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I^arbarb (JToUese Librarg 



BEGUN IN 1858 


at™ *>Tio, XX. (,,,..■'.■ 

fehc Dolt; (i)rail, 


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riLiii)K. ,r. I'liiNiv. 


-LONDO?! ; 
rfSiTtHE r w 
l!V S. TEf DSEB i • 

fnnluih '^Kt iSotifl: 




©he 3imtd 4 ih iirig *# 

CbiIb CsisUi)[ tint Kotuli. 

§idm »tna. No. zov. 






^ StsmA 4 Die loin (^mi, 

its Snrtes, Cjfnracttr wA 9tirtb|niinit, 




EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY, 1874, -6, -7, -8. 










MAY I4195<J 

#ftfi ikxict, XOT. 




§ 1. The Charader and DevelopmetU of 

the Orail Legend^ p. r. 
%% The ScureeB (^ the Cfrail Cycle of 

JSomancet p. vi 
S S. The Ckridian Legmdary Portion 

0/ the OtaUOyeU: The ConU del 

Oraal, p. Tiii. 

S 4. JRoberi de Barron and the Proeer 

Bomancee, p. zir. 
§5. The Sowreee <if the ^Qrand Si, 

Oraalf* p. zviL 
§6. The Brandon Legend A the 'Grand 

St. Oraal' p. zxii. 
S 7. The Bleeding Lance and Joeeph of 

Arimatheat p. xxziL 


§ 1. Thb critical work of the last forty yean, and in particular the 
revival of interest in the remains of early Celtic literature, whether 
Welsh or Irish, has placed the study of the Arthurian Romances 
upon a somewhat different basis to that which it occupied when the 
History of the Holy Grail, in LoveUch's metrical rendering, was 
first published in 1861, and necessitates some further words of 
introduction to the present edition. These studies have not indeed 
solved all difficulties of detail, but they have provided an acceptable 
solution for the general problem ; they have invested our well-loved 
tales with an even more venerable halo of antiquity; they have 
made more peculiarly our own that ** mati^re de Bretagne " to which 
alien learning had sometimes laid daim, by associating its origins 
with the primitive religion of early inhabitants of our islands. 

The Arthurian literature, in its manifold phases, represents 
in a unique manner the intellectual growth of a people : it mirrois 
from a remote past dark pictures of bloodshed and revenge ; it reflects 
the age of courtly chivalry and the romance of Crusading days ; the 
fervid morality of the monk; the activity and enterprise of this 
Elizabethan Age ; the idealism of the nineteenth century. 

To the modem mind it is seen, in Lovelich's version, in the least 
attractiye stage of its growth, for as a literary monument, or as a 
work of art^ his History of the Holy GraU is valueless. The interest 
of the so-called Grand St. Graal, and hence of its English rendering, 
liea^.tba.iaci-thatL it is the principal witness remaining to us of a 
strange and anomalous phase in the development of the Graal litera- 
t^fi^ namely, the introduction of the Christian Legendary element. 
It was no doubt owing to this fresh graft that the ancient tales made 

vi § 2. The Sources of the Orail Cycle of Bomance. 

80 powerful axL appeal to the inediaBval mind» and that the giowth of 
the cyde was so long continned. Bat at first the fusion of the new. 
material with the old remained incomplete : in Lovelich's poem, as in 
its prose original, the combination from an artistic point of view 
spelt disaster. It was left for the master hand of Malory, in an age 
when myth and mysticism had become alike echoes from an onreiJized 
\past, to bring the jarring elements into final harmony. It is from his 
pages also that ' Solomon's Ship/ the * Sword of Strange Hangings,' 
and the 'Turning Isle' which he took over from the prose romance, 
the Queste del San Graal, have become familiar to the general reader, 

LoyeUcb writes of the ship " wondirly fair and riche," of the 
sword with its handle made of serpent scales and the bone of a fish of 
the Euphrates, and of the Tl Tomeawnt But, as always, he proves 
himself no story toller, and his version of the famous episodes may 
be commended with the rest of his voluminous and incoherent 
ramblings, to a merciful oblivion. 

The proUems connected with the Celtic originals of the Grail 
legend, both in their Welsh and Irish forms, have been so fully and 
satisfactorily dealt with by Mr. Nutt in his ' Studies in the Legend 
of the Holy Grail,' and in part also by Professor Bhys in his 
' Arthurian Bomance,' that I do not propose to enter anew into the 
discussion ; but while briefly re-stating the position as they leave- it, 
to treat in somewhat greater detail the problems specially connected 
with the version now before us. 

This version is a translation into rhymed couplete of the French 
Prose Bomance known to critics of the cycle as the Grand St. Graal. 
The translation was made about 1450 by one Herry Lovelich,^ a 
London skinner. 


/ The material of that body of literature known as the Grail 
Bomances has been shown by careful analysis to consist, broadly 
speaking, of two main elements. 

To the more important of the two belongs a basis of Celtic 
popular tradition; to the less considerable a basis of Christian 

^ HiB name was Lovelich, not Lonalich. Dr. Henry Bradley, when editing 
the> L worde for the Oxford Dictionary, found that ' lonely ' did not exist as 
early as 1440 A.ii., and therefore urged that 'Lonelich' ought to hare been 
printed 'Lovelich.' Dr. Fuxnivall referred the point to Dr. Keginald Shaipo, 
the Record-Clerk at the Ouild-Hall, and h^ at once settled it by producing 
« exthtcts from his records, showine that Henry Lovelich was a citizen of London 
and a member of the Skinners' Company. 

§ 2. ITie Sources of the Orail Cycle of Bomance. vii 

Legend. * As might be expected, given their very diverse character, 
^^(T combination of these elements is at first a merely tentative one, 
and only as time goes on, and the material is re-cast and re-handled, 
does the fasion beeome more or less complete. 

But so composite in character are the Romances, that to discover 
their two chief constituents is bat to take a first step in analysis. 
Tnmin g^first to the. element of Celtic popular tradition^ we axe met 
by farther complications. Here is no logical series of incidents, 
centring roond the person of a single hero. The ' Quest of the Holy 
Orail' has played a large part in imaginative literature, but the 
romancers themselves wrote with no clear idea of what that Quest 
meant. The conception which they have in common can be stated 
only in the barest outline, and implied no more than " the hero's 
visit to a magic castle, his onussion while there to do certain things, 
the loss and suffering thereby entailed.'' And this simple series 
of incidents may be found not once but many times in the work of 
the same writer ; the hero of it is not always the same person — ^now 
Perceval, now Gawain, now Galahad fills the r61e. Sometimes the 
visitor is seeking revenge for the murder of a kinsman of his own, 
sometimes he is charged with the release from spells and enchant- 
ment of the inmates of the castle; there is besides endless and 
bewildering variety of detail. The popular idea of a ' Quest ' seems 
indeed rather to have resulted from the accidental coherence of 
certain minor incidents than to have been from the first the great 
central conception of the Eomances, and there is the same kind 
of indefiniteness about the nature and properties of the magic 

No theory of authorship, in the ordinary sense of the word, 
seems to meet all the difficulties of the case. The remains of Celtic 
Literature as they exist outside the cycle afford, however, valuable 
elues. Many of the episodes which are built into the Romances 
are found elsewhere, in quite different surroundings. Such, for 
example, is the account of the birth and upbringing of Perceval 
(or Peredur), given in the Eomances of Chrestien de Troyes and 
the Mabinogi of Peredur, son of Evrawc. This episode figures 
not only in the Celtic, but in the Heroic Literature of all Aryan 
races as far as known. There is no tale extant in which such 
a vessel as the Grail plays a prominent part; but vessels with 
magic properties, cauldrons of knowledge and increase, and jars 
which hold the ointment of healing or of restoration to life, play a 



viii § 3. The Christian Legendary Portion of the OraU Cycle. 

subeidiarj part in very many such tales. To this fact ita pieeenoe in 
the Cycle was originally due; its important position among the 
instruments of magic found there arose out of its gradual identifica- 
tion with the Christian Cup of Blessing, and was the chief result of 
the intrusion of the secondaiy or Christian element 
I The Grail Romances were in fact the outcome of centuries of 
imaginative growth^ the Romancers bound into sheaves what had 
. been sown under other skies. The character of the whole body of 
j romance is best understood when its most prominent member, the« 
'Conte del Graal/ is regarded as "a North-French re-telling of 
popular tales long current in Britain, and probably alsa among the 
Celtic inhabitants of Brittany, and the idea of any definite Grail 
Legend is abandoned."^ 



No member of the Grail group of Romances, not even 
Mabinogi of Peredur, in which the Grail as such does not appear, is 
entirely free from the influence of Christian Legend, though in the 
earlier Romances there is little or no attempt at amalgamating it 
with the material drawn from Celtic popular tales. Can any 
attempt be made to say where and with whom this strange feature 
originated! A short survey of existing material may help us to 
find an answer to this question. 

We meet with it at the very outset of our examination in the 

y^'Conte del Graal,' a composite poem which, in form if not in 
substance, contains the oldest work remaining to us. The earliest 
portion of the Conte del Graal to which it is possible to attach the 
^ author's name, is the work of Chrestien de Troyes. In the Mons 
MS. of the Conte del Graal, and in that alone, Chrestien's poem is 
preceded by a passage first distinguished by sixteenth century 
commentators as ''the Elucidation." There is no proof that the 
Elucidation was known to Chrestien, or that he made use of it in 
any way, but it is in itself of great interest, for it is not only 
eloquent of the great body of tradition now lost to us, but it suggests 

Nmuch re-handling of older material prior to Chrestien's attempt 
The author of the Prologue draws out under seven headings the 
plan of an elaborate composition : ** Now the court was found seven 
times, and each time shall have a fresh tale." The question of 

» Nutt, p. 170. 

§ 3. The Chridian Legendary PcHion of the Orail Cyde. is 

special interest to us is, what was included, or what was to have 
been indaded, in the seventh and most pleasing portion of the work, 
which told of ** the lance wherewith Longis pierced the side of the 
King of Holy Migesty." Upon this Chrestien throws no light 
As far as his portion of the Conte del Graal is concerned the l^ndary 
element is entirely absent Perciyal, the hero, is instructed by his 
mother in the doctrines of the Church, and in the knowledge of 
Jesus Christy the Holy Prophet, His Death upon the Cross, and. His 
Crown of Thorns. There is a reference also to the penitents of 
Grood Friday. But those objects which later on become the centres 
of Christian Legend, Grail and Lance, have as yet no sacred signifi- 
cance. A squire brings in a bleeding lance; the Grail appears 
home by a damsel and shining beyond the light of stars; but^ 
Peroeval does not ask the meaning of either apparition. 

We pass on to the portion of the Conte del Graal which belongs 
to Wauchier de Denain or Donaing, who took up the thread of the 
Story where Chrestien laid it down. For the purposes of argument 
the following adventure which Wauchier ascribes to Gawain must 
be repeated in detaiL 

Gawain dresses himself in the armour of an unknown knight, 
slain by invisible hands at Arthur's court Riding through Brittany 
and Normandy he comes to a castle, where, owing to the armour 
he wears, he is hailed as lord. In one room he sees a knight 
lying on a bier, with a cross and broken sword on his body. Whilst 
at table he sees the Grail serving out bread and wine to the knights, 
and also a lance bleeding into a silver cup. A knight brings him 
the broken sword, and asks him to put together the pieces, which he 
cannot do. He then asks about lance, sword, and bier, and is told 
the lance is that with which Christ was pierced in the side, and 
that it will bleed tiU Domesday. Before the tales of cup and sword 
can be told, Gawain falls fast asleep, and finds himself on the sea- 
shore, and the country, before desolate, now bursting into green 
leaf; this has happened because he asked about the lance; the 
oouhtty-folk bless him for this, but curse him for not completing 
their deliverance by asking about the Grail. 

The adventure is found in all the MS8. , but the Mons MS. uid two 
others (B. N. 12576 and IS, A. 6614) omit a passage which in Mont- 
pellier MS. and the rest is placed between 1. 20294 and 11. 20295, 6 : 

Atant comen^a k plorer 
£t en plorant k raconter. 


X § 3. The MofUpeUier and Berne MSS. : IrUerpolatione. 

This long passage bears in itself the evidence of its having been 

In the Gawain episode qaoted above it will be remembered that 
the hero is made to ask about lance, sword and bier. He is satisfi^ 
as to the first, but falls asleep before the history of the sword is 
completed, and when he awakes, the country-folk reproach him for 
not having asked also about the Grail. But in the Montpellier MS., 
and its group, some one who failed to see the bearing of Gawain* s 
omission upon the conduct of the story, has forestalled the reproaches 
of the country people by supplying the whole previous history of 
\the GraiL The passage interpolated tells how Our Lord loved the 
Grail, and honoured it with His Blood on the day of His Crucifixion. 
Joseph had the Grail made, and put it imder Our Lord's Feet to 
catch the flowing blood. He begged Chnst's Body from Pilate^ 
wrapped it up and laid it in a tomb. Joseph treasured the Grail ; 
he laid it in a rick chest, and burned two tapers before it daily, 
and prayed before it for love of the Sacred Blood. On this account 
the Jews imprisoned him in a high tower. He prayed the Lord to 
deliver him from the tower, and the Grail from the hands of the 
Jews. He was delivered without difficulty, but the Jews hearing 
of it sent him into exile with all his friends, and his sister and 
that Nicodemuswho had an ''image" of Christ. They set sail in 
search of the land which Qod had promised to Joseph, the White 
Isle, a part of England. ^ And in the third year of their sojourn, 
those of the land rose up and warred against them. When Joseph 
had need of food, he prayed God to send him the Grail, whereiii 
he had received the Sacred Blood. And they all 'sat down to 
dine, and the Grail went about and fed them all with bread 
and wine, in great plenty. And Josephs kept peace with his foiBS 
until his death, and at his end he prayed God that the Grail might 
remain with his seed. Thus it was in truth, that after his death ho 
one had sight of it, whatever his descent, if he were not of this high 
lineage ; the Bich Fisher was of that kin, and so was Greloguevaus, 
of whom came Perceval. 

Later on in Wauchier's narrative, when the stoiy has returned to 
Perceval, there is an account of the appearance of the Grail to that 

During his journeying in the forest, after he left the Castle of 
Maidens, he meets a damsel leading a white mule, and joins himself 
to her, although she entreats him not to do so. He presently sees a 


^ 3. The MontpMier arid Berne M3S.: Interpolations, zi 

great light in the forest, and taming to ask her. what it means he 
finds her gone, and a violent storm OTertakes him. Next day he 
enjDoonters her again, she haying felt no storm. She tells him the 
light came from the Grail (Gr^us), fair and precipos, in which the 
giotioua blood of the King of kings was received as He hung on the 
Cross ; the Devil may not lead astray any man on the day he see^ it, 
and therefore the king has it carried about 

Apart from the interpolation already dealt with, this passage is 
our first introduction to a new conception of the GraiL Up to now 
we have had no hint of its connection with Our Lord's Passion 
beyond the explanation, twice repeated, of the Bleeding Spear as 
being that wherewith Longinus pierced the side of Christ. 

Ghrestien mentioQs. the b^ght ]ig^t which_shone from the Grail, 
without giving it any particular signilGLBance. 

MS. Berne 113 supplies an independent conclusion to Wauchier^s 

story. His narrative, as the majority of the MSS. give it, tells of 

Perceval's arrival at the Fisher [King's Castle, and how he there 

renews his inquiries about Graal and Lance. But the King puts 

him off with an explanation of a comparatively unimportant incident, 

the apparition of the child in the t^^ee, and with the imposition of a 

test. Here Wauchier's portion in all probability ends with the 


£ Perceval se reconf orte, 

and the knight's questions never meet with any reply. ^ 

But %s at another crisis of the story, some one is at hand to add . 
a ready and plausible explanation of the difficulties. 

Prom the conclusion of the MS. Berne 113 we learu that the lance : 
was that which pierced the side of Christ. Perceval gives his other's 
name, Alains li Gros, and the Fisher King replies that Alains li 
Gros was his son by Enigeus, sister ta Joseph, to whom the body of 
Christ when taken down from the Cross was committed by Pilate as • 
a reward for his services. Nicodemus took it down and gave it to 
Joseph, who prepared a vessel to hold the Blood from the Sacred ' 
Wounds. Jesus had made the Sacrament in this vessel the Thursday 

Already then, ifirith the first continuator of th^ Conte del Graal, 
we have the Grail conception enlarged by the introduction of a new 
element, the element of Christian Mysticism ; and side by side with 
the fairyland figures of the Fisher {Ling and the knights of Arthur's 
court, we find the quasi-Scriptural or Christian Legendary figures of 

xii § 3. The MoTUpellier and Berne MSS. : Interpolations, 

Joseph of Arimaihea, and his sister, and Nicodemus ingenionslj 
drawn into a semblance of relaiibnsliip. But it is noteworthy that 
this new element slips In in casual references, or hy way o f inte r- 
poktion not too nr^ contrived, and is in no sense a Yital part of 
the stoij. 

The Interpolation and the Berne conclusion, though found in 
different manuscripts, and inserted at different points in Wauchier's 
narrative, have in reality the same object in view. That object is 
to call attention emphatically to the connection between the story 
of the Graal and the story of Joseph of Arimathea, a connection 
which Wauchier had passed over with a brief reference, and 
without any mention of Joseph's name. The &ct that the Inter- 
polation interrupts the logical flow of the narrative, and that the 
Berne conclusion has not the sanction of Wauchier himself, does 
not in the least deter the unknown commentators from making their 

For some reason, at which we can only guess, Wauchier's 
reticence struck them as unaccountable, and whether for fear the 
popularity of his poem should suffer, or whether for the sake of 
edification, they hastened to say themselves what Wauchier ought to 
have said. 

Wauchier's references to the sacred uses of Grail and Lance, 
apart from the Elucidation, put quite out of the question any 
suggestion that with the commentators themselves originated a new 
and fortuitous connection between the Grail and the Passion of 
Our Lord. Nor is it more likely that out of Wauchier's descrip- 
tion of the Grail they evolved the Joseph episodes. Wauchier's 
reference is sufficient for all artistic purposes ; a mention of Joseph 
and his after-history was quite uncalled for. The commentators 
made their additions clumsily and unskilfully, and quite inde- 
pendently of one another. The connection between the two stories 
was one they were evidently both familiar with in aU its details. 
They were in all probability drawing from memory upon material 
they had gathered elsewhere, for in comparison with the ample 
narrative of the rest of the poem, their additions are little more 
vthan summaries of leading facts. We may go a step further and say 
that the character of the passages suggests that the Joseph tradition 
came to the knowledge of the commentators in a literary form; 
there is from the first an absence of spontaneity about the 
Joseph episodes, as compared with the rest of the cycle, which 

§ 3. The MorUpellier and Berne MSS. : Interpolations, xiii 

suggests for them a literary lather than a popular origin. This^ 
characteristic becomes more and more marked as time goes on; the 
Joseph portions are nntouched throughout by that wild and Wayward 
imagination^ the elfin fancy, which the art of the Homancers can 
prone but cannot uproot In their last stages they fall away into 
the lowest depths of banality and grotesqueness. 

But granted the existence of a literary forbear, is it possible to 
identify it wholly or partially with any existing member of the 
Grail cycle) 

In the case of the Interpolation the question must practically bo 
answered in the negative. The passage is most nearly related to 
the Grand St. Graal and to portions of the Quests del San Graal. 
The former is a composite narrative belonging as a whole to a later 
period than Wauchier^s Conte del GraaL The boldness and niutvet^ 
of the interpolator's story makes it more than probable that he drew 
his material firom some lost and forgotten Early History, which was 
later elaborated into the existing Grand St Graal, and from which 
the Quests was a borrowe|r. The question will be d^t with more 
folly later on. >n^ 

Critics have named both Bobert de Borron and the prose 
romance Perceval of the Didot MS. as the source of the Berne 
conclusion. In either case there are certain difficulties of detail to « 
be overcome. De Borron makes Brons the father of Alain, but 
gives no name to the ** son of his son." The Didot-Ferceval agrees 
with the Berne conclusion in identifying Perceval with the son of 
Alain. But, on the other hand, the statement that the Graal vessel 
was the same in which Our Lord made the Sacrament on Maundy 
Thursday tallies rather with De Borron than with the Didot-Perceval. 
But in neither case are the diBcrepancies so great that we are of 
necessity thrown back upon a hypothetical Early History as the 
source of the commentator's information. 

To return for the moment to the question with which our survey 
began. Up to the present, apart from conjectures based upon 
literary criteria, we can draw no definite conclusions from the 
material supplied by Wauchier and his commentators towards the 
solution of the main problem, namely, who first combined the 
ancient tales of mystery with the legends of tbe Christian Church. 
Chrestien is silent. The Elucidation remains to perplex and 
tantalise us with the title of its seventh sub-division, the tale of 
Longinus and the Spear, but we have no means of judging if in its 


xiv § 4. JRobert de Somm and the Prose Romances. 

pages Joseph of Aiimathea had already been drawn into the channed 
ci^e of Arthur's court. 

As the result of our survey, on one point alone can we feel any 
degree of certainty : as for the Perceval portion so for the Joseph 
portion of the Grail cycle, a prototype must have existed which 
survives for us only in the adaptations of later writers. 


Hitherto we have had to deal but with fragmentary references 9sA 
interpolations. The first writer to make serious use of Christian 
Legend in connection with the Grail, was Bobert de Borron, author 
of a metrical poem, ' Joseph of Arimathea ' ; and with him a new 
aspect of the problem presents itself. 

De Borron mi^kes two important contributions to our material in 
(1) the introduction of an entirely new group of peraonsi headed by 
one Brons, who is to be keeper of the Grail after Joseph's death, and 
whose son, Alain, is to lead the host of Joseph's companions westr 
ward to the vale of Avalon ; and (2) springing out of this, in the 
introduction of the idea of a mission of conversion. Alain and his 
brethren, at the command of Joseph, go westward and preach the 
name of Christ 

The names of Brons, Alain, Petrus and the rest have been taken 
as evidence that their owners were of Celtic origin, but in their 
existing shape, they primarily suggest that de Borron drew his 
material from a Latin source.^ To the question of an ultimate Celtic 
original it will be necessary to return again. For the moment we 
must recognize that de Borron can safely be accredited only with the 
sacramental and moral expositions of which his poem contains so 
large a share. Probably no inventions of fact or incident are his due, 
but rather a share in obliterating^ although with the best intentions, 
the earlier outlines of the tale. De Borron's debt to the past is, in 
fact, no less than that of the writers with whom we have already 
dealt, and he brings us little nearer to the solution of the problem. 
^ The two prose works next to be considered, the ' Queste del San 
Graal,' attributed in the MSS. to Walter Mapes, uid the so-called 

* Grand St Graal' (attributed in the same way, but with less, 
likelihood, to de Borron), stand^ in as close relationship to one 
another as does the last-named to the Joseph poem. The Queste 
belongs to the last twenty-five years of the twelfth century. The 

* Chronicle of Helinandus' contains a reference to the Grand St. Graal 

^4i. The' QuesU d^l San Groud' & the ' Grand St. Graai: xr 

(in some earlier foim than that in which we have it), which can 
lelate to no other member of the cycle. The Chionicle closea with ^ 
the capture of Constantinople by the French in 1204, but, as Dr. 
Sebastian Evans has pointed out,^ it is improbable that any part of 
it was written before Helinandus became a monk at Froidmont about 
the year 1209, or that the latest portion was composed after 1227. 
The Grand St Graal must therefore have appeared before 1227, and 
the character of the reference to it in the Chronicle makes it clear 
that by that date its fame was already well established, and brings 
it in all probability within twenty or thirty years of the date of the 

The older portions of the Grand St Graal are prior to anything 
in the Queste, and probably the nearest representative remaining 
to us of that prototype of the Joseph portion of the legend from 
which the post-Chrestien sections of the Conte del Graal drew their 
information. But the later portions of the Grand St. Graal appear 
to have been influenced by the Queste ; at any rate they contain a 
confused reminiscence of portions of the Queste characteristically 
weak and incoherent. 

The main incidents which the two works have in common are : 
The histoiy of King Evelach's wars with Tholome, and of his Magic 
Shield (in which the Queste finds a symbolical meaning). 

The stories of the three tables and the Seat Perilous, and the 
incident of the old woman with her loaves. 

The story of Crudel and his treatment of Josephes, Mordrains 
and Seraphe. 

The lineage and vision of Celidoine. 

The history of Solomon's Ship, the Turning Isle, and the three 
Spindles. The history of Josephes, son of Joseph, first Bishop of 
Christendom, and his celebration of the Mass (the Queste includes 
this in Galahad's Vision). 

in the Queste these passages are all introduced by some such 
formula as " it is told as follows," and are in no case essential parts 
of the narrative. Generally speaking, the borrowing lay with Walter 
Mapes rather than with the author of the Grand St. Graal. But the ^ 
question is a very complicated one. For the Grand St. Graal is only 
explicable if we suppose it to have been written and re-written at 
different times, and each time with growing carelessness and lack of 

1 'High History of the Holy Grail.' TranBlator's Epilogue, p. 298 
d 9eq, 



xvi § 4. Tht ' $W€a^« dd San Graal ' ikthe' Grand St. OraalJ 

skill, and readiness to include the most irrelevant episodes. And in 
the final recast the usual order seems to have been reversed, and the 
Queste has reacted upon the older tale in points of detail. Both 
histories are strikingly inferior to the Conte del Graal in imaginative 
and artistic power. It is unnecessary to suppose that the author of 
the Queste had any knowledge of de Borron's poem. On the par- 
ticular subjects with which they both deal, the Queste contains 
nothing which its author cannot have learnt from the Grand St 
GraaL In Mr. Nutt's opinion, had the Joseph poem fallen into the 
hands of Walter Mapes, it must have proved so congenial to his taste 
for mystical interpretation, that its influence could not fail to have 
shown itselfl 

The relation between the Grand St. Graal and de Bonon's work 
is of much greater significance. The Grand St Graal follows de 
Borron in the main in its account of Christ's visit to Joseph in the 
prison, of Vespasian, and the cloth of Veronica ; and in its pages we 
meet once more with the important group of characters headed by 
Brons, the Grail-keeper. 

The contributions of the remaining writers of the Cycle axe of 
less importance to us, because the matter they introduce shows no 
trace of having been borrowed elsewhere than in the writings 
already discussed. Manessier, the third continuator of the Conte 
del Graal, suumiarizes the history of the Lance, of Joseph's 
acquisition of the Graal, and of his relations to Evelac, to all 
appearance from the accc/unt in the Grand St Graal. Gerbert's 
portion of the Conte del Graal is in all probability not a con- 
tinuation of Manessier^s, but an independent ending, following 
on Wauchier's. He brings Perceval, in the course of his search for 
Grail and Lance, to an abbey, where he leams the story of ' Joseph 
of Barimaschie.' His account of Joseph's arrival in Britain shows 

.some slight variations, which from their character are probably the 
author^s own invention. Joseph has two fair ladies as companions, 
one of whom, Philosophine, has a plate, the other an ever-bleeding 
lance. The Crudel episode is given, and Mordrains is punished for 

Ndrawing near to the Grail. 

^ The attempt already apparent in Gerbert to give greater coherence 
to the story, culminates in the Perceval of the Didot MS., which on 
this account must be placed after the rest in point of chronology. 
Here Brons, the Eich Fisher, again comes into prominence as the 
Grail-keeper; Joseph is only referred to as his ancestor, the first 

§ 6. The Sources of the ' Grand St. Cfraal.* xvii 

Orail-keeper, and maker of the second famous table. In this way, 
the difficulty of the two Grail-keepers is ingeniously solved. 

The later Prose Somance of Perceval li Gallois, or Perlesvazy is of 
interest for our present purpose chiefly because it shows the direc- 
tion in which the Christian Legendary element tended to develop. 
There we have not only the shield of Joseph of Arimathea hung in 
Arthur's hall at Carduel, but a shield which had belonged to Judas 
Maccabeus; not only the lance of Longinus, but also the sword with 
which St. John Baptist was beheaded, and which at noonday dripped 
blood. And Lancelot sees at the Castle of the Golden Circlet a 
jewelled crown, in which is enclosed the Crown of Thorns. For the 
rest the Eomancer repeats the Early History of the GraU and of 
Joseph's imprisonment Joseph is possessor of Grail and Lanoe. 
He is also author of the Grail Histoiy which he wrote down at the 
iQommand of an angel, but this distinction he shares with thd his- 
torian Josephus, with whom the Eomancer identifies him. The mother 
of Perceval is Iglais, sister to Joseph^ and 'Uhe good knight" is 
descended from Kicodemus through his father, Julians (for Alain t) ^ 
li Gros. 


We find ourselves at the close of our survey no better able than 
before to answer definitely the question to whom the appearance of 
Joseph of Arimathea in the Grail Cycle is to be attributed. We are 
simply thrown back upon Uie hypothesis of lost prototypes. But to 
a further question, why, and a still further one where^ this introduc- 
tion came about, some more satisfactory reply may perhaps be found. 

A good deal of material included in the Joseph Episodes can 
definitely be assigned to well-known sources, and especially the 
Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus. What cannot be learnt from^ 
Christian Legendary History are the leading facts as far as the 
Grail story is concerned. As they stand, these facts have become 
modified, distorted, transformed, by contact with the older Celtic 
tales. But they still possess some features in which it is possible 
to ^ace the line of thought which led some long-ago story-teller to 
place the two, side by side, upon his page. ^ 

The most important of these facts are (1) Joseph's possession of 
the Grail — ^his position as Grail-keeper bound to hand on the sacred 
vessel to his seed, — and (2) his missionary journey to Britain. 
Both tiiese positions Joseph shares, in the fullest versions of his ^ 
stoiy, with another personage, one Brons. 

xviii § 5. Bran in WeWi LUeixiture : Brans in the Grail Cycle. 

The Joseph poem of de Borron, as it remains to us, is clearly 
abridged and arranged, and in its present condition, all the latter 
parts, which relate the journeys to Britain, are very fragmentary 
and incoherent. De Borron does not in fact make it clear that 
Joseph himself ever went to Britain. That is left to Brons and his 
son Alain, and on the latter the charge of preaching the gospel is 
most definitely laid. 

In the Grand St. Graal the missionary idea is more fully 
developed, and at the outset Joseph in prison receives the com- 
mission of Christ. In de Borron, the Grail vessel is committed to 
Brons and Alain, and the former is called the Eich Fisher, a name 
which connects him with the undoubtedly Celtic portions of the 

These facts make it clear that in Brons and the episodes 
especially connected with him, we have material of great importance 
for the development of the Cycle. 

As has been said, the personal names in de Botron's poem bear 
traces of the Latin Tersion through which they passed into his 
hands. Brons is one of these names, and its close relationship to 
the ''Bran" of Celtic tradition is unmistakable. 

Bran played a more conspicuous part in the early literature of 
Wales than in early Irish Literature. The Mythology of Ancient 
Wales makes Bran to have been son of Llyr, the god of the sea and 
the world of waters, often also associated with darkness. Bran was 
closely connected with the under-world, and is probably also to be 
identified with XJrien, Lord of Eheged, a district located in the far 
north. Ireland, Scotland, and the whole region of the north, lands 
of fable and mystery to the inhabitants of Western Britain, 
represent mythically in the geography of Arthurian Legend, the 
untrodden world of Hades, the Otherworld of the dead. In Welsh^ 
poetry, Urien is addressed as Lord and Blessed Prince of the 
Evening, and in one of the poems ascribed to Taliessin appears as 
Lord of the Dead and Principal Pilgrim to a distant City. A poem 
in tlie Bed Book of Hergest gives to Urien a black crow, or raven, on 
his breast, as a fitting attribute, and "Bran" is Welsh for this emblem. 
In the Grail Cycle, Bron is first brought on the scenes by de Borron 
as brother-in-law of Joseph of Arimathea, and husband of his sister 
Enigeus, whose name recalls that of Yg^ne, the Eomancers' version 
of Ygueme, wife of Uther Ben-Dragon, and mother of Arthur. 

Brons and his wife journey with a band of followers to a far 

§ 5. The vessel of the Cfrail : Us properties. ziz 

country. After a time of prosperity the work of Joseph's followers 
tnms to ilL They complain to Brons that they are suffering hunger, 
and Brons reports this to Joseph* Joseph kneels before the holy 
vessel for inspiration, and a voice from heaven bids him prepare 
a table in the name of the table of the Last Supper. Brons 
{Hebron) is then to go into the water and catch a fish. The first he 
catches is to be put on the table opposite the Grail, which is to be 
covered with a towel. Joseph is to sit where Christ sat at the 
Sacrament of the Last Supper, and the people are to be summoned 
to sit down to the Grace of our Lord. Some sit down, and are 
filled with sweetness and the desire of their hearts ; some do not, 
and they feel nothing. Petrus, one of the sinners, tells them this 
is because of their defilement The sinners depart, but Joseph bids 
them come back day by day, and thus is the vessel proved. It 
detects sinners from saints, as it has no love for any sinner. It 
is called Grail ; none see it but those to whom it is agreeable, and 
their delight in it is like that of a fish escaping out of a man's 
hand into the water. In the Grand St. Graal the story is told at 
greater length, and with some difference of detail; for example, 
Alain appears as the fishehnan in place of his father, Brons* 
Josephes, son of Joseph, and his company go to Britain, and he 
converts many to Christianity by the power of his preaching. They 
come one day to a waste land (Terre Gaste) where food is scarce, 
and all the company are not worthy to be fed by the holy vessel. 
In the midst of the valley they find a great pool, and at the head 
cf the pool a vessel with a fishing-net in it. The sinners being 
very hungry come to Josephes, and ask his counsel. Josephes calls 
for Aleyn le Gros, the twelfth son of Brons and minister of the 
Oraal, and bids him cast his net into the water, and catch fish for 
the company. Aleyn (Alain) does his bidding, and when the net 
is drawn to land, only one large fish is found in it. The fish is 
cooked and cut up into three parts, one of which is put at each 
«nd of the table, and one in the midst With many tears Alain 
prays before the vessel, and a miracle is wrought, so that it more 
than suffices for the whole company. Alain ever after bears the 
name of the Rich Fisher, and the pond is called Alain's pond. 

The incidents in Celtic talies which may be compared with 
these are but scanty and leave much room for conjecture. In the 
first place, as to the connection of Brons or Bran with the Grail 
vessel, opposite which, perhaps originally into which', he was to put 

§ 5. Ghoyddno and Mphin. The Salmon of Wisdom. 

his fiBh when caught There is no mention in the tale of Bran's 
Head, in the Mabinogi of Branwen, of any yessel comparable to the 
Grail, though the companions of the Head, like those privfleged ta 
be fed by the Grail, never lacked the best of food and diinkst. 
Bran was, however, the possessor of a cauldron, brought to him by 
LlasBsr Llaesgyvnewid and his wife from the Lake of the Cauldron 
in Ireland, the properties of which are thus described: ''if one of 
thy men be slain to-day, and be cast therein to-morrow, he will 
be as well as ever he was at the best, except that he will not regain 
his speech." . 

As regards the episode of the fishing, the evidence is again for 
the most part conjectural. We have no information in Welsh 
Literature about the descendants of Bran. But in the summary of 
mythic history already given, it was suggested that he might be 
identified with Urien, Lord of Rheged, god of the Underworld. In 
that group of the ''dark divinities" of Welsh Mythology, which 
includes Urien, Bran the Blessed, and Uther Ben-Dragon, personages 
with many attributes in common, and whose names appear to a 
certain extent to be interchangeable, two are found who possess sons 
of the name of Elphin, one of these being Urien, the other a- 
^^ certain Gwyddno Garanhir. 

A tale told in the prose portion of the Story of Taliessin, of 
Elphin, son of Gwyddno, to which Professor Rhys has called 
attention, though of more doubtful antiquity than the verse portions,, 
has some bearing on the episodes at present under discussion. 

Gw3rddno Garanhir (Heron-Fisher) has a weir on the strand 
between Dyvi and Abeiystwyth, near to his own castle, and th» 
value of a hundred pounds is taken in it every May Eve. One 
year, he grants the drawing of it to his only son Elphin, to give* 
him something wherewith to begin the world. But when Elphin 
gees to try his luck, there is nothing in the weir, but a leathern 
bag on the pole of the weir. And in the leathern bag was the 
boy-bard Taliessin. To console Elphin for his disappointment ho^ 
makes him a promise: 

In the day of trouble I will be 
of more service to thee 
than many hundred salmon. 

In this tale both Gwyddno and Elphin are represented as fisher- 
men, just as Brons and Alain in the Grand St. Graal and the Joseph 
poem, when taken together. Alain and Elphin have two other 

§ 5. Gwyddno and Elphin. The Salmon of Wisdom. xx£ 

features in common. Each is successful in a solitary capture, and 
Alain alone of all his kindred never wore a crown« while Elphin 
is described as a luckless youth. \ 

The inferences that may be fairly drawn from the foregoing are 
indeed but slight The name of Brons suggests the identification of 
this hero with the Bran of Welsh and Irish tales, who is Lord of the 
*Otherworld. In support of this, we find Brons brought into con- 
nection with a vessel possessing magic powers. Such a vessel is one 
of th^ stereotyped possessions of the Celtic Dis in his various shapes. 
Again Brons and his son are fishermen, and the single fish which 
they catch has magic properties. Other fragments of Welsh story 
show us the god of the Otherworld and his son, under other names, 
following in the same pursuit with the same small success. Inferences 
slight indeed, yet not without their value. A fish with magic pro- 
perties is a prominent feature in many Irish Mythological tales. 
With that fish, " the Sabnon of Wisdom," Mr. Nutt suggests the 
comparison of Brons' capture ; he himself is " that being who passes 
his life in vain endeavour to catch the wonderful fish, and who in 
j^e moment of success is robbed of the fruit of all his long toil and 
watchings." ^ 

This comparison is the more suggestive when it is remembered 
that the idea underlying the visit of Perceval to the Magic Castle, 
the dwelling of Brons, the Fisher King, is allied to the same world- 
wide myth : the myth of a mortal's visit to the other world, in quest 
of riches, power or knowledge, to be bestowed as a boon on his race. 
That is to say, the Brons Fishing episode falls into line with the rest 
of 1^ Cycle as possessing the same imderlying conception, as belong- 
ing to the same set of tales, and sharing with them certain features 
which rendered it all the more likely to be caught up into the same 
web of romance. The Romancers themselves, no less than those from 
whom they borrowed facts and incidents, were completely unaware of 
this underlying mythical conception ; they put their own interpreta- 
tion upon the tales, and at a later stage, they disguised them almost 
past recognition in the garb of Christian symbolism. But enough 
remains to leave little doubt that Brons and Alain derive from a 
Celtic stock. . 

But if this be the case, how is it that they are found in the 
incongruous rdle of Evangelists to Britain % In de Borron's poem the / 
mi^on of conversion belongs even more to them than to Joseph of 

» Kutt, p. 209. 


xxii § 6. Mythological features qftke 'Namgatio Sancti BrendanV 

Arimathea, and there is nothing in the Christian Legendaiy History 
upon which the poet drew so largely, to suggest that any such com- 
mission was given to Joseph. Is that mission entirely de Bonon's 
inventioni or was it suggested to him or to his predecessor hy any- 
thing in the story of Brons as it came to his knowledge? Some 
furth^ search into the stories which on Irish soil centred about 
Bran strengthens this last supposition. 


The part played in Irish Literature by Bran, brother to ManannSn 
mac lir, the great wizard (the Welsh Manaw^ddan), is a very incon* 
spicuous one. 

There exists, however, as one of the oldest remains of Irish 
Story-telling, a composition known as the Voyage of Bran,^ the son of 
Febal, dealing with another hero of the same name. The versified 
portions of the tale are considered by scholars to date back to 
the eighth, or even the seventh century. Manann^n plays a part 
in this tale, though his relationship to the hero is not defined. This 
tale is generally recognized as a version of the ^videspread myth of 
a mortal's visit to Elysium. 

In course of time it found its medieeval representative in 
the fax more famous ' Navigatio Sancti Brendani,' which has been 
called one of the Contributory causes to the discovery of the Kew. 

A manuscript of the ' Navigatio ' is said to exist in the Vatican 
Library, which dates back to the early eleventh century. The Irish 
Life of St. Brandan, known as the Betha Brenainn, although existing 
only in a manuscript dating from the latter half of the fifteenth 
century, represents materials of far greater antiquity. It possesses 
many of the features' of an older mythological tale, and one gathers 
that when it was written down the Holy Brandan had but recently 
taken a place in the roll of the saints. It represents its hero, though 
a saint of the Christian Church, as being a son of Finn Lug (tliQ 
god of Light) and own brother to Brig, a Celtic goddess not yet 
identified with the Holy Bridget ; the miraculous circumstances of 
Brandan's birth and baptism, even the tale of his upbringing by a 
wild cow (because his foster-father, Bishop Ere, had not a milch cow, 
for he received but moderate alms from the faithful), all savour of 
his mythic origin. 

^ The Voyage of Bran, Grimm Library, 4, 6, 1896-97, ed. Alfred Nntt 

§ 6. The MimoTiary Journeys of St Brandan. zxiii 

A point of interest in his subsequent histoiy is the blessing 
bestowed by Biandan on the fifty Ashless rivers of Ireland, so that 
they abounded in fish. He is specially connected with the river 
Theyse, which is fed by the Fountain or well of St Brandan, in 
Ardfaerty a very favourite place of pilgrimage.^ It is tempting to 
suppose that a curious episode in the same Irish life may be a faiv 
away echo of some such tale as that which survives in Welsh 
Literature about the Head of Bran. One day Brandan is on a 
journey ; a young man joins his company, and presently they meet 
seven fighting men, enemies of his. He fears they will murder him, 
but Brandan bids him lie down in the shadow of a pillow stone, hard 
by, and prays God to save the young man in the appearance of the 
pillow stone. His enemies come to the stone, cut off the head in the 
shape of his, wound the pillow stone in the side, and carry the sup- 
posed head with them. And still the stone remains. ^ 

The account which the Irish Life gives of the famous voyage of 
St. Brandan, in search of the Land of Promise of the Saints, closely 
resembles that of the Latin ' Navigatio.' The motive for the voyage 
is, however, variously represented. It comes abqut either from 
Brendan's desire to leave all things and seek a quiet retreat where he 
may give himself up to the service of Ood, or from his zeal for souls 
in reinote islands. ^ 

A version of the * Navigatio ' contained in the ' Codex Salmanti- 
censis,' in the Burgundian Library at Brussels, enlarges upon this 
latter idea, and gives a long account of St. Brendan's various 
missionary journeys, after his remoter wanderings were ended, 
including visits to Scotland and the Orkneys, to Wales, and to St. 
Gildas in Brittany. It is curious that many treces of his name exist 
on the mainland of Scotland as well as in the islands, while he is 
referred to in mediaeval Calendars as the Apostle of Britain, the 
Orkneys, and the Scottish Isles. 

We thus find originating on Irish soil a tale about one Bran, 
visitor to the Otherworld, and others about a missionary saint and 
traveller who appears to be of mythic descent To identify either of 
these with Bran, son of Lir, would require the equation of the Lord of 
the Otherworld with the visitor to the same region, a point of some 
difficulty. Turning to the early literature of Wales, the epithet 
already quoted as applied to XJrien, lord of Eheged, Bran's prototype, 

^ "In the Conte del Giaal, Perceval's mother goes on a pilgrimage to the 
shrine of St. Brandan in Scotland." (Nntt, App. jB. p. 265.) . , . , 

xxiv § 6. CatiTieeium with the Orail Cycle. The Prologues. 

" Principal Pilgrim to a distant City," may "be recalled. Going a step 
farther it may now be asked if any parallelism can be found between 
Bendigeid Bran of the Mabinogi, or Brons of the Grand St Graal^ 
and St. Brandan, who possessed on Irish soil a well-defined ** Con- 
version Legend." 

In the first place, what is the meaning of the epithet " Bendigeid," 
Blessed, constantly applied to Bran in Welsh Literature? A late 
fourteenth century Triad gives a plausible explanation. Bran is said 
to be " one of the three blissful rulers of the Island of Britain, who 
first brought the Faith of Christ to the nation of the Cymry from 
Eome, where he was seven years a hostage for his son Caradawc'^ 
This passage certainly shows confusion on one historic point. The 
author has confounded Caratacus, son of Brennus, with the mythic 
Caradawc, while at the same time he has made an interchange of 
parents, so that Bran the ''bUssful ruler" becomes father to th& 
historic Caratacus. His statements about Bran*s missionary journey 
to Britain may be equally unreliable, and the passage is at best 
but a very late piece of evidence. 

A far more acceptable explanation of tlie epithet on general 
grounds is Professor Hhys' suggestion that the Lord of the Other- 
world was held to be the special protector of the Bards, and therefore 
an object of blessing to them. 

But, at the same time, the evidence of the Triad cannot be sum- 
marily dismissed. It stands alone in Welsh Grail Literature in 
connecting the idea of conversion with Brons, or Bran, as in d& 
Borrou, rather than with Joseph, and with a Bran not yet numbered 
with the saints, but possessing some of the attributes of the older 
deity, that is to say, the father of Caradawc. Late in date as it 
undoubtedly is, the argument that it originated entirely with the 
Romances is not unanswerable. For no Welsh translation of the 
French Romances which ascribe the conversion to Brons and his group 
of companions is known, while Welsh versions of the Romances- 
wfaich make Joseph the Apostle of Britain still exist. It is therefore 
at least as likely that the Triad preserves the echoes of an older Welsh 
tradition as that it quotes frem de Borron or the Grand St. GraaL 

And if this be so, it is the one fragment of evidence we possess 
for the existence, in Welsh Tales of Bran, of the same tendency 
which on Irish soil reached its full development in the evolution of 
Saint Brandan. 

Further than this we cannot go, for in Welsh Literature the 

§ 6* Feaiures of OtKerworld Stories found in G, St, Oraal, zxv 

fortunes of Bran become hopelessly involved with those of Joseph of 
Aiimathea. ^ 

To lettini to de Borron, the stoiy which lies behind his poem 
represents an intermediate stage of growth between the mythic Bran 
and the saintly Brandan, if for the moment we allow the identification 
of the lord of Hades and the traveller to the regions of the Dead. 
In support of this hypothesis there exist many traces of kinship 
between the tales of Brandan and of Brons. 

Two of the objects of St Brandan's joumeyings have already been 
given. A* third is found in the prologue to a form of the legend of 
whi6h Schroder printed a German version at Erlangen in 1871, and 
the composition of which he considers may be attributed to the last 
quarter of the twelfth century. Other versions of the same character 
enjoyed wide popularity. Brandan is angry and incredulous at the 
marvels of which he reads in rare books (or especially in a book brought 
to him by an angel from heaven), and he bums the book. As a punish- 
ment he is bidden by the voice of God, to journey on the ocean till he 
finds whether the marvels are real or a lie (or till he has discovered 
the book he has burnt), which by God's grace he is at length able to 
do. Now th^ likeness between this prologue and that which prefaces 
tiie Grand St Graal is very remarkable. There can be little doubt, 
from its totally different style to the rest of the work, that the latter 
Ynologue was taken over by the author of the Grand St. Graal, in its 
existing form, from an older composition. The reference to it in the y 
Ohronicle of Helinandus, which speaks of a hermit to whom a vision 
of the centurion, Joseph of Arimathea, was shown by an angel, 
establishes the fact that already before the year 1227 the prologue 
had been used to preface the supplanter of the tale it was origin- 
ally written to introduce. Of that older tale no trace remains to 
us, unless, as is by no means improbable, some of its episodes 
became absorbed, like so much else, into the body of the Grand 
St Graal. 

Turning to the text of the Prologue of the Grand St Graal, 
some minor points present themselves for comment. For ^'Yal 
Escone," Lovelich's still more corrupt '* Walescog," we should 
probably read "Val Escos" (the King of Escos, for King of 
Scotland, occurs later in the poem), and this with the mention of 
Norway, leads our thoughts to the abode of the Dead as the scene 
of our monk's joumeyings. Other indications of the truth of this 
supposition are found in the mention of the Great Beast, a frequent 


xxvi § 6. Ths history of Moys. 

figure in Otherworld stories, whether it appears as the Hound of 
Hell, or as the quarry of the infernal pack of the Head of Hades. 

The contests in this region are too numerous for one to be 
surprised at learning next of the Valley of the Dead, where near the 
Fountain of Weeping took place a great slaughter and the battle 
of the two best knights in the world. Finally, the wondrous 
Fountain "whose sand is blood-red and fire-hot, and whose water 
is ice-cold, and becomes green and bitter three times a day," calls 
to mind the fountain of Brandan's journeyings, which had two 
streams, one running clear, one troubled; or that other which 
induced a sleep of one, two or three days, according to the number 
of goblets of its water partaken of; or the more orthodox stream 
of Maelduin's wanderings, which yielded whey or water on 
Wednesday or Friday, but on feasts of Martyrs and Sundays good 
milk, and on feasts of the Apostles, of Mary, and of St John 
the Baptist, ale and wine. 

We have mentioned the difficulty of grouping together the 
various stories which in Welsh and Irish Literature centre round 
the name of Bran, because such a classification requires the 
identification of the Lord of the Otherworld with the Visitor to 
the Otherworld. Kow that mortal visitor is generally in search of 
treasures of knowledge, of which the Over^lord is the special guardian 
and protector, as Bran was of the Bards who called him Blessed. 
In these Prologues we seem to have an echo of the old idea. It is 
the thirst for knowledge that drives Brandan forth on journeyings 
that may not cease till he finds the Book of Knowledge he has 
himself forfeited. In the case of the monk of the Grand St. Graal 
Prologue, the book he seeks is called the Book of the Graal, that 
is of the vessel of Knowledge. That is to say, in these Prologues 
we find the Traveller, Brandan, is also the Seeker after treasures 
particularly associated with the Lord of Hades. 

Episodes are not wanting in the body of the Grand St. Graal 
which link it yet more closely with stories of the Brandan type. 
The episode of the Seat Perilous is found both in the Grand St. 
.Graal and in de Borron. In the former work, the author has 
been so much struck by it that he repeats it a second time, with un- 
intelligent variations of his own, about a different person. The 
hero of this episode in de Borron is one Moys, who first appears 
in connection with an incident already described, the separation of 
sinners from saints by means of the Grail. In the solitary MS. 

§ 6. Comparison with ^Imrama' Stories. xxvii 

which preserves de Borron's poem, a gap exists which rohs us of 
much of Moys' history, but it can be filled in from the prose yersions. 

Moys is a hypocrite, and presumptuously puts himself forward, ^ 
supported by his companion sinners, to sit in the empty seat, left 
by Brons at the Grail Table to signify the seat of Judas at the Last 
Supper. Josephes warns him in vain, and at once seven fiery hands ^ 
from Heaven seize and carry him off to a place far away, burning 
like a dry bush. Some day his companions shall know where he is. 

In the Joseph poem we hear no more of Moys ; and the author's 
promise at the conclusion of that poem to tell what had become of 
the long lost sinner, seems never to have been fulfilled. It is left 
to the Grand St Graal to relate how, when Josephes and his 
companions come to a great house in the forest of Nantes, they see 
in the hall a great fire burning, from which a voice calls to them. 
It is the voice of Moys, asking Josephes to pray that his pain may 
be relieved through the mercy of God. Josephes prays, and a great 
rain comes down into the fire and quenches half of it. Moys tells 
them that his sufferings are greatly eased thereby, but the ^le shall 
last till the coming of Galahad, who shall end the adventures of the 
Grail, and finally release him from his pain. 

The Grand St Graal also supplies the earlier history of Moys, 

who is the son of one Symeu. Both father and son are sinners, and 

when the rest of the Grail company find room to cross to Britain 

on the back of Josephes' shirt, they sink in the water, and have to 

^'be pulled ashore by those left behind. 

The remarkable story of the shirt may perhaps be traceable, and 
is certainly comparable, to an incident in the Mabinogi of Branwen, 
where Bran, fleeing from his enemies, waded through two rivers 
with the musicians of his court on his back, the Eomancer, in 
his desire to go at least one step further towards the miraculous, 
having stumbled upon the ridiculous. If this is the case, and the^ 
rest of Moys' career is, as we hope to show, comparable to incidents 
which are part of all the so-called *' Imrama " stories, including the 
voyages of Bran and Brandan, it is somewhat significant that we 
should have in the Grand St. Graal, welded into one tale, episodes 
from the lives of the Lord of the Otherworld and the Visitor to the 
same region. 

To turn again to the Voyage of Bran, son of Febal: he has 
amongst his companions one Nechtan, son of Collbran, who, when 
they reach a certain island called the Island of Women, becomes 

zzviii § 6. The Seat Perilovs. 

homesick for his native Ireland. All the wanderers accompany 
him home, but are warned against setting foot on land. Nechtan 
leaps from the coracle ; and as soon as he touches the soil of Ireland, 
he becomes a heap of ashes. 

In the Tmrama group of stories which are traceable to the same 
root idea, the incident of the unruly or illfated companion of the 
voyage is one which in some form or another continually occurs. 
In the Voyage of Maelduin (which stands in dose relationship 
to the * Navigatio,' and is now generally regarded as its source), 
the three foster-brothers of the hero, in spite of the warning of a 
wizaidf cast themselyes into the sea and swim after the vesseL 
On one of the islands visited, the third foster-brother proposes to 
carry off a necklace, which he finds in a marble palace, and seizea 
it ; but a small cat, which has been engaged in jumping from one 
to another of the stone pillars, at sight of the theft, leaps througji 
the guilty man, and he becomes ashes. In the 'Navigatio' itself 
the opportunities for moralizing which the episode affords are fully 
realized. Three monks follow the Holy Brandan, and implore 
his leave to accompany him, though he prophecies an evil end for 
two of their number. They disembark at an island where is a 
marble palace, surrounded by a wall of crystal. One of the monks 
is tempted to theft by the precious objects hanging round the 
walls, and carries off a silver bridle. Sudden death overtakes hinr, 
though he is promised ultimate forgiveness. 

In the Voyage of the Hui Cona, another of the Imrama group, 
it is a jester who lias joined the party at last, who dies during the 
voyage, when a little bird sits on the gunwale of the boat and 
says, "I am your jester, ... be not mournful ... for now I 
shall go to heaven." In the Irish life of Brandan, the late arrival 
is a man called " Crosan " (rendered " buffoon " in some transla<- 
tions). The seafarers come to an Island of Sea-cats which threaten 
them with destruction, and Crosan consents to sacrifice himself, 
/ leaps ashore, and dies. All these episodes have in common two 
leading features — (1) the presence in the party of voyagers of one 
or more tardy or unruly members, (2) an act of theft or presumption 
followed by sudden destruction. 

In the Grand St Graal, blurred and faint as are the outlines, 
these features are still distinguishable in the account of Moys and 
Symeu, unable owing to mortal sin to cross the sea with the resl^, 
and of the presumption of Moys at the Grail feast bringing about 

§ 6. EmlcuJi and Avalkuch, ruler of AvaUm. xxiz 

his fiery end. The element of endless feasting will be found in all /^ 
the tales quoted. " A theft taboo," says Mr. Kutt, '< is an essential 
feature in all Underworld visits; similaTly, most contain some 
incident to indicate the impossibility of return." The Seat Perilous 
may not improbably represent some form of taboo.^ 

Brons in the Grand St. Graal was bidden to draw back from the 
Seat Perilous because it signified the seat quitted by the traitor 
Judas, at the Last Supper. In the Brandan Legend, Judas on his 
Iceberg is partially relieved from burning tortures by the intercession 
of the Saint, just as the prayezs of Josephes, who has elsewhere been 
found standing in the room of Brons, suffice to quench the flames 
to which Moys is doomed till Judgment Day.^ 

But the points of contact between the Grand St Graal and the 
Brandan Legend are not yet exhausted, and lead us on to a further 
Iproup of characters, to which as yet no reference has been made. 
This is the group which centres round Evalach, King of Sairas, and 
his brother-in-law, Kasciens, personages who appear only in the 
Onnd St GraaL 

Two stories are told of Evalach's birth and origin, of one of 
which Hucher made great use in building up his argument for 
Bobert de Borron's authorship of the Grand St. Graal; it is, 
however, to be classed with the episodes of Hippocras and Fowcairs 
the pirate, as a late and extremely unintelligent addition to the tale, 
serving no other purpose than to increase its already weary length. 

^ It is a difficoll^ feature to explain satisfactorily. If we accept Professor 
Bhys' cine to the whole underlying myth, it is tempting to remember that 
the making of the seat is in the Quest of the Holy Qrail attribute to the 
ma^c art of Merlin, the snn-god, and then to connect it with the Chair of the 
Ckiddess Kerridwen. She was the coxnpoander of a magic cauldron of Wisdom, 
which is one of the prototypes of the Gndl in Welsh story. Eerridwen's Chair 
was none other than the rainbow. "To build on the rainbow/' says Grimm 
in hia 'Teutonic Mytholoffy,' ''meant a bootless enterprise, and to sit on the 
rainbow exposed to great danger, while where it touched the earth there was a 
golden dish." Apart from Nature myth, both these chairs may have had some 
such significance, now forgotten, as tne Bardic chair of which Taliessin sings — 

"The Chair of the fortress of Teganwy 
WiU I again seek." 

' Apart from mythic interpretation it may be remembered that the stoiy 
of the Seat Perilous in some of its features only reproduces contem^rary 
manners. "The High seat in the hall was that of the King or Kaster ; it was 
left empty in his absence or at his death, and could only be filled again after 

death by his son, or by his elected successor any one daring in the 

meantime to occupy it would have looked to be rudely expelled." (Wardle, 
'C3nnmrodor,' vol. xvi. p. 187.) The same critic quotes from an llth-centuiv 
poem of the Pilgrimage of Charlemagne a description of hnw the Emperor and 
nis knights in the Temple at Jerusalem sat down without hesitation or rebuke 
in the seats of Christ and his twelve apostles which stood in the Sanctuary. 

XXX § 6. Evalach and Avcdlack^ ruUr of Avalon. 

This passage is in direct contradiction to the earlier account of 
Evalach's origin; ''the lord of that same city was called Evalach 
the Unknown. And he was called the Unknown, because no man 
in all his domain knew in what countr}' he was bom, nor whence 
he had come, and he was of so great prowess, that by his knight- 
hood he had conquered all the land to the entering in of Egypt, 
.... and he was of so great age that he could no more bear the 
weight of arms." 

There can be little doubt, both from the coincidence of names, 
and from the aptness of this description, that Evalach is none other 
than the Welsh Avallach, ruler of Avalon, Land of Shades. He has 
many castles, two of which, " Yalachiu '' (f . e. Evalach-in) and 
Tarabel (in the French ** Carabel,'' a corruption of some such name' 
as Caer Aval), bore his own name. The approach to Castle Yalachin, 
by a gate over a river an arrow-flight broad, where scarce two chariots 
could pass, is also characteristic of the entrance to the abode of the 

Much of the first part of the Grand St. Graal is taken up with 
an account of Evalach's wars with Tholome, King of Egypt. Greoffrey 
of Monmouth tells of one Bartholomeus who warred against Spain. 
Both Spain and Egypt are alike to be located in the region of the 
departed, together with Orkauz or Orcanz (Orkney), one of the cities 
of Evalach, while the whole expedition may be regarded as one more 
version of the Harrying of Hades. 

The fonn of the name '' Mordrains " given in Manessier's portion 
of the Conte del Graal is'* Koodran," which Professor Bhys suggests 
is a misreading of Guitnev, a form of Gwyddno, the name of the 
Fisher in the Taliessin story, the father of Elphin. 

The name Mordrains is represented in the Grand St. Graal as 
having been given to Evalach when he was baptized by Joseph. 
This may either mean that in the older tales, which the romancer was 
endeavouring to adapt to the record of Joseph's missionary triumphs, 
Gwyddno and Avallach were different names for the same personage, 
or that they were difierent personages, whom he connected together 
by this simple expedient. From what we have already learnt as to 
the difficulty of distinguishing the roles of the Celtic Divinities of 
the Underworld, an explanation which meets both these suppositions 
/ probably comes nearest to the truth. 

- What is most important for our present purpose is to notice that a 
very laige part of the Grand St. Graal is taken up with the travels of 

§ 6. The Twming Island. zxxi 

Mordraina, or Avallach, Lord of the Underworld, an4 those connected 
with, bim^from one island to another ; that some of those islands 
haye features which strongly recall the islands of Bran or Brandan's^ 
wanderings in his thirst for the souls of men« 

Chief among these is the Turning Island. In Welsh Literature, "" 
one of the names for the abode of the dead is ^'Caer Sidi," which 
Professor Ehys renders '' the Spinning or reyolving Castle." Some ^ 
such idea as this may not improbably underlie the account of the 
great fish Jasconias, visited by Brandan and his companions. It has 
sometimes been supposed that this feature of the story originated in 
the name and shape of one of the Maghara Islands, liaunamil. Island 
of the Whale, a rocky islet on that part of the west coast of Ireland 
which tradition makes the home of St. Brandan and the scene of his 
earliest missionary enterprise. 

If the older story brought the Lord of the Under-world to visit 
his dominions which were protected from intrusion by this stiange 
device of spinning or revolving, and those dominions became located 
in one of a certain group of islands, the idea of movement being 
prominent and firmly rooted, might be explained by the fact that one 
of the islands^ like a great whale, really was such an animal, and to 
this the motion was due. Biandan and his companions left the 
cauldron which was part of their travelling equipment, upon the 
whale's back, in perfect security from year to year. 

Yet another feature of the islands visited by Mordrains was the 
presence of innumerable white birds; these are usually to be met 
with in Otherworld stories, and, like the little bird upon the gun- 
wale, in the Hui Corra, represented the souls of the Departed. 

The most picturesque incident of all, one which Malory introduces 
into his * Morte d' Arthur,' falls into line with the rest. If, as seems 
probable, Solomon's ship stands for an island of some earlier tale, 
Geoffrey of Monmouth makes Solomon to have been King of 
Brittany, a r^on which from the ' Irish Life ' we know Brandan to 
have visited. The Queste plaQfifi^lbfi fihip on .the shore of the sea 
over against Ireland. 

Enough has been said to show that the so-called Christian ^ 

Legendary portion of the Grail Cycle is scarcely lees composite than 

the rest, and when carefully examined, is seen to be derived in the 

main from the^same Celtic stock . The Joseph poem and the Grand 

SC GTiaal, apart from their debt to Biblical and Apocryphal sources, 

are made up of fragments belonging to one particular class of Celtic 
GRAIL. ■"" ' c 

xzzii § 7. Tke Bleeding Ztmce and Joeeph of Arimaihea. 

atones, those which rehited the travele of the Lonl of Hades, under 
his different names, to or thfoagh his Otheiworld kingdom, ** Principal 
Pilgrim to a distant city." As has heen said, the rest of the Cycle 
belongs to much the same mythical root ; but it is those tales which 
dwell more especially upon the aspect of Bnn or Evalach as a 
traveller which ia the course of time were gathered up into the 
fabric of our two romances, and loimed the basis of the Convefsion 
Legend. As a new set of ideas became prominent in men's minds, 
those tales were developed in a particular direction, their special 
charaetenstics lent themselves to adaptation of one particular kind. 

Bran, son of Febal, became in Ireland Brandan, the missionary 
saint : the story of Bendigeid Bran had already on Webh soil begun 
to show the same tendency. The original object of his joumeyings 
had been forgotten, and there was a vague uncertainty about it in the 
minds of the story-tollers, and an impulse to colour it with the ideas 
of Christianity. But at this critical point, while those ideas were 
still but dimly ^laped, the ancient hero was thrust aside ; and into 
the i^oe of Bnms and his son Alain thore stopped, at first somewhat 
hesitatingly, the figures of Joseph of Barimaschie, i e. ab Arimathea, 
and a son Josephes, with whom the story made it essential he should 
be pnyvided. It now remains for n& to trace out in 8<Hnewhat greater 
detail the reason of this change of heroes, and how in the first 
instance it can have suggested itself . 


^ T}ie Grail ^tory is found devoid of Christian symbolism oo^ in 
the Mabinogi of Peredur. That woric contains no mention, at all of 
the Grail vessel as such ; and it is chiefly in the incidents of the hero's 
birth and boyhood that the likeness between it and Chrestien's 
portion of the Conto del Graal is found. There occura, however, in 
the Peredur, one important incident which is repeated by all the Grail 
Romancers, almost without variation, except that, as time goes on it 
becomes more and more laden with Christian symbolism. This incident 
has been conveniently called *' the Procession of Talismang/' 

Peredur, the prototype of Perceval in the Conto del Graal, comes 
to the castle of an uncle of his. 

^ While he and the undo are talking together, two youths enter the 
hall;* bearing a mighty spear with three streams of blood flowing 
from the point to the ground; they are followed by two maidens 
bearing a salver in which is a man's head swimming in blood. This 

§ 7. ' The Procession of Talismans' xxxiii 

form of the story has distinclly a more archaic tinge ilian the form 
which appears in Chiestieii and his successors. It has a strong 
beaiing on the general moUf of the story, which, as Mr. Nntt has 
shown, tarns more exclusively than does the Conte del Graal upon 
reyenge for a kinsman's death, to which the hero is incited by the 
ai^)earance of the Talismans.^ The wailing and lamentation of all 
present seems more reasonaUe where the bleeding head is brought 
in, calling as it were for revenge, than in the Conte del Graal, where 
no such suggestion is attached to the emblems, and where the purpose 
of their appeaianoe is indeed somewhat indefinite. Some critics have 
held the Procession as it appears in the Mabinogi to have been 
borrowed from the Conte del Graal. Undoubtedly the Mabinogi of 
Peredur as we have it existing in the Sed Book of Heiigest, — a MS. 
of the fourteenth century, — and in part, in MSS. a hundred years 
earlier, represents a Welsh translation from a French original probably 
itself based upon Welsh folk tales but imperfectly understood by their 
adapter. But allowing to the influence of the Coate del Graal some 
modification of the episode (such, for example, as a change in the 
persons of those who bear the Talismans) one has to postulate a less 
primitive version giving rise to a more primitive one, in order to 
accept Chrestien'sOraal, "shining so that it puts out the light of the 
candles, as the sun does that of the stars," as the sole prototype of 
the head swimming in* blood ; especially as in the latter case the 
incident oooupies a more decidedly logical position in the tale than 
in the former. 

Probably in both cases the incident is taken from the same 
original, the Mabinogi preserving the older form, Chrestien alteiing 
and adi^ting the episode in his own fashion. The Sword, it may be 
noted, does not in the Mabinogi play part in the procession, though 
it is brought into immediate touch with the other Talismans. For it 
18 while Peredur is testing his strength by means of the sword, and 
whttQ his atrival at two-thirds of his manhood has been proved, that 
the lance and salver appear, as it were summoning him to a practical 
test of that manhood by tlie revenge of his cousin's death. 

l^ot is this Procession of Talismans wholly without a counterpart 
elsewhere. In the Welsli Mabinogi of Branwen, — one of the so-called 
Four Branches of Uie Mabinogion, which undoubtedly represent a 
working up of materials of great antiquity, — ^we have a tale connected 
with Bran which seems to throw some light upon it. 

1 Natt, p. 188 et atq. 



xxxiv § 7. The 'Procession' in the Mabinogi of Branwen. 

Bendigeid Bran (the Blessed Bran) is wounded in the foot by a 
poisoned dart by some unnamed assailant : be commands bis seven 
companions in war to cut off his head and carry it with them to the 
White Mount in London for burial. But they are to be long upon 
the way, and as they journey, ''the head will be to you as pleasant 
company as ever it was when on my body.'' Whatever joy the head 
may have brought the seven comrades, grief is heavy upon those 
associated with them. Branwen, who sets out with them dies 
broken-hearted on the banks of the Alaw, for looking towards 
Ireland and towards the Islands of the Mighty, " Alas ! " said sho, 
'* woe is me that I was ever bom : two islands have been destroyed 
because of me.*' The multitude of men and women they meet bring 
them tidings of conquest and slaughter in their native land. The 
comrades themselves go on their way forgetful of all they have 
heard, remembering no sorrow whatever. This strange procession, 
with its strange burden, seems to throw at least some light of sugges- 
tion upon the talismanic procession as it appears in the Mabinpgion, 
and still more weakened and attenuated in the other Romances. The 
indifference of the comrades may be due to the fact that they have 
fallen with their leader, and with him are journeying to the land of 
shades, while those weep and wail who see the procession pass, but 
are themselves lef t^ leaderless and without hope, to the mercy of their 

Yet another piece of evidence for the probable antiquity of this 
curious feature may be found in the fact that the Tuatha de Danann, 
who are in Irish tradition the leading representatives of the Celtic 
Pantheon and correspond to the Welsh Children of Ddn, have as 
part of their invariable equipment a sword, a spear (or Ismce) and a 
magic cauldron, the very same objects which we find associated 
together in the Bomances. 

The^persistence of this feature, as time went on, and the manner 
in which it was enlarged and drversified according to the fanc y of 
successive writers, seems to show that from the first it was a centre of 
interest and curiosity, and apparently of speculation — for^ as has been 
shown, the first hint of the inti-oduction of a Christian Legendary 
element which we have, is the identification of tlte ^pear with 
that which Longinus used to pierce the side of Our Lord when He 
hung upon the Cross. The identification is a somewhat obvious one, 
given the fact, which we may infer from the subsequent development 
of the tales, that there was a desire upon the part of those writers 

§ 7. Monkish Origin of the Joufph Legend. xxxv 

who had edification rather than mere frivolous entertainment at 
heart, to annex the whole delightful realm of tradition and romance 
and turn it to account in the furtherance of moral and religious 
education. And here, in the tales of Arthur and his Knights, of such 
undouhted popularity, and centring round a national hero, was an 
opportunity not to he lost. 

The way in which, half-deliben^tely, half-unconsdouslyy it was 
brought to pass, is characteristic of an age when the historic sense 
was, as yet, ahsolutely undeveloped. Apart from, yet merging at 
many points into, the field of popular tradition, the Church (for we 
would take the prologue of the Qrand St. Graal with its tale of 
^monkish authorship somewhat literally, and find support in the 
evidences already referred to of the Latin originals from which the ro- 
mancers in many cases seem to have worked) — ^the Church possessed 
its own wealth of legendary lore. How much of this had heen in its 
time horrowed, like the jeweb of Egypt, from enemies of the faitb, 
the possessors were themselves prohably ignorant, and mediaeval 
hagiology bears pathetic witness. But in one case, at any rate, that 
now before us^ we seem to see the process at work. There can be 
little doubt that the Joseph Legend did not originate with the North 
^ French adapters of the Celtic tales. The legend in its later develop- 
ments ooncems itself with the Conversion of England, and what is 
of more significance, Joseph himself was very early known to the 
Church of Britain in his legendary capacity, although there is no 
reliable trace of his having been regarded as the missionary apostle of 
England earlier than the Bomances themselves. 

The facts of Joseph's connection with Our Lord's passion, and of 

his imprisonment, which profess to supplement the Grospel narrative, 

are found in the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus, and in some 

/ briefer kindred works. There is evidence to show that this Gospel 

was well known in England several centuries before any prominent 

I reference to it can be found in Continental writers. It included an 

{ account of Christ's Descent into Hades upon which the poet 

Cynewulf based his ' Harrowing of Hell,' a poem which dates from 

the first quarter of the eighth century. The first reference to it in 

the literature of other lands is to be found in Gregory of Tours, but it 

is not met with again in France till we come to the Grail Bomances.^ 

We have seen that in all probability the so-called procession of 

Talismans was a feature in the tales which underlie the Conte del 

* Nutt, p. 221. 


xxxvi § 7, The Spear (jf Longinus. 

Oraal and the Mabinogion. Let ns suppose, then, that the mention 
of the bleeding spear suggested to some monkfeb compiler of theso 
tales a possible embellishment ; the spear had an earlier histoiy, it 
was that wherewith Longinus pierced the side of Christ ; or quite 
possibly this, as a simple and obvious idea, may in tiie first instance 
have become part of the oral tradition.^ £nt, in whatever manner, 
this idea liaving come to the knowledge of our monldsh compiler, let 
us suppose him to seek for further information in that Apocryphal 
Gospel of Nicodemus in which mention is made of the Longinus inci- 
dent. There the most prominent figure is the well-known and 
favourite one of Josepli of Arimathea, ''Benefactor Dei." Could not 
the connection be turned to account in his case t Supposing that in. 
the description of the procession of Talismans found in the prototype 
of the Mabinogion the vessel itself in which the bleeding head was 
carried was a more prominent feature, our writer might well fix 
upon this as the object next in importance to the spear, through 
which this further connection was to be established. Given that the 
vessel had to do with Joseph, as the spear with the Roman soldier, 
what use could he have made of it, how come at its sad contents f 
It is noteworthy that, with that simplicity which diBarms any accusa- 
tion of irreverence, Gerbert, one of the two later cmitinuators of the 
Conte del Graid, expressly declares that a potion with which Perceval's 
enemies, slain by day, are by night restored to life, was that one 
whereof Christ made use in the Sepulture.' To turn again to 
Joseph, the most dramatic and mysterious episode in his history is 
that of his imprisonment, on account of services rendered to the 
Lord's body. While he is in prison, he sees the holy vision in a 
great light, with a smell of myrrh. Now sweet odours and a bright 
light are two of the features which in the Romances are found to 

^ Tho Soear itself earlv became famous among the relics of Onr Lord's 
Passion. Tneodosius (sixth century) describes it as still to be seen in the 

Church of Golgotha, where '* it shone by night as the sun by day." Aiculf on 

a curious coincidence that about the 12th century the Crusaders began to bring 
from the £ast portions of the Holy Blood, that is at about the period when the 
Graai Romances were taking shape. The records of earlier pilgrimages do not 
call attention to this particular relic. 

' Such an intermingling of ideas is not peculiar to the Graal Stories. In 
the Life of S. David ('Lives of the Cambro-British Saints'), David is said to 
have gone to Jerusalem with Teilo and Padam to get their consecration, and to 
him was given the very tomb in which the Body of the Lord had lain. (See 
Wardle, * Cymmrodor, vol. xvii. p. 47.) 

§ 7. Orowing influence of Christian Sffmbolitm, xxxvii 

attend the appearance of the GraU, and which may well have had 
place in still earlier tales. Then again the miraculous feeding powers 
of the Grail, in yet another of its aspects, were quite sufficient to 
suggest to the mediseval mind the scenes of the Last Supper and 
the Holy Cup. In fact, just as we have seen the Grail to have 
gathered to itself, in the Bomances, the various properties of the 
magic vessels of Celtic tradition, so, once the connection with 
Joseph of Arimathea was fortuitously estahlished, in some such 
way as we have suggested, those varying aspects were one by 
one adapted to the purposes of Christian Symbolism, or connected 
with the scenes and incidents of Scriptural or Apocryphal history. 
How rapidly the process, once it had begun, was carried on may best 
be judged from the character of the later members of the Giail Cycle 
as compared with the Conte del GraaL And, indeed, when once 
Joseph had appropriated Lance and Cup, what was more probable 
than that the other attributes of their former possessor should also be 
transferred to one already so illustrious in the annals of the Church, 
and there take a more distinctly edifying shape f The Vessel of the 
Grail becomes the Cup of the Sacrament, the old Lance of the gods 
has pierced the side of Christ; Alain, who never wore a crown 
becomes Josephes, first Bishop of all Christendom; the realm of 
shadows is the heathen land of Britain ; for the unceasing search for 
the treasures of wisdom we have the zeal of missionary enterprise and 
the salvation of souls. But we pay a heavy price for edification. 
With the entrance of Joseph on the scenes, the glamour fades away. 
We pass from the high regions of Faery by a rapid descent to the 
levels of the commonplace and the ridiculous. ^ 

■a^ llif .MSS. Mid ttW linoki whirf. nor-i cnpyiDg ot retditiuiT. • 


Latluil IliHtiifiul Tnaliui 
R. ttnft Ksnhnd Klhiui 

■Man sf Miriri. lUt llm 
w OnpUU'i TiuU. Dnl 1: 

sf du SUhbpa tt Adu Isutrut'i ! 
Kulti foi Oaaj.'.", 
tTSfWiMMCir. Julia Wtltoii'i i: 

Olf, IM, U-i.l' 
V*n« tai f»i>: 
A helw of (oiili 
AUMMiUul-iu, ! 
Th* f nM Iif( af 


-1 <IWI«^ 

Aioinitu Ihg Ui«(l, 


■a Lord TolinaMdii''* MS. 
fW Tnjr'Sink fncsinU vnux I'Sli) HirtiOiir'a 
"■ f. Liuruy Mill Uduce MBS. 


. > B«k *] 
.^u>a af Ifei 



0RI01NA.1. sEBrae. 


W \rt. Ai, - 

11 ftxit., nutn, U*. ^1 
<^ tlM-ntltlAlu,. lOiL ^H 


PLIl. MI4^>^H 




V-nr. v 





■ XCV 1 






i{"k. Purin. ^H 

vDrredt.' [Atrtaii ^|, -^"" ^H 
" - -^H 

■ xinfr. ITatdiia. ^H 

1 S'^no.r. ^1 

m -°-1S£« 







[^Tke JSnffUth MS at Corpnt "having lost its beginning , one is 
supplied from the version 0/ the French original in MS 
BibL Reg, x^iv E 3, in the British MuseumJ] 


The Salutation, and the Three BeasonH why the Writer has not 
told his name at the beginning of the book. 

^*Chil ki la hauteclie & la signonrie de si haute [•iMfs]. 

^ - _ _ _ ^ .^ , The writer of this 

estoire eomm& est chele du graal met en sent par le high History 

cwnmandement du grant maistre, Mande tout premiere- in the Trinity, 

ine72t salus a tous cheus & a toutes cheles ki ont lor 

creanche en la sainte glorieuse trinite, Ch'est el pore, & 

el fil, & el saint esperit. El pere, par qui toutes choses Father, 

sont establies & cries, et rechoiueTzt co^^imenchement de 

vie. El fil, par qui tout cbil & toutes ch'^les qui en son, and 

lui ont creanche, sont deliure des perdurables dolors, & 

lamene a le haute ioie ki dura sains fin. £1 saint HoiyGiiost. 

' As a specimen of the language of Addit MS 10,292, Plut. 
CLXXxy. O, and its variations from the MS Bibl. Reg. xiv. E 
in. Plut. IX. H, printed in the text, the Prologue of MS 10,292 
is put in the following note. Hardly any of the subsequent 
Tariations are given ; though 10,292 is much shorter than the 
Boyal MS. [MS Add. 10,292 is generally called B in the notes.] 

f Chil ki se tient & iuge au plus petit & au plus peceor du [fleari] 
monde, Mande salus au c<>mmenchement de ceste estoire A 
toe cheaux ki lor cuers ont & lor creance en la sainte trinite. 
Che est el peire, ce est el fil, ce est el saint esperit. £1 p^*e par 
qui toutes coses sont establies & rechoiuent {;/>mmencement de 
vie. El fil par qui toutes coses sont deliureesdes paines d*infer 
et ramene a la ioie qui dure sans fin. £1 saint esperit par qui 
GBAAL. jt^ X 


esp^rit, par qui toutes les boines choseB sent mondees 
Hewiu not tell hu & saintefiees. li nons de chelui qui cheste estoiremet 

name at Ant,— 

en escnt n'est pas nomes ne esdaines en qhest co/ti* 
thoagh It win menchement. Mais par les paroles qtd chi apries seront 
iSlorirorda,- dites, porra on grant masse apercheuoir & counoistre le 

non de lui,- d^ sa uie, & son anchiestre. Mais en chest 

commendiement ne le veut il descouiir. Et si i a trois 

[• leaf 8, ooi. t] raisons par quoi : premierement, pour chou ke se *il le 

1. The enriooa nomast, & il desist ke diex eust par lui descouuert si 

bngged^ haute estoire com est cele du graal,. qui est estoiie de 

toutes les estoires, li felon & li enuieus ne li atoumaia- 
t. ma aoqaaint- Sent s uautauche. L'autre raisons est pour chou, ke 

anoe might TaliM , . . . , . . .^ 

the Hiatory leia. ceus peust OUT SOU uon qui Is couueusty SI empnsait 
mains Pestoire pour chou qt^ par si poure persone eust 
este mise en escrit. Car il se tient pour la plus poure 
persons & pour la plus despite ki onques fust formee. 
oopfJou^uUdi "^ tierche raisons est pour chou, ke s*il eust en 
be*biiim^^'*"'* Testoire aucune chose desauenant, ou par efifachement, 
ou par le nice des escriuens qt/i apres le translataissent 
d'un lieu en autre, tous li blasmes en fust sour son 
non. Car il est ore en nos tans plus des bouches qui 
dient mal ke de cheles ki bten dient. £t plus est yns 

toutes coses wn\» hors mises des mains an mallgiie esperit, & 
raemplies de ioie par renluminement de lui que est vrais 
enlumineres & vrais cordom, Li nons de celui qui oeste estoire 
escrist n'est pas noumes ne esclairies el 0<^mmenoement. Mala 
par les paroles qui chi apres seront dites porres g^ant masse 
ap^rceuoir del non de celui & le pais ou il fu nes & yne grant 
partie de son lignage. Mais al commencement ne se yeut pas 
descourir; & se 1 a .i\j. raisons por quoi. La premiere si eat 
por ce que se il se noumast & deist que diex eust desoouert par 
lui si haute estoire commA est cele du saint graal qui est la 
plus haute estoire qui soit, Li felon & li enuieus le tomer- 
oient en yielte. L*autr^ raison si est por oe que tels poroit oir 
son non qui le ^iMinistroit, si enpriseroit mains Testoire por ce 
que si poure pcrsone eust mis en escrit ceste estoire. L*autre 
f ^ la tierce] raison si est por ce qw^ s*il eust mis son non en 
Testoire & on i trouast aucune cose mesauenant ou par visse de 
maluais escriuain qui apres le translatast d'un liure en autre, 
tous li blasmes en fust sor son non. Car il sont ore len no tans 
plus de bouches qui mal dient que bien. Et plus est vns horns 


homs blasmes de faire yn seul mal, ke il n'est loes de 
faire cent bens. Pour ches .iij. choses, ne ueut ke ses Bat thoagh 1m 
noBs soit de tout en tout descouuiers. Car ia soit che 
ke il le Yoelle mault couurir et cheler, si sera il plus 
apercbeus qu'il ne uauroit. Mais il descouuerra & dira heii ten pbdnij 
tout en apart comment la baute estoire del saint graal li HUtory of tii« 
fd commandee & baillie, & en quel termine, & qui li d^veredto^. 

blasmes d'un seul mal, qu^il ne seroit loes de .0. biens. Et 
por che ne veut il pas qua ses nons soit del tot descouere. Car 
is soit ce qu'il 8*en volsist courir, si sera il plus descouers qu'il 
ne Toldroit. Mais il dim tot en apert comment Testoire del 
aaiiU graal li fu commBndee a manifestier. 


How in the year 717 a.d. in TMiite Britain, which is England, 
Chriaty as a beautiful man, appears in a vision to a 
Trinitj'-doubting monk, and promises to clear his doubts ; 
and (p. 7) gives him a little Book ; and how in the book 
there are four treatises, with these titles : ' I. Here be- 
ginneth thy lineage, ii. Here begin neth the book of the 
Holy Grail. III. Here begin the terrors. IV. Here begia 
the marvels ' (p. 9). How a ray as of fire descends from 
heaven, and great darkness comes, and then sweet odours, 
and sweet voices singing hymns to God (p. 10). How 
on Good Friday an Angel appears to the monk, and 
takes him up to the third Heaven (p. 12), and reveals the 
mystery of the Trinity to him (p. 13). How the monk locks 
the Book up in a box (p. 14). How on Easter Day the 
monk says his service, and then finds the Book gone. How 
he has a vision, telling him to go to Norway, and there 
find the Book (p. 15). How he goes after the Book, a 
wonderful Beast guiding him (p. 16) ; how he is lodged by 
a hermit the first night (p. 17) ; how on the second day 
he comes to the Pine of Adventures and its miraculous 
Fountain (p. 18), and how a lady's servant feeds him 
there, and how he is lodged by a knight (p. 19) ; how oa 
the third day he finds the Book in a little chapel, and cures 
a devil-possesst man with it (p. 21). How food for this 
man is sent miraculously (p. 22) ; how on the ninth day 
the monk starts for home with the Book, and the Beast 
reappears (p. 23) ; how the monk reaches home. How he 
is told in a vision to copy out the Book (p. 24). 

inthey«urofour H auint ap?'es la passion ihe^u crist .vij. cens <fe 

Lord 717, 

.xvij. ans ke ie, 11 plus pechieres des autres pecheours, 

me gisoie en .j. petit habitacle endroit ichele cure ki 

the writer Uee, est apielee la tierche vigile de le nuit. Ichil Ileus ou 

in the third watch ° . i • i 

of the night, in iou me gisoie en tel maniere, — com dieus seit, ki tous les 

penses counoist, — estoit lontieus et destomes de toutea 

gens. Et tant en puis iou hien dire ke il estoit en .j. 

In one of the des plus sauuages lieus ki fust en toute la bloie ber- 

White Briuin; taignc.^ Mais ne pour qiiant moult m'estoit deli tables 

* The other MS, 10,292, says nothing about *bloie ber- 
taigne/ having only after * peceors,' * estoie en .j. lieu le pl«t 


& plaisans. Car quant nostres sires veut ouurer en son 

crestien, il T a tantost mis en tel *corage ke toutes les [*i«ftfs,«>i.s} 

choses ki li siecles prise li annuient. Ichele nuis ke ie and then 

. . . . . /. -I • "I . , on the night 

ine gisoie en-si com yous aues oi, si fu la nuis ki est before Good 

entre le ioesdi absolut & le vendredi beneoit. Et se 

Tiostre signot^r plot ke il recheust en gre, le auoie fait 

le seruiche des matines ke on apicle tenebres. £t lors 

si me prist moult grans yolentes de dormir, si commen- he (a monk) iiu 

cliai a soiiinillier en mon lit on iou m'estoie a-coutes. 

Ensi com i'oi cwwmenchie a soumellier, ne demoura 

puis gaires ke iou oi vne vois ki m'apiela ^ .iij. fois par 

mon non, et si me dist, "esueille toi Ss si ascoute.^ a voice caiia him 

and proolaiiM 

De trois coses vne, & d une cose trois ; & autrestant the doctrine of 

,. ' , . ,^^ , . , theTrinitjlo 

puet rune cowme les trois. *jNo les trois naturelment wm. 

ne sont autre cose ko vne/'^ A cliel mot m*esueillai, 

81 esgardai entour moi, et ui si grant clarte ke nule si 

grans ne peust issir de nule t^^Tiene lumiere. Apres ui 

vn bomme ester deuant moi, si biel & si delitable ke sa chHst appears 

to him. 

biautes ne porroit estre contee ne descrite par lange de 

nul bomme mortel. Et quant ie le vi, si ftd si esbabis 

que ie ne seucb sous siel ke dire ne que faire. Et il 

m'esgarda, & si me dist : '' As tu entondu ne taut ne 

quant la parole ke ie t*ai dite ] " Et ie li respondi en 

tranlant, " Sire, ie n'en sui mie encore hien certains." 

Et il me redist, " che est la counissancbe de la trinitei 

que ie t*ai raportee." Et cbe dist il pour cbou que The monk has 

i'auoie este 'en doutancbe comment che pooit estre ke la the Trinity. 

[•leafs, back] 

sonage que ion ne voel faire connohtTe & eslong^es de toutes 
crestiens. Mais itant vans puis ie bien dire que li lieus est moult 
saluages, Mais mimlt estoit delitables Sc plaisans. Car home qui 
est del tout en dieu 11 a a contrarie toutes les seculers coses. 
Ensi e{nnme ie me gisoie en eel lieu dont vos m'aues oi 
parler, si fu au ieudi absolu. Et qtmnt vint au vendredi 
bdneoit, si auoie dit (se a nostve seignor plaisoit,) le seruice que 
on apele tenebres.' Add. 10,292, leaf 1, col. 3. 

* & il ne demora pas grantment que vne vois m^apela. — B. 

' An illustration, with the rubric 'Ensi que dieus en une 
nue parole a i hermite qui est deuant son autel.' — A. 

=•—» Omitted in B. 



trinltea auoit trois persones & si n'auoit c'ane senle 
deite et vne seule poisaanche. Ne onqves n'auoie en 
nulle liens cose doutee de ma creanche, que seulement 
en chestui point. Apr^s me dist, ''pues tu encore 
counoistre ne ap^cheuoir ki ie sni 1 " £t ie dis : 
He cannot ue the " gire mi oel sont mortel, si n'ont pas pooir d'esffarder 

brightness above . r- r o 

au briKhtnesaes. entiiement la clarte de tontes les autres claries, ne la 
boiiche ne puet encore auoir la forche de dire chou dont 
toutes les pekeresses langues serroient encombrees." 

Christ breathea Et il s'abaissa YCTS moi, si me souffla en mi le vis. £t 

uis eyes dear, lors me fu auis qr^ i'oi les iex a cent doubles plus 
clers ke onq«^ mais n'auoie eus, et ke ie sentoie dedens 
ma bouche vne grant mernelle de langues. £t il me 
redist, " pues tu encore counoistre qui ie sui ? " Et 

a flame as of fire q^^ant ie ouri la bouche pour respondre, si yi q?«6 vns 

starts from his 

mouth, and he is braudous me saloit hors du cors autresteus com de fu 


ardant. Si en eucb si grant paour quant ie 11 vi, qu« 

onqu6s n'oi pooir de dire mot. £t quant il me Tit si 

Christ comfoHa espoente, si me dist, " l^aies mie paour : car la fon- 


taine de toute seurte est chi deuant toi. Et bien 
sachies que ie sui chi uenus pour toi aprendre & ensen- 
gier de toute te doutanche. Car ie sui de toutes 
doutanches ^vrais ensengieres. Ie sui chil par qui 
The Qreat Master toutes Ics boines sciciises sont aprtscs. Car ie sui li 

reveals hlmselft . . 

grans maistres par qui tout li tenen maistre seuent 
tant de bien com il ont aprts. !Ne maistre ne sont il 
mie. Car maistres ne puet estre, se chil non qui seit 
toutes les sciences. Ie sui chil maistres a qui nicho- 
medes dist : ' Maistre, nou« sauons que vous estes venus 
de dieu.' Ie sui chil de qui Tescriture dist^ 'Toute 
sapiense vient de dieu nostre signeur/ & si est auoec 

\ — ^ certains. Ie buI fontaine de sapience. Ie sui chil a 
qui nicodemus dist, ' Maistres, noB eowoSssxyoA qui tob estes.' Ie 
sui cil de qui I'eseeripture dist, ^ toute sapience yient de n«»#fre 
seignor.* lou sui li parfaiB maistres. si sui yenus a toi por ce 
que ie voeil que tu rechoiues enseignement de toutes les choses 
dont tu as este en doutance & t'en f erai chertain. Et par toi 
- sera ouuerte a tos chiaus qui I'oront oonter.*' — B (MS 10,292). 


loi & tous iours i a este deuant tous *les eages. Et ponr C* i^f s. bMk, 

ehon que ie sui li parfais maistres comme chil qui sui 

fontaine de toute sapiense, pour chou sui ion uenus a •■ the finmtain of 

j^ » m *I1 wlcdom, And 

toL Gar ie voel que tu rechoiues par moi enseignement has tbenfon 

de ioutes iclieles choses dont tu seras en doutanche. «uth«monk'i 

£t si te feiai certaiii & sage d'une cose dont onques nus 

horn morteus ne fu certains. £t par toi sera ele des- 

couuerte et esdairie a tous cliiaus qui iamais Torront 

conter ne deuiser." ^ A chest mot me prist par Ie 

main destre^ et si me mist dedens .j. petit liuret qui H«giTeith« 

monk a litUa 

n'estoit pas en nule maniere plus Ions ne plus les ke est book, 

la paume d'un home. Et qt^ant ie tii^g Ie liuret, si me 

dist, ** yens tu sauoir ke ie t'ai bailliet 1 " Et ie dis ke 

ie Ie sauroie moult yolentiers : et il me dist, " Ch'est 11 

liureft Y qu«l tu trouueras si grans meruelles que nus in which an 

cuers morteus nes porroit pcnser. !Ne la de nule nens than mortal heart 

ne seras en doutanche dont tu ne soies auoies * par chest **° <»»**^«« 

liuret. Et si i sont mi secre, ke ie meismes escris de ma 

main, ke nus hom ne doit Teoir se il n'est auant 

espxugies par confession ^& par ieune de trois iours en 

pain & en iaue.' Et apres che les doit il en tel maniere 

dire, ki les die de la lange du cuer, si ke ia chele de la 

bouche n'i paraut.^ Car H n'i puent estre noume par TheeienMnti 

nule langue mortel, que tout li quatre element n'en when the Book's 

soient commeu, carli chieus en plouuera et fera autres epoken by mortal 

signes. Li airs en tourbelera apiertement. Li terre en ****^' 

crolera, et Tiaue^ en cangera sa couleur. Tout chou 

auenra par la forche des paroles qui en chest liuret sont 

escrites. Et si i a autre chose, que ia nus hom n'esgal> 

dera souuent en chest liuret ensi eonunQ on i doit 


regardor, qu'tl n'i conqmre les .\j. grignours ioiea qui 

soient. Ch'est la ioie de Tame & la ioie du cors. Car Thejc^oftbe 


il n'est nus hom morteus tant durem^nt *courchies, se [• lei^f s, back. 


• n'eii soies adrecies. — B. ' — * not in B. 

* St en tel maniere Ie dois dire camme par langue de ener, 
pi que ia chele de la bouce n*i parolt-^B. * I'aigae. — B. 


The Joy or the 


'Hie monk heart 
a voice like a 
trumpet, and a 
great crash. 

and Mis to the 
ground ; 


and finds the 
Book in his hand. 

The first title in 
the Book, * Here 
is the beginning 
of thy lineage.' 

[• leaf 4] 

il puet dedens veoir ententieument ensi comme veoir i 
deueia^ que ia maintenant ne soit ses cuers deliures de 
toutes ires et plains de toutes les ioies ke cuers morteus 
puet auoir, tant sont plaisant & delitable les paroles qui 
i sont. Ch'est la ioie du core. Et d'autre part il 
esprendera si durement petit & petit si durement del 
esperituel amour, que se il baans est as t^rrienes coses, si 
sera chou pour metre & pot^r despendre en Tueure & en la 
besoigne a son creatour. Ne ia par pecbie qu'il ait faii 
en cbest siecle ne morra de mort soubite qui cbest liuret 
ara vne fois veu ou tenu. Cb'est la ioie de Tame." 
Et qwant il ot cbe dit, si cria vne vols autresi comme 
vne buisine. Et qu<mi ele ot crie, si vint vns si grans 
escrois de baut, ke il me fu auis que tous li firmamens 
feust keus, & ke la t^rre fust fondue iusk'en abisme. 
Et se clartes eut este grans deuant, lore fu graindre a 
cbent doubles. Car i*en fui si esbabis ke bien en 
quidai avoir pierdu la veue, & si cai a terre autresi 
co7?ime pasmes. Et qt^ant vint au cbief de grant piecbe 
ke la vanites du cbief me fu tresalee, si ouuri les iex. 
Mais ie ne ui onqt^es as iex nule riens vivant. Ne 
onques ne me soi a qnoi tenir de quan qus ie auoie veu ; 
ancbois tenoie tout a songe, qi^ant ie trouuai en ma main 
Ie liuret ensi com li grans maiBtres Ie mi auoit mis. A 
tant me leuai moult lies & moult ioieus, et ting toutes 
uoies Ie liuret entre mes .ij. mains. Et si fui si en 
orisons & en proieres tant ke dieus enuoia Ie iour qui 
moult durement me tardoit. Et quant li ioure fu ai 
clers ke ie peucb la letre. counoistre, si commencbai a 
lire ; & si trouuai el commencbement .i. title qui disoit, 
* Cbi est li coTnmencbemens do ton linaige.' Et quant 
ie vi cbou, si en fui moult lies. Car il n'estoit nule rien 
terri'ene^ que ie tant desiraisse a oir comme la counis- 
sancbe de mon linaige. Et q?^nt ie oi garde tant ke 
ia estoit pn'me passee, si me fut* auis ke ie n'i auoie 
' MS terrieene. ' MS fui. 


lien leu, tant i anoit encore a lire. Car ie i ni tant de 

lettre ke ie en fui tons esbaliis comment si grans plentes 

de paroles pooit estre amonchelee en si petit liurct qui 

n'estoit pas au mien ensient plus Ions ne plus les en 

nule guise que est yne paume. Si m'en menieillai tant 

que ie en mescrisse moi meisme qui le yeoie, se chil ne 

le m'eust baillie qui grant plente de choscs puet metre 

en petit de lieu, & ki grant lieu pu^t aemplir de peu 

de choses. Ensi gardai el liuret iusques yiers tiercbe, 

tant que i'oi counut grant paKie de mon lignage. Si 

i ui les nons & la vie do tant preudommes, ke a paines (in which i aair 

osaisse le ne deusse dire ne counoistre que le fuisse uveaofsomauy 

d'aus descendus. Car quant ie veoie lor boine vie, & anSttS™.) 

les grans gries k'il auoient souffiert en t^rre pour lor 

creatour, si ne pooie pas penser comment ie peusse tant 

amender ma vie qt^'ele fust digne d'estre amenteue 

aueuc les leur. Ne il ne m'estoit pas auis que ie fuisse 

hom enuiers aus, mais fainture d'omme & reproches. 

£n cbe pense demourai moult longement, mais toutes 

uoies retouma au liure, & commencbai a lire tant ke ie 

oi leu iusk'en la fin de mon linaige. £t lors trouuai vn 

title q«i disoit, * Chi commencbe li liures du saint ntie 2. 

. . T « o Here begin* the 

graal. Et quant le 01 leu tant que miedis fu passes, & book of the HoIj 
ke il pooit estre bien pros de none, si en trouuai .i. 
autre qui disoit : ' Cbi est li commencbemens des 
paours.' Et quant ie oi cbe title passe, si commencbai Title s. 

, . . Here Is the 

a Ure, & vi tens cboses qui moult estoient peureuses & beginning or the 

espoentables a ueoir. Et sacbe diex ke a si grant dou- 

tancbe les veoie, Ne ia enuair ne Tosaise,' se cbil ne 

le m'eust commando, par 'qui commandement toutes [•leari.coi.s] 

cboses uiuans sont meues.' Et qt^znt ie oi asses veus [hs 10,292 

- .„ -i •! i . -Ai • J* 'i. omitB 4th title.] 

de coses merueilleuses, si trouuai le quart title qui disoit : Title 4. 
' Cbi commencbent les meruelles,' Et lors commencbai marveu. " 

' ne ia veoir ne les osaisse. — 6. 

' p/ir qui toutes coses sont coHimandees k. gouemees. — B, 
leaf 1, back, col. 3. 


[1 M8 ft Titf] 

LIghtnlnff and 
thunder ooom; 

tht monk fUb to 

A sweet odour 

And a sweet 
•ong of praiM 

[•lMif4,coI. 8] 

(Hononr and 
glory and power 
and dominion 
be for erer to 
the destroyer of 

numltdurement a penser. ensi com ie pensoie achestecose, 
yhs^ lais autresteus comme de fa ardant descend! de 
nera le chiel & Tint ttes par deuant mes iex autresi 
bruians comme foudres. Et mozdt durement sambloit es- 
para de tonnoire, f on tant que la claries endura plus, & fu 
graindres & plus espoentables. et si descendi par deuant 
moi si soudainement ke tout li oel m'estincbeleient en 
la teste, che me fu a-uis que ie eusse la ceruele espandue, 
si que ie kai a t<;rre tous pasmes. Mais ne me dura 
gaires li estouidissemens. ancbois me tresala si commQ 
no^fre signour plot. £t lors redrecbai la tieste, si ouuri 
les iex, & id ke tous li fiimamens noircissoit, & ke li 
solaua pierdoit de tout en tout sa darte si ke il faisoit 
autresi grans tenebres com il sent faire es espesses nuis 
d*iuer. Et quant cbes tenebres orent dure tant ke on 
peust hien auoir ale cbent pas, si plot a dieu que eles 
trespasserent. & lors commencba a esclarcbir petit & 
petit, si ke li solans reuint tous en sa propre clarte. Et 
maintenant descendi el lieu ou iou estoie, yno odours si 
doucbe & si soues ke se toutes les espices qui sont 
ou monde Mssent encontre, eles ne rendissent pas la 
milisme pars de doucbour ne de souautume, si com ie 
quit. Apries oi entour moi .j. si doucb cbant & vne 
si grant loenge, ke tout li estrument & toutes les 
melodies que on porroit oir en terre serroient fins niens 
a escouter, enuers cbelui cbant ke ie oi. Car tant i 
auoit yoIb que nule riens morteus au mien quidier n'en 
porroit le nombre dire. Et si estoient au *mien ensiant 
si pries de moi ke se che fuissent coses veables ie les 
peusse atoucbier a ma main. Mais onques tant esgarder 
n'i soi que onquea .j. de tous cbieus qui cantoient 
peusse yeoir. Et tant entendi ge b/en qu'tl looient en 
lor cbant nostie seignour. & si disuient tous iours en la 
fin de lor cancbon : " Hounours & gloire & poestes & 
empires soit par-durablement au destruseour de la mort 
& au restoreour de la vie pardurable." Icheste loenge 

THE writer's vision. HIS GOOD-FRIDAT WORK. 11 

entendoie ie bten. Mais de tout Fautre chant ne pooie dMtb and th* 

ie pas entendre que il voloit dire ; mais sour tontes riens «toniai uft): 

estoit dous & plaisans a oir. Et quant il auoient choa aadtoimdaMof 

chante, si sounoient en haat yne grant menielle, ne sai 

de ques estrumens, qui resambloient escheletes^ au ' 

Bouner. Et quant eles laissoient a soner, si recommen- 

choient a canter les uois. En cheste maniere canterent 

hiea iusk' a .yij. fois. Et quant vint a la sietisme^ fois, 

si rompirent lor chant si soudainement qu'tl me fa auis 

que 0. fuissent tout keu en abisme. Et lors me sam- 

bloit que tontes les eles des oisiaus ki sont en Tair s'en- andaoondaMof 

nolaissent par deuant moL Et maintenant que les vois 

laissierent a canter, si remest la grans odours ke i'auoie 

si longement sentue, qui si durement m'auoit pleu que 

iamais a nul iour ne quesise estre en autre maniere que 

ie estoie maiB c'au plaisier nostre signeur fust. Ensi 

remes,* si commenchai moult durement a penser a cheste The «nd oTUm 

merueille que ie auoie oie. Et lors vint yne vols d'en 

haut ki me dist : " Laisse a penser, si lieue sus, & si ua 

lendre a dieu che que tu li dois. Car bten est huimais 

tans & eure." A chest mot me leuai ; si gardai entour on Good Fridaj 

moi, & Ti que la estoit nonne passe. £t quant le yi monk riae«. 

che, si m'esm^ruellai trop du iour qui si tost s'en estoit 

ales. Car ie quidoie qu'il fust encore ma*tins, tant C*ieaf4,twck] 

durement m'auoit pleu li lires du liuret.-^ Et quant ie 

foi leues, si le mis en tel lieu ke il fu tons iours deuant 

mes iez. Apres cantai mes eures ensi com eles sont^ a HesingiUi 


dire a chel iour. Et quant ie les oi dites, si com- 

menchai le seruiche si douch & si piteus comme de la »ndb«giiifltiM 


ijiort ihe^u crist. Car a chel iour fu 11 uraiement mors. 
Et pour chou ne sacrefi on mie son cors a chel iour. 
Car la ou la uerites yient avant^ la figure doit estre 

' MS 10,292, vnes ohaxnpeneles. 

* witisme, MS 10,292 (or B). 

' remest 11 ohanters, 10,292, leaf 8, ool. 1. 

* matin, per oe que iou auoie esgardet el liuret qui tant me 
plaisoit.— B. ' MS font. 


ariere mise.^ Mais a tons les autres iours le sacrefie on,* 
en senefianche ke il fu sacrefies pour nous. £t a cbel 
iour ke il fu vraiement eacrefies, cli*est li venredis 
beneois, ne le sacrefi on pas,^ car il n^i a mais point de 
senefianche, puis ke li iours est venus qiie il fu vraie- 
laeni sacrefies. £t quant ie oich fait le seruiche a Faie^ 
de dieu, Iusq?/€s la ou li prestres fait les .iij. parties del 
sacrement, & ie vauch recheuoir mon sauueour, si vint 
An angel oomw vus angeles deuant moi, qui me p?*zst par andeus nies 

to him and 

raiMMhimin mains, & me dist, " Ches .iij. parties te sont deuees a 

aplrlt to the third . . , ,..,., 

heaven (hia body recheuoir deuant ke le t ai demoustre apiertement powr 
quoi tu les as faites d'une seule cose, Ss ke ie t'arai de 
toutes tes doutanccs chertifijet." A chest mot me leua 
en haut, non mie en cors, mais en esperit. £t si 
m*enporta el plus delitahle Heu ke onq?ies how eust ueu 
a mon ensient. Car nus cuers ne porroit tant penser de 
ioie, ne langue n'ew porroit tant dire, ne oreille escouter, 
ke la n'e?i eust encore cent mil tans. £t se ie disoie ke 
che fust el tierch chiel, la ou Bains paus fu portes par 
le Baint espe7it : espoir ie diroie uoir. Mais tost seroit 

where aecreta tenu a uantanche & a mcnchoingne. £t ne pour q?/ant 

him. tant en dirai ge, ke la me furent moustre & dcscouuert 

li secre dont aains paus dist que nule langue d'o77ime 

[•leaf 4, back, mortel ne doit descouurir. Et qiiant i'oi longe'ment 
esgarde les mcruelles dont ie veoie tant qiie nule bouche 
ne porroit conter, si m'apiela li angeles, & me dist : 
"As tu chi grans merueilles veues 1 " £t ie respondi, 
ke ie ne pensoie mie ke nules si grans peussent estre. 
£t il me dist que il me mousterroit gringnours encoi-e. 

The angel takea LoTS me prist, & si me mena en vn autre estage qui 

him to another 

Btage. estoit a chent doubles plus clers que voirres. £t pre- 

cieusement estoit couloures, si qiie nus hom certaine- 
m.ent ne deuisost la coulour, tant par estoit soutieus & 

* & por ce nel sacre on mie. Car la figure doit estre 
ariere mise dusques a1 diemence. — B. 

' Mais on le sacra tons les autres ior8.^B. 

' ne le sacre on pas.— B, * a Taide. — B. 


esbaissans. Illuec me moustra apiertement la forcbe de 

la trinite. Car ie i ui deuiseement le pere & le fil & le He mm tiM 

saint esperity si que ie peuch counoiBtre Tune persone and Holy ohmt 

et Tautre. Et si vi tout ap^rtement comment ches .iij. 

persones repairoient apertement a vne sostancbe & yne 

deitei & a vne poissanche. Et ne por quant se i'ai dit 

qtitf i'aie veu les .iij. persones et deuisees Tune de Tautre^ 

la pemr chou ne m'encourent sus li enuieus & li felon : 

qui ne sement fors que des autres reprendre & remordie. 

Ne pour cbou ne dient il mie que i'aie parle cemtre And this la not 

■d^lnat St John's 

Tauctorite saint iehan le bant euwangeliste. Car il dist uying, That no 

^ m . , man can Me the 

que nus bom ne vit onqt/es le pere, ne yeoir ne le puet. Father; 
Et ie m'acort bien a luL I^e tout cbil qui Font oi ne 
seuent pas ke il i entendi. Car il vaut dire des bomes 
morteus. Car tant com li ame est el cors, tant est il 
morteuSy ne il ne muert en I'omme ke la cbars. Mais 
puis qtie li bom est desuestus du cors, puis est il 
espmtueus. Et des-ke il est espe?itueus, bien puet 
esperitel cose veoir. Par cbe poes counoistre ke li for that mean* 

'' mortal man, and 

sains lebans vaut dire des bommes morteus^ ke nus ne not apirituai. 
pooit yeoir la maieste del pere. Endementiers ke ie 
estoie ententieus & curieus de remirer cbele grant 
meruelle, si souna autresi com vns escrois de tounoire, a oiap of thunder 

la heard. 

& si trambla, cbe me fu auis, trestous li nrmamens. 

Et main tenant uint illuq7^s tant de 'celestiens virtus [•leaf 4, back, 

cd. 8J 

ke li nombres n'en porroit estre sens ne dis. Et quant 

ie me regardai, si se laiBsicrent tout cbaoir souin tout 

enuiron la maiestei ausi com s'il fuissent cbeu de pami- 

sons. Et q?/ant ie vi cbou, si fui trop durement esbabis 

& peureus. Et li angeles me prist, Ss si me remena la The angei takes 

ou il m'auoit pris premierement. Mais ancbois ke il 

remesist en mon cors Tesperit, me dist : " As tu veu 

gra/is merueilles 1 " Et ie dis ke eles estoient si grans ke 

ki aroit congiet del dire as gens terrijens, II n'est nus 

bom si sains ne si bien de dieu qui pas en fust creus. 

Et ensourketout nus cuers morteus ne porroit auoir la 



hatfB thai h**a 
oonTinoed About 
tiM Trinity, 

•nd then irata 
hla spirit tMck 
Into his bo4j. 

Ths monk ondt 
Us serrlce, and 
pats ths Book 
into s boi, nnd 
looks it up. 


nftsr senrios, 

P f >br ooarni] 

forche del retenir ne lange del dire. £t il me redist : 
"£s tu encore hien certains de che dont tu as tant 
doute V* Et ie li dis ke il n'estoit el siecle nus horn si 
mescieans, se il me voloit deboinairenient escouter, ke 
ie ne li fesisse apiertement entendre les poins de la 
trinite, par che ke ie en auoie yea & aprins. El il me 
dist lors : ^* Or te mettrai dont la on ie te pris. Et 
lors si recheuras ton sauueonr plu« certainement ke tu 
ne fesis deuant. Car tu ne dois pas herbergier oste ke 
tu ne counoisses. Et se tu as yeues grans merueiUes, 
tu en trouueras el liuret de teles ke tu ne tenras mie a 
menouis. Mais tu n'i garderas, mais deuant ke tu aras 
celebree la surrection ihe^u crist." A tant reimst mon 
espeiit dedens Ie cors. Et ie m'esperi autresi com clul 
ki a dormi qui s'esueille, si quidai Tangele yeoir, mais 
il s'en estoit ia ales. Et ie esgardai, si ui mon sauueour 
deuant moi, tout en tel maniere cam il i estdit qiumt li 
angeles m'enporta. Et ie Ie pris, si Ie rechui, & ysai 
a boine creanche & a grant deuotion. Et qt^ant li 
seruiches fu fenis, si pris Ie liuret^ & si Tostoiai en yne 
petite casse ou la boiste estoit en lequele corpus domtni 
reposoit. Et quant ie Toi mis dedens, si firema la casse 
moult b?'^ a une clef, Car ie me yoloie ^u perdre 
garden *Ne ie ne Ie sauoie ou metre plus honestement^ 
Car moult i auoit biel lieu & net. Et quant ie issi de la 
capiele, si yi ke il estoit ia si basse eure qu'tl anuitoit. 
Et lors entrai en ma maisonnete, & mangai tel yiande 
ke no^fres sires m'auoit pr^stee. Ensi passai cbeli iour 
& Tendemain, tant ke uint au iour de la surrection au 
sauueur. Et quant il li plot ke ie oi fait Ie seruiche 
del iour qui si est baus com de nostie sauueour, cbelui 
meisme qui Ie iour saintefia, entrai a garaiit que ie couuri^ 
ancbois au liure pour les saintes pa9*oles yeoir que ie ne 
fesisse a la yiande prendre. Tant estoient douches & 
plaisans a oir, ke eles me faisoient oublier la fin du cors. 
Et quant ie ying a la casse ou ie Tauoie xms^ & ie Ie 



deafiemai, si n'en troauai point. Et qucmt ie vi che, he oniocks hia 

. • box And finds th# 

si foi si dolans ke le ne sauoie prendre nul cofiToi de Book gone. 

moi 'y Anchois qoidoie hien que ie ne fuisse iamais lies 

a nul iour. si commenchai a penser comment il pooit 

estre ietes hors de ckel lieu ; Car ie Tauoie troue fenne 

en tel maniere com ie Tauoie laissie. Endementieres 

que ie pensoie a cheste cose, si oi vne vois qui me dist : 

"Pour quoi es tu esbahis, & de quoi te meruelles tul AToioetoiithim 

j/esmerueUes tu de cue qu£ li liures est letes hors de Book again whoa 

bo hM raffeiod 

son lieu sans desfremer) Tout en tel maniere issi ibrit. 
ihesns cris du sepulcre sans la pierre remuer. Mais or 
te conforte, & si va mangier; ke ancbois te couenra paine 
souffirir ke tu le tienes mais." Et quant ie oi ke ie 
encore le porroie auoir par paine soui&ir, si m'en ting 
a bten paies. Lors alai mangier. Et qt/ant ie oi 
mangie, si m'en retoumai en la capiele, & priai nostre 
Bigaotir ke il par sa pitie me dounast auoiement de che 
^qtte ie tant desiroie. Et maintenant reuint vne vois qtd 
me dist : " Che te mande li grans maistres : quani tu He is to go on « 
aras le matin celebreie la messe, si te desiuneras, & si 
t'en iras maintenant en sa besoi*gne la ou ie te dirai. c*iear6»co;.2] 
Et qiumt tu seras issus de chaiens, ^si enterras el sentier 
qui va au grant cbemin. Ichil cbemins te menra tant ke 
tu yenras au pierron de la prise. Et lors lairas le cbe- 
min, si enterras en .j. sentier a diestre qui maine au 
quarrefour de vij. voies es plains de walescojr.^ Et to tbe plains of 

. Waleecog, (P) 

quant tu yenras a la fontaine del plour, illuec ou la 
grans occisions fu iadis, Si trouueras yne beste c^onqucB 
tele ne ueis.^ Et si garde ke tu le sieues la u ele te 
menra. Et quant tu Taras perdue, si enterras en la andibnova 

wonderfyal beast 

terre de norwegbe ; & illuec acbieueras de ta queste. ' to Norway, and 

there flw<i the 

A tant laissa la yois a parler. Et quant yint a Tende- Book, 
main, Ie me leiiai matin. & quant ie oi la messe cantee, 

— ' k, t'en iras tot .1. sentier qui te menra al quarefor des 
.Tij. Qoies el plain de ual esoone. Add. 10,292, li 2, bk, ool. 1. 

* que onqu^ mais ne via autre tele. — B. 

* perdue en la t^ rre de n^^e, illuec acheuiras ton oirre. — B. 

16 THE writer's search FOR THE GRAIL-BOOK, LED BT A BEAST. 

si me desiunai. £t quant ie fui issus hors, si fis le 

signe de le crois sour moi et sour mon liabitacle; A 

He •tarti on hi« tant in*en alai ensi com la uois m'auoit noumee la uoie. 


£t quant i'oi passe le pierron, si alai tant com ie ring 
oomee to the Yale en .1. val ke on apicle le val des mois. Chelui ual 

of the Dead, . . ^ 

deuoie ie hien sauoir : car ie i auoie veu iadis yne 
bataille des \j. milleurs chmalers du monde. ^ Et quant 
ie fui issus du ual, si alai hien encontre demie lieue 
galeske,* tant que ie ving de-sous le quarrefour.^ Si 
and then the esgardai auant mi, si yi vne crois sour la nue de la 

Benst, with 

•heep'a head and fontaine, & desous chele crois se gisoit la beste ke la 
dog's leg*. black; uois m'auoit dit. £t mai7itenaut ke ele me vit, si se 

wolfs body and i • <■ jp'i'-kr* j. 

lion's tail IQVL&, SI me commeucha a regarder, & le li. Mais quant 

plus le regardoie et mains pooie sauoir quele beste 
c'estoit. £t si sachies k'ele estoit diue7*se en toutes 
coses. Car ele auoit teste & col de brebis, & blanc 
comme noif negie.^ £t si auoit pies de chien, & gam- 
bes, & quisses, & tout chou estoit noir comme carbon. 
Et si auoit le pis & le cors & la crupe de woupil, & la 
keue de lyon. Et si estoit la beste de diuerses sem- 
[•ieaf6,ooLs] blanches. Et quant ie Toi moult esgardee, *et ele moi, 
si leuai ma main & li fis signe qu'ele alast auant. Et 
ele s'en ala tout droit el quarrefour, si s'en entra en la 

The monk foUowi p^'gmiere Yoie k'ele coisi a destre. Et ie alai apres si 

the Beast. 

tost coTnme ie poi, mais che fu lentement ; Car uiellecbe 
& flebetes me destourboient. Et qi^nt nous eumes ale 
iuske a eure de uespres, si iBsi la beste hors du chemin, 
et entra en vne moult espesse cai^rroie. Et tant ala 
At even he comes auant, & ie apres, qu'il cofnmencha a anuitier. Et lors 

to a thick-wooded _ 

vale, issimes hors de la caurroie, & entrames en yne profonde 


yalee plaine de moult haute forest espesse. £t qttant 

ie fui el fons de la valee, si vi deuant moi vne loge, & 

and sees an old dcuaut Tuis estoit vus vies hom uestus de reube de 


' — ' Lore alai tant que iou ving al quarrefor. — B. • Welsh. 
' Car ele estoit blanohe comme noif, & auoit teste & col de 
berbis. — B, 


releigion. Et quant ie le vi^ si en fui moult lies : & 

rendi grasces a nostiQ signonr de che qu'il m'auoit com- 

paignie dounee. Et tantost com il me vit, si osta son who uOa Ua 

caperon, & me cnai as pies, si me requeroit beneichon. 

Et ie li priai qu'il se leuast, car i'estoie vns horn 

pechieres, si ne deuoie pas beneichon doner, ke yous 

diroi ie] Onqu^ tant ne li soi prier k'il se yausist 

leuer, deuant que ie li oi beneichon dounee, dont moult 

durement me pesa. Car diex le seit ({tie ie A'en fuisse 

mie dignes. Et qt^ant il fut^ leues, si me mena par la andt^kw Wm 

_ Into hli dwelling. 

main en sa loge. Et quant nous eumes cantees toutes 

nos cures, si mangames tele viande com diex auoit au Th«j rap and 

saint homme preste. Et quant nous eumes soupe, si 

m'enquist moult li hoins hom de mon estre, & de ma 

uoie. Et ie Ten respondi au mieus ke ie soi, Tant, 

diex le seit, ke il quids asses plus hien en moi qu^il nl 

auoit Car il est coustume des boins houmes ke il ne 

seuent quidier es autres gens se hien non, Pour che ke 

il lor est auis que cascuns ait lor volente & lor talent. 

Moult me fist grant ioie & grant compaignie la nuit. Ke 

onqtt^s en ma vie ne vi homme qui grignour samblant 

eust d'estre 'durement preudom & boins hom. Sans [•leaf 5, bock] 

che que il n'en moustroit le samblant : se au mains non 

ke il pooii Au matin me pria li sains hom ke ie can- Theaecondday 

.... of the journey. 

taisse. Et quant nous eumes cantei, si pns congie. 
Et il dist que il me conuoieroit. Et qi^nt nous fumes 
hors du postis, si vi la beste qui me conduisoit : & si The Beast 


ne I'auoie mais veue des la nuit quant ie trouuai le boin 

homme. Ensi me eonuoia li boins hom iusc'au chemin. 

'Etlors departimes, si me pria moalt qu'il me membrast' 

de lui en mes orisons & en mes bt^ns-fais, que diex en 

cheste religion li dounast demourer iusc'a la fin. 

Ichest don otriaumes li vns a Tautre.^ A tant nous 

' MS fu. ' that it would bethink me. 

• — • * &, au departir, me pria il que ie priasse por li ; & iou 
li otriai, si li priai qu*il priast por moi. k, il me dlat que si 
• feroit n.*— B., leaf 2, back, col. 2, 3. 


At midday the 
monk gets to the 
Pine of Ad- 
'ventures and a 
Wondroas Fount- 
ain, wlioM sand 
ia blood-red 
and fire-hot, and 
wliose water ia 
ice-cold, and 
becomes green 
and bitter three 
times a-day. 

A serrant on 
comes to him, 
and brings him 

[•leaf 5, hack, 
col. 2] 

He Roes on his 

entrcbaisames, si le co77zmandai a dieu, & il moL Si 
errames eiitre moi & la beste toute la [majtinee tres par 
mi la forest c*oiiqiies n'encontrames ne homme ne feme, 
Tant qu'il fu hien miedi«. Lors si entrames en une 
moult biele lande. En mi chele lande anoit .L pin qui 
auoit non li pins des aueTztures. Desous chel pin auoit 
yne fontaine la plus biele ke nus peust onques veoir, au 
mien quidier. Et si auoit yne coustume que onqites 
autre fontaine n'ot dont i'oisse parler. Car la grauele 
estoit y^^Tnelle commQ sans, & caude comme fus. Et Tiaue 
estoit autresi froide comme glache. ' Et si estoit autresi 
y<?rde comme esmeraude .iy. fois le iour, & ausi amere 
r<97?ime la mers tant comme la yerdeurs duroit.* Qt^nt 
la beste yint au pin, si se coucha desous, & fist sam- 
blant de reposer. Et quant ie me yoil asseoir, si yi 
venir par mi la lande .i. yallet^ sour .i. cheyal tout suant, 
& si yenoit tout droit a moi. Et quant 11 fu yenus a 
la fontaine, si descendi du cheual, & traist de son col 
yne touaile, & s*agenoilla deuant moi, & si me dist: 
'* Sire, ma dame yous salue : chele qui li chtt^a/efs au 
chercle d*or rescoust de sa tene perdre, le iour ke la 
grans merueille fu yeue de cbelui qitie yous saues. Et 
*si yous envoie a mangier itel yiande com ele a." Lors 
desuolepa la touaile, si en traist oes & .i. 'wastel mout 
blanc, tout caut. Et si traist auant .i. bareil plain de 
ceruoise, & .i. petit banap.' Et ie mangai yolentiers, 
car i'estoie tons familleus pour la yoie qui m'auoit 
greue. Et quant i'oie mengie & but, si quelli le 
remenant, & dis au yallet qu'il en rendist a sa dame lea 
merchis : & diex Ten rendist le guerdo?*. A tant s*en 
ala li yalles, & ie m'en alai mon cbemin entre moi & la 
beste. Et alamos toute iour, tant qw'il commencha a 

» — > ic cangoit sa color .iij. foia le ior. Car ele deuenoit 
uerde, & estoit amere eamms la grande mer. 10,292, leaf 2, 
back, col. 3. ' .j. uarlet 

3 — » gastel mult bel et molt boin. et il me bailla plain pot 
do ceruoise. MS 10,292. 


anespnr que onquea uissimes hors de bos ; Tant que mms At •?•& be ttopt 

nenimes a .L quarrefoui ou il auoit vne crois de fust 

£t lors s'arestut la beste, si commenchai a escouter. Et 

ie oi maintenant venir cheaaus moult grant aleure, 

Tant qu£ ie vi yn chiualer^ venir sour vn palefroi & .\j. and « knight 

. comes to him, 

aatres aaoec Im. Et tantost com il me vit en reube de 
lelegion, si sailli ins de son cheua], & li antres apre^. 
Si me dist ke hien fuisse iou yenus. Quant ie oi rendn 
au chtualer son sain, si mo prist par Ie main, & dist 
qu'il me menroit en sa nudson pour herbergier. Et ie 
li dis que diex li guerredounaist. Et il apiela tout 
maintenant son escuier, si commanda qn'il en-menast les 
cbeuaus & que H fesist Ie plus biel ostel ke il porroit. 
li escuiers s'en touma, & li autres remest auoec nous, 
qui estoit fiex au signeur Ss chiualera,'^ Ensi nous en end fakes him 

. . . • . home, end treete 

alames tout troi, si ne vi onqt^^s gngnour hounour a Umnobiy. 

borne faire que il me fist, & il & sa maisnie que il auoit 

moult biele. Mais d'une cbose me meschai plus qu« ie 

ne yansisse, que H me counu^ a .i. saing ke ie auoie sour 

moi, & dist qu'il m'auoit autre fois yeu, & nouma en 

quel lieu. Mais comment qu'il m'en-quesist, ie ne li 

counui onqu^ riens. Et quant il vit qu'il ne me plaisoit 

mie cbe qu'il m'en-queroit, Si laissa la cbose ester. 

Mais *toutes les ioies & toutes les bounours ke on [•leefs.beck, 


porroit faire a cors d'omme, me fist il la nuit. Au 
matin m'en parti, si les commandai tons a dieu. Et 
quant ie ying bors de la porte, si retrouai la bieste. Et The third de/e 

. - Journey. 

quant li sires m'eut yne piecbe ccmuoie. Si li priai qu'il 
s'en retoumast. A tant me comm&nda a dieu, & ie lui. 
si nous en alames toute la forest entre moi & la beste, 
tant ke £1 fu pres de tiercbe. Et lors si retomames yne 
Toie qui menoit bors de la forest, & tant que ie yi .i. 
moult biel moustier & moult ricbe berbergage selonc yne 
grant praierie qui estoit sour yne riuiere. Cbil mous- He comes lo the 
tiers estoit sour .L lac qui a a non li las a la roine. 
» MS chrr. • MS chrls'. 


■nd a Convent 
of Nuns, 

who feed him. 

He goes on 

and find* % 

* At night thoa 
•halt achieve 

[•leaf 61 

See« a little 

At Its entrance 
he Anda a man 
poeseaet with 

Qt^nt ie ving au moustier, si trouuai .i. couuent de 
nounains, moult boines dames, qui cantoient Teure de 
tierche moult biel & mout hautement. Et quant eles 
sorent que i'estoie p7*estres, si me requisent de canter. 
Et ie cautai. Et quant nous eumes fait le semiche, si 
me fisent les dames desiuner. Apres me p77erent moult 
que ie remansise iusc'a Tendemain, & ie dis qu'il ne 
porroit estre. Lors piis congie as dames, si m'en 
partL^ Si m'eTi alai, & la beste auant moi, tant que nous 
rentrames en la forest. Et quant nous fumes ens, si 
errames au lone du iour c'onqfi^s n'encontrames riens 
terriene. Et quant il commencha a auesprir, si gardai 
hors de la voie sour vne pierre plate, si vi vnes lettres 
ploies. Ie toumai chele paH, si les pris. Et quant ie 
les oi desploies, si trouuai el commenchement escrit : 
' Che te mande 11 grans maistres : ke a nuit achieuras 
de ta queste.' Et ie regardai ke la bieste faisoit, si 
n*e7i vi point, anchois s'en fa ia alee. Et quant ie vi 
che, si regardai es lettres, si i ui ke eles m'ensignoient 
de quankes ie auoie a faire. A tant m'en tournai toute 
ma uoie, & quant ie oi grant pieche ale, si trouai *vn 
sentier hien batu qui aloit a destre parmi la plus biele 
forest que ie onqtees eusse ueu, au mien qutdier. Et 
quant ie oi grant pieche ale par chel sentier, si comr 
mencha la fores a esclairier. Et ie resgardai, si ui en 
•i tiertre sour vne roche vne moult biele capele petite, 
b?en encontre demi-lieue loing. Et q?iant ie com- 
menchai a aprochier, si oi chcle part .i. cri si hideus que 
^our noient demanderoit on plus hideus ne plus espoen- 
table. Mais ie ne m'on espoentai onquas, Car les lettres 
m'en auoient bten acointie. Et quant ie ving deuant 
la capiele, si vi Tuis ouuert. Et en Tentree del huis 
gisoit vns hom tous pasmes autresi com se il fust mors. 
Et quant ie le vi, si courui a grant fianche de dieu qui 
m'auoit ensengiet ke ie deuoie faire. Si trouai qu'il 
auoit tous les iex toumes en la. teste, si seu bien ke il 


auoit le dyable ou cots. Si li fis le eigne de la crois en 
mi le yis. Et il se drecha en seant, si commeiich& 
meTiicllea a dire. Et ie coniurai le dyable de par ihe^ 
ciist ke il s'en issist. Et il me respondi qu€ par ihe^u 
exist i estoit il entres, Ss "par lui s'en istroit. Et ie dis 
qu'il ml auoit enuoie pour lui metre hors. Et il dist 
qu*il ne veoit pas encoie le message par qui il s'en issist. 
Et ie soi hien qw'il disoit voir, si m'en entrai en la 
capiele, & trouuai sour Tautel le liuret que ie qzieroie. ontheaiuru 

Til A Yt/w^k 

Lors si m'agenoullai, & le pns. Et ie ving hors, a tout 
si n'oistes onqz^es rien si crier com li anenus crioit. Et 
disoit '' ne vien plus auant ; bien voi ke issir me con- Th« derii rays 

J. TtT •! » • X i» "1 i* • f Th« Book will 

ment. ^Ne il na nen en t^rre fors cnesti qui men fon»himout» 
ietaist." Et qwant il s'en vaut issir par la bouche, si ^ oomrouuiiH 
ne paut -pour le signe de la crois ke ie i auoie fait. Et Jbe^^i^^^nth. 
il recommencha a dire en criant : " Se tu ueus ke ie ^* ^*****^» 


m'en isse, si me destoupe la voie." Et ie li demandai, 

cormnent, Et il dist qu'il n'en istroit mie tant com li 

liures serroit si pries. Et ie dis 'qw'il n'en istroit mie [•ieftf6,coi.2] 

par la bouche anchois com uenroit, qu*iL s'en issist par 

desous. Et qtiant il oi chou, si commencha si hideuse- 

ment a crier ke il me fu auis que on le deust oir par 

tout le pais. Et tantost vint illuec vne si grans com- 

paignie de dyables que ie ne quidai mie qu*en tout le 

mont en eust tant. Et quant il virent les paroles du 

liuret que ie tenoie ouuert, Si ne veistes onquea nul after Touting « 

troop of other 

estourbillon si tost ne si hideusement aler com il s'en devils, 

alerent. Et ie me trais pres del foursene, si 11 mis le 

liure deuant la bouche, & tantost s'en issi li dyables par drfree tw« devii 

. -I •■• • out of the man 

desous. Si s'en ala faisant si grant tempeste ke il estoit downwards. 

auis que il esrachast tous les bos par la ou il aloit. Et 

lors remest li hom tous autresi commQ mors. Et ie le 

pris entre mes bras, si le portai a I'aie de dieu deuant The monk 

*^ . » x- watches by the 

Tautel, si le gardai toute nuit illuec iusc'au iour. Et man aii night. 
quant il fu aioume, si ving deuant lui & deraandai se il 
mengeroit. Et il me demanda qui iou estoie. Et ic dis 



man la r hermit, 

and will pot I 


Th« monk baa a 
Tision, showing 
him where to 
get nruit for the 

he get* it, 

and feeds the 

and starts home 
on the ninth day. 

ke n'eufit pas paour : car i'estoie venns pour son preu.^ 
£t il dist qu'il mangeroit tel viande com il auoit acous- 
tamee. Et il iura sacrefiancke qu'il auoit xxxiij. ans 
& demi ke il estoit hermites, & si auoit passe ix. ans & 
.iij. mois & demi k'il n'auoit manglet se herbes non & 
fruit & rachines. ^e iamais pour tant qu'il auoit a 
uiure ne gousteroit d'autre viande se diex proprement 
ne U envoioit. A tant le laissai gisant tout vain comma 
chelui qui n'auoit mangiet de nule viande puis qu« li 
anemis le commencha prcmierement a traueillier. Et ie 
dis mes eures, & puis me reuesti, si cantai la messe. 
Et quant ele fut cantee, & ie fui reuenus au boin 
homme, si le trouai dormant moult durement. Et ie qui 
onqu€s de tout la nuit n'auoie dormi se moult pau non, 
m'acoutai deiouste lui sour .i. *escamel, si commenchai 
a soumellier. Et lors me vint en avision que restoie au 
pie du tertre desous* vne fontaine, si passoit par illuec 
vns vies hom qui portait en son geron pumes & poires 
a grant ple72tei, & si les ve^'soit el mien. A tant me 
leuai, si alai aual le tertre & si trouuai quankes ie auoie 
veu en m'avision. Et quant li preudom eut mis le 
fruit en mon g[e]ron, si me dist : *' Chascun ior troueras 
chi ta viande apparellie par le grant maistre." Lors 
me retoumai, si trouuai le frere esuillie, si li baillai du 
fruit, & il en manga moult uolentiers comme chil qui 
tant auoit iune qu'il ne se soustenist sour ses pies pour 
tout le monde. Tant demourai en sa compaignie que il 
fu tons garis & respasses. Et cbascun iour trouuiens 
nosh^ viande apparellie a la fontaine ensi comme U 
sains espms le nous amenistroit. Et quant vint au 
neuuisme iour, che fa au ioesdi apres le witaules,' si 
rs^QU partL Et quant ie pris congie du boin bomme, si 
commencba a plourer, et dist, ke ore estoit il moult 

' et iou li demandai quel viande il mangeroit. — B. 
' Et qtkint ce uint as octaues de la paske, si nous de« 
partimes. 10,292, leaf 3, col. 8. ' MS dosous. 


esmaies qtumt ie m'en aloie. Apres me conta coument 

c'estoit auenu que li dyables Tauoit ensi trauillie. Et w*»y the devii 

posMMt the 

che anoit este par .L pechie ke il auoit fait. Ne ne so bermit. 

recordoit pas qu'il eust fait pechie dont chars morteus 

se peust garder, ke seuleznent chelui, puis qu'il auoit 

lecheu abit de relegion. Et qiiant il se fu rendus 

confeSf si me requist ke ie priaise nostre sigxiour ke il 

par sa pitie Ie gardast de faire pechie: par quoi il 

iamais conqu^sist son mautalent. A tant nous entre^ 

baisames, si nous departimes andui a grans plours & a 

grant destreche. Et se on peust iugier home par veoir, 

Ie ne quit pas qu^en nul homme peust auoir plus de 

bonte que ie yi en lui. Or esgardes com diex est aspres How ood {• a 

iugieres & laiges *guerredoneres. Car ki tons iours Tara [• leaf e. i»ci:j 

serui, se il fenist en yn mesfait, tons les seruiches ara nwarder. 

pieidus, <& en che mesfait sera iugies. Et qui tons 

iours li ara mesfait, s'il se raert en son seruiche, tuit si 

mesfait sont estaint, & ses seruiches li est a cent doubles 

guerredounes. Ensi dut cU auoir perdue Tamour de 

son signour par .L mesfait qui auoit este en son seruiche 

Ie plus de son eage. Et chil Ie dut auoir gaignie par 

yne seule oeixre, qui Tauoit tons iours fui & eskieue. 

Chiertes, moult boin Ie fait seruir & mauuais courechier. 

A tant pn's congiet. Et qt^nt il m'eut conuoie iusc^e^ 

son peiistis/ si ueismes la bests qui m'auoit amene. Et Tiie Beast re- 

11 demanda ke che pooit estre. Et ie li dis ke ie n'auoio 

eu autre contredit : ^ & k'ele estoit de par dieu. Et il 

dist, ke bten faisoit li sixes a seruir qui si hten sauoit 

coTuiuire ses sergans en sa besoinge. Ne onqt^«s ne poi 

apercbeuoir ke nus en toute la yoie yeise la beste, que 

il seulement. Lors me departi du boin home, si m'en The monk 

... , reaches home 

reuing tout autresi com ie i estoie ales ; tant ke ie uing on Saturday 
au samedi au soir a mon bermitage.' Mais Ie liuret ne *^° ^' 

* postiB. — B. 

' ? conduit. ' Sc iou li dis q»« ioa n*auoie autre c^^Tiduisor 
en la Toie.* 10,292, leaf 8, back, col 1. ' habitacle.— B. 


The wrltei'a 

Christ app«a», 
him to copy The 
Book Into 

[•leaf 6, back. 


On Monday h« 
begins to copy 
The Book of the 
Holy Grail. 

laissai ie xnie, anchois Ten aportaL Car trop desiroie 
le compaignie des saintes paroles qui i estoient Et 
quant ie Toi ostoie la u ie Tauoie mis prenuerement, si 
fis le seruiche de uespres & de complie. Apres mangai 
che que nostie signour plot, & si m'alai couchier, car 
festoie m^t las. Ichele nuit m'auint vne auisions, ke 
li grans maistres nenoit deuant moi en autel habit com 
il auoit fait a Tautre fois. Et si me disoit " au premier 
ionr ouuraule de la semaine qui enterra demain, te 
conuent a commenchier a escrire en autre lieu le liuret 
que'iQ te baiUai, si ke tu Taies escrit *ains Pascention. 
Car il n'iert ia veus en tcrre puis que Teure uenxa que 
ie montai el chiel a chiel eure meisme. Et toutes les 
coses qui te conuerront a I'escrire, trouueias en Faumaire 
qui est el mur derrier ton auteL Et ne t'esmaie pas de 
che ke tu ne fesis onques tel mestier. Car nule oeure 
ne puet estre maufaite qui par moi soit c{?mmenchie." 
A tant s'en partL Et au matin qt<ant ie fui leues, si 
alai a Taumaire pour esprouer se m'avisions estoit uraie ; 
Si trouuai toutes les coses qui conuenoient a escriuent.^ 
Et quant li dimenches fu passes, & ie oi au lundi la 
messe chantee, si pris le liuret & le parchemin, & conv- 
menchai a escrire tout droit au lundi de la quinsaine de 
pasqe/es. Et li commenchemens de Tescripture si fa 
pris del crucefiement ihe^u crist ensi comme yous orres.^ 

' Aa matin me leuai ensi oomme il'm^auoit roue, et trouai 
fot ce qu'il oouenoit a escriuain, pene^ enore, parcemin, & 
ooutd. (MS 10,292.) 

' An illustration. 




Of Christ on the Cross. Of the character of Joseph of Arima- 
thea (p. 26). How he got the dish out of which Christ eat 
the Last Supper with his Disciples (p. 27). How he was one 
of Pilate's knights, and begged Christ's body from him (p. 
28), and put it in his own sepulchre, and then collected 
the drops of Christ's blood in the dish of the Last Supper 
(p. 29). How, while Joseph slept^ some Jews seized him, 
and carried him away to a prison of Caiaphas's (p. 29). 
How he lived forty-two years in the prison (p. 81), and how 
he was delivered out of it on this wise : — Vespasian, Titus's 
son, was a leper ; a knight from Capernaum tells him that 
a touch from anything Christ has touched will cure him 
(p. 32) ; the knight returns to Judea, and gets the Veronica 
kerchief from Mary the Phenician (p. 33), and cures 
Vespasian with it (p. 84). Vespasian goes to Jerusalem 
and seizes all who were concerned in Christ's death. 
Joseph's wife tells him of her husband (p. 35) ; Caiaphas 
takes him to the prison, and Vespasian goes down into it 
(p. 86). He releases Joseph (p. 37), bums the abettors 
of Christ's death (p. 38), discusses what shall be done with 
Caiaphas (p. 39), and has him put into a boat by himself, 
and pushed out to sea (p. 40). 

Ay iouT que li sauueies du monde souf&i mori;, 'par 
la qui mort jiodie ^mors qui a nous estoit con- 
dempnable fu raoatee perdurablement,^ a chel iour estoit 
encore moult pen de gent qui creissent en lui; Ne mais ke How ftw tieiicred 
la gloneose virge puchiele sa douche mere os ses desciples emciflxion. 
qui a chel ioux estoient apiele si &ere. £t s'il en i auoit 
dea autres qui creissent, moult [peu] en i auoit a cler. 
Car Tescripture dist que quant il dist : '* Biaus pere, se 
il puet estre que ie ne sustienge cheste passion," que il 
n*en estoit^ pas si courrechies pour Tan'goisse des cors [•iMf6»iMdc, 

^ ^ col. 8] 

' — ' fu mors destruite, et noftre uie restoree. — ^6. 
• — * over an erasure in A. * MS eetois. 


eomme pour chou ke il veoit ke s'amouis n'auoit encore 
nului rachate. Ke il ne veoit nului qui il eust conqvds ! 
par sa moit, ke seulement le larron qui li cria le merchi 
en la crois. Et pour cheste cose dist rescriture : " ^le 
Bui autresi eomme chil qui conkeut Testeule en le 
maison^." Et cb^est a dire qu*il n'auoit encore nului 
rachate par sa mort, que le larron qui estoit noiens 
enuers Tautre gent^ autresi com li esteule est noiens 
enu^rs le grain. Et ne pour quant il estoit mout de 
cheus qui auoient le commencbement de croire, mais il 
ne I'osoient mie faire apiertement, car il doutoient les 
HowJoMphof juis. Mais de deseure tous les couuiers creans, parole 
McratbeUever 11 saiuto escriture du graal du gentil home d'un 
chituxler qui estoit a che tans, qui auoit non Joseph de 
Arimathie. Anmathie estoit vne chites en 1a terre 
^d& ramathe outre le flun iordain. & si dist la letre 
and came from qud ele fu elchane, le pere samueL De chele chite fu 
Eikanah.the ues joseph.' Mais 11 s*en estoit venus en iheru^aleni .vij. 
ans deyant che que ihesua cris fu mis en la crois. Et moult 
How good ho was. estoit piteus et dous & de grant relegion, & si auoit recheu 
la creanche ihesu. crist. "Mala il n'en osoit fiure sam- 
hl&ntf ke li iuif ne Tochesissent. De toutes les bontes 
ki en home mortel pooient estre, estoit ioseph gamis. 
Car H amoit dieu & doutoit. II estoit piteus & deboin- 
aires v^rs son proisme. II estoit de grant houneur & 
de grant reuerence vers les "phis haus de luL II estoit 
paisiules & concordans vers ses parens. 11 estoit sans 
damage & sans nuisement as plus bas de lui. II estoit 
de g7*ant misericorde plains vers les soufiraiteus. Toutes 
ches bontes estoient en lui. Et de lui parole li pre- 
Tiie first VnXm miere saume du sautier qui dist : " Li bom e^^ boinereua 

apeaks of h^"». 

qui ne s'acorde pas ne cousenti au conseil des felons, 

1 — 1 ausl oomme oil qf«i cuelle Testeule el tans de 
meisson. — B, leaf 3, back, col. 2. 

' — ' d'animathie qui moult estoit bele. En oele t^re & 
en cele oyte estoit ioseph nes. — B. 



£t qui ne Taut aler par la voie as pe'clieouis." Ichis c*ieftf ?] 

ioaepli estoit en iherosalein, et sa feme, & yns siens fiex Jowph (or 

qui ot non iosephes. Et sachies que che ne fii nue chil ^^ 

ioeephes qui I'escrituie trait si sounent a tesmoing, an- hMawmJoMphM 

chois fa vns autres qui ne fa mie mains letties de dielui. 

Ichist iosephes passa le lignage ioseph son peie outre (whoeomMto 

mer lusqu^n la bloie bertaigne, qui ore a a non engle* orsngiaadow 

teire. '£t si les passa sans auiron & sans gouu^mal, frontoriiiaihirt 

& onqu^ n'i ot uoile ke le geron de sa chemise, sans 

plus, ensi com I'estoire le dira cha en auant.' Et quant 

yint au ior ke ihe^us fu mis en crois, Ioseph, qui toute 

s'amouT auoit en lui mise, en eut moult grant duel Et 

si se pensa ke toutes les coses qui a lui apartenroient 

essaucheroit moult volentiers & honerroit. Car il ne 

Teust pas ame a la yie se il ne Tamast a la mort. Et 

pour chou dist la letre que ' nule auersites ne puet de* 

partir loial amour.' Quant ioseph vit chelui en la crois When JoMph 

MM thfl Sftviour 

qui il creoit a fil dieu & a sauueour du monde, si ne fu dead. 
pas eshahis ne mescreans pour chou que il le vit mourir. 
Anchois atendoit, & creoit certainement sa sainte resur- 
rection. Et pour chou qu'il ne le pooit auoir uif, si 
pensa que il feroit tant qu'il aroit de ches coses a quoi 
il auoit touchie corporelment en sa vie. Lors en yint be goe« to the 

1 • ••« -i A 1 • -I M hoa«e where 

en la maison ou mesua auoit tenue sa cnaine, la u il jcnueatuie 

manga Taigniel de pasqu€s auoec ses desciples. Et ^'»*^"pp*» 

quant il yint en la maison, si demanda a ueoir le lieu 

ou il auoit mangie. Et on li moustra yn lieu qui estoit 

estahlis pour mangier : si estoit li plus haus estages de 

la maison. Illuec trouua ioseph I'escuele en quoi li iinde the diah in 

which He hmd 

fiex dieu auoit mangie, soi tresime, deuant che qu'il eaten, 

dounast as onse sa char Ss son sane a yser. Et quant 

il le tint, si en fu motdt lies, si Tenporta en sa maison andcarrieeit 

& si I'ostoia en moult honeste lieu & en moult bieL £t 

quant il *seut que li sauueres du monde estoit mors, & i*\mn, ook si 

ke chil Tauoient trouue mort qui li yoloient hrisier les 

1 — * Et le passa sans auiron al pan de sa cliemLse. — B. 

28 JoaBPH BEOS Christ's bodt of filatb, and buries it. 

JoMph U one of 
Pllato's knlghta 
[toldoier^ B.], 

and begs a dioap 
gift of him. 


How great the 

ToMph wMpi at 

[•leaf 7,001.8] 
iakee down the 
body, and pute it 
in hie lepalohre. 

quisses autresi com as autres larrons, II ne vaut mie 
tant atendre ke li felon 11 desloial qui le mescreoient le 
despendissent ne le mesissent ius de la crois a lor ordes 
mains cunchijes. Anchois vint il a pilate, qui chtual^rs 
terriens il estoit ; Car il auoit este ses saudoiers .vij. 
ans tons plains. Et quant il vint deuant lui, si li pria 
en guenedon de tons les seroiches qu'il 11 auoit fait, 
11 otriast .1. don qui de m&ult petit coustement H serroit. 
£t pilates, qui moult ^ amoit & lui & son seruiche, 11 re- 
spondl ke il Taroit; Car 11 le deuoit bten auoir plus 
liche qu'il n*auoit dit £t ioseph 11 demanda le cors 
ihefiu, et pilates 11 dona comme chll qui ne sauoit ke 11 
11 dounoit. Car 11 11 quidoit douner le cors d'u7» poure 
pecheour : & il 11 dounoit le pardon des pecheours & 
le pain de vie. II 11 quida doner vne poure caronge 
pour don : & il 11 douna le douneour de tons les grans 
& le resuscitement de toutes les karoignes qui en forme 
humalne sont fourmees. Che fa 11 plus riches dons 
que nus horn morteus donast onques. Mais pour chou 
qu6 la consciense pilate fu tele ke 11 ne sauoit qu'il 11 
douna, pour chou le doit on mieus apieler despit ke don. 
Car se il creist la grant hautece & la pulssanche dont 
chll estoit qui cors 11 auoit done, 11 n*en preslst pas 
toute la rikeche & la signourie du monde. £t ioseph 
qui la grant hauteche du don counissoit bten, en fu 
moult ioians quant il 11 f u otroies. £t si s*en tint hien 
apaiet moult plus (\ue pylates ne s'en tint a hien paiant. 
£t quant il vint a la crois ou 11 pendoit encore, si com- 
mencha a plourer moult tenrement pour Iqs grans dolours 
ke 11 veoit qu*ll auoit souffertes. £t quant 11 Teut de- 
spendu a *grans souspirs & a grans plours, si le coucha 
en vn sepulcre qu'il auoit fait trenchler en la roche, ou 
11 melsmes deuoit estre mis a sa mort. Puis ala qu^re 
Tescuele en sa maison.' 

' 'qui rsiouW is repeated twice in the MS. 

* Here follows (in A) an illustration with a different version 




t qt^ant il vint au cors, si conquelli le degout da Oet« tiM dish, 
sane com li en puet auoir & si le nust en 1 es- blood iu il 
cuele. Puis reporta I'escaele en sa maison, par qui diex 
fist & moustra puis maintes virtue & en terre de promis- 
sion & en maintes autres t^rres. Et quant il Teut mise 
cl plus net lieu ke il sauoit, si prist de ses plus riches wnpi th« bod/ 
dras, & s*en touma au sepulchre, si enseueli le cors de ' 

son signour si richement & a grant hounour com il pent 
plus. Et quant il Teut enseueli, si le coucha el sepul- i»taagreat 
cbre. et si mist a I'entree vne pierre moult grant & moult •ntnmoe of the 


pesant, pour chou qu il ne voloit que nus entrast el lieu 

ou si haute cose gisoit com estoit li cors del fil dieu« 

Mais qt^nt li iuif virent ke ioseph auoit despendu de Th«j«ws'«iig«r. 

la crois chelui qui il auoient iugiet a mort & dampne, 

& qu'il Tauoit si hautement enseueli, si en furent moult 

courchie & moult le tinrent a grant orgueL Si pnsent 

consel ensamhle, & disent ke hien estoit drois ke ioseph 

comparast che ke il auoit fait, & contre dieu & encon- 

tre le loy. Si pourparlerent ke il le prcnderoient la 

nuit del premier somme, & si Tenmenroient' en tel 

lieu ke iamais n*oroit on de lui enseignies. A che con- 

seil se *tinrent tout; si murent la nuit del premier c*iMf7,bftck] 

somme & feri Tuns d'aus a Tuis. Et quant il fu ouuers, 

si entrerent tuit ens a vne hruie, et pnsent ioseph tout The Jew* Mice 

1 . . m. It' i-i_ 1 t * Joeeph end cany 

endormi, si lenmenerent loing de iheTuaalem bien .y. him off oat of 
lieues en vne fort maison qui estoit Teueske chayphas. 

of the blood-gathering. The heading is — ** Ensi que iosephs re- 
coilli le degout du sane qui issoit des plaijes nostT% seigneur qui 
puis fil apeles li sains graalz." The illustration figures Joseph 
Bitting under the cross, and collecting the drops of blood from 
the chest and feet in a basin. Mary wringing her hands stands 
on Christ's right, and John, pointing to him, on the left The 
cross-bars of the thieves' crosses pass under their arms behind 
their backs, their hands are folded on their bellies in front, and 
crosses of blood are on their folded hands, as if nails had been 
driven right through the hands and bellies. In MS 10,292, an 
angel is carrying off the child-soul of the repentant thief on 
the right ; while a devil pounces on that of the unrepentant 
one on the left. 

' The MS repeats, '<la nuit del premier somme : et si Ten- 



Ichele maisons estoit en vne moult grant mareschi^re : 
si i anoit .i. piler tout crues qui sambloit estre massis. 
Dedens che piler auoit la plus hideuae cbartre qui 
onquea fust veue, et la plus orde. lie nus ne 8*en 
ap^rchust se il ne li fust dit auant, tant soutiement 
«nd giT« bim op estoit ouuree. Quant il orent ioseph mis hors de 

to two of their set, . i v x j i j. • • j. 

who pat him In inenifolem, 61 le liurerent a deus seulement qu; auoient 

Sim to bTftd on^ i^i^ ^6 !& Hus par aus n'en saroit nouueles. Chil le 

*° ^ '' menerent en la chartre, & deffendirent au chartiier ke 

il n'eust a manger ke vne pieche de pain le iour, & 

plain hanap d*iaue.^ Et maintenant 8*en retomeient 

en ilieru«alem, si qu'il i furent anchois qu'il aioumast 

£t lors si oirent le tumulte & la grant plainte, de 

ioseph qui pendus^ est.' £t quant pilates le seut, si 

en fu moult dolens, mais il n'en seut qt^ faire. car il 

pensoit bten que che auoient fait li iuif par le conseil 

des maiBtres de la I07; si n'en sauoit que faire. £t 

Whm chrirt quont uint au diemenche ke ihe^us f u resussites, & les 

rltM, CalAphif 

t«iiith«jau«rto gardes orent dit as iuis comment il auoient pierdu ihesvL : 
si manda cbaypbas a son chartrier qu'il ne Li dounast 
iamais a manger, anchois le laissast morir de faim. Mais 
li sires pour qui semiche li iuif pour-caclioient sa mort, 
ne le vaut pas werpir en sa meschaiiche ; Anchois li 
guerredouna a chent doubles son seruiche. Car main- 

but Christ brings tenant ke ses cors fu issus du sepulchre, vint il a lui 

him the DUh with ., . o . ,. . . 

the Blood into the en la chartre ou il estoit, & si li porta por eompaigme 

& pour comfort la sainte escuele qiie ioseph auoit ostoie 

[•leaf 7, hack, en sa msison a tot *le sane qu'il auoit requellL £t 

col. S] 

quont ioseph le vit^ si en fu motdt lies; et lors seut il 
yraiement ke ch'estoit diex. si ne s'en repentoit mie 
de son seruiche, Anchois auoit tel ioie ke il ne li 
chaloit de la prison puis qu'il auoit le confort et la 
compaignie de son signour. Ensi aparut li sauueres 

' & vne hanapee d*aigaa 10,292, leaf 4» ool. 1. 
• f far perdus. 

' Et midntenant fu la nouyele espandue que ioeeph estoit 
pc*rdu8. — B. 


du monde a ioseph anchois ke a autrui. £t si le con- chrittcomforu 

forta moult^ & dist que 'hien fust 11 seois qu'il ne al^l^hhniM 

morroit pas en la pWson, ains en istroit tous sains & '^^^ ^^ 

tout sauSy ne ia mal ne doleor n'i anroit, & si seroit tous 

iours en sa compaignie. Et quant il en istroit, il tour- 

neroit a merueille tout le mont qui le u^rroit. !Et apres 

serroit ses nons portes en estrainges Ileus, & par lui & *^ ^"7 hu 

nuiM to foraign 

par ses oirs. Mais encore ne estoit pas li termes que U iMida. 
en issisty ains demourroit grant pieclie tant que tous 11 
decles quiderait qu'il fust mors. Et quant il Ten 
uerroient issir, si en serroit ses nons glorefies et loes, & 
maintes gens en kerroient.' Ensi remest ioseph en la 
prison tant que tous estoit oublies & ke nus ne tenoit 
mais parole de lui. Si remest sa feme motdt esgaree, joMph's wub 
qui encore estoit iouene feme; Et ses fiex iosephe[8] joMphMu* 


qui n'auoit k'an & demi quant ses peres fu mis en 
prison. Si fu la dame maintes fois amonestee de marier. 
Mais ele dit k*ele n'aroit iamais camel compaignie Bntsh«wnino4 

mMTiy again, 

deuant k'ele seust certaine nouuele de son mari ; Car 
el Tamoit sour toute creature. Et quant li enfes uint 
a age de marier, si li enorterent si parent qua il se 
mariast. Mais il estoit si espris de Tamour ihe^u crist 
t>ar Tamonestement de sa mere, qu'il dist qu'il ne feroit Md imt ton wni 

. only many Holy 

ia manage de sol que a samte eglise seulement. Car il chnroh. 

creoient andoi, & auoient recbeu baptesme en la main 

Baint lakeme le menor, qui fu eueskes de iherusalem 

grant tans puia la mort ihe^ crist. Et ioseph fu en la How JoMph Hwd 

48 yean in prison, 

prison, ensi com vous aues oi, tant qu'il i demoura C*teaf7,i»ck, 

.xlij. ans, & lors Ten geta vaspasiens li empe9*eres de andhowhewaa 

rome. Et si orres comment U demoura .xlij. ans. Au of it. 

iour qu€ ihesua fu crucefies, tenoit tyberius cosar Tem- ^^^,^^„ 

pire de rome, et aprcs che le tint il .x. ans. Apres •ft^chrf**. 

regna gains ses nies, qui ne vesqui ke .i. an. Et apr^ 

regna claudiens, qui tint Tempire de rome .xiiij. ans. 

Apres claudien regna noirons, sous qui satW pierres fu 

crucefies et aains paus decoles. Et si ne tint I'empire 


After Nerop que .xiilj. ans. Apres noiron regna tytus & vaspasi- 
orerRMn^ JBDS 868 fiox, qul fu mosiaus. £t au tierch an que titus 
lecbut rempire, fu ioseph ietes de prison. £ si pees 
conter .xl^'. ans del cruchefiement ihe^u crist iusc'au 
deliuiement de ioseph. Et si ores comment il fu de- 
liuies. n aoint le premier an ke titus fa empereres 
Mid his ion que ses fiex vaspa8\jens deuint mesiaus si tres dorement 


becomes a leper, que nus ne le pooit souffrir. De cheste cose eut titns 
ntqi offeri gifts si grant duel, qw'il n'en pooit estre confortes. Et fist 


wiu oiu« bis SOD. sauoii par toutes t^rres ke qui porroit son fil garir de la 
meselerie, il U donroit si riche don com il oseroit^ dire 
de bouche. Et qt^ant il eut par tout fait sauoir, si no 
trouua home qui Ten seust garir. Tant qu*il auint 

A knight of cose c'un chiualers de uers caphamaum vint a rome, qui 

Caper&mam eski 

to talk with en oi la parole. Et quant il vint deuant Tempe^'eour, 


si dist qu'il parleroit uolentiers a son fil poi^r son preu. 

Et il le fist mener a la fenestre d'une cambre ou il 

estoit tons sens, si parloit on a lui par chele fenestre. 

Car on ne peust autrement souffrir le grant puasine qui 

de lui issoit. Et qt^nt il eut son chief mis hors par 

la fenestre, si le regarda li chiualers, & vit qt^'il estoit 

Mid tells him bow plus mesiaus que nus ne peust penser. Et chil li de- 
he himseir was a ^ ^ ^ ^ 
leper, and was mauda tautost 86 il sauoit aucune cose qui li peust auoii 

•ored by Jesus, 

mestier. Et li chiualera li dist : " Sire, certes ie uous 
y avoie, pour che ke ie fui ia mesiaus en m'enffanche." 
[• leaf 8] ** Ha, biaus sire, dist chil, comment en ga*ristes vous 
donqt^^ 1 " " Chertes, dit cil, par .i. prophete qui fu 
en iudee ke li iuif ochisent a grant tort." " Et par quoi 
whotoaohedhim vous en cari ill" che dist uaspasiens. "Chertes, dist 

and made him ® r ~j 

whole, chil, il ne fist ke touchier a moi et tantost fui tous 

garis." '' Coument, dist il, si estoit de si grant pooir 
qu*il garissoit de meselerie)" "Certes, sire, dist li 
chiualerBy encore faisait il plus ; Car il resuscitoit les 
mors." Et il demanda pour quoi il auoit este ochis. 
" Certes, sire, dist il, por chou k'il prechoit ueritei, & 

' MS oaoroit. 


ke il reprennoit les iuis de lor felounies. Et ie croi ke ud that anything 

... . . that Christ hu 

se vous tenies cose a quoi il enst toucme, que yous toochadwonid 

ganiies maintenant." Qi^ant chil Toi, si en cut trop 

grant leeche, & si fist enuoier qwere son pere. Et si li 

fist conter la parole, car il ne pooit mais gaires parler. 

£1 titus dist qz^'U enuoieroit sauoir se on porroit liens Titni mti he 

trouuer ki a led eust touchie. '^ Sire, dist uaspasiens, Mmeihing. 

pries ent cliest ch/z^er qui est de la terre. Et si li 

donnes tant du uo^^re ke il fache chest message. Car 

li cuers me dist que ie garirai Et se g'en puis garir, 

ie promech bten an prophete que ie prendrai uenianche 

de la honte ke li iuif li fiisent." Tant pria. titus Ie Titui aain th# 

knight to ander* 

chfuakr ke il li otria a faire son message. Et il li tak« the task. 
bailla laouli riche hamois, & si li bailla son seel, ke tout 
chil a qui ches letres veoroient fesissent quanqtz^ il 
(^mmanderoit. Lors en uint li chiwalers en iudee, si The knight flnda 

Felix, governor 

trouua en ^herusalem vn remain qui auoit non felis, qui of Jenuaiem, 
a chel iour estoit garde de iudee & de sulie ensi, com li 
remain metoier^t lor gardes par les terres ke il auoient 
conqtnses. A chelui bailla li (^iualeta Ie seel Tem- 
p^reour. Et qt^nt chil ot leu les letres, si dist qu^il 
commandast son plaisir, & il seroit fais. Et li chtwalers *nd orders him to 

^ ^ ^ have proclamation 

dist, ke il fesist crier par toute la t^rre, ke qwi aroit made for any- 

^ \ _ thing Christ haa 

nule cose ke ihe^us eust tenue, aportast Ie auant ; Et touched. 

qui en cheleroit riens, 'et il peust estre apercheu, il n'en [♦leafs.ooi. 2] 

porroit escaper ke il n'en mourust. Ensi com il Ie cowr- 

manda, ensi fu crie, & en ihen^alem tout premierement. 

Mais onqr^s ne vint auant qui riens en reconeust, Fors 

que vne feme de moult grant aage qui auoit nom marie 

la uenissiene.^ Chele vint a felis, <& si li porta vne Mary the pheni- 

pieche de toille k'ele auoit garde mm^lt honorement puis veronica cioth, 

Ie cruchefiement de ihe^u ; Et si Ie dist : " Sire, au takes it to Rome. 

iour qu« li sains prophetes fu menes cruchefiiier, si 

passoie ie deuant lui, si portoie vne pieche de toille 

uendre. Et il m'apiela, si me pna ke ic li pr^staisse 

' qui auoit non ucrone. — B. Iciif 4, back, col. 1, at foot 



[•leaf 8. col. S] 

On teelnsr the 
rloth. Vespation 
is healed. 

and derUTM that 
he win take 
Twwtgt for 
Chriat'8 death. 

He goes to 

cbele toille pour son vis essuer qui 11 degoutoit tons de 
suouT. £t quani ie Fen oi essue, si Tenuolepai & Ten- 
porta[i] en maison. £t quant ie le desuolepai, si trouuai 
la figui'e iheavL autresi parant ke se on Teust painte en 
vne paroit. Des la en cha Tai gardee, si ne fui onqt^^ 
puis si malade, se ie le poi veoir ke mai^itenant ne 
fuisse toute garie/' £t ele desploia la toile, si sambla 
k'ele fust toute nouelement tissue, & la figure i paroit 
autresi bien com s'ele i eust este lors emprientee. Chele 
toille en aporta li chtualers a rome. £t la nuit deuant 
che qu'il i uemst, si songoit yespasijens ke vns horn 
Tenoit de uers le chiel, si le prenoit as ongles, si I'escor- 
choit tout. £t quant il estoit escorchies, si gardoit en 
.L xniroir s'Q se pooit counoistre. £t tous li siecles 
couroit apres lui & disoient '' venes veoir Tomme mort 
qui est reuescus 1 " Au matin quant il fu leues, si uint 
ses peres deuant lui com chil qui Tamoit sour toute 
liens. £t quant vaspasiens le vit, si li dist: "Sire, 
faites vous lie, car ie sai de uoir que ie garirai/' & lors 
si li dist son songe. A ches paroles vint li chtualers. 
£t quant vaspas\jens le vit, qui encore estoit a la 
fenestre, si senti que tout li membre li alegoient. Si 
commencha a huchier de si loing com il le *vit : " Vous 
Bojjes li hien venus, car yous aportes ma saute." £t li 
chiuulets desploia tantost la toille sans plus dire. £t 
maintenant que vaspasijens vit Tempriente de la figure, 
si fu plus biaus & plus sains ke il n'auoit onqu^s este 
nul iour. £t quant ses peres le vit, & les autres gens, 
si f u la ioie si grans qtie nus ne le kerroit qui veue ne 
Teust. £t lors prist vaspasiens la visiere, si I'ostoia 
au plus houneraulement que il pent. £t si dist qu'il 
ne finoroit iamais deuant che qu'il eust uengiet la honte 
au signeur qui sante li auoit rendue. Maintenant fist 
atoumer son oirre, et mut pour aler en iudee, & si 
enmena le chtualer auoec lui, & si le fist signour de 
toute sa maison. £t quant il fu uenus en iberusalem, 


si fist venir deuant lui marie la ucnlssiene. Et chele 

li nouma tous chiaus qui enchoro vinoient par qui Maiyntmeithe 

tniton against 

forche & par qui conscil ihesus auoit recneu mort Et chrtat, and they 

vaspasiens Ics fist tous prendre, & si jQst fairs .i. grant 

fu, & dist que la les ardroit tous. Et quant la feme Joaeph'a wife 

' ^ ^ ^ begs for har 

ioseph oi ches nouueles, si vint auant entre li & son fiL buaband. 

Et si se clama de son singnour que H li auoient tolu, no 

onqz^es puis ensenges n'en auoit oies. Et on li demanda 

pour quoi il auoit ibe^ despendu de la crois & mis en .i. 

sien sepulcre. Et qi^ant il oi chou, si iura qu'il les arderoit 

tous se il ne li enseignoient ou il estoit. Et chil li respon- The tnuon 

oannot tell where 

dirent ke ardoir les porroit : car il ne u poiroient rendre, he la, 

ne il ne sauoient qu'il estoit deuenusT Et il disoient uoir 

ke il n'en sauoient nule uerite. "Ne des .ij. qui le menerent 

en la prison n'i auoit il mais c'un seul yi£ Car li 

autres eut la teste caupee dedens la semaine ke il I'orent 

enprisoune. Et li cartiiers chai des fenestres de la tour 

a terre Tendemain ke il li laissa a douner a manger. 

Ensi ne lemest que 11 vns vis, che fu cliayphaB qui though CaUphaa 

estoit eaeaquea des iuis 'Pan ke ihesuB oris morut. Et [« leaf s, back] 

quant il virent ke mouxir les conuerroit, si dirent que 

d'aus porroit il faire sa uolente & son commandement, 

car il estoit uoirs qu'il avoient pris ioseph. Mais il 

Tauoient bailliet a dous d'aus, pour chou qu'il ne voloient \ 

pas ke il senssent tuit ou il serroit en prison. De ches 

.ij. estoit cbayphas li vns. Et se chil ne V sauoit, dpnt 

n'en orroit il iamais nouuieles par nule homme. Lors 

demanda chayphas a veoir. Et qi^nt il fu yenus Caiaphaaia 

brought np, 

deuant lui, si le fist hien garder, & tous les autres fist and the othera 
ardoir. Et qt/ant il furent ars, si dist a chayphas ke il 
feroit de lui la grignour iustiche qui onqu^a fust faite 
d'ome se il ne li rendoit ioseph. Et chayphas respon- caiaphaa agreea 
doit que ' dont en poo^t il faire la iustice tele com lui Joseph was 
plairoit, ke se tout chil du monde Tauoient iure, ne 1' u not to be'bonit 
porroient il rendre vif, se diex meismes non. Mais il 
li enseigneroit le lieu ou il auoit este en prison mis : 


Ho takes them to 
tho priaon. 

bnt refUaee to 
enter it hhnaelf. 
[* leaf 8, back, 
Ota. 2] 

YespMlan goei 
down into it. 

VeepMiui telle 
Joseph who he le, 

end that he haa 
oome to deliver 

Car de ea xiie ne sanoit il rienfl. Mais ke che fust par 
tel conueni qu'il ne fust ais ne ochis.' £t vaspasiens 
respond! que tous seurs fust, car il li creantoit loiaument 
ke il ne le feroit ne ardoir ne ochirre. Et lors le mena 
chayphas a sa tour, au piler ou il estoit. Et si dist, 
" Sire, en chest piler fu il mis des que ihemis fu cruche- 
fijes que ie n'auoie mie .xxxiij. ans qui ore sui si vieus 
con vous poes veoir." Et vaspasijens li dist, " Ne t'es- 
maie, car chil pour qui il i f u mis, est tous poisans de 
lui garder sain & sauf, & tant & plus. Car moi qui on- 
ques serui ne I'auoie, a il gari de plus vil mal qui soit." 
Lors coTTUnanda a chayphas ke il entrast en la chartre, 
et SB il ne le trouoit vif, si en aportast les os. Et 
chayphas respondi ke il n*i entrcroit s'il le deuoit tous 
desmembrer. Et uaspasiens respondi ke il n'auoit *pas 
tort, car il n' estoit pas raisons que si desloiaus pechieres 
entrast en lieu ou si preudom fust com chil estoit qui 
de la crois auoit despendu le sauueour du monde. Lors 
dist qt^'il meismes i entreroit Si le fist aualer ens a 
cheus ou 11 plus se creoit. Et q?/ant il vint a ual, si 
vit entour lui si grant clarte, ke s'il i eust .c. chierges 
alumes ele n'i fust pas si grans. Et il se tint a vne part 
tous coIb, si fu tous esbahis de la grant clarte qu'il ueoit. 
Et quant il ot este grant pieche, si apiela ioseph. & 
ioseph respondi: "Biaus sire diex, qui est che qui 
m'apiele 1 " " le sui, dist il, uaspasijews li fiex Tempe- 
7'eour." Et ioseph s'esmerueilla, car il ne quidoit auoir 
demoure en la prison com tant com il auoit du uenredi 
iusc'au dimenche. Et au dimenche li apparut ihesvLS 
cris, si ne quidoit pas ke en si peu de tans i eust empe- 
reour cangie. Car la clartes ke ihe^u^ cris i aporta 
quant il li apparut, ne estoit onq^^es puis falie, si ne qui- 
doit pas qu'il li fust onques puis anujtie. Lors demanda 
a uaspasijen, qu'il uoloit faire de luL Et uaspasijens li 
dist, ke il I'estoit uenus deliurer, et uengior son eignour 
des grans hontes c'on li auoit faites. Et quant ioseph 


Toi, si en eut mowlt grant ioie. Lors se fist traire nas- 
pasijens a mont tout pr^mieremout pour dire la sus la 
grant m^nielle de la ioie qui ert a ual. Endementiers 
vint yne vois a ioseph qui li dist : " "Nq t'esmaie mie, a heavenly voice 

. 1 • J • • . tel^ Joeeph not to 

mais soies tous seurs, car li temens vengieres est uenus. feu. 

Chil te nengera de tes anemis corporelment. Mais 

Tesp^ritueus uenianche serra asses plus gries. Et q«ant 

tu aras veu quel uenianche il en aura prise, si te mous- 

terrai com gv&iis paines il te co7menra souffrir j^our mon 

non porter par les estranges terrea" Et ioseph lire- He asks after the 

J. cT- Holy Dish: 

spondi : " Sire, vos sergans est apparellies a *BOuffrir [• leaf s, back, 

toutes les coses ke Yostre bouche li daignera c<;??iniander. 

mais que ferai ie de uo sainte escuele 1 Car ie yauroie 

moult qw'ele peust estre celee, & ke ia nus ne Ie veist." 

Et la vois H respondi, " Ne t*esmaie de Tescuele. Car 

q?/ant tu uenras en ta maison, tu lo trouueras en cheli the voice says it 

lieu ou tu Tauoies mise quant ie Ie te aportai chaiens. home. 

Or t*en va, car ie te pren en garde et en coiiduit vc?*s 

tous homes.'' A tant s'en teut la vois, & vaspasijens Joseph is drawn 

qui ia estoit en haut, Ie refist traire a mont. Et quant prtM>n. 

chayphas Ie vit, qui estoit illueq?<es, si ne li fu mie auis 

ke il fust enuiellis ne tant ne quant; Anchois dist 

qu'il ne Fauoit onques veu plus biel qu'ii estoit ore. Et 

ioseph, qj^ant il Ie uit, ne Ie peust counoistre, tant He does not 

estoit enuiellies & debrisies. Ke son fil ineisme qi^nt or iiis own lun.' 

il Ie vint baisier, ne V counut il mie : anchois demanda 

qui iL estoit. Et chil qui entour estoient, li disent qu'il 

estoit ses fieus : & il ne T crei mie. Apres Ie courut sa 

feme acoler & baisier, & il Ie commencha a regarder pour 

che que trop estoit cangie. Et ele li dist, " Sire, dont 

ne me counissies yous 1 Je sui elyab vo^^re femme, & 

chis est iosephe[s] Yostre fiex." Et il li dist ke il ne Joseph doesn't 

know his wife, 

Ten kerra ia, se ele ne Ten desist uraies ensegnes pnuees. 
Et vaspasijens li dist : " ioseph, com-bien quidies vous 
auoir este en cheste prison ] " Et ioseph li dist, " Sire, ■«<! thinks he haa 

■*■ ^ ^ bien only two 

ie i quit auoir demoure des uenredi iusch'a huj, & ie dajiinprisouj 

been then 4i 


quit qu'il soit hui dicmenclies. Et uenredi despendi iou 
le urai prophete de la crois, pour qui ie fui en prison 
mis." £t quant LL eut che dit, Si commenchierent a 
lire tout chil qui estoient entour lui. Car il quidoient 
que il fust ensi estourdis. Mais plus s'esmeruella 
cajphas de che qu'il auoit tant uescu sans boire & sans 
but vetpuijin mangier. Et vaspasijens li dist, " Par foi, il me font 

t«ll8 hi in he haa 

[*iearo] entendant ke il a .xlij. ans ke li pro*phetcs fu mis en 
crois, & ke yous aues este .xlij. ans en prison. Et quant 
you8 fiistes enprisounes tyberius cesar estoit empereres 
de rome, & puis en i a eu trois. Ore est mes peres li 
quars." Qz^ant ioseph che oi, si s'esmeruella trop. Et 
uaspasijens li amena cayphas deuant li^ si li dema^da so 
il le counissoit. Et il ne le counut mie : si demanda 
qui il estoit. ^Et il respondi ke il estoit cayphas qui 
Tauoit mis eu la prison eutre lui & vn autre. Et si li 
dist ces enseignes, que qt^nt il Torent amene iusc'au 
pie de la tour, si le laissierent si durement chaoir a 
t«rre, ke il eut vne plaie sour le sourchil. Iches enseg- 
joieph retnms to nes conut bten ioseph, si lor moustra la plaie. & quaut 

Jeruaalem, . 

il yint en ihcn/^alem, si li coururent si ami encontre, & 
les autres gens ensamble. Mais moult en i eut peu qui 
y. peust counoistre, ne des siens ne des estranges. Et 
vaspasijens fist prendre tons chiaus qw'on pent trouuer, 
si les fist amener deuant ioseph. Et tons cheus ke 
points out the ioscph disoit qui auoient este en aide & en consente- 

abetton of , . 

Christ's death J mout de ihe^u crucifijer, si les fasoit tous ardoir sans 

and Vespasian 

burns them. raenchon prendre. Et quant 11 eut tout ars cheus qui 

estoient vif ke ioseph peust cownoist/'e, si fu tenus li 

wiiatistobe plais dc cayphas. Et uaspasijens apiela ioseph et chiau« 

done with 

coiaphasp de sa maison, si lor demanda comment il esploiteroit 

sauf son creant. Car il li auoit creante qu'LL ne seroit 

^ & 11 11 dist: "le fui cayphas qui YottM fis metre en 
prison; a oheles ensenges q?^ \(Wi nos laissames si chaioir 
que you» en eustes yne plaie en mi le front'* 10,292, leaf 6, 
col. 2, middle. 


ars ne ochis. Si i eut de tens qui iugierent ke il le 

fesist metre en la prison on ioseph auoit este, si mourust 

illuec de faim. Et li autre dirent ke il le pooit hien Hare him 

faiie inorir sans fauser son creant. Car il ne V deuoit then b«-u nauhm 

garandir que d'ardoir & d'ochire. Et s'il le faisoit noier, aiaia. 

il ne serroit ne ochis ne ars. Et ioseph li dist : " Sire, 

la forche & la signorie est en vous de lui faire morir. 

Mais, -pour dieu, ne V faites pas ensL Car espoir encore JoMph a>ks that 

amendera sa vie, & si kerra en chelui qui si longement 

m'a gar*de sain & sanf, & iete hors de ses mains & de [*iMro.ooi.s} 

mes autres anemis. Et par auenture encore le fera 

jwstie sires tel que il ne vauroit mie qu^H fust mors en 

chesti point." Et naspasijens li respond!: "Dea ke veiparfan't 

Yotus le loes, il sera grant masse fait par yostre conseil ; 

Car ie ne le ferai pas morir. Mais en aucune maniere 

conxdent il ke ie prenge uenianche de la mort an signeur 

qt^'il fist crucefijer a tort, & se il plaist au signour ke il 

yiue, il viuera. Mais qt^ant ie mui en chest pais ie creantai 

au signour que ie ne retoumeroie deuant que ie Teusse 

uengie a mon pooir del tort & de la honte qui en cheste he hod rowed 

.. -»-i.^» i» 111. • i-i •! th*t he would 

vile u fu faite. Et le Ten doi moult men uengier ; Car il re% enge chriet'a 
me gari de la gngnour meselerie que onqt^es cors d'o^nme * 
soustenist au mien espoir. Mais quant ie fui venus en 
cheste vile, & ie fis ardoir les premiers iuis par le con- *nd had burnt 

' ^ ... theflratsetof 

seil marie la venissiene qui m'enuoia la visiere dont ie Jewa; 

gari, ^i Tint la clamours a moi des iuis qui vous auoient 

mis en prison. Et cayphas me dist qu'il m'e/iseigneroit 

le lieu ou yous auies este mis, par couuent ke ie li 

creantaisse loiaument qu'il ne serroit ars ne ochis. Et 

ie, qui vous desirroie a ueoir plus ke nul home, li otriaL ^ut had promiaed 

, , . CaJnphaa not to 

Car i'esperoie hien que li sires pour qid yous esties en bum or aiay him, 

prison ne yous auoit pas si manuals guerredon rendu 

qu'il YOU8 eust laissie morir en I'ordure de chele chartre. 

Et ipour chou que ie li otriai, conuient il ke ie li tienge 

son couuent, ne ie ne le ferai pas mourir. Mais pour 

chou que Ten doi le haut Bignour en aucune maniere 


and would there- uengier, vous diiai qve Ven feraL Je le feiai metre en 

fore send him oat ...__, ... .^. , ., 

to Mft in a boat, mer en .1. oatieL £t quant le iarai fait eslongier de 
ierTQ as autres nes, si le laissera on aler ensi comme il 

to Uve, or drown, plaira a dieu qM*il aut. Se diex veut qM*il vine, il 
viuera; et se il veut qu*il muire, il n'en escapera ia. 
Ensi porrai mon creant sauuer: & s'il plaist an haut 
aignour ke il muire en chest tourme^^t ou ie le feral 
[•ieafo,coi.8] metre, dont en sera il hien uewgies. 'Et se il li plaist 
qM*il en escape, il ne sera pas escapes par moi, mais par 

caiaphaa ia pnt sa mauacje." A tant feni li conseus. Et uaspasijens le 

into a boat, and ^ , . 

pushed oat to aaa. fist maiutenant metre en .i. batel, & si le fist as 
marouniers eslongier des riuages, Tant qu'il le laissie- 
rent aler la ou auenture le menroit.^ 

Ensi vaspasiiens uenga ihe^u crist corporelment de 
ses' anemis. & non pas 'A tant seulement : anchois 
The contrast s*en ueuga ihc^u* cris par lui. Et che fu pour example 

between the . . ^ - ., . . . 

Pagans and Jews, moustrer de la desloiaute des iuis. Car cnil qiu il auoit 
apiele kiens, che furent li paijen, ki li fisent "plus d'oun- 
eur qui il apieloit ses fiex, che fiirent li iuif. Car li 
iuis Tauoient cruchefijet, & li paien le vengoient. 


How Joeeph was commandA*! by Christ in a vision to go and 
preach the Gospel in foreign lands, taking the road to 
Ephrata, but carrying nothing with him but the Holy 
Dish, as God would provide for him. How Joseph is 
baptized by St Philip (p. 41) ; and also Vespasian and all 
his company ; and how Vespasian keeps it secret from hi^ 
father Titus, till it is known by a clerk's reproaching him 
at the siege of Jerusalem (p. 42). 

Apres s*en dut vaspasijens retoumer a rome. Et la 
nuitdeuant qw'il s*en dut repairier, estoit ioseph en 

' Here follows an illustration, representing Calapbas in a 
smaller boat being pushed off by a sailor, who, with two other 
men (Vespasian and Joseph), stands in a larger boat. 


son lit. Si li vint yne auisions, que ihemia oris nenoit chHtt appears to 

deuant lui, si li disoifc : " Joseph, li termes est venus que vi»ion, 

tu t'en iras precbier mon non. Et si te conuenra 

laissier pour moi toute la temene rikeche. Ke iamais 

en cheste terr^ ne retorneras ; anchois sera ta semenche 

espandue en si lontaignes t69Tes ke tu ne le porroies 

peuser ne quidier. Car i'ai esleu aemplir les estranges uid mjs He haa 

. J, - •j-ii. 1. chosen him to fill 

tarres de ta semencne ; ne nue de cncli ke tu engenras, foreign lands with 

/^i* i_j.£ivj.* • J* • r>t his spiritual seed : 

Car de iosepne« ton nl n istra lamais cameus fniis ; Car 
il m'a promise pardurable chaaste. Or si garde ke tu joeephiatobe 
te faches demain baptisijer. Et si *t'en iras mainten- [•leafi.back] 
ant bors de iherusalem en tel maniere ke iamais n*i 
entreras. Et si t'en iras sans or & sans argent & sans 
mounoie & sans caucbeure; ne ia ne porteras de toiis and go forth 
auoirs qus m'escuele seulement. Itant porteras auoec or anything but 

, . p . , , . , • • i. the Dish; 

toi, & SI recbeueras en mainie et en compaignie tons 
chiaus & toutes cbeles ki te yauront sieuir, & ki vauront 
baptesme recbeuoir. Mais ie ne yeul ke nus port 
pecuue en ta compaignie. Car tu & cbil qui loiaument 
me seruiront auoec toi aront toutes les coses qwe lor bat au that they 

want they shall 

cuer penseront & desirrpnt. Et qi^nt tu t'en vauras have, 
aler, si manderas tes parens, & tes amis, & les parens 
ta feme. Si lor anoncbe ma creancbe, & lors si uerras 
ti quel vauroi[en]t croire & aler apres toi. Et qwant 
tu istras de ib^u^alem, si t'en iras toute la uoie qui ua 
a ef&ate. Et ie t'ensengnerai lors que tu deuras faire, 
& comment tu deueras aler." 

u matin hien main se leua iosepb, & recbut cresti- Jowph is 

baptized by St 

ente de la main saint pbelippe, ki dont estoit Phiup. 
eviesquea de iberzi^alem. Et quant vaspasijens Toi dire, si 
Tenuoia quene, & demanda que cbe senefioit qu'il auoit 
fait. Et iosepb li respondi ke cb'estoit li sauuemeTzs ibc^u 
crist, & sans cbe ne pooit nus bo77i estre sains. Et quant 
vaspasijens I'oi, si dist que cbeste creancbe prenderoit Vespasian is 
il j si se fist baptisijer, & si fu iosepb ses maistres parinB. 
Mais il fist iurer tons cbeus de sa maisnie ke ia ses 




and all his 
companj ; bat It 
U kept Mcret. 

Of the destnic- 
tiona of Jeruaa- 


How Yesposinn 
was reproached 
by a cleric for 
warring against 

peies n'en saroit riens par arts. Car il ne voloit pas que 
868 peresJe seust deiiant qu'il eust enquis de lui meismes 
si 11 plairoit la creanche a recheuoir on non. £t ne "pour 
quant il fist tonte sa eompaignie baptisijer auoec lui 
'Ne onques ne fa desconuert ke il fust baptisies deuant 
ke il vinrent entre lui & son pere destruire ihenisalem 
de la grant destruction qui fu anchois ke li crestijen 
s'en fiiissent en la terre agrippe le fil hcrode agrippe. 
Car dont fu *la grans destructions. Mais a cheste de- 
struction que tytus & vaspasijens firent, ne fa ele pas si 
destruite com a Tautre fois. Car dont fu ele si destruite 
qw'il n'i reinest pierre sour autre. Ne li contes n'en 
parole en auant fors que tant que tytus & vaspasijens 
ses fiex orent assls ihen^alem, ke il assirent dedens Tan 
ke iosep[h] fu mis hors de prison, si auint cose que 
vaspasiens assaloit numlt durement. Car il estoit plains 
de moult grant proueche & de grant hardement. Et uns 
clers qui auoit este a lui baptisier, le counut, si li com- 
mencha a crier : ' Ahi uaspasiens, desloiaus sarrasins & 
puis crestiens renoies, pour quoi guerroies tu celui qui 
te gari de la meselerie, & qui baptesme tu rechus ) ' A 
cbe mot laissa vaspasiens a assalir qu'il H reprochoit 
che que li clers auoit dit, & si le cacha bors de son lieu 
grant piecbe. Mais cbe ne content pas les estoires dcs 
empereours. Or repaire li contes la u vaspasijens se 
part de iosepb & de iberusalem, ou il a la creancbe 



Of Joseph. How he converts his relatives and indaces them 
to go with him. How they come to Bethany, and the 
Wood of Ambush (p. 44). How he tells them not to care 
for lodging. How our Lord speaks to him (p. 44). How 
the people are miraculously fed. How they come to the 
city of Sarras, whence the Saracens take their name. How 
those are not to be believed who say that * Saracen * is 
derived from Sara, Abraham's wife (p. 45). Of the 
worship of the Saracens. How Grod commands Joseph to 
preach to, and baptize, the inhabitants of Sarras (p. 46).' 

tant se taist li contes de yaspasijen, ke il n'en 


parole plus j & si commenche de iosepL £t dist JoMph pmchet 

to hit rolativea 

ke ioseph enaoie querrQ tons ses parens & ses amis, & si audMend*, 

lor anoncba la creanche ensi com nostTe sires Tauoit 

eommajide. Si lor preecha tant de ihesvL crist qu*il en 

conuerti .Iz. & xy. , dont il i auoit de teus qui estoient aadeonTertsTs 

baptisie, Mais il estoient refroidie de la creanche. £t 

li autre qui baptisie n'auoient este, Se fisent "niainte* [^laufQ.back, 

nant baptlBijer. Lors s'en issi ioseph. de la chite entre xbey leav* 

lui & sa compaignie, si estoit ia nonne passee. Et qw^nt JJI^*"* ^ 

il fa issus hois de la vile, si touma la uoie qui aloit 

a efiErate ensi com nostie sires I'auoit commande. Et 

quant il vint a bethanie, si commencha a auesprir. Et •ndnuh 

. Bethany, 

lors si li disent ses gens : '' Biaus sire, ou herbeigerons 

nous ? se nous passons cheste uile nous ne trouuerons wiure thay want 

to lodn. 

humais ou herbergier." Et ioseph lor respondi: 

" Signour frere & serors, or ne voiis esmaies mie. Car 

diex li tons poissans pour qui amour nous somes issu JoMph mu them 

de nostre naite,^ nous conseiUers. en tel maniere ke il ne wiu provide for 

nous faudra ne osteus ne yiande. Mais gardes ke you« 

ne Yau8 desesperes de sa grant misericorde. Car se yous 

le voles loiaument seruir comme si crestijen, yostre cuer 

' An illastration of Joseph preaching to sixteen of his 
friends, heads this chapter. 

' native land : ' car li sires por qui nos somes meu de no 
pais.* — B, leaf 6, back, ooL 2. 



They go on to 
the Wood of 

Ood's tpeech to 

Hfs mercy to 
the Jews ; 
[* leaf 10] 

their ingntitude 
to him. 

ne penseront riens au matin qiie voas n'aies ains la nuit. 
Ke onques ne moustra tant d'amonr a nos peres el 
desert com il moustra a nous se nous le seruons ensi 
comme peres dolt estre semis de ses enfans. Mais se 
nous le seruons comme fillastre, ausi cojnme nostre pere 
le seruirent el desert, il ne nous fera mie comme peres, 
mais C077im6 parrastres. Car il ne nous aidera pas, 
anchois nous faura qt^nt nous arons grignour besoing 
de s*aide." 

A tant laissa ioseph a parler, si alerent tant ke il 
vinrent a .L petit bos qui estoit a demie Heue de 
bethanie, si auoit non li bos des agais. £t si estoit 
apieles par chel non powr cbou que en cho bos fu 
agaities herodes thetrarches q^^ant li iuis le liurerent a 
rethe le roi de damas po2/r sa fillo ke il auoit laissie 
quant il prist la feme philippe son frere. Quant il 
furent venu a che bos, si apiela nostres sires ioseph, si li 
dist : " Joseph, ie sui tes diex, tes sauueres, tes defen- 
deres, chil qui ieta tes peres de la main pharaon a grant 
signes & a grant demoustranches. Ie lor passai la met 
rouge a sech, & les menai el desert *ou lor cuer auoient 
qua72ke il yoloient desirer. lUuec me courecliierent il 
en mainte maniere, a Tiaue de co/ztredit, & au ueel 
qw'il firent pour aurer. Et ie toutes voies lor aidai & 
defendi^ yiers toutes gens, tant ke ie mis tons lor 
anemis desous lor pies. Onq2^«s poi^r chou ne se re- 
corderent ke ie lor eusse b/en fait, ne plus uolentiers ne 
m'en seruirent. Anchois me rendirent en la fin si felon 
loiier qu'il me dampuerent el fust. Et se li pere m'ont 
mau send, pour che ne harrai pas les fiex. Car ie veul 
penitanche des pechies, & si n'ai cure de mort. Et pour 
chou ke ie ne voel espandre ma misericorde sour les fiex 
as felons peres, "pour chou t*ai eslcu a porter mon non 
& ma creancho par les estranges tcn-es. Et si seras 
guieres de grignour pule ke tu ne quides. & par toi 
' MS aidrai et defeudrai : ' Sl iou li aidai.' — B. 



aront il m'amour & m'aide se il me veulent tenir a pere 

& a Bigaour, Or va a to7i pule, & si le fai herbeigier JoMphiitoteU 

en che bos, & il aront toutes les viandes ke il vauront th«^be 

auoir, cascoins en son habitacle. Et anchois que tu isses S^^iwldf ** 

de cest bos, feras a m'escuele que tu as yne petite arche He {■ to make an 

, J, , • J 1 . -r^ 1 . « ark of wood for 

de lust en quoi tu le porteras. £t cnascun lour feres the orau-Diih. 
uos afflictions de double genoil deuant chele arche, Ss 
dires vos orisons pemr auoir Tamour de dieu uosiiQ 
seigaour. Et quant tu vauras a moi parler, si ouuerras 
Tarche en qiiel lieu que tu soies, si ke tu sens uoies 
I'escuele ap^^tement. Mais ie ne yoel ke nus touche a 
Tescuele ke tu sans plus, & iosephes tes fiex. Or t*en 
ya, si atoume ton piQe, ^ si fai ensi com ie t*ai com- 

tant s'en parti ioseph, & yint a son pule, si le fist The people ounp 
berbergier par le bos, es ramees & es fuellies. Et 
quant il orent lor ostez/^ fais, si alerent a orisons. Et 
qftant il reuinrent d'orisons, si trouua cbascuns en sa loge 
cbou qu'il desiroit a mengier. Tant mangierent & burent ■«<* «« m 

^ mlnusuIouBly. 

com eus plot, & furent si a 'aise. Au matin fist ioseph [*ieaf lo, coi.8] 

faire Tarche, Si com nostrQ sires li auoit commando, & Joeeph ha« the 
mist dedens Tescuele au sauueour. Et quant tons li 

pules eut este a orisons deuant Tarche, Si com noatrQ ^^_^ ?th««Te. 

sires li auoit commando, si uint deuant Tescuele au po"^*°n » "«ribe'a 

sauueour. +Et quant tons li pides eut este a orisons They start fh>m 

. . 1 "1 o ^**® wooil, and on 

deuant rarche,T si s en partirent du bos, & entrerent en the iith day get 

lor chemin. Si errerent tant par lor ioumees ke il vin- 

rent a yne chite qui auoit non sarras ; ^ Si estoit entre samui, whence 

the Saracens 

babilone & salauandre.^ De chele chite issirent pre- oome; 

mierement sarrasin, & de sarras furent il premierement 

sarrasin apiele. , Ne ne sont^ pas a croire chil qui dient for they are not 

^ *^ ^ caUed after Sara, 

que sarrasin furent apiele de sarra la feme abraham. Abmham'e wife. 
'Car che fu controuuaiile, ne raisons ne samble che pas 
a estre.' Ne che n'est psis chose mescouneue, ke sarra 
ne fust iuise, et ses fiex ysaac fu iuis ; & iuis furent chil 
— ', •— » not in B, leaf 6, back, col. 3. • font. A, B, 


How Mahomet 
was flent to savo 
tho Saracens, but 
daraneil himsvlf 
and them. 

Tlie otjccts of 
worship of the 
meo of Sarnu. 

[* leaf 10, ool. 3] 

God tells Joseph 
to baptize the 
people of Sams, 

and He will give 
him words to 

aud do miraclas 
Iqr Ilia hands, 

and keep and 
defend liim 
wherever he is. 

ki de ysaac deecendirent. Car par la grignour partie 
prent on le tout. £t puis k'il descendirent iuif de sarra, 
dont ne samble il pas raisons ke li sarrasin pr^issent 
lor non de li. Mais de chele chite qui auoit non sarras 
furent apiele sarrasin, pour che que che fu la premiere 
cliites ou iches gens p?*isent certainete de sauoir ke il 
aouroient. Et la fu controuuee & establie la secte ke 
sarrasin maintinrent puis iusc'a la uenue de mahoumet, 
qui fu enuoies pour aus sauuer. Mais il dainpua soi 
auant, Se aus apres, pour sa gloutemie. Car deuant che 
ke la secte fust qui establie fu en sarras, n'auoient ches 
gens nule certainete d'aourer. Anchois aourerent toutes 
les choses qui lor plaisoient, si ke che qu'il aouroient .i. 
lour n'auroient il pas a Tautre. Mais lors establirent il 
a aourer le soleil & la lune & les autres planetes. En 
chele citei vint ioseph Ss sa compaignie a Tonsime iour 
qu'H issi de ihentsalem. Et qteant il vint a Ten'tree 
de la vile, si Tapiela no^^res sires, & si li dist : " Joseph, 
tu t'en iras en chele chite, si precheras mon non. Et 
tons chiaus qui la creanche recheueront, si les baptiseras 
el non del pere & del £11 et del saint esperit." Et lors 
respondi ioseph : ** Sire, comment saurai ie si hten 
preechier) ia ne m'e[n]tremis ie onquea de tel cose." 
Et nostre sires li dist : " Ne t'esmaie mie de che. Car 
tu ne feras ke la bouche ouurir, & ie metrai dedens 
grant plente de paroles. Ke ia ne troueras home de si 
grant scienche plain qui puisse durer as paroles ke ie 
geterai hors de ta bouche. Et si te ferai pareil a mes 
apostles par les miracles & par les uirtus ke ie ferai par 
tes mains. Mais garde ke tu ne refroides de creanche. 
Car tant com tu serras vrais creans, ne m^oseras tu riens 
requerre ke tu n'aies a ton besoing. Ore t'en iia, & si 
pense de ma besoinge si bien faire ke tu en soijes paies 
eomme loiaus sergeins. Ke ia de manaches qtie tu oies, 
ne soies peuereus. Car ie te garderai et de£fenderai en 
quel lieu ke tu soies." 



How Joseph and his seventy-five disciples enter Sarras, and go 
to the Temple of the Sun, to the seat of judgment, where 
the wise men and E?a1ach the Lord of the city were 
assembled to consult how to revenge themselves on the 
Egyptians who had oyeroome them in battle. How 
Joseph thanks Gk>d that he has come at a favourable time 
(p. 48). How King Evalach*B counsellors advise that he 
cannot oppose the Egyptians^ but must make peace with 
t|iem. How Joseph promises the King victory and ever- 
lasting joy, and tells him of the Saviour (p. 49). How 
the King cannot understand that one who suffered death 
can save him from death (p. 50). 

Atant s'en parti ioseph, si entra en la chitei, entre 
led et sa compaignie. £t quant li cytoien les 
Tirent uenir tant ensamble — car il estoient .Ixxv. — & il 
les yirent aler tous nus pies, si se meruellent ques gens 
che pooient estre. Et ioseph ne fina onques d'aler par Joseph irocs to 
la yile entre lui Ss ses desciples tant qu'il vint denant ihe son, 
le temple an soleil. Et che estoit li plus haus temples 
qui fast en la chite: & si le tenoient li sarrasin en 
grignour honour & en grignour renerense ke tons les 
antres, pour chou qu'il estoit temples qui est li plu^ 
haus de tous les planetes. En Tentree de chel temple ' 
si auoit ynes loges moult riches & moult bieles qui 
estoient faites & establies a che ke li per de la chite i 
tenoient lor plais & lor afaires. Et ches loges 'es- [• leaf lo, back] 
toient apielees li siege des iugemens. En ches loges totbesoatof 


entra ioseph, Ss li .Ixxv. ke ie vous ai dit qui estoient 
en sa compaignie. Et vne moult grant tumulte du pule 
sarrasinois les sieuoient, pour che que a grant meruelle 
resambloient hien estrange gent, ne onqu68 mais si 
diuerse n'auoient veue. Qz^ant ioseph fu entres es and finds a 
loges, si trouua moult grant assamblee de sarrasins, & le or sanoena and 
signour de la chite meismeo, qui estoit apieles eualach Evaiach the 
li mescouneus. Et si estoit apieles li mescouneus pour " ^^^ 
chou ke nus horn de toute sa terre ne sauoit de que}. 



Bat, M he waa 

the E({]rptiana 
had taken awaj 
moat of bin laod, 
and beaten hia 
army ; and so ha 
had anembled 
his Council to 
deviie renipeaaaa 
on hia euemj. 

Joseph ta glad 
that be haa oome 
at the time of 
the king'a need. 

[* leaf 10, back, 

Tlie Ck>anBelloT8 
advise that peace 
be made with 
tlie Egyptiana, 

t^rre il cstoit nes, ne de quel lieu il estoit venus, ne 
onqi/es par nului n'e» auoient oi enseignes en la terre. 
Mais il auoit este de si grant proeche ke il auoit par sa 
cheualerie cowquise toute la terre iusk'en Tentree de 
egypte. Et encore estoit il moult preus & moult corageus, 
mais il estoit ia si vieus ke ses aages ne pooit mais 
souffrir qu*il soustenist le trauail de porter armes. Si 
n'cstoit mais tant redoutes ne tant cremus com il auoit 
este en sa iouenche. Anchois le guerrioient li egyptijen, 
si li auoient grant partie tolue de sa terre qui marcliis- 
soit a aus. Et il I'auoient desconfit en bataille, Ss 
cachie de plache, n*auoit mie encore .vij. iours passes. 
Et pour cheste cose auoit il mande tons les sages homes 
& tons les anchijens qui estoient en son pooir. Car il 
leur en uoloit demander consel, comment il se porroit 
vengier de la grant honte ke li egyptijen li auoient 

Aches paroles yint ioseph, si entendi hien & oi ke 
par hiena tenoient lor paroles de la desconfiture le 
roi, & de sa mescheanche. Et quant il oi la uerite de la 
cose, si en cut moult grant ioie. Car il se pensoit ke 
ore estoit venue Feure & li tans ke sa parole porroit 
estre oie & mise a oeure par le grant besoing *ke li 
rois eualach a de I'aide nosfie signour. Si enco?n- 
mencha a rendre g?'asces a son creatour de che qu*il 
auoit fait uenir laiens a si boin point. Et quant li rois 
eut parle a tous ses barons, si ni puet trouer point de 
conseiL anchois li estoient fali tot en trauers, Et 
disoient ke as egyptijens ne assambleroient il mais. 
Car il auoient trop grignour forche ke il n'auoient, si 
ne lor porroit se meskeoir non. Et hien i paroit, che 
disoient, quVne fois lor en estoit il ia mes-auenu si 
laidement ke il ne quidoient mie que iamiiis peust estre 
amende. Ensi com uous poes oir, li falirent tout, Ss 
dirent, ke tel pais co7n il peust, quesist vers les egj'pt- 
ijens : car de la guerre ne s'oscroient il mie entremetre. 


De cheste chose fu li rois moult esbahis et moult at which the king 

espoentes, tant ke il ne seut qiie dire ne que faire. 

Lors yint ioseph deuant lui. Ss quant 11 le vit si 

tristre ' & si pensieu, si dist : '* Hois eualach, ne soies Jowph promitM 

him victory, and 

tu pas esbahis. Car se tu veus croire mon conseil, tu akoendiiMjqy. 

aras ioie & oictoire de tous tes anemis, & conqt^rras 

auoec chou vne ioie autre, qui iamais ne prendra fin." 

Quant eualach Toi ensi parler, si le regarda moult fiere- 

ment, & si li dist : " Qui es tu, ua, qui uictoire me Evaiach uki 

J J . o ^ ' • . ^ . whoJowphit. 

porroies douner de mes anemis, & la loie qui lamais ne 
me fauroit?*' A chest mot respondi ioseph & si li 
dist : " Tar foi, rois, chou ne te promet ie mie ke ie te 
doinse la victoire ne la ioie perdurable. Mais tant te Jowph ny* that 

^ . , . the king's victory 

di ge btcn, que se tu uoloies croire mon consel, tu wiiibetheiriii 

of the Almighty. 

auroies & la victoire & la ioie sans fin, pour le don & 
pour le grasce de chelui qui de toutes coses est pois- 
sans.*' £t eualach li respondi, "Ie escouterai moult 
uoloTitiers ques tes consaus porra estre. Mais se tu me 
dis canael qui ne fache a otroijer, li damages en re- 
toumera sour ton cors." Et ioseph li respondi : " Eois, 
che sera tes consaus qui te sera a hounoiir de cors & a 
•pourfit de Tame. Car tu en seras honeres a ton [♦ leaf lo, back, 

col. 8] 

viuant, & fame en sera sauuee aprcs ta mort. "Par 
foi,'* che dist li rois, " Ichis consaus ne fait mie a refuser. 
Or pues dont deuiser qu^ il sera. Car s'il est tens 
com tu m*as dit, ie n*aurai ia home en ma maison qui 
ie croie auant toi ; anchois seras creus de toutes coses ke 
tu me vauras consillier.** " Rois,** che dist ioseph, " or Joeeph teiia 

Evalach to 

enten donquea comment tu seras couseillies. II te con- destroy hie 
nenra tot p^'emierement destrurre & depechier les can neither help 

. /^xj'i "L 1. J.' J' nor hurt any one, 

y mages que tu aoures. Car tu dis ke che sont ti dieu, 
et si lor demandes conseil & aie : et eles n*ont nul pooir 
de toi aidier ne de nuire a autrui. Et tant saches tu 
hien de voir que ti anchisour en ont tot este engingnie 
& decheu. Car tout chil qui croient que ches ymages 

' tristre is a known form, though the r is iuorganlo. 


lor pouissent aidier, sont perdu pe?'durablement pour 
tnd no nun nfi^H £ soient pris au iour de la mort. Ne bus horn ne 

should believa , ' 

io a bit of wood doit en chou metre sa creanche, ke vne pieche de fust 

or itone, but in , 

Him who died on ne de piene ouuree par main d*ome le puisse trarandir 

tiMCroMtOMTO r r r o 

the world. de mort ne de mal. Mais celui doit on aourer, qui 

souffri angoisse de le mort en la crois de son boin gi-e 
& de sa boine volenti, pour sauuer le monde & pour 
deliurer des perdurables paines d'infer." " Coumewt," 

SvBi««k*t doahu. che dist li rois, " me ueus tu dire ke cbil est poissans de 
moi sauuer apres la mort, & de moi douner hounour 
terriene, qui souffri angoisse de mort ensi com tu 
meismes li tesmoignes 1 II ne me samble mie ke cliil 
soit vrais diex, qui angoisse puet tant iustichier k*ele le 

How cu one maine iusc'a la mort; ne il n*est mie auis qt^'il puist 

himwif MTe estre uoirs, ne raisons ne samble che mie. Ke ie ne 


puis mie veoir comment chil mo garandisse de mort, qui 
soi meisme n'en puet garandir. Car mauuaisement 
sauuera autrui, cbil qui soi ne puet aidier." Lors li 

Joseph expUini. rcspondi ioscph : " Eois, li sauueres du mont souffri si 
r* leaf 11] deboinairement la mort, ke qu^ini li fans tes*moing des 
felons iuis I'acusoient deuant pylate, & pylates meismes 
li demandoit se ch'estoit uoirs ke il disoient, il ne 
uoloit nul mot respondre encontre che que il disoient, 
si qfie pylates s'enmerueilloit mowlt durement de che ke 

EndMh'i farther il ne li uoloit Tcspondre." A chest mot respondi li 

qneetioDa and •■ i . 

jowph'a answers, rois, & si li dist : ** Or me di, biaus amis, vieus tu dire 
a chertes et a uoir ke il soit diex pour che qu'il souffri 
la mort en cheste maniere?" Et ioseph li respondi: 
" ^ Kaie, dist il, powr che ne di ge mie qu'il fust diex, 
ne pa?* che ne conquist il mie sa deite, anchois estoit 
diex deuant tons les orages,^ & tous iours sera diex que 
ia ses regncs ne prcndra fin^." Et li rois respondi : 
" Coment me veus tu prouer, pot^r chou se il morut, ke 
li mondes fust par sa mort sauues ? " " Che te con- 

1 — 1 il est diex deuant ic apres tous les autres. MS 10,292, 
leaf 6, col. 3. * ? aages. 


terai ie hien, dist ioseph, comme chil qui hien le saL 
Ne ia, che saches tu de voir, ne te ferai riens entendant 
ke ie ne saclie uraiement. Mais or escoute, si oras 
comment il auint/' 


Joseph tellB Evalach the story of Christ's Birth, Life, Death, 
Descent into Hell, Resurrection, and Ascension, and his 
sending the Holy Qhost to his disciples. 

^** A V tans auguste chesar le boin empereour de 
.Z\. rome qui tint TempiTe .xlij. ans, et garda la terre 
si longement en fenne pais, au chief de xxv^j. ans apres 
che qu'il eut este corones, auint qite diex enuoia son 
angele en vne chite de galylee qui est apielee nazaretb, How God imt 

hit Ang6l to the 

a vne puchiele qui auoit non marie. Et quant li virgin Mary, 

angeles vint deuant li, si li dist, '* Diex te saut, marie, 

plaine de grasce, diex soit en ta compaignie. Tu es 

benoite deseu*re toutes autres femes, & li fruis de ton c*iMfii,eoi.£] 

uentre est beneois." Quant la pucbele oi la parole, si 

en fa moult esbabie, & commencha a pourpenser de quel 

maniere cbis salus pooit estre. Et li angeles li dist : 

'' Marie, ne sois de riens esbabie. Car li sires du cbiel 

t'a regardee et dounee sa grasce. Et si saches de uoir, who toid her 

the ■bould 

ke ta encbainteras, & si enfanteras .j. fil qui sera oonceweud 

bear a child 

apieles ihe^^^.^ Chil enfes sera de moult grant pois- who ahouid be 

called Jesoa 

sanche: Car 11 sera fiex diea." Et la puchiele re- chriat. 
epondi : ''Biaiis sire, comment porra chou auenir? la 
ne conui iou onquea home camelment." Et li angeles 
li dist : " Marie, li sains esperis descendera en toi, & la 
Tirtus dieu le haut en-umbr^ra dedens ton cors." Et 
la puchiele respondi al angele : " Diex nostie sire facbe 

' An illustration of Joseph discoursing to Evalaoh heads 
tliis chapter. * MS ihc. 



How the Spirit 
d«Meended luto 
her, and ehe 
brought forth a 
valiet who WM 
oaUed Christ. 

How S kings of 
the Eaat come to 
worship Christy 
led by a star. 

How Herod 
kills 140,000 
yoong ^ildren. 


How the Yirgia 
goes into Egypt, 

and at Christ's 
approach all the 
images in the 
temples fell 
down and were 

How at 80 he is 
baptised, and 
works great 

son plaisir de mi comme de a'anchiele, car ie sui ap- 
parillie a son plaisii & a sa Tolente." Et maintenant 
k*ele ot che dit, si descendi li sains espms dedens 11, & 
si enchainta. £t quant ele ot le £ruit porte iusc'a son 
droit tarme, si enfanta .i yallet qui fu apieles ihesus, 
ensi com li angeles Tauoit dit Chil enfes fd de 
si grant hauteche & de si grant pooir ke troi roi 
d'orient le yinront aourer au tresime iour de sa natiuite. 
Et si aporta casciins del plus cbier auoir qu'il puet 
trouuer en toute sa t^rre. 'Ne onques n'i orent conduit 
ne auoiement ke seulement vne estoile, qui aparut si 
tost com il fu nes, ne onq^^^s mais n*auoit este veue. 
Et qt^nt herodes (qui estoit roi de iudee) sent ke vns 
tens enfes estoit nes qui serroit rois des iuis, si en eut 
paour ke il ne le desiretast; si fist ochire tons les 
enfjGuis de la t^rre de bethleem de .^'. ans & demi en 
aual, Tant q?z'il en i eut ochis .c. miller & .xl. mile ; Ss 
en cheste maniere se quida herodes uengier del enfant. 
Mais li haus sires qui de tout est poissans sauoit hiexi 
son mauuais pense, Si garda li soi meisme des mains as 
felons qu*il ne porent a'uoir de lui bailie. Anchois 
Tenporta la yierge puchiele sa mere en egyp[te]y & si i 
demoura iusc' apres la mort herode par Tamonestement 
d'un angele. Et quant il fu portes en egjpte, & il 
commencha a entror en la t^rre, si fist si grant de- 
moustranche de sa venue ke il n'eut temple en toute le 
terre de egypte dont aucune ymage ne chaist a terre, & 
debrisoient toutes de teus en i auoit. Iteus sinefianches 
faisoit li urais dieus en sa petiteche. Et quant il fu 
raportes de egypte, & il crut tant qu*il vint en aage 
de .XXX. ans, si rechut baptesme, & lors co7nmencha il 
a f aire les grans miracles en apiert. Car il rendoit as 
auules lor veue. II garissoit les malades de toutes 
enfermetes. II faisoit les contrais redrechier & aler 
tons sains. II garissoit de si vil enfermete com de 
meselerie. IL fasoit les sours oir cler. II faisoit 

Christ's death, visit to hell, besurbeciion, and ascension. 53 

les mors reuenir en vie. Iteus miracles faisoit tmtiMJewi 

li vrais diex en apci't, uoiant toutes les gens. Et aiMipifla, 

quant il eut ensi cure en maint liens & par maintes 

fois, si en oient enuie li iuis. Si parlerent a .L de ses 

desciples ke il prist d'ans .xxx. deniers, si le vendL 

Et chil le prisent, si le crucefierent el fust. Et qt^ont "d cmdiy him. 

Tame fd issue de son glorieus cors, si ala en infer, & si He goe* into 

hell and relet 

en ieta liors tons chiaus qui son seruicne auoient fait hieecrvuits, 

en tere puis le commenchement du monde. Et quant 

yint au tierch iour apres che q2/*il eut este mis el 

sepulchre — car iou meismes Ti mis, & le despendi de la 

crois — Si resuscita, & s'en issi del sepulchre tons en and hmb eijatn 

. . . , the third day. 

cors & en esprit. "Ne onques les gardes qui estoient 
mises pour lui garder, ne le peurent si b/en gaitier qu'il 
ne s'en issist. & si remest li sepuchres autresi fermes 
com li iuif I'auqient laissie quant il Teurent fait garder. 
Car il I'auoient mis desous vne moult grant pierre & 
moult grosse : si fu trouuee en tout autrestel maniere 
com ele i auoit este mise. Et quant- il fu resu*scites, [• leaf ii, back] 

.. ' J. jf ' • • M. I. ' J. How Christ 

si apparut puis mamtes fois a ses amis qui moult estoient appeared alter 

dolent & esbahi de la mort de lui Et puis fist il "*^" **"' 

deuant aus plusieurs miracles, par quoi il sauoient de 

uoir ke H estoit vrais diex. Et qt^nt il eut este .xl. 

iours en terre apres sa resurrection, si monta au quaran- and ascended 

tisme iour el chiel, yoiant ses disciples. Et quant vint 

a Tonsime iour apres chou ke il i fu montes, si lor 

enuoia le saint esperit de la destre a son irrant pere andienttho 

Holy Spirit to 

glorieusy de'les qui il siet & sera perdurablement." his diMipies. 


Xvalaeh aski, 
* Had your God 
a fiither and 

'Then he mint 
have been born 
of man and 


*Godwiw evUa 


EvalaoVs objections to, and questions on, Christ's story. 
Joseph answers, explaining why God sent Christ on earth 
(pp. 54-5) ; in what sense he had a father and mother 
(p. 5C) ; how there is also the Holy Ghost (p. 57) ; and 
how the three persons are yet one God (p. 57). He tells, 
too, of the creation of men to replace the Tenth Legion of 
Angels, and of the Temptation and Fall (p. 58) ; of 
Christ's taking flesh (p. 59), and how he went into and 
came out of his moUier's womb without hurt to her 
Tirginity (p. 59) ; how he was baptized and crucified, and 
went into hell (p. 60) ; and how he took out of hell all 
who had done his works during their lives (p. 60). 

^ A chest znot respond! eualach, & si li dist: 
jLjL ** Coment diua, tesmoignes tu donqt^es ke chil 
dies qui tu tiens a si poissant ke tu I'apieles signour de 
toutes choses, eut pere & mere 1 " " voirement, che dist 
ioscph, testmoi[n]g iou, & di pour voir, ke il eut & run 
& Tautre." " Et puis ke il eut, che dist eualach, & 
pere & mere, dont ne nascui il mie sans assamblement 
d'ome & de feme. Car de feme ne puet enfes naistre 
se il n*est engenres dedens par acompaignemt^nt d'ome. 
Et se enfes estoit en autre maniere concheus, che seroit 
contie nature & contro acoustumanche." ''Bois, dist 
ioseph, ie te mousterrai apertement & te ferai cou- 
noistre comment il fu concheus sana nulle camel 
compaignie. Et comment il nascui de la puchiele sans 
le puchelaige maumetre ne empirier.** "Cheste pro- 
uanche, dist li rois, escouterai iou moult volentiers.*' 
** II auint chose, dist * Ioseph, ke li sauueres du monde 
vit les maus qui mouteplioient en terre, & si vit ke li 
Lien & li mal estoient tout vn de guerredon. Car 
autresi hien aloit chil en infer qui tous iours auoit fait 
hieiL, comme chil qui tous les maus auoit fais. Et li 

* At the head of this chapter is an illumination, with the 
title, " Ensi que iosephus & ses peres desputent de le fbi au roi 


dons sires se pensa ke che n'estoit pas raisons ke li mal 
fuissent parel as, ne li preiidom cowzparast la folie 
aa mauuais. Si dist qu'il laiemberroit home de andttormeae 

man from hell, 

doleiiTS d'infer. Si prist son fil & si Tenuoia en t^rre Mnt His son to 

T , . , , • . ftilffl all belong- 

pour acomplir toutes les coses qui apartenoient a ing to man's 

nature d'ome, fors qite pechiet seulement. Et quant °*"*' 

il fu uestus de mortel char, pour chou ne laissa il mie but ho remaiaad 

a estre diex si com il auoit tot/^ iours este. Mais il 

prist chou qu'H n'auoit onques eu, che fu mortalites. 

Et pour chou que li pere uit qw'il ne pooit raiembre The world conid 

not be redeemed 

tout le monde par .i. home qui fust samblans as autres, by a sinner, 

pour chou i enuoia il son fil qui estoit quites & nes des 

pechies dont tout li autre estoient entechiet et maumis. 

Car il n'estoit pas raisons ne drois ke nus pechieres 

lachataist les autres pecheours. Ke puis qu*il estoient 

tout entechie, comment pooit ne deuoit garandir li vns 

Fautre, ne deliurer 1 Mais pour chou ke li fieus dieu bo* »■ cbriet 

was clean from 

fu nes & mondes de tous pechies & de toutes uilenies, sin, he ooaid re- 
deem men from 

pour chou eut il le pooir de racater le pardurable mort etehiai death.* 

del home par le mort de son precieus cors." " Pour 

chou, dist eual£ichy ke ie ne te ting pour jure^, Car Evaiachdoes 

not see it. 

qi^ant tu m'as vne cose recounue & puis si le menoies 

apres. Car encore tesmoignes tu de ton dieu, ke il a 

pere, & si dis ke il ne fu pas engenres de camel comr 

paignie. & che ne puet auenir, ne raisons ne verites ne 

samble che mie.'' *^ Eois, dist ioseph, tu m'as en con- joeeph teiis him 

uent ke tu m'escouteras a prouer co7;iment il puet itLr'his?im)r. ° 

naistre de char de feme sans assam'blement de char [*ifii,bk,ooi.8] 

d*ome, & sans maumetre le puchelaige de sa mere qui 

tous iours fu puchiele, & apres & deuant, & comment 

il puet auoir pere sans estre engenres carnelment" 

''Tout chou, dit le rois, doi iou escouter sans faille. 

Et ie I'escouterai uolentiers, Se tu le me sauoies faire EvaUM^i thinks 

. Joseph hardly 

entendre. Mais tu ne sambles pas hom qui soit si leazned enough 
durement fondes de haute clergie que tu peusses point, 
prouuer cose qui si grant meruelle est a dire que elc est 



Jooepb utfM he 
will flnt explain 
how Christ had a 

God U called 
Chrtat'B Father, 

for he begat him 
before the agea, 
sot carnally 
hot apfaitaaUj. 

For Christ waa 
not made, but 
begotten of 
apiritoal beget- 

Hie birth brhia 
mother waa of 
[•leaf IS] 
flesh; bat that 
by his Father, of 
apirit, and im- 

Of the Virgin's 

encontre nature et encontre acoustumanche, ne onques 
maifl oie ne fu.'* "Rois, fait ioseph, ore m'escoute, & 
ie te mousterrai comment il nascui de la pucliiele sans 
camel compaignie. Iche te mousterrai, mais tu oras 
auant comment il eut pere, qui fiex il fa sans camel 
engenruxe. II est uoirs ke il est vns sens diex, chil 
qui toutes choses fist de noient. Chil fu tous iours 
diex, & diex sera tous iours. Car il n'eut onqi^cs comr 
menchement, ne fin ne puet auoir a nul tans. Chil est 
apieles peres, & ensi Tapielent chil qui sont urai creant. 
Et ne pour q7/ant se il Tapielent pere, "pour chou ne 
83nt il urai creant, Se il ne le croient de cuer ensi com 
la bouche le diet. Car comment que la bouche paraut, 
del cuer muet la boine creanche & la mauuaise. Ichil 
diex si est apieles peres, pour chou ke chil de qui ie te 
parole est ses fieus, car il Tengenra desdeuant le comr- 
menchement de tous les aages. Et si ne Tengenra il 
mie camelmenty mais espmtuelment. Ne li peres ne 
fu onques fais no cries ne engenres, ne onquea ne 
nascui. Ne li fiex meismes ne fu onqt^cs fais ne cries, 
mais il fu engenres si com yous aues oi ke i'ai dit, de 
Tespcritel engenrure. Et si fu puis nes de la y/rgene. 
Mais chele natiuites ne fu mie selonc la dcite, mais 
selonc Tumanite. Ensi pees entendre, & deues, ke la 
natiuites de par sa mere fu faite camelment, mais *la 
natiuites ke il eut de par son pere .fu esperitelment. 
Chele de par la mere fu morteus. Car chele humanites 
morut ke il pr/st dedens les flans a le yi^^e marie, de 
qui il fist sa mere. Mais chele de par le pere fu per- 
durable. Car chou ke il eut de par le pere ne souflfri 
onques mort, cho est la deites qui ia ne li faura, anchois 
durra tous iours sans prendre fin. Ore aues oi com- 
ment li fiex dieu fu engenrea & nes del pere espcritel- 
ment, & comment il fu nes camelment de la mere. 
Aprcs oras comment li puchelages de la glorieuse 
puchiele qui fu sa mere remest autresi sains apres 


eomme deuant, & autresi entirs aans maometre 8s sans 

entamer. Mais ie yous dirai auant d'une persone qui But first of th* 

de ches deus issi & qui est parelle et ingaus as autres 

dens p^rsones. Che est li sains esp^ris. Ichil sains 

espeyia ne fu onqusQ fais, ne cries, ne engenres par le 

pere ne par le fil. Mais il est issus & de Tun & de 

Tautie. Chil sains esperis est conforteres, & ca/isiUieres, who in the com- 

& espuigemens des cuers & des pensees. Chil sains Purioer, 

esperis faisoit as prophetes^ parler che ke il disrant de who made the 

dieu, & si ne sauoient ke il disoient, nient plus ke li ' 

horn forsenes porroit &iTe estables les paroles qui li 

nolent hors de la bouche. Toutes ches coses ouuroit li 

sains esperis en aus. & qui urais creans est, il croit & 

aouie le saint esperit autresi com le pere & le fil. Li and who i« wor^ 

/. . ,. • o • «. • 1 ihlpped like the 

pores est parfaus diex par soi, & si a parfaite deite en- Father and son. 
terine & perdurable sans fin et sans eommenchement, & perfect ood, 
de toutes choses est poissans. Li fieus autresi est par- though be^ the 

j»»j*o Jiip'i 1 Father aa to 

fais diex & perdurables, & si est paraus au pere ; sclonc ua manhood; 

Tumanite est il 'plus bas ke li peres. Mais li fiex 

selonc Tumanite est morteus. Li sains esperis est par- and the Holy 

fais diex en soi meisme^ & selonc la deite est tons ood; 

paraus au pere & au fil. Ensi est li peres diex, & li 

fiex dieus, & li sains esperis diex. Et ne pour quant il bnt they are 

...J. ^ , ., . ±_ ' not three Goda, 

ne sont mie troi dieu. Car pour chou se il sont trois [*ieafi2,coLt] 

choses en pe7'soneSy pour chou ne sont il pas troi dieu, 

mais yns tons sens. Car soit che qi^e li peres & li ^ex bat one God, 

& li sains esperis soient trois persones, ne pour quant 

si ne sont il ke vne seule chose en nature et en deite & 

en poissanche. Car autresi poissans est 11 peres com one in nature. 

_. Of' • ' -w^ • •!• ffodhead, and 

est 11 fieus & Il sams espens. Et autresi grans est li power. 
fieus en deite com est li peres & li sains esperis. £t aii equally great 
d'autrestel grandeche est li sains esperis com est li peres 
& li &ex. Ensi uienent ches trois persones d'un seul 
dieu, & a yn seul dieu repairent ches trois persones. & 
autrestant puet li une comme les trois, ne les trois ne 
' faiBoit les apostles parler. — B, leaf 6, baok, col. 3. 



Tlie three ara 
called the 
Trinity, end 
the one Unity. 

How God laid, 
' Let us make 
men in oar 
imaffe, after 
oar likenees,' 

and called th« 
Bon to make eo 
high a thing aa 
man to replace 
the tenth legion 
of angels. 

sent autre chose naturelment ke vne. Clies trois p^- 
Bones apielent li vrai creant, triiute ; & le seul dieu 
apielent il unite ; Ss si aourent les trois pe7'80iie8. Ches 
trois p^rsones furent men/It bien lamenteus au com- 
menchement du monde quant li peres cria toutes 
clioses, car 11 dist 'Faisons home a nostre ymage, a 
nostTQ samblanche.' Cheste parole dist li peres a son 
chier fil. Car il sauoit hien, comme chil qui toutes 
choses a deuant ses iex, ke li fiex soustenroit encore 
angoisse de mort pcmr homme racliater des grans 
doleurs ou il cairoit par son mesfait. Pour che apiela 
li peres la persone del fil a faire si haute chose comme 
li horn deuoit estre, qui il ne voloit fourmer ne estffblir 
ke souleme/^t pour restorer la disime legion des angeles 
qui estoit cheu du chiel par son oi^el. Et quant li 
How, when man hom eut trcspasso le co77imandoment de son creatour 

was cast oat of 

paradise, a hard del fruit que il manga par ramonestfemlent de la feme 

saying was , , 

spoken to him. qui li dyables dechut, si fu maintenant jetcs hors de 
paradis, & si li fu dite vne moult felenesse parole. Car 
ses sires qui Tauoit fait a sa samblanche, li reproua la 
grant aaise ke il auoit p^ue par son mesfait, & 11 
nouma le grant damaige qu'il en auroit car 11 li dist : 

[•leaf 18. col. 8] * Pour chou ko tu as *plus obei a ta feme ke le t'auoie 

God's curse on , - . . ^ . , ^ 

Adam and men douec, ko a moi qui t'auoio fait, pour chou souncrras 
tous lours mais tel paine, & tu <fe ti oir, ke Yotis man- 
geres vo^^re pain en trauail & en suour.' * Et tu/ dist 
11 a la feme, * enfanteras ta porteure en tristeche & en 
doleur.' Cheste promesse a moult b?'en rendue a tous 
cheus q?/i d*omme sont puis issu.^ Car nus n*er*terra la 
en chest siecle, tant soit de grant poissanche, qui la 
solt deliures de traual & de paine des ichele eure ke 11 
s*en 1st. Ne la feme n*l enfantera a si petit de dolour 
k'ele n'en soustienge plus ke ses cuers ne porroit penser 
ne sa lange dire. Et tant durement ont achate le 
pechiet au premier home, si oir qui de lui sont issu, ke 
ceste promesse a il hien maintenue a tous oeaus qui el monde sont — B. 

and on Eve and 

How really the 
curse has been 


il n'i eat onquea chelui, tant fesist bi^nfait en sa vie, 

ke rame de lui n'en alast en infer si tost comme ele 

partoit du cors. Tant que li ^ex dieu ne vaut plus To iwem mm 

soofifrir cheste grant doleur, si descendi en tene poui chritt deMtnded 

cliou ke il Yoloit Tome metre hors de la grant male 

auentnre que il soustenoit pour son mesfait. Si nit que 

ore auoit il asses compare son outrage, & ke hiea estoit 

de[s] ore mais tans Ss eure ke il le rapelast en pite & 

en misericorde. Et quant il fu en terre descendus, il mdwhwithiri 

ne le uoloit pas maintenant aler qtievre en infer, & 

traire hors a forche, sans raison moustrer. Anchois 

entra ponr lui en vne chartre qui mcn^lt estoit escarse & mttni a stnit 

and narroir 

estroite a herbergier si haut nome & si riche eomme priM>n, 
chelui qui estoit sires de toutes choses. Che fu li theTirgin'i 


uentres de la puchele ou il se herberga. Apres, quant 

il eut este en chele chartre .ix. mois en prtson, si s'en and waa there 

nine montba, and 

issi a droite eure de naistre, ensi comme Tumanites le then came oat; 

reqz/^roit. £t ne pour quant de tout en tout ne fu il 

mie eoncheus ne nes si com humanites requiert. 

Humanites requiert sans faille, ke horn naisse, & ke 

il soit concheus. & en cheste maniere acomj>li *il c* leaf 12. bade] 

but not, as 

humanite, d'estre concheus & de naistre. Mais hu- humanity needa, 

manites requiert plus. Ele requiert ke horn naisse en mitow and 
doleur & en tristeche, & ke il soit camelment concheus ^"'^ ' 

d'omme Ss de feme. En cheste maniere n'acompli il 

mie humanite. Car il ne fu mie concheus par assam- imt by the orer- 

ahadowing of 

blement d'ome & de feme, Mais par Taumbrement del the Holy Qboet, 

through the ear 

saint esperit qui descendi par Torelle de la puchele of the virgin. 

dedens le glorieus vaissiel de son beneoit uentre. En 

chelui vaissiel ke li e&ins esperis vint purefijer, se HowChriefa 

^ x- J » birth li^ured 

horberga li fiex dieu. & si nascui si sagement ke onques not the virginity 
li puchelages de sa gloneuse mere n en fu maumis, ne a aa a sunbeam 

... J hurts not the 

Tentrer ne a Tissir. Mais tout autresi com li rais du dear water. 
soleil luist parmi la clere iaue si qu*il est ueus iusc*au 
fons, sans che qu^il ne desoiure mie les ondes de Tiaue 
ne ne depart, anchois remaint autresi clere & autresi 


biele com ele a deuant este, Tout autresi entra li fiez 

die a dedens le uenire de la puchiele sans son puclielage 

The three duhr- maumelie HO empirier. £t en son concbeuement si eut 

ence« between ... . . • • , • ^ . 

the cunoeptioa .iij. maniBies qiu ouques mais oies nauoient este en 
men. concheuement d'omme & de feme. Car 11 fu tout 

1. itwMwith- p7'0mierement concbeus sans pecbie. Cbe est la pre- 
t. Without carnal miere maniere. L'autre maniere si est, qu'il fu con- 

aasembling. <• | i, t -a. 

cbeus sans camel compaignie, ne cue n auoit onqti^s 
s. Hia mother este ol. La tiercbe maniere fii de cbou ke sa mere ki 

did not loee bar 

Tirginitj, pucbiele estoit, ne pierdi onqt^as son pucbelage, ne au 

concbeuoir ne au naist}*e. Ancbois le laissa cbil qui 
Teslut a estre sa mere autresi saine & autresi entierre 

or aoflSir Sra'a com il Tauoit trouee. Et a son naistre fu depicbie la 
maleicbons qui fu faite a la premiere feme q7iant il li 
fu dit * tu enfanteras ta porteure en doleur.' Car il 

ibrtheUrfh nascul si saiutemeut ke onqt^es sa mere n'en eut ne 
doleur ne angoisse. Icbes manieres meruilleuses aporta 
li fiex dieu, & a son concbeuoir & a son naistre. Et 

[*ififl,bk,eoi.t] quant H fu nes, pour cbou ne *vaut il mie tantost 

How chriat lived racbater Tomme ke il estoit uenus qt^erre, ancbois 

SS yeara on earth, , i. p t.i v 

demoura xxxij. ans en terre, & conuersa en samblancne 

d'ome auoec Ics autres bomes. Et quant yint au cbief 

and at w waa de XXX. ans, si recbut tons premiers nostre sauuement. 


Cbe fu baptesme. Car il se fist baptisier a vne bome 

qui il porta tesmoing ke il estoit li plus bans vers dieu 

qui onques nasqtiist de feme desflourie. Cbe fu Bains 

by St John the Jebans baptistcs. Et quant vint au tiercb an apres 

yeara after, died, SOU baptisement, si souffii angoisse de mort. Car il 

uoloit aeomplir toutes les coses qui apartenoient a 

bumanite, fors seulement pecbie. Et quant il eut 

souffiert si grant angoisse comme de mort pour Tamour 

and went down de homme, si en ala en infer il meismes, & si en traist 

into hell. 

HowChritt trestous cbiaus & trestoutes cbeles qui ses oeures 

reacned the doera . . i» -. i • o* i. — i. 

ofhiiworka auoient faites en lor vies. Si grant amour moustra 
diex a Tomme : car il ne le vaut onq?^es racbater des 
doleurs ke il 80u£Croit par antrui mort ke par la soie 


Ore pees auoir entendu comment il eut pere sans camel Joseph mma 

up hia speech. 

eng^nrement, & comment il nasqui de feme sans eomr 
paignie d*ome, & comment il nasqui de la puchiele sans 
son puchelage maumetre ne empirier." 


Part 1. How Evalach remarks that Joseph has been say- 
ing just what he likes, and nothing which looks like 
truth. Joseph answers and confounds the doctors of the 
city (p. 62). How Evalach sends for Joseph's compan- 
ions, and how Joseph's son tells the king why they go 
barefooted (p. 62-3). How Evalach lodges Joseph and his 
company (p. 63). 

Part 2, p. 63. How Evalach in his bed thinks about the 
defence of his country, and the Trinity and the Virgin's 
virginity (p. 64). How he sees a vision of three trees, of 
which the middle one, with an ugly bark, bleeds when cut^ 
and jumps out of its bark, and then into it again (p. 65) ; 
and how washing in its blood changes men's forms (p. 
65) ; and how some of the tree's roots and leaves are 
pluckt and burnt (p. 65). How Evalach tells his vision 
to a chamberlain ; and they see three writings on the trees, 
* This creates,' * This saves,' * This purifies * (p. 66) ; how 
the three trees are truly one (p. 67). How the king and 
his chamberlain see a child pass and repass through a 
lockt door in a wall (p. 67) ; and a voice tells the king — 
this is a type of the Miraculous Conception of Christ (p. 68). 

LOrs parla eualach & si dist : '' Tu me fais enteTui- Evalach thinks 
.. , . Joseph's aayinga 

ant vnes coses ke nus ne porroit metre en uoir, ne en neither troe nor 

nule maniere ne samble raisons. Car tu dis ke il ne fu ^ ' 

pas engenres en la feme dont il nascui, & ke ele estoit 

pucbiele, ne onq2^es ses puchelages n'en empira. Apr^s 

me dis, ke li peres & li fiex & li sains esperis ne sont 

ke yns sens diex, & si est chascuns d'aus .iij. diex par 

soi." " Lore, dist ioseph, tu Tas bien recorde ensi com 

ie le t*ai dit, & ensi le tesmoigne iou hien encore." 

"Par foi, dist li rois, tu tesmoignes chou ke tu ueus. he has said what 

he likes. 

Maitf tu ne dis nule cose qui par samblant puisse estre 
noire." A tant fist li rois enuoier qt^erre tons les cleis 



[• leaf 12, tack, 
col. S] 

The learned of 
the dty come, 
and Joseph oon- 
founds Uiem. 

Evalach a»ka 
Wliy he ia 
named Joseph of 

Evalach pro- 
misee to honse 
Joseph, and to 
hear him next 

Joseph tells him 
he has 75 com- 
panions who for 
the love of Christ 
have Kiven up all 
earthly wealth. 

Evalach desiree 
to see these 

and asks them 
why they suffar 
such hardships. 
Josephes (Jo- 
seph's son) says, 
* ftir the love of 

[* leaf IS] 

*de la cliite. & quant il fuient tout uenu, si commencha 
ioseph a parler a aus si durement, & traioit si auant 
tous les fors mos des escriptures, ke chil s^en esba- 
hissoient tout, et disrent en la fin ke il ne li respon- 
deroient mais deuant I'endemain. £nsi se departi 
Tassamblee, & li rois apiela iosepb, & si li demanda 
comment 11 estoit apieles iosepb de arimatbie. Et 
li rois esgarda les pies qu^il auoit nus, si les yit 
moult biaus et mout blans, si li sambla meruelles hien 
bom qui eust este a grant aaise, & soupecbounoit 
dedens son cuer ke il fust de baute gent nes, si Yen 
prist moult grant pites. Lors Tapiela, & si li dist : 
" Iosepb, ie te ferai berbergier anuit mais, & si aras 
pour toi aaisier tout quanke deuiseras de boucbe. Et 
demain parleras a moL Car ie t'ai anuit moult 
uolentiers escoute, & plus yolentiers t'escoutcrai iou 
demain, car ie serai de grignour loisir que ie n^ai bui 
este." " Sire, cbe dist iosepb, ie ne sui mie sens en 
cbeste vile, ancbois i a en ma compaignie en-cbore .Ixxv. 
ke bommes ke femes. Et si sacbies de voir, ke il n*en 
i a vn ne vne qui pour Tamour ibe^u crist n'ait laissies 
toutes les t^rrienes licboises. Si me vont siewant sans 
or & sans argent, ensi pourement com vous me poes 
veoir. Mais ne pour quant se il vont ensi pourement, 
pour cbou ne meurent il mie de faim ; ains sont il assase 
de la rikecbe au glorieus signour en qui il croient, ke 
lor cuer ne desirroient nule viande terriene dont il 
n'aient a lor volente." Lors dist li rois ke il les voloit 
veoir, & iosepb les apiela de bors la ou il estoient 
areste, si les fist venir deuant lui. Et quant li rois les 
vit venir tous nus pies & si pourement vestus, si en eut 
moult grant pite selonc sa creancbe. Si les apiela, & 
lor demanda pour quoi il soufiroient si grant peni- 
tancbe, d'aler nus pies & d'estre vieument vestu & 
pourement. Lors li respondi li fiex iosepb, qui estoit 
apieles ioscpbes, *et si li dist: "Eois, nous soufTrons 

josEPHEs, Joseph's son, speaks to evalach op christ. 63 

clieste petite penitanche powr ramour del glorieus fil 
dieu, qwi si grant & si aBgoisseuse le souflfri pour nous, 
ke il en eut tresperchiet le cors & les membres si 
nieument & a si grant honte comme chil qui fu de- 
trachies & mesames et cruchefijes en mi lieu de deus who was eind- 
larrons. & tout chou souffri il pour nous de son boin t^SlTv^ 
gre & de boine volente. En quel seruiche li porriens 
nous mieus lendre qui peust che seruiche guerredouner. 
Se nous notis souffriemes a crucefijer autresi com il fist 
soi, ne rauiiemes nous pas guerredone asses, car il com- 
mencha. La bontes commenche du plus haut au plus 
bas, ch'est de dieu a home. II est hien drois k*ele li for whom we 
soit guerredonee a double. Ensi nous conuenroit morix twice over.* 
deus fois pour lui se nous li voliens sa bonte guerre- 
douner. Chertes, moult seroit de boine eure nes qui 
cent fois porroit morii*, & cent fois morroit, par con- 
uent ke sa mors fust au plaisir & a la uolente del 
glorieus signour, <& ke il tenist sa bonte a hien guerre- 
donee." Qi^nt li rois oi chelui si hien parler, si KraTMh aak* who 
demanda a ioseph qui il estoit, & comment il auoit non. 
Et ioseph li dist, " sire, il est mes fiex, et si est apieles 
iosephes." Et il demanda se il sauoit de letres. Et 
ioseph li respondi ke il en sauoit tant que nus clors de 
son cage n'en pooit plus sauoir, & si parloit si hien et 
si beel com il auoit oi. Lors apiela li rois vn sien ThekinKhu 

Joeeph end hie 

seigant, & si li command& que il herbergast ioseph el compaiiione noU/ 

plus aaisie ostel de la mle, et si gardast ke il ne li fausist oigut, 

nule riens, ne a lui ne a sa coT/ipaignie. Ensi depar- 

tirent chelui iour, si en fu menes ioseph & sa com- 

paignie a .i. mo?dt riche ostel & moult aaisie, si orent a 

chele nuit a grant plente de moult boines viandes, & si and the beds 

ere very good. 

orent moult boins lis ke il auoient tant longement 
desirres. Car il n*auoient geu en lit onques puis ke il 
auoient este meu de lor osteus. 

FilI *chi laisserons de ioseph & de sa compaignie, [•ieefis,ooi.t] 

^ ■* ... -. Bvelechlnbed 

& si Y0U8 dirons del roi eualach qui gist en sa cambra ia tronbied with 

two tbottyhU : 

64 eyalach's meditations in bed; his vision of three trees. 

1, how to deftnd 
his land; 

2, of what Joseph 
had told him. 

and how tho 
Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost 
were three, and 
yet one ; 
and how the 
Tirgin had 
bonie a child 
withoat losing 
her virginity. 

Eralach's vision. 
He sees the stock 
or a tr«e, whence 
spring three equal 

the middle one 
having an ugly 

Under the first 
trunk are many 
people; two go 
to A ditch 

C* leans,ool.8j 
and Jump into It; 

moet of the others 
follow them and 
Jumpm too; 

moult pcnsieus, & mot^lt entrcpris do deus pensees. li 
premiers est, de sa terre desfendre encontre les egyp- 
tijens qui moult durement li auoient gastee sa terre, et 
lui meisme desconfit & cachie de la plache. Do chesti 
pense estoit il si entrepris que en nule maniere il n*en 
sauoit ke faire. Anchois auoit moult grant pear ke il 
ne perdist & sa terre et toute s'ounour terriene, par che 
ke si baron li estoient tout faillL D'autre part estoit 
si pensis de che que ioseph li auoit dit, que il le feroit 
venir au deseure de tous ses anemis, & ke il li feroit 
gaaignier la grant ioie qui ia ne prenderoit fin, so * il 
voloit son consel croire. Mais nule riens, tant i pensast 
durement, ne li pooit faire entewdre comment li peres 
& li fiex & li sains esperis estoient trois persones, & si 
n'estoit c'une seule cose. Et si ne pooit croire ke la 
Ytrge east concheu & enfante sans son puchelage 
maumetre. Iches deus seules choses ne li pooit nus 
faire entendre ne counoistre. Endementiers ke il pen- 
soit a ches deus cboses counoistre & apercheuoir, primes 
a Tune & puis a Tautre, si li auint vne auisions, ke U 
yeoit en mi lieu de sa maison la choke d'un grant 
arbre. Mais il ne pooit ape^-cbeuoir ques arbres c*estoit, 
ne de quel nature. De chele choke naissoient .iij. 
ieton moult grant & moult droit & moult haut. & si 
estoient tout .iij. d'un grant & d'un gros & d'une 
maniere, Ne mais itant ke li moiens estoit couuers 
d'une laide escorche oscure, & li autre doi Fauoient 
autresi clere comme cristaus. Desous le premier ieton 
a destre si auoit gens de toutes manieres. & de ches 
gens s'en departoient doi de la compaignie, si s'en 
aloient iusc'a vne fosse qui estoit vn peu loing. Et 
quant il venoicnt a la * fosse, si saloient dedens. La 
fosse estoit si laide & si noire que nus n'en porroit tant 
dire qu'il n'en j eust encore plus. Quant chil doi 
estoient dedens, si eonuenoit a fine forche que tout li 
autre alaissent apres, & il i aloient tout & saloient ens, 

evalach's vision of the trinity-trees. 65 

li vns apres Tautre, sans chou ke nus n'en repairoit. 
£t quant il en i eut tant sail ke la menre partie fu 
lemese, Si uinrent li vn de cheus qwi remes furent, Si 
coumrent a Tarbre qui auoit la laide escorche, si le but Mme nin to 

. - the ugly-barked 

commencnierent a decauper tout enuiron ; & quant il tree and chop u 

eurent chou fait, il ne s'en vaurent pas a tant soufirir, 

anchois le perchoient a tareles en .iiij. brankes qui i 

estoient. Et qt^ant il Torent ensi mehaignie ke des 

plaies ke il li eurent faites enuiron, ke des pertuis^ 

que il li orent fais as tareles, si en issi vns si grans a great etnam of 

.* <■ iij.1'1 ••i*j.f t blood fiowv oat. 

ruissiaus de sane, ko tot chil qui i estoient si peussent 
baignier ; Tant ke il pecboia. & quani il fu cbeus, si 
n'i remest onqt^es riens de lui en la plache, fors ke andieareatbe 

bark, bat the 

seulement Tescorcbe de bors, qui remest illuec tout en fraitjampeinto 

the ditch : 

.i moncbiel. Mais li fruis dedens qui estoit plus hisMS 

& plus clers ke ie ne vous sauroie conter, fist si grant 

saut au kaoir que il se lancba iusqu^ dedens la fosse 

ou les gens estoient cbeues. Et quant li rois se regarda, tbe tree jumiM 

si uit Taibre lancbier bors de la fosse, & si entrainnoit drng^ring much' 

apres lui moult grant partie de la gent qui dedens la 

fosse estoient, & se tenoient as rains & as brankes 

enuiron. Apres cbou reuenoit li arbres en son lieu, & md get* into its 

bark again, and 

si se reuestoit de Tescorcbe ke il auoit deuant eue, mais becomea bright 

and shining. 

ele uiuoit toute, & deuenoit si clcre & si resplendissans 
que nus bom qui deuant Teust esgardee ne peust 
quidier ne croire ke cbe fust ele. Apres esgarda li TheWngieee 

some of the peo- 

rois, si uit ke vne partie des gens qui estoient remes de pie wash their 

. , . . bodioB with Uie 

salir en la fosse, prenoient le sane qui estoit a terre biood in the 
ooules, si en lauoient le cors. Et maintenant qu'il s*en them- 
estoient laue, si cangoient tout leur samblancbes *et lor C* leaf i8,backi 
lunires. Et Tautre partie prenoient les rains de Tarbre the other* cot off 

^ * * branches and 

A lea fuelles, si en decaupoient vne partie & en leaves from the 


ardoient. (Jbeste meruelle esgarda li rois moult longe- 

ment, & de la grant meruelle que il en auoit fu si and bum them. 

esbabis, que il quidoit tout uraiement dormir, & ke cbe 

' MS pertxuB, 


Ht thinka U moit 

Imt flodi he if 


■ad Bhovt bim 

Mid tella him not 

etndln bj bia 
bed to look Bt th« 

. R« leef tbers tn 
thne, and that 
tha ngly-barkad 
one apringa oat 
of thaflnt, and 
the third flroni 
the other two ; 
and that on tha 
oreataa,' on tha 
aavaa,' on tha 
third, 'Thia 


fust Bonges ke il veoit. £t quant il eut moult longe- 
ment este en chest qoidier, a. se touma A retournay & 
aperchut^ Ss sent uiaiement qu6 il neilloit, & que il ne 
Bongoit mie. Et lors fu il asses plus esbahis que il 
n'auoit deuant este, & plus s'esmerueiUa asses quel 
merueille che pooit estre. £t quant il i eut grant 
pieche pense, si esueilla .L sien camberlenc qui gisoit 
deuant lui, en qui il se fioit moult. Si se pensa ke a 
chesti seul mousterroit s'avision, & ke ia autres ne le 
n^rroit que il peust. £t quant il Teut esuiUie moult 
coiement, qu^ li autre ne Toissent qui gisoient entour, 
si le traist d'une part, & si le mena iusques pres des 
arbies. £t chil, quant il les yit, si durement fu 
esbahis qu6 il ne pent onqi^es parler d'une moult grant 
pieche. Quant li rois eualach le vit si durement 
esbahi, si le prist par le main, & si le coTnmencha 
moult a conforter, & dist ke il n'eust mie paour, car de 
chou ne li pooit nus maus uenir. Lors se traist il 
meismes vers sa couche, A pn'st les cbierges qui 
ardoient deuant son lit, & si les aporta par deuant les 
.i\j. arbres pour esgarder & pour counoistre de quel 
maniore il pooient estre. Mais tant connut il hien que 
il estoient troi, & que li moiens, qui auoit eu le laide 
escorche, naissoit del premier. £t li tiers si issoit & de 
Tun et de Tautre. £t li rois esgarda en haut,isi uit en 
cascun des arbres letres escrites, les vnes d'or, A les 
autres d'asur. Et si disoiont les letres del premier 
arbre : '* Chist forme." Et li arbres secons auoit letres 
qui disoient : " chist sauue." Et les letres del tierch 
arbre disoient : " Chist purefie." Et quant li rois se 
regarda, si uit que tout li *troi arbre uenoient a vne tige, 
& ke ele estoit si soutieus, que nus n'en peust demser 
le commenchement, tant durement i auisast. Et si 
estoit la tige si haute que nus hom, tant eust clere 
esgardeure, n'en peust mie la fin veoir pour nule paine 
qu'H i mesist. Mais tant estoient soutil li enlachemcnt 


des trois arbres que quant il estoit au roi auis ke il oust 
deoises tous trois uraiment, & C07ineu Tun del Tautre, 
Apres li estoit auis qu'il n'i yeoit ke une seule maniere 
de fuelleSy & de fust, A de fruit, & ke li troi arbre 
qu'il auoit auant deuises en trois coses n'estoient c'une The tiirw trcM 

AM truly one. 

seule chose ore en droit. Ensi desdisoit chou qu'il 

auoit deuant iugie, 8i en estoit si esbahis qt/*il ne se 

sauoit a quoi tenir. Endementiers qu'il pensoit a The king u con- 

cheste memelle qu'il ne pooit eonnoistre du tout en 

tout, Si regarda vers vn mur d'une siewe cambre dont He look* at a 

■ecret door ot 

li huis estoit de marbre, seeles dedens le mur si soutieu- muue, 

ment qu'a paines peust estre apercheu ke il i eust huis 

ne entree, tant i seust on esgarder ententieument. Ke 

il meismes ne quidoit mie ke nus de sa maison le seust 

ke il tout seulement. Et quant il regarda vera Tuis, si 

vit ke vns petis enfes estoit dedens, qui moult estoit & wd eeee a imie 

^ , ^ cbUUwhohae 

biaus & blons. Et si entroit en tel maniere ko li huis oome through <t 

J. A V • 'J. . ' without iU opau- 

n ouuroit ne tant jie qi^nt, Anchois remanoit autresi ing. 

seres & autresi clos com il estoit deuant chou qr/il i 

entrastb Et quant il eut yn peu demoure, si reuint and goes back 

through It also. 

hors isnel le pas tout autresi com il i estoit entres sans 
Tuis ouurir^ ne onques n'i parut eu nule maniere qu'il 
i fust entres ne issus. Et quant li rois yit cheste 
chose, si fu asses plus esbahis de cheste meruelle qu'il The king wonden 

•till more. 

n'auoit este de toutes les autres. Car il ne quidoit ke 
diex ne autres peust dedens si fort mur entrer qu'en 
aucune maniere n'i parust. Lors co7nmencha moult 
dure*ment a penser li rois, & ses camberlens qui estoit [*ifis.bk,coi.s] 

The chamberlain 

auoec lui estoit si esbahis & si peureus qu'il n'osoit iie* on the ground 

mot dire de la bouche, anchois gisoit tous estendus a 

tern autresi que se il fust tous mors. Et li rois yint a 

lui & si le leua pa?- la main destre en haut, & si li dis^ 

se il auoit toutes ches meruelles yeues, & ke il Ven 

estoit auis. Et chil regarda le roi si com il pent. Et 

q7iant il eut le pooir de parler, si li dist : "A, sire, butatiartepeaka 

. x- » to the king. 

merchi, ne me metes plus en parole de nule chose. 

68 EVALACH's wonders OVBB the miraculous conception of CHRIST. 

mais menes moi en tel lieu que ie ne Toie autresteus 
memelles eomme ioix ai veiies. Car ie ne poTToie yiure 
en niile maniere potir que ie les veisse.'* A tant Ie 
pnst li ToiSy si renmenoit en vne cambre pour faire 
Th«kinff keeps couchier. Et toutes uoies aloit pensant a la menielle 

thinking of th* 

wond»ofUM ke 11 auoit yeue del enfant qui ensi estoit entres en la 

cambie, & issus. Ensi com U aloit pensant & m^ruel- 

lant dedens son cuer comment clie pooit estre auenu, si 

AvoiMteiuhim oi YRB Yois qui dist : "Eualach, de quoi te menielles 

of Um MineoioQi tu f autiesi comme li enfes est entres dedens ta cambre 

Chriai. uoians tes lex, et com il en est issus aneie sans) luis 

ouuiir ne depicbier, autresi ent}*a li salueres du monde 

dedens Ie uentre de la uiige sans son pucbelage enpirier 

TiMiMopuinthe ne maumetre, & autresi s'en issL" Quant li cambar- 

palsoe art terrified ,.,.,, . . . ,., 

BfethenoiMori&e Isns 01 la Tois parler, lors parent si grant paour quu 
ne se pent ouques soustenir, ancbois cbai tous pasmes 
a t^rre, & quida hien de uoir que tous li palais cbaist 
sour lui, si grans effirois fist la vois quant ele parla. 
Et li rois meismes en auoit si grant paour que nus n'en 
porroit dire la maniere. Ke onques en tout Ie palais 
n'eut home ne cbeualier ne sergant qui ne s'en 
esmllast, tel noise & tel effrois oirent par Ie palais. 
Et quant 11 eurent demande au roi, qui il trouuerent 

The king toOi leue, qu^l coso cbe peust estre, Si respondi li rois que 
[• leaf u] cbe auoit este vns efTrois de tounoiro. Et cbe dist il, 

^ ' pour cbou qu'il ne uoloit mie que nus d'aus seust s'a- 

Tision, se oil non qui il Tauoit moustree. A tant s'en 
rala coucbier li rois, Ss tout li autre se recoucbierent. 

he eennot deep^ Mais li rois n'i dormi onqu^s del oel, ancbois li tardoit 


jeeeph hie Tiskm. moult que li iouTS fust uenus. Car il parlast moult 
iiolentiers a ioseph prmeement de cbele vision qui li 
estoit aparue. 



;0f Joseph. How he cannot sleep, and kneels on the floor and 
prays for counsel and comfort, for king Evalaoh and his 
distracted city (p. 69-71). How a voice tells him that his 
prayer is heard, and that Evalach has seen wonders which 
he shall send for Joseph to explain ; and that Josephes 
shall he consecrate to Christ, and take chax^ of His flesh 
and blood (p. 71-2). How Joseph is glad, and goes to bed 
with his wife Helyab, but not with carnal intent (p. 72) ; 
and how they had no carnal commerce till they begot 
Galahad their youngest son, and then not for desire of 
pleasure, but by the command of God (p. 72). And how 
holy men of White Britain, now called England, descended 
from Galahad (p. 72). 

OR Yous lairons a tant ester del loi, Si yous par- JoMph Um is 
1 J • V • -J. Tx 1. • bed, md •orrows 

lerons de losepn qui se gist en son lit moult pensis ov«r Ung £▼»- 

& moult angoisseus del roi eualacb, (Eminent il le porroit 

toumer a la creanclie ihe^u crist. Car il se pense ke 

s'il ore n'est mis el point de croire, il n'i sera iamais 

mis. Car U a or en droit trop grant mestier A de Tale 

de dieu & del consel as sages gens, pot^r chou ke il ne 

garde I'eure qu'il ait pierdu ou la millour partie de sa 

t^rre on toute, par cbe que tons li mieus de son bamage 

li est faillis a son grant besoing. De cbeste cose estoit 

iosepb en si grant qoisencon, qu'il ne pooit dormir del 

oel, ne ne faisoit se penser non. Et qiiant il eut gen 

Tne grant piecbe en tel maniere ke il n*i ent ne dormi Jowph imp* oat 

. ofb«d, andkneds 

ne repose, si sail bors de son lit, & si se coucba a la bure-kneed on th« 

ierre a nus keustes & a nus genous, & commencba moult 

piteusement a souspirer del cuer & a plorer des iez. Et 

si comm.en.cha en ses ploiirs Ss en ses soupirs vne orison 

en tel maniere com you8 porres oir. " Biaas sire diex, ■ndodtaoo Ood. 

*toas poissans peres, fontaine de confbrt, babundans de Cf iMri4kOoi.t] 

misericbrde, qui desis a pule d'israel par la boucbe 

moysi ton saint ministre cbeste parole: 'YsaibeL'se bjhtopKmiiie« 

tu veus fiedre cbe que ie te commanderai^ tu n'establiras 

' Illustration here, of Joseph praying. * ? for YsraheL 


mie dieu nouiel, ne n*avras dieu estrange. Car ie 8ui li 

tiens dieus qui tu dels aourer, qui te ieta de la signourie 

pharaon qui te tenoit en seruage/ BioMs sire, ensi com 

11 est uoirs qt^'il n'est autres diex que in, & ke on ne> 

to •howhi» power doit autrui aourer, ensi uoirement demoustres tu ta grant 

Evaiach and the poissanche & ta grant misencorde sour chel roi pecneour, 

& sour les autres de cheste chite, qui si sont desuoiet de 

la uoie de uerite, ke il ne counoissent lor creatour, 

who wonhip anchois aoure?2t les ymages de pierre & de fust qui ne lor 

and atone. poent aidier ; & il i ont nuse lor creanche ke eles les 

deffendent de lor maus, & eles les mainent a lor p^r- 

Joseph coi\}nree durable mort. Biaus sire, glorieus rois de toutes choses, 

God,— by Hia ... 

death on the qui, pour sauuer le mont qui pcrissoit, daignas angoisse 

de mort soufFrir en la crois ou iou te vi claufichie. Sire, 

by Hia deliver- qul par ta poissauche me ietas sain & sauf de la prison 

anueofJoeeph .. .■,.. ., ,. .•i i 

htmieifttom ou 10 demourai .xlij. ans ke onqt^s ni goustai de nule 
^ "' t^rriene viande. Glorious sire, plaiws de toutes pites, 

byHtaaaving qui sauuas lo roj dauid ton sergant contre goulias le 
Goliath, grant ^ qui tant maus auoit fait a ton pule. Sire diex 

pardurables, sans cammenchement & sans fin, qt^i 
by Hie protecting garandiB daniel ton prophete en la fosse ou il fu mia 

Daniellnthe , i i /-w • i i • -u 

lions' den, eutre les Ijons; Qui a la gloneuse pecheresse mane 

by Hia forglre- -i i • t t • i • 

neaaofMary magdalaino perdouuas ses peonies en la maison symon 
by"HiB deliver- 1^ lieprous. SiTo, qui susauuo la feme ioachim deliuras 
anoe of Susannah, ^^j £^^ tesmoing ke li doi viellart portoient encontre 

byHisrpecne 11. Sire, glorleus peres esperitueus, qui ietas les fiex 

of the children 

of Israel fh>m jsro^l del soruage pharaon, & les passas outre la mer 

^' rouge a sech, & qui les menas el desiert ou tu fesis plus 

[* ieafii,coL8] pouT *aus qu'H ne deseruirent vers toi; car tu le 

raemplisoies de toutes lobes cboses qt^ lor cuer desir- 

oient, & 11 ne se gardoient mie de toutes lor desloiautes 

fly His deUrering falro uolant tol, anchols te courcbierent pluseur[s] fies, & 

troubles and pat- tu toutes volos los doHuras de toutes lor tribulations, & 

njiea nndeMhdr niesis tous lor auemls desous lor pies. Sire, plai;is de 

'*•*»■" misericorde, ensi cf/m nous creons ke tu lobes cboses 

' 7geant (not in B, leaf 8, ool. 1). 

Joseph's prayer for evalach. he hears from heaven. 71 

fesis, & qii^U. n'est autres diex que tu sens: Ensi 

uoirement enuoies tu hastieu conseil au roi eualach, to s«nd ooanMi to 

King EralAclu 

qui iant est desconsillies pechieres qu'il ne puet estre 

ramenes a la uoie de uerite, se tu par ta grant 

poissancho ne Ten enuoies le corage & la uolente par 

le raemplissement de ton saint espcrit qi^i e^^ confers 

& consaus as desconsillies. Sire, ia desis tu a moi 

qui sui tes sergans quant ie issi de ma naete par ton 

commandement, que tu ne m'escondiroies de rien qua ie 

te requesisse de boin cuer & de boine uolente pour ke 

ie vausisse seruir loiaument a ton coTTimandement. 

Orre, enten[d] donqt^s la proiere qve tes seigans qui 'Hear thy mft- 

cbi est, fait a toi, & si i met consel selonc ta grant 

misericorde & selonc ta gronde poissanche. Ne pour not for hims^r, 

bat to f«*H Thy 

moi, biaus sire diex, ne le faches tu mie, mais pour ton natoB, 

non essauchier & aleuer, & pour demoustrer as gens ke 

tu sens ies li tres haus dieus qui as pooir & signourie 

deseur toutes Ies creatures. Glorieus sire dies, che est 

drois que tu rendes a sainte eglise che ke tu li as 

promis. Car tu le dois essauchier & acroistre par tout 

le monde, & il est ore endroit bien tans & lieus ke ele »d inerauo 

Thy ehnrdi Is 

soit essauchie & acreue, & tes sains nons soit aoures en thia fine but 

mliguided city.' 

cheste biele chite desconsillie, qui si grant mestier a de 
ton consel & de t'aie." Ensi fu iosepb grant piecbe de 
la nuit en plours et en larmes et en orisons & en. 
proieres, a keustes nus, & a genous. £t quant il eut sa 
proiere finee. Si oi vne vois qui li dist : " Iosepb, lieue a voice t«iia 


8US, car tes proieres sont oies & recneues de ton 

creatour. Et *b/cn sacbies tu de uoir ke li rois ma^idra C* i«f ui»ck] 

toi procbainement. Car il a anuit veue vne grant theidngwuiwnd 

*^ for him to ezpkia 

partie de mes demoustrancbes & de mes merueilles. hiidraun, 
Et il t'enuoiera le matin querre, pour espondre & pour 
deuiser che ke il a anuit veu & oi. Et tu vien le 
matin tantost com Taube aparistra, & tu & ta compaignie, 
si me rendra orisons & proieres cbascun- endroit soi, & 
si Y&rtea .L nouiel establissement ke ie ne yaiu ai pas 



and that Jose- 
phet chall be coif 
Mcrated to God 
and take charge 
of Hie fleeh and 

Joeeph arieee and 
goes to bed with 
bl8 wife Helyal^ 
eanud desire. 

How Joeeph and 
bis wife lived 
porelj together. 

and had no lost 
when they begat 
Galahad, their 
youngest son, 


ttie anceetor of 
the holy men 

who honoured the 
land of White 
Britain, now 
called England. 

encore done. Car ie sacrerai ton fil ioseplie, & le fei*ai 
si haut menistijB comme prouoire. Car ie li ballerai ma 
char & mon sane en garde & en bailie, tout autrestant 
com tu en despendis de la crois quant tu m'enportaa el 
sepulcre entre tes bras. Et cheste signourie donrai iou 
a ton fil iosepbe. Et tout cbil qui aut7*estel ordene 
aront des ore en auant la recbeueront de lui par toutes 
les t^rres ou ie menrai & toi & ta semencbe." A tant 
laissa la uois a parler, si se teut. et iosepb remest moult 
Hes & moult ioians de cbe qti'H auoit oi, si 8*en rala 
coucbier qtiant vint au cbief de piecbe auoec sa feme 
belyab. Mais il ne gisoient mie ensamble a guise de 
gent luxurieuse, Mais gens co?7ime plains de religion. 
Car il ne iurent onqtiea tant ensaipble entre aus deus, 
puis chele euro ke H issirent bors de lor pais par le 
commandement ib^^u crist, que onqu^s cbele fragilites 
dont tons li bumains lignages est concbeus les escaufast 
tant ke ele les peust vne fois a cbou mener ke il 
souifrissent les caitis de cors auoir camel compaignie 
ensamble ensi comme nature le requiert d*icbele ma- 
niere. Ancbois estoient ambedoi si espris de la sou- 
uraine amour au sauueour ke de cbele pa7*tie ne lor pooit 
corages venir. Ne lors n'en orent il mie corage qu/int 
il engenrerent galaad lor dan*ain enfant par le com- 
mandement no^tre signot/r, qui le co7iim&nd& qu'il li 
apparillast de sa semen'cbe .i. nouiel fruit de quoi il 
empliroit en auant la terre ou il les uoloit mener. Far 
le coTTimandement cbelui fu engenres galaad. Et quant 
il fu engenres, n'assemblerent il mie par couuoitise 
qu'il eurent de nule luxure, mais pour acomplir le 
commandement de son signour, qui semencbe auoit 
demande a iosepb. De cbestui galaad descendi la 
baute lignie dont tout li plusour furent saint bome & 
religieus en loi vies, & essaucbierent le non no^re 
signeur ibe^u crist a lor pooirs, & si bounererent la 
t^rre de la bloie bertaigne qui ore est apiclee englctere, 


& les autres contrees en uiron, de lors sains nors 
precieus : q?/i r reposent ensi com cheste estoire le 
conteia es paroles qui chi apres vienent. Or parlerons 
de ioseph, si laisserons a tout de ses oirs iusc'a tant ke 
il en soit liens & tans ke on redoie coni&t d'aus. 


How Jofleph and bis company worship before the Ark of the 
Grail in the Palace of the Spirit, when a noise is heard, 
and the Palace trembles. (How the Palace came to be 
called The Palace Spiritual, p. 74.) How the Holy Ghost 
descends on them like a ray of fire, and how a sweet wind 
comes, and how Christ speaks to them, and urges them to 
loTe him (p. 74-6). He tella Josephea to draw near and 
take charge of his flesh and blood (p. 76). Josephes 
opens the door of the Ark, and sees a man in a red robe, 
and five angels clad like him, with six wings each, and a 
bloody sword in their left hands, and severally in their 
rights, a cross, nails, lance, sponge, and scourge, with a 
roll ' lliese are the arms by which our Judge destroyed 
Death ' (p. 77-8). How the Crucifixion is represented over 
again before Josephes in the Grail- Ark (p. 78), and how 
he is stopped from entering it (p. 79). How Joseph looks 
into the Ark, and sees angels there with the instruments of 
consecration (p. 79-^), and Jesus clad in sacramental 
robes (p. 81). How the company of angels go over the 
house purifying it with holy water, because it used to be 
the dwelling-place of devils (p. 81-2). How Christ tells 
Josephes that he is to receive the Sacrament of His flesh 
and blood (p. 82). How the proper episcopal garments 
are brought out of the Ark (p. 83) ; and how the Cbair of 
Consecration makes a Saracen king's eyes fly out of his 
head (p. 83). How Josephes is consecrated (p. 84), and 
how the angel preserves the holy oil with which all the 
kings of Britain till Uther Pendragon, Arthur's father, are 
anointed. How Christ tells Josephes the meaning of the 
Bishop's vestments, — the shoes (a Guide from Evil, p. 84), 
the upper and under garments (Chastity and Virginity), the 
head-covering (Humility), and herein of the Pharisee and 
the Publican (p. 85), the green garment (Suffering), that 
above it (Justice), the band on the left arm (Abstinence), 
the necklet (Obedience), the uppermost (Love, p. 86), the 
staff (Vengeance and Mercy), the ring (Marriage to Holy 
Churchy p. 87), and the homed hat (Confession, I. Be- 

1 lUustration, the worshippers of the Grail, with the Holy Ghost's 
heiid in the top right comer, sending red lines (of fire] to the worshippers' 


JoMph and his 
oompftny wor- 
ship hefors the 

(How their 
was named The 
Palace of the 
Spirit, b7 the 
Prophet Daniel ; 

[* leaf 14, hack, 

oul. S] 

hut whj, the 
citizens knew 

The Holy 
Ghost descends 
like any of fire 

into each man's 

pentance, 2. Satisfaction, and what they are, p. 88). And 
bow Chrittt tella Josephes his duties as a Bishop, uud pro- 
mises him a rich reward if he serves Him loyally (p. 89). 

AV matin si tost coni ioseph vit Taubo apparoir, si 
se leua, il & sa compaignie, Si uinre/it tout orer 
deuant rarche. Et quant il furent tout agenoillie deuant, 
si oirent vn mout grant escrois qui vint de haut. Et 
quant il orent oi Tescrois, si sentirent la t^rre, qui 
trambloit desous aus moz/lt durement. Ichil Ileus ou il 
estoient herbergie & ou il ouroicnt, si estoit vns palais 
qui estoit apieles li palais esperiteus. Et chest non li 
auoit mis danyel li prophetes qwant il repairoit de la 
baiUie nabugodonoaor le roi, *qui Tauoit pris entre les 
autres iuis q?/ant il le mena en babyloino. En che 
repaire passa danyel par chele cbite. Et quant il vit 
le palais, si escr/t en la porte lettres de carbon en 
ebrieu, & si disoient les lettres, ke chil palais seroit 
apieles * li palais esperiteus.' Chis nons fu acoustumes 
a dire ke onq?(es n'en chai, & tant com li palais sera en 
estant sera il apieles esperiteuls. Mais deuant che qite 
ioseph i fust herbergies n'auoient oi chil de la vile 
onqiies, ne seu, pour quoi il estoit ensi apieles. & lors 
le sorent il, si ores co?nment. Quant la terre eut 
tramble desous les crestiews qui el palais estoient a 
orisons ensi com uous aues oi, Si desccndi li sains 
espens tantost laiens, ^ & vint en samblanche d'cspart 
vns rais de fu par deua7?t chascun d'aus. Et li uns 
regardoit I'autre a grant merueille, si veoit li vns que li 
rais du fu entroit a Tautre dedens la bouche ;^ ne ne 
disoient mot nus d'aus, Anchois quidoient estre tout 
cnfantosme poiflp le fu qw'il veoiewt qwi lor entroit es 
cors. Ensi furent vne grant pieche que onqu^s nus 
d'aus ne dit mot de la bouche, tant durement estoient 
esbahi ; Tant qu'il vint par laiens autresi comma vns 

' — ' k uint en samblance de fu : si fu auis a chascun qns 
vns rais de feu li entroit el cors par mi la bouce. MS Add. 
10,292, leaf 8, col. 3. 


Boufflemens de vent doucli & souwef, qui rendoit si Aiofiiwert 
grant odour ke il lor fu auis qw'il fuissent entre toutes **°**^ 
les boines espisces da monde. Apres la venue de chele 
"boine oudour, si oirent vne vois qui parla a aus ensi »* a toic*,— 
com Yous pores oir. '^ Escoutes, mi nouiel fil. le sui Christ mj* tiiai 

. . M be bought 

diex nostre sires, Yostre peres espenteuls, qwi rous ai thom with his 

1 . p . . t. ± M 1 1 flash and blood, 

calengies & gaaignies encontre tout le monde -par 
ma char que ie soufiH a desrompre & a p^rchier 
pour Y0U8 racater^ Ss par mon sane que ie vauch es- 
pandre. Et pour che qu6 ie uous ai si grant amour 
moustree ke ie vous racatai de ma char & de mon 
sane, che ke nus peres t^rriens ne fesist a son fil, th«y»iJouid 

, love Him with 

pour chou me deues yous bien samblant moustrer more than auai 


ke Y0U8 m ames de grignour amour ke nus fiex tcrriens 

n*aime son pare. 'OR escoutes donqwes que iou, [•iflafis] 

diex nostiQ sires, uo^^re peres, yous dirai. Enten cha He hu given 

^ them hie Holy 

crestientes, tu qui es nouuiaus pules, au urai cruchefije, spirit, 

ie [t'ai] tant ame & tenu chier ke Tai mis en toi 

mon saint esperit, qui i*ai enuoie en t^rre pour Tamour 

de toi de la sus ou il estoit en la haute gloire de mon 

chier pere. Je t'ai mis en grignour hounour & en and put them 

. .,..,. « 1 1 *" greater 

grignour signoune ke ti anchiseur ne furent el desert, honour than 

ou ie lor dounai .xL ans tout chou ke lor cuer desiroient. in the Deseit ; 
Mais encor te^ tien iou a plus aaise ke il n'estoient. 

Car ie t'ai dounei mon saint eaperit, dont ie ne lor fis they "»««* «<>* 

■^ then fall into 

onqi^^ don ne baiUie. Ore gardes donques ke tu ne the Jews' sins, 

retraios a loi felounies. Car ie lor fis tous les biens, & 

il me firent tous les maz^«. Car s'il me faisoient honour 

de la bouche, il ne m'amerent onquea del cuer. Et si 

le me moustrerent bi6n en la fin. Car ie les uenoie ^^o were called 

to the Marriage- 

semonre Ss apieler a ma haute feste, a ma grant ioie de Feast 

mes nueches que ie uoloie faire de moi & de sainte 

eglise. Et il n'i daignierent ' fuenlir, ne onqwes ne me *nd would not 

. . comej 

▼aurent eomioistre que tous les bi^ns lor auoie fais. 

Et pour chou que ie ving pouremewt entr* aus. Si dis- 

' MS le. ' a hole in the MS. 


who Mdd Ho was 
not tbeir God, 

who took Him 
like A thief and 
■courged Him, 

mocked Him and 
gare Him bitter 
drink and then 

[•leaf 15, col. 2] 
Beware that ye 
be not like 

if ye will be my 
eons, I will be 
your Father, 

you shall have 
my Spirit, 

and I will dwell 
bodily with you. 

though you see 
me not. 
Come then, 
Josephes, my 
servant, thou 
art worthy to 
take charge of 
thy Saviour's 
flesh and blood. 

for thon art fir^ 
from coretousness 
and all evil, and 
ftiU of all purity. 

rent ko lor diex n'estoie iou mie^ Et si eurewt si grant 
despit de che qtie ie osai dire, que ie estoie lor diex, 
qu'il me pr/sent comme laron en repost, & si me desrom- 
pirent ma cliar & perchierent mes mewibrens ^ & mon 
cors. ^ Et pour les grans honenrs ke ie lor auoie faiths, 
me rendirent il guerredon d'escopir & de bufoier. 
Et pour les dons* boire ke ie lor auoie dones el desert, 
me donerent il en la crois Ie plus vil boire & plus 
angoisseus ke il peurent trouer. Et apres me dounerent 
il la mort, qui lor auoie donee la terriene vie, & la per- 
durable lor prometoie. Ensi trouap] cheus de tout en 
tout crueus fillastres, a qui iou auoie tons iours este 
dous peres. Mais gar'des \02i8 mowlt hien ke vous ne 
soies samblant a la felenesse lignie. Car b/en deues 
auoir cangie la maniere de cheus do qui vous aues cangio 
la vie. Se vous vous contenes vers moi co^nme mi 
loial fil, Je me conterrai vers vous comme yostres 
deboinaires peres. Et si ferai plus -pour uous ke ie 
n'ai fait pour mes prophetes qui si m'ont serui cha en 
ariere de boin cuer & de boine volente. Car se il 
orent mon saint esperit auoec aus, aut^'esi Taueres vous. 
Et si aures encore autre chose. Car ie morrai corporel- 
ment chascun iour en uostre compaignie, tout autresi 
C07/1 iou estoie corporelment en terre. Mais tant i ara 
de differenche, ke ie estoie veus en terre : mais ore ne 
me uerres vo?« mie en chele samblanche. Vien aua7it, 
iosephe, li miens sergans, car tu ies dignes d*cstre 
ministres de si haute chose auoir en baillie cowme est 
li chars & li sans de ton sauueour. Car ie t'ai esproue, 
& conneu. plus net & plus monde de tons natureus 
pecliies ke nule morteus chars ne porroit penser. Et 
pour chou ke iou couoite & sai qwi tu ies mieus ke tu 
meismeft ne fais — ^Car ie te sai unit de couoitise, et 
monde d'enuie, & quite d'orguel, & net de toute felenie, 
& sans partie de toute luxure, & plain de toute chaeste, 
' ? membres. ' MS dons. 


— pour chou voel iou ke tu rechoiues de la moie main 

la plu9 grant hauthecho qne nus horn morteus puist 

auoir. "Ne nus de tous les autres ne I'auera de ma 

main ke tu seulemcTzt, anchois Taront de toi chil qui 

des ore mais raront." A tant se traist iosephes auant, Josephes dnwB 

moult traTwblans&moMlt peureus, & commencha a plourer "**'* ™ "*' 

moult durement, & a rendre grasces a son creatour qui weepi and 

Tapieloit a si grant honeur, recheuoir de quoi nus hom 

morteus ne pooit estre dignes par deserte qu*il onqwes 

eust flute selonc son auis, se diex seulement par la 

sieue grasce ne li otrioit. Et quant il fu *uenus iusc'a [* leafis.ooLS] 

Tarche,^ *si ne soies mie esbahis de chou ke tu uerras.' p p la vou di«t] 

Lors ouuri iosephes Tuis de Tarche a mowlt grant paour He opens the 

& a moult grant doutanche. Et qz^ant il eut ouuert, si »«<! m«s « man' 

vit vn honime vestu d'une reube plus rouge & plus (^^'^•'^ •^ ^'^ 

hideuse a cent doubles que n*est foudres ardans. Et si 

piet estoient tout autreatel, & ses mains, & ses viaires. 

Et en tour chel home si estoient .v. angele tout vestu and five angeia 

d'autrestel reube & d'autrestel samblanche. Et si auoit 

chascun d'aus .vi. eles qui sambloient ke eles fuissent each with six 

de fu ardant. Et chascuns d'aus tcnoit en la senestro and a bloody 

. . t . -r«. f X 'J. sword in his left 

mam vne espee toute sanglente. Et li premiers tenoit j^jn^^ 

en la main destre vne grant crois tout sanglente, Mais 

qwe chose fust a counoistre de quel fust la crois estoit. and in his right 

. . thefirstaniirelheld 

Et li angeles secons tenoit en sa mam destre trois claus a bloody cross, 

.-i T X -x -IT the second tliree 

tous sanglens, Si qt^il li estoit auis ke li sans en bloody naiia, 
degoutast en -chore tous vermaus. Et li tiers angeles the third a long 

., ii»ixi'/> bloody lance, 

tenoit en la main destre vne grant lanche dont li ners 
estoit tous sanglens, & la hanste estoit toute sanglente 
ausi insque par la ou li angeles le tenoit empoignie. Et 
li quars angeles tenoit par deuant le uiaire al home, the fourth a 

* ° ^ , . . , sponge stained 

vne esponge toute droite, qui restoit autresi tainte de with wood, 
sane de Tun chief iusk'en Tautre. Et li quins angeles the fifth a Woody 
tenoit en sa destre mam vne maniere de corgie toute 
sanglente qwi sambloit estre faite de verges torses loies 
ensamble. Et chascuns de ches .v. angeles tenoit en and each had a 




roll, 'TheM are 
the anna bj 
which OUT Judge 
conquered death.' 
The writing on 
Chriet's fore- 

[• (di-«dl»olent) 
leaf U. back] 
Hie feet and 
handa run blood. 

How the Ark 
■eenied of 
Immense eize. 

[1 MS il ne] 

How Josephes 
aeec Clirist 
nailed to the 
crose, and the 
aponge put to 
His chin. 

and the lanoe 
pierce His side, 
and a stream of 
blood and water 
pour out; and 
the OrailDish 
under his feet, 

and blood 
dropping in and 
filling it. 

How Christ 

leems as if He'd 

fidl from the 


and Josephes 

runs to the 

door of tlie 



vn rolct, escrites letres qui disoient: ''Che soni les 
armes par quoi li iugieres qui chi est, uencui la mort 
& destruist." £t cliil horn entour qui li angele cstoient, 
si auoit escrit en mi le front en ebrieu de letres 
blanches: ''En cheste samblanche uenrai iou iugier 
toutes choses au felon iour espoentable." Ensi di*soient 
les lettres. Et si estoit auis ke de ses pies & de ses 
mains couroit sangle[n]te rousee contreual, si que la 
tene en sambloit estre toute vermelle. Et si estoit 
auis a iosephe ke Farche estoit hien a quatre doubles 
plus grans & plus lee k'ele ne soloit estre. Car li horn 
que il^ veoit estoit dedons, & li .v. angele; si en fu 
si durement esbahis de la meruelle ke il veoit, ke il ne 
sauoit ke dire ne que faire. Anchois s'enclina vers 
terre, si commencha moult durement a penser. Ensi 
com il pensoit tons enclins, ^ la vois le rapiela. Et il 
esgarda, si vit chel home crucefije en la crois ke li 
angeles tenoit, & les cleus qu'il auoit veu tenir a Tautre 
angele vit es pies & es mains del home. & si uit ke 
I'esponge si estoit apoie au menton, & il sambloit 
moult hien home qui a chele eure fust en angoisse de 
mort. Apres esgarda iosephes, si vit ke la lanche qu*il 
auoit veue en la main au tierch angele estoit fichie tres 
parmi le coste del home crucefijet Si en degoutoit tout 
contreual la hanste vns ruisseles qui n'estoit ne tons sans 
ne toute iaue, & nepourquant il sambloit estre de sane 
& d^aue. Et desous les pies au cruchefis vit ichele 
escuele ke ioseph ses peres auoit fait aporter en Tarche. 
Si li estoit auis ke li sans dos pies au crucefije degoutoit 
en chele escuele qu6 ele estoit ia pr^s plaine, si sambloit 
a iosephe ke ele vausist verser, & ke li sans en deust 
espandre. Apres li estoit auis ke li horn voloit chaoir 
a tene, & que li doi brach li estoient ia escape des 
cleus si que li cors s'en uenoit a terre, la teste desous. 
Quant il vit chou, si uaut courre auant pour lui redre- 
chier. Et qu/nit il dut metre le p'fimier pie dedens 


Tarche, si vit les .v. angeles a tout lor espees en Tentree but three angeis 
de Tuis. Si tendoient li troi encontre lui les pointes swords at iiim, 
de lor espees, & li *autre doi lenoient les lor en haut [* imr 15, back, 
& faiBoient samblaut de lui ferir. £t iL ne laissa on- ^^^ j.^},^ ^^^^ 
qties powr cliou qw'il ne vausist outre passer, tant He'itiiuriee to 
desiroit a redrechier chelui qui il creoit qui estoit ses *"'**'• 
diex et ses sauueres. £t quant il vaut metre I'autre but cannot* 
pie dedens, si ne peut, ancliois li couuint arester. Car 
on le tenoit si forment deriere par les .ij. bras, ke il fortwoangeie 
n'auoit pooir d'aler en auant. & il se regarda, si vit que thearme; and 
doi angele le tenoient cnascuns a vne main, & en and the other a 

,, . ' J, -L ^• 1 p T X • <»i»e' and box. 

1 autre mam tenoit li yns vne ampule, & li autres .l 

enchensier & vne boiste. Et ioseph ses peres, qt/ant 

il le vit esgarder arriere si durement, si B'emeruilla 

moult de che ke il eut tant longement este al huis de 

TaTche sans plus faire & dire, & qiiel cose il pooit tant Josieph wonders 

auoir esgarde. Lors se leua ioseph de la ou il estoit a tnnce. 

orisons, si ala ve?*s son fil. Et quant iosephe[s] le vit 

si pres de lui, si mist sa main encontre, & li camme72cha 

a crier : " Ha, biaus pere ioseph, ne touche pas a moi, Josephes teiis 

m y^ him not to tooch 

ke tu ne me toiLles la grant gloire ou ie sui. Car ie iiim. as he is in 

sui si eUumines des esperitueus demonstranches, que ^"^ 

ie ne sui mais en tcrre." Q?/ant ioseph oi cheste parole, Joseph kneels 

. before the Ark, 

si fu si angoisseus & si espris de ches me/oiclles veoir, and looks in, 

and sees an 

ke il n'i garda onqu^m deffense, anchois se laissa chaoir aitar covered 
deuant Tuis de Tarche a genous. Et il esgarda, si vit doths, and 
dedens Tarche .i. petit autel tout couuert de blans dras, one*uke samite, 
& par desus tous les blans dras si i auoit .i. moult riche threTnSisand 
drap, & vermeil & moult biel autrestel comme samit. l^J^^^^' 
Desour che drap esgarda ioseph, si vit qw'il auoit .iij. 
cleus tous degoutans de sane, <& .i. fer de lanche tout 
sanglant a Tun des chies de Tautel, & a Tautre chief 
estoit Tescuele qu'il auoit aportee. Et en mi lieu del 
autel si auoit .i. moult riche vaissiel d'or en samblanche and the Oraii- 


d'un hanap, & .i. couuercle deseure qui estoit d'or 

au'tresi. Ne le couuercle ne pent il mie veoir a C* leaf is, back; 

* col. 8] 


uid abore the 

altar a hand 

holding a red 


and before the 

altar two handa 

holding candles. 

He hear* a door 
open, and there 
oome out 

two angela with 
water and a 

two othen with 
two gold basins 
and two towels, 

three more with 
three gold 

and boxes ftill 
of inoenae, and 
most sweet 

[* leaf 16] 

Another angel 
with letten on 
his forehead. 

carrying the 
another carrying 

on the left 
another angel 
with a sword. 

deliuTo, ne quanqiies il auoit desus. Car il estoit 
couuers d'un blanc drap ke on ne le pooit veoir ke par 
deuant. Et tout outre Tautel si vit yne main qui tenoit 
vne crois jnouli biele, toute vermelle. 'Mais chelui dont 
la mainjs estoit, ne vit il mie.^ £t si uit deuant Tautcl 
.ij. mains qui tenoient chierges. Mais il ne vit mie 
les cors dont les mains estoient. Endementiers ke il 
gardoit ensi laiens, si escouta, si oi Tuis d'une cambre 
m[ottlt du]rement flatir. & il toume ses iex vers la 
cambre, si en uit issir .ij. angeles, dont li vns tenoit 
.i orchuel tout plain d*iaue, & li autres tenoit 
.i jetoir en sa main destre. Et apres cbes .ij. en 
uenoient doi autre qui portoient en lor mains .ij. grans 
vaissiaus d'or autresteus comme .ij. bachins, & a lor 
cans 2 auoit .ij. touailles qui estoient de si grant biaute 
comme cbeles qui onqwcs horn morteus n'auoit baillies. 
Qwant chil doi furent hors de la cambre, si en issirent 
troi autre apres qwi portoient .iij. enchensiers d*or, en- 
lumines de si riches pierres precieuses qw'il sambloit 
de uoir ke il fuissent tout espris de fu ardant. Et en 
Tautre main tenoit chascuns d'aM* vne boiste plaine 
d'enchens, & de mierre, & de maintes autres precieuses 
espises qwi rendoient laiens si douche odour & si grant 
suatume qw'il estoit tres bien auis ke la mai*sons en 
fust toute plaine. Apres en vit issir .j. autre, qui auoit 
letres el front escrites, & si disoient, * ie sui apieles 
forche del tres haut signowr.' Ichil portoit sour ses 
.ij. mains .i. drap autresi verdoiant com esmeraude, & 
sour che drap estoit mise la sainte escuele. En coste 
de chelui drap, & .i. angele deuers destre, en auoit ,i. 
qui portoit vn teste, cowi qt^s si riches ne si biaus ne 
fu veus par iex de nul home terrien se chil meismes ne. 
Et deuers senestre en i auoit .i. qwi portoit vne ^pee 
dont li poins estoit d'or, & li heudure d'argent. Et 
toute Talumele estoit autresi vermeille ca7nme vns rais 

' Here an illustration, of a hand holding a cross ; and below, 
three bloody nails, the Qrail vessel, &q. ' L. coUum, neck • 


de fa en biases. Et quant chil troi estoient issu hois, Three other 
81 yenoient deuant aus troi autre qui portoient trois three ooioand 
chierges de toutes les couleurs que mortens langue j^^' 
porroit noumer. Apr^s esgardoit ioseph, si neoit issir 
hois ilie^u crist, en autrestel samblanche com il li ap- 
parat en la chartie ou il estoit enprisones, qt^int il fu 
issus del sepulcre, & en cors & en esperit, au ioor de sa 
lesuirection. En cheste samblanclie le yit iosepb. venir 
hois, fors tant seulement ke il auoit ore vestus tons les 
Testemens ke pr^stres doit uestir quant il vent faire le ciad in nen- 

, . . mental robei. 

sacrement iwstie signeur. £t li angales pnmiers qui 
portoit le ietoir, puchoit en Tiaue, & si aloit ietant par The uigei 

^ , ... • 1 • J. -I • -ftr • eprinkleethe 

desus les crestijens qui estoient laiens. Mais nus pe(q>iewith 
d'aus tons ne ueoit cbelui qui I'iaue ietoit, fors qi^e ^*^^'*^^' 
ioseph seulement & iosepbes ses fiex; icbil doi le 
yeoient tout apertement. Lors prist iosepb son fil par Joeeph mIu 

Joeephee If he 

la main, & si li dist, *' biaus fiex, counois tu encore ne knows Christ. 

apercbois qui cbist bom est, qui si biele maisnie maine 

en sa eompaignie, & ya si bounonreement 1 " Et iosepbe 

li dist : *' par foi, biaus pere, ie sai de uoir ke cb'est He ahswer^ 

cbil de qui dauid dist el sautier en yn yers ' ke diex 

eommande as angeles qu'il le gardent par tons les lieus 

ou il ira.' Ne nus bom ne porroit estre si seruis ne si 

boneies *par angeles que il seulement." A tant passa [*ieafie»od.s] 

toute la co7npaignie par deuant aus, si alerent auirounant angeu go sii 

tout le palais dedens, & par tout leu il aloient ietoit li ^ ^^^ 

angeles Tiaue au ietoir. Et quant il yenoient deuant iprinUing holy 


I'arcbe, si n'i aloit nus d'aus qui n'enclinast a ib^^u 
crist auant, & puis apres a Tarcbe. Et quant il orent 
auirounee toute la maison par dedens, si reuinrent 
tout deuant Taicbe. Lors apiela nostiea sires iosepbe. 
Et iosepbes li respondi : '' Sire, yees obi uo^e sergant chHst calls 


tout apparilliet a Yostre uolente faire." Et nostre sires 

li dist : " Ses tu ke cbeste iaue senefie, ke tu as yeu and teUs him 

espandre par ebaiens ? Cbe est netoiemens des lieus sprinkling of 

^ V A the water was 

ou manuals espens a conuerse. Oar cneste maisons a topuHiythe 



hoQM, whloh 
haUteilon of 

Chrlft nplalni 
how bolj water 

he 111 to reoelTe 
tho Sacnunttit^ 

C*lMfl«,ool. 8] 

and ba mada 
Sorraln BUhop 
of hU new 

the hand and 
drawa blm to 

este tons ioura habitacles des djables, Si doit estre 
auant mondees & netoies ke mes seruiches i soit fais. 
£t nepourquant ele est toute mondee & espuigie des ke 
li sains esperis i descendi qui iou i enuoiai, mais ie 
I'ai arousee de cheste iaue por che qiie ie voel que tu 
faclies autresi par tous les liens on mes nons doit estre 
apieles & mes seruiches fais." £t iosephes li dist : 
** sire, en quel maniere puet Tiane espurgier si ele n'est 
auant espuigie f" ''Tout autrestel beneichon, dist 
nostre sires, en Tiaue del purefijement eommQ en Tiatie 
del baptesme. Car tu i feras Ie signe de la grant 
raencbon, che est li signes de la crois sainte, & si diras 
ke che eoit el non du pere & du fil & du saint espmt 
£t qui aura creanche enterine en la forche de cheste 
beneichon, ja mauuais espms n'abitera en liu ou cheste 
iaue soit espandue. Car tous li peurs & la paine au 
d jable si est en oir Ie coniuiement de la sainte trinite, 
& en ueoir Ie signe de la sainte crois, par qui sa poestes 
fu destruite. Des ore mais Toel ke tu rechoiues la 
hauteche ke ie t'ai promise a doner. Che est li sacro' 
mens de ma char & de mon sane, & si Ie verra tous mes 
pules apertement. Car *ie voel qu*il te soient tesmoing 
deuant rois et deuant contes, ke il ont veu la sainte 
enunction ke ie t'ai mise sour toi potir toi establir 
souurain pasteur apres moi de mes nouuieles berbiSy 
Ch'est souurain eueske de ma nouuiele crestiente. Et 
tout autreai com moyses mes loiaus seigSTis estoit 
meneres & conduisieres des fiex israel par la poeste qu4 
ie Ten auoie dounee, Tout autresi seras tu gaideres do 
chest mien pule. Car il aprenderont de la toie bouche 
comment il me deuront seruir, & comment il tenront la 
nouiele loy, & garderont la creanche." Lors Ie prist 
nostrea sires par la destre main, si Ie traist prcs de Ini, 
si ke tous li pules des crestiens qui laiens estoient 
yirent apertement la samblanche de lui. £t si ueoient 
tout comment iosephes estoit en estant deuant lui, e% 


comment il faisoit le eigne sour lui de la ciois. Et 

quant il eut este vne pieche deuant lui, a tant es uous a grey-haired 

. - ■! It man OOQIOS 

que vns horn vint nors de 1 arche tons kenus, si aportoit out of the Ark 

SOOT son col les plus riches uestemens, & les plus biaus ganDesL, 

ke nus hom t^rriens eust onqt^^s veus ne baUlies. £t 

apr^ chelui issi vns autres q^^i estoit biaus a m^ruelle, 

& de moult biel eage, si portoit en son poing vne croche, Md ajoung one 

with A crook and 

& en Tautie vne mittre toute blanche, & la croche mim> 
estoit toute blanche ausi, & la hanste toute vermelle. 
Quant chil doi fuient venu hors, si uestirent iosephe andthejeiothe 
tous les uestemens ; les sandales premierement, & puis bishop's vest- 

1 . •■ • • J. -!_ T*^ 1 M menta and seat 

les autres choses qui conuienent a eueske. £t quant il him in a chair 

fu tous reuestus, si Tassirent en vne kaiere qui estoit 

illuec, toute apparellie par la uolente nostre aigaour, 

qui de toutes chose le voloit aaisier. Chele kaiere 

estoit de si grant nkeche ke onqu^ nus hom qui le of great richness, 

ueist ne sent a dire certainete de quoi ele peust estre. 

Et tout cil qui faisoient les riches oeures, dont il le 

uinrent puis veoir maint, disoient ke en tout le monde 

n'auoit *maniere de si riche pirre^ dont il n*eust en la [• leaf le, back] 

kaiere. Et che dient encore tout chil ki le voient. 

Car ele ne fu onqt^ puis ietee hors de la chite, anchois >tiu kept in the 

fu tous iours tenue 'pour saintewaire puis ke iosephes 

en fa partis. Ne onquas puis hom ne s4 assist que n'en 

fust leues tous mors, ou qui n'i mehaignast de son cors 

anchois qu'il en fust l^ues. Et puis en auint il moult ofthesubse- 

, qnent miracle 

biaus miracles quant la chites fu pnse par vn roi des wrought by the 
sarrasins qui guerrioit la terre. Car, quant il eut madeasacrue- 
trouuee la kaiere, & il le vit si riche, si dist ke il le ung^s ejeTiiy 
prisoit plus ke toute la chite, & dist qu'il Temporteroit °*'° 
en egypte dont il estoit rois, & si serroit dedens tous 
les iours ke il porteroit coroune. Et quant il Ten quida 
porter, si ne le pent onqz^es nus hom remuer de son lieu 
on ele estoit. Et il dist ke toutes voiea serroit il 
dedens, puis ke il porter ne Fen pooit. Et maintenant 
* piere, pierret pere, pierre, pierrerie. — Burguy. 


Anoints and 


pat bj tiM ugtl 
Sato tlM Ailc 




Arthur's fktiMT, 
with It. 


ring on Jo- 

Christ tslls 
OMnnloff of 

HIp shoss to 
Ikom ths paths 

ke il s'i fu assis, si en prist Jkostie sires si grant uen- 
ianche que ambedoi 11 oel li uolerent hors de la teste. 
Ensi demoustra no^ie sires que cbe n'estoit pas sieges 
a home mortel, se a clieli non pour qui il I'auoit ap- 
pariUie. £t maintes autres uirtus i demoustra il, dont 
li contes ne parlera mie cbi orendroit, Mais qtiont li 
lieuB yenra, & li tans. Quant iosephes fu assis en la 
kaiere, si uinrent tout li angele deuant lui, A nostte 
sires I'enoinst & sacra en chele maniere ke on doit 
eueske sacrer & enoindre, si ke tous li pules le yit 
apartementi £t ohele onctions dont il fu enoins si fu 
prise en I'ampule ke li angeles portoit, qui le prist & 
traist a soi par I'espaule quant il vaut entrer dedens 
I'arche si com sues oi cha en aniere. £t de chele 
onction mebme furent enoint tout li roi deske la 
crestientes vint en engletere iusqtt'a uter pandragon, 
qui fu peres le roi artu, de qui tout chil qui content les 
auentures ne seuent mie tres bien pour quoi il fu apieles 
pandragons *en son soumon« Car che set on bien, ke 
il eut a non Tters en baptesme. Mais Testoire de chest 
liure lor dira cha en auant tout esclairiemant poter quoi 
il fu apieles ensi, & cennment ichele unctions fu perdue 
qiMmt il dut premierement estre courones. Quant 
iosephes fu enoins & sacres ensi com yous aues oi, si li 
assist noette sires la croche en la main & sa mitt[r]e en 
la teste, & si li mist el doit yn anel dont nus horn 
morteus ne porroit Tenure contrefaire, ne la forche de la 
piene deuiser. £t quant il eut de toutes choses ensi 
atoume com yous aues oi, si Tapiela, & si li dist: 
" Josephe, ie t'ai sacre & enoint a eueske si hautement 
ke tu as yen, & mes autres pules ke chi est^ Or te 
dirai ke chist yestement senefient ke tu as yestus. 
Car nus ne les doit porter s'il ne fait chou ke la sene* 
fianche requiert Chil sauler qu« tu as cauchies, 
senefie ke ti> doit tes pies tenir si nes ke il ne yoisent 
an nule oeuure de malisse^ mais en oriBon, et en prs» 


chement^ & en consel •douner as desconsillies^ En tel 

nuinieie dois tu traoillier tea pies. Car ie voel que ta 

aies part en Tescripture qui dist : ' li horn est boineu- VMim i, i, v 

reus qui ne vaut estre consenteres del canael as felons, 

& qui ne naut porter ses pies en la uoie par ou 11 

pecheonr A li desloial aloient^ & qui ne sist mie en la 

kaiere de destruisement Mais il mist sa nolente & sa 

poissanche toute a parfaire les eit>tnmandemen8 de la 

loj noHie signoiir, & en cheste chose fuient tout si 

pense, & par nuit & par lour.' En tel maniere doiuent 

aler ti pie. Car il ne doiuent la fidre nul pas sans 

p^mrfit. Apr^s te dirai des autres uestem^ns. Chil ke ' 

tu as vesta desus ta cote, si senefie chaeste. Car ch'est tim adw gN» 

me yirtus par qui Tame qtiont ele depart del cors s'en chaia^. 

na blanche & nete, & si s'acorde a tous les biens de 

Tame, che estw a toutes les virtus. Ensi dois *tu pre- C* iMf M^baeic. 

mierement chaaste dedens toi auoir, pour faire de 11 

fondement as autres uirtus ede^'er. . li autres ueste« 

mens desour chelui est autresl blans, & si senefie Tb««nMrui«Mi 

TirginiteL Et tout autresi com uirginites ne puet 

estre en nul lieu ke caaestes ne soit en sa eompaignie. 

Tout autresl ne puet nus prestres ne ne doit uestir 

ehelui desus ke il n'ait auant uestu chelui desous. 

Chil autres uestemens dont 11 chies est couuers, si ThaiiMd-cow 

senefie humelite, qui est contraire a orgueL Car Hvmuitj, 

oigieus veut tous lours aler fierement^ teste leuee. 

Mais humilltes va douchement, tout souef, le chief PriMUoastitto 

walk htimblyt 

endin. Autresi doit aler li prestres a grant humilite, le not uke om 
ehlefenclin. Non pas autresi eom li pharisgens el temple tmb^, 
quant il oroit^ qui dist, * biaus sire diex, ie te rench 
grasces is merchis de che ke ie ne sui mie autresi 
desloiaus com sont mi autre voisin 1 ' Mais ausi com 
li publicans qui n'osoit mie nis regarder vers le chiel, bat iik« the 
tel paour auoit il ko diex ne se courechast de che qu'il 
estoit si pechieres; anchois estoit repuns loing d^ 
I Chel uestimeiit ka^ MS Addit 10^292. leaf 10, ooL 1. 


The gnen gar- 
ment means 

The one above 
it means Jastice 
or Righteoua- 

[• leaflT] 
The qualitiei of 

The band on the 
left arm meant 

Why is it on the 
left arm rather 
than the right P 

The necklet 
means Obedi- 

For we on^ht to 
bear the yoke 
like the ox. 

The nppennost 
garment means 
LovO} or Charity. 

Tautel, & batoit son pis de son poiug, & disoit, 
'Diex, sire, aies pitie de chest pecheonr.' En tel 
maniere se doit contenir, qui vent acomplir les oeures 
d'umilite. Or te dirai ke cliil apres senefie qui est tons 
yera, & si ne T doit nus prestres yestir, ne lui ne chel 
autre desns, se il n'est eueskes. Et chil qui est si u^rs 
senefie souffranche, qui ia ne sera yencue, tons iours 
jest yerdoianSy tous iours est en yne forche, ne nus ne 
ua encontre qui ele n'emport la yictoire & I'onour. Car 
nus ne puet si hieii yaincre son anemi comme par 
soufifrir. Chil autres uestemens desus chestui, qui est 
si blans, senefie droiture. Car tout chil qui uoelent 
droiture de sainte eglise garder loiaument maintienent 
droiture. Droiture est yne yirtus de si grant haute*che 
ke par li sont toutes choses tenues en lor droit pointy 
ne ia nule fois ne se cangera, a chascun rendra chou 
qu'il ara deserui. Droiture ne doune a nului pour 
amour, ne ne taut a nului pour haine. Ensi se doit 
mener qui ueut maintenir d[r]oiture. Chil loije^zs qui 
te pent el brach senestre, si senefie abstinenche. ^Car 
li cors doit estre loijes a abstinenche autresi com 11 bras 
est de chel loijen, & che est ^ yne des grans yirtus d'estre 
en abstinenche en grant plente de hien, & cheste uirtus 
si est yns des membres de droiture. Et se tu ueus 
sauoir pour quo! chil loiens est jplus el brach senestre 
ke el destre, Je le te dirai : pour ke la destre ne doit 
seruir se d*espandre non, ne la senestre se de retenir 
non. Or t'ai dit del loien del brach. Apres te dirai 
de chelui qui est entour le col, si senefie obedienche. 
Car autresi com li hues porte le gieu au gaignour, 
autresi deues yous porter le gieu de nostie signour dame 
dieu, & deues estre obeissant a son eommandement, 
autresi com li hues obeist au gaaignour pa[r] la forche 
du gieu. Chil daarrains uestemens qui est desus tous 
les autres, si senefie carite. Car ele est tout yermelle j 
*-^' o'est, MS Addit. 10,292, leaf 10,.coL 2, middle. 


& qui a carite en soi, il est cans autresi com 11 carbons 
ardans est Termans, & si est volentieus & corieos de 
tenir cliier chou qu'il doit. Che est, d'amer dien son tim qnaiitiM of 


signour de tout son cner & de tonte s'ame & de tout 
son pense, & apr^s d'amer son proisme autresi com soi 
meisme. ^Charites met toutes choses en vn pris, & 
aime toutes choses ouniement, nule cliose ne tient a 
estrange, autant aime la chose a son uoist/t eomme la 
soie.^ Ensi vit, qui garder vent carite. Chil bastons 
ke tu tiens en ta main senefie .ij. choses, venianche & TheitoffmeuM 

V^ngcftDM and 

misericoide ; Teniancbe, pour chou ke il est poignans Uervy, 

par desou^, & misericorde, "pour chou qu'il est cour*bes [*iMf i7, cot 2] 

par deseure. Car 11 chies deseure doit premierement Heny.uitu 

crooked a-top ; 

apieler. Che est a dire, ke 11 eueskes doit tout auant the siihop ought 

J r • JL ilrrttoiuegentU 

apieler le pecheour, & semonre de confession, os mener woida 
tant par douches paroles ke il 11 ait fait so?) pechiet 
regehier a honeur de dieu & a honte del djable. £t 
quant il a oint de ses douches paroles tant qt^'il ait 
mene a ndsericorde, lors si le dolt poindre du chief du 
baston desoiM. Che est a dire, ke quant 11 prestrea a and then the 

•harp point of 

tant adouchie le pecheour ke 11 11 a fait recounoistre son Bepentanee. 
creatour A renoijer le djable, lors si le doit poindre, car 11 
11 doit encargler le fais de la grant penitanche par quoi 11 
soit polns & aguillounes pour espanlr en tristeche chou 
k'il ara fouxfait en loie. Ensi siert 11 clues deseure 
d'apleler a mlsericorde, et chil desous sert de prtfndre 
Tenlanche. Or te dlral ke senefie 11 afnllaus ke tu aa The sing on ue 

finger meana 

en ton doit. II senefie mariage. Car 11 eueskes est saores, Marriage, 

and the Biahop 

m, est loins a salnte eglise par mariage. Car, quant 11 la married to 

i_ I •x** i*D'i J.1 Holy Church. 

eueskes est sacres, si est 101ns a dieu, & aes lors en auant la 

doit 11 garder saine & enferme <k>inme sa loial espouse. £t 

la u 11 recholt le mariage, ne le doit 11 'puia werpir,* ne and mtut keep 

en prosperite ne en aduersite ; Ch'est a dire, ne en bien good and bad 

' — ' Car cEfite met toutes oosea en .L point & aime toatei 
ooaes ouniement ; si aime autant lea oosea son uoisin comma la 
sole. MS Add. 10,292, leaf la, col. 3, at top. 

* poiB ne le doit on degnerpir. MS Add. 10,292, leaf 10, col. 3. 


and thare her 

The homed hat 
meuu Ck>iifti- 

C*lMf 17,001.8] 

Whjr there are 
two horns. 
The flmt ie 
the leoond 

What SatltfiM- 
tion is. 

The head and 
two limbs of 

ne en mal. Et se sainte eglise sueffre tribulations ne 
mescheanches, il en doit estre parchouniers. Car 
Tewangile diet ^ ke chil sont boineure qui soustienent 
les paines & lea anuis pour droiture. En tel manieie 
Be doit contenir qui veut estre loiaus espous en sainte 
eglise. Et qui autrement s'i contient, il n'est mie loiaus 
espousy mais auoutres, car il fause son mariage ke il 
deust loiaument garder. Apr^, dois sauoir ke chil 
chapiaus comus senefie qui est en ton chief. II senefie 
confession, & pour chou est il blaTzs ; car confessions est 
la plus blanche chose qui soit, & la plus nete. Car ia 
nus horn n'iert si ors de pechie, *ne si enuenimes, se il 
a yraie confession yeut repairier, ke ele ne le fache tout 
blanch & tout net. Et ses tu pour quoi il i a .ij. comes ) 
Pour chou qu*il i a .ij. menbres en confession. Li 
premiers de ches .\j. menbres est repentAnche, & 11 
autres est satisfasions. Hepentanche est, quant vns 
vient au prouoire, & il li regehist son pechie, & le 
partist du tout si ke 11 n'i repaire plus. Ichil vient a 
repentanche, mais pour chou n'est il mie vrais canfea ; 
Anchois li eonuient faire auant satisfaision. Satisfai- 
sions est, quant vns pechieres a son pechie recounu, de 
faire la penitanche itele com li prestres li encarche, & 
de souffiir la paine de boin cuer, de boine volente. 
Ensi pues entendre ke nus ne puet estre confea se il n'a 
confession le chief, & les deus menbres. Li chies est 
de son pechie regehir. Li yns des membres est de tenif 
Boi de pechie. Li autres est de mener a chief la peni- 
tanche encarchie. Ne ia nus hom ne sera urais confes 
pour ke il defaille en quel ke soit de ches trois. Et 
pour chou ke confessions [est] la plus haute chose qui 
soit, comme chele qui restore a yn caup tons les 
damages & toutes les piertes, pour chou est ele senefije 
par che chapiel qui est li plus haus de tous les ueste- 
mens. Or ies tu enoins & sacres, & ie t'ai doune 
' MS TepesiB car VefcanffUe diit* 


rordene & la hautecbe d'eneske, a men pule ensegnier Now that 
& confermer en ma [no]uiel[e]^ ley. Et ie voel ke tu oonMomtwi, 
soies garde des ames d'aus, & quanqua ie i perderai par ^d oonurm 
defaute de toi, ie te demanderai tout^ & a toi m'enpren- JSlrtUhSr*'^^ 
derai au grant iour espoentable quant ie uenrai H^SonubUtor 
prendre yenianche & iustiche de tons les me&is, quant JJj^*^* 
toutes les respoistailes des cuers seront descouuertes. 
Et se ie te trois loial sergant de chest petit pule noniel H!i nwmrd ff h« 

III 1 Injil iiniHl, 

dont ie te eommant les ames, ie te donrai a client 

doubles grignour baillie, ensi com Ie ewangile Ie promet 

a cbians ki laissent lor propriete pour amour de moL 

Et pour chou te commancb iou *les ames, & si t'en fai Cie^i7,b«jk] 

pastour, ke ie ne voel ke il soit' pourueres & despen- 

siers de cbes choses qui as cors besoigneront. Or, yien 

auant, & si feras Ie sacrement de ma cbar et de mon 

sancy si ke tous ^ mes pules les verra apiertement." 


Josephea goes into the Ark and celebrates the Sacrament 
He uses only Christ's words of Consecration, and forth- 
with the braid and wine become flesh and blood (p. 90). 
Christ makes him diTide the bread into three parts, which 
nevertheless f^pear, and are eaten by him, as one body, 
most sweet (p. 89-90). He receives the wine. The angels 
take the vessels oat of the ark (p. 91). Christ tells the 
people he sends them his flesh and blood (p. 91). Joseph 
and his company receive the body of Christ, like a small 
child. Christ tells Josephes to celebrate the Sacrament 
daily, and how to ordain priests and bishops in every city 
(p. 92) ; and that Evalach*s messengers are coming for 
him to expomid the king^s dream, and that he is to be of 
good courage, as he sliall beat the false prophets (p. 92-3). 
How Josephes appoints his cousin-german Leucam to gnard 
the Ark, as Treasurers do now Churches* treasures (p. 93). 


tant enmena nostie sires losepbe iusc'a rarcbe, j<»«pb«sgoM 
si ketoi^li pules leuitentrerdedens. Etsiuirent 

■ nouele. MS Add. 10,292, leaf 10, back, col. 1« 
' MS ke tu tous. ' ? f or ' tu sols.' 


whiten I 

and o»l«bnite« 
th^ Saonmmi^ 

Chiiit't words 

■nd forthwiUi 
the bread 
beoomee flesh, 
and the wins 
blood, as of a 

Christ tells 
diTide the bread 
into three parts. 
Joiephes remon- 

[* leaf 17, back, 
col. 2] 

Mt does it. 

tout ke ele crat tant & eslaigi, ke il estoient tout 
laigement dedens, & veoienfc lea angeles yenir & aler 
pardenant Tuis. Laiens fist iosephes le premier sacre- 
ment qui onqties fuiSt fais en cheloi pule. Mais il Tot 
moult tost acompli Gar 11 n'i dist ke clies paroles 
seulement ke ihesvia cm dist a ses disciples en la 
chaine,^ Quant il lor dist, " tones, si mangies, che est 
11 miens cors qui pour yous & pour maintes gens sera 
liures a tourment." Et autresi lor dist il du yin, 
« tones tout, & si buues ; car che est li sans de le 
nouiele loy, li miens sans meismes qui pour vous sera 
espandus en remission des pechies." Ches paa'oles 
dist iosephes sour le pain ke il trouua tout aparilliet 
sour la platine du calice, ensi com li contes a dit la u 
il parla del autel qui estoit en Tarche. £t quant il les 
eut dites sour le pain & sour le vin qui el caUsce 
estoit, si deuint tantost li pains chars & li vins sans. 
& lor yit iosephes tout apiertement ke il tenoit 
yn enfant, Sc li sanloit ke chil sans qui uenoit el 
calisce fust cheus del cors a Fenfant Et quant il le 
uit ensi, si en fu moult durement eshahis, si ke il 
ne sauoit sous chiel ke il peust faire. Anchois se tint 
tons cois, & commencha moult angoisseusement a sous- 
pxrer du cuer & a plourer des ie^ pour la grant paour 
ke lL auoit. Lors li dist no^fre sires : " Josephe, il te 
conuient desmenbrer chou ke tu tiens, si ke il i ait trois 
pieches." |Et iosephe li respondi: ''Ha, sire, aies 
pitie de uostre serf. Car mes cuers ne porroit souiSrir 
a desmenbrer si biele figure." Et no«^res sires li dist, 
'' se tu ne fais mes commandemens, tu n'aras point de 
part en mon hyretage." Lors prist iosephes le cors, se 
mist la teste a yne part, & desseura del bu tout autresi 
Increment eomme se la chars de Tenfant fust toute 
quite en tel maniere com on quist char ke on a oublie 
Boiir le fu. Apres chou, fist .\j. parties du remenant a 

' Fr. ehidf L. ooena. 


mottlt grant paonr comme chil qui moult durement 8oa»- 
piroit & plooroit. Ensi com il eomm&ncha, a faiie les 
parties, 8i chairent tout li angele qui laiens estoient The lagtia au 

knMl down* 

deuant Fautel a t^ne, & furent tout acoutes & a genous 

tant ke nogtie sires dist a iosephe : ** Quel chose atens chrM ta\» 

tut redioif chou qui est deuant toi, & si Tuse, car che x«oeiT«whfttii 

est tes sauuemens." £t iosephes se mist a genous, A 

bati son pis, & ciia merchi, en plorant de tous ses 

peddes. Et quant il fu ledrecbies, si ne vi deuant 

soi sour la platine ke vne pieohe a samblanche de pain, hetekwtb« 

& si le pnst, si le leua en haut. Et quant il eut rendu 

grasces a son creatour, si ouuri la bouche & vaut metre uidonpnttinir 

^ *, , . , It Into hto mouth 

dedens. Et il regarde, si uoit ke cne restoit vns cors flndiitoiMbodj, 

tous entiers. & quant il le vaut traiie aniere, si ne paut^ 

ains sentoit c'on 11 metoit tout dedens la bouche 

ancbois qu'il le peust clore. Et quant H I'eut use, si li 

fu.auis ke toutes les douchours & les suautumes ke on ■wMterthanom 

b« told by tooguA 

porroit nomer de langhe li fmssent entrees el cors. ofmu. 
Apres recbut yne partie del saint boire sacre qui estoit Joi«pb«a raotiTsp 


el calisce. Et quant il eut^ cbe fait, si uit ke uns 

angeles prist la platine & le caliBce, si les mist am- 

bedeus en la sainte escuele, Tun sour Tautre. Et sour 

cbele platine si yit plusours piecbes en samblancbe de 

pain. Et quant li angeles eut prise I'escuele, si vint An ngA pata 

vns autres, si leua la platine en baut & cbe qui estoit cap into the 

BUS auoec, si Tenportoit entre ses .ij. mains liors de c*ieafi7,bMk. 

Tarcbe. & H tiers angeles prist le calisce, si le porta apres Another cerHet 

cbelui en autrestel maniere. et cbil qui portoit la sainte 2S? <»t of the 

escuele, fu tous li daarrains. Et quant il furent bors de 

Tarcbe tout troi, si ke tout li pules les yeoit, si parla 

vne voiB qui dist : " Mes petis pules nouielement tones * chriet telle \he 

^, people that J»e 

de I'esperitel naissencbe, ie t'emioi ton sauuement. Cbe eende uram 

mm their eelvatlont 

est mes cors qui p<?ur toi souffii corporel naissencbe & his body and 
corporel mort. Or garde dont ke tu aies vraie creancbo 

' MS repeats Ht qvant il eut, 
* iie& MS Add. 10,292, leaf 11, col. 1. 


Mid thit tiMJ 

worthily shall 
iMMvtd, vad 

JaMph and hh 
oooipaojr rwtiTt^ 
tht SMniiuiiU 

diild hai gone 
Into hit mooUw 

pbct Um TMMla 


Christ toll! 
aalsbrate Um 8a« 

him how to 

ofoalii prissti^ 
and bishops, 
who shall hava 
powsr toUnd 

C* HSsorrontJ 

and tslls hhn to 



and anoint thsm, 
and all oonvaitad 
kings, with ths 
holj anointing. 

Christ tails him 
that STahMsh's 


a une A Haute chose lecheuoir & vser. Car se tu crois 
parfitement ke che soit tes sauueieSy dont le recheueras 
tu au perdurable sauuement de Tame* £t se tu ne crois 
enterinement, tu le lecbeueras au perduiable dampne* 
ment del cors & de Tame.^ Car qui usera men cors, et 
buuera mon sane, & il n'en sera dignes, il mangera son 
destruisement & buuera, ne nus n'en puet estre dignes 
se il n'est urais creans. Or garde donqtMS ke tu le 
croies." Lors vint li angeles qui portoit la platine 
deuant iosepb. Ss iosepb s'agenoilla, si recbut^ iointes 
mains, son sauueour, tout isnelement^ & cbascuns des 
autres autresi. £t si estoit a cascun auis quant on li 
metoit en la boucbe la piecbe en samblancbe de pain, 
ke il yeiat entrer en sa boucbe yn enfant tout en forme. 
Et quant il eurent tout eu del sacrement, si s'en 
retoumerent li troi angele en Tarcbe, Ss misrent sour 
Tautel les 'vaiBsieus ke il portoient. Lors apiela 
nostiea sires iosepbe, & si li dist, *' Josepbe, ensi me 
seruiras cbascun lour des ore en auant, & tu & tout 
cbil ke tu establiras a ordene de prouoire Ss d'eueske* 
£t se tu ordenes prouoire, tu li metras ta main 
sour le chief, & li feras le eigne de la crois el non 
de la trinite. Mais a I'eueske sacrer cemuient tout 
chou qu6 iou ai fait sour toL Car eueskes doit etre 
sour prouoire* Et tout cbil qui a cheste hounour 
serront* establi, aront ausi grant pooir de lo\jer & de 
desloger comme mi apostle eurent en terre. Desormais 
establiras vn eueske en cbascune chite ou mes nons 
sera recbeus par ta parole. & si serra enoins de cheste 
sainte onction, Ss tout li roi qui par toi yenront a ma 
creanche. Ore aproche I'eure ke li rois eualacb laira le 
desuoiement des ydolesy Ss se toumera a la creanche 
de la glorieuse trinite. Car li chiualer sont pries qui 
yienent querre iosepb pour lui chertefger d'une grant 
meroelle ke ie li ai anuit moystree en auidon. Or 
' niuBtratton of Joseph and dx others taking the saonuneiit. 


oste ces^ uestem^ns, si iias a lui entre toi & ioseph, & aadttatiMand 
Tons lea feres certain de toat[es] les choses qu'il yous with tJm, ^ 
demandera. £t si ne soies pas esmaijet se Youa yees and not b» aftiid 
Tenir encontre YOtts tons les boins clers de sa loy ; car d«rka, mIm 

ta les nainteras tons, Si que ia a tes paroles ne ponont ^^ 
contrester. £t si te donrai si biele grasce es iez le loi Md And gnuw in 
eualachy ke tu li diras vne partie de che qu'il li serra a 
auenir par la forche de mon esp^rit. £t tout cliil qtd And au who 

xoocIto tho H(dT 

man espmt ont recheu, on qui le recheueront, aront ohortihaubo 
pooir de cacnier nors les ma[uuajis espens par tons les tru muiu. 
liens on il yenront/' A tant s'ala iosephes dd^nestir, si JoMph«s nnroboi, 

and Mtfl Laooun 

ialBsa tous les uestemens en Tarche sour 1 auteL Apres to mtoh the Ark 

.... . • . •x v 1 night and daj. 

apiela j. sien cousin germain qui estoit en cnele com- 
paignie, si estoit apieles leucans. Chelui establi 
iosephes a carder Tarche de lour & de nuit. & encore And this eutom 

- . _ atUlazUtain 

est ore a nos tans cheste coustume maintenue es nautes great chorohea 

eglises. Car li vns garde toul le tresor del egli'se : si [• leaf i8,coi. i] 

est apieles tresoriers. Ne onques a chel tans n'auoit 

este fait. Mais lors establi iosephes cbelui leucam, 

end com yous aues oi de cbelui, ne mie pour cbou ke 

il fust ses cousios, ^maiB pour chou ke il se^ tenoit plus [* hs 'fta* 


religieus ke nul des autres.^ 

*» j 


JcMeph Mid hit ion go before the kiDg. Evalacb*8 doubts. A 
heathen clerk*B olrjeotions to the doc^ne of the Trinity (p. 
94-5). Joflephea answers, — EN'alaoh shall be given up to 
his enemy for three days and nights (p. 95), and the 
heathen olerk is straok dumb and blind (p. 97). Evalach 
asks if he can escape (p. 98). Tes ; by believing in Christ 
(p. 98). All go to the heathen temple (p. 98). The devil 
in the image of Man smashes all the images (p. 99). 
Bvalach asks the devil why it has done this ( — ^because 

— _ 

> MSceet 

'— * mais por oe qu*il estoit plus religieus que nus des 
autres. H8 Add 10^292, leaf 11« ooL 2, near foot 


Joseph's two angels compelled it — ), and whether the 
clerk struck dumb and blind will recover, and whether he 
shall prerail against the Egyptians (p. 100). The devil 
confesses he knows nothing about it (p. 101). 

iiMMensor ooBOM. 

Jowph to prove 
Trinity oan b« 
Unity; . 

S. of the Virgin's 
▼irginlty ; 
without oeraal 
JoMph repeats 
bie former 
proof (Ch. VI.). 
A dark ol^eots. 




then eeoh can- 
not be perfect 

and if etch hae 
entire €k>dheada 
thm there are 
three Qods. 

[• leafl8,coL>] 

If the Holy 
Ghoet ie perfoet 

Atant vint 11 messages le roi, si dist a ioseph ke li 
rois le mandoit ke il alast a lui parler. Lois en 
alerent deuant lui entre ioseph & son fil, & quant il 
issiient hots du palais si fiient sour aus le signe de la 
croisy & eommandeient as autres ke il foissent en 
orisons et en proieres pour le roi eualach, que dies, qui 
estoit auoiemens des desuoies, li dounast venir a la vole 
de uerite. Et quant il ftirent venu deuant le roi, si les 
commanda li rois a seoir, & si dist a ioseph qu'il li 
prouast che ke il auoit ier dit del pere & del fil & del 
saint espmt, comment il pooient estre trois persones & 
vne seule deites ; & comment la puchiele auoit enfante 
sans son puchelage malmetre ; Et comment H fiex pooit 
estre concheus sans carnal couuine d*ome & de feme. 
Quant 11 rois eut che dit, si se drecha ioseph, & 11 dist 
Ichele meisme raison que 11 11 auoit dite a Tautre fois, 
& en chele meisme manleere^ 11 prouua. Et qt^nt 11 
eut che dit, si se drecha vns clers. Chll estoit teilus a 
plus sages & a plus fondes de la loy. Gliil patla en- 
contre ioseph, & dist ke 11 ne dlsolt riens. Car se 11 
peres & 11 fiez & 11 sains esperis n'auoient c*une delte, 
dont n*estolt mle cascuTis d'aus trois par sol entlers 
dlez ne parfais. Et se U yololt dire ke 11 peres fQJst 
entlers dlez & parfais, dont n'l prendrolt noldnt la per- 
sone du fil & du sains esperlt. Et se eles auolent am- 
bedeus cascune sa delte enterine, dont serrolent chou trois 
deites, che ne porroit nus horn contredire raisnablement. 
Car nus horn qui che contredit, ne porroit apertement 
prouer ne metre en uolr, ke nule des *trois persones n'eust 
entire delte en lui, ou nule des autres fast amenteue. 
Car la ou on dit ke 11 sains esperis est parfais dies ^ & 

> So m MS. ' dies, MS Addit 10,292, leaf 11, ool. 3. 


entiers, ne [que H li troi n'ont c'une seule deite en lai ou Ood and otM, 

nule des autres, par chou xnoustre on que li yns yaut twoannobodiM. 

autrestant comme li tioL Et se ch'est yoirs ke li vns 

yaiUe autrestant comme li troi, dont est il voirs que li 

troi sont noiens en Ueu ou li tiers est amenteus. Et 

puis ke les .ij. persones pierdent ensi lor forche par la An4ifth«two 

ATS nothini^, 

tierchey dont puet tons li mons veoir et counoistre thraMcheui- 
apiertement ke chascune de les trois n'a mie deite par- ood. 
faite ne entiere." Quant chil eut si durement parle 
enoontre la trinite, si fu ioseph moult esbahis de fauses JoMphisoon* 

, foundtd { 

proeues ke clul li a auant traites, si ne sent mie main- 
tenant respondre a fauser^ chou k'il auoit dit^ car 
nostie signour ne plot mie. Lors se drecha iosephes, & tmt jompdm 

nddrciiOT Evi^ 

si parla haut si ke <}o tous fu clerement ois, & si dist iMh, 
au roi pr^mierement : '^Bois, escoute ke ie te dirai. 
Che te mande par moi le dies de israel, li crieres de 
toutes cboses, & si dist a toi: ' Pour chou que tu as andteiiflhini 

. * , .J . , th»t beoanie he 

amenes tes urns plaideois encontre ma creanche, pour hu brought ua 
chou ai iou estahli a prendre si grant venianche de ton ag^nst hii 
cors que tu cheiras anchois que li tiers lours soit brin«M>re*^t- 
passes en yne si grant mesauenture que tu ne quideras |||!|^i^*^)^ 
que nule riens viuans te puisse garandir de perdere toute ^'^ 
t^rriene hauteche premierement, & ton cors apres.' Et 
si prendra diex cheste iustiche de toi, pour chou que tu 
ne veus recheuoir la creanche de son glorious non, 
Anchois as despite & nuse auers la demonstranche que And beeaaaa be 

haa detpbed the 

11 te fist anuit de ses secres & de ses miracles que U te reveution or 

Ctod'a Mcrets t9 

descouuri en auision. Pour chou te mande li diex des him in hisdnam, 
crestijens par la bouche de son sergant qui parole a his mortal enamy 
toiy qu'iL donra a ton anemi mortel gloire et honour & ^^thm daya"^ < 
essauchement sour toi trois iouis Sc trois nuis^ Car ta "****^"*« ^ 
for*che ne porra contrester, ne tes cors n'osera atendre C* i«^i8,baok] 
celui qtti onkes forche ne pent auoir mais encontre toi, 
ne mais de cheste fois qu'il Va desconfit, par le traison 
de tea consiUeurs qtd se sont a lui toume par les dons. 
* sauser, MS Beg. ; fauBser, MS Addit 10,292, If 11, col 3, at foot. 


And to vtrify it 
JoMpbet ujIb 

that Tholomet, 
Ion, bM made 
readj hit foroM 
and wiU attack 

and pnnna hla 
and pat him in 

JoMpb«s next 
tells the oldect- 
ing heathen 


that, ae he has 
and dishomooxed 

[• leaf 18» back, 


and has been 

dumb and bUnd 

in spirltoal 


Ood WiU strike 
him dnmb and 

Ensi te mousten^ li diex des crestiens ke nule creature 
ne puet durer qui n'est apparillie a son commBudement, 
Ke ia ne lecouuerras la grant hauteche ke tu coTit* 
menches a perdere, se par I'aide de clielui ne le 
lequieres. Et se tu de cheste chose me tiens a men- 
coingeur, tu orras par tans teles nouieles par quoi tu 
porras sauoir qt^e no^^res sires m'a demoustre aucune 
chose de tes auentures. Et si saches bi^n de uoir, ke 
tholomes li fuitis, qui est lois de babyloines, a tout son 
effort apparelliety & vient sour toi moult ireement. 
Et si dist li rois des crestijens : * En la main au felon 
egyptijen liuerrai iou. le roi mescouneu, par chou ke il 
me fuit & mescounoist. Et chil qui tous iours a este 
fuitis, encachera chelui qui tous iours I'a cachie, & si le 
menra iusc'a paour de mort Car ie li voel faire esprou- 
uer ke ie sens sui li xois des rois & la forteche de tous les 
pules.'" Apres se touma iosephes vers chelui qui 
auoit si durement parle encontre la trinite, & si li dist : 
'' Escoute, tu qui as parle encontre la sainte creanche 
au dieu des crestijens. Or enten ke il te demande par 
la bouche de son^ serf qui a toi parole. 'Tu, fait il, qui 
ies ma creature, & qui en tous lieus deusses obeir a mon 
eommandement^ tu as ma creanche blasmee & mon non 
deshonre. Et pour chou ke ie voel ke tu saches ke tu 
as parle encontre chelui qui a pooir & sour toi & sour 
toutes choses autres, pour chou te ferai iou sentir una 
desbatemens de ma iustiche terriene ; Si ke tu le 30uf- 
fenas, & li autre se castieront par toL Car tu as en 
tous iours la terriene scienche, ne onqu6S Tesperitel ne 
Vausis counoistre, ne goute n'i pooies veoir ; et se tu 
en uausisses parler, tu n'en sens onques dire uoir. Et 
pour chou ke tu as este mus & awles en Tesperitel 
science, qui tu deusses cler veoir, & de qui tu deusses 
tenir toute la parole, pour chou te mousterrai iou ke la 
terriene scienche ne puet riens encontre Tesperitel. 
Car ie te taurai, voiant tous chiaus qui sont chaiens^ la 

CH. zlJ thb disbelieyixq clerk is struck dumb and blind. 97 

t^rriene parole & la yeue. Car ines esperia est de tel 

forchey ke il feia les hien emparles a muir, & les der 

veanB awlir ; si fera les mus hien parler, Ss les awles cler 

Teoir.'" Tantost ke ios6pli[es] eat che dit, si perdi chil 

la parole, & quant il yaut parler, si senti deuant sa Th^derkbt- 

bouche yne main qui li licit la langhe ; Mais il ne le 

pooit yeoir. £t il se drecha poor plus efforchier de and uind. 

parleij Mais si tost com il fa leaes. Si ne yit nole 

goate des ieox. Et quant il senti choa, si commencha , 

si duiemeTit a mail qtie on Tooit tout clerement d'ausi 

loing com on porroit traire yne saiete. Et si estoit aais 

a teas chiaus qui Tooient^ ke che fast yns toiiaas. Et 

quant li aatre yirent cheste m^nielle, si en farent nuTult Th« peopi« are 

cooiechiet^ & coararent teat sas iosephe, si Teussent Ikjm^m!^ 

tout depechie a lor pooirs. Mais li rois eaalach sailli BnOaeh seiiaa 

• o • A A J ••i> 1* sword and 

en pies, & prist yne espee toate nae, si lara la poissancne swean he'u put 

joais qu'il feroit teas cbiaas destraire & liarer a mort uyhl^i^*" 

qui en lai meteroient la main. Car dent Taroit il trai, '~*p**^ 

se il Taacit mande en sa maison, & il ne le garandissoit. 

Ensi leua le tamulte par la sale. & li rois apiela iosephe. He aaks Joaephea 

& li demanda qai il estoit. Et ioseph se traist aaant, 

si dist qu'il estoit ses fiex. Et li rois respoTidi ke moult 

parloit hieiif & qu'il estoit yoir disans en maintea 

cboses. Apres li demanda comment U auoit tolue la and how be took 

parole & la yeae a cnelui qui aaoit pane encontre lai. from hu op- 

£t *iosephes respondi qu'il ne Ten aaoit rien tola; [MMfi8,back, 

Mais li dies des crestiens contre qai il aaoit parle, ' ' 

Ichil li aaoit tola & parole & yeae. Car che estoit li 

diez de qai la parole ne seroit ia faasee pour nalai ; 

Ensi com il commandoit, coaaenoit toates choses a 

estre. ** Goament, dist eoalach, est il dent yoirs ke and whether it 

- is true that 

tholomes li fnitis menmerra lasca paoar de mort, & Thoiomea ahaii 

o jt r. .... p ... • o» pot him In fear 

ara sour moi pooir & forche .uj. loars oc ly. naisi of death, and 
** Chertes, dist iosephes, il est aoirs qu'il n'est nas hom owffm thwe 
yiaans par qai il paist estre faases." Et li rois li J^i"^"*"* 
demanda comment il pooit choa saaoir. " Dont, n'as 




Tea, hj noelTiaf 
the belief of 

not only in word, 


The elerk straek 
damb and blind 
la taken to the 
heathen temide^ 
to the image of 

tu oi, dist iosephes, que li esperis au dieu des crestijens 
est de si grant forche, ke il fait les mus parler & les 
awles yeoir clerl Ch'est a dire, ke clul qui n'ont lien 
seu de clergie counistront toute la forclie des escriptores 
par le grasce de son saint esprit." " Tar foi, dist li 
rois, s'il anient ensi com tn as cbi conte, le vanroie 
asses miex estre mors ke vis. Mais il n'est nule riens 
ke ion en peusse croire. Ne pour quant, si ai ion yen 
yne de tes paroles auenir/' ^* Bois, dist iosephes, quant 
tn yenas qu'il serra auenn, dont m'en croL'' " £t en 
porrai ion, dist il, escaper)'' ''Chertes, dist il, oil, 
par vne seule chose." " Et quele sera ele 1 " dist li 
rois. '* Je le te dirai, dist iosephes. Se tu rechois la 
creancbe ihesa crist, que tu le croies parfitement, de 
quele eure que tu le rechoiues, tu aras secours & de- 
liuranche. Mais hien saches de uoir, que ia pour chose 
ke la bouche die, se li cuers n'i est, ne sera deliures. 
Car diex n'est pas horn qu'on puisse engingnier ne 
decheuoir par samblant; Anchois est de si paffaite 
sapiense qu'il counoist tons les penses des gens, & uoit 
parmi les cuers toutes les repostailes qui i sont." Lors 
li demanda H rois comment il eetoit apieles. & li dist 
qu'il estoit apieles iosephes. £t li rois li redist : " Ore 
me di, iosephe, de che*lui qui a perdue la parole & la 
veue, se il recouuerra iamais." '^ Eois, dist iosephes, 
Ore le fai porter deuant tons les diex ke tu aoures ; et 
si orra[s] ke il te responderont et de sa garison & de ta 
hataille." Lors le fist porter el temple, si i ala il 
meismes, & iosephes, Ss ses peres. £t quant li prouoire 
de la loy Teurent ofiTert al autel appolin qui il apielent 
le dieu de sapiense, si demanderent al ymage qui estoit 
sour I'autel comment chil gariroit iamais. Mais onqu^ 
tant ne seurent demander a chele ymage ke il onques 
en peussent parole traire. £t li rois vint auant, si li 
demanda qu'il H dist a quel fin il uenroit de cheste 
guerre. Mais il n'en puet onques auoir respons ne ke 


li autre. Et yds djables qui estoit en Tymage martis, a deru in the 
ke il claiment le dieu de bataille, commencha a crier : erilf^at uiat • 
" Foles gens, ke ales vous atendant f il a en noatre eomr hMbSSd"**'* 
paignie vn crestijen ki a si loie apolin par le coniure- i2*^S.^Iic 
ment de i1ie«u crist son dieu, qu'il n*& nul pooir de 
you8 respondre. Ne ia nus dies en lieu ou il soit 
n'oseia douner respons, ne ne porra, puis ke il ara 
eotiiuie." & maintenant que li dyables eut eke dit, si 
commencha si durement a crier ke il fu auis a tous 
chiaus qui estoient el temple qu'il fust en yn fii ardant. 
£nsi disoit) "ka, Josephe, eueske ihera crist, kusse ThederUoffen 
okou ester ke tu dis, car tu me fais ardoir, & ie m'en- «?«- Jowph«g 
fiiirai de si la u tu commanderas." Ensi crioit li dyables 
qui estoit en I'jmage martLs par le eoniurement que 
iosepbes li auoit fait. Car il le destraingoit si dure- 
ment, & tant le iusticha, ke il issi bors de Tymage, &, itgoMoat* 
uoiant tous cbiaus qui estoient el temple, abati Tymage the image of 
a terre, & si le debrisa toute par menues piecbes. Et {fbTpiowe^'^*^ 
qtiant il eut cbou fait, si prist yn aigle d'or moult grant, then the dewi 
qui estoit sour Tautel au eonsel, si en feri si durement ApoUoonthe ^ 
I'ymage appolin en mi le *vis, ke il li pecboia le nes "^LSw.ooli] 
& le brach destre. Apres s'en ala par toutes les i^fiJ^i dJ?* 
ymages del temple, si n*i remest onques ymage qui il ne JJJJJJ^ °"**' 
ferist de cbel aigle tant qu'il H pecbeoit aucun des 
membres. De cbeste cbose furent les gens moult The people an 
espoente qui estoient el temple; Gar il veoient les 
meruelles que icbele aigle faisoit, Mais il ne pooient 
yeoir cbelui qui la tenoit. Et cb'estoit la cbose pour 
quoi il estoient plus espoente & plus esbabL Lois 
apiela li rois Josepbe, & si li demanda qua cbe pooit svsiaoh eeke 
estre qui ensi depecboit cbes ymages. & iosepbes li hae broken the 
respondi qu'il I'alaist demander al autel martis. Et il "°''^* 
j ala, si Taut sacrefier, mais josepbes ne li laissa ; ains Joeephes telle 

. - him to eak et the' 

dist qu6 s'il faisoit tel sacrefisse, il morroit de mort eiturofMan. 
soubitei Et quant li rois eut demande respons a He doee, and the 
I'autely Si dist li dyables qu'il n'osoit a lui parler pous aepheTttope^iin. 


iosepbe. £t li rois li demanda s'il auoit si grant pooir 
sour les dieus. Et li djables li dist que nus diex ne 
pooit parler deuant lui se il ne Ten dounoit congior 
£t li rois pria iosephe que il li dounoit congie de 
JowphMgivM parler. & iosephes li donna. £t li dyables dist an roi : 

tb« devil leare *" ^ -^ 

totp«UK;ftndu ''KoiB, Tcus ta sauoir pour qnoi il a si grant pooir f 

tolls Eralach . 

that joMphat H a .ij. angeles anoec lui qui le conduisent & gardent 

hu always tvo . ■• i. m • j^- . i» 

angeu with him, p^r tous les lieus ou il Ta, SI tieut li vns vne espee 
mni, the^othw toute nue, & 11 autres vne crois. £t li doi m'ont tena 
anTtiuIy hara ^^ ^^ destroit par SOU (sommandement qu'il m'ont fait 
v^utaan!^ ^ depechier toutes clies ymages ensi com tu vois. Ke 
iamaiB nus dies n'ara pooir de doner respons ou lieu 
ou clus horn soit, tel poeste li a done ' ihera^ oris ses 
Thakin^aaks diex." Apres li demanda li rois se chil qui auoit 

thedcTUwheUitr '^ ... 

the man atnick pierdu la parole & les iex recouuerroit iamais sante. 

dnmb and blind 

wiu raoo?er. £t li djables li dist, '* rois, se il garist, cbe ne sera mie 

The devil aaya, m_ '. 9 

*Not by my p^r no^rre uirtu ; ' 


[Oerpaixs, leaf ** For tbat power hayen not we' 
I haT^none to HiTH hol to Maken In non degre ; 

make him wboW ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

Be him that him it leide vppon ; i 

And elles but he wele him hele sende, 
Be YS get he non In non £nde." 
Kraiacfa aaka, Thanne Axede him the king Anon tho 
on if I flffht tha * Howgh Ajens the Egipciens he scholde do ; 8 


' MS dona, altered. 

' The Bojal MS xiv. £ 3 continues — *' Et nous n*en i peons 
point auoir : anohoU 0<muenra ke chil le garisse par qvi ^owt- 
mBndemeni il a en le n)a1, ou se ohe non, 11 n^en garira iamais.*' 
[* leafia, ool 8] Lors li demanda U ^rois, 'a qti^l fin il uenroit se il se conbatoit 
as eg3rptyen8.' Et 11 dyables dist, ' que il n'auoit nul pooir 
del* dire tant com li horn dieu i serroit.* Et iosephes salli 
auant, Sc si li dist : " Je te coniur de par la forche de la sainte 
trinite, ke tu li dies uoir." Et respond! li dyables, *qve 11 n*en 
sauoit rien de che qull li estoit a auenir. Ne nus ne le puet 
sauoir, se par ih^ra crist non.* An illustration follows, for the 
next chapter, of the messenger coming to Evalach. 

' The pages containing the English lines 1 — 492, are bound 
at the end of the Corpus MS, but there is a pencil foot-note 
saying that they belong to the commencement. 


^if with hem heeld he Ony bataille. 

In what Manere it myhte him Availle.* 

Thanne the devel him Answerid ful sonei 

" Jjere-Oflfen Answers mown we jeveu J>* none : 

Tyl that goddis Man be Owt past. 

Of V8 An Answere non thow hast." 

Thanne spak Josephes there Anon Eyht, 

" I Coniouie the be the vertu of God Almyht, 

And be the myht Also Of the Trenite, 

That the sothe heie thou schewe to me." 

And the devel him Answerid Agein 

" That he ne Cowde not In Certein ; 

Of thing that was to Come, he Cowde not telle, 

What Aventuie so that him Eu^re befeUe." 

12 yoatUl God's 
man bM goB*.' 

16 XoMphM eo^JOFit 
the (tovU to t«U 
him tht trath. 

confta ipi that he 
20 knoira nothing of 
thinga tooonw. 


The invasion by Tholomes and the Egyptians of Eyalach*B land ; 
Evalach's summons to his yassals (p. 108) ; Josephes's 
counsel to him, — Josephes tells him his history, that he was 
a cobbler's son at Meauz, in France (p. 104), was sent to 
Rome as part of the hostage demanded by Augustus (p. 
106), then on to Erl Felis of Svlle, whose son he slew (p. 
106), and fled to Tholomes King of Babyloyne, for whom 
he conquered all the land of Sarras (p. 106-7), that therefore 
he must be humble, and remember Ck>d, as he will be three 
days and three nights in Tholomes's power (p. 107-8, 110) ; 
Evalach asks for the means of victory (p. 108-9) ; Josephes 
tacks a cross of red cloth on to his shield (p. 109), and tells 
him to look on it in his need, and pray to God, and he 
shall be saved (p. 110). Evalach marches to Tarabel and 
Yalachim (p. 111). The Castle Yalachim described (p. 
112). Evalach's army enter a forest, and send out a spy 
(p. 113) ; they attack Tholomes, but lose men, and flee to 
Castle Comes (p. 114). Tholomes pursues (p. 114) ; while 
Evalach*s men plunder his tents (p. 115). A spy next 
day tells Tholomes that Evalach is in Comes with a very 
few men (p. 116), and so Tholomes marches after him 
with half his force, leaving the other half with Yabus hi9 
steward to watch Castle Yalachim (p. 117). 




oomet to King 

with Mini 

hu ioTidad hifl 

and waited it op 
to Cutl* Val»> 


Mid 40,000 Ibot, 


hell be croinied 
King in Sams. 

EraJaeh is cast 
down in heart. 

And In the mene while Of this talking 
Cometh A messenger tho to the king, 
And knelid to-fom him vppon kis kne : 
" Sire kyng, newe tjdinges I bringe to ^* 4 

That ben bothe Evel and perylouSi 
Of Tholomes king so dispetous ; 
Into thi lond now Entred he Is, 
And with him gret strengthe wtt^-owten Mis ; 8 

And Oiiable thi Cite they han take, 
And AbowtecT In-virown thei don wrake, 
That so the Contre distroied is be him 
Into the Castel Of valachim. 12 

For On hors-bak with him don Bide 
Twenty thonsend be his side, 
And On foote Also there ben 

Fonrti thowsend Men hameysed Clen ;^ 16 

And )if that Castel he mown haue, 
Nothing Of thi loud wil he save ; 
Ke thens wil he non fote gon 

Til they ben jolden £u6richon ; 20 

[Fo]r that Is now the stre gest hold 
[In] thi lond be Manye a fold. 
And ^ his Avow Made he there 
(That Alle his Meyne gan it to here) 24 

That Owt Of that Contre wold he not pas 
Tyl he were Crowned king In sarras," — 
Whiche that was the Chef Cite 
Of king Eualach his lond, I telle the.— 28 

And whanne the king herde him thus sein, 
Sore he him Abaschte In Certein ; 
And jit the more Abascht was he pleinli 
For the wordis that losephes spak Openli, 32 

' That thre dayes & thie Nyht 
In hia Enemyes daunger to be Owtriht, 

' MS Reg. xiv E 3 reads ' a. xxz. mille homes a pie.* [MS 
Add. \S^ chiualers, et a £, hommes a pie * : 90,000 in all.] 


And that to the prikke Of deth he schold be browht ; ' 

And this Euere was In Eoalach^ thowht ; 36 

But for }ai he was A man Of so gret piowesse, 

He made non semhlannt Of non distiesse, 

But Ajens herte he made good Cheie, 

[SJeenge Alle tho that there were, 40 

[A]nd swor Anon he his Creaunce, 

' That what so him Euere happede he chaunce, 

3if At that sege he myhte him fjnde^ 

He wold don him Kemeve be som kynde.' 44 

Anon his sonde he dide to sende 
Oner Al tho, Into Euerich ende, 
To Alle tho that Of him took Ony fe, 
' Anon with him that thei scholden be, 48 

And On the Morwe to ben Gadering 
Atte Castel Of Tarabe^ wttA-owten Taiyenge/ 
That twenty Miles firom sarras Is, 
And fro valachim Sixtene, More ne Mis, 52 

Where As Tholomes Atte Sege was. ' . 

Thus Abowten sent Eualach Into Everi plas ; 
Thus Abowtes be his sel he sente, 
' That Eche man scholde don his Ente[nte], 56 

That weren weldy Armes to here, 
Ajens here Enemyes to fensen hem there. 
And ho that Ajens his Comandementiff were, 
What so he be that it doth there, 60 

His lordschepe from him wil he take, 
And but Eyht A povre Man him Make.' 

And On the Morwe the king gan to remeve. 
And losephes to him Cam to taken his leve ; 64 

" Sir6 kyng, hennes thou gynnest to Go, 
But thow ne west what forto do ; 
Eor thou ne Art seker to Comen Again, 
But there forto dyen In Gertein. 68 

> MS Beg. ' tarabiel' ; Add. * carabel * (leaf 12, ool. 8 at 


He BirMn hell 

and then tends to 

to meet him 

at CMUe Tanbel. 

erery man able to 

losing hia land. 

going to march, 
Joaephea teUa him 

he doean't knoir 
what the end wiU 


God bids him 


he WBs born In 

nt Metvx, a poor 
■hoemaker'e eon. 

For when Aa« 
gnetus wM 

and Chrial wae 

he feared he 
ahonld loee hie 

But thus My God sente Onto the 

Be me his Servaunt, As thou myht se, 

' That thow scholdest Eemembren ihe wel 

Of whom thow Come Everydel, 

And of what Maner kynde & of lynage 

Thow Art I-Come to this high parage. 

But thou Bupposist that noman it knowe ; 

But I Can the tellen Al be Eowe. 

Be the grace Of my God Almyht 

I schal the telle, I the A-plyht ; 

For Conceil may fere non heled be 

From him that Sit In Maieste. 

Thow were bom In fravnce lond, 

As the holi gost me doth vndirstond, 

In A Old Cite Of fraunce, As I wene. 

That Miaux is Called there bedene ; 

And there thow were A pore Mannes sone. 

That to Maken schon was thanne his wone ; 

And this Owghtest thow to knowen ful wel, 

For thow it hast Sein this EyerydeL 

For whanne Augustus Cesar Emperour was 

Of Rome xxxij jer ; In that plas 

He wende king Of Alle kinges haue ben ; 

And so it him thowhte that it was sen ; 

But Crist of Marie was bom 

In his tyme^ that I Rehersed befom, 

That tho king Of Alle kynges was 

Thorwgh the world In Every plas. 

And whanne here-Offen herde August»« Cesar 

Be hise Clerkis that weren bothe wis & war, 

Thanne he gan to wexen Gretly In dowte 

Lest Of his Empire to putten him Owte, 

And that Al the Contre Of Home Abowte, 

To that lord scholde/i worschepen & dowte. 

Thanne Niste he Not what forto don. 

But Abowtes Al Home he sente Anon ; 












Thorwgh Owt Al that Centre pr 197, bk, ool ij 

Anon his Messengeres sente he, 

* That Euery man & womman Also Soheontewdiu 

" folk to paj him a 

To him A peny scholde ^elden tho, 108 p«nj ■• trfbou. 

As In Manere Of A knowelechinge, 

As In weye Of Soiettis to here kynge. 

And, bencheson^ that Fraunce was thanne BatorFinnMiM 

Of Anothir Maner kende Of Manne, 112 

To hem he sente In this Manere 

As, Sire, I the schal now tellen here : 

An hundred knyhtes be trews Aftir he sente, 100 kniffbta, and 

And Aflir An hundred knyhtes dowghtren presente, <uaghton, tIiw 

That Maidenis scholde ben Everichon, — jjy »»»^ 

And thus his Messages Gonne forth to gon, — 

And An hundred knave children Al In fere, «id 100 boja not 

ont !!▼• Jinn 

Not passeng the Age thanne of fyve jere, 120 old. 

But Bathere lasse thanne Ony More ; 
That time this was his Comaundement thore. 
And whanne these ty dinges weren Comen Into &aunce, Then in ermy 

FrwMh olty 

Mochel they M^rveilled thanne Of this Chaunce; 124 

And thanne Chosen they In Euery Cite 

Be lot, As that time here hap myhte be. Xauwwcagti 

So thanne it happed, As I telle now the, 

That Owt Of Miaux that Cite, 128 andootorMMax 

W9ra choMn two 

That tweyne Maydenes Chosen weren for sothe, midd«na, th« ewi 

And that An Erlis dowghtren weren thei bothe danghtez^ 

Hos Name was Erl Of Siuayn, 

That lord of Miaux was, & Of the Centre Certain. 132 

And whanne the lot on hem |)us gan falle, 

Thanne mosten thei forth nedis with Alle ; 

And vppon the,* tho, fyl the tother lot, •adjrou.ETaLM*, 

Where ^u myhtest ben Excused not, 136 

For thow were At the Age Of fyve jer. 

And Also these Maidenis bothe briht & Cler; 

> < be encheson,' by occasion, because. 
* * thee ' is often written * the.* See 1. 114, 140, 149, 167| ko. 




Mid all thrM of 
yoa wtn Mnt to 

Ton wtn wvj 

Ai to, both- 


Mnt jaa to Earl 

who bald 70a 

•Idwt ton la a 

and than want to 
Tholomaa of 

Of 197, bk, coL t j 


That so wit these Maydenes forth vrete pon led, 

As to-fore I haue here now to the Seid. 140 

And whanne that to Eome ^e weren I-Come, 

The peple Abowtes jow Cam On A throme. 

And 30W gonnen faste to beholde : 

je hadden tho Of Bewte so Manifolde. 144 

And whanne thow were comen to twenty^ ^ere, 

Thanne bothe Maidenes deyden Byht there ; 

For the ton ne lyred After the tothir 

But thre Monthes, It was non Othir. 148 

Thanne Aftyr, the took Tiberius Sesar, 
That Af tir Augustus was empfrour thar, 
And the hadde tho Ryht In gret Cherte, 
And to An £rl the sente for thi bewte — * 152 
Erl Felys he hyghte Of Svlie,— 
To him were thow lad In hie : 
And whanne that thow to him were browht, 
Fill mochel thow werg Euere In his thowht, 156 

For the ftd dere to him he held ; 
And After ful Evele didest thou him ^eld. 
For it befil that vppon A day 

His Eldest sone & thou wenten to play, 160 

That so In Anger je fillen tho bothe, 
That there thow 'slows his sone forsothe. 
And whanne thou haddes thus him slo, 
Thanne to Tholomes^ gonne thou go, 164 

That Of babiloyne thilke time king was, 
And werre he held Ajens Olifemus ; 
For Olifemus king was riht tho wtt^uten d[owte] 
There As now thow Art Of Al the Contre Abowte. 168 
And Anon As thow to him were gon. 
There A knyht he made the Anon ; 
And so moche love thanne he Caste to the, 
That Amongd Al his Ost he ^af the powste ; 172 

• MS Reg^ '.xx.' ; MS Add. *.xii.' 

* MS Beg* ' tholome oerastre ' ; MS Add. * thdlonieB oe iastre.' 


And Aboven Alle Otliere he 3af the powers, 

Oner Alle his Ost to Gou^me^i there, wtijon oTeran 

hli host, and, m 

For that thow were Of so gret prowesse yoa beat hit fbet. 

Of Manhod, & ful Of hardinesse, 176 

So that On his Enemys Avenged he was. 

And hem distroiede In that plas. 

And thanne to the aaf he that lond, pot bia imd 

whoUj inyoor 

And there holich put it Into thin hond. 180 

Now myhtest [thou] knowen & yndyistonde, Toq sm that i 

^^ know who TOQ 

That I knowe whennes & of what londe «n. 

That thou were bothen bigeten & bom, — 

Ilk As I haue the Behersed befom, — 184 

And from so gret povert to hy dignete ; 

Bemembio the wel what I telle the ; 

And therfore the sente to sein be me 

The grete God of Al Cristientey 188 And ood has 

thorelbre Mnt mo 

That Of thi self thow schost han Minde ; to naund 

And thowgh fat vnder, ^ou hast men of gret kynde. 

And Moche peple In bataiUe f^ Abowte, 

In herte scholdest thou not be prowte : 192 70a not to be 

proad In heart, 

For thi lyges, they^ nothing ben, Hthina.* 

But As A wardein hem to besen ; iige; ne to n'en 

And therfore haue thou this In Mende, s^^^i 

For but As On Man thow Art Of kendo, 196 
And As sone* deyen thow schal toryoaihaUdia 

■^ as toon aa the 

As the porest Man doth Ou^r^ ; poorest; 

Therfore scholdest thow be powre & Mek, ^ ^^ Aieonc] 

And vppon thi Creatour beleven Ek, 200 

That Into this world p* made forth go, 

For with-Owten him thow myht not do ; 

And aif thou like not him for thi kyng to holde, ^^J"^^ 

7 "^ ** not take God aa 

Owt Of thi regno bou cost Ryht Mani-folde : 204 yoor King, oot of 

^ ' ^ " your thxone 70a 

For wel may he be Clepid A kyng, so. 

That Endeles lasteth euere his Beyneng ; 

This is Crist Goddis sone Of hevene, 

That Into Y Maide Alyhte be thaungelis steTone. 208 


For Alle Mennes hertes he doth knowe, 
And Alle here thowghtes yppon A rowe ; 
Heihaii pntyoa & bat the schal putten Into thin Enemy es hond, 

into your foM' '^ '^ ^ i 

httida, and thtn And Aftir the deliueren, thou yndirstond ; 212 

For that ther nys non lord ne^er (xod but he 
To whom Ony honour longeth to be. 
Wherfore, as Only On god & Almyhty^ 
Thow Owest him to worschepyn al Only ; 216 

For bothe this torment & this Noysance 
He the now sendeth, for his Creaunce 

bMUMjroa Thow hast Refused, & £k his lore 

Tofaigd to bcUcfv 

hiadootriiM That he in Avicion hath schewed before." 220 

Tiflion, ^^ Thanne seide king Eualach Anon Agein, 

<< Maister losephes, I preie W telle me plein 

What that Avisioun was forto Mene, 

That thou it woldest declaren me Clene." 224 

whidi ra « Certes," quod losephes, " nay how so be&lle, 

•zplain wImb 

yoa'vtbrokMi Tyl thow hsue broken thy Mawmettis alld, 

your Idoliy and 

beitoTt la God.* And that in theke high lord to hauen ful Creaunce 

That the May deliueren from Alle Noysaunce. 228 
And Alle lyreng thing enstabUsched Is, 
Wheche that Y heyest king Is of blys." 

[iMf 196, o6L 1] << FBle my Creance," quod Eualach tho. 

STalaoh: 'Toa l J .^ » t. 

Mid that if rd ^ This Bataylle myn herte goth sore ynto ; 232 

yoa'dgiTemo And bothe jouTd fadyr & Ek JO 

nj iSl* ^^ Of Riht good Conceyl behygten me ; 

jyf that I wolde On 90W beleye, 

je seiden Ryht wel that I scholde preve 236 

Be wheche yictorie of myne Enemys to have^ 

And Aftir my deth my sowle to save." 

'' Certein, Sire," quod losephes tho, 
•80 ood will. " That Conceil I the jaf, & jit Mo, 240 

jif thow wilt On him beleven stedfiEistly, 

And him worschepen As Almyhty. 
And if 70a don't And vil thow wilt not don As I the teche. 

Be war lest god wele taken wzache ; 2i4 


And but thow him worscliepe As me fon seest, 

In body & sowle distroyed thou beest 

Of him that Of Alle thinges Is domes man ; 

The helpen & socoure ful wel he Can.'' 248 

" Now Certein," quod this Eualach y king, 
''And 3e wolden ^even me swich conseilling 
That Of Myn Enemyes yictorie to haue, 
And therto my lif that he wolde save, — 252 

On him Onliche I wolde beleve,^ 
And Al my Creaunce I wele Repreve." 

Thanne spak Anon losephes to the kyng : 
** Now herkeneth, Sire, to my talkyng. 
Do bringe now thi scheld to-fore me, 
And Anothir Man^r thing schalt thow se." 
And whanne this scheld to-fore losephes was. 
Anon he Comanded In that plas 260 

A lytel pece thanne Of cloth so red 
To-fore him be browht Into that sted. 
And the kyng Anon with fat biddinge 
A pece Of Bed Silk he dyde him bringe, 264 

And kutte there-offe two peces Anon 
In the sihte of hem Echon, — 
Eche pece A Eote of lengthe was,--* 
Wher-offen A Crois he made In that plas, 
And takked it yppon the kynges scheld, 
Wherwith he Rod thanne Into y fold. 
And whanne thus he hadde don. 
To kyng Eualach thanne spak he Anon : 
" Syxt thow now this signs that I haue Mad 1 '* 
'' je forsothe," thanne kyng Eualach Said. 
" Certes," quod losep/ie*,^ " I telle it the, 
What Manere Of Man so Eyere he be, 276 

And he wele stedfastli belevene On this. 
Were he neuere in so moche sorwe Ofer distres. 

7oa*n be de- 
stroTcd, bodj and 

BM beat my foes, 
and God 11 Mv« 

baliere on him.' 

BraUeh to bring 
256 hlsahlald. 


268 Of this, Joaephaa 
tacks it on 
Eralach'B ahiald. 


and tails Umy 

MS beleleve. 

* MS losep. 

110 Christ's gboss shall give evalach victobt. [gh. xu. 

That be ne sclial Anon deliuered jbe 
Of Alle Manere deseisse And Adu^rsite. 280 

And therfore, honoure thon this, I Charge the. 
In woT8che[pe] Of him that dejde On tre ; 
whan he b in And whanne that thou Art In giet Nede, 

Knat newl to 

praj toGhriit, Loke Of helpd & 80cour that thow him bede, 284 

And that thow sey In this Maneie 
As I the Schal now Rehersen here, 
' thow god that deydest vppon the Crois, 
Of me, Synnere, here thow my vois ; 288 

begging Hfan, by And On the signe Of this thow su£&ede8t ded 

theaignofUM ° 

eroM, to grant Yppon the tre In thin Manhed, 
um0 to baUere; 8o graont me Of victorie the grace, 

And to thi heleve therto hanen space, 292 

~ And that thy man 'that I Moot be 
[iMf i9e» eoL f] Er that this world departs from Me/ 

And 9tf thow this fulliche wilt beleve, 

Thanne A trewe man schalt fou me preve ; 296 

and tban he ihaU For thanne In bataille schalt thow not dye, 

But bothe to geten Worschepe & victoiie. 

And now that thus I haue the told. 

To gon to bataille thow myht be bold, 300 

The crau shau For from deth thi waraunt this schal be, 

keep him from 

death. And from Alle presonementis, I telle it the. 

jit not-withstonding, not forthan 
though Thoiomee That Tholomes, this Crwel Man, 304 


him three daja In distresss schsl he putten the 

Hf^ «^ three nighte* 

Thre dayes and thre Niht Sekerle, 
For so be me sente the to seye 

That Myhtful god & verraye. 308 

And wete thow wel, jif thow beleve On this, 
Thow Schalt neuere thanne don Amys ; 
For to the schal it ben Bedempcioun, 
And to the devel sorwe & distmcciouit." 312 

ETaiach promieea Thanne seide he to losephes Agein 
These wordes tho In Certeio, 


" losephes^ tliat thou woldest now preyen for me 

To kyng of Cristene In Echo degre, 316 

Me to helpe, and Euere me to save ; 

And trewlj his Creaunce wil I haye, 

jif it be As now thow behotest Me, 

Trewe Cristen Man thanne wil I be, 320 

Of thyn hond to Eesceyven In this plas 

jif Euere I Come A^en Into Sarras." 

And thanne An Old Serjannt he gan to CaUd, 
And there him Comaonded Amonge^ hem Alle, 324 
' The Cristene to kepen vfith ful gret honour, 
With-Owten Onj Angwysch Other labour ; 
And that losephes haue his Comaundement^ 
Of All6 Manere thinges wit good Entent. 328 

Thanne took the kyng his leve Eyht there 

Of losephes & Of his Compenie In fere, 

With Ryht A gret Compenye Of knyhtes 

And Mochel Other peple tho Anon Eyhtes, 332 

And Eyene to the Cite Of Tarabel 

They token the Eyht weie Eueridel, 

And there Abod he fully yj dayes, 

As the Stone Of this book ys sayes. 336 

And be the tyme the Size dayes wer^ gon,^ 

So moche peple Of his Owne hadde he sein non, 

What Of So manie knyhtes & barown 

Hadde he not Sein At Anof In his town ; 340 

But be the tyme that heyghte dayes wer6 gon,' 

Mochel peple to him Cam Anon. 

Thanne Owt Of Tarabel thei gonne Eide 

To-ward yalachin At that same Tyde, 344 

Where that Tholomes beseged the Castel 

That kyng Eualach tho loyede ful wel, 

For him Self there-Oifen Fowndur* he was, 

And there it let Setten In that plas. 348 

' k quant uint aa tletisme ior. MS Beg. 
- ' Aa witisme iour mut li rois de tarabid, maulh soBiia, a 
toutes sea 06. MS Beg. leaf 20, ooL 8. 

JoMphw to turn 


He ord«l% th« 
Chrifltiuit to b« 
bald In hoDoar. 

Svalfldi marehM 


and ttays then 

without hi> 

bat thqr oome bj 
the 8th day, and 
tiien all ride 
towards Caatle 
yalachlm, which 
Tholomei is bo- 

[S yalachin aa 
Svalaoh-in. See 
p. Ill, note, L 11] 

112 evalaoh's castlb valachim described. [ch. zii» 

Thii eMtie If FoT it was On of the Strengest pyl 

▼tiy •trongf 

That Eaere Man Sawgh in Ony Exyl ; 

For it Myhte nenere I-wonne be 

But Only thorwgh Enfamyne, I telle it the. 352 

lu^'l til^ Where-vppon A jate on }at Castel was thoie, 

hiffb* From the plein Erthe A stones Cast & More ; 

And vndir wheche 3ate Han there 

ortr arirw Ryht A wondir dyspetous Ryvere ; 366 

And that Rever, As brod it was -^ 

•n uTow-fliffbt As the schot Of An Arwe In eche A plas, 
So that jate Asailled ne Myhte not ben 
Of hem with-Owte, As men Myht sen, 360 

[If i9e» bk, eoL 1] But It Were Only be An Navye, 

Thane Coude that neuere hem stroye 

For schot, And Cast Owt of that Castel, 

It was devised so wondirly weL 364 

And no Mo 3at[es] weren there-vppon 

Where that [Ma]n Mihte Owht owt gon, 

Onif oiMotiitr But A Htel s:\Bie] In A Comer 

That there-vppon was devised ther. 368 

And Of plein Erthe to-fom fat gate was, 
For two Chariettes to Meten On In fat plas, 
The whiche but xxx pas was Of lengthe ; 

It WM • pile or For it was A pyl Of ful riht gret strengthe. 372 

But Alle the strengthis Of this to discry ve, 
It were to long, be my ly ve ; ^ 

' MS Reg. xiv E 8, saya — *' Et 11 chastiaiifl en haat estoU 
ttuirounes de m^mlt richee mun tous quareles de marbre yert 
et Ttfrmel & bis & blanc. Et se li mur seoient hien et haat, 
enoor estoit la toura plus haut assise a quatre doubles, k si seoit 
C* laafto^ bMk] Bour vne roche * tele que onques si hUn seans, ne si desfensaule, 
ne Ai veue. Desour chele roche seoit la toara marbrine fsi 
tree darement haute, ke on en veoit blanchoier lee mun de 
baadas, k ondoier Tiaae del yil, qui e^ en egypte ; f De tel 
forohe estoft li chastiaus, k de tel biaute. ne ia si grant chaut 
ne feeist en nul eete, ke chil da chaste! n'eussent iaue douche 
k froide d'une fontaine, si coaroit 11 ruissiaus en .1. plain nuwlt 

t-^ MS Add.--tl Mtoit si baut com en pooit ueoir I'eue del nil. qui d 
e rtoit bete el rioe« et oelo aigue quo ie tous di, couroit mult puribat en 



Therfore to passen Over In schort Matere 
Of declareng Of this Castel I wile now here : 376 

And In this place king Eualach this Castel made 
For the strengest plot In y world fat he hadde. 
Now whanne kyng Eualach thus Eedy was, 
Forth Took he his lome In that plas, 
And Entrede Into A ful fair Forest ; 
Thus he Comandede -bothe lest & Mest, 
And Comanded Alle his Men there Anon riht 
Hem Eedy to Annen forto fyht, 381 

For he hadde Sent forth A spye 
In that Morwening thanne ful Erlye, 
To Aspien Tholomes & his Ost 

There that they lien wi'tA so gret host. 388 

And whanne the Spie Cam Agein, 
He tolde kyng Eualach thanne In certein 
' That In the Ost It was dynewg tyme, 
Fore it was ny noon, And passed y pryme/ 392 

Thanne weren tliis Mejme Al Eedy Anon, 
And Owt Of that Forest gonne they gon, 
And Entrede thanne In-to A gret valey. 
Thanne whanne vppon the hil Comen they, 396 

They Syen Alle the Ost Of Tholome, 
How that they leyen In Al Manere degre ; 
And Also Al the Castel Of yalachin 
Where that his Meyne weren w/t^-In. 400 

Evalach marches 
his men into a 
380 forest, and bids 
them arm. 

Finding flrom a 
spy that Tho- 
lomes's host Is ak 

Bvalaoh ad- 
vanoes, and 

oomea in sight of 
Tholomes's army 
and of Castle 

biel qui estoit entre les mure del chastiel, k la tour ; si ohaoit 
en chel plain par .i. tuel de ooiure qui cheoit en vne cuue de 
marbre, en quoi ohil du chaBtiel prendoient iaue a lor besoignes. 
Chil plains en quoi Tiaue chaoit par le tuel, si estoit li abuu- 
roira as cheuaus du chaste], si estoit tous paues de marbre, 
k clos enuiron bi^n le haut de deus coutes k demi, k desour 
tout Vautre pauement. Knsi estoit li chastiaus aaisies^ k si 
ricbement fermes eom toiu aues oi, tant qu'il ne doutoit nul 
home viuant par forche d'assaut. £t pour chou Tauoit ferme 
li rois eualach que il n*auoit onqt/ra si forte pieche de t^rre 
veue. Et pour cfiou li auoit il mis non eualachin ; ke il voloit 
ke tout chil ki iamais le noumeroient, i ramenteussent le non 
de lui en ramembranche de che qu*il i auoit fait'* 


But wlumne this Ost Gan hem Aspye, 
Thoiomei'i man « Tiesawn ! tresown ! " thei aonne to Crye : 
and am. And Axion to Aimes they ronne f ul faste, 

For Of here lyyes they weren Agaste ; 404 

But fewe of hem there ne ben 

That they weren Redy Armed Clen, 

For Eyere they hadden A supposenge 

That kyng Eualach wolde for Ony thinge 408 

That Sege Bemeyen ^if he myhte ; 

And that he it wolde don he susposid ful rihte. 
■vaiaoh'aknightf Thanne kyng Eualach his men In that tyde 

To-waid this Ost Faste gonne they Eide,-^ 412 

More yigeryousely neuere Keden Men 

Into non place thanne they diden then, — 
birt gai thdr And Tholomes men that On foote were, 

horaea ilaln by 

ThoioiiMa'amaii. Eualach his men here hors Slowen there ; 416 

So thanne, bothe parties On foote thei be ; 
2*^h'* "^ There grete Manalawghtre Me»i Miht se, 

How that Eualache men Tholomes men slowe, 

For ther was Sorwe & grynteng of teth Inowe, 420 

So that Of bothe partyes ded there been 
15,000 man ara Bet than Fiftene thowsend,* As men mlht seen : 

And there manye Of his meti lost Eualach : 
ETaiadi and hia And whanno this he sawgh, he tomed his bak ; 424 

Thanne he & his Meyne that On lyye were, 

Toward A Castel fledden tho there, 

Wheche Name Of that Castel was, 
Of 108. bk, col. «] IClepid was ' Comes ** In Eyeiy plas,— 428 

And thedir ful fsiste gonnen they hye. 

He & his Meine ful Sekerlye ; 

That from theke bataille no more it Nas 
two miiea off. But As twey Miles In that plas, 432 

Tholoiiiaa par> 

•aaathmn, So that Tholomes Chased him so faste 

That it wax nyht thanne Atte laste ; 

' The Bpfal MS says '.xv. milliers,* bat the Additional 
only '.y. H.' * MS Beg. ' laoines.* 


Whertborwgb Manye Of hise Men 

Loste this Tholome In tlie Chas then ; 

For tho that fledden knewen fnl wel 

The next weye to Comes Castel, 

WherthoTwgh Eualach his men goten socofir sone, 

And Tholome In that Chas lost Manione ; 

So that Tholomes, bencheson Of the Nyht, 

From that Chas departid Anon Eyht, 

And to his loggeng homward he wente. 

And whanne that he Cam fere present. 
There Al his hameis beleft fer was, 
It was Clene I-^poilled Owt of that plas 
Be the while Of Eualach men 
That^ In the Castel of valacbin weren then, 
That, whiles the bataille & y Chas dyde laste, 
Eualach his men the barneys browbt In faste ; 
For they that In y Castel were, 
Wtt^ Tbolomes men so fowhten fere. 
And put hem Alle to discomfiture 
That fere the barneys kepte fat Owre. 
And whanne this Tbolomes Eesorted A^en, 
And Alle bis barneys dispoilled Clen, 
His tentis and his pavylons to-broke, 
And whanne this Tholome fer-onne gan loke, 
Ful mocbel deseisse be took In berte 
For theke dispit, It was so smerte ; 
And thanne A gret Oth swor he there Anon, 
* That he scbolde neuere from fat Castel gon, 
Thowgb be scbolde lesen half bis Meyne, 
Tyl that they wytb-ynne Enfamyned be.' 

And there Abod be Al that Nybt 
In sweche loggeng As be geten Mybt 

And whanne the spring Of day was Comen, 
To him there Cam A spie Anon 

436 Bnd loMs many 
of hiameu 

440 intlMchaM. 

444 Moreorer, on 
retundng, ht 
finds that aU his 
harness has hean 

carried off by 
Svalach's men 
^ iQ YalaohinH 



and bb tenia and 
pavUiona amasht. 


Tbolomes vwearr 
he'll never leaye 
the castle till he's 
starred it oat. 




1 MSThhat. 


That him tolde tho newe tydinge, 
Al Of kyng Eualache beenge, 
a fP7 tdb Tiiolo- " Syxe Tholome," seide this Spie tho, 

lUM that 

" So good tydinges Cam neuere man vnto 472 

As now Sire Tholomes Is Comewge to the, 
But jif it thorwgh siwne distroied be." 
" Now sey me, Bewfys," quod Tholome, 
" What maner Of tydinges mown tho be." 476 

" Sire Tholome," Seyde the spie Anon, 
Sraiach is Id " Kyng Eiialach Is Into A castel gon^ 

ComM with bat "^ ® ® 

few men. and cma But with A fewe Of his Meyne, 

be eaaiJiy taken. 

There schalt thow him hauen, Sire, sekerle, 480 

And thanne. Ended thi bataille it is ; 
That I seye, it is trewe with-owten I^Iis." 
" Sey me," quod Tholomes, " thou bolamy, 
How knowest thou this so Certeinly 1 " 484 

The epy saw « FoT On him Only I hadde A spie 

ETalach enter the 

oMtie. That sawh him entren y Castel sekerlye ; 

For At the jates so longe Abod he there, 
Er he myht Entren In Oni Manere, 488 

The space Of Ryht A long Mile, 
So Abod fcrowte A gret while." 
Quod Tholomes " In peine of thi lif lesinge 
Loke thou bringe me non fals tydinge ;* 492 

n«af 1,001.13 And yf thou do, with-Owten More 

[Delay,®] deth schalt thow Suffren therfore." 
" [Sir]e, jif it be not so As I haue the told, 
[D]e&-membre thow me. Sire, Manifold." 496 

Thoiomeereeoiveo Anon Tholomes his kuyhtes gan caUe, 
And told hem what A^enture gan be-falle. 
And how that Eualach In A Castel was 
But with A litel Meine In that plas ; 500 

' 11 rois eualach est entre en ' laooine,' MS Reg. MS Add. 

* Bnd of MS on the sheets misplaced. 
' The letters are quite invisible. 

OH. xil] tholohes starts to take eyalaoh in comes. 117 

Wherfore to besegen tliat Castel he wolde bo-gynne 

With half his Meyne, nefer more ne Mynne ; 

And the tother halvendel schold leven stille 

At yalachiiiy for the drede Of More ille, 504 

That was him left to kepen there 

A litel bettere thanne they diden Ere. 

That so this Oidenaunce thus he Made, 

Where-Offen his Meyne weren ful glade. 508 

Thanne his styward to CIepe» gan he fonde, 
That hyghte vabos As I vndirstonde, 
And Comaunded him there Anou Eyht, 
' As that he was A gentyl knyht, 512 

The Eemenaunt Of his Men to kepera stille, 
Lest that Ellis to hem Miht Comen som ille ; ' 
" So schalt thow kepen there with the 
Of knyhtes and Seriauwtes half my Mene." 616 

Thanne his Steward yabus Anon 
His Comaundement was Eedy to don, 
And kept there Stille half his Meyne, 
As wel Footmen As Othere there to be ; 520 

And Tholomes the Rewnaunt with him ladde 
Into that place As the Spie him badde ; 
And So Rod he forth Al the Nyhte, 
For he wolde have ben Aforn day-lyhte 524 

At the Castel that hyht Comes,^ 
There he Supposid kyng Eualach was. 

with half hU 
furoe, whilt tiia 
other half staja 
at Valaohlm, 

andar the com- 
ateward Vaboa. 

So Yabas r«- 
maina with half 
the anny. 

and Tholomea 
with the other 
half marchea all 
night f>)r Cornea. 

laooine. MS Reg. 



Evalaoh sends out a spy to see after Tholomes, and the 
Valaohin man reports success ; Evalach is cheered up, and 
marohes (p. 119). He meets the queen's messenger, reads 
her letter, and asks explanations (p. 120). The man says 
Josephes has told the queen of his defeat ; another man 
oomes and tells Bvalaoh that Tholomes has besieged 
Gomes (p. 121) ; Evalach goes towards Sarras ; a host 
meets him, that of his brother-in-law Seraphe, who oomes 
and greets him (p. 122), and says he is oome to help 
him; Evalach's answer (p. 123); Seraphe's advice to 
Evalach to go to his city Orkauz, Evalach goes to Orkauz, 
and sununons more knights (p. 124) ; he wants to go 
and fight lliolomea, but is counselled to wait (p. 125) ; he 
is besieged by Tholomes, and orders a sortie (p. 126) ; he 
gives the city in charge to an old knight^ and attacks 
Tholomes successfully, for Tholomes*s men had ridden all 
night (p. 126). Of Seraphe*s deeds, and the pursuit of 
Tholomes*s men to a narrow passage by a Rock of stone 
(p. 127), from the slaughter called The Bloody Bock; 
Tholomes comes to the rescue (p. 129), asks his men what 
is the matter, and encourages them (p. 130). Evalach 
halts his men, and puts them in four divisions : 1. Seraphe, 
2. the Steward, 3. Archemedet (p. 130), 4. Bvalach. He 
charges Jeooniat to g^iard the passage, and to keep the 
city too (p. 131). Tholomes ordains eight divisions, two 
against each one of Evalach's (p. 132). The fight begins. 
Kumber of men on each side (p. 182-3). Evalach's speech 
to his knights (p. 133-4). Seraphe's division fights ; 
Evalach's feelings, — his prayer, and the result of it 
(p. 185). The dire slaughter (p. 136). Seraphe's deeds ; 
his axe; and his appearance (p. 187). Tholomes calls 
up his second division (p. 188) ; Seraphe's men flee, but 
he fights on (p. 139) ; Evalaoh*s Steward goes to his help, 
and resolves to slay King Tholomes (p. 140). Evalach's 
steward breaks Tholomes's line,' and throws Tholomes to 
the ground (p. 141). The Steward is struck down by a 
knight ; Evalach's nephew and Evalach go to the rescue 
(p. 142). Archemedes drives in Tholomes's men (p. 148) ; 
but Evalach's Steward is cruelly beaten (p. 143) ; and 
killed by Tholomes (p. 144) ; Tholomes and Evalach 
fight ; but Evalach cannot recover his Steward's body 
(p. 144). Tholomes rallies his men, who shoot poisoned 
arrows, and get the best of the fight (p. 145). 

Now leven we Alle Of Tholomes, 
And that At this tyme Of him we ses ; 
Evdiich lends And Of kyng Eualach let vs now speke, 
ott ft Bpy That On his Enemyes wold him Awreke, 4 



And that Into the Castel Of Come was gon 

H jm foito socoure from his Fon ; 

So that An Old Seriannt he Callid Anon, 

And had that he Anon Scholde gon 8 

Owt Of that Castel Riden, forto Aspie 

Where ^ that Tholomes were there Nye, 

Other to valachin A^en that he was gon 

With his Meyne thedir Euerichon. 12 

Thanne this Seriaunt tho forth gan Kyde, 
And sewed Tholomes In that tjde 
Eyene to yalachin Castel tho, 

There As newe tjdinges herde he Ho, 16 

' That the Meynie Of valachyn Castel 
Hadde horn hem f ul wondirly wel, 
That In the tyme Of the chaa 

AUe Tholomes hameis Itrised was.' 20 

And Anon To Enalach he Betomed Agein, 
And of these tydinges tolde him ful plein, 
And Of the pray his Men hadden take ; 
Where-of Eualach gret loye gan Make, 
And swoor thanne he his Creannce, 
'That, what so hehapped him in Oni Chaunce, 
With him hond he hond wolde he fyhte, 
And vppon him to prey en his Myhte ; 28 

That, ryht Anon As his men semhled were, 
From that Sege he scholde him Here, 
That 80 hastely nenere kyng I-Rered was 
From non sege I non maner plas.' 32 

Owt Of that Castel thanne gan he gon 
From thens thre Miles Eyht Anon, 
And with him sevene hundred knyhtes & seriauTis 
That Alle worthy men weren & vaylauQS ; 36 

And On foote Nyne hundred ther were* 
Of Ryht bolde men & hardy there ; 

• Whether. 
' et bien .x. et ix. oheDS dd gent a piet. US Iteg. 

In find out wImm 
Tboluin«a to. 

The »P7 rtdn to 

and heart hovr 
th« iiMn there 
he?e ouTied off 

Clean, eoLt] 

Tholomee'i arms. 
He reporte thie to 

24 wholigreaUj 


he Ml make 
Tholomee ralee 
tlie »lege in no 

and atonoe 
marches out With 
700 hone 

and 900 (hot. 



Be is met by a 
xneaeenfrer fhxn 

with letten 

begging him 

to leave Comee, 

u Tholomee it 
about to beaiege 

Evalach can't 
Qiidentand how 
liu wife knew he 
waa in Cornea. 

Maater told her. 

So that from the Castel werew they gon 

Fyve Miles ^ er that day Cam hem vppon. 40 

And In the Mene while that tbei thus gowne gon, 
On A palfrey Cam prekynge A messengere Anon 
Al* so Swiftly As the hors myht him here ; 
Kyng Eualach he sowhte Everi- where ; 44 

And thanne with the kyng mette he Anon, 
Thanne thus his Arende he gan to don : 
" Sire," he seide, " my lady the qweene gr[e]teth y wel, 
And thus the' sente to seyne Echo del 48 

As this lettre doth Spesephie, 
Where-with sche bad me faste to hye." 
Anon king Eualach this lettres took, 
And hem Eadde, & not forsook, 52 

And there In his lettre tho he radde 
' That his Qweene On him faste gradde. 
And, As Euere sche his Soiet myhte be, 
Owt Of the Castel Of Come \>at he wolde Te, 66 

For Tholomes that Crwel kyng 
There-Abowtes wil leyn his Seieng.' 
And whanne this lettre thus he hadde rad, 
To him forto Come the Messenger he bad, 60 

& of these tydinges Abassched was he, 
How that this knowlechinge to hire myhte be ; 
And to that Messenger he seide Anon 
" How wyste sche that I Into Come was gon 1 " 64 
" Sire," quod the Messenger witterly, 
** I ne Can not 30W tellen Certeinly ; 
But An bid Man In Sarras is there 
That Of Certein thinges doth here lere, 68 

That Maister Of Cristene Called Is he ; 
A wondirful Man he semeth to be ; 
And whanne sche hath with him spoke, 
Sche wepeth As thow hire herte were broke ; 72 

* bien .v. lieues. MS Reg. 

* MS As. See 'Also faste/ 1. 76, p. 121. But see 1. 385, 

p. 129 ; 1. 642, p. 134. • they (? ache). 


And thanne Cleped sche me forth Anon, 

That this Message were sone don, 

And that A palfrey I scholde be-stride 

Also faste As I Myhte preken Other Ryde." 76 

Thanne- kyng Eualach clepid his knyhtes Anoue, 
And there told hem Of this MeTreil son^, 
' That losephes Cowde tellen of his discomfiture 
The wheche be-fil In that same Oure ; 80 

And that he his qweene these tydynges schold telle, 
How that thike day it him befelle ; 
And how Into the Castel Of Come he was fledde, 

and then she nent 
me off to yoa.' 

Evalach t«lli hU 
knights how 
Joieplies knew all 
that had hap- 

And tholomes Me to besegen In that stcde.' 

And thus As they gonnen forto talke, 
Aftyr theke Bowte Cam A seriaunt walke, 
Faste preking vppon A destrero 
Also hastely As he myhte Hyden there, 
Prekynge with A bowe In his hond, — 
And thus he seide. As I vndirstond, — 
" And [they] be me Sente to 30W gretynge 
That in 30ure Castel of Come ben dwellenge, 

* That je scholden Goveme 30W wel & wysly. 
And Owt Of Tholomes weye to kepen 30W plainly ; 
For he is now At Comes Castel, 

& hath beseged it now Every del. 
For he hopeth 30W with-Inne to take. 
And there 30W to don bothe tene & wrake ; 
And there with him Is half his Meyne ; 
Al the Bemnaunt, At yalachin they be.' " 

And whanne king Eualach herd this word, 
Thus thanne dide he be his Owne Acord ; 
There Cleped he bothe knyhtes & bachelere. 
And told hem Of that Merveil there ; 

* For there nas non thing Seid ne don 
That theke losephes ne wiste it Anon, 
For ther nas neucre touge So Certein 
That Of his dedis Cowde tellen it ploin ; ' 

84 [iMf 1» bk, col. 1] 

A horeeman IWnn 
Comet rides ap 


and telle Evalach 





to keep out of the 
way or Tholomes, 
who has Just 
besieged Comes. 

Evalach tells bis 

how Joeephet 
knows ererytbing 
that's said or 
done, ' 




and had foretold 
all that's hap- 
panad to tbrau 

Xvalaeh tarna off 
to Sanaa, 

and fklli in with 
a body of 4000 

nndar the com* 
mandof hia 


who, by h!i 
()oeau'a eiitraatj. 

"And Alle thing As he to me gan telle. 

What Ayentuie Me be-Felle ; 

And now mown ^e knowe the sothe here, 

That Tholomes Come besegeth there, 112 

lik As my Qwene dide me to yndiietonde 

Be A lettie I-wieten Of hire honde." 

Thanne kyng Eualach tomed his way 
Streyht to Sarras that like same day. 1 IG 

And whanne he wtt^ his Bowte hadde Riden two Mile, 
His Meyne gan to beholden with-Inne A while, 
They Sawen Comen Isswe Owt Of A forest 
A fsdr Meyne, And Armed wtt^ the best, 1 20 

What On hors And Of Footmen 
Fowr6 thousend weren I-Eekened then. 
And whanne this peple that gan Aspie, 
To here lord they it tolde In hye ; 1 24 

And whanne he that Meyne loked yppon. 
His Meyne he Comaonded to Armes Anon ; 
And As king Eualach In Orden^unce was there^ 
Owt of y oper Ost Cam On A destrer, 128 

Also faste As the hors Myht Gon 
Toward kyng Enalach he prskede Anon, 
And vp his helm there he Caste, 
And toward him Eualach prekid wel faste ; 132 

And whanne that Eualach this knyht beheld 
Bothe vndir his helm & yndir his scheld, 
Thanne was it his Owne wyves brothir 
That of Men he lovede passing Al Othir, — 136 

** Sire Eualach, it was Certefied to me 
That Al discomfyt scholdest thou be, 
And that Tholomes, Of Babiloyne kyng, 
Abowtes Come hath thera leid Asegeng ; 140 

Thus me sente to seine my soster y qweene 
That ful mochel sorwe hath, As I wene. 
And preide me, for Alle loves that euet'e were 
Be-twene soster And brothir dere, 144 


30W to Avengen yppon ^oure foon 

Be Alle the power that I xnyht don. 

And this Is now my Comenge, 

I sey yxw, Sire, with^Owten lesynge, 

That So As hastely As I Myhte Eide 

To 30W Am I Comen At this Tide ; 

But it is better thanne I wende it hadde be, 

For I wende In Come to han sein the." 

Thanne kyng Eualach him thanked sone 
Of the grete kendenesse that he hadde done ; 
But 3lt he him preide ful heitly, 
' That he wolde Abyden him by 
Forto Avenge/} him Of his foon. 
And til that his lome were doon ; ' 
*' For there may no man fully knowe 
What Frendes he hath In Ony Bowe, 
Bat "Euere At Nede A man May se v 
What men that welen his Frendes be ; 
But he that doth In this gret nede 
Me forto helpen hym so to spede, 
Me thinketh Among^ AI erthly thing 
It is A tiewe brothens doyng ; 
For je knowen wel that I haue be 
I-Chaced from places two Oper thre, 
Where-Offen I preie 30W, In my gret nede, 
Me to helpen wtt^ wit & dede, 
And helpe to defenden ^oure sostres lond 
That I haue longe kept In Myn hond, 
And Of My schame Avenged to be, 
Now goode brother I preye to the ; 
And dowble Amendis I schal 30W Make, 
Aityr that the Angwisch that 30 for my sake 
Scholen soffren with-inne these vig dayes, 
I schal it 30W ^elden be Mani wayes ; 
And ^if Euere I Mowe rekeuare to sarras, 
I schal 30W hyglily qwyten Er that ^e pas, 

hM oome to balp 

D«af 1, bk, ooL SJ 



Evalach thanks 
Sermpbe, Nad 



to be a (Head la 



■ad help him 
with wit and 



for which hia 

180 ihallbehigh. 


And that In ^owre liowshold it schal be sene, 
And Amongg^ AUe joure baronage be-dene." 
8«r»ph« ftdvbM " ae, I schal 20 w tellen wljat ae Bcholen do, 

KvaUeh to go to 

orkauB, To ^owre Cite Of Arkauz scholen we go, 184 

And there we scholen Abiden A stownde 
Tyl Mo Of 30ure peple to 30 w Com en sownde ; 

hitftrongMtdty, For it is the beste Cite Of ^oure lond, 

And best vitailled, As I vndirstond ; 1S8 

and abide then And there ionve Meine Abyden 6chole?i ;e 

till all hie men ^ ^ -^ 

join him. Til that to )ow AUe Comen they be, 

And Also there scholen we sonnere knowe 

AUe the tydinges vppon A rowe 192 

Thanne And we werew At Sarras Cite : 

Sire, this is best, As thinketh to Me.'' 

80 ih«j au ride to Kyng Eualach held wel with this ConseUle, 


And to Orkauz they Heden with-Owte« faiUe, 196 
And AUe here Meine "with hem wente 
Into that Cyte there presente ; 
But It was fer passed the Noon 

Er they weren Entred Everichoon. 200 

Bvaiach then Thanne kyng Eualach Abowtes gan sende 

■ends for his 

barou, AftyT his barowns Into Eu^'ry Ende, 

* That ho that howghte him Ony worldly honour 
Scholde Comen to helpen him In that stour.' 204 

And the Messengeres diden wel here Arende Jjat tyme ; 
and next morning For On the Morwe, Er it was pryme, 
eome to him. To Orkauz Comen Of the kynges Hetenw 

Ful xvij thowsend, As I teUe it 30W, 208 

What On hors-bak and On foote, 
So manie fer were wel I woote, 
Wit^-Owten tho that king Eualach hadde, 
And witA-owten f* that Seraphe with him ladde. 212 
Heart, ooi.i] And whanne that kyng Eualach this Meine hadde, 

Evalach wants to 

march againtt Tha/mo was he bothe loyful And Gladde, 

Tholomee at onoe^ 

And thanne to Come he Covey ted Forto gon, 

There forto han Mot with Tholome Anon 216 



Thanne to him Answerid his knyhtes sone, 

" It were non wisdoom jit thedir forto gone, 

For to Meten with kyng Tholome, 

Sire, tyl that thow haue here more Mejme j 220 

But let V8 here Ahyde tlire dayes Or fowxe, 

And be that tyme Getest thow More socowre ; 

And thus tyl thow thi power have, 

"With him l^Iihtest Jjou not fyhten, And be save." 224 

And so be the Conseil Of his barouTis Certein 

Anon to that Cite he tomede Agein. 

And be the tyme that it was lyht Of day, 
" Treson ! treson ! " thei gonnen Crien in fay. 228 

Thanne wente the kyng In-to the towr An hy, 
And there sawgh he Tholomes host pleinly ; 
And Anon, " As Armez " they gonnen to Crie, 
That Every man to barneys wente hastelye. 
And whanne he say that y Cite beseged was 
Ou^ral Abowtes In Euerich A plas, 
Mochel was the Mone that therg he Made, 
And Also gret Anger & thowht he hade 236 

For his, Men that to him scholden gon. 
Lest they were taken there Euenchon 
Presoneres witJt hem that werew witA-Owte ; 
And here-Offen Eualach hadde gret dowte. 240 

Thanne kyng Eualach Comanded Anon 
His Men to Armure thanne Euerichon, 
* And that Owt Of that Cite they scholden go 
Also vigorowsly As Evere Men Myhten do, 244 

That Neuere so vigorous issw Myhte be 
Nevere Owt Of Castel ne Of Cite.' 

Thanne Clepid he forth An Old knyht there 
That to him was bothe ful leef & dere, 248 

And 3af him charge with that Cite 
' It wisly to kepen In Alle degre. 
That aftyr whanne he were Owt gon, 
And with him his Meine Everichon, 252 

but it pemuded 
to wAit till more 
help arrivee. 

By daylight 

Tholomee'e hoet 

232 BTslacb's men 

and he ordera 
them to aally oat 
on the fbe. 

He pats an old 
knight in chai^ 
of the city. 


evalach's horse rout tholomes's ken. [ch. ziil 

led hy 8tmphM 


■nd rout thm. 

made tore of 


u they had riddM 
all night, and 
taken no rMl. 

That no Man In tliedir scholde Entren Ageiu — 

Were it Erf, knyht, baroun. Other sweyn, — 

For non kende ne for non Entent, 

Bat jif it be thorwgh myn Comandement.' 256 

And thus thanne Owt gonne they pase 
Owt Of that Cyte A ful wilde Base,— 
For so wilde Hasyng was neuere lyown "^ 
As they thanne Laswed Owt of that town, — 260 

So that to-Fore Owt Of that town wente 
Seraphe and the kyng presente, 
The wheche the feiste bataille hadde, 
And On Tholomes Men fid lowde thei gradde, 264 
And Tppon hem they gonnen so feiste to Hide 
For with hem was non Abide Abyde ; [sic] 
But with spens foste to-gederis they schoke, 
That scheldes & hawberkis Al to-broke, 268 

That they fillen down In the feld, 
So wel they Gronne there hem beweld ; 
And Also here highe hors that here sadeles bere, 
Down On the grownde weren throwe ^ere ; 272 

So that thanne king Tholomes Men 
The wers hadden, £r they wenten then. 
For whanne they Comen Owt of pat Cite 
Swich A gret And lusty Meyne, — 276 

For they not wist that be the Fourthe del 
Hadde not thera ben, they supposed wel, — 
Where-Ofle Abascht wondir sore they were 
Of that Bowte that isswede there, 280 

And the surere they wende han be ful sekerly, 
For twies discomfited him hadden they. 
But there. At the Ferste Assemble, 
Mochel peple lost this kyng Tholome : 284 

Ful al the Nyht to-Fore I-Beden they hadde, 
And Kon Bestii non Of hem ^adde, 
Where[with] alle distempred they were, 
And that was Sene vppon hem there. 288 



And Eualach Men AUe Heste took, 

For Alle l^yht they slepten, & not ne wook ; 

Wlierfoie On hem It was tho Sene, 

For they weren bothe^fers and kene. 292 

Mani Merveilles wrowhten Eualacha Men ; 
Bat Ab for On Man, he dyde sweche ten ; 
For was there neaere Man Of his Old Age 
That half 80 M was tho Of Corage. 296 

And Also was Sire Seraphe, 
That A worth! werrour hath Euere be ; 
For he there bar him so wel that day, 
That so Moche worschepe he bar Away, 300 

That Of his lyve, In Alle his dayes, 
So Mochel worschepe men Of him sayes j 
And Also Af tir whanne he was ded, 
Of him Men bothe spoken & Bed. 304 

Bat Mochel deseisse sof&ede Tholomes Men,— 
And 3it^ Ajens Eualachd On Man hadden thei ten, — 
So that they Tomede here bak Anon, 
And horn hem ward faste gonno to gon ; 308 

Thanne Sewede faste Eaelach the kyng. 
And so dyde Seraphe In that Chasing ; 
And there they Sewed hem thanne so faste 
Into A fal streit passage Atte laste, 
Whiche was An hy Eoche Of ston, 
The moste perilows pat man Mihte bi gon : — 
For the Boche In him self was so hy. 
More than fowre bowschote trewely. 
And Into the Byht side it laste Evene lyht 
Pown to the water Of Orkauz, I the plyht ; 
And the lefke partie it Ban Evena west. 
Into Babyloigne that Biaere wente ful prest. 320 

And [by] Alle that Boche passage was non 
Bat On, that ful streit was there-vppon, 
Whiche was non laigere In non wise 
Thanne As ten Men, As I Cowde deyise, 324 


Senphc flgbt 
woiul«rftUl7 walL 

Though Tbolo- 
niM'i men an 
10 to 1 against 
ErmUch's, thfy 

Seraphe punot 

312 toanarnnr 

by a rock 
316 4-boirahoti'Ught 

through whkdi 
only 10 men oonM 


There Afront myht passen therby, 

So streyt was that passage trewly ; — 

And Into that passage the lue^ Of Eualach 

Sewed tholomes Men that Torned the bak ; 328 

Heratonrach And there was sched so mochel blood 

That On bothe Sydes it Ran Into the flood, 
And so Mochel blood vppon that Roche lay 

that the rock la That ^it the Colour is sene Into this day, 332 

atainad red, and ta 

atuicaiwTha And for slawhtre Of peple Jjere so manifold 
fiodt of Blood/ , ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^^ , j^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^j^ ^ 

For At that Entre they fowhtcn so sore 
That men weren there slain Mani A score ; 336 

And As they mihte, they biden that stour 
Til that hem Cam Ony more socour, 
So that the grettere partie weren forth paste 
Thorw gret distresse Atte laste ; 340 

So that Mochel peple was there slayn 
Of bothe parties there In Certain. 
And for that bataille fere so sore was Of distres, 
" The blody Rocho " Evere is cleped wit/i-outen les. 344 
TwomUaabQjond And be^onde tliis Chas Chased thei were 

thii rock do 

Kvaiach'a men Bo-^onde that passage two miles there ; 

Onhorsed weren Manie Of tholomes Men tho, 

And faste On Foote there gonne they to go, 348 

And Eualache Men hem Sewede ful faste 

On horsbak whiles that Chas wolde laste. 

Thanne here Eyen vp£ they Caste, 

fiat then tbey Ss sien there Tholome Comen Atte laste, 352 

meet Tholomea ^^ 

Deaf t, bk. ooi. 1] That Comeng was tho to the segeward. 

hia force. Now he begynneth bataille strong & hard ; 

b^im «new. * For he sente his Men there forth to-fom, 

Weneng to him non of hem to han lorn, — 356 

For he wende that Of Men so gret plente 
W/tft-Inne the Cite Of Orkauz hadden not be. 
And whanne Tholome his mes-men he sawh so fle, 
And Also Men vn-Armed with him hadde he, 360 



Anon Comanded he In hje, 

' The Annure Of the hurt men hastelye 

Of hem to taken, and hem fer-yntli dyhte, 

That they myhten hen Redy forto fyhte/ 364 

Thanne this Tholomes ferst gan owt Ryde 

Afore Al the pres At that Tyde, 

And Axede his men that fled tho were, 

* What Manere Of thing that thei sien there ; ' 368 

And they him Answerid tho sone Anon, 

And tolde him Al how it gan gon, 

' That In Orkauz they fownden Eualach king, 

And there with him A gret gadering,' 372 

" That So Manie werrours we wenden not han he 

In Al his lond, Sire kyng, Certeinle ; 

And there. At A ryht streit passage, 

On thi men dide he mochel Damage, 

For so Manie men ther hen ded 

That no man kan nomhre In pat sted." 

" What, how goth this ? " thanne quod Tholome, 

*' Is Eualach isswed owt Of that Cite 1 " 380 

" 3e sire," quod they, " — ^he Owre lewte, 

And that Ryht sone scholen ^e se, — 

Prekyng vppon his destrer. 

And with him Al his power ; 384 

As^ so faste As he may hye. 

Here he foleweth vs faste hye." 

And whanne Tholome herde Al this, 

Fol sore Ahaisched he was I-wys, 388 

And his Meyne Comanded to stondyn stiUe, 

For to herkenen what was tho his wille, — 

He preyde hem holy Alle in this degre 

'That iN'eufre non Of hem ne scholden fie, 392 

What Aventure that henge Onei' here hed, 

Tyl that to-Fom hem they sien him ded.' 

" Sire," quod they, " thanne were late to fle, 

And thow to-fom vs slayn there he." 396 

H« rides oat. 

and uks what 

They toU him 
altackt them. 

376 "^^ *^^^ many of 

and that he 11 
•ooQ ace Evaladk 

[1 P Al : tee p. 120, 
note 8] 
punaing the rest. 

Tholome* rallies 
his men, 

prwys tiiem not 
to flee 

tin they 




130 XVALAOH'S order of battle, IX 4 BATTALIONS. |CH. XUI. 

" LordyDges," quod Tholome, " I schal this day 
He win help jow helpen & SocoTire what that I May; 

JN'oi-withstonding myn hy parage, 

And Jerto two & thr3rtty winter of age, 400 

3it stormes and batailles haue I seen 

As Manye As soniT/ie that here now been ; 
ittthMnbeof And therfore, As that je loveji ^oure bodily honour, 

So' beth Of goodc herte now In this stoure." 404 

XTaiach, And whanne Eualach this gan to beholde. 

He him. bethowhte In Manifolde 
Mting that Tho- What was the Cawse Of the Restreyneng 

lomes'i men hold 

bMk, Of the Meyne of Tholomes the kyng. 408 

Thanne thowhte he As A wis werroiir 
That Abyden hadde Mani An hard stour, 

* That Sum gret Strengthe Of peple pei'e was 

Ajens him Comeng Into that plas.' 412 

teiuhiibftrons That king Eualach his barons dide Calle, 

that Tholooin is 

near. And hem tolde what Aventures myht befalle, 

* And how that kyng Tholomes was there ny, 

With Ryht a strong Meyne fgre faste by.* 416 

and thej march So thanne hol to gedens thanne wente they tho, 

up to him* 

Tyl that they ny Tholomes Ost were Come/i to : 

Into tweyne bowe-drawhtes lengthe, 
Clear 2, bk, col. 2] So Fer Assembled Eualach & Al his strengthe. 420 
Kraiarh dividee And thanne there Eualach devised Anon 

4 battauons, His Meyne Into fowrg batailles to be don, 
" *' Of the wheche the ferste bataille be-took he 

1. seraphe, To that ful Worthy werrour Sire Seraphe, 424 

That So worthily hadde him ferst bom, 

Lyk As I haue jow rehersed here-beforn. 
I. under tht And his Steward, that An hardy man was, 

The seconde bataille hadde In that plas ; 428 

And to Anothir Old worthi werrour 

y thridde bataille he betook In that strowr, 
s. ArehTmedee, Hos Name was Cleped Archymedes, 

^ As I }ow here telle wtt^-Owten les ; 432 


And him Self the Fourthe bataille hadde, 
That In theke tyine so wel koundeed & ladde. 

And whaiine thus his batailles diuysed weren AUe, 

An Old knyht to him thanne gan he Calle, 
That was bothe ful trewe & hardy, 
That leconyas was Cleped trewly ; 
And to him thanne for riht gret trost 
The passage he be-tok, As nedis he most. 
In keping it to deliae7*e to On Man, 
So moche Of werre wel Cowde he than. 
That non Of Tholomes men pere paste, 
I9e non Other, for non haste. 
And Also there Charged him he 
That he scholde taken kepe to that Cite, 
" For there-Inne I lefte but fewe Meyne 
It foito kepen, As I telle the, — 
l^ot passeng Of Men Six score 
Be y grete hundred, lasse ne more, — 
And An Old knyht here wardein to be. 
Sire lekonyas, As I telle it the ; 
And therfore that non passe be thin bond, 
That Cyte to don Schame Oj>er schond." 
That lekonyas tho forth him wente. 
His lordis Comaundement to don presente. 
And whanne Tholome Al this beheld. 
That Eualach Enbatailled him In the feeld, 
Thanne Anon he Ordeyned viij batailles 
Of his Meyne with-Owten Failles, 
Of the wheche tweyn y ferst Ordeyned were 
Vppon the steward to Assemblen there ; 
And the Secund bataille devised he 
Vppon Eualachs Nevev forto be, — 
The wheche hyht Archemedes 
A worthy Man In stour & pres. 
For the thridde bataille hadde he In honde 
Of Eualach, As I yndirstonde ; — 



4. Evalafdi him- 

Evalach then putt 
ftn old knlghti 

In charge of the 
pasMKe by the 
Bock of Blood, to 


■top Tholomes'i 
men from ettadc- 




Tholomei fbniui 
hla men into 
8 battaliona. 



8 to attack Et»- 
lacfa'c steward. 

2 to attack 



1 (aadM-hiiBMif) And I my self In the yijthe^ bataille wil be 

Yppon Eualacn that Is so fre ; 
1 to attaek And the Reiewaid schal be the viiithe bataille, 

Yppon Seraphe with-0wte7i Faille, 472 

That worthy Conqwerour Evere he was, 

Therfoie he dred him In that plas. 
ttofbnna And ^it kepte Tholome to his Availles, 

In his Refiescheng, twey batailles, 476 

That vppon Eualach Scholden Come 

Aftyr that the giet storm were done. 
TiM ■nniM And so to-gedore Faste they Bonne, 

And this storm tho they be-gonne, 480 

twoof ThoioniM*! Yppon Ech of Euolache^ bataylles two, 
XraiMb'i; And thus to-gedere they gonnen go. 

Thanne sawgh Tholomes In that plase 

That more Meyne Of his ther was 484 

That In that feld gan there gon, 
10 mm (that ii» s Ten Men of his A^ens Eualache On. 

A oii>t«nth) of 

Ptt>f s. eoi. 1] Thus bothe batailles devised weren there 

Tholomcs'i to 

BmUMdi'f 1, In Manor As I 30 w haue Eeherced Ere, 488 

Bothe On the ton Syde An vppon the tothir, 
So that vnder hem bothe was there fair fothir ; 

ZTtiadi baring 'So that Eualach hadde in eche bataille, I wene, 

10,100 in Moh of 

hit 4 tattaiioot Ten thowsend and thre hundred men bedene, 492 

What On hors and Ek On Foote, 
So Manye he hadde I wel woote ; 

1 The 6th, this should be ; and < viy the ' in 1. 471 should 
be 6th. See lines i76, 481, oq Looelioh's wrong arrangement of 
keeping two battalions for the Reserve. The French text does 
it better. " Et si dist ke les .ij. premieres assambleroient a la 
battaille ke li serourges eualach conduisoit, et les autres deus 
assambleroient a la bataille le senescal. Et les .ij. comanda, 
ke eles assaimblaissent au neueu eualach qui auoit la tierche 
bataille. Et 11 dist, que il seroit en la sietisme bataille, et si 
assambleroit a eualach ; et le witisme bataille feroit V«riere 
garde, si uenxolt sour eus quant il aroient grant pieche souffiert 

' — * Si eut bien en chascune des batailles eualach .ij. mil 
et ly. ohens, que a pie, que a oheual. Et a ohascune des 
tholomes eo eut bien .v. mile, ou plus. 



And In Eche Of Tholomes batailles were 

Sixtene thowsend, As it Heherseth here ; ' 496 

And 3it Manie Of his Men weren lost to-Fore 

At theke streite passage, As I tolde 30W Ore. 

Now Eualach his knyhtes Calleth, 
Of what manere Aventure that him befallith ; 500 
He Clepeth forth lord, dwk, Erl, and bachelere, 
And Al his peple that was there : 
" Lo, sires ! " he seide, " worthi men ^e be, 
And Mochel han knowen Of Chyvalre ; 504 

ponder Tholome hath Ten A^ens Oure On, 
And [^it] hopen we Ryht wel to don, 
& therfore Of good Comfort let vs now be ; 
And thenketh what wrong he doth 30W & me ; 508 
Into My lond to Entren with-Owten leve. 
Me thinketh he doth me gret Eeprave ; 
Therfore, And ^e ben goode men this day, 
Fill wel his Mede Qwyten me^ May, 512 

And the yictorie Of the bataille this day to have, 
And therto More worschepe thanne we co»ne krave ; 
& ^erto the Egipcien neuere schal 30W Abyde 

16,000 In Mcfa of 
hit 8 (a U8,000)« 

ETslidi racoon 
agM hlf knlgbtos 

'Tho' TholofDM 




be good nen, and 

In bataylle, nefer In feld, At non Tyde. 
And this I preie 30W Enterly, 
That je wolden strong & Myhtly 
Tweyne the ferste schowres Ofer thre ; ' 
And be that tyme here haste schal past be. 
And thanne fresch scholen je be to fyht 
Whanne they han lost Al here Myht, 
And thus discomfite hem Schole we 
In this Manere, As ^e mown Se. 
Now behold what worschepe it were 
Hem to discomfite In this Manere I 






Bear thair lint 
Sattaeka; thaa 


and waahall 
diaoomflt ttiaai* 

' le Tons pri et requier que youb souffres moult au oom* 
inencbement ; et si tous les pees souffrir .y. eaus ou troii^ 
bien Bacbies vraiement ke la si tost ne lor courras sus, com 
vous les yerres d*autre maniere ke 11 n'aront este aa 00m- 
menchier. — ^A. 


Pear not' death or 
imprleoniiMmt 1 * 

Two of Tholch 
draw near. 



attack them. 

King ET»1aofa 
feaiv for his 



And beholdeth now, As ^e Mown se. 

What Mejne that he hath more thanne we. 628 

I not what I schal sein More trewelye ; 

je knowen bothe worschepe & yelonye ; 

And therfore I Conceille 30W Echon, 

That for drede Of deth nothing ^e don, 532 

Kethir for presonement In no weye, 

That jow Myht Tome to velonye, 

Ne that Aftir be vs Oure Children reproved be, 

Whanne Owt Of this world passed ben we." 536 

And whanne that he thus hadde told his tale, 
He Sawgh twey batailles comen In A Tale, 
That weren Redy to the Assemblyng. 
Anon Seraphe was ware Of ^at thing, 540 

And Ajens hem faste gan he to Eyde 
As^ so faste As the hors Myht gon pat tyde ; 
And Owt he sprang As fyr Offe brond, ' 
With a boystous Tool In his hond, 544 

Tyl that AprocheJ they werew so Ker 
As the Mowntaunce Of A bowedrawht per, 
To-gederis Faste tho they Ronne, 
And there they newe game bc-gonne ; 64S 

Eche, Other down there threw wel faste, 
An Many On bothe sides to therthe were casto. 
And Eualach kyng be-held Al this, 
That In the Rere-warde was I-wis, 552 

And hadde ful gret Rowthe & pyte 
That for him his brother distroied schold be, 
Other be slayn, Other taken presoner ; 
Ful moche Sorwe In herte hadde he ther, 556 

And with his herte he sighed wel sore, 
And with his Eyen wepte he thore ; 
Thanne his helm vp lie Caste tho, 
^ bothe scheld & spere gan from him do, 560 

And down he Enclynede Of his destrere, 
& In this Maner seide As 30 mown here : 

1 ? Al. See note 2, p. 120 ; and 1. 385, p. 129. 


" Alas, that I so Cursed A kaytyf, 
That for me my broker scholde lesen his lyf ! 
Alas, how schold it I qwyten to the, 
Thowh my lyf thy gwerdon scholde be I 
For this kendenesse that pou. dost for Me, 
I ne hadde neuere good to qwiten it to the ; 
Therfore it is seid ful trewelye 
That In trewe herte was li&aere trecherye. 
N'ow mote the kepen, Seraphe, Every- where, 
That Lord that I the Signe here Of here ! 
And ^if he be verray god, As they tellen me, 
Into his Govemaunce holich I betake the, 
Thy body from peryl & schame to kepen 
In Alle places where-so je ben. 
And J>at to y heyest worschepe 30W bringe. 
That Evere hadde Man On Erthe levynge." 

Now beholde here and se 
How fill Of Mercy & Of pyte 
That is the blisful king of hevene. 
How sone he herde the Synful stcvene ! 
Lo ! for that so hertely he made his preiere. 
How sone that the goode lord gan him here, 
And grauntid him Al his hoi Entent ; 
The wheche was J>«re Anon sene veremewt ; 
For Aftir tyme that Eualach hadde thus preid, — 
As that to-Fore ^e han herd me Seid, — 
Aitirward, dureng that bataille, 
Alle Maner Of men that him gonne Asaillc, 
To grownde wenten thei Everichon, 
And his Enemyes Of him hadde power non, 
Ne non dedly wownde J>at day Cam him to. 
For Owht J>at his Enemyes Cowden do ; 
For that day gat he So mochel worldly honoar, 
That Alle pat him beheld In that stour 
Sien neu^re swich Anothir worldly man 
To smyten the strokes that he smot than. 

■n4 eanea him- 
seir for eudanger- 
564 Ing Sanipbtl lUii. 




He oomraita 
Serapho to the 

to keep hia body 
from peril. 

and bring him to 
high honour. 

See how (till of 
^ . mercy that King 
DoO of Heaven ia I 


For, after Evm^ 
coo »*c»»'« Pnver to 
000 him. 


heenablea Seraphe 
to ground all hia 

and take no 
daadly wo«nd« 



•o that men M7 So that tbev seide Al In fere, 

Heraphe luu saved 

Evaiach Mid bu ' That Eualach were scomfyt jif he ne weroi 600 

And bothe his worschepe & his lend 
That day hadde be Reft Owt Of his bond.' 
But Go we now to the Hyhte weye, 

Hear how seraphe And berkene how Serapbes gan to pleye : 60i 

Whanne the tweye batailles On him were set, 

Thetwobattaiiona Thev wenden ban put him to gret thret, 

tliink they'll take _, "^ ^ o > 

him: For SO many speris broken there was, 

That It semed to AUe y in theke plas 608 

they break a That Al A forest hadde borsten In sunder, 

forest of speara 

about It, So hidous was the Koise, & so ful of wonder ; 

And whanne here speris thus to-broken were, 
then puu out their Here swerdis they pulden Owt Al in fere, 612 

aworda, knireis 

•ud axea, Here knyves and here Gesarmes bothe, 

And grete Axes Also forsothe, 

And Othir wepenis Mani On Mo. 
goaffatnat And thus A^ens Seraphe gonne they to go, 616 


There forto preven here Maistrye 
Deaf 8, bk, odi. 1] Vp-On Seraphe with-Owtcn lye ; 
and make anch That 80 gTct Occision Of Men there was 


Ifeld to Grounde Annon In that plas 620 

With the hydous wepenis that weren there, 
For so wondirful strokes were neuer sein Ere, 
What vppon helmes, & vppon scheldes, 
that thebodiea And vppon hawberkes that flowe?* into feldes, 624 

look like a moan* 

uinofmen, So that it semed there A gret Mownteyn 

honea, and arma. _^, o^«- ^t^^i ni 

Of hors & Men that there weren Slayn, 
And Of here wepenis that lyen hem by;. 
So wonderful sihte it was tho trewly 628 

Ood alone eaa That no touce ne Myhte it thanne telle, 

daaerlbe the eight ^ ^ ' 

C* Poan] But Only he that Alle thing gan^ Bpelle, 
Of whom that Cometh Alle Connenge 
From begynneng Into the Endenge. 632 

And now scholen ^e here?^ More In Echo degre 
How that Afbir it fyl Of this Semble : 



Ful wondirfulli wel didew Seraphes Men 

Wlianne Into that Semble they entred then ; 636 

But Of the prowesse and the worthi dede. 

Of the hardynesse And Of the Manhede 

That Seraphe dide with his Owne hond, 

It is ful hard to Ony man forto vndirstond ; 640 

And Of the Merveilles that be him wrowht was, 

Wexen iieuere Of Man Sein In non plas ; 

For A gret Ax took he bctwenew both his honde, 

Where-with he wrowghte ful Mochel schonde, 644 

Whiche that was trenchaunt Scharpe & Menreillous, 

Kiht A merveillous tool & an hidous, 

And therto him self was A large Man, 

With grete thyes, As I discryvew kan, 648 

And in the Scholdres bothe strong & large, 

Where- vppon he scholde beren his targe. 

With grete stepe^ Eyen In his lied Also, 

And strongliche boned he was therto. 

With smale handes And fyngres longe, 

And therto gret strengthe Euere Amonge ; 

So that A me/'veillous siht it was to se 

Him thus On horsbak, As thinketh Me, 656 

And A good hors that him bar, 

Whanne Into that semble he prekid thar, 

So that he Ferde lik A man ful Of prowesse 

Whanne that his scheld he threw down in that presse, 

And his hors bridel he fastened Ful wel, 661 

And gan to sterin him with his^ Ax Of Stel, 

So that theke day no Failled he nowht 

That Alle tho to Grownde he browht 664 

That to-fom him stoden In his weye, 

Wherfore Of him they hadden gret Eye ; 

Somme, the bed from the body he smot ; 

Somme, the Armes ; somme y scholdres, foot-hot ; 668 

* There is no Frenoh for this word or line, to help to settle 
the meaning of this muoh-dieousst < stepe ' (7 prominent) eyes. 

8erftph«'a men 
fought wonder- 

bat he wrought 

•Qch matreU ae 
man never aaw. 

He had a big axe. 

a hideous tool, 

and he was a big 

with strong 

652 uid bones. 

He rode a good 
horse ; and when 
he charged into 
his foes. 

be felled aU that 
stood in his waja 

smiting off heads 
and arms. 


dMTinf mtn In And somme the legge^s, And 8om7;te b" body On sondir, 
And som/ne he so Claf As Strok Of thondir ; 
And Mania hors Slowgh he ded In the feld, 

•Uying knighu And be him Many knvht ded vndir his scheld, 672 

And fbo(>inen, " 

And Many A footman he slowh that stownde, 
And Manie Of here hors he browhte to Grownde, 
That so Manie Mtfrveilles wrowhte he that day 
so that yet hii That Into this tyme sit of him speken we May : 676 

Manhood U talkt ^7 r j j 

ot Of his Manhod & his Chevahrye 

It were I-nowgh An herowde to discrye,* 
Yet he fSer^he) But To him self It was vnknowenge 

knew not 

Of his Owne Merveillous werkynge, 680 

For he supposed not withlnne him selve 
That he hadde the Myht Of ten Mew Oper twelve ; 
oftheproweat Foi b* prowesse that he dydo, ne knew he nowht. 

that he did, 

Lo what for him he wrowht that him bowht ! 684 

[leaf s. bk, eoi. s] And he thowht fill litel that be £iialach6 preyer 

or that It came ^ 

ftom EvBiaeh'a Was tho prowesse that he hadde there, 


The wheche was A man bothe loyful & Glad, 

Evaiaeh and his And Alle his knyhtes thanno beholden he bad 688 

knights nSoice at 

seraphe's deeds. The prowesse Of this Seraph ii, 

And Of the MerveiJles that did he, 

And of the world he was the worthiest knyht 

As that day tho semede be his fyht ; 692 

For Tholomes Men he made to tie, 

And of hem Slowgh ful gret plonte. 
BatThoiomca And whanne Tholomes beheld this Gas, 

And how pat his Men losten here plas, 696 . 

Thanne gret sorwe Ss schame he hadde ; 
sends np his 2nd Anon the sccund bataille he gon forth badde.* 

pair of battalions. 

And whanne Seraphes Sawgh hem Gomen Ny, 
Wit^ hem he thowhte to Meten Sadly ; 700 

seraphe uds his Anon he seide to his knyhtes bolde, 

mon await the *' ' 

attack. « That stedfaste to-Gederis scholde they hew holde ; 

MS driacrye, or dri»trye,/c>r 'descrye,' describe. 
* Si lor BDvoia les autreg Jj. batailles. — A. 

CH. XIII.] sebaphe's men give way. he fights on. 


Apd that A good stert they scholden Abyde, 

And leten hem Come vppon hem Eide.* 704 

So that they Comen In gret haste A-down 

Abowtes Seraphes Men In-virown, 

And On hem broken they here lawnces faste, 

And 3it lemeved not Seraphes Men til At y laste ; 708 

And here scheldes they leiden faste yppon. 

And jit stooden they stille As Ony ston, 

And rested hem stille In that place 

Til they Sien the tyme whanne nede was ; 712 

And thanne Atte the laste they tomed Again, 

So that Many A man was there slayn, 

Where-Oifen was gret ^breth Of hors men, 

But scais On Of Seraphes Ajens of Tholomes ten, 716 

The wheche that discomfited were. 

And In that feeld lyen still there. 

But Atte laste y two frcsch batailles 

Seraphes Meti ful sore Asaylles, 720 

And strokes On hem leide ful sore, 

So that they myht Suffren no More, 

But tomed here bak And gonnen to fle, 

And forsokew the grownd of Seraphe. 724- 

And whanne Seraphe gan this beholde, 
Seraphe gan hem Ascrie Mani-folde ; 
jit Seraphe left not for than, 

But Tomed Ajen As A worthi Man, 728 

And his Ax in his hondys he bar, 
And Manie Of hem per-ynth slowghe thar ; 
He to-Clef bothe habiriown & hawberk. 
And Amonge^ hem Made A sory werk : 732 

Here helmes he to-Clef A-two, 
Here Scheldis he Alto-schatered Also, 
Here hedis he Clef Into the teth, — 
Thus hem he serveth that Ajens him beth, — 736 

So that non Man his dyntes Myhte Abyde 
They weren so Merveillous At that tyde. 

They stand firm 
•a « stone. 

then torn on their 
foM, and slay 

[I ?dethl 

But at lost 
Seraphe's men 

give way and flee. 


however turns on 
the enemy. 

and splits their 

and heads; 

no man can abide 
his Uows. 


EVALACH's steward reinforces EVALACH. [cH. XIII. 

Alto King ETft- 
Ueh'i Steward 

rides ap to 


and hli mtn (the 
Snd battalion, p. 
ISO) foUow him. 

P DIM, p. 1st, 1. 1] 

Tholomes** two 
batUlions attack 
that of Evalach'a 

The Sieward bida 
bit mea keep 

at he hopet to 
break through to 
Tholomea, and 

And whanne kyiig Eualach steward this beheld, 
That to seraphe were Coined two batailles In ]j* feeld, 
And how freschly they fowhte7» him Agein^ 741 

Where-Offen he was A-drad Certein — 
For non Er sawgh Eualache Steward 
Ony Nede To gon to him ward, 744 

And Seraphe to socouren In that plas — 
To him ward Rod he A ful gi'ct pas. 
" Now Certein," quod this Steward, 
" WiHi Seraphe it stond so hard 748 

That Al the world him helpe ne may, 
So mochel peple vppon him lay ; 
And jif I Ony lengere ALyde, 

He nis but ded At this Tyde ;" 752 

And Anon with that word there 
He prekede forth On his destrere. 
And Al his Meyne holyche with him ; 
There began Anon bataille ful Grym ; 756 

And to the tweyne batailles^ Comen they Anon, 
That yppon kyng Eualach scholde hauen gon. 
And whanne they sy y steward thus Comenge, 
A^ens hem tho batailles Comen prekynge 760 

Lik As the tothere diden before 
To Seraphe, whereby thei han lore 
Mochel Of Tholomes Meyne, 

That be Seraphe Slayn there be, 764 

"Now," quod Eualach, "God, for thy Myht, 
So spede Seraphe that Gentyl knyht ! " 
Thanne this Steward, to his lordis seid he, 
" Loke]> stedfastly that to-Gederis ^e be ; 768 

For 3if we these two batailles mown breke, 
I hope Of Tholome kyng to ben Awreke ; 
For I ne thenke neuere Er to blynne 
Til that I kyng Tholomes bataille be wM-Inne ; 772 
And there I thenke him forto sle, 
Kyht Among Al his Owne Meyne." 


80 wenten thei forth be that OrdeiiaTi77ce 

To knowen how that myht ben here Chauwce, 776 

And fulfilden his Comaundement, 

And Eedin forth wi\Ji riht good Entent. 

But that schowT was As scharp^ As A dart, ^ 

Por there mj&nj Mo weren On Tholomes part 

Thanne On the Stewardis Serly ; 

Therfore was that stour ful Stordy ; 

But ^it Comen they neuere so faste vppon, 

That the stewardis Men A^ens hem gonne gon, 784 

Til that to-gederis they weren Met 

The lengthe of A Gley ve with-owten let ; 

but Euere the Steward let hem pase 

Tyl that with CCC knyhtes Entred he wase— 788 

And somwhat Mo Of his Meyne — 

With-Inne Tholomes bataille Entred he, 

That Fyve thowsend hadde he with him 

Of noble knyhtes both stowt & Grym. 792 

And whanne thus to-Gederis weren they Met, 

Many A steme 8t[r]ok there was Set ^ 

Be-twenen bothe partyes there, 

So that Of Tholomes lost Manie per were 796 

As thowh they hadden falle In-to the se, 

So mani Of Tholomes Men lost there be. 

So that forth prekyd the steward In J?at pres 
Evene Ryht to Tholome ; er wolde he not ses. 800 
And Amonged his Men him smot he so, 
That down to the erthe he gan to Go, 
This kyng Tholome, both hors & Man, 
Thus to therthe the steward smot him than ; 804 

And there he Trosted him forto ban Slayn, 
Where-Offen the Steward was ful fayn, 
And At the Erthe tho stille him held. 
And wend ban slayn him vndir his scheld. 808 

Thanne Cam Jjere On Of Tholomes knylites. 
That Myhti & strong was In fyhtes, 


f OU at Tholomes ham 
most men; 

bat the Steward 
with aoo knights 

breaks throogh 
the Egyptian 
line, 5000 strong. 

right np to 

hurls him to the 
ground, both 
horse and man. 

and hopes to slaj 

But one of Tholo- 
mes's knights 




imltM the 
Steward betireen 
his thoulflere. 
[^Fr. 'eioom'] 

This knUcht the 
Steward knocks 
ou to Tholoroes, 

whoee men rcBh 
to rMooe him. 


seeing the itnig^ 
gle, and the 

Steward's danger 

orderi hli nephew 
(p. ISO, 1. 4S1) to 
go with him and 
SQoooor hie 
Steward's men, 
while he helpa 
the Steward 

And sinot this Steward, there he lay 

Vppon Tholonie his lord In fay. 812 

Betwene bothe scholdres he him thorwh smot, 

As^ he On Tholome lay tho foot-hot ; 

So fat Ano/i this steward Tomed Agein, 

And so that knyht smot In Certein, 810 

And vppon Tholome he made him to falle, 

That Anon tho Creaunt he Gan to Calle ; 

And that Sawgh the stewardes Meyne, 

And faste to him there gonne they fie, 820 

This Tholome to han kept Ofer han Slayn ; 

This was here purpos thanne In Certayn. 

And Tholomes Men that go/?nen Aspie, 

And to here lord they gonne faste hie, 824 

Him forto deliueren from his Fon, 

Also Faste As they Mihten gon. 

And wha?me king eualach this ]^felle gan beholde, 
Ful sone his herte be-gan to Colde ; 828 

And whanne that he Sawgh this Melle 
In thre diuers places thus than/ze to be. 
How that the peple Of Seraphee 
With fourre bataylles fowghten heo, 832 

And Of the Meyne Of his Stewarde 
That with tweyne batailles fowhten wel harde, 
And Also for his Stewardis body. 
He was ful of Sorwew Sekerly, 836 

That A3ens Tholomeres bataUle 
Whiche that he gan so sore to AsaiUe ; 
.So Eualach Comanded his nevew tho 
The stewardis Mew Socour forto do, 840 

" And I his Body now wele Socoure, 
Oper with him to deyen In that schowre." 

Anon bothe these batailles goTincn Owt Glide 
As Sparkles owt Of fyr doth Ony tyde, 844 

And yppon here Enemyes they gonne to go, 
Kyng Eualach and Archemedes Also ; 



"Wheche Archemedes tho semblew be-gan 
Forto Refreschen there the stewardis Men, 
Thanne wolden fese batailles non longere Abyde, 
But to here lord Tholome tho gownen thei Clyde ; 
For thei flowen to him tho ful faste, 
So Archymedes Men On hem gonne;* thraate ; 
So fledde they to here lord for socour, 
For the grete Angwich Of that stour. 

And Eualach — that to Tholome was gone, 
His Steward forto don socour sone, — 
He saugh, & stood, & there beheld, 
How, with as grete Mases As they myht weld, 
On his Steward [they] leiden strokes Mani-folde, 
That pite & Eowthe it was to be-holde, 
With here Mases Coronaled with Stel, — 
And Al this beheld Eualach ful wel, — 
And Thre wowndes On his body were, 
That Tholomes Foot-mew hadde ^ovew hem there ; 
For so with Arwes was he hyrt, 
Wheche hyrt tho Mihte he not Astyrt. 
And whanne Eualaxsh^ thus Saugh him be-stad. 
And Amonges hem thanne forth So there lad, 
And therto his Meyne So wownded were, 
That Sore Agresyd was he there, 
So that Anon he gan forth to Ryde, 
And Alle his knyhtes be his syde ; 
And Er that he to his Steward Myht wywne. 
Fowl betrapped so was lie hem w/tA-Inne, 
They him hadde taken As presonere, 
And with hem forth gonne leden there. 
And whanne that he Cam In-to the plase 
There As his Steward so Taken wase. 
His helm Of taken they hadde. 
And to-fom Tholomes they him ladde. 


On ArehlmedM't 

Tholomu's bat- 
talions give way. 


and flee to their 



nl« steward 
beaten with 



headed with iteel. 

and wounded 




But before he eaa 
reach him, the 

is led off, as a 
8^0 prisoner. 

880 toTholomea 

The MS has Tholome, 


[1 Phim] 

TbolomM draws 
hit sword to eat 
off tb« Steward's 

bat, not hartng 
timt, as Evalach 

fhrosts the 
Stsward throogh 

Tholomes then 



their shields and 
laooss break; 

and they fight on 

Their men fight 
fiercely too. 

Syalaeh cannot 
break throagh to 
his Steward. 

And to the Erthe there they hem^ Caste. 

And thanne Cam forth Tholome Atte laste ; 

Anon he drowgh his Sword So Feer, 

The stewardis hed to han smete;* Of ther; 884 

For Erthly Man was non leveng In londe 


That so moche he hated, ne wolde schonde. r}^gf] 

And whanne that Tholomez scholde han snjeten Of his 

And he myht han had leyser In that sted, 888 

He Sawgh kyng Eualach So faste Comenge 

That he was let Of his puiposinge ; 

And whanne he Sawh ]jat it myht not be so, 

Thanne Otherwise he gan forto do, 892 

Vnder his hawberk In-lawnced he 

Thorwgh the body, And that was pyte. 

And whanne he hadde So I-do, 
Anon to his hors tho gan he to go ; 896 

And A^ens kyng Eualach gan he Hyde, 
And Eualach A3ens him with gret pryde ; 
And so sore there to-gederis they Mette, 
& There so sore strokes Ech On Other sette, 900 

That bothe here scheldes [flowe] Into y feld, 
And Ech Of hem bad Other 3eld. 
And whanne to-broken weren here lawnces, 
Thanne Aftyr behappid many harde Chaureces ; 904 
Thanne On foote gonne they Alyghte, 
And there began A wondir strong Fyghte ; 
Thanne gonnen they there A scharp Schowr 
That was Angwyschschows & ful Of dolowr, 908 

So that Mochel peple was there ded, 
Of Men And Ek hors In that sted. 
And Evere kyng Eualach enforsed him faste 
Thorwgh Tholomes pres Forto han pa^te 912 

Into the place there that his Steward lay, 
jif he myhte it Kecovere that day ; 
But Euere they putten him of -with gret strengthe 
That Entren he ne Myhte In brede ne lengthe, 916 


T7I bothe batailles weren discomfit tliat tyde, 

That Feist Aichemedes [036x13]^ gan to Hyde. 

And whanne this Bataille discomfit was 

Thorwgh Eualach^ Mejne In that plas^ 920 

And flowen to here lord Tholome, 

And After Of Eualache Mejne gret plente, 

& whanne that Tholome Sawgh thus his Ost 

Ouer-throwen & Slayn with gret host, 924 

And Eualache Men After hem purswen tho, — 

Yvl Mochel sorwe In his herte gan to go ; 

Thanne Tholomes his Men gan to Ascrye 

With A lowd voys, And Ryht An hye, 928 

'^ On Eualache Men tometh je A3en, 

And vppon him proveth that je men ben I " 

And So Tomed they the hedes Of here hors 

Thanne A^ens here Enemyes with gret fors ; 932 

And they On foote schotten faste 

Wit venymed Arwes whiles they wolde laste, 

So that Manye hors there they Slowe, 

And moche Othir peple In that Howe ; 936 

Eul hard & strong was the Melle, 

& Mochel peple lost In Eche degre, 

Of bothe partyes there Mani On 

To the deth on bothe sides were they don, 940 

But Only Of Eualache Meyne 

There was persched gret plente. 

Thanne whanne Tholome gan beholde 
That he hadde the bettero be manifolde, 944 

Ai^on A Massage tho he Owt sente 
To him that the yiijthe bataille kepte presente, 
* That In non Wise Asemblen Scholde he, 
Tyl that Comaundement he hadde Of Me/ 948 

Thus to him he sente Anon ful Eyf, 
Non Other wyse to don, In peyne Of his [l]i£ 

■ See p. 143, L 849-851. French, ' Tant ke lea .fj. batailles 
a qui archimades aaoit assamble, furent deeoonfitea.' — ^A. 
ORAAL. 10 

TholomM, seeing 
hU men routed 
by Ardilmadei^ 


•honta to them 

to tarn on 
XraUch's men. 

They do 10^ 

■hoot polsond 


and alay many ot 
EvaUdi't men. 

Tholomes ts thoe 

and sends orders 
to liisReser\«not 

to attack UU he 
bids it. 



SEBAPHB'b deeds, and the end of the BATTL& 

Of Scraphe ; the Tsloar of him and his men (p. 147) ; his deeds 
with his axe (p. 147-8) ; how he did not tire, and all fled 
from him (p. 148) ; so a messenger tells Tholomes, who 
sends him to his brother Manareus with orders for 
Manaious to fight Seraphe (p. 149) ; Manarous comes 
with 55,000 men, and routs Seraphe*B 20,000 (p. 150); 
Seraphe weeps ; cannot rally his men (p. 150) ; but he 
and eleven knights still fight on, and he kills Manarcus, 
whose men make a great cry (p. 151) ; Seraphe kills 
on, bat Blanarons's men kill seven of Seraphe*B eleven 
knights and his horse (p. 152) ; and then the other four 
knights (p. 152); Seraphe kUls a knight who throws 
q)ean (p. 158); takes his horse, and kills away (p. 
153-4) ; Seraphe*B second horse is killed, and he ridden 
over (p. 154). He awakes from his swoon, mounts 
again (p. 154), cuts one knight*s left arm off, and cleaves 
another knight in two (p. 155). He rides into the field, 
kills a knighti is shot through the shoulder by an arrow 
(p. 155), and thrown to the ground, his horse being 
killed under him ; but he mounts again, and tries to get 
to Bvalach*s cross (p. 156). There is great slaughter (p. 
156). Sixty knights rescue Bvalach from 500, and mount 
him again, but he is surrounded by 2,000 of his enemies 
(p. 157). Seraphe rides to his rescue, but cannot reach 
him (p. 157-8). Evalach is taken prisoner, beaten (p. 158), 
and cairied to a wood ; he looks on his shield and the 
cross on it; sees Christ crucified (p. 159), and prays to 
God (p. 160) ; a White Knight with a cross on his shield 
oomes out of the forest (p. 160) ; Seraphe fights on, he 
sees Bvalach*s standard, and shouts (p. 161). The White 
Knight leads Tbolomes to the Rock of Blood (p. 161) ; 
oharges at him, and unhorses him. Evalach's knights 
take all Tholomes^s knights but eleven (p. 162) ; Tholomes 
surrenders to Evalach ; Jekonias takes him to Orkauz ; 
and Evalaoh takes the rest of Tholomes*s division 
(p. 168). The White Knight helps Seraphe (p. 163) ; 
8eraphe*s danger; the White Knight kills two of his 
opponents (p. 164) ; Seraphe swoons ; Evalach and the 
White Knight help him (p. 165) ; Evalaoh unhorses a 
knight, and gives the horse to Seraphe ; Seraphe mounts, 
and is as fresh as ever ; the White Knight gives him an 
aze from God (p. 164) ; Evalach, on Tholomes's horse, re- 
asBembles his men and makes two divisions of them ; they 
renew the fight (p. 167) ; Tholomes's men are in distress for 
tlieir master (p. 168) ; they are slain, maimd, and taken. 
How well Evalach, Seraphe, and the White Knight 
fought (p. 168-9). 11iolome8*s men draw near the Bock, 
thinking it is not guarded (p. 169) ; but it is, and Evalach*s 
men pursue and slay them (p. 170) ; Narbus, Tholomes*s 




steward, surrenders to Evalaoh, who wants to kill him 
(p. 170) ; but Seraphe intercedes for him. The end of the 
diay and the battle (p. 171) ; Svalach and his army go 
back to Orkauz, where there are so many prisoners, that 
the king tents outside the city (p. 172). 

Now lete tb Speken Of Seraphe, 

Of his worthinesse, & Of his Meyne 

That yi with fowre batailles don fyhte, 

And kepen here Owne As men Of Myhte ; 4 

For As it is put Into Memorye 

For On Of the most wondir Stoije 

That Eu^re was Bad In Ony book, 

Owther In Storye, As Men Cowden look, 8 

For so lytel A peple & so vigerous 

Ajens so Manye & so therto dispetous ; 

For ther myhte neuere Man hem wttA-stonde 

Whiles they hadden Ony wepone On honde, 12 

So that Seraphes Men On horse & Foote 

Heelden Tholomes Men wondir hote. 

But that storm ne dured neuar han Myhte, 
Ne hadde ben thorgwh Seraphes Fyhte ; 16 

For So mochel prowesse was neuere In Man — 
As for the Meyne that he hadde than — 
As was In him Seyn that day there. 
For so they seiden that At p* stowr were. 20 

For so worthy A knyht In non pkse 
Neuere to-fom there sein wase ; 
For his plase wolde he not forgo, 
That he and his Feleschepe hadde taken hem to ; 24 
AUe Made he here bakkes forto bende. 
And Of here lyres browht hem to £nde 
That In his weye Gonnen forto stonde. 
Wiih his Ax he wrowhte hem Mochel schonde ; 28 
For here hedes he smot Of Faste, 
Here scheldis & hawberkes Alto-braste, 
And leyd hem ded there In the feeld, 
Many A knyht there yudir his Scheld ; 32 

8«nplM §nd his 
meb bold tlitir 
own agiimt 4 



wlthatood to 

bat fbr Serapbt't 




l«f«, uid anna. 

and hathad hU 
axa In blood to 



And yal ha narar 



thoof h hia man 

ao that all 
Tholomaa'a hoat 
Had from hinb 


Helmes, bawberkes, & ventaylles Also, 

Alle to the Grownde he djde hem go ; 

Legges & Aimes Of smot he there, 

And thus mochel peple slowgh In dinars Maneie, 

That his Ax he bathede In Mennes blood 

From the point to the bylt, there As he stood ; 

And Al this Of him SofiOred this Meyne 

fat Ajens him fowhten, & weren W2t^ Tholome. 

For fat day ne myhten they distroyen his powere 
For non thing that they Cowden don there ; 
Bat Al that day heeld him In On degie ; 
And not wery[er] thanne Semed he 
ThaTtne he was whanne he gan ferst to fyht, 
Nether no More he lakked his Myhte, — 
Of wheche him self yndirstonding he took, 
As tellith the storye Of this book ; — 
[For] wery Of his Armure was he not thore, 
[N]o more thanne he was In the Momeng before, 
[A]nd As fresch he was Evere Forto fyhte 
As In the Morwneng he was, I the plyhte, 
And As vigerows he was Onne forto se 
As thowgh non thing to-fom him hadde be. 
And there As his Men ful wery they were, 
& Al forfowghten In that place there. 
He hem Comforted with Al his Myht, 
And Of Al that stowr he ne took but lyht, 
And hem Reqwered ful vegerously 
That be him they scholden Abyden by. 
For As mochel grace In him was Alone 
As In Alle here bodyes Every-Chone ; 
For, ne hadde Only the myht Of him ne be, 
Clene hadde ben lost Al his Meyne ; 
For Elles myhten they neuere ban kept fat plase, 
For the Multitude Of [tho] that A^ens hem wase ; 
But from Seraphe they fledden Euerichon — 
Alle Tholomes Meyne be On And be On, — 68 







And thus dared Seraphe Al that day 
Til it was past fer noon tho In faj. 

Thanne gan there A Messenger forth to gon 
To kyng Thblome, there he was Anon, 
And seide to him In this Manere, 
'' Sire, A wondirful knyht Is now there, 
That Al this day hath kept the lorme 
A^ens thy fowre batailles, Sire Tholome ; 
And jit discomfit l^euere they been 
In non thing that we Conne seen, 
And Enere Ajens On Of his knyhtes 
There ben tweyne Of Owre Owtryhtes 
And Mo Sire, jif I Scholde Say, 
Thanne I Cowde Certeinly Bekene parfay ; 
And, Sire Tholome, As I the now seye. 
They ne doren not Comen In Seraphes weye." 

Whanne Tholome herde here-Ofifen tho telle, 
Wei Mochel wonder In his herte tho Felle, 
What Merveillous knyht that it scholde be 
That so Mochel hadde Of powste : 
" Go Faste now," quod thanne Tholome, 
" To Manarcus, My brothir so fre, 
And Seye that I sent him gretyng, 
Him Forto hyen Ouer Alle thing 
With Al the bataille that is witfi him. 
That he Come Adown Also steme & Grim, 
And that Of his bataille [he] ne leve not On, 
But with him bringen thedir Euerichon, 
And, as vigorously & with As gret prowesse 
As Euere Entred men Into Ony presse. 
That he On that Entren Anon, 
And As moche distroccioun As he may. don, 
That he ne spare for non thing, 
But with that knyht to haue Meting. *" 

And whanne Manarcus here-Offen herde telle. 
That wit^ that worth knyht he scholde Melle, 

72 TholomMUtold 
bow Senqpb* 
•lands agftinrt 
Ibur battalioni^ 


80 thooffhth^ 
oayrambtr his 
BMn, two to ooo. 



TholomM lends 
to hli brothor 


96 to aitMk Btnpb*! 





[I]n herte he was bothe glad & blithe, 

And Tholome thanked fal Mani A sithe. 
That tyme Anon was Manarcos Body, 
Hpd bi» BMB And Alle his Mejne that weien him by ; 108 

And 80 faste they Comen yppon, ' 

With dyvera wepenis Manion, 
attMk 80T^piM*t And there Maden they here Assembling 

[V]ppon Seraphe, that wery was Of Fyhting. 112 

Now be-gan there A myschefful stour 

That was Angwisschous And Ful Of dolowr ; 

For Seraphe, Scars there he haddo 

Twenty thowsend* Men that he with him ladde, 116 

And Manarcus browhte with him 
40,000 flrwh van Fowrtv thowsend bothe Stowte & Grym, 

(wlthU,000lB '' ^ ' 

I) And In his Eerewarde thowsendes fifbene 

Of faire hameissed Men, wel piked & Clene ; 120 

againrt 10,000 And Seraphes Meyne, So weiy they were, 

And so forfowhten toforetymes there, 

That non lengere ne Myhten they fyhte, 
Ben^tM*! BMn But Tomed here bakkes ])&re Anon Eyhte. 124 

And whanne Seraphe that beheeld, 

His Meyne As-scomfited In the feld, 
8««ph« weepi Ful tendirlv thanne there wepte he tho, 

■t thdr flighty 

And mochel Momeng & sorwe he Made ))6rto : 128 
'^ Alas ! " quod he, '' what is now myn Aventore, 
For nedis I most Abyden this schowre, 
And my Meyne thus from Me go ! 

f Now what Is best for me to do ) 132 

For non Other helpe here Nys Certein, 
But be taken, Ofcr ded, vppon tins pleyn ! " 

bvtthntakw And At that word his Ax he took In honde, 

His Meyne to Bescrye, ^if he myhte fonde ; 136 

But so Fer weren they I-fled than. 

That tomen Ajen wolde they for non Man ; 

' Oar let gens seraphe n'eetoient mie plus de .viy. mile, et 
1! autre estoient plus de .zxx. mile. Car en la darraine 
bataille anoit bien jet. mil homes et plusi — Jl, 



And so fer wenten they Evene streybt Anon 
To the passage Of the blodj Eoch Of ston. 

And wbanne Alle this heheld tho Setaphe 
And that it thanne Myhte non Othirwise be, 
His hors hed he tomed tho Ageyn, 
And with him but Enlevene knyhtes Certein. 
And there As was the thykkeet pres, 
He with his knyhtes Entrede, & wolde not see. 
And so it happede, As he gan forth Eyde, 
He mette Maharkus At that Tyde ; 
In the Midde weye As he gan go, 
To-Oederes they metten bothe two ; 
And there left [he] yp6 his Ax tho Anon, 
And to this Manarcns he gan to gon ; 
There his hed he Clef down Eyht 
Eyene to the Scholdres, I the plyht, 
That ded he fyl down there Anon, 
That Alle his Meyne It Syen Echon. 
And Alle that Evere Cam in his weyo, 
Of hem spared he non tho Certeinlye, 
Bat Other to the deth he wownded was^ 
Othere Elles dismembred In that plas ; 
For nethir hors ne man ne scaped him non, 
That Alle to therthe they wenten Anon. 

And whanne Manarcus men this beheld, — 
That here Cheventein was slayn In the feld, 
And Ofrhere felawes ded Also, — 
Ful Mochel Momeng thanne Maden they tho, 
And Setten yp tho An hnge Cry 
That Into Eualaohe Ost was herd Clerly, 
There As he fawght with Tholome. 
Ful wel Al this Cry tho herde he ; 
But 3it ne knew tho not Seraphe 
Whom he hadde slayn, ne what was he. 
And whanne so Mochel sorwe they gan to Makei 
Thanne gan his herte tho foito Awake, 


144 ■BAvHhll 

knlgdu thugm 







8«nph« elMvet 
Maitarent to tlM 

and lUyt mmnj 


doMn't know 
172 whomtehM 


And forth he prekede Into that pres, 
And with him his knyhtes, & wolde not ses ; 176 

And theie here grownd he made hem forsake. 
And Manye Of hem Slowgh, and dyde moche wrake. 
When Mananoi'i And whanne Manarcus bataille say 

men ggf thst 

only It oppoM That bnt twelve Of hem weren parfay, 180 

7^ For ful sore thanne Aschamed they were 

That they Of so fewe scholden han fere, 
[i«Bf 5. bMk, And Anon yppon him Eetomed A^en, 

T^bX bothe doel and gret pete it was to seA.; 184 

th«j Mt Tigor- And ful vegoroasly On him they sette, 
out 7 OB nph^ g^ ^j^^ ynth stronge Strokes they Mette 

■ndiUj hit That his hors vndir him was Slayn, 

hit 11 knightfl. And therto y\j Of his knyhtes In Certayn. 188 

Thanne weren there left but fowre & ho, 

Whiche was gret doel thanne forto se. 
smvphe flghto Now Is seraphe In the place On foote Alone, 

But foure of his knyhtes, him self f • fy[ft]he persone. 

And manye Merveilles there wrowht Seraphe, 193 

As here-Aftyr Me heren tellen schole 30 : 

He slowgh down Eyht bothe hors & Men, 

Helmes and hawberkis to-kraked he then ; 106 

and •teyi knighto Bothe knyhtes and bacheleris yppon A rowe, 

In that Feld he gan hem down throwe ; 

Bothe palettes & scheldes he to-Craked Asondir, 

That Among So moche Multitude it was gret wondir 
He and hie 4 That he And his fowre knyhtes dyden there, 201 

great heape of 8o that grete hepes Of dede Men there were, 
**^***' Of dede hors and wepene that there lay, 

Bo.Mochel Moordre Of peple was that day. 204 

And whanne his Fowre knyhtes this beheld. 

That he was so Manful In the feld. 

On they leyden, & Fowhten ful faste, 
At last the 4 Til alle fouro weren slayn Atte laste : 208 

Knighte are 

eiAin. Thani\e was there non Other boote 

But that Nedys Seraphe besteien him Mote ; 


And wlianne that his felawes he sawgh ded, 

Thanne Cowde he non Other Eed, 212 

Bat yppon bothen his feet stood ther, 

And beheld the hepes that Abowten him were ; 

Ek Also he loked 3it ferthere Abowte, 

And Al Abowtes him was A ful gret Rowte. 216 

Anon his Ax the[n] took he On honde, 8««phe 

Byht forth Into the pres tho gan he fonde. 
And to A knyht there Ran he to slyde picks ont % 

rm -».- , 1 ^ Knight who hat 

That Many spens hadde Cast In that tyde, 220 nat muiy •pean. 

But 3it Manie mo hadde he forto Caste ; 

But Seraphe him lette tho Atte laste ; 

Seraphe Anon there Mette him with his Ax, 

But Neuere, Aftrr that, ful litel he wax, 224 

For the Ryht Arm he smot Of Clene 

Thorwgh hawberk and haberiown, her was it sene, cie»ve« um to 

the breastf 

That down to the brest the strok tho wente, 

And the Ann Into the Feel[de] pere fley presente ; 228 

His scheld from him Also smot he there ; 

As thowgh that the body Asondir were, 

His herte Owt Of his body ther fyl, » that us heart 

fall* out of hla 

And he In the Feeld ded there-tyl. 232 bodyj 

And whanne the Bemnaunt behelden him tho, 

That sweche Merveilles he gan to do, 

Non Of hem ne was So hardy 

To Entren his place, ne Comen him Ny ; 236 

And that ded mannes hors he took Anon, 

And lyhtly Into the sadel he gan to gon, thenjunpton 

hil hOTMy 

As thowgh him hadde Eylyd non thing, 

Ne non point Of Al his Armeng. 240 

And whanne On hors that he was set, 

Thanne hadde he gret lust to Fyhten bet. 

And there his body putte In bawndoun. 

To the tothere peple ful mochel distroccioun ; 244 

And forth Into the pres he wente ; charg«i aoaw 

Into the Unonga 

There Nas non that he myhte hente, 



■Inyt right 
and left. 

[leaf B, back, 

ool. 2] 

and driTM his 

foM to Uie 

narraw panaga 



where tbej 



Manaraos'e men 
torn on Seraphe^ 

kill hia horsey 

and trample 
over bim till 
he ia nigh dead. 

Bat Seraphe 
awakes ftom 


That here Annea from the body he smot tho, 

Here hedes Offe, here lemes Also ; 248 

Here helmss, here harberions, he barst On Bondir, 

He[Te] ScheldeSy here speris, that it was wondir. 

So that he drof hem forth In his weye 

Til to the Eoch they Come, As this doth seye, 252 

Where As was the streyte passage ; 

Thanne weren there take, bothe bacheler & page, 

And As fele As the keperes wolde have 

Of that Eoch, and wolde hem save. 256 

And whanne tho that behinden were 

At the Eoch [sien] here felaws slayn there, 

And the Eemnant prisoners take, 

Thanne Amonges hem was moche wrake. 260 

And whanne they Seyen Al this fare, 
That Eualach swich knyhtes hadde thare, 
Pul Irowsly tomed they Into that pres, 
And for nothing ne wolden they ses 264 

Tyl that to Seraphe the Comen Agayn^ 
And vndir him his hors has ' Slayn ; 
& Er that he Myht Eelevyn Ajen tho, 
Two hundred hors Ouer him gonne go, 268 

Ouer his Body there In that plase, 
So that Ny ded forsothe he was, 
So that he lay Stille In swownyng 
The Spas Of tweyne bowe-drawhtes schetyng ; 273 
And thanne wenden they he hadde be ded, 
For whom they Moornede In that sted, 
For that he was So worthi A knyht. 
And there so wel hadde bom him In fyht, 276 

That they ne hadde taken him prdsonerd 
3if that his lif Myht have be saved there. 

Alle this while lay Seraphe In Swowneng 
'Wliiles these knyhtes weren thus In talkyng ; 280 
And whanne Of his Swowneng tho he Awook^ 
Anon there Into A Sadel he Schook ; 



His Ax Anon On honde took be, 

Swich meryeilles werkyng fat wondir was to Be, 284 

He Mette A knylit Anon hastely theroi 

Of whom he ne hadde but lytel feie ; 

With bis Ax be Eewardid him tho, 

That bis left Arm Into the feld gan go. 288 

Thanne Anothir ther6 him Mette Bedilj, 

And Seraphe to him was ful hasty, 

& there so him bitte vppon the bed 

That his body he toclaf In that sted, 

Evene to bis Sadelis Arsown, 

That he In the Feld fyl ded Adown. 

Thanne theke bors be the bridel be took, 

And his ferst bors tho be forsook ; 

His Foot In the sterop^ Anon be sette, 

& sprang Into y sadel, & not ne lette ; 

^ity As forbrosed As he was, 

He prekyd forth Into that plas. 

And whanne tho knybtes behelden, Echone 

That beforu tymes for him Made Mone, 

That he was On borsbak Ageyn, 

Thanne Amonge^ hem gonnen they seyn, 304 

And Ech Of hem to Othir gan Schewe 

That wondirful Merveille On A rowe, 

For they wenden tho In Certein 

Owt Of that place neu^re to recoudren Agein. 308 

Anon forth he gan him dresse 
To the grettest maister of pat presse ; 
And with bis Ax to him he Ban ; 
Yppon the helm he smot him than 312 

That he fyl down there In the plas, 
So Of that strok Astoned he was. 

Thanne Arwes to him gonne they schetei 
4nd Manye Speris that weren grete, 316 

So that with An Arwe they him tho smot, 
That Evene thorw the Scboldere it hot, 

chops off OM 

dMTM another 
292 saddle-bow. 

296 takaathit 

knighfa bona. 

300 and chax^M ainte 

who wondar 
that he haa 

Seraphe kiUa 
the atrongeat 

Ha ia wounded 
by an arrow. 




and with ipMtft,^ 

but not mortally. 
80 h« starts up. 

moonts another 
off towards king 

but hit fbsa 
bar his waj. 

Beraphe's msn 
rush towards 

there's a llsros 
fight; many. 
ar» slain. 

and fiTalaeh 
is lost. 

That the schafl thorwgh him gan go 

Pul halfendel the Schaft & Mo. 320 

And whanne he Felte pat so hurt he was, 

Pul [yrjsably he Eod Into that plas, 

And him Steiede As he ferst began ; 

But he was hurt Of Mani A man ; 324 

Bothe with Arwes and with Speris 

They diden hym ful many gret deris, 

And to the Erthe there down him thiewe. 

And his hors yndir him they Slewe. 328 

And whanne that he Sawgh he myht not Abide, 

Vp In that pres he Recouerid that Tyde, 

And Felte that he hadde non dedly wounde ; 

Anon yp he Stirte In that Stownde, 332 

And Anothir hors he sawh where stood ; 

There Anon vp into the Sadel he jood,— 

Wheche hors was bothe Fre and kende, — 

Evene streyht toward Eualache p* wey gan wende, 336 

That him Ofte he bemente ful sore, 

In his herte neuere Man leveng More, 

That so lefte he Neuere with-Owten les 

Til that he Cam Into the grettest pres, 340 

Eualaches Signe there Forto have sein ; 

But Afbyr him they gonnen preken Certein, 

And him forbarred they the weye there 

That he Eualach Mihte not Comen Nere. 344 

And that Sien tho the Men of Seraphe ; 

Anon towarda him they gonne faste fle ; 

TowardiB Tholomes Ost gonne they gon, 

And there Mcrveilles they wrowhten Anon ; 348 

And so hardelich they fowhten, & so sure. 

That On bothe sides was gret discomfiture 

Bothe Of Tholomes Men & Eualachs pe kyng ; 

Many weren there dede, bothe Old & 3ing, 352 

But Amonge« hem kyng Eualach was lost, 

That they ne wiste Into what Cost ; — 


For Tholonie kepte him Owt Of that rowte 

More thanne tweyne boweschotes wM-Owte. 356 

And whaime Seraphe there-Ofifen herde, 
Into that gret pies tho forth he Ferde, 
And there Sawgh he where Eualach lay, 
And his swerd On honde drawen parfay ; 360 

For his hors vndir him was there ded, 
Whiche was to Eualach A sorweful Eed. 
And Sixty knyhtes hym gonne Eeskewe, 
There A^enst .v. hundrid they fowhte?* Al newe, 364 
So that they kyng Eualach Eescwed Agein 
With here grete Escryes tho In Certein ; 
And On horsbak sone was he Set ; 
Thanne there Anon witA his Enemyes he Met. 368 
And whanne they that him to-foren took, 
On hun behelden, & Connen to look, 
Thanne On Eualach they sormownted Ajene 
Ful Irowsleche there Alle be-dene ; 372 

And Eualach^ his Ax there took On honde, 
And departed wit^ hem pat Abowtes him gon stowde. 
So that anon there he was betrapped 
Amonges two thowsend, As it tho happed, 376 

That so the Syht Of him his Meyne lost there, 
And ne kowde not weten In what placje ne where. 

And whanne Seraphe Saw he myht him [not] finde,^ 
Al his Meyne he lefte him there behinde, 380 

There prekyng forth Into that pres 
That for non Of hem wolde he not Ses, 
For ded Kathere wolde he han be 
Thanne owt of that bataille forto Fie ; 384 

Tyl king Eualach hadde he Fownde, 
He nolde neuere parten from that Grownde ; 

' The French makes Seraphe do this : *' Quant il [Seraphe] 
les vit yenir, si fu mult iries, et laisse eualach, si prent la 
haohe a deus mains, si lor keurt seure. . . . £t quant il qoida 
retoomer a eualach, si 11 orcnt ia fourclos." — A. 

' et quant il vit que 11 ne lo troueroit — A. 

Seraph* rldtt 

to reeoM ETsUth 

whom horae hat 


Bnt they reacoe 

and remoant 

Eralach flghta. 

3leaf 6^ col. S] 
hot geu ear- 
rounded by 8000 
of hii foee. 

When Seraphe 
cannot find 

he tome on 



bnt they art 



fhat ht oaanot 
brMk throayh 

On thaoklMr 
■Ide of them 
U BvalAch, 

nm thronffh tha 
body with 8 

and taken 
priaoaar by 


the blood run- 
ning oat of hia 
month, eara, 
and woanda. 

ao that he la 
Bigh dead. 

For him to lesen In that Maneie tho 

He ne wolde, And OthirwiBe Mjht it go ; 388 

But the strengthe Abowtes him was 

So Meryeillous there In Many A plas. 

That him Neghen not he ne Mjhte, 

Kethir Of him to hauen non Syhte, 392 

Por the Melle & the peple there was so strong, 

That Enduren Seraphe ne myht not long. 

And thus As Seraphe was Evere Abowte 

To han broken the scheltrom Of that Rowte, 396 

And Euere they him withstoden than, 

3it Neueretheles Slowgh Seraphe Mani A man ; 

But Euakch was vppon the tothir Syde 

Betrapped ful sore In that Tyde, 400 

For hvrt he was thorw his body 

"With thre Gleyves Sekerly ; 

And him pr^oner hadde taken Tholome, 

And be the brydel forth him ladde he ; — 404 

jit what with strif, & what with Othir, 

Euere Eoalachs men fowghten A gret fothir ; — 

So that At the histe this Tholome, 

"With XV knyhtes Of his Meyne, 408 

So Ferden they with kyng Eualach 

That they tobrosed him bothe body & bak. 

So wery that they weren forfowghte, 

That no more defenden hem no Mowghte ; 412 

And so Euakch tho forth they ladde 

As that kyng Tholome hem badde. 

That so was he forbrosed and forbete 

That Of his lif he nowht ne leete. 416 

So that the blood Ban Owt At his Mowth 

& At his Eren, that was Selcowth ; 

For so Mochel blood he hadde there loste 

That In what plase he was he ne woste ; 420 

His wouTides tho hadden So Sore I-bled, 

That In that place he was Ny ded. 


And so from his Meyne they him drowe 

Ful.fer thens Into A lowe,^ 424 

And him there ladden Into A woode 

That there hesides tho hem Stoode^ 

And Ek his felawes him heside. 

That with him were taken In that Tyde ; 428 

And to this woode hem ladde Eu^ichon 

There Forto Onarmen hem AUe Anon ; 

For }it Armed weren they Alle, 

That So Manye Men they dyden down falle. 432 

And whanne Eualach Sawgh pia grete Mischef, 
That he was fallen Into so gret Eepref, 
And Eu^re with-onte Eecoueringe to he, 
Thanne Moche Sorwe & Mone Made he. 
Whanne Eualach to the woode Aproche he-gan, 
Thanne wax he A wondir Sory Man, 
And Caste his Eyen vppon his Scheld, 
And the vigowr Of the Cros pere he heheld, 440 

That In his Scheld there was it set ; 
And Euere y holy Signe he beheld bet, 
That so longe there he be-held 

Vppon the Eede Crois In his Scheld ; 444 

So longe beheld he that Crois thanne, 
That In theke Crois he Sawgh y forme of A Manne 
Vppon that same Crois Crucified to be, — 
Thus In that Crois him thowghte Sawgh he, — 448 
And Feet & hondis him thowghte Also, 
That yppon A Eed blood Eonne they tho. 

And whanne Eualach this Sawgh In his Scheld, 
And these Merveilles there he beheld, 452 

Thanne gan he Forto Syghen wel Sore, 
And 3it to wepen wel Mochel More ; 
& bothe wit^ Mowth & herte tho he thowghte, 
But for febilte myhte he speke nowghte, 456 

> et 11 rauoient ia ealongle de la bataille bien demie lieue. 

He and hit 
are led into 
a wood 




436 makea mneh 

He easta hie eyea 
on hie shield. 

and looks to long 
on Joeephee'a 
Red Croat 

thai he eeee in 
it the form of 
a man cruciHod. 



He elshi and 



and pnjsto 
God, ThrM in 

to enable him 
to reeelTe tnu| 

and prodalm 

as the only God.] 

"Save me from 

Knight oomea 
oat of the foreela 

bearing a white 
ahlald with a 
red croei, 

riding a white 

Thia knight 
tome Tholomea 
toward* Orkans« 

'* verraj God that Sittest In Maieste, 

As it is told, — On Go4 & p^rsones thre — 

Of whiclie I bere the Signe Of his passioun ! 

So, Goods lord, take me to savacioun, 460 

That I Moot Resceyven 30wre CreauMce, 

And In Stedfast beleve-, wit^-Owte» variawnce, 

Thin holy name Forto proclame, 

That thow Art most Sothfast God Of Name, 464 

And Most Mihtful god In Alle degre, 

And non god ne lord but Only Euere je ! 

So Save me, Goode lord, In this grete schowr. 

From Angwich, deth, and Alle dolowr ! " 468 

And whanne this woord he hadde I-^eyd, 
Ahowtes him he lokede In A breyd ; 
And he Sawgh Comen Owt Of that forest 
A semly knyht there;, araied wzt^ the best, 472 

And Clene Armed from Top« to the too. 
There thus Ryaly gan he Owt Go, 
And Abowte his Nekke heng A whyt scheld 
Whiche that was seyn Ouer Al that Feeld — 476 

In whiche Scheld was A Crois so Bed, 
In Signe Of him that Suffrede ded ; 
Therto his hors As whit As the Lylye Flowr, 
And he A worthy knyht and of gret valowr ; 480 

In his Scheld a spere ful Redylich leyd, 
"With Alle hem to Meten, As it Is Seyd. 
And whanne y knyht his hors wtt^ his Spores he took, 
On hym Tholomes Meyne ganne forto look, 484 

And to Tholome kyng he Cam ful sone. 
And him Torned Agein there Anone^ ; 
Toward the Cite Of Orkauz tho 

This white knyht ladde Tholome tho, 488 

And towardis tholomes Ost they wente j 
Bnt Tholome knew not here Entente. 

* si iete les mains, si prent tholome par le frain, el i^«a" 
toume a tout ariere vers la ohite tout droit — ^A. 


And Euere Saraphes fawbt strong & Lardo senphe flgbt* 

A3eiis Tiiolomes kyng liis Eerewarde, 492 Thoiomm's 
So fat Alle that Evere Ajens him fowghte "" 

Wondred that he So duren fere Mowghte ; 
And Atte laste Eualachs signe he gan to Ascrye He ihoutt at 

Evaliich'i itand- 

"Wit/t A wondirful voys & Ryht * An hye, 496 ard soioudiy 

that TholonoM 

That bothe Eualach <& Tholome it herde bear* a. 

Into that plase how that it y Ferde. 

And thanne Seide kyng Tholome Anon, 

** Let Ys Ordeyne oxire Meyne, & fast hennes gon, 500 

For discryed now alle we been 

Thorgwh this Chasing, As I kan seen." 

Thanne destreris with spores gonne they prikke, and cpon oir. 

And Amongis that Chasing Eedyn ful thykke, 504 

And the white knyht Eood Anon Bnt the whiu 

Knififht leada 

To Tholome As faste As he Cowde gon : Thoiomw'«hon« 

by tlie bridle. 

And this white knyht Tholome be y bridel ladde, 

That non Of his Meyne no powere ne hadde 508 

Hym Ajen forto Restreyne. 

Bat Evere wende Tholome In Certeine 

That the Forest Al day to-Fom hym was, 511 

Tyl that to the streyt of the Eoch bee Comen be Cas ; — tm they come 

to the narrowB 

But there say no man that white knyht, of the Rock 

Saufe Only Eualach, In his Syht. — 

And whanne they comen to that Streit passage [leaf e^ bade. 

There As to-Fom was don So Moche Kage, 516 

Tho that theke time the passage kepte, 
Ful sore For Eualach ban they wepte ; 
And whan they him In this Maner sy him gon, where Eraiaeh'e 

men let them — 

They leten hym thorwgh passe riht Anon. 520 

But it was wondirful InjtShere syht, 

The werkyng Of this white knyht ; 

And [whanne] this passage weren they past, wh4n they get 

In the Middis Of that Feld Anon In hast 524 *"'^*****T* 

' and Ryht, repeated in the MS by mistake. 
OEAAL. 11 



th« White Knight 


this, dnwt hit 
•word, and gOM 

ST^laoh's nm 



hut el«Tfn| 


Er«lAch kfltpi 
TliolomM dowfl 

There this white knyht lefte Tholome, 

That but fewe Of his Meine him Miht se. 

And gan wel fast Alowd To Ciye, 

" Goth to now, Goth to, And fat In hye." 628 

And whanne this Cry herde Tholome, 
He gan to baschen, and al his Meyne, 
And to him he Ban A f ul gret Cowrs, 
& that knyht Tholome gan vn-hors, 532 

And down to therthe there him Casta 
Bothe hoiB & Man, £r he thens paste. 

Whanne that Eualach tho this beheld, 
How that Tholome was feld In the feld, 536 

Tho Owt his swerd he drowgh Anon, 
And to-ward this Tholome gonne to gon. 
And whanne they that the passage kepte 
Syen this, thanne Anon forth they lepte 540 

To king Eualach here Owne Lord, 
There Alle Anon Bedy At On word, 
And after with lawnces gonnen they Chase 
To tholomes Men tho In that plase, 544 

And Anon with here Speris down hem Caste, 
Tholomes Men in fat plase fere Atte laste, 
Everichon, Sauf Only Enlevene, — 
Which was the moste wondir vndir y heyene 5 18 

How that they In theke feld Come 
That To-fortyme Atte forest weren Al some. — 
And wha^me they seyen thei scholde thus be take, 
Thanne AmongM hem there was mochel wrake ; 552 
I^ot-withstondyng ^it A)en they fowhte 
Also longe As that they there Mowhte ; 
But here defens here Angwisch Miht not Slake, 
For it was Goddis wille they scholden be take. 556 

And Eualach yppon this king Tholome 
There lay. As alle his Men Mihte Se, 
Wheche the white knyht hadde down thro we ; 
Kyng Eualach him kepte tho ful lowe ; 560 



And therto I-Maymed Manye Of his Men, 
And jit Ajens Eualachs On liadde lie ten. 
Thanne this Tholome heeld Tpe his swerd Anon, 
And to kyng Eualach homage gan he don, 664 

And there he be-Cam his presonere, 
And therto Al his Meyne In fere. 

Whanne Tholome to Eualach hadde mad fiaunod^ 
Thanne lekonias Clepid he, witJi-Ovrten variaunce, 668 
That the blody Eoche hadde In keping ; 
And him he Comaureded Oner Alle thinge, . 
' To taken Anon this kyng Tholome, 
Hym forto leden to Orkaus Cyte,' 57d 

" And worschepfully that thow him kepe there 
As A worthi kyng In Alle Monere." 
That thus thanne be leconyas 
Kyng Tholome Into this Cite I-lad he was. 
And king eualach Abod stille In the feld 
Til Alle tholomes gonne hem jeld j 
And euere As he took his Meyne, 
He dide hem leden to Orcaus Cite. £80 

And whanne that Alle Itaken they were 
[TJhat Of Tholomes Men weren there. 
He gan to Eesorte to that bataylle 
[T]here Seraphe fawht with-Owten Faille ; 584 

And with him jit ladde he there Mo, 
Alle that the passage kepte tho, 
Sauf Only An hundred Of his Men 
That Ful Fresch to Fyhten were they then. 588 

And whanne they weren past that passage, 
An09} the wh}'te knyht was to-forn herd yitog^, 
And In his hond that knyht bar A banere 
Of Eualachs Armes, Evens Eiht there. 692 

And Anon As they sien Sire Seraphe, 
To that bataiUe thanne faste prekid he, 
There As Seraphe manie Merveilles wrowhte, 
That In-possible Swiohe MerueilldS don Mowhte, §96 


•nd b«eomM hia 


takes TbolomM 

576 toOrkaia^ 

whither hit 
men are led 
captive too. 

[leaf 7. col. 1] 

Eralaeh goes to 
help Seraphe. 

The White 
Knight Joins 



Knli^t cbfxiM 
up to Sermphe, 

who It attackt 
fej Mvwi knlyhU, 

and toraly man- 
glad bjr iroD 

That Eucre the body Of On Manne 

Scholde don that lie dide tbanne. 

Anon this white knyht prekid Into ^at pies, 

And for non thing ne wolde he Sea 600 

Til that To Seraphe he gan gon, 
* Where as he Sawh sevene knyhtes Anon 

Thfit Abowtes Seraphe there stoode, 
: And On him leyden as they weren wode ; > 604 

Tweyne be the biydel hym Jjere heeld, 

Tweyne be the he!m to maken him 3eeld ; 

And tweyne A3ens the herte leide hym vppon 

Wit hevy Maces Of Ime As hard As ston, " 608 

So that his Flesch they Alto-Eente 

With here Mases there presente. 

And whanne the white knyht fia beheld^ 

Fid sore he prekyde In that Feeld 612 

To On Of hem that Seraphe heeld ; 

And him thorwgh the body he bar vndir his scheld, 

That ded he was Anon ryht thare ; 

And thus sone to Anofer gan he fare, 616 

& with his swerd smot Of his hed 

)>at of it fley, and he lay ded, 

Amyddes the Feld there it lay. 

And thanne to the tothere he wente In fay, 620 

And Made hem to dyen vppon his poynt, 

And Made here bodyes In Evele loynt^ 

So that they forsoken this Seraphe 

That from here lyves gonnen they fle. 624 

And whanne these Other two pat him held 

Be his helm there In the Feeld, 
Om kniffiit On Of hem drowgh Owt A lite knyf, 

trios to stick 

sorapbo thitragh And wolde han b^-Eeved Seraphe his lif, 628 

his heimot. Forto han smeten him AMiddes the Fase 

Thorwh the Oylettes of his helm In that plase. 

Bat Ouercomen so was tho Seraphe 

That Cpmfort with him Myhte non be, 632 

Knight spears 
one of Soraphe's 

sooond's head 


and kills three 


For he was Onercomen so with his Wood 

So it was Morveille that [he] ypa stood, 

For, On hors, power hadde he non to sitte, 

Ne Of that stede there Onys to flytte ; 636 

But for febelte that he Inne was, 

Oner the hors nekke he bowede In that plas, 

That power yp to Sitte non hadde he. 

So that Of his purpos Failled his Eneme. 640 

And thus gan In Swownenge seraphe to falle 
Amonge^ his Encmyes bothe gret & smalle ; 
So that they faillede, his Enemyes, tho. 
Of the harm that they him wolde han do. 644 

And Anon As that this kyng Eualach 
Sawgh Sire Seraphe In Al this wrak, 
To him ward ful faste he gan to Hide 
Forto supported him at that Tyde ; 
For sekir he wendo that he ded hadde bee/t, 
And l^enere On lyve him forto have seen. 
Thanne wit A sorwefol herte he gan to Crye 
Ful Petowsly, and that Eyht hye, 652 

" A wrechche ! to longe now have I be, 
That thus have lost now Sire Seraphe ! " 

And thanne Anon there with this word 
Prekyd the white knyht be his Owne Acord, 
And Susteyned Seraphe from fallynge, 
That theke tyme there was In Swownenge. 
And whanne Of his swownenge that he Awook, 
Thanne ful mochel Mone to him he took, 
For he ne wiste where that he was. 
In what stede, ne In what plas ; 
For wende he tho ful Sekerly 
To han ben In the hondis Of his Enemy. 664 

And Eualach bar him ful worthily tho, 
For Into the pres forth gan he go. 
And Mette there with A worthi knyht 
Wich that was Scomfit Anon In fyht, 668 

Seraph* la to 
of blood. 

that he •woona. 


648 toanpport 


656 The White 
Knight kaepa 
Seraphe from 


Xing Sraladi 


groimda a knly hty 

and RitM hit 
hone to Seraph*, 

JumiM on It, 
ae freeh as erer. 

Knight givee 
Seraphe a (Vesh 

handler than 
hie old ona. 

And kyng Eualacli to the Erthe him Caste, 

And hym from his hors Anon he wraste, 

And Cawht it In his hond there Anon ; 

Therewith toward Seraphe he gan to gon : 672 

" Haue now here, my dere Freend," seide he, 

" This litel present now Of Me, 

For thow bowhtest Keuere so dere A thing * 

From begywne[n]g In-to the Endyng." 676 

Whanne that Seraphe this gan beholde, 
In his herte he loyede ful Mani-folde, 
That Alle his Sorwes format he there 
Whiche that his Enemyes dyden him Ere ; 680 

And yp Into the sadel he sprang Anon, 
As Fresch & As lusty In flesch & In bon. 
And As lusty was there forto fyhte. 
And therto him thowhte As of Strong Mihte, 684 

As that he was Ony tyme be-Fom j 
But thanne his Ax hadde he lorn. 
Thanne seide he, ** Certes, And I hadde my Ax On honde, 
There scholde no man A3ens Me stonde." 688 

Thanne Anon Cam forth the white knyht^ 
And seide, " here is On, Al Eedy dyht ; 
And lo, Sere, by me it Is the sent 
From that God Lord Omnipotent." 693 

And whanne Seraphe this felt In his hond, 
Thanne gan he wel Forto vndirstond 
That lyhgtere and more hondsom it was 
Thanne his Owen to-foren In that plas ; 696 

There-by wyst he, whanne he Cam Owt Of swowne, 
That theke Ax Ferst was not his Owne. 
So thanne Eyden they In-to that prea, 
And for non Men ne wolden they ses ; 700 

And Eualach On Tholomes hors Eod, 
So that with him was there non Abod. 

' onquea nudfl n^eustes don qui si ohierement fuit achates. 


And whanne Al this beheld Tholomes Meyne, 
Amojxg^s hem "waa sorwe ful gret plente, 704 

Be Encheson that Eualach ferst they sye, 
WM Tholome In warde, hem faste bye, 
And now Enalaoh On Tholomes hors doth Eyde ; 
"Wherfore they maden sorwe that Tyde ; 708 

And therto Nabure, Tholomes Steward, 
Kyng Eualach hadde taken In ward. 
3it More, this Eualach, with-Inne A throwe, 
With An horn ho gan to blowe, 712 

And Made his Meyne to Kesemble Ajen ; 
And tho that weren left, Retomede ful Cleen. 

Thanne Afbir, whanne Assembled weren they Alle, 
His signe he hem Schewed as gan befalle, 716 

Whiche was fastenid vppon Yna scheld — 
To his Meyne he it Schewede In that Feeld. 
Thanne his Meyne On two batailles he sette, 
And with Tholomes Meyne sone they Mette ; 720 

And Comanded and preide tho to Seraphe 
" That whawne he hym Sawgh in y Moste Melle, 
That Seraphe In the Rere-ward scholde Falle 
On tholomes Men, And On hem there Calle, 724 

And with his Bataille to preven his Myht, 
As he was bothe worthi and gentil knyht." 

Thanne Gonnen they to preken here destreris 
As vaylaunt knyhtes, bothe worthi & Ferss, 728 

And Evere the white knyht to-fom hem was 
W*t^ the baner On honde In that plas, 
And his swerd with the tothir bond I-drawe, 
"With wheche Manye A man was Slawe. 
Thanne gan kyng Eualach lowde forto Crie 
" As Armes ! knyht bacheler, and belamye ! 
For now hath kyng Tholome lost his Men Alle, 
Swich Aventure Is now to him befalle ! 736 

For Of hem Schal Skapyn not On, 
For Al tho Myht that they ko?ine don." 

Tl>olomM*> mtn. 

■orrow at weing 
him a priaoner. 

and hli steward 
Narbaa [p. 170-1] 

raoalla hia boat, 

ool. 1] 

to fiiU on 

whila Serapha 
takes them 
in rear. 

The White 
Knight is 
always in 

732 ilayiBg 



TholomM't nun 

flMT Ibr tlMlr 

iTBladi*! niMi 

nearly all of 

with 8«rtplM's 

Wh«r« tlM 
heftdb gona, 


And whanne this herden Tholomes Meyne, 

They Kiste what to dopte In non degre^ 740 

But hem thowhte hit scholde be trewe. 

For Eualach hadde Chongid his hors newe, 

For On Tholomes hors thanne Eod he. 

As Alle his Men there Myhte thanne se ; 744 

Thanne the drede that they hadde 

Was, lest Tholome to presoun hadden be ladde, 

Owther ellis In the Feld there Slayn ; 

Of wheche Of these they weren no Certayn. 748 

Kyng Eualachs Men Among^ hem thraste, 

That Of theke pres but fewe there paste — 

Whiche that weren kyng Tholomes Men — 

Ofer taken Ofer Slayn Er they wente then ; 752 

And lik As Men that Amased were^ 

In that plase So stooden they there. 

And whanne Seraphe beheld this bekering, 
Non lengere he ne Abod For non thing, 756 

And Tholomes Men Closed Al with-Inne, 
So fat from hem myhten they not twynne ; 
So that Angwisschously Ascryed they were, 
And slayn, takyn, & Maymed, Many weren there ; 760 
For In distresse & Sorewe weren they Alle tho, 
For here lord & GovemoMrs weren Alle Ago, 
And they ne wiste whedir to Springe, 
For In theke Contre knew they non thinge ; 764 

And wel Askapen Myht they not there. 
For On £che Syde here Enemyes were ; — 
So that it semeth ' there the hed is Gon, .^ 
The Membres Fayllen thanne Everichon,* — 768 

For there say neijere Man So fayr A begywneng • 
As hadde kyng Tholome, ne so fow[l] An Endyiig ; 
For TJ dowble Meyne hadde kyng Tholome 
Thanne kyng Eualach In Every degre. 772 

There wondirly wel dyde Sire Seraphe, 
And so dide king Eualach with his Meyne, 



That Neuere Man that was Of his Age 

I trowe hadde neuere So Mochel Corage ; 776 

And the white knyht there bar him so 

That Neuere Erthly man mo MerveiUes myht do ; 

For In that Feeld Scheldes he schatered, 

And Speris & helmes Alto-Claterid, 780 

Knyhtes & hers he slowh down riht, 

Hedis, Armes, and legges In that fyht, 

That non man hym there Askapen ne Myhte, 

So Tigerows and fel he was In fyhte, 784 

That thus be his Chevalrie & knyhthod 

He hem In-gaderede As he Hod, 

And browhte hem to Eoalach y kyng, 

And to-ward the passage, wM-Owten lettyng. 788 

Whanne kyng Tholomes men had Aspied 

That thus Sore they weren Anoyed, 

To that streit passage gonne they drawe 

Where-Offen that weren ful fawe, 

And wende72 that non Man hadde fere he, 

The passage to han kept In non degre, 

And wenden forto A Recouered fat passage^ 

That Eualach, for Al his Owtrage, 796 

Ne scholde not han past be theke weye, — 

This was here Entent tho Sekerlye, — 

Where-thorgwh J)* Cite he Schold not have, 

Where tholome & his Meyne weven ful save ; 800 

For An hundred men myht han kept Jxit pas 

From Al the world, so strong it was ; 

For non mo On front myhte Entren ther 

But ten men At Ones, As I seyde Er ; 804 

For they wenden tho ful wel 

fat there Eualache kcperis hadde left non del ; 

And so As men that weren wery for-fowhte, 

Vp6 to the Roche wenten As they mowhte, 808 

For ther6 Supposed they forto han Eeste. 

But it fil not hem for the beste, 


The Wliit« 

sUf 8 men and 

no one c«n 
escape him. 

Tholoroes's men 

draw back to 
the narrow pass 
792 of the Bock 
of Blood, 

thinking that 
EvaUich has 
left no guards 


But they And 
at the PaBB, 
E^nhM^h's meO| 

wh« chM0, 

sliljr, and take 

the blood&hed 
is terrible. 




yielde ap hli 
iword to 

and praye that 
he may be 

Eiralach says 
No: he 

mast die. 

Steward for 

For whanne they that kei)to7j the pas 
Sye/i to tliat Roche so manye gownen tras, 812 

Hem thowhte Mo thawne Ml there were, 
And At y Roch but .C. that it kepte there ; 
And wha;ine they sien ^[e« kepe« the pas, 
Thanne newe sorwe to hem Coiue« was; 816 

And Ajenward they wolJe han gon, 
. But there- Inne Socour was tliere non. 
For tho that On hem folweJ so faste, 
And they Atte pas schotte/t Atte laste, 820 

So that they slowe/i & token Of that Eowte 
As Manie As weren hem Abowte ; 
Thanne was there Mad so gret dolowr 
That neucre was sein swich A stowr ; 824 

For so moche blood was In that plas 
More thawne Owher Enere seyn was ; 
For Me?», hors, and scheldis, that In )>• blood lye, 
For multitude of blood no man hem sye. 828 

And there was beten On Narbus, 
J)at steward was to king Tholemus, 
And there to Eualach him ^ald Ano?}, 
So he him woldew save/i body & bon ; 832 

And there his swerd vp gan to 3elde 
To kyng Eualach In that felde. 
But Eualach him ne wolde not save 
For non tiling that he Cowde Crave ; 83(5 

But his hors dismembred he Anon, 
And also him he wolde han slon. 
And he tho knelid Anon fere down 
That he myhte be take/i to Raunsown ; 840 

" Nai," quod Eualach, " that schal not be ; 
Swich Mercy getist thow non Of me ; 
For my steward haven je Slayn, 

& so schal I the here In Corteyn ; 844 

Therefore the Chonge it is ful hard. 
For I wele haven steward for steward." 


And liis Armure he dide Of Caste, 

His hed to han smetew Of atte laste. 848 

And thanne Cam forth Sire Seraphe : 

" A, Sire ! what thinkew to done 30 1 

^if 3011x6 steward ded now be, 

Tholome hath lost, Sire, swich thre ; 852 

And his Owne brother so dere, 

That he loved As mochel there 

As 3e jowre Steward trewly ; 

Therefore, Sire, On Jj/s man haveth Mercy ; 

Fo[r] I him Slowgh witfi Myn bond, 

Sire, I do 30W to vndirstond ; 

Therfore, sire, I preie to ))• 

That Of this Man thow have pite." 860 

So ]>ai there gen til Sire Seraphe 

This man Savede, As 30 mown se. 

Ful Mochel & gret was the discomfiture 
As that tyme be-happed be A venture ; 864 

And the Nyht drowgh On ful faste, 
For the day It was Ny paste ; 
Whiche was ful deseysy to Eualachs Men, 
But 3it Atte hardest not for then, 
For so Manye thei slowen And tokew that tyde 
Atte passage Of the * Roche Of blood * beside, 
That Of hem ne pasten not fere Away 
Two thousend, what hurt & hoi that day. 
That Tholomes^ Mew ne -distroied Echon — 
So fat tyme with Eualach the grace gan gon, — 
Of wheche at the begynneng were 
Sixty thowsend wel hameised there. 
And thus the Egipcian, be goddis Myht, 
At theke tyme werew distroyed be fyht. 

Thanne to Orcaus ward wente Eualach, — 
A lie the Egipciens to Mochel wrak,— 880 

And with him AUe his Meyne 
That At theke tyme hadde he. 

[leafs, col. 1] 
R«mph« bcgt 

806 to have mere/ 
on Narboa, 

and 80 aavea 

bis life. 

Night drawa on. 

868 So many of 

Tholomaa'i men 
are slain at the 
Paaa of the 
Book of Blood, 

872 that not 2000 
[1 f Evalach'il 

876 ont of 60,000. 

Evalach marohea 
back to Orkanx. 


AU Eralach's 
men g«t plunder 
from the Egyp- 
MaiM J 

■o many of 
whom an 
hnpriaoned in 

that EvaUch 
ii obliged to 
pitch hia tenU 
•utelde the 

For fere nas no Man Of Non degre 

That thorwgli theke bataille holpen was lie ; 884 • 

Bothe duk, knyht, and bachelcre, 

Alle werew Encresid that weren there, 

je. And also bothe ^omen and page ; 

For Alle here lyres hadden they Gage. 888 

And w'hanne Eualach Into the Cite Entred was. 
So Manie prisoners ho fond In that plas, 
And Of here Maistres that with hem were,. 
Tliat non Spas was to walken In there, 892 

Nether On bora, netliir On Foote ; 
But Owt Ajen Nedys he ^foote ; 
And afom the Cite he let pichcheTi Anon 
Alle his pavilouns there thanne Everichon, 896 

In A £edr plase that was so pleyn 
To-forn that Cite tho In Certein ; 
And there al that Niht herberwed he, 
And with him al his Meyne. 900 


Of Evalach's Queen (Sarracynte) in Sarras. She sends for 
Joseph, and asks how Evalach has got on (p. 173) ; 
Joseph's answer (p. 174) ; the heathen kings^ &g. are to 
be cast down, and the poor exalted (p. 175). Sarracynte 
cries ; she asks Joseph to pray for Evalach (p. 175) ; and 
to expound Christianity to her (p. 176). Sarracynte is a 
Christian, and tells Josephes of her Christian mother, and 
her father, who was a brute (p. 176-7) ; also, how her mother 
was ill of a bloody flux, and went to a good hermit, and 
askt help (p. 177). The Hermit tells her that Christ alone 
can cure her (p. 178) ; she says, 'Ask Qod for me, I will 
give you gold.' He says, ' Believe in Christy and he 
will heal you ' (p. 178). She does, and he prays to God 
and proclaims her whole ; she is (p. 179) ; thanks God ; 
and is baptized (p. 180). She takes Sarracynte to the 
hermit. Sarracynte says she cannot worship him on 
account of his beard, but she will worship Christ if he 
is fairer than her brother (p. 181). A glorious man — 
Christ — appears ; Sarracynte is christened (p. 182), and th« 
hermit, tells her of Christ (p. 183). Her mother receives 
the sacrament and Sarracynte does so too (p. 184) ; both go 

I- Vtij OaBi a ly^animl *••■ I 

Tln.4»l~rii.^-.iii. ll ;• ,,.„! ,.,.l U 1. :l..„j. !■, 


flWJ' ' 

Estra Striei. XXIV.' H 

f k gislor!! 







(lD>)iail^ 1 

;ffe.■^v■ '<■- 


1:^'aut■llI', ad. tlu'> a.i 



ilKUItV LONKLirn. 

i<kyiiliur, ^H 
— t^ion A.P) OK )}ll(Kf^ ^H 

•J'HK Fill 

;.v*:» riio!*i; (.\b, ii*> 

noitiaiN. ^^^^M 


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;. ,T. FriiXIVALL 

, KSQ.. y\.A., H 

v'timiOQR, ^^1 

!>• tiLi' 

TART tl. 


li TEXT tOCIKTV, ^^1 

Committee af Hiuisg^iu 
SlKCtor: FIir;i)EKIi:K -I. i I . 
Treasurer: HKSKV It, ^ ■■ 
Hon. SB©.: AllTtiri; s\Hl.(iin)vr-:. i';«j„ i ■ 

( If iik pem'i- (« aM I) nrkm la Hinv iMinJfsr.j 


Thini''' ■ ■■■■' '■■■' 

The rultlicalidriB for 1800 ,... 
has bi-cn opcuU for tli-nr inuii-.i 
bul one (wllicli is ituw in Ibc ^,1. 
icribcr* ivlio ilwire tin- TtMia of all ui 
naiDP.* at once to t!ic Hon, SciTc-lnry. ( 
rrquifi li.-f'.r" titr Ti-xi* fuv ISfill can 

T •■ " ■ ■■ ';iliU.)a'-r:~ 

I : ■■ Pmbu, »b. im 

i. \ r.^ ,.ai(, iH., isu.'od, 

t, tlu (.3'l.nvi^- mil it,- flrtiis Kflltlll. aii, LIDO, 
«l, it. ilWii. lit*. 

I, Hi. i;nUi (.L U 
lOih., »»., llrt tij 

fiL-vei-ul iiu 

U'Iml lultlilional 



in. ■trilB.Bli.Ulll.rsrll^i'll.Q.B.WliHU.Ir 

oitbsn Kwiynn ArtluirUn 1 
" - '">« Tlin* EtIalUi. ' 

CH. XV.] 




e I 

borne, and hear of a great beast (p. 185). Samoynte's 
brotber goes to hunt it, and is lost in the forest (p. 185). 
Her mother says the hermit is a true prophet (p. 185), 
They r^oice in their faith (p. 186). Her mother sends 
the attendants out> and tells Sarracynte to get a box (p, 
186); Christ comes out as bread (p. 187). She charges 
Sarracynte to keep the box, and think on Christ (p. 
187-8) ; and go and tell the hermit of her mother's death 
(p. 188) ; and get him to put bread in the box, and look 
at it every day (p. 189). Christ appears over the mother's 
bed. Her mother dies, and Sarracynte goes to the hermit 
(p. 190), who gives her Christ (p. 191). She goes away, 
and meets a man, who tells her the hermit is dead 
(p. 191), and asks her to ride back to his cell (p. 192) ; they 
go back ; the man mourns ; then digs a grave (p. 193) ; 
takes the head of the corpse, and tells her to take the feet ; 
she excuses herself (p. 193) ; they bury the body. He 
scolds her servants, and then baptizes them (p. 194) ; and 
remains in the cell. The end of Sarracynte^s answer 
(p. 195). Josephes says, * Why don*t you worship Christ 
now 1 ' she answers, ' My husband is so angry ; convert 
him ' (p. 195). She asks how her husband has sped in the 
battle, and Joseph tells her (p. 196). 

Kow let Ys beleven Of kyng Eualach, 
And Firthere Into this Mater now let ys walk. 
And Of these Cristene Speke we bedene 
That In Sarras ben, Sixty & Fyftene, 4 

lik As YS tellith the Storye 
Of Eaalachs wif here Sekerlye, 
That A wondir fair womman sche was, 
And fill worschepful In EYery plas, 8 

And ' Sarracynte ' was that qwenes Kame, 
A worschepful lady, and Of Noble Fame. 
And whanne that Eualach with his Ost forth wente, 
So moche Mone sche Made, sche was Ny Scbente, 12 
For Eualach, that was Most In hire Mynde 
Of al Erthly thing, and that was kynde. 
Therfore sche sente For losep^e Anon, 
To weten how that the Cause scholde gon^ 16 

111 As Mochel Ab that Er he seide 
* That hire lord scholde ban Abreide, 
And perto thre dayes & thre Kyhtes to bo 
Yndir his Enemyes powste, 20 


LlMfS, ool. 2] 
L«t '• leaTe 
King Bvahush, 
and spnk of 
tbe 75 Chriattutt 

and of Evaladi'a 


want to battia^ 

sha lant for 
JoMph, to 
know how har 
hoiband would 




and ah* Mki 
htm how 
XTalaoh hM ^•d. 

Il« iniwtn thai* 

M ttM klngt of 
tha earth wUl 
not know Oo^ 

Ha will haTO 
them slaiiit 
and their landa 
ffiren to 

that they maj 
know Him at 
their Lord. 

And that to the Prikke of deth thorwgh Tholome 
He Bcholde hen hrowht/ — thus seyde he — 
* And jif it scholde Ony lengere laste 
Thafine thre dayes & thre Nyhtes weren paste.' 24 

And this was the Cawse Certeinle 
That sche for losep^e sente, I telle it the. 
Thanne losep/^e to-Fore hire Gan gon. 
And with him his sone Byht Anon ; 28 

Thanne sche him Axed there In haste, 
'* Whether the lome wit/i hire lord were paste ; 
And how he spedde In the hataille/' 
Hire forto telle sche preyde not Faille. 32 

Thanne to Sarracinte spak losep/ie Certeinle 
'* Thus sente the to seine the kyng Of Cristene (he I^re,) 
That Of Alle thing knoweth the hegynne7?g, 
And demen schal Atte laste Endyng, 36 

And Of Al this world Saviour Is he 
Sekerly, As I telle it the. 
And For As Mochel as these Erthly kynges 
Ne welen non knowen In here werkynges, 40 

Nethir Resceyven My Creaunce, 
I schal hem sende ful hard chaunse ; 
For Into hataille I wele hem do, 
And there here Enemyes scholen hem slo ; 44 

And here londis ^even wile I 
In-to the hondes of strawngeris sothfastly. 
For I wele that they knowen Me 
As fore here Souereyn lord god In Al d[eg]ie,^ 48 

Nethir Of non Othir kyng to holde, 
But Only Of Me, In Manye Folde ; 
For hothe to prowde and Ek to Felowns, 
I schal hem sende Manie distrucciouns ; 52 

Thus he my Spyrit I schal hem sende, 
And In this degre I wele hem schende ; 

> MS.dra. 



And therfore the Grete I wyle down take ; 

And !>• Fable & powrc, lordis wil I Make ; 66 

More-Over, kynges flesch ^oven sclial "be 

To Fowles Of Eaveyne, that Abowten fle 

Forto Find en Sum Careyne : 

Thus schal it ben In Certeine. 60 

And the bodyes that Of pore Men scolon be 

Worthily I-byried In Echo degre ; 

For the Eyhte weyes alle they knowe. 

And my Comandementis they welen bowe 64 

Wit good herte And good Entenciowne, 

This welen they Resceyven with good devociown." 

And whanne loaephe this tale hadde told, 
Sarracinte gan to wepen Mani-fold, 68 

And preyde bothe losepAa & his sone, 
For Eualach to here god to bydden som bone, 
* That Eualach with worachepe Myhte retomen Ajen, 
That sche with hire Eyen it Myhte Ones Sen, 72 

And forto be turned to the Byhtful Creaunce, 
That the god Of Crystene wolde senden him swich 

" And I hope thanne Tornen wold he, 
Aftir, A good Man for Euere to be." 76 

Thanne losephes Ganne hire Answere, 
' How there-Offen the Certeyn knew sche there ; ' 
And sche Answerid losephes Agein : 
" Of that Surawnce Am I, In Certein." 80 

** How there-offen, dame, Sure Mihtest thow be, 
WLinne thou beleves on ymages of ston & tre ; 
For they mowe;^ nethir meven ne stonde, 
JN'e hem to helper haven thei nethir leg ne honde, . 84 
And In lesu Crist he wil not beleve, — 
How Myhtest thow thanne this preve — 
That is lord Of AUe Cristiente, 
As I schal here-After dedaren to the." 88 

The weak ud 
poor, God wUl 

and bury them 

bec&nae thay 
obey His ooin« 

Qaeen Sameynto 
weepa, and bega 
Joseph to pray 
toGod toaare 
Deaf 8, back, 
col. 1] 

and make him 
torn to the belief 

whldi ihe holde. 
Joaephee aska 
her bow that 
can be, as she 
belleree In Idola. 




GhrlrtUm bdiet 

her attendantt 
ODt, tells 
JoMphat til 
the doctrine of 
the Txinlty, 

•nd •sptalns 
that her mothw 
was a Christian, 

•ad waa DoflbMa, 

Thanne Axede sche him E jht Anon 
The pointed Of Ciistendom forio Ondon. 
Thanne losephes began Anon forto telle 
The Creavnse of y Trenite, and ^ereof gan spelle ; 92 
And the qweene l>ehel[de] him faste, 
And Axede * what he hyhte ' Atte laste. 
Thanne Answerid he * that he Cristened was 
And I-Clepid " losephee " In that phis ; 96 

And thoie-Offen Is there non Man 
That Me that Name bereven kan.' 

Thanne Comanded the qweene Anon 
Alle hiie Owne Meyne from hire to gon« 10(^ 

And Anon Alle the poyntes Of the Trenite 
To losephes sche gan to declaren Oerteinle, 
So that there was non Clerk levynge 
That there>Inne scholde han schewed more konnenge ; 
Bo ferforth that losephes MeT-veillen began 105 

That so moche wit myht ben In womman, 
And where sche hadde this konnenge Cawht, 
Oper what Maner Of Man that it here tawht. 108 

Thanne Answered this Qweene Agein, 
" Ful ten jer My Modir In Certein 
Fulliche & hoi was In this CreauTice, — 
As I the telle losephes — wtt^Owten variannce, 112 
And jit My Fadir there-oflfen Neuere wiste, 
Ne non Of his lyne, thow Mihtest wel Tryste, 
Sanfe Onliche Mine Owne Modir and I ; 
I Sey the losephes ful Certeinly, 116 

My Modir, duchesse Of Orbery was, 
As In thike tyme happed be Cas, 
Whiche that good womman was, & trewe. 
And therto worschepful & Of good thewe ; 120 

My Fadyr was Crwel and dispetows. 
And therto Angry & Eiht Malicious ; 
And So it behappede with-Owtew Mo, 
That Ouer hens Sevene & twenti winter Ago, 124 


That In Owre Contre An holy man there was 

In An Ermytage, As god ^af him gras, 

That Moche dide for goddis Sake, 

And God for him Manie Merveilles gan Make, 128 

And his Name ' Salustine ' Gonne they Calle ; 

In him Manie vertwes gonne there faUe. 

So thanne My Modir hadde An Infirmite — 

Certeinly losephes as I telle the — 132 

That theke tyme xix Monthes hadde holde, 

Sche was In sorwe and wo Manie-Folde, 

That hire Colowr and blood was Al ago, 

So Ful sche was Of peyne and wo, 136 

And Alle hire Memhres weren wasted Eke, 

And ^6rto sche was ful feble & syke. 

So herde sche tellen Of this good Man, 
What Marveilles that God wrowht In him than, 140 
And thowhte with him sche wolde Gon speke,^ 
And somwhat Of hire herte to him breke. 
To tellen him Of hire Infirmite, 

3if Ony Socour there-offen Mihte be ; 144 

For sonnere sche hopede to ben ded 
Thanne to live to tomen In that sted. 

Whanne fat tofore this good man sche gan to gon, 
Down On hire knees sche Fyl Anon, 148 

And there down sche fil to his feet. 
And preide him Of Socour Also skeet. 
Tho this good Man On here there loked faste, 
And Seide, " womman, womman, Atte laste 
Wherto Of helpe Axest thow Me, 
That hast Swich An Infirmyte ? 
Gertes thou Art," quod this good Man, 
''Dedlich, and ferto Sinful womman ; 156 

And I dedlich Am Also, 
And therto Sinful wit^Owten Mo ; 

In Orbery wm a 


and to him, 



who waa 

and had waated 

n«olrad to go 

for help of her 

Bha gOM to him. 

and praj* ^^^ 
for sttocuur. 

152 Ha tells her 

ha is mortal and 
alnfUl ; 


* MS. spkeke. 


Christ alone 
mv«s thOM who 
love hlOL 

mother begt the 
hennit to pn^ 
ffof herj 

n So MS» for 


ehe win give 
him silver aud 

He wuite on) j 
Bepenuuioe and 

She promlaes 
anything Ibr the 
curs of her 

For seker I non power ne have, 
Nethir Man ne womman forto save, 
But Onliche it is Crist & god Above 
That hem doth Save that hun welen love.'* 

Thanne Answerid my modir ** Certeinle, 
Good sire, so preye thy lord for me 
That he wolde taken Me to his grace. 
And helthe to sonde me In this place." 
Thus thanne scheide^ sche in alle thing 
To this goode man ful sore weping, 
** For I hope thi God ne wile not weme y 
Ony thing that thow Axest Certeinle." 
'^ Dame, til to Morwe this May not be, 
Certeinli I telle it the." 
*^ Sire, thanne schal I Comen Agein, 
And tresowr I-nowh to bringen Certeiny 
^if that he me now helpen wolde, 
Tresowr I-nowh Of Siluer Ss Golde." 
Thanne answerid this good man tho : 
" Of thin Tresowr wile he non, Lo, 
But Only Of trewe herte Bepentance, 
And stedfast beleve & ful CreauTtce." 

And tho spak sche with good semblawnt 
To him that was goddis seriawnt, 
" What thing On Erthe thow bidde me do, 
I schal it fulfille for peyne Other wo, 
And he wele me helpen Of thys Maledye 
That doth me now so gret Anoye." 
Thanne Answerid this goodman agein, 
'< And thow wilt fulliche beleven Certein 
In lesu Crist, that verray lord, 
I schal behoten the hele at On word j 
Er that thow Owt of this plase wende, 
Thow schalt ben helid with-Owten Ende." 

Thanne to his Feet sche knelid A-down, 











And hem kiste with good deyociown, 

" Sire ! ^if that hele he wel me sende, 

On him wile I heleven wit/t-Owten Ende." 196 

Thanne seide to hire this good Man, 

*^ 3if stedfastli wilt ])ou beleve," qtiod he f^an, 

" Anon Eiht heljd schalt thow he 

Of thin Maladie Gerteinle ; 200 

For hele Ib there non so sone 

As In god beleve, hos wil it done." 

ThaDne seide my modir Anon Ageyn, 

" Sire ! I beleve it folly In Certein, 

That Onliche verray God Is he 

That me schal helpen Of mjn Infinnite." 

And Anon this Groode Man took 
In his hond Anon A litel book, 208 

And there-vppon ful faste gan Kede 
[Al so faste as he cowde spede,] 
In A Comer al be him Selve ; 
There preide he God and thapostelis twelve, 
' That God wolde sende his Mercy & Grase 
To that Synful womman In that plase. 
And to keveren hero Of that Maladye 
That xviij ^er Contenwelye 216 

Here hadde holdeii In that degre, 
Goode lord, fat koverid myhte sche now be.' 

And whanne his preyere thus hadde he do, 
Anon to My Modir he Cam sone tho, 220 

Thus Seyenge to hire, " Aryse vp here 
Also hoi As Evere thow Er were, 
In the Name of the Fadir, Sone, & holigost, 
Wiche that Is Of Myhtes Evere Most ! " 224 

Thanne felte My Moder there Anon, 
That As hoi sche was In flesch and bon 
As Evere Ony tyme sche was before, 
8ethen sche was Of hire Modir I-bore ; 228 

mother IcIsm* the 
hermit'e bet^ 

204 Mid decluee her 
belief In the God 
who wUl heel her. 

DeefS, eoL IJ 

212 The Hennit prajre 
to God, 

bide Suncjmte'e 
mother lie* 

In the name of 
the Trinity, 

and she at onoe 
is cored. 



[CH. XT. 

moUnr eonfiMM 
God's might. 

Bh6*s ipent orer 
15.000 bMuU on 

bat only God has 

The Honnit 

Bho bring! 
Samqrnto to 
tho Hermit 

And the strengthe Of hire Membres Anon 
Sche hadde A3en there tho Everichon. 

Anon whanne sche felte this riht tho. 
That helthe A3en was Comen hire to, 232 

" Now May I sen," sche seide, " verraillj, 
That thi lord Is Strong & ful Myhti 
That me hath heljd of My gret Maladye. 
For it hath me Cost Certeinlye ' 236 

More thanne xy thowsend besaunz, 
This Maladie wit-Owten yariaunz, 
& jit neuere be non Of hem hele myhte I have ; 
But ))ou, blessed lord, now dost me Save.'' 240 

Thanne seide to hire this Good man Anon, 
" Baptesme to Eesceiuen er 30 hens now gon." 
And thanne sche Axede him ful sone, 
* What that baptesme Mihte done.' 244 

And [he] hire Answered Sone Agein, 
" It Is thyn hoi Savacioun In Certein." 
Thanne Answerid sche with good wille, 
'^ I wile it Eesceyven bothe Mekly & stille." 248 

Thanne the Goode Man hire Cristened Anon there 
In his Name that was Of Most powere, 
Whiche Is Fadir, and sone. And holy gost, 
On God and thie persones, Of myhtes Most ; 252 

And thus My Modyr there he Cristened Anon. 

Thanne Owt Of the Chambre sche com gon 
There As I Abod with-Owten the dore. 
And Al Owre Meyne In the Flore ; 256 

80 my Modir took me be the hond, 
And wtt^ hire to gon I myhte not withstond, 
And thus me to-fom the good man browhte, 
That I ne wiste what I seyn Mowhte ; 260 

" My swete dowghter, Com now hider to Me, 
Now koverid I am Of Myn Infirmite ; 
]}erfore, swete dowhter, I wolde that ]>ou wost don 
As I schai the here Comaunden Anon." 264 

OH. zv.] sarragtntb's mother tries to oonvert hbr. 


Thanne Answerid I with herte qwakynge, 

" Modir, I wele don Alle 30WTe biddinge ; " 

So that I hadde gret wondir tho 

What my Modir wolde with me do. 268 

" Paire swete dowghter, I woldc that 30 

Wolde woTSchepen him that mjn Iniirmite 

Me hoi hath Mad, and taken clene Away ; 

So, swete dowghter, so worschepe fat man |>ts day/' 

And I wende sche hadde me^it that Old Man, 273 

And therfore I no dorste not Sekerly than; 

And My Modir Axede me " wherfore 1 " 

" For Certein he hath A long herd, & An hore ; 276 

And Euere whanne I lokede vppon his herd, 

Sekir, Modir, I scholde ben Aferd." 

Thanne Anon lowgh this good Old Man 
For that I Seyde Of him than, 280 

" I^ay, faire dowgjiter, it Nam not I 
That thi Modir Speketh Of trewely ; 
But Ano]>er it Is, that is ^ ful Of Bewte 
And Of Alle goodnesse In £che degre." 284 

And I axed him, " where that he was, 
3if I myht Owht sen him In this plas ; 
And, 3if he fairer^ thanne my hiofer be. 
Him I wele loven In Alle degre ; 288 

For my brothir, so fair he Is, 
That of bewte hath he now pere I-wis." 

And whanne to him thus hadde I told. 
To speken to Me he was ful bold : 292 

" With-Inne A litel while here schalt fou Se 
Him Of whom J>at I speke to the, 
Whiche is Fairere thanne thi brothir Is 
In Alle degres, and In More bHs 296 

Oj>er thanne thy brothir Evere thow sye, 
Owther Euere thow schalt with thin Eye.** 

worship Him who 
hM cored her 

etnt wonhip 
the Hermit 

fidrer than her 
brother, then 
shell love Him. 

MS that if that is. 



perreive« A 

and amidst thtm 
the fidTMt ptnoo 
that aver «ja 

nrlth a nd Croat 
la hit hand. 

She falla to 
Uia ground. 

The Hermit lUU 
her «]». 

She agrees to 
rerelve thb Man's 
belief, and 
the Hermit 
rhrletent her. 

And Auon As this word hadde he Seid, 

A wondir Clerte tofom me was leyd 800 

Sodeynly there In that Chapel ; 

Many wondirful swetnesse Aforn me fyl, 

And the hows So ful there-Offen was, 

And therto swich delicasie In that plas. 304 

Amyddis ]>at liht & swetnesse fer gan forth gon 
The fairest Creature Of flesch & bon, 
The Clerest and the fairest pe)*sone 
That Evere Ony erthly Eye myhte loken yppone. 308 
This Man gan holden In his Byht hond 
The Signe Of A red Cross, I yndirstondi 
And bothe his Eyen Me thowhte ferden there 
Also Cleer brennenge As Ony Fere. ^ 312 

And thus A whille Stood he there ; 
Where-Oflfen I was Abasched wel sore, 
Of the wondns that I On him gan beholde ; 
Wherfore myn herte wax wondir Colde, 316 

For On him nor* More thanne Mihte I loke, 
So that for drede myn herte qwoke, 
But to the Erthe I iil plat Adown 
As thowh I hadde ben In A swon; 320 

Thanne the Ermyt took me be )>* honde, 
And Made roe vp be him stonde ; 
Of whocbc Sihte hadde I gret Mcrvcilleng ; 
And saiif my Modir & thermit Saw I now thing. 324 

Thanne this good man Seide to Me, 
" Now, my fnire dowhter, how thinketh the ? " 
And thanne I Answerid so Ageyn, 
" This Mannos Creauwce I wele resco.yven fayn." 328 
And Anon there he Cristenede Me 
In the hole * Name Of the Trenite ; 
So fat aftir he told vs, but not be-forn, 
* How pat lesus Crist was Coneeyved & born 332 

' Et il roe baptiaa mnintonant el non de la aainte trinite. — A. 


Of An holy virgine, Modir & Maide, 

As be Old tyme the prophetis saide ; 

And how Jat On ]>• Cros he gan to dye, 

Man To beien from endles felonye ; 336 

And how ]>* thridde day he Koa Ageyne, 

And deliue?^d his fiendis from Endeles peyne ; 

Thanne Aitir, with the xlthe day, 

Streyht to hevene he wente his way ; 

And the xj day Aftir, with-Owten fantem, 

He sente to his dissiples, Into lenisalem^ 

His holy gost, Anon there Eyht, 

In liknesse of flawmes of fir so briht ; 

& told hem Also how that they scholde 

His hodi sacren to ^ong and Olde, 

As he hem tawhte At his sene, 

The[r] Alle his apostelis weren Clone 348 

The Kiht to-fore he sufti^de passiown ;' 

And thus tolde vs thermyt, Al & som. 

Thanne whanne this to vs hadde he told, 
To that Awter he wente ful bold, 
And there made he }at holy Sacrament 
With hy deyocioun and good Entent ; 
And to my Modir there it tho took, 
And sche it Eesceyvede, & not forsook. 
Thanne After to me he Cam Anon, 
And In My Mowth he wold han it don ; 
Thanne thus to me he gan to seyn : 
* That I scholde beleven Certein, 
That theke same body it was 
The wheche In the virgine took his plas.' 
Wher0 thaC thanne I taried Anon Ryht^ 
That to beleven hadde I non Myht ; 364 

So thanne thowhte me Anon In My siht. 
That it was theke Selve Faire wyht 
"Wheche In the Chapel I sawgh to-fore, 
That I was Offen Abascht ful sore. 368 

The Hermit telli 
Sarracynte and 
her mother about 
Chzlat's death. 

rem I re< lluii^ 

340 uoeneloD, 

■ad gift of the 
Ho^ Qhoet to 
344 blaapoetlee, 






352 The Hennlt then 

35o mother, 

and then to 

360 tdlingherto 
heliere It ie 
Ghriet's bo4]r. 

She thinks It's 
the Ikir Man 
ehe saw in the 


Samrynte and 

promiat not to 

bat to beltora 
on God. 

When they reach 
Orbery, tlieir 
home, they hear 
a wild Beaat 
haa broken oa^ 


he eata aheep, 
children, men, 

Thanne seide I to him Anon there, 

" Sire, I beleve As thow seidest Ere." 

So that from him we departed Anon, 

Homwaid In Ourc weye forto gon. 372 

Thanne charged he vs In Alle wise, 

* That we echolde don non More S[a]crifise : * 
" To J>*se fals ymagea of tre ne ston. 

Be no weye Sacrifise Make je non." 376 

And tha77ne we Answerid him Ageyn, 

* That On God wolde we beleven Certeyn, 
And Comfort and loye Of him to have, 

And that At Owre Endeng he wele vs save.' 380 

In this Maner Ferst Of lesn Cnstes lawe 
ThuB lemed we, & there-Offen weren fawe. 

And whanne that we weren comen to Orbery, 
Thanne herden we A wondir Noise, & a gret Cry, 384 
Of A savage wilde beste 
That was broken Owt of a foreste ; 
And Al the Contre it gan to chase. 
It Forto distroyen In sora plase ; 388 

For it was so dyvers A beste of kynde. 
That pere hadde non Man wit ne Mynde 
To tellen what thike beste was 

That they Chaced In theke plas ; 392 

For that beste was so dispetous. 
So feers And so Angwischous, 
That he distroiede theke Contre, 
An Ete schepe & Children In Eche degre ; 396 

Men & hors he gan to distroye, 
And to wommen witA Childe he dyde gret Anoye. 

The same tyme |)at we from yis good man gonne gon, 
Theke tyme fel this Chawnce Anon, 400 

That the peple Gomien to gaderen faste. 
And my brothir In that pros forth paste, — 

and that 
Sarracynte'a fidr 

brother haa goM That 80 fair and SO hardy he was, — 
"^ With hem he forth wente In that plas. 


CH. zv.l sarraotnte's brothjbb is lost in a bbast-fight. 


And A good hors there he be-strod, 

And wel Armed he was, & non lengere Abod, — 

As behoved A 3ong knyht Forto were, 

For A litel to-fore knyht was he mad pere^ — 408 

For there dorste non Man that beste Chase, . 

But he were Armed In that plase ; 

For the beste was wondirful In that stede, 

For thie homes hadde [he] In his hede, 

That So trenchaont An scharpd were, 

Scharpcre than swerd, knyf, Oper spere,— 

For they wolden perschen bothe Ime & steel 

Thow it wore wrowht neuere so wel, — 416 

Wheche beste mi brother gan to chase 

Afom Alle the men ))at weren In that plase, 

So that In tweyne plases he it smot 

Wtt^ A scharpa swerd that wel bot ; 420 

And fowre hors he Slowgh yndir hym, 

The beste, it was so spetous & grym. 

And whanne this beste Chased was So sore, 

To the Forest he wente Alle hem before. 

As it was Sekerely thus Me told, — 

For I was not there it to behold, — 

And my brothir Aftir him prekede faste. 

To the Forest he Entrede atte laste : 428 

And sethen that to theke Foi*e8t he wente. 

And Folewede the beste there presente, 

Sethen was there Neuere Man ne womman 

That Of him Ony tydinges tellen kan, 432 

Ke ^euere Sethen In-to this day 

We ne herde?) neu^re Of him tydinges In fay. 

Thanne seide my Modir Anon to Me, 
" Behold, dowhter, here now and se 436 

How that y Ermyt, this holy Man, 
That schal befallen, tellen he Can." 
So that I held him with Crist preve, 
For that he Seide I scholde neu^re se 440 


lo fight this 
vondwftil thTM- 
412 bonMdB«Mk. 

rieiii 9, iMU'k, 

He •mlt08 the 
Beset In two 

424 Mthatltfleee 
to the ftmet. 

whither he 

And he It never 

thinks the 
Hermit privy 


u he told Imt tba 
■hoald iMTtr Mt 

htr motlMr fteftt 
htr bratlMr't 

motlM r ord*ra 
All htr pMpl« 
oat of htr room. 

And bids ber 
diuigbtor go to 
htr jewel atorat, 
«nd bring her » 
White Box tnd » 

She pn^^ 
woepi, siffhit 
and tbampe ber 

My brothir, as it fil be CaB, 

So fair as him as in the Chapel was ; 

And theifoie ful soth seide he^ 

For aftir that day I mihte him neutfre ae. 444 

And we so with Cristes passioun enspiied were, 

That Al his deth foigoten we there, 

For the grete loye, And Oure Creawnce 

That we hadde Eesceyyed to his plesauitoe ; 448 

Whiche Creaunce my Modir kepte M wel» 

And Neoere aspied was non del 

Into the day and tyme Of hire deth. 

That sche scholde dyen, & ^even upe the breth. 452 

Thanne Comaunded sche there Ryht Anon 
That Alle the peple Owt Of ]>* chambre schold gon, 
Sauf Onliche Alone sche and I ; 
This was hire Comandement trewly. 456 

And wha/tne they weren al Owte I-gon, 
Sche bad me Schette the dore Anon ; 
And whanne to hire that I was Comen Agein, 
Thanne seide sche to me In Certein, 460 

* That owt Of this world that Kyht scholde sche go ; * 
Thus sche me tolde with-Owten Mo, 
<* Now, faire dowhter, go ^e now Into tho wones 
There As lyn Alle myn precious stones, 464 

And Also A whit Booyst and A Byng, 
And that loke ^e bringen me Ou^ alle thyng." 
Whanne that this to hire I hadde I-browht, 
Thanne vp6 sche hixe dresaid As sche Mowht, 468 

And On hire knees sche dressid hire down 
To-fom hire bed In Orisown, 
And there gan sche to wepen ful sore, 
In Sighenges, and bunching On brest wel more.^ 472 
And whanne In this Contenaunce longe hadde sche bo, 
Aftir the boist Anon sche Axede Of Me ; 

Et batoit son pis de son poing, mult angoiflaeiiBement. — A. 



Thanne Axede sche water to hire hond, 

Hem to waschen. As I Cowde vndirBtondo. 476 

And whanne hire hondis I-waschen were, 

The boist Anon sche Opened there ; 

Owt of that boist there Isswed AnoTi 

Owre holy Saviour hothe In flesch and bon, 480 

Tn forme Of bred there In hire Syht> — 

For 80 was the wil Of god Almyht, — 

And with Manie teres and sore sighenge 

There Besceived sche that holy thinge. 484 

And whanne that thus hadde sche doon, 

Thanne seide sche to Me Anon, 

" Now that I have Besceiyed my savio?ir, 

I am sekir From Alle deseises & dolour — 488 

From the devel and Alle My Fon, — 

And I am Seker to hevene to gon, 

For I have Besceived of Alle Siknesse |>* boote. 

And helthe of alle Angwicsch, bo^* Crop & Boote. 492 

Lo ! dowhter, this boist kepen thow schal 

In A ful preve plase with-al, 

And tliat It Come In non Mannes bond 

But In thin, I do the to vndirstond. 496 

For this that I have Besceyved here, 

Is * Oure Saviour here & elles- where ; 

For On God In thre persones it is, 

And thre persones In On God I-wis ; 600 

And loke ^e that this 30 kepeu riht wel, 

And loke ]>at ^e wraththen pat God neucre A del ; 

Loke that je taken this holy In Bomembraunse, 

And thinketh Algato vppon this Chau»se ; 504 

Thenke je how he Cam Into this word, 

And In Mannes kende here dweld be his owne Acord, 

And alle thing sufirede as dyde Man, 

Sauf Only Of synne neuei'e knewe he )>an, 508 

Ont of h«r White 

D6i^l0.ool. 1] 
StTioor in fbnn 
of bread. 

It, tiM SacnuiMnt, 

■are to go to 

daughter to Iceep 
the Box eoeretlx* 

and take Chiist'e 
body in re- 

of his enflbriiiffs. 

MS lis. 


BABRACTNTS'B mother's dying OHAROB to ebb. [cH. XV. 

mochtr Uds htr 


Miha hwnair 

And wlita sh« 

B«rraeynto is to 
goand t«U th* 

aiid mind to 
g«t Chrlit from 

Wher&offen that lie was Ever0 klene, 

& nenere ))erwith spottid^ with-Owten wene. 

Loke that 30 have Eaere this In Mynde, 

How good that lord was, & how kjnde, 512 

That for ys he sufi&ede ded, 

Mannes sowle to beyen from y qwed ; 

And loke that Al this In Memorie ^e haue 

In jowra herte, And je wil be save, 516 

And that Every day In ^owre Compeni he be. 

Now, goode swete dowhter, so thinketh On me ! 

For, sethen that I Crestened was, 

Everiday I him worschepid In this plas, 520 

& Euery day in my Compenie mi saviour I hadde, 

Therwhilles was I of non man Adradde | 

But, swete dowhter, this wot I wel, 

That here-Offen knew ge nevere A del ; 524 

For I it kepte In previte, — 

The Cawse why I schol telle ]>•, — 

For )if thow haddest deid In this world er I, 

Thow schost it han Eesceyved trewly ; 528 

But sethen I deien schal to-Fom the, 

I have it Hesceyved, As thow myht se. 

And therfore, Anon As I am ded, 

To the holy man ))ou go, Into that sted 532 

Where we resceyved Ourc holy Creaunce, 

And telleth him Of Al this chavnce. 

And preieth that holy blessid Man, 

My sowle In Comendacion to haven than, 536 

That Only Goddis Seriawnt Is, 

For me to preyen to the kyng [of] blis. 

And, swete dowhter, thow to him go, 

And for Ony thing that thow this do, 540 

Loke that je taken Of him ^ouxe saviour 

That 30W schal saven In Even stour. 

So that Owt Of this world neuere je passe 

But 30 him han to-fom jo^vre fase, 544 

CH. XV.] 

sarractnte's mother's dying charge to her. 





To Besceiuen 3our6 euere-lasting savement ; 
For I wofc wel fat he wele, w*t/i good Eiitent, 
30W it taken In this degre, 
And 3e it him Axen for Charite. 

" And whanne that to ^ow he hath it take, 
Loke 30 that An Onest place periore 30 make, 
30wre Saviour to kepen Inne deyntele, 
In A worschepful place & A preve, 
So that from Alle leveng Creature 
je mown it kepe/i hothe saof & sure ; 
And this white hoist take with the, — 
For he him self 3af it to Me, — 
And Into this hoist thanne putteth Anon 
Swich thing as he wele there-Inne don. 
And whanne 3e haven it In 3owre keping, 
Loketh that Everi day, Ouer Alle thing, 
That to this holy Boyst pat ^e go, 
And 3oure devocions doth therto 
WitJi weping & with sore syghenge, 
With bonching On brest, and Eepentinge 
Of alle the sinnes that 3e hauen I-do, 
With high Contricionn, dowhter, £uere-Mo ; 
And he wolde sende 30W swich grace & powere, 
Neucre Oper God to worschepen here, 
But Only him that Is 3owre saviour, 
Wheche schal 30W kepen In Every stowr." 

Lo, Sire, thus My Modir tawhte tho Me 
How I scholde me goverue in eche degre, 
lik as this storie doth me now telle, 
And as 3e me heren to 30W now spelle : 
Swich thing as to my sowle profitable scholde be, 
Alle sweche Manere thinges my Moder told me ; 
And alle thing pdt scholde don me Noysaunce, 
Hem scholde I flen for Ony Chawfice. 

And whanne these wordis were?) spoken Echon, 
Sche bad me Opene the chambre dore Anon ; 580 

and M raetfv* 



548 Diif 10,001. q 

■nd pot Chritt 
in hMT White Box, 

and dallj do bar 
d«f otioat to it 


■ad eonuitlon. 



Thus did Sarra- 
toll htr bow to 
guide liarMir. 



Tliaiine Comen In the gentil wommen Alle, 
Ab to A dwchesse gan to befalle ; 
StfTMjnu And thanne Kowned ache In Myn Ere, 

And Axed me, *' whom I eawgh there, 584 

Abowtes hire bed Ony Man stondynge ; " 
Where-Offen I Merveylled Ouer alle thinge. 

Hirirt Thanne saw I there the same Man 

hold hw raoChtr*! 

baud. That to-fom tyme In the Chapel saw I than ; 588 

And my Modir he held be the bond, 

And to-fom hire bed there gan he stond. 

And whanne the same I sawh there 

That the Ermyt In f* Chapel schewed me Ere, 592 

Neuere so sore abasched I was 

As I was tho In that same plas. 

And thanne my Modir Axed me tho, 

" What that I sawh to-Fom me go % '* 596 

Thanne I hire tolde it was Owre Saviour ; 

And sche him dide f ul gret honour : 
H«r mochtr More-Ouer sche seide, ** blessid mot he be 

blmaai Christ, 

That Into this Erthe wil discende to me ; 600 

Now wot I wel that I schal go 
With him to blisse for Eu^re Mo. 
[iMf io,bMk, Kow, goode Bwete dowghter, Er that I go, 

ool. Ij 

ubm h«r, Kysseth me er that we now departen Atwo, 604 

For to god I schal Comaundon )ow here ; 

And therfore, dowhter, loke fat In Alle Maners 
bida h«rdoM That JO don lik As I have ;ow tawht, 
h«r, And pleynly that je for^eten it nowht ; 608 

For this lord witA him wile leden Me 

Into A plase pat is ful Of prosperite, 

And ^erto ful of loye and delicasie." 

Thus told me my Modir Sekerlye ; 612 

And with this word, Sire, Certeinly 
And Uim diw. Departid the Sperit Owt Of hiw body. 

& anon I fulfilled hire Comaufsdement, 
J^yjll; And to that holy man I wente wtt^ good entent ; 616 


There he me tho took My saviour Anon Eiht, 

My God, my Lord, & ^erio man most Of Mihi 

And whanne he to me hadde longe I-spoke, 

And iirel of this world to me his herte I-broke, 620 

Thanne schewed he me y knoweng of y trenite. 

And how ^at In this world I schold Gk)veme Me, 

& Comaunded me to Fadir & Sone <& holigost, 

Whiche that Is lord Of Mihtes Most, 624 

And preide me that I scholde Eetournen tho 

Into the plase A3en that I Cam ito ; 

For non lengere ne speken to Me he Myhte, 

So feble he was tho as to My Syhte. 628 

And whanne Owt Of his Ermytage I was gon, 
A wondirful swete Noise thanne herde I Anon, 
And my white boyst I held In Myn hond : 
To here» this Noise fnl stiUe gan I stond ; 632 

And Me thowghte tho As In My Syht 
In that song, thte On that Chapel gonnen A-liht. 
And whanne from that Chapel that I was gon 
The spase of half A myle, thanne Mette I Anon 636 
A man that was Clothed In a Eobe Of blak, 
That was bothe Megre and pale wttA-Owten lak ; 
Fol whit and long was his herd and her — 
Of the man that I tho Mette thanne ther, — 640 

& swich Abit me thowhte he hadde 
As the man In Chapel was In Cladde, — 
So sone was tomed his Clothing 
That me Merveilled In AMe thing ; — 644 

And so fjEtste and Sore tho gan he to gon 
That he was Al On Swot ^ere Anon. 
And Anon As he loked On Me 
He wepte fol sore wtt^- gret pite, 648 

And thus he seide Anon to Me thore, 
" A I Cristene womman, thow hastest Sore ; 
For ^u wer6 neoere so sone past from ^at good Maxk, 
That his Sperit Owt Of his body wente than.** 652 

Hermit SalvstiiM, 
noeivn Christ 
from him (in h«r 
White Box), 

with eomiMl how 
to rnlt h«rMl^ 

■ad Imtm him 

She haw* • 
•w«et noiao, 

and Mat Thrao 
Baings alight la 
tha Harmlt'a 

on, m man 

and tallt bar 
tliat Saloatina la 



[CH. XV. 

TIm Mia in 


1m it MBt to 
Btij OhMt, 

CiriO,bk,eol. t] 

and that UiTM 

SalOttilM'l MNll 


Mao go back 
to BaloitliM'i 

And wh&xme that CriBtene he gan me to Calle, 
Anon Of my palfrey I gan down falle, 
And Mekliche I azede him Anon, 
' Whens he Cam, and whedir he scholde gon.' 656 
Thanne he me Answerid there Anon Ryht : 
Quod he, '' I Am the Seriawnt Of god Almyht ; 
For 30W ful sore I desire now to se. 
For bothe to-gederis A^en scholen we — 660 

As be the Schewyng Of the holy gost — 
Bothe A^en to-gederis gon we Most ; 
For Owt of this world his sowle is past ; 
Therfore thedyr Go we In hast." 664 

And I him Answerid, " Sire, For Certein 
From him Eyht now Cam I ful pleyn, 
And On lyre Sire lefbe I him there, 
But ^t with siknesse he was Charged sore." 668 

" How may this ben, fedie dowhter," seide he, 
** Whanne thow herdest pat Melodie and Aungeles thre, 
How In that Chapel they gonnen to A-lihte, 
And boren his Sowle to-fom God AlMihte : " 672 

And whanne this he tolde to Me, 
Thanne wepte I ful gret plente, 
And Cleped I My men ^ to Me Anon, 
Wheche pat with me )»*dir gonne gon, — 676 

For In hem bothe I trosted ful wel, 
For Of myn Norture weren they Eueridel, 
And therto On Of hem My Cosin was, 
And A Clene Maiden, and ful of Gras, — 680 

That so Alle thre we Betomed Agein 
A^en to thermitage tho In Certein. 
And whanne that thedir we Comen Agein, 
The good man was to god past In Certein : 684 

' et apielai .ij. de mes sen qui auoeo moi estoient uena, ea 
qui ie me fioie mult. Car ie lea auoie aoates peiis enfans, et 
nourriB les auoie tant qn'il estoient grant et sage, et bien oon- 
uenable a seruir en vne haute maisoD. Cfail doi estoient en ma 
compaignie, et vne moie cousine sans plus, qui eetoit puchiele, 
et est encbore. — ^A. 


And whanne this goode Man saw Mm pere lye, 

Anon he wepte tho ful tendirlie, 

And vppon that dede body fil a-down, 

And there lay he ful longe In swown. 688 

Thus whanne there longe hadde he leyn, 
Vp he Eos thanne In Certein, 
And behinde the Awter gan he gon, 
And thens with him browhte he Anon 692 

Sweche man^* Of Instrumens, As thowht me, 
That A pyt with, Mad scholde be. 
Thanne tofore the Awter gan he stonde ; 
A pit fere forto Maken thanne gan he fonde, 
That the ded body there-Inne Moot Eeste : 
Thus this pyt Made he with the beste. 
Whanne this pit thus Ended was, 
He lift vp his hand Anon In that plas. 
And wit^ the signe of p^ Cros )?* body blessed he, 
Er Into the pit It pvt schold be. 
And pat body took be the hed anon, 
Into that pit for to have don, 704 

And Me the Feet he bad taken tho. 
Into the pyt forto have do ; 
" A ! Sire ! " quod I, and to him Seide^ 
" It were not worthi On him hond pat 1 leide, 
For I am Synful womman, 
And On this Craft non thing I ne kan, 
Kethir to towchen So holy A body ; 
Trewly, Sire, I nam not worthy." 712 

" A ! leve soster, whi sey je so here 1 
A more holy thing wit^ jow ^e here 
Thanne Evere was this holy body ; 
Therfore taketh the feet ful softly." 716 

Thanne wiste I wel that he was an holy man. 
That So preyy thinges Cowde tellen than. 
Thanne took I the body be the Feet, 
A-nd he be the hed, and down it leet 720 

QBAAL. 13 

The Mirn In 
Black WMpi, 

696 dlfc %ienv 
before Uie 
Altar in the 


tahet Salostine's 
oorpee hj the 
head, and bide 
Sarraejrnta take 
Ite fiwt. 

708 Atflretibeeaje 
■he te too einftil. 

bat then takes 
the feet, and 
lete the eorpee 



[CH. XV. 


TlM Ifan In BiMk 

ClMfll, eol. 1] 
cxBta'a two 



Tb»j pnj 
him to bapUi* 

whldi h« do«. 

Into that pyt there thanne Anon, — 

That holy body, bothe flesch and bon ; — 

And thanne with Erthe he keuered it sone. 

And seid there OvLer what was to done. 724 

Thanne of lesu Crist spak he to Me 
In Mani Manors & In dyvers degre. 
And Aposed me Of my saviour. 
And Of my two seriawntes In pat stotir, 728 

Thanne seide [he] to vs ful woudirfully, 
[" How dore] je ben so bold, Other So hardy, 
Svnche tweyne Seriawntes with 30W to bringe, 
That with-Inne this holy plase Scholden haven non 

Entringe 1 
For je Scholden not Entren here witA-Inne, 
That liven In wrechednesse and In synne, 
And worschepen the devel bothe day & Nyht, 
And him je Serven, that fowle wyht." 

There sweche wordis to vs Spak he Anon, 
That to his Feet we fillen Echon. 
Thanne preyde iche him with riht good wille, 
The Kyht Creaunce On hem to folfille, 
And Cristendom that they myhten take 
In worschepe Of that Goode lordis sake, 
For non lengerd that they myhten dwelle 
In Servise Of the devel Of helle. 
And whanne that he hem herde 







Eiht Anon water than fette he tho, 

And Anon hem Cristeneden wtt^Owten host 

In the Name Of the fadir & sone & holi gost ; 748 

And he hem preide ful tentifly 

That Creaunce to kepe ful worthily. 

And that ymages so fals Evere to dispise, 

That So fals ben In Al Manere wise. 752 

And he me preide hem forto kenne, 

That they myhten becomen good Cristen^ Menne ; 


And there to God he Comanded ys, 

And we him to swete lesus, 

For thens owt of pat plase wolde he iN'eiie^'e go, 

But there wolde dwellen for Evere Mo. 

And Grod for him wrowhte In that plase 
Mani Faire Miracles In litel spase ; 
But I ne Cowde weten ^it what was his Name, 
Of him that was so good Of fame ; 
And ^it God graunted me that faire grase, 
That I At his Owne boryeng wase 
In the same Maner As I at the tothir was £r, 
Riht so [I] beried him bothe Faire & Cler ; 
And from that day 3 it hider-to 
I have belevid In God jit Euere Mo." 

And losephes Abod Alle hire Answers 
Evene to the Ende that sche seide \>ere, 
And hire Answerid ful sone tho, 
" Sey me, dame, how myhtest f ou don so, 
A Cristene woman pat thow schost be. 
And dost not ]>ere-aftir In non dcgre. 
And that thow him worschepest nowht, 

That so dere In this world the bowht ] " 


" Sertes, sire," thanne Answerid sche, 
" My lord Is so spetows and so Angre, 
That Everi day I moste Awaitew Myn Owr 
Whanne I May worschepen my saviowr ; 
For, And Ony thing he Mihte Aspie/i with me 
That him scholde misplese In Ony degre. 
Anon he wolde me Confownde, 
And distroyen me Into the harde grownde ; 
But now I hope Oure lord wil to him se, 
In the Ryht beleve that he mot be ; 
And I the preie, that Art Goddis Seriawnt, 
Him from bodily deth that he wolde grawnt, 
And him hom In worschepe forto bringe, 
And [in] his Creawnce to Maken his Endenge ; 


The Man Id 
Black tUjt 
in SaloBtina't 
working roiradet. 


764 and Sairaeynte 
afterwards burlea 
him there. 


When Joeeph4 
haa heard all 


he aska her why 

she doean't 
worship Christ. 


* Becanae my 
husband is so 



and if I were 
to displease him, 
he'd kill me. 

I pray Qod 

788 to keep him 

and convert him. 


I dfMwl yoar « 
wonU that h« 
(Evftlach) BhaU 
In hit «ii0iiij'i 

how BnUeh 

& 3if this Ones I Mihte knowe, 

Ther6 nis non Creature, ne^er hj ne lowe. 

In this world schold me disseise, 

So mochel myn herte it scholde plese ; 

But Evere, losephes, I drede me sore 

Of )?* wordis that ^e han seide before. 

That thre dayes & thre iN'yht 

His Enemy Of him scholde han Myht." 

" That is ful soth,*' quod losephes thanne, 

" For there nys non Erthly Manne 

That his word ne may with-seye, 

Ne his Comandement, In non weye." 

" Sire I ^it ^e Mown don this for me, 

To preien to that GU>d In Maieste, 

That he wolde schewen 30W wttA-Owten faille 

How my lord hath sped In his hataille." 

So longe that lady preide losephes tho, 
That Everi point he told hire to ; 
And how he hadde I-sped from day to day, 
There Al the sothe he gan here Say. 







Josephes tells Samoynte of the White Knight, whom 
Evalaoh and Seraphe cannot make out (p. 197). Eralach 
goes to see Tholomes (p. 198), and then returns to Sarras, 
taking Seraphe with him (p. 196). His Queen receivs 
them with great delight, and he at once asks after the 
Christians (p. 199). Joseph comes (p. 199) ; he tells 
Seraphe that it was Eyalach*s prayer that gave him 
his great strength (p. 200). Joseph orders Eva1ach*s 
shield to he uncoverd (p. 201). A crucified man is 
seen on it (p. 201). A man with a wounded arm is 
heald by it; and then the cross vanishes (p. 201). 
Seraphe declares that he will turn Christian, and Joseph 
baptizes him, and changes his name to NaMcient (p. 202) ; 
he is heald at once, and so preaches to Evalach, that he 
and the wounded man are baptizd too, and Evalach's 
name ohangd to Mordraynei, or *' Slow-of-Belief " (p. 
203). The rest of the people are baptizd ; and Joseph 
destroys the images^ and converts all Sarraa (p. 204). 

CH. xvl] eyalagh and seraphe wonder who the white knioht is. 197 

He leaves three of his friends in Sarras in charge of the 
Grail-Ark, and goes with the rest to Oroauz (p. 205), 
where he turns out of an image the deyil Aselabas, and 
makes him explain why he had killd Tholomes (p. 206-7), 
Mordraynet orders his people to be baptized or to leave 
the country (p. 208) ; some are klUd by the Devil (p. 209), 
and a spear-head is driven into Joseph's hip for his neg- 
lect, and left there (p. 209-10). The whole land is con- 
verted (p. 210), bishops are ordaind (p. 211-12), and the 
bodies of the two Hermit-Saints^ Salustes and Ermonies, 
procurd for the Churches in Sarras and Orbery (p. 213). 

Thus losephes and his Compeniey 
In Sarras weren they Sekerlye, 
Worthily I-served Of that Qweene 
That Sarracinte was Clepid be-dene. 4 

And As thus In talkinge they were, 
To Sairacinte goode tydinges told he pere, 
' That to Orcauz hire lord was Come, 
And with him A ful gret throme ; ' 8 

And tolde hire of the white knyht, 
How graciously he bar him In fyht j 
But No man Cowde tellen what he was, 
Of Alle hem that weren In that plas ; 12 

And }it the king wolde han wist ful fayn 
What he hadde ben In Certain, 
And Mcrveilled Sore Alle that Nyht, 
& lay and thowhte Of that white knyht; 16 

And 80 dide Also Sire Seraphe, 
For he ne wiste where becomen was he. 
And seiden ' that Glad scholden thei neuere be, 
Til of him they knewen som Certeinte.' 20 

And thus Al that Niht Spoken they two 
Of the white knyht, and Of no Mo, 
Wheche he lovede Ouer Alle thing, 
And be him gat he Conqwering ; 24 

And thus leften they not Of talkyng^ 
Til bothe weren Fallen in sloping, 
For Wery of fyhteng Alle they Were, 
And Al here Compeni pat with hem was there. 28 

7o00ph« and hti 
fHend* are w«U 
lookt after by 

He tells her 



Bvalach and 
Seraphe an 
both wondering 
oatelde Orcaui. 


liit4> Oratui to 

who fUIi down 

aim! bida hit 
kniffhu do M too. 

ETmlaeh rldto 
towaids Barru, 

aiid Mkt 8«nph« 
and we Joseph. 

Senphe agrees. 

£rly on the Morwe, whanne ^e k jng Aros, 
Streyht Into Orcauz thanne he Gos 
For to Bpeken With tholome the kyng, 
And to knowen & sen of hia governyi7g. 
And whanne Tholome Eualach Say Com, 
To his Feet he Fil Anon pere A-down, 
For fill giet drede hadde Tholome 
That kyng Eualach WolJe don him sle. 
Thanne king Eualach took him be the honde, 
And made him vp'Hiht forto stonde. 
Be Encheson that A kyng he was, 
And Most Of worschepe In that plas. 
Thanne Anon kyng Tholome 
Clepid forth [his] knihtes ^ & his Moyne, 
And bad hem down fallen to here lord, 
And him Worsehepen with on Acord. 

Whanne they hadden thus Alle I-do, 
Kyng Eualach from hem gan to go, 
An.l toward Sarras gan forto Eyde, 
lie & his Meyne be his Side, 
And with hym Sire Seraphe he ladde, 
That Manye A gret wounde there hadde ; 
And thanne seide Sire Seraphe, 
* That hom Into his Owne Contre wolde he, 
Where that he Scholde more Esed ben 
Thanne In Sarras, As he tho Cowde sen.' 
Thanne seide king Eualach to him tho, 
" Sire, with me to Sarras Scholen 30 go, 
And there grete Merveilles scholen ^e se. 
Of the moste wondirful Man that may be, 
That tolde me how that it schold be-falle 
Of my bataille, begynneng and AUe." 
And thanne Answerid Sire Seraphe, 
' That gladliche theke Man wold he se.' 









* knihteit in the MS. 


So that bothe Siro Seraphe & pe kyng, 

To Sanas Comen with Owten lettyng ; 64 

And Alle the tothere Meyne, 

£che tomede to his Contre, 

As the king hem jaf license 

Forto gon from his piecense. 68 

And whanne the king to Sarras was Gone, 
'With giet loy* fe Qweene him Mette Anone, 
And Also hire dere brother Sir6 Seraphe, 
Of hym gret loye Made tho sche, - 72 

And so dide Al that Cite tho, 
Gret loye Made Of hem two ; 
For they Supposed In Certein, 

To that Cite Neaere to have Comen Ageyn. 76 

And Anon As the kyng On-horsed was, 
After the Cristenmen he Axede In fat plas ; 
And the qwene, that wolde not vndirstonde ; 
But ^it Anon the kyng Sente his sonde 80 

To Seken thanne losepAa & his Meyne, 
" For, dame, it Is Al trewe that he tolde me." 
And whanne the qweene him herde so sayn, 
Thanne In herte was sche bothe loyful & fayn, 84 
And sente to seken losepAe anon 
Also faste As they myhten gon« 
And Anon As Evere the king saw losepe, 
Eyht Anon to him he gan forto lepe,^ 88 

And seide ' that he was the bests welcomed Man 
Thanne Evere was Oni prophete,' he seide than. 
And be him he made him to sittin A-down ; 
And thanne to Seraphe seide he this Besown, — 92 
That Sik yppon A Cowche he lay. 
As was hurt vppon the Formere day, — 

Seraphe reach 

tneoto tbem 
with Joy. 

Evalaoh Mks 



and weleomoe 

' The marks of contraction over ihep of lotep and lejf are 
the same, and, though this Io$ep* has been printed Toftfiphe 
elsewhere in the text — as loseph oocnn in the MS so often — 
yet here it is printed Iqtepc on account of the lyme. 



that God, not b«. 



H« UXk BinplM 

fronn Mm 
Knlghto who'd 
bronsbt hiin 
to the point 

Evaladi pngrd 
to Him. 

" I Bey to 30W now, brother Sire Seraphe, 

That be this Man I have Conqwest & my degre, 96 

Whiche that I wele that ^e knowe. 

And Al my peple vppon A rowe." 

" Nay, siie/' quod losep^ thanne, , 

" It Miht neaere Comen be Erthly Manne, 100 

But be him In whom thow hast Croaunce ; 

He hath the sent Al this good Chaunce." 

Thanne Axede Sire Seraphe Anon thanne, 

'' What Manere of powere hath that Manne 104 

That he is of so gret powste ; 

I preie the, Belamy, telle thow me." 

Thanne Answerid tho loaepTie Ageyn : 
« I Schal y Sein, Seraphe, In Certeyn ; 108 

And what he sente the to seyne by me, 
I schal the now tellen, Siie Seraphe. 
This lord that kyng Of Cristene Is, 
Be his Mowth he seide to Me I-wis, 112 

That he was the Same Man 
That from Serene knyhtos deliuered y than 
Whanne atte the prikke of deth pou were I-browht : 
Seraphe, thorwh thy Myht wos it Nowht. 116 

And ^if thow Supposist that Al thi Chevalrye 
Come of thy self, — !N'ay, Certeinlye. 
And ^if thow beleve now so, 

Al it is Folye pat thow dost do. 120 

But knowe thow wel. Sire, for Certeine, 
That whanne Eualach the saw In sorwe and peine. 
And there he Made his preiere Anon 
To pat lord of whom he bar signe vppon, 124 

^' That, as his dere bro)?er, the In bataille scholde defende 
From peril of deth, & to )»* victorie to sonde." 
And whanne losephes thus tho hadde I-seid, 
Thanne Seraphe, that vppon A Cowche was leid, 128 
Of his wordis ful sore Abasched he was, 
Of wheche no man knew tho in that plas. 




And Seide thanne Anon king Eoalach tho, 

" Certes, dere brother, It was Ryht So." 132 

Thanne Axede losephes the Signe Anon 
Of Y ^'^^ \^^ ^® hadde In his scheld doon ; 
And whanne this scheld iiras vndon, 
The signe of the Crois they behelden Ano7i ; 
And there anon it semed there In Al here siht 
A wondirful Red Cros, & Merveillously dyht ; 
And yppon that Crois hem thowhte they sie 
A man In man^e on )>at cros was Crucifie. 
In the Mene whille \a\> this Sihte was, 
happed A man to comen Into that plas ; 
And losephes him Clepide there Anon,^ 
For his Arm Ny from his body was gon ; 
" Certes," quod losephe, " this lord is of so gret powere, 
That thin sore putte to him here, 
As heil <& sownd thanne schalt thow be 
As eu^r is Oni Man In Cristiente." 148 

And this Man dide Anon As he him bad. 
And Riht Anon there his hele he had. 
Thanne alle the hurte men \ai weren present 
Seiden it was don be Enchauntement ; 152 

And his Arm be-Cam As hoi Anon ; 
As was fisch that bar A bon. 

^it a grettere Meryeille was in that plas, 
Of the Cros that In the Scheld tho was : 156 

It yansched Awey there tho sodeinly 
That neaere man ne wlste whedir ne whi, 
So that it was neuere More Sein 
In that Scheld Aftir Certein. 160 

Of this thing Alle Sore abasched they were 
That in theke plase ^t tyme weren there. 

And whanne Seraphe this gan beholde, 
Non lengere thanne Abiden he wolde, 164 

' The French makes Seraphes propone to Josephes the cure 
of the woanded man as a test If he can be cured, Seraphes 
will believe in Qod as the true one. 

for STAlach'a 

135 and upon tiM 

they Me • 
crudAed man. 

144 AdlgaMdmaa 

/ pato hit (nuI 
arm to the CroM, 
and it la at once / 

Than the Croea 




fUls at JoMph't 
feet and bega 

Joaepb bapilMa 
him and oalla 
him VAMOimma, 

A burning flra* 
brand Mama to 
anter hfa moath, 
a Voloa njra ba 

and flild with 
the Holy Ghoat ; 

But Anon Cristened he wolde be, 

& On him to heleve, In Eche degre. 

That hath so moche etrengthe & power, 

8ike Men Forto keveren there. 168 

And he him there dressed yppe al so skeet^ 

And f jl adown Anon to losephes Feet ; 

There Axede he loseph, for charite, 

Anon A Cristene man that he Mihte be. 172 

** In the name of ^* Fadir, sone, & holigost, 

Whiche that Is lord of Mihtes Most, 

I the cristene/' quod loseph thanne, 

''And loke fat thou be true cristenne Manne." 176 

In his Cristendom, his Name chonched he, 

And Clepid him ' Nasciens/ that men myhte so. 

And Anon As he tho Glistened was, 
Swich A Clerte On him fil In fat plas, 180 

Seenge to hem that stood Abowte, 
Of diuers meine a fol gret Bowte, 
And hem besemede ful verraylj 
That alle his Clothes weren taken Awey ; 184 

Hem thowhte they sien A brennenge brond of fer 
Into his Mowth how it Entrede ther. 
Thanne herden they there A wondir vois anon. 
That thus to hem seide fere Everichon : 188 

" The last of y ferst hath taken Away 
Alle filthhedis this ilke day. 
Be his Owne stedfaste Creavnce 
Him is be-liapped this ilke Chaunce." 192 

And whanne this vois tho was past, 
Thanne yppe him Stirte Seraphe In hast ; 
And Felt him Self As heyl & qwerte, 
And as hoi A man In body & herte. 196 

And Anon fulfiUid there he was 
With the holi gost tho In that plas ; 
And thanne be-spak sire Nasciens : 
** The holi gost is in my prescna, 200 



That Me Certefjeth Of Myn Creavnce, 

Ss how that I schal leven with-owten variaance ; 

That to Owre mete ne gon not we 

With hondes vnwaschen In non degre ; 

And him there worschepen scholen we thanne, 

That Most Worthy Lord that becam Manne." 

And behold what God Schewed to £ualach tho 
For the grete Affiaunce he hadde him vnto. 
That Tholome theke same Owr 
Owt of this world was past with dolowi. 
And thus him Schewed the holy gost 
That Evere Is lord Of Myhtes Most. 
So longe thanne there Spak Sire Nasciens, . 
Of goddis Myht and of his presens, 
That king Eoalach Ban Cristened to be ; 
And Also that Man In the same degre 
Whiche that lus Arm was ny Offe go. 
To Cristendom faste Kan he tho. 
And Anon As that they Cristened were. 
Hero !Names In here Forehed were wreten pere ; 
Eualach to * Mordraynes ' Tomed was, 
And the hurt Man to ' Clamacides ; ' 
Thus bothe here Kames I-torned they were 
Be strengihe and yertw Of baptism there^ 
As banarers Of that hye kyng 
The wheche hem browhte to baptising. 

Thanne seide Sire Mordrains to his qwene, 
' That sche scholde Comen, Cristened to bene ; ' 
Thanne Answerid [sche] to hire lord Anon^ 
" That it Were I^ethir Skele ne Beson : 
For on body, twyes baptised forto be. 
Sire, it were non Besoun, So thiukefch Me." 
Thanne Axede hire the kyng Anon 
How that this Cause Mihte thus gon. 
" Sire," sche seide thanne, " Certeinlye 
xxvij wynter Agon it is fullye 


nerer to Mt 
204 fbodiHth 

Bj God's griOT 

20o thon diet In pun 
(•«6 p. MM). 


KaadMit oonvarii 


and Uie hoald 

who are bapUid, 


and Clamandea. 


Ulte hit wife 
«^0 Sarracynte to 
bo bapUid t 



bat the aayf 
ibo't been a 



Ulls Evalach 
tiM story of her 

H«r name bmum 

JoMpllM bftptilM 

over 50O,(W0 

nnd reftttM to 
ItfHve the plftoa 
till he's broken 
Nil the id«^ 

which he does. 

That I Crestened womman haue be, 

Sire kyng, forsothe As I telle the." 

And the kyng Axede here how it was. 

Anon sche him tolde Al the Cas : 240 

Evene As sche to losephe tolde, 

Sche him Reheisid pere Manifolde, 

And seid the holy man that hire Cristened pere, 

Here Name Kolde chonge In non Manere, 244 

** But seid to Me In his talkyng, 

* Thy Name ' ful of faith ' Is signefieng.' " 

And whanne that they thus Cristened were, 

Alle the Eemnaunt that weren there 248 

Comen Alle ful faste Ee/tnenge 

Forto Eesceyven there baptisenge ; 

And losephes took A basyn with water Anon, 

And Amongs hem Faste he gan to gon ; 252 

There Anon he Made hem AUe knelynge, 

And there ^af he to hem Baptisenge, 

And yppon here hedis water threw he Abowte, 

Vppon that Meyne In theke grete Eowte, 256 

Where As was v hundred thowsend & Mo,^ 

In that same plase Cnstened be' tbo 

In the Name of the fadir & Sone & holigost, 

Wheche that Is lord of Myhtes Most. 260 

Thanne On the Morwe Nasciens wolde gon 
Into Furthere Contres Anon, 
And loseph with him wolde he have, 
The Centre to saunctefie & to save. 264 

But loseph him tho Answerid Anon, 
** That Owt of Sarras wold he not gon 
Til the ymages weren broken Echone, 
And the temples Sanctified er he pena wold gone, 26S 
As Oure lord him Comaunded be his mowth pre- 

sente ; " 
& so he dide, £r he thens wente. 

* .T. mUe et .iij. cens. — MS Reg. * ? cut out * be.* 


And whanne Alio this peple thus hadde he wonnp, 
And Groddis ful Creaunce there begonne, 272 

Thanne Abowtes In Yiiown Al that Centre 
The peple to tome, thanne so labowred he. 
Whanne that Sarras to Cristendom was browht, 
Ful mochel loye was In his thowht 276 

Thaime Alle tho gan he with him take 
That Owt of lerusalem weren his Make, 
Except Only pcrsones thanne thre — 
That he lefte with the Arche forto be, 280 

And that holy disch that was there-Inne, 
It savely to kepen from More Oper Mynne ; — 
Whiche On of hem ' Enacore ' gonne they Calle, 
The tother ' Manasses,' As tho gan falle ; 284 

The thridde was clepid ' Lwcan,' 
Thike same Tyme of Every man, 
That loseph took the Arch In kepinge 
To his purpos. As to A ma;i of best levenge. 288 

And thus these thre leften there 
To kepen this holy Arch In this Manure ; 
And Alle the tothere gouT^en forth to gon, 
Cristes Name to sanctefien Anon, 292 

And the peple to jeven baptiseng ; 
And this was alle here labowreng. 
But of hem At theke time was non there 
But that the holigost in hem spak Every where, 296 
And Alle Man^r of langage thanne dide hem have ; 
Where-thorwh the peple that they myhtew save. 
And with-owten losep^^ and his sone 
"Weren Ixxij that to-gederis dide wone. 

Thanne losephe to Orcauz gan to gon. 
And there Into the temple he Entred Anon, 
And In ful gret thowht there was he, 
But Evere his herte was vppon the Trenite. 304 

And his letheme Gyrdel tho took he anon, 
And to An ymage there Gan lie to gon. 

Jowph )mxw 
three men In 




[nee p. 03] 

to look after 
the Ark of the 

300 [zUz. Frendi] 

Joeeph readiee 
and goee Into 
the Temple. 


Joieph ooiOttrM 
a Devil (AtclabM 
I. 876) oat of an 

anddragt him 
before NMciana. 

Joseph aaki the 
Devil whj he 
made Tholomee 
fill out of the 

and bUU him 

Tlie Devil aaja: 

That stood In the temple vppon the chief Awter, 

And him Anon Coniowred there. 308 

And the deyel there Anon forth Hyht 

Owt of the ymage isswed In Al here siht. 

And whanne that Owt of the ^'mage he was gon, 

loseph thanne took his Girdel Anon, 312 

And Abowte his Nekke he Made it fast, 

And it drowgh to-Fore the king In hast ; 

So In pat Manere he drow it thorwgh the Cite 

That Al the peple there him Mihte thanne se. 316 

Thanne Axede him Nascions Anon Riht there, 
" Whi that so sore lustefyed he were^l" 
Thanne losephe to him Sone Agein : 
" In time Comeng thow schalt weten Certein." 320 
Thanne Axed losephe of f * devel A-fom hem Alle fere, 
' Why he hadde so ferd with kyng Tholomere,' 
^ And whi thow Madist him so to fallen A-down 
Atte the wyndowe Of p^ towr to his Confiicioun 1 " 324 
Thanne spak the devel to loseph tho Certeinle : 
" Goddes Seriawnt, A while that f ou wost lesen* Me, 
And I schal to the tellen Anon Eyht 
Of kyng Tholomer, fat foil clepist A knyht." 328 

Thanne losephe his Ginlil tho gan to vndon 
From the schrewes Nekke there Anon, 
And 80 wente he forth there Al Abowte. 
And loseph liim Comanded Among Al that Howte, 
* That Openly the sothe to tellen there, 333 

How it So happed Of kyng Tholomere.* 
Thanne Answerid that schrewe sone him Ageyn, 
And seide, " loseph, I knowe it wel for Certeyn 336 
What Merveilles that God hath for the wrowht ; 

[ no gap in the MS,^ 

For In Sarras there God wrowhte fore the, 

The Man that was Mayned,^ fere hoi forto be ; 340 

* 'pour quoi il le iusticboit bi, et ke il li auoit fourfait.' — A. 
* loosen, free. ' Tome qui auoit le brach caupe. — A, 



Thorwh Signe of the Crois that he towched there, 

Anon was he Mad bothe hoi & Fere ; 

Also there Cristenedest thow kyng Eualach, 

That Alle Oure lawe there gan he Forsak ; 344 

And so I supposed thow wost han don here, 

To Cristendom han browht kyng Tholomere. 

And for I suppesid that thow wost don so, 

In liknesse of Man I gan to hym go, 348 

And told him there a newe tyding, 

' That on the Morwe, Sire Eualach the kyng 

Wolde him don bothe hangen & drawe, 

And him to bringe Owt of his lif dawe.' 352 

Thanne whanne thus I hadde hym told^ 

Anon his herte gan to wexen ful cold, 

And he me preide him forto helpe. 

There thus Of My Self I gan to ;elpe, 356 

For I tolde him, * Certeinle 

I Cowde him helpe Id A1 degre ; 

And Owt of ^at Castel Forto gon, 

I him Wolde helpe Riht Anon,* 360 

Thanne tomed I Me In semblaunce of a Grifown, 

Owt of that towr him to helpen A-down ; 

And yppon my bak I Made him Sitte;i there, 

Ta that he Owt of that Cite were ; 364 

And whanne On My bak I-set was ho, 

I let him falle, & to-breste on pecis thre." 

Thanne loseph A^en took pat schrewe Anon Biht, 
And bond him A^en In Alle Mennes Siht, 368 

And him so ladde thorwgh Al the Cite 


That al the peple him Mihte there Se, 

And seide, " je Caytives, now, Everichon, 

Here Is 30ure god that jc beleven vppon." 372 

Thanne Axede him loseph In that plas, 

In what Manere that he Clepid was. 

Thanne the schrewe Answerid him Ageyn, 

'' AselabaSy My name is Clepid In Certein ; 376 

Tbolome* ; 

lo I told him 
Evalach roeant to 
hang him next 

and then I oflTerd 
to help him 

I tnrnd myaelf 
into a QritBn, 

and when 
ThoIomcB got on 
my back, I 
dropt him; and 
lie broke into a 

My nam« la 


and my work to, 
bjr fiU^tf talM to 
corrupt and 
«to*trojr UMB t 

Mmiy ftrik of 
hnpiiia by 

ordort all wlio 
won't turn 
Chrintiuns to 
quit hto laml. 

Many do M^ 

who won't ohaaga 

but lervral die as 
they leave tlie 

And, loseph, I telle the what is Myn Offis : 
Men thorwgh fSedse tales to bringen In to vis ; 
And thorwh my fak tydyDge 

Thus bringe I hem to schort Endenge." 380 

And whanne the peple herd en Al this Ado, 
On him there wondrede Mani-on tho ; 
To Cristeneng Alle ronnen they Eiht faste, 
As longe as that It Myhte laste ; 384 

And losep/ie was Eaei*6 Eedy Anon, 
And there hem Baptised Everichon. 
Thanne losep^e Coniowred the devel Anon, 
And Owt Of his bondes let him gon, 388 

That he Scholde Neuere Noyen Man ne wommau 
That the signe Of the holy Cros hadde vppon. 
Thanne Anon the kyng let the banes Crye 
Thorwhd Al his lond ful Certeinlye, 392 

That Al his lond Cristendom Scholde take, 
Only For lesus Cristes Sake ; 
And alle tho that wolde not Cristened ben, 
Anon Owt his lond that [they] Scholde fleen, 396 

And neuere thedir Inne to Hetomen Agein ; 
This was this Comandement Certein. 
And whanne this cry was thus don. 
To Cristeneng wente there Mani On ; 400 

But Mochel peple ^it tho there were 
That Owt of theke Cite fiedden there ; 
For th^ ne wolden not Chongen here lay, 
Mochel of that peple thens wente that day. 404 

And whanne loseph beheld al this, 
Ful mochel mone he Made I-wis. 
Thanne spak the devel to loseph tho, 
" Behold what Venyaunco I wil now do, 408 

For tho that Cnstened wold not han had, 
Owt At the jates the devel hem lad, 
Of whom deyden sodeinly Manion 
[As Owt of fe jates they wolde han gon ;] 412 



And somme the dovel horte wondir sore. 

And Owt of here wittes jit Mani More. 

Alle the He7/inaunt that Asckapen Mihte, 

Konnen to loseph there Anon Ejhte, 416 

There that the Miscreawntes CriAtened be. 

And whanne this Merveille losephe sawh he, 

Thedirward faste wente he Anon — 

Also Faste he hyede As he myht gon. — 420 

And aboven the dede bodjes saw he J^ere Sitte 

The deyel that Owt of p* Cite Made hem flytte. 

" A ! thow Cursid gost," quod loseph tho, 

** Whi hast thow this yeniaunce thus do ? 424 

And to this, ho that Comanded the, 

Telle me, thow devel, er thow hens fie." 

Thanne the devel Answerid him Agein, 

'* Be Cristes Comaundement In Certein." 428 

" Tho[u] lyest Falsly," quod loseph tho, 

" His Comaundement was it Nevere so." 

And loseph to him ward faste gan gon, 

Him forto han taken & bownden Anon ; 432 

In his Girdel, as he to-foren was, 

Forto han bownden him In that plas. 

And as loseph loked him tho Abowte, 

In his herte he hadde grd; dowte ; 436 

An Aungel to-Fom him Sawh he there 

With a merveillews contenaunce In yis manure. 

For his vesage As brenneng Fyr it was / 

To him there semeng, neper more ne las. 440 

Ful sore abascht was he per-oSen tho, 

That he ne wiste what he myhte do, 

And wondred what it schold signefie, 

Thaungel that loked so vegerowslye. 444 

And in this Mene whille of thinkenge, 

Thaungel with a spere he dide him stinge ; 

In tho to the hipe, to the harde bon. 

This Angel him stang there Anon, 448 

The FMt so back 
to JoMph, 

And h« baptlxM 

JoMph MM the 
•ittlng over the 
deftd bodies. 

He le ffolnir to 
bind thlA Devil, 

when he esee ui 
Angel before bin. 

who drives a 
spear Into hie 
hip up to the 




■ad iMTM the And there lefte he the spcre and b* hed 

■pesr And liMd 

then, Stille In his hype In that^ Sted : 

bmoM JoMph " Lo, losep^, this is to Signefie 

didn't baptlM the ^ ' , 

dMd oroMu men. For hem thou leftest Oncristened Sekerlje ; 452 

Therfore this thy mark Schal be, 

& it Contenuwe schal with the." 

Thanne thaungel thens gan to gon, 
Joieph dniwa out And loseph drowgh ow[t] f • spere schaft anon ; 456 
•penr; botiu But the hed In his hype lefte here stille, 

hand atope In his 

hip» For that was only goddis wille ; 

But it Greyed him but litel thing. 
For it was only Goddis wameng ; 460 

But the blood Cowde he staunchen In non wise, 

which bieeda But every day newe it gan forto Heprise, 


As longe as with-Inne was the hed, 

Thus it bledde In Every sted. 464 

But thaungel bad him non Merveille hare : 

" That God wold ban saved, wile he save," 

As in tyme Comeng je scholen here 

In this same storie, and ^e welen lere. 468 

j<msh walk! out, Thanne loseph walked forth Anon, 
And his Menie with him Everichon ; 
And of his wounde hadde he non gret dolowr. 
But he was in giet drede of Oure saviour. 472 

Thanne here-Offen Merveilled gretly the kyng, 
What that this be In to Signefieng. 

aadMjrahii Thanne seide losephe to him Anon there, 

wonnd is to 

brine people oat ** Of this, Merveille je not In non Manere ; 476 

misht. Sire, it is, I telle the now Eyht, 

The peple to bringe Owt of the develes Miht." 

Thanne whanne y peple him so herde speken fere, 

Ful loyful they weren that Cristened were ; 480 

And alle that vncristened weren to, 

To Cristendom faste gonne they go. 

Thus loseph wrowhte at Orcau[z] Cite ; 

Sekerlych there baptised he gret Meyne ; 484 

I MS. thast 


And his felawes there weren with hem, 

That they hrowhten owt of lerusalein. 

So that Crist there so faire for him wrowhte, J^^p* *■"" *fl 

' the Orewu Mk 

That alle the peple of Orcaus to Cristendom he hrowhte, Ghrbtun. 

And with-Inne thre dayes Everichon. 489 

Thus Goddis wille fulfild he Anon, 

So that lefbe there nethir gret ne smal 

That to goddis lawe [ne] weren tomed al. 492 

And what he the holy wordis that he pere spak, 

And he the holi gost with-Owte» lak, 

Mochel peple of the Contre tomede he, 

Goode Men & Gristened Forto he : 496 

And alle the ymages that In the temples were, bant md 

He dide hrenne & to-hrast Every where : idoiib 

Al thus wrowhte loseph In that Contre, 

In the temples and to the peiple,^ where-so went he ; and then oonTwtt 

And Into the Contre of Nascien, 501 people. 

He made hem alle tho Cristene Men. 

And thanne A3en to sarras loseph gan to go, 
And Nasciens with him tho Cam Also ] 504 

For loiful In herte was he thanne. 
For he Converted there Manie A manne, 
And fulfilled goddis Comandement, 
The wheche was holy his Entent. 508 

Thanne loseph of his feleschepe perQ ches fill sonSy JoMph diooM 
And hisschopee^ hem Ordred there Anone, onim umb u> 

And sente hem Ahowte Into Eche Contre, whrn;*^^"^* 

Goddis lawe forto prechen ful openle. 512 

Somme of hem dwelde In Nasciens lond. 
And somme In Mordrayns, As I vndirstond, 
Whiche was a lord of gret Seignourie, 


And Mochel peple hadde In his haillye ; 516 

So that loseph ches Owt thre & thrytty, bntiMrMM 

» , «. .,,.,«, , with him. 

And Sixtene with him left pleynly. 

* MS. plelple. 

* si lor dona Tordene et la hanteche de prouoire. — ^A. 


Joseph undf hii 
16 Msbo|» to 
preach about the 

He and hie 
people then ga 
two Hennit- 
Sainta* bodiee. 


The wheclie zxzi^, biscbopes gan bo to Make 
In fonne lik As god bim Ordre Gan take ; 520 

And Also the xyj that with bim were, 
Bisscbopes be Made anon Eiht there ; 
And Al Abowtes the Contre they wente. 
Only to fulfillen goddis Entente. 524 

And wbanne Alle the Contre was Cristened abowte, 
And in Eucry Cite A bisscbopa witb-Owten dowte, 
And deliuered hem from the develis chaunce, 
And hem fullicb browbte Into Goddis Creawnce, 528 
Be supportacion Of these goode Men, 
Kyng Mordrayns And Of Sire Nascien, 
Tbens wente thanne losephe Eyht Anon, 
And his Meyne with him gan to gon 532 

To seken where these holy Ermytes lyen, 
And Of here good lyvenge forto Aspion, 
Where-Offen they preiden Cure lord, of grace, 
Therto forto haven bothe lif and spase, 536 

And that here Karnes be Mihte knowe 
Er be tbens paste Ony tbrowe. 
Thanne fonde be there A lytel lyveret^ 
Where-Inne that these names weren set ; 540 

And the Meritez that god gan for hem do, 
In that litel leveret be fond Eybt tho. 
The Ferste liuaret thus gan it sein : 
^ Here litb Salustes In certein, 544 

Wheche that was Goddis trewe Seriawnt, 
Of whom the lif Of bim Make]) semblawnt^ 
That xzxvi wynter bermyt badde be be. 
And that neuere worldly viaunde sawb be 548 

That Euere was mad with mannis bond,** — 
Thus this liu^ret doth vs to vndirstond — 
* But Erbes & Botes that In Erthe were ; 
Thus lyved he xxxvi ful jere.' 552 

* et si trouua en chascune fosse vn liuret^ on la vie del boin 
home estoit eecrite, et 11 nons de lui el commenchementb — A 

He Audi a little 

aaying, 'Here 
liee Salnatoi who 

86 jmn, and eat 

only herba and 


And farthennore I-wrete?i pete was : 
' Here lith Ennonies In this plas ;' 
And thus his lif gan for to telle, 
'^That XXX wjnter & viij Monthes snolle 556 

Sethen that ferst Ermyt becam he' — 
As In this liueret here mown je se — 
' That Keuere Othir clothiDg he hadde 
But swich as ferst to his Ermitage he ladde^ 560 

Kethir In hosinge, nethir I schon, 
Ke non Othir thing On him to doon. 
Othir yiaunde hadde he non verament, 
But Everidaj swich As God him Sente;*— • 564 

And of Tasse he was born ;^ 
The toper In bedlem, pat 1 Behersed beforn. 

And whan»e losephg gan this to vndirstonde, 
Vpe hem took he with his honde, 568 

And bar hem Into the Cite of Sarras, 
Where-offen Many a man Glad pere was. 
Thanfie Nascien preide loseph tho, 
That with him to Orbery wolde he Go, 572 

And that On Of hem that he myhte have, — 
Holy hermoine thermit he gan to Crave, — 
Where that worthily his Body beried he, 
And a Eyal Chirche Mad there be ; 576 

And In Sarras Cite ful Certeinly 
He let Keren a Chirche ful solempnely. 
And In eche of these Chirches two 
Twelfe prestes he dide there do, 580 

For the bisschope Of nethir plase there 
Mihte not Suffisen, so moche peple were. 
The Ermyt At Sarras, the Eldest' they gonne Calle, 
And the jongest at Orbery, thus seiden thei AUe. 584 

' et si diBoit encbore sa vie, * ke 11 estoit de tarsenes : et 
salustes estoit de la chite de bethleem.* — A. 

' Et ]i eueskes qui fu establis ea sarras si fa apieles * ana- 
tistea.* Et clill d'orberike fu apieles * iuaenaus.' — A 

« And hera lief 
SnnoniM, who 
WM a b«rmit for 

and had no mora 
olothaa than ha 

Joacph oanries 
the two aalnts' 
bodiaa to Sarraa ; 

and leta Naicfena 
hare Ennonies's 
body at Orbary 

leaving Saloatee'a 
at Sarraa ehorch. 

He appolnta IS 
Piieate for each 


Thai JoMph Tlius thaone Joseph worscheped there 
citiM with Bothe Citez with holy bodyes in fere, 

Mints' OOfpSM* - 

Where as they grete Myracles do 

Evcri day dureng jit hidirto.^ 588 

Thus the Contre Of Sarras & Nascien 

Weren Clene becomen Cristene men. 


How Joseph shows Mordreins (Bvalach) and Nasciens (Seraphe) 
the Ark and the holy things in it (p. 215). On seeing the 
Holy Qimil, Kasciens is filld with joy, and tells them how 
a vision of his youth is now fulfilled (p. 215). He then 
lifts up the 'plateyne* over the dish, for which he is 
struck blind (p. 216). Mordreins asks Nasoiens what he 
saw, but can only get a vague answer (p. 217). An angel 
appears with the lance whose head is in Joseph's thigh, 
and draws out the head by putting the lance to it (p. 218). 
With the blood from the wound he restores Nasciens*^ 
sight (p. 218). Joseph says that when the lance drops 
blood, the secrets of the Sank JRyal^ or Seint Qraaly shall 
be known (p. 219), and predicts that the lost or Nasciens's 
line shall be the only man thereafter wounded by the 
lanoe, and who shall see the wonders of the Holy Grail (p. 
220). Mordreins asks Joseph to interpret his dream of 
the Three Trees [Chapter vii. p. 64-7], and Joseph does 
BO (p. 221-224). The ugly-barkt tree was Christ ; the other 
two trees, the Father and the Holy Ghost ; the two people 
that left the others were Adam and Eve ; those who hewd 
the branches were the Jews who crucified Christ (p. 222). 
Christ descended into Hell, and brought the Saints out of 
it (p. 222). The Trinity and their names, Iffrmer, Sa^ 
riovr, Cleafuer (p. 223). The Immaculate Conception and 
Birth of Christ (p. 224). Joseph orders Mordreins to bum 
the image of the woman that he has secretly Iain witli 
(p. 225). Mordreins shows the hidden chamber where he 
kept the image, and then bums it (p. 226). Joseph departs 
from Bnrras, and 207 Saracens with him (p. 227). Hia 
last charge to King Mordreins (p. 227). 

Mordrdna au4 Thanne seide the kyng and Nascien tho, 

NmoIwu want to _ 

iM Where the ' That Tfith loseph thanne wolde they go, 

ChrUUant pray. 

To seen where that they made here preicrs : 

Thus seiden the king & Nascien there. 4 

' Car li glorieus fiex dieu i fait et fera iask*en la fin du 
nionde grans virtus et grans miracles pour Tamour d'aus. — A. 


Anon thanne Joseph with-Owten lettenge 
To the Arch hem hrowhte, & made non tarienge, 
And schewede there to the kyng 
In the Arch there ful precious thing : 8 

And there the king beheld In that plas 
The vestements that loseph Sacred -wiVi was 
Bisschop of Cristes Owne hond ; 
And Also the Chajere he Say there stond, 12 

Whiche Chaier he preisede wondirly faste, 
And there-offen he seide thanne atte last, 
' That It was of Alle the Eyalost Sittyng than 
That Evere Ordeyned was for Erthly man.' 16 

Thanne loseph schewed hem the holy disch Anon, 
Where-Inne that Sank Ryal was I-don. 
And whanne that Nasciens loked ther vppon, 
Fill passeng gret loye hadde [he] Anon, 20 

And seide, ' Of Alle the sihtes pat Euere jit he say, 
Liked him neu^re non so moche In-to pat day ; ' 
Ne neuere so loyful was he of siht, 
As that tyme was Nascien, I the plyht. 24 

Now hadde he holy his Entent : 
That he desired to sen, was fere present. 
" Now wot I wel that fulfild it is in me. 
Sire, A thing that I now schal tcUen the : 28 

For whanne I was A jong Sqwyer, 
An gret hert I chasede wilde wher. 
Whanne I hadde lost the Noyse of myn howndes, 
And Also Alle my men w/t^-Inne fewe stowndes, 32 
Thanne In gret thowht there I stod ; 
And pere was non man that wit^ me hod, 
Ne Abowhtes me no/i Man Saw I tho 
That Ony word I myhte speken vnto. 36 

And as thus I In this thowht was, 
To me a vois Cam In that plas, 
* Seraphe I merveille thow not so. 
For jit thi thowht ne may comen the to, 40 

JoMph takti 



and ahowi th«m 
hif BlBhop'i 
VMtm«nts and 

and the holy 


and tdlt hoir, 

when he waa a 
yonng Miaire^ 
oat hnntlng, 

he loct his dogs 
and men. 

and then heard 
a Toloe telling 


1m dumld ••• th* 
Beinl Oraai, 



and lUU op th« 



and baa loat hit 
sight, not to 
rwoTM' It tin tlM 
■PMurhaad U 
drawn oat of 
Joanh'9 hip. 

Tyl thow mo Mer^eilles schalt se with-al. 

And Also thing that is Clepid s^t GraaL' 

And therfore now wot I ful well 

That this [is] Seint Graal Everidel ; 44 

Kow know I wel that my pensifnesse 

Is fulfilled with Alio Goodnesse." 

^it thowht More Sire Xasciens than, 
And that tyme wrowhte As no7i wis man, 48 

But there lefte he vp the plateyne Anon 
That yppon this glorious vessel was don ; 
And whanne with-Inne he gan to looke, 
He him withdrowh, & for drede he qwooke. 52 

And thanne the kyng Axede him Anon, 
** Sire Kascien, what han ^e at the Arch don 1 " 
" Sire," quod he there Anon Ryht tho, 
** He is a fool that don wele as I have do, 56 

To knowen the Secrecs of his Saviour, 
Him forto Greven In ony Owr." 
" Why," quod thanne kyng Mordreins tho, 
" Haven je now lesu Crist I-Greved so I " 60 

" Be my feyth, Sire," qwod Sire Kasciens, 
** 1 knowe wel I have oSendid jit Goddis pi*esens, 
For that I have sein so moche be Owtraye 
That non Erthly Man no Owhte to have saye." 64 

Thanne Axede the kyng, loseph Anon, 
How that this Cawso Mihte Gon ; 
And thanne Answerid Nasciens Agein, 
" Come thens, loseph, now In Certein ; 68 

Belioldo it Not, I preie now to the, 
That semblawnce that was schewed to Me, 
Whcro-thoTwgh that I have now lost my sight 
Be the Ordenaunce of God Alinyht, 72 

Whiche that I schal neucre Recoveren Ajen 
Til the spere-hed Owt of thin hype be clen, 
Where-with the Aungel At Orcauz Cite 
With that Spere there smot the." 76 



Thanne Joseph tho him heeld ful stille, 
Al holy to fulfillen tho Goddis wille. 

Thanne Anon Gan kyng Mordrejns 
There faste £nqwere72 Of Sire Nasciens, 80 

< What Maner6 of thing that he had Seye ; ' 
Hym it to schewew he preide Openlye. 
Quod NascienSy ** I haue sein so moche thing 
That ^ere-Offen to tellen it is non Endyng, 84 

Ne non tonge kan It now discrie, 
I sey to the. Sire Kyng, Certeinlie. 
I have sein,'' quod tho sire Nasciens, 
" Of Alle Manure of wykkednesse the defens ; 88 

[Of alle Boldnesse^] I have Seyn the begynneng, 
Of Alle wittes the Fowndyng, 
I have sein the begynneng of Eeligeown 
And Of Alle Bowntes, bothe Al & som, )2 

And the poyntes of Alle Gentrye, 
And a Merveil Of alle Merveilles Certeinlye." 

Aitir this word thanne Anon 
They weren Abaschet tlianrte Everichon. 96 

The kyng of him thanne Enqwered there 
' How his siht was lost, And In what Manere.' 
And Sire Nasciens Answerid him Agein, 
** I wot Neuere, Sire, for Certein, 100 

But for that I lokede on pat swete thing 
That but fewe owhten to don lyvyng, 
The wheche a merveille of alle Marveilles is, 
Sire king, I the Seye mth-owten Mys." 104 

Thanne Enqwerod [he] Of Nasciens Ageyn 
What that Merveille scholde ben pleyn : 
'* Sire,** quod Nasciens, " thow gest non other Of Me, 
Siker, Sire, An Also In Gerteinte, 108 

MordrelM uks 
Naadens whul 
h« Mw In th« 

Naadem saji , 

the Fonnding of 
Knowledge, and 
the Beginning of 

Mordrelnt asks 
how he lost hie 

KMdene eajti, 
beoaose he lookt 
oo the Grail. 

' ** Tai," dist il, " vea la commenchaille des grans harde- 
mens, L^ocoison des grans proueches, ronquerrement des grans 
sauoirs.** — A. Marditnent, m. Hardinesse, boldnease, audacitie, 
■toutneflse (an old word). — Cotgrave. 



A Toict frontlM 
OnU-Axk ipMkiL 

An Ang«l oomti 

with the Lance 
tltat wounded 

Md with It 
drtwe the ipeer- 
heed out of 
Joeeph'a thigh. 

He anointa 
JoMph's wound ; 




and with Joseph's 
blood anointa 
Naaclena'a eyei^ 

and rettorts his 

For Erthlj tonge Is there non On lyve 
That Cowde tho MerreiUea vel discryve." 

And whanne thus to-fore the Arch hadde ^i ben, 
loseph In gret thowht was, as they nijhten sen ; 112 
And thus sone A vois there gan to Crye, 
That Al the peple it herde Sekerlye, — 
With in that Arch the vois it was, 
That thus there Sownede In that plas, — 
'* My grete veniaunce & my gret discipline. 
With my strengthe to jow it schal propine." ' 

And thus sone as this vois was gon. 
An Aungel Owt Of the Arch pere isswed Anon, 
And Al In whit I-Clothed was he, 
In A ful fayr Kobe Certeinle ; 
And In his bond he heeld that lawnce per 
Where-with that losep was smeten Er. 
That lawnce, In sihte of Kyng and qwene. 
The Awngel to loseph it bar bedene. 
And there put it Into the same plase 
There As to Fore tymes I-hurt he wase. 
And whanne the Awngel drow owt y lawnce Agein, 
The bed thanne folwede In Certein ; 
And the Awngel took A boist wiVi Oynement Anon, 
And to that wownde gan he gon, 132 

And it Anoynt ful Softely 
With that Oynement ful tendirly ; 
And thanne the bed on the lawnce he putte Aje/i, 
Where-from Ran down blood ful den ; 136 

Wbeche blood the Awngel In the boist putte. 
And there-Inne ful worthily he it schytte, 
And with the same blood Anoynted losephs wounde 
Aiid Sire Nasciens £yen. In that stownde. 140 

Thus sone as Cleer his £yen were 
As Evere Ony tyme weren they Ere. 


I u 

' Apres ma grant yeaianche, ma grant medicine ; et apres 
ma founenerie^ mon apaiement." — A. 


Thanne Axede 19'asciens to loseph In bye 
' What that lawnce Mihte Signefye.' 144 

Thanne loseph him Answerid Ageyn : 
'' It signefieth, Nas<2iens, In Certein, 
Of the grete me^'veilles that scholen befalle 
Openly to jowre Syhtes Alle ; 148 

For sweche merveilles as ^e scholen sen, 
And sweche MerveiUes as to 30W schol schewed ben. 
To Cristcs verray knyhtes discouered schal be ; 
Whanne that tyme Cometh, this scholen 3e se ; 152 
For Erthly knyhtes, hevenly scholen been, 
That with 3owre £yen this scholen 30 seen ; 
Of wheche schal Nenere Man tellen ]»• Certeinte 
Tyl it be fallen In £che degre. 156 

And 3if thow wilt here-OfiFe» haven som knowyng, 
Tak kepe of this lawnce atte begynneng, 
And whanne this lawnce gynneth to blede 
Dropes Of Blood In Ony stede, 160 

Thanne Aftir Sone scholen 30 sen there 
Of the MerveiUes that I Eehersed 3owe Ere ; 
And Aftir that M^rveille Is Agon, 
Blood on the lawnce Schole 30 neuere sen non ; 164 
Thanne Scholen 3e sen of diners Aventnre 
Biht Merveillous, I the Ensure, 
Be the signeficacionn Of this lawnce, 
That Al the Contre schal ben In dowtawnce ; 168 

And thanne scholen 30 haven knowleching 
Of Sank Eyal, & Many An Othir thinge. 
For the Secretis of Seint Graal, 
That Somme men it Clepin ' sane Eyal,* 172 

There may non dedlych Man there Se 
But I alone, As I telle the ; 
For so Mochel Of Bownte it is. 
And there-Inne so mochel woithynes, 176 

That it is likyng wondirly wel, 
And to the world schal ben Every del, 

Jowpb [bat in 
anfftlet''} tolls 
Nucieiu what 
the Lane* m«aiit. 

and that when 
it dropa blood, 

[leaf 11] 

manrele will 

and the aeerete 
of the Holy 
Orail or ' Sano 



HereftAer ft 
Knight, ftiU of 
chHiity and 
chMUty, shall 
ba cmittoii with 

And thia Knight 
who thall aaa tha 
MarraU of tha 
Holy Grail. 

Tha Angal from 
tha GraU-Ark 

As thike that is ful Of Bownie, 

And of prowesses ful gret plente ; 180 

For he moste ben ful of Charite, 

Of Eeligiown, & also of Chastite, 

That wit the lawnce Smetyn schal be 

As thow me here Sye to-Fore the, 184 

And that schal there Neuere Man be non 

Bat the Kyng, I telle it the Alon ; 

For he Schal be the laste Man 

That there-with schal be smeten than, 188 

Kyht In A wondir-ful Manere, 

As Afterward ^e scholen here ; 

But a Merveillous lawnce it schal be 

Where-with he schal be smeten, as i telle the. 192 

** For these Merveilles schal no Man se 
But he be Ful of Alle Bownte ; 
Wheche schal ben the laste man 
That Evere of this ligne schal be than. 19G 

And lik as to !N^asciens ferst publisched was, 
So schal he be the laste In Ony plas 
That the M^rveilles of the Sank Eial schal se. 
Thus be }>• Crwcified kyng it is certefied Me : 200 

' Therefore bothe begynneng And Endeng 
Of My MeJTeilles they scholen haven knowleching ; 
And on hem to, my veniaunce shal I Caste, 
That they two scholen knowen Me Atte laste, 204 

And Of My strok Me witnesse to here, 
That I to the herte wasse stonge vrith A spere, 
Thorw wheche strok & o)>ere, f* fah lewes certeinli 
On the Crois Me Slowen, hangeng On hy.' 208 

& knowe thow wel, loseph, witA-owten dowtaunce, 
That as longe as thow hast born this lawnce. 
So long scholen the Merreillez duren to thende 
Into that londe where I schal the sende." 212 

Thanne the Aungel tomed A3en Anon ; 
But Abasched weren they Everichon, 


For they ne hadden not non Cler knowliclienge, 

Sauf Only of Nasciens Certifienge. 216 

Thanne Joseph Eekened tho riht Anon 

How longe seth y lawnce was In him don. 

So that it was xii dayes fully 

That the lawnce hadde he bom Certeinly. 220 

Thanne Anon wente kyng Mordreyns, 
And to liis paleys ladde alle CiistienSy 
Sauf Only thre that leften Of that hep. 
The wheche Abyde there with Joseph. 224 

Thanrze clepid the kyng, Joseph anon. 
Or Ony Fote Furthere wolde he gon, 
' That of theke A-visiowns he wolde him Schewe, 
That In his chambre he saw Al on Eewe/ 228 

*' The Nyht to-Fore I wente to Bataille, 
What vhing it was that Me Gan so to saille, 
Keuertheles 3it wot I of som what how it ferde. 
Bat I wolde that Nascien of jowre mowth it herde." 

Thanne of these Merveilles loseph gan telle ; 233 
Afom Mordreyns and Kasciens he gan to spelle : 
** Site king 1 ferst In thi Chombre there ]m>u Sye 

Jowph had tho 
Luio*-h«ad tn Ids 
hip 12 dajrt. 

Tliloii h« Mw 
th« night bofoTO 
he w«nt to battle. 
(Chap. Til, pp. 


Thre Trees that were7i wondirly hye, 

Alle iij of on gretnesse, And of on lengthe, 

And of on heythe, & of on strengthe ; 

And thike that hadde the Fowle bark vppon. 

That signefied verray Goddis sone ; 

The tothere tweyne Signefied, I tellet the. 

The Fadir And the holigost In Trenite ; 

And the peple that vndir the Tre was, 

The begynneng of }>• world it was ; 

The tweyne that partid from hem thanne. 

Was Adam & Eve the ferste Manne, 

That to helle wenten down Kyht 

After here deth, I the plyht. 

And Alle the Remnawnt ^at fillen In tho : 

So dyden they Tyl God on the Cros was do. 


of the Three 


the fonl-barkt 
ooe waeChriat; 

(he Other two» 
the Father and 
Holj Ghost. 



The two folk 
who Jampt Into 
the ditch, 
were Adam and 
Eve going to 


bnaokM (p. flB) 
wtra Um Jem. 

Ttm that Ml into 
th« ditch. 

and than JnmpC 
out Into Its bark 

waa Chrlaf a 
aool laaTlng Ita 

while tt. the Soul, 

went Into the 

bringlnir with It 
Clirist'i wall- 
beloved out of 

** And tho that the brawnches gonnen forto hewe, 
It wereii the Fals lewes yppon A rewe, 252 

That persched bothe his hondes & Feet, 
And non hoi stiche On him they leet. 
And whanne the Tre Fyl A-down, 
Alle the Bark there lefte In yirown ; 256 

The body that was the Bark with-Inne, 
In-to y dich it fil, and nold not blynne, 
Where alle the peple fil In be-fore, 
And EUes hadden Al the peple be lore ; 260 

And whanne A while there hadde he been, 
Owt of that diche he Cam A^en, 
And Into his bark A^en tomede he sone, 
For wel he wiste what was to done ; 264 

And so Cler be-Cam that Tre withal, 
As Evere dyde ony berylle Othir CristaL 

'' Of Alle this thing the Signefiawnce 
I schal )ow declaren with-Owten yariau/7ce : 268 

Whanne the holigost from the Body was gon, 
The Body In the Sepulcre was leid Anon ; 
As A thing that ded tho was, 

So lay the Body in that plas ; 272 

And therwhiles was the Sowle In helle. 
The Fendes host al forto felle ; 
And his beloved thanne Everichon, 
Owt thens with him he browhte Anon ; 276 

And thanne whanne thus hadde he I-do, 
Into the Sepulcre the spirit gan go, 
Al so Clere And Al so Bryht 
As Evere the Godhede was In Syht 280 

** And th9 peple that heng vppon the brawnches, 
Signefied the sowles where-ofifen he wolde not stawnche, 
But hem forth Browhte Everichon, 
And Of his welbeloved he left non On ; 284 

And the leves of that Tre don Signefie 
The Membres of Grod, I sey the Certeynlye. 


'* And be these thre trees Yndixstonde thow wel 



The blessed Trenite Everidel, 288 

Fadir & Sone & holy gost, 

iij. persones, Ss but On god Of Mihtes Most. 

But on Godhed & but on dejete 

Signeiien tho persones thre ; 

So Is On god I thre p^rsoues, 

And but on dejete In tho wones ; 

Ne nethir Of hem More thanne othere Is, 

JS'ethir strengere ne feblere with-Owten Mys." 

" Joseph/' seyde thanne the kyng Anon, 
" These vndirstonde Ich wel Everichon ; 
But now Eiht fain wolde I wete of the, 
What y Signifiaunce of theke thre wordis mown be." 
« Ful gladly Sire," quod Joseph tho, 301 

" Theke thre wordis I schal the undo ; — 
The Ferste that ' Formere ' wreten Is there, 
Betokeneth the Fadir In this Manere, 304 

For he Formed Ferst Alle thing 
From begynneTig Into the Endyng. 
And, For the persone of the sone Into Erthe Alyhte, 
To saven Mankende thorwgh his Owne Mihte, 308 
There-fore to y sone belongeth the savacion of Man, 
Thus Eedely is it. As I the tellen Can j 
And for the Cause that it is so. 
He Calleth him ' Saviour ' wit^-owten Mo. 312 

And, for the holigost discendid Adown 
At pentecost to the disciples In virown. 
For to Clensen, And forto Maken Clene, 
And hem Forto Enflawmen AI bedene ; 316 

And, for alle pvrifiments bo-longen to y holigost, 
Therfore as ' Clensere ' it signefiet. As it nedis Most. 
Now the lettrure of these persones thre, 
I haue declared, As je Mown se, 320 

That but On deyete And On pvsaunce 
Hauen they thre with-0wte9» variaunce." 

ThaThrM Trees 
ine«nt the 

Three Penons, 

Of the Three 

Words (p. 06;, 

L* Former/ 
meuit God the 
Father and 
Creator of all 

t. * SaTloar/ 
meant God the 
Son who sard 

S. * Cleanser,* 
meant the Ho|j 

who parifl< 




Now vndirstonde I this Eiht wel. 
From gynneng to Endeng Everidel ; 324 

But of More," quod the kyng, 
Ai to tb« room " Thow most don me vndirstonding ; 

thftt Mfyrdnlns 

Mw (p.e7;. What that chambre doth signefie, * 

That with Min £yen I saw so yerralle, 328 

That I wende 19'euere to-fom theke day 

Into Swich An hows non Man ne entren May." 

" A ! Sire," quod loseph thanne Anon, 

" fat wele I declarer Er I hens gon ; 332 

For that I wolde with Al my myht 

In stedfast beleve to bringen the ryht. 

and th« chud Thike Child that In the Chambre was, 

withoatbmkinf And to-fom the Isswede In that plas 336 

^ ^*^ With-Owten Ony wal ofer dore brekynge, 

Thus it is to thin & to oure Alther yndirstondinge ; 

this meant It signefieth only Goddis Sone, 

Clirlaty Of « 

That In the Maydeins wombe dide wone, 340 

Where as he In alihte, & Owt he cam 
Be his Owne Miht as God & Man ; 
And lik as he owt of pat Chambre Lsswed to fore y, 
who CUM oat of So dide he owt of the virgenite, 344 

withoat braaUng And neuere hire Maidenhot was put Away, 
(•MP. 68}. Nether to-forn ne After, As I the say." 

" Thanne telle me, loseph," quod the kyng tho, 
** What was that child that Into y Chambre entred so f " 
" Sire kyng, that Child was the holigost, 349 

On God of Mihtes Most, 
That Into that chambre Entred thanne, 
In the savacioun of Alle kynde of Manne. 352 

•■Now.ftyi Qod " There-fore sendeth the to Sein be Me 

Mordraini, That highe lord God pat is In Maieste, 

* That thow schost Anon putten Away 
Thike fals simylitude pat thow hast kept Man! day, 
bam that faiiM And that thow do hem brennen Anon Hiht 357 

Openly In Al the peplis siht ; 



That semblawnce that so longe povi hast had In keplnge, 

Thow Schalfc it don brenne Oner Alle thinge.' 360 

Where thow hast don fowl dedly Synne, 

In tho pointes that thow hast Trespaced Inne, 

The holigost wele pat it be declared Openly, 

Thi Falsnesse And thin fowle foly, 364 

That Alle the world it Mowen knowe, 

Of thi meyne, bothe hyghe and lowe." 

This Semblaunce that I have spoken of here, 
Lesteneth to Me, and 30 Mown lere ; 
What Maner of semblaunce that worschepe he, 
30 scholen Mown^ bothe heren and se. 
He hadde don him Mad A fair ymage 
In forme Of a woman of high parage,— 372 

And A fairer^ ymage ne Mihte non ben 
Of tre ne ston I-Mad, As men Mihten sen, — 
And wit^ hire the king lay Euery oper nyht ; 
And thereto In Eyal Eobes sche was diht, 376 

And In al so Eiche & worthi Aray 
As ony man Cowde devyne oper say ; 
And a chambre for hire he let Ordeyne, 
The most Mcrveillous that men herd of seyne, 380 
That non Man Cowde knowen the openinge, 
Nethir thentre ne Owt-Goyng. 

Thanne Anon Clepid he forth Sire Nascien 
And his qwene, to-Foren him to Comen then, 384 

And seide ' that he wolde hem Alle Schewe 
His fals leveng, with-Inne A threwe. 
That so longe he hadde kept And lad.' 

Anon his Meyne he Comanded, & bad, 388 

' A gret Feer Forto Maken Anon 
In his paleys, Amongis hem Echon ; ' 
And whanne pat feer was brennenge briht, 
Anon he Comaunded hem Owt of his Siht 392 

And Owt of the Paleys Forto gon, 
Alle his Meyne Everichon, 

that thon hast lo 
long kept and 

sinnd witb. 

Confew thy foal 

368 In hd. 

[} f Now] 

Mordreina had 
a lovely etatoe of 
a woman, 

which he slept 
with erery o^her 

and kept it In a 
most wonderftil 

Mordreins calls 
forth Naaciens, 

and bids his folk 
make a great fire. 




So that In his Compenye ne left not there 
But loseph, & Nasciens, & his qwecne in fere. 396 
Monireiuf takes Thanne the kyng ladde hem forth Anon 

Joseph and 

Nx-cioni into hu To a sotyl hows was mad of Ikfarbre ston, 
And Alle of divers Colowres it was, 
Ful scteli I-wrowht In that plas, 40O 

And the Schettynge was Mad so p?*evily 
That non Man Miht it knowe/i Apertly, 
With, a sotil barre with-Inne I-wrowht, 
That non man thentre ne knewe nowht. 404 

And whanne the kyng it Opene scholde, 

with an Iron itey, A sotyl Emen keye In his hond gan holde. 
The wbeche the lointours he gan vnscliitte, 
So wel of that For-knew he itte. 408 

And thus thei Entreden Everichon 
There that ymage was Hiht Anon, 
Where that disloyalte & synne he hadde I-do 
With that ymage pat In the hows was so. 412 

takee oot his And that vmaffe Took he there Anon Ryht, 

beautiiVil statoa, ./ o j j 

And Into that Fyr he let it to ben dyht, 
And alle the Eiche Eobes Also 

That vppon thike ymage weren I-do, 416 

and throws it Evene thus dide he In alle mennes Siht 

and its rich robes 

into the Are, Thike Ymage to don brennen ful briht. 

"0," quod the kyng, "goode lord God, moche is f* Miht, 

That me Sendest grace nowe In thi Siht 420 

My fals levenge forto Forsake, 

And Only to thi servise me take ! " 
and there And there aUe his Synne he forsook, 

forsakes his sin. 

And Onlyche to goddis servise him took. 424 

Thanne merveilled Alle that Meyne 
Deaf 15] What theke semblawnce myht be, 

For there-oflfen herden they Neucre speken be-fore 
Of non Man that Evere ^it was I-bore. 428 

Alle this was thorwgli losephes techinge. 
Him seK and Al his Eem In good lif to bringe, 



Thorwgli the Comandement of Owte lord ; 

Thus was the semhlaunce hrend at on word. 432 

And whanne Joseph hadde Alle this I-do, 
And thike ymage dide hrenne fere Also, 
And al the lond hrowht In good beleve, 
From Sarras ward he gan to meve, 436 

And took his leve at kyng and knyht, 
At Nasciens, and Of that qweene so briht. 
Thanne the kyng, the qwene, & Sire Nascien, 
Cowndied loseph A gret weye then, 440 

And Alle that weren In his Compenye 
Forth with loseph thei gonnen hem Gye, 
Wheche that A gret Meine it was, 
That to losep^e Seiden In thike plas, 444 

' That 3if loseph wolde In here Compenie go, 
From him departen^ wolde they neuere mo.' 

And loseph Eesceived hem Everichon 
That In his Compenye gonnen to gon, 448 

So As be nombre it was I-Eekened to me 
Two hundred & Sevene of theke Meyne. 
And so of the kyng his leve there he took. 
And Alle the Compenie that he not forsook, 452 

Ss Charged pe kyng, ' holi chirche to sosteyne, 
And Neuere to his Ms levenge to tomen Ageyne ; 
More-Ouer, to kepen Cristes lawes, 
My techeng, And ferto Alle my sawes.* 456 

Thus departed the kyng and they tho 
With wepinges, syghenges, & Man ion mo ; 
For hem thowghte forloren they were, 
Whanne lone^Jie departed from hem there, 460 

As ^e scholen heren here Aftirward, 
What happes & Chaunses befillen hem hard. 
And whanne that loseph forth wente, 
Into what Contre he ne wiste veramente, 464 

But As be Goddis Comandeme/zt 
He it Fulfillede tho verayment. 

JoMph prepuTM 

He takes leftre of 
M ordreina and 

P MS departfii 


W! men of 
Sarrat go with 

He charges 
Hordreius to 
keep Chriat's 

Mordrelns and 
his people weep 
at Joseph's 




Of Mordreins (or Evalach). How he has a wonderful dream, 
which sorely troubles him, to the distress of his queen 
(p. 229-32), viz. : ' that he is holding his Court io Sarras, 
and as he sits at meat a thuuderbolt knocks the first mor- 
sel out of his mouth, and his crown off h\i head (p. 229) ; 
that a wind carries him away to a place where a lion brings 
him food, which a lioness carries off, till he hits her with 
his fist (p. 230) ; that he finds his crown, but with splen- 
did stones in it ; that an eagle carries his nephew, Nasciens's 
son, to a strange region, where the people kneel to him 
(p. 230) ; and then a river flows out of Kasciens's son's 
belly, and divides into nine streams, of which the ninth 
is troublous and foul at its rise, clear in the middle, 
and glorious at the end (p. 231) ; and that a man from 
heaven washes in a lake, and in three of the streams that 
Bepai ated from the ninth' (p. 231 ). 8arracynte, sad at Mor- 
dreins*8 trouble, goes to her brother Nasciens (or Seraphe), 
(p. 232), and begs him to ask Mordreins a boon, that he 
will tell his dream. Nasciens goes to the king, and asks 
him (p. 233). Mordreins tells him the dream (p. 234), and 
Bays that it came for his, Mordreins*s, ingratitude to Nas- 
ciens (p. 235). To have the dream interpreted, they go to 
the Church that Joseph establisht, and hear service, but 
none of the pastors can interpret it (p. 236). They return to 
the palace, and feel and hear and see wonderful shakings, 
noises, and lightnings (p. 237) ; then a horn sounds, and a 
voice proclaims Tkt Beginning of Dread (p. 238). Mor- 
dreins and Nasciens fall swooning on their bed, and 
Mordreins is borne away by the Holy Ghost (p. 238). 

Joseph and his Now goth forth loseph & his Compenye 

comp«nj go 

forth. Be Goddis Comandement Certeinlye, 

But Alle here Tomes devisen I ne kan, — 

It were to mocho for Ony On Man — 4 

Kethir here herebegage, ne hc?*e vyaunde ; 

Bat nothing hem lakked, I yndirstonde. 

We'll leare them, Now from loseph A while let vs twynne 

and take up 

Kiiig Mordreins. And of kyng Mordreins we Moste be-gynne, 8 

And of the Compenie that Is in Sanaa Cite, 

That loseph there lefte of his Meyne. 

Thus begynneth this stone forto telle 

What Aventure king Mordreins Aftir befelle. 1 2 

One night in hed In bedde as he lay vppon A Xyht, 

In his slepe was there wondirly afryht ; 




And there A gret dreme Cam him vppon, 

As after scholen 30 heren Everichon. 16 

In this wonderful dteme riht longe he lay, 

Til that it was ny liht of the day, 

And with his Eyen So sore he wepte, 

And EveT6 he lay & faste Slepte, 20 

In Sighenges and In Storhelings sore, 

Al Evere thus he ferde More & More ; 

So that y qwene, that hy him lay, 

To hire herte it was a ful gret fray ; 24 

But Sche myhte not Enqwerew for non thing 

Of him what Amownted this Metyng, 

For sche dorste not A3ens his wille 

Hym there-Ofifen freyne, for good ne ylle ; 28 

For he was bothe feers & Crwel, 

Therfore sche ne dorste him A^en neucre a del. 

Thus Abod the kyng In this trowble Owt riht 
Til it was passed middes of the nyht j 32 

And thanne In a softe Sleepc^ fil he, 
For werinesse of travaille he hadde Inne be ; 
And thus In dremeng thowhte he, 
* That he was In Sarras, pat faire Cite, 36 

And there In his Cowrt that was so Eiche 
And so worthi, that non was liche. 
To that Cowrt him thowghte comen there 
Manye lordis & ladyes Of gret powere, 40 

That werew Arayed & liialy dyht, — 
So Ryal Saw he Neuere In his siht ; 
And to ^fete Seten they Alle, 

As to k}Tig, lordes, & ladyes, don befalle. 44 

Him thowhte At his mete Jjcre that he sat ; 
His mowht he opened, A morsel putty ??g In J)ere-at ; 
Him thowghte A thondir blast gan gon. 
That Morsel owt of his hand it smot Anon ; 48 

An the Crowne that was vppon his hed, 
To the Erthe it Caste In that stcd ; 

If ordre!ns dreami 
a wonderful 

that makfli him 
WHjf and sigh. 

and frightens 

who daren't 
ask him what 
his trouble Is. 


His dream is, 
* that he's la 

with many 
Lords snd Ladiee 
at hb Coart. 

At a meal, 
a thander blast 
knocks a bit of 
food out of his 

and throws his 
crown on the 



'A ttron^ wind 
corriM him to 
ft Btrange place. 

[} MS hire] 
A Lion brings 
him fbod. 
A LioneM takes 

till he panefaes 

He And* hie 
lost Crown, 

iiQi. with (kr 
more precious 
■tones in it than 

An ehgie bears 
Nasciena's son 
into a far 

the people of 
which kneel to 

And whanne he stowpede the Crowne to take, 

A boistous wynd there gan to wake ; 52 

Ilym thowghte he was born Into A straange place 

A fer wey thennes, & fere was a long space. 

And 3it him thowhte there wel More, 

That A liown & A lioness to him Comen thore ; 56 

Everi day the lyown mete to him^ browghte, 

And the lionesse Awey it Cawhte, 

Sauf scarsly half his ly venge 

That the liown dide him bringe. 60 

And Atte laste him thowghte Agein, 

That non lengere he wolde it sofifren in sertein ; 

And with his fist smot so the lyonesse 

That sche dide him no More distresse. 64 

* Thanne him thowghte his Crowne he fond ; 
And yp he took it ])ere In his hond, 

And set it A^en vppon his hed ; 

Thus thowghte him there In that sted. 68 

But it was Chonged thanne wondirly, 

The stones of that Crowne Certeinly ; 

For the stones weren so preciowse to his eye, 

That neuere non So precious stones he sye. 72 

* And whanne on his hed it was set A3einy 
Thanne Cam his Nevew, Nasciens sone, Certein ; 
Him thowhte that An Egle him there bar 

Ryht Fer with-Inne the Se thar ; 76 

Ful fer Into a stravnge contre 

His Nevew him thowghte fere bar he ; 

And there the Egle lefte him a-down 

Ryht fer Into a strawnge Regiown. 80 

And whanne he was there set In fai plase, 

The peple that In the Contre wasc, 

To him alle they knelid a down 

In that plase Abowtes In-virown ; 84 

And whanne thus alle they hadden don, 

To him so Enclyned Everichon, 


And gret loie of him they made, 

And of him were» they wondir glade. 88 

* Thanne thowghte him that veraillye 
That he Sawgh with his bodilich Eye out of Nasdeiu't 

" " son'* body flow 

A gret Flood Owt of his body Gon ; » rfven. 

Of wheche flood becomes there Nyne Anon, 92 

Where-Oflen the viij Reveres were 

Of on clemesse, of on depthe & bred, him Jowghte f^re; 

But the laste flood that there was, of which thaiut 

if most foul aiid 

Most deppest, Most Trowblest, semed In that plas; 96 noUy atita 

The water was as fowl As Ony chanel, 

Riht hydows Therto, & ful stordy Ech del ; 

Thus Evene ferd it Atte the begynne^ig : 

But In the Middis was thanne Anothir thing, 100 

For the water Also Cler was there ?T"^5f™ 

ia ita middle. 

As ony preciouse stones Owghere, 

Not-with-stonding it was boystows (fe scharpe 

As here to-Foren ^e herden ^le Carpe ; 104 

And 3it In the Ende was it in A-nothir Manere, — »nd at its mouth 

^if 3e welen lestene ^e scholen here ; — 

For it was More Cleer An hundred fold loo-foid clearer 

Thanne here to-fore 30 ban herd me told, 108 

And More Fairere thanne In the Middcs it was, thauinita 

' midst, 

And as swete to drinken In ony plas ; 

And so delicious it was to drinke, »"^ "®™ . 

' delicious than 

That More delicious Cowde now Man thenke; 112 can be thought. 

In wheche Ende the Cowrs was so softe, 

J?at there-oflfen was non Noise on lofte. 

3it more him thowghte fat he Sawgh tho 

A Fair Man that From the hevene gan go ; 116 a Wrman 

And as he lokede, him thowghte, An by 

In his hondis he Snwgh the verray Crucyfi ; 

And to a lake he Gan to Gon : washes his feet 

' and hands in a 

His hondes & Feet he weesch thcre-In7?e Ano7i ; 120 ukeandsoftha 

other 8 itreams. 

And thre of the floodis wheche fat were 
Departid from the Nynthe there ; 


Mordreliu waket. 


Hit QuMti, 
U troaUld, 

gOM (oher 
brother Naaeiens, 

tells him how 
Mord reins hue 
xnoumd all 

and aeke him to 
find out the 
caaee of iU 

Into Alle thre he Entrede, wete pan wel, 

Hondes, feet, and body he weesch £che deL' 1 24 

This Avicioun & this dremenge 
Sawgh the kyng In his Slepinge, 
Wheche that lasted Xy to the day, 
Lik As this Storje vs now doth say. 128 

Thanne A-wook this kyng Anon, • 
And Eemembred him of these viciouns Echon, 
Where-offen Abasched ful sore he was, 
Of that wonderful A[nd] merveillous Gas. 132 

And the qweene that beheeld his fare. 
In hire herte hadde sche ful gret Care, 
How sche Myhte Owght knowen of the lif 
"Why that hire lord was so thanne pensyf. 136 

Anon As sche myhte parceyven the day, 
Vpe sche Eos, And to hire brother took the way, 
Sore wopingo & sore Syghenge, 

"With gret sorwe & lawmen tinge, 140 

And so Cam to Kasciens hire brotheris bed, 
And down be him sat In thike sted. 
Anon Kyht vpe this Nasciens Eawghte, 
His Soster there In his armes he Cawghte, 144 

And hire A-Freyned with Al his herte, 
* Why that sche hadde So manye peynes smerte.' 
Thanne tolde sche him of hire lord the kyng 
That Al Niht hadde ben In sweche Momeng, 148 

And the Cause for why sche ne wiste, 
" Therfore, derc brothir, as I the tryste. 
Lest he myhte falle In som dispeireng, 
Now, swete dere brothir, for Ony thing 152 

That 3e wolden of him Enqwere 
For what Cawse he hadde Al his fere, 
And for lesus love hevene kyng. 
For whom we hauen taken Cristenewg, 166 

That je wolden streyht to him gon, 
A.nd a boone Axen Of hym fere Anon, 


* That he wolde graunten 30W jowre Askyng, 

What 80 Evere it be, of AUe thing,' 160 

And whanne fat he hath graunted to 30W ]>at boone, 

Thanne that ^e wolden Axen him ful sone 

« Why that he Ferde So that Kyht, 

& why In his sleepe he was so afryht ;' 164 

For I ne desire so sore non thing 

As there OSen to haven som knoweng." 

Thanne Bos 'him ype this Kasciens Anon, NaMi«na gow 

to Hordreint, 

And to the kynges chambre gan to gon ; 168 

And be that tyme he comen thedir was, 

The kyng was Resen in that plas ; 

And Nasciens him grette fere Anon riht, 

And seide, *' Sire ! as thow art bothe kyng & knyht, 172 **• um to 

gmt him • boon. 

One bone, sire kyng, pat thow grawnte me 

With-Owten lettynge Owthir Adversite." 

Thanne y king Answerid him Agein, 

"Dere brothe[r], je knowen wel In Certein, 176 

That nothing wheche Is In Myn bandown 

That Al Redy schal been at 3owre peticiown/* 

And whanne Naciens yndirstood al this. 

That be his Creawnse he wolde not Mis, 180 

But fulfillen his bone Al hoi & pleyn, 

Thanne to him thus seide he In Certein, 

* No more for his boone wolde he Crave, ^^ *>»»* *•» 

' to tcU him what 

But knowliching of his pensifnesse to have ; 184 Manight'i 

trouble wm. 

Why Al that Nyht he ferde tho so, 

This wolde I wete Er that I go.' 

And whanne the kyng herde him thus seye, 

Thanne wiste he wel his qweene gan him be-wreye, 188 

So that Anon Ryht to Sire Nasciens MordreiM at 

" ono« t«lU hit 

He tolde his trowblynge wit^-owten Offens, dream to 


And told him clene his Aviciowun, 

And of his Nevew Al & som ; 192 

" But 3it nenertheles not for than 

I ne have not jow told how it began ; 


XordreliM mji 
his troable hu 
ooDM on bim 

bMftOM h« didn't 
fbUU his promiat 
NaaeisDJ for 

Thii li lh« 
oraie of hla 

[Tear 16] 

At Tftnbel, 

at CasUs GomeSf 

Kasdena helpt 

For of this ^ifte that ^e han Axed me, 

Biht ful yntrewe to 30W have I be ; 196 

Por I swor to jow w/tA-Inne y viij day, 

Whanne ^e token for me that iomay, 

I scholde 30W 80 worthily qwiten Ageyn 

Thai al joure baronage scholde it knowen Certein. 200 

Where-oflfe» vntrewe to jow I am, 

And thus this pensifhesse On me it Cam. 

Fortheremore, As by my qweene I lay, 

T bethowghte me how Mani A day 204 

That I hadde leyn In fowl sinne, 

The fowlest ]jat Man Myhte leven Inne ; 

And myn Consciense me gan to Bepr^ve 

Of myn fals levenge & Of myn beleve. 208 

And as I lay thus, Ss me be-thowghte 

jif to Ony Man I hadde behyght Owghte ; 

And I ne Cowde not thenken, sauf Only to |>*, 

To whom that I haue so longe vntrewe be ; 212 

And for wheche thing is most myn hevynesse 

That bringeth myn herte In al this distresse. 

For there nis now no man lyvenge 

That I am so moche bownden to In Alle thinge, 216 

Ne that so moche that I haue trespaced ynto, 

As to 30wre persons now that I have I-do. 

And what this yntrowthe it is to mene, 

I schal 30W tellen ful wel & Clene. 220 

It is ful trewe, As je don vndirstonde, 
Whanwe I was discomfyt be myn Enemyes honde 
At Tarabel, As 30 wel knowe, 

Where as je Come?* w^t/i-Inne A throwe 224 

Ajens Myn Enemyes to socowrew there, 
Of whom pat I hadde Riht gret Fere, 
Whanne to the Castel of Come pat I was gon, — 
That tyme Oper Bocoiir hadde I non ; — 228 

Thanne Comen 3e prckynge w/t/i 30wre Meyne 
In Socowringe, fortheringe, & helpinge of me ; 


ThanTte bebygbte I 30W tbo In Certein, 

* That ^if eaere to Sarras I Myhte Eekeue^ren Agein 232 

In worschepe & In prosperite ; 

With-Innen .v^j. dayes aftir Certeinle, 

I scholde 30W so worthily Gwerdone thanne, 

That betters gwerdoned nas neuere Manne ;' 236 

Where-offen the schame is Fallen On Me 

Only, Sire, & not vppon the. 

And for Cawse of this grete thowght, 

Into this Ayicioun thas was I browght, 240 

As I have told 30W, bothe Grope & Roote ; 

Bat the signefiawnce, how to knowen, I ne woote ; 

Now sethen that loseph is hennes gon, 

Man me to declaren now know I non ; - 244 

For, And he were here now present, 

He cowde me declaren Al the hole Entent ;" 

And for this Cause was he in gret thowht, 

To what £nde this viciown scholde be browht. 248 

And thanne be-spak tho Sire Kasciens, 
That thike tyme was In the kynges pr^sens, 
" For, sire, this viciown May Signefie 
That 30 scholen In-to Anothir Seignorie ; 252 

But je nete^t whanne, ne what day, 
That this sodeynly behappen 30W May. 
For, lik As 3e han chonged 30ure lif. 
So scholen 30 3owre Eegne w/tA-owte/i strif ; 256 

For Every Evel wil & wikked Cownsaille, 
Eche man Owghte Forsaken Sawn faille , 
And Ellis diden we Contrariously 
To Owre newe feith ful Sekerly, 260 

Into hos Creaunse we han vsbownde 
Bothe body and Sowle In this stownde. 
Where-fore, As of 30ure Aviciown, now semeth me, 
To non Evel may it tome In non degre. 264 

But I rede 30W that 30 now do, 
Cou/zseil Of holy Chirche to Clepen 30W to, 

■nd h« promUt 

within 8 daja. 

Bat h§, Xor- 
drelns, didn't do 

Hence hii 
trooblotu Dremm, 

nhieh he knows 
not bow to get 

Needeni eajn 
Dream maj 
betoken hia being 
carried away. 

tho* thia may 
lead to no harm. 


XordraiiM bad Wheche that loseph left In his stede, 

bettor take 

ooaneei of Good Counseil thero-Olfeii sow now to hede. 266 

Holjr Church. ^ , , i ,; , 

For ^e knoweri wel be yndirstondyngy 

That loseph Comanded 30W Oner Alle thing 

* Holy Chirche to kepen an Susteyne, 

And In Every nede to hem scholde ^e Compleyne, 272 

That Nedy were to sowle oper to body ;' 

Thus Comanded he jow, ^e weten wel sothly." 

He aad Naadena And whanne Nasciens this wordis had seid y, 

Anon bothe to-Gederis tlianne gonnen they go 276 

To the paleys Anon Of Spiritwelte — 

As to-fom Behersid han ^e herd Me — 

That Enstablyscht Ss Ordeyned weren Echone, 

Holy Goddis Servise there-Inne to done ; 280 

go and hear So that there herden they eoddis Servise. 

iheChrieUan •^ ** ^ 

Service and Maw. And Afterward that Glorious Sacrifise, 
As loseph hem Comau»ded before, 
In what maner to Swen Cristes lore, • 284 

And Every day for the More part Comowned to be ; 
Thus Comanded loseph tho Certeynle. 
And whanne this Servise was Al I-don^ 
To-fom him he Comanded to Comen Anon 288 

xordreins teiu Alle the provostis of holy Chirche, 

the Chttroh-pro- a t r t t r>t 

voeu hii dream, And of hem took Counseil how he scholde wirche, 
And told hem Clerly Al his Aviciou/t, 
How that he dremede, Al and som. 292 

bat none of them But Of hem was there not On tho 

can explain It. 

That theke Avisiown Cowde him vndo ; 

For they Seyden him Certeinly, 

* That there ne Cowde now Man but God Only 296 

That Avicioon to declaren In Ony place, 

Sawfe Only God thorgh his grete grace.' 

And whanne the kyng & Nasciens herden of this, 

Anon thens they wente/i with Owten Mys. 300 

Thanne wente the kyng & Nasciens forth bothe 
More hevyere thanne Er they weren forsothe, 



And [seide] that neue^-e In Eae they scholde bene 
Tyl here-Offen they hadden vndirstonding clene ; 304 
And thus pensif to the paleys Ajen gonne they gone, 
They two togederis, right Alle alone ; 
And there they Bested hem bothe that stownde 
To-Grederis On A Cowche vppon the grownde, 308 
And now More Feleschepe but they two. 

Thanne felten they Anon Merveilles Mo, 
How that Al the paleys Clene Alto-schook, 
Sawfe y Sovereyn vowtis, As they Gon/?e look ; 312 
And thanne loked they furthermore ; 
Hem thowghte Al to-scheverid it was thore. 
And In Every Chene hem thowghte they sye 
Ful of brenneng brondis ful wittirlye. 316 

Thanne so hydows A noise there be-gan, 
As it was semeng to hem bothe than 
That the Endeng of y world hadde be come, 
And that it hadde ben the day of dome ; 
So that Alle the wyndowes & walles to-brook, 
So Merveillously tho this Noise Ontook. 
Also hem thowghte the paleis schold han down falle, 
And th^e Sonken Into the Ottrest walls. 324 

And Amongs Alle this Merveillous thing, 
There Cam On hem the wondrest dirkeneng, 
That hem thowghte here sighte was gon Certein, 
And that it neuere to Eecouerin Ageyn. 328 

And non Men Of that Cite Certeinly 
Theke Merveilles sion, nefer herden, but they 
That with-Inne the paleis were ; 
And herden they, ne sien, no more there 332 

But Onliche Of that gret thondringe, 
Where-Offen they hadden gret Meryeillenge. 
And Othir thinges syen they nowht ; 
But, As hem semode In here tliowht, 336 

A fewe sparkelis At the Openynge 
Of the Paleys wyndowes, they Syen Comenge ; 

Mordrelnfl and 
Naaclens go buck, 
peiidve, to Saniu 

Then begin 

The Palace 

in eTciy chink 
burning brandii 

a hideooe noiae 

320 MifDoonudaj 
had come; 

and the 
d^irkneM (alls 
over them. 

But onlj within 
the Palace. 



U ordr»ins and 
Naadena hear 
a tremeiidoiM 
blast of a Horn, 

and a volca eri«a 

Beginning of 

They Ddl flat 

and Uordrelna 
ii bonw-off 17 
oat of his bed. 

And jit they Abaschten ful sore of this, 

What it Myhte Aniow[ii]te», witJi-Owten Mis. 340 

And As the kjng & Nasciens lien In this tiawu;ice, 
pi herden they A more 'wondirful Chawnce. 
Hem thowghte they herde the Sown of An horn 
That neuere they herden there beforu ; 344 

And the sown was so wondirful & so hy, 
That ou^r al the world they supposed trewly 
The Noise Of that horn myht hauen ben herde. 
So wondirfully that noise tho fere Ferde. 348 

Thanne Anon A vois there Gan to Crie, 
" Here is begynneng of drede Certeinlye." 
And whanne tliis Nois they herde thus seyn, 
Evene plat A down they fillen ful pleyn, 352 

Lik bothe dede As they hadde J>ere been ; 
Non lif In hem non Mihte Seen. 
Thanne was the prophecie fulfild tho " 
That be Olde dayes was knowen to Mo^ 356 

Wheche pat seith, ' Two scholen liggen In a bed. 
On be taken, J>" toper leven stille In that sted.' 

Thus sone the kyng Owt of his bed was bore 
Seventene lomes, be Goddis Myht thore. 360 

And it was wel the thridde Oure of the day 
Whanne to the kyng was Al this Affray ; 
And whanne the holy gost hym left ful sone, 
It was the hy Owre Of None. 304 

But of him talketh now non lengere this stoiie ; 
But to the qweene & Nascien Mosten we hye, 
That bothe weren beleft In sarras, 
As woful peple In that same plas. 368 




Nasciens (formerly Seraphe) lies swooning in bed. His sister, 
Queen Sarracynte, on coming back to the palace from see- 
ing a Church that is building for the Virgin, finds all the 
attendants aswoon (p. 239). In the chamber she sees 
Nasciens weeping, and asks him why, and where her hus- 
band Mordreius (or Evalach) has gone. She swoons 
(p. 240), and mourns. Nasciens assures her that Mordreins 
is safe (p. 242). The barons consult about Mordreins's 
absence (p. 242-3). Calafier, a traitor, suggests that Nas- 
ciens killd him (p. 243). The others adopt this notion ; 
go to Nasciens, question him (p. 243), and then cast him 
into prison (p. 244). The queen is greatly grievd, but 
cannot help her brother (p. 245) ; who holds to his faith, 
and will not reproach God, but asks mercy for his sins 
(p. 246-6). 

Lo thus tellith this Story now here, 

How Nasciens And the kyng, In A bed they were, 

And how that the kyng was born Away, 

And stille In Swowneng this Nasciens lay ; 4 

And swich A Moreyne As In tliat paleis was, 

Was Neuere Sein In non plas ; 

And In the Cite Was herd no More 

But the thondir & y sown of the trompe thore. 8 

Thanne it happed In this Mene tyme — 
The tyde Of y day Was Owr Of piyme — 
That the qwene gan forto gon, 

A faire Chirche Werk to beholde?* Anon, 12 

That In Worschepe Of Ovae lady begonnen was there ; 
And that chirche to sen wente sche In this Manere. 
And whanne thorwgh that paleys sche gan to goon, 
A wondirful Syhte Sawgh sche fere Anon, — 16 

Alle the Seriawntes lyen thete plat adown 
Ful dedlich & pale Al In virown ; 
And sche wende On Slepe |>at alle hadde ben tho, 
So that Furthermore sche gan to Go ; 20 

Thanne Fonde sche Alle the knyhtes Ss Sqwiere, 
In that Same Manere they lyen tho there. 
Thanne Merveilled the qwene mochel of this, 
What it scholde Amownten with-Owten Mis ; 24 

While Uordraina 
if borne away, 

Queen SarnuTnte 
comae back from 
teeing a church. 

and finds all the 
■ervanta flat on 
the floor. 

and knJghU and 
equlres ao too. 


Th« Qaeen edit Anon SoDime of hem sclie gan to Calle, 

the HMD, 

But thei mihten neper heren ne sen, so gan it fal, 
but thiy an YoT nethlr hadden fei wit ne Memorye 

dambfoundcd. ' " 

Of no/i worldly thing thanne Certeynlye. 28 

And whanne sche say, that not sche Myhte 
Of hem nethir haven word ne syhte, 
Thanne 'with A gret Cowrs tomed sche Anon, 
sheiromto the And to the kynges Chambre gan to gon, 32 

King'i chunber. 

And whanne sche was Inne Atte Chambre dore, 
There, Merveylles Gan sche beholden More ; 

and tees N«Kiens gche beheld hire brother sire Kascien 

Sat In his bed wepinge than, 36 

Owt of wheche bed Mordreins the kyng 
Was vpe lefte with Owten lesing ; 

moaning. And fere Kasciens Made gret sorwe & Mone, 

As him thowhte nedis he most done 40 

For the Noise and y voys that he herde. 
That he ne wiste In what maner it Ferde. 
And whamte the qweene yia began beholde, 

Her heart grows Anon hire herte can wexen Colde ; 44 

cold; " 

And sore tremeling & qwakyng than. 

To sire Nasciens bed Anon sche Ban, 

And wend that som wikked Sperit be chawnse 

Hadd hem put Owt Of here Kyhtful Creaunce ; 48 

And to hire brother sche Ean In haste. 

And him Embracen sche gan ful faste,' 

& the Cawse of him Axede, why it was 

That he So wepa there In that plas. 52 

Thanne gan he wepe wondirly Sore, 
Fastere and harder^ than he dide before. 

she criee aloud, Thanne Jj* qweene gan lowde to Crye 

Wtt^ a lowd vois ful petowslye, 56 

and fuii ■woon- And Swowneng to the Erthe fyl sche there. 

ing to the earth. ^^ t . g^i 

Thanne sire Nasciens Gan hire to Chere, 

And brased hire In his Armes two, 

And hire there kyste & Cherede tho • 60 


" A, swete soster !" he gan to Say, 

" What may jow be to Maken this fray 1" 

And whanne sche Aros Of hire Swowneng ; 

Thanne Axede sche of fat MenreilleDg ; 64 

"With Sorewful herte & hevy Chere 

Sche gan Axen where hire lord were. 

And whanne Nasciens this yndirstood, 
Ful Clene thanne Nasciens Chonged his mood, 68 

That he ne Mihte non word tho speke, 
So him thowhte his herte wolde breke ; 
As faste the water Ban from his Eeyen Adown, 
As it hadde ben pored vppon his Crown. 72 

Whanne the qweene Say him so taken vppon, 
Sche Axede what he hadde with hire lord doon; 
Thanne gan sche forto Swownen ageyn 
In that place there Certein Certein, 76 

And wende Owt of hire wit sche scholde han gon, 
Swich Sorwe sche Made, & so gret Mon. 
Whanne Of hire Swowneng sche A-wook, 
Sche qwaked, sche trembled, sche wepe, sche schook, 80 
And with a deolful vois sche gan to Crye, 
" Swete Brother Nasciens 1 " Certeinlye 
Evene thus As A wood womman 
In this Gyse took sche vppon, 84 

And euere Aftir hire lord gan to Crie 
With deolful vois, & wonderli hye. 

And whanne Nasciens hire tolde Al the verite, 
Thanne weping & momeng myhten men pere se, 
And how the kyng from him was taken there, 
And forth bom, & In what Manere ; 
But Into what place fat he was I-bore, 
Nasciens ne Cowde not tellen there. 92 

Whanne Nasciens this word hadde I-seyd, 
Thanne was there manie A deolful breid. 
And Owthes & Cry was In that halle. 
That bothe Men & wommen In swowneng gonne falle. 9 6 


and uks wlieiv 
her lord, 
Uordrelns, tf. 

NMeitnn can 
only weep. 

■wooni again. 

bat rtooTtra, 

and erioe after 
King Uordraius. 

Naadena tolla 
her how the 
88 King wan 
carried off. 

A great cry 




And swich Sorwe y qweene there Made, 

That Erthly thing mjhte hire non Glade. 
Thanne Cam Nasciens to hire Agein, 

And In his Annes he hir6 embraced ful plejrn, 100 

And hire Comforted In thia degre, 
Vmtrn " Now, goode dere Soster, lesteneth to Me ; 
and aMorM btf The kyng he is hothe Sawf & Sownde 

As we ben here In this Stownde, 104 

MordrBiBi !■ And bothen heyl In Sowle and In body, 

I Sey jow, Sostir, now, Certeynly. 

This knowe I wel be that tydynge 

That the voys to ts gan briuge." 108 

Thanne Axede Sche Nasciens wttA-Owten lak, 

* Ho it myhte be that to him tho spak.' 
tMeaoMitwu Thanne Nasciens hire Answerid Ageyn, 
Miucerwbo tpokt And seido it was Cristes Messenger Certein. 112 

to them. 

So gret Sorwe & Mone Made y qweene. 
That for non Erthly man Seced myhte bene. 
Thus sone this tydinge Gan forto springe 
Ouer Al the Contre witA-Owten lettynge, 116 

How that the kyng thus was I-lore, 
And how sodeynly he was A-Wey I-bore. 
Vordraini'i Thanne the baronage to-gederis Comen Anon, 

about th« King*! And of this Conseilleden what they myht don, 120 
diaapptaranet. ^^ ^^^ ^^^q fcyng Awey thus Scholde fare; 

Where-Oflfen they hadde ful gret Care. 

So Amonges AUe Othere there was On 

That longe wttA the kyng hadde Igon, — 124 

A cumd knight, A malicious knyht In Alle Manere, 
Sir cauph«n, His name Was clepid Sire Calaphere — 

For he was so Crwel, & so Felowns, 

So fals, so Cvrsid, so wikked of Condiciouns, 128 

That in dedly herte ne Myhte Synke 

So moche Tretorye forto thenke, 

As that Cursed Calaphere 

In his herte Imagyned there : 132 


For there he seide ful Openlye tho, 

* That be treson Nasciens the king dide slo. 
For he wolde haue/t y Rem In goueminge/ — 

This was Openly his talkynge — 136 

* For In that place weren there no Mo 
Sauf Only the kyng & sire Kasciens tho ; 
How myht it thanne Otherwise be. 

But that Sire Nasciens dide hizn slel' 140 

Thanne Answerid the baronage Ajen, 

* That it is ful lyk thus forto ben.' 
Thanne tooken they here Conseyl Anon, 
That Into Strong warde he scholde be don, 
Til that they knewen In word & dede tho 
Whethir the kyng lyvede, ofer how it myhte go. 
And to this Conseil thanne Everychon 
Sworen alle to holden there Anon ; 
And thus Of Nasciens demed they there, 
That y kyng hadde Mordred, but J>ei niste where. 

And thus to Cowrt they Comen Anon, 
Alle these barowns Everichon, 
And fownden Sire Nasciens & the qweene 
Makenge gret sorwe Al bedene, 
That Neu^e Man that was lyrenge 
Herde neuere half so moche weymentinge ; 156 

And this was the thridde day 
Aftyr the kyng was Havischt Away. 
Thanne thus to y qweene gonnen they gone, 
And of this Aventure Enqwerid Anone. 1 60 

Thanne Anon Kasciens gan forto telle 
Alle the Mater, how it tho befelle ; 
Bothe lik as he hadde herd & sein, 
He gan hem tellen In Certein ; 164 

And Also of the kynges Swevenywge, 
What he Mette In his dremenge. 
Thus to Nasciens they weren Enqweringe, 
& of Al thing he jaf hem Answeringe, 168 

■ays Naaelent 
killd Mordrcina 
po get hit 

They ootunU to 
put Natcimu ia 
144 prison. 

148 andawMrthvIl 

152 TheBaroni 
and fcha Quean 

tlia Srd day after 
U ordreini waa 

and qnaetfam 


Tha Baroni tdi* 


and eait htm 
into prison. 

by tlMeoonMl 

who hated an 

And seide to hem ful Sekerliche tho, 

' That In the Chambre Neren but they two 

Whanne this Chaunce there gan to falle ;' 

And thus he tolde Amongs hem Alle. 172 

Thanne Anon there they him tooke, 

And Grevoosly On him gonnen to lok& 

And sire Nasciens hem Axede tho, 

« Why wiiJi him they Ferden so.' 176 

Thanne they Answerede, & forth him ladde, 

' That Buspocion to him Of the kyng they hadde.' 

And thas In preson thanrie they him Caste, 

& Sesid Alle his londis Atte laste. 180 

Thanne senten they Abowtes here & there, 

To don seken the kyng Every Where. 

Thus Nasciens In preson suffirede mani hard schowr, 

Be conceil of Calapher, fat fals Tretowr. — 

This Calafer made good semblaunce 

As a man Of good Creawnce, 

But fals he was In dede Ss thowght, 

For Cristene manne was he nowht ; 

For whanne Cristened he schold han be, 

Ful faste Awey he gan to fle, 

For he ne hateth non Creature 

So moche As Cristene, I the Enswre ; — 

So that he Cam to y barouns Agein, 

And hem thus Conceilled In Certein, 

*That Into the tyme that they myhten knowe 

Begynnefig And Endeng Vppon A rowe, 

Nasciens In presown scholde Abyde :' 

Swich Conseil ^af that tretour this tyde. 

And thus be the Counseil Of fals Calaphere, 

Nasciens In presown kepten thei there. 

That him & his londis bothe, they hadde 

In here Award, bothe good & badde. 

And whanne y qweene beheeld Al this, 
jhe thowhte In hire herte it wente Amys, 








That lure lord thus was Agon, 

And yerto hire hTofer In presoun don. 

It is non nede to tellen the Mone 

That y qweene ])ere made ful sone, 208 

For there nas non Erthlj thing — 

Aftir hire lord that was the kyng — 

That so moche was In hire herte. 

As of hire brothir his peynes smerte. 212 

Ful fain wolde thanne this gode qwene, 

That hire brothir Owt Of preson hadde bene ; 

But sche was tho A lone womman, 

And ful litel Eeed of this sche kan ; 216 

To stryven Ajens hire Baronye, 

Sche ne hadde non strengthe Certeinlie. 

And £yere was Nasciens In preson strong. 
And tempted he was with the devel Among 
Forto forsaken there his trewe Creawnse ; 
But he ne wolde, for non Maner Of Chawnse, 
Forsaken his god for non peyne ; 
But Euere to his God he gan Compleyne, 224 

And Gride Merci For his grete Synne, 
Of y wikkednesse that he hadde lyyed Inne : 
** For moche more thanne this deservid I have ; 
Where-fore, goode lord lesus, thow me save ! 228 

For A gret Fool trewly I was. 
Thy secrees to sen In that holy plas, 
Wich that non Man scholde han seyn there, 
But }if Glene Of Synne I-clensid he were ; 232 

And so, goode lord, ne was not I ; 
Where-fore, lesus, I crie the Mercy I " 
And in this holy Entenciown 

StiUe belefte Kascien In presown, 236 

In gret Angwisch Ss gret Anoye, 
Thus lyvede Nasciens, As I ^ow seye ; 
Bothe be nyht and £k be day 
In Una Angwisch thus Nasciens lay ; 240 

grieTM (TMtly, 

but eumot litip 
her broUkff 

tempted bj 
220 tbeDeril, 

bat win not 

He aeks mercy 
for bii liDi, 


be waa a great 


piy into the 

aecreteof the 



And Eyere Cried God Of M^rcy 

That he hadde leved so Folilj. 
TiM story iM?M And now tometh this Storie Agejn 
aitdtanistoKinf To kjng Moidieins now In Certein, 244 

The wheche lest pat he ded hadde be ; 

And thus is he In A Boch with-Jime the se. 


The desoription and history of the Island to which King Mord- 
reins was carrid; and herein of the Emperor Fompey*s 
daring deeds. How the Isle was on the way from Scot- 
land and Ireland to Bahylon ; and Wales and Spain could 
be seen from it (p. 247) ; and how it was all bare rock, 
and was calld This RoeKe Periiowt (p. 248); and on it 
was formerly a house built by a pirate, Fowcairs, who 
entiod ships ashore, and destroyd them and their crews 
(p. 248-9) ; till Pompey heard of him, and prepard a ship 
(p. 249) ; and attackt him (p. 260). The account of the 
fight' (p. 250-5) ; — how the pirates let down a quarter of 
a ship on Pompey *8 knights (p. 251) ; and the attack is 
put off (p. 252). Pompey then determins to light a fire 
at the foot of the rook and bum them out (p. 252). The 
pirates try to put the fire out, but can*t, and the knights 
kill four of them (p. 253) ; the rest nearly succeed in 
extinguishing the fire, but Pompey drives them back and 
kills five of them (p. 254). He is then attackt and swoons, 
but is rescued. Fowcairs is taken (p. 254) ; his men are 
thrown into the sea, and then he too (p. 255). How 
Pompey did a stUl more daring deed, stabld his horses in 
the Temple at Jerusalem (p. 255) ; and how he was rebukt 
by Peter for it (p. 255). 

xordraiiu b on Now hare he-gynneth kyng Mordreins Storie, 
Mft, that yppon a Roche In the se is Certeinlye ; 

that Owt of his Eegiown xviL lornees was, 
With-Inne the se In A perilous plas. 4 

Abowtes the Owr of Noon it was tho 
pat there hy om whaniio the holisoost In bat Eoche put him tho : 

UolyOhmt. a r mt 

And there the holigost Schewed him thanne 

Al BO mochel richesse as evere Sawgh Manne ; 8 

* The French account for lines 244-334 differs considerably 
from the English one : it gives more detail and incidents. 


And whanne yppon this Boche he was alyht, 

In his herte he was wondirly Afryght. 

Whanne Abowtes yppon the Eoche he lookede tho, 

And beheld how Into A straunge Contre he was I-do, 

Where-Offen he thowghte tho In his herte 13 

Neu^re that deseisse forto Asterte ; 

And there-fore but litel wondir it were 

Thowgh Sore Abasched were he there, 16 

For )it hadde he non ful knoweng 

That In the paleys he hadde of his sweyeny/;ge ; 

And Evere he Merveilled In his^ thowht* 

How that he thedir was tho browht, 20 

And In him Self hadde gret Merveillinge 

Ho that thedir dide him tho bringe. 

And thus longe he beholde, 

That Al his herte gan wexen Colde, 24 

For non thing he ne Sawh abowtes hym 

Bat the wilde Se, bothe Stowt & Grym, 

And no more lond there ne was 

Thanne fere the Boche stood In that spas. 28 

This Boche stont A-Middes the se, 
Al this Stone now telleth to Me, 
Evene from Scotlond the Byhte weye 
Into Babiloyne, As I the Seye, 32 

And from Erlond the weye Also 
Streyht to babyloyne it doth go. 
And So hygh the Boche is there, 
That Ou^ the Se I[8] sein Every where ; 36 

And to Wales there Mihte he se. 
And Into Spayne Into that partee 3 
So hygh is the Boche In that stonnde 
That kyng Mordreins there ha]) I-fownde, 40 

For it is On of the most heyest plase 
That In Ony Se Evere jit sein wase ; 
And this yl So wastful Is, 
That of non Maner viaunde there-Inne J^;-e nys, 44 

Xordrefau Is 
terrified when 
he it Ml on U>e 

[1 XS thill 

Hid henrt mvtwe 
oold at Meelng 
nothing but t!i« 
wild Ma round 

The Bock Rtanda 
between Scotland, 
Irehmd, and 

From It yoo 
can see into 
Wales and Spain, 

so high is It. 

Bat it is all 


all vara rook. 




Ponnerly a 


built thera 

a big houM thai 

htld fiO man ; 

bat thay llTd 
in a galley on 
the MO. 

and wera pirates. 

They'd light a 
great fire on the 

Ke non Erthe that is Mevable, 

But Al Clene Roche hard & stable ; 

Except Y space Of A maiiTies hond, 

In ^t place Is there non Erable lond ; 

And Elles Into the harde Se, 

Clene Roche As it May be. 

And for that Roche Is so peiilows, 

So hygh, so straunge, & so MerveiUous, 

That '* the Roche perilows '^ is the Name, 

For it Lb of So perilous A feune. 

Yppon wheche loche sumtyme was diht 
A Certein habitacle with gret Miht, 
That A lerrers of the Se hyt Made,^ 
And Fowcairs to his name he hade. 
This lerrers was of so passing Mesure, 
And of so gret strengthe, I the Ensure, 
That non Man his gretnesse Cowde discrie, 
Ke his strengthe to haven In Memorie ; 
So that In this Roche, for certein, 
His habitacle he made ful pleyn ; 
That So with Verray strengthe & Myht, 
In that Roche his hows gan he dyht ; 
A large hostel for twenty Men, 
Thus he gan Areyened than ; 
But In that Roche lay not he, 
But In A galeye In the Se,-^ 
He, & hise felawes Also, — 
Yppon the Se felonie to do. 
And O^er whiles In Certein* 
Vppon that Roche they wolden ful plein, 
A ful gret feer wolden they make, 
Here pray there-with forto take ; 









' Et Bi li frema vns leres de mer qui estoit apieles fou- 
oaires. — A Frenoh * Lerre : m. A theefe.* — Cotgrave. 

* Et quant il faisoit la nuit bien oeour, si metoient sur la 
roohe .i. grant brandon du fu ardant — A. 



So tkit it semede to Ony Marckawnt 

That theke plas dide Owht hawnt. 

That Som Eeste;zg place it hadde be ; 

But here distroction it was, As je mown Se ; 80 

For A^ens that Eoch they hurtelid so sore, 

That Alle to-borsten weren they thore ; 

Thanne Owt of here galeyes gonr^ they go — 

These thevis that this falshed hadden do, — 84 

And tooken bothe fere Man & good 

Xhat persched was there In theke flood : 

And In this Manere distroied this lerren 

Mani A Marchau/^t & Mariners. 88 

Thanne be-fll A wondir Cas, 
That On, Grete Pompees, that Emperour was 
Of Eomeyns, As happed that day, 
Of Alle these Merreilles herde he say, 92 

As Owt of grece he seilede tho, 
Toward Cecyle he gan to go. 
And thus As he seillede Abowte, 
And took many Garisouns, bothe strong & stowte, 96 
That Abowtes be the Se stoode 
In Ony place be y salt Floode ; 
Thus Cam he toward babyloyne, 
And thidirward of this thef herde he seyne. 100 

Thanne seide this pompee with-Owten faille, 
' That theke strong theef je scholen asaille.' 
And thus to his peple gan he Seyn, 
" We scholen him Asayen In Certeyn." 104 

Anon there Eedily dide he dyhte 
A riht strong galeie, & Of gret Myhte, 
And put it ful of good vitaille, 
And Of goode knyhtes, that thef to AsaiUe. 108 

Anon whanne this was Eedely dyht. 
The Se he took Anon there Eiht. 
And fowrty goode knyhtes be^ ordcyned there, P Phe] 
And twenty grete grapelis of Erne ]>ere were, 112 

to tempt mer- 
chantman there. 

The ahlpe got 
daeht to piecee. 

thievee plauderd 

while the men 

Then Pompej, 
Emperor of the 

ealUng from 

towarda Babylon 

rteoWd to atlae'x 

So he fitted oat 
a good galley. 

took 40 knighU 
and 20 Iron 




and idld to tlM 



Their Cmvtaiii 
wouldn't go 
where the fire 

bat on another 

Then, a pirate 
galley attackt 

but Pompey'e 
•hip drove It 
back to the 

The Galeyes to the Schip^ forto holde, — 

Of yme weren Mad bothe strong & bolde ; — 

And thus they gonncn to seylen Anon 

As faste to the Boche as they myhte gon, 116 

Bothe be day & Eke be Kyht, 

Tyl of a hard roche they hadden a syght. 

And whanne the Eoche they gonne to Aspie, 
It to Apiochen they Seiled ful Nye ; 1 20 

And whanne faste by they ir eren gon, 
Heren Ancres thoy Gasten ^ere Anon, 
Forto Abyden there that Nyht, 
Til of the Eoche they myhte han better Syht. 124 
And whanne y Kyht was wel Apast, 
To- ward the Boche they Comen In hast ; 
As Ny As a man Mihte Gasten A ston, 
Thus Ny to the Boche Gonne they gon. 128 

And whanne these thevis gonnen Aspie, 
Bedeliche they Baped hem, & In hye. 
But y maister Mariner that was wit/f pompee, 
Of that Boch knew Al the Sotelte ; 1 32 

And fere Ah the feer the thevis gonne Make, 
That partie of the Boche wolde he not take, 
But be Anothir side they wente, 
fere As they fownden presente 1 36 

A strong galeye, that there lay 
Be-twene y Boch & hem, y sothe to say ; 
And they Gome72 with so gret A wille 
That there mani men gonnen to spille, 140 

And filJen down Into y Se, 
Of Men & good, ful gret plente. 

Thanne they that In y tojere galeyes were, 
Wenden the grete schipe hadde p^rsched ^ere ; 144 
So was there tho A ful hard stowr 
Botwene these Felowns and the Emperovr. 
And wanne they sien it gan so to go, 
Tho Enip^roMr to withstonde non power hadden tho, 


Be litel and litel they Gonne to gon, 
Til that y Koche thej Entred Anon: 

And whanne pompee gan this to Aspie, 
Fal lowde he gan hem to discryey 
And swoor that he wolde don his Miht, 
Of tho theves to ben Avenged Ariht. 
And whanne the thevis this Yndirstood, 
Non lengeie there they ne Abood, 
But to the heithe of the Boche Sekerlye, 
Ful faste these thevis gonnen hem hye ; 
And After hem xxx knyhtes goode^ 
That departed Owt of that floode ; 
So with-Owten, thritty there were, 
And with-Inne, xiz theves In fere ; 
For alle the Bemnaunt of peae theves tho 
Were/i slayn, And In-to the Se I-do. 

And whanne this Sawt began to gynne, 
These theves wrowhten A corsid gynne ; 
They Boiled down I that plas 
A qwarter Of a galeye ))at broken was, 
That hevy & boistous it was to be-holde ; 
And down it Cam vrith strengthe manifolde, 
And fil Anon down Into the Se, 
Where-with xL of Pompees knyhtes slow he, 
Where-offen pompee hadde so gret Care, 
Anon him Self to the Boche gau fare, 
And swoor ' that he hadde levere to dye. 
Bat avenged he Were there Otterlye, 
That there so falsly hadde slain his knyhtes 
At thike same tyme with here fyhtes.* 

Thanne On of his knythes there Anon, 
That say In what peryl that he wolde gon, 
And Conseilled him " forto Abyde 
Til it were more to the day tyde, 
And I schal 30W Certefien Everidel 
How On these theves to ben Avenged wel ; 


Pompoj Towa 
152 kiMPiratea. 


the top of th« 

19 ThleTM 
pnrsaad by SO 
160 Knights. 


The niieret 
rolld down 
168 ftquarter^jf 

172 •adklUdllor 



AnothMT Knight 

ndrto'd htm to 
pat off his attack. 



Thanne Bcholen 30 non men lese, 
Ne putten ^ovrre self Into non gret deseisse." 
Thanne Pompee Axede him Anon, 
In What Manere that it Mihte gon. 188 

** Sire, of this sawt 30 scholen A while reste ; 
I hope it schal be for 30ure beste." 
D p iM] But Evere they^ maden sorwe & wo, 

For hise goode knyhtes weren slayn so. 192 

He forto lesen so mani goode knihtes 
For A fewe theyes In tho fyhtes, 
Pompey wu Ful gret schame to him he thowhte it was, 

athain'd to loM 

•o manj knighu. His knyhtes SO to lesen In theke Gas. 196 

Next mominff And On the Morwe whanne it was day lyht, 
And Pompee of that Koch hadde A syht, 
So strong A thing say he neuere non 
As thike Roche that he loked vppon ; 200 

* And non wondir it hadde ben,* seide he Anon, 
' Thowgh his knyhtes hadde ben slayn Echon.' 
he eontoitad Thanne of his knyhtes he Axede Counsaille, 

hit Kntffhts. 

* 3if to that Roche they Cowden Owght Ayaille ; 204 

But non Of hem that was there 
Cowde him Counseillen In non Manere ; 
Thtj thooffht th« For they seiden to him Certeinle 

Plntw moat l» 

•tenrd oat But 3if be Enfamyne it* wolde not be.' 208 

[> MS In] Whanne ]>* kyng of hem hadde non Oper chere, 

He be-thowghte him In Another Manere, 

That hem he wolde distroyen Anon 

Be Angwisch Of fyr fere Eucrychon. 212 

ButPompcy Ano« A gret fere he let there dyhte 

Art lighted, Of Olde schepes And Galeyes, Jat brenden so bryhte, 

That At theke Roche persched hadde been, 

As all the peple there Myhte it seen ; 216 

to imoke the So that tlus feor there brende so longe tho, 

Pirates out of 

their cere. That Alle the smolder Into pat kaye gan go ; 

' Car il ne quidoient pas ke ele peost estre priae eaiui 
afamer. — A. 





For that feer to stawnchen hadden they non miht, 

But Euere this feer brende ful lyht. 220 

And they benethe gonne hem defende 

With Arwes & stones that they gonnen yp sende ; 

And they Aboven defensed hem thore 

With speris & cleyves wondirly Sore. 224 

And whanne this feer gan brennen so briht, 
The thevis tooken firesch water Anon riht — 
Where-Offen they hadden Som plente tho— 
And In-to that Feer they gonnen it do ; 228 

Thanne Alle the smoke & y flawme, I )>* plyht, 
Into that Cave wente there Anon Eyht, 
And they benethe schetten ful sore, 
And stones vp threw with Engynes thore, 232 

So that they slowen fowre of the felowns 
That hadden don sweche distroctiouns. 
And whanne these thevis Syen this, 
Ajen to y Cave Jey wenten wit^Owten Mys ; 236 
But fere weren they not wel at Ese, 
So £vel this Feer it dide hem plese. 
And whanne they seyen it Miht not be, 
Alle Anon Owt of that kave gonnen they fle, 
And wiiJi Alle here myht And strengthe ther 
Thoy purposed to stawnchen this feer. 
And thanne these knyhtes to hem Eomie, 
And there sore begeringe they begonne ; ^ 
And the Felowns hem defendid sore, 
As they that Maymed & Greved wore. 

And whanne this pompee gan this beholde, 
For deol his herte gan wexen ful Colde ; 248 

And to that Eooch he hentred Anon, 
To-ward y feer, As faste As he Cowde Gon. 
Anon A3en to the Cave they gonne^i to Eonne, 
For non lengere nolden they blynne ; 252 

' £t li cbiualer lor laiasent courre : si se oombatolent moult 
doreme&t a aus, — A, 

whilt hit 
■hot at tbtm. 

threw vater on 
the lira. 

This made the 
■moke in their 
OATe worse. 

Pompey** men 
thai elew fuor 

240 Thereat came 
oat of the Cave 
to pat tlie fire 


bat Pompey 

drore them 
back into it. 




Pompcy ttow ft 
more Tkievat. 

wouud«d liiiB. 

But h» tod hit 
Knitfhta drove 

the Thieves 
hock into |helr 

They eww 
Mlli'd oat» 

nnA Foweairt 
tried to thrust 
Pompey Into 
the Are. 

Ponp^ swoond. 

Fnwcairs's armi 

and he was taken 

And Pompe After hem tho sewede faste — 

For to hem hadde he ful gret haste — 

Where that ho of hem Slow there fyve ; 

Thanne leften there hut xiiii On lyve^ ; 256 

To wheche they benethen' schottei? ful sore, 

& Manie of hem horten thore. 

So that Pompe him-eelf hurt vrtth hem was 

In thre stedis In that Same plas. 260 

And whanne that this beheld Pompees knyghtes, 

That he was so regorous In fyhtes, 

Yppe to the Eoche they gonnen to wynne,' 

To sosteine here Lord A^ens hem with-Inne ; 264 

So that pompee fol Sore gan fyhte, 

And drof these Felouns Into the Care Anon Ryht, 

And putten hem AUe to Mischef, 

Thike lerrers, that Errawnt thef. 268 

And whanne this lerrers bethowhte him tho 
That they ziiij Of On Man dispised weren so, 
Owt they Comen Al On Ahrest ; 
And this lerrers On pompees Faste threst, 272 

And took pompees he bothe scholdres tho. 
There In that Fer him forto hauen do ; 
But he myhte not All}iig for his knyhtes, 
But down Fillen they bothe Anon Byhtes. 276 

But Pom|X)e there in Swowneng lay, 
And bothen Armes of lerrers borsten, in fay. 
Thanne they benethe Gonnen this beholde, 
And to here Lord Bonne Manifolde, 280 

And to the Schip they him gan here, 
And In a Cowche they leyden hem there. 

Thanne token they thys fals lerrers. 
And him kepte As A thef So fers. 284 

And AUe this whille fowghten the knyhtes 
Vppon the Boche, and slowgh down Byhtes. 

And In this mene whille Of fyhgteng, 

Awook Pompee Owt Of his swowneng, 288 

' So that 19 - 4 - 6 = 14 (!). ' 7 aboven. * HS wynee. 



Where-offen his Meyne ful glad they were, 

Whanne that he was Recouered there. 

Thanne Merreilled Pompe wondir sore 

How that In the Schipe he Cam thore ; 292 

Thanne his Meyne gan him to telle, 

In what Maner and how ))at he felle. 

Thanne this pompee vp Eos Anon, 
And Ajen to that Boche gan he to gon 
With a fnl good strong Spere In honde, 
Where-with he wrowhte J)* theves schonde 
And to that Cave he Entred Again, 
And there with-Inne he hath hem Sla3m, 300 

And there threw hem Into the Se, 
The Fysches Mete Al forto be. 

Thanne Cam he to the Schipe Again, 
Where-Offen his Meyne was ful fayn. 304 

Thanne Comanded he to taken this lerrers, 
That was a theef So strong and fers, 
To bersten bothe;» his thyes and Ek his bak, 
And Into the se Casten him with-Owten lak, 
Thus deliuered thanne Sire pompee 


That Eoche Of felowns, As I telle the. 

And to Eome seilled he streyht Agein, 
As I telle 30 w now for certein ; 312 

And from Eome to Jerusalem he wente, 
Where that he stablede his hors presente 
In the holy temple Of Owre lord. 

Thanne to him Cam seint Petir At On word, 316 
And seide to hym In this Manere : 
** Pompee, thow forsakest thi maneres here, 
And dost moche wers thanvie dide lerrers, — 
That was a felown bothe strong and fers, — 320 

Thy stable thus here forto Make 
The heyest hows, that for goddis Sake 
Was mad to don Inne hia Servise. 
Now thow fat hows gynwest to dispise, 324 

Pompey rerlrd 



296 w«iit ■gain to 
the Rock, 

and thrsw all tli« 
Pirat«M Into tti« 

Tlien he had 
Fonrcairs's thl;?ha 
and his back 

308 and his body east 
into the 

Pompey then 
•aild to Bouie ; 

and then 
to Jerusalem, 
where he stabld 
his horses in the 

St Peter 


for it, 

and said he was 

worse than 




Pompcy then 
bft Jwruaalein, 

and b«d0 hit 
men not talk 
ofhla vengeanoa 
on the Plraia 

Wherfore I may wel liknen the 

To Forcaus, that felown aire, perde," 

Thanne from Jerusalem ^ts pompe wente. 
And charged Al his Men wit goode Ente[nte]y 
* They scholden neuere Of this forcaus speke, 
In what maner On him he was A-wreke ; 
For to him hadde it hen gret yelonie, 
Yppon A thef to han set his hoi Navye ; ' 
For it was On of the grettest prowesse 
That Evere dide y Emperowr In Ony distresse. 





ilto, mltenbla, 
on hie Rook, 


Of Mordreins (Evalach) on "The Rock Perilous," and the 

woDden he saw there (p. 256). How Mordreins is in 

/ great sorrow (p. 257), and while he is weeping he sees a 

Nss^ilver ship approach, with a fair man on board (p. 257), 

/ who lands, and talks to him ; says he is a crafty man 

/ (p. 258) ; and his name is ' On. & Al. Only.* (p. 259). He 

comforts the King (p. 259) ; and tells him that God has 

not forgotten him, but will give him all he asks for (p. 

260). The ELing is so joyful that he is almost in a trance 

till the ship and the good man vanish (p. 261). Mordreins 

concludes that the man came from God (p. 261). He then 

sees another gorgeously coverd ship arrive (p. 262), from 

which a lovely woman lands (p. 262), who talks with him, 

and asks him to be lord of herself and her lands (p. 263), 

and tempts him to forsake his new faith, telling him of 

the danger Nasciens (Seraphe) is in (p. 264), and of the 

evils that will befal him — Mordreins — if he stops iu the 

island (p. 265). 

Kow Of this EmperoMr let we now he, 

And Ajen to this kyng now torne we, 

That into this Eoche Is now I-hrowht, 

And In what Maner ne Wot he nowht. 4 

And there sit he In pensifnesse & In deseise, 

& With him non thing J)at may him plese ; 

And faste Ahowtes ho loked him there, 

iVy and tea alone But heveno & the SO he ne sawh nowhere ; 

about htm. _ 

Ne non sustenance there ne was, 
But Al disolat In that same plas ; 



Also, dwelling was there non, 

But hydows & steme that Eocli of ston ; 12 

And On fat Eock was there non weye 

But A path that to y Cave wenten sothlye. 

Thanne loked he vppon the tothir side ; 

He ne sawh non Comfort In that tyde, 16 

But dirkenesse & hard Hoche there. 

Thanne set he him down wit/i hevy Chere, 

And be-gan to sighen fill sore, 

To wepen & wringen ^it wel more. 20 

Thanne Ano;) thowghte he In his herte — 

Whiche thowght him myhte not Asterte — 

That Owre lord him hadde forgeten Clene, 

That he there so Was browht In tene. 24 

And thus as he was In this momeng, 
The water Of his Eyen Cam renneng : 
Him thowghte ]>at the wawes of pe se, 
A wondirful Noise Maden hee ; 28 

And as he lokede tho him Abowte, 
He saw Come seilling A schipa wel stowte ; 
The wheche schipe was ful of Bowte, 
And A wondir fair Man there-Inne to be, 
That to-fom In the schipe him thowhte he was, 
Sitteng Al-gate In that same plas ; 
And toward that Roche he drow ful faste, 
Til that to the Hoche he Cam Atte laste. 36 

The schipe, Al Of Silver it was, 
The Naylles Of gold In that plas ; 
And In Middis Of that schipe was there 
A fair Crbis In that Manere. 40 

And whanne this schip to ]>* Eoche gan Aplye, 
Alle the swete savours him thowhte sekerly 
That Evere weren groweng In Oni plas. 
Him thowhte that In theke schipe tho was. 44 

And whanne the Crois he gan to Aspie, 
Anon In his herte he thowhte In hye, 

ORAAL. 17 

Than*! only one 
psih on tlM Book. 

Xordralna tight 

thinka Ood hat 
dran Corgotten 

Than he toot a 
btaatiAil thip, 

32 withamott 

oomt to the Bock. 

Anilil the thlp 
it a Croat. 


That non wikked thing ne myhte be 

In plas ]>ere the Cros was Certeinle. 48 

The fUr man wt of the schipe Cam this faire man tho. 
And the kjng A3ens him gan go : 

xordreint " SiTtf," he seidc, " wclcome 3e be 

PMf i9j Into this plase now Certeinle 1 '* 52 

And with that he knelid a-down, 
" Welcome Sire, hidir, Of Renown ! " 
Thanne Axede this fair Man Certeinle^ 
" Sire, Of what Contre now be 30 1 " 56 

Thanne Answerid the kjng, & seide tho, 
" A Cristen Man, Sire, I am here, lo." 
Thanne Axede him this goode man tho, 

* In what Maner he gan thedir to go.' 60 
Thanne Answerid the kyng Ageyn, 

" Sire, I wot Neuere now In Certein." 
■aduksbim Thanne the kins Axede him ful snelle, 

who h* la. ° ' 

Whens ]>at he was, he Wold him telle. 64 

Thanne Answerid the goodman him Agein, 
« A cniij Mas, ** Sire, A Crafty Man I am Certein, 

That nowher non swich Is, in non Centre, 

So sotel A man As 30 here now Se ; 68 

For sweche Craftes As I kan do, 

Of Alle men In Erthe konnen it no mo.'* 

Thanne Axede the kyng Of him there, 

* What Maner thinges tho Craftes were.' 72 
who can nukt He seide, " that wther fowl man Oper fowl wommai/. 

Into Crete bewte he cowde tome than ; 

fools, wiM} AJso A fool, A Wis man kan I Make ; 

poor, rich ; A pore Man, gret Hichesse to take ; 76 

And a low Man kan I Maken hye, 
I seie the. Sire, Certeinlie." 
" K'ow Certes, Sire," tho quod the kyng, 
" This may wel ben A Wondirful werkyng : 80 

Now, worthi Sire, And it 30wre plesing wolde be, 
jowie Name that 3e wolden tellen me." 





" Sire, Gladly, Er I hennes wil gon, 
My name to tellen the Anon, — 
* • On • & • Al • Only • * it is Mi Name, 
Sire, I the eeie wit^-owte» blame." 

Thanne quod' the king, "sire, Certeinly 
That is a Fair Name, and A ful hy. 
Sire," quod the king wit^ mylde vois, 
'* Me semeth, as be the signe Of y Crois 
That 3e haven In 30WT6 Compenie here. 
That to Jesus Crist Affiawnce je here." 
** That is soth," quod this good man tho, 
" For with-Owten him non goodnesse May be do ; 
And ho ))at the signe Of the Crois In his Compeni have. 
From Alle perilles he may ben Save. 96 

Therfore be war, I rede now to the, 
That what peple so Evere thou se, 
But 3if the signe of y Cros be hem Among, 
With hem thow talke, I Bede, not long.'* 100 

Ful Mochel spak this goodman tho 
To the kyng that In the Koche was I-do ; 
Sweche wordis Of Comfort to him he spak, 
That Alle his hevynesse he gan to forsak ; 1C4 

Kethir Of Mete ne drinke he ne thowhte ; 
In so mochel Joye this good man him browhte. 

Thanne Axede him the kyng tho, 
' In what Maner he scholde do, 108 

And whethir he scholde fere long Abyde, 
Owther thens to Gon with-ln schort tyde.' 
<< Ne seist thow," quod this good man Ageyn, 
" That thow belevest In God Certeyn 1" 112 

" 3e forsothe. Sire," quod the Kyng, 
** And that I do Ou^* Alle thing. 
Only & Al In him I beleve. 
Of wheche schal non man me Eepreve." 116 

'' Sethen thanne that thow dost so," 
Quod the good man A^en to him tho, 

34 *"<^ <°7 nam« 1« 
*' One and All 

Beware that yon 
talk to no folk 
who haven't the 
■Ign of the CroM 
among 'em. 

And asyta 
believe In God. 



be ran that 
He nrill not 
l\>i|^t > oa. 

Whoerer patt hit 

■hall h«Te 
pray* for. 

Let him not 

or hall lUl Into 

aa yon hare 

Bat chansfa 
your mood. 

aet your heart on 
tb« Trinity. 

" Ful Sekir thanne Mihtest pon be, 
That he ne wel Not Foi^eten the, 120 

Ke noD that In him hath Bemembraunce, 
In what degre he be, Other In what stawnae. 
In sekir, sere king, I telle it to. the, 
That God ne^ wil not forjeten the ; 124 

And therto, what thing ^t thow wilt Crave, 
Sekir to be, thow myht it have. 
Sire, tak thow al tliis for verite, 

Al that Euere now I haue told to the ; 128 

For who that In God doth putten his Creaunce, 
Him may not faille with-Owten variance, 
That he ne schal haue, At his nede. 
Of Alle thing that he wele him bede ; 132 

For man hath he In so gret Cherte, 
Of non thing so moche, I telle it the. 
Therefore man, On him to taken non thing I rede, 
But swich thing As God him bede ; 136 

And 3if A man In him Self to Moche thenke. 
And with distorbilons Maketh his herte to swenke. 
So myhte he fallen I[n] disperaunce ; 
Swich a thing myhte ben his Chaunce." 140 

" Now, good sire," quod the King tho, 
** May I thanne Only to God trosten vnto, 
Of alle thing that me nedith to have. 
Other what thing that I wele krave ; 144 

And that God wele thenken On Me, 
Trowe je, sere, that this wil be 1 " 
" A, sire," quod this goode man tho, 
" Lo, now In disperaunce J)ou Art I-do, 148 

That thenkest & seist As thow dost here, 
In-to A fowl disperawnce pon fallest there. 
Therefore I rede the, Ouer Alle thing, 
That Into bett^e Conseille )>in herte fou bring, 152 
And Oner Alle thing I rede the, 
Thin mynde thou sette vppon y Trenite ; 



And have Minde how Salamon the kyng 

To his Sone Evere ^af teching, 156 

* That Evere God to worschepe scholde he, 

In what maner place that so Evere he be : 

Thanne dar the dredyn Of non thing : ' 

Thus 3af Sampson to his son lerneng." 160 

In the mene whille that this good Man 
Of the Schip? to the kyng Spak than^ 
The kyng so loyful Of his worrdis was, 
As he hem 'herkenid In that plas, 164 

So that he fyl In a gret stodye tho. 
And Merveilled how this thing myhte go. 
And whethir It were In A dremenge, 
Owther where that he was slepinge. 168 

And thus A long tyme he him thowhte 
In what maner that he thedir was browhte, 
Of wheche he Cowde knowen non Certeinte 
Of this Mater 3it In non manere degre. • 172 

And whanne Owt of this thowht he gan to gon, 
To his kende Memorie he Cam Anon, 
And abowtes him he lokede wel faste, 
But he ne Cowde weten how he Awey paste, 176 

For Kethir Of Schipe ne Man he Say, 
Whech that to him Aperid that day. 

And whanne bothe Schipe & man was Agon, 
Into A gret Momeng he fyl Anon ; 180 

But In his herte he thowghte ful Certeinlye 
That thike man From God kam An hye ; 
For he wiste wel be the Signe of the Crois 
That it was Only be goddis voys ; 184 

For And he hadde been A dedly man, 
He Cowde not han Spoken As he dide than. 
And Also he wiste Ful Sekerly, 

He Cowde not han gon Awey so previly 188 

jyf Erthlich Man he hadde I-ben, 
Other wise he scholde han him seen ; 

Solomon'e words, 

'•Worship God 

end yoQ need 
liMtr nothing."' 

Mordreini li so 
r^olct that he 
fklle into K browD 

And when be 
wakes up, 

he can't tell how 
the Ctood Man haa 
pasat away. 

But he thinks 
the Man oame 

and waa not 



Bblp oomlnff to 
hit Bock, 

njiQj Adornd, 

bot no oiM 
abla on board. 

Howorar, whan 

woman on faat 

and graett 

"Wherfore his herte was moche the more 
On god In Al his werkis thore. 

Ful longe In this thowght y kyng Abod ; 
Other whiles he sat, & Ofer whiles he stood. 
He gan to loken vppon the lefte partye. 
And thus Sone he gan to Aspie, 
He Sawh where Cam a schip Anon 
Toward the Eoche Forto gon ; 
That Schip6 was wondirly fair^ A-dyht^ 
As him thowhte to his Syht ; 
And per nas non thing Ahowte, 
Bat Kialy keuered with-Inne & wtt^Owte ; 
Into the harde wawes Of the Se 
That Schip^ was keuered ful Certeinle ; 
But nethir Man ne womTTian Co^de he se, 
That Schip to Goveme In non degre. 
And At the Eoche it Ary ved Anon 
Also swithe as it Myhte gon. 

And whanne the king gan tliis beholde, 
He merueilled per-oSen Mani folde, 
What thike Schipe ^liht signefie. 
That to the Eoche so faste gan hie, 
And what maner of thing it sowhte there. 
That thedir Cam In swich Manere ; 
And Evere this Schipe he beheld there, 
And of the Aray Alle the manere. 

Thanne sawh he there isswen Anon 
The fairest womman that of feet myht gon : 
Thanne the kyng Abaisched he was 
Of thike MerveiUe In that plas ; 
Keucrtheles jit he seide, " Welcome je be. 
Faire womwian, Into this Contre." 
Thanne Answerid sche Agein, 
" And je ben welcome, Sire, Certein, 
As man that I most desire to se 
Of Alle men levenge, I telle it the. 












Eualach," seide this lady the, 

" Al my lyve ^it hider-to, 228 

So gret lust I haue to spoken vrith the. 

And now Am I glad I may the se ; 

And now thow Art in this plase here, 

With the to speken I schal haue leysere ; 232 

I schal the lede, and thow wilt gon with me. 

Into y fairest place that euer man May so." 

" Now Certes, dame/' quod the kyng, 

'* I m^rveille me mochel Of myn hider Comeng, 236 

For I not ho that hedir me browhte, 

Ke nethir sen him neuere I ne mowhte, 

Ne neuere hennes ne wil I go, 

That til Ajen lie me wil Comon to, 240 

That me In to this place browhte ; 

Oyer wise cam It not In to My thowhte." 

" Be my trowthe, sire," quod sche thanne, 

" 3it spekist thow As A trewe Manne, 244 

For I tlie browhte Into this plase, 

To speken with the, for I wolde han space ; 

And be me hens schalt thow go, 

And be non Other, troste wel tlierto. 248 

And jif thow wilt not forsaken my Compenye, 

I schal the bringen to hygh seigno;<rie. 

And maken the Lord Ouer Al my lond, 

Which that I holde In Min honde." 252 

" Dame," quod the Kyng to hire Agayn, 
" Of this wolde I wetew ful fayn, 
What myht je han forto do 

Az now 36 sein me Tnto." 256 

" Be my feith," quod sche, " Sire," Again, 
" Of that power I Am Certein, 
To beren A body where ]>at my liking Is, 
And thens him to fetten w/tA-Owten Mis." 260 

" Dame, I vndirstond thy talkyng ; 
But a man of a more wondirful werkyng 

The Fair Womiin 

to take Mordrriiw 
away with bar. 

Sh« nja the 

brought him to 
the Bock to talk 

and if hem 
hold to her, 
■he'll bring him 
to honour. 

body where she 



[1 MS quod 
Mordniiu ts ft 
fool 10 tea 

In pMot white 
h* U on«. 

d«ns«roatlj UL 

Hljt know* It 
M w*U M thai 
Mordnlns was 
from him. 

Mordrolni ntarly 
&1U into daapair. 

Have I herd Sein Certein there is. 

That kan don moche more than this, 264 

For he kan Maken of Fowle men faire ; 

Of Folis, wise men & debonaire ; 

And Pore Men, to ben Eiche In £ch degre : 

This Man A Maister, me thinketh, is he ; 268 

And this May non Man don, Certeinle, 

But jif ])• signe of J)* holy Cros with him be." 

'* A 1 Eoalach," quod^ this womTTian thanne, 

" Thow Art A fool, & non wis Manne ! 272 

Thow Art desceiued In thy beleve ; 

And that Anon I wele the preve. 

For As longe As thou boldest this Creaunce 

Of wheche thow hast Mad variawnce, 276 

In pes ne Reste Schat thow neuere be 

WMIes that beleve Is In the ; 

For thou knowest not ^it the Endyng 

Of thi Sorewe, nether the begynneng ; 280 

For thi Brothir, Sire Seraphe, 

In thi paleis lith in ful hard degre, 

That it Asckapen neiif>re schal he, 

But jif it the more wondir be." 284 

" A ! dame," quod the kyng Anon, 

" How mown je knowen swich thing be don ] " 

" For," quod sche, " I knowe this As wel 

As thi selven Everidel, 288 

How thow were left Owt of thi bed, # 

& he A-bod stille In that sted." 

Thanne the kyng Abasched him sore 
For )>• wordes he herde thore, 292 

And was Aferd lest his brother scholde die, 
For tokenis that sche seide so Certeinlye. 
Thanne King Eualach Anon with-Alle 
Nygh In wanhopo hadde I-fallo, 296 

And wende that God had him forgoto. 
So this womman Made him tho dote. 


Thanne seide this womTnan to him tho : 
" Eoalachy and thow my wille wilt do, 
I schal the setten A3en In-to thi lend, 
And Al waLthes bringen Into thin hond. 
For wete thow, Eualach, In Certein, 
Owt of this plase gost pon not heyn, 
But jif it be Onlich by me, 
Owt of this plase schalt pou neuere fle ; 
And here schalt thow Enfamyned be. 
And many mo wondiis ^it schalt pou se ; 
For 3if thow longe here Abyde, 
Thy wittes schalt pan lesen pia tyde. 
And ^if that thon wilt gon with me, 
A gret lord schal I Maken the j 
And ^if thow wilt hew lengere dwelle, 
Thow schalt be lost, bothe flesch & felle." 

300 Th« Fair WoBum 
offan Vordniai 
•aft ntnrn hooM 
and wealth. 







Still of the wonders King Mordreins (or Evalaoh) saw on the 
Rock Perilous (p. 266-276). How he asks the Fair Woman 
oat of the ship, where he is, and how far off from his land 
(p. 266) ; hut he will not go with her ; and how she sails 
away. How he sees a great tempest rise (p. 267) ; and 
how he thinks over the woman's prophecy of his misery, 
and over his former greatness (p. 268). How he looks 
ahout for a place to sleep in, and finds the Cave ; but, on 
trying to enter it, is struck down (p. 268). How he sees 
a great tempest ; and then a great darkness comes, and he 
lies all night in a swoon. In the morning he is awoke by 
the rays of the sun ; he makes the sign of the cross (p. 
269), recovers his senses, and prays to God. He then sees 
again the first ship (p. 270) ; and the Good Man lands 
from it, greets him, and preaches to him about his want 
of faith (p. 271) ; of how God helps his servants (p. 271- 
272) ; of Uie difference between the flesh and the spirit (p. 
27.3) ; and of the members of the soul (p. 274). Mordreins 

• then asks him about the Fair Woman (p. 275) ; and he 
aiys that she strove to become lord over him, and so he 
cast her out of his house, for which she tries to enrage him 
by evil doing (p. 275). [The fall of Lucifor.] The good 
man exhorts Mordreins to hold to Uis Saviour, and then 
no good thing shall be wanting to him (p. 276). 



dottbta wImUmt. 
with th« Fair 


whan Im la. 

off jonr kingdom. 

And lalon* 
can Uk* 700 

Thanne sat this kyng in gret stodying, 
And tbowhte what to don of al this thing ; 
Whethir with that lady he scholde go, 
That Bche seide so wel him louede tho, 
And therto so ful of Sapiense, 
Lyk As sche wede In his presense.^ 

Thanne Eualach Clepid this worn man tho, 
And Axede hire ' jif sche Cowde Owht do 
To tellen him In what plase pat he were ; 
And how fer from his londis there.' 
'' }e/' quod this womman tho Anon Eiht, 
" Al this schal I the tellen Astyht. 
Of port peryl this Eoche bereth the name, 
A perilows Eoch, And Of gret Fame ; 
And Owt of thy kyngdom Art thow here 
xyii. dayes lomees, Al In fere ; 
For A gret lome for A schipd it were, 
In a Monthe & .ix. dayes from thens to ben here. 
So that there schalt thow neue^'e haue dwellynge 






Do my bidding, 
and ru bring 
yovL to a 
deiightftd place." 

But ^if so be that I thedyr y bringe." 

Thanne Abasched was he mochel more 

Thanne he was Ony tym be-fore, 

That he was so fer from his kingdom 

I-browht In-to A straunge Eegiown : 

Thanne In gret thowht sat this kyng, 

And ])ere made mochel Momeng. 

Thanne seide this womTTian to him tho, 

" Sire Eualach, wherto thenken ^e so 9 

jif je wilen don Aftir My biddinge. 

Into a ful delitable plaso I schal the bringe ; 

And jif thow wilt not don as I the seye, 

Many wondir happes schalt f ou han In feye ; 

And so Manie Combrawnces scholen Comen to y, 

That with-Inne ful schort tyme schalt pon se, 

' et qui de si grant sapienche estoit plain e, ke ele li disoit 
chou qui li estoit auenu, et chou qui 11 deuoit enohore 
auenir. — A ? wede, L 6, /or semede cr ^ede. 




So fat pou wost ben hid in y most Ca3rtifes plase 
That Evere On Erthe ^it Mad wase." 36 

Thanne the kjng Abasched him sore, 
That to hire wordis mihte he speke no more. 
And whanne sche saj pat it wolde not be, 
That Answere mihte non (jetten sche, 40 

Sche torned hire Schipa, and Gan to go 
Streyht A^en Into the highe se tho. 
Thanne Anon the king Cast yp his bed. 
And saw where sche seiUede In that sted 44 

Per Amjddis the grete throwe;ige se, 
Where that grete Merveilles Anon say he ; — 
The grettest tempest him thowte was there^ 
And tbe Moste wondirful that was o-where ; 48 

So that him thowghte pat Al the Se 
Oner Al the world schold ban be ; 
And In Middis Of that tempest, 
There was the Schipe Althermest. 52 

Thns Sone there Cam A wyndes blast, 
And that Schipe there Oner Cast. 
And As the kyng On p* Eoch there sat. 
With his Eyen he beheld Al that, 56 

And wondred mochel In his thowht 
What schipe it was that the womman browht. 

Thanne this kyng bethowhte him tho, 
That Of him self it was Evel I-do 60 

That he ne hadde Enqwered what sche hadde be, 
& what hire Name was, & Of what Centre ; 
For he here supposed neuere to se, 
Therfore here Name haven knowen wolde he. 64 

Thanne of hire wordes sore he thowghte. 
How that In Eeste he scholde be nowhte 
As long as he held that Creaunse ; 
Ful Often he thowghte vppon this ChauTMje ; 68 

And For sorwe of this tydinge 
He ne wiste to don non thing. 

Mordrefns won't 
Aiuwer th« Fair 
Woioan't ft^pMb. 


A terrlfle tomptst 


•ad apMts Iinr 


thlnkf oyer 
her words, 
that aa long as 
he's a Chriatlan, 
ha'U nevar be in 


Mordreln* thinks 
OT*r hia fonatr 

•ad hU ■oflMnffi 

■IBM Im'i bMD 


th« GftTt on 

Thanne gan he to Bemembren him Anon 

How worthily he was wont to Gon, 72 

Of his Richesse, & Of his honoure, 

And On his lordschepis In that stownr ; 

And sethen he thowhte thanne A)en 

In what p^rsecucioun he hadde ben 76 

Sethen Cristen Man that he was, 

What he hadde Su£fred In dinars plas ; 

And thus In disperawnce he gan to falls 

Tyl A^ens the Niht Sore wtU Alle. 80 

Thanne he bethowhte him Anon, 
How that On J wyse he mjhte don ; 
For the Roche was A wastable plase, 
And non Resteng ther6-Inne Nas. 84 

Thanne fond the king the grees there riht , 

That to thike Cave wente ful streiht, 
Whiche was bothe fid dirk & blak, 
& hidows On to looken wit^ many A lak ; 88 

For long tyme was it past be-fore 
That Evere Ony levyng man was thore. 
And to hym self he gan to seye, 
" Sekerly, with-Owten wile I not lye, 92 

But entren I wiele Into this Cave, 
There-Inne Min herberwe forto have." 
And the ferste foot that with-Inne he sette. 
Plat to the Grownd he was smette ; 96 

For bim thowhte that On with two hondis him took, 
And Evene to therthe there him schook. 
And thus lay the king In swowneng In ])ts Manere 
Thorwgh the Fal that hq hadde there. 100 

WhmiiereviTM And whanue of his swowneng he A-wook, 

Vppon the Entre Of the Cave he gan to look ; 

And thus As he In this thowht gan dwelle, 

A wondirful tempest there befelle, 104 

That bim thowghte the wawes of p* se 

Into the hevene wolden fle, 

and ftt th« first 
•t«p It smitton 
to the ground. 

wh«rt b« Um 

hi MM a wonder- 
fill t«mpwtp 


And Al to-berste botlie lond & ston : 

Thus him thowghte therd Hjht Anon. 108 

Thanne Cam there so grete A dirknesse «nd th«n a tuek 

That browhte him in moche distresse, 
That him self he ne mjhte not se 
No more thanTte In A pit he hadde I-be. 112 

And whanne Of alle thinge he hadde lost ])* siht, 
And ])at non thing he sen ne myht, 

More Abasched thanne he tho was, h« ii tmiUy 

Was neu6re Man 3it In non plas ; 116 

But Aftir this gret drede Anon, 
Good Comfort to him was sent ful son. 
And whanne In this dirknesse he hadde longe be, 
And for drede lost bothe wit & Memore, 120 

He ne wiste for drede what to do, 
And In this thowht longe Abod he so. 

And al the n jht lay this kyng •^ nigbt. 

As In Maner he hadde ben In Sowneng, 124 

That from him Self he was ful Clene, 
For On him non Otherwise ne was it sene. 

And whanne that it was goddis wille. Bat in um 

morning Um 

The Clemesse Of day there to folfille, 128 nm-bMnu 

And the hemes of the sonne Bryht 

Into^ Alle the Erthe it schon ful lyht, 

The kyng that vppon the Grees lay 

To-fore the Cave dore, As I the Say, 132 

Vppon his Face the sonne fere schon, 

Where-with he A-wook Eyht Anon, w«k« bim. 

And his £yen Open he gan to Caste, 

And Abowtes him he loked ful faste ; 136 

And whanne that the Se he loked vppon. 

And Ek the Boch that he lay There on, 

He lefbe yp« his Biht hond An hy, 

And the Signe of the Crois made devoutly. 140 andhemakM 

Thanne Cam he to his Mynde Agein cnm. 

As he to-fom was Al In Certein, 

> MS into to. 


And kneling, to God made his preycie 
In this Maner As 30 scholen here : 144 

Thin Mordraiiit " O thow Bwete lord God Almyhty, 

ynj9 to Ood 

That Comfort And Ese dost to Alle Soiy, 
And me hast deliuered of Manie gret distresse, 
Of Man! Ayentures, & Of Mani hereynesse ; 1 48 

And Of Mani hevynesses which ^ weren Comenge, 
Thow me deliueredest, thow Glorious kynge ! 
O goode lord god, I am thi Creature 
To whom thow hast ben ful deboneure, 152 

And to me hast Schewed gret Mercy, 
To Me, lord, that ne Am no thing worthi ; 
And my Sowle to helle Scholde han went, 
Ne hadde ben thy M^rcy, God lord Omnipotent ; 156 
And thy Mercy from helle it gan to withdrawe, 
And browhtest it Into the Cristene lawe ; 
tokMpand So, goodc lord, me kepe & defende, 

dftfeud him flram 

th« temptotioDB And "Enere thy Grace that thow me Sende ; 160 

And that the devel ne tempte not me, 
Whom I haue forsaken, & Only taken me to the ; 
Whose werkis & him I have forsake, 
And to thy mercy Onlich, lord, I me betake." 164 

Whanne he thus his preyere hadde I-do, 
Ful faste Abowte him loked he tho. 


HtMwtbt Owt Of the Est he Saw Comen thore 


■hip coming The fair Schip that he say ])* day before, 168 

Where-Inne that was the goode man 
That of so mochel goodnesse to him spak than. 
And whanne he Saw that it was he, 
Ful glad and blithe he gan forto be, 172 

And alle his Sorewes for3at he thanne, 
For Joye to speken with this good Manne. 
Thanne ful faste he gan to One 
Of AUe his trespas there to god Mercye. 176 

totiM Book. And whanne he Say the Schipe to the Boche gon, 
Evere to the foot of the Boch he Cam Anon, 

■ MS we. 



And Into that Schipe he lokede there. 

And Say there-Inne thinges of diuers Manure, 180 

Bothe Eichesse, Jowelles, & vitaille Also, 

That to Ony lyveng Man belonged to. 

And whanne the Same good man he Say, 
That to him hadde spoken the form^re day, 184 

And seide, '' Sira, Hyht welcome je be 
Into this Roche ful Certeinle ! " 
Thanne this goodman Owt of )>* schipe wente 
Yp to the Roche tho, veramente, 188 

And Axed the kyng how he dide fare 
Sithen y tyme that he was thare. 
" Forsothe, sire," quod the king tho, 
*' I "Was neu^e so f\il of Sorwe & "Wo 192 

As that, Goode sire, I have I-be, 
Sethen the tyme ^e partid from me." 

Thanne gan he him forto telle 
What Ayentures that him befelle, 
And Of that Fairre womnians Comeng, 
And of mani Anothir Aventures thing. 
Thanne Answerid him tho this good Man 
With a smyleng Chere Anon than : 200 

" thow Man ful litel of beleve, 
Ful litel thing May the Greve. 
And thou stedfast In beleve wost be, 
]>er nys non thing that myhte Greven the ; 204 

For And thow wost thenken on hem fat the bowht, 
Troste thow wel, he forgeteth the nowht ; 
And jif thow Attenden wilt to his Sendse, 
He nele the forgeten In noi?- wise ; 208 

As dauid seith In the Sawter book — 
Hos wele there aftir there-Inne look — 
' Owre lord is Redy In AUe wise 
To hem that hym Clepen In his Servise.' 212 

In this loke thow have stedfast Creaunce, 
And thanne schalt thow, with-Owten variaunce, 

wtlcomw Um 

and tollt him of 

196 and adventoTM. 

Th« Good Man 
rapTOTw Mm for 

aiid bids him 



[Have al] where yppon thin herte wil thenke, 

Redy to the, whethir pou. wake Oper wynke. 216 

Th» Good Mfto And thowgh A whille that here thow he 

that God wui Here In preson. As thow Miht Se, 

Uk* him from ^ ' 

tb« Rock. Ahasche the not for thy heyng ; 

Ful wel hens he wyl the hringe, 220 

And qwiten the A hundred fold More 

Thanne for him dist thow Owht fore ; 

And more Gwerdoun schalt thow have 

Thanne Evere thin herte kan thenken o]^er krare, 224 

As witnesseth david the prophete, 

Where As he Seith these wordes swete, 
God looMt thoM ' Grod vnhindeth that is I-hownde, 

thai art bound. 

Ss of here peynes hem loseth In a stownde ; 228 

For God, the hurte men he keuereth sone, 

And ])* wikked to goodnesse tometh Anone, 

Our* God, y Ryhtwos loveth Ryht Wel, 

The Orphanees he gouemeth £ch del.' 232 

« This Owhtest thow to have In knowenge, 
And holych In thy sperit Rememhringe : 
lAnd thow In thyn herte that pou Synne, 
It Cometh on of him self More ne mynne, 236 

But On Of thy flesches &elte ; 
Here-offen Sekyr Myhtest pon be ; 
For the Flesch, dedlich it is, 

not from tb« And 80 thin herte sekerly It NIb ; 240 

whidiiiipiritittL For thin herte, it Ib speritwel, 

1 — ■ Et nepourquant, se 11 auient auoune fie que 11 cuera 
peohe, pour ohou ne dois tu mie quidier que che soit de la care 
de lui. Mais che 11 aaient par la grant fragilitei de la char 
dont 11 est oargies. Car la cliar est morteua, si ne puet naturel- 
ment a nule chose penser qal ne soit morteus. Mais 11 cuera 
est eeperiteus ; si doit as esperiteus choses entendre. Mais or 
dels donques sauoir ke est 11 cuers, pour che ke ie te fai en- 
tendant ke 11 est esperiteus. Li cuers n*est nule autre chose ke 
la conniflsanche de bien et de mal. Et pour chou ke 11 est con- 
nissans de Tun et de Tautre, pour chou doit 11 estre apieles * la 
Teuo de Tame.* «Ensi rent 11 tres haus rois ' la veue du cuer ^ a 
cheus qui es morteus choses sont awles, quant U roelent re- 
querre sa medicine et son consel. — A. 

Sta flonts from 


And speritwel thing to don Ech del ; 

For thine herte is thing of speritwelte 

The goode fvom Evel to knowew, I telle the. 244 

And this is Only hise Mesteere, 

f «rfore * the Sihte of y sowle' he is cleped there ; 

Thus sendeth the goode lord Above, 

' Sihte of sowle' to hem that him love, 248 

That dedlj thinges wile forsake, 

& Only to his Conseil hem take ;^ 

Ful seker of welthe mown they be. 

And Owt of al Maner Ada^site ; 262 

For thos witnesseth the profecie 

Of holy prophetis that don not lye.^ 

[It is ful trewe] with-owten lesing, 

[He that] In Synne is dwellyng, 256 

In ful strong preson he is I-Caste 

Whiles that he In Synne doth laste, 

For thanne he is bownden In strong peine 

With the develis CombrauTss, in Certeine. 260 

And 3if Owt Of preson he wil ben vnbownde, 

To the welle of Cownseil he moste In a stownde, 

The wheche is openly now Confessiown, 

That is to the devel Eiht fowl Confuciown ; 264 

Anon Of presown he is vnbownde 

Thorwgh Confesciown that ilke stownde ; 

Thanne the develis Cownseil forsaketh he^ 

And alle y werkes that to him longen to be. 268 

'* And In this Manere wele oure Saviour 
His Servauntes bringen owt of dolowr, 
And Owt of presown thus hem bringe 
That to-fore the devel hadde In Chalenginge ; 272 
And thus the Brosed, hoi doth he Make, 
That Ony thing wele don for his sake. 
For Manie Men In this world ^ there be. 
That Maymed In here Membres ben Sekerle, 276 

'The Sight of 

Oaf 21} 

Th« Sinner i> 

bound with the 
DerU't hln- 

Oonftedon alone 
oan anbind him. 

By Gonfenion, 
Christ bring* Hia 
aervanta oat of 

* End of a Chapter in the English MS. 
OBAAL. 18 

' MS wolrd 


And 80 harde here MemLres ben hurt Echon, 
8inn«nbATt That On non mo wen they Gon ; 

And sweche Men forsothe they be, 
loittiMiiiniMor That the Membrea of the sowle ban lost Sikerle, 280 

And ]>e Swetnesse of )>* herte Tvith-<trawe 

Be worldly lustes they they ban hem slawe ; 

But Otherwise scholden they do, 

As I schal the seye, now herkene me to, 284 

What the swetnesse of the sowle it is, 

Ful delitable thing, & ful Of blis. 
The Limbt of " The membrcs of the sowle these bene : ^ 

•wMtneo^ Swetnesse of herte Is On ful schene, 288 

niigion. Good Bellgiows, with pyte, 

i«frcicnc«^ Lowliche reu<?rence to God, & dirinite^ 

tunooenot, mercy. Innocense, & ful therto of Me/'cye : 

These ben the Membres of y sawle sekerlye ; 292 

For the sowle, sosteined here-bi et is. 

^* And what sowle that of these Membres don Mis, 

It may not wel Governed thanne be, 
TbeM STB th« For thoss ben the hondes & feet sekerle 296 

hand* snd feet _, rMtii -r^* 

ofDMn'stottU. That to Mannes Sowle belongen Echon, 
And elles May it nethir Meven ne gon ; 
For Anon As the sowle \>ese membres hath gete, 
Thanne to the body it is dressed ful swete ; 300 

Ful wel is that body At Heste Ss £se 
That vrith the membres of y sowle can him plese. 

C*?B6dnMiih] Lo thus Redesteth* God of hevene* 

Hem that him loven woth Milde stevene." 304 

That the Good Sweche wordis, & Other Mo, 

Mordreine! The goode Man of y schipe the kyng spak vnto, 

And Comforted the king moche In this Manefe 
With tho wordes pal he to him Spak there. 308 

* Che Bont lea boines tekes del cuer. Si comme relegiond, 
piteSf reuerenche, concorde, lonocense, xniBericorde. — A. 

' Eds! redreohe li tous poissanss et garist, chtaus qui par 
rordure de lor cors sont contrait et mehaignie en ame. — ^A. 


Thanne tlie kyng this good man gan to re&einey^ 
And Axede liim of that faira womman Certaine, 
That with him was the formere day, 
And with hire him wolde han had Away. 312 

Anon the goode man him Answerid thanne : 
** Ful wel know I that ilke wommanne 
That to the Semede so fair and Eiche, 
And In alle the world the thowhte non swich; 316 
3it, whanne sche was In Myn howshcdd, 
Fairere sche was be an hundred fold, 
And bettere At £se, thanne sche now Is, 
And moche more In wel the, wit^-Owten mis. 320 

And whanne sche An-hawnsed so was 
In that ilke delitable plas, 
And whanne M3m hows thns was I-Mad, 
And sche alle delicasies there-Inne sche had, 324 

Ano» In herte took sche gret pryd 
So ful of welthe sche was that tydi 
And Anon thowhte that sche lady wolde han be, 
As I was Lord In myn Owne Sovereinte, 328 

And that of hire I scholde haven non powste, 
But heyere than I sche thowhte fer to be ; 
For so mochel bewte was hire tho vppon, 
That Erthly man was there neuere non 332 

That Into hire face myght haven a siht ; 
So fair sche was, so Cler, & so briht. 

" And whanne that I knew Al hire thowht — 
As that from me is hid ryht nowht — 336 

And that to me sche thowhte swiche felonye, 
That in thike plase non lengere myht I hire drye ; 
But threw hire owt of myn hows Anon, 
Into A wers plase that sche scholde gon, 340 

Where that non thing so wel At £se 
Sche ne Is not, ne neiper that doth bird plese, 
"Ne so gret bewte hath sche now non 
As that tyme was hire vppon. 344 

' £t 11 rois 11 demanda. — A E. E.freyne, aek. 

TIm Good Man 
telU Mordieiai 

that the Fair 


was onoa in his 


and 100 timsa 

fkirerthau shs 


Bnt she waxt 


and wantsd (o b« 
hl^est— ' 

hsr beanty that 
no mortal eoald 
look at htr— 

and ro the Good 
Han threw her 
out of Mh house 
into a worse 



81iM» then, 
•h«'t ■triTan to 

drains to do bar 
wiekad wlU on 

" And from that tyme ^it hidirto, 
Alle hue Miht and power hath sche do, 
Me to wraththen what ache May ; 
The wheche is hire labour bothe i Njht & day. 348 
And for that sche sawh that I Cam to the. 
The to visite & Comforte In this degre, 
It was the Cawse Of hire Comenge, 
Owt of this plase the forto brenge, 352 

And AI hire wyl thanne to fulfille, — 
Thus ful of wikkednesse sche is, & ille, — 
And to don the forsaken thi Creatour 
That the Supported & holpen In Mani a stowr. 356 
Therfore As longe As to thi Saviour thow kepist ]>% 
And from him ne Flechest in non Manere degre, 
There ne schal non Manere thing the faille 
That to thi body Or Sowle May Availle, 360 

That to the it schal Anon I-grawntid be 
Ful Sokerley, Sere, As I tellet the." 


Still of Mordreins (Evalach) on the Rock Perilous, and his 
Temptations there (p. 277-298). How the Good Man 
comforts him, and asks him if he is hungry ; then takes 
him to the ship (p. 277), and offers him delicious meats^ 
the sight of which so satisfies him that his hunger goes 
(p. 278). He desires to know about Nasciens, and the 
Vision of the Streams [Chap. XVIII. p. 231] that he saw 
(p. 279) ; but the Good Man will not tell him yet» and 
exhorts him not to fear any marvels that he may see (p. 
280) ; and tells him how to know good counsel from bad 
(p. 281). Mordreins asks how long he is to stop on the 
rock ; and is told, * till the devil takes him off by the left 
hand ' (p. 282). He is distresst at hearing this, and the 
Good Man disappears (p. 282). Mordreins sees the Fair 
Woman's ship coming, and prays to God for grace to resist 
her (p. 283). She tempts him by telling him that his 
Brother-in-law and Queen are dead (p. 284), and by offer- 
ing him the precious stones, etc. in her ship (p. 285) ; but 
he will not yield to her, and will not answer to his devil- 
name Evninch (p. 286). She reproaches him, but in vuin, 
and then departs (p. 286). A great tempest rages (p. 


286) ; a wonderful noise is heard, and a clap of thnnder 
which knocks off the top of the rock (p. 287). Mordreins 
prays to Qod to comfort him. He gets wonderfully sleepy 
and hungry (p. 288), and sees a black loaf, which he takes 
hold of, and is trying to eat, when a marvellous bird swoops 
down on him (p. 289), and knocks it out of his hand 
(p. 293). — The description of this bird Scipilions, or the 
Phoenix, a type of Christ (p. 289-293).— The king swoons, 
and the bird hits him with its right wing, and then flies 
away (p. 293). The king reeovers, and thanks Qod (p. 
294). The Good Man and the Tempting Woman come 
to him daily, and the Good Man comforts him (p. 295). 
He sees another ship, sailorless ; a great tempest rages 
(p. 296) ; then fierce heat comes ; but he will not leave 
the rock (p. 297). The weather clears, and he ponders 
over his adventures (p. 298). 

Thus In tills Man67'e spak this good Manne 

Ful long witli the king In y Eoche thanne, 

And with so Manie wordes swete 

Thus tawhte him the develes lore to lete. 4 

And the kjng Alle his talcs wel Abod, 

& ful wel hem likede, & stille he stod, 

For so Wel him liked his Talkyng, 

That it was ful loyful to the kyng. 8 

Thanne this Goodman took him he the hond. 
And be his Name him Cleped, I vndirstond, 
That he took be his Crestenenge, 
Sira Mordreins, that was ferst Eualach y kynge. 12 

Thanne Axede this goode Man there Anon, 

* 3if he hadde Ony honger him vppon.' 
Thanne the kyng Answerid Anon there 

With faire wordes In this Manere, 16 

* That 3if In lus Compenie he wolde Abyde, 
And not from him gon At that tyde, 

Al his hevynesse he Scholde Forgete, 

And bothe hunger & thurst scholde he lete.' 20 

Anon be the hond he gan him lede 
Down to the Schipe In that stede, 
And there him schewed Alle Mancr Of Richesse^ 

* et si li moustra la grant rikeohe des bieles viandes dont il 
i auoit a moult grant plente, de toutes les manieres dont cuers 
porroit penser et langue parler. — A. 

The flood Man 
baring taught 
Mordrelna to 
laaT« th« Dsrll't 

aska him whether 
he'i hongiy. 

takea him down 
to the Ship, 



■hoira him plMtj 
of Ibod And drink. 

and pots it all at 

Mordralna tdia 

that hit ewMt 


and the right 


hara takan awaj 
all dMire in him 
to sat and drink. 

The Good Man 
know* that 
Mordreine ia 
thinking of 

and hie Viitou 
ahont him. 

Of Mete, & Of drink gret pleieyoufinesse, 24 

That Ony herte On kowde bethenke. 

In that Schipd was Of mete & drinke. 

Thanne seide to y king this good man Anon, 

" Lo 1 Alle these deintes In thi wil wile I don, 28 

To taken there-Offen what Euere thou liste, 

To Eten & drinken AI Of the beste ; 

And At thi wille Al this Schal be 

In this Manere, as I telle it the." 32 

And whanne y kyug Al this MeryeLIle beheld, 

With Alle deyntes Anon he was ful fyld,^ 

That hunger ne thorst ne felte he Non, 

Thanne streyht from his Mete he hadde gon. 36 

^it More seide the kyng to this good man tho, 
" Sire, I wele je wete that it be So, — 
That with }owre wordis that ben so swete, 
& Of y Sihte of this drinke & Mete 40 

Wheche that ben In this present plase, 
That In this Schipe Schewed ]>on me has, — 
That Sihte So fulMeth Me, 

And maketh me ful Of delicase, 44 

That to Eten ne drinken have I non lust ; 
For so Mochel In thy wordis I trust. 
And sethen 30 sein that 30 knowe 
Alle Mennes thowhtes vppon A rowe, 48 

Thanne knowen ^e Myn with-Oi^ten faille ; 
Wherfore I preye 30W Of good Cownsaille." 

Than Answerid this good Man Anon, 
" Thy thowhtes I knowe Wei Echon ; 52 

Thow thenkest On Nascien, thy brother dere. 
That the Womman tolde the of here. 
For him wele I not Forgete, nefer vpe ne down ; 
Thow schalt him Seen In A-yisiown 56 

Decende from the hevene Adown ful Bathe, 

' (1. 36, Thanne a than if.) si f u ei sooles Beulement del 
▼eoir, ke il ne sentoit mala nol f aim, uient plus ke ae 11 enst luea 
droit mengie. — ^A. 


And In the Nynthe Flood he schal him bathe. 

That largere and deppere it is to Seye^ 

Thanne the toj^ere yi^j. ben In feye." 60 

And whanne the kyng herd him Sein so. 
Fill sore Abasched was he thanne tho, 
And Merveilled mochel what this Man were 
That sweche wordes Spak to him there, 64 

How that he Scholde haven knowenge 
Of Sweche A Maner Strawnge thinge. 
There-by he thowghte Certeinly 
That he was non Man to ben dedly ; 68 

But so bold dorste he not thanne ben thore 
Of him to Enqweren there Ony More. 

And whanne he hadde Avised him In this Manere, 
Anon him preide, And gan to Enqwere, 72 

** That he wolde tellen him AUe & Som 
The Signefiawnce Of his Avisiown, 
And that ^e Wolden, for god Almyht, 
It me declaren now Anon Riht ; 76 

For I have Ful longe In gret thowht be. 
What signefiannce it Mihte ben to Me." 
Thanne Answerid this good Man Agein, 
** That schalt thow neuere weten In Certein 80 

Into the tyme & Into that day 
That this viande owt Of this plase the bridge away.^ 
And thanne Schalt thow knowen [the certeinte] 
What that thy vicioon doth fiignefe, 84 

Al from begynneng to the Ende ; 
Thanne schalt thow knowen how it schal wende. 

'' And be this I Chastise the wel,' 
But fiN)m hens-forward, neuere Adel, 88 


how ih« Good 

can know bis 

H« ukfl the 

Good Man 
to UU him Um 
meaning of 
his Vision. 

Bat h« is not 
to know it till lie 
beats the Lion 
who'll take away 
his food. 

1 Che ne troaaeres tu ia qui te die deuant a ohele eare ke 
ta aras vainou et caohie ensus de toi le leu ki ta boine viande 
te vanra toUr. £f lors earas tu chertainement qui ohis leus est, 
et pour quoi 11 te vaura toUr ta Tiande. — A. 

' Hals de tant te castie iou bien, ke ia de nule choae ke tu 
ooiei^ ne soles esmaies ne espoentes. — A. 


The Good Man What Maner Merveilles that Eucre thow 86, 

n«^er fear, Loke that aoasched no more thow be. 

he niMj iM. ^it Merveilles here-Aftir schalt thou se, 

As the vols In thy paleys told to the 92 

Whanne Nasciens and thow On bedde were, 

Vppon on Cowcho liggeng there, 

Where that ^e fillen In Swownenge 

For gret drede of that Koise herenge ; 96 

Where As the vols Seide In this manere, 

All thow fore- * Of more dredes & Merveilles scholen ae here 

told by the Voice ^ 

In Same Palace Thanne Euere te diden to-fore this day : ' 

(p. 238) ^ . 

And thus the vois to 30 w gan Say. 100 

Wheche is the wille of goddis sone, 
■hau happen. That Alle these thinges scholen ben done, 

And that here-After he wele Schewe 

Swiche Merveilles vppon A rewe, — 104 

To hem that him liketh ful wel, 

They scholen hem sen Every del, — 

The wheche, Alle Othere Menreille scholen pass 

That Eue9*e jit to fom tyme of 30W sein wase ; 108 
Batififordreins And ?if tou wilt In trewe Creaunce the holde, 

wUl hold Ann ^ '^ ' 

inhia beii«r. And In herte stedfast stable and bolde ; 

What so enere hens-forward that thow se, 
hell heap himieif Ful wel from b* devel bou myht kepen the, 112 

from the DevlL '^ r J r ^ 

And more Stedfast to be In thi Creaunce, 
What so befalle the In Ony Chawunce. 
And hens-forward jif Oni Aventure Come to the 
Be man Other womrnan, what so he be, 116 

That faire Casten the forto deceyve, 
Loke In Alle weye from hem thow weyve, 
That nethir for jiftes ne for beheste, 
Loke fovL ne troste to leste ne meste ; 120 

He's never to Nethir for fair speche, ne Closing, 

part IVoiii hia . 

Creator. From thi Creatour Make ])ou non parting. 

" And loke that thow have Evere In thy Mynde 
The dede of Adam y form fadir be kynde, 124 


How that be the devel decey ved he was. 

And owt of paradis Cast, pat blessid plas ; 

For he fulfilled the devellis wylle 

Be Connseil of his wif, wheche was ylle. 128 

<< And loke that thow have this In Kemeinbrawnce, 
What 80 the behappe In Oni Chaunce ; 
And therb J myhtest thow knowen fill wel 
Alle Manere of Cownseilles Everidel, 132 

Whethir it be for good Oper for iUe, 
Oper the forto save, Owther forto spille. 

« And for thow scholdest knowen Alle thing 
That scholde ben to thi lordes plesing, 136 

Therfore schalt thow leven non Cownsaille 
That to his wille scholde dis-AvaiUe ; 
And thowh they the behoten 3iftes & Eichesse, 
Be war, putte not y in distresse 140 

Forto don A^ens his plesinge ; 
Be war J)ere-offen Ouer Alle thinge. 
And bethenke the Alwey In thy Myude, 
That Erthly ^iftes ben not so kynde 
As ben the ^ifbes Of hevenly good, 
Hos that it wel yndirstood ; 
For Erthely ^iftes ben freel & Mevable, 
& hevenely ben stedfast & Euere durable* 148 

And loke thow that now hens-forward. 
Of these jiftes that thow take good Award, 
And thow take not On jifte for Anothir, 
Be war ther-Offen for Ony Othir ; 152 

Sethen thow knowest whiche ther be, 
The goode thou take, the Evele thow fle. 
And be this, Alle wikked temptaciouns 
From the Scholen passen, and trebulaciouns ; 166 

And to Evere lastyng Consail pou schalt be take, 
And be browht from wo & wrake." 

And there Eyht thus In this Manere 
This goode Man of the schipa to hym spak there ; 160 

telU Mordrains 

to belltre no 
■dvlce that'll 

tho' be'i promlflt 
gifts and ri^ea 
for it. 

144 BartUyglfta 

■re frail and 
heavenly onea 

Deaf 22] 

Take the good 
and flee the evU. 



If ordreiiu Is 
tottajr on th« 
Rock UU tba 
DtfTil ukM him 
oiTby hlatoft 

The Good If ui 
fOM to his ahlp^ 


wond«n who 
Um Good Man li. 

Ful Mochel his wordis liked him tho. 
And to gret prophit tomed hym Also. 

Thanne Atte kste Axede h jm the kyng, 
' How long In that Roche scholde ben Ms dwellyng.' 
Thanne Answerid the good man A-gayn, 165 

" In this Eoche Schalt thow byden Certain 
Tyl that the devel Owt the take be y left bond, 
And the Eoche to forsake, thou it yndirstond ; 168 
For Erst Owt Of this Eoche shalt ^u not fle ; 
And of Al this, Sekir Mihtest now thow be." 
Thanne was the kyng Abasched ful sore, 
Of the wordis that he thanne spak thore : 172 

That the devel Owt Of the Eoche him scholde brynge ; 
It was to him tho An bevy tyd}'nge ; 
Thaniiece to the Erthe he fil Anon,^ 
And ful gret Momeng him fil vppon. 176 

And In this Mene wliille tho 
This good man to the schipe gan go. 

Anon As he Owt of his thowht Awook. 
Yp gan he stonde, and Abowtes him look, 180 

And Nethir Man ne Schip^ Sawh he, 
As fer As he loked Into the Se ; 
For In the same Maner As he to-fore wente, 
Eiht so dide he tho to his Entente. 184 

Thanne this kyng Me?^eilled wondir sore 
What Manere Of Man that this were 
That so him Certefyed Of Alle thing, 
As wel Of begynncTig As Of the Endyng. 188 

Thanne ful sore him self he gan to blame, 
That he ne hadde Enqwered his Name, 
And Enserched what he hadde be, 
Owther God, Owther Man In Ony degre ; 192 

Evere vppon this point ful sore he thowhte. 
That theke Man to knowen Myhte he Kowhte. 
)it Anothir thing him Eewede sore tho, 
Whanne that this good man was Ago, 196 

' Lors fi'enbronka vers terre. — A Thannece =: thence. 


That lie ne hadde Enqwerid of him theroi 
' ^if he Bcholde han ly ved In that Manere, 
Tyl that to him he hadde Comen Ageine/ 
And this of him forgat he to Refreine. 200 

Al thus the kyng longe to him Self spak. 
Til Atte laste he herde A gret IN'oise wit^-owten lak, 
Cryeng of wawes Of the se j 

But ful gretly he Merveilled what it myhte be. 204 
Thanne he gan him to dressen Anone 
Vpward, & Into the Se he loked ful sone, 
And westward him thowhte Cam seilyng pere 
The same schipe, Ss In the selve Manere, 
That the faire womman Cam In to-fore, 
Where-Offen Abasched he was ful sore ; 
For he him dradde sore, as he stoode. 
That sche ne Cam for none Goode. 212 

Thanne to God preyde he ful faste, 
His sowle forto kepen, so was he Agaste ; 
What so Evere become Of his flesch 
He ne Bowhte, whej^er hard Ofer IN'esch. 216 

And thus In his preieres was he stedfast 
Al the while thar It Myht last, 
That of his goode purpos not left schold he be ; 
Thus preide he to God In Maieste. 220 

And whanne his Orisown thus was I-do, 
Into the Est Ano» he tomed him tho, 
And there Anon Made he his devociown — 
In Minde of lerusalem, that worthy town 224 

Where-Inne thei gonnen Crist Crucifye, 
That blessid body, the Sone Of Marye, — 
Owt Of his Caytyvite him forto bringe, 
& deliueraunce of the womman that was Comenge. 228 

With this Cam y Schipa to y Eoche Anon 
Also faste As it Myhte gon, 
Also & as Eiche Aa it was Ere ; ^ 
Thus there him thowhte In Alle Manere. 232 

Mordrtliif hears 
a great nolae 

and.ieea the Fair 
Woman's ahip 
208 oomlng. 

He praje to God 
to preeenre his 


and makee hie 
the East. 





and Udshloi 


tribalation be'i 
had ilnoa ha waa 

and Qaean 
Sarraojnta art 
both daad. 

And whanne to the Roche Aryved ache was, 

Owt of y schipe ache Cometh a ful giet paa ; 

But the king 3af hire feie non Greting, 

Ne non Word to hire spak At here Comeng. 236 

And whanne sche Sawh fat he wolde not speke, 

Anon there Bche gan to him^ Reke, 

And gan him Axen * how he hadde faro 

Sethen the tyme sche was kst tharo.' 240 

Anon he seide, ' sche ne hadde not to do 

Of no thing him to Eefreinen so ; ' 

And Oper Answere tho hadde sche non ; 

Ches whethir sche wolde Abyden Oper gon. 244 

And whanne sche him herde thus Answero, 
Anon to lawhen be-gan sche there : 
" Kyng Eualach," sche seide, " I se by the, 
Thow hast lost bothe mynde & Memoro ; 248 

For sethen that thou took this CreAunce, 
The hath behapped ful Mochel Koisaunce, 
Ful Mochel sorwe and trebulaciown, 
And ^it Mochel More is the forto Com , 252 

And )it there-offen Revest pan neuere Adel, 
But, As me Semeth, it liketh the wel 
As Ony worschepe pat Evere haddest pou, 
And as moche it were for thy prow. 256 

Neuertheles thanne, I kan the telle 
Tydinges newe, bothe fresch Ss enelle, 
That I have sein with bothe Myn £yen ; 
For it is ful soth I schal the seyen. 260 

Streyht from sarras I come to the ; 
That I schal Sein, thow myht leven me ; 
For wete thow wel Ful Certeinle, 
That ded Is thi goode frend Seraphe ; 264 

For Neuere schalt thow him se with Eye, 
"Neper Saracynte thy qwene, Certeinlie." 

Whanne that the kyng thus horde here seyn. 

Anon fowle Astoned was he tho Certein ; 268 

' MS to him to hym. 


But ^it Neu^rtlieles he ne leved it ^owht. 

So Mochel On Jesus Crist was his thowht ; 

But for the grete love fat he hadde to his wif 

And to his brothir, with-Owten Strif, 272 

That Cawsed him moche more mone to Make 

For his Qweene & sire Kasciens Sake. 

But for Owht that sche Cowde sein him to, 

Owt [from] that Eoche Nolde he not Go. 276 

And whanne sche Saw that with non falsnesse 
Him Ouercome ne bringen In distresses 
Sche bad him ' Come sen the Eiche thinge 
That In that schipe sche dide him bringe.' 
Thanne to hire seide the kyng Ageyn, 
fat '^ In the Schipe I ne wele not Comen Certein, 
"Nq for non thing that thow kanst do, 
Owt from this Roch I wele nowht go." 284 

Thanne Onkeuered sche the schipe In haste. 
And preide him loken Atte laste. 
Thanne the kyng loked In for the Nones, 
Where-Inne he sawh many preciows stones, 
As that him thowhte there to his Eye, 
And mochel Other Richesse Sekerlye. 
" Lo, kyng Eualach, thow wenest that I be 
For non goodnesse I-comen to the ; 292 

But ful wel mystest^ thow weten & knowe. 
That Al this Eichesse fat here Is On A rowe 
May Not Comen from non Evel plase, — 
For ful mochel loie there is, there this wase, — 296 
And jif thow wilt with me now go, 
Owther My Cownseil Assentyn vnto, 
Al this Eichesse schalt thow have. 
And ^it Mochel more jif Jwu wilt Crave." 300 

Lo Al this Counseil ^af this wommanne 
To this kyng Eualach there thanne ; 
But for alle hire wordis & hire faira promyse, 
Thens wold he not Gon In non wyse ; 304 


bat won't \mn 
the Rock. 

Th« Fair Woman 
Mks him to look 
280 at the rich things 


288 and If ordrdnt 

pradoua stones. 

8h« <rfftn 'em all 


do her wllU 

But lie'll liol 


And 3it ful mocbe distorbeled he was 
For bis qweene Ss Seiaphe In that pka. 

And whanne ache beheld him Atte htste. 
That In his Creaunce he was so stedfaste, 308 

MordnhM wiu 8o whanne that Euahich sche Cald him there. 

not anawtr to 

hh h«UMa For that Name he wolde not Answere : 


For, he seide, the deyel he hadde forsake. 
And Onlych to God be baptem him take ; 312 

Thanne Gan eche to lawghen Eft sone, 
And seide, '' Eualach, litel hast thou to done ; 
For be that Name, I the now Say, 
Worschepe and Conqwest hast ^ou geten mani day ; 
But be that whiche now thow hast to Name, 317 

Ne Gote thow nenere but thowht^ sorewe, & schame." 
Kotwithatandioff Ful lom?e it lasted, this temptacioui* 

aii the Fair ^^ ' ^ 

womaira Toward this kyng with gret tribulaciown, 320 

That 80 sche him Eeproved of his distresses 
Of his Angwisch, & of his porenesse. 
And Euere Answerid this kyng Agein, 
Onlich Of goddis myht tho In Certein, 324 

And Also of Goddis Bihtful Creaunce, 

Mordreina refuaM " Whiche that I wil holden wM-Owten variauRce ; 
And for Alle the ^iftes & the beheste, 
Nc)r^ for Alle the Hichesse, lest ne Meste, 328 

to turn from jf © schsl me tomeu Owt Of my thowht 
From him that me dere hath bowht." 
Whanne fat sche sawgh that in non degre 
Owt Of that Eoche to don him fle, 332 

Netliir for ^ifbes ne non qweintise, 
Ne for non thing fat sche Cowde devise, 

So the Fair Thanne Anon to be Schipe sche tomed Agein, 

Woman aaile oif, ' 

As to fore tymes sche dide fid pleyn. 336 

Anon Eiht thanne As sche was Gon, 
aiidmuinpest j^ fQ^i stroug tcmpcst there Eos Anon, 

ri»ea aa before ^ *^ 

(p- «o')- Eiht As fowl & hidows it was thore 

As it was the tother day there before. 340 


Thanne here-Oifen Merveilled y kyng Anon 
How that this womTTzan was so gon, 
And that Al the Eichesse hadde him browht, 
Whethir that it were Owht Ofer nowht, 344 

And that In schort while sche hadde I-be 
At Sanas, & to him I-comen thedir Aje, 
" The wheche xvij dayes iowme scholde be 
As to forn tymes sche told it to Me." 348 

And whanTte this tempest he Sawh thus fare, 
In his herte he hadde ful Mochel caie ; 
And so gret dirknesse fil him ypon. 
That sihte there myhte he sen non, 352 

But 9if it were tyme of lyghtene/ig 
That to him Cam befom the thondring ; 
And Evere this tempest trowbled faste, 
That seker, Euere he wende it wold han laste. 356 

And whiles he was In this thenkyng, 
Him thowhte he herde A wondir sowneng 
Wheche that scholde Comen from An hy. 
As tho him thowhte ful trewely } 360 

So, what for ferd & for that sown 
Streiht to the Erthe he fyl Adown, 
That he ne myht steren foot ne hond, 
Nethir non lyme where-Onne to stonde, 364 

But that Onne this,' with his hondis two, 
To the Greces of the Boche he Cleved tho. 

And whiles that he lay In this degre, 
Anon A thondir Clape Cam there fle, 368 

That Al the heyest partye of that Boche Anon 
Into the se-botme gan forto gon. 
So that there lefbe but a litel spase 
The kyng Onne to Beste fat there wase ; 372 

And the Bemnaunt that was smeten Away, 
Was neuere more sein Into this day. 
Anon the kyng for drede fil there A-down, 

' Fon itant geulement ke il s'ahert a deus mains si com 11 
peat — A. 

wonderi over th« 
Fair Woman, 

and her eoming' 
•o swiftly from 


Mordrein* hcara 
a vrondrotts 

and falls to the 

A thandertmlt 
knocks off fcl'O 
top of his Rock. 


Ful longe there liggeng In a swowil 376 

wb«n xordniiM WhAiine Owt of his swowneng Awaked was he 

Thoigwh the Comforteng Of the Maiestie, 
th« tMuptrt j^ the tempest was Oner gon, 
•adftUttitUL That noise ne thondring herde he non; 380 

Therto the See, In pesible stat it was, 

That to fore tjme was hidows in fat plas, 

So that of tempest herd he nenere A del, 

Wheche to forn times he heide fill weL 384 

Thanne Abowtes him loked he ful faste. 

And the Roche he Missede atte laste, 

Whiche fat was the heyest partye ; 

Thanne In his herte hadde he giet Anoye, 388 

And In his Mynde was gretly Abascht, 

How that Roche was so de-dascht. 
H«eroH« Thanne Anon g&n he forto Make 

The signe Of the Crois, for Owre loidis sake ; 392 

Bothe yppon his hed and vppon his body 

He mode the Signe of God Almyghty, 

And besowhte God, for his special grace, 

Him to Comforte & kepen. In that place, 396 

In Riht wit, Mynde, & Memorye ; 

Thus this kyng tho to God gan Crye. 
wyt hiM pnjm, And whanne thus his preieres he hadde I-do, 

A wondirful lust thanne Cam him to, 400 

That he moste slepen Kedelye, 

As here vs telleth this storye ; 
MdgoMto iieep. So that On the Roche there he slepte, 

Yppon swich A spas As him was lefte ; 404 

wh«n he wakM, And whanue Of his slope fat he A-wook, 
that hathinka Swich An hunger there him took, 
ne*f ts] That him thowgbte ded forto be, 
toidT" But jif of Mete he hadde plente. 408 

And whanne thus longe ne had mad his Mone 

To him Self there Al Alone 

Of his Misaise and hunger ful strong, 

So fat lyven him thowghte myhte he not long : 412 


And as Abowtes him he lokede there, 

He say, him thowghte, In a qwey7^t Manere, 

Ligeng vppon A grees Of ston, 

A wondir blak lof there Anon ; 416 

And whanne this lof beheld he tho, 

A wondir strong pas he gan for^o go 

To-ward thike lof, [it] for to take, 

Lik As gret hunger it gan to Make. 420 

And whanne he hadde it In his hond. 
It forto breken tho gan he foud ; 
But therto hadde he no Miht ; 

But al hoi to his Mowth Anon riht 424 

He it there putte, to han biten vppon ; 
And therto his Mowth he Openede Anon. 

And In the Mene whille him thowghte he herde 

A wondirful noise, and qweyntely Ferde, 428 

As thowgh Alle the fowles of the Eyr 

To him ward they gonnen Repeire ; 

For wheche gret drede In that Manere 

Anon his hed he lefte vp there ; 432 

And to liim there Cam discending^ Adown 

A merveillous fowl w/t/i a wondirful sown ; 

For so wondirful ho was, & so divers, 

That neuere to forn tyme tonge Cowde Eehers ; 436 

The hed of him was as blak As pich,*^ 

Ne now Othir Colowr was it lich ; 

And therto, bothe his Eyen & his teeth, 

As brennenge Fir forsothe they beth ; 

But the schape Of his hed, it was 

Lik An Orible dragon In that plas, 

And therto two homes In his hed ; 

It was A wondirful sDite In that sted : 444 

Also A ful long nekke like to a dragown ; 

A wondirful brid, & of a qweynte faciown ; 

His brest lik a lyown Schapen was there ; 

His feet like an Egle In A qweynte Manere ; 448 

' MS dUtending. 
GRvVAL. 19 

Mordraina net 
a black loaf on a 
Btoa« atap. 

He pots it to 
his mouth to 

A wonderftil hiitl 
awoopa down. 

Ita head'ii aa 
black as pitch ; 

440 ita eyes like Are. 

Its head's like a 

dragon 'k, 

witli 2 lionis and 

a loni; nrrk. 

It has a lion's 


and aiiea^k's 



And from y Joyntes Of his feet to y sdioldres Tpxiht. 
wtth iwifi wiaci. Wondirf ul wynges, & swyfb to flyht, — 

As swift they weren In alle thing 

As to-fom the thondir is the lyhgtenyng — 452 

M hard and thup And therto As hard As Ony steel, 

M a nxor. *' 

As scharpe As A Hasowr bytyng ful wel ; 
Therto his fetheris white were» Also, 
As scharpe as etorm Of hail therto ; 456 

And whanne that scharply he fyl A-down, 
This ilke brid made A wondirful sown. 
lu biak u aa And therto the bek of his hed that was there, 

ahaip aa a ipaar. j a ^ j^^ 

It was as scharpf! As Ony spere, 460 

And Also brennenge, vppon forto se, 

As lyghteneifg that to-fore p* thondir doth fle. 

Uppon this Maner, lik As ^e here, 
Was this brid On this Manere, 464 

As Becordeth here the devyn storye 
That to Ts hath put In Memorye ; 
All birds draad So that this Bryd ne fleeth be non weye, 

this Bird,— 

the Phomix that But that alle briddiB Ss bestes of hym hayen Eye ; 468 

typUlM oar 

saTioar,— Be whom,* y Saviour Of al this world 

In this brid scheweth, be his Owen Acord, 

Bothe his miht & Ek his drede ; 

And alle Creatures of hym took hede ; 472 

For that brid is so dowted, I telle it the, 

That be what weye that Evere he fle, 

andflaafkomtt. Bothe brid & beste they don him fle, 

Lik as be figiure I schal Schewen to y : 476 

Behold, how pat derknesse to fom p* sonne doth fle, 

Eiht so Alle briddes & bestes, I telle it the. 

So fleen the sihte Of this brid, lo, 

That to forn tymes I declared 90W so. 480 

And cf swich kynde this brid it is, 
Tliat As tlire to-gederes* witA-Owten Mis — 

' en qui li aaaueres de monde Tieut sa crieme et son paour 
espandre. — A. 

' Et si eat de tel nature ke il n*en puet estre ke .iy. ensam- 


As tlie Scripture Eecordith. now here — Thu phwnix 

That As thre Oueral he ilikth In fere, 484 trin* rthree m a 

Lik as he that of a womman was bom '*'"^'' 

WitA-Owten compeine of Man, As I have rehersed 

befom ; 
And whanne Bedy to ben born they be, and when the 

joang are Piaidy 

Of A wondirful kynde this storie scheweth to me ; 488 to be bom, 

For 80 Cold they been In Alle thing there, 

That non wiht duren it May In non Manere, 

Sawfe Only the modir of the same, 

Wihche is a brid of a Merveillous fame : 492 

For whanne this long suffred hath sche, 

And non lengere with that Cold may sche be, 

Hire Eyren sche leveth, & taketh hire flyht 

Into a far Contre there Anon Kyht, 496 

Where that sche hopeth forto fynde 

A precious ston of Merveillous kynde, 

Wheche In the vale of Ebron is at alle dayes. 

Of a wondirful kynde, as the storye sayes ; 500 

For Of his owne kynde he is so hot. 

That non man therwith him self dar^ frot C xsdnr] 

Til it gynne Chawfe Of his Owne kynLle,^ 

Thus fareth theke ston So good & heude. 504 

For there as Cold is, it loketh pale, 

As kynde telleth vs be Olde tale ; 

And whanne Cold thing A-chawfed is Owht, 

Anon to Red Colowr it is I-browht ; 508 

that their mother 
ha« tofly to 

a wonderfttl hot 
stone in the Vale 
of Ebron, 

whloh, when 
rubd, torna red. 

ble. Car che diat 1! verites de rescripture, ' ke il nairisent de 
fumiele sans compaignie de marie.' — A. TriDS are always born : 
two males and one female. See 1. 549-553. 

' Chele pierre si est de si caude nature, ke ele ne puet a 
nule chose froiier, ke tan tost ne s'eprenge la chose a quoi ele 
frotera. Mais toua lours le porroit on tenir en sa main, anchois 
que la mains en escaufast sans f roiier. Mais tantost com ou la 
froie a auoune chose, si mue sa coulour de cbele part ou on le 
froie. Car ele est naturelment toute blanche ; £t tantost com 
ele froie^ si deuint toute vennelle oomme sans, deuers la froiure. 
Et lors esprent sans estaindre toute la chose a quoi ele touche, 
ne la la flambe n*i parra. — A. 


With thlt itont 
tli« PhcuiU- 

warms htTMir 

on flu*. 

Mid daran't go too 
BMurhor egga 
bornlng thMD. 



and is burnt to 
powdsr hsrself. 

TIm yooiuc birds 

sat their mothar's 

And thus be frotjng Of that ston, 

It be-Comeih Red as Ony Blood Anon, v/ 

And vhanne this brid this ston hath fownde, 
TherwttA sche hire Chafeth In that stownde ; 512 

And litel Ss litel sche schawfeth hire so, 
Til that hire Cold be ful nygh Ago. 
And 3it In hire beek sche taketh it thore, 
And hire self doth chawfe ^it wel more ; 516 

And ^it sche thinketh ful litel there 
For the grete Cold pat sche sofired Ere ; 
And whanne that hete sche feleth plente, 
A^en to hire Eyren thanne doth sche fle. 520 

Whanne that In place sche cometh there 
As to fom tymes hire Eyren were, 
So hot sche semeth to been with-Inne, 
That Al hire body on fyr doth brenne, 524 

That hire Self helpen sche ne May, 
So hot sche is with-Inne, y sothe to say ; 
And therfore thanne weneth sche 
That hire Eyren Alle I-brend scholde be, 528 

So that sche withdraweth hire there £ro, 
And with hire body not neigheth hem tho, 
But fat A good spas from hire, nest, 
As hire self it liketh hire best ; 532 

So pat be the hete of hire body so fer fro, 
Hire briddes sche bringeth forth Alle y, 
That for Cold scholden Ellis dye : 
Ihis is here kynde ful Certeinlie. 536 

And thus, thorwgh Chawfyng of this ston, 
The Modir to powdir is brend Anon. 

And whanne hire briddes thus browht forth be, 
Abowtes the Asches of hire Modir gonne they fle, 540 
And there-Ofifen taken here sustenawnce 
That was theke tyme to here plesaunce, 
Tyl that they haven bothe lif & membres : 
Thus Eten they of here Moder Syndres. 544 


And whanne Alle they ben Eton Echon, 
The Syndrea Of here Modir, & not peroffen left on, 
Anon So prowde they wexen Alle thre, 
That prowdere briddes ne Mown neuere be ; 548 

Thanne Comen the tweyne that males be, 
That neither Other may sufifre In non degre ; 
And whanne here ful strengthe fully they have, 
Eche of hem Of y thridde, Maistrie doth Crave, 
To han the femele At his owne wille ; 
Thus to Othir forseth him vntille, 
So that Anon, thorwgh gret pride. 
The ton the tothir Sleth that tyde. 656 

Scipilions, is Clepid this brid,^ 
As thus In this stone it is red. 

Swich was the brid that decendid J^ere 
Do^m to the kyng In this Manere, 560 

And smot the lof Owt Of his hond, 
That to his mowth to putten gan he fond ; 
And Into the see he threw it there, 
Biht fer In a M<;rveillows Manere. 564 

And whanne he hadde so I-do, 
He took his flyht, & fleygh him fro ; 
And Aftirwardis he tomed Ageyn, * 

And the kyng to the Erthe was fallen pleyn ; 568 

And with his Kyht wynge he smot him so 
That his Clothes & his Skyn he barst vnto, ^ 

And from the haterel In to the foot,* 
Into the harde flesh that strok it hot ; 572 

And thanne this brid took forth his flyht 
From that kyng Anon Tho Eyhi 


552 tlMt the tiro 

fight tof th« 

tin OM kill! th« 

This bird's name 
ia 8ei9Uion*. 

month the black 
going to biti^ 

end then bite 
him with ite 
right wing, 

cutting him fimn 
•hoolder to fooU 

' Tant qu*il B'eatrecombatent, et ke 11 uns ochist Tautre. 
EdbI 8*eiitroohieiit U doi malle ; bi n'en remaiDt ke la femiele, 
qui est apielee ' serpolions.* Et la pierre de quoi ele 8*art, est 
apielee ' piratiste.* — A. 

' Et il lait la destre ele aler deuant, si le feri si qu'il 11 rompi 
toate la crigne res a res du haterel, Et 11 trencha toute aa ues- 
ture iusc'a la char. — A. 



MordraiiM llM 
•11 nlyht in a 


H« wftkM in th« 

thank* Ood 
for dcltrerinf 
him from hit 

and uyi he hat 
iMt his bodily 

Ha will rather 
die than eat 
any bread but 
what Qod send*. 

And p* kjng In swowneng at the £rthe lay. 
For drede &: sorwe of that giete Afray, 57G 

Tyl that the day vaa Nygh Agon, 
And the l^yht faste Eutrede vppon. 

And whanne he was waked of his swowneng, 
Ful feint & feble he was In alle thing, 680 

That of the grete hunger he hadde to foxe, 
Whiche that him Greved so sore, 
Thowgh Alle worldly mete thaune had he sein, 
There-Offen to £te he ne myhte Certein. 584 

And thus Ahod ho Al that Nyht 
Tyl on the Morwe it was day lyht ; 
And whanne tlie day be-gan to dawe, 
Thanne ^erofTen was this kyng ful fa we. 588 

Thonne he bethowghte him In liis mynde 
Of that brid so Merveillous of kynde, 
That his lof so haddo Casten Away. 
Many thankynges to God he jaf that day, 593 

And seide, " lord God, I-worscheped thow be, 
That from Alle these sorwes hast deliu^red me, 
& wilt that I do bigge my synne 
Ere than I Owt Of this world twynne ; 596 

For swiche word is Of solace je han me sent, 
That Of hunger have I lost myn talent, 
Sowfe Only hunger Of sowle to susteyne ; 
Therfore, lord, I me to the Gompleyne. 600 

Now knowe I wcl that this Maner thing 
To me hidir Gam for non forthering. 
But me to deceyven be weye of Richesse, 
Be ^iftes, Owther be fayr promesse ; 604 

And perfore schal I neucre. In tyme comenge. 
My Mowth to Opene for non Swich thing, 
Thowgh the body Scholde suffren ded 
Bathere thanne to £t43n Ony bred, 608 

But ^if it be, lord, thorwgh thy sonde, 
Ony to handelyn with Myn houde ; 


JN'e neu^re Owt of this Eoch wele I gone, 

But evere here dwellen Alone, 612 

Tyl that, lord, thy wiUe It be, 

Owt of this Eoche to taken Me." 

And thus vi dajes beleft the kyng Hofdniiu ii 

In that Eoche, with-Owten lesyng ; 616 th« Good Maq, 

And Eche Of these dayes Cam this good man. 
And him comforted As he wel kan : 
Thanne swed the womman After, Eche day, •»* thtn th« 

. FalrWaman. 

Of him to fonde to geten hir^ pray. 620 

This Man Eucre him tolde wordis Of Comfort 
As Often As to him he gan Eesort, 
And Eu^e spak ihe womman of Xoysaunce 
To hym. And Eu6re Of distorhaunce. 624 

And whanne it was Comen to y seventhe day, Onth^Tthdaj 

This good man to him Cam vn'ih-Owten delay, 
And thus to him seide there in haste, 
"Thin Owt of deliu^raunce Aprocheth faste, 628 bu hoar of 

dellveranoi) U 

)if thow wilt hennes-forward Muoniut, 

The kepen from temptaciou[n]s hard 

Of the devel, whiche he wil Asaye 

In many weyes the to be-traye." 632 

Thanne Axede him the kyng ' In what Manure 
From him he myhte defenden him there.* 
Thanne seide A3en this goodman 'tho, 
" Wrath-the not thy God, what so thow do, 636 

And Owt Of this Eoch deliu6i*ed schalt ^u be 
With-Inne schort tyme Certeinle ; 
But 3it Manye dredes schalt thou se 
Er that owt of pia Eoche taken thow be." 640 

Thanne thus partid this good man Away ; •^^ ^« ctood 

The kyng there lefte, sothe to say. 
Ful glad & Joyful he was In herte. 
That non thing ne myhte him smerte, 644 

And thowhte, ' thowgh that he schold dye, 
Owt Of that Eoche wolde he not hye. 



coming a ship 

with no NMtnen. 

tempMU rise, 

■now, hail, and 


and Mordrelna 
haa no place to 
hide hit head in. 

But Rathere ded there he wolde be, 

Thanyie Owt of that Roche forto fie.' 648 

Th\is loiige In this thowht gan he dwelle, 
That Aftir tyrae So it be-feUe 
He loked ful fer Into the See : 

A fair Schip€ Gam J)ere seylleng, thowht he ; 652 

bothe gret & Riche him thowghte it was ; 
bote neper man ne womman In that plas 
that Schipe to Governe, nethir to Gye, 
thus him thowhte ful Certeinlye. 656 

and whanne longe it hadde so go 
In the hyghe See bothe to & fro, 
atte laste towardis the Roche he drowgh 
A ful gret speed, & faste I-nowgh. 660 

and thus sone began there In the see 
wondirful tempestes fere Anon to be, 
So hidous & so Angwischous in eche Manure, 
that so hidows tempest saw he neuere ere. 66 i 

this tempest this Schipc to the Roche browhte, 
that it scholde Alto-breken him thowghte ; 
It suew, & haillede, & thondrede faste. 
So that pere was manie A bitter blaste, 603 

So that it Semede that Al the firmament 
On peces hadden borsten verament ; 
For he wende the Ende Of ^* world pat day had be ; 
thus thowghte the kyng thanne ful sekerle. 672 

And the k}iig in pat Roche had non sted 
Where that he Myhte hyden In his hed. 
For the part Of the Cave was blowew Away 
Into the See, As ^e han herd me Say. 676 

And this fairo Schipe beheld he thanne ; 
but he say nethir Man ne womtwanne. 
and so thikke Abowt^s him Cam the thondring, 
and Many A wondirful lyghteneng, 680 

that Neuere he wende to asckapen thenne, 
so wondirfuUy j)" lyghtenywg gan to brenw« ; 

on. xxiil] the bun burns mordreins. he swoons. 297 

thus Saffrede the kjng Al that tempest, 

whiche After it torned him for the best ; 684 

Al this was disseisse to his herte, 

for he soffred peynes Many & smerte ; 

but for alle the peynes he sufirede tho, 

to the Schipe from the Eoche wolde he not go. 688 

And whanne this tempest hadde longe be. At uut uio ttorm 

than72e Atte laste gan stillen the See, 
and the wedir to Cleren faire, 

and the sonne to Schewe/i yppon the Ayre; 692 andth«nthe 

and whan;3e he sawgh the wedir thus slake, 
Ful gret loye he gan tho to Make. 

thanne the Sonne there vppon him Schon, 
and thanne the kyng lokid vp Anon, 696 

and sawh his Clothes Al to-Eent, 
where-Offen he Mcrveilled verament. 

and thanne so sore the Sonne chawfed him perQ, n fiercely th«t 
that he wende Al the Eoche hadde ben on fere, 700 on tin. **'*'"* 
and that the sonne scholde han brend Alle thing, 
Of this world to han Mad An Endeng. 
and al was don for this Skele tho, 

^if y kyng Into the Schipe wolde han go, 704 Bat neither ror 

Ferst for Cold, and sethen for hete ; wm Hordreim 

but for nethir the kyng y Eoch wolde not lete ; in the ship, 

for Eathere ded there wolde he4ian be, 
thanne his lord to wraththen In Ony degre ; • 708 
Oper that from y Eoche he wolde gon, 
Eathere the deth to sufiren Anon. 

and thus In this Angwisch longe bod he there, 
and In swowneng fyl In hard manere ; 712 Hetwootti, 

and so longe lay he Stille As A ston, ^ 
That wit, syghte, ne Mynde, hadde non. 
And whanne that he of swowneng A-wook, wake«, 

For drede & sorewe ful sore he qwook, 716 and quakes for 


and lift vpe his hed, and beheld ful faste 
jif that strong hete ^it dide Owht laste. 





irh«th«r th«j 


or rHlitiflk 

and Whanne he sawli the day pai mesuiable was, 
and but Mesurable bete In that plas, 720 

As betwenes noon & hevesong scholde be, 
bothe glad & loyful thanne was he ; 
thanne Asaied he Anon Tpe forto stonde, 
For the ranite In his bed that hadde ben longe ; 724 
And whanne fat he gan vpe forto dresse, 
In bed, body, ne Membres, felt be non Siknesse. 

thanne stood he vp On his feet, 
and there abowtes him loked fol sket, 728 

and Merveilled Of the grete Aventoura 
That he hadde there suffred Of dolours ; 
and Of Alls this thanne felte he Hyht nowht, 
Where-Offen he M/jrveillede In his thowht ; 732 

and Otherwhille he thowghte A dremenge to be, 
and Otherwhilles he thowhte it for Certeinte, 
and Otherwhilles he Cowde Eemembren him wel 
Of the Aventures thanne £verideL 736 


Still of Mordreins on I%e Roche Periloms. How he sees m 
ship approach the Rook with his own and Naacieni^s shields 
on board, and the horse he won from Tholomes at Orcaua 
(p. 299). A knight lands, and tells him that Nasciens ia 
dead (p. 800). He goes on board, sees a corpse like 
Nasciens's, swoons, and on waking finds himself far from 
the Bock (p. 301). He makes the sign of the Cross; 
and man, horse, and corpse vanish. He prays to God. 
The Good Man comes to him again (p. 902), and tells 
him that he shall not be deliverd till Nasciens comes to 
him alive (p. 308) ; and explains that it was the Devil 
who had tempted him as the Knight, the Lioness, and 
the Fair Woman, who had appeared to him (p. 303). The 
Good Man exhorts him to be wiser and warier than he had 
been, and then vanishes (p. 808). The ship drives on (p. 
304) ; the King sees a roan coming on the sea, borne up by 
two birds under his feet, who sprinkles the ship with 
water, and announces himself as Salustes, in whose honour 
MordreiDS had built the church in Sarras (p. 304). He 
explains the vision of the Lioness (p. 304), and that of 


the Streams flowing out of Monlreins's Nephew (p. 805) ; 
and that he had sprinkled the sliip because it was the 
Devil's and needed purifying (p. 306). He instructs Mor- 
dreins how to eject Devils by Holy Water (p. 306), and 
then goes, leaving the King on the ship (p. 307). 

Thanne thowghte the kyng al In his herte 

Of Mauie trebulacions & of peynes smerte ; 

that the day was past, & wax to Eve, 

thanne the kyng ful sore gan him Meve. 4 

Anon thanne lokede he fer Into the See ; 
A fair schip^ fast seillyng Comen sawgh he^ 
therto so Eichely arayed him thowhte it was, 
but he nyste Of his Comeng what was y cas, 8 

for so Riche A schipe,him thowghte, sawgh he neuerenon 
To fore tyraes On hor water nethir Seylen lie gon, 

and whanne the Schipe Aproched him ny, 
Anon Into fat Schipc he lokede An hy. 
and Sawgh where that liengen scheldes two ; 
In y forcastel Of the Schipe they weren I-do, 
Where-Inne was A towr ful Eialy I-dyht, 
As semed fat tyme to the kyng In Syht ; 16 

On wheche towr, As I vndirstonde, 
bothe scheldes to-gederis diden they honge ; 
Of wheche the ton scheld was his, 
the tother Nasciens wit-Owlen Mys : 20 

thus him thowghte wondirly Sore, 
but Evere he Merveilled how they Comen thore. 

And whiles that he stood In this thowght, 
to p^ Eoche this Schip Anon was browght : 24 

and as it was to that Eoche Comenge, 
Of An hors he herde A wonderful Keyenge, 
and so bonchede & ferde with his feet 
that it thowghte the schipe to bersten In yat fleet. 28 
Ano^i the kyng gan to herkene this Xeyeng, 
and Merveilled ful Mochel of that thing ; 
For that hors he knew there Anon 
whanne he him herd so taken vppon, 32 

King Kordreini 

a rich ihip 

12 In itt fore-ea«tt« 
hang 2 Shieldit, 

one hia ; the 
other, Naacieua'a. 

On It la a liorae, 
which nelglia and 



Tin hone it that 
whieh Mordrdiu 
won from Tho- 
lorna at OmiM. 

Prom the ehip 
Undi a Kniffht, 

like the brother 
of Mordralns'a 

who eaya Uiat 

Nnsdent't corpae 
la in the ahip. 

And wiste wel that it was the same hors 

that from kjng Tholome he gat At Orcaus, 

Whiche that In the bataille he wan there ; 

And the same hors he wende it were, 36 

what be Keyenge and Other fare, 

The same hors he wende hadde ben tharc. 

And thus wondred he mochel In his thowght, 

how hors & scheldes thedir weren browght. 40 

thanne to the Eoche it Aplyede Anon ; 
and tho to the schipward the kyng gan gon, 
To beholden what peple and what Mejne 
In that Schipe that he Cowde se. 44 

and whanne that he gan there-Inne to beholdc, 
he Sawgh Mochel peple, & Mani-folde. 

And Owt Of that schipe there isswed Anon 
As In Maner Of a knyht, and to him gan gon ; 48 
and whanne that he gan the kyng to Aprochen Ny, 
the kyng him beheld ful witterly ; 
hym thowghte that be his persone & figure 
an hygh Old knyght of his, I the Ensure, 52 

that Brothir to his steward schold ban be, 
that Slayn was at Orcaws ful sekerle. 

and whanne this knyht to the kyng gan gon, 
he him grette with hevy Chere Anon ; 56 

and the kyng Ban to him ful faste, 
and than7ie him Axede atte laste, 
* Why that so Sore Abasched he was ; 
he scholde him tellen Al the Cas.* 60 

" A, sire," Anon quod this kniht tho, 
" For the hevy tydinges jow Comen vnto ! " 
" Sey me," quod the kyng, " what May it be, 
Belamy, I preie the that thow telle it to me." 64 

" Certes, Sire,*' quod this knyht Anon, 
" the beste friend pat je hadden is now Agon, 
the wheche is Nasciens, jowre brother dere, 
that In this Schipe he lith ded here/' 68 


and whanne the kyng lierde him thus telle, 
Anon In swowneng to the Erthe he felle ; 
and Whanne pat he of his swowneng a-Wook, 
Abowtes him faste he gan to look, 72 

and axede his brothir forto Se, 
if that Sekerly he ded there be ; 
And Evere Criede lik a wood man ; 
So for his brother ferde he than. 76 

The knjht to the kyng gan him dresse, 
that him hadde browht In this distresse, 
and the kyng took fere be the left hond, 
to ))• schipward to leden he gan to fond ; 
So that the kyng Kiste what he dede, 
So ful of sorewe he was In that stede. 

and whanne the kyng y schip^ was w/t/tJnno, 
he Ean to the here, & nolde not blynne, 84 

and the Cloth anon vp he Caste, — 
to beholden that body hadde he grct haste ;-^ 
There Anon thanne Sawgh he there 
his brother Nasciens, As that it were, 
be face, semblawnce, & body Also, 
as whanne on lyye fat he dide go. 
thanne Anon fyl he down In swowneng there, 
hardere thanne eucre to-fore dide he Ere, 92 

that Neuere to Asckapen wende fan he, 
but Certein ded forto han be. 

Whanne ho was waked of his Swowneng, 
Of this hadde he gret Merveilleng, 96 

And thowhte to axen of this knyht there 
how this myhte happen, & In what Manere. 
and whanne he loked Abowtes him tho ; 
Eul fer from the Koche thanne was he tho ; 
thanne for sorwe he fyl down Anon 
In swowneng, ded as Ony ston ; \^ 
to-fore that bere so lay he there 
ded In swowneng In this Manere. 104 

Jf ordreins aski 
to tee Nascimis'* 

The Knight lead* 

him bj th« left 
^ . hand into the 
oO ihlp. 

Jfordreina thiuka 
88 Naadana'a, 


When he wakea. 

100 heiafkrftom 
the Rock. 



Mordrdni iiiAk« 



and eotpM, Imtm^ 
and knlf ht» 

Th« Good Man 
coaica on board 

ancl wamt Mor- 



and whanne of his swowneng fat he Wok, 
Anon vp his Kiht hond he took, 
And the Signe of the Crois he Made Anon ; 
thanne thus sone Alle weren they Agon, 108 

that nethir here, hors, ne Man, 
In that schip0 cowde he Se than, 
and thanne gan he to wepen ful sore, 
And Momeng & wringeng he made wel More, 112 
" A ! Merciful Grod In Maiestie, 
Now Wot I wel that I have Greved the." 

and Whanne he hadde thus I-Spoke, 
Forth Into the See he gan to loke ; 116 

there sawgh he to-fom hym Comen Anon 
the goode man that In the Schipe gan gon, 
wheche that him Comforted Often Sithe, 
and with his goode wordis Made him blithe. 120 

and whanne he sawgh him In that Manere, 
Wel ful he was Of Sorwe & Fere : 
" A, sire ! " quod he, " I am deserved Sekerly 
Of that 3e boden me to kepen trewly ; 124 

For ful Certeinly je tolden Me Ere, 
that the devel In this Manere 
Me scholde Owt taken be p* left hond, 
As thow didst me to vndirstond.'* 1 28 

anon gan he for to wepen tho : 
And whanne this good man say him do so, 
he seide, " Sir« kyng, wepe thow no More ; 
he hath the tempted Often tymes sore, 132 

but here-Aftir the behoveth Eft-sone 
To taken good keepe that Is to done." 

Thanne seide the kyng to this good man tho, 
*' Now, goode sire, telle me what I schal do ; 136 

and as thow knowest Alle thing, 
So wisse me Of begynneng & Endeng, 
And how that I schal Govemen Me ; 
For Goddis love, Sire, this preie I the." HO 



tlianue this good [man] seide to him Aje, 
*' 3ifc manie spitful Merveilles schalt ])ou se ; 
and £ten Ne drynken schalt pon neuere Moi 
til thy brothir Kasciens Come the before, 
As Cristen Maii, and qwyk levenge ; 
Kow take pon this for newe tydynge. 
And whanne thou sixt him In that degre, 
thanne After, thy leverau»c6 Sone schal be. 

" For wete f ou wel ful Certeinle, 
It was the devel that was with the, 
that told the how that Nasciens was ded, 
and that jaf the Swich Conceyl & Eed ; 
For he is Eedy, In feld & In town, 
Goddis schep to don distrocciown. 

" and the devel it was Also 
that In thin Avisiown Cam ]>^ to ; 
the Mete that p* lyown f • browghte, 
he it Awey bar, & lefte the Nowghte. 
and 3it I wele that pou knowe More Also, 
that it was the devel that Cam the to 
In liknesse Of A womman, 
and sweche wordes to y spak than ; 
Also the devel ful Sekir was he 
that Owt of the Roche he browhte p*, 

" Therfore hens forward I wame the, 
that bothe wisere & warere pat thou be ; 
For swich thinges here- After schalt pou se, 
that to Endeles deth wolden bringen the, 
jif ^ thou the bettir wit ne have, 
thy body [&] thi sowle forto save,*' 

and no» More to hym he gan to Say, 
but with that word he partid A-way, 
that he ne wiste where he becom 
Owt of his syhte, bothe Al & som. 
and thus in the Schipa Alone lefte he, 
Floteringe Amyddes the hye Se. 

1^4 TiUNasoiens 
oomM to hltti. 



Mordreint shall 
not b* dellverd. 

It was ths DevU 
who told him 
Nasdens was 


and who took 
aw«j his food 

(p. tso, aw;, 

160 tempted him a« 
the Fair Woman, 

X64 and bronght him 
off the Bock. 


P MS lit] 

172 TheOoodUan 



u .rdrwini'i iihip the wjnd Lim blew, now here, & now there ; 

Ik blown Aboul 

um mm. thus Nyht and day he ferde In fere, 

that Eesting plase ne fond he non, 

til On the Morwo it waa passed noon. 180 

thanne the kynge vpe him dressed tho, 

And to- ward the forschipe he gan to go, 

and loke ful fer Into the See ; 
HeteetaMAn A man there Comeng him thowghte say he, 184 

that Of leveng Schold he be bothe good and hye,* 
The Man is boroe 'sour Tiaue ausi com tout a pic. Et qt/ant il fu 

up by two birds ... 

under hu fwt, pries, si vit desous ses .\j. pies, deus oisiaus qui le 

soustenoient et le portoient si tost et si isnelement com 

comes on board nul oisiol peussent plus tost uoler. £t qusLid il vint a 

inakM tjie Agn of la uef, si s*aresta, et commencha a faire le signe de la 

the cro4S, and ... , . . . , 

ukea up water lit saiuto crois sour la mer, et prenoit a ses deus mains 
bands, I'iaue de la mer, sans dire mot. Et li rois Tesgardoit, 

si se meruilloit moult durement qui il pooit estre, et 
aprinkieaUie pour quoi il faisoit chel arousemc/it par la nef. Et 
quant li hom eut touto la nef arousee, si parla au roi, 
et si li dist, ** Mogdanis ! " Et li rois se meniilla mot/It 
and t«iis the Kin? qr/ant il s'oi apieler par son non de baptesme ; Si re- 
fender siaiukt««. spondi, " sire : " Et li boins hom li dist, '* Je sui tes 
deifenderes, tes garans, apres ihf^u crist. Je sui sa- 
who<e c'inrrh he lutcs, chil en qui uou et en qui honeur tu as establie la 
liche cgliso en la chite de sarras ; si te sui venus con- 
sillier et conforter. Et si te mande li aigniaus par moi, 
and that the Wolf chil qui eu'* t'auisiou t'aportoit les boines viandes ke 
away li lous te toloit, chil to mande par moi, pour chou 

ke il veut ke tu le saches mieus ke tu as le leu uencu. 
Et che fu par le signe de la crois ke tu fesis sour toi, 
quant tu te veis si eslongie de la roclie. Lors te laissa 

' There is no break in the English MS, but it goes straight 
on with the new subject of Celidoyne in prison, p. 309. The 
copier of it must have left out a column or page of his 

■ MS XIV. E. iii. leaf 41, back, col. 2, at foot 

* MS chil en qui est. 


li leus ; che fu li dyables qui s'enfui, qui deuant wm the Dero, 
t'auoit tolues toutea lea boines viandea ke li aingniaua 
t'aportoit ; Ch*estoient lea boinea parolea ke li horn de 
la nef te diaoit toute iour. Chil home eatoit li aigniaua, <md that th« 

Lamb who 

qui en t'avision t'aportoit lea boinea viandea. Et broaghthim 

. -i«ii>*> !• •!• meat was Jaana 

sachea que en eat cnia aigniaus qui pour lumain lignaige curiat. 
fa cruce^ea, et ch'eat ihe^u^ cnat, li fiex de la uirge. 
chil qui chaacun iour to uenoit conforter, Chil m'a chi 


enuoiet a toi, pour deacouurir t'auiaion, enai com il le 

te demouatra, Si ke tu aachea ke ele aenefie. Tu ueia aaiastes expiaint 

. Mordreint's 

de ton neueu iaair .i. grant lac, et de che lach ai naia- vision of the 

. . n • 2^ • A f ••• t 31 xi. Lake and Nine 

soient .IX. nun. ai eatoient li .viij. parel, d un grant et streams (oh. ir, 

d'une aamblanche. £t li nueiuamea, qui tout daerraina ^ 

sourdoit, eatoit ausi grans et ausai biaua com tout li 

autre enaamble. Li las eatoit moult clera et mult 

biaua. Et tu eagardea en haut, ai veia .j. homme venir The Lake maam 

.a Son of Mor- 

qui auoit le aamblanche del urai cruchefi. Et qi^ant il dreins's nephew. 

fu deacendus a terre, ai entra el lac, toua nua pies, et 

sea gambes el lac, Et *en tout lea .viij. fluna ausi. Et [^leafiE] 

quant il auoit en tout lea .viij. fluna fait ensi com uoua 

auea oi, ai uenoit au nuefuiame; Lora se deapoiUoit 

iou8 nua, et ai ae baignoit treatoua desdena. Chil laa 

ki de ton neueu naissoit, aenefie vn fil qui de lui 

iatra; Et en lui baignera ihe^u^ criat aea pica et aes 

gambes. Che est a dire, ke il sera aouatenemens urais, 

et fine colombe de la sainte creanche au sauueour. De 

chelui istront li .ix. flun : che seront .ix. persones and the d streams, 

. . 9 suooesaoFB of 

d'omes qui de lui descenderont. Et ai ne seront il mie his, 
tout .ix. si fil, anchois descendront par droite engen- 
reure, li vns del autre. Et tout li .viii. seront auqu^s 
parel de boine vie : Mais li nueuismes sera asses de to the 9th of 

* whom 

grignour hauteche et de grignour merite. Et pour 
chou qu'il vaintra tons les autres de toutes bontes, pour 
chou se baignera en lui ihesxis cria trestous. Et si n*i 
baisnera pas uestus, mais tons nua : Car il se despoil- Christ shall dis- 

® ^ ' ., ,. , close his hidden 

lera deuant lui en tel maniere ke il h descouuera ses secrets. 

QBAAL. 20 



Of illi> IMphCW*! 

Angvl who plirat 

ADd his ho4f 
■haU work 

BaliwtM Mxt 
•zpUins why h« 
■prinkld Um 

to pntliy It from 

For Dtrllt fttf 

At nqr bad plaos, 
Xordrelna is to 
WflM wator. 

tod wh««t«r It 

la iprlnkld, 

no Davll will go. 

grans secres, cheus ke il n'ara onques descouaers a nul 
homme morteL Chil sera plains de tontes icheles 
bontes ke cors d*ome ne cuers doiuent soustenir ; Et si 
en passera tous chiaus qui deuant lui aront este, £t tous 
chiaus qui apres lui seront, qui de porter armes s'en- 
tremetront. Che sera chil de qui li angeles parla a 
sarras, quant H feri iosephe de la lanche nengeresse, 
Q»ant il dist 'ke iamais les meruelles del graal ne 
seroient descouu^rtes a homme mottel fors ch'a .i tout 
aeul.' Chil sera li nueuismes des oirs qui descendront 
del fil a ton neueu; £t si sera teus com tu m'as oi 
deuiser. Mais les grans miracles et les bieles uirtus 
qui par lui auenront en la tarre ou ses cors girra^ ne 
seront pas seues qu'il auiegnent par lui; Car a chel 
tans sera moult peu de cheus ki sachent uraies nouieles 
ne ensegnes de sa sepulture. Or t'ai auques parle de 
t'auision. Ore te parlerai de cheste nef, pour quoi iou 
Tai arousee ensi com tu as reu. La nef si fu au dyable, 
qui la sainte crois ^ncacha qz^nt tu en fesis le signe. 
Et pour chou que ele estoit soie, ne pooit il estre qui 
n*i reuenUt aucune fie, se ele ne fust mondee. mais ore 
est ele toute purefijee des ordures et des malices qui 
conuerse i ont, par I'arousem^^nt de Tiaue, qui par le 
signe de la sainte crois est saintef^jo, et par le coniure- 
ment de la sainte trinite. Ne iamais nus mais esperis 
n'i enterra ; Car il ne doutent tant nule riens com il 
font le signe de la crois et le coniurement de la sainte 
creancbe. Et se tu uiens en lieu ki soit doutables a 
entrer,'si* pren de Tiaue, et si le purifie tout auant par 
le signe de la sainte crois, et en apres par le coniure- 
ment du pere ei du fil et du saint esperit. Et par 
cheste beneichon sera I'iaue toute netoie et mondee de 
toutes ordures. Et en quelco/iqu^s lieu ke ele soit 
espandue par boine creanche, ia dyables no sera si oses 
qu^ il aille, anchois fuira tous iours le lieu, ei eslongera. 
En cheste maniere fai ; si porras estre seuis ke ia, en 


lieu ou ta le fkclies, dyablos n'ara pooir de faire nule 
chose a ton cors poor quo! Tame de toi soit dampnee." 
A tant se teat 11 sains hom, si s'en pai'tL £t 11 rois xordrrina itayt 

in the ihip. 

lemest en la nef ensi com vous Taues oL si se taist ThetaiegoMto 


atant 11 contes de lui^ et parole de nascien. 


Of NASOIEN& How, when he was imprisond, the cursed 
Galafere had charge of his lands and him and put him in 
a dark dungeon (p. 307), bound him hand and foot, and 
also oonfind his young son Celidoine, whose name means 
* g^ven to heaven ' (p. 308), and at whose birth at mid- 
day the sun disappeard, and the moon and the stars shone 
clear (p. 308). On the 17th night of their imprisonment, 
Nasciens dreams that a hand strikes off his chains. Ha 
feels that he is free (p. 309). A light shines, and a fair 
white hand lifts him out of prison (p. 310), and leads him 
out of the castle of Calafere (p. 310), who pursues him 
(p. 311). Nasciens is protected by the Hand (p. 312). 
Calafere falls from his horse (p. 313) and is found, 
stampt on the right cheek with an angel*s hand, and on 
the left with his foot (p. 314). Calafere orders water to 
be thrown on his right cheek (p. 315), and is then carrid 
up to the battlements of his castle, from which he orders 
Cielidoine to be thrown (p. 317). When Celidoine is in 
mid-air, nine hands catch him and bear him o£f (p. 318). 
Vengeance on Calafere is proclaimd from Heaven. A 
thunderbolt strikes the castle, and Calafere's body flies in 
pieces (p. 319). The reports of his death, and of Nas- 
ciens^s deliverance, get abroad ; the barons go to Queen 
Sarraoynte to ask pardon for imprisoning her brother 
(p. 320) ; and she sends five messengers out to seek him 
(p. 321). 

CHI endroit dist U contes, ke nasciens fu mis, en 
tel maniere com yous aues oi, en la prison. Et 
si le prist en garde chil chit^akis mescreans HowC^Aftrehu 

. ehargeofNas- 

qoi estoit apieles calafier, Et ki tant estoit desloiaus et ei«na in priaon 

traitres comme H contes a deuise cha en arriere. Et 

par le consel de chestui fu 11 pris, plus ke par tons les 

autres. Ghis ch/ualers le prist en gaide sour toute se 

t«rpe auant, et sour la vie aprcs. Et qv^ant il Teut en 

sa bailliey si fu moult orguilleus vers lui, et lui fist darkdongMn, 



■Bd dialiM him 

and alio {rata In 
priaon with him 
hla yoimg Mm. 

whoM n«m« wu 

that la, * giTtn 

and at wboaa 

at mid-daj In 


tha aan baeama 
aaat dawn. 

and tha moon 
andatara ahona 

motdt dare prison et moult felenesse. II fa mis el 
fons d'une fosse noire et tenebrouse. II fu destoornes 
de touts la eompaignie et del solas as gens. H manga 
pen, et but H ne se pooit aidier de nol menbre qtie 
il eusty Car il auoit les mains aasi enchainees comme 
les pies. Toutes eures estoit d'une senle contenanche, 
sans estre desuestus'ne descauchies ; anchois gisoit par 
nuit en sa reube et en sa cauclieuie. . £t quant il ot 
mis en si angoisseuse prison, encor ne li fu il pas asses 
de lui tourmenter. Ancbois fist ke il ot .i. sien iil 
ensamble o lui qui motdt estoit de iouene eage, Car il 
n'auoit encbore ke .vij. ans et .y. mois . Chil estoit 
mcmlt biaus, et moult sambloit estre de gentil Hgnage 
estrais ; Si estoit apieles el baptesme ' celidoines.' Et 
chil nons fu moult bien eonuenables a Tenfant, selono 
la vie ke il mena puis ; Car ' celidoines ' vaut autrestant 
a dire et a senefijer en latin comme ' dounes au chiel ; ' 
Car il eut toute sa uie son cuer et s*entente mise en 
celestiaus oeures, £t sent d'astrenomie tant com nus en 
pent plus sauoir en boine entension et en droite. Et a 
son naissement auint en la cbite d'orberike une moult 
grant meruelle qui n'estoit mie acoustumee a auenir. 
Car il nascui en .i. moult caut iour d'este, et mult biel, 
en droit miedi. Et si fu el secont iour des kalendes en 
iunget {aic). Et quant il fu nes a tel eure com youb 
aues oi, Si auint chose tout maintenant, ke li solaus, 
qui en sa grignour colour deuoit estre, a chel eure 
s'aparut ausi apertement com il fait au matin quant il 
lieue ; Et la lune fu ausi clerement veue comme s*il fust 
nuisy ei les estoiles tout ensement En che fu chertaine 
senefianche ke il serroit de toutes les celestienes uirtus 
curieus et encherkieres et urais counissieres. Par 
icheles demoustranches fu la natiuites a Tenfant sene- 
f\je. Et il fu raisons ; Car sa vie fu puis tele com la 
senefianche demoustra. Et les paroles qui chi ap7'e8 
venront en esclairont la verite. 



and this Child, had Calefere In pr/sown fere 
Fill xvii dajes In that Manere.' 

So it be-happed, that the Sevententhe Nyht 
As he there sat, I telle the Eyht, 4 

Vppon his Cowche to Slombren hym list, — 
he was so hevj, what to don he Nyst, — 
and as he was In his Slombrenge, 
hym thowghte he hadde a wondir Metenge, 8 

So that hym )>ouhte An hond there was, 
that be bothen Armes him held In that plas ; 
and, As A man that Slepte ful sore, 
the hond he wolde han put Awey thore ; 12 

and the Same hond him Cawht Ageyn, 
And Ajen In his Slep« he it voided ful pleyn. 

thanne thowghte him that the hond tho 
alle his Chenes to-barst vnto, 
Mochel mawgre Of him that there lay, 
Where-Offon he hadde A ful gret fray. 

and whanne he felte that it was so, 
Nethir Cryen ne speke ne myhte he tho ; 20 

thanne Abasched was he ful sore 
Of the noyse that he herde thore. 
and whanne that vpe he gan him dresse, 
and felte him Self Owt of distresse, 24 

hyse hondes & Feet he gan drawen him to, 
and Felte vnbownde that he was tho, 
and that Alle his Chenes to-fom him lye ; 
thanne thanked he god ful Solempnie. 28 

Whanne he was Comen to the presown doro, 
That ful blak and dirk it was to fore, 
there Cam Owt tho A schyneng lyht, 
as thowh it were of A lyghtenyng so briht ; 32 

thanne loked he Aboven his hed, 
And him thowghte he sawgh In })r/t steil, 

* Chelui enfant eut calnfier en prison auoeo son pere 
nasoien. 8i demoura nascienii bien .xvij. ioura en tel prison coii\ 
Yous auea oi. — A. 

Thl> Oalldotiifl^ 
Oalafore IcMpt lu 
IiriMa wltii Nm* 
oient tar 17 days. 

On tiM 17th night 
KMctona drHtms 

16 tmnU hiadialns. 


Uiai he's Aw, 

and eoQiM to thi 


A white hand 

fttNB htftTtllf 

with and ami. 

Owt of the hevene there Aperid An by 
A fair whit hond, hym thowhte Trewlj, 
Whiche that him bar, as him thowlitey 
and Owt of that preson there him browhte 
Sowfe : the arm, Bed as feer it was, / 
as thike tyme him thowhte In that plas, 



una NaKim oot Whiche bond him took by his her, 

ofUMpriton by '' ' 


and bean him 
throagh iha air 

to Calaf^re'i 



and Owt of that prraown bar him ther ; 

and the sieve lokede as be semblaunse 

As Red as fir with-Owten variaunce ; 

but nonthing Ellis ne Myhte he 8e, 

but Onlyche the bond there Sekerle, 

Sowf be tlie Arm, him thowghte, I-voluped was 

the semblauuce of a body In that plas ; 

but the body Openly ne was not sein, 

As I sey jow In Certein ; 

and In this mariero sawh Nasciens tho 

bond and body to-Gederis bothe two. 52 

And whanne that Aboven the Erthe he was there, 
that the Erthe he felte in non Manere, 
Wondirly Abasched he was Certeinlye, 
that what to done he Ne wiste trewlye. 
and thus the hand On lofte it bar him thar, 
that he ne wiste whedir-ward ne ^har, 
Wheche that groved him Nothing, 
Nethir hire ne there In non thing ; 
Nethir be the beryng Of his her. 
It Greved him ryht nowher. 

and whanne In the Eir he was so bye, 
that Onue-the to y preson he myhte sen trwlye, 
fane lad him forth this bond In bye — 
lik as this storie doth vs to vndirstond fullye — 
tyl he Cam to-fore Calafer, 
In his bed as he lay Sleping ther. 

and whanne to the dore that he gan gon, 
A^ens him it Opened there Anon, 





OH. XXY.] 



bothe dore posteme, and Ek the gate, 
and Owt this hond lad him there-Ate ; 
and Euere to fore the hond wen^, 
& he it folwede with good Entente 
til the Maiflter Gate that he was past, 
Whiche gate gan to Chirken In hast, 
as though A man hadde ben there 
That Owt hadde stalked for drede & Fere. 
Whanne Nasciens was thens A stones cast, 
A3en he lokede Anon In hast ; 
anon him thowghte there In his Mynde 
that Al On fyre It wt^ him behinde. 
and whanne the peple Of the plase 
Aspiden that it On Fire wase, 
Gret Noise thej maden, and deolf ol Crj, 
Wherwith Calafer Awook Sekerly, 
and Open he fond bothe dore & Gate, 
As Nasciens was gon Owt there-Ate, 
anon thanne to the presown dore he wente, 
that Al Open there was veramente ; 
Wondirlj abasched thanne was he tho, 
that vndir hevene he liiste what to do. 
On Of his Seriawntes he Cleped Anon, 
and bad him Into p* presown to Gon ; 
and whanne y presown he was with-Inne, 
Of Nasciens ne sawh he ne^r more ne Mynne ; 
and whanne Calafer herde tellen Of this, 
Owt Of his wit he ^as with-Owten Mis, 
and so gret Sorwe he gan to Make, 
that Nena^-e Man gan so On take. 

thanne was browght to him An hors there, 
and Into the Sadel sprang Calafere, 
With a scharpe Swerd On honde ; 
and Al his Mejne that there gonne stonde, 
hem he Charged Aftir to hye, 
Euery Man be his weys sekerlye ; 

72 ThtHudlMuIfl 


Ifaadcnt ttiroofrh 



Calaftre, finding 
that KaMtemi hM 





ridianftir him. 





bat the Hand 



brighter than 

Calafere cannot 
And Naacieoa. 

So that a path there fond he Anon, 

And In-to that path gan he to gon, 108 

& Evere was the hond Schineng to-fore, — 

a Wondirful liht As him thouhte thore ;-^ 

the nyht, Pesible and fair it was, 

Ke A softere Kyht neuere there Kas. 112 

his hors he prekid wondirlj faste, 
& loked forth to fom hem atte laste, 
and saugh where that Nasciens wente, 
for him he knew ful wel veramente, 116 

as he him Often to fome hadde sein, 
him thouhte it was he In Certein. 

and whanne Kasciens Say him come thanne, 
Anon wax Nasciens A ful sory Manne ; 120 

but Evere the hond him held ful faste, 
And him Ouer spradde there In haste, 
that Openly thowght tho Nascien 
the body to the hond Sawh he then ; 124 

and so faste him thowhte it took him ther, 
that Neuere Erthly tonge Cowde telle Er ; 
For it Was Of so M«*veillous Clarte tho, 
so ful of bnhgtenesse, & hot Schineng therto, 128 

that In the hattest day Of the jer 
f* Sonne not so briht is as the body was ther, 
Not be An hundred part Of Clemesse ; 
this putte Nasciens In Moche sekemesse. 132 

but Natheles ful wondirfulli sore Adrad he was, 
that he fyl In Swowneng In that plas, 
So that nethir he ne saw ne felte non thing, 
So sore was this Nasciens In Swowneng. 136 

thanne prekid ful faste this Calafere, 
and loked Abowtes bothe here and there, 
and In plase where ^ai he say Nasciens ; 
But tho was not he In his presens ; 140 

and Evere Abowtes he loked faste, 
and Nothing he ne Say til at the laste, 



that Alle the weje & al the plas 

there As him thowhte that Nasciens was, 144 

him thowhte it was On flawmeng fer^ — 

As him thouhte that tymes Calafer ; — 

And the Arm that was voluped In Cloth so Bed^ y 

him thowhte it bronneng fer In that sted, 148 

that so wondirlj Sore Abasched he was, 

that for AUe the world he ne dorste In that plas 

Kot Ones Owt of his Sadil Alyhte, 

but down i swowneng he fyl anom Ryht. 152 

For Of this Merveille so Sore Abascht he waSj 

That ded I swowneng lay he In that plas. 

thus lay Calafer long In Swownenge, 
and homward his hors ful faste Bennenge 
From the place that he Cam fro, 
A gret pas homward gan he to go. 
And whanne that the peple of the howshold 
this hors thus Comenge Gonne beholde, 160 

And here lord was left behinde ; 
this was gret wondir In here Mynde, 
and Siker wenden here lord hadde ben ded, 
be Comeng Of the hors In that Sted. 164 

and whanne it Was On the Morwe lyht of day, 
Echo man Of his Meyne wente his way 
For to seken hem with here powere, 
jif Ony Of hem myhte him fynden there ; 168 

but they ne Cowde weten In non Manere 
What weye that took this Calafere. 

but it happed, As they sowhten bo)>* to & fro, 

th« Arm !■ bani« 

•nd flail off hto 

156 Tht hofw gaUopt 

Next mofninf 
CalaAre'a men 

that somme of hem there gonne to go 
Into the weye there that he lay ; 
Whiche was to hem A gret Afray, 
Whanne they syen here Lord \er^ ded. 
To Alle here syghtes In that sted ; 
There they gonnen him vp dressen Anon, 
but foot On to stonde hadde he neuere On ; 


and find him 



thow A man scholde han smeteA Of his bed, 

he ne myhte meven non lyme In that sted. 180 

cdftta^tflMit and than behelden they In his face^ 

rfftewUkftiM^ And On the Riht side ^ere waa a apace^ 
As it were the forme Of An hond 
that him hadde towched, I yndirstond ; 184 

ud on tiM Ml And On the lefte side hem boohte they aye 
the fonne Of A foot wel Sekerly, 
that loyned to the hond it was, 

tht hMdHDMk M Wondirfully Red In that plas, "^ 188 

As Owt Of the Forneys Comef» flawmea of fire ; 
So thowht h^m the Markes of Calafere ; 

tho tMUurk ■• ibut Only the Mark that Of the foot was. 

Aa blak As pich waa In that plaa : ^ 192 

and his Nose, as ys it waa Cold ; ^ 

Al thus his Meine On him gonne behold* 

For whanne he waa Comen to his Ostel, 

and Ada wed he was Echo del, 196 

he cowde wel tellen Of Al thing, 

Where-Offen he hadde gret Merveillyng. 

odaibft'o BMB and whanne they him fownde In thia Maasre, 

boar him booM" 

wudB, they gonne him dresse bom forto here, 200 

but In gret drede they weren Echon 
botboMithor that membre ne Meven Myhte he non — 
nortpMikA. Nether Eye to Opene, ne mowth to speke ; 

lo ! thus god On him Nasciens gan wreke ; — 204 

but Sekir they wende he hadde ben ded, 

For Of him ne Gowden they non Ojier Bed. 

And thus they boren him In this Haneie 

hom to his plase with drede & fere, 208 

that neuisre spak word be Al the weye^ 

ne)>6r Eye ne Opened Certeinlye, 

Ne Nethir foot ne hond myhte to him diawe ; 

this was to hem A wonderful Sawe. 212 

■— ' Bt li flains del pie estoSt tout ansi noin qom est |)oifi. 
Et 8l ettoit |1 QoizB ausi frois oom est glaoha; at 11 Tennaus ert 
ausi eaoi oomme fut. — A. 





and wliaime to his hows with him they Come^ 
Wif, Child, & his Mejne Al & some, 
Abowtes him gannen to drawen wel faste, 
and AUe Of him weren sore Agaste, 
that ded In the plase he hadde I-be, 
Ke non Othir thing Of him ne Cowde they se ; 
So that In A bed they dyden him leye 
Al so Eselye As they Cowde Certeinlye ; 
and alle, gret Mone Abowtes him they made, 
For there nas non that Oper cowde glade. 

And whanne it was abowtes the Koon, 
Wondirly to Cryen he gan fere Anon ; 
and his wif to him Ban ful fiutOy 
as a womman that hadde gret haste, 
and wondirly Sore A&ayed jhe was 
Of his noise sche herde In that plas. 
And whanne he of his swown^ng Awook, 
he Opened his Eyen, & gan vp^ to look ; 
and abowtes him thanne he loked pai« faste^ 
and water bad bringen At the laste, 
Forto qwenchen that fer so stronge 
that In his £ue hadde brend so longe. 
thanne Konnen forth his Seriawntes Anon, 
And Aftir water they gonne to gon, 
And Gasten it On bothe Sides Of his face 
To quenchyn ^* fyr in )Kit place, 
thanne it semed to hem Eo^richon 
that thike side was brent In to y bon ; 
And the bon, As whit it lay ^ 
lik as doth Chalk In )>• Clay ; * 
And the flesch that was fere Abowte, 
It semed ful Hosted with Owten dowte. 

' i. e, Boulder-drift clay ; saoh, for example, as Ib well 
near Blj, where, by a great down-throw faul^ the ohalk having 
been brought to the sur&oe, Bubsequent denudation out away 
the great oliff bo formed, and a new deposit, in which the pieces 
of chalk are Boattered about like suet in a badly made plum* 
puddingy filled the hollow. — H. Seeley. 

in bad. 

224 walM^udcrlt^, 


waltr to qifttneh 
tbt bnrnliig of 
tht hand-mark 


240 tetttlftanitc 

which looka Ilka 





Im iwoom* 

Ht la wroth at 
Ida conlag 4aaih. 



And, on flndlnf 
that ha la not 

ohlan Celidoyna 


And thanne the lefle Side they gonne beholde^ 
wheche pat was bothe blak & Colde, 
Of wheche he myhte sufiren non towcheng 
For non good Of Erthly thing ; 248 

and whanne y water On that side they gonne to caste, 
A wondirful Cry he made atte laste, 
& with that he fyl In Swowneng, 
So that Of lif of him hadde non man supposing, 252 
but that fully ded he hadde I-be 
£u6re wit7/-0wten Ony Recou<5re. 

and whanne Of swowneng he Cam Agayn, 
his Eyen Opened he thanne Certein, 256 

and seide, & pleynede him wel More, 
and seide that deth negheden him wel sore, 
thanne gan he to wrathen Anon, 
And seide, " schal I deyen thus son, 260 

that thus am fallen In Maledye, 
and neuere In better poynt I was trewlye 
to han lyved be jeres and be day ; 
and now I trowe I passe my way ;" 264 

thanne Cursed he the tyme that he was bore, 
that In Swich manure Scholde deyen thore. 

thanne whanne he was Awalced wondirly wel, 
after Nasciens Enqwered he Every del 268 

thanne they Of his howshold ful Snelle 
Of him non tydinges ne Cowden they telle, 
Nethir tokene ne Signe In non degre ; 
and thus him they tolde thanne Certeinlie. 272 

and whanne that he herde this tyding, 
Anon he ill A^en there tho In swowneng. 

and whanne Of his swowneng Awook he pere^ 
he Comaunded Anon pat In Alle Manere 276 

Anon Nasciens sone to-foren him bringe, 
and he scholde tellen him newe tydinge. 
And whanne to forn him this Child gan gon, 
Thanne seide this Calafer to him Anon, 280 


* That On him he wolde Avenged be, 

For his fader from him wente In that degre ; 

and for his deseisse he Suffred therfore, 

On hym Avenged he wolde ben thore.' 284 

thanne Comanded Sire Calafere 
that Child Anon forto Slen there, 
thanne fil down Calaferes wif Anon, 
and prejde him this thing not forto don ; 288 

"and 3if Algates 30 welen him Sle, 
In presoun stille so let him be, 
and Bathere hym Enfamjne there, 
thanne him to slen In this Manere." 292 

And he that was ful Of Coruptioun «^ 
as Ony tigre, Other wilie lyown, 
Owther Ony Other Savage beste 
that han non Resoun, neper lest ne meste, 296 

' but algates On him Avenged wolde he be, 
thowh that him self there scholde [him] Sle.' 

thanne Cleped he his Seriawntes AnoTi )>6re, 
And Comau»ded ]^at In to p* towr they scholde him here 
In his bed ; Al so sik as that he was, 301 

he wolde be bom In to that hye plas ; 
and he Comanded Aftir him to bringe 
Nasciens Sone with-Owten tarienge. 304 

and they fulfilden his Comandement ; 
him they Tpe boren verament ; 
and Aftyr hym, Celidoyne, Nasciens sone, 
For hym they maden ful gret Mone. 308 

and whanne this Celydoine was vp6 I-browht, 
Calafer, this Terant, for-gat it nowht 
there that Child forto spille. 

Wit venamous herte & £vel wille. 312 

thanne Anon his seriawntes he gan to Calle, 
And Comanded the Child to throwen ouer the walle, 
that with his £yen he myhte it sen. 
For sekir non Othirwise ne scholde it ben* 316 

•ad fwean hell 
tak« Tengttaiiee 

00 him. 

Oilaftrt't wir« 
prtya him not to 
km CaUdoyiM, 

tmt he deeUrM 


Qp the tower uf 

and ordm hie 
men to throw 
Celidoyne off it. 



throw OvIidojM 
orar tiM tatU«- 


9 •nov'^rhlta ^^ 
hMidi OBtoh him. 

and bear him 

Wberfore deol & Sorwe they maden Echon 
For that dede that they scholden don ; 
but they ne doiste not Oflfenden hia Comaojideinefity 
but Anon it fulfilde there present 320 

they token ype this Child Anon, 
And leften him Above AUe p* werk Of aton ; 
and whanne Calafer him Sawh so hye, 
down him to Caste he bad hem hye ; 32i 

Anon hiB biddeng fulfil they there, 
and threwen him down In here Manere ; 
thanne this tyraunt gan vp to Rise 
To sen this Child taken his I-wise, — ^38 

So fill he was Of Crwelte 
As Evere Ony tyraunt myht be ; — 
And whanne y Child was Middis his faUynge, 
AUe Aftir him loked with-Owten tanenge, 332 

and wende that to y Erthe he schold haue gon, 
and his lemes to-borsten Everichon ; 
but Anon As that they lokeden Owte, 
they sien ix. hondes that child Comen Abowte, 336 
that lik As Snow they weren so whit — y 
Whiche to soimme Of hem was gret delyt ; — 
and this Child they henten Anon 
In this Maner tho Everichon, 340 

two hondes to the Ryht Arm they wente, 
and tweyne to y left Arm veramente, 
tweyno to the left leg, & tweyne to J»* Ryhte, 
and On to hed Openly In here syhte ; 344 

And. In this Manure these Nyne hondis 
browhte Celidoyne Ow[t] Of Califeris bondis 
With-Owten Ony Of the Erthe towching : 
this was to Calafer gret Merveillyng ; 348 

and Evere he lay and beheld ful faste 
tyl that the Child was fer from him paste ; 
and whanne this beheld Sire Caiafere, 
that this Child was boren so fer, 352 



Tot aorwe be fil In swowneng Anon. 

thanne Owt Of that towr Gan fer gou, 
of wondiiful dirknesse gret plente, 
that non Of hem Mihte Oper there se ; 356 

and aftir this dirknesse there spak A voyssOi 
that Alle they herden A wondirful Noisse, 
that ' to him whiche was Goddis Enemy, 
yeniawnce to him scholde Neyhen ful ny.' 360 

and Anon As this word was seide there, 
Ful wondirfol Noise, & In dredful Manere. 
It Gan to thondren & lyhtene ful faste, 
that semed Al the Eyr scholde to-berste, 364 

and that it were ful domesday ; 
thus weren they Alle In gret Afiray, 
So that Alle the Meyne that weren there 
Forsoken here lord Calafere 368 

that stille lay swowneng In that tour; 
hym they forsoken with mochel dolour. 

And Anon As from him they weren I-went, 
A Fyr from hevene Com there prraent, 
and Of that towr hit smot the left partie 
down Into the Middes ful Sekerlye, 
In whiche partie that lay Sire Calafere. 
So yeniablely was he Slayn there, 376 

that Er to the Erthe he Cam A-down, 
the pecis of his body fledden In-virown, 
and non of his Other Meyne 

hadden non harm In non degre, 380 

Sawf Only for drede In here syht, 
that In here hertes they weren Afryht ; 
for CrUtened thei weren Everichon, 
and Chosen his plesaunse to don, 
and to the Trenite they hadden hem take. 
And forsaken Alle the develis so blake. 

behold what God wile for his man do ! 
him kepen from Evcl for Evert? Mo ! 388 

Thick darkiMM 

A toIm prooliUitts 

Tengeanot agiUntt 
God*t aiMray. 


A ufV^MK fnJIll 
^ bMT«n tplita the 
372 toftofthsTovtr, 

Onlaferv't body 

Hit Chrlttlim 
attendanU art 
384 not bait. 



And thusy now As 30 han herd herQ told, 
paste this Calafer, that was So bold, 
From worldly lif to Evere-lastyng peyne. 
As this storie thus doth vs to seyne. 392 

NtwoftiM and thus sone thorw al the Contre 

ckns ud Gill- this word gan Springe Certeinle, 

how that Nasciens Owt of preson was goa — 
Where-Offen weron glad ful Manion, — 396 

And Of his Sone Also there, 
how that he Aschaped, & in what Man^T^e. 

And whanne Saracynte herde Of this tydyng, 
Ful loyful sche was In Alle thing, 400 

And beleved it ful Certeinlye 
that it was thorwh goddis Mercye, 
and thorwh him they weren vnbownde 
Where so Evere they weren that ilke stownde ; 404 
Wei wiste sche be Crist it Was I-don, 
Alle these poyntes thanne Everichon. 

TiMBHwithMr thanne Alle the Barowns that Of b* Hem were, 


To Sarras to qwene Saracynte Comen there, 408 

Whanne they wisten the trewthe Of delin^raunce, 
That Nasciens was happed Swich A chaunce, 
and Of the veniaunce Of Calafere 
That God Sodeinly On him took there ; 412 

thanne thus they dowtcd hem Everychon, 
lest Grod veniaunce hem Wolde senden vppoii, 
For here fals Wil and Conceiityng, 
Of Nasciens & his sones presoneng. 416 

and oom« to thanne Gomen Alle to the q weene Anon, 

•toaM to Sanv 

ejrnM and Griden hire Mercy Everichon, 

that hire Brother £n-prIsoned so was 
their oonMnt to be here Gonsentyn In that plas ; 420 

CaUr«r»'a ooobmI 

to iropriMa And seydeu ' p\t it was Only Al & som, 
Only be Galaferis ymaginacioun ; 
Wherfor, God hath veniaunce on him take 
Openly, As we knowe?!, for Nasciens sake.' 424 


and for they Syen that God Of his Myht 

hadde schewed swich miracle to AUe Mennes siht, 

there-fore Mercy they gonne to Crye Th« Baron* erj 

To qwene Saracynte ful lowlye : 428 enwity ioNm- 

" Now, goode lady, joure brother don seken je, "■ 

In what Contre that So Evere he be, 

And we scholen putten vs In his Mercy — 

bothe Owre bodyes, & Owre Good pleynly, — 432 and offer to mak« 

"^ * r J J» atonement for it. 

With V8 to done At his plesannce, 

To what presown, or to what Noisaunce." 

and whanne qwene Saracinte herde hem thus seye, sarraqynte 
Wei gladed hire herte was Certeinlye. 436 

Anon sent sche Messangens fyve, wnd* flv« Maa* 

And Charged hem Alle vppon here lyve, 
And took hem I-nowh of gold & Fee, 

& Charged hem to Serchett In Eche Contre, 440 forharbrothar 

Al 80 longe As Good & hors wolde Endure, 
To sechen hire Brothir sche made hem Ensure ; 
And for non man Schold han hem In Suspescioun, 
lettres Enseled with Good Entencioun, 444 with lattan 

Enseled vndir hire Owne Sel, 
the bettere men hem to knowen & leven wel ; 
And In that lettre dide sche don wryte 
As wel as that sche Cowde Endyte, 448 

Of hire lordis Avicion Certefyenge, deaeriung Mor- 

pat he hadde the Kiht to-foren his goynge. (p. 2»-sn). 

thus the Messengeris here leve took, 
that lome to done, & it not forsook ; 452 

Forto fulfillen hire Comaundement, 
Alle forth they wenten with good entent. 

Now Mosten we leven A while this storye. 
And to Anothir Storye We Mosten hye, 456 Tha story tarna 

to Naadana'a 

Whiche that Certefieth Of Nasciens Wif, wia. 

That leveth In Wo, bothe Sorwe & stryf. 

6RAAL. 21 





Of Nasciens's wife, Flegentyne. How beautiful and good she 
is (p. 322), and how Bbe loves her husband. She is 
dispossenst of her lands (p. 823), and takes refuge with 
an old trusty knight, Carsopinea, to whom she has been 
kind. He puts his goods and life at her disposal ; 
but she sorrows for htT lord and her son. Queen Sar- 
racynte asks her to come to her, that they may comfort 
one another (p. 324) ; but slie refuses, so Sarracynte goes 
to fetch her. When tlicy meet, their grief bursts out 
afresh (p. 325) ; but tSarmcynte recovers first, and en- 
treats Flegentyne to return with her. (p. 326). Flegen- 
tyne again refuses, saying she must stop with her old 
knight Slie still sorrows (p. 326), till she hears that 
her lord, Nasciens, and her son, have escapt out of prison 
(p. 327). She dreams that a voice says they are in the 
West ; and a2«ks a provost of the church what her dream 
means (p. 328) ; then she asks the old knight (p. 329) ; 
and he advises that they set out, with his son Helycaora 
as their yeoman, to seek Nasciens and his son (p. 330). 
Flegentyne agrees (p. 831) ; the knight gets money, &o. ; 
and the three start (p. 332), with four horses, towards 
Sarras, journeying westwards (p. 333) : they come to the 
river Arccuse, lodge near the Castle of Emelianz (p. 334), 
and enter Calamyne (p. 335).' 

Thus this Storie forthere gynneth precede, 

that whanno Kasciens to preson gon they lede, 

and his sone thero-Inne with him I-do, 

Whiche was to him bothe peyne & wo, 4 

And al his lond I-sesid it was tho ; 

and his wif Owt put Of Euerj plas also, 

that an hy born wom»?an was, & of good lyvenge, 

and therto here fadir was a kynge. 8 

this lady was So ful Of bewte. 
For a fairere wora^Tian Myhte now man ee, 
for thus Of hire telle th the Story e, 
womim that ever that more bcwte haddo Bche Sekerlye 12 

thanne Alle the wommen Erthly bom 
that Evere Ony Man Sawh leveng beforn ; 

* In the Additional MS. 10292, this chapter— or rather, the 
illustration at the head of it — is headed " £nsi que .j. cheualier 
amaine j enfnnt a la duchoise le femme nascien ; " and Hely- 
caors is represented as a smull boy. 

NMciens'i wlft 

most beautiful 



And to these bewtes ache hadde bownte, 
Cortejs and gentil In Alle Maner degre ; 
lowlich to Every Creature, 
and large to God, I the Ensure ; 
and Ajens hire lord & Soverein 
debonewre & ful trewe Certein, 
and Chaste Evere In his Absence, 
bothe humble & Mek In his p'6sence ; 
therto sche him louede aboven al erthly thyng ; 
Non wondir thowh this lady made Morneng ; 
For so gret sorwe & momeng sche Made, 
that non Man ne Myhte hire herte glade. 

thus was the Condisciown Of this lady fre, 
as ^e han herde Hehersed here be me ; 
and this ladyes Name was Flegentyne, 
A ful worthy lady, and A benyngne. 
Wetes wel, whanne sche hadde knowenge y* 
that hire lord was In presown I-do, 
Ful gret sorwe sche took to herte. 
And Manie peynes sche hadde, & smerte. 

and In the moste Sorwe that sche was In/ie, 
This false Calafer ne wolde not blynne, 
but putten hire Owt Of alle hire londis, 
and be-Eefte Clone Ow[t] of hire hondis. 

thanne was this lady At Orbery tho, 
In fill mocbel deseisse sche was do ; 
and thedir here lome tho sche Mad, 
Weneng hire lord Owt Of prison han bad ; 
but Euere Calaferis Conseyl was presente, 
and for nothing thereto wolde asseute, 
As this Storie here After doth telle 
Al to-gederes how it be-felle. 

and whanne pis goode lady say it was so. 
That* husbonde Child & lond was argo, 
thanne was sche In passinge Momyng 
Whanne sche herde tellen Al this tydyng ; 

16 She U ttietn& w m , 

20 tnie, and duttto. 

24 She moorna for 


Her name !• 


36 CalaferitorM 
her out of all 
her landa. 


and prerenta her 
getting Naeciena 
out of priaon. 


48 [I MS Than] 


eoDdults an old 
TAvaaour (uiidei^ 
vassal) CaraopinM 
(p. SS2, 1. S&3}, 

whom ihe tnuU 

He pats himself 
and his goods at 
her senrloe. 

Qneen Sarniqmte 
prays Flegentjne 

to come and sor- 
row with her. 

Thanne wiste sche neuere what foito do ; 

but to An hygb good levere sche drowh hers ynto, 52 

An old vauasour, A fiil gentil knyht 

that Inne sche trosted with AUe hire Myht, 

For norre he was to hire sone so dere,^ 

that him tauht bothe norture & Manere, 56 

and sche hadde him Encresed Also, 

From poverte In to worschepe I-do 

And him joven to-fom that Owr 

Manie lowelis of gret honoure ; 60 

Wherforo In him gan sche hire Affye 

Aboven Alle Other tho Sekerlye. 

thanne flcgentyne to thys vauasour wente, 

A sorwcful womman, and ful dolente. 64 

and whanne this vauasour gan hire Aspie, 
that it was his lady Certeinlye, 
Anon with herte, body, & thowht, 
he thanked God ^at thedir hire browht, 68 

And Resceyved hire ful worthily, 
As his lady & soverein ful debonerly, 
With herte, Body, & Al his good tho. 
At hire Comandcment to ben I-do. 72 

but Evere this lady hadde In herte 
hire lorde, hire sone, that dide here smerte, 
Wlieche sche lovede Ouer Alle thing. 
So that to hire myhte Comen non Comforteng. 76 

Thanne the qweene Sarracynte, hire soster dere, 
To flegentyne sente In this Manere, 
and preide here, ' for Alle Gentelnesse, 
For sosterhed, & for Alle kendeuesse, * 80 

and In slakyng Of hire peyne & wo, 
that sche wolde Comen hire vnto, 
that Ech of hem Other myhte Comforte, 
and Ech In here Angwisch to Other Hesorte.' 84 

* et chil auoit este tous lours mBistres a son fil. — A 
p. 332, 1. 336. 




thanne Flegentyne thanked here of hire message, 
as womman that was of high parage, 
and hire preide ^fat sche sholde not with hire mysplese, 
For to here it ne were nethir Comfort ne Ese ; 88 

Sethen J)at with hire lord sche hadde loye & honour, 
It is worthi be hire selves to sufTre peyne & dolour ; 
For I ne Am not to good therto, 
For my lord to suflfren bojj* sorwe & wo ; * 92 

and In this Manere sche sente to Say 
To qwene Saracynte this ilke day. 

and whanne the qwene herde of this tydynge, 
that Flegentyne wold Comew for non thinge, 96 

Sche wente hire Self, In hire pey-sone, 
that lady to bringen Owt of hire Mone, 
So that this Sarracynte wente forto seke 
this duchesse Flegentyne that was so meke. 100 

and whanne to-Gederis Metten these ladyes trewe, 
thanne gan Alle here sorwes Eenewo ; 
to Grownde bothe In Swowneng fille, 
that non Of hem Myhte speken Other vntille ; 104 
For so gret sorewe they Maden bothe, 
that to f* peple Abowtes it was ful lothe ; 
For Grettere Sorwe Sawgh neuere Manne 
than^ be-twene the two ladyes was thanrie ; 108 

Ful mochel was the Cry & the weping, 
that be-twane hem two was, & y Momeng ; 
And longe it was £r they myhten Speke, 
Ojjer Ony word Eifer myhte Owt-Breke. 112 

jit Atte laste this qweene Sarracynte 
Of hire Momeng Som what gan to stynto, 
And, Ab a wis womman and a Eedy, 
To this dwchesse sche spak ful gentelly, 116 

And hire sche peyned In Alle thing 
To Restreynen hire from weping, 
And spak ful goodly to this dwchesse, 
hire to bringen Owt Of hire distresse ; 120 

thanks Sarra- 

bat declines to 
come to her. 

So Queen Sarra- 
cynte goes to 

Both ladies 

[1 MS that] 
ciyi and mourn. 

Tlien the Queen 
comforts Fle- 

Sameynte ■ftala 
bflga Flagttntyne 
to go honM witii 





■tay with 




and In the Ende scbe preide hire So 
that 8che wold with hire Go, 
'' And 8wich Comfort I wolde )ow ma^e. 
For my dere brothir ^ouxe lordis sake 
that we ben so mochel bownden to ; 
)if pny Comfort to jow Cowde I do." 

but this duchesse, this lady froi 
Kolde therto Assente In non degre» 
and Excused here f ul ladyly, 
" that In non Othir felischipe tiewly 
thanne In that yauasour, that Olde knybti 
ache nolde not Comen be day ne be nyht; 
and Ek to hire were it worschepe non 
From that yauasour forto goon. 
For my Compenye he Nele forsake, 
Ne I ne may his, Anothir to take ; 
For In his Compenye have I be 
Sethen myn Exil was put to Me, 
and In his Compenie I wele Abide 
Tyl to my ducherie A^en I Come som tyde. 
For, goode lady, moche lasse deseisse Suffice I here, 
thanne In 30wre Compenye jif I were, 
For nether Of ys Other Myhte sa 
But Owre sorwe Ajen renewed scholde be, 
Ne nethir Of ys Of Ouie lordis to speke, 
the Sorwe wolde maken Owr« hertes breke ; 
to heren Ony thing Of here deseisse, 
In Alle thinges it scholde ys Misplese ; 
and therfore, Myn Owne lady & Soster so dere, 
haueth me Excused In this Manere," 

Ful Mochel hevynesse & sorwe made this qweenne 
Whanne that sche Sawh it wold not bene, 152 

and that the yauasour sche nolde forsake, 
Ful mochel sorewe sche gan to Make, 
and that sche nolde for non preyere 
With hire forth gon In non Manere. 156 


wtra the with 

the torrowef both 
of them would 



en. xxvl] flegent'yne hears of nasciens's escape. 327 

And whanne non Other wise thanne Myhte it go, Qa««ii sanaeTnft 

homwardes a3en thanne tonied sche tho ; 

and to hire Self sche Made gret Mone 

that y duchesse no?i Otherwise wolde done. 160 

And Every day thus ferde this qweene, 
that sorwen & Weping made bedene ; 
and thus ferde sche ful Manye A day, 
that Man ne womman hire Comforten may ; 164 

And Evere beleft this duchesse stille Fieg«ityn« 

remain! with 

Vfith the vauasour, As it was hire wille, cwsopinei. 

And Evere hire Sorwe was lich newe ^ 

So good sche was, & Of love so trewe, 168 

that Neuere man ne non wo7nman 

In that digre myhte ComiovUsn hire than, 

til that it fyl vppon A day Then the heue tff 

.^ , , 1 M 1 ' r^ i^vrk Nftsdeni's esctpe, 

that tydynges to hire Come» verray, 172 

that Nasciens, hire lord So fre, 

Owt of prisoun was skaped Certeinlie. 

and whanne Of this tydinges herde sche telle, 
Somme Comfort In hire herte befeUe, 176 

and better Semblaunce sche gan to Make, 
that hire lord Owt of preson was take ; 
And aho that hire Sone so dere «nd CeUdoyne's 


Was Asckaped In that Manere. 180 

So it be-fyl that the seventhe Nyht on the 7th night 

After that Nasciens owt of presown was dyht. 

And as In hire bed that Niht sche lay, — 

and hadde not slept ful mani A day, 184 

What For gret Mone & for Weping, — 

at the last sche fyl In A slombering, 

So, what for weping & werynesse, 

hire herte hadde longe ben In distresse. 188 

And as sche lay In hire Slombering, 
Sche thowghte sche hadde A Merveillous Metyng ;^ ehe dreams 

' Ensi com el« BoumiUoit si li anint vne auisioDs. — A. 



VmcImis befbri 

Ulllng htr that 

he is in a Ikr 
eoontiy to the 


■be goMto dmnha 

and then beg* 
a dean (?) to 

pray Gkidto 
teU her the 
meaning of her 

Sche thouhte ache Say In hize Avisiown 

Kasciens hire loid, botbe hcd & sowiii 193 

stonding to fore hire bed there, 

that to hire Seide In this Maneie : 

" Swete soster, sixt thow not Me 

that thus here stonde to fore the 1 196 

Into a fer Contre I am I-browht, 

thorw him that vs alle hath bowht^ 

Into a place fer be weste, 

there that goode lord liketh beste ; 200 

wheche plase & weche Contre 

he hath me Ordeyned In forto be, 

and there my seed forth forto bringe, 

hym to worschepe & honourenge." 204 

and On the Morwen whanne sche Awook, 
Gret merveil Of this Avisioun sche Took ; 
and In as moche As sche hadde non ful knoweng 
Of that Avisions Signefieng, 208 

the firste werke sche dide tho, 
To holi chirche sche gan to go, 
there forto heren Goddis Servise, 
As Everi day it was hire Gyse. 212 

And whanne Alle the Servise was I-do, 
Anon to A provost sche gan to Gro, 
And told him Of hire A-visiown, 
how fat it was, Al & sown,^ 216 

And preide that provost, for Charite, 
For hire to preyen to the Trenite, 
* that he wolde senden hire som Tokeneng 
Of that Avisiouns Signefieng.' 220 

And thus sone sche tomed Ageyn 
To [the] vauasours hows In Certein, 
that hire Comforteth As he Can, 
For to hire he was A ful trewe man. 224 

* For ' al k som ; * see 1. 39^. 



thanne this ladi this yauasour In Cownseil Gan to Fieffentyne teu« 

^. ,. CanopinM her 



and him tolde how that hire it gan be-falle 

In hire Avisiown this Othir Niht ; 

Al him sche tolde Euene Owtriht. 228 

thanne Answered this vauasour to hir« Ageyn, 

" that theke Avisiown in Certein — 

be the helpe of God and the holy Eoode — 

Scholde here tome to worschepe & goode ; 232 

Neuertheles, lady, vndirstonde je Me, 

that I wele ben Eedy in Eche degre 

to fulfillen joure Comaundement 

In alle degrees, And joure Entent." 236 

and whanne the lady herde of his benyngnete, 
In Alle things that so profred he, 
For loye In herte sche gan to wepe, 
that of hire he took so gret kepe ; 240 

thanne Answerid sche, " with herte & wiUe, 
And myn preceptis thow wilt fulfiUe, 
the behoveth with me forto^ go 
Into what plase that I preie 30W to." 244 

thanne Answerid this vauasowr Ageyn 
to that worschepful duchesse : '' Certein, 
^e ne Connen not Seyn, ne Comaunden me, 
that I nel fuliille In eche degre 248 

Evere As ^owre Owne pore Bedeman." 
And thus to hire the vauasour Seide than, 
'' And what Gompenye that sche wele have, 
I schal 30 w gete to bringen 30 w Save." 252 

thanne Answered the lady tho, 
** that Gompenye wele I no mo 
but Only ^oure Owne Sengle persone ; 
We tweyne to gederis to gon Alone ; 256 

For I wolde kepen it So prevyle 
That non lyveng man wiste but I & ^e." 

' MS forto to 

•nd uk> him 

to go with her 
whither the wilL 

do to. 

She wiihet to 
tain no one elie. 


Thanne Answerid this vauasowr : 

•n^yiM to takB '' iAdy, I desire ^owre Grete honour ; 260 

I wele 30W telle now my Cownsaille, 
^if Owht to jowre wit it May Avaylle^ 

hitdtaiMm Myn Eldest Sone with vs schal go, 

with totm M 

tbdryMinMi. jif je thinken best that it be so, 264 

and stonden vs In jomannes Ser^e, 
In what degre that ^e welen him devise. 
And wete 30 wel, that In Certeyne 
he wolde Sufifren As moche peyne 268 

As Ony man here myhte Endure, 
jow to plese, I jow Ensure ; 
but^ lady, take je this speche in non swich degre. 
In Ony thing that I scholde wrath then the, 272 

but that I wele ben Kedy bothe Nyht & day 
To don thing that 30W plesen May, 
And for jow to sufTren peynes & Owtrage 
As Ony man May don Of My Age. 276 

8h« ought to But, worschepf ul lady, vndirstonde 30 me, 
that it Fallet nouht for jowre degre, 
With-Owten A servauwt forto gone 
Into Ony plase, 30 & I Alone. 280 

and 3if with-Owten Servaunt pat we go, 
And Ony mysaventure Come 30W to, 
Goode lady, how scholde I jowe be-welde, 

Mhe,CuMpiiiei. that Am an Old man, Sc smeten Into Eldet 284 

bold, ^ 

and whani?e we Comon Into Ony straunge Contre, 
and Ony mys- A venture befalle to Me, 
and hu Km eta thanne my Sone May don vs bothe Ese, 

lady, bothen 30W & Me to plese. 288 

and how so it stonde In Ony Other degre, 

3oure Man & Servaunt I wil ben sekerle ; 

And my sone schal ben Owre Servaunt, 

lady, 3if 30ure herte Mo we perio grawnt ; 292 

and I as non knyht ne wil not be, 

but as 30ur6 Servaunt In Eche degre ; 



For what deseisse that I Safifre may, 

for 30W I wele doa Every day. 296 

Kow that je han herd myn Entent, 

Of }ow now wolde I weten present 

how that 30 thinken be this CownsaiUe, 

jif it Ony thing to 30W may Availle ; 300 

for, lady, ful fain weten I wolde, 

jif that to this Cownseil je wolden holde." 

thanne Consented that lady ful wel noitntyne agrees 

to take Cano- 

To this knyhtes Cownsail EverideL 304 pines'i son. 

Thanne bespak this^ lady Anon, 
" Sire knyht, I wold that we weren gon ; She bege him to 

■tart at once to 

For In loye schal I neu^e ben Sekerlye MekNaaeiaua, 

tyl that my lord I se with bodily Eye, 308 

therfore this viage now wele I go, 

jif God his wille with me wile do ; 

but I ne wolde for non worldly good 

that Non Creature it yndirstood, 312 

but Onliche thi self, thi sone, and I, 

Of this purposeng now trewely." 

" lady," Seide this vaoasour thanne, 

*' that ther nys leveng non Erthly Manne 316 

that more gladly this viage wil vndirtake 

thauTze I wele, for my lordis Sake ; 

and this Cownseil to 30W I wolde han seid be-fore, 

but that Of on thing me dredde fill sore, 320 

that me 30 wolde not haven In Compenye, 

And this I dredde ful Sekerlye." 

thanne preide Anon this lady so fre, «nd provide 

money for tbeir 

'that Anon Eedy he wold be, 324 joomey. 

And him Silver & Gold to Ordeyne, 
And what sche myhte sche wolde hire peyne, 
For bothen pore & Naked was sche Mad ; 
that Of Al hire good but Utel sche had.* 328 

Keuerthelea this Olde gentyl knyht, 
To his power dide Al his Miht, 

> MS this this 



Canoplnw g«tt 
money aiul 

■nd toOt hb wrth 
that FlflgmtjiM 
ii going to nt 

OanopUiM, tnd 
ab ■on HiljoMn 

•tart on their 


and purveiod him Of Gold Sc Of tresowr, 
and of Mani A lewel of gret valowr ; 
For At that tyme more hadde he 
Thanne Xasciens and flegentyne Certeinle. 
Of this the vauasowr dide Moche thing, 
be Encheson Of hire sones Norscheng.^ 

And On the Morwe whanne it gan dawe, 
this goode lady was f ul fawe ; 
anon to Chirche sche gan to Oon, 
As hire Olde Custom was to don ; 
And whiles that sche At Chirche was, 
this vauasour to his wif told the Cas, — 
how that his lady wolde go 
to visite qweene sarracynte tho, — 
So that here Sadelys he did Owt take, 
and here hors Eedy forto make ; 
and as sone as sche from Chirche gan gon, 
to here hors they wenten Anon, 
bothe the lady and the vauasour, 
And Ek his sone In that stowr — 
hos Name was Clepyd helycaors,' 
A semly pcrsone Of Membris & Cors ; — 
and his Fadir Carsopines hyhte ; 
An Awnciel Man, and A vfiiliaunt knyhte. 

Thus this lady took leve tho 
At the vauasours wif, & forth gan go ; 
So dide hire howsbonde & hire sone In fere, 
and wenten forth with Meri Chere ; 
But this vauasour wolde not In non wise 
to his wif discoueren liis Servise, 
and that he Scholde non ferthere Go 
but to Sarras, to the qweene tho. 









* Car naaoiens et la douchoise I'auoitot moult enrichi, pour 
ramour de lor fil ke il nourriflsoit. — A. 

* St Bes flex li aisneti, qui estoit apieles hel icons, che dist 11 
oontes. Et ses peres auoit nom corsapias. — A. 


For Flegentyne hire wolde Se, 

What Maner of Comfort with hire myht be ; 364 

For non Othirwise ne dorste he do, 

For his lady Comaunded him so. 

thus sone iiij hors weren browght forth there, 

And Anon they thre weren horsid In fere, 368 

and the fourthe hors the Somer bar,^ 

the weche wherto was Ordeined thar, 

that was Charched with diuers Mone, 

With hem to have In Eche Contre. 372 

And whanne Owt Of that town they paste, 
Streiht to Sarras they tomed Atte laste ; — 
and thus dide the vauasour tho. 

For they scholden Sen hem toward sarras go ; — 376 
and that weye helden they ful Eyht 
til they weren A Mile Owt of f* peples Siht. 
thanne bespak this vauasowr tho, 
and seide, " lady, how wele ^e now go 380 

For to Seken My lord & ^oure, 
Whiche that is Man Of honoure ; 
For I suppose In Min Mynde, 

je ne weten in what Contre him to f3mde ; 384 

and Sethen that ^e knowen non Certeinto 
In what Contre that he Scholde be, 
So Mosten we Seken be Aventuit) 
In what Contre to fyndcn him Sure." 388 

" For sothe," quod the lady Ageyn, 

" I n' wot nenere Into what Cuntre Certein 

Sikerly him forto fynde — 

My worthy lord So Goode & kynde ; — 392 

but In As Moche As that he tolde Me 

' that westward Algates Scholde he be,* 

(thus thowhte me In Myn Avisiown 

that he Seide Al & Som ;) 396 

' et li quars fu vns soumieSi qui tous estoit cargies de 
deniera mounees, et d'or et d'argent en plate, et de vaiasele- 
mente moult riclie et moult biele. — A. 

th«ith bMuing 
th«tr lofgaipi. 

TImj lint take 
Um Sams road. 

■nd thm Cnrvo- 
piiiMMka whither 
they sbftU turn. 

Westward, s^ 




rtT«r AracttM^ 

thatroni towarAi 

At nif ht tiMj 
next Um CmU* 
of BiDcUaoi, 

and In the 
morning Joiim«j 

(on aecoant of 

tlM SutUWDt) 

Wherfore weatward, I telle it the, 

My herte falleth Most he Scholde be." 

thanne torned they Aweye On y Byht bond. 

And thua sone a water there they fond ; 

Anon ful sone that water they paste. 

That toward Orbery Ran In gret haste, 

Whiche water * Arecuse ' was Cleped tho, 

that to Orbery wardis wente tho. 

So longe they Eeden til it was Eve, 

For the sonne hire lyht began to leve, 

thanne was sche At hire owne londis Ende, 

thike gentil lady so good Ss hende. 

And there here In they token Anon,^ 

In a Rial plase of lym & of ston 

that next the Castel of Emelianz stood, 

that marched ' next to ])* d wchie On fai flood. 

And On the Morewe ful Erly sche Ros, 
And In hire weye forth sche gos. 
For that Aparceyved sche ne wolde not be, 
for sche was there at 8wich poverte ; 
and sche dide it be good Resoun, 
•For Al that Contre there In-virown, 
they werew Saradynes Everichon, 
and hatede alle GrLstene be On & On ; 
and Ek hem Of Orberi & Of Sarras 
these Saradines hatede In Every plas. 







' Si prisent ostel de mult haut euro. — ^A. 

' borderd : * qui marchisoit a la duchee qui estoit apieles 
emelians/ — A. 

*— ' Car cbil de chel chastiel, et de tout le pais enuiron, 
estoient sarrasin; si haoient chiaus de sarras et d'orberike 
pour ohou qu'il s^estoient crestiene. Et quant il orent chel 
chastiel eslongie remire de .v. lieues, Si entrerent es vaus de 
calamin'e, en vne terre qui mult est plentieueuM de nart et de 
cjmamome et de basme. Tant esrerent ke il vinrent au tierch 
lour a vne chite mult riohe, qui auoit non * lussane.* Si estoit 
maistres sieges del roiaume le roi de meocide. — A. The names 
are < luisance * and < meotide * in Addit MS 10,292, leaf 29, 
ool. 3. 


thanne past tliej forth owt of that contre tho, 
And Into Calamyne they gonne to go.' 424 to catamyiw. 

Now Of this dwchesse here leveth this stone : Thewwei«Te 


And to the Messageres we Mosten hye, 

that Sire Nasciens Sowghten Every where, 

In Eche Contre, both fer & Nere ; 428 

^but fill longe it is, I vndirstonde, 

Er that these Messengeres Sire Nasciens fonde ; 

And how Nasciens fond his aonge sone ■«* t«™ *» 

^ her hiuband 

that with him in presown was done ; 432 NaMtou«. 

wherfore, of Al Erthly thing, 

For his wif <& him was his Momeng.^ 


Of Nasciens on the '* Yl TameamU" How the hand bore 
Kasoiena to a TumiDg Island, the name and nature of 
which it is the duty of the History to expound (p. 337). 

[The exposition accordingly in the French MS. only. 
At the beginning of all things, when Gk)d sepamted the 
four elements, he set the heavens above the earth and sea 
as a covering (p. 337), as they were contrary to one an- 
other, the heavens being hot and light, the earth cold 
and heavy. And because the foul earth toucht heaven and 
dirtid it, Qod divided them, making the heavens clear and 
warm, and the earth cold and heavy. The dross of the 
elements, the rust of the earth, and the sediment of the sea, 
could not mix with earth and water, nor with the heavens, 
for they were foul, and the heavens pure (p. 338) ; and the 
flame from heaven could not return to it, as being cor- 
rupted. (So little from the air was in the mass, that it 
need not be noticd.) Therefore, as the mass could not go 
to any ous of its element-sources, fire or heaven, earth or 
water, it stopt in two, earth and water. For God willd it 
should be in the sea ; and because one part was from 
heaven, it swam lightly (p. 339), and floated into the 
Western Sea, between Ovagrive [MS. au a griv^l and Ti- 
ger*s Harbour, where was great store of Adamant or Load- 

*— * Et ne-pourquant anchois ke il die des messages, contera 
11 ooument nasciens vint el lieu ou li message le trouerent, et 
comment il trouuerent oelidone son fil, ke il auoit laissiet en la 
maison calafler ; dont ses cuers estoit plus a malaise ke de nule 
riens viuant 


■tone, which Iotob iron aboye all things, and will not leaye 
it when it onoe gets hold of it, unless it is obligd to. So, 
when this mass of shakings came to the place of the 
Adamant, it stopt And its heavenly heat made the whole 
mass light, and the mass remaind in the sea, and was oalld 
an island. But no herb or tree or beast or bird was on it 
Also the isle tumd every time that the firmament or 
heaven tumd ; and this is why it was calld Tl Tomeawnt 
(p. 340).] 

How, when Nasciens awakes from his swoon, he is 
much abasht, but still stedfast in his belief, like Job (p. 
841). How he bears all his troubles as patiently as Job, 
and thanks God (p. 842). How the Turning Isle is 
barren and very hot, and Nasciens is weary and bruisd, 
and so lies do¥m to sleep, making the sign of the cross 
(p. 843). He sees in a vision white birds (p. 843), and 
two come to him, and tell him to fly. He perceivs that 
he has wings. The birds come again, and ask him 
for his heart to eat He givs it them, and they rejoice 
(p. 344), and speak to him. On awaking, he feels the 
isle trembling, and hears a marvellous battle in the sea 
(p. 345) ; the Adamant and the Firmament trying which 
will turn the isle, and the Firmament winning (p. 346). 
One end of the isle turns down, and the other up, 
\ ' though it is eighty miles round and fifty-seven long 
(p. 347) ; which is no lie, for this Holy Story was written 
by Christ with his own hand (p. 848) ; and He never 
wrote anything else but the Law for Moses, and the 
Judgment on the Adulterous Woman (p. 848) ; which 
latter is explaind (p. 348-9). Then " what clerk is there 
so hardye that dar sein . . openlye that God sethen his 
uprysinge . . made ony wrytynge sauf . . this blessid stdrye 
of Seint Graal?" If any allege the contrary, ''they 
lycn ful pleyn" (p. 350). 

]^ow this Stoiye ginneih forth to telle. 
Of KascienB how that tho befelle, 
that how the hond^ him hadde I-bore 
thens As Calafer was forlore. 4 

The hand bor» thanne the hond Sire Nasciens Bar 

Kaflcienstoan r^ y 

Isle iu tiM Wmi Into A ful straunge Contre thar ; 

Whiche Contre was A Merveillous plas ; 

For An yl In the west Se it was, 8 

' A cloud, in the French : < Ore dist li oontes chi Sndroit, 
ke quant la nue en eut porte nascien iusc^a la v oalafier Teut 
aconsieui— ensi com uous l*aues oi deuiser cha aniere el conte, — 
Et que calafier fu cheus pasmes pour la paour de la nue ver- 
melle, et ke li cors qui dedens la nue estoit eut calafier signie 
cs .y. ioues del seing mortel, Apres che enporta la nue &c.*— A. 



that xiij lomes it was of lengthe' 

tbens As Xasciens was In y presown of strengthe. 

that yl was Of sweche a fame, 

For * yl Tomeawnt * was the name ; 12 

For be Ryht Resown it is So, 

for Ofer whiles it Tometh bothe to & fro ; 

but In As moche as that the Cause why 

Of his Tomeng nis not knowen verayly — 16 

Of AUe tho fat there of don speken, Other Rede, 

they ne knowen it not In word ne In dede, — 

thcrfore Resoun & sckele it were 

that this Storye Rehersed [it] here ; 20 

for, Of £che thing that is Of dowte, 

be it Reherseth Er he passe Owte, 

and bringeth it to Clere vndirstondyng 

to Every Mannes wit, bothe Old & Jong, 24 

As )e Scholen here In tyme Comcng 

bow this storie declareth Every thing. 

'Orre repaire la parole, et raconte la droits maniere 
del isle ou nascieus fu portes, ke li paisant, si com ie 
Yous ai dit, apielent ' Tisle toumoiant' II est ucrites 
prouuee, ke au commenchement de toutes choses, quant 
li establissieres del monde deuisa et departi .iiij. 
elemens, qui deuant estoient tout en .j. monchelement, 
et en vne masse; et il ot le chiel, qi/i li escripture 
claime le fu, deseure des autres trois^ qui de toutes 
dartes est plains, et de toutes netetes; il I'establi el 
plus haut lieu, Car il en fist couuerture a tons les 
autres, et closture. Et pour chou ke 11 chieus, et li 
airs, et la terre, et Tiaue, auoient este en vne masse, Ja 
fust chou ke li vns fust contraires a Tautre, si ne pooit 
mie estre ke li vns ne fust enuolepes de rautre, et en- 
loes des diuerses manieres qui en chascun lieu estoient 

* qui estoit bien .xiij. ioumees loins del lieu ou naaoiens 
auoit este en priBon. — A. 

* MS XIV E iii, leaf 45, ool. 2, middle. 

QRAAL. £2 

The UI« it 17 
dajs' Journey 
from CaUfere's 

and i« ealld 
btcauM it tunia 
npilde down. 

taming shall ba 
told at onoe. 
IBui Tkt 
Storg l0ave$ it 

The hlatory of 
tha riTome- 

At tha baglnning 
of all things, 
whan Qod separ- 
ated the 4 

he set the heavena 

above the earth 
and sea 

as a covering. 

as thcj were 


to one another. 


and the tarth 
oold and iMavy. 

tb« heaTeiM bdof Car 11 chieus estoit par nature cans ^ legiers : et la 

hot and li«ht, . « ' 

terre eetoit par nature froide et pesans. £t par che 
puet chascuns counoistre, ke en aucune maniere se 
aentoit li chieus de la froidour de la t^rre, et de Tiaue 
autresi. Et chil doi s'entrcsentoieut en aucune guise 
de la grant calour del chiel. £nsi poes entendre les 
controrites des vns et des autres qui s'entrenuisoient, et 
ne se pooient souifrir. £t de che qtte la terre qui 
pesans^ est, et froide, et amassemens d'ordure^ touchoit 
au chiel qui est legiers, et cans, et fontaine de toutes 
netetes ; de che auint qiie il en quelli onlure. Si commQ 
amassement de t^rriene ferrume et de la rieule^ de 
Tiaue autresi. Et quant li souuerains peres, qui est 
fontaine de toute sapiense, eut Tun departi de I'autre^ 
et desioint, si mist le chiel en sa droite hounour, et 
amena en sa droite^ honour, et amena en sa droite pure 
nete[t]e; Car il le fist cler, et luisant, et legier, de 
toutes calours plain ; Et la terre laissa froide, et pesa»t, 
et en fist amassement de toutes choses pesans. Et 
qf/ant il eut le chiel netie et monde de la terriene fer- 
rume, e/ de la rieule de I'iaue ; et il ot escousse la terre, 
et leue de Tarsin du cliiel ; Chele ferrume terriene et 
chele rieule euage ne peurent mie naturelma^zt conioin- 
dre a la terre, et a Tieue, dont cles estoient issues. Ke 
chele celestiene ardure, et chil rieulemens qui de la 
terre et de Tiaue furent escous, ne peussent mie honeste- 
ment repairier a si haute chose, et a si nete, com est li 
chieus; Car il auoient aucune take co^ncuellie do la 
terre et de Tiaue, qui sont amassement de toutes ordures ; 
Et li chieus, che sues \ou8 bien oi, est de toutes netetes 

•arth toQcht 

and dirtid it, 
{htlng a VMM of 

God divided 

making the 


dear and wann. 

and the earth 
oold and hmrj. 

Having pnrgd 
the heavene of 
their droea, 

the met of the 
earth and the 
■edinient of 
tlie eeaoould 
not mix with 
earth and water, 
nor with Uie 

flbr they were 

and the heaveni 

* MS pensans 

' '* It is obvious that rlettle here must mean either ' scum * 
or ' sediment* I have no doubt that it is the latter, from re^ 
gnluB^ l^T, regnle^ the ohemical term for * metals separated from 
other substances by fusion.' — Worcester. 'The pure metal 
which in the melting of ores falls to the bottom of the crucible.' 
— Webster. Trevoux gives rieule as the Fr. form of the proper 
name JUgulna,'' — Hensleiou Wedgwood. * MS droise 


plainB. Et pour chou, par droite raison, ne deuolt iius 
d'auB repairier la dont il estoit issus; Ne la te^Tiene 
ferrume a la ierre ; ne la rieule euage a Tiaue j par 
cliou ke aucune legieroto, et aucune calour^ auoient con- 
cheue del chiel. Et pour chou ke Tarsins del cliiel ne «nd the flame 

. ,., .. ,, ' 1 'J. . t ' from heaven 

pcut au chiel repairier — comme chele qui estoit entecliie oooid not ntum 

des.vilenies de la t^rre et de Fiaue, — p<9ur chou couuint 

que ches .iij. choses repairaisscnt a une masse. Et m being 

. ... corrupted. 

pour cuou ke aucuns ne desist, 'ausi estoit li airs amon- 
cheles com chil troi ; pour quoi n*on parole dont chis 
contcs V 11 eel uoirs proues ke auoec dies trois escous- (^ nttie from 

the air WHS in the 

sures ot aucune chose de 1 air ; et a die s acorde hien maw, 

li contes. Mais il dist, ke si petit en i eut, ke ia pour that it need not 

chel mestier n'en deust estre parole tenue. Eiisi com 

vous aues oi, ropaire?et les .iiij. parties a vne masse qui 

des .iiij. elemens furent escousses. Et ix>ur chou qite Tiicrefore, aa 

thla maMf 

cliele masse ne puet naturelment 'repairier a nul de 

ches .iiij. elemens, par le raison ke li contes en a aiiakenoutor 

the four elemeiita, 

deuisee, si conuint ke ele fust en coiitenchon. Et si fu 

ele sans faille. Car, tant com il i auoit de fu, che est could not ro to 

del chiel, fu ele legiere, et entendi a monter en haut ; eiement-aouroes 

Et tant com il i auoit de la ierre, apesanti ; Et de tant eartiTor'vXr; 

com ele se senti de Tiaue, si fa moiste et crollans, Et 

pan puisa. Mais de Tair i eut si petit, ke ele n'en quelli 

nule forche. Et pour chou ke toute la pensantume^ 

des .ii^. elemens est en la terre et en Tiaue, et ke chil 

doi recuellent touted les pensantes^ coses, par che it atopt in two. 

^ , , , . t earth and water. 

remest ele a ches deus, en tel maniere com yoiia ores. 

II fu verites prouuee ke par la uolente et par le plaisir For uod wiiid 

It ahoiild be In 

de chelui a qui toutes choses sont obcissans, chei chele theaea; 
masse en la mer. Et pour chou ke ele traioit en vne 
paHie a legierete, selonc che ke ele se sentoit du chiel, and becanae one 
qui est tres legiers, pour chou uoa ele legierement, ne beavinttawaiu 
n*eut pooir d'aler au fous.* Eu cheste maniere noa ele 
grant pieche par la nior, ke onqoes en nule poi-tie ne 
* leaf 45, back. ' So in MS. 


■nd flo«t«d Into peat prendre arestement, Tant ke ele yint en la mer 

the Wcatorn Scft, ^, . ^ n* i •* i • t» 

between oregriTe d occiuent, entro 1 isle ouagnue et le port as tigies, £n 

f for ouofrHme^ vne partio de chele mer qui est entre chel isle et cbel 

Harb<wr7 P^^» ^ grant plente d'aimant el fons^ auaL Et vous 

rtorTorAdlnumt ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ arriere, ke li contes dist ke tant cam il ot 

orLoMUuuM, ^^ ^^^^.j^ ^^ 2^ masse, Si estoit terrine^ ferrume. Et 

wbieh cbele pierre qui a a non aymans, si est de tel nature, 

«u things, ke ele aime fier sour toute riens, Et uoleutiers le trait a 

and wtu not leare H. Et se li fiers li est prochains, et ele i puet sa forche 
getahoidoru ioindre, il n'en est mie legiers a departir; anchois tire 

le forche de la pierre tant le fier a li, ke ele le fait a li 
ttnien It li touchier, Se grignour plente n'i a del fier ke de la pierre, 

ou autre ostacle par quoi la forche de laymant soit 
8o»whenthte vaincue. Qtiaut la masse dont ie vous ai parle vint 

nuM of shAkingri 

Mine to the place flotaut iusc'au lieu OU rajmans estoit, si s'arestut, Car 

of the A dementi 

It Btopt. la forche del ajrmant le retint, pour chou ke ele estoit 

ferrouse, ensi com nous aues oi. Mais onqu^s la forche 

And lu beeveniy del ajQiant ne sent tant tirer ke ele le peust a li faire 

the whole mMe ioindre ; Non mie pour chou ke il i eust grignour plente 

' '* de fier ke d*aimant, Mais tant com il i auoit de la cele&- 

tiene calour, le tenoit plus legiere ; et si le faisoit par 

andthemHB sa forcho teudre en haut. En cheste maniere remest 

remalnd In the 

eee, chele masse en chel lieu de mer, Et fu apielee puis par 

endwMoeiidui les paisaus ''isle", pour chou ke toutes les masses de 


terre qui perent en mer, et es autres iaues, par ou ke 
But no herb or che soit, sont apielees par chest non. Et pour chou 

tree or beeit 

or bird vu ke ele se senti en grant partie de la nature del chiel ; 

pour che auint il ke onqu^ point n'i crut d'erbe, ne 
arbres ne beste n*i porroit durer, ne oisiaus. Et auocc 
Aieo the iiiie chesto maniere a ele encbore vne autre, ke ele tient en 
that the Arm*- cbclo nature ke ele a du cliiel, ke toutes les fies ke li 
OT*heaventamd. firmameus toume, et risle toume ausi tout cmn li 
And this Is why firmamcns, che est li chieu^. En tel maniere toumoie 

it was oalld Ti » r^ * . i • t 

Tomeawnt. Tisle com VOUS aucs 01 : Or nous a li contes deuise la 
raison pour quoi li paisant Tapielent ' Tisle toumoiant.' 

» Fo in MS. 


Into this yl Siie I^asciens the hond bar, 

& him In Swowneng be-left thar, 

As man that hadde lost bothe wit & Memories 

For * y wondirful sightes that he to fore sye ; 

For he ne wiste Certeinlye 

Where he was, ne in what partye. 

Anon the hond thens departid thanne, 
And ]N'asciens there lay as a ded Manne j ^ 
And whanne Of his Swowneng Jere Awook, 
he lift vp his £yen, and Abowtes gan to look ; 
it Nas non nede him to Eefreyne 
Whethir he were Abascht Certeine, 
but Evere his herte stedfast was 
In his Creaunce, swich was his gras. 
For Al the drede he hadde Suf&ed be-fore, 
3it God him wolde Asayen wel more ; 
For him weren Comeng Many tormensse, 
jit wolde he neue?*e to his God Offensse, 
Nether for loye nefer for ille, 
but Euere In his Creawnce belefte StiUe, 
And Evere In his torment stedfast was 
As was lob In Every plas, 
that In his lif hadde So moche Richesse, 
So Moche welthe & worthynesse, 
and jit suffred he witli herte & Minde, — 
As A Man that was to God ful kynde, — 
poverte, Misseise, and Ek distresse, 
Angwich, temptacions, & Siknesse, 
And in poverte vppon a dong hil lay ; 
jit herde pere neuero Man Into this day 
that neu6re with his Mowth he seide Amys, 
Ne Grochched Ajens his Creatour I-wis. 
And lik In the same Manere tho 
Suffrede Xasciens bothe Angwisch & wo ; 
"With goode wille & debonowre herte 

* par les meruelles ke il suoit veues. — ^A. 

The Hand bean 
Nudeiu to the 
28 Torninglale, 


and then goes, 

leaving him In a 
dead evoon. 

36 Hewakea, 

and ie abashtt 
bnt keepeflm 







and l> as eted- 
fiwt as Job^ who 

•itibrd wlUlnglj 


and laj on a 


KMeteMtoflbfB, Suffmle he many Angwisches smerte, 

but neT«r 

grumun agyiMi and neuere to his God made he grocbchenge, 


Nethir for tormentis ne non Othir thinge. 64 

And thus to him Self he gan to Speke, 
And to him self his herte gan breke, 
only Uunki H:m And seide, ** lord I thauket to the 

for tbo trottbto K« 

bM Mat. Of alle the deseisse thow sendest Me, 68 

For moche more, worthy I am to have, 
My Sowlo }if I Bcholde Ony wise save." 

And whanne to this yl he was I-browht 
he loked Abowtes him, & Say Ryht nowht 72 

but the £ir, the yl, and the See ; 
In ful gret Merveyl than/ie was he ; 
for how that thodir he was I-gon, 
In what Manere ne wiste he non ; 76 

And Abowtes him he loked pure faste, 

The Taming Isle & Al that yl was bareiu Sc ful waste, 

la wuto, 

and Ttry hot. End 80 stronge passeng hete there, 

that he ne myht it Endure In non Manere. 80 

thanne wiste he neuere In what partye 

Of that yl how he myht this hete drie ; 

but Euere hadde In Rcmembraunce 

Of his thedir Comeng, & Of that ChauNce, 84 

and of Celidoine his ^ongest sone 

fat with him In preson was done, 

Which that was mochel In his Mynde, 

That Gentyl Child, that was so kynde. 88 

Kudms'BumB For-broscd weren his honden & Armes to ; 

are bnilsd, 

and hit limbs his leggBs, his foot, wrowhten him moche wo ; 
his Eeynes Oken, his Eibbes they gnowe. 
So that Of tormentis he hadde I-nowe ; 92 

To the Erthe Anon ho loide him thanne, 
As A ful wcry and A-brosed Manne 
that a passing lust hadde forto Slepe, 
hof that to his Angwisch took kepe. 

thanne down he him leide, As it is told. 



In A partie Of the yl that was most Cold ; 

For ful hot somer it was wit/i-Owten let, 

the Nyntho day Of J>* kalendes (^ Juignet.* 100 

thanne his Eyht hond he left vpc there, N««cien» maicM 


and Made the signe of the Crois In good Manere, > Ctom, 

In the Name Of the trenite, 

On God & persones thre, 104 

That it scholde ben his protectour 

In alle degrees a3ens the fals deceyvour, 

Whiche is the devel, In Alle wise, 

Man to deseyven In dyvers Gyse, 108 

that to goddis beleve hath Ony lust, 

him forto tempten he desireth most. 

thanne thus this Xasciens to slepo?) be-gan, 
as for Angwichs & a wery Man, 112 

that to Slepen he hadde gret lust, 

and there him down lay As he durst ; um dow&to 

and the Mone Schon bo the fair & Cler 
vppon Nasciens that Alone lay there, 116 

that so ful wel & longe slept he tho 
as A man that gret Nede hadde therto. 
Thus slept I^asciens Al that Nyht 
Til on the Morwen it was day lyht, 120 

Where that In Avisioun him thowhte he aye andhMaVbion 

M^nreillous thinges ful Sekerlye : 

him thowhte he sawh gret plonte 
White briddes Abowtes him to be. 124 ormwy wute 

And whanne that these briddes he gan beholde, «boiu. 

In his herte he Merveilled Manifolde, 
for somme Of hem flowen wondir hye, 
and somme wondir lowe Certeinlye, 128 

and the tothir partye Of hem tho 
Prom the Erthe ne myhte not go, 
ne flen nowher from the grounde ; 

' Car ch^estoit en este au nueuifime lour dee kalendes en 
iungnet. — A. 


Where offen he MerveiUed that stownde. 132 

Two or um wuto thanne Comen there tweyne of y grettest of Alle, 

and down to the Erthe Gonne they falle ; 

At his two feet they descendyd Adown there, 
lift NMdMM Into And Into the £yr they him gonnen here. 136 

thanne whan«, ho w«. in the Mr Au hy. 
and bid him 4/. they seiden, '^Nasciens, fle forth holdly." 

thanne Nasciens him self he-gan to hefaolde ; 
HefladnhohM tho hadde he wengos that lyhtly woldo foldo 140 

and Aplyen to his flyht thanne therto ; 

}dm thowhte he was ful loly tho ; 

Al whit him thowhte his wenges were, 
and AiM. aud that lightliche he myht fleen there. 144 

thanne thus Sone him thowhte Anon 
Tho Birds iMTo that these grete hriddes weren Agon ; 

tho that Maden him forto fle so liht, 

from him weren past Owt Of his siht 148 

and then iwino thanne to Xasciens A sen thei gonne Kestore, 

And to him these hriddes Seiden thore, 

And hoiien him ' jeven hem Som Mete, 

Swiclie good As he Cowde Gete.' 152 

thanne Answerid this Nasciens A3en tho, 

" What Mete Welen je that I gete jow to, 

And I Wele fulfillen it to my power 

What So Evere it be, Ofer fer other nere." 156 

thanne Answerid the briddis Ageyn, 
and Mk him ** that neuere fulfilled scholen we ben Certein, 

Ne Neuere Eoplet with non Mete 

that thow myht 3even vs forto Ete, 160 

forhtohoart but thine Owne herte Only 

to oak 

VS on to Fede now Certeinly." 
HapoUsitoQii Anon he drowgh Owt his Owne herte, 

and the brid it jaf, and nold it not Asterte. 164 

•ndoM BirdfflM Anon the Brid Resceyved it Joyfully, 

off Joyooalj 

with it, Ss therwith flew ful fer An hy 

With ful gret loye & melodye ;^ 

' This line in the MS has the pen drawn over it 


And thus he Seide In his langage, 168 

As A brld for his kjnde singeth In a kage : * 

" Now Am I fulfild," seide this brid, 

" Of this herte As it is be-tyd ; 

For now I have browht this thing vriih me 172 

That non Wiht knoweth Certeinle ; 

For it is but A litel thing ^ 

that the grete lyown hath Offe knoweng, 

Wheche alle Erthly bestes With Membre & body 176 

Yndir him ther kepeth he Certeinly. 

and Whanne he hath Ouercomen hem Everichon, 

— thus thowghte Nasciens that he gan don — 

And Alle vndir his feet put hem tho, 180 

^it him thowhte he ne hadde not do, 

but In to the hevene he wolde than fle 

With that he hadde thanne Sekerle. 

thanne him thowhte that his flyht took he^ 184 

and that Abouen Alle Mownteynes gan to fle, 

£k the wawes of the Se, and the depnesse, 

And the hevene Entred wM-Owten distresse." 

And thus him thowhte thanne Nascien^ 188 

That to him the Brid Seide Certein. 
Thus sone his Ayisiown gan to Enden tho, 
And Al Anon wakenge he Abreide Also. 

Thanne wonderfully In his wakynge 192 

he Felte the yl Anon Tremblynge 
Aftyr the towr of the firmament ; 
thus him thowhte that tyme present, 
thanne M^Teilled Nasciens full wondirfully 196 

Of Meving Of J>* yl ful trewely ; 
and Ek Abascht Sore he was ^ 

Of that Menreil In that plas. 

thanne gan he to lifben Tpe his hed, 200 

and loked Abowtes In that sted ; 
And As he gan loken bothe two and fro, 
A wondirf ul bataille than herde he tho ; 

uyinff that he 


MnacifliM't heart. 

It ie the little 
motue that freee 
the Lion. 


And yet when the 
Lion has oveiv 
come all beasta. 

he thlnka he hae 
done nothing 
till he oan tij to 

Wing* come to 
him (the Lion), 
and he fliea into 
heaven by the 
chief gate. 

Naselena walcea 
from hie VUion. 

He fMa the lale 
•Iter the turning 
of the firmament. 


fh« LoadrtoM As biiu Semed, In the botme Of the Se 204 

Mid Air *tni|pf^ff 

tor inart0i7 »ver That like Batajle scholde be 

oo wondirful & so gret it was, 

that him thowhte the yl In that plas 

Scholde ban Sonken In to the netheie8[t] pyt 208 

that Evere was Ordeyned, Oper Mad 3it ; 

For so Angwischhous was that stour, 

So ful of tempest And Of dolonre, 

that for the grettest herted Ertbly Man 212 

In his herte scholde had drede than ; 
Eytry wtof ui» For there ^ nas non partie Of that yl tho, 
AiMfooAtnt. ^ that It ne qwakede and scbok Also / 

As dide Ony lef yppon A tie 216 

that with the wynd Mevede sekerle : 

be the depthe of the see and strenkthe it was, 

And be strengthe of y Ademawnt In ]Kzt plaa ; 

For be Comanding Of the firmament 220 

that yl thanne tumede it verament. 

Of wheche One partye he was witholde,* 

it vnknowenge to alle men vndyr molde ; 
TiMLoadstoiM but the Ademawnt hadde but litel degre 224 

Ajens the £yr, ful Sekerle ; 
hat no power For the AdemauRt hath no More strengthe 

■giOiul tbo Air ° 

A^ens the Eyr, In brede ne lengthe^ 

Thanue A lytel praty fownteyne 228 

A 30ns Al the grete See In Certeyne. 

So that be strengthe of y Ademaunt Gerteinle 
to kMp uie iiio Restreyneng of Mevyng of the yl ne Miht not be ; 

but of the firmament it hadde Alle his Myht, 232 

The Mevyng Of the yl, I sey jow Eyht. 
Now So gret was this Melle 

betwene the Ademaunt & y Eir sekerle, 
•o u dips Into that ther^ the yl Into the Se gan lawnce, 236 


1 MS they 

' Et il ooDuenoit par estoaoir que Tiale tomoiast al oom- 
inaDdemeDt del firmament^ de qui ele auoit la nature retenue 
en vne partie. — A. 



Whiche thowhte hym thanne A wondir Chaunse, 

So that the water Encresid so hye 

Into the heyghthe of the yl Sekerlye, 

So that him thowhte he hadde grettere Cold 240 

thaime hete before tymes, be Manifold. 

and whanne the yl thus Eemeved was 
Yerre Into the See be this Cas, 

Fill litel and litel it with-drowgh tho 244 

Tyl the strengthe of the Ademant was Ago, 
And tU he was In his Owne stedo Ageyn 
bothe of heyghthe & brede In Certein. 
Whanne Kasciens Felt & Sy al this thing, 248 

Ful Mochel he hadde theroff Merveillyng ; 
But he ne Cowde Aperceyven why 
that the yl So mevede tho trewly. 

thanne Anon Nasciens yp-dressed him tho, 252 
And the yl A3en gan tremblen Also ; 
Anon he beheld A-bowtes wel faste, 
& y ton bed of the yl down bowed Atte laste, 
and the io^er bed gan to Rysen fere An by ; 256 

thus thowhte him to bis sihte Certeinly. 
and jit this yl not ful litel it was, 
For with-Inne it Self it hadde A gret spas. 
For foureskore Miles it was Abowte, 260 

and Sevene & fyfty in length with-Owten dowte ; 
but Bathere More that yl was there 
thanne lasse In Ony other Manere ; 
For it is the Gyse Of this Storye, 264 

In non Manure Of wyse forto lye. 

Ful plein this Storye putteth In Mynde, 
that Al the Certeinte of Sank Eyal is hard to fynde 
for ony Man that Evere of womman was bom, 268 
As I haue 30W Often Behersed befom ; 
For that holy storye that to therthe Anexed was, 
as Scheweth the Mowth Of trowf In this plas, 
Which is Jesus Crist, Goddis sone, 272 

Th« waiar gets 

till at last th« 
I*le Is length- 
wiM on tha watar 

Than tha lato 

Ita ona and tuna 


and the otiiar 


And jH Um lala 
and B7 long. 

The Storif oftk* 
H0I9 Oraal Mnt 
down on aanh 



pttMkmlM wroU 
only twtett 

1. TiM Old Law 

B. HlaJndgiiMiil 
onUit Wooun 

written OD ih« 
ground with hit 

'Lrtlilm who 
!• gnlltlMS, 
throw the flrafe 
•tone ftt her.' 

that for V8 on the Boode was done ; 

For In him Keuere falsnesse was fownde, 

Xe neuere non Errour In non stownde. 

For ther Keuere was Creature so hardy 276 

that dorste with-sein this holy story, 

Whiche Crist him self wtt^ his Owne hond 

It wrot ys forto don to vndirstond. 

And therfore to more worschepe it scholde be take 
thanne for Ony Othir Mannes Sake, 281 

For we ne Radden neuere In non storye 
that Crist him Self wrot Sekerly 
to fom his passiown In Ony stede 284 

but In two, As we don Rede, 
Whanne to Moises he wrot the lawe,* 
and him it be-took be b' Olde dawe. . 

the Secund was whanne ]>* Jewes certeinly 288 

a womman hadden take In Avowtry ; 

For to proven On hire his dom Anon, 

With hire to-fore Jesus Gonne they gon ; 

him forto tempten In this wise, 292 

to him they hire browhte to haven I-wise. 

thanne Crist to the Erthe Euclynod presente, 

and wrot In the Erthe Er he furthere wente 

With his fynger Evene Ryht there, 296 

As Recordeth the Story thus here ; 

For Crist that tyme ful wel it wiste, 

al here Entent, and Al here liste ; 

Only to Asayen what he wolde do, 300 

the lewes this wom77ian browht him vnto. 

thanne Crist to hem tho seide Ageyn, 

** be-holdeth now here what this doth seyn ; 

Whiche that is GUtles Of 30W Alle, 304 

the Ferste ston on hire let falle." 

' Li premiers escris ke il fesist, bI fu la haute oriBons qui 
Teecripture claime I'orison notre Bignour, Ch'est le patre noster. 
Gheli eacrist il de son pauch ea la pierre, qoant il enseigna a 
ses desoiples commeDt 11 deuoient orer. — A. 

CH. XXVII.] Christ's judgment on thb adulterous woman. 349 

and In this Man^e Crist told hem here Sawe 

Forto fulfillen here Olde lawe 

that Moises hem tawhte be tho dayes, — 308 

As this holy Storye to vs here Seyes, — 

* 3if that a womrwan do Ony Avowtrye 

And with Ony Other man ligge Onlye 

thanne be hire Owne husbonde, — 312 

thus was the lawe In that londe, — 

that Anon I-stoned scholde sche be, 

Alle swicho that weren taken In Avowtre. 

ferioTe Crist wiste thanne ful wel 316 

Alle here thowhtes Every del, 
That to hym Comen they For tempteng, 
and Files Seker for non Other thing ; 
Therfore Schewed Crist hem In that degre 320 

Alle here Owne Siynnes there Openle, 
And Ek Schewed hem there In that Scripture 
Alle the lignage Of man, I the Ensure ; 
how that of so gret fowlnesse & vilete 324 

that Man was of Mad, there gonnen they se ; 
For tho wordis hadden this Mevynge 
holiche as heire to Owre vndirstondynge. 
For thus be-began this Scripture to Seye 
Al Openly there to the Jewes Eye, 
" har, Erthe ! why Art thow so hardye & so &e 
The Erthe to Acvsen In Ony degre ? " * 
this is so mochel here forto seyne, 332 

' thow Man that of filthe art Mad Certeine, 
As of so foul dong & Slym of Clay, 
that darst Owther be nyht Ofer day ; 
Why darst thow ben of sweche mevynge — 336 

Whanne thi self hast forfoted in Alle thinge — 
For to susteyne & to holde these dedis ille 
Wheche In alle degrees thow dost fulfiUe % ' 

* ** He, terre 1 pour quel ies tu si bardie ke tu aocoses, ou 
OSes aocuser, la terre 7 " — A. 

That Chrbt bad* 
tlMm Max the 
Old Lftv, 

to itone a woman 
tak«n in adultaryi 

and showd them 
their own tine. 

328 Hii writing Mdd 
to the Jew% 

' Earth, why 
darst thoQ accuse 


how dnrtt tboa 
call 111 in othera 
those deeds that 
thoa doest 
thyself? ' 


Mjr that Chrtet, 

•ino0 his fVtng, 

wrote uiythlnf 
save thla bl«Md 
■tory (or&M* 


All who Mf •▼• 



lo, in these two places ful sekerlje 340 

We f jnden that the sone of Marye — 
To fom that he wente to his passion, 
and that he vppon the Crois was don — 
thus Wrot Al this storie doth Eede, 344 

and now here In non Other stede. 

'but what Clerk is there So hardye, 
that dar sein, Other proven Opealye, " 
That God, Sethen his vp-Rysinge, 348 

In Ony plase Made Ony wiytynge 
Sauf Only this blessid Storye 
Of Seint Graal ful Sekerlye, 

Whiche that is Clepid < the Sank Byal ' 352 

Of kyng, lord, bacheler, bo]y* grot & small ; 
bo dar Sein the Contrarie Of this f — 
Non Erthly man forsothe I-wis, — 
Nethir be non devyn Awtorit** 356 

the Contrarie proven In non degre. 
And jif he Conne Aleggen Ony Oper wyse 
In Ony degre As for his Repryse, 
For A leseng it moste be taken Certeine, 360 

Of AUe Swich that it don Sosteyne. 

thanne thus May I ful boldly Seyn : 

that Oj)«i*wiae beleven, they lyen ful pleyn, 

but tliat God with his Owne bond 364 

this Storye doth vs forto vndirstond, 

Sethen that he Icfte the dedlich flesch here, 

and In hevenly Maieste was Clothed witAowten pere.* 

'— * Mais comnieDt ke il esploitast endemen tiers que il 
estoit enuolepes de la mortel char, ia ne trouereii si hardi clero 
qui die ke il onques fesist escripture puis la resurrection ne 
mats ke seulement la haut escripture del saint graal ; Et que 
vauroit dire que il, puis la resurrection, eust autre escriture 
faite de sa propre main, il n*en porroit auant traire nule de- 
uine auctorite, Et pour chou seroit 11 tenus a menteoiir. Don- 
ques di iou bien que chil seroit de trop fol hardement espris, 
qui menchoigne oscroit a croistre a si tres haut chose oomme 
est cheste estoire, que li urais fiex dieu escrist de la aoie main 
propre, puis ke il I'ot ius mis le mortel cors et reuestue la 
cclestiene maieste. — A. 



Still of Naaoiens on the Tl Ibmeanmt. He prajs to God for 
comfort (p. 852). The dsj dawns, and he sees on the 
sea a little thing like a swan. It proves to be a Ship, 
which comes to the island (p. 353) ; he walks to it as 
fast as, in his disabled state, he can (p. 354) ; and is 
going on board of it, but sees words warning him not to 
enter unless he is full of faith (p. 355). He hesitates, but 
prays to God, makes the sign of the cross, and enters the 
ship (p. 356). He looks about every where, and in the 
hold sees a white cloth, which he lifta up, and finds a 
Bed, with a Crown of Gold at its head, and a Sword at 
Its feet (p. 357); a wonderful Sword, with two beasts' 
scales in its handle, 1. of the Serpent Papagaity a bone / 
of which will always keep a man warm (p. 358) ; 2. of ^\ 
the Fish Ibrtena%»j whose bones are so strong, that if ' 
a man holds them, he forgets every thing but the bone, ) 
till he lays it down again (p. 358). The handle and 
scales are ooverd with a red cloth, and on it is declard S 

that no one shall draw the sword but the one worthiest of 
all men (p. 359). The letters on the sword-blade say it ia 
only to be drawn by the boldest of men ; any other will be 
killed by it. Kasciens then looks at the scabbard, which 
is rose-red (p. 360), with gold and azure letters on it ; 
and out of it issue a thousand filthy branches, or hang- 
ings. The letters say that he who bears the sword, and 
is girt with the branches, shall ever be safe (p. 361). 
Nasciens turns the sword ; the bed quakes (p. 362) ; the 
other side of the sword (1. 392) is blood-red, with coal- 
black letters, saying that he who praises it most hero will 
blame it most in his need, &c. (p. 362-3). Nasciens cannot 
make out what the scabbard is made of (p. 368), nor does 
the Story here tell us; but 'al this schal ben declared 
sauns delay * when the right time and place come (p. 364). 
Now for another myster}' : — How, from the bed where the 
Sword and Sheath were, Three Spindles came, joind to- 
gether (p. 364-5) ; of which one was white as snow, the 
second blood-red, and the third emerald-green (p. 865). 
And because these things must be explaind, therefore the 
Story proceeds to expound them (p. 365), beginning with 
Eve and Adam in Paradise, and going on with the Fall, 
the death of Abel, the building of this Ship by carpenters 
for Solomon and his wife, who look on, and then put the 
Swosd, &a on board the Ship. (^See Chapteri 29 and 30.) 

Kow bothe Eesown & Byht it is 

A3eii to the Storye to tomen wit/t-Owten Mis, 

And to this yl to tornen Ano» Agein, 

That so brood & so longe Is In Certein ; 4 


And 3it it to vs Scheweth Apresslj, 

the declarenge Of this holy Storye, 

That Nasciens was In the laste Ende, 
NMdMs b oo ttM that Gentjl dwk so good & kende. 8 

Towardis the west partye of the see 

This fill tiewe dwk thauue was he ; 

but jit the see not So nygh he was, 

that be-twene hem was a ful gret spas, 12 

aboot 71 miiM the Mowntawnce Of Sevene Miles bedene, 

flhiiiitht MB. 

and An half Mile, with-Owten wene. 

Whanne Kasciens the day Can to dawe,' 
thanne Of that Sihte he was ful fawe, 16 

And that he myhte haven Ony knowenge 
Of what partie of the see he was, wtVi-Owten varienge ; 
And for As Mochel as the day is more Comfortable 
thanne is the Nyht, with-Owten Ony fable, 20 

For Evere hadde he In ful hopinge. 
Be the day to hauen had som Comfortynge. 
HekiiMiitotht and with this, Nasciens, lu-to the Est he knelid 



and there Anon to God Made his Orisown, 24 

MidprajBto Preyeng to Jesus that wa^Maryes sone, 

(As Other God than him ne knew he none) 

* that he Wolde of his gret Mercye, — 

— lik As he was On Only god verraylye, 28 

And that non Other god neuere Nas but he, 

Most Myhtful god In Maieste, 

In whiche On Only god beleved he, 

thre persones, but on God in vnite, — 32 

to wnd him that Swich Counseil he wolde him sende, 

eounwl to amend 

him UA. helthe to his Sowle, his lif to Amende.' 

And whanne thus his preyere he hadde I-do, 

The Signe Of the holy Cros On him made he tho, 36 

and Also he Made it In his face, 

the strengere to be thorwh goddis grace. 

' Et quant II yit au matin aioumer. — A. 

OH. xxyiil] to nascikns comes a wondrous ship. 


and whanne he hadde thus I-do, 
to the nexte party of y Se wente he tho ; 
& whanne he hadde gon the spas of half a Myle, 
Into the See he gan loken with-Inne A while ; 
A lytel thing him thowhte he say Comen there^ 
Ko More thanne A swan As thowh it were^ 
That streyht to the yl it gan Aplye — 
» As this Storye vs scheweth ful sekerlye ; — 
to the same Ende that he Inne was, 
thedir it Appliede, As happed be Cas. 

and whanne he Saw it So faste Comenge, 
Euere the grettere it wax, to his semengo ; 
but thanne miihte he not ful wel go ; 
For so forbrosed his feet weren tho 
with the Chenes Of his presownenge, 
that to Walken hadde he non likynge : 
and Anothir Skelo there was also, 
that he nas neuere Mochel wont forto go. 
jit wente he forth with ful gret peyne, 
And Aftir that thing he loked A-geyne 
Wheche that he beheld In the Morwenyng, 
that to-ward the yl Cam flotering ; 
and thanne parceyved ho Sone In haste, 
That A fair Schipg it was Atte laste, 
the wheche was [so] wondirly fair & Eiche, 
That In Al this world him thowhte non swiche. 

And whanne this Schip^ he gan be-holde, . 
In his herte he loyede ful Manyfolde, 
And peyned him faste thanne forto go 
To wardis the See, As he myhte tho ; 
So that With gret peyne & Angwisch Also 
Atte laste to this Schipe Cam he to. 
And whanne thedir he was Comen ful Byht, 
Ful wery he was, and hadde non Myht. 
Thanne sawh he that bothe his feet In fere, 
Alle for hete for^sckorchid were, 

OBAAL. 23 

40 Naadeiu walks 
toward! tlMMa; 

andaeaa coming 



flut towards lUm 




a Ship, 

richer than any 
other in the 
64 world. 


He walka, 
with great pnln. 



354 THi SHIP (qolokon's) and its lkttbbs of gold. [ch. zxvul 

and £k for-Bent they weren Also, 

For the Ijtel weje that he hadde go ; 76 

So that £r thike vij miles hadde he gon, 

It was Of the daj the tyde Of Noon ; 

thonne was he hothe feynt, wery, & fastynge, 

and Al distrowbled for his Travaillynge. 80 

Anon thanne loked he A lytel beside 
Yppon the Ryht half of him In that tyde, 
NawtoiM MM tht thanne Sawh he A ScIiiM A-Ryde 

Mdp doM to him. — , 

Evene fast by him Also blyre ; 84 

than)ie thowhte him it was the same thing 
that Al day hadde he Sein to his Supposing ; 
So to-wardis that Schipe he tomod Anon 
Also faste As tliat he Cowde Gon. 88 

It b M rkdi thftt the Schipe, So Riche & So fair it was, 

lie maiTtis. 

And M^rveillede how that It Cam In to )»at plas. 
And whanne he be-gan thus it longe to beholde, 
In liis horte he Menreilled lilany folde; 92 

pMf 90] And ^[ochel More Merveil thanne hadde he, 
For Nethir Man ne womman ne cowde ho se 
that Schip with-Inne to warde OJ>er Gye : 
thus telleth this Storie ful Openlye. 96 

thanne gan he him drawen Neer & Neere, 
Til that to the Schipe he was Come there ; 
and In han Entred ful fayn wold he. 

He cm Mt DOOM ^if Ouy Mou thero-Inue mihte he Se, 100 

and forto proven the trewthe there 
Of that Bewte In AUe Manere, 
3if with-Inne it were As fayre Owt Ryht, 
As with-Owten it was there to his syht. 104 

Anon As In-to the Schip Entren Wold he, 

Botinttieftir*- In that for-schip he Sawh ful Sekerle 

■Mp bt 8Mt ^ 

chaidMu letton lettres Of Gold, I yndirstonde, 

in gold. , . .«^ . . *^,, , , ,/Nft 

that As Wnteng it was of Caldee londe, 108 

that As pitous word they gonne to Speke. 
thanne Nasciens Ner to the Schip gan Reke ; 


For that Word there so dowtable was 

To Ony man that Entren wolde Into fat plas. 112 

Lo, these wordis seide the Scripture 

as I the schal Schewe, I the Ensure, 

"thow that wilt with-Inne me^ Entren here, 

loke thou be stedfast In alJe manere, 116 

And that thou ful of feyth algates be ; 

For with-Innes me nis thing uon but feith sekerle ; 

therfore I Kede, devise the ful wel 

that thow be Clene Everydel, 

and stedfast In feith & In Creaunco, 

Oper elles the be-happeth Som Meschau/ice. 

For stedfast feith, Creaunce it is ; 

and Anon As thow thy Creau;2ce dost mis 

In Ony partie Or In Ony degre, 

I the forsaken Schal ful Sekerle, 

that Of me Sostenaunce shalt fo\i non have, 

'Neper non helpe, thowh thou Crye and Crave, 128 

but I schal the faillen In thyn most nede, 

and leten the fallen with-Owten drede. 

So that thou schalt Llost thanne be 

For fewt of beleve, And thow it fle." 132 

thanne with-stood this Kasciens In that stede, 
and these lettres of gold he gan forto Bede ; > 
and whanne he hadde longe him bethowht 
how that Schipe thedir was I-browht, 136 

Into the Schipe he wolde han gon, 
but that word him Stoned Anon 
that was so dowtful & Charchable, 
For they Weren "VVordis Of non fable. 140 

and whanne In this thowht he hadde longe I-be, 
Other wyse he gan tho him be-se, 
and him bethowht In Other Manere 
How that he Scholde Goveme him there. 144 

Thanne In this manere thus gan he Seyn : 

* MS with Inne ne 

Xbeie letten layt 

*<Thon that wilt 
enter Uile Ship, 


1 20 P^^ ^^ Btedfiut 
in beliet 

124 IftboafiOleatiu 
one pointy 

I wiU fkU thee In 
thy moet need, 

and thou ahalt 
be kMt." 


thoee words stop 
Naadens going on 
board the ship. 


KMdOTtiiqra. « goode lord God, of AUe thinges Sovereign, 

"Lord Ood, 

the wordis Of this Schipc Seith here, 
that hut feyth nys there-Inwe in now manure ; 148 

and 3if these lettres now trewe here he, 
1 know this Bbip thanne wot I wel ful certeinle 

It atot bj ThM. 

that this Schipe he 30W hedir Is I-sent ; 

this knowe I wel thanne verament. 152 

And 3if only it he Comen from 30W, 

thanne In My Creaunce knowe I now 

that non Evel thing there-Inne May he^ 

Ne Contrariowsness In non degre 156 

that scholde A3ens ^oura glorious Name 
I iwiteTt In ThM^ hen Beprof, velenie, Ofer elles schame. 

hut, lord, I heleve In 30W ful faithfully ; 

wheche Creawnce I took ful devoutly 160 

Of thin One Seriaw[n]t so dere. 

That pow wost hen worschepid & heleved In alle 
manure ; 
and In it«dflwt And In Stediast heleve, the Ay worschepinge, 
tutor um Ship." I schal In Entren for Ony thinge. 164 

For who that Is In thi stedfast heleve, 

From Alle Misaventures it doth him Meve, 

and Saueth him, and £k Alle tho 

that In thy heleve stedfast go ; 168 

In what Maner peryl that so he he, 

thi heleve him saveth Sekerle." 
NtMsitni crotitt thus sone Sir6 Nasciens left vp his hond, 


and made the signe of Holy Cros, I vndirstond, 172 
MidgoaionboMd And Entred In to the Schip Anon 

(htShip. ^ 

Also Faste As he myhte Gon. 

And whanne that Entred he was with-Inne, 

Fast loked he Ahowtes, and nolde not hlynne ; 176 

In Alle parties loked he ful faste ; 

And so faste he loked Atte laste, 

So that him thowhte In non Maner of Se 

A fairere Schipa ne Myhte he ; 180 


And thus to liim Selye he gan to seyn, 

* That So fair a schip he Sawh neuere Certein,' 

Ne so fill of Bewte neper of Richesse 

Sawh he neuere to fore As that, I Gesse, 184 

As that Same was to his Avis, 

fi)r of Alle Schepis it bar the pris. 

Aud whanne Alle the Corners he hadde Serched 
Aboven and benethen, with-Owten dowte, 188 

thanne to pe bowk of y schipe gan he gon, 
and there atte laste he fond Anon ; 
he beheld Where heng A Cloth of Whit ; 
it was ful plesaunt to his delyt ; 192 

and lik A Cowrtyn him thowhte it was, 
that was hanged In that plas. 

thanne Anon lefte he vp tliLs Co/irtyn In haste ; 
there-vndir, a faire bed he fond atte laste, 196 

the Wheche the fairest & ]>* Eichcst bed it was 
that eu«re to fore he Saw In Ony plas ; 
and at the hed of the Same bed 

was A Crowne of gold In that sted ; 200 

and at the beddis feet Sekerliche 
A swerd there was, bothe faire & Riche, 
Wheche vppon the bed it lay Ouerthwert, 
Al this, Sire Nasciens, it Sawh Apert — 204 

Whiche that Owt of y Skawberk was draws 
half A fote & an handful, thus seith this Sawe. 
this swerd was of di\ieps faciou» Sekerlye, 
as here Witnesseth this holy Story e, 208 

For the pomel was of swich A ston 
That Colours it hadde Manyon, 
As Manye As on the Erthe myhte be 
To his Sihte there weren vpon, sikerle ; 212 

and £ch Of the Colours hadde a Clerte, 
and £ch Clerte A vertu, as fat storie scheweth me, 
Where As this Storie doth declare 

NftKlens pokes 
about tha Shiii^ 

gOM into tlie 

a white cloth 

like a oartaln. 

and findi nnoer 
It the liehert Bed 
he ever saw, 

gold at tte head, 

and a Sword at 

drawn 10 indkea 
out of the 

Sword is a stone 
of many ooloors. 


The handla of Um 
Sword U mado 
of iwo aoalM, 

the Ist ofa Ser- 
pent of ChaldKft 


a bone of which 

will keep a man 
alwnjs In moder- 
ate beat,— 

the tnd ofa fish 
of the Saphratee 

ealld Tortenani, 

when held in the 
hand suspends a 
man's memoiy. 

Of Mani mo^ thinges whanne he Cometh thare. 216 

thanne to the handyl Of this swerd, 
there nas non swich In Middillerd ; 
For tweyne Skales it hadde, witA-Iime the hood, 
Of two diuers bestes, as I vndirstond ; 220 

the ton sckale was In Maner of A Serpent, 
that In Caldiens lond was most present 
thanne In Ony Oper lond Certein ; 
there was his hawntyng I telle 30W pleyn. 224 

and * papagast ' was this Serpentis Name, 
Whiche was a Serpent of A wondirfal fame. 
For this is the kynde of that Serpent, 
What man that A bone of his hath yerament, 228 

him Nedeth neuere non Other hete, 
Nethir of sonne, ne of travaille, to don him swete ; 
but that Evere In Mesurable hete he schal be ; 
this vertw hath his bon ful Sekerle, 232 

WhereoiTen the ton sckale of the handele it is. 
As I haue jow told with-Owten Mys,' 

The tothir Skale is Of A fysch of the Se, 
That In Ewfrate most wont is forto be ; 236 

And In Othir water Is it non, 
but only In Ewfrate Al Alon. 
* Tortenavs ' * is the Name Of this fysch, 
As we it Mown Sownen In Englysch. 240 

And his bones of these strengthe ben. 
As Me declaren here schole ^q sen ; 
For As long As Ony man it hath On honde — 
I do 30 w ful wel forto vndirstonde — 244 

that nethir of ioye ne of sorwe schal he have In Mende, 
but onlich Of that bon, swich is the kende ; 
and whanne Owt his bond it is I-don, 
To his kende Memorie Cometh he Anon 248 

As Owhte forto ben In A kendly man. 
Lo, swich A vertu this bon hath than ! 

1 MS DO ' MS Nya ' Cortnaua— A. Ortenax— B. 


behold what vertw Is In these bones tweyne, 
Where offen the handele is Mad In Certeine ! 

Wheche handele & sckales, I-keue7*ed it was 
With A Riche Red Cloth In that plas, 
I-set wel ful of lettres Of Gold, 
(As he myhte there pleynly behold,) 
Wheche that Spoken In this degre 
ful Openly, As he myht wel Se ; 
" I am Merveillous to beholde On A rowe, 
And jit moche more M^veiUous I Am to knowe ; 
For me Schal neu^re man taken On honde — 
As I do the Forto vndirstonde, — 
be his hand neuere So large Ss gret. 
Me schal he not drawen, I the behet ; 
Ne non Man that is Erthly levenge, 
but Onlich On Man with-Ovten varienge. 
And he Schal ben the most wortliiest, 
the Most Able, & the Most best, 
that Euere was 'him before, 
And schal possen Alle ]?at is bore, 
Of prowesse and of konnenge. 
Of alle tho that to-fom him weren levenge, 
Ofer Evcre^ Scholen ben In tyme Comenge; 
Swich Schal his strengthe ben & his konnenge." 
and thus the lettres of the handelyng spak 
To this Sire Nasciens with-Owten lak. 

and whanne Sire Nasciens beheld al this, 
Ful Sore he was Astoued wtt^-Owten Mis ; 
and Marveilled ful Mochel In his thowht 
In what Manere these lettres weren wrowht ; 
And what they weren forto Mene, 
In his herte ho Merveilled be-dene. 
thanne beheld he the blad of y swerd 
that so drawen lay, As to-fore 30 han herd ; 
And there-vppon loked he wonder faste. 
And Eede lettre he Aspide pat 0;ine atte laste. 


Tlie handle and 
■calea are coverd 
with a red cloth 
whereon is written 




264 •v«r draw me 

tnaotpt the ableek 
and beet Uiat 
268 everUrd.' 


f} MS Eveiure] 


Kaeelens la 


He looks at the 

284 blade of the 


Naadens rtadi oa 

' Let no man 
drmw mt but tb* 
or h* ahaU dto.' 

Than Im looka at 
tba Scabbard, 

which ia aa rad 

Wheche weren As Bed as Anj Blood ; J 

thus liim thowhte \er^ As he stood. 288 

thanne took^ he this swerd A lytel Ner, 
And gan to Reden tho lettres In this Maner ; 
thanne Had he how this Resown Mente 
As I schal 30W declaren here presente : 292 

It seide that '^ Neu<;re man Scholde ben haidj 
Me Owt forto drawen ful Sekerly, 
hut better thanne Anothir he Mowe fyhte, 
and more hardiere, & more Of mihte ; 296 

And hos Otherwise drawe it In onj sted^ 
he schal ben the ferst that schal be ded«" 
(and this proved wel Schal ben. 

As aftir In this Storie here scholen ^e sen.) 300 

and whanne Nasciens these lettres hadde Bed, 
he MeryeiUed him Mochel In that Sted, 
Most Of Ony Othir thinge 

that he Sawh sethen the begynneng. 304 

'And It was on of y thinges most In his talent, 
that Swerd owt to drawen verament, 
and Owt of the Sckavberk it forto se, 
to knowen what Meneng It Myhte be ; 308 

For the lettres that it seide with-Owte, 
^af Nasciens Most Talent with-Owten dowte.* 

thanne Nasciens beheld the Sckawberk tho, 
that for Menreille he Niste what to do ; 312 

And for Al that he Cowde be-holde, 
Benethen, Of er Aboven, In Ony folde, 
and ^it Nethir In herte, Mynde, ne thowht, 
he ne Cowde not weten where-offen it was wrowht ; 316 
but wel he wiste it was Al so Red, / 
and As Ony Red Rose In that sted ; 

' Lora se traist vn peu auant, si les commencha a lire. — A. 

*— ' Car oh'estoit vne chose dont il auoit trop grant talent, 
ke de Pespee traire honi del fuerre, et de ueoir quale ele estoit. 
Car les meruelles ke leg letres disoient de dehors, Ten faisoient 
plus entalente. — A. 


Where-aboven weren lettres of gold, 

As he gan there to be-hold ; 320 

Eucre On Of Gold, Anothir Of Asure ; 

thas weren they set, I the Ensure. 

And A thowsend hraunches^ on this schawherk were, 

(Whiche was so Eiche, As I Eehersed 30W Ere,) 324 

that issweden Owt from that Onle, 

that Most M^rveillous thing it was to se ; 

For Of so fowl Mater they were, 

and therto So powre In ]pai plase there, 328 

And as of spittynges and Cayty vetes. 

Of febelnesses, of filthes, in many degres, 

that bothe be Semblaunt & Countenaunce 

It was to hjnoi gret dowtaunce : 332 

For An Our the swerd it myhte not Sosteine, 

So feble it was, him thowhte Certeine. 

And the lettres that On sckawberke were, 
In this Maner Seiden they there.; 336 

" hos that Me vppon him doth here, 
Ful Sewr he Schal ben Euery where ; 
And more hardy therto schal he be 
thanne Ony Ofer man In his degre. 340 

3if he here me In that Manere 
as the lettres Of p* swerd Rehersed Ere. 
For what man that Abowtes him bereth Me, 
he ne schal nenere ben schamed In non degre 344 
as longe as with these braw[n]ches he is gert, 
and that On his body I hange Ouerthwert. 
but that neu6re non be so hardy 
that the Raunges that here ben to don Awey ; 348 
for him schal happen Manie Misaventure 
And Manye Evel dedes, I the Ensure, 
that he, ne non Man levenge, 
Of him schal tellen non Amendynge ; 352 

* Et si n*i anoit nules renges ki auenisaent a si riohe 
fuerre 00m ohil estoit. —A. 

Tha Scabbard hM 
1000 hangings, 

poor stuff. 

On tha Scabbard 
Is written, 

' Whoso bears me 
on him shall be 

and nerer aham'd 
ai long as he's 
girt arlth these 

which no man 
most erer take 


But Um hanginga 
•hall bt Ukcn off 
by tlM danghtor 
of a King and 

Naadaiu tarna 
tbe Sword, 

the Bad qiukaa. 

The other aide of 
the Sword ia 

with ooal-blaok 
latters on It, 


'Who pralaee mt 

shall blame me 
moat in hla need. 

' Xe behoten nenere schal be to Man 
80 hard as to him Schal be than 
that now Is, ne that Neuere schal be, 
but 3if In sauf Ostag he be Sekerle ; 356 

And ^it him be-hoveth to ben Osteyed 
In the Manero as here Is seide, 
Wheche sholde ben be A wommannes bond, 
bothe kynges dowhter & qweene, I yndirstond.^ 360 
this womTTian be ]>* Riht name schal clepeu this sweid, 
and Me by my Name Openly & Apert ; 
For neuere to-foren In-to that day 
Kon Creature be ouie riht name Clepen ne may." 364 
Ful longe this Nasciens this Skawberk gan beholde, 
and in his herte he Merveilled ful Manifolde. 
& whanne thus In the Schip he hadde loked Abowte 

On Alle party es with-Inne & with-Owte ; 
but neuere so soft ne Cowde he gon, 
that Al the bed be-gan to qwaken Anon 
from the ton £nde to y tojjer, In that plas ; 
In this Manere this bed So qwakyng it was. 
And whanne he tomede, & it be-held, 
For discomfort he ne Myhte hym weld ; 
For to him it semede tho As Bed As blood ; ' 
and fervppon wondirful lettres there stood^ 
that As Ony Cole so blak they were, ^ 
the Resoun that was I-weten there ; 
Wheche lettres Seiden In that Stede,. 
As that tyme I Cowde hem Eede : 
'' hos that Me preiscth most here, 
Most Schal I him fynde In Oper Manere, 
So that In gret Nede blamed schal he not be 
In non wise, As I telle it the. 






*— ^ Ne il n'est otroie a nul home qui ore aoit, ne aaenir soft, 
ke il en soit osteres. Anohois en doiuent estre ostes par mam 
de feme, fille de roi et de roine. Et si 1 metera tel esoange 
pour oheSf ke ele en fera vnes autres de la choae qui sour li 
soit ke ele ara plus chiere, et si le metra en Ueu de chea. — A. 




and to hym to whom I scholde ben Most debonayrey 

To him w/t/t most Anger I wele Kepeire : 

Which schal be-happe bnt Ony[8], Sekerly/ 

As I the telle here now Openly : 

For with-Owten faille so moste it be 

At that tyme Onys ful Sikerle." 

Swiche wordis seide the lettrore there 

that on p' swerd weren wreten In that manure. 392 

and the Skavberk he be-held Agcin : 
than merveiUed he gretly In Certein, 
For that partye was non Othir I-liche, 
but to his Sihte As blak As Ony pich ;^ 
thaune Abasched he was ful Sore, 
that he ne wiste what to sein no More, 
For he ne Cowde demen of what kynde, 
Ne nether to purposen In his Mynde ; 
but As him thowhte there be Eesou/i, 
Aftir A man^ of tre was the facioun ; 
and Ofer whille him thowhte pai it was 
Of lether I-mad In that plas, 
but he ne Cowde devise In non degre 
Of what Maner Of Beste it Myhte be ; 
Anothir tyme him thouhte Of yrne it was, 
Owthir of sum 0]?er Metal In that plas : 
Thus wolde he han declared it be him selve ; 
but ^it Cowde he not putten the £x In y helve. 

^Thus doth Nasciens with gret Entencioiin ; 
but Ay he is In ful gret Trebulaciouri, 412 

For the Skawberk to haven Offe knowenge, 
but he ne Cowde for non manere thinge, 
Ojer Whille to On thing In Certeinte, 
And OjcrwhiUe to Anothir ; but it wolde not be.* 416 

* Et ohe n^auenra o^une fois. — ^A. 

*-* Ensi estoit nasoiens en tenohon pour le fearre vers Boi 
inelsme ; Si ke 11 en affermoit a le fie vne choae, et a le fle 
deadisoi^ ke a nule chertaine parole ne sauoit asener a quoi il 
se peust tenir. — A. 

And to him I 
•hoald be moat 

388 Bat only ooM.* 

Tho othor ride of 
the Soabtord Is 

396 as blade M pitch. 

Kasdens can't 
think wbeUier it's 

made of wood. 

404 toather. 


Iron, or metal: 

bat be can't pot 
the axe In the 


thos neihir the swerd hondel, ne pomel, 
KmcImis mnt Ke Cowdo ho declaren Neuere A del : 

Where-Offen the swerd I-forged was, 
the Sword or And wheiis it Cam, & from what plas, 420 

flh— til fionii floiiL 

Ne ho that the Swerd schold thedir bringe^ 
he ne cowde not wetcn for nort thinge ; 
Nether the strengthe of that schethe fere 
he ne Cowde declaren it In non Manere, 424 

Ne not devisen of what kynd it was 
he ne Cowde for non Maner of Cas, 
Kor Kn tht Ne]^er of the grete Merveilles that ben comenge 
in Qrmi Britain In dluers Eeawmes w/tA-Owten varyenge ; 428 

And of the grete Breteyne Also, 
What Merveilles that schal Comen hire to : 
Of AUe these thinges that to forn Rehersed be, 
toidytt. this Storye jit declareth not Sekerle. 432 

Botwhen tbt but whanne that tyme Cometh therto, 

right tlnM oomai^ 

That declareng of p^ swerd we scholen gon to ; 
Thanne schal that swerd be knowen fill wel, 
And the propre Name there Offen Everidel, 436 

And the lettres that vppon the schethe be, 
thm Bhaii trwy- thanne scholen they ben knowen Openle. 

thing be known. 

For whanne that Cometh bothe tyme & day, 
Al this schal ben declared sauns delay, 440 

the kynde of the Swerd, and schethe also. 
And AUe the vertwes that longen therto. 
thanne Openly I-schewed scholen they be, 
lik as this holy Storie telleth Certeinle.^ 444 

Now we leare the Now beleveth this Storye here 

Sword end Soeb> 

herd. Of the Swerd and the schethe, In this Manure ; 

and Speketh here of Anotliir Entent 

that Oppon the Bed was verament : 448 

One spindle A spvndele was there schoten forth Ryht 

Bhooteoatofthe ^*^ 

Bed; thorwh the bordis Of the bed, I the plyht ; 

* End of a ohapter in the English Ma The French 
runs on. 



and Anothir Spyndele Ouerfcliwert was fere do, 

that bo then to-Glederis metten they tho ; 452 

and bothe Spindelis, As long they were 

As lengthe & brede of y bed Everywhere. 

And to the hed Of the two spyndelis certein 

Anojer spyndele was loyned, I sey jow pleyn j 466 

Of these thre, ful Mochel there is to schewe, 

Of manie diuers poyntes vppon *A Bewe. 

but now this Story e telleth here, 
that the ferste spyndle was In Alle Manere, 460 

was Also whit As ony snow snewenge ; 
And the laste was as Bed as blood bledenge ; 
And the ou^rth-wert that Aboven was, 
lik to An Emerawde In that plas ; 464 

As Grene As An Emeraade it was there 
To his Syhte In Al Manere : 
Of these thre Colowres Sekerlye 
Weren these iij spindelis trewelye, 468 

that with-owten Natural peyntyng were, 
but Offe here Owne kynde Alle there ; 
For nether be Erthly man ne wommane 
thedyr ne weren they now browht thanne. 472 

And for As mochel as to the peple it is dowtaunce, 
but declareng J>ere-on»e be witA-owten variaunce, 
And but fero-oSen they knewen more vndirstondeng, 
Elles wolden they holden it for A gabbyng, 476 

There-fore here turneth this Storye, 
and of Anothir thing Maketh Memoiye 
that is ful swete forto here, 

bothe forto lestene & ek to lere ; 480 

And In tyme Comeng, this Storye 
the thre spyndelis schal doclaren Opeulye, 
And Of the Schipe Al the knowlechinge, 
Alle this Scholen je knowe/i In tyme Comenge.^ 484 

' Sir Thomas Maleor's account of Galahad^s finding the Ship, 
and of the Mysteries and their history, is in Chapters 83 — 88, 

a Moond Spindle 

and a third 'i 
J<rfnd to the top 
of the other two. 

The 1st Spindle 
!• wliite i 

tbeSrd red; 

the tnd emerald- 

And beeanM folk 
would think all 
this nonBcnae 
anleee more were 
eaid about it» 

tliia StOTT 'U ten 
'em all about the 
Ship, Spitidlee, 



The EpiBode of Adam and Eve in PRradim, the Tree of Life, 
the Death of Abel, and the building of a Ship for Solo- 
mon and his wife. How Eve, the first sinner, is 
tempted bj the Devil to eat of the forbidden Tree, and 
pulls off a branoh of it (p. 368), and gets Adam to eat an 
apple too (p. 368). How they know that they are naked, 
and are ashamd * each of others members * (p. 369). God 
comes to them and proDounoes their doom (p. 369), and 
turns them out of Paradise, Eve carrying the branch 
of the Forbidden Tree in her hand (p. 370). She thinks 
she will always keep the branch in sight, to remind 
her of her sin ; but^ as she has no hutch to put it in, 
* for at that tyme was no swich in makyng,* she plants it 
(p. 370), and by God*8 grace it takes root, and signifies 
mnch gladness (p. 370) ; for, as by woman Paradiae wns 
lost, BO by woman (the blessed virgine Maree) it shall be 
restored to man (p. 371). How the branch grows into a 
great tree, which is wholly white, signifying Virginity 
(p. 371). Of the difference between maidenhood, purity 
of body, and virginity, purity of soul and body (p. 372). 
How Eve is a Virgin when she plants the branch of 
the Tree of Life, and till Adam lies with her at Christ* s 
command (p. 372). She and Adam sit grieving under the 
IVee ; and Eve says it is the cause of their grief, and may 

pp. 293—304, vol. ii. of the 1816 reprint of the 1634 edition of 
'The History of the renowned Prince Arthur, King of Britain.* 


LXXXIIL Sow Sir Galahad rode with a Dam$el, and came 
into a Ship whereas Sir Bors and Sir Pereivale were in, 

LXXXIV. How Sir Galahad entered into the Ship, and (/ 
a fair Bed that was therein^ with other marcelloiu thingi 
[the Serpent and fish Ortenar"], and of a Srrord, 

LXXXV. Of the Marvels of the Strord, and of ilte Scabbard 
[^and of Naeien on the Isle of TumancOy ^v.]. 

LXXXVL How King Pelles was smitten through both the 
27iighSf becavse he drew the Sword, and of fnarreUotti 
Histories [namely y the Three Spindles : Eve's planting 
the white tree, its change to green ; AbeVs death; SoUh 
man and his wife"], 

LXXXV n. How Solomon took Bavid^s Sword by the Counul 
of his Wife, and of other fnarrellous matters [making 
the Body Ship, and Girdles for the Sword'\. 

LXXXVin. Cf tlie wonderfvl Tale of King Solomon and his 
Wife [and how Sir Percivale's sister put a new girdle 
of her own hair to the sward, and girded Sir Galahad 
with it; and how tfiey earns on the mifrrow to a castle 
that men called Carteloise, that was in the marshes of 


be called the Tree of Death (p. 373). A voice tells them 
to comfort one aDother, as Life is much nearer them 
than Death. They do this, and call the tree The Tree 
of Life (p. 373), and plant branches of it (p. 374). 
One Friday, as they sit under itja voice commands Adam 
to know his wife fleshly (p. 374). They are greatly 
ashamd. So Christ pities them (p. 874), and ordains that 
men shall restore the Tenth Legion of Angels that were 
cast into Hell, and sends Adam and Eve darkness, in 
which they copulate, and beget Abel the Just. The 
darkness disappears (p. 375), and, in consequence of the 
copulation, the white Tree of Life, and all other trees, turn 
from white to green (p. 376) ; and the Tree of Life, which 
before was barren, bears flowers and fruit (p. 376) : signi- 
fying Abel's good life. How Abel gives tithes and his best 
things to Ood (p. 376), but Cain gives his worst (p. 377).- 
And when they sacrifice, the sweet smoke of Abel's offer- 
ing goes straight to heaven, but the stinking smoke of 
Gain's spreads over the fields ; on which Cain resolves to 
kill Abel (p. 377). One day Abel goes after his sheep, and 
lies down and sleeps under the Tree of Life (p. 378). Cain 
follows him, thinking to kill him unperceivd, but Abel 
sees him and welcomes him. Cain runs at him with an 
* op-courl)ed knyf ,* smites him * vndir the pappe ' (p. 378), 
and, — ' vntrewe brother,* — kills him (p. 379), on a Friday, 
under the tree under which he was begotten (p. 379). 
How AbePs death signifies Christ^H, and Cain typifies 
Judas; 'for it is the oondisciown of a cursed man to 
haten a good man what that he can* (p. 379). How 
Christ condemns Cain *be kyng Davy in the Sawter 
book * (p. 380). God asks Cain where Abel is. Cain 
covers the body up with leaves, and says 'with him 
have I not for to done '. Qod curses Cain and the earth 
(p. 380), but not the Tree of Life, which turns from 
green to red directly after AbeVs death ; and grows very 
large, but bears no flower or fruit (p. 881). How the 
tree is held in great reverence by £ve*8 descendants (p. 
381) ; and how they come to it in times of trouble, and 
call it the Tree of Counsel and of Comfort (p. 382). How 
it and its saplings continue beautiful till, and after, the 
Deluge, and are calld 'Trees of Life ' by all who see tiiem 
(p. 882-3).» 

Thus be Aventure Aa gan be-falle, 

that Eve the ferst womman of Alle, 

that the ferst Synne Evere wrowhte, 

wherthorwh mankynde was browht to Nowhte 4 

» The Additional MS 10,292, If. 31, b. 3, heads this chapter, 
" Ensi que eue et adam sunt pardevant I'arbre, et adam se preut 
par le geule," 



Tbt DtvU rMolTt 

to tempt Kvt to 
ForbiddMi Tim. 

H« gets htr to 
to pluck BU Applet 


give It to Adam, 

and he eati of 
It too. 

When tb^y'Te 


be the Cownseyl Of the moste dedly Enemy, 

wheche was the devel, ful Sekerly, 

that Envie hadde to Mankynde Anon 

For he In paradis was So I-don. 8 

Thanne bethowhte him the devel In haste 
how he myhte hem of paradis Owt Caste, 
that dide he Al hys fowl konnenge, 
Adam & Eve Owt of paradis to bringe, 12 

And fondede to Eve there forto gon, 
To Maken here to Eten of that tre Anon 
which sche was forboden Ouer all' thing 
Only of that tre the Neygheng, 16 

Wheche sche was forboden of hire Creatotire, 
that tre forto Neyghen In non Oure. 
to wheche tre the devel hire tempted faste, 
tyl that Eve A branch kawhte Atte laste, 20 

and there-Offen An Apelle Anon sche took, 
and there-Ourae sche gan fnl faste to look ] 
thanne there OSen sche bot anon, 
and faste to hire spowse ward sche gan to gon, 24 

and Conceilled him there-Offen to Ete, 
& that for non thing he scholde it lete. 
So Adam Ete that Appel Anon, 

To his grete peyne, and Owre distroccioun. 28 

Whanne Eve had him taken this appel, I vndirstond, 
jit lefte' the brau7/ch Stille In hire bond ; 
but it was Ajens hire knowenge 
that the braunch In hire bond was Abydinge. 32 

thanne whanne they hadden Eten of this tre — 
Wheche dedly froyt wel clepid May be, 
For there thorwgh dedlich becam he tho, 
and alle t}»at Euere Aftir from him gonnen go ; — 36 

» MS Onerih 

* Si aaint vne chose ke li rainsiaiu remest en la main ea 
feme. Si oom il auieot asses souuent ke on tient aucune ohoaa 
en sa main, et si n'i quide on riens tenir. — A. 


thanne knew they wel that Naked they were ; 

to-fom hem thowhte Spirit\yel In AUe Manere, uid know that 

For they weren formed to Everelasting lif ; 

but that fowle Synne browhte vs Alle In Strif. 40 

And whanne hem Self they gonue beholde^ 
Aschamed they weren ful Many folde ; 
For Al Naked knewen they pat they were, 
And Aschamed Ech Of Oher Membres was there : 44 Th«3r oov»r their 

' prtvy memberi 

& with here hondis they koue^ided hem tho; with thtir hands. 

So dyde there Eve thanne Also, 

And the brau/zch Euere stille In hire hond, 

but that Cowde sche not tho vndirstond. 48 

Thanne he whiche Alle thowhtes doth knowe^ Th«i ood 

To hem Cam there In A throwe, 
and knew here Synweng Everydel, 
Wheche was to hem A sory Mel. 62 

There ferst Adam he gan to Calle^ «"■ ^dam, 

that him thowhte most Eesoun of Alle^ 
that Ferst Chalanged that he were, 
thanne the wom^min In Ony Manere ; 56 

For the womTTian is of so feble Complcxioun 
that of Mannes Eib was mad, As Axeth Eesoun, 
and that Obeischawnt scholde be to Man ; 
Wherfore Ciist ferst clepid Adam than. 60 

And whanne god hadde Reproved him of his synne, wpiwM him, 
thanne to him he seide, & nolde not blynne, 
" thy bred In Swetyng shalt thow Ete : andiayi Im shaU 

•^ '' ^ get his living »v 

thy liflode vritk travaille shalt thou gete ; 64 work and sweat. 

And for thi wif In feleschcpe witJi the was tho, 

With the, compenie to be, schal she go ; " 

and Seide to hire, " that In Sorwe & cret drede Christ teiu Eve 

° she shall bear 

hire lif in Erthe Scholde sche lede, 68 children with 

A great pain. 

And In gret peyne to beren hire pariture ;' 

' Et il estoit bien raisons ke il en fust plus ooooiBOuneus 
que la feme. — A. 

* et en doulour enfanteras ta porteure. — A. 
GRAAL. 2 i 



brandi of th% 

which la u 
as wh«ii It waa 
flnt polld UL 

Xra than planta 
this bmncb; 

and it takfa root 

Of this £ve thow achalt ben Seure." 

thaniie Owt of paradjn weren thej bothe C-Mte, 
And be An Aui^gel owt dreyen Atta lasie, 72 

Wheche is clopid ' paradya of delyt,' 
there-offen weren they sone bothe qwjft ; 
And Evere, As ^t I rndintondy 
held stille Ere ^ biaonch In hire bond, 76 

and ae left it neu^re for non thing ; 
And )it waa it not be hir« wetjng. 

thanne Atte laste ache gan beholde 
Vppon this Biannch ful Manifolde, 80 

and Evere lich Greue it was, 
Aa fent sche it polde Owt of y plaa. 
Anon wiste sche thanne certeinly 
that they hadden Synned tho dedly, 84 

and that it was cawse of here disheritaunce ; 
Wherfore that braunch kept sche In remembrauncey 
and that she wolde it putten In swieh A plase 
Often tymes to sen it, In hir^ fase, 88 

there^ffen forto haven ful Bemembryng 
that sche was Cause of here disherytyng. 

thanne bethowhte sche bird on this Manure, 
that nothing had sche to putten it In there, 92 

Nethir huchche ne non Oper thing, 
For that tyme was non swieh In Makyng ; 
So thamie this braunch took sche Anon Byhte, 
And there In the Erthe Anon sche it pyhte. 96 

thanne seide sche ' ^t often scholde sche it sen, 
For In hir« face Ay scholde it ben.' 

And whanne this Braunch In the Erthe don waa, 
Anon it wax, & Boted be goddis gras. 100 

This brawnch that Ere the ferste Synnere 
Owt of paradys browht with here there, 
Signefied ful Mochel gladnesse 

In tyme Conieng, And Ek lyhtnesse. 104 

And ^it al this tyme was Eve 


A Clene Maide, As this storie doth preve ; £▼• u » Tirgia 

And thanne sche seide ** dismaie 30W nouht ; 

for they out of Ourd Eritage we ben browht, 108 

3it for Evere han we it not lost, 

but therto A3en Eestoren we mosf 

And ^if ^e welen E[n]qweren of thii? storie 
What the Cause was, & the Skele ' whye 112 

that Man the Braunche Owt of paradb not bar. 
As wel as the womman dide tho thar, 
Sethen that man is Of heighere degre 
than is the Woman ful Sekerle •/ 116 

To this answerith this Storye, 
and seith ^ that to ^* Man It ' belongeth not trewlye, 
but Al only to the womman Her bringing tiw 

that Owt of paradis brouht it than : 120 Paradise, 

It siimefieth that b* womrmin Owt it browhte, »«>» ^i>«t the 

^ ^ ' world shall be 

that be womr/uui the world was brouht to nowhte ; restored by 

T> i 1 1 • 1 * woman, 

and be A womman Eestored schal it be ; 

wheche signefiet be p* blessed virgine Maree.*^ 124 thevtiginMafy. 

Lo Now tometh the Storye here ful pleyn Deaf sq 

to groweng of this braunch Anon here ageyn ; 
and how it Molteplyed So hugely 

that a gret tre it wax trewly, 128 The branch grows 

and gan to brawnchen & schadwen ful fere ; 
and this was with-Inne riht fewe ^ere. 
bothe brauTiches, leves, and bark, as I telle ^ow, with wute baric, 

leaTei^ Ao., 

Was Also whit As ony snow ;-^ 132 

Whiche that signefyeth virgenite, 

that this vertu hath ful Sekerle, 

a man72es body it kepeth Clene, 

and the sowle whit al be-dene. 136 

For In as moche as that y tre whit was, 

It signefieth virginite in that plas ; aignitying 

* ke 11 portcn de ohe raim n'apartenoit de noient a 

home. — A, 

' End of a chapter in the English MS. The French 

runs on. 


Kt« WM a Ttrftn For Tirgine ache was wbAmie sche it sette ; 
tiMTrMoTUfe. thus Hecordeth the Storye with-Owten letto; 140 

for ^it At that tyme clene virgine sche was 

from Alle thowhtes of lecherie In that plas. 
M a i de n hood but Maydenhod and vii^inite 

Ke ben not bothe In on degre ; 144 

but gret delTerense betwene hem Is, 

as je scholen heren with-Owten Mis. 

For Maydenhod In non degre 
Yiifinity Kia not lik to virginite ; 148 

and I schal jow telle the Resown why ; 
in being bodily For Maydenhod ia In tliis maner trewly, 

that felte neuere man fleschly, 
or freedom ihmi ne^ In weye of lecherie lay hire by.^ 152 

but Yirginite is An heighore thing, 
whereMVirRinity And More vertwos to thin vndirstondyng : 

belonft to boCb 

For bothe Man & Womman that virginea be, 

thoeewho'To Ne thowhto neuere Amy a In non degre 156 

never thought of *•*,.,, 

leobeiy. of Bodily luat to ony luxure : 

this is virginite bothe good & pure. 

and thus was Eve In Clene virginite 
Whanne Owt Of paradia Cast was sche ; 160 

and ^it the same Our ache plaunted thia brau//ch, 
Virginite wtt/i-Inne here waa ful ataunch. 

Christ bids Adam but Aftir Criat Comanded to Adam Anon 

•know' hie wifo. 

that ' to his wif there acholde he gon, 1 64 

and here to knowen there fleaclily, 

Aa Man And Womman Scholde trewely ' ; 

thanne loate ache Anon virginite 

thorw deaireng of luat, aekerle. 163 

Ha dote m^ and and whanne Adam & Eve thua hadden I-do, 

and fleachly to-Gederia knewen they tho, 
tiMjmoaTii under thenne Maden they botbe fid Mochel Mornenge 

* Puchelages eat vne Tirtiu ki tout chil et toutes ohelea oat 
en au8, qui onquea n'orent oompaignie ne atouchement de car- 
nell© luxure. — A. 



Vndir this tre, bothe leinentacion & wepinge. 172 

and whanne that Adam In his herte gan devise 

his Exyleug Owt of paradise, 

Fill hevy Chere Ech other gan to Make, 

And Echo was Sory for Otheris Sake. 176 

thanne Seide Eve to Adam tho, 

'* Sir6, ne me7'veille ^e not so gretly so ; 

For non wondir it nys In non Manere 

thowh Owre trespas [we] Remembren here ; 180 

For ther may no?* Abiden vndir this tre — 

thowh glad & Joyful that he be, — 

but ^if In Moroneng he parte Away ; — 

Sire, it were wondir, I jow Say ; — 184 

For the tre of deth this May wel be, 

as Myn herte Kemembreth now me, 

whiche tre that we resten vndir, 

Vs Maketh so hevy, it nis now wondire." 188 

Anon As sche hadde this word I-spoke, 

Abowtes hem faste they gonne to loke ; 

A vois than herden they with here Ere, 

That In this Manere to hem Seide there ; 192 

" Sey, 3e Caytives, why demen ^e so 

Ech Otheris deth, as 30 now do 1 

Ne deme ^e no more in swich degre 

Of disperaunce, I wame jow Certeinle ; 196 

but Comforte 30W In All wise 

Ech ofer, As 30 best Connen devise ; 

For the lif Is to 30W moche Nerre lustly 

thanne Ony deth Certeinly." 200 

Thus Spak the vois to hem riht tho ; 

thanne mochel Comfort they token hem to. 
thanne Aftirward Clepid they that tre 

* the tre of lyf;' ful Sikerle ; 204 

For the goode Comforte pat })6;'e-ondir hadden they there, 

'the tre of lif * they clepid it Every where. 

and for the loye they liadden of this tre, 

th« Tree ofLfib. 

Adam and Et« 
grieve under the 

She Mye It mejr 
be calld the Tree 
of Death. 


eomfoft one 

tCK Life le miMdi 
nearer them than 

They call the 
tree *The Tree 
of Life/ 




Tree of Lift, 

whidi takt rool. 

Adam and Mm, 


«ra rMtlng oodar 

and a Tdeo Udii 
Adam knovr 
hit wffa. 

Th^'ra both 



80 Jaaoi pttlaa 


Many biawnches they plaontid pemoSexi jSekerlje ; 

and As sone As it was Set In the grownde, 209 

bothe it took & Boted with-Inne A stownde ; 

and In Alle degre it kepte the Colowr, 

As it was the wyl Of Ouie Savyowr. 212 

than^ often tjmes it be-happed So, 
that yndir theke tre gonnen they go, 
hem forto Eesten fnl often Sithe, 
whiche Mad hem bothe glad Ss blythe. 216 

So that it happid vppon a day, 
that Adam with Eve wttA-Owten delay 
Seten to-gedens bothe tweyne, — 
thus fia holy Stone Beporteth Certeiney 220 

that yppon A fiyday it happede so 
that yndir theke tre bothe gonnen they go, — 
and longe there gonne they hem Beste 
til A Tois there Cam fat Sowned be Este, 224 

Whiche vols Seide to hem verraily, 
' that Adam his wif Scholde knowen fleschly.' 

thanne So Achamed bothe they were, 
Swich Manere of thing forto don there, 228 

that Nethir of hem On Othir dorst loke 
that dede to don, so seith this boke ; 
For as sore Aschamed p* Man was there 
As the womman In Alle Manere, 232 

For they Kesten thanne In non degre 
how here Lordis Comaundement sckapen scholden hee ; 
and for be encheson of p* ferst trespas, 
they dradden hem of here lordis Gras ; 236 

and so Bewfully £ch on Oper loked than 
For gret schame, bothe man & womman. 

thanne beheld lesus, Owre worthy lord, 
here Schamefullest* & drede be here Owun Acord, 240 
that Gk)d In hem Anon hadde gret pite 
For here Schamfastnesse In that degre ; 

> MS that * For * Schamiutnesae,* aee 1. 242. 



And, for his wille distorbeled ne scbold not h&^ 

For hem he disposede ful worthile, 244 

that be hem two the Ijgne of Man 

the tenthe Ord^r of Awngelis Eestore schdde than^ 

that Owt of hevene weien Cast Adown 

for pride Into belle, that lowe doniown. 248 

And therfore A3ens heie schame Comfort he^ sent 

to hem bothe there Anon presente ; 

and, Al here Schame-fastnesse forto hyde, 

In Man^r of A Kyht God sent hem that tjde, 252 

that So Mirk it was with hem there 

that non myhte Other sen In non Manere. 

thanne Abasehed weren they wondir Sore 
how ^t so sodeinly that dirknesse Cam thore. 256 
thus sone the ton the tother gan to Callen tho, 
and to-Gyderis they felten thanne bothe two 
there with-Owten sighte Of Ony day, 
thus to-gederis knewen they with<Pir\en delay. 260 
For it behoveth that Alle thing^ be do 
Aftir goddis wille ; he wele ])at it be So ; 
and that tyme Ech Other fleschly gan to knowe, 
Only goddys Comandement forto Avowe ; 264 

8o that there, thorwh here Comownenge, 
Seed forth browhte to here Sy»nes Aleggynge. 
For there thoruhfi hem bothe was eoneeyved than 
Whiche that me Clepid Abel, that Bihtwis man, 268 
and the ferste man that to his god dide worthy Seirvis«| 
him to worsebepen & plesen In Alle wyse^ 
In this Mauere waa Abel Tnder the tre of lyf 
be-geten of Adam, Conoeyved of hia wif ; 272 

Wheche was don vppon a fryday, 
As this StcuTe thus doth here Say. 

thanne theis behelden they botfae Anon 
that thus sone this dirknesse was gon ; 276 

thanne knewen they wel ful yerraylly, 

* MS be 

that th«7 Bhall 
nstor* the 10th 
Legion of Angels. 

He alao eende 
darkDoaa to hUIe 
their ■heme. 

Under Ite cover 
they copulate 

Md beget Abd 

nnder the Tree 

Tlie darkneee 


After the 

the Tre« of Lift 

ftnd ftll Ita tekms 

turn ftrnin whiU 

and bear flowers 
And fhilt. 

that God it d jde ful specjaly 

Forto hyden here Schome-fastnease, 

Where-thorwgh they weren bothe In distresse. 280 

and Anon A gret MeTreille to hem ^ere was, 
that God there schewede In that plas ; 
For As grene be-Cam f • tre In that stede y^ 
As Evere dyde Gras In ony Mede ; 284 

And so didcn Alle that Out of \a\, tre gonne gon, 
Afbyr that Adam and Ere so hadden I-don ; 
bothen bark, bowh, Ek lef, and tre, 
From whit to Grene I-tomed they be. 288 

thanne Anon Aftyr Evene Ryht There 
This tre flowres & froyt began to here ; 
and whiles \a\i Tre & braunches weren white Echon, 

■ignifying that 

thanne nethir flowres ne froyt ne bar it non ; 
but Aitir that it was woxen Grene, 
It bar bothe flowres & froyt Alle be-dene. 
For the whitnesse of theke tre 
Only betokeneth virgin! te ; 
but whanne Virginite was Agon, 
thanne be-Cam \iA tre Grene Anon ; 
Wheche that signefieth Y seed of Manne 
that vnder thike tre was Conserved thanne, 
Abel was cbaate, that Chast and trewe was to his Creatour, 
and In Alle tymes dyde him honour ; 
and the froyt of that ti*e doth Signefle 
that Evere he was Eeligious Sothfastlye. 

Thus Contenued ful longe this Tre there, 
So that Evere was grene, & In on Manere, 
tyl that Abel was woxen wel of Age, 
and to his god did moche Servage ; 
And Euere deboneure to his Creatour he was, 
3eldenge him that his was In Every plas, 
As wel of tithes, As of Offrenge ; * 
thus to his god dide he worschepinge ; 
and of the best thing that his were. 




and rellgtoaa. 




and worshlpe Gk)d 
with bis beet. 


OH. XXIX.] abbl's saorificb is accepted, Cain's refusd. 377 


AM't Mierifiot 
goMup to 

but the atinking 
■mdie of Caln'i 
•proub over th« 

he offrede to God In Ech Manere. 

but Cayn his brothir ne dide not so ; cun oom 

For Evere of his werste took he tho, 316 

and to Grod there-Ofifen made his Offring, 

Swich as that to Cayn was fowlest thing. 

Lo, and God to hym sente As gret plente* 

As to his brother Abel ; thus y storie scheweth me. 

So whanne they comen bothe In-to the plase 321 
that for Sacrefyenge be God Ordeyned was ; 
and for to maken there here offrenge, 
bothe Cayn & Abel weren thedyr Comenge, 324 

lyk as it was be Goddis Comandement 
Thedir Comen they bothe verament. 

and whanne Abel his Sacrefyse gan to do, 
Streyht vp-ward to hevene thanne gan it go ; 328 

but Cayines Offreng In that Stede, 
the fMrme spred Abowtes al the Mede, 
Which was bothe blak, fowl, & stynkkenge ; 
thus was the Maner of Cayines Ofirenge. 332 

and thike that of abelis ofiring was, * 
was Cler & swete smellyng In that plas. 

and whauTM Cayin beheld this Manere, 
that abelis Offreng Eesceived was so there 336 

passinge his In alle degre, 
therto gret Envye Anon had he, 
and gret wraththe A^ens his brothir took, 
that God Abelis Hesceyvede, and his forsook. 340 

thanne Cayin bethouhte him sone Anon 
In what wyse Abel he myht vengen him on : 
thanne to him Self he seide tho, 

' that Sekerly his brothir wolde he slo, 344 

So best on Abel avenged Myhte he be ; ' 
thus thowhte Cayin In his Memore. 

Thus bar longe Cayin this fowl Envye 
to his brothir abel Gyltleslye ; 348 

jit perceyved abel neuere Chere ne Contenaunce 


Cain If angry, 

that God noelTi 
AM'b nerlfloe 
and rvAuta his. 

Ho molTa to 
ilay Abel. 


that Cayin him thouhte Ony GrreTaxuice. 

So longe Cayin helede this hatereda 

In his herte, that iike fowle stede, 353 

OMdaj, tyl that it happed vppon a day 

that Ahel gan to walkeu, as I )ow say ; 

For Owt of his fadns Syhte tho 

Gan this abel thanne forto go, 356 

gem to iiM TrM tyl that he Cam to the tre of lif, 

of Life, to hit 

■iiMi^ For there wente» his schepe witA-owten strif. 

the day gan wexen hot ful faste, 

and of the sonne strong heie In haste, 360 

So that strong [hete] not suffren myhte he, 

but wente to schadwen him vndir that tre ; 

So that giet lust Cam him fere vppon, 

that Nedis moste be Slepen anon, 364 

iiM dovn and so yndir this tie he gan him leye — 

as now that me je heren Seye,— 
and aiMpt. and to slomberen he gan there Anon. 

thanne Gan Cayin forth to gon, 36d 

that longe hadde thowht yis felonye : 

there abel his brothir he gan aspye. 
odn MM Ateu thanne beheld Cayin )Kit selve day 

ftiid lOM to Mu Where abel his hrofer vndir y tre lay, 372 

and faste bin hyede forto sle, 

& wende Aparceyved it schold not ban be. 

bat Abel fid vel sawh him comen tho, 

& yp him dressed, and A^ens him gan go, — 376 

For he him lovede wondirly wel 

as it was fere sene Eyeridel ; — 
Ahel wtioomM and seide, " welcome, my brother dere, 

I am fill glad we ben In fere : ^ 38() 

and £yene In this manure of gretyng 

spak Abel to Cayin At here Metyng. 
Cain stab* iiim Anon this Cayin there to him Ban^ 

wifch an upcanrd 

knift. and A op-Courbed knyf he drowh out than, 384 

and vndir the p^pe smot him Anon 



Also fer as the knyf wolde gon. 

and thus abel Anon ded was there 
Of his vntrewe brothens hond In ^is manere. 388 

lo, In the same stede that he Conceyred was 
Of his Modir, In that plas 
Suffbede he his deth with vnriht, 
As was be the Suffraunce of god Almyht. 392 

And Evene lik In the same Manere 
as on the Fryday he was begeten there, 
Lik So vppon a fryday be Cayin was he ded, 
as this holy storye Becoidith In this sted. 396 

Lo, whanne pat abel sa£&ede deth be trasown, 
In Al thys World ne weren but thre men In-yirown I 
behold how that the deth of Eihtwas Abel 
Is likned to Cristes deth Everydel ! 400 

Be Cayin signefyed was Iwdas, 
the falsest Tretour that Evere was. 
For lik As Capn his brothir gan to heylle. 
So dide ludas to Crist Sawn faille ; 404 

So that these tweyne dethes Acorden weL 
As be fals tresown Everydel ; 
and As Abel yppon A fryday was slayn, 
So be tresown was lesus In Certayn. 408 

So that ludas In alle Manere 
To Cayin Is likned Everywhere ; 
For ludas hadde non Maner Enchesown 
To don his lord to pat distroctiown, 412 

For to him myhte he ban non haterede 
For Owht that Jesus dyde In Ony dede ; 
and for he say neu^re In him but goodnesse, 
ther-fore was he ful Of Irfulnesse ; 416 

For it is J>* Condisciown Of A cursed Man *^ 
To haten A good Man, what that he Can. 
and Of the tresown ^t Cayin to hia brothir hath do, 
Spekith Jesus Crista and of Many Mo, 420 

be kyng davy In the Sawter book — 

Thai Abel !• 
•lain bj Cain 

thai fa* »M 
eonoeivd in. 

and on th« Uka 
daj, rrldaj. 


Abel's daath 
typUlea Christ's ; 
and Cain typlflsa 

Both Abel and 
Christ were slain 
on a Friday. 

A oimad man 11 
always hate a 
good one. 


ho that there-after wile theie-Inne look ; — 
That A dredful word now speketh there 
that thus Seithy and In this Manere, 424 

Cain's tuMidMry ' thow purposist, & seist fals felonje 

is spoken of In , i i . « . * 

Dnvid's Piftims. to thj brothir, & seist al trechorje ; 

and to thin Owne Modris sone 

Bwich tretories thou dost As is thy wone ; 428 

Wherfore I schal the Chastise, 

and the pvnschen In hard wise.' 

and thus In the Sawter schole 30 it fynde 

of dauid his enditenge, kyng good & kynde. 432 

thanne oure lord, Cay in gan to Calle 

Aftir this dede thus was befalle, 
God asks Cain and seide, '* Kayin, where is thy brother Abel, 

wlMtv AMis. 

that to the trespased neuere A del 1 "* 436 

Wlianne that kayin yndirstood Al this, 
that he hadde So fowle don Amys, 
and that so gret tresoun he hadde I-wrowht, 
Anon it tomede than In his thowht, 440 

Cain oOTwa Um and kouered Abel with the leves of p* tre 


imrm. That Aspyd ne schold not than bo. 

thanne Axede him Owre lord Ageyn, 

" Cayin, where is thy brothir, sey me pleyn." 444 

thanne Kayin Answerid A^en Anone, 

" With him have I not for to done ; 

For I ne haue hym not In kepinge, 
and says, Neb«' of him I ne Can tellen non tydynge." 448 

■ I don't know.' 

thanne Answerid Oufe lord to hym ful sone, 

'' that fowle dede that thow hast done, 

and slayn thyn Brothir So falslye, 

Afom Me veniauitce his blood doth Crye. 452 

God tforsM Cain, therfore Acursed schalt thow be 

thorwh-Owt Alle the Erthe ful sikerle, 
andtheaarth, and the Erthe, A-corsed I wol it be do, 

that thy brotheris blood hath Resceyved so." 456 

thus Crist the Erthe Cursed there ; 


but not the tre In non Manere 

Where-vndir that Abel was ded, 

he it not Cursede In non sted. 460 

but A wondir Merveille of that tie 
"Wondirly befel, hos myhte it se : 
For Anon As Abel there- vndir was Slajn, 
his Grene Colour it torned Anon Certayn, 
And becam As Eed as onj blood, / 
that same tre, there as it stood, 
In remembranse Of hym that ded was there, 
holy Abel In swich A Manere. 468 

and alle his plawntes that Abowtes him were, 
deydeu Anon In Schort Manere ; 
but that tre Grew so Merveillously, 
that the fayrest tre it be-Cam trewly 472 

that Evere man Myhte beholde with Eye ; 
So ful of Bewte this tre was Sekerlye, 
Ne Neucre chonged ne peyred nowht there 
6etheu Abel was ^er-vndir ded. In non Manere, 476 
Saufe that flowr ne froyt ne bar it neu^re non 
Sethen there-vndir that fowle dede was don. 

but tho that of him weren I-set to-fom, 
bothe fiowres and froit of hem ben bom ; 
and so these Trees gonnen to Multiplye, 
and the world Encresid ful plentevouslye, 
So alle that of Adam & Eve Comen tho, 
To that tre ful Moche Reuerence they do j 
and Eche of hem Other doth telle 
In what Manere that it befelle, 
' That how here ferste Modir it plaw[n]ted there, 
and how thedir it cam, & In what Manere ; 488 

and they Scholden Bestoren agayn 
here ferste Eritage In Certeyn, 
Where-Owt here ferste Modir was Cast, 
but A^en we scholen it haven Atte laste.' 492 

and whanne they wereu In Ony disseise, 

After Abel's 

464 the Tree of Ufe 
tarns tnna green 
to red. 

and its edoiw too^ 

but It never mort 
beere flower or 

480 tho' lU idons do. 

Adem and Gre's 
484 reverence the 
Tree modi. 


That Ony thing here hertes dide Mbpleae, 
and Anon to pat blessed tre they wente, 
here Conceil to taken veramente ; 496 

whanite that to theke tie they Comen Anon, 
Comforted they weren thanne Everichon ; 
TtMj edi It 'Th* and Sethen they Clepeden it * b* tre of Consailtf 

TiMofGomiMl 1 r i 

andofoomibrt.* And the Tre of Ck>mfoit ' with-Owten faile. 500 

This tre Grew & wex ful faste, 
and alle that Euere of him Comen Atte laste, 
bothe that weren of Y Crene tre, 
and Also of the white Certeinle, 504 

So that the peple Sore Merveilleden tho 
how that they Endured & wozen so ; 

Its leiou kMp and Evere kepten they that Same Bewte 

UMir bMOty tiU 

NcMh'i flood; Tyl that Grod sente the flood of Xoe, 508 

Where-thorwgh Alle wikkyd peple than 

Weren distroied, As I tellen ^ow kan. 

So that on lyve lefte non sikerle 

but Noe & his wif & here Compene. 513 

For it was Goddis wille tho 

that the world distroyed scholde be so, 

Sauf only hem that god trewe fond 

Afom Alle Othere, I vndirstond ; 516 

and be hem the world Bestored Schold be, 

that to-fom tyme was lost In swiche degre. 
but wete ^e wel for Certeyn, 

thowh tho trees to here kynde comen Ageyn, 520 

•lUr which tii«f ^it boren they neuere Aftyr so kendly 

As to fore tymes they dyden vtterly, 
loM (heir mtoot that they ne losten Clene y Savouie 
thro' the uttm- Of here ferst froit, & the Odowre, 524 

th« worid. thorwh the water that so bitter was, 

that ouet'keuered the world In Every plas ; 
Bat tho Troo Sauf Only thike Selve tie of ly f 

andiubruMhit and Y brau/Aches ]»at ^ere-of comen^ whiche sette 
'^'^''■'^ Adams wif, 528 


of Bewte, froit^ ne of Colour, 

ne weren not Chonged In non Ourfi ; nerw change thdr 

fruit or colour. 

For witnesseth they that hem Sje — 

these trees ful openly to here Eye, — 632 

For trees of lif I-cleped they were 

of hem that hem Sien In all Manere ;^ 

For of deth dredden they In non degre 

whiles there-offen they hadden In here compene. 636 


The Episode of [the Fall, AbeFs death, and] Solomon's build- 
ing the Ship, continued. How the Tree of Life continues 
till the time of Solomon, who is wonderfully wise (p. 
884), but is deceivd by a woman, and, when much 
troubld by her, speaks his Book of Parables (p. 885), and 
says that not one good woman can be found in the world 
(p. 386). One night he declaims against women (p. 
386), and a voice reproaches him, and says that a woman 
of his race shall bring men to greater joy than Eve lost 
(p. 386-7). Solomon thinks that he was a fool to blame 
women so, and searches the Scriptures till he knows of the 
Virgin Hary and her Son (p. 887). A voice tells him that 
this Son shall come of his line, and be a knight passing all 
others (p. 888). He is greatly rejoict, though the Son is 
not to come for 2,000 years (p. 889). His wife aska him 
to tell her what he has been tliinking of (p. 889). He 
tells her ; and on the third night she says she can certify 
him of the Coming Knight of his line (p. 890). She bids 
him send for all the carpenters in his realm, and order 
them to make a Ship that will last for 4,000 years, which 
she will fit up (p. 890). Solomon sends for the carpen- 
ters, and orders them to make the Ship (p. 391). They 
say they will do their best, and then they set to work and 
finish it in half a year (p. 391). Solomon's Queen then 
tells him that he ou^ht to provide a precious piece of 
armour for his descendant, namely, King David*s Sword 
(p. 392), to which he is to make a point of precious 
stones, and then a pomel and a sheath ; and she will 
add the hangings (p. 393). Solomon does as his wife 
tells him, and makes the point, handle, and sheath (p. 
394). He then looks at them, and wishes that no one 
but the man the sword was made for may draw it 

* par quo! ohil qui che nirent, dfsent, 'que noirement estoit 
ohU arbres de nie et son de mort*-* A. 


Without repenting for hU deed. A yoice promises him 
that it shall be bo (p. 895). He writes letters oo the 
scabbard, and makes fine hangings for it ; bat his wife 
will not have them, and puts foul and weak hangings 
instead (p. 395), which she says a fair maiden Qike her 
who will undo Eve's work) will change into glorious onea 
(p. 896). A Bed is made in the ship, and the Sword put 
at its foot, and David's crown at its head (p. 8%). Sok>- 
mon's wife takes carpenters to the Tree of Life and its 
seedlings, and orders them to cut off three sprigs, red, 
white, and green (p. 397). Blood springs out of the 
Tree of Life, and the workmen leave their work, but the 
Queen makes them finish it. She puts the Branches on 
the Bed (p. 398), and tells Solomon that no one shall see 
the Bed unless he thinks of Abel's death (p. 399). Solo- 
mon writes a letter to the Elnight of his line who is to 
draw the Sword, warning him against the wiles of women. 
This he puts into the Ship (p. 399). Then he writes an 
account of the building of the Ship, of the Bed, ^indies, 
&o., and puts it at the bed's head, under the crown ; and 
then launches the Ship (p. 400). His wife tells him to 
have his pavilions set up on the sea-shore, that he and she 
may stay there and see what becomes of Qxe Ship (p. 401). 
This is done, and one night in a dream Solomon sees a man 
and angels sprinkle the Ship with water, and say that it is 
a type of God's " New House " (p. 402). The man has 
a warning written to faithless people not to enter the 
Ship (p. 402). Solomon wakes and seeks the man and 
angels, but cannot speak or go to them (p. 402). A Totce 
tells him that his desire is fulfilld, and the last of his line 
shall enter the Ship and get the Sword (p. 403). The men 
and angels vanish : Solomon is going on board the Ship, 
but the voice warns him, that if he does, he shall perish 
(p. 403). He draws back, and looks at the writing on the 
Ship, charging no man to enter it who has not faith and 
full belief (p. 403-4). Then he orders his men to put the 
Ship out to sea, and it is soon carrid out of their sight 
(p. 404). 

Thus longe durede this ilke tre, 

Of Colour, of Savour, and of Bewte, 
To Solomon Tyl that Salamon Kegnede than 

Aftir king david his fadir, ))at holy Man. 4 

Christ lends more To wheche Salamon Only Crist Sente 

Manie passing kon^^enges aftir hese Entente ; 
wit than man can he scute him more wit & discressiowu In his lyve 


Thanne ony wit of Erthly man cowde discrive ; 8 

For of Alle Scienses he was konnenge, 
Where-offen the peple hadd merveillynge. 



For he was konnenge In ^precious stones, 

and knew al here vertwes for the nones ; 12 

and the strengthe of herbes he knew also, 

And what ther-with he myhte wel do. 

he knew the Cois of the firiDament, 

And of alle the sterres fere-onne, verament, 16 

So that there nas neu^re non Erthly man 

That non disciessiovn to him ne kan ; 

3it ^eu^lieles, be bewte of a womntan 

duertaken and discey ved was he than, 20 

So that he wrowhte Ajens Goddis wille, 

that of Sum tliinges he dide fed Ille. 

This womman that with Salamon was, 

bo-thowhte hire in Many diners Cas 24 

hym to discoyve, and be^ondis him go, 

with Alle the deceites sche Gowde do. 

Where-ofiFen ful lytel wondir it is ; 

Jor there nys non Man that lyveth I-wys 28 

that offen Owhten forto MerveiUe, 

a^ens A wommans wile with-Owten faille ; 

For there sche putteth Ydre Engyn & hire Entent, 

that wit of non liveng Man verament 32 

Schal hire withstonde of bird Concettyng : 

tak kep6 of y ferst womnian that £yere was lyveng. 

Whanne Salamon Sawh that in non degre 
t'o withstonden hire Engyn It nolde not be — 36 

Where-offen he gan to Merveillen Anon, 
and wax Right wroth, and forth gan gon— * 
thanne Anon his book he spak 

that to him was with-Owten lak, 40 

Wheche that ' parables' he Calde the Kame, 
To him A book of ful gret fame : 
'* With this Book I have Sircvit y world Abowte, 
that there is non Erthly Man with-Owten dowte 44 
that to serchen Abowtes the wocrld In-virown, 
Ounethes there-Inne to fynde, be good Besown, 

Solomon knows 
Um oooneoftbt 

but is jot dMoIvd 

An4 no woodor, 

living can sUnd 
•gainst m wouuui's 

Whsn BolomoB 

Book of Puabiss, 

says ho's s sar eh t 







«M good woauHi. 

8olonoii( CMM 
uiffhi, 9ooMm 
hiiDMlf for 

botiMrinif ftboat 
hU wife's wUe 
orercoiiiliig him* 

Sv« neT«r toft off 
•chemiiig till 
■he'd got AdMn 
Mid henelf oat 

A Tolec nbakM 
him, and says 

On good womman to bis Suppoemg." 

And thus Seide he for A wondir thing, 48 

Por he ne Cowde In non Manure 
From wyles of his wif to kepen him there; 
So that he M^rveilled In ALIe degre 
Hiat so Manie iryles In A iromman scholde be^ 52 
80 that he gan dispisen hem fol faste^ 
and of hem [seide] mochel Evel Atte laste^ 
And of Speritwel ihinges neu^re they Come^ 
but Of Enmyte Al & some. 56 

As yppon A nyht In his bed he lay, 
thys to him self he gan to say, — 
Ful thowhtful he was & ful Momenge, 
that thus to him self he made pleynenge,^ 60 

** thow man Cayty( fol of disseise, 
why nisse ther non thing that the May plese t 
Why Merveillest thow so Moche of wommans wOe, 
that the bass distorbled witb-Inne A while, 64 

and In Sorwe and Errour bath put the ) 
Tak An Ensample, and here now se ; 
For OuT0 feiste Moder lefte neuere hire Engyn, 
For owbt that Adam cowde deyyne, 68 

Tyl that owt of Paradis sche was cast, 
Thike delitable place thanne atte last, 
bothe Into Sorwe and In-to distresse, 
From loye, Mirtbe, and gladsomnesse ; 72 

So that alle whiche of hire Owt gonnen gon, 
In peyne And Sorwe they leven Echon, 
and here bred they Eten with swot & peyn. 
And In Cayty vete they lyven certeine." 76 

And wbanne loiige In this thowht salamon lay, 
A Toys to him spak that he herde verray ; 
** Why hast thow thus wo^nMan dispised here 
In Manie wises & In riht fowl Manerel 80 

for thouhtf be wom77ian Cam ferst to Man disseise, 
Of here Anothir Schal come, this world to plese, 


and bothe love & mirthe briiii;en mochel more that m woman of 

his line sbaU 

than Euere Mankynde was grevid before ; 84 bring men mora 

and tbuB be woman Amendid schal be, hwt. 

that to fore;» tymes to wom77um was put to yelone ; 

and this womTTian schal Gomen Of thy kyiide." 

' Anon thanne Salamon Cast In his Mynde, 88 soiomon thinks 

be was a fool to 
that A fool & Vnwis that he WaS^ blame women so; 

woniTiien to blamen In Ony plas. 

thanne anon he bethowhte him of Sotylte, 

and- Sowhte the scriptures In Eche degre, 92 

And Also Alle the devyn Secres 

that he Cowde fynde In Ony degres ; 

and Atte laste so longe he Sowhte 

Til to his wit that it was browhte, 96 

So that he fond and knew Eiht wel and then he Unds 

out the coming 

the Gomeng of the viigine Euendel, of the viivin, 

and that the Sone of god Almyht Md cfhrtst's Urth 

< from her. 

Into fat blessed yessel scholde Alyht. 100 

And thus that Scripture put him In ^ende 
Of that blessid virgine so good & kende, 
that the froit fat of hiro Owt scholde gon, 
So gret blessednesse with him scholde corner anon, 104 
and Mani More double of swetnesse 
than9^ be oure ferst Modir cam bittemesse ; 

Wherefore the ton, 'Modyr/ Gleped scholde be, -j^. 

and the tothir Glepid scholde be the * See.'^ 108 

thanne stodyed Salamon from day to day, . He stadies this. 

Of this blessed Maiden to knowen more Teziay, 
^if that A Modir that Maide scholde be, 
and Gomen of his lyne, thus merveilled he. 112 

thanne was he glad In Alle Manere nA is giad that « 

the Yirgtn Is to ' 

that of his Awncestris swich A spring scholde come a eomejOranbis . 

. line. f 


^ t A mistaken translatioii of the Hebrew word for Maryv 
jnakes it " Star of the Sea." It either means ** bittor," like 
Marah, or /'The rebel" or <' rebeUion,'* like Miriam.— B. 


And thus longe he thowhte on this thing, 
tyl Atte laste on A Nyht, In his Metyng, IIG 

To him from An hy Cam the deyyne Answere 
A mMngt eooBM Into his Chambroy In bodde as he lay there ; 

from bMYQA to 

soionoQ, '' Salamon, On thing I telle now the, 

that allynges of thy schal eche not be, 120 

Ne not fully the £nde of y lignage, 

but the £nde of Anothir knyhtes of heiere parage, 

tiuu tiM lart of that schal passen of bownte & of lif 

his Um shall bt 

ft Knight Alle Othere Knyhtes, with-owten strif, 124 

that Evere to-fom htm ^it were, 

Ofer after hym scholen oomen, ofer griuee^ bere« 
who Shan pMs au So mochel schal he hem passen In alle degre v 

ottien as tlie sua 

dooBthoraoca. AjBse the sono the Mone doth, Sikerle ; 128 

For whanne the Mone schineth most briht^ 
jit passith it, the Sonne, be Many fold lyht ; 
lik so this knyht al othere schal pase ; 
and as dide loswe In Ony place^ 132 

that past alle other In Chevalrye, 
^^ So schal fia knyht passen loswe Al ofer sekerley, 
and jit loswe was told the beste knyht 
that of al y world was, & most of Myht." 136 

and whanne he this thor yndirstod, 
that of his ligne schold Comen a knyht so good, 

Boiomon r^oiooa, Ful Mochel loye was in his herte tho. 

And Ajen to his bookis thanne gan he go, 140 

And knew wel, & sawh be Tndirstonding, 
fat him scholde he not sen, ne Abyden his comenge ; 
PMf S41 For it was ful long tyme therto. 

Ilk as that his bookes Schewed him tho : 144 

■ad wondon that *' Now, Certes, this A wondir thing to me, 

this Kaight*! that So long tyme to-forn his perturite 
*how I scholde knowen of his birthe, 
that to this world Schal bringen bothe loye & Mirthe, 
As I haue here In vndirstondyng ; 149 

* et qui a cbel tans porteront armes. — A 





but )it is to me A fill sttaunge thing, 
for horn this day ^it thedir to, 
It is two thowsende 3er & mo.** 

Fill longe thowhte Solamon of this thing, 
Tj\ his wif it Aspyde, Atte last Endyng, 
how that he was fallen In his thowht, 
Where-offen Comfort fond he Ryht nowht, 
So that he was wondirly Evel at Ese, 
he NLste non thing that myht him plese ; 
thanne hadde his wif gret drede Anon 
that som Manure Evel he wolde hire don ; 
So that it happed yppon An Niht tho 
that In bedde they lyen bothe two ; 
and whanne hyre tyme sche sawh forto speke, 
thanne to hym sche gan Owt-breke, 
And Anon sche gan hym forto Conioure tho, 
For alle the loves betwezen hem two, 
that he hire would trewly telle 
how of his pensifhesse it be-felle. 

'and Salamon, that knew passingly wel 
Of hire Coniettyng Every del, 
Wyste wel that ther Nas non herte levenge 
that Cowde So Mochel of Coniettynge, 
that, And sche knew of his Menynge, 
Anon to the Ende Sche wolde it bnnge ;^ 
therfore than Anon thouhte Salamon 
how that best this Grame myhte Gon, 
For Al the Certeinte tellen he Kolde, 
What After there Offen Mien scholde. 

thanne discouered he his pensifuesse 
To his wif, & al his hertes distresse. 
Of that he' hadde So longe I-thowht, 
To what Ende it scholde be browht. 


SoIobmh*! wUb 



aaki him la ted 







So 1m tdU ter an 

1-^1 Bt salemona, qui le yit plus Boutil en mal et en engien 
ke nus horn ne peiut eetre, pensa ke, se ouers morteos pooit 
metre oonsel a ohou ke il pensoit, ele en venroit a chief. — A. 

' MS be 



Solomon's wiHi 
tclts him what to 
do for tha last 



Ud 'em bafld % 

that'll Uwt 4000 

" Certes, Sire," quod his wif tho, 
" Of this Mater p Can I not do ; 184 

}mi with-Inne schort tyme^ to My sapposinge, 
To A good Ende we scholen it brynge." 
So it happede that the thiidde Nyht 
To-Gederis they weren, as I the plyht, 188 

I* Sire/' sche ^eide^ '' I the now certefye 
Of this knyht ful Certeinlyey 
That schal ben of thy laste lyne ; 
To my wit it doth now propyne 192 

how that )e acholen knowen the verite 
Of Al his Comeng, In Eche degre." 
'^ Kow Sothly/' quod Salamon the kyng^ 
'' this me pleseth Oner alle thing.** 196 

. ** Now ful Gladly I wele 30W Schewe 
holy myn Entent Tppon A lewe : 
Wei faste Sendeth )oui« Messengeres Anon 
thorwh-Owt 301110 Eem Eyerichon, 200 

And Alle the Carpontens that they mown fynde^ 
that to 30W they hem bringe In Ony Kynde ; 
And whanne they ben Alle to-gederis I-browht^ 
A Certein thing 30 scholen haoen wiowht ; 204 

And Chargeth hem In Alle wise 
Trewly to don here Servise, 
^ And swich a achipe 30 w forto Ordeyne 
Of sweche tre that it may the self sosteyne^ 208 

And that of water it maj^ hayen non fexe^ 
Ke Of non thing In non Maneie, 
That it Mow laste four^ thousend 3er, 
Where so Euere it go, Ofer far Or ner.^ , 212 

And In the mene while this Schipe they make^ 
To Another purpos I wele me take. 
For to Apaiaille Other thinges therto, 

1— i qu'il Tons faohent vse nef de tel fast qn'il ne polsBe 
poorrir, ae pour iaue ne pour autre ohoee^ deoba JiQ. MSI 
anai, — ^A. 

CH. zzx.] Solomon's ship, ai fob looo tbabs, is built. S91 

SwIcIl As behovetli there-Iime to do, 216 

A8 30 scliolen Afterward bothe heren A, knowe 
Al myn hoi purpos vppon A rowe." 

And Salomon it levede tho fol wel. 
And there A^ens spak Keuere Adel ; 220 

but Sa£&ede hire wille Al that nyht, 
Tyl on the Morwe it was day lyht. 

On the Morwe Anon as the day gan Byse, Next day soionum 

he Comaunded his Messengeris In Alle wise 224 ten. 

Into Every partye forto gon, 
Carpenters him to Ibiyngen Anon. 
So that with-Inne a fewe dayes 

these Messengeris Sowhten Many wayes, 228 

and Carponters to the kyng Anon they browhte, 
to weten yi£ that with hem he wolde Owhte. 

and whanne these Caipenteris weren semblid hmjooum^ 
To hem the kyng Aperede wel sone^ 232 

& hem Comanded there riht Anon nnd h« udt 'em 

boild % ship Ihetll 

' a schip forto maken they Scholde gon. 

So Strong, so Myhty, In Alle manere of gyse, 

of swich tre As they Cowde devyse, 236 

that for water ne Eokkes ne persen scholde 

WtVi-Inne ii\j k' jeres,* thus the kyng wolde, Ua^toiriimj^m, 

thanne Answered the Carponters Agayn, 

* his wille to fulfulle they wolde ben fayn, 240 

To alle here powere & to Alle here Myht 

they wolden don that Schipe to dyht' 

So that to werke they wenten Al In fere, Theyiettowoik^ 

and baild It in 

that the Schipa was Mad wttA-Inne half A ^ere. 244 haifayear. 

And whanne it was fulliche I-browhte to An ende, 
Thanne that lady to Salamon gan wende, 
That thike Schip first dide begynne 
thorgh hire qweyntise and hire Jenne ; 248 

" Sire," sche seide, ''and it be so As 30 me telle, 
that In tyme Comeng swich A Cas be-felle, 

392 Solomon's wife bats dayid'b bwobd 'b to oo in thb ship, 

and that swich A thing scholde there be. 
So worthy A knyht^ and Of so ny degre 252 

that In bowunte alle knyhtes scholde passen Echone 
As don hemes of y sonne passith liht of the Mone, 
And Alle hem that Euere to fom him were, 

soionon'i wtft Qher after hym scholen Comen Armes to here. 256 
It were bothe my Gownseille & my wit, — 
And ^e wolden Owht concentyn to It, 
and as be good Resown As thenkith Me, 
Sethen this worthy knyht Of joure ligne schal be, — 

iovnpanmm* that w som Manere Of precious Armure 261 

IWMioaa armoar "^ 

for hi! ( i tm nd i nt Whiche IB bothcn passing good & sure, 

(So that )ow he may haven In remembraunce, 

What so Evere Aftir happe be chaur?ce,) 264 

Scholen je Ordeyne & Arayen A^ens his Comefige 

Of hym that ^e hauen so gret Merveillynge, 

and that the Armure be passings Merveillous In all 

As he schal passen Alle Oper knyhtes In dignete.** 268 
** Sey,** quod Salamon, " what Armure it schal be ; 
and )if it be Coyenable that I may se^ 
I schal it ordeine thanne Anon Hiht, 

to bt pot in the And Into that Schipe it schal be diht." 2 72 

thanAe Seide this lady Anon Ageyn, 
*' Sire, I schal 30W tellen now In Certein 
On Of the Most Sufficiaunt Armure 
that I knowe, as I 30W Ensure. 276 

the holy temple wheche je han don Mad 
In the worschepe of ours lord In this sted. 
In wheche temple the beste Armure is on 
that Euere On knyht here was I-don ; 280 

*1T^*^ ^,-. I^ is the swerd of thy fadir, kyng davy, 

th6 sword of hu 

fttiMrDftTid, that there-Inne hangeth ful Sekerly ; 
For it is On the Bichest thing 

That Evere Abowtes heng ony kyng, 284. 

the most M&7Teillous that Evere forged was, 


the Most disgiest' In O117 plas, 
the Scharpest & the Moste trenchaond 
that Evere Ony Knyht took on hand ; — 288 

taketh that, & Maketh Ordenauizce 
For that swerd with-owten ony variAance, 
And Ordeyneth hothe for hondele & point. 
To Setten Every thiAg In his loynt ; 292 

And Aftir for the blad 36 ordeynen Also 
As 30W thinketh best forto do. 
and 3e that han of Alle herbes the knoweng, 
and of Alle precyons stones the konnenge, 296 

And the kynde of Alle thinges therto 
that be-longeth ony konnenge to, 
Ordeyneth, for the point, of precious stones, 
And that they ben Sotely loyned for y Nones, 300 
So that non Erthly Man Aftir this day 
In non wise hem departen ne May, 
but }at they Supposen In Alle thing 
that it Nis but On ston In beenge. 304 

and thanne to the pomel Ordeynen 30 
As precious A ston & Menreillous As it may be, 
That non so vertwos, so m6rveillo[u]s, ne so riche. 
Of Alle Other stones be non him liche : 308 

and thanne A schethe that 30 ordeyne, 
tha menreillous blad forto susteyne. 
and whanne Alle this 3e han I-wrowht, 
thanne wile I werken As cometh In My thowht^ 312 
and Eanges I wele Maken therto, 
Sweche As me liketh there-Inne to do." 
thanne he that was wisest of Al degre, 
And most yertwes In herbis & stones Knew he,^ 316 
passing Ony 0^^ Creature 
Most Gonnenge he was, I the Ensure, — 
Owt of that temple the swerd they browhte, 
the wheche kyng davy his fadyr owhte, 320 

' ? diegniest^ or dingniest, worthiMt, 

and to make ■ 
wonderftal handto 

Um point of 
pndow ■tODMa 

•ad the pomel of 
on* marrtUooi 



but tha hangingi 
■ha wiU maka. 

Da?id*a awofd ia 
brought oat of 

394 8oix>]fOK XAnn a shsath vob thb swomd. [ob. 

and that they helden as Biche and Ab iroitliy 
As Ony tiling fat In y temple was Sekerlj. 
soioBM dMin and thanne wro^te he Al Aftir hiie Avya 

with prMioui With precious stones of giet delys ; 324 

b^p^oMoaij ^u^ Onliche to the pomel An hj 
fcrtktpMMi. he pntte but on ston Sekerly, 

Whiche of Alle Manere Colowrs it was 
that Odj Man Gowde thenken In Ony plas. 328 

And thanne Al his hoi Entent 
TiMiiiMiiiiikMA the schethe to Maken, he dide Terament^ 
Where Inne that this swerd schold he ; 
Fol Goiionaly his wittes thanfie Cast he. 332 

but where offen the schethe ^t he made there, 

declaret not ^it this storie here ; 


For it schal ben non gret Mestiei 

the schethe ^it to declaien In non Manors ; 336 

bat the pomel Made he so Ryaly 

As here vs doth telle this Story. 

And whanne this swerd thns gamysched was, 
and be his devis wrowht In that plas, 340 

patiiiMSiMr« thanne the Swerd Into the Schethe he pytte, 

in th* ahwUia 

and fol fast be gan to beholden Itte, 

bothe the schethe and Ek the swerd ; 

Swich anothir nas there In Middlelerd. 344 

and whanne he Sawh it Aparaylled So Richely^ 
In Al the world hym thowhte non So worthy 
That for Erthly man Euere was Mad ; 
thus In his herie to him Self he seid, S48 

and MTi that no " that there nas Neuere non knyht bom 

knight eTmr hi ' 
■Qcfa ft sword 
Bftdt flMrhin. 

racfaftswOTd In Al this world here be-fom 

that for hym swich a Swerd was diht^ 

Ke non So Riche to non Mannes siht^ 852 

ne non so vertwos In Al degre 

As that is this swerd, as semeth me." 

Thanne of on thing desired he f^ soro, 
Of Alle his desir not mochelis More,. 356 

OH. xzz.] Solomon's wifb puts hangikos to thu sword.. 


- ' that Nea«re Man theke sweid scholde dravre, 
For lust, for drede, nether for Awe, 
but him Eepentyn Scholde Eyht Sore, 
Sauf only he that it iras Mad Pore, 360 

What Manere of Knyht So Evere it be^ 
tliat non it draire, but jif it be he.' 
thanne to hym Gam A vois mt^-Owten lak^- 
the Same vols that to fore tymes to him spak — 364 
'* Salamon, Of this that ])oa hast Axed before^ 
Schal non man it drawe, but hym Bepente sore, 
but ^if it be the Samd persone 

for irhom this Mater thou hast I-done, 368 

and for whom this swerd is dyht ; 
It non Man to drawen schal hauen non myht." 

And whanne that Salamon herde this, 
thanne was his herte In loye & blys ; 372 

and Anon let wryten with his hond 
dyyers lettres, as I yndiistond ; 
and, as this Storye doth deyyse, 
he^ let Ordeyne Bawnges In his Gyse, 376 

And to the schethe he gan hem Ordeyne 
Also Eyaly as he Gowde Certeyne : 
but so wolde not his wif 

In non wyse be here lyf ; 380 

^but so fowls Raunges, & so Spytable, — 
that to so Eyal A thing ne weren not able— > 
his wif Ordeynede forto do, 

that non thing weren Able therto, 384 

As fer forth as Salamon Cowde seyne, 
Kot An Owr thike swerd to susteyne.* 
^ Whati" quod Salamon to his wyf tho, 
*^ how thenke je now here forto do, 388 

To putten So fowl A thing In AbYcioun 

> MShet 

'— ' aioB en apoiia vDes si laideo €t si poores oomme de 
oannre, et si febles par aunblant ke elea ne peasaent Tespee 
BOttstonir. — ^A. 

Sdonum detfres 
tliAl no oiM •hall 
dmwth* Sword 

bot tho Knight 
it ia mad* for. 

him that no ouo 

Solomon th«n has 
lotion written on 
tho ShMth, Jko., 

and wants to paC 
flno Hangings on 

tat Us wlft Insist! 
•D patting fool 
Hangings to it. 


S96 THS swobd'b voul hanoinqs abb to bb ohakgd. [gh. 


» daiBMl ihall 

To So Biche A thing irtt/i-Owten Comparison t " 
" je^ fonothe,*' thanne quod scliey 
<< At this tyme it schal non OferwjBe he, 392 

Sowf onliche, and it be goddis plesyng, 
That so May happen In tyme Comeng, 
That A damysele it Chaungen Schal there, 
swowi't Aral And Tornen hem Into Anothir Manere, 396 

hangliifi Into 

tioHowoiiM. So Faire and so Eiche, that wondir schal be 
Ony Erthly Man to beholden Certeinle. 
and so be this swerd there scholen 30 knowe 
the werkys of two wommen wttA-Inne A throwe ; 400 
For lik as je don me to vndirstonde 
That A Mayden schal comen In to this londe 
Forto A-Mendyn Al the grete wronge 
That oQTd form Modir dyde A fom ful longe, 404 

Byht So schal the Same Maiden Certeynlye 
Amendyn In tyme Comeng Al my folye, 
the fowle Eaunges that I have the swerd put to^ 
Fyl Riche & worthy for hem wele sche pere do." 408 
Of these wordis thanne hadde Salamon 
In his herte gret wondir Anon^ 
Where sche hadde that wit An discresciown 
him forto telleu So straunge A resown. 412 

Whanne the Schip« was Mad In this manere, 

A woodm B«d !■ And I-Couered, as the Storye telleth here, 

mifdt in tlM Shipb 

In the Schipe was mad a bed of Tre, 

WondirfuUy devised, I telle the ; 41 6 

and tiM Sword snA OuMhwert ouer the beddis feet 

lay this Ryal swerd, I the be-heet : 
while It ttfhei4 And Aboven, vppon the beddes bed, 

UmCrownof '^'^ 

Gold wueh DATid A Crowne of Gold stood In that sted, 420 

had won. 

that Manie ^eris to-fore his fadir kyng davy 
that Crowne hadde werid ful worschepfully ; 
wiche Crowne Salamon put In to that plase, 
Sethen that knyht neuere non So worthy wase 424 
pMftt] As he of whos ligne scholde Comen that mayde, 

■t hor wocda. 



Solomon's wife has 8 spinolbs cut. 


As to fom tymes his Bokys liad hym Sayde ; 
And on non Man So wel, bym thowht, leyenge, 
Myht ben be-stowed So worthy A thynge. 428 

And whanne the lady thus hadde Seyn him do, 
*' 3it," sche Seide, " vs behoueth now thinges mo : 
For 3it to this Schip there failleth Somthing 
That there-Inne Moste ben with-owten faillyng." 432 

And these Carponters sche took Anon, 
And to the Tre of lyf they gonne to gon, 
Tndir wheche tre Abel was Slayn, 
As the Storye to fom Eeherseth Certein« 436 

thanne Seyde sche to hire lord tho, 
'' Sire, to this tre now moot we Go, 
And to the Tothir that of hem Come, — 
the Cause I schal tellen 30W Al & Some, — 440 

Off wheche on Is Eed, Anothir is whit, 
The thiydde is grene, A tre of delyt : 
Of these take je now springes thre, 
Whit, Red, & Grene, lik as they be,* 444 

Whiche the bed Scholen Envirown Abowte, 
As I schal 30W tellen with-Owten dowte.** 

thanne Answerid the Carponteris tho, 
' that the Tre of lyf wolden not they gon to, 448 

For neuere to fore, as they Cowden yndirstond, 
Ke was it persched with Mannes hond.'^ 
thanne Answerid this qwene Anon, 
" but 3if tl\at je my Comandement wil don, 452 

)e scholen ben blamed Al In hye, 
I-Seye 30W, Seres, now fill Certeynlye." 

Thanne they f ulfUden here Comandement 

holiche Aftyr the ladyes Entent ; 456 

and they dradden hem fill Soryly, 

For neuere to fore hadde Man Comeii ther Ny. 

' prenes .iij. fuissiaus .i. Vermel .i. blano .1. vert — A 

' Et chil disent * qu'il douteroient moult a eniamer Tarbre 

de nie, pour clioii ke nus n^auoit este si hardU qui Tenpirast de 

riens.'— A 

8ol(»noD'f wift 

takes carptntort 

•ad bids *ein cot 
off S brandies, 
whits, rsd, and 

rsftass at first, 


398 80Loxos% WHS puts tbb a spindubb oh thb usa [ch. 

but ful 80ie Abaackt they were» Aite b^gynfienge, 
*w*ttwT»itrf For 80 firaeeh blood owt of ^* tze gaa spiTnge, 460 

As of A Mannes Aim it hadde be 

that hadde ben of smeten Sekede 

In bataalley oper In tomementy 

Lik Ab it semede to here Entent 464 

and thanne weien they Abaacht bo aore^ 
Ti*«rpmtMv that there-Onne wolden they werken no more. 

agmin ntaM to 

work, and 80 leften they Alle here werkynge 

that they diden Atte the begynnenge^ 468 

and Repentyd hem fnl Sore 

that they wrouhten after the ladyes lore. 

But 8che wolde it soflfren In non wyse 

but that 8che wolde haven hire owne Gyae ; 472 

find whanne they knewen hire Entente 

holichtf they folfOden hiro Comanndemetitb 

iratatiMtdoeat And whanne these thre brawnches werefi I-browht 

off the S BrsncbM* 

To y Schipe, to fuimien the ladyes thowht^ 476 

^it ful Sorye they weren therto 

here ladyes wille thanne forto do. 
Boiomoo'i wub thanne devised the lady how it scholde be 

bnaohM on Hit of alle tho Braunches In £che degre, 480 

1 In front, On be Fore, the tothir be hynde, 

Brd manm, the thiidde 0u6rthwert, As Cam to hire Mynde ; 

So that the bed ouer sprad vas there 

with these thre trees In this Manere. 484 

behold now of this m^rveillous werkynge 

What it was thanne to Signefieng ! 

For it was to a gret Signefyaunce ; 

As this Storye schal schewen wttA-owten variaajiee. 488 
and toiia bar And whanne sche hadde So I-do, 

. Thanne to Salamon gan sche to go^ 

" Now beholdeth these spyndelis thre 

that vppon this bed to fom 30W be ! 492 

that no man ihaU Kow herkeueth to me what I schal seye : 

over MO thani 

these Schal Neuere Man Sen ful Certeinlyo • 



Bat ^if Abelys detk he scLal bayen In Mynde, 

That Man that so Jast was, and to God So kynde." 496 

And whiles they spoken of this Mateie, 

Anon to hem Comen tydynges there, 

that tho whiche the Branches hadden Atamed, 

Aongeles^ they weien, that weie9» not blamed. 600 

Thanne be-thowhte fill Mochel Salamon 
Of Manye thinges that he wolde don ; 
And 3it to his wif he Seyde Eyht nouht 
Of Al that Euere thike tyme he thonht 504 

Thanne Anon Salamon be-gan to "wiitey 
and with his wittes it gan to Endite, 
A lettre In the Schipe forto be set tho. 
In what plase he myhte best it do. 508 

And this was the be-gynneng of his Besoaft, 
As 96 scholen now heren, bothe Al & soun ^ : 
" Behold, thou ELnyht, (what I schal Seye ; 
Of on thing I warne the Alweye,) 512 

That schalt ben Ende of Myn lynage. 
As I am Certefyed, and of So worthy Gorage. 
Evere be thow war of wommens Engjrne ; 
And Also of Many thinges they welen propyne, 516 
loko that thow be wis, & kepe the wel, 
and of hem be war thou Everey del, 
and that thow leye hem In non wise, 
For jif thou do^ thou lesist thin Aprise ; 020 

Ke JS'enere prowesse ne non Gheyalrye 
Schal I the warannten Gerteinlie^ 
but it tome Beprof to the ; 

thits Sente the to Seyne Salamon be Me : 524 

Aud 0^ hym Bemembraunce thow took, 
Whanne that thow lokist yppon this book.'' 
^Thys was the begynheng of his writ there, 

' ke ehil qui Tarbie de uie aaoient entamo^ estoient auole 
[blind]. — A ' for Bom 

'—*' Et teu8 1i oommandemenB du brief ke aaleinons eaorUt 
poor le ohinaler qui fist tant de cheualerie el xoiaume de logres, 

iinlMi he thinks 
of Abel's death. 

tarn blind. 

Boloinon writes a 
letter to pat in 
the Ship, 

warning the 
Knight (Qalahad) 

to beware of 
women's wile% 

and to think of 
Solomon when 
he looks on the 


Whiche Salamon wrot In ibis Maneie ; 528 

For of logres that worthy Knyht 
Whiche that Into this Schip scholde be djht, 
sotomoB also Wrot Salamon this q westion Sekerly, 

wrote (Ibr OaU- 

1m4) and Into the Schipe it putte trewly. 532 

And now of Foiein londes scholen ^e here, 
As the storye of Sank £yal Beheiseth In diners 

And After he Wrot the yerite 

•11 aboat hia Of his wif there In Alle degte, 536 

tha Ship, uia Had, how his wif this Schip6 gan to Ordejrne, 

And Al that Kichesse there-Inne put CertejrnOy 

bothe the Bed, & spyndelis Also 

that overthwert the bed weren I-do, 540 

of whiche on was whit, Anothir was Bede, 

And the thridde was grene In that stede ; 

and alle colowred of here kynde they were, 

As^ of the Tres they weren taken Ere. 544 

and whanne this writ was thus I-do, 

and than imt tha At the beddes hed he leyde it tho ; 

letter andar tha 

Crown. yndir the Crowne there As it was, 

There he it putte In that Same plas. 548 

Titan ba aant tha And whanne this Schipe thus was I-dyht. 

Ship to aaa. f ^ 

Into the Sehe it putte Anon Eyht. 

thanne to his wif he Seide Anon, 
" Lo, dame, now Al this thing [is] don, 552 

and Into the Se I have it pyt, 
Xeuere weneng more foito Sen it ; 
Xe I not neu67'e to knowen of his Comenge, 
of theke worthy Knyht fat me Is put In Mynde.** 556 
" jis* Certein, Sire," quod his wif thanne 
" Som veryfieng Sohole 3e han of that Maniie ; 
Charge ^e joure Meyne Anon Eyht 

et mist a fin lea auentures qu'el roiaume de la terre foraine et 
en maint autre lieu auenoient par rauentore et par la forche 
del saint gna], si com li oontes deuisera oha auaat. — ^A, 
> MS As As * MS3if 



That 3owre pavylowns beu Eedy dyht, 
And be the se Syde that 30 don hem Sette, 
And for non thyng that 30 ne lette 
That 36 And I and somme of oure Meyne 
With-Inne the tentes to-gideres Mown be, 
And there to Abyden and to dwelle, 
To seen what this Schipe may be-falle." 

Thanne this Salamon Anon Eyht 
Comanded his pavilowns to ben dyht, 
And to ben Set faste^ vppon the Se Syde, 
with-Inne wheche he myhte abyde, 
his wif, & with hem A prevy Meyne : 
thus he Comanded that It scholde be. 
And anon his comandement was I-do, 
that he and his wif to-gederis Also 
there-Inne Slepten Every Nyht, 
and with hem here Meyne ful ryht. 

So vppon A tyme As there-Inne they lay, 
As this Storye here doth Say, 
As it be-happede Abowtes Mydnyht, 
In his Sleep he Sawh a wondir siht : 
that there Cam from the hevene An hy 
A man, & of Au/zgeles A gret Company 
that certein Instrwmewtis wtt^ hem browhte ; 
but what Maner they weren, he knew hem nowhte, 
Ne he ne wiste In non maner degre 
What Man it was that In that Compeyne 
that with the Angelis Cam down there, 
he ne Cowde him knowen In non Manere. 
And AUe Into the Schipd they descendid Anon, 
Ech After Oper there-Inne Gan gon ; 
thanne to the water gonne they Reche, 
And ther-with dyden as I schal the teche : 
and Into that schip it Cast Abowte 
Into alia parties, with-Owten dowte, 

1 MSfoste 

GRAAL. 26 

560 Solomon*! wife 
bids him have 
hie tenta pitchy 


to see what'U 
become of hla 








Tlie tenU u« 


and he and hit 



One night 

Solomon sees a 
man with a com- 
pany of Anfieb 

oone down from 
hearen into his 

cast water aU 
over it, 



and »^ tlM Ship 

▲n Anfil wrItM 

isrUdding lUth- 
laM mm to Miltr 

SolomoB iralci% 


Angels and the old 
Xmi In hit Bblp^ 

bat has no power 
to ipeak to them. 

8oyeng there In this Manere 

To his Aviciown, as he mjhte here : 596 

" This Schipe is the Signefiaunce 

Of Mjn News hows Trith-Owten variaunce." 

and thanne this old Man gan forth to gon 
to the bordis of y forscbipa there Anon, 600 

And bad on of his Compenj to write 
Sweche lettres as he wolde Endyte.^ 
And whanne these lettres wereu I-wrete, 
thus gonne they scin, And thow wilt wete : 004 

" a passing fool thanne schal he be 
that this comaundement passeth In ony degre.** 

this beheld Salamon In his Aviciown, 
What this Comaundement spak Al & Som ; 60S 

and ferto it was so worthily I-wreten & dyht» 
8o that there Cowde non Erthely wyht 
discryve the bewte of that Scripture 
that so wondirful was, I the Ensure. 612 

And al swich wondir he hadde In his Slepinge, 
So that atte laste he barst In wakynge, 
And there his Eyen he Openode Anon, 
And to-wardis the schip he lokede ful son ; 616 

And there Openly Sawh he than 
the Same Compenye with the olde Man 
that In his Sleep he Sawh to fore ; 
Alle thike hole Compenye him thowhte thore, 620 

thanne to hem wolde he han Spoken tho, 
but non power hadde he therto ; 
he wold han Clepid hem In his Gyse ; 
but power hadde he non forto Bise. 624 

thanne wolde he han Clepid hem pat to-fore him lay, 
but therto power hadde he non be no way, 
For he ne myht nethir Meve ne Speke, 
Ne with On word ne Myhte Owt breke. 628 

thanne thowhte him that a voys Seide tho, 

* MS endyde. 


" Salamon, thy desir is fulfyld and do ; An Angei uiis 

For the Knyht that the Ende of thy lyne schal be, ia»t Knight of hu 

In. to this Schip schal Entren ful Sekerle, 632 wlVhip, *° 

And this swerd schal he have In honde and bare hu 

that povL hast Aparailled ; this thow yndirstonde. 

and here-offen schalt pou. knowen the veritey 

that non schal Entren, but ^if it be he/' 636 

And thanne After this word anon, 
Owi [of] this Schip this Compenye gan gon. The Ang«b 


that Salamon ne wiste witterlie 

Where they becomen tho Serteynlye. 640 

and whanTie he hadde power forto speke, 

thanne to his Meyne he gan to reke, 

And to the Schipe he Cam Anon soiomon wants to 

go on board hia 

Also faste As he Cowde gon. 644 ship, 

and whanne the Schipe he wolde han Entred ther, 

A voys to hym Seyde In this Maner, 

'^ Salamon, I the Hede that thow wiiJi-dmw^ bat u wand by t 

and that thou werke Af tyr my Sawe ; 648 ^^ ** 

for jif thou Into the Schipe Entre otterly. 

Thou schalt ben persched Sothfastly.^ bauudif he 

but loke the Schipe that thow lete go, 

To Swich place As it is ordeyned to, 652 

And where that fortune so wele it bringe ; 

Eorto manie strounge Contres is his goynge^ 

wheche that hens ful longe they ben. 

As In tyme Comenge Oj?er Men scholen sen." 656 

Thanne there Salamon with-drowh him Anon, Sohtgoaeb«dE. 

And from that Schip faste gan to gon,' 
And beheld the lettres wretew vppon the bord, 
that In this Maner they speken Every word : 660 

^ Thow Man that Entren wilt with-Inne Me, 
be war that ful of Feyth that thow be ; 
For In Me is, if non thing ElliA, 

' Se tu entres dedens, tu periras. — A. 
* et sacbes ke ele sera encore veue et pres et Icing. — A. 




Ho one It to 
enter Sdomon's 
Ship unlet* he 
hju fliiUi without 

but only feith, (As the Stoiye tellis,) 664 

and Riht-ful Creaa»ce, as I telle the. 

feriore be war, hoso entre wit/j-Inne Me, 

that he have bothe feith & Creaunce 

stedfastlj, with-owten variauwce. 668 

and ^if thow blenche from ony of tho, 

be war, from the than Schal I go, 

And the forsaken In alle degre, 

And Ncthir Sustenau/ice ne helpe getest pon non of me ; 

In what place that so Evere jbhou be, 673 

Sodeynly schal I forsaken the." 

and whanne Salamon Eadde this Scripture, 
at that Schip myht he no7i lengere Endure, 676 

and Seyde * that to Entren, he nas not worthy,. 
Into non Swich place Serteinly.' 
Solomon's Ship It than/ze Comau»ded he his Men Anon 

Forth Into the Se that Schipe to don, 680 

So that it paste ful fen-e from hem y 

that Owt of here Syhte it gan to go, 

that Kethir Salamon ne his wyf 

Non lengere it Syen, with-Owtew strif, 684 

Kow leveth this stone here anon. 
And to Nasciens now let vs gon, 
that longe hathe ben In Tornaunt Tl, 
As thowh it were in Maner of an ExyL 688 

•ndioon telli 
out of light. 

The etoij torat 


NasoieuB^s aocount of his Adventures is resumd. How Naaciens 
can not make out how the Three Spindles are oolonrd (p. 
405) ; and says that it is by trick (p. 406) ; whereat the 
Ship splits in two, and he is nearly drownd. But he 
reaches the isle of his exile (p. 406), sees the letters on the 
Ship, and prays to Grod to forgive Uim his sin (p. 407) ; 
then he lies down on the ground and goes to sleep. 
In the morning he wakes (p. 407), and prays to God to 
proteot hira from his enemy (p. 408). He looks to the 
east, and sees a vessel with an old man in it, which oomea 



within two lanoe-lengths of the isle, but no nearer (p. 409). 
The vessel is richly ornamented (p. 409). Nasciens salutes 
the old man in it, who tells him that Calafere is dead 
(p. 410). Nasciens at first doubts this, but, being re- 
bukd, believes the man, and asks the meaning of the 
Ship and the writing on it (p. 411). The old man ex* 
plains that the Ship typifies Holy Church (p. 412), and 
the Writings forbid men to enter it unless they are cleansd 
from sin by confession of mouth and repentance of heart 
(p. 413). Therefore men must found themselves on Christ 
(p. 413) ; and Holy Church is here for their sustenance, 
and keeps them from deadly sin, purifying them like 
gold seven times refind (p. 414). Next, of the Bed ; it 
means the Sacramental Table, Hhe Cros that Crist was 
on crucified in Ivrie londe,* 1. 830, the place where he 
likd to rest (p. 414). Further, as to the Spindles : the 
white one means the Virginity of Christ and his mother 
(p. 415) ; the red one, the Charity or Love of Christ, in 
giving the greatest gift, his body, for man's redemption 
(p. 41G) ; the green Spindle means Patience, which ever 
remains in a man's heart (p. 416). And these three Vir- 
tues give victory over all enemies (p. 416) ; and were 
present with Christ at his death (p. 417). Nasciens now 
goes to sleep, and dreams that a serpent attacks him, and 
that a little worm kills it (p. 417-18). He awakes in 
wonder (p. 418). 

Now schewith fortli this Storye 
[How] that Nasciens ful Sekerlye 
[Behjeld tho spyndelis that on y bed lye, 
[And] tho thre Tres ful Sekerlye 
that Colowred weren of here Owne kynde, 
where-Oifen he Merveilled Sore In his Mynde ; 
With wheche Bransches the Bed was spred 
bothe Enlonges And Oue?-thwert, as it is Seid, 

And Evere this Nasciens beheld hem faste, 
And MerveiUed In his Mynde Atte laste 
Whethir of the[r] Owne kynde it scholde be, 
Oper depeynted with Colours ful Sekerle ; 
Ne stedfastliche he ne cowdo not beleve, 
Ne with Alle his wyttes ne Cowde not preve, 
how that So I-Colowred they were, 
Oper I-peynted In Othir Manere. 

thanne Anon A word to hym Self gan he say, 
Whiche Sore him Repentyd that same day, 

KMclaii looks 
at tho eoloord 
4 8pind]«» 


aod woDdera 
whether their 
12 ooloar is their 
own, or peiirteJi 




Nttdeut UiMi 
■aja he thlnka 

bj tmdiMy and 

At one* the Ship 
•putt In two^ 

and he frIU into 


the writlnn 
in th« Ship, that 
Faith only la 
In it. 

and PBproTea 
hliDMit i<r bla 

" be my trowthe," q?/wl Xascieiis the ful pleyn, 

'' Of this bed I not what I schal Seyn, £0 

For I ne Can not demyn In My Memorye 

hut that this bed is Mad Al be trechorye, 

And be falsnesse, and be Engyn, 

thus thowhte me tho In herte Myn." 24 

And Anon As he hadde Seide this weid, 
he gan to beholde vppon the Schippes bord, 
and Sawh how that It Clef A-two, 
So that Into the Se thanne fyl he tho, 28 

And there Anon I-dreynt was he fol Ny, 
Ke hadde goddis helpe han ben Sekerly. 

And whanne In the water thus was he, 
Sore Abascht he was ful sekerle ; 32 

For he Niste whcthir he slepe oJ>er wook, 
So Sodeynly the watir him took, 
and thus Sone he loked him Abowte, 
And Sauf Of the Schipc that he was O'wte, 36 

Beholdynge to-wardis the yl Anon ; 
Thedirward ful faste he swam ful son, 
tyl Atte laste he Recouerede this yl 
Where that he ferst was In ExiL 40 

And whanne the yl Eecouered he hadde, 
Byht ful gret loye thanne he Made, 
And loked Afbyr this Schip Anon, 
And Aftyr tho lettres Everychon 44 

that Seiden In this Manere vtterlye, 
* In Me Kis but Only feith Certeinlye.* 

And whanne he beheld this Scripture so, 
he wiste wel In Synne he was fallen tho 48 

be Miscreauwce & Miabeleve. 
J>e?^ore Anon to him Self he gan to Eepreve, 
And thus to him Self he gan to Sejm, 
" Ow thou Man of litel beleve In Certein, 62 

Why were thow Se Ethe for to tomen here, 
And of !Mi»Lelcve to ben On this ^lanere. 

OH. XXXI.] yAsciiys prats for vonovm^rtas. 


Of that Schipe that thow were Inue, 

O fals belevew, why wost pou from it twynne % 66 

Why Art thou Of Misbeleve & Miscreaunce, 

Sethen god the hath Schewed be Many chau7?ce^ 

And be Many Merveilles lu that Schipe Also : 

A ! fals Cristen Creature, why wost pou so do t " 60 

Thanne there to god Ciyde he Mercye 
With Soiye herte & weping Eye, 
'That God wolde for-3even his Misdede, 
And Evere him to Socoure In his ^N'ede ; 6i 

And that wroth with him he wolde not be, 
but on hym to haven Mercy & pite ; 
And that for his newe Miscreance, 
God On him scholde schewe non yeniaunce.' 68 

And thus yppon the yl stood Nasciens there 
Al the live long day In this Manere. 

And whanne to the Eveward it gan to drawe^ 
And the lyht with-drawe», as be Old Sawe, 72 

And that the Son/ze haddo lost his lyht, 
It wax to dymmen & to becomen to Nyht;- 
thanne Made Nasciens his prey ere 
With good herte & In devout Manere ; 76 

and whanne he hadde So I-do, 
down he hym leyde Anon Ryht the ; 
And there he Slepte Al that Nyht 
Tyl On the Morwew it was day lyht. 80 

vppon the morwe, whanne it was day, 
and that the Sonne it Schewede verray, 
thanne Nasciens his Eyen Opened Anon, 
And Abowtes hym he gan loken ful son, 8i 

And Into the See he lokede ful Stedfastlye, 
Aftyr that Schip« there ful witterlye 
that he hadde seyn the day to fore, 
^if Owht thanne he Myht sen it there ; 88 

but Nethir Fer Nethir Nye 
he Cowde it non sen Certeinlye. 

Nasdms pnyi to 
God to forglv« 
his misdeed. 

At nighfcfaU h« 
prajs again. 

Ktxt morning 

he can see 
nothing of the 


and wlianne that he Sawhe it wold not be 
that he ne myht it sen In non parte, 92 

thanne wondirly Sore Abaschet he was, 
So pat he left ype his bond In that plas, 
and On hym he Made the Signe of the Cio\s, 
thus Cryeng to god with Milde voys : 96 

HMdMM pnya " Now, Jesu Crist, for thy grete pite, 

■gmta to Chiiat 

and for thy Mercy that is so large & fie, 
that Me^Owt of Calaferis danngere 
Into this place hast Browht me here, 100 

Wheche that was My Moste Enemy 
that Evere jit hadde ich here worldly ; 
and Sethen, lord, that thou hast don so, 
tokMp him from From alle Ober Enemyes kepe me now fro, 104 

•11 hUeiMn&lMt 

that me AsaHleth Every day, 

Me to deceyven, jif that he May, 

With his False conspuracye ; 

Now, goode lord, from him f ou me gye ; 108 

And defende me, lord. As A Champiown, 

From the wiles of that fals Felown, 

That I mot kepen Euere for thy sake 
Pdid'tttonw] Thike lowel whiche thou distime^ betake, 112 

Whiche is my Sowle, In Eche degre 

It to Kepen, lord, power graunt thow Me. 

And 3if therto I ne haue neper Strengthe ne powere, 
and fopport him, Kow, goode lord, that thow Supporte me here, 116 

And that Euere My sowle that thou Kepe^ 

Whethir that Evere I wake Oper Slepe. 

For I Knowe wel In Myn Memorie, 

that jif that fals thef Owht me Aspye, 120 

3if I Owht be blenched from holy Chirche, 

thanne his Maistres On Me wile he wirche, 

And Me to strangelyn jif he May, 
M h« ti M feebit That ait so feble am In the newe fay ; 124 

In tht ntw Faith. 

therfore Eu^'J-e, lord, defende thou me, 

Tyl More Stedfast that Im beleve there I be." 


Whiles Nasciens Made thus his preyere, 
Eu^re towardes the See loked he there, 128 

Evene plat Est, 3if he myhte Aspye 
Ony Schipe Owther fer other Nye. 
And Atte laste he loked So fere . 
Tyl A schip6 him thowhte he sawh comen there^ 132 KaMdensMMa 

ihip oomlnic. 

And there-Inne A Man of Ryht gret Age, with a very old 

ywan in It, 

As him Semed be his visage ; 

And streith it Cam to that yl 

there Nasciens was Inne In Exyl; 136 

And So Nyhe to the yl there Gan it gon, 

two spereschaft^ lengthe there anon ; 

but Kon ner it ne kam there, 

nethir not ne wolde In non Manere : 140 

So Riche thike litel vessel was. The uttie ihip 

ia very rioliy 

That Sire Nasciens thowhte In non ph 

Nether vppon the lond ne vppon the See — 

So Eiche A vessel that Myhte ban be ; 144 

For witA-owten it was Set so ful of precious stones, 

Every bord ful thikke for the Nonis, 

So that Nasciens wende ful Sekerly 

that Alle worldly princes, ful Certeynly, 148 

Ne hadden of precious stones so gret plente 

lik As In that Schip^ there gan he to se ; 

And 3it was that Schipe In Other degre 

Anoured^ with diuers lowellis Certeinle. 152 adored with 

inany Jewela« 

thanne beheld Nasciens this Schipe on bothe side, 
And Alle the letes sauf xij In that Tyde, 
Alle they weren Echon of Sylver fyn tho,* 
And the poyntes with fyn gold I-gamesched weren Also, 
that was Also Cler Schynenge 167 

As the Sonne vppon the water whanne it is Glemerynge ; 
And to fom, As scharpe And trenchaunt they were / 

* deus lanches 

*—* aournee d'autrea choses dont nasciens ne B*e8meniil1oit 
xnie mains; Car el bort d'une part et d'autre auoit saietes, 
truskes a .zij., qui toutes estoient d'ai^ent. — ^A. 


As Evere was knyf Owtlier Ony spere. 160 

Whanne Kasciens Sawk this good Man fast by, 

and beheld that he wolde Comen No Nj, 

Nasciens to-ward hym gan to dresse. 

With him to speken In Sekemesse. 164 

NMdvnt w«i. thanne seide JS'asciens, " Sire, welcome ae be ! " 
nu. " Graunt Mercye, Sire/' quod this good man Sekerliv 

thanne Axede This good Man Nasciens Anon, 

''how that Into this Contre (xonnen ^e to gon, 168 

that Is so fer from Every Manl" 

thos Axede he of Nasciens than. 

" Now Certes, faire Sire/* quod Nasciens tho, 

" I ne wot Into this yl how I come to ; 172 

but wel I wot It was be goddis wille 

That this yl I Cam vntille ; 

And bothe thorwh his grace and his Myht 

that me deliuerede from that Crwel Enyht, 1 76 

Owt Of his presown, Sire Calafer, 

Where that I was In Eiht gret danger." 
B» teiu NatriMM ** 16, Sire, Of Calafer have thou non drede, 

that Calaftr* It 

dMd; For he is ded on Eyht Evel dede 180 

Al so wykkedly As man Myhte deye, 
I telle the, Nasciens, now Certeinlye." 
" ha, goodo swete Sire," quod Nasciens tho, 
" Is this trewe that 30 seyn me vnto 1 184 

And how myhtew ^e haven thereoffen knowcnge, 
this were to Me A Merveillous thinge." 
** 3if, Sire, Sekei-ely," this good man seyde, 

hauvhimdto. "this day I sawhe whanne that he deyde." 188 

"And this be Soth, Sire, that je me Seye, 
Ajid je An Erthly Man Certeinlye, 
It may not Acorden, In non degre. 
That I so fer from folk scholde be 192 

as je diden me ferst to vndirstonde 
that I was so fer Owt of londe ; 
And 3it is it not past Matyn tyme. 


'Ne])er no wher ny the Owt of pryme, 196 

And ^e so faste scholde han gon, 

For Erthly man myht neuere don it non." 

" Now I the Sey," quod this goode Man tho, Tiie ow Man 

" I sawh hym ded with-Owten Mo. 200 

And 3it Art thou from thyn Owns Contra 
Ferthere thanwe that thow wenest to be ; 
And jif thow wilt not Me leven of this, ten* Kasciens 

CI n 1 1 1 -n» • 1 . **A 4 he'll repent If he 

iSore ISchal the Eepenten with-owten mis, 204 win not beueve. 

Al so Sore As thow dydest Ere, 

Whanne In the Schipe thou spoke thike wordys 

thorwh wheohe Into the water Jou wentest Anon, 
& perQ to hauen deid, wistest f ou non Othir won." 208 

Whanne Nasciens vndirstood hym tho Naadtnsthen 

That he So Merveillously Spak him vnto, 
and Eemembred him In swich Manere 
Of J)* wordis that he In the Schip^ spak there, 212 
Whiche that non man vndirstondyn ne Myhte, 
but Only God thorwh his Insihte, conclude* that 

Gk>d alone can 

Thanne supposid he Aboven Alle thins iM^e wnt the 

Old Man, 

that from God it Cam, theke discouereng, 216 

And that God hadde discouered hym tho 

To thike olde Man that to hym Cam so. 

And that to hym was he sent In Comfortynge, 

Som7/ie cfoode tydynges him forto brynge. 220 ■<> »»« ten« him 

^ " " ^ " " ^ that be belieTea 

thanne to this good Man Seid Nasciens Agein, bim, 

" Sire, I leve jow ful wel In Certein ; 
Of Alle thinges that 30 me Seye 
I beleve 30 w wel Certeinlye ; 224 

but of that Schipe that wente fro Me, 
Sire, konne ^e there olfen owht tellen Me, *«<» "k* iiim 

^ nUinit the Ship 

jif It Eu^e Owht schold Comen Agein that epiit. 

Into on[y] place there I am Certein, 228 

and 3if Evere Ony More I schal it se 
In ony place where so that I be." 

412 Solomon's &hif ttpifies holy chubch. [ch. xxxl 



^e, ihou schalt it sen/' qi^d this good Man. 
" Better Arayed thaune Euere was it than ; 232 

For it groweth & -wexeth Every day 
Bettere thanne other WitA-owten delay, 
And so it schal whiles the world doth Endure, 
Sekerly, Sire Nasciens, I the Enswre." 236 

" Sire," quod Nasciens to that good Manne, 
" that Schipc that Every day Encresscth thanne, 
It Xis non Schipe As Othere he." 239 

" thou seist soth," qwod this goodman, " ful sekerle ; 
but Of A schipe it is the Semhla^vnce, 
And of the highe god A gred demonstraunce 
that he wolde hedir it to the Sende ; 243 

but of his signefiaunce thou schalt knowen y Ende, 
and Otherwise thanne A schipe thou schalt it calle 
In tynio Comeng, So May be-falle." 
" Certes, Sire," quod Nisciens tho, 
" I beleve wel that 36 sein me vnto ; 248 

to tdi him whu And therfore, sire, I preye aow for charite, 

tlw Ship triilAes. » » i- ./ 7 

The Signefyaunce that ^e tellen me." 
** I schal the tcUen with Ryht good chere," 
quod this Good Man Anon Ilyht there. 252 

" The Schipe that thow here Sye, Sikerle 

It typiiiM Holy It signeficth holy Chirche, Siker thow }je, 
whiche that is the most dclitable thing 
In Al this world with-owten varyeng ; 256 

wiiich, iik« the and lik As the schipe hadde non thing w/t/z-lnne 


bote feith & Creaunce, nejjer more ne Mynne, — 

As vppon the bordys Rehersid the scripture, — 

Ryht so fareth holy Chirche, I the Enswre, 260 

has only Faith that bothc feith and trowthe, as I the say, 
In holy Chirche it is from day to day ; 
And of these two thinges ferst Sekerly 
holy Chirche was fowndid, I telle the pleynly. 264 

And as th« " And the Brefis that on the schipe weren set, 

writinif on the 

Ship forbida men Signefieth holy Scripture w/t/t-owten lot, 


wheche defendith that non Man schold Entren there 

but he be stedfast In feith In AUe Manere ; 268 

Eiht 80 defendith the same Scripture, 

XoM man holichirche to Entren but he be pure, 

And of Synne I-clensed that he be, 

[By] confescioun Of mowthe ful Openle 272 

And with herte-ful Repentaunce, 

And to God to ben stedfast In Creauwce, 

& therc-offen Mevable that he ne be, 

As is the paynym In Eche degre, 276 

That wile Tornew with Everey wynd ; 


For swech is Evere the paynyms kynd. 

But the Cristene owht not forto don so ; 

but As A myhty Bole they scholden do, ^ 280 

that is Sekir of Fote And of fundeme7it, 

wlianne that ho is asayUed of his Enymycs present ; 

Eyht so stedfastlych In Alle Manere 

Scholde Evere Cristen Man lyven here ; 284 

And stedfastly beleven In holichirche, 

And there-Inne Alle goode werkys to wirche, 

Forto defenden hem with strengthe & Myht 

A3ens that Enemy that, bothe day & nyht, 288 

doth what he Can hem forto withdrawe 

bothe from god & from holy Chirche lawe. 

And therfore I Rede now Every Man 

to fownden him In the fadir, what that he kan^ 292 

the wheche is Crist, Goddis Sone of hevene, 

that Into therthe discended with Mylde stevene. 

" And lik As the Schip«, Ordeyned it was 
thorwh the See to Gon In Every plas, 296 

And with-Owten peryl to Comen to londe ; 
So Is holy Chirche, as ]?at I vndirstonde. 
For to Susteyne the Cristene In this world here. 
That they ne perschen not In non Manere. 300 

" be the Schip« vndirstonde thow holy Chirche ; 
Ati<^ be the See, the world, jif fon wilt wirche. 

to enter It 
onleas thcj're 
ttedfiut in faith. 

■o no one can 
enter Holy 

except by Con- 
leeelou and 

And after, 
be rooet live 

and work good 

and flMind himself 
In the Father, 
even Christ. 

The Ship Is Holy 
The sea Is the 


keeps Ood't 

and parillee tbem. 

The Bed meant 
the Holy Table 

on which Ood'a 



the wine turnd 
to Blood, 
and the bread 
to flesh. 

The Bed also 
means Christ's 
Cross, that he 
was crucified on« 

And lyk As the Schip« thorwgh the See 

Saveth the Men that there Inne he 304 

From AUe Maneres perilles of here Body, 

lik So doth holy Chirche fol trewely ; 

Evere Goddis Servauntes doth he kepe, 

whethir that they waken other Slepe, 308 

From Alle Maner of dedly Synne, 

That Kon Schal Entien hem wtt^Inne. 

For holy Chirche pongeth Also Clene 
Alle Manere of goddis Servauntes hedene, 312 

lik As the Gold Eesceyveth his Clemesse 
he Sevene weyes In Sekemesse, 
Wheche that Moken hym to Schyne So hryht 
Aboven Alle Oper Metales that ben more lyht ; 316 
And lik As the Sonne passeth the sterre. 
So doth gold Alle Metales bothe Ny & ferre. 

" Now of the Schip I haue the told the signifiaor^ce ; 
And now of the bed I wele with-Owten variaiuice. 320 
the Bed Signefyeth In Certein 
the holy table, I sey the ful pleyn, 
where that Every day Goddis sone of herene 
Is Onne I-Sacred with ful Mylde Steyene ; 324 

Where that the wyn Is I-tomed blood Bed, 
And the bred to verray flesch In that Stod, 
be the vertu of the holy wordys there 
that the blessed man Sejrth In his Manure. 328 

So be this Schalt thoii vndirstonde 
the cros that Crist was on Crucified In Ivrie londe. 
Where onne I-Sacred that he was, 
and Made Eedempcioun In that plas, 332 

Mannes Sowle to byen from helle, — 
The develis powste forto felle, — 
Whiche Every day to fom his ded 
Wenten to helle, that fowle Sted. 336 

•• Also jit myhtest thou vndirstondyn More 
be the Bed what it is to Signefye thore, 


A tiling that Mad is on forto Eeste Th« Bed bIm 

iDCAnt a place 

Whan72e Crist had Suffrcd deth, As hym liked beste. for chrut to 

ii»«ni rn -ii t\ m t ^^ When he'd 

For Evere Aftir Strong IravaiLle 341 aoibrd death. 

Behoveth A man to Resten Sawn faylle : 

Biht so Schalt thou vndirstonde, 

that aftir that god hadde suffred schonde, 344 

Rest that Crist took As hym list 

In what place so him liked best. 

** Now haue I the told the signefiaunce 
Of Schipe & bed with-owten variaunce. 348 

Xow of the thre Spyndelis wil y fonde, Aetothe 

^•^ ^ ' Splndlee, 

Owther brau/tches, whethir je welen yndirstonde j— 

For, with-Owtcn gret Tokenywg, 

Abowtes that bed Envirownenge 362 

was not don, wel myhtes thou wete. 

As I schal the Openly declaren itte, — 

Of wheche on was whit, Anofer was Red, 

the thridde was grene In that Sted : 356 

what the Signefyaunce is of these thre, 

Schortely I wele it declaren to the. 

" Ferst, be the whit thou schalt vndirstonde, the white <me 

mean* Christ* a 

Whanne Crist Cam ferst In to Erthly londe, 360 Tiigiiiity:' 

he Cam Only In virgenite, 

And Into the blessid virgins so Entred he ; 

And hire virginite ne dide Neucre schende, 

but Clene virgine Abideth w/t/i-owten Ende. 364 

For Into hire bosom he Entred As Clos 

As^ A ^ate is schet J)er that no man In gos j 

And As holyche he Isswede Ageyn, 

And Euere the jate clos schyt In Certein. 368 

So this betokeneth virginite 

In Alle degres, As thou myht se. 

" The Rede braunch that vppon that bed lay, the Red one 

which of his owne kynde is pro&y, 372 

therby schalt thou vndirstonden charite, 

* MSAflAfl. 


maani ChrUt't 
hamilitjr In 
giving hii body 
to redMm uuui'f 

It alto 1IM4I1S 

ChrlM't knr*. 


maftiii PkUcom/ 

whldi nirant 
% Chrlttian 
victory over 


HeeknMS, tnd 

WM the Bed 

In Crist that So lowliche wolde be, 

that bowed his body to passiown, 

For Mannes Sowle to maken Redeinpcioan. 376 

behold, swich lownesse he schewed pere I 

and the grettcst 3ifte for man In onj Manere 

jaf Crist there ! his Owne Body, 

the wheche that is lyf Eu^re lastyngly. 380 

lo, hire Charite myhtest ^u vndirstonde, 

whan»e that In dodly flesch he hym wond 

In the welle of Cliarite and of pite ; 

lo, thus dyde Crist for love of the ! 384 

" Be the tothir Spyndole that grene was, ^ 
wheche On the bed was In that plas, 
that to An EMeraude I-figured it Is, — 
The wheche that to paciense wit/i-owten Mya 388 

Is the Semblaunce Of that ston, 
As men it knowen ful Manyon ; 
the wheche Emeraude is Evere Grene, 
lik 80 is paciense with Owten wene ; 392 

the wheche may neuere ben taken Away 
For non deseisse, I dar wel Say, 
Nethir for non Maner Adversite, 
jif In A Cristen Mannes herte I-grou«ded it be. 396 
For be pacyense schalt thow han victorye, 
And with paciense discomfit thyn Enemye ; 
For there as paciense I-herberwed he ys, 
There is Evere victorye with Owten Mys. 400 

For thouhe thy Enemy be neuere So wood, 
and these thre thou wel vndirstood, 
And kepe hem Sadly In thin herte, — 
thanrie schal thyn Enemy neuere the Asterte, — 404 
Whiche is ferst virgynite, 
Meknesse, and thanne Charite ; 
And with these thre Certeinlye 

was the bed I-couerid sothfastlye, 408 

Whiche the verray Cros doth Signefye, 


On wheche that Crist gan ypon deye ; 

For whaime On the Cros he sufi&ed ded, 

Alle these thre weren In his Manhed ; 412 ThcMtiurM 

Fop As holy writ it doth Certefye, 

' with-Owten these thre was he not Sekerlye ; 

For these three vertwes weren with him there tMom mn with 

whanne he sufirede deth In Alle Manere ; ; 416 moud dflath. 

So with virgynyte, Charite and pacyense," 

[He conquerd Death, and bought us bliss intense.^] 

In this Mene while that this good Man whneth«oid 

Man !■ cxpfadnfntf 

Of Alle these thinges to Kasciens spak than, 420 umm tungi, 

and told hym Al the Signefiaunce 

of Schip6 and bed with-owten vanaunce, 

that plesed to Kasciens So wondirly wel 

Al that this Man Seide Everydel ; 424 

For so swete and so delicat his wordis were^ 

that Kasciens fil on Slepe ryht there. KmcIww ftdii 

And £yere him thowhte. As he lay, 

that this good man to hym talked Alway. 428 

And whanne that he whiche In the yessel was, 
Sawh Kasciens On Slepe In that plas, 
thanne thens Anon he gan to hye. 
And wtt^Inne A litel while Sekerlye 482 

he was thennes A gret lome, 
Ful fer Abrod Into the Se. 

Whanne this good man was forth gon, 
And Kasciens Slept stille as a ston, y/ 436 

In his sleep he thowhte, be his Entent, ^nd drMmi that 

- , . ^ <M » gr«at Serpent 

that to fom him Gam a gret Serpent, attacka him. 

And him AsaUlede wonder faste, 

Tyl that he hurt hym Atte laste, 440 

And smot hym sore yndir the lefte syde. 

And sore he defensed him At that tyde ; 

'—* a chele angoisBe quUl souffri, 11 firent oompaignie ches 
trois choae8» virginites, caritea, et pascienche ; et ensi, gamis de 
ches troia ohosea^ uenqui 11 Ub mort, et ramena notre vie au 
monde. — A« 



•ad iM flnt bat his defens Mjbte ful litel Avmylle^ 

defend hlmMll^ mi.ii % «•••! 

tiu % uttu worm Tyl atto the laste thanne eaun faille 444 

him, there Can a Wenn of lytel powere. 

In Socooreng of Kasciens there. 
whM tht 8«pMi And whanne p* serpent Sawh ^t wetm comen tho^ 

From Naaciens he fledde him fro, 448 

wich Cam to him for Socourenge, 

thanne In this Serpent was non longer^ Abydynge. 

Thus thowhte Nasciens In his Slepinge. 

And whanne he Awok, with-owten Taiyenge 452 

he was Abascht, And wende Sekerly 

fat with the Serpent he hadde fowhten Certeinly ; 

and folly Awaked thanne was he, 

thanne wiste he wel ful Sekerle 456 

that yerrayly Aslepe he was 

thorwh the Swete wordes pat In that plas 

that the goode man Seide to him tho, 

whiche In the vessel was Ago, 460 

that he ne Cowde be non-were Aspye 

In Al the See, nether fer ne Nye. 
and bUniM him- thanne to hym Self he gan to Coaipleyne, 

Mlf for forgetting 

•11 umt the Old And thus to hym Self he san to seyne, 464 

Mui had told ^z ' 

him. * that he was bothe A fool & A Caytyf 

that In sweche degre hath led his lif, 

So that In his Slepe was taken Away 

Al that the goodman to hym gan say, 468 

And ful lytel of wit thanne was he 

that this format In Alle degre. 

Of Alle the wordis of this good Man 

that In the yl to hym seide he than, 472 

And In his Sleeps it was from him gon, 

Onne this word Cowde he tellen non.' 
but leve we now of his talkynge, 
The story tamt And Celidoyne his sone let vs forth bringe, 476 

to CeUdoyu.. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ j^.^ g^^^^ 

That to him be-fil ful Certeinlie. 



Celidoyne^B Adventures. How when the Nine Hands bear him 
from Colafere, he is carrid id an island, five days' sail from 
Nasciens's isle (p. 420) ; and it is very wild, and ' feeble 
comfort' for him (p. 421). A thunderstorm comes on, 
and Celidoyne gets into a c^ve (p. 421). Two ships come 
to the island, and an old mariner laments the hard fate 
of their crews (p. 422). Another tells him not to fear. 
Celidoyne approaches them : they are heathen Persians 
(p. 422), and are going, under their king Label, to fight 
the Syrians (p. 423). Label describd : he hates Chris- 
tians. He has his pavilions pitcht on the shore. Celi- 
doyne talks to his attendants, and they take him to King 
Label, who treats him kindly (p. 423), and asks who he 
is. Celidoyne tells him. Label says he knows Evalach, 
and is sorry to hear that he has ohangd his faith (p. 424). 
Celidoyne tells Label how he was deliveid from Calafere, 
Label wonders at the boy, and makes him a knight (p. 
426), and lets him lie by him ; and tells his Council that 
he should like to marry Celidoyne to his daughter (p. 
426). Label then goes to bed, and has a Vision of a 
Tree from which flowers grow, and of a Fiery Serpent 
which destroys the tree and flowers (p. 426-7). In the 
morning the king's g^uards tell him they have caught a 
lion. They then wake Celidoyne, and take him to the 
king. Label orders his Council to be calld (p. 427), tells 
them his dream, and asks them to interpret it. They 
oonsulti but cannot. Celidoyne then rises, and tells the 
king that he will explain it to him (p. 428). Celidoyne 
then tells Label what he saw (p. 429), and declares that 
the Meadow means the World, which is pleasant to sin- 
ners, who think that it will abide with them for ever (p. 
429) ; but, as the meadow is scoroht by the sun, so will 
mankind be when the soul leaves the body (p. 4^). Ab 
to the Tree, it signifies man's person, even Label's, which 
is feeble and poor (p. 430). And of the Flowers, there is 
an unfading one, the Virgin Mar\- (p. 430) ; her. Label did 
not see, but only fading ones. Bounty, Prowess, Courtesy, 
of which and otiier virtues Label has many, but not de- 
voted to the service of God (p. 431). The Heap of 
Earth signifies the mass of man's sins; and Label has 
heapt sin on sin daily since his birth (p. 432). The 
Serpent- signifies the death of the soul, which comes to 
those who will not turn from the joys of earth (p. 432). 

■ The Additional MS 10,292 (fol. 36 b, col. 3) heads this, 
chapter ' Ensi que J. tempest en mer la v deus nes furent en 
grant peril,' and begins 'En ceste partie dist li contes, que 
quant les .ix. mains en orent porte celtdoine hors de la poeste 
oalafer en petit d'eure, si comme on le sot uraiement, puis 
que 11 fa eslongies del pais tant oomme Tespaoe de .x. ioumees 


Celidoyne theo Bays that he will tell Label of a secret 
deed done bj him, and warns him that he will die 
within four days (p. 438). Celidoyne then tells Label that 
Ood oommands him to turn Christian ; and as a sign tells 
him that he, Label, had secretly murderd his sister on the 
1st of May, for refusing to let him lie with her, and had 
oast her body into the sea. Label says no earthly man 
oould have known this (p. 434). He has his bed made 
ready ; gives Celidoyne in charge to his barons (p. 435) ; 
goes to bed, and makes long and grieyoos lamentation^ 
calling himself a poor oaitifE, who shall die Uke the 
poorest man. And where shall he then go? (p. 435). 
What shall he take with him f (p. 4.^6). He has nothing 
to meet death with, and none can tell him what he 
shall be after death. Therefore, let him remember his 
life, and choose now for endless joy or pain (p. 436), 
knowing that this world*8 joy is but sorrow and mourning. 
Wretch that he is ; yet Qod has wamd him. And to hj 
falls asleep (p. 437). 

Kow here declareth in this partye, 

wh«atiMViiM how that the Nyne hondis Sekerlye 

cdidornt from delyvorid Celjdejne Owt of dawngere 

From alle the yeniaunce of Calafere ; 4t 

With Inne Schort tyme, £r he Cowde knowe, 
Ful fer from his Centre was he throwe 
Into the Se ful Apertlye ; 

th«y Mfc Urn 101 Al hoi X. lomes ful Sekerlye 8 

d.7fjoorm7 ofl; ^^ j^^ ^ Iome,i— As Seith the book,— 

there was he left, ho-eo wile it look, 

be the wil of the Maister Above, 

that on Celidoyne gan preven his love, 12 

inaniaiaiid. and lefte him there In An Yle 

besides thai his fadir was In Exyle ;* 

properly from his fadir fyve lome 

this Celydoyne was left ful sekerle. 16 

and whanne In this yl he was there, 

Amyddes In the See he wiste neuere where, 
HawuoniyT and therto A Child but of jong Age — 
mMthaoid. vii. jer« V. Monthes' — ^and ferto fair of visage, 20 

' tant com Tespasse de .x. ionmees dureni — A, 

■ sour la riue de mer, en vne isle ou ses peres eatoit^^A. 

' iouenes enfes en Taage de .x. ans seulement. — ^A. 



& therto Closed In A wondir place ; 
In the Same plase p&re that he wase, 
vppon the ton side A wylde forest 
"Walkyng wel ful of Raveynous beste ; 
the tothyr was the Open see, 
Where as litel Comfort thanne Sawh he 
but hjghe Eokkes & wateres wilde ; 
this was feble Comfort for A Childe : 
but 3if he hadde had y More Compenje, 
To A child it was ful gret Anoye. 

Anon As thus In this yl he was, 
The wedyr gan chongen In that plas, 
To dyrkene, & to Keyne it gan ful faste. 
And to lyhtene and thondren thanne Atte laste ; 
And So Oribly ferde that trowbelynge, 
that semede An Ende Al the world to bryinge. 

thanne this Child of tendir Age 
Sawgh that the See was So savage 
And So spetous onne forto loke, 
that for drede his herte tho quoke 
lest that the wawes Of the se 
Scholde han Come» fere he hadde be ; 
And so yp6 Into, the yl he drowh him faste, 
& In a Bokke he Aspyde Atte laste 
Where it was Cloven In part Asondir, 
And thedir In he wente for ferd of thondir 
Also sore Abasched As he Myhte be ; 
And Ev^e to wardis the see loked he. 

So longe atte laste loked he there 
Tyl him thowhte, As be his Manere, 
he sawh where Comen, As to his Eye, 
Schepis with Meyne tho Sekerlye, 
So that the wawes of the Se 
To that yl hem drof ful Sikerle. 
thanne they Criden pat wtt^Inne were, 
" Save vs, oper we schole perschen here." 

On one side of 
Celidoyne Is a 
24 wild-beast foiest; 

<m the other, 
rooks end sea. 



It rains, lightens, 



Oelldojne takea 
rsftise in a deft 
44 of the rock. 



He aeea ships 
y coming to his 
02 island. 






offootlM Ulaad 


And wbilles they Criden, A Maden this fare, 
Tweyn Schepis to pat yl A-Ryved there ; 
To the Same Koche there Celydoyne was, 
Comen bothe Schepis, Ab was here gras. M 

And whanne that they weren Aiy^ed there, 
thanne Cam fere forth An Old Marynere 
that Knew more thanne Ony Othir 
Of Al that Compenye Among ^ot fothir ; 64 

And thus he Seyde fol sore wepinge, 
With deolful Noise and Sore Cryenge : 
'' Sire," he seide, " this ys A wondir Chaonce, 
that of Oure lyres we weren In dowtaunce ; 68 

and now is mochel wers than it was Er, 
For we ben In A grettere dauitger ; 
For here Nys non thyng but wUde beste 
That YS schal devouren, bothe Meet & leste, 72 

and Serpentes bolde, and dragouyis wilde, 
that don devowren bothe Man and Childe." 

thanne sterte there forth An Old Enyht, 
And Spak to the Maister with Al Ins Myht ; 76 

" Maister," he seide, " have thow non fere. 
Whiles that fyve hundred knyhtes ben here ; 
Of the bestes we scholen not drede, 
So mochel we trosten In Owre Manhede." 80 

And In the Mene whille pat thus gonnen talke, 
Celydoyne to hem ward gan forto walke, 
and Supposed that Cnstene they hadde ben, 
but paynemes they weren Alle beden, 84 

'and bom of the lond of percye, — 
thus weren they Alle ful Sekerlye — 
foingtoflchttht And wenten toward the Ost of Syrre, 


that Eyng Samwelis brothir had slayn Sekerle,^ 88 
for that with his wif he hym fond 
dishonestly, A3ens lawe of lond. 

>— 1 et ne de peney et aloient a oet el roiaumo de Byre, sour 
flamnel, qui lo frere au roi de perse auoit oohis. — A, 

CtUdoynt walk! 
toirardi ttMm. 



So happed, that Amongs this Compenye 
was thike tyme the kyng Of percye, 92 

Which that was 30iig man, bothe faire & lei ; 
his Name was Clepid there Kyng Label ; t«>Mi u King or 


which was A knyht bothe stalworthe and worthy, 

And vppon his Enemyes ful Crwel & hardy ; 96 

bat In Al the world So mochel hatred^ he than He hmtw chris- 


As he dyde the trewe Cristene Man. 

And whanne to this Boche Aryved they were, 
Anon kyng Label Gomanded there — 100 

Whanne he Sawh p* wedyr was Ouerpast^ 
And it Gan to Cleren Atte last, — 
he Charged that his pavylouns weren pyht. 
For there wolde he Besten Al Nyht. 104 

Anon they fulfijden his Comanndement, 
And pyhten his pavylouns fere present. 

And whiles they weren Abowten here hameys, 
Celydoyne Cometh down In to that pres, 108 Ceiidojn«Mki 

tho PcnbuM wbo 

And hem Grette In his Manere, thqr »•. 

And Axed of what Contre ]>at they were. 

And they that of him hadde wondir tho, 

Merveylled what Contre that he Cam ho, 112 

And thus him Answerid Certeinlye, 

* that they weren of the lond of percye : ' 

And so they token this Child Anon, 

And to Kyng Label they gonne to gon. 116 

thanne whanne Kyng label hym behelde jDag LaM 

So faire A Child, and of so ^ong Side, 
And therto Clothed So Richely, 
In his herte he hadde gret ferly, 120 

And thowhte he was Comen of gentyl Kynde, 
for this Ean Euere In kyng LabeUs Mynde, 
And that Child ful gret Chere he Made, nosiTeiGtudo^ 


And fayn he was that Child to glade, 124 

' ? for ' So moohe ne hated : ' — ^ne nus ne haoit ri mortel- 
ment cresUena com 11 faiaoit.* — A. 





& sore desiied he forto knowe 

the Childes keniede Tppon A rowe ; 

So that this Child he gan to frejne, 

And gan to Axen thann^ Certejne 128 

Of what Contie that he was. 
dUdogriM And thanne ^t child so ful of gns^ 

that Cowde more In his degie 

thanne ony o^ Child ful Sekerle, 132 

Told hym Evene the Rihte weje 

Of Al his Eyniede ful Sekerlye, 
toibhiiB, & told hym Ek More oucr theito 

■DdhowEMdMu that his fadir newe Cristened was tho, 136 

And Al the lond Ahowtes In-rirown, 
■ndiMtCuid^jiMb "And, siie» Cristened I am wit^wten More sermown, 

& Cristendom I took Certeinle 

Of the hyghe bischopd Of Cristiente, 140 

the wheche hyght losepe, I vndirstonde, 

that Crist Sacrid hisschope with his owun honde." 
Whanne kyng Label herde of this tydyng, 

WttA-Inne him Self he made Mochel Momyngy 144 

For he knew kyng Eualach ful wel, 

And of his prowesse tho Eveiydel 

that Eualach dyde with his Owne hond ; 

thus dide he Celidoyne to vndiistond; 148 

LaiMi iftiMnta " Also, CcUdoyne, ful Certeinly 

that Mordraint 

aiidNMoi«iithAT« I knowe thy fadir As A knyht worthy; 
Wherfore me Eepenteth In Myn herte. 
For these tydynges don me smerte, 152 

that they ben tomed to the wikked fay. 
And han forsaken here Owne lay ; 
and Also thy Self, with gret folye, 
thy feith hast forsaken vtterlye, 156 

therfore with me schalt thow go, 
to Asayen what I kan don the to ; 
And }it schalt thow tellen Me 
how that thou Come Into this Contre, 160 




Into So savage and so wilde A plase, 
there as Neuere to foren tjmes Man I-wase." 

And Celydoyne hym tolde Anon, 
* how that he Owt of presown was gon, 
Owt of the hows of Calafere 
that My fadyr & I In presown were, 
and how bothe they weren Owt past 
thorwh Cristes Myht, and that In hast/ 

*' And whanne Calafer sawh that it was so 
that my Fadir owt of presown was go, 
tlianne Comanded Calafere Anon 
that An hy Into p* towr I scholde gon ; 
and there, of his hy Crwelte, 
Of that hye towr down Caste he Me. 
but lesus Crist, of his goodnesse, 
Wold me not weten In swich distresse ; 
But be his Mynestres there Anon 
I was deUu^red from AUe my fon. 
and whanne I was In myn fallyng, 
they me Eesceyyed with-owten taryenge, 
and Into this plase they me browhte ; 
but Sekerly I ne sawh hem nowhte. 
Wherfore, lesus Crista graunt Mereye, 
that so me deliueredest from myn Enemye I " 
Whanne the kyng herde Al this Mevyng, 
With-Inne him Self he Made gret Momeng, 
and seide tho to his Compenye, 
" Of this Child I Mcnreille now Certeinlye." 
thanne Seide his Cownseil to hym tho, 
" Maketh hym A Enyht, we reden 30W so, 
Eor that, sir^, is the manere 
Of Cristen peple Eyeriwhere ; 
For An Awnter vs thenketh In onre Mynde, 
that A fairere Child schole je neuere fynde." 
there the kyng him made knyht Anon tho. 
Supposing Of his feith to putten hym fro. 

Otlidqyn* tolls 
Label how h« and 
164 Naadenswere 
deli vard from 




CSirlst had him 
eaqght In mid-air. 

180 and brought to 


King Label «m- 




and than kni|^ta 



That Nyht the Kjng Ordeynede so, 
that vacbche Abowtes hym scholde be do ; 
And Celidojne be worscbeped tbeie oner Alle tbing, 
& Al Kjbt be bym lay As bis derlyng. 200 

tbo wbanne tbe Cbild on Slepe was, 
)it slepte not tbe Eyng, As happed be Cas, 
but Axede Of bis Conseil there Anon, 
* What were best with that Child to don, 204 

that thus hath Taken Cristiente, 
And bis Owne lay forsaketb be.' 
" )if I Cowde don him it fonake, 
to wurj hii My dowbter bis wif thanne wolde I Make : 208 

daogbter to (Ml- 

doyiM If bo'dtoni For I knowe fal wel In My Mynde 

that be is Comen of ful gentyl kynde. 

So that be may not faille In non wyse ; 

he Moste ben A knybt Of worthy Aprise ; 212 

So thanne my dowbter scbal be have, 

And Al my Rem bothe Sownd & save.** 
Thanne Aftyr the kyng was leyd Anon, 

And Every Man to his wacbcbe gan gon, 216 

tbe kyng On Slepe be-fyl Anone ; 

^And thus sone bym Cam vision vppone. 
LiMiuna virion bym thowhte that In A medewe he was, 

Whiche was large & Grene In that plas ; 220 

of aftirTneftiU And In that Medewe A fair Tre there was tbo, 
^^ And Many diuers flowres Owt of it Gontien go, 

that Envirownd this Tre Al Abowte, 

And ful of flowres it beng with-owte, 224 

As it Axetb the kende After A tre ; 

And this Manere wise thus thoubt be. 

Whiche tre the kyng beheld fal faste, 

'—' et maintenant li fa anis qn'il estoit en J. pre, gnnt^ et 
large, et verdoiant^ et biel. Et en ohel pre auoit vne ottchele 
[^pot\ de terre qui estoit toute nuene, et estoit emplie de motes 
de terra. Et ichele ouchele estoit par de-fors toate aairoonee 
de flours qui de li iseoient ausi comme d'nn arbre naiaaent par 
nature flours et fuelles. Et li roia regardoit Touchele, dont il 
ae meniiUoit moult quant il en ueoit flours iaair. — A. 

OH. ZXXII.] label's dream of the flowering tree and SERPEHrT. 427 

And fer-OSen MerveUled Atte laste 228 

how this tie Swiche flowres scholde bete,^ 

Wher-offen he M^rveilled In his Maneie. 

And besides this Tre Cam Owt A Serpent, 

that there flawmes of fyr out Caste veiamenti 232 

and wasted this faiie tre Anon, 

And Alle the flowres pere Everichon : 

thanne Anon After, I the plyht, 

Al this was past Owt of the kynges syht. 236 

Thanne on the Morewe whanne it was day, 
the wachche to hym Cam with-owten delay, 
And tolden hym how they hadden that l^yht 
Taken A lyown with ryht gret myht. 
So that they thowhten, As I vndirstond, 
That lyown to leden Into here Owne lond. 
Thann to Celydoyne tooken they fe way, 
And A-wooken the Child there he lay ; 
for ful sore On slepe was he, 
that Al nyht to fore In thowht had be 
For his fadir Sire Kasciens, 
That he ne hadde ben In his presens. 248 

And whanne he was Clothed Anon tho, 
To the kyng Anon was he browht to ; 
thanne the kyng him took be the bond, 
And sette hym At his feet, I vndirstond. 252 

thanne Comanded he there anon 
that Alle his Conseille to forn him scholde gon. 
And the wysest of Alle his Meyne, 
to forn hym they sembled ful sekerle. 256 

And whanne they weren sembled Everichon, 
To hem the kyng thanne seide Anon : 
" Lordynges," quod the kyng tho, 
** A wondir avicioun this Nyht Cam me to ; 260 

Wherfore In Ese neuere schal I be 
tyl there-Offen I knowne the Certeynte, 
And wherto that it Tomai May, 

caata out flra« 

and bama op tba 
Tree and ita 

Labal'a man toU 
him thaj'Ta 
240 caaghlaUoo. 

244 ThajrwakaCaU- 


LaM ■mninoiia 

and tana ftham of 





•nd aaka 'tm to 





teUs LiOmI thai 




M God enaUet 


In herte schal I neuere ben glad parfay. 264 

is ihia is the Cause that I for 30W sente, 

}if Ony of }ow be ^oura Entente^ 

Cowde me dedaien the verite, 

& what sic^efiaunce pat this myhte be," 268 

80 pat he declared to hem his Ayisiowiiy 

Of Al that he hadde Sein, hoi & som ; 

And Aftir, hem preide Everichon 

here Avis to schewen ]>er-offen Anon. 272 

thanne these Men thowhte hem be-twene, 
What Maner of thing it scholde Mene ; 
but they ne Cowden for non thing 
bryngen that vicyown to An Endyng. 276 

And so they seiden to ]>" kyng Anon, 
' that non Exposiscioun Cowde they don.' 
thanne the Kyng Abascht hym sore, 
& seide, ** somwhat it tokeneth, with-ovrten More^" 280 
** Sire," they Seiden verament, 
** We konne non oper knowen in owre Entent." 

Whanne that the Child wheche pere sat 
Atte the kynges feet, nndirstood Al that 284 

Whiche the kyng hadde Schewed to his Meyne, 
there-offen to han knowen the verite, 
this Child him dressed vp Anon, 
& on his feet stood to fom hem Echon, 288 

[ no gap in the MS,] 

And forto speken wolde he wonden^ for non, 

But spak so lowde to the kyng 

that pere o£fen ]>* peple hadde Merveillyng : 292 

" Kyng label, I se wel now here 

that thy Conseil ne Can in noTi Manere 

the declaren the verite ; 

but, sire kyng, I schal schowen it to the, 296 

lik as the grete Maister Above, 

Whos Servauwt I am, & whom I love, 

Me hath schewed In My Mynde, 



the goode lord that is so kende. ' 300 

" thou sie In thyn Avisiown 
A grene Medwe, Alle & som, 
& pere-Inne was A fair Tre 

pat with flowres Envirownd was he ; 304 

And Aftyr thou sje A Serpent, 
wherthorw Alle the floures weren schent. 

" Now schal I tellen the my Eesown 
As Cometh to myn jonge discressionny 308 

For I nam but jong, and htel of wyt^ 
So gret A thing to declaren It. 
but wete pou wel In Certeyn, 

that y holigost fulfiUeth pleyn 312 

Alle his Servauntes Everychon ; 
& so be his Miht I schal the it yndon. 

^* The medewe that was so fair & Grene, 
signefieth the world ful of treye & tene ; 316 

and jit is likenge to alle tho 
that there-Inne Abyden & go, 
an tho pat there-Inne ben wel at Ese, 
And Namliche to synneris it doth hem plese 320 

that lyn.Evere In gret dedly synne, 
To hem y world is plesyng neper more ne Myime ; 
For thus they wenen, with-owte« Mo, 
That the world scholde neu&re hem fro, 324 

and that Evere In strengthe scholde they be, 
and the world with hem laste ful Sikerle ; 
& thus they hopen Algates to dwelle 
In loye & blisse, as I 30W telle. 328 

" but ho so wele vndirstonde the verite, 
I schal declare;}, and 30 welen herkenen Me ; 
and Oper wise it is in signefiaunce here, 
for the Medwe fareth In this manere : 332 

On p* Morwe it is grene, & ful of flowres 
that fcdr is to Syhte, & swete of Odours ; 
and At Even, be hete of the Sonne, 

Celidoyne tells 
Label he saw a 

a Tree rarroanded 
by Flowen, 

and a Serpent 
that deetroyd 
the Flowen. 

The Meadow ia 

which in the 
morning is green 
and Ml of flowen* 

and at even ia 


MOfVU MMuiyii 

likt BUUl't MNll 
WhM Ift Idl tiM 


whieh to-diar It, 
and to-mornm to 



Fonkorchid & diye to-gederis ben Ronne : 336 

Eyht 80 faieth Mankynde Anon 

Whanne the Sowle from the body is gon, 

to this Medwe may likned I-be, 

88 te foien tymes I achew to the. 340 

** and what this tie ^doth signefie, 
Whiche ia of feble Nature Sekerlye, 
Signefieth be mannea peisone here, 
That la so pome In Alle Maneie, 344 

and is Comen of so pouze kyude, 
}if thoa wilt here-offen taken Mynde ; 
and of so gret Freelnesee & Caytyrete 
here offen cometh Man, As thou myht se : 348 

this day A man he Is, to Morwen Is he non : 
& so it schal fare be ya now Eyerichon. 
but sekerly, kyng label, to this Tte 
At this tyme I lykne now the.' 352 

** and of the flowies that ^ere Abowtes be^ 
be-thenk witA-Inne thi self, and he-hold & se ; 
but And thou wilt herkene to me, 
of A blessid flowr I schal tellen the, 356 

that Neuere defaded for non thing, 
whiche is ^ yiigine Modyr of y glorous kyng. 
That bar god & Man, Owie Savyour, 
whiche is Maiye modir & Maide, ^t blessid flour. 360 
this flour, non thing Apeyien it May, 
from y begynneng Into domesday ; 
and there as Oj^er flowies bo])* dryen & fade, 
this flowr is Evere bothe loyful & glade. 364 

** but of this flour that is bothe bryht & Cler, 

'—' SI dois aprefl ueoir la senefianche de rouohele {jpat^f 
qui est feble chose et mauuaise, et de si poure sasteDanche ke 
ele puet maintenant estre brisie, Et ke li potiers le fist de li- 
mon [«aiM{] vil et mauuais ; senefie home, qui est si poure choae^ 
et com crees de si mauuaise semenche, quUl est ausi frailles et 
ausi oaitis comme 11 pes qui de legier est brisles. Snsi frailles 
est horn, car or endroit est, et ore endroit n*est mie. Far 
rouohele ke tu veis en ton songe, es ta senefiies, rois labieL — A 


In thyn Avicion haddist fon non wameng ther ; 

For that flowr flEtreth In non degre 

As the flowies that weren schewed to the. 368 

The flowres that Fadyn so Every day, The Fiowm that 

Ahowtes the, Sire, they hen In fay. 

And wilt thow knowen, sire, what they he t 

Anon, Sire, I schal here declaren hem the : 372 

The ton flowr is hownte, fill Sekerly ; i. bomtj; 

The second prowesse ; the thrydde is Cortesy ; s. prowMj 

and Manye other vertwes hen The Ahowte, coaruv; 

Mo thanne Aaofer man hath, sawnz dowte, 376 

And hettere Norture In Alle degre 

thanne Manye 0])er hen Sekerle ; 

For As manie vertwes thou hast, wtt^-Owt n variaunoe, au wuch. 

As Eaere hadde Man that is ful of Mescroaunce ; 380 i^M^hu^ 

And therto thou Art hothe fair & semly ; and it fcir, 

but not to god, I sey 30W pleynly, bat not to ood. 

but onliche to that fals & strong Enemy 

that Alle dayes of thy lyve thou woschepist only. 384 

For so manye vertwes In the ben 

As Evere In Miscreaunce A man may sen ; 

Wherfore it is gret Rowthe & pyte 

that so gracious vertwes In Miscreaunt schold be. 388 

*' Now schal I the declaren^ Every del 
—and thow wilt vndirstondyn Me wel— 
What signefleth that like tre, 

and the floures that ]>ere-Abowte8 be ; 392 

and the ^hepe of Erthe that is therby, TiwbMiporMrth 

As schal I the declaren ful Openly. 

*' that hep6, it is to vndirstonde, 

* for 'have I the declarid*: the French is, "Or t*a{ de- 
moustre,** fait li enfes, "ke Touohiele senefie, et lee flours qui 
entour estoient.'* — A. 

* — * The earth is in the pot : see the French note to 1. 841, 
p. 430. Ore te dirai ke la mote de terre senefie. La terre amon- 
chelee dedens le pot, aenefie la grant carge dee pechiee morteus 
ke 11 horn maleureua amonchiele chascun lour dedena aoi plus 
et plus par mesesrer encontre son oreatour, quant 11 ne se ueut 
amender, ne pour parole ne pour amonestement ke on 11 die, — ^A« 


to maaUBd Slid that mankynde In ony londe 396 

be fild 80 f ul of dedlj Synne, 
of filthes of wrechchednesse, hem Alle wttA Inne 
and Every day they hepen More and More, 
& gaderen hepe vppon hep0, fat doth hem sore, 400 
be wrechchednesse & Many Othir thing. 
Everyday to here Owne hyndring, 
and greven sore here Creatonry 

Whiche that they Owten don honour ; 404 

And they welen not Amenden hem for non thing. 
For speche ne]»er for Manassyng.' 

TUtbaspofaiiifl "and this hep«, sire, Is with-Innen the, 

!• Ia King Labtla r j j j 

and from thy birthe Euere hath be ; 408 

For sethen of thy modyr that ]>ou were bore, 

whontmdid didest thou Nevere good, lasse ne more, 

baft aiwajB 111, but Euere Contrarye thy Creatour' 

lo hl« Ctattor. 

thou hast him wraththed In Every Our; 412 

and thus hast ]k>u gaderid wtt^Inne the, 
hep6 vppon hepd f ul Sekerle, 
and Every day Synne vppon synne, 
and of this lif noldest }om not blynne ; 416 

thanne thus be thin Aviciown 
thou Art the same, bothe Alle & som. 
The strpant lathe " Now of this Serpent I schal the telle, 

death of the aoal 

of iDMi who and thou wilt lestene me vntylle : 420 

the serpent, the deth of y sowle doth signefye. 
Of Man that In this world lyveth bodily, 
and In the world hath passeng delyt, 
Where-offen neuere that he wolden ben qwyt; 424 
and for non wameng ne wil not he 

win not tarn to Tomeu to the loye that is lastyngle : 

eTeriaattng Joy, 

and for they welen not don so, 
end therefore go to Endeles deth therfore they go. 428 

to endleea rteeth ^ 

of thyn Avicioun this is the signenaufice, 

* ne feais tu riena, ne en parole ne en oeure^ qui ne ftut 
oontre ton creatour. — A. 


436 h0W7« he'll ten 
Label a Mcre( 



as me scheweth the holy gost with-Owten variauyice. 

*'and for bat in me thou schalt han more Affyauwce, That ceUdoyn« 

naj b« mora 

I Bchal the tellen of a more dowtaunce, 432 tnutod. 

of swich A thing As thou hast don 

longe tymes hens, & fern Agon, 

and thou hast evere In supposing 

that per-ofifen knoweth non Erthly thing 

but thou Alone, ful Certeinle ; 

but fovL art desceyved, I telle it the ; 

For he that knoweth Alle thing, 

Me hath it put in vndirstondyng." 

Whanne the kyng herd him thus seye, 
Al Red he was for schame Sekerlye : 
" Sey on," qt^ the kyng tho Anon, 
** What is that thing whiche I have don, 
that thou seyst non knoweth but I : 
Sey on what it is now, belamy." 
" Sire," quod Celydoynes tho, 
" that schal I anon gladliche do : 
And thou wilt, Aforn Al thyn Meyne, 
Owther thou wilt Ellis, In prevyte. 
^For As I haue be ful supposing 
of Enformeng of fat glorious kyng, 
the prikkes of deth doth signefie 
the serpent, I sey the ful sekerlye."^ 

" Schal I thanne dyen 1 " quod the kyng. 
" ^e, with-Inne fowre dayes, with-owten varycng, 456 
Owt of this world schalt thou pace ; 
but whedir thou Nost, ne Into what place, 
and therfore loke what Couseille thow wilt have, 
^if that thou thenke thy Sowie to save ; 460 

and loke that thou now leve Me, 
For thing that I schal tellen to the." 

* — * et si le vous mande par moi li haus maistres, chil qui 
set toutea lea choaes qoi sont a oenir, ke li serpena ke vous 
Teiates en nostre aonge, senefie le point de la mort ou vous estes 
venus."— A. 

GRAAL. 28 



Tlie Serpent 
means the piicke 
of death. 

and Label win die 
witldn i daji. 


thanne this kyng took hym on Sjde, 
to we ten what he mente At that tyde. 4G4 

ceiMoyiw UU4 " Sire kyng, warneng I jeve to the, 

Liibol bow 

Anon that Cristene Man that thou he ; 

And thus Sente the forto Say, 

the hyghe Maistor that is god verray ; 468 

And he this Tokene lie sente to the, 

that non thing to hiin Is preve : 
on Haji iM how that thou, the ferst day of May, 
■iatartecMu* tte thin Owne Soster thou slowe In fay, 472 

WOOldn't lie Wilh ■m'% g^ i 11 n* « 

him. -Tor Cause sche wolde not sunren the 

with hird hodyly to done Synne and foolee. 
And whanne pan Sye sche wold not don so. 
And thy folye Conceutyn therto, 476 

Anon thou smotest of here hed, 
& Into the se threw it In that sted ; 
Anon the bodi Aftir thou threw Also ; 
this Movrdre didest thou wtt/t-owte/i Mo. 480 

And to this wendest fon ful Sekerle 
that non Man hadde ben preve ; 
but he that is Aboven AUe thing, 
Of this Made me to haven vndirstondyng : 484 

therfore, lord, worschepid Mot thou be, 
that sweche thing openly schewest to Me ! " 
Whanne the Kyng horde hym tho speken so. 

Label •onfe«Mw " M^rvoilles thou hsst me told," quod y kyng tho, 488 

nnn could hare " For there nys non l^lan Erthly levenge 
™ '* that I supposid coude telle me this thinge ; 
And of Myn Avicioun hast ])ou me told 
verray trowthes be many fold, 492 

And so openly as thou hast declared it to me 
Cowde non Erthly man don Certeinle." 

He orden hie bed thauno he Comau7tded his Meyne ful sone 

his bed to Maken, for perio wolde he gone, 496 

For distempred A lytel he was, 
So he hem tolJe In that plas 



they fulfilden Anon his byddyng 

In Alle Maner wise, to plesen the kyng ; 500 

And thanue Comaunded he his harouns Anon, 

Good warde of pat child to setten vppon. 

thanne they Answeryd hym Anon, 

And seide his Comaundement scholde be don. 504 

To his Cowche wente the kyng thanne, 
Also hevy As Ony Erthly Manne, 
And warned his Baroiuts Everichon, 
* that Nyhe hym Comen scholde neucre on ; 508 

Whethir he be freend other kynnes man, 
Ny hym Scholde Comen non Maner of Man.* 
So that they kouered the kynges pavyloun, 
that of non wyht he scholde heren y sown, 512 

and Also that alle Maner of Clerto 
From that kyng defended scholde be. 

The Kyng on his Cowche was leyd Anone, 
And to hym Self he Made ful gret Moue 516 

For the wordes that Child Celidoyne 
to hjrm hadde there seid In Certeyne. 
thanne gan he to wepen wondirly Sore, 
With wryngeng of hondis, & jit Mochel more, 520 
that the water of his Eyen Kan by hym Adown, 
Al Abowtes his body there In virown ; 
And thus to his pe;*sone he gan Compleyne 
of Manye Caytyvetes tho In Certeyne : 524 

" Ow thou now ful powre Caytyf, 
With owten Counseil, & Cursid Of lyf, 
that Neuere ne woldest CounseiUed be 
to non good lyveng. In non Maner degre, 528 

that the myhte Counseille thy sowle to save ; 
Swich Maner Counseille wost thou not have ! 
Now, fals Caytyf, here schalt thou deye 
As the porest man In the world trewlye. 532 

" Whedir schalt Jwu go, thou Cursed Caytyf, 
Whanne firom thy body Is past thy lyf 1 

King Labtl goM 
to bed, 

•nd moftni over 
what Celidoyiia 
baa told him. 

He weepe bltterlj. 

•aja he's a poor 

with no one to 
saYe hia eoul : 


and when ahaU 
be go? 


"What, irowest thou, Caytyf & wrechche Also, 
thy Crowne to have whanne )k>u dost go, 536 

Owther thy Septre In thyn hond? 
What, wenest \>o\i to ben kyng of a lond. 
And to haven lonischepe As thou hast here, 
KiDffUbtiMjt And therto so moche welthe In Alle Manerel 540 

that b* h«s 

A, thou Caytevous kyng In Alle Manere, 
With Owten Cownseil that the kon/ie lere ! 
Kow atte ferste myhtest thou knowe 

noeooDMUor. that poM hast nou Conseille, neper liy ne lowe. 544 
A, kyng and Caytyf Also, 
Wiih owten loye Art thou Eucre Mo. 
For this that me clepeth the prykke of deth, 
Whanne that £che man schal lesen his bretli, 548 

thanne forsaken Me bothe Modir & wyf, 
And Alle the peple that Evere boren lyf ; 
For there kan non of hem Alle 

KoiM oaa t«ii him tellen what A ventures me schal be-falle 552 

what thall >>o<W I 

bim when h« Whanne owt of this world that I schal gon, 
What Aventures me scholen fallen vppon ; 
Whethir Riche other powre that I schal be, 
Owther A man of lowere degre, 556 

Owther At Ese, Other At non Ese. 

" caytevous kyng, ho schal the pere plese 1 
thoa wrechche and Ek Caytevous kyng, 
that hast here So gret A gaderyng, 560 

And so Manye worschepis As thou hast here ! 
0, powre wrechche, what schalt po\i han Ellis where 1 
And whanne hens that thou schalt go, 
thow nost whether to loye oper elles to wo. 564 

Now, Caytevous kyng, Hemembre the wel 
Of Alle thy lyveng Everydel ; 
And 3it, powre Creature, whiles pon Art here, 
Conseille the betters, and In Other Manere ; 568 

Now he matt For At thine choys now shal it be, 

choose Joy or ,^^ , .1 « 

piuishment. Whethyr to loye oper to peyne pat thou wilt ne, 


Whanwe Owt of this world thou^schalt pace, 

thow wost neuer Into what Manure of place. 572 

" For of this worldys loye Inowh haue I, King Label hu 

•nough of this 

As mochel As Ony Erthly man trewly world's joy: 

that Evere of myn Age was horn- 
As I have Eeherscd here hefom — 576 
Bat for As Mochel A a that I have knowenge 
that this worldis loye nys but sorwe & mornenge, 
And that In Momeng schal ben the Ende, 
Alle sweche as I am Euere forto schende, 580 
thanne knowe I wel that In Every Owr 
the loye of this world Nys but dolowr, it is bat sorrow 

Ukd WF8tollC<llMSS. 

Wraththe, Envye, and wrechchednesse ; 
this hatli me thus browht In distresse. 584 

thus thanne be my self now may I knowe, 
that Alle my loyes to sorwe ben tomed On A rowe. 
" A, kyng Caytyf, whanwe thou hennest dost go, 
And Into what place foii Nost, ne whedyr to, 588 

And whethir that sorwe schole Eucre hauen Endynge, 
Owther Ellis Endelesly to ben lastynge ! 
O most vnworthy wrechche that Evere was, 
Now b" Ende of thy lif Aprocheth In this plas, 592 hu end draws 


And the begynneng of thy Sorwe & Care 

Now hast thou fownden Every whare. 

Nowbethenke the, the moste ^vrechche]?at euere was bom, D^t m] 

why ne wost thou knowen this here beforn 1 596 

For he that knoweth Alle Manere of thing, ood has reprord 


Of hym it is to me ful grct Reprovyng ; 

and he that knoweth Alle thing that is Comerige, 

and that to me hath now sent this warnenge, 600 and wamd him 

"Wliethir bat I wele Chesen loye other peyne, to choose either 

Altars bliss or 

he hath me warned now In Certeyne. pain. 

And thus In sweche manures, & In Momenge, 
the kyng there fyl tho On Slepinge ; 604 

Al be-wept lik As he there was, 
he fil on slepe In that plas.^ 

* There is no new chapter in the Manuscript. 

433 Kixa label's second vision. [ch. xxxiil 


King LabeVs Vision in his Sleep, and Gelidojne*8 InterprelAtkm 
thereof. Laliel dreams that he is on a broad highway 
(p. 44U), where felons take all the passers-by, rob them, 
and put thein in prison. A seemly man accompanies hixa 
along the n>ad, and suddenly disappears (p. 440). He 
enters on a little path, full of trees and flowers, and hears 
u voice callings all people to wash and eat meat in the High 
City above (p. 440). Label goes on, and comes to a high 
mountain, and a fnir fountain where the people are wash- 
ing themselves (p. 441). He does not wash, but goes oa 
to the City, and wants to enter, but cannot, because 
he has not washt in the fountain (p. 441). He looks 
through a wicket in the door, and sees at the table the 
sister whom he had murderd (p. 441). She tells him 
to wash, and then eat with them (p. 442). He goes 
back to do it, but the thieves lay hold of him, and dng 
him to a house in a desert valley, where foul people are, 
and which is filth}', black, and full of weeping and crying 
(p. 442). Label is in Huch a fright at this dream, that he 
roars for help, and all his lords rush to him (p. 443). Two 
of them ask lilm what ails him (p. 443) ; he says he has 
seen marvels in a dream, of which Le mutt know the 
moaning ; and he onlers Celidoyoe to be brought be- 
fore him (p. 443). The lords wake Celidoyne, and bring 
him to Label, who asks him to expound what he shall 
tell him. Celidoyne promises to do so, by the help of 
Qod, and threatens Label with endless darkness if he 
will not obey him (p. 444). Label kneels to him, and 
promises to do all he is told to (p. 445). Celidoyne 
then expounds LabePs dream to him : The Broad Road 
IS the Old Law, the Robbers are the Devil, the Fair 
Guide is Jesus Christ, who took pity on Label (p. 445) as 
he had once pitted him. Again, as a ship at sea in a 
storm, without captain or pilot, is driven hither or thither 
on the broad sea, and can only be helpt by God (p. 
446), BO is a man on the broad road of sin in which 
Label has walkt ; but God can bring him out of it (p. 
447). As to the Green Way, it is the New Law (p. 447) ; 
and the Strait Way shows that they who are in it» wish 
not to leave it, but to obey God's commandments, which 
forbid sin. The Green Trees are the Pastors of Holy 
Church. The Voice calling all people to come and eat» 
is God*s Grace (p. 447). The Well in the Mountain ia 
God on his Throne, and the Unction of Baptism. The 
City is Paradise. The refusal to admit Label, whea 
unwasht) into the City, shows that he cannot be God's 
child till he is christend (p. 448^. The desert lands are 
Label*s wicked works (p. iiify The dark black house 

' See in the French text, note ', p. 449, the exposition of 
the Serpent^ its blindness, its flying to the Red Sea, and the 


is Hell, to which Label will go unless he amends his 
life (p. 460).* Label promises to do whatever Celi- 
dojme tells him (p. 451). Celidoyne bids him go to 
a hermit in a forest close by, and be baptizd. Label 
says he is willing, but asks his knights what they advise. 
They declare that they will not forsake their faith 
(p. 451). Celidoyne then dresses Label in poor clothes^ 
and they go off to the hermit's abode (p. 452). They 
reach it at night, and the hermit is surprisd to see 
them; but embraces Celidoyne, and rejoices to hear the 
cause of their coming (p. 452). All night he teaches 
Label what belongs to holiness (p. 453), and tells of the 
lives of holy men (p. 464).^ On the morrow the hermit 
fills a hollow stone with water, puts the king in it and 
baptises him (p. 455). He then asks the king's fol- 
lowers if they will be baptizd. They say No. Label 
is clothed In a white robe, and thanks Celidoyne for 
saving him (p. 455). He then tells his knights that he 
forsakes them, and will take to his new life (p. 456). 
They are cast down at this, but seize Celidoyne, and carry 
him off (p. 457). He tells Label to remain with the 
hermit, and not to fear for him, as his God will protect 
him from all perils. On the morrow, Label dies, and goes 
to the' bliss of heaven, and Christ works miracles for him 
on those who seek him (p. 457). 

And Anon As In Slep^ he was falle, King Label hM 

A wondir Aviciown he hadde with-alle ; 

that ho Entred In to An hy weye 

Whiche was brod & large ful Sekerlye, 4 he !• on ■ broad 

And so with men it was vsed to fore^ 

Where-offen he Merveilled wondir sore ; 

Where As mochel peple there was fuii of man, 

Lawntynge that weye and that plas, 8 

passage thereof by the Israelites, and the Serpent's change of 
colour ; 

- ' And, note \ p. 450, the reason of Label's sister being in 

' The French text makes Label tell the hermit a former 
Vision of his (p. 453), — how he was summond before a judge to 
answer accusations, and could only get three friends to go with 
him, of whom one lent him a cloak ; the second took him to a 
strange house and left him there ; but the third went with him 
to the judge, and producd a writing that cleard him from all 
the charges against him. The hermit explains, that the cloak 
is a grave-cloth (p. 453) ; the second friend, the relatives who 
take a man to the grave, the strange house; but the third 

I friend is the record of a man*B good and evil deeds (p. 454). If 

the good preponderate, the man is savd ; if not, he goes to the 

, dark house of Hell (p. 4^4). 



[cn. XXX II L 

whom fekmt 
linprtMMi ftad 

bMn Labol 

aud protfeeto bhn 
from th« thIovM 
who mIi« other 

Label «nten on a 
little path, 

and hears a 
▼doe Mjing, 
* Come, wash, 
and {fo to esit in 
the Hlffli City, 
at Qod bid! you.' 

that pere non Man Mihte Entren ne gon 

but that be felouna thei were taken Anon, 

And In presown Anon I-do, 

and alle here good Itaken hem fro. 12 

Whan/ie he was Entred Into this weye, 
A man by hym sauwh he faste bye, 
Whiche semed A man of gret honour, 
A semly persone, & ful of Favour, 16 

And seide ' he wolde beren me Compenye, 
tyl that weye I were past ful Sekerlye.' 
So that togederys gonnen they gon ; 
the goodman to fore y kyng folwed son ; 20 

And Euere hadde the kyng gret drede 
how In that weye he scholde spede. 
And As he loked hym there Abowte, 
he Sawh of thevys A ful gret Rowte, 24 

So pat y kynges drede dyde Eveie laste 
Tyl that theke weye he were paste ; 
For per the thevys token there Every Man 
That they Myhten leyn bond vppon. 28 

And whanne In this weye long hadde he gon, 
Abowtes hym he lokede thanne Anon, 
And that man thanne sawh he nowht, 
the whiche theke weye hadde him browht. 32 

thanne In to A lytel path there Entred he, 
The moste delytable that Evere myhte be, 
and ful of trees froyt berenge, 

Al grene, & ful of flowres, to his semenge. 36 

And whan7{e he was Entred Into this plas, 
A wondirful vois him thouhte ther was, 
** Cometh & wascheth, ^e pleple Echon, 
And to joure Mete thanne schole je gon 40 

Aboven In that hye Cyte ; 
For \>er f* tables Al redy they be, 
and swete Metes for 30W I-dyht ; 
thus sente 30W to seyne the lord most of myht." 44 




The kjng, that desired sore to knowen of this, 
Wliethir his sorwe scholde han Ony Ende I-wys ; 
And As he wolde han Enqwered of hem tho, 
Faste to fom hym thanne Gonne7i they go ; 48 

and so folwede he faste Certayne 
tyl that he Cam to An hy Mowntayne, 
the heyest that Evere say he to fore 
From the tyme that he was hore ; 52 

On whiche Mountayn was A welle, 
The fairest that Evere he herde of telle ; 
and there they weschen Everychon 
that to y Mete In that Cite scholde gon ; 56 

hut the kyug, wysch there not he, 
bat Aftir that Compenye faste gan he fle. 

And whanne to the gates they comen Echon, 
Of that Cy te, they Entred Anon ; 60 

Alle that Evere hadde waschen Atte welle 
To that Cite weren welcomed ful snelle, 
Where As gret loye they hadden there 
In Manye A worschepful diuev's Mane^-e. 64 

Thanne the kyng Anon Entren wolde he, 
but therto hadde non Maner of powste. 
thanne Axede he of the porter Anon, 
* Why that In to the halle he ne myhte gon.' 
thanne Answerid the porter A^eyn, 
" for ])(>u wost not waschen thin hondys In Certein 
At the welle, As Other han don, 
^ei'loTQ here-Inne schalt fon not gon. 72 

For non Man, but ^if he Clene be, 
Into this halle Entreth not he.'' 

And the kyng, that ful of sorwe was, 
Atte A weket loked In to that plas, 76 

and sawh his soster that he hadde slayn, 
Atte the hygh table Sitten Certain, 
And with A chapelet vppon hire hed, 
ful of precious stones In that sted ; 80 

Label goen tct ■ 
high mounUlD. 

His eompanloiM 


bat he doean't. 

At the gat M 
of the City, 

all who have 
wasbt are 

68 But Label can't 

get in beeanae he 
baan't washt. 

alster whom 
at the high 


And bim thoohie hii« neo^re so fiiir £r 

be A thousendfold As sche was iher. 

And wlianne sche sawh he beheld hin so, 
LaiMi*t tiitOT Sche seide, ** so, wasche the As we ban do, 84 

watb. And ]wmne scbalt ^a with vs atte Mete be, 

And ben I-semd with alle deynte." 

Whanne the kyng beheld Al this Manere, 

That he ne myhte not ben Besceyved there, 88 

Hi toTM to gok Anon his weye he turnede Ageyn 

that same weye that he cam Certein ; 
bvt, hftHiif no but waideyn thanne hadde he non, 

whanne thoruh this medwe he scholde gon. 92 

thtthiMwiaj thanne Cam this peple there Anon, 


and yppon hym leyden bond Echon, 

tbat of his deth nenere was he so sore Aferd 

Sethen he Cam In-to Middillerd. 96 

thanne he Axed hem Everichon, 

* Why they leyden bond hym vppon.' 

'' For we welen so, I telle it the ; 
■«]i«riMb«ioiict For thou Art Al oure In Every decre, 100 

And with vs now scbalt thou go, 

In to what place we welen leden y to." 

** thanne drowen they me forth Anon 

be the her & be y hondes, & forth gonne gon ; 104 

and be the feet they drowen me faste 
and drag Mm to to An boWs In A valeye Atte laste, 

a foal booM in n 

wild vaitoy, the whiche was wastful & wilde ; 

and In that bows, Meyne that was vn-Mylde, 108 

For it was so fowl, so hydous, forto be-holde, 

that Erthely man was neuere so bolde 

that bous to Entren to discrye, 
fbUoffiiui, It was so ful of filtho and velonye, 112 

and wondir blak it was therto, 
and weepings Ful of wepinges & Cryenges as it myhte go : '* 

and crylnga* 

and Al this the kyng In Avisioun Say, 

that for drede he deyde nygh that day. 116 


And whanne him thouhte In his Aviciown 
that Into ^ai hous they wolden han throwen him down. 
And for drede Anon wook he there, i«aM wakM 

And wondirly Cryde, & in An hy Manere, 120 uMicriMoat 

for bsto. 

And Seyde, " help now, I nam but ded 

but ^if ich have Ony other Eed.** 

And thus Cryde he with so An hy A yoys 

that he Made Kiht A wondirful Noys, 124 

So that Alle his lordis and Baronye m* lords nw 

hcrden how wondirly that he gan to Crye, 

And to hym Konnen they Alle Anon 

Forto weten what so he wolde don. 128 

there fownden they him In his bed liggense, »^ And him 

As A Man that Made wel Mochel Momenge,-^ 
Neuere Man So mochel Made to here mynde, — 
which stoned hem Alle In here Kynde, 132 

For Al day Merye they hadden ben. 
But whanne the kyng thus gonite they sen, 
Astoned fowle weren they alle, 
What of this Mater Myhte befalle. 136 

Thanne tweyne that with him weren most preve, 
To hym they Comen ful Softele, 
and seiden, *' Sire, what may sow Aylle, Twoaakhim 

" ^ ^ ' what's Um 

Ofer what Manere thing dyde jow Asaille," 140 mattMr. 

For they knewen, be his Cryenge, 
that he was Aferd In his dremcnge. 

thanne seide he to hem Anon there 
That thike tyme Abowtes him were, 144 

* That there Say Neuere Erthly man R« nj» no man 

has Man mdi 

So Merveillous Syhtes as he Sawh than ; ' sif hu as ha has. 

" where-fore I schal neuere blithe be 

Tyl there offen I knowe the Certeinte. 148 

Now to fore me brinff forth Celidoyne, ceiidojiiamost 

. bs bCchi to him 

That myn Other Avision declared Certeine ; atonca. 

and ^if of this he telle me As vcrravUy 

As he of the tother dyde trewly, 152 


•ad bring him to 

who uki him to 
uplaln irh«t ho 
•haU un bim. 

C*li<lo]rn« Mj-t 


bat If Uhel 
won't ob«y him, 
ho'U go to h«U. 

L«bel kneeli 
to Colldoj'M^ 

what thing he wele Comanden me to 
At his Owne ville, I wyle it now do.** 

So to thiB child thanne gonnen they go, 
that I[n] A pavilown On elepe was tho ; 156 

And him A-woken ful tendirlye, 
For that to the kyng he Moate hye. 
and the Child him dressed vp Anon, 
And to fom the kyng thanne Gan he gon. 160 

& whanne the kyng on y child gan looke, 
Gret Comfort thanne to him he tooke ; 
" Now, Maister," quod the kyng thanne, 
" As I holde the, most wysest manne 164 

that enere Sawh I of thin Age, 
And that bora Is of so hygh parage, 
I preye ^ow that je wolden tellen me 
Of that I schal )ow schewen, the Certeinte." 168 

" Sire," quod Celidoyne, " I wele ful gladly ; 
but not be myn owne wit, sire, trewly, 
but As I am Enfonned of the Maister Above, 
Whiche that thou Owhtest wel forto love, 172 

and for thow wost not leven his word be me. 
There-fore sore blamed schalt thou be. 
For whanne thou Come to that Cite 
Which In thy Slepe was schewed to the, 176 

3if that thow wylt Entren there, 
Thou Most don As I schal the lere ; 
And but thou wilt Aftir me don so, 
To Enddes dirknesse eUea schalt thou go, 180 

To that dirk hous, ful of teres & sorwe, 
Endelesly to dwelle, ))at no man schal the borwe." 

And whanne the kyng herd hym spekcn so, 
On knes Aforn hym down fyl he tho, 1 84 

& seide, " Al that Evere thou seyst me here, 
I knowe it verrayly In Eche Manere, 
And that thou Art hy with god Above, 
I knowe ful wel he doth the love, 188 


So what that Evere tho[a] Comandest Me, 

I schal it fulfyllen fol Certeinle. 

For thou hast told me verraillye 

That In myn Avicion I sawh Certeynlye." 192 

" 30," quod Celidoyne Anon ryht tho, 
*' 3it More schal I tellen the £r that I go : 
I schal the schewen the Signefiaunce 
Of Al thin Avicion with-owten variaunce, 196 

So that the bottere thou schalt me leve. 
For that swiche thinges I schal p* preve : — 

" The grete weye that thou there Sye, 
Signefieth the old lawe Sekerly, 200 

Where that so gret peple to forn han gon 
As thou hast herd tellen of Many on ; 
and swich As grete Maistres were, 
And wolde not vndirstondin ^* -peple to lere^ i204 

but let hem Gon to Alle wrechchednesse, 
to filthes, and synne, And vnkendenesse, 
So that Every day that Cursede En^my 
To hym hem draweth by and by, 
And Casteth hem In to helle anon, — 
As wel good as bad thedir wente?i Echon, — 
lo this Enemy is to Signefye, 

that be the weyes lyn so aparttly 212 

For to taken hem that passen therby, 
this signefieth the devel ful trewly. 

" Now [be] this weye that thou hast Seyn, 
* the olde lawe' vndirstonde thou ful pleyn ; 216 

and be the Kobberis that ben there, 
vndirstonde thou the devel In Ech Manere ; 
And be the faire Man that with the wente, 
vndirstonde thou Crist veramente ; 220 

There God Of the hadde pyte, 
And In that dredful weye Governed the, 
80 that thyn Enemyes hadden non power 
In Non wyse forto Neyhen the there. 224 

mnd vows to do 
aU iM Uda him. 

Calidojne then 
•xpoonds Label's 
Seeond Vialon i-^ 

tho Broad Wa j 
is tha Old Uw, 

bj which tha 

n A o ^^11 C"*^ ™M 
2Uo IntohaU. 

Tha Bobbara who 
aeixa men, 

Label's eom* 
panlon laChrlaL 


Latei OHM took For of him Ones liaddest thou py te, 
maA N there fore so hath he now of the ; 

And wistest thoa neu^re what pete was 

thike tyme In that same plas. 228 

" Now haae I told the Al In fei« 

Of that fairs Man, In this Manere, 
chiMMiiim that In that weye Gowndered the 
thknm. Among Alle tho thevys fid Sekerle ; 232 

)it A Notliir Hesoon I schal the Schewe 

To fom Al this peple yppon A rewe, 

be the grete weye tliat is so wyde 

I schal the declaren At this tyde. 236 

** thou sixt wel whanne A schips is w/tA-Inne, 
At A tbip wttii- And to the Se goth, and may not blynne, 

And hath nethir Maister ne Govemottr 

That schipe to Steren In that stowr ; 240 

And whanne fer into the Se Is he go, 
taatthoiMny and with the wynd beten bothe to & fro, 

of WlBd Mid WSTOf 

Tyl Amyddes the see that he be, 
that brod & large Is Onne to se, 244 

there Nib non Man that him Socoure May, 
Sauf Only God that is verray ) 
This Owhtest thow to vnrdirstondyn here 
Of the weye of Synneris In this Manere. 248 

■o It a chritcitii " For Auou As A Cristen man In Ony weye 

who't ftmoktn 

UtCntior. Forsaketh his Creatour, Serteinlye 

thanne hath he broken this weye Anon 

that thou Sie Alle the folk Inne gon ; 252 

thanne taken they bothe leye & lycense 

Forto folwen the develis p*6conse, 

And thanne scholen they haven Compenye 

that weye to gon ful Sekerlye, 256 

and here flessches lust to fulfille, 

and leven the goode wey, & taken the yUe 

Aftir the develys CownsaiUe, 

that Nothing may hem A-vaylle. 260 


And In this weye, She kyng label, 

hast thou longe gon, thou wost ful wel ; 

but now at this Manere of Comenge, 

And thow wilt, tl^ou schalt hauen Comfortynge 264 

Of him that the best helpen he May, 

[He] Schal the Owt Bringe this solve day. 

''jit schal I more to the here declare CiMf4i] 

Of the grene weye that thou sye thare : 268 tim onm w«j 

to tiM N«w Lav. 

' The newe lawe' it doth Signefye, 

that Everiday Encresith certeinlye. 

And the streite weye that was there, 

Signefieth of hem that there Inne were, 272 

[they] hadden [no] leve forth there to gon, 

that Goddis Comaundement fulhlden Echon, 

And of holy chirche Also thanne, 

In }fat wey wente swich maner of Manne. 276 

" lo, this Goddis Comandement Is, 
that non Child of holy chirche Iwys 
Scholde Erren Ajens his Creatour 
be non manere of wise, for non dolour, 280 

Ke nethir to don non dedly Synne, 
Ne vsen non Coveitise ne^er more ue Myn;«e ; 
And forsaken Envye Also therto, 
jif Aftir god & trowthe thou wilt do ; 284 

Ne be non thouht to fallen In to synne, 
but Evere the Byht weye hold the with-Inne. 

" The Trees that be that grene weye stoden Abowte, tim tnm hr tb« 
' pastours of holy Chirche' it signeficn wttAowten dowte, pMton ofHoir 
that Alle Abowtes the world don gon, 289 

The holy vangelye forto vndon. 

** The voiB that thou herdest Clepen there, Tb« Toiee ipMh. 

lac te tnsn to 

Signefieth 'goddis Mercy' In Echo Manere, 292 Ood'i Hetty. 

that Clepith Synneris that Synne han forsake. 

And lust that to his Servise han hem take, 

And behotyih hem Al Manure of delicasye 

That to ony Mannes wyt May Applye. 296 


Th« W«ll In t)M 
Mo jnuin U Ood 
OB htoTiaroo*. 

Th« Won It <ald 
tho UdcUod of 

Tho High Gltj on 
tho MoanUla U 

Lober* not being 
•bio to got in at 
the gttoi booooeo 
ho hiidn't WMht, 

neona thot nono 

coo MITOOod 

nnletM he la 

Be that welle, yndirBtonde thou here, 
Whicho In that Mowntayne thoa sye there, 
that is to Signefye Euere ' god Alone^* 
That Ahoven Sitteth In his trone, 300 

tho wheche is the heyest lord & kyng, 
and lieyghest he is ouer Alle Maner thing ; 
Which is sene be his Bownte, 

And be many Miracles In diu^srs d^gre 304 

Whiche he wrowhte In this world here ; 
For ou^ Alle Erthly men he hadde powcre, 
And Aboven Alle Other heyest is he, 
lik As yai Mowntayn Aboven oper semed ^* to be : 308 
and lik As that Mowntayn Aboven therthe was, 
So Ib Grod heyghest In Every plas. 

'' & for that Cause the welle Icleped It is 
' The vnctiouA of Baptesme ' wttA-owten Mis, 312 

Wheche was be goddis Ordenaunce, 
And God it fulfilde to his plesaunce, 
There sye thow god In Maieste 
that toward this welle browhte the. 316 

" And that Cyte that So fair & swete was, 
vndirstonde thou ' paradys' In this plas, 
Where that god Maketh his hyghe feste 
To alle his beloved, bothe leste and Meste. 320 

" And vndirstonde thou here-by Also, 
that whanne In Atte gates thou myhtest not go. 
For thou Nost waschschen In non Manere 
Atte welle, As other diden there, — 324 

perioTe it signefieth In this degre 
That Goddis Seriaunt ne myht pon not be, 
Nethir non Child of holy Chirche, 
but )if Oj>erwise that yon wilt wirche, 328 

And that I-Cristened that thou be,' 
)if thow wilt Ony of these festes se. 

''And for the bettere pou. scholdest han me in 
creaunce, 331 


Al this I the telle with-owten Enqwerau7ice. 

And fen so longe In sweveny/zg thou hast be, 

In schort processe I haue declared it to the ; 334 

And there fore leve me 3if thou wilt, 

And but )if po\i do, thou schalt be spilt. 

" Al this, Sie thow, kyng Label, Tiiii vuion of 

n Label's, 

In thyn Avicioun Everydel, 338 

Whiche thou woldest neuere to man discure, 

for pou wendist that neucre Creature 

Of non Manure Erthly londe 

Cowde it the don to vndirstonde : 342 Godh«»eniibid 

Celidoyne to 

but As the hyghe Maister Enformed hath me, Mpiun. 

I haue the told In Eche degre. 

" Be the wastful lawndes, haue vndirstondyng xiie De««rt Land* 

iiTAiii_' oi/» *ro Kin* Label's 

* Thy wykked werkys In Alle thing 346 wicked works. 

that thou hast don Al thy lyre 

Sethen thou were bom In wo & stryre. 

therfore Cristened loke that thou be, 

3if thou wilt ben holpen In Ony degre. ^ 350 

^ Par le serpent, dois tu entendre Ics males oeures, Tiie senwnt 
et toi meisme. Car sans faille tu ies drois sarpens et SimMir, !!lko has 
drois anemis ; Car tu ne fesis onques chose se peu non °*^'" ***>"• «**<*• 
qt/i a no^^ signoKr pleust. Et che qi/e il ne veoit goute, its not leHnir. 
senefie ke tu ies auules ; Car, se tu ueisses uraiement, ?JJJuJiiwi!id- 
tu^ n'eusses pas tant demoure el pechie com tu as. Et "•*■• 
che que li serpens uoloit trusc'a la rouge mer, senefie 
toi qui uoleras. Ch*est a dire, ke tu cnterras en le its flying to the 
sainte eue, et en la boineuree, ke on apiele boptesme, LluST'gSing to 
et serras oirs ihesvL crist, et fiex ausi, com li autre sont *»pt"™- 
qui au saint baptesme sont uenu. 

Par la rouge mer ke nostie sires a ouuri iadis as The bringing the 
fiex isra^l, dois tu^ entendre le baptesme ou li se[r]gant t!l*'Reds«ir"**' 
ihe^'u crist sont purefiiet, el sont oste des mains as [a]- 
nemis p^rdu rabies, tout ausi com lifil ysraelfurent oste menns the rescue 
des mains es egyptiiens. Par la rousee de la mer, dois Mi^antVfrom the 
tu entendre le boineure sane qui issi del boineure coste ^^^ ^' baptism, 
au p?Yyphete dont iou parole. Et tout ausi com 11 fil Tiie Israelites 
ysra^l furent peu de Taumosne qu*il lor enuoia es desers promi'^S.rnd, 
iusc'a tant qa'il vinrent en terre de promission, Ch'est "•^^ "*•*' 

* MS ke to, leaf 65, back, col. 3 ' leaf 67. 

GRAAL. 29 


Th« D»rk Black ** Now forthemioro I schal the telle, 

HouM U UcU, 

that dirk blak hows signefyeth * helle ' ; 
To wheche place AI Miscreaunt 

A tie the day of dom schal ben here haunt ; 354 

To whiche Ostel that Is so blak, 
whan ubtiii At that dom Gost thow with-owten lak ; 

fo for eter milMi 

iM fpmtM, but ^if it In this world thou it Amende, 

Ellis thedir gost thou with-owten £nde : 358 

And so In this world myht thon don here 
To blisse to Comen, that hath non pere."* 
" Now, Certes," quod kyng label tho, 

King LaM " Merveillously hast ^u this mdo. 362 

And ^it more merveilloiLS is that lord 
that to the hath discouered Every word ; 
And but he were Myhtiere thanne oper be, 
this Mihte he Keue7*e han schewed to the. 366 

aiuininff th« jojt a dire, qu*il vendront a la ioie de paradis qui ia ne 

** faura, et ch'est la te?Te qui lor fu prc^mise. Che que \i 

The Mriwnt't serpens fu mues en coulori, senefie la muanche qui sera 

dove^mMtia* faite de toi se tu viens a baptesme. Car de chest saint 

tkrouRVBaptum, lauement seras tu mues d*anemi en ami ihesM crist, et 

ih?^riandof ** ^® ®®^ ®^ franc ; Car illuec seras tu mues et deslies dea 

chriat. loiiens as morteus gaiteours. Or t'ai descouuert, rois 

label, ton songe, ke tu onqu^s ne descouuris a home 

mortcL Or piies sauoir ke chil seit auqu^s de tea afairea 

qui che m'a deinoustre. 

nsptiBtn la the * " Et sans recheuoir baptesme," fait li rois, " puet 

on y way . ^^^ yeuir a chele hauteche ne a la chite ou iou vi 

Label's iUteT mencT si grant ioie." " Chertes," fait celidoines, "nenil." 
becauM shTdied *' Coumeut,'' fait li rois, ''fu che dont ma suer, qt/i 
a chriBtian, faisoit susi gj-ant ioie comme li autre 1 " " Che vous 
haring been dirai iou bien," fait celidoines. " Sachies ke vo«fre 
i««raphe, who sucr mourut crestieue, et rechut baptesme de la main 
forest of 'ioKfte. sewiphe Termite, qui maint en vne forest ke on apiele 
uS'd*to kiu"^^*"'* * maube.' Et chele fores soloit estre habitee meruilleuse- 
peopie, tin the ment dc serpens qui ochioient les gens ; Mais puis .v. 
drove oat*^'°* aus n*en i fu nus veus. Et seis tu qwe* ele fu witlie de 
Termin. j^ vermino par la venue des preudomes qui a chel iour 

se vinrent herbergier en la forest." 

•^MS q»/ant, xiv E iii, leaf 66, col. 2. 



Where fore to liim only I me take, 

And A lie myn Olde werkes I forsake ; 

And what that Evere )e Comanden me to, 

At 30urc byddyng I wele it do." 370 

" thanne schol I tellen f *," Celidoyne gan say, 
" thus me hath Schewed the Maister varray, 
hos Seriawnt I am ful prest, 

that here besides In this forest 374 

dwelleth An holy Ermyt, and of good lif, 
and f ej-to A prest with-owten stryf. 
Go we to hym streyht Anon, 

Cristendom to don the vppon,^ 378 

that I have to the Spoken of to fore, 
forto Entren In to that Cite thore, 
To that hygh worthy feste, 

In paradis to dwellen vfiih lest Si meste." 382 

*' Certes," quod the kyng tho, 
" Al this I am Redy forto do." 

Thanne Axede this kyng Anon Byht 
Of duk, Erl, barown. And knyht, 386 

^if they wolden Conceillen him ^erto, 
this Manere thing Al forto do. 
**For weteth wel In Certayn, 

that In Myn hertc I schal neu^ie be fayn 390 

Tyl I-Cristened that I be, 
As Celidoyne here Enformeth Me.*' 

thanne Answered they him A3eyn, 
' that wold they neuere In Certein 394 

Ke not departen from here lay, 
No more thanne here fadres be Olde day.* 
" leve,^ sire kyng,*' quod Celidoyne tho, 

' AloDS a lui, si te feras baptiser et laver en la sainta 
ODde. — A. 

' '* Signour," dist celidoines, '' or le laissies donqu^. 
Car se vous le fesissies a forche, il ne xous vauroit mie 
grantment. Yotu remanres ichi comme sergant al anemi 
ei poeure de sens et garni de mal ensient. Et li rois s*en 

tarna to God, 
foraakeff hit 
old wt-rkft, 
and will do 
wbataver Celi- 
doynt bids hiiu. 

Celidoyne tella 
Label tu get 
ttaptizd at once 
byaheimit ina 
forest near. 

Label asVa hia 
lords if they 
advise liim to 

he can nerer be 
happy till he's 

Label's lords 
reftise to give np 
their old tUlh. 

The barons will 
stay, as venrants 



Cy litloyiic puta 
po«>r clothM oa 

and thf 7 go 

For A^ens hero wil it sclial not be do." 398 

Thanne CeliUoyne this k}Tig vnclothed Anon, 
and powre Clothes dyde liym vppon ; 
* For he ne woKle In no» Manere 
that 60 to forn him lie Come there 402 

In non Man<*r of swich Aray 
that signelieth to pride in Ony way,' 
*' but As In lowuesse And In humylite 
8o to forn him Comen scholen je." 406 

Auon the kyng dyde his Comandement, 
And with hym wente with good Entent. 
And from here pavilouns they partyd Ajion, 
& forth thorwgh the forest gonne they gon, 410 

That so forth to Gederis wenten they faste, 
tyl Into A gret valey they comen Atte laste ; 
And so longe to-Gyveris they wente, 
Tyl that the day was AI Lspente ; 414 

So that it happed hem be Grace 
That to thermyt they comen In pat place, 
And Clepeden At his dore Anon, 
and thus sone he gan it vndon. 418 

thanne fnl gret Merveille pis hermyt hadde, 
What man^r of thing thedyr hem ladde, 
And what they sowhten In that strau?2ge place, 
thike peple that thedir Comen wase ; 422 

For fully A mou7tthe to fom that day, 
Neuere Man ne womman ne child he ne say. 

And whanne the dore was thus vndon, 
Celidoyne Entred thanne In Anon, 426 

and beknew that Cristencd he was, 
"Whiche was to thermyt A loyful Cas ; 

Label will partira eomme fiex et oirs de ihe^u, si puis vraiement dire 

ft^m'uie^iio/vS— c^ue liostie sircs par sa misericorde a oste Taigniel d'entre 

Christ.'**'^ ®' les leus, sans che qu*il n*i a este estranles ne deuoures." 

Et il li demandent, "qt/i sont li leul" "votw estes," 

fait il, '* li leu ; et chil sont deuenu aigniel qui a dieu 

se tienewt." 

to thf hermU't 


Celidoyne is 
welcomd by the 


So Ech of hem Othir Embracen began, 

and An hundred Sithes they kisten than. 430 

" Faire sone," quod this Ermyt tho, 

" Into Manye stronge place schalt pan go, 

And goddis Pyler thow 3chalt ben, 

To helpe forto vndirsette Al oris ten." 434 

thanne Celidoyne [spak] Anon Ageyn, 
And told him Al the Cas In Certein^ to whom he tciu 

., . King Label'n CHBe, 

Also Al the cause of here Comenge, and says umt he 

this kyng to Cristendom forto bringe. 438 him. 

thann hadde this Goodman gret loye of this, 

that he scholde A sowle wynnen to blis, 

and seide that he wolde with good wille 

on p* Morwen here Axeng to fulfille. 442 

AUe that Nyht hadden they here talkyng, 
that to alle holynesse ivas bclongeng ; ' 

1 MS xiv E. Ill, leaf 56, col. 3 at foot, adds, Et tant LabeUdce the 

que li rois dist, "Sire, pour dieu, d'une auision qui i^v'iwon^fhfir'" 
m*auint, n'a pas lone ta72s, me dites uerite se vous en estes 

chertains." " Dites," fait li preudom, " et ie uous enseig- •Tea/aayathe 

nerai che que nostre sires m*a cnseignie." "Sire," fait L^wfteiiait,— 

11, " il m'estoit auis ke i'estoie semons a plait deuant .i. lli^^fS'ir"" 

,» • .. X • • • J aummond berore 

nche home yei'S qui i estoie accuses, lou ne sai de ques • fic^ "»*" ^ 
gens. Et qi^ant iou deuoie aler au plait, iou scmounoie awnsd; aoi 
tous mes amis et chiaus qui iou auoie semis, que il me Jrienda'to^wme 
uenissent aidier. Mais tout me falirent ne mais que ^lonl^^^' 
troi; et li vns de ches trois me prcstoit .i. mantiel a <-«ni6i of whom 
afu[b]ler, pour chou ke toutes uoies ne m'esco7?desi8t ; dMk*"«nd*tbe 
et h. secons me conduisoit trusc'a vne maison ke ie jri^trlngle Soum 
n*auoie onqw^s tele veue, et me laissa dedens. Li tiers «»? left me there; 

^ . ^ 1 • 1 . 1 1 A but the third 

venoit auoec moi trusqzt^s chies Ie nche home, et mos- went with me to 
troit .i. escrit et vne chartre qwi m*aquitoit de toutes ind produc'SV 
les choses ke li riches hom me demandoit, si ke ma JiMni mefrom 
pais estoit faite enucrs chelui a qui i*estoie acuses. Sire, *" t^© chargca. 
tele fu m'avisions que ie vi, n'a pas enchore lone tans. Teii me tiie 
Or, si vous pri ke vous m'ew dites la uerite se \ou8 Ie "***"*"* ^^ •• 
saues." "Chertes," fait li preudom, "volentiers. Li The hermit 
mantiaus ke on te prestoit, rois label, senefie la poure dlik^^man's* 
uesteure ke on done a uestir Voinme ke on met en terre. k™^®-^'®**'* 
Chou est li darrains mantiaus ; et chelui gariiiment 
apieloit on 'suairc.' Chelui doit en apieler *le mortel 



Tho Hermit teUt So that Al Kyht tilis good man Gan hem preche. 

Label of the live* *,«,, i •• « .■• 

ormartyn. And of holj mennes lyves he gan hem teche. 


The mcond frtend 
in the relative* 
who take the 
corpae to the 

Tlie strange hoaee 
la the grave. 

afublail/ et maintes fois est chis gamimens dones^ pour 
cheus qui s'en uont Li secons amis qui te connoioit 
trusc'a la maison, senehe les parens a chelui qui est tres- 
passes, qui conduisent le cors del mort trusc'a la fosse. 
La fosse doit hien par droit estre apielee ' maisons 
descouneue.' Car nous ki en cheste uie somes, ne 
sauo;7S ke nous trouuerons, ne ne le counissons enchors 
de riens ; et q»ant nous i entrons, ne sauons enchore 
qwe dire ; et donq?/es doit on "b/cn apieler chele maisoii, 
* maison descouneue,* et maison dont on ne voit nule 
autrestele. £t li tiers amis, rois label, qui au pcirestroit 
te faisoit compaignie, et moustroit pour toi une chartre 
qui t'aquidoit [sic] de toutes les choses qwe li riches horn 
te demandoit, seneiie les boines oeures ke li hom a fait 
en sa vie, et est ausi com li boins clers legistres qvi 
hardiement defifent le cause son ami, et maine a boiiie 
fin. Li fil, et les filles, et li autre parent, laissent en 
la fosse chelui qui il co/zuoient a ami, et en auant d'iluec 
ne li font cowtpaignie. Qui respondera po«r hii de 
qi^anqu*il ot el siecle, de qt/anqu'il sot, de qtianqu'il 
pot ? II n'en portera riens de sa rikeche deuant loi, 
fors seulemey^t vne chartre ; et en chele chartre ara 
escrit quaTzqu'il onq^/es fist de mal et de bien. £t s'ii i 
a plus de b/en ke du mal, li bi^ns alegera Tome, et le 
deliuera de quanqe/^s on li demandera. Et s'il i a plus 
du mal ke du bien, li maus qui tons iours apoise et 
atere Tome, le traira aual, si ke chil tresbuchera en la 
tenebreuse maison d'iiifcr. Eois label, or t'ai deniaei 
[sic] si rc/Twme iou croi de ton songe la senefiauche. Ore 
mo di s*il to samble ke iou en ai uoir dit." " Chertes,'* 
fait li rois, *• II n*a home en chest siecle au mien ensient 
qui mieus le m'eust deuise, se chil meismes ne li en- 
seignast ke on apiele ilie^u crist. Or n*est il hom el 
siecle, s'il I'entendoit ausi com iou Tenteng tout, qtd 
mieus n'en vausist tons les iours de sa vie. Car or sai 
iou bten qu*il n'est diex fors chil ke vous aoures. Car 
il seus counoist la verite de tout le monde. Ne nus 
autres, au mien quidier, n*en puet riens sauoir, s'il ne li 
est descouuert par la uirtu de chest saint signeur qui 
tout puet sauoir." " Chcrtes/* fait li preudom, " vous 
dites voir sans faille." [The Addit. MS 10,292 also 
has this Vision, leaf 40, back, col. 3.] 

Tlie third Mend 
1r the good work! 
thnt the dead man 
did while he Hvd. 

which lire like a 

good lawyer who 

wins hli (Hend't 


A man'a relatives 

leave him in the 


Who then ahall 
answer for him P 
He has no riches, 
but one writing 
of all his deeds 
evil and good ; 
and, if there are 
more good than 
evil, the gotxl 
shall clear him 
fh>m all trespass; 
but if there are 
more evil than 
good, the evil 
shall drag him to 
the dark nouse 
of hell. 

Have f not in- 
terpreted your 
dretim right?* 
Label answers, 
* Tes, and no one 
could have told 
yott but Jesiu. 

And T know that 
He hIodo is Ood, 

for He nlone 
knows the ti nth, 
and none c»n 
know If but by 
His power.' 

MS dones pour plus. 

cu. xzxiii.] label's lords refuse to change their faith. 455 

that for Crist Suffrede Tormentis liarde, 

And to the Blisse of lievene wen ten Aftirwarde ; 

So that Evcre tlie kyng for loje he wep«, 

That of Al theke Nyht he ne slepc. 450 

Vppon the Morwen, whanne it was lyht, 
Tliennyt his Matynes seide Anon Ryht ; 
and wlianne his Matynes weren I-do, 
A fair ston ful Kedy Made he tho, 454 

And there with water he gan it ^e. 
thanwe Anow the kyng he Clepid him Tylle, 
& made him don Of his Clothes Anon, 
And there Into that ston forto gon. 458 

Anon there 3af he hym ful Crystenynge 
holich after holy Chirche^ werkynge. 
Whanne the kyng thus Cristened was there, 
his Xame nolde he Chongc In non Manere; 462 

For of faireuesse it hadde Semblaunce, 
Wherfore fere olfen nolde he maken non variaunce. 

Whanne this Good Man hym Cristened hadde so, 
Anon hem gan he forth Clcpen tho 
that with hym Comen In Compenye, 
And Axede hem there Anon In hye, 

* ^i£ that they wold en Cristened be 

lik here lord was, As sche^ niyhte se,' 470 

thanne Answerid they Anon Ageyn, 

* that wolde they ^eiiere don In Certein ; 
For they wolden Keuere Chonge« here lay 

That here Fadris helden to fom here day.* 474 

thanne this goodmau Eyht Anon 
A whit Kobe the kyng aide vppon, 
holiche be thermytes Ordenauwce ; 
Swich was thanne the kynges Chauwce. 478 

thanne Seide the kyng to Celidoyne tho, 
" Faire child, fou hast me browht Owt of wo ; 
For I am becomen So heyl A man 
that non Erthly tonge tellen ne kan. 482 

* for they 

Next morning 

tb« Hermit fills % 
atone with water. 

and baptlzea 
Label in it. 

466 The Hermit 

then aska Label's 
lonls if they'll be 


Label thinks 


For me semetli now In My syht, 
h«*t in i)M brisfat that I am At theke Cy te so bryht 
M« ui« ffTMt where that I say the grete feste 

Of manye peple, bothe lest & Meste, 4S6 

Where As I was put Away Anon Ryht, 

that Into the halle Entren I ne Myht, 

For that I wysch not In Certeyne 

Atte the welle vppon the Mownteyne." 490 

Thanne seide the kyng to his Compenye 

that thedir with hym Comen Certeinlye, 

** Lordynges, that In Myn Compenye ban be, 

and In Travaille and In Adrersite, 494 

and welen not beren me Compenye 

Now at this tyme feythfullye 

there As I am In a loyful lyf. 

And 3e dwellen stille In wo & stryf ; 498 

L»M tagukm hollchc Alle I tow forsake, 

hill lorda, ' 

And to this lif I wele me take ; 
•nd Mjrt ht'ii For with ^ow schal I neue?^ go 

iitTer rrturn to i^ i-r/^ n tt 

Ptnia. Into the Cuntre that I Cam fro. 502 

And whanne they herde the kyng thus seyn, 
Alle ful wooful they weren In Certeyin, 
And seiden that they hadden lost Alle here pray,^ 
Whanne that the kyng hadde Tomed his lay. 506 

So that