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THE LOWER PENINSULA OF 

MICHIGAN 

An Inventory of 

Historic Engineering 

fo^ and Industrial Sites 



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<*►%> 




Historic American Engineering Recor 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/lowerpeninsulaofOOhyde 



THE LOWER PENINSULA OF 
MICHIGAN 

An Inventory of 
Historic Engineering 
and Industrial Sites 



Directed by: Charles K. Hyde, PhD 
Wayne State University 



Edited by: Diane B. Abbott 



Historic American Engineering Record 

Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation 

National Prrk Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

1976 



Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation 
Jerry L. Rogers, Acting Director 

Historic American Engineering Record 
Douglas L. Griffin, Chief 



Cover: Ford Motor Company - Glass Plant 1924 

Photo Courtesy of Albert Kahn Associates, 
Architects and Engineers, Detroit, Michigan 



Sponsored by 



The Michigan History Division, 
Michigan Department of State 
Lansing, Michigan 48918 

Wayne State University 
Detroit, Michigan 48202 

The Michigan Society of 
Professional Engineers 
Lansing, Michigan 48902 

The Historic American 
Engineering Record, 

National Park Service 
Washington, D.C. 20240 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION vil 

ABBREVIATIONS OF COMMON REFERENCES x 

MAPS OF MICHIGAN xi i 

EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 1 

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES k5 

UTILITIES 8*t 

POWER SOURCES AND PRIME MOVERS 127 

TRANSPORTATION 130 

RAILROAD ABBREVIATIONS 133 

ADDITIONAL RAILROAD STATIONS 196 

BRIDGES AND TRESTLES 200 

GIRDER 203 

ARCHED 211 

TRUSSED 223 

TRESTLES 2kk 

MOVEABLE 2^8 

CANTI LEVERED AND SUSPENSION 265 

BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 268 

SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 283 

HAER INVENTORY CARD 295 

INDICES 297 



INTRODUCTION 



Origins of the Michigan Inventory 

The Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) is a program 
of the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park 
Service and is responsible for documenting and thus preserving America's 
engineering and industrial heritage. As part of its program, HAER 
prepares inventories or lists of significant engineering and industrial 
sites in all parts of the country. It was decided to inventory the 
Lower Peninsula of Michigan during the summers of 1975-1976 and then 
conduct a separate inventory of the Upper Peninsula at a later time. 
It has been an ambitious undertaking because of the immense size of the 
area surveyed (sixty-eight counties in the Lower Peninsula) and the rich 
industrial history of the state. There were few systematic surveys on 
which to draw. HAER previously gathered information on only a handful 
of sites, while the existing county and local surveys concentrated on 
structures of architectural, rather than engineering or industrial, 
interest. 



Format of the Inventory 

With few exceptions, the Inventory is limited to sites which 
predate 1925. Even with this limitation, 678 engineering and industrial 
sites are recorded. Each inventory card includes a brief history of the 
site, a physical description, the precise location of the site, a sketch- 
map, several photographs, and a list of historical source materials. 
The complete cards are deposited with HAER in Washington and with the 
Michigan History Division in Lansing. Space limitations have made it 
necessary to delete some of the less important sites from this volume 
and to abridge the descriptions of about one-quarter of the sites. For 
two common structures, bridges and railroad stations, the less important 
examples are simply listed. 

The sites are arranged according to the HAER Industrial Clas- 
sification System and then listed alphabetically by the name of the 
site. Categories which include a large number of sites, such as "Bridges 
and Trestles", are further subdivided. In the left-hand corner of each 
entry, the reader will find the site name, the date of the structure 
now standing, its street address or location, and the city or town. 
The right-hand corner contains the name of the United States Geological 
Survey map on which the site is located and beneath it the Universal 



Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid reference. This fifteen-digit reference 
is a precise locating mechanism consisting of three elements: the zone 
number, the east-west measurement, and the north-south measurement. 
Below the UTM reference is the county in which the site is located. At 
the end of each entry are the important sources of information for the 
site and an indication if the site is listed on the National Register 
of Historic Places (NR) . Indices were also prepared listing county, 
city or town, and site names to further assist the reader. 



Acknowledgements 

The Michigan Inventory was a cooperative venture supported by 
several institutions. The encouragement and advice of T. Allan Comp, 
HAER Senior Historian, was indispensable. The Inventory received vital 
financial support and cooperation from the Michigan History Division of 
the Michigan Department of State, particularly from Kathryn Eckert, 
Michael Washo, and Amy Hecker. Much of the impetus for this project 
came from the Michigan Society of Professional Engineers, a major finan- 
cial contributor for two years. The M.S.P.E.'s Executive Director, 
Scott R. Kingan, and Presidents William J. Bier and Clair H. Aiken have 
enthusiastically supported this effort. The Michigan Section of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers also financially supported the 
I nventory . 

Wayne State University played a vital role in this endeavor. 
Yates Hafner and Martin M. Herman, Deans of Monteith College, agreed to 
donate secretarial services to the project, while Kay A. Hartley and 
Linda G. Henson adeptly handled the financial administration of the 
Inventory. Dean Stanley K. Stynes and Associate Dean James M. Paulson 
of the College of Engineering generously donated office space, while 
Nancy D. Cunningham of the University's Office of Grants and Contracts 
coordinated the project funding. Dean Lawrence von Tersch of the 
College of Engineering, Michigan State University, arranged to allow 
several of his students to work on the project. 

Scores of Michiganders supplied information on individual 
sites. Their assistance was invaluable, but they are far too numerous 
to acknowledge here. However, there are several individuals who pro- 
vided information on dozens of sites. They include Charles Hunt and 
Richard Rogness of the Consumers Power Company, Richard Sylvain of the 
Detroit Edison Company, Edward M. Cummings of the Chessie System, Robert 
Dedow of the Penn Central Railroad, Bernard Gulowski of the Argonaut 
Division of the General Motors Corporation, and John Hornbach, Grand 
Rapids City Engineer. 



This volume is really the work of two teams of individuals 
which shared the tasks of field work, research, and writing in the 
summers of 1975 and 1976. Many of the inventory cards were completed 
by student assistants, including Donald Harning, Gary Horwitch, Karen 
McKinley, Kevin Tol liver, and Wallace Szumny. Diane Abbott typed and 
edited all of the inventory cards, as well as this volume. The success- 
ful completion of the Michigan Inventory is due in large part to her 
diligence, patience, and good humor. 

The success of this work is largely the result of the assist- 
ance I have received from these institutions and individuals. Its omis- 
sions and shortcomings are my own responsibility. 



Charles K. Hyde 



ABBREVIATIONS OF COMMON REFERENCES 



Clarence M. Burton, et. al., The City of Detroit , Michigan (Detroit, 
1922) [Burton] 

George Bush, Future Bui Iders : The Story of Michigan's Consumers Power 
Company (New York, 1973) TBushT 

Detroit Institute of Arts, The Legacy of Albert Kahn (Detroit, 1970) 
[ Legacy ] 

Willis F. Dunbar, All Aboard! A History of Railroads in Michigan (Grand 
Rapids, T9S9I [Dunbar] 

W. Hawkins Ferry, The Buildings of Detroit: A History (Detroit, I968) 
[Ferry] 

Grand Trunk Railroad Company, "Statement of Buildings From the Indiana- 
Michigan State Line to Court Street, Port Huron, June 30, 1917' 
[GTR, "Statement"] 

Lee Hartman, "Michigan Barns, Our Vanishing Heritage," Michigan Natural 
Resources , Volume 45 (March 1976), pp. 1 7~32 [Hartman] 

Paul Wesley Ivey, The Pere Marquette Railroad Company: An Historical 
Study of the Growth and Development of One of Michigan ' s 
Most Important Rai lway Systems (Lans i ng , 1 STT) [I vey] 

David L. Lewis, "From These Halls Michigan Transformed the World," 
Detroit News , May 18, 1975, p. 36 [Lewis] 

Michigan Department of State, Michigan History Division, Site Files 
[MHD, Site Files] 

Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation, Michigan 

Structure Inventory and Appraisal Study (Lansing, 1972-1974) 
[ MSIAS ] 

Allen Nevins, Ford: Decline and Rebirth , 1933-1962 (New York, 1 963) 
[Nevins, Peel ine j 

Allen Nevins, Ford: Expansion and Challenge , 1915-1933 (New York, 1957) 
[Nevins, Expans ion] 



ABBREVIATIONS OF COMMON REFERENCES 



Allen Nevins, Ford: The Times , The Man , The Company (New York, 195*0 
[Nevins, The Times ] 

Penn Central Transportation Corporation, List of Undergrade and 

Overgrade Structures: Northern Region (Philadelphia, 1 969) 
[Penn Central List] 

Harold Titus, Michigan , A Guide to the Wolverine State (New York, 1 3^* 1 

[TitTTil 

United States Coast Guard, List of Lights and Other Marine Aids , IV , 
Great Lakes (Washington, 1975) [USCG, Light List] 



"& 



LAKE i "^\^ 




INTRODUCTION TO EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES 



This category of sites includes all mining operations, agri- 
culture, kiln-fired products, the chemical industry, food processing, 
primary metal industries, textiles, lumber, paper, and wood products. 
While the Inventory includes sites from all of these industries, the 
majority relate to food processing and wood products. 

Today Michigan is one of the most heavily industrialized 
states in the nation, but for most of the nineteenth century, the over- 
whelming majority of her population worked in agriculture, lumbering, 
fishing, or in industries which processed the products of her farms and 
forests. As late as 1880, over half the population lived on farms and 
three-quarters lived in towns of less than *t,000 people. Rapid indus- 
trialization and urbanization did not begin until the l890's and the 
most spectacular industrial growth, particularly in Detroit, occurred 
in the period 1900-1929- 

The earliest "industrial" buildings in this inventory are 
water-powered flour and grist mills, many dating from the l8*t0's and 
1850's. Only a few of these, such as the Atlas Mill (I836), Waterloo 
Mill (1838), Bel levue Mill (1852), Flowerfield Mill (1855), New Troy 
Mills (1867), and the Fleming Creek Mill (1873) still have significant 
machinery and power transmission systems intact. 

Food processing has not been limited to small rural flour 
mills. The ready-to-eat cereal industry was established in Battle 
Creek through the pioneering efforts of C.W. Post and W.K. Kellogg 
around 1895. They built large manufacturing complexes in Battle Creek 
and many of the original structures still stand. Michigan also made 
a significant, but abortive, entry into the beet sugar industry after 
the passage of the Dingley Tariff (1897) which protected domestic sugar 
producers. There were twenty-four substantial beet processing plants 
constructed in I898-I906, mainly in Bay City, Saginaw, and in the 
"Thumb" area. Most of these failed within a few years and were subse- 
quently demolished. The survivors include mills at Alma, Caro, Car- 
rol lton, Crosswell, Salzburg, and Sebewaing. 

Lumbering was the most important economic activity in the 
northern Lower Peninsula in the second half of the nineteenth century. 
The exploitation of Michigan's forests (principally white pine) for 
sale in national markets began in the Saginaw River Valley, where 
seventy-two sawmills were at work by i860. The industry spread north- 
ward into the Muskegon, Manistee, Au Sable, and other river valleys 



in the l870's and l880's. The lumber industry reached its peak around 
1890, when there were nearly two thousand sawmills producing about 4.3 
billion board-feet annually. Michigan was still the nation's leading 
lumber producer in 1900, but then the industry quickly disappeared 
because short-sighted lumbermen had rapidly exhausted the state's for- 
ests. There are virtually no physical remains of this great lumbering 
era because most of the sawmills were built of wood and were either 
demolished or lost by fire. 

The lumbering industry played a significant role in the eco- 
nomic development of much of the state. The early growth of several 
cities, including Saginaw, Bay City, Midland, Grand Rapids, Muskegon, 
Manistee, and Traverse City, was the direct result of lumbering. It 
spawned other industrial development as well. The availability of 
mountains of cheap scrap wood for fuel encouraged the development of 
salt brine evaporation plants. In 1880, Michigan produced 2.5 million 
barrels of salt, over k0% of the national output. The construction of 
railroads into northern Michigan after i860 was intimately connected 
with logging and the decline of the industry in the early twentieth 
century encouraged the railroads to develop the tourist potential of 
the region. 

This inventory includes many indirect reminders of this 
logging era. Some of the sawmill operators turned to papermaking and 
a few of their plants, such as those of the French Paper Company, the 
Kalamazoo Paper Company, and the Fletcher Paper Company have survived. 
The City of Muskegon subsidized the construction of the Amazon Hosiery 
Mill (1895) to provide jobs for unemployed lumbermill workers. 

The manufacture of furniture is another industry with roots 
in the lumbering era. In Grand Rapids, furniture making expanded ra- 
pidly beginning in the l870's and by 1905, when there were thirty-eight 
firms in the city employing over 6,600 workers, the Bureau of the Census 
called the city "the recognized center of the furniture industry in the 
United States". Grand Rapids had seventy firms with over 12,000 em- 
ployees during the late 1920's, the industry's peak years. From the 
early 1930's onward, the industry declined rapidly as the result of both 
the Depression and the movement of plants into the South. Several power- 
ful reminders of this great industry have survived, including the Klingman 
Building (1895), the Waters Building (1899), and the Keeler Building 
(1912), all constructed as furniture exhibition centers, and the manufac- 
turing complexes of the Grand Rapids Chair Company (1873) and the Berkey 
and Gay Furniture Company (I893). 

Michigan never developed a significant cotton or wool textile 
industry, but the hamlet of Belding in Ionia County became a major silk 



cloth center in the late nineteenth century. The Belding brothers 
erected the Richardson Mill there in 1886, followed by additional mills 
in 1889, 1901, and 1907- The silk industry collapsed in the 1930's, 
but these attractive brick factory buildings remain. 

The Inventory includes several significant examples of mining 
and other extractive industries. There are limekilns extant at Belle- 
vue (1835,1875) and at Bay Port (1888), as well as the immense quarry 
of the Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company (1911) at Rogers City. 
There are also gypsum mines at Alabaster ( 1 862) and in Grand Rapids 
(1907), and major cement plants in Marlborough (1902) and Alpena (1908), 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



ALABASTER MINE (1907) Grand Rapids West 

1200 Judd St., S.W. 16. 6051 30.^75^960 

Grand Rapids Kent 

Gypsum deposits were first discovered in the Grand Rapids area in 1827 
by an Indian trapper and the first mines were opened in ]Sk] by Warren 
Granger and Daniel Bell. The Alabaster Mine, however, was not opened 
until 1907, but remained in operation until 19^3- This mine eventually 
included approximately six miles of underground tunnels, 85 feet below 
the surface, extending over 20 acres. There were only two vertical 
shafts extending from the surface to the tunnels. The main shaft, 
roughly 20 feet square, was used to move men, equipment, and gypsum, 
while a smaller shaft, five feet square, provided ventilation. The 
tunnels are between eight and twelve feet high and 20 to 30 feet wide. 
The tunnels are used today for "natural" storage, partly because they 
retain a year-round constant temperature of 50° F. They are reached 
with a modern freight elevator running through the main vertical shaft. 
[Lydens, Z.Z., editor, The Story of Grand Rapids (Grand Rapids: Kregel , 
1966) , p. 261] 

ALABASTER QUARRY (1862-1929) Alabaster 

US-23 17.295600.4895920 

Alabaster Iosco 

William S. Patrick discovered gypsum deposits outcropping on the surface 
of this site in 1861 and mining operations were begun the following year 
by B.F. Smith, who had purchased Patrick's claim. The present owner, 
the United States Gypsum Company, took over the operation in 1902. The 
huge open quarry, covering several hundred acres, is simply an expansion 
of the original quarry. There are a few surface buildings on the site. 
The oldest is a two-story rectangular brick structure, approximately hO 
feet wide and 200 feet long, built around 1900. The most impressive 
structure on this site is an aerial tramway which enables large bulk 
carriers to load about 6,000 feet offshore, where Lake Huron water depths 
are adequate. This tramway, completed in 1929, is 6,700 feet long and 
consists of eight steel towers, each 85 feet high and 750 feet apart, a 
shore bin, and a marine bin at the lake end with a holding capacity of 
8,000 tons. The stone is transported in 72 buckets, each with a capacity 
of 50.2 cubic feet or 2.3 tons of stone. The steel cables supporting 
the buckets are one and three-quarters inches in diameter on the loaded 
side and one and one-eighth inches in diameter on the empty side. The 
traction cable pulling the buckets is three- fourths inch in diameter 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



and is driven by a 60 H.P. motor. The buckets are spaced 202 feet 
apart and the line travels at 350 feet per minute, giving the system 
a capacity of 240 tons per hour. 
[MHD, Site Files; NR] 



ALMA SUGAR COMPANY ( 1 899) Alma 

150 Court St. 16.690020.4805017 

Alma Gratiot 

The Alma Sugar Company was established in 1 899 and this plant was built 
by the Kilby Manufacturing Company with H.N. Kilby serving as the con- 
struction engineer. It had an initial daily beet slicing capacity of 
600 tons. Many of the original structures, such as a five-story brick 
building measuring 90 feet by 300 feet, have been demolished. The re- 
maining buildings include a two-story brick office building, 30 feet 
by 55 feet, with a gabled roof; a rectangular one-story brick warehouse 
with a flat roof, 75 feet wide and 200 feet long; a two-story brick 
building, 25 feet wide and 180 feet long, with a gabled roof; and three 
smaller single-story brick buildings. 

[Tucker, Willard, Gratiot County , Michigan (Saginaw, 1913), pp. 692-695; 
Gutleben, Dan, The Sugar Tramp (San Francisco, 195*0, p. 28] 

AMAZON HOSIERY MILL (1895, 1 899) Lake Harbor 

530-550 W. Western Ave. 16.558280.4786300 

Muskegon Muskegon 

The Amazon Hosiery Company was originally organized in 1 876 in Valpara- 
iso, Indiana and was operating a plant in Michigan City, Indiana begin- 
ning in 1884. The Muskegon Chamber of Commerce, facing an economic 
depression because of Muskegon's declining lumber industry, offered 
George Powell, the president of the company, a free building site and a 
bonus of $5,000 if he would build a knitting mill in Muskegon. He agreed 
to come to Muskegon in 1895 and promised to employ 500-600 workers. By 
1899, the Amazon Hosiery Company employed over 650, absorbing most of 
the unemployed from the lumber industry. The original mill, still extant, 
is an L-shaped one-story brick building, with wings 270 and 110 feet long, 
both 70 feet wide, and a two-story brick tower with a hipped roof located 
at the junction of the wings. A considerably larger addition, erected 
in 1899 (also extant) is a four-story U-shaped brick building. The main 
portion is 240 feet long and 70 feet wide, while the two wings are each 
200 feet long and 70 feet wide. It features two square towers, one five 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



stories high, and the other, which holds a clock, is six stories high. 
Both towers contain water tanks used for the mill's fire protection. 
["The Romance of Muskegon," (Muskegon: Muskegon Chronicle , 1937), 
p. 146; Muskegon Chronicle , January 14, 1956, p.~~7l 

AMENT [NORVELL] MILL (c.l840) Manchester 

305 Mill Rd. 16.732060.46700075 

Norvell Township Jackson 

The water power of the Raisin River was first harnessed at Norvell when 
the Fitzgerald Sawmill was erected in 1839 on the south side of the river 
and a dam was constructed. The present gristmill, located on the north 
bank of the river, was probably built in 1840 or 1841. It has had nu- 
merous owners, including William B. Reynolds, who was operating the mill 
in 1 88 1 . It remained in operation until I960, when virtually all of the 
machinery and equipment was removed and scrapped. This mill was among 
the largest on the Raisin River because the head developed at Norvell 
(nine and one-half feet) was unusually large on this river. During the 
period roughly 1880-1920, this mill boasted three vertical turbines, 
the largest of which reputedly developed 100 horsepower. A generator 
was installed here at the turn of the century to provide this small re- 
mote hamlet with electric power, making Norvell one of the earliest ru- 
ral communities in Michigan to electrify. The surviving building is a 
rectangular structure, 25 feet wide, 60 feet long, and three and one-half 
stories high, with a gabled roof and wide overhanging eaves supported by 
wooden brackets. It is supported by a massive hand-hewn timber frame 
and rests on a stone foundation. 
[ History of Jackson County (Chicago, 1 88 1 ) , p. 991] 

ATLAS MILL (I836) Flint North 

Historical Crossroads Village 17.284390.4774200 

Flint Genesee 

The Atlas Mill is the oldest surviving mill in Michigan. It was in use 
until 1942 and was badly deteriorating when it was moved in 1975 to the 
Historical Crossroads Village in Flint. The Genesee County Parks and 
Recreation Commission intends to restore the mill to working order. It 
ia a rectangular three and one-half story timber-framed structure, 45 
feet long and 30 feet wide. Most of the shafting and gearing, which 
seems to date from the late nineteenth century, is extant. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



AVON HILLS MILL (c.1900) Utica 

Avon Rd. and Larchville 17-326180.4725700 

Rochester Oakland 

Originally built as a gristmill, the mill now only stands as a landmark. 
The mill is a wooden-framed three and one-half story building with di- 
mensions of 33 feet by 66 feet. Adjacent to the mill is a seven foot 
diameter silo standing three and one-half stories high. A gabled roof 
is topped by two metal air intake receptacles standing another five feet 
high. The mill is no longer used today but is the property of Avon Hills 
Condominiums of Rochester, Michigan. 



BARNEY [HOMER] MILL (1887,1913) Homer 

305 Leigh St. 16. 681065.4668010 

Homer Calhoun 

Milton Barney, one of Homer's earliest settlers, erected this mill in 
1887, replacing an earlier mill located on the same site. Two Leffel 
turbines, still extant, were part of the original installation. The 
bearings and line shafts are still in place, but the rest of the machin- 
ery has been removed. The present building is made up of three sections 
built in 1887 and two additions on the rear of the original mill. The 
original mill has a two-story portion, 20 feet by 40 feet, a three-story 
portion, 40 feet by 20 feet, and a four-story portion, 40 feet by 50 
feet, all resting on a rough rubble foundation and featuring massive 
hand-hewn oak framing, tongue and groove siding, and flat roofs. The 
addition, 40 feet by 30 feet, is of similar construction, but has gabled 
roofs. The dam, on the South Branch of the Kalamazoo River, along with 
the raceway gates, both of concrete construction, were built in 1913- 
The dam originally had four gates, 20 feet wide and four feet high, and 
were raised by a manually operated rack and pinion mechanism. Only two 
gates remain. The six raceway gates, five feet wide and three feet high, 
raised by a similar mechanism, are extant. 

[Gardner, Washington, History of Calhoun County (Chicago: Lewis, 1913), 
pp. 188-190] 



BAY PORT QUARRIES: LIMEKILN (c.1888) Bay Port East 

West of Pobanz Rd., south of Bernie Rd. 17.313195.4856390 

Bay Port Huron 

This kiln was erected around 1 888 by the Bay Port Quarries, owned by the 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



Saginaw, Tuscola, and Huron Railroad Company. W.H. Wallace was the su- 
perintendent of the quarry in 1899 and he established the Wallace Stone 
Company in 1900, when he probably took over the operation from the rail- 
road. Limestone was produced in this kiln until about 1908. The struc- 
ture is a truncated pyramid, 15 feet square at the base and approximately 
12 feet square at the top, and stands approximately 30 feet high. It has 
three openings arched in brick. There are wooden supports tied together 
with steel rods extending around the kiln's exterior at the top. The 
steel rods are still evident where there were four additional sets of 
these timber supports extending almost to ground level. They were pro- 
bably removed to prevent people from climbing to the top of the furnace. 
[Eckstein, Norman and Hey, Chet, Huron County Centennial History , 1 859~ 
1959 (n.p., 1959), p. 71] 



BEDFORD [PAYETTE] MILL ( 1 855) Bedford 

220 Main St. 16.6^5310.6952200 

Bedford Calhoun 

This mill was built on the Walbascon Creek in 1855 by H.M. Marvin. It 
was owned by the firm of Kane S Meachem in 1866-1 876 and ground about 
20,000 bushels of grain in I876. It has changed hands several times 
during its life, but was owned for roughly fifty years by the Payette 
family, from the late l880's until the 1930's. It was converted into 
a restaurant in 1950 and is now serving as an antique shop and private 
residence. This two-story structure has hand-hewn oak framing, tongue 
and groove siding, and a gabled roof, and is kO feet long and 30 feet 
wide. An extension to the original building, 20 feet by 30 feet, with 
a pitched roof, was probably built in 1918, when the mill was modified 
considerably. At that time, a turbine was installed, probably replacing 
an earlier water wheel, and the raceway and adjacent dam were rebuilt 
in concrete. The turbine, raceway, and dam are extant, but none of the 
other milling equipment has survived. 

[ History of Calhoun County (Philadelphia: Everts & Co., 1877), pp. 19^- 
195; MHD, Site Files'] 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 







- V 






^RSCS?* 



^r 




Bay Port Quarries: Limekiln (c.1888), Bay Port 
9 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



BELDING BROTHERS NUMBER 1 [RED] MILL (1889) Belding 

Riverside St. at Ashfield St. 16.644680.4772990 

Belding Ionia 

The Belding Brothers (Alva, Hiram, Milo, and David) were successfully 
operating silk mills in Rockville, Connecticut, Northampton, Massachu- 
setts, Montreal, and in Petaluma, California when they decided to build 
a mill in Belding, where Alva and Hiram had spent part of their child- 
hood. This village, originally called Patterson's Mills, had changed 
its name to Belding in 1871. The first mill they built in Belding was 
the Number 1 or "Red" Mill. It is an L-shaped structure, with one wing 
275 feet long, the other wing 120 feet long, and both wings 50 feet 
wide. It is three stories high, of red brick construction, featuring 
decorative courses of white brick which arch the windows. It features 
two five-story red brick towers, each 15 feet square, with hipped roofs. 
It was used exclusively for the manufacture of silk thread. Raw silk 
was spun into thread in the spinning room on the first floor, winding 
was done on the second floor, and the third floor was devoted to spooling 
At its peak, about 75 men and 225 women worked here. It operated con- 
tinuously until 1934, when it fell victim to the Depression. It was dis- 
mantled in 1936, the machinery and equipment were sold, and the building 
was later acquired by the Gibson Refrigerator Company, today part of a 
large conglomerate. 
[ Belding Banner-News , August 29, 1957, pp. 3-4] 

BELDING BROTHERS NUMBER 2 [WHITE] MILL (1901) Belding 

East High St. 16.644580.4773065 

Belding Ionia 

The White Mill was the second silk mill constructed by the Belding Bro- 
thers in this small village renamed in their honor in 1871. It is an 
L-shaped building, with one wing 375 feet long, the other wing 120 feet 
long, and both wings 50 feet wide. It is four stories high, of white 
brick construction, with decorative courses of red brick which arch the 
windows. It features three brick towers, one of five stories and two 
which are four stories high. This mill was used exclusively for the man- 
ufacture of silk cloth until it was closed and dismantled in 1935-1936. 
The White Mill was equipped with the Sturtevant system of heating and 
featured the automatic regulation of temperature and humidity. 
[ Belding Banner-News , August 29, 1957, pp. 3-4] 



10 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



BELDING BROTHERS NUMBER 3 [ELECTRIC] MILL (1907) Belding 

East Main St. 16.644235.^773085 

Belding Ionia 

This was the third mill erected by the Belding Brothers in Belding and 
was called the "Electric Mill" because it was equipped exclusively with 
electrically-driven machinery. It was used exclusively for the manu- 
facture of silk cloth. After the completion of this mill, Belding Bro- 
thers employed about 1 ,400 workers in Belding alone and their three 
mills consumed 10,000 pounds of raw silk weekly. The Electric Mill is 
a three-story red brick structure with brick arched windows, 350 feet 
long and 50 feet wide. It features an ornate five-story brick clock 
tower, as well as a four-story square brick tower with a flat roof. 
[ Belding Banner-News , August 29, 1957, p. 3] 

BELLEVUE [GOTHIC] MILL (1852) Bellevue 

Riverside St. 16. 663140.4700990 

Bellevue Eaton 

This gristmill was built on Battle Creek in 1852 by Manlius Mann. Re- 
putedly the water power of Battle Creek River was only valuable at Belle- 
vue, and that the gristmill there proved very beneficial to the early 
settlers of the area, some of whom hauled their grain a distance of 
twenty miles. Horatio Hall was the actual builder who "certainly showed 
his skill as a carpenter in constructing it. A History of Eaton County 
cited the mill as 'one of the most substantial frame structures to be 
found in the state. 1 " A Smith Roller Process was installed in 1888. In 
1928 the Gothic Mill was acquired by A.G. Butler who added turbines (280 
H.P.) and established the trade name of Bellevue Bird Flower. It closed 
down in 1958. The mill is three and one-half stories high. Built on a 
rubble foundation, the south and east sides have tongue and groove siding 
while the north side has vertical board and batten siding. Shingles 
cover the west side; sheet metal roofing covers the gabled roof. Inside, 
massive 12 by 12 walnut timbers support the upper stories. The pulleys, 
drive shafts, and chutes by which the mill operated are still in place. 
A one-story fake front office adjoins it on the west side. The Parks 
Commission plans to restore it as a functioning mill. 

[Barber, Edward W. , "Beginnings in Eaton County: Its Earliest Settlements 
and Settlers," Michigan Pioneer Collections , Vol. 29 (1901), p. 345; 
Bellevue Gazette , July 10, 1958, p. 3; NRj 



11 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



BERKEY AND GAY FURNITURE COMPANY (1893) Grand Rapids West 

920-964 Monroe St., N.W. 16. 608340. 4759120 

Grand Rapids Kent 

William Berkey and George Gay, both experienced furniture manufacturers, 
formed the Berkey and Gay Furniture Company in 1873. The oldest segment 
of this plant was built for the Oriel Furniture Company in 1893 and was 
subsequently taken over by Berkey and Gay. This plant became the largest 
furniture factory in Grand Rapids. It is a sprawling complex of five- 
story rectangular brick buildings, all interconnected. There are two 
open interior courtyards, not visible from the street. Fronting on Mon- 
roe Street, the complex is 460 feet long and 200 feet wide. There are 
six sections which are 200 feet long and 50 feet wide, plus a section 
fronting on Mason Street which is 80 feet wide and 270 feet in length. 
[Lydens, Z.Z., editor, The Story of Grand Rapids (Grand Rapids: Kregel , 
1966), p. 314] 



CAR0 SUGAR COMPANY (1899) Caro 

725 S. Almar St. 17. 306260. 481 7140 

Caro Tuscola 

The Caro Sugar Company was established in November I898 by a group of 
Caro area farmers and businessmen. The production of beet sugar in this 
area had been promoted by Richard Hoodless, an area man who had previ- 
ously toured several German beet sugar mills. The plant was constructed 
by the A. Wernicke Maschinenbau Akt iengesel lschaf ft of Hale, Germany at 
a cost of $400,000 and was to have an initial slicing capacity of 600 
tons of sugar beets per day. The plant, however, failed to process any- 
where near its supposed capacity, and after considerable litigation, the 
original builders were paid only $125,000 for their work. The plant was 
then rebuilt in 1 900- 1 901 by the Oxnard Construction Company. It was 
taken over by the American Sugar Refining Company in 1 90 1 and its capa- 
city doubled to 1200 tons. The Michigan Sugar Company, the current owners 
then acquired the plant in 1906. The surviving buildings include a com- 
plex of interconnected three and four-story buildings with overall dimen- 
sions of 330 feet by 260 feet, all of brick construction, and a separate 
two-story rectangular brick building, 50 feet wide and 330 feet long. 
[Gutleben, Dan, The Sugar Tramp (San Francisco, 1954), pp. 91-108] 



12 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



CHARLES SUPE GRAIN ELEVATOR (1871) Bay City 

1022 N. Adams St. 17-267000.4831760 

Bay City Bay 

Charles Supe came to Bay City in 1868 and constructed this grain eleva- 
tor in 1871. It later served as a steam-powered gristmill, and is now 
used as a beer warehouse. Painted on one wall is the sign, "Bromfield S 
Colvin, Grain Buying Department" and "Grinding Dept.". It is a two and 
one-half story rectangular brick building, 40 feet wide and 99 feet long, 
with a gabled roof. 
[ History of Bay County , Michigan (Chicago: Page, 1 883) , pp. 120,210] 



COMFORT BRICK AND TILE COMPANY (c.1940) Blissfield 

On Rogers Hwy., north of Centennial Rd. 17.257070.4651095 

Tecumseh Lenawee 

The Comfort Brick and Tile Company has operated on this site since it was 
founded in 1859 by El wood Comfort. It has remained in the hands of the 
Comfort family throughout its history. The extant structures include 
five brick drying kilns, each a round brick structure 30 feet in diameter 
and 15 feet high, with supporting iron bands running around their outside 
circumference. They were built around 1940 by Ralph A. Comfort. 



DETROIT PRODUCE TERMINAL, BUILDING A (1929) Detroit 

7210 Fort St. at Green St. 17-325790.4685220 

Detroit Wayne 

Built by the Wabash, Pere Marquette and Pennsylvania Railroads, the De- 
troit Produce Terminal was constructed to give Detroit an efficient me- 
thod of produce distribution. It took only 150 days to build the entire 
terminal. Building A, the main building, is a two-story reinforced con- 
crete structure with dimensions of 1 ,040 feet by 70 feet. The first floor 
is a flat slab type while the second floor and roofs are of the beam and 
girder design. The top floor is composed of offices and auction floors 
while the bottom floors are for display purposes. The bottom floor has 
14 foot by 8 foot doors that open straight up and 7 foot loading plat- 
forms. It is still being used for a produce terminal. 
["Railroads Build Modern Produce Terminal at Detroit," Rai 1 road Age , 
December 28, 1929, pp. 1463-1468] 



13 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



DETROIT PRODUCE TERMINAL, BUILDING B (1929) Detroit 

7210 Fort St. at Green St. 17.325790.4685220 

Detroit Wayne 

Building B, the secondary building of the Detroit Produce Company, is a 
two-story concrete structure with dimensions of 633 feet by 70 feet. 
The first floor is of the flat slab type while the second floor and 
roofs are of the beam and girder design. The top floor is composed of 
offices and a cafeteria and the bottom floor is for sales purposes. The 
bottom floor has 14 by 8 foot doors that open straight up and 7 foot 
loading platforms on each side of the building. The building cost ap- 
proximately $1,000,000. It is still being used today. 
["Railroads Build Modern Produce Terminal at Detroit," Rai 1 road Age , 
December 28, 1929, pp. 1463-1468] 



DETROIT PRODUCE TERMINAL, BANANA BLDG. (1929) Detroit 

7210 Fort St. at Green St. 17-325790.4685220 

Detroit Wayne 

The Banana Building, part of the Detroit Produce Terminal and an exten- 
sion of Building B, is a one-story reinforced concrete structure, 70 
feet wide and 378 feet long. The building is used for the ripening of 
bananas. Part of the building is also used for the distribution of to- 
matoes. Seven foot loading platforms are provided on each side of the 
building and the structure has 14 by 8 foot doors that open straight up. 
The building cost approximately $1,000,000. It is still being used today, 
["Railroads Build Modern Produce Terminal at Detroit," Rai 1 road Age , 
December 28, 1929, pp. 1463-1468] 



DETROIT SALT MINE ( 1 906) Dearborn 

12841 Sanders 17-322820.4683510 

Detroit Wayne 

The Detroit Salt Mine, one of four operated by the International Salt 
Company, is the only salt mine in Michigan. The first shaft was started 
in 1906 and by 1910, after encountering much difficulty with hydrogen 
sulfide gas and water under high pressure, was completed to a depth of 
1,160 feet. The second shaft, 16 feet in diameter, was built in 1922- 
1924. The shaft was divided in half to accomodate two counterbalanced 
skip hoists powered by two 550 H.P. electric motors. To reduce the tor- 
rent of water entering the first shaft it was rebuilt in 1926-1927- It 



|4 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



became a concrete monolith 150 square feet in cross-section pierced by 
two vertical tubes k2 inches in diameter. Cast iron pipe lines the in- 
side of the tubes to a depth of 600 feet. The mine uses the room and 
pillar system, where salt forms the roof, roof-supporting pillars, and 
floor. The load-bearing strength of salt eliminates the need for wood, 
concrete, or steel tunnel supports and braces. The mine uses modern 
mining techniques (explosives) and equipment. It is virtually an un- 
derground city. 



DUNDEE GRISTMILL (1866,1910,1935) Dundee 

Lloyd Rd., on Raisin River 1 7. 278055. ^648020 

Dundee Monroe 

This site originally contained a sawmill erected in 1828. The oldest 
extant building is a gristmill erected in 1866 by Alfred Wilkerson, who 
owned the mill until 1880. It was then operated by R.B. Davis until 
1910, when it was sold to the Dundee Hydraulic Power Company and con- 
verted into a hydroelectric generating plant. Henry Ford purchased the 
site in 1931, restored the old mill building in 1935, and added a single- 
story stone building to the original mill. This was Henry Ford's ear- 
liest "rural factory" and it produced copper tips for welding machines 
until 195**, when it was sold to the Wolverine Manufacturing Company. 
They operated the mill until 1970, when they sold it to the Village of 
Dundee, the present owners. The old mill is a three-story rectangular 
frame structure, 30 feet wide and 50 feet long, with a gabled roof. It 
has a frame of 10 inch square hand-hewn oak timbers. The first dam 
across the Raisin River was built in 1827 of brush and dirt and there 
were several log dams built here before the present concrete dam was con- 
structed in 1910. 
[ Monroe Evening News , December 31, 1970, p. 9] 

DYER KILN (c. 1875) Bellevue 

Sand Rd., south of M-78 16. 660950. ^700160 

Bellevue Eaton 

This limekiln was constructed around 1875 by Thomas Roberts. It was one 
of three perpetual limekilns which existed in Eaton County in the late 
nineteenth century. The kiln or furnace is 20 feet square at the base, 
about 12 feet square at its top, and stands approximately 15 feet high. 
It is of rough stone construction, utilizing large stones for the base 
and much smaller ones for the stack. The four openings into the furnace 



15 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



(one on each side) are crude brick arches using little mortar. These 
openings were used to feed limestone and probably charcoal into the fur- 
nace. There is in addition, a crude stone building, 20 feet square, 
adjoining the furnace. It was probably used for the storage of char- 
coal, although it no longer has a roof. It operated until 1899 and pro- 
duced lime for the mortar used for the construction of the State Capitol 
Building in Lansing, completed in I878. 



[MHD, Site Files] 



EGEY-SAMU BARN (1924) Gagetown 

6948 Ritchie Rd. 17-321330.4837520 

Gagetown Tuscola 

This is a rare example of a large-scale octagonal barn in Michigan. Con- 
structed in 1924, this building is approximately 100 feet in diameter, 
and rests on a poured concrete foundation. The lower roof level includes 
eight windowed dormers, there is a clerestory with sixteen windows, and 
the barn is then topped off with an octagonal cupola, also with a window 
in each side. This massive timber-framed building features an interior 
arena, 60 feet in diameter, which is totally unobstructed by columns. 
The extensive windows provide sufficient natural light to the interior 
to enable the farmer to almost entirely avoid artificial lighting. 
[Hartman, p. 30] 

FLEMING CREEK [PARKER] MILL ( 1 873, 1 887) Ann Arbor East 

Geddes Rd. , east of Dixboro Rd. 17.280000.4683440 

Ann Arbor Washtenaw 

This site originally contained a sawmill built in 1822 or 1823 by Robert 
Fleming. The property was acquired by William Parker in 1862 and in 1873 
he built the gristmill which is still standing, using the old raceways 
from the sawmill. The 1873 building, with the original stones, turbine, 
and gearing is extant. Also located on the same site is a water-powered 
cider mill erected in I887. Both buildings are wood- framed rectangular 
structures resting on cut fieldstone foundations, and both have verti- 
cal board and batten siding and gabled roofs. The Washtenaw County His- 
torical Society intends to fully restore the gristmill, including the 
machinery, penstocks, raceways, and timber dam, to once again grind 
flour there. 



16 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 




Egey-Samu Barn (1924), Gagetown 



FLETCHER PAPER COMPANY MILL ( 1 898) 

318 W. Fletcher St. 

Alpena 



Al pena 

17.308425.^993080 

Alpena 



George Fletcher established a sawmill on this site in 1857 and in 1886, 
he and his sons, Allan and Frank, organized the Alpena Sulphite Fibre 
Company and constructed a sulphite plant. Michigan's timber resources 
were quickly exhausted in the late nineteenth century and Fletcher was 
forced to discontinue the sawmill in I898. The firm was reorganized 
at that time as the Fletcher Paper Company, which constructed the sur- 
viving papermill. The sulphite mill was subsequently demolished in 
1938. The papermill is a two-story L-shaped building, with each wing 
approximately 50 feet by 150 feet. One wing has a gabled roof and the 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



other a flat roof. There is also a two-story rectangular brick building 
kO feet by 60 feet, with a gabled roof and small brick arched windows, 
which probably served as a warehouse. It has a smaller one-story brick 
wing, 20 feet wide and 30 feet long. 

["Welcome to Fletcher Paper Company," Fletcher Paper Company Brochure; 
Powers, Perry F., History of Northern Michigan and Its People (Chicago, 
1912), p. 473] 



FLOWERFIELD MILLS ( 1855) Schoolcraft 

Factory St. 16.61 1000.^657780 

Flowerfield St. Joseph 

The present mill replaced an earlier (1831) mill which burned in 1851. 
The mill was rebuilt by Lewis and Joseph Tubbs and had three runs of 
stone powered by a waterwheel. The Flowerfield Mills is a three and 
one-half story building supported by massive (15 inch square) hand- 
hewn, wood-pegged oak beams resting on a rough rubble foundation. It 
has a gabled roof and tongue and groove siding. The building contains 
equipment for three distinct milling processes. One of the three ori- 
ginal 48 inch diameter stones remains for producing stone-ground flour. 
There are also six rolling machines, produced by Sprout Waldrin, "mill 
builders", which were added in 1913 to produce refined white flour. 
Finally, there is a "hammer mill" to produce feed grains. It includes 
a cob crusher and husking machine. This mill was originally powered by 
a waterwheel which was replaced in 1913 by twin turbines connected to 
two line shafts, all still extant. A 25 KW generator and electric mo- 
tor to power the mill were installed in 1955, but never used. The mill 
ceased operating in 19^3. 

[ History of St. Joseph County (Philadelphia: Everts & Co., 1877), 
p. 196J 



FOX AND BEERS MILL (1830) Schoolcraft 

XY Ave., west of US Rte. 131 16. 610230. 4660400 

Schoolcraft Kalamazoo 

Settlers first arrived in the Schoolcraft area in 1827 and this mill was 
erected in 1830 by John Vickers. The original waterwheel was replaced 
by a wood-geared turbine around 1 900. This turbine, along with a small 
concrete dam constructed about the same time, are still extant. This 
mill stopped working in 1947 and the building now serves as the club 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



house for the Old Mill Golf Course. The original hand-hewn oak framing 
is still in place, supporting this three-story structure which features 
a combination of gabled and pitched roofs and a two-story wooden porch 
extending around three sides of the building. The original exterior 
of the building had tongue and groove siding, now covered by aluminum 
siding. 

[Dunbar, Willis F., Kalamazoo and How It Grew (Kalamazoo: Western Mich- 
igan University Press~j 1969) , pp. 30-31; Fisher, David and Little, Frank. 
Compendi urn of History and Biography of Kalamazoo County (Ch i cago : Bowen 
s Co., 1906J7 PP. 37-39T" 



FRENCH PAPER COMPANY (1891-1921) Niles West 

100 French St. 1 6 . 561 460. A629680 

Niles Berrien 

J.W. French came to Niles in 1871 after the City of Niles offered him a 
free building site on the St. Joseph River. He established the Michigan 
Wood Pulp Paper Company and began producing paperboard from the silver 
poplars available locally. When the supply of these trees became ex- 
hausted around 1895, he began to produce paper, and the company has spe- 
cialized in high quality papers since then. The oldest surviving 
buildings (1891 , 1895, 1899, and 1906) in this complex are simple one 
and two-story rectangular brick structures which are largely obscured 
by modern additions. This factory complex also includes a powerhouse 
erected in 1921 (see other entry), a steam plant (c. 1920), and an office 
building (c. 1921) . 

[ French Paper Company : Fi rst Century , 1871-1971 (French Paper Company, 
1971), pp. 19-20T 



GERMAN-AMERICAN SUGAR COMPANY Bay City 

2600 S. Euclid Ave. 1 7. 264375. 4828590 

Bay City Bay 

The German-American Farmers Cooperative Beet Sugar Company was founded 
in 1901, when Michigan's beet sugar industry was rapidly developing. 
In the years I898-I906, twenty-four beet sugar plants were opened in the 
state, mostly in the Bay City-Saginaw region and in Michigan's "Thumb". 
This plant was erected by the American Copper, Brass, and Iron Works of 
Chicago, with Otto Meinhausen as the construction engineer, and it opened 
in 1902 with a capacity of 400 tons of beets sliced per day. The plant's 
capacity was enlarged to 1500 tons in 1 9 1 and now has a capacity of 



19 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



about 4,000 tons. The plant originally used the Steffen Process, but 
this was dropped in the 1920's. The firm changed its name to the 
Columbia Sugar Company in 1917, due to considerable anti-German senti- 
ment. It went into receivership in 1930, when it was taken over by 
Robert Coryell, who then reorganized it as the Monitor Sugar Company 
in 1932. The surviving buildings include the original two and three- 
story brick processing plant built in 1901, but includes additions pro- 
bably made in 1910, a limekiln erected in 1911, and a two-story ware- 
house bui It in 1921 . 

[Butterf ield, George E., Bay County Past and Present (Bay City, 1957), 
p. Sk; McGinnis, R.A., Beet-Sugar Technology (Fort Collins, Colorado, 
1971), p. 738; West Bay City Tribune , October 23, 1901, p. 1] 

GRAND RAPIDS CHAIR COMPANY (1872-1873) Grand Rapids West 

1661 Monroe St., N.W. 1 6. 608320. 4760770 

Grand Rapids Kent 

In 1872, Henry Fralick, C.C. Comstock, and F.W. Worden established the 
Grand Rapids Chair Company with a capital of $300,000 and immediately 
began construction of their manufacturing complex. This five-story 
brick factory, featuring brick arched windows and flat roofs, consists 
of two wings arranged to form a cross. The wing running north to south 
is 60 feet wide and 5^0 feet long, while the east-west wing, also 60 
feet wide, is 374 feet long. 

[Baxter, Albert, History of Grand Rapids (New York: Munsell, 1891), 
pp. ^77-W; Lydens, Z.Z., editor, The Story of Grand Rapids (Grand 
Rapids: Kregel , 1 966) , p. 315] 



GREAT NORTHERN PORTLAND CEMENT 

COMPANY WAREHOUSE (1902) Baldwin 

James Rd. 1 6 . 593020. A85608O 

Marlborough Lake 

The Great Northern Portland Cement Company was incorporated in New Jersey 
in 1901 and began constructing a plant just south of Baldwin to produce 
cement using the "wet process" developed by Professor Roola Carpenter of 
Cornell University. Production costs soon proved to be prohibitive and 
the firm went into receivership in 1906. Almost the entire plant, which 
had included seven kilns, fourteen grinding mills, and an immense power- 
house, were dynamited for salvage purposes. The warehouse is the only 
surviving building. It is a one and two-story concrete building reinforced 
with steel rods, 80 feet wide and 210 feet long. The framing and even the 
portion of the roof that remains were constructed of reinforced concrete. 
[NR] 

20 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 





Fleming Creek Mill (1873,1887), Ann Arbor 



21 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



HALL BROTHERS MANUFACTURING COMPANY (1890) Bel ding 

Riverside Ave., south of York St. 1 6. 64^785-^772930 

Belding Ionia 

The Hall Brothers Manufacturing Company was organized in 1890 by Brinton 
F. Hall and three of his brothers. This mill building was originally 
used for the manufacture of sewing and card tables, stove boards, and 
side boards. In 1895, the firm merged with the Belding Manufacturing 
Company, which made refrigerators, to form the Belding-Hall Manufacturing 
Company. By the early 1920's, the firm was producing 65,000 refrigera- 
tors per year, had an annual payroll of $130,000, and was the largest 
single employer of heads of households in Belding, with about 300 men 
on their payroll. The firm went bankrupt in the early 1930's and was 
taken over by the Gibson Refrigerator Company. The surviving building 
is a three-story yellow brick rectangular structure, approximately 450 
feet long and 40 feet wide, featuring two four-story square towers. The 
hipped roof of the west tower has been removed and replaced by a flat 
roof. 
[ Belding Banner-News , August 29, 1957, P- 3] 



H0LDEN KILN Bellevue 

Southwest of Bellevue City Limits 16. 661220. 4699140 

Bellevue Eaton 

The Holden Kiln, constructed in 1835, was the first limekiln built in 
Michigan. It produced some of the lime used in the mortar for the State 
Capitol Building, constructed in I878. It is an extremely crude stone 
furnace, built into the side of a hill. It has a roughly round config- 
uration and is approximately 20 feet in diameter and 15 feet high. There 
are four openings into the furnace, all arched in stone. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



HOMER GRIST AND FLOURING MILL Hubbardston 

Washington Rd., over Fish Creek 16.675550.4772945 

Hubbardston Ionia 

This flour mill, erected by Patrick and Sabin in 1857, originally had 
three run of stone and was powered by a waterwheel. It was producing 
about 100 barrels of flour per day during the late l860's. The mill 
changed over to the roller process and turbines were installed around 
1910. Virtually all of this installation is intact, although it is now 



22 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



run by electric power. The main portion of the mill is a five-story 
building with a massive hand-hewn timber frame, resting on a stone and 
concrete foundation. Its gabled roof is now covered by corrugated tin, 
while the tongue and groove siding is probably original. Attached to 
the southeast corner of the main mill building is a smaller building, 
20 feet wide and kO feet long, three stories high, and architecturally 
the same as the main building. 

[Schenck, John, History of Ionia and Montcalm Counties (Philadelphia: 
Lippincott, 1881), pp. 273-27AJ 



HOUPPERT [LAWTON] WINERY (1918, 19^0) Marcel lus 

Nursery St. at Penn Central RR 16.595750.4669055 

Lawton Van Buren 

This fieldstone structure was erected in 1 9 1 8 as a winery by William C. 
Houppert of Lawton. The building burned in 19^0 and was rebuilt in the 
same year. The present rounded roof is supported by steel "Rain-bo" roof 
trusses, installed in 19^*0 to replace the earlier wooden trusses. This 
rectangular building is 100 feet wide and 200 feet long and features 
stone arched doors and cut stone lintels and sills on the windows. 



HURON PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY ( 1 908) Alpena 

Ford Ave., east of Alpena 17.310530.^993320 

Alpena Alpena 

The Huron Portland Cement Company was established in 1907 by Captain 
John B. Ford, E.L. Ford, Harry J. Paxton, and Stanford L. Crapo, with 
a capital stock of $1.2 million. Construction began almost immediately, 
with the Bonnot Company of Canton, Ohio building six kilns. The company 
merged with the National Gypsum Company in 1959- This plant has under- 
gone a massive expansion since its early years. The capacity of the 
plant has grown from about 2,000 barrels per year in 1908 to about 2.35 
million tons in 1976. The complex includes approximately 200 separate 
buildings and structures, with 35 of these predating 1925- Extant struc- 
tures erected in 1908 include the Number 1 Kiln Room, Powerhouse, Gypsum 
Drying and Storage Building, (water) Softening Plant, and the Old Stone 
Drying Building. Other significant buildings include the Office Building 
(1917), Raw Grind Building (1922), and Number 2 Kiln Room (1923). The 
Powerhouse originally contained three 800 horsepower Corliss engines, 
no longer extant, which utilized the vast amounts of waste heat produced 
in the kilns to produce all the electricity needed in the plant. The 



23 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



Powerhouse still contains a variety of steam turbines driving genera- 
tors of mixed vintage. These include the Number 3 generator, an Allis- 
Chalmers 5,000 KW unit built in 1919; Number k generator, an Allis- 
Chalmers 10,000 KW unit built in 1920; Number 5 generator, an Allis- 
Chalmers 10,000 KW unit built in 1927; and generators built in 1948 and 
1957- There are also three Ingersol 1 -Rand air compressors (c. 1920) 
driven by Worthington steam engines of similar vintage. 
[Stark, George, The Huron Heritage (Detroit, 1957), pp. 13-17, 35; 
Alpena News , January 16, 1907, p. 1] 




Huron Portland Cement Company (1908), Alpena 



2h 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



KEELER BUILDING ( 1 9 1 2- 1 91 4) Grand Rapids West 

60 North Division 1 6 . 608680 . 475761 

Grand Rapids Kent 

This building was erected in 1912-1914 by the Keeler family, successful 
brass manufacturers in Grand Rapids, to be used as a showroom for the 
world famous furniture manufacturers of the city. Designed by the arch- 
itectural firm of Osgood S Osgood, this reinforced concrete building 
with concrete slab floors was the first of its type in the city. It 
was designed to support a dead weight of 225 pounds per square foot and 
a live weight of 450 pounds. This seven-story building is 126 feet wide. 
198 feet long, and has 154,000 square feet of floor space. 
[Lydens, 1.1., editor, The Story of Grand Rapids (Grand Rapids: Kregel , 
1966), p. 218] 



KELLOGG COMPANY HORSE BARNS: 

BUILDINGS NUMBER 29 AND 29A (1916,1920) Battle Creek 

235 Porter St. 16.652320.4686510 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

W.K. Kellogg was forty-eight years old when he first began to produce 
ready-to-eat cereals in his Porter Street plant. He had worked most of 
his adult life as business manager and bookkeeper in the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium, where his brother, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, was Superinten- 
dent and Chief Surgeon. During his years at the "San" (1879-1906), W.K. 
Kellogg and his brother discovered the "tempering of grains", necessary 
to produce flaked cereals. He established the Battle Creek Toasted Corn 
Flake Company in 1 906 and purchased the machinery and formula of the Korn 
Krisp Company, as well as the Bartlett Avenue plant of the Hygienic Food 
Company. His Bartlett Avenue plant burned in 1907 and he then relocated 
in a new plant on Porter Street in 1908. A major fire in 1924 destroyed 
most of the original buildings and most of the few remaining have been 
altered beyond recognition. The Horse Barns are the oldest remaining 
structures on this site. Both are two-story frame structures. The barn 
dating from 1916 is 50 feet square, has a gabled roof, and sheet metal 
siding, probably not original. The newer structure measures 50 feet by 
80 feet, has a flat roof, and shingle siding, probably installed in the 
1930's. Both buildings are now used for storage. 
[Battle Creek Enquirer-News, July 20, 1975, pp. E-l, E~9l 



25 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



KELLOGG MAINTENANCE SHOPS: 

BUILDINGS NUMBER 2k AND 25 (1918,1923) Battle Creek 

235 Porter St. 16.652150.4686395 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

These two buildings, located at the rear of the Kellogg Company's immense 
Porter Street complex, have always been described in the Company site 
plans as "machine building and repair shops", and this was probably their 
function during the early years of the Kellogg Company. They now stand 
vacant and are occasionally used for storage. The northernmost of the 
two structures, which are about three feet apart, is a wooden- framed, 
one-story building, with an arched roof supported by wooden Pratt "Rain- 
bo" trusses. It is 125 feet long and 40 feet wide. The second building, 
also wood-framed and one-story high, has a gabled roof and measures 100 
feet long and 40 feet wide. 



KING [LEONIDAS] MILL (1873,1900,1907) Leonidas 

880 King Rd., on Nottawa Creek 16.633700.4652975 

Leonidas St. Joseph 

This gristmill was erected in 1873 by Charles and William Switzer. The 
name of the mill is derived from the fact that the King family owned and 
operated it continuously from 1888 until 1948. The original installation 
included grindstones driven by a waterwheel . The mill changed over to 
the roller process in 1900, when a 73 H.P. Leffel turbine was installed. 
A smaller (4l H.P.) turbine was installed in 1907. Both turbines are 
still in place and the smaller one is used to generate electricity. The 
mill is a four-story structure supported by a massive frame of 12 inch 
square hand-hewn timbers, with a gambrel roof, and is 30 feet wide and 
60 feet long. The mill ceased operating in 1966 and now serves as a com- 
bination residence-gift shop. The original timber dam was washed out by 
a flood in 1907 and replaced by the present concrete dam, forty feet long 
and eight feet high. 

KLINGMAN BUILDING (1895) Grand Rapids West 

82 Ionia Ave., N.W. 16. 608610. 4757600 

Grand Rapids Kent 

Philip Klingman of Portsmouth, Ohio and Dudley Waters, a Grand Rapids 
banker, erected this building in 1895 to serve as a showroom for the 
furniture manufacturers of Grand Rapids. It is a four-story brick 



26 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



building, approximately 100 feet wide and 150 feet long, with brick- 
arched doors and windows on the center portions of the south and west 
facades . 

[Lydens, 1.2., editor, The Story of Grand Rapids (Grand Rapids: Kregel 
1966), p. 218] 



KOLB BREWERY (1890) Bay City 

304 State St. 1 7-266425. 4832400 

Bay City Bay 

This building was constructed in 1890 by George and Frederick Kolb at a 
cost of $50,000. It served as their brewery until Prohibition. They 
made "near beer" here in 1921-1925 and then produced various fruit sodas. 
It is a single-story rectangular brick building, 150 feet long and 60 
feet wide, with a small wing (35 feet by 20 feet) extending from the 
southeast corner. 

[Baker, C, Vanished Industries of Bay County (Bay City, 1975), I, 
pp. 94-96] 

LIMBERT [BAKER] FURNITURE COMPANY (1904,1910) Holland 

147 Columbia Ave. 16.574075.4737075 

Holland Ottawa 

Charles P. Limbert, a Grand Rapids resident, commuted to Holland via 
the electric interurban line during the construction of this factory. 
Frank Duke & Sons, contractors from Holland, erected the building, which 
contained about 90,000 square feet of floor space. A three-story addi- 
tion was constructed in 1910 to the west of the original building. The 
Limbert Furniture Company failed in the late 1930's, a victim of the 
Depression. The buildings were used by the Northern Wood Products Com- 
pany from 1940 until the late 1940's, then purchased in 1950 by the Baker 
Furniture Company, which has used them since for its upholstery opera- 
tion. The westernmost portion of the extant buildings, extending from 
the water tower to Columbia Avenue, is an L-shaped building. One wing is 
70 feet long, the other is 150 feet long, and both are 40 feet wide. This 
is the addition built in 1910. Proceeding east from the water tower, the 
remainder of the complex, built in 1904, consists of a three-story rec- 
tangular brick building, 70 feet wide and 220 feet long; a single-story 
rectangular brick structure, 70 feet wide and 135 feet long; and an L- 
shaped wood-framed building, each wing 220 feet long and 70 feet wide. 
This last portion, originally used for storing lumber, now serves as the 
Baker Furniture Museum. 

27 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 




Keeler Building (1912,191*0, Grand Rapids 
28 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



LINDEN MILL ( 1 850) Linden 

Tickner St. 1 7. 272645. 4743870 

Linden Genesee 

The Linden Mill replaced an earlier ( 1 837) mill lost to fire. It was an 
active mill until 1956 and has now been converted into municipal offices. 
A concrete dam constructed in 1967 replaced an earlier dam. It is a 
timber-framed building, 30 feet by 60 feet, two and one-half stories 
high, with clapboard siding, and a gabled roof. None of the original 
machinery and equipment is extant. 
[MHD, Site Files; NR] 



LOGGING EQUIPMENT (c.1900) Grayling 

Hartwick Pines State Park 16.685170.4956860 

Grayling Township Crawford 

This collection of logging equipment dates from Michigan's great logging 
era, c. 1 870-c. 1 900. It includes a logging wheel manufactured by Silas 
C. Overpack of Manistee, Michigan. These wheels, which won awards at 
the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, were developed by Overpack to enable 
Michigan's timbermen to move heavy logs with horses over rough logging 
roads. He manufactured these wheels in diameters of 9, 9 and one-half, 
and 10 feet, with the average set weighing approximately one ton. Also 
included in this collection is a sleigh used to move logs in the winter; 
a cast iron snow roller, 7 feet in diameter and 10 feet long, used to 
pack down snow on the logging roads; and a sprinkler sled, 5 feet wide 
and 12 feet long, used to ice the roads to facilitate the use of sleds. 
This equipment is located at a reconstructed lumber camp at the Hartwick 
Pines State Park. 

[Overpack, Roy M. , "The Michigan Logging Wheels," Michigan History 
(1951), pp. 222-225] 



LUTCHKA BARN ( 1 853) Manchester 

3427 Jacob Rd. 16.738050.4675020 

Sharon Township Washtenaw 

The Lutchka Barn is a rectangular fieldstone building, 30 feet wide and 
40 feet long, with a gabled roof, brick-arched doors on the gable ends, 
and brick corners. This horse barn is a rare example of masonry barn 
construction in Michigan. 
[Hartman, p. 22] 



29 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



MANISTEE IRONWORKS (1907,1925) Bar Lake 

254 River St. 16. 554060. 4899080 

Manistee Manistee 

The Manistee Ironworks was established in Manistee in 1875 and was a 
major producer of pumps and evaporation pans for salt and sugar plants. 
This plant has had major fires in 1905 and 1925, destroying most of the 
older buildings on the site. Two structures built in 1907 remain, a 
rectangular two-story brick building, 20 feet wide and 50 feet long, 
with a gabled roof, and the main foundry building, a rectangular brick 
structure, 120 feet wide and 270 feet long. It is two and one-half 
stories high and features a gabled roof with monitor, supported by a 
steel Fink truss. There is in addition a one-story rectangular brick 
building with a flat roof, 70 feet by 200 feet, built around 1925. 



E.G. MANN AND SONS FEED MILL (1833,1896,1926) Manchester 

201 E. Main St. 16. 744065. 4670040 

Manchester Washtenaw 

The gristmill originally built on this site in 1833 utilized a water- 
wheel and three run of stone. In I896, a 100 H.P. Leffel turbine was 
installed in the mill, the roller process was introduced, and a new 
concrete dam, with a 12 foot head, along with concrete raceways, were 
constructed. The turbine, dam, and raceways are extant and still in use. 
The present building, however, dates from 1926. 
[Jackson Citizen Patriot, September 15, 1974, pp. 29"3l] 



MEMMER BARN (c.l850) Manchester 

Corner of Wolf Lake Rd. and old Michigan Ave. 16. 729028. 4680080 
Grass Lake Jackson 

This horse barn is a rectangular brick structure, 25 feet wide and 40 
feet long, with a gabled roof and brick-arched doorways in the gable ends 
Brick barn construction is virtually unknown in Michigan, particularly 
because of the state's rich timber resources. 
[Hartman, p. 22] 



30 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



MICHIGAN LIMESTONE AND CHEMICAL COMPANY: 

CALCITE QUARRY (1911, c.19^0) Rogers City 

Calclte Rd. 17.282000.5032000 

Rogers City Presque Isle 

The limestone deposits at this site were thoroughly investigated in 
1908-1909 by the geologist Henry H. Hindshaw. With the commercial value 
of the deposits firmly established, the Michigan Limestone and Chemical 
Company was formed in 1910 and they began operations here in 1912. The 
firm was purchased by Carl D. Bradley and the United States Steel Cor- 
poration in 1920 and has been solely owned by U.S. Steel since 1928. 
There is nothing remaining on this site predating the late 1930's with 
the exception of a Vulcan Steam Shovel with a three-fourths yard scoop. 
The steam shovel bears the inscription, "First Shovel at Calcite, Year 
191 1". The most impressive structure at this site is the screen house 
(c. 19^0), an immense steel-framed brick building approximately ten 
stories high, measuring roughly 150 feet by 200 feet. 

MONARCH PAPER MILL ( 187*0 Kalamazoo 

Intersection of Cork St. and Portage Creek 16. 61 7535. W9300 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

This is a mill complex of six interconnected buildings, all in brick 
with brick-arched windows, ranging from three to five stories high, 
mainly because the site is on the side of a steep hill. A combination 
of flat and slightly pitched roofs are present. There is a small rolling 
dam at the rear of the plant, with a rack and pinion lifting mechanism 
to control the flow of water from the Monarch Mi 11 pond. This mill com- 
plex was built by the Kalamazoo Paper Company in 187*+ to replace an 
earlier (1866) wooden mill located on the same site and destroyed by 
fire in 1872. This is reputed to be the oldest paper mill in the Kala- 
mazoo Valley still extant. The rebuilt mill was operated by the Monarch 
Paper Company until 1922, when it merged with the King Paper Company and 
the Berdeen Paper Company to form the Allied Paper Company, now a subsi- 
diary of Smith Corona Marchant Company. 

[Dunbar, Willis F. , Kalamazoo and How It Grew (Kalamazoo: Western Michigan 
University Press, 1969) , pp. 90-91 , 100, 1W^ 175] 



31 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



MORTON SALT COMPANY (1925, c. 19^0) Manistee 

Ramsdell St. 16.55501 5. 4898080 

Manistee Manistee 

This salt evaporation plant was constructed in 1925 after a major fire 
had destroyed all the buildings on this site. The surviving buildings 
include the Pan House, a five-story rectangular brick structure, approx- 
imately 75 feet by 50 feet; a single-story brick building, 75 feet wide 
and approximately 200 feet long, used for bagging, storage, and shipping; 
and a newer Pan House (c. 1940), a five-story brick building, approxi- 
mately 50 feet by 75 feet. 



NANKIN MILLS (c. 1844) Inkster 

33175 Ann Arbor Trail 17-304830.4691000 

Westland Wayne 

Built in 1844 as a gristmill, it was purchased in 1918 by Henry Ford. 
It was to be the first of his local village industries. Ford turned it 
into a hydroelectric plant that could generate from 30 to 50 horsepower. 
The mill was used for an engraving and die making factory. The mill is 
five stories high, three above ground and two below, and has dimensions 
of 30 feet by 40 feet. It has a gabled roof. Various additions have 
been built over the years, but basically the mill exists as it did 
during the late l880's. The mill is presently being used as a nature 
center. 
[Lewis, p. 36] 

NEW TROY MILLS (1867,1890 Three Oaks 

Avery Rd. at Galien River 16.534985.4635685 

New Troy Berrien 

This site formerly contained a sawmill erected in I836. In 1867, Thomas 
and Ambrose Morley erected the present gristmill, located on the Galien 
River, and the mill remained in the Morley family until 1973- It was 
originally equipped with a horizontal turbine which drove several sets of 
stones, but these were removed in 1891 when the mill was converted to the 
roller process. The original dam was removed in the early 1920's when 
the mill was converted to electricity. The surviving building is a 
three-story timber-framed structure, with a gabled roof, 30 feet wide 
and 60 feet long. It has a sheet metal exterior. Virtually the entire 



32 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



1867 gearing and belt system is intact as well as four sets of double 
rollers installed in 1891. The mill is still in active operation. 
[MHD, Site Files; Community Enterprise , Bridgman, Michigan, July 7, 
1966, p. 6] 



ORTONVILLE MILL (1852) Ortonville 

366 Mill St. 17.300090.^7100 

Ortonville Oakland 

Built by Amos Orton in 1 852 as a sawmill, the Ortonville Mill was erected 
for the purpose of attracting people to the community which is now called 
Ortonville. In 1 889 the mill was converted to the roller process. In 
the 1920's the mill generated electric power for the community. The mill 
is a two and one-half story Greek Revival building with hand-hewn timber 
frame and unpaved basement. It now measures 36 feet by 108 feet although 
it was originally only 48 feet long. The larger room at the west end 
was added at a later date. Most of the original windows are sliding sash, 
9 over 6. A roofed loading dock lines the mill side of the building. 
The mill is presently being used as a gathering place and a museum for 
residents of the village. 
[ History of Oakland County , Michigan (New York: Beers, 1 872) , p. 29; NR] 

PARSHALLBURG MILL (1855-1856) Chesaning 

Niver Rd. and Ditch Rd. 16.736250.4780500 

Chesaning Township Saginaw 

This mill was built by Israel Parshall in l855 _ l856 and remained in the 
Parshall family until 1 9^3 - It ceased operations in the early 1960's 
and is now vacant. It rests on a rough-rubble foundation and is 30 feet 
wide and 115 feet long. There are two distinct segments, one of two 
stories and one of three stories. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



PETER VAN EVERY GRISTMILL ( 1 837) Pontiac South 

7450 Franklin Rd. 17.310655.4711010 

Bloomfield Township Oakland 

Built by Colonel Peter Van Every of Detroit in 1837, this gristmill was 
the first flour mill in Oakland County. The millwright was William A. 
Pratt. The milling equipment is gone and the cider press now at the 



33 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



mill is believed to have been taken from another mill located downstream. 

The original mill is three stories high with dimensions of 60 feet by 

90 feet. A one-story addition, 42 feet by 20 feet, has been added. Both 

buildings are made completely of wood and have gabled roofs. The building 

is now used as the ever popular Franklin Cider Mill. 

[ Portrai t and Biographical Al bum of Oakland County , Michigan (Chicago: 

Chapman Bros. , 1891) , pp. 619-620; MHD, Site Files] 



PEWABIC POTTERY COMPANY (1907) Belle Isle 

10125 E. Jefferson Ave. 1 7- 3368T 5 .4691 61 

Detroit Wayne 

The Pewabic Pottery Works was designed and built by William B. Stratton 
and Frank D. Baldwin who formed the first firm in Michigan manned solely 
by architects trained in American schools. The first level of this two- 
story building is timber and brick while the oversail second level is 
half-timbered stucco. Brickwork is common bond and the windows are rec- 
tangular. The building has a medium hip roof with two chimneys. The 
eaves project over the walls and are framed with metal trim. Steel 
columns and beams support the structure at the rear machinery room and 
the roof is supported by steel Pratt trusses. The building is 45 feet 
wide, 100 feet long on one side, 90 feet long on the other. Power is 
transmitted to the mixing-pumping-f i 1 tering machinery by a series of 
belts, drive wheels, and bevelled pinion gears. The building is still 
used for pottery classes and a museum. 
[Ferry, p. 282; MHD, Site Files; NR] 



PEWABIC POTTERY EQUIPMENT ROOM (1912) Belle Isle 

10125 E. Jefferson Ave. 17.336815.4691610 

Detroit Wayne 

The Pewabic Pottery had a rear addition built in 1912 to house the clay 
mixing and filtering equipment. The equipment was driven by a series of 
belts, suspended from the ceiling, and bevelled pinion gears which were 
all powered by a single 10 horsepower electric motor. The columns of 
the first floor were steel which supported the concrete and tile second 
floor. The roof was supported by wooden beams and columns with wooden 
pin joints . 
[MHD, Site Files] 



34 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



PEWABIC POTTERY KILN (1907) Belle Isle 

10125 E. Jefferson Ave. 17-336815.4691610 

Detroit Wayne 

The Pewabic Pottery Company used a revolutionary new, high-heat, oil- 
burning, kiln developed by Horace James Caulkins. He discovered much 
about gas fixtures and heat reactions while inventing a kiln to produce 
dental enamel. Miss Mary Chase Perry experimented with many clays and 
glazes in her ceramics that won her national acclaim. The Pewabic Pot- 
tery Company provided tiles for some of Detroit's outstanding buildings, 
including the Institute of Arts, the Public Library, St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, and the Union Trust Building. 
[Ferry, p. 262; MHD, Site Files; NR] 



PORT HURON SALT COMPANY (1913-1930 Port Huron 

601 Busha Hwy. (M-29) 1 7. 380640. 4752870 

Marysville St. Clair 

This salt evaporation plant was originally constructed by the Port Huron 
Salt Company at the beginning of the twentieth century and was acquired 
by the Morton Salt Company in 1929- A major fire in 1944 destroyed the 
oldest buildings on the site. The remaining structures include the 
Powerhouse (1913), a two-story brick building, 260 feet long and 62 feet 
wide; the Maintenance Shops (1918), 114 feet long and 82 feet wide, also 
a two-story brick building; the Pan House (1914, 1918), a rectangular 
brick building 55 feet wide, 200 feet long, and 67 feet high, containing 
the original salt evaporation pans manufactured by the Manistee Ironworks 
of Manistee, Michigan (see other entry); the Grainers (1921-1933), three 
interconnected one-story brick buildings 156 feet wide with a combined 
length of 282 feet; and the Number 3 Warehouse (1916), 100 feet wide, 
240 feet long, with a gabled roof. 

[Jenks, William Lee, St. Clai r County , Michigan (New York, 1912), I, 
pp. 374-375; The Morton Salt Tapestry , 1848-1973 (Morton Salt Company, 
1973), p. 15] 



POST CEREAL MANUFACTURING COMPLEX (1903-1917) Battle Creek 

E. Michigan Ave., near Porter St. 16.651550.4685740 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

This complex of buildings is the oldest extant portion of the Post Cereal 
complex of some thirty buildings. Beginning on the easternmost edge of 



35 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



this complex, and proceeding west, the first building is the Warehouse 
(1905), a two-story brick building, 150 feet by 50 feet. Next is the 
Powerhouse (1917), a three-story, steel -framed, brick structure which 
replaced an earlier powerhouse ( 1 900) at the same location. It is ap- 
proximately 50 feet square. The next structure, erected in 1907, is 
simply called Building Number 16 and has always been a general cereal 
manufacturing plant. It is 60 feet by 50 feet, three stories high, 
brick with brick arched windows. The fourth building (Number 17), is 
a five-story, steel-framed brick structure, 60 feet square, erected in 
1917 and used for general cereal production. The fifth building (Num- 
ber 18), erected in 1909, is five stories high, brick with brick arched 
windows, 60 feet square, and was also used for general cereal manufac- 
ture. All five of these buildings are flat-roofed. 



POST BARN: BUILDING NUMBER 1 (c.l895) Battle Creek 

275 Cliff St. 16.651620.4685650 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

It was in this building, originally a barn on what was the Beardslee 
Farm, that Charles W. Post began the manufacture of Postum Cereal (ori- 
ginally called "Monk's Brew"), the first of several ready-to-eat cereals 
which Post developed. He was the first "cereal millionaire" which Battle 
Creek produced. A plaque on the building reads, in part, "His equipment 
consisted of a coffee grinder, a gasoline stove, and $11.95 worth of 
grain". This simple wood-framed building rests on a cut stone founda- 
tion, has wooden clapboard siding, and a gabled roof, and measures 
around 50 feet by 40 feet. It is presently used as a medical facility 
for Post employees. 

[ Inside Battle Creek , Battle Creek Board of Education, Brochure No. 6, 
no date, p. 5] 

POST OFFICE BUILDING NUMBER 7 (c. 1 895, 1 916, 1920) Battle Creek 

275 Cliff St. 16.651620.4685650 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

The southern half of this structure was the first office building C.W. 
Post built for his rapidly expanding business empire based on his inno- 
vations in the production and sale of ready-to-eat cereals, most notably 
Postum (1895), Grape Nuts (1897), and Post Toasties (1906). C.W. Post 
probably had his office in this building until 1904, when he erected the 
nearby office building known as the Clubhouse. This building, enlarged 



36 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



in 1916 and 1920, has been in continuous use as an office building since 
its construction. It is a two-story, wood-framed structure with a man- 
sard roof. The earliest portion of this building was approximately 100 
feet long and 50 feet wide and was doubled in size by the additions made 
in 1916 and 1920. It rests on a stone and concrete foundation. 
[ Inside Battle Creek , Battle Creek Board of Education, Brochure No. 6, 
no date, pp. 5 - £] 



POST OFFICE BUILDING NUMBER 14: 

CLUBHOUSE (1904,1908,1911,1937) Battle Creek 

275 Cliff St. 16.651620.4685650 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

This handsome two-story brick and stucco building, with a gabled slate 
roof, approximately 75 feet by 40 feet, was C.W. Post's second office 
building on the grounds of his Battle Creek plant, standing in sharp 
contrast with the simpler wooden building erected around 1895, where 
his first office was located. It was in his private office on the se- 
cond floor of this building that Post assembled his famous "brain trust' 
to manage his immense corporate empire. The enlarged building, roughly 
double its original size, was turned over to the Post employees for use 
as a clubhouse in 1924. C.W. Post's private office has been preserved 
and this building houses much of his art collection, still serves as a 
clubhouse for employees, and is used as a conference center by the Post 
Division of General Foods. 

[ Inside Battle Creek , Battle Creek Board of Education, Brochure No. 6, 
no date, pp. 5 "SI 



POST STORES BUILDING NUMBER 23 (1907) Battle Creek 

275 Cliff St. 16.651620.4685650 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

This is an L-shaped wood-framed structure with a gambrel roof. The main 
portion is 100 feet by 30 feet, while the wing making up the L is 25 feet 
wide and 50 feet long. This barn-like structure was probably used as a 
barn for storage, rather than for cereal production, when initially con- 
structed. Charles W. Post (1854-1914), after introducing Postum in I895 
and Grape Nuts in 1897, developed his third major ready-to-eat cereal, 
Elija's Manna (Post Toasties) in 1 906 - This building was part of a major 
expansion of his Battle Creek plant that took place at that time. It is 
presently used for storage. 

[ Inside Battle Creek , Battle Creek Board of Education, Brochure No. 6, 
no date, pp. 5 - £] 

37 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



RICHARDSON SILK MILL (1886,1905) Belding 

101 N. Front St. 16.643700.4773020 

Belding Ionia 

Alva and Hiram Belding came to Patterson's Mills (renamed Belding in 1871) 
in I858, but they returned to Massachusetts to join their brother Milo, 
who was engaged in silk manufacturing. Along with a fourth brother, David, 
they established a silk factory in Rockville, Connecticut in 1866 and 
built additional factories in Northampton, Massachusetts (I876), Montreal, 
and in Petaluma, California. Belding Brothers decided to establish a 
mill in Belding in 1886, but did not want their firm's name to be associ- 
ated with the venture because they feared it might fail. Accordingly, 
they convinced a friend, George Richardson, to invest money in the ven- 
ture and to give it his name. The mill that was built, which manufactured 
spool silk and thread, bore the name "Richardson". The surviving building 
has two distinct portions. The oldest (1886) is a rectangular four-story 
white brick building with four decorative courses of red brick which arch 
the windows. It is 50 feet wide and 250 feet long, and features two five- 
story brick towers, each 15 feet square. Adjoining this portion is an 
addition constructed in 1905- It is also a four-story rectangular struc- 
ture, of white brick construction, but with no decorative red brick courses 
It is 100 feet long and 50 feet wide. 
[Belding Banner-News, August 29, 1957, pp. 3-4] 



SANILAC SUGAR REFINING COMPANY (1902) Croswell 

159 S. Howard St. 17.368820.4791460 

Croswell Sanilac 

The Sanilac Sugar Refining Company was organized by Charles Bemick of 
Detroit in 1901. This plant was constructed in 1902 by the Oxnard Con- 
struction Company with A. P. Cooper and S.W. Sinsheimer serving as con- 
struction engineers. The plant initially had a capacity of 600 tons of 
sugar beets sliced per day, and cost $600,000. The first campaign (1902) 
produced 5 million pounds of refined sugar, but the firm suffered losses 
of over $100,000 in 1902-1903. The plant was taken over by the Michigan 
Sugar Company in 1906 and is one of the firm's producing plants today. 
The main plant, all of brick construction, includes a two and three-story 
segment, 90 feet wide and 270 feet long, connected to a single-story seg- 
ment 60 feet wide and 400 feet long, with a flat roof. In addition, there 
is a two-story brick warehouse, 48 feet wide and 200 feet long, and a one- 
story brick storage building, 40 feet by 90 feet. 

[Dumond, Neva, Thumb Diggings (Lexington, Ml, 1962), pp. 54-57; Gutleben, 
Dan, The Sugar Tramp (San Francisco, 1954), PP- 147-168] 

38 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 




Richardson Silk Mill (1886,1905), Belding 



SCOTTS MILLING COMPANY (c.l880) 
QR Ave. , east of 36th St. 
Scotts 



Leon i das 

16. 630325. ^671950 

Kalamazoo 



The Scotts Milling Company building is a typical example of late nine- 
teenth century gristmills in operation in small rural communities in 
Michigan. It is a two-story rectangular structure, 100 feet long and 
50 feet wide, resting on a rough rubble foundation. The main roof is 
gabled, while a pitched roof covers an addition located to the rear of 
the main structure. 



39 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



SEBEWAING SUGAR COMPANY (1902) Sebewaing 

501 Pine St. (M-25) 17-302870.4845840 

Sebewaing Huron 

The Sebewaing Sugar Refining Company was founded in 1901 by John Liken 
of Sebewaing and Ben Boutwell, a Bay City sugar magnate, with a capital 
stock of $300,000. The plant was constructed by the American Construc- 
tion and Supply Company, with J.S. Eckert serving as construction engi- 
neer, and had an initial slicing capacity of 600 tons of sugar beets per 
day. The first campaign (1902) yielded 9.1 million pounds of granulated 
sugar and 505,000 pounds of yellow sugar from 48,270 tons of sugar beets. 
The plant's most successful campaign occurred in 1950, when it processed 
213,000 tons of sugar beets. The Michigan Sugar Company acquired the 
plant in 1906 and it remains in production. The buildings surviving 
from 1902 include a three and four-story rectangular brick structure 
resting on a cut stone foundation, 1 60 feet wide and 270 feet long, con- 
nected to a similar two-story building, 210 feet in length, and a single- 
story segment 100 feet long. There is in addition a one-story brick 
storage building, 45 feet by 120 feet and a brick office building, 20 
feet wide and 45 feet long, with a gabled roof. The complex also includes 
a two-story warehouse (c. 1920), approximately 75 feet wide and 250 feet 
in length. 
[Gutleben, Dan, The Sugar Tramp (San Francisco, 1954), pp. 177-186] 

STR0H BREWERY COMPANY COMPLEX (1912,1955) Detroit 

909 E. Elizabeth St. 17.331840.4689470 

Detroit Wayne 

The Stroh's Brewery Complex consists of approximately 26 buildings. These 
are the office building, the stockhouse, the eight-story brew house, and 
the ice cream building as well as a number of other miscellaneous struc- 
tures. All of the buildings are constructed of red brick with white con- 
crete trimming. The office building and the brew house were both built 
in 1912 and are the only original structures in the complex. The brew 
house contains nineteen 250 barrel capacity copper brew kettles and the 
interior walls are finished in pewabic tiling. The walls of the ice cream 
building are constructed of eight foot thick brick which tapers off up- 
ward. The stockhouse was built in 1955. The complex is situated on the 
corner of Gratiot Avenue near Downtown Detroit, forming a triangular is- 
land with the Chrysler Freeway. It produces a capacity of 6,000,000 bar- 
rels of beer annually as well as malt extracts, soft drinks, and ice cream. 



40 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



SUMNER GRISTMILL (1880) Sumner 

Mill St. 16.676880.4796850 

Sumner Gratiot 

This mill was constructed by Will aby B. Lathrop in 1880 and was operated 
by him until 1904, when Arthur Fowler purchased the property. Fowler in- 
stalled a feed mill and began using the roller process. The mill consists 
of a two-story segment, 25 feet by 30 feet, with a gabled roof, and a 
three-story segment, 20 feet by 40 feet, with a gambrel roof. Both seg- 
ments rest on stone foundations. The mill building is badly deteriorated, 
but contains grinders, sifters, a stone mill, and a centrifugal water- 
wheel, all dating from the late nineteenth century. 

[Tucker, Willard, Gratiot County , Michigan (Saginaw, 1913), pp. 527, 1188; 
Portrait and Biographical Album of Gratiot County (Chicago: Chapman Bros., 
1884), pp. 572-575] 



SWINDELL BUILDINGS (1902,1914) Kalamazoo 

425-429 N. Church St. 16.616530.4683300 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

The oldest of these two adjoining four-story brick buildings was erected 
in 1902 by Charles H. Swindell of Kalamazoo, wholesaler of produce, poul- 
try, and dairy products and his brother Joseph of Plymouth, Indiana, pre- 
sident of the Swindell Brothers Cold Storage Company. The 1902 building 
is flat-roofed and features small brick-arched windows. In 1914, Charles 
Swindell and G.K. Taylor formed the Swindell-Taylor Company and erected 
the second building, immediately south of the first. Approximately 150 
feet long and 75 feet wide, it features four large loading bays which 
facilitate the movement of produce by truck. None of the original refri- 
geration equipment is extant. 
[ Kalamazoo City Directory , 1 902- 1919] 

VALLEY SUGAR COMPANY (1901 ) Saginaw 

341 Sugar St. 17.262620.4815418 

Carrol 1 ton Saginaw 

The Valley Sugar Company was established in 1 90 1 and began operating this 
beet sugar processing plant in 1902. After successful campaigns in 1902 
and 1903, the plant was closed until 1906, when it was taken over by the 
newly-formed Michigan Sugar Company, which was operating five additional 
sugar plants in Michigan. This plant was built by the Kilby Manufacturing 



41 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



Company, with J. A. Shepard serving as the construction engineer. It 
initially had a capacity of 600 tons (sugar beets sliced per day). 
The surviving buildings dating from 1901 include a one-story rectan- 
gular brick building, approximately 70 feet wide and 200 feet long; 
a similar two-story building of the same dimensions; and the main pro- 
cessing building, a four-story brick structure, 70 feet wide and approx- 
imately 300 feet in length. 

[Mills, James C, History of Saginaw County (Saginaw, 1918), p. 479; 
The Sugar Tramp (Bay City, 1920), pp. W, 1 88-194] 

WALKER'S GRISTMILL ( 1 869) Hartland 

8507 Parshal lvil le Rd. 17.272200.4730060 

Parshal 1 vi 1 le Livingston 

This attractive gristmill was constructed in I869. It was purchased 
by Tom Walker and John Browing in 1 878 for $10,000 and remained in the 
Walker family until 1969, when it ceased operating. It is now occupied 
by several gift shops. It is a four-story frame building, 30 feet wide 
and 50 feet long, with board and batten siding and a gambrel roof. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



WALLACE MILLS ( 1 887) Port Austin East 

3475 Bluff Rd. 17.348440.4879150 

Port Austin Township Huron 

Robert Wallace was a partner in the Lake Huron Stone Company, one of the 
major producers of grindstones in Grindstone City. This gristmill was 
constructed here in 1 887 to serve the community, which had a population 
of about 1,500 at the time. This is one of the few native stone buildings 
constructed in this district, which was a major center for quarries and 
grindstone production. The mill building is 30 feet wide, 40 feet long, 
three stories high, and has a flat roof. None of the milling machinery 
remains and the building has been converted into apartments. 
[ Portrait and Biographical Album of Huron County , Michigan (Ch i cago , 
1884), p. W; MHD, Site Files; NRT 



42 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



WATERLOO MILL (I838, c.1890) Stockbridge 

15675 Gorton Rd. 16. 735095. 4692077 

Waterloo Jackson 

Patrick Hubbard built this gristmill, the first in Waterloo, in I838 and 
it has operated continuously until 1952. The rectangular frame building 
is 30 feet wide, 40 feet long, with a gabled roof. The extant machinery 
and equipment includes a turbine (c. 1890), one of the original mill- 
stones, and several late nineteenth century milling machines. 
[ History of Jackson County , Michigan (Chicago, l88l), pp. 1132-1133] 

WATERS BUILDING ( 1 899) Grand Rapids West 

Ottawa Ave., Pearl St. to Lyon St. 16. 608410. 4757780 

Grand Rapids Kent 

The Waters Building was one of several major furniture exhibition centers 
in Grand Rapids where buyers would come from all over the United States 
to view and purchase the high quality products of the Grand Rapids furni- 
ture industry. The Waters Building was constructed by Philip Klingman, 
a major furniture dealer, and Dudley Waters, a powerful Grand Rapids 
banker. It is a six-story steel-framed brick structure, approximately 
350 feet long and 200 feet wide. 

[Lydens, 1.1., editor, The Story of Grand Rapids (Grand Rapids: Kregel , 
1966) , p. 218] 



WILLIAM HAYDEN MILLING COMPANY (1898,1935) Tecumseh North 

703 Chicago Blvd. (M-50) 17.257000.4654230 

Tecumseh Lenawee 

William Hayden settled in Tecumseh in I858 and purchased the Globe Flour 
Mill, originally built in 1833 by the firm of Wing, Evans, and Brown. 
This mill was destroyed by fire in 1 898 and was rebuilt by Levi Hayden, 
the son of the previous owner. In 1935 Henry Ford purchased the old mill 
restored it and built an additional building on this site, and used the 
buildings for a soybean cleaning plant. The oldest portion is a two- 
story rectangular frame building resting on a rough-cut stone foundation, 
with a gambrel roof, and is 30 feet wide and 175 feet long. The 1935 
building is a rectangular two-story structure, 30 feet wide and 70 feet 
long, with a flat roof. An overshot steel waterwheel , 8 feet wide and 
20 feet in diameter, is extant. It bears the nameplate, "Fitz Waterwheel 



43 



EXTRACTIVE AND BULK PRODUCT INDUSTRIES 



Co., Hanover, PA", and probably was installed in 1935- These buildings 
now serve as a community center for the City of Tecumseh. 
[Bonner, Richard, Memoirs of Lenawee County , Vol. 11 (Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, 1909), pp. 208-209; Lewis, David, "Tour of Henry Ford's Village 
Industries," Old Mi 1 1 News, October, 1975, p. 16] 



WOLCOTT'S MILL (c. 1 838) Linden 

8572 Silver Lake Rd. 1 7. 267^00. kjk] 400 

Argentine Genesee 

James H. Murray, one of the first settlers in Argentine in I836, built 
a large frame gristmill with two run of stone in about I838. His flour 
was brought to Detroit by wagon over the White Lake Road. The extant 
rectangular frame building, 30 feet wide and 50 feet long, with a gambrel 
roof, appears to be the original structure. After a major flood in 1929, 
the building's stone foundation was replaced with concrete. The twin 
Leffel turbines which operate the mill were installed in 1 937 - 
[Fenton Courier, September 13, 1935; MHD, Site Files] 



kk 



INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



This section includes all manufacturing not covered in the 
"Bulk Product Industry" category and the sites identified reflect Mich- 
igan's mixed industrial history. Included are facilities used to manu- 
facture adding machines, aircraft, buggies, farm implements, lathes, 
leather goods, pianos, railroad cranes, rulers, ships, stoves, wagons, 
and window shades. Logically enough, the largest number of sites are 
automobile manufacturing and assembly plants. 

A great deal of attention is concentrated on the automobile 
industry because Michigan has been the center of the industry since the 
early twentieth century and because it has dominated the state's eco- 
nomic and urban development since 1900. Motor vehicle production was 
only about 65,000 units nationally in 1 908 , but then increased dramati- 
cally to 1.6 million in 1916 and then continued to expand to a pre- 
Depression peak of 5-3 million units in 1929- Along with this expansion 
of output, there was an increased concentration of production in Mich- 
igan. In 1916 about one-quarter of all American automobiles were made 
in Michigan and by the 1930' s, the state accounted for over 60% of all 
employment in the industry. This concentration has been reversed in 
the postwar era, leaving the state with chronic unemployment since the 
mid-1950's. 

The automobile industry also determined the pace, timing, and 
character of much of the state's urban growth. Detroit was already a 
manufacturing center (stoves, railroad cars, and bicycles) in 1900 with 
a population of nearly 300,000, but remarkable growth in the following 
decades led to a population of nearly 1.6 million by 1930. Flint, more 
closely tied to the automobile than Detroit, grew from 13,000 in 1900 
to 156,000 by 1930. 

The industry has been significant in terms of industrial engi- 
neering and in the design of industrial buildings. Henry Ford developed 
and perfected the moving assembly line at his Highland Park Plant after 
1910 and the other automakers quickly followed suit. Ford, with Albert 
Kahn as his chief architect, was instrumental in several innovations in 
factory design, particularly the use of reinforced concrete in the 1 91 ' s 
and the movement towards single-story steel-frame buildings in the 1920's. 
These developments are discussed in more detail in the Building Technology 
section of this volume. 

No attempt to summarize the history of the automobile industry 
or explain why it blossomed in Michigan will be encountered here. There 



h5 



are, however, a few observations which may help the reader place these 
individual sites in better perspective. Detroit and Flint were major 
manufacturing centers for buggies, carriages, and wagons before the 
coming of the automobile and many of the important early pioneers in 
the industry, such as Billy Durant, Dallas Dort, and the Fisher Bro- 
thers, originally produced horse-drawn vehicles. 

The automobile industry began with hundreds of small producers 
located all over the United States. The Ford Motor Company was founded 
in 1903, introduced the Model T in 1 908 , and moved into the Highland 
Park Plant in 1910, but Ford dominated the industry only for the period 
from about 1915 until the mid-1920's. Ford remained essentially a 
Detroit-based operation during these years. The General Motors Corpo- 
ration founded by Billy Durant in 1908 became the dominant firm in the 
industry in the mid-1920's, largely because of the success of Chevrolet. 
General Motors is not as closely associated with Detroit as the other 
automakers. While Cadillac production was concentrated in Detroit, 
Chevrolets and Buicks were made in Flint, Oldsmobiles in Lansing, and 
Oaklands (later Pontiacs) in Pontiac. The Chrysler Corporation did not 
start until 1925, but its major predecessor companies had earlier roots 
in Detroit. 



kG 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



ALTER MOTOR CAR COMPANY ( 1914) Northville 

Farmer St. 17.296960.4694510 

Plymouth Wayne 

The Alter Motor Car Company was established in the hamlet of Plymouth 
in 1914 by F.M. Woodward and Guy Hamilton with $5,000 in capital raised 
from village residents. It produced several models, the most popular 
a roadster (1916) with a 108 inch wheelbase, 27 horsepower motor, and 
a price tag of $685. The owners considered expanding the plant in 1916, 
but were unsuccessful in attracting additional capital. It was dissolved 
in January 1917 and placed in the hands of receivers. In three years, 
this firm had produced about 1,000 cars. The surviving building con- 
sists of a one-story rectangular frame segment, 40 feet wide and 200 feet 
long and an adjoining two-story segment, 60 feet wide and 192 feet long. 
[Hudson, Sam, The Story of Plymouth , Michigan : A Midwest Microcosm 
(Plymouth, 197^77 PP- 73, ST^W\ 



AMERICAN LOGGING TOOL CORPORATION ( 1 906) Evart 

302 N. Main St. 16.639085.4862050 

Evart Osceola 

Maglorie Belanger came to Evart in 1875, when this was a major logging 
and sawmill center on the Muskegon River. He began making logging tools 
in his forge and then joined the Champion Tool and Handle Company (esta- 
blished in the l880's) in 1893. Along with the Evart Tool Company, 
Champion Tool became a major producer of logging tools in the late l890's. 
In 1905, all the major logging tool producers in the United States formed 
the American Logging Tool Corporation, but the firm was disbanded in 191 1 
for violating the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. It was permitted to operate 
as a single firm in 1912, with the provision that it could operate only 
one plant. The firm decided to concentrate all its production at this 
site, the previous location of the Champion Tool and Handle Company. The 
surviving buildings date from 1906 because the entire plant was lost by 
fire in that year. The main manufacturing building is 60 feet wide and 
250 feet long. The westerly segment (60 feet by 50 feet) is brick, with 
a gabled roof, while the remainder of the building is a wood-framed struc- 
ture with a flat roof and a monitor 20 feet wide, all supported by wood 
truss ing. 

[Hesselink, Alice, "The Story of the Logging Tool Industry of Evart, Mich- 
igan," unpublished paper, Central Michigan University, 1 968 , pass im ] 



47 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



BARLEY MANUFACTURING COMPANY PLANT (c.1920) Kalamazoo 

1811 Factory St. 16.619155.4689350 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

The Barley Manufacturing Company built this factory complex in the early 
1920' s and the Roamer automobile was assembled here until 1927, when as- 
sembly operations were transferred to Canada. It was originally a U- 
shaped, three-story brick building containing 350,000 square feet of 
floor space, fronting on Factory and Reed Streets. The portion fronting 
on Reed Street was destroyed in a recent fire, while two sections of the 
original structure, each 50 feet wide and 150 feet long, are extant. 
[Lewis, p. 36] 



BLOOD BROTHERS AUTOMOBILE AND MACHINE 

COMPANY (1912) Kalamazoo 

635 W. Ransom St. 16. 616040. 4683425 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

Charles C. and Maurice E. Blood were bicycle manufacturers in Kalamazoo 
from 1891 on. They organized the Blood Brothers Automobile and Machine 
Company in 1904 and made the Cornelian car in this building in 1912-1913. 
They moved their automobile assembly operations to Allegan, Michigan in 
1913 and soon stopped production of cars altogether. This U-shaped brick 
structure, using Flemish bond, is two stories high at both ends, and one 
story high in the middle section and has a three-story hexagonal tower 
on the northwest corner. All the windows are arched in brick. This 
building has had numerous occupants and is now used by a building com- 
pany for storage and offices. 

[Dunbar, Willis F. , Kalamazoo and How It Grew (Kalamazoo: Western Mich- 
igan University Press, 1969) , p. 122; Lewis, p. 36] 



BURROUGHS ADDING MACHINE COMPANY (1904) Detroit 

1 Burroughs Place 17-328880.4692100 

Detroit Wayne 

Joseph Boyer transplanted the Burroughs Adding Machine Company to Detroit 
from St. Louis is 1902. The lack of trade union activity played a very 
important role in his decision. He hired Albert Kahn in 1904 to design 
a new factory for him at its present site on Second Avenue. The following 
year Burroughs became incorporated. The building was constructed of rein- 
forced concrete and brick, with a sawtooth roof for natural lighting, and 



48 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



stood at various heights. The plans included the broadening of the 
roads and the landscaping of the surrounding grounds. An effort was 
also made at enhancing the aesthetic quality of the two-story office 
portion of the building. A five-story concrete structure with open 
courts was added between 1912 and 1919- In 1973 the building was com- 
pletely torn apart, with the exception of the original framework, and 
a totally new structure was put up around the initial framework. Out- 
side of the original framework and the original board room, nothing is 
left of the original building. 

[Burton, Vol. 1, pp. 557"562; Legacy , p. 13; Ferry, p. 179; Titus, 
p. 276] 



BURTT BROTHERS MANUFACTURING COMPANY (c.1900) 

130 N. Edwards St. 

Kalamazoo 



Ka 1 amazoo 
16.617040.4683080 

Kalamazoo 



This two-story rectangular brick building was erected around 1900 and 
was originally occupied by the Newton Buggy Company. The Burtt Brothers 
Manufacturing Company assembled the Cannon automobile in this building 
in 1903-1906. Production took place on both floors and a freight ele- 
vator, still extant, was used to move parts and sub-assemblies between 
the two floors. The first floor has been altered, with a new brick 
facing and wood panels placed over the original brick facade. 
[Lewis, p. 36] 



BUSH AND LANE PIANO COMPANY (1905,1924) 

573 Columbia Ave. 

Holland 



Holland 

16.574070.4736020 

Ottawa 



In 1905, the Bush and Lane Piano Company of Chicago moved into Holland 
and erected a new plant with 135,000 feet of floor space. The company 
was capitalized at $500,000 and employed about sixty workers initially. 
The general contractor for the building was Frank Duke and Son, while 
the masonry was done by Burt Hebbing, Holland's leading bricklayer. The 
plant was powered by an Al 1 is-Chalmers Corliss engine until 1959, when 
it was retired and moved to its present location, adjacent to the Baker 
Furniture Museum. Bush and Lane was a very successful firm and increased 
its floor space by building a large three-story addition in 1924. The 
firm went bankrupt during the Depression and the building was vacant in 
1929-1933. The Baker Furniture Company, which had three small furniture 
factories in Allegan, moved into the plant in 1934 and still occupies 



49 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



the buildings at the present time. The building erected in 1905 is a 
two-story white brick structure, with flat roofs. It is L-shaped, with 
one wing 300 feet long, the other 240 feet long, and both wings 50 feet 
wide. The 1924 addition is three stories high, 300 feet long, 50 feet 
wide, and has a flat roof. It is a steel-framed building with red brick 



wal 1 s 



CADILLAC MOTOR CAR COMPANY (1905) Detroit 

450 Amsterdam 17-329055.4692225 

Detroit Wayne 

The Cadillac Automobile Company was founded in 1902 by Henry Leland and 
a group of Detroit financiers. The firm then merged with the Leland and 
Faulconer Manufacturing Company in 1905 to form the Cadillac Motor Car 
Company. It was at the time of this merger that the firm needed to ex- 
pand its plant to take advantage of a booming market and it turned to a 
reinforced concrete design as a solution. The building was designed by 
George D. Mason, while the Trussed Concrete Steel Company of Detroit 
prepared the reinforced concrete designs and the Concrete Steel and Tile 
Construction Company of Detroit served as the general contractor. Con- 
struction took only 67 days and the building was completely shortly after 
the Packard Motor Car Company Building Number 10 was finished. It is a 
three-story structure with a basement, 90 feet wide and 300 feet long, 
providing 94,500 square feet of floor space. The concrete columns, each 
reinforced with four Kahn bars, one at each corner, are 18 inches square 
in the basement and two inches smaller on each succeeding floor. The 
spans between columns vary from 13 to 24 feet. The floors consist of 
five inch concrete joists spaced 17 inches apart, each joist containing 
a Kahn trussed bar with shear members 7 inches apart. There are hollow 
terra cotta building tiles between the joists, and a two inch layer of 
cement grout over the joists and tiles. The floors vary in depth from 
8 to 14 inches and are designed for live loads of 200 pounds per square 
foot on the first floor and 150 pounds on the remaining floors. The ex- 
terior walls facing the street are brick, while the remaining walls are 
reinforced concrete. 

[Burton, Vol. 1, pp. 572-573; Ferry, pp. 181-182; Engineering Record , 
Vol. 54, No. 20, November 17, 1906, pp. 544-545] 



50 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



CADILLAC MOTOR CAR COMPANY (1921) Detroit 

2860 Clark St. 1 7.3267^0. A680050 

Detroit Wayne 

Over the years much of Cadillac's production had become scattered all 
over the city. At one point Cadillac decided to establish its opera- 
tions at one location, and chose the site on Clark Street which had ori- 
ginally been picked by H.M. Leland. Cadillac gave up its eastside plant 
on Trombley Avenue, and sold the factory at Cass and Amsterdam to Fisher 
Body. The design and construction of the buildings was assumed by the 
Du Pont Engineering Company of Delaware. With Cadillac's stress on pro- 
duct excellence rather than mass production, it was thought that the long, 
one-story factory would take up too much space. It was decided to build 
a number of buildings, keeping the details of the structures fairly con- 
stant -- a standard width between wings, a standard height for most of 
the buildings, and a standard height of ]k feet between floor and ceiling. 
The buildings were to be heated by using steam circulating throughout the 
plant. When talking about the Cadillac site, a number of buildings are 
included. The original factory buildings still remaining consist of the 
Heat Treatment Plant, the Manufacturing Building, the Assembly Building, 
the Storage Building, and the loading docks. On the northwest corner of 
Clark Street stood the Heat Treatment Plant. This building is a one-story 
structure, built of reinforced concrete, and measuring **99 feet long and 
78 feet wide. It has red brick facing, walls of glass on the sides, and 
a butterfly monitor extending the full length of the building. The foun- 
dry was closed on July 23, 1963 and is currently being utilized for the 
complete production of the Cadillac Eldorado and the Seville. Next to 
the Heat Treatment Plant is the largest of the original buildings, the 
Manufacturing Building. This structure's dimensions are 792 feet long 
and 616 feet wide, and is divided into six rectangular open courts with 
each wing of the building being 66 feet wide. The lighting and the venti- 
lation for this building came from these open courts which are generally 
66 feet wide. The courts were covered with glass roofs at the first floor 
level. The building is four stories high, built of reinforced concrete 
of flat slab construction and red brick facing. It also has a flat roof 
and steel window sash covering a large area of space. Today, engine as- 
sembly, gear and axle, and the press plant are located in this building. 
Across Clark Street, on the northeast side stands the Assembly Building. 
This was the second largest of the original factory buildings. Its over- 
all dimensions are 8 1 5 feet long and 362 feet wide. It is a U-shaped 
structure with two long parallel wings, one measuring 66 feet wide and 
the other 80 feet wide, each wing separated by an open court that is 66 
feet wide. The extended portion of the outer wings are 150 feet long. 



51 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



It is built of reinforced concrete and features four stories, red-faced 
brick, a flat roof, and steel window sashes. A fifth floor of steel was 
later added. It was the site of the final assembly of the Cadillac. It 
is currently being used for sub-assembly operations and engineering of- 
fices. Adjoining the Assembly Building was the Storage Building which 
was used for storing up to 1,000 automobiles and service stock. It is a 
four-story building of reinforced concrete with dimensions of k$0 feet 
in length and 1 45 feet in width. It also has red brick facing and a 
flat roof. The area between the Assembly and Storage Buildings has 
since been filled in. Next to the Storage Building stands the loading 
docks on the tracks of the New York Central Railroad. The building is 
shaped like a right triangle and measures 442 feet long and 2 1 6 feet 
wide. The loading dock had a glass roof over it with a butterfly moni- 
tor so that automobiles could be loaded in any type of weather. It also 
had a crane for loading automobiles into the railroad cars. 
[Burton, Vol. 1, p. 573; Ferry, p. 337; Hendry, Maurice D., Cadi 1 lac , 
The Complete Seventy-Five Year History (New Jersey: Princeton Publishing 
Company, 1973), p. 116; Cadillac Clearing House , January 1, 1920] 



CHALMERS MOTOR COMPANY: 

CHRYSLER JEFFERSON ASSEMBLY PLANT (1907,1916) Belle Isle 

12200 E. Jefferson Ave. 1 7-3383^0.46926^0 

Detroit Wayne 

Roy Chapin brought Hugh Chalmers, a salesman for National Cash Register 
Company, into the Thomas Motor Company of Buffalo. In 1 908 the name of 
the firm was changed to Chalmers-Detroit when Chrysler bought E.R. Thomas' 
stock. The Chalmers Motor Company thereupon followed the Chalmers-Detroit 
Company in 1911. Their factory was leased to the Maxwell Motor Company 
for five years in 1917. Because of financial difficulties, Walter Chry- 
sler stepped in, at first to reorganize the company, but later purchasing 
the Maxwel 1 -Chalmers companies in 1923. Designed by Albert Kahn, the 
Chalmers Motor Company consisted of three parallel wings that resemble 
the Packard Number 10 Building expanded. These wings were linked together 
by intersecting passageways designed to form both open and closed courts. 
Each wing is 400 feet long and 60 feet wide, and four stories high. It 
is built of reinforced concrete and has a flat roof. The intersecting 
wing is approximately 180 feet long and 60 feet wide. Another parallel 
wing was added in 1916. It is also 400 feet long and 60 feet wide, and 
connects the other building by a wing that is 50 feet by 60 feet. Many 



52 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



different model cars were built at the Chalmers plant. In 1924 the first 
model of the Chrysler was made here. The first DeSoto was turned out 
from here in 1928, as well as the first Saxons. 

[Ferry, p. 338; Legacy , p. 12; Rae, John B., American Automobile Manu- 
facturers , The First Forty Years (Philadelphia: Chilton Company, 1959) , 
pp. 55-56, 96^97, 114, 143-144, 162-163; "Chalmers Factory Grows With 
Chalmers Sales," Automobi le Topics, XLM, (June 3, 1916), p. 347] 



CHEVROLET MOTOR COMPANY (1911 
1145 W. Grand Blvd. 
Detroit 



1912) 



Detroit 

17-327000.4688800 

Wayne 



Louis Chevrolet, a Swiss racing driver and engineer, experimented with 
four and six cylinder automobiles in a small shop on Grand River Avenue 
in Detroit in 1911, financed by Billy Durant of General Motors. Durant 
wanted to produce a car which could compete with Ford's Model T and 
Chevrolet delivered several prototypes to Durant in the Fall of 1911- 
Durant organized the Chevrolet Motor Company in November 1911, with 
William Little as general manager, to produce a six cylinder model known 
as the "Classic Six" or "Model C". Durant took over this plant on West 
Grand Blvd. and produced about 3,000 cars there in 1912. Louis Chevro- 
let had left the enterprise to return to racing and Durant merged the 
company with the Little Motor Car Company and the Mason Motor Car Com- 
pany of Flint (see other entry). The production of Chevrolets was moved 
to Flint in August 1913. This plant was used to produce Sterling auto- 
mobiles in 1913-1918, and then was occupied by the Automatic Products 
Company, makers of screw machines, until 1 968 . This three-story rectan- 
gular brick building, 100 feet wide and 330 feet long, is now vacant. 
[Pound, Arthur, The Turning Wheel (New York, 1934), pp. 145-148; Detroit 
News, November 3, 1961 , p. 12*] 



CLARK-CARTER AUTOMOBILE COMPANY (1909) 

520 N. Mechanic St. 

Jackson 



Jackson North 

16.713940.4680875 

Jackson 



This building was used briefly, in 1909-1912, by the Cutting Motor Com- 
pany to manufacture the Cutting car. There was a brief period in Jack- 
son's history when about a dozen different automobile companies were 
operating there, but most were short-lived and Jackson never became a 
center for automobile production. This is a three-story red brick L- 
shaped structure, with one wing 60 feet wide and 320 feet long and a 
smaller wing measuring 60 feet wide and 80 feet long. 
[Lewis, p. 36] 

53 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



COLLINS WAGON WORKS BUILDING (1895,1 899) Jackson North 

2301 E. Michigan Ave. 16. 716500.46809^0 

Jackson Jackson 

This large factory complex, originally the home of a wagon works, was 
purchased by the Jackson Automobile Company in 1903 and was used by 
that company to produce the Jackson car in 1903-1923. It is a three- 
story brick structure with brick-arched windows and flat roofs. There 
are four sections, each 240 feet long and 60 feet wide, which form an 
immense square enclosing a large open court in the center of the com- 
plex. There is, in addition, a five-story square tower, built in 1899, 
on the northwest corner of the complex. 
[Lewis, p. 36] 



CONTINENTAL MOTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY (1912) Belle Isle 

12801 E. Jefferson Ave. 17-399020.4692585 

Detroit Wayne 

Opposite the Hudson Motor Car Company on Algonquin Street stood the Con- 
tinental Motor Manufacturing Company. This firm manufactured automobile 
engines. This business proved to be so promising that the parent com- 
pany, located in Muskegon, decided to build a plant in Detroit, which 
was the hub of the automotive industry in 1912. Continental became one 
of the largest independent suppliers of engines to the automotive fac- 
tories. Most of the buildings have already been razed, so that only 
two buildings are left. One building still standing was the Machine 
Shop. The Machine Shop was designed by Albert Kahn and Ernest Wilby. 
It is a one-story building constructed of structural steel and brick. 
The steel channels used to support the counter shafting are set out in 
such a manner that they make a part of the roof framing itself. It has 
a sawtooth roof running the full width of the building, and monitors. 
In order to provide maximum lighting, steel sash was used. An addition 
to the building was made later. This expanded building was built of 
reinforced concrete and brick, with multiple levels and many monitors. 
The Powerhouse, near the Machine Shop, is about two stories high, built 
of structural steel and brick on a reinforced concrete base. Its dimen- 
sions are 110 feet long and 90 feet wide. It had wide walls of frosted 
glass on the east and west sides of the building, and also has a flat 
roof. There were seven coal -fired boilers installed between 1911 and 
1920. Kaiser Frazer Corporation leased the buildings in the 1950's, and 
replaced the seven coal-fired boilers for three of the more economical 



54 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



and more efficient oil-fired boilers. A fourth boiler was added later. 
Electric power was produced here at one time too. The most prominent 
characteristic that identifies this site as the Continental Motor Com- 
pany plant is the large smokestack with its name still inscribed on it. 
The buildings stand vacant today. 

[ Legacy , p. 13; Baird, D.G., "Coal to Oil Changeover Pays Off in Eight- 
een Months," Mill and Factory , L, (March 1952), pp. 128-129; Frohne, 
H.W., "Factory and Warehouse," The American Architect , CI, (June 19, 
1912), pp. 278-279, 281 ; Rae, John B. , American Automobile Manufacturers 
(Philadelphia: Chilton Company, 1959), p. 130; Pamphlet of the Conti- 
nental Motor Company, circa 1927, n.p.] 



DEFOE BOAT AND MOTOR WORKS (1920) Bay City 

Adams St. 17.266985.^831900 

Bay City Bay 

The Defoe Boat and Motor Works was organized by Harry J. Defoe in 1905. 
It operated on the east bank of the Saginaw River at the present site 
of Wononah Park in 1905-1910, then moved to the west bank, where the 
firm remained until 1918, when it moved to its current location on Adams 
Street on the east bank. During World War II, the Defoe yards developed 
the "Roll-Over" technique for large ship construction. The ship was 
initially built upside down, then rolled over on two eccentric wheels, 
each 50 feet in diameter and weighing kO tons. A 1700 ton vessel could 
be righted in three minutes and the remaining assembly work completed. 
The "Roll-Over" technique enabled all welding to be done in the "tip- 
down" position, which was not only faster, but could be carried out by 
relatively unskilled labor, and thus represented a considerable savings 
in labor costs. There are no buildings or equipment in this site sur- 
viving from the original yards of 1918. The oldest building, constructed 
around 1920, is a wood-framed rectangular structure, 60 feet wide and 
200 feet long, with a round roof supported by a steel "Rain-bo" truss. 
The walls are sheathed with corrugated iron, added in more recent years. 
There are no other buildings in this complex predating the late 1930's. 
[Butterf ield, George E.> Bay County , Past and Present (Bay City, 191 2 *) , 
pp. 100-103] 



55 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



DETROIT FREE PRESS BUILDING (1911-1913) Detroit 

131 W. Lafayette Blvd. 17.331200.4688390 

Detroit Wayne 

Albert Kahn designed this ten-story flat-roofed former Detroit Free Press 
Building. Kahn was accustomed to working with concrete structures. How- 
ever, building over eight stories with concrete was impractical and uneco- 
nomical. This building was his first design using steel-frame construc- 
tion. The structure is 120 feet long and 95 feet wide. It has a white 
terra-cotta facing while the brickwork is common bond. The windows are 
rectangular with basket-handled arches on the top floor. The building 
was later called the Transportation Building for many years but has been 
recently renamed the Canadian National and Grand Trunk Building. 
[Ferry, p. 1 87 ; Legacy , p. 14] 

DETROIT FREE PRESS BUILDING (1923) Detroit 

321 W. Lafayette Blvd. 17-331000.4688270 

Detroit Wayne 

Albert Kahn designed this flat-roofed building as the new headquarters 
for the Detroit Free Press. The building has a thirteen-story central 
tower with two six-story wings. The steel-framed structure is faced 
with limestone. It is 200 feet long, 125 feet wide, and has rectangular 
windows with basket-handled arches on the top floor. The rear and light 
courts of the building are faced with common bond brick. 
[Ferry, p. 333] 

DETROIT NEWS BUILDING (1917) Detroit 

615 Lafayette Blvd. at Second Ave. 17-330745-4688165 

Detroit Wayne 

The Detroit News Building, designed by Albert Kahn and Ernest Wilby in 
1915, is a massive modern structure that still suggests a sense of the 
old world. Kahn used as his model for this building a department store 
in Berlin. This style of architecture exemplified his later efforts at 
commercial buildings and represents the architect's idea of efficient use 
of space for production. The site was the home of Zachariah Chandler, a 
prominent Michigan politician. Ground was broken in November 1915 and 
was not completed until October 1917- The building is three stories high, 
constructed of reinforced concrete, and has a flat roof. Its dimensions 



56 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



are 325 feet long by 165 feet wide. Spacious windows on the first floor 
trimmed by very large arches, massive corner pylons, and extensive de- 
corations are among the building's other features. It still serves as 
the main offices of the Detroit News. 

[Burton, Vol. 1, pp. 817-819; Ferry, pp. 332-333; Legacy , p. 14; Titus, 
p. 270] 



DODGE BROTHERS COMPANY (1914,1917) Highland Park 

79000 Joseph Campau 17.331560.4694360 

Hamtramck Wayne 

Almost from the beginning, the Dodge Brothers Company built automotive 
engines and parts for the Ford Motor Company. But as early as 1910, the 
Dodge brothers were planning to manufacture a car of their own. In that 
year they purchased the present site of the Dodge Assembly Plant in Ham- 
tramck. After their break with Ford, the Dodge brothers produced the 
first car, which rolled off the assembly line on November 14, 1914. Com- 
missioned by the Dodge brothers, Albert Kahn began to design the factory 
buildings for them. The striking similarities between the Dodge factory 
and that of Highland Park are readily apparent, especially the arrange- 
ment of the administration building, the powerhouse, and the assembly 
building with its six-story wing on the south side. The main assembly 
building is approximately 1,100 feet long and 60 feet wide. It is four 
stories high, constructed of reinforced concrete, has a flat roof, and 
has two closed courts at the north end. Its fenestra windows give the 
building an appearance of an unbroken wall of glass. On the south side, 
the building is six stories high, constructed of reinforced concrete, 
and has a flat roof. In front of this building stands the four-story 
office building. It measures 400 feet long by 80 feet wide, has a flat 
roof, and is constructed of brick. The office building was completed in 
October 1915- Connecting the administration building is the present po- 
werhouse which dates back to 1920. Another building was added in 1917 
to assist the war effort during World War I. Its purpose was to build 
a certain recoil apparatus for the 155 mm Howitzers. The building was 
constructed of reinforced concrete and steel with brick facing. Its 
dimensions were 310 feet long by 125 feet wide. It is eight stories 
high facing Joseph Campau but only five stories in the back. On July 30, 
1928, the Chrysler Corporation acquired the Dodge Brothers Company, and 
therefore was known as the "Dodge Division". The main offices for the 



57 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Dodge Division were removed to Chrysler's World Headquarters in High- 
land Park in 1972. Today the offices are being used for the Hamtramck 
plant. 

[ Legacy , p. 13; Chambers, Dave, "Dodge Brothers First Fifty Years," 
Antique Automobi les , XXVIII, (Nov. -Dec. 1964), pp. 4-34; Hildebrand, 
Grant , Designing for Industry , The Architecture of Albert Kahn (Cam- 
bridge: MIT Press, 1974) , p. 59; "Building a Name," Dodge Brothers 
International Review , I, (August 1917), p. 6; "A Mechanical Triumph," 
Dodge Brothers, November 7, 1921, pp. 3, 7; "Dodge Headquarters Move 
Marks End of an Era," PR Sheet, Dodge Division, December 1971] 



DURANT-DORT CARRIAGE COMPANY (1895) Flint North 

315 W. Water St. 17.280295.4766020 

Fl int Genesee 

This building was originally used as an office building and display area 
by the Durant-Dort Carriage Company, an important forerunner of the auto- 
mobile industry in Flint. The two partners in this firm, J. Dallas Dort 
and William Crapo Durant, were important early pioneers in the automo- 
bile industry. After achieving considerable success in carriage manu- 
facturing, they entered the automobile industry by purchasing controlling 
interest in the Buick Automobile Company in 1904. This firm was the 
cornerstone of Durant's General Motors Corporation. This rectangular 
brick building, 60 feet long and 40 feet wide, was originally a two-story 
structure, but a third-story with a flat roof was added in 1906 after a 
major fire. It is virtually the only surviving structure from the early 
carriage industry of Flint. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



DURANT MOTOR COMPANY (1920) Lansing South 

401 N. Verl inden Ave. 16.698230.4734100 

Lansing Ingham 

William Durant opened this large manufacturing complex in 1920 and pro- 
duced the Durant automobile here in 1921-1932. It is an excellent exam- 
ple of the construction of long, narrow assembly plants in reinforced 
concrete. This complex consists of a main wing, 820 feet long and 100 
feet wide, fronting on Verl inden Avenue, and running north to south, plus 
four connecting wings, running on an east-west alignment. Their dimen- 
sions are 80 by 460 feet, 80 by 460 feet, 100 by 200 feet, and 100 by 
440 feet. This two-story building encloses 351,310 square feet. 



58 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



EAGLE TANNING WORKS (1912) Montague 

Lake St. 16.552045.4605030 

Whitehall Muskegon 

The Eagle Tanning Works (Whitehall Tannery), established in 1866 in 
Whitehall to exploit the hemlock bark readily available in the vicinity, 
is the oldest industry in Muskegon County. The works have had numerous 
owners during their long history, including the Eagle Ottawa Leather 
Company of Chicago, which operated the tannery in 1916-1944. The oldest 
surviving buildings date from 1912. The main building consists of two 
sections, both brick with brick-arched windows and flat roofs. The 
northern portion is four stories high, 250 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 
includes a 15 foot square, seven-story tower holding water tanks for 
fire protection. The southern portion is three stories high, 300 feet 
long, and 150 feet wide. In addition, there is a two-story brick stor- 
age building, 30 feet wide and 100 feet long, with a gabled roof, located 
to the west of the main buildings. 
[Muskegon Chronicle, July 27, 1957, p. 4; Muskegon Chronicle, June 18, 



1966, p. 9T 



EPHRAIM SHAY MACHINE SHOP (1889) Petoskey 

Judd St. 16.657083.5032055 

Harbor Springs Emmet 

Ephraim Shay, the inventor of the Shay logging locomotive, patented in 
1881, came to Harbor Springs in 1 888 and built this machine shop. This 
inventive genius used this shop to manufacture three locomotives, a one 
cylinder automobile, a steel-hulled steamboat, as well as numerous tools 
and machines. The shop is a simple rectangular brick building, 30 feet 
wide and 100 feet long, with a hipped roof. It is now used as a garage 
by the City of Harbor Springs. 
[NR] 



FISHER BODY FLEETWOOD ASSEMBLY PLANT ( 1 91 7~ 1 922) Detroit 

Fort St. at W. End Ave. 17-325160.4684860 

Detroit Wayne 

This plant was constructed in 1916-1917 under a government contract to 
produce the Italian Caproni Bomber, the J-l training aircraft, and the 
British DeHaviland fighter. It was an aircraft assembly plant until 
December 1918 and then was purchased from the government by Fisher Body 



59 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



in 1919. They built Ford, Dodge, and Chrysler-Maxwell bodies here from 
1919 until 1926, when Fisher Body became a subsidiary of General Motors 
Corporation. The plant made LaSalle bodies in 1926-19^0. Fisher Body 
had purchased the Fleetwood Custom Body Company of Fleetwood, Pennsyl- 
vania and concentrated production here from 1931 on. The plant has 
been used primarily for Cadillac body production since then, except in 
19^2-19*15, when it produced tank and aircraft parts. Today it produces 
over 200,000 Cadillac bodies annually. The earliest structures of this 
complex include Buildings #1 (1917), #2 and #3 (1918), and #k (1919), 
all single-story steel-framed buildings designed by the Detroit archi- 
tectural firm of Smith, Hinchman S Grylls. All four of these buildings 
front on West End Avenue and have aluminum siding exteriors added in 
197^. Building #6 (1922) is a six-story reinforced concrete structure, 
100 feet wide and 979 feet long, designed by Albert Kahn. 
[Fisher Body Division, General Motors Corporation, Facilities Planning 
Department, "Fisher Body Fleetwood Assembly Plant," October 28, 197^] 



FISHER BODY PLANT NUMBER 21 (1919) Detroit 

Hastings at Piquette Ave. 17-330200.4692600 

Detroit Wayne 

Fred J. and Charles T. Fisher, two of six brothers, came to Detroit in 
1901 and began working for the C.R. Wilson Body Company, the largest 
producer of automotive bodies. They established the Fisher Body Company 
in 1908 and received their first major order (150 bodies) from the Cadi- 
llac Motor Car Company (see other entries) in 1 9 1 . During the period 
from 1908 until the late 1920's, most of the Fisher Body production was 
concentrated in Detroit in an area east of Woodward Avenue and south of 
Grand Boulevard. By 1926, they owned or leased kO buildings in this area 
with a combined floorspace of over 3-7 million square feet. There has 
been a major decentralization of production since then, and Fisher Body 
today uses less than one million square feet of factory floorspace in 
this area. The earliest buildings have been demolished in the past two 
decades. The oldest remaining structure, Building #21, was constructed 
as a Body Assembly Plant and produced Buick and Cadillac bodies until 
1925, when Buick production was moved to Flint. It made Cadillac bodies 
until 1929 and then was used as an engineering design facility in 1930- 
1956. Since then, it has been used to assemble Cadillac limosine bodies. 
It is a six-story reinforced concrete building, 200 feet wide and 58l feet 
long, and has a total floorspace of 536,000 square feet. 
[Fisher Body Division, General Motors Corporation, Facilities Planning 
Department, "Fisher Body Detroit Central Plants," October 30, 197^] 



60 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



FLINT MOTOR COMPANY (1923) Flint South 

4300 S. Saginaw St. 17.281700.4762390 

Fl int Genesee 

William C. Durant announced in the summer of 1922 that he had organized 
the Flint Motor Company (a subsidiary of Durant Motors) with a capita- 
lization of $5 million and intended to erect a major factory complex on 
a 100 acre site in Flint to manufacture the Flint Six automobile. Thou- 
sands of Flint residents gathered to celebrate the groundbreaking. Durant 
sold this plant to General Motors for about $4 million in July 1926. It 
has since served as Flint Fisher Body Plant Number 1, building bodies for 
the Buick assembly complex located on the north side of Flint. The ori- 
ginal plant consists of two three-story reinforced concrete segments, 
with a total floor space of 1,157,000 square feet. Each section is E- 
shaped, with a main wing 920 feet long and 80 feet wide and three rear 
wings 400 feet long and 80 feet in width. Both buildings front on Sagi- 
naw Street, but their original configuration is obscured because this 
complex has been enlarged by several dozen additions since 1923. 
[Gustin, Larry, Bil ly Durant (Grand Rapids, 1973), pp. 231, 235] 

FORD ENGINEERING LABORATORY (1924) Dearborn 

Oakwood Ave. 17-315610.4685745 

Dearborn Wayne 

With the expansion of Ford activities, Henry Ford foresaw the need for 
a large building to conduct research and experimentation. He engaged 
Albert Kahn to design the Engineering Laboratories Building in Dearborn 
near the Rouge Complex. The building, patterned in the classical arch- 
itectural style, is a one-story structure, measuring 200 feet by 800 
feet, and built of reinforced concrete. Construction on the building 
began on March 16, 1 923 - The interior of the building was given special 
attention. Spacing between columns was 40 feet to allow considerable 
room for experimental work of all kinds, and all conduits for lighting 
and heating were concealed in the beams and in the columns. Placed at 
the Engineering Lab in 1924 were the Johanson gauges. These gauges are 
still used for industrial measurement exact to a millionth of an inch. 
The Engineering Lab also housed the Dearborn Independent newspaper and 
the radio equipment used by Ford for his distant operations in the Upper 
Peninsula. Today the building is used as the Engine and Electrical En- 
gineering Laboratory. 

[ Legacy , p. 23; Nevins, Expansion , pp. 250-251; Nelson, George, I ndustrial 
Architecture of Albert Kahn Inc. (New York: Architectural Book Publishing 
Company, Inc., 1939) , P- 154] 

61 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



FORD HIGHLAND PARK PLANT (1909-191*0 Highland Park 

15050 Woodward Ave. 17-327730.4697240 

Highland Park Wayne 

The Ford Highland Park Plant was the home of the Model T, the most pop- 
ular car of its day. Its importance in automobile history lies in Ford's 
introduction at Highland Park of the moving assembly line which revolu- 
tionized automobile manufacturing. This enabled workers to turn out not 
just a few hundred cars, but many thousands of automobiles in one day. 
To this plant Ford added numerous overhead conveyors for transferring 
heavy machinery and automobile parts — something he did not have on 
Piquette Street. Besides these two new elements to automobile production 
Ford brought to Highland Park many of the operational methods employed 
on Piquette Street, such as the efficient, strategic placement of mach- 
ines, parts, and operations around the factory in order to insure a 
smooth progression of the whole assembly line process. Ford acquired 
60 acres of land in Highland Park for the purpose of locating all phases 
of the manufacturing process in one place. The "Crystal Palace", as the 
Highland Park Plant was called, was designed by Albert Kahn, assisted by 
Edward Gray, Ford's construction engineer. Construction on the original 
buildings began in 1909, and the work was not completed until the summer 
of 191^. In the meantime, the transfer of various departments from Pi- 
quette Street was completed on New Year's Day, 1910. The main factory 
building, facing Woodward Avenue, was a four-story flat-roofed structure 
with a length of 865 feet and 75 feet in breadth. The materials used 
included reinforced concrete, steel, and walls of glass to make use of 
natural sunlight. Kahn put to use for the first time industrial steel 
sashes combined with concrete between the layers of windows. The arch- 
itect also added decorations to the corners of the building in order to 
relieve the monotony of the design -- something which will not be found 
in his later works. Behind this main factory building and parallel to 
it stood a one-story structure 840 feet long by 1 40 feet in breadth with 
a sawtooth roof. This was the machine shop. It was constructed of struc- 
tural steel with concrete foundations. Between these two buildings was 
esconced a large craneway 860 feet by 57 feet with a glass roof over it. 
An intersecting craneway also converged into the machine shop. Thus 
these two buildings joined together by the craneway formed the largest 
single factory in Michigan up to that time. The buildings in front of 
the factory comprised the Administration Building, the powerhouse with 
its five smokstacks, and the Lincoln Sales and Service Building. To 
the rear of the machine shop and along Manchester Avenue stand several 
six-story structures built around 1915-1916. Although most of the ori- 
ginal factory building, Administration Building, and the powerhouse were 



62 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



torn down in 1959, a portion of the factory building and the Lincoln 
Sales and Service Building still stand. The buildings on Manchester 
Avenue still stand and are used by Ford as a trim shop and for paint 
and chemical products. 

[ Legacy , p. 12; Ferry, pp. 182-183; Nevins, The Times , pp. ^+5 1 -^57 ; 
Detroit News, February 15, 1957, n.p. ; Detroit News, April 16, 1959, 



n.p. ; NR. 



FORD HIGHLAND PARK: 

SALES AND SERVICE BUILDING (1920) Highland Park 

15050 Woodward Ave. 17-327300.4697140 

Highland Park Wayne 

This four-story structure was erected by the Ford Motor Company as a 
service building and the Michigan sales branch office. It was designed 
by Albert Kahn and was completed in 1920. The structure is a reinforced 
concrete frame building with a flat concrete roof. It has wooden sash 
windows and red brick facing on the north and south ends of the building, 
The edifice measures 200 feet long and 62 feet wide. The first floor of 
the building was used as a showroom, stock salesroom, and for sales of- 
fices. The second floor was used for sales and executive offices. The 
third floor was also used for offices, while the fourth floor was em- 
ployed for the storage of automobiles. Directly behind this building 
is a one-story garage measuring 200 feet long and 44 feet wide. During 
the late 1940's and 1950's the Ford Tractor Division was located here. 
The building stands vacant today. 

[ Detroit Free Press , June 5, 1919, p. 10; Detroit Journal , June 4, 1919; 
NR] 



FORD MOTOR COMPANY PIQUETTE PLANT (1904) Detroit 

411 Piquette St. at Beaubien 17-329920.4692570 

Detroit Wayne 

The phenomenal success of Ford sales in 1904 and 1905, only one year 
after incorporation, enabled Ford to plow back the profits into a new 
plant at Piquette and Beaubien Avenues. Their accomplishment allowed 
Ford and his colleagues to realize their dream of not only creating an 
immense corporation able to compete with the other large automobile 
manufacturers, but also to surpass them by offering to the general pu- 
blic an inexpensive, efficient means of transportation. On April 1, 
1904 approval was given for the construction of the Piquette Street 



63 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



factory, at a cost of $76,500. The architectural firm engaged for the 
project was Field, Hinchman & Smith. Construction began in May of a 
three-story, flat-roofed structure measuring 402 feet by 56 feet. The 
outside wall surfaces were reduced to tapered pillars supported by 
heavy timbers. Interior beams and girders were supported by wood, iron 
or steel columns. Prudent precautions were taken against fire. Auto- 
matic sprinkler systems were provided and each floor was divided into 
four sections by fire walls. A powerhouse, a paint shop, and a testing 
area stood next to the factory. The site was also easily connected to 
several railroad lines. A number of different model cars were manu- 
factured on Piquette Street including the famous Model T which first 
appeared in October 1908. The Model T proved so popular that in 1909 
Ford announced to the world that this would be the only model he would 
build. The huge demand for Ford automobiles forced Ford to seek even 
larger spaces. His eye was turned to Highland Park. In the summer of 
1911 the buildings here were sold to the Studebaker Corporation and be- 
came Studebaker Plant Number 10. The 3M Company used the buildings from 
1938 through the 1960's. Today the factories belong to the Detroit Over- 
all Manufacturing Company and the Cadillac Overall Supply Company. 
[Ferry, p. 179; Nevins, The Times, pp. 261-262, 265-266, 452] 



FORD MOTOR COMPANY: BUILDING B (1917) Dearborn 

Ford River Rouge Complex 17-321850.4685900 

Dearborn Wayne 

One of the earliest factory buildings constructed at the vast Ford Rouge 
Complex was Building B. The Rouge Complex in Dearborn, Michigan forms 
the hub for the production of Ford automobiles in the United States. 
Building B was the site of the first productive activity at the Rouge, 
but not for automobiles at first. During World War I, Henry Ford was 
contracted to manufacture Eagle boats for the Navy. He sought to apply 
the mass production techniques used at the Ford Highland Park Plant to 
produce these boats, and to design a new, distinctive building, in con- 
trast to previous patterns, to manufacture them. From his experience at 
the Piquette Street Plant and the Highland Park Plant, Ford acknowledged 
the many disadvantages of multi-storied factories. Ford employed Albert 
Kahn, an architect in Detroit, to design for him a one-story structure. 
Kahn designed for him a building 1,700 feet long, 350 feet wide, and 100 
feet high with a steel frame and massive walls of glass. This style of 
industrial architecture, one-story buildings with steel frames and walls 
of glass, became the standard design for automobile plants. After the 
war, the foundations of the building were reinforced and two stories were 
added to either side of the central part of the building. By August 1919 



64 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



Building B was converted to automobile parts manufacturing for shipment 
to Highland Park. The following year witnessed the production of the 
Fordson tractor in Building B, taking up a large part of the first floor. 
But it was not until the transfer of the assembly line from Highland Park 
in September 1927 that Ford achieved his vision of a comprehensive site 
where all manufacturing processes took place. No longer would parts have 
to be shipped from plants all over the city. Today, automobiles are still 
being assembled there, now called the Dearborn Assembly Plant. 
[ Legacy , p. 23; Nevins, Expansion , pp. 209-210, 212, 293] 

FORD RIVER ROUGE PRESS SHOP (1938) Dearborn 

Ford River Rouge Complex 1 7. 321340. 4685800 

Dearborn Wayne 

The Press Shop at the River Rouge Complex was an L-shaped building de- 
voted to molding a major portion of the exterior body parts needed for 
automobile assembly. The building was designed by Albert Kahn and re- 
presented Ford's idea of planning factory buildings around machinery 
locations. The main part of the structure extended 1 ,600 feet long by 
392 feet wide, and the shorter section measured 664 feet long by 240 
feet wide. The Press Shop was made of steel and reinforced concrete con- 
struction. In order to support all of the enormously heavy machinery and 
the massive loads within the building, use was made of H beam pilings 
which were driven 90-110 feet down to bedrock. The members of the 
building constructed of reinforced concrete included all abutments and 
building and machine foundations, all of which lie on top of the H beams. 
About 47,000 tons of steel were used in the piles and the superstructure. 
Although the building gives the appearance of being a 4-tiered structure, 
in actual fact there were only two floors: the main floor with all the 
presses used for production, and an above-ground basement where the cast 
steel bases for the huge presses are housed. The most unusual feature 
of the Press Shop is the ease with which these presses, often weighing 
over 350 tons, can be moved around to new locations and made to set into 
the bases fixed in the floor below. The three 90 ton overhead craneways 
are used for this purpose. Throughout the building are a number of 
smaller presses that stamp out various other body parts. The Press Shop 
has been connected with the Rolling Mills, the Spring and Upset Shop, the 
Sleeve and Axle Building, and the Open Hearth Mill to constitute the pre- 
sent Dearborn Stamping Plant. 

[ Legacy , p. 25; Deckard, H.C., "Ford Opens Two New Shops," American 
Machinist , LXXXIII, (February 22, 1939), pp. 69-71 ; "Portfolio of In- 
dustrial Buildings, Albert Kahn, Inc.," Architectural Forum , LXIX, 
(August 1938), p. 132; "Ford Rouge Guide," (Ford Motor Company Vertical 
Guide, Wayne State University Library, n.d.), p. 59] 

65 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

FORD MOTOR COMPANY GLASS PLANT (1925) Dearborn 

Ford River Rouge Complex 17.321670.4685920 

Dearborn Wayne 

Henry Ford commissioned Albert Kahn to design the Glass Plant at 
the River Rouge Complex in 1922. The source of glass for Ford 
automobiles prior to the Rouge plant had been Highland Park and 
a glass plant in Glassmere, Pennsylvania. The original bed of 
Rouge Creek once flowed through the present site of the Glass 
Plant. The building was constructed of steel with extensive 
walls of glass, and measured 760 feet long by 240 feet wide. It 
also featured butterfly roofs and clerestory monitors. There 
are four furnaces, each making glass for a specific purpose, as 
well as four smokestacks detached from the building. Completed 
in 1925, a major addition dates from 1935- 

[ Legacy , p. 23; Nevins, Peel ine , pp. 26, 60 ; "Architectural Plans 
for the Glass Plant," Albert Kahn Associates] 

FORD MOTOR COMPANY TIRE PLANT (1938) Dearborn 

Ford River Rouge Complex 17-321870.4685500 

Dearborn Wayne 

The Ford Tire Plant at the River Rouge Complex illustrates Albert Kahn's 
style of industrial architecture, with its prominent glass exteriors, 
unadorned walls, and the simple form of factory design. The building is 
flat-roofed, measures 802 feet long by 242 feet wide, and is constructed 
of steel. Several monitors provide natural lighting from above. Ford's 
attention to details regarding the direction of the manufacturing pro- 
cess is recognized in his use of special glass in the skylights and win- 
dows to filter out certain acid rays which affect rubber. The Tire Plant 
was completed on January 30, 1938. The most significant aspect of the 
Tire Plant is the almost complete automation of the whole manufacturing 
process. Prior to the construction of the Tire Plant, Ford bought his 
tires from the major tire manufacturers. But labor problems in the rub- 
ber industry during the 1930's persuaded Ford of the necessity for pro- 
ducing his own tires. A standard practice of Ford, so as to keep a con- 
stant check on costs and to stimulate new manufacturing processes, was 
to manufacture part of his needs. Ford acquired a rubber plantation in 
South America as a source for rubber. At one point 5,000 tires were pro- 
duced in one day. During the early 1940's, Ford sold part of the tire 
manufacturing equipment to Russia in order to make room in the plant for 



66 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



war production. The building is presently being used as the Dearborn 
Assembly Plant Stock Storage Warehouse. 

[ Legacy , p. 24; Nevins, Peel ine , pp. 60, 219; "Portfolio of Industrial 
Buildings, Albert Kahn, Inc. ," Architectural Forum , LXIX, (August 1938), 
p. 124; Detroit Free Press , August 6, 1936; Detroit News , May 27, 1938; 
"Architectural Plans for the Tire Plant," Albert Kahn Associates] 



FULLER BUGGY COMPANY (1909, c.1925) Jackson North 

225 N. Horton St. 16. 71 6480.4681 320 

Jackson Jackson 

There are two distinct buildings on this site, both closely associated 
with the early automobile industry. The smaller building, constructed 
in 1909, is a one-story brick structure, 110 feet by 85 feet, with a 
gabled roof. It was occupied by the Fuller Buggy Company in 1909-1911, 
when the Fuller car was made here. Benjamin Briscoe, one of Michigan's 
early automobile manufacturers, formed the Briscoe Motor Company in 1913 
and manufactured the Briscoe car in this building in 1914-1921. Several 
other automobiles were made here, including the Hollier car in 1915-1921 
and the Earl car in 1921-1923. The second building on this site is a 
one-story brick structure, approximately 250 feet square, with a sawtooth 
roof, built around 1925. Both buildings have been continuously occupied 
by firms producing either automobiles or automobile parts. 
[Lewis, p. 36; Rae, John B., American Automobile Manufacturers (New York: 
Chilton Company, 1959), p. 96*] 



GALE MANUFACTURING COMPANY (1888) Homer 

N. Albion St. 16.684060.4679025 

Albion Calhoun 

Horatio, Augustus, and O.C. Gale established the Gale Manufacturing Com- 
pany in 1861 to manufacture farm implements. From 1 863 until 1888, they 
operated in a complex which is no longer extant, located near the Albion 
business district. The firm became known for their high quality farm 
implements and by I876, output had reached 7,000 plows and 1,200 rakes. 
They constructed a new manufacturing complex on North Albion Street in 
1888, but most of those buildings are no longer extant. All that remains 
is the office building, a rectangular two-story brick building, 40 feet 
long and 30 feet wide, resting on a stone foundation. 

[ History of Calhoun County (Philadelphia: Everts 6 Company, 1877), p. 106; 
Krenerick, Miriam, Albion's Milestones and Memories (Albion, 1932), p. 70] 



67 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



GENERAL MOTORS PROVING GROUND (192*0 Kent Lake 

General Motors Rd. 1 7.280160.471 6160 

Milford Oakland 

The General Technical Committee of General Motors Corporation was esta- 
blished in September 1923 by Alfred Sloan to establish a unified engi- 
neering policy for the Corporation. It included Sloan, the Chief Engi- 
neers of the Car and Truck Divisions, and several other Corporation 
executives. This committee decided to construct a private facility to 
conduct experimental road testing under controlled conditions. They 
purchased a tract of land of approximately 1,000 acres near Milford, 
located centrally to serve the six Car and Truck Divisions in Detroit, 
Pontiac, Flint, and Lansing. The initial facility opened in 1924 con- 
sisted of seven miles of test track, including a concrete straightaway 
20 feet wide and over one mile long, a high speed gravel segment, a 
concrete hill segment with a grade of 11%, and a gravel hill segment 
with a 1% grade. The size and configuration of the original test tracks 
is largely untouched, although these tracks have been resurfaced numerous 
times. A steel-framed garage, 60 feet wide and 200 feet long, with glass 
walls and a mansard roof, was the first building erected there. Similar 
garages were built on either side of the first garage in 1926 and 1928, 
and the three garages were enlarged and combined into one large building 
in the 1 9^0 ' s . This complex has grown considerably since its foundation. 
Nineteen miles of new test tracks were built in 1 924- 1 942 and an addi- 
tional 145,000 square feet of test facilities and living quarters were 
constructed. By 1974, this facility included 79 miles of test tracks, 
over one million square feet of floor space, and employed 1,254 personnel, 
[Twenty Years of Getting the Facts," (n.p., 1944), pp. 2-15; Grlndings 
From the Grounds , Fiftieth Anniversary Issue, Number 833 (September 5, 
WV)T~ 



GLAZIER STOVE COMPANY (1894,1905) Stockbridge 

Main St. 16.745085.4689050 

Chelsea Washtenaw 

Frank Glazier established the Glazier Stove Company in Chelsea in 1891 
and this firm specialized in the manufacture of oil burning stoves. 
His original factory was destroyed by fire in 1894 and he rebuilt on 
the present site. The Glazier Stove Company and its large factory com- 
plex dominated the economy of Chelsea during the first four decades of 
this century. The surviving structures include the landmark "Tower 
Building", a three-story pentagonal brick building with an attractive 



68 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



five-story octagonal brick 
are two one-story brick bui 
the other measuring 100 by 
structures, 80 by 100 feet 
have flat roofs. Finally, 
constructed in 1905, common 
nate two-story brick struct 
originally equipped with a 
extant. 
[ Chel sea , 125th Anniversary 



clock tower on the southwest corner. There 
ldings, one 400 feet long and 105 feet wide, 
60 feet, as well as two three-story brick 
and 80 by 150 feet. All of these buildings 
there is an employees' recreation center, 
ly called the Welfare Building. This or- 
ure, 50 feet wide and 100 feet long, was 
swimming pool and steam baths, no longer 

, 1834-1959, pp. 25-29] 



HANDLEY MOTORS COMPANY (1921) 
2016 N. Pitcher St. 
Kalamazoo 



Kalamazoo 

16.617150.4685200 

Kalamazoo 



The Handley Motors Company erected this building in 1920-1921 and used 
it to build the Handley and Handley-Knight automobiles in 1921-1923. 
It is approximately 100 feet wide and 400 feet long. The southernmost 
portion, about 50 feet long, is of brick construction, while the re- 
mainder is steel-framed, enabling the extensive use of windows on the 
walls. The building is owned by the Checker Motors Corporation and is 
used for office space and storage. 
[Lewis, p. 36; Kalamazoo Gazette, January 7, 1920, p. 1] 



HARTSHORN CURTAIN ROLLER COMPANY (1903) 

1050 W. Western Ave. 

Muskegon 



Lake Harbor 

16.556800.4784550 

Muskegon 



This shade manufactory is an early example of the use of reinforced con- 
crete in factory construction. Mr. Hartshorn reportedly consulted Mor- 
timer Coole, Dean of the University of Michigan College of Engineering, 
before proceeding to build this structure. It is a one and one-half 
story rectangular building, 300 feet long and 60 feet wide, with gabled 
roofs . 
[ Muskegon Chronicle , February 16, 1957, p. 3] 



69 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 




Glazier Stove Company (1894 , 1905) , Chelsea 
70 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



IMPERIAL WHEEL COMPANY PLANT (1899) Jackson North 

512 N. WIsner St. 16. 712060. 4680980 

Jackson Jackson 

William Durant and J. Dallas Dort organized the Imperial Wheel Company 
in 1899 and erected this building as a wheel factory. They were pro- 
ducing over one million wheels by 1903- Both men became early leaders 
in the automobile industry. Durant used this building to produce Buicks 
in 1905-1907, immediately before he opened his new Buick plant in Flint. 
The Marion-Handley car was also manufactured in this building in 1916- 
1919- It is a two-story brick structure, with a large rectangular sec- 
tion, 375 feet long and 60 feet wide, with a gabled roof, and a smaller 
attached office building, 75 feet long and 20 feet wide, with a steeply- 
pitched roof. 

[Charles DeLand, History of Jackson County (Chicago: Bowen , 1903), 
pp. 585-586] 



INDUSTRIAL WORKS: 

INDUSTRIAL BR0WNH0IST (c. 1 890-1920) Bay City 

135 Washington Ave. 17.266500.4830255 

Bay City Bay 

The Industrial Works was founded in 1873, with George Kimball serving 
as its first president. They began manufacturing general machinery, 
but in 1879 made their first railroad steam shovels, and by the early 
1 880 ' s the firm was specializing in heavy duty railroad wrecking cranes. 
Virtually all of the manufacturing complex in Bay City was completed by 
1920, when the firm was reputed to own 59 buildings with a total floor 
space of 440,000 square feet. The Industrial Works merged with the 
Brown Hoisting Machinery Company of Cleveland in 1927, forming the 
Industrial Brownhoist Corporation. The complex includes five major 
buildings and numerous smaller ones. The two oldest buildings, both 
dating from the early l890's, are brick-walled structures with massive 
timber framing and timber roof trusses. One is approximately 75 feet 
by 300 feet and the other approximately 200 feet square. The foundry 
(c. 1910) is a steel-framed building, 100 feet by 300 feet, with a 
gabled roof providing two levels of monitor windows. The Machine Shop 
(1918) is a steel-framed building, 200 feet by 600 feet, utilizing ex- 
tensive expanses of glass both in the walls and in roof monitors and 
skylights. The Steel Fabrication Shops consist of two adjoining 



71 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

buildings running parallel to each other and running perpendicular to 
a third building. All three are of similar design and dimensions, each 
approximately 150 feet by 50 feet, of steel-framed construction, with 
single-monitor roofs. 

[Butterfield, George, Bay County , Past and Present (Bay City, 1918), 
p. 146; Butterfield, George E., Bay County , Past and Present (Bay City, 
1957), p. 81; Gansser, Augustus H., History of Bay County , Michigan 
(Chicago, 1905), p. 226] 

JUDGE WISNER CARRIAGE BARN (c.l880) Flint North 

Crossroads Village 17.284390.^77^200 

Fl int Genesee 

The first automobile made in Flint was assembled in this barn by Judge 
Charles H. Wisner in 1900. It was originally located behind Judge Wis- 
ner's home at 516 East Court Street, but was moved to its present loca- 
tion in 1975. Wisner's first automobile, called a "buzz wagon" by skep- 
tics in this city known for its carriage industry, appeared in Flint's 
Labor Day Parade in 1900. Wisner unsuccessfully tried to interest 
William Durant, the eventual founder of General Motors, in his vehicle. 
The building is a simple wood-framed structure, 20 feet square, with a 
hipped roof topped by a square cupola. 

[Gustin, Larry, Bi 1 ly Durant (Grand Rapids, 1973), p. 51; Lethbridge, 
Alice, Halfway to Yesterday (n.p., 197*0, p. 213] 

LAMBERT BUILDING (1899) Marshall 

500 S. Kalamazoo Ave. 16.667775.4681125 

Marshall Calhoun 

William and Egbert Page began manufacturing buggies in Marshall in 1 869 - 
They incorporated in 1890, then reincorporated in 1893, with a capital 
of $50,000. This successful manufacturing firm erected this three-story 
brick building, 60 feet wide and 400 feet long, in 1899- With its brick- 
arched windows, flat roof, and strictly functional lines, it is an exam- 
ple of typical factory construction of the late nineteenth century. It 
is now occupied by a firm which manufactures automatic doors. 
[Gardner, Washington, History of Calhoun County , Michigan (New York: 
Lewis, 1913), p. 252] 



72 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



LANE MOTOR TRUCK COMPANY (191 8) Kalamazoo 

1802 Reed St. 16. 618935. 4680935 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

This structure was first used to manufacture the Lane truck in 1918-1919. 
The Kalamazoo Motors Corporation purchased this building in 1920 and as- 
sembled the popular Kalamazoo truck here during the early 1920's. It is 
a one-story rectangular brick structure, 60 feet wide and 300 feet long, 
with a flat roof. Approximately three-quarters of the roof area is sup- 
ported by brick columns two feet in width, spaced five feet apart, per- 
mitting the extensive use of windows on the walls. 
[Lewis, p. 36] 



LINCOLN MOTOR CAR COMPANY (1917) Dearborn 

6200 Warren Ave. 1 7- 324485. 4690200 

Detroit Wayne 

Henry Leland and his son left Cadillac Motor Car Company over a dispute 
with Billy Durant concerning the production of Liberty engines for the 
war effort. He went on to form the Lincoln Motor Car Company on August 
29, 1917 for the purpose of manufacturing Liberty engines. The first 
Lincoln plant was located on Holden Avenue, but this plant proved too 
small for large quantity production. Ground was broken for the Warren 
Avenue Plant on September 21, 1917- Construction of the main buildings 
was completed by Christmas of that year. This included the long L-shaped 
structure, now designated as "B" and "C" Buildings, the office building, 
"D" Building, and the powerhouse. Due to shortages of steel and masonry 
during World War I, the old mill style of construction with brick walls 
and wooden sashes was utilized. George D. Mason was the architect for 
these buildings. The main buildings, "B" and "C", measure 45 feet by 
200 feet and 840 feet by 70 feet respectively. They are both four 
stories high, have flat roofs, and are faced with cream colored brick. 
They were built of reinforced concrete and include many windows for na- 
tural lighting. The third and fourth floors of the "C" Building are 
wooden. The building designated as "D" measures 1,275 feet long and 68 
feet wide. It was constructed of reinforced concrete, has cream colored 
brick facing, and uses many windows for lighting. The first floor was 
constructed in 1 9 1 8 and the upper three floors were added in 1926. The 
roof of this building is flat. Unfortunately for Leland, his venture 
proved unsuccessful and the Lincoln Motor Car Company was purchased by 
Henry Ford in 1922. Another addition was made in 1923 of a one-story 
structure of steel and brick. Ford had Albert Kahn design this building 



73 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



for him because the upper three floors of "C" Building were wooden and 
could not hold much machinery. The building stands 1,552 feet long and 
250 feet wide. Atop this building were two butterfly monitors extending 
the full length of the building. But this has been modified over the 
years. The Lincoln Zephyr, the Mercury, and the Lincoln Continental 
were all produced at this plant. In 1952 the assembly operations for 
the Lincoln and Mercury were moved to a new site in Wayne, Michigan, 
and the plant on Warren and Livernois was purchased by the Detroit Edi- 
son Company as a service center in 1955. 

[Ferry, p. 337; Nevins, Expansion , pp. 1 7^*- 1 75 ; "How an Ideal of Ser- 
vice Became the Lincoln Motor Company," Ford News , September 15, 1923, 
p. 1; A Pledge Made Good (Detroit: Press of Lincoln Motor Car Company, 
1919)] 



LUFKIN RULE COMPANY ( 1 892 , c. 1910) Saginaw 

1730-2000 Hess St. 17.261840.4809200 

Saginaw Saginaw 

The Lufkin Rule Company, manufacturers of steel and wooden rules, gauges, 
and scientific instruments, was founded in Cleveland in 1 883 by Fred Buck. 
The company moved to Saginaw in 1892, when the lumbering industry of 
Michigan was in decline, and it quickly became one of the largest em- 
ployers in the city. By 1912, the firm employed over 400 workers. After 
several prolonged labor disputes in the 1940's and early 1950's, the firm 
moved its operations out of Saginaw. The oldest portion of the complex, 
built in 1892, consists of two and three-story interconnected brick 
buildings approximately 400 feet in length fronting on Hess Street, with 
a major wing extending approximately 300 feet to the south. Also fronting 
on Hess Street is a two-story brick building, 400 feet long and 200 feet 
wide, with a sawtooth roof supporting glass panels, probably built around 
1910. 

[Gardner, H.W., Greater Saginaw (Saginaw, 1912), p. 45; Mills, James C, 
History of Saginaw County (Saginaw, 1918), pp. 490, 498; Saginaw Pi rec- 
tory , 1891-1892 , p. 501] 



MASON MOTOR CAR COMPANY: 

CHEVROLET MOTOR CAR COMPANY (1916,1919,1926) Flint North 

300 Chevrolet Ave. 17.279198.4765350 

Flint Genesee 

This manufacturing complex centered around the intersection of Chevrolet 
Avenue and the Flint River has a long and complex history. It was first 

74 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



occupied in the early l880's by the Flint Wagon Works. In 1903, William 
C. Durant took over the Flint Wagon Works properties, originally to aid 
in the production of Buicks. In 1911, he established the Chevrolet Motor 
Car Company, initially centered in Detroit, and the Mason Motor Car Com- 
pany, which was to produce engines for Chevrolet in the Flint Wagon Works 
buildings. Chevrolet moved to Flint in 1913 and Mason Motors became a 
division of Chevrolet Motors. The oldest extant building in this com- 
plex is the Mason Engine Plant (1916) on the east side of Chevrolet Ave- 
nue, just south of the Flint River. Later additions to this complex 
include the Assembly Plant (1919) located north of the Mason Motor Car 
Company building across the Flint River; the Powerhouse (1919); Old 
Fisher Body Plant Number 2 (1926); a new engine plant (1926); and sev- 
eral additional buildings. This complex is significant in that it was 
the second Chevrolet manufacturing and assembly complex and was the ba- 
sis for Chevrolet's rapid growth during the 1 9 1 ' s - The total produc- 
tion of this automobile plant had increased from about 3,000 units in 
1912 to nearly 150,000 units by 1919- This was also the scene of the 
critical sit-down strikes of 1936-1937 which brought about the union- 
ization of this major industry. 

[Gustin, Lawrence, Billy Durant : Creator of General Motors (Grand 
Rapids: Eerdmans, 1973), pp. 34-38, 60-63, 1 46-1 58; The Chevrolet Story 
(Chevrolet Division, General Motors, 1970), pp. 5~13l 



OAKLAND MOTOR CAR DIVISION (1919-1925) Pontiac North 

Baldwin Ave. at Howard St. 17-311610.4723840 

Pontiac Oakland 

The Oakland Motor Car Company was established in 1907 by Edward M. 
Murphy, a Pontiac buggy manufacturer. He introduced the Model K Oak- 
land in 1908 and sales of this expensive four cylinder car grew rapidly. 
William C. Durant became interested in the company and in 1909 bought 
controlling interest and brought the Oakland Motor Car Company into 
General Motors. Production of the Oakland climbed from 491 in 1909 to 
nearly 30,000 in 1318, necessitating a major plant expansion the fol- 
lowing year. The oldest buildings on this site are several dating from 
that expansion. Earlier buildings were all razed in 1934. This is now 
a minor part of the Pontiac Motor Division's operations. In fact, this 
site began to lose its importance as early as 1927, when an immense new 
plant to build the Pontiac car (introduced in 1926) was opened on a 246 
acre site on the northern edge of the city. The Oakland automobile was 
discontinued in 1932. The surviving buildings on the Oakland Motor Car 
site include Building Number 125 (Plant 4), a brick wood-framed single- 



75 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



story building, of irregular shape, with about 250,000 square feet of 
floor space. This building is totally obscured by more recent addi- 
tions. Building Number 115 (1921) is a four-story reinforced concrete 
structure, 138 feet wide and 148 feet long. Building Number 127 (1925) 
is a three-story rectangular reinforced concrete building, 64 feet wide 
and 340 feet long, originally used as a heat treatment plant. 
[ Detroit Engineer , January 1976, pp. 6-8] 



0LDSM0BILE BUILDING NUMBER 16 (1912 , 19^5) 

300 feet south of Division St. 
Lans ing 



Lansing South 
16.699560.^732500 
I ngham 



This building was constructed in 1912 by W.E. Wood, a Detroit contractor, 
and was originally used for the assembly and testing of Oldsmobiles. It 
was used for storage in 1 9^*9- 1 960 , was then used to assembly the F-85 
automobile and has recently been used for the assembly of the Oldsmobile 
Toronado. It is a two-story rectangular brick building, with an interior 
frame of wooden timbers, and a flat roof. It is 74 feet wide and 756 
feet long, and is divided into three equal sections. Steel structural 
channels were added in 1945 as floor reinforcement. 



PACKARD SALESROOM (1915) 
8500 Woodward Ave. 
Detroit 



Highland Park 

17-328940.4693560 

Wayne 



Built by Albert Kahn, the Packard Salesroom illustrates the use of arch- 
itectural features in the framework of the building. Classical columns 
are utilized for structural support of the building. Very large windows 
give a light, spacious quality inside. The building is two stories high 
with dimensions of 120 feet by 70 feet. The flat roof is bordered by a 
concrete cornice across the top. There was also very ornate ironwork 
around the doors and windows. A service area was located behind the 
showroom. The building is currently being used as a McDonald's hambur- 
ger restaurant. 

[ Legacy , p. 20; Detroit Free Press, April 6, 1974, p. C-2; Progressive 
Architect, IV (August 1 97 I iTT P- 32] 



76 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



PACKARD MOTOR CAR COMPANY: 

BUILDING NUMBER 5 (1910) Highland Park 

1580 E. Grand Blvd. 17-332800.4693680 

Detroit Wayne 

After Building Number 10 was constructed in 1905, Henry Joy had Albert 
Kahn replace the mill construction buildings with reinforced concrete 
ones. Building Number 5 was put up in 1910. Kahn placed the building 
in the middle of a quadrangle with windows on all eight sides. Number 
5 is seven stories high, constructed of reinforced concrete and brick 
facing, and measures 200 feet long by 153 feet wide. It has a flat 
roof and steel sash windows. The building is now being used by a num- 
ber of small businesses. The Packard complex was the home of the 
Packard Motor Car Company until 1956 when it was merged with the Stude- 
baker Corporation. 

[Ferry, p. 180; "Packard Cars Made and Being Made," Motor Age , V, 
(April 15, 1904) , p. 12] 



PACKARD MOTOR CAR COMPANY: 

BUILDING NUMBER 10 (1905) Highland Park 

1580 E. Grand Blvd. 17-332800.4693680 

Detroit Wayne 

After experimenting with reinforced concrete in the Palms Apartment 
Building in 1903 (see other entry), Albert Kahn then designed this 
automobile factory constructed in 1905- It was the first reinforced 
concrete factory building in Detroit. The Trussed Concrete Steel Com- 
pany of Detroit prepared the structural design for the building and it 
was erected by the Concrete Steel and Tile Construction Company, also 
of Detroit. Construction was completed in two and one-half months, a 
remarkable achievement in itself. It was originally a two-story building, 
60 feet wide and 457 feet long, with an ell measuring 60 feet by 240 feet. 
The design utilized a single row of reinforced concrete interior columns, 
each 18 inches by 16 inches, set 32 feet apart. This arrangement left 
a clear floor space of 32 feet by 60 feet between columns, a major ad- 
vantage from the viewpoint of the automobile manufacturer. The longi- 
tudinal girder between the columns is 22 inches wide, 36 inches deep, 
and reinforced with two one inch by three inch steel bars and three one 
and one-fourth inch by three and three-fourths inch steel bars. The 
traverse floor girders, placed at intervals of 16 feet, were 30 feet long, 
18 inches wide, and 30 inches deep, and were reinforced in the same manner 
as the longitudinal girder. 

[Ferry, p. 180; Engineering Record , Vol. 54, No. 20, November 17, 1906, 
p. 545; Parker, John, "A History of the Packard Motor Car Company from 
1899 to 1929" (Master's Thesis, Wayne State University, 1949), pp. 35~36] 

77 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 




Packard Motor Car Company: Building Number 10 (1905), Detroit 

78 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



PLYMOUTH MOTOR CORPORATION (1928) Highland Park 

633^ Lynch Rd. at Mt. Elliot Ave. 1 7-332520. 46961 30 

Detroit Wayne 

In 1928 Walter Chrysler established the Plymouth Motor Corporation to 
manufacture the low priced Chrysler Plymouth automobile, to be introduced 
at a time when Ford was changing over from production of the Model T to 
the Model A. Albert Kahn was commissioned to build the vast assembly 
building at Mt. Elliot and Lynch Road. A Dodge plant, already located 
there, served as the nucleus for the new Plymouth factory. Ground was 
broken on October 10, 1928, and laborers spent six months to erect the 
largest assembly plant at that time. The factory was opened in January 
1929, producing 1,000 cars per day. The Dodge factory was 1,952 feet 
long and 250 feet wide. Kahn increased the size of the building to a 
length of 2,^90 feet and a width of 375 feet. An extended portion was 
200 feet in width. The factory is a one-story structure, steel-framed 
with a sawtooth roof, and various kinds of monitors for natural lighting. 
At the end of World War II, the Plymouth Detroit Assembly Plant performed 
an important role in the development of the A Bomb. The engineers of 
Chrysler constructed a nickel-plated steel process for use in a diffu- 
sion tank that separated isotope U-235, an important element for the A 
Bomb, from the ordinary isotope U-238. The plant is still being used 
today for assembly operations. 

[Ferry, p. 338; Titus, pp. 278-279; Blonston, Gary, Plymouth , Its First 
Forty Years , Chrysler Plymouth Division, Public Relations Department, 
June 11, 1968, pp. 21, 35; Rae, John B., American Automobile Manufac- 
turers , The First Forty Years (Philadelphia: Chilton Company, 1959), 
pp. 199-200; "Eighty Days From Factory Foundation to Finished Cars," 
Machinery (New York, May 1929), XXXV, pp. 648-652] 

RAINIER MOTOR CAR COMPANY (1906,1935) Saginaw 

1305 N. Washington St. 17-263290.4814560 

Saginaw Saginaw 

J.T. Rainier moved to Saginaw from New York City in 1 906 and briefly 
produced the heavy, expensive Rainier automobile here in 1906-1907- 
The plant was then taken over by the Peninsular Motor Company, which 
produced the Marquette automobile there until 1912, when the plant 
closed. General Motors then purchased the facility and used it during 
World War I to produce trench mortar shells. The plant was retooled 
and produced the Chevrolet "Baby Grand" engine, a four cylinder valve- 
in-head engine until 1922, when the plant was again shut down. It was 



79 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



reopened in 1928 to serve as a pilot plant for the new Chevrolet six 
cylinder engine. It then served as unit of the Chevrolet foundry in 
1935-1945 and has served as a parts manufacturing operation since then, 
specializing in water pumps. The two-story brick building is a rectan- 
gular building with the southwest corner truncated to give the struc- 
ture five sides. Overall, it is 240 feet wide and 560 feet long and 
features a massive glassed sawtooth roof covering about two-thirds of 
the bu i 1 ding. 

[Polk, R.L., Saginaw D? rectory , 1908 , p. 723; Detroit Free Press , 
March 12, 1965, p. 6-D] 



REO MOTOR CAR COMPANY PLANT (1905-1926) Lansing South 

2100 S. Washington St. 16.700700.4732150 

Lansing Ingham 

Ransom E. Olds was one of the most important American pioneers in the 
automobile industry. He first produced automobiles in 1897 with the 
formation of the Olds Motor Company in Lansing. He moved his manufac- 
turing operations to Detroit in 1899, then sold the Olds Motor Company 
(and the name "01 dsmobi le") in 1904 and returned to Lansing. On Septem- 
ber 27, 1904, he formed the Reo Motor Car Company in Lansing and opened 
up the first building in this complex in 1905- He produced the "Reo" 
(formed from his initials) in this plant in 1905-1936. This was also 
the home of an extensive production of Reo trucks. In 1957, the firm 
was purchased by the White Motor Corporation, which then purchased the 
Diamond T Company, a Chicago truck manufacturer. The two firms were 
then merged in 1967 to form Diamond Reo Trucks, Inc. This complex of 
about fifty buildings with a combined floor space of slightly over two 
million square feet is located on a compact site containing 38.7 acres. 
Virtually all of the buildings were constructed between 1905 and 1926. 
The most historic buildings still standing are Building Number 1 and 
an adjoining office structure, both erected in 1905; Building Number 4 
(1908); Buildings Numbers 6 and 7 (1914); and the Clubhouse (1917). 
All of these structures with the exception of Building Number 1 front 
on Washington Street. 

[Darling, Birt, City on the Forest : The Story of Lans ing (New York, 
1950) , pp. 163-lCT] 



80 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



ROUND OAK STOVE COMPANY (1900) Cassopolis 

Becson St. 16.573087.4647070 

Dowagiac Cass 

The Round Oak Stove Company developed the first stove large enough to 
take whole oak logs, along with an underdraft system in 1 867- The com- 
pany expanded greatly during the 1890's and this building was erected 
at the beginning of this century. It is a three-story, brick structure, 
80 feet wide and 200 feet long, with brick-arched windows and a flat 
roof. The brick walls are two feet thick, the floor joists are two 
inches by fourteen inches, and the columns supporting the floors are 
fourteen inch square oak timbers. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



SAN I WAX BUILDINGS: 

BARTLETT LABEL COMPANY (1897,1923) Kalamazoo 

436 N. Park St. 16. 616480. 4683250 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

There are two distinct, but interconnected structures in this complex. 
The first, a one-story brick building (140 feet by 32 feet) fronting on 
North Park Street, was constructed shortly after the Bartlett Label Com- 
pany was founded in 1897 by Russell E. Bartlett. The Saniwax Paper Com- 
pany, founded in 1923, then occupied the building. The adjacent four- 
story brick building, 266 feet long and 98 feet wide, is composed of 
two sections of different age. The western one-third of the building 
was constructed by the Kalamazoo Loose Leaf Binder Company in the late 
1 890 ' s , while the remaining two-thirds was built in 1923. The Saniwax 
Company, now a division of a plastics firm, was one of the earliest 
producers of waxed paper products in the Midwest. 
[Kalamazoo Gazette, November 17, 1925] 



STORY AND CLARK PIANO COMPANY (1903) Muskegon 

Washington St. at First St. 16.562052.4768015 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

The Story and Clark Piano Company manufacturing complex consists of two 
large L-shaped brick buildings, both three stories high. The main wings 
of both buildings are 50 feet wide and 300 feet long, while the smaller 
wings are 100 feet long and 50 feet wide. The two buildings are adjacent 
to each other, with both fronting on First Street. They are separated 
only by Columbia Avenue. A smaller one-story section, 75 feet long and 
50 feet wide, is attached to the northern end of the northernmost building 

81 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



UNION STEEL PRODUCTS COMPANY (1907,1915) Homer 

S. Berrien St. 16.685060.4679057 

Albion Calhoun 

The Union Steel Products Company was organized in Battle Creek in 1903, 
moved to Jackson in 1904, and then to Albion in 1905. The firm moved 
into this manufacturing complex in 1907. They manufactured a variety 
of metal products including refrigerator and oven shelves, screening, 
fanguards, and bakery equipment, employing about 450 workers during 
the late 1920's. The extant buildings include three typical two-story 
brick factory buildings erected in 1907 and a two-story reinforced 
concrete building added in 1915. 

[Krenerick, Miriam, Albion's Milestones and Memories (Albion, 1932), 
pp. 72-73] 



WALC0TT LATHE COMPANY (c. 1910) Jackson North 

420 Ingham St. 16.713575.4680770 

Jackson Jackson 

The Walcott Lathe Company clearly designed this building to maximize 
the amount of natural light available for its workers, presumably be- 
cause of the precision work they were performing. It is a steel-framed 
red brick building, 120 feet square, featuring a two-tier skylight 120 
feet in length, extensive use of windows on the ground floor, and the 
use of a sawtooth roof over roughly half of the floor space. Both the 
east and west facades give this building the appearance of a greenhouse. 



WILLOW RUN BOMBER PLANT (1942) Ypsilanti East 

Willow Run 17-289500.4679440 

Ypsilanti Washtenaw 

The Willow Run Bomber Plant was built by the War Department in 1941-1942 
for the Ford Motor Company to assemble the B-24 Liberator Bomber. It 
was designed by Albert Kahn and the firm of Hubbell, Roth, and Clark of 
Detroit. This was the largest war plant in the world, cost $65 million 
and had a peak employment of 42,000 in June 1943. Total output during 
the war was 8,685 B-24's. The Kaiser-Frazer Company leased this facility 
from the War Department in 1946-1953 and produced automobiles there. On 
August 12, 1953 a disastrous fire destroyed the massive General Motors 
Hydramatic plant in nearby Livonia. General Motors quickly made a lease 
agreement with Kaiser-Frazer and began "Operation Hydramatic" to convert 



82 



MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 



the Willow Run Plant into a major transmission plant. After heroic ef- 
forts, the first Hydramatic transmissions were produced at Willow Run on 
November 4th. This immense single-story steel-framed building is 3,150 
feet long, and varies in width from 700 feet to 1,300 feet. It repre- 
sents a major departure from Albert Kahn's practice of maximizing natural 
lighting through extensive use of glass as evidenced in his work at Ford's 
River Rouge Complex in the previous two decades. It has a solid roof and 
small exterior windows, so that it could be easily blacked out to prevent 
detection by enemy bombers. Other security features include two com- 
pletely independent water systems, internal steam and electrical systems 
buried in concrete tunnels, and a system of pedestrian overpasses which 
served as security checkpoints for employees. 

[ Legacy , pp. 25-26; Wilson, Marion F., The Story of Wi 1 low Run (Ann 
Arbor: University of Michigan, 1956), pp. 20, 51 ,~5"6", 70 J 



83 



INTRODUCTION TO UTILITIES 



This category includes structures and systems used to produce, 
store, or distribute water, sewage, steam, gas, and electricity. There 
are examples of small town waterworks at Manistee (l88l), Charlotte 
(1886), Harbor Springs (1890), Paw Paw (I898), and Mt. Pleasant (1907), 
as well as larger municipal plants in Grand Rapids (1912) and Detroit 
(1924, 1931). The magnificent water towers at Ypsilanti (I889) and 
Kalamazoo (1895) can be found in the Specialized Structures section of 
this volume. There are also several municipal steam heating plants. 
Gas manufacturing and holding facilities were common in Michigan in the 
early twentieth century, but virtually all of the plants have since been 
scrapped. 

More than three-quarters of the sites in this section are from 
the electric utility industry. Michigan was a leading state in the de- 
velopment of electricity and her engineers can be credited with several 
important innovations, particularly in long-distance high-voltage trans- 
mission. Thomas Edison built one of the earliest generating plants (not 
extant) in Detroit in 1886. Dozens of plants utilizing water power and 
fossil fuels were built in the l890's and early 1900's by private con- 
cerns and municipalities. There are twenty-two sites from the period 
1895-1910 and an additional sixteen built in 1 91 1-1 920 . 

Since the early 1920's the production of electricity in Mich- 
igan has been dominated by the Detroit Edison Company in the metropolitan 
Detroit area and the Consumers Power Company serving virtually all of the 
rest of the Lower Peninsula. Detroit Edison concentrated its production 
in massive fossil fuel plants such as those at Connors Creek (191*0 and 
Del ray (1926), while Consumers Power relied more heavily on the power 
provided by Michigan's rivers. 

The hydroelectric plants in this section range in size from 
the 55 KW powerhouse (191^) designed by Thomas Edison for Henry Ford's 
Fairlane estate to the 30,000 KW Hardy Plant (1931) on the Muskegon River, 
Many municipally-owned companies and private concerns harnessed water 
power to make electricity, but it v. as the Consumers Power Company and 
its predecessors, led by J.B. and W.A. Foote, that developed Michigan's 
hydroelectric potential on a large scale. One difficulty they faced was 
the long distance between the state's best generating sites, on the Au 
Sable, Muskegon, and Manistee rivers, and the potential users of elec- 
tricity, heavily concentrated in southern Michigan. 



84 



W.A. Foote built three dams (Trowbridge, Pine Creek, and 
Plainwell) on the Kalamazoo River in I898-I9OO and transmitted power 
to Kalamazoo over a twenty-four mile line at the unprecedented pressure 
of 22,000 volts. The company then set new precedents for long distance 
transmission with a 72,000 volt line ninety miles long from their 
Rogers Dam (1906) to Grand Rapids, a 110,000 volt line from Croton Dam 
(1908), and a 1^0,000 volt line one hundred and twenty-five miles long 
from Cooke Dam (1911) to Bay City. The ten hydroelectric plants built 
by Consumers Power in the period 1906-1925 accounted for about half 
of the company's generating capacity in the early 1920's. 

With Michigan's hydroelectric potential exploited, both 
Detroit Edison and Consumers Power expanded output in the 19^0's and 
1950's by constructing massive fossil fuel plants. Since the early 
1960's both utilities have emphasized nuclear power as the long-range 
solution to escalating electricity consumption. One notable exception 
is the monumental Consumers Power Company Ludington Pumped Storage 
Plant, a 1,872 MW facility completed in 1 97^ - 



85 



UTILITIES 



ADA HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1926) Lowell 

Thornapple River Drive 16.623650. ^7561 40 

Ada Kent 

The Ada Hydroelectric Plant was constructed in 1926 by the Michigan Water 
Power Company, then sold to Consumers Power Company in 193**. It was in 
turn acquired by Thornapple Associates in 1969- The dam creates a pond 
of approximately 280 acres and a nominal head of 22 feet. It is an 
earth-embankment dam, with a concrete spillway and four steel tainter 
(radial) gates, each 20 feet wide, controlling the flow of water. The 
generator house is a steel-framed rectangular brick structure, 20 feet 
by 40 feet, and contains two S. Morgan Smith vertical discharge turbines 
driving a pair of Westinghouse 1,000 KW generators, all original equip- 
ment. 



ALCONA HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1923) Not Mapped 

On Au Sable River 

Bamfield Alcona 

The Alcona Dam was begun in 1916, but was not completed until 1923, 
largely because Consumers Power Company faced severe financial problems 
which continued through the 1921 recession. There were construction 
difficulties as well, because the foundation had to rest on sand which 
was underlaid with a ten foot layer of quicksand. The foundation dif- 
ficulties were solved by building the powerhouse and spillway as a sin- 
gle unit, with the spillway (six 78 inch Tefft spillway tubes) under- 
neath the building. The structure was placed on a monolithic slab of 
heavily reinforced concrete, which in turn rested on wooden piles driven 
to a depth of 70 feet below the slab. Approximately 100,000 linear feet 
of pilings were driven. The original installation, still extant, in- 
cluded two vertical turbines manufactured by Wellman, Seaver, and Morgan 
and two General Electric generators, each producing 4,000 KW, 5,000 
volts, and operating at 90 R.P.M. The dam develops a head of 41 feet 
and the spillway tubes can discharge 8,400 cubic feet per second. The 
powerhouse itself is a brick structure, 75 feet square. 
[Bush, pp. 198-199, 222, 496] 



86 



UTILITIES 



ALTON STREET TREATMENT PLANT (1947) East Lansing 

Alton St. and King St. 1 6. 706975. 4735 100 

East Lansing Ingham 

The entire East Lansing system consisted of three water treatment plants 
(Alton, Audubon, and Orchard Streets) tied into a one million gallon 
covered ground reservoir (on Hagerdorn St., 800 block), a 250,000 gallon 
elevated tank (at Alton St. Plant), and a 200,000 gallon elevated tank 
(at Longfellow and Prescott St.) which fed the distribution system. 
The treatment plants were fed by ten wells 400 feet deep. The Alton 
Street Treatment Plant, an automatic softening and iron removal plant, 
operated with three zeolite tanks on the same principles and utilizing 
similar equipment as the Orchard Street Water Treatment Plant (193*0. 
This plant can treat one and one-half million gallons per day during 
its continuous 24-hour operation. The one-story common bond brick 
building is 40 feet long, 30 feet wide, has a flat roof and rectangular 
windows. The equipment is scheduled to be removed by the end of 1975 
and the plant converted to a community arts and crafts center. 



AUDUBON STREET TREATMENT PLANT (1939-1940) East Lansing 

800 Audubon St. 16.704780.4735020 

East Lansing Ingham 

This automatic softening and iron removal plant operated with four zeo- 
lite tanks on the same principles and utilizing the same equipment as 
the Orchard Street Water Treatment Plant (1934). The architecturally 
unique feature of these two plants was desiging the exterior to blend 
in with the surrounding neighborhood. Instead of being the usual eye- 
sore, these plants were built to resemble brick colonial houses with 
maintained residential landscaping. This one-story common bond brick 
building is 35 feet long, 20 feet wide, has a gabled roof and rectangu- 
lar windows. The plant had a capacity of treating one million gallons 
per day during its round-the-clock operation. The sodium chloride solu- 
tion used for regenerating the zeolite tanks were stored in covered 
ground reservoirs outside each plant. A brine recovery system was used 
on these plants, allowing the brine to be used for portions of two re- 
generating cycles instead of just one, having a marked effect on the 
economical use of salt (sodium chloride). 



87 



UTILITIES 



BAY CITY STEAM PLANT (1893, 1908) Bay City 

Water St., south of 10th St. 17.266600. 4830^35 

Bay City Bay 

The Bay City Steam Plant was constructed in 1893 by the Bay City Electric 
and Traction Company and was subsequently enlarged in 1908. It operated 
as a generating plant until 1913, was placed on standby in 1913-1920, 
and was then retired in 1924, when all remaining equipment was scrapped. 
The buildings are now serving as a substation. The oldest segment of 
this structure is a rectangular brick building, 66 feet wide and 88 feet 
long, resting on a cut stone foundation, with a gabled slate roof. The 
1908 addition is 14 feet wide, 87 feet long, with a flat roof. 



BEAVERT0N HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1919) Gladwin 

Across Tobacco River 16.702170.4861750 

Beaverton Gladwin 

This hydroelectric plant includes two distinct powerhouses. The one at 
the eastern end of the dam is a rectangular brick building 15 feet wide 
and 30 feet long and originally housed a 270 KW, 2,300 volt generator. 
The larger powerhouse (30 feet by 35 feet), originally equipped with a 
700 KW generator, is about 20 feet upstream and has a separate tail race. 
Both generators were driven by Leffel vertical turbines. The concrete 
dam, developing a head of 20 feet, is approximately 100 feet long and 
has seven spillway openings. Beginning at the eastern end of the dam 
and proceeding westerly, the first spillway has a steel tainter gate, 
20 feet wide; the next three openings are 15 feet wide and equipped 
with wooden stoplogs inserted into grooves in the concrete walls; the 
fifth and sixth spillways contain steel tainter gates, each 12 feet 
wide; and the last opening, also 12 feet wide, is equipped with stop- 
logs. 

BELLE ISLE WATER INTAKE SYSTEM (1902-1905) Belle Isle 

Detroit River near Belle Isle 17-337900.4690600 

Detroit Wayne 

The Belle Isle Water Intake System was constructed in the years 1902-1905 
with Uriah Gould serving as chief engineer of the project. It consisted 
of a shore tunnel, a river tunnel, and an intake crib. The system's 
purpose was to draw in raw water from the Detroit River, transport it 
to shore by way of a river tunnel, where the water would continue through 

88 



UTILITIES 



a shore tunnel to pumps at Waterworks Park, to the settling basin, and 
then through the pumps to be distributed throughout the city. The in- 
take structure is 800 feet above Belle Isle's head and consists of a 
circular house above water. It is constructed of gray Canyon-Berea 
sandstone walls, surmounted by a conical roof. The house has a 37 
foot inside diameter and is about 39 feet high. The house rests on 
and provides access to the intake crib which extends 32 feet below the 
water. The crib is constructed of three rings of concrete brick, over 
three rings of ordinary brick, over 28 feet of wood. The crib has eight 
sides with an open center well constructed of concrete and measuring 
67 feet 11 inches by 52 feet 8 inches. The river tunnel has a ten foot 
diameter and is lined with four rings of vitrified brick and has a 
length of 3,1^9 and one-half feet. On shore the river tunnel connects 
with a ten foot diameter shore tunnel, 1,032 feet long, and goes to 
the Waterworks Park pumps through to the settling basins and then 
through the pumps to be distributed throughout the city. The pumps 
drew their supply from the settling basins until typhoid deaths caused 
the construction of a filtration plant. New low-lift pumps raised the 
capacity of the system, originally designed for a maximum of 150 mil- 
lion gallons per day, to bloom to 400 mgd. The pumps delivered water 
into three pressure areas through twelve mains varying in size from 
kZ inches to 60 inches. The maximum consumption of the system was 
390 million gallons per day in 1927. Increases likely to average 20 
million gallons per day for subsequent years and the inability to ser- 
vice neighborhoods in Detroit's southwest area prompted the construc- 
tion of a replacement system in the years 1928-1931. 
[Detroit Department of Water Supply, A Descriptive Survey , May 1923; 
Hubbell, George, "How They Built the Water Tunnel," Detroit Engineer , 
July 1976, p. 22; Annual Reports of the Detroit Board of Water Com- 
missioners, Vol. 53-56, 1902-1906T" 



BELLE ISLE WATER INTAKE SYSTEM (1929) Belle Isle 

Belle Isle and Waterworks Park 17-338190.4690320 

Detroit Wayne 

The Belle Isle Water Intake System consists of an intake lagoon at Belle 
Isle, an intake structure at Belle Isle, an emergency intake, a river 
connecting tunnel between the old and present intakes, a river tunnel to 
Waterworks Park, a land tunnel through the park to Jefferson Avenue where 
it connects with the tunnel with water enroute to the Springwells Pumping 
and Filtration Plants and the Northeast Station, a screen chamber at 
Waterworks Park, and a short tunnel from the chamber to the intake 



89 



UTILITIES 



system's lagoon. The intake structure was designed for a maximum capa- 
city of 9^0 million gallons per day (mgd) of which 3^6 mgd would go to 
Springwells, 217 mgd to the Northeast Station, and 370 mgd to Water- 
works Park. The quantity to Waterworks Park is intended for emergency 
use should the supply through the old intake system be cut off. The 
lagoon consists of a 3^ acre surface area of fill; it is 2,700 feet in 
length, 22 feet deep, with a maximum width of 480 feet and opens to 
the east. The lagoon is protected by rock dikes (100,000 cubic yards). 
The intake structure is 68 feet by \kS feet, semicircular at the ends, 
and constructed of 1 imestone. The structure is 25 feet above water 
and 32 feet in depth below the water where it has 20 openings to admit 
water. The building's foundation is of two rings of steel sheet piling. 
The tunnel connected to the emergency intake, the old intake, and then 
to the screen chamber is 10 feet in diameter and has a length of more 
than 1,000 feet. The river connecting tunnel from the present intake 
to the shore shaft is 970 feet long with an 11 foot diameter. The 
tunnel connecting the shore shaft and the screen chamber is 625 feet 
long with a diameter of 15 and one-half feet. The emergency intake 
is a double-barreled conduit, each barrel being 10 feet by 13 feet 
inside. It is 250 feet in length and has a maximum width of 103 feet 
and provides eight entrance openings. The connection to the intake 
structure is controlled by six large valves so designed to open and 
supply water to the intake system if the intake structure is obstructed. 
The screen chamber on shore is a brick circular structure with an out- 
side diameter of ~Jk feet, and inside diameter of 6k feet, and a depth 
of kG feet to the bottom of the foundation slab. It has 10 traveling 
water screens around a \k foot diameter well (six Link-Belt Clean- 
Water screens at installation time). Water is admitted to the chamber 
through a cylindrical chamber. The total cost of the contracts awarded 
was $3.5 million. George Fenkell was chief engineer of the project, 
F. Stephenson was assistant chief engineer, and E.A. Prokop was the 
designing engineer in charge of the river tunnel. 

[Detroit Department of Water Supply, Additional Supply : Intake System 
and Land Tunnels , 1931; Detroit Department of Water Supply, A Descrip- 
tive Survey , October 1928; "Ten Traveling Screens in a Circular In- 
stallation in Detroit," American City, Vol. kS, May 1932] 



90 



UTILITIES 



BERRIEN SPRINGS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT ( 1 908) Berrien Springs 

On St. Joseph River 16.555680.4643590 

Berrien Springs Berrien 

Construction of the Berrien Springs Hydroelectric Plant and Dam was begun 
in April 1907 and completed in October 1908. The original installation 
consisted of four Lef fel-Samson horizonal, center-discharge turbines, de- 
veloping a total of 11,700 H.P., which drove four Westinghouse generators, 
each producing 1,800 KW, 150 R.P.M., 2,300 volts, and four Westinghouse 
26 DC exciters. The entire original installation is extant. Beginning 
on the west bank of the St. Joseph River, the surviving works include 
an earth wing dam, 150 feet long; a concrete wastewater spillway, 50 
feet long and 30 feet high; a two-story brick powerhouse, 30 feet wide 
and 75 feet long, resting on a concrete foundation; a concrete waste 
spillway, with a rolling configuration, 75 feet long; six steel radial 
gates, each 15 feet long; and an earth wing dam, approximately 150 feet 
long. 



B0ARDMAN HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (c.1920) Kingsley 

On Boardman River, at Cass Ave. 16.609034.4950015 

Garfield Township Grand Traverse 

The Boardman River Electric Light and Power Company was incorporated in 
1893 with a capital of $100,000 and began construction of a hydroelectric 
plant to provide Traverse City with street lighting in April 1894. The 
dam and hydroelectric plant, the first of several on this site, was com- 
pleted in November 1894. The present dam was built around 1920 by the 
Michigan Public Service Company, was acquired by Consumers Power Company 
in 1950, and then went out of service in September 1969 and was subse- 
quently sold to Grand Traverse County. The facility consists of a con- 
crete bridge-dam structure, 15 feet wide and 200 feet long, with two 
Stoney spillway gates and a rectangular brick powerhouse, 18 feet by 60 
feet, resting on a concrete foundation. The dam developed a head of 41 
feet. The generating equipment consisted of two Leffel vertical turbines 
and two 550 KW generators, operating at 225 R.P.M., 2,100 volts. 
[Bush, p. 361 ; Smith, Mrs. George and Sprague, Elvin, History of Grand 
Traverse and Leelenau Counties (Chicago, 1903), p. 298] 



91 



UTILITIES 



BOARD OF WATER AND LIGHT: 

OTTAWA STREET STATION (1938-1950) Lansing South 

200 E. Ottawa St. 16. 700600. 473^170 

Lansing Ingham 

The Michigan Power Company built a steam and electrical generating plant 
on this site in 1908 and it was purchased by the City of Lansing in 1919 
when the company went into bankruptcy. This plant was demolished in 
1937 and the present plant erected. It houses 81,500 KW of generating 
equipment and can produce 200,000 pounds of steam heat per hour. It 
supplies the steam heating needs for most of downtown Lansing. This 
massive steel-framed brick building is about 300 feet by 150 feet and 
is approximately 250 feet high. 
[Board of Water and Light, Water and Power (Lansing, 1966), pp. 12-16] 



BROWN'S BRIDGE DAM HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1922) Kingsley 

On Boardman River, north of River Rd. 16. 61 8025.^9^020 

Union Township Grand Traverse 

This hydroelectric plant was completed in 1922 by the Traverse City 
Light and Power Company. It consists of an earth embankment dam ap- 
proximately 800 yards long, producing a head of about 30 feet. The 
rectangular brick powerhouse, 20 feet by 25 feet, contains the two ori- 
ginal generators, each approximately 200 KW capacity. The powerhouse 
rests on the concrete spillway, which has two steel tainter gates, each 
12 feet wide. 

[Grand Traverse Bicentennial Board, "The Boardman River Historical 
Trail"] 



BUCHANAN HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1902,1908,1920) Niles West 
Across St. Joseph River 16. 553880.4631980 

Buchanan Berrien 

A timber dam was originally constructed on this site in 1893- This dam 
was little used and in 1901, Charles A. Chapin, owner of the South Bend 
Electric Company, purchased the site to develop its hydroelectric po- 
tential. In 1902, ten 68 inch vertical Samson turbines driving a 1,500 
KW General Electric generator were installed, along with a hO inch ver- 
tical Samson turbine driving a 60 KW General Electric exciter. These 
units were all controlled by Type B Lombard Governors. Four of the 68 
inch vertical turbines are still in place, but are badly worn. The 



92 



UTILITIES 



remaining six were replaced in 1919-1920 with six vertical direct con- 
nected units consisting of Leffel "45" Type Z wheels and Electric Mach- 
inery Company generators rated at 480 KVA, 3 phase; 60 cycle; 2,300 
volts; 109 R.P.M., still extant. Each unit has a Woodward Type H.R. 
Governor. The original dam washed out in 1 908 and was replaced by the 
existing concrete dam, which is approximately 200 feet long and creates 
a hydraulic head of ten feet. The surviving generating equipment is 
housed in the 1902 building, a brick structure consisting of two dis- 
tinct sections, one 20 feet wide and 30 feet long, while the other is 
50 feet long and 20 feet wide. Both sections have gabled roofs. 



CALKINS BRIDGE DAM AND 

GENERATING PLANT (1930-1936,1945) Allegan 

Allegan Dam Rd. 16.585095.4712065 

Al legan Al legan 

The Calkins Bridge Dam and Generating Station was constructed in 1936 
for the Consumers Power Company and is still in active use. The Gen- 
eral contractors were the Hay-Weaver Company and the consulting engi- 
neers were the firm of Ayres, Lewis, Norris and May. The Kalamazoo 
River has a hydraulic head of sixteen feet at this site. The brick 
powerhouse, 210 feet long and 60 feet wide, houses the original instal- 
lation of three Leffel vertical turbines and three turbo-generators 
with a total capacity of 2,550 KW. It rests on the northern end of 
the dam, all of concrete construction. The remainder of the dam is 150 
feet long, with six steel radial gates (tainter gates), each 25 feet 
wide and 20 feet high. Originally built for the City of Allegan, Con- 
sumers Power Company took it over in 1968. 



CASCADE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1926) Lowell 

On Thornapple River 16.622710.4751665 

Cascade Kent 

The Cascade Hydroelectric Plant was constructed by the Michigan Water 
Power Company in 1926 and was purchased by Consumers Power Company in 
1934. It was retired from service in October 1971. The original in- 
stallation, no longer extant, consisted of two S. Morgan Smith vertical 
turbines driving two Westinghouse 1 ,280 KW generators. 



93 



UTILITIES 



CERESCO POWER STATION (1904) Ceresco 

161 S. Main St. 16.659930.4681330 

Ceresco Calhoun 

The Ceresco Mill and Hydraulic Company owned this site when the company 
was taken over in 1904 by W.A. Foote, a pioneer in electrical generation 
in Michigan and one of the founders of the Consumers Power Company. He 
converted this site into a hydroelectric plant in 1904 and electricity 
was generated here until 1953- There is a concrete dam across the Kala- 
mazoo River, 200 feet long, with the flow of water controlled by eight 
vertical lift gates, each 25 feet wide. The powerhouse is a one-story 
rectangular brick building, 30 feet wide and approximately 75 feet long, 
resting on a concrete foundation. About one-third of the original po- 
werhouse is covered by a wood facade added by the present owners of the 
building. None of the original turbines or generators are extant. 
[Bush, p. 73; Detroit Free Press , May 25, 1974, n.p.] 



CHARLOTTE WATERWORKS ( 1 886) Charlotte 

S. Cochran Ave., at Bennett Park 16.697750.4712325 

Charlotte Eaton 

The Charlotte Waterworks Building was constructed in 1886 and housed a 
steam driven pump, no longer extant, which pumped water from the nearby 
Battle Creek River. It is a single-story rectangular brick structure, 
40 feet wide and 100 feet long, with brick-arched doors and windows and 
a roof which is pitched slightly to the rear. The octagonal brick chim- 
ney was originally about 75 feet high, but the top 30 feet have been 
removed. The National Tube Works Company of Chicago erected the building 
at a cost of $30,000, while the contract for the pumping engine and 
boilers was executed by L.M. Walker of Port Huron for $5,000. 
[ Engineering News , Vol. XV (1886), p. 173] 

CONNORS CREEK GENERATING STATION (1914) Belle Isle 

200 Lycaste St. 17.338570.4691260 

Detroit Wayne 

This is one of several large-scale fossil fuel plants constructed in the 
Detroit area by Detroit Edison in the early years of this century. The 
massive brick boiler house is 120 feet wide, 571 feet long, and 98 feet 
high, with a gabled roof supported by steel Pratt trusses. There are 



94 



UTILITIES 



nine distinct smokestacks, named the Seven Sisters and Two Brothers by 
local residents, each 227 feet high and 13 and one-half feet in diameter 
at the base. The equipment in place includes two 30 MW turbines, three 
60 MK turbines, and a single 150 MW unit. The powerhouse and equipment 
cost slightly over $25 million. 




Connors Creek Generating Station (191^) , Detroit 



95 



UTILITIES 



CONNORS CREEK STORMWATER 

PUMPING AND SEWAGE STATION (1928-1930) Belle Isle 

12244 E. Jefferson Ave. 17-338520.4692400 

Detroit Wayne 

The Connors Creek Stormwater Pumping and Sewage Station is Detroit's 
oldest stormwater facility. It was erected during the years 1928-1930. 
Its main purpose is to relieve a southeastern neighborhood of Detroit 
of flood conditions whenever the Detroit River rises. Stormwater is 
pumped to the station by means of two 14 foot sewers and then settles 
in the discharge tunnel. In addition, dry-weather flow is absorbed and 
diverted to the intercepting sewers beneath Jefferson Avenue by means of 
the backwater gates. There they are discharged into the Detroit River 
at a point far below the city, thus no pollution occurs in the bathing 
beaches of the river. These same gates by means of a one-way hinge 
opening absorb stormwater from the river during emergencies but do not 
allow it to surge backwards onto the low lying land again. The storm- 
water station is made up of three main structures along with concrete 
compartments below grade. Each of the three structures have steel frames, 
steel columns supporting the roofs, and red brick construction with lime- 
stone trim. The pumping station is circular with a 112 foot diameter and 
a height of 66 feet (not including a suction well that extends 50 feet 
below the ground). The main switch house is approximately 43 feet by 
78 feet, the backwaters gate station is about 42 feet by 128 feet, and 
both structures are one-story buildings. The backwaters gate station has 
nine concrete compartments underneath it at a maximum of 25 feet. Upon 
completion of the station there were eight pump motors, each with 2,300 
HP and 4,600 volts, and having a capacity of 500 cubic feet per second. 
Priming of the motors is effected by six motor-driven pumps. The station 
has a 20 ton revolving crane for handling the motors. The backwater sta- 
tion has a 10 ton revolving crane, also to handle the massive gates. The 
nine channels are all separated by heavy piers. Each channel has an auto- 
matic timber backwater gate which covers an opening 10 feet by 10 feet. 
The gates are constructed of selected creosoted yellow pine timbers 8 
inches by 8 inches, laid horizonally and fastened together by four one 
and one-quarter inch bronze binding rods supplied with self-adjusting nuts 
to permit wood expansion and contraction. Provisions were made at the 
time of construction for four additional pump motors, and they have since 
been added. Each are 500 HP motors with 4,600 volts. They are housed in 
an auxiliary building 30 feet by 68 feet. Ayres, Lewis, Norris & May of 
Ann Arbor, Michigan were the consulting engineers and Perry Fellows was 
the city engineer at the time of construction. 

[ Engineering News-Record , Vol. 102, May 23, 1929, pp. 832-833; Vol. 104, 
May 29, 1930, pp. 884-886; Vol. 107, July 30, 1931, pp. 182-184] 

96 



UTILITIES 



COOKE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1911) Tawas City 

On Au Sable River 17.295050.4927035 

Oscoda Township Iosco 

This was the first of six hydroelectric plants constructed on the Au 
Sable River by the Consumers Power Company in 1911-1923. It was named 
after Andrew Cooke of the Harris Trust Company, one of the men instru- 
mental in arranging financing for the project. The original installation 
still extant, consisted of three horizonal Al 1 is-Chalmers turbines and 
three General Electric generators, each operating at 1 80 R.P.M., 2,500 
volts, producing 4,000 KW. The power produced at Cooke was transmitted 
to Bay City, Saginaw, and Flint, initially over a line 125 miles long, 
which was later extended to 235 miles long. In early 1912, transmission 
began at the then unprecedented level of 140,000 volts. Several inno- 
vations in tower design and insulators were made at this time by J.B. 
Foote of Consumers Power Company. These included the use of tapered 
steel towers and cap and pin insulators, which became standard for most 
of the electrical industry. The dam is an earth-filled type with a 
concrete core wall and it creates a head of 4l feet. The powerhouse 
is a rectangular brick building, 40 feet by 120 feet, with a gabled roof. 
The concrete spillway contains three tainter gates which can discharge 
15,800 cubic feet per second. 
[Bush, pp. 1 58- 161, 476; Engineering News, Vol. 67, May 16, 1912, p. 912] 



CR0T0N HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1908,1915) Sand Lake 

On Muskegon River 16. 608010. 4810000 

Croton Newaygo 

The Croton Dam, begun in 1 906 and completed in July 1908, was the scene 
of major breakthroughs in hydroelectric development and high voltage 
transmission of electric power. This was a large hydroelectric project 
for the time, developing 15,000 horsepower with a head of 40 feet. Power 
was transmitted to Grand Rapids at the unprecedented pressure of 110,000 
volts, necessitating several innovations in transmission equipment. The 
wooden poles with pin insulators used on the 70,000 volt Rogers line 
(see other entry) were inadequate, so J.B. Foote, the chief engineer for 
Consumers Power Company, developed a three-legged steel "windmill" tower 
and used the Hewlick-Buck porcelain bell insulators recently developed 
by General Electric in Schenectady, New York. The conductor used on 
this line consisted of six strands of Number 10 medium hard-drawn copper 
wire. The innovations achieved at Croton attracted engineers from all 
over the United States and from Europe, Russia, and even India. It 



97 



UTILITIES 



became so famous that a "Song of Croton Dam" (sung to the tune of "Marching 
Through Georgia") was composed in its honor. The dam, which is 670 feet 
long, included a 238 foot concrete spillway with eight steel tainter gates, 
each 25 feet wide, and a beartrap gate 38 feet wide. The brick powerhouse, 
resting on concrete foundations, consists of a segment 50 feet wide and 
100 feet long perpendicular to a segment kO feet wide and 80 feet long. 
Both segments have gabled roofs. The original generators, two Westing- 
house ^,500 KW units are extant, along with two Al 1 is-Chalmers generators, 
each producing 1,260 KW, 7,500 volts, operating at 150 R.P.M., installed 
in 1915. Originally, Croton had two octuple turbine units, i.e., each 
consisting of four pairs of k5 inch Leffel wheels mounted in open pits. 
These are no longer extant. However, the Al 1 is-Chalmers vertical turbines 
installed in 1915 are still in place, along with a pair of Al 1 is-Chalmers 
horizonal turbines of later vintage. 
[Bush, pp. 89-93, 464-^65] 




Croton Hydroelectric Plant (1908,1915), Croton 



UTILITIES 



DELRAY COAL TIPPER HOUSE (1926) Detroit 

6603 W. Jefferson Ave. 1 7- 326970. 4684600 

Detroit Wayne 

This structure is two stories high with dimensions of 196 feet by 55 feet 
and is of brick construction with a roof consisting of 9 steel trusses 
covered by a wood gabled roof. The building could handle a maximum of 
fifteen 120 ton coal cars per hour. The equipment used in the building 
was furnished by the Welman-Seaver-Morgan Company, and the total cost of 
the project was $411,720. 



DELRAY POWERHOUSE NUMBER 3 (1929) Detroit 

6603 W. Jefferson Ave. 17-326970.4684500 

Detroit Wayne 

This structure consists of a large boiler house, 100 feet tall with six 
smokestacks 227 feet high with a diameter of 13 feet 6 inches. The 
building is of brick construction with a steel trussed gabled roof. The 
boiler house has 5 low pressure and 7 high pressure boilers. This 380 
MW plant was built at a cost of nearly $18 million. 



DETROIT AND NORTHERN RAILROAD: 

FARMINGT0N POWERHOUSE (1900) Redford 

31505 Grand River Ave. 1 7. 306140. 4702920 

Farmington Oakland 

Built by the Detroit and Northern Railroad Company, later the Detroit 
United Railroad Company, this electrical generating plant is three 
stories high with dimensions of 264 feet by 120 feet. The building is 
of brick construction with decorative arched windows. A massive to- 
wering smokestack is still standing at the rear of the building. It 
was utilized by a wine distributor from 1930 until 1971, and now stands 
vacant. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



99 



UTILITIES 



DETROIT WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT (1935-1940) Dearborn 

9300 W. Jefferson Ave. 17.324640.4683300 

Detroit Wayne 

The Detroit Wastewater Treatment Plant was constructed in 1935-1940 with 
the purpose of drawing in the sewage of Detroit and seven adjacent com- 
munities, treating it, and sending the treated water to the Detroit River. 
The plant project cost $27 million and was basically funded through the 
P.W.A. (Public Works Administration). L.G. Lenhardt was the Commissioner 
of Public Works at the time of construction and J.S. Stringham was the 
City Engineer. In 1940 the facilities rested on 96 acres but now, through 
expansion, the facilities occupy 129 acres. The plant receives sewage 
through the two sewage interceptors and the main pump lifts the sewage up 
30 feet to effect the flow of gravity throughout the rest of the sewage's 
journey. The sewage goes through the bar screens where the coarse ma- 
terial is removed and then to the grit chambers where the heavy material 
is made to drop out. The sewage then goes to the sedimentation tanks 
where organic matter settles to the bottom and any material left floating 
is skimmed off. The wastewater now goes through the sludge digester where 
naturally occurring bacteria is allowed to consume most of the remaining 
organic material. The wastewater is then treated with chlorine and re- 
turned to the river. Meanwhile the sludge is filtered and burned and 
used as land fill. The main pump station is a circular building with a 
radius of 56 feet, a height of 50 feet with a sump pit that extends 68 
feet below grade. The rack and grit building is 2 1 8 feet long, 55 feet 
wide, and 37 feet high. The main powerhouse is 125 feet long, 58 feet 
wide, and 30 feet high while the administration building is 82 feet long, 
about 45 feet wide, and 27 and one-half feet high. The garage and chlo- 
rination house, which adjoins the administration building at opposite 
sides, are each 62 feet long and 30 feet high, while the garage is 48 
feet wide and the chlorination building 39 feet wide. Each of these 
structures is constructed of red brick. The structure housing the eight 
sedimentation tanks is 1 ,014 feet long by 310 feet wide by 21 feet deep 
and is constructed of stone. The sludge digester is a circular structure 
with a 105 foot diameter, standing 18 feet high above grade, and extending 
30 feet below grade. In 1957 a $33 million program was launched to expand 
and improve the treatment facilities and add newer and better equipment. 
The original equipment still in use are six main pumps with a combined 
capacity of 1,300 million gallons per day (mgd) , eight mechanically cleaned 
bar racks, eight grit chambers comprised of V-shaped buckets on chains, 
each 150 feet long, 15 feet deep, and 16 feet wide, and eight rectangular 
sedimentation tanks 270 feet long by 120 feet wide with that width divided 



100 



UTILITIES 



into seven 16 foot compartments. The sedimentation tanks use eight 
vacuum filters, each 11 and one-half feet in diameter and ]k feet long. 
In 19^0 peak capacity was 715 mgd but today's capacity is upwards of 
1 ,300 mgd. 

[Detroit Metropolitan Water Department, Clean Water : A New Day for 
Southeast Michigan , December 1973; Engineering News-Record , Vol. 117, 
September 3, 1936, p. 330; Vol. 124, June 13, 1949, p. 7J 



EDENVILLE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1925) Edenville 

Across the Ti ttabawassee River 16.711000.4354360 

Edenville Gladwin 

The dam at Edenville develops the highest head (45 feet) of the four 
dams constructed by the Wolverine Power Company on the Ti ttabawassee 
River in 1925. The output of these dams (Edenville, Sanford, Secord Lake 
and Smallwood) has been sold to Consumers Power Company since 1925. The 
brick powerhouse is 40 feet long, 25 feet wide, and rests on a concrete 
foundation. It contains the original installation, consisting of two 
General Electric generators, each rated at 2,400 KW, 2,300 volts, op- 
erating at 138 R.P.M. The adjoining concrete spillway consists of three 
steel radial gates, each 24 feet wide. 



[Bush, p. 222] 



ELM STREET POWER STATION (1912,1920,1937) Battle Creek 

179 Elm St. 16.650700.^686370 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

This generating station has undergone several major changes since it was 
originally constructed to provide Battle Creek with electric power in 
1912. The original powerhouse was 119 feet wide, 161.5 feet long, and 
45 feet high, of steel and brick construction. Major alterations took 
place in 1920, producing a building which was 66.5 feet wide, 159-5 feet 
long, and 67.5 feet high. This building remains, along with a boiler 
house, 70 feet wide, 50 feet long, and approximately 120 feet high, 
which was added in 1937. The two original smokestacks were removed in 
1937 and replaced by a new stack, approximately 250 feet high, which is 
still in place. None of the original equipment remains. However, the 
Number 4 turbo-generator, installed in 1924, is still in place. It is 
a 20,000 KW Westinghouse 1 ,800 R.P.M. turbo-generator, 25,000 kv-a, 5,000 
volts, 60 cycles. A 1937 "topping turbine" (10,000 KW General Electric, 
3,600 R.P.M.), installed to permit the installation of boilers with oper- 
ating pressures higher than the capacity of the 1924 turbines, remains in 
pi ace. 

101 



UTILITIES 



EPHRAIM SHAY WATERWORKS BUILDING (1890) Petoskey 

E. Bay St. 16.657083.5032055 

Harbor Springs Emmet 

Ephraim Shay built a waterworks system with a capacity of 100,000 gallons 
per day to serve the population of Harbor Springs and Harbor Point in 
1890, shortly after he had moved to Harbor Springs. This building housed 
the steam engine and pumps. In 189^ he developed a reservoir system and 
then sold the waterworks to the city a few years later. The waterworks 
building is a simple rectangular brick structure, 40 feet wide and 50 
feet long, with a partially hipped roof. 
[NR] 



FAIRLANE POWERHOUSE ( 1 91 A) Dearborn 

Fairlane 1 7 - 31 6060 . 4686750 

Dearborn Wayne 

This powerhouse was designed by Thomas Edison to serve the Fairlane 
estate of Henry Ford. There are two vertical turbines built by the James 
Leffel Company of Springfield, Ohio resting in a concrete wheelpit. The 
Wheel Room, located directly above the wheelpit, contains two manually- 
operated gates controlling the flow of water in and out of the wheelpit; 
two three and one-half ton grey iron flywheels, one attached to each of 
the two turbine shafts; and a system of shafts, pulleys, and belts 
linking the turbine shafts with the speed governors located in the Ge- 
nerating Room on the level above. The Generating Room contains the 
following equipment: two D.C. Generators, 55 KW capacity, 110 S.R.P.M., 
250 volts, 220 Amps Per Term (inal?), both built by the Electric Machi- 
nery Company of Minneapolis; both generators are tied to flyball gover- 
nors manufactured by the Lombard Governor Company of Ashland, MA; a 
third generator, 35 KW, 285 S.R.P.M., 250 volts, \k0 Amps Per Term (inal?) 
driven by a single-piston Armington-Sims steam engine; and a marble con- 
trol panel containing manually-operated breaker switches for approximately 
2h distinct circuits. The Boiler Room contains two 60 HP "Perfection 
Smokeless" boilers manufactured by the Titusville Iron Company of Titus- 
ville, PA. These boilers were hand-charged with coke and were in conti- 
nuous use from 191** until 1950, when they were converted to burn oil. 
They went out of service in 1957 when a new oil furnace was installed in 
the same boiler room. 

[Johnson, William J., "Feasibility Plan for the Adaptive Reuse of Fair- 
lane," pp. 8-9, 98-101] 



102 



UTILITIES 



FIVE CHANNELS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1912) Tawas City 

On Au Sable River 17-287000.4925067 

Oscoda Township Iosco 

This was the second dam built on the Au Sable River by the Consumers Power 
Company in 191 1 — 1 923 - Grant Cochran was the construction supervisor for 
this dam as well as for the Cooke and Loud dams (see other entries). 
Cochran built three dams in four years by "leap-frogging" men and equip- 
ment from one dam to the next. Five Channels is an earth embankment dam 
utilizing a reinforced concrete core wall. The original installation, 
still extant, included two Al 1 is-Chalmers horizonal turbines and two 
General Electric generators, each producing 3,000 KW and operating at 
150 R.P.M. The rectangular brick powerhouse is 40 feet wide, 1 40 feet 
long, with a gabled roof, and rests on a concrete foundation. The con- 
crete spillway contains three tainter gates, which can discharge approx- 
imately 15,000 cubic feet per second. 
[Bush, pp. 158-159] 

F00TE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1918) East Tawas 

On Au Sable River 17-305084.4922095 

Oscoda Township Iosco 

The Foote Dam is an earth embankment dam with a reinforced concrete core 
wall creating a head of 39 feet. The original installation, still ex- 
tant, included three Al 1 is-Chalmers vertical turbines and three General 
Electric generators, each producing 3,000 KW, 5,000 volts, operating at 
90 R.P.M. The powerhouse is a rectangular brick building resting on a 
concrete foundation, 40 feet wide and 120 feet long, with a flat roof. 
The concrete spillway contains three tainter gates and can discharge 
15,800 cubic feet per second. This dam was named after J.B. Foote, 
the founding engineer of the Consumers Power Company. 
[Bush, p. 159] 



FORD DAM AND POWERHOUSE (1932) Ypsilanti East 

Across the Huron River 17-288850.4675600 

Ypsilanti Township Washtenaw 

Henry Ford constructed this dam and generating plant in 1932 as part of 
his program to develop "rural industry" in Michigan. The brick, steel- 
framed powerhouse is 45 feet sqauare and 90 feet high, resting on a con- 
crete foundation. The two original Westinghouse turbo-generators, one 



103 



UTILITIES 



of 1,800 KW capacity, the other 1,600 KW, are extant, but not in use. 
Plans are underway, however, to restore them to working order and to 
once again generate power from this plant. Adjacent to the powerhouse 
is a combination bridge-dam structure, of concrete construction, 200 
feet long and approximately 50 feet high. 




Five Channels Hydroelectric Plant (1912), Oscoda Township 



104 



UTILITIES 



FOUR MILE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1909, c.1940) Lake Winyah 

Across Thunder Bay River, end of Four Mile Rd. 17.303100.4996160 
Maple Ridge Township Alpena 

The Alpena Electric Light Company, organized in 1882, constructed this 
dam and powerhouse in 1909- The powerhouse is a rectangular brick 
building, 40 feet wide and approximately 80 feet long, with a flat roof, 
It contains the original installation, which includes three horizonal 
turbines driving three General Electric generators, each producing 
600 KW, 6,600 volts, at 257 R.P.M. The dam, which produces a head of 
52 feet, is concrete, approximately 400 feet in length, and is topped 
off with flashboards. There are no separate spillway gates. The dam 
was constructed around 19^0. 

[Powers, Perry F. , History of Northern Michigan and It s People (Chicago, 
1912), p. 472] 



FRENCH PAPER COMPANY: 

DAM AND POWERHOUSE (1915,1921) Niles West 

100 French St. 1 6. 561580. 4629600 

Niles Berrien 

J.W. French came to Niles in 1871 after the city of Niles offered him 
a free building site on the St. Joseph River. He established the Mich- 
igan Wood Pulp Paper Company and began producing paperboard from the 
silver poplars available locally. When the supply of these trees be- 
came exhausted around 1895, he began to produce paper, and the French 
Paper Company has specialized in high quality papers since then. There 
have been several dams on this site, but the present dam was constructed 
in 1915 after a major flood washed out the then-existing dam. The con- 
crete dam is 320 feet long, 12 feet high, has a "rolling" configuration, 
and is slightly bowed in the upstream direction. The powerhouse (1921) 
is a rectangular steel-framed brick building resting on a concrete 
foundation, approximately 70 feet long and kO feet wide. It still 
houses the original 1915 installation, which included three Allis- 
Chalmers generators, each 500 KVA, 480 volts, 1 80 R.P.M. 
[ French Paper Company : First Century , 1 871 -1971 (French Paper Company: 
Niles, Michigan, 1971) , p. 20] 



105 



UTILITIES 



GRAND RAPIDS WATER FILTRATION PLANT (1912,1923) Grand Rapids West 
1430 Monroe St., N.E. 16. 608440. 4760250 

Grand Rapids Kent 

The City of Grand Rapids created a $400,000 bond issue in 1910 to finance 
the construction of a new water filtration plant for the city. This plant 
was built under the supervision of George W. Fuller, Supervisory Engineer, 
and R.E. Harrison, Resident Engineer. The contractors included J. P. 
Rusche, A.H. Prance, the Fort Wayne Electric Works, and the Roberts Fil- 
ter Manufacturing Company. The capacity of the plant was doubled in 1924 
with an addition which is identical to the 1912 plant. R.E. Harrison 
was the Supervisory Engineer for the addition and J. P. DeKorne was the 
Resident Engineer. The General Contractor was the Owens-Ames-Kimbal 1 
Company. This plant filtered water from the Grand River initially and 
from Lake Michigan after 1940. It remained in constant service until 
1963, when a new filtration plant was opened on the lake. It remains a 
standby facility and is occasionally used during periods of peak demands, 
particularly during the summer. Grand Rapids was the first city in the 
United States to fluoridate its water supply and it was from this plant 
that sodium flouride was introduced into the water supply in January 
1945. The plant, with total capacity of 40 million gallons per day, 
includes 8 centrifugal pumps to bring in the river water, the filtration 
beds, outside settling tanks, and two 50,000 gallon tanks for storing 
water used to backwash the system. This facility, enclosed in a two- 
story brick building with tile roofs, is essentially unaltered since 
its construction. 

[Lydens, 1.1. , editor, The Story of Grand Rapids (Grand Rapids: Kregel , 
1966), pp. 171-172, 400] 



HARBOR STREET DIESEL 

GENERATING PLANT (1896,1931) Muskegon 

Harbor St. at Sherman Ave. 16.562025.4767045 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

The City of Grand Haven established a Board of Light and Power in I896 
to provide the city with electricity. A steam plant was erected in that 
year at a cost of $9,985, including all equipment. H.H. Humphrey was 
the consulting engineer and the building contractor was VanDongen and 
Groenevelt. Although none of the original equipment remains, this 
building is extant. It is a 70 foot square two-story brick building 
with a steel frame and a flat roof with a skylight. In 1931, the ad- 
joining diesel plant was constructed and equipped at a cost of $217,000. 



106 



UTILITIES 



The building is rectangular, 150 feet long and 75 feet wide, two stories 
high, and has a flat roof. It is a steel -framed brick building resting 
on a concrete foundation. None of the original equipment is extant. 
There are, however, six Nordberg Diesel Generators, built between 1937 
and 1948, still in place. They vary greatly in size, but are otherwise 
vi rtual ly identical . 

[ Annual Statement of the Board of Publ ic Works , Municipal Power and 
Light System , Grand Haven, Ml, 1937, pp. 2-6] 

HARDY [OXBOW] HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1930 Sand Lake 

On Muskegon River 16.609078.4815060 

Oxbow Newaygo 

The Hardy Dam was begun in 1929 and completed in 1931 at a cost of $5-3 
million, the largest hydroelectric project built by Consumers Power Com- 
pany prior to their recently completed Ludington Pumped Storage Facility. 
At the time of construction, the dam, which creates a head of 100 feet, 
was the highest earth-filled dam in the world constructed with hydraulic 
fill methods. The original installation, still extant, included three 
I. P. Morris vertical turbines and three General Electric generators, 
each producing 10,000 KW, 7,500 volts, operating at 163.6 R.P.M. The 
brick powerhouse is 50 feet wide, 130 feet long, and has a hipped roof. 
There is an undersluice spillway which can discharge 26,000 cubic feet 
per second, plus an emergency spillway at the northern end of the dam 
with a capacity of 40,000 cubic feet per second. The water is brought 
into the turbines through three round steel penstocks 14 feet in diameter 
and approximately 300 feet long. 
[Bush, pp. 429-430, 502] 



HIGHLAND PARK WATERWORKS (1921) Highland Park 

13512 Dequindre Ave. 17-329050.4697230 

Highland Park Wayne 

The water purification plant in Highland Park consists of a 48 million 
gallon concrete storage reservoir, a 2.75 million gallon covered coagu- 
lation basin, a filtration plant, and an electrically-operated pumping 
station. The coagulation basin is 114 feet by 324 feet by 13 feet and 
is covered with a concrete groined roof. The filtration plant consists 
of twelve filters and a head house over a 4 million gallon filtered 
water reservoir. The head house is built of red brick and is three 
stories high including the basement. The reservoir is below grade 24 



107 



UTILITIES 



inches and is 121 feet by 415 feet by 13 feet and is constructed of con- 
crete masonry. The pumping station is a larger red brick building with 
six pumping units, four of which were used in an older station. L.C. 
Whitsit was the city engineer at the time of construction. 
["Water Purification Plant at Highland Park, Michigan," Engineering 
News-Record , May 5, 1921, pp. 772-775] 




aim 




Hardy [Oxbow] Hydroelectric Plant (1931), Oxbow 



108 



UTILITIES 



HODENPYL [COUNTY LINE] 

HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1925) Copemish 

On Manistee River 1 6. 59^005 . ^91 2065 

Springfield Township Wexford 

This is an earth embankment dam with a reinforced concrete core wall and 
creates a head of 67.5 feet. The original installation, still extant, 
consisted of two Al 1 is-Chalmers vertical turbines and two Al 1 is-Chalmers 
generators, each producing 9,000 KW, 7,500 volts, operating at 120 R.P.M. 
The spillway, which runs under the powerhouse, consists of six Tefft 
spillway tubes, which can discharge a total of 11,000 cubic feet per 
second. The concrete powerhouse is 140 feet long, 120 feet wide, and 
approximately 1 40 feet high. The Consumers Power Company first used 
pilot exciters here to provide a separate source of excitation to the 
main exciter. 
[Bush, pp. 499-500] 



JACKSON STEAM PLANT (1905,1907,1930) Jackson North 

N. Mechanic St. at W. Trail 16.71 3940.4680800 

Jackson Jackson 

The Jackson Steam Plant was originally (1905) equipped with four 500 HP 
Altas boilers operating at 1 60 pounds PS I , and a single 1,500 KW General 
Electric vertical turbo-generator, 2,300 volts, 60 cycles, operating at 
1,800 R.P.M. Tbe building was enlarged in 1907 and 1930 and there were 
numerous changes in equipment between 1905 and 1927, when the plant was 
taken out of regular service. It has not generated electricity since 
1927 and is used as a warehouse by the Consumers Power Company. None 
of the boilers or generators are extant. The building is a two-story 
steel-framed brick structure with brick-arched windows and a flat roof. 
It is L-shaped, with one wing 1 90 feet long and 100 feet wide, while the 
other wing is 50 feet square. 

[ Jackson Steam Plant , a report prepared in the late 1940's by engineers 
at Consumers Power Company] 



JUNCTION [TIPPY] HYDROELECTRIC PLANT ( 1 9 1 8) Copemish 

On Manistee River 16.584073.4901000 

Dickson Township Manistee 

This was originally the Junction Dam, but was renamed the Charles W. 
Tippy Dam in honor of the General Manager of Consumers Power Company 

109 



UTILITIES 



during the period 1915-1933. It is an earth embankment dam with a rein- 
forced concrete core wall and develops a head of 56 feet. The rectangu- 
lar brick powerhouse, kO feet by 150 feet, rests on a concrete foundation. 
The concrete spillway contains four steel tainter gates and has a dis- 
charge capacity of 24,000 cubic feet per second. The original installa- 
tion, still extant, consisted of three Wei 1 man-Morgan vertical turbines 
and three Westinghouse generators, each producing 6,700 KW, 7,500 volts, 
operating at 109 R.P.M. 
[Bush, p. 160] 




Junction [Tippy] Hydroelectric Plant (1918), Dickson Township 



110 



UTILITIES 



KALAMAZOO GENERATING PLANT (1913,1939) Kalamazoo 

7A0 s. Mills st. 16.618125.4683190 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

Kalamazoo began operating a municipal electrical power system in 1 894 
when it purchased the Kalamazoo Electric Company for $12,000. The nor- 
thern section of the existing building was erected in 1914 and originally 
contained two General Electric 600 KW turbines. The southern portion of 
the present structure, facing Mills Street, is 85 feet long, 35 feet wide, 
and 55 feet high, of steel and brick construction. This addition was 
built in 1939 at a cost of $78,000 to house a new Al 1 is-Chalmers turbine 
(capacity of 2,000 KW) and Springfield boiler (3,500 H.P., 400 P.S.I.) . 
None of this equipment has remained intact. The plant supplied electric 
power for the city's lights, for the municipal water system, and for 
most of Kalamazoo's residents until it was sold to Consumers Power Com- 
pany in 1955 and shut down. 

[Dunbar, Willis F. , Kalamazoo and How It Grew (Kalamazoo: Western Mich- 
igan University, 1959) , pp. 1 14-115; Kalamazoo Gazette , November 1, 1939, 
p. 12 and May 7, 1956, p. 11] 

KALAMAZOO GENERATING STATION (1911) Kalamazoo 

E. Michigan Ave. 16.617810.4683400 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

The Kalamazoo Generating Station was constructed in 1911 to provide elec- 
trical power for Kalamazoo and the surrounding area. The original equip- 
ment included three 350 H.P., 210 lb. pressure Wickes vertical water tube 
boilers and a single 3,000 KW, 1 ,800 R.P.M. steam turbo-generator producing 
3,750 kv-a, 5,000 volts, 60 cycles, made by the General Electric Company. 
This plant stopped producing electricity in 1927, when it was converted 
into a heating plant to provide steam for downtown Kalamazoo. This plant, 
constructed of reinforced concrete, brick, and steel, consists of four 
distinct parts: the main building, housing the steam plant, is 144 feet 
long and 103 feet wide, and is the NE portion of the complex; the NW 
portion (52 feet by 92 feet) housed the boiler room; the SW portion (144 
feet by 52 feet) contained the turbine room; and the SE portion (52 feet 
square) housed the offices. Included on the site is a four ton overhead 
crane used to move coal from a pit 100 feet wide and 500 feet long, which 
runs the length of the plant and abuts the northern facade of the buildings. 
The crane is supported by a combination of reinforced concrete and steel 
piers. 



UTILITIES 



LABARGE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1922) Lowell 

On Thornapple River 16.623440.4740750 

Caledonia Township Kent 

This hydroelectric plant was built by the Michigan Water Power Company 
in 1922. It consists of a rectangular wood-framed powerhouse, 25 feet 
wide and 40 feet long, with a gabled roof, and originally housed a 400 
KW and a 300 KW generator (no longer extant). The dam, which develops 
a head of 17-5 feet, consists of a concrete wasteway segment 120 feet 
in length, and two steel tainter spill gates, each 20 feet wide and sup- 
ported by concrete piers. 



LOUD HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1913) Tawas City 

On Au Sable River 17.283050.4926077 

Huron Township Iosco 

This was the third hydroelectric project completed on the Au Sable River 
by the Consumers Power Company. Grant Cochran was the construction super- 
visor. It was named after Edward Loud, a lumberman who had owned most of 
the lands on the Au Sable River from Mio to Oscoda prior to selling them 
to the Consumers Power Company in 1909- This is an earth embankment dam 
utilizing a reinforced concrete core wall and it creates a head of 27 
feet. The original installation, still extant, includes two Al 1 is-Chalmers 
horizonal turbines and two General Electric generators, each producing 
2,000 KW, 2,500 volts, operating at 120 R.P.M. The powerhouse is a flat- 
roofed, rectangular brick building, 40 feet wide and 120 feet long, resting 
on a concrete foundation. The concrete spillway consists of three tainter 
gates and can discharge 16,650 cubic feet per second. 
[Bush, pp. 125-137, 158-159, 173] 



MANISTEE WATERWORKS (1881) Manistee 

538-540 First St. 16.553045.4899030 

Manistee Manistee 

This waterworks building bears the sign, "Manistee Waterworks, Holly 
System". It was sold to the Manistee County Historical Society in 1954. 
It is a rectangular brick building, 40 feet wide and 80 feet long, with 
brick-arched windows and a gabled roof. The western end of the building 
which contained the pumping machinery, has a basement extending approxi- 
mately 30 feet below ground level. None of the original machinery and 
equipment survives except for the main valve. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



112 



UTILITIES 



MARSHALL ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY (191 Marshall 

906 S. Marshall Ave. 16.668650.4680675 

Marshal 1 Calhoun 

This electric generating plant was built by the City of Marshall to sup- 
ply power to 150 arc street lights of 200 candle power each, as well as 
to serve the general demand for electricity in the community. It was 
constructed at a cost of $50,000. The original installation included 
four turbines producing a total of 664 H.P. and two generators, a Gene- 
ral Electric 250 KW and a Fort Wayne 1 87 KW, both producing 2,300 volts, 
60 cycles. This equipment, along with the brick powerhouse, concrete 
dam, and concrete raceways, is extant. The powerhouse, 30 feet wide and 
85 feet long, consists of three sections of one, two, and three stories 
in height, all with flat roofs. 

[Gardner, Washington, History of Calhoun County (New York: Lewis, 1913), 
pp. 252, 257-258] 



MI0 HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1916) Not Mapped 

On Au Sable River 

Mio Oscoda 

Mio Dam is an earth embankment dam with a reinforced concrete core wall 
creating a head of 29 feet. The original installation, still extant, 
consisted of two Al 1 is-Chalmers vertical turbines and two Al 1 i s-Chalmers 
generators, each producing 2,500 KW, 2,500 volts, and operating at 80 
R.P.M. The construction of Mio posed several serious problems for its 
builders. Its isolated location away from railroad lines made it neces- 
sary to haul cement and machinery fifteen miles by wagon from Cummins, 
with some pieces of machinery weighing thirty tons. Because of the nar- 
row space they had to work with, it was decided to use the "conduit spill 
way" patented by W.W. Tefft. This spillway was built under the power- 
house and consisted of two steel tubes, each sixty inches in diameter, 
controlled by valves from within the powerhouse. There is in addition 
a small concrete spillway with a single tainter gate located next to the 
powerhouse, a rectangular brick building, 30 feet by 75 feet. 
[Bush, pp. 174-175, 496] 



113 



UTILITIES 



MORROW POWER PLANT (1937, 1939, 19^1 , 1948) Galesburg 

South of M-86 16. 631045. 4692060 

Corns tock Kalamazoo 

The Morrow Power Plant, erected in 1937, was named in honor of Bryce E. 
Morrow (l873~1936), an electrical engineer who began his carrer in Thomas 
Edison's workshop and spent much of his career with the Consumers Power 
Company. This massive steel-framed brick structure, approximately 100 
feet wide and 200 feet long, is three times the size of the original 
structure, with major additions made in 1939, 1941, and 1948. The ori- 
ginal boiler and turbo-generator are no longer extant. The oldest sur- 
viving equipment is the Number 2 turbo-generator, a General Electric 
40,000 KWH unit which operates at 3,600 R.P.M., and the Number 2 boiler, 
which originally burned coal to produce 825 lbs. P.S.I, of steam at 
900 degrees. Both units were installed in 1939. The original equip- 
ment for crushing coal and conveying it to the plant remains, along 
with a 100 foot dam erected in 1941 to increase the supply of water for 
cooling available to the plant. Today, the Morrow plant is used strictly 
as a peaking plant by Consumers Power Company. 
[Bush, pp. 477, 525] 

MT. PLEASANT DAM (1907) Mt . Pleasant 

Across Chippewa River, south of Broadway 16.678840.4829675 

Mt. Pleasant Isabella 

This dam was constructed as part of a new municipal water supply system 
for Mt. Pleasant which included a pumping facility (see other entry). 
Three concrete segments were built between several islands on the Chip- 
pewa River. These are all 20 feet wide, approximately 20 feet high, 
and consist of concrete piers and abutments forming a gate 20 feet wide 
equipped with wooden stoplogs. The westernmost segment is 100 feet long 
and is V-shaped, while the remaining two segments are both 40 feet long. 
[Fancher, Issac, Past and Present of Isabella County (Indianapolis, 1911), 
p. 376] 



MT. PLEASANT WATERWORKS (1907) Mt. Pleasant 

Broadway 16.679110.4830110 

Mt. Pleasant Isabella 

The City of Mt. Pleasant built this waterworks after her citizens had 
experienced continuous problems with both the quantity and quality of 



]k 



UTILITIES 



water drawn from wells. A bond issue of $20,000 was approved in March 
1907 to construct a dam across the Chippewa River (see other entry) and 
a pumping facility. The waterworks building, 30 feet wide and 75 feet 
long, is a brick structure resting on a concrete foundation, with a 
gabled roof. It was originally equipped with a Dean water pump which 
ran continuously to maintain pressure in the system. The pump is not 
extant. 

[Fancher, Issac, Past and Present of Isabella County (Indianapolis, 
1911), p. 376] 



NEWAYGO PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY 

POWERHOUSE (1900) Fremont 

West of Mason Rd. 16.59701 7. 4808025 

Newaygo Newaygo 

The Newaygo Portland Cement Company, with Daniel McCool as President, 
built a dam and powerhouse in 1 900 to utilize the hydroelectric potential 
of the Muskegon River. The firm sold the installation to the Consumers 
Power Company in the 1920's and moved out of Newaygo entirely in the late 
1920's. The original generators, no longer extant, were powered by a 
rope transmission system from the turbines, which still rest in their 
housings. The dam is no longer extant and the powerhouse serves as a 
museum for the Newaygo County Historical Society. It is a rectangular 
brick building, 30 feet wide and 100 feet long, with a gabled roof, 
resting on a concrete foundation. 



NILES CITY POWER PLANT (1895,1928) Cassopolis 

Pucker St. at Dowagiac Creek 16. 562097- 4634080 

Niles Berrien 

On August 14, 1895 the newly-formed Niles Board of Public Works took over 
the Niles Electric Company hydroelectric plant located on Dowagiac Creek 
north of Niles. The dam and generating station located at this site, 
powered by horizonal water wheels, supplied Niles with electricity until 
they were replaced in 1928 by the present dam and powerhouse. The only 
part of the I895 installation still extant are portions of the exit race- 
wyas leading from the old powerhouse. The 1928 powerhouse, 10 feet by 15 
feet, is a brick structure resting on a concrete foundation. The adjoining 
spillway dam is 60 feet long and is equipped with six radial (tainter) 
gates. 

[Stevens, Howard G., Niles Board of Public Works , Seventy-Fifth Anniver- 
sary Report (Niles, 1970)] 

115 



UTILITIES 



NINTH AVENUE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1910,1922) Alpena 

On Thunder Bay River 1 7- 308150. 4993640 

Alpena Alpena 

The Alpena Power Company was organized in 1882 by several prominent 1 um- 
bermill operators in Alpena. This was the first dam the company con- 
structed. It replaced the Richardson Dam, a logging dam located slightly 
upstream from this site. The brick powerhouse, approximately 30 feet by 
75 feet, was constructed in 1910 and housed three horizonal Leffel tur- 
bines driving three Westinghouse generators. The concrete spillway was 
built in 1922 and includes seven steel radial gates. 
[Law, John W. and Deloris A., Home Was Alpena (Alpena, 1975), p. 86; 
Alpena News , July 22, 1964, p. 19] 

NORTH LANSING DAM (1935) Lansing South 

South of Grand River Ave. 16.700500.4735280 

Lansing Ingham 

There has been a dam across the Grand River at this site since 1843, 
when John Burchard, one of Lansing's first residents, built one there. 
The Board of Water and Light purchased this site in 1934 and erected a 
new concrete dam and a small 200 KW hydroelectric station. The dam was 
built primarily to supply the Ottawa Street Steam Station with condensing 
water. The dam, approximately 200 feet long, has a four foot moveable 
crest which permits the regulation of the height of the Grand River. 
[Board of Water and Light, Water and Power (Lansing, 1966), pp. 29~30] 



NORWAY POINT HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1924) Lake Winyah 

Across Thunder Bay River 17-301820.4997160 

Alpena Alpena 

This hydroelectric plant became the chief source of power for the Alpena 
Power Company when it opened in 1924. The dam develops a head of approx- 
imately 40 feet and the two generators produced a total of 4,000 KW. The 
original generators are extant and are housed in a rectangular brick po- 
werhouse and adjacent to it is a concrete spillway with three steel radial 
gates, each 30 feet wide, and a wasteway, approximately 150 feet long, 
consisting of timber stop logs supported by concrete piers. 
[Law, John W. and Deloris A., Home Was Alpena (Alpena, 1975), P- 86; 
Alpena News , November 28, 1924, p. 1 and July 22, 1964, p. 18] 



16 



UTILITIES 



OAKWOOD PUMPING STATION (1923-192*0 Dearborn 

12330 Sanders St. 17.323290.4683320 

Detroit Wayne 

The Oakwood Pumping Station is a small structure which houses eight pumps. 
Four of these pumps were originally installed in 1929, one was installed 
in 1935, one in 1938, and two in 19^9- These pumps pump approximately 
500 cubic feet of water per second. The main function of this station 
is to pump water to the homes in the surrounding area. The station has 
been renovated several times. Also, located in back of the station are 
two reservoirs which store a large quantity of water. This station was 
designed by the Detroit Public Works (D.P.W.) and John Reid was the civil 
engineer at the time of construction. 



ORCHARD STREET TREATMENT PLANT (193*0 East Lansing 

300 block of Orchard St. 16. 706835. 473W5 

East Lansing Ingham 

East Lansing formerly used a well water system which was objectionable 
because of its hardness and iron content. So in 193** this automatic 
softening and iron removal plant was built at a cost of $21,000. It is 
a common bond brick one- story building 40 feet long, 30 feet wide, has 
a gabled roof and rectangular windows. The general design was by Claude 
E. Erickson of Lansing and the equipment was provided by the Permutit 
Company of New York City. The plant had a one million gallon per day 
capacity. It is believed that this was the most completely automatically 
operated municipal water treatment plant in the United States at that 
time. The pumping was done at a constant rate and the operation was 
controlled by an electrical sequence-time-switch which was tied into a 
motor operated multiport valve on each tank, keeping the plant in opera- 
tion 2k hours a day. The plant operated with five water-softening i ron- 
removal green-sand zeolite tanks, each seven feet in diameter and 11 feet 
high, and two i ron- removing manganese zeolite tanks. 

[Kenny, Tim, "'Pump House Gang' Formed," Lansing State Journal , July 7, 
1975; The Permutit Company, "Automatic Softening and Iron Removal Plant 
at East Lansing, Michigan," reprinted in Water Works and Sewerage , May 
1936] 



117 



UTILITIES 



PAW PAW WATERWORKS (1 898, 1899) Marcel 1 us 

706 S. Kalamazoo St. 16.591750.4673067 

Paw Paw Van Buren 

The Paw Paw Waterworks Building was constructed in I898 by J.W. Pearl 
and George A. Mills, contractors. It housed a steam-driven pump used 
to raise water into the adjacent water tower, still extant, which was 
erected in 1899- The pumphouse is a one-story brick building, 30 feet 
by 40 feet, with a hipped roof and brick-arched windows, and has a small 
attached addition (10 feet by 8 feet) of later vintage. The square smoke- 
stack located at the rear was part of the original installation, as was 
the water tower. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



PENINSULAR PAPER COMPANY DAM (1920) Denton 

1125 N. Huron St. 17. 283565. 4681310 

Ypsilanti Washtenaw 

The Peninsular Paper Company, incorporated in 1867, has continuously 
operated paper mills on this site, utilizing the Huron River for power. 
There have been numerous dams here. The present dam was built in 1920 
after a disastrous flood in 1918 destroyed an earlier dam which was only 
two years old. It is approximately 200 feet long and 10 feet high, of 
concrete construction. The powerhouse, located at the northern end of 
the dam, is a two-story brick structure, 50 feet square, resting on a 
concrete foundation. 

[Beakes, Samuel, Past and Present of Washtenaw County (Chicago: Clarke, 
1906), pp. 736-737; Colburn, Harvey, The Story of Ypsilanti (Ypsilanti, 
1923), p. 307] 



PINE CREEK [OTSEGO] DAM (c.1900) Otsego 

Kalamazoo River, off River Rd. 16.602970.4701980 

Otsego Allegan 

W.A. Foote, a pioneer in the production and transmission of electric 
power in Michigan, constructed three dams on the Kalamazoo River between 
Plainwell and Allegan in I898-I9OO. The river falls a total of 100 feet 
over a distance of ten miles, making this area one of the few good hydro- 
electric sites in southern Michigan close to population centers, parti- 
cularly Kalamazoo. The Pine Creek Dam, later known as the Otsego Dam, 
was constructed two miles downstream from Otsego. Of the original 



UTILITIES 



hydroelectric installation, only the dam survives and is now used for 
flood control only. It is a concrete structure, 120 feet long, with 
five radial gates (tainter gates) 20 feet wide and 15 feet high, with 
a steel ribbed frame. 
[Bush, pp. 74-75] 



PLAINWELL DAM (c.1900) Otsego 

On Kalamazoo River, east of Otsego 1 6 . 609560. ^701 040 

Plainwel 1 Al legan 

W.A. Foote, a pioneer in the production and transmission of electric 
power in Michigan, constructed three dams on the Kalamazoo River between 
Plainwel 1 and Allegan in I898-I9OO. The Kalamazoo River falls a total 
of 100 feet over a distance of about ten miles, making this area one of 
the few good hydroelectric sites in southern Michigan. The Plainwel 1 
Dam, located between Plainwel 1 and Otsego, was the westernmost of the 
four dams that Foote constructed. Only the dam survives at this site 
and it is used only for flood control. It consists of two sections, 
separated from each other by an island. The southern portion, origi- 
nally containing the powerhouse and turbo-generators, is of concrete 
construction, 75 feet long and 30 feet wide. There are three concrete 
circular bases, 7 feet in diameter, which originally supported the three 
generators. The eastern portion of the dam is of concrete and steel con- 
struction, has a spillway 300 feet long, with ten bays which originally 
contained vertical lift waste gates, each 25 feet wide. The gates are 
no longer extant. 
[Bush, pp. 75-76] 



P0NTIAC STEAM PLANT (1911) Pontiac North 

Rapid St. 17.312420.4721680 

Pontiac Oakland 

This plant was originally designed as a combination generat ing-heat ing 
plant, but produced electricity only until 1915- The original installa- 
tion included four 350 H.P. 165 lbs. pressure Wickes vertical tube boilers 
two Al 1 is-Chalmers steam engines linked to two 600 kv-a Al 1 is-Chalmers 
2,400 volt, 3 phase, 60 cycle generators, and a single Erie steam engine 
connected to a 100 kv-a Al 1 is-Chalmers 2,400 volt, 3 phase, 60 cycle gen- 
erator. The plant was owned by Consumers Power Company throughout its 
life, but was leased to Detroit Edison Company in 1914-1918. It ceased 
operation in 1931 and was retired in 1933. Only the building remains, a 
steel-framed brick and concrete rectangular building, 110 feet wide, 240 
feet long, and approximately 60 feet high. 

119 



UTILITIES 



RILEY GENERATING PLANT (1922) Union City 

St. Joseph River, east of Riley Rd. 16. 648062. 4655087 

Sherwood Township Branch 

This municipally-owned power plant was constructed in 1922 by the Benjamin 
Douglas Company, contractors. The firm of Holland, Ackerman, and Holland 
served as consulting engineers for the project. The installation includes 
a concrete dam, 125 feet long, with the flow of water controlled by five 
steel radial or "tainter" gates, each 24 feet long. The steel-framed 
brick powerhouse resting on a concrete foundation is 20 feet wide and 70 
feet long and contains the two original Westinghouse generators driven 
by two Leffel turbines. This facility has been automated and still pro- 
vides power to Union City. 



ROGERS HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1906,1922) Big Rapids 

On Muskegon River 1 6. 622079- 4829085 

Big Rapids Mecosta 

The Rogers Dam, completed in 1906, is an earth embankment dam with a 
reinforced concrete core wall, 635 feet long, creating a head of 40 feet 
Power was transmitted from this plant over a line 89.5 miles to Grand 
Rapids and Muskegon. The original plant produced electricity at 7,200 
volts, which was then stepped up to 72,000 volts, the highest voltage 
in use in the world at the time. The original transmission line utili- 
zed simple wooden poles with pin insulators. The original equipment and 
powerhouse were destroyed by fire in 1922. The new installation (1922), 
still extant, includes four Al 1 is-Chalmers vertical turbines and four 
Al 1 is-Chalmers generators, each producing 1,500 KW, 7,500 volts, oper- 
ating at 150 R.P.M. The concrete spillway has six steel tainter gates 
which can discharge 22,650 cubic feet per second. The brick powerhouse, 
50 feet by 75 feet, rests on a concrete foundation. 
[Bush, pp. 88, 160, 502] 



SABIN HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (c.1920) Kingsley 

On Boardman River 16.609015.4951027 

Garfield Township Grand Traverse 

Sabin Dam was first built in 1906, enlarged in 1913, and was then washed 
out in a flood in 1918. It was rebuilt around 1920 by the Michigan Public 
Service Company. Consumers Power Company acquired the facility in 1950 
and operated it until September 1969, when it was permanently retired 



120 



UTILITIES 



and sold to Grand Traverse County. It consists of a rectangular brick 
powerhouse, 20 feet by 60 feet, resting on a concrete foundation, and 
a concrete dam producing a head of 19 feet. The dam is 110 feet long 
and included a spillway with a single steel tainter gate, 18 feet wide 
and three wooden lift gates, each ten feet wide. The original instal- 
lation, still extant, includes two vertical Leffel turbines and two 
General Electric generators, of 400 KW and 500 KW capacity. 
[Bush, p. 361; Grand Traverse Bicentennial Board, "The Boardman River 
Historical Trail"] 



SANFORD HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1925) Sanford 

320 S. Center St. 16.711 140. A839100 

Sanford Midland 

The Wolverine Power Company constructed a series of dams on the Titta- 
bawassee River at Sanford, Secord Lake, Smallwood, and Edenville in 1925 ; 
but the company immediately began to sell the entire output of these 
plants to the Consumers Power Company and has continued this arrangement 
to the present day. The Sanford Plant consists of an earth embankment 
dam, with a concrete spillway containing six steel tainter gates, each 
2k feet wide, and a rectangular brick powerhouse, 25 feet by 75 feet, 
resting on a concrete foundation. The original installation, still 
extant, included three Al 1 is-Chalmers turbines, rated at 1 ,800 B.H.P., 
operating at 225 R.P.M., driving three Al 1 is-Chalmers generators, each 
producing 1,375 KW, 2,300 volts, and 30 cycles. 
[Bush, p. 222] 



SECORD LAKE HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1925, 19^6) Secord Lake 

Across the Ti ttabawassee River 16.713000.4879670 

Secord Gladwin 

The Secord Lake Hydroelectric Plant consists of an earth embankment dam, 
a rectangular brick powerhouse (15 feet by 30 feet), resting on a concrete 
foundation, and a concrete spillway with two steel tainter gates, each 
20 feet wide. The original generator was lost to fire in 19^6 and was 
replaced with a 1,500 KW, 1,200 volt unit operating at 200 R.P.M., built 
by the Electric Machinery Manufacturing Company of Minneapolis. 
[Bush, p. 222] 



121 



UTILITIES 



SMALLWOOD HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1925) Wooden Shoe Village 

Across the Ti ttabawassee River 16.713770.4870660 

Hay Township Gladwin 

This is one of four hydroelectric plants built by the Wolverine Power 
Company in 1925 on the Ti ttabawassee River. The other plants were at 
Sanford, Edenville, and Secord Lake (see other entries). The earth em- 
bankment dam here produces a head of 28 feet. The brick powerhouse is 
25 feet square, rests on a concrete foundation, and contains the original 
installation, a single Al 1 is-Chalmers turbine rated at 1 ,800 H.P. driving 
an All is-Chalmers generator rated at 1,375 KW, 2,300 volts, at 275 R.P.M. 
The adjoining concrete spillway has two steel tainter gates, each 24 
feet wide. 



SMITHVILLE DAM AND POWER STATION (1920, l^^ 2 *) Springport 
Across Grand River, west of Smithville Rd. 16.694070.4707025 

Hamlin Township Eaton 

This site originally contained a sawmill which operated during the last 
three decades of the nineteenth century. It was first used as a hydro- 
electric plant by the City of Eaton Rapids around 1900. The wooden 
powerhouse burned in 1920 and was replaced with a brick building. How- 
ever, the three Leffel turbines, producing 700 H.P. altogether, are 
extant. Miller Dairy Farms, the present owners, acquired the property 
in 1936 and added two 500 H.P. diesel engines to supplement the available 
water power. The dam which is now standing was built in 1944 and raised 
in 1950 to increase the head from nine to twelve feet. The brick power- 
house was also enlarged in 1950. The concrete dam, approximately 100 
feet long, has a single vertical lift waste gate at each end. The 1920 
powerhouse is a one-story structure, 30 feet square, with a flat roof. 
The 1950 powerhouse, also a one-story building, is 40 feet wide and 120 
feet long. 



SPRINGWELLS PUMPING STATION (1925-1931) Dearborn 

8300 W. Warren Ave. 17-322890.4690340 

Dearborn Wayne 

The Springwells Pumping Station consists of five main buildings. They 
are the Office and Laboratory Building, the Pumping Plant, the Filter 
and Chemical Building and Machine Shop, the Garage, and the Warehouse. 
The Office and Laboratory Building is located to the east of the project, 



122 



UTILITIES 



It is usually referred to as the Main Station. This station contains 
the main offices and the general laboratory as well as the mechanical 
testing lab and chlorination room. The entire building is approximately 
72 feet 4 inches by 107 feet 8 inches by 25 feet. The Pumping Station 
contains both the high lift and the low lift. The room containing the 
two is 100 feet by 386 feet. The high lift has 16 pumps which pump water 
to various reservoirs and booster stations. The low lift is an "open 
concrete caisson" which is 90.3 feet in outside diameter. The caisson 
is 73 feet deep and the walls are 8 feet thick. It contains only eight 
pumps and two standby pumps with a total capacity of 435 million gallons 
per day. The Filter Building has 108 filter beds. Sixty-eight of the 
filter beds are contained in the original building and the other 40 
filter beds are located in an annex built in the 1960's. The dimensions 
of the original building are 523 feet by 226 feet. The roof consists of 
a steel Pratt truss. The Springwells Pumping Station Project was built 
in 1925-1931 and was the second major pumping station, the first in the 
city being Waterworks Park (see other entry). The entire project cost 
approximately $30 million to build. The chief engineer was George H. 
Fenkell. F.H. Stephenson served as the assistant chief engineer and 
J.C. Thornton was the architect. 

[City of Detroit, Board of Water Commissioners, "The 100th Annual Report 
of the Department of Water Supply"; Thornton, J.C, "Detroit Plant of 
Unique Design," Water Works Engineering Magazine , Vol. 84, No. 8, 
pp. 495-^96, 5351 



STR0NACH DAM (1912) Wellston 

On Pine River 16.588017.4895094 

Norman Township Manistee 

This dam was constructed by the Manistee County Electric Company, or- 
ganized in 1908 by Clyde Holmes, a Grand Rapids lawyer. It began oper- 
ating in October 1912, supplying power to Manistee utilizing a 44,000 
volt line. The service was extended to Cadillac in 1915, when the Con- 
sumers Power Company purchased the plant. The plant originally had two 
400 KW generators and the dam produced a head of 13 feet. The powerhouse 
and generators are gone and the dam primarily serves to prevent si 1 1 ing 
in the Tippy Pond, a short distance downstream. The concrete foundation 
for the powerhouse, measuring 27 feet by 40 feet, is still visible. The 
concrete dam is 75 feet long and consists of three bays, each 25 feet 
wide, separated by concrete piers. Each bay was originally equipped 
with two sets of flashboards. 
[Bush, pp. 191, 484, 502] 



123 



UTILITIES 



STURGIS GENERATING STATION (1911) Three Rivers East 

Across St. Joseph River 16.621125.4647350 

Nottawa Township St. Joseph 

The Sturgis Generating Station, completed in 1911, was built by the City 
of Sturgis as a municipally-owned power plant. The concrete dam, 300 
feet long and 15 feet high, has 30 vertical lift waste gates, each ten 
feet wide. On the south end of the dam, there is a three-story brick 
powerhouse, 75 feet by 50 feet, resting on a concrete foundation. It 
houses the original generating equipment, two Al 1 is-Chalmers turbo- 
generators, each producing 500 KW and operating at 150 R.P.M. 

TROWBRIDGE DAM (l 899) Gobies 

West of 26th St. 16.598090.4703087 

Trowbridge Allegan 

This was Michigan's first large hydroelectric facility, planned by W.A. 
Foote, a pioneer in the production and transmission of electric power in 
Michigan, and constructed by William G. Fargo of Jackson. It was an earth 
embankment dam and originally included three wooden radial or tainter 
gates. Steel tainter gates were installed in 1908 and are extant. The 
site originally contained a wooden powerhouse resting on a stone founda- 
tion. After a fire in 1911, it was replaced by a brick powerhouse, which 
was recently demolished. The original installation featured four pair 
of Leffel turbines connected in tandem to a single shaft. The generator 
was a General Electric 60 cycle, 3 phase, 2,500 volt, 1,500 KW unit. 
When this plant was placed into service on September 20, 1899, the vol- 
tage was stepped up to 22,000 volts before transmission to Kalamazoo over 
a 24 mile long line carried on windmill towers. Both the distance of the 
transmission and the high voltage level utilized were unprecedented. By 
1903, the line voltage from Trowbridge had been raised to 40,000. Dr. 
Charles P. Steinmetz, the "wizard of General Electric", spent consider- 
able time conducting electrical experiments at Trowbridge in 1901. 
[Bush, pp. 7^-79; Luther, E. Hardy, "Trowbridge, Scene of Pioneering," 
Consumer Power News, XXII, (November 1957), p. 10] 



WASHINGTON AVENUE STEAM PLANT (1905) Saginaw 

S. Washington Ave. 17.261190.4811300 

Saginaw Saginaw 

The Washington Avenue Steam Plant was opened in 1905, but remained in 
active service only until 1913, when it was placed on standby. In 1924 



124 



UTILITIES 



all equipment and machinery was sold for scrap and the building was used 
for storage and as a repair shop. Only the engine room is extant, a 
rectangular brick building, 68 feet wide, 87 feet long, and 56 feet high, 
with a flat roof. It is currently owned by the City of Saginaw. 



WATERWORKS PARK (1910-1931) Belle Isle 

10100 E. Jefferson Ave. 17.337000.4690310 

Detroit Wayne 

Waterworks Park consists of six major buildings: the Main Office, the 
Filtration Building, the High Lift Building, the Low Lift Building, the 
Auxiliary Low Lift Building, and the Screenhouse. The High Lift Building 
was built in 1910-1913- It is a very large building because the machinery 
needed to run the pumps are three to four stories high. Today there are 
eleven pumps although originally there were sixteen. One of the features 
in the interior of the building is a brass balcony which runs all around 
the floor. The walls are brick and the roof is supported by a Howe truss. 
There are also winding staircases and balconies at the windows which are 
made of brass as are all the fixtures. There is no original equipment 
left except for eight venture meters which tell the rate of the outgoing 
water. The Filtration Building was constructed in 1921-1923. All the 
filtration works are located in one building. This building is 480 feet 
wide by 810 feet long, three stories high, and located at the center of 
the north end of the park. There are 80 filter beds occupying a space 
of 480 feet by 270 feet. South of the filter beds are the coagulation 
basins and overhead chemicals are stored here. The filter beds have 
1,080 square feet of effective sand area and are divided into five double 
rows each containing eight beds with pipe galleries between each two rows. 
The filters are covered by a steel truss roof having continuously raised 
monitors over the operating galleries thus giving plenty of light and 
ventilation. The Low Lift Building was built in 1924. It is a brick 
structure that is 65 feet by 75 feet in plan. A balcony made of brass 
encircles the interior of the building at entrance level and the pump 
floor is 20 feet below ground level. There are five original pumps with 
a capacity of 465 million gallons per day. There is also a separate 
room containing seven, electrically operated, revolving screens, each 
6 feet wide by 25 feet high. These screens intercept all coarse floating 
material only for Waterworks Park. The Auxiliary Low Lift Building was 
built in 1930. It contains two huge below grade pumps as well as other 
equipment. The Screenhouse was built in 1931. It handles water headed 
for the Springwells Plant and the Northeast Plant. There are again approx- 
imately seven traveling water screens, three of which are original. This 



125 



UTILITIES 



structure features two winding staircases which extend to the ceiling 
as well as a revolving crane. The complete park occupies a rectangular 
space 810 feet by 937 feet or slightly over 17 acres. The total cost 
of the filtration plant, excluding the pumping station, was about 
$4,480,000. The engineer for the project was George Fenkell. Frank 
H. Stephenson served as assistant engineer and Theodore Leisen was the 
archi tect. 

[ Engineering News-Record , Vol. 84, June 17, 1920, pp. 1 1 94- 1 1 96 and 
Vol. 90, May 17, 1923, pp. 860-865] 



WEBBER HYDROELECTRIC PLANT (1906) Portland 

On Grand River, southeast of Lyons 16.671050.4757410 

Lyons Township Ionia 

The Commonwealth Power Company, a forerunner of the Consumers Power Com- 
pany, purchased the land and rights to erect a dam here from H.R. Wager 
of Ionia in April 1906. The dam and generating station, named after a 
Portland banker who conducted some of the real estate transactions, went 
into service on March 12, 1907- It is an earth embankment dam with a 
concrete core wall, and is 28 feet high, giving the generating station 
an effective head of 26 feet. The 40,000 volt transmission line from 
Webber Dam to Lansing featured three-legged steel towers utilizing pin- 
type insulators. This was the first use of steel transmission towers in 
Michigan. The original equipment still extant includes a Leffel turbine 
which drives a General Electric generator rated at 2,300 KW, 7,200 volts 
and operates at 164 R.P.M. Additional equipment, all installed in 1949, 
includes two Leffel turbines driving two EMC generators rated at 1,000 
KW each, 2,500 volts, and operating at 200 R.P.M. The powerhouse is a 
T-Shaped brick building resting on a concrete foundation, with gabled 
roofs. One segment is approximately 20 feet wide and 60 feet long, 
while the other section is 30 feet wide and 40 feet long. Proceeding 
from the powerhouse to the north shore of the Grand River, there is a 
concrete spillway, approximately 60 feet long, and five steel radial or 
tainter gates, each 20 feet wide, resting in a concrete framework. 
[Bush, p. 465] 



126 



POWER SOURCES AND PRIME MOVERS 



AMERICAN FARM WINDMILLS (c. 1 880 , 1 895) Fremont 

4634 S. Luce Ave. 1 6 . 587068. 481 3087 

Fremont Newaygo 

The American Farm Windmill was crucial to the survival of farmers in the 
Midwest and Plains states and is an often-forgotten part of American 
technological history. Here at the Windmill Gardens Museum Village in 
Fremont, there is a collection of more than a dozen farm windmills of 
various sizes and styles. Among the more significant is the Waupum Tail- 
less Windmill (1895) manufactured by the Althouse Wheeler Company of 
Waupum, Wisconsin. It was called the "cyclone proof windmill" because 
during high winds which would destroy the standard windmill, vanes could 
be manually opened to prevent it from turning. If high winds developed 
unexpectedly, centrifical force would force the vane open. At this same 
site, there is also a direct stroke windmill with a tail manufactured by 
the Union Steel Screen Company of Albion, Michigan (see other entry) in 
the early l880's. 



BUSH AND LANE PIANO COMPANY: 

CORLISS ENGINE (1904) Holland 

E. 7th St. 16.574075.4737075 

Holland Ottawa 

This Corliss Engine was exhibited at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904 
by the E.P. All is Company. The Bush and Lane Piano Company, in need of 
a power plant for their new factory in Holland, purchased this engine 
at the Fair. The engine transmitted power to the machinery in the piano 
factory through a one and one-eighth inch diameter cable which was 2,250 
feet long. The engine was retired in 1959 and moved to its present lo- 
cation, next to the Baker Furniture Museum. 



CEDAR STREET STATION PUMPING ENGINE (1917) Lansing South 

112 S. Cedar St. 16. 700800. 4733900 

Lansing Ingham 

This steam pumping engine was built in 1917 by the Worthington Pump and 
Machinery Corporation at their Snow-Holly Works in Buffalo, New York. 
This 10 million gallon per day engine has a total weight of 125 tons and 
was built at a cost of $25,000. It has a low pressure cylinder which 
has a 44 inch bore, 36 inch stroke. It was designed to carry 70 pounds 



127 



POWER SOURCES AND PRIME MOVERS 



of steam pressure and to operate at 41 R.P.M. This engine features a 
flywheel which has a diameter of thirteen feet and weighs 23,000 pounds 
It is still operable, although it serves only as an emergency backup 
uni t. 
[Board of Water and Light, Water and Power (Lansing, 1 966) , p. 18] 



ENSLEY WINDMILL TOWER ( 1 866) Fremont 

4634 S. Luce Ave. l6.587068.A8l 3087 

Fremont Newaygo 

This windmill tower (1866) was constructed by Benjamin Ens ley to pump 
water for his farm. It was built of white pine, is 43 feet high, 12 
feet square at the base, and then tapers to about 4 feet square at the 
top, and weighs approximately 13 tons. It originally had a water tank 
on the top floor and had a wooden direct stroke vane. The tower was 
moved in 1 966 from its original location to the Windmill Gardens Museum 
Vi 1 lage in Fremont. 
[West State Chronicle, December 23, 1966, p. 5] 



128 



POWER SOURCES AND PRIME MOVERS 




Ensley Windmill Tower (1866), Fremont 



29 



INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION 



The transportation category includes all structures and equip- 
ment associated with canals and inland navigation, marine transportation 
railroads, roads, and air travel. This section is comprised mainly of 
sites relating to marine navigation and railroads, historically the 
principal means of transportation in the state and the most significant 
to its economic development. Several important related sites, such as 
the Grand Trunk Western Railroad St. Clair River Tunnel (1891), the 
Michigan Central Railroad Detroit River Tunnel (1909), and the Detroit- 
Windsor Vehicular Tunnel (1930) appear in the Specialized Structures 
section of this volume. 

Water-borne transportation on the Great Lakes and on the in- 
land rivers of Michigan preceded the development of railroads by well 
over a century and continues to be significant today. Michigan's cen- 
tral position in the Great Lakes encouraged much of the state's earliest 
settlement and economic development. There was early recognition of the 
commercial and military significance of the narrow waterways connecting 
the lakes, especially the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers linking Lakes 
Huron and Erie, and the Straits of Mackinac between Lakes Huron and 
Michigan. The first settlers to arrive in many of the coastal areas 
came to build and operate lighthouses constructed to aid this traffic. 
Seven lighthouses constructed before i860 and an additional eighteen 
built before I892 are recorded here. 

The rivers of Michigan were the cheapest mode of transport 
before the coming of the railroad and several major rivers remained 
important avenues of trade until the late nineteenth century. This was 
particularly true of the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Raisin, and Huron Rivers. 
The Grand River was navigable as far inland as Grand Rapids until the 
1930's and the Saginaw River remains a vital artery of commerce to this 
day. The dozens of moveable bridges recorded in this inventory and 
listed in a separate category later in the volume attest to the signi- 
ficance of the river traffic. 

It was the railroad, however, that opened Michigan to settle- 
ment and development in the early nineteenth century. In 1830, there 
were only about 30,000 residents in the state, with 2,000 of these con- 
centrated in Detroit and most of the remainder scattered in the three 
southernmost tiers of counties. The state legislature passed an ambi- 
tious Internal Improvements Act in 1837 committing the state to con- 
struct a system of three railroads and two canals. The routes were 
surveyed and construction started on the railroad lines, which were to 



130 



run east to west through the three southern tiers of counties. The 
southernmost line extended from Monroe to Hillsdale by 1843, while the 
"central" line, beginning in Detroit, reached Kalamazoo by 1846. A 
small canal segment between Mt. Clemens and Rochester was also com- 
pleted. The state abandoned this program in 1846 after expending $4.5 
million in cash and giving away about 300,000 acres of public lands. 
The railroad lines were sold to private concerns for a total of $2.5 
million. This costly venture did little to encourage state intervention 
in transportation, but it at least established the nucleus for the 
state's railroad network. 

The southernmost line, which became the Michigan Southern 
Railroad, extended to Coldwater in 1 850 and then southward to South 
Bend, Indiana, in 1851, reaching Chicago in 1852. The line passing 
through the second tier of counties became the Michigan Central Rail- 
road, destined to become the most important line in the state. It 
extended from Kalamazoo to Niles in 1849 and reached Chicago in 1852. 
The Michigan Central gained an important connection with Eastern markets 
when the Great Western Railway completed its line across Canada (Niagara 
Falls to Windsor, Ontario) in 1854. The third line to span the Lower 
Peninsula was the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, running from Detroit 
northward to Pontiac, then west to Grand Rapids, terminating in Grand 
Haven on Lake Michigan. The Detroit to Pontiac segment opened in 1843, 
but the 165 mile line from Pontiac to Grand Haven was laboriously built 
over the period I852-I858. On the eve of the Civil War, Michigan had 
three major east-west lines and a total of 800 miles of railroads. In 
the three decades since 1830, the state's population leaped from 30,000 
to about 750,000 and was heavily concentrated along the major rail lines. 

The construction of additional railroad mileage after the 
Civil War was both extensive and chaotic. Numerous lines were built 
into northern Michigan, often in the hopes of capturing the lumber traf- 
fic. New lines reached the Straits of Mackinac from Saginaw in 1881 
and from Grand Rapids a year later. There were over 8,000 miles of lines 
by 1900, serving virtually every village in the Lower Peninsula. At the 
same time that there was a proliferation of hundreds of new railroad 
companies, there were also several significant consolidations. The 
Michigan Central Railroad built or purchased dozens of feeder lines and 
then became part of the Vanderbi 1 ts ' railroad empire in the mid-1870's. 
To counter this development, the Grand Trunk Railroad of Canada created 
a new trunkline in 1879 extending from Chicago through Michigan to Port 
Huron, where cars could be ferried across the St. Clair River to Sarnia 
and then continue on the Grand Trunk's lines to the eastern United 
States. Finally, a giant new network was created in 1900 when the Flint 
and Pere Marquette Railroad merged with several other lines to form the 
Pere Marquette Railroad. 



131 



The railroad was the premier inland transportation system in 
Michigan in the nineteenth century, for both passengers and freight. 
Railroad stations were focal points of economic and social life in that 
era and they are well represented in this inventory. About two dozen 
attractive stations of brick or stone construction survive in the larger 
cities. These are second-generation passenger stations built in the 
last quarter of the nineteenth century, replacing earlier wooden struc- 
tures. In the larger cities, separate f reighthouses were usually con- 
structed close to the passenger depots. It is more difficult to gene- 
ralize about the small town stations. There are over a dozen examples 
of brick or stone structures, usually with separate freight sheds, but 
in northern Michigan the wooden combination passenger-freight depot 
predominates. 

One interesting chapter in Michigan's transportation history 
was the development of the electric interurban lines. The first line 
was completed in 1 890 between Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti, permitting, among 
other things, faster movement between the all-male University of Michigan 
and the all-female Michigan State Normal School in Ypsilanti. The success 
of that first line set off a boom in interurban construction and by 1918 
there were eighteen companies operating more than 1,700 miles of lines 
in southern Michigan, representing an investment of $1^0 million. 
Detroit was the hub of the system, with lines reaching Toledo, Port 
Huron, Bay City, Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, and Muskegon. They remained 
successful until the early 1920's, when they quickly fell victim to the 
competition of the private automobile. Virtually the entire interurban 
system was dismantled between 1924 and 1932. 

Railroads and waterways still carry a significant share of 
the state's freight traffic, particularly in bulk commodities, but the 
automobile and the truck have dominated the transportation system since 
the mid-1920's. Not surprisingly, the same workers who "put the nation 
on wheels" enthusiastically purchased automobiles for their own use and 
pressured state and local governments to upgrade highways. The urban 
development of the state in this century was closely geared to the 
automobile. To this day, public mass transportation is used by only 
a small number of Michigan's residents. 



132 



RAILROAD ABBREVIATIONS 

AA RW Ann Arbor Railway 

C & RR Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad 

C, D £ C GJ RR Chicago, Detroit, and Canada Grand Junction 

Rai 1 road 

C & NM RR Chicago and North Michigan Railroad 

C & WM RR Chicago and West Michigan Railroad 

C, S S M RR Cincinnati, Saginaw, and Mackinac Railroad 

D, L & N RR Detroit, Lansing, and Northern Railroad 

D, L & NM RR Detroit, Lansing, and Northern Michigan 

Rai 1 road 

D & M RR Detroit and Mackinac Railroad 

D & MW RR Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad 

D, T & I RR Detroit, Toledo, and I ronton Railroad 

D & TSL RR Detroit and Toledo Shore Line Railroad 

DU RW Detroit United Railway 

F & PM RR Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad 

GR, GH & M RW Grand Rapids, Grand Haven, and Muskegon 

Rai lway 

GR & I LINE Grand Rapids and Indiana Line 

GTW RR Grand Trunk Western Railroad 

LM RW Lansing Manufacturers Railway 

MC RR Michigan Central Railroad 



133 



RAILROAD ABBREVIATIONS 

MS RR Michigan Southern Railroad 

PM RR Pere Marquette Railroad 

NYC RR New York Central Railroad 

N S W RR Norfolk and Western Railroad 

T, AA $ NM RR Toledo, Ann Arbor, and Northern Michigan 

Rai 1 road 



13** 



TRANSPORTATION 



BATTLE CREEK TRACTION COMPANY: 

PARMA SUBSTATION (1903) Springport 

102 Church St. 1 6. 697095. ^688040 

Parma Jackson 

The Battle Creek Traction Company erected this structure in 1903 to serve 
as a combination passenger station, freight station, and electrical sub- 
station for its line extending from Jackson to Battle Creek. There were 
five such stations on the line, in Jackson, Parma, Albion, Marshall, and 
Battle Creek. Each station had three 225 KW, 40,000 volt-375 volt step- 
down transformers to convert AC into DC for use on this electric inter- 
urban line, which utilized a third rail system. None of the original 
equipment is extant and the station, considerably modernized, now serves 
as a county library. It is a rectangular brick structure, 25 feet wide 
and 75 feet long, with a hipped roof and wide overhanging eaves supported 
by wooden brackets. 
[ Street Railway Journal , January 2, 1904, pp. 11-13] 

BIG SABLE POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1867,1905) Manistee 

On Big Sable Point 16. 538015. 487801 5 

Hamlin Township Mason 

The lighthouse at Big Sable was erected in 1867 at a cost of $50,000. 
It opened on November 1 of that year and was equipped with a third order 
lens made in Paris. The cylindrical tower, 100 feet high and 15 feet 
in diameter at the base, is of brick construction. It was covered with 
a steel casing in 1905 to prevent deterioration from the elements. The 
adjoining 1 ightkeeper's house is a two-story rectangular frame building, 
24 feet wide and 66 feet long, with a gabled roof. The lighthouse is 
located in Ludington State Park and is leased from the Coast Guard by 
the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 

[MHD, Site Files; USCG, Light List , p. 151; Holland, Francis, America's 
Lighthouses (Brattleboro: Stephen Greene Press, 1972), p. 185] 



BLACK LAKE LIGHTHOUSE (1870,1907) Holland 

Point Macatawa 16. 565040. 4735065 

Holland Ottawa 

This lighthouse stands at the entrance to Lake Macatawa, also commonly 
called Black Lake. It was constructed in 1870, but was altered in 1907 
when most of the original shingle siding was covered with cast iron 



135 



TRANSPORTATION 



plating. The lower portion is a rectangular building, 2k feet wide, 35 
feet long, and approximately 30 feet high, with two gabled roofs extending 
the width of the building. The western (seaward) roof is topped off by a 
12 foot square tower, ten feet high, on which the beacon, enclosed in an 
octagonal glass and cast iron house, rests. The overall height of this 
lighthouse is kS feet. 
[MHD, Site Files; USCG, Light List, p. 155] 



A 




Big Sable Point Lighthouse (1867,1905), Hamlin Township 



36 



TRANSPORTATION 



CHARLEVOIX SOUTH PIERHEAD LIGHTHOUSE (c.1920) Charlevoix 

Outer end of South Pierhead 16.636000.5019075 

Charlevoix Charlevoix 

This light is supported by a steel skeletal tower, 40 feet high and 12 
feet square at the base. The top 10 feet of the tower, where the light 
is housed, is enclosed by a simple sheet metal shed, while the rest of 
the tower is exposed to the elements. The Coast Guard has maintained 
a light at this location since 1858, but the extant structure is of 
more recent vintage, probably dating from the 1920's. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 1 47] 

CHEBOYGAN CRIB LIGHTHOUSE (1884,1910) Cheboygan 

On west side of Cheboygan River 16.698000.5059052 

Cheboygan Cheboygan 

The Cheboygan Crib Lighthouse was constructed in 1884 and substantially 
rebuilt in 1 9 1 . It is a brick octagonal tower, 35 feet high, resting 
on a concrete crib. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 92] 

CHEBOYGAN DAM AND LOCK (1927,1950 Cheboygan 

Across Cheboygan River 16.696050.5056068 

Cheboygan Cheboygan 

The Straits of Mackinac offered a precarious passage for small boats 
attempting to travel between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. The Cheboygan 
Slack Water Navigation Company was established to develop an inland water 
passage consisting of the Cheboygan River, Mullett Lake, Indian River, 
Burt Lake, the Crooked River, and Crooked Lake, to Little Traverse Bay. 
This company built a dam and lock on the Cheboygan River in 1 869 to main- 
tain the water levels in this inland route. In 1876-1879, the entire 
route was dredged to a minimum depth of five feet. The present dam on 
this site was built in 1922 and replaced an old timber crib dam at the 
same location. The concrete apron of this dam rests on part of the old 
timber cribwork. The boat lock dates from 1927, but the lock gates were 
completely rebuilt in 1951. This complex was purchased by Consumers Power 
Company in 1950 and then sold in 1967 to the Michigan Department of Nat- 
ural Resources. The concrete dam is 100 feet long, 43 feet wide, with a 



137 



TRANSPORTATION 



concrete apron, and six vertical lift gates. The dam is curved convex 
to the upstream side. The boat lock is 147 feet long overall, 9** feet 
long between the gates, 18 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The timber lock 
gates are operated by a horizonal shaft from an air-driven piston. 
[Ayres, Lewis, Norris & May, Consulting Engineers, Report on Cheboygan 
Dam and Lock (August 1965), pp. 11-14; Powers, Perry, History of Northern 
Michigan and Its People (Chicago, 1912), pp. 450-454] 



CHEBOYGAN RIVER RANGE FRONT LIGHTHOUSE (1880) Cheboygan 

North bank of Cheboygan River 16.69701 5. 5058040 

Cheboygan Cheboygan 

This lighthouse was constructed in 1880 at the entrance to the Cheboygan 
River from Lake Huron. It consists of a two-story frame building, 20 
feet wide and 25 feet long, resting on a stone foundation, with a gabled 
roof. The tower housing the light, built into the south facade of the 
house, is six feet square and 45 feet high. 
[USCG, Light List, p. 92] 



C, D & C GJ RR: PORT HURON STATION ( 1 858) Port Huron 

Between Forest St. and Gratiot St. 17.383780.4761430 

Port Huron St. Clair 

The first railroad connection between Detroit and Port Huron was completed 
in November 1859 by the Chicago, Detroit and Canada Grand Junction Railroad 
Company. It was from this station that twelve year old Thomas Edison de- 
parted to sell newspapers and confections on the Port Huron to Detroit 
run. He worked as a newsboy on this run for three years and made suffi- 
cient earnings to support himself and to purchase materials and supplies 
for his early experiments. This simple one-story rectangular brick 
building with a stucco facing is 30 feet wide, 66 feet long, with a gabled 
roof and overhanging eaves supported by wooden braces. It was used as an 
office building by the Peerless Cement Company since about 1915, but was 
saved when the rest of the cement complex was demolished in the early 
1970's. 

[Dunbar, pp. 96-97; MHD, Site Files; Port Huron Times-Herald , February 24, 
1955] 



138 



TRANSPORTATION 




Cheboygan River Range Front Lighthouse (1880), Cheboyge 

139 



TRANSPORTATION 



C & NM RR: PETOSKEY STATION (1892) Petoskey 

W. Lake St. 16.659048.5026055 

Petoskey Emmet 

The Chicago and North Michigan Railroad Company was organized in 1890 
to extend the Chicago and West Michigan Railway line from Traverse City 
to Bay View, a distance of 78.5 miles. The two companies were in fact 
indistinguishable, sharing the same directors and stockholders. This 
branch line reached Petoskey in January 1892. The railroad hired the 
Cadillac firm of Mosser and Wilson to build a passenger depot on a spa- 
cious piece of land on Little Traverse Bay and the new station was com- 
pleted in August 1892. The station was owned by the Pere Marquette 
Railway Company in l899"19**7 and then by the Chesapeake and Ohio Rail- 
way Company. Passenger service was discontinued in the late 1950's and 
the station is now owned by the local historical society, which uses it 
as a museum. It is a rectangular brick structure, 8l feet long and 60 
feet wide overall, with a second story 39 feet square surmounted by a 
conical tower. 
[Ivey, p. 245; NR] 



C, S & M RR: FLUSHING STATION (I889) Flushing 

431 W. Main St. 17.266970.4771520 

Flushing Genesee 

The Cincinnati, Saginaw, and Mackinac Railroad was one of numerous short 
lines built in Michigan to serve as feeders for the main lines of the 
larger railroads. This line was fifty-four miles long, linking Saginaw 
with the Grand Trunk Western's main line at Durand. It opened in 1890 
and was immediately purchased by the Grand Trunk. This attractive depot 
is a rectangular wood-framed building, 73 feet long and 24 feet wide, 
resting on a stone foundation, with a hipped roof. It is adjacent to 
the Chicago, Saginaw, and Mackinac Railroad Freighthouse constructed in 
the same year (see other entry). It is now used as a restaurant. 
[MHD, Site Files; GTR, "Statement", p. 2; Dunbar, p. 148; Flushing 
Observer, February 16, 1972, p. 1] 



140 



TRANSPORTATION 




C & NM RR: Petoskey Station (l 892) , Petoskey 



CLINTON- KALAMAZOO CANAL (1842) 
Hale Rd. , south of Utica 
Avon Township 



Utica 

17.326960.4727390 

Oakland 



In 1837 the Michigan Legislature passed an Internal Improvements Bill 
which provided for the construction of three railroads and two canals 
with public funds. One canal was to connect Lake St. Clair and Lake 
Michigan by linking the Clinton and Kalamazoo Rivers. The only portion 
of this canal that was constructed was a sixteen mile segment between 
Mt. Clemens and Utica. Three different contractors began work on this 
segment in July I838, but after continuous construction difficulties 
and financial problems, work was suspended in 1842. The state had spent 



141 



TRANSPORTATION 



about $125,000 on the project, but only two barges used the canal. 
Since it was abandoned, flooding and erosion have filled in most of 
the original cuts, and nothing remains of the original wooden locks. 
Near Utica, foundation piers for an aqueduct are still visible. 
[NR] 



DAVISON LIMITED EXPRESSWAY (1942) Highland Park 

Davison St. to the Lodge Freeway 17.327730.4696550 

Detroit Wayne 

The Davison Limited Expressway was the first expressway built in Detroit. 
Its purpose was to relieve some of the traffic-congested streets due to 
the large number of Ford factory workers in the Detroit-Highland Park 
area. Construction of the expressway began in 1941 and it was opened to 
traffic in 1942. The expressway begins at Gallagher and Davison and 
extends some 8,000 feet eastward to the Lodge Freeway. It primarily 
consists of two 33 foot, unreinforced concrete pavements, 10 feet thick, 
depressed some 12 to 17 feet to an almost local terrain. The median 
strip is 6 feet wide. The construction cost of this road, including 
overhead, was $2,130,000. The only major renovating changes made were 
repavement and the construction of an interchange with the Chrysler 
Freeway in 1969- Respectively, the Bridge Engineer and Chief Bridge 
Designer for Wayne County, Michigan were Harry A. Shuptrine and Julian 
C. Meade. 
[ Civil Engineering , Vol. 12 (December 1942), pp. 673-676] 

DETROIT CITY AIRPORT (1929-1930) Highland Park 

11499 Conner Ave. 17.335360.4696540 

Detroit Wayne 

The Detroit City Airport, originally called the Detroit Municipal Airport 
was erected in 1929-1930. The cost of the airport was $2.4 million which 
was raised through a bond issue. The airport is peculiar in that it has 
an L-shaped field, the area of which is 270 acres. It has four 100 foot 
wide runways which are from 1,000 to 5,000 feet long and aggregate a 
total of two and one-half miles. The runways give takeoffs in six dif- 
ferent directions. The paving on the runways include seven inches of 
concrete, seven inches of asphaltic concrete, and sheet asphalt on water- 
bound macadam. The main municipal hangar is 1,014 feet long. It is 250 
feet wide for 114 feet at one end, 204 feet wide for 786 feet, and 127 
and one-half feet wide for the 114 feet north bay. The structure is two 



142 



TRANSPORTATION 



stories high and sits on a kO foot concrete pile foundation. It is con- 
structed of yellow brick with concrete trim and is reinforced with steel 
beams. The roof is supported by steel, upside-down Baltimore (Petit) 
trusses and is covered with over a one-half inch insulation of asbestos 
felt laid on pre-cast concrete tile. On the field end of the building 
a glass enclosed tower extends upward about 20 feet. It was originally 
used as the operator's office. The airport keeps its fuel underground 
in eight fuel pits. In 1966 the old terminal was replaced by a new 
$2 million terminal. The old terminal is now used as an airline's of- 
fice. In 1970 a new watch tower was dedicated. It was designed under 
the supervision of P. A. Fellows, City Engineer. 

[ Engineering News-Record , Vol. 105, September 11, 1930, p. 433 and 
VoK 106, June 18, 1931, pp. 1006-1008; "Detroit's New Close-In Termi- 
nal," Detroit News , June 28, 1966; Easts ide Newspaper , June 23, 1970; 
"Detroit City Airport Scrapbook"] 



D, L & N RR: LAKE ODESSA STATION (c.l890) Ionia 

Between 4th Ave. and 5th Ave. 16.652025.4738030 

Lake Odessa Ionia 

In 1888, the Detroit, Lansing, and Northern Railroad completed a line 
between Grand Ledge, near Lansing, and Grand Rapids, passing through 
Lake Odessa. This line became part of the Pere Marquette Railroad sy- 
stem in 1900. The Lake Odessa Station is a one-story rectangular frame 
structure, 25 feet wide and 60 feet long, with a hipped roof and wide 
overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets. It features a two-story 
domed tower and board- and- batten siding. 
[MHD, Site Files; Ivey, pp. 257-258] 



D, L & N RR: SARANAC STATION (c.l890) Ionia 

Depot St. 16. 646045. 4754065 

Saranac Ionia 

In 1871, the Detroit, Lansing, and Lake Michigan Railroad completed a 
line between Lansing and Howard City, passing through Saranac. The line 
was taken over in 1876 by the Detroit, Lansing, and Northern Railroad 
Company, which in turn became part of the Pere Marquette Railroad system 
in 1900. The Saranac Station, constructed around 1890, is a one-story 
rectangular frame structure, 60 feet long and 20 feet wide, with a gabled 
roof and a single conical roof at the south end. The wide overhanging 
eaves are supported by wooden brackets. 
[MHD, Site Files; Ivey, pp. 252-254] 

1^3 



TRANSPORTATION 




D, L & N RR: Lake Odessa Station (c.l890), Lake Odessa 



D & M RR: ALPENA STATION (1911) 
10th Ave. at Saginaw St. 
Alpena 



Al pena 

17. 307^10. 4993130 

Alpena 



The Detroit, Bay City, and Alpena Railroad reached Alpena in 1886 and 
merged with the Alpena and Northern Railway Company in 1895 to form the 
Detroit and Mackinac Railway. This passenger station replaced an earlier 
one located on West Fletcher Street. To facilitate construction, the 
City of Alpena gave the Detroit and Mackinac Railway the right to take 
the 10th Avenue right-of-way for its tracks, thus eliminating that street 
from the city's street system. It is a brick building resting on a cut 



\kk 



TRANSPORTATION 



stone foundation, with hipped roofs. It consists of a passenger waiting 
area kO feet wide and 120 feet long and a separate baggage building, 20 
feet wide and 30 feet long. The two segments are connected by a covered 
walkway. It is now used as an ice manufacturing plant. 
[Law, John W. and Deloris A., Home Was Alpena (Alpena, 1975), pp. 67-68] 

D & M RR: EAST TAWAS ROUNDHOUSE (1895) Tawas City 

US-31, between Oak St. and Pine St. 17-300033.4905045 

East Tawas Iosco 

The Detroit, Bay City, and Alpena Railroad built a major line extending 
from Bay City to Alpena in 1886, skirting the coast of Lake Huron. The 
company merged with the Alpena and Northern Railway Company in 1895 to 
form the Detroit and Mackinac Railroad and located its main offices and 
repair facilities in East Tawas. The brick roundhouse contains 16 stalls, 
each 60 feet deep, and has an outside circumference of 320 feet. The 
adjacent rectangular brick building housing the carshops is 50 feet wide 
and 250 feet long, with a flat roof. There were about 125 workers em- 
ployed in the carshops alone in 1912. 

[Powers, Perry F. , A History of Northern Michigan and Its People , I, 
(Chicago, 1912), p. 520] 



D & MW RR: GRAND HAVEN STATION (1870) Muskegon 

1 N. Harbor St. 16. 562065. 4768035 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

The Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, the second major line to span the 
Lower Peninsula of Michigan, reached Grand Haven in I858. The company 
initially constructed a wooden station on the east side of the Grand 
River, so that passengers had to be ferried across the Grand River into 
the city. In 1868 the City of Grand Haven offered the railroad a sub- 
sidy of $52,000 to relocate their line and move their station into the 
city proper. The railroad accepted the offer and constructed the present 
station in the middle of the city's business district. It opened in 1870, 
It is a one-story white brick rectangular building, 130 feet long and 35 
feet wide, with a hipped roof and wide overhanging eaves supported by 
wooden brackets. Both the doors and windows are arched in brick, while 
the later have stone sills. 

[Dunbar, pp. 77~78; Lilly, Leo, Historic Grand Haven and Ottawa County 
(Grand Haven: the author, 1931) , pp. 338-340J 



1^5 



TRANSPORTATION 



D, T & I RR: CATENARY ARCHES (1926-1927) Dearborn 

Southfield Rd. and Allen Rd. 17.317500.4680935 

Al len Park Wayne 

These reinforced concrete Catenary Arches were constructed in 1926-1927 
to electrify the railroad line from the Ford Motor Company River Rouge 
Complex to 35 miles south of here along the Detroit, Toledo, and Iron- 
ton Railroad line. The arches were spaced at 200-foot intervals. They 
have not been used for nearly 50 years but remain in good condition along 
the Detroit, Toledo, and I ronton Railroad Company's Dearborn branch be- 
tween Oakwood Blvd., Allen Park and Pennsylvania Road, Taylor. 

F & PM RR: SAGINAW STATION (1 887) Saginaw 

Potter St. 17.262670.4813740 

Saginaw Saginaw 

This sprawling passenger station was built in 1887 for the Flint and Pere 
Marquette Railroad. It is a two-story rectangular red brick building, 40 
feet wide and 270 feet long, with hipped roofs, a four-story square tower, 
and a ten foot wide overhang supported by cast iron brackets extending 
around the entire building. 



FORT GRATIOT LIGHTHOUSE ( 1 829, 1 861 , 1 875) Lakeport 

Garfield St. and Omar St. 17-384070.4762300 

Port Huron St. Clai r 

The Fort Gratiot Lighthouse is the oldest surviving lighthouse in Mich- 
igan. It was completed in December 1829 and was built by Lucius Lvon 
at a cost of $4,445. The height of the tower was increased by 20 feet 
in 1 86 1 to its present height of 86 feet. It is 25 feet in diameter 
at the base, with five foot thick walls. The adjacent two-story brick 
1 ightkeeper 1 s house was erected in 1874-1875 to house two families. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 82; Holland, Francis, America's Lighthouses 
(Brattleboro: Stephen Greene Press, 1972), pp. 182-183; Jenks , William, 
History of St. Clair County (New York: Lewis, 1912), I, p. 419] 



146 



TRANSPORTATION 








Fort Gratiot Lighthouse (1829,1861,1875), Port Huron 
147 



TRANSPORTATION 



FRANKFORT NORTH BREAKWATER LIGHTHOUSE (1873, 1932) Frankfort 

On outer end of North Breakwater 16.559033.4942000 

Frankfort Benzie 

The original lighthouse (1873) was a brick structure which was subse- 
quently covered with steel plates in 1932 to protect it from the ele- 
ments. The tower is 50 feet high and 15 feet square at the base, but 
tapers to approximately 12 feet square at the top. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 150] 

GRAND HAVEN SOUTH PIERHEAD INNER LIGHTHOUSE (1905) Lake Harbor 

200 feet from the end of South Pierhead 16. 560680.47671 50 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

The present lighthouse tower was erected in 1905, although a navigation 
beacon has been continuously maintained at this site since 1839. This 
round tower, 51 feet high, has a diameter of 12 feet at the base and 
then gradually tapers to a diameter of 10 feet at the top. The tower 
has a riveted cast iron plate exterior, rests on an octagonal concrete 
foundation, and is topped with a beacon enclosed in a round glass and 
cast iron house. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 154; Holland, Francis, America's Lighthouses 
(Brattleboro: Stephen Greene Press, 1972), p. 185] 



GRAND HAVEN SOUTH PIERHEAD LIGHTHOUSE (1871) Lake Harbor 

At the end of South Pierhead 16.560750.4767200 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

This lighthouse was erected in 1871, had a fixed white light, and was 
originally located on the south pier, at or near the shore. In I883, 
it was moved to the end of the pier, where it still stands. The light- 
house building is 25 feet high, 24 feet wide, and 45 feet long, a wood- 
framed structure which is covered by corrugated galvinized iron sheets 
and has a gabled roof. The building rests on a concrete foundation which 
has five sides, two forming a point on the seaward side, the remaining 
three forming the other sides of a rectangle. The foundation is 28 feet 
wide and 75 feet long from the "point". 

[Lilly, Leo, Historic Grand Haven and Ottawa County (Grand Haven: the 
author, 1933), p. 363; History of the Great Lakes (Chicago: Beers, 1899), 
p. 371] 



148 



TRANSPORTATION 



GR, GH & M RW: COOPERSVILLE STATION (1902) Ravenna 

363 W. Main St. 16.586065. W7120 

Coopersville Ottawa 

The Grand Rapids, Grand Haven, and Muskegon Railway was incorporated in 
1899 and began service on its main line running between Grand Rapids and 
Muskegon in February 1902. It was one of the first electric interurban 
lines in the United States to utilize a third rail system. The line was 
taken over by the United Light and Railway Company in 1912. It fell into 
receivership in 1926 and ceased operating in 1928. Like the other inter- 
urban lines in Michigan and elsewhere, it was no longer profitable after 
the private automobile gained mass acceptance. The station served as a 
combination passenger depot-electrical substation. The tower in this 
depot housed transformers which converted AC into DC for use on the line. 
It is a rectangular brick structure, 50 feet long and 35 feet wide, with 
a hipped tile roof. The two-story brick tower which housed the trans- 
formers is 25 feet long and 8 feet wide. This depot is identical to 
another surviving station, also built in 1902 by the Grand Rapids, Grand 
Haven, and Muskegon Railway, located in Walker, northwest of Grand Rapids. 
[ Electric Railway Journal , XXXIX (1912); XL (1912); LXV (1925); LXXI 
(1928) ; NR] 



GR, GH & M RW: WALKER STATION (1902) Ravenna 

'♦OH Remembrance Rd. 16. 600040. ^761062 

Walker City Kent 

The Grand Rapids, Grand Haven, and Muskegon Railway opened an electric 
interurban line between Grand Rapids and Muskegon in February 1902. This 
line was taken over by the United Light and Railway Company in 1912 and 
was a successful line until the mid-1920's, when the private automobile 
began to reduce ridership. The line fell into receivership in July 1926, 
and ceased all service in 1928. This station served as both a passenger 
depot and an electrical substation where AC was converted into DC for 
use on the line, which utilized a third rail system. The Walker Station 
is virtually identical to the surviving Grand Rapids, Grand Haven, and 
Muskegon Railway station at Coopersville. It is a single-story rectan- 
gular brick building with a hipped roof, and measures 35 feet wide and 
50 feet long. The adjoining two-story brick tower, which housed the 
transformers, is 8 feet wide, 20 feet long, and has a hipped roof. The 
original tile roof has been replaced with asbestos shingles, and a cinder 
block garage and small wooden shed are recent additions. 
[MHD, Site Files; Electric Railway Journal , XXXIX (1912); XL (1912); LXV 
(1925); LXXI (19287T^ 

149 



TRANSPORTATION 



GR & I LINE: KALAMAZOO STATION (1872) Kalamazoo 

403 E. Michigan Ave. 16.617185.4683045 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

This station was built after the Grand Rapids and Indiana Line, extending 
from Fort Wayne, Indiana to Petoskey, Michigan reached Kalamazoo in 1870. 
It consists of two distinct parts, a passenger station fronting on Mich- 
igan Avenue and an adjoining freight station facing South Pitcher Street. 
The passenger station is a two-story rectangular brick building, approx- 
imately 50 feet by 70 feet, topped with a gabled roof. A slightly pitched 
roof extends from three sides of the building between the first and se- 
cond stories to form a porch. The freight station, also of brick con- 
struction, is one-story in height, with a gabled roof, and is approxi- 
mately 30 feet wide and 150 feet long. The station is now serving as one 
of Kalamazoo's more popular restaurants. 

[MHD, Site Files; Fisher, David and Little, Frank, Compendium of History 
and Biography of Kalamazoo County (Chicago: Bowen 6 Co. , 1 906) , pp. 58-60] 

GTW RR: BATTLE CREEK FREIGHTH0USE (1906,1948) Battle Creek 
Capital Ave., north of Liberty St. 16.649455.4686400 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

A wooden Grand Trunk Railway passenger station located on this site was 
demolished in 1906 after a new passenger depot, still in existence, was 
opened on East Dickman Street. The freight office building is a rectan- 
gular brick structure, 40 feet by 30 feet, two stories high, with brick- 
arched windows and a flat roof, fronting on Capital Avenue. The original 
freight shed constructed in 1 906 was wooden and was destroyed by fire in 
1948. It was then replaced by the present shed, a steel-framed, one and 
one-half story brick and glass structure with a slightly pitched roof, 
40 feet wide and 100 feet long. 



GTW RR: BATTLE CREEK STATION (1905) Battle Creek 

25 E. Dickman St. 16.650460.4685820 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

This passenger depot replaced an earlier wooden depot located on Capital 
Avenue about one-fourth of a mile west of this site. The main portion is 
141 feet long and 67 feet wide, three stories high, with walls of stone 
on the first floor and of brick for the remainder of the building. The 
main roof is gabled and three sides of the main building have widely pro- 
jecting eaves to provide passengers with protection from the elements. 



150 



TRANSPORTATION 



Two square bell towers adorn the western facade. The main lobby is 100 
feet long and 60 feet wide. The roof is supported by massive wooden 
arches. Extending from the eastern facade of the main building is a 
225 foot long platform, originally protected only by a gabled, slate 
roof supported by wooden posts. Most of this platform was enclosed with 
brick during the 1950's to provide office space. At the end of the plat- 
form is a 25 foot square stone building with a hipped roof, part of the 
original 1905 structure. 




GTW RR: Battle Creek Station (1905), Battle Creek 



151 



TRANSPORTATION 



GTW RR: CHARLOTTE STATION (1885) Charlotte 

130 McClure St. 16.697600.4715010 

Charlotte Eaton 

The first railroad to reach Charlotte was the Peninsular Railway Company, 
which completed a line between Lansing and Battle Creek in 1 869 - This 
line was purchased by Sir Henry Tyler of the Grand Trunk Railroad in 
I878 as part of his plan to control a line between Port Huron and Chicago 
and challenge the Vanderbilt monopoly on through traffic between Detroit 
and Chicago. The Charlotte Station, constructed in I885, is a rectangular 
red brick building, 23 feet wide and 71 feet long, featuring a single bay 
window, and a gabled roof with overhanging eaves supported by wooden 
brackets. The original slate roof has been replaced with asphalt shingles. 
[GTR, "Statement"; Dunbar, p. 145] 



GTW RR: DURAND STATION (1905) Durand 

200 Railroad St. 17. 256530. 4754820 

Durand Shiawassee 

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Durand was one of the busiest 
railroad towns in Michigan, with most of its population of nearly 3,000 
working for the Grand Trunk Railroad. It was located at the juncture 
point for the Grand Trunk Western's two major lines, as well as the Ann 
Arbor Railway Company's main line. It was also a major locomotive re- 
pair center for the Grand Trunk Railway, which built its largest round- 
house between Toronto and Chicago there. Thirty-five passenger trains 
and over one hundred freight trains passed through Durand every day in 
1904. This passenger station was built in 1905 to replace a similar 
station lost by fire earlier in the year. Located at the junction of 
the Grand Trunk and Ann Arbor Railway lines, it served both lines. This 
two and one-half story brick building rests on a finished ashlar founda- 
tion four feet high and is 49 feet wide and 244 feet long. The northwest 
end of the building has two rounded bays topped by conical roofs and three 
sides of the building have an overhanging roof supported by metal brackets 
forming a covered waiting area approximately eight feet deep. The building 
originally had a tile roof and four dormers, but they were removed in 1965 
and an asphalt roof now covers the station. 
[GTR, "Statement"; NR] 



152 



TRANSPORTATION 




GTW RR: Durand Station (1905), Durand 



GTW RR: DURAND TURNTABLE (1916) 

End of Brookfield St. 

Durand 



Durand 

17.2555^0.^755320 
Sh iawassee 



This center-mounted turntable was built in 1916 to service the immense 
Durand Roundhouse, no longer extant, of the Grand Trunk Railroad. The 
nameplate on the turntable reads, "American Bridge Company of New York, 
No. 825, Ambridge Plant". The turntable is 15 feet 2 inches wide and 
86 feet 6 inches long, and turns in a concrete-lined pit which is five 
feet deep. It consists of two through plate girders, 9 feet 6 inches 
high in the center, tapering to k feet 6 inches in height at both ends. 
[GTR, "Statement"] 



153 



TRANSPORTATION 



GTW RR: JACKSON ROUNDHOUSE (c.1900) Jackson North 

N. Jackson Ave., north of W. Trail St. 16. 71 3820.46809^0 

Jackson Jackson 

This roundhouse was built by the Grand Trunk Western Railroad at the 
terminus of their line between Pontiac and Jackson. It was a relatively 
minor repair facility compared to the immense roundhouses at Durand and 
Battle Creek. This brick building has an inside circumference of 130 
feet, an outside circumference of 250 feet, and contains nine bays, each 
25 feet deep. It extends for only 90 degrees, so is barely recognizable 
as a "round" house. The building has a flat roof and nine sets of wooden 
double doors. It is now occupied by a construction company, which has 
built a cinder block addition which covers four of the bays. 
[ Jackson Citiz en- Patriot , September 19, 1937, p. 11] 



GTW RR: KALAMAZOO STATION (1907) Kalamazoo 

427 E. Michigan Ave. 16.61 7240.4683165 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

The Kalamazoo and White Pigeon Railroad was completed to Kalamazoo in 
1867. This line was taken over by the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern 
Line in 1871, and in turn it was purchased by the Grand Trunk Railroad 
Company, the present owner, in 1879. This station, constructed in 1907, 
originally served as a passenger and freight station, although it is now 
used only as a freight station. It consists of a rectangular, two-story, 
flat-roofed, brick (English bond) office building, approximately 50 feet 
by 70 feet and a one and one-half story, rectangular wooden shed, appro- 
ximately 50 feet by 250 feet, with a slightly pitched roof, designed for 
freight storage. The building is still used as a freight office by the 
Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company. 

[Fisher, David and Little, Frank, Compendium of History and Biography 
of Kalamazoo County (Chicago: Bowen & Co., 190?), pp. 58-60] 



GTW RR: LANSING STATION (1902) Lansing South 

1203 S. Washington Ave. 16.700500.4732350 

Lansing Ingham 

The Lansing Station of the Grand Trunk Western Railroad was constructed 
in 1902 and remained in service until 1971- The building has served as 
a restaurant since 1972. It is a square brick building, 33 feet wide 
and 107 feet long, rests on a finished ashlar foundation, and has a tiled 



54 



TRANSPORTATION 



gabled roof with overhanging eaves supported by wooden brackets. The 
building features a two-story brick tower, ten feet square and a bay 
window topped by a conical roof. At the eastern end of the station, 
there is a covered waiting platform, 30 feet square, with a hipped 
roof supported by wooden columns. It was designed by the architec- 
tural firm of Spier and Rohns of Detroit. 
[GTR, "Statement"; Dunbar, p. 209] 




GTW RR: Lansing Station (1902), Lansing 



155 



TRANSPORTATION 



GTW RR: LOCOMOTIVE NUMBER 6325 (1942) Battle Creek 

E. Dickman St. at E. Elm St. 16.650600.4685720 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

This 4-8-16 steam locomotive was in service on the Grand Trunk Western 
Railroad in 1942-1958 and was one of the last steam locomotives used by 
that company. It was donated to the City of Battle Creek by the Grand 
Trunk Western Railroad and was put in its present location in I960, 
after repair and restoration. 



GTW RR: 0W0SS0 STATION (c.1900) Corunna 

524 S. Washington Ave. 16.730065.4763072 

Owosso Shiawassee 

This is a good example of the substantial brick depots erected by Mich- 
igan's railroads to serve medium-sized towns. This one-story brick 
building rests on a finished ashlar foundation four feet high and fea- 
tures brick-arched doors and windows, and hipped slate roofs with slightly 
overhanging eaves. It is 110 feet long and ranges between 40 and 60 feet 
wide. 



GTW RR: P0NTIAC STATION (1908) Pontiac North 

110 W. Huron St. 17-311650.4723050 

Pontiac Oakland 

This passenger station is a rectangular brick building, resting on a 
stone foundation, and is 27 feet wide and 88 feet long. It features a 
hipped roof with eaves that overhang by four feet, a bay window, and a 
covered passenger entrance which has been closed in with cinder blocks 
to provide additional office space for the Grand Trunk Western Railroad. 



GTW RR: PORT HURON CAR SHOPS (1915-1916) Port Huron 

2801 Minnie St. 17-381000.4757650 

Port Huron St. Clair 

The Grand Trunk Western Railroad complex of car shops in Port Huron was 
originally located on the west bank of the St. Clair River near the pre- 
sent site of the Bluewater Bridge. These shops were totally destroyed 
by a fire in November 1913- The Grand Trunk rebuilt these facilities in 
1915-1916 on land donated by the citizens of Port Huron after a public 



156 



TRANSPORTATION 

appeal raised $110,000 for that purpose. This complex includes some 
twenty buildings, virtually all single-story brick structures. The 
major buildings are the Small Passenger Car Shop (138 feet by 315 feet); 
Large Passenger Car Shop (138 feet by 306 feet); the Main Freight Car 
Shop (363 feet by 1,100 feet); the Blacksmith and Machine Shop (152 feet 
by 302 feet); the Woodmi 1 1 (91 feet by 211 feet); the Powerhouse (57 
feet by 1 1 1 feet); and the Office Building (62 feet by 220 feet). With 
the reconstruction of these car repair facilities, Port Huron has served 
as the Grand Trunk Western's principal repair center within Michigan for 
nearly a century. 
[GTR, "Statement"; Port Huron Herald-Times , July 23, 1938, n.p.] 

GTW RR: STATIONARY STORAGE BUILDING (1925) Battle Creek 

GT Rd., south of Verona Rd. 16.652800.4687665 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

This building was part of a major service complex built by the Grand 
Trunk Western Railroad in 1925. This complex included a massive round- 
house and turntable near Verona Road in the northern outskirts of Battle 
Creek. This building was used to store "stationary supplies," virtually 
anything other than rolling stock. It was abandoned around I960, but 
is now scheduled to be rehabilitated. The building is of brick and con- 
crete construction, and has two distinct parts. The northern portion 
is two stories high, 50 feet wide and 60 feet long, and has a flat roof, 
while the southern portion is one-story high, with a gabled roof, and 
measures 60 feet wide and 120 feet long. 



GTW RR: VERONA ROAD ROUNDHOUSE (1925) Battle Creek 

GT Rd., south of Verona Rd. 16.652920.4687765 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

The Verona Road Roundhouse served as a major locomotive repair facility 
for the Grand Trunk Western Railroad during the period 1925-C.1955. The 
roundhouse has an inside circumference of 5^0 feet and an outside circum- 
ference of 1,700 feet. It contained kS stalls, each 120 feet deep. The 
outside circumference and the end of this building are of brick and con- 
crete construction. The roof and the k5 sets of wooden doors are sup- 
ported by massive oak framing. The building is subdivided into three 
sections of 15 bays each by brick walls. The roof is built on two levels 
with both roofs slightly pitched. There are two sets of windows on the 



157 



TRANSPORTATION 



inside circumference, one set directly above the bay doors, and the 
other set bridging the gap of nearly three feet between the lower level 
roof on the inside circumference and the higher level roof on the out- 
side circumference. The tin stack ventilators are still in place. 




GTW RR: Verona Road Roundhouse (1925), Battle Creek 



GROSSE ILE LIGHTHOUSE (1906) 
On Lighthouse Point 
Grosse Me Township 



Wyandotte 
17-323230.4670440 

Wayne 



When originally constructed in 1894, this lighthouse stood on three wooden 
legs or stilts. The surviving structure was built in 1906. Resting on 
a concrete foundation, it is an octagonal wooden structure, 40 feet high, 



158 



TRANSPORTATION 



12 feet in diameter at the base and then tapered to a diameter of 7 feet 
at the top. The interior, which consists mainly of a circular staircase 
leading to the light (no longer extant) is well protected by a roof of 
thin copper sheets. 



HARBOR BEACH LIGHTHOUSE ( 1 885) Harbor Beach 

On north side of Breakwater Entrance 1 7.368900.4855800 

Harbor Beach Huron 

This lighthouse was erected when the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers created 
a harbor of refuge at Harbor Beach (Sand Beach) in 1 885 - It is a white 
conical tower, 54 feet high, 20 feet in diameter at the base, and appro- 
ximately 15 feet in diameter at the top. It is equipped with a fourth 
order lens made in France at the time of its construction. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 83; Bicentennial Committee, Harbor Beach Women's 
Club, Harbor Beach : Yesterday and Today (Harbor Beach, 1976), pp. 29-30; 
Portrait and Biographical Album of Huron County , Michigan (Chicago, 1884), 
p. 479J 



THE HURON (1921,1949) Port Huron 

Pine Grove Park 1 7. 383680. 4760440 

Port Huron St. Clair 

This lightship was commissioned in 1921 and originally served to relieve 
several permanent lightships in service in northern Lake Michigan. It 
was permanently assigned to the Corsica shoals, six miles north of Port 
Huron, in 1935 and remained in service there until 1970. It was the 
only lightship in use on the Great Lakes after 1940. She was built by 
the Consolidated Shipbuilding Company of Morris Heights, New York. She 
is 97 feet long, with a beam of 24 feet and a displacement of 340 tons. 
Her original steam boilers were replaced with diesel engines in 1 9^*9 - 
The Coast Guard presented the Huron to the City of Port Huron in 1971 
and she now rests in Pine Grove Park in that city. 
[MHD, Site Files; Castagnera, J.O., "A Brief History of the Huron 
Lightship" (Fall 1970), XXVI, pp. I85-I87] 



159 



TRANSPORTATION 



S.S. KEEWATIN (1907) Fennville 

Foot of Hamilton St. 16. 565025. W3095 

Douglas Allegan 

This passenger cruise ship was constructed in 1907 by the Fairfield Com- 
pany in Govan, Scotland. When transferred to the Great Lakes, it had to 
be cut in half and later reassembled in order to enable it to pass through 
the Wei land Canal. The Keewat in , owned by the Canadian Pacific Railroad, 
served as a cruise ship in 1908-1965, mainly operating between Georgian 
Bay and Lake Superior. It had a capacity of 288 passengers and carried 
considerable volumes of grain as well. It is 350 feet long, with a beam 
of ^3.8 feet, and a gross tonnage of 3,856 tons. It was driven by a 
coal-fired quadruple expansion steam engine developing 3,300 horsepower. 
The present wheelhouse was added in 1 940 and the three original wooden 
masts were replaced by two steel masts in 1950. Since 1967, when it was 
moved to Douglas, the Keewat in has served as a floating museum. It is 
the oldest surviving Great Lakes steamer. 
[MHD, Site Files] 

LANSING UNION STATION (1910) Lansing South 

637 E. Michigan Ave. 16.701 130. ^73^050 

Lansing Ingham 

Lansing's Union Station was constructed in 1910 for joint use by the 
Pere Marquette Railroad and the Michigan Central Railroad. The Pere 
Marquette leased space from the Michigan Central, but did not own a 
share of the property or bear any of the costs of construction. There 
are two buildings, both of brick construction with finished ashlar found- 
ations approximately three feet high, hipped roofs, and wide overhanging 
eaves supported by wooden brackets. The larger of the two, the passenger 
waiting area, is A0 feet wide and 1^0 feet long, and features two bay 
windows topped by conical roofs. The original tile roof has been re- 
placed with shingles. The smaller building, *t0 feet wide and 90 feet 
long, served as a baggage room and was originally linked to the passen- 
ger waiting room by a covered walkway, no longer extant. This structure 
still has its original tile roof, however. 



160 



TRANSPORTATION 



LAWRENCE & CHAPIN BUILDING ( 1 872) Kalamazoo 

205 N. Rose St. 16. 616365. 4683030 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

This building has had numerous occupants since it was erected in 1872. 
It was an integral part of Michigan's system of electric interurban 
lines which developed in the early twentieth century. The second inter- 
urban line in Michigan was constructed in 1900 between Kalamazoo and 
Battle Creek by the Michigan Traction Company. The Michigan Railway 
Company, a successor company, used this building as its Kalamazoo ter- 
minal in 1915-1927. The trains stopped in the area adjacent and to the 
north of the building, now used as a parking lot. It is a three-story, 
rectangular brick structure, approximately 70 feet wide and 300 feet 
long, featuring decorative concrete arches over the windows on the front 
facade and a mansard roof. It is now used as a furniture showroom. 
[Dunbar, Willis F. , Kalamazoo and How It Grew (Kalamazoo: Western Mich- 
igan University Press, 1969), pp. 139-T56, 160] 

LITTLE SABLE POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1874) Hart 

On Little Sable Point 16.535016.4833000 

Golden Township Oceana 

This lighthouse was completed in 1874 at a cost of $35,000 and was equipped 
with a third order light. The brick cylindrical tower rests on a concrete 
foundation, stands 100 feet high and is 14 feet in diameter at the base. 
The 1 ightkeeper 1 s house is no longer extant. 
[MHD, Site Files; USCG, Light List , p. 152] 

LUDINGT0N NORTH BREAKWATER LIGHTHOUSE (1870,1924) Ludington 

On outer end of North Breakwater 16.542062. 4866065 

Ludington Mason 

The North Breakwater Light at Ludington was built in 1 870 and sheathed 
in steel plates in 1924. The tower is 15 feet square at the base and 
then tapers to about 8 feet square at the top. The tower is 40 feet 
high and rests on a massive concrete crib approximately 16 feet wide, 
25 feet long, and rising 15 feet above the water level. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 151] 



161 



TRANSPORTATION 




Little Sable Point Lighthouse (187*0, Golden Township 
162 



TRANSPORTATION 



MACKINAC POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1892) St. Ignace 

Michi 1 Imackinac State Park 16. 676440. 5072700 

Mackinac City Cheboygan 

The passage through the Straits of Mackinac had been marked by a light- 
house at McGulpin's Point since I856, but that light could not be seen 
from all points in the straits. A fog signal was built at Mackinac 
Point in 1 89O and the present lighthouse was completed in October 1892. 
Its light was visible for sixteen miles and it remained in active ser- 
vice until 1958. The round light tower is a brick structure resting 
on a cut stone foundation nearly six feet high, has a diameter of ten 
feet, and stands 40 feet high. The adjoining brick 1 ightkeeper ' s house 
is a two-story brick building, also resting on a cut stone foundation, 
approximately 25 feet by 50 feet, with a combination of flat, gabled, 
and hipped roofs. It now serves as a maritime museum. 
[NR] 



MANISTEE NORTH PIERHEAD LIGHTHOUSE (1875, 1927) Bar Lake 

On outer end of North Pier 16.552030.4899085 

Manistee Manistee 

This cylindrical lighthouse was constructed of brick in 1875 and later 

sheathed with steel plates in 1927. The tower is 55 feet high and ten 
feet in diameter at the base. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 150] 



MC RR: ALBION STATION (1897) Homer 

Michigan Ave., between Cass and Superior 16.685015.4679045 

Albion Calhoun 

The Albion Station of the Michigan Central Railroad was constructed in 
1897 to replace an earlier wooden depot. It is a rectangular red brick 
structure, 35 feet wide and 110 feet long, with a bay window, stone 
lintels and sills on the windows, and a gabled roof with wide overhanging 
eaves supported by wooden brackets. At the eastern end of the building, 
there is a covered passenger platform, 20 feet by 24 feet, protected by 
a pitched roof supported by four wooden columns. 



163 



TRANSPORTATION 




Mackinac Point Lighthouse (1892), Mackinac City 
164 



TRANSPORTATION 



MC RR: ANN ARBOR STATION (1886) Ann Arbor East 

401 Depot St. 17.273900.4685090 

Ann Arbor Washtenaw 

The Michigan Central Railroad, the state's first major line, reached 
Ann Arbor in 1839. This station, built in 1886, was designed by Frede- 
rick Spier, a German-born architect who emigrated to the United States 
in 1873. He was a partner in the Detroit architectural firm of Spier 
and Rohn, which designed several major passenger stations in Michigan in 
the late l880's. This depot, constructed of rock-faced masonry in the 
Romanesque style, consists of three buildings linked by two covered walk- 
ways, each 20 feet wide and 60 feet long, with cast iron columns sup- 
porting the roofs. The main building, which served as the ticket office 
and waiting area, is 40 feet wide and 100 feet long, with a high-gabled 
hipped roof pierced by two swept dormer windows. It has been converted 
into a restaurant and cocktail lounge. The building located to the west 
of the main building is 30 feet by 50 feet and originally served as a 
baggage room. It is now used as an Amtrak station. The third structure, 
located east of the main building, measures 20 feet by 40 feet. It ori- 
ginally served as a Railway Express office and is now used for storage. 
[ Ann Arbor Courier (1/20/86; 10/27/86; 11/21/86; 1/5/87; 4/27/87); Mich- 
igan History Magazine , Vol. 33 0949), pp. 325-326; Marquis, Albert, 
The Book of Pet ro iters (Chicago, 1914) ; NR] 



MC RR: BATTLE CREEK FREIGHTH0USE (1903) Battle Creek 

46 N. Monroe St. 16.650035.4686650 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

The Michigan Central Railroad, which had served Battle Creek since 1846, 
built this freight depot in 1903 and it remained in continuous service 
until 1962, when it was sold to the present owner by the New York Central 
System. It consists of a two-story, brick office structure, 50 feet wide 
and 100 feet long, fronting on Monroe Street, featuring brick-arched win- 
dows and a flat roof and a one-story brick storage building, 50 feet wide 
and 200 feet long. This storage building has a gabled roof with a four 
foot overhang. This overhang is completely enclosed on the northern side 
of the building, providing a protected loading dock which abuts the 
tracks. 



165 



TRANSPORTATION 




MC RR: Ann Arbor Station ( 1 886) , Ann Arbor 



MC RR: BATTLE CREEK STATION (1888) 
West of Jackson St. 
Battle Creek 



Battle Creek 

16.649835.^6868^0 

Calhoun 



The Michigan Central Railroad, one of the state's earliest and most suc- 
cesful lines, was extended from Marshall to Battle Creek in 1 845 - This 
rectangular brick passenger station consists of a main waiting room, 35 
feet wide and 120 feet long, and a separate brick baggage room, 35 feet 
wide and 54 feet long, connected by a covered walkway 22 feet wide and 
40 feet long. The structure has hipped roofs, with widely projecting 
eaves supported by cast iron brackets, and features a high brick tower 
above the south entrance. 
[NR] 



166 



TRANSPORTATION 




MC RR: Battle Creek Station (1888), Battle Creek 



MC RR: BATTLE CREEK TURNTABLE (1919) 
Elm St., north of Michigan Ave. 
Battle Creek 



Battle Creek 

16.650550.4686280 

Calhoun 



This turntable was part of a car repair facility established by the 
Michigan Central Railroad in Battle Creek in 1919. It is a center- 
mounted turntable, 85 feet long, 17.5 feet wide, resting on steel beams, 
each 85 feet long and 7 feet high. The deck is supported by oak beams, 
8 inches by 8 inches by 10 feet long, these crossmembers running the 
length of the deck. In addition, there are sixteen 2 inches by k inches 
by 20 feet crossmembers, one foot apart, which support the outside por- 
tion of the deck, which does not have to bear the weight of a locomotive, 



167 



TRANSPORTATION 



The turntable rests in a concrete- 1 ined pit, seven feet deep, and re- 
volves on a single track running around the circumference of the pit. 
The original installation included an electric motor, no longer extant. 
The nameplate reads "George P. Nichols & Broth, Designers and Builders, 
Chicago". 
[ Battle Creek Enquirer-News , July 20, 1975, p. E-2] 

MC RR: DETROIT STATION (1913) Detroit 

2^+05 W. Vernor Hwy. 1 7. 328800. 4688160 

Detroit Wayne 

The Michigan Central Railroad Station in Detroit is primarily neo-classic 
in design and consists of two sections: a two-story entrance hall and a 
sixteen-story office building. The former is the more elaborate, with 
three large round-arched windows with two Doric columns on either side, 
two pilasters at each end of the section, and three pedimented gables 
above each of the windows. The interior of the structure, which is of 
limestone with a steel framework, includes a waiting room that is 97 
feet by 230 feet, and a grand concourse with heavy marble columns and a 
domed ceiling five stories above. The station was designed by the well- 
known architects Warren and Wetmore in collaboration with Reed and Stem. 
Warren and Wetmore are known for the vaulted concourse in New York City's 
Grand Central Station. The station was opened on December 26, 1913, eight 
days ahead of schedule because of a fire in the old depot at Third and 
Jefferson. It was a well-appointed facility with both public and private 
washing rooms, a barber shop, a newsstand, and a drug store. With the 
demolition of the Union Depot in 197**, the Michigan Central station is 
Detroit's last railroad terminal. The Michigan Central is now part of 
the Penn Central System. 

[Ferry; Meeks, Carroll, The Rai 1 road Station (New Haven, 1956); Woodford, 
Frank B. and Arthur M. , All Our Yesterdays (Wayne State University Press, 
1969); NR] 

MC RR: D0WAGIAC STATION (I898) Cassopol is 

W. Railroad Drive 16. 573045. 4647085 

Dowagiac Cass 

This passenger station replaced an earlier wooden depot constructed 
shortly after the Michigan Central Railroad reached Dowagiac in 1 848. 
It is a red brick building resting on a finished ashlar foundation and 
features stone arch doorways and hipped roofs with overhanging eaves 



168 



TRANSPORTATION 



supported by wooden brackets. The eastern portion of this building, the 
main passenger waiting area, is 90 feet long and 50 feet wide. The wes- 
tern portion, used as a freight office, is 25 feet long and 35 feet wide, 
also with a hipped roof. The two sections are connected by a covered 
walkway, 60 feet long and 20 feet wide, with a roof supported by cast 
i ron posts . 



MC RR: JACKSON LOCOMOTIVE SHOPS (1901,1903,1920) Jackson South 
Page Ave. and Elm St. 16.716200. W9530 

Jackson Jackson 

The Michigan Central Railroad moved its locomotive shops from Marshall 
to Jackson in 1871. This immense complex includes a Blacksmith Shop 
(1901), Powerhouse (1903), and numerous minor buildings, but the major 
shops were contained in a sprawling T-shaped building. The main wing 
is a three-story steel-framed brick building, 50 feet wide and A00 feet 
long, which housed the locomotive erection shop. It has a gabled roof 
topped by a skylight running the length of the building. The pipe fit- 
ters shop occupied a wing which was 70 feet wide and 100 feet in length, 
while a second wing, 200 feet long and 80 feet wide, contained the 
foundry, wheel shop, and brass pattern shops. The two wings are both 
steel-framed brick structures with gabled roofs. 
[Jackson Citizen-Patriot, September 19, 1937, p. 11] 



MC RR: JACKSON ROUNDHOUSE (1911, 1941) Jackson South 

Page Ave. and Elm St. 16.715960.4679450 

Jackson Jackson 

The Jackson Roundhouse was one of the Michigan Central Railroad's major 
repair facilities at the turn of the century (the other was in Niles). 
It originally contained forty bays, each 100 feet deep, and was nearly 
a full circle of 360 degrees, with an outside diameter of approximately 
1,200 feet. Only ten bays, roughly 90 degrees of a full circle, are 
extant. The surviving brick structure has an inside circumference of 
150 feet and an outside circumference of 300 feet. The building features 
a roof pitched slightly to the rear, ten sets of double wooden doors, a 
massive timber frame, and seven of the ten original tin stack ventilators 
There is a square brick building, 100 by 80 feet, constructed in 1941, 
attached to the rear of the original structure. 
[Jackson Citizen-Patriot, September 19, 1937, p- 11] 



169 



TRANSPORTATION 



MC RR: JACKSON STATION (1874) Jackson South 

501 E. Michigan Ave. 16.714530.4680350 

Jackson Jackson 

The Michigan Central Railroad, the state's first major line, reached 
Jackson from Detroit in 1842. This station, constructed in 1874, re- 
placed an earlier wooden depot, located about 300 feet east of the pre- 
sent structure. There are two separate buildings originally linked by 
a covered walkway. The passenger waiting area and ticket office is a 
one-story brick structure with two-story sections at each end, with a 
combination of gabled and hipped roofs. Overall, it is 60 feet wide and 
350 feet long. It features a platform covered by a slightly pitched roof 
25 feet wide and 300 feet long, supported by cast iron columns. A second 
building, which housed the baggage room and Railway Express Office, is a 
one-story L-shaped brick structure with two separate hipped roofs. One 
section is 40 feet wide and 90 feet long, while the other section is 40 
feet by 60 feet. 



MC RR: JACKSON TURNTABLE (1911) Jackson South 

Page Ave. and Elm St. 16.715960.4679450 

Jackson Jackson 

This is a center-mounted turntable set in a concrete- 1 ined pit, 100 
feet in diameter and five feet deep. The turntable is 15 feet wide, 
100 feet long, and consists of two steel beams, four feet high in the 
center tapering to three feet in height at the ends. The track rests 
on 15 inch square oak crossmembers. It is powered by an electric motor 
(not original) mounted at one end and turns on a single track mounted 
on wooden ties. 
[Jackson Citizen-Patriot, September 19, 1937, p. 11] 



MC RR: KALAMAZOO ROUNDHOUSE (c.1920) Kalamazoo 

S. Mills St. 16.618210.4683180 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

This roundhouse was constructed by the Michigan Central Railroad in the 
early 1920's and served as part of a major locomotive repair complex 
(the Botsford Yards) in Kalamazoo until the early 1950' s . Originally, 
the roundhouse was a full 1 80 degrees in circumference, but only 90 de- 
grees remain, the rest having been torn down to provide parking area 
for employees. What remains is a wood-framed, brick structure with 



170 



TRANSPORTATION 



square windows and roof which is slightly pitched to the rear of the 
structure. It has ten bays with wooden doors and each bay is equipped 
with a tin stack ventilator to exhaust the gases produced by the coal- 
fired steam locomot i ves which originally used this facility. This 
structure has an inside circumference of 150 feet, an outside circum- 
ference of 300 feet, and each bay is 75 feet deep. 
[Kalamazoo Gazette, November 18, 1925, p. 15] 




JSkm- ~mr > *£-;■-*** ? 



MC RR: Jackson Station (187 1 *) , Jackson 



171 



TRANSPORTATION 



MC RR: KALAMAZOO STATION (l 887) Kalamazoo 

459 N. Burdick St. 16. 616720. 46833^0 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

The Kalamazoo Station of the Michigan Central Railroad was built in 1887 
and was designed by Cyrus W.L. Eidlitz, the architect responsible for 
the Dearborn Station in Chicago (1886). At the time of its construction 
Kalamazoo was served by five railroads and had more than 100 passenger 
and freight trains passing through each day. The station itself was 
built in a Richardsonian Romanesque style and extends for approximately 
200 feet consisting of a central, hipped-roof mass flanked by smaller 
asymmetrical wings, also hipped-roof. The structure has a conical tower, 
rock-faced masonry arches, and broad planed roofs. It is built of red 
brick. Original dark oak benches, wall mouldings, and ceilings charac- 
terize the station's interior. The ticket office and waiting room func- 
tion in their original capacity as Kalamazoo is served by some forty 
Amtrak trains per week (the stop is on the Chicago-Detroit line). 
[MHD, Site Files; Schuyler, Montgomery, "Cyrus W.L. Eidl itz," Architec- 
tural Record, Vol. V (I896), pp. 411-435; NR] 



MC RR: KALAMAZOO TURNTABLE (1912) Kalamazoo 

S. Mills St. 16.618245.4683180 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

The plate on this turntable reads, "American Bridge Company of New York, 
1912, No. 663, Toledo Plant". The turntable consists of two massive 
steel girders, each 75 feet long and 5 feet in height, with connecting 
crossmembers forming the bed for the tracks. The turntable rests in a 
concrete-lined pit 75 feet in diameter and four feet deep. It turns on 
a single rail which runs around the circumference of the pit. The turn- 
table was moved by a large electric motor connected to a driving wheel 
(flanged) at one end of the turntable. The other end of the turntable 
has a pair of 12 inch diameter unflanged wheels which turn freely on 
the track. 



MC RR: LAWT0N STATION (c.l880) Marcel 1 us 

N. Main St. 16.595000.4669025 

Lawton Van Buren 

The Michigan Central Railroad reached Lawton when it was extended from 
Kalamazoo to New Buffalo in 1848-1849. The original wooden depot 



172 



TRANSPORTATION 



constructed by the Michigan Central is no longer extant. This handsome 
stone depot was erected in the l880's. It measures 60 feet long and 35 
feet wide and features a gabled main roof and a small conical roof. 
Several of the windows are arched with cut stone, while others are framed 
by horizonal stone lintels and sills. 
[Dunbar, pp. 53-5^, 62, 188-190] 



frC'* 5 ** 




MC RR: Kalamazoo Station (1887), Kalamazoo 



MC RR: NILES LOCOMOTIVE SHOPS (1919) 

2101 Terminal Rd. 

Niles 



Cassopol is 

16.564055.4633095 

Berrien 



The Niles Locomotive Shops, built in 1919 by the Dominion Construction 
Company of Toronto, are located immediately behind the Michigan Central 



173 



TRANSPORTATION 



Railroad Roundhouse dating from 1903. These locomotive shops were used 
to rebuild and recondition steam and later, diesel locomotives. It is 
a sprawling complex of three distinct, but interconnected buildings, all 
flat-roofed brick structures with steel frames and massive steel Pratt 
truss roof trussing, designed primarily to carry the weight of heavy- 
duty overhead cranes. The machine shop is a two-story rectangular building, 
50 feet long and 40 feet wide. There is a long and narrow (200 feet by 
30 feet) one-story section which leads into the main building, two and 
one-half stories high, 50 feet wide, and 150 feet long. 

MC RR: NILES ROUNDHOUSE (1903) Cassopolis 

2200 Terminal Rd. 16.564055.4633095 

Howard Township Berrien 

The Niles Roundhouse was one of three major locomotive repair facilities 
used by the Michigan Central Railroad during the first three decades of 
this century. The other two were in Detroit and Jackson. It has an out- 
side circumference of 400 feet, an inside circumference of 300 feet, and 
a radius of 100 feet. It is a brick and concrete structure with a total 
of twenty-four bays. The roof, pitched slightly to the rear, is supported 
by concrete pillars. The building is approximately 20 feet high in the 
front and 14 feet high in the rear. The tin stack exhausts remain in 
place. Two-thirds of the building is vacant while the remainder is used 
for storage. 

MC RR: NILES STATION ( 1 89 1 ) Niles West 

598 Dey St. 16. 562080. 4631 780 

Niles Berrien 

The Michigan Central Railroad reached Niles in 1849 and initially con- 
structed a wood-framed passenger depot. The surviving depot was built 
in 1891. It is a sprawling finished ashlar structure, two stories high, 
featuring a combination of hipped and conical roofs, wide overhanging 
eaves supported by cast iron brackets, and a clock tower. It consists 
of three sections and measures 200 feet long overall. The western por- 
tion is 65 feet long and 54 feet wide, the center portion is 30 feet by 
80 feet, while the eastern portion is 25 feet by 35 feet. The western 
and center portions are connected by a hallway 10 feet wide and 30 feet 
long, while the center and eastern portions are linked by a covered 
walkway 50 feet long. 
[Dunbar, pp. 62, 209] 

174 



TRANSPORTATION 



MC RR: NILES TURNTABLE (1918) Cassopolis 

2200 Terminal Rd. 16. 564055. 4633095 

Howard Township Berrien 

Niles served as a major locomotive repair center for the Michigan Central 
Railroad from the turn of the century until the late 1930's. The name- 
plate on this turntable reads, "The Nichols Engineering Company, Designers 
and Builders, Chicago. American Bridge Company of New York, 1918. No. 
1029, Ambridge Plant". It is a center-mounted turntable, 100 feet long 
and 24 feet wide, consisting of two massive steel I-beams, eight feet in 
height in the center and tapering off to four feet high at the ends. The 
turntable rests in a concrete- 1 ined pit, 100 feet in diameter and nine 
feet deep. The flanged wheels at each end of the turntable rest on a 
single rail set on a concrete footing which is three feet wide and two 
feet deep. 



MC RR: WEST DETROIT ROUNDHOUSE (1912) Detroit 

John Kronk St. 17-325540.4687460 

Detroit Wayne 

The Michigan Central Railroad West Detroit Roundhouse is a brick struc- 
ture with a concrete pit and concrete foundation. It is a one-story 
building with a depth of 100 feet, an internal circumference of 270 feet, 
and an external circumference of 667 feet. Only eleven stalls of forty 
are still in use. Since construction almost one-third of the building 
has been razed. The George Fuller Company of New Jersey constructed 
the roundhouse and George Webb of the Michigan Central Railroad served 
as chief engineer. 



MC RR: YPSILANTI STATION (c.l880) Ypsilanti East 

N. River St. 17.284755.4680230 

Yps i 1 ant i Washtenaw 

The Michigan Central Railroad, the first major line built in the state, 
reached Ypsilanti in I838. This passenger depot was built around 1880, 
replacing an earlier wooden depot lost by fire. It consists of two rec- 
tangular red brick buildings with hipped roofs, connected by a 40 foot 
covered walkway supported by wooden posts. The larger building, which 
served as the ticket office and waiting room, is 24 feet wide and 100 
feet long, while the smaller structure, used for baggage, measures 30 
feet by 20 feet. 
[Dunbar, pp. 43, 208] 



175 



TRANSPORTATION 



MS RR: ADRIAN ROUNDHOUSE (c.1900) Adrian 

930 Michigan St. 16.7^6935.^642020 

Adrian Lenawee 

The Michigan Southern Railroad reached Adrian in 1840, after her citi- 
zens paid the railroad a "bonus" of $40,000 to induce it to build there. 
Part of the agreement made at that time was that the Michigan Southern 
promised to maintain its general offices, as well as a major repair 
facility in Adrian. There has been a major roundhouse in Adrian since 
the 1 850 ' s , although the surviving structure is only part of a facility 
that was built around 1900. It is a brick building, 75 feet deep, with 
an outside circumference of 140 feet and an inside circumference of 100 
feet, with a flat roof pitched slightly to the inside. Few signs of the 
building's original function remain. The doors to the seven bays are 
covered with sheet metal, the stack ventilators are no longer evident, 
and there is no evidence of the turntable. 



MICHIGAN TRACTION COMPANY OFFICE BUILDING (c. 1910) Marshall 

26945 W. Michigan Ave. 16.684320.4680240 

Albion Calhoun 

The Michigan Traction Company was one of the pioneer electric interurban 
lines in Michigan in the early twentieth century. In 1903, they opened 
a 44 mile long line linking Jackson and Battle Creek passing through 
Albion. The line became part of the Michigan Electric Railway system 
in 1906 and Albion became a major car repair center until the line stopped 
operating in 1928. This office building is the only reminder left of the 
once sprawling repair facilities. It is a single-story rectangular wood- 
framed structure, 15 feet wide and 60 feet long, with a gabled roof. 
[MHD, Site Files; Dunbar, pp. 235, 241; Krenerick, Miriam, Albion's 
Milestones and Memories (Albion, 1932), p. 63] 



MUSKEGON SOUTH BREAKWATER LIGHTHOUSE (1929) Lake Harbor 

End of South Breakwater 16.553110.4787050 

Muskegon Muskegon 

The Muskegon South Breakwater Lighthouse was erected in 1929 when the 
breakwater was first built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. 
It stands 53 feet high overall. The lighthouse consists of a rectangular 



176 



TRANSPORTATION 



base, 10 feet wide, 20 feet long, and 15 feet high from which the sharply 
tapered square tower extends. This tower, with a riveted cast iron plate 
exterior, is 10 feet square at its base, but only 3 and one-half square 
at the top. 
[USCG, Light List, p. 152] 



MUSKEGON SOUTH PIERHEAD LIGHTHOUSE 

End of South Pierhead 

Muskegon 



(1903) 



Lake Harbor 

16.553^75.^785925 

Muskegon 



A series of beacons, originally mounted on wooden and later, iron towers 
have been located at this site since 1852. The present tower was built 
in 1903 by the Lakeside Bridge and Steel Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
This round structure is kS feet high and tapers from a diameter of 10 
feet at the base to a diameter of about 7 feet at the top. It has a 
riveted cast iron plate exterior and the beacon is enclosed in an octa- 
gonal glass and cast iron housing. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 152; Holland, Francis, America's Lighthouses 
(Brattleboro: Stephen Greene Press, 1972), p. 185] 



MUSKEGON UNION STATION (1895) 
586 W. Western Ave. 
Muskegon 



Lake Harbor 

16.558125.^786360 

Muskegon 



The first railroad to serve Muskegon was the Michigan Lake Shore Rail- 
road Company, which completed a line between Allegan and Muskegon in 
1871. A second line, the Muskegon, Grand Rapids, and Indiana Railroad, 
reached Muskegon in 1886 and used a temporary passenger depot until the 
two lines decided to build a single passenger depot. The general con- 
tract to build the station, at a cost of $18,000, was awarded to John 
L. Connel 1 of Muskegon in May 1893, but the Panic of 1893 halted con- 
struction until August 1 89^ - The contract was then transferred to 
another builder and the station was opened a year later, on September 
22, 1895. It is a rectangular building, 100 feet by *»5 feet, with brick 
walls, cut stone arches over the doors and one window, and a hipped roof. 
It features a stone and brick tower, 25 feet square and 50 feet high, 
along with a smaller round stone tower, 10 feet in diameter and 30 feet 
high. 

[Dunbar, p. 1^9; I vey , pp. 235-241; Muskegon Chronicle , November 28, 
1953, p. 3; "The Romance of Muskegon," (Muskegon: Muskegon Chronicle , 
1939), p. 119; NR] 



177 



TRANSPORTATION 




Muskegon Union Station (1895), Muskegon 



OLD MISSION POINT LIGHTHOUSE (1870) 
Old Mission Peninsula 
Peninsula Township 



Elk Rapids 
16.619095.^982095 

Grand Traverse 



The Mission Point Lighthouse was constructed in 1 870 to guide ships into 
Traverse Bay. The square tower housing the light, approximately 30 feet 
high, projects from the roof of the 1 ightkeeper' s house, a rectangular 
frame structure 20 feet wide and 30 feet long, with a gabled roof. It 
is now owned by Peninsula Township, and is used as a residence by some 
of the township's employees. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



178 



TRANSPORTATION 



OLD PRESQUE ISLE LIGHTHOUSE (1840) Presque Isle 

Presque Isle Harbor 17-305810.5023720 

Presque Isle Township Presque Isle 

One of the oldest lighthouses on the Great Lakes, the Old Presque Isle 
Lighthouse is a 30 foot circular tower with a diameter of 18 feet at 
the base and 9 feet at the top with 3 foot thick walls tapering to 20 
inches; the bottom two-thirds is of stone, the top one-third of brick. 
"Soapstone" deck, 4 inches thick with leaded joints. Circular dressed 
stone stairway to lantern house which was originally wrought iron octa- 
gon with a copper dome. Presque Isle Harbor is known as a "safe haven", 
and was used frequently by early shipping trade that sailed along the 
coast. In I838, Congress approved $5,000 for construction of the light- 
house; the site chosen was on a rise east of the bay so that the light 
could function as both coast and harbor light. It was built by Jere- 
miah Moors. In 1871 a new lighthouse at another location was built, 
and the lamp and lamphouse from the old tower were removed. Sold by 
the government in 1897, the lighthouse was renovated and a surplus 
lamp and lamphouse installed in 1961. 

[Holland, Francis, America's Lighthouses (Brattleboro: Stephen Greene 
Press, 1972), p. 183; Lagerberg, Matt, "The Old Presque Isle Lighthouse,' 
Michigan History , XXXIV, 1950, pp. 245-248; Wall in, Helen, "Old Presque 
Isle Lighthouse Memorialized," Michigan Heritage , VI, 1965, pp. 1 77~ 1 82 ; 
NR] 



PM RR: GRAND HAVEN STATION (c.1927) Muskegon 

Madison St., west of 4th St. 16.563000.4768025 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

The Michigan Lake Shore Railroad reached Grand Haven in 1871, when the 
company completed a line running from New Buffalo to Montague. In I878, 
this line was taken over by the Chicago and West Michigan Railroad Com- 
pany, which in turn became part of the Pere Marquette Railroad in 1900. 
The Chicago and West Michigan Railroad maintained a depot on this site, 
nicknamed the "Holland Depot" because the line ran from there to Holland, 
The present depot, which closely resembles a Pere Marquette depot built 
in Holland in 1927, was probably built at the same time. It is a one- 
story rectangular building, 200 feet long and 30 feet wide, built of 
white brick, with hipped tile roofs. It is currently used as a gift 
shop. 

[Dunbar, p. 149; Lilly, Leo, Historic Grand Haven and Ottawa County 
(Grand Haven: the author, 193U , p. 383; History of Ottawa County , 
Michigan (Chicago: Page, 1 882) , p. 37] 

179 



TRANSPORTATION 



^ \ 




Old Presque Isle Lighthouse (1840), Presque Isle Township 



PM RR: HOLLAND STATION (1927) 

250 E. 7th St. 

Holland 



Holland 

16. 57 / *075. ^737075 

Ottawa 



The Pere Marquette Railroad, which took over the Chicago and West Mich- 
igan Railroad in 1900, constructed this passenger station in 1927- It 
is still used as a freight office by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. 
It consists of two sections, both white brick with hipped roofs. The 
portion which housed the waiting room and ticket facilities is 25 feet 
wide and 120 feet long, while the section which held the baggage area 
is 25 feet wide and 66 feet long. 



180 



TRANSPORTATION 



PM RR: PORT HURON ROUNDHOUSE (1912) Port Huron 

15th St. 17.382530.^757100 

Port Huron St. Clair 

The Port Huron Roundhouse of the Pere Marquette Railroad, built in 1912, 
has a reinforced concrete frame, a rare structural form for roundhouses. 
It covers only 90 degrees of a full circle and contained only ten stalls 
The building has an inside circumference of 150 feet, an outside circum- 
ference of 350 feet, and is 90 feet deep. This building has been long 
abandoned, and only the skeletal frame remains extant. 



PM RR: PORT HURON TURNTABLE (1912) Port Huron 

15th St. 17.382530.4757100 

Port Huron St. Clair 

This turntable was constructed in 1912 by the King Bridge Company of 
Cleveland for the Pere Marquette Railroad's Port Huron Roundhouse. It 
is 75 feet long, 12 feet wide, and consists of two deck plate girders, 
each six feet high at the center and tapering to three feet in height 
at the ends. This center-mounted turntable rests in a concrete- 1 ined 
pit approximately five feet deep. 



PM RR: SAGINAW ROUNDHOUSE (1920) Saginaw 

N. 8th St. 17. 263810. 4813760 

Saginaw Saginaw 

The Pere Marquette Railroad Saginaw Roundhouse (1920) has exterior walls 
of brick and massive oak timbers support the roof. It contains twenty 
stalls, has an inside circumference of 300 feet, an outside circumference 
of approximately 1,200 feet, and is 110 feet deep. The adjoining steel- 
framed brick machine shop is approximately 150 feet by 200 feet. The 
roundhouse was originally equipped with smoke ventilators for steam 
locomotives, but these are no longer extant. This repair facility is 
still in active use by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. 

PM RR: SAGINAW TURNTABLE (1920) Saginaw 

N. 8th St. 17.263810.4813760 

Saginaw Saginaw 

This turntable was built by the Pere Marquette Railroad in 1920 for their 
Saginaw Roundhouse completed at the same time. It consists of two parallel 

181 



TRANSPORTATION 



through plate girders, 100 feet long, six feet high at the center, and 
tapering to four feet in height at the ends. The turntable is 12 feet 
wide, center-mounted, and revolves in a concrete- 1 ined pit five feet 
deep. 



PM RR: ST. JOSEPH STATION ( 1 9 1 ^ ) Benton Harbor 

410 Vine St. 16. 542620. 4661810 

St. Joseph Berrien 

The first rail line to service St. Joseph was the Chicago and West Mich- 
igan Railroad, which completed a 28 mile line between St. Joseph and 
New Buffalo in 1 870. This line was taken over by the Pere Marquette 
Railroad in 1900. There has been a passenger depot at this location 
since at least 1892, although the present structure dates from 1914. It 
is a simple one-story brick and stucco rectangular building, 100 feet 
long and 30 feet wide, with hipped roofs. There is also a covered pas- 
senger waiting platform, adjoining the depot and adjacent to the tracks, 
measuring 200 feet long and 12 feet wide, supported by cast iron columns, 
and featuring a hipped roof. 

[Franklin, Ellis, History of Berrien and Van Buren Counties (Philadelphia 
Ensign, 1880), p. 55; Berrien County Directory (Detroit: Polk, 1892), 
p. 126] 



PM RR: TRAVERSE CITY STATION (1926) Traverse City 

Railroad St. 16. 608070.4957051 

Traverse City Grand Traverse 

The Pere Marquette Rai 1 road T rave rse City Station (1926) consists of 
two adjacent one-story rectangular brick buildings, both with tiled 
hipped roofs. The passenger station (30 feet by 100 feet) and baggage 
station (25 feet by 75 feet) are connected by a covered walkway 15 feet 
wide and approximately 250 feet long, supported by steel columns. There 
is also a covered passenger platform at the eastern end of the baggage 
station, measuring 20 feet by 25 feet, and two similar platforms at 
both ends of the main passenger station. 



182 



TRANSPORTATION 



PM RR: WYOMING YARD ROUNDHOUSE (1911) Grand Rapids West 

South of Market St. and 1-196 16.605790.4755270 

Wyoming Kent 

The Wyoming Yard Roundhouse, erected by the Pere Marquette Railroad in 
191 1> originally approximated a complete circle, with only a single 
track leading to the turntable left uncovered. It contained 43 stalls, 
each 100 feet deep. The roundhouse had a diameter of 400 feet, an out- 
side circumference of 1,250 feet and an inside circumference of 625 
feet. It still serves as a locomotive repair facility, but only the 
northern half is extant. The southern half, containing 21 stalls, was 
deteriorating badly and was demolished in the mid-1960's. The outside 
walls are of brick construction, while the roof and the wooden doors 
leading into each stall are supported by massive oak timbers. 



PM RR: WYOMING YARD SHOPS (1924) Grand Rapids West 

South of Market St. and I-I96 16. 605620. 4755240 

Wyoming Kent 

This is a rectangular brick structure resting on a concrete foundation 
with a massive steel I-beam frame to support heavy-duty overhead cranes 
used to move heavy locomotive parts and subassemblies. Overall, it is 
approximately 400 feet long and 225 feet wide. 



POINT AUX BARQUES LIGHTHOUSE (1857,1908) Huron City 

Lighthouse Rd. 17.356300.4875780 

Huron Township Huron 

The Point Aux Barques Lighthouse was originally constructed in 1847, but 
extensively rebuilt in 1854-1857 by Alanson Sweet, Luzene Ransom, and 
Morgan Shinn, who received contracts to work on several lighthouses in 
Michigan at the same time. The white conical tower is of brick construc- 
tion, with stucco facing, and is 89 feet high, with a base approximately 
18 feet in diameter. The adjacent one and one-half story brick light- 
keeper's house was constructed in 1908. It measures 15 feet by 20 feet 
and has a gabled roof. This is one of the two oldest lighthouses in 
Michigan and is still in service, although it is completely automated. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 83; MHD, Site Files; NR] 



183 



TRANSPORTATION 



POINT BETSIE LIGHTHOUSE (1 856) Frankfort 

On Point Betsie Point 16.559000.4948070 

Frankfort Benzie 

Construction on this lighthouse was begun in 1852 and completed in I856 
at a cost of $3,000. The lighthouse keeper and his family were the first 
residents of Frankfort. The conical brick tower holding the light is 52 
feet high and approximately 12 feet in diameter at the base. The ad- 
joining frame 1 ightkeeper' s house is a rectangular building, 30 feet wide 
and 70 feet long, with a mansard roof. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 150; Powers, Perry, A History of Northern Michigan 
and Its People (Chicago, 1912), p. 358] 

PORT AUSTIN REEF LIGHTHOUSE (1878,1902) Port Austin East 

East end of Port Austin Reef 17.340290.4879480 

Port Austin Huron 

The Port Austin Reef Lighthouse was constructed in I878 at the tip of 
Michigan's "Thumb" to guide vessels into Saginaw Bay. It rests on an 
octagonal concrete crib, 80 feet in diameter and 30 feet high, which 
rests on a solid rock foundation which is six feet underwater. The 
tower itself is of brick construction, ten feet square and 50 feet high, 
topped off with a round cast iron tower about six feet in diameter and 
15 feet high which contains the light. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 83; Holland, Francis, America's Lighthouses 
(Brattleboro: Stephen Greene Press, 1972), p. 184; Portrait and Bio- 
graphical Album of Huron County , Michigan (Chicago, 1884), p. 44F] 

PORT SANILAC LIGHTHOUSE (1886) Port Sanilac 

Lake St. 17-375340.4809380 

Port Sani lac Sani lac 

The Port Sanilac Lighthouse (1886) is a white brick octagonal tower 60 
feet high, with a base 12 feet in diameter, resting on a cut stone foun- 
dation. The adjacent two-story brick 1 ightkeeper' s house is 30 feet 
wide, 40 feet long, rests on a cut stone foundation, and has a gabled 
roof. 
[USCG, Light List, p. 82] 



184 



TRANSPORTATION 




Port Sanilac Lighthouse (1886), Port Sanilac 
185 



TRANSPORTATION 



PRESQUE ISLE LIGHTHOUSE ( 1 870) Presque Isle 

North end of Presque Isle 1 7. 304760. 5025360 

Presque Isle Township Presque Isle 

This lighthouse was constructed in 1 870 to replace the older Presque 
Isle Lighthouse ( 1 840) located in Presque Isle Harbor (see other entry). 
It is a conical brick tower, 105 feet high, 15 feet in diameter at the 
base, and approximately 10 feet in diameter at the top. The tower is 
connected to the 1 ightkeeper' s house, a rectangular brick building, 20 
feet by 25 feet, with a gabled roof. The lighthouse is located in a 
public park maintained by Presque Isle Township. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 90] 

THE REISS (1917) Fennville 

Foot of Hamilton St. 16.565025.4743095 

Douglas Allegan 

The steam tugboat Re i s s , formerly the G i 1 mo re , is one of the last sur- 
viving steam tugboats on the Great Lakes. It is moored next to the 
Keewa t i n in Douglas Harbor and is in the process of restoration. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



SAND [HARBOR] BEACH HARBOR OF REFUGE (1873-1894) Harbor Beach 

In Harbor Beach Harbor 17-368345.4856560 

Harbor Beach Huron 

Ships passing through Lake Huron from the St. Clair River into Saginaw 
Bay had to traverse the dangerous Point Aux Barques without any harbor 
of refuge from the often violent storms of Lake Huron. A United States 
Army Corps of Engineers Survey of 1873 selected Sand Beach, now Harbor 
Beach, as the site for the construction of a harbor of refuge. The pro- 
ject was begun immediately, with a contract initially awarded to the 
firm of Date, Stead & Company, a local contractor. The firm proceeded 
to build heavy timber cribs on land, tow them into the harbor, and sink 
them by filling them with stones, thus building a breakwall. This work 
was hampered by poor weather and proceeded very slowly. The Army Corps 
took over the task around 1876 and had the main breakwater sufficiently 
completed by 1 880 for boats to begin to use the harbor. By 1882, about 
1,000 ships were using the harbor for refuge. The bulk of this work was 
completed under the direction of engineer Charles P. Gilbert, at a cost 
of about $1.2 million. A lighthouse (see other entry) was erected on 



186 



TRANSPORTATION 



the south end of the main breakwall in 1885- The initial construction 
was not completed until 1 894 and there were additional modifications 
made in 1917 and 1927- The configuration of this harbor today is as 
follows: the North Breakwall, 1,200 feet long; the North Opening, 300 
feet in length; the Main Breakwall, 4,716 feet long; the Main Opening 
or Channel, 600 feet wide; and the South Breakwall, 1,956 feet long. 
The original cribs, still extant, extend seven feet above the mean water 
[Harbor Beach Women's Club, Harbor Beach , Yesterday and Today (Harbor 
Beach, 1976), pp. 23-27] 



ST. JAMES LIGHTHOUSE (1856,1870) Beaver Island 

Northeast end of Beaver Island 16. 616000. 5066033 

Beaver Island Charlevoix 

This lighthouse was first erected in I856, but a new tower was added in 
1870, with an iron stairway leading to its light. The white cylindrical 
light tower is 40 feet high, 16 feet in diameter at the base, and tapers 
to about 10 feet in diameter at the top. The adjoining 1 ightkeeper' s 
house (1856) is a two-story brick building with a gabled roof, measuring 
approximately 30 feet by 60 feet. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 1 46 ; MHD, Site Files] 

ST. JOSEPH NORTH PIER INNER LIGHTHOUSE (1908) Benton Harbor 
North Pier 16.541 890.4662580 

St. Joseph Berrien 

There has been a light located on this site since I898, but a permanent 
lighthouse was not built until 1908. This lighthouse, which has an 
overall height of 53 feet, consists of a lower portion, 25 feet square 
and 20 feet high, resting on a concrete foundation, and a narrow octa- 
gonal upper portion, approximately 10 feet wide, with the light itself 
resting in a round housing at the top. The entire structure has an 
exterior of riveted cast iron plates. 
[USCG, Light List, p. 156] 



187 



TRANSPORTATION 




Presque Isle Lighthouse (1870), Presque Isle Township 



TRANSPORTATION 



ST. JOSEPH NORTH PIERHEAD LIGHTHOUSE (1907) Benton Harbor 

North Pier 16. 541 790.4662610 

St. Joseph Berrien 

There has been a functioning light on this site since 1846, although the 
present tower dates from 1907. This round tower stands 30 feet high, 
rests on a concrete foundation, and has an exterior of riveted cast iron 
plates. The beacon is enclosed in an octagonal glass and cast iron housing, 
[USCG, Light List , p. 156] 

SHAY LOGGING LOCOMOTIVE (c.1900) Cadillac South 

Cass St. 16.627080.4900060 

Cadi 1 lac Wexford 

Ephraim Shay began experimenting with logging tramways in the late 1870's 
in Cadillac. He decided to develop a locomotive which could effectively 
pull heavy loads on primitive wooden tracks. Standard railroad locomo- 
tives would not work because their inflexible driving wheels prevented 
the effective application of power to the tracks and because they tore 
up the primitive track. The locomotive that Shay patented in 1881 uti- 
lized vertical pistons driving a crankshaft which turned a pinion shaft, 
all located on the right-hand side of the locomotive. The pinion shaft 
was broken into sections linked by sleeve couplings with long bearings 
and universal joints, giving flexibility to the power transmission sy- 
stem. Bevel gears on the faces of the wheels meshed with similar gears 
mounted on the pinion shaft. The Shay locomotive was manufactured by 
the Lima Locomotive and Machine Company from 1881 until 1945. This 
three cylinder model was probably built around 1900. 

[Koch, Michael, The Shay Locomotive : Titan of the Timbers (Denver, 1971), 
pp. 22-25, 35-371 



SOUTH HAVEN SOUTH PIERHEAD LIGHTHOUSE (1913) South Haven 

South Pier 16.559250.4694150 

South Haven Van Buren 

The first permanent light on the south pier at South Haven was erected 
in 1872, but was gradually moved seaward as the pier was extended. The 
light was moved 120 feet in 1888 and another 249 feet in 1901 to its 
present location. The present tower, built in 1913, is a round, slightly 



189 



TRANSPORTATION 



tapered cast iron tower, 35 feet in height. The light rests in a smaller 
octagonal cast iron housing encircled by a decorative wrought iron railing, 
[USCG, Light List , p. 156; MHD, Site Files; Holland, Francis, Ame r i ca ' s 
Lighthouses (Brattleboro: Stephen Greene Press, 1972), p. 185] 




Shay Logging Locomotive (c.1900), Cadillac 



SOUTH LYON UNION STATION (1909) 
McHattie Park 
South Lyon 



South Lyon 

17.281910.^703630 

Oakland 



The combination passenger-freight station was jointly owned and operated 
by the Grand Trunk Western Railroad and the Pere Marquette Railroad. It 
is a wood-framed rectangular building 50 feet long and 20 feet wide, with 



190 



TRANSPORTATION 



a hipped roof and overhanging eaves. The conical roof covering the pas- 
senger waiting room closely resembles a witch's hat. The station was 
moved approximately one mile from its original location in April 1976 in 
order to enable the South Lyon Historical Society to preserve it for 
posterity. 

SOUTH MAN1T0U ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE (1858,1871) North Manitou 

Southeast tip of South Manitou Island 16.5710^3. W4000 

South Manitou Island Leelanau 

A brick lighthouse was first constructed on the south end of South Mani- 
tou Island in ]8k0 to guide ships through one of the routes leading to 
the Straits of Mackinac. The 1 ightkeeper' s dwelling, still extant, was 
built in 1858 and the present light tower was added in 1871. This faci- 
lity was closed by the Coast Guard in 1958 and is now part of the Sleeping 
Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. The 1 ightkeeper's house is a rectangular 
two-story brick building, 20 feet wide and 25 feet long, with a gabled 
roof. It is connected to the light tower by a one-story rectangular 
brick passageway, about 10 feet wide and 35 feet long. The brick light 
tower is 100 feet high, 15 feet in diameter at the base, and approxi- 
mately 10 feet in diameter at the top. The original light is not extant. 
[Vent, Myron H., South Manitou Island : From Pioneer Settlement to Nat- 
ional Park (Springfield, VA, 1973), pp-T^TT"""^ 

STURGEON POINT LIGHTHOUSE (I869) Harrisville 

End of Point Rd. 17-320000.4953033 

Haynes Township Alcona 

The Sturgeon Point Lighthouse was constructed in 1869 on land donated 
by Perley Silverthorn, who became the first keeper of the light. The 
original light, visible for 16 miles, was replaced by a new acetylene 
lamp in 1912. The conical brick light tower is 70 feet high, 15 feet 
in diameter at the base, and about ten feet in diameter at the top. The 
adjoining 1 ightkeeper' s house is a rectangular brick building, 20 feet 
by 25 feet, with a gabled roof. This facility is no longer in service 
and has been boarded up. 
[USCG, Light List ; MHD, Site Files] 



191 



TRANSPORTATION 



TAWAS POINT LIGHTHOUSE (I876) East Tawas 

On Tawas Point 17-304045.4902075 

East Tawas Iosco 

The Tawas Point Lighthouse was originally built in 1853 and then recon- 
structed in I876. It consists of a brick conical tower, 70 feet in 
height, 15 feet in diameter at the base and tapering to a diameter of 
about 8 feet at the top. There is an attached rectangular brick house 
with a gabled roof, 20 feet wide and 30 feet long. It remains an 
active 1 ighthouse. 

[USCG, Light List , p. 87; Holland, Francis, America's Lighthouses 
(Brattleboro: Stephen Greene Press, 1972), p. 184] 



THUNDER BAY ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE ( 1 857, 1 868) Thunder Bay Island 

Northeast end of shoal 17-327150.4989210 

Thunder Bay Island Alpena 

A lighthouse was first established on Thunder Bay Island in 1832, al- 
though the present light was constructed in 1857. The conical tower 
housing the light is 65 feet high, 25 feet in diameter at the base, and 
tapers to a diameter of approximately 10 feet at the top. The adjoining 
1 ightkeeper' s house, rebuilt in 1868, is a two-story rectangular brick 
building, 30 feet wide and 50 feet long, with a gabled roof. This light- 
house remains in active service and is normally manned. 
[USCG, Light List , p. 90; Michigan Historical and Pioneer Records , 
Vol. 6, p. 170F~ 



T, AA & NM RR: ANN ARBOR STATION (I889) Ann Arbor West 

416 S. Ashley St. 17.273200.4684515 

Ann Arbor Washtenaw 

The Michigan Central Railroad had served Ann Arbor since 1839, but many 
of the city's residents tried for many years to get a second line built 
into Ann Arbor to undercut the Central's monopolistic position. Under 
the direction of Colonel James Ashley, the Ann Arbor Railway opened a 
line between Ann Arbor and Toledo in I878. This passenger station, 
constructed in I889, is located on South Ashley Street, renamed in 
honor of Colonel Ashley. This station served large numbers of passen- 
gers traveling to popular summer resorts at Whitmore Lake, Zukey Lake, 



192 



TRANSPORTATION 



and points north. It Is a rectangular wood-framed structure, 30 feet 
wide and 130 feet long, featuring a hipped roof with wide overhanging 
eaves supported by wooden brackets. It has not served passengers since 
1950 and is now occupied by a restaurant and several gift shops. 
[Dunbar, p. 162-163; Westside Neighborhood Press , Ann Arbor, September 
1975, p. 3] 



A 




Thunder Bay Island Lighthouse (1857,1868), Thunder Bay Island 



T, AA S NM RR: CADILLAC STATION (c.l890) 
127 W. Cass St. 
Cadi 1 lac 



Cadi 1 lac South 
16. 627075. ^900050 
Wexford 



The Toledo, Ann Arbor, and Northern Michigan Railroad was extended from 
Mt. Pleasant to Cadillac in I887, after Cadillac's citizens had paid the 



193 



TRANSPORTATION 



line a bounty of $35,000. This passenger station was erected shortly 
thereafter. It consists of separate passenger and baggage buildings 
linked by a covered walkway. The passenger waiting area is a rectangu- 
lar two-story brick building with a gabled roof, 27 feet wide and 90 
feet long. The baggage building is a one-story structure with a hipped 
roof, 27 feet wide and 35 feet long. Wide overhanging eaves supported 
by steel brackets extend completely around the station, forming a cov- 
ered waiting area for passengers. The covered walkway linking the two 
buildings was originally open, but has been enclosed with cinder block 
wal Is. 

[Wheeler, John, History of Wexford County , Michigan (Chicago, 1903), 
p. 263] 



T, AA & NM RR: HOWELL STATION (1886) Howell 

126 Wetmore St. 1 7.259700.^721 360 

Howel 1 Livingston 

The citizens of Ann Arbor, long unhappy with the rates charged by the 
Michigan Central Railroad, voted $100,000 in bonds in I869 to encourage 
the construction of a competitive line linking Ann Arbor with Toledo. 
After numerous delays, including the bankruptcy of the Toledo and Ann 
Arbor Railroad Company in 1873, the line was opened in 1879. It was 
gradually extended north from Ann Arbor and was built through Howell in 
1885 after her citizens gave the Toledo, Ann Arbor, and Northern Mich- 
igan Railroad a bonus of $20,000. The Howell Station was constructed 
the following year. It is a rectangular brick building, 22 feet wide 
and 50 feet long, with a gabled roof and wide overhanging eaves supported 
by wooden brackets. It now serves as an historical museum for the Liv- 
ingston County Historical Society. 

[Dunbar, pp. 164-166; Michigan Railroad Commission, Aids , G? fts , Grants , 
and Donations to Railroads (Lansing: Michigan Railroad Commission, 1919) ; 



TROWBRIDGE STREET (1906) Grand Rapids West 

Between Clancy St. and Lafayette St. 16.609060.^758550 

Grand Rapids Kent 

This surviving segment of Trowbridge Street is an excellent example of 
a cobblestone street, a common type of pavement in the early twentieth 
century. This segment, built in 1906, is 30 feet wide and 280 feet long, 



9^ 



TRANSPORTATION 



It consists of cobblestones, between 5 and 8 inches in height, set in a 
4 inch base of gravel. To facilitate drainage, the crown of this street 
is approximately 7 inches above the street elevation at the gutters. A 
similar segment of cobblestone street (built in 1913) has also survived 
on nearby North Avenue. 

[Grand Rapids Board of Public Works, "Plan for the Improvement of Trow- 
bridge Street, February 24, 1906"] 



WHITE LAKE LIGHTHOUSE ( 1 844) 
South bank of White Lake Channel 
Fruitland Township 



Montague 

16.546070.4802037 

Muskegon 



The White Lake Lighthouse, erected in 1844, is one of the oldest light- 
houses extant in Michigan. It is an excellent example of a "true" light- 
house, i.e., it is a residence with an attached tower containing the 
navigation beacon. The house is a rectangular brick structure, 20 feet 
wide and 55 feet long, resting on a finished ashlar foundation, and fea- 
turing a gabled roof with overhanging eaves. The brick tower containing 
the light is attached to the northwest corner of the house. It is octa- 
gonal, 10 feet in diameter, and approximately 35 feet high. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



195 



TRANSPORTATION 



ADDITIONAL RAILROAD STATIONS 



AA RW: MT. PLEASANT STATION (c.l890) 

Broadway 

Mt. Pleasant 



Mt. Pleasant 
16.679100.48301 10 

I sabel la 



C, S & M RR: BAY CITY STATION (c.l890) 
101 S. Will iams St. 
Bay City 



Bay City 

17. 265770. 4831490 

Bay 



C, S & M RR: FLUSHING FREIGHTHOUSE (1889) 
Next to 431 W. Main St. 
Fl ushing 



Fl ushing 

17.266970.4771520 

Genesee 



DU RW: JACKSON CAR BARN (c. 1910) 

500 E. Pearl St. 

Jackson 



Jackson South 

16.714450.4680450 

Jackson 



F & PM RR: MIDLAND FREIGHTHOUSE ( 1 899) 

Ann St. 

Midland 



Midland South 

16.722120.4832410 

Midland 



F & PM RR: SAGINAW FREIGHTHOUSE (c.l890) 

621 Potter St. 

Saginaw 



Saginaw 

17.262820.4813680 

Saginaw 



GR & I LINE: KALKASKA STATION (1911) 
Cedar St. 
Kal kaska 



Kalkaska 

16.644027.4954045 
Kal kaska 



GTW RR: CAPAC STATION (1914) 

W. Rai 1 road St. 

Capac 



Capac 

17.342720.4763530 
St. Clair 



196 



TRANSPORTATION 



GTW RR: COOPERSVILLE STATION (c.l890) 
Eastonvi lie St. 
Coopersvi 1 le 



Ravenna 

16. 586093. 47671 10 

Ottawa 



GTW RR: DAVISON STATION (1900) 
Historic Crossroads Village 
Flint 



Fl int North 

17.284390.4774200 

Genesee 



GTW RR: FLINT STATION (1903) 

115 E. 14th St. 

Flint 



Fl int North 

17.281730.4764560 

Genesee 



GTW RR: JACKSON FREIGHTHOUSE (1880) 

N. Jackson Ave. 

Jackson 



Jackson North 

16.713775.4681040 

Jackson 



GTW RR: LANSING FREIGHTHOUSE (1912) 

1203 S. Washington Ave. 

Lansing 



Lansing South 

16.700460.4734000 

Ingham 



GTW RR: LAPEER STATION (1900) 

73 Howard St. 

Lapeer 



Lapeer 

17.312180.4768680 

Lapeer 



GTW RR: 0TTERBURN STATION (1904) 
Torrey Rd. 
Fl int 



Fl int South 

17.277530.4762390 

Genesee 



GTW RR: 0W0SS0 FREIGHTHOUSE (c.1900) 

524 S. Washington Ave. 

Owosso 



Corunna 

16.730065.4763072 

Shiawassee 



GTW RR: PORT HURON FREIGHTHOUSE (1924) 
2001 24th St. 
Port Huron 



Port Huron 
17.381490.4757470 
St. Clair 



197 



TRANSPORTATION 



GTW RR: ST. JOHNS STATION (c.1900) 
Rai 1 road St. 
St. Johns 



St. Johns North 
16.699110.4764040 
CI inton 



MC RR: BAY CITY STATION (c.1900) 
701 First St. 
Bay City 



Bay City 

17.267390.4831600 

Bay 



MC RR: CHARLOTTE STATION (1902) 
350 N. Cochran Ave. 
Charlotte 



Charlotte 

16.697600.4715010 

Eaton 



MC RR: CHELSEA STATION (c.l890) 
Jackson St., east of Main St. 
Chelsea 



Stockbridge 

16.745085.4689050 

Washtenaw 



MC RR: DEXTER STATION (c.1900) 

Broad St. 

Dexter 



Dexter 

17.462430.4691400 

Washtenaw 



MC RR: GR0SSE ILE STATION (1904) 
810 E. River Drive 
Grosse I le Township 



Wyandotte 

17-322970.4665770 

Wayne 



MC RR: LANSING FREIGHTH0USE (c.1900) 

703 E. Michigan Ave. 

Lansing 



Lansing South 

16.701210.4733995 

Ingham 



MC RR: LAPEER STATION (c.1900) 

145 E. Nepessing St. 

Lapeer 



Lapeer 

17.312170.4769510 

Lapeer 



MC RR: MIDLAND STATION (c. 1900) 

715 Townsend St. 

Midland 



Midland South 

16.722900.4832690 

Midland 



198 



TRANSPORTATION 



MC RR: WEST BAY CITY STATION (c.1900) 
South End of State St. 
West Bay City 



Bay City 
17.266500.4832160 

Bay 



MC RR: YPSILANTI FREIGHTHOUSE (c.1900) 
N. River St. 
Ypsi lanti 



Ypsilanti East 

17.284660.4680200 

Washtenaw 



MS RR: COLDWATER STATION (c.l890) 

200 S. Monroe St. 

Coldwater 



Coldwater West 

16.645480.4644270 

Branch 



PM RR: BAD AXE STATION (c.1900) 
6440 Huron Ave. 
Bad Axe 



Bad Axe East 

17.339860.4851580 

Huron 



PM RR: BAY CITY STATION (1905) 
919 Boutell Place 
Bay City 



Bay City 

17.267080.4831360 

Bay 



PM RR: EVART STATION (c.1900) 

S. Main St. 

Evart 



Evart 

16.639075.4861093 

Osceola 



PM RR: GRAND BLANC STATION (c.1900) 
320 Grand Blanc Rd. 
Grand Blanc 



Fl int South 

17.285040.4755670 

Genesee 



PM RR: HARBOR BEACH STATION (c.1900) 
56 Buell St. 
Harbor Beach 



Harbor Beach 

17.367280.4856030 

Huron 



PM RR: HOLLAND FREIGHTHOUSE ( 1 873) 
E. 7th St., west of Lincoln St. 
Holland 



Holland 

16.574075.4737075 

Ottawa 



199 



TRANSPORTATION 



PM RR: MIDLAND STATION (1906) 

Ann St. 

Midland 



Midland South 

16.722120.4832410 

Midland 



PM RR: MONROE STATION (c.l890) 
W. Front St. 
Mon roe 



Mon roe 

17.299950.4643270 

Monroe 



PM RR: PORT HURON FREIGHTHOUSE (1915) 
Court St. 
Port Huron 



Port Huron 

17. 384080. 4758345 

St. Clair 



PM RR: PORT HURON STATION (1913) 
210 Court St. 
Port Huron 



Port Huron 
17-384120.4758500 
St. Clair 



PM RR: REED CITY FREIGHTHOUSE (c.1900) 
124 E. Upton Ave. 
Reed City 



Reed City 

16.619083.4859000 

Osceola 



PM RR: ST. LOUIS STATION (c.1900) 
Crawford St. 
St. Louis 



Alma 

16.693083.4808042 

Gratiot 



200 



INTRODUCTION TO BRIDGES AND TRESTLES 



The design of safe, yet inexpensive, bridges is a major con- 
tribution of Michigan's engineers to the state's development. This 
section contains over two hundred bridges of widely varying age, size, 
and design. There is a recognizable evolution in bridge design since 
the mid-nineteenth century, an engineering response to changing costs 
of construction materials and increasing load requirements. There are 
no clearcut watersheds, when one bridge design suddenly disappears and 
is replaced by another, but the sites in this section suggest a fairly 
rapid evolutionary process. 

Among the oldest examples in this section are four covered 
wooden Howe truss bridges — White's, Ada, Fallasburg, and Langley -- 
built between 1 867 and 1 887 - The first three are single-spans of less 
than 125 feet, while the Langley Bridge ( 1 887) is a three-span struc- 
ture 282 feet long. This design was adequate for light wagon traffic, 
could be built by local carpenters, and utilized inexpensive raw mate- 
rials usually available locally. Contrary to several myths, they were 
covered simply to prevent the timbers from rotting. 

The wooden truss bridge had serious drawbacks in some appli- 
cations. It was inadequate for the increasingly heavy loads of the 
railroads and it was highly susceptible to sparks from locomotives. 
The stone arch bridge was one solution, but construction was very dif- 
ficult for long spans and was costly in any case. There are six stone 
arch bridges identified below, built between 1 867 and 1897, with four 
of these on railroad lines. 

The iron or steel truss was easily the most popular design 
during the years roughly 1880 until the late 1920's. Truss bridges 
were fireproof, utilized materials which were becoming relatively less 
costly over time, and could be designed to carry heavy loads, particu- 
larly when steel replaced iron after about 1890. There are eighty 
trusses listed here, ranging in age from the Button Road Bridge (l88l) 
to the Mio Road Bridge (1928). They vary in size from single-spans of 
less than fifty feet to the five-span, 580 foot North Park Street Bridge 
(1904) in Grand Rapids. The approaches, piers, and abutments for these 
bridges were usually built by local contractors, while the superstruc- 
tures were designed and fabricated by specialized firms which shipped 
the structural members from their plants and then assembled the trusses 
at the site. Nineteen firms concentrated in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois 
built forty-five of these bridges. The companies best represented are 



201 



the Jol iet Bridge and Iron Company of Joliet, Illinois, with six bridges, 
and the Massillon Bridge Company of Massillon, Ohio, with five. 

Beginning in the 1890's railroads utilized the steel girder 
bridge extensively, particularly where they could use individual spans 
of less than seventy-five feet. There are forty bridges of this type 
built between 1891 and 1928 listed below. The overwhelming majority of 
these were built for railroads in 1 900- 1915 by either the Detroit Bridge 
Company or the American Bridge Company of New York. The most impressive 
example of this design is the Ann Arbor Railway's Huron River Bridge 
(1906), an eleven-span structure with an overall length of 71^ feet. 

The next major design innovation was the use of the reinforced 
concrete arch after about 1900, at approximately the same time that 
Albert Kahn and others were beginning to use concrete in buildings (see 
the Building Technology section). Reinforced concrete was a strong, 
yet inexpensive, building material. There are thirty bridges of this 
type listed below and virtually all of them were built for vehicular 
traffic. The five-span Bridge Street Bridge ( 1 904) in Grand Rapids is 
the oldest surviving example, while the most impressive is the magnifi- 
cent Belle Isle Bridge (1923), with nineteen spans and an overall length 
of 2,356 feet. 

One of the problems engineers faced was how to bridge the 
state's waterways without obstructing navigation. The solution was the 
moveable bridge and this inventory contains thirty-four examples built 
between 1886 and 19^. They were built for both railroad and vehicular 
traffic and more than half of them are concentrated on the Saginaw, Grand, 
and Rouge Rivers. There are two basic moveable bridge designs. The 
swing bridge, with one span that can be swiveled ninety degress, was 
ideal for wide rivers and was the common design used in the nineteenth 
century. There are eighteen truss swing bridges in this section. How- 
ever, where waterways are narrow and the entire width is needed for 
navigation, engineers were forced to build bascule (draw) bridges, which 
lift the roadbeds vertically to permit the passage of ships. A series 
of bascule bridges were constructed on the Rouge River in the early 
1920's, when it was made navigable to serve the Ford Motor Company 
Rouge Complex. 

Several of Michigan's widest waterways are also vital passages 
for the freighters that ply the Great Lakes and bridging them was espec- 
ially challenging. Three impressive structures have resulted: the 
Ambassador Bridge (1929) across the Detroit River, a suspension bridge 
with a main span of 1,850 feet; the Bluewater Bridge (1938) across the 
St. Clair River, with a cantilever span of 87 1 feet; and the Mackinac 
Straits Bridge (1958), a suspension bridge with a main span of 3,800 
feet and an overall length of over three miles. 

202 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



AA RW: HURON RIVER BRIDGE (1906) Ann Arbor East 

Over the Huron River 17-273650.4685410 

Ann Arbor Washtenaw 

The Ann Arbor Railway's Huron River Bridge, erected in 1906, consists 
of eleven spans, ten of which are deck-plate girder spans, while one 
is a through-plate girder span. It is 14 feet wide and 714 feet long, 
carrying a single track over Main Street, the Penn Central (formerly 
Michigan Central) Railroad right-of-way, and the Huron River. Pro- 
ceeding from west to east, there is an 82 foot span over Main Street, 
then two approach spans of 34 feet and 24 feet, then a 110 foot through- 
plate girder span over the Ptnn Central Railroad. The next five spans 
are all 70 feet long and rest on concrete piers, as do the remaining 
two spans, each 57 feet long. These last seven spans cross the Huron 
River. 



AA RW: HURON STREET BRIDGE (1903) Ann Arbor West 

Ann Arbor Railway over W. Huron St. 17.273060.4684520 

Ann Arbor Washtenaw 

This is one of several bridges erected in Ann Arbor by the Ann Arbor 
Railway in 1903 to eliminate grade crossings. It is a steel through- 
plate girder bridge, 79 feet long and 8 feet wide. There are three 
spans, with the longest, 50 feet in length, spanning West Huron Street. 
Virtually identical bridges are located approximately 100 yards north 
and south of this structure, over Liberty Street and Miller Street. 



D & M RR: KAWKAWLIN RIVER BRIDGE (I898) Kawkawlin 

Detroit & Mackinac RR, over Kawkawlin River 17-266610.4837190 

Kawkawl in Bay 

This bridge consists of four spans, each 40 feet long, resting on concret< 
piers and abutments. The northernmost and southernmost spans are deck 
girders, while the two middle spans are through-plate girders. It was 
constructed in 1 898 by the Detroit Bridge and Iron Works. 



203 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



D, T & I RR: FLAT ROCK BRIDGE-DAM STRUCTURE (1928) Flat Rock 
Crosses Huron River 17.310160.4663200 

Flat Rock Wayne 

This combined structure which serves as a ra i 1 road- highway bridge and 
dam was constructed of reinforced concrete in 1928. The bridge carries 
the double track main line of the Detroit, Toledo, and I ronton Railroad 
Company and vehicle industrial traffic. The dam formerly served a Ford 
Motor Company power plant but now supports the Flat Rock city water 
reservoir. The height of the concrete spillway is ten feet. The con- 
crete bridge is 535 feet long, 45 feet wide, and has 18 spans. The 
roadway runs along the west side of the bridge while the two railroad 
tracks run along the east side. 



GTW RR: BATTLE CREEK RIVER BRIDGE (1903) Battle Creek 

East of Washington St., over Battle Creek River 16.649125.4686950 
Battle Creek Calhoun 

This simple steel beam railroad bridge, constructed in 1903 by the King 
Bridge Company of Cleveland, Ohio, carries the Grand Trunk Western Rail- 
road's main line in Michigan (Chicago to Port Huron) into downtown 
Battle Creek. There are four spans, each 32 feet long, resting on three 
stone and concrete piers. Each span consists of four steel I-beams, 
each 4 feet 6 inches high, supporting 8 inch steel I-beams which serve 
as crossmembers to support the roadbed. The overall dimensions of the 
bridge are 132 feet by 24 feet. 



GTW RR: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1906) Grand Rapids West 

Over Grand River, south of Ann St. 16.6081 70.4760640 

Grand Rapids Kent 

This simple steel I-beam bridge is 12 feet wide, approximately 675 feet 
long, and rests on concrete piers and abutments. It consists of nine 
spans. The five center spans are eight foot steel I-beams, while the 
four remaining spans, two at each end of the bridge, are five foot 
I-beams. The deck rests on 4 by 8 inch oak crossmembers. 



204 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



GTW RR: KALAMAZOO RIVER BRIDGE (1903) Kalamazoo 

Over Kalamazoo River, north of Michigan Ave. 1 6.6l 7665. ^683390 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

This is a simple steel beam railroad bridge over the Kalamazoo River. 

This bridge is approximately 300 feet long and rests on three stone piers, 

It consists of two massive steel beams, four feet in height. The rails 
rest on 8 inch steel crossmembers. 



GTW RR: MONROE STREET BRIDGES ( 1 906) Grand Rapids West 

Over Monroe St., N.E., south of Sweet St. 16. 608395. W0510 

Grand Rapids Kent 

There are two similar bridges which provide the Grand Trunk Western 
Railroad with alternative approaches to their Grand River Bridge (see 
other entry). Each bridge consists of three spans, offset to Monroe 
Street, resting on concrete abutments and supported by two piers, each 
consisting of three steel I-beams. Each has two 20 foot approach spans, 
both three foot steel I-beams, and a through-plate girder span, ^0 feet 
long. One is 15 feet wide and the other is 2k feet wide. 



LM RW: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1919) Lansing South 

Across Grand River, north of Shiawassee St. 16. 700650. i i73 2 *575 

Lansing Ingham 

This is a three-span through-plate girder bridge, 12 feet wide, 231 feet 
long, resting on concrete piers and abutments. The steel girders, each 
five feet high, make up the three spans, each 77 feet long. The line 
which this bridge carried no longer exists. 
[Penn Central List, p. 17] 



MC RR: CASS RIVER BRIDGE (1903) Vassar 

Over Cass River 1 7.291220. ^805220 

Vassar Tuscola 

The Cass River Bridge (1903) is a two-span deck girder bridge, 150 feet 

long, 12 feet wide, resting on a concrete pier and cut stone abutments. 

The four parallel girders are six feet in height and support eight inch 
steel I-beam crossmembers. 
[Penn Central List, p. 16] 



205 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



MC RR: COLUMBIAVILLE BRIDGE (1903) Col umbiavi 1 le 

Across Flint River 17-303970.4781030 

Columbiavi 1 le Lapeer 

This is a two-span deck plate girder bridge, 15 feet wide and 121 feet 

long, resting on a concrete pier and concrete abutments. The main beams 

are five feet deep and the roadbed rests in eight inch steel I-beam 

crossmembers. 

[Penn Central List, p. 16] 



MC RR: HURON RIVER BRIDGES (1900-1901) Ann Arbor West 

Across the Huron River 17-265000.4689730 

Ann Arbor, Delhi Washtenaw 

This is a series of bridges constructed by the Michigan Central Railroad 
to carry its line over the Huron River west of Ann Arbor. There are 
eight bridges between the intersection of U.S Route 23 across the Huron 
River in the western part of Ann Arbor and a point approximately four 
miles west of the Ann Arbor city limits. They were all built in 1900- 
1901, seven by the Detroit Bridge and Ironworks Company and one by the 
American Bridge Company of New York. They are all steel I-beam bridges 
with main beams ranging from five to eight feet high, with six inch 
steel I-beams as crossmembers. They range in width from 24 to 28 feet 
and from 100 to 185 feet in length. They rest on either concrete or 
concrete and stone abutments and most of the piers are concrete. They 
replaced a series of earlier bridges, probably dating from the 1 870 ' s , 
which were apparently judged unsafe and replaced at the same time. The 
few stone piers which remain were probably from these earlier bridges. 



MC RR: KAWKAWLIN RIVER BRIDGE (I89D Kawkawlin 

Penn Central Railroad, over Kawkawlin River 17-262590.4837460 

Kawkawlin Bay 

This is a two-span deck girder bridge, 104 feet long and 15 feet wide. 
The deck girders, each 51 feet and five and one-half feet in height, 
rest on cut stone abutments and a single cut stone pier. This bridge 
was built by the Detroit Bridge and Iron Company. 
[Penn Central List, p. 18] 



206 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



MC RR: MUSKEGON RIVER BRIDGE (I898) 

Penn Central Railroad, over Muskegon River 

Big Rapids 



Big Rapids 

16.621086.4842070 

Mecosta 



This is a three-span steel deck girder bridge, resting on cut stone 
piers and abutments. It was constructed in I898. It has three equal 
spans, each 10 feet wide and 105 feet long, giving the bridge a total 
length of 315 feet. 
[Penn Central List, p. 34] 



MC RR: RICE CREEK BRIDGE (1895) 

Penn Central Railroad, over Rice Creek 

Marshall 



Marshall 

16.668240.4681050 

Calhoun 



This bridge, which carried the Michigan Central Railroad over Rice 
Creek, is 120 feet long and 15 feet wide. It is a simple steel girder 
structure, single-span, consisting of five foot high steel girders, 
with six inch steel I-beams serving as crossmembers. 
[Penn Central List, p. 22] 



MC RR: ST. JOSEPH RIVER BRIDGE (1919) 

Over St. Joseph River, 300 feet west of M-86 

Three Rivers 



Three Rivers West 
16.613350.4644090 
St. Joseph 



A four-span steel I-beam bridge, 230 feet long and 16 feet wide, erected 
in 1919 by the American Bridge Company of New York. The massive four 
foot steel I-beams rest on cut stone abutments. The center pier is 
stone, while the other two piers are concrete. The roadbed rests on 
ten inch square oak crossmembers. 



NYC RR: RAISIN RIVER BRIDGE (1912) 

Across Raisin River, west of Winchester St. 

Mon roe 



Mon roe 

17.302300.4642720 
Mon roe 



This is a three-span steel through-plate girder bridge, 15 feet wide, 

330 feet long, resting on finished ashlar piers and abutments. It was 

built in 1912 by the Pennsylvania Steel Company of Steelton, Pennsyl- 
vania. 



207 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



PM RR: KALAMAZOO RIVER BRIDGE (1907) Fennville 

Over Kalamazoo River, south of 57th St. 16. 573025.4742025 

New Richmond Allegan 

Constructed in 1907 by the American Bridge Company of New York for the 
Pere Marquette Railroad, this bridge is 435 feet long and eight feet 
wide. It consists of six spans, deck girder, resting on concrete piers 
The spans on either end of the bridge consist of two steel I-beams 3-5 
feet high, while the remaining four spans have I-beams which are four 
feet high. The crossmembers supporting the deck are 4 by 6 inch oak 
timbers. 



PM RR: THORNAPPLE RIVER BRIDGE (1907) Lowell 

Over Thornapple River, east of Thornapple Drive 16.623525.4756375 

Ada Kent 

This is a three-span, steel girder railroad bridge, 12 feet wide and 
220 feet long, resting on concrete abutments and two concrete piers. 
The main span, approximately 170 feet long, consists of two five foot 
I-beams, while the two approach spans consist of two two foot I-beams. 
It was erected in 1907 by the American Bridge Company of New York. 



RUDDIMAN CREEK PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE (1911) Lake Harbor 

Over Ruddiman Creek, north of Lake Shore Drive 16.557050.4785000 

Muskegon Muskegon 

In 1911, the City of Muskegon was installing a new 24 inch water main 
which crossed the Ruddiman Creek just south of the stone arch bridge 
which carries Lake Shore Drive over the creek. Since several pedestrians 
had been injured while crossing the Lake Shore Drive Bridge, the city 
decided to build a pedestrian bridge which would also serve to support 
the water main. It was built by the Markle Cement Company at a cost of 
$2,755. This reinforced concrete bridge is eight feet wide and 53 feet 
long. It covers and supports the water main with eight steel rods which 
are anchored to the side of the bridge. 
[ Muskegon News-Chronicle , September 8, 1911, P- 10] 



208 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



ADDITIONAL GIRDER BRIDGES 



D & M RR: THUNDER BAY RIVER BRIDGE (1910) 
Detroit & Mackinac RR, over Thunder Bay River 
Alpena 



Al pena 

17.308090.4993795 
Al pena 



"FEDERAL AID BRIDGE" (1922) 
US-12, over St. Joseph River 
Mottville 



Vandal ia 

16. 603045. 4628005 

St. Joseph 



FISH LAKE ROAD BRIDGE (1900) 
Over Penn Central Railroad 
Kendall 



Gobies 

16.598050.4689060 
Van Buren 



KING HIGHWAY BRIDGE (1930) 
King Hwy., over Kalamazoo River 
Kalamazoo 



Kalamazoo 

16.619330.4682210 

Kalamazoo 



MC RR: BAGLEY STREET BRIDGE (191 1) 
14th St., over Penn Central Railroad 
Detroit 



Detroit 

17.329040.4687920 

Wayne 



MC RR: FIFTEENTH STREET BRIDGE (1911) 
15th St., over Penn Central Railroad 
Detroit 



Detroit 

17.329040.4687920 

Wayne 



MC RR: FOURTEENTH STREET BRIDGE (19H 
14th St., over Penn Central Railroad 
Detroit 



Detroit 

17-329120.4687860 

Wayne 



MC RR: INDIAN RIVER BRIDGE (1903) 

Penn Central Railroad, over Indian River 

Indian River 



Wolverine 

16.686087.5031043 

Cheboygan 



209 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: GIRDER 



MC RR: MARQUETTE STREET BRIDGE (1926) 
Penn Central Railroad, over Marquette St, 
Bay City 



Bay City 

17.266540.4832250 

Bay 



MC RR: MILWAUKEE STREET BRIDGE (1912) 
Penn Central Railroad, over Milwaukee St, 
Detroit 



Detroit 

17.330140.4693000 

Wayne 



MC RR: PORTER STREET BRIDGE (1915) 
Porter St., over Penn Central Railroad 
Detroit 



Detroit 

17.329320.4687740 

Wayne 



MC RR: TERMINAL STREET BRIDGE (1910) 
Vernor Hwy., near Bagley St. 
Detroi t 



Detroit 

17.328670.4688000 

Wayne 



NYC RR: BAD RIVER BRIDGE (1927) 

Penn Central Railroad, over Bad River 

St. Charles 



St. Charles 

16.732075.4797950 

Saginaw 



PM RR: BLACK RIVER CANAL BRIDGE (c.1920) 

Over Black River Canal, west of Pine Grove Ave 

Port Huron 



Lakeport 

17.381930.4763540 
St. Clair 



RED ARROW HIGHWAY BRIDGE (1928) 

Red Arrow Hwy., over Penn Central Railroad 

New Buffalo 



New Buffalo East 

16.523670.4628325 

Berrien 



STATE REWARD BRIDGE (1928) 
M-45, over Grand River 
Al lendale 



Grandvi 1 le 

16.591055.4758030 

Ottawa 



SUPERIOR STREET BRIDGE ( 1 908) 
Superior St., over Kalamazoo River 
Albion 



Homer 

16.685043.4679025 
Cal houn 



210 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



BELLE ISLE BRIDGE (1923) Belle Isle 

E. Grand Blvd. to Belle Isle 1 7-335370. 4689490 

Detroit Wayne 

The Belle Isle Bridge linking Detroit with one of its major recreational 
areas is an interesting example of changing engineering design in re- 
sponse to economic pressures. The Detroit City Council appointed a 
commission in 1916 to make recommendations on the construction of a new 
Belle Isle Bridge. This commission issued its report in November 1917 
recommending a steel and concrete cantilever design which they estimated 
could be built for about $3 million. The City Council accepted this 
design in 1918 and the citizens of Detroit approved a $3 million bond 
issue. The project was delayed, however, and when bids were finally 
submitted in November 1920, the projected costs had risen to $5 million, 
so the City Council was forced to reject all bids. In January 1921, 
Daniel B. Luton proposed an open-spandrel concrete arch design which he 
estimated would cost only $2.5 million. They accepted this new design 
and work was commenced in August 1921 and completed in October 1923. 
The bridge is 2,356 feet long, 85 feet wide, and consists of nineteen 
concrete arch spans resting on foundation pillars. Soil conditions in 
the riverbed necessitated the use of 6,366 piles extending some 46 feet 
below the riverbed, roughly 75 feet below the water surface. 
[ Engineering News-Record , Vol. 86, No. 11, March 17, 1921, pp. 452-455] 

BRIDGE STREET BRIDGE (1904) Grand Rapids West 

Bridge St., over Grand River 16. 608085. 47581 70 

Grand Rapids Kent 

This is a reinforced concrete arch bridge, earth-filled, 66 feet wide 
and 411 feet long. There are five spans of unequal length. The center 
span is 87 feet long, the two spans abutting the center span are 83 feet 
long, while the two spans abutting the river banks are 79 feet in length. 
This bridge was erected in 1904 under the direction of L.W. Anderson, 
City Engineer for Grand Rapids. It was built by Joseph P. Rusche for 
$87,400. 
[ MS IAS ; Engineering News , Vol. 52, December 1, 1904, p. 489] 



211 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



CASS AVENUE BRIDGE (1897) Homer 

Cass Ave., over Kalamazoo River 1 6 . 685043 . 4679025 

Albion Calhoun 

This was the only bridge in Albion to survive the disastrous flood of 

1908 which resulted from the destruction of the dams upstream at Homer. 

It is a stone-arch bridge, 30 feet wide and 145 feet long, with three 
arches of equal length. 
[MS IAS] 



FULTON STREET BRIDGE (1927) Grand Rapids West 

Fulton St. (M-45) , over Grand River 16.607990.4757380 

Grand Rapids Kent 

This structure, which carries Fulton Street over the Grand River, is an 
open-spandrel concrete arch bridge, 58 feet wide and 535 feet long. It 
consists of five spans of equal length. It was erected in 1927 under 
the supervision of Charles W. Darline, City Engineer for Grand Rapids, 
by the Stein Construction Company of Milwaukee for $324,000. It was 
designed by the Westcott Engineering Company of Chicago. 
[MS IAS] 



KALAMAZOO STREET BRIDGE (1926) Lansing South 

Kalamazoo St., over Grand River 16.700780.4733530 

Lansing Ingham 

The Kalamazoo Street Bridge is an open-spandrel concrete arch bridge, 
53 feet wide and 519 feet in length. The three main spans, each approx- 
imately 100 feet long, carry the bridge over the Grand River, while six 
shorter spans comprise the approaches. This structure was built in 1926 
by the Koss Construction Company of Des Moines, Iowa under the super- 
vision of the City Engineer, Otto E. Eckert. 
[ MSIAS ] 

LAKE SHORE DRIVE BRIDGE (c.l890) Lake Harbor 

Lake Shore Drive, over Ruddiman Creek 16.557050.4785000 

Muskegon Muskegon 

This massive stone-arch bridge is 50 feet long, 45 feet wide, 25 feet 
high, with four wing walls, each 21 feet long, 3 feet thick, and ranging 

212 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



from 25 feet high where they abut up against the arch to 18 feet high 
at the ends. The single arch through which the Ruddiman Creek flows 
is 20 feet wide, \h feet high, and k5 feet long. The masonry making 
up the arch is cut, coursed ashlar, while the rest of the bridge is 
made up of rough, uncoursed stones. 
[ Muskegon News-Chronicle , September 8, 1911, p. 10] 




Kalamazoo Street Bridge (1926), Lansing 



LEONARD STREET BRIDGE (1912) 
Leonard St., over Grand River 
Grand Rapids 



Grand Rapids West 
16. 608200. ^759760 
Kent 



This is a seven-span earth-filled concrete arch bridge, bk feet wide and 
61** feet long. It was erected in 1912 by the Hackendorn Contracting 



213 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



Company of Indianapolis under the supervision of L.O. Cutcheon, Grand 
Rapids City Engineer. Daniel B. Luten was the consulting engineer. 
It was constructed at a cost of $78, 9^0. 
[MSIAS] 



LOGAN STREET BRIDGE (1928) Lansing South 

Logan St., over Grand River and GTW RR 16.699200. 4732360 

Lansing Ingham 

The Logan Street Bridge is an open-spandrel reinforced concrete arch 
bridge, 38 feet wide and 912 feet long. There are seven major arch 
spans, which carry the roadway over the Grand River and the Grand Trunk 
Western Railroad tracks and account for approximately 700 feet of the 
bridge's total length. The approaches to the main spans consist of an 
additional sixteen reinforced concrete girder spans. 
[MSIAS] 



MAIN STREET BRIDGE (1919) Niles West 

Main St. (US-12), over St. Joseph River 16.561445.4630950 

Niles Berrien 

This four-span concrete arch bridge, constructed in 1919, is 338 feet 
long and 30 feet wide. It was designed by Charles W. Cole, engineer, 
and built by the Kuehn- Jordan Company. 
[MSIAS] 



MARSHALL AVENUE BRIDGE (c.1900) Marshall 

S. Marshall Ave., over Rice Creek 16.668650.4681310 

Marshall Calhoun 

The Marshall Avenue Bridge, measuring 25 feet wide and 150 feet long, 
consists of three stone arches, each 20 feet high and 25 feet wide. The 
southernmost arch is blocked by the river embankment and the two open 
arches seem more than adequate to handle the flow of Rice Creek. The 
bridge is situated slightly west of the site of an old water-powered mill 
and the three arches may have been needed originally to handle the larger 
flow from the mill races. 



214 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



MC RR: ISLAND LAKE ROAD BRIDGE (1890) Dexter 

Michigan Central RR, over Island Lake Rd. 1 7- 261 730.4691 31 

Dexter Washtenaw 

This stone-arch bridge was built by the Michigan Central Railroad in 
I89O to eliminate a grade crossing which had been the scene of several 
major accidents. It was built by a contractor named Griffon, who used 
stones excavated from the bed of nearby Mill Creek. A stone inside the 
arch reads, "H.B. Ledyard, Pres. - L.D. Hawks, Engineer". The bridge 
is 36 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 18 feet high. The single arch, 
which is skewed, is 20 feet wide and approximately 18 feet high at its 
center. 



MC RR: MILL CREEK BRIDGE (1890) Dexter 

Michigan Central RR, over Mill Creek 17.461920.4691390 

Dexter Washtenaw 

This stone-arch bridge was built in 1890 by the Michigan Central Rail- 
road and is near the Island Lake Road stone-arch bridge built in the 
same year (see other entry). It is 50 feet long, 35 feet high, and 24 
feet wide. The single-arch is 28 feet high in the center. The arch 
has been reinforced with horizonal steel rods supported by vertical 
I-beams encased in two horizonal reinforced concrete girders located 
on the top of the bridge and running parallel to the tracks. 
[Penn Central List, p. 19] 



MC RR: WATTLES ROAD [DIXON'S] BRIDGE (I89D Ceresco 

Over Wattles Rd. 16.655300.4683490 

Emmet t Township Calhoun 

This massive stone-arch bridge was built around I89O to carry the Mich- 
igan Central Railroad over Wattles Road. Overall, the bridge is 40 
feet long, 20 feet high, and 60 feet wide. There are two arches — the 
main arch is 10 feet wide and 12 feet high, while a second arch, pos- 
sibly built for use by pedestrians, is 7 feet wide and 10 feet high. 
[Penn Central List, p. 19] 



215 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



MICHIGAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING COMPANY: 
GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1915) 
West of Huron St., over Grand River 
Grand Rapids 



Grand Rapids West 
16.608050.4757850 
Kent 



An electric interurban line linking Grand Rapids and Kalamazoo was con- 
structed in 1912-1915 by the Michigan Railway Engineering Company (later 
called the Michigan Railway Company). This bridge was erected in 1915 
to carry their line across the Grand River. It is a four-span earth- 
filled reinforced concrete arch bridge, 27 feet wide and 486 feet long. 
It is used today for pedestrian traffic between several parking lots and 
the Grand Rapids Civic Center. 
[Grand Rapids Public Library, Citizens History of Grand Rapids , p. 156] 




Michigan Railway Engineering Co.: Grand River Bridge (1915), Grand Rapids 

216 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



MS RR: RAISIN RIVER BRIDGE (1867) 

Across Raisin River, north of Beecher Rd. 

Adrian 



Adrian 

16. 7^51 00.46*11 530 

Lenawee 



This stone-arch bridge was erected in 1867 by the Michigan Southern Rail- 
road to carry its line over the Raisin River. It is 75 feet long, 30 
feet high, 25 feet wide, and has two identical arches, each approximately 
18 feet high in the center and 22 feet wide at the water level. Each 
arch has been given additional support by five horizontal steel rods 
which are connected to two sets of five vertical timbers, each eight 
inches square, which are in turn connected by steel rods which run just 
below the deck of the bridge. 




MS RR: Raisin River Bridge (1867), Adrian 



217 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



PEARL STREET BRIDGE (1922) 
Pearl St., over Grand River 
Grand Rapids 



Grand Rapids West 
16.608050.47577^0 
Kent 



The Pearl Street Bridge is an open-spandrel concrete arch structure, of 
five spans, 72 feet wide and 485 feet long. It was designed by the 
Westcott Engineering Company of Chicago and was built by the Koss Con- 
struction Company of Des Moines, Iowa for $207,000. 
[MS IAS] 




rrrrrrr 



SSSH^'J^?' 




Pearl Street Bridge (1922), Grand Rapids 



218 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



SHIAWASSEE STREET BRIDGE (1923) Lansing South 

Over Grand River and Penn Central Railroad lS.yOOSSO.^^O 

Lansing Ingham 

The Shiawassee Street Bridge is an earth-filled concrete arch bridge, 
5** feet wide and 536 feet long. It crosses the Grand River and a New 
York Central Railroad line, now abandoned, and has a total of nine spans 
Proceeding west to east, there are three main spans, each 92 feet long, 
over the Grand River, then two smaller spans, approximately 60 feet in 
length, all concrete. There is an 80 foot steel girder span over the 
railroad right-of-way, then three additional reinforced concrete spans. 
It was built by the Koss Construction Company of Des Moines, Iowa under 
the supervisions of two different City Engineers, Wesley Bintz and Otto 
Eckert. 
[MS IAS] 



219 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



ADDITIONAL ARCHED BRIDGES 



EASTERN MICHIGAN AVENUE BRIDGE (1912) 
Eastern Michigan Ave., over Huron River 
Yps i lanti 



Ypsilanti East 

17.284500.4679630 

Washtenaw 



EMMETT STREET BRIDGE (1919) 

E. Emmett St., over Battle Creek River 

Battle Creek 



Battle Creek 
16.652220.4687900 
Cal houn 



FACTORY STREET BRIDGE (1909) 
Factory St., over Huron River 
Ypsi lant i 



Ypsilanti East 

17.284800.4678900 

Washtenaw 



GULL ROAD BRIDGE (1911) 

Gull Rd., over Kalamazoo River 

Kalamazoo 



Kalamazoo 

16.617700.4683740 

Kalamazoo 



HURON PORTLAND CEMENT BRIDGE (1908) 
Detroit and Mackinac RR, over Ford Rd, 
Alpena 



Al pena 

17.310690.4993800 
Al pena 



LEF0RGE STREET BRIDGE (1920) 
LeForge St., over Huron River 
Ypsi lanti 



Denton 

17.483710.4681280 

Washtenaw 



MAIN STREET BRIDGE ( 1 91 8) 

S. Main St. (M-86) , over St. Joseph River 

Three Rivers 



Three Rivers West 
16.613410.4644150 
St. Joseph 



MEMORIAL BRIDGE (1927) 

E. Michigan Ave., over Kalamazoo River 

Kalamazoo 



Kalamazoo 

16.617715.4683270 

Kalamazoo 



220 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



MERIDIAN ROAD BRIDGE (c.1920) 
Meridian Rd. , over Teed Drain 
Sanford 



Sanford 

16.710350.4838710 

Midland 



MERRICK STREET BRIDGE (1926) 
Merrick St., over Raisin River 
Adrian 



Adrian 

16. 744985. 4642080 

Lenawee 



MONROE STREET BRIDGE (1927) 

Monroe St. (M-125) , over Raisin River 

Mon roe 



Mon roe 

17.301240.4643160 
Mon roe 



PERE MARQUETTE ROAD [NORTH] BRIDGE (c.1920) 
Pere Marquette Rd. , over Pere Marquette River 
Ludington 



Ludington 

16.546080.4864035 

Mason 



PERE MARQUETTE ROAD [SOUTH] BRIDGE (c.1920) 
Pere Marquette Rd., over Pere Marquette River 
Ludington 



Ludington 

16.546080.4863083 

Mason 



SAGINAW STREET BRIDGE (1923) 
Saginaw St. (M-52) , over Bad River 
St. Charles 



St. Charles 

16. 731760. 4797700 

Saginaw 



SOUTH MILLS STREET BRIDGE (1912) 
S. Mills St., over Kalamazoo River 
Kalamazoo 



Kalamazoo 

16.618165.4681000 

Kalamazoo 



STATE REWARD BRIDGE (1924) 

Mosel Ave., over Kalamazoo River 

Parchment 



Kalamazoo 

16.617600.4685835 

Kalamazoo 



STATE REWARD BRIDGE NUMBER 53 (1920) 
Twelve Mile Rd. , over Kalamazoo River 
Ceresco 



Ceresco 

16.659930.4681330 

Calhoun 



221 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: ARCHED 



STURGEON RIVER STREET BRIDGE (1924) Wolverine 

Sturgeon River St., over Indian River 16. 686087- 50310^3 

Indian River Cheboygan 



TELEGRAPH ROAD BRIDGE (1925) Monroe 

Telegraph Rd. (US-24) , over Raisin River 17.299780.4643870 

Mon roe Mon roe 



WEST CROSS STREET BRIDGE (1910) Ypsilanti East 

W. Cross St., over Huron River 17.284500.4680160 

Ypsilanti Washtenaw 



WEST MITCHELL STREET BRIDGE (1930) Petoskey 

W. Mitchell St. (US-31), over Bear River 16. 659080. 5026033 

Petoskey Emmet 



222 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



ADA [BRADFORD] COVERED BRIDGE (c.l867) Lowell 

Over Thomapple River 16. 623525. ^756375 

Ada Kent 

In 1867, Ada Township was authorized by the State Legislature to borrow 
up to $3,000 for the construction or repair of bridges. The bridge was 
probably constructed in 1 867 by William Holmes, a local carpenter-bridge 
contractor. The original wooden piles were replaced with concrete ones 
in 1913, while the roof and sides were replaced in 19^1 when the county 
decided to preserve the bridge. The lattice work was probably originally 
tied together with wooden pegs, which were later replaced with iron bolts 
It is a single-span Howe truss, 125 feet long, 1*» feet wide, and 15 feet 
high, resting on concrete abutments. It has been closed to vehicular 
traffic since 1930 and now serves as a pedestrian route to a public park. 
[Nell 1st, Darwin, "The Covered Bridge at Ada," Kent County Road Commis- 
sion Report, March 18, 1957; NR] 



AA RW: RAISIN RIVER BRIDGE (1922) Dundee 

Across Raisin River, east of Dundee 1 7- 280055. 46*»7080 

Dundee Monroe 

This bridge, which is 12 feet wide and 250 feet long, consists of four 
spans. There is a steel girder span, 30 feet long, then a steel Warren 
truss with a length of 120 feet, followed by two 50 foot steel girder 
spans, with all spans resting on concrete piers and abutments. The 
bridge was built in 1922 by the American Bridge Company. 



BRIDGE STREET BRIDGE (1890) Portland 

Bridge St., over Grand River 16. 671225. W8225 

Portland Ionia 

This bridge consists of two steel and wrought iron Pratt trusses resting 
on concrete abutments and a single concrete pier. It is 205 feet long 
and 2k feet wide. It was erected in 1890 by the Croton Bridge and Manu- 
facturing Company of Croton, New York. 
[MSIAS] 



223 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



CHARLOTTE HIGHWAY BRIDGE (1886) Portland 

Charlotte Hwy., over Grand River 1 6.6721 00.^7^2190 

Danby Township Ionia 

The Charlotte Highway Bridge is a single-span all-steel double-inter- 
section Pratt truss, 177 feet long, 19 feet wide, resting on finished 
ashlar abutments. It was erected in 1886 by the Buckeye Bridge Works 
of Cleveland, Ohio. H.P. Hepburn was the Engineer and Contractor. 
[MS IAS] 



C & WM RR: MUSKEGON RIVER BRIDGE (1888,1907) Fremont 

Chesapeake and Ohio RR, over Muskegon River 16.59701 7. 4808025 

Newaygo Newaygo 

The Grand Rapids, Newaygo, and Lake Shore Railroad reached Newaygo in 
1872, but did not bridge the Muskegon River until 1875- This line merged 
with the Chicago and West Michigan Railroad in 1881 and the original 
wooden trestle was replaced with a steel bridge in 1888. The southern- 
most span was removed in 1907 and replaced with a through-plate girder 
span built by the American Bridge Company of New York. Overall, the 
bridge consists of seven spans, all resting on concrete piers and abut- 
ments, and is 515 feet long. Proceeding from south to north, there is 
a single through-plate girder span 35 feet long; three steel deck girder 
spans, each 60 feet long; two riveted steel Warren deck truss spans, 
each 100 feet long; and a steel deck girder span 100 feet long. 



D, L S NM RR: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1904) Portland 

One mile west of M-100, over Grand River 16.684305.4736175 

Grand Ledge Eaton 

This is a five-span bridge, 10 feet wide and 466 feet long, resting on 
stone piers and abutments. It consists of two short steel girder ap- 
proach spans, one 55 feet long and the other 51 feet in length and three 
steel deck Pratt truss spans, each 120 feet in length and 20 feet high. 
The deck truss spans are supported by four steel towers, each 20 feet 
high, which in turn rest on finished ashlar piers. The roadbed is 
approximately 50 feet above the water surface. 



224 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 




C S WM RR: Muskegon River Bridge (1888,1907), Newaygo 



D & TSL RR: RAISIN RIVER BRIDGE (c. 1910) 
Across Raisin River, east of Winchester St. 
Mon roe 



Mon roe 

17.302580.4642560 
Mon roe 



This railroad bridge, which is 2k feet wide and measures 420 feet long, 
consists of a single steel through-plate girder span, 50 feet long, and 
three steel through Warren truss spans, two of 120 feet and one which 
is 130 feet long. All four spans rest on concrete piers and abutments. 



225 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



FALLASBURG COVERED BRIDGE (I87D Lowell 

Covered Bridge Rd. , across Flat River 1 6.636500.4759650 

Vergennes Township Kent 

This is the fifth bridge at this site. The previous four ( 1 839 , 1844, 
1849, and i860) were all destroyed by ice jams which swept away their 
center piers. This single-span bridge was erected in 1871 by Jared 
Bresee of Ada at a cost of $1,500. It is a Howe truss, 100 feet long, 
14 feet wide, and 12 feet high, with a gabled roof. It is built of 
white pine, with 10 inch by 4 inch floor beams and 4 inch by 6 inch 
stringers. The concrete abutments were added in 19^5 and in 1945, the 
original wooden pegs which tied together the lattice work were replaced 
by steel rods. 
[MHD, Site Files; NR] 



FIFTH STREET BRIDGE (I89D Niles West 

N. 5th St., over Penn Central Railroad 16.562000.4631700 

Niles Berrien 

When erected in I89I, this bridge carried North Fifth Street over the 
Michigan Central Railroad lines just west of the Michigan Central Rail- 
road passenger depot. It is 1 78 feet long and 23 feet wide, consisting 
of three spans resting on cut stone abutments and supported by steel 
I-beams. The two approach spans, each 24 feet long, are simple steel 
girder spans, while the main span, 130 feet long, is an all-steel Pratt 
truss. 
[MSIAS] 



FIFTY-SEVENTH STREET BRIDGE (1890) Fennville 

57th St., over Kalamazoo River 16.573025.4742025 

New Richmond Allegan 

The Fifty-Seventh Street Bridge is an excellent example of late nineteenth- 
century steel bridge construction. It is 429 feet long and 12 feet wide, 
and consists of four spans, each a Warren truss of steel and wrought iron. 
[MSIAS] 



226 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



FORT STREET BRIDGE (1906) Bridgeport 

Fort St., over Cass River 1 7. 266420. 4804400 

Bridgeport Saginaw 

This bridge consists of two Pratt trusses resting on concrete abutments, 
It is 15 feet wide, 260 feet long, and was built by the Jol iet Bridge 
and Iron Company of Jol iet, Illinois. It is now used for pedestrian 
traffic only. An earlier bridge at this location probably gave Bridge- 
port its name. 
[MS IAS] 



GALESBURG BRIDGE (1903) Galesburg 

Over Kalamazoo River 1 6.630140.4681 1 70 

Galesburg Kalamazoo 

This bridge, erected by the Illinois Bridge Company of Chicago, Illinois 
in 1903, is 210 feet long and 20 feet wide, with an asphalt road surface 
It consists of two steel Pratt trusses, each 105 feet long, with cast 
iron vertical compression members, wrought iron diagonal tension members , 
and a wrought iron railing. This bridge has been closed to traffic for 
about ten years. 



GR & I LINE: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1892) Grand Rapids West 

Over Grand River, south of Pearl St. 16. 608030. 4757530 

Grand Rapids Kent 

The Grand Rapids and Indiana Line erected this bridge in 1 892 to replace 
an earlier structure destroyed by a flood. It i s 24 feet wide and 575 
feet long, and rests on finished ashlar piers and abutments. It consists 
of five spans. The westernmost span is a simple steel I-beam span, 125 
feet in length. The remaining four spans are steel Pratt trusses. The 
easternmost span is 120 feet long, while the remaining three spans are 
all 110 feet in length. 



JACKSON STREET BRIDGE (1 881,1 895) Lowell 

Jackson St., over Grand River 16.636150.4754025 

Lowell Kent 

The Jackson Street Bridge consists of three steel and wrought iron Pratt 

trusses, resting on concrete piers and abutments, and is 17 feet wide and 



227 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



291 feet long. The north span was erected in 1881 by the King Iron 
Bridge Company of Cleveland, Ohio, while the middle and south spans 
were built in 1 895 by the Wrought Iron Bridge Company of Canton, Ohio. 
[MSIAS] 



LANGLEY COVERED BRIDGE (1 887) Three Rivers East 

Covered Bridge Rd. , over St. Joseph River 16.621940.4647000 

Nottawa Township St. Joseph 

This is the longest surviving covered bridge in Michigan. It was con- 
structed of white pine by Pierce Bodner of Parkville in I887. It is 
20 feet wide and 282 feet long and consists of three identical Howe 
trusses utilizing six inch square white pine timbers for trussing. The 
bridge had to be raised eight feet in 1910 when the Sturgis Dam was 
built a mile downstream, creating Sturgis Lake. It underwent extensive 
repairs in 1950-1951, when four steel I-beams, each 40 feet long and 
three feet high, were inserted under the bridge for support. They rest 
on concrete piers. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



MC RR: CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE (I89D Dearborn 
Southern Rd. at Miller St. 17.321960.4687070 

Detroit Wayne 

The Detroit Chesapeake and Ohio Bridge is a steel subdivided Warren 
truss bridge which carries the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad tracks over 
the Penn Central Railroad tracks. It has an overall length of 233 feet 
and is a three-span bridge with two piers of reinforced steel and con- 
crete. It was built in 1891 and designed by Charles Jaeger. 
[Penn Central List, p. 1] 



MC RR: ROUGE RIVER BRIDGE (I898) Rockford 

Across Rouge River 16.617030.4776300 

Rockford Kent 

This bridge, built by the Detroit Bridge and Iron Company, is a single- 
span steel through Pratt truss, 134 feet long, resting on cut stone 
abutments. Both the line and the Rouge River are curved at this site 
and the designers compensated by offsetting the end posts approximately 
10 feet. 
[Penn Central List , p. 33] 

228 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 




% ' '--jr 



D, L S NM RR: Grand River Bridge ( 1 904) , Grand Ledge 



229 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



MC RR: ST. JOSEPH RIVER BRIDGE (1900) Niles West 

Over St. Joseph River and Front St. 16. 561480. 4635550 

Niles Berrien 

This bridge was built in 1900 by the Detroit Bridge and Iron Works to 
carry the Michigan Central Railroad over Front Street and the St. Joseph 
River. It is 43 feet wide and 475 feet long, and consists of two dis- 
tinct portions. The eastern section, over Front Street, is a single- 
span, simple beam bridge, consisting of three parallel steel I-beams, 
each 75 feet long and three feet high. The western portion, over the 
St. Joseph River, is a three-span Baltimore deck truss bridge resting 
on concrete piers. 
[MSIAS] 



NYC RR: RAISIN RIVER BRIDGE (1907) Blissfield 

Penn Central Railroad, across Raisin River 17.260065.4635060 

Blissfield Lenawee 

This is a single-span steel Baltimore through truss bridge, 18 feet wide 
and 150 feet long, resting on finished ashlar abutments. It was erected 
in 1907 by the American Bridge Company of New York. 

NYC RR: RAISIN RIVER BRIDGE (1910) Monroe 

Across Raisin River, east of Winchester St. 17-302550.4642600 

Mon roe Mon roe 

This bridge consists of three pin-connected steel Baltimore through truss 
spans, resting on concrete piers and abutments. It is 15 feet wide and 
353 feet long. Each span is of equal length. 
[Penn Central List, p. 17] 



NORTH PARK STREET BRIDGE (1904) Cedar Springs S.W. 

N. Park St., over Grand River 1 6. 609080. 4764000 

Grand Rapids Kent 

The North Park Street Bridge is 21 feet wide and 580 feet long and con- 
sists of five steel Pratt trusses, each 116 feet long, resting on con- 
crete piers and abutments. It was erected by the New Jersey Bridge Com- 
pany of Manasquan, New Jersey at a cost of $31,306. It was designed by 
L.W. Anderson. 
[ MSIAS ] 

230 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



PM RR: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1899) Portland 

Over Grand River, north of Grand River Ave. 16. 671 375-4748590 

Portland Ionia 

The concrete pier and abutments on which this bridge rests were built 

in 1880 for an earlier bridge, but the extant bridge was built in 1899 
by the Detroit Bridge and Iron Company. It consists of two steel Pratt 

trusses, each 15 feet wide and 165 feet long. The rails rest on eight 
inch square oak crossmembers. 



PM RR: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1904) Lowell 

Over Grand River, west of S. Jackson St. 16.635900.4754025 

Lowel 1 Kent 

This two-span bridge consists of two steel Pratt trusses, each 15 feet 
wide and 165 feet long, resting on concrete abutments and a single con- 
crete pier. It was erected by the American Bridge Company of New York 
in 1904. 



PM RR: RAISIN RIVER BRIDGE (1896,1911) Monroe 

Across Raisin River, west of Roessler St. 17.299980.4643420 

Mon roe Mon roe 

This bridge consists of two steel Warren trusses resting on a single 

concrete pier and finished ashlar abutments. It is 30 feet wide and 
330 feet long. The substructure dates from I896, while the superstruc- 
ture was erected in 1911. 



PORTLAND AND DANBY BRIDGE (1907) Portland 

Kent St., over Grand River 16.670550.4746725 

South Portlandvi 1 le Ionia 

The Portland and Danby Bridge is an all-steel single-span bridge, 224 
feet long and 18 feet wide, resting on concrete abutments. The contrac- 
tors were Wynthrop and McCormley. This is the longest single-span truss 
bridge in Michigan. It is a through Parker or curved Chord truss. 
[MS IAS] 



231 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



RIVER STREET BRIDGE (1924) Lansing South 

River St., over Grand River 16.700860.4732950 

Lansing Ingham 

The River Street Bridge consists of two steel Parker trusses resting on 
concrete abutments and a single concrete pier. It is 224 feet in length 
and 35 feet wide, including two five foot sidewalks. It was erected in 
1924 by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Company of North Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin. 



SCOTTSDALE ROAD [US-31] BRIDGE (1896,1928) Benton Harbor 

Scottsdale Rd. , over St. Joseph River 16.546460.4655616 

Benton Township Berrien 

This bridge, measuring 350 feet long and 30 feet wide, consists of four 
distinct spans, all resting on concrete piers and abutments. The two 
southernmost portions, built in I896, are steel Pratt through trusses. 
The largest of the two is approximately 175 feet long, the smallest 
about 75 feet in length. The remaining two spans of the bridge, ori- 
ginally trusses, were replaced in 1928 by reinforced concrete girders. 
[MS I AS] 



SIXTH STREET BRIDGE (1886) Grand Rapids West 

6th St., over Grand River 16. 6081 30.4758870 

Grand Rapids Kent 

In 1884 the Grand Rapids Common Council appropriated $6,000 towards the 
construction of a new bridge across the Grand River at Sixth Street. 
This bridge, linking the industrial west side of the city with the major 
commercial and residential districts, was begun in 1 885 and completed 
the following year. The piers and abutments were constructed at a cost 
of $11,084.95. The superstructure, erected by the Massillon Bridge Com- 
pany of Massillon, Ohio, cost $21,281 and was put in place in 1886. The 
bridge originally consisted of four steel and wrought iron Pratt trusses, 
each 151 feet 9 and one-half inches long and 20 feet 6 inches wide, 
resting on stone piers. The westernmost span was shortened to one-third 
of its original length when the Grand River was constricted in 1921 by 
the construction of a concrete retaining wall on its west bank. This is 
the oldest surviving bridge across the Grand River at Grand Rapids and 
is the oldest surviving truss bridge of its size in Michigan. 
[ MS I AS ; Baxter, Albert, History of the_ City of Grand Rapids , p. 547; 
An Historic Tour of K ent County ,~TGrand Rapids, 1975) , p. 52; NR] 

232 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 




Sixth Street Bridge (1886), Grand Rapids 



SMITH'S CROSSING ROAD BRIDGE (1907) 

Smith's Crossing Rd. , over Ti ttabawassee River 

Mapleton 



Midland South 

16.727190.^827130 

Midland 



The Smith's Crossing Road Bridge was built in 1907 by the Jol iet Bridge 
and Iron Company of Joilet, Illinois under the supervision of J.C. Rei- 
fenberg, Engineer. It consists of two through Pratt truss spans, each 
15 feet wide and 150 feet long, resting on a concrete pier and concrete 
abutments. 



233 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



SMITHVILLE ROAD BRIDGE (1897) 
Smithville Rd., across Grand River 
Haml in Township 



Springport 

16.69^070.^707025 

Eaton 



The Smithville Road Bridge consists of two steel and wrought iron Warren 
trusses resting on concrete abutments and a single concrete pier. It is 
15 feet wide and 160 feet long and was built by the R.D. Wheaton Bridge 
Company of Chicago in 1 897 - 









' r* 



&:>$& 




State Street Bridge (1910), Saginaw Township 



23^ 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 

STATE STREET BRIDGE (1910) St. Charles 

State St., over Ti ttabawassee River 16. 738020. 480831 

Saginaw Township Saginaw 

The State Street Bridge, built in 1910 by the Saginaw Bridge Company 
of Saginaw, consists of two through Pratt truss spans, each 150 feet 
long and 18 feet wide, resting on concrete abutments and a single con- 
crete pier. 



T, AA S NM RR: MANISTEE RIVER BRIDGE (1902) Mesick 

Ann Arbor Railway, across Manistee River 16. 600095. ^91 8000 

Mesick Wexford 

This bridge was constructed for the Toledo, Ann Arbor, and Northern 
Michigan Railroad in 1902. It is a three-span bridge 10 feet wide and 
237 feet long, resting on concrete piers and abutments. The two ap- 
proach spans, each 60 feet long, are deck plate girders seven feet high 
while the main span, 116 feet long, is a riveted Warren deck truss of 
steel . 

[Wheeler, John, History of Wexford County , Michigan (Chicago, 1903), 
pp. 263-265] 



WASHINGTON ROAD BRIDGE (1906) Hubbardston 

Washington Rd. , over Fish Creek 16.675560.4773000 

Hubbardston Ionia 

The Washington Road Bridge was erected by the Joilet Bridge and Iron 
Company of Joliet, Illinois in 1906, under the supervision of S. Page 

Borden. It is a single-span steel and wrought iron through Camelback 

truss, 100 feet long and 20 feet wide, and rests on concrete abutments. 
[MS IAS] 



235 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 




fillip il I <« 



Washington Road Bridge (1906), Hubbardston 



WHITE'S COVERED BRIDGE (c. 1867) 
Over Flat River, southwest of Smyrna 
Keene Township 



Smyrna 

16. 638710. 4763615 

Ionia 



This covered bridge was constructed by Jared N. Bresee and J.N. Walker 

around 1867 for approximately $2,000. It is a single-span Howe truss, 

119 feet long and 18 feet wide, with a gabled roof, and it rests on 

finished ashlar abutments. It is one of only four covered bridges 
extant in Michigan. 
[MS I AS; NR] 



236 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 




White's Covered Bridge (c.l867), Keene Township 



237 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



ADDITIONAL TRUSSED BRIDGES 



ANGEDEVINE ROAD BRIDGE (1912) 
Angedevine Rd. , over St. Joseph River 
Centrevi 1 le 



Three Rivers East 
16.623650.4644779 
St. Joseph 



APPLEGATE ROAD BRIDGE (1910) 
Applegate Rd. , over Black River 
Applegate 



Applegate 
17.3663^0.4801350 
Sani lac 



BAMFIELD ROAD BRIDGE (1910,1 9^7) 

Bamfield Rd., over Au Sable River 
Curtis Township 



Not Mapped 
Alcona 



BLACK RIVER BRIDGE (0I89O) 
Paw Paw Drive, over Black River 
Holland 



Holland 

16. 577090. 4738080 

Ottawa 



BUNDY ROAD BRIDGE (1906) 
Bundy Rd. , over Paw Paw River 
Hagar Township 



Coloma 

16.554340.4671750 

Berrien 



BURT ROAD BRIDGE ( 1 885) 
Burt Rd., over Flint River 
Morsevi 1 le 



Bi rch Run South 

17.267080.4790860 

Saginaw 



BUTTON ROAD BRIDGE (l88l) 
Button Rd. , over Flat River 
Smyrna 



Smyrna 

16.642150.4768600 
Ion ia 



CENTRAL STREET BRIDGE (1899) 
Central St., across Huron River 
Dexter 



Dexter 

17.262780.4691460 

Washtenaw 



238 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



CHESSMAN ROAD BRIDGE (1886) 
Chessman Rd. , over Pine River 
St. Louis 



Alma 

1 6.639005. 4807087 

Gratiot 



COMFORT ROAD BRIDGE (c.l890) 
Comfort Rd. , over Raisin River 
Tecumseh 



Blissfield 
17.257020.4653040 

Lenawee 



COSTER ROAD BRIDGE (I896) 
Coster Rd. , over Manistee River 
Springfield Township 



Fife Lake 
16.637000.4931075 
Kal kaska 



CR0T0N ROAD BRIDGE (1925) 

Croton Rd. , over Chesapeake and Ohio RR 

Newaygo 



Fremont 

16.597017.4808025 

Newaygo 



CURRIE PARKWAY BRIDGE (c.1890) 

Currie Parkway, over Ti ttabawassee River 

Midland 



Sanford 

16.721660.4832755 

Midland 



DAVIS BRIDGE (1904) 

Holtom Rd. , over St. Joseph River 

Three Rivers 



Three Rivers East 
16.618560.4646680 
St. Joseph 



EAST DELHI ROAD BRIDGE (c.1890) 
E. Delhi Rd., over Huron River 
Delhi 



Ann Arbor West 

17.268555.4690440 

Washtenaw 



ELM VALLEY ROAD BRIDGE (c. 1910) 
Elm Valley Rd., over Gal i en River 
Three Oaks 



New Buffalo East 

16.528610.4630520 

Berrien 



F DRIVE BRIDGE (c.l890) 

F Drive, over Kalamazoo River 

Emmett Township 



Ceresco 

16.655300.4683490 

Calhoun 



239 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



FREELAND ROAD BRIDGE (c.1900) 
Freeland Rd. , over Tl ttabawassee River 
Free land 



Midland South 

16.732320.4822900 

Saginaw 



GEDDES ROAD BRIDGE (1893,1914) 
Geddes Rd. , over Huron River 
Ann Arbor 



Ann Arbor East 

17-277160.4683715 

Washtenaw 



GLENGARY BRIDGE (1905) 

Eugene St., over Manistee River 

Glengary 



Mes ick 

16.601093.4919025 

Wexford 



INGELLS ROAD BRIDGE (1894) 
Ingells Rd. , over Flat River 
Smyrna 



Smyrna 

16.642400.4767950 

Ionia 



KING ROAD BRIDGE ( 1 897) 
King Rd. , over Nottawa Creek 
Leon i das 



Leon idas 

16.633700.4652975 
St. Joseph 



LAPEER STREET BRIDGE (1906) 
Lapeer St., over Flint River 
Col umbiavi 1 le 



Columbiavi 1 le 

17.304220.4781140 

Lapeer 



LINCOLN AVENUE BRIDGE (1900) 
Lincoln Ave., over Cheboygan River 
Cheboygan 



Cheboygan 

16.696033.5056025 

Cheboygan 



MAPLE ROAD BRIDGE (c.l890) 
Maple Rd. , over Huron River 
Delhi 



Ann Arbor West 

17.271060.4688500 

Washtenaw 



MI0 ROAD BRIDGE (1928) 

Mio Rd. (M-33) , over Au Sable River 

Mio 



Not Mapped 
Oscoda 



240 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



NICKEL PLATE ROAD BRIDGE ( 1 898) 
Nickel Plate Rd. , over Maple River 
Lyons Township 



Hubbardston 
16.674180.4766430 



NINTH STREET BRIDGE (c.1900) 
9th St., over Gun Creek 
Gun Plain 



Otsego 

16.612820.4703150 
Al legan 



NIVER ROAD BRIDGE (I889) 

Niver Rd. , across Shiawassee River 

Chesaning Township 



Chesaning 

16.736250.4780500 

Saginaw 



NOTTAWA ROAD BRIDGE (1900) 
Nottawa Rd. , over St. Joseph River 
Mendon 



Leon i das 

16.627400.4651100 
St. Joseph 



OLD BLACK BRIDGE (1907) 
Dehmel Rd. , over Cass River 
Frankenmuth 



Bi rch Run North 

17.276435.4800730 

Saginaw 



133RD STREET BRIDGE (c.l890) 
133rd St., over Rabbit River 
Manl ius 



Fennvi 1 le 

16. 576055. 4741050 

Al legan 



PM RR: CEDAR CREEK BRIDGE (1924) 
Chesapeake and Ohio RR, over Cedar Creek 
North Muskegon 



Twin Lake 

16.561090.4790023 

Muskegon 



PM RR: MUSKEGON RIVER BRIDGE (c. 1910) 
Chesapeake and Ohio RR, over Muskegon River 
Evart 



Evart 

16.640020.4862010 

Osceola 



PM RR: TITTABAWASSEE RIVER BRIDGE (1912) 
Chesapeake and Ohio RR, over Ti ttabawassee River 
Sanford 



Sanford 

16.710520.4838825 

Midland 



241 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



RILEY ROAD BRIDGE (1897) 

Riley Rd. , over St. Joseph River 

Sherwood Township 



Union City 
16.648062.4655087 

Branch 



SAGINAW ROAD BRIDGE (1920,1932) 
Saginaw Rd. , over Ti ttabawassee River 
Sanford 



Sanford 

16.710520.4838825 

Midland 



SECOND STREET BRIDGE (c.l890) 
2nd St., over Gun Creek 
Gun Plain 



Wayl and 

16.615105.4724010 
Al legan 



SEVENTH STREET BRIDGE (1903) 
7th St., over Gun Creek 
Gun Plain 



Kalamazoo N.E. 
16.614080.4703540 
Al legan 



SIXTY-FOURTH STREET BRIDGE (1901) 
64th St., over Paw Paw River 
Hartford 



Hartford 

16.567800.4675225 
Van Buren 



STANCER ROAD BRIDGE (c.1900) 
Stancer Rd. , over Coldwater Creek 
Union 



Union City 

16.656070.4654050 

Branch 



STATE STREET BRIDGE (c.l890) 
State St., over Grand River 
Lesl ie 



Lesl ie 

16.711630.4697460 

Jackson 



ST0UDT ROAD BRIDGE (1905) 
Stoudt Rd. , over Fish Creek 
Matherton 



Hubbardston 

16.675700.4770320 

Ionia 



STUDLEY BRIDGE (1910) 

Arney Rd. , over St. Joseph River 

Sherwood Township 



Union City 

16.645072.4652035 

Branch 



242 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRUSSED 



VISTULA ROAD BRIDGE (1909) Constantine 

Vistula Rd., over White Pigeon Creek 16.606370.4625500 

Mottville St. Joseph 



WEST KNIGHT STREET BRIDGE (1893) Eaton Rapids 

W. Knight St., over Spring Brook 16.692420.4709160 

Eaton Rapids Eaton 



WILLIAMS BRIDGE ( 1 890) Gobies 

26th St., over Kalamazoo River 16. 598070. 4703085 

T rowb r i dge A 1 1 egan 



243 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRESTLES 



CENTER STREET BRIDGE (1908) Adrian 

Center St., over Penn Central RR and Michigan St. 16. 7^6470.^6^2010 

Adrian Lenawee 

The Center Street Bridge is an eight-span timber trestle, 36 feet wide 
and 138 feet long, resting on cut stone abutments and rough-cut treated 
oak beams. The roadbed rests on 15 horizontal main beams, each 6 by 1 2 
inch oak timbers. 
[MSIAS] 



D, T & I RR: WOLF CREEK TRESTLE (1928) Adrian 

Over Wolf Creek, north of Bent Oak St. 16.746060.4643900 

Adrian Lenawee 

The Wolf Creek Trestle carries the Tecumseh Branch of the Detroit, 
Toledo, and I ronton Railroad over Wolf Creek. It is 8 feet wide, 520 
feet long, and rises 30 feet above the low water level of the creek. 
There are six parallel main beams, each 6 by 15 inch oak, supported by 
41 cross beams, each 15 inches square, which rest in turn on rough-cut 
treated oak logs. The trestle is given additional rigidity by a series 
of pin-connected cross supports. 



GTW RR: DUTCH CREEK TRESTLE (c.1900) Bay City 

Grand Trunk Western RR, over Dutch Creek 17.264820.4826780 

Bay City Bay 

This is an eighteen-span timber trestle (c.1900), 12 feet wide and 170 
feet long. It consists of piers constructed of twelve inch diameter 
treated oak timbers, with six timbers supporting a 12 inch by 14 inch 
oak beam on which the eight main beams, each 6 inches by 16 inches, rest 
The main beams in turn support the eight inch square oak crossmembers on 
which the roadbed rests. 



GTW RR: SOUTH CHANNEL TRESTLE (c. 1910) Muskegon 

Over South Channel of Grand River, east of US-31 16. 563025. 4768080 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

This trestle, which carries the Grand Trunk Western Railroad across the 
South Channel of the Grand River north of Grand Haven, is 8 feet wide 



244 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRESTLES 



and 270 feet long. The rails rest on 5 by 6 inch oak crossmembers , 
supported by two parallel beams, each 8 inches by 16 inches, which in 
turn rest on rough-cut treated oak piles one foot in diameter. 



LM RW: GRAND RIVER TRESTLE (1918,1933) Lansing North 

Over Grand River, northwest of N. Logan St. 16.698770.4736640 

Lansing Ingham 

This trestle carrying the Lansing Manufacturers Railway across the Grand 
River is 12 feet wide and 270 feet long, and consists of two parallel 
steel I-beams, each two feet high, resting on piers consisting of seven 
treated oak logs, each approximately five inches in diameter. The steel 
I-beams, which replaced two massive oak timbers, were installed in 1933 
when the trestle was rebuilt. 
[Penn Central List, p. 34] 



MC RR: BEAVER CREEK TRESTLE ( 1 899) St. Charles 

Penn Central RR, across Beaver Creek 16.731750.4799020 

St. Charles Saginaw 

This is a nine-span timber trestle, 12 feet wide and 132 feet long. The 
piles are rough-cut treated oak logs approximately six inches in diameter. 
[Penn Central List, p. 16] 



MC RR: DUTCH CREEK TRESTLE (1890,1917) Bay City 

Penn Central RR, over Dutch Creek 17.263960.4826650 

Bay City Bay 

The Michigan Central Railroad Dutch Creek Trestle is 151 feet long, 12 
feet wide, and consists of ten spans. Beginning at the southern river- 
bank, there are six spans of steel I-beams, each 12 feet long, resting 
on rough-cut treated oak timbers. The main span, 38 feet in length and 
resting on concrete piers, was built in I89O by the Detroit Bridge and 
Iron Company. There are then three additional 12 foot I-beam spans 
resting on oak timbers. These shorter spans were all built in 1917. 
[Penn Central List, p. 18] 



245 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRESTLES 



MC RR: HERSEY RIVER TRESTLE (c.1900) Reed City 

Penn Central RR, over Hersey River 16.619075.4859050 

Reed City Osceola 

This trestle is 12 feet wide, 150 feet long, and has concrete abutments. 
It has twelve sets of five rough-cut treated oak timber supports. The 
two main beams, also of treated oak, are 15 inches square. 



MC RR: ST. JOSEPH RIVER TRESTLE (1928) Niles West 

West of Bond St., south of Main St. 16.561495.4629510 

Niles Berrien 

This trestle carries the Penn Central Railroad across the St. Joseph 
River at Niles. It is 348 feet long and 10 feet wide, and consists of 
two parallel steel I-beams, two feet high, supported by 15 inch square 
oak crossmembers which in turn rest on round oak piers. 
[Penn Central List, p. 36] 



MOORE STREET BRIDGE (1917) Three Rivers West 

Moore St., over Penn Central RR 16. 612960.4644440 

Three Rivers St. Joseph 

The Moore Street Bridge is 214 feet long, 28 feet wide, and rests on cut 
stone abutments. It is supported by five piers consisting of 15 inch 
square treated oak timbers, which support four parallel horizontal beams 
(also treated oak) 12 inch square. The crossmembers supporting the deck 
are 2 inch by 8 inch oak timbers. 
[Penn Central List, p. 24] 



PM RR: CEDAR CREEK TRESTLE (1912) Twin Lake 

Chesapeake and Ohio RR, over Cedar Creek 16. 56IO87. 4790040 

North Muskegon Muskegon 

This trestle was erected in 1912 to replace an earlier bridge washed out 
in a flood. It is 150 feet long and 10 feet wide and consists of two 
parallel 15 inch square oak beams which rest on 2 inch by 6 inch cross- 
members which in turn rest on 6 inch diameter oak piers. 
[ Muskegon Times , May 24, 1912, p. 1] 



246 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: TRESTLES 



PM RR: RABBIT RIVER TRESTLE (1916) 
Over Little Rabbit River, west of M-40 
Hami 1 ton 



Fennvi 1 le 

16. 581080. 4739010 

Al legan 



This trestle was constructed in 1916 to carry the Pere Marquette Railroad 
over the Little Rabbit River. It is 12 feet wide, approximately 300 feet 
long, and approximately 60 feet high. The tracks rest on 8 inch square 
treated oak timber crossmembers , which in turn rest on two parallel 15 
inch square oak beams, supported by treated oak logs, approximately 6 
inches in diameter and 60 to 70 feet in length. The trestle is stabi- 
lized through a complex system of cross supports, all tied to the main 
logs with i ron pins. 







PM RR: Rabbit River Trestle (1916), Hamilton 



247 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



BELINDA STREET BRIDGE (1892) Essexville 

Belinda St., over Saginaw River 1 7. 268040. 4832700 

Bay City Bay 

This swing bridge is 35 feet wide and 628 feet long and consists of three 
major spans, all Pratt trusses, and three short approach spans, all deck 
girder spans. All piers and abutments are cut stone. There are two 
short approach spans, 20 feet and 45 feet long, on the eastern bank of 
the river. Proceeding westerly, there is a main span 141 feet long, the 
swing span of 263 feet in length, another main truss span 141 feet long, 
and then a deck girder span 18 feet long on the west bank. This bridge 
is scheduled for demolition in late July 1976 when it will be replaced 
by a new four lane bridge slightly downstream. 



BRIDGE STREET BRIDGE (1924) Marine City 

Bridge St., over Belle River 17-377430.4729880 

Marine City St. Clair 

This is a single-span, steel swing bridge, 150 feet long and 36 feet 
wide, resting on concrete abutments and a single concrete pier. This 
manually-operated bridge is scheduled for replacement in 1 977 - 



C & RR: BLACK RIVER DRAWBRIDGE (1930) Port Huron 

Over Black River, at St. Clair River 17-384170.4758650 

Port Huron St. Clair 

This rolling lift bascule bridge was constructed in 1930 by the American 
Bridge Company for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. It consists of a 
bascule span, 173 feet long and 18 feet wide, and a through-plate girder 
span 61 feet in length, both resting on concrete piers and abutments. 



D & M RR: SAGINAW RIVER BRIDGE (1892) Essexville 

Detroit and Mackinac RR, over Saginaw River 17.269440.4832640 

Essexville Bay 

The Detroit and Mackinac Railroad was the last major line built in 
Northern Michigan, although the line never actually reached either 
Detroit or Mackinac City. It began as a series of lumbering railroads 
around Alpena which were consol i dated in 1 883 as the Detroit, Bay City, 



248 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



and Alpena Railroad. This line went into receivership and was reor- 
ganized in 1895 as the Detroit and Mackinac Railroad Company and by 
September 1 896 its line extended from Bay City to Cheboygan. This 
swing bridge across the Saginaw River, built in I892, is approximately 
7^0 feet long, 15 feet wide, and rests on cut stone piers and abutments 
It is a five-span bridge, with all spans subdivided Pratt trusses of 
steel. Proceeding from south to north, the bridge consists of a single 
through truss span, 120 feet long, a swing span approximately 260 feet 
long, and then three through truss spans, each 120 feet in length. 
[Dunbar, pp. 176-177] 



DIX AVENUE BASCULE BRIDGE (1926) Dearborn 

DixAve., across Rouge River 17-322690.4684735 

Dearborn Wayne 

The substructure of this bridge was built by the Missouri Valley Bridge 
and Iron Company and the superstructure was built by the Wisconsin Bridge 
and Iron Company. This structure is identical to the Fort Street Bascule 
Bridge. Each abutment has a motor and pinion gears below the roadway 
and a two-story control tower. The abutments are 100 feet long, 100 
feet wide, and have common bond stone masonry. The two steel spans are 
each 70 feet long, 65 feet wide with a steel grating roadway 50 feet 
wide. When lowered these two steel spans form an arched Pratt truss. 
This bridge allows Great Lakes ore boats loaded with coal, iron, and 
limestone to supply steel mills and foundries at the Ford Motor Company's 
River Rouge Complex, the largest industrial complex in the world. This 
complex represents every step of Ford manufacturing from the production 
of steel and raw materials to the assembly of cars. 

FORT STREET BASCULE BRIDGE (1922) Dearborn 

Fort St., at Rouge River 1 7. 323350. 4684140 

Detroit Wayne 

The Chicago Bascule Bridge Company built this bascule bridge over the 
Rouge River to allow barge traffic to flow upriver to the Ford Motor 
Company River Rouge Complex. The east and west abutments are identical. 
Each consists of a 50 foot long ramp, with the roadbed supported between 
common bond stone walls, leading up to the 80 foot long and 95 foot wide 
concrete abutment which houses the motor, pinion gear and rack below and 
a two-story control tower on top. Each abutment controls a steel span 
65 feet long and 65 feet wide which has an iron grille deck and a 50 
foot wide roadway with two sets of trolley tracks along the center. 

249 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



GTW RR: BLACK RIVER DRAWBRIDGE (1929) Port Huron 

North of Water St., over Black River 17-382400.4759900 

Port Huron St. Clai r 

This rolling lift bascule bridge was built in 1929 by the Wisconsin 
Bridge and Iron Company for the Grand Trunk Western Railroad. It con- 
sists of two deck girder approach spans, with the draw span in the 
middle. The southernmost span is 80 feet long, the draw span is ap- 
proximately 150 feet in length, and the northernmost span is 100 feet 
long. All spans rest on concrete piers and abutments. The draw span 
features massive concrete counterweights. 



GTW RR: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (c. 1910) Muskegon 

Over Grand River, east of US-31 16.563060.4769025 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

This steel swing bridge carries the Grand Trunk Western Railroad line 
across the Grand River just north of Grand Haven. The swing span is 
approximately 150 feet long and 14 feet wide and consists of two steel 
Warren trusses. The two approach spans, each approximately 150 feet 
long, consist of two parallel steel I-beams resting on concrete piers 
and abutments. 



GTW RR: SPRING LAKE BRIDGE (c. 1910) Muskegon 

Over Spring Lake outlet, north of M-104 16.564005.4769045 

Spring Lake Ottawa 

The Spring Lake Bridge consists of a single steel deck plate girder swing 
span, approximately 125 feet long and 8 feet wide, and two approach tre- 
stles, each approximately 50 feet in length, resting on rough-cut treated 
oak piles one foot in diameter. 



GR0SSE ILE PARKWAY BRIDGE (1930) Wyandotte 

Grosse Me Parkway, over Trenton Channel 17-320280.4666000 

Grosse lie Wayne 

The substructure and concrete deck of this structure was built by the 
A.J. Dupuis Company of Detroit. The west causeway consists of steel 
girders spanning eight concrete piers and a stone retaining wall and 



250 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



is 770 feet long and 25 feet wide. The east causeway, 190 feet long 
and 25 feet wide, consists of steel girders spanning two concrete piers 
and a stone retaining wall. The main span consists of a steel and cast 
iron swing bridge which is a Pratt truss 325 feet long and 25 feet wide 
The bridge carries a two-lane asphalt roadway 15 feet wide. 



GROSSE ILE TOLL BRIDGE (1912-1913) Wyandotte 

Bridge Rd. , over Trenton Channel 1 7. 321410. 4671080 

Grosse lie Wayne 

This bridge consists of five spans, all of which are steel Warren trusses 
with verticals. The center or swing bridge is 295 feet long and 25 feet 
wide. It is flanked on each side by two more steel spans, each 175 feet 
long and 25 feet wide resting on steel-lined concrete piers at each end 
of each span. The east earth causeway is 1,080 feet long and 30 feet 
wide while the west earth causeway is 350 feet long and 30 feet wide. 
The two-lane asphalt roadway is 20 feet wide. The structural work was 
done by Whitehead and Kales Company of River Rouge, Michigan. 



HURON AVENUE DRAWBRIDGE (191*0 Port Huron 

Huron Ave. (M-25) , over Black River 1 7-383870.^+758870 

Port Huron St. Clair 

The Huron Avenue Drawbridge, built in 191**, is 1 40 feet long and appro- 
ximately 60 feet wide, with a 48 foot roadway and two sidewalks, each 
six feet wide. The two lift spans are each 45 feet long. 
[MS IAS] 



JEFFERSON AVENUE BASCULE BRIDGE (1922) Dearborn 

Jefferson Ave., across Rouge River 1 7- 324475. 4682940 

River Rouge Wayne 

The substructure of this drawbridge-type structure was built by the 
Missouri Valley Bridge and Iron Company while the superstructure was 
built by the Stroebel Steel Construction Company. A 45 foot long con- 
crete-lined ramp leads up to the east abutment while a similar 90 foot 
ramp leads up to the west abutment. Each abutment is 65 feet long, 90 
feet wide, has the motor and pinion gears below the roadway, a two-story 
control tower, and a common bond stone masonry. The two steel spans are 
65 feet wide, 80 feet long with a steel grating roadway 40 feet wide. 



251 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



When lowered these two spans form a Pratt truss with curved upper chord 
members. This bridge is built on the site of an old wooden bascule 
bridge, built in 1882, which had twin drawbridges raised by ropes and 
winches. The original bridge is no longer standing. The bridge allows 
Great Lakes ore boats to supply steel and auto plants at Ford's River 
Rouge Complex. 



JOHNSON STREET BRIDGE (1912) Saginaw 

Johnson St., over Saginaw River 17.262000.4813240 

Saginaw Saginaw 

The Johnson Street Bridge was constructed in 1912 at a cost of $85,000. 
It is 48 feet wide, 648 feet long, and consists of five deck girder 
spans and one Scherzer lift span, all resting on concrete piers and 
abutments. From east to west, there is a deck girder span 116 feet long; 
the lift span, which is 130 feet long; and four additional deck girder 
spans of 112, 100, 96, and 84 feet in length. 
[Mills, James C, History of Saginaw County (Saginaw, 1918), p. 246] 

MC RR: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1914) Grand Rapids West 

Over Grand River, south of Wealthy St. 16. 607140. 4756270 

Grand Rapids Kent 

This swing bridge was erected to carry the Michigan Central Railroad 
over Market Street and the Grand River. The builder was the Toledo 
Bridge and Crane Company of Toledo, Ohio. It is a simple steel girder 
bridge, 12 feet wide and approximately 680 feet long. It consists of 
two parallel steel girders, eight feet high, with six inch steel I-beams 
as crossmembers supporting the roadbed. There are four spans resting on 
concrete piers and abutments. Proceeding from east to west, the first 
span (crossing Market Street and extending over the Grand River) is 200 
feet long, the next span is 100 feet long, the swing span in 200 feet 
long, and finally, the westernmost span is 180 feet in length. The 
swing span is no longer moveable and the line itself has been abandoned 
for at least a decade. 



252 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



MC RR: ROUGE RIVER BASCULE BRIDGE (1920) 

Over Rouge River, between 1-75 and Jefferson Ave. 

River Rouge 



Dearborn 

17.323900.^683160 

Wayne 



The Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Company built this steel bridge which 
carries two sets of tracks across the Rouge River between Detroit and 
River Rouge. The east abutment is concrete, 25 feet long and 30 feet 
wide, leading to a girder span 50 feet long and 30 feet wide which sup- 
ports a half A-frame with two concrete slab counterweights. The con- 
crete west abutment is 50 feet long and 30 feet wide. The main span, 
which is a steel and cast iron Warren truss with verticals and a wooden 
deck, is 135 feet long and 30 feet wide. 




,,-** 



MC RR: Rouge River Bascule Bridge (1920), River Rouge 



253 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



MC RR: SAGINAW RIVER BRIDGE (191*0 
Penn Central RR, over Saginaw River 
Saginaw 



Saginaw 
17.261680.^*812200 

Saginaw 



The Michigan Central Railroad Saginaw River Bridge (191*0 is 551 feet 
long, 12 feet wide, and consists of seven spans, all resting on concrete 
piers and abutments. Proceeding from east to west, it consists of three 
deck girder spans, of 30, 36, and 30 feet in length; a through truss 
(Baltimore truss) swing span, 226 feet long; a fixed Baltimore through 
truss, 138 feet long; and two deck girder spans, *»0 and hi feet long. 
[Penn Central List, p. 17] 




MC RR: Saginaw River Bridge (191*0, Saginaw 



254 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



MC RR: SAGINAW RIVER BRIDGE (1905,1925) Bay City 

Penn Central RR, over Saginaw River 1 7.266800. ^831 880 

Bay City Bay 

The Saginaw River Bridge of the Michigan Central Railroad replaced an 
earlier swing bridge that had been built in 1873. In April 1905, two 
sets of pile frames were constructed parallel to the old bridge, one 
upstream and one downstream from it. The old bridge was lifted off its 
piers and placed on the downstream piles, where it was later dismantled, 
while the new bridge, which had been resting on the upstream set of piles, 
was placed on the old piers. This operation was accomplished in only six 
hours using barge-mounted cranes. The new bridge is a four-span bridge, 
12 feet wide and 660 feet long, resting on concrete piers and abutments. 
The easternmost span is a through girder, 12 feet in height and 123 feet 
long, fabricated in 1925 by the Bethlehem Steel Company of Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania. Proceeding to the west, the next span is the swing span, 
a through truss 245 feet long, built in 1905. There are then two through 
truss spans, each 1 46 feet long, both built in 1905. All of the truss 
spans are Warren trusses. 

[Penn Central List , p. 25; Gansser, Augustus H., History of Bay County , 
Michigan (Chicago, 1905), p. 235] 

MORRISON CHANNEL BRIDGE (1911) Benton Harbor 

Wayne St., over Morrison Channel 16.543400.4661900 

St. Joseph Berrien 

This swing bridge over the Morrison Channel replaced an earlier wooden 
bridge erected on the same site. This bridge connects the "twin cities" 
of St. Joseph and Benton Harbor, passing over a man-made channel cut to 
facilitate the passage of Great Lakes shipping into Benton Harbor. It 
is a single-span, continuous steel Warren truss bridge, 176 feet long 
and 31 feet wide. Originally moved by an electric motor, this bridge no 
longer moves and is scheduled to be demolished when a new bridge appro- 
ximately 300 feet to the west is completed. 
[MSIAS] 



NYC RR: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (c.1900) Grand Rapids West 

Over Grand River 16.604220.4754465 

Wyoming Kent 

This swing bridge across the Grand River was constructed around 1900 by 
the New York Central Railroad. The bridge has a north-south alignment, 

255 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



with the swing span at the south end. At the north end of the bridge, 
there is an approach trestle, 12 feet wide, and approximately 400 feet 
long, which carries the single track over wetlands. It consists of two 
steel beams, two feet in height, supported by rough-cut treated log 
piers, and has a maximum height of eight feet. Proceeding south from 
the trestle, there are three steel Pratt truss spans, 12 feet wide and 
100 feet long, resting on stone piers and abutments. The swing span, 
138 feet long, rests on a round finished ashlar pier. The bridge is 
no longer moveable and this line is no longer used by the Penn Central 
Rai 1 road. 
[Penn Central List, p. 13] 




Morrison Channel Bridge (1911), St. Joseph 
256 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



N & W RR: ROUGE RIVER BASCULE BRIDGE (1921) Dearborn 

Over Rouge River, between 1-75 and Fort St. 17.323560.4683670 

Detroit Wayne 

The American Bridge Company built this steel bascule bridge which is now 
used by the Norfolk and Western Railroad Company, and the Detroit, Toledo, 
and I ronton Railroad. The bridge is 30 feet wide and carries two sets 
of railroad tracks, on a wooden deck across steel stringers, across the 
Rouge River. The main span is a 150 foot long steel Warren truss with 
verticals. The east abutment consists of a 50 foot long steel girder 
spanning the water between a concrete retaining wall and a concrete pier. 
The west abutment is a 70 foot girder spanning the water between a con- 
crete retaining wall and a concrete pier and supports a truss which has 
the rack and counterweight. The counterweight truss is an A-frame type. 
There is also a control house on top of this truss. This bridge allows 
barge traffic to flow upriver to the Ford Motor Company River Rouge 
Complex. 



PM RR: CHARLEVOIX RIVER BRIDGE ( 1904) Bayshore 

Chesapeake and Ohio RR, over Charlevoix River 16.637055-5019030 
Charlevoix Charlevoix 

This swing bridge over the Charlevoix River was built by the American 
Bridge Company of New York for the Pere Marquette Railroad in 1904. The 
main span is a steel Warren truss, 234 feet long and 15 feet wide. It 
is powered by an electric motor, 10 H.P., 220 volts, 60 cycles, operating 
at 1,200 R.P.M., and geared down through seven sets of gears to turn the 
main wheel (23 feet in diameter) 0.357 revolutions per minute. The 
southern approach to the swing span is a timber trestle 425 feet long 
and 10 feet wide. The swing span is identical to the one built for the 
same railroad in St. Joseph (see other entry). 



PM RR: GRAND RIVER BRIDGE (1901,1902,1908,1922) Grand Rapids West 
Over Grand River, north of Wealthy St. 16. 607630.4756810 

Grand Rapids Kent 

This four-span swing bridge is 30 feet wide and 655 feet long, consisting 
of steel Pratt trusses resting on concrete piers and abutments. The two 
westerly spans are 151.5 feet long. The westernmost span was constructed 
in 1922 at the Gary, Indiana plant of the American Bridge Company, while 



257 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



the adjoining span was built in 1901 by the Detroit Bridge and Iron 
Company. The easternmost span, 120 feet long, was fabricated at the 
Toledo, Ohio plant of the American Bridge Company in 1 908 . The swing 
span, 231 feet long, was built at the Detroit plant of the American 
Bridge Company in 1902. Although this span is no longer moveable, the 
original gearing is still in place. 




NSW RR: Rouge River Bascule Bridge (1921), Detroit 



258 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



PM RR: MANISTEE RIVER BRIDGE (1937) Bar Lake 

Chesapeake and Ohio RR, over Manistee River 16. 554045 .4899094 

Manistee Manistee 

This swing bridge consists of two steel deck girder approach spans of 
25 feet and 60 feet, and a steel through-plate girder swing span 250 
feet long, all resting on concrete piers and abutments. The swing span 
is asymmetrical, with the segment extending north from the center pier 
approximately 100 feet long, while the southern segment is about 150 
feet long. 

PM RR: SAGINAW RIVER BRIDGE (1944) Saginaw 

Chesapeake and Ohio RR, over Saginaw River 1 7 - 262220 .481 4000 

Saginaw Saginaw 

This bascule bridge was constructed in 1944 by the American Bridge Com- 
pany. It is approximately 700 feet long, with a bascule span 24 feet 
wide and the remaining spans 15 feet wide, all resting on concrete piers 
and abutments. The bascule span, located at the eastern end of the 
bridge, is a through truss span 160 feet long. Proceeding to the west, 
there are three through truss spans, all 120 feet long, and two steel 
deck girder spans, each 60 feet long. All the through truss spans are 
steel Warren trusses, with verticals. 



PM RR: ST. JOSEPH RIVER BRIDGE (1904,1941) Benton Harbor 

Over St. Joseph River, west of US BR-94 16.542750.4662155 

St. Joseph Berrien 

This swing bridge over the St. Joseph River was built by the American 
Bridge Company of New York for the Pere Marquette Railroad in 1904. The 
main span, a steel Warren truss, is 234 feet long and 15 feet wide. It 
is powered by an electric motor, 10 H.P. , 220 volts, 60 cycles, 1,200 
R.P.M. The motor is geared down through seven sets of gears, so that it 
turns the main wheel (23 feet in diameter) 0.357 revolutions per minute. 
The pier and protective pilings over which the swing span rests when in 
the open position is 280 feet long and 34 feet wide. The northern ap- 
proach span, a steel deck girder span, is 130 feet long. There are two 
southern approach spans, both steel deck girder, 85 feet long and 95 
feet long. The 95 foot approach span was installed in 1941, replacing 
the original steel truss span. 



259 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 




PM RR: St. Joseph River Bridge (1904, 19^1), St. Joseph 



PM RR: WHITE RIVER BRIDGE (l 894, 1904) 
Across White River, east of US BR-31 
Whitehall 



Montague 

16.552055.4806075 

Muskegon 



This railroad bridge across the White River consists of two distinct 
portions. The southern portion consists of three steel girder spans, 
each 50 feet long and 8 feet wide, resting on concrete piers. It was 
built in 1894 by the Detroit Bridge and Ironworks of Detroit, Michigan. 
The northern section is a single swing span, 80 feet long and 8 feet 
wide, consisting of two bowed steel girders, eight feet high in the mid- 
dle and six feet high at the ends. Although this section is no longer 
moveable, it was apparently originally operated manually. This portion 
was constructed by the American Bridge Company of New York in 1904. 



260 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



SHORT-CUT CANAL BASCULE BRIDGE (1923) Detroit 

Over Rouge River, at south end of Zug Island 17.325525.4682600 

River Rouge Wayne 

This highly unusual railroad bascule bridge is operated by a motor driven 
counterweight housed below grade in the concrete north abutment which is 
35 feet long, 15 feet wide, and has a two-story control tower. The main 
span, which is a steel Warren truss with verticals and carries one track 
across the wooden deck, is 135 feet long and 15 feet wide spanning be- 
tween a concrete retaining wall and two concrete piers. The bridge was 
upgraded in 1957 to accomodate heavier hot-bottle railroad cars. The 
bridge originally belonged to the Detroit, Toledo, and I ronton Railroad 
Company. 



SIXTH STREET BRIDGE (1886) Saginaw 

6th St., across Saginaw River 1 7. 263190. 481 5235 

Saginaw Saginaw 

The Sixth Street Bridge was constructed by the Smith Bridge Company of 
Toledo, Ohio in 1886 and originally carried Genesee Avenue across the 
Saginaw River further upstream in downtown Saginaw. It was moved to its 
present site in 1904 when a new bridge was erected for Genesee Avenue. 
It is 30 feet wide, 555 feet long, and rests on cut stone piers and abut- 
ments. There are four distinct sections of this bridge. There are two 
approach trestles extending from both the north and south banks of the 
river, a single fixed Pratt truss span, and the swing span, also a Pratt 
truss. Proceeding from south to north, the approach trestle is 120 feet 
long, the fixed truss span is T50 feet long, the swing span is 1 85 feet 
in length, and the other approach trestle is 100 feet long. 
[Mills, James C, History of Saginaw County (Saginaw, 1918), p. 243] 

THIRD STREET BRIDGE ( 1 889) Bay City 

3rd St., over Saginaw River 1 7. 266600. 4831460 

Bay City Bay 

The Third Street Bridge (I889) is a five-span swing bridge, 39 feet wide 
and 811 feet long, resting on concrete piers and abutments. It was built 
by the Milwaukee Bridge and Iron Works for the Bay County Bridge Commis- 
sion under the direction of H.E. Brawner, Engineer. The swing span is 



261 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



the center span, and is 233 feet long and pivots on a pier that is k5 
feet in diameter. The other four spans, all Pratt trusses, are each 
1^0 feet long. The Third Street Bridge served as a major artery across 
the Saginaw River until the swing span collapsed on June 17, 1976. 
[ Bay City Times , June 18, 1976, p. 1] 




Sixth Street Bridge (1886), Saginaw 



WEST MAIN STREET BRIDGE (1909) 

W. Main St., over St. Joseph River 

Benton Harbor 



Benton Harbor 
16. 5^3695. ^662 130 
Berrien 



This steel bascule bridge was constructed in 1909 at a cost of $60,000 
to replace a wooden bridge which was rotting and in danger of collapse. 



262 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



The costs of construction were shared by the two cities joined by the 
bridge, St. Joseph and Benton Harbor. It has three spans and is 306 
feet long and 31 feet wide. This bridge has not been moveable for 
about fifteen years and is due to be demolished when a new bridge, 
now under construction, is completed. 

[Reber, L. Benjamin, History of St. Joseph (St. Joseph: Morse, n.d.), 
pp. 133-136] 



ZUG ISLAND BASCULE BRIDGE NUMBER 1 ( 1 91 4) Detroit 

Over Rouge River, at north end of Zug Island 1 7. 326160. 4683800 

River Rouge Wayne 

This single-track railroad bridge was built by the Scherzer Rolling Lift 
Bridge Company of Chicago. William Scherzer, Civil Engineer, patented 
this style of bridge in 1 883 . The bridge spans the Rouge River between 
Zug Island and Detroit. The north abutment, 20 feet long and 20 feet 
wide, consists of steel girders spanning between a concrete retaining 
wall and a composite steel and concrete pier. The south abutment, which 
contains the rack and concrete counterweight, is 40 feet long and 20 
feet wide. The main span is 210 feet long and 20 feet wide. The steel 
bridge, which has a wooden deck, is a Warren truss with verticals. 



ZUG ISLAND BASCULE BRIDGE NUMBER 2 ( 1 91 4) Detroit 

Over Rouge River, at north end of Zug Island 1 7. 326085.4633840 

River Rouge Wayne 

This single-track railroad bridge was built by the Pennsylvania Steel 
Company in 1914. The bridge spans the Rouge River between Zug Island 
and Detroit. Today it is being used as a motor vehicle bridge as well 
as a railroad bridge. The north abutment, 25 feet long and 20 feet wide, 
consists of steel girders spanning between a concrete retaining wall and 
a composite steel and concrete pier. The south abutment, which contains 
the rack and concrete counterweight, is 35 feet long and 20 feet wide. 
The main span is 135 feet long and 20 feet wide. The steel bridge, 
which has a steel grating deck, is a Warren truss with verticals. A 
catwalk runs along the side of the bridge. This bridge is identical 
to Zug Island Bascule Bridge Number 1 which was designed by William 
Scherzer, Civil Engineer. 



263 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: MOVEABLE 



ZUG ISLAND SWING BRIDGE (1929) 

Over Rouge River, near Jefferson-White intersection 

River Rouge 



Detroit 

17.325355.4683880 

Wayne 



This single-track railroad bridge, also used by motor vehicles, spans 
the Rouge River between Zug Island and Detroit. The abutments consist 
of steel girders spanning concrete piers and steel sheet pile retaining 
walls. The north abutment is 35 feet long and 15 feet wide. The steel 
and cast iron main span, which is a Warren truss with verticals, is 15 
feet wide, 230 feet long with 125 feet north of the pivot spanning the 
channel while the remaining 105 feet spans the southern portion from the 
off-centered pivot. The bridge originally belonged to the Detroit, To- 
ledo, and I ronton Railroad Company. 




Zug Island Swing Bridge (1929), River Rouge 
26k 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: CANTILEVERED AND SUSPENSION 



AMBASSADOR BRIDGE (1929) Detroit 

Across Detroit River to Windsor, Ontario 17-329050.4686270 

Detroit Wayne 

The Ambassador Bridge linking Detroit and Windsor, Canada was begun in 
May 1927 and completed in November 1929 at a cost of $22.5 million. The 
general contractor was the McCl int ic-Marshal 1 Company of Pittsburgh and 
their chief engineer, Jonathan Jones, designed the bridge and supervised 
its erection. When completed, it was the longest suspension bridge in 
the world, extending a total of 9,602 feet with approaches. The two 
steel towers are 363 feet high and the main span is 1,850 feet long and 
55 feet wide. The original design called for cables consisting of 37 
strands of 206 wires, Number 6, heat-treated and galvanized. The bridge 
was well under construction when it was discovered that there was con- 
siderable breaking of the cable wires in the Mount Hope suspension bridge 
in Rhode Island, where the McCl int ic-Marshal 1 Company was also using 
heat-treated wires. Work on the Ambassador Bridge was suspended on 
March 5, 1929 and it was decided to replace all of the heat-treated wire 
with cold-drawn wire. This was a major endeavor, since the main cables 
were already in place and much of the center span had already been com- 
pleted, including the stiffening trusses. The main span was dismantled 
by lowering the stiffening trusses, floor beams, and suspended steel 
onto barges in the river. The new cables were then erected, and finally, 
the suspended span steel was then replaced. Between September 6 and 
September 27, 1929 about 4,000 tons of structural steel was erected. In 
spite of these modifications, the bridge was opened to traffic nine months 
ahead of its scheduled opening date of August 1930. 

[ Engineering News-Record , Vol. 102, April 14, 1929, pp. 564, 567; Vol. 
103, November 14, 1929, pp. 766-767] 



BLUEWATER BRIDGE (1938) Port Huron 

Across St. Clair River to Sarnia, Ontario 1 7-384000.4761 460 

Port Huron St. Clair 

The Bluewater Bridge linking Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario 
was completed in 1938 at a cost of $4 million, financed jointly by the 
State of Michigan and the Province of Ontario. This steel cantilever 
bridge has a main span of 871 feet, anchor arms 326 feet long, and ap- 
proaches consisting of deck girder spans and two deck truss spans ad- 
joining the anchor arms on both the American and Canadian sides. The 
American approach spans are 2,283 feet in length, while the Canadian 
approach is 2,657 feet long, giving the bridge an overall length of 



265 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: CANTILEVERED AND SUSPENSION 



6,463 feet. It i s 38 feet wide, providing a roadway of 32 feet and two 
sidewalks. Each of the two main piers consists of two caissons 26 feet 
in diameter, with eight foot dredging wells. These were sunk to rock 
95 feet below water level. The main span of the bridge provides clear- 
ance of 150 feet above the heavi ly- traveled St. Clair River. It was 
designed by the firm of Modjeski and Masters and their Canadian assoc- 
iates, the firm of Monsarrat and Pratley. The American Bridge Company 
fabricated and erected the main span, the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Com- 
pany erected the American approaches, and the superstructure for the 
Canadian approach span was built by the Sarnia Bridge Company. 
[ Engineering News-Record , Vol. 121 (1938), pp. 23^-236] 







Bluewater Bridge (1938), Port Huron 
266 



BRIDGES AND TRESTLES: CANTILEVERED AND SUSPENSION 



MACKINAC STRAITS BRIDGE (1958) St. I gnace 

Across Straits of Mackinac 16. 676510. 5076000 

Mackinac City Emmet 

The Straits of Mackinac have long served as a major Great Lakes shipping 
passage, but the five mile wide passage has also kept the two peninsulas 
of Michigan separated. As early as 1920, it was proposed that a tunnel 
be constructed to cross the Straits. Plans to construct a bridge were 
drawn up in 1934 and 1935, but languished during the Depression and World 
War II. The Michigan State Legislature then created the Mackinac Bridge 
Authority in 1950 and the Authority hired a team of consulting engineers 
to "determine whether a bridge can be safely and feasibly constructed 
across the Straits of Mackinac". The consultants, O.H. Ammann, D.B. 
Steinman, and G.B. Woodruff, recommended construction of the bridge in 
their report issued in 1951. The Authority retained D.B. Steinman to 
design the bridge and unsuccessfully attempted to sell $99.8 million in 
bonds in April 1953. The bonds were finally sold in December, but one 
construction season was thus lost. The substructure contract was awarded 
to Merritt-Chapman and Scott Corporation of New York City for $25,735,000 
and the steel superstructure contract of $44 . 5 million went to the Ameri- 
can Bridge Division of the United States Steel Corporation. During con- 
struction, which began in the summer of 1954, Grover C. Denny served as 
project manager for substructure construction and C.E. Haltenhoff was 
project engineer. J.W. Kinney served as the resident engineer for 
Steinman, who also retained G.B. Woodruff as a special consulting engi- 
neer for the project. The overall dimensions of this suspension bridge 
are impressive: a center span of 3,800 feet; two side spans of 1,800 
feet; two backstay spans of 472 feet, giving the bridge a length of 
8,614 feet between anchorages, the longest in the world; the two main 
towers are 552 feet above the water level, each contains 6,250 tons of 
structural steel, and they rest on massive concrete piers founded on 
bedrock 200 feet below the water level; the rest of the bridge consists 
of 28 truss spans resting on concrete piers and varying from 160 feet 
to 560 feet in length; overall, the bridge is 17,918 feet long, pro- 
viding a roadway of 48 feet wide, and a minimum clearance above the 
water of 148 feet. The two cables supporting the main span are each 
25.25 inches in diameter and consist of 37 strands of 348 galvanized 
wires. The cable sag of 350 feet or about one-eleventh of the length 
of the center span, gives the bridge a graceful appearance. This engi- 
neering monument was opened to traffic on November 1, 1957 and all work 
was completed by September 1958. 

[ Engineering News-Record , Vol. 154, January 27, 1955, pp. 35~39, 42-44; 
Vol. 160, February 6, 1958, pp. 36-40] 



267 



INTRODUCTION TO BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



This section contains sites which illustrate the evolution of 
building design, with emphasis on innovations in building frameworks. 
A great deal of attention is given to industrial buildings where the 
interplay between architectural form and industrial function is direct 
and intimate. Many important examples of building technology have al- 
ready been listed in previous sections of this book, particularly in 
those treating the bulk product and manufacturing industries. 

The first "factories" in Michigan were the timber-framed flour 
and grist mills listed in the first section of this book. They were 
relatively small buildings, although often three or four stories high. 
Except for their stone foundations, they were constructed entirely of 
wood, with a frame of massive hand-hewn timbers (usually oak) as large 
as eighteen inches square, linked with wooden pegs. This design was 
attractive in rural areas in the nineteenth century because it could be 
built at low cost by a skilled carpenter utilizing local labor and 
readily-accessible raw materials. The chief drawback of the timber- 
framed mill was its susceptibility to fire, a disaster that struck 
hundreds of mills in Michigan in the past two centuries. As the state's 
forests became depleted at the end of the nineteenth century, the huge 
timbers required for this design became increasingly more costly. 

At about that time, mill owners turned to masonry (usually 
brick) construction. Typically, the exterior brick walls bore the 
entire weight of the roof. The floors, usually wooden, were supported 
by horizontal timber beams resting on masonry. Vertical columns of 
either wood or cast iron completed the framework. This design had sev- 
eral advantages over timber-framed buildings. It was less vulnerable 
to fire, especially after sprinkler systems were introduced; floors 
could bear heavier loads and yet utilize smaller columns; and it was 
less costly, particularly for larger industrial buildings in urban 
areas in the late nineteenth century. There are over fifty examples 
of large-scale brick-walled buildings in this inventory. The West 
Cellblock of the Michigan State Prison (18^2) is the oldest, but most 
of the buildings that have survived were constructed between 1 885 and 
1910. Large-scale construction in stone was rare in Michigan. Two 
interesting exceptions are the massive Phelps Sanitarium (1900) in 
Battle Creek and the Houppert Winery (1918) . The brick-walled building 
was still far from ideal from the viewpoint of the factory owner. It 
was not entirely fireproof and the floorspace was still obstructed by 
numerous columns usually placed only ten or twelve feet apart. 



268 



Michigan was the birthplace of a significant innovation in 
building design -- the use of reinforced concrete in factory construc- 
tion. Two Detroit architects, Albert Kahn and George Mason, experimented 
with reinforced concrete in the Palms Apartment Building (1902), the 
University of Michigan Engineering Building (1902), and in an office 
building erected for the Burroughs Adding Machine Company in 190**. Kahn 
then designed the first reinforced concrete factory building in Detroit, 
the Packard Motor Car Company Building Number 10 (1905). He used the 
same material for a Cadillac plant built in the same year, for a complex 
designed for the Chalmers Motor Car Company ( 1 908) , and for the Ford 
Motor Company Highland Park Plant (1910). All of these examples of the 
early use of reinforced concrete are still extant. Reinforced concrete 
was ideally suited to the needs of the early automakers, who wanted 
three or four-story factory buildings which had large unobstructed 
floorspace and were strong, fireproof, and inexpensive. From 1905 un- 
til the early 1920's virtually all of the major automobile factories 
built in Detroit were reinforced concrete structures designed by Kahn 
or Mason. Outside of Detroit, automakers adopted a wide variety of 
styles for their plants, with brick-walled buildings the most common. 

Detroit's burgeoning automobile industry, with Kahn as its 
chief architect, continued to make significant innovations in industrial 
architecture. From his experience at the Highland Park Plant, Henry 
Ford concluded that single-story factories would improve efficiency for 
most manufacturing and assembly operations. His River Rouge Complex, 
designed by Kahn, embodied Ford's thinking on a massive scale. The 
first major structure erected there was Building B (1917), a single- 
story steel-framed building one-half mile long. There were over a 
dozen major buildings of similar design built at this site between 1921 
and 1939, making the Ford Motor Company River Rouge Plant the largest 
industrial complex in the world. The other automakers followed Ford's 
lead, as did most other manufacturers, and this design has dominated 
industrial architecture to the present day. The general unsui tabi 1 i ty 
of single-story factories in urban areas, with their high real estate 
values, is not unrelated to the decay of Detroit and other industrial 
cities in recent decades. 



269 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



BATTLE CREEK SANITARIUM HOSPITAL (1903,1928) Battle Creek 

74 N. Washington Ave. 16.6^9240.4687500 

Battle Creek Calhoun 

The Seventh Day Adventists established a boarding house in Battle Creek 
in 1866. Dr. John Harvey Kellogg became Superintendent of this facility, 
the Health Reform Institute (later, the Battle Creek Sanitarium) in 1 876 
and remained in this position until 1943- He and his brother established 
the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company, the forerunner of the W.K. 
Kellogg Company, in 1906. The present buildings are on the site of the 
original Battle Creek Sanitarium Hospital, a wooden structure which 
burned to the ground in 1902. The hospital built in 1903, fronting on 
North Washington Avenue, is a five-story brick building, with a flat 
roof, approximately 450 feet long and 75 feet wide, with six Doric 
columns over the main entrance and four similar columns at both ends 
of the building. A thirteen-story steel-framed brick tower was con- 
structed in 1928 to the southeast of the 1903 structure. It has twenty 
Doric columns on its southwest facade. In 1942, both buildings were 
sold to the U.S. Army, which converted them into the Percy Jones Hos- 
pital for Amputees for the duration of the war. This complex now serves 
as the Battle Creek Federal Center. 
[ Battle Creek Enquirer-News , July 20, 1975, pp. F-l , F-4] 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDING (l 895) Detroit 

46 State St. 17-331185.4688560 

Detroit Wayne 

This thirteen-story flat-roofed skyscraper was designed by Frederick H. 
Spier and William C. Rohns . This building and the original Union Trust 
Building, which is no longer standing, were the first buildings in 
Detroit to use an all-steel skeleton frame which supported the entire 
structure. The style is Italian Renaissance with round arched windows 
on the third and tenth floors with the rest of the windows being rec- 
tangular. The building is 100 feet long, 85 feet wide, and U-shaped 
above the third floor to admit light. The first two floors are faced 
with stone, the next two floors are faced with rusticated stone veneer, 
and the remainder of the structure is covered with common bond brick. 
The building has been renamed the Detroit Savings Bank. 
[Ferry, pp. 136-137] 



270 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



DAVID WHITNEY BUILDING (1915) Detroit 

1553 Woodward Ave. 1 7. 331060. 4688880 

Detroit Wayne 

This eighteen-story steel -framed structure was designed by Daniel H. 
Burnham of Chicago. It was intended for doctors and dentists with the 
corridors facing an inside court, thus permitting an outside exposure 
for all the offices. The building is 125 feet long, 90 feet wide at 
the front, 120 feet wide at the back, and has a flat roof. The windows 
are rectangular. There are cast iron spandrels on the third, fourth, 
seventeenth, and eighteenth floors. The rest of the structure is 
sheathed with white brick laid in common bond pattern. The lobby is 
covered by a glass and beam dome at the fifth floor level. 
[Ferry, p. 1 88] 



DETROIT CORNICE AND SLATE COMPANY BUILDING (1897) Detroit 

733 St. Antoine St. 1 7. 331 880. 4688720 

Detroit Wayne 

Designed by architect Harry J. Rill, the Detroit Cornice and Slate Com- 
pany Building is a three-story structure of brick with a front facade 
of hammered and pressed galvanized steel that was painted to resemble 
stone. Most of the numerous friezes and tampanums were hammered by 
hand; the facade was fabricated inside the shop during construction. 
Evolving from the cast iron tradition, the use of a galvanized steel 
facade was particularly advantageous in Detroit where, as Hawkins Ferry 
writes, "the dearth of stone quarries and skilled stone workers had 
always been a problem, the economic advantage of substituting iron for 
cut stone was particularly welcome". The building was used by the 
Detroit Cornice and Slate Company until 1972 at which time the firm 
moved to the suburbs. The new owners hope to use the third floor as 
an apartment and art studio while the first and second floors will be 
used for office space. 

[Ferry, p. 1 89 ; "Sheet Metal Fronts for Buildings," Carpentry and 
Bui lding , XXII, August 1900; Detroit News , August 12, 1956 and October 
5, 1972; NR] 



271 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



DETROIT [UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN] 

OBSERVATORY (1 854, 1 857, 1 892) Ann Arbor East 

Observatory Drive 17.274770.4684480 

Ann Arbor Washtenaw 

There are two distinct, but interconnected observatories on this site. 
The oldest, constructed in 1854, was called the Detroit Observatory 
because it was built with funds raised largely in Detroit by University 
of Michigan President Henry Philip Tappan. A two-story brick building 
with a stucco facing, 33 feet square, supports the wooden dome which 
is 21 feet in diameter. The dome is turned manually through a series 
of pulleys, still extant. The twelve inch refracting telescope was 
built by Henry Fitz of New York and bears the date 1857- It rests on 
a masonry pier which extends fifteen feet below grade. The site also 
includes a three-story rectangular brick building (1892), 40 feet wide 
and 120 feet long, with a dome 45 feet in diameter at its southernmost 
end. 
[MHD, Site Files; NR] 



DIME [COMMONWEALTH] BUILDING (1910) Detroit 

719 Griswold Ave. 17-331270.4688360 

Detroit Wayne 

Classical details are evident on this twenty-three-story building de- 
signed by Daniel H. Burnham of Chicago. This steel-framed structure 
was U-shaped above the lower stories for the admission of sunlight. It 
is sheathed with white brick in the common bond pattern. The structure 
is 150 feet long and 130 feet wide, has a flat roof, rectangular windows, 
and iron spandrels on the twenty-second floor. 
[Ferry, p. 188] 

ENGINEERING BUILDING (1902) Ann Arbor East 

E. University Ave. 17.274350.4683830 

Ann Arbor Washtenaw 

The Engineering Building at the University of Michigan was one of the 
first reinforced concrete buildings designed by Albert Kahn and George 
Mason. It is an L-shaped three-story building with a brick exterior and 
hipped roofs. One wing is 140 feet long, the other is 400 feet in length 
and both are 70 feet wide. 
[Ferry, pp. l8l, 188] 



272 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 

FISHER BUILDING (1928) Detroit 

3011 W. Grand Blvd. 17.328930.4692675 

Detroit Wayne 

This magnificent structure, designed by Albert Kahn in the Gothic style, 
was part of the New Center, along with the General Motors Building, to 
provide a secondary business district to relieve congestion of the down- 
town area plus provide more accessibility to the suburbs. The transi- 
tion between the two eleven-story wings to the peak of the twenty-eight- 
story tower, 440 feet high, was done by a series of setbacks. The 
building has flat roofs with the exception of the hip roof on top of 
the tower which was rare for that time. Round arched windows are on 
the lower and upper floors, while the rest are rectangular. The first 
three stories of the steel-framed structure are faced with pinkish-gray 
granite while the rest is sheathed with white marble. The L-shaped 
vaulted dome arcade is 30 feet wide, 44 feet high and lined with 40 
varieties of domestic and European marble. The tower is 175 feet long 
and 85 feet wide, the west wing is 140 feet long and 60 feet wide, and 
the north wing is 290 feet long and 60 feet wide. A 175 foot long, 155 
foot wide eleven-story garage with a 1,100 car capacity is attached to 
the north wing for convenience. The famous Fisher Theater, 1 65 feet 
long and 140 feet wide, is attached to the west wing. 
[Ferry, pp. 333-335] 

FORD BUILDING (1909) Detroit 

615 Griswold Ave. 17-331320.4688240 

Detroit Wayne 

This eighteen-story building was designed by Daniel H. Burnham of Chicago. 
The prestigious Burnham was the chief consulting architect for the Chicago 
World's Fair of I893. The steel frame was expressed by the clean sharp 
lines of the white terra-cotta facing. The structure had a few Classi- 
cal details. The structure is 135 feet long, 105 feet wide, has a flat 
roof and rectangular windows. There are iron spandrels and round arched 
windows on the top floor. The building is U-shaped with the interior 
light-court walls sheathed with common bond brick. 
[Ferry, p. 187] 



273 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



FORT WAYNE BARRACKS ( 1 848) Detroit 

6053 W. Jefferson Ave. 17.327230.4684925 

Detroit Wayne 

One of the most monumental buildings of the Federal architectural period 
this barracks was designed by Lieutenant Montgomery C. Meigs. The three 
and one-half story building is divided into five bays or sections sep- 
arated by two foot firewalls. The walls are made of Erie limestone 24 
inches thick. Well-lighted rooms were heated by large open fireplaces. 
Floors are made of brick, concrete and wood, supported by heavy oak 
joints and beams. The roof is cant i levered into the walls and supports 
the third floor by thick wrought iron rods suspended from the ridgepole. 
Musket loopholes are provided on the upper floors at each end of the 
building. The barracks also illustrates the use of bearing walls for 
the structure of multi-story buildings which was prevalent at this time. 
It is 35 feet wide and 165 feet long and has a gabled roof, rectangular 
windows and common bond stonework. A 10 foot wide common bond brick 
bay is attached to the entire rear length of the building. The barracks 
is now part of the Historic Fort Wayne Museum. 
[Ferry, p. 31 ; MHD, Site Files] 



GENERAL MOTORS BUILDING (1922) Detroit 

3044 W. Grand Blvd. 17-329075.4692615 

Detroit Wayne 

Albert Kahn designed this vast corporate headquarters building in the 
Italian Renaissance style. Although it is only fifteen stories high 
it was the second largest building in capacity in the world. The site 
chosen for this structure was removed from the congested downtown area 
so there was no need to reach for the sky and provisions could be made 
for ample lighting and air circulation. Four massive cross-wings were 
arranged so as to form large open courts. Each wing was 50 feet wide 
and 250 feet long. A five-story annex was built across the back forming 
three open courts. The overall dimensions of the building are 504 feet 
long, 322 feet wide, and 212 feet high. The gross area is 1,124,254 
square feet for the main building and 195,282 square feet for the annex. 
The steel -framed structure has reinforced concrete floors and marble 
interior walls. The steel is encased in concrete or vitrified clay 
for f i reproofing. 
[ Legacy , p. 20; Ferry, p. 215] 



274 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



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General Motors Building (1922), Detroit 



D.J. HEALY COMPANY (1910) 
1426 Woodward Ave. 
Detroit 



Detroit 

17.331190.4688780 

Wayne 



The advent of the 
or concrete skele 
structure, thus e 
fore, terra-cotta 
used for exterior 
An example of thi 
roofed six-story 
Mahler of Chicago 
cream-colored fac 



skyscraper owed itself to the development of the steel 
ton-frame system that supported the entire load of the 
liminating the need for massive bearing walls. There- 
and other lightweight economical materials could be 
sheathing of the framework and forming curtain walls, 
s in Detroit is the 95 feet long, 65 feet wide, flat- 
D.J. Healy Company Building, designed by Postle and 
, which was constructed of reinforced concrete with 
ing. The external terra-cotta grille of unbroken 



275 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



piers and spandrels expressed the underlying frame structure. The 
building exhibits some Renaissance features. Large windows were used 
with the upper portion of each using translucent glass to reduce glare. 
The face of the lower stories have since been altered for commercial 
appeal. The sixth floor windows are basket-handle arched, the rest 
are rectangular. The brickwork is common bond. 

[Ferry, p. 184; Condit, Carl W. , American Buildings (Chicago: Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, 1968) , p. 1 14] 

MICHIGAN STATE FAIR RIDING COLISEUM (1922) Highland Park 

State Fairgrounds 1 7-325900. 4700950 

Detroit Wayne 

The roof area of this structure consists of a "Rain-bo" steel truss de- 
signed by the Pratt Roof Truss Company, established by Walter M. Pratt. 
The coliseum is 420 feet by 225 feet while the actual rink area is 264 
feet by 124 feet. The ceiling is comprised of slate tiles covered by 
shingles which create an antique effect that follows the entire design 
of the building. The roof is designated to be replaced during the next 
few years as leakage is occurring. The coliseum is one of the largest 
trussed structures in the Detroit area and is still used for various 
publ ic events. 

MICHIGAN STATE PRISON: WEST CELLBL0CK (1842) Jackson North 
Armory Court and Cooper St. 16.713925-4681350 

Jackson Jackson 

The Michigan State Legislature authorized the construction of the first 
state prison in 1837, to be built at Jackson. The first permanent 
building erected there was the West Cellblock, completed in 1842. An 
East Cellblock, completed in 1857, as well as the stone walls originally 
surrounding these buildings, are no longer extant. The West Cellblock 
is a rectangular brick building, 50 feet wide and 100 feet long, with 
a gabled roof topped by six cupolas for ventilation. It originally con- 
tained 328 cells, each three and one-half feet by nine feet by seven feet 
high, entirely of cast iron construction, arranged in five tiers which 
were at least six feet from any outside wall. The roof is supported by 
massive timber Fink trusses. A new state prison was built in Jackson in 
1934 and the Michigan National Guard now utilizes the West Cellblock for 
miscellaneous storage. 

[MHD, Site Files; History of Jackson County (Chicago: Interstate Pu- 
blishing, 1881) , pp. 572-57^] 

276 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



MURDOCK HOME (1831) 
Union St. and Cass St. 
Berrien Springs 



Berrien Springs 

16.55^630.46^000 

Berrien 



This is a rare example of a two-story log house, the oldest surviving 
example in Michigan. It was constructed in 1831 by Francis Murdock, the 
first lawyer in Berrien County. The existence of this house was recently 
discovered when the sheet metal siding which had hidden the logs was 
removed. It was then moved one mile to its present site, behind the 
Berrien County Courthouse (I838) in 1973- It is a two-story structure 
with a gabled roof, 2k feet wide and 32 feet long. The logs are double- 
locked at the corners. The cracks between the logs, originally blocked 
by horsehair, are now filled with concrete. 
[MHD, Site Files] 




Murdock Home (1831), Berrien Springs 
277 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



OLD STONE BARN (l 857) Marshall 

323 W. Michigan Ave. 16.667860.4681700 

Marshall Calhoun 

This attractive stone building has been used for numerous purposes since 
it was constructed in 1857 by William Prindle of Marshall. Although it 
was initially used as a barn, it has also served as a livery stable, 
stagecoach station, and gasoline station. It was purchased by the Town 
of Marshall in 1928, converted into a town hall by architect Howard 
Young, and has been used for that purpose since 1930. It is a two-story 
fieldstone structure, 100 feet wide and 60 feet long, with a hipped roof, 
[MHD, Site Files] 



PALMS APARTMENT HOUSE (1902) Detroit 

1001 E. Jefferson Ave. 17-332360.4688600 

Detroit Wayne 

The six-story Palms Apartment House was designed by Albert Kahn and 
George D. Mason. It was built in 1901-1902 in the Jacobian style with 
limestone walls and reinforced concrete floors. There are two cast 
iron bays on the west side of the building. Reinforced concrete was in 
a rudimentary stage of development and was just coming into use in Europe 
and the United States at the turn of the century. The Palms Apartment 
House was Kahn's first experiment with the use of reinforced concrete. 
There was considerable risk involved in building with concrete in those 
days for the use of concrete in construction was so new that handbooks 
were not available and formulas were virtually nonexistent. The building 
still stands and is in use today. It has a flat roof and is 95 feet long 
and 90 feet wide. The windows are rectangular and the stonework is com- 
mon bond. The building is U-shaped to help admit light. 
[ Legacy , p. 10; Ferry, pp. 180-181] 

PARKER BLOCK (I883) Detroit 

1075 Woodward Ave. 17-331150.4688550 

Detroit Wayne 

Iron had served European countries at this time for beams and columns, 
but its use on exteriors of buildings was largely an American phenomenon. 
Multiple architectural design pieces were much cheaper when made of cast 
iron than to be cut out of stone and wood, and cast iron lasted longer. 
Laborious craftsmanship was impractical in the age of limited budgets 

278 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



and fixed cost estimates. In Detroit, where the shortage of stone 
quarries and skilled stone workers had always been a problem, the eco- 
nomic advantages of substituting iron for cut stone was particularly 
welcome. The architectural aspects of cast iron was more appealing 
than its structural applications in Michigan since there was a plenti- 
ful supply of brick and lumber for the underlying structure of commer- 
cial buildings. Round iron columns had been introduced to support wood 
beams and joists but in Detroit, at least, the iron facade was purely 
ornamental. Iron panels were bolted together and attached to conven- 
tional brick exterior walls. The Parker Block Building, designed by 
Gordon W. Lloyd, is an example of these iron-fronted buildings. The 
rest of the six-story steel-framed building is brick. It is 95 feet 
long, 60 feet wide and has a flat roof. The windows of the two upper 
floors are round arched, the rest are rectangular. 
[Ferry, pp. 88-90] 

PENOBSCOT BUILDING (1928) Detroit 

6k5 Griswold Ave. 1 7. 331290. 4688290 

Detroit Wayne 

Detroit took third place nationally, after New York and Chicago, in 
building operations during the 1920's. During this period Smith, Hinch- 
man and Grylls built several skyscrapers along Griswold Avenue, Detroit's 
"Wall Street". One of these was the forty-seven-story Penobscot Building 
which was the tallest building in Michigan until the seventy-story 
Detroit Plaza Hotel is completed in 1976. The simple limestone mass 
sheathing the steel frame is devoid of architectural details which was 
a significant achievement for that era since most architects relied on 
historical styles for their design. Thus emancipated from the shackles 
of history, it was a bold expression of a new era in architecture. The 
structure is H-shaped in plan up to the thirtieth floor where a series 
of cubic setbacks continue to rise up to the apex which is terminated 
by a slender aircraft beacon atop the flat roof. The windows are rec- 
tangular while those of the upper levels are round arched. The structure 
is 140 feet long, 1 kO feet wide, 520 feet high, and has one million square 
feet of floor space. Tne stonework is common bond. 
[Ferry, pp. 328-330] 



279 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 








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Palms Apartment House (1902), Detroit 



PHELPS SANITARIUM (1900) 
197 N. Washington Ave. 
Battle Creek 



Battle Creek 
16.649065.^687810 
Cal houn 



M.S. Phelps built this sani tari urn wi th stones gathered from the Packard- 
Austin farm in Battle Creek. His sanitarium went bankrupt in 1904 and 
the building was acquired by C.W. Post, the cereal magnate. It again 
served as a sanitarium in 1907"1910, operated by Bernard MacFadden. 
Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, the internationally known director of the 
Battle Creek Sanitarium and the brother of W.K. Kellogg, the cereal mag- 
nate, purchased this building in 1 9 1 ^f . It served as an annex to the 
Kellogg's main facility located across the street from 191^ until 19^2, 
at which time it became the main facility of the Battle Creek Sanitarium. 



280 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



During the period 191^-19^2, this building was used as nurses' quarters 
and was the home of J.H. Kellogg' s Race Betterment Foundation. Today, 
it is largely vacant, the upper stories used for storage. It is a five- 
story fieldstone structure, with hipped roofs, stone cornices, and a 
wooden porch extending around three sides of the building. It is appro- 
ximately 300 feet long, 70 feet wide, with two wings (60 feet wide by 
200 feet long) at the north and south ends of the structure. This was 
reputed to have been the largest fieldstone building in North America 
when i t was bui 1 1 . 
[ Battle Creek Enquirer-News , July 20, 1975, pp. E-l , E-2, F-k] 




Phelps Sanitarium (1900), Battle Creek 



281 



BUILDING TECHNOLOGY 



PRESSED BRICK HOUSE (c.l845) Spring Arbor 

201 N. Hannah St. 16.686035.4679020 

Albion Calhoun 

This Greek Revival home, 30 feet by 40 feet, is a one and one-half story 
structure with a hipped roof and undereave windows. It is a rare example 
of "pressed brick" construction. Gravel and clay were pressed into wooden 
forms and dried in the sun. The resulting bricks (4 inches by 4 inches 
by 8 inches) were laid in the standard fashion and then covered by a thin 
cement coating to protect them from the elements. 
[MHD, Site Files] 



WOODWARD BUILDING (1915) Detroit 

19 CI ifford St. 17-331130.4688770 

Detroit Wayne 

This eight-story building was designed by Albert Kahn. Kahn felt that 
exposed concrete was satisfactory for extensive industrial sites, how- 
ever, he wanted a more appealing finished surface for downtown Detroit 
office buildings. He used white terra-cotta, which resembled classic 
white stone, on the piers of the Woodward Building. Iron spandrels 
were another external feature of this building. The flat-roofed struc- 
ture is 95 feet long and 65 feet wide with reinforced concrete floors, 
and tile and concrete fi reproofing the steel framework. The windows 
are rectangular with the exception of the basket-handle arched third 
floor windows. The rear brickwork is common bond. 



[Ferry, p. 186] 



282 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



BIRKITT [MITCHELL] DAM (1933) Petoskey 

Franklin St., across Bear River 16.659048.5025090 

Petoskey Emmet 

This concrete dam is all that remains of the Birkitt Hydroelectric Deve- 
lopment, constructed in 1932-1933 by the City of Petoskey. It was de- 
signed and built under the direction of Peter T. Mitchell, City Manager 
and City Engineer for Petoskey during the 1 930 ' s . The dam developed a 
head of 31 feet. This small (500 KW) power plant was phased out in the 
19^0's, when Petoskey built a diesel generating plant. The surviving 
dam structure, which also serves as a bridge, is of reinforced concrete 
construction, approximately 100 feet long, and varies from 12 feet to 
40 feet in width. One pair of gates at the southern end of the dam are 
closed off with a concrete wall, while a pair of waste gates and a siphon 
spillway at the northern end of the dam are still in use. 



DETROIT-WINDSOR VEHICULAR TUNNEL (1930) Detroit 

Under Detroit River to Windsor, Ontario 17-331900.4687560 

Detroit Wayne 

This is the third major subaqueous vehicular tunnel constructed in the 
United States, after the Holland Tunnel and the George A. Posey Tube. 
It was completed in 1930 at a cost of $23 million. The supervising 
and designing engineers were Parsons, Klapp, Brinkerhoff and Douglas 
of New York and Detroit, Burnside A. Value was the executive engineer, 
and Soren A. Thoreson served as engineer of designs. The general con- 
tractors were the Parkland Construction Company and Porter Brothers and 
Robert Porter of Spokane, Washington. The tunnel is 5,135 feet long 
from portal to portal and provides a 22 foot roadway with a 13 and one- 
half foot clearance. Beginning from the American side, the tunnel con- 
sists of an approach tunnel (cut-and-cover) 627 feet long; a shield- 
driven tunnel 591 feet long extending to the edge of the riverbed; a 
subaqueous segment 2,200 feet long built by the trench and tube method; 
a shield-driven Canadian segment 1,115 feet long; and a cut-and-cover 
approach tunnel 602 feet in length. The American approaches utilize a 
five per cent grade, while the Canadian approaches have a grade of 3-97 
per cent. The trench for the subaqueous section was 45 feet deep, 90 
feet wide at the top, 20 feet wide at the bottom, and required the 
excavation of 275,000 cubic yards of soil from the riverbed. Nine 
steel tubes, each 248 feet long with an outside diameter of 31 feet, 



283 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



were floated on barges, and then encased in concrete and given an 18 
inch concrete lining before being sunk. The tubes were then connected 
and the bulkheads between them removed. 

[Detroit-Windsor Tunnel Authority, The Tunnel Construction Story; 
Engineering News-Record, Vol. 103, October 17, 1929, pp. 600-606] 



FORT WAYNE (c. 1 845" 1 850) Detroit 

6053 W. Jefferson Ave. 1 7. 327230. 4684925 

Detroit Wayne 

Fort Wayne was built by Lieutenant Montgomery C. Meigs at the major bend 
in the Detroit River due to border tensions that developed between the 
United States and Canada. The fort was completed in 1 849 after seven 
years of construction and was based on the principles laid down by the 
great French military engineer, Sebastien Vauban. The square strong- 
hold originally had sand embankments and a red cedar scarp wall with 
embrasures of oak. In 1864 the cedar scarp was replaced by a brick and 
concrete scarp wall 2,200 feet in circumference, 17 feet high, seven 
and one-half feet thick, and backed by earthworks extending five feet 
above the wall. The oak embrasures were replaced by concrete. The 
counterscarp-glacis (external ridge of earth), creating a dry moat, 
protected the brick walls of the fort from direct hits from bombardment. 
The fort is complete with casemates, entrance tunnel, powder magazines, 
and a stone barracks. Brick administrative buildings were added outside 
the fort after 1870. Although the fort was never attacked, it served 
as a troop training center. It was transferred to the City of Detroit 
in 19^9 and is now a military museum. 
[Ferry, p. 31; MHD, Site Files; NR] 



FORT WAYNE POWDER MAGAZINE (1848) Detroit 

6053 W. Jefferson Ave. 17-327230.4684925 

Detroit Wayne 

The unusual construction of this one-story powder magazine minimized 
the effect of any possible explosion by directing the force of the ex- 
plosion upwards. This was accomplished by setting the building back into 
an earth embankment with a buttressed retaining wall providing a three 
foot airspace between the building and surrounding earth. There are two 
rows of stone horizontal cross-braces between the two foot thick retaining 
wall, and the five foot thick side walls and four foot thick end walls 



284 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



of the structure. The masonry used uneven sized blocks of limestone. 
The ceiling is made of a single-span common bond brick arch 15 feet 
wide and heavily overlaid with concrete. The building has a gabled 
roof and is 30 feet long and 25 feet wide. 
[MHD, Site Files; NR] 



GRANDSTAND: JACKSON COUNTY FAIRGROUNDS (1917,1962) Jackson North 
200 W. Ganson St. 16.71 3530.4681 300 

Jackson Jackson 

The Grandstand at the Jackson County Fairgrounds is an early example 
of massive reinforced concrete construction on a structure other than 
a bridge or industrial building. The original grandstand, completed in 
1917, is kOk feet long and 85 feet wide. A one-story steel-framed addi- 
tion to the space under the stands (used for concessions, restrooms, and 
betting facilities), measuring 30 feet wide and kOh feet long, was built 
in 1962. Reinforced concrete columns and beams support the concrete 
stands, which are covered by a shingled wooden roof supported by steel 
roof trussing which is supported in the front (facing the track) by six 
steel I-beams and in the rear by the reinforced concrete columns. The 
concrete was poured from wheelbarrows by convicts from nearby Jackson 
State Prison. This is the largest grandstand in Michigan outside of 
Detroit. 



GTW RR: DURAND COAL TIPPLE (c.1920) Durand 

End of Brookfield St. 17.255310.4755590 

Durand Shiawassee 

Reinforced concrete coal tipples like the one at the Durand repair yards 
of the Grand Trunk Western Railroad were familiar sights at railroad 
yards during the early twentieth century, when the coal-burning steam 
locomotive was the only motive power on most railroads. This tipple is 
30 feet wide, 50 feet long, and approximately 75 feet high, with a gabled 
roof. 



285 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 





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GTW RR: Durand Coal Tipple (c.1920), Durand 
286 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



GTW RR: GRAND HAVEN COAL TIPPLE (c. 1910) Muskegon 

Madison St., west of 2nd St. 16. 562065. ^768035 

Grand Haven Ottawa 

This reinforced concrete coal tipple, a holdover from the age of coal- 
fired steam locomotives, is similar to the tipples that are still extant 
in Lansing and Durand (see other entries). It is 20 feet wide, 30 feet 
long, and approximately 100 feet high, with a gabled roof. The arched 
opening at the base of the tipple, through which the locomotive tender 
would be driven, is 15 feet wide and approximately 30 feet high. A 
small square tower rising another 15 feet above the main roof housed 
the hoisting equipment used to raise the coal to the top of the storage 
bin. 



GTW RR: ST. CLAIR RIVER TUNNEL (1891) Port Huron 

Under St. Clair River, Port Huron to Sarnia 17.383150.^757160 

Port Huron St. Clai r 

The Grand Trunk Western Railroad Company's main East-West trunkline 
linking Chicago with the Eastern seaboard faced a serious bottleneck 
at Port Huron, where the line crossed the St. Clair River. All the 
cars (over 332,000 by 1888) had to be transported across the river by 
ferry. A tunnel had been proposed at this location as early as 187^, 
but it was not until 1884 that the railroad established the St. Clair 
River Tunnel Company to proceed with surveys. Under the direction of 
Joseph Hobson, Chief Engineer, a series of borings were made in 1 885 
and these showed that the strata under the river consisted of soft clay 
permeated wi th water, an extremely unstable material. Plans for the 
project lay dormant until 1888, when the Company decided to proceed and 
the Dominion Government agreed to grant a subsidy of fifteen per cent 
of the estimated total cost of $2.5 million. After several attempts to 
sink vertical entrance shafts in 1888 failed because of flooding, it was 
decided to proceed by making open cuts to the tunnel portals and then to 
utilize a shield and line the entire tunnel with cast iron. Tunneling 
began on the American side in July I889 and in September on the Canadian 
side. The tunnel shields similar to that designed by Alfred Beach in 
1868, but modified by Hobson, were built by the Hamilton, Ontario Tool 
and Bridge Works. They were 15 feet 3 inches long, had an outside dia- 
meter of 21 feet 6 inches, were made of steel plates one inch thick, and 
weighed eighty tons. The shields were forced ahead two feet at a time 
by hydraulic rams. When the tunnel began to pass under the river, solid 
brick bulkheads containing airlocks were built behind the shields to 



287 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



enable the use of compressed air. As the air pressure was raised from 
10 pounds to 28 pounds above atmospheric pressure, numerous workers suf- 
fered from the "bends" and three died. With an average of 700 men em- 
ployed on the project, tunneling proceeded rapidly and the two shields 
met under the river on August 30, 1890. The tunnel officially opened 
on September 19, 1 89 1 . It represented a major engineering achievement, 
because of its size and the innovative techniques which were utilized 
in construction. Beginning from the American side and proceeding 
westerly, the tunnel consists of an open cut 2,533 feet long; a segment 
passing under dry land 1,716 feet long with a two per cent downward 
grade; the river segment 2,290 feet long with a one per cent downward 
grade; the Canadian segment passing under dry land 1,994 feet long with 
a one per cent downward grade; and the Canadian open cut of 3,192 feet. 
The total length of the tunnel proper is 6,000 feet and with approaches 
11,725 feet. Over 2 million cubic feet of soil was excavated for the 
tunnel segment. The cast iron tube which comprises the tunnel is 20 
feet in diameter and weighs 28,000 tons. The extremely difficult soil 
conditions encountered at this site were overcome by a combination of 
tunneling innovations -- the use of a cast iron tunnel lining, com- 
pressed air, and a modified Beach shield. The St. Clair River Tunnel 
is virtually unchanged since its completion. It was electrified in 
1908 and the tracks in the tunnel were lowered slightly in 1950. 
[ Engineering News , XXIV (1890), pp. 291-293, 425-426, 457; NR] 



KALAMAZOO STATE HOSPITAL WATER TOWER (1895) Kalamazoo 

Oakland Drive 16.61 5080.4681 480 

Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 

This water tower was designed by B.F Stratton to ensure that the Mich- 
igan Asylum for the Insane (now the Kalamazoo State Hospital) had an 
adequate water supply. An excellent example of Medieval Revival arch- 
itecture, this is really a tower within a tower, both of brick construc- 
tion. The tanks, located at the top of the tower, are enclosed by a 
yellow clay tile curtain wall. The base of the outer tower is six feet 
thick, while the base of the inner tower is four feet thick. This struc- 
ture is approximately 175 feet high. There are three steel tanks -- a 
single 220,000 gallon tank for hard water and two 7,500 gallon tanks for 
soft water. Standing as the highest structure in Kalamazoo, the tower 
helped save the city from fire when the city water mains burst during 
the Burdick Hotel fire in 1909- 
[Kalamazoo Foundation Tower Fund, Save the Tower; NR] 



288 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 




GTW RR: St. Clair River Tunnel (1891), Port Huron 



MC RR: DETROIT RIVER TUNNEL (1909) 
Jefferson Ave. and 10th St. 
Detroit 



Detroit 
17-330^40.4687080 

Wayne 



The Michigan Central Railroad constructed this tunnel in order to ease 
the transfer of its cars across the Detroit River to its Canadian lines 
It replaced an inconvenient and unreliable car ferry. A contract was 
awarded to the Butler Brothers, Hoff Company of New York on August 1, 
1906, with all work to be completed by June 1909- W.S. Kinnear served 
as chief engineer, B. Douglas was the tunnel engineer, and J.C. Mock 
served as the electrical engineer for the project. Built at a cost of 
$10 million, the tunnel is 2.5 miles long, with an American approach of 
3,675 feet and a two per cent grade, a Canadian approach of 6,500 feet 



289 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



with a 1.5 per cent grade, and a river section 2,620 feet in length. A 
combination of the cut-and-cover and the shield methods were used for 
the approaches, while the river section used the trench and tube method 
of construction. A trench ranging from 30 to 50 feet in depth and about 
48 feet in width at its bottom was dredged in the riverbed by the Dunbar- 
Sullivan Dredging Company of Buffalo. Ten steel sections 262 feet long, 
each containing twin steel tubes 23 feet 4 inches in diameter, were 
lowered into the trench with the aid of steel tanks which were gradually 
filled with water. The steel tubes simply served as shells which were 
encased in concrete and given a three foot thick interior concrete 
1 ining. 

["Detroit River Tunnel," Engineering News , Vol. 58, No. 18, October 31, 
1907, pp. 453-455] 



MC RR: LANSING COAL TIPPLE (c.1920) 
Southwest of the end of Randall St. 
Lansing 



Lansing North 

16.701380.4736485 

Ingham 



Reinforced concrete coal tipples like the one still standing at the site 
of the Michigan Central Railroad's Lansing Yards were familiar sites in 
railroad yards during the first decades of the twentieth century, when 
the coal-burning steam locomotive was the only motive power used by most 
railroads. This tipple is 30 feet wide, 33 feet long, and approximately 
75 feet high, with a gabled roof covering an area approximately 10 feet 
by 33 feet, and a sharply pitched roof covering the remainder of the 
structure. 



N0RVELL DAM AND BRIDGE (1909) 
Mill Rd., over Raisin River 
Norvel 1 Township 



Manchester 

16.732060.4670075 

Jackson 



This combination bridge and dam consists of four stone arches of layered 
sandstone blocks and is 18 feet wide, 90 feet long, and approximately 20 
feet high. The arches, each 15 feet high and 15 feet wide, support the 
eight foot high Norvel 1 Dam, as well as Mill Road. 
[Jackson Citizen-Patriot, September 8, 1974] 



290 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 




Kalamazoo State Hospital Water Tower (1895), Kalamazoo 

291 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 



TIGER STADIUM [NAVIN FIELD] (1912) Detroit 

Trumbell Ave. and Michigan Ave. 17.329500.4688590 

Detroit Wayne 

The Detroit Tigers began playing at this site at Bennett Park in a pri- 
mitive facility consisting of a field of two inches of loam over cobble- 
stones and wooden stands seating 8,500 fans. A new steel and concrete 
stadium seating 23,000 was opened on April 20, 1912. It was named 
after Frank Navin, then President of the Detroit Tigers. The general 
contractor was Hawkins and Conkey of Cleveland, while the Detroit Iron 
Works erected the steel framework. The Osborn Engineering Company of 
Cleveland designed the new facility, which was built at a cost of about 
$300,000. In 1924, Navin had the stands double-decked from first base 
to third base and a press box was built on the roof. In 1936 more 
remodeling was done. The right field pavilion and bleachers were 
double-decked, increasing the capacity to 36,000. Even more changes 
were brought about in 1938, when more seats were added, raising the 
capacity to 53,000. The stadium was renamed to Briggs Stadium on 
April 21, 1938. It became Tiger Stadium in 1961 and remains so today. 
Overhead lights were added in 1948, but no major changes were really 
made since 1938. 
[Moss, Richard J., "Tiger Stadium," (Michigan History Division, 1976)] 



YPSILANTI WATER TOWER ( 1 889) Ypsilanti East 

Summit St. and Cross St. 17-283460.4680150 

Ypsilanti Washtenaw 

This magnificent water tower was designed by W.R. Coats and erected in 
1889 at a cost of $21,132. It stands 147 feet high and consists of a 
lower segment, 85 feet high, of stone construction, which is topped off 
by a shingled cedar roof, 62 feet high. The stone outer wall, which is 
42 feet in diameter, is 3 feet 4 inches thick at the base and 2 feet 
thick at the top. There are in addition three interior stone walls, 
which are parallel to each other and are perpendicular to the outer wall 
Along with the outer walls, they support the water tank, which rests 
directly on steel I-beams. The steel water tank is 40 feet in diameter, 
27 feet high, and has a capacity of 250,000 gallons. This water tower 
was erected on the highest point in Ypsilanti and dominates this small 
college town. It is still an integral part of the city's water system. 



292 



SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 




Ypsilanti Water Tower ( 1 889) , Ypsilanti 
293 



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296 



INDEX OF COUNTIES 



Alcona, 86, 191, 238 

Allegan, 93, 118, 119, 124, 1 60 , 186, 208, 226, 241-243, 247 

Alpena, 17, 23, 105, 116, 144, 192, 209, 220 

Bay, 13, 19, 27, 55, 71, 88, 196, 198, 199, 203, 206, 210, 244, 245, 248 

255, 261 

Benzie, 148, 184 

Berrien, 19, 32, 91, 92, 105, 115, 173-175, 182, 1 87, 1 89 , 210, 214, 226 

230, 232, 238, 239, 246, 255, 259, 262, 277 

Branch, 120, 199, 242 

Calhoun, 7, 8, 25, 26, 35-37, 67, 72, 82, 94, 101, 113, 150, 156, 157, 
163, 165-167, 176, 204, 207, 210, 212, 214, 215, 220, 221, 239, 270, 
278, 280, 282 

Cass, 81 , 168 

Charlevoix, 137, 1 87, 257 

Cheboygan, 137, 138, 163, 209, 222, 240 

Clinton, 198 

Crawford, 29 

Eaton, 11, 15, 22, 94, 122, 152, 1 98, 224, 234, 243 
Emmet, 59, 102, 140, 222, 267, 283 

Genesee, 6, 29, 44, 58, 61, 72, 74, 140, 196, 197, 199 

Gladwin, 88, 101, 121, 122 

Grand Traverse, 91, 92, 120, 178, 1 82 

Gratiot, 5, 41 , 200, 239 

Huron, 7, 40, 42, 159, 1 83 , 184, 186, 199 

Ingham, 58, 76, 80, 87, 92, 116, 117, 127, 154, 160, 197, 198, 205, 212, 

214, 219, 232, 245, 290 
Ionia, 10, 11, 22, 38, 126, 143, 223, 224, 231, 235, 236, 238, 240-242 
Iosco, 4, 97, 103, 112, 145, 192 
Isabella, 114, 1 96 

Jackson, 6, 30, 43, 53, 54, 67, 71, 82, 109, 135, 1 69, 170, 196, 197, 
242, 276, 285, 290 

Kalamazoo, 18, 31, 39, 41, 48, 49, 69, 73, 81, 111, 114, 150, 154, 161, 
170, 172, 205, 209, 220, 221, 227, 288 



297 



INDEX OF COUNTIES 



Kalkaska, 196, 239 

Kent, 4, 12, 20, 25, 26, 43, 86, 93, 106, 112, 149, 183, 194, 204, 205 
208, 211-213, 216, 218, 223, 226-228, 230-232, 252, 255, 257 

Lake, 20 

Lapeer, 197, 198, 206, 240 

Leelanau, 191 

Lenawee, 13, A3, 176, 217, 221, 230, 239, 244 

Livingston, 42, 1 94 

Manistee, 30, 32, 109, 112, 123, 163, 259 

Mason, 135, 161, 221 

Mecosta, 120, 207 

Midland, 121, 1 96, 198, 200, 221, 233, 239, 241, 242 

Monroe, 15, 200, 207, 221-223, 225, 230, 231 

Muskegon, 5, 59, 69, 176, 177, 195, 208, 212, 241, 246, 260 

Newaygo, 97, 107, 115, 127, 128, 224, 239 

Oakland, 7, 33, 68, 75, 99, 119, 141, 156, 1 90 
Oceana, 161 

Osceola, 47, 199, 200, 241, 246 
Oscoda, 113, 240 

Ottawa, 27, 49, 81, 106, 127, 135, 145, 148, 149, 179, 180, 197, 199, 
210, 238, 244, 250, 287 

Presque Isle, 31, 179, 1 86 

Saginaw, 33, 41 , 74, 79, 124, 146, 181, 196, 210, 221, 227, 235, 238, 

240, 241, 245, 252, 254, 259, 261 
St. Clair, 35, 138, 146, 156, 159, 181, 196, 197, 200, 210, 248, 250, 

251, 265, 287 
St. Joseph, 18, 26, 124, 209, 220, 228, 238-241, 243, 246 
Sanilac, 38, 184, 238 
Shiawassee, 152, 153, 156, 197, 285 

Tuscola, 12, 16, 205 

Van Buren, 23, 118, 172, 1 89, 209, 242 

Washtenaw, 16, 29, 30, 68, 82, 103, 118, 165, 175, 192, 198, 199, 203, 
205, 215, 220, 222, 238-240, 272, 292 



298 



INDEX OF COUNTIES 



Wayne, 13, 14, 32-3A, 40, 47, 48, 50-54, 56, 57, 59-66, 73, 76-79, 
88-90, 94, 96, 99, 100, 102, 107, 117, 122, 125, 142, 146, 158, 
168, 175, 198, 204, 209, 211, 228, 249-251, 253, 257, 261, 263-265, 
270-276, 278, 279, 282-284, 289, 292 

Wexford, 109, 189, 193, 235, 240 



299 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Ada, 86, 208, 223 

Adrian, 176, 217, 221, 244 

Alabaster, 4 

Albion, 67, 82, 163, 176, 210, 212, 282 

Allegan, 93 

Allendale, 210 

Allen Park, 146 

Alma, 5 

Alpena, 17, 23, 24, 116, 144, 209, 220 

Ann Arbor, 16, 21, 165, 166, 192, 203, 206, 240, 272 

Applegate, 238 

Argentine, 44 

Avon Township, 141 

Bad Axe, 199 
Bamfield, 86 
Battle Creek, 25, 26, 35-37, 101, 150, 151, 156-158, 1 65-167, 204, 220, 

270, 280 
Bay City, 13, 19, 27, 55, 71, 88, 196, 198, 199, 210, 244, 245, 248, 255. 

261 
Bay Port, 7, 9 
Beaver Island, 187 
Beaverton, 88 
Bedford, 8 

Belding, 10, 11, 22, 38, 39 
Bellevue, 11, 15, 22 
Benton Harbor, 262 
Benton Township, 232 
Berrien Springs, 91 , 277 
Big Rapids, 120, 207 
Blissfield, 230 
Bloomfield Township, 33 
Bridgeport, 227 
Buchanan, 92 

Cadillac, I89, 190, 193 
Caledonia Township, 112 
Capac, 196 
Caro, 12 
Carrol lton, 41 
Cascade, 93 
Centreville, 238 



300 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Ceresco, 94, 221 
Charlevoix, 137, 257 
Charlotte, 94, 152, 198 
Cheboygan, 137-139, 240 
Chelsea, 68, 70, 198 
Chesaning Township, 33, 241 
Coldwater, 199 
Columbiavil le, 206, 240 
Corns tock, 114 
Coopersville, 149, 197 
Croswell , 38 
Croton, 97, 98 
Curtis Township, 238 

Danby Township, 224 

Dearborn, 61, 64-66, 102, 122, 249 

Delhi, 206, 239, 240 

Detroit, 13, 1**, 34, 35, 40, 48, 50-54, 56, 59, 60, 63, 73, 76-79, 88-90 

94-96, 99, 100, 117, 125, 142, 168, 175, 209-211, 228, 249, 257, 265, 

270-276, 278, 279, 282-284, 289, 292 
Dexter, 198, 215, 238 
Dickson Township, 109, HO 
Douglas, 160, 186 
Dowagiac, 81 , 168 
Dundee, 15, 223 
Durand, 152, 153, 285 

East Lansing, 87, 117 

East Tawas, 145, 192 

Eaton Rapids, 243 

Edenville, 101 

Emmet t Township, 215, 239 

Essexville, 248 

Evart, 47, 199, 241 

Farmington, 99 

Flat Rock, 204 

Flint, 6, 58, 61, 72, 74, 197 

Flowerfield, 18 

Flushing, 140, 196 

Frankenmuth, 241 

Frankfort, 148, 184 



301 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Freeland, 240 
Fremont, 127-129 
Fruitland Township, 195 

Gagetown, 16, 17 

Galesburg, 227 

Garfield Township, 91, 120 

Glengary, 240 

Golden Township, 161, 162 

Grand Blanc, 199 

Grand Haven, 81 , 106, 145, 148, 179, 244, 250, 287 

Grand Ledge, 224, 229 

Grand Rapids, 4, 12, 20, 25, 26, 28, 43, 106, 194, 204, 205, 211-213 

216, 218, 227, 230, 232, 233, 257 
Grass Lake, 30 
Grayling Township, 29 
Grosse lie Township, 158, 198, 250, 251 
Gun Plain, 24l , 242 

Hagar Township, 238 

Hamilton, 247 

Hamlin Township (Eaton County), 122, 234 

Hamlin Township (Mason County), 135, 136 

Hamtramck, 57 

Harbor Beach, 159, 186, 199 

Harbor Springs, 59, 102 

Hartford, 242 

Hay Township, 122 

Haynes Township, 191 

Highland Park, 62, 63, 107 

Holland, 27, 49, 127, 135, 180, 199, 238 

Home r , 7 

Howard Township, 174, 175 

Howell, 194 

Hubbardston, 22, 235, 236 

Huron Township (Huron County), I83 

Huron Township ( Iosco County), 112 

Indian River, 209, 222 

Jackson, 53, 54, 67, 71, 82, 109, 154, 169-171, 196, 197, 276, 285 



302 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Kalamazoo, 31, 41 , 48, 49, 69, 73, 81, 111, 150, 154, 161, 170, 172, 

173, 205, 209, 220, 221 , 288 
Kalkaska, 196 
Kawkawlin, 203, 206 
Keene Township, 236, 237 
Kendall , 209 

Lake Odessa, 143, 144 

Lansing, 58, 76, 80, 92, 116, 127, 154, 155, 160, 197, 198, 205, 212-214 

219, 232, 245, 290 
Lapeer, 197, 198 
Lawton, 23, 172 
Leon i das, 26, 240 
Leslie, 242 
Linden, 29 
Lowell, 227, 231 
Ludington, 161 , 221 
Lyons Township, 126, 241 

Mackinac City, 163, 164, 267 

Manchester, 30 

Manistee, 30, 32, 112, 163, 259 

Manlius, 24 1 

Maple Ridge Township, 105 

Mapleton, 233 

Marine City, 248 

Marlborough, 20 

Marshall, 72, 113, 207, 214, 278 

Marysville, 35 

Matherton, 242 

Mendon, 241 

Mesick, 235 

Midland, 196, 198, 200, 239 

Mil ford, 68 

Mio, 113, 240 

Monroe, 200, 207, 221, 222, 225, 230, 231 

Morseville, 238 

Mottville, 209, 243 

Mt. Pleasant, 114, 196 

Muskegon, 5, 69, 176-178, 208, 212 



303 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



Newaygo, 115, 224, 225, 239 

New Buffalo, 210 

New Richmond, 208, 226 

New Troy, 32 

Niles, 19, 105, 115, 173, 174, 214, 226, 230, 246 

Norman Township, 123 

North Muskegon, 241, 246 

Norvell Township, 6, 290 

Nottawa Township, 124, 228 

Ortonville, 33 

Oscoda Township, 97, 103, 104 

Otsego, 118 

Owosso, 156, 197 

Oxbow, 107, 108 

Parchment, 221 

Parma, 135 

Parshallville, 42 

Paw Paw, 118 

Peninsula Township, 178 

Petoskey, 140, l4l, 222, 283 

Plainwell, 119 

Plymouth, 47 

Pontiac, 75, 119, 156 

Port Austin, 184 

Port Austin Township, 42 

Port Huron, 138, 146, 147, 156, 159, 181, 197, 200, 210, 248, 250, 251 

265, 287 
Portland, 223, 231 
Port Sanilac, 184, 185 
Presque Isle Township, 179, 180, 186, 188 

Reed City, 200, 246 

River Rouge, 251, 253, 26l , 263, 264 

Rochester, 7 

Rockford, 228 

Rogers City, 31 

Saginaw, 74, 79, 124, 146, 181, 196, 252, 254, 259, 261 
Saginaw Township, 234, 235 
St. Charles, 210, 221, 245 



304 



INDEX OF CITIES AND TOWNS 



St. Johns, 198 

St. Joseph, 182, 187, 1 89 , 255, 259 

St. Louis, 200, 239 

Sanford, 121, 221, 2^1 , 242 

Saranac, 143 

Schoolcraft, 18 

Scotts, 39 

Sebewaing, 40 

Secord, 121 

Sharon Township, 29 

Sherwood Township, 120, 242 

Smyrna, 238, 240 

South Haven, I89 

South Lyon, 190 

South Manitou Island, 191 

South Portlandvi lie, 231 

Springfield Township (Kalkaska County), 239 

Springfield Township (Wexford County), 109 

Spring Lake, 250 

Sumner, 41 

Tecumseh, 13, 43, 239 

Three Oaks, 239 

Three Rivers, 207, 220, 239, 246 

Thunder Bay Island, 192, 193 

Traverse City, 1 82 

Trowbridge, 124, 243 

Union, 242 

Union Township, 92 

Vassar, 205 

Vergennes Township, 226 

Walker City, 149 
Waterloo, 43 
West Bay City, 199 
Westland, 32 
Whitehall, 59, 260 
Wyoming, 183, 255 

Ypsilanti, 82, 118, 175, 199, 220, 222, 292 
Ypsilanti Township, 103 

305 



INDEX OF SITES 



Ada [Bradford] Covered Bridge, 223 

Ada Hydroelectric Plant, 86 

Alabaster Mine, h 

Alabaster Quarry, k 

Alcona Hydroelectric Plant, 86 

Alma Sugar Company, 5 

Alter Motor Car Company, kl 

Alton Street Treatment Plant, 87 

Amazon Hosiery Mill, 5 

Ambassador Bridge, 265 

Ament [Norvel 1] Mi 1 1 , 6 

American Farm Windmi 1 1 s, 127 

American Logging Tool Corporation, k~] 

Angedevine Road Bridge, 238 

Ann Arbor Railway (Also, see Toledo, Ann Arbor, and Northern Michigan 

Rai 1 road) 

Huron River Bridge, 203 

Huron Street Bridge, 203 

Mt. Pleasant Station, 196 

Raisin River Bridge, 223 
Applegate Road Bridge, 238 
Atlas Mill, 6 

Audubon Street Treatment Plant, 87 
Avon Hills Mi 1 1 , 7 

Baker [Limbert] Furniture Company, 27 

Bamfield Road Bridge, 238 

Barley Manufacturing Company, k8 

Barney [Homer] Mill , 7 

Bartlett Label Company [Saniwax] Buildings, 81 

Battle Creek Sanitarium Hospital, 270 

Battle Creek Traction Company: Parma Substation, 135 

Bay City Steam Plant, 88 

Bay Port Quarries Limekiln, 7, 9 

Beaverton Hydroelectric Plant, 88 

Bedford [Payette] Mill , 8 

Belding Brothers 

Number 1 [Red] Mill , 10 

Number 2 [White] Mil 1 , 10 

Number 3 [Electric] Mill , 11 
Belinda Street Bridge, 248 
Belle Isle Bridge, 211 
Belle Isle Water Intake System, 88-90 



306 



INDEX OF SITES 



Bellevue [Gothic] Mill, 11 

Berkey and Gay Furniture Company, 12 

Berrien Springs Hydroelectric Plant, 91 

Big Sable Point Lighthouse, 135, 136 

Birkitt [Mitchell] Dam, 283 

Black Lake Lighthouse, 135 

Black River Bridge, 238 

Blood Brothers Automobile and Machine Company, kS 

Bluewater Bridge, 265, 266 

Boardman Hydroelectric Plant, 91 

Board of Water and Light: Ottawa Street Station, 92 

Bradford [Ada] Covered Bridge, 223 

Bridge Street Bridge (Grand Rapids), 211 

Bridge Street Bridge (Marine City), 2kS 

Bridge Street Bridge (Portland), 223 

Brown's Bridge Dam Hydroelectric Plant, 92 

Buchanan Hydroelectric Plant, 92 

Bundy Road Bridge, 238 

Burroughs Adding Machine Company, 48 

Burt Road Bridge, 238 

Burtt Brothers Manufacturing Company, kS 

Bush and Lane Piano Company 

Corl iss Engine, 127 

Manufacturing Plant, kS 
Button Road Bridge, 238 

Cadillac Motor Car Company, 50, 51 

Calci te Quarry, 31 

Calkins Bridge Hydroelectric Plant, 93 

Caro Sugar Company, 12 

Cascade Hydroelectric Plant, 93 

Cass Avenue Bridge, 212 

Cedar Street Station Pumping Engine, 127 

Center Street Bridge, 2kk 

Central Street Bridge, 238 

Ceresco Power Station, Sh 

Chalmers Motor Company [Chrysler Jefferson Assembly Plant], 52 

Chamber of Commerce Building, 270 

Charles Supe Grain Elevator, 13 

Charlevoix South Pierhead Lighthouse, 137 

Charlotte Highway Bridge, 22^ 

Charlotte Waterworks, 3k 



307 



INDEX OF SITES 



Cheboygan Crib Lighthouse, 137 

Cheboygan Lock and Dam, 137 

Cheboygan River Range Front Lighthouse, 138, 139 

Chesapeake and Ohio Kail road: Black River Drawbridge, 2^8 

Chessman Road Bridge, 239 

Chevrolet Motor Company, 53, 7^ 

Chicago, Detroit, and Canada Grand Junction Railroad: Port Huron 

Station, 1 38 
Chicago and North Michigan Railroad: Petoskey Station, 1^0, 141 
Chicago and West Michigan Railroad: Muskegon River Bridge, 224, 225 
Chrysler Jefferson Assembly Plant [Chalmers Motor Company], 52 
Cincinnati, Saginaw, and Mackinac Railroad 

Bay City Station, 1 96 

Flushing Freighthouse, 1 96 

Flushing Station, 140 
Clark-Carter Automobile Company, 53 
Clinton-Kalamazoo Canal, 141 
Collins Wagon Works, 54 
Comfort Brick and Tile Company, 13 
Comfort Road Bridge, 239 
Commonwealth [Dime] Building, 272 
Connors Creek Generating Station, 94, 95 
Connors Creek Stormwater Pumping and Sewage Station, 96 
Continental Motor Manufacturing Company, 54 
Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, 97 
Coster Road Bridge, 239 

County Line [Hodenpyl] Hydroelectric Plant, 109 
Croton Hydroelectric Plant, 97, 98 
Croton Road Bridge, 239 
Currie Parkway Bridge, 239 

David Whitney Building, 271 

Davis Bridge, 239 

Davison Limited Expressway, 142 

Defoe Boat and Motor Works, 55 

Del ray Coal Tipper House, 99 

Del ray Powerhouse Number 3, 99 

Detroit City Airport, 1 42 

Detroit Cornice and Slate Company, 271 

Detroit Free Press Buildings, 56 

Detroit, Lansing, and Northern Railroad 

Lake Odessa Station, 143, 144 

Saranac Station, 143 



308 



INDEX OF SITES 



Detroit, Lansing, and Northern Michigan Railroad: Grand River 

Bridge, 224, 229 
Detroit and Mackinac Railroad 

Alpena Station, 144 

East Tawas Roundhouse, 145 

Kawkawlin River Bridge, 203 

Saginaw River Bridge, 248 

Thunder Bay River Bridge, 209 
Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad: Grand Haven Station, 1 45 
Detroit News Building, 56 

Detroit and Northern Railroad: Farmington Powerhouse, 99 
Detroit [University of Michigan] Observatory, 272 
Detroit Produce Terminal 

Bui lding A, 13 

Bui lding B, 14 

Banana Bui lding, 14 
Detroit Salt Mine, 14 
Detroit, Toledo, and I ronton Railroad 

Catenary Arches, 146 

Flat Rock Bridge-Dam Structure, 204 

Wolf Creek Trestle, 244 
Detroit and Toledo Shore Line Railroad: Raisin River Bridge, 225 
Detroit United Railway: Jackson Car Barn, 196 
Detroit Wastewater Treatment Plant, 100, 101 
Detroit-Windsor Vehicular Tunnel, 283 
Dime [Commonwealth] Building, 272 
Dix Avenue Bascule Bridge, 249 
Dodge Brothers Company, 57 
Dundee Gristmi 11, 15 
Durant-Dort Carriage Company, 58 
Durant Motor Company, 58 
Dyer Kiln, 15 

Eagle Tanning Works [Whitehall Tannery], 59 

East Delhi Road Bridge, 239 

Eastern Michigan Avenue Bridge, 220 

Edenville Hydroelectric Plant, 101 

Egey-Samu Barn, 16, 17 

Elm Street Power Station, 101 

Elm Valley Road Bridge, 239 

Emmet Street Bridge, 220 

Engineering Building, 272 



309 



INDEX OF SITES 



Ensley Windmi 1 1 Tower, 128, 129 
Ephraim Shay Machine Shop, 59 
Ephraim Shay Waterworks Building, 102 

F Drive Bridge, 239 
Factory Street Bridge, 220 
Fairlane Powerhouse, 102 
Fallasburg Covered Bridge, 226 
Federal Aid Bridge (Mottville), 209 
Fifth Street Bridge, 226 
Fifty-Seventh Street Bridge, 226 
Fisher Building, 273 
Fisher Body Company 

Fleetwood Assembly Plant, 59 

Plant Number 21 , 60 
Fish Lake Road Bridge, 209 
Five Channels Hydroelectric Plant, 103, 104 
Fleetwood Assembly Plant, 59 
Fleming Creek [Parker] Mill, 16, 21 
Fletcher Paper Company Mill, 17 
Flint Motor Company, 61 
Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad 

Midland Freighthouse, 196 

Saginaw Freighthouse, 196 

Saginaw Station, 146 
Flowerfield Mills, 18 
Foote Hydroelectric Plant, 103 
Ford Building, 273 
Ford Dam and Powerhouse, 103 
Ford Motor Company 

Bui lding B, 64 

Engineering Laboratories, 61 

Glass Plant, 66 

Highland Park Plant, 62 

Highland Park Sales and Service Building, 63 

Piquette Street Plant, 63 

River Rouge Press Shop, 65 

Ti re Plant, 66 
Fort Gratiot Lighthouse, 146, 147 
Fort Street Bridge, 227 
Fort Street Bascule Bridge, 249 
Fort Wayne, 284 



310 



NDEX OF SITES 



Fort Wayne Barracks, 274 

Fort Wayne Powder Magazine, 284 

Four Mile Hydroelectric Plant, 105 

Fox and Beers Mil 1 , 18 

Frankfort North Breakwater Lighthouse, 148 

Freeland Road Bridge, 240 

French Paper Company 

Dam and Powerhouse, 105 

Mill Buildings, 19 
Fuller Buggy Company, 67 
Fulton Street Bridge, 212 

Gale Manufacturing Company, 67 

Galesburg Bridge, 227 

Geddes Road Bridge, 240 

General Motors Building, 274, 275 

General Motors Proving Ground, 68 

German-American Sugar Company, 19 

Glazier Stove Company, 68, 70 

Glengary Bridge, 240 

Gothic [Bellevue] Mill , 11 

Grand Haven South Pierhead Inner Lighthouse, 148 

Grand Haven South Pierhead Lighthouse, 148 

Grand Rapids Chair Company, 20 

Grand Rapids, Grand Haven, and Muskegon Railway 

Coopersville Station, 149 

Walker Station, 149 
Grand Rapids and Indiana Line 

Grand River Bridge, 227 

Kalamazoo Station, 150 

Kalkaska Station, 196 
Grand Rapids Water Filtration Plant, 106 
Grandstand: Jackson County Fairgrounds, 285 
Grand Trunk Western Railroad 

Battle Creek Freighthouse, 150 

Battle Creek River Bridge, 204 

Battle Creek Station, 150, 151 

Capac Station, 196 

Charlotte Station, 152 

Coopersville Station, 197 

Davison Station, 197 

Durand Coal Tipple, 285, 286 



311 



INDEX OF SITES 



Grand Trunk Western Railroad (con't.) 

Durand Station, 152, 153 

Durand Turntable, 153 

Dutch Creek Trestle, 2kk 

Fl int Station, 197 

Grand Haven Coal Tipple, 287 

Grand River Bridge, 204 

Jackson Freighthouse, 197 

Jackson Roundhouse, 15*t 

Kalamazoo River Bridge, 205 

Kalamazoo Station, 15^ 

Lansing Freighthouse, 197 

Lansing Station, 15^, 155 

Lapeer Station, 197 

Locomotive Number 6325, 156 

Monroe Street Bridges, 205 

Otterburn Station, 197 

Owosso Freighthouse, 197 

Owosso Station, 156 

Pontiac Station, 156 

Port Huron Car Shops, 156 

Port Huron Freighthouse, 197 

St. Clair River Tunnel, 287, 289 

St. Johns Station, 198 

South Channel Trestle, 2hh 

Stationary Storage Building, 157 

Verona Road Roundhouse, 157, 158 
Great Northern Portland Cement Company Warehouse, 20 
Grosse lie Lighthouse, 158 
Grosse lie Parkway Bridge, 250 
Grosse Me Toll Bridge, 251 
Gul 1 Road Bridge, 220 

Hall Brothers Manufacturing Company, 22 

Hand ley Motors Company, 69 

Harbor [Sand] Beach Harbor of Refuge, 1 86 

Harbor Beach Lighthouse, 159 

Harbor Street Diesel Generating Plant, 106 

Hardy [Oxbow] Hydroelectric Plant, 107, 1 08 

Hartshorn Curtain Roller Company, 69 

Hayden Milling Company, ^3 

D.J. Healy Company, 275 



312 



INDEX OF SITES 



Highland Park Waterworks, 107 

Hodenpyl [County Line] Hydroelectric Plant, 109 

Holden Kiln, 22 

Homer [Barney] Mi 1 1 , 7 

Homer Grist and Flouring Mill, 22 

Houppert [Lawton] Winery, 23 

The Huron , 159 

Huron Avenue Drawbridge, 251 

Huron Portland Cement Bridge, 220 

Huron Portland Cement Company, 23, 2k 

Imperial Wheel Company, 71 

Industrial Works [Industrial Brownhoist], 71 

Ingells Road Bridge, 2*t0 

Jackson County Fairgrounds Grandstand, 285 

Jackson State Prison: West Cellblock, 276 

Jackson Steam Plant, 109 

Jackson Street Bridge, 227 

Jefferson Avenue Bascule Bridge, 251 

Johnson Street Bridge, 252 

Judge Wisner Carriage Barn, 72 

Junction [Tippy] Hydroelectric Plant, 109, HO 

Kalamazoo Generating Plant, 111 

Kalamazoo Generating Station, 111 

Kalamazoo State Hospital Water Tower, 288, 291 

Kalamazoo Street Bridge, 212, 213 

Keeler Building, 25, 28 

S.S. Keewatin , 1 60 

Kellogg Company Horse Barns, 25 

Kellogg Maintenance Shops, 26 

King Highway Bridge, 209 

King [Leonidas] Mi 1 1 , 26 

King Road Bridge, 2k0 

Klingman Building, 26 

Kolb Brewery, 27 

Labarge Hydroelectric Plant, 112 
Lake Shore Drive Bridge, 212 
Lambert Building, 72 
Lane Motor Truck Company, 73 



313 



INDEX OF SITES 



Langley Covered Bridge, 228 
Lansing Manufacturers Railway 

Grand River Bridge, 205 

Grand River Trestle, 245 
Lansing Union Station, 160 
Lapeer Street Bridge, 240 
Lawrence and Chapin Building, 161 
Lawton [Houppert] Winery, 23 
Leforge Street Bridge, 220 
Leonard Street Bridge, 213 
Leonidas [King] Mill, 26 
Limbert [Baker] Furniture Company, 27 
Lincoln Avenue Bridge, 240 
Lincoln Motor Car Company, 73 
Linden Mill, 29 

Little Sable Point Lighthouse, 161, 162 
Logan Street Bridge, 214 
Logging Equipment, 29 
Loud Hydroelectric Plant, 112 
Ludington North Breakwater Lighthouse, 161 
Lufkin Rule Company, ~Jk 
Lutchka Barn, 29 

Mackinac Point Lighthouse, 163, 164 

Mackinac Straits Bridge, 267 

Main Street Bridge (Niles), 214 

Main Street Bridge (Three Rivers), 220 

Manistee Ironworks, 30 

Manistee North Pierhead Lighthouse, 163 

Manistee Waterworks, 112 

E.G. Mann and Sons Feed Mill, 30 

Maple Road Bridge, 240 

Marshall Avenue Bridge, 214 

Marshall Electric Light Company, 113 

Mason [Chevrolet] Motor Car Company, 74 

Memmer Barn, 30 

Memorial Bridge (Kalamazoo), 220 

Meridian Road Bridge, 221 

Merrick Street Bridge, 221 

Michigan Central Railroad (Also, see New York Central Railroad) 

Albion Station, 163 

Ann Arbor Station, 165, 166 



314 



INDEX OF SITES 



Michigan Central Railroad (con't.) 
Bagley Street Bridge, 209 
Battle Creek Freighthouse, 165 
Battle Creek Station, 166, 167 
Battle Creek Turntable, 167 
Bay City Station, 198 
Beaver Creek Trestle, 245 
Cass River Bridge, 205 
Charlotte Station, 1 98 
Chelsea Station, 198 

Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad Bridge, 228 
Columbiavil le Bridge, 206 
Detroit River Tunnel, 289 
Detroit Station, 168 
Dexter Station, 1 98 
Dowagiac Station, 168 
Dutch Creek Trestle, 245 
Fifteenth Street Bridge, 209 
Fourteenth Street Bridge, 209 
Grand River Bridge, 252 
Grosse I le Station, 198 
Hersey River Trestle, 246 
Huron River Bridges, 206 
Indian River Bridge, 209 
Island Lake Road Bridge, 215 
Jackson Locomotive Shops, I69 
Jackson Roundhouse, 1 69 
Jackson Station, 170, 171 
Jackson Turntable, 170 
Kalamazoo Roundhouse, 170 
Kalamazoo Station, 172, 173 
Kalamazoo Turntable, 172 
Kawkawlin River Bridge, 206 
Lansing Coal Tipple, 290 
Lansing Freighthouse, 198 
Lapeer Station, 1 98 
Lawton Station, 172 
Marquette Street Bridge, 210 
Midland Station, 1 98 
Mill Creek Bridge, 215 
Milwaukee Street Bridge, 210 
Muskegon River Bridge, 207 



315 



INDEX OF SITES 



Michigan Central Railroad (con't.) 

Niles Locomotive Shops, 173 

Niles Roundhouse, 174 

Niles Station, 174 

Niles Turntable, 175 

Porter Street Bridge, 210 

Rice Creek Bridge, 207 

Rouge River Bridge, 228 

Rouge River Bascule Bridge, 253 

Saginaw River Bridge (Bay City), 255 

Saginaw River Bridge (Saginaw), 254 

St. Joseph River Bridge (Niles), 230 

St. Joseph River Bridge (Three Rivers), 207 

St. Joseph River Trestle, 246 

Terminal Street Bridge, 210 

Wattles Road Bridge, 215 

West Bay City Station, 199 

West Detroit Roundhouse, 175 

Ypsilanti Freighthouse, 199 

Ypsilanti Station, 175 
Michigan Limestone and Chemical Company: Calcite Quarry, 31 
Michigan Railway Engineering Company: Grand River Bridge, 216 
Michigan Southern Railroad 

Adrian Roundhouse, 176 

Coldwater Station, 199 

Raisin River Bridge, 217 
Michigan State Fair Riding Coliseum, 276 
Michigan State Prison: West Cellblock, 276 
Michigan Traction Company Office, 176 
Mio Hydroelectric Plant, 113 
Mio Road Bridge, 240 
Mitchell [Birkitt] Dam, 283 
Monarch Paper Mil 1 , 31 
Monroe Street Bridge, 221 
Moore Street Bridge, 246 
Morrison Channel Bridge, 255, 256 
Morrow Power Plant, 114 
Morton Salt Company, 32 
Mt. Pleasant Dam, 114 
Mt. Pleasant Waterworks, 114 
Murdock Home, 277 
Muskegon South Breakwater Lighthouse, 176 



316 



INDEX OF SITES 



Muskegon South Pierhead Lighthouse, 177 
Muskegon Union Station, 177, 178 

Nankin Mills, 32 

Navin Field [Tiger Stadium], 292 

Newaygo Portland Cement Company Powerhouse, 115 

New Troy Mil Is, 32 

New York Central Railroad 

Bad River Bridge, 210 

Grand River Bridge, 255 

Raisin River Bridge (Bl issf ield) , 230 

Raisin River Bridge (Monroe), 207 

Raisin River Bridge (Monroe), 230 
Nickel Plate Road Bridge, 2k 1 
Niles City Power Plant, 115 
Ninth Avenue Hydroelectric Plant, 116 
Ninth Street Bridge, 241 
Niver Road Bridge, 2k\ 

Norfolk and Western Railroad: Rouge River Bascule Bridge, 257, 258 
North Lansing Dam, 116 
North Park Street Bridge, 230 
Norvell Dam and Bridge, 290 
Norvel 1 [Ament] Mi 1 1 , 6 
Norway Point Hydroelectric Plant, 116 
Nottawa Road Bridge, 2k\ 

Oakland Motor Car Division, 75 

Oakwood Pumping Station, 117 

Old Black Bridge, 2^1 

Old Mission Point Lighthouse, 178 

Old Presque Isle Lighthouse, 179, 1 80 

Oldsmobile Building Number 16, 76 

Old Stone Barn, 278 

133rd Street Bridge, 2^1 

Orchard Street Treatment Plant, 117 

Ortonville Mill, 33 

Otsego [Pine Creek] Dam, 118 

Overpack Logging Wheel , 29 

Oxbow [Hardy] Hydroelectric Plant, 107, 108 

Packard Motor Car Company 
Building Number 5, 77 



317 



INDEX OF SITES 



Packard Motor Car Company (con't.) 

Building Number 10, 77, 78 

Salesroom, 76 
Palms Apartment House, 278, 280 
Parker Block, 278 

Parker [Fleming Creek] Mill, 16, 21 
Parshallburg Mill, 33 
Paw Paw Waterworks, 118 
Payette [Bedford] Mill , 8 
Pearl Street Bridge, 218 
Peninsular Paper Company Dam, 118 
Penobscot Building, 279 
Pere Marquette Railroad (Also, see Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad) 

Bad Axe Station, 199 

Bay City Station, 199 

Black River Canal Bridge, 210 

Black River Drawbridge, 250 

Cedar Creek Bridge, 2*tl 

Cedar Creek Trestle, 2^+6 

Charlevoix River Bridge, 257 

Evart Station, 199 

Grand Blanc Station, 199 

Grand Haven Station, 179 

Grand River Bridge (Grand Haven), 250 

Grand River Bridge (Grand Rapids), 257 

Grand River Bridge (Lowell), 231 

Grand River Bridge (Portland), 231 

Harbor Beach Station, 199 

Holland Freighthouse, 199 

Hoi land Station, 180 

Kalamazoo River Bridge, 208 

Manistee River Bridge, 259 

Midland Station, 200 

Monroe Station, 200 

Muskegon River Bridge, 2k] 

Port Huron Freighthouse, 200 

Port Huron Roundhouse, l8l 

Port Huron Station, 200 

Port Huron Turntable, l8l 

Rabbit River Trestle, 2^7 

Raisin River Bridge, 231 

Reed City Freighthouse, 200 



318 



INDEX OF SITES 



Pere Marquette Railroad (con't.) 

Saginaw River Bridge, 259 

Saginaw Roundhouse, l8l 

Saginaw Turntable, 181 

St. Joseph River Bridge, 259, 260 

St. Joseph Station, 1 82 

St. Louis Station, 200 

Spring Lake Bridge, 250 

Thornapple River Bridge, 208 

Ti ttabawassee River Bridge, 24l 

Traverse City Station, 1 82 

White River Bridge, 260 

Wyoming Yard Roundhouse, 183 

Wyoming Yard Shops, 1 83 
Pere Marquette Road Bridge, 221 
Peter Van Every Gristmill, 33 
Pewabic Pottery Company, 3^, 35 
Phelps Sanitarium, 280, 28l 
Pine Creek [Otsego] Dam, 118 
Plainwell Dam, 119 
Plymouth Motor Corporation, 79 
Point Aux Barques Lighthouse, 183 
Point Betsie Lighthouse, \Sk 
Pontiac Steam Plant, 119 
Port Austin Reef Lighthouse, l8*t 
Port Huron Salt Company, 3^ 
Portland and Danby Bridge, 231 
Port Sanilac Lighthouse, 184, 185 
Post Cereal Company 

Manufacturing Complex, 35 

Office Building Number 7, 36 

Office Building Number \k [Clubhouse], 37 

Post Barn [Building Number 1 ] , 36 

Stores Building Number 23, 37 
Presque Isle Lighthouse, 1 86 , 1 88 
Pressed Brick House, 282 

Rainier Motor Car Company, 79 
Red Arrow Highway Bridge, 210 
The Reiss , 1 86 
Reo Motor Car Company, 80 
Richardson Silk Mill , 38, 39 



319 



INDEX OF SITES 



Riley Generating Plant, 120 

Riley Road Bridge, 2^2 

River Street Bridge, 232 

Rogers Hydroelectric Plant, 120 

Round Oak Stove Company, 8l 

Ruddiman Creek Pedestrian Bridge, 208 

Sabin Hydroelectric Plant, 120 

Saginaw Road Bridge, 242 

Saginaw Street Bridge, 221 

St. James Lighthouse, 1 87 

St. Joseph North Pier Inner Lighthouse, 187 

St. Joseph North Pierhead Lighthouse, 1 89 

Sand [Harbor] Beach Harbor of Refuge, 186 

Sanford Hydroelectric Plant, 121 

Sanilac Sugar Refining Company, 38 

Saniwax Buildings [Bartlett Label Company], 81 

Scottsdale Road Bridge, 232 

Scotts Milling Company, 39 

Sebewaing Sugar Company, 40 

Second Street Bridge, 242 

Secord Lake Hydroelectric Plant, 121 

Seventh Street Bridge, 242 

Shay Logging Locomotive, I89, 190 

Shay Machine Shop, 59 

Shay Waterworks Building, 102 

Shiawassee Street Bridge, 219 

Short-Cut Canal Bascule Bridge, 261 

Sixth Street Bridge (Grand Rapids), 232, 233 

Sixth Street Bridge (Saginaw), 261, 262 

Sixty-Fourth Street Bridge, 242 

Smallwood Hydroelectric Plant, 122 

Smith's Crossing Road Bridge, 233 

Smithville Dam and Power Station, 122 

Smithville Road Bridge, 234 

South Haven South Pierhead Lighthouse, 1 89 

South Lyon Union Station, 190 

South Manitou Island Lighthouse, 191 

South Mills Street Bridge, 221 

Springwells Pumping Station, 122 

Stancer Road Bridge, 242 

State Reward Bridge (Allendale), 210 



320 



INDEX OF SITES 



State Reward Bridge (Ceresco) , 221 

State Reward Bridge (Parchment), 221 

State Street Bridge (Leslie), 242 

State Street Bridge (Saginaw Township), 234, 235 

Story and Clark Piano Company, 8l 

Stoudt Road Bridge, 242 

Stroh Brewery Company Complex, 40 

Stronach Dam, 123 

Studley Bridge, 242 

Sturgeon Point Lighthouse, 191 

Sturgeon River Street Bridge, 222 

Sumner Gri stmi 1 1 , 4l 

Superior Street Bridge, 210 

Swindell Buildings, 41 

Tawas Point Lighthouse, 192 

Telegraph Road Bridge, 222 

Third Street Bridge, 261 

Thunder Bay Island Lighthouse, 192, 193 

Tiger Stadium [Navin Field], 292 

Tippy [Junction] Hydroelectric Plant, 109, HO 

Toledo, Ann Arbor, and Northern Michigan Railroad (Also, see Ann Arboi 

Rai Iway) 

Ann Arbor Station, 192 

Cadi llac Station, 193 

Howell Station, 1 94 

Manistee River Bridge, 235 
Trowbridge Dam, 124 
Trowbridge Street, 194 

Union Steel Products Company, 82 

University of Michigan [Detroit] Observatory, 272 

Valley Sugar Company, 4l 
Van Every Gristmill, 33 
Vistula Road Bridge, 243 

Walcott Lathe Company, 82 

Walker's Gristmill , 42 

Wallace Mills, 42 

Washington Avenue Steam Plant, 124 

Washington Road Bridge, 235, 236 



321 



INDEX OF SITES 



Waterloo Mill, 43 

Waters Building, 43 

Waterworks Park, 125 

Webber Hydroelectric Plant, 126 

West Cross Street Bridge, 222 

West Knight Street Bridge, 243 

West Main Street Bridge, 262 

West Mitchell Street Bridge, 222 

White's Covered Bridge, 236, 237 

Whitehall Tannery [Eagle Tanning Works], 59 

White Lake Lighthouse, 1 94 

Whitney Building, 271 

William Hayden Milling Company, 43 

Will iams Bridge, 243 

Willow Run Bomber Plant, 82 

Wolcott's Mill , 44 

Woodward Building, 282 

Ypsilanti Water Tower, 292, 293 

Zug Island Bascule Bridge, 263, 264 
Zug Island Swing Bridge, 264 



322 



NPS172 



iiiimiMiiivii 

3 1604 004 719 334 





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