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Full text of "The Lancaster Farmer"

! S. S. RATHVON'S 

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"THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION.'-WEBSTER. 




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A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY. DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

AND GENERAL MISCELLAN\. 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME XI-1879. 



LANCASTER, PA.: 

JOHN A. HIESTAND, PUBLISHER 

1879. 



"THE FARMER IS THE FOUNDER OF CIVILIZATION.'-WEBSTER. 



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jiiWM^mhiMMlm^M^MMMLMi^Mif 



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A MONTHLY NEWSPAPER: 



DEVOTED TO 



AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE, PRACTICAL ENTOMOLOGY, DOMESTIC ECONOMY 

AND GENERAL MISCELLANV 



EDITED BY PROF. S. S. RATHVON. 



VOLUME XI-1879. 



LANCASTER, PA.: 

JOHN A. HIESTAND, PUBLISHER 

1879. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME ELEVEN. 



About Corn and Wheat, 189 

Annual Meeting State Board of Agri- 
culture, 2 

A New Grain, 2 

As Others See Us a, 17 

Andidote for Currant Worms, 3 

About Eels, 4 

Accepting Invitations, 14 

Ammonia in the Air, 27 

Agricultural and Horticultural Society 
Proceedings, 11, 37, 42, 57 
74, H9, 106, 133, 138, 153, 170,186 

Ampelopsis Vietchii, 30 

Ammonia in the Household, 31 

Albemarle Apple, The, 30 

A Grape Swindler, 34 

A Chapter on Macaroni, 36 

A Word iu Reply, 41 

Ancient House and Barn, An, 46 

American Wheat in Spain, 47 

American Produce Abroad, 47 

A Model Postmaster, 49 

Around the Farm, 53 

An Experiment in Planting, 62 

About Eggs, 69 

Amounts of Sugar iu Nectar, 73 

An Immense Farm, 76 

A Good Night Lamp, 77 

Apple Preserves, 78 

A Good Word for Bees, 79 

A Flock of Hens, SO 

A Word More, 86 

American's Advantage, The, 86 

A Champion Wheat Field, 88 

About Potatoes, 92 

Apple Dumpliug, 94 

Ambei Pudding, 94 

Apple Orchards, 109 

Artificial Fertilizers, 117 

Analysis of the Farmer, 177 

Aphids Persica, 179 

Apluds 179 

A New Wheat, 125 

About Corn, 125 

Advantaire of Staying in Bed, 126 

Animal Food, 137 

Altitudes in Pennsylvania, 153 

A New Use for Miillein, 153 

Ajjple Piclting and Keeping, 157 

Apple Omelet, 158 

American Butter and Cheese in Eng- 
land, 109 

Apples and Apple Trees, 174 

Abutilon, The, 174 

Apple Jelly, 175 

Apple Tree Borer, The, 16 

Among the New Strawberries, 135 

Application of Manure, 155 

Agricultural Society as a School, The, 

Best Time to Cut Scions, 10 

Bedrooms — Ventilation, 14 

Butter-Malcing, 14 

Burning Green Wood Wasteful, 14 

Bitter-Swei-t, 23 

Balance of Trade, The, '£i 

Buy Your Trees at Home, 30, 'U 

Bake-Egtrs, To, 31 

Bee-Keepers' Association, Proceedings, 

43, 90, 124, 171 
Broiled Kidney, 48 
Best Kind of Eggs, Tlie 48 
Buckwheat Cakes and Sausages, 51 
Balance of Trade, 53 
Boston Meat Pie, 62 
Burns and Scalds, 63 
Book Farming, Ii7 
Bone Dust, 76 
Bananas, 77 

Baked Fish, 78 

Belostomo gratuKs, The, 81 

Bee Labor, 86 

Borers' Eggs, 108 

Barns and Barnyards, 109 

Best Yeast Known, The, 109 

Butter-Making, 109 

Balky Horses, 111 

Black Bass, The, 119 

British Wheatfields, 120 

Butter Factory Organized, 120 

Best Time to Cut Wheat, The, 125 

Bags for Protecting Grapes, 125 

Blackberry Wine, 126 

Bake Buckwheat Cakes, To, 126 

Bake Eggs, To, 126 



Baked Indian Pudding, 126 

Barnyard and Coop — Profits of, 127 

Bark-Lice on Apple Trees, 141 

Blackberry, The, 142 

Breakfast Bacon, 142 

Brattleboro Fricassee, 143 

Breakfast Biscuit, 143 

Boiled Pudding, 143 

Bees Work in the Dark, Why, 144 

Balance of Nature, The, 153 

Beet Sugar, 157 

Beef Soup, 158 

Bone Dust, 173 

Bakers' Gingerbread, 175 

B-own Leghorn, 80 

Contributors, To, 1 

Cold Snap, 4 

Cooking feed for Stock, 10 

Couch Grass for Hay, 13 

Corn and Cob Meal, 15 

Christmas Rose, 18 

Correction, IS 

Culture and Trainin;;' of the VinCi 21 

Cattle of Lancaster County, 22 

Cattle, Texas, 22 

Corn Drills, 29 

Color for Wicker Baskets, 31 

Crantjerries, 31 

Chocolate Cake, 31 

Correspondents, To, 33 

County Fairs, 33 

Chemical Fanning, 36 

Care of Fruit Trees, The, 39 

Current Slug, To Destroy, 46 

Clover Seed^Fly, 46 

Cranberry Culture, 55 

Corn Culture, 61 

Cup Fruit Cake, 62 

Cookies for Children, 62 

Cranberry Rools, 62 

Caponized Fowls, 63 

Chicken Cholera, 6j 

Cofilinu Motli Bands, 66 

Cider Vinegar from Beets, 71 

Composts for Tobacco, 72 

Cream Insteail of Butter, 77 

Cleansing; Brussels Carpet, 78 

Cheap Pudding, 78 

Color iu Jerseys, 78 

Corn-Plant Weevil, 83 

Couatdns Obscurux, 83 

Compound Grape Gall, 83 

Couimuuicatiou, 84 

Correspondeuc, 84 

Cypripedum Acaicle^ 85 

Cord Wood in an Acre, 93 

Cooking Potatoes, 94 

Charlotte Kusse, 94 

Chilliugham Wild Cattle, The, 95 

Cheap Puultry House, A, 96 

Uow Biintiiii:, ^-i-., The, 99 

Calulpa Tree, The, 99 

Curciilii), Tlie, lUU 

Cussida Gullala, 107 

Capturiiii; Curculios, IDS 

Curious Facts About Insects, 108 

Charcoal on Land, 108 

Cuti.inu; Cornstalks, 109 

Corn Cubs, 109 

Curiosities iu Pomology, 109 

Cottage Pudding, 110 

Cook Pumpkin, To, 110 
' Coffee Cake, 110 
, Cows, 111 
' Calves, 111 
. Cultivated Wheat, 115 
I Cutting Away our Forests, 121 
1 Commou Elder, The, 122 

County Fair, A, 1-4 

Cutting and Curing Hay, 124 

Cultivate More Turnips, 125 

Cleanse a Itubber Piano Cover, To, 

Cranberry Jelly, 12G 

Caterpillars. 130 

Cuttock for Hogs, 137 

Cabbage Worm, The, 141 

Currant Culture, 141 

Care of Farm Implements, 142 

Cheese Pudding, 143 

Cucumber Pickles, 143 

Common Sense, 145 

Cultivating Wheat in England, 15« 

Chinese Cookery, 158 

Cheap Ice House, 158 



185 



Coflfee Ice Cream, 158 

Cows in Winter, 158 

Cattle Belt, 159 

Colic in Stock, 159 

Chicken Cholera, 160 

Cold Snap, The, 163 

Colorado— Pitkin, 164 

Coptix Trifolia, 165 

California, 165 

Comfortable Quarters for Stock, 168 

Changing Seed, 173 

Care of Potatoes, &e., 174 

Care of Plants in Winter, 174 

Cheap Ice House, A, 175 

Clean Wall Paper, To, 175 

Clean Black Lace, To, 175 

Condensed Truth, 178 

Cicada Septendeeim, 180 

Christmas Greeting, A, 180 

Cisterns, 180 

Coffeee— A Coffee Field in Brazil, 

Cough Mixture, 190 

Cliickens to Boil, 189 

Cleaning Fruit Trees, 189 

Comparative Value of Woods, 186 

Cleaning Tinware, 190 

Cracked Hubs, 190 

Cream Muffins, 190 

Chicken Cheese, 190 

Choosing Stock for the Farm, 190 

Dwarf Pears, 13 

Diseases of the Pear, 30 

Deep and Shallow Plowing, 47 

Degeneracy in Fowls, 48 

Destroy House Insects, To, 78 

Difference, The, 78 

Disinfection, lOi 

Dutch Dairy Farm, A, 105 

Dominique Fowl, The, 111 

Duchesse Potatoes, 126 

Delicious Vegetable Soup, A, 126 

Destruction of Lice on Fowls, 128 

Depth of Sowing Wheat, 189 

Dysentery as a Bee Disease, 191 

Delicate Cake, 190 

Duty of Our Farmers, The, 183 

Drop-Worm, 130 

Drivinu- Aft.T E;ilin-, 143 



Des 



1)8 



158 



Dulc 

Dressed Boiled Fish, 94 

Entomological Manipulations, 8 

Essays and Address, 5 

Evening Milk Richest, 31 

Earache, 31 

Essays on Entomology, 33 

Essay— I. G., 40 

Experiments with Moths, 46 

Early Cabbage and Tomatoes, 47 

E.xperimeut in Planting, 63 

Eggs in Case of Trouble, 63 

Eggs for Winter Use, 192 

Eggs from Ditlerent Breeds, 64 

Eggs-traordinary, HI 

Exercising Cows", 79 

Eggs and Egg Culture, 79 

Evidences of Success, The, 88 

Economical Feed-Trough , An, 96 

Elm-Tree Beetle, The, 97 

Elderberry Wine, 136 

Essay on Manuring, 151 

Experience in Draining, An, 164 

Eggs from Different Breeds, 176 

English Sparrow, The, 98 

Extravagance of American House- 
keepers, 157 

Feeding Mowing Lauds, 189 

Fruit Exports of the United States, 
189 

Faastening Zinc Labels on Trees, 189 

Fried Chicken, 189 

Feeding Cows, 190 
ugge 
190 

Fattening Turkeys, 191 

Feed Troughs for Poultry, 192 

Fox Squirrel, The, 3 

Fruit as an Article of Food, 7 

Felling Trees, 13 

Flowers, 17 

Farm Life vs. Prof. Life, 18 

Fertilizers and Formulas, 25 

Fruit-Growers' Society, The, 26 



Fulton Farmers' Club, 28, 45, 59, »1, 

139, 154, 173 
Flower Pots, 30 
Flowers on the Table, 30 
Frosted Feet, 31 
Fish Question, The, 38 
Flower Garden Hints, 61 
Flannel Cakes, 62 
Full Blood, 63 
Fowls Eating Feathers, 64 
French Bread, 78 
Farmers and IJees, 79 
Fowls in Orchards, 80 
Facts Worth Remembering, 80 
Flockof Hens, A, 80 
Flies, 83 

Farming on a Large Scale, 91 
First Employment of Guano, The, 91 
Future of American Farming, 92 
Fruit-Growing in England, 93 
Fish Cakes, "94 

Fillet of Beef and Dutch Sauce, 94 
Fighting Against Trespassing, 105 
Fultz Wheat, 108 
Farmers, Keep Accounts, 110 
Fruit Pudding, 110 
Fertilizers and Fruit Trees, 125 
Fruit Jars, 136 
Foul Air, from Walls, How to Expel, 

126 
Feeding Dry Cows, 137 
Fattening Calves, 127 
Fall Plowing, 141 
For Pennsylvania Farmers, 141 
Famous Apples of Lancaster County 

Origin, 142 
Frogs and Tomatoes, 143 
Fruit Jelly, 143 
Fertile Workers, 144 
Fall Plowing for Corn, 156 
Facts About Flour, 158 
Fall Plowing for Corn, 173 
Facts About Flour, 175 
Feediuif Cattle, 175 
Forestry, 99 

Feeding and Treatment, 113 
Fifty Years Ago vs. the Present Day, 

24 
Fence .Making on the Farm, 20 
Gold Fishes, 2 
Greatest of all Grain, The, 29 
Growing Ivy in Rooms, 30 
Growing Fuseliias in Baskets, 30 
Ginger Cookies, 31 
Ground Hog .Meteorology, 34 
Galley- Worms and Craue-Fly, 39 
Garden Seeds, Sowing Them, 61 
Gooseberries and Currants, 62 
Glucose, ti> 
Grain in Orchards, 70 
Grafting Grape Vines, 76 
Grape-Growing, 76 
Grape Vines in California, 77 
Grain Sylvanus, 84 
Gooseberries and Currants, 93 
Oonaphea Ciemba, 107 
Growing the Crab-Apple, 125 
Green Sage, 126 
Grass as a Renovater, 141 
Grape Vine, 142 
Green Tomato Sauce, 143 
Green Tomato Pickles, H'? 
Galled Shoulders and Backs, 143 
Growth and Development, West, 150 
Growing the Pear, 156 
Goose, Roast, Greeu, i&c., 157 
Gumbo Soup, 158 
Geese, and Something About Them, 

182 
Grain Crop, The, 18S 
Green Tomato Soy, 153 
Grape Phenomenon, 162 
Grafting Grape Vines, 174 
Ginger Snaps , 175 
Grain and Fruit Crop of 1878, 26 
Glimpse of the West, A, 101 
Household Receipts, 14 
History of Horned Cattle, 15 
How to Choose a Good Cow, 15 
How to tell that Eggs are Eggs, 1 
Hessian, Fly, The, 16 
Hand-Made Moth, The, 38 
Hide-Bound Trees, 47 
How to Neutralize Skunk's Odor, 4T 
How to Pickle Artichokes, 47 



INDEX 



III. 



How to Destroy Molhe In Feathers, 47 

How to Friiassec Chicken, 47 

How to Stew Soup Beans, 47 

How to make Turnip Salad, 47 

How to Manage Setters, 48 

Harrowing Wlieat In Spring, 60 

How to (irow Broom Corn, 61 

How to Vreserve Cut Flowers, 61 

How to use Coal, 62 

Honey, 63 

How to fasten Comb Foundation, 63 

How Insects Hear, 75 

How to riant IVas, 77 

How many Tobacco Seeds to an Acre, 

77 
Home-made Cracked Wheat, 77 
Ham Dressed iu Claret, 78 
How the Youujt Bird is Hatched, 79 
Home Advice as. to Poultry, 80 
History of Celluloid, 88 
Home-made Fertilizers, 92 
How to Make Sauce and Croquettes, 93 
Hints to Housekeepers, 94 
Houcy in the Boston Market, 96 
Honey Product, 97 
How to Raise a Bull, 100 
How to Preserve (irapes, 101 
How Civilization Benefits our Birds, 

105 
How to Cook Cheese, 184 
How to Keep Fowls, 186 
How Far Bees will go for Honey, 191 
Harmful Insect, A, 107 
Hint on Lawn Hedges. A, 109 
Hints on Cooking Poultry, 110 
Horses Lyinu: Down, 111 
How Perches Should be Made, 111 
Have a Fish Pond if You Can, 126 
How to Deal with Rati, 126 
Hot-beds with Muslin Sashes, 142 
Hints for the Kitchen, 143 
Hurrying the Cows, 143 
Home and Export Tobacco Market, 149 
Hints for Horse Trainers, 159 
How to Make Cows tiive Milk, 159 
Hints to Poultry Breeders, 159 
Hints for the Kitchen, 175 
^air Invigoralor, 
Henslow on Self-Fertilization, 67 
Horn Ail, &c., 55 
It Stands to Reason, 2 
Insect Sagacity, 3 
Imperial Walnu: Moth, 4 
Industry of Bees, 16 
Imported Cattle, :il 
Incorporation, 33 
Indian Tobacco, 41 
Is the Lowest Price the Cheapest, 51 
Imported Currant Worm, The, 60 
Indian Turnip, 70 
Insects and Animal Diseases, 75 
Ice Cream Cake, 78 
Information About Cheap Lauds, 83 
InHuence of Forests on Climate, 88 ■ 
Interesting Fads Concerning Bread, 93 
Irish Stew, 94 
Injurious Insects, 107 
Ingrowing Nails, 110 
IsClover'a Fertilizer? 1J5 
Introductory, 146 
Inspect Your Cellars, 175 
Incubator, The, 178 
Ice Houses, 183 
Intelligent Farmer, The, 184 
Indian Meal Pancakes, 190 
July Iteport Dep't Agriculture, 120 
Juice of Tomato Plant an Insecticide, 

153 
Japanned Ware, 190 
Kitchen (iarden in April, 50 
Keipinir Work Ahead, 73 
Keep Pure-bred Fowls, 112 
Letter from Iowa, 5 
Letter from North Carolina, 7, 85 
Laying Out a Farm, 10 
Lancaster County Poultry Society, 

11,38, 4:^,58,74, 89, 106,123, 

134, 138, 154, 171, 187, 188 
Lemon Vies, 190 
Linnaian Society, 12, 39, 46, 59, 75, 

91, 10(i. 12J, 140, 155, 172, 188 
Length of Roots, 13 
Look to the Farm Trees, 13 
Lemon Verbena, 14 
Literary and Personal, 16, 32, 48, 64, 

80,96,112,128,144,160, 176, 192 
Liquid Manure, 22 
Langshaw, 32 
Lancaster Farmer, &c., 33 
Lime, 49 
Large Farms and Stock in Lancaster 

County, 68 
Lemon Pic, "78 
Large Farming Precarious, 81 
Lancaster County Tobacco, 97 
Lime and Limestones, 99 
Large Catfish, 101 
Lancaster Virginia Farming, 108 



141 
156 



Larva of Saturnia lo, 116 

Lamp Wicks, 143 

Large Water Beetle, 145 

Letter from Missouri, 146 

Lancaster County Cattle, 148 

Labor-Saving Implements, 151 

Lemon Cake, 175 

Law of Newspapers, 82 

Little Pudding, 110 

Monthly Reminder, 2, :54, 67, 101, 163 

Miscellaneous Notes, Ac, 2 

Moonlight, 5 

Muscovy Ducks, 15 

More About Eels, 17, 42 

Modern Fruit Houses, 20 

More About Cattle, 24 

Mince Pies, 31 

More Light, 40, 53 

Migration of Eels, 53 

Mulching, 62 

Milk, 66 

Market Gardeners, 67 

Moonshine, 85 

McKinstry's Great Orchard, 80 

Mulching Planted Trees, 93 

Milk Soup, 94 

Maccaroni and Cheese, 94 

Moon's Influence, 69, 102 

Maccaroni with Tomato Sauce, 110 

Milk Beef, 111 

Magnolia Glauca, 116 

More Moonshine, 116 

Mother of the Chickens, The, 127 

Migatory Quail, The, 137 

Mottled Horn-Beetle, 150 

Moon's Signs and Phases, 132 

Moon Seed, 133 

Mlnesota Wheat Crop, 

Maple Coccus, 145 

Mulching Strawberries, 

Metelotte D'Anguilles, 158 

Mock Oysters, 158 

Memories of Bees, 162 

Management of Horses, 169 

Meeting of State Board Agriculture, 17 

Meteorological Contrast, 178 

Mauuriug Fruit Trees, 189 

Mince Pics, 190 

Mixed Foods, 190 

Mixture of (Jrasses, A, 173 

Miss Parton's Angel Cake, 175 

Meat Cheese, 126 

No Farmer Need Expect, Ac, 16 

New Subscribers, 17 

New ?B0 Grape, 36 



Nests for Setters, • 

Non-Recognition of Agriculture, t 

New Way to Cook Oysters, 110 

New Departure, The, 113 

No Egg Good as Fresh Ones, 142 

Natural Fertilizer, A, 163 

New York Seed Leaf Market, 167 

Nice Tea Cake, A, 175 

Non-Hatching, 96 

Necessity of Sun Light, 62 

Our Paris Letter, 9 

Our Orchards. 18 

One Year's Experiment, 20 

Orange Cake, 31 

Oats as Fool for Horses, 42 

Oatmeal Cakes, 63 

One-Eye System of Potatoes, 71 

Ozone, 89 

Origin of the Apple, 92 

Omelette Sounie, 110 

Oil for Sewing Machines, 110 

Our Local Exhibition, 114 

Onions for Fowls, 128 

Our Late Exhibition, 131 

Origin of Wheat in America, 141, 

Oats and Wheat, 141 

Our Late Local Exhibition, 

Olives in Califoruia, 1.57 

Organization, 161 

Oatmeal in the Household, 

Our Contributors, 177 

Our Grain Capacity, 182 

Oatmeal, 183 

Oatmeal Pudding, 190 

Orange Pudding, 190 

Our Receipt for Curing Meat, 190 

Pennsylvania Fruit Growers Society, 



145 



174 



Practical Hints for Young Farmers, 6 

Presidents Address, 8 

Progressive Agriculture, 8 

Planting Corn in Old Times, 13 

Parlor Flowers, 14 

Profit with AmUBcraeut, 16 

Product of Eggs in Winter, 15 

Protection of Bees Against Wasps, 16 

Peach Bark Louse, 17 

Polled Cattle, 2;^ 

Pruning Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

30 
Practtical Essays on Entomology, 33 



Peurl Millet, 37 

Pulmonary Spiders, 39 

Pruning— Its use and Abuse, 41 

Premature Evolution, A, 46 

Pruning Trees, 47 

Potatoes and Nep, 47 

Plucking Poultry, 48 

Personal, 51 

Planting Grape Vines, 61 

Potato Fancy, 63 

Preservation of Furs, 63 

Pasturage for Bees, 6.) 

Preserving the Proceedings, 66 

Pruning Peach Trees, 77 

Potato Noodles, 78 

Practical Bee Culture, 79 

Poultry Profits, 80 

Peach Tree Borers, 84 

Promise of Crops, K6 

Pleuro Pneumonia, 87 

Plowing iu Croijs as Manure, 91 

Pruning Evergreens, 93 

Poisoned by Mushrooms, 93 

Potato Croquets, 95 

Packing EgifS, 101 

Pear Blight, 109 

Potato Putr, 110 

Potato Cutlets with Tomatoes, 110 

Potato Curry, 110 

Pudding Pies, 110 

Puff Pudding, 110 

P'Tches for Flowers, 111 

Parasite on Hens, 112 

Paliscr's American Cottages, 114 

Peach Beetle, 115 

Preserving Flowers, 126 

Pigs, 127, 143 

Phylloxera in France, The, 133 

Planting and Transplanting, 136 

Pruning Fruit Trees, 141 

Pruning Grape Vines, 142 

Preserving Sheep from Dogs, 143 

Poultry Notes, 144 

Poultry, 144 

Production and Keeping Eggs, 150 

Plowing Down Green Crops, 165 

Putting ill Wheat Crops, 165 

Putting away Potatoes, 157 

Proverlis in Cookery, 157 

Petroleum, 1.58 

Polling Cattle, 1.59 

Plowing by Electricity, 189 

Principles of Pruning, 189 

Pie Paste, 190 

Pumpkin Pudding, 190 

Poultry Interests of America. 191 

Poultry Breeding, 191 

Profitable Bees, 191 

Pure Bred and Common Fowls, 192 

Pasture Fields, 168 

Poultry Habits, 176 

Questions, 18 

Queries and Answers, 53, 68 

Queen Biscuits, 62 

Queer Fish, A, 163 

Quinine Flower, 174 

Rolling After Sewing, 189 

Roasted Chicken or Fowl, 189 

Roast Duck, 189 

Rice Pudding, 190 

Random Thoughts, 5 

Rules lor Gilt-edged Butter, 56 

Regular Meetings, &c., 57 

Remedies Against Insects, 60 

Rolling Grain in Spring, 61 

Remedy for Hoarseness, 63 

Rose Legends, 89 

Rosewood, 109 

Remedy, A, 111 

Red Rust, 116 

Raising Pigs, 127 

Revised Fruit List, 148 

Raising Horses in Texas, 149 

Ranciil Butter, 1.58 

Rabbit Stew, 15S 

Runaway Horses, 159 

Red Canary Birds, 160 

Rest After Eating, 175 

Rice Snow-Balls, 175 

Rolls, 175 

Remedy for Diphtheria, 183 

Rabbit Cutlets, 175 

Second Crop Pears, 1 

Scouring Rush, 2 

Surface Manuring, 13 

Save the Liquid Manure, 13 

Save by Handsfull, 15 

State Fruit-Growers' Society, 95 

State Millers' Association, 25 

Smilax, 30 

Sweet Omelet, 31 

Sour Milk Cheese, 31 

Selecting Breeding Turkeys, 38 

Society Proceedings, 33 

St. Matthew's Day, 35 

Sowing Oats Early, 47 

Soup, 48 

Silk Culture, 49 



Supposed Sulphur Shower, 50 
Strawberry Proteetws, 51 
Spring and Winter Tree Cleaning, 51 
Seeds, 55 

Splenic Fever, &c., .55 
Salt as a Fertilizer, 61 
Special Notice, 177 
Sooty Chimneys Cured, 190 
Senator's View of Farming, A, 180 
Statistical, 186 
Sugar, 18B 

Sowing Garden Seeds, 61 
Spring" Planting of Slrawl>errle«, 61 
Sprouting Potatoes, 62 
Some Items About Sugar, 62 
Sick Headache, 62 
Small Fruits, 68 
Spring Days, 69 
Sandy Soils, 73 
Store of Grain in the West, 76 
Sowing Garden Seeds, 77 
Signs of a Prosperous Farmer, T7 
Stallion Shows in Spring, 78 
Southward, Ho I 81 
Soot vs. Wlreworms, 84 
Sale of Short-Horns, 95 
Swarming of Bees, 95 
Summer Time, 101 
Sugar from Indian Corn, 104 
Sorghum Sugar, 104 
Spined Soldier Bug, 107 
Squash Bugs, 107 
Sowing Wheat, 108 
Soot as a Manure, lOS 
Steamed Pudding, 110 
Stewed Pears, 110 
Sirangc Ginger Bread, 110 
Sponge Cream Cake, 110 
State Agricultural Fair, 114 
Setting out Strawberries, 125 
Sheep and Wool, l'.;7 
Something Abont Tomatoes, 129 
Science and Agriculture, 129 
Soiling, 140 
Saddleback Moth, 140 
Self-Binding Reapers, 141 
Storing Hay, 141 
Suckers Around Apple Trees, 141 
Spiced Cantaloupe, 142 
Sheep in Cornfields, 143 
Save the Choice Fowls, l44 
Specter Insect, 145 
Sheep Husbandry in U. 8., 149 
Standard of American Jerseys, 153 
Singular Discovery, 1.53 
Smut in Grain, 155 
Small Fruits, 156 
Sailed Dressing, 1.58 
Squash Pie, 158 

Swiss Dairymen in California, 159 
Salt for Stock, 1.59 
Strecker Prof. Herman, 162 
Starting a Flock of Sheep, 168 
Summer Cultivation of Wheat, 173 
Storing Fodder-Corn, 173 
Stewed Pigeons, 175 
Straw as Food for Cattle, 175 
Sugar Beets to Fatten Swine, 170 
Salt for Poultry, 

To our Patrons and the Public, 1 
To Our Patrons, 177 
The Fox Squirrel, 3 
Twelve Thousand Caterpillars, 5 
Thoroughwort, 5 
The Wheat Crop, 12 
The Scarcity of Quinces, 12 
Taming Stubborn Bees, 16 
Tobacco Growers Society, 28 
The Late Summer Grass, 29 
The Kulahaga, 29 
To Preserve Potatoes from Rot, 81 
To bake Eggs, 31 
Tapioca Cream, 31 
To Lessen Friction, 31 
The Sleep of Children, 31 
The Poultry Association, 32 
Tar in the Chicken House, 32 
Treatment of Cholera, 32 
The Lancaster Farmer, 33, 163 
Table Sauce, 47 
The Best Kind of Eggs, 48 
The Balance of Trade, 53 
Turtle Head, .54 
The Imported Currant Worm, 60 
The Tobacco Worm, 60 
The Use of Entomology, 60 
The Hours of Children, 62 
Test Record of Dairy Cows, 6.3 
Tramps ahd Incendiaries, 66 
Timber and Fences, 71 
The Pennsylvania Board of Agricul- 
ture, 71 
The Wheat Crop, 76 
The Question of Weeds, 76 
To Preserve Gum Solutions, 78 
To wash Silk Stockings, 78 
Treatment of Cows at Calving, 78 
Tender and Small Feet, 79 



IV. 



INDEX. 



Threshing Ducks, 80 

The Beloetoma Grandis 81 

The Law of Newspapers, 82 

Tobacco Culture in Pennsylvania, 87 

The Evidences of Success, 88 

The Future of American Farming, 92 

The Wheat Crop of 1879, 92 

Treatment of Trees, 9 J, 

To Boil Potatoes, 94 

To make Puff Paste, 94 

Turkish Soup, 94 

Trussed Fowls, 95 

Terrapin, 95 

To Break up Sitting Hens, 9f> 

The Elm tree Borer, 98 

The English Sparrow, 98 

The Moon's Influence, 102 

The Crops of the Country, 103 

The Use of the Feet in Planting, 103 

Thomissns celer, 107 

The Best Yeast Known, 109 

To Make Good Cottage Cheese, 110 

Tapioca Pudding, 110 

To Cook Pumpkins, 110 

Tarragon Vinegar, 110 

The Value of Sheep, 110 

The Dominique Fowl, 111 

The New Departure, 113 

The Tobacco Fly, 114 

The Black Bass, 119 

The Common Elder, 132 

The Best Time to Cut Wheat, 125 

To Keep Potatoes from Rotting, 126 

To Preserve Cut Flowers, 126 

To Expel Foul Air from Wells, 126 

To Cure Hams, 190 



To Stain Wood, 126 

To Keep Seeds from Mice, 126 

Tomato Stew, 126 

To Make Butter Pure in Flavor 

To Wash Stockings, 126 

The Sheep Range, 127 

The Mad Itch in Cattle, 127 

The MIgatory Quail, 127 

The Cutlock for Hogs, 137 

The Sun, 137 

The Snake Worm, 141 

The Cabbage Worm, 140 

Toads, 141 

Treatment of Wornout Meadow 

The Blackberry, 143 

The Quince, 143 

Tapioca Cream, 143 

The Harvest White Honey, 14 

The Weather, 145 

Thanks, 145 

The jrepatica, 147 

Tobacco, 151 

The Cattle Disease, 153 

To Kill Sorrel, &c , 150 

To Prepare a Strawberry Bed . 

To Polish Steel, 158 

To Destroy Aphids, 

To Remove Rust from Steel, 1 
I To Pickle Fruit, 158 

Tomato Soup, 1 and 2, 158 

The Wild Cattle of Britain, 15 
! The Cattle Belt, 159 
! To Tell a Horse's Age, 159 
j The Cold Snap, 163 

The Poultry Show, 163 
I The New York Leaf Market, 



I To Clean Wall Paper, 175 

Tobacco Culture in Lancaster Co., 117 
I Turkeys, 127 

Uranine, 4 

Unhorning Calves, 191 

Use of Lime, 61 
i Uncovering Protected Plants, 63 

Use Plenty of Paint, 77 

Uradine Fungus, 83 

Utilizing Night Soil, 125 
. Vermin on Poultry, 15 

Velvet Cake, 78 

Vermin, 96 
I Value of Earth Worms, lOS 
1 Varieties of Wheat, lOS 
, Valuable Hints to Farmers, 131 

Valuable Advice, 136 

Vegetable Fruit, 144 

Vi.sit to Herman Strecker, 163 

Write for Thk Farmer, 1 
' Water for Farmers, 13 
! Window Boxes, 14 

Winter Treatment of Poultry, 15 
! Warwick Farmers' Club, 3S, 44, 59, 
I 123 

^ Winter Peaches, 30 
I Window Plants, 30 
] What is Castile Soap, 31 

Waterproof Boots, 31 

Wafers, 31 

Winter Management of Sheep, 31 

Weaning Calves, 31 
I What Stock Needs, 31 

What and How to Feed, 48 

What Becomes of the Birds, 67 



Wants to Know, 69 

Where Tomatoes were First Eaten, 77 

Whitewash, 77 

White Fruit-Cake, 78 

Worms in Hogs, 79 

What Breed Shall I Keep? 

What I Know About Roup, 79 

Wonders Will Never Cease, 82 

Wonderful Feats with Bees, 191 

Waste in N. E. Farming, 92 

Wood Ashes for Peach Trees, 93 

Welcome Guest Pudding, 94 

Watering Horses, 95 

White Shrips in Graperies, 108 

Ways to Use Stale Bread, 110 

Walnut Catsup, 110 

White Grub-Worm, 115 

Wheat Fields, 189 

Wool Manufacturers and Sheep Hus- 
bandry, 181 

Whisky— Revenue Lists of the States, 
185 

Washing Fowls, 185 

Wheat and Oats, 189 

Weeds and Hay Fever, i24 

Waffles, 126 

White Duck Laying Black Eggs, 128- 

Whole Acres of Perfume, 153 

Western Farms Much Favored, 186. 

What a Farm Deed Includes, 169 

When to Sell, 170 

Welsh Rare Bit, 175 

Winter Care of Fowls, 176 

Whole Wheat for Fowls, 176 

Young Fowls, 160 



^^^ L . i. ^mm mi\^i\ 



i 







ONE DOLLAR FEE ANITULI-SZITGLE COFZES 10 CENTS. 




Dr. S. S. EATE70N, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., JANUARY, 1879. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, PuWisher. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

. To Our Patrons and the Public, 
.Write for The Farmer, . . - - 
To Contributors, .-..-- 

Second Crop Pears, 

'Annual Meeting of the State Board of Agriculture 
-MoLthly Reminders, . . . - - 
I Entomological Manipulations for the Month, 
Miscellaneous Notes and Queries, - - - 

1 Gold Fishes, - - 

I A New Grain, .-..-- 
."Scouring Rush," . . - . - 

, As Others See Us, 

."It Stands to Reason," - - . . - 

• Insect Sagacity, 

The Fox Squirrel, ------ 

•Twelve Hundred Caterpillars Taken from a Single 
Tree, -------- 

■ Antidote for Currant Worms, - - - 
. Imperial Walnut Moth, - - - - - 

" Cold Snap," ------- 

About Eels, - - 

♦Uraninc, -------- 

' Pennsylvania Fruit-Growers' Society, 
. Essays 



-Oflicers 



ind Addresses— Committee for ! 

. Letter from Iowa — W. H. Spera, - . - 

• Thorough Wort— /. 5to!<Je)-, - - - - 

' Moonlight— J. G., ----- - 

.Random Thoughts, No. 7—4. ^.A'., 

Fodder Crops— Tea Raisiug— Laying Down toGrosB. 
, Practical Hints for Young Farmers—/. G., 
. Fruits as a Standard Article of Food— 77. M. Enrjle, 
Letter from North Carolina— -V. 7?., - 
■ President's Address, - - - - - 
' Progressive Agriculture, - - - - - 
' Our Paris Letter— £oms, - - - - 

, Cooking Feed for Stock, -.---; 
..Laying Out the Farm, -----: 
. The Best Time to Cut Scions, - - - - : 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 
' Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricultu- 
ral and Horticultural Society, - - - : 
Fertiliiers— Artificial Fertilizers— Progressive Agri- 
culture—Election of Offlccri- Auditing Treasur- 
er's Accounts— Fair or no Fair— Essays to tiie 
Farmer — Business for Next Meeting— Lecture iu 
Prospect— Busiuess Committee— Report of Fnilt 
Committee. 
. Lancaster County Poultry Association, - 

• Llnnaean Society, ------ 

Historical Relics- Additions to the Library— Papers 



• Felling Treee, 

Couch-Gr 

PlantingJ 
. Length o^ 

The Whei 
. Water fori 



AGRICULTURAL, 
a Hay Plant, 
fin Old Times, 



(Surface Manuring, - . - - - 
, Save the Liquid Manure, - - - - 

HORTICULTURAL. 
Dwarf Pears, ------ 

Look to the Fruit Trees, - - . - 
The Scarcity of Quinces, - 

► FLORICULTURE 

Parlor Flowers, ------ 

Window Boxes, - - - - - 

Lemon Verbena, - - - - - 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 
Bedrooms — How They Should be Ventilated, 
Butter Making, ------ 

.Burning Green Wood Greatly Wasteful, 
Accepting Invitations, - - . - 
Household Receipts, ----- 

LIVE STOCK. 

.Saving by Ilaudsful, - - - - - 
History of Horned Cattle, - - - - 
Corn and Cob Meal, - - - - - 

.How to Cbeose a Good Cow, - - - . 

POULTRY. 

.Profit Combined jAith Amusement, - 

■ Vermin on Poultry, - - - - . 
Muscovy Ducks, - - - - - . 

. How to Tell That Eggs are Eggs, 

.Winter Treatment of Poultry, 
Production of Eggs During Winter Season, 

APIARY. 
Taming Stubborn Bees, - - •% - 
Protection of Bees Against Wasps, 
Industry of Bees, - - - - - 
No Farmer Need Expect, tte., - 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. 
The Hessian Fly, • - - - - 
The Apple Tree Borer, - - - - - 
Literary and Personal, - - - - 




JIty annual Ciilalngiir if Vf(f'ialile and Flower 
SctftI for lS70f^jich iu eiigruviugH, from original photo- 
graphs, will be sent FUKE to all who apply. Customers of 
last season need not write for it I offer one of the largest col- 
lections of vegetable seed ever sent out by any seed house 
iu America, a large portion of which were grown on my six 
Heed farms. Printed directionjt /or cultivation on each pack- 
age. All seed warranted to be both fresh and true to name; 
so far, that should it prove otherwise, / iri« rc;i(/ the order 
gratis. The original intrnducer of the Hubbard Squash. 
Pbluney's Melou, Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican Corn, and 
scores of other vegetables, 1 invite the patronage of all tcho 
are auxiofu to have their seed directly from the grmcer, frejshy 
true, and vf tite very best strain. 

New Vcffctables a specialty. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, 

70-1-Ht Marblehead, SUfi. 



OFFICE, 

No. North Queen Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



Is an old, well-established newspaper, and cculaluB just the 
news desiiable to make it un interesting and valuable 
Family Newspaper. It is published on Wednesday and 
Saturday, snbEcribers having the choice of whichever edition 
that suits their mail facilities beat. The postage to sub- 
scribers residing outside of Lancaster county is paid by the 
publisher. 
Send for a specimen copy. 

Two Dollars per Annum. 



Is published every afternoon (except Sunday) and coutaine 
the news by mail and telegraph from all parts of the world 
up to the hour of going to press. It is furnished to sub- 
scribers at all the towns and villages in the county, acces- 
sible hy rail or stage, by carriers at Ten Cents a Week, 
or by mall at Five Dollars per Yenr. 



The Laxcasthr Farmer 



ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM. 



TIIE E\.\MI\ER & E.\PRESS JOB R00.1 



The Job Rooms of ' 
well filled with a lull 
presses, enabling us to do all kinds of .Tob Work, euoli 
as catalogues, cards, bill heads, letter heads, enrelopB, 
etatemeuts, invitations, circulars, posters, sale bills, in fact, 
all kinds of plain and fancy printing. We r '" 

■ bills, having cuts 



which were made 
drawings specially prepared for us, and not In any 
ner olfice'in the state. 
Call and tee apecimcns. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, Proprietor, 

No. 9 NortU Queen St., 



THE LANCASTER FARMER.^ 



EXXSYI.VAXIA RAILROAD SCHEDII.£. 

Trains leave the Depot iu this city, as follows : 

Lancaster. Harrisburg. 



■n'E-TWAED. 

Pacific Express' 

Way Paeseugert 

Niagara Express 

Hanover Accommodation,. 

Mail train via Mf. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line* 

Frederick Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation., 

Harrisburg Express ; 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express' 



EASTWARD. 

Atlantic Express* 

Philadelphia Express 



9.30 a. m. 

9:3!) p. m. 
11:15 a. m. 
11:20 a.m. 
11:20 a.m. 

2:10 p.m. 

2:15 p.m. 

5:45 p.m. 

7:20 p. m. 

7:25 p.m. 

9:35 p.m. 
11:30 p.m. 



1:30 p. m. 

1:30 p. m. 

3:45 p.m. 
Col. 2:45 p. D 

7:40 p. m. 
Col. 8:00 p. m 



Fast Line*. 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accammodati' 

Pacific Express* 

Suuday Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express* 

Harrisburg Accom 

The Hanover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m.. and runs to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, ou Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at Middletown, Elizabethtown, Mount .Joy and Landis- 
■fllle. 

•The only trains which run daily. 

tRuus daily, except Mondav. 



PHARES W. FRY, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

WILL m?m&mmm shsbis, 

II ollantis. Plain ,Sbade «'Iotli, 

Fixtures, Fringes, Tassels and all goods pertaining to a 

Paper and Shade Store. 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



:e. E", 3BO-^7\r2vi^a.3xr, 



I: 

AT LOWEST I>OHSIRI.E PRICES. 

Fully guaranteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

9-1-12] Oppmite I.eopnid Ifotfl. 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. iH 



SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER, 

AND WAERANTED TO IIT. 



S. J. EHISMAH. 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. ." 



Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH-ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 

Large Stock of New and Rfc:)Ud-Uaud Work ou hand, 
very cheap. Carriages Made 10 Order. Work Warranted 
foroueye4ir. [7:1-1-12 



TREES. 
Fruit.Shadeand Ornamental Trees. 



Tf you intend ilauti 



"spring, write for 



LOUIS CLYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co.. Pa. 

Nursery at Smoketov.'n, six miKjs east of Lancaster. 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 



And Manufactun 



FURNITURE PD CHAIRS. 

WARF.nOOM.S: 

102 East King St., Cor. of Duke St. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CI.OCKS, 

JEWELRY ITABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

R?piiirmg strictly attended to. 

North Quesn-st. and Centre Square, Laniaster, Pa. 



THOROUGHBRED SHORT-HORN 

BULLS AND BULL CALVES, 

FOR SAX.^, 

AT PRICES TO SDIT THE TIMES. 

A. M. RANCK, 

79.1-2] B;rd-in-Haud, Lancaster CO., Pa. 



M. HABERBUSH, 

MAXDF.\CTURER OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

SABSJI.IK. 

COLLARS, "WHIPS, PLY NETS. &c., 

.^LSO DE.\LER IX 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

BUFAI-O ROBE.S, 

Hor.se Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, &e., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

Til-l-lil LANCASTER, PA, 



ESTABLISHED 1882. 



* 




Mauufacturers and dealers io all iiuds of rougli a::d 
fluished 

X.X7I^B£:R, 

The best Sawed SHIXGI.K.S iu the country. Also Sceh, 
Doors, Bliude, Mouldiugs, &c. 

PATENT O.'g.WEATHERBOARDING 



OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Comer of Prince and Walnut-sts.. 

LANCASTER, TA.. 

79-1-12] 



lor Grapes, tSeedlingB, 
Evergreens, etc., etc. Send for Catalogue. 

J. JENKINS, 
10-9^m] WISrOSTA, Columbiana County, Ollio. 



TljE LATEST! 



T^e Nev/ Tariff of Rales 



['0 P-DAVO' 



JIade by OAK HALL, four weeks 
ago, sold off larj;e lots of 



loods, and lias 



INDUCED MANY TO IMITATE US! 



JSi®" Whatever is Done Elsewhere We 
always do Better.-'^gSg 



This is the latest tariff for the 



A-S FOt.T-,O^VS: 

All EleprantBiisine.ss and Dress Suit, 
All-wool Black Cheviot, §10. Identical 
quality of floods sold by other parties 
as a great bargain at $io. AVe never 
sold them for more tliart §1.". 

54.89 buys a First Quality Dress 
Trousers, sold heretofore at $10. 

Fur Beaver and Cliinohilla Over- 
coats, Good and Warm Cloth Bound, 
SiS.SO, 18.50, 18.50, $8.50. 

Next Higher Grade, Beautifully 
Made and Trimmed, Cloth Bound, 
Silk Velvet Collar, $10, ^10, SIO, §10. 

The Same Goods in Young Men's 
Sizes, $7, $7, $7, ^7. 

Boy's Double Cape Overcoats, with 
all the Late Imjiruvemenl.s, .s.'i, P."), 555. 

Boys' and Ynuili.s' Tii.n.ser.s All 
Wool, ?2.31), ?2.:;'i,,--.:;ii,s-.:;;i. 

Hundreds of Latest .^tyles Child- 
ren's Overcoats, Soft Plush Lined, 
Elegant Goods, reduced from S8.75 to 
?6.50. 

?25 Fine French Fur Beaver Over- 
eo.ats reduced to Slo. (Beautifully 
made. Piped with Cloth and the 
Finest Linings) 

A clear saving of 12.50 on a Fine 
Dress Suit. 

At our low prices we have sold 
thousands of them at ^15. 00; but to- 
daj' make a clean mark down to 
$12.50. They are not odds and ends?, 
but complete lots. Hundreds biggest 
men can be iitted. This one lot of 
goods contained 55,120 yards, and has 
proved the best bargain wo liave had 
for our customers this season. 

A customer can come one hundred 
miles, and the saving on almost any 
Suit or Overcoat will pay the fare 
Doth ways. 

Wananjaker & Brown^ 

OAK HALL. 
Sixth and Market Streets, 

PHILADELPHIA.. . 

The Largest Clothing House in 
America. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., JANUARY, 1879. 



Vol. XI. No. 1. 



TO OUR PATRONS AND THE PUBLIC. 

With tills nuiuber we commence tlie XI. ' 
Volume of The Lancaster Faumek, and ; 
our expuriencos ihu-ing the past ten years . 
utibrd us some appreciatioi.i of the task tliat | 
is before us. 'We have never abated any of 
the feeble energies with whieh we are en- 
dowed heretofore, and we have no intention I 
to abate them now. We are on tlie thresliuld 
of the new year— young, vigonms and Impc- 
ful 1870— and we have not lost eonlidenee in \ 
its ultimate propitiating influences. AVe con- 
tidently look to it as a puinl of departure to a 
better"an(l more prosperous state of things ; 
not only for our patrons and ourselves, but 
also for the "toiling, moiling millions," who 
have been suffering almost to the last stretch 
that patient waiting can sustain, for the past 
three or four years, and for whom humanity 
desires a surcease of idleness. We l.u.k for 
such times as will enable, them to become 
more liberal and punctual patrons of the farm- 
ing public. That the return of prosperity to 
our whole i)eople will increase the existing 
"vacancy" for our journal in the county, the 
State, and elsewhere we have not a doubt, 
and our aim shall be to make it worthy of 
public i)atronagc. There arc many new fea- 
tures we desire to introduce into its general 
composition, and we look chiefly to our agri- 
cultural friends to sustain us in oiu- progressive 
enterprise. The great county of Lancaster— 
a conimonwealth"of no mean dimensions in 
itself— occupies a too prominent position in 
the Union to act the part of a mere subordi- 
nate in the march of events. The eyes of the 
whole country are upon her, and she is 
looked to as a second " mother country " to a 
large portion of the agricultural population 
in other counties and States, who either have 
resided within her bordei-s themselves, or 
whose ancestry have had their origin here. 
Editorial intercourse with our farmers during 
the last ten years has convinced tis that they 
possess the literarv and inti'llectnal abilitv to 
make their Ib.iuglits and experiences known 
through the medium of the press to an extent 
that will compare favorably with any other 
portion of the " Keystone State," and in this 
respect, during the same period, they have 
made much more than the ordinary progre.s.s. 
'We desire to make this ability — which we 
know they possess — more available in tlie 
future than it has been iu the past. liesides 
the general good of difl'tising their knowledge 
among their agricultural brethren, they will 
be instructing and greatly benefiting them- 
selves, intellectually, morally and socially. 
The minister in his pulpit, the professor in his 
laboratory, the tutor in his school room, and 
the editor in his sanctum are equally bciie- 
lited in the exercises of their various functions 
with those whom they are instructing. These 
acts come under the denomination of those 
that are "twice blessed," blessing the giver 
as well as the receiver. The practical deduc- 
tions of the farmer's experiences in his honor- 
able calling are not exempt from the ojiera- 
tions of the same rule. Every experience or 
observation he records, and every essay he 
composes and writes out fixes the facts and 
principles involved in them the more deeply 
in hi<> own memory. ]?y such a process many 
men have educated themselves who have 
never had the opportunity to become educated 
at a school, a seminary or a college. 

Our aim is to difrnse the furts pertaining to 
agriculture among the people— such facts as 
experience has demonstratt d to be of para- 
mount value in the field, the orchard, the gar- 
den, the barn and the household. If the light 
exists it should he shed abroad. We arc ad- 
monished, from the very highest authority, 
that our candle should not be hidden under a 



bed, or under a busluO, but should be set on a 
caiulle.stick, and none are so poor but that 
Ihev have s<,„„ light. We are not always the 
best judges ot tlie (piality of our own light. 
The i r feriymau knew nothing about alge- 
bra, and astronomy, and poetry, and the 
classics, but he could swim; and, therefore, 
when the boat foundered in the middle of the 
stream, that knowledge was worth more to 
liiin tlian all the philosopher's lore, and for 
the want of which the latter went to the bot- 
tom, whilst the former reached the shore in 
saf'etv. This is not intended to discredit the 
learn'ing of the philosopher, but to illustrate 
the worth of the practical knowledge of the 
illiterate or the humble. Therefore, friends, 
give us your facts, no matter how common- 
place llu'y may be, or how ungrammatically 
thi'y ace written. We will sec that they are 
not' discreditable to vou, nor prcjiulicial to 
oursehvs, iiiphu-in- them bel'ure tlie public. 
It is not absolutely neccssarv that we should 
be a practical farmer to edit an agricultural 
journal (although it would not disiiualify us 
if we were), our function being to make our 
columns a reflex of the thoughts, the experi- 
ences, and the practices of those who con- 
tribute to them for the instruction and edifica- 
tion of the farming public. 

By an announcement in another column, 
the patrons of TuE Fahmer will perceive 
that there has been a change in the publisher. 
This arrangement was absolutely necessary 
from the very nature of the case. The former 
publisher's duties as a printer, precluded the 
possibility of giving the necess.ary attention 
to the usual details so essential "to the suc- 
cessful issue of the publication. Hence a 
change was made, and we congratulate our 
patrons on the change as a progressive one. 
The new publisher was boru and reared on a 
farm, and is allied by consanguinity with 
some of the best farmer blood of the cotmty. 
His experience, and his position as publisher 
of one of the oldest and most influential news- 
papers in Lancaster county, is a guarantee of 
his ability to make our local journal the peer 
of ,any in our country. Of course, the more 
hearty and liberal the co-operation of the 
people is in his efforts the more efliciently 
will the progressive work be accomplished. 
Every subscriber iu the comity, or elsewhere, 
should at least add one name more to his own 
to begin the volume of 1ST'.). " Knowledge is 
power," and knowledge also dissipates preju- 
dices and .suspicions. The knowledge we have 
gained during the last two years has given us 
clearer ideas of what it costs to print a paper 
than we ever had before. And now, dear 
liatrons, we have endeavored to portr.ay our 
objects, aims, ends and needs, as well as the 
relations we sustain to each other and our 
joint relations to the world at large. Having 
said this much, we cannot more properly con- 
clude than by wishing you a healthful, a 
prosperous and ii Happn iVcio Ytar. 

WRXTE FOR THE FARMER. 

The County of Lancaster, we are convinced, 
has as many practical thinkers and workers 
among its population, proportionally, as any 
other district in the State of Pennsylvania ; 
and any one who is a practical thinker and 
worker, in this age of the world, is able to 
write or dictate a practical article on subjects 
relating to his secular occupation. We are 
not particular as to the grammatical construc- 
tion of the article, so that it contains the 
fads of the subjects, as they have been de- 
veloped througii the experience of the writer 
or dictator. We know that m.iny competent 
persons plead that they cannot write, but 
this may be owing to the circumstance that 
they wont try, lather than to a want of time 



or ability. Writing stimulates research and 
develops ideas that would lie unu.std and rust- 
ing without such stimulant. There is no 
merit in keeping our knowledge "hidden 
under a bushel," merely becau.se we liave a 
notion that it is of no impmfance, or we may 
not be able to difTuse it in as eU ;.'aiit phrase- 
ology as we would like. " I'reely ye have re- 
ceived, freely give " ought to admonish us to 
let our "liglit so shine that men may see it." 
And to facilitate this end, if the patrons of 
The Faioieii will kindly funiish us with 
the results of their experiences in relation to 
the various departments of agriculture, we 
will see that they appear in our columns in a 

creditable l'(U-m^ 

TO CONTRIBUTORS. 

As it is proposed in future to issue The 
Faumsu within the first week of each mouth, 
our contributors will confer a special favor 
by sending in their papers intended for publi- 
cation, at least williiu llie last week of the 
preceding month— rather earlier than later. 
If those having essays to read before the 
society will furnish us the manuscript in time 
we will put them in type and furnish them 
with a slip, as well as return the manuscript. 
This will give them an opportunity to read 
their papers from a printed copy, and also 
make the nece.s.sary connections, before they 
appear before the public. By this means we 
will be able to issue our journal within a day 
or two after each meeting of the society. The 
regular publication of the proceedings of the 
society and the discussions which take place 
will constitute a valuable epitome of the agri- 
cultural progress of the county, especially as 
the society contains some good and practical 
off-hand speakers, who may not have the time, 
even if they have the inclination to write 
their remarks on paper. AVe hope we are 
understood. 

All cs.says, contributions, communications, 
queries and other papers intended for publica- 
tion in Tin: FAioiElt .should be sent to the 
editor, No. 11*1 North Queen street. All mat- 
tei-s of finance, subscriptions, advertisements, 
exchanges and general business should be 
transacted, whether personally or by letter, 
with the ptiblisher. No. OXorlh Queen street, 
(Kra);i(iifr building). Also all accounts due 



FAiniEii 



iptions, advertising 



or otherwise, previous to .Tanuary 1st. 1879, 
which have not been settled up to that date, 
.should be settled with the iircsent publisher as 
above, who has full authority to .settle and re- 
ceipt for the same. 

SECOND CROP PEARS. 
Mr. .Tolin (irossmaii, of Warwick township, 
Lancaster county, has a pear tree which has 
bloomed twice every season for twenty years, 
but the present is the first year that he has 
noticed that it formed any fruit. The fruit it 
formed this year, a specimen of which is now 
before us, measured nearly two inches in cir- 
cumference when green, and about an inch iu 
length. Of course second crop fruit, even in 
thi.s latitude, is not an unusual thing, but it 
is not usual for fruit trees, especially pears, to 
bloom twice every season for twenty years in 
succession. This'is a small yellow pear, with- 
out anv .special name, which ripens about the 
middleof .luly, and seldom, if ever, fails to 
bear a crop, "if such a pear tree were re- 
moved to thcCarohnas. (Jeorgia. or Alabama, 
or perhaps to any of the Southern States, 
might we not reasonably suppose it would 
m.ature two crops of pears; for a sec- 
ond blooming for twenty years in succession 
seems to indicate that this extra effort at 
fruition has become a fixed characteristic V 
This tree seems never to have been enervated 
, by its duplicate bloom. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE STATE 
BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

The fiillowiiig is the programme of the 
aiinuiil meeting of the Pennsylvania Board of 
Agriculture, to be held at Ilarrisburg, com- 
inencing Wednesday, January 22, 1879, at 
two p. m. : 

Reading of minutes ; election of ofticers ; 
reception of credentials of newly elected mem- 
bers ; reports of standing committees ; reports 
of special committees ; reports of secretary. 
Essays and Subjects for Discussion. 

1. C4rape Growing in Pennsylvania ; Varie- 
ties and Treatment, by Dr. James Calder, 
President of State College. 

2. Foreign and American Agriculture, by 
John P. Edge, member at large. 

o. Tlio Industrial Education of Europe as 
it Aftects Agriculture, by Prof. J. P. Wicker- 
sham, Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

4. Farm Drainage, by Prof. F. A. Allen, 
member from Tioga. 

f). Drainage with Stone, by Col. James 
Yoimg. 

0. Drainage with tile, by the Secretary. 

7. Till' nst'luhiess and profit of farming, and 
the relation which it bears to the other in- 
terests of the State, by W. G. Moore, member 
from Berks. 

8. How we may elevate the standard of 
agriculture, by C. C. Musselraan, member 
from Somerset. 

9. Sunny and shady sides of farm life, by 
George "\V. Hood, member from Indiana. 

10. The Guenon system ; negative side, by 
Eastburn Reeder, member from Bucks. 

11. The care of fruit trees, by Calvin Cooper, 
President Lancaster Comity Agricultural 
Society. 

12. The production of milk, by J. P. Barnes, 
member from Lehigh. 

13. Mineralogy as related to agriculture, by 
F. Prime, jr.. Assistant State Geologist. 

On Wednesday evening, .January 22d, there 
will be a lecture by Dr. H. Leffmann, Micro- 
.scopist of the Board. .Subject, "Fungi— large 
and small — and their relations to agriculture. " 

Sulijcct for general discussion— "Tickets of 
admission to county fairs and their price." 

Other subjects will be discussed if time will 
permit, and any question of a proper nature, 
handed to the Secretary by a member of the 
Board, will be referred, by the President, for 
an answer. 

MONTHLY REMINDERS. 
.January is unfavorable to out-door labor ; 
in the garden especially but little can be done. 
The forcing-beds and green-houses will, of 
course, require particular attention ; and the 
active man may liud something to do in pre- 
paring for a more congenial season. Poles and 
rods for beans and peas may be made ready to 
be used when needed ; manure collected ; 
compost heai)s formed (by the way, compost 
is beyond all comparison the best form in 
which to apply fertilizers, to most vegetable 
crops, and ample supplies may be readily made 
by proper attention, as the materials present 
tliemselves from time during the year). Fruit 
trees pruned ; hedges clippetl- those formed 
of evergreens not till after frost has disap- 
peared ; asparagus beds top-dressed, prepara- 
tory to being dug when frost has ceased ; when 
new ones are to be made, plant the Colossal. 
Hot-beds for early forcing may be made, and 
other jobs will present themselves in antici- 
pation of spring. AVhere there e.xists the will 
to work the opportunity for useful disposition 
of time is ever present. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL MANIPULATIONS 
FOR THE MONTH. 
Farmers, gardeners, fruit-growers, and even 
citizens of the towns, should now give some 
attention to«their trees, .shrubbery and plants, 
as well as outhouses, sheds, fence-corners, 
and otlier "nooks and corners." During the 
season when the trees and shrubljery are leaf- 
less, the cocoons and chrysalids of such in- 
sects as hibernate, in that form, may be dis- 
tinctly seen adhering to, or dangling from their 
branches. If these are now collected fmd 



burned a great nuisance will be abated, and 
much vexatious labor saved through the sum- 
mer season. The spindle-shaped follicles of 
the "basket worm" may now be plainly 
seen. The egg-bands of the "American tent 
catterpillar" may also be seen encircling the 
branches. Clusters of the eggs, or of the 
young, of the "spring web-worm" may also 
be seen in the forks of the branches. If they 
are out of reach a small swab of tar, on the 
end of a pole, will effectually remove them if 
properly used. The naked chrysalids of the 
"white cabbage butterfly" will be found hang- 
ing angularly on the undersides of fence rails, 
window frames, door frames, or in almost any 
secluded corner. A few days ago we saw one 
in the angle of a window sash, one about mid- 
way on a vertical sash, and one absolutely 
fastened to the glass itself. If these are care- 
fully gathered in this and the next month and 
destroyed it will not only save a great deal of 
vexatious labor next summer, but also much 
of the cabbage crop. It will not do to delay 
this work until too late in the season, for only 
a year ago we found some of these butterflies 
evolved and on the wing in the months of 
February and March, in one in.stance even 
when the ground was still covered wit4i snow. 
Look also under the loose bark of dead trees, 
and under the chips of bark of living trees, for 
the "apple moth," the "squash bugs," and 
the large "northern lady bird," (yellow with 
black spots). The "potato beetle" also hiber- 
nates in cellars, under door steps, and many 
other places ; therefore keep a bright lookout 
for them early in the season, and get before- 
hand with them. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES AND 
QUERIES. 

Gold Fishes. 

To anxious inquirers in regard to " Gold 
Fishes "or " Golden Carp " ( Cyprinus atira- 
ius,) we would say that most of them die for 
the want of oxygen ; the most vital element 
in the composition of atmosphere and water. 
The great mistake people make is in getting 
fishes that are too large for their aquariums. 
Two fishes of six or seven inches in length 
should have at least six gallons of water, and 
a sufficient number of healthy and growing 
aquatic plants to maintain the normal equili- 
brium. Plants absorb carbon and give off 
oxygen. The fishes absorb oxygen and give 
off carbon ; so, it will be seen, tliat one, when 
rightly proportioned, supports the other. 
When fishes suspend themselves vertically in 
the water with their noses at the surface 
gasping for air, it is a certain indication that 
they do not find enough oxygen in the water 
to support their lives. If one or two persons 
were confined in a small room, as entirely cut 
off from nature's great reservoir of oxygen as 
fishes are in a small tank, the would soon 
suffocate for the want of oxygenated air. It 
is true, this difficulty may be in a great mea- 
sure, or entirely overcome by the frequent 
changing of the water ; but then this involves 
a vast deal of labor— more than is commensu- 
rate with pleasure. 

The gold fish was originally brought from 
China, about two hundred years ago, when it 
was a greater curiosity than it is now. Some, 
therefore, imagine that they must be kept in 
water that is several degrees above the freezing 
point (or lukewarm,) because they originally 
came from China. If other things are "all 
right," they will live and thrive iii water that 
is thickly covered with ice. They do not want 
much food, and need not be fed more tlian 
once or twice a week, and then nothing more 
than they will devour at a time. The over- 
plus if it remains in the tank will ferment or 
putrify, and this renders it unhealthy, and 
often leads to their death. They don't want 
to be pampered, they only want ajdain living. 
Many ponds are in the United States aiid 
Europe where they thrive and greatly multiply 
withouthout the least care ; but, if from any 
cause the water becomes impure, they are 
almost certain to die. They can "stand" a 
good deal, but not poisoned water. 



A New Grain. 

A new grain, resembling rye somewhat, 
only twice as largo, with straw and beardless 
head, resembling wheat, is the subject of com- 
ment in some of the California exchanges. 
When cut, as it is passing into milk, it is said 
to make hay far superior to wheat hay. The 
discovery of this grain is claimed by a farmer 
in Surprise Valley, in the north part of the 
State, who took it from the crop of a wild 
goose which had been shot. Sowing the seed 
innnediately lie had the satisfaction in due 
time of reaping more than a hundred fold. 
He considers it in every respect superior to rye. 

If it is only superior to rye it may not be 
quite the thing we want at this time, but let 
it "circulate," it may have quantiti/ if not 
qualil'j, and that is somelhiny. 

Mr. W. L. II., liapho township, Lancaster 
county, Pa. — The long whip-like or tail-like 
I)lant, growing at two places along the mar- 
gin of the Ijiltle Chickies creek, on your 
farm, is called " Scouring Rush" (Eqidsctum 
hyemale,) and is used in some places where it 
abounds plentifully, for purposes of scouring. 
This property is derived from its finely corru- 
gated external structures, and the presence of 
an immense number of minute silicious gran- 
ules on its surface and in its internal composi- 
tion. It belongs to and is the typical genus 
of the EcjuiSETACE.E, or "Horsetail" family ; 
the name of which is derived from cquus, a 
horse, and seta, a hair. We need not tell you 
that it never bears leaves, for that fact must 
have been apparent to you whenever you saw 
it during the summer. It only, however, 
exhibits one of those singular links in the long 
chain of vegetation which unites in a har- 
monious whole, the various productions of 
the vegetable kingdom, and of which every 
clime produces its counterparts. 

As Others See Us. 

Newark, Dec. l~Hi, 1878. 
Mr. Ratuvon— I'm)- ,Sir: I am so well pleased 
with TiiF, T,ANiAfTEi: Fakmeu Ihaf I have received 
tliis last vrai- that I i-ii-lnsr Sl/_5 lurtlic renewal of 

™r»"cV .!'/.///'-'/«',• ,i„~l /,.<// jj'uu'.-. Hopin-'all your 
patrons will do the same as I have done, I remain, 
respectfully, yours, W.Ii. .1., J.-t3 BellcviUe avenve, 
Newarlr, New Jersey. 

[Next to the echoes from home, where Ave 
ought to be be best known, we value those 
from abroad, and none are more welcome than 
those that reverberate from the " Jarseys." 
Thank vou kindly ; these are the oases in the 
desert of our editorial days. iMay they ever 
continue fresh and green.— Ed.] 

Snlisbi'uy, N. C, Dec. IG, 18~S. 
Mr. Editor— i>C((r tiir : On Saturday last, by 
request of Ransom Jaco' s, I sent you for him by 
mail (to^'ether with the extra papers you mailed to 
him,) $1. "11 ill currency to pay his subscription up 
to lirst ot .laiiu.uy, Lsi'.i. You may continue sending 
The Lam A>ri:u rAiiMKK to me upon former con- 
ditions, llilii- iuMjic.-iiii.ii meets with your appro- 
bation let nie kiinw tlin)iii;li TliE Fakmek.— ro!(fS 
tnihj, Martin liirhwbir. 

[All right. Let us hear from you often, 
and send us all the new names you can, for 
we do not wish to conceal our light "under a 
bushel."— Ed.] 

QUARRTVILLE, Dec. 1.5, 1S78. 
Dn. S. S. Rathvon — Dear Hir: I send you this 
morning the lonn; looUed-for female opossum. I am 
sorry it is dead, and not " playing possum." Possi- 
bly I may send you a live one some of these days. 
Please let me know if you received it all right, and 
oblige yours truly, J{. C. E. 

[Your " opossum " {Didclphis virfjinianus,) 
came safely to hand, and in due time will be 
■scientifically, if not gastronomically, dis- 
cussed. Please accept our thanks:— Ed.] 

"IT STANDS TO REASON" 
That The L.vxcasteii Farmer must be 
the best advei'tising medium in the county of 
Lancaster, in everything of a permanent and 
useful character that relates to farming, gar- 
dening and housekeeping. It is a fireside 
journal ; is (.•onvenient to refer to ; always 
near at hand ; and is a permanent institution 
of the household, the workshop, the manu- 
flictory and the farm. This ' 'stands to reason. " 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



INSECT SAGACITY. 

The olcaiulor In Los Anijck-s, like the oraiiijc ti-oo, 
is iiifestc<l Willi tlie hliick scale l)iij,'. .\ freeli plant 
Bct out is 5(1 quickly coveted that an imiuest was 
hcUl. Behold ! anarray of redaiits, each well loaded, 
was obeervcd to be traiiepoitin;; these aphiiles from 
plants alicady fiiiliiit; to new quarters for fresh pas- 
ture-. I'l ■ ^ ^1 ' ii:: is the red ant's cow. By 
tlluliii; I li III I i\es tlio bug to exude drops of 
lusii' ^ II' vhieh is at once appropriated. 
IIow\ir\ iiu h I ilieliuman brain and human 
coffitaluHi : 11 ii;iMms that the sap of that plant 
feeds llie Inn;, and that the buf; propagates there. 
Naturalists go so far, but no further. 

A curious freak of the army worms (caterpillars) 
occurred at thu Soiiora foundry, Culiforiiia. The 
worms, having: gobbled uji cvnyl liin^' Kreeii in the 
neighborhood, entered Un- rmiiidry in lorce. Not 
lindlii'r srnib, and not w illiii- Ici ^ive it up so, tliey 
pitc'ied '111" 111'' iiiiil'lers' sand, wliieli was to be 
used I'll I I I Hi -, iiM morning. The castings were 
a deal I 1 li^'ation revealed thousands of 

sand, which they deranged 



.—.!)■. 



Tlu' aliovL' coiUL-.s to US through the eolumn.s 
of a rocciit iiuinborof the UaUiiiioie iS'kii. We 
wish llic wiitt'i- had made acloafcr (U.stiiictiou 
between " scale lnip;s " and " aiiliidcs." Scale 
it)sects (.-..■.vO arc iisiiallv mi iiiini.nal.lc, nrirn 
SO larfjc. and always so adlicsivc, thai \vc can 
hardly sec limv they cunld l.c dclailicd and 
trjiiisidaiited from one iilace to another l)y 
auts, unless they were very largo ants, anil 
very loose hu^s. Moreover, the con-i are not 
as remarkable for the excretion of lioncv-dcw 
as are the i/,,/,»7i,:. And y<d I lie coccus oC the 
oranf;e does exu<ic a sweel nuicns I lia | allracLs 
the ants, and we have otlcn noticed this on 
the oranLTc tree in our possession. ]5nt seale 
insects in this lalilndc are not remarkable for 
this (inalily, at least not to any great degree. 
It is common, however, to aphiih's, or "plant 
lice " as they are popularly eallcd, known also 
in England as "ant cows." 13nt surely a 
shcpheVd or a dairyman, who slionld drive his 
flock or his herd from an exhausted pa-lure to 
one more Uixnriaid. in ordci- to ineiea-c Ihcir 
volume of llesh or their (luantity of milk, coidd 
.not lia\c acted more rationally in etiectiiig 
that end than these insects did, if the above 
record bo ;i veritable one. Ants arc well 
known to have transplanted aphides to their 
own homes— and not the-e alone, but also 
their food- and to herd and feed lliem ilierc, 
in order that they Ihein-elves nii-lil I'ea-t on 
their saccharine excretions. About the bare 
fact of pro]ia','ation, we presume the ants have 
no ftirther interesi in it than it may increase 
the amount oltlie hou'v prodnet. 

The "curiou- IVeak" ,<{ Uw armv worms 
allude.l to inav not In' -o vei-y eurii'm- after 
all. Allir thi'v bud ■•-olil'lcd npeverv -reeu 
thing," it is prohalilc they were ready to 
undergo their pupal transformation, and iind- 
ing the inolders' sand tifforiled the necessary 
conditions, they may have chosen that in 
preference to the hard earth on which thcv 
had traveled. The army worms creep into 
the earth and change to a pupa afler tlicy 
have com)ilet('d their larval period and lemaiii 
there until they come forth a moth. 

THE FOX SQUIRREL. 

Sportsmen in this part of the <■. iiii'\ .,111 in in- 
somewhat in aquandry as to wliai 1 i,,x 

squirrel. Some entertain the oiiii]:- n 1 :. : n ..nn 

applies to the commoii or more imi v iriM.Mii- 

nated red squirrel in this part of the eumiiv, which 
opinion has thus far deterred many from "shooting 
those animals. Blngby, in his history of animated 
nature, one of the most complete natural histories 
extant, does not say anything about the fox squirrel, 
consequently we are inclined to tliink that no squir- 
rels of that name exist, but that it may probably be 
the local name of some species of gray squirrel. 
Will some member of the Legislature, or some 
naturalist be kind enough to lielp our sportsmen out 
of this quandry?— f'on-cvyioHt/in^ Xcm Era. 

It is questionable whether there is a sjieci- 
men of the trtic "fox sipiirrel" {Srun-m Vid- 
pinm] to be found in Lanea:4er eonnt\-, if in 
the State of Pennsylvania. The fox squirrel 
is the largest scpiirrel kn')wn to Xorlii .\meri- 
ca, but belongs to the Southern States, from 
North Carolina down to Texas. It measures 
twelve inches or more from the no.se to the 
root of the tail, and the tail has a length of 
fifteen inches. The cars and nose are always 



white, but otherwise the color is very variable, 
from a gray above and white beneath, through 
all shades of rusty to a imiform black. The 
Western fox siiuirrel 1 ,sV/»,-ir.s /(/i/'.re/,,,,,*.,-,) is 
conliiied mainly to tlie .Mi..-i--ippi \all, v. It 
is nearly as large as tie' Southern -peeie-', hot 
the tail'isonly the length of thi: body. The 
no.sc and ears are never white. The "color is 
a rusty gray iibovo and a bright ferruginous 
(the color of iron-rust) beneath. 

Intermediate between tliese two species, 
and of nearly the -aine -i/ ■ in l"id\. is the 
"Cat S,|uirrel," also called ihe |ox -,p,iirel, 
(.S'ci'iiru.s- c//(fi-f !(.-.■,) of IVnnsylvania, with a 
geographical habitat extending from Xcw 
Jersey to Virginia ; but its tail is two inches 
longer than the Western .sjieeies, and one inch 
or more shorter than the Siiulherfi species. In 
color it nearly resembles the Southern fox 
squirrel, but organically it is heavier than 
either of the other two. The ears and nose 
are never wdiite. It is most abundant in the 
Alleghanics, but thirty and forty years ago it 
was frequently met with in Lancaster county ; 
it was, howc;ver, seldom met with on the 
western side of the AUeglumies. There is at 
least one specimen of it in the museum of the 
Liniia'an society. Our common gray squirrel 
{sriurits carolincTisis,) is about ten inches in 
length to the root of the tail, and that ap- 
pendage is about one inch longer than the 
body ; and, although it may vary in the shade 
of gray above, it is always a pure white be- 
neath. 

We have not the game laws before us, 
and therefore we cannot recall what species 
peoiile are prohiliited from .shooting, but if it 
.says fox siptirrel it does not mean the "red 
squirrel" (Sciiirus liwls(mius,) or "chicarce," 
as it is called in some places— but must refer 
to wicretf.'s our "cat .squirrel," so called from 
the "stumpiness" of its ears. 

In enacting laws relating to the animal 
world, legi.slators only create confusion, when 
they ignore scientific nomenclature. The 
scientilie names ought to be, at least, inclosed 
in pan ntliesis, a- wi' have them in this arti- 
cle, and ilieii tlie rkMdei-, it lie chooses, Can 
skill o\('r III. rn williou', de-t royiii:.' the seu.se. 
Thev will be land marks, or ratlier a com|iass, 
to point out the dircclion in which the reader 
is sailing, for there is no relianc,' .generally, in 
local common names. The Soiitiiern .species 
is specifically named ri///»ii(iN, which is from 
vul^KS, a fox, and that i- jierhajis the oidy 
species that is entitled to the comnum name 
of "]^ix Squirrel." 

In conejiision, we may be permitted to say, 
that I'.ingliy's history of animated nature can 
not lie very "complete," or it surely woultl 
have said something about an animal so com- 
mon as the fox squirrel. There are many so- 
called histories of iinimated nature that nVight 
just as well never have been written, for all 
the help they afford in solving seientific prob- 
lems ; for. do as wo will, we cannot absolve 
ourselves from the aid of science. 

TWELVE HUNDRED CATERPILLARS 
TAKEN FROM A SINGLE TREE. 

Mr. (J. Lemon, of East Chestntd street, 
brought us two compact masses of caterpillars, 
which he fotmd hiid been depredating upon 
his fJerman walnut tree, containing about 
twelve hundred in number- lather more than 
less. These are the larva' of Datana ministra, 
the " Hand-Maid " or " walnut inolh." The 
color of these larva' is so near that of the 
branches of the tree that they sometimes strip 
ofT all the leaves without their presence being 
suspected, which was the ease with ^Ir. Le- 
mon, he not knowing that they were present 
until he found them all htiddled and matted 
together on the ground, and on the trunk of 
the tree. Length, one and a half inches ; 
head, jet black : color, maroon brown ; pec- 
toral legs, six ; prolegs, ten ; a medium yel- 
lowish marginal line or stripe on each side the 
entire length : three finer lateral lines on 
each side, of the same color and length ; 
sparsely covered with whitish hair; at rest, 
much in the habit of adhering by the prolegs 
and raising the head and front part of tlie I 



Ivody upward and backward ; or, when dis- 
turbed at feeding, apt to assume this po.sition 
with a sudden jerk, or suddenly throwing the 
front part of I he body friun side to .side. 

The foreg<iiiiL', however, maiidy represents 
these caterpillars before their last moidting. 
Alter that period the I'ormer linesaud coloring 
become obliterated and Iheaninial is black all 
over, as to Hie head and bodv, and the hair 
becomes thicker, whiter and longer. The 
head also becomes larger and blacker ; and if 
Mr. ]j. could have .seen his "iiatch" of worms 
to-day, he jirobably would have failed to 
recogiii/.e them— they would have been so 
greatly changed. 

This issomeiimes called the "walnutmotb," 
and although it infests all kinds, it is jiartial 
to the cultivated kinds of waliinls, but must 
not be conro'anded with the " liii|icrial walnut 
moth" (Dryocanipa imiierialisi. the larva of 
which attains to three or four inches in length, 
and as thick as a man's thumb, with half a 
dozen prominent horns on the front part of 
the body. The siiecies we have been con- 
sidering often surprises jieople by its sutldcn 
deliarture. I'erhajis tlu' tree is"full of them 
to-day, and yon apply sonic pow-wow remedy 
for their removal, such, for instance, as hang- 
ing old hor.seshoes on the limbs, boring a 
gimlet hole into the trunk and filling it with 
sulphur, or rubbing the trunk and larger 
branches with the kidneys of a he-owl ; and 
behold, the next day it is found that all the 
caterpillars have vanished, and the remedy is 
recorded as a success. Ihit the eaterpiliara 
having' completed tlieir larval development, 
have oii]\ erept into the groimd to undergo 
their impal traiisrormation, afler which they 
coint^orth in the form of a brownish yellow 
moth, expanding from two to two and a half 
inches, the head and thorax covered with a 
thick velvety coat of fur, of a rich brown 
coloi-, and then each female is ready to found 
a new colony. They are, however, liable to 
many casualties, or ihe country might boon be 
overrun with them. 

Mr. Lemon was fortunate In trapjiing them 
as he did ; and here we may say that we know 
of no caterpillar that is easier to destroy than 
this one, for they arc so gregarious in their 
habits that they always collect togi'ther in 
compact masses on the trunks of the trees 
when they are done feeding, or at nights, and 
make no attenqit to escape. 

There are sometimes two broods of these 
moths ill one season ; indeed, a little farther 
South this is always the ease. l!ut when they 
come down from the trees so late as the Ttliof 
August, to iicrl'orni ther last moult, it is ijiiite 
likely the piipie would remain in the ground 
until next siiring. 

ANTIDOTE FOR CURRANT "WORMS. 

A correspondent writes to the Country 
Ocntkman : Seeing occasionally in your paper 
some one recommending soapsuds, carbolic 
acid, white hellebore, etc., for currant worms, 
let me state my expirience. 

My bushes have borne well during all the 
passed years, and we have had curiaui pics, 
currant jelly, etc., (we iire temiicrate— so we 
don't make currant wine), while our neigh- 
bors have stood back and wondered. Some 
.said it was because we lived on a cross-road, 
that currant worms, like tramps, preferred 
the main lines. A few made their appearance 
every year ; we picked them oil' and saw them 
no more. This year one bush had ii good 
many on it, and we picked ofl" the leaves 
where they had been at work, but the worms 
were gone. "What did they leave for?" 
" Where did they go ?" " What carried them 
off V" were questions we asked oureelves. So 
we investigated. 

Near by was a large colony of ants, and we 
have seen niimbeis of them rnniiiie.' over the 
bushes. Knowing what inquisitive tliinss 
ants arc, we set the jiail down <in the knoll 
and awaited results, riesently one mounted 
the pail, went down into it and returned with 
a worm larger than himself, and off lie went 
home. When he returned he brought with 
him his brothers and sisters, liis father and 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



mother, and eacli got a worm ; then lliey 
brought their friends, until the pail was black 
with them. The carrying off of those in the 
pail, however, was not so much what we 
wanted as those on the bushes, so we removed 
it. We have looked for worms since, but have 
found none, and are satisfied that the ants 
take care of them. 

There is no patent on this, Mr. Editor, and 
.anyone is at liberty to try it if they choose ; 
for our part we prefer it to the time and ex- 
pense of using" the various lotions recom- 
mended, to say nothing about the danger of 
using some of them. With .ants for currant 
worms, hens for potatoe bugs, and turkeys 
for grasshoppers, we see no reason why we 
cannot be prosperous. 

Good, perhaps, so far as it goes, but a feeble 
read to lean on. Suppose we have a hundred, or 
a thousand infested currant bushes and a few 
ornoantsV How then? Does the writer intend 
to suggest their colonizationV 

IMPERIAL WALNUT MOTH. 

The magnilicient, horned, green worm, sub- 
mitted to our inspection, is the larva of the 
•'Imperial Walnut Moth," (Dryommpa im- 
ijerialis) and its food is the foliage of the com- 
mon walnut tree {Juglans nigra). It has un- 
dergone its last moulting and is now ready to 
bury itself in the ground and be transformed 
to a black chrysalis, where it will remain until 
next spring, when the walnut is in foliage, 
when it will evolve from its pupal sleep, as a 
most magnificent moth, with reddish-brown 
and orange colors, and expanding about six 
inches from "tip to tip" of the front or an- 
terior wings. 

This larva (before us) measures five inches 
in length and three inches in circumference ; 
dark green in color ; an orange colored head 
and caudal prolegs, with pectoral feet of the 
same color. The prolegs are all black and 
there are six black spines arranged transverse- 
ly on each segment of the whole body. The 
spines on the three anterior segments are 
orange colored at the base and lower half, and 
four of those on the second and third seg- 
ments, are from a half to three-quarters of an 
inch long, and slightly bent like the horns of 
an antelope, and on the whole it presents a 
very formidable appearance. There are also 
two large Ijlack spots or maeulations between 
the second and the third segments. We have 
known of this insect for a very long time. 
Nearly sixty years ago one fell from a walnut 
tree, under which we and a number of boys 
were resting, and produced a great consterna- 
tion among us. We, however^ gathered suffl- 
cient courage to capture him and convey him 
into the town, where he was a seven-days' 
wonder. 

We have never known the walnut moth to 
become numerous, and they confine them- 
selves entirely to the different kinds of wal- 
nut. They are difMcult to raise, and we never, 
but once, succeeded in producing the moth, 
but often failed.— ifuicasfei-, Sept. 1, 1878. 

"COLD SNAP." 
The very cold weather which has thus far 
accompanied the incoming New Year, has 
been pretty general throughout the northern 
region of our country, and has even extended 
far down into the southern region. In Lan- 
caster county tlie thermometer was "boxing 
about" somewhere between /rmr nud ticdi-c 
degrees below zero ,• but this was nothing to 
the markings between sixteen and sMy which 
it made in the British possessions, on the 
north of our territory. Cold weather, how- 
ever unfriendly it may be to some people, has 
yet its compensations ; and the whole, vegeta- 
tion—and, perhaps, also the human family- 
suffers, generally, less from extreme cold than 
it does from extreme heat. January may be 
regarded as a precarious month ; because, 
vegetation revived during that month, is very 
certain to be overtaken by a "cold snap" be- 
fore the opening spring. This may, also, be 
the case if such a contingency occurs during 
February or March, but it is sure to follow 
the germinations of January. Cold weather 



secures that perfect repose of the vegetable 
world whicli is so necessary in our latitude to 
secure its uninterrupted and vigorous activity 
after the cold season has subsided. We want 
cold weather for at least two months to come. 

ABOUT EELS. 

I have witnessed the spring migration of 
eels, from one and a half to three inches long, 
up the Susquehanna river, in countless thous- 
ands, (perhaps millions). Has any other 
individual residing along that stream, or else- 
where, witnessed a similar phenomenon ? I 
make this inquiry because in nearly all I read 
upon the subject of eels (that has recently 
been published) that characteristic has been 
but incidentally and vaguely alluded to ; or, 
if more distinctly stated, it has not been from 
the writer's own personal observation. 

Any information on this subject, together 
with dates, localities and special circum- 
stances will be thankfully received by S. S. 
Batlivon, 101 N. Queen street, Lancader, Pa. 

URANINE. 

This is the most recently discovered, and perhaps 
the most remarkable, of all the coal tar or aniline 
group of coloring substances, now so extensively 
used for the adornment of the finest fabrics. Uranine 
is said, by chemists, to be the most higlily Horescenc 
body known to science. Its coloring power is aston- 
ishing ; a single grain will impart a marked color to 
nearly Ave hundred gallons of water. 

A most interesting experiment, which anybody 
may try, consists in sprinkling a few atoms of Ura- 
nine upon the surface of water in a glass tumbler. 
Each atom immediately sends down through tlie 
water what appears to be a bright green rootlet, 
and the tumbler soon loohs as if it were crowded 
full of beautiful plants. Tlie rootlets now begin to 
enlarge, spread and combine, until we have a mass 
of soft green-colored liquid. Viewed by trusmitted 
light the color changes to a bright golden or amber 
hue ; while a combination of greeirand gold will be 
realized, according to the jiosition in which the glass 
is held. For day or evening experiment nothing can 
be prettier than these trials of Uranine, which are 
especially entertaining for the young folks. We are 
indebted for examples of the color to the editors of 
the •Seieiitiflc American, who are sending out speci- 
mens, free of charge, to all their readers. The sub- 
scription to the paper is S'!.20 for a year, or §1.00 
half year : and a better investment for the money 
could hardly be named. 

PENNSYLVANIA FRUIT GROWERS' 
SOCIETY. 

The twentieth annual meeting of this so- 
ciety will be held in '-Alder Hall," near Court 
House, Reading, Pa., commencing, January 
15th, 1879, at 2 o'clock, p.m., and continuing 
over Thursday 16th. 

A cordial invitation is extended to fruit 
growers, horticulturists, both amateur and 
professional, and all others wlio feel interested 
in the discussion of these and kindred topics, 
to meet with us and give results and benefit 
of their experience. We also invite such as 
feel interested in the welfare of our society to 
become members thereof and thus aid in ex- 
tending its influence and usefulness more 
generally throughout the State. The object 
of our organization was to gather and sy tema- 
tize pomological and horticultural knowledge 
and disseminate the same for the benefit of all 
engaged in similar pursuits. The pubhshed 
reports of the society, which are issued annu- 
ally, free to all members, form a valuable 
library for reference and are well worth the 
fee of membership. 

"lilishler's Hotel" will board members and 
delegates at .11.50 per day, including free 
transportation from and to the depot. It may, 
therefore, be considered head(iuarters for the 
society. 

Excursion tickets will be issued by the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railroad Company 
from the following stations, on January 14th 
and 15th, good until Saturday 18th, inclu- 
sive : Philadelphia, AVilliamsport, Harrisburg, 
Lancaster, Allen town, Cattavvissa, Norris- 
town, Columbia, Lebanon, Down ingtown and 
Litiz. The Willmington & Northern Railroad 
Company will al.so issue excursion tickets 
from Waynesburg Junction, Coatesville and 
Chadd's Ford, oii the 15th and IGth, and good 
until the 18th, 

Persons having new varieties of fruits, or 



any fine specimens of fruits, flowers or vege- 
tables, or any improved horticultural imple- 
ments in their possession, arc respectfully 
requested to exhibit them at the i^eeting. 
Articles intended for exhibition may be sent 
to E. B. Engle, Secretary, Mishler's Hotel, 
Reading, Pa. 

In again convening the members of this 
society the officers are happy to announce that 
an unusually full and interesting meeting may 
be expected. Some of the leading horticul- 
turists of the State have promised to meet 
and address the society upon interesting and 
appropriate horticultural subjects. 
Essays and Addresses. 

"Disease of the Pear," by E. Satterthwait, 
Jenkintown, Pa. 

"Modern Fruit H, uses," by Hon. Geo. D. 
Stitzel, Reading, Pa. 

"Profit and Pleasure in Gardening," by 
Tlios. Meehan, editor Gardeners'' Monthly, 
Germantown, Pa. 

"Sewage— How to utilize the same, its ap- 
plication to Fruit Growing, and how to obtain 
best results," by A. R. Sprout, Picture 
Rocks, Pa. 

'•Uses and Abuses of Pruning," by Presi- 
dent Calder, State College, Pa. 

"Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies,) of 
North America," by Herman Strecker, of 
Reading, Pa. 

"Culture and Training of the Vine,'' by H. 
M. Engle, Marietta, Pa'. 

"Mulching and its Benefits," by Alexander 
Burnett, Reading, Pa. 

Mr. Casper Ililler, of Conestoga, Pa., has 
also promised a paper, subject not yet an- 
nounced ; and several other prominent horti- 
culturists are expected to prepare articles, but 
have not yet responded. 

Committees for 1878. 

General Fruit Committee.— John I. Carter, 
Chester county, chairman; Casper Ililler, 
Lancaster county; Morgan Rufe, Bucks 
county; A. R. Sprout, Lycoming county; S. 
W. Nu'ole. Montgomery county; E. J. Evans, 
York county; G. II. Small, Dauphin county; 
A. S. ShelleV, Union county; AV. L. Shaeffer, 
Philadelphia; J. Murdoch, sr., Allegheny 
county; II. S. Rupp, Cumberland county; G. 

D. Stitzel, Berks comity; II. Leh, jr., Lehigh 
county; Jos. Lewis, jr., Delaware county; 
Rev. James Calder, Centre county; Jacob 
Ileyser, Franklin coimty; W. M. Pannebaker, 
Mifflin county. 

Committee on Orcharels.—'E. Satterthwait, 
Montgomery county, chairman; W. S. Bissell, 
Philadelphia; J. G. Engle, Lancaster county; 

E. II. Cocklin, Cumberland county; T. M. 
Harvey, Chester county. 

Committee on Nomenclature.— 11. M. Engle, 
Lancaster county, chairman; Calvin Cooper, 
Lancaster county; J. H. Bartram, Chester 
county; A. W. Harrison, Philadelphia; J. AV. 
Pyle, Chester county. 

Committee on Floriculture.— Chas. H. Miller, 
Philadelphia, chairman; Thomas Meehan, 
Germantown; Peter C. Ililler, Lancaster 
county; H. S. Rupp, Cumberland county; S. 
H. Purple, Lancaster county. 

Committee on Arboriculture.— Geo. Achelis, 
Chester county, chairman; D. G. Engle, Lan- 
caster county; H. A. Chase, Philadelphia; G. 
II. Small, Dauphin county; Wm. Hacker, 
Philadelphia. 

Committee on Insects.— S. S. Rathvon, Lan- 
caster coimty, chairman; J. S. Stauffer, Lan- 
caster county; Herman Strecher, Berks county. 

Committee on Arraw/ement and Reception.— 
Geo. D. Stitzel, Berks county, chairman; J. 
L. Stichter, Berks county; P. C. Ililler, Lan- 
caster county; E. B. Engle, Lancaster county. | 
Officers of the Society. 

Prcsidext.—Josinh Iloopes, West Chester. 

Virc Presidents.— II. M. Engle, Marietta; 
A. II. Sprout, Picture Rocks; John I. Carter, 
West Grove. 

liccording Secretary.— H. B. Engle, Maiietta. 

Corrcs)wv.d:ng Secretary.— W. P. Brinton, 
Christiana. 

'Treasurer. — Geo. B. Thomas, West Chester. 

Professor of i?o(an!/.—Thos. Meehan, Ger- 
mantown, 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Professor of Enlomoloyij.—S. S. Kathvon, 
Lancaster. 

Professor of Jlorticultiiral CkemlMrt/.—b. B. 
Ileiges, York. 

LETTER FROM IOWA. 
Holland, Iowh, Dec. luili, 1878. 
Editok Faioieu : Tlio WLiUlur, Hint ever 
fruitful topic of conversation, has been cx- 
tremclv fine iluriii!,' tlic present fall. On Sun- 
day we had a liijlit fall of snow, the first 
of the sca.son, which soon bid farewell, and 
now we arc again favored with the best of 
weather. 

Farm ]r'//A-.— TIic fnrmcr.s of this county 
are through pickiiit; corn, the croj) having' 
yielded lar^'ely, even bcvdud Iheir cxpcct.a- 
tion ; the (lualitv is excclicnl, boins fully ma- 
tured, no soft corn lu-in;,' found. For all that 
the crop was ^0(ul it seems thou;,'li it ini.iilil 
be vastly iniprovfd bv plantiiii;- butter varie- 
ties. The essay of Mr. Kn.nle, on corn culti- 
vation, before t lie I.aiieasler County Aiirieul- 
tural Society, was published in tlie l.M'al paper 
here, and we hope that some may Ije benelited 
by it. The varieties planted here arc a small 
grained, thick cob variety. A large acreage 
of ground has been ploughed during this fall, 
so that farmers are in good shape for the 
spring campaign. 

Live Sto(k:--TUe. hog crop in this county is 
very large, and but a comparatively small 
amount are being sold, on account of the low 
prices, yet a liancaster county farmer would 
think the market brisk if he saw the amount 
shipped from tliis place alone. We saw a 
drove of seventy-two brought in yesterday, 
weighing :>."), .")(iG 'pounds, averaging a fraction 
over :!.■).") pounds. They were splcndiil ho;;s, 
for the greater part were Berkshire breed. 
Cattle— But few have been offered as yet, 
though there arc large herds that will be ready 
for market early in 1879. 

rotacco.— This county bids fair to become 
a tobacco growing county. The cxiierimeut 
has been tried the past summer, and we ;ire 
informed with very satisfactory result, (^uite 
a number of farmers intend going into the 
business next spring. That veteran tobacco- 
nist, John S. (Jable, of your city, who, by the 
way, owns lart,'e tracts of land in this county, 
isof o)iinion tliat tlie soil of this county "is 
well adapted to llie growth of the weed, and 
says, that from the samples which he saw and 
examined, he is free to say that tobacco culture 
in Grundy county will form one of tlie main 
features of her agriculture. All that is wanted 
are men who understand how to gro\v and 
cure the crop, and success will bo certain, lie 
told US some montlis ago, that ''somebody 
will come here and m.ike a fortune in raising 
tobacco in this county." 

Game.— This section of county abounds 
with feathered game. Prairie hens arc abun- 
dant, as are also quail, the latter however are 
not molested, as there is better game on the 
wing. Wild geese come hero in large liocks, 
as also ducks and brants. We are told that 
at Wall Lake, Storm Lake, and some others 
northwest from here, game is more than 
plenty. 

The Markets.— Corn is being brought here 
in large quantities. The grain men are driving 
a bri.sk trade ; immense corn cribs are being 
erected, (the corn lieing all in the ear,) hold- 
ing thousands of bushels. ()u<' crib was fin- 
ished to-day, being four hun.lred feel long. 
fourteen wide ami fourteen feet Ingli ; there 
is fair prospects of many nuire being built. 
Grain is also coming in lively ; the two eleva- 
tors, mill and three grain w-arehouses are 
running two sets of hands, night and day in 
handling grain. Though that the grain crop 
was a failure there are large quantities of 
grain in the county, and firmers are not as 
particular as they should be in the manner 
their grain coincs'iuto market. Large quanti- 
ties of barley arc raised here. Butter is plenty 
here at present. Mr. Anthony Traser, in the 
grocery business here, (formerly from Lin- 
coln, Lancaster county,) took in on .Saturday 
last five barrels of butter ; this is good for 



one store. There are three others in town. 
Eggs are not very plenty ; the farmers do 
not give their chickens the necessary atten- 
tion. Live iwultry is being brought in, though 
not in large numbers.— H'. JI. Spera. 

N. B. Fi;()|-. Batiiton: Please send me a 
copy of TliK Fai!Mi;u. Of whom can I procure 
the'J-arge ( lounl ( 'oru.aud Small < lounl Seed- 
only small (piantities for trial in this county. 

The al)ove corn can be obtained at the reli- 
able agricultural, implement and seed store of 
Wji. 1). Si'ifEciiER, of this city. — Ed. 



For Till! Lanoarteu Fabmeb. 
THOROUGH WORT. 
This i.lant is dedicated to Enpator Mithri- 
dates, who lirsl brought it into notice. Dio- 
scorides mentions this jilant in his work on 
botany. Mithridates, King of Poiitus, sur- 
nami'd 'Fuiiator"' and "the Great" was the 
son of Mithridates VI., the lir.st king of that 
country who entered into an alliance with the 
Romans. At the death of his father, 1-2:5 
B. C, he succeeded to the crown when he 
was only about twelve years of age. But I 
am not giving the biography of Mithridates, 
which i find quite lengthy and interesting, 
but subject matter in connection with our 
most common plants. The scientific name is 




Eupalorhini perfoliulum, the specific name 
refers to the stem apparently growing through 
the united leaves. Hence we find the many 
common names— such as Tiiorough AVort, 
Thorough Stem, Thorough Wax, (,'ross Wort, 
besides that of Indian S.age and Bone-Set. 
This latter name is ipiitc common. Who has 
not been recoiniiniiilcil to drink "Bone-Set 
tea?" Tliis (1.1(1 n:iinc iiiines from an early 
belief that it aided in joining or knitting 
broken bones. Plants have their history, as 
well as uses. I shall not give a description 
how to recognize the plant, because the cut 
sliows it. and it is found in fiower from niid- 
suuiiner to Septduber from Xoya .'scotia to 

boguy .soils. Il" belongs, of course, to the ex- 
tensive order of Composila-, or what arc 
termed compound llowers, that is a number 
of tubular or strap-shaped fiowers on a com- 
mon receptacle surrounded by a common in- 
volucre. 

Every part of tlic Eupatoritmi has an in- 
ten.sely bitter taste, combined with a fiavor 
peculiar to the jdant, but without astringency 
or acrimony. This bitter principle is alike 
.soluble in water and in alcohol, imparting its 
sensible cpi.alitics to both, and neither .solution 
being rendered turbid, at leiist for some time, 
by the addition of the other solvent. Tannin 



exists very sparingly in this plant. Dr. An- 
derson, of >'ew York, wlio details numerous 
experiments, concludes that a single decoction 
forms the best tonic stiiuulanl. i;iycn in inod- 
eratequ;u)tities. Tliesubstaru c, cold infusion 
or decoction, promote digestion, streugtiiens 
the viscera and restores lone to tlie .system. 
Like other vegetabl.> bitters, however, if 
given in large quantities, especially in warm 
infusion or decoction, il proves emetic, sudori- 
fic and appericnl. Even in cold infusion it 
tends to bring on diaphoresis, (promotes pers- 
piration). 

It may be luescribed in the low stages of 
fever to support strength, jironiote a moisture 
of the skin, without materially increasing the 
heat of the body. And as a tonic in loss of 
aiipetite and other symptoms of dyspepsia, a.s 
well as in general debility of the system.—/. 
Stavlfir. 



MOONLIGHT. 
I have not written anything for The 
Faumeu for some time, but as there appcans 
to be a little more "moonlight" desired at 
Dobbs' Ferry, N. Y., I thought I would 
"rise" again.' I ha\c no cxpei-ieiice in potato 

planting with rcln-i nee lo the i m. Hut 1 

may sav, potatoes u;inl lo'.sc soil. 'I'hci-cfore, 
plcnv in" the risill^' of the moon, if the .soil is 
heavy or clayey. It tlu' soil is naturally loose 
I doi"rt lookto" the moon. Should Ihe soil lie 
too li-ht and hm.se, plow in the .selling of the 
moon. Haul the, manure on the ground you 
intend tor potatoes in the fall, even if it is 
washy. Then ^yail until you want lo plow; 
spread it evenly ; plow early in the spring ; 
any time between now and spring, so that it 
will freeze after it is plowed. As to the 
proper time to plant, that will depend some- 
what on the character of the weather. Ac- 
cording to my (xperience the best time is 
about the miildle of April. When 1 com- 
menced fanning I planted three times every 
season. The hist tinif as early as I could— 
sometimes in March the secoiul time in the 
middle of Aiuil, and the third time on or 
about the 1st of .May, This I did for .several 
years, and nearly always the middle planting 
turned out the be>t. On .stilT soil it would be 
well if \ye could work tlie soil always in the 
rising of the moon. But there might he too 
long an interval belweeii ; the weeds would 
get too far ahead. A farmer told me one of 
his neighbors runs a subsoil ploiii;li through 
the rows just liet'oic he lays Ihe potatoes in ; 
that is. hehaiidws it out as UMial and then 
runs the subsoil plow thnuigh, and he beat all 
his neighbors in raising potatoes. 1 intend to 
try that plan the present year. — /. (I., War- 
wk-k\ JiUiiMrn 1, 1870. 



RANDOM THOUGHTS— No. 7. 

Fodder Crops. 

For some years past there has been much 
seeking after new plants for fodder crops that 
would'answer better the ends than any of the 
old s]ieeies. .\s far as (luantity is concerned 
there isiiodoul't but that at leasl two plants 
have been lirought forward that far outstrip 
all the old species. 

Among tlie most prominent of the old 
species may be enumerated the following : 

IhoKlitriiiii Grilse, a millet, was introduced 
probably more than twenty years ago, but it 
did not" come into g^aieral favor over the 
country until considerably later, and it is 
even now condemned by many, they thinking 
it injurious to horses, that it lessens the flow 
of milk in cows, &c. Tlu'ic may be some 
weight in the latter claim, and I have no 
doubt but that it has lessened the flow of 
milk, but not from any inherent fault in the 
grass but from the fact that in many ca.ses it 
lias been allowed to over-ripen and thus be- 
come worth little more than straw for feeding 
purjioscs. I have never heard any complaint 
when the grass was cut early enough so as to 
have a nice green color when dry. Its quick 
growth and heavy yield should certainly make 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 



it a favorite, it being possible to raise a good 
crop after the farmer sees that tlie other crops 
on which lie depended for hay or fodder will 
be a failure. , . , , . . ■, i. 

Peas and oats, or oats by itself is raised at 
many places for the purpose of making hay. 
I do not think that either will be ever very 
popular in this section on account of the un- 
certainty of the oats reaching any respectable 
heio-ht. North of us where oats is a pretty 
Sute crop, peas and oats are no doubt in much 
favor, for the pea vines make a great bulk of 
fodder equal in value to clover hay. 

Bye has been tried to some extent, but does 
tiot seem to grow in favor, for unless taken 
very young the fodder will be hard and wiry 
and not relished by stock. 

Corn is the stand-by as a fodder crop over a 
larger extent of couiUry thuu pniliably all the 
others combined, and its nutiu loiis oood quali- 
ties give it rlghttothis iii-ominoucc. It seems 
to have only one ftuilt of any prominence, and 
that is the difficulty of curing it, unless the 
weather is favorable. It is some satisfaction 
to know that in no country have they more 
favorable weather to harvest all crops than in 
this country. 

All the above crops are also useful for soiling, 
cutting and feeding green in stalls, but rye 
is the least so, on account of its becoming 
hard so soon, and, in fact, the only good claim 
rye has is its earliness, being generally fit to 
cut two weeks or more before any of the other 
crops used for soiling come in. 

Of the new candidates for favor we have 
two : 

Prickly comfrey was disseminated a tew 
years ago witli a great tiourish of trumpets. 
"It was not claimed as a real fodder plant, but 
for the purpose of soiling was said to be un- 
equaled, producing as much as one hundred 
tons of green feed to the acre on rich soil, and 
that it was greatly relished by cattle, pigs, 
sheep and horses, and that it put them in a 
thriving condition. 
Now for the reports. 

Its great yield is generally acknowledged, 
and I think in one case ninety tons reported, 
which comes near enough for a new plant for 
which so much was claimed. One man re- 
ports that his cattle will not touch it ; and 
that, thouch it may be eaten by some poor 
foreign cattle, he does not think an intelligent 
American cow could be made to do so unless 
driven thereto by starvation. Others report 
that tlieir cattle would not eat it at first, but 
were educated to it by throwing cornmeal on 
it. One man, probab'ly a Yankee, whose cat- 
tle somewhat tabooed the new introduction, 
liit upon the novel plan of throwing it upon 
some kind of scaffolding, where the cows 
could hardly reach it, and then they went for 
it with a whim ; these cows probably had in 
them considerable hum;in nature, that is of 
the contrary kind. One man reported that 
his cattle liked it both green and dry. 

There is no doubt but that in very rich soil 
it is unsurpassed for soiling, but it will take 
time to determine its real claims to quality 
and usefulness in this respect. It requires 
good culture and plenty of manure to bring it 
to perfection. 

That parties not acquainted with it may 
have some knowledge as to what kind of a 
plant it is I will state that it is a near relative 
to the common comfrey (swartz wurzel) of the 
garden, the botanical degree of relation being 
closer than that of rye to wheat. 

Pead miUct, also called Egvptian milTfet, is 
a newer caudidato than the "last mentioned, 
this lieing the lirst year that there were any 
extended trials made in the North, and I 
have this far seen but two of the reports, 
both being found in the American Agricultur- 
ist, and which I condense for these columns : 
Mr. Peter Henderson, near New York city, 
prepared a piece of good .strong loamy soil, 
as if for beet or turnip, applying ten tons ma- 
nure to the acre and plowing ten inches deep. 
The millet was sown oh May l.'ith, in drills 18 
inches apart, at the rate of 8 quarts to the 
acre. Twelve days afterwards it was culti- 
vated, after that cultivation being unneces- 



sary, as the rapid growth smothered all weeds 
that came up. First cutting, July 1st, being 
seven feet high, weighed, green, at the rate of 
:iO tons per acre, U tons, dried, as hay. Sec- 
ond cutting, August 15th, height feet, weight 
55 tons green; 8 tons dried. Tliird crop 
started as rapidly as the second, but the cool 
nights in September lessened the growth, but 
when cut, on October 1st, weighed 10 tons 
green ; U tons dried. Total, 05 tons green 
fodder, or 16 tons when dried to hay. lle- 
sembles cornfodder, and supposes it equally 
nutritious. Ilor.ses and cattle ate it greedily, 
whether green or dry. If sown broadcast 
about 1(5 quarts seed should be used. 

A. Coindet, of Montreal, sowed a paper on 
May 20th, in his yard, soil not manured, and 
had the sun only about two hours each day. Cut 
July 15 when five feet high ; again September 
15 when six feet high ; last time, October 1st, 
when the stalks were nine feet high. Both 
his horses and cows were very fond of the 
millet, green or dry. 

When reports from such widely distant 
points coincide as these two do, there must be 
some merit in the millet. I have no doubt 
but what it will to some extent displace corn 
as a soiling and fodder crop, because it can be 
cut oftener for soiling and more weight of 
fodder raised. The heavy manuring given by 
Mr. Henderson will be apt to strike some far- 
mers with dismay, the amount being more 
than the average quantity applied to that 
manure-devourer, tobacco. But then consider 
sixteen tons of hay from one acre ! With a 
few acres of this what a number of cattle 
could be kept, and I am afraid the, farmer 
would get frightened at the size of his manure 

Suppose that clover would be a failure, and 
the farmer had only the timothy to cut which 
gives no aftermath'. As soon as the hay was 
off the field he might sow it to this millet, 
and forty-five or fifty days afterward cut a 
mass of stufE that would make eight tons of 
hay, as was done in the second cutting as re- 
ported by Mr. Henderson, who can be relied 
on as saying just what he knows. 
Tea Raising. 
In December number of The Farmer 
J. B. G. thinks that the article in October 
number under the above heading " might 
lead some people to infer or suppose this plant 
can be cultivated anywhere." I did not in- 
tend that my remarks should lead to any 
such impression, and think that the second 
sentence wherein it is stated that the Agri- 
cultural Department was sending out plants 
" to such places as seemed suitable for the 
growing," would put people on their guard. 
Further, our florists arc ii(i\v-a-days so liberal 
with their lists and < :ital<.-urs tliat few could 
help but know that VA. w , ( h inose Tea Plant,) 
was classed in the ./'■" -i-//<-»n, collections. 

The plant is probably not quite as tender 
as the remarks of Mr. G. would seem to imply, 
for it is cultivated in Japan as far north as 
the northern boundary of Nortli Carolina, 
but it is probable that there are varieties that 
are more hardy than others, just as in some of 
our fruit trees. 

I am in the habit of putting off writing 
articles intended for publication to the last 
minute, and then have not time to prepare 
them as they should be. I hope Mr. G. will 
n-ive me a " rowing up " on all such occasions, 
and I will then as now thank him for it. 
Laying Down to Grass. 
I have often seen it recommended that this 
or that grass should be more used in seeding 
to grass. I will give the price it would cost 
per acre, as the seed was sold one year ago by 
one of our most reliable seedsmen : 

Red Top, (Agrostis imlrjaris,) S2.25 ; Mea- 
dow Foxtail, (Alnpnnrnts pamtcnsis,) flo.W ; 
Rescue Grass, (l!,;.nu,s ,rln:nlcri,) |24.00; 
Meadow Fescue, (F,shir,i pnamsis,) S512.00; 
Italian Rye Grass, (/.'./;'((-/ Ihillrum,) $10.50. 
Red Top is the only kind that is at all 
reasonable in price, and this is not much 
raised in Lancaster county. All the others 
are entirely too high in price, unless it could 



be shown that they are much superior to the 
varieties now in vogue, and even then the 
laying down must be more permanent than is 
usually the case with us. The Rescue Grass 
is in great favor with English farmers, they 
being able to remove from four to five green 
crops each year. I suppose this is accomplished 
by means of irrigation. 

Meadow Foxtail and Red Top do well m 
this country ; of the others I have no knowl- 
edge. — A. B. K. 



For Tbe Lancastee Fap.meu. 
PRACTIC.A.L HINTS FOR YOUNG 
FARMERS. 
Another year has passed and a new one has 
begun. But had we not the stores of the year 
that is past we could not live. All is frozen 
and dead, and we depend for months upon 
our treasures of the past, until mother earth 
gives life and vigor again to the vegetable 
kingdom. 

At this season of the year not much is to 
be done on the farm, except the feeding of 
the stock, which should be well cared for, and 
not wholely trusted to tlie boys. When boys 
feed stock watch them closely, or some animals 
may not get enough to eat and others get 
more than they can eat and become "stalled ;" 
and the stable doors and shutters may remain 
open in cold, stormy weather and be closed 
when the weather is mild and warm. 

Horses.— When hay is plenty horses can 
bo kept in in good condition with very little 
else than good hay, during the winter season, 
or while tliev have no worl; to do. Give them 
daily one or two quarts of oats, corncob meal 
and bran mixed together. Mix a little chafE 
with it and moisten it with pure water. Give 
them enough of good hay ; curry them daily ; 
water them twice every day ; remove their 
shoes and let them walk or stand shoeless ; 
but at tlie same time have one or two shod 
sharply, to drive to market and to mill, and 
to do other work necessary to be done ; but 
those should have a little more grain than 
those that are standing idle. As spring ap- 
proaches, and when they begin to change 
their coals, increase their food a little, gradu- 
allv, so that tliey will get strong enough to 
endure labor when spring opens to work. 
Keep their stables comfortably warm ; stop 
all holes where the cold air comes in ; open 
the south side doors or windows while the 
sun shines warm, but close them again before 
the stall gets cold. On mild days open both 
sides, that the air may pass through, and 
clean the stables once, twice or thrice a week, 
but never less than once. . 

Cows.— Attend well to the cows ; have then- 
stables warm ; shut up all the holes in cold 
weather; let no manure freeze behind the 
cows ; open on the south side during midday 
when the sun is shining, but close again as 
early as three or four o'clock in the afternoon. 
Feed well three times a day— say at 5 o'clock 
in the morning, at 11 in the forenoon, and at 
C o'clock in the evening. Mix corncob meal 
and bran in equal parts together, and feed to 
each cow two quarts or more every meal. 
Mix it with cut cornfodder or chaff, and 
moisten it with clean water. Cut cornfodder 
is the best, but hav flowers can also be mixed 
with the feed. After that give them as much 
hay as they will eat up clean ; water them at 
midday, once a dav. On warm days turn 
tliem out of the stables into the barnyard 
for an hour or two, but when it is cold put 
them into the stable as soon as they are done 
drinking. Bed them with straw, but let 
neither straw, hay nor fodder go to waste, 
even if you don't need it. It may transpire 
that the next year's crop may be short or a , 
failure, and tlien it will be needed and come j 

Calves.— To wean calves at first give them j 
the milk from the cow, until they get accus- 
tomed to drinking out of a bucket. Then mix 
a little skimmed milk and a little bran and 
hot water. Increase the quantity of skimmed i 
milk gradually until you have no sweet milk 
amongst it any more. In addition to this 
give them young clover hay. Of coiuse the | 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



longer they are fed on this milk diet the bet- 
ter, but wlirn luim is scnn-r tlicy r:iii brconio I 
aceustcmird to wal.T ;ill.'i- mm nil wv.ks, l.ul 
then they must have >ou,r luiui aii.l niils. lir- ^ 
sides li;\\', (ir \vr caiinnt iNprct llirin In llu-ivi'. 

Vkai;i,im;s. -Calves iif a year old must 
have nnr iir twci (luarts of bran, oats or cob 
meal, or scmutliiriL; similar to it, besides hay, 
or they will not eonie out well. Also a little 
salt daily— indeed all animals should have 
salt. 

SwiXE.— Hogs arc mostly all slaughtered 
for the pre-seiit winter ; but \vc now must earn 
for the stock of next year or next season. 
Young i)ii:s and shoats should have a warm 
stable. If the iiIl; stable is imi wll rl,.se.l and 

warm put conilndder ;llniin(l il to kir]i (ilT 

the cold winds, l.ase ..nlv tlir soulh ^ide 
open, which ^<llnuld also !„■ .'losid al iii-lil. 
llaveideuly of slraw in llie stalilc lor the l 
pigs to ereeji uiuIit. I"i cd tliein regularly 
and well, bid never ovirferd them. 1 am per- 
fectly satislied thai, some pigs are fed to death. 
Give them as much as they will eat up readily 
and cleanly, but not that they w'ill let .some 
remain in" the trough untouched when you 
come to feed again. ' Jlilk is the bi'sl food for 
quite young pigs, indeed yoinig pigs just taken 
from "the sow are hard to raise without milk 
for awhile. Scald .some shiiistulf willi water, 
then stir in the milk and a little corn and 
oats, incretising the quantity as the pigs grow 
older. After a few weeks the milk can be 
omitted and the sliipstull' increased. Keep 
them healthy, give them a little wood tishes 
occasionally, alternated with eliareoal and a 
little powder or sulphur. Also throw into the 
stable some rotten wood, and some sod when 
it can be gotten. Many farmers are dis- 
couraged with pig raising because they arc so 
cheap, but 1 think they make a mistake. I 
think now is the right, time to raise them, be- 
cause they will not remain so cheap as now. 
Hogs change in price very often, and some 
times very suddenly. I think next fall we can 
get a better price for fat hogs. I have just 
seen a letter from a hog-fcedcr in the west ; 
he bad his hogs ready fen- mtirket but could 
not sell them. He is, of course, discouraged 
and says, "Kever mind, if I get rid of these 
1 will never have another hog on my farm 
again." He is not the only one, however, 
that talks in thnt way. .Some people think 
that their b.-ead must always fall with the 
buttered side upwards or all is wrong. 
t roui.TUY.— Feed chickens well and give 
.j^hem a warm, dry roosting place, or they will 
\' y no eggs the whole winter. Also, provide 
a sheltered place on the sunny side of a fence, 
a wall, a building or a hill, where they can 
sit in the sunshine during the day and have 
access to a sand bath. Feed in the morning 
coarse corncob meal and bran mixed together 
and moistened with boiling water, with salt, 
as for table use. Feed in a trough and su|)ply 
them with pure, fresh spring water, (iive 
tliem broken oyster shells every day. In the 
afternoon feed them with some kind of grain — 
such as wheat screenings and corn— and if 
they can have thick milk, cheese, or meat 
cruinbs it will be all the better for them. An 
onion cut fine .and mixed with their feed oc- 
casionally ; also a little charcoal or suljihur ; 
als.i boil.'d iMitaloes masli<-d line. Of course we 
• In not mean lliat these articles. orth..se here- 
after mentioned, should he fed to them at the 
same time, but that they .should be occasional 
and alternated ; in this way there may be a 
change in their diet almost daily. The milk 
and i^otatoes can he fed everv dnv if lliev arc 
))lentv. Tninip tops and ealib;iL,'e olVal are 
alsoexeelleiil durin- tlie wiul.r. The tVed- 

six inches wide ; nail the edges together. This 
will make a triangular trough. Let the ends 
be three inches higher than the trough, and 
nail a board flat on them al)Out as wide as the 
n|iper angles of the trough, to prevent the 
chickens from going in with their feet. They 
can stand on both sides to feed and have a 
space between the trough and the top board 
of tlu-ee inches, plenty'wide enough to get in 
with their heads, but they cannot get in with 



their feet. A coal bucket is a good implement 
to put in the feed. 

I'^Aiti-Y CiiKJKEXS.— If you want early 
chickens you must have a warm place. Some- 
where in tlu' barn, or .somewhere where liens 
can set : and then have food and water con- 
vcuienl, so that Ihev will not stay too long olf 
the nest in search of food. When the chicks 
are hatched put them in a coop and keep them 
in the barn or stable during cold and wet 
weather, but on iiicc days put tliem in the 
sunshine, where they will be protected from 
the wind and storm. Tow.irds evening carry 
them in the barn agiun. If persons have time 
and patience to attend to them hens may be 
set during this month. Early chickens always 
demand a good price in market. Feed moist- 
( lied lirea<l crumbs, cheese, wheat screenings, 
eraeked i-orn, potatoesand hard boild eggs cut 
line.— .7. (1., Warwick, January, 1879. 

For The Lanoastek Fabmeb. 
FRUITS AS A STANDARD ARTICLE OF 
FOOD. 
The vast apple crop of 1878 will, I trust, 
have a favorable impression upon all wlio have 
availed themselves of its salutary effects. Al- 
though in some sections, on account of its 
great abundance, it proved more of a burden 
than profit, from the very low prices which it 
brought ; while in other sections the crop was 
either a total or partial failure. 

Jfot for many years was so large a section 
of the country so well supplied with line 
winter apples at such low rates as now. To 
our present admirable railroad arrangements 
is due the extensive distribution of this vast 
crop. No family, over a large extent of ter- 
ritory, however poor, is necessarily deprived 
of a i-easonable enjoyment of one of the mo.st 
wholesome esculents given to man. From the 
prevailing custom of long standing, large 
iiu.antities are consumed in lunching, or as an 
addition to regular meals, and will continue 
to be thus used so long as people consider 
fruits simply as a relish, containing but little 
if any nutriment. That it is better to eat 
them in this way than not at all we will admit, 
but as people learn that fruits contain as much 
or more nutrition, in proportion to bulk and 
cost, than many other articles of diet in com- 
mon u.se, the demand for the former will be 
equal to the supply, as for any other article of 
food. 

It is now generally admitted that fruits are 
a valuable adjunct to other food to give tone 
to the .system ; but it has also been demon- 
strated "by facts that they not only support 
healthy material to build up the wastes of 
the body, but that man can labor and endure 
fatigue on fruit diet alone far beyond the 
general belief in its nutritious properties. 

One striking instance among many is the 
case of AVherryman, (his real name I have 
f )rgotten) the great boat racer, who won his 
great races on frint diet alone. These facts 
have been related to me by Dr. Wood, of 
New York, he having boarded with 'Whcrry- 
man during the time of his exploits ; both 
were strict vegetarians by principle and prac- 
tice. One of the strongest evidences that the 
human system demands fruit are the natural 
cravings of children for it to such an extent 
that they do not stop to examine whether it 
is ripe or not. The serious effects which 
often follow the excessive eating of fruit, 
especially when unripe, does not at all prove 
that it is injurious when eaten in proper 
quantites as jiart of a meal. Dr. Smith, in 
his work entitled, "Fruits and Farinacia the 
pi-opcrfood for man," has collected such a 
mass of evidence that should convince any 
reasonable person that the title of his book is 
1 not a misnomer. While eminent physiologists 
ililTi r upon this question, it has been fully 
diinonsi rated that man con live, and be not 
i onl\ healthy, but can also lator and endure 
fatigue heyond hini who uses stimulating food 
and drinks. Could we even convince the 
public that this theory is correct, the counter 
arguments continue that it would not be 
practical on account of its being more ex- 
pensive. 



That this is an erroneous notion can easily 
be proven by testing the variou.s leading arti- 
cles of diet separately, keeping a con-eel ac- 
count of the exjjenses of each. For iiislanco, 
(irahain lloin', oatmeal, crushed btirley and 
other cereals, wliieli need not cost more than 

average. Dne imnnd of cither cooked into 
porridge, and live cents worth of stewed ap- 
ples, and a pint of good milk makea i>alal:d)li', 
healthy and invigorating bieaktii^t forti family 
of live or six, costing not over Ihrei' cents 
each, as neither butter nor coffee is needed to 
relish such a meal. '■'■ Gnml ijmri'nis I''^ our 
coffee topers will say, in amazement, " brealc- 
fast without r';|;;.f."' Vis, linaLf„M. sneh as 
above des(-rilied, can be leli-ln.! iiisl as much 
asany other. Ii.\ peisnns iu a iminril euiidition 
and with uniieixerPij api.'lihs. Ii i~. Iiow- 



il.V 



liquid of tol)aeeo, or li.pioi-. nr PVen of colTec, 
spices and eondinients <-an fully relish sneh a 
meal as just described. 15ut why not give the 
children a chance to grow up heallhlblly and 
in a more normal condi ion V iMany of the 
aches, pains and doctors' bills would be 
avoided by adhering to a more simi)le bill of 
fare. Then^ is no doidit in the mind of the 
writer that those much dreaded scourges— 
scarkt fever, diiitheria, and eruptive diseases 
generally, would not allliet so many families 
were a farinacious and fruit diet, in connec- 
tion with pure air, suhstitnted tor pork, and 
the almniination of the frying pan abolished. 
The fumes of the latter wouk" not be carried 
about in the clothes of so many, to (ill the 
olfactories of -whomsoever they meet unsup- 
plied with such aionia. 
But to return to the more pleasant suliject 



fruitf : We have i 


eason to believe that 'the 


abundance and el 


.■apiiessof aoj.les tliis win- 


ter have indueed 


niaiiv faiuili.-s to snpi.ly 


themselves to sii,-l 


an .xleiit astoniakeinno- 


vations upon tliei 


• Inrm. r liill i.r fare bv iu- 


corpoiatiiig ai'ples 


niniv lar-ely tlierewilh. 


We have Slhh s 


i-niej laith in fruits as food 


as to believt' tha 


il the result of the con- 



sumption of the apple ci-t>p of 1S7S could be 
computed, including its hygienic cffectfH it 
would make interesting reading, and would, 
no doubt, tend to increased consumption of 
all fruits throuLrhout the year. 

We are all aware how innovations upon 
customs and habits are resisted, ridiculed and 
frowned down of limes, so tliiit there is little 
liope for an article like the foregoing to make 
any serious impression niion the public mind. 
Should it, however, interest but a few, the 
writer will consider his elTorls not spent iu vain, 
for according to a saying wisely applied, th.tt 
"a little leaven leavelielli tlie whol<> lump ;" 
although this will not fully apply to the above 
saying, it mav, in iiart, and should it elleet no 
more 'than simply to elicit diseiisiion. the re- 
sults may i>i-ove more i^ratifyiiii; than we ex- 
pect.— 7/. M. Enijk, M.mrti,', .lai,. :',, 1S7'.1. 

LETTER FROM NORTH CAROLINA. 
SALisufKY, N. C, Jan. 2, 187!». 

Lancaster Farmer : Allow me to congratu- 
late you in having worked your way thus far, 
and I think under disadvantages, which I 
hope will not be so iu the future. Having 
entered into a new year, I hope 1S7'.I will be 
one nt pro.'ipcritii with ;i"u in mm .sense of the 
word, iind hope your people will support and 
uphold it for ail time to come, both with 
brains and means, and do not see any valid 
reason why tliev should not. Yoiu-s is re- 
garded the be-t agricultural couidy in the 
Fnited States, the wealthiest peojili' upon a 
whole, hold more CHited Slates gov.-rument 
bonds than anv otlnn- eounty iu the Union. 
During ls7i) 1 traveled in and through several 
States, and now h<ie did 1 see as good horses 
for all work: eat lie, sheep, swine and poidtry 
of all kinds, such as is gencially raised in 
America. Your land.s were better cidtivatcd 
than any 1 had ever seen on this continent. 
I do not say these things to llattcr the folks 
of your great county, and know whereof I 
speak. 1 will say and do all I can to promote 



8 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 



the welfare of all concerned in The Farmer, 
though distant from you, and not directly con- 
cerned in the welfare of your county and its 
people. Hence I believe your county farmers, 
and others living there, ought to put their 
shoulders to the wheels of The Farmer and 
push it onward and upward, and never say 
go on, but say come on. With all good wishes 
for TuE Farmer and all interested in its 
welfare, we remain your friend, 3L li. 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS.* 

To the memhcrs of the Lancaster County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society : 
Gentlemen : In addressing you for the 
third time since my election as your chairman, 
and the thirteenth since the organization of 
the society, it is with feelings of gratitude to 
a wise Creator, for the bountiful harvest of 
the year passed ; for the general prosperity of 
our country ; for the removal of the terrible 
pestilence that visited a part of our land, and 
for the peace, good-will and prosperity pre- 
vailing over this glorious union of States. 
May the bonds of friendship be drawn to- 
gether so tightly that no sectional strife will 
ever be able to tear them asunder. 

I wish to call your attention to the harvests 
of the past year ; to impress upon you the 
importance of applying the skill and best 
judgment of every tiller to his soil, to endeavor 
by all tiie means within his power— good cul- 
ture and every other recourse at hand— to have 
many recurrences of abundance as the crops of 
the season of 1878. I am well aware that all 
does not depend on man, but I am also equally 
confident that he who cultivates best and 
most carefully observes the changes of our 
seasons, is generally amply repaid with remu- 
nerative crops, fully rewarding him for the 
extra toil and skill employed that his garners 
may be well filled. A more thorough system 
of cultivation— both before and after the crop 
has been planted — will, in my opinion, do 
more to insure a good reward than most of 
us are aware. If a little cultivation will add 
five per cent, to the production of every acre, 
it is a plain problem that thorough tillage may 
add ten, fifteen or twenty per cunt, above the 
usual crop. The varied experiments (the suc- 
cessful ones I mean) of our most progressive 
farmers, should convince every skeptical mind 
that it is necessary for us, with the liigli price 
of land in this section, to adopt the means 
that will accomplish the best results. If A 
can increase the product of an acre of wheat 
by ten or twelve bushels, with the exjjendi- 
ture of two or three dollars in cultivation at 
a time when the plant is weak and tender 
(and particularly if the season seems unfavor- 
able,) B surely will not remain in the old rut 
while his more progressive neighbor reaps as 
much from two acres as lie does from three. 

Crop fertilization is one of the most im- 
portant subjects to the farmer, and perhaps 
the least understood. All manures to act and 
feed the crop for which it is applied must be 
in a condition to be absorbed by the tender 
rootlets, and through them supply the plant's 
food during the early growth. From observa- 
tion and experience I am fully convinced that 
all our cereals would be much benefited by 
the application of some good, well decom- 
posed fertilizer put in witli the seed, to act at 
once, as the plant begins to grow. As the germ 
passes through the kernel it finds food to 
strengthen and nourish it, and better enable 
it to withstand the changes of the climate. 
The better quality of the grain and the pro- 
ductiveness of some of the less fertile dis- 
tricts of the State, where they liave adopted 
this system of sowing, abundantly attest that 
we are not making as much progress in agri- 
culture as some of our neighboring yeomen. 
I do not wish to be understood that I advo- 
cate the use of the many patent manures that 
are flooded upon the market, though doubt- 
less some of them would lie very valuable if 
they could be bought with a little less sand. 
A careful husbandry of the excrement and 
urine of the farm animals, and, indeed, the 



sewerage of the house, and tlie use of the 
many absorbants, always to be found on any 
farm, as ashes, leaves, chaff, sawdust and chip 
dirt, the sweepings and dust of the buildings, 
and the dry mould itself, than which there is 
nothing better. All may be used to take up 
the excess of moisture, that it may be con- 
veyed to some building made for the purpose, 
where, in stormy weather, the hands may 
work and sift it over until reduced to that 
condition which is most desirable to apply. I 
sincerely believe that if every fanner would 
use the matter that usually wastes and leaches 
through his manure heap, making obnoxious 
streams across the public highway, and along 
the gutters, thus causing malaria — oftentimes 
taken by the human fiimily- all of which 
might have been avoided, and he would have 
had at hand a sufficient amount of fertiUzers, 
of the very best, to apply with the sowing of 
all his crops. 

Those interested in horticulture have made 
many grave errors by planting and experi- 
menting with varieties of fruit not adapted to 
this soil and climate. Our ambition has been 
too great to find something not in the posses- 
sion of a neighbor. Something new. Never 
stopping to inquire whether suited or accli- 
mated to their section. We have been too 
easily persuaded by the highly-colored plates, 
made from the choicest specimens of fruit that 
could be found (and some that only grew in 
some fertile imagination) and plant sorts un- 
suited to their locality. If the planter, before 
setting his trees, would first inquire in his 
immediate neighborhood, what kind of apple, 
pear, peach or other fruit is best adapted to 
his own section, and plant mostly of those of 
known merits, our failures in fruit crops 
would be less frequent, and the thousands of 
dollars now taken to distant parts and ex- 
pended to supply our market with the fruit 
that should be grown at home, would largely 
contribute towards supplying necessary com- 
forts to many a needy home. I do not wish 
to discourage the introduction of new fruit of 
real merit, but I do earnestly caution those 
planting such as do not originate in this 
locality, to plant sparingly until thoroughly 
tested. The many new varieties of fruit 
originating in our county, that have graced 
our tables at their pro[)er seasons, aflbrds us 
sufficient proof that we have at home plenty 
of experimenters who are ever ready to supply 
our market with horticultural novelties. For 
instance: Tlie " Saunders," the "Wilder" 
and other peaches of Marietta, the "Sener" 
and many others equally good of Lancaster, 
the " Lancaster Cherry " of very recent intro- 
duction, gives promise of a high rank in that 
class of fruit; among the apples the "Mel- 
linger" and the "Ritter seedlings," with 
many others, might be more generally dis- 
seminated. In small fruits we are being con- 
stantly supplied with new novelties, some of 
which will, doubtless, prove valuable acquisi- 
tions to the lists now promising well. It is, 
however, always advisable to plant the new 
varieties with great caution, that have not 
been tested in various locations and soils, not- 
withstanding the sanguine assurance of the 
originators or their agents. 

The subject of exhibitions for the coming 
year, having recently been discussed by this 
society, and not fully disposed of, should, 
before being decided in the affirmative, re- 
ceive your careful consideration. The sug- 
gestion of Dr. Rathvon, in reference to a 
charter, is, doubtless, of the greatest impor- 
tance should you resolve upon a fall fair. By 
it you become an incorporated body — "a 
body politic in law." The act of incorporation 
in itself would not have a sustaining influence 
without the co-operation of its members, but 
would give more permanency and add greatly 
to its importance as an organization, and give 
it legal existence. "Witli good management 
and fair weather I fully believe this county 
could have a creditable exhibition, which 
would be a financial successj. It is a burning 
disgrace upon Lancaster county, with its 
boasted agricultural wealth, that it can have 
only its semi-annual horse races, while Ches- 



ter, Berks, Lebanon, Dauphin, York and 
other neighboring counties are having their 
very creditable fall shows, which, for weeks 
previous, are looked to by the residents as a 
joyous and grand social holiday, where old 
and young congregate, challenging each other 
by their production of fine grain " big pump- 
kins," or aught else they may have, and ex- 
change views in a social way of the various 
means adopted in achieving such good results. 

During the last year your officers have had 
two very able lectures" delivered before this 
society by men of large, practical and scien- 
tific experience, men who have given the sub- 
ject of agriculture their careful attention, 
and devoted the prime of their lives in e.x- 
perimenting, and who now generously give 
their results to all who are willing to give 
them an attentive car. I fully believe that if 
you were to adopt a rule to have a lecture on 
some subject pertaining to agricultural or hor- 
ticultural once in every three months— say 
February, May, August and November — and 
have it announced through the press a few 
days beforehand, this room would soon be too 
small to hold the assemblage. 

The growing disposition in the rural dis- 
tricts to have a modern style of architecture 
and landscape adornment is indicative of a 
higher standard of sociability and refinement. 
While, on the other hand, the disposition of 
some (who cannot afford it) for show and dis- 
play to the fashionable world have harrassed 
themselves and brought discredit and b.ank- 
ruptcy, and oftimes much misery and suffer- 
ing in consequence. The disposition to excel 
is to be deprecated. Home comforts, conveni- 
ences and pleasures are not to be found in 
display and gorgeous equipments. The pru- 
dent yeoniau will always put a check-rein on 
his vicious horse ; so also it behooves us to 
curb an ambition that points to ruin and 
disgrace. 

In conclusion, I humbly extend to you my 
most grateful thanks for the uniform courtesy 
that has been extended while acting as your 
presiding otticer. Doubtless my rulings have 
seemed to some rather arbitrary, but my 
greatest ambition has ever been the good of 
the society, believing that much good may yet 
come out of our organization. 



PROGRESSIVE AGRICULTURE.* 

So much has lieen written and spoken on 
the improvement of agriculture and horticul- 
ture that one may find it quite a task to add 
anything that is new, either in theory or in 
practice. But let us take a view of the present 
and the past— of the useful in the arts and 
sciences in their relations to agriculture, and 
the march of improvement which we see and 
daily experience. Let us go back twenty 
years, and compare the discussions of our 
societies then with the discussions of the 
present— not the abilities of the members, but 
the subject matter of their discussions. Doubt- 
less some of those who participated in those 
discussions then are present to-day. Our 
wheat and corn crops were then comparatively 
small. Instead of well-filled graneries and 
grain bins, we talked of short crops, and al- 
most gave way to despondency. Instead of 
our export trade being over$200, 000,000 in our 
favor, we had nothing but cotton, which we 
regarded as king among our agricultural pro- 
ductions. In addition to that we had but 
few things to export, and the balance of trade 
was against us to the amount of 850,000,000 a 
year, while it took S50,000,000 in gold to pay 
the interest on our bond to the money kings 
of Europe. 

Instead of the balance of trade being against 
us, and our agricultural products diminislud 
in quantity and high in price, we have so far 
improved our condition so that at the present 
time we are able to export to the different 
nations of Europe suflicient to change the 
balance of trade in our favor at the rate of 
from $250,000,000 to »300,000,000 a year, and 
all lold, we may not owe more than $-20ti,- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



9 



000,000 to Europe on our national debt. 
"With our granaries and storehouses filled 
from the Atlantic to tlio Tacitic, our whole- 
sale and retail stores stocked to overllowing, 
many of our factories and niacliine shops in 
active operation, with the numberless cattle, 
sliecp and swine, jiroduced by the Western 
and Soutliwestcrn States, we liave a supply of 
material wliieli no nation or government ever 
had before— nearly enough to sustain us three 
years without replenislnnent. 

The question arises, "How was all this 
brouglit about V From whence did it come ? 
Did all this come spontaneously— grow up 
like mushrooms ? Or was it the result of 
labor, of energy and of enterprise, as well as 
industry and economy?" To which we will 
and must answer, to all these influences com- 
bined ; but more, mucli more to the favor of 
that superintending Providence, which ad- 
monishes us to "seek first the kingdom of 
God and his righteousness, and all these things 
will be added unto you." Labor, economy, 
science, arts, machinery and manufactures all 
combined liave made our country, under God, 
what it is in material wealth. All our ma- 
terial substances have tlieir origin in, and 
must be produced from mother earth, so far 
as we can have any sensuous consciousness of 
them. Steamboats, canals, railroads and 
other modes of transportation will avail us 
nothing withont tonnage, and tonnage cannot 
be obtained without productions which are 
elaborated by labor and machinery. As to 
the best modes and the most ample facilities 
by which to increase our productions we meet 
hero to-day to discuss, and this ought to be a 
leading object among all individuals as well as 
societies. As already stated, it is by indi- 
vidual energy, aided by invention, society or 
organization, and governmentencouragement, 
that we have attained a position which no 
government or nation ever before occupied. 

People may talk about dull times, but what 
will they say when we compare the present 
with the time when the balance* of trade was 
against us, and no supply of anything— when 
an axe cost S3. 00, and a day's wages from 
$1.50 to m.OO ; a pound of coffee from 30 to 
40 cents ; a yard of muslin from 20 to 30 
cents, and other things in proportion. Through 
discussion, through the interchange of opin- 
ion, through art and science, through agricul- 
tural and horticultural associations, much 
has been accomplished. Then let us proceed 
with the good work. The iron mouldboard 
of the plow took the place of the wooden one. 
The cultivator took tlie place of the spike- 
harrow, the .seed-drill superceded hand sow- 
ing, the reaper takes the place of the cradle 
and the scythe, the threshing machine and the 
steam engine have taken the place of the flail 
and the horse tramping, together with the 
improvements in fertility ; so that twice as 
much may be brought out of the soil now as 
formerly, all of which indicate progress. 

The railroad has taken the place of the 
Conestoga teams, the telegrajih has taken the 
place of the stage lines, and the various kinds 
of machinery have taken the place of hand 
labor ; and there are many improvements in 
implements, &c., of which we cannot have a 
full appreciation, unless we were entirely de- 
prived of them. A great deal is accomplished 
by means of meeting together periodically in 
associations, and by tlie aid of newspapers 
and such sterling agricultural journals as 
The Lancaster Farmer, which, as a reflex 

•Tho "balance of trade" is a sort of enigma to many 

„.„.,,. ^ , .._ . , ^^^^ ^jyj; prospcr- 

avor, auU perha a 
i not seem to be prosperiug in 
any very particular sense at the present time, although the 
balance of trade has been in our favor for some time past. 
Perhaps it is too Soon yet to look for the advantages of such 
a contingency. We appear to bo somewhat mudaleJ upon 
the subject, at least no one has so far been able to make it 
specifically clear that the nation is prospering in any degree 
oorresponding to the balance of trade iu our favor. The 
fact as to whom that balance is due, and what they are doing 
with it, may kave something to do with the question. A 
rich nabob in a commuuity may have a large balance of 
trade m his favor and may not be of much pecuniary ad- 
vantage to the community in which he lives, if he keeps it 
in his coffers and engages iu no enterprise t'lat would enect 
it« circulation among the people. We would like to see the 
balance of trade and the present depressed times satisfac- 
torily harmonize, if the thing is at all possible. -Ed. 



I the balance of trade i 



of our local views, is of paramount advantage 
to the county and tlio country. If we have 
not done as much good heretofore to ourselves 
and our fellow-beings as we ought to have 
done, let us console ourselves with the reflec- 
tion that we have tried to do some good in 
our humble way, and have endeavored to 
keep along with the tide of invention, im- 
provement and iirogrcss. The time may not 
bo far distant when our farms may be plowetl 
by steam, aiiil tlie same element may be util- 
ized in drawing (lur wagons over our comiiion 
roads, and (inr iriiienil economies be entirely 
revoliitioni/.til.' In addition to this we may 
light :iiid lieat our houses by the economical 
iiUrodiietion of gas, steam, or electricity. 

In conclusion, let us hope tli;it in tlie I'utuic, 
as in the present, thing's nuiy ciiitiiuic cliniii 
and abundant, and that in-acc uinl pros|Hril\ 
may be ours ; and, in this i!()nneclioii, 1 wish 
to be understood as meaning a uniform system 
of cheapness — not product sacrificed on the 
part of one class and e.xfortions practiced by 
the other class. 1 think that cxiuiieurc will 
successfuUydemonstrate tliat our country has 
enjoyed more real pi-ospcrily \vlieii tilings 
were uniformly cheap tluiu when tln'y were 
uniformly dear. People may say that it 
amounts to the same whether all things arc 
cheap or dear, btt it does not. There is not 
the same stimulation to speculation and ex- 
travagance in cheap times as there is in dear 
times. Our recent past and present extrava- 
gances had their origin in the high prices and 
the redundancy of money which ruled during 
the rebellion. The people lost their mathe- 
matical reckonings and spent very much at 
random. 



The French as Seen with American Eyes — 

What Our Correspondent Has Learned 

During His Eight Months' Visit in 

the Gay Capital. 

Hotel du Louvre, Paris, 1 

January 0th, 1879. J 

The extravagance of French politeness is 
as remarkable in the present as in the past. 
Three centuries ago there was such an ado 
when two people met that the Chevalier 
Warin said that all conversation began with 
a ballet. Fourscore years ago graceful antics 
and high flown compliments were still in 
vogue ; but the deep triplicate salutation, 
with the "Beautiful marquise, your bewitch- 
ing eyes make me die of love," passed away 
with the revolution of '93. The eccentricities 
of gallant speech and gallant acts constitute 
one of the principal arteries running through 
the body politic from its earliest history to 
the present time. Under cover of the French 
dictum, that it is impossible to be too polite, 
singular extremes are reached, especially by 
the elderly men, who aftect something of the 
Regency manners. In some cases it is car- 
ried to a point where it might be called the 
gymnastics of social intercourse, where the 
man insists on keeping his bald head un- 
covered in a hot sun, or runs with hot haste to 
convey a lap dog to a woman waiting, or 
bows low with a grand swoop of the hat to 
another man whom he sees two or three times 
a day. There is an historical instance of a 
well-known aged nobleman, who, descending 
the stairway, meets a youth of twenty mount- 
ing, the nobleman stops to let him go up and 
the youth does the same, inviting the former 
to pass down ; the nobleman stands firm and 
requests the youth to continue, who responds, 
Jamais ! with hand on heart ; he knows too 
well what youth owes to age ; upon which the 
elder commands him to mount, when the 
young man, with a bow, says : "Youth owes 
obedience to age," and passes, thus saving 
the situation, as he believes. 

There is an elasticity and adaptability in 
the Frenchman in the presence of the woman, 
of which the Anglo-Saxon hits but a meagre 
share. The former, before all classes of these, 
cat-like, falls on his feet, be she countess or 
grisette ; and to be brought unexpectedly in 
contact with any of them never seems to dis- 



concert or even surprise him. The Anglo- 
Saxon is taken at a disadvantage under .simi- 
lar circumstances from which he does not 
rally immediately. The su.sceptibility of the 
newly arrived foreigner, for c.^jtmple, "is put to 
a rude trial when ho buys a )iair of gloves. 
Behind tlu' coiinli r nI.hhIs M-\ci-al smilins, 
.s«lf-p().s.sessi(l yoiin- women, whose eyes turn 
on liiin witli iliM'oiiri'iiini: steadiness. He 
a|)i)roaehes the nearest of Uniu, and signifies 
his (h'siiv to make a piinhase. Are the 
gloves loi- monsieur V They are. Will nion- 
siiMir give himself the trouble to set dowiv 

before tlie e iter? lie slips on to a high 

.stool which liriiigs his liead on a level with 
hers. Slie iiiuiingly inquires his number, 
wliich he ;_'ciici;illv docs not know, when she 
dainth nicasmvs I he masculine hand, holding 
It, allci- ll„. tape measurement, liglilly by 
liii,;,'cr ti[)s, to e.-camiiie the form of (he glove 
required. She in the same lone iiupiires his 
color, to which a Frenehinan would probably 
reply, "Whatever your laste may suggest;" 
but to which the newly-arrived foreigner 
gives an answer destitute f)r any kind of em- 
broidery. When she soitly takes his hand in 
hers again, and looks into his face with a 
smile, Americns begins to think that this is 
indeed a tender business. Before, however, 
he has any time to make many rellections on 
the situation, she is at work on his hand, and 
slips on the i,'lo\e. caressingly introiluces tlie 
fingers, tlie opi'ralion sandwiched with arch 
glances and cliirnipy siicech, and then the 
glove is buttoned, and the last fold is smoothed 
out with a gentle pat. This incendiary per- 
formance is followed with the question 
whether monsieur will have his other hand 
treated in the same way. The motii, of 
course, will have another go at the candle, and 
by the time he is througli he is naturally some- 
what singed. Happily for family peace, tlu^ 
betrothed Mary Jane or the espoused Mary 
Ann cannot look into his heart at that mo- 
ment. The eyes of the feminine Mei>histo- 
pheles behind the counter follow out his re- 
tiring figure with a sliglit elevation of tlie 
eyebrows and a terrible mouo.syilable uttered 
to one of her companions. " The modest 
foreigner goes through another ordeal with the 
flower girl. With a smile as bright and 
attractive as her flowers, she asks him if lie 
will not have one. He would prefer not to 
encounter those winning eyes, and endeavors 
to pass on, but he may not do so ; she holds 
him as securely as the Ancient Mariner held 
the wedding guest, and he signilies liis ac- 
ceptance of the tendered opi'uing bud. He 
mav not receive it with liis hands ; she with 
her nimble liimrers will allacli it to his button- 
hole, and ihe enil.ariasscl man stands while 
the girl foniUes o\'er the rcLrion of Ids heart, 
and looks into the whites of his half-averted 
eyes. And the havoc thus committed in ten. 
short minutes ni.ay not be repaired in six 
months. Tliei-e is no fixed price for such a 
favor, and he is told with an expression that 
would have troubled the soul of St. Anthony, 
that it is anything he may please to give. 
His betrothed Bilinda, alas I would think it 
dear at any price. 

The wide dissemination of art-feeling 
among the French has a refining tendency on 
the manners of all classes. Beautiful squares 
and parks, with walks and shady forests, foun- 
tains and lakes, are open to all. The eyes of 
the people are made familiar with architec- 
tural beauty, as exhibited in the boulevards, 
bridges and public edifices of the great city. 
The magnificent art galleries are free to all 
w-ho wish to see them, and the working peo- 
ple visit them fretiuently, especiiiUy on Sun- 
day and fete days, when they are kept open 
for their benefit. Thus the man in blouse is 
often familiar with the great pictures of 
French masters. In the houses of the poor 
there are no rapid, keepsake heads, in glow- 
ing colors, but copies of pictures exhibiting 
more or less merit. The deep red and blue 
Daniel in the Lion's Den, and the doll-faced 
Mary Ann, surrounded witli an inch of bright 
mahogany, are not seen on their walls. The 
square, loud-striking and loud-ticking clock, 



01 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ Jsliiuary, 



in red wood, aud plaster of Paris rabbit or 
cat, painted in unnatural lines, have no places 
On their mantles. In humble cafes are found 
pictures which would be considered fit to hang 
in some of the best restaurants of London 
and New York. The' signs over shops show 
a talent not possessed by our sign painters, 
and many a ganjute has grapes and vine-leaves 
jniinted over its door which merit a better 
pl:v0e. — Louis. 

COOKING FEED FOR STOCK. 

We have received a copy of tlie report of 
the last meeting of the jNIontgomery County 
(O.) Farmers' Club, with a request that we 
publisli the part relating to the above subject. 
This was a paper read by Simon Emerick, 
and consisted mainly of extracts from tlie 
published opinions of various persons who had 
tested the matter. It cannot fail to be inter- 
esting to all farmers who have given this sub- 
ject any attention, but who are still undecided 
as to whether it will pay to cook food for 
stock or not. The question was the same dis- 
cussed by our Farmers' Club last winter— 
" Does it pay to feed cooked food to stock ¥" 
The one chief obstacle that men in business 
have to contend with these stringent times is, 
that there are no profits. This is no less true 
with those commanding an extensive trade 
and employing large capital than it is with 
persons conducting a small business ; no less 
true with tlie farmer than with the manu- 
facturer. The complaint is well nigh uni- 
versal that there is no margin in business or 
trade. The cost of production of an article 
seems to be about equal to the price obtained 
for it, though often it does not bring so much 
as that. Now, with a view to solve this 
problem for myself, as a farmer I have been 
induced to investigate whether cooking food 
for stock would not yield the much sought for 
profit. 

I take some statements from the evening 
discussions of the New York State Fair, 
1867— Subject : "Cooking food for domestic 
animals." Hon. G. Geddes, of Syracuse, 
New York, said that " there was no branch 
of farming that was less understood, and 
promised more advantages tliau the prepara- 
tion of food. He had thoroughly proved years 
ago that cooking food, whether ground or not, 
doubled its value for animals." George A. 
Moofe, of Erie county, said "he had fed two 
hundred sheep on cooked food, and had fully 
satisfied himself that the value of food was 
tripled by cooking." Mr. E. AV. Stewart, 
who had eleven years' experience in cooking 
food for stock, said that "tlie cooking rendered 
the food soft and in a condition to be eaten 
even in the more perfect manner than by cut- 
ting, and proved by experiment that two 
bushels of steamed hay were equal to three of 
unsteamed, and that steamed fodder was 
similar in its character to fresh pasture, and 
that horses diseased by coughs or heaves have 
been cured by such food." 

Professor Mapes says— Transactions Ameri- 
can Institute, 1864, page 373, "the experi- 
ment often tried has proved that eighteen or 
nineteen pounds of cooked corn are equal to 
fifty pounds of raw corn for hog feed." Mr. 
Mason, of New Jersey, says that "pork fed 
on raw grain cost 12i cents per pound, and 
that from cooked 4J cents; that cooked corn 
stalks iuc as soft and almost as nutritious as 
green stalks; that cattle can be fattened at 
about half the expense upon cooked food as 
upon uncooked." 

The American AgricuUurist for January, 
1860, says: "Experiments made by C. M. 
Clay, of Kentucky, showed that one bushel of 
dry corn made 5 pounds 10 ozs. of pork ; of 
boiled corn 14 pounds 7 ozs. , and boiled meal 
16 to 18 pounds. 

The Practical Farmer (published in Phila- 
delphia), in October, 1808, says: "We con- 
sider the cooking of food for stock as no longer 
an open question ; its economy has been 
demonstrated by scores of our best practical 
farmers." 
I could add much more like this— enough, 



it would seem, to settle the question, but how 
is it that so many farmers who have incurred 
the expense of fitting up for cooking food for 
their stock, have discontinued it ? I have 
interviewed some of those farmers in this 
way : Does it pay to cook food for stock ? 
The answer generally is, " Yes." Well, why 
don't you continue it ? " Oh, it is too much 
trouble." Now, this disposition of the cook- 
ing business won't do. If the above state- 
ments are correct as to the gain by cooking 
food for stock, it would certainly be too much 
trouble to raise grain, and then throw fifty or 
even twenty-five per cent, of it away, when 
there is always a cash market for it. 

Mr. Dodds, of Bloomington, Ind., in re- 
plying to my inquiries in the agricultural col- 
umns of the Cincinnati Gazette on this subject, 
states that he fed six steers last winter one 
and a half bushels of boiled corn per day, and 
they gained 1,810 pounds in three months. 
The business of stall-feeding cattle for market 
I am familiar with, and I do not hesitate to 
say, that if farmers could obtain such results 
as Mr. Dodds did, by cooking food, that would 
be a good margin for profits. But as young 
converts are proverbially zealous, this testi- 
mony is insuflicient to put this question at 
rest ; so, to obtain the experience of others, I 
addressed numerous farmers, living in ten 
different States, who have been engaged in 
cooking or steaming food for their stock, 
tliese questions : How long since you com- 
menced feeding cooked food to your stock ? 
Have you discontinued it ; if so, for what 
reason V Have you made any tests to ascer- 
tain the approximate gain by feeding cooked 
food y 

In order to better understand and deter- 
mine the proper value of the replies I re- 
ceived, I will first give a summary of those 
from parties who have but recently com- 
menced the business. 

A gentleman of Fulton county, Indiana, 
writes that "he commenced feeding steamed 
food last January to his cattle, and continued 
till he turned them out to pasture ; experts to 
use it again this fall for both hogs and cattle ; 
thinks that one cord of wood will steam one 
hundred bushels of corn on the cob— steam 
ten bushels of corn in one hour by renewing 
the lire once ; has not made any test to ascer- 
tain the relative value of steamed food, but 
tliinks there is a saving of one-third by 
steaming." 

Another gentleman, of Knox county, Ohio, 
says that "he has been using steamed food the 
past season ; has not discontinued it nor does 
not expect to as long as he has anything to do 
with stock feeding ; thinks that a practical 
test would show a saving of one-third by feed- 
ing steamed food." A party in Michigan 
writes that " he has been using steamed food 
for one year, and considers that fifty per cent, 
is saved by its use ; has not made a practical 
test." 

Another party in Indiana states that " he 
has been steaming food a few months ; is con- 
fident that it is healthier for stock, and that 
one-third less grain is required. ' ' Another in 
Pennsylvania writes that "the steaming of 
food would result in great benefit to all farm- 
ers who arc in the stock raising business." 

I might add extracts from other letters, but 
the statements here given are a fair sample of 
those who wrote me who have been but recent- 
ly engaged in steaming food. Now, to proper- 
ly estimate the value of these statements, it 
is well to bear in mind that it is natural for 
men to recommend that in which they think 
they are more progressive than their neigh- 
bors, and also that when a party purchases an 
implement and takes an agency to sell it he 
will recommend it as a matter of business. I 
notice that some of the gentlemen who wrote 
me are acting as agents to sell the machine 
they arc using for cooking food.— P)-octicoZ 
Partner. 

I FIND that six bushels of peas are equal to 
ten bushels of corn for fattening my hogs, 
and that peas yield a larger number of bushels 
to the acre than corn.— Toronto Globe. 



LAYING OUT THE FARM. 

One great mistake farmers usually make is 
in not giving sufficient thought and attention 
to laying out the farm, and distributing the 
crops and labor in the best possible manner. 
There are few kinds of business which require 
such careful forethought and study as planning 
the year's crops on a farm in such a manner 
as to distribute the labor throughout the 
season as evenly as possible, and get the 
largest returns for the land under cultivation, 
and the money invested in labor. 

When we consider the variety of crops 
which may be raised with profit on almost any 
farm, the great number of causes which in- 
fluence their growth, the nature and condi- 
tion of the soil, the prospects of the markets, 
the possibilities of double cropping, the rela- 
tion of this year's crops to a rotation and the 
distribution of labor, so as not to have more 
at any one time than it is possible to do, and 
yet to have enough at all times, the question 
becomes interesting and at the same time 
exceedingly complex— yet all these things 
should be carefully considered, not only each 
by itself, but in relation to each other, and 
wlioever overlooks one of them is likely to 
majvc serious blunders. He may sow his seed 
on soil not in proper condition, and so fail of 
a good crop, or he may raise a good crop and 
have no market, or he may be so crowded 
with work as not to be able to give it the 
proper attention at the critical time. 

My manner of laying out a farm is this : In 
a book I write the name of each field, and the 
different crops for which the soil by its nature 
and present condition (with the fertilizers 
which I put on it) is beft adapted ; also the 
time of sowing and harvesting, with the 
amount of labor required and tlie times of 
year it will be needed. I then compute, as 
nearly as I am able from past experience and 
the condition of the market, the probable 
proceeds of each crop per acre, deducting cost 
of seed and labor. This will show which of 
all the crops for which each field is adapted 
will give tlie largest probable returns. Having 
gone through with each field in this way and 
decided what crop or crops will give the 
largest net returns, I next put them all to- 
gether, and see how the labor is distributed, 
and how much grain of each kind I am to 
sow or plant. If I find too much labor re- 
quired at any one season, I turn back to the 
pages containing the fields with the conflicting 
crops, and select the best crop which will 
remedy the labor difticulty. 

Much can be gained in the way of economy 
in form labor by using the best means and 
implements. Fall plowing of wet lands and 
surface draining when needed, greatly facili- 
tate early work in the spring. New and im- 
proved tools are also a great advantage in 
doing work quickly and economically. Far- 
mers often work year after year with old, 
wornout tools, when the extra crops which 
could be raised with new labor-saving imple- 
ments in one year would pay for half a dozen 
such tools. The neglect of cultivating hoed 
crops, until the weeds get fairly rooted, not 
only injures the crop, but adds greatly to the 
labor of caring for it and destroying the weeds. 

Cultivation promotes earliness as well as 
growtli, and partly supplies tlie place of 
manure, and, in laying out the year's work, 
every farmer should be careful not to put in 
anythina which will have to be neglected. 
Better till five acres well than plant ten acres 
and leave the crops to fight it out with the 
weeds. Plan your work carefully, making 
due allowance for rainy weather and lost time; 
cultivate thoroughly and manure well, and 
you will be sure to get the largest possible re- 
turns for your labor.— ^n Old Farmer in 
Bural JVcio Yorker. 



The best time to cut scions is any time 
during the winter, or in the month of March. 
They°should be kept in good condition in 
meadow moss, or with the ends stuck into 
moist earth. We know of no way to keep 
them so well as in moist meadow moss. 



i 



l87(i.J 



tHE LANCASTER FARMER. 



a 



OUR LOCAT. ORGANIZATIONS. 

Proceedings of the Lancaster County Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society. 

Tl.c regular stated nieeliiig of the Lancaster 
Couuty Aericullural aud Uorticultural Society was 
held on Monday afternoon, January Gtli, iu tlieir 
rooms In the City Hall. The President, Calvin 
Cooper, called the meeting to order. 

The following members were present ; Calvin 
Cooper, President, Bird-in-IIand ; Joseph E.Witmcr, 
Secretary, Paradise ; Johnson Miller, Corresponding 
Secretary, Warwi.U : l.ivi W.Cirolf, Treasurer, West 
Earl; Ilenrv M 1 n^l. . Nhimiui; W. .1. K;inVoth, 
West Earl ;'l)i, i i -. n, riiy ; (\ M. l|„su-lter, 

Eden; F. K. Im: I ! m :,. i\; Levi S. l;,.isi , .Man- 
lieini ; Peter S. i;> i i, l.m : M. I). Kcnili;;, Minuir ; 
Casper Hiller, Con, stn;;a : Henry Kurtz, Mt. Joy; 
John C. Linville, Salisbury ; Wni. McComsey, city; 
Daniel Smeych, city ; C. L. Ilunsecker, city; Israel 
L. Landis, Manheim. 

On motlou, the reading of the minutes of the pre- 
vious mceliug was dispensed with. 

Phares B. Schwarr was ailmitted to membership. 
Fertilizers. 

Johnson Miller, chairman of the Committee on 
Fertilizers, reported that very little had been done, 
and requested that the committee be continued. lie 
reported the season as having been very unfavorable 
to experiments. 

Casper lliller had done a little in the matter, bu: 
not enough to be worth a report. 

M. Brosius, of the committee, made remarks of a 
like kind, aud at his request the committee was con- 
tinued. 

Joseph F. Witmer, another member of the com- 
mittee, briefly related several experiments he had 
made. 

II. M. Engle suggested that Mr. lliller read the 
report he had made of his experiments, which was 
agreed to aud Mr. lliller read the following ; 
Artificial Fertilizers. 

Artificial fertilizers are often said to be more in 
the nature of stimulants than manure, and occa- 
sionally comes a wariuing against their use, as in a 
brief article a few weeks ago iu the Nctr Era, be- 
cause they will, after a few years, fail to produce 
good crops, or in other words, that they will exhaust 
the soil. This bugbear that they exhaust the soil is 
at this age of experience too absurd to talk about. 
Twenty-five or more years ago the late Major Hoopes 
used guauo on the old commons of Martic township, 
and raised twenty bushels of wheat per acre. The 
same prediction, that guano exhausts the soil, was 
then made. This land was so poor that not a head 
of wheat would have made its appearance without 
the use of the guano. Suppose it had been as poor 
after the crop as before ; the fact was here that the 
wheat was worth more than the cost of guauo and 
labor combined. But it was not as poor. Major 
Hoopes ."owed clover among the wheat, and the 
result was a crop of Lay and a sod for future im- 
provemeut. 

The late Mr. Boyd, of Martic township, who had 
no superior as an improver of soil, and, as a good 
farmer told me, that he eould distinctly trace the 
efl'ects of an artificial fertilizer ten years after the 
application. John I. Carter, of the Eastern Experi- 
mental Farm, has shown that a dressing of acidu- 
lated South Carolinarock had adecidedly better effect 
on the crops of a five years' rotation than stable 



Prof.Stockbridge, of Conn., says that chemicals 
are better than manure, because they may be more 
cheaply transported, handled and carried to distant 
parts of the farm and more thoroughly mixed with 
the soil. They are better than yard manure, because 
they not only enable us to grow as abundant crops 
with less labor, but their supply can equal; any de- 
mand. They enable the farmer to crop his land, 
sell the crops, and yet maintain the fertility of his 
soil. In my experience I have seen nothing to cast 
and discredit on the professor's opinion, (iood com- 
mercial fertilizers are composed of nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid and potash. These ingredients are all to 
be found in stable manure, and when they are all 
abstracted therefrom there is little of value left. 

I believe that under certain circumstances, and iu 
certain localities, it would be entirely feasible and 
profitable to sell all the hay, straw, fodder and corn, 
except what is wanted for the few horses needed and 
for feeding as many cows as would supply the family 
with milk and butter. The amount of labor s.ived 
by such a course would be very great. 

These special fertilizers have sometimes been 
brought into disrepute by taking it for granted that 
because an extra crop of wheat has beer raised by 
their use, the same can be done again and again by 
an annual dressing of the fertilizer. In many cases 
this has proven unsatisfactory. Suppose we had a 
field that had a proper supply of nitrogen and pot- 
ash, and If on this we apply a fertilizer, rich in phos- 
phone acid, and from this we raise a first-class crop 
of grain, might it not reasonably follow, that in re- 
peating the process for several years we would ex- 
haust the nitrogen aud potash, and the consequence 
would be poor crops ! 

Stable manure has a similar effect. I know of a 



case where stable manure was applied annually on 
wheat ground, with the following result : First year, 
forly-flve bushels ; second do., about twenty-five ; 
third do., twelve ; fourth do., almost a totil failure. 
Would you say the manure exhausted the soil? 
\ery little of our land is adapted to special crops. 
It wants rotation. Our main crops are clover, corn 
and wheat. Oats should be discarded altogether. 
They rarely pay cost of production, and are the most 
exhaustive of all cereals. Our artificial fertilizer 
rotation should begin with a clover sod. Apply a 
fertilizer rich In the elements that corn requires. In 
the fall sow the corn-stalk ground Iu rye, and the 
following summer, when iu bloom, plow it down 
and let It lie fallow until time to sow wheat. Or, if 
you will raise tobacco, haul on this ground the 
manure made by your stock. When the time for 
seeding wheat comes, apply the proper artificial 
fertilizer for wheat. Follow with a one or two year's 
run of clover, and the laud will belli better condi- 
tion without a doubt than if it had received the 
usual dressiug of stable manure. Better, because in 
the rotation, it received two dressings of fertilizers 
and had a green crop plowed down. 

If we depend on stable manure for our fertilizer. 
We must see to it that our mauure pile is not only of 
large dimensions, but it must be of good quality. I 
have known farmers who would not sell a load of 
straw for love or money and who hauled stuff on 
their fields which they called mauure, while others 
called it straw. If we want a good manure pile we must 
put all the hay, straw, cornfodder, oats and corn 
that are raised on the farm Into the pile, and if we 
can run several car loads of Western corn into it, it 
will be all the better. When all this is done there 
will still be a goodly corner of the farm crying for 
more. When we take into consideration the value of 
these raw materials, together with the vast amc 
of labor required we find it to be a very costly pili 
I do not say that it does not pay to do all this, 
I do know many farmers who follow this plan that 
are eminently successful. But we cannot all be 
cattle feeders. The experience of the last ten years 
with artificial fertilizers has fully shown that it is 
not necessary that we should be. 

William McComsey stated that he had also read 
the article in the New Era, and hail cut it out. He 
requested the Secretary to read it, wln'ih was done. 
H. M. Engle said that in this proijiessivu a"e when 
fertilizers have been tested so thon. uglily we cannot 
regret the beneficial effects known to arise from 
them. It is a mistake to regard fertilizers as mere 
stimulants. In some crops they may not be so good 
because they contain elements not required by the 
crop. But some other crop ma> take up the ingredi- 
ents and in this way tliey are not wasted. Tlie soil 
will hold them until needed. However, we cannot 
dispense with barnyard mauure. What'a fertilizer 
is worth cannot be told from a single crop, but a 
test of a number of years must decide the question 
We should have fertilizers adapted to the crops in- 
tended to be grown, and for this reason they should 
all be labeled with the ingredients they contain to 
show the farmer what he needs. He told of an ex- 
periment made with a fertilizer on corn and potatoes. 
The results in the first named crop were excellent 
but very discouraging in the latter. ' 

William .McComsey advocated the use of barn- 
yard manure. He hiped the committee will continue 
their experiments aud determine how valuable arti 
ficial fertilizers are to our soils. He had tried them 
but the results hardly wrrranted their use largely 
If they are all that is claimed for them, it is well 
that fact should be known. 

Henry Kurtz had tried various kinds of artificial 
fertilizers aud believes they are a stimulant. They 
may benefit one croi> but fail in another. Clover 
plowed down is worth all the fertilizers. The price 
of fertilizers is too high ; the manufacturers make 
all the money and the farmer can make nothing 
Most of them are not worth the bags that hold them 
One hundred bushels of lime are worth two tons of 
fertilizers. 

H. M. Engle said that if the farmers of Pennsyl- 
vania have been humbuged it is their own fault and 
not the fault of the fertilizer. And it will be so until 
the Legislature enacts that every manufacturer mark 
on each bag exactly what it contains. An aiticle 
sold in a State in which the law prevents adultera- 
tion of fertilizers may be very good, but when sold 
in this State it is not worth anything. We should 
have a law to protect fertilizers. 

John H. Linville seriously questioned whether it 
paid to use fertilizers ; to put $10 worth of fertilizer 
on an acre of ground and get §20 worth of wheat off 

Casper Hlller said it certainly would not pay to use 
»K' worth of fertilizer for wheat only, but it is well 
known that the fertilizer benefits all the crops in a 
five years' rotation. But we must learn what the 
ground needs, and apply it. 

Progressive Agriculture. 

On motion, the rules were suspended to allow 
1 eier b. Keist to read an essay on "Progressive Ag-ri- 
culture." [Seepages.] ^ 

Election of Officers. 

On motion, the society proceeded to elect officers 
lor the ensuing year. 



Calvin Cooper was nominated for re-election &i 
President, but immediately arose to decline. lie said 
that he had served the society faithfully for three 
years, sometimes under pecuniary loss, and tliou"ht 
they might relieve him for one year at least. 

II. M. Engle objected to his declination. He be- 
ll -ved In adopting any measure that conferred the 
greatest good on the greatest number, and moved 
that Mr. Cooper be re-elected. The members were 
unanimous for his election and Mr. Cooper gracefully 
submitted, declaring that he would do his best to 
advance the interests of the society, but that If busi- 
ness callc.1 wluii I lie Kr.,i,.tv also claimed his atten- 
tion he woull i.i . \ 1 1 r I, I ,,,,.,. call. 

•■"o'" Vi.. I \\\ II. Bi-osius, Jacob B. 

Garber, .M. |i I, ,, I, M \l. Eniile and Casper Ilil- 



nominated ; for Corresponding,' .-^n rii;ir\ . .Jnhnsoii 
Miller; for Treasurer, Levi W. (imil : to, l.iinariaii 
Simon P. Eby; for Agricultural ( hdniht, Jacob 
Stauffer, and lor Entomologist, IJr. S. S. Kathvon. 

The nominations then closed, and C. L. Hunseeker 
was instructed to cast the vote of the society for the 
ofliccrs nominated. 

Auditing the Treasurer's Accounts. 

On motion, a committee of three, Cusper lliller. 

Johnson Miller and W. J. KaflVotli, were appointed 

to audit the Treasurer's accounts. They reported 

them correct, and a balance in the treasury of i>i>;:£i. 

Fair or no Fair. 

C. M. Hostetter proposed that the question of 

holding a fair be opened for discussion. 

John C. Linville thought the hour was too late to 
begin such a question. It should be deferred until 
next meeting. 

William McComsey thought the question should 
be settled to-day or some day in the near future. If 
the discussion is postponed until next mouth mea- 
sures should be takeu to have a full attendance on 
the day of meeting. It has been sai4 that the State 
Agricultural Society meets at llarrisburg soon to 
select a place for holdiug its next fair. If the society 
has any inducements to oiler to persuade them to 
hold the fair in this city, he thought a committee 
should be appointed to lay them before them. 

Daniel Smeych moved that a committee be ap- 
pointed to confer with other societies, and bring the 
matter in a business shape before the next meeting 
of the society. 

His motion was carried and the following com- 
mittee was appointed : D. Smeych, C. M. Hostetter, 
H. M. Engle, M. D. Kendig and John C. Linville. 
Essays to the Farmer. 
Dr. Rathvon, editor of The Lancaster Farmeh, 
said it was proposed to issue The Fahmek as early 
in the month as possible, and therefore he requested 
all who were to read essays to send them to him not 
later than the 2.5th of the month. They can then be 
put in type, and the essayists can read them from 
printed slips. 

Business for Next Meeting. 
It was announced that John H. Landis will read 
an essay next month. 

A question, "Will it pay to chop . 
was referred to Joseph F. Wltnior. 

"Witl) • ■ 
raise ' 
Gioff. 

Lecture in Prospect. 
H. M. Engle said that he had written to Professor 
Caldcr, President of the State Agricultural Colleo-e, 
asking him to deliver a lecture before the society. 
The professor had consented, and will probably lec- 
ture next month. 

as suggested that there would be too much 



for hogs?" 

Vith labor and land at present prices can we 
wheat at §1 per bushel '(' Keferred to Levi W. 



On motion, it was resolved to hold the February 
meeting at one o'clock iu the afternoon, thus gain- 
ing au hour. 

On motion, it was also resolved to postpone the 
lecture uutil the March meeting. 

Business Committee. 

President Cooper appointed the following Business 
Committee : M. D. Kendig, I. L. Landis and JohnC. 
Linville. 

Report of Fruit Committee. 

The Fruit Committee reported the following varie- 
ties of apples as of most importance in such dry and 
hot seasons as the one just past. They hang well on 
the tree and are keepers: York Imperial, Koxbury 
Russet and English Kusset. .\djourned. 

THE LANCASTER COUNTY POULTRY 
ASSOCIATION. 

The following named gentlemen interested In 
poultry breeding, met iu one of the parlors of the 
Cooper House on Monday afternoon, December IG, 
and took steps to organize a permanent county asso- 
ciation. 

Totiias D. Martin, New Haven: Jlilton J. Kaffroth, 
West Earl; Frank B. Buch, Lititz; B. F. Evans, 
Lititz; Rev. D. C. Tobias, Lititz; Jacob A. Bueh, 
Lititz; L.B.Martin, Spring Garden; G. A. Geycr, 
Spring Garden; Chas. E. Long, Lancaster; J. B. 
Lichty, Lancaster; H. G. Hirsh, Lancaster; J. H. 



12 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 



Minnicli, Spring Grove; Colin Cameron, Brickerville; 
John F. Evans, Lltitz; William Siioenbercer, Lan- 
caster; H. H. Tshudy, Lititz; Joshua H. Ilabbaker, 
Spring Garden; F. R. Diffenderffer, Lancaster; J. 
M. Johnston, Lancaster; John F. Reed, Lancaster, 
were present. 

The meeting was organized by calling Rev. D. C. 
Tobias to act as chairman, and John F. Reed to act 
as secretary. 

The chairman stated the object was to form a 
poultry society. An informal meeting was held at 
Lititz some time ago, which resulted in the determi- 
nation to call a meeting in this city. About all that 
It is designed to do is to elect the proper officers and 
committees, and to draft a set of by-laws. He 
thought men should be selected who have heretofore 
shown an interest in the subject. Men sometimes 
are willing to accept such positions, but give little 
attention to the matter afterwards. 

H. H. Tshudy approved the idea of having a com- 
mittee on by-laws and a constitution, but he saw no 
use in the other committee. Men who have the 
organization at heart are the ones who should be 
chosen. 

Colin Cameron said it was not a pleasant task to 
get up and say that man was not acceptable ; if two 
"sets of officers were proposed there would be a choice 
to select from. 

11. H. Tshudy, of Lititz, remarked this was a pre- 
liminary meeting towards effecting a permanent 
organization. Perhaps we ought not to elect officers 
to-day. It might be left to a"committee. He asked 
for an expression of opinion. 

Chas. E. Long agreed with Mr. Tshudy. He 

favored a committee of five to select and propose 

permanent officers for the government of the society. 

Colin Cameron thought several committees should 

be appointed ; one to name officers. 

Chas. E. Long thought that the two committees 
would give us more suitable officers. The two com- 
mittees could not fail to propose acceptable men. 

Colin Camergn proposed that two committees of 
three persons each be appointed to propose the names 
of permanent officers, and one of three to propose 
by-laws. Carried. 

VV. J. Katfroth suggested the committee meets 
to-day a week to attend to the duties assigned to 
them. 

Chas. E. Long concurred in the last suggestion. 
The chairman thought the time should be ex- 
tended to a later period on account of the holidays. 

Mr. Tshudy favored the views of the chairman. 

The present is a very busy time for almost every one. 

Colin Cameron suggested a permanent meeting 

day be fixed, and tlie first Monday in every month 

be the time. 

Charles E. Long moved the second Monday in 
January be appointed as the regular meeting day. 

Colin Cameron offered an amendment to Mr. Long's 
motion, that the society meets on the first Monday 
of each month at 10:30 a. m. Carried. 

Tlie chairman appointed the following committees: 
Ou organization and by-laws, Charles E. Long, 
Frank R. Diffenderffer and J. B. Lichty ; first com- 
mittee on selection of officers, H. H. Tshudy, Colin 
Cameron, Jacob A. Buch ; second committee on 
selection of officers, William Schoenberger, J. M. 
Johnston and John F. Reed. 

It was moved the next meeting be held at the 
Cooper House, Lancaster. 
A motion to adjourn was made and carried. 

January Meeting. 
The adjourned meeting of the proposed Poultry 
Association of Lancaster County was held on Mon- 
day morning, January 6th, at the Cooper House, 
Rev. D. C. Tobias in the chair. The role was called 
and the following members were present : 

Tobias D. Martin, New Haven ; Frank B. Buch, 
Litiz; Rev. D. C. Tobias, Litiz ; J. N. Buch, Litiz ; 
G. A. Geper, Spring Garden ; Charles E. Long, Lan- 
caster ; Colin Cameron, Brickcrville ; Wm. Schoen- 
berger, city ; 11. H. Tshudy, Litiz ; F. R. Diffenderf- 
fer, city ; J. F. Reed, city; Clair Carpenter, city ; J. 
B. Lichty, city ; W. J. Kafroth, West Earl ; M. D. 
Keudig, Manor; Jos. F. Witmer, Paradise. 

The minutes were then read and adopted. The 
following new names were then proposed for mem- 
bership; John C. Barnes, city; Charles Lippold, city; 
O. F. Heubener, Litiz ; Frank Howell, city; M. K. 
Brubakar, Laudisville ; David Brosey, Manheim ; R. 
T. Robinson, city; Amos Ringwalt, city; A. H. 
Shreiner, Manheim ; Milton Ruth, city ; Martin L. 
Grider, Mount Joy ; J. H. Miller, Spring Garden; 
Samuel E. Stauffer, Adamstown; J. A. Stober, Schoe- 
ueck ; John E. Schum, city. 

Chas. E. Long, Chairman of the Committee to 
prepare a Constitution and By-Laws, then read the 
rules drawn up by the committee, and recommended 
them to the society for their adoption. 

On motion of H. H. Tshudy, the report was 
received.. 

On motion, the constitution and by-laws were then 
read separately, by sections, for adoption by the 
society. These are of the usual character that govern 
similar societies, and are therefore not reproduced 
here. 

Tlie two committees on nominations of officers re- 
ported two sets of names for officers of the society, 



after which the following compromise ticket was 
oiTered : 

For President, Rev. D. C. Tobias, Litiz ; First Vice 
President, G. A. Geyer, Spring Garden ; Second Vice 
President, W. J. Kafroth, West Eari ; Recording Sec- 
retary, J. B. Lichty, city ; Corresponding Sec'y, Colin 
Cameron, Brickcrville ; Treasurer, T. Frank Evans, 
Litiz; Executive Committee, II. H. Tshudy, Litiz; 
Chas. E. Long, Lancaster ; T. D. Martin, New 
Haven; Jacob Miller, Spring Garden; and A. H. 
Shriner, Manheim, who were then elected by accla- 
mation as the officers of the society for the present 
year. 

On motion the members then came forward and 
paid their initiation fee of $1 each. 

On motion of Chas. E. Long, the recording secre- 
tary was authorized and instructed to have postal 
cards printed and distributed, requesting parties to 
join the society. Agreed to. 

On motion, the society then visited the rooms of 
the Agricultural Society, and after inspecting them 
accepted the terms offered by the latter organization 
for holding the regular monthly meetings there, at a 
cost of seventy-five cents per month. 

There being no further business the society then 
adjourned. 

LINN/EAN SOCIETY. 

The society met on Saturday afternoon, December 
J8th. The donations to the museum were quite ex- 
tensive and interesting. They consisted, 1st, of a 
fine well-mounted setter dog, of large size, from Mr. 
George Flick, taxidermist, of this city ; 2d, a female 
specimen of the opossum (Didelphis Virgihiana), 
captured near Quarryville and donated by Mr. R. C. 
Edwards, also well mounted by Mr. Flick for the 
society; .3rd, a beautiful specimen of the goldfinch, 
or as the Germans calls it, "Thistle Finch," Fi'in- 
piUa carduella, presented by Mr. Charles Lippold, 
bird fancier, of this city ; 4th, two specimens of the 
golden carp, (Cyprinus Auratus,) that had died for 
want of oxygen in too small an aquarium, per Mrs. 
Rathvon ; several species of Salamanders, Plethodon 
(salamandra) enjthronota, and Plethodon glulinosus, 
from Rapho township, on the farm of Mr. Washing- 
ton L. Hershey, found under stones, &c., per Dr. 
Rathvon ; a bottle containing four snakes and a 
species of "Salamanders," (genus, Amblstoina,) per 
Mr. S. Landis, received by him about ten years ago, 
said to have been captured in South America. The 
chairman on Herpetology and Ichthyology, -Mr. J. 
Staufi'er, reports that one differs but little from our 
native species, the ring-necked snake, (Diadop/dx 
punctata) ; another agrees with our well-known 
species, Storeria Dkaii, a small reddish-brown snake, 
having several series of small round dorsal spots ; 
the other two snakes in the bottle are of the same 
species, and are not found in Pennsylvania, and may 
prove to be true Lamprosoma Occipitalc of Dr. Hal- 
lowell, and the species figured and so named in the 
United Stales and Mexico railroad report should be 
called Lamprosoma Annulatmn. Mr. S. has written 
to Professor Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, 
for correction or confirmation of his views, giving a 
drawing of the reptile and form, &c., of the cepha- 
letic plates, scales, &c. A large circular leaf, fully 
twenty-two inches in diameter, of the Nelumbiuiii 
(the Ceylonese name is jVfiMnifto). The iV. luteum, 
or "water chinquepin," is related to "Lotus, or 
Sacred Bean of India," very closely. This leaf was 
donated by S. T. Davis, M.D., of this city, who re- 
ceived it among roots, seed-pods, &c., sent to him 
from the West to associate with his water lilies 
growing so finely in a pond in his yard on Prince 
street. The leaf was pasted on stifi' paper by Mr. 
Stauffer, it being rather dry to handle and too large 
for the herbarium. A bunch of "scouring rush"— 
EiptUetum hi/emale— per S. S. Rathvon. 

Mr. W. P. Bolton had a plant of the composite 
family, desiring to have its name. It is the Cacatia 
Articulata, also called "Candle Cactus," from the 
Cape of Good Hope, in 1775; considered a green- 
house evergreen. 

Mr. F. W. Beates, of Londonderry twp., Dauphin CO., 
donated forty arrow-heads and spear-heads found on 
hia farm during the last year, turned up by the plow. 
This afl'ords food for reflection upon the past. Mr. 
Henry Becbtold, of this city, donated a fine large 
specimen of dark-brown mnber, from Mifflin county. 
Pa.; on trial it proved to be equal to the best in the 
market. Mr. Washington L. Hershey donated three 
specimens of that peculiar "algea floreseeut" mark- 
ings, known as the Dctidritic limestone, from a 
quarry on his farm. 

Historical Relics. 
Mr. David M. Stauffer donated eleven specimens, 
mostly historical or war relies : No. 1, an old-fash- 
ioned cartridge box, full of fragments of missies, 
collected on the battle field of Antietam, im.i, and 
four others from Harper's Ferry ; No. 2, portion of 
brass rack from the rebel iron-clad Tennessee, Mobile, 
1865 ; No. 3, shell fragments, with those of No. 1 ; 
No. 4, a portion of a thick cotton rope from the 
rebel ram Manassas, destroyed in the attack on New 
Orleans ; No. 6, a portion of a chandelier from the 
burnt State house. Baton Rouge, La., 1863; No. 7, 
an old fashioned bayonet scabbard, from Antietam 



battle field ; No. 8, a sugar planter's knife, used as a . 
cutlass on the Rebel ram "Missouri," Red river, 1864; 
No. 9, the veritable Whitworth steel missle, fired 
into the United States iron-clad "Essex," Bayou 
Sera, Louisiana, 1864; No. 10, a United States Navy 
shaving box. No. 5, a cutlass holder, made out of 
very thick cotton dritling, used by the rebel seaman. 
No. 6 marks an old city lard-lamp for two ificks 
among the deposit. 

Additions to the Library. 
Part II. April and September, 1S7S, of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Academy oi Natural Science, Phila- 
delphia ; copy of The Lancastuu Fakmer for De- 
cember,1878; quite a number of catalogues of scien- 
tific and miscellaneous books and papers published. 
On motion of Mrs. Zell, Miss M. Gill, of this city, 
was elected a correspondent. 

Papers Read. 
Dr. S. S. Rathvon read a descriptive memorandum 
(No. 506) of many of the things deposited, and also 
notes on his visit to Mr. W. L. Hershey, who occupies 
the farm on which the doctor spent seven months, 
fifty years ago, in bis boyhood, of course. He notes 
the changes, as also some portions highly interesting 
to the liotanist, having been invited to make a birth- 
day visit December 1.5, 1878, to Mr. Hershey. It was 
there the doctor collected the scouring rush, and he 
enumerates the ferns, &c., found on a hillside at this 
late season— many things new to him in the botani- 
cal line ; the paper in reading vividly brought to 
recollection the finding of rare plants, new to the 
writer, (then twenty years or more ago,) in that 
same locality, while resident of Mt. Joy, and never 
since met with in other localities. 

J. Stauffer read an illustrated paper (No. 507) on 
the bottle af Reptilia, deposited and donated by Mr. 
Geori-e S. Lanlis. Tlie Curators' Report for 1878 
was then read (No. 508) by Dr. Rathvon. The do- 
nations to the museum during the year may be 
briefly stated thus : Three mammals, seven birds, 
two bird's nests and five eggs, seventeen fishes, ten 
reptiles, six crustaceans, twenty shells, nineteen 
fossils, and of various kinds of insects, 500 speci- 
mens ; SiO minerals, fifteen coins, eighteen historical 
relics, ten old documents, thirty-two old maps, 4-20 
historical clippings, fifteen volumes of books, thirty- 
eight pamphlets, besides a large number of cata- 
logues, circulars and papers; seventeen original 
papers read. Few as the active members are in 
number, they work under all the drawbacks and 
feel thankful for the many things sent to them. 
Mr. J. Staufter read a letter in reply to one of inquiry 
respecting the fish donated by Mr. Sheetz, of Safe 
Harbor, and which Mr. S. reported as the Amia 
Calva at a former meeting. Tarlton II. Bean, M. D., 
now associated with Prof. S. F. Baird, of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, Washington, D. C, says in the 
letter referred to : " From the drawing sent there is no 
doubt about the identification of the species, inas- 
much as LinniEus name of Calva carries in its train 
twelve synonyms," (these are enumerated,) and he 
concludes, "that no satisfactory account of its coast 
rant'e further north on the Atlantic was known than 
the rivers in the Carolinas." This establishes its 
northern extent to the Susquehanna river, and is 
therefore of interest. This shows how men who are 
not scientific can place into the hands of those who 
are much valuable information appreciated by the 
lovers of science and research, and is desirable that 
they be encouraged in so doing. 

Report on Stock Subscriptions. 
The report of the Treasurer was read, and although 
the dues paid in amounted only to $34.14, with the 
old balance of $10.64, the current expenses were all 
paid, leaving a balance of ?9.44. But the heavy 
extra expense of ?3i3.65 was incurred, and stock 
sold to the amount of §206, leaving the association 
in debt $18.21. Considering the amount of addi- 
tional cases added to those removed from the Athe- 
nfeum, the society has no cause of complaint, and 
looks hopefully forward to an increase of members 
and means. 

Election of Officers. 
This being the day of election, and no ambitious 
aspirants laying claim to rotation in office, a motion 
was made and seconded that the old board be re- 
elected. The only change made was that of Assist- 
ant Recording Secretary. The ballot being cast, re- 
sulted in the election of Rev. J. Stahr, President; 
Rev. J. H. Dubbs and Prof. J. R. Baker, Vice Presi- 
dents ; J. Stauffer, Recording Secretary; W. P. 
Bolton, Assistant Recording Secretary; Rev. D. 
Geissinger, Corresponding Secretary ; Dr. S. S. 
Rathvon, Treasurer; Mrs. L. A. Zell, Librarian; 
Messrs. C. A. Heinitsh, S. S. Rathvon and W. P. 
Bolton, Curators. After some scientific miscellany 
and propositions discussed, the society adjourned, 
well pleased with the session held in the well-warmed 
second floor of the Library rooms of the Y. M. C. A. 

Felling TnEES.-Mr. Gladstone, the distinguished 
statesman, as our own Horace Greely was, is fond of 
the axe. He has been giving a correspondent some 
leaves from his note-book . He considers Yew the most 
dlflicult tree to fell; next come Beech and Ash; Oak, 
though very hard, fells well ; but the easiestof all is 
Spanish C\\eiin\A.— Gardeners' Monthly. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



i3 



AGRICULTURAL. 

Couch-Grass as a Hay Plant. 

No one who has been lor many years coiKlucling 
an ap^riculttiral jourual but picks ujiattimpsan **cyc- 
oponcr" of a eonsiJcrablc size; but wc do not know 
wlicn we liave been more astonislieii tlian when re- 
cently wc read in an Eastern ajrricullunil journal a 
recommendation to cultivate the coudi or twitch 
grass as a hay plant. Our euloirist liiids it thrive 
wonderfully well on dry, poor soil, aud as such de- 
mands attention to its merits. 

All this is very well. It recalls the story of the 
Western farmer, who, familiar with the fact that the 
black f uakeate rats and mice,introduccd the "critter" 
to his barns aud stables. The veriniu soon disap- 
peared under his snakeship's rule, but so did cgifs, 
chickens, ducks, etc., until In this instance our 
farmer friend thought the great serpent was quite as 
black as he is painted, and he was banished, if no 
worse fate befell him. 

This couch-grass is worse than a black snake. 
True it docs bear tolerably heavy In very hard ]>l;ups. 
We remember once seeing a small patch whirli hail 
taken possession of an old stone quarry, whieli nnnle 
a thick dense mass of herbage from two anil a half 
to three feet high. It would cut probably a ton aud 
a half to the acre — pretty good lor a dry, barren, 
worthless piece of ground. But no one would w.int 
to have a crop of hay forever in the same ground ; 
and when the time for change conies how is this grass 
to be disposed of its hold upon the soil. The snake 
might be discharged, couch-grass never. 

For our part we should taboo couch-grass at once 
and forever, no matter how great its good qualities 
might be ; and we cannot regard, as a friend to agri- 
culture, any one who would seriously recommend its 
culture. With as much reason might one recom- 
mend the culture of the Canada thistle. It is an ex- 
cellent food for jackasses, and moreover we have 
heard New Torkers, when they failed to eradicate it 
from their premises, praise it as making excellent 
"cow-hay." But, somehow, whether couch-grass or 
thistles, we prefer to let them a.\oiie.— Telegraph. 

Planting Corn in Old Times. 

Wc suppose thirty to forty years ago means "old 
times." In preparing corn ground at that time a dif. 
fercnt process was followed than the present, but not 
as we see it stated, by merely throwing two rough 
furrows of unplowed ground together, and, after 
running cross furrows, to simply plant the corn on 
the top of the ridge. We do not pretend to say that 
this miserable way was not pursued by some lazy or 
ignorant farmers, but it was not the com man way by 
any means ; indeed we never saw it followed, though 
accustomed to notice farming for nearly sixty years. 

This, however, was the way mostly followed : 
Manure and plow the land, harrow thoroughly, then 
ran two opposite furrows aud also run like cross 
furrows. Planting on top of the little ridge by this 
means made the rows uniform both waj's, and ad- 
mitted freely of plowing both ways if necessary. 
This plan was more laborious than the present one 
and was more "scientific." The crops produced by 
it on good farms were as abundant as now. For 
many years after the present method was introduced 
this was continuei as the best, und that looked upon 
as lacking in skill and good sense. But as a rule far 
more attention is paid to the crop now than forty or 
fifty years ago. 

It was always customary to either manure in the 
hill or apply "iilaster" after the plant had grown 
two or three inches. And we repeat that we have 
witnessed as line crops of corn by the old method as 
we have by the new. This much we feel enjoined to 
say in behalf of the way our fathers and grandfathers 
cultivated the corn crop. 

Length of Roots. 

Tlie nature of the soil has much to do with the 
length and number of the roots. In light, poor soil 
I find roots of June grass four feet below the surface. 
People are apt to uuderestimatc the length, amount 
aud importance of the .roots of the liner grasses, 
wheat, oats, etc. A young wheat plant when pulled 
up only shows a small part of its roots. They often 
go down four or six feet or more. The roots of -a 
two-year old peach tree in light soil were found 
seven feet four inches long. In dry, light soil, this 
season wc pulled up one parsnip three feet and a 
half long. Of course, smaller roots went down still 
further. The noted buffalo grass on the dry, West- 
ern i)n\iries is described in the agricultural reports 
at Washington as having very short roots ; but Mr. 
Felker, one of our college graduates, found, where a 
well was being dug, that the roots went down seven. 
The roots grow best where the best food is to be 
found. They grow in greater or less quantity in 
every direction. If a root meets with good food it 
flourishes and sends out numerous branches. Koots 
do not "search" for food as vegetable phvsiologists 
now understand it. Many of the smaller roots of 
trees die every autumn when the leaves die, aud 
others grow in sprinj:. 

Near a cherry tree in my yard was a rustic basket 
without bottom filled with rich soil. On removing 
the basket and earth, which had been there several 



years, cherry roots were found in large nunibe 
this rich soil. Roots in such soil w 
well as down. 



up 



The Wheat Crop. 

The October returns of the Department of Agri- 
culture did not materially change the aspects of the 
wheat crop as foreshadowed by the monthly reports 
of condition. The December returns, including 
estimates of yield per acre, confirm and somewhat 
enlarge previous estimates. A computation from 
all the returns show an aggregate crop of about 
42.'),000,000 bushels. But, onaccountof the strongly 
expressed public anxiety for reliable figures, a jior- 
tion of the inquiries have been referred to the statis- 
tical correspondents for revision. It is now believed 
that the result will bo materially different. The in- 
crease in the final out turn of the crop is due to the 
large increase of acreage which was at least one- 
sixth greater than of the previous year. 

Many of the larger wheat-producing States very 
greatly reduced their average yield per acre. Virginia 
fell from 10.4busheU to 7.2; Tennessee from 8 to 5; 
Kentucky from 12..5 to 9..3; Illinois from lfl..5to l.'J.fi; 
\Vi.sconsiu from 1.5 to 12; Minnesota from IH to 12; 
Iowa from U.5 to 9.4; Missouri from 14 to 11. On 
the other hand other States show a marked increase. 
New York rose from 18 to 19; Pennsylvania from 13 
to 1.5; Ohio from 1.5 to IS; Michigan from 17.5 to 
18.3; Indiana from 14.5 to 15.8; Kansas from 13.5 to 
10.3; California from 9.5 to 18.4. The Territories 
show an immense expansion of wheat cultivation, 
with the high average yield characteristic of virgin 
soils. The yield of some of the Territories was con- 
siderably more than double that of the previous crop. 

Water for Farmers. 
The past very dry summer and autumn In Penn- 
sylvania, at least, put many farmers to great iueon- 
venience in supplying stock with suitable water, 
some having to drive their cattle twice a day from 
one to two miles to streams, and even some of them 
were nearly dry. Now, we have often referred to 
this subject and suggested how farmers could supply 
themselves with water at all times at a moderate 
expense. The roofs of buildings which shelter the 
stock of a farm would furnish a supply at all times, 
if cisterns of sufficient capacity were dug to hold the 
water. Where the water does not lie too deep, wide 
wells should be dug and wind power applied, and 
they would seldom'if ever fail. The roofs of the 
houses, however moderate the rain-fall may be, will 
furnish water, if run into a cistern, that would supply 
all the water needed for washing, bathing, etc. We 
cannot imagine in what way a small expenditure of 
money could be expended to more profit than in 
supplying a premises with an abundance of water. 
It is of the first importance to every household and 
farm. Indeed, being liable in droughts to suffer a 
scarcity is something to look forward to with dread ; 
but when it is shown that at a moderate cost this 
scarcity can be averted, it seems to us, and must to 
all thoughtful people, surprising that provision is 
not made on every farm, where needed, for a good 
supply of fresh water at all limes.— Germantown 
Telegraph. 

« 

Surface Manuring. 
It was not known until discovered by Way, and 
confirmed by Liebig and others, that a few inches in 
depth of surface soil has the power to fix or retain 
all, or nearly all, the food of plants which our 
manure contains, such as potash, phosphate of lime 
and ammonia, thus preventing its passage into the 
poor subsoil, and it is not even yet knowu that nearly 
all the feeding roots of plants are within a few inches 
of the surface where the nutritious elements are. 
We now and then find roots many feet below the 
surface, and because they are so found people have 
theorized that manure should be planted deep, and 
that there was a nutritious principle deep down iu 
subsoil culture. Deep soil holds moisture, and so 
far deep soil is of value. A few roots have to do 
duty as drawers of water for the community ; but 
such roots arc few, aud these are the roots the deep 
explorer finds. But where one little root can be 
found running down like this, hundreds will be 
found spreading away beneath the surface, and these 
arc the ones that are collecting the solid food. For 
liese reasons manure should never be buried deep, 
but be always kept as near the surface as possible. 

Save the Liquid Manure. 
How strangely we overlook the value of the liquid 
crement of our animals ! A cow under ordinary 
feeding furnishes in a year two thousand pounds of 
liquid. The comparative money value of the two is 
but slightly in favor of the solid. The urine of 
herbivorous animals holds nearly all the secretions of 
the body which are capable of producing the rich 
nitrogenous compounds so essential as forcing or 
leaf-forming agents iu the growth of plants. The 
solid holds the phosphoric acid, the lime and magne- 
sia, which holds the seed principally ; but the liquid 
holding nitrogen, potash and soda is forming the 
stalks and leaves. The two forms of plant nutri- 
ment should never be separated or allowed to be 
wasted by neglect.— J/(?;i<r«a! Gazette. 



HORTICULTURAL. 



Dwarf Pears. 

We have had our hands full for the past dozen 
years or more in defending the cullivaliou of pears 
grafted on quince stock. Some people, who seem 
to be ignorant of cultivating any fruit requiring a 
little nice .attention, and fail In all, of course utterly 
fail in attempting to raise dwarf pears. A writer for 
an agricultural paper will go upon somebody's prem- 
ises and notice a number of firmly growing trees, 
and not far from them some small scrubby-looking 
trees, and finds that the latter arc grafted ui)on 
quince, hence their appearance, lie therefore says : 
"Our conclusions Is to advise our readers to plant no 
more pear trees grafted on quince stocks ; they may 
bear a year or two earlier, but they will not make 
a lasting tree ; they will die iu a few years and result 
In disappointment after a few crops." 

And this Is what is claimed as information about 
raising dwarf pears. The fact is that most of these 
writers are totally ignorant of what they are writing 
about, and their readers who depend upon them will 
soon find themselves behind the facts and the times. 

All persons may not regard raising pears on quince 
stock as a profitable business, though we know of a 
number who have made money by it and have fol- 
lowed it for a number of years. 

As to the dwarf trees not making a "lasting tree, 
and that they will die in a few years," all intelligent 
growers of these trees know this to be untrue. With- 
iuthe last five years we have lost more standard Ihau 
dwarf pear trees by blight, &c. We have now a 
number of thrifty trees, thirty years old, abundant 
bearers and which promise to live as long as the usual 
time allotted to standards. 

Dwarf pears require more attention than the 
standard. They should stand in cultivated grounu, 
and be manured about the same as the rest of the 
garden crops. But they stand eight feet apart, and 
vegetables may be grown among them. None should 
be [jlanted except those with sound roots and the 
quince stocks clear of worms. .Then set full three 
inches below the union of the pear and quince slock 
and there will be no fear of worms. Sometimes they 
take root from the pear stock and make very beau- 
tiful pyramidal trees, aud are annually abundant 
bearers. The dwarf pears on our premises fully 
bear us out in what wesay.— (/crmaK^oroit Telegrnjih. 



Look to the Fruit Trees. 
Wc consider early winter to be the best time fur 
scraping and washing the trunks of trees, though 
the present time will do very well wh^n it has not 
been previously attended to. It is well-known to all 
observing fruit-growers that the loose bark of trees 
is the winter quarters of myriads of insects, w here 
they securely remain until the ensuing spring, when 
the warm, genial weather invites them to quit their 
cosy homes and begiu their destructive operations 
for the sea.son. We^have found a narrow saw, rather 
fine-toothed, to be an excellent tool in rasping off the 
superfluous bark. It accomplishes it more uniformly 
than a hoe, trowel or other scraper; a trowel or a 
short-handled hoe, however, is very good, when the 
other may not be possessed. After the bark is re- 
moved, the trunks should be washed thoroughly 
with a preparatiou of whale-oil soap ami water, say 
in proportion of a pound of the soap to four or five 
gallons of water. It can be applied to large trees, 
with a hickory broom or a stiff whitewash brush, 
and to small trees, especially dwarfs, with the baud 
scrub-brush. Sickly trees, which can at this seasnu 
be easily detected by being covered with a species of 
fungi, or, perhaps more properly, a peculiar in- 
sectivorous deposit— should be scrubbed so as to 
completely remove this. The mixture will of itself 
benefit the tree, while the removal from the stem of 
all extraneous and injurious substances will give to 
it new health and vigor the ensuing season — iii some 
instances to a surprising extent. When whale-oil 
soap is not obtainable, lye may be used, but it should 
not be very strong, or it might be injurious to the 
roots of the tree if applied plentifully and the tree 
small, otherwise it will do no XxArmi—Gcrmantuicn 
Telegraph. 

The Scarcity of Quinces. 
Within a few years past the quince trees have been 
attacked by a v.orm, just under the surface of the 
ground, somewhat similar in appeaiance and in its 
effects to the peach worm, and not being properly 
attended to and the worms removed, the trees have 
generally died, and the fruit accordingly disappeared 
from all our markets. The quince can l)e just as 
successfully grown as the peach, if a little care is 
taken to head off its principal enemy, the worm at 
the root, which requires but little time and trouble 
each spring aud fall in removing the earth from around 
the stem of the tree, probe for the grub in his hole in 
the bark with a stiff wire, and filling up around the 
tree with wood ashes orslackcd lime. The cheap gas- 
lime, from the gas-works, is a very effectual remedy 
for worms in peach trees, and it would no doubt 
answer the same purpose around the quince. 



14 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ January, 



FLORICULTURE. 

Parlor Flowers. 

Who does not love flowers ? It is one of the most 
delightful characteristics of flowers that they arc 
attractive at all seasons of the year, and never more 
so than when made the objects of household atten- 
tion throughout the winter months. The presence 
of flowers in a parlor, or small conservatory, is a 
jievcr-ending source of gratification.;. The rarest and 
most elaborately-carved furniture, pictures and 
statuary, in which wealth indulges, cannot vie with 
a few tastefully-arranged flowers in imparting to a 
loom that natural look of elegance which springs 
from the presence of some vivifying principle, how- 
ever simple it may be. 

There are two things which give to an apartment 
in winter a charm which nothing else can. These 
are : a stand of flowers in bloom, and a clear burn- 
ing fire in an open fire-place. Take away the flowers 
and leave the fire-place blank ; heat the room with a 
furnace, and however handsomely the room may be 
furnished the sense of something wanting will imme- 
diately m.akc itself felt. 

In Paris it is a common thing to cultivate a few 
simple flowers in an oblong box for the pleasure 
tlicir few buds and blossoms afford ; while in Ger- 
many it is usual to grow ivy in pots and train it in 
festoons over the windows. 

The dilliculty in attempting to grow flowers in the 
%varm, diy air of an apartment has arisen from a 
want of knowledge as to the best manner of treating 
them. The greatest obstacle to success is the dry- 
ness of the air, and the following manner is proposed 
to obviate it : Let a table be constructed the length 
of the window and two or three inches wide, with 
boards fitted close, tongue and grooved, and around 
the edge nail a strip three inches wide. Cover the 
space thus enclosed with two inches of white sand. 
Upon this sand place the plants in pots. With a 
table of this kind the plants can be syringed or 
sprinkled with water, which is absolutely essential 
to preserve them in health. The drippings and sur- 
plus water are caught and aljsorbed by the sand, 
which should lie kipt wet, ami even watered for the 
purpose of tciiipcrin<r tlie dry air surrounding the 
plants, the ivaiinrMtioii of the moist sand thereby 
jiromotinff tlieir gniwtli liy the production of artifi- 
cial atnidspliorc. If the table is fitted with rollers it 
will faciliali' the operation of watering, and moving 
back from the windows during very cold nighta. 

As to the selection of plants, it is better to begin 
with a few kinds that are easily grown, as experi- 
ence ami skill are required. A few pots of alyssum, 
mignonette, lobelia, geranium, primula, azalea, calla, 
cacti, eoronilla, heliotrope, spiraea, orange, lemon, 
petunia, and some bulbs, will render satisfaction. 

A common method, practiced about Paris and 
London, of having a box, generally about ten inches 
wide on the top and nine inches deep, filled with 
good soil, and mignonette, sweet alyssum, lobelias, 
lieliutidpe.^ and geraniums planted in it according to 
their size :niil irniwtli, will flower and make a fine 
display when pUieed in a window with a southern 
exposure. While others have these boxes filled witli 
plants in pots, and removed as they get out of bloom 
by others to keep up a display the whole season. — 
Jii/i.it If. Kinrj Washlnntoti. 1). C, in Germantovn 
Tdnp-aph. _ 

Window Boxes. 

Procure a box about fourteen inches wide, six 
inches deep, and of a length to fit your window ; if 
jiossible have aiioilier box two inches smaller every 
way, and |ilace ni>idc the larger one, filling the space 
between tlieiii with sand or tan or straw; have 
holes bured in the bottom of both boxes, and place 
pieces of broken charcoal to insure drainage ; fill 
with the best earth procurable, remembering that 
good, rich soil will insure you the finest flowers; 
)ilace in the end of your boxes German' ivy, morning 
glories, madeira vine, and any other climbers that 
you like, and along the sides maurandia, thunbergia, 
othonna, nasturtion and kenilworth ivy, and just 
inside of these oxalis of dificrent colors and varie- 
ties ; in the centre j'ou must place j'our tallest plants 
and the lower growing ones around it ; have some 
cowslips, Chinese primroses, sweet alysium, migno- 
nette and vinca myra ; a mountain of snow geranium 
gives variety to the appearance, as will also the 
canary bird flower, which will give masses of yellow 
flowers if it has the sun, and the blue of the lobelia 
will also heighten the efl"ect. 



Lemon Verbena. 

It is stated that the well-known, fragrant plaLt, 
the lemon verbena, is used by the Spaniards for other 
purposes than to delight the olfactories. It is re- 
garded by them as a fine stomachic and cordial. 
They use it either in the form of a cold decoction, 
sweetened, or as a flavor to tea, the hot tea being 
jioured over five or .six leaves in a teacup. The tea 
thus prepared is said to be simply delicious ; and it 
is added, as a further and very pratical inducement 
to the use of it, that one who does so will "never 
suffer from flatulence, never be made nervous or old- 
maidish, never have cholera, diarrhiea, or loss of 
appetite." 



DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Bedrooms— How They Should be Ventilated. 
The London Lancet has some comments on this 
topic which may be read with as much profit in this 
country as in London. It says : "If a man were 
deliberately to shut himself for some six or eight 
hours daily in a stuffy room, with closed doors and 
windows (the doors not being opened even to change 
the air during the period of incarceration,) and were 
then to complain of headache and debility, he would 
be justly told that his own want of intelligent fore- 
sight was the cause of his sufl'ering. Nevertheless, 
this is what the great mass of people do every night 
of their lives without no thought of their impru- 
dence. There are few bedrooms in which it is per- 
fectly safe to pass the night without something more 
than ordinary precautions to secure an inflow of 
fresh air. Every sleeping apartment should, of 
course, have a fire-place with an open chimney, and 
in cold weather it is well if the grate contains a 
small fire, at least enough to create an upcast cur- 
rent and carry oflT the vitiated air of the room. In 
all such cases, however, when a fire is used, it is 
necessary to see that the air drawn into the room 
comes from the outside of the house. By an easy 
mistake it is possible to place the occupant of a bed- 
room with a fire in a closed house in a direct current 
of foul air drawn from all parts of the establishment. 
Summer and winter, with or without the useof fires, 
it is well to have a free ingress for pure air. This 
should be the ventilator's first concern. Foul air will 
find an exit if pure air is admitted in sufficient quan- 
ty, but it is not certain pure air will be drawn away. 
So far as sleeping-rooms are concerned it is wise to 
let in air from without. The aim must be to accom- 
plish the object without cansinir a great fall of tern 
pcrature or a draught. The windows may be drawn 
down an inch or two at the top with advantage, and 
a fold of muslin will form a "ventilator" to take off 
the feeling of drauglit. This, with an open fire-place, 
will generally suffice, aud produce no unpleasant 
consequences even when the weather is cold. It is, 
however, essential that the air outside should be 
pure. Little is likely to be gained by letting in a fog 
or even a town mist. 

Butter Making. 

Some years ago, when it was first proposed to in- 
troduce cheese manufacturing est-ablishments into 
the eastern counties of this State, our readers will 
remember that we staled our objections to them, as 
well as arguments in favor of the making of butter- 
good butter— for the Pliiladelpliia market, where 
there was always a ready demand at remunerating 
prices. While the State of New York and others in 
the Northwest and West might succeed in budding 
up and maintaining profitable cheese making fac- 
tories, the eastern part of this State at least was far 
better adapted to butter making and held out far 
greater gains. Where the advice was not heeded 
failure and loss was the consequence. But who has 
ever heard of the butter making business, where 
conducted with the least degree of care and indus- 
try, coming short of yielding a remunerating profit? 
We now hear of one or two of these establishments 
being started, and we have no manner of doubt but 
that they will be successful. 

We know of an establishment in this city, to which 
sutHcient cream is supplied, that yields nearly two 
thosand pounds per day, the churning of which is 
done by machinery.- '/fi-»i««/uw'« Telegraph. 

Burning Green Wood Greatly Wastefol. 

Water in passing into vapor absorbs and hides 
nearly 1,000 degrees of heat. A cord of green wood 
produces just as much heat as a cord of the same 
wood dry. In burning the dry wood we get nearly 
all the heat, but in burning the same wood green, 
from one-half to three-fourths of the heat produced 
goes off latent and useless in the evaporating sap or 
water. Chemistry shows this, and why, very jdaiuly. 
Therefore get the winter's wood lor fuel or IciLidlings, 
and let it be seasoning as soon as possible, and put 
it under cover in time to be dry when used. It will, 
of course, season or dry much faster when split 
fine. A solid foot of green elm wood weighs 60 to 
6.5 lbs., of which 30 to 35 lbs. is sap or water. As 
ordinarily piled up, if we allow half of a cord to be 
lost in the spaces between the sticks, we still have a 
weight of about two tons to the cord, of which nearly 
one ton is water or sap. Such wood affords very 
little useful heat ; it goes off in the ton of sap. The 
great saving of hauling it home dry is evident— as 
we get the same amount of real fuel for half the 
team work. Beech wood loses one-eighth to one-fifth 
its weight in drying; oak, one-quarter to two-fifths. 

Accepting Invitations. 

In accepting an invitation to fete or parly, the note 
of response should be simply courteous- nothing 
more. A too familiar and over-cordial note of le- 
sponse is almost as offensive as one which expresses 
no interest at all iu the parties who extend the invi- 
tation. There is a happy medium in the formalities 
of even kindly wishes . It is not unnatural to suspect 
an acquaintance of insincerity when excesses of lan- 
guage are used in society matters. 



Household Receipts. 

To Remove Marks of Rain from a Mantle.— 
Take a damp cloth and damp the place marked with 
the rain ; then take a hot iron and iron the mantle all 
over, and the marks will be removed. 

A Gaugle for Sore Throat.— Half a pint of 
rose-leaf tea, a wiueglassful of good vinegar, honey 
enough to sweeten it, and a very little Cayenne 
pepper, all well mixed together, and simmered in a 
close vessel ; gargle the throat with a little of it at 
bedtime, or oftener, if the throat is very sore. 

French Mustard.- One ounce of mustard and 
two pinches of salt are mixed in a large wiueglass- 
ful of boiling water, and allowed to stand twenty- 
four hours. Then pound in a mortar one clove of 
garlic, a small handful of tarragon, another of garden 
cress, and add to the mustard, putting vinegar ac- 
cording to taste. 

CouciH SYRnp.— Put five cent's worth of pine 
pitch into a pint of water. Let it simmer until the 
water is well impregnated with the flavor. Dip out 
the gum which remains undissolved and add honey 
enough to sweeten, and make a thick syrup. Strain 
this and bottle. Dose, a teaspoonful four or five 
times a day according to the severity of the cough. 
It will afford speedy relief. 

To DvE Black Woolen Cloth Dark Green.— 
Clean your goods well with beef gall and water, and 
rinse in warm water ; then make a copper boiler full 
of soft water boiling hot, and take from one pound 
to a pound and a half of fustic, put it in and boil 
twenty minutes; to which add a lump of alum as 
big as a walnut ; when this is dissolved in your cop- 
per boiler, put in your goods, and boil it twenty 
minutes ; then take it out and add a small wineglass 
three parts full of chemical blue, and boil again from 
half an hour to an hour, and the cloth will be a 
beautiful dark green ; then wash out and dry. 

JIus. Reed's Plumb Pudding.— One pound beef 
suet, three-fourths pound loaf sugar, one pound 
flour, six eggs, pint of milk, one pound of raisins, 
one pound of currants, three-fourths pound of citron, 
two nutmegs, niaee, cloves ; add at pleasure two 
glasses brandy. Chop the suet tine, rub it to a cream, 
add sugar aud flour, each time rubbing it w ell ; add 
the spices fruit and brandy. Beat the egg, add them, 
then the milk ; tie it moderately tight ; boil it eight 
hours. This quantity makes one very large pud- 
ding—two if boiled in quart bowls ; three if in pint 
bow-Is ; when cold cover up tight with paper, and 
put them awiiy until wanted. When one is wanted 
boil an hour. — Germantown Telegraph. 
< The Hunterdon Monitur says : " We feel it our 
duty to give a recipe for the cure of diptheria, which 
we know from jiersonal knowledge has cured several 
severe cases. It is .^iniiily to put some pure tar on a 
plate and apply hot coals to it, not hut enough, how- 
ever, to create a blaze. Then place a funnel upside 
down over the tar and let the patient inhale the 
fumes arising from the burning tar through the 
spout of the funnel. It will give instant relief, and 
may be repeated as often as may be necessary. Tar 
spread on a piece of cloth and applied to the thi-oat 
in eoimectiou with the iiihailing process is also good, 
much better than old lliti-h or liniments. It should 
not be removed until the throat is relieved of all 
soreness." 

Salt with Nuts.— One time, while enjoying a 
visit from an Englishman, hickory nuts were served 
in the evening, when my English friend called for 
salt, stating that he knew of a case of a woman eat- 
ing heartily of niits in the evening, who was taken 
violently ill . The celebrated Dr. Abernethy was sent 
fir, but it was after he had become too fond of his 
cups, and he was not in a condition to go. He mut- 
tered, "Salt ! salt !" of which no notice was taken. 
Next morning he went to the place and she was a 
corpse. He said that had they given her salt it would 
have relieved her; and if they would allow him to 
make an examination he would convince them. On 
opening the stomach the nuts were found in a mass. 
He sprinkled salt on this and it immediately dis- 
solved. I have known of. a sudden death myself, 
which appears to have been the effect of the same 
cause. I generally eat salt with nuts and consider it 
improves i\\en\.—(iermautoien Telegraph. 
I^How TO Make "Whipped Cream."— A corre- 
sjjondent desires to know the best process for making 
'whipped cream, such as is used in the Vienna 
coffee." The following is the process given l)y 
"Aunt Addie" in the New York Times, but whether 
it is the same used by the Vienna coffee people we 
are not prepared to say : 

Beat tlie yolks of Ave fresh eggs and half a pound 
of powdered sugar until very Tisht -tnd white ; put 
one pint of milk aud oneounee of i.sin-lass in a sauce- 
pan and boil 10 miimtcs, stirrin- .■onlinnally ; flavor 
with vanilla and lemon mixed, or any other flavoring; 
pour the milk on the eggs and sugar ; put on the fire, 
stir well toget'.ier, but do not let boil ; pass through 
a fine hair sieve into a round dish ; when cold set on 
ice, add I wo liquor-glasses of JIarasehino; keep stir- 
ring rapi^y all the'time ; when it begins to thicken 
stir into i'l a pint of cream, whipped to a froth ; put 
into a mold on the ice until you wish to use it. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



15 



LIVE STOCK. 



Saving bv Handsful. 

One handful of :i;iv i^^'i"'' iinicli, nor, for the mat- 
ter of that, arelwiiiiv haiidhlul ; the eavin.ffor wast- 
Inpofso much would n.illuriiuiko nor break a man. 
But with twenty head of eatllu to feed, twice or 
tliricc a day, the eavinx of a handful apiece every 
time would amount to somethine before our pastures 
arc preen again upon our frost-bitten hills. Do you 
ever think of It ? We arc not hintiuB at sllnttug the 
cattle. But how many of us allow aninuils to waste 
a handful each at every feed for want of a little at- 
tention to feeding arranfrcments ? How many head 
of stock on our Northern farms require ii handful 
more of hay at every feed to keep up the aniniiil heat 
than they would rciiuire if their si iiblcs had all the 
cracks stopped that let in the cold winds of winter? 

A handful of manure is but a tritlc, yet the addi- 
tion of a sinp-lc handful in a hill of corn may 
make the dilfcrence between Ions, <""" e»i'6 and 
stinted nubbins when the harvest comes. How many 
handsful of manure arc going to waste every day 
about our yards and buildings ! Could you not save 
half a bushel a day by being careful ? And the 
liquid manure— is there not enough lost every day to 
make a good many long cars where we shall probably 
liud only nubbins uexl fall '. 

Handsful of hay ; handsful of manure ! — these arc 
small matters say you? Yet upon just such small 
matters depends many a man's success or failure in 
life. Here is one man that attends to them carefully, 
and at the end of twenty or thirty years he has a 
competency for old age ; another neglects them as 
beneath his notice and is always behindhand ; he 
lives and dies short in pocket and short in comfort. 
We do not preach niggardliness ; it is by saving when 
we may that we prepare ourselves to be liberal when 
wc will. Save the handsful. — Rural New York. 

History of Horned Cattle. 
The original native home of horned cattle is lost, 
but up to about four hundred years ago, there were 
many herds of wild cattle in England. Some of 
these were captured and have been preserved in 
some of large parks of the English aristocracj-, of 
one of these tlie /Mohf/isl, a London magazine, says: 
Herds of this breed are recorded to have existed in a 
semi-wild state in various portions of England. 
Those at Burton Constable were all destroyed by a 
distemper. When Bewick published his History of 
Quadrupedx, at the close of the last century, he was 
enabled to show that only five herds then existed. 
Since that date the herds at Wallaton and Gisburne 
have died out, and the breed having been introduced 
(subsequently, it is presumed to Bewick's notice) or 
re-introduced at Cadzow (Hamilton), in Lanark- 
shire, the ancient seat of the Dukes of Hamilton, 
there now survive at the present four herds only, of 
which the following account is given from recent 
inspection by Mr. A. H. Cocks. Of these the Chilling- 
ham breed, belonging to the Earl of Tankerville, 
are said to be the purest. They are characterized 
especially by the form of their horns, which may be 
described as curving, first backward and upward, 
and then sweeping forward and downward, while 
the pomts turn upward. In the skull the forehead 
is flat or slightly concave, and the occipital ridge be- 
tween the horns is straight and level. In form these- 
cattle are beautifully shaped, with small heads, 
straight backs and short legs. Their color is white, 
except the ears and muzzle which are either red or 
black, according to the breed. The horns are white, 
with black tips. 

Corn and Cob Meal. 

Corn and cob meal, which was formerly largely 
fed by many farmers, has of late been so severely 
condemned in the agricultural journals as to deter 
thousands from continuing its use. Some years ago, 
however, Professor Mott, of Columbia, Ohio, wrote 

prize essayonthc subject, iu which betakes ground 
in favor of its use, saying, "Advantages and econo- 
my are attained by fattening and feeding stock with 
corncob and meal together, and also by grinding all 
kinds of grain." 

As we shall want the ensuing winter everything 
that can be converted into food for our animals, it is 
to be hoped that the question will be satisfactorily 
disposed of before the cobs are used lor fuel or 
thrownin the hog-pen to rot, or rather to waste. We 
have read some strong arguments against the use of 
the cob at all ; and some equally strong, indeed, in 
our judgment, stronger in favor of grinding the corn 
and cob togcther,as food for horscs,cattlc and swine. 
We are ready to open our columns for information 

n the subject, and trust that our farmers will give 

s their experience and opinions. — Gerinanlon<n Tel. 

IIow TO Choose a Good Cow.— A crumple horn 
is a good indication, a full eye another. Her head 
should be small and short. Avoid a Koman nose, 
which indicates thin milk and little of it. See that she 
is dished in the face— sunk between the eyes. Notice 
that she is what stock men call a handler— skin soff. 
and loose, like the skin of a dog, deep Irom loin to the 
udder and a very slim tail. A cow with these marks 
never falls to be a good milker. 



Profit Combined with Amusement. 

In a poultry establishment the ornamental can be 
adopted with the useful, and profit can accompany 
the pleasure and recieatlon of altciidiiii; tn I'mvls; 
but silly people imagine, because ymr l, n I. |. ii|.lc 

have fine poultry houses witli • [.niii ',: im- 

various kinds all under one n" i - mis 

attached to prevent the fowls rnamm m liirn iil- 
fcnccd gardens or in their exposcii plc:i.siMc sirouiuls, 
ifec, that they can shut up fowls and continue to 
keep them in confinement, so as to make them pay 
for feeding ami attendance. By having unlimited 
range, fowls can easily be made profitable; for they 
will pick up at least half a living, and they do not 
then require one-tenth as much attention as those 
kept in a yard, which always has a bad odor, how- 
ever often it is cleaned. 

It is extraordinary to find there are men so weak 
as to attempt to keep great numbers of fowls to- 
gether with limited range, when, time after time, 
the folly of all attempts of the kind has been de- 
monstrated. But although no sensible business man 
will again confine hundreds of fowls in any inade- 
quate space, yet great numbers can be kept on one 
farm and profit combined with amusement by making 
tasty ornamental little roosts, and placing them at 
such distances apart as to prevent any intermixing. 
These roosts might be made and painted so as to 
have the appearance of miniature cottages, and so 
placed about an estate as to be exceedingly pic- 
turesque. 

I have in my mind at the present moment an 
island, the property of one proprietor, whose resi- 
dence stands on an elevated position commanding a 
view of the whole, with the exception of portions 
hidden by trees. What a very pretty efl'ect some of 
these poultry houses would have if interspersed 
among laborers, cottages and other buildings used 
as shelter for farm stock, and these also' could be 
made to have such an appearance as would be iu 
unison with the erections all over the island. Imagine 
a farm neither round nor square but toleiably com- 
pact, with a hundred or more roosts, sheds for cat- 
tle and for sheep to resort to in stormy weather, and 
here and there intermingled with these, a cottage 
prettily adorned with vines, and a handsomely laid- 
out garden. Then suppose the whole painted alike 
and, as near as usefulness combined with the orna- 
mental and uniformity will permit, all showing doors 
and windows and all having ivy or vines of some 
kind running about or trained around them, so as to 
give the best effect. If an island, all the outside 
poultry houses might be for water-fowls, and sweep- 
ing down from the mansion might be a well kept, 
beautiful carriage road which could take a circuit of 
the farm, so arranged that it would be a delightful 
pleasure drive, and at the same time it could be used 
to go around to the different buildings, which would 
be ou the right and left all the way along. 

Profit could be all the while combined with the 
ornamental and the useful, and good, fine square 
fields could be arranged so that they would not inter- 
fere with the buildings or any of those structures or 
impede cultivation. If wealthy people, when they 
retire from cities to the country, would first of all 
lay out their farms so as to have them one beautiful 
scene of variety with perfect utility, how ornamental 
would not the arrangement be to the country '. 

Vermin on Poultry. 

A correspondent of the Southern Poultry Journal 
says : 

'' Many fanciers use the carbolic (or carbolated) 
powder in ord.r to rid their fowls of lice and mites. 
It is considered the very best of remedies. My plan 
is one which, I think, is used by no other breeder ; 
has never failed me in completely ridding my fowls 
of every insect, and has demonstrated to me its in- 
fallibility. It is simply to use the oil of sassafras 
nii.xed with sweet oil. To one ounce of oil of sassa- 
fras put five or six of sweet oil, and apply a small 
quantity to difl'erent parts of the body of the fowls, 
stlectiug those points where tlie vermin would be 
most apt to hide. 

"In applying the preparation I fill with it a small 
oil can, so that I can I'orcc out as much or little of 
the oil as I wish. A very small bit can be made to 
go a great ways, for ouedropcan be rubbed overtwo 
or three inches of spate, and is no more trouble to 
apply than the various insect powders. I use sweet 
oil, because of its curative powers, but any kind of 
greese, no matter what, will do to mix w ith the oil 
of sassafras. The oil of sassafras is the ersdicatoi , 
the oil merely the vehicle. I believe common sassa- 
fras tea would be wonderfully cfllcacious. 

"Make iu a large pot, then, after allowing it to 
cool, dip the fowl in bodily. In one second the lice 
will be dead, and In ten seconds the fowl will be per- 
fectly dry, if placed in the sunshine. It is hard to 
form an idea of the magical cU'ect produced by the 
oil of sassafras. 1 have tried the remedy in greater 
attenuation than that mentioned (one part to five Oi 
six), but believe that it would be equally good if 
composed of one ounce of oil of sassalraa to ten or 
twelve of any other oil or greese." 



Muscovy Ducks. 



Th. 



■Musk 



under I he above imne, is also known as 
duck. 'I'his bill er, ami perhaps more pr(>|jcr name, 
is derived lioin ilie cidur of musk prevading the skin, 
which seeciistohe | .arliciilarly strong about tlic liead. 
This scent is not in tlie least perceptible, however, 
when the bird is properly cooked. 

Tlie llesh of this bird is very palatable, if eaten 
when young, but after it gets beyond Its youth It Is 
not so highly esteemed. Musk ducks arc odd look- 
ing birds— generally black and white, not evenly 
marked, but spotted irregularly, here and there with 
a patch of black. The drake has a large head and 
bare checks of a scarlet color, the base of tlic bill 
being carunculated with the same bright scarlet. 
With these distinct peculiarities and the fact that 
the feathers on the back of the head are rulUed and 
appear to be growing the wrong way, the musk 
drake Is very curious, and certainly is the least 
comely water fowl it has been our lot to behold, while 
he is as ugly as he looks in most cases. 

Mu.scovy ducks are capable of sustaining them- 
selves for a quite a time, on their long and powerful 
wings, and are fond of taking flights about tlm 
neighliorhood, but in most eases they return punc- 
tually to their home, aficr the manner of pigeons. 

As they lav letter e^'L:> HjMII hl.i,l . il liiT cluckS, thls 



drake 



The di\iki'^ :n-'' e"iii iniially iiu ill iiil; , or " raising a 
row," in somc^ iiistanees catelijng an unfortunate 
duck of another species by the neck and holdin:: its 
head under the water until drowned. 

The Musk duck Is domesticated to a considerable 
extent in this country and Europe, but not nearly so 
large as in some parts of South America, hIicic llii'y 
are also plentiful in their natural wild stale. 

How to Tell That Eggs are Eggs. 

A good egg will sink in water. 

A boiled egg which is done will ilry quickly on the 
shell when taken from the kettle. 

The boiled eggs which adhere to the shell are 
fresh laid. 

After an egg has laid a day or more the shell 
comes off easily when boiled. 

A fresh egg has a lime-like surface to its shell. 

Stale eggs are glassy and smooth of shell. 

Eggs which have been packed in lime look siained 
and'show the action of the lime on the surface. 

Eggs packed in bran for a long time smell and 
taste musty. 

With the aid of the hands or a piece of paper 
rolled in funnel shape and held toward the light, the 
human eye can look through an egg, shell and all. 

If the egg is clear and golden in appearance when 
held to the light, it is good ; if dark or spotted, it is 
bad. 

Tlie badness of an egg can sometimes be told by 
shaking it near the holder's ear, but the test is a 
dangerous one. 

Thin shells are caused by a lack of gravel, etc., 
among the hens laying the eggs. 

Many devices have been tested to keep eggs fresh, 
but the less time an egg Is kept the better for the egg 
and the one who eats it. 

Witer Treatment of Poultry. 
A correspondent, in addressing us on this subject, 
says in brief, that each fowl ought to produce 1110 
eggs a year ; that In winter warmth is indispensa- 
ble ; that the fowls must have some of the food they 
find at other seasons when at large; ihcy 
must have plcn.y of room In their house, 
and it and the laying boxes kept dean ; 
that they must be fed with corn, barley, o.its; have 
a box of sand, oyster or clam shells pounded up, or 
old mortar ; or bones dried and pounded fine ; that 
mached boiled potatoes and eornmcal arc excellent; 
that fatty matter ol any kind, fresh beef, cr pork 
scraps, &c., must form a portion of their diet ; iliai 
hens are fond of vegetable matter during winter an 1 
will eat cabbage, &c.; and they must be kept free 
from vcrmim, which nearly always follows entire 
cleanliness. In case, howe'ver, vermin should still 
make their appearance there Is nothing so ell'eclive 
inremoving them as rubbing the top of the head, 
under the wings and upon the back with lard. Thesi- 
suggestions we have made time and again ; and have 
oiny to add now, that all who desire complete suc- 
cess, and, of course, satisfactory profit from poultry 
rasing must adopt Ihem.— acrmanlotcn) Telrgrupk. 



The production of eggs during the winter season, 
savs the Line Stock Joiirtiat , is largely under the 
control of the owner of fowls. If hens have warm, 
comfortable quarters, and an abundance of suitable 
food, the owner will be rewarded by a supply ol 
eggs all through the cold weather. But it is esscii- 
tiai I hat they should be provided with a well venti- 
lated house wherein they will not suffer from cold. 
The food shouhl not consist wholly of grain ; all the 
bits of vegetables from the kitchen table and the 
scraps of meat should be saved, chopped up fine and 
given to the hens. 



46 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 1879. 



APIARY. 

Taming Stubborn Bees. 

Every beekeeper has had colonies and queens that 
would not be controlled by ordinary means. Such 
will be the interested in following: account, onc- 
tributed to the Americmi Bee Journal, by W. E. Mc- 
Bride, of Illinois. 

On October 1st I straightened up tlie combs in one 
of my bee hives, preparatory to Italianizing: the 
colony. Over half of the bees left for parte un- 
known, but the queen remaind. October 5th I united 
the bees that remained with another colony. Caught 
and caged both queens, and afterwards killed them. 
On the cveninii: of October 10th I hunc: a cage con- 
taining iin Ilalian queen in the hive. On the morning 
of the 1:2th I opened tlie hive to release her Italian 
majesty. No queen cells had been built after I killed 
the two black queens ; bnt I found freshly laid eggs 
— also larvir— CO I searched for another queen and I 
found her and soon had her beheaded. I then re- 
moved the cork from one end of the cage and tied a 
piece of paper over one end,supposing it would work 
all right. I closed the hive and did} not examine it 
again for some days. When I did I found everything 
jiist as I had left it. She had not got liberated, but 
the bees had started a numlier of queen cells. I tore 
them and daulied the queen e.Tgc with them, then 
opened the cage, without removing it from the hive, 
tliinking slie woidd walk out. .Some of the bees went 
in and seemed r.ot !o molest her, so I left them to 
themselves for an hour'or so. When I went back I 
was not at all'surpriscdjto find the queen still in her 
rage. I tried to smoke her out gently, but wlien she 
did come she came in a hurry and ran rapidly 
down tl:e eonil.s, out, of the liivc, and tried to fly ; 
but I w;is too (iiiicl; lor her; I caught her, clippad 



she remained ;!bout a qunrter of a minute, and tlicu 
came out again. I caught her and put her in the 
top of the hive and administered smoke. Next morn- 
ing I found heron the bottom board. I gave them 
smoke to my entire satisfaction, and the queen is 
now all right, laying nicely. 

Protection of Bees Against Wasps. 

A British bee-keeper says he has witnessed the 
destruction, in two weeks' time, of a thriving apiary 
of five stocks, solely by wasps— which being in a 
starving condition, and as much for warmth and 
protection as lor food, forced an entrance into the 
hives. The best defcnt-e he has found, both against 
wasps and ri.Mi.-.hces from stronger colonies, is, 
first, to keep llie slocks uniformly strong, and sec- 
ond, to close the entrance holes to the attacked 
hives so that only two bees can piiss or repass at the 
same time, thus giving one means of defense which 
they will not be slow to take advantage of. 

Industry of Bees. 

A. S. Wilson presents the following facte to show 
the marvelous industry of bees. Approximately 100 
heads of clover vicld O.S jrram of sugar, or l'J.5 heads 
give 1 cram of 'sugar, and, therefore, 1-25,000 heads 

1 kilomainn fMi-nr. As each head contains 60 

floi-et.s ( f^n,(iiiiixi;(i) not less than 7,500,000 flower 
tubes must be eiajitied of their honey to obtain 1 
kilogramme of sugar. The honey may, roughly, be 
estimated to contain 75 per cent, of su^ar, and hence 
we h.ave 1 kilogramme equal to 5,000,000 flowers in 
round numbers, or 2,.500,000 visits for one pound of 
honey. 

No FARMER need expect to be successful with bees 
unless he is willing to give time to them. They will 
suffer from neglect quite as much as growing, ripen- 
ing crops. He cannot reasonably expect honey unless 
there are flowers in the vicinity from which it can be 
collected. If there are no Dov.ering trees and plants 
growing naturally, they must be cultivated. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 

The Hessian Fly. 
Tiiis destructive insect made its appearance in the 
wheat-fields last fall to a considerable extent and 
did much damage ; but one fact connected with its 
appearance, or rallier reappearance, should be care- 
Uilly borne in minil— that it is only the early sown 
wlieatihatis attacked, and this mostly when early 
sowing is followed by a long spell of mild weather, 
like that of last autumu, during which the grain 
becomes quite rampant. Wheat sown the last of 
September or the beginning of October — which is 
early enough in most years — is seldom if ever at- 
faekcd by the fly. There is a statement now before 
us of a farmer in Western New York, who eavs that 
while he sowed bis wheat as late as the 18th and 
20th of September, his neighbors sowed in the latter 
end of August, and that while his crop was wholly 
free from the fly, and yielded over twenty-nine bushels 
to the acre, the crops of bis neighbors were nearly de- 
stroyed. He further says that a barrel of salt to the 
acre will destioy the midge and cause the grain to 
ripen from three to six days earlier. We think there 
is wisdom iu his statement. 



The Apple Tree Borer. 

I have an orchard of two acres, planted eight and 
twelve years ago. About five years agol found the 
borers at work in all the trees, more or less. The bark 
would turn black and peel oflT, and then would appear 
decayed in spots the size of my hand and larger. I 
commenced to scrape with my knife, and found a 
white grub working between the bark and tree. In 
some trees I found as many as ten worms in one tree. 
They killed two of my largest trees, and injured five 
others so that they died. I first tried soft soap suds; 
it seemed to kill them by drowning. I afterward took 
strong Ije, that would float an egg ; this killed all 
that it touched. I dug out several worms after using 
the lye, and every one was dead. I have washed ray 
trees iu May and September ever since, and have not 
lost a tree. 



LITERARY AND PEROSNAL. 

Impoved WiLLOUGUBV GRAIN Drill, manufac- 
tured by J. B. Crowell & Co., Greencastle, Frankliu 
county. Pa. 12 pp., 8 vo. 

A. C. Yates' Fashion Reporter, for fall and 
winter of 1878, is also a remarkably well executed 
quarto of 8 pages, devoted to fashion and clothing 
literature. 

L. B. Case's Botanical Index. — An illustrated 
quarterly botanical magazine, Richmond, Indiana. 
16 pp. octavo, excellentfy gotten up, and this Jan- 
uary number, 1S70, is full of valuable matter on the 
subjects of Roots, Fruits and Flowers. 

Pr.EMiuM List and Regulations of the first 
annual exhibition of the "Germantown Poultry and 
Pet Stock Association." Parker's Hall, Main and 
Price streets, Germantown, December 24th, 25th and 
26th, 187S. 10 pp., 8 vo. 

Address of Francis D. Moulton, before "First 
Internaiional Dairy I'air," American Institute, New 
York, Saturday evening, December 7th, 1878. We 
are under obligations to Mr. J. H. Reall for a copy 
of this excellent address, an interesting extract from 
which will be found in this number of The Farmer, 
under the caption of "Population and Producton." 

The Poultry Monthly, Albany, N. Y. The 
January number of this royal 4to of 18 pages and 10 
pages of .advertisements is before us. Excellent ma- 
terial, beautilully illustrated and printed. No. 1, 
Vol. 1, is before us. This is a new enterprise, and if 
it don't succeed the reproach must be on the people 
and not on the printers and publishers. §1.00 a year. 

The Sugar Industry o? the United States 
AND the Tariff. — A report of the assessment and 
collection of duties of imported sugars ; on the r3- 
sults of an eeonomieal and financial inquiry into the 
relation of the sugar industry of the United States in 
its several departments of production, importation, 
refining and distribution of product, to the existing 
federal tariff. By David A. Wells, New York, 18T8. 

IIakd Times and the Way Out. — A speech de- 
livered by Robert G. Ingersoll, at Music Hall, Bos- 
ton, October LOth, 1878. An 8 vo. pamphlet of 24 
pages, published by Gibson Brothers, Washington, 
D. C. Mr. Ingersoll talks a good deal of "sense 
and nonsense" in his course through the world ; but 
this pamphlet, although not free from error, con- 
tains much that belongs to the category of "sense." 

The Farm. — A journal for the farm, garden and 
household. Published by Thomas McKenzie & Sons, 
Dublin, Ireland. A quarto of 10 pages. Two shil- 
lings a year in advance. Address of editors, .34 Daw- 
son street. This is a remarkably well gotten up 
journal, both in its typographical execution and its 
literary contents. In size, style and general appear- 
ance it, is not much unlike The Lancaster Farmer. 
We heartily welcome it to our exchange list as a 
worthy representative of the agricultural and domes- 
tie interests of the "Green Isle of Erin." 

Badyland.— The January number of this juvenile 
magazine for 1879 is a most excellent specimen of 
the graphical and typographical arts adapted to 
babyeulture. We have not had a baby born to us 
for twenty-five years, and we a' most regret that we 
have not a baby, or are not a baby ourself. The 
illustrations are so pretty, so pure and so character- 
istic of child life that we feel quite sure Babtjlaud 
will "flow with milk and honey " to all the appre- 
ciation of the juvenile world. 50 cents a year. D. 
Lothrop & Co., 22 Franklin street, Boston, Mass. 

The American Farmer.— The December number 
of this most excellent journal has been received, 
(somehow for nearly a year we have not seen a 
copy) freighted as usual with valuable lore to the 
farming world. We do not recognize an agricultural 
magazine in the country that is more worthy of the 
patronage of the farming public, and yet every 
"once in a while" it becomes evident that that fact 
needs a clearer apprehension and a more liberal 
realization at home. 34 pp. royal 8vo. at ?i!..50 a 
year in advance. A club of five for §1 each. Samuel 
Sands & Son, 1.8 West Baltimore street, Baltimore, 
Md. 

Scientific Men and the Press on the Sugar 



Question.— The great Cuban effort to transfer the 
American refining business to Cuba by a change of 
the sugar tariff fully detected at last. These are~two 
octavo pamphlets, the former 119 pp., and the latter 
20 pp. It is needless to say these pamphlets discuss 
the sugar question with ability on the negative side- 
that is, the side opposed to the 23.2 cents specific 
duties on all grades of sugars whatever. The sym- 
pathies of the people, the sugar dealers, and the 
men of science, including the 2'>'css, seem to be with 
the American refiners ^but it would be diflBcult to 
say what Congress might do or might not do if the 
measure is "backed" by such a large sum of money 
as has been reported at various times. 

Report of the twenty-seventh annual session of 
the Teachers' Institute of Lancaster county. Pa., 
held at the Court House, November 11th to 1.5th, 
1878. This is number eleven of the annual reports of 
the Institute ; and, although the preceding ones have 
been able and interesting, this last and best is in ad- 
Vance of them all, and is, no doubt, a true reflex of 
the progress which has been made iu our system of 
public instruction. Of course every teacher, in Lan- 
caster county at least, has a copy of this excellent 
report, and it ought to be in the hands of every 
teacher iu the State. There is no other sixty page 
royal octavo that can be of more interest to the pro- 
gressive teachers anywhere than the perusal of what 
was done by their eo-laborers elsewhere, and how 
and by whom it was done. The faithful teacher in 
the most remote and secluded corner of the Com- 
monwealth, even though he or she may never have 
had the privilege of attending the meetings of an 
institute, may sit down and read these proceedings 
with almost the same intelligent satisfaction as those 
that were really present. There are recorded, too, 
all the names of the teachers iu Lancaster county 
who were in .ittendance, with their local residences ; 
besides all the essays, lectures, discussions and ex- 
ercises which then and there took. place and were 
participated in. 

The Phrenological Journal for January begins 
the sixty-eighth volume of- this well-known popular 
and sterling magazine. There are few, if any, peri- 
odicals which have done more to direct man's atten- 
tion to himself and to such means as will better his 
condition physically and mentally. The present 
number opens with an excellent portrait and phreno- 
logical and biographical sketch of L. N. Fowler, one 
of the founders of this Journal, and of the old firm 
of Fowler & Wells. Following this is a most inter- 
esting chapter on "Brain and Mind," with several 
illustrations, and including special directions to be 
followed in examining heads. An instructive and 
lively paper is The Study of Entomology, with illus- 
trations. There are also a portrait and sketch of 
Lord Dufl'erin, besiiles very readable sketches on : A 
Good Figure ; One of the Seven Ages ; and " Color 
Blindness;" this last throwing much light on the 
subject. A ratlier critical article touches on Butter, 
and the Use of It. Otheis discuss The Feet, and the 
Dressing of them ; Hot Springs of Arkansas ; Poison 
Ivy, and Ivy that is not Poison; Self-Knowledge a 
Social Need ; while one finds a good many useful 
facts in the Scientific Notes, Answers to Questions, 
etc. The above tends to show the scope and value 
of this excellent magazine, which has been reduced 
from §3.00 to §2.00 a year, or iO cents a number, 
and offers a Phrenological Bust premium to each 
subscriber. No one can do better than to send 20 
cents iu postage-stamps for the January number, 
and full particulai-s as to premiums, etc., to S. R. 
Wells & Co., 737 Broadway, N. Y. 

Scientific American Supplement.- We need 
hardly say anything in reference to the Scienliflc 
Amcr'kan, for that "distinguished journal has de- 
servedly earned a world-wide reputation in its special 
sphere. The supplement , however, which is also 
published weekly, and is uniform in size with the 
Seienlific American, may not be so well known to 
our readers. We have received a quarto catalogue 
of the valuable papers contained in the supplement. 
These papers include a very large number of scien- 
tilic, mechanical and domestic subjects, mainly re- 
lating to chemistry, metallurgy, mechanics, engi- 
neering, electricity, light, heat, sound, technology, 
agi-ieullure, horticulture, botany, rural and house- 
hold economy, materia inedica, therapeutics, hygiene, 
natural histoi-y, biology, meteorology, terrestrial 
physics, geography, geology, mineralogy, astionomy, 
ifcc. This catalogue contains the titles and synoptic 
contents of about 5.50 sepai-ate papers published iu 
the supplement with references to the particular 
numbei-s in which the diffei-ent papers may be found. 
Each number of the supplement contains 16 quarto 
pages profusely illustrated, and is published at ?5 
per annum, and may be had of Munn & Co., pub- 
lishers, 37 Park Row, New York, or at the office of 
almost any news dealer in the country. We also 
acknowledge the receipt of a copy of that beautiful 
little annual vade mecmn of the patentist, The Scien- 
tific American Ifand-Book for 1879. No one ought 
attempt to "dabble" in the patent right business 
without a copy of tliis little book in his pocket, and 
its contents in his head ; 48 pp. 16mo., beautifully 
printed, illustrated and indexed, published as aboye. 



THE LANCASTER;FARMER> 



D. M. Fekuv iV Co., the well-known ami popular 
eeedsmen of Detroit, Mich., are again before our 
readers with their annual aunouni-ement. Theli' 
catalogue, which is mailed free, is olTcred to all of 
our readers. We would advise them to avail thcm- 
eelves of this oiler. 

To Make Hbns h\r. — Feed young pullets with 
boiled potatoes, maslicd in the water they have been 
cooked in, aud mixed while hot with oornmeal and 
cracked wheat. Feed this warm, and every week 
give some of Bowker * Co.'s Animal Meal along 
with the food. This will give eggs all through tlie 
winter. — American Agricnllnrift. 

VicK's Floh.vi. GriDE.— A beautiful work of 100 
pages, one colored llower i>latp, and :iOO illustrations, 
with descriptions of the best Flowers and Vegetables, 
and how to grow them. All for a five cent stamp. 
In English or (ierman. 

The Fi.owEii ani> VEOETAm.E Gaudex, 17.5 
pages, six colored plates, and many hundred en- 
gravings. For 50 cents iu paper covers; 91.00 in 
■elegant cloth. In German or English. 

Viok's Ilmtstrated Montblv Maoazin'e— 33 
pages, a colored plate In every number and many 
tine engravings. Price $1.25 a year: five copies for 
S5.00. Specimen numbers sent for 10 cents. 

ViCk's Seeds are the best in the world. Send 
five cent stamp for a Fi.okal Guide, containing list 
and prices, and plenty of information. Address, 
JAMK,S VICK, Rochester, N. Y. [79-1-2 



THE IMPROVED 



remington 
Sewing Machine 



iidcs.on aU 



1. — Makes a perfect lock stich, alik 
kineis cf goods. 
2.— Runs Light, Smooth, Noiseless and Rapid. 
S.— Durable —A'Kii.t for years without Repair. 
A.— \yiU do all varieties of Work and Fancy Stitching in 

Ji,~\i Most Easily juanaged hy the operator. Length of 
stitch may be altered while running, and machine can be 
threaded without passing thread through holts. 

6.— Design Simfle, Ingenious, Elegant. Forming the 
stitch without the use of Cog Wheel Gears, Rotary Cams, or 
Lever Arms. Has the Automatic Drop Feed, which insures 
uniform length of stitch at any speeA. Has our new Thread 
Controller, which allows easy movement of needle bar and 
prevents injury to thread. 

7.— CONSTP.LXT!. ■. ,- ,' ■•'-,; <:,■ T:.. ■■'.'■^. !■ N ::.>nU- 

factured by the ?/.- ' ' ■ at 

the celebrated Ki; -J !><. I <>\ 4 ::■;■>!'■». Kion. N . 
T. Attention;... 

8.— The No. 2 l: . . . _; , M ,■..-. . \\ ... . , ... :.,,.\ 

ARMORY : I LION, N. Y. 



1879 SPELNG AND SUMMER. 1789 

RATHVON & FISHER'S 

CHEAP CLOTHING STORE, 

Comer I'ortli Quoeii and Orange Sts., 

LANCASTER, PA. 

Good all wool Business Suits from $12 to $20 
Fine Cloth or Worsted Dress Suits, 15 to 20 
Fine Cassimere Pants, - - 4 to 10 

Fine Vests, - - - . -3 to 6 

CUSTOM WORK A SPECIALTY. 



READY MADE CLOTl^ING 

And Furnishing Goods 

of ail kinds, ver>- cheap. Cottouades as low as $-2.50 a sui'. 
Cloths, Cassimereo, WofBtingf-, Suitings, CoatingB and 
VeBtmgs m a full Hue, and made promptly to order. 

RATHVON & FISHER, 

XB'T'O PRACTICE, TAILORS. 1SV3 



'Our Work Sustains Our Word. 



FIRST-CLASS SLEIGHS A SPECIALTY. 

u 

X 
h 

^ t >^ 
W 2 ^ 

Z W fc 

E I " 

K 
O 



IsrOHBECK & MILEY, 

PRACTICAL CARRIAGE BUILDERS, 




(Cox k Co.'s Old Stand,) 

Comer of SOUTH DITKE and VINE STREETS, 

B'S^We invito special attontiou of pnrchapoie to our large stock of Sleighs 



LAKCASTER, 



A Flue Stock of Brewster, Whitney, i 



: Spar Spring BntfKic 



PA 
Ciir- 



PROMPT ATTENTION TO REPAIRING. 



TH IS WILL NOT APPEAR AGAI N 




_J82,0()0_g^|d GIVEN 



tlie very personititvili . . 

be n-ilUout thin E-i' nn.. 

Thia beaulitul di.i"vu.-,^f:il i.'i- 



Dedicated to the Mlotcard .IsnoeSnti 



^ SOB BLESS THE HELPiNS HANDS S 



SKXT rict.;B: v 



CSTUT THIS lEOitTIFIf :iTE «>IT. IT LS WORTH SS-3.'> T<> > <>I . I 

On rcci-ipl of ll.n c . .iiii,.Li.., 1 . 11,, r ,.,;l. .\„,,.i,.,.n Cei.t8,I9r.liM I . I 

"the ANQELVS?fe*„*lff.U^GOD BLESS THE HELPING HANDS 



ERTflCATE WORTH £:5.35, 






A bonutiful work of loo Pages, One Colored Flower 
Plate, and 300 illustrations, with Dcecrij^lioiis of lljc 
best Flowers ftnd Vegetables, and bow to grow thoni. All 
for a Five Cent Stamp. In English or Qermau. 

The Flower and Vegetable Garden, 175 Pages, Sii 
Colored I'lutea, and mHuy hundred Enf;raviuf^s, For .^0 
cents in paper covers; tl.OO iu elegant clotb. Iii Geruian 
or En{<lisb. 

inthly Magazine— 3} Pages, a 
and many Fine Kugruviugs, 



Vick's Illustrated 
Colored Plate in everv 
Price %\.-a a yeai 



I Seeds E 



9 Copies for $.'5.t 

e be<t in tho world. Send Fiv 

Guide, eoutaining List and 



Vick's 
Stamp f 
and plenty of iufoi-mation. Address. 

TU-1-3 JAMES VICK, Rochester, N. 1 



f,1>f|.^"S?Sl 



£. n. r£siiY a CO. uclio.; :iio1l 



US MS InAlTo 



$65= 



SOLICITOR OF PATENTS, 

LANCASTER, i'A,, 
235 EAST ORANGE ST. 

All matters appertaining to INITKI) .ST.\Ti;s or CANA- 
DIAN P.\TENTS, TRADE .MAUKS, aud COl'VKIOHTS. 
promptly attended to. His experience, success a-'d faithful 
attention to the interests of those who engage his services 
are fully acknowledged and apprecUted. 

Prelimiuary ciaminations made for him by a reliable As- 
sistant at WashlDgtou, without extra charge for drawing 
or deeoriptiou. (;9-l-lf 



BheU.s. for(,,.> , 

KER A 40.. I 
Place. XrH 
R04*h«H(or, N 

Stockbridge Mnuu 



,-alIy liked. Foil 
iii'iii meal or othA feed and 
6" cents; 30 lbs, $1,110; lOl) 
I, ,and to prevent abortion 
H., $3 mi. (ironud Oyster 
■ ■I a full line8j>rH;ial feeds, 
c .1 men. W. H. BOW- 
.^t., Boaton; .t Park 
urtta Water .Street, 
turers of the Celebrated 
[79-1-4 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[January, 1879, 



'"AWBEKRT-GKOWERS MAKE A SOTE 
OF IT ! 

The Xew Strawberries described iu the December 
number of The FAnMEit are for sale, by the undereigned, 
at from 25 eents to 81>50 per dozen, aud for much 
less by the hundred, CASPEB HILLER k SON, 

12-10-2mJ ConeBtoga, Lancaster couuty, Pa. 



E. R. O. 



%nted not to explode, under 

^EXCLUSIVE COUNTY RIGHTS for sale by 
P. J. FITZGERALD, Sole Proprietor and Manufacturer, 

103 and 105 N. Fourth St., Philad'a. 
Also, WHOLESALE DEALER IN HEAD LIGHT, COAL 
OIL and BURNING FLUID. 

N. B. A large assortment ta(M((i(v/M of CHANDELIERS, 
BRACKETS, BRONZE LAMPS, BURNERS, &c., &c., Con- 
Btantly on hand. 10-9-6m 



THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 

THIRTY-FOURTH YEAR. 

THE MOST POPULAR SCIENTIFIC PAPER IN 

THE WORLD, 

Only 63.30 a Year, incIndlHf; Postnge. Weeh- 
ly S3 If nwberB a Tear. 4,e»0 Book Pages. 

The Scientific Ambkican is a large first-class Weekly 
Newspaper of sixteen pages, printed in the most beautiful 
style, profusely illustrated with splendid engraTings, rep- 
resenting the newest inventions and the moat recent ad- 
vances in the arts and science; Inclndiuff new and interest- 
ing facts iQ agriculture, horticulture, the home, health, 
medical progress, social science, natural history, geology, 
astronomy, the most yaluabie practical papers, by eminent 
writers in all departments of science, will be found in the 
Scientific American. 

Terms, $,H.20 per year, $1.60 half year, which includes 
postage. Discount agents. Single copies, 10 cents. Sold 
by all Newsdealers. Remit by postal order to MUNN & 
CO.. Publishers, :!7 Park Row, New York, 
ntirCMnilO I° connection with the Kelentiflc 
rnllilirfii Americnn, Messrs. Minn & Co , are 
Solicitors of American and Foreign Patents, have had 34 
years experience, and now have the largest establishment 
in the world. Patents are obtained on the best terms. A 
special notice is made in the IHeientific Ainerioaii of 
all inveutions pateuked through tile agency, with the 
name and residence of the patentee. By the immense cir- 
culation thus given, public attention is directed to the 
merits af the new patent, and sales or introduction often 
easily effected. 

Any person who has made a new discovery or invention, 
can ascertain, free of charge, whether a patent can proba- 
bly be obtained, by writing to the undersigned. We also 
send free our Hand-Book about the Patent Laws, Patents, 
Caveats, Trade-Marks, their costs, and how procured, with 
hints for procuring advances on Inventions. 

Address for the Paper, or concerning Patents, 

Hniin A to., 37 Park Row, K. T. 
Branch Othce, corner F and 7th street.?, Washington, D. 0. 



ART OF PROPAGATION. 

A consise practical work on the rapid increase and mu 
tiplication of stock — amply illustrated. 

Price pre-paid by mail. SO cents. 

PUBLISHED BY 

Winona, Columbiana Co., Ohio." 
SEND FOR IT, AND FOR FREE CATALOGUE. 
I special arrangem 



thet 






able I 



nt with the publishers, we offer 
8. per copy. It has received the fa- 
1000 leading pajers of the country. 



L. RATHVON. 



HOME 
GUEST 



on trial for three months. The Home 
Guest is declared the best family paper 
now published. Each number contains an 
illustrated Fashion Department, a depart- 
ment on Writing and Penmanship, edited 
bv Prof. Gaskell, also a column of Chat 
_ with Readers, Puzzle Department, Letters 
, Domestic Receipts, History, Poetry, Biogra- 
" reading ■ " ' 



from Child] 
phy, and a 

whole, including a copy of the m 
the day, on trial three months for 
Address the publishi 



;iful chr( 



nly 30 . 



WEST JERSEY NURSERIES! 



GIBSON & BENNET. 

100,000 Felton's Early Prolific and Reliance Raspberry, 
200,000 CindreUa and Continental Strawberry Pl,ANTj^ 
direct fK)m the original stock. Millions of other Plants, 
Trees, to., &c. 

l»"New descriptive Circulars now ready. 

10-0-3m 



E. N. FRESHMAN & BROS., 

ADVERTISING AGENTS, 
186 W. Fourth St., Cincinnati, 0., 

Are antk*riBe<i to contract for advertlslngr 
in this paper. 

Estmates lanisbed free, Send (or a Circilar. 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS! 



The Lancaster Farmer, 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL. 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econo- 
my and Miscellany. 



FOUNDED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY AGRI- 
CULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVOR 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 

ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM, 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY THE PROPRIETOR. 

All subscriptions will commence with the January number, unless other- 
wise ordered. 



This number of "The Lancaster Farmer," issued in January, 1S79, is the first num- 
ber of Volume XL The publication of the "Farmer" has been transferred by Mr. L. 
Rathvon to the undersigned, who will continue it in the same form as it has been pub- 
lished in the past, trying at all times to spare neither money or labor to make it a firsN 
class Journal for the Farm, Garden and House. It will always contain the same amount o: 
reading matter, as the advertisements will never be allowed to encroach on that depart- 
ment. We have in view several slight changes that will make it more desirable to th( 
readers, and improve the appearance of it, but these changes they will notice as they 
made, and we refrain from saying more about them. 

Dr. S. S. Rathvon, who has so ably managed the editorial department in the pastj 
will continue in the position of editor. His contributions on subjects connected witli 
the science of faiming, and particularly that specialty of which he is so thoroughly 
master — entomological science — some knowledge of which has become a necessity to thf 
successful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of this publication. He :* 
determined to make "The Farmer" a necessity to all households. 

A county that has so wide a reputation as Lancaster county for its agricultural pre 
ducts should certainly be able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the es 
change of the opinions of farmers interested in this matter. We ask the co-operatio: 
of all farmers interested in this matter. Work among your friends. The "Farmer" 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and induce them to subscribe, 
is not much for each subscriber to do but it will greatly assist us. 

All communications in regard to the editorial management should be addressed t 
Dr. S. S. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa., and all business letters in regard to subscriptions an« 
advertising should be addressed to the publisher. Rates of advertising can be had 01 
application at the office. 

JOHN A. HIESTAND, | 

No, 9 North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 



ONE DOLLAR FEB ANNUM -SUTGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




S. S. EATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., FEBRUARY, 1879. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, PuHisher, 



CONTENTS OFJHIS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL. 

• New Subscribers, ---... 

. As Others See Us, ----- . 
-More About Eel6, -.--.. 

• Flowers, .--.-.-. 
. Peach Bark Louec, --.... 
. Farm Life vs. Professional Life, ... 

' Christinas Rose, ---... 

. Correction, - - 

ESSAYS. 
. Our Orchards, ..... 
Tobacco— Its Culture— Its Use and Its Effects as a 

Narcotic 

tiug 



On Tobai 



-PIu 



-Prepa 



-Wo-i 



Vltiou — Tojjplng 

Stripling and Sortiug— CouclusJon. 
♦Fence Mating on the Farm, .... 
. One Year's Experiment With Fowls, 
. Diseases of the Pear, ..... 

• Modern Fruit Houses, ..... 
, Culture and Training of the Vine, 

• Liquid Manure, 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 
. Cattle of Lancaster County, Or Eastern Penn- 
sylvania .-.-.-.. 
.Texas Cattle, 



Lell. 



of 



Samuol Houston, Debcribiug 



Texas Cattle. 

« Polled Cattle, - . - - v - - 2;: 
.Bitter-Swect, - - .. - . ,j . . 2;- 

• The Balance of Trade, 2.'; 

• More Alx)ut Cattle, -..-.. 24 

• Fifty Years Ago vs. The Present Day, . . 2^ 
. Fertilizers and Formulas, - - - - 25 

STATE SOCIETIES. 
. State Fruit Growers' Society, - - - - ".'i 

• State Millers' Association, - . . . ag 

The Next Place of Meeting. 20 

^ SELECTIONS. 

.The Grain and Fruit Crops of 1H78, . . . 2C 
The Corn Crop— The 0am Crop— Tne Barley Crop— 
The Eye Crop— Potato Crop— The Ilay Crop— 
Borghom- The Tobacco Crop— Friiit Growth. 2T 

'Ammonia in the Air, ----- 27 
OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

• Agricultural and Horticultural Society, - - 27 

Hev. J. Coldor's Lecture on Agriculture— Intensive 
Farming— Tlie Location of Farms— A Home Mar- 
lOBt— Educated Farmers.-The Fair Question- 
Charter Wanted— The Amount of Slock— Profit 
of Raising Fowls- The CurcnUo— Orapee- Bills— 
Prize Essays. 
. Tobacco Growers' Association, - - - 83 
. Poultry Association, 28 

• Warwick Farmers' Club, 28 

" Fulton Farmers' Club, 29 

Linntean Society 29 

Historical Division— Papers Re ad— Additions to the 

AGRICULTURE. 

The Greatest of all Grains, .... 29 

The Late Summer Seeding of Grass, - - 29 

The Ruta Baga, 29 

Corn in Drills, ---.... 29 



HORTICULTURE. 
Bay Your Trees at Home, 

•The Albemarle Apples, 
^Pruning Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

, Winter Peaches, .... 
FLORICULTURE. 

• Growing Ivy in Rooms, - . - 

. Flower Pots, ..... 

.Flowers for the Table, 

.Srailax, ...... 

•Growing Fusehais in Baskets, 

•.\mpelopi8 Victchii, ... 
I Window Plants, . - - . 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

.Evening's Milk Richest, 

.What is Castile Soap, 
VVatci--Proof Boots, .... 

.Ammonia in the Household, 

I. To Preserve Potatoes from the Rot, 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 
Earache, ...... 

To Bake Eggs, . - - . . 
., Frosted Feet, 

, Color for Wicker Baskets, 

Cranberries, ..... 

Ginger Cookies, . . . . . 

Sweet Omelet, . . . . - 

'Tapioca Cream, . . . . • 

To Lessen Friction for Furniture, 

The Sleep for Children, 

Chocolate Cake, .... 

Wafers, ...... 

Orange Cake, - . - - - 

Sour .Milk Cheese, .... 
I Miiice Pics, .-.--. 

LIVE STOCK. 
, Winter Management of Sheep, 
.Weaning Calves, . . . - 
.What Stock Needs, . . - . 

Imported Cattle, . . . - 

POULTRY. 
The Poultry Association, 
Langshan, ...... 

Tar in the Chicken House, 
Selecting Breeding Turkeys, 
Treatment for Cholera, . - - 
Literary and Personal, 




NORBECK SMILEY, 




PRACTICAL 



kfflm M\im, 



m & CO'S OLD ST.UFI. 

Corner of Duke and Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

THE LATE.ST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PHOTONS, 

Carriages, Etc. 



Prices to Suit the Times. 

RErAIHING iiioiii|.tlv attcudea to. All work 
giuinint.^il. 



VALUASIP f^fFf?BMAT!ON K'u 



POT AfOES 



<-p. ISAi.uiT.Ci,VMi;ii,<.iu 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



KXJISTtA\ATIIA RAIKROAn SCHEDVI^E. 

Trains leave the Depot in this city, as follows : 
Leave 
Lancaster. 



WE TWARD. 

Pacific Eipress* 

Way Passengert 

Niagara Express 

Hanover Accommodation,. 

MaU trail, via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line" 

Frederick Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation.. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express* 



9.30 a. m. 

9:35 p. m. 
11:15a.m. 
11:20 a. m. 
11:20 a.m. 

2:10 p.m. 

2:15p.m. 



11:30 p. 



7:35 a. m. 
9.28 p. m. 
1:20 p. m. 



9:35 a. I 



PhiladelpUiu. 
3:00 a. m. 
T:00 a. m. 



7:40 p. 



EASTWARD. 

Atlantic Express" 

Philadelphia Expresst 

Fast lane* 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accommodation. 

Pacific Express*. 

Sunday Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express" 

Harrisburg .Accom 

The Hanover Accoramod.;tion, 
with Niagara Express, west, a 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. 

The Pacific flivrpss, east, on Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at Middletown, Eiizabethtowu, Mount Joy and Laudis- 
Tille. 

"The only trains which run daily. 

tRuns daily, except Monday. 



t Lancaster 



) Frederick. 



$Ty Ou 



79-2 



PHARES W. FRY, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

wftLi PftPER& mmdw mmEB, 

Ilollniids, plain Shn<lo Cloth, 

Fixtures, Fringes, Tassels and all goods pertaining to a 

Paper and Shade Store, 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 



E. JE", 3B.o^757-ivi:.A.r<r, 



Al)fe^ 



ATI-OWEST POSSIBLK PltlCS;^, 

Fully guaranteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

9-1-12] Oppiisili- Lcopiiitl JTotfl. 



GLOVES, SHIRTS^UNDERWEAR. H 
SHIET3 MAdFtO ORDEK, 

AND W.M.ltANTED TO FIT. 



E. J. ERISMAN, 
56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



s. :b. ooixi. 



Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHUnCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 



TREES. 
Fruit, Sliade and Ornamental Trees, 



intend I'liin 



LOUIS C. LYTE 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Maimracturers of 

FURNITURE PD CHAIRS. 

WAKEKOOMS : 

102 East King St., Cor. of Duke St. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 



AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CLOCKS, 

JEWELRY I TABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairing strictly attended to. 

North Queen-st. and Centra Square, Lancaster, Pa, 



THOROUGHBRED SHORT-HORN 

BULLS AND BULL CALVES, 
FOR s/^x^e:. 

AT PRICES TO SUIT THE TIMES. 

A. M. RANOK, 

79-1-2] Bird-in-Hand, Lancaster Co., Pa. 



M. HABERBUSH, 

MANDFACTDRER OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

COLLARS, -WHIPS, FLY NETS, &c., 

ALSO DE.\LER IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

liUFALO ROBES, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, G-loves, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

79-1-12] LANCASTER, PA. 



ESTABLISHED 1832. 





Gr. SENER & SONS, 



£-xjisa:B]ER, 



PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 



OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnnt-sts.. 

LANCASTKR, FA. 



lor Orajies, Seedliugs, 
etc. seua lor Catalogue. 

J. JENKINS, 
WINOXA, Columbiana County, Ohio. 



TIJE LATEST! 



Tlje New TarifT of 



Made by OAK HALL, four weeks 
ago, sold oflF large lots of 

goods, and has 

INDUCED MANY TO IMITATE US! 

AS IJSIJAL 

JB^^Whatever is Done Elsewhere We 
always do Better. •'^g 

Tliis is the latest tariff for the 

AS FOLLOT\^S: 

An Elegant Business and Dress Suit, 
All-wool Black Cheviot, $10. Identical 
quality of goods sold by other parties 
as a great bargain at §1.5. We never 
sold them for more than $13. 

$4.89 buys a First Quality Dress 
Trousers, sold heretofore at $10. 

Fur Beaver and Chinchilla Over- 
coat.s, Good and Warm Cloth Bound, 
$8.50, $8.50, $8.50, $8.50. 

Next Higher Grade, Beautifully 
Made and Trimmed, Cloth Bound, 
Silk Velvet Collar, $10, $10, $10, $10. 

The Same Goods in Young Men's 
Sizes, $7, $r, $7, $7. 

Boy's Double Cape Overcoats, with 
all tlie Late Improvements, $5, $5, $5. 

Boys' and Youths' Trousers, All 
Wool, $2.39, $2.39, $2.39, $2.39. 

Hundreds of Latest Styles Child- 
ren's Overcoats, Soft Plush Lined, 
Elegant Goods, reduced from $8.75 to 
$6.50. 

$25 Fine French Fur Beaver Over- 
coats reduced to $15. (Beautifully 
made. Piped with Cloth and the 
Finest Linings) 

A clear saving of $2.50 on a Fine 
Dress Suit. 

At our low prices we have sold 
thousands of them at $1500; but to- 
day make a clean mark down to 
$12.50. They are not odds and ends, 
but complete lots. Hundreds biggest 
men can be fitted. This one lot of 
goods contained 55,120 yards, and has 
proved the best bargain we have had 
for our customers this season. 

A customer can come one hundred 
miles, and the saving on almost any 
Suit or Overcoat will pay the fare 
iwth ways. 

Wananjaker & Brown, 

OAK HALL, 
Sixth and Market Streets, 

PHILADELPHIA. 

The Largest Clothing House in 
America. 



1 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. BATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER. PA., FEBRUARY, 1879. 



Vol. XI. IIo. 



Editorial. 



NEW SUBSCRIBERS. 
We .arc pleased to be able to state that 
during the sionth of January about lifty-eiglit 
new subscribers were added to our list. A 
few friends of The Faumkr who are inter- 
ested in its success are working to increase 
the list in their neighborhood all they can. 
For their efforts they have our sincere thanks, 
and we trust that their work in this matter 
will be the means of inducing others to do the 
same. We would like to see Tiik Faujieu 
on a good footing, .so that it will maintain 
.itself, and that we will not lose money in en- 
deavoring to give the people of Lancaster 
county a good home journal. It should re- 
ceive a liberal support from our farmers and 
those interested in the various topics of which 
it treats, and we trust that all of the sub- 
scribers who receive this number will try and 
send us two or three new subscribers at least. 
Some could, no doubt, do more. It would 
seem like a very little work for each one to 
do, but if two new names were received from 
each old subscriber it would increase the list 
to three times what it is now, and place the 
paper on a good, sound basis, where it should 
have been years ago. As Ave said in the 
January number, we shall do all we can to 
make it better each mouth, and trust our 
subscribers will appreciate our efforts and lend 
us such assistance as is in their power. The 
subscription price is only one dollar a year. 
We make the following as an inducement to 
our friends to work for us : To any one who 
will send us five new subscribers, accompanied 
by five dollars, we will send The Farmer 
free for one year. See if we cannot have a 
still better report for our next number. 

AS OTHERS SEE US. 

The first number of TnE Lax( astkr Farmer, 
under the proprietorship of John A. Iliestauil, Esq., 
publisher of the Lancaster Examiner and Sxprexs, 
conducted by Dr. S. S. Kathvon, shows a general 
excellence that might be imitated with profit by 
other periodicals making agriculture their leading 
feature. It is well printed, carefully arranged, and 
conducted witli great ability. The subscription is 
only one dollar a year. — Germantoien Telegraph. 

There is no man on the editorial st.aff whose 
good opinion we more highly esteem than that 
of the veteran editor of the TckijrtqA. AVc 
do not desire to be pharisaical in our claims 
to distinction, but wc may lie permitted to 
say that tlie Major knows a.s well tlie quality 
of our journal.as we do UkiI be publishes the 
best family pajier— either for "king or cotter" 
— tliat is issued in Penusylvania. 

The Lancaster Farmer for .January enters upon 
Its eleventh volume, hopeful that it may be more 
generally sustained by the community in which it is 
published and for whose interest it labors. We have 
neglected heretofore to state that there has been a 
change in its publishers. Mr. Linn.Tus Kathvon 
having sold out to -Mr. .John A. Hiestand, proprietor 
of Ihe Examiner and Ezjtress. Dr. S. S. Rathvon 
still retains the pesition of editor, and will continue 
to labor with all diligence for the success of the 
journal, which should find a place in every farmer's 
home, not only in our own great county, but through- 
out this and adjacent States. Let our farmers risk a 
dollar in this home journal of agriculture, and they 
will be convinced that tliey have made a good in- 
vestment. Address John A. Hiestand, Lancaster, 
Vn.—yew MoUand Clarion. 



We have marked witli local pride the evi- 
dences of progress made by the rural press of 
Lancaster comity ; and none with more in- 
terest than that of the Clarion, whose own 
excellence allbrds an imwarped medium, 
through which it is able to recognize what is 
praiseworthy in others. 

Many similar notices, from far and near, 
come under our observation, but our space is 
too limited to admit them all. We cannot, 
however, on this occasion, refrain from adding 
the analytic notii-r of A(ii;icoi..\, in a recent 
nunilieriil' [\w Ihilh/ E.ramincmnd I'Jxpress, as 
one that is more than ordinarily appropriate: 

What a thrill the very name is calculated to send 
through the breasts of the cultivators of the soil, 
dotted over the various States and Territories of the 
Union. There is a charm in that name that would 
welcome the bearer of it to any domicile in the 
East, the West, the North or the South, owned 
liy any Ibrmer farmers of Lancaster county, or their 
posterity. This may be germane to the subject, but 
it is not exactly the subject itself to which the above 
caption refers. 

I have just received the January, 1870, number of 
our local agricultural journal, that bears that name; 
a journal which, in my humble opinion, ought to be 
in the house of every progressive farmer in the 
county of Lancaster, if not in the entire State of 
Pennsylvania. I have received and welcomed it as a 
cherished household companion, and I have also 
analyzed its contents. I Hud that it contains seventy- 
five separate articles, and forty five subdivisions of 
some of these articles, as well as an index of the 
contents of this number. Twenty-eight of these 
articles (exclusive of the proceedings of societies,) 
are original ; all, except two, having been written by 
local contributors, who inelude some of the most 
practical farmers and fruitgrowers. 

The material, the typographical execution, and the 
general makeup of the journal will compare favor- 
ably with the best in the country. Quarto in form, 
and furnished at one dollar a year in advance, postage 
paid. 

The farmers of Lancaster county should, by all 
means, give their preference to their own local 
journal — work for it — write for it — and be in har- 
monious sympathy with it. No man who entirely 
ignores his friends, his family or his kin, will find as 
much sympathy froui strangers in the hour of ad- 
versity as he will from the home circle ; therefore, 
home and the things of home should be sustained. 
This does not meau that he should be selfishly locked 
up against foreign things, when he desires, or it is 
his interests to go beyond ; but he should still hold 
to the home anchor. — AgrieoUtf Lancaster, Jan, 15, 
IST'J. 

MORE ABOUT EELS. 

MlLLWAV, January 18th, 1879. 
Mk. S. S. Kathvon— Z^car .Sir: Allow me to 
olTer a few remarks on the subject of eels. I saw in 
The Lancaster Farmer for January, 1879, that 
you desire to have the experiences of local observers 
in regard to the migrations, &c., of these peculiar 
animals. The migrations of eels I have never wit- 
nessed, but I am able to say something about their 
eggs, or spawn. I have a fish-pond, about one and 
a half miles north of Litiz, ou my father's farm. 
Last summer — I cannot now tell the exact date — one 
of the laboring men of the farm was fishing, with a 
hook and line, in the pond aforesaid. Among other 
fishes he drew out a large female eel, weighing about 
three pounds. When this eel was opened she was 
found to be full of eggs, about the size of shad eggs. 
The oldest of our fishermen say that it is very seldom 
that eels are caught with eggs in them. .My son 
Franklin now occupies my farm. I have retired and 
now reside at Milhvay station, C. K . U . — Yours truly, 
Levi B. Brubakcr. 

Mr. E. K. Ilcrsbey, of Cresswell, in this 
county, made a verbal response to the ques- 
tion in our January number, about the migra- 
tion of eels. Mr. II., together with his father 
and other members of the family, saw young 
eels migrating up the Susquehanna, near the 
Lancaster shore, about the year 18-tO or 1850, 
in the month of May, as near as he is able to 
recall the period ; and to continue their mi- 
grations upward during a whole day and until 
after nightfall, but cannot tell how long they 
continued running, as not one was observed 



the next morning thereaRer. The locality 
where they made this olKscrvation was about 
one mile below the borough of Washington, 
On this occasion they scooped up dozens of 
them with a common cullender. It is com- 
monly supposed among lisliermeu that these 
migrations continue about three days, and 
furthermore, they favor the idea that many 
young eels now jiass u]) througli the canals 
instead of the river, but for various reasons 
this seems im|in)bal)le, even if it were possible. 
The oUservatioMS of these two men seem to 
bo in harmony with what wc stated in our 
May numlier of The Farmer, page GO. It 
is very strange that so few have observed this 
eel migration, :iiid yet more strange, that still 
fewer have made records of tlie iilienomenon. 
Catching eels in the month of .May with eggs 
in them. Unless there are different species 
of eels, creek species, pond species .and river 
species, that difler or have changed in their 
habits, it is dilhcult to reconcile their migra- 
tions in the month of May, and the existence 
of eggs in them in tliu s;une month. But the 
facts are on record, and we have the objects 
in our posses.siun, and therefore wc arc com- 
l)elled to conclude that there are local or pond 
species, and migrating or river si)ecies. So 
far as we understand Prof. Packard's late 
discovery, he does not seem to have had such 
a distinct demonstration of eggs as we have 
recorded in the foregoing, and after all he 
may only have seen spermatazoids. 

The following on the same subject w'e have 
received from an intelligent correspondent 
from Conestoga township : 

About the year 1S:W I once had the satisfaction of 
seeing young eels going up the Susquehanna. They 
followed close along the shore in a continual stream; 
I suppose I might say millions of them, little fellows, 
from ;i to 6 inches long. Have not been much about 
the river since, and had almost foigotten the cir- 
cumstance, until I saw your queries about them.— 
r. If. 

FLOWERS. 



In life's varioufl relaticns 

'Mid its scenes of woe ami niirtb, 
TUey are ever by us valued. 



form pleasant links In the chain of our existence. 
When the sky of the future seems clear, and no 
breakers appear ahead, we look upon them with the 
most tender devotion as contributing to our happi- 
ness. In the dark and trying hours of misfortune, 
when alBiction and disappointment combine to make 
our hearts heavy, involuntarily we turn to these our 
pels, and lecognize in them an instrument in the 
hands of Providence, of love, of beauty, teaching us 
submission to his will, and to look for brighter, 
happier hours." — /•'. A. \V. in F. and F. Jfagazine. 
On a perhaps lower and more iiractical 
plane, llowers lill a social and domestic 
racutnii that relieves us from that ennui 
which is sometimes so inseparably from isola- 
tion and loneliness. Tliey speak to us in a 
language that we .soon learn to interpret, and 
recall many pleasant memories of by-gone 
days; ever suggesting something that ought 
to be done in order to perpetuate the sympathy 
existing between us and them. Yea, more ; 
they are the silent and gentle teachers of a 
refinement that is imparted by the ciirinihwi 
of no other school. We admire the gaudy for 
their higli-toned coloration and their da.shing 
beauty, but our feeling towards the modest 
and humble culminates in a sentiment that is 
akin to love. We hold them as tiie repre- 
sentative outbirths of principles that have 
their origin in the invisible realms, permitted, 
if not provided by the Creator for an en- 
nobling and useful end ; and nothing staggers 
us more than the sentiment which obtains 
among some of the rigidly righteous, that 



48 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



their cultivation and encouragement is pro- 
fane. Tlieir soothing outgoing perfumes 
dissipate the noxious odors that surely would 
render this world uninhabitable, both to man 
and the higher animals, if it were not for 
God's lovely flowers. They are here, and 
were here on earth before man was, and it 
seems the most Pharisaical species of pre- 
sumption to ignore them. 

PEACH BARK LOUSE. 
{Lf'caniitni 2*frsicum,) 

The following, from a correspondent, is im- 
portant and speaks for itself to all who may 
heed it : 

Reading, January 20th, 1879. 

S. S. RATin'ON— ZJcrt)- /S'ir: For further informa- 
tion I write you that I have experimented for a 
remedy on the peach bark louse and found one. My 
remedy is not permanent for individual good, but 
profitable. If all fruit-growers were to nnite and 
adopt my remedy the pest might be exterminated. 
My remedy, which proved effectual last season, was 
this : In the early part of spring, before the buds 
sprouted, I began the operation. No rain happening 
to fall to suit my purpose I took the means, by using 
a water-sprinkler, of making the trees' branches 
completely wet, after which I took fine air-slaked 
lime and saturated the tree iill over with it, which 
adhered nicely to the bark. I left the trees unnoticed 
until the peach fruit were about half grown, when I 
made observations, and found the insect gone and 
the bark clean again. These Irees were thrify and 
hardy all through the summer and had fine fruit, to 
perfection. But when autumn came I again noticed 
the insect beginning to make its appearance, though 
in a small quantity, which satisfied me that if all 
fruit-growers do not enlist in waging war against 
destructive insects, we, as individuals, must be con- 
stantly at labor against odds to keep down the multi- 
plication of evil against the good and beautiful fruit. 
Have any of the Lancaster people found any remedy ? 
If so what are they ? Hoping to hear some remarks 
I remain yours, respectfully, Williain Young, Head- 
ing, Pa. 

Xo, not that we heard of. They are, 
probably, waiting to profit by some other per- 
son's discovery.' AVe approve your remedy, 
but we believe that grease would have the 
same efl'ect. 

FARM LIFE vs. PROFESSIONAL LIFE- 
The following interesting extract, frotn a 
letter to ''ye local" to the Lancaster Inte.lU- 
fjencer, will be read with attention by a good 
many in this locality, where the writer is well 
known and held a distinguished position in 
society, having been one of the former editors 
of that paper and the member from Lancaster 
city in the Constitutional Convention that 
formed the present Constitution of Pennsyl- 
vania. II. G. Smith, Esq., of Hawkins county, 
Tennessee, gives a very grapiiic description of 
his whereabouts, what he has been doing and 
what he intends to do for the future. His ex- 
periences in life have been various, and there- 
fore he is enabled to speak to a practical 
]ioint; and we especially advise all those 
farmers who are yearning after town life, 
town speculations and town aspirations to 
give it an attentive perusal. It is true he may 
be still too young in agricultural experience 
to be regarded as a standard authority, but 
his example is very appropriate at this time, 
when there are so many thousands in the 
towns dragging out a life of listless idleness, 
and so«nany also of limited means who don't 
know bow to invest them, whilst so many acres 
of good land in our vast country are literally 
hungering after industrious and enterprising 
tillers of of the soil to come and "occupy." 
The tide of human events must turn in that 
direction if ever we wish to see better times, 
and anything that can afford the least en- 
couragement to those who contemplate a 
change of state, and an enrollraent among the 
yeomanry of our county, ought to be scattered 
abroad. After enumerating many things of 
a purely personal and private character Mr. S. 
proceeds in a seemingly happy and contented 
strain: 

"I have settled down to farming with the 
determination to make a lifetime business of 
it. The political bugle may blow, but it can 
not rouse me when I return from my fields 
to take my siesta beneath the wide-spreading 
beeches which surround my house. I com- 



menced in the woods, almost as much so as 
any producer ; built me a saw mill, and then 
continued to build ; am not done yet ; built 
an ice-honSe and filled it during the coldest 
snap we had. Built the thing myself with the 
assistance of a common farm hand. Made a 
first-class job of it, I think. Provided for 
turning the drainage into a dairy. When the 
thermometer goes to the other extreme next 
summer I can give you punch made from milk 
of my Jerseys, with as fine ice in it as ever 
froze on the Conestoga. I got it off my mill 
dam, eight inches thick and as clear as crystal. 
I havn't got my barn finished yet. With that 
and one or two other little jobs I will end 
building and begin to put things in order 
about me. I have a large orchard set and 
vines planted. Have had apples, peaches and 
grapes of my own planting. Had a number 
of peach trees with fine fruit, which ripened 
before the 1st of last July. Some as early as 
June 20th. How is that for progress i* If I 
were to come back to Lancaster I might aspire 
to membership in the Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society ; might I not ? I am content 
with my present life. There is an indepen- 
dence and freedom about it that suits my 
temper. My chief ambition is to become a 
self-sustaining farmer — to produce everything 
I need, so far as it can be done on a farm. I 
have the sheep, and I intend to wear nothing 
but gray clothes made from my own flocks 
hereafter. There is a mill in the county which 
makes very nice goods. 

I want "some first-class Lancaster county 
tobacco seed ; some best fitted for making 
cigars. I raised some Cuba tobacco from seed 
furnished by the patent office two years ago, 
and it had the genuine Havana flavor. It was 
not properly cared for. This year I intend to 
do the thing right— on a small scale, of 
course — only for my own use at present. I 
believe that on virgin soil, such as I have, I 
can raise tobacco which will make first-rate 
cigars. The Cuba grows too small for good 
wrappers. Send me some choice seed from 
Lancaster, and send as soon as you can get it, 
as it is nearly time to sow it, though a month 
late will do here." 



CHRISTMAS ROSE. 

First, we would admonish our readers not 
to be misled by the term "rose" employed in 
the above name, for the flowering plant to which 
we refer is really not a rose at all. It only 
evinces the arbitrary use that is often made, 
locally, of the common names of things. We 
allude to what is regarded by botanists as the 
"Black Helebore,"* or a variety of it, other- 
wise called the "Christmas Eose." We have 
this plant growing in our own garden, and it 
is one of the most hardy flowering plants we 
know of. It is rather a slow grower, but it is 
always fresh and green throughout the entire 
summer and winter, and blooms from Decem- 
ber to April— sometimes earlier and later. 
The first flowers opened the present season in 
December, and those flowers are as fine and 
fresh to-day as when they first opened, not- 
withstanding, in the meantime, the tempera- 
ture where the plant was growing was seven 
degrees below zero. There are now about 
twenty-five half opened flowers and buds visi- 
ble, and upon which the frost seems to have 
no more effect than it has upon iron. For a 
figure and description of the Black Helebore 
we refer our readers to page 41, Vol. X, of 
The Lancaster Farmer, where its history 
and medicinal qualities are portrayed. It is 
true, when the ground is covered with snow 
its cheerful aspect is hidden by the lurid 
mantle of winter. But when the season is an 
open one, or as soon as the snow disappears, 
it welcomes you to its frosty bed, and is the 
first, and perhaps the only floral sojourner 
that hails the advent of the modest " snow- 
drop," the early harbinger .of the new-born 
spring, and sharer in its blooming glory. 
Under careful cultivation and special atten- 
tion no doubt it would be susceptible of im- 
provement. 

'Heleborua niger. Order, RiKiraouLAoi a. 



CORRECTION. 

In the 2'2d and 53d lines of the first column, 
and the 7th line of tlie second column of J^ 
G. 's article on pages G and 7 of our .January 
number for "corncob meal" read chopped corn. 
Corncob meal may do as a "make-shift," but 
Mr. G. would by no means recommend it in 
speaking of good, nutritious food, and its 
occurrence in his article is our mistake. 



Essays. 



OUR ORCHARDS.* 

Friends and neighbors, look to your or- 
chards. Perhaps you ought to plant a new 
one. Now is the time to think over it, and to 
make the calculations. The planting of 
orchards is too much neglected. Persons who 
have orchards wait too long before they start 
a new one. AVhen I was a boy I heard some 
people say that when an orchard is in its best 
bearing condition, then is the proper time to 
start a new one. I took special notice of that 
remark, and I have found by experience that 
it is so. It takes from twelve to fifteen years 
for a young orchard to come into bearing fruit 
to any extent. Take an orchard that is in Its 
very best condition, and then fifteen to twenty 
years after that you will see that it is not 
much— that it is already going to decay, ex- 
cept in a few very special eases. But many 
farmers don't think of planting an orchard as 
long as they have fruit enough in the old one, 
and then they run entirely out before the new 
one comes up to fill the gap. About twenty 
years ago I had a talk with an old man that I 
was well acquainted with. I told him he 
ought to plant a new orchard. He answered, 
"I'll plant none, for it won't do me any good." 
He lived to be quite an old man, and only 
died five years ago. He had two farms and a 
small homestead, all in a row along a public 
road, and left them all without an orchard to 
those who came after him. Last year I had 
a talk with a farmer who has an excellent 
orchard in full prime or a little over. I told 
him now would be the time for him to plant a 
new orchard, but he only shook his head and 
replied, "I will plant none yet awhile." 
That's the way it goes ; most people think 
only of the present and self, without troubling 
themselves much about the future and others. 

What would have been the case if our 
fathers had not planted ? Would we have 
had any fruit at all ? If we only plant fruit 
when we begin housekeeping we shall have no 
fruit until we get old. This will do for new 
beginners on new farm lauds, but we ought 
to plant for our children or successors on the 
old homesteads. Think of it ; there are many 
farms where orchards should be started, but 
their owners tliink it would be so much lost. 
But that is a mistake ; it is not lost. 

I started an orchard about ten years ago 
and had potatoes in it every year, for eight 
years in succession. The trees don't take up 
mucli space when young, only we must be 
careful that by plowing and cultivating we do 
not injure the trees. I muzzled the horses so 
that they could not bite or crop offthe branches, 
and I tied an old bag around the "traisor" 
and the ends of the singletrees, so that they 
could not skin the young trees if they should 
happen to touch them. After that I had 
wheat in one year, sowed with clover, and 
have it in clover ever since and get a good 
crop of it every year ; and now the trees have 
commenced to bear and in a short time will 
pay for themselves. To plant an orchard will 
not cost much. In November last I planted 
an orchard of seventy-five trees. I plowed the 
groimd and followed with a sub-soil plow, , 
Which took twice as much time as ordinary 
plowing. I then purchased trees at 12^ cents 
each, and myself and two others planted 
them all in less than a day. Then the work 
was done. I would advise all those who have 
no young orchards to plant at once. Trees are 
cheap and labor is cheap. Don't buy trees 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



19 



from those agents who travel llimu^'l] tlie 
country. Ciet tlicni in the nci'^iiliorinu iiur- I 
series, and tlie .sooner you ]>\.u\i ili'Hi ultrr i 
they are out of the nursery llie l.iii.i. Make | 
up your order now and send it In lli'' iiuisiiy j 
where you want to ■,'(■! vnur trees. If you ■ 
delay tlieni until you think you just want | 
them you may, inirhaps. not ■ret wliat you ; 
want. TIic best may be pieked out and y..u 
will have to supply yourself out of thosi- thai 
are left. Select a place for your orchard iliai 
has a nothern slope if you pipssitilv can uiaki' 
it suit. It is the hest plaee. fui- llie l,nl >un is 
not so hard on the tre.s, an. I it will n.d dry 
out as soon as a so\ilheni slo]ie, and the trees 
will not start so early in tlie si)ring, nor arc 
they so apt to be caught by late frosts. Let 
the most of your planting be late winter 
apples ; \vc plant too many summer and fall 
apples. Subsoiling before "planting I consider 
very beneficial. The work is not lost. You 
need nothing but a shovel to dig the holes. 
Then loosen the soil about eighteen inches 
deep. 



TOBACCO— ITS CULTURE— ITS USE 
AND ITS EFFECTS AS A NARCOTIC* 

Of all the vegetable sulistanccs trafliced in 
as a business, and indulged in as a narcotic — 
such, for instanee, as oiiiuni, lii-nip, hops, 
betel, lettuce, fungus, holly. Icdauuni,! thorn 
apple, and clay and arsenic eating— there is 
more used or'dealt in to the same extent as 
tobacco. ''Johnson on Narcotics," in sum- 
ming up his estimates of these substances, 
used for the year \i^W. sets tliein down as fol- 
lows : Tobacco, sdd.iinii.diMi ; o|iiuin. H«t.- 
000,000; hemp, :i(ii), 111111,11110 ; li.'iel, iniuioii,- 
000; coca,I 1(1,000.11(10; ami thousan.ls use 
lettuce, clay, arsenic, fungus, ledanum, 
thorne apple, &c. These are used in dillerent 
ways— smoked, chewed or simffod — by a great 
number of people. Tobacco is believed te be 
a native of Tropical America; at all events, 
it was cultivated and used tliere by the in- 
habitants of some parts of that continent be- 
fore its discovery by the Europeans in 149-2. 
(.'olunibus found the chiefs on the Island of 
Cuba smoking cigars, and Cortes met with it 
afterwards. It grows best within the thirty- 
fifth degrees of latitude ou either side of the 
equator. The finest qualities arc raised be- 
tween the fourteenth and fifteenth degrees of 
north latitude— the I'hilipine Islands— and 
between tlic thirty-fourth and thirty-liflh de- 
grees — in Latakia, Syria. In America to- 
bacco is met with almost everywhere, and the 
consumption is simply enormous. Doctor 
Johnson rather deprecatingly remarks that 
the custom of using tobacco is " loathsome to 
the eye, hateful to the nose, hurtful to the 
brain, dangerous to the lungs, and in the 
black, stinking fumes thereof, nearest resem- 
bles the horrible .stygian smoke, of the pit 
that is bottomless." ' AVhen it was first intro- 
duced among the English, in vain did King 
llaraes oppose it by his counterblasts against 
tobacco. In Europe, from the plains of Sur- 
ey Castle to the frozen Archangel, and from 
he Ural to the Icelands, the pipe, the cigar 
ind the snuff-box area conniion solace among 
ill ranks and conditions of the people. So, 
ilso, in vain did the Sultans and priests of 
Turkey and Persia declare smoking a sin 
igainst their holy religion. 
The Turks, nevertheless, became the great- 
st smokers in the world. This nation, iu- 
luding the Siamese, th.e Burmese, and the 
ndias in general, are all inveterate smokers, 
eluding both .sexes of all ranks, even dow-u 
the children. In China the i)ractiee is .so 
niversal that every female, from the age of 
ight or nine years, has an appendage to her 
ress to hold a pipe. Lobacco was introduced 
om America into Spain by the Spaniards, 

Read before the Tobacco Orowois' Asflociation, by Peter 
Keiet. 

XxDANUM or Ladanum, a roeinoiiB iuspissated juice 
om a shrub called Leda or Lada, (Ci»(uk ladaniftrtm) and 
her plants of the same geuuft, growing ou the Me,diterra- 
■ ind elsewhere. C'liieflv used as .1 stimulant, 
of opicv is also called Ladttmim M Laudanum. 
JCOOA, the dried leaf of the Enthrnxiilr.n rooa, a highly 
mulating narcotic, found growing ■KiXi in Peru. 



1 n( 

t 

lit ,„ 



in l.'iOli, and into France by Xicote. In I.'jSCi 
it was iiiti-oilueed into lOii^laiid bv Sir Francis 
Drake, under the auspices ..f Sir AValter 
Haleiixh ; and into Tui-key about ICOl. Since 
then the (aillivation ami use of tobacco has 
liicn spread over a large portion of the habi- 
table wiirld. The dillerent jiarts of America 
in which loli.ieco is grown include Canada, 
New r.Miii.v, i.k. Mexico, the roiled States, 
II, e W, .leni ( .ia-1 a- far as -Id degrees south 
lalilu.le, i:i:,/,il, ( nl.a. Trinidad, and the 
West India Mauds. U is also cultivated on 
the coast of the lied Sea, and on the Medi- 
terranean; in Egyp , Algiers, the canons 
along the western coast of Africa and the 
Cape of (iood Hope. In Europe it has been 
cultivated willi success in almost every coim- 
tiy, and it tonus at present an important 
agricultural protluct in Hungary, Germany, 
Flanders and France. In Asia it has spread 
over Turkey, Persia, India, Thibet, China, 
.Japan, and a number of smaller States. 

Dr. .Johnson says it is the most susceptible 
of cultivation, the most hardy, the most tole- 
rant of change altitude and general climate 
of any plant of its class, and may be raised, 
without dilliculty, from the Equator to the 
fifty-fourth degree of north or south latitude. 
And here I desire to add a few words on gen- 
eral narcotic indulgence. Siberia has its nar- 
cotic fungus ; Turkey, India and China their 
oiiinm ; Persia, India and parts Turkey, with 
all Africa, from Morocco to the Cape of (iood 
Hope, have their narcotic hemp, including 
even the Indians of Brazil. Other parts of 
India, China and Eastern Archipelago have 
their belid-nut and betel-pepper. The Poly- 
nesian Islands their daily ava ; Peru and 
15olivia their long used coca; New Granada 
and the lliinalayes red and common thorn- 
apples ; Asia and America and all the world, 
we may say, their tobacco. Northern Europe 
and America have their ledanum and sweet 
gale; the (Jeniians and English their hops, 
and the I'rem lnnan his lettuce. No nation so 
ancient init has had it.s narcotic soother, even 
from the earliest periods of its history. The 
craving for such indulgences, and the habit 
of gratifying them, are but little less than the 
desire for food and the habit of eating ; the.se 
material substances coming even in competi- 
tion with common food, the very staff of life. 

Much could be said touching the use of to- 
bacco —such as smoking, chewing and .snnf- 
lin.g— and also touching its abuse, its eiTects 
asa tramiuilizer, and that solace, for which, 
.Johnson says, lliousands llee to it. It seems 
sullicient tii say that it is cultivated, tralliced 
in and widely used ; and Providence appears 
to smile upon those who encourage as well as 
those who discourage it. There is one thing 
that seems certain — its long continued, wide- 
ly extended and ra\)idly increasing cultiva- 
tion, trartic and use, t^vince that for some 
wise purpose it has been jx-rmited, and infer- 
entially iorthcj)ivrc)i(Joii of some other pos- 
sible abuses, that would be greater evils. 
On Tobacco Culture. 

The climate, the mode of culture, the kind 
of manure applied, the period at which the 
crop should be gathered and cured, &c., are 
important factors in connection with the 
commerce in tobacco. It will grow on almost 
any soil, and in any climate that will produce 
corn, but a warm climate seems preferable. 
On our 000,(100 acres of land devoted to the 
cultivation of tobacco in the Fnitcd Slates, 
40(t, (Kill. (10(1 ]iounds are produced, valued at 
S;:i(l,(Hl(i;oo(i. Keiiluekv raises i:!(l,(l(Hi.()0O; 

Virginia, .-.o. l.noo-, Mi-suiiri, 4:!,(l(l(t,(l(tO ; 

Pcnns_\lvaiiia, al"iul 1 l.ooo.ood; and Connec- 
ticut. "alMiiii s, Odd. Odd p.iuiids. Mr. Dicker- 
man says lobacco is a paying crop, but it ex- 
hausts the soil more rapidly than any other 
crop, and when land is once exhausted by its 
cultivation, hardly any process will pay to 
renovate it again. To prove this we need 
only refer to the exhausted lands of Virginia 
and Maryland southward, and many places in 
the Eastern and AVestem States : but this re- 
sult cannot be considered unavoidable. 
Preparing the Ground. 

Plow nnder well rotted barnyard manure 



and lime, or any good compost or phosphate, 
at any time thtil your land is in such a eomli- 
tion as to make the soil loo.sc and mellow. 
Or use bone-dust, or any kind of fine fertili- 
zer as a toi)-dressing. ITsc understandingly, 
and with experimcnial knowledge, a certain 
quantity of hone-ilust or harmless fertilizer to 
each plant. Bear in mind that to bring your 
land in a proper condition to grow tobacco, 
vou eaniiol easily get it loo rich and mellow. 
The application o( ashes, muck or compost of 
almost any material that would iiroduce good 
corn will also produce good lobacco. Have 
your land ready to plant about the first day 
of .June. Score it ofi" about three feet and a 
half apart in ridges crossing each other at 
right angles. 

Varieties. 

There are, perhap."^, ten din"erent varieties 
of tobacco, of which every grower must judge 
for himself, such as the broad-leaved Connec- 
ticut, the Iluber, the chestnut leaf, &c., de- 
pending somewhat on the richne.ss of your 
soil and your location, a.s well as the state of 
the season. 

Plants. 

One of the first requisites is the prepara- 
tion of a good and rich .seed bed, which should 
be attended to as early as the ground will 
allow its ( tilture. For this [lurpose select the 
sunny side of a southern slope. Learn to .sow 
your'seed by experience, and 1 consider it use- 
less at this late day to give any extended in- 
structions to any grower, in regard to the 
cover they require, and their treatment gen- 
erally. 

Planting. 

Plant about the end of May or the begin- 
ning of June, as circumstances and the season 
will permit. Set the plants about twenty- 
four inches apart in the rows, and as I have 
before stated, learn to plant by experience ; 
you will soon learn that in dry weather you 
will have to adai)t yourself to deeper planting, 
and to use water if too dry, and that judici- 
ously ; and in wet wealln"'r that you cannot 
be too careful so you will not cause a clod or 
a bake around thi; plant after the coming of 
a c'ry spell. I>ike in any other occupation, 
you will succeed best after you have gained 
experience. 

Cut-Worms. 

Soon after the plant is set the "cut-worm" 
makes its appearance, which retiuircs watch- 
ing. Then, after several weeks another and 
greater enemy ajipears in the "horn-worm." 
A large, green worm with a conspicuous horn 
on the back near the hind end, which if left 
to itself would destroy the wholi.- crop. Many 
ways haue been reeominended to destroy these 
worms, or the parents of them, by keeping 
bright li.-es burning aroiuid the field as a trap; 
by striking them tlown in the evening with a 
paddle; or by introducing poison into the 
rtowers of the "Jim.son weed," on the honey 
of which they feed ; but the most effective 
way to keep them from ruining the tobacco 
jilants is to go over the field often enough to 
l>ick off all the worms and destroy them. 
Cultivation. 

The only advice on this point is, as soon as 
the plants have starteil to grow, go in with 
the cultii-ator and hoe. Repeat it often enough 
80 as to keep the soil loose, and all the grass 
and weeds down until it becomes too large to 
work with cultivator and hoe. 

Topping and Suckering. 

Topping .should be done as soon .is the 
reeds appear, leaving from eight to twelve 
leaves remaining, according to the fertility of 
the soil or lateness of the season ; and break 
off all the suckci-s as you go along the rows. 
Cutting. 

This operation must also be learned by ex- 
perience. When your leaves become dotted 
with yellow spots, bcomc glossy and crack by 
doubling them together, you would better 
Ix'gin to harvest "immediately, as you will 
always run a risk of hail storms or frost. Let 
it wiit on the ground liefore you handle it. 
After this there are almost as many different 



20 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February 



ways of haudling it as there are farmers who 
cultivate it. Most of tlie tobacco housed is 
strung on four foot laths, and conveyed on 
wagons constructed for the special purpose 
of hauling it to the tabcco house. But some 
store it on scaffolds, from one to four 
days, before they put it on poles. or in the 
house or shed. The experiences of one year, 
especially the first year, will indicate the 
course to pursue the next year. 

Stripping and Sorting. 

This is the last operation and puts the 
finishing touch to the manipulations of the 
crop, (as Scripture says, "The crown is not in 
the beginning, nor in the middle, but in the 
end,") which ought to be done with the great- 
est care, in order to secure a ready sale. Sort 
it into four classes, marked AA, A, and B, 
and "fillers." After which the price it will 
command, separate from the market, will be 
according to its quality. 

Conclusion. 

Let quality be the aim of your ambition, 
rather than quantity. High quality always 
commands a ready sale and fair prices ; is 
easier handled, and involves less labor than 
a large quantity of inferior garbage. A large 
quantity of inferior tobacco, lik other inferior 
things, may not produce as much marketable 
bulk as a smaller quantity of superior stock ; 
and, moreover, it is the poorest kind of ma- 
terial out of which to build a solid reputation 
as a reliable tobacco farmer.— P. !S. Beist, 
Litiz, January, 1879. 

FENCE-MAKING ON THE FARM.* 
Fence-making is very expensive in our 
days. When I was a boy, perhaps half-grown, 
my father told me that in Germany they have 
no fences, and it will become so, eventually, 
here in this country, too. I thought that 
could hardly be so, for I could not see how we 
could do without fences. But now I think 
the time is fast approaching when we will be 
almost compelled to do without fences, but 
we cannot do without them at the present 
time. We must have good fences around our 
farms to keep our neighbors' hogs and cattle 
out, and to keep our own stock in, but the 
interior fences we can dispense with and save 
so much, even at the present time. There 
are only about half the fences on farms that 
there were when I was a boy, and we can still 
save some yet. We have our fences with 
five rails, and near to the ground that no 
hogs can creep under or get through. I 
have come to the conclusion to make my 
fences hereafter with four rails, or perhaps 
three at some places, and make them just as 
high as they^are now— posts seven feet long, 
but leave the lower rail out, and make the 
second, which is to be the lowest, three inches 
lower than now. The upper one the same as 
it is in a five-rail fence, and then divide evenly 
the intermediate space. Such a fence will 
answer just as well for cattle and sheep, and 
will endure longer before the posts rot off, 
because the lower hole is not so near the 
ground. But then I will liave a tight fence 
around my orchard, as before, so that I can 
let my hogs in to cat the fruit which falls 
from the trees, and which is not fit for use. 
Tlie remainder of the time I will keep them 
in the pen. Their feed will not cost as much 
as an extra tight fence over the farm. Ordi- 
narily, hog raising is not profitable in our part 
of the country, especially while pork is as 
cheap as it is at the present time. In the 
west they can always raise hogs and ship them 
here cheaper than we can raise them. We 
can make more out of our corn if we feed it 
to some other stock. But every farmer ought 
to raise enough of pork for his own family. 
That he can do without much cost with proper 
management. 

Every farmer ought to see what he wants in 
fencing material now, before the spring opens, 
and have it ready by that time, so that he will 
not have to go after it when the roads are 
bad, or other work is pressing. 



ONE YEAR'S EXPERIMENT WITH 
FOWLS.* 

I present an account whicli I held with my 
fowls during the year 1878. The experiment 
was made to test the value of fowls when 
kept in an enclosure where they could destroy 
little of value. They were kept in an en- 
closed orchard (1:^ acres). True, they did 
pick some of the fallen fruit, but this had very 
little market value, and I estimate that, upon 
the whole, the fowls were of more benefit 
than hurt to the orchard. I have heard claims 
of large profits where fowls had the range of 
the farm ; but it is doubtful whether the proper 
deduction was made for the acre, more or 
less, of wheat destroyed ; or for the corn or 
garden things pulled up ; or for the clover 
trampled under foot. Others claim big profits 
from breeding fancy stock and selling at fancy 
prices. SIO.OO for a pair of fowls and S2.00 
a dozen for eggs sounds profitable, but it is 
doubtful if many realize it. You will perceive 
by the figures that my profits were moderate. 

During July cholera made its appearance 
and carried off eight or ten liens, and a num- 
ber besides were used in the family at differ- 
ent times. From this it is evident that the 
average number of laying hens during the 
year cannot positively be got at, but I should 
estimate it from 40 to 4.5. This would make 
the number of eggs for each fowl from 120 to 
1.30. It has been said that a fowl under good 
treatment should produce over 150 eggs. This 
shortcoming in eggs cannot be attributed to 
want of feed, as the fowls were plump and 
fat at all times. The stock consists principally 
of Light Brahmas, with a few White Cochins, 
Dominiques and White Leghorns. 

DR. 
Jan. 1st, 1878, 63 fowls on hand, at 30 cents, ?18 90 
Corn used during year, 43 bus., at 60 cents, 2.5 80 
Screenings " " 26 bus., at 50 cents, 13 00 
Wheat bran, " " 26 bus., at 35 cents, 6 58 
Bone during the year, - - - - - 3 25 



Total cost. 



$67 45 



January 1st, 1879, 71 fowls on hand, - - $2130 
65 fowls used during year, - - - 19 .50 

4.50 dozen eggs, at 13 cents, - - - - 58 50 



Total, .... 
Balance in favor of fowls, 



?31 85 



DISEASES OF THE PEAR.f 
Mr. Edwin Satterthwaite, of Jenkintown, 
Montgomery county, addressed the State 
Fruit-Growers' Society on Thursday, January 
16, upon the subject of the "Diseases of the 
Fear. " He spoke extemporaneously and well, 
and his remarks were received with every 
mark of attention and elicited one of the most 
interesting discussions of the session. Mr. 
Satterthwaite said the pear is comparatively 
exempt from vhe ravages of insets. Some 
varieties are attacked by the curculio and 
codlin moth, particularly the "Early Catha- 
rine." "Cracking," one of the diseases, he 
attributed to excessive moisture. The " White 
Doyenne" is greatly subject to "cracking," 
which some persons ascribe to ' ' running out. '^ 
Of late the speaker's White Doyennes have 
not been much affected by the disease. An- 
other disease caused by atmospheric influence 
is a kind of mildew, among which he in- 
stanced the Beurre Clairgeau, Bucrre Capian- 
mont and Napoleon. In a dry season these 
varieties are exempt from the disease. Some 
few varieties, for instance the Easter Buerre, 
are affected by wrinkling of the skin. The 
chief troubles of the pear are the diseases 
which affect the tree. Pear trees are exempt 
from the borer, except such as are grafted on 
the quince. 

The pear slug is the most destructive insect 
affecting the pear trees. They are worse in 
dry seasons. It is a small slug, about half an 
inch in length, and is generally found on the 

•Kcad before the Laucasler County Agricullural and 
Horticultural Society by Casper Hiller. 

t An extemporaneous address by Mr. Edw. Satterthwaite 
before the State Frnit-Growers' Society. 



trees in the month of June. The speaker has 
no doubt that with proper care the .slug can 
be destroyed. Almost anything thrown on 
them appears to destroy t'liem. Dry slaked 
lime, Paris green, and whale oil soap are all 
efficacious. He a.sked why whale oil soap is 
always recommended in the books for diseases 
of this kind, and thought common soap should 
be equally as good. The speaker next referred 
to the leaf blight as the worst thing that the 
pear tree has to contend with. The trees 
change all at once, when the fruit is about 
beginning to ripen, the leaves will all turn 
yellow, and the next day the leaves drop off, 
or the half of them, and the crop of fruit is 
ruined. He thought dry weather was the 
cause of the leaf and the fire blight, and 
believed that our climate was too dry for the 
pear. The Tyson is utterly wortliless on ac- 
count of the leaf blight ; the Flemish Beauty, 
Canandaigua and Washington are also much 
allected by tlie same disease. The fire blight 
is generally considered the most dangerous 
disease of the pear, but he thought the leaf 
blight is the worst. The trees that are most 
subject to the leaf blight arc not affected by 
the fire blight at all. Downing attributes the 
fire blight to the freezing of the sap in the fall. 
This theory has never appeared satisfactory 
to the speaker. He had lost two or three 
thousand pear trees by the fire blight out of 
.5,000. A pear tree does not blight much until 
after it gets to bearing, so that he lost one- 
half of his best trees. He ascribed the cause 
to dry weather. The only remedy for the fire 
blight, whatever the cause may be, is in the 
selection of varieties. After a great deal of 
care and observation, the speaker has made a 
selection after cultivating nearly COO varieties 
of pears, all in fact that are generally known 
in the books. The varieties that blight the 
most, in his experience, are the following, 
among others : Osborne's Summer, Madeleine, 
Onoitdaga, Belle Lucrative, Vicar of Wink- 
field, Ananas d'Ete, Maria Louise, Buftam, 
Glout Marceau, Otts' Seedling, and Golden 
Beurre of Bilboa. The kinds that have es- 
caped the blight with the speaker are the 
following: Bartlett, Seckel, Duchesse d'An- 
gouleme, Beurre Gifford, Doyenne Bosc, 
Meriam, Jefferson, Julienne, Early Catha- 
rine, Bell, Bezide la Motte, Beurre Clair- 
geau, Tyson, and Kingsessing. Among va- 
rieties somewhat subject to blight, but 
which the speaker would not be without 
on account of their otherwise valuable quali- 
ties, are : Lawrence, Beurre d'Anjou, and 
Kutter. Auother list that blight some, but 
are desirable to have in a large collection, are 
the following : Doyenne d'Ete, Beurre de 
Montgeron, Clapp's favorite, St. Michael j 
Archangel, Howell, Manning's Elizabeth, ' 
Doyenne Boussock, Des Nonnis, Kirtland, j 
Beurre Bosc, Gushing. The Sheldon has not 1 
blighted much. The speaker then answered 
some questions as to the appearance of the 
blight among the trees and the manner in 
which the trees are affected. There are so 
many subtle, invisible, intangible atmospheric 
influences that we know so little about that 
it would be presumption in any one to ascribe 
definitely the cause of some of the diseases 
which the speaker has mentioned. The science 
is in its infancy, and we have almost every- 
thing to learn as yet about fruit culture. 

MODERN FRUIT HOUSES.* 
Many of the finest fruits, says Judge Stitzel, 
naturally undergo speedy decay, and those! 
most highly esteemed are often only to be enA 
joyed by those who produce them, and cannoM 
be put into market except for immediate con-j 
sumption. This decay has been found to take 
place most rapidly when the fruit is exposed 
to considerable or frequent changes in temj 
perature. We know that certain kinds ^t 
grapes, packed in sawdust, were imported to! 
this country from warmer climates; we found 
that unripe berries could be preserved in 
their natural state a long time in bottles or 
jars, filled in with dry sand or sawdust, and 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



21 



the jars corked or sealed and placed iu the 
ground a considerable depth, to preserve an 
equable temperature. This method could be 
employed with many fruits, as well as vege- 
tables. Pears, the (inest kinds of wliich are 
apt to rot immediately after maturity, were 
found capable of preservation for months by 
being closely covered in stone ja.is and kept in 
a cool place. Similar expiTimcnts revealed 
the fact that an evenly colli temperalurc was 
a reliable preventive of decay iu fruit, and 
have led to the construction of the modern 
fruit house. 

The value and convenience of this quite 
recent improvement will be apparent when 
we consider the ijreat advantage in keeping 
fruit until the next ripening season, thus en- 
abling us to get the very highest prices for 
what we have' to sell, after the market has be- 
come bare of such fruit as has been kept in 
cellars, or shipped from other localities, be- 
sides the advantage of having it for family 
use all year round. I may say without fear of 
contradiction that fully thirty-three per 
centum of all fruits stored iu the ordinary 
way annually go to waste ; this would of itself 
more than pay the interest upon the cost of a 
modern fruit house. This is true of the apple 
crop of itself, and the same may be said of 
Vears. I am satisfied that if pears are prop- 
erly handled and put into the fruit house until 
the market becomes bare of those varieties 
sold out of the orchards, twice the amount of 
money can be made out of them. They 
should be carefully picked when matured, but 
before too ripe, and they will improve in 
flavor when allowed to ripen fully in the fruit 
house. 

In this way such varieties as the Buerre 
Easter, Columbia and Vicar of Winkfield will 
keep until the following April. That many 
kinds of vegetables, berries and stone fruit 
can be preserved a greater length of time than 
in the ordinary way, has been demonstrated 
by the use of the fruit house. Cider will also 
keep sweet much longer than when kept in 
cellars, where the temperature is constantly 
varying. The temperature iu a well cou- 
structed fruit house can easily be kept within 
a variation of eight degrees, say between 32^ 
and 40 . and proper care should always be 
taken in regard to ventilation, as it is to this 
that we can attribute the main success in pre- 
serving the fruit. A refrigerator or fruit 
house can be constructed at a very little cost, 
say from $250 to $.500, that would admit of 
storing one thousarid bushels of fruit ; this 
would accommodate a half dozen neighbors, 
who might club together and erect one at their 
joint expense, or one of their number might 
build one, and by a charge for storage, of ten 
or twelve cents per bushel, receive more than 
the interest upon his investment, beside the 
cost of stocking it with ice. 

I will now describe a fruit house built on a 
larger scale, having a capacity of 4,000 bushels, 
which has been "in very successful use for 
twelve years. It is fifty feet square and built 
of stone and is twenty-eight feet high. The 
fruit room is on the first floor and is eight feet 
high with an enclosed space four feet in width, 
on the four sides filled with ice from above. 
The ice house proper is on the second story 
and is eleven feet high which, with the spaces 
referred to, is filled with ice. There should 
always be at least one foot of sawdust or .some 
other non-conductor of heat between the i-;e 
and the outer walls. The floor must be water- 
tight with pipes or some other means of con- 
veying the accumulating water to the ground 
beneath the building. The third story lloor is 
about three feet below the square ; this room 
in intended to secure ventilation, and should 
be covered with some non-conductive material 
to prevent any heated air from entering the 
building from above. Tiiere is a room or 
space about three feet deep below the floor of 
the fruit room, which is filled from the surplus 
of unmelted ice that remains in the second 
story, and this must be done before stockins; 
with fruit in the fall, ^'entilation is secured 
through four box ventilators twelve inches 
square, leading from the fruit room through 



the ice room and extending into the vacant 
space above tlie third floor. These box venti- 
lators are providi'd with valves or stops by 
means of wliich the temperature in the fruit 
room may be easily regulated. The fruit is 
stored in common boxes containing two 
bushels each, the bottom of one box forming a 
cover of another, and these boxes are piled" in 
tiers or sections with spaces between to admit 
of passage and free circulation. Access to the 
fruit room is secured through a kind of vesti- 
bule with outside and inside doors, both lined 
with non-conductive material — halters' waste 
wool has proven an excellent non-conductor 
for this purpose. The two doors, an inner 
and an outer door, are necessary to prevent 
the admission of air when persons pass in and 
out. 

The cost of this building when erected was 
about S2,000, and it requires about one thou- 
sand tons of ice to fill it properly, about two- 
thirds of which is annually consumed by the 
heat. Ever since the completion of this build- 
ing it has been used for the storage of various 
kinds of fruits, and has proven an entire suc- 
cess, and the owner has realized a handsome 
profit upon his investment. 

There is another large refrigerator or fruit 
house in Reading, that is constructed upon a 
somewhat similar plan which has been used 
for preserving tropical fruits and storing eggs, 
etc., for which purpose it has proven very 
successful. 

There is still another large refrigerator or 
fruit house in this city, quite recently com- 
pleted and stocked with ice, which will be 
ready for the storage of fruits, etc., the coming 
season, and which will prove a great conve- 
nience to fruit growers as well as consumers 
of this place. 

CULTURE AND TRAIMING OF THE 

VINE.* 

So much has been written upon this subject 
as to almost confuse the novice and contem- 
plative planter into inactivity, for fear of 
doing more injury than benefit in attempting 
to follow the teachings of books which treat 
on vine culture. Between the close pruner 
and non-pruner lies so wide a field, with in- 
numerable methods of training, that it is not 
surprising that there is so much confusion 
relative to the growing of this important fruit. 

Important, I say, because there is no fruit 
in the Xorth Temperate Zone that can be 
made more a certainty, or will yield more 
weight from the same area, and upon almost 
any soil. The special advantage it possesses 
over all other fruits, however, is that it can be 
planted close to any building or wall, and 
trained up against it to any reasonable height, 
and where no other fruit can be grown. It 
can be trained over arbors, where it will 
answer for shade also. Grapes grown in such 
situations, when properly trained, are gener- 
ally more certain than vineyard culture. 

The grape is a great feeder and will repay 
proper fertilizing very well. Young vines can 
bs grown from single eyes, or with two to 
half a dozen eyes ; also by layering, but those 
from single are preferable, as they contain but 
little old wood, and have the roots started 
from one point. For a vineyard the ground 
should be well prepared as for any other plant- 
ing. The vines may be planted from six to 
twelve feet apart, according to variety and 
vigor of vine. Depth of planting should not 
be more than six inches, and with a little 
mulch added is better than a foot deep of soil. 
Cultivation should be as for all other plantings; 
the ground kept mellow and clean of weeds 
for three or four years at least, after which it 
is a mooted question whether to cultivate it 
or run it into grass. I am, however, on the 
side of continued cultivation, but shallow 
only. Good, well-iueiiared soil will require 
no manuring' until a crop or two has been 
taken off; after which don't expect to take 
more out of the soil than there is in it. I 
shall not discuss manuring now, as every 



planter should know what his soil and his 
crops reipiire. 

At planting cut the vine to a few eyes, and 
after it starts to grow, pinch or rub all off but 
the strongest, which train to a stake 4 to C feet 
high, but do no cutting or pinching the first 
season. For the second .season cut the vine 
to 15 or 18 inches above ground, set two 
stakes, G to S feet high, one on each side of the 
vine ; set obliquely, leaning apart, and train 
two of the highest and be.st shoots, one to 
each, and keep off all other shoots from the 
main vine. Vines growing obliquely will form 
shorter joints and develop the eyes more uni- 
form than when growing ui'righl. They will, 
however, forces stnui.ncr lalerals, which must 
be pinched oil' liiyoiid tlie first eye, and if 
growing too strong Ihereaf'ler pinch off again, 
but do not break off the lateral altogether, as 
it often causes the eyes to push which are in- 
tended for next year's fruiting. 

Trellises should be made for the third sea- 
son. Posts driven in along the rows, about 
five feet high, after being set, with a horizon- 
tal rail over the tojis, and one about 18 inches 
above ground to nail on slats or wire vertical- 
ly, is the best form of trellis of which I know. 
These uprights shoulcV Ije 7 or 8 inches apart. 
I know of nothing equal to galvanized wire 
(about No. 1()), which is not only exempt 
from corrosion, but the vines can be trained 
to it without tying. The trellis bein'; ready 
for the third season, prune off all laterals 
from the vines to a length that will reach half 
way to the next vine, and cut it off and tic to 
lower rail ; bring the nearest cane from the 
next vine and treat the same way, and thus 
continue to the end of the trellis. You have 
now a basis upon which to grow your first crop. 

Training will now be in order as .soon as the 
young shoots attain the height of 15 to 18 
inches. Secure the nearest to each wire and 
break off all the rest. As soon as all the 
flower clusters are fairly out pinch the shoot 
off, leaving one joint beyond the last cluster. 
This will check the strongest shoots and give 
the weaker a chance to get even. The stronger 
should be pinched in during the season when- 
ever they show too rampant growth. 

I am well aware that this early pinching is 
contrary to the teaching of books, but experi- 
ence has taught me that it is preferable to let- 
ting them grow until the grapes are as large as 
peas, and then pinch to three joints beyond 
the last bunch, as the books say. Early pinch- 
ing checks the rapid upward growth, and 
causes the development of larger foliage, 
heavier vines, and fuller eyes near the base, 
which is an important point gained, as we 
shall see by and by. It must not be forgotten 
that the bearing eyes are on last season's 
growth only. For this reason it is important 
that with all the methods of training, the ob- 
ject should be to have the eyes intended for 
next season's fruitin;; as well developed as 
possible. Each eye will, as a rule, produce a 
cane bearing three bunches of fruit, conse- 
quently the upright vines are now bearing a 
crop and at the same time forming eyes for 
next (4th) season's crop. The laterals should 
be treated as directed iu second year's growth. 
Toward the close of the season the vines may 
be left to grow as they will. If we have now 
a well developed cane to each upright the 
vineyard is fully established. 

For the fourth .season we cut back all the 
upright canes to two eyes. At this point the 
books teach us to cut to one eye, but let us 
compare. Any practical vintner knows that 
the lower eye on a vine is always least de- 
veloped, consequently by cutting to two eyes 
we have some choice. The shoots growing 
from the lower eyes arc trained to the wires 
and treated the same as those of the previous 
year were treated. Those from the upi)cr 
eyes are also pinched to one joint above the 
latter cluster, as early as it can be done con- 
veniently. These are trained to incline down- 
ward, by twisting the young cane and bend- 
ing it downward, wliich, with the gradual 
increase of the clusters thereon, will prevent 
their nprisiht tendency; these are also kept 
closely pinched in and laterals kept down, 



22 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 



"and after fruiting are cut away altogetlier. By 
this method we retain the best eyes for fruit- 
ing, and at the same time secure well de- 
veloped canes from the lower eyes by their 
being trained upright. These are left to bear 
some fruit, but as the bunches are usually in- 
ferior to those from sound eyes, the thinning 
out is done on these. By this course of train- 
ing the fruiting wood can be kept low, the 
same as by cutting to single eyes. 

It is well known that the tendency of growth 
of vines is upward, and if not controlled by 
pruning and pinching, where they have a 
place to run up, the linest fruit will be near 
the top. This has led, or rather misled mauy 
to trim their vines high, but we must not for- 
get that by this method they will be father 
from the base of the vine each year, and 
eventually be out of reach. The only method 
by which vines can be kept to grow their crops 
imiform, is to have their bearing eyes on a level , 
as by the horizontal arm system, wlietherarms 
are one or twenty feet ;from the ground. By 
the following method the old arras can be re- 
placed by new ones without losing a crop. 

Select early in the season two strong shoots 
near the centre of the vine, and train them on 
stakes as directed for second year, and keep 
all the rest of the vine pinched back during 
the summer, and, unless the vine is vigorous, 
allow it to bear only a moderate or short 
crop, which will cause the two canes at the 
centre to make the stronger growth, so that 
after fruiting the old ariiis can be cut away, 
and the new canes tied to their place, and 
managed as directed for third season. Thus 
the vines can be renewed whenever necessary, 
and with proper care may continue in bearing 
indefmitely. 

I do not claim anything original in the 
above method of trellising, which has been so 
fully described by A. S. Fuller and others, 
but what I do claim that is not found in the 
books, is the cutting to two eyes for fruiting, 
or if the second is not well developed, leave 
the third and cut out the second, instead of 
the first. Tills method invariably secures 
better bearing wood and consequently finer 
fruit. There are other methods Ijy which 
grapes may be successfully grown, as on trel- 
lises of three or four horizontal wires ; upon 
these vines are commonly trained on the long 
cane system, by which the best bearing eyes 
are alwaj's secured, but, as above referred to, 
the canes on the upper wire produce the best 
fruit at the expense of 'those on the lower wire. 
The renewal is also more difficult than upon 
the horizontal arm system. In extensive vine- 
yard culture stakes are generally resorted to, 
being least expensive. Various methods of 
training to stakes are also described, )3ut this 
paper will not admit of details. 

One other method, however, is extensively 
practiced, and backed up strongly by the 
arguments, that nature does no pruning, and 
therefore it is best not to prune at all, or very 
little at most. This sounds very plausible, 
but neither does nature plant her vines by 
cuttings, and as we depart from nature at the 
outset, there is no sound reason to go back 
and ask her to finish the job which we have 
begun in opposition to her system. 

We will admit that very fine grapes are 
oftinies found on vines growing upon trees, 
etc., left to their own way. I have seen such 
and thought at one time it was the true 
method for growing grapes ; but a few years 
of observation dissipated all my faith in that 
direction. I have settled down to the belief 
in close pruning and systematic training for 
all vines (ex(-ept the most rampan'j growers) 
as tlie most reliable. As Mr. Fuller has well 
said, the finest grapes, after all, are produced 
uiion closely pruned and properly trained vines. 



Contributions. 



Liquid Manuke.— The liquid yieldings of 
animals are worth more— good autliorities say 
one-sixth more— pound for pound, tlian the 
sohd excrements, and arc saved with greater 
care by the best European farmers and garden- 
ers. All the leaks in the stable are not in the 
roof ; those often in the tloor are quite as objec- 
tionable, and are cause of a great deal of waste. 



For The Lancastek Tarmek. 
CATTLE OF LANCASTER COUNTY, OR 
EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA. 

It is presumable that it is not known xwtii- 
iivehj from what country cattle were first 
shipped to America. Undoubtedly the first 
settlers in New England brought their cattle 
from Old England. It is also presumable that 
their stock then was not as thoroughbred in 
the same country as it is now ; and if it had 
been they might have hesitated to ship the 
best to a heathen land. Undoubtedly the 
Dutch brought the first cattle to New York, 
and the Quakers and Swedes the first to Penn- 
sylvania. The first effort made to improve 
stock in this country was in the vicinity of 
Albany and New York cities, and perhaps 
also in the vicinity of Philadelphia. During 
the last century the wholesale merchants of 
those cities, who possessed couiUiy residences, 
began to improve their lands and farm stock, 
as well as their farm dwellings. lu the first 
place, I believe in good stock, and that the 
highest state of improvement has only been 
reached at great expense by some of the best 
herdsmen of Europe, and this, too, many 
years ago. While Lancaster county may be 
said to stand at the head of agriculture, it 
must be confessed that she is far behind other 
countries in stock raising. It is Init fair to 
infer that, with a little care and expense, we 
might become as famous in cattle raising as 
we have been in Conestoga horses. I believe 
there is a great difference in the various breeds 
of cattle to which we now have access, but 
the best breeds have always been secured by 
careful breeding from the best selections, both 
of males and females. I have a good recollec- 
tion of our Lancaster county breeds of cattle 
for the last fifty years. They were always bet- 
ter than the Maryland cattle, or those from 
Western Pennsylvania. Fifty years ago I 
used to visit a neighbor who had a large hay- 
mow filled with soft meadow hay. Well do I 
rememljcr rollicking in the soft, sweet-scented 
meadow hay ; and also his beautiful herd of 
black cattle, with their belts of snowy white, 
their fine forms and large size, some of which 
could have been made to weigh almost equal 
to the Durhams at the present time. Might 
they not have been sired from the Swiss or 
the Holstein ? I feel sure, with proper care 
in selection, always cliosiug the best blood, 
that the county of Lancaster might produce 
some of the best stock in the Union— fully as 
good as any of our Alderneys, Devons, or 
Durhams. A cattle fancier one time indidg- 
ing in extravagant praises of tlie Ilolstefii 
cattle, and what he could make of tliom, was 
reminded that when a shephenl in Ilolstein 
loses his crook in the meadow in tlie evening 
he would find it in the morning grown over 
with grass. This was to illustrate that you 
might easily enough secure a good breed of 
cattle, but good pasture could not be trans- 
ferred with them. That matter must be pro- 
vided by the purchaser. 

The reason our farmers pay so little atten- 
tion to good stock is because they say "it 
won't pay " to raise good stock, and anything 
will do for a milk cow ; and any kind of calf 
will do for the butchers' shambles. Neverthe- 
less, a heavy cow would bring more money in 
market, and would give as muoli or more inilk 
than a small or light one. In 1843 a farmer, 
in Upper Leacock township, had a home- 
raised steer, from ordinary stock, that would 
have made one of the heaviest steers ever 
raised in Lancaster county, but it fell on the 
ice, when it weighed nearly o,000 [lounds, and 
had to be slaughtered prematurely. The Dur- 
ham roans were first introduced into this 
county by Mr. Jackson, who lived on Webb's 
farm, near " AVitmer's Bridge," forty-five or 
fifty yearsago. Frederick Hambright,wholived 
north of Lancaster, procured some of Jack- 
son's stock and raised a beautiful herd of roan 
cows, but he was also a man that gave good 
attention to his stock— everything relating to 
them was done in the best manner, and he 



had always ready sale for them and got the 
best prices — higher than his neighbors. From 
that period forward there was more interest 
taken in the improvement in the Lancaster 
than there had ever been before. I beg leave 
to repeat again, that although there is a differ- 
ence — and a great dift'erence, too— in the 
breeds of cattle, yet there is a great difl'erence 
in our caring for them. The old saying still 
holds good : "Well attended is half fed."— i. 
S. Ji., Orcf/on, February, 1879. 

[Those people who allege that it will not 
pay to raise good cattle may say the truth, 
looking at the matter from their own indi- 
vidual standpoint. It may not pay at the out- 
set, for the reason .that it costs too high a 
figure for the first subjects. It is, perhaps, 
like a new kind of potatoes, wheat, corn, 
pigs or poultry. But as the feed and labor 
costs about the same, it would seem that a 
good breed could be raised as easy as a bad one, 
with better prospects of the future pay.] — Ed. 

FOR The Lancaster Farmer. 
TEXAS CATTLE. 

Letter of General Samuel Houston, Describ- 
ing Texas Cattle. 
Galveston, Texas, Dec. 1, 1845. 
"Doubtless no country on earth possesses 
equal advantages with Texas as a stock 
raising community. Stock here require no 
feeding, either in summer or winter, and cost 
no trouble nor expense, saving in marking and 
branding. Stabling and salting are not ne- 
cessary, as the saline licks are in every part of 
the country, so that in fact, fattening cattle 
does not cost a farmer anytliing. Our prai- 
ries are clothed with the most nutritious 
grasses, sufficient for countless herds. The 
presence of blooded stock is especially wel- 
come to me at this time, and I expect to cross 
it with our Texas stock with good results. 
The introduction of blooded stock, such as 
Durhams. and better horses, I am satisfied, 
would not result in more than one failure in 
twenty experiments. The presuit stock of 
cattle in Te;:as is a nrixture of Mexican and 
cattle from the United States. They each 
show a distinctness of character. The Mexi- 
can, or Spani.sh, are not so heavy nor so com- 
pact in build as those from the States, but 
they are taller and more active, nor do they 
weigh as well in proportion to appearance 
wheii slaughtered as the American cattle. 
They are more active than our cattle, with re- 
markably long aud slim horns. The cows are 
not such good milkers as ours. A cross of 
the breed would be an improvement. When 
the first colonists, under Stephen F. Austin, 
arrived in Texas, they found herds of wild 
cattle on the Brazos and its tributary streams. 
There was no tradition of their origin, nor 
has anything satisfactory on the subject yet 
been aM/ci-lained. They have recededjas the 
settlfinnits advanced, and are now above the 
fiills of t lie IJniy.os and Little river. They are 
of the brindle or reddish color, and are more 
wild and dangerous when wounded than the 
bufEalo. The males have occasionally attached 
themselves to herds of tame cattle, and Iiave 
become very gentle. Calves have been caught 
and reared by settlers. The cross is said to 
be an iiniirovement upon our common stock. 
The males arc sometimes as heavy as our 
Duiiiaiu half-breeds, and make excellent 
working oxen. For years I have had a desire 
to mix the pure Durham with the pure Texas. 
Should I be fortunate in my efforts, I shall be 
happy to assure you of tlie remits.— Samuel 
Houston. 

It is thirty-four years since the above letter 
was written", and Texas is still looked upon as 
the great source from which tlie bulk of com- 
merce in cattle is derived. This especially is 
the case in reference to the immense number 
of those that are slaughtered is concerned. 
An almost constant stream of cattle for several 
months in the year, are driven up from Texas 
to the cattle depots in Kansas, Nebraska, 
Colorado, :Missouri, Iowa and other Western 
States ; from whence they are sold and dis- 
tributed farther eastward, and when fattened 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



23 



aro rolled along on the railroads in cattlo pens 
to the large eities of our country, ortn Kurope, 
where they are slaughtered aiid served up to 
the beef-eaters among the huuiau family, and 
are completely amiihilated. — Bos, Manhcim, 
February, 1S70. 



POLLED CATTLE. 

Agondwonl must be put in for the '-Muley,' 



TIUM 



;ii;recable 
uld easily 



(1 

to have alHiut the barnyard ; t 
be kept side by side with colts. 
without injury. IIow often do vicious horned 
cattle disembowel horses in the barnyard, in 
tlie roadside, or in the field ? How ofltn have 
liorned cattle, especially those of the male 
gender, killed men in the upni liel.ls with (heir 
horns V And how often have lliosi- of the 
female gender attacked women and (■hildren, 
especially when the cows have calves only a 
day or two old ? At that particular period a 
cow, especially if a stranger, is apt to attack 
anything that comes near her offspring, 
whether a dog or a human being. There were 
formerly objections made to the mule}', when 
cattle were at liberty to brows along the road- 
sides and woods. They would reach in be- 
tween the fence rails to help themselves to as 
much of the inside crop as leaned toward the 
fence or came within their reach. Since cattle 
are running very little at large in the Eastern 
and Middle States that objection is almost re- 
moved. The muley oxen are easy to handle, 
and could even be kept loose in a stalile ; 
would make more and better manure by 
tramping down the straw closely together ail 
over the stable, which would then ferment 
much sooner than otherwise. The cows would 
be very docile and agreeable to milk ; and 
they are just as good milkers as any other 
kind of cows. They could be very much im- 
proved by crossing them with the short-horned 
Durham stock. The normal tendencies of the 
short-horns might undoubtedly be turned 
towards polled, at least to shorter horns. 
Polled cattle perhaps will never become a 
specialty among cattle breeders in this conn- 
tr3'. I have known but one farmer — and that 
yearsago, in AVestEarl township,this county— 
who had an entire herd of polled cattle ; a 
very Hue herd it was too. The cows were well 
built— unlike the large Durhams— good milk- 
ers ; and the steers weighed -very heavy. I 
will not undertake to give a full history of 
the polled cattle, any more than what an able 
writer has given years ago. He says: "In 
Great Britain there are now three breeds of 
polled cattle, which were no doubt derived 
from the wild cattle, of which only one herd 
remained pure. These were iu Yorkshire, 
fifty years ago, although in the last century 
several parks in England were stocked with 
them. Both in the north of England and in 
the south of Scotland improved polled cattle 
were a common or frequent occurrence. 

The Galway cattle, from the southwest of 
Scotland, ranked first for smallness of bone 
and good feeders. They were bred of differ- 
ent colors, from red to black. Next to these 
came the Angusshires, from the northeast of 
Scotland, which were similar to the (Jalways, 
but were of a heavier build and were brought 
to the highest state of perfection. They were 
specially raised for the London market, and 
the red cattle always commanded the highest 
prices from the butchers in the market, on ac- 
count of not having been gored by liorned 
oxen. For dairy cows the English had a 
variety called the '■Buns." They originated 
from one of the Scotch breeds crossing them 
with their own breeds, which were "Roans." 
They made them heavier than the original 
stock, and they became excellent dairy cows, 
but all ultimately became roans. By care and 
proi)er selection they had three colors— dun, 
roan and black. The wild cattle-from which 
these tliree varieties of cattle sprung arc 
white, with black ears and muzzle. I have 
penned these lines thinking some of the readers 
of The Faumer might still have some inter- 
est in the "gentle muley" of their boyhood. — 
E. L. S., Warwick, February, 1879. 



For TllK Lastaster 1'aumer. 
BITTER-SWEET. 
{Thr Sotaiiitm Ituleamava. Ij.) 

We have here a species that belongs to a 
genus of plants remarkable for the great 
variety and almost opposite character which 
takes place among the species. Some are 
coarse weeds ; others ornamental green-house 
plants ; some, again, are nutritious, like the 
potato ; others poisonous, like the henbane. 

Names are usually significant. Dr. Gray 
Kays the derivation of this is uncertain. I 
find that one author says the Latin meaning 
was "Night Shade," which is a family name 
of this genus ; another that it comes from the 
word "Solor," which means "to comfort," 
referring to some of the narcotic power — like 
tliat of an opiate, perhaps— but the Irish 
liotato, so-called, is a comfort to a starving 
foniily. Be this as it may, the specific name 
"Dulcamara," signifies sweet and bitter, or 
"Bitter-Swcet." This name is derived from 
the fact that in chewing the I'oot, the taste is 
first bitter, then a sweetness follows. It is 
believed to have been introduced from Europe 
many years ago. It is found to thrive best in 
moist, shady places and around houses. Wc 
often meet with it in country gardens, the 




leaves and tlexible twigs forming a climbing 
shrub about six feet high, is pietty ; the pur- 
plish, small (lowers and yellow anthers neat, 
but not showy, while the ovoid, crimson red 
berries arc quite ornamental. I may, by way 
of caution, say here, that there is another 
plant called "climbing bitter-sweet," quite a 
diftereut genus — the Ci hislrvx isranikns—io\\m\ 
along streams and thickets ; these have golden 
yellov»r pods, which split open and reveal a 
crimson red seed. The genus Solanum has 
numerous hardy, shrubby and herbaceous 
species, many green-house and stove ever- 
greens, over seventy kinds are described. 

This plant has at one time had a great repu- 
tation among medical men of high standing. 
Dr. Bigelow, in his American Botany, devotes 
seven full pages to the properties of this plant, 
quoting his authorities, such as Doctors Wil- 
lau, Bateman and Crichtou ; this latter physi- 
cian to Westminster hospital, says that out of 
twenty-three cases of Lepora Grcecorum, (this 
is the leprosy of scripture, a constitutional 
affection, also known as Elejihantiaiiiii tjrm-o- 
rwn, supposed incurable,) he declares that 
only two resisted the remedy, which consisted 
in boiling an ounce of the fiexible, fresh twigs 
(others used the leaves also,) in a pint and a 
half of water down to a pint, giving the 
patient of this decoction two ounces to begin 



with morning, noon and night, and also used 
as an external lotion. Others think the dose 
too large, and say it is better to bc^in with an 
ounce and increase. To sii\ the hast, it docs 
form a most excellent lotion tor v;i I ions I liseases 
ofthcskin tomyper.sonal kuowledur, although 
fallen into m-leet. riofrvso,- Mmriy speaks 
in stroll'..; terms as a Mieees>liil a|Hiliealion in 
cutaneous diseases ol an iii\i-lerate character. 
Dr. Gritmii, in liis M,.li.;d liuUiay, says 
(page 481): " The properties of Bitter-Sweet 
are those of a narcotic, diuretic ami diaphe- 
retic, but its powers are not very great, though 
in large doses it certainly will induce the 
effects of the acro-narcotics ; cases of poison- 
ing have been recorded from the berrie.s, as 
well as from the decoction of the twigs. The 
decoction has attained some note as a remedy 
in chronic rheuniatisiu, asthma, chronic 
catarrhs, and in tho.se morbid conditions of 
the system in which sarsa]iarilla lias been 
found ueneficial. Its mani nimlai ion, bow- 
ever, has arisen from the liemiii obtained 
fromit in skin diseases of an ol>,-tinati' charac- 
ter, as lepra and pityriasis ; ill tliese there is 
strong evidence that it has pioxeil eminently 
successful, both adiiiiiiistered internally and 
used as a wash to the alTected parts." 1 quote 
the foregoing from the edition of 1817. It is 
well not simply to know a plant as a botanist, 
but its uses and reputation as well. Farmers 
may find occasion to desire a remedy lor a 
scabby animal, and seeing this plant on or 
about their premises, may test its properties 
and benefit themselves and the suffering ani- 
mal. It does not follow that (hey turn quack 
and join the ranks of that class, and yet do- 
mestic remedies at hand are often available to 
those that have a knowledge of the subject ; 
so that it is not intended for medical men, 
who have the books and are supposed to know 
all aliout it, but for the fann<-r, horticulturist 
and general reader, wlio has not the books to 
refer to ; it is "y/io im,,,, imiillr,,.'' I write not 
to show how easy it is to eopy and give the 
experience of other people as your fuiid of in- 
formation. That is simple vanity and build- 
ing upon a small capital, but my i)ursuit as a 
druggist for twenty-five years, and a botanist 
for nearly litty, .and a medical student for .six 
years prior toentering the drug business, will 
exonerate me of vain pretensions. I hoiie in 
furnistiing these articles, for the benefit of 
those interested, illustrated by wood cuts, 
made by myself when in the drug business, 
with a view of publishing a work on the sub- 
ject, I never did, except in such fragmentary 
productions. I should not have referred to 
myself, only some certain medical aspirant 
sneered at what he deemed a silly display of 
medical knowledge on my part— this will 
suffice.—/. Staiiffcr. 



THE BALANCE OF TRADE. 

To the Editor of ilie Lancaster Fanner: I 
was highly interested in reading the a<ldress 
of P. "S. "Reist, before the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, in the January number 
of The Faumek, and especially your note 
appended to it, in which you intimate a doubt 
whether the so-called " Balance of Trade" in 
favor of this country is anything but a sceminti 
.advantage, and whether, except "on paper," 
it is an evidence or sign of prosperity. 

I incline to think that a fuller examination 
of the subject will convince you that your 
doubts are" not without good grounds, and 
that neither cxperieiue nor sound reasoning 
lends any support t<i the popular opinion that 
whenever the exports of a country exceed its 
imports, this is an evidence of its prosperity. 
On the eoutrarv. not only our experience for 
several years past, but the statistics of the 
last half century or longer, I believe will show 
unmistakably that the reverse is the fact, and 
in years, or terms of years, of acknowledged 
prosperity, our imports have uniformly ex- 
ceeded our exports iu value, while in ye.ars or 
terms of ruinous depression in business like 
those we have just been passing through, the 
exports are mostly greater than the imports. 
And this rule holds true not only of our own 
country but of Great Britain, and doubtless 



24 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 



of all other nations having an extensive 
foreign commerce. The reason for this is so 
plain that it seems strange tliat it does not 
strike every one who reflects but for a moment 
on the subject. If a country in dealing with 
others sends away property greater in value 
than it receives back, is it not manifestly 
worsted by the trade by the amount of the 
difference ? But the advocates of the Balance 
of Trade theory, as understood by Mr. Reist, 
with perhaps a majority of our people, seems 
to hold that the more we send abroad and the 
less we get in return for it, the greater is our 
gain ! 

Allow me to illustrate by a familiar example: 
A Lancaster county miller, having an idea 
that he can do better with his flour than by 
selling it in Philadelphia, by way of experi- 
ment sends a consignment of ten barrels of it 
to Liverpool. It is worth in Philadelphia 
$5.00 per barrel— $50 for the whole. At 
Liverpool the consignee sells it for .160, and 
according to his instructions, lays out the 
money in fine salt, whicli costs $2.00 per sack. 
He thus purchases thirty sacks of salt for the 
860, and dispatches it by the next steamer to 
Philadelphia, where on arrival it is sold at 
$2.50 per sack, amounting to $75. In this 
transaction, therefore, $50 were exported and 
$75 imported. The miller has gained $25, 
(less a small sum for freight, &c.,) and mani- 
festly the country is that much richer ; while 
according to the Balance of Trade theorists 
the miller and the country have both been 
doing a losing business ! 

But this is not all. Suppose that befo're 
reaching Philadelphia the vessel is partially 
wrecked and all but six sacks, worth $15, of 
tlie salt is lost. The Custom House books 
will then show in this venture, an export of 
the value of $50, and an importation of only 
$15. The miller would undoubtedly think he 
had been doing an unfortunate and losing 
business, but the believers in the Balarice of 
Trade theory would stand ready to assure 
him that however it might be with him, the 
country was richer and in a more prosperous 
condition than if he had landed liis salt safely 
and made $25 instead of losing 835 by his 
experiment in foreign commerce. 

I admit that if the excess of exports over 
imports goes to pay our debts previously con- 
tracted abroad, that disposition of the Slirplus 
may be quite as advantageous to the country, 
and more so in the long run, than if its value 
was brought home in the shape of foreign 
merchandise ; for it is undoubtedly an advan- 
tage to nations to pay their debts ; still this 
is the same as paying for a dead horse, and as 
it adds nothing to our present resources, can- 
not conduce to present prosperitv.— J. P., 
Laiicastp; Feb. 1, 1879. 



For The LANcAsTEit Faemeb. 
MORE ABOUT CATTLE. 
The farmers of Lancaster county possess all 
the advantages necessary for the improvement 
of their stock of cattle, or to raise, at 
least, thoroughbred short-horns or Durhams, 
through ordinary or cheap means. Thirty or 
forty years ago it was very expensive to start 
a herd of English Durhams, but things have 
somewhat changed since then. Jacob Wiest, 
of West Cocalico township, was probably the 
best short-horn stock raiser in the county. 
He obtained his first stock from a firm of 
Durham importers, in New York State, and 
])aid high prices for his stock to begin with. 
He got a herd-book along with the stock, and 
kept a regular systematic record of his opera- 
tions in all their details, and became so fam- 
ous as a thoroughbred stock raiser that in 
turn he became a disposer of stock. He sold 
three fine heifers to a noted Kentucky stock 
raiser for $1,000 each, on delivery. Wm. L. 
Peiper, near Lancaster city, has a well-stocked 
farm of the best of Alderneys, and of the 
purest blood in Pennsylvania. It is claimed 
for them that they are the best milkers, both 
for quantity and quality, with less petting 
than the Durhams require, which are much 
heavier, and, therefore, more valuable for beef 
than the former. Several farmers in the 



county, for instance, Mr. Getz, of East Hemp- 
flold, and Mr. Steinmetz, of West Cocalico, 
had the pure Devonshires, with a pure record 
from the herd-book. For beauty they are an 
ornament to any farm ; red in color with neat 
horns; well set in their bodies, and yielding 
much weight for their size. The .Jerseys and 
Ayrshires have never been bred extensively 
in this county to my knowledge. There are a 
great many diflerent breeds of cattle in Ohio, 
at least in name and color. They had a breed 
some years ago, named the "Hall Cattle," 
probably originated by a man of that name. 
The steers were rather high in the legs, round 
in the body, straight in the back, and had 
greater length of body than any other steer I 
have ever seen, and could be made to weigh 
as heavy as any other breed in existence. It 
is not my object to unduly exalt any one par- 
ticular breed, or to disparage another breed, 
but to encourage stock raising in general— to 
urge stock raisers to improve their present 
stock, because I see so much i-oom for im- 
provement. The most valuable improved 
breeds come originally from Europe, and 
sometimes at great expense. In the West it 
was common to form combinations to pur- 
chase and import some of the best foreign 
stock, pay thousands of dollars for a single 
animal. Sometimes agricultural societies 
would purchase first-class stock, which would 
be held by the members, jointly, for the pur- 
pose of propagation, and through these means 
they have now all over Ohio and Kentucky 
the very best of stock ; and especially short- 
horns and Durhams, are now held and sold at 
ordinary prices. Whole car loads of bulls are 
now brought to our eastern markets, and sold 
at from 2^ to 3^ cents per pound as stakers. 
Some could be picked out as breeders, almost 
as good as those that cost $1,000 a piece 
thirty years ago. I confess that improvement 
is not necessarily within the reach of every 
farmer, but it is within the reach of many, 
and with very little additional expense ; but, 
notwithstanding all this, we still persist in 
raising and keeping a race of "mackerel- 
backed" bulls and cows.— i. S. JR., Oregon, 
February, 1879. 

[In our early boyhood we knew of some 
town cows that had the reputation of creep- 
ing under fences and browsing on garden 
truck, and also quenching their thirst at tlic 
slop barrel, and then retiring in the same way, 
but as a general thing our stock is better now, 
although there is doubtless aljundant room for 
im pro vement. —Ed. ] 

For The Lancaster Farmek. 
FIFTY YEARS AGO vs. THE PRESENT 
DAY. 
My father was a farmer, using wooden 
teeth in the harrow, and sometimes the wheat 
was plowed in ; but a shovel-harrow, as it 
was called, was mostly used, then sowed by 
hand and oftimes harrowed it in with a 
lot of brush wood with the leaves on, drag- 
ging it over the field until the grain was cov- 
ered. The yield per acre was as large under 
the crude system as at the present day, not- 
withstanding the use of the grain drills and 
other improvements. I am of the opinion 
that grain sown by hand requires le.=s per 
acre to produce an abundant yield at harvest 
time, as it gives each stalk more room to 
mature. Railroads were then unknown, and 
commerce was carried on between the sea- 
board cities and the inland towns with horses 
and wagons. I have seen as many as twenty 
consecutive teams on the pike loaded with 
merchandise for Pittsburg, hence from Phila- 
delphia. At night time the horses were tied 
to a trough fastened to the tongue of the 
wagon, which was very often frozen to the 
ground by morning ; and the horses so cold 
and stiff and nearly frozen by being exposed 
without shelter or blankets 'that they could 
stand on a tin plate, to use an expression 
common to those days. From such treatment 
and overloading the teams would oftimes 
stall and be unable to get along, or to ascend 
the first hill they came to, each team being a 
fit case for the Society for the Prevention of 



Cruelty to Animals. These teams would take 
loads of dry goods, molasses, &c., to Pitts- 
burg, and bring on their return trip salt, &c. 

Shippensburg was in those days an im- 
portant town for wagonmaking, as was also 
lioudon, beyond Chambersburg, which latter 
was a place of exchange, as many goods were 
taken thus far and then reshipped to Pittsburg 
by other parties. The cost of transportation 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg was from three 
to four dollars per cwt. , against twenty-five to 
fifty cents per cwt. at the present day. Wheat 
sold at one dollar per bushel ; oats twenty-five 
cents and corn fifty cents per bushel. Land 
sold at twenty to forty dollars per acre, against 
two hundred dollars and more for the same 
land now. The tax valuation of land was 
then about twenty-five dollars per acre, and 
the tax thereon at the rate of twenty-five cents 
for every one hundred dollars valuation. At 
the present time the tax valuation for the 
same land is from one hundred to two hun- 
dred dollars per acre, and the rate of taxation 
twenty-five cents on every one hundred dol- 
lars valuation. Then a cow cost from ten to 
twenty dollars, and a horse from fifty to one 
hundred dollars. Education was dispensed to 
the country folk, during the winter, at a cost 
for each pupil of two cents per diem ; those 
that were unable to pay this amount the 
county paid for. When the pupil was able to 
do the sums in Pike's arithmetic, without a 
key, he was a graduate. Geography was used 
to teach reading then. Now, owing to the 
many advantages we enjoy we are able to pay 
fifteen cents on every hundred dollars valua- 
tion school tax, and pay a superintendent fif- 
teen hundred to twenty-five hundred dollars 
annually for looking after the several school 
districts in the county ; and a child of ten 
or twelve years knows more than a man of 
seventy, and can tell you what rivers flow into 
the Gulf of Mexico ; and can tell you if a man 
had one hundred sheep and lost three-fifths of 
them, and found one-fifth, and sold two-fifths, 
and bought four-fifths as many, how many he 
then had. Common laborers received forty to 
fifty cents per day ; haymakers and harvesters 
sixty-two to seventy-five cents per day ; a 
hired man on a farm $8.00 per mouth ; a hired 
girl from $2.50 to $3.00 per month. Now a 
well-educated man can make a living by being 
idle nine days out of ten ; and if he can get 
your name on a note or check, or persuade 
you to endorse him, or take his note, if well- 
written, you oftimes are a sadder and a wiser 
man. I have a ease in point of a beautifully 
written note that was never paid ; the payee 
often remarking it was so very well written, 
I had no idea that it would not be paid. In 
those days nothing was known of a minister 
of the gospel receiving $25,000 annually; or of 
a bankrupt law which allowed debtors to pay 
on;'-!ialC their liabilities, or less, and ever 
alVrwiii-.l be released from the balance, thus 
miiliiii;.' i li' 111 richer than ever before ; or of a 
man's wile nwiiing everything after said man 
had obtained all the credit possible and the 
creditors wanted their money. Ten to twelve 
per cent, interest per annum was then un- 
known, three -and four to five per cent, per 
annum being the current rates. 

Nothing was then known of a man's son 
having a horse that cost from $200 to $300, 
and a buggy that cost from $300 to $400, har- 
ness $50, and sleigh $125, and driving around 
the country while his father was home driving 
the work, and paying the bills contracted by 
his son as they come in. The daughter away 
at school, learning music, pap rhust get a 
piano or org<an for sis ; don't let sis go in the 
kitchen, her fingers will get too thick if she 
works, and she cannot play well. She must 
have a silk dress at $50 or $100. Nothing 
was known of feeding cattle for market ; the 
grain was all sold from the farm. Nor of 
the raising tobacco, excepting that was raised 
for the farmer's own use. Others had half an 
acre to sell to segarmakers. No lime was 
used as a fertilizer on land. In those days if 
a man would have told the people that fifty 
years hence millions of dollars' worth of to- 
bacco would be sold in Lancaster county, and 



1879. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



25 



a man would travel from Philatlflpliia to 
Pittsburg iu twelve hours, and would hv able 
to communic'at<^ with kiiius and queens iu all 
parts of the civilizi'il p;lolic in a few hours' 
time, ho would have beiii voted a luiuilic and 
treated aceordiugly ; or |)redicted the exteu- 
sive use of ice, or the springing ii|i an hun- 
dred tobacco warehouses in L:iue:isUT cDUutv 
to handle the large crop tliat is annually raised 
ill said county, reaching :!ii,fi(i() to •10,1)00 
cases ; and segar manufactories that use from 
60 to 100 cases per annum, each, and in the 
aggregate consume S,000 to 10,000 cases in 
the countv |)er annum, making it no incredi- 
ble theorV that in a frw vears Lancaster 
county will manufactun' all the tobacco it at 
present raises, and send the same to all parts 
of the world. IIow are we progressing ?— 
Henry Kurtz. 

For The r.ANCAfiTKn Farmki*. 
FERTILIZERS AND FORMULAS. 

The season is coming again when the ground 
needs to be prepard for the summer croi)s, 
and the farmer faces the question : Have I 
enough manure, and if not, can I use fertili- 
zers to advantage V 

In December number of TnE Fahmeu a 
number of formulas were given for the different 
kinds of crops, which we will proceed to ex- 
amine in such cases as would likely to be of 
interest to the readers of thi.s journal. 'We 
will have, however, to go over some old 
ground flrst and see what the requirements of 
plants are, so we may know what our manure 
or fertilizer should coutain in order to be of 
bcnellt in raising crops. 

That plants may arrive to perfection it is 
necessary that the'soil contains certain snb- 
stiinces as materials for plant food, but wc 
are interested only in those that may, from 
cropping or other causes, become exhausted 
or reduced below the amount necessary for 
healthy and prolitablc plant growth. We 
have, therefore, only to consider nitrogen, 
potash, phosphoric acid, lime and sulphuric 
acid. 

The quantity of lime taken up by a crop, as 
plant food, is very small, indeed. A crop of 
20 bushels of wheat, and the straw, contains 
less than nine pounds ; a ton of clover hay 
about forty po\inds ; a ton of timothy hay 
about nine pounds ; and a ton of tobacco 
leaves, cured, about one hundred and twenty- 
five pounds— less than two bushels. The 
large quantities of lime usually applied are 
not needed by the plant as plant-food, but is 
intended to prejiare or make more available 
other plant-foods that may be iu the soil, just 
the same as when sulphuric acid is added to 
bones. As lime only hastens what would, in 
time occur naturally, we might say lime is 
time, and as "time is money," so lime must 
be money. Sulpliuric acid is taken up by the 
j)lant in still smaller quantities than lime, and 
is most elieaply supplied in the form of gyp- 
sum, (sulphate of lime.) one linndred to two 
liundred pounds of the ground article being 
usually suHicient, and containing' more of the 
acid than would be needed by the crops 
grown for some years. 

Both of the above sukstances, lime and sul- 
phuric acid, are very easily washed out of the 
soil, and it is more"for tliis than any other 
reason that the application should be made at 
short intervals, and in somewhat greater 
quantities than the wauls of the plant would 
seem to call for. 

Potash and phosphoric acid generally re- 
main in the soil until removed by the crops 
taken off, and it is for this reason that tlieir 
effect is to be seen for so much longer a time 
than that of other applications. In all good 
chemical fertilizers phosphoric acid is very 
soluble, being readily dissolved by water; 
contact with lime destroys this .solubility and 
renders it inert as plant-food until, by some 
chemical action in the soil the lime" enters 
into some other combination, leaving the 
phosphoric acid soluble as before. It is for 
this purpose that "dissolved bones," "phos- 
phates," Ac, should not be applied to land 
recently limed, nor should lime be applied 



until a few years after the application of such 
fertilizer. 

Nitrogen is useful to plants only in the form 
of nitrates, such as nitrate of soda, potash, 
&c. ; or as salts of ammonia, the ammonia 
itself being a compound of nitrogen and 
hydrogen. The only salts of ainnionia used 
to anv extent is the snlphali' of annn.iuia. 
Nitrogen should never be applied in greater 
quantity than f(ir the needs of the crop to 
which it is applied, as it is very liable to 
escape from the soil into the air as free nitrogen. 

Prof. Villo, of France, says that for wheat 
only one-half as much nitro;;cn need b(^ ap- 
plied as the cmii contains, that the iiniporli„n 
needed by dilTcrent crops varies.lieing in clover, 
peas and beans (leguminous iilants generally,) 
only about one-sixteenth of the amount found 
in the matured crop ; but that potash and 
phosphoric acid should be aiiplied in some- 
what greater (luanlities than the crop con- 
tain.s. Thai the plants lak« \ip nitro^'cu from 
the air, as advocated by Prof. Ville, is doubted 
and denied by many of Cqually high authority; 
and it is not our province to enter into the 
merits of the case, but it is of interest for us 
to know that they all state that nitrogen has 
very little effect on clover, &c., and that the 
eflects on the different crops does not corre- 
spond with the amount of nitrogen contained 
in such croi)s. 

Knowing the needs of the idant, with re- 
gard to kin<l and ainnunt, we should be able 
in some measure t(i furui an intelligent idea 
of the fitness of a certain formula for the croj) 
intended. For this purpose we give two tables 
below. 

In table Ko. 1, is given the crop for which 
the formula was made ; the increased yield, it 
is assumed, the application will make ; cost 
of ingredients in formula ; number of pounds 
of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid the 
materials contain ; the last column gives the 
increased yield in tons of straw, fodder or 
offal— the value of which each must calculate 
for himself, and deduct from the cost of the 
application to find what will be the cost of the 
wheat, &c. Extra labor from handling extra 
crops must, of course, be considered. 

In table No. 2 is given the number of pounds 
of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid con- 
tained in the crops of table No. 1, and the 
amount of nitrogen assumed by Prof. A^'ille as 
needed for the growing crop. The calcula- 
tion is, of course, made for everything, i. c, 
grain, straw, &c. 



Hy com])aring the column, "nitrogen," 
table Xo. 1, with that of " nitrogen assumed" 
iu table Xo. 2, it will be seen that the amount 
of nitrogen furnished by the formulas is 
greatly in excess of what Prof. Ville claims 
as needful. If convinced of the truth of these 
claims, wc ciiuld verv nialeriallv riMluce the 
(•cist.,flhesrrnrniuhisl,vlakiliL.'sMiallrr,pKinti- 



thc 





H 


T? 


a; 


^ 


•< 


o:g 


CROrs. 


la 


1 


& 


n 


1! 


Wheat 


20 bus. 


$13 61 


49. 


?5 


93 


1«ton.. 
\)4 •• 




30 " 


13 95 


3S 


63 


?3 


O.ltfl 


.SO " 


ID 04 


^} 


■>■> 


!■> 


K.TO 


20 " 










1 ■■ 
















Tobacco 


moo lbs. 


22 22 


64 


<»S 


9^ 




PotatoCH 


200 bus 


15 76 


49 


T7 






Tnroins 


10 tons 


19 fi- 


5T 


Fi4 


23 




flr.ssHay 


2 •• 


20 5S 




















23 




Fod.ler— forn,. 


10 " 












Fod.ler-Eye... 


3 " 


M 73 


34 


45 









Table No. i 








•y. tz 


■3 


>3 








II 








CHOPS. 




1 


i ? 


BBMARKB. 


























Wheal 


20 


35 




,- 
















Ont. 


15 


27 


24 








11 


25 


91 






Buckwheat 




37 








Tobacco 




72 








lotatoes 


20 


39 


67 


22 


(Toi.« not in- 


Turuim 




3li 


(-2 




Ora«HH.,y 














'J 


83 


78 


2-i 


line by inference 












(In the green 


Fod<i»r-R>e 




26 


33 


u 



By comparing the columns of "potash" and 
"phosphoric acid" of the tables, it will be 
seen that these amounts are, in most cases, 
somewhat greater than in the formulas than 
in the crops, and this is as it should be. 



If the teachings of agricultural cheniists be 
true that soda and magnesia are present in 
comparatively inexhaustible quantities, the 
sulphates of these miuht be omitted iu the 
f.-nuulas ; and als., as the oil of vitriol (sul- 
phuric acid) ii^cd iu re<luciiig the bones, and 
the sul|ilmri( aiid containe<r in the sulphate 
of aninionia fuinishes this acid in larger 
(luantily than the crop needs, the land plaster 
(gypsum) might also be omitted, there being 
very few soils that would be benefited any by 
the small quantity of lime contained in the 
jilaster. Omilling the above would make a 
further saving of ()."> cents to .?1.00 j.cr acre. 

By laying aside dillerences of opinion as to 
what is needed and what is not needed, and 
taking the formulas as they are, purchasing 
the materials from reliable parties, I believe 
that they are decidedly better than the ma- 
jority of "phosphates," "superphosphates" 
and fertilizers with high-sounding and fancy 
titles. 

Farmers may wish to apply only one of the 
elements of plant-tnod, but we are at a loss as 
to what materials will furnish it at the lowest 
price. For this purpose we give the prices of 
the materials furnishing such elements : 
Sulphate of ammouia, 25 per cent., - 4^4C. per Ih. 
Nitrate of Bod.i, - - - . 4'^c. " 
Dried blood, - - - - - 'Jc. " 

Nitrate of potasli, 80 per cent., - 2c. " 

.Sulphate of potash, 2.5 per cent., - 512 00 per Ion. 
Dissolved boiie.s, - - . - 3.3 00 " 

Ground bones, - - - - - 32 50 " 

In theabove thenitrogen will cost 28ct8. per 
pound in nitrate of soda ; 23 cents in sulphate 
of ammonia ; and 183 cents in dried blood. 

The pota.sh will cost 4.{ cents per pound in 
sulphate of potash, and 4 cents in the muriate 

The phosphoric will vary in price accord 
ingly as we value the nitrogen contained in 
the bones. Iu ground bones, if we value the 
nitrogen at 2.'i ci'uts per punnd, then the phos- 
phoric acid will cost only :i_l cents per pound :, 
nitrogeu at 18^ cents woultl make the phos- 
phoric acid 4cents. In dissolved bones, valuing 
nitrogen as before, we woidd have the phos- 
phoric acid 0} and 7j cents respectively. 

In dissolved lii>nes the phosphoric acid come.s ^ 
somewhat hi;;lier, but it is in better .shape ' 
than when the bones are only ground, being 
much iiore available to the wants of the 
plant.— yl. B. K. 



State Societies. 



STATE FRUIT GROWERS' SOCIETY. 
The twentieth annual meeting of the Penn- 
sylvania Fruit Growers' .Society was calicd to 
order at two o'clock on Wedne.cday afternoon, 
January 18th, 187'.l, in Adier Hall, corner of 
Sixth anil Court streets. Reading, by Hon. 
Henry M. Kngle, of Marietta, Lancaster 
county, A'ice President of the Association. 
Vice President Enule. in taking the chair, ex- 
pressed his regret that the President of the 
society, .losiah Hoopes. of Westchester, Pa., 
was unavoidably absent in consequence of ill 
health. He stated that as he was the only 
Vice President present he would not .shrink 
from the dutv devolving.' npf)U him. 

Col. ,T. L. Slichter, in behalf of the Berks 
County .Agricultural ami Horticultural So- 
ciety, then delivered an address of welcome, 
•as follows: 

Mr. Prmidcnt and Gcntlcnten of the Pennsyl- 
vania Fruit Grotrrrs^ Society: 
In behalf of the Berks County Agricultural 
and Ilorticulluial Society, I have the pleas- 
ure to welcome you to the city of Heading, 
and to assure you that this county has not 
been unmindful of the importance of fruit 
culture. In the eighteenth century the 



26 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 



''Seeker' fear was plauted on her soil ; one of 
these veteran trees stands on my grounds aud 
bids fair to fruit for many days. The parent 
tree of this world-i'enowued fruit stands on 
what was once the farm of Lawrence Seckel, 
below Philadelphia, and is still in a healthy 
condition. Tlie "Heading" pear, of such 
wide reputation, is a "seedling." The fol- 
lowing twenty-seven are acknowledged native 
varieties of apples of approved excellence of 
which we may well be proud : Hiester, Keim, 
Boas, Ilain, Ilousum's Red, Phillippi, Miller, 
.Stehle, Krauser, Helper, Bear, Marks, Yost, 
Hughes, Kelsey, Gewiss Goot, Ncversink, 
Orange, Meister, C'liampacne, Bitter's Sweet, 
Evening Party Leslier, 01ilinL,'ci-, lied Appli', 
Staudt, Zieber. Under the iosLciiiit,- care of 
the Berks County Agricultural and 'Horticul- 
tural Soeiety over fifty thousand fruit trees— 
Ihemajority peach— have been planted during 
the last two years. How gratifying a reflec- 
tion that soon our fruit productions in Penn- 
sylvania will in a measure make up the loss 
occasioned by the depression in mineral and 
other interests. Anticipating much pleasure 
and profit in attending this convention, I 
again bid you a cordial welcome to this city 
and county. 

Vice President Engle replied briefly to the 
address of welcome. He said that the hearti- 
ness of the welcome required an equally hearty 
response for wliich he did not have the Avords 
to reply. He heartily accepted the welcome 
and fully appreciated it. He said that the 
society since its existence has been rather an 
itinerant one, and has held its sessions in 
diflerent sections of the State, not so much 
fortheinstruition of others as to learn. They 
expect also to make new members in the dif- 
ferent places in which they meet, and hoped 
to receive a considerable accession of new 
members in Reading. 

We are indebted to the Berlcs and Schuyl- 
kill Journnl for a copy of these proceedings, 
but regret that our space is too limited to 
admit the whole in our columns, and therefore 
the foUowiui; extracts must suflice for the 
present. "Wc'will tr\-. li(i\vc\cr, to make room 
forthecssavs i.f :m.'ssis. siitze! aud Satter- 
thwaite. Tlie meeting itsclfnas well attended 
and interesting, and the discussions brought 
out many nseful things. 

Charles H. Miller, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Nominations, reported the follow- 
ing oflicers : President, Josiah Hoopes, West 
Chester ; Vice Presidents, Henry M. Engle, 
Marietta; George D. Stilzel, Re'adini,'; .John 
I. Carter, West Grove ; Kcr-.i.Hnu Sc-i-etary, 
E. B. Engle, Marietta; ('.>i r(.-;ininliii- Secre- 
tary, AV. P. Brinton. ClirisI iana ; Tivasurer, 
George B. Thomas, West C^liester; Professor 
of Botany, Thomas Median, Germantown ; 
Professor of Entomology, S. ,s. Rathvon, Lan- 
caster; Professor of Horticultural Chemistry, 
S. B. Heiges, of York. 

The President was authorized to cast the 
ballot for the oflicers nominated by the com- 
mittee, and they were elected by acclamation. 

The society then, at 9:40 v. m., adjourned 
to meet on the third Wednesday in January, 
1880, in Bethlehem, Pa. 



STATE MILLERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The third .semi-annual meeting of the Penn- 
sylvania State Millers' Association convened 
in the large parlors of the Stevens House, on 
Wednesday afternoon, January 14. The 
President, Charles A. Nuuor, of Wilkes 
Barre, called the meeting to order in a neat 
speech, in which he welcomed the old mem- 
bers and expres.sed his pleasure at seeing so 
many strange faces present. He said Penn- 
.sylvauia represented more milling capital than 
any State in the Union, and it was to the 
interest of all millers to stand firmly together 
for mutual protection. 

The Secretary, A. Z. Schoch, then read the 
minutes of the last mccting'held in the Key- 
stone House in Reading, at which there we're 
70 members present, representmg nearly every 
county east of the Alleghenies, and at which 
meeting 20 new members were added to the 
membership. 



The following old members answered to 
their names at call of roll : John McFarland, 
Watsontown; N. C. Ereck & Co., Millers- 
liurg; J. M. Thomas d- Co., Wilkes Barre; 
Hancock, Grier&Co., Wilkes Barre; Schoch 
Bros., Selins Grove; C- Bruckhart, Chambers- 
burg; J. II. Geary, Cattawissa; P. A. & S. 
Small, York; T. Wright, Kingston; Jacob F. 
Newman, Bedford; J. B. FLsher, Penn Hall; 
Geo. F. Seitz, Glen Rock; F. W. Gantz, Maii- 
ctta; Krieder, Campbell & Co., Philadelpliia; 
Strickler & Keller, Lancaster; Reuben Gar- 
ber&Son, Salun^a; Jacob V/alter, Eastou; 

D. L. Hamaker, East Hempfiekl; A. N. AVolf, 
Allentown; Samuel Young, Marlekirlc (V); 
Benj. Wi.ssler, Lincoln; P.^B. Bucher, Clay 

E. L. Rogers & C:o., Pliiladelphia; I). ,V- A. 
Luckenland, Bethlehem ; Aaron Yocum, 
Reading. 

After the calling of the roll the Secretary 
read his report ; also the report of the Trea- 
surer, whicli was adopted. 

The new members were then added to the 
roll— E. K. Bollinger, Glen Rock; Charles II. 
Piatt, Avondale; Gotleib Mayer, Middletown; 
Eph. Bollinger, Sell's Station; J. M. Brandt, 
Mt. Joy; Nath. Sellers, Philadelphia; Wm. 
W. Snyder, Landisburg, Perry county; Wm. 
Pyle & Sons, Bryn Mawr ; S. M." Miller, 
Reftou; Wade Wilson, New ]5righton; Sam'l 
M. Ihua, Harrisburg; Peters & Allen, Phila- 
delphia; C. (i. Weuger, AVest Earl; .John S. 
Gingrich, Petersburg; John P. Sager, Lemon 
Place; Forney, AVist & Co., Hanover; John 
Ilofler, Harri-sburg; Noble & Son, AVilliams- 
port; Arnold Miller, Reading; Levan & Sons, 
Lancaster,- Isaac Ranck, Lancaster; John AV. 

E.shleman, Lancaster: Stauffer, Stevens; 

John Musselman, AVheatland Mills; Steacy & 
Co., Columbia. 

Mr. Small moved a vote of thanks be extend- 
ed to President Miner and Secretary Schoch, 
and that they be re-elected to the positions they 
had filled with so much credit aud ability. 

]5otli the President and Secretary earnestly 
requested that others be elected to fill their 
places, and the former reciprocated the com- 
pliment paid liim by Mr. Small, by nominating 
him for President," but the latter positively 
declined, and the entire sentiment of the 
meeting seemed to be so strongly in favor of 
retaining these gentlemen in these positions, 
that tliey were unanimously re-elected, though 
under protest of vote by both of them, Mr. 
Small putting the motion to the meeting. 

Mr. Miner briefly returned thanks lor the 
honor done him, but Secretary Schoch's speech 
was very brief. He said, "Gentlemen, I 
canuot say that I thank you." 

The Next Place of Meeting, 
Bellefimte, Harrisburg, Lewisburg, Bedford 
and Chambersburg were placed in nomina- 
tion, and there was considerable discussion on 
the subject. Finally, all the towns named 
but Bedford were withdrawn, and Altoona 
was added, and the contest thus narrowed to 
the two places, was, on a vote being taken, 
decided in favor of the latter. 

The President announced the standing com- 
mittees for the ensuing year as follows: 

Patents.— AV. Latimer Small, York; Jacob 
AValter, Easton; Nathan Sellers, Tamaqua; 
L. Hamaker, East Hempfleld; Geo. M. Cress- 
well, Petersburg. 

Intiurance.--Wm. P. Duncan, Phillipsburg; 
John AV. Eshleman, Lancaster; B. F. Isen- 
burg, Huntingdon; E. F. Noble, AViliiams- 
port ; J. Z. Eby, Manheim. I 

Transportation.—lS,. A. Hancock, AVilkes- \ 
Barre; A. C. Freck, Millersburg; M. M. Stein, I 
Pottsville; E. G. Steacy, Columbia. I 

Mill Machinery and Processes. — Thomas 
AVright, Kingston; C. Burkhart, Chambers- ' 
burg; Frank Hays, Lock Haven; D. O. Luck- i 
enbauch, Bethlehem; LB. Fisher, Penn Hall. 

Grain for 3Iillin(j.—S. L. Levan, Lancaster; 
I. M. Thomas, AVilkes-Barre; A. M. Garber, 
Salunga; J. F. Newman, Bedford; A. B. 
Sprenkel, AVrightsville. 

Oradinij and Inspection.— John Iloffer, Har- 
risburg; S. Z. Ilarbecker, AVilliamson; John 
P. Sager, Leuape; L. AV. Pyle, Bryn Mawr; 
C. Heebner, Non-istown. 



Selections. 



THE GRAIN AND FRUIT CROPS OF 1878. 

The report of the Department of Agricul- 
ture for December, just issued, shows the 
following condition of crops : 
The Corn Crop. 

The corn season closed with a marked im- 
provement in the condition of tlic crop. The 
average, as found by the June returns, shows 
no material change, being in round numbers 
51,0(10,000 acres in 1878, and 50,300,000 acres 
in 1S77. Compared with 1877, the South 
Atlantic States show a falling off in produc- 
tion ; the Gulf States increased slightly. The 
States of Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri and 
Kansas— four of the largest producing States- 
decline considerably, while all the other 
States north of the Ohio river, and in the 
northwest, make a decided increase, thus 
making the aggregate crop for 1878 larger 
than that of 1877 some 30,000,000 bushels. 
This result is the more remarkable as it is the 
fourth of an unbroken series of large crops. 
The Oats Crop 

is somewhat in excess of the very large crop 
of 1S77, constituting it the largest crop ever 
raised in this country. The Atlantic slope, 
north of the Chesapeake, showed a decline, 
especially in the large oats-producing region 
of the Middle States. The Southern coast 
States, from North Carolina to Texas, uni- 
formly increase their product, but the South- 
ern inland States, as a whole, fell off. The 
AV'est, Northwest and Pacific States showed a 
marked increase. The Teiritories also indi- - 
cate an enlarged product. The minimum 
quality appears in the neighborhood of Chesa- 
peake Baj% though portions of the Northwest 
also note a marked deficiency of weight and 
other merchantable qualities. 
There is no material change in 
The Barley Crop 

for 1876 compared with 1877, except the great 
product of California, which will be double 
that of its predecessor. The total product for 
the year 1878 will be, in round numbers, 48,- 
000,000, while in 1877 the crop was 34,500,000 
bushels. 

The Rye Crop 

turns out about one-sixth larger than in 1877. 
The total yield amounted to nearly (30,000,000 
bashels. The quality of the crop is below the 
average in New J-higland, except Connecti- 
cut, aud above (lie average in all the Middle 
States except Delaware. The crop of the 
South, on the whole, is inferior, while in all 
the States of the AVcst, Northwest aud Pacific 
slope tlie ([uality is superior, except in Illinois 
and Nebraska. 
There is a large decline in the 
Potato Crop 
this year as compared with 1877. The leading 
complaint was tlie extreme heat, which es- 
pecially affected the late plantings. In some 
places it was coni'iineil with drought, and in 
others with exeessivi- m-iisl iire, causing rot. 
The aveia-e yi.'lil ni (he whole country will 
be 09 bushels ]ier aei'e. against 94 bushels in 
1877, thus making a total product, in round 
numbers, of 124,000,000 bushels for 1878, 
against 170,000,000 iii 1877. 

The Hay Crop 
is 20 per cent, greater than last year. 

Sorghum 
is receiving increased attention, especially in 
the trans-Mississippi States and Territories, 
where the results of the year's culture are 
noted by different correspondents as very satis- 
factory. In the West the Minnesota amber 
cane has produced the most satisfactory re- 
sults. In Stearns county, Minn., this variety 
is reported as yielding as high as .'iOO gallons 
of syrup per acre. Helaware county, Iowa, 
manufaetui-ed lod.ddo gallons of sorghum 
syrup during the year and found a steady 
home demand for the whole. 



1879.] 

The Tobacco Crop 
of 1878 lias been secured under exceptionally 
auspicious condilions of weather, the liriglit 
days of S(>|itc>iiil)or favorins tlic icrowlli, while 
the unusual (l.'l;iv cif seven' I'rn-i cnalileil tiie 
plant to nuilnre tlioroMiihlv Ixlnre the knife 
is applied. Of llie UviH'. I'nHlueiuu' States, 
A'irsinia, Maryland, Conneetieut and .Mas.<;i- 
cluiselts report an improvement in iiualitv. 
Twelve Slates, repre.'^entin}; the bulk of the 
total production of the eoimliw re|iiiil the 
production compared with I i '. r I..1- 
lows : Kentucky, GO ; Virgim:! , \li mri, 
r>0 ; Tennessee, 53 ; Ohio, '.'n : M i \ lini, s) ; 
Indiana, 83 ; North Carolina, s'.i; I'ennsyl- 
vania, 80 ; Illinois, fiO ; Connecticut, 8(5 ; 
Massachusetts, 9."). The conditions of 
Fruit Growth 

during 1878 were <piite unfavorable. The 
prape product of the Atlantic slope and Missis- 
sippi Valley was very nineh reduced. Califor- 
nia, however, reports a i;i-e;i(ly increased yield. 
The apple crop shows an increased vield'in all 
of the Xew Enqtle.nd Slates, Xi'W York, 
Texas and the Paeilic States. In all other 
States it shows a falling olf, Missouri report- 
ing less than half of last year's crop. 

AMMONIA IN THE AIR. 

Dr. 1{. Anqrus Smith, who has done so much 
for the chemistry of the air, lately read before 
the Manchester Literary and Philosophical 
Society a paper on the distribution of am- 
monia, in which he describes the simplest 
method yet proposed for determining the 
amount of ammonia in the air. And, since 
such ammonia may be taken as an index of 
the amount of decayed mailer in any locality, 
the hygienic inipurtanee of an ea.sy test for it 
is not small. The availability of the proposed 
test arises i'roni the circumstance that ammo- 
nia is deposited from the air on every object 
exposed thereto. " It you pick up a stone in 
a city, and wash off the matter on its surface, 
you will lin<l the matter to contain ammonia. 
If you wash a eliair or a table or anything in 
a room, you will lind ammonia in the wash- 
ing. If you wash your hands you will fiud 
the same, and your paper, your pen, your 
tablecloth, and clothes all show ammonia, and 
even the glass cover to an (UMiament has re- 
tained some on its surface." In .short, am- 
monia sticks to everytbiuL.', and can l)e readily 
wa.shed off with pure water. Hence Dr. Smith 
inferred that he might ~avc him-^rir nuicii of 
the trouble he had been t ikiuLr in l;ilH,iious 
washings of air to deleimine tlie iucmucc of 
ammonia, and gain the desired end by testing 
the superlicial deposits of ainnuinia wbicli 
gathers on clean substances during ordinary 
exposure. Accordingly be suspended sm.ail 
glass flasks in various parts of his laboratory 
and examined them daily, washing the outer 
surfaces with pure water, and testing at once 
for ammonia with the Xes.sler solution. Sub- 
seipiently a great many observations were 
made by" means of glasses exiio,sed to air in 
door and out, where the air was foul. By 
using glasses of definite size it was easy to 
determine whetherammonia in the air was or 
was not in e.xcess. In his laboratory experi- 
ments in ammonia was observed when the 
glasses had been exposed au hour and a half. 

Of the practical working of the test Dr. 
Smith remarks that it musi not be forgotten 
that the annnonia may be connected with or- 
ganic matter ; and c(iiise<pieidly this mode of 
inquiry is better suitid as a negative test to 
show that ammonia is absent than to show 
what is present. When ammonia is absent 
wc may be sure that the air is not polluted 
by decaying matter; when it is present 
there is need of caution. Dr. Smith adds that 
he hopes to make Ibis a ready popular test for 
air, a test for sewer gasses, tor overcrowding, 
for cleanliness of habitations, and even of fur- 
niture, as well as for smoke and all the sources 
of ammonia. Of course it must be used with 
consideration and the conclusions must not be 
drawn by an ignorant person. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



27 



Our Local Organizations. 



Tlic Lancaster ('mimy Ai;rIciiUurul ami Horticul- 
tural Society met en Mondiiy nfleriioon, February Uil, 
in its room in llio C'ily Hall, and was called to order 
by President t'o()])cr. The following members were 
l)resent : Calvin Cooper, President, Hird-in-IIand ; 
.Jos. V. Witnicr, Secretary, Paradise; Levi W. tirolf, 
Treasurer, West Karl ; Dr. S. 8. Kathvoo, city ; 
lleurv .M. Kngle, .Marietta; M. D. Kendlp, Manor ; 
Levi S. Heist, Manljcini ; Peter S. Relst, LItiz; C. L. 
Ilunseckcr, Manluitn ; W. H. Brosius, Drumoro; 
». Sineycli, city; C. M. IIoBtctter, Eden; Henry 
Kurtz, Mount Joy; W. J. Kain-olli, West Earl; 1. 
L. Laudis, Manheim ; Choc Ciir|Hiilor, city; .1. M. 
Johnston, city; Casper llillor, CoucsloKa; Jacob 
Bollinjicr, Manhcim ; Hcnrv llcrr, Wctl Henipfield ; 
Geo. Mellvaino, ,S;ilisl>urv'; F.pli. 11. Hoover, Man- 
hcim; F. K. Dillcndcrllor, cilv ; Jotinson Miller, 
Warwick; S. H. Kslikni.in. Lcainan Place. 

Rev. J. Calder's Lecture on Agriculture. 

As announced by Henry M. Englc, at the last 
meeting, Kev. James Calder, of the Pennsylvania 
State College, situated at State College, Centre 
county, was present and ready to deliver an address. 
Tlie rules were suspended and he was invited to 
begin his lecture, of which the following is a brief 
sketch ; 

He used the word agriculture in a comprehensive 
sense, embracing the farm, market garden, fruit 
growing, horticulture and slocli growing. Agricul- 
ture is a foundation industry and was man's first 
labor. In every new country it is the first employ- 
ment for man. Manufacturing nations depend on 
agricultural ones, as England on America, India, etc. 
Agriculture is the best employment in whieh to lay 
the foundation of a substantial fortune, and In en- 
larging on this point, the lecturer called special atten- 
tion to the advantages of earning money instead of 
inheriting it. When a boy earns a dollar by his own 
labor he knows its cost and its worth. Give another 
ten thousand dollars and unacquainted witli the 
labor of earning it he spends it rapidly because he 
knows not what it costs. Agriculture is peculiarly 
free from risks. In many places our richest men 
have all been overwhelmed. In the lumber tra''e, 
the oil trade, everything is at a stuml-still. It is dif- 
ferent with the farmer. He ton has iisl<s, but com- 
pared with other profcssiuns liis risks are almost 
nothing. 

His business is comparatively free from the tempta- 
tions that assail nearly all others. All professions 
have their chastisements ; tliey are for our own good, 
but the trade of the farmer is comparatively exempt. 
In Germany farmers live on small patches, and are 
therefore brought together ofteuer than our farmers 
are. Here our farmers own their lands, live on them 
and are to some extent isolated, being thus not sub- 
jected to so many temptations as other men. Farm- 
ing brings men nearer their Maker. They see him 
in the nature around them every hour, and are thus 
brought into nearer communion with him. 
Intensive Farming. ' 

Lancaster county farmers are peculiar. Their 
farms are large but are well cultivated. In many 
parts of the State men own large csiulcs, liumlrcds 
of acres, but cultivate only a small iM.ni.ui. Tliey 
skim and skim over it and do not iiiiicn.l luliivalion 
in its higlier sense. Farmers ought le take no more 
land than they can manage, but cultivate a little and 
do it right. Countries that are densely populated 
like China, have farms that are like our gardens. 
Here a man may own 300 or HUO acres but he can 
manage on by a small part of it. 

In Cliina, it is warmer than here, the climate being 
about equal to that of Mobile. There they put wheat 
in the ground in November and take it oil' in .March. 
Then the rainy season conies, and they plant rice 
which th -y cut in August. After the rice crop they 
plant garden vegetables which are fully grown in 
November, and are gathered In time to allow the 
wheat to be planted. Thus they raise three crops in 
one year. Of tourso the climate is warmer, and this 
gives tbcm an advantage, bat a greater advantage is 
their method of fertilization. They utilize every 
scrap of manure procurable. Every animal that 
dies, ashes and even then the night soil, which is 
nearly all wasted in this country, is used, and the re- 
sult is that the crops almost jump, tlicy grow so 
rapidly. Their fertilization is of the most intensive 
kind imaginable. There a man with a small piece of 
ground can make money and plenty of it. 

Now, in this country we are too prodigal, too care- 
less of the manure pile. In Minnesota he met a man 
who tliought manure was a nuisance, and was glad 
astiiaiii ran by his farm into which he could throw 
it. He » ill learn his mistake soon enough and be 
glad to utilize all the valuable manure he now 
wastes. The intensive farmer is the man who cares 
for every bit of fertilizer and uses it to advantage. 

Another advantage of intensive farming is that 
farms become divided up into small sections and 
thus more men are enabled to become freeholders 



and independent. What tends more to drive Inde- 
pendence out of a man than to feel that his neighbor 
is rich and will ri main so, while he will never be- 
come independent I On the other hand, how is he 
inspired if he feels that In ten years he can owji a 
piece of ground. Now, the intensive system docs 
this, and is therefore the best. In tlie South some 
men owned whole counties, so to speak, while the 
great m.ajority of the rest were mere mudsills. Wc 
should endeavor to divide the ground up so that 
every man could own properly. 

The Location of Farms— A Home Market. 

Experience has shown that It is belter for agricul- 
ture to be near other interests : that It is belter for 
the farmer to be near the manufacturer and the 
common carrier near to railroads and canals, VVe 
all know that the divine injuuclinn that It Is not 
good for man to be alone, referred to his choosing a 
male for life, but it applies equally In the all'airs of 
business life. It is better for him to haVc other 
business men near him. It is jKiBsihle for a man to 
have a good farm, with everything on it necessary 
for the use of the former ami yet to be unhappy. 
Why? Because he is so far from his fellows that he 
cannot have his products carried to them at a profit 
to him. Years ago it was cheaper to burn corn In 
the West than to transport the coal needed to make 
fires. Just so with the farmer who is so unwise as 
to think that he can farm with profit while the con- 
sumer is lijOOO miles off in Europe. The heaviest por- 
tion of the freight charges arc sure to fall upon the 
producer. The nearer you bring the consumer and 
the producer, tlic better for the latter. 

One advantage of this can easily be pointed out ; 
a greater variety of crops can be raised. Wheat and 
corn and potatoes can be kept for such a length of 
time that they can be shipped for long distances. 
But farmers make large protits from the growing of 
strawberries, which are largely consumed. Now, if 
a man lives a great distance' from the market the 
culture of strawberries is not profitable. They are 
ruined before he can get them to the market, and he 
is shut out from these kinds of products. 

Another advantage from these products is the va- 
riety of interest to the farmer's family. Suppose 
one of his sons is peculiarly adapted to the care of 
stock, and cares for no other branch of the farm. If 
his father decides that no stock but what Is neces- 
sary for farm use shall be raised his occupation is 
gone. Another is adapted to the work of raising 
fruit, but tliey are so far away from the market that 
it is of no use to raise it. That boy has no work. 
Don't put all your eggs In one basket. Don't raise 
only one crop. 

Then, in growing for a home market, the farmer 
better understands what is wanted than for a foreign 
market. Suppose we try to raise here what is wanted 
in Europe. We only know how to shape our actions 
by the reports of newspapers, which are often false. 
But at home we know exactly what is wanted and 
can raise it witliout danger or loss. Then, how easy 
it is to reach this market. We send our hands off in 
a wairon, and in a few hours the sales are made and 
the rcVcipls secure. 

Another important feature in producing for the 
home market is, that it secures a greater variety of 
fertilizers. If we send wheat to England what re- 
turn do we get ? If we sell it at home we get a fer- 
tilizer in return. 

Educated Farmers. 

Intelligence is necessary in farming. A great 
many think that if there is any place for an unedu- 
cated man it is on the farm. If any son is peculiarly 
stupid, the father resolves to make him a farmer. 
This is a mistake ; a slander. If any man intends to 
be a farmer he should be Intelligent. He is the best 
farmer who is best educated. Yet at the same time 
wc must recognize the unwelcome truth that the 
majority of farmers are not well educated. This i.s 
easily explained in Ihs fact that farmers live out 
from among their fellows, and consequently do not 
have advantages of schooling. The most of the 
country schools upon which the children of farmers 
must depend for their education are poor ones. 
Sometimes there are forty or fifty scholars and almost 
as many classes with one teacher. Though that 
teacher do the best she can, she cannot possibly 
advance her pupils perceptibly lu the short term 
allowed. And after four or five years of such school- 
ing, the children are taken away. The farmer is not 
to blame, it is rather a matter of sorrow. 

Now the farmer who has received an education, 
and knows something about the rotation of crops. 



ments I Take the limo question, and the lecturer 
told how an old farmer argueil for two days that 
lime is a manure, but could not be made to under- 
stand that it only prepared the plant food for the 
plants. At length he was convinced by a simple 
Illustration. He was shown a stove, and foo<I. If 
he was hungry he could cat the food after it had 
been cooked, but he could not eat the stove or the 
raw food. 

Instruction can be gained by the perusal of agri- 
cultural papers, by close attention to discussions at 
meetings like this, and the farmer will be able to 



28 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ February, 



keep abreast with the times. Therefore the farmer 
who refuses to allow his sods to be educated is acting 
unwisely if not unkindly. 

In conclusion, he advised the farmer to stick to 
his farming and to love it. To be enterprising and 
strive to improve his methods. 

On motion of Henry M. Engle, a vote of thanks 
was tendered to the lecturer. 

Mr. Kendig asked if the lecturer would advise the 
application of lime and manure at the same time, 
and received a negative answer. 

Mr. Linville d tiered with the lecturer in regard to 
the education of farmers. Education does not cease 
when ihe school is abandoned. No class has a better 
chance than the farmer for self-education. The long 
winters are profitably spent by some, and he don't 
see why it could not be done by all. 
The Fair Question. 

The report of the committee appointed to con- 
sider the question of holding a fair was called for, 
but Mr. Smeych stated that none had been prepared, 
tb the comittee had not met at the appointed time. 
For his part, he had come to the conclusion that 
nothing but an indoor fair could be held. The 
Northern Market would be a good place, and it should 
last three days. 

Mr. Kendig stated, thatas Berks county has always 
had successful fairs, he had written to the secretary 
of the Berks County Agricultural Society, Cyrus D. 
Fox, in relation thereto, and had received a letter 
from that gentleman, which he read. The letter 
warmly advocated fairs as being to the interest of 
farmers, and said their fairs had advanced the agri- 
cultural interests in Berks county. 

Mr. Engle, in his travels, had made inquiries in 
relation to fairs, and found that the Berks and York 
fairs were both successful. There was probably a 
little loss, but they were called successes. But before 
talking further about fairs he wished to know how 
the society was to get grounds to hold a fair. All 
know that they have no grounds, and hence must 
rent. It is not at all certain that the Park grounds 
can be procured— in fact it is rather doubtful. If 
they are notprocuralile the fair is out of the question. 
Not that the farmers of Lancaster county are not 
rich enough to buy grounds, but they won't do it. A 
fair could be held in the Northern Market House, 
but it would be a small affair for the garden county 
of the State in comparison to those held by York 
and Berks. 

Johnson Miller had sent in a communication, 
which was read. He thought it was a shame that 
no large fair had been held since 18.58, excepting the 
State fair, and that might have been better. This 
fair should be a grand one. He advocated the use 
ofthe Market House. 

Mr. Calder thought that to hear of a little experi- 
ence a party of men in Centre county had would in- 
struct the society. They wanted to execute a work 
that would cost ?1 ,000 and thought they had better 
be incorporated. They made application for a char- 
ter, asking permission to issue ?1,000 worth of stock 
and their expenses were not more than §20. They 
put the stock at five dollars per share, and in a very 
short time it was all taken. The merchants here, no 
doubt, would subscribe the money needed if they 
understood that the farmers wanted to have a fair. 

Mr. Witmer told of the experience of the Berks 
AgricuUural Society as related by a member. In 
the first place they secured grounds for the nominal 
sum of ?1 a year for 99 years. Then they sold life 
tickets for $10 each and raised money to erect build- 
ings, etc. It had occurcd to the speaker that a 
vacant place near the city could be secured the same 
way. But it is not necessary that the fair be held in 
Lancaster ; if some of the boroughs otfer better 
inducements, they ought to be accepted. 

Mr. Kurtz knew of a number of hotel keepers 
who would give §50 to $100 if a fair were held in 
this city, as they could make five times that amount 
from it. 

Mr. Witmer thought it would not do to sell too 
much stock in the city. If merchants got a majority 
of the stock they would run the fair to suit them- 
selves and leave the farmers out in the cold. 

Mr. Engle moved that the society hold a fair next 
fall, and his motion was unanimously carried. 
Charter Wanted. 

President Cooper suggested that, in order to carry 
out Mr. Engle's motion, the society should procure a 
charter and permission to sell stock, and by that 
means raise money. 

A motion was made that the society apply for a 
charter, which was carried. 

The Amount of Stock. 

The next question was the amount of stock they 
desired to issue, and on motion of Mr. Engle ?3,000 
was fixed upon. 

Mr. Kurtz moved that the shares be fixed at ?.5. 
Agreed to. 

Profit of Raising Fowls. 

The secretary read a report on a year's experiment 
with fowls, prepared by Casper Hiller. (Seepage 20.) 

Mr. Calder said he liked the report very much. He 
believed chickens should have a place into which 
they could be turned, and it would be an advantage 
to turn them into an orchard. His plan, as his ac- I 



comraodations are limited, is to keep the chickens in 
the yard from the first of May until the latter part 
of October, when he let them run through the or- 
chard, strawberry patch, vineyard, etc. That was a 
very encouraging report. Though not large there 
was yet a net income. 

Mr. Witmer reported, as directed, that the Poultry 
Association asked the co-operation of the Agricul- 
tural Society. 

The Curculio. 

Mr. Reist introduced the subject of insects, and 
stated, as his opinion, that the borer and others in- 
creased in numbers as the forests decreased. 

Mr. Engle stated that he had recently discovered 
that the forest is the homo of the curculio. He and 
a friend had planned an apple and peach orchard on 
the river hills, on ground surrounded by trees, and 
was surprised at the numbers of this insect which 
attacked the trees. But afterwards he learned, from 
Dr. Rathvon, that the forest was the home of the 
curculio, and he had taken trees right to them. 
Grapes. 

Mr. Smeych exhibited some bunches of Almiera 
grapes, and related his experience ingrowing foreign 
grapes of all kinds, which agents said would grow 
here as well as in their native'eountries. This is not 
true, as he could prove, and the proper place for 
such men was in jail. 

Bills. 

A bill for coal, §2.25, another for carrying it up 
stairs, .50 cents, and a third of $10 for Mr. Calder's 
expenses were presented and ordered to be paid. 
Prize Essays. 

Mr. Engle thought more prize essays should be 
written, and volunteered to write one. Messrs. 
Kurtz and Brosius also ofl'ered to do so, the essays to 
be ready by next month. 

Mr. Calder was proposed and unanimously elected 
an honorary member, and thanked the society for 
the honor conferred. Adjourned. 

TOBACCO GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 

Monday afternoon, January 20th, was the regular 
time for holding the meeting of the Tobacco Growers' 
Association. It was understood at the last meeting 
that the present one would determine whether the 
society should be continued or be finally disbanded. 
Under these circumstances it was hoped and believed 
that there would be a good attendance, but the same 
disappointment that has so long been the portion of 
the few who have regularly met and attempted to 
keep alive some interest in the meetings of the organi- 
zation was again theirs. 

Only eight members and visitors were present, 
namely: M. D. Kendig, President, Manor; Peter S. 
Reist, Litiz; Sylvester Kennedy, Salisbury; A. H. 
Yeager, East Lampeter ; Linnaeus Reist, JManheim ; 
Clare Carpenter, Lancaster ; Frank R. Diffenderffer, 
Lancaster ; Jacob Kendig, Silver Spring. 

In consequence of the slim attendance it was not 
thought necessary to go through the formality of 
calling the society to order, but Peter S. Reist, who 
had prepared an essay on the culture of tobacco, pro- 
ceeded to read it. See page 19. 

After the teading of the essay those present in- 
dulged in trade gossip awhile longer, and also can- 
vassed the propriety of continuing the meetings. The 
conclusion reached was that during the past so 
little interest has been shown by tobacco growers in 
these monthly gatherings that it seemed useless for 
the few who still clung to the organization to en- 
deavor to keep it up any longer. The association was 
not finally disbanded, but it was understood that 
probably one more meeting held, at the the Presi- 
dent's call, would end EO much of the Tobacco Grow- 
ers' Association as still held together. 

This, therefore, may be regarded as the winding 
up of an organization which has been of vast benefit 
to the tobacco growing interests of this county. 
Among its members were the most successful grow- 
ers of the weed among us. The amount of informa- 
tion disseminated among our farmers on tobacco cul- 
ture can he seen in the advanced condition tobacco 
growing now holds in Lancaster county. The dis- 
cussions were always interesting and profitable, and 
the tobacco growers have done themselves little 
credit in permitting it to go down. 

During the brief period of twenty-five years to- 
bacco growing has assumed enormous proportions in 
this county. The amount of money it brings to our 
farmers exceeds that they receive for their wheat 
crop, reaching in favorable seasons the enormous 
sum of two millions of dollars or more. It has been 
said, and truthfully, that the culture of tobacco has 
done more to put the farmers of this county in their 
present strong financial condition than any other 
crop they have grown. Hundreds of men have paid 
off heavy incumbrances, and others have gained 
comfortable homes for themselves through this crop. 
It has, in short, enriched the county to an extent few 
are aware of, and yet yesterday's proceedings show 
that there is not enough Interest among'tobacco 
farmers to keep the society especially devoted to the 
advancement of this great and growing crop from 
disbanding. We are not proud of the record our 
Lancaster county farmers have made for themselves 
in this matter. I 



POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

The Poultry Association met on Monday morning, 
February 3rd, at the usual time, in the oid Athens- 
um rooms, in the City Hall. President Tobias called 
the meeting to order, with the following members 
and visitors present : Rev. D. C. Tobias, Litiz ; Frank 

B. Buch, Litiz ; W. J. Kafroth, West Earl ; John A. 
Reed, city ; Joseph F. Witmer, Paradise ; J. A. Buch, 
Litiz; II. H. Tshudy, Litiz; Chas. E. Long, city ; J. 

C. Linville, Salisbury; J. M. Johnston, city; F. R. 
Diffenderfl'er, city; Clare Carpenter, city; J. B. 
Lichty, city; Charles Lippold, city ; Colin Cameron, 
Brickerville, A. H. Shreiner, Manheim ; Harrj 
Hirsh, city; John C. Burrowes, city ; D. M. Brosey, 
Manheim ; T. D. Martin, New Haven ; John B. Eshle- 
mau, Ephrata ; N. M. Hahn, Manheim ; Eli J. Barr, 
Litiz; Hon. Amos H. Mylin, West Lampeter; 
John S. Rohrer, city; Simon P. Eby, city; Charles 
White, city; William Dean, city: Samuel Hess, 
city; Christian Rine, city ; Jacob M. Mayer, Man- 
heim; Silas M. Warfel, Strasburg ; Christian Lint- 
ner. Manor; Henry Nissley, Columbia; John S. 
Hostetter, Oregon ; Hon. John B. Livingston, city; 
William Bishop, Strasburg, and S. Matt. Fridy, 
Mountville, were unanimously elected memberi of 



the! 



ety. 



Charles E. Long moved that postal cards be sent 
to each of these men just elected notifying them of 
their election, and that all moneys be paid to J. B. 
Lichty, at his oflice in Centre Square, or at the next 
meeting. Carried. 

On motion, a committee of three, Charles E. Long, 
F. R. DifTenderffer and John A. Reed, was appointed 
to ascertain the probable cost of having the Consti- 
tution and By-Laws of the society published. 

The rules were suspended to allow the election of 
John C. Linville, Gap, as a member. 

H. H. Tshudy moved that a committee of three 
members, who are also members of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society, be appointed to bring this 
association to the attention of that society, asking 
them to encourage it by becoming members, etc. 
The motion was carried, and John C. Linville, W. J. 
Katfrotli and J. F. Witmer were appointed. 

H. H. Tshudy, chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee, presented two bills, one from the iVew Era 
olHce for printing postal cards, 75 cents, and the 
other from J. B.' Lichty for postage, $1.20. Both 
were referred to be paid. 

Colin Cameron proposed the following questions 
for discussion at the next meeting : 

" What is a rapid cure for chicken cholera?" Re- 
ferred to Charles E. Long. 

" Will chickens do well on board floors, without 
sunlight ?" Referred to John A. Reed. 

"What is the farmer's best barnyard fowl?" 
Referred to 11. H. Tshudy. 

"What must bens that are confined absolutely 
have in order that they may produce eggs?" Re- 
ferred to Kcv. D. C.Tobias. 

Jos. F. Wilmcr suggested that it would be well if 
at each meeting questions were chosen for discussion 
at the next meeJng, and moved that a committee be 
appointed to whom this duty shall be assigned. The 
motion was carried, and the committee will be an- 
nounced at Ihe next meeting. 

Adjourned. 

WARWICK FARMERS' CLUB. 

A meeting of citizens of Warwick township was 
held at the house of John Grossman, of said town- 
ship, for the purpose of organizing a Local Farmers' 
Club. Jfcmtiers present, Urias Carpenter, Jacob 
Bollinger, .John Iluber, Henry Hubcr, Isaac George, 
Michael Behraer, Peter Volleiizer, Johu Grossman, 
Aar .n Grcsinan, Moses Grossman, Mrs. Carpenter 
and Mrs. (linesman. The meetingwas organized by 
electing l'iia.s Carpenter President, and Jacob 

On taking the chair Mn. Carpenter stated the 
object of the meeting, and added that farmers liave 
less jirotection than any other class of men ; that we 
proposed to meet for the pur,,ose of exchanging 
ideas on matters relating to our interests and making 
agricultural experiments. He spoke at some length 
upon the importance of such associations as we de- 
sired to organize, and the benefits derived from tliem. 

Mr. Huber, of Litiz, spoke of the good efi'ects of 
farmers' clubs in other localities, and that wc were 
behind our sister counties in that respect. 

Mr. Grossman said that millers, tobacco specula- 
tors and other business men have their society meet- 
ings, and why should not also the farmers have their 
local club meetings ? 

Mr. Grossman read a lengthy essay on orchards, 
and also one on fence-making on the farm. (See 
pages 18 and 20.) A vote of thanks was passed to 
Mr. G. for his interesting and instructive essays. 

Mr. Huber and others made remarks on the essays. 

After the close of the discussion it was proposed to 
meet at the house of John Grossman, of Warwick 
township, at 1 o'clock p. m., on Saturday, February 
Ist, 1879. All farmers and those interested in .agri- 
culture are respectfully invited to attend. 

After some social, neighborly intercourse the club 
adjourned. 



I 



1879; 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



29 



FULTON FARMERS' CLUB. 

The January moclinir of tin? Fultmi Farmers' Club 
was held at the roei.Un . -r M-n ;::i.iii Urown, on 
thellhinet. VisitorB i i ■ .lion, Haines 

Brown and wife, ami I ! i I wife. 

CharlesS. Catchel rx) i ,. n ;. I. • t>r Nevada 

rye; also a piece of ici- uiktii ijiini uir a bucket ol' 
water that had frozen in his kililien. It had a tri- 
angular column about five inches lu^h and each 
about an inch long, risini; perpendicularly from the 
surface. As this was formed by water in the bucket it 
was considered quite a curicsity. 

E. H. Haines jjave the result of an experiment in 
setting milk. lie weighed some milk and put it in 
tight cans and set it out of doors, so that the cold 
would raise the cream. At the same time he set the 
same number of pounds in the ordinary manner. 
Kaeh mode of setting produced one pound of butter to 
twenty pouuds of milk. The butter made from the 
milk set in the cold was pronounced to be better than 
that made in the ordinary way by the salesman in 
Philadelphia. This agreed with his own opinion. 
The result of his experiment had convinced him that 
the new methods of Cooley and Hardin would pro- 
duce as much butter as the methods now in use, and 
it would be a superior article. 

Wm. King asked whether it would bo advisable to 
haul out and spread manure when theground is frozen! 

It was the opinion of all pr-sent that it was not 
advisable, because the water that would leach 
through it in time of rain would be likely to run off. 
Instead of being absorbed by the ground. A visitor, 
however, stated that he tried it with good results. 

Montillion Brown had a lightning rod that was 
broken; would it be sale to splice with an old rod 
and wrap with copper wire? Most of the members 
thought it would be, if spliced with copper and 
smoothly wrapped. 

S. L. Gregg; How do fertilizers pay when applied 
to oats ? 

E. H. Haines : They will pay as well as any other 
crop, hut there is a danger of applying too much. 
Oats will not stand high manuring. 

Montillion Brown had tried it two years and 
thought it paid. He had good oats both years, 
though they were poor seasons. Other members had 
no experience. 

TTaines Brown : Would it not pay as well to leave 
corn stock ground lie idle as to put it in oats ? 

S. L. Gregg had tried the plan and was not pleased 
with it. He plowed the ground before harvest to 
keep down the weeds, but they came up notwith- 
standing and gave him much trouble. His neighbor, 
George .Miller, left his last summer and did not plow 
until after harvest, when theweedshad to be mowed. 
They were four feet high. His wheat is now looking 
well. 

E. H. Haines would cultivate and sow in clover 
rather than let the ground lie idle. 

Ed Stubbs would put in oats. Had seen clover 
sowed In stock eround. It made such a rank growth 
that it was a big job to put in wheat in the fall. 

Lindley King would keep the ground clean by 
putting it in oats. 

Montillion Brown ; When is the best time to pack 
butter for winter use ? 

R. B. Gatchel packed thirty pounds in a week in 
June, churncdevery day, salted with seven ounces of 
salt to ten pounds of butter. Put half inch of salt 
between each churning and a layer of salt over top 
of all. 

Esther K. Haines has eaten some this winter that 
had kept well. It had been put up in nearly the 
same way, only that holes had been made down 
through it with a stick, and brine, with salpetre in 
it, poured over it and a cloth put down tightly over 
the top. 

Montillion Brown : When is the proper time to sow 
early cabbage and tomato seed ? 

From the last of February to the middle of March 
was the time recommended by some ; but most of 
the members purchased their plants for early use. 

Montillion Brown : How old should a clover sod 
be to produce the best crop when plowed down. 

Lindley King : About two years ; that is about as 
long as clover'sod will last. 

Chas. S. Gatchel referred to some clover roots that 
he had exhibited to the club some time ago. Those 
of one year old had the most small fibres attached 
to them. Judging from this fact he supposed that 
the best time to plow duwn clover was atone yearold. 

S. L. Gregg and Montillion Brown thought that at 
two years old would be the proper time to plow 
down. At that time the roots are as long and as 
strong as ever they would be ; after that time It 
begun to die out and other grass takes its place. 

Edward Stubbs asked if the committee appointed 
to experiment in raising corn thought it paid to raise 
a hundred bushels per acre. 

Montillion Brown replied that the single crop did 
not, but that the soil is left better. For" his part he 
considered the experiment a failure, and its result a 
disgrace to the club. He was not satisHed with it 
and was going to try it again, and he hoped that the 
others would do so also. 

The thermometer was not far enougli above zero 
for the club to spend much time in making the usual 
inspection of farm and live stock. However, the 



greater part of them ventured out and took a hasty 
look at the stock in the barnyard and hog-pen. The 
criticisms given aller again convening in the house 
were as follows : Hogs of extra quality and in fine 
condition. Cattle not as good as they were a year 
ago. The President remai-ked that the cattle on the 
farm a year ago were an extra lot, and that It would 
be hard to keep up a stock equal to it. 
literary exercises being next in order, E. H. Haines 
read an article on pruning grape vines.- 

Esther K. Haines read •' Brain Work," an article 
contending that a man has no more right to have an 
idle brain than an idle body. That when the brain 
gets to work nicely you feel the effects all over. 
Those who do not command respect have themselves 
to blame for it. 

Carrie Blackburn recited the "Power of Truth," 
very nicely. Howard Brown recited " That Mule," 
a parody on " The boy stood on the burning deck." 

Ella Brown recited "The Highway Cow," a 
humorous piece not much too highly painted, de- 
scribing the rough life of that animal, her hide 
bruised with stones and her tail torn off by dogs. 
She often loads thedeacon into temptation by leaping 
into his enclosures ;ind at last " goes to pieces all at 
once, struck by a railway train." Such a cow has 
but little pleasure in life and cannot be profitable to 

Isaac Brown recited " Dried Apple Pies;" Montil- 
lion Brown read au essay in opposition to the culture 
of tobacco; Sadie Brown, C. S. Gatcliel and Hetty 
Jackson were appointed to furnish the literary mat- 
ter for the next meeting. 

Adjourned to meet at the residence of Solomon L. 
Gregg, Drumore township, 1st of February next. 

LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 

The Linnoean Society held its stated meeting on 



To the Ornithological department was added two 
fine and desirable specimens, mounted in good taste 
by Mr. Flick; one a beautifully full-foaihercd 
" Sparrow Hawk," a true Falcou (the Falco Spar- 
verius) . This bird was after our city sparrows.no 
doubt, and lived sumptuously ; but being captured 
without injury to the bird, three weeks ago, on North 
Queen street. Dr. Rathvon took him home and con- 
fined him in a cage, and desiring to study the bird 
and its habits, interviewed him with bits of fresh 
veal and beef; but no temptation would induce him 
to eat, and so for four days he kept sullen, and, no 
doubt, as Mr. S. said, " he made way for liberty and 
died." The other donation, from Mr. Lippold, the 
bird fancier, of East Orange street, is one of those 
short-billed white pigeons, called the " White Owl 
Pigeon." It has not the cravat of the African owl 
pigeon, figured and described by Darwin. 

A large water-washed pebble, with a bunch of the 
nodular coarse sea-weed clinging to it, from the coast 
of Ireland, was donated by Andrew Walters, tin- 
smith of North Queen street. It differs very little, if 
any, from the common nodular i^'wcws, found along 
the coast of Jersey or Delaware bay. A box of 
thirteen cocoons of our native silk-worm moth — At- 
tacHs cecrvpia — aud a few of the polyphemus, were 

donated by Mr. , of York, Pa. Dr. Kathvon 

deposited a small silver carp. Enjoying a tank, it 
made a frisky leap, and like a fish out of water, 
" came to grief." Mr. Wm. Relne donated a pair of 
duck's wings— of a species of small Divers. 

A singular deviation in the normal growth of a 
tobacco leaf pressed and preserved in form, by S. S. 
Rathvon. This had an interruption to its cell, form- 
ing tissues around the mid-rib, retarding some and 
accellerating other cells, so as »o result in a hoUoiv 
stipe or foot, the stalk arising from that point a few 
inches, then dilating into a cup-shaped leaf, forming 
a regular pocket of the ordinary leaf texture, the 
mid-rib of this extra leaf, finally elongating into a 
point, giving the one side of the cup a projecting or 
extended portion, forming the ordinarv apex of the 
leaf. 

Historical Division. 

Eight envelopes, containing 10-1 scraus of history, 
biography, etc., per S. S. Rathvon. C". M. Stubbs, 
M. D., of Wakefield P. 0., Chester county, sent 
several sets of photographic prints (taken in a mas- 
terly manner) of the "Bald Friars" sculptured rocks 
in the Susquehanna livcr, I'.j miles south of the 
Maryland line. A vote of thanks was given for 
these interesting views. 

Papers|Read. 

No. 511, S. S. Rathvon on the Falcon or Sparrow- 
Hawk. 

Additions to the Library. 

Quarterly report of the Pennsylvania Board of 
Agriculture, September, October and November, 
IhTS ; annual report of the comptroller of the cur- 
rency, Forty-fifth Congress U. S.; L.vxcaster 
FAtiMER for the month of January, 1879 ; a circular 
and letter Irom "The Kentucky Historical Society," 
Lexington, Ky., desiring the friendly interchange of 
publications, etc., with the Linniean. The society ae- 
kuowledged the friendly offer and will cordially do 
all to establish such relations with kindred societies. 
Publications on the curious customs of the aborigi- 



nes, by W. J. Hoffman; the r.ihrarian, of Philadel- 
phia, for January 7, 1879 ; Sunday book circulars 
and hclcotypc printing. A letter lo the correspond- 
ing secretary, Kev. D. II. Gclssinger, was read. .J. 
Stauifer made some remarks on a new aphid that 
has lately made its appearance on a species of exotic 
Afelepia. These arc of a bright yellow color. The 
abdominal horns arc short and black, so Is the tip of 
the ovipositor and sucking apparatus, as also the 
tarsi, only one winged specimen seen. The nervures 
weie like those that infest vats occasionally ; also 
rather light In color, but need closerlnvestlgatlon. A 
bill of the taxldermisl for 8J..50 for mounting the 
birds reported was ordered to be paid. The treasurer 
reported that .lohn 1. llartman and .John II. Raum- 
gardner had each taken a certifleate of stock and 
paid ?.5 per share. Adjourned. 



Agriculture. 



The Greatest of all Grains. 
Not over one person in a million could correctly 
answer the query, "Which of all the grains is the 
most largely produced ?" The response invariably 
would be, " Wheat." But this is not so. Rice car- 
ries off the palm. The annual pioduct of the rice 
crop in the United States Is grown in the Carollnas 
and Louisiana mainly, and is said to average eighty 
millions of pounds. The vast populations of China, 
the East Indies and the islands adjacent, according 
to the latest estimates, exceed eight hundred mil- 
lions of souls. With more than half of this number 
rice constitutes the only article of diet. The total 
product of the East last year was a little over two 
huudred and fifty billions (2.50,000,000,000) of 
pounds, which is over three thousand times the 
r/uantily r/rown in the United Stales. This amount is 
nearly all consumed within their own territories. 
The portion shipped to Europe and South America, 
though large, is, as compared to the huge product, 
but a small item, being less than one per cent. 



The Late Summer Seeding of Grass. 
Some of the best farmers in this country have fol- 
lowed the practice, for some years, of turning over 
pieces of their mowing fields that are somewhat run 
out ; spreading on a top-dressing of well rotten 
manure, and the last of August or first of September 
— as the season may be — seeding heavily with grass 
seed. In all instances of this kind of which we have 
heard, heavy crops of hay have been harvested the 
following year, and the plan has uniformly met with 
success. If farmers desire to do so, aud are willing 
to try the experiment, they may sow on some winter 
wheat with the grass seed, and see how It does. 
They may harvest a fair crop, but in some instances 
of which we have learned, the grass has overshadowed 
the wheat, which latter had given but a light yield. 
But for the purpose of securing advantage of the 
main point— the renovation of our grass lands— the 
plan is worthy of more general practice.— /"rairie 



The Ruta Baga. 

The Purple Top Yellow Ruta Baga or " Swede," is 
perhaps the most important root cultivated for stock 
food; its rapid maturity, large bulk to a given area, 
nutritious quality, and sanitary properties commend 
it as eminently worthy of culture. 

It has become a practice in the sale of Ruta Bags 
seed to create varieties; and In an English catalogue 
before us there are not less than twenty-one sorts 
enumerated : the distinctions In a majority of cases 
are ideal. Last year we tested, slue by side, twenty- 
two sorts, so called, Imported for the purpose. 
Many were of irregular form. In some of them the 
purple tint of the crown was more marked than In 
others; some were green topped, some of deeper 
yellow flesh, but the general aspect was similar, as 
they stood in the ground. — Landreth's liur. Jieg. 



Corn in Drills. 



A New Jersey paper nays that ninety years ago It 
was regarded as a settled point that corn in drills 
gave a larger product than in hills, but that now, 
after much discussion, it remains unsettled. This 
remark would not be made by any one who has in- 
formed himself on the subject. We have thoroughly 
tested this question by measuring the results and find 
almost uniformly an increase of ^.5 to ^0 per cent, 
with drill corn over hills — provided the proper dis- 
tance is given for the plants. It would be easy to 
obtain a diminished amount from the drills if too 
thinly planted ; or ears of an inferior quality. If much 
too thick. John Johnson informs us that after long 
experience he arrives at results precisely similar to 
those we have mentioned. — IJountry Genlleinan. 

Webds need constantly to be looked after and 
taken by the foretop. Remember that every weed 
that is allowed to go to seed this year will be re- 
placed by hundreds and thousands next year. " One 
year's seeding" of weeds is said lo produce " fifteen 
years of weeding^," and it is not far from the truth. 



30 



Horticulture. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Buy Your Trees at Home. 

As the seasou for planting trees is almost liere we 
desire to call the attention of our readers to one fact 
in regard to it ; that is, the buying of the trees. We 
have in Lancaster county several nurseries. The 
proprietors of them are all personally known to us. 
They are honest, reliable men, who have been in the 
business for years and have a thorough knowledge of 
everything pertaining to nurseries. They know that 
a man who purchases trees from them once is very 
likely to do so again. It is to their interests to sell 
him young, vigorous trees, and trees that will give 
satisfaction when they arrive at a bearing condition. 
They also take particular pains to represent them 
just as they are when an order is given to them by 
mail, or when the purchaser is not at the nursery. 
Evrey tree they sell is an advertisement. If it is all 
that a man expects it is a good advertisement ; if, on 
the other hand, it does not turn out as was repre- 
sented, is smaller, a mistake in the kind, an un- 
healthy tree, it is a bad advertisement and not a de- 
sirable one. If these misrepresentations were made 
by any ef our home nurserymen, for the purpose of 
making a sale, they would gradually lose their trade. 
Nearly every season our county is visited by several 
tree agents, representing some far off nursery, and 
they generally succeed in selling thousands of dollars 
worth of trees to our farmers. It is not often they 
sell two lots of trees to the same party, as in the 
majority of the cases, when the deliveries of the trees 
are made a great deal of dissatisfaction is expressed 
by the purchasers. We do not mean, in our article 
to cast reflections on the honesty of all nurserymen 
outside of Lancaster county. There are good men 
engaged in the business all over our country, and no 
risk would be run in dealing direct with them, but we 
think it is much safer for our farmers to deal with 
home dealers than with agents. If any of them have 
not the stock on hand you desire they would gladly 
order for you from any one who would have it. It 
would not cost the buyer more, and be more satisfac- 
tory. Again, if the money is given to the home trade 
it stays in the county instead of leaving it. So, in 
conclusion, we would again repeat, that if you 'in- 
tend planting trees this coming spring buy from our 
home nurserymen, men whom you know and who 
will do all they are able to do to give you complete 



done this oft^en with the happiest results. The fruit 
buds form after this, and the operation in suddenly 
cutting off its growth, produces buds; while he 

wood.'' °'' ^"^^ 'P""° P'""'"^ "■'" P''°^"'^« °°iy 

In pruning ornamental trees in mid-summer the 
bark instead of receding from the stump, trows 
over It, and in a few years will completely cover it 
and make a perfect amputation. We have noticed 
this upon our own premises, as well as upon those of 
?i "•'' ?l"^ ^'T^- T"' P'-"'""^ 's lone when the 
tree is taking its midsummer "siesta," and then 
'?»h'° h^' ^'^T''^'! f""- another start, and the bark 

fh.hhf V^ f •''"' """ "'^ '^"""P "^ "■ ashamed of the 
snaoby looking exposure. 

When the tree is in full leaf, and presents its full 
should be done in order that while the overgrowth 
n-eir" '^"'T'^' "',« symmetry of the tree may be 
preferred. Especially is midsummer pruning to be 
preferred, first, to produce buds on fruit-b=carin| 
tiees as before stated ; and second, when large limbs 
are to be remoyed.-Genmu.lowu Teleiiraph 

Winter Peaches. 
It sounds strange in Northern ears to hear of 
peaches ripening the first of November. The editor 
oUhe Gardeners' Monthly, in the November number 
of that excellent periodical, speaks of specimens of 
Harris' Winter, Lady Parham, and Baldwin's La"e 
peaches (all free stone), just received from a North 
Carolina correspondent. The Harris is described as 
a new peach that last year ripened November 1st. 
(This year it will last until December.) It is frost 
proof, never fails to bear, has large flowers, is very 
roductive, and a good keeper, having sometime! 
been kept until Christmas. Why can not Southern 
orchardists make fortunes at growing these late 
peaches for the Northern markets? It seems to us 
Southern peach orchards in this way mav become as 
profitable as Florida orange groves."^ Thl peach ha 
greatly the advantage in that it comes into bearing 
much earlier than the oranpc. "cauug 



[February, 



petunia 



Floriculture. 



satisfaction. 

The Albemarle Apples. 

The Savannah iVcKis says : Mr. D. G. Purse has re- 
ceived froin a friend, at Culpepper Court House, 

.'^■.T' *'"\'-'-el of the celebrated Albemarle apples 
noted for their delicious flavor and for the historica 
reputation they enjoy. 

When Hon Andrew Stephenson was Minister to 
Eng and under the administration of President 
\^cnH,-n '"''''!' ^^ P^<"';"'«J Her Majesty, Queen 
Victoria, with a barrel of these apples, wh ch are 
grown eoly in Albemarle county, Virginia. Her 
Majesty was so much pleased with the fruit, and so 
much enjoyed their peculiarly delicious flavor, that 
she had an act of Parliament passed admitting the 
Albemarle apples into Great Britain forever there- 
alter Irce of duty. 

We learn that since then large quantities of them 
are shipped to England every year from the county 
,L^ T'V'- '""'.^'''^ ^'S'^'y P"^^'! a°tl command 
country to England upon which no duty is paid. 
Those of .Mr. Purse's friends who have sampled some 
of tiie lot he received express no surprise that Eng- 
and s Queen should have been so well pleased with 
them, as their flavor is certainly delicious. They are 
of medium size and firm. ^ 

Pruning Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 

We read a great deal about the proper time of 
S!;r?»"f ir'^"' """^ fiP'^^^'ly the apple tree. Some 
prefer fall, some mid-winter, some early spring • but 
scarcely one recommends the very best time in our 
humble opinion-mid.summer. Doubtless some old 
logics will open their eyes and hold up their hands at 
such an innovation and denounce it as an absurdity • 
but we think we will be sustained by a majority of 
the "live" men of the day. J J ^ 

If we desire to improve the form of a fruit tree and 
get rid of some of the superfluous wood, we should 
prune m winter; but if we desire fruit and a per- 
fectly healed stump, we should prune from the 
fifteenth of June to the twentieth of July. We have 



Growing Ivy in Rooms. 

Ivy will succeed better in our warm, dry rooms 
than any other plant, and all that is needed to make 
it at ractive is the exercise of a little ingenuity in the 
appliances for its home. A vase, n?t necessarily 
costly by any means, will answer a good purpose ■ 
and this reminds us of an excellent idea that we 
lately noticed in a foreign periodical for growinn- this 
very plant. Long shoots of the ivy were procured, 
with the young and tender aerial roots very abun- 
tben. T''%'"^«^ ends were wrapped in moss, and 
then some five or six of these were lightly tijd to- 
gether at the bottom and placed in the vase Fill 

the hnff 'f"'"" ^ *■"•", i"^"""' "*■ ^^^ '°P' ^^^ suspend 
the ball of moss within. The roots will soon com 
mence to grow, and afterward the moss should not 
quite reach the water, as the roots will extend down 
into it, and prove all sufficient. So many different 
varieties of ivy are now in cultivation, thatbv select 
ing kinds that will form a decided contrast in shape 
and color, the^ effect will be sensibly heightened. 
The centre of the vase may be filled with cut flowers 
or grasses, or nothing would look better than ferns 
The ivy may be allowed to hang down over the sides 
of the vase in graceful festoons, or else be trained 
and placed over and around the window It will 
.".?ȣ'?"' ''"h' ^' """,' '" strong light as when partly 
shaded, as the ivy loves shade and an even cool 
atmosphere. It can be planted in tubs and trained 
up a stairway, thus forming a mass of green foliage 
from the hall below to the floor above. A covenieut 
way to grow a small ivy is to fill a small fish globe 
with clean ram water, putting in the bottom lome 
tiny shells and gay-eolored stones for ornament- 

S^f^ K° '■„''* ^ *"P ?J P'""'"'" '^y- ""<' suspend the 
globe by three small brass chains, which may be 
bought at any hardware store. This may hang from 
the window cornice or from the centre of the chande- 
lier, or in any other place where the light is not too 
strong. By filling up with fresh water as fast as it 
evaporates, you may sustain the life of an ivy through 
t Iree'rt"" "''f ' ^° '■^P'^uishing the water add 
three drops of ammonia to it.— (?. A. T. in Ohio 



s^een V}"" P''*^"',"'' arrangements for plants we have 

''troj.rs geraniums, pinks, 

asand oUier plants, all as 

bp"lh,uvJ' f °"'" '" =',.S''^-"i-l'ouse. They should 

watered sparingly every second day. On very 'cold 
niguto newspapers may be placed between the win- 
dow and the plants, to protect them from frost. 

Flowers for the Table. 

Set flowers on your table-a whole nosegay if you 
can get >t, or but two or three, or a single" flower-a 
rose, a pink a daisy, and you have something on 
your table that reminds you of God's creation, and 
oives-vou a link with the poets that done it most honor. 

flowers on the morning table are esneciallv snitpfl 
to them. They look like the happy wakeniiil of the 
creation ; they bring the perfunre'^^of the breath of 
nature into your room ; they seem the very repre- 
sentative and embodiment of the very smile of vour 
home, the graces of good morrow ; proofs that some 
intellectual beauties are in ourselves or those about 
us, some Aurora (if we are so lucky as to have such 
a companion), helping to strew our life with sweet- 
ness, or in ourselves some masculine wilderness not 
unworthy to possess such a companion or unlikely to 
gam her. — Lenjh Uiinl. 

Smilax. 

Smilax is an exceedingly graceful vine, with 
glossy, green leaves, and is now more extensively 
used than any other plant for decorating parlors, the 
hair, and for trimming dresses. 

With a little care it can be grown successsfully as 
a house plant. The vine does not require the full sun, 
but will grow well in a partially shaded situation. It 
can be trained on a small thread across the window 
or around the pictures. It is grown from both seeds 
and bulbs. Pot the bulbs-as soon as received, water- 
ing but little until you see signs of growth Thev 
grow very rapidly, and should always have strings 
to twine on. Give plenty of fresh air, but be careful 
and not let a direct draught of cold air blow upon 
the vine, as they are very tender when young Give 
' arm place and they will amply repay allcare. 



them a 



Growing Fuschias in Baskets. 
May is a good time to put young fuschias into 
baskets, to obtain a good display late in summer and 
throughout the autu.nu. Varieties of slender habits 
aie best adapted for the purpose, and if the slioots be 
kept persistently slopped the plants will f,„ ,u dense 
bushes, which will co^er the sides and bottom of the 
basket, and when suspended from the roof of the 
green-house or conservatory, laden with bloom, they 
will form striking objects. The flowers, indeed, are 
shown oil to belter advantage in this ivay than when 
tlie plants arc grown in | ots and trained in a pyra- 
midal section. Good, rich loam, plenty of water and 
timely attention to stopping the shoots, so as to ob- 
tain a dense, pendulous habit at first, are all the 
plants require to liring them to a high state of per- 



fection. 



Flower Pots. 

Save the tin fruit cans and convert them into taste- 
ful flower pots in the following manner ■ With a can 
(jpener cut off any rough or projectii.g portions of 

wn! Jt"' r°f- '^ °'""''°'^ '■'°' t° P™J<^ct inward. 
^y.th a pair of pliers, or a small hammer, bend this 
iim down. This gives firmness to the top of the can. 
Punch three or four small holes through the bottom 
of the can. Then paint it with varnish made of gum 
sliel ac dissolved in alcohol, and colored with lamp- 
^n?.^ ^ T,,^ ""'" ^'^"°"' °<='""''' '° ff'^-e a dark brown 
H?„^"rJ, i'M^^yJ^'^ ornamented by pasting on 
them little medallion figures or pictures. Thev are 
handsomer than the ordinary flower pots, require 
less watering, and keep the plants free from all 
insects, owing to the presence of iron rust in the can 



Ampelopsis Vietchii. 
The common Virginia Creeper is one of the most 
beautiful and best known of ornamental vines, and 
its habit of clinging of its own accord to walls and 
trees renders it particularly us.ful in oruaraenlal (^ar 
dening. But it is questionable wjifiher the .Japan 
species A. Vietehii is not a rival to it. It will not, of 
course, replace it, for each will have lovers of its o'wn 
for some purpose or other, but slill without any 
special comparison, it is intrinsically beautiful. We 
are moved to these remarks by a photograph of the 
dwelling house of Mayor Conover, of "Geneva, the 
walls of which are covered by this vine. It must be 
a beautiful sight when really seen, for the stereoscopic 
view alone is particularly attractive.— r/if Gardeners^' 
Monthly. 

Window Plants. 

Were we required to furnish a list often plants for 

window culture during winter our choice would be 

as follows : Rose geranium, zouale geranium varie- 

gated gerainiim, (Mrs. Pollock,! fuchsia, heliotrope, 

ivy aeraiiiums, tradescantia, 

egouia rex. We can hardly 

iiLsh this list, which offers 

ol :j hardy nature, a thrifty 

learanec, vet we would de- 



indering Je 



many var 



nd plea 



lums, the ole- 



sire to add many, as the double gc 

ander, panicura variegatum, cyeli „ „^„ 

rose, etc. Towards spring the collection should be 
' ■ Scien- 



FoK the winter all flower borders should have a 
good covering of stable manure. In the spring the 
long stuff should be raked off, and the rest forked in. 
It will not only protect the roots against all inju'-y 
during the winter, but the plants \vill appear in the 
spring greatly improved, and the flowers ivill be 
much more abundant and prove of much higher and 
greater beauty. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Si 



Domestic Economy. 



Evening's Milk Richest. 

1 1 is subject has now been put to tlic test of chemi- 

, , I aiialvsis, and the result is tliiil the evening's mill; 

i> iHuiultobe the richer. Piof. Bocdekcr analyzed 

I li. milk of a healthy cow at different periods of the 

A IV The professor found that the solids of tlie eve- 

iin, 'fimilk (thirteen per cent.); exceeding of the 

nini; (ten percent.), while the water conlaincd 

.• Iluid was diminished from eifrhty-nino per cent. 

i-lify-six per cent. The fatty matter f^radually 

liases as the day progresses. In the morning it 
iiiiiiiunts to two and one-quarter per cent., at noon 
three and one-half per cent., and in the evening five 
and three quarters per cent. The practical imijortance 
of this discovery is at once apparent ; it develops the 
fiif t that while sixteen ounces of morning's milk 
« ill yield but one-half ounce of butter, about doubU 
t iir quantity can be obtained from the evening's milk. 
I 111- casein is also increased in the evening's milk 
liMin I wo and one-quarter to two and three-quarters 
1« 1- cent., but the albumen is diminished from 44- 
liiiiths per cent, to Sl-lOOths per cent. Sugar is least 
alundant at midnight (four and one-quarter per 
iriit.) and most plentiful at noon (four and tlircc- 
i|u:uters per cent). The percentage of the salt un- 
d. r-oes almost no chanire at any time of the day. 

What Is Castile Soap? 

\ subscriber wishes to know how this differs from 

Mtlirr soap. The hard soaps made in this country 

an- almost exclusively from animal fats ; in the south 

.1 iMiiiipp, where the olive grows abundantly, the 

, ,. 1 liimls .'I uHm' oil are used for soap-making. 

I MMiiiinii ^.la|l^ air sciila and auinial fat ; Caxtile soap 
i. , iia and \c-riaiilr ciil. In making Castile soap, 
LT 111 rare is takm lo avoid an excess of alkali (the 
hr,ila)oiily just enough being used to neutralize the oil. 
( III this account the soap is much milder, and maybe 
\isrd on wounds and other surfaces where common 
map would irritate and give pain. The mottled ap- 
prarauee of Castile soap is due to a small quantity of 
solution of copperas (sulphate of iron) which is 
stirred into it before it hardens ; this leaves a bluish 
..xide of iron in the soap which, when exposed to the 
air, becomes changed to red-oxide. White Castile 
snap is also sold, which is the same as the other, 
without the coloring. Though called Castile, it is 
in no means exclusively made in Spain, the largest 
sliare coming from the south of France, and indeed 
it is :;fiicially kiinKii in Europe as Marseilles soap. — 

- -•- -- - 
Water-Proof Boots. 
It is not always desirable that boots should be 
atisolutfly water-proof, as whatever keeps water out 
•lioevcr has \yorn India-rubber 

of time, knows that retaining 
llir |iiMsi'iraiiiiii 01 ilie feet soon puts them in a very 
imiilrasant, half par-lioiled condition that is not de- 
siialilo. Still, walcr-proof boots are useful in an 
I iiicrgcncy, to be worn for a short time— as in doing 
llie chores in bad weather. A pair of good rubber 
liodts yvill answer this purpose, or a pair of common 
I iiwhide boots may be made yvater-proof after the 
niithod of the New England fishermen. These 

I pie, exposed to all weathers, have for a century 

iis.d the following compound : Tallow, 4 oz. ; rosin 
and lieeswax, 1 oz. each ; melt together, then stir in 
ii.'atsfoot oil, equal in bulk to the melted articles. 
riie boots are warmed before a fire and this com- 
|iiisition is rubbed into the leather, soles and uppers, 
l.v means of a rag. Two applications will make the 
Irather quite water-proof.— ytmcficfiH AurknUnnxt 
U'l- February 1. 

Ammonia in the Household. 
The pantry shelves arc getting grimy, or finger- 
marks around the door-latches and knobs are looking 
dark and unsightly. For lack of time they are left 
day after day, for it is hard work to scour all the 
time, and it jvears off the paint, too. Now, suppose 
the wife has her bottle of spirits of ammonia to use ; 
she takes a basin of water and a clean cloth, just 
puts on a few drops of the fluid snd wipes olf all the 
dirt; it is worth more than a half day's labor, and 
does not hurt the paint cither. HM could put a few 
drops iu her dishyyater, and see how easily the dishes 
could be cleaned ; a few drops on a sponge yvould 
clean all the windows in the sitting room, making 
them shine like crystal. It would take the stains off 
the teaspoons, and a tcaspoonful in the mop-pail 
yvould do more in washing up the kitchen floor than 
ten pounds of elbow grease applied to the mop- 
handle. A housewife has just as much right to make 
her work easy and expeditious as her husband has. 
If she does not do it the fault is her own in a great 
measure. 

To Preserve Potatoes from the Rot. 

Dustovcrthe Hoorof the bin with lime, then putiu 
a few layers of potatoes, and dust the whole once 
niore with lime, adopting the same plan over again. 
L se one bushel of lime to fifty of potatoes. The lime 
kills the fungi which causes the rot. 



L-p it 1 



Household Recipes. 



Live Stock. 



Eauaciie.— Cotton wool, yvet with camphor, or 
paregoric and sweet oil, hot, and the ear bandaged, 
will give relief. 

To Baick EudS.— Butter a dish, break the eggs, 
pour in pepper, salt and butter ; bake iu a slow oven 
until yvell set. Serve hot. 

Frosted Fket.— Frosted feet may be cured as 
follows : White oak bark, taken fresh and boiled in 
water to a strong liquor. Bathe the feet in the 
li(luor. It is pronounced the best of all remedies. 

A .STICK of black sealing yvax and one of red dis- 
solved in two ounces of spirits of wine make an ex- 
cellent color for wicker baskets or other small arti- 
cles of the kind. .Lay it on yvith a small brush. 

CuANBERHiits.— To keep these berries whole while 
stewing, prick each one with a pin ; lay them in 
sugar over night, and cook very slowly. They cook 
much nicer in this yvay than when stcyved all to 
pieces. 

tiiNGKU Cookies.— One cup of molasses, one cup 
of sugar, one cup of butter or lard, three eggs, two 
teaspoonsful of saleratus, dissolved in a little hot 
water, five cups of flour, one tablespoonful of ginger 
mixed with molasses. 

Sweet Omelet.— Beat four eggs very lightly, add 
a little salt and one spoonful brown sugar ; pour all 
into a hot buttered fry pan ; when well set lay in 
two spoonfuls raspberry jam, cook one minute, roll 
up and dish it, sprinkling well yvilh powdered sugar. 
This is a very delicate and rich dessert. 

Tapioca Ckeam.— Soak three large tablespoonfuls 
of tapioca over night in one pint of yyater, the next 
morning add one quart of milk and boil ; a little 
salt, four eggs, one cup of sugar; flavor with lemon 
or vanilla; beat yvhitc of eggs to a stiff froth, and 
brown in shape of eggs ; put on the top of pudding 
yvhen it is cold. 

To Lessen Friction for Furniture.— Black 
lead is excellent to lessen friction between two pieces 
of work. The sides and rests of desks or bureau 
drawers may be made to move easily by spreading 
common stove-blacking evenly with a cloth or the 
finger over their surfaces. Time and patience may 
thus be saved. 

The Sleep fob Children.- The Herald of 
UcaUh cautions parents not to allow their children 
to be waked up in the morning. Let nature yvake 
them ; she yvill not do it prematurely. Take care that 
they go to bed at an early hour— let it be earlier and 
earlier until it is found they wake up themselves in 
full time to dress for breakfast. 

Chocolate Cake.— One cup butter, two of sugar, 
one of milk, five eggs, leaving out the whites of 
three; four cups of siftcil Hour, three teaspoons 
baking poyvder. Bake in throe layers in jelly tins. 
For icing, take yvhites of three ci;i;s, beaten stifl", one 
and a half cups of powdcrcil sugar, six teaspoons of 
gr.ated chocolate, two teaspoons vanilla. 

Wafers.— Melt a quarter of a iiound of butter 
and mix it with half a pint of milk, a leaspoonful 
of salt, a wineglass of wine, three beaten eggs and 
suflicient sifted fiour to enable you to roll them out 
easilj . They should be rolled very thin, cut into 
small circular cakes, and baked in an oven of moder- 
ate heat. Frost the whole and sprinkle sugar sand 
or comfits over it as soon as frosted. 

Orange Cake. — Mix two cups of sugar yvith the 
yolks of two eggs, then add the yvhites, beaten to a 
stiff froth, next add a large tablespoonful of butter, 
then one cup of milk and flour to make as stiff as 
cupcake; flavor to taste ; bakein jelly pans ; filling, 
one lemon, two oranges, grate rinds and add the 
juice, one cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of corn 
starcli, one cup of water; boil until smooth; cool 
before puttnig between cakes. 

tjoru Milk Cheese.— Some time since I saw a re- 
quest lor this article. Take milk just changed from 
sweet to sour and place over the fire ; when scalded 
so that the curd is very stringy, it is nearly done ; 
heat a feyv minutes longer, then strain through a 
colander. As soon as cool enough remove to a plate ; 
press all the yvhcy out, and work in two tablespoon- 
fuls of butter and a little salt. Add considerable 
patience, as it will be needed before the sticky, 
stringy mass can be worked fine with the hand. 
Press into round balls, and yvhen cold, slice with a 
sharp knife. 

.Mince Pies.— Boil a fresh tongue ; chop it very 
fine, after removing the skin and roots; yvhen cold, 
add one pound of chopped suet, two pounds stone 
raisins, two pounds currants, two pounds citron cut 
in fine pieces, six cloves powdered, two teaspoonfuls 
cinnamon, half tcaspoonful mace, one pint brandy, 
one pint yvine or cider, two pounds sugar ; put this 
all in a stone jar and covdr well ; in making pies, 
chop some apples very fine, and to one bowl of the 
prepared meat take two of apples ; and more sugar, 
according to taste, and sweet cider enough to make 
the pies juicy, but not thin ; mix and y>'"arm the in- 
gredients before putting into your ple-pUtes ; always 
bake yvith an upper and under crust, made yvith one 
cup of lard, one of butter, one of water and four of 
flour. 



Winter Management of Sheep. 
There arc two extremes practii-ud in the wintering 
of sheep. Some ],.m|,|,. pnividi' no bhelterat all, and 
feed tlii-ir liav on ili.- .'imiiul, whether rain or shine, 
siKiM 111 Hill I Ml ill ill is fed It is not until 
tow li i i ; ' ii m has become debili- 

talni li; I h i;ii ! ;! : M.id to receive the iiour- 

i^hllll n: ;' 1 1 I, nil i;i nad of giving Strength It 

only wcakriis thcanimal, and the shiftless farmer 
enters his protest against "feeding grain to sheep." 
Others overdo the thing in crowding them into close 
unveiitilatcd stalili's. 'Ihis.if any dilferencc, is worsa 
than inMiii.i ihi 111 •-iiiii inr iIm inn iiii-. Of all othcr 
aniiii -I I'l-ar the least 

cniuiii . ! 1 ' I I 1 iil;1i ventilation. 

Ami II I- \iiv iiii;iiii i.iiii ili.ii llll^ have access to 
water rcirnbulv, lor alMiouL'li tlii-y will get along In 
a sort ofWay when there is snow on the ground, 
they will not if it is dry and frosty. No animal will 
go more regularly to water in the yviutcr if it is at all 
convenient. 

I prefer having sheep kept in such a yvay that they 
can go out and in at pleasure, and I have under my 
barn an arrangement for stabling four lots— in all 
from 150 to ^00 head. At each end of the stable are 
two large doors, opening two-thirds the width of the 
barn ; the two .at the south end arc only closed dur- 
ing very stormy yveather. Every Hock has access to 
from two to five acres, in yvhicli there is water, and 
they go in and out at their pleasure. 

Hay is fed from racks in the stables twice a day, 
and some cornfodder is fed on the ground when it is 
frozen or covered yiith snow. No leavings are al- 
lowed to remain in the racks, but arc thrown out 
previous to putting in fresh hay. The refuse is given 
lo calves or other cattle, or liorses, and are mostly 
all eaten. I generally keep a flock in one of the fields, 
and feed them hay from a stack, and have a shelter 
of rails covered yvith straw for them to go under at 
night, or during stormy weather. Spring lambs are 
gained a little most of the winter. Weak ones arc 
kept in a place by themselves and get extra care. 
Old ewes are got in good condition and sold before 
they lose their teeth. Manure is not allowed to fer- 
ment in the stables. Long hoofs arc trimmed with 
toe nippers.— Germanlumi Tvlqjrnph. 



Weaning Calves. 

■11;, /;, ,' \ )',',■ says: Having yveaned 

imiiii I 111 having fifty years ago 

tv.li'ii ii i ii: hi myself, I can say with 

euiiri'i ii 11 I I h ii ■ I r ilir first week, skim milk 

warmed a little niorc than new milk is when drawn 
from the cow, will keep them in good growing con- 
dition. There is no if or doubt about this fact, for 
many thousands arc raised in this way every year, 
and have been for years out of mind, before my day 
in the county I was born in, and also in the States 
for the last twenty years ; yvhile in Canada, they are 
treated just the same by hundreds of people. About 
four quarts of sweet skim milk for the first few 
times is enough, as giving more yvill relax them too 
much sometimes ; six quarts afterwards, and, if It 
can be spared, more as the calf grows larger. In 
wiiili'r or rarh in .-iiring the calves require feeding 
«iili iiii\. aMrv little at first, and, of course, it 
slioiiM I I mil , Milt ^Toen hay and a little bran and 
oal>, or lira II ami meal— two-thirds bran yvill make 



What Stock Needs. 
A writer in the Farm and Fireside remarks: "The 
requirements of success in stock-breeding for proflt 
are well-bred stock, clean, yvarra quarters, pure 
yvater, suflicient salt, a stall for each, having rope 
and chain fastening instead of stanchions, gentle 
exercise daily, when the yveather Is not stormy, 
suflicient syveet clover hay, cured in the cock, to 
supply their wants, and a uniform supply of finely 
ground cornmeal . Whatever method of feeding may 
be adopted, the questiou in which the progressive, 
practical farmer is the most interested is, " how can 
I produce the most tender, juicy beef in the shortest 
time, at the least possible expense ." 



Imported Cattle. 
General Langhorn Wister, of Duncannon, Perry 
county, has just imported from the island of Guern- 
sey, two superb heifers at a cost of about 5400 for 
the pair. "These," 8a)-s the Record, "with his fine 
Guernsey bull, 'Susquehanna,' No. 113 Herd book — 
makes the nucleus of a herd of pedigree Guernsey 
cattle, and the only ones, we believe, in Perry county. 
Guernsey is one of the islands in the English chan- 
nel, and the purity of its cattle is insured from the 
fact that the laws there prohibit the im[)ortatlon of 
cattle." 



"A farmer of some experience" writes to the 
^[auaelm!:tm Ploughinan : Heifers that are kept fat 
with meal will not breed, while those kept in good 
growing order on grass, hay and roots, breed readily. 



32 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 1879. 



Poultry. 



The Poultry Association. 

We are glad to see that so much interest is being 
talicn in "The Lancaster County Poultry Associa- 
tion," which was organized iu December last. 
Already the new society has nearly sixty mem- 
bers, and the last meeting was a very interesting one. 
It is an encouraging sign to see the interest that is 
manifested, and we feel sure that the poultry of our 
county will be improved by their efforts. Good 
stock of any kind is desirable, and an association, 
the members of which will meet and exchange their 
views, giving each other the benefit of their experi- 
ence, will certainly do good. The Farmek will 
always contain full reports of the proceedings of the 
association, and we clieerfully ofl'er its members the 
use of its columns to express their views, and will be 
very glad to have them accept the offer. Not only 
will the members of the association be benefitted, but 
the results they obtain will be given to all our 
readers, and will, no doubt, be of use to them. We 
would be glad to add to our list of subscribers any 
members of the society who are not already sub- 
scribers, as The Farmer, printed in the form it is, 
is easily preserved, and at the end of the year can be 
bound, and the members can then have the pro- 
ceedings in a convenient book and refer to them at 
any time. 

Langshans. 

A writer in the London AgricnUural Gazette de- 
scribes the Langsban fowls which are now occupj'- 
ing considerable attention in English poultry circles. 
He says he is convinced from examination that what- 
ever affinity they may have to the Cochin race, they 
possess sufficient distinct characteristics to entitle 
them to the possession of a claim as a separate class 
fri.m Cochius. It appears to him also that they are 
well adapted for farmers' poultry, and that few 
breeds are more suitable for farm yards. These 
fowls are remarkable as winter layers, at a time 
other hens are idle. Beginning iu the autumn, they 
will lay from 90 to 100 of fair and rather over the 
average size of eggs. They are careful mothers. 
The male birds weigh from S to 13 pounds, the hens 
from 7 to 10 pounds. They make weight rapidly on 
ordinary fare, averaging something like a pound a 
month f.">r the first six months. The writer had not 
tested them as table birds, but is informed that they 
rank only second to game for the flavor of the flesh. 
Thus, they are hardy, fertile and possess plenty of 
weight for table— three most essential qualities for 
the farmyard. There were some beautifully feathered 
birds among the flock examined, so level and smooth 
are they, and the neck and wing feathers a beautiful 
beetle green, shine and scintillate iu the sun in a 
variety of hues. They also possess a pink skin be- 
tween the toes, which is not found in the Cochins, 
and the tails and other contour of the Langshan are 
dissimilar from Cochins. 

The gentleman who is raising them extensively in 
England says that so long as they are supplied with 
green food occasionally in the form of a sod grass, 
they thrive and lay almost eciually well as those 
which have the range of the farm. The hen chickens 
begin to lay at five months old. 

Tar in the Chicken House. 

It seems that the value of tar is not sufficiently 
appreciated by poultry breeders, for we seldom either 
see it used or its use advocated by writers on poultry 
matters. It can be used with the most excellent re- 
sults, in fiimiifating the poultry house, when through 
neglect or inattention it becomes necessary to put it 
through " (luarantiiie," by burning some of it in a 
suitalJle vessel, and then closing the doors and win- 
dows of the house to confine the fumes and smoke 
as much as possible. It is sure to purify the house. 
Tar is very offensive to insects which worry the 
poultry houses. Whitewash does not seem to keep 
them away, especially the "mites," which are so 
troublesome, and recourse must be had to some 
other sulislaiRc. Just here tar is very valuable. 
Take an old kettle which is of no use for other pur- 
poses, put in some good tar, and heat it until it is 
thin and hot, then, with a whitewash brush, brush 
into all the cracks and crevices where the insects 
"most do congregate," and they will start off, in- 
stantcr, for the seashore or some other congenial 
abode. Treat the perches and roosting benches to a 
dose of the same. When poultry cholera makes its 
appearance, if you thoroughly cleanse the house and 
treat as above, with tar, it will generally prevent the 
spread of the disease. — Ponllry Journal. 

Selecting Breeding Turkeys. 

While all breeders like to have and breed " heavy 

>TelghtB," and customers buying turkey all call for 



large birds, it is a fact that for market purposes, 
moderate sized and even small turkeys, command a 
more ready sale than do large ones. We have watched 
the market for a few days past, and know this to be 
a fact. However, we do not wish to discourage 
breeders from running up the weights, even if they 
attain the much devoted weight of a fifty pound gob- 
' b!cr at throe or four years old, for as long as there is 
a lively demand among breeders for heavy birds, let 
there be birds to supply that demand. To secure the 
best results in that direction, select an early hatched, 
strong and vigorous gobbler of this year's hatch, and 
which is of fine proportion, long in the body and 
properly marked, and mate him to as many two- 
year-old hens as you intend to keep— from two to 
five hens, if properly handled, will produce a fine 
crop of young birds each season, and you cannot 
help but be absolutely satisfied with the results.— 
roulinj Journal. 

Treatment for Cholera. 

Fat bacon, chopped fine and sprinkled plentifully 
with black pepper, is a convenient and reliable 
remedy for cholera in chickens. Last summer a 
number of hens were cured by its use. When found, 
they had dropped from the roost ; they were so far 
gone that they could not get up, and were only able 
to raise their heads occasionally. They were given a 
comfortable shelter by themselves ; a teaspoonful of 
the mixture was forced down the throat of each bird, 
morning and evening. No other attention was paid 
to them. At the end of the third day they were set 
at liberty and went about as usual, giving no further 
trouble. Water may be placed where they can help 
themselves, but no food is required. Smaller doses 
may be given in cases less severe. — American Poultry 
Jonrnal. 



Literary and Personal. 



RicKETTs' New Seedling Grapes, " Lady 
Washington" and " The Welcome," a circular of 4 
pages. Address James H. Ricketts, Newburg, New 
Yo"rk State. 

Report of the Condition of the Crops, De- 
cember 1, 1878, an octavo pamphlet of 28 pages, a 
synopsis of which see elsewhere in our columns, 
department agriculture. 

The attention of the reader is called to the pro- 
posal, in our advertising columns, to publish the edi- 
tor's essays on practical entomology in book form, 
as soon as sufl[l' lent encouragement is manifested to 
coverthecost. Further details will be given hereafter. 

The Bee-Keepers' Guide, a demifolio of 4 pages, 
pu'^'lishcd on the first day of each month, by the 
"Winter Bee-Hive Manufactory," at Kendallville, 
Indiana, at 50 cents per year. Mainly an adver- 
tising medium, but contains some good, practical 
bee literature besides. 

The American Stockman, a daily, semi-weekly 
and weekly eight-page semi-folio, published in Chi- 
cago, 111. ; E. W. Perry, editor ; B. F. Paine, Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, at $5.00, $'5.00 and $i.00 a year ; 
is a first-class paper in its specialty, in quality, in 
literary matter, and in typographical execut.on, and 
ought to succeed. 

Annual Report of the Commissioner of 
Agriculture to the President, November, lh78. 
We have received a complimentary copy of this 
valuable document from the CoriiniUaioner^ an 8vo. 
pamjihlet of 95 pages, containing a large amount of 
excellent matter, more or less, relating— both di- 
rectly or indirectly- to the agriculture of the coun- 
try, giving fifty-two analyses, examinations and 
experiments, in various substances of domestic use, 
including grasses and other vegetable productions, 
soils, seeds, oils, liquors, minerals, eggs, sugars, &c., 
&c., with many statistical tables on imports, ex- 
ports, and other articles of trade and commerce. 
Washington, D. C. 

Reading, Pa., Jan. 30th, 1879. 

At the annual meeting of the Berks County Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society, held in the City 
of Reading, the following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year : President— Jacob G. Zeir. Vice 
Presidents— Josiah Lewis, Benjamin S. Ritter, Henry 
Brobst, William G. Moore, John L. Rightmyer. Sec- 
letary— Cyrus T. Fox. Corresponding Secretary- 
Edwin Shalter. Treasurer— William S. Ritter. Audi- 
tors—Daniel S. Francis, Jacob Kauffman. The office 
of the society has been removed to No. 11';; North 
Sixth street, Reading, Pa. All business communi- 
cations should be addressed to the secretary. — Tours, 
very respectfully , Cyrus T. Fox, Secretary. 

The Normal Monthly Review.— This is about 
the spicest little journal that reaches our table. A 
iiO page 8vo., published at Shippensburg, Pa. Edited 
by Delia T. Smith, and assisted in the various de- 
partments by members of the Faculty of the " State 
Normal School," at Shippensburg; under the busi- 
ness management of E. A. Angell, vice Principal. 
Its 4urieulum consists of natural science, classics, 
mathematics, English and German language, draw- 



ing, teaching and music. This neat little magazine 
must be a welcome monthly visitor, in a very special 
sense, to the Alumni of the institution under whose 
auspices it is published. "May its shadow never 
grow less." Only .50 cents a year, in advance; single 
numbers, 5 cents. 

Report of the "Pennsylvania Fruit Growers' So- 
ciety," prepared by its officers. This is the proceed- 
ings of the nineteenth annual meeting of this society, 
held at Williamsport, in January, 1878, together 
with its constitution, by-laws, list of officers for 
1878, standing committees, life members, honorary 
members and annual members : including an in- 
dex of contents. A royal octavo of 89 pages, with 
four superb full page illustrations of choice new 
fruits. These consist of a beautifully colored illus- 
tration of the "Sharpless Sccilling .Strawberry," and 
uncolored ones of "Smeych's Lancaster Cherry," 
Sener's Seedling Peach," and the "Dickinson Apple." 
In addition to these are two full page illustrations of 
"landscape adornments," and two of I'iuns pungens 
in its various stages of development, including nine 
different figures. And, lastly, an illustration of the 
"apple moth," Carpocapsa poniorulUt, with seven 
figures. The quality of the material, the typography 
and the pictures are much finer than any that have 
embellished any of the previous reports of this society 
or any other society in the State. And, if any evi- 
dence wci-e necessary to prove that the society is 
progressing, it might be found in this report and the 
literary quality of its contents. This society was 
organized in this city twenty years ago last January. 

The Phrenological Journal for February is an 
excellent number of this sterling and popular maga- 
zine. It opens with a life-like portrait and phreno- 
logical and biographical sketch of Senator John P. 
Jones, of Nevada. It contains also portraits and 
sketches of the late Bayard Taylor, American Minis- 
ter to Germany, and also of the Marquis of Lome 
and Princess Louise. 

The chapter on Brain and Mind, discourses on 
Organic Quality, its nature and influence, illustrated 
with nearly a dozen fine engravings. Strange Plants 
are also illustrated. The Unfolding of Mind through 
Conflict and Sin is an interesting paper. 

The Health Department is well sustained by the 
admirable articles on Dietetic Delusions ; Experi- 
ments iu Magnetism, and the Proper Position in 
which to Sleep, while our social relations as men 
and women are discussed in Single-Blessedness ; Can 
the Sex of the Human Cranium be Determined? A 
new Scientific Expedition around the world, etc. 
There is also a great amount of valuable information 
in the Editorial department. Answers to Correspon- 
dents, etc. The publishers of this Jonrnal hnve kept 
abreast of the times by making a reduction in price, 
but maintaining the high standard of their magazine 
in its 'literature and usefulness. It is now published 
at §2.00 per year, with liberal premium offers to sub- 
scribers. Send i;0 cents in postage stamps for this 
number to S. R. Wells & Co., publishers, 737 Broad- 
way, New York. 

Seventh report of the State Entomologist o^ 
Illinois, (Walsh 1. Lebaron 4. Thomas 2.) on the 
noxious and beneficial insects of said State. Second 
annual report, by Cyrus Thomas, Ph. D., State Ento- 
mologist, -73 pages octavo, with 56 illustrations ; a 
general index ; an index of the plants and other 
substances injured by insects, referred to in the re- 
port; a list of the illustrations and a table of con- 
tents ; also, analytical tables of the families and 
genera of Lepiotoptera, represented in said re- 
port. Our readers may judge of the general scope 
of the work when we inform them that 23 species of 
insects are described as being injurious to the apple ; 
10 to clover ; 40 to the corn ; 9 to the elm trees ; 48 
to forest trees ; '.^5 to garden vegetation ; 17 to grape- 
vines ; 12 to grass ; 7 to maples ; 9 to the oak ; 8 to 
the rose ; 5 to the turnip ; 4 to the walnut, and 10 to 
the wheat. He only includes two species injurious 
to the tobacco crop, but we have already 10 species 
of tobacco enemies on our list for the county of Lan- 
caster alone. An economic paper on the butterflies 
and moths of Illinois, constituting Part II., is con- 
tributed by Prof. G. H. French ; and Miss Emma A. 
Smith, of Peoria, contributes a report on the noxious 
insects of Northern Illinois. The material, illustra- 
tions and typography are pooch We are under obli- 
gations to Prof. Thomas, of Carbondale, Illinois, for 
a complimentary copy of this work. We believe the 
great Commonwealth of Pennsylvania might make 
a worse use of her fund.s— and has often made a 
worse use of them— than by appropriating a reason- 
able sum to bring out a report on the noxious and 
bcnuticial insecls'of tlic State. We believe the fann- 
er.-;, the gardL-ners and the fruit growers would as 
cliucrfully pay tlicir taxes for such an expenditure as 
for any other that has been incurred in its special or 
general legislation, and that before many years it 
may become manifest to the most ordinary and un- 
appreciative of State officials that they have made 
and have persisted in a most consummate blunder. 
We believe that if any of the aspirants to political 
positions — and who have attained to those positions — 
had the ability, the material, and the industry to 
bring out such a report, we should have had one 
long ago, and they would have been well paid for It, 



THE LANCASTER FARMER^ 



Sebds.— We arc in receipt of " The Annual Circu- 
lar and Catalogue" of James J. II. Gregory, Mar- 
blehcuJ, Mass. It contains 51) pp. profusely illustra- 
ted, and is sent free ol postage to all who send for It. 

New Mrsic— We are indebted to lieorge 1). New- 
all & Co., Music dealers, Cincinnati, Ohio, for three 
new pieces of music : "Old Fashioned Fireplace," 
"Come uuto Me," " May all go with tlie Tide." 

TuonouoiinREi) SnouT-IIoRNa. — Mr. A. M. 
Ranck, Bird-in-Hand, this county, advertises in this 
number of TuE Farmku, a lot of thoroughbred 
ehon-honi bulls and bull calves for sales, at low 
prices. 

Fine Stock.— We are In receipt of three cata- 
logues from Smith & Powell, proprietors of Lakeside 
Stock Farm and Syracuse Nurseries, Syracuse, N. 
Y. Tl.« catalogues are devoted to giving a descrip- 
tion and pedigree of the horses (Iliimblctonians and 
Clydesdale) and Cattle (Holsteius) that they have 
for sale at their stock farm. They will be found very 
interesting to any one wishing to purchase line stock. 

Mil. Isaiah T. Cltmek, a practical Pennsylvania 
farmer, claims to have made a discovery by which 
from ■J.'i to .50 per cent, may be gained in tbu yield o 
marketable potatoes. Hii otfer In advertising colum n f 
Is therefore worthy of consideration, showing, as is 
docs. Ills entire confldcnce both in the value of his 
system and in the Integrity of his fellow farmers, 
which we are sure they can notbnt appreciate. 

Elwangeii & Barry's New Fbuit Catalooue.— 
This recently issued catalogue, of seventy compact 
pages, gives much information on the newer fruits, 
and furnishes select descriptive lists of the older va- 
rieties. The eitensive specimen and fruiting grounds 
connected with the nursery give many interesting re- 
sults iu testing varieties, and readers who procure 
this catalogue may obtain from it much useful know- 
ledge on the subject not to be had elsewhere. — 
Country OentUman, Septem'.c)- 12, 1S78. 

Weatheu Almanac— Prof. Ticu,the distinguish- 
ed meteorologist and weather prophet of St. Louis, 
has issued his Anmtal ^'atwnnl Weather Almanac for 
1879, in which, besides foi-etclling the weather for 
every day in the year and clearly explaining the 
theory on which his predictions are bafcd, he gives a 
history, causes and effects of tornadoes — a chapter 
on lightning rods, exposes their general worthless- 
ness, and explains how thvy may be made efl'ective, 
&c. The whole is of grea' interest .ind practical 
value to every one, and esi'Ocially indispensibic to 
farmers. B'or sample copy atii iprms of sale to the 
trade and to agents, send liO ceuis loThoiu[iion, Tice 
<fc Co., Publishers, St. Louis, ]Mo. 

Vkk's Flouai. Guide.— a beautiful work of 100 
pages, one colored flower plate, and 300 illustrations, 
with descriptions of the best Flowers and Vegetables, 
and how to grow them. All for a Ave cent stamp. 
In English or German. 

Tue Fi.oweu and Veoetable Gardex, 17.5 
pages, six colored plates, and many hundred en- 
gravings. For .50 cents iu paper covers; ?1.00 in 
elegant cloth. In German or English. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine— 33 
pages, a colored plate in every number and many 
fine engravings. Price $1.25 a year; five copies for 
35.00. Specimen numbers sent for 10 cents. 

Vick's Seeds are the best in the world. Send 
five cent stamp for a Floral Guide, containing list 
and prices, and plenty of information. AdJress, 
JAMES VICK, i;.r.Iitsrcr, \. V. [70-1-2 



FREE HOMES 



Isau en.Mf-elio, naturol inaimre. sprcially ndaj ted fo 
sommcr crops. It is highly recouiincudod to lobac-c 
growers, giving the jilanls a vIgorouB start an! causing i 
rapid growth to maturity. 

IIIKAH E. MJT7-. Mnniirnctiirer. 

Office, 11.16 Market Street, rblladclplila. 



HOME-MADE 

MANURES. 

SCIENIIFIC FDeMyUS m THEII MftlUFUCIOBE 01 IHE 

\m SENT FflEE 10 m mmi. 



The Clicapest, ami we believe the most ef- 
fective Manure in tise, can be made with but 
little trouble, by using our Fertilizing Chemi- 
cals and Bones, which wc furnish of the best 
quality, and at lowest prices. We offer, of our 
own manufacture or importation. 

Dissolved Dones, Sulphate of Ammonia, 

PerfdotlyrureGrounrt Bones, Fertllir-ing Salt, 

Acidulated Phosphate Rock, Sulphate of Soda, 

Pliosphate Rock, fine ground. Muriate of Potash, Qermau, 

Laud Plaster, pure and fine Oil Vitriol, full Btrength, 

ground, Sulphate of Magnesln 
Sulphate Potash (Kalnit), (Kiesorite), 

Nitrate of Soda, 



HARRISON BROTHERS & CO. 

ANAI.YTIC.VL CnKMI.ST.S, 

Mannfactnrers of Fertilizing ClieiDicals. 



(Established 1793.) 



FACTORIES AND MILLS AT GRAY'S FERRY. 
Office: 105 South Front Street, 

PHILADHLPHLA, PA. 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Embraciug the hiniury :uk| habita of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS, 

aiid the best remeJios for their cxi'ulsi.m ur eiforminatioii. 

By S. S. RATHVON. Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

Tins work will bo Iliglily lUuBtrated, and will bo j.ul iji 
press (as soon after a sutlicieut number of subsorlbers can 
be obtaiued to cover the cost) as the work can possibly be 
accomplished. 



THEE S 



we offer for Sprms ol IST9, the largest and most conij.lote 

stock in the. U. S. of 
Fruit Trei-M, «r»|ie Vines, Klrnwherriew, em- 

br.iciuK all the new and valuable vsrieiies. 
OrnninonlBl TrceH and NlirubH, deciduous aud 



No. 1. Fruits, with colored plate (new edilioii),lScts.; lali 
l«cts. No. a. Oinamental Trees, etc., with plate. 23cts. 



ELLLWANGER & BARRY, 



Kochester, N. V. 



GERMANTOWN TELEGRAPH, 

Wo'ch ia generally ackuowlcdged to be the bfst Literary, 
Farming and Agrioulturul Newspaiier ia Pennsylvania, is 
issued weekly at Qermanlown, Pbiladelpbia, at HS.tiO per 
annum. It wdl commence its 30th voluiie with the first 
number io March, proximo, being established and conduct- 
ed by its preaeut editor and proprietor. No familv ni ■ 
iug it n trial for a year would be willing to do without 
it at double the subscription price. Address 

PHILIP R. FRKAH. 
79-2—1 Oennantown, Phila. 




1.. Hi Kl..*.r. ari.l Vegol.b and 

for , livr. (1 Mr Stamp. In Englhih or Oi 

Iti" Flower and Vegetable Garden, 175 Pages, Six 
C.ilureil riatoH, and uiaiiy hundred KngravluKS. For »• 
ci'ijlH in jiaper covers; tlOlJ iu elegant cloth, in Oenntn 
or Rni/lish. 

Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magafine-32 Pages, a 
Colored Plate In every nnmlwrrnd many Fine Kngravings. 
Price $1.25 a year; Five I'oplea lor »."i IMI. 

Vick's Seeds are the bant Iu the world Rend Flvit CiNI 
eontuining List and I'rlceH, 






r, V. y. 



CLYDESDALE AND HAMBLETONIAN 
STALLIONS. 

1VL.A.H.H13 axicL O O Xj I" IS a 

ALSO 

HOT.STEIN CATTLE. 

All i.f the llnest bnedlng to be found in the United 
Htales or Kurope, several of which were iirlie animals at 
the recent New York Stale Fair. 

PRICES AND TERMS EASY. 



SMITHS & POWELL, 

109 WEST QENKSEE ST., SYIIAOCSK, NEW YORK. 



OFFICE, 

). 9 North Oueen Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



lEMI EIMIffiER 



Isnn old, well-eBtabllBtaed ncwf*paper, aod coutalue just tba 
newB desirable to make it nn Intereelind and Taluablo 
Family Newapiper. It te publiabed on Wedm^sday and 
Saturday, subscrlberflhavinR tbecholco of whichever edition 
that euita their mail facilltiea b<*at. The poatage to sub- 
HcriberB resldlug outside of lAncaster couuty is paid by tbo 
publinher. 
Send for a apecimen copy. 

Two Dollars per Annum. 



DilLIEIAHHilEXPllESS 



Ih pabllabod ererj aftonioon (except Sunday) and contains 
the uewa by mail and telegraph from all part* of the world 
up to the hour of going to prtfBS. It ia furuisbed to aub* 
scribure at all the towoH and villages in tUe county, acces- 
sible by railorHtaKe.bycarriPraat T«»n 4'enlH a n'eek, 
or by mall at Flvo l>f>lliirtf per Year. 



The Lancaster Farmer 



ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM. 



THE E.\.yil\EI{& EXPRESS JOB ROOM. 

The Job Kooms of "The Kxaniincr and Etpreaa" arc 
well Ailed with a lull aNForrnunt nf type and improved 
(■Tteaep, caubliug ns to do all l.indM of Job Work, auch 
as catalogues, cards, bill hialn, Ititer beads, envelops 
staiemeuts, luviuiloun, circnl.<rK, i «tftter«, sale bills, iu fact, 
all klndaof plain and fancy priutlug. We make a epecialty 
of sale bills, having cuts In the offlce which were mado 
from drawings rpccially prepared for ua, and not in sdj 
other office iu the state. 

Call and aee epecimeuf). 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 Nort 1 Queen St.. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[February, 1879. 




My annual Catalogue r.f Veffflabte and Vlotcr.r 
Seed for iS7f>,?lch in engraviugs, from origiDal 1*0*"- 
grapbB, will be Beut FREE to all wbo apply, Ouftomf rs o! 
Ust season need not write for it I oSferoneof the larj. est col- 
lections of vegetable seed ever sent out by any seed honse 
in AiHerica, a large portion of which were grown on my six 
Med farms. Printed directions for cultivation on each pack- 
age. All seed warranted to he both fresh and true to name: 
BO tAT, that should it prove otherwise. / UJill refill the order 
gratis. The original intrndncer of the Hubbard Squash, 
Phluney's Melon, Marblebead Cabbages, Mexican Cor", and 
•core* of other vegetables, I Invite the patronage of all who 
are anxiout U> have their seed direetlj/ from the grower, fresh, 
true, and of the very best strain. 

New Vegetables a specialty. 

JAMES 3. H. GREGORY, 

J9-l-14[ ■ Uarblehead.MasB. 



E. R. O. 






) explode, unde 



' burner is used, 
forfeiture of $1G0. 
BTEXCLTISIVE CODNTT RIGHTS for a,ile by 
P. J. FITZGERALD, Sole Proprietor and Manufacturer, 

103 and 105 N Fourth St., Philad'a. 
Also, WHOLESALE DKALER IN HKAD LIGHT, COAL 
OIL and BUKNING FLUID. 

N. B. A large a8tortmentta^f»(»fv/« of CHANDELIERS, 
BRACKETS, BRONZE LAMl'S. BUHNKRS, i-c-., he. , cori- 
BUntly on hund. 10-9-6m 



A'n^j.;:MMf..i;o.Bjtf.i'.'i.=a^^jj.fc 



WE SELL EVERYTHtNCFOSTHE 

GARDEN 

PETIER'HEKksif&eoI 



35 rortlandt 



STOCRBRIDGE 

MANURES 

Origluateil by Levi Stockb!:i!(;,e, Professor of Agii^ul- 
lure in the Massachusetts Agricultural College. Tliev have 
been extensively used for six years. Send for a little book 
describing them and giving directions for cultivating farm 
and garden crops. Every faimer, gardener, or cultivator 
' i kitchen garden should send for a copy mailed /ree. 



.ild send for : 
BOWKER'I'EKTII.IJEESl <'<>MI'A»lY, 
Iinin fStroet. Kosluii: 3 I'nrk PInoe. Nr 
anri 24 X4)rtli W.Ttor street. KorhiNtt 



LAWRENCE&TAYLOR, 

70 ALDERSGATE ST., 
London E. C, England. 

Heceive consignmenta of dairy and other agricultural Pro- 

Largest aiifl Best Market in tlie Worlfl. 

Commission: For consignmeuts under £50:— 4 per cent* 
" " " XlOO:— 3percent. 

" •' over £100;— 2 per cent. 

Freight &c., &c., paid free of charge for interest. 

Money advanced on Consignment with- 
out interest. 

Account sales and cash promptly remitted. 

BAMER'S NATIONAL PROVimi BANK 

Te'.egraph Address 

TAYRENCE, LONDON. 

T»-2-3 




A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS! 



The Lancaster Farmer, 

A MONTHLY JOURNAL, 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, Domestic Econo- 
my and Miscellany. 



FOUNDED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE LANCASTER COUNTY AGRI- 
CULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION: 

ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM, 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY THE PROPRIETOR. 

All subscriptions will commence witli the January number, unless otlier- 
wise ordered. 



This number of "The Lancaster Farmer," issued in January, 1879, is the first num- 
ber of Volume XL The publication of the "Farmer" has been transferred by Mr. L. 
Rathvon to the undersigned, who will continue it in the same form as it has been pub- 
lished in the past, trying at all times to spare neither money or labor to make it a first- 
class Journal for the Farm, Garden and House. It will always contain the same amount of 
reading matter, as the advertisements will never be allowed to encroach on that depart- 
ment. We have in view several slight changes that will make it more desirable to the 
readers, and improve the appearance of it, but these changes they will notice as they are 
made, and we refrain from saying more about them. 

Dr. S. S. Rathvon, who has so ably managed the editorial department in the past, 
will continue in the position of editor. His contributions on subjects connected with 
the science of faiming, and particularly that specialty of which he is so thoroughly 
master — entomological science — some knowledge of which has become a necessity to the 
successful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of this publication. He is 
determined to make "The Farmer" a necessity to all households. 

A county that has so wide a reputation as Lancaster county for its agricultural pro- 
ducts should certainly be able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the ex- 
change of the opinions of farmers interested in this matter. We ask the co-operation 
of all farmers interested in this matter. Work among your friends. The "Farmer" is 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and induce them to subscribe. It 
is not much for each subscriber to do but it will greatly assist us. 

All communications in regard to the editorial management should be addressed to ^ 
Dr. S, S. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa., and all business letters in regard to subscriptions and 
advertising should be addressed to the publisher. Rates of advertising can be had on 
application at the office. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, 

No, 9 North Queen Street, Lancaster, Pa. 



ONE DOLLAR FEE ANNUM-SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




Dr. S. S, P.ATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. MARCH, 1879. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, Publisher. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL. 
. The Lancaster Farmer as an Advertising Medium, 
, Society Proceedings, . . . - - 
, To Correspondents, ------ 

, County Fairs, ------- 

, Practical Kssays on Entomology ; or. Essays on 
Praetical Entomology, - - - - 

• Incorporation, ------- 

» Buy Your Trees at Home, - - - - 

r A Grape Swindler, - - - - 

,The Agricultural Society as a School, - 

. Monthly Keuiindero, - 

• Groundhog Meteorology, . . . - 

• New $(i0.00 Prize Grapes — Moore's Early, 

, 8t. Matthew's Day, . . . - - 

• A Chapter on Macaroni, - - - . - 
. Chemical Farming, . - . - - 

Pliiut-Kood — Dung jind Chemicals. 
. Pearl Millet, ------- 

VThe Fish Question, 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 
iTo Destroy the Currant Slu;;, 
.^loversecd Fly, - - . - 
A Premature Evolution, - 
Experiments with Moths, - 

AGRICULTURE. 
Deep and Shallow Plowing, 
Sowing Oats Early, 
American Wheat in Spain, - 
Salt as a Manure, 
American Produce Abroad, - 



QUERIES AND ANSWERS. 
•The Hand-Maid Moth, ----- 38 

• Galley-Worms and Crane-Fly, - - - 39 

• Pulmonary Spiders, ------ 39 

ESSAYS. 

. 'The Care of Fruit Trees— C'a/i'in Cooper, - 39 

•Essay— Jb/«i Grossman, - - - - - 40 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

• More Light Wanted— Jwii<e«r Farmer, - 40 

• A Word in Keply— /. A'. T., - . - - 41 

• Indian Tobacco— J. Stauffer, - - - 41 
-Pruning, Its Uses and Abuses — L. S. R., - 41 
. More About Eels— i?. K. Hergheij, - - - 42 
.<)at8 as Feed for Horses— jl.i>. ^., - - 42 

OUlf LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

• Agricultural and Horticultural Society, - • 42 

Remarks tioni JiidgR stitzel— The Societys Char- 
ter — BueluesH for Next Meeting. 

• Bee-Keepers' Association, - - - - 43 

Reports— Feeding Glucose to Bees — Dollar Qneeos— 
Comb Foundations — Springing Bcok— Marketing 
Houey -Honey Exhibition — Esso ys for Next Meet- 
ing— Hye Flonr tor Bees. 

• Poultry Associatiou, ----- 43 

Chicken Cholera— What Mmst Hens have to Pro- 
duce Eggs— The Best Barnyard Fowl— Chiokens 
aud Sunlight— MiRcelluueouB. 

/Warwick Farmers' Club, . - - - 44 
Meetiug of February l.-,th, 1819. 
. Fulton Farmers' Club, ----- 45 
Asking uud Answeriug Questions — Afternoon 8es- 

h Linofcau Society, ------ 4fi 

/ Additions to the LlhrarT— Pnj'erp Bend — Letters 

Bead— Dr. KathvouH Adrtiosn— (Jn;«ni/.ation of 

the Society— Progris- . :m I i itlhiiltlee— 

Not DisapiJointeU— i, ^ ipointed 

In One Particular— \i . i . , Leads- 

Who the Founders U\ . ., i . i:itOrgaui- 

lation- Whiit the I.i; .; L r .' 5— No Fail- 
ures— The Friends ol th.- I. iMi:i> 111— Building 
Bi tterlhiin They KncM— Looking Hopef»Uy Into 
th*Jf*)ire— Scieuiifio Miscelhiny. 

r An Ancteti^Mouse and Barn, - - - 46 



HORTICULTURE. 

Pruning Fruit and Oruameutal Trees, 
Hide-Bound Trees, - - - . 
Early Cabbages and Tomatoes, 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 
How to Neutralize Skunks' Odor, 
How to Pickle Artichokes, 
How to Destroy Moths in Feathers, - 
How to Fricassee Chicken, - 
Potatoes and Nep, - - - - 
How to Stew Soup Beans, 
How to Make Turnip Salad, 
Table Sauce, - - - - - 
Broiled Kidney, - - - . - 

Soup, 

POULTRY. 
Non-Hatching Eggs, 
How to Manage Setters, - 
Questions, ------ 

The Best Kind of Eggs , - - - 
What and How to Feed, 
Degeneracy in Fowls, 
Plucking Poultry, - - - - 

Literary and Personal, - 



])ISSOLVED 3ONES, 

Warranted Pure Raw Boue Meal, 
DISSOLVED WITH ACID, 



Aud to he free from all other aiiliataucoa or uiiiture what- 
ever. I( contains over 10 per cent. Soluble and Iteverted 
Phosphoric Acid, aud over .S>i jier cent, of Ammonia. 

Tliis article is guaranteed to be Baw Bone aud Oil of 
Vitriol ouly. 

CHEMICAL SUPPLIES for Tobacco and other 
Fertilizer Formulas at raauuiacturers' and hnporlers' 
prices. Write us for prices aud formulas. 
• ''iRrlces of the above by the car load very low to meet the 
})resenl depressed prices of farm products. 

■ BAUGH & SONS, 



M.XNnFACTUREKS, 
■20 8 Delawar 



Avp., rhilii 



NORBECK&MILEY, 




PRACTICAL 



Gamage Builders, 

cox & l'0"S OLB m,\\), 

Corner of Duke and Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 

THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PH.CTONS, 

Carriages, Etc, 



Prices to Suit the Times. 



KKrAIKINC prui.ij.tly att.HKlcJ to. All work 
giuinmticd. 



PHAKES W. FRY. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

WALL PAPER &WINBaW SHADES, 

llollnndN. pinin Shn<lt- <'lolh, 

I'iitures, FntiffS, T;issela and all floods pertaining to a 

Paper and Shade Store. 

No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-14 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



Trains leave the Depot in this city, as follows : 

Lancaster. 
2:40 a. m. 
6:00 a.m. 



WE TWARD. 

Pacific EipresB' 

Way PaBseiigert 

Niagara Eipreaa 

Hanover Accommodation, 

Mail train via Mt. Joy 

Kg. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Liue* 

Frederick Accommodation 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Express , 

Pittsburg Express , 

Cincinnati Express* 



EASTWARD. 

Atlantic Express' 

Philadelphia Expresst. 



9.30 J 



7:35 ( 



Harrisburg. 

4:05 a. m. 

7:50 a. ra. 
10:40 a. m. 



Pacific Express* 

Sunday Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express* 5:18 p. 

Harrisburg Aucom " " 

The Hanover Accommodation, west, 
with Kiagara Express, west, at 9:35 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodatiou, west, 
ter with Fast Une, west, at 2:10 p. m.. and runs 

The Pacific Express, east, ou Sunday, when 
■top at Middletown, Elizabethtown, Mount Joy 
Tllle. 

•The only trains which run daily. 

tRuns daily, except Monday. 



$77; 

79-2-12 



IE*, laOXKriVH^A.-DO', 



ATI.OWE&TPO>i.SIBLE PRICES, 

Fully guaramteed. 

No. 108 EAST KING STREET, 

79-1-12] OppoHte Leopard Hotel. 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. 
SHIRTS MADE"tO ORDER, 

AND WARRANTED TO HT. 

E. J. ERISMAN, 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



Manufacturer of 



Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 



And Manufactun 



FURNITURE PD CHAIRS, 



WAREROOMS: 



102 East King St., Cor. of Duke St. 

■LANCASTER, PA. 



fTBEESi 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

Plant Trees raised in this county and suited to this climate. 
Write for prices to 

LOUIS C. LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co.,Pa. 
NurBery at Smoketown, six mile* eiist of Lancaster. 



STRAWBERRY 



CRESOENT 

!«EEni,IlV« 
PLANTS a"<l other choii 
BlackherrieJi, Cnrrantu, Oooseberriea, Fruit 'trees, etc. Cata- 
logue describing plants and tieeasent free to all. 

SAU7£L C. BeCOU, Uooreatswn. Bsrlisgtos CotintT, H. J. 
79-3-1 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 
CLOCKS, 

JEWELRY! TABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Avnndel Tinted 

SPECTACLES. 

RepairiQs strictly attended to. 

z.A.£3:ivx's c;oFt.:KrE:x%. 

North Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Pa, 

79-!-I'2 



M. HABERBUSH, 

MANDFACTUREB OF 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

SADUI,EM, 

COLLARS, WHIPS, FLY NETS, &c., 

AMO DEALER IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

BUrALO ROBES, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, Gloves, &c., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

T9-1-12] LANCASTER, PA. 



ESTABLISHED 1SS2. 




G. SENEH & SOJSrS, 

Manufacturers and dealers iu all kinds of rough and 
fliiished 

r.X7iviB]E:£%, 

The best Sawed SHIKftl.EM iu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Bliuds, Mouldings, &C. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 



OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walnut-sts. 

LANCASTKR, PA.. 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 

Embracing the history and habits of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS, 

jiedies for their exijulsiou or extormlnition. 

By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

IS -work will be Highly IllustriUed, aud will be vnt in 
(as soon after a sutlicieut number of subscribers can 
italned to cover the cost) as the work can possibly be 



THE LATEST! 



T^e New Tariff of Rates 



Made by OAK HALL, four weeka 
ago, sold off large lots of 

goods, and has 

INDUCED MANY TO IMITATE US! 

AS I'SUAI. 

BS^Whatever is Done Elsewhere We 
always do Better.-"©a 

This is the latest tariff for the 

ni 



AS FOLLO"W^S: 

An Elegant Business and Dress Suit, 
All-wool Black Cheviot, |10. Identical 
quality of goods sold by other parties 
as a great bargain at %\b. We never 
sold them for more than $13. 

$4.89 buys a First Quality Dresa 
Trousers, sold heretofore at $10. 

Fur Beaver and Chinchilla Over- 
coats, Good and Warm Cloth Bound, 
$8.50, $8.50, $8.50, $8..50. 

Next Higher Grade, Beautifully 
Made and Trimmed, Cloth Bound, 
Silk Velvet Collar, $10, $10, $10, $10. 

The Same Goods in Young Men's 
Sizes, $7, $7, $7, $7. 

Boy's Double Cape Overcoats, with 
all the Late Improvements, $5, $5, $5. 

Boys' and Youths' Trousers, All 
AVool, $2.39, $2.39, $2.39, $2.39. 

Hundreds of Latest Styles Child- 
ren's Overcoats, Soft Plush Lined, 
Elegant Goods, reduced from $8.75 to 
$6.50. 

$25 Fine French Fur Beaver Over- 
coats reduced to $15. (Beautifully 
made, Piped with Cloth and fhe 
Finest Linings) 

A clear saving of $2.50 on a Fine 
Dress Suit. 

At our low prices we have sold 
thousands of them at $15.00; but to- 
day make a clean mark do'wn to 
$12.50. They are not odds and ends, 
but complete lots. Hundreds biggest 
men can be fitted. This one lot of 
goods contained 55,120 yards, and has 
proved the best bargain we have had 
for our customers this season. 

A customer can come one hundred 
miles, and the saving on almost any 
Suit or Overcoat will pay the fare 
ooth ways. 

Wananjaker & Brown, 

OAK HALL, 
Sixtti and Market Streets, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



The Largest Clothing House in 
America. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. BATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MARCH, 1879. 



Vol. ZI. No. 3. 



Editorial. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER AS AN 
ADVERTISING MEuIUM. 

FariiuTs iiiul housokeeiiers .are t-oiistantly 
in Deed of luudwurc, dry goods, groceries, 
implements, fertilizers, seeds, dru^s, <and 
many other artieles of almost daily use upon 
the fann and in the household ; and, there- 
fore, there is no place where they would he 
more likely to see where and hy whom these 
things are kept for sale than in the columns 
of an agricultural journal. They may have 
been reading in their papers the essays or dis- 
cussions, the experiments and results of gome 
improved implement, some new seeds, or some 
new compost or manure, and they would 
naturally want to know where these things 
can be had, and at what cost ; and to obtain 
that information they, as naturally would, 
turn to the advertising columns of their own 
journals. Again, they may have some choice 
farm stock, poultry, fruit or grain for sale 
themselves, or they may want to purchase a 
supply of these artieles, and here again they 
will look for information in their agricultural 
journals. Simply because, if thrir paprr is in 
the form of a quarto or an oi-hivn. it will 
always be kept at a convenient place, from the 
beginning to the end of the year, and is always 
easy to refer to. (This is not the case with a 
daily or weekly journal, which, if saved at 
all, requires to be folded up and laid away out 
of the road, and soon becomes buried in the 
accumulating mass ; but in many cases when 
a day old it is considered as having done its 
duty and is destroyed. ) Moreover, at the end 
of the year, a title page, the number of the 
voliune and a copious index is furni.shed, so 
that any article published within that year 
can be referred to again with very little 
trouble. Now, all this evinces that all those 
who have anything for sale within the sphere 
of a farmer's wants can adopt no better 
medium to make their business known to the 
farming public than the columns of an agri- 
cultural journal, because that reaches the 
houses and hearths of the veiy people they 
most desire as customers. The Taujieii does 
not only circulate in Lancaster county, but 
throughout the State, and from the Pacific to 
the Atlantic ; and in many instances in locali- 
ties that are not reached by any other paper 
published in the State or county. The laiblic 
in other States seem to be aware of these 
facts, pnd hence our agricultural exchanges 
come to us freighted with advertisements ; 
and we have know^l instances wlicre pcrfsons 
have absolutely sent out of the State for an 
article which they could have obtained cheaper 
nearer home, but it was not advertised in 
their paper. Of course any adverlising 
medium is good in its specialty, and in pro- 
portion to tiie number and expanse of its cir- 
culation, but an agricultural journal to an 
agriculturist possesses special advatages, if 
the advertising public can appreciate it as a 
medium through wliich to make known their 
wares for sale. The advantages to the two 
classes are mutual, and that is the only ad- 
vantage that should cliaracterize the inter- 
course between man and man in a free country. 



SOCIETY PROCEEDINGS. 

About semi-occasionally some, doubtless 
well-meaning patron, ventures to suggest that 
inasmuch as the proceedings of .societies .are 
published in all the daily and weekly papers, 
they might be omitted in The Faioler. 
Prthaps the.se friends do not duly consider the 
fact that many of the readere of our journal 
never see a Lancaster daily paner. and some 
of them not even a weekly oue^ Those pro- 
ceedings, together with the essays and dis- 



cussions, arc a rellex of what the Lancaster 
county farmers are saying and doing on the 
subject of agriculture and kindred topics, and 
they are not only of infinite interest to readers 
abroad, but they also contain an epitome of 
the agricultural progress of the county, and 
.are valuable for home and local reference. 
On one occasion, at least, tlio very individual 
who suggested this objection, in two days 
thereafter, was compelled to look into the 
columns of the proceedings, which, although 
published in a "daily," yet that very daily 
had been torn up or was lost, and, therefore, 
inaccessible. The proceedings always con- 
lain lists of the members in attendance at the 
meetings, and also of the officers, as well as 
the topics to be discussed at a future meeting. 
When bound The Faujier is invaluable as a 
medium of ready reference. 

TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Tliere is no one who more willingly and 
cheerfully than we reiilies to the various in- 
(piiries of Correspondents, especially upon 
such subjects as those of which we have some 
knowledge— indeed we feel it our duty to do 
so; and we can also assure tliein tli;it, it is a 
l>lcasant ihity. But there are a Hw inii.liiicins 
which tln'y ought reasonably to (■(. II i|il\ with, in 
order to secure an answer to tlicir iiucriis. in 
the first place, they shoidd give pUiiuly their 
postofflce address, including the county and 
State, and in view of so many new postotlices 
and new townships being decreed every year, 
in some cases even the township should be 
given. Secondly, if they desire an immediate 
written answer they should inclose a postal 
card or a three-cent postage stamp ; but if 
they only desire an answer through the col- 
umns of The Farmeu this requisition can be 
waived. Thlnlhi, tlicir impiirics .sliould be 
written with ink, and only on oiu^ side of the 
paper. We jirrfcr to answer eorrcspondi'iits 
in the columns of our journal, liccaiisc such 
questions and answi is ojiiai involve the inter- 
ests of the>;tii.i il |M!lilic. and in answering 
our corresponili-iit wr answer many who are 
equally interested, but who may feel too diffi- 
dent to make the inquiry ; and when so 
answered it saves us the trouble of making 
separate answers. We know that our corres- 
pondents will see the reasonableness of these 
requisitions. A single postal card or a single 
three-cent stam^3 is a mere trifle, but put all 
these little trillcsof a whole year together and 
it will be found that they aggregate too large 
a sum for our cdiiorial ]iocket, especially as 
we get uolhing for our labor of answering and 
expect notliing. 

COUNTY FAIRS. 

It will be perceived from the procei'din;:s of 
the lY'bniary nieetintis of liotli tiic Iloiticul- 
tural and the Uce-Kecpcr>' S,.ci(ii(s. that it 
is proposed to liokl an cvhiljitiou in Lancaster 
city next autumn. In the latter society the 
matter has only been j^roposed, but in the 
former it seems' to be a foregone conclusion. 
This would be v.try drsirable, an.l if the proper 
energy is excn-isrd there <annot In: a doii))t of 
its success. Xotliing lias yet Ix'cn ilevcloped 
as to when and where, or how the prospective 
exhibition is to be conducted, and as the I5ee- 
Keepcrs' Society does not meet until the month 
of May next we shall probably hear nothing 
from it officially milil then. In the mean- 
lime we would respectfully suggest, that tlie 
HiirtU-uUural Fair and the Ilonci/ F<tir be held 
jointly, at the same time and place. This 
would stimulate additional interest to both, 
and concentrate those local energies which so 
often fail by being too much scattered ; and 
what might still be better would be a Poultry 
Exhibition, by our local society, under the 



same auspices. If there is iiny "show"' at all 
for fruit and flowers the coming seiLson these 
three societies might get up a joint exhibition 
that would be a credit to Lancaster county, if 
not the whole State. Those who compose the 
membership of these societies have only to 
say— that (under Providence,) it shall be so 
and it will be so. 

PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLO- 
GY ; OR, ESSAYS ON PRACTICAL 
ENTOMOLOGY. 

Under one or the other of these titles we 
propose to publish, in book form, amply illus- 
trated, all our entomological writings, that 
will be useful to the faiiner, the gardener, and 
the fruit-grower ; emliraeing the history and 
habits of our most connnon noxiol s a\i> in'- 
N0X10U8 IXSECTS ; including remedies for 
their expulsion or extermination ; and the 
work will be put to press as soon as a suffi- 
cient number of responsible subscribers shall 
be obtained to cover the cost. Our writings 
are scattered over the country in various pub- 
lications, many of which have not been pre- 
served ; others are inaccessible to the com- 
munity at large, and they cover a series of 
twenty-Bve years. We have recently had oc- 
casion to "look them up," (for, fortunately, 
we have preserved copies of all of them,) and 
we find that they number aboiit two hundred 
and fifty .separate papers, which include over 
four liundred diflcrent species or varieties of 
insects. AVhatever errors may have inad- 
vertantly crei)t into our earlier writings will 
be carefully eliminated, and recent discoveries 
will be added. Although very perceptible 
progress has been made in practical ento- 
moigy within the last twenty-five years, yet 
we hud thine is amiile occasion for more 
knowledge on the subject and a wider dillusion 
of it. Moreover, what was really true a quar- 
ter of a centuiy ago is ccinally true now, and 
in many things we liud that little advance hiis 
been made, and therefore there is little to 
undo. A period is approaching in our domes- 
tic history when it will be absolutely necessary 
for all men to give heed to the facts of natural 
science in a greater measure than has been their 
habit in the past. Scientific fanning cannot 
much longer be " tabooed "—practically it 
never has been and never can be— and the 
rising generations will acknowledge its empire. 
We have not yet determined the price of the 
work, nor whether it will be most expedient to 
comprise it in one or more volumes. We in- 
didge in some expectations, which are too 
vague yet to give a form of expression, through 
which we may be able to offer it to the public 
at a very low price. 

This introductory is mainly to admonish 
onr friends and patrons of our ultimate inten- 
tions, and that our work will be facilitated or 
retarded, according to the interest they may 
see fit to manifest in behalf of our enterprise — 
an enterprise that has mainly been suggested 
by a number of liberal and sympathizing 
spirits among them. 

INCORPORATION. 

It will tie perceiveil liy the jiroceedingsof the 
February meeting of the Agricultural and Hor- 
ticultural Society, that steps have been taken 
to procure a charter for the same. Although a 
late move, it is none the less a good move ; for 
this is something which, in our view, ought 
to have been accomplished long ago, and why 
it was not would be difficult to explain. If 
men are sincere in sustaining an organization 
of the kind, they cannot possibly be opposed 
to becoming a "body politic in law," and in 
having a legally recognized existence. By 
such a course "the society becomes a fact; 
otherwise it can at best only be a contingency. 



34 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



The very fact that the society has maintained 
an active existence for more than a dozen 
years without a charter, evinces that its ne- 
cessity is recognized, and that being the case, 
its incorporation is as legitimate a sequence 
as a legal marriage between two who propose 
to live together as man and wife. An or- 
ganization unincorporated is always more or 
less " a rope of sand," and carries with it an 
idea of irresponsibility, and a tenure that is 
temporary and uncertain. It is something 
akin to the "Articles of Confederation" be- 
fore the adoption of our National Constitu- 
tion. Its powers are iudefluite and capricious. 
It has not a single officer who can perform a 
single act in its name, or who can be held re- 
sponsible in any matter where its interests are 
involved. It could not legally accept or hold 
a gift or endowment of any kind as an organic 
body ; and if it received such an endowment 
it could not in its own name designate a 
custodian of it ; or, if it should designate such 
a trustee, he would be legally responsible to 
no one for a faithful discharge of duty or a 
surrender of said trust. 

If the society reasonably perseveres under 
an act of incorporation, it will ultimately be- 
come the sole representative of the agricul- 
tural interests of Lancaster county, and it 
ought to be fostered by the farming public. 
No matter how many "farmers' clubs " there 
may be— every township should have one — 
there still ought to be a strong, compact and 
well-appointed central organization as the 
representative head of the county. Surely 
ihe head cannot say to the hands or the feet, 
"I have no need of thee," nor vice versa, but 
all should co-operate in a harmonious union. 

BUY YOUR TREES AT HOME. 

Every season complaints are made that 
certain foreign (foreign to the State or 
county) tree agents have been canvassing the 
county of Lancaster, and that in most in- 
stances those who have patronized them have 
discovered, too late, that the stock they have 
purchased has proven inferior or worthless. 
Even if the stock is genuine, it has been out 
of the nursery so long, has suffered from 
transportation so much, and comes to hand so 
late that very little of it can be gotten to 
grow, or thrive when it does grow. We by 
no means desire to create prejudice against 
foreign nursery stock, or unduly contract the 
enterprise or energies of the farmer, but under 
all circumstances, if he can get what he 
wants, and at a fair price at home, he should 
by all means encourage home nurseries. He 
should buy his trees, vines, plants and other 
nursery stock from his own neighbors, and espe- 
cially from those nearest his own locality. This 
seems reasonable,f or the stock is more fresh and 
vigorous, and may be better adapted to his 
own soil. Some of these agents carry with 
them books, illustrated with fruits, vege- 
tables and flowers, and their victims by trust- 
ing salely to the recommendations of a beau- 
tiful picture (just as if it was not as easy to 
make a pretiy picture as an ugly one) are 
often deceived. Others carry with them 
handsome specimens of the fruit itself. Of 
course they would not exhibit anything but 
that which is handsome. It is very certain 
that they can buy this fruit almost at any 
time, but it is by no means certain that the 
stock they sell will produce the kind of fruit 
they exhibit in connection with it. We regret 
that we are compelled to write in this strain, 
but so many of our honest, hard-working 
farmers have made complaints to us that we 
can no longer forbear. There are foreign 
nurserymen whose stock we have frequently 
had occasion to commend in the columns of 
this journal, whose "goods" are reliable, and 
who would by no means attempt to palm off 
on their customers any article in their line for 
anything else than what it really is ; but if 
the farmers of Lancaster county are unable 
to discriminate between these and the 
"sharpers"' of the trade — as a contemporary 
remarks — may it not be because they do not 
subscribe for and read The Lakcastbb 
Farmer, or somek other reliable agricultural 



paper ? The following article is from a con- 
temporary, published a few days ago : 
A Grape Swindler. 

A swindler has lately been coming it over 
some of the good citizens of the northern part 
of the county by selling them grape vines at 
big prices, which they described as perfectly 
hardy and reliable, but which knowing ones 
pronounced hot-house or California grown 
varieties, and which of course are entirely 
worthless in open air culture. They are very 
indignant at the swindler, and are very anxious 
to have the rascal exposed. But it is not 
certain that exposure of such frauds would do 
much good. If they had been readers of The 
Lancaster Farmer they would long since 
have learned to give no encouragement to 
tree agents— to kick them oif the premises if 
they cannot get rid of them in any other way. 

It is not pleasant to say it, but it is true, 
that the people of Lancaster county are too 
gullable. Only a few years ago a set of 
sharpers from Ohio sold over $12,000 worth of 
trees and plants in this county, and it is 
questionable whether the whole stock to-day 
is worth 1,200 cents. 

Eight on the heels of them came a Dr. B., 
in kid gloves, having a dashing team, driving 
day after day in style through the streets of 
Lancaster, selling novelties (V) to our lawyers, 
bankers, doctors, merchants, business men(?). 
What guarantee have these men that the stuff 
delivered to them is worth anything ? Would 
not Lancaster county be a good field for some 
sharper to sell yellow verbenas and blue roses V 

THE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY AS A 
SCHOOL. 

There seems to be no lack of speakers on 
the subjects that come up for discussion every 
month in the meetings of our local Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society, and we are 
quite glad to see it. It shows that the mem- 
bers have something to talk about, and when 
this is the case men will soon learn to talk. 
Talking is a habit formed like any other 
habit, and to acquire that habit it is necessary 
to frequently indulge in talking. Of course, 
it does not follow that a man who does not 
talk, or cannot talk, therefore knows nothing. 
The gift of free, eloquent and elegant talking 
is not possessed by all, and even among those 
who can talk, it is not possessed in the same 
degree. Many of our most distinguished 
statesmen and heroes were indifferent talkers. 
But many possess that peculiar talent in 
whom it remains latent until an opportunity 
is presented to bring it out. The organiza- 
tion of our local society has done much to 
bring out our farmers, not only as talkers but 
also as writers. We venture to say that it 
has been a school which has done more to 
bring them forward intellectually, and to en- 
courage their literary tastes and abilities than 
any other school to which they ever have had 
access. When our society was first organized, 
some twelve years ago or more, there were 
but few in it who possessed the gift of fluent 
talking, and those few were not all practical 
talkers, but there has been a very perceptible 
change since then. They are not only able 
and willing to talk, but they talk practically 
and to the point, and are not afraid to advance 
views and opinions based on their own ex- 
periences before the higher and more learned 
dignitaries of the land. And why not '? If 
they knoiu a thing from visible and tangible 
experience, why should they be deterred from 
proclaiming it because some theory only par- 
tially demonstrated, or perhaps entirely im- 
practicable is in conflict with it ? Truth is 
truth, no matter from what source it emanates. 
Does anybody suppose that the spirit of Chris- 
tianity is less potent because it was first appre- 
hended and enunciated by the humble fisher- 
men of Galilee ? Does anybody suppose that 
their teachings were less truthful and less effica- 
cious because not exercised according to the 
philologj' of the Sanhedrim ? Man does not 
make truth. He is only the medium through 
which truth is manifested, and the less per- 
verted and impractical the medium is the 
purer and more potent the truth. 



MONTHLY REMINDERS. 

In the Middle States spring has arrived ac- 
cording to the calendar, but the experienced 
gardener is not to be caught by arbitrary 
terms ; and though March and the almanac 
may indicate spring, frost and storm, and bit- 
ing whids caution him to care and patience. 
He will wait the progress of the month and 
bide his time. If the temperature prove mild 
let him proceed as indicated below ; other- 
wise, delay until more favorable weather. 

Artichokes dress ; plant. Asparagus sow ; 
plant the Colossal roots. Beets— Extra Early, 
Philadelphia Turnip and Early Blood Turnip- 
sow. Cabbage sow in a sheltered place, if not 
already in a hot-bed. Test our new varieties — • 
the Wakefield, Early Market and Bloomsdale 
Brunswick. Carrots, Early Horn, sow. Cauli- 
flowers — attend to those under glass. Celery 
sow. Cress sow. Composts prepare. Dung 
prepare for later hot-beds. Horse Radish 
plant. Hot-beds make ; also force. Lettuce 
sow ; prick out. Mushroom-beds attend to. 
Mustard sow. Onions put out as sets — those 
known as "Philadelphia Buttons" much the 
best. Parsnips sow — the Sugar is the best. 
Peas — Laudreths' Extra Early and Early 
Frame— sow. Also, McLean's Advancer and 
McLean's Little Gem, which we commend 
with confidence. Potatoes, Early, plant. The 
Early Goodrich continues to secure admirers, 
but the Early Rose will distance it ; it is ad- 
mirable in every respect. Radish— the Long 
Scarlet and Red and White Turnip — sow. 
The "Strap-Leaved Long Scarlet," an im- 
provement on the old Long Scarlet we recom- 
mend. Rhubarb sow ; plant roots. Sage sow ; 
plant. Tomato sow in hot-bed. Turnips, 
Strap-Leaved Early Dutch, sow ; but gener- 
ally be it observed,' so far north as Philadel- 
phia, ■ these directions will apply better to 
April than March. — LandretlVs Rural Reg. 

GROUNDHOG METEOROLOGY. 

Better be a living groundhog than a dead 
hero. We noticed in the local press but a 
single allusion to the recurrence of the ever- 
glorious 8th of January, and that was briefly 
" The Battle of New Orleans." But the 2d 
of February, or Candlemas, outside of the 
church, is almost certain to be annually ven- 
tilated, m its relations to the groundhog and 
his weather prognostications. We are only 
apprehensive that he will eventually eclipse 
the 22d, the anniversary of the natal day of 
" Columbia's greatest glory." 

How can we attach any significance to the 
actions of the groundhog on the 2d day of 
February, so long as we are in ignorance of 
what he really does on that day ? The old 
saw on this subject is to this effect : "If the 
goundhog comes out of his hole on the morn- 
ing of the 2d day of February, and sees his 
shadow, he will go back and continue his 
winter sleep for six weeks longer," during 
which time we will have severe winter weather. 
But if he does not see his shadow, he will re- 
main out of his hole, and we shall have an 
early and warm spring. This whole prophetic 
superstructure seems to be based upon the 
little ambiguous conjunction )/, and that if is 
founded upon an error in regard to the habits 
of the groundhog. The groundhog or " Mar- 
mot " {Arctomys monax) is a hibernating ro- 
dent, and goes into a semi-hibernating sleep 
as early as October, and does not come out of 
it until April, during which time he eats 
nothing— or, if he ats at all, it is that which 
he himself had provided the previous season, 
and therefore there is no necessity for him to 
come out of his winter burrow. 

On such a day as the 2d of February, 1879, 
was, no hibernating animal would have power 
to come forth, even if he had the will to do 
so, and hence they might as well be left out 
of the question in weather prognostications ; 
leaving those to be built upon other more 
plausible data. We might just as truthfi^lly 
saj', "If the humming-bird comes up from 
the South on the 2d of February and finds the 
morning-glory in bloom, it will go back and 
not return again for six months." A swal- 
low would be just as likely to meet a ground- 



1879. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



35 



hog abroad on the 2d of February, as a 
groundhog would be to meet a swallow or see 
his shadow on that day, especially such a day 
as we had on the 2d ult. So true is the 
groundhog to the hibernating instincts of its 
nature, that it is on record tliat it has as- 
sumed tliat torpid condition when it was 
semi-domesticated and kept in a liouse— rolling 
itself up in a corner of its Ivcnnel and refusing 
to eat anything ; and wlien it was placed near 
the lire it gradually revived, but immediately 
crept back to its kennel and relapsed into a 
state of torpidity. The termination "hog" 
attached to tlie name of tliis animal is a pal- 
palile misnomer ; tliere is nothini: of the in- 
stincts or liabits of tlie liog about it. It is an 
exceeding cleanly animal ; as particular about 
its person as a cat. Its lair is a pattern of i 
onler and cleanliness. 

It is a marmot, and has its repre- 
sentative in Jtlie European marmot 
(Arctomys marmotu). The term"arcto- 
mys" means a bear-rat, having a body 
resembling a bear. Linnanis originally 
included it in the genus Mus, the 
same to which our common rat be- 
longs. Muvinot has nearly the same 
significance— it means a mountain 
rat, or a mountain mouse. This 
animal has been dignilied by many 
common names in various localities. 
I'erliaps, outside of Eastern I'ennsy 
Ivania, the most popular names is tlie 
"wood-chuck." Tiie French Canadi- 
ans call it "Sifflenr;" southward 
"marmot " is generally used. Up in 
the Korth it is the " thickwood- 
badger." Up in Alaska the "tav- 
bagan," etc., etc. It is more nea 
allied to the .squirrel or the rat than ii 
I is to tlie hog. It is veiy prolific, pro- 
I ducing from six to eiglit at a litter, 
and, being very partial to young 
I clover, it is sometimes a very serious 
I annoyance to farmers on whose lands 
it is domiciliated. It cuts off, gathers 
up and carries off to its den large 
quantities of this grass, but if it can 
not obtain this, it also appropriates 
other species of vegetation, and w ' 
not reject insects. As autumn ap- 
proaches it constructs a special bur- 
row, with an aperture that communi- 
cates with the sleeping apartment, 
and this it fills with food and then 
closes up the aperture tliat commui- 
cates witli the outer world. This food 
is intended for a supply before it be- 
comes torpid in the fall, and after it 
comes out of that state in the spring ; 
therefore, there is no necessity for 
Its going abroad on Candlemas day. 
Anything to the contrary is only ex- 
ceptional, influenced by extraordinary 
circumstances. So firmly do some 
people believe in this groundlio 
weather prophecy that we have hear 
of a case where people were admon- 
ished to turnout and exterminate the 
whole race, rather tlian submit to a 
cold and late spring a as probable con- 
tingency of his presence. 

"We do not pretend to say that an 
early spring has not followed a cloudy 
t aii'dlemas, or that a late spring 
lias not followed a clear one ; nor do we 
by any means say that no groundhog 
ever been seen abroad later than October, 
or earlier than April, any more than we 
■would say that no tree, in this latitude, 
has ever bloomed in February, nor that 
vegetation has never been frozen in the montli 
of June. But these are meteorological con- 
tingencies that are entirely independent of 
the habits of the groundhog, and, for the 
most part, have their causes in climatic di- 
versities beyond the knowledge or investiga- 
tion of mortal man, and particularly beyond 
the influence of his remedial agencies. 

Nor do we desire to wantonly dissipate the 
faith of those who cherish such peculiar no- 
tions, any more than we would the pleasant 
fancies of children about "Good Santa Claus," 



"Mother Goose" or "Jack the Giant Killer." ! 
It is .singular, liowever, that as their minds 
cxpaiul rhildreii soon grow out of this philoso- 
phy of the nui-sei'v ; but very often the elders 
carry their grnuuilhog fancies to a protracted 
age, or to llieir graves. Of course it is not i 
very harmful ; the worst, perhaps, that can 
grow out of it is a little disappointment, and 
this will be proportioned to the subject's faith, 
and the magnitude of the enterpri.se based 
upon that faith. 



NEW $6o.( 



PRIZE GRAPES— MOORE'S 
EARLY. 

Combining the following desirable qualities, 
viz.: Hardiness, size, beauty, (piality, produc- 
tiveness and earliness, maturing ten daj's 
earlier than the Hartford Prolilie. and twenty 




days earlier than the Concord. This new 
grape is one out of .a lot of 2,.500 seedlings, 
and produced its first fruit in the j'ear 1872 ; 
it was then exhibited, and has been shown at 
the exhibitions of the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society, by the fruit committee, every 
year since, and prizes have been awarded to 
it at eighteen different exhibitions, last of 
which was 800.00 for the best seedling, after 
a satisfactory trial. Tliese prizes were all 
awarded for one or more of the above enume- 
rated special points. 

Dfscription of fruit : Bunches large, lierry 
round, large, (as large as tlie Wilder or Rogers, 
No. 4,) color black, witli a heavy blue bloom ; 
quality better than the Concord ; vine ex- 
ceedingly hardy ; has never been covered in 
■winter, and has been exposed to a tempera- 



ture of more than twenty degrees below zero, 
witliout injury, and it has been entirely ex- 
empt IVoni iiiililew or disease. Its earliness 
makes it dcsiiahle for an early crop, and more 
parlieularly iulapt.s it to New England and 
the iiortlieni portion of the United States. 

Price : One year old vines,' 81.00 ; two year's 
old, S2.00 ; extra vines, delivered by express, 
$.3.00. Liberal deductions made when ordered 
by the dozen or in large i|uantitie.s. For par- 
ticulars address Mr. John B. Moore, Concord, 
Massachusetts. 

Our illustration is "an exact copy from a 
photograph of a bunch." If the high en- 
dorsements which this new grape has received 
from competent committees in the Eastern 
States are to be recognii'.ed as unqualified evi- 
dences of (piality and eharacter, then our 
readei-s will have no dillieulty in de- 
termining what tliey ought to do in 
the premises. Early fruit, and es- 
pecially early grajies, are always de- 
sirable, and that quality alone ought 
to recommend this fruit to the citizens 
of Lancaster county. 

ST. MATTHEW'S DAY. 

" Matlliiasbric-lit eis 
Find er kelii, so maclit er ein." 
This may be literally translated : 
St. Miittliew breaks the Ice; 
I'iuds lie none, he makes one. 
^liis means that if there is no ice 
on St. Matthew's Day— 24tli of Feb- 
ruary—it will become cold enough to 
make ice after Lliat date, before the 
spring is fairly opened ; but if there is 
lee, then we sliall have no more cold 
weather and an early spring. How 
now V Through the obtrusiveness of 
llie impatient groundhog on Candle- 
mas, the cold weatlier has been con- 
tinued, and winterslill fiercely broods 
over the suowclad hills and icebound 
streams ; and according to the ground- 
hogological prognostications we are to 
have yet three weeks of frigid winter ; 
but, here comes the St. Matthew 
prog, in direct conflict with that of 
gouty old "Arctomys;" and it may 
well be asked, "Wliat are we going 
to do about it?" Will the disciples 
of the Arctomian system please take 
lold and try to harmonize this case ? 
Verily the weather seems to be in 
danger of being "governed too much," 
and who can tell now whether we are 
going to have any spring find summer 
at all ? For our part, we sliall be 
content with being an humble 
»ker-on," and if out of the 
"muss" anything consistent with 
reason and common sense is devel- 
oped, we hope we may be able to 
apprehend it. 

There is one thing, however, that 
these unautliorized weather prophe- 
cies may demonstrate, and that is 
the folly of associating "set days" 
with meteorological phenomena, with 
which they have no connection what- 
ever, and over which they cannot 
possibly exercise the remotest influ- 
ence. Of course, very few people really 
believe in these weather-signs now, 
and even the few who profess to believe 
them, hold them under the mental resen-a- 
tion involved in— "mebbey it mout, and 
mebbey it moutn't." Hoivever tnie it may 
be that these weather phenomena are the 
effects of some antecedent cause— meteoro- 
logical or astronomical— yet, so far as human 
ken extends, we are profoundly ignorant of 
that cause ; and probaVily we shall remain so 
for a long time to come. As mere myths, 
however, we may permit people to entertain 
them and talk about them. They are prolific 
themes of conversation, and to deprive people 
of them would l)e to annihilate an important 
fltctor in social intercourse, for often, very 
often, if there were no weather to stimulate 
conversation, there would be little else to talk 
about ; and no wonder, for the weather con- 



36 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



1 rols more than we are willing to give it credit 
lor. — February 24, 1879. 

A CHAPTER ON MACARONI. 

Personally we are very fond of mticaroni, 
and can make a meal on it alone ; (barring 
perhaps an additional cup of cott'ee,) and 
practically it is both bread and meat to us ; 
moreover, it is about as cheap as any article 
of wholesome food that can be bought. It has 
no bones in it ; it never stales or taints ; it is 
simple in its culinary preparation ; it is nu- 
tricious and always handy to have about the 
house. Towards spring, when vegetables be- 
come scarce, or when they begin to sprout, 
become insipid and wilted or leathery, 
macaroni is a grand reserve to fall back upon. 
As we have said before, we have always liked 
it— liked it these fifty years or more— have 
relished it whenever it was set before us, and 
never could understand why that was so 
seldom. 

But now, since we are compelled to become 
economical through the pressure of the times, 
and Miss Corson, through the instrumentality 
of her cheap Cook Book, is likely to make 
macaroni eating popular or fashionable, the 
least we can do for our readers is to admonish 
them, in this respect, to become fashionable, 
if they desire to "march along" abreast with 
the times ; and in order to assist them in doing 
so we commend the following from the book 
aforesaid. If our well-fed and well-supplied 
farmers do not need this advice there are 
many others who may need it. 

Macaroni and Its Uses. 
In a notice of Miss Corson's little work on "2.5- 
cent Dinners," it was stated, as one good feature of 
the book, that it recommended macaroni, and told 
how to cook it. This cheap and very nutritious food 
may be cooked in a variety of acceptable styles, and 
Is a most excellent substitute for vegetables. Potatoes 
are iipt to be poor late in the season, and if maca- 
roni be used instead it will be found vastly more nu- 
tritious. Macaroni comes in boxes of about 25 lbs., 
and is sold by the box at an average price of 1.5-lSc- 
per lb. It is in long pipes, or tubes, sometimes sev- 
eral feet in length, being bent over and over ; it is a 
little larger round than a common lead pencil, and 
has a dull appearance, somewhat like that of a horn. 
It is imported from Italy, and though it has been 
made in this country, and perhaps is still made, it is, 
for reasons to be explained presently, vastly inferior 
to the imported. Macaroni is really dried flour paste, 
but there is, as every housekeeper knows, a great 
difference in Hour, and the kind best for bread is the 
poorest for macaroni, and vice versa. Flour consists 
largely of starch. If we mix up some flour with 
water, to form dough, and tie a lump of this dough- 
say as big as a hen's egg— in a piece of muslin, and 
then hold it under a stream ot water, and work it as 
the water flows, the starch will soon be washed out 
throufh the meshes of the muslin, when the water 
runs clear, showing that the starch has been washed 
out, if we open the cloth there will be found a small 
quantity of a pasty, stringy mass— this is gluten. 
It ditfers from starch in containing nitrogen, and it 
will soon spoil. Starch is a Aea^-producing food, 
glutt n is a Ihsh- (ormiug food, really the most nutri- 
tious portion of the flour. Our best wheats make 
flour with 7 or S parts in the 100 gluten. Other 
wheats contain about twice as much. It is only 
wheats rich in gluten that make good macaroni, and 
while the flour of our wheats make the best and 
lightest bread, it is only the wheats of the south of 
Europe, especially some kinds raised in certain 
localities in Italy, that make the best macaroni. 
This is why it cannot be made successfully in this 
country— our flour is in one sense too good. The proper 
kind of flour is made into a stiff paste with water, 
well worked by means of a wooden bar, and then 
put into a mould, in which it is siibjected to great 
pressure "" ' ~ 



The mould has holes in it, of the proper 
shape, and the paste is forced out through these as 
fine as threads, when it is called vermicelli, or as 
pipes or tubes, when it is macaroni. It is dried by a 
heat sumciently to slightly bake it, when it is ready 
to be packed in boxes. The same paste rolled thin, 
and formed by proper cutters into squares, stars, 
hearts, etc., is known as Italian paste. Vermicelli 
and Italian paste are rarely used except in soups. It 
will be seen that macaroni is the most nutritious of 
of all farinaceous foods, and one that should be 
more ireneruUy known and used than it now is. We 
may add here that it is a most excellent thing for ex- 
plorers and oilier travellers— as we know from cx- 
perieuie. Those who go on hunting and other 
excursions, which take them where vegetables are 
not procurable, will not miss these if there is a sup- 
ply of macaroni. Old macaroni is sometimes infested 
by an insect wliich feeds within the cavity; upon 
holding the stick up to the light this may be seen as 



a dark spot. Inour first experience with macaroni, it 
seemed so hard and horn-like that it was put to soak 
before cooking ; as a consequence it was spoiled . It 
should be put at once into boiling water. The fol- 
lowing directions for cooking it are from " 25-ceut 
Dinners," and abridged so far as they give matters 
already stated above. Miss Corson gives the follow- 
ing general directions under t 

J/«c«ro)u.— Wipe it carefully, break it in whatever 
lengths you want it, and put it into boiling water, to 
every quart of which half a tablespoonful of salt is 
added ; you can boil an onion with it if you like the 
flavor. As soon as it is tender enough to yield easily 
when pressed between the fingers, drain it in a 
colander, saving its liquor fcr the next day's broth, 
and lay it in cold water until you want to use it. 
When more macaroni has been boiled than is used it 
can be kept perfectly good by laying it in fresh 
water, which must be changed every day. After 
boiling the macaroni, you can use it according to 
any of the following directions. Half a pound of 
uncooked macaroni will make a large dishful : 

Macaroni, Farmers' Style.— Boi\ half a pound of 
macaroni as above, and while you are draining it 
from the cold water, stir together over the fire one 
ounce each of butter and flour, and as soon as they 
bubble, gradually pour into the sauce they make, a 
pint of boiling water, beating it with a fork or egg 
whip until it is smooth ; season it with a level tea- 
spoonful of salt and a level saltspoonful of pepper, 
and put the macaroni in it to heat ; then cut an 
onion into small shreds, and brown it over the fire in 
a very little fat ; when both are done, dish the 
macaroni, and pour the onion out of the frying pan 
upon it. It is excellent ; and ten cents will cover 
the cost of all of it. 

Macaroni with Broth.— Tut half a pound of maca- 
roni, boiled as above and washed in cold water, over 
the fire with any kind of broth, or one pint of cold 
gravy and water ; season it to taste with pepper and 
salt, and let it heat slowly for an hour, or less if you 
are in a hurry ; then lay it on a flat dish, strew over 
it a few bread crumbs, which you will almost always 
have on hand if you save all the bits I speak of in 
the article on bread ; then set the dish in the oven, 
or in front of the fire to brown. It will cost less 
than ten cents, and be delicious. 

Macaroni iMh White A'ajice.- Warm half a pound 
of macaroni, boiled and washed in cold water, as 
above, in the following sauce, and use it as soon as 
it is hot. Stir together over the fire one ounce each 
of butter and flour, pouring in one pint of boiling 
water and milk, as soon as the butter and flour are 
mixed ; season it with salt and pepper to taste, and 
put the macaroni into it. This dish costs less than 
ten cents, and is very good and wholesome. 

Macaroni with CTieese.— Boil half a pound of maca- 
roni, as above, put into a pudding dish in layers with 
quarter of a pound of cheese, (cost four cents), 
grated and mixed between the layers ; season with 
pepper and salt to taste ; put a very little butter and 
some bread crumbs over it, and brown it in the oven. 
It will make as hearty and strengthening a meal as 
meat, and cost about twelve cents. 

CHEMICAL FARMING. 
The question of "Fertilizers," or "Arti- 
ficial Manures, " has become a subject of more 
earnest discussion in this county at the pres- 
ent time than, perhaps, at any former period 
in the agricultural history of the county. As 
the desire to realize larger crops, and the arti- 
ficial fertilizing compounds increase, so also 
increases the anxiety of the farmers in regard 
to their real value, their component parts, 
their prices, and when, where and how to 
apply them ; and also their intrinsic qualities 
in comparison with good barnyard manure ; 
and, lastly, how to guard against imposition. 
We extract the following fi'om an able article 
on that subject, which we find in the January 
number of the Scientific Farmer, published in 
Boston, Mass. We particularly call the atten- 
tion of our readers to tlie words italicised, 
from which it will be perceived that the facts 
as to whether the fertilizing material reaches 
the plant in such a condition as to be ab- 
sorbed by it, and whether the .soil just needs 
the elements it contains, are important factors 
in the uf;e of chemical or any other kinds of 



crops soon left the land unfit for further plant 
growth. Analysis showed the elements which plants 
removed. Ergo supply these elements, and prevent 
your land from getting exhausted. This was the 
discovery which it took ages to develop into expres- 
sion ; this discovery is at the basis of modern farming. 
The chief aim of the husbiiudman is to supply 
plant-food. For this purpose he applies his manure, 
he exercises his skill in culture, he adopts his fal- 
lows or rotations. Plant-food, how to obtain it for 
his plant, and how to compel the plant to get the 
most of it, this is true farming. We propose to offer 
a few ideas on the subject of plant-food, premising 
that our statements all seem to have been experi- 
mentally proven, and to have been practically 
adopted, here and there, by the most intelligent of 
cultivaters. 

The elements of plant-food which are most apt to 
be deficient in our soils are nitrogen, phosphoric acid 
and potash. To obtain a full crop these have to be 
present, diffused throughout our land, and must be 
in that chemical condition which will allow of their 
being appropriated by the roots of our plant, 
wherever they are to pass into the plant circulation, 
become incorporated into its life, and through the 
most wonderful metamorphoses of growth become 
part and parcel of the plant structure. 

Now, one pound of soluble phosphoric acid, or one 
pound of a given condition of nitrogen, or one pound 
of a potash salt, properly diffused through our land, 
is as eflficient as another pound of a like substance, 
without regard to its source of supply. Thus it 
makes no difference in the amount of the crop 
whether the pound be supplied in one hundred pounds 
of dung or ten pounds of a manufactured article. All 
the plant requires is the presence and accesibility of 
its food. 

Let us not be understood as saying that one hun- 
dred pounds of dung, containing one pound of solu- 
ble phosphoric acid,^is not better than ten pounds of 
superphosphate containing one pound of soluble 
phosphoric acid. Nor must we be understood as say- 
ing even that the same quantity of chemical sub- 
stances contained in one hundred pounds of manure 
is necessarily equal to the raw manure in value for 
application. We are not treating of manures com- 
paratively, but of plant-food; and hence, ignoring 
the difference caused by the method of application, 
and the physical action or chemical action of either 
after their disposition in the land, we repeat that one 
pound of plant food absorbed by the plant is just one 
pound, and is of equal value, without reference to 
its source of supply. 

These are facts ; now for the application : Plant- 
food must be furnished by the farmer in order that 
he may be able continuously to crop his laud. It 
makes no difference in what form he applies them, 
provided the plant secures them. Equal quantities 
of plant-food from one source of supply are equal in 
effect to the equal quantities of a similar substance 
in another source of supply, if only the plant gets 
them We repeat the idea, in order to be understood. 
Consequently the farmer must study values, and 
provide for his crops the plant-food from the source 
whence it can be obtained for the least money. 
Dung and Chemicals. 
Is dung better than chemicals? Not necessarily. 
Are chemicals better than dung ? It does not follow . 
If dung and chemicals will raise the same quantity 
of crop year after year, then whichever the farmer 
wants to supply is the cheaper of the two. It seems 
ridiculous to claim that if five dollars' worth of 
chemicals will give as good results as eight dollars 
worth of dung that dung is better ; or that if five 
dollars' worth of dung will produce equal results 
with eight dollars' worth of chemicals that chemi- 
cals are better. A. chance for difference of opinion 
can only come in those cases where the decision lies 
between a dollar's worth of dung and a dollar's 
worth of chemicals equivalent. 

We have here the whole question of purchased 
manures in a nutshell, provided our supposition is 
tenable. Let us show that it is, by the quoting of an 
actual experiment, which must tend to convince 
even the most skeptical. „ , ■ 

We will quote results from .Mr. Lawes' experi- 
ments, at Rothamstead, England: 

HAY. 

,32 tons. 

SO tons, 10 year's average. 



manures. 

Plant-Food. 

It is now but little more than a generation since 
chemistry came to the farmer's aid, and offered her 
services to those who would employ them. Not with a 
halting step, but with the vigor of a god-like birth, 
agricultural chemistry was born, and soon the Eng- 
lish speaking world was aglow with the interest 
which came from the new discovery. Plants fed, so 
Licbig stated, not on dirt, but on certain chemical 
substances, which were part of the earth. Earth 
contained but a limited amount of these substances; 
and hence the continuous growth and removal of 



Unmanured plot, - 
Applied chemicals, 
Dung (14 tons), - 

Unmanured plot, - 

Chemicals, 

Dung, - - - - 

Unmanured, - - 
Chemicals, - - - 
Dung, 



- 20'^ bushels. 

48M bush., 24 year's average. 

- 48% " " " " 

WHEAT. 

13 J^ bush., 24 year's average. 

3.5r 



We'thus see that chemicals can produce the same 
results as are produced by dung. In the experiments 
quoted we have the average of many years' trials, so 
that the effect cannot be ascribed to a favorable sea- 
son, or otherwise. We must consider it proven that 
chemicals can take the place of dung. It only re- 
mains to show whether we can afford to use one in 
preference to the other. Unfortunately we have not 
in these experimentB quoted the necessary data lor 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



37 



Iving of the question of values. It is evident 
I i.iiiler sueU large doses of dung as were used— 
luuiKen tons yearly — the land must have, in course 
of time, attained a maximum of fertility; and 
the crops yielded indicate this. The amount of 
cliiiiiicals Ubcd was also in excess of the requirement 
of the plant in most instances. 

Reason tells u« that chemical farming must bo 
successful, pr.-'vided we apply to the land yearly 
what the crop removes, provided the elements which 
are applied are kept during the seasou of growth in 
condition lit for appropriation by the plant, and pro- 
vided they are thoroughly diffused throughout the 
land. Reason also tells us that manure farming is 
successful under like conditions of application. 

Experience tells us that with abundant manure we 
can raise on the average maximum crops for our 
land. Experience also tells us that with an abun- 
dant supply of chemicals we can do likewise. Thus 
rca.son and experience coincide. 

Practically, however, we have other questions to 
consider, and the question is not as simple as at first 
sight appears. Practically, it U Ibund, it has been 
found, that we need apply barnyard manure con- 
taining chemical eleme.its far in excess of the chemi- 
cal elements removed by the crop to 
produce the crop. Practically, it has 
been found that in many cases where 
chemicals were applied, the amount 
of the crop was proportionate to the 
amount of the chemicals applied. 
Practically, the application of a fer- 
tilizer may fail to produce the antici- 
pated crop. Practically, a large ma- 
nuring will not always produce the 
anticipated crop. 

The condition of the soil and the 
facts of cultivation have also to be 
considered while we are considering 
plant-food, for in all farm questions 
like this we have two sides to our 
subject. The plant-food must be pres- 
ent ; the plant must also be able to 
appropriate it, and this latter fact is 
an important one. 

Consider why we can raise larger 
crops on sterile New England soil, by 
the aid of manure, than they do on 
the prairies of the Southwest, just fat 
with fertility. Consider the large 
yield on the acreage of England, and 
the small yield on the acreage of that 

fjlden State which fronts on the 
acific ! 



PEARL MILLET. 
" Pearl ifillet lias beeu culti- 
vated for some years as a ionige 
plant in sou.e of the Southern 
States, as ' African Cane, ' 
'Egyptian Millet,' 'Japan Mil- 
let,' and in some places as 
'Horse Millet,' btit little wa« 
known of it at the North before 
last year, and then only in sucli 
small quantities as to hardly al- 
low of a fair trial. From what 
we saw of it in 1.S77, we deter- 
mined to give it a thorough trial 
this season. A piece of good 
strong loamy ground was pre- 
pared as if for a beet or turnip 
crop, by manuring with stable- t 

manure, at the rate of ten tons 
to the acre, plowing 10 inches 
deep, and thoroughly harrow ing. _ <- i 

The Millet was then sown in 
drills 18 inches apart, at the rate 
of 8 quarts to the acre. We sowed on the 
l.">th of May, about the date we plant corn , 
in 12 days the plants were up so that a culti- 
vator could be run between the rovvs, after 
which no further culture was necessary, for 
the growth became so rapid and luxuriant as 
to crowd down every weed that attempted to 

fet a foothold. The first cutting was made 
uly 1st— 4.J days after sowing ; it was then 
7 feet high, covering the wliole ground, and 
the crop, cut 3 inches above the ground, 
weighed, gi-eeii, at the rate of 30 tons per 
acre ; this, when dried, gave (i^ tons per acre 
as hay. After cutting, a second growth 
started, and was cut August loth— 4.5 days 
from the time of the first cutting. Its height 
was 9 feet ; it weighed this time'at the rate of 
5") tons to the acre, (jreen, and 8 tons dried. 
The third crop started as rapidly as the sec- 
ond, but the cool September nights lessened its 
tropical luxuriance, so that this crop, which 
was cut on October 1st, only weighed 10 tons 



1 green, and U tons dried. The growth was 
I simply enormous, thus : 1st crop in 45 days, 
gave 30 tons green, or 6^ tons dry ; 2nd crop 
I in 45 days, gave 55 tons green, or 8 tons dry ; 
3rd crop in 45 days, gave 10 tons green, or 1^ 
I tons dry. The aggregate weight being 95 tons 
I of green fodderin 135 days from date of sow- 
1 ing, and 10 tons when dried to hav. Tills ex- 
ceeds the clover meadows of Mid-Lothian, 
: which, when irrigated by the sewerage from 
I the City of Edinbugh, and cut every four 
, weeks, gave an aggregate of 75 tons of" green 
clover per acre. There is little doubt that 
Pearl Millet is e(iually nutritious as corn- 
fodder, which it resembles even more tlitm it 
does any of the other Millets. We found that 
all our horses and cattle ate it greedily wliether 
green or dry. If sowing in drills is not prac- 
ticable, it may be sown broadcast, using 
double the quantity of seed— say 16 quarts 
per acre. The ground .should be smoothed by 
the harrow, and again lightly harrowed after 




sowiul; if lolltd \ttei liiiio\Mm: ill tin lut- 
ta. I know ol no faun (mp ilut will lit Itt i 
repay high maniiung, but so pii.it is its lux- 
uriance th.mt will produce a btltei ciop with- 
out manure than any other plant I know of. I 
In those parts of the Southern Slates where 
hay cannot be raised this is a substitute of the ; 
easiest culture, and, being of tropical origin, , 
it will luxuriate in their long hot summers. ! 
Even though our Northern sea.sons may be 
too short to mature our seeds, our experiments 
in New Jersey this summer show what abun- 
dant crops may be expected if the similar con- 
ditions are secured. Pearl Millet as a fodder- 
plant presents a new feature in our agricul- 
ture, and I feel sure that within ten years we 
shall wonder how we got on without it. He- 
sides our own testimony given above, we have 
received the most satisfactory letters from ex- 
perienced men in different parts of the country 
to whom we sent seed of Pearl Millet for trial, 
and all are unanimous as to its enormous 



productiveness and great value. From all 
we have seen ami can learn, we are fully 
convinced thtit Pearl Millet is to bo one of the 
great fodder plaiitH of the future." 

The fiiregoiiig. from the .bin rican Ayricul- 
turiM, for November. 1S78, conlaiiis the ex- 
jieriments of I'l Ur Ilender.son, Esq., of the 
firm of Peter llendersoii & Co., No. 35 Court- 
land .street, New York, a man wliose reputa- 
tion as a nur.vrymaii, seedsman and Horist 
stands very high in this country. Of course 
Millet can only be grown with success and 
profit (as far north as Pennsylvania and New 
York,) as a foraging pl:uit. And, now, since 
the subject ..f keeping i;-:illle linii^cil during 

instead of turning tliein out into the llekls to 
pasture, is looming up, this plant may a.HSume 
an importance it never did before. We, there- 
fore, deem it advisalile at this time to place 
the matter l)efore our readers, in order that 
they may avail themselves of whatever ad- 
vantage there may he in its 
culture. 

Farther south it may also be 
of advantage to the farmers to 
raise the seed. Although Millet 
seeds have been ground into 
meal, from which bread has been 
made, yet it is not specially es- 
teemed for that purpose ; but 
cooked, as rice, it is used more 
or les.s in some countries, and it 
is said that no grain food is bet- 
ter for poultry ; and if care is 
taken in harvesting the yield is 
usually large. 

The following we extract from 
the Fariwrs'' Cychpedia, mainly 
relating to its cultivation in 
Europe, which may be of some 
value in connection with the 
above : 

" The soil for Millet should be 
warm, sandy, rich and well pul- 
verized to a good depth. The 
seed is u.sually sowed about the 
end of April or beginning of 
May, regard being had to lati- 
tude and the meteorological con- 
dition of the sea.son. It should 
not be sown thickly, and not 
deei>ly covered. In the course 
of its growth (according to Prof. 
Thaler,) no plant is more im- 
proved by stirring the soil, after 
which it grows astonishingly 
fast and smothers the weeds. 

In harvesting Millet great care 
is required not to shed the seed ; 
and. as it ripens rather unequal- 
ly, it would be an advantage to 
^ cut off the spikes a.s they ripen. 

No grain is easier to thresh, or 
to free from its husk by the mill. 
It is used instead of rice, and 
bears about the same price on 
the continent of Europe, where 
it is more cultivated than per- 
s\=^— haps any other part of the world, 

especially in Germany. It pro- 
duces a great bulk of straw, which is much 
esteemed by some as fodder." 

There are various kinds of Millet, one kind 
of which was introduced into Pennsylvania, 
many years ago, (called "Bengal Gra.ss,") as 
an object of culture, and at one time created 
considerable interest among farmers ; it was, 
however, found unsatisfactoiy in results, and 
was .subsequently neglected or abandoned. 

According to bur recollection this was very 
"long ago" — in our boyhood — but we have 
no recollection as to what the "expectations" 
of the farmei-s were in regard to it, or whether 
cultivated for fodder or for the seeds. More- 
over, they at that time knew nothing of 
"green feeding "-other than pasturing— if 
even they entertained a thought of it. 

The term MiUct comes from the French 
word MHle—:\ thousand— alluding to the great 
number of seeds produced by a single spike, 
or "ear. " The generic name Panicuno comes 
from paws— bread. 



38 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 



THE FISH QUESTION. 

The following address, by Peter Frally, 
Esq., of Columbia, Pa., to the Fish Com- 
mittee of the Legislature, whether dictated 
merely by local interest or by principles of 
public economy, seems to reflect so much that 
is in harmony with the general experience in 
the matter of State improvements, ameliorat- 
ing; enterprises, domestic progress and the 
habits of the shad, that we give it an inser- 
tion in our journal as a matter of convenient 
future references to those among our readers 
who may be interested in questions involved. 

We can distinctly recall the halcyon days of 
shad-fishing along the middle Susquehana, 
when the great hauls of 1,500 to 3,000 were 
made, but these were few and far between, 
and even then — sixty years ago — there were 
also made many doleful complaints against 
the gill-nets, south of Mason and Dixon's 
line. We concur in the opinion that shad will 
never be in the abundance they once were, 
even if all obstructions were removed. 

Gentlemen : The reason urged for the removal 
of the Columbia dam is that it is an insurmountable 
bar to the ascent of shad and other fishes to their 
natural spawning grounds, the head waters of the 
river, and because of this bar or obstruction shad are 
becoming more and more scarce, and if the dam was 
removed the abundance of former years would be 
soon restored. It is claimed by those engineering 
the appropriation bill, "that a dam will not be 
needed, and that a mere wing-dam only will he re- 
quired, thus allowing a large space of the natural 
channel of the river as a free ascent to fish." 

Upon this point I will quote Mr. J. C. Sharpless 
(an eminent and well-known civil engineer, who was 
employed by the "joint special committee on the 
operations of the fish department," to make a sur- 
vey of the route and estimate the cost of said re- 
moval.) Mr. Sharpless, after a careful[instrumental 
survey, reports to the committee as follows ; 

"The rocks in the river bed are so numeous that 
the construction of a channel, through which boats 
could cross the river in safety, may be regarded as 
almost, if not quite, impracticable. It would in- 
volve heavy cost, and there would be great danger 
of accidents to boats, unless great care were exer- 
cised. I am unable to see how boats could make the 
passage across in safety in any other way than by 
the construction of a dam, reaching the entire dis- 
tance across. A wing-dam has been suggested ; but, 
in my judgment, when the river is low and the cur- 
rent slow, it would not be eflfectual. When the river 
is high, and the current rapid, it might check its 
passage and raise the surface of the water to some 
extent, but at such time it would not be needed. I 
have, consequently, made an estimate for a dam, 
four feet above low water." 

Tou will perceive at once that the real question at 
issue is not the removal of the dam from Columbia 
as an obstrucHoii to the ascent of shad, but the re- 
location of the same construction at Chiques, a point 
about two and one-half miles above ; not to increase 
the supply of fish, but in reality to increase the busi- 
ness of an enterpri^e about uearing completion, hav- 
ing its principal base of operations at Chiques, and, 
possibly, to enrich a few speculators in land. 

It is true that Mr. Sharpless reports that the dam 
at Chiques need be but four feet higher than low 
water mark. The Columbia dam is about five and 
one-half feet higher than low water mai-k, but all 
our fishermen will tell you that a dam four feet above 
low water mark is just as eB'ectual a barrier to the 
ascent of shad as if it was five and one-half feet 
high. So that the only advantage then in increasing 
the shad supply would be the distance from the Co- 
lumbia dam to that of the Chiques for spawning 
grounds. The bill, under which you are hearing this 
committee, asks an appropriation of $.300,000 only, 
when we have reason to believe that to complete all 
the work necessary it will cost at least a solid mil- 
lion for the removal of this one dam alone. Mr. 
Sharpless, the engineer herebefore named, estimated 
the cost as follows : 

For constructing cacal and guard lock $205,124 37 

For dam with sckule and feeder 58,727 54 

For outlet and outlet lock 22,238 81 

Contingencies 28,609 07 

$314,699 79 
It must not be forgotten that Mr. Sharpless was 
employed by a Committee whose object was to show 
as small a cost as possible, and that he had instruc- 
tions to that effect is apparent from the last para- 
graph of his " report " to the committee, as follows : 
"The cost of this work will probably exceed the 
expectations of your committee. A careful exami- 
nation, in detail, has shown it to be more than I 
anticipated. I have taken care not to exceed reason- 
able limits in the prices of material and work, and I 
do not think it could be done for less than is here 
shown." 

We have no means of testing the accuracy of Mr. 
Sharpless' estimate for canal, five feet lock and 



guard lock, but from the known nature of the ex- 
cavations necessary, being largely of rock in the 
river, and his failure to include laud damages for 
right of way, we consider it as much too low as any 
other item. Again, take the estimate for dam, chute 
and feeder, ^.58,727. 54 ; all that is necessary to prove 
the fallacy of this estimate is the statement made to 
this delegation by the Superintendent of the Reading 
and Columbia Railroad, that "the last time the 
Columbia dam was repaired it cost the sum of nearly 
?1.50,000." Remember this was for repairs merely. 
If it cost that much for repairs only, you can form 
some idea of the vastly greater sum it would cost to 
build an entirely new dam at a point in the river 
where the current has twice the rapidity of that at 
Columbia. Again, take the estimate for outlet lock 
and outlet, the sum of 822,328.81. Fortunately we 
have the means at hand to show the difference be- 
tween the estimated and real cost of this item, the 
Pennsylvania Canal Company having lately com- 
pleted an outlet and outlet lock in Columbia. This 
lock being located almost immediately at their canal 
did not require one-half the excavations which will 
be required at Chiques because of the increased dis- 
tance of the outlet lock from the canal and the more 
extensive rock excavation necessary, and yet the 
outlet at Columbia with its necessary equipments 
cost (since the panic and during low prices of mate- 
rial and labor) the sum of eighty thousand dollars. 
The proposed outlet and outlet lock at Chiques are 
to take the place of these at Columbia, and must be 
in all particulars, their equals, and for re.asons stated 
will probably cost more money, say four times as 
much as Mr. Sharpless' estimate, or $88,954.24. If 
we test all of his estimates by the same rule, which 
we claim as fair and reasonable, and multiply by 
four we have the grand total of cost reaching the 
enormous sum of $1,2.58,799.16, without counting 
the cost of the Reading and Columbia coal scbutes 
say $125,000 more. No doubt, gentlemen, j'ou have 
had' some experience of estimates made for legisla- 
tive purposes by disinterested and public-spirited 
lobbyists, and need not be told that between the 
estimated cost and the actual cost there is a great 
gulf to be filled. Here you have an instance in point 
now before this Legislature, in the case of the " Nor- 
ristown Hospital for the Insane :" 

" Originally it was estimated that the whole cost 
of the structure would not exceed |600,000. That 
amount has been appropriated and expended, and 
the Legislature is now asked for a further appropria- 
tion of "1170,000, in order to make ready for the occu- 
pation of patients a portion of the incomplete struc- 
ture, which is not yet half completed." 

The object in asking for $300,000 only is merely to 
get the public purse opened — when "once opened 
then — God help the people. 

I will now leave this branch of the subject and 
proceed to say something in regard to fish-ways. 
We venture to suggest that proper elTorts have not 
yet been made to secure sufiicient fish-ways in the 
Columbia dam. While the Legislature and Fish 
Commissioners deserve credit for their eflforts so far, 
the failure to succeed satisfactorily is no reason why 
the effort should be abandoned. It is well under- 
stood by those at Columbia who have given the sub- 
ject any study, why the fish-ways already built are 
not as successful as could be wished. In the last 
and only important fish-way built, the bottom of the 
"way" at its debouchment is about four feet above 
the bottom of the river, which by our experienced 
fishermen is regarded as fatal to its success, besides 
which, the bottom of the way being very smooth, 
having been sheathed with sawed timber and the 
grade being very steep, nearly 3 feet (2 91-100) to 
the 100 feet, the water rushes through with rapidly 
accelerating momentum, and enters the river below 
with an irresistible plunge. That shad gather at the 
edge of this fish-way and try to ascend but fail is 
evident from the fact that as many as fifty have been 
taken in a common dip net (say eight feet square) 
in a single night, and during the season this one net 
is supposed to have tiiken not less than two thousand 
of these persevering, but baflled shad. Shad in 
ascending very swift water, shallow like all of it is 
immediately below the dam, swim as near the bot- 
tom as possible, nature having taught them that the 
nearer the bottom the less the resistance. It is a 
singular fact that when passing up rapids, such as 
we find in our rafting scbute, where it has been seen 
in hundreds of instances, shad throw themselves on 
their sides and drive through with great velocity in 
that position, as near the bottom as possible. The 
fact that a shad will not leave the bottom more than 
a few inches to commence the ascent of shallow 
rapids is one of the best authenticated facts con- 
nected with its history, hence the failure of the last 
fish-way. If this delegation was before the Fish 
Committee, plans could be given them of successful 
fish-ways based upon natural principles and well 
tested by long and successful experiments at Colum- 
bia. It is a misfortune to the cause of fish culture 
that the people of Columbia, where the subject is so 
much at heart, have been almost totally ignored by 
the Fish Commissioners, seeming to regard us as 
enemies rather than friends of the cause. 

But, gentlemen, we can never hope, even if all the 
dams which now obstruct our rivers were removed, 



to restore anvthing like the former abundance of 
shad. Bear in mind that the Columbia dam was 
built nearly forty years ago, and consider the won- 
derful advance of population and the improved and 
multiplied appliances now used to catch shad. To 
supply that population consider the wonderfully in- 
creased means of rapid transportation by which fresh 
shad are not only carried into the interior, but even to 
San Francisco in their fresh condition, and the fresh 
salmon of the Pacific sent us in return. The vast 
demand, stimulated by these causes and the intro- 
duction of so much machinery into nearly all the oc- 
cupations of man, has forced very many additional 
thousands into finding a precarious subsistance by 
fishing, so that from the time shad enter the Albe- 
marle Sound, on the coast of the Carolinas, until 
they reach their spawning grounds in our rivers, 
the devices man can invent are employed for their 
capture, so that few indeed can ever be expected 
reach very far above tide water ; on this subject hear 
what the Fish Commissioners say in their report for 
the year 1878 : 

" But what have we below our dam ? There is the 
estuary of the Susquehanna, from Port Deposit to 
Havre de Grace, only four miles long. This is swept 
by gill-nets for the whole distance, and it is a wonder 
any fish at all can pass them. Then we have, say, 
forty miles of shore seined at every mile, perhaps at 
every quarter of a mile, by men whose only living is 
what can be wrested from the river." 

Every year millions of shad are hatched in the 
river below the dam, as well as above it, and find 
their way to the sea, and yet how few ever return. It 
may surprise you to hear that during last spring's 
fishing between our dam and Turkey Hill, a distance 
of three miles, the highest estimate of the number 
caught does not reach 30,000, and last spring's catch 
was a fair average. 

If it is our river dams only which are destroying 
the supply of shad how are we to account for the 
rapid decrease of all Anadromous fishes. There is 
the herring, which never reached up as far as our dam , 
and does its spawning in or near fresh tidewater ; 
with all its wonderful fecundity they are rapidly de- 
creasing in number. So also with rockfish, perch, 
mullets, carp, catfish and eels. These all cast their 
spawn in or near tidewater and yet anglers and pro- 
fessional fishermen will tell you their decrease is 
steady and rapid. Without intending to exhaust the 
subject I now close to give place to other members of 
our delegation. 



itil 
all J 

eir I 

I?1 



Queries and Answers. 



THE HAND-MAID MOTH. 
iDfitftiia Ministra,) 

CL.iRK's Gkeen, Pa., Ist mo. 30th, 1879. 
Fkisnd Rathvon : In my younff orchard, of fifty 
acres, there appeared in 1873 a worm or caterpillar, 
about July 25th — a voracious feeder upon apple and 
cherry leaves, (sweet cherries only,) feeding singly, 
but at evening gathering in a cluster to repose on a 
twig, and when alarmed each one erecting both ex- 
tremities of the body— growing very rapidly, and 
finally reaching a length of two and a half inches, 
when they become slightly furred, cease to congre- 
gate, and disappear after a very few days of indi- 
vidual rambling about the tree. They moult in clus- 
ters, and resemble the worms infesting the pig-nut 
hickory, except not so downy. A second brood ap- 



pears about the 1st of September, equally ■ 
They spread slowly from the first locality. Is it the 
Canker Worm ? A word from you on this subject 
will be a favor. — S. Stevenson. 

We will answer your last queery first, by 
assuring you that it is not a " canker worm." 
The canker worm is a " Looper," a " Geome- 
ter," or, as some say, a "Measurer," and 
could not possibly erect the extremities of the 
body, having its feet at the extremeties and 
none in the middle by which it could hold fast 
to any object. 

The eaterpillars you describe (called by way 
of distinction the "yellow-necked apple tree 
caterpillar") are the larva; of the "hand-maid 
moth," a variety of the Datana tninistra, ot 
Walker. There are many species of the 
genus Batana, and at least three varieties of 
the species Ministra. One infests the sumac, 
one the apple, and one the black walnut, and 
very probably the last named is also the one 
that infests the pig-nut hickory, at least we 
have found the same caterpillar on both the 
black walnut and the cultivated English wal- 
nut in this city in large numbers. After they 
have completed their larval development they 
come down from the trees and pupate under 
the soil ; the first brood not very deeply, 
sometimes among the rubbish at the base of 
the trees, but the second brood much deeper, 
for these will remain there in the pupa state 
until the following spring in time for the first 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



39 



summer folkige. No man that sees the first 
brood ought ever to permit a second brood, 
for we know of uo caterpillars more easily 
captured than these. Their well-known habit 
of congregating in masses on the trunks of 
the trees, 'aUbrds an opportunity of capturing 
and destroying the whole colony, by burning 
or scalding, at a single operation. Before 
their last moult they are different shades of 
brown, distinctly marked with lines of white 
or pale yellow, but after the last UKuilt tlicy 
are black, with long, white tlossy hairs and 
otherwise marked, according to tlie variety. 
The body of the moth is about one inch m 
length, and the wings expand about one inch 
and a half, from tip to tip. Specimens ocea- 
fiionally occur tliat expand two inches. ' Tlie 
forewings are of a reddish-brown, with trans- 
verse lines of a deeper color, but the hind 
wings are shorter, proportionally broader, of 
a lighter color, and without special markings. 
The head and the upper part of the thorax 
are a deep, velvety brown, and the rest of the 
body nearly corresponds in color with the fore- 
wings. These colors are lighter or darker in 
the different varieties. On the 7th of August, 
187S, Mr. Leman, of Lancaster city, brought 
us 1,200 of these caterpillars, which he found 
masfsed together near the base of an English 
walnut tree. They had come down to undergo 
their last moult, and as these were all destroyed 
he will not be likely to have any next season. 
He saw that his tree was becoming denuded 
of its foliage, but he never noticed the cause 
until that cause became consolidated. See 
The Lancaster Farmer for January, 1879, 
page 3. And here we would respectfully sug- 
gest that the farmers and fruit-growers should 
by all means subscribe for The Farmer, and 
send to the editor any insects they may find 
depredating upon their property, and he will 
tell them what they are, their history and 
habits, and how to destroy them. 

E. M. E., Marietta, Pa.— The small bottle 
of earth you gave me at the February meet- 
ing of the Agricultural and Horticultural So- 
ciety, 1879, contained about half a dozen 
specimens of a species of "Galley-worms," 
and one of the larvaj of a species of "Crane- 
fly," (Tipuliad.e). Not any of them were 
in the mature state, and therefore their species 
cannot be determined. The galley-worms are 
My liio PODS, and are doubtless the young of 
some species of Juhis; but they do not belong 
to the same family as those noticed in The 
Farmer for November, 1878, pp. 161 and 102, 
which were given me by Mr. Scheaffer, of 
Cocalico, and which he discovered destroying 
his young tobacco plants for the past two sea- 
sons. (See also October number, page 149, 
same year.) These animals belong to tht 
Millipede division of the Myriopods, all of 
which are vegetable feeders, some of them 
confining themselves to various species of 
Fungus. They are very generally con- 
founded with the "Wire-worms," and people 
very generally give them that name, but the 
true wire-worm belongs to a very different 
order of articulated animals, they are six- 
footed, whilst these have many feet, sometimes 
going into the hundreds. They are known 
among gardenera to be destructive to young 
raddishes, turnips, tomatoes, redbeats, cab- 
bages, letttice, beans and other species of 
young vegetation, and perhaps also young to- 
bacco plants. For a remedy see the articles 
I have referred to above. Those who have it 
not will discover they have made a mistake 
in not subscribing for The Farmer. 

From Manatee, Florida, we have received, 
by mail, an animal belonging to the family 
Arachnids Pulmoxaria, or "Pulmonary 
Spiders." This individual belongs to the genus 
Phyrus, and is by family allied to the Scorpions 
and Whiptails, specimens of both of which arc 
in the Museum of the Linnfcan Society. This 
specimen completes all the tvpes of the family 
found within the United States, and we are 
very thankful for it, but to whom ? Echo an- 
swers whom '? Friend, you did well, try again. 



Essays. 



THE CARE OF FRUIT TREES.* 

In undertaking the task of writing an arti- 
cle on the above subject, and not having had 
a large experience, I shall endeavor to give 
you a few thoughts in as plain language as my 
rhetoric can command. 

The care of fruit trees is ofttimes too much 
neglected. To begin right is of the first im- 
portance. The prevailing habit with some 
persons has been to cram the trees into the 
smallest possible hole, in an out-of-the-way 
plot or fence corner, not, in their estimation 
lit for anything else, and expect the trees to 
live and flourish under such treatment. Many 
of these usually fail the first year, or at least 
languish a few years and die for the want of 
a little care and attention ; when the planter 
heaps his condemnation upon the nurseryman 
or tree vendor, for having sold him diseased or 
worthless stock. 

Ijocation shmdd be the first consideration ; 
rolling ground is always preferable, though 
not always accessible ; would prefer a north- 
easterly slope as the most desirable, with the 
altitude as great as circumstances will allow. 
In adopting such a site you will have perfect 
drainage, a much lighter and less humid at- 
mosphere, also have some protection from the 
afternoon sun on mild winter days, that in 
this climate sometimes follows excessive cold. 
The sun striking the trunk in the after mid- 
day, warming one side while the other remains 
frozen, is often the cause of the bark bursting, 
and not unfrequently is followed by the de- 
struction of the tree. This, however, can in 
part be avoided by growing the trees with low 
tops, to which I shall allude hereafter. This 
injury generally occurs about the time the 
trees begia to bear, and also when there is no 
shade except from the denuded branches of 
the tree itself. You can readily perceive that 
a slope of from ten to fifteen degrees would 
elevate the tops of the upper trees suflSciently 
to afford some shade to each succeeding row. 
To assist in this protection and to occupy the 
ground while the trees are small (more par- 
ticularly the apple and standard pear), I would 
advise the planting of a peach between each 
apple ; and, indeed, a row between each apple 
row would, by their quick growth, materially 
assist in this winter protection, to say nothing 
of the fruit they would produce before the 
apple commenced to bear or occupy the whole 
ground. 

Cultivation is by no means of secondary 
consideration, but I believe of vital import- 
ance, and thorough tillage of the soil is neces- 
sary for the first few years to induce a good 
healthy growth. It is, however, necessary to 
use some discretion to preserve the surface 
soil on hilly ground. Should it be of a clayey 
or tenacious character, which is not often 
found on high hilly ground, there will be less 
danger of wash or waste from the cultivation. 
On the other hand, if tUe soil be a light, por- 
ous shale, some care must be taken to avert 
the loss of the very material it is most im- 
portant to preserve. Summer crops will not 
be injurious to the trees, provided the fertility 
of the soil is kept up by the application of the 
proper manures. Corn, potatoes, and, indeed, 
all vegetables and most of the small fruits, for 
the first few years may be grown with advan- 
tage and fully compensate for the labor in the 
tillage and leave a handsome profit besides. 
Care should always be taken not to impoverish 
the soil by this system of double taxation. 
An annual dressing of manure or some other 
good fertilizer will keep it in good heart while 
this treatment is pursued. 

The question of cultivation or non-cultiva- 
tion after the trees have attained a bearing 
age is a question on which many of our most 
successful horticulturists disagree— each advo- 
cating his theory as the basis to be relied upon. 
Doubtless both have their advantages on some 
points that are difficult to overthrow. I am, 

•Efieay read before the Pennsylv 
ture by Calvin Coope " ... 
Agricultural Society. 



however, very decidedly in favor of uo culti- 
vation after the trees are ten or twelve years 
planted, or, say half-grown. It has been ray 
practice to top-dress with stable manure every 
two or three years, with an occasional dress- 
ing of lime or unleached wood ashes, about 
one bushel to each tree, which in my opinion 
will materially assist in keeping them in 
health and productivenesi?. We generally cut 
the first cro)) of grass and feed as a gi'een 
crop. All aft. Tgrowth of grass or weeds is 
either cut for a nuilch or trauqiled down and 
allowed to remain. But no grass or other 
vegetable matter should be permitted to grow 
within three or four feet of the trees. This 
we try to prevent by the annual application 
of the finer parts of coal ashes, and also think 
it insists in prevent iiM..; tlie ravages of that 
little pest of the onlianlist, the "borer." 

Care should !)(■ tal<eii to avoid too rank a 
growth. I have often heard planters exult- 
ingly speak of the great vigor of their trues, 
their rapid growth, &c. This is often caused 
by an excess of stimulants, and not unfre- 
quently is followed by an incurable injury, if 
not the entire de.struction, of the trees. 1 am 
fully convinced by my own observation and 
experience that tho.se of moderate growth, 
especially the apple and pear, will be longer 
lived and more pmduclive than those grown 
too rapidly. The former will have better 
ripened and more healthy wood, as well as 
more fully developed fruit buds. 

The peach, however, requires somewhat 
different treatment. Not that they require 
less cultivation, but it should be continued 
while fruit is the object. The critical period 
is the first few years after planting — to escape 
the depredations of the borer, as one grub 
will do more injury to a one or two-year old 
tree than a dozen could to one full-grown. 
Their tendency to overbear (where the peach 
does well) should be guarded against by a 
judicious thinning or shortening of the 
branches, as well as to preserve the tree in 
shape and good condition. They are best but 
short-lived. 

The origin of the yellows seems as yet 
shrouded in mystery, but its contagious nature 
is too well known to a majority of peach 
growers. That there are conditions which 
invite the malady I do not doubt, but I am 
unable to give any better preventive than that 
practiced for years— the cutting away of the 
trees as soon as they are affected with the dis- 
ease. Some, however, assert that a severe 
heading in of the whole top and the feeding 
of strong stimulants to the roots will induce 
a new healthy growth free of the malady. In 
visiting a fine orchard last fall I observed a 
number of trees treated in this way, with 
what success I am as yet unable to say. There 
is little doubt that good cultivation and an 
annual wash, prepared as you would for white- 
washing, with the addition of om- bushel of 
unleached wood ashes to every half bushel of 
lime, will assist in preventing the attacks of 
in.sect enemies and give tone and vigor to the 
bark. 

The treatment of the pear should be simi- 
lar to that of the aiij^Ie. while, perhaps, the 
cultivaticm might be keiit up longer and to a 
greater depth. A.s the roots penetrate the 
soil deeper there is little danger of injury to 
surface roots. Instances are' not unfrequent 
where old pear orchards, being long seeded to 
gr.iss, and trees apparently exhausted, have 
been restored to productiveness by a thorough 
tearing up of the sod, the application of some 
good fertilizer and good cultivation. Summer 
crops may be grown without detriment, even 
though the trees are quite large, but the all- 
important fertilizer must not be neglected. I 
would avoid the use of fresh stable manure, 
as having a tendency to increase the blight, 
to prevent which I know nothing better than 
to dismember the branches on the first appear- 
ance below the parts affected, and split the 
bark of the remaining branches with a round- 
ended knife, similar to a common case knife, 
from the surface of the ground to the ends of 
th« branches. This I find immediately relieves 
the pressure of the hard, contracted bark, 



40 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 



which seems to have checked the flow of sap. 
I have frequently noticed in the opening, soon 
after, a new bark, a pretty sure indication of 
a check of the disease, and perhaps the saving 
of the tree. 

How to prune is of the utmost importance. 
The future tree should be modeled while in 
its infancy. Generally speaking, too much of 
it is done. The careful orchardist will, with 
his thumb and linger, or at most with a com- 
mon pocket pruning knife, prune from the tree 
while the tojis can be reached from the ground. 
A little careful observation and thought will 
soon dictate to any prudent mind where the 
limbs should be started to make a well-propor- 
tioned I op. -Low branches are decidedly pre- 
f errable, say three or four feet from the ground. 
These will assist in providing the shade above 
refered to. Too much care cannot be used 
to properly shape the tree while quite young. 
Should the growth be long and slender^ with 
few or no branches, cut back to where it is 
desired to have the limbs start. If of a droop- 
ing tendency, head back to where there is a 
good and well-developed bud on the top of the 
branch ; and if upright, leave the upper bud 
on the outside, which will in the one case 
have a tendency to make the tree incline up- 
wards, while the other makes it spread. Ju- 
dicious treatment can form the tree to any 
shape desired. The common practice of re- 
moving the small spurs that usually form at 
nearly all the buds is destroying the object for 
which the tree is grown. These liave an im- 
portant mission to perlbrm. They materially 
assist in sti'eiijiUniiin.otlie limbs by increasing 
their thickness, and ;ue among the first to de- 
velop fruit bud.s, while if taken off tliey neces- 
sitate their formation near the ends of the 
branches. Hence the greater strain and lia- 
bility of the tree breaking when loaded with 
fruit. Too large a proportion of those pro- 
fessing to know how to prune make a grave 
error in this way. Frequently persons making 
a profession of the business travel from or- 
chard to orchard making sad havoc upon the 
very branches which should be preserved. 
This, however, is one of the fine arts in tree- 
pruning, and can be much better shown by 
ocular demonstration than by describing. 

One of the great follies with many orcliard- 
ists is the attempt to double-work their 
orchards by half manuring, and until they 
learn that it is imi)ossible to take more out of 
the soil than there is in it fruit-growing will 
be uncertain, whether the seasons be favor- 
able or not. V/hat kinds and quantity of 
fertilizer should be applied must be deter- 
mined according to the constituents of the 
various soils. A neighbor has been quite 
successful by applying liquid manure from his 
barnyard on the sod under his trees, and I 
believe the sewerage from tlie house could be 
used with equally good results. 

Things being favorable to the production of 
regular crops, it is of vital importance for the 
grower to understand to a certain extent the 
nature and habits of insect enemies and apply 
methods to counteract their depredations, 
else they will rob him of the benefits of a large 
part of his previous laljors and expenses on 
his orchard. In planting be sure there are 
no borers in before the tree is set, and an- 
nually thereafter (until the trees have attained 
a diameter of three or four inches) wrap the 
trunk with paper from tlie surface to the 
ground to the height of about one foot. A 
small mound will assist in keeping the tree in 
place and prevent it coming off. Tic the tops 
with woolen yarn to allow for expaiision. 
This may be removed in October, and should 
any borers have obtained a lodgment they can 
easily be seen and removed with a sharp- 
pointed knife or piece of steel wire. The 
trees having arrived to a fruiting age we have 
other enemies— the codling moth and curcu- 
lio— to contend with. I know of no new 
method for their destruction. The wash 
spoken of in a former (niragraph of this article, 
may assist l)y keeping the bark smooth and 
clean ; prevent the former from obtaining a 
hiding place while passing from a chrysalis to 
a perfect insect. Have frequently thought 



these little pests might be attracted and 
caught by small fires set ablaze soon after 
dusk to entrap them on the wing. A batch 
of straw tied to a pole with wire, and thor- 
oughly saturated with tar, or some other in- 
flammable matter, would be of but little ex- 
pense and easily carried through the orchard 
after dark. Gathering and removing the 
fallen fruit that has been punctured is per- 
haps the only means to lessen their depreda- 
tions. 

Having sketched the ground ft-om the 
planting of the tree to its maturity, it would 
be most desirable to produce regular and 
moderate crops instead of alternate failures 
and excesses. This is the question now occu- 
pying the attention of many orchardists, and 
before long it is hoped we may know how to 
produce a'crop the off-year. The evidence is 
strongly in favor of thinning the excess while 
the fruit is small, so as to give the tree a 
chance to develop and mature fruit buds for 
the coming year. 

ESSAY* 

On the question—" Which would be best, 
to keep the cattle stabled all summer and feed 
them on green fodder, or turn them into pas- 
ture ?" 

I think keeping cattle in the stable, or in a 
shady pen or shed would be best ; if we were 
accustomed to keep them so, it would be 
cheapest in the end. If we turn them into the 
field they tramp down a good deal more than 
they eat. It is, of course, a benefit to the soil 
if the grass is tramped down, but if we cut the 
grass and feed it in the stable, and haul out 
the manure, it will benefit the soil more, and 
we can feed more cattle ; moreover, we would 
need little or no fencing. But iJeople in our 
day would be apt to say, that costs too much 
labor. But we will see which is the most 
laborious, to haul home the green fodder oi 
to keep the farm in fences. If a farmer has 
no help of his own he can hire a boy strong 
enough to do the work for about $1U.00 per 
month, and six mouths is all the time he can 
pasture ; that will be $60. Can we keep the 
farm in fences for less than §60 a year ? That 
would, of course, depend upon the size of the 
farm ; but we will say a farm of 80 acres, 
and, besides, we can raise a few rows of corn 
and potatoes in places where every fence 
stood. The way we have oiu: farms fenced 
the fences take up at least three-quarters of 
an acre of land. On that we might raise 
enough of potatoes or corn to pay a hired boy, 
and he can find time enough to cultivate it 
besides feeding stock. We might as well 
adopt this S3'stem at once, and take our old 
fences for fuel while coal is so high in price ; 
then, also, the fox hunters need not cut or 
break our fences down. But under our present 
laws we must have fences along our public 
roads to keep out our neighbors hogs and 
cattle. 

The stable must be well ventilated during 
the hot weather. It Would, perhaps, be best 
to have a pen or shed and keep our cattle in 
the pen, night and morning, during the hot 
weather. The stable should be kept open 
during the night that it may become cool, and 
closed in the morning to keep it cool, and then 
towards noon put the cattle in and keep it 
closed to prevent the flies from annoying them. 

^oiv, as to feed : Corn and clover are the 
best food. Feed clover first, and sow corn in 
drills from the 1st of May to the middle of 
July— every two weeks— but sow the most in 
May. When a drsuth comes after harvest tie 
late sowing may be very short. In such a case 
we can feed the early sown at the time of the 
late if it fails, aud if not needed it can be 
cured for winter use. It is in its best state 
when the lower leaves begin to get yellow for 
green feeding, and when half dead it is better 
than second crop clover as a cured crop for 
winter feeding. As corn is hard to cure it 
should be a little old before cut for that pur- 
pose. Sow the corn one kernel to the inch and 
cultivate it. Some writers prefer sowing rye 



for the earliest green feeding, but there is no 
gain in it. It takes too much seed, and when 
once up in bulk it will soon turn to a strawy 
state. Better feed dry fodder eight or tea 
days longer, until we can get clover. Cut 
clover when only six inches high ; mix a little 
among the dry fodder ; increase as the grass 
grows, and when it is in bloom stop dry feed. 

The most diftieult time is when the clover 
gets too old. Corn must be fit by that time, 
but the earliest cut clover can be cut again. 
If too young the old and the young can be 
mixed together ; but when the corn is once 
fit we need nothing else. Green feed should 
be cut in the morning after the dew is off, and 
taken in before it gets warm. If cut and taken 
in when it is warm it begins to get "heated" 
immediately, but when taken in cool and set 
up along a wall it will remain so for several 
days. It is best to run it through a fodder 
cutter. According to my experience cattle 
will eat more of it when fed in this way. I 
once commenced feeding it whole, but the 
cattle soon left some of the stalks which they 
would not eat. Then I commenced cutting 
it in the same quantity, and then they ate it 
all and I increased the quantity. It does not 
require much additional work if we have 
everything handy. Have the cutter in a con- 
venient place all the time ; it cuts easy when 
the knives are kept sharp. 

Two horses are all that are necessary. This 
work can be done when the team comes home 
at noon, and before it goes out after dinner; it 
requires only about fifteen minutes of time ; 
it should be cut every day. It may be cut for 
two days by spreading it out thin on the barn 
floor, and having the doors opened at night 
and closed during the day to keep it cool. If 
it lays too tliiek h will heat and get sour. 

We ouglit to have a low one-horse wagon, 
with wheels only 20 inches high, and a plat- 
form on it, 10 feet long and 5 feet wide ; also 
a sickle to cut the corn. Then drive along- 
side of the row ; cut three rows at a time ; lay 
it on the wagon as you cut it, butts all on one 
side. When you get enough drive into the 
barn alongside of the cutting machine, aud 
when you come to cut you will need no person 
to hand fodder to you. 

Such a wagon is also handy to haul in the 
grass, if we add sideboards to it. When every- 
thing is convenient it requires only half the 
labor to do the work in hand. 



Contributions. 



For The Lancaster Farmer. 
MORE LIGHT WANTED. 

Editor Farmeb : Under the head of 
"Moonlight," a writer {J. G.) in the January 
number of The Farmer informs us that 
potatoes want loose soil ; therefore, he says, 
"plow in the rising of the moon if the soil is 
clayey or heavy ;" but " should the soil be too 
light or loose I plow in the setting of the 
moon." Again, he says: "On stift' soil it 
would be well if we could work the soil always 
in the rising of the moon." As I am inter- 
ested in potato raising, and am quite ignorant 
in regard to th.e influence of the different 
phases of the moon on plowing, planting and 
cultivating, I will be greatly obliged to J. G. 
if he will inform me and others who are like- 
wise interested: 

1st. What is to be understood by the ex- 
pressions— "rising" and "setting" of the 
moon ? Does " rising," as used by him, mean 
the time that orb is ascending in the heavens, 
from the time it appears in the eastern horizon 
until it reaches the meridian, from five to 
seven hours afterward, each day, and the 
" setting " mean its decline toward the west ; 
or do these terms refer to the increase and de- 
crease of the light portion of the moon, as 
seen from the earth ? I would like to have 
precise information about this, lest in attempt- 
ing to follow J. G.'s directions I make a fatal 
mistake. 

2d. Will J. G. oblige those who are seeking 
light on the subject by stating the ground of 
his belief that it is better to plow aud culti- 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



41 



vate particular kinds of soil in one pliase or 
stu^e of the naoou's progress, rather than in 
anothei:. 

Many persons that I meet with, some of 
them intelUj;eiit and Icarnud men and suc- 
cessful farmertf, maintain llial the cliauKinp; 
phases of the moon have mi st-nsiljUi t-fH-ct 
whatever on tlu' weallirr, tlic soil or the eroiis. 
If they are mistaken in lliis opinion, J. (J. 
may render valuable service to the cause of 
agricultural progress by giving the public the 
grounds upon which he rests the contnuy 
belief. Fanners who regulate their iilowinj; 
and sowing and oiluT operations of Uie farm 
by the moon have hcr.'toforc almost invari- 
ably been very backward about givin;,' their 
experience and the grounds of llieir faith in 
the uewsi)apers or agricultural Journals. It 
is to be hoped that tliisculpable reticence will 
no longer be the rule, or at least that tliere 
will be some exceptions to it. — Amateur Far- 
mer. 

N. B.— J. G. will confer a favor by answer- 
ing in the April number of The Faumer, so 
that the information will be available iu time 
for potato planting. 

For The Lancaster Farmer. 
A WORD IN REPLY. 

In the February ninnber of The Faujieis 
Mr. "J. p." publishes a paper on "The bal- 
ance of Trade," in which he essays to refute 
the arguments of P. S, Heist, in a previous 
article, and the argument of IJalance of Trade 
generally. It is to be lamented that in his 
vain endeavor Mr. J. P. should make use of 
such utterly weak arguments as he has em- 
ployed in this article. Tie makes some very 
bold statements in the beginning relative to 
our country's iiiosperity, and concludes by 
saying that the rule obtains "in Great Britain, 
and doubtless all other nations having an ex- 
tensive foreign commerce." Xovv, a paper 
that claims to be conclusive should not in- 
dulge in any statements of doubtful veracity, 
and impose its author's whims upon the eiedi- 
bility of unwary readers. Xo evidence is so 
conclusive as the irresistible logic of fads. 
But we look in vain for these in this paper. 

The author uses what he seems to consider 
more important than facts, namely, illustra- 
tions, wliich arc supposed to impress facts. 
But these illustrations are so hopelessly il- 
logical that they teach the opposite of what 
they were intended for. 

We cannot help giving an extract of bis 
"familiar illustration." 

" A Lancaster county miller makes a con- 
signment of ten barrels of Hoin- to Liverpool. 
Di Philadelphia it is worth S.").00 per barrel- 
total S50. At Liverpool it is sold for *60, anil 
the money laid out in tine salt at $2.00 per 
sack. The Siilt is dispatched to America and 
sold for *2.u0 per sack— total 875. In this 
transaction, therefore, $.oO were exported and 
S75 imported. The miller has gained |2.5, and 
manifestly the country is that much richer." 

This is supposed to prove that it is no real 
advantage to have the balance of trade in our 
favt)r. 

But what does it prove ? . Why, it proves 
nothing but that the one who uses it is using 
unsound logic. 

He sneers at the idea that "the advocates 
of the Balance of Trade theory seem to hold 
that the more we send abroad, and the less we 
get in return for it, the greater is our gain." 
And yet, is not this the case ? The more we 
send abroad, tlie more value we have pro- 
duced, which we get in return, either in 
money or^oods. And the less goods we im- 
port, the more nearly we are able to ju-ovide 
for our own necessities, anil therefore, the 
better oft'. For all the merchandise we im- 
port we must pay an equivalent. And it is 
clear that it is the wealth we produce and not 
the wealth we bui/ that conduces to our pros- 
perity. Of two farmers dealing with each 
other, the one who has the more money to 
get at the end of the year has the advantage, 
for he has produced more in excess of bis needs 
than the other. So, if a country dealing with 
another has the balance of trade in its favor 



at the end of the year, it means that it has 
produced and exported more wealth than it 
imported ; and remember it is wealth pro- 
duced and not bought that is net gain. 

In the above we do not deny that the miller 
has gained $2.'), but we do say that it is not a 
fair argument. It is not a parallel case, and 
is entirely misapplied.- ■/. iS. '!'. 



INDIAN TOBACCO. 
(/.oh fin InJInUi.) 

This humble, weed-like ])lant belongs to a 
genus that embraces upwards of eighty-four 
described species and varieties. Many are 
exotic, ureen-liouse herbs and evergreens. 

IJr. t;riiv deserili.s twelve s|ieeies, met with 
in the Xorlhriii Initetl StuH's, auionj; which 
the "t'ardinal llowei." •• /..,/„//,- r,,,i//,erf,„-," 
is jiorhaps the most sliowy, with its bright, 
crimson dowers ; the " L. s!jphylUka,y also, 
has fine, large, Ufjht-bbie flowers, and is quite 
common iu low grounds. 

The eonilla leis a straight tube, which is 
split down oil the upiier side, leaving two 
erect lolies, the low,.|- lips sineadiiig and three- 
cleft, ealvx tulie short, tive-clcft, and the 
ovoid pod" in the species figured and becomes 




inflated; it is (piile common in dry, open soil i" 
July and September. This celei)rated quack 
medicine, known as "Indian Tobacco," needs 
some attention for several reasons. It evi- 
dently has an acrid principle, emits a milky 
juice, and when chewed produces a burning, 
acrimonious sensation, not unlike the taste of 
"green tobacco," hence called "Indian to- 
bacco." The leaves and capsules, when 
chewed, have this combined acrid and nar- 
cotic iirojierty, producing giddiness and pain 
in the head, and at length nau.sea and vomit- 
ing, like lioys' e;;iierience when first attempt- 
ing to chew or smok<' tobacco. A certain 
Samuel Thomson, a (piack at Beverly, was 
tried for the murder of Ezra Lovetl, some 
years ago, to whom it was administered as a 
physic, in powder, causing great distress, fol- 
lowed up by another dose and another, until the 
the patient expired. But as no malice could 
be iiroved, and he had some reputation, the 
arrest for murder could not be sustained, and, 
as might be found in many other cases, the 
homicide considei'ed legitimate. In the hands 
of a few judicious physicians it has proved 
beneficial in asthma, such cases termed " an 
asthma from pulmonic irritatation of efl'usod 
scrum, " whatever that means. I quote Dr. 
Bree, iu his " Practical iuquiiies on disordered 



respiration." Dr. Randall gave it with suc- 
cess, in small doses, in catarrh, as an expec- 
torant. But I shall not encourage the use "of 
it by (pioting from other sources in its favor, 
in dyspeiisia and cases of rln-umalic nature, 
in which benefit was felt. Two ounces of thti 
dried plant iliuested in a pint of diluted alco- 
hol, given in teaspoonfull doses to an adult, 
will generally jiroduee nausea and sometimes 
vomiting. 

As this i)lant is common in pasture fields, iu 
the latter part of summer, it has been sus- 
pected to l)c one of the sources which pro- 
duces slobbering of hor.scB. Dr. Darlington 
was inclined to doubt this, "because the horse 
is a dainty animal iu the selection of food." 
It is true that horses and cattle crop around 
noxious Weeds, yet there is no question that 
such an active jilant, mixed with the grass 
eaten by the aiuuial, might produce the evil 
suspected. 

The generic name, "Lobelia," was given 
to some species, in honor of Matthias de 
Lobel. a botanist of some note, born ir.'iS, and 
died in IHK'). of whom ([uite an interesting 
account is pulilislu'd. He was the author of 
critical exanunations on older botanical 
writere, and added many new plants to the 
list known in his time. — J. Stanffer. 

For THF f.ANCAKTF.R FaKMRB. 

PRUNING -ITS USES AND ABUSES. 

When is the best time to prune trees and 
vines y I would say in February and June, 
when pruning has been neglected for some 
time. When to commence, or at what age of 
the trees the pruning should begin may be 
approximately illustrated by the following 
anecdote. On a certain occasion a mother 
asked a celebrated instructor when she should 
begin to. teach her children — or rather her 
child. He inquired the age of the child, to 
which she replied, three i/earn. Then, replied 
the instructor, you have already lost two years. 
So with pruning trees. I recommend the fol- 
lowinir. ^^'hen I commence to plant them I 
do mv llist pruning. It should then be con- 
tinued every year, more or less, which would 
require very little time. And that with a 
pruning knife, unless you fancy the growth 
of a tree like a tow-rack of an olden-tirae 
spinning wheel, or unless you pjant apple trees 
along a fence, froTU apple seeds, for a hedge. 
You may train your ajijile to your own fancy. 
Some prefer low heads, others prefer them 
higli. From three to six stool is enough. For 
brauehes in spreading trees the limbs should 
b>' started from six to eight feet from the 
ground. Upright growers from four to six 
feet above the 'ground. 

t)f all trees the apple is most benefited by 
pruning ; likewise the quince. The pear tree 
can be improved and beautified bv pruning. 
The peach tree when plant. mI sliould have the 
shape of a walkinu'-stiek. Its head should be 
kept h)W in the orchard and its branclu s nice- 
ly thinned out, so that most of the peaches 
can be hand-picked. The Richmond clierry 
and sour cherrv can be much improved by 
pruning. Of all fruit trees the sweet cherry 
needs t'he least pruniny:. (ienerally the best 
kind have just enoui;!) of branches to bear 
well. All liind of trees should be and can be 
improved bv judicious pruuin|^. It is becom- 
ing evident'that our homes, if ever so humble 
or small, as well as our larger farms, shoidd 
he jilanted with a variety of fruit and orna- 
mental trees, both for ornament or for profit, 
and all these trees should be cared for and 
properly pruned, so shaping them that they 
may excite the admiration of the community. 
It will add an additional charm to the beau- 
ties of nature, as nursed and planted, under 
Providence, by the skillful band of man. The 
wood eliminated, when dried, will answer for 
fuel for the summer months. Trees along a 
middle or lino fence should be trimmed well 
uj) for the improvement of the butts of the 
trees, for mechanical i)urposes, or for posts, 
scantling, boards, Ac Young forest trees can 
be vastlv improved. If the side branches are 
taken off, so that the butt of the tree wall 
have the growth centering there, the tree aud 



42 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 



its oflal would keep mauy a family in fire 
wood ; mauy persons would be willing to keep 
their trees in " condition " for the use of the 
offal wood. 

Abuite of Pruning. — "When an orchard of 
fruit ti-ees has been neglected for some years 
and has too many limbs, and is sometimes 
almost decapitated of its branches in the win- 
ter, or at any other time during April or May, 
it is the most ruinous time because the sap 
will flow freely down the trees, as if a coal 
of lampblack had been rubbed over the butts 
of them. I have seen whole orchards de- 
stroyed in that way. An orchard should 
never be so long neglected ; if you want a long- 
lived orcliard, therefore commence to prune 
in time while the trees are small. All kinds 
of trees are injured by cutting large limbs oft. 
It will not heal in time to overgrow the 
wounds of the tree, and will commence pre- 
maturely to decay, and sometimes become 
hollow and useless for mechauical purposes. 

The peach tree is also very liable to injury 
when large limbs are removed. 

The grape should be pruned in February. 
Wliole vines have been destroyed after April ; 
when pruning has not been attended to until 
that month, I would recommend that the 
pruning be deferred until June for all- kinds 
of fruit trees and shrubbery about the place. 
When small limbs are taken oif, the wounds 
will almost close uji the same summer. — L. 
S. R., Oreijon, March, 1879. 

MORE ABOUT EELS. 

Dr. S. S. Rath von— Dear Sir: Please 
allow me to correct you. In the February 
number of The Lanc,\ster Farmer you 
say that " I saw the eels migrating about the 
years 1849 or '50 ;" this is incorrect, as near 
as I can remember it was in 1865. I have 
taken pains to ascertain all about the migra- 
tion of eels, and am now in possession of 
evidence which convinces me they ascend the 
Susquehanna every spring. In February the 
young eels are hatched in deep bay water, in 
the mud, and arrive at this point the latter 
end of May or beginning of June. They have 
then grown to a length of four to six inches, 
and paddle along the shore at a lively rate. 
I think one of the reasons they are not oftener 
observed is because they pass at a time when 
comparatively few persons are fishing along 
shore, the river being as a general thing too 
low for this purpose. 

Mr. Levi Neff, of Highville, was raised on 
an island hi the Susquehanna, and had 
splendid opportunities to observe the habits 
of the fish common in its waters, and he in- 
forms me that he saw the small eels migrating 
more than a dozen times, and is certain that 
they go up every year. Mr. Harry Hershey 
has also seen them migrate four times in a 
period of fifteen years. 

I will endeavor, this spring, to create an 
enthusiasm among the dwellers of the river 
shore with regard to this question, and try to 
induce them to watch, and if they are seen 
passing I will let you know. 

I think from what I could glean from 
fishermen that you are correct as to different 
species being found in our wat&l-s. The Octo- 
raro creek has a dam ten feet high at Rolands- 
ville, Md. Yet many hundreds of eels are 
annually caught in the creek above the dam, 
and it is reasonable to suppose they never 
leave the creek, breeding in the mud of the 
mill dam. — FoMTS, Ac, E. K. Hershey, Cres- 
loell Pa., Feb. 25, 1879. 

[Tliere is no better way of eliciting authen- 
tic information on any subject than by calling 
the attention of those to it who have experi- 
mental knowledge on it, by inquiry, agitation 
or discussion. The migration of eels, an- 
nually, seems "settled." Now let us know 
all about their eggs, when they are spawned, 
and how they appear as compared with the 
eggs ot other fishes. — Ed.] 

For The LANCAyTER FabmEB. 

OATS AS FEED FOR HORSES. 

I once expressed my surprise, to an old 

farmer, that so much oats was farmed when 

corn yielded larger and more certain crops. 



The reply I received was, "there is nothing 
like oats to feed to horses at work, but I 
nearly always feed oats and corn mixed." 

The old gentleman being in a hurry to go 
home at the time, I was not able to ascertain 
from him the reasons for his thinking oats 
superior to other feed. The matter was not 
allowed to drop, and I found out in time that 
this practical farmer, who haS hardly a fair 
common school education, but is a man of 
good sense and habits of observation, had by 
experience hit upon one of the best feeds for 
horses probably in existence. 

All persons who have been around horses, 
more or less, have noticed that many horses 
considered " thin in flesh " have been able to 
work hard and nut show much signs of dis- 
tress, such as sweating and blowing, while 
large, fat horses have given out or been unable 
to do the same amount of work. It is to our 
interest to find the cause of this, and science 
stands ready to point out the reasons of the 
facts. All vegetable (and animal) substances 
are composed of water, ashes and organic mat- 
ter. When burned the water and organic 
substances disappear, leaving only the ashes. 
With the water and ashes we are not at 
present concerned, but turn our attention 
solely to the organic matter. The organic 
matter is the only part that "feeds up" the 
animal, and this matter is pretty sharply 
divided into albuminoids and carbo-hydrates. 

The principal carbo-hydrates are starch, 
sugar and fats of all kinds. These in feeding 
produce heat (or warmth) and fats. 

The albuminoids are numerous, but all de- 
pendent as such on the nitrogen they contain, 
and in feeding they build up the lean meat 
and muscle. 

All vegetable materials contain albumi- 
noids and carbo-hydrates, but in very variable 
proportions, and it has been discovered by 
practical tests and trials what the proportion 
should be ; from these tests it has been de- 
termined that for working animals the ratio 
ot albuminoids should be to carbo-hydrates as 
1 to 4 40. 

In the table given below, adapted from 
.Johnson's "How Crops Grow," is given the 
composition of some of the principal materials 
fed to horses : 



—--• 


If 


ii 


t 


m 




Meadow Hay 

Red Clover 


8.2 
1S.4 

9.7 
12.0 
10.0 
ll.O 

9.0 
14.0 
14.5 


41.3 
29.9 
48.8 
60.9 
6S.0 
69.2 
65.9 
50.0 
53.5 


2.0 
3.2 
3.0 

2^0 
2.5 
3.8 
3.5 


110 5.03 
1 to 2.23 
1 to 5.03 
1 to 5.07 
. to (-..SO 
1 to 6.29 

1 to 3!57 
1 to 3.69 


Medium. 
(Cut in 
\ bloom 


S'.r*.".^.'.'::::;:: 




Corn 

Rye 




Barley 




Wheat Bran 

Bye Bran 





The headings explain the contents of the 
columns. The figures are per cents. , thus : In 
100 pounds of oats there would be 12 pounds 
of albuminoids, 60.9 pounds of carbo-hydrates, 
&c. The column of fat (oils,) is included in 
the carbo-hydrates, and this column is merely 
given to .show why some feeds "lay on fat " 
so much faster than others. 

The "ratio" column interests us most now, 
and by examining it we find that oats, timothy 
hay and meadow hay approach nearest to the 
ratio of 1 to 4.4. If we paid attention only 
to the formation of muscle for work the hay 
would seem to be as good or better than oats, 
but there are two objections against it. Hay 
is too bulky to allow the horse to eat enough 
for his needs and contains only from one-third 
to one-half the fat contained in oats. 

The majority of farmers feed a mixed clover 
and timothy hay, the average ratio of which 
is as 1 to 3.41. If to the hay, oats in equal 
quantity (by weight) was fed we would have 
a ratio of 1 to 4.26 ; if corn and oats mixed 
would be taken, then we would have a ratio 
of 1 to 4.63, as near as we can conveniently 
approach and not varying from 4.40. This is 
just what our friend thought best, and shows 
plainly that genuine experience and science 
agree when rightly interpreted. 

Another practice in feeding has also come 
in vogue, the mixing of oats and wheat bran, 



and the practice is sound, particularly when 
only timothy hay is fed. What we have to 
strive after is to give the horse a feed, the ratio 
of which is as close 1 to 4.40 as possible, and 
as his stomach is small compared with his 
size, we must use grain and other feed to 
some extent. 

When corn is the only grain on hand, we 
might make some approach to oats by mixing 
equal quantities, by weight, of chopped corn 
and bran. This fed along with mixed timothy 
and clover hay would most probably keep the 
horses in as good a condition as if oats was 
fed. In such feeding the ratio of albuminoids 
to carbo-hydrates would be about 1 to 4.58. 

I know of one man who keeps his team in 
good order on chopped corn and rye. While 
the rye in some degree reduces the fattening 
tendency of the corn, it is not equal to oats in 
forming muscle, but the mixture is better 
than iiure corn would be. 

But to come back to our "oats." I have 
heard an objection against it, in that it would 
give horses a rough coat. This roughness is 
often seen in horses, and usually is more often 
the case in winter than in summer. As soon 
as a horse gets a nibble at grass the roughness 
disappears ; we are not ablerto get grass in the 
winter and so we must look for a substitute ; 
this, fortunately, is found right at hand in 
bran ; the latter is a laxative, and when not 
fed in too large quantities, puts the bowels in 
good condition and gives that glossy coat so 
much admired in well-kept and well-governed 
horses. 

On the whole, as oats, in the order of crea- 
tion, is older than the horse, it must be sup- 
posed that the horse was made to eat the oats, 
and oats he should by all means have.— 
A. B. K. 



Our Local Organizations. 



AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 

The Lancaster County Affricultural and Horticul- 
tural Society met in their rooms, on Monday after- 
noon, Miirch :5rd, at two n'cloi'k, anil was called to 



orde 



o]ici-. Till- IV.llowing- members 
II CcH.ir I-, I'ri'.sident, Bird-in- 
II, r, >rri.i ;irv. Paradise ; Peter 
■ M. Eiml. . Marietta; John C. 
enry S. Kiirlz, Mount Joy ; W. 
la; "Frank Sutlon, Mauheim; 
aaa; F. i;. Dillendertfer, city; 
U. D. Kcndie, Manor; Colin 
Albert Mcllvaine, Paradise; 



Hand; Joseph F. Wii 
S. Keist, Liliz; Ilnir 
Linville, Salisbnrv: I 
P. Brintoii, Christia 
Casper Hiller, Coiiest 
J. M. Johnston, city ; 
Cameron, Elizabeth 
Henry Herr, East Hempfield ; Simon P. Eby, city; 
I. L. Landis, Manheim ; Epliraim H. Hoover, Man- 
heim ; C. L. Hunsecker, Manheim ; Dr. S. S. Kath- 
vou, ritv ; J. Hartman Hershey, Kohrerstown; A. F. 
Hi.sirM;i-, (ire-i.n; Judee George D. Stitzel, Read- 
in;;; 1). Ihiruiiiin, i-ity ; Henry Wissler, Columbia; 
E P. Kn"le, Marietta ; Simon A. Hershey, West 
Henjpfield ; C. A. Park, Geneva, New York. 

The minutes ol the i.nevious meeting were not read. 

Henry Wissler, Columbia; Colin Cameron, Eliza- 
beth ; W. P. Brintcni, city : James Black, city ; Elam 
Eshleman and .\lbert .Mcllvaine, Paradise, were 
elected members of the society. 

Crop reports being called lor Henry Kurtz, Mount 
Joy, said that in his neighborhood the wheat from 
whicli the snow has mclli>d looks rather poor, though 
some of it which looked well in the fall still looks 
It is yet too early to estimate what the crops 
o a good deal has been sold and 
d deal to sell. The holders are 
l,e prices otfered, and will proba- 



Of tobf 



rops. 



wheat did not look promising, 
but tuoil crups have been grown from worse looking 
wheat. The fruit buds have not been hurt by the 
cold. The rainfall for January was VA inches, and 
for February !'.( inches. 

An essay ,rtrawing a comparison between old times 
and new, was read by Henry Kurtz. 

On motion of iMr. Engle the rules were suspended 
to allow Judge Stitzel, of Reading, to make some 
remarks. 

Remarks from Judge Stitzel. 

Jud.ge Stitzel said he was not in the habit of 
apologizing on such occasions, btit the society must 
not rxpnt to hear much from him, as he was not 
pir|Miiil. U" rame from Reading this morning, 
ciMi;|il. I, ! lii> lufiness, and was invited here. The 
aiiirli- jiiM i..;iil ^aid we are not progressing. He 
thou^iht this was because we do not make our'homes 
attractive. Farmers should procure books for their 
sons. Books on agriculture should be bought freely, 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



43 



:i;i 1 tlie boys reading these would become Interested 
in I heir father's work aud follow In their steps, 
tarniiug, lu his opinion, Is far ahead of any other 
business, and It should be made attractive. Here, in 
Lancaster county, the garden spot, there should be a 
well-organized agricultural society, but from what 
he had heard he believed the society's affairs were 
not in good condition. There was no reason for this. 

Speaking of fairs, he said a fair without ahorse 
race was like a circus without a clown. Over In 
Berks county they award high premiums to horses, 
and raise the money by charging admission fee when 
the horses are entered ; also, a fee for the spectators. 

He touched on the growing of tobacco and the 
success of Lancaster farmers In this branch of agri- 
culture. Berks county farmers have not learned 
how to raise it yet. He thought truck farming 
would be profitable in this county. He gave as a 
reason for the failure of stock-raising In this part of 
Stale, that the Western men could raise it so much 
cheaper, and then send their poor stock here, selling 
It at the lowest rates. Farmers here, therefore, 
must raise cropi that the Western people cannot 
send 80 long a distance, truck, fruit, etc. Our fruit, 
of course, cannot compare with that of California, 
but we need have no fear of competition from that 
quarter. We should raise truck, tobacco or fruit ; 
the latter Is not only a great luxury, but it is very 
profitable. 

Mr. Engle said he was much pleased with the gen- 
tleman's remarks, which, though rambling, were in- 
teresting. He rightly said that we must raise a 
greater variety of products, and not depend on the 
cereals alone. 

Judge Stitzel then spoke of the offer of the Berks 
County Agricultural Society of a premium to the 
planter of the largest number of trees. The money 
■was voted in 1875, and he was on the committee to 
award the premiums and form the rules. This pre- 
mium caused at least 50,000 trees to be planted in 
the county. He thought the money was well ex- 
pended. They also offered a premium for the best 
cultivated orchard . Before It was offered the orchards 
were, in a majority of cases, in a bad condition, but 
the premium made them stir around aud the im- 
provement was wonderful. He thought if Lancas- 
ter county farmers would offer a premium the county 
would be benefiied, as was Berks county. 

A. F. Hostetter, of Oregon, stated that at the 
meeting of the Berks County Society Judge Stitzel 
had read an essay on "Houses for Preserving Fruit," 
and he wished that the gentleman would repeat the 
principal items of it. 

In response to this request Judge Stitzel related, 
shortly, their method of preserving fruit. They 
constructed refrigerators or fruit-houses, which men 
raising fruit should club togcthar and erect. They 
are built two stories high, of frame, with ice over 
the top and in the sides. 'The story above should be 
six or eight feet high with a little story above that 
for ventilation. The fiue is ruu through from the 
first to the second story, and the temperature should 
be regulated by a valve. The fruit is stored in boxes, 
should be gathered early and put in the ice house at 
once. He has Kambo apples now, which are as 
fresh as when picked. Cider, oranges, lemons and 
eggs can be kept fresh in these houses the same as 
fruit. There are varieties of apples that will keep in 
the cellar that will not kiep in the fruit house, but 
the majority of winter apples will keep well. 

Mr. Engle said that If Lancaster county did not 
look out it would lose its right to the name of the 
garden county, and simply from want of enterprise. 
He had long since proposed the building of fruit 
houses, but none were ever put up. 

A vote of thanks was extended to Judge Stitzel for 
bis instructive remarks. 

The Society's Charter. 

Mr. Eby presented a draft of a charter for the 
society, which he proposed to submit to the Court. 
Its provisions were in accordance with the resolutions 
of the society at its last meeting. 

Several of the members seemed to think that there 
was danger in the stock plan. There idea was that 
outsiders might purchase so much of the stock as 
would give them a majority, and then divert the 
society from its original purpose, leaving the farmers 
out in the cold. 

On motion, the charter was taken up, but several 
sections caused dissatisfaction among the members, 
and it was resolved that when the society adjourn it 
adjourn to meet two weeks hence, when a full atten- 
dance of the members is earnestly requested, as the 
business transacted will be of the utmost importance. 

On motion, it was resolved to have tlie last four 
volumes of Tub Lancaster Fakmeh bound. 
Business for Next Meeting. 

" How can farm life be made more attractive and 
pleasant V was adopted for general discussion at the 
next meeting. Adjourned. 

BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The Bee-Keepers' Association met on Monday 
afternoon, February 17, in the parlor of the Black 
Horse Hotel. Vice President J. F. Hcrshey called 
the meeting to order, with the following members 
(ind visitors present : Peter Reist, President, Lltiz; 



I. 0. Martin, Earl; J. F. Hershey, Mount Joy; .John 
Hubcr, Pequea; Ellas Hershey, Paradise; Clare Car- 
penter, city; J. M. Johnston, city; F. K. Dlfl'en- 
derOer, city; Jonas H. Shank, East Lampeter; 8. H. 
Musselman, New Holland; J. Hurst, Balnbrldge; 
J. H. Mellingcr, Strasburg; E. U. Melliugcr, Stras- 
burg; Amos A. Kessler, Strasburg. 
Reports. 

The President staled that he wintered about seventy 
swarms in the house he prepared for that purpose. 
Has lost very few bees so far. 

I. G. Martin so far has lost very few bees, not half 
a pint to a swarm, but the most severe time is yet to 
come and it Is liard to tell how things will turn out. 

8. H. Musselman reported that his experience had 
been about the same ; no swarms yet lost. 

J. Hust said lie has five swarms; has lost none 
during the winter. 

John Hubcr reported that his swarms so far are 
alive and doing well. 

Jonas H. Shank had seven hives which he win- 
tered on summer stands. 

Ellas Hershey started in the fall with twenty-six 
hives which arc all alive and doing well. Some of 
them were wintered on summer stands. 
Feeding Glucose to Bees. 

"Should glucose be fed to Bees?" was proposed 
by the chairman for debate. None of the members 
had tried it, and therefore could not give any opinion 
on the subject. J. F. Hershey stated that some 
claim it to be as good as honey, while others speak 
strongly against it. He would advise bee-kccpers 
not to use it. 

I. O. Martin said he had never tried it nor did he 
think he would like it. He also spoke against the 
use of grape sugir in large quantities. 

Ellas Hershey said that the Auierican Bee Juurnal 
gave an instance where several hundred bees were 
killsd by the feeding of glucose, while the editor of 
another declared that no proof of such a thing having 
happened could be produced, and said that he had 
fed hundreds of bees on it with good effect. 
Dollar Queens. 

Would it be advisable to invest In dollar queens ? 
was the next question proposed. 

I. G. Martin said he had purchased some at differ- 
ent seasons. Of these a few proved to be as good as 
tested queens costing §3, while others were worth 
nothing. He would advise that they be purchased 
to be used for starting new hives, so that If they are 
lost not so much money is sunk. 

Ellas Hershey's experience had been about the 
same ; out of five that he bought two were good and 
three were worthless. 

J. F. Hcrshey wanted to have nothing to do with 
cheap queens, as too much risk has to be ruu in 
dealing in them. If you get dollar queens aud breed 
from them for three or four years, the result will be 
very poor stock. 

Comb Foundations. 

J. H. Mellingcr asked the opinion of the society on 
the use of comb foundations. 

I. O. Martin had used those made without wires, 
and advised the members to get foundations made of 
pure wax, for that made of a mixture will stretch, 
and is not fit for use. If the foundation is used in 
the lower part of the hive, the frame should not be 
over nine inches wide, or it will stretch. He fastens 
the foundation to the frame by pressing it to the top 
bar, and then nailing sticks on top of it. 

J. F. Hershey had not used it yet, but Intended to 
do so, and would use that with wire as it don't sack 
or stretch. 

Springing Bees. 

J. F. Hershey asked as to the best mode of spring- 
ing bees. It is almost as hard to keep them through 
the spring as through the winter. 

J. H. Mellluger said he fed his bees in the latter 
part of February and kept it up till apple blossom 
time, and even after that, if the weather is not favor- 
able, til! other blossoms appear. This kept them in 
good condition, and he got early swarms. 

1. G. Martin read a paper on this subject, which 
was as follows : 

It is of great importance that we should have our 
bees strong In spring before the honey harvest is at 
hand. Biit how shall we gel them strong and the 
hive filled with brood so early ? My plan is, as soon 
as spring opens and the bees begiu to gather pollen, 
to examine every colony by lifting the frames out, 
and If the stock is weak, I shut the bees to one side 
of the hive with a close-fitting division board, on as 
many combs as they can cover, so as to keei/ up the 
heat necessary for brood-rearing. 

If the stock is very weak, I take all the combs out 
but two, and if it is so weak that the bees can't 
cover two combs, then I unite it with another colony. 
As soon as the queen has filled these combs with 
eggs, I spread them apart and insert an empty comb 
between them with brood. In two or three days this 
comb will be filled also with eggs, and so I keep on 
inserting empty combs as fast as the queen fills them 
with eggs, and always In the middle of the brood- 
nest till it is full. Thus it will be seen that the 
queen will be laying in the centre of the brood-nest 



all the time. Instead of on the outside of the cluster, 
which she seldom will in the cold weather of spring, 
but when it is warm and the bees are plenty, then 
she will lay anywhere In the hive. 

As soon as the strongest slocKs are full, I take a 
frame of hatching brood out aud put It In a weaker 
one, and them put an empty comb in the stronger 
one for the queen to fill again, and so I keep on till 
all arc full. 

Then is the time to put on the honey boxes, so If 
they gather honey then they must put It in the 
boxes, for the hive below is all taken up with brood. 
Each box should have a small piece of comb attached 
to the top for a starter, or, if you have no nice white 
comb, put In a narrow strip of comb loundalion. 

J. F. Hershey had lost some weak colonics that he 
fed, and others that he did not feed at all became 
strong and were among his best swarms. I. G. Mar- 
tin said he did not like early feeding for breeding tt 
rearing In the spring. If the bees are to be fed at 
all it should he done after apple blossom time, and 
before red clover blossoms appeared. 

J. F. Hershey said that since he kept kept bees big 

best queen did not begin to lay until March, and that 

swarm gave i:!0 pounds of honey, while the others 

which began earlier did not give nearly so much. 

Marketing Honey. 

The chairman proposed the diseussion of the 
question of the best way of preparing honey for 
market. He has sold a considerabia quantity, and 
found that the more attractive the way it Is put up 
the better it sells. He formerly put It up in large 
boxes, but now smaller boxes holding one or two 
pounds are used, and he thought It sold more rapidly. 

I. G. .Martin exhibited a box which he called the 
"Prize" box, and he thought it would soon be uni- 
versally used. It holds two pounds, and grocers 
have told him that the two-pound boxes would sell 
better than those holding only one pound, as men 
who can afford to buy one pound of honey can as 
well buy two pounds. However, it is best to put 
honey up in quantities that will sell best in the 
nearest market. In putting up extracted honey, 
one or two pound jars should be used. If honey is 
taken from the bees in winter, it should be kept In a 
warm room. If comb honey is put in a cool place it 
will run out. 

J. F. Hershey thought honey should be kept in a 
warm place ; if the moth comes it should be expelled 
by the use of sulphur. In taking honey to market, 
he can sell pound or half-pound boxes easier than he 
could a two-pound bo.\, as the poor man can better 
aflbrd to buy them. The advantage of using one- 
pound boxes is that two, three, four or five pounds 
can be conveniently put up, while in using two- 
pound boxes three pounds cannot be sold. 
Honey Exhibition. 

J. F. Hershey suggested that au exhibition of 
honey be held in August. He moved that a fee of 
fifty cents a year be charged, and when the show is 
held a premium of a tested queen be given to I he 
member bringing the honey put In the best market- 
able shape. 

Ellas Hershey suggested that it would be well If 
the exhibition were held in conjunction with the fair 
to be held by the Agricultural Society. August 
would be too early to hold a fair. 

F. K. Diflenderffer moved that a committee of 
three be appointed to confer with I he Agricultural 
Society as to the advisability of holding the exhibition 
In connection with their fair. 

The motion was carried, and .Messrs. Ellas Hershey, 
I. G. Marlin and Peter S. Heist were appointed as 
the committee. 

Essays for Next Meeting. 

J. H. Mellingcr moved that the chair refer ques- 
tions to ditfeient members of the soeiely, who could 
write essays in answer to them, and their ideas could 
be discussed by the society. 

The motion was carried, and .Messrs. J. F. Hershey, 
J. H. Mellingcr, I. (i. .Martin and H. H. .Myers were 
appointed to prepare essays on any subject they 
think proper to write upon. 

Rye Flour for Bees. 

J. H. Melllngrr asked if it is advisable to feed rye 
flour to bees in the spring. 

J. F. Hershey said he has fed it, hut would not 
advise that It be fed too strong ; as the bees will fill 
up the boxes with it, feed It slowly. By feeding a 
little every day to five or ten swarms they are 
stimulated. 

Ellas Hershey said that if there are any maple 
trees about, rye flour should not be fed, as they can 
gather pollen from the trees. 

Peter S. Relst appeared during the meeting and 
asked to be excused from attendance, pleading busi- 
ness engagements. His request was granted. 

Adjourned to meet three mouths hence. . 

POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

The Lancaster County Poultry Association met In 
their room In the City Hall, on Monday, March :ird, 
and was called to order by President D. C. Tobias. 
I The following m 'mbers and visitors were present: 
1 Kev. U. C. Tobias, President, Lltlz ; J. B. LIchty, 
Secretary, city; Frank B. Bucb, Litiz; T. F. Evani, 



44 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March 



Litiz ; Charles E. Lono:, city; William A. Schoen- 
berger, city ; John F. Keed, city ; F. R. Diffenderffer, 
city ; Charles Lippold, city ; Joseph F. Witmer, 
Paradise; John C. Liuville, Gap; Amos Kingwalt, 
city; John C. Burrowes, city; Tobias D. Martin, 
New Haven; Colin Cameron, Brickerville ; Mrs. 
Colin Cameron, Brickerville; S. P. Eby, citv ; IT. H. 
Tsbudy, Litiz. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read 
and adopted. 

Charles E. Long, of the committee appointed to 
inquire into the cost of printing the Constitution and 
By-Laws reported that they had rather exceeded 
their instructions in having had printed .500 copies of 
the constitution. They had hit upon a plan by which 
the printing could be done without cost, and a profit 

It appeared from the remarks of other members, 
that Mr. J. B. Lielity, the secretary, had suggested 
the plan of securing advertisements to be embodied 
in th.- pamphlet, And by energetic work succeeded 
in securing enough to pay for the work and put $5 
in the treasury. 

On motion, it was ordered that each member re- 
ceive five copies of the constitution. 

Joseph F. Witmer, of the committee appointed to 
bring the matter of joining the Poultry Association 
before the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, 
reported that they had done so, but no action was 
taken on the proposition. 

Chicken Cholera. 

Charles E. Long rose to answer the question, 
" What is the most rapid cure for chicken cholera?" 
He thought the question was a most diliicult one, as 
a council of physicians would differ very consider- 
ably on the subject. Chicken cholera is a great 
scourge and the hopes of many have been blighted 
by it. There are many dilierent reiiicilics. ' Soft 
soap, hard soap, horse and cattle powders, sulphate 
of iron and sulphate of copper are given, but he 
knew of nothing that was sure. He believed that 
crowding together of the fowls was a prime cause of 
the disease, and he believed that one of the best 
remedies was to give them more room, and use dis- 
infectants liberally. 

H. II. Tsliudy said he had suffered about as much 
from this disease as any breeder. Had tried almost 
every remedy, but observed that since he kept the 
chicken houses clean, he had less of it. Had ob- 
served that the disease was most fatal in its effects 
■ among the Asiatic breeds, and when it got among 
them the best and only thing to do was to cut off 
their heads. 

S.N. Warfel said that he used carbolic acid so 
liberally that he never had a case of cholera in his 
coops. Had discovered that calomel and castor oil 
were sure cures for the disease. He used consider- 
able quantities of chalk and powdered bone about 
his coops. 

"What must Hens have to Produce Eggs. 

" What must hens that are confined absolutely 
have in order that they may produce eggs ?" was the 
next question, and v.'as answered by D. C. Tobias. 
He counseled great cnre in the laeparation of the 



the 



said the main lut_Kl is coin and oats. There is also a 
want for green food which should be supplied. The 
best soft I'ood is bran well prepared. If any food 
besides these are calculated to increase the produc- 
tion of eggs, they are the Eureka Poultry Food, and 
the Eureka Egi; Food. But the question cannot be 
answered to the satisfaction of all. What will satisfy 
one fancier would not lie well received by another, 
and the best plan is fur each fancier to experiment 
for himself, and when he finds what food is most 
suitable for his stock, to use it. 

S. N. Warfel said he had found by experiments 
that chalk pounded into small pieces was eaten with 
relish by the hens, which will eat it when they will 
not eat lime, and he thought it had the desired effect. 
His fowls laid all winter. 

H. H. Tshudy spoke in favor of oyster shells, 
cracklings, and counseled a variety of food. The 
hens should not be kept on one diet. He thought it 
was of great importance that the hen-house should 
be kept warm. 

A. Z. Itingwalt fed his chickens burnt corn, and 

put red pepper in their drink, and thought he had 

the liveliest lot of fowls to be found. He kept them 

clean and warm, and got plenty of eggs. 

The Best Barnyard Fowl. 

" What is the farmer's best farmyard fowl ?" was 
answered by H. H. Tshudy. If the first requisite iu 
the farmyard is the production of eggs he had no 
hesitation in recommending the Leghorn variety; 
that is, if the farmer takes care of his chickens. 
But on the other hand, the production of eggs is not 
everything. The farmer wants a chicken that is 
worth something in the market. He thought the 
best chicken was the Plymouth Rock ; good layers, 
good hatchers, etc. If only one breed can be raised 
he would choose it. 

John C. Linville had just introduced a trio of 
Plymouth Rocks, and believed they would come to 
maturity sooner than the Brahma, which he raised 



before. In regard to the Leghorn he did not like 
them. They are not suitable for the farmer, as they 
destroy his garden and their eggs are too small. 

Chas. E. Long thought the question was : " Will 
a farmer make more by keeping hens and selling 
their eggs, or killing them for market?" He thought 
the former plan was the most profitable, and the 
Leghorns were the best in that respect. The Brah- 
mas are the best winter layers. 

J. B. Lichty had received more eggs from foui- 
Brahmas during the winter than from seven Brown 
Leghorns. 

Chickens and Sunlight. 

" Will chickens do well on board floors without 
sunli-ht ?" was answered by John F. Reed. His ex- 
peririirc was that cliirki-ns would not do well any 
plare witliiiul .-unli'^lit , His first coop was insufii- 
eicni I V liiihii d and his cliirk.-iis gni sick, but his sec- 
ond .nop was well ligliteil and the result was highly 
satisfactory. 

S. N. Warfel said that his fowls had plenty of 
light, but a gentleman in Boston raises his fowls in 
the cellar and takes off the first prizes at shows. He 
contends that raising them in the cellar improves 
their color, and he has the prettiest chickens in the 
show-room. 

A. Z. Ringwalt thought chickens should have 
plenty of sunlight ; in fact he knew of nothing that 
euuld do A\ ithout sunlight except a new carpet. 

Chas. E. Long thought there was only one side to 
the question. No poulTy will do well without sun- 
light, and hoard floors are the worst things upon 
which chickens could be put. 

A. Z. Kingwalt said that a board floor was too 
damp lor chickens, and would never use it. He 
thought that hens must have plenty of dust. 

,i. N. Warfel had a cement floor on his hen house 
which was scrubbed out. He did not believe in the 
dust theory. 

Simon P. Eby said that if Mr. Warfel's plan of 
cleanliness was adopted dust was not necessary, but 
if not Mr. Ringwalt's plan must be followed. 

A good plan to keep off vermin is to use insect 
powder just before the brood is hatched. He raised 
his young chickens on a board floor. 
Miscellaneous. 

President Tobias appointed as a committee to pre- 
pare questions for debate in the society F. 11. Diffen- 
derfler, J. B. Lichty and J. F. Reed. Thejcommittee 
asked that the members of the society assist them by 
suggesting questions. 

John L. Martin, city; Henry Wissler, Columbia; 
W. H. Gates, city; Charles E. Stewart, city; J. B. 
Long, city, and Wash. L. Hershey, Chickies, were 
elected members of the society. 

A. Z. Ringwalt wanted to see the members pro- 
pose the election of their wives and daughters as 
members of the society. 

Mr. Diffendertfei- moved that ladies be invited to 
become members of the society. Carried. 

A bill of ?:i.50 for furnishing and printing 200 
postal cards was presented by the Examiner and 
Express and ordered to be paid. 

The following questions are proposed for answers 
at the next meeting : " How long will eggs retain 
their fertility?" A. Z. Ringwalt. "What is the 
proper mode to pack eggs for transportation ?" F. B. 
Buch. 

On motion, it was resolved to pay the rent of the 
room quarterly. 

Adjourned. 

WARWICK FARMERS' CLUB. 

[We regret that the following only came into our 
possession after our February number had been al- 
ready made up, but as it contains matter that has 
not yel spoiled we insert it here.— Ei).] 

Tl]« second meeting to organize a farmers' club 
was hehl on February 1, ls79, on the farm of John 
Grossman, New Haven, Warwick township, Uriah 



in the 



In the aiisunie of the former Secretary, John 
Grustnian was upixiinted in his stead. The follow 
ing persons were present : Uriah Carpenter, John 
Grossman, John Huber, Peter Robertson, Henry 
Long, Isaac Grube, Abraham Bear, Nathaniel Bru- 
baker, Frank Swally, John Behmer, Aaron Gross- 
man, Moses Grossman, Mrs. Carpenter, Mrs. Gross- 
man and others. 

The proceedings of the former meeting not bemg 
accessible, their reading had to be dispensed with. 
The chairman stated the object of the meeting. 

John Grossman stated that he did not agree with 
certain chemists, that only 20 bushels of lime should 
be put on an acre of ground. He never had made 
the experiment of so small a quantity himself. He 
applied more liberally — 100 bushels to an acre. 
Some of his neighboring farmers apply it more 
sparingly, and by that he can see the difference. 
Liberal liming ivill pay. He stated that if 50 bushels 
were applied to an acre, with only half as long an 
interval as when 100 bushels are applied, it would be 
better. Twenty bushels might do if it was applied 
every year. 

Mr. Huber stated that lime always was beneficial 
to the soil whenever he applied it. When lime is in- 
corporated with th« soil in the form of a fine dust, 



or pulverized, it is a great deal better than when wet 
and merely crumbling. The application of a small 
quantity of lime dust may have as much effect upon 
the soil and be more beneflcial to the crops than a 
larger quantity of crumbling lime in first year. He 
also said he experieueed good effects from lime when 
applied to grass lands. He top-dressed in March, 
and it doubled his hay crop the same season. 

Mr. Carpenter said he could not agree with such a 
chemist under any circumstances, and he would like 
to see where Lancaster county would be if it would 
not be for lime. Chemists may make of it what they 
please, he was too well convinced of the use of lime. 

Mr. Huber asked if any one present had any ex- 
perience with phosphates. He said he tried it on 
wheat. He harvested each separate, and when 
weighed he found the difference so small that it did 
not pay to use phosphates. 

Mr. Grossman said he applied phosphate to pota- 
toes and corn, several years ago, and found no differ- 

Mr. Carpenter asked : How can we get our farms 
to produce double crops ? 

Mr. Huber said, one good step iu that direction is 
to sell very little grain. Feed it to stock on the farm; 
save all you can and make it into manure. 

Mr. Grossman also recommended the saving of 
manure ; scrape it together everywhere in the yard ; 
where the cattle go to water ; every animal while 
out to water loses daily enough to make a hill of 
corn grow by the droppings, and what they carry out 
of the stable attached to their hoofs, and that 
amounts to a great deal during the course of a year 
where 25 or 30 head of cattle are kept. 

Mr. Carpenter said 25 head of cattle lose a wheel- 
barrow load every day, and that would make 365 j 
barrow loads in a year. J 

Mr. Huber said much can be done by keeping the 9 
manure well heaped together. It will not wash 1 
away so much as when it is more scattered. • 

Mr. Carpenter asked : Which is best, to leave the 
cattle stand on the manure pile or not? He stated 
that he keeps the cattle on the manure pile during 
the day, when not in the stable, and very seldom any 
water runs out, and he gets more manure than he 
woidd if he kept the cattle off, and of a better quality, 
as it assists the rotting together. 

Mr. Grossman said much manure might be made 
by saving the contents of our cesspools ; on the most 
of farms the night soil is entirely wasted. We see it 
behind barns and sheds, and corners where nothing 
is raised but tremendous stalks of all kinds of noxious 
weeds. The water-closet should be built at a con- 
venient place over a tight box, or better still, over a 
well-walled and plastered or cemented cesspool. It 
should be sufficiently large to store in it a reasonable 
quantity of dry earth, and every time it is u.sed a 
sufficient quantity of this earth sli'iuM be iliscliarged, 
which acts as a deodorizer, aTnl the contents is con- 
verted into the well-known fertilizer that is sold 
under the name of "poudret ;'' it is worth all the i 
trouble, and the manure will soon pay for the build- | 
ing — perhaps in a year or two. The earth should be 4 
gathered in August when it is pulverized and dry. 1 
It may be swept up in many places in the form of 
dust. The dailj excretions of a family of only half 
a dozen members would produce sufficient night 
soil in a year to make about 2,200 hills of corn 
grow — about half an acre — at the lowest estimate 25 
or 30 bushels of corn ; and the removal and manipu- 
lating of this manure is not any more unpleasant 
than cleaning a pig -pen. 

Mr. Huber remarked that he has had that system 
in operation for the pas, six ye,:rs. 

As the time had expiiril, ^pusi imis were proposed 
for next meeting, and ai'^ liic tullnwing : 

1. When is the best liuie t(j sow cloversced? 

2. Which is the best, to turn cattle out to pasture 
during summer, or to keep them stabled and feed 
green fodder? 

3. What kind of fodder is best? 

Adjourned to meet at this place at 1 o'clock p. ra. 
February 15, 1879. 

Meeting of February 15th, 1879. 

The club met at the house of John Grossman, 
Uriah Carpenter in the chair. The secretary read 
the proceedings of the previous meeting, which were 
adopted. 

The meeting was small, owing to an entertainment 
at a neighboring school, and a public sale at another 
place. 

Seme discussion was had on the question, " How 
can we raise double crops ?" 

An opinion was expressed, that if we were to ma- 
nure very heavily, and not sow so many acres, we 
might in that way accomplish the end. 

Mr. Grossman said that he did not agree to that. 
If he were to haul all the manure on one acre that he 
now puts on two he would sometimes get a less crop. 
It would glow too rank in straw, and lodge too 
readily. 

It was also said that 40 and 50 bushels of wheat to 
the acre are raised in some parts of the county, and 
that such wheat farms must have some substance in 
the soil which we have not. 

The question was postponed for further discussion. 

The clover sowing question was then taken up— 
" When is the best time to sow clover?" 



1879.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



45 



Mr. Carpsntcr said, according to his experience, 
early in tlie spring' is tlie surest time. 

Mr. Vollcitzer said tliatif sowed late it would lay 
loo mucli on the surface ; if early sowed it would 
sink more Into the soil. 

Mr. Grossman said, according to his expiTience, 
one year with another, the best time is I'rom the 
middle to the last of March. By alternate freezing 
and thawinp the seed will become better covered by 
the soil than if sowed late ; because the soil is then 
beaten down usually by the spring rains, and the 
seed will lie on the surface, throw out small roots, 
and stand too much on the surface. Then, when 
very dry weather follows harvest, It is liable to 
wither and die. If sown early this will not he the 
case, for by that time it will have become more 
deeply rooted in the soil. He further said, that he 
could not recollect a season wlicn late sowing done 
well, or when early sowing failed ; but he remem- 
bered when the contrary was the case. It is true, 
that in some very favorable seasons all have done 
well, and in unfavorable ones all have failed; but 
the average is in favor of early sowing. 

All that were present concurred in these views. 

The question was then taken up : " Which is the 
best, keeping cattle In the stable all summer and 
feeding them on green fodder, or turning them into 
pasture, and what kind of fodder is best?" An 
essay was then read by Mr. Grossman on the subject. 
Sec paffc 40. 

Mr. Carpenter remarked that there was little else 
to be said on the subject. 

Mr. Vollitzer said that would help to double the 
crop. 

Mrs. Carpenter, and also make good butter. 

Messrs. C. and V. said too much manure is lost. 
The droppings of cattle on pasture is of but little 
amount. Much more manure could be made than is 
made, and it would employ a greater number of 
laborers. It would pay for the extra labor, and both 
the farmer and the laboring man would be benefited. 

Mr. V said he did not know whether we could 

obtain the seed in this eountry, but in Germany they 
sow vetches and oats together to feed their stock, 
and cut it twice in a season. All that were present 
agreed with the sentiments of the essay. 

The soiling question was continued for further 
discussion. 

Questions proposed for next meeting : 

1. How shall we make our farms pay best? 

2. Is It beneficial to educate our sons, and let them 
go from home, or keep them on the farm ( 

3. When best to sow oats— how much to the acre 
— how to prepare the soil. 

Adjourned to meet on the farm of Uriah Carpen- 
ter, Saturday, March 8th, at 1 o'clock p. m., in 
Warwick township. 

P. S.— We have seen that other clubs do not pub- 
lish the names of all present. We will follow their 
practice. 

FULTON FARMERS' CLUB. 

The February meeting was held at the residence 
of Solomon L. Gregg, Drumorc township. The day 
was cold and disagreeable, and half of the members 
were absent. Visitors present by invitation— Evans 
A. Gregg, James McSparran and I. Clinton Arnold. 

Mary Ann Tollinger exhibited some apples for a 
name. They were lair sized, tolerably good and 
would keep for a year. No one present was able to 
name them. 

Asking and Answering Questions. 

Wm. King : Would a farm be likely to increase in 
fertility if it was kept in grass, and cows or other 
animals enough kept on it to consume all the hay 
and pasture, if grain enough was purchased to keep 
them in fair condition ? 

Evans A. Gregg, Jam« McSparran and I. C. Ar- 
nold thought it would, as all would be put back that 
was taken off, and more. 

Josiah Brown was of the same opinion, if the land 
was good enough to produce the natural grasses 
when the clover and timothy worked out. Unless 
this was the case the grass would soon work out, 
leaving nothing in its place. We plow here too often 
for green grass to grow. 

E. H. Haines thought that the system would suc- 
ceed where the land is natural to grass. Ours is not. 
Under such treatment the grass would soon run out 
and green grass would not take Its place as it does in 
some parts of Chester county. 

Josiah A. Brown had taken notice that greengrass 
does come in fence corners and other places that are 
not plowed if the land is good. 

Solomon L. Gregg : Under the present condition 
of our land we could not get started. 

Evans A. Gregg : Giving grass a good coat of ma- 
nure will have a tendency to keep in the grass. Top- 
dressing Is a great thing for it. 

Montillion Brown: The Millers' Association 
threaten to put down the price of Fultz wheat so 
that farmers will not raise it. Are the farmers going 
to be guided by their determination ; 

Solomon L.Gregg did not feel like submitting. He 
had inquired of dealers in wheat and was told that 
it was in demand. It is going to England ; they like 
it there. 



E. H. Haines thought the farmers had as little 
cause for alarm at this threat, as the clergy had to 
be scared at the prraclilnir of Kobert Ingcrsoll. It 
(Iocs make good Hour, and farmers will raise it unless 
the price is put down very low, as It is more produc- 
tive than other wheat*. Tills ai)peared to be the 
opinion of all present. 

Josiah Brown : Can wheat be raised for a dollar 
per bushel ? Answer : Not while labor, land and 
fertilizers remain at present prices. 

E. U. Haines: Is there any advantage in having 
straw rotted in the barnyard, Instead of spreading 
on the fields to rot there I 

Josiah Urowu had founil great advantage in spread- 
ing straw on sod ground. It sometimes makes one- 
third more grass. 

S. L. (ircgg and .Montillion Brown had also good 
results from siireading straw on grass land. It acts 
both as a mulch and a manure. 

I. C. Arnold : There Is a chemical action wliich 
takes place in the yard while the straw is rotting. 
The ammonia is retained by the moisture. When 
straw is spread on the fields it acts principally as a 
mulch, and much of the manurial value is lost. 

S. L. Gregg had noticed in the Oxford J'ros an 
article on the value of Norway oats straw as food 
for milch cows, giving the opinion of our neighbor 
Jesse Yocum that it was equal to hay. Jesse feeds 
it quite liberally to his cows, and the favorable re- 
port of his dairy (200 pounds of butter per cow in 
the year) gives weight to his opinions in the matter. 
He (Gregg) wanted to know if there was any dilTer- 
ence between the straw of Norway oats and that of 
common oats, and what the club thought of its value 
as food for cows. 

Josiah Brown did not think oats straw good for 
cows or any other cattle. Wheat straw is better. 

Evans A. Gregg : Norway oats straw is heavier 
than the straw of common white oats, and may be 
better, but Jesse gives his cows as much grain aS 
they can eat, and It don't make much ditl'erence 
what else they pick up. 

Wm. King: Will cows that are fed on straw give 
better milk? 

Jos. R. Blackburn : They will. 

E. H. Haines : There may be some foundation for 
this prejudice against oats straw, but it is little more 
than prejudice. It is generally fed in winter when 
cows are mostly strippers. VVhen this is the case 
the milk will be bitter and the butter poor, no matter 
what the cows eat. The butter dealers in town say 
that dairymen who ship to them make the poorest 
quality of butter when the quantity is least. 

Afternoon Session. 

A warm stove had too many attractions on such a 
cold day for the club to make a very long inspection 
of the stock and farm, after dinner ; so the proprie- 
tor escaped with but few criticisms. The host next 
read an essay advising young men to go west and 
obtain homes. 

E. H. Haines thought the subject well worthy of 
consideration. The west offered great inducements, 
with good health and willing hands. 

Joseph R. Blackburn: There are great induce- 
ments, but on the other hand there are great dis- 
advantages. People of one religion, or one na- 
tionality, naturally desire to keep together. But the 
western man may look one side and see a Norwegian, 
on another an Irishman, and a Dutchman on an- 
other, and so on. Besides, there is so much of a 
sameness in the farms, that he con iders them all 



by M rs. Ilemaus. Allie Gregg recited " Forty Years 
Ago." I. C. Arnold recited "The Boys," by O. W. 
Holmes. 

" The Old Woman " had heard that the club ex- 
pected to discuss the tobacco question, so she sent 
one of her pithy communications containing some 
resolutions, whicli had been passed by herself, her 
granddaughter Dolly and another woman in conven- 
tion assembled, as follows : 

Resolved, That it is time for the women to assert 
their rights in this matter. 

Uenoli'cd, That they who chew tobacco shall swal- 
low it instead of spitting around among more cleanly 
people. 

Resolved, That emptying spittoons is no part of 
woman's business. 

Uesoli'ed, That young ladies should slTiin the to- 
bacco chewer as she would any oilier filthy or un- 
clean animal. 

The old man had never used tobacco but once. He 
never lilicd it after thai . She read him a list of reso- 
lutions that cured him at once. 

The question, " Should this club encourage the 
raising of tobacco i" was next discussed by E. 11. 
Haines, Josiah Brown, S. L. Gregg, James McSpar- 
ran and I.e. Arnold. Joseph K. Blackburn read au 
essay on the negative side of the subject. 

Tlie question, " Have farmers, by their experi- 
ments, arrived at any uniform results that can be de- 
pended upon for future operations f" was adopted for 
consideration at next meeting. 

Adjourned to meet at the residence of William P. 
Aaines, 1st of March. j 



LINNiEAN SOCIETY. 

A staled meeting of the .society Wiis held on Satur- 
day, February '.'IM. The following donalion!, to the 
museum were examined : A fine specimen of a large 
spiral, conic shell, from California, per William L. 
Gill; a dry gourd, originally five feet long, called 
"Club of Hercules"— this Is considered a variety of 
the loiig-nccked squash, or dipper calabash, " La- 
gcnaria Vulgaris,'' in l.ulln ln!/ena,a l)Ottle,or "bot- 
tle gourd ;""al6o, shale frQin the coal regions, one 
specimen with pretty fern leaves, the other, the 
mould of the bark of Slggillarla, a fossil tree-fern, 
per Mr. J. M. Wcsthaelfer. He also made a special 
deposit of the bow, thirty arrows, quiver and whip, 
formerly belonging to a Commauche Chief. The 
preserved head, pectoral, ventral fin, gills and ova 
(if the "red fish," recently from the table of Mr. 
Fox on market. Mrs. Gibbons had quite an assort- 
ment of plants that she culled In France, during her 
late visit. Two of them she called especial atlentioa 
to, as being largely cultivated In France for fodder, 
the one named " Sainfoin ;" the other " Ileibcrnage 
or Illvernagc." 

Kev. J. H. Dubbs had on exhibition for Inspection 
an Indian relic from Germantown, Ohio. This was 
a Talcose, flat, oval-shaped stone, about four by five 
inches In the two diameters, a three-sided hole, with 
an arched top cut through it— no doubt for being 
suspended around the neck. It was neatly sculptured 
on both faces. 

To the historical collection Dr. Rathvon added 
four envelopes, containing fifty-seven historical and 
biograplilcal, local and foreign scraps. 
Additions to the Library. 
Proceedings of tlic American Philosophical Society 
of Philadelph a, volume xviii, July and December, 
1878; a treatise on the horse, by Kendel, per Mr. 
Lvte ; the seventh annual report of Noxious and 
Beneficial Insects, by the Illinois State Entomologist, 
Cyrus Thomas, Ph.D.; the Naturalists' Directory-, 
alphabetically arranged. From the Department of 
Agriculture : Report on the conditions of crops, 
1S78, and one on live stock, January 7, 1879 ; J'alent 
Office Gazette for December, 1878, and January 7, 
1879. Book circulars: The Lancaster Farmer 
for February, 1879. 

Papers Read. 
J. Stauffer read an illustrated paper on the " Red 
Fish," above referred to, the " Sebastcs yorveyius." 
Only found in deep water, and rare this far south. 
He also read a letter from Prof. S. F. Baird, of the 
Fish Commission, Smithsonian Institute, who mani- 
fests quite an interest in the fact that so rare a fish 
should come to the Lancaster market, and desired 
Mr. S. to give him one of the characteristic sketches, 
by which the spec;es could be determined, as there 
are several on our coast. 

Letters Read. 
One from Mr. Laux, proposing exchanges with 
this society ; one from Geo. I'. Bunn, Philadelphia, 
desiring an exchange of cocoons. 

Mr. Rathvon then announced that this memorable 
22d of February was also the seventeenth anniver- 
sary of the society, and lie had penned a few thoughts 
on the subject. On motion lie was called upon to 
read the same, which he did as follows : 
Dr. Rathvon's Address. 
Mr. President ami fellow-member) uf the Linnaan 
ISociety : 

For all practical purposes this may be legitimately 
regarded as the seventeenth anniversary of the Lln- 
niean Society, and It is with a feeling of some regret 
that 1 witness so few of its original members present 
to-day. 

Organization of the Society. 
Alhhough one or two previous informal meetings 
had been held, yet It was only on the 8th of Febru- 
ary, 18(i2, that Its organization was completed, and 
its board of officers duly elected. It has always 
labored under one peculiar disadvantage at least, 
which always exercises an adverse infiuencc u|X)n 
the progress and practical utility of all associa- 
tions of a similar character. It has never had a 
member or a sympathizing patron who was a man of 
leisure and of ample pecuniary means, whose liber- 
ality could be exercised in its behalf; and hence, in 
the common phraseology of the word, it has always 
been pecuniarily {kmt. 

"Progress in the Face of Difficulties. 
In view of the fact, however, that it began on 
nothing but still undeveloped humiiii energies- ener- 
gies still without special point or direction— the evi- 
dences presented to-day unmistakably illustrate that 
it has mailc very perceptible material progress. If 
the time and the pecuniary means were at hand to 
enable it to analyze, classify and systematically ar- 
range the tangible material it has accumulated, I am 
sure its magnitude would astonish even the best In- 
formed, or most intelligently advanced among its 
membership. 

Not Disappointed. 
I cannot say that I am at all disappointed at the 
progress the society has made during the past seven- 
teen years, nor at the zeal or want of zeal manifested 
by its members. At its organization I was already fifty 
years old, and had had some experience in associations 



46 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ March, 



of the kind. I knew that both the membership and 
community among whom they are located are prone 
to become "weary in well doing," iu any matter in 
which they have not an immediate worldly interest. 
I knew that to make it a success its members must 
take up a cross and bear it, of the weight of which 
the world around them had little or no appreciation, 
and of whicli they themselves may not have had a 
very clear conceiition ; and, therefore, whatever 
credit I may be cLtitlecl to as one of its organic found- 
ers, and iu sustaining it tlius far, I do not claim to 
have been an original mover in its first organization. 
The Founders. 
I think that credit is due to Prof. Porter, J. R. 
Sypher, J. M. Seitz, and perhaps one or two others, 
possibly Messrs. Stauffer and Keviuski. I knew it 
would interfere with my progress in entomology, 
and hence I committed myself to the Linniean enter- 
prise with some reluctance, for this reason and those 
already stated. But I cannot say that I have ever 
regretted my connection with it and have never 
abated, and never intended to abate any energy of 
mine that seemed necessary to continue its existence. 
Disappointed in One Particular. 
There is one result, however, in which I was dis- 
appointed — a disappointment that was shared by all 
the original members— and that is, that there were 
not to be found at least half a dozen young men of 
leisure and means in the city and county of Lancas- 
ter to actively identify themselves with our organi- 
zation, and select some specialty in natural science 
for study and practical amplification. In proportion 
to the wealth and population of our county there 
should have been more than the number I have men- 
tioned ; but there should have been that number at 
least. There are several of our committees that have 
never been more than nominally occupied. When 
those committees were created it was expected that 
they would have been filled by active naturalists, but 
it has been otherwise. 

Where True Science Leads. 
Of course it cannot be expected that in a country 
constituted as ours, is any very great numlierof per- 
sons, in any community, would devote their minds 
and energies to the development of natural science, 
although there are many young men who would 
have done far better by submitting to its redeeming 
and elevating qualities than iu pursuing the course 
they have. A young man who is disinte'restedly cul- 
tivating a real love for natural science cannot be- 
come "tit for treasons, for strategems and forspoils," 
for if he becomes thoroughly imbued with its spirit 
it cannot but "lead him up through nature to na- 
ture's God." It may be otherwise where the aim is 
no higher than a mere pecuniary speculation, or 
where it is pursued from merely selfish considerations. 
Who the Founders Were. 
The Linnsean Society was developed from the 
Committee on Natural Science of the Athenaeum and 
Historical Society. That committee, so far as I am 
able to recall the names of its members, consisted of 
Professors Haldeman,' Porter and AVickersham, .J. 
R. Sypher, J. Stauffer, Chas. A. Heinitsh, Jno. B. 
Kevinski, J. A. Sheaff, Wm. L. Gill, J. M. Seitz, 
Chas. B. Grubb and S. S. Rathvon. Some among 
this committee felt that it ought not to be merely a 
dead letter in the annals of the society, conspicu- 
ously among whom were Porter, Sypher and Seitz ; 
but the parent society atTorded them no facilities. 
An Independent Organization. 
At length the formation of an independent society 
was proposed, and in due time carried into elfect. 
Soon a collection of rocks, fossils and shells, donated 
by Mr. Sypher, plants by Prof. Porter, minerals by 
Kevinski, insects, minerals and books by Mr. Stauf- 
fer and myself, Indian relics by Mr. Gill, and sundry 
other donations, culminated in the nucleus of a mu- 
seum, and a few cases were provided ; and, from 
that feeble beginning, theu and there, the institu- 
tion has been brought down to the present period. 
What the Linnaean Possesses. 
The material that the society has already accu- 
mulated would count many thousands of specimens, 
and would require.three timesthe space we now occupy 
to separate, classify, and systematically arrange 
them ; and until this is done, no one not acquaint- 
ed with the collection can have a clear conception of 
■what it contains, nor can it perform the uses intended 
by a scientific museum. But this should not work a 
relaxation of our eUbrts. Even in its present condi- 
tion it is an object of attraction and use to those who 
may avail themselves of its advantages. Our aim 
should be to make it an object library, to which the 
students of our local history could always refer with 
profit. We h»ve done more during the last year to 
etfect that end than has been accomplished in any 
five previous years, and if time and pecuniary means 
can be obtained, we hope to effect an appreciable 
advance during the present year. 
No Failures. 
During those seventeen years the Linnaean has 
never failed, but in two instances, to hold its regular 
monthly meetings, and to annually elect its board of 
officers. It is true, its meetings were at no time 
largely attended, but it always had a quorum pres- 
ent and transacted its usual business. I recall with 
pleasure its early excursions and field meetings, and 



often regretted that they were subsequently diverted 
from their original aims and ends. These meetings 
were finally absorbed by the " Tiicqiian Scientiflc 
and Piscatorial Assotiation," most of whose mem- 
bership were bent upon rural recreation only, and 
had very little practical sympathy with the Lin- 
naean. Our visits to the "Indian Rocks" in the Sus- 
quehanna, our excursions to the Colebrook and 
Martic Hills, to McCall's Ferry, to Smithville 
Swamps and elsewhere were all conducted under the 
inspirations of, and for the collection of material, 
and the development of, natural science. But, as in 
all similar organizations, some of its early working 
members died, some removed to other fields of labor, 
and others became indifferent or cold. 

The Friends of the Linnaean. 
Let me not be understood as intimating that the 
Linnsan Society has not had its friends and patrons, 
who have always felt kindly towards it, and who 
have generously contributed their pecuniary means 
towards its support, so far as they deemed it expedi- 
ent, in connection with other obligations almost 
without number constantly resting upon them ; but 
its friends and patrons were not among the Asa 
Packers, the Samuel George Mortons, the Mr. Par- 
dees and the Doctor Wilsonsof society— those whole- 
souled men, who have disinterestedly endowed simi- 
lar institutions with thousands and tens of thou- 
sand!. I believe I speak the sentiments of the 
society when I say it feels thankful for what has 
been done for it from time to time ; and especially to 
those who have so freely assisted it during the past 
year. But still we must regret that our means are 
too scanty to place it upon that plane of use to the 
public which we all so much desire. 

Building Better than They Knew. 
In this connection allow me to suggest that we are 
at no time so liable to suffer from the underestima- 
tion of the public, as from our own underestimation 
of the work we have in hand. There is material 
enough in our museum, limited as it may appear, 
the proper investigation of which would occupy 
several years. The future may develop that we did 
not know whitherto we were working. " We do not 
know how great things we may be beginning in the 
little achievements of the present hour." The 
patriots of the Revolution had no conception of the 
mighty empire, the foundations of which were laid, 
when they threw off the British yoke a hundred 
yeari ago. The Rev. David Swing, in a recent dis- 
course in reference to the formation of language, 
said: " When Dante was laying the foundations of 
Italian speech, he thought he was only singing in the 
memory of a sainted girl ; and when Chaucer was 
busy with the construction of the English tongue, 
he thought he was only telling some good stories for 
the delight of the few around his feet." 

Looking Hopefully into the Future. 
We of the present day are, perhaps, not the best 
qualified to tell what will ultimately become of the 
Linnaean Society, nor what ought to become of it, if, 
in the order of Providence, it is best that it should 
be continued. Within my own lifetime the Oreat 
Academy of Natural Sciences occupied a little obscure 
room, no larger than ours, in the city of Philadel- 
phia. But, should it peradventure come to naught, 
it cannot be erased from the chronicles of history, 
and at the very worst, it will only be catalogued 
with the things that were. Our aim should be that 
such a reproach may not fall upon us. Not neglect- 
ing other more pressing duties, let us, in sustaining 
it, do all we can ; the best can do no more, and in 
doing all lies the power we exercise — its blessings 
and its compensations. 

This paper was listened to with profound attention 
from beginning to end , and deemed too good to be lost 
upon the few members present, and, on motion, he 
was unanimously requested to have ft published. 

Scientific Miscellany 
was indulged in : On prehistoric ages-European 
ignorance as to the extent of our country— the 
meagre account in the geographies they have in their 
schools. Prof. Dubbs gave some graphic specimens 
bearing on the question occurring in Germany ; Mrs. 
Gibbons of some in France. Rev. J. S. Stahr, Dr. 
Baker, Dr. Davis and J. Stauffer, each had some- 
thing of interest to say. 

After a pleasant meeting in the comfortable room 
over the library, they parted, well pleased with the 
meeting and the accommodations of the Young 
Men's Christian Association's neat and comfortable 
room. Adjourned, to meet the last Saturday in March. 

An Ancient House and Barn. 
We were shown, by Mr. Levi S. Reist, a large and 
excellent photograph— by Wm. L. Gill— of Isaac 
Long's house and barn, in Manheim twp., near Lan- 
dis Valley, both buildings being considerably over 100 
years old. The barn is large, part stone and part 
frame, and was built in 1754. It stands to-day just 
as it was built, with the exception of a small addi- 
tional building. The house is even older, is built of 
stone, and is noted as being the birthplace of the de- 
nomination known as the United Bretlirenin Christ— 
the place where the first meeting to organize that 
denomination was held. The buldings were remark- 
able for size and convenience when built, and are still 
in a state of excellent preservation .—A^ei« JEra. 



Entomological. 



To Destroy the Currant Slug. 

A number of remedies are lecommended for de- 
stroying the currant slug, which of late years has 
become a sore pest, defoliating the bushes and 
causing the fruit to wither, or at least not to mature 
fully. A certain remedy is said to be " green cedar 
bushes, cut in small pieces and scattered under the 
currant-bushes;" and, it is added, "there is some- 
thing offensive about cedars to all bugs and worms, 
and they do not approach it." This may be true! 
But we have some positive means at hand to gainsay 
it, and of course have no faith in it. We have had 
so many "remedies" of this kind for vermin of every 
description which have never proved their claims, 
that we have become a little "jubis." We know 
that the criptomeria and the arbor vitse are pre- 
ferred by cei-tain insects to attach to them their pro- 
pagating-houses, having with our own hands re- 
moved at least fifty from a single small tree ; and 
have frequently seen the same ne'sts on the American 
cedar upon our own premises. 

The best remedji, in our judgment, for thi« slug 
pest is the application of a solution of whale-oil 
soap, (as we have often before suggested,) in the 
proportion of one pound to five gallons of water, 
sprinkled over the leaves fi-om a watering-pot with a 
fine nose. It is certain death to all it touches. Car- 
bolic soap will no doubt answer the same purpose, 
so that the most convenient can be used. — Oerman- 
town Telegraph. 

Cloverseed Fly. 

A Xeiv Insect PesC— At the annual meeting of the 
New York State Agricultural Society, held at Albany 
in January last, J. A. Lintner, of the State Museum 
of Natural History, read a paper in which, among 
other injurious insects recently observed, he gave an 
account of the larva of an insect which had been dis- 
covered two years ago in several localities in Eastern 
and Northern New York, hidden within the seed- 
pods of the red clover (Trifolium prateme,) and 
destroying the seeds. The perfect insect had not yet 
been seen, but the examination of the larva showed 
it to belong to the Cecidcmyid^, and in all proba- 
bility very nearly allied to the " Wheat Midge," 
(Cecidomyia destructor.)* A description of the larva 
was given under the name Cecidomyia trifolu,n. sp.— 
American Naturalist for March, 1S79. 

Mr. Lintner says : " The range of this insect's dep- 
redations, or the extent of its ravages, are as yet un- 
known. In some localities in the western counties of 
the State of New York clover wag so infested with it 
that it was worthless for seed. It is believed that 
not infrequent failures heretofore reported of the 
cloverseed crop throughout the country, which has 
been ascribed to imperfect fertilization of the blos- 
soms and various causes, has been the result of the 
secret operations of this little insect." 



A Premature Evolution. 
To-day (Feb. 27) Mr. Geo. O. Hensel brought us a 
fine specimen of Atticus (saynia) cecropia, the "great 
appld moth," which evolved from its pupa sleep last 
night some time, and the moth is still living, but 
very probably will die before the advent of spring. 
Of course, the evolution took place within doors, as 
no insect would have vital energy enough to assume 
the winged state as such a night as last night was 
out in the open air, except, perhaps, some species of 
the Perlid,« or "shad-flies." Nothing seems to 
govern the insect world in their evolutions so much 
as heat. It has been the habit of some to attribute 
extraordinary instinctive powers to insects, and al- 
though to a certain extent, and in certain directions, 
they are extraordinarily enijowed, yet in their trans- 
formations, and especially when they pass from the 
pupa to the image state, they cannot tell whether the 
vitalizing heat around them is natural or artificial, 
or whether the season is winter or summer. Now 
this in any other being would be regarded as an act 
of indiscretion as well as indiscrimination. The in- 
cubation of eggs in winter often occurs, but this is 
not so remarkable as the evolution of a pupa, but it 
is equally as detrimental to the futurity of the insect. 

Experiments with Moths. 

A correspondent of Nature describes some inter- 
esting experiments upon moths to test their sense of 
smell and hearing. Certain moths when captured 
feign death. While they are thus motionless if a 
sharp sound be made, such as is produced by strik- 
ing a piece of glass, they will he suddenly roused 
and will attempt to fly. On the other hand, a strong 
solution of ammonia, uncorked close to moths, has 
no effect in driving them away ; they do not seem to 
smell it, and only move away from the fumes slowly 
when oppressed by them. The result of the latter 
experiment is contrary to the common opinion, which 
has been that the smelling powers of moths were un- 
usually strong, and that camphor was the best remedy 
for them, on account of its strong odor. 

•Is not this an error? Cecidomyia deMructor is known in 
Penuaylvaula as the Hessian Fly ; and the "Wlieat Midge," 
or "Wheat Fly," as the Cecidomi/id tnticx. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



47 



Agriculture. 



Deep and Shallow Plowing. 

Few eulijectt atlnicl more atleutioii ami i,'ive rise 
to more discusBioii ami want ofa^'roriiifiiL, tliantliat 
of the depth of plowii);;. Many do uol consider tlic 
very important fact tliat deep and shallow plowing 
depends upon the nature of the soil. The truth Is, 
there are many soils in which if one plow deep lie 
may find great protlt in so doing ; but on the other 
hand, there are thousands and thousands of acres of 
land where it is sheer madness to plow deep. On 
flat clay land where water cannot drain rapidly 
away, and where the lack of drainage is the bane of 
the cultivator, It is found by experience that a shal- 
low but rich surface soil is much better than a deeply- 
stirred one. And the reason is obvious. If water be 
an injury, and it cannot get into the soil by reason of 
the hardness of the subsoil, the rain will pass over 
the surface to the open ditches, which always have 
to be made in a Hal country. If we loosen such soil 
deeply, we harbor more of our liquid enemy, and 
that counterbalances what otherwise might be a 
good thing in a deep soil. Besides these, there are 
other cunsidcratlous. If the surface-soil be poor, 
and we turn this down into a still poorer subsoil, we 
bury what little good there might have been in the 
surface soil far below the reach of the roots. 

A little learning is undoubtedly a dangerous thing 
in farming. There is no department in industry 
wherein circnmstanccs alter cases more than in this. 
While deep plowing is an excellent thing when cir- 
cumstances suit, there are innumerable cases when 
it is wise to go the other vfay-.—Oermaiitoum Tel. 

Sowing Oats Early. 
In few things have the advantages of an under- 
dratn soil shown to better etfect than in oat-growing. 
Light soils are not lavorable to the oat, and yet it is 
the light soils which are the early ones. On the other 
hand, the oat requires a moderately low temperature, 
of at least two months, to perfect its root-organiza- 
tion. It ought to be one of the earliest crops sown 
j 1b the spring, but our strong soils, on which the oat 
does best, are often wet soils, and very unfavorable 
to early sowing. 

Those who have strong soils, and yet tolerably dry, 
have the very best of oat laud, and those who have 
not must watch every chance to get the seed in early 
if they would have the best results. Those who 
know this and yet have land for oats which they feel 
they will hardly be able to seed before the end of 
April, sometimes prepare the land in the fall, and 
then sow the seed on the snow in February. Snow in 
our regions is too precarious to found any system 
thereon. We may have snow or we may not. But 
in the Western States, where snow is a regular thing 
at that time of the year we notice that the practice 
is growing into favor. Those wlio have tried it say 
the seed sprouts as soon a.s the first warm days of 
spring come, some two weeks at least ahead of the 
regular April sowings, and the crop proportionately 
increased. We may not find this plan everywhere 
feasible, but we may be encouraged always to sow at 
the earliest time practicable. 

American Wheat in Spain. 
The first cargo of American wheat was landed in 
Barcelona, Spain, about November 15th, and created 
quite a sensation among the dealers. Previously 
most of the wheat handled at that market has been 
Black Sea and Hungarian, but the American was 
judged to be equal to the best grades of those varie- 
ties, and this cargo has called tor about ^^5 cargoes 
more. The amount of the shipment was 7:;,000 
bushels, the price obtained 8:i.70 per VlO lbs., and the 
cost of the freight was $18,000. The only unwelcome 
feature of this item of news is that the grain 
was carried in a British steamer, and that the 
cargoes further bargained for are to be carried In 
British vessels. We have at present no direct steam 
communication with the ports of the Mediterranean. 
Not until American steamship lines arc established 
to all prominent foreign markets can we hope for the 
best returns from the sale of the products of our 
farms, mines and factories. — thiterican Agricttllurht 
for February 1. 

Salt as a Manure. 

We have applied salt to our garden, say at inter- 
vals of from six to eight years, for twenty-flve or 
thirty years. We could not discover that it had any 
particular effect. We believe, however, that it had 
a good effect, besides destroying insect life. We use 
it almost annually on the asparagus beds, as most 
persons do, and know that the plant greatly thrives 
upon it. In wheat fields it tends to stiflen the straw 
and acts thus as a protection against storms, which 
lay low so many llclds. It also attracts moisture, 
and in times of drought acts favorably In this way. 
But that it is a manure in any sense, or that it will 
show Itself after the first crop is removed, we do not 
believe. It is a question for the observing farmer to 
decide whether or not its application will " pay." 

In England it has loDg been experimented with in 



every way, as a fertilizer, and the farmers there are 
as much in the dark about it to-day as they were at 
the beginning. The .Uark Lane Kxprest, regarded 
as good authority tlicre, says that there is no clear 
eviili'uce even as to Its mode of action, as the results 
arc BO varying that they are "conflicting and con- 
tradictory." 

American Produce Abroad. 
At the dairy shows in Kngland, American factory 
cheese took such a prominent position as to cause the 
London rimex to say It was driving " English Clicd- 
dnr's out of the market." Be It understood that 
English Cheddar cheese is of a similar grade to the 
American factory product, and is the main reliance 
of the English market. A prominent American gen- 
tlemen writes from Vienna that the prospects of this 
country, as viewed from abroad, promise an era of 
great prosperity, because .we arefinding a market In 
other lands for so much of our produce : horses, cat- 
tle, dead meat, butter, cheese, grain and manufac- 
tured goods. The larger proportion of animal pro- 
ducts we can ship abroad the better, for that means 
that we are feeding grain, and thereby saving the 
fertility of our farms. For, they are more exhausted 
by selling grain than by feeding it and selling meat, 
butter, cheese, etc., and by the latter course we get 
two prices for the grain ; one in the product sold and 
one iu the manure.— America;* Agriculturist for 
Febrnanj 1. 



Horticulture. 



Pruning Fruit and Ornamental Trees. 

We read a great deal about the proper time of 
pruning trees, and especially the apple tree. Some 
prefer fall, some midwinter, some early spring, but 
scarcely one recommends the very best time in our 
humble opinion— mirfsMmmfr. Doubtless some old 
fogies will open their eyes and hold up their hands at 
such an innovation, and denounce it as an absurdity; 
but we think we will be sustained by a majority of 
the "live" men of the day. 

If we desire to improve the form of a fruit tree 
and get rid of some of the superfluous wood, we 
should prune in the winter ; but if we desire fruit 
and a perfectly healed stump, we should prune from 
the fifteenth of June to the twentieth of July. We 
have done this often with the happiest results. The 
fruit-buds form af.er this, and the operation In sud- 
denly cutting off its growth, produces buds ; while 
the winter or early spring pruning will produce only 

In pruning ornamental trees in midsummer, the 
bark, instead of receding from the stump, grows 
over it, and in a few years will completely cover it 
:iii(l iiKike a perfect amputation. We have noticed 
tijis ii|i(iii our own premises, as well as upon those of 
otlicr.s, nuiny times. This pruning is done when the 
tree is taking its midsummer " siesta," and then 
wakes up, refreshed for another start, and the bark 
gradually steals over the stump as if ashamed of the 
shabby-looking exposure. 

When the tree is in full leaf, and presents its full 
form to us, we can see exactly where the pruning 
should be done, in order that while the overgrowth 
may be removed, the symmetry of the tree may be 
preferred. Especially is midsummer pruning to be 
preferred, first, tc produce buds on fruit-bearing 
trees as before stated ; and second when large limbs 
are to be removed. 



Hide-Bound Trees. 

The practice of slitting the outer bark of fruit 
trees perpendicularly has its friends and enemies. 
We are of the latter. It deals with the effect instead 
of the cause. The cambium layer is that from which 
a zone of growth (in exogenous plants) is annually 
added both to the sap-wood and to the inner bark. 
The outer bark is flually exfoliated, or rent in fissures 
and scaled off by the action of the weather. Trees 
that are starved increase in growth slowly, and the 
outer bark becomes so indurated as to resist, to a 
certain extent, their growth by retarding the upward 
passage of the crude sap from the roots to the leaves, 
and of the elaborated sap from the leaves downward. 
But we think it may be questioned whether it is not 
well that its growth should be retarded. Surely If 
it is true that a treebecomes "hide-bound" because it 
is starved, increasing its size is not going to remedy 
the evil, since we do but furnish more mouths, so to 
speak, to be fed by the same amount of food. 

W« have seen many trees thus treated. The stems 
would noticeably Increase in size the next year or so ; 
but there was no corresponding evidence of vigor 
apparent. In most instances it has seemed to us 
their vigor was impaired. These perpendicular slits, 
moreover, afford convenient lodgments for water or 
moisture, ai d insects seek such crevices for shelter 
or for depositing their eggs. It seems to us tliat the 
natural remedy for hide-bound trees is to enrich the 
earth as far as the roots extend, and that then the 
cambium layer, increased In quantity and nutriment, 
will so form new liber and alburnum that the outer 
bark must expand and the stem soon become evenly 
and sufficiently devdoped. 



Early Cabbages and Tomatoes. 

Many people go without these nice llllle garden 
thIngB; lieiause they are a long distance away from 
where the plants are sold ; or because they don't 
want the trouble to make a bed to raise seeds of such 
plants when they want but a few dozen of each kind. 
But where this Is the case all one needs may be raised 
in a box of earth on the kitchen window, or any part 
of the house where ihers is light and a very little 
warmth. 

This is often done with the tomato, but the cab- 
bage can be raised In the same way, or even better, 
for the tomato must be always secure from tlie frost, 
while a little of this will not affect the young plant 
or seed of the cabbage. Of the early cabliuge few 
people want more than '^5 or 50, and a ten-cent paper 
and a box of about a foot square will proilucc this 
quantity with a very little trouble. For early cabbage 
tliey may be sown at once In this way. 

There "is often much tronble in raising late cabbage 
seed, on account of the ravages of the fly, when tlie 
attempt is made in the open ground ; but where only 
a few are needed they might probably be raised In 
this way, and thus be secured against danger from 
this little pest. No doubt from fifty to a hundred 
could very well be raised in a small box of this kind, 
and unless where there Is a tolerably large sauer- 
kraut barrel, ought to furnish a respectable supply 
for any moderate family. The late cabbage seed 
ought not to be sown before the middle of .March, 
and the tomato not much before that either. 



Household Recipes. 



How TO Nectkalize Ski-.nks' Odor.— Take the 
odorized clothing and bury them under ground for 
three or four days ; then take them out and give them 
a good airing. 

How TO Pickle A UTifnoKES.— Scrape and wash 
a peck of artichokes ; put vinegar in an earthen pot, 
enough to cover them ; add to each pint half a pound 
sugar and a teaspoonlul of ground cinnamon, five or 
six blades of mace, or half a grated nutmeg. Boil 
them in this vinegar until you can run a knitting- 
needle through them. 

How TO Destrov Motus in Featueks.- Take 
them out of the tick and put them on your fruit- 
dryer, and then put them into your oven after you 
have taken out your bread. Put the tick into the 
oven also in the same way. Let them remain in for 
an hour or two and it will kill them all. If your furs 
are infested with moths wrap them in newspapers 
and treat them in the same manner. 

How TO FmcASSEE Chickrx.— Take your chick- 
ens and divide them ; boil them until they are nearly 
tender, in salt water ; take them out of the water 
and drain them. Put a piece of butter in a pan ; let 
it get hot, and then lay in your pieces of cliieken and 
fry them into a nice brown. Take them up and put 
a very little flour in the pan and let it brown. Pour 
three tablespoonsful of water in the pau and let It 
boil up, and then serve. 

Potatoes and " Nep " (Ksepf) — An frith 
Z)i«A.— Boil some potatoes that you have previously 
sliced about half an inch thick. When they b;gin 
to get toft, put in the 'nep dough, which you make 
by taking one quart of wheat Hour, one teaspoonful 
of soda, and salt to taste ; mix these with the flour ; 
add two eggs well beaten, and thick milk enough to 
make a stiff batter. It raises up very much, but 
should be eaten as soon as it is done. 

How TO Stkw Soup Beans.— Take one pint of 
soup beans and pour boiling water over them until 
they are covered two or three inches, for they will 
swell ; let them stand at least three hours ; put them 
over the Are in pure hot water— no salt. They will 
boll soft in about 30 or 40 minutes. Drain the water 
off and put In one cupful of sweet milk, a lump of 
butter the size of a walnut, and salt to the taste; 
turn them into a "boat," add pepper, and send them 
to the table. 

How TO Make Turnip Salad.— Take six turnips 
and slice them on a slaw-cutter ; put them in a stew- 
pan with water enough to boil them soft. While 
they are boiling take another pan and put in a large 
tablespoonful of butler, and let it get hot, but not 
burn ; as soon as your turnips are lender turn them 
into the pan containing the butter, having previously 
drained all the water off the turnips ; put In one 
spoonful of sugar, pepper and sail to suit the taste ; 
let them fry, but not to make them brown. Pour in 
a half pint of vinegar ; stir it a few minutes longer, 
and serve either warm or cold. — LeoHne. 

Tahle Sauce.— There is no reason why you should 
not sometimes have a nice relish for cold meats when 
you can make a pint of It for six cents, so I will give 
you a receipt for it. (let a bunch of tarragon; it 
wiircost five cents In the summer, when it Is green 
and strong, and not much more in the winter; put 
it in an earthen l)Owl and pour on it one pint of 
scalding-hot vinegar ; cover it and let It stand until 
the next day ; then strain it and put it into a bottle, 
which you must cork tight. Either put more hot 
vinegar on the tarragon or dry it, and save It until 



48 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 1879. 



you want to make more. You may make a gallon 
of sauce from one buncb, only every time you use it 
you must let it stand a day \oBger. — Tweidy-Jlfe 
Cent Dimien. 

Broiled Kidneys.— Mix together in a deep plate 
the following ingredients, whieh will cost three 
cents : One ounce of butter, half a level teaspoouful 
of pepper, one teaspoouful each of mustard, and any 
table sauce or vinegar, and as much cayenne as you 
can take upon the point of a small pen-knife blade ; 
toast half a loaf of stale bread (cost three cents), 
cut in slices one inch thick ; wash, split and broil 
one pound of pigs' or sheep's kidneys (cost ten cents 
or less) ; while the kidneys are broiling dip the toast 
in the lirst named seasonings, lay it on a hot dish, 
and lay the kidneys on it a6"soou as they are broiled ; 
seaeon them with salt and pepper, and serve them 
hot with one quart of plain boiled potatoes (cost 
three cents). The cost of the entire dinner will be 
le«s than twenty cents.— Twaity-fivc Cent Dinners. 

Soup.— Take about four pounds of good lean meat, 
and boil in about four quarts of water; pare about 
six small onions, and the same quantity of celery, 
cut in pieces an inch long ; one yellow turnip cut in 
small pieces, and the same quantity of potatoes ; boil 
in a separate saucepan until half done, as that rids 
the vegetables of a part of the unpleasant smell ; 
when the meat is tender remove it from the broth and 
add the vegetables — not the water they were boiled 
in ; then beat well one egg and one tablespoonful of 
milk, thicken with prepared flour; drop in small 
quantities to soak ; the soup is ready to be taken up, 
as it must not boil more than five minutes, or it will 
make it too thick ; if the meat is allowed to remain 
in the soup after it is tender the soup will be full of 
fragments of it. This soup is excellent, and as good 
the next day. 



Poultry. 



Non-Hatching Eggs. 

In relation to the infertility of eggs during the 
season of 1S77, the American Poultry Yard says : 

" Various causes have been assigned for this non- 
fertility ; but the impotency of the male birds is the 
fruitful one. Whei'e fowls have been kept artificially 
— penned up in close quarters, without access to the 
green fields or pastures — this ill luck has been espe- 
cially noticeable, when the eggs laid by hens thus con- 
fined have been used or sold for incubating purposes. 

"No matter how hardy and vigorous m.ay be the 
natural constitution of the breed of fowls or how 
sprightly and useful the cocks that are in use as breed- 
ers may appear to be, these males cannot endure ab- 
solute foutincineiit and prove really serviceable in the 
brcediuir season, as a rule. 

"Tliey must have exercise, green food, a run 
daily outside the house limits, and not be forced to 
eat too much dry food, or go hungry. Give these 
breeding birds plenty of good succulent food. Let 
them have fresh air and plenty of exercise every day, 
oven in winter time. And so you will find a large 
proportion of the eggs will be impregnated, and will 
hatch much more successfully in spring time." 

How to Manage Setters. 

Sear Sir : I think that much is to be gained by 
regularity in the management of incubating hens. 
Many folks allow the^ setters to remain upon the 
nests as long as they please, come ofi' when so in- 
clined, and return at their leisure. This is not the 
best way, as I look at it, and I have worked long 
and thonght much on this matter. 

If a hen is not taken oflf her nest daily she will 
certainly befoul it. This helps to breed lice and 
renders her uncomfortable. If left to herself to go 
on and ofi", as she pleases, the chances are that she 
will at some time allow more or less of her eggs to 
chill, in extreme cold weather. I therefore deem it 
always best to remove and replace her every morning, 
and so keep her steady at her work. Some hens can 
attend to themselves, and some don't know enough 
to go in when it rains, hardly. They think they 
must stick to their eggs as if the universe depended 
on it. Give me regularity and system every time. — 
N. K. Drake, in American Poultry Yard. 



female. If you speak of two fowls of one kind, you 
would more properly call them " a couple," than " a 
pun-."— Editor P oultry Ya rd.;\ 

The Best Kind of Eggs. 
Eggs for hatching should be chosen of the fair aver- 
age size, usually laid by the hen they are from, any un- 
usually large or small being rejected. Some hens lay 
extremely large eggs and others small ones. A fat hen 
will always lay siriall eggs, which can only produce 
small and weakly chickens. Absolute size in eggs is, 
therefore, of butlittle importance. Round, short eggs 
areusually the best to select ; very long eggs, especi- 
ally if much pointed at the small end, almost always 
breed birds with some awkwardness in style or car- 
riage. Neither should rough-shelled eggs be chosen ; 
they usually show some derangement of the organs, 
and are often sterile.— /'on^^ci/ Yard. 

What and How to Feed. 

The readiness with which fowls will eat the various 
garden vegetables depends on habit or education, if 
we may use so pretentious a word. In winter chop 
up carrots, turnips, beets, mangolds, or cheap seed- 
ling apples, if the latter can be afforded ; and to 
teach fowls to eat these, thoroughly mix with meal 
till appetite is acquired, when they may be given 
alone, and alternately raw and cooked. Boiled 
potatoes and raw cabbages will generally be eaten 
without previous training, and this fact indicates 
that they are the best vegetable food for winter.— 
Poultry Yard. 

Degeneracy in Fowls. 

"Subscriber," at Darham, Conn., is informed that 
fowls or turkeys are best bred by a change of mates, 
at least as often as every other year. It is quite as 
well to change the cocks every spring, to prevent de- 
generacy in the blood. Breeding continually from 
the same parentage will, in a few years, "run out " 
the stock, so that its best points and characteristics 
will almost certainly disappear ; and, at the best, the 
progeny from the same line bred in-and-in for a few 
generations successively, will deteriorate very largely. 
—Poultry Yard. 

Poultry should not be plucked too soon after 
killing. If feathers are pulled out while the blood 
is still fluid, th8 vesicle at the root of each feather 
becomes engorged and the skin spotted. Don't feed 
before killing ; a fowl killed while digestion is going 
on will hardly keep a week. 



LITERARY AND PERSONAL. 



Questions. 

Dear Sir: Will you please answer the following 
questions through the Yard: 

1. How to stop my hens from dropping soft- 
shelled eggs from the roosts at night. I have found 
more than one egg of this kind in my nests during 
the past year, and my hens (White Leghorns) get 
plenty of lime, etc., to form egg shells ; 2. When a 
person speaks of a pair of anything, does he always 
mean male or female, unless otherwise stated ?— /. 
T. G.,Easton, Pa. 

[Reply.— 1st. Our correspondent says his hens 
have " plenty of lime, etc." They should have a 
gravel run, a gravel floor to their house, or plenty of 
gravel in some shape (as well as lime), at all times. 
If they have range, when fowls can be out of deors, 
they will do belter still. See our olt-repeated re- 
marks about exercise ; 2. A "pair" is a male and 



The Ferns of North America. — By Professor 
Daniel C. Eaton, of Yale College, beautifully illus- 
trated with colored plates by Mr. James H. Emerton. 
Published by S. E.Cassino, naturalist agency, Salem, 
Mass. We have just received the 12th and 13th 
parts of this beautiful quarto (on the Ferns of North 
America,) containing 6 full page plates, with 43 
figures, amply illustrating the difterent parts of this 
most interesting family of plants. If ever there was 
a work published adapted to the convenience of those 
in middle life or advanced in years — when the facul- 
ties of vision are beginning to fail— it is to be found 
in this publication, even if the ferns themselves were 
not one of the most interesting of botanical studies, 
and the subjects easy of access', conveniently manipu- 
lated, and showy in an herbarium. The qu.ality of 
the paper, the type, the printing, the engraving and 
coloring are the best that the present pei-iod can 
command, and are very superior. Price, jfl.OO per 
part, postage paid, and will be completed in not less 
than '10 numbers, and not more than 2+, payable on 
delivery, at intervals of about two months. As tills 
work, when completed, will contain about 7.5 full 
page plates, about .500 figures, and illustrate all the 
known ferns in North America, down to the present 
time, we consider it cheap— I'eri/ cheajy. 

The American Poultry Yard.— A weekly illus- 
trated journal, devoted specially to the interests of 
fowl breeders, fanciers, farmers, markets and 
dealers. A. H. Stoddard, publisher, Hartford, 
Conn.; §1.50 a year; single number, four cents. 
This is a remarkably cheap and well-executed 16 by 
22 folio of 4 pages, with all the novelties in chicken- 
dom illustrated weekly, as they successively are de- 
veloped. Its contributions are all brief, terse and 
practically to the point, and, doubtless, on that ac- 
count, it is preferabl • to most readers to the Poultry 

World, by the same publisher. The relation these 
two journals occupy to each other is very similar to 
that of day-book and ledger. In an emergency one 
might dispense with the ledger and run his business 
with dav-book alone ; but as soon as his circum- 
stances warranted it, be certainly would patronize 
both. Although seemingly occupying this relation 
to the lloi-i(<, it does not occupy the same ground 
practically. It contains more oi' the familiar weekly 
gossip than its contemporary, and less of its standard 
poultry literature. There is not a contribution, an 
advertisement, an anecdote, an inquiry and reply 
that does not in some way relate to "chicken 
fixens " and their feathered co-relatives. We hope it 
may have a large vacancy to fill. 



Washington Departmental Review. — A com- 
pendium history of Governmental operations (en- 
tered according to an act of Congress) . Terms, ?1.00 
per annum ; single copies 10 cents. This is an ex- 
cellently well-gotten up quarto of Ifi pages. No. 1, 
Vol. 1, for January, a copy of which has reached our 
table. Published by Walter J. Brooks, in the office 
of the Librarian of Congress. We append the con- 
tents of the number, from which its peculiar scope 
may be judged. Advertisements (only one page), 
Agriculture Department ; Congress ; Department of 
Justice ; Editorial ; Executive ; Interior Depart- 
ment ; Navy, State, Postofflce ; Secret Service Di- 
vision ; Treasury Department; War, &e. There is 
a very large amount of Governmental statistics in 
these pages, besides what is being done by Congress 
and the difterent departments. Nothing at all about 
Congressional and departmental discu.ssions on doing 
and "undoing, but what has actually been done and 
undone. This is an entirely new journal, and now, 
since it has made a beginning, we may well wonder 
why such an enterprise was not begun twenty-five or 
fifty years ago. The work is of great value to those 
who take an interest in the Government. 

Wallace's Monthly comes to us this month 
brim full of good, wholesome reading. "The Sire 
of Justin .Morgan," " The Guernsey Cow," "Origin 
of the Morgan Horse," "Thoughts on Breeding," 
"Polled Cattle," with a finely illustrated article 
upon an Oregon Breeding Stable, are among its most 
interesting papers. The leailing article, "The 
Percheron of Paris and of the Prairies," by the 
editor, is full of practical common sense. In the 
editorial department, Mr. Wallace continues his 
discussion, " Do we need any more Running Blood 
in the Trotter?" Mr. L. S. Hardin, the editor of the 
cattle department, has an article entitled, "A Cow 
Test." Published by John H. Wallace, 212 Broad- 
way, N. Y., at $3.00 per year. 

Landreth's Rural Register and Almanac 
I'OK 1879. — Published annually for gratuitous distri- 
bution ; containing also David Landreth & Sons' 
Price List of Garden Seeds for 1879. This is the 
thirty-third year of the publication of this excellent 
little work, and the present year it is increased in 
size to a royal octavo in form, and otherwise much 
improved. It is hardly necessary to say that the 
Landreths are the proprietors of the celebrated 
Bloomingdale seed farm, and the present issue gives 
a full page bird's eye view of the central portion of 
said fan'n, including the buildings thereon. The 
work contains 64 pages of choice reading matter, in- 
cluding the covers, and is embellished with 69 illus- 
trations of choice garden and field vegetables. 

The Horse. — " A Treatise on the Horse and His 
Diseases," by Dr. B. J. Kendall, of Enosburgh Falls, 
Vermont, is a book that every owner of a horse 
should have, and no breeder of horses can afibrd to 
do without. It has thirty-five engravings, illustrating 
positions assumed by sick horses, and gives treat- 
ment of dis'<asi-s in such plain and comprehensive 
language as to lie readily understood by anyone of 
ordinary intelliirence. The price is only 25 cents, 
but we 'would not exchange it for any book on the 
horse an~l his diseases that we have ever seen, and 
we have read some hooks of the kind that cost $10. 
It contains a large number of recipes, anyone of 
which is worth double the price of the work. The 
book may be had of the author as above. 

A Reliahle Firm. — In another column of The 
Farmer can be found the advertisement of Messrs. 
Ellwanger & Barry, Mt. Hope Nurseries, Rochester, 
N. Y. They are a reliable firm to deal with, and as 
we have had a knowledge of the firm for many years 
we have no hesitancy in recommending them to our 
readers, and we feel sure that any representation 
made by them will be found to be correct. In these 
days, when tree arjcnts are continually boring our 
farmers, we take pleasure in recommending a firm 
whom we know to be honest and reliable dealers. 

J. J. H. Gregory's Seed Catalogue.— Mr. 
Gregory is one of the very few seedsmen who com- 
bines the business of seed raiser and seed dealer. 
We presume this fact has a good deal to do with his 
seed warrants ; for unless a man grew largely of the 
seed he sells and hence i-noics all about them, he 
will hardly venture to warrant their freshness and 
purity ; and what is ol» more importance to the pur- 
chaser, stand by it in every case, as Mr. Gregory has 
the reputation of doing. 

New Music— The following new music has been 
received from Geo. D. Newhall & Co., 62 West 
Fourth street, Cincinnati, Ohio, and recommends 
itself to all lovers of good music. Blossom's Reward 
Polka; Farewell; Innovation. Persons wishing some- 
thing unusually attractive should send for it, and 
surely be pleased. 

A New Book. — Loring, publisher, Boston, has 
issued a new work entitled, " How we Saved the Old 
Ftirm, and How it Became a New Farm." It is 
written by " A Young Farmer," and the price of It 
is fifty cenlTs. It is a very entertaining work, and is 
well worth a perusal. 

Report upon the condition of crops and live stock, 
January, lb79. Department of Agriculture No. 10 
of special series, 21 pp. octavo. 



I 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



CoMPLiJiENTB of H. A. Biirch&Co., 1H79, gen 
ral dealers In apiarian supplies, South Haven, 
lichigan ; a neat little diamond pamphlet of forty 
i. From the character of its contents wc should 
udfjc it of Inimense value to all live bee-Itecpcrs, 
dio are pursuin;; that occupation commercially. 

Monthly reports of the Kansas State Board ol 
Igrlculture for September, October, November and 
)ecember, 1H78. By Alfred Gray, Secretary, Topeka, 
Cansas, 3^ pp. octavo. Full of tabulated statistics, 
nd agricultural, economical and commercial de- 
ails, Indicating wonderl'ul progress in our young 
iBter. 

Stockbhidoe Manures. — We have received from 
Sdw. J. Evans <& Co., of York, a catalogue of Sloek- 
^rldge's Manures and Bowker's Phosphates. It has 
jultc a fund of useful information. Messrs. Evans 
i Co. are the agents for Southern Pennsylvania. 
! Hoi.STEiN Calves —Since the last issue of The 
pARHBR Messrs. Smith & Powell, Syracuse, N. Y., 
ave received, direct from Holliind, twenty Ilolsteln 
eifjr calves. Their herd of Ilolsteins now numbers 
early sixty head of fnll-bl,.od6. 



TREE S 



Fe offer for Spring of 1879. tho largest and moBl complete 
I stock In the. U. S. of 

^'rult TrepH, Urn|i« ViiiCH, Klrnnberrles, em- 
bracing all the neic aud valuable varlelieB. 
^rnniuental TrecM nnd Shrubs, decidaous and 
I evergreen, 

RoaeN a urecinlly- all the flnest sorts. 
;jreen and Hot Huuxp IMautx. including best nov- 
'^elties. 

Oescriptive and IlIUBtrated priced Catalogues sent prepaid 
I to customers, rre«, to others, on receipt of etsmpa as 
I foUows: 

'fo. 1, Fruits, with colored plate (new edition), 15 cts.; rlain 
!0 cH, No. 2, Ornameutal Trees, etc., with plate, 25 cts.; 
plain. 15 cts. No. 0, Greenhouse. Free. No. 4. Wholesale. 
*re*. and No. 5. Gatalegne of Roses with colored plate, 
|0 eta.; plain. Fr<>e. Address 

CLLLW ANGER & BARRY, Rochester. N. r. 



NEW teO.OU PRIZE GRAPE. 



MOORE'S EARLY. 



A NEW HARDY GRAPE, 



.^mbinlng the foUowiug dealrable qaaUtlftn: Hardlueei, 
size, beaaty, quality, productivenetA 



SMALL FRUITS, 

ASPARAGUS, &c. 

Moore's New Seedling Strawbefries, 



And new Oross-Bred Asparagus. 

ALSO 

CURRANTS, BLACKBERRIES, 

Strawberries, Raspberries. 

^■Send for Circular. 

JOHN B. MOORE, 



SEND FOR 

On Concord Grapevines, Transplanted Kvergreena, Tulip, 
Poplar, Linden Maple, elc. Tree SeedUngs and Trees for 
Umber plantations by the 100,000. 



HOME-MADE 

MANURES. 

SCIENTIFIC POBMOUS fOR IHEIR MSNUFJCIUeE 0» THE 
\m SENT FREE TO m HOORESS. 



The Cheapest, ami we believe the most ef- 
fective Manure in use, can be niaile witli but 
little trouble, by using our Fertilizing Clienii- 
(Mtls and Bone.s, which we furnish of the best 
quality, and at lowest prices. We offer, of our 
own manufacture or importation, 

DisBolved BoneH, Sulphate of Ammouln, 

Perfectly Pure Ground Hones, Fertilizing Salt, 

.\cidulated PhoHphate Kocli, Sulphate of Soda. 

Phosphate Rook, flue ground, Muriate of Potaith, German, 

Laud Plaster, pure and flue Oil Vitriol, full etreagth, 

ground, Sulphate of Magnesia 
Sulphate Potash (Kaluitl, (Kieseritc). 

Nitrate of Soda, 



HARRISON BROTHERS & CO., 

ANALYTICAL CUKMl.STS, 

Mannfactnrers of Fertilizing CliBinicals. 



( EstabUshed j793ji^ 

FACTORIES AND MILLS AT GRAY'S FERRY. 
Office: 105 Soath Front Street, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




There hejnj^ a pood deal of need in the market raised 
from very poor stock, which must fjiil to prive 8atii*faction, 
having b?oo theorlgiual iiitruditcer of the Oiaut Cublmgc, 
which when raised irom the right strain of seed under pro- 
per cultivation, hftH hoeu grown to weigh ovkb 60 pouni>s to 
a Bingle plant, and sixty tons to the acre, I now offer to the 
public, aeed that has been raised by myself, with peculiar 
care, all of it/r<mi extra larfje, extra solid fuads. The Mar- 
blohead Mammoth Is not only the largest 
most orisp aud sweetest " " 



) will I 



npue 



the cabbage 

}f letters to be found lo 

hf>'r( my cOBtomers atate that they 

frnm my seed that have weighed 40, 

I'liU instructions for cuitivatloo 

-<.d. seed per pound, $5.0 ; per 

■:• iH cents. My largo Seed Cata- 

.1 ILCtKEGORY, Marblehead. Mass. 



'C^W^ 



fLOfJ 



A^ 



nUiDf: 



A beautiful wt 
Plate, and 30 
heal Klow.n ui 
for a FivkCknt Stamp. In EuKlisli i)r Qernmn. 

The Flower and Vegetable Garden, 175 P>eet, Six 
Colored Plates, and Ujaiiy hundred KnRruvln».:s. For St 
ceniK in paper covers; $1 01) In elegant cloth, in aerman 
or Rnxlish. 

Viclc's Illustrated Monthly Maeazine-:i2 PaRea, a 
Colored Plate iu every number and many i-'lne Kngravingi. 
Price t'.m a year; Five Cojiies for llS.dO. 

Viclt'a Seeda are (he best in the world Bend Fivi OiKT 
Stami- for aFiouAL OlJlDB, cnulalninu List and Prlc««, 
and plenty of I ' 



.T.^MKS VIC 



N. Y. 



BliffSekaGardenScedf. 



"^ 



■>^. 



aHAND-FL^ 
BOOKpt.MT^ 



laWiXiici 1S45-. 2__: 

10 all iNfcn-/r,:J in ganicnins, mailed ro " 
ipplUaiUf cmlojms JO Cents. ^rf^ 

B.K.BLISSSrSONS.F 

34 BARCLAYST^NY.CITY.iE 



"Stockbridge Manures." 

Thesbare roiiiplPte niiiiiiirpK, m de for rnrli crop, 
and are the t'H KAPKS'I', piir<»<l.:ind b<-«t FertilUeri 
In the market. Stmt Jnr iM-'xriplire famphltl. 

EUW. J. iiVA>s a- <o., York, Pb., 

"9-3.3 ARents lor Sonthern Penna. 



ifc^FKKE TO ALL 
;iB)Y ol Patmjra. K. Y. 



OFFICE, 

Noi 9 North Oueen Street, 

LANCASTER, PA. 
THE 

WEEKLI ElilllSE ii EXPRESS 

lean old, weU-eetablishod newspaper, and oontalns Just kh» 
news desirable to make it an lntere«tiUR and valaibU 
Family Newapiper. It Is published on Wednesday and 
Saturday, aBbscrlbers having the choice of whichever editl«B 
that suits their mail facilities bi^Bt. The postage to aab- 
sci-ibers residing outaide of Lancaster eounty is paid by Ik* 
publisher. 
Bend for a specimen copy. 

Two Dollars per Annum. 



Is published every afternoon (except Sunday) and contains 
the news by mail and telegraph from all parts of the world 
up to the hour af going to press. It is furnished to sub- 
scribers al all the towHH and villages iu the county, »coe«- 
sible by rail or stage, by carriers at Ten rents a WeelL, 
or by mall at Five DollarH per Year, 

The Lancaster Farmer 



ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM. 



THE EX.\m'ER& EXPRESS JOB BOOM. 

The Job Rooms of "The Kxantimu- and Express" are 
well filled with a lull assortment of t>pe and improved 
presses, enabliug us to do all kinds of Job Work, euch 
as catalogues, cards, bill heads, letter heads, euvelopa 
Btaiementfl, iuvita'tona, circulars, jiosters, sale bills, In faiet, 
all kinds of plain and fancy printing. Wc make a speclaltr 
of sale bills, having outs in the office which were mad* 
from drawings fepeclallj prepared for ua, aud not In aaj 
other otHce In the state. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 Nort'i Queen St.. 

LANCASTKlt, FJL. 




THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[March, 1879. 



My annunl Catalogue vf Veg'-table and Flowi-r 
Seed for lS79,;ricb iu engraviugs, from origiuiil photo- 
graphs, will be Beut FREE to all who apply, CuBtomers of 
laBteeason ueed uot write for it I offer one ot the largest col- 
etable seed ever sent out by any seed house 



ln°Ame'ri'ca.^I^'i.S 
age All eeed 






id Squash, 



BOore» of other vegetables, 

are anxioxt4 io have their seed directfy frovi the grtnper, fresh, 

true, and of the very best strain. 

New Vegetables a specialty. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, 

79-l-14[ Marblehead, Mass. 



E. R O. 



BUKBKA RED OIL, (is forty degrees higher fire test than 
the law requires), can be burned in auy LAMP where the 
ehimney burner is used, is tcarranted not to explode, under 
forfeiture of $100. 

BS^EXOLTTSIVE COUNTY RIGHTS for sale by 
P. J. FITZGERALD, Sole Proprietor and Manufacturer, 
103 and 105 N Fourth st., Philad'a. 

Also, WHOLESALE DEALER IN HEAD LIGHT, COAL 
OIL and BURNING FLUID. 

N. B. A large assortment latest stv/esot CHANDELIERS, 
BRACKETS, BRONZE LAMPS, BURNERS, &c., &c., con- 
Btantly ou hand. 10-9-6m 



|J4cl^J.q:^IJil?UllJMVIJ=ajJJ.t. 



WE BELL EVERYTHING poe thb ^ 

GARDEN 

^ Descriptive C:.lal ^ms ot 173 pages sent Free |J 
Cnrllandt St., 3V;r Tor7:. 



STOCKBRIDGE 

MANURES 

Originated by Levi Sfockbridge, Professor of Agricul- 
ture in the Massachusetts Agricuftural College. Thev have 
been extensively used for six years. Send for a little book 
deecribing tbein and givinjf directions for cultivating farm 
and garden cr»-i-,'fi. Eve:y farmer, gardener, or cultivator 
of a kitchen garden should send for a copy mailed free. 



BOWKKR » EKTIJ.B7,Elt 
bam Street. B<.M««: ;S Vn 
Binil 24 5for(!> >Vn<ei- Strf 



■li PLice. Ke« York 
>t. R«ieh<'Ktor. N. Y. 



LAWRENCE&TAYLCR, 

76 ALDHRSGATE ST., 
London E. C, England. 



Larpst aiitl Best Iarl[et in the Worli. 

Oommission : For consignments under i:.70;— 4 per cent. 
" " " £100:— 3 percent, 

over illOO:— 2 per cent. 
Freight &c., &e., paid free of charge for interest. 

Money advanced on Consignment with- 
out interest. 



Account sales and < 



utly I 



BAMER'SailTIONALPROViCIALBAM 

OF ENGLAISm. 

Telegraph Address 

TAYRENOB, LONDON. 



PEARL MILLET 

(THE NEW FODDER PLANT.) 



81.00 

By express, bnye'r to pay charges, $5 per peck. 

Statement of our experiments with it, and 

iiietraciions for culture, free on application. 

PETER HENDERSONS CO. 

35 CORTLANDT ST., NEW YORK. 



Only Doable King In- 

<•[<•<; »l Nose. Cfaanipion 
>^og ICiuirer, Riii^R iiiid 
Holder. No sharp points in 
flesh to cause irritation and sore- 
uess, as in cases of rings that 
close wi:h the joints iu flje flesh 
and pioduco soreness of the 



THE CHAMPION HOG HOLDER Speaks for itself : 





Only Sing:le Ring; Kver In- 
vented that. Closes ou the 
Ontiiiide of the Nose. 

Brown's Elliptical Riug and Triple 

■ "ig Hinger. It over- 

ingular 



Groove Hog 

oomea a serious defect 

and other rings which clos^ 

joints together in the fiesh, 

to decay and to keep the 1 



) with the 
causing it 



CHAMBERS, BERING & QUINLAN, Exclusive Manufacturers, Decatur, IU. 




IFEEE 

ills. It 

i plates. 500 



varieties of Vegelable and Flower SeeJs, Plaota, Roses, Eta. 
iDvaloable to all. Seud for it. A^MreHB 

B. M. FEEEY & CO. Detroit Mioh. 

79-1-4 



GRAY'S SPECIFIC MEDICINE. 

TRADE MARK. '•■••f Great Fngiisb TRADE MA^RK. 
KeBned.v will prompt- 
ly and rudically cure 

•one Debili'y and 





perfectly harmless, i -k^sc^ 1 «• 

Before Takmo- "''5 "^^B'f. and has been «<!.„■ TakiTiD- 
o extensively used for over -aJ-ier XlUUIlg. 
thirty years with great suocess. Full particulars in oui 
pamphlet, which we desireto send free by mail to every one. 
The specific medicine is sold by .11 druggists at $1 per pack, 
age, or six packages for $5, or will be sent free by mail on 
receipt of the money liv J.ddreeeing 

THE GR.\Y MEDICINE COMPANY, 
No. 1(1 Mecbinicn' Block, Detroit, Michigan. 
ira^Sold in I.ancaKter by H. li. CocHRjiN. 137 and 139 N, 
Queen St., and by drupgisis everywhere. [79-3-12 



1879 SPRING AND SUMMER 1879 

Coats a[)d Coalings^ 

PANTS AND PANTINGS, 
VESTS ANL» VESTINGS, 
SUITS AND SUITINGS, 
OVERCOATS AND OVERCOATINGS 

rathv6n"&Tisher'S, 

I^erchant Tailors, Drapiers and Clolljiers, 

Corner W. Quetn and Orange Sts., 
LANCASTER, PA. 



is auy oiher place in the city. Goods all wool, perfect, and 

satisfaction g:uarantee<l. Orders respect- 

fullv solicited, and promptly executed. 

IS79 1S79 




Is an energetic, natural manure, specially adapted for 
summer croi.s. It is highly recommended to tobacco 
growers, giving the plants a vigorous start and causing a 
rajiid growth to matnrity. 

HIKAN E. I.IJTZ. Manniactnrer. 
BOtiiCP, 1136 Market Street, Philadelphia. 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 






HOW TO OETTHEM ii.|»be,tp.nofthe.iaie. 6.000,000 
*J""i°i"l'.;- ^i' n-ee"fipy of " K.nM, I'ocino Borne. 
•tead," iddreii laiud Ooinmlutaner, S»liu», Kaitai. 



A MONTHLY JOURNAL, 

Devoted to Agriculture , Horticulture. Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lar 
ter County Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 

ONEDOLLpPERANNUlf, 

POSTAGE PREPAID BY THE PROPRIETOR. 

All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 



Dr. S, 8. Kathyon, who has BO ably managed the editorial 
department In the past, wUl continue in the position of 
editor. Hie contributions on subjects connected with the 
science of farming, and particularly that specialty of which 
he is so thorouhly a master — entomological science— some 
knowledge of which has become a necessity to the Buccess- 
f ul farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of 
this publication. He Is determined to make "The Farmer" 
a necessity to all households. ■- ■--- 

!fA county that has so wide a reputation as Lancaster 
county for its agricultural products, should certainly be 
able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the 
exchange of the opinions of farmers lutercsted In this mat- 
ter. We ask the co-oporation of all farmers interested in 
this matter. Work among your friends. The "Farmer" is 
only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and 
induce them to subscribe. It is not much for each sub- 
scriber to do but it will greatly assist us. 

All communications in regard tothe editorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. 8. 8. Rathvon, Lancaster, Pa., 
and all business letters in regr.rd to subscriptions and ad- 
vertising should be addressed to the publisher. Rat^s of 
advertising can be had on apiilication at thfr'oflice. 

JOHN A HIESTAND, 

No. 9 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 



ONE DOLLAE FEE ANNUM.- SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




Dr. S. S. SATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA.. APRIL, 1879. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND, Publisher. 



CONTENTS OFJTHIS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL. 
.811k Culture, ------- 

• A Model PoBtinueter, - 

I .Lime, .---.-.. 

I . Kltchen-liarden for April, - - - - - 
. Supposed Sulphur Shower, - - . - 
.Strawberry Protectiis, ------ 

• Buckwheat Cakes and Sausages, - 

Live Sto«k Slaughtered in tho Borough of Adamn- 

. Spring and Winter Tree Cleaning, - 
tPersoual, ----.-.. 

• Is the Lowest Price the Cheapest 1 ■ - - 

. Queries and Answers, ------ 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

• More Light—/. G., ----- - 

• Balance of Trade— .ff. A'., - . - - 

. Migration of Ells, ------ 

t Around the Farm, No. 13 — Huralist, - 

i The Balauce of Trade, Ayalu— /. P., - - 

• Turtle-Head, Suake-Iicad, Balniony— /. Stauffcr, 

SELECTIONS. 

• Seeds, - - - - 

^Splenic Fever and Horn Ail, - . . - 

■ Cranberry Culture, ------ 

• Rules for Making liilt-Edged Butter, 

Feeding — tmi.lrmeuts — Milking — Setting— Skim- 
ming — (Miurniug — Coloring — Working and Salt- 

» North Carolina Tobacco, ----- 1 

OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 
.Agricultural and Horticultural Society— Ad- 
journed Meeting, - - - - . - ', 
Object of the Moeting— Other Societies— The In- 
corporators— Churter. 
Regular Stated Meeting of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society, ----- i 
Report of OroiiB— Competitive Eaaajs— Cultnra of 
Wheat— Mr. LinvJUe's Kasay— Food for Hogs- 
Novelty in Fruit (Julture— Dr. Edge to Lecttire . 

• Poultry Association, - - - - - ! 

Preserving the Proceedings — New Members — Money 
iu the TrcaenVy — How Long will Eggs Retain 
their Fertillf y— Packing Eggs- liuaiuess for Next 
Meeting- Members of the Society— Pullet 'a Egga. 
•Warwick Farmers' Club, -----.' 
Fulton Farmers' Club, ----- J 

Afternoon Seaaiou— Literary — DlacuasioD of Regu- 
lar Question— Election of Officers. 

• Llnnaian Society, ------ J 

DoniitionH to the Museum- Historical Section— 
Library- Papers Read — New Bueinoas — Soientiflo 
Gossip. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. 
•The Imported Currant Worm , - - - - ( 
' The Tobacco Worms, ----- f 

•The Utility of EiiiomoloiO'. - - - - 1 

• Remedies Against Worms and Intects, - - f 

AGRICULTURE. 
»Harrowing Wheat in .Spring, - - - - ( 

• How to Grow Broom Corn, - - - - - ( 

. Salt as a Fertilizer, ------« 

. Rolling Grain in the Spring, . - - . ( 

Use of Lime, -------( 

• Corn Culture. -.---.-( 



FLORICULTURE. 

1 Flower (Jarden Iliute, ----- 61 

.How to Preserve Cut Flowers, - - - - 01 

(Sowing Garden Seeds, ----- 01 

HORTICULTURE. 

.Planting Grapevines, - - - - - 61 

(Spring Planting for Strawberries, - - - 61 

•An Experiment in Planting, - . - - 62 

.Uncovering Protected Plants, - - •• - di 

. Mulching, ------ - &i 

,GooBcberrie6 and Currants, - - - - 6'.! 

, Sprouting Potatoes, ------ 62 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

Some Items About Sugar, . - - . Oi 

Necessity of Sunlight, - - - - - 02 

. Tlic Uourb for Children, - - - - m 

■ How to Use Coal, ------ 62 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 

Sick Headache, ------- 62 

i Flannel Cakes, ----- - 62 

■Cup Fruit Cake, ------- 62 

>Cookies lor the Children, - . . - 62 

. Queen Biscuits, ------- 62 

.Boston Meat Pic, ------ 62 

Cranberry Rolls, - - - - - - 02 

Burns and Scalds, ------ 63 

Kemedy for Hoarseness, ----- 63 

Eggs in Case of Trouble, - - - - «} 

Potato Fancy, - 6;i 

, Oatmeal Cakes, ------- 03 

Preservat:on of Furs, ----- 63 

LIVE STOCK. 

•Test Record for Dairy Cows, - - - 03 

Full-Blood, Pure-Blood, Thoroughbred, - - 03 

APIARY. 

Honey, -------- 0.3 

Pasturage for Bees, ------ o;i 

' How to Fasten Comb Foundation in Brood Frames, 6.3 
Glucose, - - - - - - - -Si 

POULTRY. 

iCaponized Fowls, 63 

Chicken Cholera, ------ 6:5 

Nest for Setters, 04 

Eggs from Different Breeds, - - - - 64 

Fowls Eating Feathers, - - - - - 04 

Literary and Personal, - - - - - 64 



M. HABERBUSH, 

M.WUFACTl'REH OK 

Plain and Fine Harness, 

NAnUI.I'N, 

COLLARS, WHIPS, PLY NETS. &c., 

.WJiC DKAI.KR IN 

TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS, 

BUFALO UOBES, 

Horse Covers, Lap-Rugs, GIovps. &.C., 
No. 30 Penn Square, 

79-1-12) LANCASTER, PA. 



NORBECK SMILEY, 




PRACTICAL 



Carriage Buildepg, 

cox & CO'S OLB ST.WB. 

Corner of Duke and Vine Streets, 



LANCASTER, PA. 

THE LATEST LMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PHyETONS, 

Carriages, Etc, 

>T\IL'VTI\ITlli;riTV 



Prices to Snit the Times^ 

RKPAIKING promplly attendeil to. All work 
guaranteed. 

70-*- 



PHAKES \\-. FRY. 

Wliolesalc.nd Rct^iil Dealer in 

WftLL PftPER& WIHDOW SHftDES, 

liollHnftN, Plain Ktande f'lolli, 

Ing to a 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



►EIfI«S\'L.VAlViA BAII.ROAI» SOHEDCI.K. 

Trains hate tbe Depot in this city, as follows : 



WE TWARD. 

Pacific Express' 

Way Pasaengert 

Niagara Express 

Hanover Accommoiiatiou, 

Mail traiii via Mt. Joy 

No. 'i via rolurobia 

Sunday MaU 

Fast Line'. 

Frederick .\ccominodittion 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia .Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Eipress 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express' 



EASTWARD. 

Atlantic Express" 

Philadelphia Expresst. 

Fast Line* 

Harrisburg Express . 



:20 p. I 



5:1-. p. 



T:4i) a. 
10:110 a. 
12:30 p. 



1 Lajieaste 



Columbia Accommodation. 

Pacific Express* 

Simday Mail 

Johnstown Express 

Day Express" 

Harrisburg .\ccom 

The Hanover Accommodation, 
with Niagara Express, west, at 9:'i5 a. in., and will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick .Accommodation, west, conuectsat Lancas- 
t«r with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. ra.. and runs to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, on .Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at Middletown, Eltzabethtown, Mount .Toy and I^andis- 
TiUe. 

uly trains which run daily, 
daily, except Mrniday. 



tBun 



U. I». 3BO v«rivt-A.3xr, 



ATtOWEsT POSSIBLE PKICES, 

Fully guaraMteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

79-1-12] OpponU-- Leopard irol-l. 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR, jg 
SHIKTS MADE"tO ORDER, 

AND WAKRANTED TO FIT. 



E. J. ERISMAN. 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa.j 



Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA. 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

FURNITURr5D"cHAlRS, 

WAKEKOOnS: 

102 East King St., Cor. of Duke St. 

tiANCASTER, PA. 



fTBEES: 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 

is county and HUitcid to this climate. 

LOUIS C.LYTE 

Bird-in-Hand P. O., Lancaster co.,Pa. 



at Smoketowu 



EDW. J. ZAHM 



AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

VV^ATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED Vi^ ARE, 
CLOCKS, 

JEWELRY I TABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Aniudel Tiutcd 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairing strictly attended to. 

Nortli Queen-st. and Centre Square, Lancaster, Fa. 

TS-l-K 



SEND FOR 

On Concord Grapevines, Transplanted Evergreens, Tulip, 
Poplar, Linden Maple, etc. Tree Seedlings and Trees for 
timber plantations by the 100,000. 

J. JESTKINS' SrURSEnY, 
S-2-78 WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



ESTABLISHED 1832. 




O. SEN EH & SOJNS, 

Manufacturers and dealers in iill liinda of rough srid 

The beat Sawed NHIXtil.KSiu llie ccuiitry. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blinds, .MouldniK-?. &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 



OFFICE AND YAUD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince and Walunt-sts. 

LANC^STKR, FJ^. 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY^ 

Embiaciug tlie bisiory and habits of 

NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS, 

for thpjr exj.ulBJou or extermination. 

RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

This -work will be Highly Illustrated, and will be put in 
press (as soon after a Fujhcient number of suhseribrrs can 
be obtained to cover tile cost) as the work can possibly be 
accomplished. 




PEARL MILLET 

THE NEW FODDER PLANT.) 

Yields 100 tons ^reen =- Itj tons dry per acre. 

(iOc. per pint (by mail, postpaid). 

.$1.00 " quart " 

By express, buyer topay charpce, g.'Sper peck. 

Staicmeut of our experiments with it, and 

instruciions for culture, free oa application. 

PETER HENDERSON & CO. 

35 CORTLANDT ST„ NEW YORK. 



T[^E LATEST 



be New Tariff of Rates 



Made by OAK HALL, four weeks 
ago, sold off large lots of 

goods, and has 

INDUCED MANY TO IMITATE US! 

AS USIJAE. 

Jla^Whatever is Done Elsewhere We 
always do Better.-'^ga 

This is the latest tariff for the 

An Kleg.nnt ISiisiness and Dress Stiit, 
All-wool Bl.ick Cheviot, irlO. Identical 
quality of goods sold by other parties 
as a great bargain at $15. We never 
sold them for more than $1?.., 

^4.89 buys a First Quality Dress 
Trousers, sold heretofore at $lt). 

Fur Beaver and Chinchilla Over- 
coats, Good and Warm Cloth Bound, 
18.50, ji8.50, $8.-50, $8;.50. 

Next Higher Grade, Beautifully 
Made and Trimmed, Cloth Koiiiid, 
Silk Velvet Collar, $10, $10, $10, ,?10. 

The Same Goods in Young Men's 
Sizes, ^7, $7, $7, ^7. 

Boy's Double Cape Overcoats, with 
fill tlie Late Improvements, $5, $5, ^b. 

Boys' and Youths' Trousers, All 
Wool, $2.39, S2.:!!i,.v;ii.:!!),:H2.:!!i. 

Hundreds of Latest Slyl.s Child- 
ren's Overcoat.-^, Snlt I'lii.-^h Lined, 
Elegant Goods, reduced IVoia $S./5 to 
16.50. 

.1125 Fine French Fur Beaver Over- 
coats reduced to $15. (Beautifully 
made, Piped with ■ Cloth and the 
Finest Linings) - 

A clear saving of $2.50 on a Fine 
Dress Suit. 

At our low prices we have sold 
thousands of them at $15,00 ; but to- 
day make a clean mark down to 
$12..50. They are not odds and ends, 
but complete lots. Hundreds biggest 
men can be liiti-d. This one lot of 
goods contained •■)5.120 y.Lrds, and has 
proved the best bargain we have had 
for our customers this season. 

A customer can come one hundred 
miles, and the saving on almost any 
Suit or Overcoat will pay the fare 
Doth ways. 

Wananjaker & Brown, 

OAK HALL, 
Sixth and Market Streets, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



The Largest Clothing House in 
America. 



i 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. SATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., APRIL, 1879. 



Vol. XI. No. 4. 



Editorial. 



SILK CULTURE. 
I Ostensibly, we presume, toatloid cucouiage- 
!meut to those who may incline to engage iu 
iihe production of silk in the United States, 
il'rot. C. V. Riley, Entomologist ol' the De- 
partment ol' AgriculLure, makes a special re- 
port (No. lij ot :!1 PI'. 8vo.,lo the department 
bu that suliject. The pamphlet contains an 
introduction and a brief manual of iustruc- 
jtions for tlie i)roduction of silk, including the 
ttiaturc of the silk-worm ; different states or 
pages of the silk-worm ; varieties or races ; 
wintering and hatching the eggs ; feeding 
and rearing the worm ; preparation for spin- 
biug ; gathering the cocoons ; choking (kill- 
jing) the cluysalis ; egg-laying— reproduction ; 
p-eeliug; fooU-plants, and aglossary of technical 
perms, which is a rational resume of a subject 
fwliich we are able to recall iu its wildest and 
most inflated manifestation about the year 
4.S37 and a few following years, exploding 
^bout 1841. The pamphlet is embellished 
iwith seven illustrations, three of which are 
\lifEerent kinds of silk reels, of European 
jorigin. Should silk culture become a perma- 
kient industry of this country— especially in 
[Lancaster county — before adopting a reel, we 
[would recommend our readers to examine the 
!i-eel invented by lion. J. J. Libhart, of Mari- 
letta, in 1840. We have not seen it for more 
jthan thirty years, but from our best recoUec- 
(tion of it, it seems to us it would "take down" 
any of those illustrated in this pamphlet. 

We may never live to see it, but we believe 
that silk culture and silk manufacture must 
ultimately become one of the permanent — and 
reasonably paying— industries of our country, 
although it may mvolve something of a revolu- 
tion iu the minds of men as to tlje true aims and 
objects of progressive and productive labor, a 
revolution, the germs of which already exist 
fin society, but are still only faintly seen and 
jacknowledged. The silk fever, as it mani- 
jfested itself forty years ago, was only spas- 
modic, and did not entertain at any time a 
single idea beyond merely selfish specidation. 
Hundreds of dollars were made iu trafficing 
iu Midtkuulus trees, and tliousands of dollars 
were lost iu tlie same. Very few thought 
about the details of silk culture, the whole 
aim being money, money, money, and so the 
market became glutted and then the bubble 
bursted, and disgust and doleful lamentations 
followed as a cousequence. Men did not think 
of a permanent organic branch of productive 
labor through which the masses might secure 
employment and a reasonable subsistence. 
They only thought of realizing a fortmie 
quickly for themselves, and then to retire and 
enjoy it themselves, without regard to any use 
or benefit that might inure to their country. 
The masses perhaps were also selfish, for they 
extorted sueli wages as no one in the silk busi- 
ness could aflbrd to pay and compete success- 
fully with tlie silk producers of otlier countries. 

We have for live or six years been passing 
through a labor aud financial ordeal in this 
coimtry that must ultimately initiate a new 
order of things, if we desire a return of pros- 
perous times— an order that will secure per- 
manent employment to tlie poor, at reason- 
able and permanent compensations. 

In Europe there are villages, the inhabitants 
ef which employ their time in knitting sub- 
stantial, seamless, woolen jackets. When the 
villager has knit a half dozen, a dozen, or two 
dozen, as the case may be, he puts them in a 
package, on liis head or b.ick, and travels on 
foot to the market town and there disposes of 
them. It re(iuires little outlay to start and 
conduct his business, but as he makes a good 
article he can always find ready sale for it, be- 



cause no machinery in either America or 
Europe can iiroduce as good an article a.s he 
can by hand. At least those who consume 
his wares in Kurope and America think so. 
The foreign Germans in this country always 
emiuire for them and will have them, although 
they lire much higher in price than American 
jackets — indeed at American wages w9 could 
not produce hand-knit goods to compete witli 
them at all. 

Uu a plan approximating to this, and not 
by large and expensive, establishments — ac- 
cording to Prof. Kiley's suggestions— the silk 
businPR.>? may become a w Ide-sprcading indus- 
trj amongst us, and give employment to many 
old men, women and children. 

Silkville, Kansas, is a village of this charac- 
ter ; and there are other villages and isolated 
operators in California, North Carolina, New 
Jersey aud elsewhere. Very little reeling and 
manufacture of silken fabrics are done in the 
United States, but some trade is carried on in 
cocoons and the raising of silk-worm eggs. 
Fiance in the year 1877 paid 1,691,400 francs 
for eggs, exported from the United States ; 
and although some of these, presumably, came 
from Japan, yet the larger portion was raised 
here. It ai>pears that we have no good and 
peiuuiueut market in this country yet for eggs 
or cocoons, but all we can produce, of a good 
quality, i:aii be sold lo the manufactures of 
Europe, especially in Italy and France. The 
three best trees, the leaves of which are de- 
voured by the silk-worm, are the mulberries, 
botanicnlly known under the names of Mm-us 
alh'i, M. nlycr and J/, inultimiduii; but tliey 
will also live aud tlourish on the "osage 
orange " — Madura aurantiaca. As this is 
coming into use as a hedge-plant, and ueeds a 
good deal of pruning, the eliminated branches 
could be utilized to feed worms. Cocoons are 
worth from S2 to $2.50 a pound, eveu in the 
present depressed condition of the country, 
and even at that price they may yield suffi- 
cient compensation to remunerate the laborer 
to a reasonable extent, although he may not 
gr^iw rich on it — in the sense usually attached 
to riches — health and content are better than 
riches. 

A MODEL POSTMASTER. 

In January, 1877, .seven subscriliers to The 
Lancaster Farmer were obtainud by an 
authorized canvasser, all of whose papers 
were sent, in a single package, to an office 
within the county of Lancaster. It is of no 
consequence now who the model postmiister 
was, or where the postolBce was located — 
whether east, west, north, south nr central, 
bei:iiuse we desire to discuss the subject from 
a principle of " right, justice and humanity," 
and not from feelings of a merely personal 
nature. One of these seven subscribers always 
took his paper from the office when he could 
get it. Which was not always, and also iiaid 
promptly for it. Sometime after the peiiod 
of subscription — we don't know exactly how 
long after, it may have been alinul tb.-ee 
months— six of these subscribers ''scattered 
abroad," some going west, and others remov- 
inii to other districts in the county, and con- 
sequently diseontinucd calling for their papei-s, 
the Mib.-rriiiticii ofwhieli they had not paid ■ 
aiiil have iKil ])aid it yet, and doubtless never 
will. .Mian as the act was, of coiu'se the 
postmaster was not responsible for it. Pre- 
sumably he would cheerfully have delivered 
the papers to these mxhl subscribers had they 
condescended to call for them. They are wel- 
come to all the consolation such an act can 
afford them, either in the successes or adversi- 
ties of this transient and micertain life. But 
what did the model postmaster do, or rather 
what ought he to have done in the matter ? 
What course does the Postoflice Department 



prescribe in cases of this kind ? Common 
courtesy, we would think, should have dic- 
tated tlie propriety of informing the editor 
or publisher, and promptly returning the 
papers to the office from wlience they were 
issued, marked "uncalled for;" but he did 
not do anything of the kind— at least such in- 
forniiition never came to the knowledge of the 
editor or Ihi' |iublisher — but, on the contrary, 
he left six- ]iapiis accumulate in his office, from 
month to month, for nearly two entire years, 
subjeirting the publisher in the meantime to 
the labor and expense of printing, folding, 
stitching, enveloping, labeling, posting and 
mailing, just as if editors and publishers had 
no rights that a postm;ister was bound to re- 
spect. Now, we do not desire to be captious 
or unnecessarily censorious about this mat- 
ter, for it may be that the department does 
not require its sub-officials to return uncalled 
for mail matter, and, as we have said before, 
we may have been olHcially informed ot the 
deliquency of those model subscribers at the 
proper time, but we are sincere when we say 
we have no recollection of it ; and, if there 
had been notliing more, we do not think we 
should have felt compelled to pen this para- 
graph. But, near the end of the second year, 
we happened to call at the postoffice to which 
we allude, when the postmaster did con- 
descend to gather up as many of tlie uncalled 
for papers as he had on hand and place them 
in our possession ; an act of condescension he 
was, perhaps, not legally required to exercise. 
It is very certain, however, that an officer 
may fidfill all the requirements of the civil 
law and yet fail in tliat higher law, which 
every man ought to be unto himself. Subse- 
quently when we had occasion to ojien the 
packages, we found a number of them in the 
same condition they were in when they left 
the office in Lancaster, months before, aud in 
one or two instances more than a year jirevi- 
ously. Some of the packages, we feel ((uite 
sure, never could have been touched auy 
farther than was necessary to throw them into 
some obscure corner in the postoffice ; for 
among those we found at least seven copies of 
our paper belonging to our honest and upright 
paying subscscriber, with his name plainly 
printed thereon. Now, our friend had fre- 
quently complained that he did not get liis 
paper regularly, and sometimes not at all, and 
weas often felt self-mortification and reminded 
the publisher of the embarrassing omission, 
aud also furnished extra numbers. There is 
not a doubt in our mind that in many in- 
stances, where like occurrences take place, 
the tault is in the model postmaster, and not 
in the editor and publislier, although, of 
course, neither of them is so perfect that such 
things may not occur. Such omissions cannot 
well occur in the mailing department of a well- 
regulated office. They keep a special mailing 
biiok, in which the names are not grouped in 
alpliabetical order, butaccording to postoffices, 
whether of cities, towns, villages or rural 
liamlets, and if they omit one name they are 
j list as likely to omit all. Even after the papers 
have left tlie printing office they may be -car- 
ried to the wrong State, county or postoffice ; 
but all this transpires under the auspices of 
the postoffice officials, and not under the mail- 
ing system of the newspaper or periodical 
publisher. 

LIME. 
"The utility of lime as a manure consists 
in loosening the tenacious nature of some 
soils, rendering them more friable and recep- 
tive of vegetable fibres ; it especially facili- 
tates the di.ssolution and putrefaction' of ani- 
mal and vegetable sulistances, which are thus 
more readily received and circulated in the 
growing plant ; and it has the power of ac- 



50 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 



quring aud long retaining moisture, thus ren- 
dering the soil cool and nutritive to the plants 
that vegetate in it. The power that lime has 
of absorbing moisture will be better under- 
stood when we say that one hundred weight 
will, in five or six days, when fresh, absorb 
five pounds of water, and that it will retain in 
the shape of powder, when slackened or 
loosened, as is commonly said, nearly one- 
fourth of its weight. " * » * * 

We extract the foregoing from the Journal 
of a Naturalist, published in 1831. The pub- 
lisher remarks in a foot-note: "The weight 
of lime is very variable, dift'ering in different 
places ; but taking our lime at the average of 
eighty pounds to the bushel, some idea may 
be conceived of the cooling nature of the 
substance. Lime, to be used as a manure, 
must be in a pulverized state ; and by draw- 
ing on the land the quantity we do, we con- 
vey to every acre so dressed an equivalent to 
two hundred and tifty gallons of water, not to 
be evaporated, but retained in the soil as a 
refrigerent to the fibres of vegetation." 

The writer then goes on to say (it is an 
English work that we are quoting from) 
"our farmers, availing themselves of this 
cheap article, use considerable quantities, 
composted with earth for their diflerent crops, 
at the rate of net less than one hundred 
bushels to the acre. This is a favorite sub- 
stance for their potato lands. The return in 
general is not so large as when grown in 
manure from the yard ; but the tubers are 
said to be more mealy and better flavored." 

"The utility #f lime in various arts, agri- 
culture, manufactories and medicine is very 
extensive, and in many cases indispensable ; 
and the abundance of it spread throughout 
the world, seems designed as a particular 
Providence for the various ends of creation. 
Lime and sihcious matter compose a very 
large portion of the dense substance of our 
earth ; the shells of marine animals contain 
it abundantly •, our bones have eighty parts 
in one hundred of it ; the egg-shells of birds 
above nine parts in ten— during incubation, 
it is received by the embryo of the bird, in- 
durating the cartilages and forming the 
bones." 

"It may startle, perhaps, the belief of 
some, who have never considered the subject, 
to assert what is apparently a fact, that a 
considerable portion of those prodigious clifis 
of chalk and calcareous stone that in many 
places control the advance of the ocean, pro- 
trude in rocks through its waters, or incrust 
such large portions of the globe, are of animal 
origin — the exuvia, of marine substances or 
the labors of minute zoophytes, which once 
inhabited the 'great deep.' " 

These formations are all nearly pure lime i 
and the organic remains of marine animals 
especially, abound in chalk cUffs, in chalk 
pits, and in chalk beds wherever they may be 
found, as well as in many beds of solid lime- 
stone. 

That lime rehardens after being made soft, 
as in mortar, is owing to the power which it 
has of acquiring carbonic acid gas— the fixed 
air from the atmosphere — according to Dr. 
Black. When the stone is burned this gas is 
driven off by heat, though it slowly reabsorbs 
it, aud thus it supplies the plants with carbon 
when it is thoroughly incorporated with the 
soil. Lime, when mixed with sharp sand and 
made into mortar may, in time, become as 
hard as the original rock was from whicli it 
was first bm-nt, by its reabsorption of carbon 
as an acid or gas. When limestone contains 
88 parts of carbonate of lime, 8 parts of mag- 
nesia, 1 part of silex and 3 parts of aluminous 
or combustible substances, it may be con- 
sidered good for mortar, or as a fertilizing 
auxiliary. 

It seems to us if lime does nothing more 
than absorb moisture and carbon, which are 
again absorbed .by the roots aud leaves of 
vegetation, through the lime as a medium, it 
ought not to be ignored or expunged from the 
list of fertilizers, as some of those claiming to 
be advanced in agricultural science seem dis- 
posed to do. It is too widely diffused through- 



out the globe to be regarded as useless for 
fertilizing purposes, although it may not al- 
ways, nor in all places, be entitled to the 
merit that is claimed for it. Much will de- 
pend upon the time, the place and the quantity 
of its elementary principals that may be 
needed by the soil. It seems very evident 
that where it already exists in sufficient 
abundance the addition of more may not only 
do no good, but may do much harm, and this 
is the reason perhaps that there is such a 
diversity of opinion upon the subject of its 
use. Nothing but a thorough knowledge of 
the previous condition of the soil can de- 
termine whether it should be applied or not. 

KITCHEN-GARDEN FOR APRIL. 

In the Middle States now is the time to 
plant and sow if we would hope to reap. 
Those of us who do not avail ourselves of the 
present need not expect to profit in the future. 

The exact time, however, in which certain 
seeds should be sown must depend not only 
on location in respect to latitude, but also on 
the nature of the soil ; if it be heavy a little 
delay will rather promote than retard our 
object. It is impracticable, in advance, to 
always give undeviating directions — the com- 
mon sense of each one must be brought into 



Asparagus sow, or plant roots, if not at- 
tended to last mouth. This vegetable is now 
coming into season. Whenever practical, a 
bed of sufficient size should be made to permit 
an ample supply without cutting every feeble 
shoot which peeps above the surface ; ind-ed, 
where space and means admit, two beds should 
be maintained and cut alternate seasons. The 
colossal appears to sustain its repuation. 
Beans, bush or bunch, sow. Broccoli, purple 
cape is the best to sow. Beets, early and long, 
sow. Cabbage, drumhead and flat Dutch, 
sow freely, that there be enough for the fly 
and to plant ; also other sorts of a reliable 
character, which will afford an uninterrupted 
succession, so desirable in every country family. 
Carrots, early horn and long orange, sow. 
Cauliflower, late, sow. Celery, sow, if not 
sown last month. Cress, sow. Cucumber, 
early frame, sow in warm spot. Horseradish 
plant, if not already done. Hot-beds attend 
to. Leek, sow. Lettuce, sow in drills ; also 
plant from beds of last autumn's sowing. 
Marjorum, sweet, sow. Mustard for salad, 
sow. Nasturtiums, sow. Onions, Buttons 
for table use plant, and sow thickly for sets. 
Parsley, sow. Parsnips, sugar, sow. Peas, 
earlyandlate, for a succession, sow. Potatoes, 
plant plenty of the early rose for the main 
supply during summer and autumn. Radish, 
long scarlet and white aad red turnip, sow, it 
not already sown ; also the golden globe and 
white summer for succession. Salsify, sow. 
Sage, sow or plant. Spinach, the savory, sow 
at short intervals. Thyme, sow or plant. To- 
matoes, sow to succeed those sown in hot- 
beds. Turnips, sow, if not sown last month— 
they may succeed. In short, this is the season 
for the main sowing and planting in the Mid- 
dle States. A small expenditme of time will 
yield large results. 

SUPPOSED SULPHUR SHOWER. 

A part of Eastern Pennsylvania seems to 
be somewhat exercised— perhaps agitated— 
about an assumed shower of sulphiu*, which 
is said to have fallen in various places yester- 
day (March 17) morning, including the 
southern portion of Lancaster city. But was 
it really sulphur that fell y Did anybody in 
Lancaster city test it ? None of it fell in the 
northern part of the city that we saw or heard 
of. What a pity that those who did see it, 
had not collected a pertion of it, and tested it 
themselves or submitted it to some one whose 
testimony would have been received by the 
public. The paragraphs going the rounds of 
the newspapers are very unsatisfactory, if they 
mean anything at all, inasmuch as not one of 
them states vmo tested the substance, or who 
says it was sulphur. 

In the sprmg or summer of 1843 a large 
quantity of a yellow substance fell over a 



large portion of Eastern Pennsylvania, and 
long articles on the subject appeared in the 
papers of Lancaster city, notably in the Lan- 
caster Intelligencer, then published by Col. J. 
W. Forney. One correspondent, in an article 
of some length, gravely pronounced it sul- 
phur, but a member of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences analyzed it, aad tore the 
other's theory and deductions all to tatters. 
We also, on that occasion, collected a quantity, 
dried and tested it, for the surface of the 
water in many of the rainstands in Marietta 
were covered with it. It ignited and burned 
with difficulty, but emitted' no sulphur fumes. 
The fumes were very similar to those of burn- 
ing vegetation, faintly approximating to the 
fumes of "Langell's remedy for asthma and 
catarrh," a box of which is now before us, 
and which we frequently inhale as a relief to 
nasal catarrh. We believe the member of 
the Academy pronounced it pollenacious. 
The shower of 1843 fell at night, and the 
substance was noticed the following morning. 
The theory was that a strong south wind had 
passed over the floral fields or pine forests of 
the South— perhaps Florida, Alabama and 
South Carolina— and that the pollen, or f ecim- 
dating dust of the flowers, over which the 
wind passed, was carried up into an upper 
current of air and carried northward until it 
encountered a shower of rain, when it was 
borne down earthward. Many similar plie- 
nomena were referred to at that time as 
having previously occurred. It was not de- 
nied, that " flower of sulphur " might be also 
thus carried by a current of air, for ashes and 
sulphurious dust had been before observed 
falling on vessels at sea supposed to have 
come from far distant volcanic eruptions ; but 
the special shower to which we allude, was 
not sulphur by any means. What this last 
substance was, may never be known, for it 
appears that nobody with a " local habitation 
and a name," has gone to the trouble to 
properly investigate it. It may have been 
pollen also — for a week ago we heard that 
Florida is already blooming with flowers 
it may have been sulphur. This may have 
bejuthe case without the near approach of 
the world's end, or the Judgment Day ; bui 
whatever it was, we are compelled to hold our 
opinion in suspension until the matter is 
properly authenticated. 

We commiserate the poor Allentown woman 
ana recall an instructive anecdote, as a remedy, 
In the early history of New England a very< 
dark day occurred— so dark indeed, that tl 
chickens retired to roost at noon. The Gen- 
eral Council or Legislature of one of the colo- 
nies (we think Connecticut) was in session. 
Vhe members became alarmed, for they be- 
lieved the Judgment Day had come, and one 
of them moved an adjournment. But a calm 
and placid elderly gentleman arose and 
opposed it. He said : "The Judgment Day 
is coming or it is not coming. If it is not 
coming, there is no necessity for alarm ; but 
if it is coming, I wish to be found doing my 
duty. I therefore move that lights be brought 
in." 

Three Days Later. 

It seems almost unnecessary to say anything 
more about the assumed sulphur shower of 
Monday last, but at the same time, to show 
tliat some live person has investigated it, and 
that our surmises (not having seen the sub- 
stance) were an approximation to the real 
truth of the matter, we offer the following 
from the Easton Daily Express of the 20th 
inst., the writer of which is well known here, 
and is an unquestionable authority in matters 
relating to pollenacious phenomena : 

"A microscopic examination of a portion of 
the yellow matter, which appeared in the 
streets of Easton after the snowstorm of Mon- 
day morning, proves it to consist of pollen 
grains, united at first, but separated when 
dry, or when again wetted. They correspond 
in every respect with those of the long-leaved 
or yellow pines of the Southern States (Ptiius 
aiistralis Michx.), with which they have been 
carefully compared. This pine, though very 
abundant in the lowlands of North Carolina, 



i 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



51 



(l.H's not cxt.'iid iKirth into Virgiiii:i. Tho 
1 iitiiiK'ii in lldWtT, wliicli i'lii-nislK'cl tho pol- 
h II lor comiiarison, was itatlicifd near Wil- 
mington, N. C, iu tlie inontli ol" March. 
( iirronts of air luive, no (loul)t, hrou^'ht from 
that distant region enough of tlie polltn tu 
]Hi\vderliglitly aconsiderabledistrict in >;ortli- 
i i-i.iii rennsylvania. Tims tar, it has been 
iiportid as seen in the eounties of IJerks, 
I ihi'di. Carbon and !Northaini)ton. I may 
statc'also that I have found water in rain- 
ho-,lieads, inCenlral l'enns\ ivaiiia, covered 
with pollen of pine I r>cs. l.roiiu'ht by the winds 
tVoni the ueighburiug mountains at the season 
of their flowering, in the month of May." — 
Thomas C. Porter. 

We would have been content to have let the 
matter rest with our last i)aper t)n tlie subject, 
did we not know that there are siiiu<' persons 
in this city who will insist that the Nubstanee 
iu question was veritable "brimstone;" and 
that our opinion, in the absence of material 
data, had only been presumptive and not 
positive. 

"STRAWBERRY PROTECTUS." 

Our attention was called sonic days ago to 
a newly-invented iniplenieut to protect straw- 
bi-rries from the dirt and sand that sometimes 
accumulate on them during drenching 
showers of rain, or that peculiar earthy flavor 
they sometimes imbibe by resting upon and 
ripening on the ground, or on the mulchings 
whh which the ground is covered, and which 
Incomes often saturated with unpleasant 
moistures. This is simply a square or round 
( oncaved earthen disk, about twelve inches 
ui diameter, with a round hole in the centre, 
through which the plant is trained. When 
the plant is matured and in fruit, the branches 
bend outwardly, and the fruit rests within 
the concaved disk (forming a shallow dish), 
the bottom or sides inclining towards the 
plant, thus keeping dry and clean and easily 
gathered. But this is not all it does. It 
shades the ground, and the dews and surplus 
moisture falling from the plant gradually 
trickles down towards the base of the plant 
and supply the roots. The fruit, in our 
opinion, will also be protected froiu certain 
-]ieries of milipedes that attack it from the 
luulerside when it is lying on the ground, or 
half buried in the mulching under the plants. 

BUCKWHEAT CAKES AND SAUSAGES. 

As some approximation to the consumption 
of animal food in Lancaster county we clip 
the following item fiom a current number of 
the iViEio Era, as the result of two months in 
a single town, and that not among the largest 
towns in our county. This was all slaughtered, 
presumably, for home consumption, and we 
may infer, therefore, that the town is pretty 
well fortified against a famine, so far at least 
as beef and pork can "stave off" such- a 
calamity. Surely that ancient borough must 
have enjoyed a reign of "buckwheat cakes 
and sausages," to say nothing about roast 
beef and "boloneys. " Lancaster county can 
always take care of " her own," and without 
a doubt always will take care of them, what- 
1 \er may transpire adverse to the general 
lirosperity. This makes no account of the 
"chicken lixens " and other edible etceteras 
employed in " settingoff " a good table. Should 
there unfortunately be any future starvelings 
they will do well to keep an eye on Adamstown. 

Live Stock Slaughtered in the Borough of 
Adamstown. 

"The following is a true and correct ac- 
count of beef, pork and veal slaughtered in 
the borough of Adamstown by the different 
butchers during the mouths of November and 
December of 1878. We will first give a list of 
citizens who slaughtered porkers weighing 
over 400 pounds : Esais Billingfelt. 091, 58i5, 
570 ; John Musser, GiO, 632 ; Sebastian Mil- 
ler, .591, 495 ; William J. Frame, 606, 491 : 
Levi Hemich, 500, 551 ; Edwin Coldren, 522, 
495; Henry Seigfreid, 688, 595; Edward 
Smith, 437, 412 ; Hemy Kegar, 510, 470 ; 
Jonathan Plickiiiger, 500, 417 ; Franklin 



Woods, 452, 422 ; William Myberger, 500 ; 
,Iohn Klapp, 52:i ; (Jeorge Bollmau, .525 ; A. 
S. Kaudenbush, 497 ; Henry Trostle, 490; 
William Krich, 469, 400 ; lleurv K. Bucher, 
'1(17; Mor-an 11. Clark, 447 : .b.iiu Slote, 447 ; 
William Fichthoru, 40.-) ; James B. I'rutzman, 
445 ; David Laudis, 442 ; A. C. Snader, 417 ; 
Daniel Siegfried, 437; Ileniy Haller, 447; 
Franklin Knemer, 400 ; Moses Yelk, 440; 
Solomon Good, 400 ; Conrad Hertz, WD ; John 
Uathmau, 47(1; John Slote, 4.->4 ; Samuel Col- 
dren, 4J(); .loshua Spat/., 417; Wm. Mohn, 
44.-.; Levi Schuader, 4.^iO ; .Mn-aham Lutz, 
4.J0, making a total of 50 head, weighing, 24,- 
032 pounds, or an average of over 480 pounds ; 
254 head weighing 58,601 pounds, or an aver- 
age of over 234 pounds per head ; or a grand 
total of 82,033 pounds of pork, 131,000 pounds 
of beef, and 3,000 pounds of veal, of which 
Henry Echternach, butchei-, slaughtered 30,- 
507 pounds, Frederick Goodhart, 28,000 
pounds, Henry Eedcay, jr., 0,000 pork and 
20,000 beef, Flickinger & Landis, 3,000 pork 
and 15,000 beef, Redcay Bros., 14,400 pork 
and 24,000 beef. Christian Flickinger, 18,000 
beef, and William F. Hegar, jr., 3,000 pounds 
veal and 54,000 pounds beef" 

SPRING AND WINTER TREE 
CLEANING. 
By the time our next number appears 
many of the pestelential insects that infest 
vegetation will be "lively" and hungry enough 
to begin their destructive careers. The foliage 
and bloom of fruit trees, vines and shrubbery 
will then be too far advanced to admit of 
cleaning, or the application of active reme- 
dies in many cases without more or less injury 
to their tender condition. If cocoons, clirys- 
alids, web and egg masses are not now re- 
moved, it may then be too late to do tliis 
work effectually without entailing much 
trouble. AVe are often surprised to see so 
much apathy or positive indifference in mat- 
ters of so much importance. Many people 
pay no attention to the subject at all until 
they are forced to do so by the presence of 
hordes of insects devouring their plants, 
shrubbery, &c. Now this need not neces- 
sarily be so, if only a little attention is given 
the subject. On one occasion a lady called 
our attention to a rose bush, the leaves upon 
which were fast becoming skeletonized and 
dry and crisp. When we pointed out to her 
something less than two hundred greenish 
rose-slugs, [selandria rosea) she was utterly 
astonished ; she had not noticed them before, 
and thus it is in many instances. People 
seem to expect that insects will come to them 
and say, " here I am, kill me." 

PERSONAL. 

Much time, trouble and misunderstanduig 
would be saved to the editor, the publisher 
and the patrons of The Farmer if those 
having relations in any wise wth the oflice, 
would give heed to the following : All com- 
munications relating to business, including 
advertising, subscriptions, remittances, ex- 
changes, &c., should be addressed to Jno. A. 
Hiestand, No. 9 North Queen street— the 
PuBLisiusR. All essays, contributions, book 
notices and communications intended for pub- 
lication, to S. S. Eathvon, No. 101 North 
Queen street— the Editou. 

IS THE LOWEST PRICE THE CHEAP- 
EST ? 

This is a qucetioD that Is daily aekcd by all. Iu 
nearly every tranBaction of buying and selling, the 
purchaser fluda his or her mind reverting to this 
question and trying to solve the problem. By a very 
large majority of people price is the first and princi- 
pal criterion of value, and thousands upon thousands 
of persons make it their rule to buy that for which 
the smallest price is asked, believing that in thus 
saving a penny they are earning one. We beliere it 
capable of proof, however, that in nine cases out of 
ten a penny thus "saved" is two pence thrown away. 
It is owing mainly to this propensity for hunting 
"bargains, and insisting upon low prices at the ex- 
pense of quality, that goods manufactured in this 
country compare generally so unfavorably with simi- 
lar classes of goods manufactured in foreign "coun- 
triea. Our readers, if there be any "bargain-hunters" 



among them, may object that they do not insist upon 
low prices at the expense of quality, but for prices 
combined with fine quality and the best goods. Such 
a cnmlihiulidn of conditions may be Inbisted upon, 
but liiii by no possibility exist aa a rule. There may 
lie t,'xi(|ili(inal cases, when goods of fine quality are 
60l<l at less than their cost; an owner may be forced 
make sacrllices: but it is not exceptions we arc 
iling of but rules. Mr. A. may have a stock of 
goods for sale, and, on account of heavy payments 
he has to make, may find It to his Interest to sacrifice 
on ^is goods for a few weeks, In order to force sales 
and put him in possession of necessary funds ; and 
it may be cheai)er for him to raise the money needed 
in tins way than to hold his goods and borrow money, 
paying interest for it. That Is a natural and legiti- 
mate business transaction. But it is impossible for 
Mr. A. to sell, day after day and year atler year, 
goods equal in quality to those his neighbor oflers at 
half the price. Klther he is losing money, needlessly 
and recklessly, or the supposed cheapness of his 
goods is a fallacious one. As no dealer could long 
stand such a drain upon his resources, even if he had 
the desire to scatter the beneflts of his charily thus 
indiscriminately, we are forced at once to abandon 
our flrsl hyiJOthesis. We see him getting richer year 
by year— perhaps even more rapidly than his com- 
petitor, who sells better goods at higher prices. The 
fact is indisputable ; cheap goods are invariably of 
poor quality. Woolen goods containing shoddy can 
be bought at a less price per yard than similar ap- 
pearing goods made wholly ol wool. In fact, the 
former can be bought at retail at a less price than 
the first cost of manufacturing the latter. But It by 
no means follows that those who manufacture or sell 
shoddy are losing money, or selling bargains ; on the 
contrarj , such goods are infinitely dearer, as can be 
easily demonstrated by any one who doubts it, to 
their own satisfaction — or, more correctly speaking, 
to their own sad dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, there 
are thousands of people who think It economy to 
buy such goods — paying less to-day, to be sure, but 
paying about three times in the time that one garment 
made of good all-wool cloth would have lasted. One 
housewife may think sugar at six cents per pound 
cheap, and hold up their hands in holy horror at 
what she terms and believes the extravagance of a 
neighbor who buys clean, pure sugar at twelve cents 
per'pound. There is no modification in pure sugar 
any more than in the component parts of the air we 
brcathe;--aud,if wemustuse adulterated substances. If 
we believe them cheaper, why not buy the pure articles 
and adulterate them ourselves. Probably no woman 
would buy a pound of sugar at twelve cents and mix 
it with an equal quantity of sand, so that she might 
say her sugar costs her six cents per pound ; but such 
absurdity would be wiser and more economical than 
to buy a similar article already adulterated, as a 
grocer who does the adulterating would not only 
have to be paid for his trouble and labor, but would 
make a profit for himself, by charging her, perhaps, 
eight cents for what she could produce for six. Ik) 
not understand us to assert that all sugar sold by 
grocers at low prices has been mixed by them with 
aultcrating and cheapening substances; such is by 
no means the case. Thousands of grocers find their 
principal sales of sugars to be of this grade, who 
would no more adulterate than they would pick 
pockets. It is not essential to our argument to desig- 
nate how, where, or by whom adulteration is done, 
we only desire to show the indubitable fact that it 
exists in all low grade goods, and iu the case of 
sugars it may more frequently exist, from the fact 
that it has never been purified or refined — that the 
adulterating substances contained in it at the time of 
its manufacture in the tropics, have never been re- 
moved ; but the housekeeper can no more afford to 
pay for adulteration that has always been in the 
sugar, than she can for that that may have been sur- 
reptitiously incorporated with it yesterday. This 
universal desire to cheapen every article bought, the 
strange belief that as good an article can be bought 
for fifty cents as for a dollar, has forced the pro- 
ducers and sellers of goods, in self-protection, to 
lower the cost of each article, in order to meet the 
ideas of the buyer as to price, and reduction iu cost 
is as invariably reduction iu quality, as the fact that 
two from four'always leaves two, and never three or 
four. 

Tlie foregoing we extract from a long arti- 
cle in the January number of the Electric Mes- 
senyer, a demifolio, published in the city of 
Philadelphia, seemingly in the interest of a 
special occupation ; but the arguments are to 
the point, and are applicable to all trades and 
occupations whatever they may be. Never, 
until ignorance is banislied from the world, 
and its place is occupied by wisiloiu (not even 
will learning suflice, for one may be learned 
without lieing wise) will the masses of the 
people have an intelligent understanding of 
their truest intere.sts, or be able to answer the 
question which forms the caption of our 
quotation. At the first blush, no doubt, ten 
to one, or perhaps fifty to one, would answer 



52 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 



iu the affirraative ; but the most competent 
judges, supported by their own experiences, 
would, without a doubt, answer negatively, 
and from the experiences of considerably 
more than half a centurj' we can truthfully 
corroborate the sentiment. The question is 
one that should always be considered from 
general principles, and relating to general 
principles. Merchandise sacrificed under the 
sheriff's hammer, or sacrificed by the pro- 
prietor himself, in order to save himself from 
foreclosure, cannot be regarded as establish- 
ing the market value of a commodity. These 
are extraordinary cases — contingencies result- 
ing from causes that are independent of com- 
mercial rule. Under such circumstances the 
lower price may often be the cheaper. Per- 
sons who accustom themselves to buy only 
under such circumstances, and then to buy 
much more than they need, in order to be 
supplied until the next financial failure in the 
community, will doubtless be always looking 
for and expecting such sales of distress ; and 
if they de not occur frequent enough to gratify 
their penurious desires, they may soon accus- 
tom themselves to really wish for such adverse 
contingencies to their fellow men. A man 
may perhaps better himself pecuniarily, but 
it is questionable if he is permanently im- 
proving his morals. No, tlie question must 
be considered in its permanent, legitimate 
and "regular" form, on such principles of 
equitable compensation as will redound to the 
prosperity of the whole community, ' ' year in 
and year out." In such a case we believe it 
will be demonstrable that the lowest price is 
not the cheapest to him who can atford a 
higher one. Of course, we do not mean that 
extortionate prices should rule the market ; 
but there should be a fair and equitable com- 
pensation to all laboring and trading occupa- 
tions, and merchandise should not be sold 
below the cost of original production — nor 
can it be without inflicting serious injury upon 
some one, and this generally falls upon the 
poor laboring men. It is frequently alleged 
that these low prices benefit the poor, but 
this is only a superficial or transient benefit at 
best, and even if true, it does not establish 
the fact that the lowest price is always the 
cheapest. In addition to the fact that things 
very low in price are often entirely worthless 
and soon present a shabby appearance, it 
often transpires that when people flatter 
themselves that they have saved twenty-five 
cents, fifty cents or a dollar on a small pur- 
chase, that they spend what they have thus 
saved in the purchase of some luxury that is 
absolutely hurtful to them. 

It is not long since a couple of rural ver- 
dants went cheapening over a whole town, 
and then entered a place of doubtful reputa- 
tion to indulge their appetites with their 
savings ; and indulged to such an excess that 
they both became blindly "fuddled," in which 
condition the one had his pocket picked, and 
the other lost his package of goods. On an- 
other occasion one thought he had saved 
about five dollars on a larger purchase, and 
then felt his need of a buggy ride and its 
usual accompaniments. He became jubilant, 
and drove like another "Jehu," was arrested 
by a policeman, taken before an alderman, 
and fined seven dollars for violating the law 
regulating the driving speed of the town. 
Things excessively low priced often tempt 
people to buy what they do not need, or more 
than they need, thus squandering their means 
on iiseless trash, and perhaps that which they 
really do need, they are subsequently com- 
pelled to buy on credit. These remarks do 
not include that class who have only a very 
small amount of cash, and are compelled to 
get the largest quantity for it— wthout regard 
to quality — to keep them from starving or 
freezing ; but even witli them, had they been 
able to pay a few dollars more, they might 
have secured cheaper goods. 



Wanted at this office, the following num- 
bers of The Lancaster Farmer : .January 
and November, 1869 ; March and July, 1873, 
and February, 1874. 



Queries and Answers. 



Charleston, Ark., JIarch 4th, 1879. 

Dr. Rathvon— ZifiD- fiir: Being a subscriber to 
your valuable paper, The Lancaster Farmer, 
through a relative of ours in your State, I take the 
liberty of asking some questions relative to an ani- 
mal we recently shot near our hen house. Color a 
dark brown, white under the neck ; neck rather thick, 
countenance very sharp, eye lively, teeth sharp and 
close together, legs short, long body, tail not so 
bushy as a squirrel's, had a peculiar smell, reminding 
you of a rauskrat. Owing to the night being dark 
when shot could not say whether it moves slow or 
quick. Would jou please tell me, through your 
paper, if the above animal is amphibious in'habits ; 
is it related to the mink, if not what family does it 
belong to ? Wishing your excellent paper every suc- 
cess I remain yours truly, Ocorge B. Pixton. 

From the dark brown color, white under a 
thickish neck, musky odor, &c., and espe- 
cially being found prowling about a poultry 
house, I should judge that the animal you 
shot is the "common mink," {.Mustela 
lutreola. — L. ; Putoruis vison. — Rich.) which, 
from its amphibious character, in times long 
past, was called the "little otter," as Lin- 
neeus' specific name implies. In describing 
mammals— especially those belonging to the 
family Mustelid.e— the length of the body 
from the end of the nose to the root of the 
tail, and from the root of the tail to its end 
should be carefully measured, and its teeth 
should be counted also. Minks usually con- 
struct their burrows on the banks of or near 
streams of water. They feed largely on flsh, 
frogs and mollusks, but are nlso de.structive 
to rabbits, rats and mice. But they also 
wander a considerable distance from streams 
and commit depredations upon poultry. They 
are fully as much at home in the water as the 
muskrat is, and they are in the habit of emit- 
ting an odor as strong, and more disagreeable 
than that of the animal last named. They 
may be domesticated and become very fami- 
liar, but it is suggested that their blood- 
thu-stiness might render them dangerous to 
children in case they were not regularly sup- 
plied with their accustomed food. 



Salisbury, Pa., March 22, 1879. 
Prof. S. S. Rathvon— Z>eaj- .Sir; Enclosed find 
a small object which I would like to know some- 
thing about. In appearance it resembles the egg of 
some insect, or a pebble, but yet is not so hard as a 
pebble. Please state what it may be. If you do not 
decide what it is, I will inform you how and where I 
obtained it, and then, perhaps, you can tell more 
about it. Yours respectfully, 

David M. Geoff. 

Dear Sir : Your letter containing "object" 
duly received, and in reply, first allow me to 
say that you should at once have accompanied 
it with the information you seem to have in 
reserve ; because, such problems, entirely 
isolated, are not always of easy solution, and, 
therefore, I can only answeryou approximately. 

The object in question, is neither the "egg 
of some insect " nor yet " a pebble," so far as 
I am able to determine. Under the micro- 
scope it presented the external form and 
appearance of a white egg of a bird, in shape 
approximating to that of a partridge. It was 
very hard, and when broken, it was internally 
pure white, and nearly opaque, solid all 
through. With nitric acid it efliervesced very 
freely, and left a translucent salt, perhaps a 
nitrate of lime, which was soluble partially in 
alcohol and water. It is therefore a pure cal- 
careous concretion, and may have been gotten 
out of the stomach of a fresh water ''cray- 
fish," or a mollusk of some kind. In the 
LinnDean collection are several specimens 
taken from the stomach of a cray-fish {astatus 
hartonii) which strongly resemble this speci- 
men. They are commonly called "crabs' 
eyes," and have been used to remove small 
objects from the eyes of human beings and of 
animals. Similar concretions have been found 
in clams, river mussels, and other bivalve 
shells, in which they are the neucli of a com- 
mon variety of pearls. It is true, that such 
an object may be found in the bed of some 
rivulet, entirely disconnected from either a 
cray-fish or a shell, but they may still have 



originated within the body of the one or the 
other. 

This is the most intelligent answer I can 
make from the meagre data furnished me, 
and may be a correct one or not. I am at all 
times willing to give such information on such 
subjects as I possess ; but I am not supposed 
to know everything. And here let me dis- 
tinctly state that I should be put in possession 
of the circumstances under which objects are 
found that I am expected to investigate and 
give information on — when, where,"in what 
or on what, and also the time. 

As the writer has only requested me, how- 
ever, to "state what it may be," this must be 
regarded as my answer to his query. 

Salisburt, Pa., March 28, 1879. 

Prof. S. S. Rathvon— iJcar Sir: Tour reply 
duly received . I beg pardon for not giving you the 
necessary information as to how and where I ob- 
tained the crab eye, as you say they are generally 
termed. I was curious to know what you would 
have to say about it without that information ; you 
are perfectly correct, as I obtained it from the inside 
of an oyster, not only inside of the shell but inside of 
the oyster, and this is what caused my curiosity as 
to how it got there and what it might be. Thanking 
you for your valuable information, and having every 
reason to believe you do know a good many things 
pertaining to this science, 1 am yours respectfully, 
David M. Groff. 

If taken from an oyster (Mollusk), of course 
it must be considered a " pearl." 

Mr. J. K. F., Marietta, Pa.— The mineral 
you dug up in your garden is a very fine speci- 
men of Bed Oxide of Zinc, otherwise called 
Ruby Blend. The specimen also contains an 
ore of iron, called FrankUnite. Its being 
found in your garden was purely accidental. 
Very likely it is from the locality of Franklin, 
New Jersey. 

The specimens from the Freed farm, York 
county, contain 6ree7i Carbonate and Sulj^huret 
of Copper. We recognize it as the same we 
obtained at that locality forty years ago. It 
seems strange that there has been no further 
development of that mine during the inter- 
vening series of years. Prospecting was done 
on the farm more than forty years ago, but at 
that time the proprietor, we believe, was un- 
willing either to lease or sell. 

The specimens supposed to be Brazilian are 
of the same varieties of copper as the fore- 
going, but judging from their greater specific 
gravity, we' think they contain more metallic 
copper than the former. One of the latter and 
two of the former appear to be of the variety 
called Gray Copper. Possibly the specimens 
have become mixed. Any of them seem rich 
enough to be mined, and probably would pay. 



Contributions. 



For The Lancaster Fabmes. 
MORE LIGHT. 
In reply to an " Amateur Farmer," in the 
March number of The Farmer, I beg leave 
to say, that by the terms, " rising " and "set- 
ting " of the moon I mean the moon's ascen- 
sion and decension. If he looks at the 
" explanation of astronomical characters," in 
any csmmon almanac, he will at once become 
acquainted with the various characters which 
designate those changes in the phases of the 
moon. Let him then turn to the month of 
April, and he will find that the moon's ascen- 
sion begins on C4ood Friday, the 11th of that 
month, and continues to the 24th of the same. 
After that date its descension begins, and 
continues until the 8th of May. Now, I usu- 
ally plow only part of the day, and can al- 
ways see when to begin by consulting the 
almanac. Therefore, my time to plow stiflF, 
clayey soil in April, is from the 11th to the 
24th, not only for potatoes, but for any kind 
of crop, whether grain or vegetables. "Ama- 
teur" says, farmers who regulate their plow- 
ing by the moon, have been very backward in 
giving their reasons to the public. This is 
not .so very wonderful. Perhaps they had 
never been reasoned with on the subject, and 
only formed their conclusions from practical 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



53 



results withiu the spheres of their experiences. 
Our fathers and our grand fathei-s had but a 
hmited education, and although they A-iieir 
what they were doing, and how to do it, .so 
far as it related to their own mental and 
physical energies, yet so far as the invisible 
operations of nature were concerned, they 
did not pretend to know any more than the 
philosophy of the present day can tell how a 
seed germinaks and grown. "Perhaps another 
reason why they have felt backward in present- 
ing their e.xperiences to the public is, because 
those who assume to be better educated than 
they have not only met them with absolute 
disbelief, but also with ridicule. Of course I 
was aware of this before I wrote on the sub- 
ject, but I thoiiLiht thei-e were some readers of 
The F.VRMEit who were not too highly edu- 
cated to lie benelited. Others may smile at 
what they may consider my simplicity, but 
the deductions of a long life of experience 
no one can deprive me of by a mere act of 
disbelief, backed by ridicule. In conclusion, 
there are very few now— no matter how highly 
educated they are — who disbelive that the 
tides of the ocean are influenced, or caused by 
the moon ; and who can say that that orb can 
not exercise some influence over the integra- 
tion and disintegration of the soil. I am per- 
fectly aware that many have no faith in these 
things, but I am also aware that the believers 
are " legion," and that it has not been to their 
disadvantage. — J. G., Wancick, April, 1879. 

For The I.ancastee Fabmkb. 
"BALANCE OF TRADE." 

Ml!. Editor : In tlie February number of 
The Fakmek a certain J. P. takes exception 
to a portion of my essay delivered before 
"the Horticulturikl Society at Lancaster, and 
published in the January number of The 
Farmer." That part to which J. P. objects 
is what I say concerning the balance of trade 
being in our favor. Let us look at this sub- 
ject a little closer. 

It may not appear so beneficial to the United 
States, or a nation under any circumstances, 
but I am pretty well convinced that, under 
our present c<jndition of affairs, it is, notwith- 
standing we are p.iyiiig only for " dead horse. " 
The horse must be paid for dead or alive, and 
the price only depends upon what he has 
earned for us. This must regulate his value. 
Just so with our National and State debts ; 
we made them aud realized the worth of them. 

Did not a suspension of the banks always 
follow, heretofore, right on the heels of our 
having to pay the difference in silver and 
gold ? And does it not indicate good manage- 
ment for a nation to sell nm-e than they buy? 
This is the basis of success with farmers, 
merchants and well-regulated corporations ; 
why, then, does the princijile not apply to our 
governmeut ?— P. S. Heist, Litiz, Pa., March 
6tA, 187'.). 

MIGRATION OF EELS. 
Editor Lancaster Farmer : An article 
on the above in your journal, with a recpiest 
whether others have noticed the same, inter- 
ested mo, and called to mind what I saw 
about fifty years ago. ^Vhen a boy, it was 
my delight to go to the river for the first time. 
The teamster, who went to Columbia for 
lumber, was allowed to take me along. While 
they were loading the lumber I went out to 
the river, and just along the outside of a raft 
I saw a dark streiik that was moving up 
stream. Laying down flat to see what it was, 
I soon discovered that they were little eels. 
Sometimes the train would be detached for a 
few moments, ImU nomiy all the time one 
constant stream against a stream. They 
sometimes seemed to be in a mass six inches 
broatl and as deep, and so thick that at times 
the water could barely be seen beneath them. 
It would be a mere farce to form an estimate 
of the numbers, for thev were legion. In an 
hour's watching I might be sate in estimating 
them at hundreds of thousands. To make 
sure of their being eels, I used my straw hat 
as a dip-net, and succeeded in catching three 
of them. They were from four to six inches 



in length from my very best recollection, and 
the time was just before haymaking. 

The idea that they must go to the salt 
water to breed is a mistake, for they have 
been bred in ponds until .so fully stocked that 
they could be raked out by the dozen with a 
common rake. An article lately from the 
pen of an old acquaintance of mine in the 
East, who is posted on the subject, has dis- 
covered that which was formerly supposed to 
be the fat of this (mysteriously breeding crea- 
ture) is, in reality, its eggs, and that a fair- 
sized female bears nine millions of eggs. If 
this be so, we wish some were here to lay 
their eggs in the Missouri river. In the twelve 
years here but two of them have been caught. 
Long, long ago we were one of a party that in 
one night caught in a fish-basket two hundred 
of respectable-sized ones in Pequea creek, six 
miles southeast of your city. 

If you think it would interest your readers 
to learn something definite concerning the big 
cattish in this big, muddy river, I will en- 
deavor in some future nurnber to give them 
an idea of their size and habits. — Samuel 
Miller, Bhiffton, Mo. 

[We shall always be glad to hear from our 
old correspondent ; not only about the "big 
cattish," but also on any subject connected 
with agriculture, horticulture aud domestic 
economy. — Ed.J 

For The Lancabteb Fabmeb. 
AROUND THE FARM— No. 13. 

Did it ever occur to you what capital seed 
bags the wrappers of The Farmer will make. 
Our enterprising publishers use a strong paper, 
and by pasting one end shut we have a bag 
that will hold a half a pint or more. 
Gambrel Sticks. 

The past winter I made several gambrel 
sticks over a new pattern (at least to me). I 
made it like ordinary sticks, but instead of the 
usual notches, at each end, I bored one-half 
inch holes, one inch apart. This I think, after 
using it, is a decided improvement on the old 
plan, as the notches, in order to make them 
strong enough, must necessarily be made 
further ap.irt than the holes need be. In the 



centre of the stick I put a staple through with 
a rina in it. In hanging up hogs I have two 
doubfe pulleys with" hooks, one of wliich is 
fastened to a pin in the beam overhead, while 
the other is hooked into the ring in the gam- 
brel stick memioned above, when one man 
can raise a 300 jjound hog easier than two men 
can raise one of 100 pounds. The ring pre- 
vents slipping, which is sometimes the ca.se 
with old-style sticks. 

In the spring when the ground opens horses 
will generally be splashed with mud when re- 
turning froni the road. To remove it 1 find a 
knife made of a pine shingle or other thin 
board, the edges shaped concave on one side 
and convex on the other, sharpened like a 
knife, to answer better than a curry comb. 
The concave side should 
just fit the convex surface 
of the horse's leg, when, by 
the ai<l of a stifl' brush, dirt 
can t)e removed ([uickly and in a thorough 
manner. 

Harness. 
Before spring work commences, all harness 
should be taken apart and given a thorough 
washing in warm, soapy water. Don't stoi) 
washing the harness until all dirt is removed, 
iis dirt damages the leather more than the 
washing, besides it prevents the oil from 
penetrating the leather. After it is nearly 
dry oil it copiously with neatsfoot or "^'acu- 
um " oil, after which hang in the sun or a dry 
place for a day or two before using, and you 
will have soft harness all summer. — Ruralist, 
Creswell, Pa., March lath, 1879. 



For The La>cabxhr Farueb. 

THE BALANCE OF TRADE, AGAIIil. 

In reply to my article in tlii^ .lanuary num- 
ber of The Farmer a writer, signing himself 
J. S. T., undertakes in last month's issue, to 
show that I was entirely wrong in the posi- 
tion I assumed. And I will confess that if 
bold assertion, uncorroborated by facts or 
arguments, and with scarcely an attempt to 
produce either on his part, is all that is re- 
quired to sustain his position and overthrow 
mine, then he is triumphant; but not other- 
wise. 

Ho says my stat«ynents are of "doubtful 
veracity," and my arguments " utterly weak" 
and "hopele.ssly illogical." Undoubtedly lie 
wished his readers to believe they are so. 
Why then did he not endeavor to prove his 
assertions by contradicting me with facts not 
of doubtful veracity and arguments that are 
logical. His will being good, his omission to 
do either of these things will probably be at- 
tributed to its true cause by the readers of 
The Farmer. 

In my former article I stated my Ijelief that 
the statistics of the country for the last half 
century and longer, and also those of Great 
Britain, would show that in times of ))ros- 
perity the imports of each country would be 
found to exceed its exports. Up to the time 
of this writing I have not been able to lay my 
hands on a statement of the imports and ex- 
ports of Great Britain for several years, which 
I had in possession .sometime ago, and there- 
fore I cannot produce it here ; but my distinct 
recollection is that it showed the imports— I 
think it was for the live years from 1871 to 
187.) — exceeded the exports by more than 100,- 
000.000 pounds sterling. I do not ask anyone 
to take my word (or my memory) for this, 
however, at present, and will now refer to the 
official statistics of our own country. 

The "Quarterly Report of the Chief of the 
Bureau of Statistics," issued by the Treasury 
Department, at Washington, for the quarter 
ending March .31, 1>^7S, contains a statement 
of the imports and exports of the United 
States for every year from the organization of 
the government down ; and from that state- 
ment I derive the following figures (hi round 
numbers) : 

1790 to 1799, excess of Imports, - - 8101,390,000 
ISOO to 1809, excess of imiK)rts, - -183,367,000 
]810tol819, excess of imports, - - 222,110,000 
18:0 to 18i9, excess of Imports, - - 40,616,000 
1830 to 1839, ex«ess of Imports, - - 327,301,000 
1840 to 1849, excess of imports, - - 56,039,000 
1850 to 1859, excess of lm()ort8, - - 2,551,000 



Total, 5932,377,000 

It is thus seen that in every term of ten 
years up to 1800. the imports were greater 
than the exports, the aggregate excess amcmnt- 
ing to more than nine hundred million dollars. 
Can any one believe that we were doing a 
losing business in all this period of seventy 
years, aud that we were growing poorer and 
poorer year Viy year in conse(iuence of our 
foreign commerce V If that was so, is it not 
strange th.at some of the illustrious financiei's 
and statesmen of that period did not di.scovcr 
the fact and demand the total suppression of 
a trade that was proving so injurious to their 
country ? 

But in the eighteen years since 1800, includ- 
ing the time of the war of the Rebellion, 
when we were unquestionably going behind- 
hand—expending far more than we were earn- 
ing, and including also the time of the late ex- 
treme depression aud panic, the balance is 
decidedly on the other side of the book, as it 
decidedly ought not to be if the Balance of 
Trade theorists are correct, viz. : 

I8f.ll to 1869, excess of exports, - - ^44.3 ,642,000 
1871) to 1877,* excess of exports, - - 693,919,000 



Total, ----- ?1,137,.561,000 

These figures speak for themselves. Will 
Mr. J. S. T. venture to as.sert that the only 
prosperous period this country has experienced 
was during the civil war and the period of the 
subsequent panic? If so, then he is consistent 



54 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 



with himself when he maintains the proposition 
that appears to me a self-evident absurdity, 
viz.: " that the more we send abroad and the 
less we get in return for it the greater is our 
gain." lie appears to hold that our advantage 
from foreign trade depends entirely on the 
amount we send out of the country, and that 
if in exchange for this, owing to bad foreign 
markets, or other cause, we are enabled to 
purchase and bring home merchandise, &c., 
of only half the value of what we send away, 
so much the better for us. The custom house 
returns will then show ji large balance of ex- 
ports above the imports, and so we all ought 
to rejoice 1 He admits that in the case of the 
miller exporting a lot of flour, worth S50 at 
home, and importing in return for it $75 worth 
of salt, the miller gained $25. Well, did not 
the country also gain that amount, and is 
not this a genuine specimen of all the ven- 
tures of all our citizens engaged in foreign 
trade ? They invariably export our produce, 
&c., in the hope of getting back, that is of 
importing, in one shape or another, greater 
value than they exported. If they succeed in 
doing this they have accomplished their pur- 
pose, and they and the country, I maintain, 
are so much the richer ; yet the custom house 
returns will show a preponderance of imports 
over exports. But if for any cause, for in- 
stance the wreck and total loss of the out- 
going or incoming vessel, the owner loses all 
he had risked, the custom house will furnish 
evidence to all believers in the theory adopted 
by J. S. T., that the country has been en- 
riched to the extent of the whole appraised 
value of the cargo exported ! Can anything 
more be needed to show the fallacy and ab- 
surdity of the theory that an excess of exports 
over imports is a sure indication of growing 
wealth and prosperity ? 

J. S. T. affirms, by way of illustration, 
that, ' 'Of two farmers dealing with each other, 
the one who has the more money to get at the 
end of the year has the advantage." I say, 
this is not necessarily so to all. Suppose in 
their year's dealings A. has bought of B. a 
horse and a cow, worth together $200, while 
he has sold him a lot of sheep and hogs worth 
$300. Of course when they come to settle A. 
"has the more money to get," and B. must 
pay him the difference, of f 100. But does that 
prove that A. has had the advantage in the 
trade ? One has the most money, but the 
other has property to show for it that is worth 
money. What is the essential difference be- 
tween money and money's worth ? If money 
is always of more value than the property 
that it buys, why does any one part .with it to 
buy the property ? Does not the entire value 
of money arise from the fact that the owner 
of it can thereby procure other property that 
he needs or desires V— J". P., Lancaster, March 
24, 1879. 

■»■ 

For The Lascasteb Farmer. 
TURTLE-HEAD, SNAKE-HEAD, BAL- 
MONY. 

(^Chilone.) 

The chelone is a genus of plants so named 
from the Greek for tortoise, the flower, or 
corolla, resembling in shape the head of a rep- 
tile ; it is also called shell-flower, balmony, &c. 
This is not a rare plant in low or wet places — 
found in flower from July to September. 
There are two species, the C. glabra and C. 
ohliqua, and others, perhaps simpler varieties. 
Stamens four, with woolly filaments and very 
woolly, heart-shaped anthers ; smooth peren- 
nials, with upright, branching stems; opposite 
serrate leaves, and large white or purple 
flowers, which are nearly sessile, in spikes or 
clusters, and closely imlsricated with round, 
ovate bracts and bractlets. Calyx of five dis- 
tinct, imbricated sepals. Carolla inflated, 
tubular, with the mouth a little open ; the 
upper lip broad and arched, keeled in the 
middle and notched at the apex ; the lower 
woolly, bearded in the throat ; three lobed at 
the apex. So much is from Gray's Botany, in 
substance. 

The Chelone glabra, "smooth snake-head," 
and the C. ohliqua, the "purple chelone," are 
not considered distinct bv Pursh and Dr. 



Gray, but there is a marked difference in the 
color of the corolla. I have met with them 
in botanical rapibles of a most delicate pink 
blush, and through rose color to a beautiful 
purple, in different localities. This is truly a 
beautiful flower, and worthy of a place in the 
garden. Johnson enumerates eleven species, 
some from Mexico, California, &c. ; all of 
American growth. 

The generic name was given to our species 
by Toumefort. This hardy perennial of Korth 
America is usually found along the sides of 
streams. Mr Clayton collected plants of the 
purple flowering variety in 1752, and sent 
them to Mr. Miller, of England, and by him 
propagated in the Hortus Kewensis. Then 
followed the G. lyoni, a rival species, larger 
and a more resplendant flower. The scarlet 
Chelone harbata, a native of Mexico, was in- 
troduced into England by Sir Joseph Banks, 
in 1794. I simply mention this to show that 
some of our native wild flowers are highly 
prized and cultivated in Europe, while we at 
home scarcely appreciate these interesting 
plants. 

They grow wild, and hence we want some- 
thing that comes from abroad. May I hope 
to be indulged in a little gossip. I distinctly 




scientific names of things. I am aware that 
the hard names are objected to by many of 
my readers. Any name for a thing new to i 
must be remembered if we wish to make the 
thing known to others in our conversation; 
but if each one gives it his own name, how 
can he explain to another what he refers to ? 
Hence the necessity of employing names 
and phrases which apply exclusively to the 
plant or thing under consideiation — names 
in universal use by all students. True, 
these are mostly derived from the Greek 
or Latin roots, which are only familiar 
to scholars, they can see why the name ' 
is applicable. But an active intellect more 
readily acquires appropriate new names or 
special names than new meanings of old familiar 
words; hence it is better to have a specific 
term and study up to a clear comprehension 
of the subject. We soon learn what part is 
the calyx, the sepals applying to the green por- 
tion or outer cup of the flower and its divis- 
ions ; so with the corolla and petals, whether 
in one piece, like a Morning Glory, "ilfone- 
petalous," or like a rose of many separate 
leaves, and polypetalous ; also, the stems of a 
leaf is a petiole, and that of the flower the 
peduncle. Considering that these vary in form, 
color and habit of growth, to describe them 
terms or names must be had, and we may as 
well learn those used in systematic descrip- 
tions, and then the study of botany becomes 
easy enough. 

To conclude with regard to the medical 
properties of the plant above figured. Dr. 
Beacher says : " It is good to expel worms; 
make a tea and drink ; after a few days give 
a purge." 

Griffith, in his Medical Botany, page 519,. 
figures and describes this plant. He says: 
"It is tonic, cathartic and hepatic." 

On the authority of Rafinesque, who de- 
rived his knowledge of it from the Shakers, 
the Indians made extensive use of it ; in full 
doses it purges and acts powerfully on the 
liver, they say. — /. Sta^tffer. 



recall the pleasure I derived on one occasion, 
twenty or more years ago, while struggling 
along, amid shrubbery, as I followed a moun- 
tain streamlet in search of floral novelties, 
when I came across a patch of chelone 
for the first time. Oh, what a delight it is to 
the ardent botanist to discover a new and 
beautiful plant ! I had no idea of what it 
was. With eager haste I culled specimens, 
and retired to a mossy seat to inspect this 
stranger. I first examined the scales, calyx 
and corolla, carefully sketching the parts, 
and then opened the corolla, examined the 
lobes, the stamens and pistil with tlie seed 
vessel, and all things considered, found that 
it was not a Labiatse or of the moist family. 
I had met and analyzed the Pentstemon, a 
closely allied plant ; this knowledge led me to 
seek for it among the Scrophulacete, and 
found it to belong to the genus c/teloite. I 
mention this to show the advantage of study ; 
the knowledge of certain plants and generic 
characters is a guide to others, and to analyze 
and trace the affinities, a source of pleasure 
they only know who become interested. 

The study of iiny branch of natural science 
is conducive to healthy recreation, as well as 
profitable ; and it would be well if our young 
men, yes, and ladies, too, would make them- 
selves familiar with the technicalities and 



Selections. 



SEEDS. 

Frequent complaints are made that s 
do not germinate, and dealers in them are 
found fault with, when, very generally, the 
fault lies in the improper manner in which 
people plant them. 

Many take no heed of the condition of the 
soil or of the depth at which the seed should 
be planted. The temperature and moisture 
also have a controlling influence. The tem- 
perature of germination of the following seeds 
is: 

Lowest. Highest. Most Kapid. 

Wheat «°F. 104°F. 84°F. 

Barley 41 104 84 

Pea 44 182 84 

Corn 48 116 93. 

Bean 49 111 79 

Squash ..; 54 113 93 

Air-dried seed will imbibe water of absorp- 
tion completely m from 48 to 72 hours, in the 
following percentage: 

Mustard, 8 Buckwheat, 47 Oats, 60 Pea, 107 

Mille*, -S Barley. 49 Hemp, BO Clover, 

Corn, 44 Turnips, 51 Kid.Beans,96 Beets, 

Wheat, 45 Kye, 58 Horse " 194 Wh. Clover, 127 

The great difference in the amount of water 
absorbed by mustard and clover seed is worthy 
of notice. The failure of clover seed to catch, 
frequentlv arises from sowing it at a time of 
insufficient moisture, and can be obviated I 
first soaking the seed, to supply the necessary 
humidity. Millet generally secures a good catch 
even in "dry, hot weather, as a small amount 
of moisture answers for that seed. Soaking 
seed in plain water, however, entails certain 
disadvantages. If we examine the water in 
which the seed is soaking, we find that it soon 
becomes brown. It has, therefore, dissolved 
some substances from the seeds ; has actually 
macerated them. If we pour off this brown 
water and let it stand exposed to heat, it soon 
gives off the smell of ammonia, proving that 
it has soaked out nitrogenous matter, which 
nature has evidently stored in the seed for the 
nourishment of the young germ. 



70.J 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



55 



This seems to prove at least that this suli- 
stuiice is readily soluble. Moreover, the young 
plant from stid tluit has been soaked in water 
will be ciirresiH.ndiugly we.aker and of a paler 
color than that fioni seed not subjected to this 
ordeal, and the longer the action. >r the w;iter 
has continued the nu.n^ evidently will this be 
the case. Another <ibjreti..n lies in tliefnet 
that seeds soaked in water very quickly dry, 
and i-he evaporation of the water leaves Iheni 
dryer than before. Such seeds, therefore, fre- 
quently perish in dry soil, or during a con- 
tinuation of warm weather. The evils th;it 
result from soaking seeds in pure water may, 
however, be easily avoided by soaking them 
I in a solution of chemical salts of a fertilizing 
nature. In consequence of the quantity of 
salts the solution contains, it can dissolve but 
little from the seeds, while on the contrary it 
completely impregnates them with its fertiliz- 
ing ingredients, so that tlie young plants from 
seeds so treated aiipear deeii'ledly stronger and 
darker in color. Moreover, the seeds are not 
liable to dry up after having been steeped iu 
this way, but in consequence of the liygro- 
metric properties of the saline substances 
which they contain they always continue 
moist. Manuring the seed by means of steep- 
ing is of great importance ; it not only in- 
creases the number of seeds in the growing 
plant, but also a most remarkable difference in 
the proportion of gluten they contain ; that 
it produces a decidedly quicker and stronger 
growth of the young i)lant in the first fourteen 
days is certain, as it supplies it directly with 
the nutritive substances which are required 
for its vigorous development at the time it is 
just beginning to grow, and while its organs 
are yet unfit to seek nutriment over a wide 
range of soil. The vigorous development of 
the plant while young is, moreover, a sure 
guarantee of its full iierfection and ultimate 
ripening. To apply manure directly to the 
seeds in this way preserves them from squir- 
rels, mice, birds and worms, as they are im- 
pregnated with substances repungent to them, 
and it is also a protection for rust and blight ; 
it is a quicker, cheaper, more efficacious, and 
less laborious method of fertilizing them than 
to place compost in the hills or drills, and 
moreover the weed seeds then get none of the 
fertilizers which they share with the good 
seeds when composts are used. Manure for 
land, except coarse barnyard manure, should 
be .spread broadcast and harrowed iu, thus 
enriching all the soil. The roots there have 
a larger area on which to feed, as they will 
spread themselves out if properly started, and 
the soil all around them is in proper condition 
to nourish them. The Chinese are adepts in 
the art of agricnlture. and their seeds are 
manured before planting tliera. It is hoped 
this brief article will call the attention of its 
readers to the subject of which it treats ; and 
if it effects only this object good will grow out 
of it. Tlte adoption ot the plan it advocates 
will largely increase the crops of the country 
at a trifling expense for fertilizers, and the 
saving iu seed will more than counterbalance 
this increased outlay ; for when seeds are 
steeped in the manure here recommended, a 
bushel of wheat will l)e sufficient where a 
bushel and a half are required when not sub- 
jected to sneh treatment. This opinion is not 
a mere mailer of theory. Imt the result of ac- 
tual experiments, conducted on a large and 
small scale, in the Held, and in the house, and 
confirmed by the experience of many others. — 
Andrew H. Ward, Jiridf/rwater, Mass. 

SPLENIC FEVER AND HORN AIL. 

The Countrti Gentlernan contains an article 
on the above "subjects, from a veterinary sur- 
geon of thirty years' experience, as follows : 

The theories in relation to the late prevail- 
ing cattle disease are neither warranted by 
facts nor analogy. One professor tells us this 
disease is Texas fever, and is transmitted into 
the system of our cattle by contagion. He 
claims that the Texan cattle were i)erfectly 
healthy, and yet they could through conta- 
gion transmit the disease he calls Texas fever. 
Another claims the disease to be "splenic 



fever." A third claims the disease to be 
"tick fever," and says iu his rei)ort that the 
kidneys are congested, caused by impregna- 
tion with virus, and this virus is furnished by 
the liver in the shape of bad blood. When 
this leaebes the kidneys it is congested and 
furnishes venous blood, instead of water for 
the bladilei-. "When this stage is reached, he 
says, there is no possil)le cure, and solemnly 
asserts this trouble is caused by a tick. With 
a wash he had invented, he was going to en- 
tirely eradicate this disease from the .systems 
of the afflicted cattle. The above professional 
writers were unanimous in their opinions, 
that the disease was very contagious and fatal 
in results. 

I herewith present my pathological diagno- 
sis as to the character of the late cattle dis- 
ea.se, and the cause producing it, and let my 
opinion stand upon its merit. The disease is 
zymotic, comprised in that class of diseases 
which are epidemic, endemic, communicable, 
inoculable, and cajiable of propagation from 
exi.sting invisible foci or generation, induced 
by a .specific material or poison, or by the 
want of, or bad quality of food. This class 
includes four orders — miasmatic, enthetic, 
dietic and parasitic diseases. Zymotic prin- 
ciples—certain matters which of themselves, 
or by their transformation, propagate zymotic 
diseases, one of which may be accurately 
termed " typhine "—belong to the malignant 
typhoid type, and it is with this that these 
cattle were attacked. A germ was trans- 
mitted into their systems, or an invisible par- 
ticle or molecule which becomes detached 
from the existing living matter. In other 
words, the germs are supposed, under very 
favoring circumstances, to be fully capable of 
development into new forms, and to excited 
changes in the animal body, of a fermentative 
or putrefactive nature. The Texan cattle, to 
which this disease was attributed, it was said, 
were all healthy in every particular. In this 
normal condition of health it v{as impossible 
for them to transmit this disease to our native 
cattle by coming in direct or indirect contact 
with them, which would be absolutely neces- 
sary were this disease contagious. It is lioth 
possible and probable that the Texan cattle 
leave behind them germs or molecule, and 
these remain in a morbific state, while ex- 
posed to the atmosphere and other elements, 
hut through molecular attraction they are 
taken into the lungs of our native cattle, 
through the respiratory organs, while running 
in the same pasture fields where the Texan 
cattle had previously been, and by this means 
the germs or molecules come in direct contact 
with the circulation of the blood, being taken 
up by the minute capillary blood-vessels, 
thereby inoculating the system with the virus, 
and producing the malignant type of typhoid 
fever, develojied in these cattle. The' trans- 
mission of this disease from one animal system 
to another, must be accomplished by inocula- 
tion, not by one animal coming in "direct or 
indirect contact with another and taking the 
breath. Hence you will please note this dis- 
ease is infectious, but not contagious. 

I will also briefly touch upon what some 
have called hollow-horn, which, as a disease, 
never existed. The horns are composed of 
a horny cone, covering a porous or cellular 
bone. This porous bone is full of blood-vessels. 

The functions of the secretive glands are 
mncli affected by disease ; the secretions are 
sometimes suspended in febrile diseases. 
Where an active inflammation is set up in the 
animal system generally, the circulation of 
blood and the secretions are greatly disturbed. 
Hence it is easy to account for the horns 
appearing hollow. But as soon as the cause 
producing the disturl)ed circulation and secre- 
tions is removed, the organs possessing blood 
and serum, and the other organs possessing 
other fluids, are relieved, and all symptoms of 
disease and distress pass off, and the system 
is soon restored to a natural condition. There 
is no inflammation of any important internal 
organ that is not rapidly accompanied by 
fever ; and that fever and the degree to whicli 
it had reached, are easily ascertained by the 



heat of the breath, the dryness of the mouth, 
and the great development of heat at the base 
of the horns ; also by the redness of the eyes, 
the frequency and hardness of the pulse, the 
loss of appetite, and often the cessation of 
rumination. Ilenct^ the horns would appear 
liollow, as the porous or cellular Ixnie would 
be deprived of proper nourishment. I think 
I have presented suflicient facts to prove 
hollow horn is no disea.se by itself, but is pro- 
duced by sympathy and deprivation of proper 
nourishment, while the sy.stem is attacked 
with febrile disease. 

CRANBERRY CULTURE. 

A despatch from Berlin, AVisconsin, dated 
December '28tli, says : Berlin is sneeringly 
dubbed the Cranberry City by the newspapers 
of rival towns, and at picking time the visi- 
tor is impressed with the thought that it is no 
misnomer. All other busine.ss interests then 
seem subservient to this, for the harvest is of 
no mean import anee to a river town of ."5,000 
inhabitants, the annual shiiunents sometimes 
reaching the a.stounding figures of .35,000 
bushels from the large marsh of Sackett 
Brothers, whose united annual expenditures 
are not far from SKW.dOO. 

When the picking begins, in October, the 
whole country round turns out en masse, for 
cranberry time is a succession of gala days, 
men, women and chihlrcn pouring towards 
the marshes in what seems an endless stream 
of humanity, all eager to earn the excellent 
waL'Ps that are always paid. The noisy throng 
is largely made up of Scandinavians and Ger- 
mans, liy whom portions of the country are 
thickly settled, the men in quaint garments 
of sombre homespun, high boots and awkward 
blue caps, and smoking the ubiquitous huge- 
bowled porcelain pipe from the Fatherland; 
the women with gay-colored shawls tied over 
the head and falling on the shoulders, short, 
stiff dresses and wooden shoes. Children of 
all ages accompany them, looking curious 
enough, dressed in pre(!isely the same sombre 
attire as their parents, which gives them the 
appearance of veritable Liliputians. Most of 
the pilgrims towards the cranberry ISIecca go 
on foot, but some ride on hea^'y farm wagons, 
canvas-covered and drawn by sleepy oxen, 
with whose small pace the phlegmatic farmer 
seems quite content. It is this willingness to 
make haste slowly but surely in the race for 
wealth that has made substantial farmers of 
these. 

Coming to America with a few dollars, and 
liurchasing sandy farms on which the restless 
Yankee has starved, and which he is glad to 
sell for a mere song, these emigrants lead a 
life of frugality and self-denial which brings 
them a reward in causing the desert to blos- 
som as the rose. It is a saying hereabout 
that what the Norwegian farmer cannot sell 
he feeds to his stock, and what they will not 
eat he gives to his family : of course this is 
an exaggeration, but the writer has visited 
the log houses of some of the less well-to-do 
people and has found their diet to consist 
Inrgrply nf black rye bread and thickened sour 
milk, all the rest of the farm products going 
to market. This frugal mode of living seems 
to have the double eflect of benefiting the 
family health and of gradually filling the do- 
mestic exchequer. The women work in the 
fields with the men, and are models of physical 
rojjustness, never requiring a physician. A 
dentist has never yet been known to operate 
upon the molars or bicusi>ids of these people, 
whose teeth would excite the envy of a pam- 
pered child of fortune. 

Here and there among the prospective 
pickers are a bevy of American girls who 
leave home comfort and plenty to "rough it" 
on the marshes for a week or two. Bands of 
Winnebago Indians occasionally file past, 
gayly attired in bright colored Government 
bl.-inkets. the lazy warriors or bucks mounted 
on ponies, the squaws trudaing along the 
sandy roads canning the "impedimenta," 
with the pa]ii)ooses strapped into a frame- 
work borne u|)on the back with tiie other 
burdens. These Lidians are the children and 



56 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



grandchildren of the chiefs who fought under 
the famous Blackhawk in what is now the 
State of Wisconsin, nearly half a century ago. 
For many years they have hunted unmolested, 
but were recently removed to the Indian 
Territory, under military escort, by orders 
from the Government, but they were un- 
happy, and refused to be comforted as wards 
of the nation, so they made their way— sever;il 
hundred strong— back to the happy hunting- 
grounds of Wisconsin, a distance of 1,00U 
miles. They are the same harmless, strolling 
bands that they have been for many years, 
but they have learned something of the rights 
of settlers and have pre-empted certain wild 
land, which they affect to occupy, and tlius 
become entitled to the privileges of citizens, 
and enjoy immunity from Government inter- 
ference. 

It is only a mile or two from Berlin to the 
cranberry marsh of Sackett Brothers, the pre- 
siding genius of whose fortune is the Hon. 
llobe Sackett. The berries grow on a marsli 
which is so wet and yielding as to preclude 
the driving of teams across except on a cordu- 
roy road half a mile long leading to the build- 
ing in the centre. The drive is anything ))ut 
pleasant, as tlie wagon goes jostling over the 
logs, and the causeway is so narrow tliat 
teams cannot pass, making it necessary for 
the driver to keep a sharp lookout over its 
entire length, to see that he has the right of 
way. Springing across one of the ditches on 
either side one can pick the acrid berries from 
the delicate bushes which grow not more than 
a foot in height. The principal building is 
the warehouse where the' beiTies are stored 
and afterward barreled for market. It is a 
substantial frame structure, recently built, is 
148 by 44 feet, and four stories high. From 
the upper windows can be had a comprehen- 
sive view of the marsh and its busy force of 
pickers. Tlie eye rests upon 750 acres of 
marsh, not more than a quarter of which is 
under cultivation, over whose area in the 
busy time are scattered no less than 3,(100 
picliers. 

A movable wooden railroad track runs from 
the warehouse to the centre of operations, 
and a car is loaded with the boxes of berries, 
each person picking into a pan which is tlien 
emptied into his box of a bushel capacity. 
The pickers receive a ticket for every bushel 
loaded on the car, and on reporting to the 
Superintendent at the clo.se of the day, receive 
credit for the whole. The price paid is 75 
cents a bushel, and the average day's work is 
not more than two or three bushels, although 
it is not uncommon to pick five bushels, and 
a few experts have been known to pick seven 
bushels in a single day. The picliing being 
often hurried on account of threatened ap- 
proach of frost, a second picking is sometimes 
necessary, for which about a dollar a busliel 
is paid. The car on being loaded with the 
filled boxes is drawn by a team of horses lo 
the warehouse, where the berries are hoisted 
on an elevator to the upper stories, and dis- 
posed of in such manner as to secure the best 
ventilation. The floors are covered with tier 
upon tier of boxes of berries, there being some- 
times 20,000 bushels under the roof at one 
time. On the ground floor, large fanning 
mills are in motion, into which the berries iiic 
running from hoppers in the upper stories, 
and all leaves and other impurities are blown 
out, after which they are put in barrels and 
hauled to Berlin, and from there shipped to 
the Milwaukee and Chicago markets. A 
coopering establishment on the property 
manufactures the many thousands of barrels 
which are annually required. 

The question naturally arises, "How do 
these several thousand pickers subsist during 
the season, for no boarding establishment of 
sufficient capacity would be possible ?" The 
answer is that the proprietor has erected bar- 
racks ef frame buildings, for whicli there is 
no rental, ttie pickers boarding themselves 
each house being furnished with a kitchen 
stove, and the rooms fitted up with bunks. 
The greatest hiliarity prevails during picking 
time, the nights being given up to innocent 



revelry and mirth on the part of the young 
men and maidens, while in the neighboring 
woods the Winnebagoes dance round their 
camp fires and make the night hideous with 
tlie drunken orgies with which cranberry time 
is invariably associated. Sackett's marsh is 
fitted by nature for its present uss, and its ad- 
vantages of location could not have been im- 
proved upon by the experience cranberry cul- 
turists. It is necessary to flood tlie entire 
surface during the winter, and this is ren- 
dered easy by the fact that the marsh is a 
basin lying in a wooded table-land, with an 
outlet at the lower end, across which has been 
constructed a dam 225 yards long and 4A feet 
wide, with double floodgates for regnlaling 
tlie height of the overflow. As soon as Lhe 
crop is gathered the gates are dropped and lhe 
marsh gaadually becomes submerged by the 
autumn rains, the melting snow and the 
drainage from the higher ground, until it be- 
comes a lake. This often freezes to a con- 
siderable thickness, furnishing a skating rink 
that puts to blush the contracted affairs of 
that name found in cities. In this manner the 
soil receives its on'y cultivation, and the ten- 
der plants are protected from the rigors of a 
Wisconsin winter. It is not uncommon for 
the marsh to be flooded eight or nine months 
in the year, the water not being drawn until 
June. 

Of all fruit raising cranberry culture is the 
most uncertain, not more than one season in 
five or six escaping the early frost, against 
which there is no protection, and of whose 
approach there is no warning, while the vines 
are always subject to the attacks of the cran- 
beri7 worm, which sometimes destroys the en- 
tire crop. The yield of 1871 was the largest 
ever known, and was successfully harvested, 
but it has been followed either by total fail- 
ures or only partial crops. Hundreds of 
thousands of dollars have been invested in 
the business, which is attended with the 
greatest risk, but offers the possibility of a 
large fortune. 

RULES FOR MAKING GILT-EDGED 
BUTTER. 

Feeding. 

Select your cows with reference to the 
quantity and richness of the milk produced. 
The best cows are the cheapest for butter, so 
get the best you can of whatever breed you 
Select. Give them good pasturage in the 
summer, and plenty of pure water, with fre- 
quent access to salt. In winter, feed sweet, 
early-cut hay, well-cured corn fodder, roots, 
cabbages, etc., and a ration of bran, corn- 
meal, ground oats, or middhngs. 
Implements. 

Have the bist implements, and keep them 
scrupulously clean, well-scalded, and often 
exposed to the sweetening influences of the 
sun. The milk pail and pans should be of 
the best tin. A reliable thermometer is a ne- 
cessity to every good dairyman. 

Milking. 

The milking should be done quietly and at 
regular times, and the utmost cleanliness 
observed. Nothing is tainted quicker than 
milk by fnul odors, and surely at times, with 
nearly all cows, there is enough animal odor 
to it, without adding any more. 
Setting. 

Strain the milk slowly into the pans, four 
to six inches deep. It is an excellent plan to 
strain the milk into a large can set in cold 
water, and cool down to 60 degrees before 
putting into the small pans. The milk must 
lie set in a pure atmosphere, at such a tem- 
perature as will permit the cream to lisi', in 
from thirty to thirty-six hours iifler selling. 
In order to do that the room shuuld be kept 
at about 60 to 65 degrees, and not allowed to 
vary much either above or below. 

In hot weather keep a large piece of ice in 
a tub in the room. Cover it over with a thick 
blanket, and, if arranged so that the water 
will run off, it will keep a long time, and keep 
the room very uniform. 



In cold weather some arrangement for 
warming the milk room should be adopted. 
Skimming. 

Skim as soon as the milk begins to turn 
sour. Do not neglect this rule, as it is im- 
possible to make good butter from cream that 
has become old and sour. When you pour 
your cream into the cream jar, splash as httle 
as possible. Stir the cream every time you 
add more to it, and wipe the sides of the pot. 
Keep the temperature at about 60 degrees, 
and the cream pot in the coolest part of the 
house, covered with a fine gauze netting 
strained on a hoop, not with a tight cover. 
If covered too tight, fermentation is often too 
rapid. 

Churning. 

Churn often, as there is nothing gained by 
long keeping. Bring the temperature of the 
cream in the churn to 58°, and not allow it to 
rise above 64°. Churn early in the morning, 
while it is cool. First scald the churn, turn 
the paddles a few times ; then pour off, and 
pour in cold water and turn the paddles ; pour 
off and pour in your cream. In churning re- 
volve the paddles with an easy, regular motion, 
not too fast nor too slow. 

Coloring. 

Wlien likely to be deficient in color add a 
sufficient quantity of The Perfected Butter 
Color (made by Wells, Richardson & Co., 
Burlington, Vt.,) to keep it up to the June 
standard. 

Working and Salting. 

When it has "broken " and there is a diffi- 
culty to make the butter gather, throw in some 
cold water and give a few more turns. Some, 
and I think a majority, of the best butter- 
makers of to-day wash their butter with cold 
water before removing from the churn. Gather 
your butter with the paddle and lift it out into 
the tray, press it gently and incline it, and let 
the buttermilk run oft'. Work it gently with 
the paddle, with a cutting, gentle pressure, 
but not mash it ; or, better, put it into the 
butter-worker. 

Salt it about an ounce to the pound, or to 
the taste of good customers ; only with the 
best salt, and free from lumps and coarseness. 
Work the butter only so much as to expel the 
buttermilk, but not to work it too dry. This 
can be done by the use of a weak brine pre- 
pared for the purpose. Put the bowl away in 
a cool place. After standing twelve or twenty- 
four hours gently press out, with a ladle or 
machine, the remaining buttermilk and any 
brine that will flow out with it, care being 
used not to work it too touch. If this is done 
the butter has lost its grain and becomes 
salvey, and its keeping qualities are greatly 
injured. 

Packing. 

Pack in vessels that will impart no impuri- 
ties to the butter. Fill within half an inch 
of the top. Place a thin cloth over the top. 

NORTH CAROLINA TOBACCO. 
Mr. T. L. Rawley, Representative from 
Rockingham county, presented to the Agri- 
cultural Museum a specimen of beautiful to- 
bacco of his own raising. It sells readily at 
seventy-five cents per pound. Rockingham 
embraces some of the finest tobacco lands in 
the State, and is the leading county in this 
interest, as we learn from the returns in Col. 
Polk's office. The yield for the year 1877 is 
slated at 3,190,966 pounds. And in this con- 
nection another fact has been developed'by 
these returns in the office of the Commis- 
sioner. He says that the total yield accredited 
to our State in the census of 1870 is about 
11,000,000 pounds. He has already footed up 
nearly 17,000,000 pounds from partial returns 
from only seventy-eight counties, and three 
important tobacco counties are left out en- 
tirely. So we may safely assume that the 
yield in our State was not less than 20,000,- 
000 pounds. Verily, Colonel Polk is correct 
wlien he says in his report that the foreigners 
are misled by the census reports. — Bakigh 
Observer. 



79.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



57 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 



AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 



ADJOURNED MEETING. 
An adjourned meeting of the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society was held Monday afternoon, 
March 17. 

The meeting was called to order by the President, 
Calvin Cooper, esq. 
I The following members and visitors were present : 
Calvin Cooper, President, BIrd-in-Hand; Henry .M. 
I Engle, Marietta; Levi W. OrofI", West Earl; Henry 
I Kurtz, Mount Joy; Joseph F. WItmer, Pequea; Dr. 
I 8. S. Kathvon, city; J. C.LInville, Salisbury; W. H. 
BroBlus, Drumorc; J. M. Johnston, city; Clare Car- 
penter, city; Peter S. Rclst, Litiz; William McCom- 
sey, city; C. L. Ifunsecker, Manheim; J. Hartnian 
Hershey, Rohrcrstowu; Washington L. Hcrshey, 
WestHempfleUl. 

Object of the Meeting. 
The President stated the object of the meeting, 
and the Secretary also read so much of the minutes 
of the last meeting as referred to the object of to- 
day's meeting. 
Dr. Kathvon spoke as follows : 
When I, at diHerent times, suggested the Incor- 
poration of this society, I had not in my mind the 
idea of making it a joint stock company at all— at 
least not until a necessity gtiould rise for the issuing 
of stock. I believe it ought to be incorporated, in 
order to hold a legal ownership, as a society, in any 
property that might come Into its possession. That 
It might be recorded in the archives of the county 
and the State as a legal Institution, and become a 
responsible depository of such State and national 
documents as relate to the agricultural interests of 
the country. I only contemplated a charter granting 
the usual powers and privileges of such organiza- 
tions, stating its name and objects. I am now a 
member of three in*rporated societies in this city— 
the oldest of which was incorporated in 1828, the 
next in 1836, and the third one in 18fi2. The first 
two of these never Issued stock, because there was 
no necessity for it ; and the third one was in exist- 
ence fifteen years before it issued certificates of 
ownership in its museum. All these societies own 
property amounting to thousands of dollars, although 
they commenced their careers on nothing ; and I 
believe their existence this day Is due to the fact that 
they became bodies politic in law and accumulated 
possessions. One of thera acquired two thousand 
dollars as a legacy, which it never would have re- 
ceived, perhaps, had it not been chartered. The 
Berks and York county societies are Incorporated, 
and so are the State Board of Agriculture and the 
State Agricultural Society, and perhaps many others 
throughout the State. 

I do not suppose that the liare fact of incorpora- 
tion is going to immediately increase the society into 
gigantic proportions, but I believe it will aiford a 
more solid basts for increase and future develop- 
ment. Those that seek membership in it will feel 
more sensibly the permanency of the organization, 
and doubtless also they will take a greater interest 
In It. 

It seems to me there is no other question but the 
bare merits of the case — without reference to stock 
or to exhibitions — that ought to enter into the dis- 
cussion on a charter at this time. It will be time 
enough to learn to walk after we have learned to 
creep, although we have been a long while trying. 

Henry Kurtz thought it was unnecessary to issue 
stock unless money was needed. If we have the 
power to sell stock we can do so when the necessity 
presents itself. Ifweneedno money we will not be 
compelled to issue stock. He had spoken with a 
number of persons and found a general disposition to 
take the stock. 

H. M. F.ngle was at a loss what to say about the 
stock feature. He thought the articles of Incorpor- 
ation ought to be as brief as possible. He was im- 
pressed with Dr. Kathvon's ideas on this question. 
The fear was that the stock might get Into improper 
hands and turn aside the true Intent of the society. 
The case presents some difficulties. He was not 
clear in his mind how the thing was to be managed. 
Joseph F. Witmer thought the stock feature might 
be left out of the charter, and If Its necessity was 
felt In the future it might then be applied for and be 
incorporated in the old charter. A charter can be 
amended after being granted. 

Henrv Kurtz thought this could not be done. The 
stock feature hurts nothing If In the charter. Wc 
need not avail ourselves of the privilege if we do not 
chose to do so; but should we need it, then it Is 
ready to be made use of at once. 

J. C. Linville thought there would be no trouble 
in getting a supplement to the charter of incorpora- 
tion if it was wanted at any future time. 

W. McComsey suggested that the charter of some 
of the other county societies be read, in order to 
throw some light on the subject. 



Other Societies. 

The secretary slated that there arc fourteen county 
societies in the Slate that arc chartered and nineteen 
that are not. lie read that part of the constitution of 
the York county society as related to the ofDccrs. 

The President called" attention to the fact that the 
article adopted on this point by this society was more 
complicated than the one just read. 

A motion was made to reconsider this section and 
passed. 

H. M. Engle moved to adopt In Its stead the article 
on this point In the constitution of the York county 
socli'ty. 

W. McComsey thought the proposed plan threw 
too much power into the hands of the Board of 
Directors, instead of leaving it in the hands of all 
the members of the society. It seemed lo him to 
centralize the power of the society in a few hands. 
He was not clear whether this plan was wise. 

H. .M. Engle thought the new scheme was decided- 
ly preferable. 

J. C. Linville thought there was little difference 
between the two. The President in the one was 
made elective by the society, and he preferred it to 
the other. 

Article 5, adopted at the last meeting, was then 
rejected by a vote of the society. 

The one proposed in Its stead, being the one govern- 
ing the York County Society, was then adopted. 
The Incorporators. 

The President made a motion that the Vice Presi- 
dents, Secretary and Recording Secretary be the offi- 
cers of the chartered society until the next annual 
election. 

Amended to include the President and two others 
in the number, and carried. 

The present officers, with the addition of John C. 
Linville and Israel L. Landis, will constitute the 
Board of Directors and Incorporators. 

Several other articles were also inserted, and the 
proposed charter was then adopted as a whole. It 
will be presented to the Court at once, and no doubt 
be granted. 

The text of the document as adopted Is as follows 
Charter. 

I. The name of the corporation shall be " The 
Lancaster County Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society." Adopted. 

II. The purpose for which it is formed shall be to 
encourage and improve agricultural, horticultural, 
domestic and household arts, and any other matters 
pertaining to the Interest of agriculture and horticul- 
ture. Adopted. 

III. Its place of business shall be in the county of 
ETincaster. Adopted. 

IV. The term of Its existence shall be perpetual, 
subject to the power of the General Assembly, under 
the Constitution of the Commonwealth. Adopted. 

V. The officers of the society shall be a President, 
two Vice Presidents, five Managers, a Recording 
Secretary, a Corresponding Secretary and a Treas- 
urer, to continue in office for one year and until 
others are elected, all officers to be elected by ballot 
at the annual meeting, and the following are those 
chosen for the coming year ; 

President— Calvin Cooper, Bird-In-Hand, East 
Lampeter township. 

Vice Presidents — Henry M. Engle, Marietta. East 
Donegal ; Jac.B.fiarber, Columbia, West Hempfield. 

Recording Secretary— James F. Witmer, Paradise. 

Corresponding Secretary— Johnson Miller, Litiz, 
Warwick. 

Treasurer— Levi W. Groff, Bareville, West Earl. 

Managers— Martin D. Kendig, Cresswell, Manor 
township; VVm. H. Brosius, Liberty Square, Dru- 
more township; Casper Hiller, Concstoga Centre, 
Conestoga township; John C. Linville, Gap, Salis- 
bury township ; Israel L. Landis, Lancaster. 

VI. The by-laws of this society shall be made by 
the members in good standing, at a general meeting 
called for that purpose, and shall prescribe the time 
and place of meeting of the society, the terms for 
the admission of members, the powers and duties of 
Its officials and such other matters as may be perti- 
nent and necessary for the business to be iranaclcd, 
provided that such by-laws are not inconsistent with 
this charter, the constitution and by-laws of the 
Commonwealth and of the United States. 

VII. This society to have all the powers and au- 
thority, and be subject to the limitation and regula- 
tions of corporations of the " first class " under act 
of Assembly entitled, an act " To provide for the In- 
corporation and regulation of certain corporations," 
approved the 29th of April, A. D. 1874, and its sup- 
plements. 

A vote to adjourn was made and carried. 

REGULAR STATED MEETING. 

The Lancaster County Agricultural Society met in 
their room, in the City Hall, on Monday afternoon, 
April 7th, 1879, and was called to order at 2 o'clock. 
The following members and visitors were present : 
Calvin Cooper, President, BIrd-in-Hand ; Joseph F. 
Witmer, Secretary, Paradise; Levi W. Groff, Treas- 
urer, West Earl ; M. D. Kendig, Manor; Henry M. 
Engle, Marietta ; W. U. Brosius, Drumore ; Frank 



R. Diffenderfer, city ; C. M. Hostetter, Eden ; Tobias 

D. Martin, Warwick ; Rev. S. M. Boyer, ; W. 

W. Grelst, city ; J. M. Johnson, city ; Clare Carpen- 
ter, city ; Ephralm S. Hoover, Manheim ; C. L. Hun- 
sccker, Manheim ; 1. L. Landis, Manheim ; Dr. 8. 8. 
Kathvon, city ; Elam W. Eshleman, Paradise. 

On motion the reading of the minutes of the previ- 
ous meeting was dispensed with. 

Amos L. Eshleman, of Paradise township, was 
proiiosed and elected a new member. 

Report of Crops. 

Mr. Brosius, Drumorc township, said the wheat is 
not encouraging at this time, and the weather has 
been BO cold that other things have not yet started. 

Mr. Hostetter said the wheat crop in Eden town- 
ship looks very encouraging, (irass is making its 
appearance, and timothy is getting along nicely. 

Mr. Kendig, of .Manor, reported the wheat crop as 
not lookinlf very encouraging ; It is short and thin, 
(irass looks better. Peach and pear buds look 
healthy. He staled that he had found that Pampass 
grass was not as hardy as stated In VIck's Catalogue 
report. 

.Mr. Cooper, of Paradise, said that the wheat needs 
rain. Peach buds are so far uninjured. 

Mr. Engle, of .Marietta, reported for East Donegal, 
that he did not think the wheat looked so poor as re- 
ported, considering the bad weather. It is loo early 
to judge of the crop, an<l he thought a few weeks of 
such weather as 'his would make a wonderful differ- 
ence. The grass crop promises well. The fruits are 
doing remarkably well. 

Competitive Essays. 

The committee appointed lo decide on the merits 
of the competitive essays on the "Culture of Wheat," 
F. R. DIffenderffcr, William McComsey and Peter S. 
Reist, recommended the one written In pencil as de- 
serving the premium. It proved afterwards that the 
prize essay was written by Henry M. Engle, of Mari- 
etta. Thcothercssay was written by John C. Linville. 

Levi W. Groff answered the question, " With land 
and labor at present prices, can wheal be raised at 
one dollar per bushel ?" After a short introduction, 
Mr. Groff proceeded to make a calculation, taking 
good land in the first place. He estimated the cost 
of raising an acre of wheat at ?2.'j.'J0, as follows : 
Interest on one acre of land at ?1.50, ?!»; taxes, 50 
cents; plowing and harrowing, $:i.50; IJOO pounds 
raw bone, at 8:!0 per ton, S^-SO ; lU bushels seed, 
81. .50; drilling the seed, .50 cents; cultivating twice 
In the spring, $1 .20 ; harvesting and thresliing, >4.50. 
Against this he placed the product of the acre at 40 
bushels, which will bring, selling the straw, $4<>, 
leaving a profit of $20.80. 

He did not think the estimated yield was too large, 
but supposing it is a Utile too large there Is room for 
deduction, and still leave a fair profit. Of course he 
proposed to cultivate Ills wheat In the spring, and 
based his cakulaiion on the presumption that all 
wheat will he cultivated. From fair trials he had 
made, he was forced to conclude that on good land, 
using irood fertilizer, the results will be as staled, 
and the land left In good condition for grass for 
years to come. 

When wheat was well cultivated In France in 
1S77, a large farm was visited by Prof. Geo. H. 
Cook, of New Brunswick, N. J., who reported that 
on a field containing 27.5 acres the average yield was 
44 bushels, and on anotlicr field containing 75 acres 
the average yield was 4(! bushels. He thought the 
same thing could be done here. 

Mr. Engle quoted the saying that figures won't 
lie, and said if Mr. GrofTs basis is correct the con- 
clusions arc correct. He thought the production was 
rather high, but not too high. His expenses arc not 
too high, and the speaker thought that .Mr. Graff's 
calculations were fair. 

Mr. Groff said that In his opinion the expense 
would be rather high for one acre, but when a large 
Held Is cultivated the figures would certainly be 

.Mr. Kendig bud made a. calculation, and the 
figures corresponded favorably with .Mr. GroH's. 
Hecslimated the entire cost of preparing ten acres 
at ?:U or ?:!.40 per acre. But in his township they 
could not raise over 20 bushels to the acre, while Mr. 
Groff raised 40 bushels. 

Mr. Engle was of the opinion that this was an 
important question, and deserved the attention of 
farmers generally. He differed a little with Mr. 
Groff when he says that his wheat stands belter in 
consequence of culllvalloD ; It is because It Is sowed 
farther apart. 

.Mr. Hoover asked If any memlier had had any 
experience with Chester County Mammoth Corn, 
but no man answered. 

Culture of Wheat. 

Mr. Engle read his prize essay on the " Culture of 
Wheat," as follows : 

The cereal rceeiviiiK the title of "slafT of life." nhould 
receive more tliuii ordinary attention. In our best virtfin 
soils, when pro|«!rly prepared, it luw hillierto scarcely 
ever failed to produce from a fair lo what is coiisidoren a 
full crop, but after several years' croppiiiK failures have 
been about as frequent as foil croi>s, which Wns generally 
attributed to tlie ravoraWc or unfiivorable scuMiis. This 
has very commonly eonsliluted the Htroii^ fort tjehina 
which the majority of farmers have and are still shelter- 



58 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 



ingl 
failu 






thesutcc^sa f II 1 I I ttl net me 

fields prod ict. l 11 i p \ 1 Ic u the nioHt lt\orible 
season-* there ar t t^\ i\ '^ s nie ladures P^om these facts 
pro\e concluHi\e]\ that either the soil location or culti 
nation 1 lilt i^Llher cau'^e this great difference si<leb\ 



If SI 



>th< 



t 'iliniulatt the t 



of this kin I c*^ 
The object of 
just ■\\ h \t to do m ordei 

Linkmfe 

1 J w h( 
aping. 

The causes of failure are numerous, but soils beinp: ex- 
hausted of their wheat-producing elements (or at least a 
portion of theml is one of the principsil causes of failures. 
... , ... ., > i_ . .... object of 



Tor 



dble 1 



methods are applied. Soi 
the best and only fertilize! 
^equently he is very partic 






lich . 



of I 



;nig propertu 



goes 



and transported to distant ( 
lands, and none of its fertil 
their way back to their nat 

As an oflset to this great draft on their soil, nif 
ers feed their corn into stock on their farms, wl 
a great way towards keeping their lands in fertile condi- 
tion. Such farms almost invariably produce good corn, 
and also other crops, but their wheat crops frequently 
yield a superfluity of straw, while the grain ie a short 
crop and inferior. 

CLOVEB Aa A RENOVATOK. 

Clover ia no doubt one of the cheap«3t and best reno- 
vators of soils, and for corn is always beneficial ; but 
while, when plowed down for a wheat crop, it usually 
produces good results in thin soils, in naturally strong 
Boilfl it almost invariably produces an excess of straw 
and likely to lodge, while the crop of grain is short and 
inferior. Let it not be forgotten that clean, stiff straw 
indicates plump, hea\-y Krain, and generally a full crop. 
Therefore in order to obtain a full crop of good wheat 
will also require stiff, heavy straw. It is therefore con- 
clusive that in order to realize continuous good crops, 
where the essential fertilizing elements have been car- 
ried otr the farm, they must be obtained from other 
sources. This brings up the question qf special fertili- 
zers, to which the progressive farmer must not shut his 
eyes; and 1 have only to say that he who will be a suc- 
cessful wheat grower must keep his soil supplied with 
all the elements necessary to produce perfection of both 
straw and grain, and if his barnyard maiuire does not 
contain all such they must be obtained from other 
sources. I am pleased to learn that the prejudice against 
special fertilizers is fast giving way. The chemical con- 
dition of the soil being right, the physical or mechanical 
must not be overlooked. 

The best time to plow is still a mooted question, but 
the strongest testimony is in favor of early plowing, 
which allows the ground to settle while the surface is 
being cultivated, and should be in good, friable condi- 
tion for seeding. 

Manuring is also often in dispute, whether to plow it 
down or apply it to the surface, of which the latter 
method is fast gaining advocates, and for immediate 
•l^ect is decidedly preferable. 

Good seed is another essential to success, and while 
new kinds, or a change from other soils, often produce 
good results, the surer methods would be to seWct some 
of the largest and most perfect heads, and reject from 
these all inferior grains, as we do with seed corn. By 
following this every few years there need be no more 
occasion to change seed wheat than seed corn. Farmers 
may sometimes change to get another kind, but I have 
yet to learn of a fMnncr to change corn simply to get it 
from other soil. Were seed corn gathered promiscuously, 
like seed wheat, exchange of seed would, no doubt, be 
of some advantage, to keep it from running out, as the 
saying is, of wheat. 

The best time for seeding is also an open question, but 
the most certain crops are produced in this section by 
having the soil in proj.cr condition iii every respect, and 
not to sow before the 15Lh ..r Mhh of September; by ad- 
hering to this ruk it is more certain to escape the Hessian 



lie prope 
I- and do 



i>ps tliat I have grown 
u-ere sown with a drill 
nches wide and eleven 



of uniform depth, 
■d will sprout and 
should come up. 



(and I have -<■, :, -■..,,, I ■■ : 
withstutioiu.i.^ -L..- 1^ II 
inches apart, h- i - 

After cultivn :- ,. 
predict that ii 'a ill Im ..,.,,. 
diet that the cumins ui ill \ 
at least, so arranged a.s lu p! 
which is the only method 1 

QUANTITY OF SEED. 

That there is a general Wiiste of seed, and often worse 
than wasted, has been demonstrated over and over again, 
and just as soon as farmers learn how to put their seed 
in the best physical condition, and will apjjly proper fer- 
tilizers in riKlit 'M'Mntilies, aii'I 1m- purlicnliir in selecting 

proper tiiiii-, :iimI t;<-i MrilK iliai u ill --"W a uniform depth 
and Willi wi'ier .iritis, ihhI will sy-imiaiically follow after 



Mr. Linville's Essay. 

The second essay on the " Culture of Wheat," 
^iitten b^ J. C. LiiivillCj was read by the Secretary. 
It was as follows : 



m\ e>e to see manure flung around here and there, a 
forkful in a place. Of course if a very heavy coat is 
=11 phed It does not require so nice spreading to make it 
e cr the ground. If your soil is rich, it is better to 
\ ]]y a light coat and make it reach farther. Four 
Histi the acre, well spread, will benefit the crop as 
ch as hve or six loads thrown around in forkfuls, as 
t )o often done. 

PLOWING. 

Having your manure out. the next thing is to plow it 
under. It makss little difiference whether it ie plowed 
in as soon as spread, or let on the surface a month or 
more. Much has been written by theorists about the 
escape of ammonia. The fact is there ia, b£ a general 
rule, but little free ammonia in barnvard manure when 
hauled to tlie field, and if there was it would take flight 
immediately when spread, even before it could be plowed 
down. A good way to prevent the loss of ammonia 
(carbonate of ammonia) is to have a quantity of land 
plaster (sulphate of lime) on hand and appiv some of it 
to the floors of your stables every lime you clean them 
out. Tliis is said to "fix" the ammonia. That is, the 
sulphuric acid leaves it^ hold of tlie lime and seizes the 
ammonia, forming carbonate of ammonia which is non- 
volatile. To prove that this is not mere theory, get some 
pulverized plaster, and when you clean your horse stable 
on a hot day, %,nd the air is so redolent of hartshorn that 
you are almost strangled, sow a quart of plaster in each 
stall, and in five minutes the pungent odor will have 
gone. I once plowed a field covered with manure in the 
early part of August, with the exception of about an 
acre. This lay bleaching and roasting in the sun for a 
month — a plentiful crop of weeds grew up through it, 
and it was turned dow^l in the beginning of September, 
and produced by far the best wheat in the field. It may 
be truly said that one experiment does not prove any- 
thing, but there can be no question but strawy manure 
is benefited by exposure to the sun. At the same time 
the soil is improved by the mulch. 

As a general rule, early plowing is the l)est. but there 
are so many exceptions to the rule that it cannot be in- 
sisted on. When you are ready, and the ground is in a 
proper state of moisture, go to work and plow and pay 
no regard to the signs. Tlie first thing in the prejiara- 
tion of the soil for wheat, or any other crop, is to have it 
well plowed. If this is not thoroughly done, no amount 
of after cultivation will remedy the evil. Bad and care- 
less plowing is at the root of more slovenly farming than 
anything else. 

In order to break the ground thoroughly we must have 
good plows. There are notanybelier adapted to our 
soils and suited to our wants than are made near home. 
I ha' 
bill,' 

mould will clean as well and last much longer than a 
steel one. 

In regard to the much-vexed question of deep or shal- 
low i)lowing, I think the almost unanimous voice of prac- 
tical farmers is in favor of shallow or medium plowing. 
When I say shallow plowing I do not mean the skinning 
process practiced in some parts of the South. The Com- 
missioner of Agriculture of the State of Georgia reimrts 
the average depth of plowing in that State to be one inch. 
F'armers in the sunny South must trust to Providence 
more than we. It has not yet been proven that a foot in 
depth is better than six or eight inches, and as long as 
the matter remains in doubt we will plow shallow or 
medium and save our teams. 

CULTIVATING THE SOIL. 

Ha\ing come to grief two or three times by ciilti\-:fting 
the ground too much when in a dusty condition I hiii'«lly 
know what to say about its final preparation. I think 
there is not much danger of cultivating too much when 



The Th( 



cede 






If the; 



hoe-harrow species to prepare the seed-bed. A field in 
good order for sowing presents a firm bottt 
surface to the depth of ' " ' 



Have the ground properlj- 
of September and the 5th of 

"Buckeye" are good nuieliii 
to the depth of one and oir-| 



en the 15 



dr\' ; if tornado. 
it; if midge, nor 



Mr. Hoover called attention to one point in the 
first essay as deserving particular attention, the 
recommendation of wheat with strong straw lor 
general culture, and spoke at length on" the subject. 

The Hessian fly was next touched upon, and Dr. 
Rathvon explained some of the habits of this pest, 
upon which leveral members followed in discussing 
the subject. In answer to the question whether two 
broods of the fly could be raised in one season, he 
answered negatively. 

Food for Hogs. 

Does it pay to chop feed for hogs? was answered 
by Joseph F. Witmer, who told of some experiments 
at the Michigan Agricultural College. These ex- 



periments, together with his own experience, led 
him to believe that it was decidedly profitable to do 
so. 

Novelty in Fruit Culture. 

President Cooper presented a plan, prepared by a 
learned Russian, Augustus F. Newnaber, of Chester 
county, showing how to raise peaches and other fruits 
without stones or seeds. Also how to raise fruit with 
one side sweet and the other Bide sour. 

On motion a vote of thanks was tendered to Mr. 
Newnaber, and it was resolved to place the plan in 
the library of the society. 

A committee of six members, M. D. Kendig, Jos. 
F. Witmer, Henry M. Engle, E.M. Eshleman, C. M. 
Hostetter and Ephraim P. Hoover, was appointed to 
make experiments in the matter. 

Dr. Edge to Lecture. 

Mr. Engle stated that he had written to Dr. Thomas 
J. Edge, .Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, 
and that gentleman had promised, if possible, to be 
present at the next meeting and deliver a lecture. 

Adjourned. 

POULTRY ASSOCIATION. 

The Lancaster County Poultry Association held 
their monthly meeting in City Hall on Monday 
morning, April 7, 1879, and was called to order bv 
President Tobias. The calling of the roll showed 
the following members and visitors present : J. A. 
Stober, Schoeneck ; Rev. D. C. Tobias, Litiz; Tobias 
D. Martin, New Haven; W. J. Kafrnth, West Earl; 
T. F. Evans, Litiz; G. A. Geyer, Spring Garden ; J. 
B. Lichty, city; W. A. Schoenberger, city; F. R. 
Diffcnderffer, city; J. M. Johnson, city; J. F. Reed, 
city; Charles Lippold. city; Amos Ringwalt, city; 
S. N. Warfel, Strasbur'g; Henry Wissler, Columbia ; 
John Huber, Warwick ; Jacob A. Buch, Litiz. 

The reading of all except the most important part 
of the minutes of the previous meeting was dispensed 
with. 

Some discussion ensued as to who was to pay the 
janitor for services rendered in cleaning the room. 
It was argued by some of the members that this was 
included in the rent paid to the Agricultural Society, 
and on motion the matter was referred to a com- 
mittee of three, who were instructed to present the 
matter to the Agricultural Society. The committee 
is as follows: Simon P. Eby, W. J. Kafroth and 
Joseph F. Witmer. 

Preserving the Proceedings. 

President Tobias called Vice President Geyer to the 
chair, and made some remarks on preset ving the 
documents of the society. The Lancaster Farmek 
is not patronized as it should be. He thought that 
if arrangements could be made to have the proceed- 
ings published in this journal, thus having them in 
book form, it would be to the advantage of the 
members and of The Faumer, which would obtain 
a large number of additional subscribers. 

Mr. Lichty had thought it would be agreeable to 
all concerned to have the answers to questions writ- 
ten out in full, and placed among the archives of the 
society. He did not know of any particular benefit 
to be derived from it. 

Mr. Kafroth said that his plan for preserving the 
proceedings was to clip them from the daily papers 
and paste them in his scrap book. 
New Members. 

New members were proposed and elected as fol- 
lows : William Beates, Spring Garden ; S. W. 
Heinitsh, city; Dr. M. W. Hurst, West Earl. 
Money in the Treasury. 

Mr. Evans, the treasurer, stated, in answer to a 
query, thiit he had received 836, paid out $9.20, leav- 
ing J26.80 in the treasury. 

How Long will Eggs Retain their Fertility. 

Mr. Ringwalt answered the first question, which 
was, "How long will eggs retain their fertility !" He 
said it is hard to tell exactly how long they will re- 
tain their fertility. lie had seen eggs three weeks 
old yield a fair percentage, but raisers like to set 
their hens as soon as possible. If kept in air-tight 
vessels eggs will keep three weeks. He had read of 
a case where eggs found in a ruin one hundred years 
old had been hatched, but he was a little skeptical 
on this point. He believed nature gives a hen 30 days 
in which to lay 20 eggs, and :il days in which to 
hatch them. 

Mr. Stober asked Mr. Ringwalt if it was his opin- 
ion that eggs would keep longer if deprived of air, 
and Mr. Ringwalt answered in the affirmative. 

Mr. Evans, last spring, sent to Ohio for a setting 
of eggs. When received some of them showed by 
dates on the shells that they were over four weeks 
old. He got five chicks out of fourteen eggs, the 
chicks coming from the freshest eggs. 

President Tobias thought a good deal depended on 
where the eggs are kept. Believed eggs are injured 
more by the condition in which they are kept than by 
length of time. 

Mr. Geyer, last spring, sent a setting of fourteen 
eggs West, which were divided. One lot of seven 
was used immediately and five chickens were raised ; 
the other lot was not used for three weeks and not; 
one chicken broke the^hell. 



] 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



59 



Mr. Warfel has kept eggs five weeks and all were 
hatched, and again had tried pullet's eggs, not get- 
ting three pullets out of a dozen eggs. 

Mr. Lichty explained tlie uses of an egg tester, by 
which, within 4» hours after the hen commences to 
set, it can be told whether tlie egg is fertile or not. 

Mr. Long had heard of a setting of Buft' Cochin 

eggs, which, after coming across the ocean, were put 

under a hen. Eleven out nf the thirteen were hatched. 

Packing Eggs. 

"What is the proper mode of packing eggs?" had 
been referred to Frank 15. Buch, but he was not 
present. 

Messrs. Ringwalt and Stober had received eggs 
for hatching which were packed in small baskets 
with hay placed in Ihcm, and were satisfied that this 
was a good way to do it. 

Mr. Geyer got two lots of duck eggs packed in 
sawdust in boxes, and nearly all of the eggs were 
hatched. 

Mr. Warfel had received eggs fiom Canada packed 
in sawdust, but got no chickens. 

Mr. Long related his experience in importing eggs. 
Sent to England for Bufl" Cochin eggs, which cost 
him $17.25, but he got no chickens. 

Mr. Tobias asked if eggs should be placed on end 
or side. 

Mr. Geyer's duck eggs had been packed with side 
down ; Mr. Ringwalt thought it made no difference 
how they w. re placed, and Mr. Warfel and other 
members agreed that they should be placed small 
end down. 

Mr. Long thought they eliould be placed butt end 
down if to be kept any time. If they are only sent a 
short distance or kept a short time, it does not mat- 
ter how they are jilaced. 

Business for Next Meeting. 

What is the best method of testing the fertility of 
a newly laid egg? Referred to Tobias D. Martin. 

How often should fresh blood be introduced into 
poultry yard ? Referred to S. N. Warfel. 
Members of the Society. 

At the request of one of the members, Mr. Lichty 
read the list of members who had paid their dues, 
39 in number, and a list of those who had not paid 
about 20 or •^5. 

Pullets' Eggs. 

Mr. Warfel asked if any member had succeeded in 
obtaining chicks from the eggs laid by a pullet. He 
had never succeeded in getting any. 

ilr. DiffenderflTer stated that I'rom his first hatching 
he had secured 9 chicks out of lo eggs, and from his 
second hatching 10 chicks from 14 eggs. 

Mr. Ringwalt had found that pullets' eggs hatched 
much better if the pullet was with a two-year-old 
rooster. 

Adjourned. 

WARWICK FARMERS' CLUB. 

The Farmers' Club of Warwick township met at 
Uriah Carpenter's residence, March 8, 1879. The 
minutes of last meeting were read and approved. 

It was proposed to make this organization a 
permanent one, whereupon Uriah Carpenter was 
elected President ; John (irossman, Vice President; 
and S. M. Carpenter, Secretary, for a term of six 
months. 

It was moved and seconded that a committee of 
three be appointed to draw up a constitution and 
by-laws. The President appointed the following 
persons as the committee : D. B. Becker (chairman), 
J. B. Becker and J. K. Iluber. 

It was also agreed upon that the next meeting of 
this club be held at the same place on Saturday, 
March 29. 

As there were some here that had not been here 
before, tire President again proceeded to an explana- 
tion, namely, the object of the meeting ; the good 
there can be derived therefrom ; ttiat there is no 
secret about this meeting, therefore public to all. 

It was moved and seconded that the first question 
for discus.'ion be, " When is the best time to sow 
oats, and how?" 

The question was opened by John Grossman, 
making a lengthy speech on liis own experience in 
sowing oats. 

This subject was spoken on by nearly all the mem- 
bers, and I think they will agree not to sow until the 
soil is in good pondition. 

It was agreed upon that broadcast is the best 
method for sowing. 

Peter Wallason stated that the best way to sow 
oats even is to walk in the middle of the land fur- 
rowed for sowing, and throw to the right and left. 

The soiling question, which was continued from 
last meeting, was next taken up, " how to raise 
double crops." 

It was agr'-ed upon that the limited time of ten 
minutes be extended to each speaker. 

An essay was read by John Grossman, on the sub- 
ject of "feeding stock." 

J. B. Becker thought of feeding slock in the stable 
during summer, instead of turning them into pasture. 
He thought by turning them into pasture they will 
eat an hour or so, and during the hottest part of the 



day will, on account of the files, go from one shade 
tree to another, and therefore spoil more pasture 
than they will eat; but by feeding them in the stable 
they will requir ■ Ichs food and besides save the 



J. K. Iluber thought It is no benefit In stabling 
slock ; he thought It takes less food If given to them 
in their natural way by grazing, and the manure 
will still remain In the "fields— that Is not to leave 
them out all day — only an hour or so until done 
grazing ; then lake them homo, thereby not spoiling 
much pasture. 

Israel Becker thought that cutting fodder Is of no 
benefit, for there Is nothing left to accumulate the 
manure heap. 

Uriah Carpenter said that stabling stock Is profita- 
ble, thereby savluir manure, fences and pasture. He 
thought if having some person to care for the stock, 
and doing some other work besides, would probably 
earn one-half the salary paid to him. 

It was moved and seconded that the questions, 
"Is it beneficial to educate our sons and leave them 
go from home or keep them on the farm 1" and 
" How shall we make our farms pay ?" were ques- 
tions adopted for discussion at the next meeting. 

Adjourned. S. M. Cabpenter, Nec'y. 

FULTON FARMERS' CLUB. 

The March meeting of the club was held at the 
residence of Wm. P. Haines. Members present : E. 
H. Haines, F. Tollinger, J. R. Blackburn, LIndley 
King, Grace A. King, W. P. Haines, C. S. Gatehell 
and M. Brown; visitors by invitation, Timothy 
Haines, Dr. C. H. Stubbs and Joseph P. Greist. 
There being no agricultural nor horticultural speci- 
mens to exhibit the club proceeded to asking and 
answering questions. 

Montillion Brown : Do any of the members Intend 
to mannfacture their own phosphate this spring? 
Several members stated that the benefit they derived 
from this article was so small that they were of the 
opinion that it was not profitable. Several receipts 
were spoken of, some of which cost as low as $1G..'J0 
per ton. 

F. Tollinger ; When is the proper time to graft cherry 
trees? All the members favored early grafting. He 
was recommended to cut the scions in February, and 
put in the stalks in the early part of March, although 
some of the members had succeeded well as late as 
May ; but at this time it is necessary to be careful 
not to raise the bark of the scion. 

E. H. Haines : What variety of cherries do the 
members favor grafting ? 

F. Tollinger favored the " Governor Wood," but 
found the natural fruit more hardy and more prolific 
bearers. 

Dr. Stubbs: Docs any one present know of any 
stimulant which, if applied to cherry trees, will 
make them bear? 

Some of the members had tried boring and plug- 
ging sulphur in the holes. Club adjourned for dinner. 
Afternoon Session. 

After reviewing the building and part of the farm, 
the club convened, when the minutes of the meeting 
held here one year ago were read and criticism called 
for. The members noted no change ; the stock 
looked well cared for, and was consequently in good 
condition. 

Martha Brown noticed the excellent quality of the 
corn prepared for dinner, and asked how it was 
cured. She was informed that it was from Baker's 
canning factory, near Aberdeen, Hartford county, 
Md. 

Literary. 

A selection was read by Mabel Haines entitled, 
"The King's Gift;" one Ijy Alia Gregg, entitled, 
" The Sea Nymph ;" selection by Mabel A . Haines, 
entitled "The Farmer's Lot ;" one by .Mary A. King, 
" Fifty Years Ago ;" recitation by Carrie Black- 
burn, "The Teetotal Mill." 

Some of the young ladies in attendance furnished 
the club with some choice instrumental and vocal 
music. 

Discussion of Regular Question. 

Have farmers, by experiments they have made, 
arrived at any uniform conclusion from the actual 
results in the subject experimented with ? 

Mont. Brown thought the farmers had, to a cer- 
tain degree, but there were subjects which had been 
experimented on for the last fifty years, and they 
were still unsettled. We have found that to grow 
cheat we must sow cheat, and that it Is not a pecu- 
liar growth of wheat, as was formerly supimsed ; 
that potatoes of dllferent kinds, planted in the same 
hills, would not mix, and that half-starved cattle 
would not pay. 

E. H. Haines ; We have never decided by experi- 
ment whether the modern plan of drilling wheat Is 
an improvement on the old style of broadcasting it, 
and in the matter of raising potatoes one man recom- 
mends the planting In sod, turning the sod over the 
potato ; another to plant on corn stubble and manure 
in tne row, some under and some on lop. Good 
crops had been raised each way and \moT ones also. 
In time of planting one will recommend early and 
another late planting, and this Is attended with the 



same results ; and In fieding oals straw to our milch 
cows, some- recommend and others discourage ; 
even the grain is condemned by some as food for 
cows, but all were of the opinion that a liberal sup- 
ply of nutritious food would hurt no animal. As to 
the manure and quantity of lime as a fcrlllliicr, some 
preferred spreading on so<l and turning it under; 
others to spread on plowed ground, In quBnlilles 
varying from fiflccn to fifty bushels |M;r acre. Many 
of these questions he thought might l>e srltled by 
actual experiment, but others were subject to the 
condition of the ground, atniospherle changes, «lc., 
which, unless there was a uniformity In these p»r- 
ticula.-s, would never be permanently settled. 

Dr. Stubbs agreed with E. II. Haines lu the effect 
of atmospheric changes on vegelation, and thought 
agriculture would never be an exact science while 
we are amenable to the weather. His exiwrlcucc 
In potato culture was, that If well fertilized and 
properly tended you were certain of a good crop ; 
but he could see no reason why such questions as the 
manner of settling milk, kinds of churns, breed of 
cows and many other cjucstions relating to dairying 
are not settled. 

Election of Officers. 

The term of the officers having expired, the club 
elected the following for the ensuing year : President, 
F. Tollinger; Secretary, .Montillion Brown; Treaaurer, 
Joseph K. Blackburn; Librarian, Wm. P. Haines. 
The club then adopted the following question for 
discussion at the next meeting : Is the advance 
made In labor-saving maehlniTy accompanied by a 
diHincllnation to labor? To furnish literary exercises 
for the next meeting, the President ap|>ointcd Sadie 
Brown, Irene Tollinger, .Mary A. King and Edwin 
Gregg on essays and selections, and -Nlabol Haines, 
.Mabel A. llaities, Carrie Blackburn and C. 8. 
Gatehell on recitat.ons. Club then adjourned to 
meet at Wm. King's next month. 

LINN/EAN SOCIETY. 
The stated meeting of the society wa« held on 
Saturday, March Jil, Mi'iK Presld-iit Kev. J. 8. Stahr 
In the chair. After the preliminary oi>ening the 

Donations to the Museum 
were examined and found to consist of a fragment of 
a Gneissic Rock, said lo have been struck from the 
veritable fiat rock near Bloody Run, In the vicinity of 
Richmond, Virginia, upon which the head of Captain 
Smith was laid to have It spoiled by the Indian's 
club, when the lovely Pocahontas came to bli 
rescue. {'.) So says the sender, Mr. AuirustusBIschoflT, 
of this county. He also sent with It a relic of the 
LIbby Prison— a fragment of an onllnary brick ; also, 
a portion of a geode, a hollow ninlule of Ha>tnatite, a 
native oxide of iron, much in form of a thick bivalve 
shell. .Mr. Gabriel Russel sent a piece of quartz, 
containing sulphuret of nickel, found In Bart town- 
ship. A fine Biiecimen of " Ruby Ulend," found in 
a garden in Marietta, per Mr. John K. Filler. ThU 
Is much like that found in New Jersey, and may 
have been accidental in this latter locality. Samples 
of sulphuret and carbonate of coiiper found In Vurk 
county, Pa. These were contrasted with like ores 
from Brazil, South America, • y way of comparison, 
In the same box. Mr. John B. Kevinski also made 
a special deposit of his case of thirty drawers, con- 
taining numerous minerals, fossils and corals, and a 
valuable acquisition to others already on deposit. 
Missiles of various forms added to our former collec- 
tion of war relics, from Antietam and Harper's 
Ferry, from D. McN. Stauffer, and othem from the 
latter locality, by Dr. S. S. Ratbvon. Siwcinicns in 
alcohol, a domestic mouse, by J. W. Hubley. This 
had an excessive fungoid or scrofulous growth on the 
head, over the eye. It seems many mice about the 
city are affected" with this strange disease, hardly 
understood, and must be bad on the mice, as It is a 
disgusting sight, but not the less curious, and should 
be Inquired into. A siiecimon of a rare creature 
sentto Mr. Rathvon from Manatee, Florida. This 
was a desirable send, as it fills the link of our I'cili- 
palpi, and comes near the figure of the Fhrynut reni- 
fonnin, but may be a distinct species. Mr. StauflTer 
took a drawing of it, and one copied from an English 
work, a West India species, which dificrs in the ar- 
rangement of the eyea. This paper has remarks 
upon It by Mr. Stauffer, supplemented by Dr. Kath- 
von, marked No. .514. The large bean i)Od sent to 
TU AVw ICra from Florida, and left with Mr. Rath- 
von, was submitted to J. Slaulfer for a name, being 
of large size and the winged sutures so peculiar. 
After close scrutiny with all the Legumlnosa- known 
or deicribed as growing from Mexico lo the Northern 
UnitedStales, not one would compare. A drawing 
sent to Prof. Grey was at once recognized and named 
as the Canaralia Obtunifolia from Malabar, not In- 
digenous to the United States. A fine drawing of the 
bean and iwd, with remarks upon the subject by .Mr. 
StauHer— pajicr No. 51.'>— was deposlte*! with the 
now shrunken, dried |xh1 and red beans of the same. 
Mr. Charles A. llelnitsh also presented specimens of 
a new remedy for pulmonary diseases, from Santa 
Anna, North California, called " Verba Santa," offl- 
cinally KrijodicliOH glulinomm, per C. A. Moschar. 
The leaves a lanceolate serrate, thick and glutinous 
when green ; gumlike incrustation when dry. 



60 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 



Historical Section. 

Four envelopes, containing over fifty clippings of 
sundry historical and biographical reminiscences, 
per S. S. Rathvon. 

Library. 

Twenty-five volumes of the Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania, with a letter from Dr. Wiclcersliam ; 
a treatise on insects injurious to potatoes, by Prof. 
Riley, donated by Prof. S. S. Rathvon; bulletin of 
new fishes, by Messrs. Good and Bean, Smithsonian 
Institution; donation from the publisher, G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons; the biography of Lieutenant-Colonel C. 
Anderson, a soldier and pioneer of the Revolution, 
which contains much of historical value ; part III. 
for October, November and December, 1878, proceed- 
ings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Pliiladel- 
phia ; from the Department of the Interior, about 
the "Turtle Back" Indians of the District of Colum- 
bia, by W. J. Hoffman, M.D.; on the Crinoids, by 
Fred. Brau, Cincinnati, Ohio; Southeran's Price 
Current of Literature ; proceedings of the Kentucky 
Hislorieal Society ; sundry book circular* ; The 
Lancaster Fakmer for March. 
Paper Read. 

No. 516. Dr. Rathvon read a paper on the Pedipal- 
pian Arxchjiids, showing the gradation between 
spiders and scorpions. 

New Business. 

The necessity of book shelves was discussed, for 
the third floor room. On motion, the treasurer was 
authorized to have the shelves made, and the Jonr- 
nal of the Acadetny of Natural Sciences and The 
Lancaster Farmer liound. 

Scientific Gossip. 

On a letter read by Rev. J. S. Stahr, from Prof. 
Porter, about a species of Equicetum found on an 
island near Safe Harbor, supposed to be a new species 
for the county. About the diseased mouse. Dr. 
Davis, without a close inspection, said he would not 
express an opinion as to the e.tcrescence, but would 
like to have time for a closer inspection of a ease 
before put into alcohol. After a pleasant and profit- 
able meeting the society adjourned until Saturday, 
April 26, lh79. 



Entomological. 



The Imported Currant Worm. 
(Ne-inattts Vt^itricostta,) 

It is less than twenty years since this exceedingly 
injurious enemy of the gooseberry and currant was 
first introduced into the United States. It seems to 
have been first introduced from Europe with some 
gooseberry bushes imported by Messrs. EUwanger & 
Barry, of Rochester, N. Y. From there it spread in 
various directions at the rate of about twenty-five 
miles a year, till a large part of the Northern and 
Eastern States is completely overrun with it. It is 
probably also that this same insect has been intro- 
duced by importation to other points, from which it 
has spread as from the place named above. Wherever 
it has been introduced, whether from abroad or from 
some other part of this country, it has Bpr9j,d with 
great rapidity, and wherever it has gone it has laid 
the currant and gooseberry bushes under contribu- 
tion to such extent as to almost entirely prevent the 
further production of these fruits. It often keeps the 
bushes so completely stripped that in two or three 
years they are killed. This insect belongs to the saw 
fly group, and is of the order of clear-winged flies. 
The most of these are strong vegetable feeders dur- 
ing the larval period of their existence. 

This group of insects usually have, during their 
larval state, eighteen, twenty, or twenty-two legs, 
which is a greater number than the larvae of moths 
are supplied with ; they generally number about six- 
teen. The eggs from which the insect under consid- 
eration is hatched, are laid along the principal veins 
on the underside of the leaves of both currants and 
gooseberries. In a few days there hatch out from 
these eggs small, twenty-legged larvas. They are of 
a green color, with a black head and numerous black 
spots on the body ; but after the last moult all the 
black disappears e.xcept the large, eye-like spots on 
each side of the head. After tliis moult the entire 
body is of a green color, except that the first and 
last two joints are of a yellow color. There is quite 
a difference in the appearance of the sexes of this fly 
in its perfect state. The general color of the body of 
the female is a light honey yellow, and that of the 
male is black. The female is considerably longer 
than the male. The difference between the sexes is 
so great that they have been described by able ento- 
mologists as two different species. When about three- 
fourths of an inch long the larvse attain their full 
growth and leave off eating ; they then go into the 
ground, generally under the bushes on which they 
have fed, or iu some cases they simply hide under the 
leaves that lie on the ground. They here spin asilken 
cocoon in which tliey go into the pupa state. In some 
cases they are said to spin their cocoons on the open 
bushes. The eggs are laid for the first brood during 
the fore part of .May. These go through all their 
transformations and come out as perfect flies about 



the first of July ; sometimes a little earlier and some- 
times later. These immediately proceed to pair and 
lay eggs for another brood, which, on account of 
their great numbers, are even more injurious to the 
bushes than the first brood was. 

The insects of this last brood remain in the pupa 
state till the following spring, when they come out 
perfect flies ready to continue the propagation of the 
species. Fruit grown on bushes infested with these 
caterpillars has been reported poison, but such is not 
the case ; on account of the loss of foliage the bushes 
do not mature the fruit properly, and it is therefore 
not a very wholesome article of food. This insect 
has proved a great scourge to small-fruit raisers 
wherever it has been introduced. They multiply so 
rapidly that in but a few years after introduction 
they will completely strip the foliage from the largest 
plantation. 

When the brood is first hatched the young larvie 
remain together on the under side of the leaf, 
through which they eat numerous small holes. Their 
presence may be readily detected by these holes, and 
the leaves should be gathered and burned. By watch- 
fulness and care at the proper season they may be 
kept in check by this method. But when they have 
become larger and scattered over the bushes, other 
means must be employed for their extermination. 
Probably the best remedy in this case is powdered 
hellebore sprinkled on the hushes while wet with 
dew. Paris green will probably prove quite as effi- 
cient. Of course after the use of these active poisons 
the fruit cannot be used with safety. I have found 
fresh, unleached wood ashes a successful remedy. 
Strong soapsuds are also good to expel them from 
the bushes. So destructive are these insects that, if 
allowed to multiply unchecked, a few years will be 
sufficient to drive the currant and gooseberry from 
the country. Every person who has a bush of either 
of these fruits should unite in an early, persistent 
and determined war of extermination of these very 
injurious enemies of these useful garden fruits. Such 
a course well followed would soon result in such a 
reduction of their numbers that their ravages would 
no longer be seriously injurious.— i. J. Templin, in 
Practical Farmer. 



The Tobacco \Worm. 

This insect {Mocrosila Carolina) ,a.s is well-known, 
belongs to the class of hawk moths, (spfiiuf/idfe) , 
large, beautiful moths, that are frequently seen hover- 
ing like humming birds over the blossoms of the 
petunia and other sweet-flowering plants just at sun- 
down or iu the deepening twilight. They scarcely 
ever alight, but flit gayly from flower to flower, very 
shy and difficult to approach, flying only at night, 
and hiding usually during the day. After pairing, 
the female lays her eggs on the leaves of the tobacco 
plant iu the species under consideration. Another 
species feeds on the tomato, and is more generally 
familiar to us than the tobacco worm. Anotlicr 
species feeds on the leaves of the potato, and is also 
quite common. The habits of all the species arc 
familiar, and most people have seen the great, savage- 
looking worm ; a few have admired the perfect moth, 
and still less know the pupae in its mahogany-colored 
case, with the long proboscis of the perfect insect in- 
closed in its case and folded over like the handle of a 
pitcher. Farmers and gardeners are familiar with 
these pupie,but few know them to be the destructive 
tobacco or tomato worm. 

There are but few birds that will eat or even touch 
the tobacco worm, and turkeys are the only domesti- 
cated fowl that will eat them to any great extent. 
The principal remedy to prevent their ravages is 
hand-picking — takingthe worms from the leaves and 
crushing them. A flock of turkeys will materially 
assist at this business. But a correspondent to the 
Clarksville Tobatco Leaf, recommends poisoning the 
parent moths, with a solution of "cobalt" (oxide of 
arsenic and cobalt). The sphinx moth usually gets 
its food from flowers like the petunia, "jimpson 
weed," (datura stramonium,) and the latter grows 
freely in localities favorable to the cultivation of 
tobacco. 

The writer mentioned says that the "cobalt is most 
conveniently used by melting an ounce in a pint of 
water and adding half a pint of liquid honey. The 
bottle containing this should be kept out of the reach 
of children, as a number of cases of poisoning have 
occurred owing to negligence in this particular. An 
ounce phial, with a cork stopper, into which is in- 
serted a small quill, is suitable for putting the poison- 
ous solution in the stramonium flowers. The best 
time fordoing this is every evening about sunset. Two 
or three drops are sufficient for one blossom. Stramo- 
nium has a tubular blossom, which opens about an 
hour before sunset and remains open until after sun 
rise the next day, when it closes, withers and dies. 
Every evening there is an entirely new blossom. It 
is a mistaken notion that the cobalt kills the blossom. 
The moth sucks the poison by means of its long pro- 
boscis, and is killed. The time required to produce 
death depends upon the amount taken. I have often 
seen them killed by the poison in fifteen minutes. 

" One or two dozen stramonium plants should be 
set in a rich, moist spot on the tobacco ground early 
in the season — say May or June. All others on the 
farm should be cut down, for the moths prefer to 



feed from the unmedicated blossoms. In order toj 
work the destruction on the moths effectually, the! 
planters throughout every neighborhood should use! 
the cobalt as directed. Planters should not rely tool 
exclusively upon this preventing them from finding 
worms on their tobacco. The moths often do not getl 
enough of the poison to produce death the first doseT 
and are apt to shun it afterwards, unless it be dii 
guised by using another sweet instead of the honey.'- 



The Utility of Entomology. 

The science of entomology is daily gaining impor- 
tance in a practical sense. The term " bug catcher," 
as opprobriously applied to its professors, carries 
with it, to intelligent minds, a far higher considera- 
tion than that of millionaire. When Henry Edwards 
—one of the most celebrated modern entomologists — 
sought to dispose of his admirable collection, worth 
over $25,000, for 812,000, he was snubbed by the 
ignorant and unreflecting who wondered what use 
could be made of a vast array of dead bugs. But 
within a few days new aud hitherto unclassified in- 
sects of that sort have greatly aroused the fears of 
that bigger, self-conceited bug, called man. The 
Connecticut farmers complain that their corn is 
being devoured in great quantities by a bug not be- 
fore known. It is described as a " good-sized, six- 
legged, evil-looking bug, rather larger and much 
fiatter than the potato bug ; in color brown, having 
a wide body and a very small head, provided with a 
pair of small feelers." From Santa Monica comes 
the report of a marine worm that has destroyed, or 
greatly injured, the wharves at that place. It is 
described as being very destructive, and rather more 
rapid in its operations than the ordinary teredo 
navalis. The services of a first-class entomologist 
would probably point out some way for preventing 
the depredations of these fearful pests. 

Remedies Against Worms and Insects. 

A correspondent says : The insect question is a 
very important one ; they will destroy us if we don't 
destroy them. The following modes I use as occa- 
sion demands, aud never fail : Melon and cucumber 
bugs like radish leaves better than any other kind. 
I sow a few radish seeds in each and never lose a 
plant. Earth-worms, cut-worms, white grubs and, 
in fact, all soft-bodied worms, are easily driven out 
by salt sown broadcast. You can do no harm with 
ten bushels to the acre, but a half bushel is ample. 
Dry slacked lime is also effectual. Potato bugs find 
their "anti" in Paris green, one tablespoonful ; 
flour, ten spoonfuls ; water, one bucket ; mix and 
keep mixed as the Paris green settles ; apply with a 
watering-pot. For cabbage-worms apply dry salt 
if the plants are wet, or strong brine if they are dry. 
Turnip-flies are destroyed by fine slaked lime dusted 
over the field. But the whole tribe of depredators 
are woiiderluily kept down by making friends with 
the birds. They are the natural enemies of all 
insects, worms, grubs, &c. In fighting vermin we 
must not try to oppose nature, but to rather follow 
her plants, and assist her if she fails. — Western 
Farmer. 



Agriculture. 



Harrowing Wheat in Spring. 

The Country Qentlemau publishes an article on 
the above subject from Mr. Franklin. Sherman, of 
Ash Grove farm, Fairfax coimty, Va., which is of 
particular interest. Mr. Sherman, says: "P. Y. 
wanted to know if wheat or rye would be benefitted 
by harrowing in the spring, if it was sowed broad- 
cast and covered either with the harrow or shovel 
plow 3 If I have not heretofore occupied too much 
of your space on this subject, will you allow me to 
say to him that it will not huit either the wheat or 
the rye, however sowed or however covered. Only 
two precautions I have found desirable to observe: 
Do not harrow when wet ; and harrow before the 
stalk is formed. 

" I have no hesitation in offering P. Y. this advice, 
as I have done the same thing myself, and with only 
good results. After experimenting sufficiently to 
satisfy myself on this point, I (two years ago) har- 
rowed a field of wheat aud rye which had been 
sowed broadcast and covered partly with the har- 
row and partly with shovel plows. The result was 
most satisfactory. 

" One other item is of importance — harrow 
thoroughly, lap sufficiently to break and pulverize 
the whole surface. Advice given by the editors of a 
paper like this should, above all other things, be 
safe ; and iu this case as in others, that given P. Y. 
is eminently so ; when you say provided such a har- 
row is used as will not injure the plants. Will you 
allow me to say to him, and to all others thinking of 
harrowing their fall grain this spring, it is not neces- 
sary to get a 'smoothing' or sloping-tooth harrow to 
do this work. 

" A proper harrow for the purpose is a sharp, up- 
right, square-toothed one, of medium weight, with 
teeth three-quarters of an inch of one-inch iron, and 
projecting six to eiglit inches below the frame. If 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



61 



found too liglit for thorough work It can be weighted 
enough to do It. I mention this kind first because it 
is the one I have used, iind which hue served me 
well ; second, the slo|)ing-toothcd harrows.' These 
have been so widely rccomnieaded and advertised 
for this special purpose as to need no words from 
me. I have, however, seen grain llelds so crusted In 
the spring that an ordinary snioothiug-harrow would 
not thoroughly break up the surface, and it is just 
ftt this time that a thorough harrowing is most 
beneficial. 

" The fact I would like to impress is, that har- 
rowing need not be omitted for lack of a certain kind 
of harrow. Nine times in ten the same harrow used 
to prepare the ground for sowing the grain will be 
equally useful in cultivating the grain In the spring. 
The proper time for this work is approaching, and 
If every farmer could be Induced to harrow the land 
across his wheat field and note the result carefully, 
I think the practice would become universal In two 
years." 

How to Grow Broom Corn. 
Broom corn should be planted in the spring, about 
the same time as Indian corn, ou good ground that 
has been thoroughly pulverized with the barrow. 
Mark out your rows three and one-half or four feet 
apart. Sprinkle the seed as evenly as you can by the 
hand ; or what is better, use a common garden drill. 
This will sow It just thick enough. Cover by passing 
over a light one-horse harrow, going twice on the 
row if the ground is hard or cloddy. After it is up 
about two inchts harrow with a two-horse harrow, 
going twice to the row. Don't be afraid of tearing 
It up, as the great fault with most people Is In plant- 
ing too thick. This kills the weeds and gives the 
corn a start. Alter this it requires the same cultiva- 
tion as other corn. When it begins to shoot out in 
head go over and bend down all that is fairly out, to 
keep from getting' crooked. This operation will have 
to be performed several times. When the seed is 
nearly ripe begin to cut. First cut the brush I'rom 
two rows : cut just above the last joint ; take off the 
leaf, then cut the stalks from two rows ; lay them 
crosswise, so as to make a bed that will keep off the 
ground ; lay your brush on this bed, which will hold 
the brush from eight or ten rows ; let it lie in the sun 
two or three days, then tie it up in bundles and stuck 
in round stacks, putting I en or twelve In a stack ; 
cover this stack with stalks, tent fashion, mak- 
ing It tight at the top, but so the air can pass through 
the bottom. In this manner it should remain two 
or three weeks, until thoroughly dry; then you 
may haul to the barn and take off the seed, this 
operation is best and quickest done by using a 
common threshing machine. Take off the lop and 
have a boy to hand you the brush, taking as much 
as you can hold in one hand at once. One man and 
a boy can clean several hundred pounds a day in this 
way. There are several varieties of broom corn, but 
the evergreen is much the best, as it yields more 
both In seed and brush than any other, and is worth 
twice as much in the market. From two to four 
quarts of good seed will plant one acre, yielding on 
good ground seven or eight hundred pounds of 
brush and forty bushels of seed, which Is nearly 
equal to corn for feeding purposes. Flat, loamy or 
river-bottom land. Is the best for broom corn ; but 
any good corn land will do, giving the preference to 
corn stubble or clover sod. 



Salt; 



Fertilizer. 



For sometime much attention has been paid to the 
subject of R)wing salt on grain. The effect of salt Is 
to stiffen the straw and prevent the wheat from lodg- 
ing. It sometimes has the additional effect of pro 
ducing a clear light-colored grain. Some farmers 
BOW as much as a barrel per acre ; one or two bushels 
will generally be sufflclent. Au English experiment 
made on the farm of the Koyal Agricultural Society 
of England Is as follows : An acre of wheat dressed 
with three hundred pounds of common salt yielded 
thirty-nine bushels of grain, with a proportionate 
amount of straw ; while an adjoining acre left un- 
manured, produced only twenly-aine bushels per 
acre, with the straw imperfectly developed. The 
entire cost of the crop is not stated, but this experi- 
ment shows that the additional ten bushels resulting 
from the salt were produced at a cost of thirty cents 
each. In another case a piece of ground intended 
for wheat was plowed the preceding fall, and again 
In May, when it was sowed with salt and afterwai-d 
plowed before seeding. On the Ist and 2nd of Sep- 
tember wheat was sown at the rate of two bushels 
to the acre. The crop when harvested yielded, ac- 
cording to the estimate of the owner, Mr. John 
Parks, not less than forty bushels of grain to the 
acre, with a luxuriant growth of straw. 

Rolling Grain in the Spring. 
If farmers would look at the theory of rolling the 
wheat and rye fields in the spring It would be resorted 
to much more frequently than it is. Occasionally the 
winter and spring have been so favorable to these 
crops as not to render It. necessary. But In three 
seasons out of four It.is necessary and doubtless adds 
considerably to their productiveness. The thawings 



and freezings of the ground, throwing or spewing 
out the roots and exposing them to the drying winds 
of February and March, very seriously affect the 
grain. I'atsing a roller over as soon as the soil is fit 
to go upon, presses back the roots into their beds, 
and gives them ii fair grip again upon the support on 
which tlie crop must depend. This must be apparent 
to every one who will look at its operation. We have 
no doubt that rolling clover fields, that have been 
badly thrown up by the frost, would also have a 
most beneficial effect. — (Irruuiittown Telegraph. 

Use of Lime. 

Prof. Caldwell reasons In this way In the New 
York Tribuue: 

" Hence the first and one of the most important 
rules to be observed In the use of lime is that it 
should be applied In these large doses only to soils 
comparatively ricli in humus, or strong day soils 
rich in finely divided silicate. It has been proved by 
experiment that lime will convert plant food from 
the insoluble to the soluble forms In either case. 
Wc find the proverb current In France and Germany, 
as well as in our own language, that ' Lime without 
manure makes the father rlih but the children poor ;' 
which means plainly enough that not only should 
we start with good soil in using lime, but should 
maintain its good condition by the liberal use of 
manure ; and we find that whenever. In this country 
or elsewhere, lime Is used Intelligently, manure is 
used freely." 

Corn Culture. 
"The suckers," says H. M. Enele, "should, 
under all circumstances, be taken off before they 
appropriate too much substance which the main 
stalks should receive, but under no circumstances 
allow suckers to tassel, for, whatever pains may be 
taken to bring or keep corn at its greatest perfection 
by the selection of seed, the pollen from the sucker 
niay undo what has been gained by years of careful 
selection. I would as soon think of breeding from a 
scrub male to a thoroughbred animal as to have the 
pollen from suckers cast upon uu excellent variety of 
corn. It is also known that the pollen from a 
neighboring field is ofttlmes carried to an almost In- 
credible distance, and consequently may cause more 
mixture than is desirable." 



Floriculture. 



Flower Garden Hints. 

So many people say that their flowers which once 
did well do not thrive any more, and the reason is in- 
comprehensible to them. In many cases the trouble 
is from worn-out soil ; and If a little fresh earth be 
added occasionally it is wonderful what an effect It 
will have on the renewed growth of half worn out root 
stocks. Some kinds of flowers especially soon grow 
surly and bad-tempered unless they have a complete 
change of earth once in awhile. The verbena is of 
this character. In perfectly fresh soil, that Is earth 
which has never grown a verbena before, it grows 
like a weed; but the next year it Is not quite so well; 
and in a few years it absolutely refuses to creep, run 
or do anything, and we are forced to confess that the 
verbena won't do for us as it used to years ago. 

Other flowers are not quite so stubbornly fastidious 
as the verbena ; but still all more or less like to feel 
rejuvenated by an addition of some kind occasion- 
ally to the earth-blessings they have already been 
treated to. 

Almost all our best hardy flowers are natives of 
woods, or low, undisturbed lands, where the decaying 
leaves from the trees oi the washings of higher sur- 
face lands make a new annual entertainment for 
them — and it has been found by experiment that 
nothing is so good for these pretty little flowers as 
well-decayed leaf-mold from the woods, spread round 
the root-stocks just above the ground. But where 
this cannot be had any other well-decayed vegetable 
refuse, that may "be lying around loose," will do 
very nearly as well. Strong, rich manure — barnyard 
manure — has not been found very good for garden 
flowers. It makes the herbage too strong, and the 
flowers less in proportion. But If nothing more 
natural can be got at to help the flowers along, and 
the soil seems exhausted and poor, this will be found 
much better than leaving the plants to struggle along 
as best they can. — Germantoien Telegraph. 

How to Preserve Cut Flowers. 

The most natural as well as the most economical 
mode of preserving cut flowers is to use any low, 
shallow vessel, either of glass or china, of about the 
size and dcptli of a soup plate. If this is filled with 
nice, fresh wood-moss, made up in a slightly conical 
or mould-like form, the flowers and foliage can be 
arranged to great advantage and made to Uwk al- 
most as natural as if growing in the positions in which 
they are placed, instead of having that excessively 
formal appearance they generally have when closely 
packed in a vase. Not only do they look infinitely 
better in this way, but they last fresh considerably 
longer, owing to the much larger surface exposed 



immediately under them, and from whence a stream 
of vapor Is continually arising from the moss sur- 
rounding their stems. Besides the nice, fresh ap- 
pearance this has, It is of great use both for the 
above-named purpose and for keeping the flowers In 
any ix)sitlon they may be placed In, so that they may 
be quickly and easily arranged. One reason why 
many flowers are so Hhorl-livcd when cut Is, that .to 
get them in quickly they arc sometimes subjected to 
more heat and confinement than is good for them, 
and when to this there is loss of light, as occurs at 
this season, the petals must inevitably iKicomc thin 
and flimsy, in which state a dry air at once affects 
them unfavorably. This being the case, any plants 
that arc being grown for the pur|x>«e of supplying 
cut blooms shouhl he stood as near the ^lass as can 
be done without touching, and in such positions that 
they may have full benefit of all the sunshine avail- 
able. So favored, there will be little dilllculty In 
keeping them fresh lor a eonsUlerable length of time, 
provided the situation they occupy in the room when 
cut Is far removed from the flre, and not where they 
are subjected to draughts, as they would be If placed 
between the door and the grate, as there is always 
air passing from the one to the other, caused by the 
combustion of the fuel. 

Sowing Garden Seeds. 

As seed-sowing lime is approaching, it will be in 
order to say that a very great portion of seeds an- 
nually sown are lost through deep sowing. Of 
course large seeds like beans and peas may be cov- 
ered with an inch or more of earth, and yet Ije able 
to work their way easily through the surface ; but 
with smaller things the merest covering Is sutllclent 
provided the earth Is pressed firmly over the seed. 
Peas and beans, as the season advances, can be 
planted deeper and deeper. 

In flower seeds It is quite common to sow them on 
the ground In a little patch, and then scatter a mere 
dust of earth •ver, beating it a little with the back 
of the trowel, and it Is found that the seed germi- 
nates better than if put beneath the surface. There 
Is not the tendency to rot. Again, we have known 
some of the lighter kinds of garden vegetables to he- 
scattered along the garden line, and merely trod in 
with the feet, to grow so well that every seed seemed 
to sprout. This, of course, implies that the ground 
should be dry enough to powder under the feet, and 
so it always should be when seeds are sown. To 
sow deep, or when the earih is wet, are great mis- 
takes. — OermaiUoicn Telegraph. 



Horticulture. 



Planting Grapevines. 

One would suppose that so simple a thing as plant- 
ing a grapevine would not need writin" about ; and 
yet the number of people inquiring, " How shall we 
plant?" Is so great that a few words to these in- 
quirers may well be pardoned by those who think 
they already know enough about the matter. The 
rule is to plant the roots shallow. If they are long 
when we have to transplant them, instead of planting 
them deep we lay them along about four or five 
inches beneath the surface. It is, of course, very 
necessary to press the soil very hard and firm over 
the roots ; that is if the earth is tolerably dry, though 
in truth no vine should be planted except the earth 
is in this good condition. 

It Is very useful in planting a grapevine to cut It 
chisely in. Unless the last year s growth be very 
vigorous it may be almost all cut away ; and even 
where the growth Is strong one-half may be cut 
aw-ay. This is the way to get a good strong cane for 
bearing next year, which is the most one ought to 
expect a vine to do. " Immediate bearing" Is a de- 
lusion and a snare. Many a person spends a dollar 
or a half dollar extra on a vine which he is told by 
the seller will "bear this year," when for that 
amount of money he could buy treble the quantity of 
grapes It will bear for him, even if it bears at all. 
Still we like to plant good, strong, healthy grapes. 
The little crow-quills, which comc^out as rare grapes 
at high prices, seldom give much satisfaction. Indeed, 
it Is more than likely that the Immense failures 
which generally follow all these introductions are as 
much owing to the way their propagation is forced 
as to any inherent inability In the varieties to become 
adapted to soils and climates. 

Spring Planting for Strawberries. 
There are many writers on strawberry culture, 
who advocate planting in Ilie fall, arguing that an 
entire season Is saved, and that a moderate crop can 
be secured the following season from the new plants. 
This may be true where but a few hundred arc set 
out for home consumption, and where the number 
of plants or extent of the plantation admits of the 
best of care. For a large market plantation of 
strawberries, It does not pay, as a rule, to plant 
them when they demand so much care and atten- 
tion, for the profits are thereby seriously lessened. 
Aside from this, several years' experience has proved 
to us that It Is a very poor economy to fruit the 



62 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April. 



plants the first season, and that the plants grow 
beti er and pay larger profits the two or three suc- 
ceeding seasons when the fruit is all removed during 
the first season's growth. This is based on sound 
principles, for all plants, when removed from the 
original bed to new plats, necessarily receive more or 
less of a check, and they will more readily overcome 
this when they do not have their energies diffused by 
attempting to perfect the fruit which was started in 
the beds in which they were grown. 

By planting in the spring you destroy many weeds 
by thoroughly preparing the soil then, while the 
plants have the great advantage of getting a full 
season's growth in loose, mellow soil, which is not 
the case with fall planting, for the winter packs 
down and hardens the soil. 



An Experiment in Planting. 

Last spring one of my neighbors concluded to try 
an experiment in planting corn and potatoes, which 
he conducted as follows : He prepared the ground in 
the usual manner and marked rows each way, rather 
closer than usual (about three feet each way). 
Then commencing on one side of the piece of ground 
(an acre or two), he planted two rows of Early Rose 
potatoes, then two rows of corn, etc., alternating 
between corn and potatoes. 

There are several advantages in this plan. The 
potatoes complete their growth and may be dug 
before the corn occupies the ground to any extent. 
Also, the corn has the full benefit of the sun and 
plenty of room, while the slight shade which the 
potatoes receive from the corn when they are nearly 
ripe, is rather beneficial than injurious. 

The potatoes were cultivated and hoed the same as 
the corn and were not hilled. They produced an 
excellent crop, much more than the same number of 
hills planted in the usual manner, while the corn 
yielded eighty bushels of ears to each acre of 
ground ; but as only one-half the space should be 
charged to the corn, it really produced one hundred 
and sixty bushels to each acre occupied. Thus, 
from each acre of ground he obtained'eighty bushels 
of corn of the very best quality, and a good crop of 
potatoes, the exact amount of which I was unable to 
learn.— W. W. Farnsworth, in Practical Farmer. 



Uncovering Protected Plants. 

Many things wliich are supposed to be benefited by 
being protected during the winter suffer by being 
left too long protected at this season of the year. It 
is more than likely that many more things are lost 
by this extension of time to a protected article than 
ever are lost by utter neglect of protection. Many 
things are always covered which really need none, 
and these are often lost by the length of time the 
covering remains on them. Strawberry beds are 
often covered with a deep mass of decaying matter 
when they would have been just as well off" under 
the naked atmosphere. 

So long as the weather remains cold there is no 
injury from this litter, as it is termed ; but with a 
few warm days the rotten mass begins to ferment, 
1 decay is communicated to the healthy and 



and 1 



living vegetation. People think that articles once 
covered are very tender, and that the slightest cold 
will injure them ; but if a thing is tolerably hardy 
much more danger will accrue from warm damp 
than from dry cold. 

Those things which, like raspberries, have been 
buried beneath the earth, will not suH'er so much as 
those covered by decaying vegetable material ; but 
yet these sliould not be taken out of the ground be- 
fore the first of April, unless the sprouting should 
be going on for sometime. 

Mulching. 
This subject enlisted consideration at the late 
Fruit-Growers' meeting. There appeared to be no 
division of sentiment as to advisability, though we 
know that all persons do not favor it. For ourselves 
we have resorted to it as long as we have a garden, 
and are sure that there is great benefit in it. Putting 
grass, manure, weeds, sawdust, or pliable rubbish of 
almost any kind around a newly-planted tree, secures 
a prolonged moisture and more uniformity of tem- 
perature. But this mulching should be removed 
every three or four weeks and the soil underneath 
well-stirred and fresh mulching applied. This way 
it is of decided benefit and will save the life, or at 
least secure the health of many a tree. Mulching 
also protects the growth of tomatoes, egg-plants, 
beans, etc. With regard to peas it should be applied 
thickly, as it will tend to cool the ground, and the 
higher the flavor of this delicious vegetable will be. 
Some of the members at the meeting said they had 
mulched acres and found it " to pay." One strongly 
recommended seaweed for mulching, but as every 
fruit-grower couldn't have a sea near him, this sug- 
gestion will not probably be adopted by agreatmany. 



Gooseberries and Currants. 

There is no reason why both these very useful fruits 
should not be found abundantly in every garden. 
They are no trouble to raise. They grow readily 
from cuttings. Take the wood of last year from six 



to ten inches in length, prepare the bed or place 
where they are to stand permanently, force them into 
the ground not less than four inches, press the ground 
firmly around them, mulch them and let them alone. 
If a buxh is desired let the buds on the cutting re- 
main ; but if a tree or a single stem is preferred, 
remove all the buds that would go beneath the sur- 
face. Let them stand about three feet in the row, 
and if there is more than one row let the rows he 
four feet apart. 

In the spring the dead wood of both the goose- 
berries and currants should be cut out, and the new 
growth should be thinned where there are too many, 
as it will interfere with the product. The best red 
currant is the Dutch ; and the best gooseberries are 
Doxvning's Prolific and Houghton's Seedling.— (?er- 
mantowH Telegraph. 

Sprouting Potatoes. 

Sprouting the white potato will advance the crop 
two weeks. They should be cut so that about two 
eyes are allowed to each piece, and these should be 
planted in hot-beds with very thin covering of toil ; 
or it is better to plant in boxes and set these in a 
hot-bed, so that after they are properly sprouted 
they can be at once carried to the place of planting. 
If the nights should be anyway cold, protect with a 
thin covering of straw when the plants make their 
appearance above the ground. Some persons who 
want a large quantity sprouted, cut the potatoes as 
desired, and spread them on boards, boxes or crates, 
in a dark place, and when sprouted, say from an inch 
to an inch and a half, expose them to the light, 
moistening two or three times a week with tepid 
water. They should be planted out so that there is 
not more than two inches of soil over the top of the 
sprouts. — Germaritown Telegraph. 



Domestic Economy. 



Some Items About Sugar. 

On an average, every man, woman and child in 
the United States consumes each year about 30 
pounds of cane sugar, and nearly 2 gallons of mo- 
lasses, Ijesides maple sugar, honey and other 
sweets .... 19 ths. of pure cane sugar is actually 
made up of, and can be changed into, 8 lbs. of char- 
coal and 11 lbs. of water ! Pure white starch is made 
up of 8 lbs. of charcoal (carbon) and 10 lbs. of 
water. Any boy can demonstrate this roughly by 
putting a small quantity of sugar on a piece of thin 
iron over a hot lamp or coals, and hold over it a 
glass jar bottom up. The sugar will change to pure 
charcoal, while the water will rise up and condense 
on the inside of the jar, if it be kept cool, and he will 
get nothing from the sugar but coal and water. The 
chemist can easily take the 19 lbs. of sugar and 
change it into 8 lbs. of charcoal and 11 lbs. of pure 
water, though he has not yet learned how to put the 
coal and the elements of the water together to pro- 
duce the sugar. That requires the action of the 
living plant .... Our sugar comes mainly from the 
sugar cane grown in the Southern States (most from 
Louisiana), and from the West India Islands. The 
canes are somewhat like corn-stalks, but larger, 
taller, with narrower leaves. The sap or juice of 
the cane is pressed out between iron rollers, then 
boiled down to syrup, which crystallizes Into sugar 
grains in large vats .... Most of the sugar used in 
Europe is from the juice of the sugar-beet. It is 
similar to our cane sugar .... The raw sugar is re- 
fined chiefly in Northern cities, by dissolving it, 
straining it through cloth, and through burned 
bones, after which it is boiled down until thick 
enough to crystallize in grains. — Amcr. Agriculturist. 



Necessity of Sunlight. 
Instead of excluding the sunlight from our houses, 
says the Manufacturer and Builder, lest it fade car- 
pets, draw flies and bring freckles, we should open 
every door and window and bid it enter. It brings 
life and health and joy ; there is healing in its beams ; 
it drives away disease and dampness, mold, mer- 
grims. Instead of doing this, however, many care- 
ful housewives close the blinds, draw down the 
shades, lock the door, shut out the glorifying rays 
and rejoice in the dim and musty coolness and twi- 
light of their apartments. It is pleasant and not 
unwholesome during the glare of the noontide to 
subdue the light and exclude the air quivering with 
heat, but in the morning and in the evening we may 
freely indulge in the sun bath and let it flood all our 
rooms, and if at its very fiercest and brightest it has 
full entrance to our sleeping rooms, so much the 
better for us. Wire netting in doors and windows 
exclude not flies and mosquitos only, but all other 
insects, and those who have once used it will con- 
tinue to do so. With this as a protection from in- 
trusive winged creatures, one may almost dispense 
with shades and shutters and enjoy all the benefits 
of an open house without any annoyances so frequent 
in warm weather. But better the annoyances with 
sunshine than freedom without it. Statistics of 
epidemics have shown that if they rage in any part 
of a city they will prevail in houses which are ex- 



posed to the least sunshine, while those most exposed 
to it will not be at all or slightly aft'ected. Even in 
the same house persons occupying rooms exposed to 
sunlight will be healthier than those occupying 
rooms where no sunlight enters. 

The Hours for Children. 
" An excess of two or three hours' study a day for 
all children under twelve years of age is absolute 
cruelty." This was the view taken by Dr. A. C. 
Rembaugh, in an address on Thursday evening be- 
fore the Social Science Association. "Two or three 
hours' mental work daily throughout the year would 
be far better than the present system. It would 
reach down into all classes, especially those for 
whom the public schools were particularly intended — 
the unschooled twenty thousand of our city, and the 
sixty per cent, of our children who graduate from 
our primaries and secondaries. Poor parents cannot 
afford to give the whole time of their children to the 
schools, and it is better for the child's morals and 
future usefulness that they cannot. Some kind of 
handicraft should be begun in the primary school, 
and should follow pupils all the way through, as it 
would greatly benefit both their moral and physical 
culture, and make them more useful and healthful. 
The time under twelve years should be divided thus, 
to insure future health and usefulness ; Twelve hours 
in bed, three at mental, three at manual work and 
six in open air exci-cise of some kind or other, culti- 
vating the soil the most healthful and invigorating. 
Crowding into cities, of all, and especially the poor, 
should be discouraged. Each family should have its 
own plot of ground for the exercise and work of the 
children." — Philadelphia Record. 



How to Use Coal. 



Replenish a coal fire as soon as the coals begin to 
show ashes on the surface ; then put merely enough 
to show a layer of black coal covering the red. This 
will soon kindle, and as there is not much of it, an 
excess of heat will be given out. Many persons al- 
most put out the fire by stirring the grate as soon 
as fresh coal is put on, thus leaving all the heat 
in the ashes when it should be sent to the new sup- 
ply of coal. The time to stir the fire is when the new 
coal laid on is pretty well kindled. This method 
saves fuel, gives a more Buiform heat, and prevents 
the discomfort of alternations of heat and cold. 

Never put the hands into butter. There is no ex- 
cuse for so doing, and every sense of cleanliness for- 
bids it. Even if the hands are clean, still as the 
butter absorbs any and every impurity with which it 
comes in contact, excessive perspiration of the hands, 
or any humor of the blood might thus be imparted 
to the butter. A wooden ladle should be used to lift 
the butter from the churn, or turn it over while being 
washed. 



Household Recipes. 



Sick He-4Dache. — This distressing complaint can 
generally be relieved by soaking the feet in very 
warm water, in which a spoonful of powdered mus- 
tard has been stirred. Soak as long as possible, or 
till the water gets cool ; it draws the blood from the 
head. 

FL.4NNEL Cakes. — One quart of flour, two eggs, 
one and one half pints of boiled milk (used cold), 
two teaspoonsful of salt, three tablespoonsful of 
yeast (added after the other ingredients have been 
mixed). Beat light and set to rise till morning; 
bake on a griddle. 

Cup Fruit Cake. — One cup of butter, two cups 
raisins seeded and chopped fine, four cups fiour, two 
cups brown sugar, one cup sour cream, three eggs 
well beaten, one teaspoouful of soda, one of cloves, 
four of cinnamon. Bake slowly and serve hot or 
cold with sauce. 

Cookies for the Children. — One cup of sugar, 
one cup sour cream, two eggs, one teaspoon soda, 
Graham flour or fine middlings sufficient to roll out. 
If any spice is wanted ginger is best — one teaspoon- 
ful. If cream is not to be had, one cup of butter 
and one of sour milk. 

Queen Biscuits. — Rub four ounces of butter into 
eight ounces of flour and six ounces of lump sugar, 
the yelks of two eggs, the white of one and a table- 
spoonful of brandy ; roll the paste thin and cut with 
a tin cutter ; egg over top of each with remaining 
white, and sift on white sugar; bake in a warm oven. 

Boston Meat Pie. — Take cold roast beef, or 
deed roast meat of any kind, slice it thin, cut rather 
small, and lay it with gravy, sufficiently salted and 
peppered, in a meat pie dish. Over the meat pour a 
couple of sliced tomatoes and a thick layer of mashed 
potatoes. Bake slowly, and you have a fine meat pie. 

Cranberry Rolls.— Stew one quart of cranber- 
ries in sufficient water to keep them from browning. 
Make very sweet, strain and cool. Make a nice paste, 
and, when the cranberries are cool, spread them on ' 
the paste an inch thick. Roll it, tie close in a flannel \ 
cloth, boil two hours, and serve with sweet sauce. 



1879. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



63 



Burns and Scalds.— Thu very beet tiling to lie 
doue when anyone has received a burn or scald, Is to 
lay on the part that is injured a thick coating of cot- 
ton, wool or wadding, so as to completely exclude 
the air. IT the above wool happens not to be at 
hand, scraped potato or turnip will ease the pain. 

Remedy for Hoarseness.— Horseradish will 
afford instantaneous relief in most obstinate cases of 
hoarseness. The root, of course, possesses the most 
virtue, though the leaves are good till they dry, when 
they lose their strength. The root is beat when it is 
green. The person who will use it freely just before 
beginning to speak will not be troubled with hoarse- 
ness. 

Eoos IN Case of Trouble.— The white of an egg 
Is said to be specific for flsh bones sticking in the 
throat. It is to be swallowed raw, and will carry 
down a bone easily and certainly. There Is another 
fact touching eggs which it will be well to remem- 
ber. When, as~ sometimes occurs by accident, «or- 
rosive sublimate is swallowed, the white of one or 
two eggs taken will neutralize the poison and change 
the cflect to that of a dose of calomel. 

Potato Fancy.— Mash one quart ol hot boiled 
potatoes through a tine colander with a potato 
masher; mix with them one ounce of liutter, one 
scant teaspoonful of salt, half tcaspoonful of white 
pepper, a pinch of grated nutmeg, and the yolk of 
two raw eggs ; pourthe potato out on a plate, and 
then form it with a knife into small cakes two inches 
long and one wide, lay them on the buttered tin, 
brush them over the top with an egg beaten up with 
a teaspoonful of cold water, and color them golden 
brown in a moderate oven. 

Oatmeal Cakes.— Into a quart of cold water stir 
oatmeal enough to make it about as thick as hasty 
pudding. Be sure that the meal is sprinkled in 
slowly, and that the stirring is so active that the 
mush will have no lumps in it. Now put it on the 
buttered pan, where it can be spread out to half the 
thickness of a common cracker, and smooth it down 
with a case-knife. Run a sharp knife across it, so as 
to divide it.into the sized pieces you wish, and then 
place it in a warm oven and bake slowly, being 
careful not to brown it. 

Preservation of Fuks.—" Jennie," of German- 
town, says : " As this is the season when we put 
away our winter furs, I will mention how I preserve 
mine entirely from the attacks of the moth. I first 
hang them out in the sun for a day or two, then 
give them a good beating and shaking up to be sure 
no moth is in them already. I then wrap up a lump 
of camphor in a rag and place in each ; then wrap 
up each in a sound newspaper and paste together so 
that there Is no hole or crevice through which a 
moth can gain entrance— and my furs are perfectly 
safe. You will say that there is no secret in this, 
and there Is none. Every lady can taKe care of her 
own furs, if it is not too hard work for her, without 
sending them to the furriers, as many do." 



very little Interested In her possession of "solid 
color," if she is a Jersey ; he is vastly more inter- 
ested In her " solid " and high-colored butter. The 
cow that produces 1,000 His. of cheese Is beautiful 
and altogether lovely iu the eyes of a patron of a 
cheese factory, and he wants just as many more like 
her as he cau get. 

A pedigree ought to represent achievements, not 
merely names. We second, most heartily, a "test 
record for dairy cows," and trust that none of our 
pure-blood dairy stock breeders will hereafter con- 
sider a cow's pedigree complete without a record of 
her production. In the light of a milk, butter and 
cheese record, the herd books would have a new and 
most valuable feature. — /.Ire Stock Journal. 



Live Stock. 



Full-Blood— Pure- Blood— Thoroughbred. 

Again and again we have brcn called upon to 
answer the question : " What Is the dlll'erencc, If 
any, between full-blood, pure blood, and thorough- 
bred, as applied to live stock 1" and as often we have 
answered, there Is really no dilVcrence. All these 
terms are used to denote purity of blood. W^hen 
applied to horses, the term thoroughbred, by com- 
mon consent, has come to be recognized as the name 
of a particular breed — the English race-horse — and 
when we speak of a thoroughbred horse It Is under- 
8too<l that we refer to a purely-bred animal of that 
particular breed. There are, perhaps, purely-bred, 
or well-bred, or full-blood Clydesdales, English draft 
horses, Percheron-Normans, Shetland Ponies, etc., 
but we never speak of them as thoroughbreds. In 
speaking of the various breeds of cattle we may say, 
a full-blood Short-horn, a purely-bred Short-horn, 
or a thoroughbred Short-horn, all meaning one and 
the same thing ; and so of all the other breeds of 
cattle, sheep and swine. In some localities an arbi- 
trary distinction has been recognized between 
thoroughbreds and full bloods. Thus, an animal 
showing a given number of crosses of a certain breed 
is classed as a full-blood, although it cannot be 
recognized as a thoroughbred. But such distinctions 
are merely local, and are not generally recognized 
by breeders. — Live Stock JvurnaL 



usually about 12 to 15 inches high. The bloom Is of 
a light pink color. It Is also a fine fertilizer for 
land, well a<lapted to damp ground. It can be sown 
with wheat or oats. In early spring. I had twcntv 
acres sowed two years ago, which has more than 
paid me back the costof seed, .50cent» per pound. I 
now have a piece of wheat, on which I shall sow In 
the spring, at the rate of four pounds of seed to the 
acre. I say sow Alsike for your bees.—./. M. II., in 
Bee-Keepcr»' Ouiik. 



Apiary. 



Test Record for Dairy Cows. 

It seems lately to have occurred to breeders ol 
dairy stock claiming special adaptation to the pro- 
duction of milk, butter, or cheese, and increased 
value for purity of blood— it has just occurred to 
them that there might be one more important item 
attached to the pedigree of a Jersey, Ayrshire, Hol- 
stein or other cow devoted expressly to the dairy, 
and that test is her actual production of milk, butter 
or cheese. To all the rest of the world this has long 
appeared as the most important item in the pedi- 
gree, yet it has never been given. Purity of blood 
has been regarded as of more importance than per- 
formance — about as rational as it would be at a con- 
test of speed between horses to decide it by the pedi- 
gree. The pedigree has a value only as indicating 
probable performance ; but as in the case of the 
trotting horse, let us have the performance first, and 
then we shall be interested in the pedigree. This is 
a time when everybody feels like probing everything 
to the bottom, to see what it is made of and not what 
it calls itself. 

This test record for cows Is the most important 
thing suggested to dairy stock breeders for many 
years. It is bringing the pedigree to the only prac- 
tical test that can be made. " Like produces like," 
but what is the "like" that is to be produced? 
Color, form and size are only accessories. The main 
thing to first ascertain as to the quality of a dairy 
cow is, how much milk does she give in a ycari 
How many pounds of butter will this milk make? 
How many pounds of cheese i and what is the quality 
of the product ? A cow that gives 10,000 lbs. of milk 
is extremely satisfactory to a milkman, and he 
wants to know her pedigree that he may assure 
himself that the purity of her blood will give her the 
power of " reproducing her like." The cow that 
makes 350 or more pounds of butter, of good quality, 
" takes the eye " of the butter dairyman, and he Is 
all attention to learn how many such she counts in 
her line, and her age, that he may figure the number 
like herself that she may leave behind her, Ue is 



Honey. 

A correspondent writes to the Pacific Rural Press 
as follows, and it would be well if bee-keepers would 
adopt some of his general recommendations, and it 
would be to the interest of all if dealers would. He 
says : " While the bee-keepers of California are just 
on the eve of making their purchases of lumber and 
getting ready to make hives for the increase of the 
coming season, they are greeted with the ueAS from 
their representative in New York that 'there is 
nothing to be done in honey here at this time, as 
there has been so much adulteration in this article 
that buyers are alarmed-' And from our English 
correspondent come gloomy reports of a small lot of 
California honey having been olfered at auction on 
two different occasions without being sold. Then 
comes another, that a large shipment of California 
honey from New York by a large dealer there, and 
that the custom authorities had sized and destroyed 
it, in accordance with English laws, on account of 
its being largely adulterated with glucose. I, as a 
producer, will venture to o8er a suggestion or two to 
those educated blockheads, that may be of service 
to them in the future if they will act on the sugges- 
tion. If you have cause to suspect adulteration in 
honey with glucose proceed as follows ; Take a quan- 
tity of honey and add one part water, dissolving the 
honey thoroughly by stirring. Then add alcohol of 
80° until a turbidness is formed which does not dis- 
appear on shaking. If glucose syrup is present in 
the honey soon a heavy deposit of a gummy, milky 
mass will form, while with pure honey there will be 
only a very slight milky appearance observed. This 
test is so simple, and at the same time so true, that 
any dealer who fails to become acquainted with the 
simplest test used for detecting frauds in the article 
in which he deals is unworthy of the calling he hag 
accepted." 

Pasturage for Bees. 

It is now the proper time for all who contemplate 
keeping bees to think something about preparing 
pasture for them, as it is just as essential that they 
should be cared for as any other farm stock. Yet I 
hear much of failure iu bee-keeping from others. 
When we think of how little preparation is made to 
help the industrious workers, it Is no wonder that 
there are so many complaints coming up of failure. 
Let me advise all who may be in any ways interested, 
to procure at least four pounds of Alsike clover seed, 
and sow one acre of ground. This will supply at 
least twenty stands of bees. It yields the finest 
flavored honey I have ever tasted, and will sell for 
more per pound than any other honey for family use. 
This Is not all that the clover is good for. ll is also 
a very valuable pasture for cattle, sheep, horses and 
hogs ; also, it produces fine hay that is not so woody 
and coarse as red clover, but of a fine stem, and 



How to Fasten Comb Foundation in Brood 
Frames. 
Cut the foundation into pieces twelve inches 
square. Then cut the squares diagonally, making 
four triangular pieces out of each square. Remove 
the comb guide and Insert the twelve Inch side of 
one of th£ triangular pieces In the groove In the top 
bar, fastening by means of a pencil brush dipped 
into hot wax and drawn along the edge of the 
foundation. If the frames are to be filled entirely, a 
strip of wood grooved on th» under side, same as the 
top bar, should be fixed horizontally in the frame, 
dividing it into two equal parts. The foundation 
should be cut 5'^.ixll inches, a piece of which should 
be attached to the top bar, another to the center 
strip, fastening In the same manner as the triangular 
pieces. If the bars that hold the strip across the 
frames are not driven closely, they may he easily 
withdrawn, and the strip removed as soon as the 
comb is made fast to the sides of the frames. In a 
few days the space will be filled, making a perfect 
comb. This Is a practical, safe way to use founda- 
tion in frames twelve inches deep, "it does not sag^ 
or bulge. In shallow frames no centre strip Is 
needed. 

Glucose. 

The following is taken from the Scientific Ameri- 
can, a part of an article on food adulteration, and If 
the following statements are true we can see no good 
reason why glucose is not a valuable food for bees: 

He never found granular or block sugar adulter- 
ated. In exceptional cases glucose has been worked 
up with cheap sugar, but glucose is not injurious. It 
Is less sweet than cane sugar, but has almost the 
same food value. Glucose comprises about 80 per 
cent, of honey, and about fiO per cent, of dried figs. 
It Is the substance into which, in the body, all starchy 
or sacchrine food must be first converted before it 
can be assimilated. Bread and cane sugar, when 
taken into the body, are very rapidly changed into 
glucose. In molasses the absence of foreign sub- 
stances is almost the universal rule. The cheaper 
grades of syrups are sometimes mixed with glucose. 



Poultry. 



Caponized Fowls. 
In Boston markets, capons are not so frequently 
fouud as in either New York or Philadelphia. In the 
latter city tliey are very popular, and command the 
highest price over all kinds of dressed poultry. For 
many years these desirable birds have been a staple 
product in Pennsylvania. Formerly they were made 
from the young male birds of the " Bucks county 
species" — a large bird well known In that region — 
but a coarse-meated fowl in any shape except as 
capons. At the present time, and in late years, the 
Cochins and Brahmas have been used for this pur- 
pose, and these have proved a most excellent substi- 
tute for the old-fashioned variety mentioned. With 
such large numbers of young cockerels as are now 
raised in New England, annually, there is no good 
reason why our farmers and iwultercrs should not 
avail themselves of the profit attainable In supplying 
these fowls for our home markets. At the hotels In 
any of our Atlantic cities they are always desirable; 
and the surplus male bird, of any man's yards where 
a respectably sized flock of poultry is reared, will 
every year furnish the breeder with many fowls that 
can be turned into capons to great advantage. We 
suggest this experiment to those interested. The 
"art" of caponizing young cocks is easily acquired; 
and, when once understood, it may be made a very 
profitable method for disposing of prime poultry 
roasters, about holiday time. In early winter. — Town 
and Country. 

Chicken Cholera. 
The proceedings of the Agricultural Society of 
Lancaster county, published a day or two ago in your 
paper, are almost a copy of the proceedings of kin- 
dred societies that have for the last ten years dis- 
cussed this chicken cholera question. All have vari- 
ous cures to ofl'er, but not enough is said about the 
cause and the preventive. Within the last seven 
years all around us have lost flocks of chickens by 
cholera, and had they neglected their own household 
as thoroughly few inmates would have long survived. 
t We have educated the chicken to lodge In houses ; It 
; Isourduty to make him comfortable there, not poison 
him. About the construction of the house it matters 
I little ; the entrance should face south and be inclosed 
I with lattice work, to admit plenty of fresh air and 



64 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ April, 1879. 



not expose the birds to cold draughts ; but the all- 
important condition is to keep the chicken bedroom 
tli^roughly clean. Every week let the droppings, 
wherever found, on the floor, or the shelves, front of 
the nests, or in the nests, be scraped up and removed, 
and then, with ground plaster or dust sprinkle the 
places so cleaned, not with lime, as many do, for 
that liberates the ammonia and brings out an un- 
healthy smell, but with plaster,that absorbs the am- 
monia, locks it up and keeps down unhealthy, offen- 
sive smells. See that you have at the door every 
morning, before the chickens come out, fresh water, 
for many will go immediately and take large drinks 
of it. Many places have we visited where cholera 
broke out, and too often the above conditions h.id 
been omitted. In some cases the droppings had not 
been removed for weeks,and water was|uever seen near 
the chicken house. A pump or creek was noTfar oft', 
and if fowls could not go there it was their fault if 
they got sick. In most cases tliey got to the 
barnyard first and slaked their thirst on manure 
water. In plain English, how long would the human 
family survive if they slept for months in near prox- 
imity to their own excrement, or drank water 
poisoned with cow and horse dung» Cholera, fever- 
yes, the plague— would soon make every farmhouse 
as silent and as tenantless as some of the chicken- 
houses get to be. — rhiladelp/iia Record. 



Nest for Sitters. 

All sorts of contrivances are resorted to by experi- 
menters, to render what they 'consider their sitting- 
nests for hens the most comfortable, convenient, and 
best adapted to the purpose. The simplest and the 
most natural plan in our experience, is to rest the 
sitters upon the ground — whenever this method is 
practicable. A slight hollow in the hen-house cor- 
ner, upon the earth-floor, is a good place to set a 
hen in. Fill this spot with soft hay, and place the 
hen upon nine or eleven eggs, and if she is undis- 
turbed duriug-.he three weeks of her confinement, 
there, she will generally do well with fertile eggs. 
If the nests are made in boxes, the bottom should be 
covered with a fresh cut gi'ass-sod, or with two 
inches of damp earth, upon which straw or hay 
should be scattered before the eggs are set on. This 
box should be thoroughly dean at the start, and the 
hen may well be dusted (through the under-feathers 
of breast and flanks,) with powdered sulphur or 
carbolic power, to keep her free from lice while sit- 
ting. This precaution will keep her steady to her 
work, and render her condition much more comfort- 
able during the three weeks occupied in incubation .— 
Town and Country. 



Eggs from Different Breeds. 

A corresponnent of the Ohio Fanner says: "After 
repeated experiments with the difl'erent varieties of 
fowls, and comparisons with others who have ex- 
perimented in the same direction, I have concluded 
that tlie layiuj capacities of tlie principal varieties 
are about as follows : 

Light Brahmas and Partridge Cochins— eggs, 7 to 
the pound ; lay 1:30 per annum. 

Dark Brahmas— 8 to the pound ; 120 per annum. 

Black, White and Bufi' Cochins— 8 to the pound ; 
12.5 per annum. 

Plymouth Rocks- 8 to the pound ; 1.50 per annum. 

Houdaus- S to the pound ; 150 per annum. 

La Fleche— 7 to the pound ; 130 per annum. 

Black Spanish— 7 to the pound ; 140 per annum. 

Lcuhorus- 9 to the pound ; KiO per annum. 

Hamburgs— 9 to the pound ; 150 per annum. 

Polish— 9 to the pound ; I'Jo per annum. 

Bantam — 10 to the pound ; 90 per annum. 

Fowls Eating Feathers. 
Confinement and want of occupation are among 
the chief causes why fowls eat feathers. The former 
is often inevitable in winter, but the latter can be 
avoided by burying some of their grain food in sand 
and allow'ing them to hunt for it, which will afford 
them pastime and healthy occupation. Give them 
some green food, fresh meat two or three times a 
week, burnt bones, oyster shells, charcoal, clean 
water and a clean hennery, and if all this doesn't 
cure them of the habit, follow Lewis's advice and 
wring their necks, for they are incurable. 



Literary and Personal. 



Agriculture.— Speech of Hon. A. S. Paddock, 
of Nebraska, in the Senate of the United States, 
Monday, February 10th, 1879, on the resolution 
oftered by Mr. Davis, of West Virginia, instructing 
the Committee on Agriculture to consider and report 
on what ought to be done by the General Government 
to foster agriculture. 19 pp., 8vo. Good. "Hope 
something may come of it." 

The Farmer's Magazine and Patron's 
GciDE.— The March number of the first volume of 
this journal has reached our table. It is a sixteen 
page quarto, well gotten up both in mechanical 
execution and literary merit, embracing a somewhat 
wider scope than mere agriculture and domestic 
economy. With our experience in this field of 



journalism we sincerely wish that so able an effort 
may find a very large vacancy to fill. Published 
monthly by Faulkner & Wood, No. 17 North 
Tenth street, Philadelphia, at $1.00 a year. Of 
course, as its title in part implies, it is in the interest, 
specially, of the " Patrons of Husbandry," but is 
not exclusive. 

Hiram E. Lutz, manufacturer of Philadelphia 
poudrette. Factory Thirty-first street and Gray's 
Ferry road ; office 1136 Market street. Price, ?25.00 
per ton. His motto is, " Feed the land and il will 
feed you ;" and he invites the attention of farmers 
and truckers to a series of facts contained in his 8vo. 
pamphlet of 20 pages, in which he fully describes 
the quantity and mode of application to corn, pota- 
toes, wh«at, rye, buckwheat, oats, peas, beans, car- 
rots, onions, melons, squashes, grass, turnips, cot- 
ton, tobacco, &.C., &c. If it was not (or pondrette the 
Chinese nation would soon starve, but by means of 
this fertilizer they feed the latid ajtd it feeds them. 

Thurber's Bee-Keeper's Almanac and Refer- 
ence Book for 1879. H.K. &F. B. Thurber & Co., 
West Broadway, Reade & Hudson streets. New Tork. 
This is a royal octavo pamphlet of 62 closely printed 
pages, with paper covers, containing not only a 
"calender of monthly management," and the pro- 
ceedings of the last "National Convention of the 
Bee-Keepers' Association," but also a large amount 
of other matter, descriptive, historical and statisti- 
cal, relating to bees, bee-keeping, bee supplies, ex- 
ports and imports, and apiarian productions, and 
general intelligence on this subject. As this work is 
published for gratuitous distribution all who are in- 
terested in apiculture may obtain a copy by merely 
asking for it. One of its special merits is, that its 
statistical statements are authentic, being extracts 
from official documents in the bureaa of statistics at 
Washington, and attested by the chief's of bureaus. 
To our apprehension it sheds a practical light on bee 
culture that no progressive apiarist can afford to de- 
prive himself of without jeopardy to his pecuniary 
success. 

Frances Dunham's circular of apiarian supplies 
for 1879, Depere, Brown county. Wis. This is an 
8vo. pamphlet of 8 pp. in paper covers, illustrating 
various styles of hives, implements and machinery 
used in bee-keeping, with practical instruction on 
the subject. Accompanying this pamphlet were two 
small sections of the artificial comb foundation, 
made of beeswax, which in their structure are very 
perfect, vieing in execution with nature itself. What 
ought to commend this pamphlet, and the good in- 
tended to be accomplished by it, is the fa«t that the 
author and proprietor of the works is a lady. The 
report of the Northeastern Bee-Keepers' Association 
of Wisconsin, says ; " Mrs. Fannie Dunham exhi- 
bited a specimen of comb foundation, made on a 
machine of her own invention, the peculiarity of 
which consists in making the base of the cells very 
thin, and using more wax in the sides of the cell ; 
also, making the face of the foundation compara- 
tively true and smooth, instead of fallowing the in- 
dentations of the base." We commend our pro- 
gressive bee-keepers to the implemental inventions 
of Mrs. D., and especially to send for a copy of her 
late circular, believing it may be greatly to their 
material advantage. 

Agriculture of Pennsylvania, containing the 
reports of the State Board of Agriculture, the State 
Agricultural Society, the State Dairymen's Associa- 
tion, the State Fruit-Growers' Association and the 
State College for 1878. The whole forming a royal 
octavo volume of 625 pages, with 33 full page plates, 
and 63 other illustrations distributed througli the 
letter press; besides, a large chart 24x30 inches, 
with one hundred figures, illustrating the Guenon 
Classification of Escutcheons of male and 
female cattle for dairy stock, both for milking and 
breeding. The whole work is creditable to the agri- 
cultural interests of Pennsylvania, but really, with- 
out making an invidious comparison, the report of 
what is known by the " State Agricultural Society," 
would make a very poor show if it were not sand- 
wiched in between the State Board and the State 
Dairymen's reports. On the whole, we don't know 
but what this consolidating these reports may be the 
best and cheapest plan for bringing them out and 
confining them within proper limits. Barring some 
unnecessary details in the State Agricultural report, 
we consider this the best volume on agriculture and 
stock that the State has ever published. 

A DESCRIPTIVE catalogue of Select Roses, offered 
for sale by Ellwanger & Barry, Mount Hope Nur- 
series, Rochester, New Tork, third edition. This is 
an octavo of 32 pages, with a superb colored illustra- 
tion of the celebrated rose, the Duchess of Edin- 
BURG — a crimson Tea Rose — and is No. 5 of their 
series of catalogues of roses. This is not a mere 
catalogue, or a promiscuous list of roses, as the 
name would seem to imply, but a perfect hand-book 
on rose culture, giving descriptions, names, modes of 
culture, when to plant, what to plant, pruning, peg- 
ging down, protection, mildew, insects and the man- 
ner of their expulsion or destruction. Also advice to 
correspondents, prices for roses, transportation by 
mall and express, together with a most admirably 
classified and arranged list of species »nd yarieties, 



both old and new. The two grand divisions: 1. Sum- 
mer Roses. 2. Perpetual, or Autumnal Roses. 
After which follow classes, sections, families, genera, 
species and varieties, giving not only the common or 
proper name, and the technical names, but short 
descriptions of each variety; giving their origin, 
their colors, and many other matters interesting to the 
amateur rose culturist, besides a hundred other little 
matters connected ■s\ ith this beautiful floral subject. 
Ellwanger & Barry's spring list of plants for 
1879, including green-house, hot-house and bedding 
plants, and also lists of prices ; 20 pages octavo, in- 
cluding a paper read before the Western New Tork 
Horticultural Society, on " The best hardy roses for 
general cultivation, and how to grow them, by 
Henry B. Ellwanger." This catalogue is as skill- 
fully classified as' the one on roses, and every plant 
is accompanied with instructive and explanatory re- 
marks. 1\ie\\- dollar collections, ^enihy mail, postage 
paid by them, are especially worthy the attention of 
amateurs. Either 5 flowering begonias, 8 chrys- 
antheniums, 8 coleus, 8 fuchsias, 8 zonal, 6 double, 
or 6 scented geraniums, 8 heliotropes, 6 hardy 
phlox', 8 basket plants, 12 verbenas, 5 salvias, or 6 
violets sent for one dollar. Ellwanger & Barry's sui>- 
plementary list of New Fruits for 1879, including 
new peaches, new pears, new seedling grapes, new 
strawberries, &c., &c., is also worthy the attention 
of fruit-growers. When we wield our pen against 
nurserial tramps, as we are sometimes compelled to 
do by our victimized patrons, be it known that we 
never mean Ellwanger iC" Barry. Their reputation 
is too dear to them to send out irresponsible agents 
with unreliable stock. 

The Diseases of Live Stock, and their most 
efficient remedies, including horses, cattle, sheep and 
swine. Being a popular treatise, giving in brief and 
plain language a description of all the usual diseases 
to which these animals are liable, and the most suc- 
cessful treatment of American, English and Euro- 
pean veterinarians ; together with anatomical and 
physiological explanations, alphabetical and classi- 
fied lists of the drugs used in veterinary medicine 
and their doses, a large collection of valuable receipts 
and formulas for condition powders, liniments, 
washes, drenches, &e.,&c. By Lloyd 'V.Tellor, M.D. 
Published by H. C. Watts & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
In addition to the recitation of the foregoing title, 
which is an epitome of the work itself, we may be 
permitted to add, that this is an excellently executed 
volume of 467 pages, royal octavo, handsomely bound 
in muslin. The quality of the paper and the letter- 
press are unexceptionable, and its contents such as 
ought to commend it to all veterinary surgeons, stock- 
men, and in fact to any one permanently possessing 
a single animal. The classification and general ar- 
rangement are admirable, and of easy and intelligent 
consultation ; divided into four parts, as follows : 1st. 
General principles of veterinary medicines— five chap- 
ters. 2nd. Diseases of the horse— eleven chapters. 
3rd. Diseases of cattle, sheep and swine — intro- 
ductory remarks and six chapters. 4th. Hygiene 
and medicine— three chapters. Including a number 
of appropriate illustrations, and a copious alphabeti- 
cal index. In short, it is a "ready-made horse and 
cattle doctor, at your service, sir," and the greatest 
difficulty involved in the question it presents, so far 
as we are able to judge, is how any stock dealer 
and owner can afford to be without it. 

The Phrenological Journal.— In our reading 
of The Phrenological Journal and Science of Health 
for April, we were struck by the general tone of the 
magazine. Its aim is to elevate, and it is pure In 
character iu every department, while entertainment 
and instruction are skillfully blended, so that its 
matter is exceedingly interesting from beginning to 
end. Indeed the Phrenological Journal is a capital 
illustration of what can be accomplished in the way 
of making science pleasant to the general reader. 
The first sketch is that of the Rev. Dr. Fair, an 
Episcopal divine of distinction in Baltimore. Then 
comes a very interesting description of the Chinese 
at Home, in which the reader finds many features 
that are entirely new to him, and bearing closely 
upon the special work of the Phrenological Journal. 
The installment of "Brain and Mind" furnishes 
clear and definite applications of the science to the 
delineation of moral qualities. An interesting article 
is that of " Poe and Rachel." Elizabeth Thompson, 
the English lady who has suddenly leaped into fame, 
occupies a place in this number, with an excellent 
portrait. Our young people will certainly be inter- 
ested in the opening chapters of " Uncle Jimmie, the 
Cripple," a short serial which is pleasantly written. 
Real Teachers and Real Teaching, ore some views 
of a veteran pedagogue, now a New Tork editor. 
The great work of Moral Reform is represented this 
time by Mr. William Noble, of England, and an ap- 
preciative sketch of him is given, with a portrait. 
Miss Coleman discourses upon the "Diet of Man" 
in her usually pleasant and careful manner. All the 
departments are replete with amusement and Instruc- 
tion. Tlie smaller type especially abounds in valu- 
able hints to the reader. The Journal is published 
now at ?2.00 a year, 20 cents a number, with a choice 
of Premiums to each subscriber. Address S. R. Well* 
ifc Co., Publishers, 737 Broadway, New York. 



THE LANCASTER FARMER 



We wonld call jjartUnilar attention to the advt'rtin-ment 
of Baugb k Sous, in inothor column of thlB miml>er of 
"The Farmer." Baogh k Hous ire a reliable flnu, and what 
they saj they will do. 

Wai.i,aci!'» Mokthly.— The April, number of this etor- 
liug jieriodlcal oi.eus with a suporbly illustrated aud hlffhly 
interestiug article upon *^' *" '"" * "" 

the pen of the editor. Tt 



horse in America, from 
_ „ _ la an eiceedinRly well written 

I Breeding Ponies for Profit, by •'Toiisidc" a well- 



known Western breeder; also another on Brce<liug the Park 
Horse, by Frank B. Kedfleld, a name farailsr to all horse- 
men. Mr.Uedfleid further contributes his opinion regard- 
ing the elTect of pool selling upon the trotting horse breed- 
ers' interest— an article which can be read with profit. The 
origin of Col, I,ewiB, by his owner; Bomier's Edwin Forrost, 
Waahiuetou CO., N. T., horses, »n*Bn illustrated wtlolenp. 
on hornlesa cattle, by L. S. Hardin, form some of the prin- 
cipal topics .liscusBed in the Montiilv. Publication offlco, 
812 Broadway, N. Y. T.rms, $>.U() i,er y»r. 



Warrior Mower Compaij's Speeialties. 




Till-, ORtQIN.VI, IMl'KOVKD 

Randall Pulverizing; Harroiv! 

Over .tO.OOO IX VSK. 



Chilled Iron or Steel DiskH, iV'nIer .Juiiitei 
Stiffener Bar. Angle of (lauga adjusted by 
Instable Scrapers. The most coi ■ • • 



r. Ad. 

^ . , iurable and ef 

feotive harrow 

tw- NEW CORN CULTIVATOR. -« 

Most efficient and Perfect Implement for working rowed 
crops. Qives mure than univereal satisfaction. 

THE UNRIVALED WARRIOR MOWER ! 

Ijightest Draft. Eafliest Managed, Most Durable Mower 
made. OVF.K 4(1,090 IN tlSE. Challenges competing ma- 
chines for any work or endurance. 
SfSI) FOlt ClliCULAR TO 

79-lm-4J WAUKIOU MOWER CO., Little Falls, N. ¥. 



NEW, RARE OR CHOICE. 

To rariiiers* aiici 4Jar4leners. — r ulTer ilie follow- 
ing NEW, UAUE on EXTKA CHOICE Vigeliiblf Seed, 
postage paid by me. 

M»rMf4ieaU Eariy Sweet Corn.— Decidedly the 
earliest of all varieties of sweet corn. Per package 15 eta. 

K^yptlan Sweet Corn.- Decidedly the sweetest of 
all varieties of white sweet corn. Per package, 10 cents; 
per pound, 35 cents. 

Marblebend Sweet Mammoth Corn — The larg- 
est of all varieties, and the earliest of the e.xtra large kinds. 
Per package, 15 cents ; per pint. 33 cents. 

■ .ongfellow's Yellow Field Corn.— Kernels and 
ears, extra large, not suited to the South. Per package, 10 
r quart, 55 cents. 

Anilter Sngnr Cnne — Samples of the sugar, 
and fulllnstructionB for cultivation and making of sugar, 
Bent with each lot. Per quarter pound, 16 cts ; per pound, 
45 cents. 

BaMtian'H Eariy Blood Turnip Beet.— The best 
of theearlios; a great acquisition. Per ounce, Vi cents; per 
pound, $1.26. 

Hancock Early Feas.- The best oropper, and pur- 
est of all the extra early sorts. Per package, 10 cts.. per 
quart, 60 cents. 

Talby^A Cucumber. — Large very handsome and 
very proliflo. A prize for any garden. Per package, 15 
cents; per ounce, 35 cents. 

Slarblehead Cliainpion Pole Beans.- 15 cents 
par packaf^Q. The earliest of all varieties. 

Kentucky Wonder Beans.— 15 cents per package. 
Compared with scores of varieties, they have procad fhe inont 
prolific. 

Butnian Squash.- 20 Ota. per oz.; 10 cts. per pack- 
age. 

Marblehead Squash.- 20 cts. per oz; 10 cts. per 
package. 

Hubbard Squash.- 20 cents per ounce. 

As the original introducer of these three splendid winter 
varieties, I ofl'cr seed grown siieciaUy for purity. 

Cocoauut Squash.— 10 cts. per package; 30 cts. per 
02. Excellent in quality and an elegant ornament for the 
•parlor. Tery prolific. 

Banvers Carrot.- $1.60 per pound; 15 cts. per ounce. 
Forty tons have been raised 1o the acre. 

Sill's Melon.— A canteloupe; sweet, spicy, delicious. 



Per < 



, '20 c 



Viek' Early.— .0 

age The best of all II 
Excelsior Melni 

age, lias beeu raised i 
Quality excellent. 



.per 



in cents per paok- 



y Water Melons 

cts. per oz.; 10 els. per pact- 

to weigh 76 pounds. 



HEARING 

79-1 10.4 



KESTORKU. Parliculun 

Fui!K. VBKY4HABPER, 



Sawing off a Log, 




This SAW MACHINE U a wonderful in- 
vention. The weii<:ht of th» man who In 
sawing dncs half of the work. It saws log* 
of any kIzo, and irlll saw tifTu ^ foot log In 
8 miniit<-K. Circulars fier. Address, Wm. 
GII.K.S, ami W. Cth St., Cinciunntl, Ohi& 
79-lm-l 



My Seed Catalogue, treating of all the above varieties la 
detail, and an imiuense collection of Vegetable and Flower 
Seed, will be sent free to all who write for it. 

•T. .T.n. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass. 



other spring crops, use the ci^lcbrattjj 

"Stockbridge Manures." 

These are complete iiiauures, made for each crop, 

and arc the CIIF,A1» EST, purest, and best Fertilizers 
in the market. Sctid /or De.icriptiv* PainphUt, 

E1»W. J. BVANS A CO., York, Pa., 
19-8-8 Agents for Southern Penn'a. 



TREE S 



We offer for Spring of 1H79, the largest and most complete 
stock in the. C. S. of 

Fruit Trees, Ornp* Vines. Strawberries, em- 
bracing all the new and valuable varieties. 

Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, deciduona and 
evergreen, 

Rosen a specialty - all the finest sorts. 

(jreen and Hot House PiaiitM, including best nov- 
elties. 

Descriptive and Illustrated priced Catalogues sent prepaid 
to customers, free, to others, on receipt of stamps as 

No. 1, 1'r'uits. with colored plate (new editiou),lBct«.; lain 
lO cts. No. a. Ornamental Trees, elc, with plate, 25 cts.; 
plain, 16 els. No. 5, Greenliouse, Tree. No. 4. Wholesale, 
Free, and No. .5. Catalegnc of R.iBea wilh colored plate, 
lO cts.; plain, Free, .\ddress 



Uochester, N. T. 



ELLLWANGER & BARRY, 



NICHOLS, SHEPARD& CO., 

Battle Creek, Mlill. 

ORIGINAL AND ONLY GENUINE 
'« VI B JEt ^^ T O BL " 

THRESHING MACHINERY. 




THE ENTIBE Threshln? Eipennes (and often 
threo u> Bve tlmoa that amouot) can 1» maie by ia« 
BrtraOra 



GraSu SAVKD by these rBii>r 

BAIN Balsera will not submit to the enoi- 

of Grain and the inferior 'ft r-rk doDtBT 



IkTOT ObIt Tastljr Superlof for Wheat. Oafa, 

tl% Barlej, Bto. anii like Grnlnn, but the Oiav Pueee-.- 
ftal Thre-ihcr In Flnl, Tiiaotby, Millet, Clovoi. fti,a tike 
Seeds. RequireB no " attwjbments" or "rcba..Jlog ' to 
cbsQge trom Grain to Seeds. 

IN Thorough Workmannlilp, Eleirant Finish. 

' Tbreshcr Outlit-, are Incomimrftt.le. 




rODK Siws of Keparatom Made, KaiiKii 
from Six lo Tw.-lve.ll.ir»e Jiie, and ti.li .y le» ,.r .Mo.j 

pOR Partirulars, Call nn onr Dealers 



A DEPARTURE 

High Pricesfor Phosphates. 



THK 

TWENTY DOLLAR PI 



III be printed on 

aA to 3 per cent. 



»II\TE, 
WE GUARANTEE 

Iho following analysis, whirl 

every bag 

Ammonia, - - . 

Bone Phosphate, Soluble, 

" " Insoluble, 7 " 8 

Price, $20 per 2000 lbs. in New Bags of 
200 lbs. each, 

Free on borrd cars or buals in I'niladelphia or Baltimor*. 

J'hiluilclpliia, 



STOCKBRIDGE 

MANURES 

Originated by 1-evi Slocfcbridke, I'rotestor of Agrlcul- 
ture iu the MassBchuNetla A((ricultural ColleKC Tbev havs 
been extensively used for six yean*. Hend for a little book 
describinii them and ulvlnK directions for cultivatlDK farm 
and garden crops, '&\;ery farmer, gardenar, or cultivator 
of akltchnti garden should m-iid f.ir n c( py vialtfd /tm. 
BOWKF.K rKBTILIZHR «<»»IPA« Y, 4.1 «lll»l» 
hnm Street. Ro«(«n: 3 ParU Pliwe. STow York; 
and 21 Nortli Water Nlrcel. RorheHter, N. Y. 



IPIiEPSY 



or FITS 
CURED! 



;ur wb'at'v.',,', iiHvVdnnVitirm'c". ""' CilAS A j-liAI. 
Tor Certlti<jt.'S ..f Niimertius other riire. and fall Inlor 
B.tiun o.WresB DR. ROSS. H» Mala St.. 



OFFICE, 



Ho, 9 Noi Oueen l\u\ 



LANCASTER, PA. 



Is an old, well-established newspaper, and contains juat tlia 
newa desirable to make tt an interesting and valoeUa 
Family Newspiper. It Is published on Wednesday and 
Saturday, subeorlbei-s having the cbolcoof whichever edition 
thalauils their mail facilllies best. The postage to aub- 
soiihere residing outside at Lancaater county ia paid by tlis 
publisher. 
Send for a siiedmen copy. 

T^A/■o Dollars per Annum. 



Is pulilisbod every afterno<.n (except Sunday) and contalna 
the news bv mail and telegraph Irom all parts of the world 
up to the hour ef going to press. It is furnished to sub- 
scribers at all the towns and villages In the county, acces- 
BiblB by rail or alage, by carriers at Ten CeutA a Week, 
or by mall at Five DollHra per Tear. 



JOHN A. HIESTAND. Proprietor, 

No. 9 Nort'i Queen St., 

L.A.NCA.SXKR, PA- 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[April, 1S79. 




graphe, will be sent FREE to all who »mAj, Customers of 
last season need not write for it I offer one of the largest col- 
y seed house 
iTu on my six 
seed farms. Printed directions /vr evitivation on each pack- 
age. All seed trarranffd to be both frefth and true to name; 
iO far, that should it proTe oiherwise, / tfi7/ refill the order 
gratis^ The original introducer of the Hubbiard Squash, 
Phinney's Melon, Marblehead Cabbages, Mexican Com, and 
eoores of other vegetables, I incite the patronage of all who 
are anxxoiu Co have their seed direetlyfrom the groicer, freAh, 
tr%te, and of the very best ittrain. 
New Vegetables a specialty. 

JAMES J. H. GKEGORY, 
:9.1-14[ Marblehead. MaeS. 



HOME-MADE 

MANURES. 

SCIEmiriC FORMULAS FOR IREIR MANyFACIURF 01 TIE 
FURM SENT FREE TO tlY ADORESS. 



The Cheapest, and we believe the most ef- 
fective Manure in use, can be made with but 
little trouble, by using our Fertilizing Chemi- 
cals and Bones, which we furnish of the best 
quality, and at lowest prices. We offer, of our 
own manufacture or importation, 

Diesolved Bonee, Sulphate of Ammouia, 

Perfectly Pnre Ground Bonee, Fertilizing Salt, 

Acidulated Pbosphate Rock, Sulphate of Soda, 

Phosphate Bock, fine ground, Muriate of Potash, German, 

Laud Plaster, pure and fine Oil Vitriol, full strength, 

ground. Sulphate of Magnesia 
Sulphate Potash iKainiCI, (Kieserite). 

Nitrate of Soda, 



HARRISON BROTHERS & CO., 

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS, 

Mannfactnrers of Fertilizing Clieiiiicals. 

(Established 1793.) 

FACTORIES AND MILLS AT GRAY'S FERRY. 

Office: 105 Soath Front Street. 

PHILADELPHIA PA. 



LAWRENCE&TAYLOR, 

70 ALDERSGATE ST.. 
London E. C, England. 



Laigest aiifl Best Market in tlie f orll 

Commieeion : For consignments under j£50: — i per cent. 
Freight In:., kc, paid free of charge for interest. 

Money advanced on Consignment ■with- 
out interest. 

BAMSASmSmCIAL mi 

OF EN-G-LA^NT). 

Telegraph Address 

TAYRENCB, LONDON. 




Oiil.r Double Riug In- 
vented. Closes on out- 
side of Xose. Clianiplon 
Hog: Ringer, Rings and 
Holder. Ko sharp points in 



close with the joli 
aiid produce 




Onl.r Single Ring Ever In- 
Tented that lloses on tb« 
Ontslde of the Xose. 

Browns Elliptical Ring and Triple 
Groove Hog and Pig Ringer. It over- 
comes a serious defect in all triangular 
and other rings which close with the 
joints together in the fiesh, causing It 
to decay and to keep the hog's ^nom 



HOLDER Speaks for iteell in the above ents. 

CH.VMBERS, BERING k QUI^-LAN, Exclusive Manufacturers, Decatur, lU. 




r Si^ds, PIuiu, Rosea. Bto. 

DrM.^BRY&ca"Detroit Mich. 



GRAY'S SPECIFIC MEDICINE. 

TRADE MARK.TheGreaf English TRADE MARK. 
Reined T will pro 

ly und _ rsdically 

^ §f nervous Debility and 
Weakness, result er 
Indiscretion, excess of 
overwork of the brain 
aud uer\ous system, ie 
perfectly harmless, acts 
Before Takine ^^ magic, and has teen 
D extensively used for over 
thirty years with great success. Full particulars in 
pamphlet, which we desire to send free by mail to every one. 
The speclflc medicine is gold by all druggists at $1 per pack- 
age, or six packages for $5, or will be sent free by mail on 
receipt of the money bv addressing 

THE GRAY MEDICINE COMPANY, 

No. 10 Mechanics- Block, Detroit. Michigan. 

Lancaster by H. B. CocHBiK, 137 and 139 N. 





After Takiag. 



A HOME ORGAN FOR FARMERS. 



A MONTHLY JOUKNAL, 

Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture,\Do- 
mestic Economy and Miscellany. 



»-Sold 



ud by drujrgisis eve 



[79-3-12 



1879 SPKLVG AND SUMMEK 1879 

Coats ai]d Coatings^ 

PANTS AND PANTJNG.S, 
VESTS AND VE,STINGS, 
SUITS AND SUITINGS, 
OVERCOATS AND OVERCO.ATIKGS 

RATHVON & FISHER'S, 

ll^erchant Tailors, Drapiers and Clotljiers, 

Corner JV, Qiietn and Orange Sts., 
LANCASTER, PA. 



as any other place in the city. Goods all wool, perfect, and i 
satisfaction guaranteed. Orders respect- 

f ullv solicited, and promptly executed. j 

1S79 l»r9 



Founded Under the Auspices of the Lancas- 
ter County AgriCBltural and Horti- 
cultural Society. 



EDITED BY DR. S. S. RATHVON. 



TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION : 



ONEDOLLpPERANNUJf, 

POST.WE PREP.«D BY THE PR0P81ET0R. 



All subscriptions will commence with the 
January number, unless otherwise ordered. 




Is ar energetic, natural manure, epecially adapted for 
snmmer crops. It is highly recommeuded to tobacco 
growers, giving the plants a vlgoroiis start and c-jusing a 
rapid growth to maiurity. 

HIRAM E. Ll'TZ. Mannfactarer. 
■OfBee, 1136 Market Street. Pbiladelplkia. 



■L'i44^/1:IHf.Vl.llJ>.U'JJ:^JJ.fc» 
ra WE SELL EVERYTHING foe the « 

GARDEN „ 

Descriptive C.v.il .-v.es , r i::. paycs sent Free fl 

PETER HENDERSON&CO 

3S Corllandt St., y'etr York. 



loss 



usxnMsnsassss 



Dr. S. S. Rathvon. who has so ably managed the editorial 
depanment in the past, will continue in the position of 
editor. His contributions on Bubjecte connected with the 
science of farming, and particularly that specialty of which 

I he is so thorouhly a masler — entomological science — some 

' tnowledge of whicli has become a necessity to the success- 
ful farmer, are alone worth much more than the price of 
this publication. He is determined to make ''The Farmer" 
a necessity to all households. Jg5. ■ 

f .TA coimty that has so wide & reputation as Lancaster 
eoimty for its agricultural prodacts, shotild certainly be 

• able to support an agricultural paper of its own, for the 

I exchange of the opinions of farmei-s interested In this mat- 
ter. We ask the co-oporstion of all farmers interested in 

: this matter. Work among your friends. The '*Farmer" Ifl 

' only one dollar per year. Show them your copy. Try and 
induce them to subscribe. It is not much for e^ch aub- 

j ecriber to do but it wiU greatly assist us. 

; All commocicationsln regard to the editorial management 
should be addressed to Dr. 8. 8. Rathron, Lancaster, P»., 

] and all business letters in regard to subscriptionB and ad- 

Ivertisiug should be addressed to the publisher. Eatee of 
advertising can be had on application at the office. 

! JOHN A. HIESTAND, 

I No. 9 North Quean St., Lancaster, Pa. 



ONE DOLLAR PER ANNUM-SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS. 




Dr. 3. S. KATH70N, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MAY, 1879. 



JOHN A, HIESTAND, Publisher. 



CONTENTS O^HIS NUMBER. 

EDITORIAL. 

• Pre»erTing the ProceedinErs, . - . . 

■ "Non-Kecognitionof Agriculture by Government,' 

• Tramps and Incendiaries, .... 
." Codling Moth in Bands," . . - . . 
,Milk, 

. Monthly Reminders, .---.. 
. To Market-Gardeners Throughout the Union, 

List of Approved Varieties of Cabbage. 
.What Becomes of the Birds, ... 

• Book Farming, ....... 

,Eggs-Traordinary, ...:.. 
i Eenslow on the Self-Fertiltzation of Plants, - 
.Queries and .Answers, ...... 

ESSAYS. 

• Small Fruits, 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 
.Large Farms and Stoek.Raising in Lancaster 
County — Slock Admirer, .... 

••Wants to Know, ...... 

, Spring Days — Leoline, . - . . . 

. About Eggs— »",« . J. Pyle, .... 

» The Moon's Influence — Amateur Farmer, - 

• Indian Turnip— J". Slauffer, .... 

• Timber and Fences— i. S. Jt-, - 

• The Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture, - 

SELECTIONS. 
. Cider Vinegar and Sugar from Sugar Beets, 
. One-Eye System of Potato-Growing, 

.Keeping Work Ahead, 

Some Hiut. on Tree ilsmtiDg. 
. Composts for Tobacco, ..... 

. Sandy Soils, 

Amounts of Sugar Contained in Nectar of Vari. 
ous Flowers, 



OUR LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

Agricultural and Horticultural Society, 

Crop Reports— Mating Farm Life Attractive and 
I'lcasaut — The New Charter— Fruits — Miscel- 



• Poultry Association, . . . 

New Business. 
. Linuiean Society, .... 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. 
.Insects and Animal Diseases, - 
•How Insects Hear, 

AGRICULTURE. 
' The Wheat Crop, . - - - 

• Grain in Orchards, 

• Bone Dust, - - . . . 
. The Question of Weeds, 

> An Immense Farm, .... 

• Store of Grain in the West, - 

HORTICULTURE. 
■ Grafting Grapevines, 
' Grape-Growing, .... 

• How to Plant Peas, . . . . 
Grapevines in California, - 

I Sowing Garden Seeds, ... 
. Where Tomatoes were First Eaten, 



How Many Tobacco Seed to an Acre I - - 77 
Bananas, ........77 

Pruning Peach Trees, - - ... 77 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY. 

, Whitewash ,V - 77 

Signs of a Prosperous Farmer, . - - 77 

'.Home-.Made Cracked Wheat, .... 77 

<^Cream Instead of Butter, - - . - 77 

^Use Plenty of Paint, ...... 77 

-A Good Night Lamp, 77 

• French Bread, - - 78 

»To Destroy House Insects, - . - - 78 

. Cleaning a Brussels Carpet, - - - - 78 

HOUSEHOLD RECIPES. 

• Potato Noodles, 78 

,To Preserve tium Solutions, ... - 78 

• Ham Dressed in Claret, - - ... 78 

^Velvet Cake, 7t> 

. Ice Cream Cake, ...... 7S 

White Fruit Cake, 78 

Lemon Pie, 78 

Cheap Pudding, 78 

To Wash Silk Stockings, 78 

Baked Fish, . - 78 

Apple Preserve, .--... 78 

LIVE STOCK. 
Treatment of Cows at Calving, . . . .78 

Color in Jerseys, 78 

• The Difference, ----... 78 

• Stalliou Shows in Spring, ----- 78 
Worms in Hogs, -------78 

.Exercising Cows, ...... 79 

• Tender and Small Feet, ..... 79 

APIARY. 

• Practical Bee Cultre, 79 

•A Good Word for Bees, 79 

. Farmers and Bees, 79 

POULTRY. 

•How the Young Bird is Hatched, - - - 79 

■"What Breed Shall I Keep !" - ... 79 

.Eggs and Egg Culture, 79 

»iVhat r Know About Roup, - - - . 79 

" Brown Leghorns," - - - . - . 80 

Poultry Profits, SO 

Fowls in Orchards, 80 

Facts Worth Remembering, .... 80 

Threshing Ducks, 80 

Home Advice as to Poultry, - - - - 80 

'A Flock of HenS; .-.---- 80 

. Literary and Personal, 80 



NORBFXK SMILEY. 




PRACTICAL 



WHY GO WEST 

When dnirabli- Farm IjndB Id the Ureat I'rult DIs- 
Irlet of the Penlnftnliir Uarden can be had? 
Cool summers, mild winters, pure waters, kind soli, and 
every advantage of speedy communication by Railroad, 
Telegraph, and Daily Mails. A soil producing the finest 
Grain, Fruits add Flowers, and the waters the choicest Fish, 
Oysters, Terrapin, and Wild Fowl In season. As honia un- 
equalled; as i'nr«s/nt«n/« Qusurpassed. For Illustrated 
Books inclose 2o stamp to LAND AOE.ST, P. w. k B. R. B. 
Depot, W ilmingtoD, Del. l3r~SpeciaI advantages offered 
to Colonies. [T9-&-1t 



knlm Buildepg, 



fOX & COS OIB STA>ft. 

Corner of Duke and Vine Streets, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



THE LATEST IMPROVED 

SIDE-BAR BUGGIES, 

PH.^TONS, 

Carriages, Etc. 

IBEUIGBHimiFlinilECITl 

Prices to Suit the Times. 

REPAIRINX; iiruiiij.lly :.tl(UiU-a lo. All work 



PHAHES W. FRY. 

Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

WALL PAPER &WIKOQW SHADES, 

IIollandH, plain Shade «'lo(ta. 

Piitures, Fringes, Tassels and all ijoods jertalnlng to a 
Paper and Shade Store. 
No. 63 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa. 
79-i-n 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



EXSSTI-TAjriA RAII-ROAO SCHEDULE. 

Triviiis LEAVE the Depot iu this city, as follows : 

I.aucaster. Harrinburg. 

2:40 a. m. 

5:(i0a. m. 

9.30 a. m. 

9:35 p. m. 
11:15 a.m. 



WE TWAKD. 

Pacific Express' 

Way Passengert 

Niagara Express 



Hanover Accommodation, . 

Mail train via Mt. Joy 

No. 2 via Columbia 

Sunday Mail 

Fast Line" , 

Frederick Accommodation. 

Harrisburg Accom 

Columbia Accommodation.. 

Harrisburg Express 

Pittsburg Express 

Cincinnati Express' 



EASTWARD. 

Atlantic Express' 

Philadelphia Expresst.. 

Fast Line* 

Harrisburg Express 

Columbia Accommodati< 

Pacilic Express* 

Sunday Mail 

Johnstovm Express 

Day Express' 

Harrisburg . 



11:! 



Lancaster. 
12:30 a. m. 
4:10 a. m. 



Col. 2:45 p. r 
7:40 p. m. 

Col. 8:00 p. n 
8:40 p. m. 



The Hanover Accommodation, west, connects at Lancaster 
vrith Niagara Express, west, at 9:35 a. m., and will run 
through to Hanover. 

The Frederick Accommodation, west, connects at Lancas- 
ter with Fast Line, west, at 2:10 p. m.. and runs to Frederick. 

The Pacific Express, east, on -Sunday, when flagged, will 
stop at Middletown, Elizabethtown, Mount .loy and Landis- 
Tille. 

•The only trains which run daily. 

tRuns daily, except Monday. 



$77 



and expenses guaranteed to Ageuts 
SHAW & CO., Augusta, Maine. 



I. :e', :]bo vs7-3vi-ia.3Nr, 



AT lOM'EsT POSSIBLE PItlt'ES, 

Fully guaranteed. 

No. 106 EAST KING STREET, 

79-1-12] Opposite LfOptird Hotel. 



GLOVES, SHIRTS, UNDERWEAR. H 
SHIRTS MADE TO ORDER, 

.AND WARRANTED TO FIT. 



E. J. ERISMAN, 

56 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa 



s. :^. ooixi. 

Manufacturer of 

Carriages, Buggies, Pliaetons, etc. 

CHURCH ST., NEAR DUKE, LANCASTER, PA, 

Large Stock of New aud SecDnd-hand Work on hand, 
very cheap. Carriages Made to Order. Work W_arranted 



WIDMYER & RICKSECKER, 

UPHOLSTERERS, 

And Manufacturers of 

FURNITURE pD CHAIRS. 



WAREROOMS : 



102 East King St., Cor. of Duke St. 

■LANCASTER, PA. 



fTREES 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental Trees. 



Bird- 



LOUISC.LYTE 

-Hand P. O., Lancaster CO., Pa. 



Nursery at Smoketowu, i 



EDW. J. ZAHM, 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN 

WATCHES, 

SOLID SILVER & SILVER PLATED WARE, 

JEWELRY I TABLE CUTLERY. 

Sole Agent for the Arundel trnted 

SPECTACLES. 

Repairiug strictly attended to. 

ZAxiivE's coFinrsFi. 

North Queen-st. and Centre Stjuare, Lancaster, Pa. 

79-1-12 



SEND FOR 

On Concord Grapeyiuea, Transplanted Evergreens, Tulip, 
Poplar, Linden Maple, etc. Tree Seedlings and Trees for 
timber plantations by the 100,000. 

J. JENKiarS' NURSERY, 
3_g_T9 WINONA, COLUMBIANA CO., OHIO. 



ESTABLISHED 1832. 




G-. SENEK & SONS, 

Manufacturers and dealeis in all kinds of rough and 
fluished 

The beat Sawed SKI:» «EE.'» iu the country. Also Sash, 
Doors, Blindp, Mouldings, &c. 

PATENT 0. G. WEATHERBOARDING 



OFFICE AND YARD : 

Northeast Corner of Prince aud Waluut-sts, 

LANCASTER, PA. 



PRACTICAL ESSAYS ON ENTOMOLOGY, 



listory aud habits of 



NOXIOUS AND INNOXIOUS 

INSECTS, 



aud the beat remedw 



By S. S. RATHVON, Ph. D. 

LANCASTER, PA. 

This work will be Highly Illustrated, and will be put in 
press (as soon after a sufficient number of subscribers can 
be obtaiued to cover the cost) as the work can possibly be 



PEARL MILLET 

(THE NEW FODDER PLANT.) 



Sl.OO 

By espresB, buyer to pay charges, $5 per peck. 

'statement of our experiments with it, and 

instruct ione for culture, free on application. 

PETER HENDERSONS CO. 

35 CORTLANOT ST,. NEW YORK, 



TljE LATEST! 



Tlje New TarifT of Rates 



Made by OAK HALL, four weeks 
ago, sold off large lots of 

goods, and has 

INDUCED MANY TO IMITATE US! 



gi^Whatever is Done Elsewhere We 
always do Better. ■'^a 



This is the latest tariff for the 



A.S FOLLOT^S: 

An Elegant Business and Dress Suit, 
All-wool Black Cheviot, $10. Identical 
quality of goods sold by other parties 
as a great bargain at $15. We never 
sold them for more than $13. 

$4.89 buys a First Quality Dress 
Trousers, sold heretofore at $10. 

Fur Beaver and Chinchilla Over- 
coats, Good and Warm Cloth Bound, 
$8.50, $8.50, $8.50, $8.50. 

Next Higher Grade, Beautifully 
Made and Trimmed, Cloth Bound, 
Silk Velvet Collar, $10, $10, $10, $10. 

The Same Goods in Young Men's 
Sizes, $7, $7, $7, $7. 

Boy's Double Cape Overcoats, with 
all the Late Improvements, $5, $5, $5. 
Boys' and Youths' Trousers, All 
Wool, $2.39, $2.39, $2.39, $2.39. 

Hundreds of Latest Styles Child- 
ren's Overcoats, Soft Plush Lined, 
Elegant Goods, reduced from $8.75 to 
$6.50. 

$25 Fine French Fur Beaver Over- 
coats reduced to $15. (Beautifully 
made, Piped with Cloth and the 
Finest Linings) 

A clear saving of $2.50 on a Fine 
Dress Suit. 

At our low prices we have sold 
thousands of them at $15.00 ; but to- 
day make a clean mark down to 
$12.50. They are not odds and ends, 
but complete lots. Hundreds biggest 
men can be fitted. This one lot of 
goods contained 55,120 yards, and has 
proved the best bargain we have had 
for our customers this season. 

A customer can come one hundred 
miles, and the saving on almost any 
Suit or Overcoat will pay the fare 
Doth ways. 

Wananjaker & Brown, 

OAK HALL, 
Sixth and Market Streets, 

PHILADELPHIA. 



The Largest Clothing 
America. 



The Lancaster Farmer. 



Dr. S. S. RATHVON, Editor. 



LANCASTER, PA., MAY, 1879. 



Vol. XI. No. 5. 



Editorial. 



PRESERVING THE PROCEEDINGS. 

" President Tobiu.s called Vice President 
Geyer to the chair, and made some remarks 
on preserving the documents of the society. 
The Lancasteu Farjieu is not patronized 
as it should be. lie thought that if arrange- 
ments cciuUI be ni;ulc to have the proceedings 
published iu this journal, thus having them in 
book form, it woukl be to the advantage of 
the members and of Tiih Farmer, which 
would obtain a large number of additional 
subscribers." 

The above we clip from the proceedings of 
of the April meeting of the Lancaster County 
Poultiy Society ; and, without regard to what 
the members may think they ought to do in 
regard to The Lancaster Farmer, we 
desire to say that we have published all the 
proceedings of the FouUry Society in our 
columns — both preliminary and subsequent — 
and we intend to continue doing so, whatever 
may be the result. We also, for the same 
reason, publish the proceedings of the Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society, the To- 
bacco-Growers' Association, the Bee-Keepers' 
Society, the Linntean Society, and the pro- 
ceedings of our county farmers' clubs as often 
as we can get them. These proceedings con- 
stitute a personal and practical epitome of 
the thoughts and doings of the agriculturists 
and collateral workers of the county ; and as 
the volume in which they are published can 
be preserved in convenient book form, proper- 
ly indexed, it can be referred to by those of 
the present generation as well as the genera- 
tions to come. Therein can be found not only 
th§ names of the active participants in our 
local agriculture and kindred interests, but 
also what they, from time to time, thought, 
said and did. AsJ an instance— the proceed- 
ings of the Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society have been published iu The Farmer 
for over ten years, and perhaps nowhere else 
is there now existing a more convenient refer- 
ence to them, and every year enhances their 
value. Of course, if a substantial appreciation 
of these things were to follow, it would much 
encourage the arduous labors of both Editor 
and Publisher. 

"NON-RECOGNITION OF AGRICUL- 
TURE BY GOVERNMENT." 

"A striking commentary on the position 
of agriculture is, that although this pursuit is 
acknowledged to be of such great commercial 
and industrial importance to the country, yet, 
when its claims are contrasted with those of 
the natural sciences, it receives scarcely gov- 
ernmental recognition. We have expensive 
governmental surveys, and vast collections of 
birds, plants, rocks and minerals, and large, 
frequent and extremely valuable reports, pub- 
lished at great expense, written in the lan- 
guage of science for scientists, and this is as 
it should be. Yet, although the lands wan- 
dered over by our expeditions are desirable 
for agriculture, or have close relations with 
the extension of the population of those lands, 
no educated agriculturist is attached to the 
exploring staff, and the agricultural possi- 
bilities of those immense areas are unexplored. 
We have had exploring expeditions, and the 
explorers have been naval officers simply, or 
men of science have been attached ; and when 
■we examine the records as published, we look 
in vain for either a comprehensive or detailed 
account of conditions or circumstances appli- 
cable to our agriculture. We have boundary 
surveys, with abundant reference to scenery, 
to the trials of the explorers, to the wild 
vegetation, but few words given to the agri- 



cultural po.ssibilities, and those few so auper- 
licial as to be nearly valueless. 

Our Government measures and triangulates 
mountain areas, and the great reports are 
fdled with valuable geological detail ; but the 
rivers are not surveyed in their relations to 
irrigation, and the characters of the soil and 
the climate with reference to the needs of 
agriculture receive but a scant attention. 
Why cannot agricultural science receive recog- 
nition, and why not attach an educated agri- 
cultural observer and thinker to all our gov- 
ernmental science exploration parties ? Such 
a course would be wise, just and proper. We 
commend this subject to our brethren of the 
agricultural press for their consideration." 

The foregoing, from the editorial columns 
of the Scientific Furmtr for April, 1879, will, 
no doubt, find an extensive endorsement, for 
it seems to be an expression of the sentiments 
of a large number of the most intelligent agri- 
culturists of the country, and the persistent 
and continued non-recognition of that class, 
and the interests it represents, seems to us 
not only ungrateful, but also socially and 
financially suicidal, if it is not the most in- 
excusable presumption. 

We do not think the government has done 
or is doing one whit too much for science ; 
nor do we intimate that the editor of the 
Scientific Farmer thinks so or says so ; but we 
think that from the very organization of the 
Government down to the present day, it has 
made less provision for and has exercised less 
energy in the agricultural interests of the 
country than it has in the interests of any 
other governmental department. Even its 
own agricultural department has never had 
sufticient government patronage to make it 
efficient and generally respected, hence it is 
always passing through a scrutinizing and 
often an unjust censorship. Its inefficiency, 
if any really exists, may not be due to the in- 
competency of its official incumbents so much 
as it is to the niggardly support it has received 
from the National Congress. 

Our "Great Constitutional Expounder," in 
his recognition of agriculture as the most im- 
portant factor in the social, civil and physical 
progress of mankind, has given expression to 
the sentiment that " f/i« farmer is the founder 
of civilization," and it seems to us that it does 
not require much observation and reflection 
to perceive that this, properly understood, is, 
in an eminent degree, the very truth. 

Of course, it is not to be inferred that the 
farmer himself , as a man, through his superior 
intelligence, morality, energy and enterprise, 
is the founder of our civilization ; but that he 
represents a vocation and an interest that 
constitute tiie sure foundation upon which 
the civil and domestic superstructure of 
society can alone be most successfully reared. 
We can hardly conceive of a nation destitute 
of agriculture, without associating them with 
" uncivilized savages." Ancient Venice may 
have attained a high state of civilization 
without an agriculture of her own, but she 
would have been anaked starveling without the 
sustaining agricultural productions of other 
peoples. It is true there are many industrial 
interests not immediately connected with 
agriculture, which may have the appearance 
of thrift, but without agriculture there would 
be little or no demand for their productions. 
Man cannot live and prosper on the results of 
fishing and hunting alone any more than he 
can "by bread alone," and, whatever his call- 
ing may be, the highest civilizing influences 
of his physical and domestic condition are 
those which arc due to agriculture. Agricul- 
ture ramifies throughout the entire length and 
breadth of our vast country, and there is not 
a nook or corner iu the whole land where, by 
the manipulation of the soil, two blades of 



grass are made to grow instead of one that 
does not exhibit it.s benign influences. 

And yet this almost universal interest — this 
sine qua non to human civilization— receives 
less governmental encouragement than any 
other of the great interests of the country. 
The government grants immense land subsi- 
dies — amounting to millions of dollars — to 
soulless corporations, endowing them with the 
power to dictate to agriculturists just where 
they may locate, and tlie tenure by which 
they may possess their homes, without re- 
flecting that if it was not for the results of 
agriculture there might be precious little use 
for their railroads at all. Our national Agri- 
cultural Bureau may not be what it ought to 
be— not what its originators intended it should 
be — nor yet what its oflicials desire it to be ; 
but there is little wonder of this since gov- 
ernment permits it to fall, and then literally 
kicks it for falling by withholding the .sus- 
taining means of support. During two years 
of political excitement it had not the means 
to issue its annual reports, whilst thousands 
of dollars have been granted to bogus com- 
mittees of nivestigation, and to pay for 
voluminous reports thereon that never will be 
read perhaps; whilst the agricultural elements 
of om- country are daily compelled— amongst 
other things too numerous to mention— to 
drag out a feeble existence unsupported and 
alone. 

Economy in the administration of the func- 
tions of an oflice is, no doubt, very desirable, 
and, perhaps, necessary to its success ; but 
true economy is quite a difierent thing from 
" penny wisdom and pound foolishness," and 
it seems to us that much of this kind of 
economy has always characterized the general 
government in its relations to the agricultural 
interests of the country. The Department of 
Agriculture, as before intimated, may not 
have been managed with the efficiency that 
has been expected by the government or the 
people, but no one seems to reflect that the 
department may not have received the en- 
couragement and pecuniary support that were 
necessary to develop its efficiency. During the 
years 1S73 and 1874 it had not even the means 
to publish its usual annual report, inferior as 
those reports were, as compared with other 
departmental documents of the government ; 
but in our view this inferiority was mainly 
due to the inferiority of the material used in 
its mechanical composition. It must also be 
remembered that the department had, and 
still has, to depend mainly on the voluntary 
and unpaid contributions of local amateur 
observers, who giving their service gratis, 
could only devote those fragments of time to 
the service in which they had nothing else to 
do. In the Entomological Department Mr. 
Glover worked like a slave to develop prac- 
tically the histories of noxious insects ; but his 
rep. rts— tinctured with the mechanical in- 
feriority of the department — never compared 
with those issued by the several States re- 
porting upon that subject. This was not his 
fault, but his misfortune iu exercising an 
official function without the pecuniary means 
to bring his work in a proper manner before 
the country. 

Sandwiched as those reports always have been 
among the general papers — statistical, meteo- 
rological, 'agricultural and otherwise that 
make up the reports of the department— they 
never elicited the special attention they would 
have elicited had they been published in a 
separate volume, on good paper, in clean type, 
and embellished with accurate and life-like 
illustrations. 

Congress and the country are at this time 

sorely exercised about the rinderi)est, that is 

I spreading far and wide, and threatens to be- 

I come a devasting plague ; but any legis- 



66 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[May, 



lation that may be had on the subject 
will be unavailable without the neces- 
sarv pecuniary means to carry their legal 
enactment into practical effect. It appears to 
us that objects and questions involving the 
immense interests of agriculture, and such 
obstacles as rinderpest and destructive insects, 
to its successful development, ought to com- 
mand the attention of government in a very 
special sense, even if something more should 
be appropriated than was barely necessary to 
sustain it in a work that is so intimately 
related to the happiness, the comfort, and the 
general welfare of the country. 

The last incumbent of the Entomological 
Department was Prof. C. V. Riley, who 
only recently tendered his resignation, be- 
cause, according to the tenor of that resigna- 
tion, he could not retain the office any longer 
without forfeiting his self-respect. We are 
not specially advised as to the grounds upon 
which the separation between him and the 
department was effected, but if we may judge 
present and coming events by those that are 
past, we may infer that the powers that be 
desired him to haul on a wheelbarrow that 
which by rights should employ nothing lesss 
than a six-horse team. If agriculture, and 
entomology in Its relations to it, are of no use 
to the country they should at once be aban- 
doned to their fates as other useless things are. 

TRAMPS AND INCENDIARIES. 

Our rural population have a fearful guantlet 
to run in these days of theft, violence, rob- 
bery and incendiarism, and it is difficult to 
advise exactly what line of conduct they 
should pursue in relation to these depredators 
upon their property, their homes, and, per- 
chance, their very lives. "Eternal vigilance " 
has long since been proclaimed as "the price 
of liberty," and if this be so in retaining and 
maintaining the boon of freedom, it seems 
to be almost infinitely more so at this time in 
the protection of life and property. It is true 
our statute books are replete with stringent 
laws, but laws are of very little account so 
long as they are systematically evaded, sloven- 
ly executed, wilfully perverted, or studiously 
disregarded and violated. We are no advo- 
cate of the revolver, the bludgeon or the bowie- 
knife ; but, as a man's domicile, under certain 
circumstances, is legitimately considered his 
"castle," we believe, in the absence of a law 
to protect it, every occupant of a tenement, 
legally possessed, should become "a law unto 
himself," by wisely and manfully protecting it 
and the dear ones it may contain. The ham- 
lets and houses of our rural citizens are too 
often remote from the centres of justice and 
legal functionaries, and therefore their man- 
sions may be burned down, and their lives im- 
periled before they possibly could invoke the 
intervention of the laws or their executors. 

It is humiliating to think that the men and 
women whose ancestors were compelled to 
flee their native land, in order to escape perse- 
cution, spoliation and violence, and to seek 
safety and protection in a land of liberty, 
should, in this second century of American 
freedom, become the victims of impudent and 
indolent outlaws and tramps. 

We believe that under any and all circum- 
stances our rural population ought to prepare 
themselves to defend their property at all 
hazards, unless it is veiy manifest that the 
laws can protect it. In all cases when suspi- 
cious demonstrations have been made by the 
loose tramp population now infesting the 
country — where they have been impudent 
and exorbitant in their demands, or wliere 
the farmers have felt it their plain duty to 
deny them— a strict and continuous watch 
should be kept upon their subsequent con- 
duct—even if it should require some of the 
family to sit up all night. It would be much 
better if there was no necessity for a single 
deadly weapon in all the land ; but ratlier 
than suffer the loss recently sustained by Mr. 
Sener, of Martic township, we would recom- 
mend the advice of General Dix to the loyal 
citizens of New Orleans at the outbreak of 
the rebeUion. 



These tramps and incendiaries are bad 
enough in the towns, where the population is 
dense and the officials near at hand, but in 
the country they are simply intolerable. We 
are not prepared to say that there are abso- 
lutely none of them worthy of the alms of the 
people, but as it would be almost impossible to 
make the proper discrimination, they all sliould 
be vigilantly and continuously watched. 
They are here amongst us ; each one of them is 
the tabernacle of an immortal soul, and conse- 
quently they cannot be entirely ignored ; but 
if it must needs be that offenses will come, 
then woe betide those through whom they 
come. It must be made manifest that it 
would be far better for them if they were 
taken up and cast into sea than that they 
should be permitted to ofiend with impunity. 

"CODLING MOTH BANDS." 

The " codling moth " {carpocapsapomonello) 
has been so damaging to apples, pears and 
peaches, for several years, that fruit-growers 
are willing to grasp at any "straw" tliat may 
contain a hope, however remote, ultimately 
effecting their intervention or extermination. 
Many devices have been proposed or invented 
for the foregoing purpose, but it appears, from 
some cause or other, the results have not been 
entirely satisfactory. Under these circum- 
stances, and also because the apple season 
will soon be on us again, we have thought it 
might be useful to our readers to call their 
attention to " Ruhhnan''s Patent Codling Moth 
Bands." Price, 5 cents per yard, and kept 
for sale by D. M. Dewey, Rochester, New 
York. They can try the experiment, at least, 
at a very small cost, and like a good many 
other enterprises, if there is nothing ventured 
there can be nothing won. 

These bands have been endorsed by several 
of the most respectable authorities in the coun- 
try, if we have any warrant at all in believing 
what has been published concerning them. 

Dr. James Wood, of Muscatine, Iowa, in a 
report made to the Western Horticulturist, 
states that he destroyed 15,000 worms and 
pupee in a small orchard by removing the 
bands every ten days to two weeks, from the 
middle of June to the first of October. The 
gentleman writes on and says 15,000 apples 
must have been required to lareed the worms 
we killed under the bands, as it is seldom that 
more than one worm is found in an apple, 
and allowing 300 to a bushel, gives 50 bushels 
damaged or entirely ruined by these worms ; 
and if we only captured one-half of the worms, 
the loss is increased to 100 bushels. Sup- 
posing one-half the worms destroyed to have 
l3een females, and one-half of these to have 
been of the first brood, they would have de- 
posited in the late apples 750,000 eggs, thus 
damaging 2,750 bushels of the autumn and 
winter apples. Now suppose these eggs to 
have produced as many worms, and all to 
have passed the winter safely, they would in 
the following spring have aggregated, with 
the 7,500 of the late brood destroyed under 
the bands, 757,500 moths. If a small crop of 
apples on 10,000 trees be estimated at one 
bushel per tree, or 3,000,000 apples, it would 
require 15,000 female moths to deposit an egg 
in each one. Of course on a larger crop of 
ten bushels per tree, it would require 150,000. 
If the large orchardist puts into constant 
practice a system of wholesale destruction 
like the bands we use, it would seem that the 
moths coming from the small orchards in his 
vicinity could not cause him very great injury, 
but woe to the owner of 50 trees in the imme- 
diate vicinity of a mammoth plantation, if the 
latter is persistently neglected. 

Of course, the application of these bands 
can have no sensible effect upon the moths 
that will come forth in due time to produce 
the first brood of the present season, but if it 
destroys or prevents that brood from perpetu- 
ating itself, a great advance in the right 
direction will have been made ; and it is our 
opinion that no remedy is of any possible use 
for the destruction of this moth, except one 
involving the principles this does, whatever 
its special form may be. 



MILK. 
Although many of our readers may have 
heard of such a thing as "pigeon's milk," 
or the " milk of human kindness," yet we, in 
what follows, entirely discard all subh lacteal 
mythologies and confine our remarks to milk 
as the product of the class Masimalia, all 
the^females of which yield that noupjshing 
fluid as the sustaining element of their off- 
spring during their infancy. At tlie head of 
the milk-producing Mammals, notably, stand 
the female animals belonging to the genus 
Bos, and especially the various breeds of the 
domestic cow, including the Natives, the 
Ayrshires, Devons, Holsteins, Jerseys, Swiss, 
Durhams, Alderneys, and their various cross- 
ings—polled, long-horned and short-horned ; 
because the milk of these animals, ever since 
the beginning of modern history, has been an 
important factor in the domestic and com- 
mercial products of civilized nations. 

Of course milk necessarily must differ in its 
quality, its flavor, its richness and its general 
appearance, according to the animal from 
which it is drawn, and in this difference it 
may adapt itself more fully to the fundamen- 
tal object for which it was provided, namely, 
the nourishing of the young during the early 
periods of their infantile development. Other 
objects, whatever their magnitude, must be 
regarded as beneficent contingencies, adapt- 
ing themselves to human necessities. 

Experimental analyses have been made,from 
time to time, at various places, in different 
countries, by eminent chemical authorities, 
and their results have been published to the 
world, but it is not our purpose to include these 
results in this paper, except partially, per- 
haps, by incidental reference. In additon to 
the domestic cow the milk of various species 
of the genus Bos have been the subjects of 
chemical analysis ; as, for instance, the 
Buffalo, the Gayal, the Gyall, the Yak, the 
Jungly Gau, and tlie Zebu. Also the Goat, 
the Ewe, the Camel, the Reindeer, the Mare, 
the Ass, the Sow, the Llama, the Bitch, the 
Porpoise and the Whale ; and last, but not 
least, the women of our own species. , In 
reference to the milk of the Ass it is said to 
be the sweetest and most digestible of all 
milks, and hence it is recommended by Euro- 
pean physicians as a proper aliment for deli- 
cately constituted invalids ; and although, 
perhaps, not easily obtained in our country, 
yet it can be readily obtained in many places 
abroad. In the city of London, for instance, 
it is said that in times past one might fre- 
quently meet with such signs as " Vender of 
Ass's Milk to His Majesty," or, perchance, to 
'' His Royal Highness the Buke of York," or 
some other distinguished nobleman or other 
personage. It is used by "wet nurses," who 
have not enough of their own, in rearing 
children, and is said to make the nearest ap- 
proximation to woman's milk of any other 
kind that is known. No doubt our people 
would revolt at this " Aber es ist evva yousht 
wee mens 'gw.aned ist." The milk of the 
cow, the ewe and the goat are, however, 
the principal milks used in the manufacture of 
butter and cheese. In Iceland the ewes are 
regularly milked, and so are they to a con- 
siderable extent in Europe. It is said that 
ewes' milk furnishes a considerable quantity of 
the cheese manufactured for export from the 
region of the Pyrenees, as well as from some 
districts in France, and it is far superior to 
the cheese made from the milk of the goat. 
Goat milk is said to be very disagreeable to 
some persons, although those accustomed to 
it prefer it to any other. The cheese produced 
from it has a strong flavor, but this is not at 
all objectionable to lovers of "loud flavored " 
cheese, such, for instance, as Limherger, 
which, however, like saw kraut, tastes much 
better than it smells. Here, in Pennsylvania— 
especially in Lancaster county— the goat has 
never been very popular as a producer of but- 
ter, cheese and milk, except, perhaps, among 
the poorer classes in the suburbs of Philadel- 
phia ; but in some of the Eastern States, as 
in Massachusetts, and also in New York, 
goats' milk, of late years, has come into quite 



1879.] 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



67 



extensive use, especially among the poor and 
the foreign population. But, perhaps, the 
greatest use made of it is in Malta, Italy and 
the Levant. The sassenage cheese, made from 
a mixture of milks of the cow, the Roat and 
the ewe, is in hitjli rcciucst in foreign countries. 
The Arabians milk their camols, the Lapland- 
ers their reiiuluers, ami the Central Asiatics 
their mares ; but tlio principal use made of it 
by them is in the preparation of an intoxicat- 
ing beverage. 

Although in the animal kingdom it is only 
the female Mammals that produce milk, yet 
there are various sul)jects of the vegetable 
kingdom that arc milk-producing, though, 
perhaps, not so rich in nutritions elements as 
animal milks, not even the "milk in the cocoa- 
nut." 

Our preferences, however, by dint of habit, 
education, social custom and locality, lean 
strongly towards the " philosophical cow ;" 
and we will conclude these remarks by con- 
densing from the columns of the Scientific 
Farmer a brief analysis of the milks of differ- 
ent breeds of cows : 





p 




t 


1 




1 


Author. 




5 

12 
50 
9 


87.13 
S4..1 


3.4T 




r T<< 


0.63 




Devou 

Holstem 


S.'J'.l 4 '^3 


WIggin. 


Jersey 

Natives 

swuV.. ?!'.".''.;::;■. 






Waller. 
Euglehardt. 
I'layfair. 
lioussingalt. 



To which we add the following table of 
local analyses : 





f 

a 

1 


^ 
? 


2.94 
451 

4!04 
3.42 
130 

4.88 


2.93 
4.86 
3.80 
3.32 
5.19 
6.40 
4.13 


1 

5.37 
4.22 
6.27 
4.70 
4.07 
4.77 
4.82 


0.83 
0.65 
0.27 
0.73 
0.77 
0.90 
0.66 


Author. 


Eugland 


11 

10 

4 

22 


8T.90 
85.76 
86.28 
87.18 
86.66 

fisisi 


Reid. 
VerDOis. 




Sf- 






Macraner. 


Newro^k-Bwili:: 
MassachuscttB... 


Reid. 
Sharplcss. 



From the same source we glean that five 
Holsteins, owned by the Oneida community, 
in 1878 yielded 43,771 pounds of milk ; highest 
yield for one cow, 10,850. Also, that thirty- 
seven Ayrshires yielded 207,445 pounds, an 
average to each cow of 5,498 pounds in one 
year, and that the highest yield was 8,316 
pounds to one cow. For further particulars 
we refer the reader to that rare and excellent 
journal, the Scientific Farmer for April, 1879, 
edited with more "ability than any other far- 
mers' journal in the country. 

MONTHLY REMINDERS. 

In the Middle States, during the past montli, 
some of the hardier vegetables have been 
sown, and by the middle of the present one, 
all will have been put in ; hence the labor 
will now mainly consist of the various opera- 
tions of transplanting, thinning, weeding, 
hoeing, &e. The following alphabetical 
directions will serve as a reminder to the un- 
practiced gardener, who is also referred to the 
directions for April. 

Beans, Bush, plant for succession ; Lima, 
Carolina, and other Pole Beans may now be 
planted. Beets, Long, sow. Cabbage, plant ; 
sow seed if not done last month. Capsicum 
(])epper) plant. Carrot, Long Orange, sow. 
Cauhflower, in frames, remove glasses. 
Celery, weed. Crops which have failed when 
first sown, repeat sowings. Cucumber, Early 
Frame, plant. Lettuce, Large Cabbage and 
India and Dutch Butter, sow in drills, to 
stand ; thin out if too thick. Melons plant ; 
of the Water, Icing or Icc-rind is the best. 
Parsnips thin out, if ready. Weeds destroy 
as they appear, and hoe and otherwise culti- 
vate the advancing crops ; it is needless to 
particularize each duty. Where the interest 
and taste lead to gardening, directions for 



every operation are necessary to but few. Is 
it not, however, discreditable to the character 
of many farmers who till their own land, and 
should reap the reward of well-cultivated gar- 
dens, that none but the simplest vegetables 
mny be found upon their tables, and in too 
many instances that scanty supply is the re- 
sult of women's labor V 

We have in former issues of our Jlural 
Register recommended a " Farmer's Kitchen- 
Garden " where nearly all the preparation of 
the land m.iy be done by horse-power, and 
thus most ample supplies of vegetables be 
obtained at all seasons without hand labor or 
occupation of time which may not be readily 
spared from farm duties, and the women of 
the household be relieved from toiling to 
sui)ply household wants. 

Wherever onions of fit size for taV)le use may 
be raised from seed (the black) the first season 
without the agency of "sets," we can confi- 
dently recommend the Early Red. It ripens 
ahead of all others, the "Queen " excepted ; 
is solid, mild, a good keeper, and does not 
produce bulbs with stiff necks as common 
with the large red, otlierwise Wethersfield 
Red. The onion is indispensable in every 
family, and if the production can be facilitated 
without the tedious and expensive interposi- 
tion of sets, not always within reach, there is 
economy and comfort ; therefore we advise 
trial of the Early Red, and shairbe pleased to 
have our customers report results. 

An experiment made with the Bloomsdale 
strain of Early Red in Wisconsin, in latitude 
44c (north of Jat. of Toronto, Canada), gave 
the most surprising results ; another with the 
same variety in Nebraska, latitude 45°, ex- 
cited the highest admiration ; not a single 
stiff neck was observed. 

These facts are at least highly suggestive, 
and merit the examination of Northern and 
Northwestern onion growers and dealers in 
seed.^ — LandretlVs Bitral Register. 

TO MARKET-GARDENERS THROUGH- 
OUT THE UNION. 

List of Approved Varieties of Cabbage. 

Bloomsdale Bullork-Heart.— This is the first 
and best Early, ripening with the English 
Large York, and a few days in advance of 
Landreth's Large York. It is large for a first 
early, uniform, and invariably produces mar- 
ketable heads. Where the winter is severe 
sow in hot beds February or March, according 
to location, transplant under glass to secure 
sturdy plants preparatory to setting out. 
Seed by ounce or paper only this season — next 
year in quantity. 

Bloomsdale Early Market. — This is offered 
as a second early, succeeding the Bloomsdale 
Bullock-Heart. It is of extraordinary size for 
an early ripening variety, head reaching eight 
to fifteen pounds under good culture, which 
it must have to attain perfection. Were we 
to write a page in its praise we could not say 
too much. 

Bloomsdale Brunswick.— Th\s is a very dis- 
tinct variety, and may be designated as a 
summer cabbage, following as it does imme- 
diately after the Bloomsdale Early Market 
It would be difficult for us to speak too highly 
of this sort. Short in the stem, flat in form, 
firm, weighty, compact, and attractive in 
every respect, it needs only to be seen by 
market-gardeners to be approved. It is, 
however, necessary to treat it as an early 
variety, as it suffers under the sun, and should 
make its growth prior to July in the Middle 
States, and still earlier in the South. 

Bloo7nsdale Early Drumhead. — This is in 
some respects similar to the Bloomsdale 
Brunswick— more robust, and may be trans- 
planted later to head in, September and Octo- 
ber—of this we have the seed in papers only 
the present season. 

Bloomsdale Late Flat Butch. — Everybody 
knows this variety. For three-quarters of a 
century we have been spreading it broadcast, 
until now nearly every locality in the Union 
has had an opportunity to judge of and appre- 
ciate its merits. Whatever good there may 



be in "Premium Flat Dutch " (so called) has 
been derived from this stock. 

It is not too much to predict the above five 
varieties of cabbage are destined to be the 
standard sorts of the market-gardens of the 
Union. For family use they are equally re- 
liable.— 7>a)uh-((/t's Rural Register. 

WHAT BECOMES OF THE BIRDS. 

" A German dealer recently received 32,000 
dead humming bird.s, 80,000 dead aquatic 
birds, and 800,000 pairs of wings of birds of all 
kinds for ladies' bonnets." 

Thi« is a brief but significant paragraph. 
All these birds are sacrificed on the altar of 
Fashion. Sliould the fashion be much longer 
continued our birds may all fall victims to it, 
and then the insects will have their own lively 
time of it. The only salvation from such a 
threatening contingency is in making the 
wearing of insects fashionable by the whole 
people. Handsome bonnet ornaments might 
be compounded out of grasshoppers, cock- 
roaches, butterflies and moths ; and splendid 
jewelry out of Colorado potato-beetles, curcu- 
lios, apple tree borers and chinch bugs. We 
mean exactly what we say. If things con- 
tinue as they are going now, this will ulti- 
mately be our only safeguard against noxious 
insects. 

BOOK FARMING. 

" New England has now over 230 farmers' 
clubs, with 72,000 active members, and library 
books to the number of 21,000." 

That's the way it is done in New England. 
Put all the New England States together and 
their combined territory will hardly be larger 
than the single State of New York, and not 
much larger than Pennsylvania. Their land is, 
and always has been, naturally, more sterile 
than either Pennsylvania or New York, and 
yet farmers, as a class, are more intelligent, as 
good cultivators, and average as much off 
their few acres as they do in the two great 
States last named ; and, doubtless, they live 
as bountifully. They seem to apprehend that 
all traditional things are daily becoming more 
precarious in their tenure, and, therefore, 
they are not too conceited or i)rejudiced to 
become book farmers. They join clubs, 
take agricultural journals and thoroughly 
read them. 

EGGS-TRAORDINARY. 

" Statistics show that the annual consump- 
tion of eggs in the United States is about 
10,600,000 barrels. The poultry marked or 
consumed in 1877, is estimated at 680,000,000 
pounds of the value of »68,000,000." 

Eggs-actly so. And yet many of our far- 
mers consider the egg and chicken business 
too small to recognize as a branch of com- 
merce ; and in the face of the fact, too, that 
the market is seldom or never overstocked 
with this species of merchandise. Eggs, like 
lucifer matches, would be used— and always 
used— by the entire population, if they could 
be uniformly furnished within the abilities of 
the poor, or those in medium circumstances — 
the working people, for instance. They go 
farther in a family than many other things 
consumed, which cost a great deal more. No 
animal ^bstance contains so much meat with 
so little quantity of bone — for eggs-ample. 

HENSLOW ON THE SELF-FERTILIZA- 
TION OF PLANTS. 

The Rev. George Ileiislow concludes, from 
his studies on the structure of plant^s, that the 
prevailing views as to the necessity of cross- 
fertilization are too extreme. He claims that 
"Mr. Darwin's works have gone too far to 
strengthen the belief that intercrossing is ab- 
solutely necessary for plants ; and that if self- 
fertilization be continued for lengthened 
periods the plants tend to degenerate, and 
thence to ultimate extinction. This I believe 
to be absolutely false." Mr. Henslow arrives 
at the following conclusions in his article in 
the Popular Science Review: 

1st. The majority of flowering plants can, 
do, fertilize themselves. 



68 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



[ May, 



2ad. Very few plants are known to be 
physiologically self-sterile when pollen of a 
flower is placed on the stigma of the same 
flower. 

3rd. Several plants are known to be mor- 
phologically* self-sterile, in that pollen cannot, 
without aid, reach the stigma of a contiguous 
flower, but is effective on that of the same 
flower. 

4th. Self-sterile plants, from both the above 
causes, can become self-fertile. 

5th. Highly self-fertile forms may arise 
under cultivation. 

6th. Special adaptations occur for self-fertili- 
zation. 



Queries and Answers. 



Mr. F. B. i*.— The large, long-winged in- 
sect you sent us is the " Great Shad-Fly "— 
Perla xanthenes, one of the largest of the 
species, and which usually make their appear- 
ance in the spring. They are, perhaps, later 
this spring than they usually are. Some of 
the smaller species appear as early as the end 
of February or the beginning of March. The 
larva lives a whole year in water, and some 
of them for a longer period, feeding on small 
water animals, but the Imago never eats any- 
thing. Length of body, 1^ inches; caudal 
spine, i inch ; length of wings, 2 inches ; ex- 
pansion of wings, 4 inches ; antennse, 1 inch ; 
color, gray, orange and brown. Order, Neu- 
EOPTERA ; section, Fseudoneiiroptera; family, 
Ferlkke. 



Essays. 



SMALL FRUITS. 

The following eutertaiuing and instructive 
essay on " Small Fruits " was read by Henry 
M. -Engle, Esq., at a meeting of the Donegal 
Township Farmers' Club, April 5, 1879, held 
in Marietta : 

The great majority of land owners and 
cultivators of the soil look upon small fruit 
culture as too small a business for their con- 
sideration, and more so to plant and attend to 
it for either pleasure or profit. We admit that 
too large a proportion is grown in such a slip- 
shod manner, and offered in our markets in 
such an uninviting condition that many who 
would otherwise be consumers pass it by with 
disgust. On the other hand, what is more in- 
viting to both the eye and the palate than ripe, 
fresh, well-grown strawberries, measuring 
from an inch to two inches in diameter, and 
which cast their fragrance quite a distance V 
What is more delicious, appetizing and health- 
ful than a dish of ripe strawberries, as the 
heated season comes in, and when the system 
requires such food; and which is followed with 
raspberries, blackberries, currants and the 
larger fruits during the summer season, all of 
which supply thehuman system with just what 
nature designed for the health and happiness 
of man? When we consider how prolific 
"mother earth " yields her bountiful supplies, 
with such little intelligent care on the part of 
man, it seems next to criminal on his part to 
be so negligent in this department, which his 
Creator designed for his welfare. A^o adults 
who have blunted their finer sensibilities with 
all manner of stimulants and narcotic poisons, 
and having no longer that keen relish for sucli 
delicious food, we have only to say, let them 
follow their idols and reap their legitimate 
harvests ; but how shall we deal with the chil- 
dren, whose unpreverted appetites crave so 
irresistibly such a natural relish that in many 
cases they seem to be almost forced to pilfer 
for their natural good that which is in so 
many cases denied them, and which often 
might be supplied with the money spent by 
their parents for health and soul destroying 
articles ? This may be a question for philan- 
thropists and benevolent societies, but who is 
better prepared to make progress in this great 



field than the tiller of the soil ? But while the 
latter has all the advantages possible his table 
is generally more scantily supplied with small 
fruits (and I may add the best of vegetables,) 
than that of the working classes in the cities 
and larger towns throughout the country. 
This is rather a sad commentary upon the 
mass of farmers, but it is, nevertheless, a 
true one. At a time when only a small pro- 
portion of land was under tillage, and wild 
berries generally abundant, and the improved 
kinds few and far between, and prices high, 
there was some excuse for indifterence in the 
matter ; but since the larger propojrtion of 
land is under tillage, by which most of the 
wild fruits are destroyed, and the plants of 
the new and improved kinds so cheap and in 
such abundance, there is no longer a plea for 
the neglect of this important branch of in- 
dustry, which brings pleasure and health to 
the consumer, and pays so well the producer. 
It is pretty safe to measure the intelligence, 
comfort and general health of a family by the 
variety of earth's products which they con- 
sume. Those who avail themselves of the 
greater number of the bounties of " mother 
earth " stand highest in the scale, while those 
who are content with hog and potatoes stand 
at the foot. It will, no doubt, be conceded 
that a larger proportion of fruits (and especi- 
ally small fruits) should compose the general 
bill of fare, but the question arises, "How 
shall this be brought about?" In answer I 
would say, let a half dozen leading men in 
every township organize a farmers' ' club, and 
hold regular monthly meetings (or oftener if 
the interest will justify), and dTscuss topics of 
interest on horticulture, and hold annual or 
semi-annual exhibitions of the finest of earth's 
products and the object will be to a great de- 
gree gained. Demand and supply will meet 
each other, and a review of the past will 
cause both surprise and regret over benefits 
which might have been enjoyed. Few persons 
have an idea how soon they can learn enough 
to grow small fruits with as much success as 
any other crop, and how ready consumers are 
to patronize them, provided a good article is 
produced and offered fresh and in good condi- 
tion. Strawberries can be produced with as 
much certainty as any other crop, and no crop 
will pay better ; but such results must not be 
expected with slovenly cultivatiou. We are 
often asked, " When is the best time to plant 
strawberries ?" 

I would say spring, as a rule, is the most 
certain, as the ground is then cool and moist. 
The soil being in proper condition and good 
plants, well put in, well cultivated during the 
summer, and a light mulch for winter, will 
usually yield a full crop of fruit the first sea- 
son after planting, which is more than can be 
said of any fruit in this latitude. As to varie- 
ties, the Wilson continues to stand prominent 
on the list, while Jucunda, Charles Downing, 
Green Prolific, Boyden's No. 30, and others 
of the older kinds are preferred by many. 

Among the newer kinds, Monarch of the 
West, Cumberland, Capt. Jack, Great Ameri- 
can, Centennial, Forest Rose, President Lin- 
coln, and others, have all proven excellent 
with some growers, and may become standard 
varieties, but none have been more highly 
extolled than Crescent Seedling and Sharp- 
less, the former for its wonderful vigor of 
plant and great productiveness, and the latter 
for its good quality, fine appearance and 
firmness, and as the largest berry yet pro- 
duced. Unless indications fail, some of the 
older standard varieties will be cast in the 
shade by the newer. 

Raspberries are the next fruit in order of 
ripening, sometimes overlapping the straw- 
bei-ry season a httle, and therefore indispensa- 
ble to keep up supplies in their line. The 
cap varieties, which propagate from tips and 
generally as hard as oak, are preferred by 
some. Doolittle, Miami, Mammoth and 
Seneca are among the older standard varie- 
ties, while the Gregg promises to supersede 
all others of this class. 

Amon^ the reds, the Hudson River, Ant- 
werp, Philadelphia, Brandywine, Turner 



and Herstine are standard varieties, while 
Pride of the Hudson, Henrietta and Queen of 
the Market, among the newer, may, oh ac- 
count of their larger size, supersede the 
former. 

The reds are not as hardy as the cap varie- 
ties, but most of the above-named are suffi- 
ciently so to make them reliable, and, as they 
bring higher prices as a rule, they are more 
extensively grown. Those multiplying with 
suckers (unless intended for planting) should 
be treated as weeds, except three to five on a 
bush, left stand for fruiting, which should be 
topped when three to four feet high, so as to 
form side branches, which should also be 
topped when growing beyond reasonable 
length. By this method stouter canes will be 
produced, which will not be so likely to fall or 
be blown over. The caps may be treated the 
same way. As an inducement to planting 
raspbeiTies, they will flourish very well in the 
shade and may be planted along tree rows, 
where, by liberal manuring, they will yield 
surprising crops. Three by six feet is a proper 
distance for planting raspberries. 

Blackberries will follow the former very 
closely and keep up the succession of small 
fruits. They should be planted four by eight 
feet and treated similarly to raspberries. 
They are great feeders and will respond well 
to liberal manuring. The Lawton, being the 
first to make a sensation in blackberry culture, 
continues to be largely grown, but the Wilson, 
being earlier and fully as large, is the market 
berry for New York and Philadelphia. 

Kittatinny is a berry of best quality, nearly 
as large as either of the former and more 
hardy, but has of late been more subject to 
red rust. It has lost much of its former 
popularity. Snyder, Wallace and Taylor are 
newer varieties and quite popular in some 
sections. The currant is a bush that is con- 
sidered indispensable in' almost every garden 
or back yard of reasonable pretensions, but as 
a rule has to make its way among so many 
serious obstacles, that it would not be sur- 
prising if it had succumbed and gone out of 
existence long ago. When properly treated 
it will yield "as liberal and as fine as any other 
fruit, and it is of more value than it generally 
gets credit for. Cherry and La Versailles are 
the largest varieties, but the old Red Dutch 
will yield more than either and is less acid. 
The White Grape and White Dutch are less 
acid than the reds, of fair size and quite pro- 
ductive. 

The gooseberry can only be grown in a cool 
and humid atmosphere, so that in this latitude 
we scarcely learn to know what a gooseberry 
is ; therefore the nearer we can bring about 
the above conditions the greater will be our 
success with this fruit. Our native kinds, 
however, yield crons as regular and abimdant 
as any other fruit, but small and inferior to 
perfect foreign gooseberries. 



Contributions. 



LARGE FARMS AND STOCK-RAISING 
IN LANCASTER COUNTY. 

Although Lancaster county, being noted 
for its fine farms and its good farming and 
farmers, we cannot, as a general thing, boast 
of large farms like some other counties and 
States, our farms averaging from fifty to one 
hundred acres, seldom over one hundred and 
fifty, and a few two hundred acres. As an 
exception to this, however, we find a few in 
the northeast and northern sections of the 
county that may be worthy of notice and 
interest some of the many readers of The 
FAR5IER, of which we will endeavor to give 
a short descriijtion. 

About twenty miles northeast from Lan- 
caster and about five miles from Ephrata, 
near the Berks county line, there is a farm 
containing about seven hundred acres, owned 
by Mr. Texter, who manages the whole farm ; 
he has it stocked with common stock of all 
kinds, from sheep, swine and cattle to horses 
by the score, mostly or [always a surplus on 



THE LANCASTER FARMER. 



69 



liaiid. There Ls but one main building on the 
whole. He has quite a number of acres of 
grazing or meadow lands, and also forests, 
such as chestnut sprouts. Although mostly 
sand and gravel land he has a good deal of it 
in a good state of cultivation. 

Then about fifteen miles from Lancaster, 
five miles north of Litiz, you will find several 
large farms also ; one of them owned by the 
heirs of Dawson Coleman, and the other by 
the heirs of Ttobcrt Colinian. The first, owned 
by the heirs of Dawson Coleman, is located in 
Elizabeth township, used to be called the 
Elizabeth Furnace, but is now abandoned 
and turned into a stock farm ; it contains about 
thirteen hundred acres. It is managed by Mr. 
Colin Cameron, who has turned it partly into 
a stock farm from that of a cheese factory, 
which was carried on by his predecessor. Mr. 
Cameron keeps mostly Alderney stock, from 
which he sells many at a distance, and at 
liome; he has also any number of poultry, from 
the game to tlic Plymouth Rock. There are 
three large houses and barns on the land, but 
all managed by Mr. Cameron, who lives in 
the old mansion where Mr. Coleman used to 
live many years ago. The land is divided 
into grazing and farming, and a good deal is 
in forest. The most of the old furnace can 
yet be seen, together with the large number 
of tenant houses, for whose occupants Miss 
Coleman built a church to worship and hold 
Sunday-schools. 

The latter farm, west of the former, con- 
taining about forty-five hundred acres, owned 
by the Coleman heirs, formerly called the 
Speedwell Forge place, managed by Mr. 
George Youtz, who occupies the old mansion, 
and has, among other older buildings, built 
several large barns and houses ; scarcely any 
of the old forge and dam being visible. This 
farm also contains much grazing and meadow 
lands, and chestnut timber, from which many 
rails and posts are made and sold ; also, char- 
coal burned from the wood. 

Mr. Youtz has, if not the greatest stock 
farm in the State, at least one of the greatest. 
His stock of cattle are, as far as I saw, ordi- 
nary with the exception of a pair of oxen, 
which he values highly ; but his stock of 
Hambletonian horses exceeds any that I have 
yet seen. He has about twenty colts, about 
twenty yearlings, that many two yearlings, 
and, perhaps, forty or fifty work horses, in- 
cluding his stallions, besides a number of 
what he calls Percherons, (small ponies). 

Tie has a stallion of the Middletou stock for 
which he paid fifteen thousand dollars, ^nd 
three and four yearling stallions which he 
values from one to two tliousand dollars. He 
has a number of Hambletonian colts now train- 
ing on his half-mile course, made on purpose 
to train, which he expects to turn out two- 
forties, and is sending them out to different 
points. These farms are none of our Lancaster 
county limestone land— rich farms— nor are 
they so pleasantly located, but it will do any- 
one good to see some of these farms and 
stock.— <S(ocfe Admirer. 



For The Lancaster Fabmkb. 
WANTS TO KNOW. 

Mr. Editor : A young man wishes to 
know where he can buy good land for $150 an 
acre that will yield 40 bushels of wheat per 
acre. He has seen in the papers notices of 
Mr. Groff's system of cultivation, but it was 
not stated where such land could be bought 
or S150 an acre. In his neighborhood land 
costs a good deal more than that, and the 
yield of wheat per acre, one year in another, 
hardly averages 25 bushels per acre. 

Will Mr. GroflE please state, through The 
Farmer, where land can be bought for $150 
per acre that will yield 40 bushels of wheat to 
the* acre ? And, also, whether the farm can 
be kept in good condition with 300 pounds of 
rawbone to the acre ; and, if the straw is all 
sold, what are we to use for bedding for the 
horses and cows?— H'^amiH-, 3fay, 1879. 

[We apprehend that either of the proposi- 
tions might be realized singly, but the com- 
pound proposition may be difficult to realize.] 



For The Lanoasteb Fabmeb. 
SPRING DAYS. 
And DOW the merry days have come, 

The gladdest of the year, 
Of meadows preen and daisies bright, 

And streamlets running; clear ; 
The buttercup and cowslip, too, 

Peep from their mossy bed, 
They love the gentle sun's warm ray. 

Above their lowly head ; 
The apple tree is in full bloom, 

And from their tops the Jay 
Is piping out his welcome notes, 

Throughout the live long day. 

The little lambs upcfti the hills, 

They skip and run about, 
And children on the village green, 

They give a noisy shout, 
And say that merry spring is here, 

And in the woods they hie. 
To gather flowers and make a wreath, 

Beneath the bright blue sky ; 
For school books now are laid aside, 

And all their tasks are done. 
And in the fields they roam about. 

Beneath the genial sun. 

The plowman hurries to the field. 

To turn the mellow sward. 
And drop within the golden grain, 

And wait the rich rewaril ; 
Full well he knows that it must die, 

And rise to life again. 
Ere he can reap the sweet reward 

For all his toil and pain ; 
He thinks not of the gentle breeze. 

That funs his sweaty brow. 
He only thinks of those he loves. 

For those he's toiling now. 

The ice-king now no longer rules 

This beauteous world of ours, 
The gentle sun upon us beams. 

And brings us southern showers ; 
For now the trees are decked in green, 

And everything is bright, 
0, welcome to the lovely spring, 

It is the heart's delight. 
Let us enjoy it while we may. 

And do what good we can. 
And leave the rest to Him above. 

It is the better plan. 

Then welcome, welcome to the spring. 

It brings us birds and flowers, 
It brings to us the breezes soft, 

It brings us April showers; 
It brings to us the rippling rill. 

From out the mountain glen, 
It makes the blood leap in "our veins. 

It makes us young again ; 
The insects, too, have sprung to life, 

In every woody dell. 
Oh, how we love the spring time, 

The hungry heart can tell. 

But some are grieving for their loved. 

Whom they have laid away. 
Forgetful of the blessings here 

That thev have every day ; 
Nor thinking of the time they'll meet 

Upon the golden shore. 
And walk within the light of God, 

And live for evermore ; 
We there shall walk the golden streets. 

It is the spirit's rest, 
It is the spring time of the soul, 

The sweetest and the best. 

—Leoline. 



FOB The Lancaster Fabmzb. 
ABOUT EGGS. 
Mr. S. S. Rathvon— De(tr Sir: In read- 
ing over your valuable paper. The Lancas- 
ter Farmer, I see many questions are asked 
by the Lancaster County Poultry Association, 
and not all being able to agree I will here 
give a few ideas of my own experience. E-'gs 
will keep for one month and hatch well if 
they are laid on their sides, instead of stand- 
ing on either end, but not air-tighted. When 
standing on end the spiral cord is on a strain, 
as the yolk is hung in the centre, having a 
spiral cord attached to each end, and each one 
being twisted the contrary way from the other 
keeps the yolk on the one side up all the time ; 
you can turn the shell but not the yolk ; there- 
fore, on the side is the proper way to keep 
them, the same as when the hen is brooding 
over them. Fertile eggs are tliose that show 
the air bubble at or near the big end. AVhen 
it cannot be seen the egg is not fertile. Some 
are not full, and we can see the light through 



the top of the egg ; and, move it backward 
and forward slowly, you can see the contents 
move on the inside. These are non-fertile eggs. 

Pullets' eggs will hatch as well as hens, but 
it is neccBsary to give them the cock in the 
fall, and by spring they will be all right ; but 
they will give more cockrels than pullets. The 
"egg-tester " is of no use to test the fertility 
of an egg ;