see Fig. 8). It takes countless ages for a bird to change 
as the kiwi has done and for its wings to become atrophied 
from want of use. 

Another of the stray men who began to come about the 
shores of Lake Te Anau was Brodrick, known as " Old 
Broad " (suggested by his name and immense width). He 
must be mentioned, because he was the first to put a steamer 
on the lake. He drifted up our way, coming originally from 
the lumber camps of Canada, where, according to his own 
story, he had fled to avoid having to fight in the American 
Civil War. He was a hardy, rough, old pioneer, with a keen 
sense of humour, and full of anecdote, capable, and full of 
resource, but not fond of work for work's sake. He soon 
fell under the spell of Lake Te Anau and took a deep personal 
interest in it. His main occupation was pressing wool at 
our station and sailing our wool boat up and down the lake. 
For many years it was the only vessel on Lake Te Anau, 
and often he had used it to take a stray tourist up to the 
head and down again, on which occasions he was delighted 
to act captain and crew of the little 15 ton boat, also as cook, 
general provider, giiide, philosopher, and friend. At last the 
county authorities began to talk of making a road to' the 
foot of the lake, and old Brodrick then felt moved to prepare 
for the reception of the expected tourists. He took, indeed, 
such a deep personal interest in the lake, as if it were his 
own property, that he could not have the place disgraced, as 
it would have been, if tourists had not been able to see the 
beautiful fiords and head of the lake. I think it was more 
from this reason, than with any expectations of making his 
fortune, that Brodrick went down country to the little town 
of Invercargill and bought a poor little old steamer, had her 
cut in half j and conveyed to the lake with great difficulty, 
almost all the way without any made roads, a huge bullock 
team to each half, and the journey lasting weeks. 

In course of time the two halves were joined together, 



40 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

with a bit added in the middle, and the weird little craft was 
safely launched on Lake Te Anau (a bottle of whiskey being 
broken over the bows, but not a drop of the contents being 
wasted !). The boiler and engine were very poor, and the 
only fuel was firewood, so, at the very best, six to seven miles 
an hour was the maximum speed. But as ** Old Broad," 
who was captain, engineer, and crew, was quite unused to 
machinery, and was by nature both dirty and lazy, the top 
speed soon became four to five miles an hour, and breakdowns 
were frequent. He had painted the name, " Te Uira " — 
after an old Maori chief — on the bows, but as someone pointed 
out that was Maori for the lightning, he got unmercifully 
chaffed and could not stand it any longer, so painted out the 
old name, putting ** The Ripple" in its place. He was 
rather proud of this choice until one moonlight night — after 
three breakdowns on three successive trips — someone found 
the paint jx>t and neatly inserted a large " C " in front of 
Ripple. Then there was trouble, though it is said he had 
been up the lake and down again before he noticed the 
addition. 

Many good and true stories are probably still being told 
by English tourists who chanced to risk their lives on that 
little boat. Too lazy to cut good supplies of firewood in 
advance, his fuel was always green and had to be stacked on 
top of the boiler to dry. The boiler was soon very hot, the 
wood began to smoulder and even blaze. The few passengers 
were often much alarmed until they noticed with what accus- 
tomed calmness Brodrick at the wheel dipped a bucket in the 
lake and put out the fire. Again, it was a very common 
occurrence for an announcement to be made, *' I must run 
her ashore — firewood's done !" And passengers found them- 
selves (axes and tomahawks handed round) expected to go 
ashore into the bush and cut down a good load of firewood. 
As for breakdowns — people benighted without food or 
blankets, sometimes in gales of wind and torrents of rain — - 
these were too common to be much noticed. 

Just one more of these waifs and strays, and that was 
McKinnon. He, poor fellow, was fleeing from drink, and 
was quite safe at Lake Te Anau for years, till later drink 
followed him, and someone erected a small four-roomed 
wooden cottage, at the foot of the lake, as accommodation 
house and secured a licence. McKinnon also worked for us 



" Personal Experiences in New Zealand " 41 

at busy seasons of the year. A clergyman's son, he had 
ruined himself with intemperance, deserted his wife and two 
little children in another country, and come to this lonely and 
beautiful lake to forget and be forgotten. Soon the fascination 
of the unexplored took a hold of him, as it did of most people 
brought in contact with it, and McKinnon was the first to 
discover a pass over the mountains from Lake Te Anau to 
Milford Sound. So he gained the Government reward, and 
everyone was singing his praises — he had opened up what 
one of the London papers. The Spectator, called, when giving 
an account of it a few years ago, "The finest walk in the 
world." At first it took a week to walk or scramble across; 
one had to carry tent, blankets, provisions, etc. Now the 
double journey can be done in little more than half that time 
by any ordinary tourist, while huts at easy intervals have been 
erected by the Government. Shortly after the discovery of 

the pass, when I walked across with my husband, Mr. C , 

and our man Dick, we took six days to reach the ocean, partly 
owing to floods by the way. We had to carry blankets, 
provisions, change of clothing, etc., for four people for that 
time. Oatmeal porridge and sugar was our chief food on 
those excursions; oatmeal is light to carry, and porridge with 
sugar on the top is very satisfying. 

After negotiating Lake Te Anau and sleeping the night 
in a rough empty slab hut m the bush, our first day's walk 
from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. was in glorious weather and unspeak- 
ably beautiful scenery. The valley of the Clinton, up which 
we went, is more of a canyon than a valley, and filled with 
bush for the first eight miles. Its length is about twelve 
miles, and its width half a mile or less, while precipitous 
mountains rise on either side to the height of 3,000 or 4,000 
feet. A turbulent glacier-fed river rushes alongside, though 
well below, the track. This track is sometimes on the bare 
mountain-side and sometimes cut through " bush " — " mixed 
bush," from great beach and pine trees, down to the ribbon 
wood, with its beautiful white flowers, not unlike syringa, 
and the innumerable ferns of all sorts and sizes, often con- 
nected with trees, with long festoons of bright green moss. 
Once over McKinnon 's Pass, down the valley of the Arthur 
River, this ** bush " becomes much more luxuriant — the trees 
are bigger and more varied, and great tree ferns and cabbage 
trees give the forest almost a semi-tropical appearance. (See 
Fig. 9.) 



42 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

That first day, though so enjoyable, had an unpleasant 
ending. At the lake, the day before, we spoke to three English 
tourists and their guide ; they promised to push on to a hut 
over the pass and not get in our way, as we intended camping 
for the night in a rough fern shelter we knew about. One 
of the Englishmen, an elderly man, I had met before, and 
warned him not to try the walk. He was rather offended, 
and wrote back to say where a woman could go he could. 
When we reached Dismal Camp, or Inferno, as we christened 
it, because it was made of ferns, and we had such a wretched 
time there — we were horrified to find the English party and 

guide in possession, Mr. B , the elderly man, utterly 

broken down, really ill, and unable to go a step further. 
Dismal Camp was situated in a very narrow part of the 
Clinton Valley in a thick patch of "bush," rather dark and 
gloomy, where the sunshine could not penetrate, and where 
high ferns and dripping mosses, even in fine weather, kept it 
damp and wet and depressing. It was only twelve feet long 
by six feet broad. Into this seven rnen and myself had to 
crawl and spend the night. Soon tropical rain set in and 
poured down on us through the fern all night. Rats ran 
over us as we lay on the damp mud floor. Avalanches of 
snow, loosened by the warm rain, thundered down into the 
narrow valley where we lay, sounding unpleasantly near, 
while the curious night birds, the kiwis and kakapos, boomed 
and whistled, making night weird and uncanny. Of course, 
we could not sleep, so as soon as the first streak of daylight 
came we rose and made some porridge and started to climb 
over McKinnon's Pass, voting it was much pleasanter 
— (see Fig. lo) — to walk all day, though drenched to the 
skin, than to sit and have the rain pouring on us through the 
fern. Poor old Mr. B-— — could not walk, so his fellow 
travellers left him some food, and promised to call back for 
him. 

The New Zealand Government had sent a batch of convicts 
round by sea to form the track on the ocean side of the pass, 
thinking that owing to the wildness of the bush country, 
and to being shut off from civilisation by huge mountains, 
lakes, and fiords, thaf the men would be cjuite safe with the 
ordinary numbers of warders. But these convicts kept 
escaping in couples and coming down on our homestead 
nearly starved to death for their first chance of food. Of 




Fig. 9. New Zealand Bush. 




Fi^. 10. The Clinton Canyon and McKinnon's Pass, 
Te Anau-Milford Track. 



"Personal Experiences in New Zealand " 43 

course, they took the precaution first to steal clothes, some- 
times those belonging to our shepherds camping out, in order 
to discard their prison ones. They then told a long story, how 
they were explorers, and had lost their way. We knew better, 
and on one occasion our manager was able to pass word on to 
civilisation, and that couple were eventually caught. The 
convict settlement at Milford Sound was soon voted a failure, 
the men were taken back to prison, we had peace, and 
McKinnon's track was finished by decent bush hands! 

The chief features on the Pacific Ocean side of the pass 
are the Sutherland Falls — :very beautiful, 1,904 feet high — 
Lake Ada, and the Arthur River. Lake Ada was called after 
an old friend of my young days, she being the first woman 
to see it, approaching it from the ocean side years before 
McKinnon's Pass was discovered. It is a most uncommon 
lake, because it has a forest growing up from the bottom — 
at least, I suppose the trees are long since dead, but the 
black jagged tops of huge pine trees still appear in places 
above the surface of the waters. It had evidently been a fine 
wooded valley at one time, blocked by avalanches, and turned 
into a lake. The scenery here is very beautiful (as it is 
along the whole of the route), but as it was my business to 
bale out the water from a crazy little boat of McKinnon's, 
while the men rowed, I had not time to look about me. 
Do\Vn the Arthur River, with its rapids, we went in the same 
little old boat, and nice and exciting work it w'as ! 

' Of course, all this has been changed— I am speaking of 
the track 23 years ago; things' have been made easy by the 
Government, who have had good tracks cut out of the face 
of the cliffs, so doing away w-ith the necessity of boating on 
the rather treacherous Lake Ada and down the upper reaches 
of the Arthur River. Comfortable little huts have been 
erected at fairly short intervals, where provisions, blankets, 
and porters can be obtained during the summer months, and 
where, I am told, they have even added mattresses to sleep 
on ! To my thinking much of the charm has been taken away 
by these so-called irhprovements, but one must remember 
by their means far more tourists are enabled to undertake this 
extremely beautiful and enjoyable walk. 

Mr. Melland and some friends interested in the beauties 
of the track and of Lake Te Anau subscribed and lent money 
to a Mr. and Mrs. Garvey, who erected an accommodation 
house at the head of the lake so that tourists could have a 



44 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

comfortable bed after their long day on Te Anau and before 
the walk proper began. Before that tourists were rather a 
nuisance to us, coming sometimes in parties — always men, 
of course — sometimes with horses too, and calmly asking our 
manager, or ourselves if we were there, to take them in. Of 
course, we had to; there was nowhere else for them to go, 
and it was always the busy season. Then they would take a 
fancy to the very rough life amidst beautiful natural sur- 
roundings; it was an experience for them, and it was often 
very difficult to get rid of them. They would stay for days, 
men we had never seen or heard of before, and never would 
again. Occasionally there were amongst them interesting 
celebrities and some members of the English nobility. 

Just before we went across " The finest walk in the world '' 
McKinnon disappeared. The New Zealand Government 
had engaged him to put in three months at clearing the track 
a little of saplings and jungle. So he laid in a supply of 
provisions and called in, in his whale boat, at our sheep 
station for some mutton, then set off up the lake with a fair 
wind. 

Nothing was heard of him for months, so when we were 
up at our Te Anau run, ready to walk across his track to 
Milford Sound, a search party of police constabulary sent by 
the Government arrived at our homstead to hunt for 
McKinnon. As one of our shepherds had picked up his cap 
on the shore of the lake one day, that part was searched first. 
We all joined, either boating or on foot, and Dick and Mr. 

C soon found McKinnon's whale boat sunk in a bay of 

the lake, the tip of the mast just showing above water. 
His tucker box and sou'wester were picked up on the shore 
oppMDsite, but his body has never been found. 

On the beach of this bay, where his sunken whale boat was 
discovered — just three miles from the homestead — there lies 
a huge block of granite, the only one lying on the shore for 
many miles round. It was thought this would make a good 
tombstone, so his name, '' Q. (Quinton) McKinnon, Dec, 
1892," was carved upon it. 



4 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 45 



A JOURNEY THROUGH TURKISH ARMENIA AND 
PERSIAN KHURDISTAN. 

By M. Philips Price, F.R.G.S. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall, on Tues- 
day, March loth, I9i4.)» 

In my journey through the provinces of Asiatic Russia in 
19 10 from Siberia to the Caucasus, I made it my object to 
study the effects of the political expansion of Russia and the 
consolidation of her Eastern Empire. 

I visited the fertile wheat belts of Siberia, the barren 
plateau of Mongolia, the sandy wastes of Turkistan and the 
highlands of the Caucasus. Throughout this country I came 
into contact with Russian civilisation in process of absorbing 
the relics of the former Tartar Empires of Central Asia. 

This stimulated me to visit those countries beyond the 
Russian frontier, where I could see the relics of the ancient 
Mohammedan kingdoms still untouched and judge for myself 
what the future is likely to bring forth. 

It is abundantly true that geography is the basis, not only 
of political history, but of the scientific study of mankind, and 
therefore I first refer to some of the geographical conditions 
of the continent of Asia. 

Across a large part of this continent, from the Pacific to 
the Mediterranean, runs a zone of elevated tableland, rising 
from the North Siberian Steppes in the North and from the 
plain of Hindustan in the South. This tableland is known 
by different names in different parts : there is the Gobi Desert 
of Central China, the Plateau of Tibet, the Highlands of 
Afghanistan, the Iranian and Armenian plateaux of the near 
and middle East. 

If we look closely then, we shall see that this tableland is 
traversed by ranges of mountains which trend across the con- 
tinent in, roughly, easterly and westerly directions. When 
I crossed Siberia on my way to Mongolia, I felt as if I was 
gradually ascending a staircase. From the lowlands of 
Yenesei I rose up across ridges of mountains, first 1,000 then 
2,000 then 3,000 feet and so' on, Until at last I found myself 
in the plateaux of Mongolia where the bottoms of the valleys 
were 8,000 feet above the level of the sea. 

But the most important feature of this plateau is the fact 



46 Journal ofth^ Mahchcster Geographical Society 

that in its centre it narrows into a neck, and the earth's sur- 
face is much crumpled by inaccessible mountain ranges. 
Eastwards to China and west to Persia, the plateau opens out, 
broadens, and the mountain ranges become less complex. 
North-east Asia Minor and North-west Persia form an in- 
tegral part of the series of tablelands which connect the Medi- 
terranean with the Pacific Ocean. The geographical condi- 
tion of this plateau throughout its whole length therefore 
makes access across it from north to south difficult and in 
places impossible, on account of the transverse ranges run- 
ning east and west across it. On the other hand, no natural 
obstacle obstructs the passage along the tablelands from east 
to west, and once access is obtained to the plateau, easterly 
and westerly movements are easy. We thus see how impor- 
tant are the geographical features of Central Asia as being the 
main factors governing the movements of the human race in 
that continent. It is a significant fact that all the race move- 
ments of mankind, which, originating in Asia, have ultimately 
affected Europe, have roughly followed the lines set forth by 
the physical conditions of this plateau. 

The Mongol invasion of the 13th century which had its 
birth on the Mongolian steppes swept southwards till it 
reached the edge of the plateau in its most impenetrable part 
in Afghanistan and then followed westwards over the Caspian 
Sea to Russia. Other great political movements such as that 
started by Timur of Samarkand in the 14th century and later 
still by the Ottoman Turks culminated in military invasions 
which have an easterly and westerly movement, chiefly 
westerly. 

Europe has awakened since the days of those invasions 
from Asia. 

The Russian Empire has covered in its political net the 
lower steps of the plateau on the north, creeping slowly south- 
wards. The British Empire in India has covered the lower 
steps of the plateau on the south, and like a sentinel is stan- 
ding on guard behind the natural frontiers of Afghanistan 
and Tibet. Between these Empires lie the independent 
States of Tibet, Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey. The Otto- 
man Empire acts as the bulwark between the Caucasus and 
the frontiers of Egypt, while Persia and Afghanistan bar the 
way from Turkistan to the Indian frontier. 

These facts have consideriable political significance. If 
these independent Mohammedan States fall into decay, the 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 47 

Russian and British Empires stand facing one another in 
Asia. It is useless to disguise the fact that the civilisations 
of these two empires are wholly diverse, and their methods of 
government, particularly in Asia, totally dissimilar. If once 
either of these two powers is established on the plateau, their 
influence must permeate its whole system and destroy the 
buffer civilisations existing there. 

Moreover the preservation of these civilisations cannot be 
without effect upon the culture of the world, for though they 
have fallen into decay in recent years, they have in the past 
deeply affected the religion, philosophy, art and literature of 
Europe, and indeed have been the main inspiration of all the 
higher European culture. 

How far is it possible to regenerate these native civilisations, 
these buffer states on the Central Asian plateau? What is 
their relation to the two great empires to the north and south ? 
To study these problems in relation to the physical condition 
of the country, was in part the object of my journey. 

I started from Constantinople in September, 191 2, and 
sailed to Trebizond on a Turkish cargo ship, which coasted 
along the north coast of Asia Minor. There was a mixed 
cargo of Mecca pilgrims, Turkish soldiers, Khurdish shep- 
herds and various animals. The rocky coast is forested with 
oak scrub and spruce, and is intersected by deep valleys 
running northwards to the Black Sea. These valleys contain 
at their mouths small deltas, where little Turkish towns 
have been built. The north coast of Asia Minor is not 
rich, but the climate is good and its valleys are important as 
the sole means of access to the plateaux behind. At last I 
reached Trebizond, where I left the ship. 

Trebizond is the gateway to north-east Asia Minor and 
North-west Persia, it is the most easterly town on the Black 
Sea and the only free port open to the commerce of Europe 
which gives access to the plateaux of Armenia and Northern 
Persia. Since the Russian annexation of the Caucasus, all 
Caucasian ports are closed to European commerce, and now it 
is only from Trebizond that caravans of European goods can 
reach the territories behind. This is important to Man- 
chester. 

British participation in the trade of the territories behind 
has been of long standing. On behalf of our commercial 
interest there were secured alterations of the San Stefano 



48 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

treaty at Berlin in 1878 in order to prevent Russia from 
blocking the route from Trebizond into Persia by annexing 
Bayazid. Although the trade has declined of recent years 
owing to various causes, it is still a highly important route 
for British, German and Austrian goods, chiefly cotton, iron 
ware, and sugar to the markets of eastern Turkey and 
northern Persia. 

The town of Trebizond is an old centre of Roman civilisa- 
tion. For centuries under the Christian Byzantine Empire it 
became partially independent, but finally succumbed to the 
Ottoman Turks in the 15th century. The town is built on a 
rock in the shape of a trapeze, hence its name in Roman times. 
I found the Turks broad-minded and free from fanaticism and 
I was able to wander in any of the mosques without trouble 
and photograph the military barracks and the garrison. 

After a few days in Trebizond, I hired a cart, set forth with a 
Circassian servant who had come from the Caucasus to meet 
me, and made my way up country. 

Travelling in the interior of Asiatic Turkey though not 
difficult, is not without discomfort. There are no railways 
and few good roads, the latter being worn in holes and ruts 
by caravans, bridges across rivers are non-existent, or else 
broken. Along the best roads one can travel by phaeton, but 
the safer if slower method everywhere else is pack horse. 

One proceeds from stage to stage along the road, sleeping 
the night in caravanserais or public wayside inns. Travelling 
is generally safe, occasional robberies take place near the 
Turco-Persian frontier, but with introductions to Government 
officials, prestige with the natives may be obtained by a couple 
of Turkish mounted police with whom it is best to travel in 
any disturbed district. 

I thus left the Black Sea coast, plunging into the interior of 
north-east Asia Minor following the Turkish military road 
leading across rugged mountain passes towards the plateau 
of Turkish Armenia. The scenery on leaving the Black Sea 
coast is one of surpassing beauty. The road wound along 
valley bottoms and zigzagged up dizzy heights, looking down 
on vast expanses of rocky forest land, while mountain torrents 
careered wildly northwards to the sea. Here indeed was 
Switzerland in the heart of Asia Minor. Even the little 
Turkish houses in the valley bottoms were built of wood in 
the same shapes as those of the Swiss peasants. 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 49 

The Turks were busy on their harvest of maize, which forms 
the staple food of the population. Usually the Turks were in 
the valley bottoms, and Greeks on the higher ground. The 
former are descendants of military colonists, and the latter 
descendants of Byzantine citizens. At night I rested in little 
caravanserais, when many caravans of camels pvassed north- 
wards from the Armenian plateau bound for the Black Sea; 
one night 500 camels passed, bearing cotton, rice, and dried 
fruit from Persia, gliding past the caravanserai in which I 
was staying, filling the air with the music of deep-toned bells 
while the occasional cry of a weary camel and the shout of a 
Turkish caravan bashi rent the air. 

Next morning I reached the summit of Zegana, and looking 
north I beheld a wonderful sight of rolling rocky country and 
the edge or lip of the Armenian plateau before it plunges to 
the level of the Black Sea. The rain-bearing winds from the 
sea had by this time spent their force, and the country, which a 
day's journey to the north was densely forested, was now 
covered by a few scrub pines and shrubs. Bushes of the rho- 
dodendrons with flowers faded in the autumn sun freckled the 
mountain sides, while far away in the valley below I could see 
the road along which I had come winding like a serpent, and 
here and there upon its track little specks where the caravans, 
which I had passed hours before, were slowly crawling north- 
wards. 

It was on this wonderful spot that Xenophon, marching 
with his 10,000 Greeks across Asia Minor after many hard- 
ships at last saw the sea, and exclaimed in words that have 
become famous : '' Thalassa ! Thalassa !" 

Leaving the summit of this beautiful pass, I sank down into 
the valleys on the southern side but my fall here was gradual, 
and I reached at the bottom of the Gumesh-Khaneshat a 
higher level than the valley which I had left. I had, in fact, 
ascended the first step of the Asiatic plateau, and w^as now on 
the tableland of Turkish Armenia with its broad valleys, the 
bottoms of which were 2,000 or 3,000 feet above the level of 
the sea, and shut in from the north by rolling downs, and a 
few rocky ridges running mostly east and west. 

I quickly observed the difference in the atmosphere from 
that of the sea coast. The temperature was extreme, and I 
suffered much in the day time from scorching sun, while at 
night the temperature dropped to freezing, although it was 
only September. The features of the country were severe and 

D 



50 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

hard, almost terrible in their barrenness, but when the evening 
came, and the slanting rays of the sun shot across the plateau, 
the plains glowed like lire, and the desert hills show^ed forth 
their outline in details of delicate light and shade. To see 
sunset on a desert plateau is worth all the miseries and dis- 
comforts of a day's trek in the hot sun. 

One evening I came to the ruins of a beautiful Armenian 
city. I had now reached the land partly inhabited by Arme- 
nians, an ancient race of Iranian stock who have inhabited this 
plateau since the dim dawn of history. Nowhere do they 
number the majority of the population, but everywhere along 
this plateau of North-east Turkey their colonies are scattered 
about, along with those of their Mohammedan neighbours 
the Turks, in all places where cultivation is possible. At 
Varzahan, which was the name of the place which I had 
reached there was only a collection of peasant huts, but all 
around were the ruins of curious Armenian churches built in 
octagonal shai>e, with cylindrical towers composed of hard 
grey stone, almost terrible in its severity. They date 
back to the loth century A.D. and are typical of Armenian 
architecture. Inside all was ruin and decay, but on the walls 
of one I just discerned the fresco paintings of Christian saints 
in crude medieval style. 

After leaving Varzahan, I ascended and crossed the Kopdag 
Pass, which traverses one of the great mountain systems of 
Armenia, and is at the head waters of the Euphrates. From 
its summit I could see the whole trend of the mountains of 
Turkish Armenia running east and west like giant caterpillars 
lying parallel across a table, while the Euphrates, here a little 
stream, trickled in and out of their great flanks. 

After another day's journey to the east I reached the famous 
Turkish city of Erzerum. Here I found a veritable fortress. 
I was closely scrutinised by the bemedalled Turkish officers 
as I passed through the great fortifications and reached the 
teeming human rabbit warren which calls itself a city that lay 
inside the great military cordon. The city, at one time the 
most easterly outpost of the Roman Empire, has been in the 
hands of the Ottoman Turks since the 15th century. It lies 
close to the head waters of the Euphrates just below a crescent 
of hills which divide the water-sheds of that river from the 
Araxes. It is surrounded by heights on the north, south, 
and east which have been fortified by the Turks. There are 
earthworks on the west. The importance of Erzerum 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 51 

cannot be exaggerated from the international standpoint, 
because in the words of Moltke, "The power which holds 
Erzerum can control the lower reaches of the Euphrates and 
ultimately dominate Mesopotamia." The maintenance of 
Erzerum in Turkish hands is therefore of paramount impor- 
tance to the political stability of eastern Asia Minor. 

The tide of war has more than once surged round the fort- 
ress of this city on the Armenian plateau, and twice it has fallen 
into the hands of the Russians ; in the Crimean war, and again 
in the war of 1877, but each time European diplomacy caused 
the Russians to withdraw and plant themselves behind the 
frontiers of the Caucasus. 

In Erzerum itself everything has a very military aspect. 
Turkish soldiers clad in khaki, putties and red fezes slouch 
lazily about their duties, while officers with fur caps and long 
grey cloaks sit dreamily in cafes sipping coffee and chatting 
with one another about war and rumours of war. 

Near the outskirts of the city I visited a beautiful building, 
said to be the mausoleum of one of the early Turkish sultans. 

The streets of the town were indescribably filthy. On a 
little hill above the end of the town was a Turkish cemetery, 
where the bodies of faithful Mohammedans were laid to rest, 
often not very deep in the ground. The pariah dogs had been 
at work, and had brought sundry human relics to the surface. 
Lower down the hill I found a large number of Turkish and 
Armenian houses half buried in the hill-side, and all the 
washings from the cemetery must have poured into their 
drains. There is no sanitary inspector in Erzerum. 

Of course I paid a visit to the Turkish Vali, or governor- 
general of the province, who resided in Erzerum. It happened 
that shortly after I arrived it was the morning of the Sultan's 
birthday, and in company with the British Consul I went to 
call upon His Excellency in Government House. This con- 
sisted of a great barn-like place with plaster tumbling off the 
walls and a few tattered flags of the Star and Crescent flying 
from the roof. We ascended a rickety staircase, at the top 
of which a Turkish brass band with blatant cornets and trom- 
bones blared forth something, which I was told was supposed 
to be " God Save the King," in honour of our British 
Nationality. In a room hung with Turkish carpets and 
furnished with French chairs and tables sat the governor- 
general, a sedate old Turk with heavy eyelids and a nose like 
a f>otato. My interview with him was interesting, as it was 



52 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

here that I first learned of the outbreak of the Balkan War. 
The governor informed me that he had received instructions 
from Constantinople that morning to mobilise 5,000 troops 
and send them to the front at once, and that he was proposing 
to dispatch all the peasants in his province between the ages 
of 18 and 25 on foot to trek the roads to the Black Sea coast. 
It is small wonder that the Turkish Army took a month and 
a half to mobilise by such methods, but in the absence of rail- 
ways nothing else was possible. 

After I left the Vali, I witnessed a review of the Hamadian 
cavalry. The nomad Khurds, who live in the mountains of 
this part of Asia Minor, some years ago were formed into an 
irregular cavalry by Abdul Hammed, ostensibly for the pur- 
pose of strengthening the cavalry, but really for the .purpose 
of massacring Armenians. They still exist, chiefly as an 
organisation for licensed ruffianism to levy blackmail on their 
I>eaceful peasant neighbours. The Turks have allowed them 
to remain armed, but the reforms in Armenia will probably 
disarm most of these free-booters. They are supposed to be 
officered by Turks, but I met one of them in Erzerum who 
told me that, as he was unable to control them, he sent them 
to their homes with all their arms while he himself sat down 
in the cafe of the town and enjoyed himself. I witnessed a 
review of this so-called cavalry on the plains of Erzerum, and 
afterwards a Khurdish dance, in which the soldiers formed 
themselves into a ring and danced slow measures to the tune 
of a little Khurdish bagpipe and drum beaten with the palms 
of the hands. 

After some days at Erzerum, I hired four horses and with 
my servant and an escort of Turkish soldiers lent to me by the 
governor-general, I rode out of the city eastwards towards the 
Turco-Persian frontier. The country I traversed was high 
tableland in the head waters of the Araxes. Low ridges of 
desert hills lay scattered over the plateau, while little rivers 
and streams wandered aimlessly. The country was very 
barren, and cultivation only possible by irrigation near the 
streams. 

I found that the population consisted of two types, the 
Nomad and the settled. The settled population lived in 
villages and consisted of Christian Armenians and Mohamme- 
dan Turks who lived side by side, often in the same villages, 
and were indistinguishable except by their religious customs 
and language. The relations between these Christians and 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 53 

Mohammedan peasants were amicable in every way. In 
one village I found the tomb of a saint used as a praying 
ground both for Armenian and Turk, and one evening I wit- 
nessed Christians and Mohammedans praying at the same 
shrine side by side. 

But there are also the Nomads who inhabit the stoney hills 
above the valley bottoms and who live in tents with their 
flocks of sheep and horses. These people are called Khurds, 
people of Iranian stock who speak a language akin to Persian, 
and are hostile to the settled population, whether they be Turk 
or Armenian. In the country through which I passed after 
leaving Erzerum I saw a few Khurdish nomads, the majority 
living in a semi-settled, semi-nomad state, indicating clearly 
that they were in an intermediate state preparatory to settling. 
All through this country the relations, not only between 
Mohammedan and Christian, but even between nomad and 
settled, were amicable. It was not till I reached the Persian 
frontier that the truculent attitude of the nomads became 
apparent. 

In addition to the people which I have mentioned, I came 
across some colonies of people called Kizil Bashis, another 
nomad tribe in partial process of adopting settled habits. The 
Turks informed me that they had peculiar religious cere- 
monies, which they described to me as Orgiastic, and alto- 
gether they regarded them as heretics. 

I also came across some remarkable people called Yezides, 
who are mainly nomads but seem in every respect like the 
Khurds. But I was told by my Turkish soldiers that they 
were Devil-worshippers and they had great contempt for 
them. So much so, that as we passed an encampment of them 
one morning my Turkish soldiers spat violently on the ground 
and cried. " May the graves of these pigs be defiled ! " A 
Turk is devoted to his religion of Islam, and he is in every 
way tolerant of orthodox Christianity, which he regards as a 
sister religion to his own, but he cannot stand fancy religions 
like Devil-worship ; and when he sees a people like the Yezides 
observing certain Christian saint's days once a week, certain 
Mohammedan fast-days another, and for the rest of their time 
worshipping the Devil, he becomes like a bull who sees a red 
flag. 

During this part of my journey I spent the nights in the 
villages that Preached at sundown, and as there were no inns 
I was the guest of the head man of the village. The inhabi- 



54 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

tants of this part of Asia Minor are Troglodite. The houses 
are literally tunnelled into the sides of the hills. The 
entrances are surrounded with stone and turf, and on entering 
you pass through a long tunnel some 30 or 40 feet into the 
hill-side above. The access to each house is obtained from 
the roof of the house below it, and looking at these villages 
from a distance one can see nothing but a few platforms on 
the hill-side and holes in the hill which are the entrances to 
the houses. In the central room lighted by this one shaft, is 
a raised platform where the men sleep, but the rest of the room 
is overrun by sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes, which latter 
are used as beasts of burden. I spent two nights in such a 
place as this, but needless to say my repose was not satisfac- 
tory. The odour of the larger animals coupled with attacks 
of the smaller and invisible ones made sleep an impossibility. 
Matters became desperate when about 2 a.m. I discovered a 
bullock saying good morning to me by putting his nose in my 
face. But I endured that night and the following night in 
this manner, and after that I decided that it was more pleasant 
to sleep out of doors in the dust outside the Peasant's house 
and to allow the pariah dogs to sing me to sleep by the pale 
glimpses of the moon. 

It is interesting to note that Xenophon, when he crossed 
through this country with his 10,000, notes that the inhabi- 
tants, who were probably the ancestors of the Khurds and 
Armenians of to-day, lived in exactly the same manner in 
underground houses. But he also mentioned that they 
burned wood, and that timber was prevalent. To-day there is 
not a single tree to be seen over this desert plateau, and the sole 
article of fuel used by the inhabitants is dried horse and camel 
droppings. It would appear, therefore that man has been 
responsible for the denudation of the forests, or that the 
climate has undergone a process of dessication. 

In the manner described above I wandered from village to 
village eastwards across the rugged plateau of Turkish 
Armenia towards the Persian frontier. 

One morning a wonderful sight greeted my eyes. Crossing 
a little neck of hills dividing one plateau valley from another, I 
saw away to the north-east a gigantic mountain mass, rising up 
out of the plateau in a perfect cone, and towering like a monster 
with a snowy cap. It was Mount Ararat. I had seen it 
before from the northern or Russian side when I was in the 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 55 

Caucasus in 191 1, but I now saw it from the southern side. 
It rises up over 16,000 feet out of a plateau 2,000 to 3,000 feet, 
and is the remnant of an ancient but gigantic volcano now 
extinct and covered with a cap of eternal snow. Mount Ararat 
appears to be the most northerly limit of an ancient volcanic 
chain which stretched roughly along the present line of the 
Turco-Persian frontier. There are other volcanic mountains 
like Ararat further to the south, but not so magnificent. It 
appears that the earth's crust has undergone complex fractures 
about here. The north and south pressure which has created 
the east and west trend of the mountains is traversed by other 
earth movements, which have created at this point a northerly 
and southern trend. The cross fractures thus caused appear 
to have facilitated volcanic action and hence we have the relics 
of ancient volcanoes all along this line where these two earth 
movements meet. 

Other extinct volcanic mountains are to be seen in the off- 
shoots of the Anti-Taurus and in Lesser Armenia, and with- 
out doubt in some of the peaks of the Lebanon and in the Jebel 
Druse on the edge of the Arabian Desert. None however are 
so perfect as Mount Ararat, and small wonder that all the tra- 
dition and romance of history is centred round this great 
mountain. 

On the day when I first saw it, as the sun rose in the 
heavens the blue-grey mist, which usually rises with it over 
the plateau, enveloped the mountain, and through the mist I 
could see its glistening snows. It was as if I was looking at 
the face of some very beautiful and supernatural being, which 
had clothed itself in a veil of mauve. 

That night I reached a little Turkish Block-house, where 
some Turkish soldiers were stationed as frontier guards. 
The Russian frontier lies just to the north and the Persian 
frontier to the east. Here three empires meet on the summit 
of a little spur at the side of Mount Ararat. I spent the night 
with four Turkish soldiers in this little block-house, ate rice 
with the fingers, drank curdled milk, talked about brigands 
and listened to the fears of a coming Russian invasion. 

Next day I arrived at the last Turkish frontier town of 
Bayazid. The town is chiefly inhabited by Turks, and there 
is a military garrison with a Turkish governor or mutssarif, 
whose acquaintance 1 speedily made, visiting him in a low 
mud building whence the Star and Crescent floated in the 
breeze, and announced myself as a British traveller on his 



56 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

way to Persia. He gave me every assistance for the continu- 
ance of my journey, and meanwhile sent some soldiers to show 
me round the town. It is situated in an amphitheatre sur- 
rounded by rugged cliffs, which in one place is a knife-edged 
schist, inaccessible from either side. The strata of the schist 
have been tilted in a vertical position, and denudation of all 
but a certain hard layer in the schist has created this remark- 
ably thin wall of rock, rising to a height of several hundred 
feet. A medieval castle with underground passages clings to 
the rocky slopes below this cliff. The natives say that it is a 
Genoese castle used by the Genoese merchants in the middle 
ages, but the natives of Asia Minor say that of every medieval 
castle, and my investigation of it went to show that it was 
Armenian, for I found some Armenian inscriptions on some of 
the stones. It had probably been taken by either the Arabs or 
the Seljuk Turks at one time, for I found a Cufic inscription 
over one of the entrances. 

In the town itself was a citadel on which a beautiful building 
rested. It w^as made by one of the governors and built after 
the Persian style in pure red sandstone. It is now the mili- 
tary barracks and the arsenal, and to my surprise the governor 
gave me permission to go right over it. The Turkish soldiers 
were much interested in me, and I found them very pleasant 
companions while they showed me round. They were simple 
Turkish peasants and true Oriental fatalists. About a week 
before, a portion of the roof had fallen in and killed six 
soldiers. No attempt had been made either to clear up the 
mess or to prevent a catastrophe of a similar nature occurring 
in the rest of the roof, reasoaing that if the barrack roof fell 
in, it was unfortunate but they could not help it. 

I actually saw right inside the arsenal, which was part of 
the ruined palace. The ammunition was very old, and I ex- 
pressed some doubt as to whether it would be of any use in 
action if they came to use it on the Russians, but the only 
answer was, '' If not, it will be the will of Allah, and what am 
I to do? " How ihin was the veneer of western life upon this 
all-pervading oriental ground work. 

A portion of the palace was used for civilian purposes. In 
the absence of either a prison or a lunatic asylum in Bayazid, 
both prisoners and lunatics shared the same quarter adjoining 
the arsenal. A Khurdish brigand appeared to be getting on 
very happily with an old Turk who had softening of the br^in. 
What would otherwise have been a tragedy in the west, thus 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 57 

becomes a natural phenomenon in eastern life. The prisoner 
strolled about anywhere, indeed he followed me to the place 
where I was staying, and begged to be allowed to accompany 
me as a servant into Persia. I afterwards wished that I could 
have taken him. 

Afer a few days rest at Bayazid I left it to cross the Persian 
frontier riding with a caravan of pack horses, and with an 
escort of Turkish soldiers sent with me by the governor of 
Bayazid. As I proceeded westwards I could see the hills 
which mark the Turco-Persian frontier to the south-east. The 
frontier runs directly north and south, and for a long distance 
follows a distinct geographical line which marks the water- 
shed between rivers flowing westwards to the Euphrates and 
to Lake Van, and those flowing eastwards to the Araxes River 
and Lake Urmia. 

Half a day's journey south of Mount Ararat, the ridge of 
hills marking the watershed stops short, and plunges down 
into the plains of the southern arm of the Araxes. These 
plains separate the ridge from Mount Ararat, which stands out 
in a lofty cone surrounded by plains to the north, south and 
east, and connected with the high ground of the Armenian 
plateau only on the west. After leaving Bayazid, I crossed 
the Turco-Persian frontier at the point where this natural 
ridge breaks off and descends into the valley of the Araxes. 

Reaching a little col on the plain at the foot of this ridge, 
I was informed that on this spot the Turkish Empire ended 
and the Persian began. My Turkish soldiers now left me, 
and I was alone on the frontier with my Circassian servant and 
four horses. There was no Persian guard-post, no customs 
official to be seen as I left the land of the Star 
and Crescent and entered the land of the Lion and 
the Rising Sun. I proceeded to try and find a village 
to sleep in for the night, otherwise I should have 
to sleep out under a rock. Skirting the end of the 
ridge which marked the frontier about nightfall, I observed an 
encampment of felt tents, which I knew were those of some 
Tartar nomads. They were the encampments of Khurds, the 
gentlemen who are notorious for brigandage especially in this 
district. As I had very little worth stealing I decided to go 
straight to them. At the edge of the encampment I met two 
Khurds who came out to see who I was. They had large 
black turbans, hooked noses, hanging cheeks, and an expres- 



58 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

sion which suggested that they would cut anyone's throat for 
very little. 

I explained that I was an Englishman going to Persia and 
that I had heard of the wonderful people called Khurds so I 
had come all the way to see them. This little oriental blarney 
worked like a charm, I was invited into the camp, and in a few 
minutes I was squatting cross-legged on the floor of the tent, 
while a few black-eyed ruffians squatted round me eyeing me 
like a prize bull. When once their suspicion was allayed, two 
of them went off to fetch a sheep to kill for me, and I settled 
down in comfortable quarters in the corner of this felt tent. 
The women, w-ho live in a separate quarter of each tent but are 
unveiled and have quite handsome features, brought me some 
of their embroidery work. Nomad shepherds of this type 
are chiefly monogamous. It is only the chieftains or the more 
wealthy flock owners who go in for polygamy. The price of 
a wife ranges from ten to twenty horses apiece, and appears to 
vary according to the price of horses. Women are not by 
any means oppressed however, and within the precincts of the 
tent their \yord is law. Anything to do with external policy 
such as the migration of the tribe, the position of the tent, the 
safety of the flocks is unreservedly in the men's hands. I 
found that the native language of these people was Khurdish, 
but most of them spoke Turkish which is the dialect running 
all through this part of the country, whether on the Turkish 
or the Persian side of the frontier. There was a tendency 
however to introduce a number of words which were not 
purely Ottoman, and which are confined to the dialect of 
Turkish, spoken by the inhabitants of -the Middle East and 
allied to the language of the Sarts of Turkistan, the Tartars 
of the Caucasus, and the Persians of Azerbaijan. 

During supper, I discovered that these Khurds were 
nothing else than professional robbers, who supplemented 
the produce of their flocks by occasional sheep raiding in 
Turkish territory, and looting caravans which entered Persia 
from the Black Sea. They belonged to a tribe ruled by a 
famous Khurdish chieftain called Sinko, a notorious brigand 
about whom I had heard great complaints from the Turkish 
governors in Armenia. On his behalf they were scouring 
this country on the watch for any wealthy caravan that might 
pass through this territory and which might be regarded as 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 59 

fair game. Under the circumstances I felt happy to think that 
my worldly possessions were so small at that time. 

It seems that the Khurds are divided into two social castes, 
and this primitive state of society is largely responsible for the 
state of disorder existing along the frontier. There is first of' 
all a military caste represented by a few chiefs with their ser- 
vants, who are supposed to keep a rough and ready law and 
order of their own interpretation. These Khurds protect a 
second' caste, which is engaged in stock-raising, and which 
pays an annual contribution in return for protection. The 
Khurdish chiefs on the Turco-Persian frontier claim the right 
to protect many of the Khurds now settled in the villages on 
the Turkish side, and also some Armenian villagers too. The 
consolidation of Turkish authority in the districts west of the 
frontier have caused these Khurdish chieftains to lose many 
of their retainers, and their chieftains now find amusement 
in distracting the Turkish authorities by periodically reviving 
their old claims and putting them into force by systematc raids 
and caravan looting. A war between nomad and settled 
population goes on all over the country. It is not a religious 
war, because the Khurds are nominally Mussulmen and are 
more bitter against the Turkish authorities and the settled 
Moslem natives in Armenia than they are against the Arme- 
nians themselves. This kind of social warfare is prevalent 
all over the Middle East, and is the clash of two civilisations, 
nomad and sedentary. It is economic rather than religious. 

Next day I left my Khurdish robber hosts, and they sent 
one of their number to accompany me to the residence of the 
Khan of Maku, a Persian prince who lived a day's journey 
from here, and whom it was necessary for me to visit. I 
arrived at Maku at sundown, and found a magnificent man- 
sion where the Khan lived in true regal pomp, surrounded 
by groves of poplars and willows, running streams and gar- 
dens laid out with lily ponds and formal beds of flowers. 
After days of travelling in the desert, it was like an entry into 
Paradise, and I thought of the passages in the Koran where 
Paradise is pictured as one of these fertile oases. The Khan, 
whose family had for centuries ruled this i>art of north-west 
Persia, was now hereditary lieutenant-governor of the frontier 
district between Mount Ararat and Lake Urmia, under 
suzerainty of Persia. I spent six days with the Khan as the 
guest of a true Oriental despot, a portion of his mansion was 
set apart for myself and my servant, and every evening I 



<5o Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

dined with the Khan, squatting on the floor of a large hall 
and eating with our fingers, fatty rice, sheep's ribs, and deli- 
cate Persian vegetables. During dinner a musician sat in 
the corner of the hall and sang songs and ballads from the 
'Persian classics. I noticed at once how different from the 
wild abandon of the Khurdish pipe was the delicate music of 
the cultured Persians. It is in its way very highly developed. 
The tones are divided into minute fractions and the harmony 
is highly complex. Persian music is indicative of an ancient 
and highly cultured people. I found that the khan of Maku 
was also a great scholar, and had many illuminated copies of 
the Rubiyat of Hafiz. Every evening one of his servants 
read passages aloud to us from these books. The Persians 
think nothing of Omar Kayam on account of his heterodox 
religious views, but Hafiz is regarded with deep reverence. 
Even in the wild parts of Khurdistan, surrounded by savage 
nomad tribes, the Persian aristocrat is a man of letters who 
loves his country and her literature. 

But my ideal of the Persian aristrocrat received a shock 
when I observed the unmistakable signs of semi-European 
corruption creeping in. One of the Khan's reception rooms 
was crammed with cheap Russian furniture, the walls covered 
with crudely painted plaster, an empty vodka bottle or two 
and a portrait of the Czar lying about, told the tale of Russian 
influence. Moreover, I was not long before I came into direct 
contact with it. A man in a blue uniform and round peak 
cap, who purposed to be a friend of the Khan, introduced him- 
self to me one day, and whilst vouchsafing no information 
about himself plied me with numerous questions as to what 
I was doing. I at once stood on my guard, realising that he 
was a Russian spy sent in from the Caucasus. I subsequently 
discovered that the Khan dare not transact any business with- 
out his permission, and indeed this man had the insolence to 
try and act on behalf of the Khan in all official interviews that 
I had with him. With the assistance of my servant, and with 
a knowledge of Russian and a little Turkish, however, I was 
able to defeat his intrigues. The following is a typical 
example of Russian methods in this country. The Khan of 
Maku has an eldest son who he hoped would succeed as lieu- 
tenant governor of the Persian province bordering the Russian 
frontier. Russian agents induced the Khan to let his son be 
educated at Tiflis, the capital of the Caucasus. Here he had 
been taught first of all the gentle art of how to drink, and then 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 6r 

he had been studiously put into the company of the most unde- 
sirable moral element in the place, and had returned to Persia 
a hopeless dissolute. This man the Russians hoped to put 
in the place of his father some day, and use him as a tool for 
Russian intrigue. The Khan, however, told me quietly one 
evening that he wished to make his second son the heir, for 
he had not thus been corrupted by so-called education in 
Russia. This bright young man took me out one day 
hawking, and I spent a pleasant day riding over the desert 
hills chasing partridges with peregrine falcons. The bag was 
somewhat restricted on account of the crazy behaviour of our 
Khurdish servants, who whenever they saw a partridge^ 
screamed wildly and waved their arms. 

After resting six days with the Khan, I took my leave, and 
with an escort of two of his Khurdish soldiers or ruffians I 
made my way southwards. I passed the wonderful town of 
Maku, which is surrounded by an amphitheatre of over- 
hanging cliffs, in which are old caves where Christians 
used to worship for fear of the Mohammedans. 

The first night I spent near a hot sulphur spring where we 
all bathed, and after two more days' journey to the west across 
the desert plateau and past a few ridges of barren hills, I 
reached the plain of Khoi, a fertile alluvial spot at about 1,500 
feet above sea level. It lies about a day's journey north of 
Lake Urmia, from which it is separated by a low ridge of hills. 
In the centre of the plain stands the Oasis of Khoi. I found 
that the town was surrounded by a fine old mud fortress with 
four gates on each side. 

At last I reached Tabriz, where I found one of the few 
British Consuls in the north of Persia, where there is a guard 
of British-Indian soldiers. Here I rested about a week and 
went about the town, wandering in the bazaars and visiting 
the Persian officials. 

Tabriz is the principal town in the north-west of Persia, 
and the second largest in the whole of Persia. It is the 
great distributing centre for Azerbaijan and the centre of 
Persian culture and political progress. But the action of 
Russia in recent years has stamped out all enthusiasm for re- 
form, and I found the population singularly submissive, and 
ready to acquiesce in annexation to the Caucasus through fear 
of assassination by Russian agents. 

Leaving Tabriz I proceeded on my way to visit Teheran,. 



62 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the capital of Persia, crossing some loo miles of the Iranian 
plateau along the trade route connecting the two towns. The 
country through which my road lay was somewhat different 
from that which I had traversed in Armenia and on the Turco- 
Persian borderland. Rugged plateau valleys and desert hills 
running in every direction, gave place to vast expanses of 
desert plains endless as the sea. As one approaches Central 
Persia, the rugged mountains of the Turco-Persian borderland 
sink to the level of the desert which is here a vast plateau plain 
at about 2,000 feet in elevation. 

The desert of central Persia itself is not a sandy one, but is 
composed largely of dry mud and pebbles, the relics of an 
ancient shallow sea, which at one time covered the Central 
Asian plateau. Little Persian villages are clustered beneath 
the chains of desert hills, where perhaps a little spring oozes 
from the rocks and alone makes human life possible in this 
vast and dreary waste. Perhaps only once a day a traveller 
sees a collection of mud huts surrounded by groves of poplars, 
the only indication that human life exists at all. Every now 
and then a beautiful oasis is reached, where by some gushing 
stream a leafy forest of elms and poplars has risen, surrounded 
by vineyards and rice fields. The fertility and beauty of these 
oases present the most striking contrast to the wilderness out- 
side, and form one of the most characteristic features of Central 
Persia. The inhabitant of such an oasis is naturally a lazy 
person, for he would be more than human if he desired to 
leave such a home for the desert outside. These are just the 
sort of conditions which have produced the natural charac- 
teristics of the Persian, laziness and indolence, not unmixed 
with cowardice but highly intelligent, a lover of art and letters, 
and indeed the cultured man of the east. He has developed 
the aesthetic side of his nature at the expense of his physique 
and manly qualities. He is a striking contrast to the Turks, 
Khurds and Armenians, who live in the plateaux of Khur- 
distan and who have in their native surroundings all the 
characteristics of a highland race with its virile physique. 

As I wended my way from Tabriz across the endless sea of 
waste where not a living thing but a prickly desert shrub 
could hold out in its war against the elements, a peculiar sen- 
sation used to come over me, I will not say a depression, but 
a sense of weakness, of impotence against the vast forces of 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 63 

nature which were manifested around me. This is the atti- 
tude of mind indicative of Oriental fatahsm as we know it all 
through the east. Is not this the type of mind which will 
flourish under such circumstances and environment as this ? 

The road between Tabriz and Teheran is really no road at 
all, but only a track which has been followed for centuries by 
caravans of mules and camels. No cart could travel along it 
and reach its destination in safety ; there are no bridges across 
the streams, and yet this is one of the principal highways 
of Persia. Persia, in fact, possesses no roads as we know 
them in Europe. My caravan consisted of five horses and two 
servants, and each day we averaged about 22 miles, changing 
horses in the villages as we went along. 

The following is a typical view of a Persian village in Azer- 
baijan ; a broad street of mud houses, surrounded by high 
walls. The walls alone are visible from the street, and it is 
impossible to see what population lies behind these walls. On 
entering the door through these walls, one comes into a court- 
yard, where collections of flat-roofed houses built of mud and 
straw meet the eye, and in these the Persian p>easant lives. 
He stores his grain upon the roof of his house, and keeps his 
cattle in the out-houses of his court-yard. One part of his 
house is set apart for his wife and family, and the other part 
for strangers, to whom he never refuses hospitality. In this 
respect he is just like any other Mohammedan in Central 
Asia. Outside the village lie the vineyards, surrounded by 
old mud walls decayed in many places. Here the vines, 
planted in their trenches, creep above the ground, and an old 
watch tower situated above them is used by the villagers to 
watch for patrols of robbers. 

A Persian never ill-treats his animals by beating them, but 
he frequently starves and overworks them, and often I have 
seen horses and mules that had broken down on the roadside 
through overwork, left to die, or their skeletons bleaching in 
the hot dry sun. 

Four days from Tabriz I reached the town of Mianeh and 
then crossed a range of desert hills which leads into the valley 
of the upper Kizil Uzun. This range is the boundary be- 
tween the province of Azerbaijan and the provinces of Central 
Persia. Looking back northwards, I could see the great 
plateau of north-west Persia stretching away to the Caucasus. 



64 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Emerging into the open plains again, I passed caravans of 
camels bound northwards and resting on their journey. Often 
did I pass small caravans of two or three camels gliding like 
ships over the desert. Tawny-skinned Persians with round 
felt hats sat dreamily upon a heap of beautiful carpets and 
saddle trappings, swaying to and fro and singing old caravan 
songs which had been handed down for generations. 

Sometimes I arrived at a little place in the desert where 
stood a huge caravanserai or wayside inn. Not a soul was to 
be seen and the place was tumbling to ruins. It was one of 
caravanserais of Shah Abbas, the great Shah of Persia, who 
lived in the i6th century and built great caravanserais all over 
the trade routes to accommodate the traders and to perpetuate 
his name. Giant Arabic arches, inlaid with blue enamel tiles 
and covered with inscriptions from the Koran, towered up 
above. I entered the imposing gateway and found a great 
court-yard inside, where a battalion of soldiers might drill, 
and where accommodation for countless camels, horses and 
men could be found in the battered buildings that surrounded 
it. But the roofs had mostly fallen in, and not a soul was to 
be seen. I found a little tower at one corner of the great wall 
which had evidently served as a watch tower for soldiers, I 
tethered my horses to their food in the court-yard and ascended 
the winding staircase which which led to the tower. Here I 
found an old room, probably a guard house, where safe and 
secure I could sleep for the night, and here I and my two ser- 
vants squatted down, cooked our food on a fire of camel drop- 
pings, and laid to rest. The wind howled round us, and the 
bats and owls flitted over our heads, and I thought of all the 
many scenes which this old tower had witnessed in the dim 
past ages; of the great and powerful Shahs of Persia and their 
generals who may have slept within its walls, and of the lines 
of Omar Kyam, " Look on this battered caravanserai, etc." 

And then I came to a wonderful place, a little oasis in the 
desert of the Kizil Uzun. Wonderful buildings and giant 
mosques half in ruins, whose brilliant domes glittered in the 
autumn sun, rose from the desert, and the little mud hovels of a 
few Persian peasants clustered underneath their shade. This 
was Sultanieh, the former capital of the Persian Empire where 
ruled the powerful sultans of the Mongol dynasty, who came 
from the plateaux of Mongolia and ruled Persia in the 13th 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 65 

century. The great mosque of the Sultan Hudda Bendeh rose 
imposingly out of the desert. It was a great dome covered 
with beautiful enamelled tiles of azure blue, and eight ruined 
minarettes stood at the eight corners of its walls. I went in- 
side and found a vast great hall littered with the ruins of bricks 
and tiles, and here I found several beautiful relics of encaustic 
tile work. There I saw the tombs of the former Sultans, now 
covered with dust and decay, there I saw the spot where the 
Sultans themselves used to pray to Allah, morning, noon and 
night. The walls which towered over my head were inlaid 
with the most exquisite tile work and mosaic, setting forth 
passages in the Koran, but gaping cracks now rent the sides 
and the rock dove now built her nest in them and flitted about 
beneath the giant dome. 

After passing Zinjan, a large Persian town, I heard wild 
rumours of civil war. Everyone whom I met on the road 
told me that Salar-ed-Dowleh, the brother of the ex-Shah and 
a famous reactionary leader, was on his way from Kerman- 
shah in the south of Persia, with a large army, to attack 
Teheran the capital, and was now only a few days' march ahead 
of where I was. It was somewhat startling news to hear that 
the capital of the country in which I was travelling and to 
which I was bound, was just about to be besieged by a rebel 
army and I somewhat doubted the news until a day later I 
reached the main road to Hamadan, and there sure enough 
saw signs of what had taken place. Salar-ed-Dowleh 's army 
was only a few days' march ahead of me and had been in all 
the villages on the way robbing and looting from the inhabi- 
tants. Several of the villages were deserted, the inhabitants 
having fled, and every article of food had been taken. As I 
was to some extent dependent upon the food I could pick up 
on the way, I was reduced to some straits. 

I pushed on with considerable haste, hoping that I might 
see a battle between Salar-ed-Dowleh 's army and any force 
which the Persian government might think fit to send out 
against him, but a day's journey from Teheran I heard the 
news that Salar-ed-Dowleh had feared to attack the capital and 
had subsequently disappeared into the mountains bordering 
the Caspian Sea to the north. 

At length my journey ended, and the great city of Teheran 
came in sight on the eastern horizon. I entered the west gate- 

E 



66 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

way where, in the congested traffic, I had to push my way 
through caravans of camels and donkeys. Here I found a 
hearty welcome from the British Legation, and spent a week 
basking in the beautiful sunshine of a Persian autumn. 
Although it was November the weather was like a fine English 
July, and the heat during midday was such that one could 
only remain in doors. 

About two days' journey south of Teheran are the ruins of 
Rae, a very ancient and remarkable place contemporary with 
Babylon and mentioned in the Bible as one of the places to 
which the children of Israel were exiled. Countless tumuli 
and remains of ancient mud walls and bits of pottery lay 
strewn all over the place, showing that the place would well 
repay systematic excavation. At present nothing has been 
done there, and the Persian Government has given no 
concession for excavation as yet. 

On a hill above the ruins of this city are to be seen one of 
the Towers of Silence, used by theZoroastrians,the last remains 
of the old Fireworshippers whose religion was once so preva- 
lent all over Persia. Perched away up on a desert hill rose this 
weird mysterious tower of cup-like shape. Inside, the 
Zoroastrians put their dead to be eaten by vultures, and all 
around I found human bones and bits of skull bleaching in 
the sun. 

The worship of fire and the sun-god, which was accompa- 
nied by this method of treating the dead was part of the 
religion founded by Zoroaster about 2,500 years ago, and was 
the religion of Persia for over 1,000 years until the great wave 
of Islam swept across Asia. Persia then became Mohamme- 
dan, and Zoroastrianism decayed, but a few fire worshippers 
still remain in Persia, of whom a few hundred families are to 
be seen in Teheran, and the rest are mainly in the south of 
Persia. The majority of these people migrated into India 
and form the Parsees of to-day ; their original home however 
is in Persia. 

I left Teheran in the second week of November and 
travelled northwards to the Caspian Sea, reaching the moun- 
tains which fringe the lip of the Persian plateau, and made my 
way over a road built by the Russians through rocky gorges, 
passing endless caravans of camels bound southwards from 
the Caucasus, 



Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan 67 

Suddenly I sank down to the plains of the Caspian Sea. 
For over two months I had been on this Central Asian table- 
land never below 2,500 feet and now I suddenly sank down 
over the edge of the plateau to the level of the Caspian Sea 
85 feet below sea level. 

The difference in this country and the climate was most 
extraordinary. From barren wilderness I came to dense forest 
and jungle, rice fields, and swamps where flamingoes and 
pelicans stood solemnly on the brink. The Persians who up 
to now I had seen living in their desert homes, in little mud 
houses, had here erected for themselves straw thatched 
houses of wood and wattle. Although they still wore Persian 
dress, their features were quite different from those of their 
kinsmen on the plateau ; they were tall, thin and emaciated, 
and evidently their frames were saturated with fever. I 
passed quickly through this country, for I knew it was feverish 
and dangerous to remain in after so long on the high plateau. 
I reached Resht on the Caspian Sea, boarded a ship bound for 
Baku in the Caucasus, and, sailing away from the swamps on 
the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, I said good-bye to the 
land of Iran. 

I have endeavoured to show that this part of the Central 
Asian plateau is inhabited by people, who if they are studied 
and understood with a broad sympathy and tolerance, may 
still revive under European influence many of their former 
good qualities, and it must be hoped that it will be possible to 
infuse into these people just that element of material civilisa- 
tion which will enable them to strengthen their position again, 
once more to fulfil their role in a modified form as a buffer state 
of the Central Asian plateau and once more to be a light to 
lighten the art and literature of Europe. 



68 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



THE GENESIS OF GEOGRAPHY. 

By Miss Kate Oualtrough, F.R.G.S. 

{Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on 
Tuesday, October isth, 19 14.) 

To the indifferent geography is an elaborate gazetteer, but to 
the learned student of nature it is the natural description of 
the earth, there being no subject concerning the welfare of the 
human race in which the geographical element does not 
predominate. In times of peace it is paramount in commerce, 
in industry, in colonisation, and in trade ; and in times of war 
an adequate geographical knowledge of roads, terrain diffi- 
culties and climate has more than once saved empires, just as 
ignorance of these subjects has been visited with ignominious 
defeats or barren victories, because geography is, in its highest 
sense, that science of localisation which has determined the 
major portion of history. 

From man's first entry into the world he has been a 
wanderer and an explorer — in fact, an unconscious geographer. 
It is evident from the ethnological map of the world that the 
world was not peopled by accident — by a mere chance 
scattering of nations^ — for the five great races are spread out 
over vast regions as if they grew there, and the peculiar type 
of each race being more or less connected with the climate in 
which it lives, viz., the Black Race to the Equatorial regions 
in Africa and the East Archipelago, the Yellow Race to 
Central and Southern Asia, and the White Race to temperate 
Europe and Asia. But all races must have a common 
ancestry, because of the general likeness in the structure of 
their bodies and the working of their minds, and the fact that 
all the human race, notwithstanding differences of form and 
colour, are capable of intermarrying. 

Ancient inscriptions and figures in Egypt give some idea 
of the races of men as they were at the dawn of history more 
than 4,000 years ago. The Egyptians themselves were in 
stature and features much the same as they were in later times. 
The celebrated inscription of Prince Una, of the Sixth 
Dynasty beyond 3000 B.C., mentions the Naksi, or negroes, 
who were levied and drilled by tens of thousands for the 



The Genesis of Geography 69 

Egyptian Army, and under the Twelfth Dynasty a procession 
of Amu, or tribute-bearers, is represented on a wall painting 
in the tomb of Knumhetp. These can be seen by their features 
to be of the race to which the Hebrews and Egyptians belong. 

The wall paintings of the tomb of Rekh-ma-ra at Thebes 
of the Eighteenth Dynasty have coloured portraits of the 
four great races distinguished by the Egyptians : (i) The 
red-brown Egyptians themselves ; (2) the people of Palestine, 
with their aquiline profile and brownish complexion; (3) the 
flat-nosed thick-lipped African negroes; (4) the fair-skinned 
Libyans. Mankind even then being divided into well-marked 
races, distinguished by colour and features, it is surprising 
how even now these old world types can still be recognised, 
so that ancient monuments, geography and history alike prove 
that the great race divisions of mankind are of no recent 
growth but fixed before the beginning of the historical period 
which is the modern period of man's life on earth, preceding 
it being the pre-historic period when the chief work of forming 
the races of mankind and spreading them over the earth was 
done. 

But these ancient monuments also show that 5,000 years 
ago the ancient nations of the East had already come to an 
advanced state of culture while no doubt the greater part of 
the world was then peopled by barbarians and savages as in 
later times. But in the regions of the Nile, Euphrates and 
Indus there was civilisation, the Ancient Egyptians having 
the greatest mark of a civilised nation — the art of writing — the 
hieroglyphical characters of their inscriptions being the origin 
of our alphabet. They were skilled in agriculture, raising 
from their fields (fertilised by the yearly inundation) the grain 
on which their dense population subsisted. How numerous 
and how skilled in constructive art the Ancient Egyptians were 
is seen by viewing the pyramids, the great Pyramid of Gizeh 
being still one of the wonders of the world. The perfection 
of its huge blocks and the beautiful masonry of the inner 
chambers and passages show the skill not only of the stone- 
cutter but of the practical geometer. The setting of the sides 
to the cardinal points is so exact as to prove they were excellent 
observers of the elementary facts of astronomy, the day of 
the equinox can be taken by observing the sunset across the 
face of the pyramid, and the neighbouring Arabs still adjust 
their astronomical dates by its shadow. Almost as far back 



70 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

as anything is known of the Egyptians they appear to have 
worked in copper and iron as well as gold and silver, so that 
their arts and habits, their sculpture and carpentry, their 
reckoning and measuring, their system of official life with its 
governors and scribes, their religion with its orders of priest- 
hood and its continual ceremonies all appear the result of long 
and gradual growth. 

Of the early Babylonians or Chaldeans less is known, yet 
their monuments and inscriptions show how ancient and how 
high was their civilisation. Their writing was in cuneiform 
or wedge-shaped characters, of which they seem to have been 
the inventors and which their successors, the Assyrians, learnt 
from them. They were great builders of cities, and the bricks 
inscribed with the names of their kings remain as records of 
their great temples. Written copies of their law exist so 
advanced as to deal with the property of married women and 
providing for the daily fine of a half measure of corn levied 
on the master who killed or ill-treated his slaves. Their 
astrology, which has made the names of Chaldea and Babylon 
famous ever since, led them to make those regular observations 
of the heavenly bodies which gave rise to the science of 
astronomy. It is to this race that we owe not only our 
division of time, but the invention of the sun-dial and the 
week of seven days dedicated in succession to the sun, the 
moon, and the five planets, an arrangement which is still 
maintained, the names of our days being merely translations 
of the Chaldean ones. 

The cultivation of the land was an imperative duty not 
only to man himself or to his master but to the State and 
religion, for it produced the revenue of the State and the 
wealth of the temples and provided their offerings. Thus 
there grew up in Babylon at a very early period — certainly 
before 2800 B.C. — a most elaborate and perfect fiscal or revenue 
control by which the wealth of the country could be estimated 
to the most minute extent. These returns were supplied by 
the temples, the temple being the treasury and revenue office 
of the district. But as a means to these returns an accurate 
survey and census of the country was necessary, and, aston- 
ishing as it may seem, this was perfected at a very early 
period, for by 2500 B.C. it was in a most finished condition. 
Not only were the estates carefully measured but the 



The Genesis of Geography 71 

boundaries were marked and recorded, so that it is not 
surprising that the land surveyor was an important official. 
The name he bore was Gan-gid-da, the field measurer, 
literally the man who measures with a cord. The interesting 
evidence of this inscription is confirmed by the discovery of 
a most interesting series of plans of estates, certainly the oldest 
examples in the world (3800 B.C.). Unfortunately, these 
tablets were much broken when discovered at Tello. 

But the monuments still remaining of Indian architecture 
considered with a view towards obtaining a knowledge of the 
people are not less important than those on the banks of the 
River Nile are for a similar purpose connected with the 
Egyptians. The natives of the Peninsula of India 
were not only more early civilised but had made 
greater progress in civilisation than any other people ; 
indeed, they were reckoned by the ancient heathen writers 
to be among those races of men called Autochthones, 
or aborigines, whom they considered natives of the soil whose 
origin could not be traced, and that the wisdom of the East 
mentioned by inspired writers is to be understood as descrip- 
tive of their extraordinary progress in science and arts. 

But wherever there are found elaborate arts, abstract 
knowledge, complex institutions, these are the results of 
gradual development from an earlier, simpler and ruder state 
of life, for no stage of civilisation comes into existence 
spontaneously, but is developed out of the stage before it. 
Human life may be divided into three stages : The lowest or 
savage state, when man subsists on wild plants and animals, 
neither tilling the soil nor domesticating creatures for his 
food, his implements being of wood, stone, and bone. Rising 
into the second or barbaric stage mankind takes to agriculture, 
settled village and town life is established with immense 
results in the improvement of arts, knowledge, manners, and 
customs. Emerging into the third stage, that of civilised 
life, the art of writing begins, which by recording history, 
law, knowledge and religion for the service of ages 
to come, binds together the past and the future in an unbroken 
chain of intellectual and moral progress. 

It is generally admitted by geologists that mankind 
appeared on the earth in the Tertiary period, when the distri- 
bution of land and sea and the climates of the earth were not 



72 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

as now, the peninsula of India not being connected with the 
mainland of continental Asia, all Central and Southern India 
being separated from the great walls and foothills of the 
Himalayan Mountains by a shallow sea represented at the 
present day by the basins of the Indus and Ganges, the Plains 
of India, and the Sunderbunds. iVU Central and Southern 
India was probably then joined to -Ceylon and spread east- 
wards across the Bay of Bengal to Burmah and the Malay 
Peninsula. Westwards Central and Southern India stretched 
across the Indian Ocean to Madagascar and East Africa, 
while Western Africa was united with Brazil, then perhaps 
separated by a narrow sea from the Andes of South America. 

It has been surmised that mankind came into existence 
somewhere in Southern Asia, either in India or Malaysia, 
or possibly in the land now submerged beneath the surface 
of the Bay of Bengal which united these regions. Later the 
Tablelands of Central Asia and the great range of the 
Himalayas underwent considerable elevation, and with them 
rose the land now represented by the Plains of India. In 
these regions the warmth and luxuriant vegetation favoured 
man's life with least need of civilised arts, and successive 
waves of population may have spread over cooler climates, 
the white race of the temperate zone being formed the last 
because it was least able to bear extreme heat or live without 
the appliances of culture although gifted with those powers 
of knowing and ruling which gave it the sway over the world. 

The primitive village must have been the parent of the 
oldest form of the later city, and was invariably built round 
a centre, the site of the original market place and temple, 
such as the Acropolis of Athens and the Capitol of Rome. In 
seeking for the centre round which the village was built 
unmistakable evidence is found as to the country whence it 
originated, for it is in India that the village of the aboriginal 
tribes is invariably arranged, so that the Sarna, or sacred 
grove (in which the trees of the primaeval forests are still left 
standing as the home of the local gods) is the central point 
of the village. Thus is explained the reverence for the tree, 
the parent tree of life of all the early races of India, the palm 
tree of the Babylonians, the sycamore or fig mulberry tree 
of Egypt, the fig tree of the Hebrews, the olive tree of Greece, 
the pine of the northern Finns (which has become the Christ- 



The Genesis of Geography 73 

mas tree of Germany), and the oak tree of Britain. It is the 
Sarna which also explains the sanctity of the groves attached 
to the temples and dedicated to the local gods of all countries 
of Southern Asia and Europe. 

Remains of villages of the Neolithic Age are found 
everywhere throughout Europe west of Greece, proving 
conclusively that the people living in them had reached a 
fairly advanced stage of civilisation, growing cereals, millets, 
and flax, owning sheep, cattle, and goats, besides cultivating 
fruit trees. There being no evidence whatever in the history 
of European village communities of any sudden break 
denoting a change in organisation, it is more than probable 
that these villages were all founded on the same system of 
communistic property in land, which is still the distinguishing 
land tenure in all countries of Asia and in Europ>e east of the 
Lippe and of Westphalia. Therefore it is certain that the 
dwellers in the pile villages in Switzerland and in North Italy 
held their lands on tenure similar to those found in the pile 
villages of the Naga and river races of Assam and Burmah. 
But wherever these are found so also is found the village 
religion based on tree worship, so that the first villages must 
have been founded and organised by a forest people — the 
Mongoloid dolichocephalic Australoid tribes of South-East 
Asia and South India. It could not possibly have originated 
in the treeless lands of Northern and Central Asia, the seats 
of the best known ancient empires, so that the rule of these 
must necessarily mark a later stage in human progress, for 
they owed their prosperity to maritime trade. They acknow- 
ledged this and the foreign origin of their gods by carrying 
them in ships called arks in all religious processions. Besides, 
it is perfectly impossible that the Indian forest aborigines 
could have learned how to organise their villages from the 
forest and hunting races of Europe, for until the capacities of 
India as a wealth-producing country had been developed by 
its own agriculturists there was nothing to tempt the northern 
races to leave their own lands and cross the mountains and 
deserts which intervened. Considering the fact that the 
Semitic races form a wedge between the white and yellow races, 
it is clear that the Indian village system was brought into 
Europe before the Semitic languages were formed and the 
people speaking them had become a dominant confederacy. 



74 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

It is also impossible that the exact identity between the 
village communities of India and Europe could ever have 
existed unless they had a common origin, so that the logical 
sequence is : Agriculture was first systematically practised in 
South Asia by a people which made the village, not the family, 
its national unit, it being a rule that the parents should 
never belong to the same village and the children should be 
brought up, without the intervention of the father, by their 
mothers and maternal uncles, being regarded solely as the 
children of the village in which they were born, ruled over 
by the mothers and maternal uncles. It was this system of 
government which they took with them into Europe, where 
they became the Amazonian races of Asia Minor and Greece, 
and thus the ancestors on the maternal side of the dolicho- 
cephalic Basques and the dark-skinned races who were the 
agriculturists of the later Stone (Neolithic) Age. 

But the cranial capacity of these Basques corresponds with 
that of the yellow race — the great gardening and farming 
race of Asia who migrated from the Xanthus or Yellow River, 
settling on the banks of the River Jumna, and thus becoming 
the first river valley colonisers, who introduced into agriculture 
the fruit trees found in the Neolithic villages, besides being 
the first growers of barley and the rearers of sheep. The 
intermarriage of the matriarchal races with these yellow- 
skinned agriculturists produced a maritime and agricultural 
people who must have developed in India the early system of 
navigation which they had probably first learned in the 
Equatorial Islands, for the distinction in nautical efficiency 
was attained in the great island world of the Pacific Ocean 
and in the neighbouring lands of India long before the spread 
of Mediterranean civilisation. Saihng vessels and out-rigger 
boats of native design and construction characterise the whole 
sea-washed area of Indo-Malaysian civilisation from Malacca 
to the outermost isles of the Pacific. 

And so it was these people who, like the Stone men of 
Europe, made use of the timber growing in the inland forests 
on the river banks and on the hills of the Malabar coast to 
build boats and vessels in which they could navigate the river 
reaches and make their way along the coast discovering the 
great commercial advantages possessed by the valleys of the 
Tapto and Nerbudda, making at the mouths of these rivers the 



The Genesis of Geography 75 

settlements which grew into the great exporting habours of 
Surparaka (Surat) and Baragyza (Broach), and it was from 
the extreme western point of the Indian Peninsula that they 
started on the coasting voyages which led them along the 
shore of the bay which has since that time become the delta 
of the Indus, and it was from Patala, the modern Hyderabad, 
the port which they founded on the Indus, that they made 
a fresh starting point for their voyages, which ultimately led 
them to the Persian Gulf and the Euphratean countries, where 
they founded the worship of the earth tree goddess. But as 
Patala (Hyderabad) is now 115 miles from the sea the days 
when it stood on the shore must be many thousand years ago 
(for allowing the rate of alluvial increase at 66 feet yearly these 
115 miles must have taken more than 9,000 years to accu- 
mulate). 

Thus the union of this eastern round-headed yellow race 
with the long-headed agriculturists of the Indian forest tribes 
formed the great trading race, the Sumerians, the primitive 
rulers of the Euphratean Delta. It does not follow, however, 
that a people once settled never stirred from its adopted 
country; emigrants there always were and always will be, and 
navigable rivers are nature-made paths into wholly new 
countries, so that it can obviously be assumed that it was by 
way of the Euphrates Valley that the Indian village system 
found its way into Europe, and the custom arose of property 
descending in the female line among the Cretans, lonians, 
Athenians, Etruscans, Egyptians, and many other Asiatic 
peoples. 

The route by which these brachycephalic races entered 
Europe is shown by the prevalence of the brachycephalic type 
of skull among the Slavs and the Rumanians, and their wide 
diffusion is proved by the predominance of the brachycephalic 
type of round graves throughout the Bronze Age in Europe 
and by the legends universally prevalent which connect the 
knowledge of metals with a race of dwarfs who became the 
elves of the popular fairy tales. But it was in Asia Minor 
that they intermarried with the fire worshippers of Phrygia, 
the discoverers of mining, metallurgy, handicrafts, the 
pioneers of scientific research, and the first organisers of a 
ritual of religious festivals held at fixed periods of the year. 
They were the great builders of the Stone Age, and descending 



76 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

into the Euphratean Valleys built the cities of Eridu and 
also the dykes and dams necessary for irrigation. 

It was this union which broke up the national organisation 
of the matriarchal tribes, especially the rule of the mothers and 
maternal uncles, instituting personal marriages with the father 
the head of the household, the family the unit of the race, and 
the mountain its centre, their offspring being the Iberian race, 
the founder of the Hebrew race. They built the huts with 
the pole in the centre, and their remains found in places so 
v^idely separated from each other as the caves of Wales and 
Yorkshire and the Neolithic villages of Switzerland and Italy 
prove that they kept horses, short-horned oxen, horned sheep, 
goats, and pigs, and grew wheat, barley, millets, peas, flax, 
fruit trees and vines from stocks which must first have been 
grown in Southern Europe. They were the first spinners, 
weavers and makers of pottery, introducing corn into Europe, 
and represented in British ethnology by the Silurian tribes, 
the Silures of South Wales; the proof in support of this 
evidence being the traces found of the old terraced civilisation 
that marked the husbandry of the early Iberian races. It is 
at this period of the world's history that the earliest writing is 
found. 

Some slight idea of the mode of life in that prirriitive age 
may be gained from the earliest writing on granite, for as man 
is alone a tool-making animal and thereby .elevates himself 
above the brute creation, so also he possesses another faculty 
which distinguishes him from even the highest forms of 
animal life, for whatever arguments may be advanced for the 
descent of man from the ape family there is one great barrier 
as yet unbroken, the fact that man is the only animal that can 
draw or be taught to draw, the genesis of the literary and 
pictorial arts. 

Migrating further north the Iberians allied with the 
shepherd races of the Caucasus, whose home was on the 
Central Plain of Cappadocia, the north part of the Euphrates 
Valley and the valleys of the rivers that flow from it, the 
nursery of civilised man, where the southern matriarchal races 
amalgamated and formed the first confederacy. But the 
evidence proving the order in which this series of primaeval 
historical changes succeeded one another proves also that they 
were produced by the alliance of originally alien tribes. This 



The Genesis of Geography 77 

conclusion is confirmed by the cerebral differences and marks 
of fusion shown by the skulls and skeletons found in the 
tombs of the Neolithic and Bronze Ages and also by the 
evidence of linguistic changes. The mythology of the Fish 
God throws a remarkable light on the enterprise and migra- 
tions of this first great race, for just as in geological strata the 
fossils and the order of superposition tell of the ancient 
climates and order of succession of the living races inhabiting 
the globe, so in language and myths is found proof of the 
formation of successive strata of human thought. 

This myth is not confined to Asia and Europe, to the 
Scandinavians and Finns, but is also found in North America 
and Mexico. The North American Indians say that they 
were brought from North Asia by a man fish, and it is 
impossible to doubt that people migrated from there, some 
of them passing through China and Japan and some perhaps 
by direct voyages, because of the coincidences between Hindu, 
Chinese, Japanese and American mythology. The practical 
contact of East and West at the northern extremity of the 
two continents would render the crossing, if there were one 
in ancient times, a comparatively easy matter for even 
primitive navigation. To this day there is a constant inter- 
communication between the natives of North-East Siberia and 
the Indians on the Northern Pacific coast of America. 
Moreover, the distinctly Mongolian character of the American 
Indians is noticeable, the Asiatic type becoming perceptibly 
more marked in a northerly direction ; the natives of Peru 
even wear the discarded pigtail. More curious still is the 
strange sympathy which appears to exist between these natives 
and the Chinese and Japanese immigrants, so unwelcome 
elsewhere, which suggests some latent racial affinity. As 
regards the ancient Mexican and Peruvian civilisations, strong 
resemblances exist in their customs and relics with those 
of China, striking similarities being found in the patterns 
used for decoration, and in Tharapace, between Peru and 
Chili, there are even huge vertical lines of hieroglyphics like 
Chinese writing. The agricultural basis of society in early 
Peru had its counterpart in China. Most important is the 
presence of the cotton plant in America, for it is indigenous 
to India and was first used for weaving purposes in India 
and China, whence it was brought to America by the immi- 



78 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

grating race and after the establishment of maritime commerce 
in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

This fish myth could only have emanated from 
maritime people accustomed to long voyages, which 
led them to believe that the whole earth was bounded 
by the sea, and in an age when the traders were the 
ruling class, the dominant interest maritime commerce 
between India, China, and the islands of the Malay Archi- 
pelago on one side, and Syria, Egypt, and North Africa on 
the other, with its centre in the Persian Gulf. It could only 
have been in an age of universal peace, and the ancient 
inscriptions at Lugash, written in the oldest Akkadian form 
of cuneiform script, give lists of the imports into the 
Euphratean Delta, timber and stones forming the most im- 
portant part of the ships' cargoes. The countries where 
goods were received were Magana, the Sinaitic Peninsula, 
Southern Arabia, Dilmun, the modern Bahrein Islands. 
Those from the west, which must have come by sea from the 
Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Sinaitic Peninsula, were cedar 
trees and stone used for the building of temples. Imports 
from the north were copper and tin, showing that they belong 
to the Bronze Age, and they must have come down the 
Euphrates from the slopes of the Caucasus in Georgia, for it 
is only there and on the northern slopes of the Himalayas 
that tin had yet been worked. It was these people passing 
through Asia Minor and Greece who founded the Druid 
Religion in Britain. They were known as the Cymri, who 
succeeded the Gaelic Celts, and were the builders of Stone- 
henge. The whole series of the incidents of the life and rule 
of Arthur, who was, according to one myth, cast up as a 
baby by the sea waves, and who is thus identified with the 
fish-god, are shown by the retirement of his Queen Guinevere 
to Almesbury on the death of Arthur to belong to the sacred 
series of stories of the Stonehenge temple, as Almesbury is 
only a mile and a half from Stonehenge. 

With the advent of the Semitics a great expansion took 
place, for they were born traders and certainly brought an 
industry with them, for the triumph of the weaver's art 
originated among pastoral people who, having copied it from 
the building of a bird's nest, developed it in working up the 
wool and hair of their sheep, goats, and camels. They spread 
the culture and civilisation of their adopted country as well as 



The Genesis of Geography 79 

the cuneiform writing until by the Fifteenth Century before 
Christ it had become the script of trade and diplomacy of 
Western Asia — indeed, the preservation and expansion of 
Babylonian learning was entirely the work of the Semitic race. 

For commerce is in itself an historical movement under- 
lying colonisation, causing and stimulating great movements 
of peoples, traversing the land to reach its destination, but 
taking account of physical features only as they affect 
transportation, dealing with systems of routes, surmounting 
natural barriers which block the advance of other forms of 
historical movement; every staple place and trading station 
becoming a centre of geographical information and giving 
an impulse to expansion by widening the geographical 
horizon. 

It is especially interesting to the student of civilisation to 
notice that the travelling merchant had in early times another 
business hardly less important than conveying ivory and 
incense and fine linen from where they were plentiful to 
where they were scarce. He was the bringer of foreign 
knowledge and the explorer of distant regions in days when 
nations were more enclosed within their own borders or w'ent 
across them only as enemies to ravage and destroy. The 
traders were doing much to turn the everlasting jealousy and 
strife into peaceful and profitable intercourse. From being 
emigrants and traders, the Semitics, by taking under their 
protection the whole maritime and land traffic of South- West 
Asia, became rulers of the countries of the Indian Ocean and 
Mediterranean Sea, the original immigrants receding into 
the background, while the cities, which were all stages along 
the trade routes and rivers which traversed the country and 
were the motive powers which formed these kingdoms, became 
the centres from which the country was governed. In India 
the trading cities of Multan or Mallitana, ruhng the commerce 
of the Indus and the five rivers of the Punjaub, Kashi or 
Benares on the Jumna, Barragzya, Broach, Surat, and 
Dwaraka (Hyderabad), were all situated on the trade 
routes of the west, but none of them, excepting Benares, 
ever attained the commanding position held by Babylon and 
Nineveh in Babylonia and Assyria. The greatness of both 
these last two cities was built on trade, their position making 
them successively the emporium of the East and the West, 



8o Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

and their common fate was to be conquered. The commerce 
of these early kingdoms was chiefly carried on overland by 
caravans, the only means adapted to the wide open plains, 
the insecure state of society, and the various difficulties and 
dangers which attended the lengthened journeys across the 
Continent. The merchants engaged in the trade of these 
parts met at certain points for the interchange of their wares, 
and thus the goods changed hands several times before 
reaching their destination. 

It could not be by accident that commerce was born on the 
great river systems, for they are systems of communication 
and forerunners of roads, always tending to be centres of 
population. Offering advantages, they have always attracted 
settlement, fertile alluvial soil, an adjacent water supply, 
command of a natural highway for intercourse with neigh- 
bours, and access to markets. Babylon, founded by the 
Nimrod of Scripture, covered a great space on both sides of 
the Euphrates, and it owed its prosperity to its excellent 
position as a caravanserai, being placed in the highway of the 
primitive land trade east and west. Food produce in abun- 
dance at scarcely any cost of labour was ready for traders in 
exchange for Chinese silks, Indian gems, and spices, 
Bactrian gold and gold dust, and Western silver and wine. 

At home textile manufactures of wool, linen and cotton 
were carried to great perfection. Sidonese, as some remark- 
ably fine and beautifully dyed cotton fabrics were called, were 
so costly as to be restricted to royal use. Brilliant tapestries, 
upon which the zoology of India was embroidered, were 
coveted by princes for the choicest hangings of their palaces 
and harems, and it was from them that the West received its 
first notions of Indian natural history. Carpets with a pile 
and coverlets from Babylonian looms were treasures more 
precious than gold. Borsippa is mentioned as famous for the 
finest linefi and cotton fabrics, but manufactures generally 
were carried on inside the capital. The production of valuable 
articles of luxury also employed the Babylonians, as their 
parching climate rendered the use of cooling perfumed waters 
universal. They were expert in the art of engraving stones 
for seals, and they cut the gems of India for signet rings and 
jewellery, the curious fashion prevailing of carrying a walking 
stick of fine wood elaborately carved with devices of fruit or 



The Genesis of Geography 8i 

flowers, serving instead of costly jewels to indicate rank and 
fashion. At Tylos, one of the Bahrein Islands, superior 
cotton was cultivated; teak oak was felled, and handsome 
sticks streaked and spotted like the skins of the tiger and 
leopard were cut; the banks produced pearls superior in 
hardness and beauty to those of Ceylon. Muscat and Ormuz 
shared in this commerce. Between these cities and India an 
active commerce sprang up. The Golden City itself stood on 
both banks of the Euphrates near the modern Hillah. Its 
site was enormous, and it had two walls, and at the lowest 
computation had an area of loo square miles. The height 
of the walls was no less remarkable, being 337^ feet, nearly 
the height of the dome of St. Paul's, and their thickness was 
85 feet. The city was entered by a hundred gates of brass 
and protected by 250 towers, and it has been computed that 
more bricks were used in the walls and towers of Babylon 
than in the Great Wall of China, 1,200 miles long. Bricks, 
burnt and unburnt, and cemented with bitumen, of which 
springs are still in activity, formed the building material. 

The laws of Babylon, especially the code of Khammurabi, 
are the oldest in the world, being at least a thousand years 
before the Mosaic, and became the law of Western Asia 
generally. In the commercial laws the greatest exactitude 
was required with regard to transactions, accounts must be 
carefully kept and vouchers or sealed receipts taken for every- 
thing. The dangerous state of the highways which the traders 
had to traverse is shown by the clauses relating to loss by 
robbery, while the regulations for shipping are such as would 
be expected from a people who had a large carrying trade over 
the rivers and canals of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley. 

The Hebrews found these laws in force when they entered 
Canaan as well as the civilisation, and doubtless they adopted 
them, as their earliest codes are those of a settled people. 
The connection between the Israelites and Babylonians became 
still greater through Phoenician influence in the reign of 
Solomon, the merchant prince, whose passion for building, 
and the scale on which he indulged it, remind one of the 
Babylonian monarchs. The nation, however, reached the 
climax of its greatness in his reign, for nothing is more 
remarkable in the history of this people than the immense 
and sudden development of a widely extended commerce which 



Sz Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

kindled the imagination of the people, but which brought them 
so few real advantages and vanished almost as soon as it had 
been established. 

Yet though this special traffic vanished, being almost ex- 
clusively connected with luxuries and the court, it gave the 
earliest strong impulse to those commercial tendencies which 
totally altered the national characteristics and changed the 
people from an agricultural into a mercantile race. The 
Phoenicians and Babylonians became their models, and 
Jerusalem being situated centrally with regard to these king- 
doms it speedily became a noted emporium of trade. But it is 
certain that had it not been for their noted habitual industry, 
perseverance, adroitness and knowledge of business which the 
nation possessed they would never have been carried into 
captivity, for neither Assyria nor Babylon required husband- 
men, although they evidently required merchants, men of 
science, of letters, and artisans, because they employed some of 
the captives in such positions of trust and command. But 
last, and most important of all, they required the Royal Road 
— the most important caravan route in the ancient world and 
the most important geographically and historically in the 
modern world ; the possessor of it had the key to the East 
and West, a not unimportant matter. What cycles of 
civilisation has it not survived — the Israelites treading the 
weary path to captivity, the Assyrians and Babylonians con- 
tending for supremacy, until the whole of the Semitic race is 
overcome by the Aryans, better known as the Medes and 
Persians. 

What a fascination the Royal Road had for the Greeks, 
who invented the science of geography ; the earliest description 
of the world in classical literature is in the poems of Homer. 
In fact, the expeditions to the East were as important to them 
as the exploration of Central Africa to the British in the 
Ninteenth Century. 

In the light of Babylonian learning the views of their 
philosophers concerning the earth were revised. It was not 
a planet but a fixed central body, around which the celestial 
bodies revolved. Heaven was a large sphere, being compared 
to the shell of an egg, while the yolk represented the earth 
enclosed in it. Thales supposed the earth to float as a cork 
in water. Anaximander believed it to be of cylindrical form 



The Genesis of Geography 83 

suspended in mid-air, and surrounded by water, air, and fire, 
while Xenophanes supposed it to be firmly rooted in space. 
Whether there were more worlds than one, and how and when 
they would be destroyed, were questions discussed quite as 
frequently in ancient as in modern times. The true view of 
the spherical form of the earth originated with Pythagoras, 
although its exact form was not known. 

It is a well-known fact that war is one of the chief means 
of promoting geographical knowledge, and the Persian wars 
gave a prodigious stimulus to the knowledge of the Greeks. 
For one thing, they were impressed by the excellence of the 
Persian roads, and as a consequence they adopted the boun- 
dary marks of the Babylonians — the originals of our present 
mile-stones. 

The conquests of Alexander the Great, who trod the Royal 
Road to Mesopotamia, were purely geographical, his victories 
depending solely on the overcoming of climatic differences and 
geographical distance. It is related of him that on his 
death-bed he caused his admiral, Nearchus, to sit by his side 
and console him by narrating his adventures when sailing 
from the Indus to the Persian Gulf. The Conqueror had 
viewed with astonishment the ebbing and flowing of the tides; 
ships had been built for the exploration of the Caspian Sea, 
for it was thought that like the Black Sea it might be part 
of a great ocean such as Nearchus had discovered the Persian 
Gulf and Red Sea to be. 

His greatest work was accomplishing the union of the East 
and the West, and originating the most important era in geo- 
graphy by the introduction of maps, the first actual record of a 
map occurring at this time when Aristagoras, tyrant of Miletus, 
asked aid of Cleomenes, King of Sparta, against Persia, 
communicating his ideas by means of a map engraven on a 
tablet of brass or copper, upon which was inscribed every 
known part of the habitable world, the seas, and the rivers, 
and to this he pointed as he spoke of the several countries 
between the Ionian Sea and Susa. Practically it was a map 
of the Royal Road. 

But the most remarkable result of the Persian wars was 
that it accustomed men's minds to travelling, hitherto regarded 
as material for lies. The Platonic laws forbade it until the 
age of 40 or 50 years, that men's travels might be more useful 



S4 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

and instructive to them at so mature an age. Yet there were 
exceptions. Herodotus was widely travelled and understood 
the importance of a knowledge of the geography of a country 
and its bearings on the history of its people. He considered 
the whole of the earth then known as one single continent, 
regarding Europe, Asia and Africa as nothing more than 
divisions of it. He could not believe that the earth was of 
globular form, thinking it ridiculous to hear men talk of the 
circumference of the earth, pretending without the smallest 
reason or probability that the ocean encompasses the earth, 
that it is round as if mechanically formed, and that Asia is 
equal to Europe. Diogenes, Zeno and Aristotle were also 
great travellers, but the majority of people hardly looked 
beyond their own country, unlike an educated Roman, who 
loved travel, and thus there was a greater knowledge of the 
world in the Roman period than in the mediaeval. Looking 
for Great Britain on the early Ptolemy maps on the extremity 
of the Roman Empire, but for the fact that the cartographer 
lost his sense of direction somehow when he crossed the 
Scottish border, not realising he was going straight on, but 
thinking he had turned to the right, the map is extremely 
accurate, unlike the mediaeval maps that were perfectly useless 
for people finding their way about the world ; and yet it was not 
that people were not travelling. A great many more travelled 
over Europe in the Middle Ages than in the period of the 
Roman Empire, knowing more about Central Europe than 
Ptolemy did. Yet they produced maps that have no relation 
to facts. The only explanation is that in those ages the 
traveller merely thought about his next night's lodging, 
passing from one monastery to another and not troubling 
himself about the relations of one part of the country to 
another, whereas the Roman geographer thought of the world 
as a whole, he thought of it imperially, knowing Britain or 
Spain as a country and one with which his Empire had to 
deal, thus troubling himself to get acquainted with the general 
shape of it, so that from him we get maps which have some 
relation to facts. 

Cosmas was a native of Alexandria and a traveller in the 
Red Sea and the ocean beyond, who, thus fortified in geo- 
graphical study, became a monk and wrote his "Christian 
Topography" about the middle of the Sixth Century in 



The Genesis of Geography 85 

opposition to the pre-Christian theories. Under his pen the 
inhabited earth became a flat rectangular oblong, surrounded 
by oceans. At the north is a conical mountain round which 
the sun — which is 40 miles in diameter — revolves, passing 
about the summit in slimmer, so that it is hidden from the 
earth for a shorter time daily than in the winter, when it 
passes about the base. 

Under the Rorq^n Empire the excellent roads, the fair 
inns, and the organised system of posting for officials made 
travelling quite as safe and almost as rapid as it was at any 
time till within the last 50 years. All the cities of the Empire 
were thus connected wth each other and the capital. 

History is said to be a solution of problems. Humanity 
wonders at the decay of the ancient empires and questions 
whether our own will last. The answer is that the history of 
mankind is subject to laws, the same causes produce the same 
results, tyranny produces revolution, and revolution anarchy, 
and anarchy tyranny all the world over. The rise of one 
class is followed by the fall of another ; the privileges of the 
people extend as the necessities of the monarch multiply. The 
seeds sown by' one generation are reaped by future ones. 
Civilisation dependent upon the bounty of the earth cannot 
be as lasting as that depending upon the energy of man. The 
ancient empires of Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, Mexico and 
Peru were founded on the fertility of the soil; in European 
civilisation climate has been the most powerful influence and 
has caused the more successful labour. 

Hence it is in the march of progress that priority is un- 
questionably due to the most fertile parts of Asia and Africa. 
But although their civilisation is the earliest it was very far 
indeed from being the best or most permanent, because the 
only progress which is really effective depends not upon the 
bounty of the earth but upon the energy of man. Thus it is 
that the civilisation of Europe has shown a capacity of devel- 
opment unknown to those originated by soil. For the powers 
of nature are limited and stationary ; the powers of mankind, 
as far as experience and analogy are a guide, are unlimited. 

All the ancient empires were situated in hot climates where 
food was cheap and consequently wages were low, therefore 
the condition of the labouring classes was depressed— the 
upper classes being very rich and the labouring classes very 



86 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

f>oor, nay, miserably so, those by whose labour the wealth 
was created receiving the smallest possible share of it, pinched 
by the most galling poverty, remaining in a state of stupid 
debasement, broken by incessant misfortunes, crouching 
before their superiors in abject submission, and only fit to be 
slaves themselves or to be led to battle to make slaves of 
others. There is no instance on record of the corhmon people 
having escaped this fate in any tropic^ country in which 
wealth has been extensively accumulated. Among nations 
subjected to these conditions the people have counted for 
nothing, having no voice in the management of the State, no 
control over the wealth their own industry created ; their only 
business has been to labour, their only duty to obey, and 
thus has been generated among them those habits of tame and 
servile submission by which, as history tells us, they have 
always been characterised. Their annals furnish no instance 
of their having rebelled against their rulers, no war of classes, 
no popular insurrections, not even one popular conspiracy. 
There certainly have been many changes, but all from above 
and not, from below. 

The Egyptians had an ancient proverb. " Man has a back 
and only obeys when it is beaten." It certainly was the 
application of it that built the pyramids, dug out canals, and 
erected temples. The mere appearance of those huge and 
costly structures, so. stupendous and yet so useless, is a proof 
of the state of the nation that built them, for to raise them 
there must have been tyranny on the part of the rulers and 
slavery on the p)art of the people. Np wealth, however great, 
no expenditure, however lavish, could possibly have met the 
expense which would have been incurred if the workers had 
received for their labour a fair and honest reward. But social 
conditions were disregarded. If a member of the industrial 
classes changed his employment or was known to pay attention 
to political matters he was severely punished, and under no 
conditions was the possession of land allowed to an agricul- 
tural labourer, to a mechanic, or indeed to anyone except the 
king, the clergy, and the army. The reckless prodigality 
with which the upper classes squandered away the lives and 
the labour of the people is appalling. 

Whatever happens to nations their names survive the 
catastrophes which overwhelmed them, for names are like the 



The Genesis of Geography 87 

heather on the hills and the wild flowers of the wilderness ; 
wars may trample them down but they cannot be extirpated. 
The rivers, too, still murmur the names of the people who 
dwelt on their banks, and foremost among them are those of 
the ancient empires, teaching us out of the wisdom of ages 
that though there be no royal road to learning there is one to 
national prosperity, for they founded their greatness on the 
geographical instinct of the East. 



88 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
SOCIETY, 1914. 

The 29th Annual Meeting of the Society was held, by kind 
permission, in the Lord Mayor's Parlour, Town Hall, Man- 
chester, on Friday, May 8th, 1914, at 3.30 p.m. 

Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S., President of the Society, 
presided. 

The following members and friends attended : — Mr. F. 
Zimmern, F.R.G.S., the Rt. Rev. Bishop Welldon, D.D., 
Miss Law, Mrs. Potts, Colonel H. T. Crook, D.L., V.D., 
Messrs. A. Chapman (Eccles Co-operative Society), B. Elliott, 
J. J. Gleave, J. W. Goodwin, Theodore Gregory, J.P., F.C.A., 
Wm. Harper, W. B. Leech, D. A. Little, J. W. O'Leary, T. 
W. F. Parkinson, M.Sc, F.G.S., J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S., 
Harry Sowerbutts, A.R.C.Sc, T. W. Sowerbutts, F.S.A.A., 
W. J. Tyne, Joel Wainwright, J.P., A. Walker, S. W. 
Williams, L. Young, and others. 

Apologies were read from : — Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, 
J.P., F.R.S., Messrs. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G,S„ and Hans 
Renold. 

The Minutes of the Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting, held 
on May 6th, 1913, were taken as read, a full Report appearing 
in the Journal, Vol. xxix, page 57. 

The following Annual Report was submitted by the 
Secretary, who made explanatory references to the principal 
matters dealt with in the Report. 

Mr. D. A. Little, Honorary Treasurer, in submitting the 
financial statement, which follows the Report, mentioned that 
the amount of arrears was only thirteen guineas, whereas ten 
years ago it was ;^54 19s., and going still further back to 
1894, £^13 5s- Thus it would be seen that the financial 
interests of the Society were receiving close attention. The 
arrears were now less than 2\ per cent, of the income from 
subscriptions and were, he believed, the lowest on record. 

Mr. Little concluded by reading the following letter which 
had just been received: — 

6 May, 1914. 

Dear Mr. Sowerbutts. 

I am sorry that, after all these years, we have not 

more support from a large city like ours (more or less in 



Annual Meeting 89 

touch with the whole world). We must continue to live in 
hopes. 

Herewith I have the pleasure to hand over to the Man- 
chester Geographical Society the ten shares (par value 
;^ioo) which I hold in the Building Company. Every little 
helps. 

I am, 
Yours sincerely, 

(Signed) George Thomas. 

EEPOET OF THE COUNCIL 

roR THE Year ending December 31st, 1913. 
The Council liave the pleasure to report that the work of the 
Society has been carried on successfully during the year. 

The weekly meetings held during the winter months have 
been more largely attended than in any previous year, and the 
Council desire to express their thanks to all those who have given 
valuable help. 

The interesting and instructive character of the lectures 
delivered will be seen from the following list : — 

" Old Castles of England and Wales." Mr J. E. Phythian. 

" Studies in the Commercial Geography of Lancashire." Dr. A. 

Wilmore, F.G.S. 
" Geography of East Yorkshire." Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S. 
"Liibeck." Mr. W. Eller. 

" The Rhine, from Basel to the vSea." Mr. J. A. Osbom. 
** The Swiss Rhine, a scientific study of Scenery." Mr. J. A. 

Osbom. 
" Budapest and the Great Hungarian Plain." Mr. W. H. 

Shrubsole, F.G.S. 
" Among the Carpathians." Mr. W. H. Shrubsole, F.G.S. 
" Highways and Byways in Dalmatia, Hercegovina, Bosnia, and 

Servia." Mr. G. Waterhouse, F.R.G.S. 
" Journey in the Balkans and Turkey." Mr. C. H. Bellamy, 

F.R.G.S. 
** Japan, its beauties in Nature and Art." Mr. J. Hilditch, 

M.R.A.S. 
" Visit to the Holy Land and Northern Egypt." Mr. T. W. 

Brownell. 
" The Gambia River and Protectorate." Rev. T. F. Nicholas, 

M.A. 
" Life in San Salvador do Congo." Dr. M. Gamble. 
" Dr. Livingstone's Explorations." vSir Harry H. Johnston, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.G.S. 



go Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

"Rhodesia." ^Mr. G. de H. Larpent. 

•* East Africa." Mr. John Ainsworth, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 

'* Climbing in the Canadian Rockies." Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S. 

" Visit to New Zealand." Mrs. Lees, F.R.G.S. 

" Native Life and Customs in Southern Seas." Mr. Oliver 

Bainbridge. 
** Spitsbergen : Past and Present." Dr. W. S. Bruce. 
" Lost in the Polar Regions." Captain K. Mikkelsen. 
** Romance of the North- West Passage." Mr. G. H. Warren. 
" Captain Scott's Antarctic Expedition." Commander E. R. G. 

Evans, R.N., C.B. 
" Glaciers." Mr. J. A. Carter, B.A. 
" Education." Sir Harry H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 

F.R.G.S. 

These addresses, with the exception of four, were delivered in 
our own Hall; two being given in the Houldsworth Hall, one in 
the Albert Hall, and one in the Free Trade Hall. 

The lecture given in the Free Trade Hall on October 31st 
by Commander Evans was very successful, and the Council are 
pleased that this representative of the British Antarctic Expedi- 
tion had such a magnificent reception when he described the 
work done, with special reference to the journey of Captain 
Scott and his companions to the South Pole and their sad fate 
on the return journey. 

The Council thank the Yice-Chairman, Mr. E. W. Mellor, 
J. P., F.E.Gr.S., for the use of his powerful electric lantern for 
the lectures in the Houldsworth Hall and the Free Trade Hall. 
His valuable help is highly appreciated. 

The Centenary of the birth of Dr. David Livingstone has been 
celebrated during the year by two gatherings, at both of which 
Sir Harry H. Johnston took a prominent part. At the first, 
held in the Albert Hall, he delivered a lecture on " Dr. David 
Livingstone's Explorations and their Results " ; at the second, a 
Banquet held in the Midland Hotel, Sir Harry Johnston was 
the principal guest, and gave an address on " Education." The 
Banquet was a largely attended and successful gathering. 

The Journal for the whole of 1912 has been issued during the 
year in half-yearly parts. 

Valuable additions to the Library and Map Collection have 
been made during the year, full particulars of which are given 
in the Journal. 

The services so freely given by the Victorians in lecturing 
and in acting as Stewards at the Free Trade Hall and other 
meetings are greatly esteemed. 



Annual Meeting 91 

The loss by death of the members, whose names follow, is 
greatly deplored : — 

Mrs. Laycock. 

Mrs. Oram. 

Mr. F. Burton, J.P. 

Mr. J. Donnell, J.P. 

Mr. G. A. Harrop. 

Mr. W. Haworth, J.P. 

Mr. Alderman W. Healey, J.P. 

Mr. J. Lanyon, J.P. 

Mr. J. Tetlow Lewis,* J.P. 

Mr. S. Oppenheim, J.P. 

Mr. E. H. Eeynolds. 

Mr. C. H. Scott, J.P. 

Mr. Ph. Segner. 

Mr. I. C. Waterhouse. 

Mr. E. H. Watt. 
Mr. S. Oppenheim was a Vice-president, member of the 
Executive Committee, and had previously for many years acted 
as Honorary Treasurer. Messrs. F. Burton, Wm. Healey, 
S. Oppenheim, and I. C. Waterhouse were Original members of 
the Society. 

The balance Sheet for the year with the Eeport of the 
Honorary Auditor is appended. 

It will be seen that there is a small deficiency on the Eevenue 
Account for the year. 

The financial position of the Society has been improved 
partly by the generosity of the late Mr. S. Oppenheim in 
bequeathing ten shares (£10 each) in the Building Company to 
the Society, and also by the kind help of the seven members 
who paid Life Compositions and thus enabled the Society to 
acquire the 25 shares of the late Mr. C. H. Scott. 

In consequence of part of the Building being unlet the 
Society has received no dividend from these shares during the 
year. 

The number of members on December 31, 1913, was 708, 
being a net increase of 20 during the year. 

Further additions to the membership are urgently needed to 
advance the work of the Society, and especially to enable the 
library and map collection to be improved. Card Index Cases, 
Map drawers and cupboards, and Glass Exhibition Cases for the 
Museum are especially required. Donations for these objects 
will be cordially welcomed. 





CO 

H 




ON 




H 


H 


1^ 


^ 


CO 


O 


^ 


o 


^ 


u 


cq 


u 


^ 


< 


[^ 




U 


w 


q 


D 








> 


q 


w 


'< 


A^ 


^ 



u 



s? 



ON 

vo 

lO 



t 


'^ 


o 


"O 


i 


lO 


00 


M 




CI 


o 


M 



I i 

o ■*■> 

U U 

«5 0) O 



O CT O 



"^f ^ o 

O lO M 
LO 



be 



CO 






^ 



o < 



<^ in 

(U >— I 



CO 



S si § 



CI 

ON « 



Q> >s <^ 
VO <to Qj 
>S >S U5 



to 



0? H vo O vo 

vo lo ot o "^ 



O to CM O 00 

VO ON lO M (NT 



bO 



w ^ «3 



^^ 



;=! OS 



Oh 

ci 'd '-^ 
2^ to •o 



u 

to r-J '"' 

to 'Ti r-T 

CO ^ 



bo 



P4 CO 



to 
<u 
to 

Ph to 

pa ^ 

CO "^ 

^1 

cj to 
to 

^ a 



ot ^ o 

CI NO 00 

H H 

00 00 VO 



to : 

.2 b 

;i r 
CO ^ 

o ^ 

y cJ '-< 
■^ nd i-» 

■Hfa 

« to -ti 
_o O f^ 

W P^ 



vo 



to 



00 «o o ^=^ '50 



i>. U5 <2, t^ "to 

»N ^S >-l 

r-S "to C) 00 00 

OS U5 >-| >s 

>S >-l >S 



C^ OS 
00 Q« 



s? 



o o 



H CO 



o 



o o 

lO o 



H O 
ON lO 
M CO 



CO 

On 



W 

pq 

w 

Q 



H 

w 

CO 



M _y 

^ CO 

go 

CO 






a m 



"^ o 
t^ 00 



LO CO 






.t^ a a 






t^ vo O O 



■^ CT O O 



lO LO ON o 

S? ON LO 00 LO 



o 
to 



vO O 


00 


o 


LO CO 


NO 
M 


o 


M O 

00 


s 


8 



2 cts 
o J^ 

2^ .2 



CO CO 
o ^ 



(D OJ 
y) rj 

o 

Ph13 

■^4 w 



ON ro 

ON 



p. 
p. 
O 



CO U 


• ^ 


^ 


CO rt 






is 


S 5=1 




«l 


ca o 


^ '^ 


•"^ 


c3 


-<-> 


tfi 


<i^ ^ 


o 1^ 


6 1 


fl h4 


IS PQ 


c3 


Id 


•X3 " 


PQ 


<1 



^ <y 




^ 




K 


o ''^ 

"^1 




03 






cd 




(U 






;-l 




^ 




?%■ 


o - 




-*-> 


•^ 


p 


ll 









1 


.B^ 




1 


> 








'■S 


o 








s 


o 




3§ 

JrE3 




6 


o 






O 


p^ 




S ^ 




P- 


o 




- O^ 




•S 


O 




'e5 




QJ 


w 




S 52 


99 


> 


ffi 




^ ^ 
^ ^ 


a 

M 


OS 

,13 


H 




^S 


o 


l-H 






<*- <u 


-M 








o^ 


.2 


•^-i 

O 






1^ 

CO ^ 


P. 


o 
(J 






«r LO 


rt 


<u 






^ 


3 






.'2 ?^ 


.2 






^ Vh 










CO rt 


<u 


s 

o3 
to 






s ^ 


;3 






c 5i 


OJ 








■^ '^ 


> 


(U 






r 


03 


a 

>> 






^ 'M 


<a 


•in 








u 


'■E 








<u 


9^ 






^ 


o 






rt 


Tj 






8 ^ 


1 


cd 






--5 


> 


CO 

QJ 






2^ 




rt 








X5 


'cs 






j^ .s 


a 


PQ 






^ 


^ 


(U 






OJ rr. 


c 
tfi 

S 


> 
c3 


i 






*o 




1 






)-l 


^3 


U 


,■ 


^-s 


CO 


<v 


bo 


^ 


^1 


"o 


;3 


■B 


s^ 




C/3 


cd 


'5 






.2 


03 

1— 1 


PQ 




OJ 


^ 




■4-> 


•^ 


v^ 


3 




U 




rt 


c« 









94 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

The President, in moving that the Annual Report and 
Balance Sheet be adopted, referred first to the increase of 20 
in the number of members, making the total 708. He said 
that their aim was to reach a membership of 1,000, and he 
appealed to the representative members of the Society to help 
in achieving that object. If they had more members they 
would have more money and could carry out to a still greater 
extent the work they had undertaken. Another matter he 
referred to was the resignation, which they had received with 
great regret, of Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S., as one of the 
Honorary Secretaries. Mr. Reed had felt himself obliged to 
take this step because his business engagements now took 
him out of Manchester so much that he could not attend to 
the work of the position which he had held with such distinc- 
tion for almost twenty years. The services of Mr. Reed had 
been very great, and they all knew how active he had been in 
the Victorian section especially. He had also represented the 
Society at the Annual Meetings of the British Association. 
For all his labours the Society was very much indebted to 
him, and although they regretted his resignation as one of 
the Honorary Secretaries, they were glad to know that he 
would continue to render the Society as much assistance as 
he could. 

Speaking on the subject of " Geographical Progress," the 
President observed that during the past year there had been 
considerable evidence that the scientific exploration of the 
world and the commercial development of its resources had 
proceeded with greatly increased activity and energy. We 
had also seen great changes in the South of Europe. Turkey 
had lost nearly all her territory on this side of the Bosphorous, 
and this was preceded by great political changes in Morocco 
and Tripoli. Happily the danger of other powers of Europe 
being drawn into these difficulties and troubles had passed 
away, and we were left to the peaceful occupation of making 
new maps of that part of the world. Railways were being 
constructed in parts of the world where they were very much 
needed, notably on the East Coast of Africa, and grants in 
their aid had recently been made by both England and 
Germany. Further, previously to that, the British Govern- 
ment gave assistance towards the development of cotton- 
growing in the Sudan. Mr. Nuttall said that he referred 
specially to these commercial developments because the Man- 
chester Geographical Society was primarily founded for the 



Annual Meeting- 95. 

study of Geography in its connection with trade. At the 
same time scientific geography was naturally studied concur- 
rently. It was the scientific man and the courageous explorer 
who preceded the trader. 

The exploitation of the world was going on very rapidly. 
Industry was increasing and new communications between 
various parts of the world were continually being made. The 
result of all these developments would, he believed, given fair 
crops upon which prosperity depended more largely than 
upon anything else, be a great protection against the long 
depressions of trade we had experienced in past times. After 
referring briefly to the greater interest now given to geogra- 
phical studies, as compared with twenty-nine years ago, when 
the Society was founded, Mr. Nuttall reverted to the rapidity 
with which exploration was being carried on. The record of 
the year 191 3, he said, was very long and varied, and one 
could only touch upon a few examples for the purpose of 
giving an idea of the never-ceasing activity and energy of 
man. 

The region of the mighty Himalayas, a vast and ever- 
attractive territory stretching 1,300 or 1,400 miles across India, 
north-west to south-east, and which appealed to the imagina- 
tion more forcibly, he thought, than any other part of the 
globe, had been the object of various important expeditions. 
The more important, perhaps, was that of Captain F. C. 
Bailey, who was exploring unknown parts of the Brahma- 
putra and its passage through the Himalayas. Another 
expedition was in preparation by Dr. Fillipi, a well-known 
Italian mountaineer, on the north-west borders of India, and 
it had the support of the Indian Government. The pro- 
gramme of research included geology, meteorology, atmo- 
spheric physics, geodesy and topography. There was a 
further expedition in the same region, also under the auspices 
of the Indian Government, by Sir Aurel Stein, who was now 
engaged in a region of Central Asia for the purpose of 
geographical and archaeological research. He started from 
Kashmere last Autumn by new and difficult routes and he 
would pursue his investigations over a period of three years. 

Northern Arabia had been largely explored by Captain 
Leachman, Mesopotamia by the Austrian, Professor Musil. 
This region was one of very great possibilities. There had 
been various schemes for using the Euphrates to make the 
land productive of grain and other crops, thus not only adding 
to the wealth of the world but also to its beauty. 



96 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

West Africa was still being explored. The interior of 
Mozambique had been explored by a British Syndicate for 
the study of its mineral resources. Northern Canada and 
South America (more particularly Brazil, where ex-President 
Roosevelt had been on an adventurous journey) were other 
regions of energies and enterprise of explorers. Further, * 
three expeditions were engaged in crossing Greenland in 
1912— 1913. 

Although every point, from the North Pole to the South 
Pole, had been reached, there were still vast regions remain- 
ing to be explored and developed. For instance, there was 
Siberia, of which we knew really little, with its five million 
square miles and only six millions of a population, extending 
from the boundaries of Europe right across Asia for 3,000 
miles. In this vast land there were, he believed, great mineral 
resources and great wheat-growing possibilities undeveloped. 
Again it had been estimated that if all the wheat-growing 
lands of Canada could be brought into cultivation immediately 
(which, of course, was not possible) Canada could supply the 
whole world with wheat. Thus, when we thought of Siberia 
and of Canada we could see that there were yet a great many 
resources in the world for our use. 

Then we had the sad record of Captain Scott, of the 
scientific investigations of whose expedition we had yet to 
see a large account. Moreover, Dr. Mawson, who had just 
returned from the Antarctic, had done a very important work. 
Already we had one concrete result of his expedition, we knew 
that he had explored and definitely mapped, for the first time, 
no fewer than a thousand miles of the coast of Antarctica. 
There was a prospect of still another expedition, perhaps as 
remarkable as any, by Sir Ernest Shackleton. He was a man 
of experience, courage, strength and extraordinary versatility, 
and we looked forward with every confidence to his successful 
accomplishment of the task he had set himself. Another 
prominent explorer was Captain Amundsen who, with his 
usual resolution and energy, v/as preparing for an expedition 
next year to cross the North Pole in a similar manner to that 
attempted by Dr. Nansen. At the same time Captain 
Amundsen would -engage very largely in scieritific investiga- 
tions. 

Concluding, Mr. Nuttall said that he had always held that 
a knowledge of geography was the foundation of all know- 
ledge and the right starting point. It was the first thing a 



Annual Meeting 97 

child began to learn, finding out first the geography of the 
room in which it was born and then of the house, afterwards 
of the outside world. In times gone by people regarded 
geography as merely something to do with maps. Now it 
was recognised that geography embraced everything relating 
to man and the products and natural resources of this won- 
derful world. In short, it embraced science, romance and 
utility. 

Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S., in seconding the resolution 
spoke of the report as highly satisfactory. So large had the 
attendances been at the weekly meetings that they might soon 
have to consider whether to restrict admission to members 
only or to enlarge the Hall again. The Victorians had 
continued their good work. The membership of the Society 
had reached a very satisfactory figure, but they had not yet 
attained their ambition. Therefore he appealed for more 
support. With their Journal, weekly lectures, use of the 
Library and Map collection, membership for one guinea a 
year ofTered the best value in Manchester. For public utility's 
sake and for the sake of science itself many more people might 
become members of the Society. 

The Rt. Rev. Bishop Welldon, D.D., in supporting the 
resolution, said that it was a great pleasure to him once more 
to show his interest in the Geographical Society. He hoped 
he might claim that while he was an educationist, he was not 
altogether dead to the importance of geographical study. 
With the vain gloriousness of an old headmaster he liked to 
reflect that Sir Ernest Shackleton was an old scholar of 
Dulwich College, of which he (Bishop Welldon) was once a 
master. 

The Dean, continuing, remarked that he was afraid the 
days of geographical renown were jDassing away, that few 
lands remained to be conquered. He observed that it had 
been stated that ex-President Roosevelt had discovered a new 
river a thousand miles in length. There was no city which 
could surpass Manchester in its necessary attachment to the 
progress of geography. When the Bishop of Uganda 
preached in the Cathedral not long ago, a member of his own 
congregation in Uganda was waiting for him in the vestry 
after the service. He hoped the Society would do still better 
work in the future than even it had done in the past, and he 
believed that it was not impossible for it to get a thousand 
members. 

In putting the resolution, which was carried unanimously, 
G 



98 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Mr. Nuttall said that Sir Ernest Shackleton would highly 
appreciate any help towards the expenses of his expedition 
from those able and willing to give, though he was not 
making any public appeal for the balance still required. 

The secretary announced that the retiring Officers and 
Council had been nominated, with the addition of Messrs. P. 
K. Glazebrook, M.P., and George Thomas, J.P., to the Vice- 
Presidents, of Mr. J. A. Osborn to the Council, and the with- 
drawal of Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S., as an Honorary 
Secretary. 

Mr. William Harper, in moving the resolution that " the 
Officers and Council, as nominated, be elected," expressed on 
behalf of the members thanks to the retiring Officers and 
Council for their services during the year, making special 
reference to the Executive Committee. Mr. A. Chapman 
seconded the resolution and specially mentioned the services of 
the Victorians in their lecturing work. The resolution was 
passed unanimously. (See List with Title-page.) 

Colonel H. T. Crook, D.L., V.D., gave expression 
to the indebtedness of the Society to Mr. Gregory 
for his valuable services as Honorary Auditor to the 
Society for the twenty-nine years of its existence, 
and moved the following resolution: — "That the best 
thanks of the Society be given to Mr. Theodore Gregory, 
J.P., F.C.A., for his services as Honorary Auditor, and that 
he be re-elected." Mr. T. W. Sowerbutts, F.S.A.A., seconded 
the resolution, which was carried unanimously. 

Mr. Joel Wainwright, J. P., who was within three weeks of 
his 83rd birthday, gave expression to the regret of those 
present that the Lord Mayor (Alderman McCabe, J.P.) was 
unable to be present, and moved : — '* That the best thanks of 
this Meeting be tendered the Lord Mayor for the use of his 
Parlour, and to the President for presiding over the Meeting 
and for the Address which he has delivered." 

Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S., seconded the resolution, 
which was passed unanimously, in the name of all present 
thanked the President for his very interesting address, 
and then personally thanked Mr. Nuttall for his kind reference 
to the twenty years of service which he (Mr. Reed) had 
willingly given, and would have continued had circumstances 
permitted. Mr. Reed intimated his intention to continue his 
support as Vice-President, and to be willing to do all in his 
power to forward the interests of the Society. 



Proceedings of the Society 99 

procccMnge of tbe Society?.* 

January ist to June 30th, 1914. 

The 950th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, January 
6th, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. 

In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmem, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meetings held on December i6th and 23rd were 
taken as read. 

The Chairman announced the election of the following members : 
Ordinary : Messrs. S. P. Liebman, G. P. Cookson, Herbert Levinstein 
and Harry Herd ; Associate : Mrs. Hamilton, Miss Evelyn Harris and 
Miss M. B. Nash. 

Mr. W. Herbert Garrison, F.R.G.S., gave a Lecture on " New- 
foundland, our Oldest Colony." The paper was illustrated with a 
fine collection of lantern views of the Island, mostly hand-painted. 

The Chairman moved and it was unanimously resolved that the 
hearty thanks of the Meeting be given to the lecturer for his very 
interesting and informing address and for the fine illustrations 
shown. 



The 951st Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, January 
13th, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. F. S. Oppenheim, M.A. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on January 6th were taken as 
read. 

Mr. W. Barnes Steveni gave a lecture on " The Romance and 
Tragedy of the Volga and its Towns." The address was illustrated 
with 100 Lantern views. 

At the conclusion of the lecture Mr. Steveni sang a Russian song, 
Mr. J. Hindle, L.R.A.M., having kindly volunteered to play the 
accompaniment, and afterwards half a dozen Russian songs were 
given on the Pathephone, which was kindly lent by Mr. D. Fraser 
Watson, Manchester Agent of Messrs. Pathe Freres. 

Mr. George Ginger moved, Mr. R. A. Staniforth seconded and it 
was unanimously resolved that the thanks of the Meeting be given 
to the Lecturer for his interesting account of the Volga and for the 
lantern and pathephone illustrations. 



The 952nd Meeting of the Society was held in the Houldsworth 
Hall on Tuesday, January 20th, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. 
F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Chairman announced the election of the following members : 
Ordinary : Miss Ada Abson, Messrs. F. A. Lauder, J. Wm. Lewis, H. 
F. Parkinson and Mark Winder; Associate : Mrs. Gumbrell, Miss M. 
A. Brown and Rev. J. G. Maude. 

* The Meetings are held in the Geographical Hall, unless other- 
wise stated. 



100 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S., delivered a Lecture entitled : 
" In the Home of the Rajput." He first gave a short account of the 
Geography and History of Rajputana and then dealt with his personal 
impressions of the country and its people, illustrating his remarks 
with lantern views which included some of the most beautiful pictures 
of Indian architecture and sceneiy that have been made public, 
especially those taken by colour photography, also with cinemato- 
graph views, which were extremely interesting records of everyday 
Indian native life. All the films and slides were taken by the Lec- 
turer, with the exception of a few slides taken by Mr. G. R. Mellor, 
and were shown by means of the Lecturer's powerful lantern. 

Colonel H. T. Crook, J. P., V.D., in moving a resolution of thanks 
to Mr. Mellor for the very interesting lecture so superbly illustrated 
which he had delivered, said that Mr. Mellor had surpassed all his 
previous lectures both in the interest of the lecture and in the beauty 
of the illustrations, and the cinematograph films shown gave an 
example of the proper use of the cinematograph. 

The Chairman, in seconding the Resolution, which was passed 
with acclamation, referred to the valuable services of the Vice- 
Chairman in giving this Lecture and in arranging for the Houlds- 
worth Hall for this and the following lecture. 



The 953rd Meeting of the Society was held in the Houldsworth 
Hall on Tuesday, January 27th, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, the 
President,' Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S. 

The Chairman mentioned the loss by death of a member, Mr. 
Salis Simon, Swedish Consul, and a resolution of sympathy with Mrs. 
Simon and family was passed unanimously. 

Owing to the sudden illness of Mr. P. K. Glazebrook, M.P., his 
lecture on " Somaliland " had to be postponed, and Mr. T. E. Green, 
F.R.G.S., gave a lecture on " In the Zuider Zee." The address was 
illustrated with a large number of beautiful coloured slides splendidly 
shown by the powerful lantern of the Vice-Chairman. 

Mr. Mellor moved and it was unanimously resolved that the thanks 
of the Meeting be given to Mr. Green for the beautiful slides and 
interesting account which he gave of his journey. Mr. Green, after 
acknowledging th^ vote of thanks, moved that Mr. Mellor be thanked 
for his valuable services with his splendid lantern, which was the 
best that the lecturer had ever seen, and for inviting the members 
and friends to the Hall ; the motion was carried with acclamation. 



The 954th Meeting of the Soci'ety took the form of a Social Gather- 
ing, and was held on Saturday, January 31st, 1914. 

From 6.30 p.m. to 7 p.m. the members and friends were received 
by the President (Mr. Harry Nuttall, M. P., F.R.G.S.) and Mrs. 
Nuttall. -On the conclusion of the Reception, Colonel H. T. Crook, 
J.P., V.D., gave a short address on " Recent Changes in pur National 



Proceedings of the Society loi 

Maps," illustrating his remarks with maps and diagrams shown both 
from lantern slides and from the original maps by the Aphengescope. 

A Concert arranged by the Victorians occupied the remainder of 
the evening, and the following artistes assisted : Madame Alice Lamb, 
Madame Marsh, Mr. G. R. Swaine and Mr. J. Hindle. There was an 
interval at 8.15 p.m. for conversation, refreshments (kindly provided 
by the Ladies' Committee) and smoking. 

At the conclusion, Mr. Harper moved, Mr. J. Stephenson Reid 
seconded, and it was unanimously resolved that a hearty vote of 
thanks be accorded to Mr. and Mrs. Nuttall, Colonel Crook, Madame 
Alice Lamb, Madame Marsh, Messrs. G. R. Swaine and J. Hindle, 
and to the Ladies* Committee. 



The 955th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, February 
3rd, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meetings held on January 13th, 20th, 27th, 
and 31st were taken as read. 

The election of the following members was announced : Ordinary : 
Messrs. C. Dean, W. T. Draper, W. Elliot, J. Watson and D. Fraser 
Watson; Associate : Miss Atkin, Miss A. Fosbrooke and Miss Paine. 

The Chairman mentioned the loss by death of Mr. James Leigh, a 
member of the Society for fourteen years. It was resolved that an 
expression of regret and sympathy be conveyed to his family. 

Professor C. F. Lehmann — Haupt, Ph.D., LL.D., gave a lecture 
entitled : "Armenia, in olden times and nowadays." 

The address was illustrated with lantern views, mostly from photo- 
graphs taken by the lecturer during his explorations. 

On the motion of the Chairman it was unanimously resolved that 
hearty thanks be given to the lecturer for his interesting and instruc- 
tive address and for the illustrations shown. 



The 956th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, February 
loth, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. John Hancock. 

Mr. E. G. Prasatham Cotelingam gave a lecture on ** British 
Burma : the golden land of boundless possibilities." The address 
was illustrated with over one hundred lantern views. 

On the motion of the Chairmaii a hearty vote of thanks was passed 
to Mr. Cotelingam for his intensely interesting lecture. 



The 957th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, February 
17th, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on February loth were taken as 
read. 

The election of Mr. W. F. Holmes as an ordinary member was 
announced, 

Mrs. Edward Melland gave an interesting account of her ** Experi- 
ences among Maoris and mountains of New Zealand." Mrs. Melland 
has spent most of her life in New Zealand, and the story of her travels 



102 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

in various parts of the country, with the incidents of life and moun- 
taineering, was both interesting and instructive. The illustrations 
shown added to the charm of the lecture, (see p. 27). 

The Chairman moved and it was unanimously resolved that the 
thanks of the meeting be tendered to Mrs. Melland for the interesting 
and graphic account of her experiences so splendidly illustrated. 



The 958th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, February 
24th, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.S. 

The Chairman mentioned the death of Mr. Hy. Kirkpatrick, J. P., 
a member for 27 years and donor of five shares (;C5o) in the Building 
Company. It was resolved that the sympathy of his fellow-members 
with his relatives be conveyed to them. 

Mr. Thomas M. Ainscough, M.Com., F.R.G.S., who has lived in 
China for six years, gave a lecture on ** The Marches of Chinese 
Tibet," through which country he passed on his way from China to 
India, and illustrated his address with a number of orignal lantern 
slides (see p. i). 

On the motion of Mr. Herbert Whitworth it was unanimously 
resolved that the hearty thanks of the Meeting be given to Mr. 
Ainscough for his very interesting and instructive address and for 
the fine views shown 



The 959th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, March 3rd, 
1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair Mr. F. S. Oppenheim, M.A. 

The Minutes of the Meetings held on February 17th and 24th were 
taken as read. 

The election of Mr. Edward Melland as an ordinary member was 
announced. 

The death of Mr. J. H. Abbott was mentioned, and it was resolved 
that the sympathy of his fellow-members be conveyed to his relatives. 

Mr. F. E. Tillemont-Thomason, C.E., F.Ph.S., F.R.S.G.S., gave a 
lecture on " Recent Great Earthquakes." After briefly describing 
the Messina shock, the lecturer referred in most touching terms to 
the hazardous nature ,of the work undertaken by those engaged in 
rescuing the wounded and the persons buried beneath the debris. 
After the chief shock, thousands of buildings are left in a dangerous 
condition, and any of the hundreds of minor succeeding shocks which 
occur for from two to six weeks after, at frequent intervals daily, 
may at any moment send a mass of damaged masonry without warn- 
ing down upon the heads of the rescuers. Every man engaged in this 
work did it with the knowledge that at any moment he might be 
added to the roll of victims These men worked without reward, 
without hope of glory, not out of a sense of duty since they were all 
volunteers, but were actuated solely by a sense of the huge necessity 
of their fellows, their only motive an intense pity. 

The descriptions of the Kingston quake and the destruction of 
Valparaiso were exceptionally interesting, while the many beautiful 



Proceedings of the Society 103 

slides fully depicted the extent and horror of each calamity. The 
chief interest, however, centred about the San Francisco earthquake, 
since the lecturer was an eye-witness of that terrible holocaust. The 
views of San Francisco in ruins were the finest earthquake slides ever 
shown, indeed the lecturer's collection is said to be unique. The 
whole presented a panorama of ruin such as can hardly be imagined, 
and his descriptions of actual happenings thrilled while they horrified 
the audience. 

During the course of the lecture several points of scientific interest 
were introduced, notably the lecturer's theory of the cause and nature 
of " the twist " during a major shock, it being at the moment of the 
twist that the buildings come tumbling down as if they were built 
of packs of cards. The lecturer, being an expert civil engineer, was 
able to give a graphic account of the method of building those steel 
and concrete constructions known as sky-scrapers, a type of building 
which in both San Francisco and Valparaiso withstood the effects of 
the quake and of the fire. 

A hearty vote of thanks was proposed to the lecturer by Mr. R. A. 
Staniforth, who was present in San Francisco exactly three weeks 
after the shock and who corroborated as far as he could all that the 
lecturer had said. The motion was seconded by Mr. T. W. Sower- 
butts, F.S.A.A., and passed unanimously. 



The 960th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, March 
loth, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Colonel H. T. Crook, J.P., V.D. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on March 3rd were taken as read. 

The Chairman announced that Mr. Wm. B. Leech had presented a 
further 18 volumes on " West Africa," in continuation of the magni- 
ficent gift in 1912 of 136 volumes on North and West Africa. 

Mr. M. Philips Price, F.R.G.S., gave a lecture on a ** Journey 
through Turkish Armenia and Persian Khurdistan." He first gave a 
short account of the geography and history of the country and then 
described his own experiences on his journey in 191 2, illustrating his 
address with many good slides (see p. 45). 

On the motion of the Chairman it was resolved that a hearty vote 
of thanks be passed to Mr. Price for his very interesting address, and 
for the fine lantern views shown. 



The 961st Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, March 17th, 
1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. J. L. Paton, M.A. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on March loth were taken as read. 

The election of the Misses E. M. and D. E. Fletcher as Ordinary 
Members was announced. 

Dr. A. Wilmore, F.G.vS., gave a lecture on "A Geographer's 
Holiday Study of the Rhine and the Rhineland." The lecture was 
illustrated with many fine slides. 



104 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

The Chairman moved and it was unanimously resolved that the 
hearty thanks of the Meeting be given to Dr. Wilmore for his very 
interesting and informing lecture, so well illustrated. 



The 962nd Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, March 
24th, 1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. J. A. Osbom. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on March 17th were taken as 
read. 

Mr. H. L. Joseland, M.A., gave a description of a " Few Places in 
Southern Sweden." He first gave a brief account of the history and 
geography of the country and then, with the aid of a large number 
of lantern slides, described the places which he himself had visited. 

On the motion of the Chairman a hearty vote of thanks was given 
to Mr. Joseland for his interesting address. 



The 963rd Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, March 31st, 
1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on March 24th were taken as read. 

Mr. John Hancock gave a lecture on **A Holiday in the Indian 
Empire," illustrated with lantern views from photographs taken by 
his son during the journey. 

On the motion of the Chairman a hearty vote of thanks was passed 
to the lecturer for his interesting description of the places visited and 
for the fine illustrations shown. 



The 964th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, April 7th, 
1914, at 7.30 p.m. In the Chair, Mr. T. W. F. Parkinson, M.Sc, 
F.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on March 31st were taken as read. 

Mr. G. R. Swaine, F.R.Met.Soc, gave a lecture on "The Influences 
of Geographical Environment," and illustrated his remarks with a 
large number of special lantern views. 

On the motion of the Chairman a hearty vote of thanks was passed 
to the lecturer for his instructive address. 



Cl)e Journal 



OF THE 

mancDester 6eoflrapl)ical Societp. 

THE HOME OF THE RAJPUTS. 

By E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Houldsworth Hall on 
Tuesday, January 20th, 1914.) 

*' Who, and what, are the Rajputs?" It may be answered 
that in the vast peninsula stretching from the Himalayas to 
Ceylon there are many different tribes and races — mountain 
tribes and races of the plains — peoples of different languages 
and of different religions, peoples of widely differing charac- 
teristics. That peninsula and those peoples are known to us 
by the all-embracing names of India and Indians. 

The great bulk of the Indian population, about two-thirds 
of the whole, are Hindus; and the Hindus again may be 
subdivided into innumerable clans. One of the oldest, if not 
the oldest, of these clans, or races, are the Rajputs. 

The origin of this race is lost in the dark mists of remote 
antiquity. 

The great god of the Hindus, the impersonal being which 
pervades everything, is Brahma, the creator. He has two 
other manifestations, viz., " Vishnu " the preserver, and 
*' Shiva" the destroyer and reproducer. In addition, there 
are numerous other subsidiary deities. 

Now Brahma, as the creator, is generally represented with 
four heads and four arms. The priests, or Brahmans, assert 
that they, the Brahmans, issued from the heads of Brahma, 
that the Rajputs came from his arms, the Vaisyas from his 
thighs, and the Sudras from his feet. 

And here you have the origin of the Indian caste system. 
Caste was originally a distinction between priest, soldier, 
artisan and menial; and the priests insisted on the rules of 
caste as a means of securing their own special supremacy. 
Vol. XXX. Parts III. and IV., 1914. 



io6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

In the code of Manu, which is believed to date from several 
centuries before the Christian era, the Hindus are divided 
into four castes, viz., first, the Brahmans, or priests; second, 
the Rajputs, or warriors ; third, the Vaisyas, or agriculturalists 
and traders; and fourth, the Sudras, or the conquered tribes, 
which were become serfs. 

That ancient code also prescribes conduct and ceremonial 
rules for these four castes, represented, as we have seen, by 
the heads, the arms, the thighs and the feet of Brahma the 
creator. Recent research supports the ancient tradition in 
that the language of the Rajputs is proved to be derived from 
the most anci^nt Indian roots. 

The Rajput, although he was swallowed up in the wave of 
conquest by the Mogul emperors in the i6th century, main- 
tained his individuality, and early in the i8th century regained 
his independence. "Rajput" is a name which signifies 
literally *'of the royal stock." A Rajput, therefore has the 
bluest of blue Hindu blood flowing in his veins. The Rajputs 
form the fighting, land-owning and ruling caste. They are 
fine, brave men, and retain the feudal instinct strongly 
developed. Pride of blood is their chief characteristic, and 
they are most punctilious on all points of etiquette. 

No race in India can boast of finer feats of arms or brighter 
deeds of chivalry, and they form one of the main recruiting 
fields for the Indian army of to-day. They consider any 
occupation, other than that of arms, derogatory to their 
dignity. As cultivators they are lazy and indifferent, and 
they prefer the care of cattle and herds to the business of 
agriculture. As they look upon all manual labour as 
humiliating, none but the poorest class of Rajput will handle 
the plough. 

These characteristics may naturally have been a dominant 
factor in causing the Rajputs to settle down in the sandy and 
desert-like plains of the province called Rajputana, where 
they have ample scope for hunting and for polo and the 
minimum possible of land cultivation. 

Be that as it may, the province is called Rajputana because 
it is politically possessed by the Rajputs, who are here the 
dominant race. Here in Rajputana are to be found the 
oldest Hindu Ruling Houses of India, each governing its 
own native state, with a British political agent in residence. 
There are some eighteen native states in Rajputana. Three 



The Home of the Rajputs 107 

of the most important, which we visited, are named after their 
capital cities, and are : Udaipur, governed by a Maharana ; 
Jaipur, governed by a Maharajah ; and Jodhpur, also governed 
by a Maharajah. 

The total area of Rajputana is about 127,541 square miles, 
-and in the centre is the small British province of *Ajmir- 
Merwara. 

Perhaps the most striking physical feature of Rajputana 
is the Aravalli range of mountains, which intersects the 
province from end to end in a line from south-west to north- 
east. At the south-west end of the range is Mount Abu, 
where is situated the residence of the Governor General's 
agent, and on which stand some remarkable temples. The 
north-eastern end of the Aravalli range may be said to 
terminate in the district of Jaipur, although a series of broken 
ridges continue in the direction of Delhi. About three-fifths 
of Rajputana lie north-west of the range, leaving two-fifths 
•on the east and south. 

The two chief rivers of Rajputana are the Luni and the 
Chambal. The Luni flows from near Ajmir in a westerly 
direction for 200 miles to the Rann of Cutch. The Chambal 
is the largest river in Rajputana and flows a course of some 
500 miles in a north-easterly direction until it joins the Jumna, 
which flows into the Ganges. The great rivers, the Sutlej 
and the Indus, are outside the boundaries of Rajputana. 

There are no natural fresh water lakes in Rajputana, but 
there are several important artificial lakes, all of which have 
been constructed with the object of storing water. 

The largest of the Rajput States is Jodhpur. Its capital, 
also called Jodhpur, was built by the Maharajah Jodha in 
1459, and it has been the seat of government of this State 
^ver since. 

The fort of Jodhpur stands prominently on a rocky 
eminence some 400 feet above the city, which it dominates. 
Access to the fort is gained by well made, modern, zig-zag 
roads. The rock is scarped on every side, and the fort on its 
summit may be described as one--third palace and two-thirds 
citadel. The area of the citadel is roughly 500 yards by 200, 
and here are soldiers, arms and artillery. 

The palace is very solidly built. It dates from stormy 
fighting times, as it was a Maharajah of Jodhpur who 
^commanded the armies of the Mogul emperor Shah Jehan, 



io8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the builder of the world-famous Taj Mahal, against the forces 
of that emperor's rebellious son, Aurangzeb, in the 17th 
century. 

From the high elevation of the fort there is a fine bird's 
eye view of Jodhpur. It is a large city of about 60,000 
inhabitants, and is a typical oriental city in that the houses 
are all flat-roofed with no chimneys. On the left of the view 
is seen a large pool of water. This is the work of recent 
Maharajahs. Formerly there was great scarcity of water 
here, and the women had to walk to Mandor, five miles away, 
to get their supplies. On the right is a large modern market 
with a handsome clock tower in the centre. It is called the 
Sardar Market. 

The main streets of Jodhpur, in addition to the bazaars, 
contain numerous fine houses, the residences of the nobles 
and thakurs, many of whom are very wealthy. The streets 
are narrow and are crowded wath the townspeople passing to 
and fro. All water for domestic purposes has to be carried 
from wells. Such a thing as water laid on to the houses, and 
to be had by the turning on of a tap, is unknown here. 
Carrying the brass water-jars, or chattis, on the head, and 
often for long distances, gives the woman a very erect and 
graceful carriage. The old grain market is very much older 
than the Sardar market, and is rather cramped for space. 
The tram rails in some of the streets are used for the con- 
veyance of town's refuse away from the city. 

A journey of some 235 miles brings us to Udaipur, the 
capital of the native State of that name. Nestling, as it does, 
between mountains of the Aravalli range, and situated, as it 
is, on the shore of the beautiful Pichola lake, Udaipur may 
justly be called an Indian Venice; and the comparison is 
enhanced by the lovely water palaces erected on islands in the 
lake. 

The most northerly of these water palaces is known as the 
Jagniwas Palace, erected in 1740. Inside the walls are 
charming gardens in which tall trees are growing. It is quite 
a long row on the lake from the starting point to the Jagniwas 
Palace, but it enables one to appreciate the length of water 
front which Udaipur possesses. On the way the Palace of 
the Maharana comes into view. It is quadrangular in shape 
and rises about 100 feet above the water level. It is built of 
granite and marble and is altogether an imposing pile, but 



The Home of the Rajputs 109 

it rather suggests a fortress than a palace. The Zenana, or 
ladies' quarter, is splendid inside, but externally looks more 
like a prison than the residence of royal ladies, the intention 
evidently being to keep them quite safe. 

Rowing away from the Jagniwas Palace we pass up the 
lake until we come to the main water entrance of the city, a 
large triple water gate through which much traffic passes. 
The white stone, of which the gate is built, becomes rather 
dazzling in the brilliant afternoon sunshine. 

This water gate is always a busy scene. There is not only 
the regular traffic, but there is also a constant stream of 
women coming with their empty chattis, or water-jars, and 
returning with them full of water for domestic use, as in 
Jodhpur. These chattis are of brass, and the women 
frequently carry two full chattis on their heads. 

We landed, and entering the city made our way straight 
on to the roof of the Maharana's Palace, from which exalted 
position a splendid view is obtained. There is a fine view 
over the lake in a westerly direction. How beautifully situated 
this old Rajput city is ! In the foreground is one of the 
Maharana's barges, indeed, the only boats permitted on the 
lake are those belonging to the Maharana, but if proper 
application is made he graciously allows visitors the use of a 
boat. Opposite is the mansion and garden of a Rajput noble. 
On the right a long flight of steps leads up to a Hindu temple 
with its white pyramidal tower. Beyond these, other houses 
and gardens, all overshadowed by the spur of the Aravalli 
mountains, which rise up in the background. The mountains 
and valleys afford cover for much game, wild pigs abound, 
and pig-sticking is a favourite sport. 

Turning from the west to the north we get a bird's eye 
view of Udaipur. This city was founded in 1568 by the 
Maharana Udai Singh, and was named after him. An 
attempt was made to murder Udai Singh when he was a 
baby, but he was saved by the devotion of his nurse, who 
substituted her own child, and that baby Udai Singh lived to 
be Maharana and to found Udaipur, a large city with a 
population of upwards of 33,000. In the middle distance is 
the large and famous Juggernath temple, with its heavy 
looking pyramidal tower. Descending to visit that temple, 
we left the palace precincts by a fine, triple gateway known 
as the Tripulia, and built in 1725. 



no Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Entrance to the temple from the street is gained by a broad 
handsome flight of stone steps, up and down which 
worshippers are passing during the whole of the day. At 
the head of the steps there is placed on each side a huge 
carved stone elephant. Passing through the gateway at the 
top of the steps we stand before the porch of the temple. 

*' Juggernath," or Jagannatha, signifies "Lord of the 
World," and is one of the names of Vishnu, the preserver, 
who is one of the manifestations of Brahma, the creator, who 
pervades everything. In this temple, then, the Hindus 
worship the creator in his attribute of sovereign of the world. 
The pillars of this temple show well the ancient Indian bracket 
capital, the round arch was unknown, and the capitals are 
so many brackets on which are placed the broad flat beams 
and architraves. 

I, an unbeliever, was not, of course, allowed to ascend a 
higher flight of steps and enter the dark interior where the 
Juggernath idol sits enshrined. Only those who are recog- 
nised by Hindu religious standards may do that. To us it 
is a heathen temple, but nevertheless it is an imposing edifice. 
The noble flight of steps leading into the splendid portico, the 
sitting elephants at each corner, the profusion of mural carving 
with its endless figures, compel astonishment and admiration. 

Fergusson's "History of Indian Architecture" tells us 
that this Juggernath temple dates from the nth century, i.e., 
from our Norman times. It is a good example of the Indo- 
Aryan style of architecture, "as every part is carved with 
great precision and delicacy, and as the whole is quite perfect 
at the present day there are few temples of its class which 
give a better idea of the style than this one." At the far end, 
the west end, is the tower, the whole of which, from the ground 
up to the top, is one mass of remarkable and elaborate carving 
in bold relief, quite as astonishing as the rest of the temple. 

Udaipur is surrounded by a lofty bastioned wall, left from 
the days of its older fortification. Some half-dozen gates 
provide entrance to and egress from the city. The water 
gate is on the west side of the city ; on the opposite, the east 
and landward side, is the Surajpol, a name which means 
** gate of the sun," so named because it faces the rising sun. 

Just through the Surajpol a drinking fountain and 
water trough has been erected to the memory of the late Sir 
Curzon Wyllie, who was a very active and very humane 



IC 




E. W.M. i. 
Udaipur — Flight of Steps, forming the approach to the 
Juggernath Temple. 








J. W. M. S. 



Udaipur — Entrance to the Juggernath Temple. 



The Home of the Rajputs in 

Government officer in this part of India, and who was cruelly 
assassinated a few years ago. 

The present Maharana carries the virtue of kindness to 
animals almost to an absurd extent in one particular. He 
gives food to the wild pigs of the mountains and jungles 
ostensibly to divert those animals from devastating the crops 
of the people. At the Odi Khas, a sort of hunting lodge at 
the southern end of the Pichola lake, every evening food is 
put out, and the wild creatures come from all directions to 
take it. We went to see this remarkable sight. The wild 
pigs with their long legs and long snouts are strange looking 
beasts. The men threw down small Indian corn, and some- 
times two pigs would fight for a coveted handful. The corn 
attracts not only the pigs but also wild pigeons and wild 
peacocks from the distant trees and mountains. 

A short row in our boats takes us from the pigs to the 
Jagniwas Palace again, this time approached from the south ; 
before it was from the north. Inside the walls is the 
delightful garden. This water palace is one of Udaipur's 
most beautiful gems, covering the whole of the island on 
which it is placed and rising sheer from the water. Very 
calm and peaceful it looks, appearing to float on the surface 
of the lake, and surrounded by mountains. 

The mountains are the home of the Sambur, which is an 
Asiatic variety of deer, of large size. He is a larger animal 
than our own more familiar red deer. Very beautiful these 
animals looked, and quite in keeping with their surroundings 
in Udaipur. These Sambur are as a rule to be found in 
low lying pastures and they can swim well. They are some- 
what bold in character and can be rather vicious. 

Every native Rajput capital has its Mahasati, or royal 
place of cremation, where the bodies of the Rajahs and their 
nearest relatives, with their wives, are burned, for until com- 
paratively recently suttee was performed, i.e., the living wife 
was burned with her dead husband. Of all the Rajput Maha- 
satis, the one at Udaipur is the most magnificent and the most 
picturesque. The royal cenotaphs stand under the shade of lofty 
trees, on the boughs of which monkeys disport themselves. 
Each cenotaph is crowned with a dome of some degree of 
architectural beauty. After cremation the royal ashes are cast 
into the Ganges, that river so sacred to the devout Hindu, and 
a cenotaph erected over the spot where stood the funeral pyre. 



112 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Cenotaph literally means "an empty tomb." I am inclined 
to think that the native name, '* Chhatri," has a more beautiful 
significance. "Chhatri" literally means "an umbrella." 
An umbrella, a cover, a canopy, a pavilion, erected with great 
reverence over the spot made sacred by the funeral pyre. A 
cenotaph thus means much more than " an empty tomb," and 
the " Chhatris " in Udaipur, which date from the year 1580, 
were regarded as sacred and were made as beautiful as possible. 

It must be remembered that not only is the reigning house 
of Udaipur the oldest and purest in point of blood and family 
tree of all the great Indian houses, but also claims descent 
from the god " Rama," one of the incarnations of Vishnu, 
" the Preserver," and thus from the sun itself. The Maharana 
of Udaipur, therefore, is accounted as one sacred, and is 
generally represented with an aureole round his head. 

A journey of 84 miles brings us to Ajmir, the adminis- 
trative headquarters of the important British province of 
Ajmir-Merwara, an isolated province of 27,000 square miles, 
surrounded on all sides by independent Rajput States. 

Ajmir is a large busy city of 86,000 inhabitants, an 
important railway junction, and is considered by many people 
to be the key of Rajputana. Arriving from the south, as we 
do in coming from Udaipur, we pass the Mayo College, which 
stands in a park of some 2,000 acres. The principal entrance 
is at the west front. This college is for the education of the 
young Rajput princes and thakurs. It is built of white marble 
and was commenced when Lord Mayo was Viceroy. Lord 
Mayo was assassinated in 1872 when visiting the convict 
settlement in the Andaman Islands. This college was named 
after him, and a statue of Lord Mayo stands prominently 
before the main entrance. About 200 boys, between the ages 
of 8 and 21, receive education at this college. 

A favourite promenade at Ajmir is on the Bund, which is 
the broad embankment retaining an artificial lake, the Ana 
Sagar, constructed by the Rajah Ana in the nth century. 

A number of pavilions were erected here on the Bund by 
the Emperor Shah Jehan, the builder of the famous Taj Mahal 
at Agra. For a long time these pavilions on the Bund were 
the only public buildings in Ajmir. They were restored and 
put in good order by Lord Curzon when he w^as Viceroy. 

One of the finest specimens of early Indian Mohammedan 
architecture is to be found here — the Arhai-din-ka Jhompra 



The Home of the Rajputs 113 

Mosque, which means Hterally '' The house of two and a half 
days." Seven hundred years ago, in the year 1236, the 
Mohammedan King Altamsh conquered Ajmir and slew its 
Rajah. He then converted the fine Jain temple of Ajmir 
into a mussulman mosque, and thanks, so they say, to super- 
natural aid he accomplished the work in 2^ days, hence the 
name. Tall, slender columns covered with exquisite carving 
are a feature of Jain architecture. (See E.W.M. 6.) 

Fergusson, in his architectural work, expresses the opinion 
that nothing can excel the taste with which the Khufic and 
Tughra inscriptions are interwoven with the more purely 
architectural decorations and the constructive lines of tlie 
design. 

Another journey of 84 miles brings us to the largest and 
busiest capital city of all the Rajput States, viz., Jaipur, the 
capital of the State of Jaipur. The cities we have visited range 
in point of population thus: Udaipur, with 33,000; Jodhpur, 
with 59,000 ; Ajmir, with 86,000 ; and now we arrive at Jaipur, 
with a population of 137,000. 

The railway station is about i| miles from the town. 
Outside the station a number of *'ekkas," the cabs of the 
country, are always waiting to take passengers into the town. 
An ekka is a sort of box on two wheels, on which the passenger 
sits cross-legged; when a native lady is the passenger the 
curtains are, of course, drawn tight, as she must not be seen, 
but even then toes or a slippered foot are sometimes seen 
sticking out beneath the curtain. 

The whole of the city of Jaipur is enclosed by a crenellated 
masonry wall, 20 feet high by 9 feet thick, with seven gate- 
ways. We enter by the Sauganer gate on the south side of 
the city. This gate, like all other buildings in Jaipur, is 
painted or washed a pink rose colour, on which are painted 
a variety of designs, giving it a quaint and remarkable effect. 
The city was founded in 1728 by the Maharajah Jai Singh II, 
hence the name Jaipur. It is a bustling busy town. 

Jaipur, being a centre of native manufactures, is important 
commercially, and has large banks and trading establishments. 
The town is remarkable for the width of its streets, the main 
thoroughfares are iii feet wide, and the sides are veritably 
continuous bazaars. 

The hills surrounding Jaipur were at some remote period 
broken up, revealing deposits of alum, cobalt, copper, and 



114 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

nickel ore, which are used in making the famous enamels of 
this district; garnets are also found, and eventually used to 
make brooches, bracelets, necklaces, and so forth. 

I had the privilege of visiting the Jaipur State Prison and 
saw some of the prisoners at work. The principal industries 
carried on are : Paper making by men : the paper is used for 
the State account books, etc. ; winding hanks for weaving by 
women ; carpet-making by men. They prepare the warp, 
weave in hand-looms, and make a very broad carpet. We 
saw prisoners making a carpet 29 feet wide for the Rajah's 
new guest house ; kneading and making Chupatties (cakes or 
bread). The chupatties are properly weighed so that each 
prisoner shall receive his just allowance. 

In the public garden at Jaipur there stands the " Albert 
Hall," one of the finest modern buildings in India. The late 
King Edward VII laid the foundation stone of this building 
in 1876 when he was Prince of Wales. To Sir S. S. Jacob, 
K.C.I.E., is due the credit of designing and building this 
magnificent hall. From one of the beautiful open courts a 
door leads into a splendid museum, containing a very complete 
collection of modern works of art and industry, and also of 
antiquities, from every part of India. It is a collection so 
excellent that it has been called an Oriental South Kensington. 
The large Durbar Hall, the audience or levee hall of the 
building, had been used for an examination the day before we 
were there, and we saw the tables and chairs as arranged for 
the students. 

The w^alls are decorated with mural paintings, while up 
above, so as to form a frieze, are a series of panel portraits of 
succeeding Maharajahs in chronological order. Two very 
interesting panels are portraits of the present Maharajah and 
of his father, the late Maharajah. 

Major-General His Highness Maharajah Dhiraj Sawai Sir 
Madho Singh, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., is head of the Kachhwaha 
clan of Rajputs. Both he and his father have been public- 
spirited princes, preferring that the revenues should be 
expended for the benefit of their people at large, rather than 
upon the extreme extravagance of splendour of their prede- 
cessors. The Albert Hall, a college, a library and a school 
of art are all witnesses of the enterprise and enlightenment 
of these princes, thanks to which Jaipur is one of the most 
civilized and prosperous of all the cities of India. 



The Home of the Rajputs 115 

The only portion of the Maharajah's Palace visible from 
the street is called Hawal Mahal, or Hall of Winds. Here 
reside in strict purdah the ladies of the Zenana. The facade 
has been described by Sir Edwin Arnold as "a vision of 
daring and dainty loveliness, storey after storey of rosy 
masonry and delicate overhanging balconies, soaring tier after 
tier of fanciful architecture in pyramidal form, a very moun- 
tain of airy beauty." Sir Edwin's description is, perhaps^ 
rather high-flown, especially as much of it is stucco and not 
solid masonry, but at all events it well illustrates the rosy pink 
colour of all the houses and buildings here and from which 
Jaipur has sometimes been called " the pink city." One 
writer, I think Rudyard Kipling, has compared it to the 
ornamentation on a bride cake. 

Adjoining the palace is an open courtyard, in which is the 
famous Jantra, or astronomical observatory. It was con- 
structed during the years 17 18 — 1734 by the princely 
astronomer Jai Singh. It contains enormous dials, azimuth 
masonry, altitude pillars, astrolabe and other huge instru- 
ments, built of massive masonry smoothed with plaster. 
There is a gigantic gnomon, 90 feet high, placed between 
two graduated quadrants, which is simply an exaggerated sun 
dial. The gnomon's shadow touches the west quadrant at 
six a.m., gradually descends this at the rate of 13 feet per 
hour until noon, and finally ascends the east quadrant. This 
remarkable observatory was the scientific hobby of that Rajput 
prince of 200 years ago. 

The gardens behind the palace slope down to a shallow 
lake, locally known as the " Alligator Tank." Some un- 
pleasant looking pieces of raw bullock are tied to a rope and 
dragged through the water. Presently an alligator's snout 
emerges from the water, the big mouth gapes, and the cruel 
jaws snap upon the flesh with a grip so firm that the alligator 
may be pulled along by the rope. If the alligators are 
lethargic or asleep numerous tortoises swim up and bite pieces 
off the meat. Kites and crows swoop down and peck at the 
loathsome looking flesh as it is dragged to the surface. 

Five miles out of the modern city of Jaipur is the ancient 
capital of this State, Amber, now a ruined and deserted city. 
But the Rajah's palace at Amber, although not inhabited, is 
far from being in ruin. On the contrary, it is a fine pile of 
buildings of the later period of Indo-Mahommedan art. Its 



ii6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

situation is picturesque, being built along the slopes of a lofty 
hill, a powerful fortress crowning the summit. 

A lake lies below the palace, and the latter can only be 
approached by steep narrow pathways, which pass round the 
head of the lake, making it a hot and laborious walk up. But 
if permission is asked in the proper way the Maharajah 
graciously places one of his elephants at your disposal. It is 
astonishing how docile these huge powerful beasts are in the 
hands of the mahout sitting at the back of the elephant's head ; 
beast and man seem to know and understand each other. 

We approached one of the gateways leading into Amber 
and noticed the great carved stone elephants flanking the 
doorway at the top of the flight of steps. It seemed strange 
that such a beautiful piece of ornamental architecture should 
be part of a ruined and deserted city. Having mounted the 
steps we turned sharp round and looked back through the gate 
by which we had just entered. From this higher elevation 
we realized that Amber is shut in a rocky gorge, being in a 
hollow surrounded by mountains, and was therefore at the 
mercy of whatever force held those mountains. This, after 
the fighting times of the Mogul Emperors, may have been one 
of the factors which led to Amber being deserted for the 
modern Jaipur. 

By the principal entrance to the palace is a temple to the 
terrible goddess. Kali, the destroyer. In order to propitiate 
that goddess a goat is sacrificed each morning before her 
altar. The goat replaces the human victim whose life, it is 
said, was taken each morning, before the days of British rule, 
at the altar of this goddess. 

All traces of the morning sacrifice were removed when we 
passed the spot in order to reach the smaller audience hall of 
the Amber Palace. This hall occupies the south side of the 
great courtyard or quadrangle. Double rows of columns 
support a massive entablature, and it is good Rajput work. 

At right angles, and at the eastern side of the great 
courtyard, is the larger audience hall of the palace at Amber. 
Here bygone Maharajahs had audience in Durbar with their 
nobles and leaders, decked out in the splendour of Oriental 
magnificence, and anxious deliberations must have been held 
here when the Mogul emperors were over-running India. At 
such times this courtyard was filled with fighting men and 
retainers. 



The Home of the Rajputs 117 

Across on the west side of the courtyard is the entrance to 
the more private part of the palace. Immediately over the 
door is a wonderfully wrought stone grille, through which 
the ladies of the Rajah's Zenana could look down upon the 
gay scene of princes, nobles and soldiers meeting in Durbar 
below, without being seen themselves. The larger haxagonal 
openings are filled with stone tracery so fine and so delicate 
as to be almost invisible against the blue sky beyond. This 
doorway has been pronounced one of the finest portals in the 
world, and Sir Edwin Arnold describes it as ''a matchless 
portico such as might, provide the door to Paradise." The 
door itself is of brass, magnificently ribbed and moulded. It 
is called the " Hathi," or "elephant" door, because of the 
figure of " Ganesh," the '* elephant god," over the doorway. 

In this part of the palace is the " Jai Mandir," or " Hall 
of Victory." The walls contain panels of alabaster, some of 
which are inlaid with flowers, and arabesques in various 
colours, other panels are adorned with flowers in alto-relievo. 
The ceiling is described, as glittering with the mirrored and 
spangled work for which Jaipur art is renowned. It does 
seem surprising that so splendid a palace should have fallen 
into desuetude. 

From the north-east corner of the palace we get a view of 
the deserted city of Amber. Here are clustered together the 
ruined temples and houses of what was once a large and 
prosperous city. I have already alluded to one of the possible 
causes which may have led to the ancient Amber being 
deserted for the modern Jaipur. Suffice it to say that no 
human being dwells in Amber now, except it be some fakir 
or Hindu ascetic and a handful of villagers. A writer has 
said that " there is nothing stranger in all India's past than 
the desertion by some monarch, for reasons now lost in 
obscurity or only guessed at, of his splendid palace and well- 
built capital, taking not only his court, but the entire 
population with him." 

A journey of some 290 miles brings us to Mount Abu, a 
sacred mountain of Rajputana because of the old temples 
placed upon it. The last part of the journey is an uphill 
climb of 18 miles from the railway station in the plain country 
down below. There is a little town at Mount Abu making a 
hill station to which Europeans from the plains below are 



ii8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

glad to come in the hot season. Luggage and all supplies 
have to be carried up in bullock wagons. 

A writer describes Mount Abu as standing out of the 
great plain of Rajputana like a huge island of granite, finely 
wooded to the summit, the topmost point being 5,650 feet 
above the sea. It is at the south-west end of and part of the 
Aravalli range already referred to. 

A bridle path which we traversed in Jinrickshas led to the 
further group of temples, the Achilgar group, distant from 
the little town of Mount Abu about five miles. At the foot of 
the Achilgar Hill, almost concealed by the foliage, is an 
ancient Hindu temple. It is a steep and rugged climb up 
the hill, and the higher we go the more steep the path becomes. 
About half-way up we pass a gateway with its ancient fort. 
No doubt it was placed here at some period to protect the 
temple above and the surrounding buildings from marauders. 
At one time it must have been strong, and it seems strange to 
find this fort on the hillside. A further steep climb from the 
fort brings us into the temple enclosure, but there is still a 
flight of steps to ascend before the door of the sanctuary is 
reached. 

On either side were the Dwarpals, or guardians, carved 
-and painted, and looking like a pair of toy soldiers. At the 
top of the steps on each side of the entrance to the sanctuary 
is a huge bas-relief carving of an elephant. An elephant 
typifies sovereignty and power, and these elephants are 
allegorical, having a number of subsidiary trunks branching 
from their main trunks. 

The door of the sanctuary was closed against us, but 
though not permitted to enter there we were allowed to enter 
the large court of the temple. This court is surrounded by 
what looked li"ke cloisters, but really they are a series of cells 
each containing an image. Over each image is erected a 
sikhara, or pyramidal tower, and each cell becomes a temple 
in miniature. 

The Jain religion is somewhat akin to the Buddhist. 
Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was born about 600 B.C. 
He adopted a spiritual career. Eventually he was recognised 
as divine and was acknowledged to be a "Jina," i.e., a 
** spiritual conqueror," from which the Jain sect was derived. 
It seems to be one of the strong beliefs of the Jains that the 
** Jinas," or saints, are honoured and worshipped by multi- 



The Home of the Rajputs 119 

plying the number of their images, and that each image should 
be provided with a separate abode, hence the series of shrines, 
or miniature temples. 

We descend the Achilgar hill more rapidly than we climbed 
up, and soon find ourselves at the entrance to the old Hindu 
temple which we saw nestling under the trees before we 
breasted the hill. The delicate stone carving on the pillar 
and round the door is very beautiful, but an unbeliever like 
myself could not pass through this door, for there the image 
of the god sits enshrined, all in darkness, except for such 
light as passes through the doorway. At the back of the 
temple, and within the temple enclosure, is a large opven space. 
In that open space are a number of large shrines, from many 
of which the images, if they ever existed at all, have been 
removed. But the images do remain in the smaller cells or 
shrines. They represent Hindu divinities in various mani- 
festations, or in various incidents of Hindu mythological 
history. This temple, being some 21 miles from the railway 
station, is too remote and too difficult of access to be visited 
by many tourists, but to the Hindu it is a holy and an ancient 
place to which the devout make a pilgrimage. 

We saw a Jogi, sitting on his heels, at the outer entrance 
to this temple, singing away to his heart's content, and 
accompanying himself on his " saringee," or Indian one- 
stringed violin. A Jogi is a Hindu devotee, or holy man, 
just as a Fakir is a Mahommedan. The Jogi is a pilgrim 
travelling on foot, and the faithful give him alms in return 
for his sacred songs. 

At the side of this Hindu Temple at Achilgar is a sacred 
tank or pond, on one bank of which is a marble image of 
Pramar, a mythological king or hero, bow and arrow in hand. 
Before him are three buffaloes rather larger than life-size. 
This group commemorates the legend that Pramar shot with 
one arrow three buffaloes at once. If you go up to the 
buffaloes you will find a hole drilled through the middle of 
each in such a manner that a straight rod would skewer all 
three. 

Situated on a small plateau, high up on Mount Abu, is 
another group of Jain temples, the famous Dilwarra temples, 
of great antiquity and in excellent preservation. They date 
from the eleventh century, the period of our Norman kings. 
How romantically placed are these Dilwarra temples ! High 



120 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

on this mountain, surrounded by shady trees, one of them a 
fig tree 900 years old, as old as the temple which it adjoins. 

The Vimala Sah Temple is the oldest of the Dilwarra 
temples, and is entirely of white marble mellowed by the hand 
of time. The eye is bewildered by the wealthy profusion of 
wonderful and delicate carving. Vimala, who built this 
temple, was minister or governor in the year 1031. Though 
so old, it is one of the most complete examples of a Jain 
temple to be found in India. 

The most sacred object here, as in other temples, is the 
shrine where in the darkness sits a cross-legged image of the 
Jina, or Tirthankar, the apotheosized saint to whom this temple 
is dedicated, viz., Rishabbanath, or Adinath, the first of the 
24 Tirthankars, whose sign is a bull. 

Before the shrine is a portico consisting of 48 pillars which 
are one mass of beautiful and elaborate carving. The pillars 
finish with the usual bracket capital of the east. Upon this 
an upper dwarf column is placed, and on these columns rest 
the great beams, or architraves, which support the dome. As 
the bearing is long, the weight is relieved, at least in appear- 
ance, by the curious angular strut of white marble, which, 
springing from the lower capital, seems to support the middle 
of the beam. 

The interior of the dome consists of concentric circles of 
pendants, the pendants increasing in size as they approach 
the centre. Around the outer circle are sixteen four-armed 
female figures called Vidyadevis, goddesses of knowledge. 
Evidently time and cost were little considered when the roof 
was carved from the marble all those hundreds of years ago. 

The second of these Dilwarra temples is dedicated to 
Neminath, the 22nd Tirthankar. This temple is of 200 years 
later date than Vimala's temple, and is usually ascribed to 
two brothers named Tejapala and Vastupala. The inscrip- 
tions, however, only mention Tejapala. In plan this temple 
resembles its older neighbour very closely. It measures some 
155 feet by 92 feet, a little larger than Vimala's temple, but the 
dome is slightly less in diameter, though very similar in 
elaboration and beauty of design. The white marble pillars in 
Tejapala 's temple are somewhat taller and have more variety 
of design than those of the older temple. The massiveness 
of the pillars is relieved by the almost bewildering amount of 
ornamentation and carving. The figure carving is represen- 




'' i/H^, 






W.M. i. 



Dilwarra — Interior of Dome, Temple of Vimala Sah. 




E. W. M. i. 
Pilwarra — Interior of Temple of Tejapala and Vastupala, 



The Home of the Rajputs 121 

tative of Jain mythology. Beyond the pillars are a few of the 
cells which surround the temple, like those we saw at Achilgar, 
and in which are enshrined the images of the Tirthankars, or 
Jinas, worshipped there. 

There are no quarries of white marble in this part of 
Rajputana, therefore, to quote a writer, " the labour in 
transporting it across the plains, and dragging up to the top of 
this steep mountain, must have been an undertaking worthy 
of ancient Egypt." 

In this corner of India there is another large and inter- 
esting colony of Jain temples, perched on the Girnar 
Mountain in Kathiawar, which we visited. 

Leaving Rajputana by the south-west corner, and passing 
through the State of Baroda into the Kathiawar Province, we 
reached the Uparkot, an ancient fort above the city of 
Junagadh. 

A steep roadway cut through the solid rock leads through 
three gateways, one within the other, up into the Uparkot. 
An inscription on the rampart is dated 1450. This threefold 
gateway is, then, nearly 500 years old. This Uparkot was the 
citadel of the Hindu princes of that period, but the rule of 
those old Hindu princes was swept away by the tide of 
Mahommedan conquest under the Mogul emperors, if not 
prior to that. Evidence of the conquest is given by a 
Mahommedan Mosque constructed from \he materials of a 
Hindu temple which previously stood on the same spwDt by 
the Sultan Mahmud Bigara about the year 1472. The mosque 
itself is now much ruined, the dome being entirely gone. 

Close to that mosque, so close as to be almost underneath 
it, a large cave has been excavated in the rock. In the inner 
chamber of the cave we recognized familiar work in some of 
the pillars. I wa§ informed that a number of Jains took 
refuge in this cave from their enemies, and that this is Jain 
work which we saw. On the other hand, some writers assert 
that this is Buddhist work, and that this cave was part of a 
Buddhist monastery. Colour is certainly lent to the latter 
statement by the fact that a little time prior to the Christian 
era the lieutenants of the great Buddhist King Asoka were 
quartered in the Uparkot above this cave. But against this 
is the general fact that the Buddhists are mostly on the 
eastern side of India, Bengal, Darjeeling, Kashmir, whereas 
the Jains are in all parts of the Bombay Presidency on the 



122 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

west side of India, particularly in trading centres like 
Junagadh. Fergusson, an authority on Indian architecture, 
says " that there is no trace of distinctively Buddhist sym- 
bolism here, and that these pillars were probably of Jain 
origin." 

We left the Uparkot and passed through the city of 
Junagadh, a bustling place of 35,000 inhabitants, capital ot 
the State, and residence of the Nawab. Facing his town 
house is a fine semi-circular range of shops, with a central 
archway and clock tower, which is called the Mahabat Circle. 
It was named after the Nawab Mahabat Khan. The wife of 
the British resident described it as the Regent Circus of 
Junagadh. 

From Junagadh we made the ascent of the Girnar Moun- 
tain ; this is not only a holy place of Jainism, but also one of 
the most remarkable mountains in India. It rises to 3,666 
feet above sea level. 

The pathway up the mountain becomes so steep that the 
rock is cut into steps every few yards, and in making the 
ascent 4,000 of these steps have to be climbed. The usual 
plan is to be carried in a " dholi," which is a seat, or tray, 
about 18 inches square, slung from two poles, and carried by 
four men. The path frequently passes along the edge of the 
precipice, and is so narrow that the dholi almost grazes the 
scarp, which in some places rises hundreds of feet above the 
path. 

When we had reached the summit we saw, six hundred feet 
below, on a broad ledge of rock, sixteen Jain temples clustered 
together. I called them a colony previously, and I think with 
reason, because Jainism is a monastic organisation. Fergus- 
son says that "the grouping together of these temples into 
-what may be called * cities of temples ' is a peculiarity which 
the Jains practised to a greater extent than the followers of 
any other religion in India." 

The nearest large temple, a triple one, was built by the 
brothers Tejapala and Vestupala, according to the inscriptions, 
in the year 1230. These two brothers built, you will remember, 
the later of the two temples which we saw at Dilwarra. Far 
away down in the valley, nearly 3,000 feet below, is the city 
•of Junagadh. 

As we descended we noticed that devout Jains had placed 
a small temple wherever they could get a foothold, and each 




E. W. M. 6. 



Ajmir — The Arhai-din-ka-jhompra. 




E. W. M. 
Apes and Pilgrims before a Jain Temple on the Girnar Mountain. 



The Home of the Rajputs 123 

temple had its sikhara, the soHd looking pyramidal tower 
erected over the shrine. When we had come down the 600 
feet we arrived at the broad ledge or shelf of rock where stand 
the colony of temples which we saw from above. We first 
noticed an old temple whose carved walls reminded us of the 
Juggernath temple at Udaipur. The larger temples are placed 
close together. One large temple which we saw was dedicated 
to Parasnath, the 23rd Tirthankar. We recognised in this, as 
in the others, the general arrangement of a Jain temple, 
pillared portico, dome and sikhara over the shrine. 

The Jains worship 24 Tirthankars, or Jinas, who are saints 
who have overcome all human desires and have attained 
Nirvana. 

The largest temple on the Girnar Mountain is dedicated to 
Neminath, the 22nd Tirthankar, whose sign is a conch shell. 
The temple stands in a large courtyard measuring 195 feet by 
130 feet. 1275 is the date given by an inscription as a date 
of restoration, so this temple was restored more than 600 years 
ago ! 

Around the courtyard are arranged some 70 cells, with a 
covered and enclosed passage in front of them. Each cell 
contains a cross-legged sitting figure of one of the Tirthankars. 
The 70 cells round this temple are covered with low dome-like 
roofs, almost suggesting a series of mushrooms. The roof 
over the central dome is quadrangular, and is worked into an 
extended series of miniature domes, finished in a kind of screw 
point, which I am inclined to believe, though I have not 
discovered confirmation of the idea, represent a conch shell, 
the sign of Neminath the Jina worshipped here. At the 
corners, where the ridge tiles would come, are seated wild 
boars, apes, etc. 

When a Jain temple falls into disrepair, it is believed that 
he who will restore it propitiates heaven. The way that such 
repair is generally done is that the outside is covered with a 
thick coating of chunam, filling up and hiding detail, and 
leaving only the form. They are then fond of applying 
several coats of whitewash. The effect in the brilliant Indian 
sunshine is rather dazzling to the eye. 

Standing in the courtyard of the temple, the only bit ot 
colour is the doorway into the shrine on the south side. The 
colouring is crude, but is a reliei to the eye after the glare of 
the white. The doors stood open, but the moment my camera 



124 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

appeared they were closed. Neminath is not to be profaned 
like that. Within these doors is a large black image of 
Neminath, the 22nd Tirthankar, decked with massive gold 
ornaments and jewels. But are there no people up here? 
Yes, there are a few priests and caretakers. But are there any 
worshippers ? Yes, some bands of pilgrims toil up the 
mountain to worship at these, to them, most holy shrines. 
Worship over, they mingle with the denizens of the rock, 
among whom are many monkeys. 

Like the Buddhists, the Jains believe in transmigration of 
souls, therefore they do not injure any dumb animal lest they 
should be hurting a fellow-?creature, perchance a relative, 
descended after death intO' a lower form of life. Hence the 
monkeys are fearless of successive bands of pilgrims. They 
are the long tailed grey ape, which seems quite a common 
variety in this part of India. It is a curious sight to see them 
swinging themselves by their long prehensile tails from 
pinnacle to dome, from dome to capital, and from capital to 
tower of these old temples, which cost so much in time, 
treasure and human labour to erect here, and of which, when 
pilgrims and guardians are away, these apes are the only 
inhabitants. One is .tempted to moralise on the vanity of all 
things human. 

But their religion was no vain thing to the thousands of 
devoted pilgrims who, having toiled up this mountain, having 
prostrated themselves before and made their offerings at the 
numerous shrines of these temples, until so exhausted that they 
could scarcely stand, in a frenzy of religious fervour, threw 
themselves from the cliff into space, for the cliff here is 
precipitous for hundreds of feet, in the belief that they would 
thus attain to Nirvana. 

The temple of Kumarapala is the last, the furthest, temple 
on this ledge of rock ; beyond is space ! 

Nearly 3,000 feet below us is the plain country, with life^ 
humanity, civilisation and the work-a-day world. 

It calls us back to work, and to life's duties. 

So, farewell Jains ! farewell Rajputs ! farewell India ! 



Belgium : The Battle Ground of Europe 125 

BELGIUM : THE BATTLEGROUND OF EUROPE. 

By Dr. Albert Wilmore, F.G.S. 

{Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on Tues- 
day, October 20th, 1914. Report revised by the Lecturer 
on October nth, 1915.) 

Belgium is an epitome of North-Western Europe; its four 
chief structural divisions summarise, in a comparatively small 
area, all the European regional types north of the Alpine 
forelands. 

To understand the structure of Belgium we must, as 
always, go to the underlying geology, for the different types 
of land relief, with all their diversity of human interest, are 
primarily determined by the character of the rocks and their 
mode of occurrence. We may therefore give to the obvious 
geographical divisions geological names so far as these will 
help us to understand surface structure with all the varied 
interests of man dependent thereon. Proceeding from south 
to north the different regions are as follows: — 

(a) The Slaty Ardennes. This plateau block of moorlands 
is part of the Variscan-Armorican system of Middle Europe. 
It has the general characters, with its own special features, of 
the broad low mountains which stretch across the Continent 
from the Sudetic and Riesen Mountains overlooking the 
Russian platform to the rugged mountains of Brittany ending 
in finger-like peninsulas and sunken rias against the Atlantic. 
The Ardennes is built of Older Palaeozoic and Devonian 
strata, with east and west synclines of carboniferous, giving 
to it the beautiful scenery of Dinant, the famous grottoes of 
Hann, and the Derbyshire-like gorges of Comblan-au-Pont. 
This great plateau is, of course, thinly peopled, and is a land 
of woods, of moorlands given over to sheep-rearing, and of 
beautiful deep-cut valleys such as the famous gorge of the 
Meuse from Givet to Namur. One of the most interesting 
valleys in Europe is that of the Ourthe, from the limestone 
region of Comblan to the Cambrian Massif at Stavelot and 



126 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



SIMPLIFIED REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL MAP 
OF BELGIUM. 

(Showing the Four Chief Structural Divisions.) 
Scale : i inch =zz about 50 tniles. 




EXPLANATORY TABLES. 
Present State Boundary — . — . — . — . — . — . — . 

Geologicai. Divisions. 

Recent Rocks Dotted. 

Mesozoic and Cainozoic Strata Horizontal broken lines. 

Coalfield Crossed lines. 

Palaeozoic Rocks (mainly Ardennes Plateau) Inclined broken lines. 

Towns. 



A Antwerp. 

B Brussels. 

Bg Bruges. 



C 
D 
G 
H 
h 



Charleroi. 
Dinant. 
Ghent. 
Huy. 
Lou vain. 



Lg Liege. 



LI 

M 

N 

O 

T 

V 

Y 



Lille. 

Mons. 

Namur. 

Ostend. 

Tournai. 

Valenciennes. 

Ypres. 



Belgium : The Battle Ground of Europe 127 

Trois Fonts. The edge of this Palaeozoic massif is rich in 
ores, as is the case with so many of the Armorican and 
Variscan fragments of Europe. The wool of the moorlands, 
the excellent, soft water of a region which catches a fair 
amount of rain, the iron and zinc ores of the plateau's rim, 
and the coal close at hand, have given to Belgium the indus- 
trial prosperity of the next region to be briefly mentioned. 

(b) The Carboniferous Basin of the Sambre-Meuse. This 
comparatively narrow strip stretches continuously across from 
North-Eastern France to Aix-la-Chapelle, in front of the slaty 
Ardennes. The general structure is that of a syncline of 
underlying carboniferous limestone with a coal basin in the 
middle. The coal is missing from the middle part of the strip 
between Namur and Huy, but there is the compensation of 
the magnificent scenery of the dolomitic carboniferous lime- 
stone which makes that part of the Meuse Valley one of the 
beauty spots of Europe. The western part of the narrow 
coal belt stretches from Valenciennes and Lille in France, 
across by Mons and Charleroi, and here is one of the great 
industrial regions of Europe. It was not simply strategy in 
the narrow sense that made the Germans seize this part of the 
country; it was to obtain possession of coal and iron, and ai 
the bye-products of coal, that mean fuel and explosives. It 
was a continuation of that German policy of 1871 that deter- 
mined the taking of the parts of Lorraine which are rich in 
coal and in iron ore. To the Germans this is largely a 
commercial war, as has been abundantly shown by the 
pronouncement of their financial magnates, as well as by thpir 
method of conducting the war. 

The eastern part of the carboniferous basin has its centre in 
Li^ge, and here are some of the largest iron works in the world. 
The great foundries of Seraing give, in normal times, employ- 
ment to some 12,000 workmen. The woollen mills of Verviers 
are in the south-eastern corner of this region, and received their 
early impetus from the excellent wool of the Hohe Venn and 
Famenne parts of the Ardennes. The zinc industry of Huy, 
the iron of Liege and the woollen of Verviers are excellent 
examples of industrial inertia ; very little of the iron ore is 
now obtained locally, most of the zinc ore is imported, and 
the wool of the Ardennes is now quite insufficient to supply the 
mills of that part of Belgium. The excellent canals, the river 
Meuse, and a State railway system act as carriers from the 
ports to the busy industrial region. 



128 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

This Sambre-Meuse trough, on the edge of the highlands, 
has become one of the highways of Europe, and the great 
Continental expresses utilise it in normal times. This has 
been the route through which many an army has passed from 
the Teutonic plains across the Rhine to the Gallic lands 
beyond the edge of the Ardennes. The German army of 
invasion of 19 14, with all its horrible record of crime, was not 
the first army that had fought its way along past Li^ge, Huy 
and Namur, or in the contrary direction ; but it is doubtful if 
history can furnish anything like a parallel to the cold-blooded 
*' triumph " of the Germans, or to the foul record associated 
with their occupation of the towns on that historic route. 

(c) The Mesozoic terrains, north of the industrial carboni- 
ferous belt, remind one of the Mesozoic lands of the 
Southern Midlands of England, together with the Tertiary 
lands of London and Winchester. Brussels is situated some- 
what like Winchester. These lands of newer rocks drain 
northward to the Lys-Scheldt system ; and the Scheldt, 
Dender, Senne and Dyle may be regarded as a parallel series 
draining towards the east and west stretch of the Lys. Ghent 
and Antwerp are the keys of this region from the north, with 
Lille (in France), Tournai, Brussels and Lou vain in the 
middle. It is along this dry land of moderate elevation that 
armies have more frequently marched, and it is here that so 
often the destinies of Europe have been thrashed out. From 
the time of the Roman Conquest, through the Dark Ages and 
the days of the Carolingian Empire, and then through the 
long mediaeval period this land has bristled with battlefields. 
In modern times now for the third time have European 
aggressors marched their armies against those powers that 
have stood for the rights of lesser nations. Britain has stood 
against the European aggressor on each occasion, twice 
helping to bring him to his knees. For the result of this third 
modern war against aggrandisement we must wait, quietly 
confident in the power of right, determined that all that Britain 
can do shall be done in the cause of the most elementary 
justice. 

The battlefields of 1692 to 1709 are here: Steinkerke, 
Ramillies, Fontenoy, Malplaquet. Here are the first and last 
battles of the great war of 1793 — 1815 : Jemappes, Ligny, 
Quatre Bras and Waterloo. And here are Mons and Loos — 
places which will not detract from the history of British 
valour in the field. 



Belgium : The Battle Ground of Europe 129 

(d) The fourth region is the low land of Flanders, stretching 
from the edge of the low chalk hills of Cape Gris Nez to the 
marsh lands of the Rhine. This is wonderfully fertile and 
infertile by turns; fertile where clay and river silt form the 
sub-soil, as in the rich lands near Ypres; infertile by com- 
parison on the sandy lands of the Campine, where the 
population is comparatively scanty. In this land of recent 
strata are situated some of the famous cities of mediaevalism ; 
cities where problems of municipal self-government were first 
worked out; cities which fought for their rights against 
crusading counts and feudal barons. These famous cities were 
the world's pioneers in many of the arts of working in metal, 
in leather, and were the first to institute a great trade in 
woollen and linen goods. Bruges, Ghent and Ypres, among 
many others, are honoured names in all that stands for human 
progress. 

Modern Belgium is the latest attempt at a '* middle- 
kingdom " between the Teuton and the Celt of Gaul. The 
Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided up the great empire of 
Charlemagne into three parts. The western part has grown 
into France, the eastern part has become Germany. The 
middle part is the debated land of history. Lotharingia was 
essentially a mistake, because it transgressed all elementary 
geographical conditions of stability. In the later Middle 
Ages Burgundy for a time seemed likely to renew the existence 
of the Middle Kingdom, but the strength of French nationality 
on the one side and the intrigues of German barons and 
princes under the empire on the other, proved too much, and 
part of the Middle Kingdom passed to France and part in the 
long run to Spain and then to Austria. The diplomatists of 
1814 — 1815 evidently believed in the efficacy of buffer States, 
and reconstituted a sort of Middle Kingdom of the north; 
but we in more modern times shall need to look more carefully 
at the geographical conditions (w^hich are seldom anything 
like simple). The existence of a buffer State presupposes the 
honourable regard of treaties by the great powers on each 
side; take away this and the existence of such a State becomes 
a positive danger to the honourable and scrupulous power. 
This introduces questions of great importance which are not 
within the province of a geographical lecture like the present. 



130 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



BELGIUM, THE LAND OF ART : ITS ECONOMIC 
AND POLITICAL HISTORY. 

. ,'. i 
By Arnold Williams, A.C.A. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on 
Tuesday, December i^th, 1914.) 

Lord Macaulay in his essay on Oliver Goldsmith says : '' He- 
was a great, perhaps an unequalled, master of the arts of 
selection and condensation." The writer of this paper has 
followed in his steps, selecting and condensing from some ten 
or twelve volumes,^ and especially wishes to acknowledge his 
indebtedness to Dr. A. S. Rappoport and Mr. Wm. Elliot 
Griffis, whose instructive books are mentioned below. 

It is hardly possible to find another land with such a 
history and such a wealth of art treasures as Belgium. 

The men and women of this country have told us their 
history in a most attractive way by pen, canvas, sculpture, 
metal work, and carving, in town hall, belfry, church and 
guild-^house. 

We shall glance at the story of Belgium through its varied 
existence — savage, Roman, Frankish, feudal, crusading, 
mediaeval, Renaissance, and modern. It is almost correct to 
say that until 1830 Belgium was as a house of bondage and 
yet was the possessor of many liberties. 

How wonderful it is that a people of two distinct stocks, 
Celtic and Teutonic, and in turn under the yoke of Rome, 
Germany, France, Spain, Austria, French Revolutionaries, 
Napoleon and Holland, should at last win unity, freedom and 
sovereignty. For activity and energy, for the propagation of 

I. The following is a list of the volumes : — " Leopold the Second : 
King of the Belgians," Dr. A. S. Rappoport. "Belgium," William 
ElHot Griffis. " The Story of Belgium," Carlyle Smythe. " The Rise 
of the Dutch Republic " (3 vols.), J. L. Motley. ** Belgium " (Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica), Rev. G. Edmundson. " Hansa Towns," Helen 
Zimmern. " A Short History of the Netherlands," Alexander Young- 
" Revolutionary Europe," Morse Stephens. ** Modern Europe," Alison. 
Phillips. 



Belgium : Its Economic and Political History 131 

social ideas and for progress, Belgium stands foremost among 
nations, and now to all her good qualities we have to add one 
more — that of bravery. 

Geographically and ethnically Belgium is interesting. 

The two races, Flemings and Walloons, are wholly dis- 
similar, speaking different languages, and having different 
religious and political views. 

They differ as do the rocky Ardennes, the valleys of 
Brabant and the plain of Flanders. 

These differences have not, however, prevented the Belgian 
nation from displaying a unity in striking divergence from 
other phases of her life. 

Every chord of human nature is touched by the outrage 
committed upon this gallant nation, and gratitude without 
measure is felt for those who sacrificed themselves willingly 
and did not count the cost. 

No sadder story has ever been written in the pages of 
history. 

No crime has ever equalled this crime, and, though peace 
will come, punishment must be exacted. Time will heal many 
wounds, but the stain of Belgium can never be wiped out from 
the soul of Germany. 

It is hard to say which is the more indebted to the other, 
Great Britain or Belgium. When we think of their close 
connection we feel that the war will only serve to strengthen 
it, and while Germany will be known for her work of destruc- 
tion, Great Britain will be loved for her work of reconstruction. 
It is Great Britain who must make that work of reconstruction 
possible by her moral and material support. 

Belgium has laid down her life for us. Let us see that she 
rises again. 

New cities may rise on the ashes of the old towns, and time 
may change many things, but nothing can ever obliterate 
from the minds of his people or their descendants the memory 
of the Hero-King who knew how "to fight the Barbarians 
for the liberty of Belgium." 

" L' Union fait la Force." Such was the national motto 
of the Belgians after their separation from Holland. 

Their inability to understand their own motto has been 
their besetting sin. 



132 Journal 6f the Manchiester Geographical Society 

The Englishman has never had to repel a foreign invasion 
or endure an alien rule. Probably that is why he has always 
been an imperialist rather than a patriot. 

Neither Fleming nor Frenchman makes a good colonist. 
He is always too anxious to return home. 

Of half a million Belgians living out of Belgium over 
460,000 are in France, and those who live in France could not 
be distinguished from the natives except by experts, so alike 
are they in habits and appearance. 

C^SAR TO Charlemagne. 

Belgian history can be traced back to the time of Caesar. 
The '"Belgas or Belgians" were found by him, in 57 B.C., 
occupying the territory between the Marne and the Seine, the 
North Sea and the Rhine. 

Caesar considered them the bravest of all the Gauls. 
Though not yet decided whether the Belgians were of a 
German or Gallic origin, it is admitted by the majority of 
authorities that some of the tribes were of a Celtic, others of 
a German, and that both Germans and Gauls were identical 
in a common Cimric origin. 

Caesar subdued Gaul in eight campaigns, Belgian territory 
becoming a Roman province, but it was Augustus who 
endeavoured to Romanise it. He was not successful ; for 
whilst the Roman influence penetrated into Lower Germany 
(along the Rhine to Cologne) and the Celtic tongue made room 
for the Latin language, Belgium proper resisted the invasion 
of Roman civilisation and kept to its own language, manners, 
customs, and ancient traditions. These were of a rude and 
vigorous nature, entirely opposed to the soft and enervating 
ways of the Roman civilisation. Christianity gained sway in 
the Roman Empire in the 3rd century, penetrated into Lower 
Germany, and a bishopric was formed at Cologne. It did 
not spread to Belgium, however, till the 4th century, at about 
the time of the dissolution of the Roman Empire, when the 
Franks, availing themselves of this dissolution, invaded 
Belgium, establishing a new rule and fresh civilisation. 

The Franks were Belgian and German warriors who refused 
to submit to the Roman rule, and were divided into Salian, or 
Salic, and Ripuarian Franks. 

Commencing with King Clodion in 431, Belgium was 



■^^ 




LV-^V 



A. W. 1. 
The Area South of a line drawn from the centre of the West 
of the Iberian Peninsula to the East Coast of the Adriatic 
Sea, and also the Balkan Peninsula with the Coasts of Asia 
Minor was shown in Blue (63 B.C.). The Remainder of the 
Shaded Part was Red (14a.d.). Belgium, Black in all four 
Maps. 



/ -y^^.;.'-''^ 




A. W. t. 



Belgium : Its Economic and Political History 133 

divided and re-united under various Merovingian kings, but 
was finally united under Clotaire. 

This king is interesting because his two sons, Sigebert and 
Chilperic, were married to Brunhilda and Fredegonde, famous 
in folk-lore. The Merovingian kingdom fell as a result of 
misrule and discord, and the powers of government were 
usurped by the steward of the royal possessions known as the 
major domus, mayor of the palace. There were four Prankish 
kingdoms, each with its own mayor. Pepin, of Heristal, 
one of the most famous of them, succeeded in uniting these 
mayoralties and making them hereditary in his own family. 

His descendants took the title of Dukes of Franconia, until 
at last one of them dethroned his imbecile master and founded 
a new monarchy. 

It is interesting and significant to learn that Europe was 
saved by Pepin and his son, Charles Martel, from the invasion 
of the Moslems. 

Pepin the Short was proclaimed king in 752, and on his 
death one of his sons, Charles (known in history as Charle- 
magne), became king. 

Charlemagne. 

Belgium claims that Charlemagne was born in Li^ge^ 
though this is not certain. There is a statue of him in the 
Place d'Avroy. He is famous for his campaigns; and one of 
the most important events in his reign was his coronation as 
Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800. 

Thus the grandson of the mayor of Li^ge, Pepin of Heristal, 
became Roman Emperor, a title retained by Western Teutonic 
rulers until 1806, when it was abolished by Napoleon I. 

Charlemagne paid especial attention to his native land, and 
by his remarkable organisation made Belgium the centre of 
Carolingian rule. 

Belgium felt the influences of the civilisations of the two 
rising nationalities, French and German. 

The Carolingian Empire, however, fell to pieces soon after 
Charlemagne's death. 

Charlemagne lived in an age of constant warfare. The 
new Europe was rising on the ruins of the old Roman Empire. 

It was due to Charlemagne's energy (he conducted 53 
military expeditions), that Christianity and civilisation were 
hot trampled out by the Teutons, Norsemen and Mussulmans.. 



134 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Belgium prospered in his time, and Charlemagne is 
honoured because he took measures which ultimately led to 
Belgium's place in the world. 

Beginning with Tournai, the great cities of Belgium, 
Bruges, Brussels, Ghent, Courtrai, Ypres, Li^ge and Mons, 
took their places on the map. 

After Charlemagne's death the vast empire passed to Louis 
le Debonnaire. He was not equal to the task of keeping it 
together, and divided it among his three sons, Lothaire, Pepin 
and Louis, who concluded the treaty of Verdun in 843, by 
which Gaul (France) became one brother's share ; Lorraine, 
containing the entire Belgium of to-day and extending from 
the North Sea to the Jura, Lothaire's portion ; and Germany 
fell to the lot of the third brother. 

For ten centuries or more Lothaire's portion has been a 
iDone of contention between its mighty neighbours. 

The Treaty of Verdun in 843 marks the beginning of the 
evolution of modern nations and languages as we know them 
to-day in the countries of Western Europe. 

The close connection between Belgium and England began 
when the second Count of Flanders married Elstres, daughter 
of Alfred the Great. 

It is interesting to trace the English forms of the names for 
the men of Southern and Northern Belgium. The ''g" of 
Latin countries is identical with *' w " in the north, and Gaul 
and Wales are practically the same word. The ancestors of 
the English and modern Germans spoke of the Gauls and 
Romans as " Waelas " or "strangers," and oon meant 
^'one." A Walloon means then a "strange one," or a 
^' foreign man." 

Flanders is developed from the root word ' * to flee, ' ' and 
means the " Land of the Refugees." We also have a familiar 
instance in the word " Fleming," which was originally pro- 
nounced with the "e" long — "Fleming." In old English 
law a man who fled from justice was called a " Flemen." 

Feudalism. 

Under Feudalism we usually understand the institutions, 
both public and private, that regulated mediaeval Europe, and 
it was at this time that it developed. 

Europe had, since the death of Charlemagne, suffered 
terribly from the invasions of Normans, Magyars, and 



Belgium : Its Economic and Political History 135 

Saracens; and through the weakness of the kings, defence 
against the invaders fell upon the nobles. In this way the 
power of these lords was gradually developed, and feudalism 
strengthened. In course of time the nobles received their 
fiefs as hereditary estates, became very powerful, and only 
recognised the superior authority of the king in theory. 

In Belgium they were called Dukes or Counts, and 
Brabant, Flanders, Hainaut, Holland and Luxembourg came 
under their sway. Flanders, in particular, became very 
powerful and was able to protect herself against her mighty 
neighbour, France. Baldwin of the Iron Arm, Count of 
Flanders, is remembered for his fight against the Normans. 
Eventually Flanders fell to the Ducal house of Burgundy. 

The municipalities of Flanders led Europe in its struggle 
for self-government, and it has been well said '' that at an early 
era in the Low Countries the loom and the shuttles were, in 
potency, greater than the steel blade and battle axe, for it was 
industry that steadily won the battle of civic freedom, and the 
wealth gained through diligence and skill purchased or com- 
pelled chartered privileges which in time became popular 
rights.*' 

There are two names in the story of Belgian liberty which 
loom aloft like the belfry of Bruges — Cassel, for victory in 
arms, and Grammont, for the victory of civil rights. The 
latter is a spot to which we all, as lovers of human progress, 
should wend our way. Let us consider it for a moment. In 
the year 1068 the estate of Baron Gerard was purchased by 
Count Baldwin VI for the Flemings. He laid it out as a town, 
and granted the people a charter of civil rights. 

This charter marks the commencement of protection for 
the workers of Belgium, and is, so far as is known, the oldest 
document of the kind in Europe. It is dated 137 years before 
the Magna Charta, written in Latin, and 185 years before the 
Middleburg Charta, which is in plain Dutch ; and is the 
foundation stone of order and protection to industry in Belgic 
land. 

Flemish Cities in the Middle Ages. 
The prosperity of Ypres, Ghent and Bruges is accounted 
for, not solely by their manufactures, but also because of their 
nearness to the greatest of the European trade routes, overland 
and by water, converging at Champagne (France). 



136 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

These lines of traffic, traversed by horses and wagons^ 
stretched from the Bosphorus and from Russia through 
Germany, over the old Roman roads into France. By the 
water routes of the Mediterranean via Venice, Genoa and 
Marseilles, goods were brought to the great French fairs. So 
long as these fairs flourished and riches were made, cathedrals 
were erected of unparalleled splendour and since unmatched. 
Here was evidence of an economic revolution indicating that 
the centre of wealth and energy had been transferred from 
Egypt and Constantinople to the far West of Europe. 

The rise of Champagne followed upon the decay of Con- 
stantinople. In both France and the Low Countries the riches 
gained by commerce were evidenced in the beauty and glory 
of Christian cathedrals or fine specimens of civic architecture. 

Even religion adopted material forms. Every municipality 
must possess saints' relics, a fragment of the true cross, or 
some drops of blood of the Crucified. 

As early as A. D. 1200 the old economic system based on 
the caravan marches across Central Asia was displaced by 
ocean routes — the compass having been brought by sea-going 
Arabs from China. 

Bruges made mighty strides in comrriercial prosperity, and 
it outstripped both Venice and Genoa. Bruges, Hamburg, 
Liibeck and Cologne were the four chief factories of the 
Hanseatic League. Italian bankers had their headquarters at 
Bruges, which became the financial centre of North-Western 
Europe. Damme, the seaport of Bruges, was crowded with 
ships; but to-day the visitor wonders where the sea is, and 
the dam and dikes are memories. 

So long as the tidal river Zwyn kept its vigour, and its 
waters flowed clear, prosperity and Bruges were synonyms. 
When, however, the channel of the Zwyn became choked and 
the bed filled up, Bruges lost direct contact with the life-giving 
ocean, and the splendour of the city faded. 

The Van Arteveldes. 

The Flemish municipalities were the wonder of Europe. 
When London had less than 50,000 people there were in 
Ghent 250,000, in Ypres 200,000, and in Bruges and Courtrai 
each 100,000 inhabitants. Cloth making was the leading 
industry and a sure and sufficient supply of raw material was 
indispensable. On England's moorlands browsed the flocks 







A. W. S. 




A.]]. >,. 



Belgium : Its Economic and Political History 137 

which supplied the looms of Flanders; and the English were 
willing sellers. As early as 1040 Bruges was the wool market 
of Europe. The Hundred Years' War between England and 
France (1338 — 1453), influenced greatly both the economic 
and political history of Belgium. 

When one views to-day the fine statue of Jacques van 
Artevelde in Ghent, knowing that it was unveiled by King 
Leopold in the modern days of constitutional monarchy, he 
recalls also the days when the people ruled and the communes 
were at their meridian. 

Born in 1285, Van Artevelde was made ruward or president 
of Flanders, and led his people in their revolt against Count 
Louis. He saw that the municipal idea was not broad enough, 
for the cities emphasised local interests and created rivalry 
which often and easily became enmity. He desired to unite 
his people into one commonwealth, and made an alliance with 
Edward III of England — completed (after three years' dis- 
cussion) at Brussels in 1339. When Edward returned to get 
the permission of Parliament to this Treaty, he left his queen 
in Ghent, and there John of Gaunt was born. 

Van Artevelde, one of the greatest statesmen of the Europe 
of his time, perished before a mob in 1345. His ideas were 
broad but misunderstood : he showed the way into nationality, 
but the people would not take it : he loosed passions which he 
could not control and to which he himself fell a victim. 



The House of Burgundy. The Netherlands. 

In 1384 Philip, Duke of Burgundy, became Count of 
Flanders through marriage with the daughter of Louis le 
Male. He entered Bruges and was acknowledged Count of the 
land. 

The Dukes of Burgundy, by marriage, inheritance, 
acquisition and treaties, had succeeded in uniting the Belgian 
provinces under their sceptre, under the name of the Low 
Countries or the Netherlands and had become mighty rivals 
of the Kings of France. 

The Dukes endeavoured to found a strong kingdom able 
to hold its own against France and the empire, its powerful 
neighbours. 

Common commercial interests between the provinces 
greatly facilitated such endeavours. 



138 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

On the one hand the rulers were intent upon safeguarding 
the national independence, whilst on the other they struggled 
against the democratic spirit of the flourishing communes. 

Philip of Burgundy (named the Bold) had cleverly obtained 
the principalities of Brabant and Limburg. 

He died in 1405, and his son — by Princess Margaret le 
Male — John the Fearless, was practically master of all the 
Netherlands. John was murdered at Montersau, and was 
succeeded by his son, Philip the Good (1419 — 1467). The 
murder of John by the French Dauphin's party completed the 
estrangement which already existed between France and the 
House of Burgundy. 

Philip therefore turned towards England, which was at 
that time waging war with France for the possession of the 
throne. 

Philip concluded the Treaty of Troyes in 14 19 — depriving 
the French Dauphin of his rights — the French throne going 
to the King of England. 

Philip the Good's third wife was Isabella of Portugal. The 
marriage was celebrated with great pomp and solemnity at 
Bruges; and on this occasion Philip founded the famous Order 
of the Golden Fleece — equal in importance to the Order of the 
Garter in England. Bruges, being the centre of the wool 
trade, doubtless suggested the name of the Golden Fleece. 

Philip had asserted his authority with much vigour, and 
♦discontent was latent : several cities being angry at having 
lost many of their privileges. The hostility was especially 
strong in Li^ge, and towards the end of Philip's reign the 
•city revolted. 

Charles the Bold waged war against the Swiss and 
Lotharingia, and fell on the battlefield of Nancy in 1477. His 
•death gravely compromised the existence of the dynasty of 
Burgundy. 

The towns and communes of the Netherlands now began to 
assert the rights and privileges of which they had been 
•deprived by the two Dukes of Burgundy. 

Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Charles the Bold, convened 
the States to meet at Ghent, and had to face representatives 
who were anxious to recover their ancient privileges. She 
was compelled to grant a Charter (February nth, 1477) 
granting all such privileges. Then she was recognised and 
took the oath in Ghent Cathedral. The princess was young 



Belgium : Its Economic and Political History 139 

(19) and inexperienced, and the citizens of Flanders, Hainaut, 
Brabant, Holland and Liege had their way. 

She married eventually the Archduke, afterwards Emperor, 
Maximilian ; and subsequently lost her Burgundian posses- 
sions to France, whilst the Netherlands fell after her death 10 
the House of Habsburg. 

The Rule of the Habsburgs in Belgium. 

Maximilian was unpopular, and after the death of the 
Duchess of Burgundy in 1482 the civic authorities looked 
askance at the rule of the Habsburgs and decided to uphold 
their ancient rights. Gradually, however, the rule of the 
Austrian Dynasty in the Netherlands was firmly established. 

Maximilian's grandson, the famous Emperor Charles V, 
increased the Burgundian lands by adding several other pro- 
vinces, making 17 in all, which he was anxious to unite into 
one State. He obtained the decision of the Diet of Augsburg 
that they should constitute the Burgundian circle, and the 
Pragmatic Sanction decreed that they should never be 
separated. 

Charles hoped that the 17 provinces would constitute an 
independent State which would be able to cope with its mighty 
neighbours, France, the German Empire, and England. 

The Spanish domination was unable, however, to stamp 
out Protestantism, which had made its entry into the Nether- 
lands. The Habsburg rulers punished heretics severely, taxed 
the citizens heavily, and the Spanish soldiers treated them 
brutally. Numerous wars had greatly reduced the population 
of the Netherlands, the nobility had been ruined, and 
commerce and industry were declining. The prosperity of the 
Netherlands was threatened. 

Protestantism had made its entry into the Netherlands, but 
although the Emperor had granted certain concessions to the 
Protestants in Germany, he was immovable as far as those in 
the Low Countries were concerned, and the great struggle of 
the Netherlands for freedom of faith began. Numbers of 
martyrs, ancestors of the Belgian heroes of to-day, fell on the 
beautiful fields of Flanders. 

Charles V. announced that the adherents of the new faith 
of Protestantism would be punished by fire and sword, but in 
spite of this the new doctrines spread rapidly. 

Iri 1555 Charles abdicated, for reasons of health, and the 



140 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Netherlands fell to his son, Philip II. The new monarch was 
the most powerful ruler in Europe. In addition to Spain, he 
had inherited the Netherlands, Naples, Sicily, Milan, and 
great possessions in the New World. 

Philip hated the Belgians and their country, and was 
ignorant of their language; he strengthened the Inquisition, 
and the country was covered with spies. Philip appointed 
Margaret, Duchess of Parma, his half sister, Governor of the 
Netherlands, and sent Spanish garrisons to occupy the cities. 
The cruel persecution of the Protestants brought about the 
Revolution which had been latent for some time, and heroic 
indeed did the ancestors of the brave defenders of Li^ge prove 
themselves in their fight against the common foe. 

The Revolt of the Netherlands. 

The struggle now commenced which was to last for 30 
years, William of Orange forming a league of 17 of the 
provinces to drive the Spaniards out of the country. 

The Inquisition only made the people cling to Protes- 
tantism and hate the king : and even the nobility, who were 
mostly Catholics, rose with William and Count Egmont at 
their head. Riot and violence, the attacking of churches and 
breaking of holy images, enraged Philip II, who decided to 
increase the persecution. He sent the brave but cruel Duke 
of Alva to be Regent of the Netherlands in place of Margaret^ 
whom he recalled. 

The struggle of the 17 provinces went on until Alva's 
successor, Alexander of Parma, son of Margaret, succeeded in 
creating discord among them, and a separation took place. 
The ten southern provinces remained under the Spanish King, 
being more inclined to Catholicism, but the seven northern 
ones formed into a confederation known as the Utrecht Union 
(1579), the foundation of the Dutch Republic. 

Belgium from 1579 to 181 5. 

Philip now made Belgium an independent State for his 
daughter Isabelle and her husband, Albert of Austria, but as 
there was no issue it once more returned to Spain, and had ^o 
share in her misfortunes. 

In her wars against France and the Dutch RepubHc, Spain 
was generally unlucky, and peace was usually concluded ac 
the expense of Belgium. Artois and Thionville were ceded 'a 



Belgium : Its Economic and Political History 141 

France, and in 1668, by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, Tournai, 
Lille, Charleroi, Courtrai and Oudenarde were also ceded, 
until by the treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt in 17 13 and 17 14, 
Belgium was handed over to Austria. 

During the wars of the Austrian succession Belgium was 
taken by France, but was restored to Austria by the treaty of 
A'ix-la-'Chapelle in 1748. 

Charles of Lotharingia was Regent, and he and Maria 
Theresa, Empress of Austria, who founded the Academy of 
Science, did their utmost for Belgium, and an era of peace 
and prosperity now began. 

Joseph II succeeded his mother, Maria Theresa, in 1780, 
and he endeavoured to enforce certain reforms. The people, 
however, saw in these reforms an attack upon their privileges. 
The University of Louvain gave the signal, and the famous 
lawyer. Van der Noop, became the head of the discontented 
inhabitants. 

With the breaking out of the French Revolution and the 
storming of the Bastille, the imagination of the Belgians was 
fired, and they rebelled, forcing the Austrian garrison at 
Brussels to capitulate. 

The independence of the United States of Belgium was 
proclaimed in 1790, Luxembourg remaining under Austrian 
rule. 

The Democratic Revolutionary Party and the aristocratic 
majority, however, could not agree, and it once again became 
part of Austria, but only for a short time. 

After the battle of Jemappes in 1792 the French became 
masters, and in 1794 the victory of Fleurus put an end to 
Austrian rule in Belgium. 

By the Treaties of Campo Formio (1797) and Lun^ville 
(1801) Belgium became part of France and was governed as 
one of her possessions, also sharing her varied experience. 

Napoleon met his Waterloo, however, and the Congress of 
Vienna decided that Belgium and Holland should be united 
under William of Orange. In September, 181 5, William I, 
King of the Netherlands, took his oath at Brussels, and 
promised to be faithful to the Constitution which had been 
drawn up the previous month. 

The union was an unhappy one; everything — language, 
customs, and religion — being against the fusion of the Dutch 
and Belgians. 



142 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

The Revolution of 1830. 

The revolution of 1830 brought with it the independence of 
Belgium. It was impossible for Holland and Belgium to 
become one nation. Holland was Protestant and commercial, 
whilst Belgium was Catholic, agricultural and industrial. 

In the Government the opposition consisted of two parties, 
Liberal and Ultramontane, and when they united in 1828 they 
nearly obtained a majority. 

An insurrection followed the imprisonment of de Potter, 
one of the leaders of the opposition, for an article which 
appeared in the '' Courrier des Pays Bas." This was 
subdued, but the July revolution of 1830 broke out in France, 
and numerous emissaries came to Brussels to fan once more 
the revolutionary spirit. 

The independence of Belgium was proclaimed by a 
provisional government, and a congress was convened at 
Brussels on October 4th. 

The Powers meeting in London made a proposal that 
hostilities between Holland and Belgium should end. This, 
happily, came to pass, and Belgium became an independent 
State. It was decided to have an hereditary monarchy. No 
member of the House of Orange-Nassau was ever to be elected. 

The English Foreign Office looked with disfavour on the 
suggestion of a union of France and Belgium, and would not 
allow it. As a result no French prince was eligible for election 
as king. 

Following on the proposal made by the English Govern- 
ment that Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg should be king, on 
4th June, 183 1, the Belgian National Congress elected him 
King of the Belgians amid great excitement in the city of 
Brussels. 

Prince Leopold had married in 18 16 Charlotte Augusta, 
only daughter of the Prince of Wales. She had died, 
however, in 1817. On July i6th he left England, and on the 
2 1 St he entered Brussels and took the oath to observe the 
Constitution. 

The new king's military experience in the wars of 1814 and 
1815 now stood him in good stead. 

He was able to meet the opening of hostilities with Holland 
with confidence, and was the means of saving Belgium, 
assisted by France, who sent an army to Namur and Mons. 

Within seven days of the combined armies of Belgium and 



Belgium : Its Economic and Political History 143: 

France facing the Dutch, August 20th, 1831, not a Dutch 
soldier remained in Belgium. 

It was not until 1838 that King William recognised the 
independence of Belgium. 

Belgium was declared neutral by the Treaty of London, 
which was signed by the representatives of Great Britain, 
Austria, Russia, and Prussia. 

In return for being allowed to retain one portion of 
Luxembourg she had to give up part of Limburg, and she had 
to pay 8,400,000 florins as her share of the debts. 

King Leopold I. 

As his second wife King Leopold I took Princess Marie 
Louise of Orleans, eldest daughter of King Louis Philippe 
of France. 

On April 9th, 1835, the Duke of Brabant, afterwards 
Leopold II, was born. 

It was largely due to the constitutional rule of Leopold I 
that Belgium passed pveacefully through the Revolutionary 
period of 1848. He had gained the confidence of his people, 
and the nation became united to defend their common interests. 

Leopold displayed his prudent statesmanship by entering 
into friendly relations with Napoleon III on his assuming the 
position of Emperor. He did not forget, however, the policy 
of Napoleon I, and took measures for the defence of his 
country should that all conquering policy once more reign 
supreme. 

He asked Queen Victoria and the English Court to recog- 
nise the new Emperor, and thus gaining favour with Napoleon 
III prevailed on him to acknowledge the incorporation of the 
French provinces in the Belgian Kingdom. 

Leopold I died on December loth, 1865. In his 35 years^ 
prosperous reign he had founded a State and made it pnDSsible 
for the people to be independent. 

Leopold 1 1. 

The work of Leopold I was continued by his son, the Duke 
of Brabant, who now became Leopold 11. 

It is to Leopold II that Belgium owes its commercial and 
industrial prosperity. 

Belgium has one of the cheapest railway systems in the 



144 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

world — thanks to Leopold's efforts and business methods ; and 
the Congo is an outlet for the industry of the Belgian people. 

All attempts on the part of Napoleon III and Bismarck to 
annex Belgian territory were frustrated by Leopold. He also 
stood faithfully by the duties imposed on his country by her 
pledge of neutrality when the Franco-German war broke out 
in 1870. 

The way in which Belgium stood the trial won her the 
esteem and goodwill of other nations. 

It was due to Leopold that the Belgian people were able to 
colonise in the Congo State. 

It was also due to him that the country was well defended, 
for he believed that Belgian neutrality should be an armed 
one even to the point of sacrifice. 

The old forts of Namur and Li6ge were reconstructed and 
fresh ones made on the Meuse, as well as at Antwerp. Leopold 
believed that " wars have become crushing — those whom they 
surprise are absolutely lost." 

He also created forts at Antwerp and Zeebrugge. If his 
father had consolidated Belgian independence, Leopold II had 
furthered Belgian national prosperity. 



TRcvicvo. 

"The Surface of the Earth; Elementary Physical and Economic 
Geography." By Herbert Pickles, B.A., B.Sc. Cambridge : 
University Press. 2/-. 

This is a really well-arranged book and should serve as a valuable 
text-book for young students. The fact that the knowledge acquired 
by the pupils is so frequently used to further enquiry is in itself a 
good proof that the author is familiar with the type of students for 
whom he writes. The illustrations are well chosen and fairly well 
produced, and the diagrams are such as can be profitably used by any 
class. Perhaps a better illustration of fossiliferous limestone might 
have been chosen (page 25), and the value of this illustration is much 
less than that on page 38. The section on page 48 is not the best the 
author could have produced. Figs, 26 and 27 could easily have been 
combined and would then have been more easily compared with a map 
of England and Wales. 

In the hands of a good teacher the book should be of real service, 
for such a book has long been needed. The author and the publishers 
are to be complimented on such a neat production. T.W.F.P. 



Geography : Its Field, its Fascination, and its Future 145 



GEOGRAPHY : ITS FIELD, ITS FASCINATION, AND 
ITS FUTURE, 

With Special Reference to South Africa. 

By J. HuTCHEON, M.A., F.R.S.G.S. 

(Taken as read at the Meeting of the Society held in the 
Geographical Hall on Tuesday, October 19th, 1915.) 

Of recent years, in educational circles, perhaps no subject has 
been more frequently discussed than geography. Some have 
condemned it without a hearing, probably because their ideas 
of the subject were based entirely on the mechanical, dry-as- 
dust teaching of which they were the victims some ten or 
twenty years ago. Certainly it is by no means easy to state 
the exact limitations of the science, and it may therefore be 
profitable to glance here at the development of the subject 
from early times in order to understand more clearly the 
modern significance of the term. 

The science is almost as old as man, for, as soon as he 
found that his immediate environment could not supply all 
his needs, geography began. The inhabitants of the Nile 
and Euphrates basins used it in apportioning their fertile 
land, and at a much later period some Greek philosophers 
began to turn their attention to such questions as the size and 
shape of the earth, while others wrote descriptions of various 
lands and their inhabitants. In the 6th century B.C. the first 
map of the world was compiled, and Herodotus about a 
century later gave the world the first treatise on descriptive 
geography. As new regions came under the sway of the 
southern empires, descriptive geographical literature increased 
and it was at a much later date that the scientific treatment 
of the subject began, when, from being a mere collection of 
unrelated facts, names, and figures, geography became a 
systematic science tracing through phenomena distributed 
over the surface of the earth the gradual evolution from cause 
to effect. 

The geographer's first task is to explore the earth, sea and 
air and to cartographically express the result of his investi- 



146 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

gation. He has then to trace the connection between the 
land forms and subterranean and climatic forces. He has to 
explain how the distribution of vegetable life is dependent 
upon the soil and atmospheric conditions, and how animal life 
receives its substance from the vegetable world. His investi- 
gations then lead him to the conclusions that the distribution 
of man is directly influenced by the presence or absence of 
certain animals, plants, or minerals. The combination of all 
these {i.e.f land forms, climatic conditions, vegetation, etc.) 
brings about the development of characteristics, in races, 
religions and government, the rise of industries, the gravita- 
tion towards city centres, the foundation of states and the 
establishment of commerce. 

This sketch gives an indication of the comprehensiveness 
of the science, and it has accordingly been well called '' the 
gateways of the physical sciences," '' the key to history," and 
"' the basis of commerce," but the main effect of geography, 
is to demonstrate man's relation to his environment and his 
reaction on that environment. 

The geographer's field of action is the surface of our globe^ 
and by that term is meant such parts of the atmosphere, 
lithosphere, and hydrosphere as have been investigated. He 
borrows from the results obtained, by the geologist, the 
meteorologist, the anthropologist and others, and shows how 
the distributions of their phenomena are inter-related. In 
his science, as in all others, there are three stages, namely, 
the collecting, the classifying and the explanatory. The first 
deals with the gathering of as large a number of independent 
facts as possible, the second with the arranging of these, and 
the third with the determination of the laws regulating them. 

It must therefore be apparent that few subjects can profess 
to train more effectively the powers of observation, compari- 
son, explanation, and imagination. The educational value 
of the subject is very great, whether it be considered from the 
points of view of utility, culture, or discipline. 

Perhaps a rapid review of the development of geographical 
education in other countries would be of interest to some. 
The truest indication of what value is placed upon a subject 
is the degree of recognition it receives from the universities. 

At Paris, more than a hundred years ago, the first profes- 
sorship of geography was established. Now France can 
boast of nearly fifty university teachers of the subject, and she 



Geography : Its Field, its Fascination, and its Future 147 

has produced some of the world's greatest exponents of the 
science. Forty years ago geography was taught at only two 
of the German universities; at present there are close upon 
three score professors and lecturers. Similar progress has 
been made in Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Denmark, and the 
Netherlands. At Oxford the first readership in geography 
was established in 1887, and at Cambridge the study of the 
science began the following year. The practical branches of 
the subject have attained so high a standard in England, that 
students are attracted from all parts of the world, for, by the 
sustained efforts of several pioneers, staunchly supported by 
the Royal Geographical Society, the school of Geography at 
Oxford and the department at Cambridge can compare 
favourably with any elsewhere. 

In what relation does Geography stand to the other 
sciences? She has been called the mother of science, the 
handmaid of history, the child of geology, etc., and to attempt 
to account for such appellations is by no means an uninterest- 
ing task. 

Although Geography builds with the bricks supplied by 
the geologist, the meteorologist, and the anthropologist, it 
does not follow that in order to be a geographer one must be 
an expert in all these branches of science any more than the 
doctor, who uses the results of geographical inquiry in order 
to find a suitable climate for his invahds, could be called a 
geographer. The trend of the teaching of the subject will 
depend on the particular bent of the teacher ; if he be mathe- 
matical, then the astronomical and cartographical phases of 
the science will interest him; if geological, then the physical; 
if biological or anthropological, then the more human. 

The basis of all geographical knowledge is exploration ; 
and the history of this branch of the subject, with its numerous 
examples of heroism and self-sacrifice, is fascinating beyond 
measure. 

With the surveyor's aid are then prepared the maps, 
which are the foundations of all the later work of the 
geographer. Unfortunately, no convenient method for repre- 
senting the curved surface of the earth and retaining correctly 
both shape and proportion has yet been discovered. The 
lack of good maps and the ignorance of cartography shown 
on several occasions by administrators and commanders has 
cost much in blood and gold, and in recent wars Britain has 



148 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

been led to realize the inadvisability of lighting without the 
guidance of reliable maps. Military Geography is at last 
coming into its own. Nor in peace can their importance be 
over-estimated, for ability to interpret maps properly is 
absolutely indispensable to the satisfactory settlement of 
boundaries. In new countries, such as this, there is ample 
scope and great necessity for surveyors, hence their ''numerical 
strength " and the high standard of excellence attained. The 
fine workmanship must in no small degree be attributed to 
the impetus given to the art by the great patron of Science, 
the late Sir David Gill, whose achievements in Geodesy won 
him world-wide renown. Here a passing reference may be 
made to Astronomy, which also pays its quota towards the 
elucidation of the questions regarding the seasons, latitude 
and longitude. The field work necessary in the making and 
testing of maps has, probably owing to its practical nature, 
a great charm for most students of the subject. 

To state the line of demarcation between geography and 
geology is very difficult. The same material is used by both 
but the point of view is different, for geology studies the 
earth's crust in order to find out its past history, while 
geography looks upon the present state of development of 
the various land forms, considers their future condition, treats 
the whole as the home of plant, animal, and man, and notes 
the influence of configuration, etc., on him and his reaction 
on nature. Another of its problems deals with the distribu- 
tions of minerals and soils and their influence in the economic 
development of the regions concerned. Probably one of the 
geographer's greatest pleasures is to trace the relation between 
geological structure and scenery. The prevailing types in 
South Africa are too familiar to require more than a passing 
notice : — the Table Mountain Sandstone with its harsh jagged 
outlines, e.g.^ the Hex River Mountains; the Malmesbury 
Beds and the Granite with their smooth round contours, e.g,^ 
Signal Hill, " and the intrusive sheets of dolerite intersecting 
the less durable and slightly dipping strata of shales and 
sandstones forming the Karroo system, and presenting an 
outline alternately flat and sharp, with Krantzes on the top, 
and forming terraces at lower levels in the body of the moun- 
tains, e.g., the Nieuwveld Range." A resum6 of a most 
interesting lecture on the subject by Prof. A. Young will be 
found in the " Geographical Teacher " of autumn 1906. 



Geography : Its Field, its Fascination, and its Future 14^ 

In order to solve climatic problems geography appeals to 
the physicist and the meteorologist. With their assistance 
he binds the earth with isotherms, he divides the world into 
high and low air pressure belts, he points out the regions of 
heavy rainfall, and indicates the deserts. 

He now passes from the inorganic to the organic world, 
and the botanist leads the way. He recognises that the 
various combinations of soil and climate lead to the different 
arrangements of belts of vegetation, horizontally and verti- 
cally, and he concludes that in all probability plants from one 
region may thrive in similar habitats elsewhere. 

As the vegetable kingdom is, generally speaking, the 
bread and butter of the lower animal kingdom, the geographer 
tears a page from the Zoologist's note-book, dealing with the 
distribution of animal life. This leads to the great economic 
question of domestication of animals, an important branch of 
agricultural geography, by no means lacking in interest. 

Geography is the stage on which the tragedies- and 
comedies of History are enacted. This is illustrated in the 
case of South Africa where the great geographical factor, 
which has dominated its historical and commercial develop- 
ment, is the vast central plateau approachable with any degree 
of ease, only from the south. An arid desert forbids influx 
from the west, and from the east it is almost equally well 
barred by a tremendous mountain range. Besides, the fine 
climate of the S.W. corner of the Cape Colony offered great 
attractions to the early colonists, and hence most of them 
desired settlement there. This eventually led to trekking, 
and the great northern hinterland with a climate tempered 
by altitude became the home of thousands of pioneering 
farmers. This northern migration was greatly accelerated 
by the construction of railways, and the study of railway 
development in South Africa, its dependence upon configura- 
tion, and its effects upon economic history is a most fascina- 
ting occupation. 

Anthropology shows that the influence of environment on 
man varies in inverse proportion to his mental development. 
The savage is practically a slave to his environment, while 
the modern man has all but conquered nature. The tendency 
in anthropo-geography is to make sweeping statements before 
sufficient data have been collected. For instance, although it 
appears to be a general rule that nigrescence is intensified on 



150 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

approaching the equator, physiologists have not yet been able 
to explain why, nor to account for the distribution of the red 
race throughout America. Some direct effects on man's 
physique may easily be traced. In isolated regions where 
food is scarce, or lacks variety, animal stature is low. Such 
conditions prevail in Shetland, and the result may be seen 
in the breed of ponies peculiar to these islands. A similar 
type of stunted horse is being evolved in the Falkland Isles. 
On comparing the Bushmen of the barren Kalahari Desert 
with the Hottentots of the richer grass lands the same prin- 
ciple is found to prevail. Again, where geographic conditions 
necessitate the constant engagement in any particular form 
of exercise, e.g., paddling, the people concerned develop 
tremendous chests and arms while their legs are abnormally 
skinny. This is exemplified in the Barotse of the Upper 
Zambesi. Of course with a change of occupation in time 
these peculiarities disappear. 

Environment reflects itself also in architecture, for the 
height or basement-area of building varies according to the. 
value of the land ; houses are made to resist heat or cold 
ac(^ording to the climate ; the stone employed in most cases 
depends on the nature of the neighbouring rocks; and the 
ornamentation is regulated by the weathering agents. 

Even on religious beliefs environment has left its mark, 
for the hell of the Eskimos is a region of darkness and intense 
cold, while that of the Jew is a place of eternal fire. It must 
therefore be evident that the combination of all the direct and 
indirect forces of environment must have a considerable 
influence in moulding character. 

The study of geography through place-names has also 
roused considerable interest. A few examples will indicate 
how some local geographical peculiarities are embodied in 
names. Near Beaufort West there is a district known as 
" Ghoup." This is the Bushman-Hottentot word meaning 
what is absolutely no good for anything, for it was applied 
to the parts of an animal which could not possibly be eaten — 
even by Bushmen. From the point of view of production the 
place is very appropriately named. Then near Knysna is 
" Tse-tsi Kama," with its " much-much-water " and its dense 
forests, " Umzimvubu " (home of hippopotamus), and 
" Ngqeleni " (at the place of cold). '' Baviaan's River " and 
" Zeekoe " require no comment. 

The geographical work of the future can only be indicated 



Geography : Its Field, its Fascination, and its Future 151 

not only because the field is so large but also because in 
accordance with the prevailing principle of evolution new 
conditions are constantly arising, and in consequence new 
geographical problems are ever asserting themselves. For 
instance, the future of the ostrich feather industry, which has 
assumed such an alarming aspect in the recent months, is a 
question of no mean geographical significance. As " terra 
incognita " is now almost non-existent the work of the 
explorer becomes every year more limited, but there is still 
need for him in South America and in isolated regions else- 
where. Meanwhile, however, the eyes of the world are fixed 
on the vast continent of the South Antarctic. Perhaps 
Shackleton's next great expedition will throw light on the 
bewitching problems of palaso-geography, perhaps this lone 
land will prove a storehouse of mineral wealth, perhaps it will 
provide the Australian meteorologist with the key to under- 
Standing his climatic conditions. 

In cartography, maps showing every possible type of 
geographical distribution will be available. The great inter- 
national map which has been in preparation for several years 
will make possible the universal use of several symbols and 
modes of spelling. There is scope for cartographical repre- 
sentation of the distribution of soils and of the actual and 
potential productivity of the various agricultural districts. 
Hydrographical surveys, especially in countries such as this, 
where water is wealth, should be easily '' available for all 
interested." Maps showing the present and past distribution 
of forests and rainfall, of drained land and malaria, certainly 
ought to receive the serious consideration of all patriotic 
citizens. Even statistics might gain a little attention if 
presented in map or graphic form. 

The geologist may help by indicating the presence of 
valuable or useful minerals, by telling the probable develop- 
ment of land forms on account of erosion or deposition, and 
may lead through the avenues of palaeontology to the worlds 
of the past. 

The hydrographer will suggest improved means of distri- 
buting water, and in conjunction with the agriculturist will 
indicate how to receive the maximum of production from the 
minimum of outlay. All such considerations help to answer 
the geographer's queries. 

Recent marine catastrophes, even in the most familiar 



152 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

highways of the seas, have revealed the fact that on every hand 
lurk sources of danger which demand the further attention 
of the oceangrapher. 

Although the meteorologist cannot alter the courses of 
cyclones he may be able to suggest new means of modifying 
local climatic conditions in order to make possible the more 
complete Europeanisation of tropical lands with their almost 
unlimited productive potentialities. In this part of the globe, 
the burning question of the day seems to be " Is South Africa 
drying up ? " The meteorologist may even find a means of 
kiUing the dreaded ''dust-devil." 

The preparation, distribution, and intelligent interpretation 
of meteorological charts are absolutely necessary for 
thoroughly successful farming, and safe fishing. The bearing 
of meteorology on aviation is evident, and before long the 
latter may demand serious consideration from the geographers 
of commerce. 

Botanists, zoologists, and anthropologists, after more 
comprehensive observation and exhaustive investigation, in 
which innumerable indirect causes will not fail to receive 
consideration, may discover laws regarding man's distribu- 
tion and racial characteristics which will stand the test of 
universal application. 

History must continue to pursue the familiar paths laid 
out by Geography. 

The questions regarding a topographical nomenclature 
for general adoption, tropical diseases with their distribution, 
and their relation to animal distribution, the world's decreas- 
ing coal supply, the latent power of oil, water, tides and sun, 
and the alteration of the great trade routes giving rise to such 
local questions as shipping accommodation, storage, etc., 
must all receive attention, from the geographer of to-morrow. 

The establishment of an Imperial Geographical Informa- 
tion Bureau, which would collect and distribute information 
regarding all matters geographical, would prove a tremendous 
boon to the man in the street, the traveller, the colonist, the 
soldier, and the administrator. In a small way, much useful 
work of this kind can be done in schools. 

With reference to the future of geographical education in 
South Africa, it is evident that if any profitable meteorolo- 
gical, field, or research work is to be accomplished at the 
higher centres of learning, the instruction in schools must be 



Geography : Its Field, its Fascination, and its Future 153; 

sound and extensive, and hence it is meet that every endeavour 
should be made to raise the status of a subject of such 
importance to men both collectively and individually, and 
which, most are agreed, has not received due consideration 
in the past. 



'* Physical Geography." By P. Lake, M.A. Cambridge : University 
Press. 7/6. 

The opening sentence of Mr. Lake's preface is, indeed, only toa 
true. Of late years we have been overloaded with a rapid succession 
of books on elementary physical geography, of which it may be truly 
said that the majority " had no proper reason for existing," since 
they only repeated in slightly different terms what others had said 
before them. Apart from special studies of separate branches of the 
subject, there were, until lately, barely half a dozen manuals to which 
a teacher could have recourse for further information than the elemen- 
tary text-books gave ; and of these three were of Transatlantic origin,, 
so that the examples given had to be paralleled by others nearer 
home. There was, therefore, abundant room for such a manual as 
Mr. Lake has given us. 

It is not light reading. Readers of the author's earlier works will 
know that he does not multiply words without necessity ; but, though 
the style is condensed, it is never obscure. Rather the contrary, the 
descriptions of the various phenomena are models of clear and concise 
exposition, and the illustrations are excellently chosen to suit the text. 
They are also admirably printed, and not blurred, as is sometimes the- 
case, so badly as to be almost illegible. 

Where so much is good, it is difficult to single out particular 
passages for praise or censure. But the chapters on the distribution of 
temperature in the atmosphere, and that on the tides— a subject which 
beginners appear to find peculiarly difficult to understand — will com- 
mend themselves to teachers as affording valuable help in their studies 
and lessons. Both subjects are often very superficially treated. 

On page 312 we notice that the author gives the I.aacher See as a 
type of a crater lake. Now it is held by some competent German 
geologists that it is not a crater lake at all, but one formed by a 
subsidence due to the activity of the surrounding volcanoes ; and, after 
spending three weeks in the Eifel, chiefly in studying the Maark and 
other volcanic phenomena, the writer is inclined to ap-ree with them. 
It would be better to give the Pulvermaar, near Gillenfeld, or the 
Ulmener Maar, west of Manderscheid, both of which are indisputablj^ 
crater lakes, as examples of this interesting lake forma<-ion. It is to- 
be feared, though, that the latter, the larger of the two. will be drained 



154 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

before many years are passed by the brook that now runs from it and 
is cutting down its bed somewhat rapidly. 

In conclusion we would cordially recommend this book to students, 
especially to those whose means to purchase books and shelf space to 
contain them are limited. J.A.O. 



" Elementary Studies in Geography and History." By H. J. 
Mackinder, M.P., Reader in Geography in the University of 
London. ,«, t 

(i) The Teaching of Geography and History, i/-. 

(2) Our Island History, 2/-, or in parts 1/3 each. 

(3) The Modem British State, 1/9. 
London : Geo. Philip and Son. 

For a scholarly and singularly lucid review of these books the reader 
cannot do better than refer to Mr. P. M. Roxby's article in the 
autumn number of the Geographical Teacher, in which is quoted the 
following extract, as indicative of Mr. Mackinder's theme : — 

" There are some six roads to be traversed . . . before we begin 
our first book on geography at the age of eight or nine years. The 
first and the second of our roads, starting directly out of the freest 
and youngest play, are the twin roads of drawing and modelling. 
The third and fourth roads are comprised in what is known as 
nature study. The third follows the flow and the ebb of animal 
and vegetable life throughout the year, and the fourth follows the 
circulation of water from sea to sky and back to sea. The fifth is 
the romantic road of tales from the Wonderbook, tales of distant 
lands and 'once upon a time.' The sixth road goes with the sun 
in his apparent path from dawn to dusk and beyond : it leads to 
the conclusion that the earth is a body hung in space. 

" Our six roads end on the globe : they have been aimed there 

from the beginning. The children will exercise upon it the six 

faculties which they have won. They will (i) drawn their own 

maps from the continents shown upon it. They will (2) mould 

from the maps so drawn, and pour in water around to represent 

the ocean. With their fingers tracing little circulations on the 

globe, they will picture (4) the mists rising from the ocean, and 

descending on the continents in rain, and will see the (3) annual 

crops growing in the moisture and the sunshine. Where the land 

is rainless they will learn to recognise the Sahara of their (5) 

Wonderland, with its sandstorms and camels. Where the land is 

drenched in Central Africa they will imagine dark forests and 

pygmies. Finally, (6) the sunshine from a lamp will divide the 

day from the night, and the continents on our globe will rotate 

successively into the day." 

One can but regret that there should be a need for such a book 

as the first-named, but, in the present state of things, seeing that the 

teacher is as a rule imperfectly trained to deal with the subjects as 

they are expected to be taught in these days, and has little oppor- 



. MM ' Reviews I55 

tunity of further study on the necessary lines (and certainly no means 
as a rule of travel), we can but welcome the book as an almost 
essential vade mecum for the teacher. 

In the second book named, the great aim in view is to bring the 
pupil to a realisation of the dependence of the present on the past, 
and in this aim the author is eminently successful. 

In the third book, Citizenship is the theme, and the method of 
treatment is strikingly novel and can hardly fail of its purpose to 
train its young readers up to be worthy Britishers. C.H.C. 



** Industrial and Commercial Geography." By Prof. J. Russell 
Smith. London : Constable & Co. 902 pages. 15/- net. 

The author aims to interpret the earth in terms of its usefulness to 
humanity and deals with human activities as affected by the earth, 
rather than with part3 of the earth as they affect human activities. 

In the first part of the book we have a discussion of industries, 
in preference to the usual regional treatment, and the author justifies 
his method by insisting that it appeals more to reason and is more 
easily assimilated by the reader. We agree with him too that such 
a procedure will give a sound knowledge of the trade activities of 
each country without sacrificing the knowledge of the industries 
themselves 

In the second part there is a description of world-commerce, with 
a detailed treatment of Ports, Trade Routes, etc., and we would 
especially commend for careful study the excellent chapters on Trade 
Routes. They contain material which can only have been got 
together with much labour and the method of presentation is 
admirable. 

We believe the book to be an evidence of a coming change in the 
outlook of geography students and we commend it with every confi- 
dence to those in search of inspiration for their work. C.H.C. 



" Hannibal Once More." By Douglas W. Freshfield, M.A., F.R.G.S. 
With three maps and five illustrations. London : E. Arnold. 
5/-- 

This intensely interesting study of the most probable route taken 
by Hannibal's Army across the Western Alps is a continuation and 
culmination of Mr. Freshfield 's papers in the Geographical and Alpine 
journals. 

In proposing the route from the Durance River by the Col de Vars 
and the Col de I'Argentiere to the Italian plain, he finds great support 
in a passage from the writings of Marcus Terentius Varro, a Roman 
general and great author, where a list of five passes is given, 
presumably arranged in geographical order, as the first named is the 



156 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

one nearest the sea, and the fifth is the most northerly one, the 
Little St. Bernard. The second (called Hannibal's Pass by Varro) 
thus being the second from the coast, or the Vars-Argentiere Route. 

Mr. Freshfield first treats of the classical texts of Polybius and 
Livy, and discusses the views taken of these texts by various writers. 
He then shows how the Vars-Argentiere route answers the require- 
ments, and finally criticises other proposed routes, more especially 
the route over the Col du Clapier, advocated by Commandant Colin 
and other French military writers, and by Professor Spenser Wilkin- 
son in this country, pointing out how far and where they fail to agree 
with the narratives of Polybius and Livy. 

The value of the book is greatly enhanced by the good orographical 
maps of the two routes specially considered and of the Western Alps 
as a whole. H. S. 



" The Teaching of Geography." By B. C. Wallis, B.Sc. Cambridge r 
University Press. 3/6. 

This is an interesting book, and the author has given his ideas and 
the result of his experience in a very lucid way. Whether all teachers 
will accept his ideal is doubtful, for every teacher thinks his own 
method, at least, a good method. It should also be remembered that 
methods adopted successfully by one teacher may prove an utter failure 
in another and yet equally capable teacher. 

The author has however grasped the difficulties and knows that 
conditions vary in every school and in every locality. Physical geo- 
graphy (land forms) is far harder to teach in the plains of East 
Yorkshire than among the hills of West Yorkshire, but the book will 
be a help to the teacher who is not so favourably placed as he might 
desire. In this book such a teacher will find his " ideals," and the 
author is to be congratulated on a work in which every teacher of 
geography will find something of value. 

In many schools it is impossible to have a separate room, and in 
many more the staff is too small to employ a specialist for the subject. 
Perhaps it would be well for our Universities and Training Colleges 
to follow the advice given in Chapter XIX. Chapter XXI should be 
studied both by teachers in elementary and in secondary schools. 
Chapter XXII is also valuable and shows that the author has not 
overlooked the fact that other subjects form part of the school course. 

The book should be in every school and should be a real aid to 
teachers who frequently find difficulty in correlating and grouping the 
various subjects. T.W.F.P. 



Proceedings of the Society 157 

proceebin99 of tbe Societi?** 

July ist to December 31st, 1914. 

The 965th Meeting of the Society was held in the Houldsworth 
Hall on Wednesday, October 7th, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S., and later Colonel 
H. T. Crook, D.L., V.D. 

The Rev. T. T. Norgate, F.R.G.S., gave a lecture on "The 
Theatre of the War," illustrated with many lantern views. 

Colonel Crook moved^ Mr. J. Stephenson Reid seconded and it was 
unanimously resolved that the hearty thanks of the Meeting be 
tendered to the Lecturer for his interesting address, and to the 
Vice-chairman, Mr. E. W'. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S., for the loan .of 
his powerful lantern, with which the slides were so well shown. 

The lecture was in aid of the Belgian Relief Fund, and the balance 
of £18 17s. lod. was handed to Mr. L. A. Galle, Belgian Consul, on 
behalf of the fund. 



The 966th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, October 
13th, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

Mr. T. W. Sowerbutts, F-S-A.A., in the Chair. ■ 

The Minutes of the Meetings held on April 7th and October 7th, 
1914, were taken as read. 

The election of the following members was announced : — Ordinary : 
Miss Ashton, Miss Ruth Bennett, Messrs. W. Appleby, E. H. L. 
Dickson, T. Gaythorpe, C. V. Haerem, T. Hilton, J. R. Morland, 
J. E. T. Richardson, T. F. Robinson, O. M. Row, H. Tattersall, and 
T. Wood, and the Summerville College ; Associate : Miss Kate Chorley 
and Miss A. Jackson. 

The Chairman mentioned that, by direction of the Council, letters 
of condolence had been sent to the relatives of Messrs. G. I. Blake, 
J. G. Groves, D.L., S. Massey, and T. Newbigging, who had died 
during the summer. 

The Chairman reminded the Members that Thursday, October 15th, 
would be the 30th anniversary of the formation of the Society. The 
Council had proposed that a banquet should be held to celebrate the 
event, and the President of the Royal Geographical Society had 
accepted an invitation, but under the altered circumstances due to 
the war it had been decided not to go on with this proposal. 

Miss Kate Qualtrough, F.R.G.S., gave a lecture on ** The Genesis 
of Geography," and illustrated her paper with lantern views of maps, 
plans and places of historic interest (see p. 68). 

The Chairman on behalf of the Meeting thanked the Lecturer for 
her very instructive address so appropriately illustrated. 

*The Meetings are held in the Geographical Hall, unless otherwise 
stated. 



158 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

The 967th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, October 
20th, 1914, at 7-30 p.m., 

In the ChairJ(^dbn^^H;>Tl:lCl(iok;?©tii.»;;17JDU^•C. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on October 13th were taken as 
read. 

The Chairman mentioned that the death of Mr. Joseph Lunn took 
place on October 15th, and it was resolved that the sympathy of the 
members present be conveyed to his -relatives in their bereavement. 

Mr. Albert Wilmore, 'D.Sc, F.G.S., gave a lecture on ** Belgium, 
the Battleground of Europe," and illustrated his remarks with lantern 
slides, mainly original (see p. 125). 

On the motion of the Chairman it was resolved that the hearty 
thanks of the Meeting be tendered to Dr Wilmore for his very 
interesting and instructive address. 

N.B.— As some fifty members and friends were crowded out of the 
above Meeting, Dr. Wilmore kindly repeated his lecture on "Belgium" 
on Friday, November 20th, when Mr. T. W. F. Parkinson, M.Sc, 
F.G.S., presided. A collection for the Belgian Refugees' Fund was 
taken at the close of the lecture, and £s 2s. gd. was received and 
handed over to Councillor Will Melland on behalf of the fund. 



The 968th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, October 
27th, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S., in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on October 20th were taken as 
read. 

The Chairman announced the election of Mr. J. Buckley as an 
Ordinary Member, and Mademoiselle F. Dewez as an Associate, and 
mentioned the death of Mr. K. Radcliffe, one of the oldest members, 
to whose relatives a letter of condolence had been sent by direction of 
the Executive Committee. 

Mrs. H. L. Lees, F.R.G.S., A.R.CI., gave an account of her 
" Journey round the World, with special reference to the Far East," 
and illustrated her description with lantern views froin her own 
photographs. 

Mr. F. Zimmem, F.R.G.S., moved, the Chairman seconded and it 
was unanimously resolved that a hearty vote of thanks be given to 
Mrs. Lees for her very interesting lecture so well illustrated. 

N.B. — As some twenty members and a large number of " City 
News " readers and others were unable to gain admission to Mrs. 
Lees' lecture on October 27th, Mrs. Lees kindly arranged to again 
describe her journey round the world in the Geographical Hall on 
Friday, November 27th, 1914. All the 300 tickets issued were applied 
for in two days after the announcement of the lecture in the " City 
News," so Mrs. Lees arranged to repeat her lecture for the third 
time in the Midland Hall on December 3rd from 3 to 5 p.m. A 
collection realising £4 2s. 7d. was made on November 27th, and this, 
with the balance left after paying expenses at the Midland Hall, 
amounted to >Cio, which Mrs. Lees devoted to the local Relief Fund. 



Proceedings of the Society 159 

The 969th Meeting- of the Society was held on Tuesday, November 
3rd, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on October 27th were taken as 
read. 

Mr. Charles Sutton gave a lecture on ** A Journey to the Rhine and 
the Black Forest," illustrating his remarks with original lantern views 
made from his own photographs. 

On the motion of Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S., seconded by the 
Chairman, it was unanimously resolved that the hearty thanks of the 
Meeting be tendered to Mr. Sutton lor the interesting account which 
he had given of his journey and for the fine lantern views with which 
it was illustrated. 



The 970th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, November 
loth, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair Mr. D. A. Little. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on November 3rd were taken as 
read. 

The election of the following members was announced : — 
Ordinary: Madam Adnett, Miss Greene, Rev. J. G. Maude, Messrs. 
A. Brown, F. Clay, R. M. Downie, J. Gregory, and W. H. Hewerdine; 
Associate : Miss Ewbank, Miss M. J. Smith, and Mr. R. W. Nuttall. 

Mr. Gilbert Waterhouse, M.A., F.R.G.S., gave a lecture on "Tramps 
in Tyrol," describing two journeys in unfrequented parts of the 
country and illustrating his remarks with original lantern views. 

On the motion of Mr. J. Hancock, seconded by Mr. E- Rftssell 
Evans, a hearty vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Waterhouse for the 
interesting description of his journeys and for the illustrations shown. 



The 971st Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, November 
17th, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on November loth were taken 
as read. 

The Chairman referred to the death of an honorary member of the 
Society, the Right Hon. Field Marshal Earl Roberts, and asked the 
members to pass a resolution of sympathy by standing for a moment 
in silence. 

Mr. W. H. Shrubsole, F.G.S., gave a lecture on "America's 
Wonderland, the Yellowstone Park." The address was illustrated with 
coloured lantern views. 

On the motion of Mr. F. Zimmern, F.R.G.vS., seconded by the 
Chairman, it was unanimously resolved that the hearty thanks of 
those present be given to the lecturer for his interesting lecture so 
well illustrated. 



The 972nd Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, November 
24th, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair Mr. D. A. Little. 



t6o Journal of the Manchester Geog^raphical Society 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on November 17th were taken as 
read. 

The election of Rev. W. H. Leak, Rev. Wm. Nicholls, Alderman 
J. R. Ragdale, J. P., and Mr. Harry Staniforth as Ordinary Members 
was announced. 

The Chairman mentioned the loss by death of Messrs. G. H. Bell 
and Gustav Reiss, and the members gave expression to their sym- 
pathy with the relatives of the deceased members by rising silently. 

Mr. George Ginger gave a lecture on " Sunny Sicily," illustrating 
his remarks with a large number of lantern views. 

On the motion of the Chairman a hearty vote of thanks was passed 
to Mr. Ginger for his very interesting and instructive account of his 
visits to Sicily, so well illustrated. 



The 973rd Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, December 
ist, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S- 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on November 24th were taken as 
read. 

The Chairman announced the election of Mr. J. Higgins as an 
Ordinary Member and Mr. H. Somerset, Junr., as an Associate 
Member. 

Mr. Samuel Wells, F.R.G.S., gave a lecture on " Where Three 
Empires Meet — Poland," and illustrated his address with a large 
number of good lantern views. 

Colonel H. T. Crook, D.L-, moved, the Chairman seconded and it 
was unanimously resolved that a hearty vote of thanks be given to 
Mr. Wells for his interesting address and for the lantern slides with 
which it was illustrated. 



The 974th Meeting of the Society was held in the Free Trade Hall 
on Wednesday, December 2nd, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., F.R.G.S., presided, and was accompanied 
on the platform by Mr. Hilaire Belloc, the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor 
(Alderman McCabe), Mr. L- A. Galle, Belgian Consul, and the 
following members of the Council of the Society : The Rt. Rev. Bishop 
Welldon, D.D., Colonel H. T. Crook, D.L., Professor W. Boyd 
Dawkins, J.P., F.R.S., Messrs. J. McFarlane, M.A., M.Com., F.R.G.S., 
George Thomas, J.P., D. A. Little, and Egbert vSteinthal, Miss L. E. 
Walter, H.M.I., B.Sc, Messrs. J. E. Balmer, F.R.G.S., C. A. Clarke, 
J. Howard Hall, T. W. F. Parkinson, M.Sc, F.G.S., J. Stephenson 
Reid, T. W. Sowerbutts, F.S.A.A., and Harry Sowerbutts, A.R.C.Sc. 

The President, with some introductory remarks, introduced Mr. 
Hilaire Belloc, who delivered a lecture on " The Strategy of the War,*' 
illustrating his remarks with diagrams and maps shown by the electric 
lantern of the Vice-Chairman. 

The Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor moved, Mr. L. A. Galle seconded, 
and the President supported a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Belloc for 
his very interesting and instructive lecture, and it was passed unani- 
mously. 



Proceedings of the Society i6i 

The lecture was in aid of the Belgian Relief Fund, and the 
gratifying amount of ;^5o 17s. 5d. was left after paying expenses. 
This was handed over to Mr. L. A. Galle, Belgian Consul, on behalf 
of the fund. 

A report of the lecture is here given : — 

SOME POINTS IN STRATEGY. 

Mr. Hilaire Belloc lectured to a large audience at the Free Trade 
Hall, Manchester, last night, on the strategy of the war in the west 
of Europe. The lecture had been arranged by the Manchester 
Geographical Society, and Mr. Harry Nuttall, M.P., presided. Mr. 
Nuttall said, introducing the lecturer, that he hoped that after this 
cataclysm was over the nations, including the United States of 
America, would come together to agree to reduce armaments and to 
keep the peace. 

Mr. Belloc discussed first the general aspects of the war and 
secondly the strategic elements of what has happened in France and 
Belgium. This war, he said, was the largest business upon which 
any nation had ever been engaged. Upon what happened as the 
result of this war " which is yet undecided remember " will turn 
the future of Europe, to a degree that was not generally realised. 
This business was more important than the Reformation, more 
important than the discovery of America, more important than the 
discovery of printing. If they did not take great care, the civilisa- 
tion that men now knew would cease ; however much care men 
took, the Europe that would emerge from the war would be a Europe 
very different from what they had known. War, for example, had 
always a democratic effect. Did they think that after this war the 
same industrial conditions would continue ? Whoever thought that 
was singularly illusioned ; was living in a fool's paradise, "and 
God knows," he said, " the Press has done everything it can to 
make you live in a fool's paradise. During the passage of the 
Belgian plain by the Germans the papers were full of German 
defeats ; and how often has the Press told you that this or that 
attack upon the Allied lines was the final German attack ? It is 
the business of a man always to expect the worst." 
The Question of Numbers. 

Mr. Belloc laid down two principles — the first that victory 
consists in the disarming of the adversary by whatever method ; the 
second that, other things being equal, victory is decided by numbers 
— in the decisive time and place. In respect of this matter of 
numbers he defined three periods of the war— the first the period of 
enormous Austrian-German superiority lasting to the middle of 
September ; the second, the period of great increase in the Russian 
numbers and some increase in the strength of Germany ; the third 
(which is not yet come, but will come about the end of December) 
when Russia will be fully mobilised, and there will be no further 
increments of force except young men coming in a year or two before 
their time. In the first stage Germany had an advantage over 
France of 126 to 39, and it was her task to beat France quickly by 
force of this superiority, then leaving a garrison to hold down France 



i62 Journal of the Man,chester Geographical Society 

while she turned to meet Russia. By a narrow squeak, Mr. Belloc 
said, that effort failed, and he proceeded to show how it failed. To 
do this he had to explain the Napoleonic doctrine of " the co- 
ordinated detached reserve " and ** the open strategic square," a 
formula which consists of the disposition of an inferior force before 
a superior attacking force in the form of a square with open sides, 
the square being presented lozenge-wise to the enemy, with the force 
holding one corner—" the operative corner " — disposed directly in 
the path of the enemy, the business of the operative corner being 
to retreat, holding the enemy engaged, to a point at which the other 
three corners of the force are thrown at the one or other wing of the 
enemy to defeat it before the other wing can come up. 

British and the Retreat from Mons. 

The great military question of years, Mr. Belloc said, had been 
whether a conscript army could be trusted to carry out the function 
of "the operative corner" without breaking. The Germans had 
argued that it could not. It was upon this doctrine that the French 
relied. " After this war," he said, "there will certainly be a great 
deal of recrimination and a great deal of boasting. It will always 
be worth while for the British to remember that during that famous 
retreat from Mons the exterior comer was composed of the British 
professional contingent, and on the extreme corner of that, taking 
all the worst work, was General Smith-Dorrien." In accordance 
with this doctrine, Mr. Belloc said, a second (eastern) corner force of 
the lozenge was disposed about the Belfort gap ; a third, General 
Joffre, keeping his own counsel, hid in Paris; the fourth was in 
Normandy and Picardy. It was the discovery of the reserve force 
in Paris that caused Von Kluck to change his plans, and that 
brought about — after the vain march across the French front and 
the effort to break through on the east— the German retreat. For 
the skill with which that retreat was carried out Mr. Belloc had a 
great deal of praise; and he pointed out also the two great mis- 
calculations that entered into the French plan, the first, that Namur 
could hold, whereas it fell; the second that the Germans would 
bring at the most eight army corps to the attack, whereas they 
brought fourteen. 

The Attempt on Cai^ais. 

The most remarkable thing in the operations, in Mr. Belloc *s 
opinion, was the German attempt on Calais along the sea shore. It 
should have been made, he thought, on purely strategic considera- 
tions, from Arras to Boulogne; and he could only explain the 
present nature of the attempt by supposing it to be due to political 
interference. "Rumour says," he concluded, "that that attack along 
the shore is being begun again. It would be rash to say that the 
task is impossible, but it is certainly immensely difficult. I was 
there ten days ago, and though, of course, I can no more judge of 
the matter than any other civilian, yet one can construct an opinion 
from observing how soldiers speak and judge, and judging from 
what soldiers then were saying and judging, that line cannot be 
broken through." 



Proceedings of the Society 163 

Mr! Belloc was thanked for his lecture in a resolution that was 
proposed by the Lord Mayor and seconded by the Belgian Consul. 
The Lord Mayor said that many people in Manchester were going 
on as if nothing was happening. Some people would not be dis- 
turbed if a shell fell in tlieirneighbb'ur's' backyard; so long' as it did 
not affect their own. There w^s an asto^nishing amount of inertia in 
the town. {Manchester Guardian.) 



The 975th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, December 
8th, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair Mr. George Ginger. 

The Minutes of the Meetings- hjeld on December ist and 2nd were 
taken as read. 

Mr, W. H. Ward gave a lecture entitled "To and Over the 
Simplon," descriptive of a journey from Lausanne, round the North- 
Eastern Shore of Lake Geneva, up the Rhone Valley, and over the 
Simplon Pass. The address was illustrated with a large number of 
lantern views. 

On the motion of the Chairman a hearty vote of thanks was passed 
to the lecturer for his interesting and instructive account of his 
journey, so well illustrated. 



The 976th Meeting of the Society was held on Tuesday, December 
15th, 1914, at 7-30 p.m. 

In the Chair Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S. 

The Minutes of the Meeting held on December 8th were taken as 
read. 

The election of Messrs. F. W. Goodwin and I. Zellweger as 
Ordinary Members and Mr. E. Lightowler as an Associate Member 
was announced. 

The Chairman drew the attention of the members present to Rule 
26, which provides that each ordinary member has the privilege of 
introducing one friend, and intimated that it would be necessary in 
the future to adhere to this rule. 

Mr. Arnold Williams gave a lecture on " Belgium, the Land of 
Art : its Economic and Political History," and illustrated his remarks 
with many lantern views (see p. 130). 

The Chairman on behalf of the Meeting offered hearty thanks to 
the Lecturer for his instructive address and for the illustrations shown. 



The 977th Meeting of the Society was held on Friday, December 
i8th, 1914, at 7-0 p.m., and took the form of a lecture to the children 
of the members. 

Mr. Wm. H. Ward presided. 

Mr. Charles Sutton gave a lecture on " Manchester to the High- 
lands of Scotland by Road." The address was a description of a 
motor-car journey to the North of Scotland and back, and was 
illustrated with a large number of lantern views, mostly original, 
concluding with some natural colour photographs. 

One of the girls in the audience moved, and a boy seconded a 
hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Sutton for his interesting lecture and for 
the slides shown, and it was carried by acclamation. 



i64 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



li0t Of fl>ap0, 16001x6, 3ournal0, etc, 

ACQUIRED BY THE SOCIETY 
FROM JANUARY 1st TO DECEMBER 31st, 1914. 



flDap0* 

EUROPE. 

Cheshire. Sheet XVIII. N.W. (Altrincham). Scale six inches to 1 mile. 

Southampton : Ordnance Survey Office, 1911. 
Ordnance Survey Map, Lancashire. Manchester Sheets CIV. 6. 19, CIV. 6. 20, 

CIV. 6. 24, CIV. 6. 25. Scale 1/500. Southampton : Ordnance Survey 

Office, 1901-02-03. 
Liverpool Bay, surveyed by Lieut. Lord, R.N., 1846. London : Hydrographic 

Office of the Admiralty, 1850. *Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 
Carte des Voies de Communication de Londres aux pays Balkaniques et a Suez. 

Scale 1/5,000,000. *Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 
Map of the Seat of War in North Sea, Belgium and Eastern France. Scale 

18 miles to the inch. London : G. W. Bacon and Co., 1914. 
Bartholomew's Reduced Survey Map of North-Eastern France, Belgium and 

the Rhine. Scale 16 miles to an inch. Edinburgh : John Bartholomew 

and Co., 1914. (Price 2/- net.) *The Publishers. 
Belgium and the North-East of France. Scale 6 miles to 1 inch. Geographical 

Section, General Staff No. 2517. London : War Office, 1912. *The 

Director of Military Operations. 
War Map of Central Europe, containing on one sheet, General Map showing 

European Frontiers (Scale 86 miles to 1 inch) and Special large Scale 

Map showing Frontier regions between France, Germany, Belgium and 

Holland. Fortified cities specially marked. Scale 31 miles to 1 inch. 

Edinburgh : John Bartholomew and Co., 1914. (Price 1/-.) *The Pub- 
lishers. 
General Map showing European Frontiers, 1914. Fortified Cities specially 

coloured. Scale 31 miles to 1 inch. Edinburgh : John Bartholomew and 

Co., 1914. (Price 1/-.) *The Publishers. 
Norway. Landgeneralkart over Norge i 1/250,000. Blad XXVI, Vega. 

Kristiania : Norges Geografiske Opmaaling, 1914. *Norges Geografiske 

Opmaaling. 
Norway. Kart over Nordre Trondhjems Amt. Blad II. Maalestok 1/200,000. 

Kristiania : Norges Geografiske Opmaaling, 1913. *Norges Geografiske 

Opmaaling. 
Norway. Topografisk kart over kongeriget Norge. L 7, Andoya ; L 8. 

Kvaef jord ; M 12, Riddoalge ; W 7, Karasjok ; 31 A, Espedalen. Maalestok 

1/100,000. Kristiania : Norges Geografiske Opmaaling, 1914. *Norges 

Geografiske Opmaaling. 



List of Maps 165 

Norway. Katalog over Norske Sjokarter den 1 Januar, 1914. Kristiania, 
1914. *Norges Geografiske Opmaaling. 

Norway. Den Norske Kyst. 217, Romsdalsf jordene ; 227, Fra Beiaren og 
Saltfjorden til Bodo og Folia. Scale 1/100,000. Kristiania : Norges 
Geografiske Opmaaling, 1914. *Norges Geografiske Opmaaling. 

Norway. Den Norske Kyst. Sheets 68, Fra Steigen til Tranoy ; 79, Fra 
Harstad og Kvaefjord til Risoysund og Senjen. Scale 1/50,000. Kris- 
tiania : Norges Geografiske Opmaaling, 1914. *Norges Geografiske 
Opmaaling. 

Atlas ofver Finland, 1910. Sallskapet for Findlands Geografi. One Vol, Maps 
and Two Vols., Text. Helsingfors, 1910. *Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 

Map of the Balkan States. Showing Frontiers in accordance with the Treaties 
and Agreements of 1913-14. Scale 1/750,000. London : Royal Geogra- 
phical Society, 1914. *The Royal Geographical Society. 

Port of Leixoes. New Harbour (Oporto, Portugal). Hydrographical Chart 
published by the Daily Paper "0 Commercio do Porto." Scale 1/2,500. 
Porto : Emilio Biel and Ca., 1892. *Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 

ASIA. 

Map of the Made Roads on the Continental portion (Scindh excepted) of the 
Bombay Presidency. Scale 35 miles to an inch. London : Charles Knight 
and Co., 1846. *Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 

Die Kiau-Tshau Bucht, Ost-Shantung. Scale 1/750,000. Berlin: Dietrich 
Reimer, 1876. *Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 

AFRICA. 
Mapa del Sahara Espanol y Regiones Inmediates, por Enrique d'Almonte. 

Scale 1/1,000,000. (4 Sheets.) Madrid : Real Sociedad Geografica, 1914. 

*The Society. 
Mapa de Marruecos al sur del Rio Tensift, por D. Eduardo Alvarez Ardanuy, 

en escala de 1/500,000. (Inset : Fifteen Plans of chief towns, etc.) 

Madrid : Real Sociedad Geografica, Boletin, Tomo LVI, Trimestre 4, 1914. 

*The Society. 
Cote Occidentale d'Afrique de St. Louis au Cap des Palmes. Senegambie and 

Fouta Dialon. Scale 1/2,750,000. Marseille: A. Rougier, 1887. ♦Man- 
chester Chamber of Commerce. 
Colony of Lagos. Map showing the general course and direction of the Lagos 

Government Railway and the position of the Stations, etc. Scale 4 miles 

to an inch. *Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 
Lagos Harbour, by A. Nagel, B.Sc, under the direction of Sir John Goode. 

Scale 1/9,675. (1892.) ^Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 
Africa. 1/250,000. Cape of Good Hope and Orange Free State. Sheets : 

South H 34 K, Prieska; L, Douglas; M, Kamies Berg; South H 35 A, 

Kimberley. G.S., G.S. No. 1764. London : War Office, 1914. *The 

Director of Military Operations. 
Africa. 1/125,000. South Africa. Sheets: South G 35 P— 1, Welverdiend ; 

P— 2, Krugersdorp ; Q— 3, Heidelberg ; South H 35 C— 4, Winburg ; I— 1, 

Bloemfontein ; J — 1, Ladybrand. G.S., G.S., No. 2230. London: War 

Oflfice, 1914. *The Director of Military Operations. 



l66 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Africa. 1/125,000. Orange Free State— Vrede District. Two Sheets. G.S., 
G.S. No. 2392. London : War Office, 1914. *The Director of Military 
Operations. 

Africa. 1/250,000. East Africa Protectorate. Sheets : North A 36 R, Sekerr; 
North A 37 S, Baringo; South A 37 V and W, Mackinnon Road and 
Malindi; South B 37 D, Mortibasa. G.S., G.S. No. 1764. London : War 
Office, 1914. *The Director of Military Operations. 

Ibea. Being the Territories of the Imperial British East Africa Company, by 
E. G. Ravenstein. Scale 1/500,000, or 8 miles to 1 inch. *Manchester 
Chamber of Commerce. 

AMERICA. 

Canada. Department of Militia and Defence. Topographic Map. Scale 
1/63,360, or 1 inch to 1 mile. Sheets 52, Parkhill ; 54, Woodstock. G.S., 
G.S. No. 2197. London : War Office, 1914. *The Director of Military 
Operations. 

Panoramic View of the Yosemite National Park, California. Scale 1/187,500. 
Prepared by John H. Renshawe from topographic Sheet of U.S. Geolo- 
gical Survey. Washington : U.S. Geological Survey. *The Director of 
the Survey. 

Chart showing the Cotton-p reducing districts of Mexico and the location of 
Cotton Factories. *The Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 

Hipsometric Card of the Argentine Republic. Scale 1/16,000,000. *Man- 
chester Chamber of Commerce. 

ATLASES, PHOTOGRAPHS, ETC. 

A List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress, with Bibliographical 
Notes. Compiled under the direction of Philip Lee Phillips, Chief, 
Division of Maps and Charts. Vol. III. Washington : Library of Con- 
gress, 1914. *The Library of Congress. 

Stanford's Geological Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland. With Plates of 
Characteristic Fossils. Preceded by descriptions of the Geological struc- 
ture of Great Britain and Ireland and their Counties ; of the Channel 
Islands; and of the Features observable along the principal Lines of 
Railway. By Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S., F.G.S. Third Edition. 
London : Edward Stanford, Ltd., 1914. *The Publisher. 

Calendario Atlante de Agostini, 1914. Con notiziario redatto da L. F. De 
Magistris. Anno XI, Serie II, Vol. I. Novaro : Institute Geografico de 
Agostini, 1914. *The Publishers. 

166 Lantern Slides illustrative of the All-Canada Tour of the Members of the 
Fifth Congress of the Chambers of Commerce of the Empire. *The 
President, Manchester Chamber of Commerce. 

ADDITION^ TO THE MUSEUM. 
Russian Samovar. *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 
Two Idols (of wood) from the Oshogbo District of Southern Nigeria. (Typical 

of native art over a large portion of, the West Coast of Africa.) *Mr. 

Alan Tatham. 



List ot Books 167 

GENERAL. 

Text Book of Topographical and Geographical Surveying, by Col. C. F. Close, 

C.M.G., R.E., revised by Captain E. W. Cox, R.E. Second Edition. 

London : Harrison and Sons, 1913 *The Authors. 
The Teaching of Geography and History : A Study in Method. Being a 

Practical Companion to the * ' Elementary Studies in Geography and 

History" by H. J. Mackinder, M.A., M.P. London : George Philip and 

Son, Ltd., 1914. (Two Copies.) (Price 1/- net.) *The Publishers. 
Our Island History : An Elementary Study in History, by H. J. Mackinder, 

M.A. Sketch Maps and Illustrations. (Part 2 of " Elementary Studies 

in Geography and History.") London : George Philip and Son, Ltd., 

1914. (Two Copies.) (Price 2/-.) *The Publishers. 
The Modern British State : An Introduction to the Study of Civics by H. J. 

Mackinder, M.P. (Part 6 of " Elementary Studies in Geography and 

History.") London : George Philip and Son, Ltd., 1914. Two Copies. 

(Price 1/6.) *The Publishers. 
Environment : A Natural Geography, by G. R. Swaine, F.R.Met.S. Maps 

and Illustrations. London : Ralph, Holland and Co. *The Author per 

the Publishers. 
The Change in the Climate and its cause. Giving the date of the Last Ice 

Age based on a recent Astronomical Discovery and Geological Discovery, 

by Major R. A. Marriott, D.S.O. Diagrams. London : E. Marlborough 

and Co., 1914. (Price 1/6.) *The Publishers. 
The Nature and Origin of Fiords, by J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., D.Sc. Diagrams 

and Illustrations. London : John Murray, 1913. *Miss Kate Qualtrough, 

F.R.G.S. 
The Geographical Teacher. The Organ of the Geographical Association. 1914, 

Nos. 38, 39, 40. *Mr. H. Sowerbutts. 
Report of the Conference of Educational Associations, held at the University 

of London, January, 1914. 
The Traveller's Gazette. Illustrated. Vol. LXIV, Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. 

London : Thos. Cook and Son, 1913. *The Publishers. 
An Almanack for the Year of Our Lord, 1914, by Joseph Whitaker, F.S.A. 

London, 1914. 
The International Whitaker. A Statistical, Historical, Geographical and 

Commercial Handbook. London : J. Whitaker and Sons, 1914. 
The World Almanac and Encyclopaedia, 1914. New York : The Press Pub- 
lishing Co., 1914. *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 
The Co-operative Wholesale Societies, Limited, Annual, 1914. *Mr. G. H. 

Warren. 
Industrial Progress Abroad, by George Thomas. Abstract of Proceedings of 

the Scientific and Mechanical Society, Manchester, 1870. Reprint, 1914. 

*Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 
The Incorporated Accountants' Year Book, 1914-15. *The Council of the 

Society of Incorporated Accountants and Auditors. 



i68 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

BEITISH ISLES. 

History of the Town and Borough of Devonport, sometime Plymouth Dock, 
by R. N. Worth. Plymouth : W. Brendon and Son, 1870. *Mr. Egbert 
Stein thai. 

Hertfordshire Maps : A Descriptive Catalogue of the Maps of the County, 
1579 — 1900, by Herbert George Fordham. Maps. From the " Transac- 
tions of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society." Three Parts in 4 
Vols. Hertford. *Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club. 

Knutsford, its Traditions and History : with Reminiscences, Anecdotes, and 
Notices of the Neighbourhood, by Henry Green, A.M. Macclesfield : 
Swinnerton and Brown, 1859. *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 

The Pictorial Record of the Royal Jubilee Exhibition, by Walter Tomlinson, 
with special articles by Thomas W. Harris, Charles Estcourt, F.C.S., 
F.I.C., and Joseph Nodal. Edited by John H. Nodal. Illustrated. 
Manchester : J. E. Cornish, 1888. *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 

The Official Handbook of Manchester and Salford and Surrounding District, 
1914. 

The Manchester and Salford Official Red Book, 1914. Manchester : Littlebury 
Bros., 1914. 

Report and Proceedings of the Manchester Field Naturalists' and Archaeo- 
logists' Society for the year 1913. *Mr. Wm. H. Ward. 

Ilkley : Ancient and Modern, by the Rev. Robert Collyer, D.D., and J. 
Horsfall Turner. Map and Illustrations. Otley : Wm. Walker and Sons, 
1885. *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 



EUROPE. 

Den Norske Lods utgit av Norges Geografiske Opmaaling. 5te Hefte. Fra 

Bergen til Floro. 6te Hefte. Fra Floro til Aalesund. Omarbeidet, 1914. 

Kristiania : Norges Geografiske Opmaaling, 1914. *Norges Geografiske 

Opmaaling. 
Svenska Turistforeningens Arsskrift, 1914. Illustrated. Stockholm, 1914. 

*Svenska Turistforeningen (The Swedish Touring Club). 
Svenska Folket. The Swedish People, their Customs and Manners in Pictures 

and Legends, by J. W. Wallander and Onkel Adam. Stockholm : Albert 

Bonnier (1884). *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 
Through Finland to St. Petersburg, by A, MacCallum Scott, M.P. Map and 

Illustrations. London : Grant Richards, Ltd., 1913.* Mr. George Thomas, 

J.P. 
Letters from Russia, in 1875, by E. J. Reed, C.B., M.P. London: John 

Murray, 1876. *Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 
Castilian Days, by the Honble. John Hay. Illustrated. London : William 

Heinemann, 1903. *Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 
Hannibal Once More, by Douglas W. Freshfield, M.A., F.R.G.S. Maps and 

Illustrations. London : Edward Arnold, 1914. (Price 5/- net.) *The 

Publisher. 
Indicateur Officiel Guide General de la Corse. Illustre Compagnies de Naviga- 
tion, Chem'n=; de Fer, Ti'ainsports sur Routes par Automobiles, etc. 

Cartes, Plans, etc. Paris : Clavel, 1914. *The Publisher. 



List of Books 169 

Attraverso I'ltalia (Album containing 31 Parts). Raccolta di oltre 2,000 
Fotografie di Vedute, Tesori Artistici, Tipi popolari. Testo de Prof. 
Ottone Brentari. Proprietario dell' Edizione Italiana il Touring Club 
Italiano. Milano. *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 

The Adventures of Telemachus, the Son of Ulysses. With the Adventures 
of Aristonous. Written by the Archbishop of Cambray. Done from the 
new French Edition, by Mr. Ozell. Map. Two Vols. London : E. Curll 
and others. 1715. *Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 

Letters on Turkey : An Account of the Religious, Political, Social and Com- 
mercial Condition of the Ottoman Empire ; the Reformed Institutions, 
Army, Navy, etc. Translated from the French of M. A. Ubicini by Lady 
Easthope. Two Vols. London : John Murray, 1856. *Mr. George 
Thomas, J.P. 

The British Chamber of Commerce of Turkey and the Balkan States. Year 
Book and Annual Report for the year 1913. Quarterly Trade Journal, 
Nos. 25, March; 26, June; 27, September. *Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 

ASIA. 

Extinct Civilizations of the East, by Robert E. Anderson, M.A., F.A.S. 
Maps, etc. London : Hodder and Stoughton. *Miss Kate Qualtrough, 
F.R.G.S. 

Our Ride Through Asia Minor, by Mrs. Scott- Stevenson. ^Map. London : 
Chapman and Hall, 1881. *Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 

The Golden Horn ; and Sketches in Asia ]\Iinor, Egypt, Syria, and the 
Hauraan, by Charles James Monk, jSI.A. Illustration. Two Vols. 
London : Richard Bentley, 1851. *Mr. George Thomas, J.P. 

Palestine Exploration Fund. Quarterly Statements, 1914, Annual Report, 
1913. 

Eighth Report on Plague Investigations in India. Issued by the Advisory 
Committee appointed by the Secretary of State for India, the Royal 
Society and the Lister Institute. London : The Journal of Hygiene. 
Plague Supplement III, 1914. *The Chairman of the Advisory Committee. 

North West Frontier Province Gazetteer : B Parts. Bannu, Kurram, Pesha- 
war, Dera Ismail Khan, Hazara and Kohat Districts. *H.M. Secretary 
of State for India. 

Punjab District Gazetteers, Vol. V — A, Delhi District; XX — A, Amritsar 
District; XV— B, Ludihana District and Maler Kotla State; XXII— B, 
Chamba State; XXVI— B, Gujranwala District; XXX— B, Mianwali Dis- 
trict ; XXXI— B, Lyallpur District. *H.M. Secretary of State for India. 

Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. 3 Vols. XVI, Na'sik and Surga'na; 
XVIII, Poona and Bhor ; XIX, Sa'ta'ra, Phaltan and Aundh ; XX, Shola'- 
pur and Akalkot ; XXIII, Bija'pur, Jath and Dafla'pur. *H.M. Secretary 
of State for India. 

Central Provinces District Gazetteers. B Vols : Akola, Amraoti, Bilaspur, 
Buldana, Drug, Narsinghpur, Raipur, Saugor, and Seoni. *H.M. Secre- 
tary of State for India. 

Bengal District Gazetteer. A Volume : 24 — Parganas. B Vols. : Backer- 
gunge, Bankura, Burdwan, Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Dacca, 



170 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Hooghly, Jessore, Malda, Mymensingh, Nadia, Noakhali, Pabna, E-angpur, 

Tippera. *H.M. Secretary of State for India. 
Burma Gazetteer. Insein District. Vol. A. *H.M. Secretary of State for 

India. 
Census Tables, Nos. 39, Northern Shan States ; 40, Southern Shan States ; 41, 

Pakokku Hill Tracts; 42, Chin Hills. *H.M. Secretary of State for India. 
Antonio de Andrade, S.J., viajante no Himalaia e no Tibete (1624 — 1630) por 

C. Wessels. Traduzido do Original holandes por A. E. Con9alves Viana. 

Lisboa : Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa. *Sociedade de Geographia 

de Lisboa. 

AFRICA. 

Narrative of a Ten Years' Residence in Tripoli in Africa : from the Original 
Correspondence in the possession of the family of the late Richard Tully, 
the British Consul. Comprising authentic Memoirs' and Anecdotes of the 
Reigning Bashaw, his family, and other persons of distinction, also an 
account of the Domestic Manners of the Moors, Arabs, and Turks. Illus- 
trations. Second Edition. London : Henry Colburn, 1817. *Mr. William 
B. Leech. 

The Country of the Moors : A Journey from Tripoli in Barbary to the City 
of Kairwan, by Edward Rae, F.R.G.S. Map and Illustrations. London : 
John Murray, 1877. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

Narrative of a Residence in Algiers ; comprising a Geographical and Historical 
Account of the Regency ; Biographical Sketches of the Dey and his Minis- 
ters ; and Observations on the relations of the Barbary States with the 
Christian Powers, by Signor Pananti. With Notes by Edward Blaquiere. 
Map, Plan, and Illustration. London : Henry Colburn and Richard 
Bentley, 1830. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

The Scourge of Christendom. Annals of British Relations with Algiers prior 
to the French Conquest, by Lieut. -Colonel R. L. Play fair, H.M. Consul 
at Algiers. Plans and Illustrations. London : Smith, Elder and Co., 
1884. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

Journal of a Tour in Marocco and the Great Atlas, by Joseph Dalton Hooker, 
K.C.S.I., C.B., etc., and John Ball, M.R.I.A., etc. With an appendix 
including a sketch of the Geology of Marocco by George Maw, F.L.S., 
F.G.S. Illustrated. London : Macmillan and Co., 1878. *Mr. William 
B. Leech. 

Our Mission to the Court of Marocco in 1880, under Sir John Drummond Hay, 
K.C.B., by Captain Philip Durham Trotter. Map and Illustrations. 
Edinburgh : David Douglas, 1881. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

Among the Moors : Sketches of Oriental Life, by G. Montbard. Illustrations. 
London : Sampson Low, Marston, and Co., 1894. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

Loss of the American Brig " Commerce," wrecked on the Western Coast of 
Africa, in the month of August, 1815. With an account of Tombuctoo, 
and of the hitherto undiscovered great City of Wassanah, by James Riley, 
late Master and Supercargo, tondon : John Murray, 1817. *Mr. William 
B. Leech. 

Narrative of Thirty-four Years* Slaivery and Travels in Africa, by P. J. 
Dumont. Collected from the account given by himself by J, S. Quesne. 



List of Books 171 

Portrait. London : Sir Richard Phillips and Co., 1819. *Mr. William 
B. Leech, 

Travels in the Interior of Africa, to the Sources of the Senegal and Gambia ; 
performed by command of the French Government in the year 1818 by 
G. Mollien. Edited by T. E. Bowdich. Map and Illustrations. London : 
Henry Colburn and Co., 1820. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

West African Sketches : Compiled from the reports of Sir G. P. Collier, Sir 
Charles MacCarthy and other Official Sources. London : L. B. Seeley and 
Son, 1824. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

Travels in Western Africa, in the years 1818, 1819, 1820, and 1821, from the 
River Gambia, through Woolli, Bondoo, Galam, Kasson, Kaarta, and 
Foolidoo, to the River Niger, by Major William Gray and the late Staff 
Surgeon Dochard. Map and Illustrations. London : John Murray, 1825. 
*Mr. William B. Leech. 

Records of a Voyage to the Western Coast of Africa, in His Majesty's Ship 
"Dryad," and of the service on that station for the suppression of the 
Slave Trade in the years 1830, 1831, and 1832, by Peter Leonard, Surgeon, 
R.N. Edinburgh : William Tait, 1833. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

Seven Years' Service on the Slave Coast of Western Africa, by Sir Henry 
Huntley. In two Vols. Vol. II. is chiefly "Journal of an Ex-Governor; 
or. Twelve Months on the Gambia." London : Thomas Cautley Newley, 
1850. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

African Memoranda : Relative to an attempt to establish a British Settlement 
on the Island of Bulama, on the Western Coast of Africa, in the year 
1792. With a brief notice of the Neighbouring Tribes, Soil, Productions, 
etc., and some observations on the facility of Colonizing that part of 
Africa, with a view to Cultivation and the Introduction of Letters and 
Religion to its Inhabitants : but more particularly as the means of 
gradually abolishing African Slavery, by Captain Philip Beaver, R.N. 
Map. London : C. and R. Baldwin, 1805. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

Sierra Leone Messenger. Illustrated, 1914, Nos, 85 — 88. *The Rev. Canon 
F. C. Smith, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Akim-Foo : The History of a Failure, by Major W. F. Butler, C.B., F.R.G.S. 
Map and Illustrations. London : Sampson Low, Marston, Low and 
Searle, 1875. *Mr. William B. Leech. 

A Pilgrimage to my Motherland. An account of a Journey among the Egbas 
and Yorubas of Central Africa in 1859 — 60, by Robert Campbell. Map 
and Portrait. London : W. J. Johnson, 1861. *Mr, William B. Leech. 

AMERICA. 

The Secret of the Pacific. A discussion of the Origin of the Early Civilisations 
of America, the Toltecs, Aztecs, Mayas, Incas, and their predecessors ; 
and of the possibilities of Asiatic influence thereon, by C. Reginald Enoch, 
F.R.G.S. Maps and Illustrations. London : T. Fisher Unwin, 1912. 
*Miss Kate Qualtrough, F.R.G.S. 

Fossil Forests of the Yellowstone National Park, by F. H. Knowlton, of the 
U.S. Geological Survey. Map and Illustrations. Washington : Depart- 
ment of the Interior, 1914. *The Secretary of the Department. 

Mount Rainier and its Glaciers, by F. E. Matthes, of the U.S. Geological 



172 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Survey. Map and Illustrations. Washington : Department of the 

Interior, 1914. *The Secretary of the Department. 
Origin of the Scenic Features of the Glacier National Park, by M. E. 

Campbell, of the U.S. Geological Survey. Map and Illustrations. 

Washington : Department of the Interior, 1914. *The Secretary of the 

Department. 
Glaciers of Glacier National Park, by W. C. Alden, of the U.S. Geological 

Survey. Maps and Illustrations. Washington : Department of the 

Interior, 1914. *The Secretary of the Department. 
Wanderings in South America, etc. (1812), by Charles Waterton. With 

Review by Sydney Smith, 1826. Illustrated. London : Thomas Nelson 

and Sons, 1903. *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 
Elementos para el estudio de la Demografia de la Provincia de Buenos Aires 

por Carlos P. Salas, Director de la Direccion General de Estadistica. La 

Plata, 1913. *The Author. 

OCEANIA. 

The Great Australian Artesian Basin and the Source of its Water, by E. F. 

Pittman, A.R.S.M. Maps and Illustrations. (Prepared for the British 

Association Meeting, 1914.) Sydney : Department of Mines, Geological 

Survey of New South Wales, 1914. *The Publishers. 
How Australia took German New Guinea. An illustrated record of the 

Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force, by F. S. Burnell. 

Sydney : W. C. Penfold and Co., 1914. *Mr. T. Fewster Wilkinson. 

POLAR REGIONS. 

The South Pole. An account of the Norwegian Antarctic Expedition in the 
" Fram," 1910—1912, by Roald Amundsen. Translated from the Norwe- 
gian by A. G. Chater. Maps and Illustrations. Two Vols. London : 
John Murray, 1912. *Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 

"Out of the Jaws of Death." In the Home of the Blizzard, by Douglas 
Mawson. Map and Illustrations. London : " Strand Magazine," Aug. 
and Sept., 1914. *Mr. H. Sowerbutts, A.R.C.Sc. 



List of Exchanges 173 



%\et of Correeponbing Soctetiee, etc* 
oeycbangea). 



NOTE. — Exchanges with Societies marked " S." have been suspended from 
August 1st, 1914. 

BRITISH. 

Belfast. Natural History and Philosophical Society. (Nothing received.) 

Birmingham. Natural History and Philosophical Society. Annual Report, 
1913. 

Cardiff. Naturalists' Society. Report and Transactions. Vol. XLVI; 1913. 

Croydon. Natural History and Scientific Society. Proceedings and Transac- 
tions, 1913—1914. 

Edinburgh. The Royal Scottish Geographical Society. The Scottish Geo- 
graphical Magazine, 1914, Vol, XXX, Nos. 1-12 and Index. 

Glasgow. Geological Society. Transactions. Vol. XV, Part I, 1912-13. 

Glasgow. Royal Philosophical Society. Proceedings. Vol. XLV, 1913-14. 

Hertford. Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club. Transac- 
tions. Vol. XV, Parts 2, 3. (See also list of maps.) 

Hull. Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. (Nothing received.) 

Leeds. Geological Association. Transactions. Part XVII, 1911-12 and 1912- 
1913. 

Leeds. Yorkshire Geological Society. Proceedings. Vol. XIX, Part I, 1914. 

Leicester. Literary and Philosophical Society. Transactions and Annual 
Report. Vol. XVIII, 1914. Inaugural Address of the President, October 
5th, 1914 : — "Wheat — and its relation to the Present Crisis." 

Liverpool. Geographical Society. Transactions and Twenty-second Annual 
Report for the year 1913. 

London. The Anti-Slavery Reporter and Aborigines' Friend. 1914, Series V, 
Vol. Ill, No. 4; Vol. IV, Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

London. British Association for the Advancement of Science. Report of the 
Eighty-third Meeting, Birmingham, 1913. Report of the Corresponding 
Societies' Committee and of the Conference of Delegates held in Birming- 
ham, 1913. 

London. Colliery Guardian, 1914, Nos. 2766—2817. 

London. The Colonial Journal. Vol. VII, 3, 4 ; VIII, 1, 2. 

London. The Royal Colonial Institute Journal. "United Empire." Vol. V, 
Nos. 1-12. Year Book, 1914. 

London, Emigrants' Information Office. Combined circulars on Canada, 
Australia and New Zealand, and South Africa. 1914, Quarterly. 

London. Royal Geographical Society. The Geographical Journal, 1914, Jan. 
to Dec. Year Book and Record. 

London. Imperial Institute. Bulletin. Vol. XII, Nos. 1-4. 

London. India Office. (See List of Books.) 



174 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

London. Koyal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Bulletin, 1914, Nos. 1-10 and 

Appendices I — IV. 
London. Royal Society of Literature. Transactions. Vol. XXXIII, Part I. 

Report and List of Fellows, 1914. 
London. The Near East, 1914, Nos. 139—190. 
London. War Office. Geographical Section, General Staff. (See List of 

Maps.) 
London. War Office. Catalogue of Maps. Accessions. 1st January to 30th 

June, 1914. 
London. War Office Library. Accessions, 1914, January to December. 

Catalogue of the War Office Library, Part III (Subject Index). Second 

Annual Supplement, 1913. 
Manchester. The British Cotton Growing Association. Publications. Nos. 47, 

51, 55, 56, 57. 
Manchester. Literary and Philosophical Society. Memoirs and Proceedings. 

Vol. 58, Parts I, II. 
Manchester. Museum. The University Museum Handbooks. (Nothing 

received.) 
Manchester. The University. (Nothing received.) 
Manchester. The Textile Recorder, 1914, January to December. 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Tyneside Geographical Society. (Nothing received.) 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 

Engineers. Transactions. Vol. LXIV, 3-8 ; LXV, 1, 2. Annual Report, 

1913—1914. 
Oxford. Clarendon Press. (See List of Books.) 

Penzance. Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. (Nothing received.) 
Rochdale. Literary and Scientific Society. Thirty-Sixth Annual Report for 

the year 1914. 
Salford. Museum, Libraries and Parks Committee. Sixty-Sixth Report, 

1913-14. 
York. Yorkshire Philosophical Society. Annual Report for 1913. 

MISSIONARY. 
"S." Freiburg im Breisgau. Die Katholischen Missionen, 1914, January to 

August. 
London. Baptist Missionary Society. The Herald, 1914, January to Dec. 
London. The British and Foreign Bible Society. 110th Annual Report, 1914. 

"In the Vulgar Tongue." A Popular Illustrated Report, 1913—1914. 

"The Bible in the World," 1914, January to December. Manchester and 

Salford Auxiliary, Annual Report, 1913. 
London. Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East. Report of 

Proceedings, 115th year, 1913-14. 
London. Church Missionary Review, 1914, January to December. 
London. Colonial and Continental Church Society. Greater Britain Mes- 
senger, 1914, January to December. 
London. The London Missionary Society. 119th Report, 1913-14, 
London. Illustrated Catholic Missions, 1914, January to April. 
London. Society for Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Report 

of the year 1913. 



List of Exchanges 175 

London. Universities' Mission to Central Africa. " Central Africa." 1914, 

January to December. 
London. The United Methodist Church. "Missionary Echo." 1914, Jan. 

to December. 
"S." Mangalore. Basel-German Evangelical Mission in South- Western India, 

Report for the year 1913. 

COLONIAL. 
Adelaide. Royal Geographical Society of Australasia; South Australian 

Branch. (Nothing received.) 
Brisbane. Royal Geographical Society of Australasia. Queensland Branch. 

Queensland Geographical Journal. (Nothing received.) 
Brisbane. Queensland Museum. Memoirs. (Nothing received.) 
Brisbane. Department of Mines. Queensland Geological Survey- Puljlica- 

tions, Nos. 238, 239. 
Bulawayo. Rhodesia Scientific Association. Proceedings. Vol. XIII (con- 
taining papers read from July 1913, to May 1914). 
Cape Town. Royal Society of South Africa. Transactions. Vol. IV, Parts 

1, 2. 
Georgetown. The Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of British 

Guiana. The Journal. "Timehri." (Nothing received.) 
Halifax. Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Proceedings and Transactions, 

(Nothing received.) 
Melbourne. Royal Geographical Society of Australasia (Victorian Branch). 

Victorian Geographical Journal. Vol. XXX, 1913 ; XXXI, Part I, 1914. 
Melbourne. Department of Agriculture of Victoria (per the favour of the 

Agent General). Journal. Vol. XII, Parts 1-12. 
Melbourne. Victorian Statistical Department. Year Book, 1913-14. 
Perth, Western Australia Geological Survey (per favour of the Agent 

General). Bulletins, Nos. 48, 49, 51-54. 
Port Moresby. Papua. Annual Report for the year. (Nothing received,) 
Quebec. Societe de Geographic. Bulletin. Vol. VIII, Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6; 

1914. 
Sydney. New South Wales. Department of Mines. Annual Report for the 

year 1913. 
Toronto. Canadian Institute Transactions. (Nothing received.) 
Victoria, B.C. Minister of Mines. Province of British Columbia. Annual 

Report, 1913. British Columbia Bureau of Mines. Bulletin. No. 1, 

1914. Preliminary Review and Estimate of Mineral Production, 1913. 
Wellington, New Zealand. Department of Lands and Survey. (Nothing 

received.) 

FOREIGN. 
Alger. Societe de Geographic d'Alger et de L'Afrique du Nord. Bulletin. 

Trimestre 4, 1913; 1. 1914. (Part 3, 1913 not received.) 
Ann Arbor. The Michigan Academy of Science. University of Michigan. 

Fifteenth Report, 1912-13. 
" S." Antwerp. Societe Royale de Geographic d'Anvers. Bulletin. 
Baltimore. Johns Hopkins University. Studies in Historical and Political 

Science. Series XXXI, Nos. 3, 4; XXXII, Nos. 1, 2, 3 Circulars, 1913^ 

Nos. 7-10; 1914, Nos. 1-10. 



176 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Baltimore. Maryland Geological Survey. (Nothing received.) 
Barcelona. Sociedad de Geografia Comercial. Publicaciones. (Nothing re- 
received.) 
*' S." Belgrade. Societe Serbe de Geographic. Bulletin. 
Berkeley. University of California. Publications in American Archaeology 

and Ethnology. Vol. X, No. 6 ; XI, 2. Publications in Geography. 

Vol. I, Nos. 3-7. 
" S." Berlin. Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde. Zeitschrift. 1914, Nos. 1-6. 
" S." Berlin. Deutsche Kolonialzeitung. 1914, Nos. 1-30. 
Bern. Geographische Gesellschaft. (Nothing received.) 
Bordeaux. Societe de Geographic Commerciale. Revue. 1914, January to 

June. 
"S." Bremen. Deutsche Geographische Blatter. Band XXXVII, Heft 1, 2. 
"S." Brussels. Congo Beige. Bulletin Official. 1914, Nos. 1—11. 
" S." Brussels. Societe Boyale Beige de Geographic. Bulletin. 1914, No. 1. 
*' S." Brussels. Le Mouvement Geographique. 1914, Nos. 1 — 31. 
"S." Brussels. Institut Colonial International. 
"S." Brussels. Societe Beige d'Etudes Coloniales. Bulletin. 1914, Nos. 

1—6. 
*' S." Brussels. Commission Polaire Internationale. 
"S." Budapest. Hungarian Geographical Society. Bulletin. Vol. XLII, 

Parts 3, 4, 5. 
Buenos Aires. Instituto Geografico Argentino. Boletin. (Nothing received.) 
Buenos Aires. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires. Anales. 

Tomo XXV. 
Buenos Aires. Monthly Bulletin of Municipal Statistics. 1914, Nos. 1 — 12. 

Year Book of the City of Buenos Aires. Year XXIII ; 1913. 
Buenos Aires. Ministerio de Agricultura. Boletin. (Nothing received.) 
Cairo. Societe Khediviale de Geographic. Bulletin. (Nothing received.) 
Cambridge. Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 

Harvard University. Memoirs. (Nothing received.) 
*' S," Cassel. Gesellschaft fiir Erd-und Volkerkunde. 
Christiania. Norges Geografiske Opmaaling. (See List of Maps.) 
Copenhagen. Geografisk Tidskrift udgivet af Bestyrelsen for det Kongelige 

Danske Geografiske Selskab. Bind XXII, Hefte V— VIII. 
*'S." Darmstadt. Verein fur Erdkunde. Notizblatt, Folge IV, Heft 34. 
Dijon. Societe Bourguignonne de Geographic et d'Histoire. Memoires. 

(Nothing received.) 
"S." Douai. Union Geographique du Nord de la France. Bulletin. 1914, 

1, 2. 
" S." Dresden. Verein fiir Erdkunde. Mitteilungen. Band II, Heft 9. 
Dunkerque. Societe de Geographic. Bulletin. No. 40. 
Firenze (Florence). Revista Geografica Italiana e BoUettino della Societa di 

Studi Geografici e Coloniali. Annata XXI, Eases. 1 — 10. 
**S." Frankfurt. Verein fiir Geographic und Statistik. 
Geneva. " Le Globe," Organe de la Societe de Geographic. Bulletin. 

Tome LIII, Nos. 1, 2. 
Geneva. Societe des Anciens Eleves de I'Ecole Superieure de Commerce. 

Bulletin. Nos. 101—104. 
** S." Giessen. Geographische Mitteilungen aus Hessen. 



List of Exchanges I77 

*' S." Greifswald. Geographische Gesellschaft zu Greif swald. Jahresbericht 

XIV, 1913—1914. 
" S." Halle. Sachsisch-Thiiringischen Vereins f iir Erdkunde. 
" S." Halle. Kaiserliche Leopoldinisch-Carolinische Deutsche Akademie 

der Naturforscher. Leopoldina. 
*'S." Hamburg. Geographische Gesellschaft. Mitteilungen. Band XXVIII. 
"S." Hamburg. Hauptstation fiir Erdbebenforschung. Professor Dr. R. 

Schiitt. 
^*S." Hannover. Geographische Gesellschaft. 
Havre. Societe de Geographic Commerciale. Bulletin. 1913, Trimestres 3, 

4; 1914, 1. 
Havre. Societe Geologique de Normandie. Bulletin. (Nothing received.) 
Helsingfors. Societe de Geographie de Finlande. Fennia 34, 37. 
Helsingfors. Meddelanden af Geografiska Foreningen. Velenskagliga. 

(Nothing received.) 
Irkutsk. Imperial Russian Geographical Society. East Siberian Section. 

Journal, Vol. XLIII, 1914. 
""S." Jena. Geographische Gesellschaft. Mitteilungen. 
Kazan. Naturalists' Society of the Imperial University. Journal. Vol. 

XLIV, Nos. 5, 6; XLV, 1-6,- XL VI, 1-6. Report, 1911-12, 1912-13. 
" S." Konigsberg. Physikalisch = okonomischen Gesellschaft. 
La Paz. Sociedad Geografica de La Paz. (Nothing received.) 
La Paz. Republica de Bolivia. Direccion General de Estadistica y Estudios 

Geograficos. Boletin. Ano IX, No. 87. 
La Plata. Direccion General de Estadistica de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. 

Boletin Mensual. Ano XIV, Nos. 150—155. 
La Plata. Museo de La Plata. Revista. (Nothing received.) 
" S." Leipzic. Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde. Wissenschaftliche Veroffent- 

lichungen. Band VIII. (See also List of Books.) 
""S." Lille. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. 1914, January to April. 
Lima. Sociedad Geografica. Boletin. 1913, Tomo XXIX, Nos. 1-4. 
Lima. Cuerpo de Ingenieres de Minas del Peru. Boletin. No. 80. 
Lisbon. Sociedade de Geographia de Lisboa. Boletim. 1913, Nos. 10 — 12; 

1914, Nos. 1—12. 
" S." Liibeck. Geographische Gesellschaft und Naturhistorische Museum. 

Mitteilungen. (Nothing received.) 
"S." Lwowie (Lemberg). Towarzystwo Ludozonaweze Kwartalnik Etno- 

grafiezny . ' ' Lud . ' ' 
Madison. Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters. Transactions. 

Vol. XVII, Part I, Nos. 1-6 ; II, Nos. 1-6. 
Madison. Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin. Nos. 

XXXIII, XLI. 
Madrid. Real Sociedad Geografica. Boletin. Tomo LVI, Trims. 1-4. Revista. 

Tomo XI, 1—12. (See also List of Maps.) 
Madrid. Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Boletin, Nos. 888—939. 
Marseille. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. Tome XXXVII, Nos. 1-4. 
^' S." Metz. Verein fiir Erdkunde. Jahresbericht. 
Mexico. Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y Estadistica. Boletin. Tomo VI, 

Nos. 11, 12; VII, 1-4. 



178 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Mexico. Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate." Memorias y Eevista. Tomo 

XXXII, 9—10; XXXIII, 9—10. 

Milan. L'Esplorazione Commerciale. Anno XXIX, Fascs. 1 — 12. 
Missoula. University of Montana. Bulletin. (Nothing received.) 
Montevideo. Museo de Historia Natural. (Nothing received.) 
Montevideo. Anuario Estadistico de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay. 

Afios 1909—1910, Tomo I, II. 
Montpellier. Societe Languedocienne de Geographie. Bulletin. Tome 

XXXVII, 1, 2. 
Moscow. Geographical Section of the Imperial Society of Natural Science of 

the University. (Nothing received.) 
"S." Munich. Geographischen Gesellschaft in Miinchen. Mitteilungen. 

Band IX, Hefte 1, 2. 
Nancy. Societe de Geographie de L'Est. Bulletin. 1914, Trim. 1. 
Nantes. Societe de Geographie Commerciale. Bulletin. 1914, Trim. 1. 
Naples. Societa Africana d'ltalia. Bollettino. Anno XXXII, Fascs. 11 — 12 ; 

XXXIII, 1, 2. 

Neuchatel. Societe Neuchateloise de Geographie. Bulletin. Tome XXIII, 

1914. 
New Haven. Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. Transactions. 

Vol. 18, pp. 291—345, April, 1914. 
New York. American Geographical Society. Bulletin. Vol. XLVI, Nos. 

1 — 12 and Index. 
New York. American |kluseum of Natural History. Bulletin. Vol. XXIX, 

Index ; XXXII, 1913 ; XXXIII, 1914. Memoirs, New Series, Vol. I, Part 

V. Forty-Fifth Annual Report for 1913. 
New York. Public Library. Astor Lennox and Tilden Foundations. Bul- 
letin. 1914, January — December. 
No vara. Istituto Geografico de Agostini. (See List of Maps.) 
" S." Niirnberg. Naturhistorische Gesellschaft. 

Odessa. Club Alpin de Crime et du Caucase. Bulletin. 1914, Nos. 1-4. 
Omsk. Imperial Russian Geographical Society. West Siberian Branch. 

(Nothing received.) 
Oran. Societe de Geographie et d'Archeologie. Bulletin. Tome XXXIV, 

Fascs. 138, 139. 
Para. Museu Goeldi. Boletim. Vol. VIII, 1911-12. 
Paris. Societe de Geographie. La Geographie. 1914, January to June. 
Paris. Societe de Geographie Commerciale. Bulletin. 1914, January to 

December. 
Paris. Societe de Speleologie. Bulletin and Memoires. Spelunca. Tome 

IX, Nos. 72, 73. 
Paris. Societe de Topographie de France. Bulletin Bimestriel. 1914, Nos. 1, 2. 
Paris, Comite de L'Afrique Fran§aise et Comite du Maroc. Bulletin. 

1914, Nos. 1 — 12. Renseignements Coloniaux. 1914, No. 1 — 12. 
Petrograd. Imperial Russian Geographical Society. (Nothing received.) 
Philadelphia. American Philosophical Society. Proceedings. Vol. LIII, Nos. 

213, 214, 215. 
Philadelphia. The Commercial Museum. Annual Report for the year 1913. 

"Commercial America." 1914, January to December. 



List of Exchanges 17^ 

Philadelphia. Geographical Society of Philadelphia. Bulletin. 1914, Nos. 1-4. 

Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania. The Museum Journal. Vol. V, 
Nos. 1-4. 

" S." Prague. Societe de Geographie tcheque a Prague. (Nothing received.) 

Kochefort. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. 1914, No. 1. 

Eolla, Mo. Missouri Bureau of Geology and Mines. Biennial Keport of the 
State Geologist to the 47th General Assembly. Publications. Vol. XII, 
Second Series. 

Roma. Reale Societa Geografica. Bollettino. 1914, Nos. 1 — 12. 

Roma. Direzione Generale della Statistica e del Lavoro. Censimento della 
Populazione del Regno d'ltalia al 10 Giugno, 1911. Vols. 1 and 2. 
Annuario Statistico Italiano. Seconda Serie, Vol. Ill, Anno 1913. 

Roma. Commissariato dell' Emigrazione. Bollettino. 1914, Nos. 1 — 13. 

Roma. Cosmos. Del Profr. Guido Cora. Serie II ; Vol. XIII, No. VI. 

Rome. International Institute of Agriculture. Monthly Bulletin of Agricul- 
tural Intelligence and Plant Diseases. 1914, Nos. 1 — 12. 

Rouen. Societe Normande de Geographie. Bulletin. 1913, Trims. 1, 2. 

San Francisco. Geographical Society of the Pacific. (Nothing received.) 

San Francisco. Southern Pacific Railway (per the favour of Mr. Rud Falck, 
Liverpool). " Sunset " — The Pacific Monthly. 1914, January to July. 

San Jose. Museo Nacional. Boletin de Fomento, organo del Ministerio de 
Fomento, Ano IV, Nos. 1-4. 

St. Louis, Mo. Washington University Studies. Vol. I, Part I, No. 2. 

St, Nazaire. Societe de Geographie Commerciale. (Nothing received.) 

San Salvador. Direccion General de Estadistica. (Nothing received.) 

"S." Santiago de Chile. Deutschen Wissenschaftlichen Vereins. 

Shanghai. Chinese Maritime Customs. Gazette. Statistical Series. Nos. 3 
and 4. Returns of Trade and Trade Reports. 1913, Parts I, II, Vols. 1-5, 
III, Vols. 1, 2. Index to Annual Trade Reports, 1903-07, 1908-12. 

Shanghai. Ministry of Communications. Directorate General of Posts. II. 
Public Series : No. 2. Report on the Working of the Chinese Post Ofiice 
for 1913. 

"S." Stettin. Gesellschaft fiir V6lker-u-Erdkunde. (Nothing received.) 

Stockholm. Svenska Sallskapet for Antropologi och Geografi. " Ymer," 1914, 
Haft 1-4. 

" S." Strassburg. Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde und Kolonialwesen. Mitteil- 
ungen. (Nothing received.) 

"S." Stuttgart. Wiirttembergische Vereins fiir Handelsgeographie. (Nothing 
received.) 

Tokyo. Geographical Society. Journal of Geography. Vol. XXV, Nos. 295 — 
300, July to December, 1913. 

Toulouse. Societe de Geographie. Bulletin. 1914, No. 1. 

Tours. Societe de Geographie. Revue. 1914, No, 1. 

Upsala. University of Upsala. Geological Institution. Bulletin. Vol. XII. 

Urbana. Illinois State Geological Survey. Bulletins, Nos. 21, 22. Mono- 
graph, No. 1. Illinois Miners' and Mechanics' Institutes Bulletin. Nos. 
1, 2. Illinois Coal Mining Investigations, Co-operative Agreement. Bul- 
letin 2. 

** S." Vienna. K.K. Geographischen Gesellschaft. Mitteilungen. Band 
57, Nos. 1-7. 



i8o Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

"S." Vienna. Verein der Geographen an der K.K. Universitat in Wien. 
(Nothing received.) 

"S." Vienna. K.K. Naturhistorische Hof museum. Annalen. Band XXVII, 
No. 4. 

Washington, Conn. Association of American Geographers. Annals. Vol. 
Ill, 1913. 

Washington, D.C. National Geographic Society. National Geographic 
Magazine. 1914, Vol. XXV, Nos. 1-6; XXVI, 1-6. 

Washington, D.C. Department of Commerce, United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey. Annual Eeport for the year ended June 30, 1914. 
Results of Observations made at the Magnetic Observatories at Sitka, 
Alaska, 1911 and 1912 ; Vieques, Porto Rico, 1911 and 1912 ; near Tucson, 
Arizona, 1911 and 1912. " Terrestrial Magnetism," Special Publications, 
Nos. 15, 20. " Hypsometry," Special Publications, Nos. 18, 22. " Geo- 
"desy," Special Publication, No. 19. 

Washington, D.C. United States Department of the Interior. General Infor- 
mation regarding Crater Lake, Glacier, Mesa Verde, Mount Rainier, 
Sequoia and General Grant, Yellowstone, and Yosemite National Parks; 
Season of 1914. (See also List of Books.) 

Washington, D.C. U.S. Geological Survey. Annual Report for the year 
ended June 30, 1914. 

Washington, D.C. U.S. Geological Survey. Monograph. (None received.) 

Washington, D.C. U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Resources for the year 

1912, Parts 1 and 2 ; 1913, Part 1, Nos. 1—26 ; Part 2, Nos. 1—35. 
Washington, D.C. U.S. Geological Survey. Bulletin. Nos. 540—543, 545— 

564, 567, 570—572, 574—580 Parts A— P. 

Washington, D.C. U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Papers. Nos. 81 — 
84, 85 a — e, 86—88. 

Washington, D.C. U.S. Geological Survey. Water Supply Papers. Nos. 
309, 312, 321—331, 333—339, 340 a— j, 341, 343, 344, 345 a— i, 346—350. 

Washington, D.C. U.S. National Museum. Report for the year ending June 
30, 1913. 

Washington, D.C. U.S. Geographic Board. Correct Orthography of Geo- 
graphic Names, revised to January, 1911. Decisions, 1910 — 1912, 1912 — 

1913, 1913—1914. 

Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Bulletin, No. 66. 

Farmers' Bulletins, Nos. 564—602, 604, 606, 608, 611, 615—639. Report 

of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, 1912—1913. 
Washington, D.C. U.S. War Department. Annual Reports, 1913, Vols, 

I--IV. 
Washington, D.C, U,S. Bureau of Education. Report of the Commissioner 

for the year ending June 30, 1913. Vols. 1 and 2. 
Washington, D.C. Library of Congress. Report for the year ending June 30, 

1914, A List of Geographical Atlases in the Library of Congress, with 
Biographical Notes. Vol. III. 

Washington, D.C. Pan American Union. Bulletin. 1914, January to Dec. 

Washington, D.C. Carnegie Institution. Department of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism. Annual Report of the Director for the year 1914. 

Zurich, Geographisch-Ethnographischen Gesellschaft in Zurich. Jahres- 
bericht. (Nothing received.) 



List of Members 



i8r 



Xiet Of fIDembers. 

DECEMBER, 31st, 1914. 

Note. — H signifies Honorary, C — Corresponding, L — Life, A — Associate, 
* Affiliated Societies. All others are Ordinary Members. 



Abbott, F. S., F.C.A. 

Abson, Miss Ada 

Adam, Sir Frank Forbes, CLE. 

Adnett, Madame M. 
LAinsworth, John, C.M.G., F.R.G.S. 
(Kisumu) 

Aldred, John C, A.C.A. 

Alexander, W. T., J. P. 
nAmundsen, Captain Roald 

Appleby, Wm. 

Armitage, G. F., J.P. (His Worship 
the Mayor of Altrincham) 

Armstrong, F. 

Arning, A. W. 

Arnold, W. A. 

Aron, L. 

Ascoli, W. S., F.R.G.S. 

Ashton, Miss B. 
AAshworth, Mrs. Ada 
AAshworth, Miss D. 

Ashworth, Francis, J.P. 
AAshworth, Miss M. B. 
AAshworth, S. 

Ashworth, Wm., F.C.A. 

Ashworth, W. E. 
AAtkin, Miss 

Atkinson, George, F.R.G.S. 

Bacon, W. C. 

Baerlein, H. A. 
ABagnall, John H, 

Bailey, W. D. 
LBalmer, J. E., F.R.G.S. 
LBalmforth, Alfred 

Bardsley, G. W. 

Barlow, Edwin 

Barlow, John R., J.P. 

Barningham, Mrs. James 

Barningham, Thomas, J.P. 

Baron, J. W., C.C. 

Baronian, Z. S. Iplicjian 

Bax, Wm. Robert 



ABaxandall, Miss C. 
ABayley, Mrs. C. H. 
ABeck, H. S. 

Beer, Walter 

Behrens, Councillor Sir Charles, J.P. 

Behrens, Gustav, J.P. 
cBellamy, C. H., F.R.G.S., Tourcoing 
ABellamy, Reginald C, A.C.A. 

Bennett, Miss Ruth 

Bentley, John Howard, F.R.G.S. 

Berry, G.F. 

Berry, R. H. 

Berry, W. H., Free Public Library,. 

Oldham. 
ABickerton, Richard 

Billinge, J. H. 

Bishop, J, K. 

Blaikie, W. V. 
ABlanchoud, Miss 

Blass, A. 

Bles, Marcus S., J.P. 

Bock, Richard 
LBoddington, Henry, J.P. 
HBodio, Senator Luigi, Rome 
ABolivar, Mrs. A. de 
HBonaparte, S. A. Prince Roland, Paris 
HBond, Rt. Hon. Sir R., K.C.M.G., 

Newfoundland 
HBotha, Rt. Hon. Louis, Pretoria 

Bowen, E. 

Bradley, N., J.P. 

Bradshaw, Wm. 

Bramwell, Samuel. 
cBrice, A. Montefiore 

Brier, Charles 
LBrierley, James, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Briggs, Henry 

Briggs, Herbert 

Broadhurst, E. Tootal, D.L., J.P. 
ABrobson, Miss M. 
LBrooks, Mrs. S. H. 
LBrooks, S. H., J.P., F.R.G.S. 



i82 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



Broome, Henry 

Brown, Alfred 

Brown, A. E. Buchanan 
LBrown, James, J. P. 
ABrown, Miss M. A. 

Brownell, Thos. W. 

Brumm, Charles, J. P. 

Bryant, James 
cBryce, J, Annan, M.P. 

Buckley, J. 

Buckley, W. S. 

Burgess, Alfred, A.C.A. 
LBurgon, Anthony 

Burke, Thomas 
*Burnley Literary and Scientific Club 

Burstall, Miss S. A., M.A. 

Butterworth, Walter, J. P. 

Bythell, J. K., J.P. 

Bythell, W. J. S., B.A., M.D. 

Byrne, Miss T. G. 

Calvert, D. R. 

Campbell, Richardson 
ACardwell, J. J. 

Carr, Arthur 

Carson, Isaac Pitman 
xCarver, W. Oswald 

Chadwick, J. J. 

Champ, F. 
AChamock, Mrs E. 

Cheetham, Rt. Hon. J. F., J.P. 
AChorley, Miss K. 

Chorlton, Isaac 

Chorlton, James 

Clapham, Col. W. W. 

Clapham, Thomas, F.R.G.S. 

Clarke, Charles A. 

Clay, Frederick 
ACockshaw, Miss E. 
cColbeck", Rev. A. 
LColley, T. H. Davies 
ACollinge, Miss A. 

Collmann, C. 
cColquhoun, A. R., F.R.G.S., M.I.C.E. 

Colt, W. H. 

Cooke, J. Herbert 

Cookson, G. P. 

Coop, Thos. 
xCooper, Mrs. A. H. 



aCox, C. H., B.Sc, L.C.P. 

Cox, Dr. Frederic 

Crawford, W. L. 

Crewdson, Alfred 

Crompton, Mrs. 

Crompton, Thos. A. 

Crook, Col. H. T., D.L., V.D.^ 
M.Inst. C.E. 

Crosland, Leo 
ACrosthwaite, Robert, M.A., B.Sc. 

Crowther, Miss E. 

ADaves, Miss A. 

David, Henry E. 
ADavies, Charles J. 

Dawkins, Prof. W. Boyd, J. P., M.A., 
F.R.S. 
HDeakin, Hon. Alfred, Australia 

Deakin, G. G. D. 

Deakin, Thos. S. 

Dean, Charley 

Dean, J. 

Dean, J. N. 

Dehn, Gustav 

Dennis, Cammack, J.P. 
LDerby, Rt. Hon. Earl, G.C.V.O. 
ADewez, Mdlle. F. 

Dickson, E. H. L. 

Dixon, H. C. 

Donner, Sir Edward, Bart. 

Downie, R. M. 
LDoxey, Alex. S. 

Draper, Walter T. 

Duckworth, Charles 

Duckworth, Alderman Sir James, 
J.P., F.R.G.S. 

Dugdill, John 

Dunkerley, Frank B. 

Dyckhoff, C. 

Earnshaw, John A. 

Eason, Edward A. 
*Eccles Prov. Ind. Co-op. Soc, Ltd. 

Eckhard, Gustav, J.P, 

Edleston, C. V. M. 
LEdwards, T. A., F.R.G.S. 

Egerton of Tatton, Rt. Hon. Lord 

Ellinger, George 

Ellinger, Martin 



List of Members 



183 



Elliot, W. 

England, A. 
LErmen, Charles 

Evans, E. Roose 

Evans, E. Russell 

Evans, J. H. 

Evans, L. C. 
AEwbank, Miss 

Fairhurst, Thomas 
€Fedotoff, A., Moscow 

Ferguson, Wm. 

Fern, George 
<:Fisher, Rev. A. B., F.R.G.S. 

Fletcher, Miss D. E. 

Fletcher, Miss E. M. 

Fletcher, R. 

Flinn, W. Leonard 

Follows, F. W. 

Forsyth, Henry 
AFosbrooke, Miss Agnes 

Franc, Henry 

Frank, Ernest 

Frankenburg, Alderman I., J. P. 
HFreshfield, Douglas W., F.R.G.S. 

Frischmann, A. 

FuUerton, Miss E. 

Galle, L. A., Belgian Consul 

Gamble, J. 
AGarner, Miss P. M. 
AGarner, Charles T. I. 

Garnett, Mrs. Charles 

Garnett, Charles 

Gaythorpe, Thomas 

Geiler, Hermann 

Gibbons, Fred C. 
xGinger, George 

Glazebrook, Philip K., M.P. 

Gleave, Joseph James 

Glossop, J. P. B. 

Godbert, Councillor Chas. W. 

Oodlee, Francis 

Goodbehere, Frederick G. 

Goodwin, F. W. 

Goodwin, J. W. 

Gordon, T. Hodgetts, C.C., B A. 

Green, H., M.A. 

Green, Walter 



Greene, Miss Kate 

Greenhow, J. H., Vice-Consul for 
Norway 
AGreenough, Richard, Leigh 

Greg, Lieut.-Col. Ernest W., V.D., 
C.C, F.R.G.S. 

Gregory, Joseph 

Gregory, Theodore, F.C.A., J. P. 

Grey, Dr. Edgar 
LGriffiths, Albert, D.Sc. 

Griffiths, Alderman John 

Griffiths, Horatio 

Grime, A. 
AGroves, Miss M. 

Groves, Charles V. 
LGroves, W. G, 

Guest, R. 

Guggenheim, A. 
AGumbrell, Mrs. 

Giiterbock, Alfred 

Giiterbock, Richard 

Guthrie, Mrs. S. F. 

Hacking, Nicholas H., J. P. 

Haerem, C. V. 

Hahlo, Charles 

Hail wood. Councillor Anthony, J. P. 

Hailwood, R. Emmett 
AHalksworth, Miss M. 
AHall, Miss Hilda 
LHall, Mrs. J. Howard 
LHall, J. Howard 

Hall, Robert, J. P. 

Hallworth, Joseph 

Halsall, Frank, F.C.A., J.P. 
A Hamilton, Mrs. 
AHamilton, Miss Joyce 

Hammond, G. S. 

Hamp, E. H. 

Hancock, J. 
AHandcock, H. C. 

Hanemann, A. 
cHanlon, Rt. Rev. Henry, Bishop of 
Teos, and Vicar Apostolic of the 
Upper Nile 

Hardcastle, G. L. 
AHarden, Miss C. 

Hardy, H. Waters 
LHargreaves, George 



i84 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



AHarper, William 

Harrap, Thomas 
AHarris, Miss E. M. 
AHarris, Miss Evelyn 

Harrop, James 
LHassall, Alderman Thomas, J. P. 

Hawkins, William 

Haworth, Alfred, J.P. 

Haworth, G. C, J.P. 

Heap, Alderman, W. T., J.P. 

Heighway, Mrs. 

Heighway, George 

Helm, John 
cHerbertson, Professor A. J., M.A., 
Ph.D. 

Herd, Harry 

Hertz, F. M. 

Hesketh, W. R. 

Hewerdine, W. H. 
AHewit, R. P., J.P. 

Heycock, A. H. 
LHeys, John, J.P. 

Heywood, Abel, J.P. 

Hiersemann, K. W., Leipzig 

Higginbottom, Walter 

Higgins, J. 

Higham, J. Sharp, M.P. 

Hilditch, John, M.R.A.S., M.J.S. 

Hilton, Thomas 

Hindle, James, L.R.A.M. 

Hinrichsen, S. 

Hockin, C. Owen 

Hodgson, Jas. T. 

Hodgson, William 
AHolden, Henry 
AHollingworth, Edgar W. 

Holmes, W. Francis 
LHolt, Arthur 

Hopkinson, Sir A., K.C. 

Hopkinson, Edward, D.Sc. 

Horsfall, T. C. 

Houghton, John 

Houldsworth, Sir W. H., Bart. 

Hoyle, E. 
cHoyle, W. E., M.A. 

Hudson, James H., M.A. 

Hughes, Joseph David 

Hulme, C. J. 

Hutton, D. W. 



LHutton, J, Arthur 
Hyde, Thomas 

lUingworth, Charles 
Irving, R. J, 

Ajackson, Miss A, 

Jackson, Fred J. 
Hjameson, Rt. Hon, Sir L. S., C.B. 

Janovski, R. 

Janus, H. 

Jefferson, Alfred Hy. 

Jenkins, Alderman T. H., J.P. 

Johnson, Mrs. A. T. 

Johnson, E., J.P. 

Johnson, James 

Johnson, Lionel M. 
LJohnson, Wm. Morton, F.R.G.S. 
cJohnston, Sir H. H., G.C.M.G., 
K.C.B., F.R.G.S. 

Johnstone, Charles Andrew 

Jones, R. Lomas 

Jones, Wm., J.P., Eccles 

Jones, Wm., Didsbury 

Jordan, Bernard 

Kalisch, Max 

Kalisch, Moritz 

Kalisch, Richard, F.R.G.S. 
cKeiffer, F., Moscow 

Keith-Roach, Edward 
AKelley, H. F. 

Kelley, J. Macpherson 
HKeltie, J. Scott, LL.D., F.R.G.S. 

Kessler, Philip W. 
AKewley, Miss Jane 

Keymer, Sidney L., F.R.G.S. 
AKiesling, A. E. 

Kinch, W. S., C.C. 

Knowles, Peter 

Knudsen, A., Consul for Denmark 

Kolp, Ernest 

Kukla, Charles 

Kullmann, Herbert C. 

cLabbe, Paul, Paris 
ALancaster, James, J.P. 

Langdon, E. H. 

Larmuth, Dr. 



List of Members 



185 



Lauder, Francis A. 
HLaurier, Rt. Hon. Sir W., G.C.M.G. 
ALaw, Miss Annie E., L.L.A. 

Lawson, R. G. 

Lea, John 

Leah, S. P. 

Leak, Rev. W. H. 
ALedward, H. Davenport 

Leech, Miss 
cLeech, Wm. Booth 

Leemann, E. 

Lees, Mrs. H. L., F.R.G.S., A.R.C.L 

Lees, Walter 
*Leigh Literary Society 

Leite, J. Pinto, Vice Consul for 
Portugal 

Lemon, Miss Ada 
LLemos, Professor Angel Ma Diaz 

Levinstein, Herbert 

Levinstein, Ivan 

Lewis, John Wm. 
ALightowler, Mrs. E. 
ALightowler, E. 

Little, David Ainsworth 

Littler, Henry Landon 

Lomas, J. A. 

Longden, A. W. 

Lord, Charles 

ALowe, Miss M. E. 

Lowe, Wm. 

Macara, Sir C. W., Bart., J.P. 
cMcDermott, Rev. P. A., C.S.Sp. 
HMacdonald, Major-Gen. Sir J. R. L., 
R.E. 
McDougall, Charles 
McDougall, Robert 
McFarlane, H. H. 
McFarlane, John, M.A., M.Com., 

F.R.G.S. 
M'Grath, W. A. 
HMacGregor, H. E. Sir Wm., M.D., 
K.C.M.G. 
McPherson, Alexander 
Makin, E., junr. 

*Manchester Corporation, Free Libra- 
ries Committee 
Mandleberg, G. C, J.P. 
Mandleberg, S. L., J.P. 



AMarkham, Mrs. M. 

cMarrs, F. W., M.A., Bombay 

LMarsden, James, J.P. 

Martin, Horace C, F.R.G.S. 

Martin, Thomas 

Marx, Charles 

Massey, Harold F. 

Massey, L. F. 
LMather, Loris Emerson, F.R.G.S. 

Mather, Rt. Hon. Sir William, J.P. 

Maude, Rev. J. G. 

May, Wm. 
AMaybury, J. H. 
AMaybury, W. H. 

Medlyn, Wm. John 

Melland, Edward 

Melland, Councillor Will 
LMellor, E. W., J.P., F.R.G.S. 
LMellor, Geoffrey Robert 

Middleton, T. C, J.P. 

Midwood, T. C. 

Miller, Paul C. 

Miller, T. 

Millers, R. Townley 

Milligan, Sir Wm., M.D. 

Mills, Albert 
HMoor, Rt. Hon. F. R., Natal 

Moore, A. E. 
AMoore, Miss Isabel 

Morehouse, James T. 

Morland, J. R. 

Morreau, M. 

Morris, A. C. 

Mort, Miss G. E. 

Moxon, Thomas Bouchier 

Murton, T. P., London 

HNansen, Dr. F., G.C.V.O. 

Nanson, Miss W. 
ANash, Miss M. R. 

Nathan, Fred P. 
LNeil, Alexander 

Neild, F. E., F.C.A. 

Neild, Jesse 

Newton, Geo. D. 

Nichol, Wm. 

Nicholls, Rev. Wm. 

Nichols, Geo. Wm. 

Nicholson, Joseph 



i86 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



Nightingale, Thos. H. 
ANoar, H. 

Norbury, Thos. 
LNuttall, Harry, M.P., F.R.G.S. 

Nuttall, Mrs. Harry 
ANuttall, E. Wilson 

cOederlin, F. 

Ogden, A. 

Oldham, Edwin, J.P. 

Oldham, H. Yule, M.A., F.R.G.S. 
Cambridge 

O'Leary, J. W. 
cO'Neill, H. E., F.R.G.S. 

Openshaw, Miss E. N. 

Oppenheim, F. S., M.A, 

Ormrod, Miss B. 

Osborn, John A. 

Ost, Emil 

APaine, Miss 

Parkinson, H. F. 

Parkinson, J. B. 

Parkinson, T. W. F., M.Sc, F.G.S. 

Peace, Alfred 
APearson, Miss E. 

Pearson, J. A. 
nPeary, Rear-Admiral R. E. 

Peters, Miss S. Kate 
APeters, Ralph 

Philips, Miss 

Phythian, J. Ernest 

Pickstone, E. 

Pidd, Arthur J. 
APidd, Leslie S. 
APidd, Mrs. Eli 
APidd, Miss Maggie 

Pigott, A. W. 

Pilcher, Colonel Jesse, V.D. 

Pilkington, Charles, J.P. 
LPilkington, Edward, J.P. 

Pilkington, Lawrence, J.P. 
cPingstone, G, A. 

Pingstone, H. C. 
APotts. Mrs. 
APrescott, Mrs. 
APrescott Miss E. M. 

Prestwich, R. H. 

Proctor, Mrs. 



AProctor, Miss 
Pro vis, Frank M. 
Prusmann, Robert Henry 
Putz, F. R. 

Qualtrough, Miss Kate 

Quine, Dr. R. H., L.R.C.P., etc. 

Raby, C. R. 

Ragdale, J. R., C.A., J.P. 

Ramsay, P. J., J.P. 
ARawlinson, Miss Maud 

Reade, Charles E. 

Ree, Alfred, Ph.D. 

Reed, J. Howard, F.R.G.S. 

Reekie, W. Maxwell 

R«id, James Stephenson 
LReiss, Alec 

Renold, Hans 

Renshaw, James 
.\Renshaw, Miss L. W. 
AReynolds, Mrs. R. H. 

Rhodes, Edward 

Richardson, J. E. T. 

Richmond, Wm., J. P. 

Rigby, Wm. 

Riley, R. J. 

Robertshaw, James 

Robertson, W. J. 

Robinow, W. 

Robinson, T. Fletcher 

Robinson, W. H. 

Robson, J. Walter, J.P. 

Rogerson, James 

Rothband, H. L. 

Rotherham of Broughton, the Right 
Hon, Lord 

Rothwell, Alderman W. T., J.P. 

Row, 0. M., M.I.M.E. 

Royse, Councillor Sir S. W., J.P. 

Russell, A. C. 

Russell, C. E. B. 

Ruttenau, Wm. 

Saalfeld, A. 

Salford, the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of 
*Salford Corporation Free Libraries 
Committee 
Samson, Oscar 



List of Members 



187 



Schofield, Edwin, J.P. 

Scholfield, Councillor A. Y. 

Schiitt, Professor Dr. R., Hamburg 

Scott, C. Archibald 

Scott, C. P., J.P. 

Scott, J. E. P. 

Scott, W. 

Segalla, Emil 

Sever, John 
HShackleton, Sir E. H., C.V.O., 
F.R.G.S. 

Shann, Alderman Sir T. T., J.P. 

Shaw, A. E. 
AShaw, Miss A. E. 

Shaw, Matthew 

Sheppard, E. F. 

Shipman, Mrs. W. M. 

Shorrocks, Henry 

Sidebotham, John Jas, 

Siegler, H. 

Simmons, C. L. 

Simon, Alfred 

Simon, Louis 

Simpson, Alfred, J.P. 

Simpson, C. J. 
ASimpson, Miss F. 

Sivewright, Wm. 
LSmith, Rev. Canon F. C, M.A., 

F.R.G.S. 
ASmith, Miss E. 

Smith, James, Oldham 

Smith, J., Moss Side 

Smith, J. H. H., J.P. 
ASmith, Miss M. J. 

Smith, R, Heaton 
ASmith, Mrs. R, Heaton 

Smith, Mrs. Samuel 

Smith, Sidney 

Smith, T. M. 

Somerset, Henry 
ASomerset, Henry, Junr. 

Southam, T. Frank, M.D., F.R.G.S. 
ASouthem, John E. 
nSowerbutts, Mrs. Eli 
ASowerbutts, Harry, A.R.C.Sc, 

Sowerbutts, T. W., F.S.A.A. 

Speakman, Walter 
ASpencer, Miss M. R. 
ASpencer, S. 



Spencer, Wm. 

Sprott, W. J., M.D., M.R.C.S. 

Stadelbauer, H. 

Staniforth, Harry 

Staniforth, R. A. 
LSteinthal, Egbert 

Stephens, Alderman Sir W., J.P. 

Sternberg, S. 

Stevenson, Frederick 

Stevenson, John 
AStevenson, Miss W. 
A Stewart, Robert 

Stoker, R. B., F.R.G.S. 
LStonehewer, Walter. 

Stordy, Mrs. 

Storey, Henry E. 
AStott, Miss 

Stowell, Hugh 

Stubbs, Wm. T. 
ASummerville College, The Principal 

Susmann, Councillor E. F. M., J.P. 

Sussum, Geo. H. 

Sutton, Charles 

Swaine, Geo. Raymond 

Swallow, Miss Eunice 
HSwallow, Rev. R., M.D. 

SwaUow, R. W., B.Sc. 
LSykes, Arthur H., D.L., J.P. 

Symonds, The Rev. Canon 

Tatham, Mrs. N. 

Tattersall, Herbert W. 
ATatton, Lees W. 
ATaylor, Albert 

Taylor, Miss A. I. 

Taylor, C. 

Taylor, Frederick 

Taylor, John Tyson 
ATaylor, Miss M. 
ATaylor, Miss Ruth 

Taylor, Walter 

Taylor, William 

Tejeria, Antonio Maria, Spanish 
Consul 

Terry, Henry 

Thewlis, Councillor J. Herbert, J.P. 

Thomas, E. H., F.C.I.L 
LThomas, George, J.P. 

Thomson, A. E. 



i88 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 



cThomson, J. P., LL.D., Brisbane 

Thomson, R 

Thomson, Wm., F.RS. (Ed.) 

Thorpe, Walter 

Tout, Prof. T. F., M.A. 
LTrafford, Sir Humphrey F. de, Bart. 

Tuke, Rev. R M. 
LTuUoch, Angus A. G. 

Turner, Mrs. S. A. 
ATydeman, B. R. 

ATyldesley Higher Education Commit- 
tee 

Tyne, W. J. 

Vallance, A. C. 
Vaudrey, Sir W. H., J.P. 
Viehoff, Miss F. 

nWainwright, Joel, J.P. 

Wainwright, Thomas Foster, J.P. 

Walkden, Arthur 

Walker, George 

Walker, G. H. 

Walker, J. Alan 

Walker, John 

Walker, Sam 
AWallace, Miss M. W. 
LWallace, Reginald W. 

Walmsley, R. 

Walter, Miss L. Edna, B.Sc, H.M.I. 

Warburton, Miss L. M. 
HWard, Sir A. W., M.A., Litt.D. 
HWard, Rt. Hon. Sir J. G., K.C.M.G., 

New Zealand 
LWard, Wm. H. 

Ward, Ziba Armitage 
AWardle, Miss 

cWardrop, Capt. A. Tucker, F.RG.S. 
AWarren, Geo, H. 
A Warrington, Miss M. 

Waterhouse, Gilbert, F.RG.S. 
AWatson, Col. Sir C. M., K.C.M.G., 
RE. 

Watson, D, Eraser 

Watson, Joseph 
AWebster, John 

Welding, Miss 

Welldon, 'Rt. Rev. Bishop, D.D., 
Dean of Manchester 

Welsh, W; 



Welter, H. (Bibliotheque Nationale 
Section des Cartes, Paris) 

Whalley, Joseph, F.RG.S. 

Whitby, W. H. 

Whitehouse, E. C. 
LWhittaker, Mrs. A. H. 
AWhittaker, Miss F. 

Whitworth, Herbert 

Wihl, G. 

Wilde, Miss 

Wilde, J. J. 

Wilkinson, T. F. 

Wilkinson, Wm. 

Willcock, Thomas 
nWillcocks, Major-General Sir James, 
K.C.M.G., D.S.O. 

Williams, James 

Williams, S. W. 

Williamson, R. T., M.D., F.R.G.S. 

Williamson, William Henry 

Wilmore, Albert,' D.Sc, F.G.S. 

Winder, Mark 
AWinstanley, T. G. 

Wood, A. W. 

Wood, George Hervey 
LWood, George W. Rayner, J.P. 

Wood, Henry 

Wood, Thomas 

Woodhouse, J. H., F.RI.B.A. 

Woodruff, Herbert 

Woods, W. D 

Woolf, Miss M. A. 

Woolfenden, Miss Alice H. 

Woolfenden, Joseph 

Woolfenden, R. S. H. 

Woolley, George Stephen 
LWoolley, Hermann, F.R.G.S. 

Worthington, S. Barton 
LWrathmell, T. 

Wright, Reginald 

Young, Harold 
Young, Leonard 
Young, Robert 

Zabem, T. von 
Zellweger, I. 
Zimmem, Fritz, F.R.G.S. 
Zimmem, N. H, 
Zimmem, W. H. 



Rules 189 

IRulee. 

I. OBJECT AND WORK. 

The object of the Manchester Geographical Society is to promote the study 
of all branches of Geographical Science, especially in its relations to commerce 
and civilisation. 

The work of the Society shall be : — 

1. To further in every way the pursuit of the science; as, by the study of 
official and scientific documents, by communications with learned, industrial 
and commercial societies, by correspondence with consuls, men of science, 
explorers, missionaries, and travellers, and by the encouragement of the 
teaching of geography in schools and colleges. 

2. To hold meetings at which papers shall be read, or lectures delivered by 
members or others. 

3. To examine the possibility of opening new markets to commerce and to 
collect information as to the number, character, needs, natural products and 
resources of such populations as have not yet been brought into relation with 
British commerce and industry. 

4. To promote and encourage, in such way as may be found expedient, 
either alone or in conjunction with other Societies, the exploration of the less 
known regions of the earth. 

5. To inquire into all questions relating to British and Foreign colonisation 
and emigration. 

6. To publish a Journal of the proceedings of the Society, with a summary 
of geographical information. 

7. To form a collection of maps, charts, geographical works of reference, 
and specimens of raw materials and commercial products. 

8. The Society shall not enter into any financial transactions beyond those 
necessarily attached to its declared object, and shall not make any dividend, 
gift, division, or bonus in money unto or between any of its members. 

II. ORGANISATION. 

9. The Society shall consist of ordinary, associate, corresponding, and 
honorary members. 

10. A Council shall be chosen annually from the ordinary members to con- 
duct the affairs of the Society. It shall consist of a President, four or more 
Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, two or more Honorary Secretaries (including a 
Secretary for Foreign Correspondence), and twenty -one Councillors. 

11. There shall be three Trustees elected by the Society, who shall hold 
office until death, disability, insolvency or resignation. They shall be members 
of the Council by virtue of their office. 

12. Any vacancy occurring in the Council during the current year may be 
filled up by the Council. 

III. ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

13. Every candidate for admission into the Society as an ordinary or an 
associate member must be proposed by a member. The proposal shall be read 
out at the next Ordinary Meeting of the members, and any objection shall be 
forwarded in writing to the Secretary within seven days. 

14. The election of members is entrusted to the Council. The names of 
those elected shall be announced from the chair at the next Ordinary Meeting 
after the election. 

15. The Secretary shall within three days forward to every newly-elected 
member notice of his election, a copy of the Rules of the Society, and a card 



igo Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

announcing the days on which the Ordinary Meetings will be held during the 
session. But the election of an ordinary or associate member shall not be com- 
plete, nor shall he be permitted to enjoy the privileges of a member, until he 
shall have paid his first year's subscription. Unless such a payment be made 
within three calendar months from the date of election the election shall be 
void. 

16. The Council shall have power to elect honorary and corresponding 
members. 

17. Women shall be eligible as members and officers of the Society. 

IV. PAYMENTS. 

18. An ordinary member shall pay an annual subscription of £1. Is., or he 
may compound by one payment of £10. 10s. An associate member shall pay 
an annual subscription of 10s. 6d. The Society's year shall begin on the first 
day of January. 

19. Members shall not be entitled to vote or to enjoy any other privilege of 
the Society so long as their payment shall continue in arrear, but associate 
members shall not vote nor shall they take any part in the government of the 
Society. 

20. The first annual payment of a member elected in November or December 
shall cover his subscription to the 31st of December in the year following. 

21. On th€ first day of January in each year there shall be put up in the 
rooms of the Society a complete list of the members with the amount of their 
subscription due, and as the amounts are paid the fact shall be marked on the 
list. 

22. Notice shall be sent to every member whose subscription shall not have 
been paid by the first of February, and if the arrears are not discharged by 
the first of July the Council may remove the member from the list of members. 
Any member, whose subscription is in arrear for two years shall not be entitled 
to receive the Journal of the Society. 

V. MEETINGS. 

23. The meetings of the Society shall be of three kinds — Ordinary, Annual, 
and Special. 

24. In all meetings a majority of those present shall decide on all questions, 
the President or Chairman having a casting vote in addition to his own. 

ORDINARY MEETINGS. 

25. The Ordinary Meetings of the Society shall be held once a month, from 
the month of October to the month of May, or oftener, if judged expedient by 
the Council. 

26. All members whose subscriptions are not in arrear shall have a right to 
be present. All ordinary members shall have the privilege of introducing one 
visitor. 

27. The order of the proceedings shall be as follows : — 

(a) The minutes of the last meeting to be read and if correctly recorded 
they shall be signed by the Chairman. 

(b) Presents, whether of money, books, maps, charts, instruments or 
specimens, made to the Society to be announced. 

(c) The election of new members to be declared and the names of 
candidates to be read. 

(d) Papers and communications to be read and discussed. 

28. At these meetings nothing relating to the rules or management shall be 
brought forward, but the minute book of the Council shall be on the table at 
each meeting for the inspection of any member, and extracts therefrom may, 



Rules 191 

with the consent of the chairman, be read to the meeting on the requisition of 
any member. 

23. On occasions of exceptional interest the Council may make provision for 
a larger admission of visitors. 

ANNUAL MEETINGS. 

30. The Annual Meeting of the members shall be held at such time and 
place as the Council may determine. 

31. Fourteen days' Notice of such meeting shall be sent to every member 
within the United Kingdom who has given his address to the Secretary, and 
notice of the meeting shall be advertised in such newspapers as the Council 
may direct. 

32. The object of this meeting shall be to receive the Annual Report of the 
Council and the Treasurer's Balance Sheet, to hear the President's address, to 
elect the Council and officers for the ensuing year, and to transact any other 
business. 

33. Any two ordinary members may nominate candidates for the Council or 
for office not later than one week prior to the day of election, and the names 
of candidates so nominated shall be at once put up in the rooms of the Society. 
The election of the Council and officers shall be by ballot 

SPECIAL GENERAL MEETINGS. 

34. The Council may call a Special General Meeting of the Society when- 
ever they shall consider it necessary, and they shall do so if required by 20 
ordinary members. 

35. A week's notice of the time and object of every Special Meeting shall 
be sent to all members. No other business shall be entertained than that of 
which notice has been thus given. 

36. Twenty ordinary members shall form a quorum. 

VI. COUNCIL AND OFFICERS. 

THE COUNCIL. 

37. The government of the Society shall be entrusted to the Council, sub- 
ject to the rules of the Society. 

38. The Council shall annually elect a Chairman and Vice- Chairman. 

39. The President or the Chairman, or any three members of the Council, 
may at any time call a meeting thereof, to which every member of the Council 
shall be summoned. 

40. Seven shall form a quorum. 

41. In order to secure the most efficient study and treatment of the various 
subjects which constitute the chief work of the Society, the Council may 
appoint Committees for special purposes. These Committees, with the appro- 
bation of the Council, may associate with themselves any persons — whether 
members of the Society or not — from whom they may desire to obtain special 
assistance or information. The Committees shall report to the Council the 
results of their proceedings. 

42. The President, Chairman, Vice-Chairman of the Council, and the 
Honorary Secretaries, shall, by virtue of their offices, be members of all Com- 
mittees appointed by the Council. 

PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

43. The President, is, by virtue of his office, the chairman of all the 
meetings of the Society. In the absence of the President, one of the Vice- 
Presidents may preside. 

CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL. 

44. It is the duty of the Chairman of the Council to see that the rules are 



192 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

properly observed, to call for reports and accounts from Committees and 
Officers, and to summon, when necessary, special meetings of the Council and 
of Committees. 

TREASTTREE. 

45. The Treasurer has the charge of all accounts ; he shall pay all accounts 
due by the Society after they have been examined and approved by the 
Council. 

46. He shall see that all moneys due to the Society are collected, and shall 
have power, with the approval of the Council, to appoint a Collector. All 
moneys received shall be immediately paid to the bankers of the Society. 

47. The bank passbook and the book of accounts shall be laid upon the 
table at every ordinary meeting of the Council. 

48. The accounts shall be audited annually by two members, who shall be 
elected at an ordinary meeting at least one month before the Annual Meeting. 

SECRETARIES. 

49. The duties of the Honorary Secretaries shall be : — 

(a) To conduct the correspondence of the Society and of the Council. 

(b) To attend the meetings of the members and of the Council, and 
minute their proceedings. 

(c) At the ordinary meetings, to announce gifts presented to the Society 
since their last meeting; to read the names of all new members and 
of candidates for admission, and the papers communicated to the 
Society, which have been directed by the Council to be read. 

(d) To have immediate superintendence of all persons employed, to make 
arrangements for the meetings of the Society, and to take charge of 
all maps, books, furniture and other effects. 

50. It shall be the more especial duty of one of the Honorary Secretaries to 
conduct, as may be directed by the Council, correspondence with Foreign 
Societies, and with persons resident abroad. 

51. In addition to the Honorary Secretaries, there shall be a paid Secretary 
appointed by the Council, whose duties shall be to assist the Honorary Secre- 
taries, to issue the notices of the Council and of the Society, and to act under 
the instructions of the Council. 

The foregoing Eules, as now amended, were approved and adopted at a 
meeting of the members of the Society, of which due notice had been given to 
the members, held in the Town Hall, Manchester, Wednesday, October 3rd, 
1894. (Signed) GEOEGE, President. 

S. ALFRED STEINTHAL, Chairman 

F ZIMMERN, Honorary Secretary. 

JAS. D. WILDE, M.A., Honorary Secretary. 

ELI SOWERBUTTS, Secretary. 



[Copy.] 
It is hereby certified that this Society is entitled to the benefit of the Act 6 
and 7 Vict., Cap. 36, intituled " An Act to exempt from County, Borough, 
Parochial, and other Local Rates, Lands and Buildings, occupied by Scientific 
or Literary Societies." Seal of Registry of 

Friendly Societies. 
•piis 15th day of January, 1895, E. W. B. 



THE 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



MANCHESTER GEOGRAPHICAL 



SOCIETY 




VOL. XXXI. 



PUBLISHED FOR THE 
MANCHESTER GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

BY 

SHERRATT & HUGHES 

LONDON AND MANCHESTER 

1915 



COUNCIL 



MANCHESTER 



THE 

AND OFFICERS 

OF THE 

GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY 

FOR I915. 

patron. 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

president. 

Mr. HAREY NUTTALL. M.P., F.R.G.S. 



IDiccsprcsiDcnts 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Derby, 

G.C.V.O. 
The Right Hon. Earl Egerton of 

Tatton. 
The Right Hon, Lord Rotherham of 

Broughton. 
The Right Rev. the Bishop of Salford. 
The Right Rev. Bishop Welldon, 

D.D., Dean of Manchester. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor of 

Manchester. 
His Worship the Mayor of Salford. 
The Right Hon. Sir William Mather. 
The Rt. Hon. J. F. Chbetham. 
Sir W. H. Houldsworth, Bart. 
Sir C. W. Macara, Bart. 
Sir Humphrey F. de Trafford, Bart. 
Alderman Sir J. Duckworth, J. P., 

F.R.G.S. 



Colonel H. T. Crook, J. P., V.D. 
Professor W. Boyd Dawkins, J. P., 

F.R.S. 
Major P. K. Glazebrook, M.P. 
Colonel E, W. Greg, J.P., C.C, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. J. G. Groves, D.L., J. P. 
Mr. J. S. Hicham, M.P. 
Mr. John McFarlane, M.A., M.Coin., 

F.R.G.S. 
Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S., 

Vice-chairman of the Council. 
Mr. J. Howard Reed, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. C. P. Scott, J. P. 
Mr. George Thomas, J. P. 
Mr. Hermann Woolley, F.R.G.S. 
Mr. F. ZiMMEHN, F.R.G.S., Chair man 

of the Council. 



Mr. 
Mr. 



Q:ru6tec85. 

Mr. H. NtTTTALL, M.P., F.R.G.S. Mr. Sidney L. Keymer, F.R.G.S. 

Mr. E. W. Mellor, J.P., F.R.G.S. 

Ibonorarg a;rcasurer. Ibouoraig Secretary. 

Mr. David A. Little. | Mr. Egbert Steinthal. 

Ibonorare Secretary (Dfctoriaus). 

Mr. C. A. CiARKE. 

Counctl. 

Mr. T. C. Middleton, J. P. 

Mr. F. S. Oppenheim, M.A. 

Mr. J. A. OsBORN. 

Mr. T. W. F. Parkinson, M.Sc, 

F.G.S. 
Mr. Alfred Reb, Ph.D. 
Mr. J. Stephenson Reid. 
Mr. Wm. Robinow. 
Mr. J. Walter Robson, J. P. 
Mr. T. W. Sowerbutts, F.S.A.A. 
Miss L. Edna Walter, B.Sc, H.M.I. 



W. 
J. 



Miss S 
Mr. C. 
Mr. 
Mr. 



S. Ascoli. F.R.G.S. 
E. Balmer, F.R.G.S. 

A. BURSTALL, M.A. 

A. Clarke, 
c. collmann. 
George Ginger. 



Mr. J. Howard Hall. 

Mr. Alderman T. Hassall, J. P. 

Mr Richard Kay, F.R.G.S. 

Mr. H. C. Martin, F.R.G.S. 

Mr. L. Emerson Mather, F.R.G.S 



Ibonorarg BuDitor. 
Mr. Theodore Gregory, J. P., F.C.A. 

Secretary. 
£Ukey S0WIRBXTTT8, As80c.IL0.Sc. 



CONTENTS. 



A 

PAGE 

Abeokuta, present condition 3 

Accessions to Library, List of 101 

Accounts, 1914 79 

Administration of Nigeria 13 

Africa — Nigeria 1 

Agaba, of Awka — Ibo devil 11 

Agwobasimi, Chief of Benin 8 

Alps of Japan 23 

America, South, Venezuela 16 

Annual Meeting, 1915 75 

Army, British, in Flanders 93 

Asaba, Nigeria 11 

Ascent of Northern Japanese Alps 24 

Asia, Ceylon, Glimpses of 36 

Asia, Japanese Alps, Northern .... 23 

Atlases added to Library 102 

Auditor, Election of Hon S7 

B 

Balance Sheet, 1914 79 

Bandarawela 50 

Barnard, A. Sedgwick, M.I.M.E. — 

Ceylon 36, 98 

Basha, or native country 'bus 25 

Benin, History and Present Con- 
dition 7 

Berwick, J. D.— The North of 

Ireland 96 

Books added to Library 104 

Botanical Gardens at Peradeniya... 46 

Breaking the Ordeal at Useri 9 

British Army in Flanders 93 

British Association, Manchester 

Meeting 1915. Delegate's Report 71 

British Corresponding Societies ... 109 
Burkitt, Rev. J. H. — Belgium : 

Before the War and Since 95 

C 

Calabar 12 

Cameroon Mountains 12 

Ceylon — A. Sedgwick Barnard, 

M.LM.E 36 

Climate of Ceylon 37 

Coal Fields in Nigeria 2 

Colombo Harbour 38 

Colonial Corresponding Societies ... Ill 

Command of the Sea 19 

Copland-Crawford, W. E. B., 

F.R.G.S.— Nigeria 1 



PAGE 

Corresponding Societies, List of ... 109 

Council, Report of, for 1914 75 

Cross River, Transport on the 12 

D 

Deaths of Members announced... 

88, 89, 90, 91, 95 

Deaths of Members in 1914 78 

Delegate's Report, British Associa- 
tion Meeting 71 

" Descriptive Handbook to the 
Relief Model of Wales" 51 

Diyatalawa, Ceylon 50 

E 

Education in Nigeria 10 

Education in Venezuela 17 

Edwards, T. A., F.RG.S.— Progress 

in South Africa under the 

Union 91 

Effect of Geographical Features on 

the War at Sea— T. Whyman 19 
Egba Country, History and 

Development of 3 

Election of Members, 88, 89, 94, 

95, 96, 98, 99 
Election of Officers and Council ... 86 
EUer, Wm.— The Channel Islands 91 
Eller, Wm.— The Panama Canal... 99 
Elliott, Rev. W. H., F.R.G.S.— 

Bothaland 97 

Eni Ordeal, at Useri, Nigeria 9 

Exchanges, list of 109 

Exchanges suspended 109 

Exhibition, First Niger Industrial, 

at Onitsha 10 

Explorations in the Japanese Alps 

—Rev. W. Weston, M.A., 

F.R.G.S 23 

F 

Flanders, British Army in 93 

Fliim, W. Leonard — Persia : Past 

and Present 100 

Food in Venezuela 17 

Football in Nigeria 14 

Forcados, Port, Ni^r River 6 

Foreign Corresponding Societies ... 112 
Fox, Rev. A. W., M.A.— Life and 

Character in County Galway... 89 

French Enclaves on the Niger 6 



VI 



CONTENTS 



G 

PAGE 

Gardens, Royal Botanical, at 

Peradeniya 46 

Gbadebo, the Alake of Abeokuta... 3 
Geographical Features and War at 

Sea 19 

Geographical Progress — Address by 

President 83 

Geographical Research, Importance 

of— Major H. G. Lyons, D.Sc. 52 
Geographical Section, B.A.A.S. ... 52 
Geographical Societies, Work of ... 70 
Geography at the Universities ... 53 
Ginger, George — Journeys in the 

Mediterranean 89 

Glimpses of Cevlon — ^A. Sedgwick 

Baraard, MJ.M.E. 36 

Godbert, Councillor C. W.— A Chat 

about Russia 92 

Gramophone in Nigeria 5 

Gregory, T., J.P., F.C.A. Election 

as Hon. Auditor 87 

H 

Harcourt, Port, Nigeria 2 

Hilditch, John, M.RA.S.— Ancient 

Arts of China 91 

History of the Society 98 

Hodaka-yama, ascent of 32 

Hospitals in Nigeria 3 

I 

Ibadan 4 

Importance of Geographical Re- 
search 53 

J 

Japanese Alps, Explorations in ... 23 
Jekris, of Southern Nigeria 6 

K 

Kandy 45 

Kano 5 

Karuizawa, Hill Station in Japan... 25 

L 

Lagos, improvements of the Port... 2 
Lantern Slides added to the Library 116 

Libraiy additions 101 

List of Accessions, 1915 101 

List of Members 117 

Lord Mayor of Manchester, 

R.emarks at Annual Meeting ... 81 
Lyons, Major H. G, D.Sc, F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S.— The Importance of 
Geographical Research 52 

M 
McCabe, Alderman, Lord Mayor, 

at Annual Meeting 81 

Mahomedans of Lagos and the 

War with Turkey 5 

Maps added to Library 101 



PAGE 

Mathematical Geography and Re- 
search 56 

Meeting, Annual, 1915 75 

Meetings, Reports of 88 

Mellor, E. W., J.P., F.R.G.S.— 

Remarks at Annual Meeting... 81 
Mellor, E. W., J.P., F.R.GS.— 
Southern India — Some Dra vidian 

Landmarks 92 

Members, Deaths of, in 1914 78 

Members, List of 117 

Members, New, Elected, see 

Election of Members. 
Missionary Corresponding Societies 110 

Mountains of Japan 24 

Muishi Natives 14 

N 

Nakabusa (Hot Springs) 29 

Nigeria — W. E. B. Copland- 
Crawford, F.R.GS 1 

Northern Japanese Alps, Explora- 
tions in 23 

Northern Provinces of Nigeria ... 1 
Nuttall, Harry, M.P., F.R.GS.— 

Geographical Progress in 1914 83 
Nuttall, Harry, M.P., F.R.G.S.— 

History of the Society 98 


Oldham. H. Yule, M.A.— Round 

the World in War Time 88 

Olumo Rock, Abeokuta 4 

Omachi, Japan 26 

Onitsha Industrial Missipn 10 

Ordeal Trials in Nigeria 9 

Renge (the Great Lotus Peak), 

Ascent of 24 

Osborn, J. A. — The Sea and the 

Shore 88 

Otenjo-dake, ascent of 28 

P 

Peradeniya Botanical Gardens 46 

Percival, F.Q., B.Sc, F.G.S.— 

Venezuela 16, 96 

Physical Geography and Research 63 
Pilkington, Christopher — British 

Army in Flanders and France 92 
President's Address at Annual 

Meeting 83 

Proceedings of the Society 88 

R 

Railways of Ceylon 39, 44 

Railways in Nigeria 2 

Railways in Venezuela 16 

Report for Year 1914 75 

Report of Delegate to J5ritish 

Association 71 

Research, Importance of Geo- 
graphical 52 

Revenue Account 79 



CONTENTS 



Til 



PAGE 

Review 74 

Roada in Venezuela , 16 

Rubber in Ceylon 49 

Rules of the Society 125 

S 

Sea War and Geographical Features 19 
Shaw, James, F.R.P.S. — Dolomite 

Tyrol 90 

Shaw, James F.R.P.S.— Three 

Picturesque Cities of Italy ... 99 

Sinhalese People 41 

Society, Accounts, 1914 79 

Society, Annual Meeting, 1915 75 

Society, Annual Report for 1914 ... 75 

Society, List of Members of the ... 117 

Society, Meetings of 88 

Society, Rules of the 125 

Society, the 1,000th Meeting 98 

Solf, Dr., in West Africa 13 

Southern Provinces of Nigeria ... 1 
Sowerbutts, Harry, see Delegate to 

British Association. 

T 

Tamils in Ceylon 42 

Tea Estates of Ceylon 48 

"The, NoTth-West and North-East 

Pmsagca, 1576-1611'' 74 

The One Thousandth jNIeeting of 

the Society 98 

Trees of Ceylon 46 

Trials by Ordeal in Nigeria 9 

Tyrol— James Shaw, F.R.P.S 90 



U 

PAGE 

Universities and Geography 53 

V 

Vegetation of Ceylon 48 

Venezuela — F. G. Percival, B.Sc, 
F.G.S 16 

W 
Walter, Miss L. Edna, B.Sc, 

H.M.I.— The Fascination of 

Holland 95 

War at Sea and Geographical 

Features 19 

Ward, W. H.— The Italian and 

French Rivieras 94 

War with Turkey and Mahomedans 

of Lagos 6 

Waterhouse, G., M.A., F.R.G.S.— 

Visit to North America 89 

Welldon, Rt. Rev. Bishop, Remarks 

at Annual Meeting 82 

Wells, Samuel, F.R.G.S.— Across 

Europe by Water 89 

Weston, Rev. Walter, M.A., 

F.R.G.S— Explorations in the 

Japanese Alps 23, 97 

Whyman, T. — Geographical Features 

and War at Sea 19, 96 

Whyman, Thomas — Life in the 
'Navy 100 

Y 

Yakedake, the highest active 

volcano in Japan 34 

Ypres, Life in, during the War ... 94 



MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Africa — page 

Nigeria, " Agaba," of Awka 12 

Nigeria, Agara of Ute and his Wives 12 

Nigeria, Agwobasimi, Chief of Benin City .....Frontispiece 

Nigeria, Bronze Heads made in Benin City 8 

Nigeria, Bronze Plaque made in Benin City 8 

Nigeria, Gbadebo, the Alake of Abeokuta Frontispiece 

Nigeria, Harry Lauder entertains the Natives on a Gramophone 4 

Asia — 

Ceylon, A Tree Fern at Hatton 44 

Ceylon, Cocoa Palms on the South-West Shore 40 

Ceylon, Coolie Children at Bandarawela 48 

Ceylon, "Grass-clad Humps and Hill-sides" of Bandarawela 44 

Ceylon, " Poochies " — Butterflies, etc 48 

Ceylon, The Beach at Moimt Lavinia 40 

Japan, Map of the Northern Japanese Alps 34 

Japan, Hodaka-yama, fi*om Yari-ga-take 28 

Japan, Snow Ravine on East of Shiro-uma-dake 24 

Japan, Yare-dake and Norikura, from Yari-ga-take 30 

Japan, Yari-ga-take, from the East 26 



^*^ THE WRITERS OF THE PAPERS ARE ALONE RESPONSIBLE FOR THEIR 
OPINIONS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED, 







B m 

OS O 



cd S3 



be 




bo 



CDe Journal 

OF THE 

mancDester 6eoarapDical Socielp. 



^ ^ ^ 



^'NIGERIA.'* 



By W. E. B. Copland-Crawford, F.R.G.S. 
(Commissioner, Nigeria.) 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on 
Tuesday, January i8th, 1916.) 

Nigeria is a country full of present wealth, and, I believe, of 
future possibilities, a country that I have had the pleasure 
of seeing develop — during my nineteen years of official 
connection with it — from comparatively small beginnings, to 
be, as it is to-day, the greatest of all your tropical possessions 
with the solitary exception of India. 

By route of the Canaries, Sierra Leone, the British Gold 
Coast, the late German Togoland, and the French Dahomey — 
we reach Lagos, the present administrative capital of Nigeria, 
in about 16 days. 

Nigeria is bounded on the north by the French hinterland 
of Dahomey and the French Sudan, on the west by French 
Dahomey, on the east by what until recently was German 
Cameroons and Lake Chad, and on the south by the Bight of 
Benin. 

Nigeria, for administrative purposes, is divided into two 
main divisions, the Northern Provinces and the Southern 
Provinces, of which the northern group coincides with the 
former Protectorate of Northern Nigeria, and the southern 
group with the former Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. 

The native population is roughly 17 millions (or 2 millions 
more than all former German Colonies combined), and the 
European population is roughly 2,500. 

The area of Nigeria is some 336,000 square miles— an 
area greater than the combined areas of Germany, Switzer- 
land, Belgium, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Denmark and Serbia. 

The revenue, which in 1904 was one million sterling, in 
Vol. XXXI. Parts I.— IV., 1915. 



2 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

1913 was three millions — trebled within 10 years ! — while 
trade during the same period has proportionally increased. 

Until recently the port of Lagos was accessible only for 
vessels of small draught — owing to a dangerous Bar : a sea 
breakwater is, however, now nearing completion. The 
western mole will be 6,000 feet, and the eastern 8,500. This 
will enable Liners of deep draught to cross the Bar and enter 
the Lagos Lagoon. In June, 1914, I entered Lagos on a 
vessel drawing, so far as my memory serves, about 18 feet. 

From Lagos the railway runs to Kano in the Northern 
Provinces, a distance of 712 miles. There is also a branch 
line of approximately 100 miles from the neighbourhood of 
Zaria to Bauchi which serves the adjacent tin mines; and 
another branch line of approximately 100 miles from Minna 
(near Zungeru) to Baro, an important station on the River 
Niger. 

In 1 91 3 over 1,150,000 passengers were carried by this 
railway, the gross earnings being on an average ;^59,500 per 
month. During the first seven months of 1914 (before the 
war) the gross earnings on an average per month amounted 
to ;^72,500. The effect of the railway in developing trade 
has of course been enormous. An eastern railway has now 
been started from Port Harcourt at the head of the Bonny 
Estuary to the coal fields at Udi — 150 miles distant. It is 
hoped that it will eventually be extended to Kaduna (the 
proposed future administrative capital of Nigeria) — to form 
a junction with the main line from Lagos to Kano. In 
addition to the coal fields this railway will tap an enormously 
rich palm produce country. The gauge of both railways is 
three and a half feet. 

The chief industry of Nigeria is agriculture, and crops 

consist of cocoa, cotton, maize, plantains, ground-nuts, yams, 

cassava and tobacco. The principal natural products exported 

are palm oil and kernels, rubber, mahogany, tin ore, maize, 

hides and skins. In 1913 some 1,130,000 hides and skins 

were exported, valued at ;^ 197,200 — and this trade will 

probably increase, as we shall tap an increased portion of the 

trade that previously went via Kano and Chad to Tripoli. 

In 1913, 5,530 tons of tin ore were exported. The value 

of the palm oil and palm kernels export, which in 1907 

amounted to nearly 3 millions sterling, in 1913 amounted to 

nearly 5 millions ! Considerably over a quarter of a million 



Nigeria 3 

tons of palm kernels is exported annually from West Africa, 
worth from four to five millions sterling, the bulk of which 
has hitherto gone to Germany through Hamburg. We have 
now an excellent opportunity of capturing a considerable 
amount of that German trade. 

With regard to the Coal fields at Udi, some 600 tons of 
excellent coal were stacked by the end of the first half year 
of 1 91 5, and it is estimated that from five to ten thousand 
tons will be stacked by the time the railway arrives there very 
shortly. As £s 5s. a ton was being asked for coal when I 
left Nigeria three months ago, these Udi coal fields will 
obviously prove of enormous local benefit. 

Abeokuta, the populous chief town of the Egba country, 
is reached by rail soon after leaving Lagos. 

Electric light and an excellent water supply have recently 
been obtained by means of the River Ogun. 

New corn mills have recently been erected here, and it is 
interesting to note that the first corn mills at Abeokuta were 
presented by the late Prince Consort to that place so far back 
as 1849. 

The Egba country until recently was a largely indepen. 
dent self-governed country — the British Resident acting as 
friendly Adviser to the Alake and Council, and being 
President of the Alake's Financial Advisory Board. Certain 
modifications in the Administration have recently been 
accepted by the Native ruling Authorities, which have the 
effect of bringing Egbaland more directly in touch with the 
British Administration. 

Gbadebo, the Alake of Abeokuta (see Fig. i), an extremely 
friendly and enlightened Native Ruler, visited England some 
years ago and was received by King Edward. At the out- 
break of war the Alake and people contributed ;^500 to the 
Princess Mary Fund, and offered their services for the defence 
of Lagos against the Germans. 

The quarries from which the Lagos breakwater was 
constructed are at Abeokuta, and an excellent granite is 
obtained from them. 

I laid down a cricket ground at Abeokuta in the Residency 
grounds when last there, and the local Native team used to 
give us a good game. 

One of the best hospitals in Nigeria has been erected here 
by Father Coquard, the Reverend gentleman in charge of 



4 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

the Roman Catholic Missions. It proved of great service 
during a recent outbreak of yellow fever. The Protestant 
Missions are also strongly represented in Egbaland, and 
amongst other duties are carrying on a useful educational 
work. 

The Olumo rock is the venerated rock of the Egba people^ 
So far back as 1856 it was graphically described by Miss 
Tucker of the Yoruba Missions : — 

''In the south-western part of the Kingdom of Yoruba, 
amid hills and rocks of primitive formation, there stands 
near the eastern margin of the River Ogun a huge porphy- 
ritic rock called ' Olumo,' or ' the hiding place,' from the 
concealment it used to afford to a band of robbers. The 
summit is composed of large rounded masses of stone, and 
at one spot the intervening space forms a kind of deep but 
low cavern capable of giving shelter to a considerable 
number of persons. It was deserted by these robbers some 
short time before the year 1825, and in that year became 
the refuge of a few poor people who had fled from the 
merciless hands of the slave hunters and knew not where 
else they could be so secure. , 

" The party who first took possession of the cavern was 
soon joined by others who, like themselves, had been 
driven from their homes and friends, often in want of food 
and obliged to subsist on the leaves of the pepper plant, 
wild roots or any animals that came within their reach. 

'* The different parties settled themselves down in small, 
but separate communities, each under its own laws, each 
with its own Chief and Judge and war Captain, and with its 
own Council House, and each giving to this new found 
home the name of the town or village from which it had 
been driven. To the whole they gave the name of 
'Abeokuta,' or ' understone.' 

'* Fresh parties continued to join them till the remnant 

of 130 towns had found refuge in Abeokuta, and the spot 

in which 30 years ago a robbers' cave was the only 

habitation now in 1853 numbers 80,000 as its population." 

From Abeokuta the next important place is Ibadan. 

Ibadan has the distinction of being perhaps the most populous 

town in British West Africa. The Alafin of Oyo near here 

is the recognised head of Yorubaland : the Oni of Ife the- 







^K^p^^y^^^H 


iHiHBHEHl^BS^M^HBKj^ir^ll^^^^ ^^MMj^^^^iit.^ 


I- 



Fig. 3. Nigeria. Harry Lauder entertains the natives on a 
Gramophone. 



Nigeria 5 

Spiritual head. The head chief of Ibadan is called the Bale. 
I happened to be at Ibadan when the then Bale died. The 
Alafin of Oyo took part in the appointment of his successor. . 

Important cotton producing areas are in this neighbour- 
hood, the Moor plantation and ginnery being established here ; 
and cotton has been grown both in the Northern and Southern 
Provinces of Nigeria from time immemorial in connection 
with the cotton spinning industry. During seven years prior 
to 1913, the exports of cotton lint have increased from 36,000 
cwt., valued at ;£'97,ooo, to 56,000 cwt., valued at ;^ 160,000. 
The native looms (see Vol. xxiii, page 133) are perhaps not 
quite equal yet to your Manchester looms, though doubtless 
they may some day surpass them ! 

The effect of a Harry Lauder laughing song given on 
the gramophone is seen in the reproduction of a photograph 
taken at Ibadan (see Fig. 3). I have found the gramophone 
most useful when visiting newer parts of the country. The 
fame of the gramophone precedes you ! It is your avant 
coureur. There is no need to arrange for meetings, they are 
there waiting for you — or possibly for the gramophone. Its 
influence is great — equal to a company of soldiers ! 

We next visit Kano, which has been described as the 
Manchester of West Africa. Whether the description be 
a correct one or not, it is I believe a fact, that Kano for 
long supplied cotton goods to a considerable portion of the 
Sudan. Caravans have for long traded between Tripoli and 
Kano — and it is interesting to note that Tripoli Arabs living 
at Kano sent a most loyal address on the outbreak of war to 
the Governor-General, Sir Frederick Lugard. In fact all the 
Mahomedan population, as well as our other Native Races, 
scorned with contempt the German intrigues so assiduously 
and unscrupulously attempted. 

In addition to contributions in men and kind the Emir of 
Sokoto contributed to the war funds ;^7,539, the Emir of 
Kano ;^6,542, the Shehu of Bornu ;£'4,ooo, the Emir of Bida 
^£"2,190, and so on, accompanied by letters of the utmost 
loyalty to the British Government. 

The Mahomedan community of Lagos wrote : — 

" We have the honour to say that we are nearly 
maddened with surprise at the unjust and ungrateful 
attitude taken up by the Turkish Government against 



6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

Great Britain, who has ever been the one friend and helper 
of the Turkish Government .... 

" We do say solemnly, consciously and without 
hesitation, that our loyalty to His Majesty King George V,. 
is as firm as a rock, and that there is nothing that can 
interfere with our loyalty and goodwill tow^ards the British 
Crown.'* 

The Port of Forcados is situated at the main mouth of the 
Niger. This river, rising in the Sierra Leone hinterland and 
flowing some 2,600 miles, enters the Bight of Benin at Forca- 
dos. The surrounding land is low lying mangrove swamp and 
considerable building up has been required in order to render 
the various stations habitable. I remember years ago cutting 
the first bush where the Forcados government and trading 
stations now stand. There was no telegraphic cable at that 
time at Forcados, and I endeavoured to secure communica- 
tion with Lagos by a system of carrier pigeons. One of the 
present sites at Forcados is known as " Pigeon " beach. 

By our Treaty with France some years ago she is entitled 
to two enclaves on the Niger for commercial purposes, the 
one at Bajibo in the Northern, and the other I selected for the 
Government at Forcados in the Southern Provinces. 

The Ijos and Jekris are the principal Native Races around 
here; the former live principally by fishing, the latter are 
excellent traders. The Jekris are to be found principally in 
the Warn, Benin River and Sapele districts. The Jekri chiefs 
have always proven themselves loyal and industrious. 

Manchester cloths are largely in demand in these parts- 
for wearing apparel, and they have much improved in quality 
within recent years. I remember the time when King 
Edward's head and shoulders figured largely on these cloths,, 
which were widely worn by the Natives. The King was 
generally depicted with a bright vermilion face, gamboge 
hair and impossible blue eyes ! I trust it is no disparagement 
to Manchester to say that the colours toned down in the 
washing. 

At one time the Sobos were the principal oil producers in 
these parts, the Jekris acting as middlemen between the 
producer and the European firms. The Sobos having now 
gained confidence bring the major portion of their palm oil 
to the firms. 

Some of the Creeks around Benin River and Sapele are 



Nigeria 7 

extremely beautiful, with deep and clear water. They are a 
great centre for the mahogany trade. In the year 1913 no 
fewer than 18,214 logs, valued by the Customs roughly at 
;;^ 1 00,000, were shipped from near here. 

Benin, called by the natives Ibini or Bini, was discovered 
in 1485 by the Portuguese navigator, Joao Alfonso de Aveiro, 
who on his return to Europe took back an Envoy or Ambas- 
sador from the King, as a result of whose visit missionary 
Fathers were sent to endeavour to Christianise the inhabitants, 
but apparently with small success. They were followed by 
merchants and others of their countrymen, who obtained a 
strong footing in the country, many traces of which exist at 
the present day. The first English adventurers visited Benin 
in 1553. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and 
during a considerable part of the eighteenth, Benin was a 
powerful and important kingdom, probably the most exten- 
sive and powerful that ever existed in Western Africa. For 
some years prior to 1897 Benin City had been closed to 
Europeans, and I believe only three were able to visit it and 
they saw but little of the place. 

In January 1897, ^ peaceful Government Mission 
endeavoured to get to Benin City with a view to stopping the 
terrible cruelties which were perpetrated there and opening 
the country to trade. Of the nine Europeans on the mission 
seven, including my brother Major Copland-Crawford, were 
massacred, together with a number of Native carriers who 
were carrying up presents for Overami, the King or Oba of 
Benin. 

An expedition was immediately organised and left 
England within five days of the receipt of the news of 
the massacre. I went out with that expedition and then 
had my first experience of Nigeria. The troops captured the 
City but found a terrible condition of things within it. A 
Report at the time states : — 

'' The ghastly condition of the City overcame men who 
had never flinched from fighting or privation. Benin, in 
fact, was a mere charnel-house, literally reeking with human 
blood. Mutilated bodies, detached heads and skulls lay 
everywhere, crucified victims swung on the trees, and pits 
and wells were choked with dying as well as dead. Three 
Natives, who had accompanied the unfortunate expedition, 



8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

were found in a half dead condition. These poor wretches 
had evidently been condemned to a lingering death of 
starvation amid the decaying bodies of their comrades.'* 

Benin city was captured and Overami deported to Calabar. 
Here he died quite recently, and his son Agwobasimi is now 
paramount Chief at Benin (see Fig. 2). This picture of 
Agwobasimi I took in 1897 when he was handed over to me 
by the Royal Niger Company. 

Benin bronze work was evidently introduced by the 
Portuguese centuries ago. (See Figs. 4 and 5.) 

Six years after the massacre, having just returned from 
Benin City, I am reported to have stated as follows : — 

*' When on my tour of inspection through Benin City 
and Territories I was much impressed by the contrast of 
Benin City of to-day as compared with the Benin City of 
six years ago. Then the country groaned under the most 
cruel system of barbarism and oppression that the world 
has probably ever known. Human sacrifices were of 
common occurrence and no man's life was safe, and no 
property was secure. Crucifixion was a favourite form of 
human sacrifice, and the ex-King of Benin told me in 1897, 
when he had just been taken prisoner, that he had always 
been in the habit of sacrificing his people in the event of 
rain or dry weather being required. 

** Human sacrifices and fetish outrages are, of course, 
to-day a thing of the past, and human life is as safe and 
property is as secure in Benin City as they are in any town 
in England. 

** I attended Court, with the Chiefs sitting and assisting 
in cases as Assessors, and found them cordially co-operating 
with the British Officials in every movement conducive to 
the welfare of their people. These, it must be remembered, 
are the Chiefs who were ready, six years ago, to massacre 
the ' White man ' rather than receive him as a friend in the 
City. 

** I inspected the Government schools there — schools 
largely supported by the Chiefs, and was much struck by 
the aptitude shown by the young native children. From 
examinations I made, I consider that their work would 
compare favourably with that of any children of the same 




Fi<;-. 4. Nigeria- Jiroiize i'laquc made in 
B^nin City. 




Fi^. 5. Nigeria. Bronze Heads made in Benin Cit^- 



Nigeria 9^ 

age in this country. The Natives appeared to me to be 
contented and prosperous, and they had not the crushed 
and hopeless appearance which I had noticed in earlier 
years. 

'' The trade in Benin City is good, and now that pro- 
tection for property is assured it will probably improve, 
especially if light railways are established for the transport 
of produce. Excellent government buildings have been 
erected with bricks made in the locality. 

" On every hand there was evidence of the advantages 
which had accrued from six years of British rule, and one 
saw with satisfaction how order,, security and liberty had 
been evolved from savagery and oppression." 

I will now describe one of those trials by ordeal that used 
to be so prevalent in Nigeria before British rule became firmly 
established. This particular ordeal is known as the Eni ordeal 
at a place called Useri, inland from Asseh on the Niger. 

The ordeal was undergone in the following way : Persons 
sus{>ected of witchcraft or of using poison to cause death or 
disease were taken to the shore of Useri Lake during high 
water and embarked in canoes holding from six to ten persons 
each. They were paddled to the middle of the lake and told 
to jump into the water, which they did. The lake was full of 
crocodiles, and the people around the lake fired guns into the 
air — a sort of lunclieon gong for the crocodiles — and the 
canoes were paddled to shore. Those reaching shore after 
the ordeal were deemed innocent and were decorated by the 
head chief Oluwa with feathers and cloth and chalk. 

As this ordeal was a fruitful source of loss of human life 
I decided to stop it. I visited Useri, being the first White man 
there, and had a long interview with Oluwa. He insisted it 
was the Ju Ju, or the prevailing Spirits of the lake, that killed 
the people, and that they only died if they were guilty of witch- 
craft. Oluwa had a small son with him, and I suggested 
that he should go with me to the lake and cast his son into 
the water under the usual conditions, as, being innocent, he 
would escape. He replied with a smile that he thought he 
would rather not ! After several visits I induced Oluwa to 
break the ordeal on condition I brought all the Chiefs from 
surrounding countries so that they might warn their people 
not to go to the ordeal. This I did, and the ordeal was finally 
broken. 



lo Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

I obtained a subsidy for Oluwa from the British Govern- 
ment, and made him Vice-President of a Native Court estab- 
lished at his town. 

Oguta Lal^e, inland from the lower Niger, is a trading 
station of some importance. Extremely small canoes are here 
used by the natives, one of which I have presented to the 
Liverpool Museum. 

Disraeli once said : *' The Youth of a nation are the 
trustees of posterity "; and the Government and the various 
Missions are alive to educational requirements. In the 
Southern Provinces of Nigeria at the close of 1913 there were 
fifty-four government schools, eighty assisted schools, and 
some 400 private schools, representing 52,000 scholars. Not 
only are the children taught " book " education, but also 
crafts and industries. At Onitsha there was an excellent 
Industrial Mission school, the pupils of which largely 
furnished the various government stations on the lower Niger. 

The Government believe not merely in the education that 
makes scholars, but also in the education that tends to the 
formation of character, and tends to make useful members 
of society and good and loyal subjects of the King. 

I remember examining some children on Empire Day at 
Calabar and the statements in two of the essays were 
interesting. One child wrote that Empire Day and the 
British Empire were discovered by Lord Meath, and that 
prior to that time he had earned his living in cutting down 
trees ! Another child in a patriotic vein wrote : " The British 
Flag is the best Flag. Should anyone tread on the Flag he 
must be killed '*— and by w^ay of making sure of the job 
added *' likewise executed '* ! 

We do not contend that by education alone we can 
eradicate all the pernicious habits and customs of centuries, 
but we do contend that in affording education to the native 
child we are giving him an opportunity of starting fair on 
the battle of life, and are laying the foundation stone upon 
which a more civilized and enlightened superstructure may 
ultimately be raised. 

Onitsha, on the left bank of the Niger, is an important 
government and trading station. Some years ago I held the 
first Niger Industrial Exhibition there. The exhibition was 
attended by the various Native Races in large numbers, and 
prizes were given for every conceivable object from calves to 



Nigeria i»i 

wood-carving and from turkeys to tobacco. We also held 
athletic sports, the native wrestling matches proving exceed- 
ingly popular. I remember when the fireworks went off 
some of the natives hastily picked up their scanty belongings 
and bolted homeward. 

A representation of the famous Ibo devil "Agaba," of 
Awka (see Fig. 6) was brought in to me at Onitsha on that 
occasion, tied up to show that his power had been broken. 
This Awka ordeal was a somewhat similar one to that at 
Useri. The Natives charged with witchcraft and using poison 
were taken down a long passage into a cave where a terrible 
noise was produced by means of beating pots and pans. 
The alleged evil doers were brought before the figure 
"Agaba," while a man speaking into an earthen pot so 
disguised his voice that it was taken to be a Divine utterance 
pronouncing the fate of the victims. In the case of guilt the 
victim was knocked down senseless into a pit, dragged off and 
killed. The ordeal, unlike that at Useri, was performed in 
private, and not infrequently those supposed to have been' 
killed in the ordeal were secretly taken away and sold into, 
slavery in the interior. 

Native blacksmiths carry on important work at Awka and 
elsewhere in the neighbourhood, and as they are great 
travellers very useful information regarding other parts of 
the country was in earlier days obtainable from them. 

Asaba is on the right bank of the Niger nearly opposite 
Onitsha. Here were the old judicial headquarters of the then 
Royal Niger Company. Lignite is obtainable near Asaba, 
specimens were sent to the Imperial Institute for analysis, 
and the reports were favourable. It would to a large extent 
have superseded tlie use of wood for river craft, but now that 
good coal is obtainable from Udi, inland from Onitsha, the 
lignite Avill be of little present use. 

Medical Missions are well established around Asaba and 
Onitsha. The political advantages derivable from medical 
labours are far reaching. 

I remember a Native rising in 1904 in the Asaba hinter- 
land. Government Courts and Mission Stations were 
destroyed and friendly Chiefs and natives killed, and troops 
were required to restore order and protect the friendly and 
peaceably disposed natives. 

One day when we wanted to change our camp a doctor 



12 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

volunteered to ride down and inspect another site. He 
returned some time later and the next day we moved camp. 
I was somewhat surprised to meet with no opposition and 
then the reason transpired. It appeared that the bush had 
been full of armed nativ^es as the doctor rode along, who were 
quite prepared to fire, but one of them recognised him as the 
" Medicine Man *' who some years before had successfully 
• operated on their Chief for cataract. Not a shot was fired, 
and the natives explained that they could not shoot one who 
had, miraculously as it seemed to them, restored sight to their 
Chief ! I have always considered that an interesting instance 
of the political advantages to be derived from medical 
agencies; and it would also appear to dissipate the very 
erroneous misimpression that gratitude is a quality unknown 
to the Native nature. 

I have not visited Lake Chad, but several views of Lake 
Chad were taken some xears ago by my late friend Captain 
Boyd Alexander, a familiar name in geographical circles. 
^(See Vol. xxiv, p. 145, of the Journal of the Manchester 
Geographical Society.) I understand that Lake Chad is 
somewhat disappointing, being shallow and to some extent 
>a magnified swamp. 

Calabar, on the eastern borders of Nigeria, was formerly 
the old headquarters of the old Niger Coast Protectorate, and 
in still earlier days of the Oil Rivers Protectorate. It adjoins 
the late German Cameroons where Nigerian troops have been 
successfully operating against the Germans. The Cameroon 
mountains, 13,000 feet high, are clearly discernible from 
Calabar. 

Calabar is situated on fairly high ground, but from here 
to the sea mangrove swamps abound. Above Calabar the 
main stream is the Cross River, and as one proceeds up it the 
land gradually rises. The hills around Oban are of con- 
siderable height. 

Transport on the Cross River is difficult in the dry season 
(our winter season), and stern wheelers of small draught, 
similar to those used on the Nile, are used. Sandbanks 
largely abound. The rivers at certain seasons of the year 
rise very rapidly. I have known the Aboine River, near 
JVbakaliki, rise over twenty feet in as many hours. 

Lead is found in the neighbourhood of Abakaliki. 

Ogoja is the principal government station of the Province 




Fiii. o. Nigeria. "A^aba " of Awka. 




Fig. 7. Nigeria. Agara of Ute, a Minshi native Chief and 
bis Wives. 



Nigeria is- 

up the Cross River that bears its name. It abuts upon the 
Cameroons, and during the war, columns have successfully 
operated against the enemy from Idah, on the Cross River, 
and from Obudu and the Northern Provinces. 

Since the declaration of war, German trade has been swept 
from the seas, thanks in a large degree to our. magnificent 
Navy. Germany has lost all her Colonies with the exception 
of East Africa, and that she will presumably soon lose. 

Hamburg, to which before the war so much West African 
trade found its way, is now like a city of the dead, so much 
so that Dr. Solf, the German Colonial Secretary of State, 
when recently visiting there was quite unable to make the 
dead bones live ! He spoke in regard to what would happen 
when Germany regained her Colonies, an event that some 
consider may be advantageously relegated to the Greek 
Kalends ! 

I photographed Dr. Solf a few months before the war when 
I met him in West Africa. I remember he was good enough 
to express the hope that he might see me in Berlin, a hope 
that I trust may be speedily realised. To-day Dr. Solf 
occupies the somewhat trying and anomalous office of a 
Colonial Secretary without Colonies. 

Our Government has made it a point to try and administer 
Nigeria as far as possible on Native lines, and with a due 
regard to the sentiment and traditions of the people. With 
this object we have established what we call " Native Courts.'* 
Upon these Courts native Chiefs sit, representing the various 
localities within the jurisdiction of the court. The Govern- 
ment officer assists with his advice when required. 

The benefits derived from this system of courts are 
reciprocal. On the one hand, the chiefs and people become 
familiar with our views upon what we know as justice and 
fair play between litigants; on the other hand, the Govern- 
ment officer has the inestimable advantage of becoming 
acquainted with native law and custom as existing in the 
various localities. 

It is the Government object to try and rule the country 
through the medium of the Chiefs, and to make them realise 
as far as possible that the advent of Government does not 
mean the weakening of the authority of the Chief over his 



14 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

people, but rather the strengthening and consolidation of his 
influence. One cannot rule primitive Races on purely British 
legal lines. Great allowance must be made for local native 
sentiment and tradition. 

I remember trying a case years ago, inland from the Niger. 
where the '* White man's " views were unknown. Nine men 
had killed their mothers with a poison, known as the 
'' Sasswood " poison, which was derived from the bark of a 
tree, pounded up and administered in water. 

There had been a smallpox epidemic in the locality, and 
the mothers feared that if all their sons died off there would 
be no one left to administer to them the last rites and 
ceremonies according to native custom. The mothers 
obtained the poison and insisted on the sons administering it. 
This they did, with the result that the mothers died. 

A hideous crime according to the purely British aspect ! 
A filial duty from the native point of view ! 

I remember a hostile demonstration on the part of the 
natives who were averse to my taking the offenders away. 
I settled the trouble by kicking a football amongst them upon 
which they bolted into the bush, but returning shortly they 
enjoyed a game of football, several hundreds taking part, 
though not under Cup tie regulations ! 

After the football I took the men away. They were duly 
tried, found guilty of murder, sentenced — and reprieved. To 
have carried out the death sentence demanded by English 
law would have been in itself a crime, for the offenders knew 
no better. 

I took those men back to their country and was met by a 
great crowd of women waving boughs of trees who escorted 
me into the village. I, of course, explained that poisoning 
mothers must cease; but I cite this case to show the futility 
of trying to prematurely govern primitive native Races 
according to the strict letter of English law and English 
sentiment; and one of the great advantages of these Native 
Courts is that one acquires an insight into native law and 
custom. 

The Munshi people are a fine race to the east and north 
of Nigeria. The men have a special weakness for a fight; 
and the women for beads (see Fig. 7). The Munshis fight 
largely with poisoned arrows, the poison being obtained from 
the Strephanthus plant and other sources. The Munshis are 



Nigeria 15 

industrious and good agriculturists, and now that Government 
can insure protection for life and property they are beginning 
to trade. 

I shall be glad if anything I may have said or shown 
this evening may induce my audience to view with a 
sympathetic eye Nigerian affairs. 

The task that lies before us in that country is a responsible 
and interesting one. To open up and develop the country 
in the interests of humanity and to the advantage of every 
class of the community, European and Native alike. To weld 
these various Races into one united whole, loyal, prosperous, 
-and contented under British rule ; and upon the firm and sure 
foundations of justice and liberty, to build up an Empire 
worthy of a great Imperial Race. 



i6 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

VENEZUELA. 

By F. G. Percival, B.Sc, F.G.S. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall or^ 
Tuesday, October 19th, 191 5.) 

Venezuela is assuredly a land with a future, — but how far 
ahead that future is one hesitates to guess. The rapidity with 
which other South American republics have developed may 
be equalled by that of Venezuela when she gets thoroughly in 
touch commercially with more stable states. At present the 
country is badly handicapped by its lack of communications, 
and by its somewhat turbulent history, but there are signs 
already that this unstable phase is nearing its end. 

The railways are few in number, and the difficulties in 
their construction are very great. The coast range that inter- 
venes between Caracas and the sea makes the journey by the 
La Guaira to Caracas railway extremely interesting, and at 
times, perhaps thrilling to the stranger, but it reduces the 
possible load per train tremendously, and increases the cost of 
carriage proportionately. The route from Caracas by Valencia 
to Puerto Cabello is similarly striking — at one point the 
incline is so steep as to necessitate a rack-rail. 

The roads, away from the larger towns, are the merest 
tracks, and the smaller rivers, liable to sudden floods, are not 
much used. To go a journey of any distance it is usually 
most convenient to go to the coast and take a vessel. Strings 
of donkeys carry much of the traffic. 

The writer was a member of a party that traversed some 
of the lesser known parts of Venezuela in 19 10. La Guaira, 
where the visitor usually makes his first acquaintance of the 
country, is the port of Caracas, and is built on a steep- hill- 
side, facing the sea. It has a wide reputation for its heat, yet 
Macuto, a few miles east along the coast, has cooling breezes 
that make it the Brighton of Venezuela. There is a break in 
the hills behind Macuto which probably explains the difference 
between its temperature and that of La Guaira. Caracas, the 
capital, has a pleasant cooler climate owing to its altitude,, 



Venezuela 17 

and is much like a southern European city. It has rather 
narrow streets, in which its electric trams look rather 
dangerous, but the lowness of most of the houses makes the 
narrowness of the streets less noticeable. 

It is not till one gets well away from the capital, however, 
that one realises how undeveloped the country really is. The 
smaller towns and villages are built of single-storied houses, 
often with mud-plastered walls, and thatched with palm leaves. 
As one rides through such a small town one may hear the 
droning of many voices in unison, and see the schoolmistress 
sitting at the door of the room that serves as a school, rocking 
her child to sleep while the class reads. The three R's are 
taught, with needlework in addition for the girls. The 
Government was awake, however, to the necessity for a more 
systematised scheme of education and improvements were 
promised. Caracas has a university, but the facilities else- 
where are not very great. 

The people, whether of pure Spanish or mixed descent, 
have a natural courtesy and hospitality that is charming, and 
place their best at the disposal of the traveller, though as they 
often live in a very happy-go-lucky manner, one must be 
prepared to live at times on a rough monotonous diet, 
sweetened mainly by the cordiality with which it is offered. In 
many places wheaten bread is not obtainable. Maize cakes, — 
often very coarsely ground and insipid, — are used instead, or 
sometimes only millet-seed cakes are available, with fowl, 
goat-flesh or pork. The coffee is always excellent. Cocoa is 
grown, but is rarely drunk in the villages, and milk is often 
difficult to obtain. Where goat farming is carried on, as in* 
the district round Coro, delicious goat-milk and cheese can be 
had. On the sugar farms one may have the inevitable fowl, 
with yams, boiled bananas (the unsweet varieties), and thin 
sheets of dry cassava cake, with crude brown candied sugar 
C' papelon ") as a sweet. Fruits can be grown with little 
trouble, but only in a few rare oases can one be so fortunate as. 
to get such dainties. Life is easy and comfortable in the- 
villages for those whose tastes are simple. The exertion of 
planting fruits is not thought worth while. For a similar 
reason one may find it difficult to get labour. The men are 
extremely independent, and proud of their Republic and their 
freedom. If they feel inclined to work they will do so for 
fairly low wages, but if they don't want to work no reasonable 



i8 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

offer will tempt them. Why should it? They have no fear 
of starvation. Old age does not mean the workhouse. Would 
they be any happier with a system Hke ours? 

But as a result the country is undeveloped. They are 
waiting for foreign capital to come and organise things, 
bringing the mixed blessings of modern industrialism, in 
order to get their stores of copper and petroleum. Their other 
minerals will be exploited in turn. Their animal and 
vegetable products, — cattle, goatskins, sugar, coffee, cocoa, 
and tobacco will become more and more important, but the 
country is waiting and depending too much upon foreign 
capital. British companies are dealing with their cattle and 
petroleum, amongst other things, but during the next few 
years European capital will be needed in Europe. It is 
to Venezuela's interest to encourage her people to develop the 
national resources themselves without waiting for foreign 
capitalists to take the initiative. 



Geographical Features and War at Sea 19 



THE EFFECT OF GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES ON 
TFIE WAR AT SEA. 

By T. Whyman. 
^Secretary of the Port of Manchester Branch of the Navy 

League.) 

•(Addressed to the Society in the Geographical Hall on 
Tuesday, November 2nd, 191 5.) 

War, both on sea and land, is an art and not a science ; its 
rules are not invariable rules, and its definitions have not the 
same precision as a mathematical formula. With the 
endeavour, as far as possible, to avoid technical terms, there 
^re two that cannot be avoided, and so must be defined. The 
first is " Command of the Sea." Where one nation is capable 
as a general thing of using the sea passages for transit, and at 
the same time of denying them to an enemy, that nation 
possesses " Command of the Sea." That command may be 
absolute, as in the present case of the Pacific, where the enemy 
has not afloat a single war ship ; or it may be conditional, as 
in the North Sea, where the enemy has a fleet capable of 
interfering if it chooses to attempt to do so. 

The other phrase is '' Fleet in Being." Where the 
enemy's fleet is still intact it exercises influence on the war 
in three ways, even although it may never leave port. First, 
it compels our fleet to keep watch over it in superior force, 
because, since the enemy can choose his own moment for 
attack, and at that moment some of our ships might be away 
coaling, it is necessary to have at least five ships to watch 
four. Secondly, this watch exposes us to various risks and a 
certain degree of toil, hardship and expense. Thirdly, as long 
as the German Fleet remains undefeated we can not send 
our Fleet into the Baltic and leave it behind us unguarded. 

Having thus cleared the ground the war at sea can be 
considered as a whole. The problems before the Admiralty 
are the same in this war as in every sea war, right back to the 
time when Rome and Carthage were fighting for the mastery 
of the Mediterranean. The old rule still holds good, that the 
.essential thing is to seek out the enemy's fleet and destroy it. 

The various objects for which a navy exists ; to protect our 



20 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

own trade overseas ; to prevent that of the enemy ; to prevent 
him invading us, and to invade him if necessary; all these are 
secured at once (and can only be secured) by either destroying- 
the enemy's fleet, or by preventing it from putting to sea. 

England has been greatly helped in this war by her 
position, lying straight across the routes by which Germany 
might seek access to the open sea. From Dover we control 
the narrow straits; the North Sea is just large enough to be 
convenient, and just small enough to be well in touch in every 
part, with the Admiralty at Whitehall. We owe a great debt 
of gratitude to Signor Marconi for his invention of wireless, 
and its invaluable assistance to us in our watch. 

We are all in the habit of speaking of ports controlling 
sea passages, but, as a matter of fact, a fortified port without 
warships in it is very much like a railway station without any 
trains, and controls nothing except the area under the 
immediate range of its own guns. We have had an illustra- 
tion of this in the case of Tsing-Tau which the Germans 
boasted before the war ''controlled the Yellow Sea." We 
saw when war broke out how this fortified port was besieged 
and taken at leisure, as all fortified ports have been taken when 
command of the sea is lost, by an attack from the landward 
side. 

The only campaign in this war that has spread at all 
spaciously has been the hunt for Admiral Von Spee in the 
Pacific. It had probably been Von Spec's intention to pick 
up the hundred thousand German reservists at Buenos Ayres 
and bring them across the Atlantic to assist the defence of 
German South West Africa ; and so we see that the conquest 
of Bothaland was made possible by a victory won off the 
coast of South America. 

Allied with and helping to complicate this campaign has 
been the hunt for the Emden. War against our trade at sea 
has been tried many times, and has always failed. It was 
always defeated by the same method. The commerce 
destroyer at sea must get supplies from somewhere, and the 
best method to defeat him is to stop his supplies. In this 
way, as source after source of supply was stopped, the Emden 
was driven to try to break the net that the wireless telegraph 
was weaving round her, and was caught and destroyed in the 
act. 

All- the other campaigns have been more local and more 



Geographical Features and War at Sea 21 

affected by local conditions. Without saying much about the 
Dardanelles it may be noted that although the results so far 
have been below our expectations, yet they have drawn a 
German army into an adventure among the Balkan mountains 
at a time when Germany needs every man on her Eastern and 
Western Fronts. 

In the Adriatic, Italy has a particularly weak spot in the 
fact that her main line of railway runs along the coast. On 
the 23rd May, the opening day of the war with Italy, the 
Austrian Fleet raided this railway and succeeded in breaking 
it in several places. It was a brilliant operation, all carried 
out in two hours; but the Austrians have not been able to 
repeat it. 

In the Eastern Mediterranean the escape of the Goeben 
in August, 1914, was the beginning of many sorrows for us 
in Lancashire, but there was a reason and a compensation. 
The position taken by our Fleet was chosen to intercept her 
if she endeavoured to interfere with transport operations, 
between Algiers and Marseilles. The 19th French Army 
Corps was in line in the North of France on that disastrous 
day when Namur fell, and if it had not been there Verdun 
would certainly have fallen and probably Paris. The Goeben 
at Constantinople was a very small set-off against the 19th 
Army Corps safe in France. 

During eight months of the submarine war against our 
commerce, and with a total of thirty-one thousand, three 
hundred and eighty-five entries and departures of ships from 
our ports, of that number we have lost 98. The price Ger- 
many has paid for that certainly not magnificent result has 
been great in boats, and still greater in her trained men, the 
loss of whom she must sorely feel in the future. 

But behind all the other activities of the other ships of the 
Fleet is the Battle Fleet ready for action ; although none of its 
ships has yet fired a gun in anger, it is the knowledge that 
they are there and ready that keeps the Germans in port. 
There have been some raids, and the raiders have been 
severely punished. There may be raids in the future, but 
raiding will be as risky as going into a lion's cage on a foggy 
day and hoping to escape notice. 

In the Baltic, where the German trade with Sweden is 
being dealt with by our submarines, we are showing Von 
Tirpitz that a war against commerce can be carried on both 



22 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

humanely and efficiently ; our submarines have sunk 20 ships 
within ten days, and the Germans are learning that the new 
. departure in warfare that they had invented is a sword with 
two edges. In the Baltic we have a very good example of 
disputed command. The Russian cruiser squadron is being 
most ably handled, and the German losses in this type of ship 
have been so heavy that they are forced either to risk their 
big battle ships for work for which they are unsuitable, or to 
let the Russians do as they please in the Baltic. 

Finally, the North German coast is defended not so much 
by the forts of Heligoland, as by its shoals and sandbanks. 
In the Kiel Canal the German navy is lying in wait, and some 
day we believe that it will come out. That fleet has been 
built on Borrowed money at a cost of ;^300,ooo,ooo, and the 
Prussian mind, nothing if not commercial, will want a 
dividend on that investment. As the public feels the pressure 
of our sea power more and more, a clamour is sure to arise 
for the fleet to go out and do something. There have been 
signs already of the influence at work. It has happened, over 
and over again, in the course of history. Sooner or later the 
insistent demand that they shall see something for their 
money will send the German Fleet out to fight. 

We must be under no delusion about one thing. When 
they come they will come to do everything that science and 
cunning and a diabolical hatred can suggest, and they 
will be hampered by no considerations of humanity or fair 
play. We must be prepared to face heavy losses in ships and 
lives, but we can look forward to the result with confidence. 

Including with the German fleet every ship they had that 
was not actually known to be destroyed, and only reckoning 
with our Fleet, the ships actually present in the North Sea, 
we have 49 ships to 40, 442 guns to 282 and 480,000 lbs, 
weight of broadside fire against 230,000. 

With regard to the men, for without the men the best ship 
or the biggest gun is merely useless metal, the men are all 
that we expect of the British Navy, and have never been 
better since King Alfred commissioned our first Fleet. The 
officers are worthy of the men they lead ; their leader is by 
universal consent the finest tactitian that has ever handled a 
steam fleet at sea ; and we can look forward with confidence 
when the great day comes, to him justifying at the Germans* 
expense the name the lower deck has admiringly given him of 
**HellfireJack." 



Explorations in the Japanese Alps 23 



RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN THE JAPANESE 

ALPS.* 

By Rev. Walter Weston, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

(Addressed to the Society in the Houldsworth Hall on 
Tuesday, November 9th, 191 5.) 

I HAVE already had the honour, on two previous occasions, of 
reading papers before this Society on exploration in the 
Japanese Alps. My first subject, in 1896, was that of 
mountaineering in the northern ranges; in 1906 I dealt with 
travel in the southern. To-night I ask you to come back with 
me once more to the wild and unfamiliar regions of the 
northern Japanese Alps. If, therefore, for the sake of clear- 
ness, I have to repeat what I have already said on certain 
points, I am sure I shall be forgiven. 

''The Japanese Alps" is the title I ventured to annex 
twenty years ago for the great mountain mass which stretches 
across the mainland of Japan at its widest span, lying 
approximately between 35° — 37° N. and 137° — 139° E. Its 
central portion is practically on the same latitude as the Sierra 
Nevada, in Southern Spain. Tokyo, the capital of Japan, 
from close to which some of the southern peaks are visible, 
is on almost the same latitude as Gibraltar. 

Into the geological features of the main range I need not 
now enter, as I have already referred to them in previous 
papers. But in passing I may again remind you that it is 
mainly an immense backbone of granite, through which at 
various times mighty volcanic upheavals have thrust them- 
selves; it is partly to this combination, together with the 
peculiar and marked climatic conditions of Central Japan, 
that we owe the varied peaks that rise from deep-cut romantic 
valleys, with their magnificent forest-clad flanks and wild, 
torrent-dinned ravines, the chief charms of the Japanese 
Alpine world. 

* We are indebted to the Royal Geographical Society for permis- 
sion to print this paper with the map and the four ilhistrations. 



24 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

The principal mountain expeditions on which I will now 
ask you to accompany me, I will take in geographical order, 
beginning with the most northerly : O Renge — '' The Great 
Lotus Peak,** about 120 miles north-west of Tokyo, and 30 
miles south of Itoigawa, on the Sea of Japan, where the main 
granite axis of the range rises in bold tree-topped cliffs 
abruptly from the shore known as Oya Shiradzu. Strictly 
speaking, O Renge is the name given to the cluster of summits 
(supposed to resemble the petals of a lotus flower) as seen by 
the people of the province of Etchu on the north ; while the 
inhabitants of the great province of Shinshu on the south 
know the highest peak itself as Shirouma-dake or Hakuba 
San. Both these names mean " The White Horse Peak,** 
though the one is the Japanese and the other the Chinese 
reading of the same characters. 

A good many years ago I explored the mountain by the 
northern route, only knowing it then as Renge. I well 
remember the kind and unremitting attentions of a friendly 
little policeman, whom I met on my way from the coast; he 
forthwith took me in charge and never left me, night or day, 
for the whole week of the expedition. He wore a white drill 
suit, white cotton gloves many sizes too large, and carried his 
great two-handed sword even to the mountain-top. In our 
little shelter-shed at the bath house of the Renge Onsen (5000 
feet up the north flank of O Renge) he made his bed on the 
bare board floor, but when my hammock gave way above, and 
I landed on him somewhat heavily as he lay snoring peacefully 
below, his only reference to the midnight interruption was a 
polite apology, O jama wo itashimashita, i.e., *' I am so sorry 
to have been in your honourable way." The Japanese 
Government subsequently began to issue (not necessarily, I 
hope, as a result of this experience) a series of police instruc- 
tions for the public in country places and elsewhere, to guide 
them in their intercourse with the foreigner. Some of their 
precepts are worthy of mention : — 

'' No criticism should be made, either by gesture or words, 
regarding the language, action, or attire of foreigners.** 

" Foreigners are most sensitive regarding cruelty to 
animals, therefore special attention should be given to this 
matter.** 

" It should be remembered that ladies will not take off 
their hats** (there are no such things as matinee hats in 




Fig. 1. Japan. vSnow Ravine on East of Shiro-uma-dake. 



Explorations in the Japanese Alps 



25 



Japan) '' even in public places, and that it is the usual custom 
for a man and wife to walk the streets hand in hand." 

*' When a foreigner pulls out his watch and looks at it, 
you should think that he has business elsewhere, and that it 
is time for you to leave.'* 

''It is a mistake to suppose that foreigners will always 
respond to an application for a loan of money." 

From the highest point of O Renge, which I climbed from 
the north, my policeman friend and I looked down a steep 
rock-face falling sheer to a wild ravine filled with slopes of 
dazzling snow. Later on I learned it was possible to reach 
this ravine from the east, and it was to this task that Mrs. 
Weston and I applied ourselves at the end of our summer 
holiday in 1913. Our natural starting-point was Karuizawa, 
a popular '* hill station " near the foot of the famous volcano 
of Asama yama, on the railway that runs from Tokyo across 
Japan to Naoetsu on the Japan Sea. 

Near the station of Komoro, on the right bank of the 
Chikumagawa, the Buddhist temple of Shakusonji juts out 
from the face of a great cliff (like the musharabiyeh, the carved 
bow window, of some Egyptian palace) : at its foot a lovely 
lotus pond was blooming in all its glory of pink and white. 
The train pierces and worms its way through and over a 
mountain barrier for six hours westwards, to the wide long 
plain of Matsumoto, and we were finally set down at the way- 
side station of Akashina. Here a sign-post on the platform 
tells us that this is the most convenient way of approach to 
the eastern outskirts of the northern Japanese Alps now rising 
before us. A handsome new inn now offers excellent accom- 
modation, and the garden in early summer is a charming spot. 
From Akashina a native country 'bus, known as a hasha, plies 
along the length of the plain northwards for a dozen miles to 
the finely placed little town of Omachi, between low hills on 
the right and the dark snow-seamed folds of the outliers of the 
main chain on the left. 

This hasha is a vehicle deserving of passing notice. It is 
li sort of cross between a hearse and an ambulance waggon, 
and the emotions it inspires, on a typical Japanese country 
road, are quite appropriate to either. Its speed, under favour- 
able conditions, averages 3 to 4 miles per hour, and its 
employment, in those circumstances, always proved one of the 
fond delusions to which one at times so unaccountably clings. 



26 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

I must confess that a hasha usually needs a good deal of 
clinging to, for an average day's outing in its creaking and 
gyrating frame offers one of the most strenuous forms of 
exercise in which a person of robust frame and unimpaired 
nerves is, if unmarried, justified in indulging. In some 
districts the hasha^ however, is now being driven off the road 
by ''European style" landaus and victorias, themselves 
superseded in Tokyo streets by automobiles. 

Near Omachi, one of the big boys' schools was holding 
the function known as " Commencement exercises," so called 
apparently, because they always take place at the e^id of the 
summer term. The Japanese are not a warlike people, though 
so intensely patriotic; but the Japanese boy is familiarized 
with the idea of universal military service from childhood, 
;and he is taught that his greatest glory consists not so much 
in fighting for his country, as in dying for it. For it is deaths 
in battle that will bring prestige, not to his own name merely, 
but, what is much more, to that of his family, and it is still 
the family, and not the individual, that is the unit of social 
life at the present day. Nevertheless, the increase of railway 
and steamship communications, of emigration, etc., by 
scattering the individual members, is slowly loosening the old 
family ties. The subject is a fascinating one, and the facts 
are bound to have far-reaching effects in the future. 

Near the town of Omachi the upland plain widens for a 
while and here horse and man are baited at a good inn, the 
Taisan-kwan (literally, ''Grand Hotel des Alpes "). A tall 
post at the main entrance tells us that this is " the chief 
climbing centre for the Japanese Alps." Omachi will- 
probably one day become a Chamonix or a Grindelwald, and 
may then doubtless be fitly described somewhat as is another 
Japanese mountain town, of which I once saw an ingenuous 
railway advertisement declaring that "the principal occupation- 
of its inhabitants is to feed peacefully upon tourists!" 

Down the Inroad streets of Omachi run sparkling streams ; 
the broad low house-roofs, with paper windows in the chim- 
neys, like many in these Alpine regions, have their shingling 
weighted with boulders from the neighbouring river-bed. 
Beyond them, westwards, the snowy peaks of the O Renge or 
Shirouma range rise boldly. Over these the Harinoki-toge, 
the finest pass in Japan, and the only one for 50 miles, leads 
across towards the city of Toyama, near the Sea of Japan, 




Photo by O. M. Poole. 

Fig. 2. Japan. Yari-ga-take, from the EavSt. 



Explorations in the Japanese Alps 27 

As the hills draw closer on either hand the plain contracts 
and the road climbs up, passes two lovely lakes, Kizaki and 
Aoki, and at length reaches Yotsuya, a small village sur- 
rounded by mulberry plantations in a broad plain traversed 
by the waters of the Matsukawa. It was the silkworm season, 
and during the whole night long the landlord and his family 
were kept busy feeding the O ko sama {'* the honourable little 
gentleman," as the precious worm is entitled). The noise of 
the nibbling myriads, on their bamboo trays, arranged in tiers 
in every available space outside our room, was exactly the 
noise of the scratching of pens in a university examination 
room. The only interruption to their operations that night 
was the louder but momentary uproar caused by an alarm of 
thieves, and the crashing of doors and windows as a burglar 
made his escape after a futile attempt to appropriate some of 
our baggage left in a ground-floor room. 

Our actual start for Shirouma was delayed by the late 
arrival of our coolies. They had been busy celebrating, with 
sake and song, the festival of the Ni-hyaku-toka, ''the 210th 
day." This is regarded as the most critical of the whole year 
for the rice harvest, and the gods are then supplicated for good 
weather. It is a sort of Japanese St. Swithin*s Day, and, if 
fine, is expected to betoken a favourable season for the forth- 
coming harvest. 

The route to Shirouma leads due west, crossing the wide 
swift current of the Matsukawa, and mounting along the right 
bank of the main stream through a dense forest-clad valley, 
till we reach the tongue of the great snow ravine by which the 
final ridge of Shirouma is attained. This was the ravine on 
which years before I had looked down from the top of Orenge. 
On the left bank of the snow-slope we found the little shelter 
under a wedge of rock which is now used by the hunters of 
the district. This bivouac lies 5000 feet above the sea," and' 
from it the following day we made the ascent, leaving a coolie 
behind to guard our provisions against possible bears and 
other roaming beasts in search of food. Each of our men 
carried a primitive kind of ice-axe and a pair of the native 
.cramp on s known as kana-kanjiki. 

The actual ascent, including halts, took about five hours. 
We rose the first 2,500 feet of altitude up the snowy ravine, 
whose surface is here and there seamed by crevasses, some- 
times lateral but usually transverse. Near the head of the 



Z28 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

ravine, on the left, rises the triangular top of Shakushi-dake, 
and on the rocky slopes above the snow bloom Alpine flowers 
of every hue and kind. It is probably the richest spot in the 
whole of Japan for the variety and abundance of its Alpine 
flora. The rocks of the ravine itself are supposed to show 
traces of glacial action, but in my two ascents of the mountain 
I saw very little to justify the attempts that were made some 
years ago to give proofs of such a phenomenon. Above the 
flowery slopes we mounted to a saddle on the main arete and 
gained the top of Shirouma northwards, over broken rocks 
thinly carpeted here and there with low-growing goyo no 
matsu, a kind of creeping pine. The height of the peak is 
nearly 9,700 feet, and the prospect it commands is one of the 
most extensive in the whole of the Empire. For this reason 
it enjoys, with Hodaka, of which I shall presently speak, the 
distinction of the formal title of Itto or *' first class " bellevue. 

These two, however, are not the only peaks dignified with 
.an official title to fame. As far back as a thousand years ago 
the Japanese authorities, probably alarmed by the violent 
-behaviour of a certain active volcano in Southern Japan — 
which I ascended and described some twenty years ago — 
bestowed upon it the order of the '' Junior branch of the 4th 
rank," which is very much like awarding to Vesuvius the 
Italian equivalent of a D.S.O. But whether this was to keep 
Jiim quiet or actually to commend his behaviour under fire is 
not actually recorded. 

Our next expedition of importance was the exploration of 
a fine mountain lying 30 miles due south of Shirouma, which 
rejoices in the title of Otenjo-dake, '' The peak of highest 
heaven.*' Our natural starting-point was once more Akashina, 
in the Matsumoto plain, which we traversed for 8 miles west- 
wards in jinrikisha and on foot to the mouth of the Nakabusa 
valley, which, as yet, no foreign traveller had ever penetrated. 

At the hamlet of Miyashiro stood a Shinto shrine dedicated 
to the god Hodaka-yama. This divinity is said to reign over 
wind and storm, and in times of drought is approached with 
propitiatory rites known as amagoi, " intercessions for rain." 
Fires are lighted and guns discharged to compel her attention 
;and induce her to quench the desecrating flames with the 
needed showers. The only available accommodation was at 
the house of the chief priest. Though he had never before 
seen a foreign visitor he received us kindly and gave us a 



Explorations in the Japanese Alps 29* 

charming- room overlooking a pretty garden. Half hidden in 
the azalea bushes and irises, the waters of a noisy cascade fell 
into a little pool with ceaseless roar. A chance remark on 
this, as offering a somewhat violent lullaby, produced 
unexpected results. During the midnight hours the noise 
suddenly ceased, and we awoke to see dark forms moving ta 
and fro across the garden. Our host had turned out of bed 
to divert the water into a remoter channel to ensure our repose ! 

Our actual starting-point for Otenjo- was the onsen of 
Nakabusa, which lies, as do the majority of these Japanese 
Alpine hot springs, at an altitude of 5,000 feet. The situation 
of some of them is most picturesque. This one is approached 
by a valley of surpassing and romantic beauty. A well-made 
track, here and there supported on struts of timber on the side 
of granite crags, winds in and out through dense vegetation,, 
with the flashing green waters of the torrent of the Yu-gawa 
often 500 feet sheer below us. Above tower the extraordinarily 
steep cliffs of Otenjo on the right bank, or of Ariake-San on 
the left, 5,000 to 7,000 feet. 

On a second visit to this "enchanted valle}^ " we found 
that as a result of our praises of its beauty, the worthy land- 
lord of the onsen had been inspired to put up signboards at 
suitable spots for the benefit of future prospective European 
visitors, to draw attention to the views, e.g,, *' Byobu magari.. 
From here it is 5 miles to Nakabusa ; far and away up in the 
sky can be seen the peaks of the Japanese Alps.'* Nakabusa 
itself stands at the end of the valley in a cul-de-sac about 20 
miles from Akashina, and almost completely shut in by dark 
wooded heights. Except by the way we have come no exit is 
possible but over precipitous ridges 7,000 or 9,000 feet in 
height. During our stay we explored all the principal peaks 
that rise above Nakabusa, but on the details of these, though 
wholly new to foreign travel, I have not now time to dwell. 

The waters of the onsen abound in sulphur and carbonic 
acid gas and leave the source at a temperature of 200° Fahr. 
The water is wholesome both for internal and external use. 

Excellent quarters had been hurried to completion in 
honour of our visit, and the good proprietor also pointed out 
with pride one special spring of whose radio-activity a 
Government analyst had assured him, arousing hopes of 
unbounded usefulness and wealth. 

The accommodation for the public is varied. We ourselves- 



30 Journal of the Manchester Geographical Society 

were given an excellent room, and during our stay a special 
.bath was set aside for our use with the open-work lattice 
'Carefully papered to keep out prying eyes. The precaution 
was not unneeded. In the public baths the customs were 
xiifferent. The division of string or bamboo often stretched 
across the bath tanks, as