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Jfll^ 






THE 




AT 




RAL 





A 




MOXTHLV JOURXAL OF 



NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED BY 



WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 



F.R.P.S.E., 

J 

Recorder to and Ex-President of the CoxcTTOLO<itCAL SocrETv; Hon. Secretary 
THE Yorkshire Naturalists* Union; Joint-Acthor ok a •IIaxpbook of the 

Vkrtubratk Fauna of VoiiK-SiiiiiE* ; Hon. Memuer of the Bradford 

Naturalists" and Microscopical Society, Cleveland Naturalists' 

Field Club, Malton Naturallsts' Society, Liverpool 

Naturalists' Field Club ; etc., etc. ; 



OF 



WITH THE ASSISTANCE AS REFEREES IN SPECIAL DEPARTMENTS OF 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S.. F.L.S., 



W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S.. M.B.O.U., 



ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S.. 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 
GEORGE T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
\V. BARWELL TURNER. F.R.M.S. 



1899. 




LOXDOX: 

LovKLL Reeve &i Co., :;, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, E.C 



Printed bv Chorley & Pickersgill, The Electric Press, Leeds. 



PREFACE. 



The Editors cannot allow the present occasion to pass without 
direct reference to the irreparable and exceptionally serious 
loss which this journal sustains by the death of Mr. John 
Cordeaux, whose valuable papers and notes continued to 
appear down to the date of his decease. His own complete 
bibliography of his own papers is in hand, and when revised 
will be printed in this journal. 

They have to thank their contributors for the articles 
and notes they have contributed during^ the year, and their 
subscribers for much-appreciated support. A considerable 
increase in the latter respect is, however, urg-ently needed, 
to allow of the enlargement of the journal, in order to cope 
with the large amount of high-class matter available for 
publication. 



% 

o 



THE NATURALIST 



FOR 1899. 



OCCURRENCE OF RARE PLANTS IN 

CUMBERLAND. 



WILLL4M HODGSON, A.L.S., 

Working(o?if Cumberland, 



Valeriana pyrenaica L. Heart-leaved Valerian. During* 
a week's sojourn at Netherby, on the extreme north of this 
county, during* the earlier days of July 1897, I made my first 
acquaintance with this exceptionally rare plant, usually classed 
as an alien, or occasionally naturalised in plantations. By the 
courteous permission of Sir Richard J. Graham, Bart., of 
Netherby Hall, I had gone to Long-town, and from thence to 
Netherby> with the view of acquainting myself more thoroughly 
with the botany of the neig^hbouring" district, for the purpose of 
a Flora of my native county, which I have long been preparing- 
for publication, and which is now in the hands of the printers, 
I was recommended to visit the famous Solwav Moss, and on 
my way thither to explore a wood adjoining the highway 
between Longtown and the Moss, where I was informed that 
I should find a coarse-looking- plant which had g*reatly puzzled 
the natives to Identify. On reaching* the wood I found imme- 
diately within the gate large patches of the plant, which, with 
a few exceptions, had done flowering* for the season. Farther 
in the wood were to be seen more and more of the plants, 
numbering" well over a hundred specimens In all. Many of 
these exceeded three feet In height, and they seemed so vigorous 
and healthy that I concluded the locality was congenial to 
their growth and development- On reaching home with such 
specimens as I had secured I had no difficulty in their classifica- 
tion. The flowers bore a strong* resemblance to those of 
F. officinalis^ and the large broadly heart-shaped, almost circular 
root-leaves tended further to the identification of the species. 
The wood bears, I believe, the name of Silver Hill Plantation, 
and it stands upon a part of what was formerly known as the 
Debatable Ground, claimed alike by England and Scotland. 



Hodgson : Occurrence of Rare Plants in Cumherland. 

Rutnex maritimus L. Golden Dock. During the same 
month of July 1897, while visiting: the ballast heaps at Maryport, 
I found about a dozen examples of this dock, a species new to 
me, growing: in a moist hollow, associated with about an 
equal number of plants of Chcjiopodinm polyspermiun and 
Ch, opulifoliiuny and a single specimen of Bromus schraderij 

r 

a South American brome grass, probably the offspring of a 
number of that species discovered close to the same place in 
1890-91. The dock has not made its appearance this year, and 
only a few plants of the fig-leaved goosefoot of exceptional size 
now mark the spot. 

Trientalis europsea L. European Chickweed Winter 

Oreen. Not many days ago I was informed by Mr. Harold 
Adair, of Foxhouses, Whitehaven, that the Chickweed Winte 



Green had been discovered in Upper Eskdale, in the south-west 



W 



J 



She did not know the plant, but my correspondent, who also 
was staying in Eskdale at the same time, and knew the plant 
well, explained to her— what the lady herself had no conception 
of — that the chickweed-Iooking specimen was of uncommon 
rarity in these parts, and indeed was not very plentiful where 
found. 

Vicia orobus D.C. Wood Bitter Vetch. Mr. Harold 

Adair also Informed me at the same time that he had found the 
Wood Bitter Vetch high up in the same valley beyond the 
highest railway station, ^ The Boot/ where it Is quite plentiful 
about the edges of meadows. Up to the date of my friend's 
discovery all the records respecting this plant were confined to 
the district of Cumberland lying between the river Eden and the 
Pennine Hills, or as Bishop Nicolson puts it in his MS., * Great 
Salkeld copios*^, sed pra^sertim apud Blencarn- — nostratibus 
Horse pease/ I recollect Mr. P. H. Grimshaw having some 
good finds in the same valley a few years ago- 

Chrysanthemum coronaria. Alien. Found growing on 
some poultr}' runs on the south side of Silloth Dock, in August 
of the present year, 189S. I hud noted it on some household 
refuse at Risehow, Maryport, in 1886. 

Xanthium splnosum L. Alien. A few stray specimens of 

the above species have appeared during twelve successive 




, including the past year, on the south side of the dock 
at Sllloth. They have in no instance been known to. ripen seed 
there, and yet there is no palpable diminution in number. The 



Naturalist, 



spotted Crake and Albino Sand Martin near Harrogate. 3 

specimens have even been more numerous this year than usual, 
and certainly finer. 

Since writing the above, dried specimens, with perfectly- 
developed flowers, have been received from Miss E. J. Glaister, 
of Skinburness House, Silloth, whom I had requested to look 
out for their probable flow^ering^ this year. The accompanying- 
card is dated 3rd October 1898. 

Amaranthus retroflexus and A. albus. These two kindred 
aliens were both noted at Silloth in August last. The former 
has appeared at intervals for many years past at Risehow, 
Maryport, Flimby, and at the Derwent Tin Plate Works, 
Workington, usually associated with Cannabis sativa, Phalaris 
canariensisy etc., where the sweepings of bird cages have been 
deposited. The latter has more rarely been observed at the 
mound, near Derwent Tin Plate Works, where it was rather 
plentiful ten years ago, but has disappeared gradually since the 
Avorks were suspended, and is not now to be met with there, no 
fresh material being available. It was first seen at Silloth this 

season. 

Ambrosia maritima and A, trifida, two other closely allied 
species of aliens, were also among the plants gathered at 
Silloth on the same occasion. Like the preceding pair, the 
former of them has been located for some years past near the 
extreme point of land jutting into the sea, on the south side of 
the harbour entrance, where it appears likely to become per- 
manent. The latter — seen by me for the first time — was 
pointed out to me at the extfeme landward end of the dock 
by Mr. John Glaister, of the Grune House, Skinburness. We 
subsequently found specimens scattered along the south side of 
the dock at intervals. It is a coarse species; the flower spikes 
closely resemble those of A. maritima^ but leaves and stem are 



alike covered with stiff hairs, the whole being quite rough to 
handle. 




NO TE-^ORNlTttOLOG K 

Spotted Crake and Albino Sand Martin near Harrogate.— 1 have 

been fortunate in procuring- for the Yorkshire Fliilosophieal Society a 
beautiful albino example of the Sand Martin [Cofile riparia), apparently 
a bird o^ the rear, which was taken from a hole at Kiliin^^liall, near Harro- 
.srate, tl\iring-'the past summer. Albino specimens of the Honse Martin 
XChelidon urbica), are not specially uncommon, but this is the first White 
Sand Martin which has come under my notice. 

About the same time a Spotted 'Crake {PorzaJia porzana) was shot 
somewhat nearer to Harrogate, where it is probable that they are not 
so rare as is generally supposed.— J. Backhoivse. Daleside, Harrogate, 
2nd Xovember 1898, 

Januar\^ 1899. 



4 



NOTE—COLEOPTERA. 



Monochatnmus sartor at Grimsby Docks.— In July my brother 

brought me a fine specimen of Monochammus sarior^ taken by him on the 
Royal Dock-side, Grimsby. It was submitted to Rev. A. Thornley for 
identification by Mr. A. ^Smith, who informs me it is the third specimen 
recorded for Lincolnshire. — J. Curtis, Garibaldi St., Grimsby, loth Dec. 1898. 




NOTES FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Lobelia and Vaccinium in the Lake Country.— I add a few notes 

to those by Mr. Li^Lor Petty In the December * Naturalist.' 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos L. Cranberry, Crones, or Cranes. Well mig;ht 
Mr, Pett}' traverse the statement that the Cranberry is a rarity in the Lake 
Country, seeing- that my notes for the Cumberland part of Lakeland alone 
contain the following- entries, with the authorities annexed, viz., Ennerdale, 
Black Moss, E^remont, etc. (Rev. F. Addison, Mr. Jos. Adair); Floutern 
Tarn (W. Fog-g-itt); swamps at the highest point of the pass over Whinlatte.r 
(H. C. Watson); Mockerkin, near the Tarn (W. B. Waterfall); south side of 
Skiddaw, near the foot of the hill (N. J. Winch); Mosedale in Wastdale 
(Rev. A. Ley); by the river Caldew^ near the foot of Wiley Ghyll, in spongy 
bog's; Mosedale Moss, under Carrock Fell (W. Hodgfson); Eskdale Green, 
Muncaster (P^ H. Grimshaw). In Ennerdale there seems to be two varieties, 
one producing- red berries, the other a g-reyish purple fruit (Jos. Adair). 
Bog;g-y place just off the road separating- Latrigfgf from Skiddaw (Rev. 

Hilderic Friend). 

Also in the lower valleys of Cumberland Crones are far from being- 
scarce. H\itchinson's Historj* of Cumberland, published in 1794, informs us 
that fruit to the value of ^20 annualU' was g^athered about Tarn Wadling", 
near Hesket, in the ancient Forest of Ing-lewood. This tarn w^as drained 
about fifty years ago by the proprietor, Lord Lonsdale, and the bulk o^ 
the plants have probably disappeared. The Cranberry is found at other 
stations within the limits of the Forest, and is reported from Udford Bog-, 
Edenhall, by Mr. Varty-Smith, from AInstable Moor by the Rev. H, PViend, 
and from Wragmire Moss by Mr. W. Duckworth, formerly of Carlisle. 
Towards the Sol way I have noted it from Salta Moss, near Dubmill, 
Hang-ing-shaw Moss, Xew Cooper, and from the Moss at Bowness-on- 
Soiway, at which latter station Mr, Friend has also remarked it ; Brom- 
field, near AUonby, iSoo (Rev. J. Dodd); Todhilis, near Carlisle, to the 
northward ; and finally I saw it in abundance flowering; as late as 6th July 
1897, on Solway Moss, at the extreme verg^e of the county, adjoining Dum- 
friesshire. 

Lobelia Dortmanna, With reference to the Blea Tarn mentioned in 
Mr. Baker's Flora of the Lake District, pp. 142-3, I believe I am correct in 
referring it to the tarn of that name, which lies in a secluded hollow under 
Hig;h Street, in Westmorland. The plant g-rows cibuadantly in our Cumber- 
land lakes and tarns, at a few feet from the edg-e, according to the depth 
of the water. I have seen it thus in LHlswater, Derwentwater, Thirlmere, 
Ennerdale Lake, Buttermere, Lovveswater, Overwater, Floutern Tarn, 
Bassenthwaite, Watendlath Tarn, etc. It grows in wonderful profusion In 
some peaty pools, hardly attaining: the dimensions of a tarn, near Giller- 
thwaite, in Ennerdide, some distance from tht^ head of the lake. Here, in 
the flowering season, about midsummer or a little later, the surface of the 
pools is quite hidden by the azure tints of the flowers. The Lobelia is here 
associated with Menyanthcs trifoliata^ also in abundance and of exceptional 
gfrowth. Bishop, or as he was then Archdeacon, Nicolson reports it as 
under 'Gladiolus palustris, seu lacustris, flore subcoeruleo. Water g-ladiole, 
or flowering: rush. Hulswater(T. Lawson). In Tarn Wadling*, near Hesket. 
Tarn near Cockerniouth, flowers in the water,' Probably Mockerkin Tarn 
is intended by the latter. I have already explained that Tarn Wadling- 
now exists only in name. Dr. Nicolson's list, from which I have just 
quoted, bears date 1690.— William Hodgson, Working-ton, 6th Dec. 189S. 

Naturalist, 



5 



TREES AND TREE-NESTERS. 



Miss MARY L. ARMITT. 



There is a certain strip of woodland left to the Lake country, 
very hoar and ancient, and which is, in position and character, 
not a little singular. It lies about an old highway, which skirts 
a great scar-side at a point that may be termed the ankle-joint 
of the mountain, because there the steep foot-meadows spread 
more gently to the lake margin from the steeper fell and scree 
above. A high-road truly this way no longer is, but only a 
broad track, levelled and buttressed, showing how^ man in early 
days kept his line of route high and dry, and being sound of 
breath and limb, and well-nigh independent of wheels, shunned 
the bottom flats and the swamps that filled them. 

But now that he so much less propels himself by lung and 



foot, but bowls upon wheels of many kinds along the great 
high road — smooth as a ship's deck — that traverses the well- 
drained valley, this ancient route is lonesome. The grass is 
scarce worn in its centre ; the deep stone tanks that stud it — 
ancient wells that tapped the rills coursing so strangely under- 
ground (and faintly audible at places) for the refreshment of 

man and beast — are choked or empty. No one now pauses 

to drink at them, and therefore no one tends them. Very 
wild and lonesome is the place. The great crag, on which 
Kestrels breed, raises a sheer head aloft, w^hile between it and 
the road, on the huge boulders and shelving screes that fringe 
the scar, there is a wdld growth of forest and fern. There, 
amongst rocks and piled stones, are wondrous nooks ; mossy 
chambers, screened within the debris ; tiny springs, breaking 
forth and enriching all things round ; seemingly inaccessible 
steepnesses clothed with green ; and great old trees spreading 
gnarled roots among the rocks. 

Up and down, too, about the road, fringing it as solitary 
specimens, or, on gentler grassy slopes below, grouped as 
patches of unwalled woodland, are ancient trees. Like the 
road, they are reminiscent of man. At first glance they seem 
but remnants of that pristine forest that probably once clothed 
the whole of our mountain area — specimens which have sur- 
vived untouched upon unneeded rocky ground. But presently 
may be discerned about them signs of ancient handling and of 
ancient guardage, possibly by some common forest-rights ; and 
protection is happily now extended by a private owner, so that 

■■■ ' ' ' I 

January 1899. 



6 Armitt: Trees and Tree-Nesters, 



I 

these aged monarchs may live out the small remnant of their 
lives in peace. They are Oak trees mostly, interspersed by 
a few Ash and Cherry trees ; and shrubs of Hazel, Holly, 
Thorn, and Rowan crowd amongf them ; while the Yew trees 
that here and there cling to the naked scar are far above 
the general line of woodland. Some of the trees have reached, 
by an undeterred growth, the height and expanse possible in 
these shallow soils, stretching wide arms from a stout main 
trunk. But many again, more especially upon certain patches, 
show- — full-grown and majestic as they are — by their disposal of 
limb to trunk, traces of man's axe, wielded long ago. 

In the days of their youth, long, long ago, when wood was 
the only fuel obtainable except peat, and man's dwellings were 
roofed with timber grown at hand, these trees would seem to 
have been lopped, or pollarded, at a distance of from 8 to 14 ft. 
above the ground. The tree, then, having lost its main stem, 
threw its arrested growth into several great converging limbs. 
In some few instances, these limbs were again lopped at a point 

I 

considerably higher, and clearly at a date long subsequent, so 
that from the short, thick trunk there now branch, first, four or 
five vast, rugged elbows, and from these again spring, rocket- 
like, a shower of slender stems. ^ 

\^cry weird and fantastic in shape are the trees of this wood- 
land, even down to the Hollies and the Thorns. So twisted and 
writhing in form are they, so knotted and gnarled at the joints, 
that they recall the pencil of Gustave Dore, who drew no 
stranger forms than theirs ; for the older they grow the weirder 
do they become. As decrepitude sets in, the massive elbows, 
weakened and riven at the joint by rain and humus, and growing 
things that collect therein, snap ofi^, sometimes splitting the 
whole trunk downwards with their fall. Finally, the central 
trunk alone is left, a weird and crumbling tower of timber, to rot 
slowly piecemeal. Ivy wraps it round perhaps in a dozen-armed 
embrace ; or a Rowan may run its slender stem up alongside, 
and like a pennon flaunt above the ruin a fictitious crown of 
green. 

All sorts of things live and grow upon these aging Oaks. 
Besides lichen on the slender twigs above, and moss of several 



^ It is possible that some few of these trees may have been nmiined by 
Nature. Several fine young Oak trees hereabouts lost their main stems 
by the snowfall of 24th-25th October 1896, which snapped right off under 
the superincumbent weig:ht collected by the leaves. An early snow, before 
foliag-e has fallen, does much damage to trees. 



Naturalist, 



Armitt: Trees and Tree-Nesters. 7 

kinds upon the bark of stalwart branch and trunk, where rain 
and mist will filter down, and fung-oid growths of many a kind, 
there is Polypody fern growing in every hollow, gash, or rent; 
the Broad Boss fern springing here and there in crevices, as 
well as Wood-Sorrel and many another little flowering weed ; 
and seedling- trees, Mountain Ash, Holly, Hazel, or Silver Birch, 
sprouting from the cracks. These little seedling trees may be 
detected by their stripling-like straightness, where they shoot 
aloft from the aged boughs, two and three — nay, even six, 
I am told by the woodman — upon one tree, up and up to the 
top. Nor are the lodger-trees all striplings- Looking through 
the woodland in the last week of April, while the Oak trees are 
bare of leaf and show their centres, we pass tree after tree, 
bearing aloft a lodger, stalwart and strong, dark with its cloud 
of Holl\- leaves, or bright with the new v^erdure of the Mountain 
Ash. In the hollow of the crown of the Oak, some 10 to 15 ft. 
above the ground— for there only, where moisture ling"ers, and 
a little soil doubtless is formed from blown dust and leaves 
and fern-root, can real growth be obtained — does the lodger sit, 
stout and strong, reaching up boug'hs sometimes to a height 
little short of those of its host-tree. Sometimes there are twin- 
lodgers in a tree. 

One Sycamore tree, sound and in its prime, holds both a Hazel 
Bush and a Rowan ; an Oak carries two stout Hollies ; another 
Oak two stout Hollies and a Rowan. In this last instance the 



r 

Size df the lodgfers is so surprising- that I got the woodman to 
measure them. 

Girth of m.iin stem where it springs 

from the lap of the oak. Height. 

I St Holly ... 10 inches ... 8 feet. 



2nd Holly ... 26 ,, ... 25 



> I 



Rowan 



7 ) > • ■- ^^ »» 



Another instance — the one that first drew my attention to 
these double g-rowths — is even more surprising. When first 
seen, the lodger Rowan had already grown so large, many- 
branched and top-heavy, that it had split down the oak on one 
side, and had toppled over. But still it clung to its foothold o\\ the 
knees of the giant— for there, indeed, it was securely rooted, and 
thence if derived nourishment. It lay across, its upper branches 
leaning against the steeply-sloping ground, and was neither 
vanquished nor dead; it was then (26th April 1896) not only 
green with leaves, but was preparing a lusty show of flowers. 
The Oak, smashed though its branches all were, and its trunk 
rent on the side of the fall, lived, too, on the other side, and 

JaniiarA i8gQ. 



8 



Armitt: Trees and Tree-Nesters^ 



bravely spread its summer greenery ; and the two together, 
Inextricably intertwined, made such a confusion of down-leaning 
and up-stretching limbs and boughs and foliage as surely was 
never seen before. The Rowan was later cut out, and now lies, 
dislimbed, a monument of perverted growth- Its main stem, 
at the point a little above where it first cast off its seed-shell, 
and caught hold of the Oak with its little, grasping foot, 
measures over \\ yards round. Immediately above, it branches 
into five large, and almost eqvial arms ; the one arm left 

L 

measures 24 inches round. Immediately belovC^, the main stem 
passes into what must have been a huge burled stem, or root. 



^ 




Old Oak, rent down the trunk by the fall of an arm. The Oak, behind and below, contains 
the two Hollies and the Rowan described. — From a photograph by Mr. J. R. W'hlte. 

of girth little less than the above-ground stem. With this one 
root it seems to have struck down and pierced the heart of the 
Oak, reaching down and down, until it not only (in probability) 
reached the ground, but, swelling ever greater, occupied a 
great part of the Oak trunk, and finally caused its fracture. 
In this fact, the secret of these surprising growths is no doubt 
disclosed, for it is not possible that, seated upon the laps of the 
giants, they should attain the size they do, dependent only on 
the moisture of the air (damp though our woods are) and on the 
fraction of soil in which they first germinate. Their roots 

Naturalist, 



\ 



r 

Armiit: Trees and Tree-Nesters, 9 

frequently, no doubt, go down through the Oak to the soil. In 
the instance quoted above, where two Hollies and a Rowan live 
on an Oak, the roots of the Rowan may be detected as certain 
rod-like excrescences, bursting through the bark of the Oak 
near the ground,^ 

These lodger trees are no doubt mainly planted by birds. Their 
species almost attest the fact. The berry of the Mountain Ash 
is the favourite food of many birds; and Thrushes — Song and 
Missel — Blackbird, Bullfinch, and Chaffinch clear the autumn 
crop with avidity. The Finches that, clinging to the tree, pick 
the berry and eat its seed forthwith, can scarcely propagate the 
tree; but the habit of the Thrushes, to carry a whole berry off in 
the beak to eat at leisure, will cause many to be scattered. 

The Holly berry makes the w^inter sustenance of many birds, 
of Ring Doves, Blackbirds, Thrushes, Fieldfares, and Jays. 
All these birds swallow the berry whole, and straight away; 
but perching as they do on the adjacent Oak tree after their 
feast, many of the rejected seeds must be dropped upon the 
boughs- It has lately been disputed, indeed, that a seed — such 
as the Mistletoe— can germinate after passing through the 
digestive organs of a bird, but this is beyond my knowledge. 
On entering this woodland, after surprising a party of DoVes 
that feasted on the Hollies, I have found the ground of the wood 
below the bushes, and below the larger trees on which they have 
rested, literally strev^rn with bare seeds ; and from the clean 
appearance of these seeds, and the masses in which they lay, 
I conjectured that they may have been thrown up by the bird, 
after it has secured the red covering of the seeds, which it 
relishes. If such were the case, the germinating power of the 
seed would not be injured. 

The Hazel nut is eaten through to its centre by Great Titmouse 
and Squirrel ; but the little quadruped, if it stores the nut, must 
sometimes forget where it has laid its treasure; and the bird, 
carrying off the nut as it does, to break on some adjacent hard 
and forked bough, may deposit it in a crack. The Silver Birch, of 
which I have seen only one as a lodger, is manifestly wind-sown. 

The trees of this woodland are naturally haunted by birds. 
Not only do they furnish birds with shelter and with food, but 
with nesting-holes as well. No nesting place is more secure, 
warm, or comfortable than an old, decaying tree. And so this 

^ This Rowan bore a crop of berries this summer (1898), when the 
glimmer of their coral red up amongst the Oak leaves made a singfular 
sight. 



899 



lO 



Ar77itii: Trees and Tree-Nesters. 



belt of woodland has almost an avian character of its own, owing 

to the opportunities it offers to hole-breeding birds. Not only 

do the birds that invariably breed In trees here flourish — the 

Brown Owl, the Tree-Creeper, the Marsh Titmouse, the Pied 

Flycatcher — but birds that elsewhere in Lakeland nest generally 

in walls, such as the Jackdaw, Starling, Great Titmouse, Blue 

Titmouse, and even the Redstart, here revert to a possibly 

pristine habit of tree-nesting. 

In an eight years' experience in another part of Lakeland, 



I never happened to know of a Blue Titmouse's nest in other 
than a building-hole ; while the first spring's acquaintance with 




The nesting- Oak. for two years, of the Pied Flycatcher. The hole is In the boss on the 

left, overshadowed by ivy. — From a photograph b> Mr. J. R. White. 

this woodland stretch showed, unsought, three nests In holes of 
trees. The Great Titmouse, w^hose secrets are rarely told, was 
seen to feed its brood in an ancient Holly tree. Even the 

Redstart afforded the long-sought instance of tree-nesting. 
Out of eleven nests known that season in the immediate 
neighbourhood, nine were in wall-holes as usual, one In a 
natural pile of stones, and the remaining one was placed in the 
crevice of a pollarded Ash, where Polypody-Fern made green 
shade about the boss. 

As for the Pied Flycatcher, it may be said, upon a very 
limited area, to abound ; and though this area spreads beyond 

Natu^alist^ 



Arrnitt : Trees and Tree-Nesters. ii 



the woodland stretch above described, the stretch undoubtedly 
makes its centre ; so that the birds* numerousness may be 
ascribed to these ancient trees, in which it habitually breeds. 
It loves those little pocket-like holes that are found in the trunk 
of even sound trees — Sycamore, Wych-elm, but generally of 
Oak— that are caused probably by the early loss of a branch ; 
or the larg-er space of a hollow bough ; or those strange, wart- 
like excrescences, when hollow, that are sometimes seen in old 
trees. These the hen lines with moss, bents, and rotten wood, 
making a deep cushion of such stuff as comes handiest. The 
same hole is frequently used two years at least. 

But numerous as are the nesting-holes to be found in these 
trees, they are not numerous enough for the Pied Flycatcher. 
When the birds have arrived in full force — the old males in the 
last week of April, the young ones along with the hens in the 
first or second weeks of May — there is keen competition for the 
holes left vacant by other birds. The winter residents have 
naturally been first on the ground, and suited themselves ; and, 
indeed, some of them — the Starling and the Greatand BlueTitmice 
seem often to take holes that have been already used by the 
Pied Flycatcher, with all the nest-stuff therein. The Starling, in 
fact, I have known to oust the little bird after it was established. 
It is capable, however, of reprisals. In the orchard of Fox 
How, as the owner narrated in the ' Spectator ' some years ago, 
the Pied Flycatcher not only turned a pair of Blue Tits from 
their nest-hole, but calmly built its own nest oi\ the top of their 
eggs, I have been told of several cases, of double nests in 
neighbouring trees. 

Thus it is that, abundant as the Pied Flycatcher is, not all 
the birds that come remain to nest. In affluent years, the males 
in May are planted thickly, and sing vociferously ; then many, 
either for want of nest-hole or mate, drift away. 

The birds come and go, as the summers come and go, leaving 
the old woodland much the same. When it is most beautiful, 
With its sweeps of sloping grass, and its mounds of castle-like 

rocks, who shall say ? 

In spring, when the fresh green begins to break forth, and the 
Cherry trees are white with blossom, and Oaks first put on the 
golden-green of flowers and leaves; and birds from far southern 
lands sport, and mate, and sing, and nest in ttieir branches ; and 
the lake gleams below the trees, and through them, not shut out 
yet by the expanded leaves ; and the Kestrels cry in the crag 
above. 

January 1899. 



12 Manchester Museum, 

Or, in summer, when the Oaks have settled to their heaviest 
green ; and the Green Moths, emerging suddenly in the heat from 
their chrysalids within the folded leaves, hover for the marriage 
dance by thousands — a light and moving cloud— about the 
boughs; and families of birds patrol the wood in gay, glad 
company — all but the Wood Warbler, that still has a yellow- 
breasted nestful waiting for supplies on the floor of the wood ; 
and about the dry, hot grass the dusky brown butterflies flit; and 
the Chaffinch keeps as low, seeking for food where the white 
clover holds within the withering flower a delicious green seed- 
pod, with tiniest of peas therein. 

Or, in autumn, when St. Luke's summer adds day to day of 
pure, still sunshine; and the Hollies already have brightened 
their berries to scarlet ; and the Oak trees bear yet their summer 
leaves, turned to palest yellow and brown, wanting but a faint 
breeze to bring them down in a sudden shower; and the 

I 

changeless dark-leaved Ivy, bushing out in the midst of the 
trees, will not wait for their fall, but opens its myriad blossoms 
to the sun ; and the myriad insects that seek them from far, can 
be told by the full-toned hum heard underneath ; and the Robin, 
perched near on a bough, makes low, inward melody of utter 
content. 

Or, in winter, when the great trees are bare and naked, and 
the light is low ; and the Owl snoozes at noon in the ivied Oak, 
and the Buzzard cries loud from the mist; and Holly and 
Ivy together^though one flowered in May and the other in 
early November — offer their fruit to the birds ; and the Holm- 
Thrush rattles the smooth, dark leaves as it picks ; and the 
Ring Dove crosses to where a crowd of its fellows, with loud- 
fluttering wings, snatch red berries from the prickly-leaved bush; 
and the Gall Fly hops on the sodden ground ; and the Field- 
mouse, living hard by in the wall — the daintiest feeder of all 
leaves at its doorway its refuse of berries, the red husks that 
birds love, and the seed-cases as well, for out of them it clears, 
with the neatest of teeth, the kernel within. 

When ? for always the woodland is full of life, of wonder, 
and of beauty. 




NOTES AND NEWS. 



We 



1897-8, and are pleased to see that the vigfour, energ^y and success with 
which it has of late been carried on, show no si^ns of abatement. It is 
gratifying to learn that by the use of electric lighting it is expected that the 
museum may be opened on weekday evenings, and thereby its usefulness 
considerably enhanced 



Naturalist 



13 



THE YORKSHIRE BOULDER COMMITTEE AND ITS 

TWELFTH YEAR'S WORK, 1897-8. 



PERCY F. KENDALL, F.G.S., Chairman, 



AND 



J. H. HOWARTH. F.G.S.. Hon. Secretary. 



Unremitting attention has been devoted to the subject of 
boulders during* the year, resulting ui returns which are 
described in the report of the Boulder Committee of the British 
Association as *a valuable and significant set of records.' 

The discovery of two large glaciated boulders of chalk near 
Scarborough is of interest, as that point is fully 20 miles to the 
northward of the chalk cliffs of the Yorkshire coast. 

Attention was directed last vear to the remarkable fact that 
the Belemjiitcllce collected from the drift of Holderness belonged 
without exception to the species B. laficeolafa^ unknown as 
a constituent of the fauna of the Yorkshire chalk, which 
contains instead B, qiiadrata. This conclusion is fully sustained 
by the work of the past year, and emphasises the well-known 
fact that black flints, which are unknown in the local chalk, are 
found plentifully in the glacial deposits of the Yorkshire coast. 
One such flint, containing a cast of Echinocorys, is reported 
from the inland station Market Weighton. 

Further valuable work has been done upon the distribution 
of Shap granite, and its sporadic grouping receives a fresh 
illustration from the Yorkshire coast. 

Further light is thrown upon the source of the in many 
ways anomalous patch of boulder clay at Balby by the discovery 
in it of three specimens of Eskdale granite. 

Our knowledge of the distribution of erratics of Scandinavian 
origin receives a welcome addition by the observation of a 



second example of the granite from either Angermanland or 
Aland (Sweden) at Easington, and by the recognition of a pebble 
of rhomb-porphyry at Brough- The latter is the first undoubted 
occurrence of a Scandinavian boulder within the line of the 
Chalk Wolds. 

The Committee is also enabled to announce the recognition 
amongst the far-carried erratics of the east coast of England of 
a considerable number of Norwegian rocks from localities which 
were not previously known to have yielded boulders to the 
English drift. 

January 1899. 



. '. 



14 Yorkshire Boulder Committee : Its Twelfth Years Work. 

The Chairman (Mr. Kendall) spent a month during the 
summer of 1897 in Norway between Christiania and Christian- 
sand collecting rocks for comparison with the erratics of the 
east coast of England. He brought away a large quantity of 
material illustrating important petrological types, and has now 
distributed about 300 specimens amongst English workers in 
glacial geology^, to whom they may be useful. Other sets will 
be lodged in public museums. 

A series of east 'coast erratic boulders collected' by Mr. 
J. W. Stather, F.G.S., and Mr. Thomas Sheppard was taken to 
Christiania and submitted to Professor Brogger, who had kindly 
consented to examine them. Professor Brogger's examination 
was not carried to completion, as the thin sections which should 
have accompanied the specimens had gone astray in the post, 
but some rocks were nevertheless singled out by him which 
possessed such marked characteristics as to admit of positive 
identification. 

Tliese determinations are of so much interest and importance 



that it has been thought desirable to publish them in this report 
rather than to wait for a more complete statement. 

The well-known rhomb-porphyries yielded examples from 
the Ringerike, Tonsberg, and Tuft (in the Langendal) districts. 

Laurvikite (augite-syenite) of the type which prevails over 
such large areas southward of the latitude of Christiania was 
recognised. These are rocks with which English geologists 



have for some time been familiar, but besides these Professor 
Brogger found the pyroxenite of Fettvedt, ChristianiaQord ; 
a soda syenite from the country north of Christiarria ; a basic 
rock from Hitterdal (this is a very pronounced type regarding 
which Professor Brogger spoke with great confidence) ; the 
Labradorite-porphyrite of Mos (on the east side of the Skager- 
rack south of Drobak), and rocks from the neighbourhood of 
Drammen. 

In addition to these there are examples of Labradorite- 
porphyrite with porphyritic conspicuously-zoned felspars, which 
is known as an erratic in Norway, but has not been traced 
in situ. 

Finally Professor Brogger recognised three examples of the 
sandstone or grit representing the curious ' Sparagmit-con- 
glomerat,' which covers a vast area m the high mountainous 
interior of Scandinavia northward of Christiania. The speci- 
mens in question may have come from Gudbransdal, about the 
northern part of Lake Mjosen. 



Naturalist. 



Yorkshire Boulder Committee: Its T^velfth Year's Work. 15 

A coarse granite collected by Mr. Sheppard, Professor 
Brog-ger considered to resemble the rocks of Ragunda in 
Angermanland, a conclusion confirmatory of Dr. Munthe's 
recognition of a boulder composed of a similar rock (see 1896-7 
report, p. 3), and which occurs also according to Mr. Crofts at 



Easington. 



Reported by Mr. W. Gregson, F.G.S, 



Mount Grace Priorv, seven miles N.E. of Northallerton. 

I. Shap granite. 24 x 12 x 10 inches. Sub-angular ; no striae. 

Reported by Mr. H. SPElGHT. 

MoRECAMBE., On shore near Battery Inn, West End. 



I. Shap granite. 



Reported hy Mr. J. Birtox. 



Balby, near Donxaster. 

Eskdale granite (three pebbles). 

Reported by Mr. P. F. Kendall, F.G.S. 

Market Weighton. 

Nodule of black flint, with Echinocovys viilgarisy in gravel pit 
one mile from town on the road to Holme. 



East Riding Boulder Committee. 

Reported by Mr. W. H. Crofts, Hull. 

Easington. 

A specimen of Post-Archiean granite from Angermanland 
or Aland. First specimen recognised by Dr. Munthe (see last 
year's report). 

Reported by Mr J. F. Robinson, Hull. 

Wassand, NEAR HuLL. Behind Wassand HalL 
I. Coarse basalt, 4 x 3 x 2^ feet. Sub-angular. 

Reported by Mr. Harold Sales, Hull. 
WiLLERBV, NEAR HORNSEA. 

At the east end of the Hull and Barnsley Railway cutting, 
west of this village, there Is boulder clay 14 or 15 feet in depth 
resting on chalk for some distance, 150 feet above sea level. 
The clay, which contains much chalk in small pieces, is blue 
jointed and of the red Hessle type, but distinctly greyer down- 
wards. 

The following- 38 boulders were' noted, all of which were 
6 inches and upwards in diameter, 

6 Carboniferous limestones, striated. 
15 Whinstone, deeply weathered. 

-- » 

January 1899. 



i6 



'Ifth Year's Work. 



6 Sandstone, probably carboniferous. 

3 Secondary rocks. 

8 Granite, gfneiss, etc. 
Also a small boulder of rhomb-porphyry 2x2x1 inches; 
Several specimens of Beleninitella lanceolaia (Schloth), a form 
foreign to the Yorkshire chalk ; many black flints not Yorkshire; 
lower lias fossils, etc. 



Reported by Mr. Thomas Sheppard^ Hull. 

Atwick. 

Red gneiss. 16 x 32 x 30 inches. Sub-angular. 

Hornblende gneiss. 40 x 37 x 27 inches. Rounded. 

Shap granite. 38 x 32 x 28 inches. 

Note, — All these at the foot of the cliffs. The particulars 
of the last one, together with a specimen, were sent to me by 
Mr. William Morfitt, of Atwick. 

Brough, 

Rhomb-porphyry, rounded, 5 inches in diameter ; much 
weathered. In gravel in Mill Hill pit, 100 feet above O.D. 



Note. — This is the most westerly point at which this rock 

t 

has been recorded. 

r 

DiMLiNGTON (with Mcssrs. J. W. Stather and W. H. Crofts). 

Augite-syenite. 18 x 15 x 15 inches. Rounded, /;/ the 
basement boulder clay at the foot of the cliffs. 

Rhomb-porphyry. 18 x 14 x 14 inches. Rounded. 

Note. — The augite-syenite is one of the larg'est so far found 
in Britain. It rarely happens that rhomb-porphyry is found of 
the size of the one referred to, 

Easixgton. 

Shap g-ranite. 12 x 10 x 8 inches. Rounded. 
Rhomb-porphyry, 5x4x3 inches. Rounded. , 
NoTE.^ — These were obtained from a heap of boulders which 
had been carried from the beach, and now in Mr. Hewetson's 
garden. Boulders of all sorts are very common in this village ; 
the church is built of them. In front of Mount Pleasant is a 
good selection of boulders and fossils from the beach, including 
granite, gneiss, basalt, rhomb-porphyry, augite-syenite, car- 
boniferous limestone, ganister, basement carboniferous con- 
glomerate, brockram, magnesian limestone, lias, secondary 
nodule with Crioceras (? Speeton clay), black and pink flints, etc. 

Hornsea, 

Shap granite. A pebble found in the purple boulder clay 
cliffs about 200 yards N. of the New Parade. 

N aturalist. 



■Yorkshire Boulder Committee: Its Twelfth Year's Work, 17 

Patringtox. 

Hundreds of largfe boulders, usually well water-worn, all 
over the village as corner-stones, steps, and built into walls. 
Several paths are paved with smaller boulders. They include 
basalt, g-neiss, porphyrlte, an occasional rhomb-porphyry, car- 
boniferous limestone and sandstone, lias, flint, etc. In all 
probability they are from the beach, although some may be 
from the fields adjacent. 

Skeffling. 

Houses and barns, the wall round the church, etc., are built 
of boulders of the type referred to above. 

Weeton. 

Gneiss, basalt, carboniferous limestone, lias, etc., plentiful, 
principally built into walls. Around the pond in the centre of 
the village are several boulders between one and two feet in 
diameter, principally basalts, although lias and carboniferous 
limestone are represented. Some have a flat surface, though 
no well-defined striae are visible. An old inhabitant says stones 
are frequently taken from the fields to the village, but the bulk 
were probably from the beach. 

Welwick. 

^ 

Boulders plentiful here, as might be expected. Paths are 
constructed of beach pebbles and boulders. On the road-side 
just S. of the village, close by a stone-heap and now probably 
broken up for road metal, 

I. Basalt. 33 X 30 X 21 inches. 

One side flat, striated, and almost polished. 

WiTHERXSEA. 

Foliated compact blue gneiss. 36x30x12 inches. Sub- 
ane'ular. 



J 



Shap granite, small boulder on the beach. 

Shap granite, larger boulder in a garden near the * Spread 
Eagle ' Hotel. Has probably been collected from the beach. 

In view o( the remark by Mr. J. W. Stather, F.G.S., in 'the 
British Association Report on Krratic Blocks, for 1S97, to the 
effect that the chalk belemnites found in the boulder clays of 
Holderness are of a diff*erent type from those which occur in 
the Yorkshire chalk, I recently took advantage of a month's 
stay on the coast, at Withernsea, to confirm Mr. Stather*s 



observation. During that time some three dozen specimens 
were collected from the boulder clay cliffs and the beach 
(though principally the latter), and not a single individual can 

January 1899. 



«t 



I 

1 8 Yorkshire Boulder Committee : Its Tna^elfth Years Work. 

be referred to 5. quadrata^ the belemnite common in the 
Yorkshire chalk ; they all appear tp be of the B, lanceolata 
type- This species has not so far been recorded in the chalk of 
this country. I have also had an opportunity of examunng; 
a series of fairly perfect specimens in the collection of 
Mr, George Miles, of Withernsea, and amongst these examples 

the same fact is noticeable. 

Whilst at Withernsea also I obtained a collection of about 

20 flint casts of echinoderms, usually in black flint There are 

at least four species, and perhaps five, including Ananchytes^ 

Micraster^ Discoidea (?), etc. The commonest example resembles 

a small Ananchytes ovatus. Like the belemnites, these flint 

echinoderms have not been found in the Yorkshire chalk ; nor 

has the black Jiint, from which they have evidently been derived. 

The finding in such profusion of chalk fossils so foreign to 

the neighbouring chalk is very interesting, and opens out new 

problems to solve. 

boulders observed on the excursions of the 

yorkshire naturalists* union. 

Hexthorpe Flats, near Doncaster. 

Carboniferous limestone (with Encrinttes). 32 x 25 x 9 inches. 
Well striated on the top, sub-angular, resting on magnesian 
limestone. 

Dimlington and Easington. 



Shap granites. One pebble and three fairly large boulders ; 
all well rounded- Rhomb-porphyry. i6x i6x 12 inches. 

Reported by ]Vfr. J. W. Stather, F.G.S. 

ScALBY Mills, near Scarborough. 

r 

When making the new rifle range near here, in September 
1897, the following section in boulder clay was visible : 



Upper clay (red) ... 
Lower clay (grey) ... 



20 feet. 
20 feet. 



40 feet. 



Of the many hundreds of boulders thrown aside by the work- 



men, from 50 to 75 per cent, were estuarine sandstone from the 

adjacent beds. The remainder consisted of carboniferous rocks, 

whinstone, a few nondescript igneous types, and some secondary 

rocks, among which were two planed and striated boulders of 

chalk, each about 8 feet in diameter. 

Note. — This locality is about 20 miles north of Flamborough 
Head. 



Naturalist, 



Porritt : Colpotatiliits incisiis in Yorkshire. J 9 

BuRNisTON, North of Scarborough. 

In the bay (i mile long) between Cromer Point and Long 
Nab, the following group of boulders of Shap granite was 
noted in September 1897, 

The following occurred south of the lane descending from 
Burniston fields : 

I- 4x3x3/^ feet. 

2. 4x3x3 feet. 

3. 4^ X 3 X 2 feet. 
North of lane. 



4. 1 3^ X 1 1/ feet X 8 inches. 



\ 



5. 4x3x3 feet. 

6. 4 X 3 X 2]4 feet. 

7. 2y^ X 2X 1)4 feet. 

8. 3 X 2)4 X 2)4 feet. 

Also immediately north of Long Nab. 

9. 4^ X 3 X 2)4 feet. 



10. 2l4 X 2 X 2 feet. 




Half-way between Long Nab and Hundale Point. 
II. 6x5x5 feet. 

Cloughton, North of Scarborough. 

A thai coating of drift covers the rock at the grit quarries 
west of this village. A few foreign pebbles were noted, amongst 
which was a pebble of hard chalk. 

Holderness. 

r 

During the Kilnsea Meeting of the Yorkshire Naturalists' 
Union, August 1898, three previously unrecorded boulders of 
Shap granite were noted on the beach near Easington ; also 



several specimens of Belermiitella lanceolata. 




NO TE-- TRICHOPTERA. 

Colpotaulius lacisus, a Trichopteron new to Yorkshire, etc.— 

On July 25th, and ag^ain on August 20th, Mr. S. L. Mosley and I visited 
Shepley Mill Dam, an old reservoir literally choked with bulrushes, several 
miles out of Huddersfield. The sweeping net soon discovered that Colpo- 
taulius incisus was a common occupant o^ the 'dam,' and that it was 
accompanied by Limnophilus stigma. On the second visit the variable 
/.. stig-ma occurred in ^reat profusion, whereas, previous to the first visit, 
1 had only taken a single specimen in the district. Whilst I was workings 
the trichoptera, Mr, Mosley paid attention to the lepiJoptera, and soon 
secured several speciniens of OriJwtcelia sparganiella^ a species new to 
West Yorkshire. On August 13th, when working- Askham Bogs, near 
York, with the Rev. C. D. Ash, I found that CoL incisus was also common 
there among the herbage on a ditch side.— G. T. PORRiTT, Crosland Hall, 
Huddersfield, 4th Xovember 1898. 

Januarj^ 1899. 



20 



NO TES~ORNlTHOLOGV. 



Sclavonian Grebe in the East Riding.— On 30th November I had 

a fine male specimen of this bird {Podiceps aurihis L.) brought to me. It 
had been shot on 'flood water about forty miles from the sea, as the crow 
flies. On preserving it I found the stomach full of its own body feathers, 
and the elytra of various water beetles.— Oxley Grabham, Heworth, 
York, nth December 1898. 

St. Mary's Island Liglithouse.— The new lighthouse on St. Mary's 
Island, lighted for the first time on the 31st of August this year, has already 
been destructive to many of the wild fowl of our Northumbrian coast. 
Mallards {Anas boscas), Woodcock {Scolopax rusHcola), and a Storm Petrel 
{Procellaria pdagica) were recently picked up. The latter bird is not at all 
common on our coast.— H. T. Archer, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 13th Dec. 1898. 

Curlew's Nest with Nine Eggs. -On 9th May last, a keeper friend 

of mine found a Curlew {Numenius arquata)s nest, containing seven eggs, 
in a desolate part of Westmorland, and two days later I, by arrangenuint' 
accompanied him to the spot. On our way there we naturally discussed 
the probability of the eggs having been laid by two or more birds, but I was 
assured that all the eggs were exceedingly alike. When we arrived at the 
place, which was marked, the sitting bird did not attempt to rise, but allowed 
an approach of withm two yards. Her wings were spread out like a broody 
wu ''' f"^^^^_,^e '^too'^ watching her some of the eggs were plainly seen. 
V\ hen the bird eventually arose no less than nine eggs were found to be in 
the nest ; these I took there and then, replacing them by four other Curlew's 
we had taken on the way there, but on again proceeding to the spot some 
days later, I found that she had not taken to them. On examination, the 
whole of the eggs were quite fresh, and there was nothing, so far as incuba- 
tion was concerned, to denote any difference In the eggs, which have 
a general resemblance, as all, or nearly all, Curlews' have. I have how- 
ever come to the conclusion that they are the joint product of three'birds, 
one laying the full complement of four, another bird three, and the third two 
It IS extremely unlikch- that the nest had been added to bv a friendh- hand for 
a practica joke, as the place is a ver>' remote on^ and miles from the 
nearest habitation and in my own mind there is not the slightest suspicion 
that the keeper had tampered with it, I having known him for some years 

1 he occurrence is so unusual you may deem it sufficiently noteworthy of 
being recorded. •' 

The day following the one I took the Curlew's eggs, I found a deserted 
Lapwing (F««^//«^7;a«^//«^)'s with seven, many miles from the 'other 
place. 1 he eggs had been partly ' examined,' by a Carrion Crow apparently. 

^AViD Welbi;rn, Castle Lodge, Bishop Auckland, 20th Nov. .898 

Vernacular Names of Birds at Skelmanthorpe.-The following are 

a tew ot the local names for birds used in this district. Meetinir a bov one 
day last summer with a dead ChilTchafT {Phylloscopus rufus) in his hand, 
1 told him that if the pohceman saw him he would have to go to Barnslev 
Pohce Court. 'Nay,' he said, '"Peggys" are not \u the list whfcT th'e 
Hm!^?'^''" brought to our school.' Having occasion to go to the school some 
time later, I asked the schoolmaster to write the local names alongside the 

find ,'hL?K- }^ ^''."'"f '■ '^f T' ;''"'' ""'"*= ""^ ^^^ scholars were surprised to 

f.™ , <" 'V'"'' "^''^; ^'^^ "^'^'^ ""-"^ '''^°''' '•^^^^ h.-u« been familiar with 
lor years, but under another name: — 

Corn Crake, ' Dress Drake.' Meadow Pipit, ' Chit Lark ' 

S' ^n' •P'n^.''^/"^^'^'-' Long-tailed^Tit, ' Feather Peak.' 

f^y^^' Devils Bitch. Chiftl-hafT, ' Peo-iry.' 

\Uen,'Runt.' Sedge Warblei'^ Small Straw.' 

Magpie, 'Pynet.' Whinchat, 'Achat.' 

Starhng, ' Shep. Wheatear, ' Walkhat.' 

7^^^ i>edpo!e, Chivy Linnet.' Fieldfare, ' Fellferds.' 



nu^ cc T- <'^ . . ; ■' * ii-iuitiic, rciiierus. 

Chaffinch, 'Spink.' Missel Thrush, 'Stormy.' 

Yollowhammer, 'Yoldring.' ciormy. 

No^vem'be^S^''' *^°"""^" ^"'^' Skelmanthorpe, near Huddersfield, 8th 



Naturalist. 



21 



BIRD-NOTES FROM THE HUMBER DISTRICT. 



JOHN CORDEAUX, J,P.. F.R.G.S,, M.B.O.U., 

Creat Cotes House, R.S.O,, Lincoln'^ Ex'President of the Yorkshire and Lhicolnxhire 

S'aiii?'ah'sts' I'ui'ons. 



(Continued from 'The Naturalist* for August 1898, p. 239.) 

In compiling these notes, I have once more to express my 
indebtedness to my friend, Mr. G. H. Caton-Haigh, of Grainsby 
Hall, for having let me have copies of his notes on the move- 
ment of birds in his district. 

1 

The season in some respects has been remarkable, chiefly 
from its meterological conditions in the absence of high winds 
and storms, the very regular temperature, with fine, dry, and 
settled weather. Birds have come in almost continuously in 
small numbers, day by day, but without in any way approaching 
to the great ' rushes' so commonly experienced at this season. 

Loxia curvirostra L. Crossbill. A considerable number in 
the Spurn district in August. Mr. Philip Loten had several 
brought to him, both crimson males and orange-green 
females. 

Machetes pugnax (L.). Ruff and Reeve. Mr. Haigh saw^ 
four Ruffs near Tetney Haven on 20th July- On 3rd 
August, when in company with Mr, Haigh, we saw two 
Ruffs and four Reeves in the bed of an old creek. These, 
which were very unsuspicious of our presence, were wading 
amongst sedges in shallow water searching for food. In 
the same place were Mallard, Teal, Shoveler, Coot and 

_■ w 

Waterhens, Common Sandpiper, Dunlin, about ten couples 
of Snipe, Heron, and some scores of Reed and Sedge 
Warblers- These creeks are strictly preserved and kept 
very quiet, hence the abundance of bird life. 

Alcedo ispida L. Kingfisher, ist September. Mr. Haigh 

saw one at North Cotes sluice outfall. I have seen many 
during the autumn, and they have been unusually plentiful 
in drains, streams, and ponds all over the low-lying districts 
of North Lincolnshire. 

Podicipes cristatus (L.), Great Crested Grebe. 5th Sept. 



Mr. Haigh saw five in splendid plumage on the sea between 

Donna Nook and Saltlleet Haven. Also on the same day 
manv thousands of Scoters- 



January- 1899. 



2 2 Cordeaux: Bird-Notes from the Humber District. 

Hydrochelidon nigra (L.). Black Tern* 5th September. E. 

Seen on coast. This Tern is a regular autumn mig^rant, 
althoug-h it can hardly be considered common. 

Sylvia nlsoria (Bechstein). Barred Warblen 5th Sept. E. 

since mornings of 4th. Mr. Haig"h shot an immature Female 
close to the coasts amongst some brambles, at North 
Cotes. This makes the fifth example in fifteen years in 
the Humber district, namely, four in Eastern Yorkshire 
and one now in Lincolnshire. 

Phalaropus hyperboreus (L.). Red-necked Phalarope. 7th 

Sept. One was shot by Mr. Haigh in a creek at Tetney. 

Tartar commanis Selby. Turtle Dove. This is now quite 
an established species in North Lincolnshire. On 7th Sept. 
about a score were left in the sea plantation at Tetney. 



Throughout September the weather continued remarkably 
still and fine — quite a second summer. The smaller immigrants 
came in continually in small numbers. The various movements 
are best shown by the following notes from Mr. Haigh's diary. 

9th Sept. S.W., light wind, hot. Whitethroats numerous. 
Willow-Wren, Redstart, Sedge-Warblers, Blue Tits ; a few 

Yellow Wagtails, 20 to 30 in one hundred acres. Meadow 
Pipits abundant. 

1 2th Sept. W., light, fine. Whitethroats numerous. Two 
Redstarts, a Willow-Wren, Yellow Wagtails (about twenty). 
One Little Stint and several Curlew Sandpipers. 

14th Sept. W., light, fine. Whitethroats still common. One 
Redstart, a few Blue Tits* Some Blackbirds and Thrushes. 

15th Sept. E., light, fine. Wheatears very abundant. 

i6th Sept. E.S-E., fresh. Whitethroats scarcer. A few 



Wheat 



Wa 



17th Sept. E.S.E., fresh. Pied Flycatchers fairly numerous. 
Several Redstarts, very few^ Whitethroats. Thrushes, 
Robins, Pied Wagtail, Meadow Pipits, Wheatears, and 
Kestrels. 

22nd Sept, N., light and fine. Redstart, Whitethroat, 
Whinchat, many Meadow Pipits, several Golden Plover, 
and Curlew-Sandpiper. 

26th Sept. S.W. One Turtle Dove in park at Grainsby. 
28th Sept. W., fresh. Redstart, Sedge Warbler, Goldcrest, 

Naturalist* 



Cordeaux: Bird-Notes fnnn the Hmnber District, 2 



^ 



and Reed Bunting ; several Robins and Thrushes ; a few 
Mistletoe Thrushes. Shot two couples of Jack Snipe, and 
saw a few Common and Curlew Sandpipers. 

The most interesting items are the Pied Flycatchers on the 
i6th and 17th. 

13th Sept- When on the Yorkshire coast to-day^ with Mr. 
Hedley, of Haileybury College, we saw and identified 
Gannet, Arctic and Common Terns, Guillemot, Red-throated 
Diver, Cormorant, Grey Geese, Scoter, various Ducks, 
Gulls (of three or four species), many Skuas, Oyster- 
catchers, and Sanderlings. 

Numenius arquata (L.). Curlew. Common in September 
and October on pasture lands in the river marshes. They 
are called here 'Harvest' Curlew, from coming at the time 
of corn cutting. 

Limosa lapponica (L.). Bar-tailed Qodw^it. 14th September- 
First observed on the foreshore. It has been a most 
abundant species during the autumn, and very numerous 
on the Yorkshire coast and the Spurn muds. There are 
no Curlew-Sandpiper or Little Stint recorded from the 
Spurn district. 

Lusciniola schwarzi (Radde). Radde's Bush Warbler. At 

the meeting on 19th October of the British Ornithologists* 
Club in London, Mr, Haigh exhibited an example of this 
East Siberian species, which, after much careful watching, 
he obtained on ist October from a hedge at North Cotes, 
near the coast. Mr. Haigh was first attracted by the very 
peculiar and loud note of the bird, which he said was equal 
to that of owe several times the size, and it is curious that 
the Russian Godlewski makes mention of the same fact. 



Z. schwarzi has hitherto not been recognised west of Tomsk 
in Eastern Siberia, so that Its occurrence iu the Humber 
district is the more remarkable. The bird will shortlv be 
figured and described in the *Ibis.' 

AnsGr cinereus Meyer. Grey-lag Goose. loth October. A 

solitary Grey-lag shot by Mr. Haigh on the coast to-day Is 
the most handsome I have seen. The plumage is particularly 
clear and bright, specially so the lavender-grey rump and 
wing coverts. The under parts are much mottled with 
black. Bill like wax, the nail white, the rest pinky-yellow, 
legs and feet delicate flesh colour, irides brown, orbital-ring 
red. Grey Geese are more numerous this season than 

January 1899. 



24 Cordeaux: Bird-Notes from the Humber District. 

usual, to judg'e by the flights which from time to time pass 
between the coast and the high wolds, 

Cygnus muslcus Bechstein. Whooper. 6th October. E. 
Mr, Haigh shot an adult on the coast at North Cotes this 
evening. This is a very early date for the Wild Swan to 
appear. 

Gallinago coelestis (Frenzel). Common Snipe, ist October. 
First flight of foreign immigrants. 

Gallinago galUnula (L.). Jack Snipe, came in about the same 
date. 

Vanellus vulgaris Bechstein. Lapwing, ist Oct, Mr. Haigh 
reports Green Plover at North Cotes passing all day till 
after 5 p.m. to N.W. At Easington on the 15th I observed 
many coming in from the East. At Great Cotes on the 
i8th almost continuous flights from the East. On 2nd 
December, W., very strong, I saw an immense concourse 
of Lapwing In a pasture near the Humber. The birds were 
sitting very close together and with their heads towards the 
wind. This field is thirty-two acres, and one-third of the 
area was densely covered, I do not think there could be 
less than 30,000 to 35,000, and these figures are less than 
the estimate I formed at the time. An old marsh shepherd 
said he had never in his life seen so many ' Pyewipe ' together. 
I believe the whole body of birds were immigrants, and 
probably had just come in. 

Anthus obscurus (Latham). Rock Pipit. 6th October. Mr. 

Haigh writes : ' Dozens on the '* fitties " at Tetney to-day.' 

Parus ater L. Coal Tit. 6th October. One which I saw in 
a standard rose in the garden is undoubtedly referable to 
the continental form, having a pure slate-grey upper back 
and no trace of brownish as in P. hrifannicus in winter. 
I watched it for some minutes at a few feet distance. 
Many Coal Tits appeared in the Easington gardens early 
in October, but only remained a few hours. 

Regains cristatus K. L. Koch. Oold-crested Wren. 6th 

Oct, E., light, cloudy. Scores of these tiny immigrants 
in the sea hedges at North Cotes. In the Spurn district 
immense numbers during the first fortnight in the month, 
and especially so on the 1 5th, as I observed between 
Easington and Kilnsea. The wind S.S.E. and very strong. 
There has been no such arrival of Gold-crested Wren since 
the memorable invasion on 14th and 15th October 1892. 



Naturalist, 




Cordeaux: Bird-Notes from the Hiimbe?' District, 25 

Erlthacus rubecula (L.)- Robin. Great numbers both in 
East Yorkshire and Lincolnshire at the same times as the 
preceding:, and scarcely second to these were the 

Hedge Sparrows, Accentor /nodularis (L.). 

Sylvia atricapilla (L.). Blackcap. 6th October. An adult 
male was got at North Cotes by Mr. Haig-h. The Black- 
cap, althoug-h not common on mig-ration, occurs later in 
the year than any other of the warblers. 

Turdinse. With the single exception of the Ring-Ouzel, all the 
Thrushes have been largely represented — the hedges, 
copses, and turnip fields swarming^ with Mistletoe Thrushes, 
the Song Thrush, and Blackbird, but the Thrushes much in 

Later came Redwing and Fieldfare. The Mistletoe 
Thrushes arrived from early in September ; B|ackbirds and 
Thrushes from the middle of the month ; Redwings early 
in October; and Fieldfares from the 14th. On 3rd 
December, from 2.30 to 3-30 p.m., larg^e flights of the latter 
were crossing this parish (Great Cotes) from N. to S., flying 
at a great height, but readily identified by their constantly 
repeated calls of yack-chuck-chuck. Comparatively few 
Ring--Ouzels have been observed either in East Yorkshire or 
Lincolnshire. 

Dendrocopus major (L.). Great Spotted Woodpecker. 12th 

October, A boy brought to Mr. Haigh a young bird of 
this species which he had found dead on the seabank. 

Corvus comix L. Hooded Crow, 7th October one, on loth 

and 12th a few — has been scarcer in October, but increasing 
in November to the end of the month, when the main body 
arrived. Amongst these last arrivals were a few of those 
very light-coloured birds, in which the smoke-grey is 
inclined to white. [See 'Naturalist,' 1896, p. 7-] 

Rooks, Starlings, and Larks. 14th to 24th October. A large 

daily immigration from E. to W. On the 14th Mr. Haigh 



has a note from North Cotes: 'Starlings in clouds.' On 
the 18th, when driviuiJ: in the H umber marshes, I saw an 



enormous flock, probably just come in. They spread across 
the road in a black mass, sitting very closely, and extending 
right and left for some distance into the adjoining fields. 
On rising, the noise of their wings was as the roar of many 
waters, and so dense was the throng- tliat, altliough I tried 
my best, I could see nothing through or beyond them. Tiie 
whole of the vast assemblv took off to the north-west. 



January iSy). 



26 Cordeaux: Bird-Notes from tiie Hiunher District. 

Hirundo rustica L. Swallow. i6th October, Several this 
afternoon were hawking over the pond at Easington. 



Mr. Haigh saw a single Sand Martin in his park at 



Grainsby on the nth. 

Scolopax rusticuta L. Woodcock. 15th and 17th October. 
S.S.E., S.E., E. ; heavy sea. First flight Yorkshire coast. 
Four Woodcocks shot in or about Easington gardens were 
all in high condition, two of them remarkably fat, heavy 
birds. In each case the notch-like markings on the outer 
web of first primary were nearly lost, so I judged them old 
birds. It is curious how persistent is the error, even 
amongst sportsmen, that Woodcocks on their first arrival 
are in poor condition; I have invariably found the opposite. 

Frlngilla mqntifrlngilla L. Bramblin^. 14th October. 

Mr. Haigh saw one at North Cotes. .There was a flock 
on some stubbles near the sea at Easington on the 17th. 

Acanthis cannabina (L.). Linnet« 15th October. Thousands 
on the coast between Easington and Kllnsea. 

r 

Lanius excubitor L. Great Qrey Shrike. I have notes of 

four having been seen, two of these being on Kilnsea 
warren. 

Phalaropus fulicarius (L.). Grey Phalarope. 4th November. 
One was shot at Easington. Another in the Lincolnshire 
marshes about the middle of October. 

Passer montanus (L.). Tree Sparrow. 6th November. 

A considerable immigration about this date at Great Cotes. 

Columba palumbus L. Ringdove. 7th November. There 
IS a young bird in a purple beech near the house which is 
regularly fed by the parents. 

Porzana maruetta (Leach). Spotted Crake. loth November. 
One shot near Easington and taken to Mr. Philip Loten. 

Ruticilla titys (Scopoli). Black Redstart, nth November. 

One shot near Easington and taken to Mr. Loten. 

Otocorys alpestris (L.). Shore Lark. Fairly common in the 

Spurn district in October and November. 
Besides those birds which appear in the list there has been 
a marked increase in the number of Great and Blue Tits and 
the Common Wren in the hedgerows of the coast districts, 
suggestive of migratory movements either local or from the 
continent. So far I have not seen any Snow Bunting. There 
are large flocks of immigrant Greenfinches and Chaffinches in 
the stubbles. 



Naturalist. 



/ 



NEW BRITISH FUNGI 

FOUND IN WEST YORKSHIRE 



H. T. SOPPITT AND C. CROSSLAND, 

Halifax. 



Bartasa modesta (Karst.), Karsten, Mon. Pez. Fenn., p. 122; 

Karst. Myc, Fenn., L, p. 64; Cooke's Mycog^r,, f. 33; Sacc, 

Syl., VIII., n. 426. Sessilis, subgreg-aria, planiuscula, vix 

marg-inata, sicca decolorata et lutescens (in statu vivo subauran- 

tiaca-lutea ni fallor); ascis cylindraceis; sporidiis sphseroideis^ 

papilloso-asperulis, uniguttulatis, 18-20 /x diam.; paraphysibus 

apicem versus incrassatis. 

Hab. in sabulosis in Fennia. — Ascoma. 1-2 mm. lat. (Sacc. 
I.e.). 

Among" hepatics on sandy soil, bank of stream. Wade 
Wood, Luddenden Dean, near Halifax, T. W. Woodhead, 
October 1898. Distinguished among the British species of 
Barlcea by its larger size and spine-clad spores. Our specimens 
were 2-3 mm. diameter. 

Humaria rubens Boud., Bull, de la Societe Mycologique 
de France, 1896, p. 13, Tab. IIL, fig. i. British specimens 
were first found by James Needhani growing among moss on 
wall top, Nut Clough, Hebden Bridge, Oct. 1896. Mr. Needham 
also succeeded in collecting more of it among moss on the 
ground in Crimsw^orth Dean, near Hebden Bridge, 4th June 
1898. The Nut Clough specimens were identified by Mr, G. 
Massee, F.R.M.S., of the Royal Herbarium, Kew. M. Boudier's 
original description not being accessible to us at the moment ot 
writing, we give a few notes taken from the specimens we first 
examined, which may enable local students to recognise this 
species from other small red Pezizae. 

Ascophore sessile, 1-1% lines across, gregarious or scattered, 
dingy orange-scarlet, glabrous, rather fleshy, flesh ]{ of a line 
thick, at first hemispherical, then expanded, disc almost plane, 
margin entire, cells of excipulum oblong-elliptic, 30-40 x 20-25 //., 
smaller towards hymenium and cortex, sparingly intermixed 
with strings of irregularly swollen, septate hypha? of much 
less diameter, cortical cells 8-10 /x, subglobose, giving rise 
near the base to short hyaline, septate hypha^ 5-6 /t thick; 
asci cyhndrical, 260-290 x 16 /x, apex rounded, spores when 
mature occupy about ^/^ths of the space; spores 8, obliquely 
|:imset^e, broadly elliptical, smooth, t6-i8x 12-14 /x, uniguttu- 

Januarj- 1899. 



28 Soppitt and Crossland: New British Fu7igi. 

late, guttae large, rarely two smaller ; paraphyses septate, apex 
swollen, 8-9 /x thick, filled with orange granules, 4 /x thick below. 

In the Crimsworth Dean specimens the ascophores were 
2 lines across, disc bright-orange-scarlet; asci 200-210 x 15-16/x; 
spores 18-19 X 13-14 /x. 

This species has a similar habit to Barlcea Croiiani (Cooke), 
viz., that of growing embedded in moss, and may easily be 
taken for it by pocket-lens examination if not carefully looked 
at, B. Croiiani, however, when mature and in good condition, 
has a thin, pale, well-defined, entire or slightly-jagged margin 
which distinguishes it from this one, 

Humaria deerata Sacc, Syl., VIIL n. 550; Peziza deerata 
Karst., Mon., p. 119; Helotium Pedrottii Bresadola; Pseiidom- 
hrophila Pedrottii (Bres.) Boudier- 

On decaying flax-lining of a cast-out hearth-rug. Pecket 

Wood, near Hebden Bridge, June 1897, J. Needham. 

The specimens were very abundant. The growth of the 
hymenium in this species is remarkably luxuriant ; concave at 
first, prominently convex when mature, sometimes wrinkled and 
slightly umbilicate, and with the margin strongly revolute, 
literally turned inside out. The disc is minutely papillose with 
projecting tips of asci which impart to it when partially dry 
a finely pruinose appearance- The exterior Is radially streaked 
with thin, closely adpressed lines of brown, septate, thin-walled, 
flexuous hyph^, 80-120 x 4-5 /i, with upper cell almost hyaline, 
apex rounded. The excipulum is composed of densely inter- 
woven, hyaline, curly, branched hyphae, 4-6 /x thick, these give 
place at the cortex to rotund-polygonal, ochrey-brown cells, 
10-24 /x diam., from which spring the lines of brown hyphas. 
Our spore diameters are 14-16 x 8-9 /x (Karsten's 10-14x7-8)- 
The spores occupy about half the ascus ; paraphyses often 
branched- Well developed ascophores bear a strong external 
resemblance to sessile forms of O?nbrophila clavus, while the 
internal structure, with the exception of the broadly-elliptical 
spores, approaches Mollisia. Boudier founded a new genus, 
Pseudombrophila, on Bresadola's species. Massee considers 
this to be a Moll is ia. 

Mollisia pteridina Karst., Myc, Fenn., L, p. 194; Sacc, 
Syl., VIIL n. 1446; Subgregaria, sessilis, concava v. concavi- 
uscula, pallida v. pallido-umbrina, margine subcrenulato insequali, 
o*2-o'4 mm. lat; ascis cylindraceo-clavatis, 35-45 x 4-5 /^> obtur- 
aculo, minuto jodo obsolete caerulescente; sporidiis elongatis 
v. aciculari-elongatis, rectis, vulgo guttulatis, 5-iOx 1-2 /x. 

Hab. ad stipites Pterldls aqviilina? vetustos in regione 
Aboensi Fennise (Sacc. I.e.). 



Naturalist. 



Soppttt ayid Crossland: New British Fungi. 29 

On decaying" fern stems, High Greenwood, Heptonstall, May 
1897. The exterior in our specimens is minutely reticulated with 
black ridges. 

Ascobolus Leveillei Boud., M6m. sur les Ascoboles, p. 35, 

t. VIL, f. 16; Sacc, Syl., VIII., n. 2153. Minutus, congestus, 

brunneus, extus opacus et minutissime furfuraceus, i mm. lat. , 
subpirlformis, semimmersus; ascis longissime exsertis, amplis, 
clavatis, 180 x 30, octosporis ; sporidiis distlchis obtuse ellip- 
soideis, hyalinis, dein brunneis, 25-27 x 16, episporio leviter 
reticulato ; paraphysibus filiformibus, apice vix incrassatis. 

Hab. in stercore equino prope Paris Gallia? et in Germania. 
Ascis gelatina sulphurea interposita longe exsilientibus facile 
distincta species. Asci jodo coerulescent, episporium violascit, 
(Sacc. l.c) 

In immense numbers on horse dung, Copley, near Halifax, 
November 1898. Easily known by its small size, colour, densely 
gregarious habit, and especially by its smooth spores. In 
our specimens the excipulum is parenchymatous, cortical cells 
rotund-polygonal, 15-20 /x diam, ; asci 140-160 x 28-30 /x; spores 
occupying nearly all the space, epispore to all appearance per- 
manently smooth; paraphyses cylindrical, 3*5 jw thick, apex not 
thickened. 

Ascobolus (Sphseridiobolus) Crosslandi Boudier, Bulletin 
de la Socit^te Mycologique de France, tome XIV,, 3^ Fascicule, 
pp. 126-127. ' Minutls, o mm, 50 usque et i mm. 50, luteo-virens, 



glaber marginatus, sporis striatis, perfecte spha^ricis, violaceis. 

Receptacula extus glabra aut vix minute furfuracea, primo 
rotundata, dein hemispherica, posteaque expansa, luteo-virentia, 
margine irregulariter dentato, hymenio pro more thecis maturis 
nigro punctato ; paraphysis septata?, ad apicem incrassatae 
6-10 {JL crassai, et ut thecse gelatina lutea immersa? ; thecae 
octosporae, late clavata^, ad baslm paululum attenuatae, 170-200 /x 
longae, 25 circiter lata,- ; sporae perfecte globosai, pulcher et 
intense violacea^, dein fuscescentes, striata^, 16-18 /x crassae. 
Halifax, Angliae, Nov. 1897. Ad stercus caninum.' (loc. cit. ) 

Boudier adds: 'This pretty species is above all remark- 
able for the entirely spha^rical shape and lovely violet colour of 
its spores. It comes under my genus Sphceridiobolus, based 
^ipon the Ascobolus hype rhoreus of Karsten, which is distinguished 
from this by the paler colour of its spores. Now, in the species 
I am describing their stria? and their deep colour make them so 
nearly like the typical Ascobolae that one can really only class 
them separately as a sub-genus. In fact the spores, although 
perfectly round, are equally a beautiful violet, striate and not 
Y ^rucos e. These stria are simple or branched, are longi- 

Januar>^ 1899. 



"^^ 



30 Soppitt and Crossland: New British FtuigL 

tudinal and form by their direction two distinct poles. The 
ascophores are nearly glabrous, with the marg'in a little 
crenulate. The colour is uniformly that of the true Ascobola^, 
viz., a greenish yellow, a little darker on the hymenium, as is 
common in this genus, being spotted with black by the pro- 
truding asci filled with npe spores.' 

Salterhebble, near Halifax, October and November 1897. 

Several fully expanded ascophores measured 2 mm. across. 
Our measurements of asci were 1 30-1 70 x 16-20 /x, and spores 
12 /x. Cortical cells sub-globose, 16-24 /i diam. Ascophores 
blackish-brown when dry. 

Saccobolus granulospermus sp. n . Receptacula sparsrt 
aggregatave, perminuta;, o"3-o'5 mm. lata, sessilia, carnea, 
glabra, lurido-lutea, fuscescentia in statu siccitatis, primum 
subglobosa, demum expansa, disco piano, nigro-punctato cum 
ascis projectentibus; ascis late clavatis vel cylindrico-clavatis, 
loo-iiox 35 /x, subito angustatis in pediculus brevibus ad basin, 
apicibus rotundatis incrassatisque ; spores 8, ellipticus, polis 
obtusis, primum hyalinis et levibus, turn roseo-lilacinis, demum 
violaceis et subfuscescentibus, granulis minutis, 20-22x9-10/1, 
sacculo oblongo intra membraneum proprium inclusis; paraphy- 
sibus simplicibus vel ramosis, septatis, luteis, apicibus clavatis, 
curvatis, lat 6 /x (4 /x infra). 

Hab, in fimo bovino, Harewood, near Leeds, September 
1898, Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Fungus Foray, 

Distinguished more especially by the finely granular epispore 
and the markedly curved apices of the paraphyses. The 8 spores 
are grouped in four pairs in two series as in S. Kenferni(Crou3.n)i 
to which this closely approaches. In all the other species of the 
genus they are arranged in two rows consisting of three spores 
placed end to end, and one row of two laid on the juncture. 
The ascophores bear an external resemblance to S. Kerverni with 
the exception of being a little darker, but differ in the spores 
being rather smaller and finely granulose, and not the least 
fusoid or wrinkled. 



EXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 





meters; hg. 20. spores x mdef. ; fig, 21. portion of ascophore showing- 
margin X indef. All from nature except the two sp<->res after Boudier. 



Naturalist, 



Soppitt and Crossland : New British Fungi. 



31 



8 




13 






9 





10 





14 




IS 



19 






C. CR'CSSStAND. DELS. 






18 




12 





(foii^ 




January 1899. 



32 Short Notes : Lepidoptera and Mammalia, 

NO TES— LEPIDOPTERA. 

Orthotaeiia sparganiella near Huddersfield.— While collecting with 

me at Shepley Mill Dam, 20th Aug-ust, Mr. S. L. Mosley secured several 
specimens of this addition to the list of West Yorkshire Lepidoptera.— 
G, T. PoRRiTT, Crosland Hall, Htiddersfield, 4th November 1898. 

Xylophasia scolopacina at Huddersfieid. — This insect many years 

ag-o seems to have been fairly common in a wood near Huddersfieid, but oT 
late years has scarcely been seen. This year it was widely distributed 
over the district, and I took it even in my own garden. — Geo. T. Porritt, 
Huddersfieid, 4th November 1.S98. 



J 



NO TES— MAMMALIA. 

Curious Malformation in Teeth of Rabbit.— Last week a keeper 

in a wood near here killed a rabbit [Lepns cunicuhis), which had been 
driven out oi its hole by a ferret. On examination, both upper and 
lower incisors were found to be curiously malformed. The lower ones 
project from the low^er jaw, but slig'htly upwards, and are exposed for a 
leng^th of 20 mm. The upper ones have ^rown completeh' round the upper 
lip and have the points buried in the fur. As one consequence of this 
' ornamentation ' the poor possessor of these dental curiosities was not in 
the best condition, aithoug-h about six months old. — E. G, BayfORD, 
Barnsley, 23rd November 1898. 

Cave Finds in Ribblesdale,— At Horton, travellers speeding- tow^ards 
the Scottish border by Settle and Carlisle, will have noticed on the opposite 
side of the valley to where Penyg-hent holds vig;il the hig-h southern scars 
of Moughton, painted, as it were, by the debris from the quarries above, 
which at this point are w^orked at an altitude of 1,620 feet above^ sea level, 
the upper beds o^ limestone resting upon upturned Silurian slates, w^hich 
present an interesting geological object-lesson. At the north end of this 
quarry during summer the action of blasting the face of rock disclosed 
the presence of a cave, estimated by the workmen to be upwards of 
20 yards in length, the height at the entrance being about 15 feet. 
Quarrying has been carried on here for some time, so that the moutli 
of the present cave will be upwards of 65 3-ards from the face of the former 
cliff edge» Evidence, however, seems to show that at some remote period 
one continuous g-allery opened to the former face of rock and follovyed 
a somewhat circuitous course, along which workmen found, in quarrving, 
many miniature pocket caves, the cave earth not having altogether filled up 
the channel. At the mouth of the present cave a number of bones were 
brought to light. Lot No. i contains 14 bones referable to the following 
species: — i, right femur. Bear (Ursus ferox)-^ 2, tibia, fragment, Bear; 
3, ulna. Bear; 4, radius. Bear; 5, ulna. Bear; 6, tibia, Bear; 7-8, young, 
probably Bear; 9, Bear; 10, one tooth. Bear; 11, rib o{ ^\^\f [Canis'luf^us)', 
12^ fragment, Fox {Cam's vidpes)\ 13-14, lower mandible, fragment, \Volf ; 
15, fragment, Deer (Victoria Cave). Lot No, 2, ;^2> bones, referable as 
follows:— Nos. I, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, II. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 27, 29. 
and 33, Bear; Nos. 5, 6, and 26, Hy^na; No. 7, Horse ; Nos. 8, 22, and 28, 
Wolf; Ko^ 13, Sns ; No. 14, Fox; Nos. 31 and ^^^ 

Both collections were kindly verified by Mr. \Vm. E. Hoyle, M.A., of 
the Owens College Museum, Manchester, who will retain both collections 
for that museum. 

At present the cave is blocked by debris. Upon its removal, no doubt 
further exploration will reveal additional evidence of the life that once 
flourished during those remote cycles of time when tropical forests covered 
these now Highland solitudes where now the perfect peace of nature reigns. 

I am also indebted to the works and business managers of the Ribbles- 
dale Co., to Messrs. W. Cudworth, of Bradford, and S. Ashw^prth, of 
Leeds, for assistance ungrudg-ingly given. — J, Walling Handkv, Austwick, 
Lancaster, 26th November 1898. 

Naturalist,. 



33 



BIRD-NOTES FROM THE HIJMBER DISTRICT. 



JOHN CORDExVUX, J.P.. F.R.G.S., M.B.O.U,, 

Great Cotes House, R.S.O,, Lincoln \ Ex-President of the Yorhshire and Lincolnshire 

Naturalists' Unions* 



F 

(Continued from *The Naturalist' for Januarj 1899, p. 26.) 

Mr. Haigh forwards further notes from 28th October to 
i6th November 1898. 

28th October. S. , lig^ht, fine. Many flocks of Rooks. 
Jackdaws also in some of the flocks. Thrushes, Black- 
birds, and Redwings numerous. Large flocks of House 
Sparrows near the sea-bank. Several Kestrels and a 
Merlin, also clouds of Knot on the coast. 

31st October. S.W., strong, showery. Landrail shot. 
Many Thrushes in turnips and one Brambling seen. 

2nd November. S., gale, rain. At North Cotes, a few 
Tree-Sparrows, Bramblings, Blue-Tits, Fieldfare, and 
many Yellows-Hammers. 

^ 

3rd November. W., strong, fine. Large flocks of House 
Sparrows and a few Tree Sparrows, Rooks, and Larks 
comino^ in at North Cotes. In the hedg-es Blue-Tits, 



Chaffinches, Mistletoe Thrushes, Song Thrushes, and Red- 
wings. Q\x^ or two Sparrow Hawks. 

4th November. S.W., strong- A Grey Wagtail at Grainsby. 

r 

7th November. S.E., light. Lapwings and Fieldfare going 
South. One Woodcock seen, and a Long-eared Owl flushed 
from a ditch. 

8th November. S.E., light. A few flocks of Lapwing to 
the South, also Larks. Found the feathers of a Short- 
eared Owl on sea-bank. Large flocks of House Sparrows. 

loth November. S.E., light, fine, fog. Some Fieldfares, 
Blackbirds, Yellow - Hammers, Reed Buntings, and 
Chaflrnches fairly numerous. 

i6th November. S., light, foggy. Still some Blackbirds and 
a few flocks of Lapwing; one Goldcrest at Marchchapel on 
sea-bank. Fieldfares coming in continuously all day until 
dark in parties of from two or three to fifty. They appeared 
tired and hungry, as many dropped in the fields close to the 
sea-bank and commenced feeding. Shot a female Pintail 
at Tetney at flight time. 



899, 



34 Cordeanx: Bird-Notes from the Hiimber District. 

Tardus pilaris. Fieldfare* Tardus iliacas. Redwing. 

22nd December. Before and after this date I noticed 
extraordinary numbers .of both these at Great Cotes — flocks 
frequently passing over at a g^reat height. Our large old 
hedge-rows swarmed with them, the attraction being 
the heav^y crop of haws, which were quickly eaten. 6th 
January 1899, Still very numerous both on arable and 
grass lands in the marshes. 

Cygnus musicus Bechstein. Whooper, i8th Dec, Four, 
two old and two young, seen near Easington, and sub- 
sequently a *herd' of thirty-two off the coast there. 
Immense flights of Duck also came into the river about 
this time. 

One of the light-keepers at the Spurn, Mr. W. J. Counter, 
a most excellent observer, sends notes of the remarkable 



immigration there between 7th November and 22nd December. 

7th November. 8,0.4. About one hundred birds, chiefly 
small, flying around the light, 

loth November. A large flock of Knot to the South. 

1 2th November. S,O.M.D. Starlings, Redwings, Knot, 
Lapwing, Larks flying round light and some striking. 

13th November. The same as on the 12th, including a few 
Sanderlings and one Gull. 

15th November. Several Blackbirds and Starlings. 

1 6th November. A large number of birds numbering several 



hundreds flying around the light, and a great number 
striking. Knot predominated and also Starlings, The 
various birds striking and observed were as follows, viz.: 
Grey, Golden, Green, and Plover Knot, Woodcock, Oyster- 



catchers, Curlews, Gulls, Larks, Fieldfares, Redwings, 
Stints, Sanderlings, Blackbirds, Snipe, also two Stormy 
Petrel. 

17th November, Repetition of the i6th, but not striking the 
light so much. Three more Petrel killed. About Jive 
hundred birds were killed and captured these two nights. 

The wind being from the Southward and Westward, very 
dark and at times very thick. 

19th November. Flock of Redcaps [Goldflnch] observed 
amongst the dunes. 

20th November. A few birds flying round light, Sanderlings, 
Blackbirds, and Redwings. SW,0. and very dark. 



Naturalist, 



Cordeatix: Bird-Notes from the Humber District. 35 

23rd November, a.m. Two Lapwings struck the lantern 
heavily, and were dashed to pieces. 

24th November, Two Woodcock shot on dunes, and one 
Snipe ag^ahist lantern. 

nth December. Flock of Snow Bunting-s flying- about [This 
is the first notice I have of Snow Bunting's in the present 
season. — -J, C.]. Since this very numerous. 

T2th December, 3 a.m. WSW,0. Blackbird struck lantern 
and killed. 

13th December, 9.30 p.m. Lark. 

14th December. Several Crows to South. 

15th December. Very large flock of Knot to South. Star- 
ling and Snipe killed at lantern. 

. 17th December. Several Starlings, Larks, and Snow Bunt- 
ings around the light. 

igth December. A large number of Crows to South. 

22nd December. A few Crows to South, 

Plectrophenax nivalis (L.). Snow Bunting. 6th Jan. 1899. 
A few on the unploughcd stubbles and grass lands, but are 
altogether In much less numbers than in other years. 

Linota linaria (L.). Mealy Redpoll. 30th December. Two 

shot at Skefiling, Holderness, and taken to Mr. Loten. 

Larus minutus Pall. Little Quil. One In the immature dress 

was shot in the early autumn on the coast near Grimsby. 



This is the only example I have seen during the season, 
Mr. Thomas O. Hall sends the following notes from the 

Flamborouy:h Li^'hthouse :-^ 

^ On Sunday, 14th August, at noon, I saw the first Rooks, 
about thirty, but no more till 12th October, when the immigra- 
tion commenced and continued till the end of the first week in 
December. The first Goldcrests came on 21st October, and 
they continued for at least five weeks, but in a straggling 
manner. At the same time, I have never seen so many since 
I left the Fame Islands. On 25th and 26th October there was 
a flight of Golden Plover. Redwings and Fieldfare on two 
nights, but not in any quantity ; still, more than for the last 
three years.' 

Columba palambus Linn. Ringdove. iith-i2th December 
(night of gale). Mr. Haigh writes :—** Great many came 
in, shot twenty in an hour, and young Peregrine in error as 
the light was so bad." 

February 1899. 



36 



LAKELAND BIRD-NAMES. 



Miss MARY L. ARMITT, 

Ambleside, If Westmorland. 



Local bird-names — especially such as are dying out — are only 
slowly acquired by the stranger, and the few following are 
all I have met with that belong properly to Lakeland:^ 
Redstart. * Jennie RedtaiL' 

Fieldfare, 'Feldfar' or 'Fieldfaw.' Redwing. * Redbreast.' 
Wren. ' Chittie/ also (less known) * Chittaway Wren.^ 
Willow- Warbler. 'Miller-thumb.* Nightjar. * Night-hawk.' 

Whitethroat. ' Peggy Whitethroat.' Magpie* ' Pyat.' 
Starling. * Shepster.' Lapwing. * Tewit.' 

Woodpigeon. ' Cushat.' Chaffinch. ' Spink,' 
Long-tailed Titmouse. * Long-tailed Chittering/ *Magpie.' 
Swift. ' Deviling' — pronounced ' Dievilin.' 
Tree-Creeper, * Woodpecker.' 

Dipper, 'Bessie Douker.' This is universal, and no other 
name is known. 

■J 

Grey Wagtail. *Wattery Wagtail.* Applied only to the 
wagtail * about the becks.' 

Ring-Ouzel. * Craigie-easlin. ' Probably a native pronun- 
ciation of Crag-Ouzel. 

There is also the ^Crag-hawk/ apparently the Kestrel. 

There are also two peculiar local names, known now to 
few — *Strawsmar,' pronounced * Streasmer/ which, from the 
description given by a farmer from Grizedale, in Lancashire, 
appears to apply to the Garden-Warbler; and * Scobbie,' 
for the Chaffinch. This latter name, furnished me by a 
friend, was confirmed by a very old woman, who spoke of 
it having been in general use in Cumberland w^hen she was 
a child. It is known also in Wray, by Windermere, I am told. 

Besides the Titlark and the Skylark, there is a bird called 
the 'Ground Lark,' of uncertain definition. I fear it is not 
the Tree Pipit, though it would be satisfactory to prove it so, 
and to know that a bird so abundant on the fell-slopes, and so 
generous of its beautiful strains, has not been left unrecognised 
and unnamed by the people. 

The Goldfinch, once much more numerous than now, has 
a name, 'Pear-tree FHnch,' from the Pear tree, like the 
Sycamore, being a favourite nesting-tree w^ith it. 

I have found 'Stone-check/ pronounced * Stean-check,' 
applied to both Wheatear and Whinchat, though by different men. 

Naturalist, 



37 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 
TO THE LINCOLNSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION 

DELIVERED 9TH NOVEMBER 1897. 



Rev. Canon W. W. FOWLER, M.A., F.L.S., F.E.S., 

F 

Lincoln, 



Although as far as the number of members is concerned the 
Lincohishire Naturalists' Union remauis in ahnost the same 
position as last year, evidence is not wanting that the interest in 
the Union and in the natural history of the county g^enerally is 
g"ro\vingf and spreading* and is likely to lead to further important 
developments. One thing, however, becomes more and more 
plain, and that is, that if the Union is to be settled upon a firm 
basis it requires a resting place and a home for the results of its 
work, and for the results of the work of past and future 
generations of naturalists and antiquaries who have belonged 
to the county. In short, if Lincolnshire is to rank with other 

counties in scientific matters, as it is eminently fitted to do, 
a county museum, in the widest sense of the term, becomes an 
imperative necessity. Much has been already done, and much 
more perhaps may be done by utilising the rooms in Lincoln 
Castle, which have been kindly lent by the County Committee ; 
but the rooms at present In use are rather regarded as store 
rooms than as an actual museum. There is no guarantee, 
people think, that things will be taken care of and preserved, 
and few therefore are willing to send valuable specimens which 
would come in in large quantities if a fitting museum were 
founded. The Union hoped much from the kindness of the late 
Mr. Ruston, who, as an honorary member of the Museum 
Committee, expressed himself as very favourable to the estab- 
lishment of a museum, but his recent much-regretted death 
obliges us to wait until help comes from some other quarter. 
Meanwhile a most important matter has come to the front and 
calls for immediate action. Mrs. Cross, widow of the late 
Canon Cross, has offered her husband's transit and probably his 



equatorial telescopes, which are very valuable instruments, to 
the city of Lincoln on condition that a suitable observatory for 
their reception is provided by June 1S99; it will surely be 
a disgrace to the county of Sir Isaac Newton if, through want of 
proper accommodation, these instruments are allowed to %o to 

February- 1899^ 



38 Fowler: Presidential Address to Lmcs, Naturalists' Union. 

a small town in the North of England which has already asked 
to have them, if they are not sent elsewhere. 

Durhig^ the past year (1897) there have been four excursions. 
The first of these was to Scotton Common, near Gainsboroug^h, 



J 



members to view the 



large gullery on the Common ; apart from the gulls, a large 
number of good birds (including the Sheldrake, Redshank, etc.) 
was observed, as well as many rare plants, and a very enjoyable 
day was spent, thanks to the arrangements made by Mr. F. M. 
Burton and others. On ist August (Bank Holiday) a large 
party (including a contingent of 29 from Louth) met at Tetford 
and Holbeck, and on 26th i\ugust a very successful meeting 
was held at Wyberton Marsh, near Boston, for the purpose of 
investigating the foreshore of the Wash. In connection with 
these excursions the Rev. A. B. Skipworth and Mr. W. Lane- 
Claypon and the Rev. J. Conway Walter deserve the best 
thanks of the Union, the two former for their kind hospitality, 
and the latter for his services as guide to the Holbeck party. 
The fourth and last excursion took place on Thursday, 
30th September, when a fungus foray was held in the woods 
of LInwood, admission to which was kindly allowed by Colonel 
Gordon ; under the able guidance of Mr. Lewington a very 
large number of fungi were found, and no less than 54 were 
named by the Rev. W. Fowler, of LIversedge, who freely 
placed his extensive mycological knowledge at the service of 
the party. 

Mr. Cordeaux has kindly supplied me with a few notes 
regarding rare birds which have appeared this year in Lincoln- 
shire ; and while speaking of birds it is pleasant to hear that 
the Nightingale has extended its range. The year before last 
it bred in Northumberland, and at Brackenborough, near Louth, 
a pair has brought off young for two years in succession. 
A pair or two usually breed in the suburbs of Lincoln each 
year. A pair of Grey Wagtails nested in the ivy of the house 
wall at Great Cotes and brought off a brood. Hitherto these 
birds have not been recorded as nesting in the eastern counties. 
On 24th May an example of Savl's Warbler was seen by 
Mr. Cordeaux in Great Cotes marshes. On 28th July, Mr. 
Cordeaux and Mr. Peacock heard the Great Reed Warbler 
calling from the reed bed in Madam's Creek, near Tetney. The 
loud notes of this bird had attracted the attention of men 
working in the vicinity, and subsequently the bird was seen. 
It remained In the neighbourhood for s:me weeks alto^rethen 

Naturalist, 



Fowler: Presidential Address to Lines. Natnralists' Union, 39 

Only about four previous occurrences are on record for Great 
Britain. On i8th September about seventy Pink-footed Geese 
passed over Brackenborough Hall from the sea towards the 
Wolds. This is the earliest arriv^al on record for Lincolnshire, 
About fourteen have been recorded in the 'Field' (2nd October, 
P- 537) ^s arriving on the Yorkshire Wolds on 9th September, 
which is the earliest record for Yorkshire. 

A considerable amount of work has been done at the insects 
of the county by the Rev. A. Thornley and Mr. J. Eardley 
Mason. The former has a list in manuscript of no less than 
900 species of Coleoptera recorded from the county, which will 
be a most valuable addition to our knowledge when published* 
No particularly rare species have been recorded with the excep- 
tion of Monochajmniis sartor F., a large longicorn, found in a 
house in Lincoln. The records for Britain are few, but for my 
own part I believe that it is not indigenous, but is invariably 
imported in the larval state- Last year I commented on the 
rare appearance of the Large Heath Butterfly {Epinephele 
iithojius) in Lincolnshire, but I have since found that in certain 
localities it is not uncommon. I am very glad to know that the 
Diptera and Hemiptera are also receiving a share of attention 
from Mr. Thornley and Mr. Mason, as these orders are usually 
entirely neglected. Mr. Percy Grimshaw, of Edinburgh, is at 
present occupied with an important paper on the Lincolnshire 
and Nottinghamshire Diptera, the material for which has been 
supplied by Mr, Thornley. 

I do not feel in any way competent to speak of the botany 
of the county, especiall}' as we have two botanists in the Union, 
the Rev. E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock and the Rev. W- Fow'ler, 
who are second to none in their knowledge of British botany. 
Mr. Peacock, however, informs me that the following are the 
best species that have been found among the phanerogams : — 
Thalictruni collinnm Wallr. from the Isle of Axholme, Trifoliuni 
Jiliforme L. from both North and South Lincolnshire, Salix 
undulata Ehr. from Great Cotes, and Euphorbia portlandica L. 
from Skegness. The latter has been growing at Skegness for 
years, but was first recorded this year by Mr. F. A. Lees. 

In my last address I spoke at some length on the question 
of the importance of economic entomology, which cannot well 
be over-estimated in an agricultural county like Lincolnshire, 
and I alluded to the work of Mr. J. Eardley Mason. Mr. Mason, 
whom we are all very glad to see again working among us, has 
kindly furnished me with the following notes on insect pests 

February 1899. 



40 



Naturalists 



during the current year, which cannot fail to be interesting to 
all of us: — 'From an inspection of a large number of fields 
north, south, and east of Lincoln in July and August, it 
appeared that wheat was almost free from the Hessian Fly 



{Diplosis destructor L.), but that Corn Aphis {Siphonophora) was 
prevalent, and the damage caused by its absorbing part of the 
sap on the way to the ears was shown by the dwarfing of 
the individual grains. The Wheat Midge {Cecidomyia tritict 
Kirby) was answerable for about an average amount of injury. 
Feeding within the glumes the maggots, where three or more 
are present, distort and shrivel the grain, and in some cases, 
where numerous, destroy it. The injury caused by these two 



pests is readily distinguished from the complete abortion of the 
grain due to non-fertilisation, of which there has been too much 
this year. This is probably due to a few frosty nights at flower- 
ing time. The Wheat Sawfly {Cephtis pygm(Bns Curt.) was not 
noticed, and barley suffered very little from gout, the bulging 
unemerged ears, the work of the Ribbon-footed or Gout Corn 
Fly [Chlorops tceniopiis Curt.) being very rarely seen. A few 
Hessian Flies made their appearance rather late, but practically 
no damage was done by this or the preceding species. Oats 
had about the usual number of side shoots occupied by the larva 
of Oscinis frit L. or an allied species. In spite of the dry- 
weather nothing was noticed of the presence of the usual moth 
larvse [Mamestra, Agrotis, etc.) in the young turnips just thicken- 
ing for the bulb. This report is certainly an encouraging one, 
and bears out my opinion that the scares regarding these 
pests are, except so far as concerns the particular season, quite 
unjustifiable. The Hessian Fly, for instance, is always w^ith us, 
and has probably never been introduced at all; it is only at 
times that it becomes very destructive, and apparently at long 
intervals ; hence the scare about ten years ago when it was 
thought to be a new plague altogether and the last straw 
that would break the farmer's back. This irregularity of appear- 
ance in large numbers is common to many insects. In the 
case of harmless species like the Clouded Yellow Butterfly it 
simply rouses curiosity and admiration, but in the case of 



noxious insects it immediately causes a panic. Perhaps the 
worst of all these panics was the one created by the appearance 
of the Colorado Potato Beetle in America some twenty years 
ago; we have heard very little about it since, but when the 
favourable circumstances for its enormous multiplication again 
occur history will repeat itself. 



Naturalist, 



Fowler: Presidential Address to Lines, Natiiralists* Union. 41 

It is the privileg-e of a President in his address to wander 
somewhat from his special subject and to be allowed a certain 
license of g-eneralisation, if I may so call it, and such a privilege 
is certainly a g-ood thing for his hearers, for a man is too apt to 
think that his hearers know as much of his special subject as he 
himself does, and to burden them, as I have been often burdened 
myself, with the 'sesquipedalia verba' of a technicality that is 
meaningless to the uninitiated. I would therefore say a few 
words on a subject which is often being brought to the front, 
and that is the question of mere collecting as compared with 
observation and research; as a rule, the * mere' collector is held 
up to contempt and reprobation, but unless he is wantonly 
destructive, there is very much to be said for him; In the first 
place he gets an infinite amovmt of harmless enjoyment ; there is 
no pleasure greater than that of a keen collector who steals 
a half or a whole day to vnsit some historical locality which 
he has not explored before, and who finds his expectations more 
than realised, unless it be that of a collector who unexpectedly 
strikes a new locality for himself, and conies away with his box, 
bottle, or vasculum filled with good species which he knows will 
be a delight for some time to come to himself and his friends. 
I say to ' his friends ' advisedly, for the collector who will not 
share his treasures nor part with them except on the rule of 
a strict quid pro quo, and who, moreover, is always keeping his 
localities a dead secret (except strictly in the interests of science 
to prevent extermination) is no true naturalist but only a mere 
huckster; we are told that it is 'by mutual confidence and 
mutual aid' that 'great deeds are done and great discoveries 
made,' and nowhere is this more true than in the field of Natural 
History: the field is a vast one and only a small corner can 
be explored by one individual, but it is a field in which the 
very humblest may do good work, and where the greatest 
Workers are necessarily dependent on the most obscure; 
observers, systematists, and generalisers owe a very great 
debt, as Darwin himself would have been the first to allow, to 
individual collectors over limited areas, through whom many of 
the most important facts on which they frame their inductions, 
have over and over again been brought to light. At the same 
time to rest as a mere collector, to collect for the sake of filling 
vacant spaces in one's cabinet, to spend all one*s time in the 
manipulation of specimens in order that they may present 
a regular and uniform appearance is a thing greatly to be 
deprecated ; it is much the same with these as with certain 

f ebruar> i&w. 



42 Fo7vler: Presidential Address to Lines, Naturalists^ Urtion. 

microscopists I have come across who spent all their energies ui 
finding out how to work with higher objectiv^es than their 
friends, and who are perfectly happy and contented if they have 
resolved out a few lines on a diatom which a friend's microscope 
obstinately refuses to reveal; of course, a collector in the strictest 
sense of the term must to a certain extent be an observer: he 
must observe localities and habitats and seasons of capture if 
nothing else, and if he will only keep a record of these he w^ill 
have done much; but even this is often neglected, and there- 
fore I would put in a strong plea for more observ^ation and more 
keeping of accurate records of all kinds. Gilbert White's work 
was not of a very solid or wide description, but he observed 
such facts as u^ere within his reach Intelligently and accurately, 
and recorded them intelligibly and pleasantly, and so earned 
for himself a reputation that appears to increase rather than 
diminish as time goes on. Now observations of any kind 
are most valuable, but as in simple collecting one group 
must be particularly attended to, so it is the same with 
regard to observations ; some may work at life histories, 
a most interesting and much neglected study, others at 
structure, others at distribution, including migration, while 
others again content themselves with classification ; there is, 



however, one subject, or rather group of subjects, which I think 
has a particular charm for the ordinary observer, and that is the 
question of protection and mimicry In nature, and the allied 
questions of warning colours, recognition markings, and other 
correlated matters ; there are some people who think that the 
observers in these branches' go too far and see too much ; but 
granting this to a certain extent, yet the main facts carry con- 
viction to anyone who can put two and two together. Take for 
instance a branch on which a large number of the caterpillars of 
the Geometridae are feeding: ; an uninitiated observer would 



t> y 



probably not see one, even if he looked closely, so exact is their 
resemblance to the small twigs of the tree on which they are 
resting: and then observe a hawthorn hedge covered with the 
scarlet black and white caterpillars of the Gold Tip Moth 
{Port/iesia si?uilis Fuess.) flaunting themselves In the sun. ' What 



is the reason of the difference? Evidently that one is edible 
and needs protection, and that the other is distasteful and 
requires to be made as conspicuous as possible iii order to avoid 
accidental injury by would-be devourers* Many of our pritlsh 
moths are closely protected by their likeness to the rocks or tree 
trunks on which they rest ; some have protective upper wings 

N.-ituralist. 



Foivler: Presidential Address to Lines. Naturalists* Union* 43 

but very brig-htly-coloured under wing-s, as their names Scarlet 
Underwings or Yellow Underwing^ imply. I have watched the 
larg-e Scarlet Underwing* {Catocala niipta L.) flying among 
willows on the banks of a stream, a flash of scarlet followed by 
a total disappearance, so exactly do the upper wings resemble 
the trunk on wiiich it settles. What, however, is the reason 
of the brilliant scarlet ? Probably, as Professor Poulton, who 
has studied the subject very thoroughly, writes to me, its use is 
to draw the attention of an enemy to a non-vital part. This 
appears to be proved by the frequent chipping of the wings at 
their margins ; the bird makes a dash at the most attractive 
portion of the insect which, in any case, is very conspicuous on 
the wing, and so it escapes, and when once it reaches its tree 
becomes practically invisible ; the same is the case to a great 
extent with the Yellow Underwings, but they, as well as the 
Herald Moth {Gonoptera lihatrix L,) and the Centre Barred 
Sallow {Cirrhccdia xerampelina L.) and its allies, are also pro- 
tected by their close resemblance to dead leaves ; others, again, 
like the Buff-tip {I^Iialcra bucephala L,) and the Sharks {Cucnllia) 
when at rest are just like broken pieces of wood or splinters, 
while others again, e.g., Abraxas sylvata Scop,, closely resemble 
the droppings of birds from a height on to leaves ; and so we 
may carry the question through the whole animal kingdom, 

remembering that environment must always be taken into 
account. The Tiger in the open is a most conspicuous object, 
but amid the dry jungle it is so exactly adapted to its surround- 
ings that it is scarcely x'isible to a novice at a comparatively 
short distance, even though clearly in sight to an expert ; 
and as we thus observe we are carried on to further fields. 
What animals are better protected by colour than the Rabbit 
and the Hare? Why then has the Rabbit a conspicuous 
white tail, and the Hare black ears? In the Rabbit it is plainly 
a recognition marking for the young ones to follow and so 
be guided to safety, and it is probably much the same with 
the black ears of the Hare, although in this case it is not so 
obvious. 
We h 

that brightly-coloured larvae or reptiles are distasteful to birds, 
lii^ards, etc. This distastefulness is often heightened by external 
hairs, unpleasant secretions, and warning attitudes. In the 
Hop Dog, the caterpillar of the Pale Tussock Moth {Dasychira 
pndibitnda L.), and in some of the Vapourer Moths and their 
allies, the back is furnished with several hairy tussocks or little 

February 1899, 




44 Fowler: Presideyitial Address to Lines, Nattirahsts\ Union. 

hvimps of hairs which easily come out. They are the parts first 
seized by an enemy, and the unpleasant mouthful is usually 
sufficient to prevent a second attempt. The Squirrel's bushy 
tail is probably on much the same principle. An enemy in 
pursuit would most likely make a grab at the large tail and get 
simply a mouthful of hair for its pains. 

If we pursue the subject further we get to variable pro- 
tection, a most interesting branch of the subject, and to the 
great question of mimicry. The latter diflFers from protective 
resemblance by the fact that it deals with the imitation of living 
things, whereas protective resemblance is confined, strictly 
speaking, to a likeness to inanimate objects. The best instances 
of mimicry are found in tropical countries, but in our own 
country we have the Clear-wing Moths closely resembling 
Wasps and Hornets, and so being protected ; and the Hawk- 
like appearance of the Common Cuckoo must have struck most 
of us. 

There is, in fact, no limit to this most fascinating field of 
observation. Often we may make mistakes, but these very 
mistakes lead to corrections and open up new side-paths of 
knowledge. Nor must we, in the end, forget the important 
bearing that even the least of these facts has upon the great 
question of natural selection and of evolution generally. Our 
ideas regarding these have been considerably modified of late 
years. The term evolution has been applied to so many 
sciences, not to speak of ethics and theology, and in so many 
connotations, that it has almost ceased to have any definite 
meaning and has become too often a mere catch-word. At the 
same time there are vast truths underlying it. We must indeed 
allow that the old system of teleology or final causes was to 
a great extent done away with by the theory of natural 
selection, but no one can for long be an observer in the field 
we have been Indicating without feeling convinced that this 
theory simply shifted the point of view and opened up to us 
teleology of a far greater and deeper character. I am afraid 
that I have considerably digressed from county natural history, 
but I hope that you will forgive me, and, in conclusion, I should 
like to say that, since I wrote the greater part of my address, 
a new society has been formed in Lincoln under the title of the 



Lincoln Scientific Society, which we hope may grow into a 
County Association, and, as a sectional society for home work 



and the reading of papers, supplement the excellent field work 
of the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union. 

Naturalist, 



45 



EXTRACTS FROM A CONCHOLOGIST'S NOTEBOOK. 



WILLIAM NELSON, M.C.S.. 

Cros!ig^ates, Leeds; Hon. Sec, Leeds Conchological Chtb 



3.— TO WISTOW AND CAWOOD FOR LIMNJEA GLABRA. 

At the beg^inning^ of 1887, havings been told by my friend, 
Mr. J. W. Taylor, of a locality at Bishop Wood for this local 
species where he had obtained several years before, I deter- 
mined on an examination of the district to search for it, and 
during the first week in May I started for Bishop Wood, via 
Hambleton, I stayed a little time to examine the broad 
stream or dyke and obtained specimens of SphcBrium cor- 
neunt^ Bythinia tentaculata^ Valvata pi'scuialis, Planorbis albiiSy 
P, vortex^ P, carinatus^ P. tinihilicatiiSy Physa fontinalis^ Lhnnc£a 
peregra and Z, trtincahda. Having^ left here and g-one towards 



the wood, I could not but notice the daisy-spreckled banks, and 
here I saw my first butterfly of the season, a hybernated speci- 
men of the Small Tortoiseshell {Vanessa iirticce). In a ditch here 
I found a few specimens of Physa hypnorum, Planorbis spirorbis, 
^nd Limucea truncatula, but I searched in vain for a pond where, 



about 1859, I was wont to g^et specimens of the Water Violet 
{Hottonia palustris) for my aquarium ; I suppose since that time 
it has been filled up. I ag"ain joined the path, and in a drain 
near obtained Limncea pcregra and Z. truncatula, both rather 
large. The former were very fragile and, though I bx'ought 
a good many away, I scarcely got a perfect example home. In 
a pond near to the farm I obtained additional examples of 
Physa hypnorum, Planorbis spirorbis, Limncea peregra, and 



Z. truncatula. Having passed through the farmyard, the road 
skirts the wood, which at the time was bright with Primroses 
[Primula vulgaris), and here again I saw some butterflies 
flitting about, and which from their size and manner of flight, 
I concluded were the Small White (Pieris rupee). I then turned 
into the road that runs through the wood to examine the ditch 
on each side of the road, but I failed to find any shells, I spent 
considerable time at this place, because I understood it was here 
where Mr, Taylor found the species I was in search of. I left 
very reluctantly, and gave up all hope of finding my favourite 
species of Limnwa. I then retraced my steps into the road 
%^ain, and proceeded till I came to a ditch near Scalm Park. 

I^ebruao' 1899, 



46 Nelson: Extracts from a Conchologist's N'otebook. 

Here I found Physa hypnoriwi, Planoj'bis spirorbis, Limncea 
peregra, and L. palnstris. Proceeding; further along- the road, 
I came to a number of small ponds, which are situated close 
to the cross roads here. The first pond I searched yielded no 
molluscs; the next one I examhied had an abundance of 
Planorbis spirorhis and Limncea palustris, the latter being* very 
small examples. After a time, in another part of the same 
pond I began to find Physa hypnorum, and at length was 
rewarded by a specimen of Limncea glabra, and after a diligent 
search I obtained two or three additional examples. I then 
left this pond and tried another, which yielded a goodly number 
of Limncea glabra and Z. truncatula, I may here remark that 
the Z. glabra were small and slender, and many of them were 
possessed of a thickened rib just within the aperture of the 
shell. These ponds and part of the ground round seem to 
me, from some of the plants which still survive, to have been 
a common until a comparatively recent time. 

Having reached a small stream that crosses the road near 
Wistow, I examined it, but only found Ltm^ncea peregra. 
Passing through the village of Wistow, I turned towards 
Cawood, and in a ditch near the latter village I found Physa 
hypnoruni, Planorbis spirorbis, and Limncea glabra, the latter 
being of a diflferent form altogether from those gathered at 
the cross roads between Wistow and Scalm Park, being longer 
and proportionately broader. ' 

Having passed the village maypole, I went alongside a 
dried-up canal in front of the castle and noticed skeletons of 
Eels {Anguilla sp.) lying on the soft mud. Arriving at 
BIshopdyke, I turned to the left and had for some miles a very 
unpleasant walk. The dyke was undergoing the process of 
being deepened and widened ; the mud which formed was piled 



up on the roadside which runs alongside the dyke ; this gave off 
an unsavoury smell, but amongst the drying mud I obtained 
well-preserved specimens of Limncea peregra^ Z. auricularia, 
Z. stagftalis, Z, palustris^ Planorbis carinatus, and P. corneas, 
which, from their long burial in the mud had acquired quite a 
sub-fossilised appearance. 

I should like here to remark that I have not met with recent 
specimens oi Limncea auricularia, and should be pleased to hear 
if any readers have so obtained it. Having passed Biggin, 
w^hlch laid to the right, I turned to the left and searched some 
ponds, w^hich had evidently at one time been a moat, at 
a place called Manor Garth. Here I got examples o^ Planorbis 

Naturalist, 



Book Notices, 47 

spirorbis, P, umbilicatus, LimncBii peregra, and Z. pahisfn's. 
One of the latter had the body whorl ornamented by white 
bands due to an absence of epidermis, evidently caused by some 
injury sustained by the mantle. Crossing- a number of fields, 
I searched the railway line and walked alongside it to the 
station, where I found I should have to wait some time for 
a train ; so I partly retraced my steps and went into Gas- 
coigne Wood, where I noticed many Primroses and also some 
unusually gaudily-coloured flowers of Anemoue netnorosa and 
Oxalis acetosella. I left here in time to get the train and arrived 
home at about half-past eight well tired. The day was a most 
pleasant ox\q^^ the sun shining brilliantly, In fact a perfect 
summer's day. In addition to this, I had been successful 
beyond my most sanguine expectations. To find two fresh 
habitats in one day for Limncea glabra is a feat that is not 
very often accomplished. 

[Read before the Leeds Conchological Club, loth December 1898.] 




BOOK NOTICES. 

We lately received the ninth edition of * Skertchly's Geology/ by 
James Monckman, D.Sc. Lond. It is a small 8vo. volume in cloth, and 
forms one of Murby*s Science and Art Department series of Text-Books, 



have rec 

Mutilat 




and tail cropping- in dogs, ear-cropping^ and slitting- and tail-docking- in 
horses, are unsparingly condemned, and shown to be not merely cruel, but 
unnecessary. There are numerous illustrations of horses showing^ the 
evil and unsigfhtly effects of these practices. 




From Canon A. Al. Norman we have received a further instalment of 
his * Museum Normanianum/ under which title he publishes a catalog^ue 
of the invertebrata of Europe and the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans 
which are contained in his splendid collections. The present instalment 
includes No. 9, Tunicata ; 10, Sternasp'is, Gephyrea, and Phoronis ; ti, 
Annelida polychc-eta, and 12, Ccelenterata. We have only recently received 
it, thoui^^h it bears date at the end of the preface i8th November 1897. 




An interesting- little book now lying before us is one by Edith Carrlng- 
ton, entitled * the Farmer and the Birds/ which has a preface by 
Canon Tristram. The book is published by Messrs. Georg:e Bell & Sons, 
for the Humanitarian League. It is an admirable little book and quite a 
storehouse of detailed facts bearini^* upon the valvie of our feathered triends 
to the farmer. Not on]\' is the book full of interest and of value, but there 
is a commendable absence of va«-ue wordiness and of mere sentimentality 



The groupinjr of the birds is of workers overhead, workers on the ground, 
summer workers, workers all the year, and slandered workers, while a 
brief and succinct analysis of the Law about Birds closes the little volume. 

February igqg. 



48 



FOOD AS INFLUENCING VARIATION IN HELICES 



JOHN HAWKINS, 

Vof'k. 



For the past four seasons I have made a few notes respecting^ 
the forms and colours of Snails feeding* on various plants. 

I find that the Black Horehound {Ballota nigra) generally 
produces the Helix nejjioralis and //. hortensis of a very dark 
brown or nearly black. 

The Epilobiiim hirsntinyi or Great Willovv-Herb produces 
the same shells very large and of a beautiful yellow colour. 

I have always found the best examples of var. lilacina 
feeding on the Ground Ivy [Nepeta glechoma)^ while Jack-by- 
the-Hedge [Sisyinbriiun alliariii) nearly always produces very 
fine var. rubella. 

The Common Blackthorn {Primus spinosa) seems to be the 
favourite food-plant for the var. castanea of H, hortensis^ and 
the same may be said of var. hyalosonafa and the Pasitnaca 
saliva. 

The Common Nettle (Urtica sp.) supplies most of the five- 
banded varieties, and on the Coltsfoot or Cleat (Tussilago 
farfara) I found 32 white examples out of 46 H. netnoralis. 

The Ash {Fraximis excelsior) supplies food for H. ne?noralis 
and H, hortensis^ which are principally of pale colours. 



When at Castle Howard last summer I noticed a large bed 
of Knapweed {Ce^ilaurea nigra) which had nearly all its 
foliage eaten off by a white variety of Helix virgata, and 
a short distance off the same Snail was feeding on the Plantage, 
and were nearly all very darkly banded. 

I also found that the Helix aspersa fed on the Burdock 
{Arclium lappa) ?ive much lighter in colour than those fed on the 
Heracleum spondyliunij while some which feed on the Common 
Ivy {Hedera helix) are quite a bright red colour. 

The Common Vetch {Vicia saliva) seems to produce the 
minor varieties. I have seldom found H, hortensis on this plant 
larger than //. virgalu. 




NOTE— ORTHOPTERA. 

PGrlplaneta australasiw at Halifax. —Several months agx^, Mr. S. L- 

Mosley sliowed me ^ome specimens of this fine Cockroach which had been 
sent to him by Mr. E. Halliday, and had been found in considerable num- 
bers in a greenhouse at Shibden, Halifax. It is only a few years since the 
species was first noticed in Britain, and Hke our other representatives of the 
genus, introduced throug'h importation, but it seems to be rapidly spreading 
over the country', though this^ I believe, is its first obser\'ed occurrence in 
the north. — Geo. T. Porritt, Crosland Hall, Huddersfield, i8th Jan. 1899. 

Naturalist, 



49 



DIATOMS OBSERVED AT HATFIELD WEST MOOR 

NEAR DONCASTER, 



J. NEWTON COOMBE, 

Sheffield. 



WITH L!ST OF SPECIES FOUND. 



J. NEWTON COOMBE and >L H. STILES. 



If the members of the v^arious sections represented at the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Doncaster excursion, in May last, 
had been able to prolongs their explorations on that occasion to 
the extent to which my microscope and an oil lamp permitted 
me to continue my examination of the minute plant life of the 
ponds and ditches in the neighbourhood, I do not doubt but 



that many of them would have been rewarded, as I was, by 



iults which the labours of a singfle day, however patient and 
persevering-, could not possibly have brought to light. Although 
the list of the Diatomacese published in the programme as 
having being found in the West Moor waters was, thanks to 
Mr. Stiles' researches, by wo means a meagre one, I was pleased 
to be able to confirm his belief that it was far from exhaustinpf 



the number of species of these fascinating shell plants which 
flourish there. I give below the names of Diatoms which I was 
able to identify as occurring at least twice in the samples which 
I examined from about a dozen tubes. 

These gatherings consisted chiefly of flocculent matter which 
the sun's rays, liberating the oxygen of the Diatoms inhabiting 
it, had caused to rise from the bottoms of the ditches to the 
surface of the water, forming that well-known yellowish-brown 
scum so pleasing to the eyes of the diatomists. Decaying 
portions of MyriophyUiitn also furnished ^ood material for the 
habitat of several of the more common species. The letters 
*C,' 'F,' and ' R' placed after each species indicate that it was 
'common,' 'frequent' or 'rare' in the gathering, as the case 
might be. 

The most interesting features in my *find' were (i) the 
number of filaments oi Melosira varians containing megafrustules 
newly formed from the diminutive parent frustule to which they 
were attached, (2) the numerous instances of conjugation taking 
place among Cymbella cisfula Hempr, (Note — That, contrary to 
the opinion of Dr. Miquel and other diatomists, conjugation 
does actually occur in the case of this species, is proved by 

D 




ruary 1S99. 



so 



Coombe and Stiles: Diatoms at Hatfield West Moor, 



photomicrographs I have taken from other gatherings showing* 

w 

the emerging and intermingling of the protoplasmic contents of 
the frustules as they lie concave side to concave side prior 
to the formation of the megafrustules which result from the 
process), and (3) the frequent occurrence oi long crooked 
frustules oi Syjicdniy evidently new^ly born and requiring a series 
of sub-divisions to enable them to regain the symmetry of the 
parent frvistule. (Note. — Prolonged and repeated examinations 
of several so-called * varieties* of species among the Diatoms 
have convinced me that in the plastic condition in which the 

megafrustules emerge from the valves of the parent frustules 
they ; 



liable to become silicified in a mis-shapen condition and 
that, while undergoing the subsequent subdivision necessary 
to bring about the symmetrical form of the parent, they are 
freqviently mistaken for new varieties.) 

I may mention that one of the West Moor gatherings con- 
tained some interesting specimens of the well-known alga 
Zygonema, in conjugation, and that among the Desniids which 
were mixed with the Diatoms I came across Closleriiint strio- 
latum, C. lunula^ C. setaceum Ehrb., Enastnini oblongiim and 
Staurastru77i dejectuniy the first named being the most common. 

Mr, Stiles also noticed Closteriuui rosiratum and Cosmariiun 
pyra^n idatn m . 

The following is a list of the Diatoms found In the neigh- 
bourhood of West Moor, Doncaster, by Messrs. J. N. Coombe 
and M. H. Stiles : — 



Amj^hora ovalis Kutz. (R.)- 
Amphora ovalis var. jiediculus 

Kutz, (C). 
Cy mbella lanceolata Ehr. (F.). 
Cymbella gfastroides Kutz. (R.). 
Cy mbella cistula Hempr, (F.). 
Cymbella cu^pidata var. naviculi- 

formis Auersw, (R.). 



Navlcula liniosa Kutz. (F.). 
Navicula limosa var. acuta (F. ). 
Navicula exilis Grun. (C). 
Naviciila irldis Ehr, (R.)- 
Navicula p(?reg:rlna Kutz. (R. )• 
Xavicula serians Breb. (R.). 
Navicula humilis Douk. (C.)- 
Navicula reinhardtil Grun. (C.)* 



Encyoncma coespitosum Kutz. (R.). Navicula latiuscula Kutz. (?). 
Stauroneis phnenicenteron Ehr. (F.). Amphipleura pellucida Kutz. (F.). 



Stauroneis gfracilis Ehr, (R.). 
Stauroueis anceps Ehr, (R.). 
Navicula viridls Kutz. (P.). 
Navicula major Kutz. (R.). 
Navicula oblong-a Kutz. (F.). 
Navicula amphisbcena Bory (R.). 
Navicula cuspidata Kutz. (R.). 
Navicula semen Ehr. (R.). 
Navicula elliptica Kutz. (R.J. 
Navicula radiosa Kutz. (C). 



Pleurosigma attenuatum W.Sm. (F. ). 
Pleurosig-ma spencerii W.Sm* (F. )• 
Goaiphoncma acuminatum Elu". (F. ). 
Goniphoncma conhtrictum Ehr. (F.). 
Gomphoncma intricatum Kutz. (P.). 
Rhoicosphenia curvata Grun. (F.). 
Achnanthes exilis Kutz. (F.). 
Cocconeis placentula Ehr, (F. )■ 
Cocconels pedlculus Ehr. (F.)« 
Epithemia tur^ida Kutz. (R.). 

Naturalist, 



Varums Short Notes, 



^ 



I 



Epithemia sorex Kutz. (R. )■ 
Epithomia gfibba Kutz. (R. )• 
Epithemia zebra Ehr. (R.)- 
Eunotia lunaris Grun. (R. ). 
Eimotia pectinalis van ventricosa 

Grun, (R.). 
Eunotia gfracilis Rab. (F.). 



Denticula tenuis Kutz. (P.). 
Tabellaria flocculosa Roth. (F.). 
Surirella ovalis Breb. (R.)- 
Nitzschia linearis \A\Sni. (F.), 
Xitzschia dubia W.Sm. (R.)- 
Nitzschia sigmoidea Ehr. (C). 
Nitzschia fasciculata Grun. (R.)- 
Eunotia arcus van minor Ehr. (R.). Nitzschia acicularis W.Sm. (R.). 



Synedra radians Grun. (C). 
Synedra uhia Ehr. (F.). 



Melosira varians Ag. (C). 
Cyclotella kutzini^iana Chauvin (F.). 



S^-nedra uhia Ehnv. subaequalis (R.). Cmatopleura eiliptica W.Sm. (R.). 



Sjnedra capitata Ehr. (C). 
Frag^ilaiia capucina Desmaz. (C). 
Meridion circulare Ag*. (R.)- 



Cymatopleura solea W.Sm, (F.). 
Diatoma eloni^atum Ag". (C. ). 
Colletonema lacustre Ag*. (R. ). 



NO TB— TRICHOPTERA . 

Halesus guttatipennis in Derbyshire,— On 19th October last, 

Mr. S. L. Mosley took several specimens of this species at Lathkildale, 
near Bakcvvell. The only other British localities known for the insect are 
Pickering in Yorkshire, and Alford in Lincolnshire. — Geo. T. Porritt, 
Crosland Hall, Huddersfield, 14th January 1859. 



NO TB—L BPIDOPTERA . 

Ephestea k'uhaiella in Yorkshire. — The Rev. Cyril D, Ash informs 
me he took a specimen of this species at Skipwith in November last. The 
species has not previously been recorded for Yorkshire, though several 
3'ears h^o outside Doncaster railway station, I saw, but did not secure, a 
iipecimen which I then, and have ever since, fancied was this species, 
Gro. T. Porritt, 14th January 1S99. 



NOTE— ORNITHOLOGY. 

Magpies as Foster=Parents of Game-Fowl: a Query.— Can any 

reader, whose memory goes back to the time when cock-fighting' was 
a popular sport, say whether it was a common custom for breeders of 
game-fowls to place eggs in Magpies' nests? A few months ago I heard 
of a farmer at Handforth, in East Cheshire, who used to do so, in the belief 
that chickens incubated by Magpies would develop fighting- qualities above 
the average. My informant can recollect climbing to a Magpie's nest for 
this farmer, in order to bring down some chickens whose birth was proclaimed 
by their plaintive chirping. This would be some fifty or sixty years ago. 
when the Magpie was perhaps even more plentiful in East Cheshire than it 
is now. To students of folk-lore it would be interesting to know whether 
the practice of substituting game-fowls' eggs for those of (he Magpie 
(Pica pica) was a general one, or merely the caprice of a single breeder, — 
Chas. Oldham, Alderley Edge, 30th January 1899. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The death of Prof. Henry Alieyne Nicholson is announced. He was a 
Cumbrian by birth, born at Penrith, in 1S44, and was the son of a distin- 
g:uished piiilologist. His work and career as a Professor, at Edinburgh, 
at Toronto, at Diuham, at St. Andrews, and finally at Aberdeen, are 
Well known. So also are his pah-eontological, geological, and zoological 
researches, and the various text-books and memoirs which bear his name 
on their title-pages. He w^as Doctor both in medicine, in science and in 
philosophy, and in 1897 was elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Society, 
As a palfeoalologist his name is preserved by the dedication of Minestroma 
ntchohon l in his honour. 



52 



HULL NATURAL HISTORY. 

Transactions 1 of the 1 Hull Scientific & Field Naturalists' Club 

For the year 189S. | Vol. I. No i. | Price One Shilling^. | (Free to 
Members). | Hull : | William Andrews & Co., The Hull Press. 
December 14th, 1898. 



The Hull Naturalists are to be congratulated on the appear- 
ance of this their first publication. More especially are they to 
be congratulated on their clear-sighted recognition of the fact 
that the function of a local society when pubHshing is to deal with 
local matters, and local matters only. Every paper in this part 
is one of original research, a useful contribution to our local 
knowledge. The first is by Mr. Thomas Bunker on * The 
Natural History of Goole Moor and Its immediate vicinity/ 
particularly valuable, partly from Mr. Bunker's long and intimate 
acquaintance with his own neighbourhood, and partly because 
the moor is fast losing Its pristine character. The next paper is 
by Mr. H. M. Foster on 'The Fishes of the River Hull,' which 
treated of very fully and with great wealth of anecdote- 
Mr. Thomas Sheppard, the energetic Secretary of the Society, 
follows with ' Notes on a large pair of Antlers of the Red Deer 
(Cervus elaphus) from the peat at Hornsea,' with an excellent 
full-page illustration. Some brief notes on the Society's pro- 
gramme and work for the past year follow, and there are short 
notes on ' Pond Herrings ' (H. M Foster), on ' Odontidium 
harrisonii ' (R. H. Philip), and on * Local Entomology, 1898' 
(J. W. Boult), all of interest. A list of members of the Society 
is given. The Society and Editor are to be congratulated on 
stating the exact date of publication, and w^e vi^ish them all 



possible prosperity in the future. 




NOTES— MAMMALIA, 
Otter in Lincolnshire.— A bitch Otter {Lutra lutra\ weig:hitig 17 lbs,, 

and measuring 4 feet 2 inches in lengfth, was shot on January 27th, 1899, 
at Willinofham, Market Rascn, N. Div. 7. — W. LeWINC.ton, King- Street, 
Market Rasen, 30lh January 1899. 

Squirrels and Fungi (Ante, p, 340). — It may be of interest in this 
matter to recall what the late Mr.' Tom Duckworth {o'i Citrlisle) told 
ViK. Macphcrson, that in his experience the iuui^i most affected by 
squirrels were Amanita rubescens, the red fleshed, and Russida heierophiia^ 

mushroom. See Macpherson's 'Fauna of Lakeland,' 1892, 
p. 78, note. — S. L. Petty, Ulverston, znd Nov. 1898. 

^ 

Dormouse in Lake-Lancashire. —* The Dormouse [.}fyoxus avel- 

lanarius\ occurs sporadically in a few of the most densely planted portions 
of Lakeland, froni Rusland Valley up to the slopes of the Fells at the 
southern ^wA of Windermere.' See Macpherson's 'Fauna of Lakeland,' 1892, 
p. 78. This is quite correct to date, the animal benig- caugfht by the wood- 
cutters. ^S. L. Petty, Ulverston, 2nd Nov. 1898. 



■h.^L ■■ 



Naturalist, 



53 



CHEMICAL NOTES ON LAKE DISTRICT ROCKS 

' I.— THE ORDOVICIAN VOLCAMC SERIES 



ALFRED HAKKER, M.A., F.G.S.. 

5^. John's College, Cambridge. 



J 



Some years ago, being- then engaged with my friend, Mr, J. E. 
Marr, upon the geological structure of the English Lake 



District, I began a petrographical study of the lavas and tuffs 
of the Ordovlcian \ olcanic series, or ' Borrowdale Series/ which 
constitutes the greater part of the ground in that area* My 
unfinished notes consist chiefly of descriptions based on a large 
suite of microscopical sections, and these could not with 
advantage be published. There are also, however, a number 
of determinations of silica-percentages, kindly made for us by 
chemical friends, and of specific gravities, taken with the hydro- 
static balance by the present writer. These it is desirable to 
make public for the benefit of other geologists who may be 
occupied with the district in question. Further, it may be useful 
to bring together references to the chemical data scattered 
through various papers already published, whether belongnig to 
the volcanic series or to other rocks in the district, and these 
references are accordingly collected below. Complete analyses 
are not quoted, but their silica-percentages are given as the 
readiest means of identifying the analyses referred to. 

The present instalment deals with the Ordovician volcanic 
series only, and the remaining rocks will be treated in a second 
part. Those portions of the Eden valley and Teesdale and of 
the Sedberirh and In^rleton districts which consist of Lower 
Palaeozoic rocks, are included with the Lake District as being in 
a geological sense appendices thereto. 

The late Mr. Clifton Ward published several complete 
analyses by Mr. J. Hughes, of which the silica-percentages 
are here reproduced."* Ward considered the intermediate group 
(andesites) to be the prevalent lavas of the district, and a like 
assertion has been made by myself in ' The Naturalist' for 1891 
(p. 146) ; but Mr. Marr and I have since found that it is the 
basic group that has the w^idest distribution. There is little 
doubt that some of Ward's * altered ashes ' are in reality lavas, 



*The first five from Quart. Joiirn. Geol. Soc, vol. xxxi., pp. 408, 411, 
597» 1875 ; also in ' The Geology of the Northern Part of the Enj^Hsh Lake 
District' (Mem. Geol. Surv.), pp. 16, 18, 28, 1876. The next three from 
Monthly Micro. Journ., vol. xvii., p. 246, 1S77. 



899. 



I 



;d Harker: Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks, 

\ 

but this ' remark does not, I think, apply to the two here 

1 

mentioned, 
(i). 60718. Brown Knotts, near Keswick: pyroxene-andesite; 

No. 6 of Ward's typical section, the basement 

flow of a very thick series. 
(2). 59'5ii- Iron Cra<j : pyroxene-andesite; No. 12 of same 



A 



section. 



(3). 69*673^ Base Brown, near Borrowdale : 'altered ash.* 
(4). 68'42T. Slight Side, near Eskdale : * highly altered coarse 

ash ' (breccia). 
(5). 59'i5i, Lingmell Beck, Wastdale : 'altered contempora- 
neous trap' fandesite). 

* * 

(6). 53*300. Eycott Hill: hypersthene-basalt ; No. 12 of Eycott 

" section, microporphyritic. 
(7), 52*600. Eycott Hill: hypersthene-basalt; No, 13 of Eycott 

4 

■ ' section, very compact. 

(8). '51-100. Eycott Hill: hypersthene-basalt; No. 15 of Eycott 

section. 
For comparison with the last three we have a silica-per- 
centage by Mr. T. Cooksey, published by Prof. Bonney.'-'" 
(9). 53*40 and 5273 (mean 53'o6). Eycott Hill: hypersthene- 

basalt; No. 4 of section, with large porphyritic 
felspars; sp.gr. 2754. 

T 

The analyses given by Mr. J. D. Kendall + of lava and ash- 
rock of the Borrowdale series are not new analyses but averages 

■ b 

deduced from the above, v^iz., from (i) and (2) and from (3) and (4), 
respectively. Mr. P. F, Kendall, J in describing a large boulder 

J 

found at Manchester, and probably derived from the Lake 



District, gives 



J. B. Cohen, and for 



^ ■ 

comparison one of a rock from ' near Coniston,' the locality wo^ 
being more closely specified. The silica-percentages are : — 
(10). 63'6o. Boulder, Oxford Street, Manchester: andesite ; 

sp.gr. 274. 
r)- 65 '^o. Near Coniston : ? andesite. 

We may add, as probably another Lake District rock, n 



'felspathic trap' boulder at Manfield analysed by Mr. W. F. K. 

Stock, i^ 

O2). 59*87. Greystone boulder, Manfield, near Darlington : 

andesite, sp.gr, 2 '66. 



* Geol. Mag. for 18S5, p. 80. 

t Trans. Manch. Geol. Sue, vol. xvii., p. 394, 1884. 

:;: Ibid, vol, XX., p. 145, 18S9. 

S^ Naturalist for 1SS9, p. 304. 



Naturalistj 



Harker: Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks. 55 

The following^ five silica-percentages were published in two 
papers on the Shap g^ranite by Mr. Marr and the present 
writer."'^* Of (14) and (15) partial analyses were given ; of (13), 
(16), and (17) only the silica and lime. The w^ork is Mr. 
E. J. Garwood's. 

,(^3)' 59 '95- Between Wasdale Pike and Great Yarlside : amyg- 

daloidal andesite ;. sp.gr. 2736. 

, (^4)- 75'95- Stockdale : spherulitic rhyolite ; sp.gr. 2-608. 
(15). 76'95. Wasdale Head Farm, close to Shap granite: 

nodular rhyolite, metamorphosed ; sp.gr, 2*623. 
{16). 50*75, Low Fell, Shap: basalt, partly metamorphosed; 

sp.gr, 2'Soo. 
(17). 50-90. Low Fell, Shap : basic tuff. 

The next six silica-percentages are given by Mr. W. M. 
Hutchings in his Petrological Notes on some Lake District 
Rocks, t and No. (24) is from a complete analysis by Dr. Cohen, 



quoted in the same paper. Three other rocks examined by 



Mr. Hutchings are excluded, since it appears from his descrip 
tions that they belong to intrusions, not to the volcanic series. 
(18). 51 '35. Scarf Gap, near summit of pass: vesicular basalt 

with porphyritic augite.; sp.gr. 2-82. 

(^9)' 57'55' Above Nan Bield : augite-andesite ; sp.gr. 2*65. 
(20). 52*45. Easedale Tarn, right side^ much altered andesite. 
(21). 60*75. Easedale Tarn, left side: andesite. 
(22). 51 '6. Between Seatoller and Seathwaite, roadside quarry: 

much altered andesite. 
(^3)- 53'55- Seatoller Fell: ' andesitic basalt ' ; sp.gr. 2*88. 
(-4)' 58'69. Thornthwaite Crag, below cairn: andesite (analysis 

made on material picked free from amygdules). 
The five following are from the same author's Notes on the 
Ash-Slates of the Lake District,! four being by Mr. G. Patterson 
and the last by Dr. Cohen. Of the first two rocks complete 
analyses were made ; of the remaining three only the silica and 
alkalies were estimated. For Nos. (25), (26), and (28) the 



I 

material before analysis was treated with hydrochloric acid and 



potash to extract the chloritic matter. No. 30 is from a complete 

^ 

analysis by Mr. Hutchings published in another paper. § 
(25). 69-22. Mosedale, near Shap: ash-slate (extracted). 



* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xlvil., pp. 293, 302, 1891 ; vol. xlix., 
p. 361, 1893. 

t Geol. Mag. for 1891, pp. 536-544. . 
tGeoI. Mag-, for 1892, pp. 154-161, 218-228. 
S Geol. Mag. for 1895, p. 316. 

February 1899. 



56 Harker: Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks, 

r 

(26). 74*88. Kentmere, below reservoir: ash-slate (extracted). 
(27), 61*75. Grasmere, quarry: ash-slate. 

{2S). 77'40. The same extracted. 

(29). 62*43. Near Ullswater, on road to Matterdale: andesite. 
(30). 53" 10. Wasdale Pike, near Shap granite: highly meta- 
morphosed basic tuff. ■ 
The above references cover all the published chemical 
information that I have been able to. discover concerning: the 
Lake District volcanic series. The following* are new. They 
are in all cases only silica-percentages, and to most of them 
I have added specific gravities taken on the specimens analysed. 
The first five determinations were made by students of Owens 
College, Manchester, under the supervision of Dr. A. Harden. 
(31). 69*48. Illgill Head, Wastwater, on N.E. slope: compact 

rock with lenticular streaky structure ; sp.gr. 

2*682. 

(32). 48*68. Illgill Head, S.W. side, near Devil's Slidegate: 

porphyrltic basalt of Eycott type ; sp.gr. 2*706. 

{^3)' 56'2. Great Barrow, Boot: a highly metamorphosed out- 
lier resting on the Eskdale granite; sp.gr. 2*790. 

(34). 63*1. Upper part of Eskdale: hornstone (altered fine 

■ tuff); sp.gr. 2*755. 

(35). 66*59. Sea Fell, a little S. of summit: dark garnetiferous 

rock; sp.gr. 2*704. 
The seventeen silica-percentages which follow are by Mr. E. J. 

Garwood. 

(36). 52*6. Galleny Force, Greenup Gill: basalt; sp.gr. 2*757. 

(37). 52*95. Brimfull Beck, Overbeck, Wastwater: porphyritic 

basalt; sp.gr. 2*738. 

(38). 53 "45. Randal Beck, Mardale: porphyritic basalt (Eycott 

type); sp.gr. 2*736. 

(39). 54 '6. Gatescarth Pass, Mardale ; porphyritic basalt ; 

sp.gr. 2*776. 

(40). 58'65. Pooley, Ullswater: andesite; sp.gr. 2*708. 

(41), 61*45. Stoneside Fell, Bootle, N. slope: andesite. 

(42). 62*95. Whiteside Bank, Helvellyn: porphyritic andesite; 

sp.gr. 2-744. 

(43). 56*95. Fordingdale Force, Measand Beck, Haweswater: 

crushed porphyritic lava. 

(44). 61-95. Crags Mill, Shap: crushed porphyritic lava. 

(45), 66*95. Frith Wood, Rosthwaite: crushed lava, garneti- 
ferous. 

(46). 76*95. Frith Wood: breccia. 

(47). 54*6, Borrowdale quarries : agglomerate-slate. 

(48). 53*45. Honister quarries: ash-slate. 

Naturalist, 



Harker; Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks. 57.. 

{49). 61 '25. Tilberthwalte quarries: ash-slate, 

(5^)- 56'6o. Hang-ing- Knott, Bow Fell; hornstone (altered fine 

tuff) ; sp.g-r. 2*667. 

"(sO- 73'45' Upper part of Measand Beck: rhyolite intercalated 

in basalt group. 



{52). 82-25. Near Haweswater, % mile S.E. of Walla Crag; 



rhyolite, '|5robably altered. 
The following I received from the late Mn Thos. Tate in 
correspondence, but unfortunately without any precise locality, 
{53)- 83'8, Lake District rhyolite [probably with some secondary 

quartz]. 
Finally Mr. Marr has communicated to me the seven given 



below, the work of Messrs. G. MacFarlane and H. H. Thomas. 
In each case the first number given is by the former and the' 
second by the latter of the two analysts. 
'(54)" 54*9 and 54*8 (mean 54 '85). Scale Force, Crummock ; lava 

in Skiddaw Slates. 
{55)- 54'3 and 54'9 (mean 54'6). Mousegill quarry, Wilton Fell, 

near Egremont : lava with porphyritic auglte ; 

sp.gr. 2 '83 1. 
{56). 54*5 and 54*2 (mean 54'35). E. of summit of Falcon Crag, 

? base of No. 5 of Ward's section: lava with 

porphyritic augite* 
(57)' 61 '2 and 6i'5 (mean 61 '35). Falcon Crag section, base of 

lava No. 10 of Ward : andesite. 



(58). 57'4 and 57-1 (mean 57'25), About 5^ mile N.W. of Castle 



f 



Crag, Borrowdale : compact lava. 
\59)- 64*5 and 63*9 (mean 64'2). E.N.E. of Stonethwaite Church, 

Borrowdale : garnetiferous rock, ? lava. 
(60). 55-7 and 55*9 (mean 55*8). Great Barrow, Boot: a highly 

metamorphosed lava resting o\\ the Eskdale 

granite [a different specimen from No. {z'^Y 
In conclusion I give a selection of specific gravities of rocks 
not examined chemically, arranging them in numerical order for 

convenience of refert^nce. 

2 '852, Wastwater, W. side, by road: basalt with porphyritic 

auirite, 
2-849. Brotto, St. John's Vale : basalt with porphyritic augite. 
2-837. Matterdale, S.W. of Church : basalt. 
^"^33- S.E. of Lanty Crag, Butterwick : basalt. 
2"8ig, Oliver Gill: metamorphosed porphyritic basalt, close to 

Eskdale granite. 
2'8io. Lingmell Gill, at about 500 feet : basalt, porphyritic. 



2- 



799. Witcham valley, roadside : basalt with porphyritic augite. 
2791. Clerk's Leap, Thirlmere : porphyritic basalt. 



:;8 Harker: Chemical Notes on Lake' District Rocks. 



D 



■ b 

2790. S.E. of Ritchie Crag^ near Mard'ale : basalt with porphy- 

. ritic aug'ite. . • 

'2784. N.W. of Gosforth Crag- : basalt. 
2783, E. of Kail Pot, Eskdale : basalt. 
2782. Lingmell Gill at about 850 feet : basalt. 
2782. S, of Stepping-sti?nes, Swindale Church : basalt. 

2*779- Clough Head, Threlkeld : basalt. 
2763. Ewe Crag, S. of UUswater : basalt. 
2758, Hallin Fell, Ullsw^ater, near sumrnit : basalt. 
2757. Barrow Crag, Ravenglass : basalt. 
-2753. Hallin How : compact basalt. 
2753, Melmerby, Eden valley: porphyritic hypersthene-basalt 

(Eycott type). 
2744. Black Sail Pass, summit : porphyritic basalt. 



2741. S.W. {li mile) of Mosedale Cottage, near Swindale : 




«- 

2739. Iron Crag, Shoulthwaite : pyroxene-andesite, 

2729. The Hawk, Appletreeworth Beck. 

2726. Upper part of Watendlath valley: andesite, garnetiferous. 

2723. Kidsty Pike ; porphyritic and garnetiferous. 

2714. Thornthwaite Force, below Naddle Bridge, Haweswater : 

porphyritic lava. 

2714. Falcon Crag, Keswick: andesite, No. 2 of Ward's section. 

27 n. Sty Head Pass, summit: garnetiferous rock. 

2709. Tippy Hills, Greystoke Park: lava. 

2705, Eel Coop, Naddle Bridge : lava. 

2*698, Woof Crag, between Mardale and Swindale : compact 

garneiriferous lav^a. 

2*696. Powley's Hill, Hareshaw, between Mardale and Swin- 
dale : with streaky structure. 

2*678. Swindale Beck, Knock, Eden valley: rhyolite flow in 

Coniston Limestone group. 

2 '678. Backside Beck, Sedbergh : lower flow of rhyolite in 

Coniston Limestone group. 

2*676. Hanging Knott, Bow Fell: hornstone. 

2*656. Roadside by Lower Yewdale, Coniston : rhyolite. 

2*646. Drygill Head, Carrock Fell : rhyolite (in loose blocks). 



2-628. 



Ward 



2*625. Taith's Gill, Sedbergh : spherulitic rhyolite in Coniston 

Limestone group [? intrusivej. 
2*619. Glenridding, UUswater: ? rhyolite. 
2 '575- Great Yarlside : spherulitic rhyolite. 



550. Great Yarlside : laminated rhyolite. 



2-^:;o. 



Natwralist, 



59 



SOME POLYZOA, ETC., FROM 
WALNEY AND BARDSEA, NORTH LANCASHIRE. 



, S. LISTER PETTY. 
L'lvefsto?i, North Lancashire. 



>* 



It is stated in Vol. I. of the ' Fauna of Liverpool Bay/ 1886, 
that the portion of the area between Blackpool and Fleetwood 
was the least worked. But the higher, say Fleetwood to 
Morecambe, is still less known, and^so far as evidence at present 
goes, the portion of Morecambe Bay from the town of the name 
to Barrow is unknown to workers on the Hydroida and Polyzoa. 
Why, I do not know, unless it be that ' working men ' prefer to 
visit good collecting places. The following short list is given 
as a contribution towards the extension of range of these 
classes in Lancashire. All were collected on Walney Island last 
August, during an hour or so I had to spare, after hunting for 
a plant, unseen since 18S8. If any reader has specimens from 
this area I shall be glad to name them. Besides the zoophytes 
and polyzoa some sponges rewarded me, and I have to thank 
Mr, Hornell, of Jersey, for their names. With the exception of 
Sertularia gracilis all were dead ; it was not only alive but in 
tine fruit. Unlike the experience at Filey, ConiUina officinalis'L. 
at Walney was a good host ; even a sponge {^Hymcniacidon 
caninnilinn) was attached to it. 

The names and order follow Hincks' books on Hydroida and 

PoK 



zoa. 



POLYZOA. 



Eucratea chelata L. On Scrtultwici arg.vtea, 

* 

Gemellaria loricata L. On Fhistra and Fucus vesiculosus L. 
Scrupocellaria reptans L. On FLustra, 

Bicellaria ciliata L. In fruit on Fiircellaria fastigiata Lamour. 

w 

Flustra folicea L. In quantity. Seen also at Bardsea. 

^Gmbranipora pilosa L. On Furcellaria fastigiata and 
Flustra. 

^embranipora membranacea L. On Tnbularia. 

^icroporella ciliata Pallas.. On Corallina and Furcellaria. 

Crisia eburnea L. In fruit on Flustra and Corallina. There 
were no specimens of C\ denticulatu, though carefully- 
sought. 

Amathia lendigera L- On Corallina. 



6o Book Notices. 



HYDROZOA. 

Tubularia indivisa L. A good piece. 

Obelia geniculata L. On Fucus ; Bardsea, on the same. 

Campanularia verticillata L. On Fiircellaria^ 

Sertularia gracilis Hassall. In fruit on Fucus. 

Sertularia argentea E.&S. In fruit on Tubularia] a few 

broken bits, Bardsea. 

Hydrallmania falcata L. On a sponge {^Haliclwndria panicea)\ 
a few bits, beach, Bardsea. 

SPONGES. 

Spongelia fragHis Schmidt. 
Halicbondria panicea Johnst. 
Hymeniacidon caruncalam Bk. 

AH common species no doubt. 

(The synonyms — perhaps the older names — in ' Fauna of 
Liverpool Bay' are D}'Sidca /ragilis]o\\ns. , Atnorphina panicea S., 
and ^, caruncula S,, respectively.) 




BOOK NOTICES. 

* A ] Dictionary | of [ Bird Notes, \ To which U appended a Glossary 
of Popular j Local and Old-fashioned Synonyms of | British Birds. | By 

Chas* Louis Hett, I — | Price 2/6. | — | Jacksons', Market Place, Bri^K, 
1898,' is a small cloth bound volume of 138 pages, by one of our 
Lincolnshire ornithologists. The little book 5s calculated to be of con- 
siderable utility as a work of reference, and the glossary of popular local 
and old-fasliioned names is particularly acceptable. The first part of the 
dictionary is devoted to the notes, in alphabetical order, thus — 

A-chuck, a-chuck. Common Snipe, 
A-chuck, chuck, chuck. Common Sandpiper. 
The second part is a similar alphabetical arrangement of birds and their 
notes, thus — 

Alpine Accentor (44). Call, * tri-tri-tri.' Note, * chick-ick-ick.' 
Then conies the glossary of popular local and old-fashioned names, 
which serves also as an index to the previous parts of the book. Following 
this is a systematic list of British birds as it stood in 1883, copied from the 
B.O. U. list- A list of terms applied to wild fowl and a postscrlptum brin 
tiie book to a close. Every one will cordially sympathise with the author's 
wish to facilitate the identification of birds by out-door observation which 
does not involve their destruction. 



a- 




•Insect Lives t as told by themselves/ a small book by Edward 

Simpson, published last September by' the Religious Tract Society, and 
marred by the absence of date so frequent with those publishers, lies before 
us. There are twenty-three illustrations, and the nineteen chapters are 
headed by such titles as *a successful trapper,' 'a little nuisance,' * 
from a tub,' and so forth. The idea of putting these sketches of popular 



a tale 



entomology in the first person smgular is that the author hopes 1 
will be led to take greater interest in them. The price is is. 6d. 



Naturalist, 



6r 



MOSSES AND HEPATICS OF STRENSALL COMMON. 



WILLIAM INGHAM, 15.A., ^ 

Organising Inspector of Schools, ^7, Ilaxhy Road, i ork* 



This List contains the Mosses and Hepatics I have gathered 
and examhied during* the last two years. 

This Common, which has been the happy hunting* ground of 

I 

bryologists during* past, years, has lately altered very much in 
character, owing to the military encampment and to the coii- 

F 

sequent drainage. Some of the Mosses and Hepatics for which 
the Common was once fanlous have become extinct. The 
present List may be interesting, as showing what Mosses 
and Hepatics still exist under the altered conditions. 

The List is by no means complete, but contains only those 
that have been examined and verified and that are now in my 
Herbarium. 

The nomenclature followed is the same as that for the 
' Skipwith Common Mosses and Hepatics,* and the plants have 
been kindly verified by the same gentlemen as those mentioned 
in connection with Skipwith Common. 

I may mention that the rare moss Dicranum spurium is now 



much dn^arfed in habit, and almost extinct. 

The Common at the present time is undoubtedly richest in 
Sphagna ; I mean the quality, not the quantity. The soil here, 
as on Skipwith Common, is siliceous, but the Mosses are not as. 
fine as those on the latter Common, through lack of moisture- 

SPHAGXACE.^. 

Sphagnum cymbifoUum Ehrh. 

Sphagnum cymbifoUum v. squarrosulum N.&H. 

Sphagnum cymbifoUum v. congestum Schp, 

Sphagnum papillosum Lindb. 

Sphagnum papillosum v. confertum Lindb. 

Sphagnum rigidum v. compactum Schp. 

Sphagnum tenellum Ehrh. 

Sphagnum subsecundum Nees. 

Sphagnum subsecundum forma. 

Sphagnum subsecundum w contortum Schp. ' , 

Sphagnum subsecundum v. contortum forma. 

Sphagnum subsecundum v. viride Boul. 

Sphagnum squarrosum forma compacta. 

Sphagnum acutifolium Elnh. 

Sphagnum acutifolium v. arctum Braithw. 

February 1899. 



62 Ingham: Mosses and Hepatios of Sfvensall Common. 

Sphagnum acutifolium v. patulum Schp. 

Sphagnum intermedium HoflFm. 

Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. Sphagnum fimbriatum Wils. 

TETRAPHID>\CE.^. 

Tetraphis pellucida Hedw\ 

POLYTRICHACE.^. 

Catharinea undulata W.&M. 

Catharinea undulata v. minor W.&M. 

Poiytrichum juniperinum \\ illd. Polytrichum urnigerum L. 

DICRANACE.^. 

Dicranelia heteromaila Schp. 

Campylopus pyriformis Brid. Campylopus flexuosus Bild. 

Dicranum Bonjeani De Not. 

Dicranum Bonjeani v. rugifolium Bosw. 

Dicranum spurium Hedw. 

Ceratodon purpureus Brid. 

Leucobryum glaucum Schp. 

FISSIDENTACE^. 

Fissidens taxifoUus Hedw. 

. GRIMMIACE^. 

Rhacomitrium lanuginosum Brid. See note on Skipwith 



Common Mosses. 



TORTULACE/E. 



Weissia microstoma CM. 

Weissia microstoma v. obliqua CM. 

Barbula faltax Hedw. 

Barbula fallax v. brevifolia Schultz. c.fr. 

FUNARIACE.E. 

Funaria hygrometrica Sibth. 

MEESIACE.C 

Aulacomnium palustre Schwgr. 

BARTRAMIACE.E. 

Philonotis fontana Brid. A form approaching: Philonotis 
adpressa Ferg*. 

BRVACE^, 

Webera nutans Hedw. Webera albicans Schp. 
Bryum uliginosum B.&S. Bryum bimum Schreb. 
Bryum pallens Sw. 
Mnium hornum L. c.fr. 

LESKEACE.-E, 



Thuidium tamari^cinum B.&S. 



Naturalist, 



Ingham: Mosses and Hepatics of Strcnsall Common. 63 



HYPXACE^. 



Brachythecium albicans B.&S. 



ecium 



Brachythecium rutabulum v. longisetum Bry. Eur. c.fr. 

Brachythecium purum Dixon. 

Eurhynchium praelongum B.&S. 

Eurhynchium Swartzii Hobk, 

Plagiothecium denticutatum B.&S. 

Hypnum riparium L. Hypnum polygamum Schp, 

Hypnum stellatum Schreb. Hypnum chrysophyllum Brlcl. 

Hypnum elodes Spr. 

Hypnum aduncum Hedw. v. intermedium Schimp. 

Hypnum lycopodioides Scliwgr. Hypnum fluitans L. 

Hypnum fluitans v. falcatum Schimp. 

Hypnum fluitans v. Arnellii Sanio. 

Hypnum exannulatum Giimb. 

Hypnum intermedium Lindb. Hypnum cupressiforme L. 

Hypnum cupressiforme L. van between v. lacunosum Brid. 

and var. elatum Schp. 
Hypnum cupressiforme L. v. lacunosum Brid. 
Hypnum cupressiforme v. ericetorum B.&S. 
Hypnum imponens Hedw. Hypnum patientise Lindb. 
Hypnum moHuscum Hedw, Hypnum cordifolium Hedw. 
Hypnum giganteum Schp. Hypnum cuspidatum L. c.fr. 

Hypnum Schreberi Willd. 
ffylocomium squarrosumB^ScS. 



turn 



HEPATICS 



Kantia trichomanis L. 
Cephalozia bicuspidata L. 
Cephalozia lammersiana Hi'iben. 

Cephalozia connivens Dicks. 



isma 



^Iplophyllum albicans L, 

Lophocolea heterophylla Schrad. Lophocolea bidentats I 

Jungermania inflata Huds. c.fr. 

J^ngermania crenulata Sm. 

Nardia scalaris Schrad. Nardia geoscyphus DeNot. c.fr. 

Pellia epiphyUa L. Pellia calycina Tayl. 

Aneura sinuata Dicks. 

Possombronia pusilla L. 

February 1899. 



J^ 



64 



MOSSES NEW TO YORKSHIRE, 



AND ADDITIONAL RECORDS OF RARE MOSSES. 



WILLIAM INGHAM, B.A.. 

Or^atiisiH^ Inspccior of Schools, 4'^, Haxhy Road, York. 



Fontinalis antipyretica var. gigantea Sull. This rare moss 

I found in a small stream at Saxton, in Mid-West York- 
shire, 17th May 1897. Both Dr. Braithvvaite and Mr. Dixon 
have seen it and say it is quite right. 

Hypnum moUascum var. fastigiatum Boswell. This moss 

I found 9th April 1898 on the Hambleton Hills, near 
Kilburn. Mr. Dixon says my gathering* agrees exactly 
with a Staffordshire specimen he has. This is the moss 
that, when first found in Derbyshire, was referred to 
Hypnum canarlense Mitt. 

Hypnum uncinatum Hedw. var. plumosum Schp. This 

I found on a tree at Saltburn, 17th September 1897. It 
is a very delicate and beautiful moss, intermediate between 
the type and the var. plumulosum Schp. Verified by 
Mr. Dixon. 

Hypnum Wilsoni var. hamatum Lindb. In a bog near the 

White Force, Teesdale, 5th June 1897. Verified by Mr. 
Dixon. 

Ambtystegium Kochii B.&S. In addition to the two localities 
mentioned in * The Naturalist' for July 1898, I have found 



this moss on Clifton Ings, York, i8th July 1898. The 
Ings plant agrees exactly with German and Austrian 
specimens. 

Ceratodon conicus Lindb. On the Hambleton Hills, near 

Kilburn, 19th April 1898. The leaves in this gathering 
are of a beautiful claret colour, passing into green below. 

Tortula brevirostris H.&Grev. In the Huddlestone Quarry, 
Sherburn-in-Elmet, 26th April 1897, ^^^'^^ is a new moss 
for the West Riding, Verified by Mr. Dixon. 

Btyum cxspiUcium var. badium Brid. In Arnclifie Woods, 
Eskdale, 12th May 1897. Both Dr. Braithwuite and Mr. 
Dixon have specimens of this moss from me. 

The first four mosses and the last one in this List are new 
to Yorkshire as far as I can discover. 

Naturalist, 



65 



LINCOLNSHIRE NATURALISTS 
AT WOODHALL SPA AND TUMBY WOODS 



Rev. EDWARD ADRIAN WOODRUFFE-PEACOCK, L.Th.. F.L.S.. F.G.S., 

Vicar of Cadnry; Orgatttsin^ and Botanical Secrefary^ Lincolnshire Xnturalists' Union, 



The nineteenth meeting of the Lincohishlre Union was held at 
Woodhall Spa for a visit to Tumby and Fulsby Woods, in 
Div. i6, on the i8th of August. As usual at the time of year 
the meeting was a small ono^j many members being away on 
their holidays, but the company included the President, the 
Rev. W, Fowler, Mr. F. M. Burton, F.L.S., F.G.S., Rev. S. C. 
Wood, of Great Ponton ; Dr. R. T. Cassal, of Ashby ; Messrs. 
B. Crow and T. Gelsthorpe, of Louth ; Mr. W. Lewington, of 
Market Rasen ; Dr. G. M. Lowe, President of the Lincolnshire 
Science Society ; Rev. H. Barker, of Wrangle ; Messrs. H. 
Preston, F.G.S,, and W. H. Kirby, of Grantham; the Rev. J. 
Conway Walter, of Langton ; Mr. H. M. Hawley and his son, 
of Tumby Lawn ; Mr. J. Eardley Mason, of Lincoln ; the 
Rev. F. S. Alston, of West Ashby ; Mr. G. Alston Ling, and 
the Organising Secretary. 

The party drove in carriages from Woodhall Spa Station 
through Roughton and Kirkby-on-Bain parishes to Fulsby and 



Tumb}' Woods, where they worked all day under the guidance 
of Mr. H. M. Hawley and the Rev. J. Conway Walter. The 
usual high tea followed at the Swan Inn, Tumby. 

Mr. Henry Preston, F.G.S., said that the geologists had 
enjoyed a pleasant and easy time, the actual work of the day 
having been done by devotees of other branches of Science. 
But Tumby Wood could tell of something else besides botany, 
and entomology, and black ants ; it represented an interesting 
section in one of the later chapters of Earth History. The 
wood stands on a bed of ancient gravel, composed principally 
of sub-angular fragments of flint which have been derived by 
denudation from the underlying boulder clay. Mixed with the 
flints is to be found an occasional quartzite pebble which, like 
the proverbial straw, serves to show the direction from whence 
the ancient river came which laid down these great gravel 
beds. The geological map shows that these ancient gravel beds 
extend westwards, flanking the deposits of the Witham valley 
nearly up to Lincoln. Without trespassing upon the excellent 
paper read some time ago by our friend and Vice-President, 
Mr. Burton, it may be mentioned that travelling westwards 

^Jarch 1899. 



66 



Woodhall 



from this place and examining these ancient gravels for flints 
and quartzite pebbles it is found that the flints gradually 
decrease and the quartzites increase in quantity, until at Bardney 
the flints are almost absent and the g^ravel is almost altogether 



composed of quartz and quartzite pebbles. These beds are not 
noticed again until, having passed through the Lincoln gap, 
they reappear and extend in a south-westerly direction as far as 
the Trent valley at Newark, all the way displaying the same 
characteristic abundance of quartzite pebbles. Following then 
the valley of the Trent, these same quartzite pebbles occur until 
near Nottingham, the source whence they are derived, is 
reached, viz., the Bunter Pebble Beds, which are there traversed 
by the river Trent. Thus we have spent the day on the tail 
end, as it were, of the alluvial deposits of an ancient river 
Trent which, soon after the Glacial period, ran eastwards from 
Newark through the gap at Lincoln and on towards the Wash, 
Instead of northwards into the Huniber, as at the present time- 
The Witham and the Fen deposits of the Witham valley are all 
subsequent in date to these ancient quartzite gravels, and point 
to a different origin. Incidentally, Mr. Preston said that as he 
and Mr. Kirkby passed through Tattershall that morning they 
had stopped to look at the interesting ruins of the Castle, and 
were much interested to find that the weathered faces of the 
bricks indicated the local origin of the sand and gravel with 
which the clay was mixed previous to burning, for studded all 



over the burnt clay were to be found quartzite pebbles and flint 
fragments ranging up to as much as an inch in diameter. This 
was noticeable also In the mortar, and clearly showed that the 
mixed quartzite and flint gravels of the neighbourhood had been 
run upon in connection with the building of Tattershall Castle. 

Personally I was too busy working at entomology to take 
much interest in botany. But the Rev. W. Fowler, Rev. F. S. 
Alston, and Mr. B. Crow each kindly sent me a list. Less than 
200 flowering plants and ferns were noted. The best things 
WQ^ro; Nepeta Cataria, Hicracmm umbellatuni^ MarruhLum vulgan\ 
Salix auritit^ Samolus Valenindi^ Scabiosa Colmnharia (a lime- 
loving plant, common enough on limestone and chalk), Calamn- 
grostis lanccolata, Corydalis claviculala, Maianlhcmnni hifolliun. 

The Rev. J. Conway Walter sent me the following list of 
Mammals : — Fox, Hare, Rabbit, Mole, Squirrel, Badger (rare), 
Otter (rare), Hedgehog, Hanover Rat, Water Vole, House 
Mouse, Common Shrew, Common Field Vole, Foumart (rare), 
Stoat (as Ermine partly white in winter, but he has seen them 

- -"- h 

NatitraliSf 



Peacock: Lhic, Naturalists at Woodhall Spa a7id Tumhy, 67 

entirely white with the exception of the tip of the tail), Club- 
tail or Weasel (on 29th June he saw a piebald specimen; it was 
very pretty), [The female is much smaller than the male, but 
which is the Club-tall I cannot learn for certain. — E. A. W.-P.], 

Mr. H. M. Hawley, the Squire of Tumby, kindly supplied 
the following* short Bird list: — Barn and Brown Owls, Reed 
Bunting-, Redpoll, Goldfinch, Bald Coot, Pereg-rine Falcon, 
Hawfinch, Nightingale, Heron, Kingfisher, Greater and Lesser 
Spotted Woodpeckers, Redstart, Creeper, Shoveller and Tufted 
Ducks, Quail, Woodlark, Wheatear (in Roughton Wood), 
Gold-crested Wren, Dipper, and Yellow Wagtail (as a winter 
visitant). 

The following list of Fish from the Horncastle neighbour- 
hood was supplied by the Rev. J. Conway Walter : — Trout, 
Grayling (imported from Claythorpe, where it was originally 
introduced; it is now breeding in the river Bain), Pike, Roach, 
Rudd, Dace, Bleak ('Blick' locally), Chub, Carp (ponds at 
Wispington, etc.). Bream (Witham, etc.), Tench (ponds 
at Woodhall, etc.). Minnow, Stickleback (the male who guards 
the nest, * Blue-eyed Sailor'), Miller's Thumb or Bullhead 
(Horncastle Canal, Waring- and Bain rivers, as much as four 
inches sometimes), Stone Loach (Horncastle Canal, etc.), Eels 
(everywhere), Burbot (Witham ; it has the flavour of the 
Eel), Lamprey (or Nine-Eyed Eels, from the holes In its gills. 
Waring river). 

The following is a list of Lepidoptera seen or taken by 
Mr, W. Lewington between Woodhall Spa and Tumby;— 

Pieris brassicai. Epinephele hyperanthus. 

Pieris rapse. Thecia quercfls. 

Pieris napi. Polyommatus phloeas. 

Colias edusa, $. Lycsena icarus. 

Argynnis a^laia. Hesperia thaumas. 

Argynnis paphia. Spllosonia mendica. Two 
Vanessa io. larvae. 

Vanessa atalanta. Psllura monacha. 

Apatura iris. Plusia i;amiiia. 

Pararg-e meg-a^ra. Geomctra papihonaria. 

Epinephele janira. Cidaria itnmanata. 

Epinephele tithonus. Eubolia liniitata. 

The following- Insects, collected by W. Lewington and 
E. A. W. Peacock, were named by Rev, A. Thornley: 

Nei'ROPTFRA Bombus hortorum. Ow^ ?. 

Sympetrum sp. ' " l^'^f'^^ ')f'' . ^''''^'^\^l' 

^ ^ ^ Crabro cnbrarius. One ?. 

HVMENOPTERA. Crabro albilabrls. Oxm^^ 

Vespa g:ernianica. One ?. Halictus leucopus. One $* 

Vespa vulg:aris. One $. Apis melUfica. Two ^ s. 
Bombus lapidarius. One $ . 

March 1899. 



68 Poi-riti: Arctia liihricipeda var. radiata at Kirhy Moorside. 

DiPTERA- Lagria hJrta. One, 

Platychirus clvpeatus. Polydrusus ptery<-omalis. One. 

Scatophaga stercoraria. Strophosomus corylu Several. 

Calliphora vomitoria. Otiorrhynchus picipes. One. 

Psylliodes cupro-aitens. One. 
COLEOPTERA. Ragonycha fulva. One. 

Geotrupes spinig-er. One ? . Melig^ethes seneus. Several. 

Geotrupes stercorarlus- One ? . Necrophorus humalor. Six. 

Coccinella 7-punctata. Two. Necrophorus ruspator. Three. 

Coccinella variabilis. Several. Necrophorus mortuorum. Two. 

Strang-alia armata. Two. Aphodius rufipes. One. 

Several undetermined Orthoptera and Diptera. 

The following^ species of Hemiptera-Heteroptera, collected 
in Fulsby Wood by Rev. E. A. W. Peacock, were named by 
Mr. J, Eardley Mason :^- 

Miris laavig-atus L. Two. Leptopterna ferrug-ata F"alL One. 

Calocoris roseomaculatus DG, ^torhinus ang'ulatus Fall. One. 

One. Orthotylus scoUl Reut» One, 

Calocoris blpunctatus Fab, One, Nabis lativentris. Four, all 

immature. 

The following- were collected in Tumby Wood by Mr. J, E. 
Mason. Those marked * are new to Lincolnshire. 

*Pie2odorus lituratus Fab. Abun- *OrthotyIus ericetorum Fall, 

dant on hirze [Ulex euj-opceus). ' Abundant on heather. 

Immature; one mature. *Onychumenus decolor Fall. 

Stygnus rusticuy Fall. Several *PsaIlus alnicola D.&S. One off 

at roots of heather {Calliina), birch. 

*Dictyonota strichnocera Fieb. Asciodema obsoletum D.&S. 

Some on furze. Several off furze. 

Miris calcaratus Fall. One, Lygus viridis Fall. One ofi' birch. 

A few more await further examination. 
The Spiders taken were:- 

Anyph^ena accentuata Walck. ? Epeira marmorea C.L.Koch. 

Epeira gibbosa C.L.Koch. * This is not certain. The true 

This is a first record for the marmorea has not in the adult 

whole county. state yet been recorded in 

Dictyna arundinacea L. Britain.' ~ Rev. O. Pickard- 

Diosa dorsata Fabr. Another Cambridge. 

first record for N. and S. Xysticus pini Hahn. A new 

Lines., 54 and 53. record ag-ain. 

Epeira qiiadrata C.L.Koch. Epeira sellers Walck. 

Epeira scalaris Walck. Linyphla triang-ularis C.L.Koch. 



Mela seg^mentata C.L.Koch. Theridion varians Hahn. 

The Harvest-men or Phalan^jidea which have been taken this 
season in Lincolnshire will be published in a separate list later. 
The Rev. J. Conway Walter read some natural history notes, 
which will also appear later. 



NOTE—LEPIDOPTERA. 

Arctia lubricipeda var, radiata at Kirby Moorside.— Mr, Ro^^nnald 

H. Barker, of Scarboroiig:h, when acknowledging- some specimens of 
A, radiata I recenil}' sent him, wrote that when staying at Kirby Moorslde 
three or four years ^y;o he broug*ht back several larvse oi Arctia 'liihricipeda^ 
one of which produced a specimen of radiata. So verj' few of this form o^ 
the species have been taken in this country in an actually wild state, that 
this occurrence ou^ht to be placed on record.— Geo, T. Porritt, Crosland 
Hall, Huddersfield, 15th February 1899, N-uumlkt" 



69 



YORKSHIRE BATS 



OXLEV GKABHAM, M.A., M.B.O.U., 

Chestnut Mouse, He'worth^ Yorh. 



It often appears, curious to me how few, how very few, people 
ever seem to take the trouble to investigate the habits and 
econony of these little creatures, or even care to know how 
many species we hav^e in our islands. My enquiries on the 
subject are generally met with the reply, ' Oh, we have the 
Long-eared Bat, the Short-eared, and the Common Large Bat,' 
and I am often asked most wonderful questions concerning 
them, as to whether they are not really birds ? If they lay eggs ? 
Wliere they make their nests? etc, etc., and by the great 
majority of people they are looked upon as beasts of evil omen, 
blood-suckers, frequenters of church-yards and other unclean 
places. Yet they are by no means without interest, and I need 
scarcely say bring forth their young in the same way as other 
mammals do. I have at various times kept nearly all our 
British species in confinement, and though they can scarcely be 
called amusing pets, still they exhibit a certain amount of 
intelHgence, and soon become tame enough to take a moth, 
beetle, fly, or piece of raw meat from their master's hand. 
I have heard the term 'flittermouse' applied to them, but in the 
Holderness district they are always known as 'blackbeeraways' — 
mothers frightening their unruly children by calling on the black 
object to bear them away. Varieties are very rare, and out of 
the scores of Bats that I have at various times examined I have 
only seen one such specimen. This was taken in May 1898 by 
the Hon. A. H. Baring, of the Grange, Alresford, Hants, being 
found by him, as recorded in the * Zoologist' for June, nailed to 
a barn door, and in an advanced state of decomposition. 
Mr, Baring very kindly sent me this Bat to examine. It was 
a Long-eared on^, and a pure albino, fur very long and silky, 
and all the membranes and ears very light coloured. Bats are 
very subject to the attacks of parasites. Sometimes they are 
perfectly free from them, and at others they positively swarm 
with them. A short time ago, when skinning a Lesser Horse 
Shoe Bat, I took no less than eighteen large parasites from it, 
which have been most kindly named for me by Mr. Ernest E. 
Austen, of the British Museum, as Nyctcnbia hermanni Leach. 



In the month of January 1893 "^X fi*!*^"^ I^^- Tempest 
Anderson, of York, tells me the station-master's house at North 
Grimston, on the N.E.R., was found to be swarming with a 

March 1899. 



yo Grahhani : Yorkshire Bats, 

curious kind of parasite. So troublesome did these become 

that, as no remedy was forthcoming, preparations were made 

for pulling down part of the house, and on the work being 

commenced, no less than between two and three hundred Bats 

were found between the laths and plaster. Unfortunately none 

of these Bats or parasites have been preserved. Bell's * British 

Quadrupeds' is still the standard work on the subject, and the 

account he gives of the British Bats is excellent as far as it 

goes, but it does not ^o far enough. Of enemies, besides the 

Bat collector, must be mentioned owls and cats, both of which 

latter I have seen making a meal off them. The haunts of 

Bats are numerous — holes in trees, holes and crevices in walls, 

behind shutters and signboards, in belfries and church towers, 

and in caves, old workings, etc. Their capture may be brovight 

about by shooting; I have secured many specimens by using a 

No. 3 Saloon Pistol, using, of course, very small shot ; and 

when I watched them^ coming out of a hole, be it in tree or in 

brick, the next evening, before dusk, I have fastened a small 

piece of netting over the hole ; the Bats in due course fly into it, 

r — 

get entangled, and are easily captured. They will sometimes 
come down to a lantern or light-coloured object thrown up in 
the air. They are not infrequently caught with a fly, and when 
hybernating may be found together in great numbers; but unless 
wanted for scientific purposes, it is a very great pity to kill 
them ; they are perfectly harmless, and do much good by 
preying on cockchafers and other beetles. How the expression, 
'blind as a Bat,' originated, I know not; for not only have all 
our Bats eyes of considerable size, but that they can and diO use 
them I have had ample proof ; though from some interesting but 
cruel experiments that were made some time ago by Spallanzani, 
it was proved that they depended * on the exquisite sense of 
touch of the whole surface of the flying membrane ' to tell them 
of the approach of any solid body w^hen threading their way 
through the branches of trees, etc. When Messrs. Clarke and 
Roebuck brought out their list of Yorkshire Vertebrates — of 
which most useful work I would fain see a new edition — six species 
of Rats were recorded for the county ; now the number has 
advanced to eight; and I see no reason why, with further investi- 
gation, a still greater increase should not be made. Of these eiijht 



species, seven are in my own collection. To take them in order : 

I- Vesperugo noctula. The Noctule or Great Bat. 

Sometimes called V. altivolans, owing to its habit of haw^kingf 



about very high up in the air ; is common throughout the 



Naturalist, 



Grabham : Yorkshire Bats, 71 

county. It has a g^reater expanse of wing* than any of our 
British species, and I have taken specimens measuring* over 
fourteen inches from tip to tip. Last summer, Mr. John Clayton 
kindly sent me about thirty which were taken out of an old 
hollow tree at Grimston Park. I let most of them q-o. with 
the exception of three or four very young ones, which were 
only just beg^inning- to show indications of fur. They were 
dark leathery-looking objects, and reminded me of very young- 
cormorants as much as anything. I have seen this bat dip 
into a pool of water in the twilig^ht, either for the purpose of 
having a drink or for ablution. I put four adults into a loose 
box where I kept a larg-e Tawny Owl, intending- to examine 
them in the morning- for parasites; but I found Syrn/um alnco had 
pulled off and eaten the head of each, and thrust a headless body 
into each of the four corners of the stall. Bell is most certainly 
wrong- in stating- that 'this Bat is seldom seen abroad much later 



than July.' I have frequently in mild seasons seen It on the wing 
in the evening's up to the end of the first week in October. 

Mr. W. Denison Roebuck remarks that Yorkshire seems to 
be the northern limit for this species; extremely few records 
exist for counties further north, while in Yorkshire it is not 
uncommon throughout. 

2. Vesperugo leisIerL Leisler's Bat or Hairy-armed 

Bat, The latter name given to it because of a broad band of 
^hort hair extendin^r aloui^ the inferior surface of the forearm. 
But the Noctule also has this feature quite as fully if not more 
developed. I have never taken this Bat myself or had it sent 
to me, but I am always on the look-out for it. Messrs. Clarke 
and Roebuck say that three were. obtained by the late F. Bond 
about fifty years ago from an old factory chimney at Hunslet, 
near Leeds. Leisler's Bat is considerably smaller than the 
Noctule and of a darker colour, as mentioned above. Both 
these Bats have the hair on the surface of the membrane 
adjoining the forearm, on the underside. Perhaps the larger 
animal has this character most developed. They differ also in 
the si;ie and arrangement of the teeth. Dobson separates them 
thus : ' \n V. noctula the fur is uni-coloured above and beneath, 
or the colour of the hair is slightly paler towards the bases ; 
while In V. leisleri the terminal one-fourth of the hairs above is 
bright yellowish-brown, beneath light brown, the basal three- 
fourths of the fur on both surfaces dark brown. The outer 
i-'PPer incisor also in F. leisleri is equal to the inner incisor in 
cross section at its base, but in V. noctula it is double the size 

^linvh 1899. 



^2 Grabham: Yorkshire Bats. 

of the same tooth at its base. The lower incisors in V. letsleri 
stand in the direction of the jaws, a semicircle with hardly any 

+ 

overlapping-; in V. nocttila they are crowded and parallel, set 
obliquely, and largely overlap one another,' 

In 1881 Mr. Roebuck had some correspondence with 
Mr. Frederick Bond on the subject of this record. Mr. Bond 
wrote under date 17th May of that year as follows: — * About 40 
years ago I paid a visit to Leeds and amused myself collecting* 
insects, when I saw in the possession of a working man who also 
collected insects for his own amusement 3 specimens of the Bat, 

i 

all injured by the larva of a Beetle, Derrnestes sp. Only one was 
fit to keep, which was kindly given to me ; he told me he took 
them from an old factory chimney shaft a few months before I saw 
them, I think at Hunslet, The two specimens that I did not have 
were so badly injured by the Dermestes larva that they were 
worthless. In 1874 I received two fine $ specimens from 
Tanderagee, Co. Armagh. They were taken from hollow beech 
trees, with several others. The Yorkshire specimen is a (J.' 
Mr> Roebuck also reminds me that in 'The Zoologist' for 
September 1892, p. 329, there is a note on this species by 
Mr. H. Charbonnier, who recorded several shot near Mexborough, 
but the Editor suggests that they might have been confused with 
young Noctules. 

3. Vesperugo pipistrellus. Pipistrelle or SitiaU Bat. 

Is the smallest of our British Bats, and the commonest. 
Throughout the county it is universally distributed. In mild 
seasons it is on the wing almost uninterruptedly throughout the 
year, and I have frequently seen it abroad at midday. It is 
very fond of hawking at night in any sheltered place, farm- 
yards, etc., and it rests in any convenient crevice. It varies 
much in colour, as most Bats do, some specimens being very 
dark. It is easily tamed and lives well in captivity. 

4. Vesperti/lo nattererL Natterer's or the Reddish- 

Qrey Bat. The latter term is to my mind a misnomer, as, 
though I have examined many specimens of this Bat, I can 
distinguish very little red about them. However, as I said 
above. Bats vary greatly in colour, and the food, surroundings, 
soil, etc., in certain places, may have, and to my mind 
undoubtedly do have, an effect on the colours of animals, so 
that the same species from widely-different localities may be 
very differently coloured. This Bat is either rare or overlooked 
in the county. Messrs, Clarke and Roebuck record two as 
having been taken from a tree in Oakwell Wood, Birstah 

Naturalist, 



Grabha7n : Yorkshire Bats. 73 

I myself have only once taken this Bat, and that was at Flaxton 

w 

on gth August 1895. It is easily recog-nisable by its long ears 
and tragus, light-coloured under parts, and long spun (*The 
spur is a long, tendinous process from the heel of the foot, 
which runs along the margin of the interfemoral membrane, and 
serves to stretch it. It, in fact, represents the os calcls. It will 
be found of very different length in different species, varying 
from three to ^Qv^n lines or more/ — ^Jenyns.) Between the end 
of the spur and the tip of the tail the' membrane is crenate or 
puckered and set with numerous short hairs. This character at 
once distinguishes the species. It is very gregarious. My 
friend, Mr, James Backhouse, had over thirty sent to him last 
summer from Wales, old and young. Examples of both he very 
kindly gave me for my collection, and the young he described 
for the first time in * The Zoologist' for December i8g8. They 
are quite unlike the old in colour, being pure white beneath, and 
mouse-grey above, but in other characters exactly resemble 
adult specimens. In old and young the transverse lines on the 
interfemoral membrane are few compared to those found in the 
same part in the Whiskered and Daubenton's Bats. 

Mr. Roeback has had this Bat sent often, and has usually 
considered it as at least as common io Yorkshire as V. mysta- 
ciHus, He has had it or ^QQn it from Thorp Arch, Bingley, 
Nidderdale, and other places. 

5- Vespertilio daubentoniL Daubenton's Bat. Is not 
recorded by the authors of * Yorkshire Vertebrates.' I have 
had four sent to me during the past summer, taken in different 
parts of the county. The first was very kindly sent to me in 
June by Mr. George Parkin, of York Street, Wakefield; it had 
flown amongst a party of excursionists at Fountains Abbey, and 
had been secured by one of them. Mr. Parkin also forwarded 
to me two skins of this species, which had been taken some 
years ago from a Woodpecker's hole in Hawe Park Wood, 
Walton. For the fourth specimen I am indebted to the kindness 
of Mr. James Carter, of Burton House, Masham. The Bat was 
■shot flying over a deep pool In the river Yore. It is essentially 
^n aquatic species, if this term may be applied to a Bat, and 
"^ay be distinguished from all others by its flight close over 
the surface of still water. Skins of this Bat are very easily 
confounded with those of the Whiskered Bat, but, as pointed 
out by Mr. W. E, DeWinton, the spur, vide supra, runs three 
parts of the distance to the tail, and there is always a distinct notch 
at its end. Again, the feet are noticeably larger for the size of 

March .899. 



74 Grahhmn: Yorkshire Bats. 

the Bat than in any other species, and In adult specimens the 
colour of the back is a dark chocolate brown. Bell states that 
* the wing membranes extend only to the distal extremity of the 
the tibia, leaving the foot free/ but this I find to be a varying* 
quantity, and not to be always relied on. 

Mr, Roebuck informs me that the first Yorkshire example of 
this species was one which was sent to Mr. Clarke and himself 



in i8gi by Mr. Basil Carter, who shot it flying- over the Yore at 
Masham, 19th Aug*ust of that year. This is the only Yorkshire 
specimen he has seen. It was recorded In ' Tlie Naturalist' for 
September 1891, p. 275. 

6. Vespertilio mystacinus. The Whiskered Bat. For 

my own part I cannot see that it is more whiskered than some 
of its confreres. It is a small Bat, and only likely to be 
confused with Daubentoa's. Besides the strikinof diflFerences 
mentioned above, the spur in this Bat only extends about half 
way down the interfemoral membrane. The notch ov\ the outer 
side of the ear is larger than in Daubenton's, and the foot is 
markedly smaller than in the latter species. It is a local Bat, 
but not rare. It has been recorded from Great Mytton, 
Clitheroe, near Scarboroug*h, and I have taken it at Flaxton, in 
the streets of York, Where it flew ag'ainst a policeman's helmet, 



and was kindly brought to me by Mr. J. Hawkins, and last 
autumn I took five from behind a shutter in the villag"e of 
Welwick, near Easlng-ton, in Holdcrness. It may be noticed 
flitting" about with a butterfly fllg'ht, among-st the foliage of 
trees, and between tall hedges in a narrow lane. 

So far as his experience goes, Mr. Roebuck considers this a 
common and widely distributed Bat. He has had it from many 
places, Pateley Bridge, Masham, Goathland, Ingleby Greenhow, 
WarslU Grasslngton, Pocklington, Washburn Valley, etc. 

7. Plecotus auritus. The Long-eared Bat. This Bat 

is easily recognised from the rest of our British species by its 
enormous ears. It is common, but not abundant. It generally 
uses old buildings as a resting place, but I once took three from 
behind a shutter, and one of them was only about half grown. 
It was nearly pure white beneath. When hanging head down- 
wards, as all Bats (\o when at rest, the long ears are folded 
back. This species is easily tamed., and docs not appear to 
object to captivity. 

8. Rhinolophus hipposideros. Lesser Horse-Shoe Bat. 

So called from the peculiar nasal appendage, the anterior portion 
of which is something like a horse-shoe in shape. This Bat 

Naturalist, 



Notes — Orn ithology. 7 5 

was not recorded by JMessrs. Clarke & Roebuck, and it appears 
to be confined to the dale district of the county. I have 
a specimen sent me most kindly by Mr. James Tng*leby, of 
Eavestone, who tells me that it used to be not uncommon in the 
caves and old workings in that district. Of its flight, except in 
a room, I know nothing-, 

Mr. Roebuck remarks that the credit of adding this species to 
the Yorkshire list belongs to Mr. James Ingleby of Eavestone, 
who discovered it near Eavestone, Ripon, as far back as 1875 if 
not earlier, and to Mr. H. Laver of Colchester, who identified 
the species for him. ^Nlr. Laver sent Mr, Roebuck specimens 
about March 1882, which enabled him to record it as an addition 
in * The Naturalist ' for May 1882, p. 166. Since then Mr. Ingleby 
and Mr. W. Storey hav^e found it in various caves in Nidderdale, 
Washburndale and the Ripon District. 

I have to thank my friend, Mr, W. Denison Roebuck, who was 
a much earlier worker in this field than myself, for various notes 
which I have been able to incorporate in this paper. 

In conclusion, I would ask readers of 'The Naturalist,' if 
they come across any varieties, or the young of any species, if 
they would most kindl}- send them on to me. Bats travel badly, 
and soon begin to decompose, so that I should infinitely prefer 
them alive if possible ; if dead, they will keep much better if a 



slight incision be made in the abdomen, the entrails extracted, 
^nd a plug of cotton wool soaked in spirit, whisky will do, 
inserted therein. I shall be happy at any time to identify any 
specimens about which their owners may be in doubt ; and I think 
We ought to still further add to our county list of Cheiroptera. 




NOTES—ORNITHOLOGY. 



Waxw 



^^ *^^v»-.,^.^w#,... Mr. H. B. Hewetson, of Tweeds, 

writing (8th February 1S99) from Scarborou^di, says:—* A shooter was out 
in October last and came upon a flock of twelve Wax\vhig:s [Ampvlls 
^^^rrulus L.], and whilst creeping up to them a Woodcock rose, which he 
shot; this frightened the birds away< Subsequently Mr. Morley, the bird- 
stufFcr, had seven broug-ht to him.'- John Cordealx, Great Cotes House, 
^'S.O., Lincoln, loth February 1899, 

Barred Warbler in Lancashire,— I am permitted by my friend, 

^^r. Arthur P. Pag-e, to place on record the occurrence of an example of 
^ne Barred Warbler (Sj'Iv/a nisoria Bechstein), near Fleetwood, ow the 20th 
^^»g:- 1898, Mr. Pag-e shot the bird with a * walking-stick ' g:un in the presence 
«* nis sister, Mrs. E- Smvthe, while walking along- the ed^e of a small wood ; 
^ind from a recent examniatlon I believe it to be a male in adult plumaj^e. 
The original British example was detected by Prof. Alfred Nowton, and 
• ■ ' - - The present 

^ „.....- Islands and the 

"fst record for Lancashire.— W. Rlskin BrxxEKFiELD, St. Leonard s-on^ 
^«?a, 8th February 1899. 



*"^ »-'iiginHi i:>ritisn example was ueiecieu uy i ii^i- n-m^v* 
>s recorded in the Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend, for 1S79, p. 219. 
^^'cms to be the seventeenth example noticed in the British Is 



Soq 



76 



NOTES— ORNITHOLOGY. 



Magpies and Sparrow Hawks as Foster-Parents of Game-Fowl. 

In this mouth's number of * The Naturalist* I notice a query from 
Mr, Oldham, Alderley Edg-e, as to whether it was formerly a practice of 
breeders of g-ame fowl to place the cgi^s of these birds in the nests of 

Mag- pies. 

I have never heard of this in connection with Mag-pies' nests, but 1 know 
that many years ag^o the pitmen of Northumberland (who were g-reat 
breeders of game-fowl) used to place the egg^s in the nests of the Sparrow 
Hawk {Acciplter nisus). They had an impression that by so doing" the 
young birds would become strong^er and fiercer for fighting purposes. 

There Is an old dismantled tower (an old pit shaft) at the north-west 
corner of our Town Moor where this was done year after year, and where 
the Sparrow Hawks were allowed to nest in safety for this purpose. — 
H. T. Archer, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 6th February 1899. 

Magpies, etc, as Foster-Parents of Qame-Fowl. — Referring; to 

Mr. Oldham's note on this subject in 'The Naturalist' for February (p. 51), 
the following- is quoted in E. Rolland's *" Faune Populaire de la France,' 
Tome 2, p. 139 : — 

' Le Coq-pie (ou Co-pie) passe pour etre tres-mechant. On I'obtlent en 
faisant couver des oeufs de poule par une pie dont on d^menagfe le nid. 
Les coqs qui en proviennent sont tres-batailleurs.' Haut-Maine, Montesson. 

In Holmgren's ' Skandinaviens Foglar,' V^ol. i, pp. 254, 270, the use of 
the nests of both Pica pica and Corvus comix for the hatching- of hens' 
eggs is described as practised in certain parts of Scandinavia, Osterg^oth- 
land being particularly specified. The eggs are usually blackened or 
otherwise coloured, and the chickens, of course, removed as soon as 
betrayed by their piping". The author says that he can from his own 
experience vouch for the perfect success of the plan. 

Montesson's account dates 1859, Holmg;ren*s 1866. — P. Ralfe, The 
Parade, Castletown, Isle of Man, 9th February 1899. 

The Kingfisher in the Huddersfield District.— Mr. Joseph H. 

HinchlifT, of Skelmanthorpe, near Huddersfield, having seen my note on 
*The King-fisher at Huddersfield* ('Naturalist,' December 189S), wrote me 
the other day (loth February 1899), as follows: — 'On January 6th last, 
I was fishing for roach in the old moat at Thornhill Hall, and observed a 
Kingfisher [Alcedo isfiida] fly across the moat. Previous to this I had 
observed one on our own pond at Emley Old Hail, and this bird is repeatedly 
observed by members of our family on tlie pond or down the streanu Does 
the Kingfisher feed on such fish as the stickleback? There are sticklebacks 
in the above-mentioned moat and pond, and last week, when our pond was 
frozen over except on a few square yards where the water enters it, the 
Kingfisher was seen on successive days early in the morning on a willow 
tree which grows up out of the pond at that end. Last Sahirday, I saw 
another Kingfisher several times by the stream just below Blacker Wood, 
Skelmanthorpe, and in this stream there were formerly sticklebacks, but 
they appear to have been killed off by sewage and mill efiluents. In fact, 
when I observed the bird last Saturday, the stream was much discoloured 
by dye- water. Before this year I have never seen a Kingfisher in this district, 
only on the Nidd at Knaresborough and the Laver at Ripon; though the 
bird is sometimes seen on the lakes at Bretton Hall and Cannon Hall.' 

Mr. Hinchliff kindly allows me to send the foregoing interesting notes 
for publication ; and T may add that at the time I observed the bird on the 
ponds in these grounds, I concluded that sticklebacks were probably the 
attraction, for although the ponds also contain a number of old trout, they 
are, I think, much too large for a Kingfisher to tackle. Mr. A. Clarke tells 
me he has recently on two occasions seen the Kingfisher at Slaithwaite, so 
there are evidently at least several in this district, — Geo. T. PorRITT, 
Crosland Hall, Huddersfield, 15th Februaiy 1899. 

Naturali**t, 



77 



EXTRACTS FROM A CONCHOLOGIST'S NOTEBOOK. 



WILLIAM NELSON, M.C.S.. 
Cross^afes, Leeds; Hon, Sec.^ Leeds Conchological Cluh 



4-~FR0M SELBY TO CAMBLESFORTH AND GOWDALL FOR 

LIMN^A GLABRA. 

By an early train on Saturday morning:, 14th April 1887, 
I arrived at Selby, and at once made my way to the canal, 
which I had found on previous visits to be a prolific hunting- 
ground for mud-loving: mollusks. This morning:, however, 
I was afraid was g:oing: to prove a blank, as the weather was 
cold, with the wind blowing* from the east, the quarter most 
dreaded by the field naturalist- I searched for a considerable 
time, but was only rewarded by two or three specimens of 
LimiK^a peregni. On former visits to this canal I have obtained, 
buried in the mud and at the roots of sedges and other mud- 
loving plants, Sphccrium coniciun, Unio turnidiis, Anodonfa 
^yg^^en, Paludina vivipara, Bythinia tentaculata, B. Icachii, and 
Valvaia cristata, the latter very common. Different parts of 
the canal had produced Planorhh fontanus, P, albiis, P, vorfex, 
P' cannaiusy P. nmbilicatus, Physa fontinalis, Limnwa peregra, 
L, aun'cularur, L, sf(7g-ualis, Z. palusfris^ and Z. truncafula. 
■out this visit having produced nothing except Liinncea peregniy 



as before stated, I turned my attention to a ditch situated 
*it the bottom of the canal embankment, where some years 
before I had found Planorhis corncus and the largest examples 
^^ Limncea pcrvgra it has been my fortune to find ; but this time 
the ditch, like the canal, yielded nothing. I Viow left the canal 
at Stonebridge along the high road, passing Thief Lane on the 
l^ft, and in a ditch near to Barlow Conmion I found Planorbis 
^pirorbis and Physa hypnorum, and after searching some (what 
^ think have been) old line ponds I found Phym fontinalis, 
Planorbis umbilicatiis, P. contorius, Limncca peregra, Z. palustris, 
and Z. inincainla, I searched each pond and ditch as I went 
along towards Camblesforth ; at or opposite to a place called 
'Murshallshaw, a little to the north-east of Camblesforth, I made 
protracted search in a ditch and obtained specimens of Limnmi 
glabra. This was an unrecorded locality for this local species, 



^"d one altogether new to myself. After satisfying myself as 
^0 the aquatic mollusca in the ditch I searched among the moss 
^^ the bank-side, but only found Zonites fuhus and Cochlicopa 
lubrica, only single specimens of the former, and it is a curious 
^^^^^£^^mst respecting my experience of this shell that I have, 

^arch 1899. 



78 Nelson: Extracts from a Conchologist's Notebook. 

as a rule, found only scattered specimens of it, rarely more than 
two or three in a locality. The only exception I can call to- 
mind at this time is finding it many years ago very common 
near to Seacroft Hall. Having left the ditch and passed 
through Camblesforth I came to a small, shallow, grass-grown 
pond situated in a widening of the road at a place where two 
or three footpaths diverge. The pond is invariably dried up in 
summer time. I had searched this place two or three times 
before and hav^e obtained examples of Planorhis foiitanus, 
P, spirorbis, Limncea peregra, and Z. glabra. Leaving these 
I next came to the large pond at Carleton Towers. Here I 
enlisted the sympathy and help of a farmer who was occupier of 
the land which surrounds that part of the pond which i§ cut off 
from the park. Learning from me that I wished to go some 
distance from the margin, where there was an abundance of the 
broad-leaved pondwced [Pofamogctoji nata7is)y he took me to 
a somewhat large raft which was floating on the water, but 
I soon found that whatever else we w^ere, we neither of us were 
experts w^ith that kind of craft, as we were continually getting 
both to one end, and so submerging it until the water was 
running over the tops of our boots, and after all we were 
scarcely adequately rewarded for our exertions and discomfort. 
Planorbis albus^ P, umbilicatus, Physa fontinalis, Limmea peregra, 
and Z. palnstris being all we obtained, and those few species 
were only represented by one or two examples of each. Onr 
management of the raft did not induce any desire on my part to 
stay long on the pond, and I was heartily glad to get away 
before making a still closer acquaintance with it. I next tried 
a ditch at a place called the Dumps, which yielded one or two 
examples each of Planorbis contortus and Physa hypiiortini. 
Leaving here I crossed the river Aire by the bridge to Snaith ; 
passing through part of the town I turned to the right, and on 
a hedge-bank at Pickhill Bank I found Zofittes cellarius and 
Helix arbitstoram. Still bearing to the right towards a place 
called Gowdall, I came to a small plot of undrained land, most 
certainly a piece of a former common, and after searching tor 
some time I found examples of Planorbis spirorbis and Limncea 
glabra^ both being represented by i<^v:r and very impoverished- 
looking examples. Still keeping westwards I passed through 
Hensall, only adding Limncea peregra from a ditch by the road, 
and so arrived at the station, where I took the train home, and 
thus concluded another ramble which, though unpromising at 
the beginning, ended very successfully, in the addition of two 
more habitats for this local shell. 



[Read to the Leeds Concholoj^ical Club, 21st January 1899.] 



Naturalist, 



79 



VERNACULAR NAMES 
OF BIRDS AT STAVELEY, WESTMORLAND 



JOSEPH A. MARTINDALE, 

Sfaveley, Westmorland. 



The short article on Lakeland Bird-names in last month's 
' Naturalist' interested me very much, and, if I may be allowed, 
I should like to say a few words on the same subject. Staveley 
may, I suppose, be considered to be within Lakeland, thou*;-h 



three or four miles from the nearest lake ; so that my remarks 
may be taken as supplementary to those of Miss Armitt. Like 
all other dialectal words and modes of speech, the local names 
for birds are g-radually dyings away under the influence oi books. 
Boys are the great conservators of the local bird-names, and 
probabl}^ the inventors of several of them ; but, even among* 
them, there has been a great change during the last thirty years 
or so, and one finds them usine: book-names for such birds as 
the Barn Owl and Common Sandpiper, for which formerly they 
knew only the rustic appellations of 'Grey Hullet' and 'Willy 
Wittock.' Forty years ago, when I first settled in Staveley, 
comparatively few birds, with the exception of game, were 
known to school children by their ordinary English names ; but 
the other day, when I asked some boys to write me out a list of 
all the wild birds of the neighbourhood, I was astonished to 
find them contain a majority of such names as Yellowhammer, 
W^ren, Barn Owl, Sandpiper,' and Swift. 

In the ' sixties ' no boy ever thought of calling the Wren 
anything else than 'Chitty' or ' Chitty-wSren.' The latter 
I always considered most interesting, as, in all probability, the 
only word anywhere spoken in England in which the sound of 
the letter to is given before an r. Miss Armitt's mode of writing 
the name disguises this, for the short indefinite vowel sound 
between the w and r is not at all truly represented by ay \ 
neither is the name divisible into 'chittiwti' and ' ren,' but as 
I have written it above, 'chitty-wfir^n.' The vowel sound that 
comes between the w and r is that represented in Palaotype 
by an inverted italic e [p). I regret to say that this name 
seems now obsolete in this neighbourhood, for, though ' chitty ' 
appeared in some of the lists, not one boy could recollect 
hearing the full name. 

Even in so small a district as Lakeland it is probable that no 
'ist of local names could be written that would be absolutely 



8o Cordeatix : Linota exilipes at Skeffling^ Holderness. 

correct for each part of it. Thus, thoug-h Miss Armitt says 
that ^ Bessie Douker' is universal and the only name known for 



-1 

the Dipper, that bird was never called anything^ else here than 
'Water Craa/ and the name Is still g-enerally used among^ boys, 
althoug-h I found * Water Ouzel ' put for it in one of the lists 
I spoke of. Again, the Grey Wagtail is most commonly known 
here as the * Yellow Willy,' while its congener the Pied Wagtail 
is called the * Grey Willy.' For the last bird the name 'Dish- 
washer * was given in one of the lists, but on questioning the boy 
who wrote it, he told me that the name w^as given to him by 

w 

one of his pla3'mates, a newcomer to the village, so that 
evidently it is an imported designation. 

' Strea-smoor ' used to be a name for the Whitethroat ; and 
my son asserts that the * Ground Lark' Is the same as the Tree 
Pipit, though onQ would think the name more suitable to the 
Meadow Pipit. One must remember, however, that boys are 
by no means scientific in their ornithology, and that sometimes 
the same species bears two distinct names, while in other cases 
two or three distinct birds are lumped by them under one name; 
whenever, on the one hand, great variation of eggs and nesting 



place is found in the case of individuals of the same species, or, 
on the other, birds nearly resemble each other in appearance 
and there is no decided difference in the eggs and nest. The 
Long-tailed Tit is always called here ' the Long-tailed Chitteren 
Magpie *^ — ^11 one name. 

Among the Staveley bird-names not referred to above, or 
unmentioned in Miss Armitt's paper, are the following \~~ 



* Bessie,' Yellowhammer. 

' Grey Linnet,' Common Linnet. 

'Yellow Linnet,' Greenfinch. 

'Jammy' or 'Jammy Longlegs,' Heron. 




SO TE—ORNITHOLOG V. 

Linota exilipes at Skeffling, Holderness. — Since writing (Nat., 

1899, p. 33) the note in connection with two Meal}* Redpolls shot at 
Skcfflin^ on 30th December, Mr. Loten has kindly submitted the birds to 
me, and now that I have seen them, have not the least hesitation in 



referring them to the Arctic and eircumpolar Lutota exilipes Coues. Tliis 
differs only from the Greenland, Iceland, and Spitsbergen Z. hornemanm 
in being" somewhat smaller. These SketTling birds are identical in every 
respect with omt from the same locality in 1894, which I sent to Mr. H. E. 
Dresser, and which was referred by him to L, exilipes (Nat., 1894, p. 84). 

In my notes in 'The Naturalist,' 1899, p. 35, the date of the invasion of 
the Wood Pigeon is, by a clerical error, stated as ' iith-i2th December,' it 
should be ' iith-i2th January 1899.' — John Cordeaux. Great Cotes House, 
R.S.O., Lincoln, 8th February 1899. 

Naturalist, 



8r 



BIBLIOGRAPHY : 



Papers and records published with respect to the Natural History 

and Physical Features of the North of England. 



GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY, 1894. 

The present instalment has been compiled and edited by 

THOMAS SHEPPARD. 

Previous instalments of the Bibliog^raphy of Geolog^y and 
Palaeontology have appeared as follows : — 

For 1884, 11^ 'Naturalist,' Dec. 1885, pp. 394-406. 



,, 1885, 
,, 1886, 

yy 1887, 



>> 



>> 



>> 



j> 



3> 



J> 



1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 

1893. 



Nov. 1886, pp. 349-362. 
June 1888, pp. 178-188. 
Feb. 1889, pp. 61-77. 
April-May 1890, pp. 1 21-138. 

Nov. 1890, pp. 339-350. 
Oct.-Nov. 1891, pp. 313-330. 
July-Aug^. 1892, pp. 219-234. 
Sept. 1893, pp. 265-279. 
Sept. -Oct. 1898, pp. 273-296. 



I have to thank Mr. W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., and 
Mr. Alfred Harker, M.A., F.G.S., for a considerable amount of 
assistance. 

Particulars of papers, etc., omitted from the following list 
will be g-ladly received and included at the commencement of 
the 1895 Bibliography. Every effort will be made, howev^er, to 
ensure these lists being* as complete as possible. 

The lists for 1895- 1898 will be published as soon as possible, 
and it would render them more complete if editors of periodicals, 
secretaries of societies, and especially authors of papers in local 
journals, etc., would send copies to the editor of this journal at 
259* Hyde Park Road, Leeds. Reprints and authors' separate 
copies should bear the name of the publication, the number of 
the volume or part, the original paging, and the actual date 
of publication. 

The Watsonian vice-counties are adopted throughout these 
bibliographies as more convenient and uniform in extent than 
the political counties ; those comprised within the North of 
England are the following : 

53. Lincoln S.; 54, Lincoln N.; 56, Notts.; 57, Derby; 58, 



60, Lancashire W 
W. : 6a. York Mid W 



W 



69? Westmorland with Furness and Cartmel; 70, Cumberland; 
^^ld^7£j_Isle of Man; with their adjoining seas. 

^3rch 1899. ^ 



82 Bibliography : Geology and P alee ontology , j8go-j''4. 

1890. 

Robert Munro. York S.E. 

The ; Lake-Dwellings | of | Europe : | being the | Rhind Lectures in 

Archaeology | for 1888. | by | Robert Munro, M.A., M.D. 

1890 I , . . ,| [the Holderness Lake-Dwellings 

described on pp, 469-474, and specimens therefrom figured], pp. xl4-6oo. 

1893. 

H. G. Seeley. York N.E, 

On Omosaurus Phillipsi [from the Jurassics near SlingsbyJ. Ann. 

Rep. York Phil. Soc. for 1892, publ. 1893, pp. 52-57. 

1894- 

Anon, [not signed]. Cheshire. 

Excursions . . Helsby and Frodsham . . July 29th [1893: 

geology briefly summarised]. Rep. and Trans. Manch. Field Nat. Soc, 
for 1893, publ. 1894, p. 37. 



Anon, [not signed]. 



Lanc. S. 



Excursions, Ladyshore Colliery, Little Lever, near Bolton, 

Saturday, 29th April [1S93; account of descent of Gingham Pit]. Rep. 
and Proc. Manch. Field Nat. Soc. for 1893, pub. 1894, pp. 6-7. 

Anon, [not signed]. York S.W, 

Field Excursion [of the Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic 

Soc] to Broad Lanc Junction, Bradford [to inspect a section on the 
G.N. Railway near Broad Lane Station, in which the Crow Coal seam, 
the Black Band seam, and Better Bed Coal are exposed], Proc. Yorks. 
Geol. and Polyt. Soc, Vol. 12, Pt. 5, 1894, p. 441. 

Anon, [not signed]. York S.E., N.E., S.W. 

Reports of Field Excursions [of the Hull Geological Society 

during 1893 ; Filey, on 3rd April, with description of the Brigg and list oi 
fossils ; Scalby, Broxa, and Hackness, on 22nd May, describing sections 
in the Middle Oolites, and lists of fossils; Aldborough, on 10th June, 
with lists oi fossils collected from the boulder clay cliffs and beach ; 
Askern, with Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, on 15th June; Kirkby Moor- 
side, on 10th July, with Y. N. U. ; Speeton, on 27th July, with list of 
fossils from the Speeton Clay; North Grimston and Langton Wold, on 
7th August, with lists of fossils from the Coral Rag and Lower Calcareous 
Grit ; Robin Hood's Bay, 17th August, with list of fossils from the Lias ; 
Beverley, Walkington, etc., on i6th September, with particulars of sec- 
tions in the chalk, and record of Marsnpites ortiatus in a pit at Beverley]. 
Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, Vol. i, 1893-4, pp. 8-13. 

Anon, [not signed]. Cheshire, Lanc. S. 

Boulders of Ailsa Crag Eurite at Staleybridge [the most easterly 

locality yet recorded], Glac Mag., April 1894, p. 210. 

Anon, [not signed]. Dirham. 

The Durham Coalfield. Colliery Guardian, Vol, 67, 1894, pp. 19, 112, 
T76, 206. 

Anon, [not signed]. Northlmberland S. 

The Northumberland Coalfield. Colliery Guardian, Vol. 67, 1S94, 

p- 304. 

Anon, [not signed]. Ci'mberi-and. 

The Cumberland Coalfield. Colliery Guardian, Vol. 67, 1894, pp. 351, 

414. 45'* 543> 592, 650. 

Anon, [not signed]. York Mid \V,, S.W. 

The Yorkshire Coalfield. Colliery Guardian, Vol. 67, 1894, p. 510; 
Vol. 68, pp. 992, 1,024, i>o74» 1.^*7- 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palccontology, i8g4, 83 

Anon, [not sii^ned]. Lanc. S. 

The Lancashire Coalfield. Colliery Guardian, Wo\, 67, 1S94, pp. 640, 
689,751,785,848. 

Anon, [not sig-ned], ' Derbyshire, 

The Derbyshire Coalfield. Colliery Guardian, Vol. 68, 1894, pp. 353, 
475» 517, 5^41 607. 697, 742, 801, S:^Z' 

Anon, [not sij^ned], Nottinghamshire. 

The Nottinghamshire Coalfield. Colliery Guardian, Vol. 68, 1894, 

pp. 205, 262, 293, 395, 427, 883. 



Anon, [not slg-ned]. Westmorland, Flrn 

**The Igneous Rocks of England." [Report of a communication 

made to * The Student's [sic] Association of Natural Science, Upsala,' 
by Herr Otto Xordenskjold ; resemblances between the volcanic rocks 
near Ambleside and Coniston and those of Sweden pointed out]. Bulletin 
of the Geolo^-ical Institution of the University of Upsala, Vol. i, 1S92-3, 
publ. 1894, pp. 91-92. 

Anon, [not sig-ned], York S.E. 

Encroachment of the Sea [at Hornsea, described and measurements 

and historical details g-iven]. Fretwell's lUust. Guide to Hornsea, N.D., 
issued May 1894, pp. 62-64. 

Anon, [not sigTied], York N.E., N.W., S.E. 

[Additions to the] Museum [of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society]. 

Geologfical Department. [Includes bones of the Ox and Horse from the 
bed of the Wiske (Mr. Hutton) ; six spechiiens of Sclenopora Jurassiax 
from the Calcareous Grit, Ruston (Mr. S. Chadwick) ; three specimens of 
Rhynconella from the Lower Calcareous Grit, Hutton Rushell (Mr. J, F. 
Walker); and Quartzite from Teesdale (Mr. Backhouse)]. Ann. Report 
Yorks, Phil. Soc,, 1893, publ. 1894, pp. 30-32. 

Anon, [not sig-ned], Lincolnshire, Cheshire, Cumberland. 

[Review of] Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United 

Kinc^dom ; the Jurassic Rocks of Britain. \"oL III, The Lias of Ens^land 
and Wales (Yorkshire excepted). By Horace B. Woodward, F.G.S. 
• * . 8vo., pp. xii. + 399, with a map and 89 woodcut illustrations. 
GeoL Mag., Feb. 1894, pp. 85-87. 

Anon, [not sig^ned]. Isle of Man, Cheshire. 

The Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. [A Review of 

the Director-General's Report for the year endlnj^ 31st Dec. 1893; refers 
to the work done by the Survey in the Isle of Man, Cheshire, etc.]. 
Natural Science, V^ol." 5, November 1894, pp. o^o-o^J- 



Anon, [not sig:ned ; query, P. F. Kendall, Editor]. LiNC. N. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. Quarterly Journal of the Geological 

Society (London), Vol. XLIX., 1893. [Contains summary of paper 'On 
some Recent Borioi^s throui^h the Lower Cretaceous Strata of East Lm- 
colnshire,* by A. J. Jukes Browne]. Glac. Mag*., Aui,^. 1894, pp. 18-ji. 

Anon, [not sig:ned ; query, P. F. Ivendall, Editor]. Lanc, Chesh. 

Current Glacial Bibliography- British Association Report, 1893. 

[Contains abstracts of papers referrin^^- to the Glacial Geology ot Lanca- 
shire, Cheshire, etc., etc.]. Glac. Mag., June 1894, pp. ::4^--45- 

PREDERICK BaRKE. I^KRHVSHIRE. 

Notes on Sections in the Drift in N. Staffordshire and S.W. 

Derbyshire. Ann. Rep. and Trans. N. Staffordshire N. 1*. Club, \ oL 28, 
for 1893-94, publ. 1894, pp. 123-12S. 

H. Arnold-Bemrose. Derbyshire. 

Notes on Crick Hill. 8vo., Derby [not seen]. 

-Maroh 1899. 



84 Bibliography : Geology and Palceonlolog-y, iSg4, 

H. H. Arnolu-Bemrose. Derbyshire. 

On the Microscopical Structure of the Derbyshire Carboniferous 

Dolerites and Tuffs [dealing- with the petrography of the Toadstones of 
Derbyshire, which are divided into massive rocks or lavas, and frag^niental 
rocks or tuffs ; the latter are shown to be more extensive than hitherto 
supposed]. Quar, Journ. Geol. Soc-, Vol. 50, Nov. 1894, pp. 603-642, 
2 plates. Abstract in Geol. Mag^., July 1894, pp. 333-334. 

T. G. BoNNEv- North of England* 



The Story of our Planet, 8vo., pp, xvi. + 352, with 6 coloured 

plates and map, and about 100 illustrations. London, 1894. [Not seen.] 
" Reviewed in Geol. Mag-., 1894, pp. 87-89. 

W. H. BoRLASE. Cumberland, Westmorland. 

History and Description of the Qreenside Silver Lead Mine, 

Patterdale. Trs. N. Eng-1. Inst. Min. Eng^., Vol. 43, p. 439, and Trs. Fed. 
Inst. Min. Eng-., Vol. 7, p. 645. 



C. H. Bothamlev, 



York S.W. 



The Mineral Waters of Askern in Yorkshire [giving detailed 

analyses of the Askern Waters and comparing- them with those of 
Harrog;ate]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc., Vol. 12, Part 5, 1894, 

PP- 347-361. 



J. R. BOVLE. 



LiNC. N., York S.W. 



'* The Isle of Axholme and the Level of Hatfield Chase " [abstract 

of lecture to the Hull Geolo|^ical Society ; the peat and its contents 
referred to]. Trans. Hull Geol, Soc, Vol. i, 1S93-4, pp. 15.16, 

George S. Bradv. Northumberland, Yorkshire, etc. 

Address to the Members of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club 

[Refers to the Excursions made by the Society during* 1B92, and i^ives 
brief geolog-ical notes]. Nat. Hist, Trans. Northumberland, Durham, 
and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Vol. 11, Part 2, 1894, pp. 295-300. 

W. Brockbank. Lanc. S. and W., Cumbeklaxd, Westmorland. 

Glacier Remains in Cumberland and Westmorland, with notes on 

the origin of some of the Boulders in the Lancashire Drift Clays. | by 
W. Brockbank, F.G.S., F.L.S. | Manchester | T. Sowler & Co., 24 Cannon 
St. I 1894. [12 pp. and 3 plates (Views of moraines in Easdale and 
Little Langdale) ; this paper was read to the Lit. and Phil. Soc. of 
Manchester in 1S70 ; an abstract appearing- in the Proceedings of that 
Society for 1870 (pp. 19-25) ; and is now reprinted in full from the ori^q;inal 
manuscript]. 



Alex. Brown, 



York N.E. 



On the Structure and Affinities of the Genus Solenopora, together 

with Descriptions of New Species \\i\c\\id\n^ S, jurassira from the Jurassic 
of Malton]. Geol. Mag-., April 1894, pp. 145-151, and Plate 5. 



S. S. BUCKMAN. 



York N.E. 



Jurassic Ammonites: On the Genus Cymbites (Neumayr) 

[describing- Cy/fibifvs subiarhiafus (Young* and Bird) from the Yorkshire 
Lias]. Geol. Mag., Aug. 1894, pp. 357-363. 



F. M. BtRTON, 



Lixc. N. 



[Geological Observations made by] Lincolnshire Naturalists at 

Cleethorpcs {on July 5th, 1S94]. Nat., Dec. 1894, pp. 349-350. 



F. M. Blrton. 



Ling, N. and S. 



{Geological observations made by the] Lincolnshire Naturalists' 

Union at Lincoln [on 24th May 1894]. Nat., Aug*. 1894, p. 251, 



Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palaeontology ^ 18^4, 85 



John Butterworth. 



Lanc. S. 



On some Coal Plants [from Lancashire; structure discussed and 

two fig-ures g^iven, but no names are supplied]. Sci. Goss., Sept. 1894, 
pp. 157-8. 



W. Lower Carter. 



York S.E. 



Notes on the Field Excursion [of the Yorkshire Geological and 

Polytechnic Society] for the examination of the Coast between BrIdHng;ton 
and Filey [describing the Sections in the Chalk and Glacial Beds 
examined 8th and 9th June 1894], Proc. Yorks. Geo!, and Polyt. Soc, 
Vol. 12, Part 5, 1894, pp. 421-423. 

W, Lower Carter. York Mid W., Lanc. S 

{Geological observations made by] Yorkshire Naturalists in 

Mid-Ribblesdale [between Sawley and Gisburn, 7th Aug^ust, 1S93]. Nat., 
Jan. 1S94, pp. lo-i I. 



William Cash, 



Yorkshire. 



Obituary. 1 James William Davis, F.Q.S., F.L.S., F.S.A. [Points 

out the effect of Mr. Davis' influence on the prog-ress of Yorkshire 
g:eology during^ his connection with the Yorkshire Geologfical and 
Polytechnic Society ; g^ives ' List of Memoirs, Papers, etc., by James 
William Davis, F.G.S.,' enumerating; 60 papers on various geological 
subjects, thoug-h principally having reference to the fossil fishes of the 
coal measures]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, Vol. 12, Part 4, 

^^94. pp. 319-334- 



E. Maule Cole. 



York S.E, 



■Huggate Dikes [(Huggate Dykes on cover of reprint); a description 

ot the artificial entrenchments, presumably ancient British, which have 
been erected on the Chalk Wolds, near the village of Huggate]. 
Trans. East Riding Antiq. Soc, Vol. 2, 1S94; reprint, paged i-6. 



E. :\L\ULE Cole, 



York X.E., S.E. 



Description of Photograph of Boulder Clay Cliffs, Carr Naze, Filey 

[describes the boulder clay and refers to its origin and contents; its 
characteristic weathering is well shown at Filey; a bed of Middle 
Calcareous Grit, upon which the boulder clay rests, forms the base of the 
section]. Proc Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, Vol. 12, Part 5, 1S94, 
pp. 442-446. 



E. Maule Cole. 



York S,E. 



The Geology of Flamborough Head [with detailed sections of the 

Upper and Lower Cretaceous, and a geological sketch-map; pp. 102-T08 
of] Flamborough Village and Headland, 8vo., 1894, pp. xi. + 179, Hull. 

G. C. Crick. See 'Arthur H. Foord.' York S.W, 

W. H. Crofts. York S.E. 

[Boulders at] Cottingham [etc.; in The Yorkshire Boulder 

Committee and Its Eighth Year's Work]. Nat., Oct. 1894. p. 302; 
and fuller particulars in^Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, Vol. i, 1893-4, p. ^. 

PIenrv \V. Crosskey. Cheshire, Lanc S. 

Introduction [to the late Carvill Lewis* * Glacial Geology of Great 

Britain and Ireland' ; speaking of the South Lancashire district (p. In.), 
says:— ^ Under the g-uidance of a capable ^eolog^ist, Mr. P. F. Kendall, 
E.G.S., I have examined the Ship Canal sections, and can come to no 
other conclusion than that the boulder clays, and at least a part of the 
sands, are the results of the movement of a gfreat gLicler which came from 
the north-west into the Irish Sea, carried the dt^bris it there accumulated 
over the plains of Lancashire and Cheshire, and mixed it with locally 
derived material'], 1894, pp. xxxix.-lxxxi. 

J. R. Dakyns. York Mid W. 

Glacial Phenomena of Wharfedale between Bolton Abbey and 

Kettlewell [g-ives particulars of the stric-E and g^lacial beds exposed in the 



86 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, 18^4, 

district; the latter contain pebbles of local rocks only; illustrated by two 
diagrams of the upper edg:es of rock being- turned over by glacial action 
in the direction of the ice-flow, one of these at Gill Bank, near Storriths; 
the other at Barden Moor; in this district 'there is no evidence of foreign 
ice, but everything is in favour of huge confluent glaciers .... of 
home-made ice; Nidderdale, too, supports the same conclusion']. Proc. 
Yorks. GeoL and Polyt. Soc, 1894, Vol. 12, Part 4, pp. 299-305. 



J. R. Dakvns. 



York N,W. 



A Sketch of the Geology of Nidderdale and the Washburn North 

of Blubberhouses [gives detailed particulars of the various members of 
the Millstone Grit series ; and refers to the geological features of the 
district generally]. Proc. Yorks. GeoL and Polyt. Soc, 1894, Yol. 12, 
Part 4, pp. 294-299. 



W. Boyd Dawkins. 



Isle of Man. 



**0n the Geology of the Isle of Man. Part 1, The Permian, 

Carboniferous, and Triassic Rocks and the new Saltfield of the North" 
[description of the Palaeozoic rocks in the vicinity of Peel, with diagrams 
and sections]. Trans. Manch. GeoL Soc, 1894, Vol. 22, Part 31, pp. 590- 
613. 

W. Boyd Dawkins. Isle of Man. 

The Carboniferous Limestone, Triassic Sandstone, and Salt-bearing 

Marls oi the North of the Isle of Man [g"iving^ the results of several boring^s ; 
the most interesting^ feature being; the discovery of salt-measures connect- 
ing^ those of Ireland and Lancashire; the boulder clay near the Point of 
Ay re reaches the great thickness of 450 feet]. Geol. Mag^. Dec. 1894, 
pp. 558-559; also Rep. Brit. Assn. for 1894, publ. 1895, pp. 662-663. 



W. BovD Dawkins* 



Isle of Man. 



On the Permian Strata of the North of the Isle of Man [including 

the Peel Red Sandstones, 913 feet thick, and the calcareous cong^lomerates 
and breccias ( — Alagnesian Limestone) of the Stack, 455 feet; the area 
forms part of the same basin as N.E. Ireland and the Lake District]. 
Geol. Mag-., Dec. 1894, pp. 560-561 ; also Rep. Brit. Assn. for 1894, publ. 
1895, p. 662, 

C. E. DeRance. Lanc. S. and Cheshire. 

On the pre-Glacial Form of the Ground in Lancashire and 

Cheshire [attributing the carving out of the rock-valleys to pre-Glacial 
erosion when the land stood at least 300 feet higher than now]. Rep. 
Brit. Assn. for 1893, publ. 1894, pp. 779-780. 

C. E. DeRance. Yorkshire, Notts., and Lincolnshire. 

The Circulation of Underground Waters.— Twentieth Report of 

the Committee . . [with particulars of borini^s at Worksop, Backwell, 
and several localities in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire]. Rep. Brit. Assn. 
for 1894, pp. zSyy^z, 

C. E. DeRance. York S.W. and Mm W. 

On the Glacial Sands and Gravels at Heck Station, Yorkshire 

[g"ives details of boring;s lusir Goole and Selby, as well as other par- 
ticulars, from a paper by Dr. Parsons, contributed to the Geol. and 
Polyt. Soc. o( the West Riding of Yorks. in 1877]. Glac. Mag., January 
1894, pp. 131-134. 



C. E. DeRanck. 



Cheshire. 



On the Boring for Coal in the Freeholders* Estate at Hazel Grove 

[details given of 1,633 ft. 2 in. of rock passed through]. Trans, Manch, 
GeoU Soc, Vol. 22, 1894, p. 452, 



[G. E.] DiBLEY. 



York X.E. 



A paddle of Ichthyosaurus from Whitby, with remains of the 

integument [exhibited at the meeting of the London Geologists' As? 
tion on 1st Dec, 1893]. Proc. GeoL Assn., 1894, Vol. 13, Part 6, p. 187. 



Naturalist^ 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology , i8g4, 87 



Joseph Dickinson. 



Cheshire. 



Notes on Mr. De Ranee's paper on '*The Boring for Coal on the 

Freeholders' Estate at Hazel Grove" [with plaa and section]. Trans* 
Manch. Geol. See, 1894, Vol. 22, Part 18, pp. 548-551. 

E. Dickson. Lanc. S, and W, 

The Ribble Estuary, with Notes on the Formation of Sand and 

the disposal of Dissolved Matter in River Water [remarking- on the 
excavations for the Preston Docks and g^Iving- a list of the various bones 
{[/msj etc.) found there; tracing- some of the histor}- of the river, and 
especially the chang-es in its channel during- the last 200 years, as shown 
on various charts], Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1894, pp. 135-154. 

E. Dickson and P. Holland. Isle of Man. 

Notes on Shell Breccia dredged off the Coast of the Isle of Man 

* . [about 25 miles from shore and in 2^ fathoms ; shells and shell 
fragments are contained in a sandy mass cemented by carbonate of 
lime], Proc, Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1894, pp. 164-171. 

A. R, D[\verrvhouse]. Lanc. S., Cheshire. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. Proceedings of the Liverpool 

Geological Society, Part 2, Vol. vii. [Gives summaries of several papers 
on the geology of the district around Liverpool]. Glac. Mag., Nov. 1894, 

PP- 71-75- 

A. R. D[werrvhouse]. North of England. 

Current QIacial Bibliography. Geological Magazine. Decade IIL, 

Vol. X,, 1893. [Gives abstracts, etc.j of papers bearing on glacial 
geology, several of which have reference to the North of England]. 
Glac, Mag., Feb. 1894, pp. 159-166; and March 1S94, pp. 187-1S9. 



F. W. FlERKE. 



York S.E, 



The MoHusca [of Hornsea ; records (p. 55) Planorbis fontanus 

(Liglufoot) from the Post-glacial lacustrine deposit exposed in the cliffs 
at Skipsea]. Fretwell's '^Ilkistrated Guide to Hornsea,' Svo., 65 pp., 
Hull, no date [1894]. 

J. J. FiTZPATRiCK. Westmorland. 

The Permian Conglomerate of the Vale of Eden [describing the 

character and distribution of the well-known *brockram;' specimens of 
pebble and matrix from Kirkby Stephen were found to be of limestone 
not dolomitised, the latter having 22 per cent, of siliceous matter; 
a specimen from Appleby, however, was partly dolomitised, with about 
23 per cent of carbonate of magnesia, the insoluble residue of silica, etc., 
being- about 30 per cent.]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1894, pp. 212-225 
and plate. 

Arthur H, Foord and G. C. Crick. York S.W. 

On Temnocheilus coronatus, M'Coy, from the Carboniferous 

Limestone of Stebden Hill, near Cracoe, Yorkshire [describinof and 
figuring exceptionally good specimens of this nautiloid shell], Geol. 
^^^g-^ J"ly 1894, pp. 295-298, and woodcut. 

Arthir H. Foord and G. C. Crick. Isle of Man. 

On the Identity of ElUpsolltes compressus, J. Sowerby, with 

Ammonites henshwi, J, Sowerby [conclusions based on a specimen from 
the Isle of Man, in possession of Joseph Wright, Belfast]. Geol. Mag.» 
Jan, 1S94, pp. 11-17 (w^ith plate). 

C. Le Neve Foster. Isle of Man, etc. 

A Text-book of Ore and Stone Mining. 8vo. Griffin & Co*, 

London. 1894. [Describes the Fuxdale lode on pp. 335*338; also refers 

to Laxey, etc.]. [Not seen], 

ch 1899. 



88 Bibliography : Geology a?id Palceontology, i8g4, 

Archibald Geikie. North of England. 

Annual Report of the Qeologica! Survey and Museum of Practical 

Geology for the year ending December 31st, 1893, 8vo. London. 1894. 

James Geikie. Northern Counties. 

The Great Ice Age and its Relation to the Antiquity of Man, Third 

Edition, pp. xxviii + 850. Maps, charts, woodcutSj etc. London. 1894. 
[Not seen; Reviewed by G. J. H[inde]in Ceol. Mag-,, Jan. 1895, pp. 29-38. 

James Geikie. North 01^ England, 

The Great Ice Age, 3rd ed., largely rewritten, with maps and 

ilkistrations [containiiii^ in chapters 25, 26, an account of the glacial 
accumulations in Lincolnshire, Holderness, the North-Western Counties, 
the Trent Valley, etc.]. Svo., pp. xxviii, +S50, with 17 plates, Loudon, 
1894. 

Geological Survey of England and Wales. Durham. 

Horizontal Sections, Sheet 148 [Durham Coal-field]. 

Geological Survey of ExMgland and Wales. York N.E., S.E. 

General Geological Map of England and Wales (4 miles to an inch, 

hand-coloured edition), Sheets 3 (Index of Colours) and 6 (Yorkshire 
coast). 

John Gerard. - Lang, S., York Mid W. 

Stonyhurst College [Geology on pp. 276-280, describing the 

Millstone Grit and Lower Carboniferous strata of the neig-hbourhood, and 
mentioning a number of fossils, including- worm-tracks {Chrossocorda 
fig-ured) and a rich collection of trilobites {Phillipsid) ; see H. Woodward 
belowj. 4to,, pp. 316, 1894, Belfast. 

Elizabeth Ore Gordon. ? North of England. 

The Life and Correspondence of William Buckland, D.D., F.R.S., 

sometime Dean of Westminster, twice President of the Geological 
Society, and First President of the British Association. Svo. London. 

1894 [not seen]. 

J, W. Gray and Percy F. Kendall. Cheshire. 

On the Junction of Permian and Triassic Rocks at Stockport 

[combating- the alleged unconformity]. Rep. Brit. Assn. for 1893, publ. 
1894, pp. 769 770. 

G. C. Greenwell, Ji n. Cheshire, 

Bitumen from a Coal Seam at Poynton, near Stockport [specimen 

exhibited and described at the meeting- of the Manchester Geol. Society]. 
Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, 1894, Vol. 22^ Part 14, pp. 444-447. 

J, W. Gregory. North of England. 

[Review of] Man and the Glacial Period- By G. Frederick Wright, 

Svo., pp. xlv., 385 pp. ■ London [This review principally 

deals with that part of the book referring to British Glacial Geology, 
which was written by Mr. P. F. Kendall], Glac. IVL'ig., July 1S94, pp. 263- 
266. 



W 



York N.E, 



Catalogue of the Jurassic Bryozoa In the York Museum [with 

figures of Stromatopora (Cellaria) sviifhi Phil., from the Cornbrash of 
Scarborough, and Pusfulopora {AfUlcpora) slniminea PhiL from the 
Millepore Oolite of Gristhorpe ; also noting without description a new 
species of the latter genus from the Millepore Oolite of WcstowJ, Ann. 
Rep. York Phil. Soc. for 1893, publ. 1S94, pp. 58-61, 

W. GUEGSON, York X.W,, N.E- 

[Boulders at] Kirklington [and] Baldersby Village [etc. in The 

Yorkshire Boulder Committee and its Eighth Year'vS Work]. Nat., 
Oct. 1894, p. 301. 

• Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceojitology, 18^4, 89 

+ 

Theo. T. Groom- York Mm W. 

The Effect of Faults on the Character of the Seashore [in Barn- 
staple Bay; a brief reference is made, pp. 364.5, to the joints, etc., on 
the plateaux round the base of Ingleboroug:h]. Proc, Yorks. Geol. and 
Polyt. Soc, 1894, Vol. 12, Part 5, pp. 361-368, and plates 18, 19, and 20. 

Alfred Harker. 
*' Chapters in the Geological History of East Yorkshire" 

[a description o^ the probable aspects of East Yorkshire from Mesozoic 
times to the present day]. Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, Vol. i, 1893-4, 
pp. 18-24. 



York S.E. 



Alfred Harker. 



LsLE OF Max. 



The Foxdale Granite [a detailed petrological description of this 

grey muscovite g:ranite]. Nat., March 1894, p. 68. 



Alfred Harker, 



Lake District. 



Cordierite in the Lake District [as imperfect crystals in the 

Skiddaw Slates metamorphosed by the g^ranite of the Caldew valley in 
Cumberland]. Geol. Mag-., April 1894, pp. 169, 170, and woodcut. 



Alfred Harker. 



York S.E. 



Norwegian Rocks in the English Boulder-Clays [summarising 

the evidence opposed to Sir H. Howorth's sug^^estion]. GeoL Mag., 
July 1894, pp. 334, 335, 

Alfred Harker. York S.E. 

Boulders of El^olite-Syenite in East Yorkshire [recording the 

occurrence of that Norwegian rock as boulders on the beach at 
Dimlino^ton], GeoL Mag., Oct. 1S94, pp. 477-47S. 

Alfred Harker. York S.E. 

Sir H. Howorth on the Holderness Boulders [a reply to that 

author], Geol. Mag., Dec. 1894, pp. 565-567. 

Alfred Harker. Lake District. 

Carrock Fell ; a Stxx^y \n the Variation of Igneous Rock-Masses, 

Part L The Gabbro [with a efeneral sketch of the field-geoloi^v of the 
aistnct ; the g-abbro shows many modifications, the most important kind 
of variation being from a quartz-gabbro with 59^ per cent, of silica in 
the central part of the intrusion to an ultra-basic iron-ore-gabbro with 
^^^y Z^Yz per cent, at the marg^in]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Aug. 1894, 
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Alfred Harker. . Lake District. 

On some Variolitic Rocks on Carrock Fell [describing the 

nucroscopic cliaracters of some of the small dykes and veins on Carrock 
*^eil]. Geol. Mag-., Dec. 1894, pp. 551-553- 
W. Jerome Harrison. Derbyshire, Lincolnshire. 

On the I Search for Coal | in the South-East of England; | with 

special reference to the probability of the | existence of a | Coal-Field 
beneath Essex, | — | by | W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., | . . . | 
' -. * I — ! Birmin^diam : I . - - | 1894. [The earthquake of 22nd 
■^pnl 1884, and its eifect upon Lincolnshire and Derbyshire bncfly 
referred to]. 



W. Hemingway, 



York S.W. 



[Records of Boulders at] Staincross Station . . . East Qawber 

U>lhery [etc., in The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and its Eighth \ ears 
^ork]. Nat., Oct. 1894, pp. 299-300. 

^V. A. Herdman. Tsle of Man, Lancashire, and Cheshire. 

The Marine Zoology of the Irish Sea. Second Report of the 

Lommittee. . . . [The deposits on the ^oor of the Irish Sea are 
sno\vn to be of g-reat g-eolo^-ical interest ; results of dredging near the 
f^^^f^AIan, etc., given]. Rept. Brit. Assn., 1894, pp. 3«^334» P^- t- 

^Jarch 1899. 



go Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology , iSg4. 

W. A. Herdman. Lancashire, Cheshire, and Isle of Man. 

Notes on the Submarine Deposits of the Irish Sea [more or less 

pure quartz-sand predominates down to lo fathonis ; thence to 20 fathoms, 
sand becoming- mixed with clay and diversified by shelly patches, gravels, 
etc. ; deeper soundings occur only to the N., W., and S. of the Isle of 
Man, the proportion of mud to sand increasing^ down to 50 fathoms, 
beyond which is only dark bluish-grey tenacious mud]. Proc. Liv.erp. 
Geol. See, 1894, pp. 171-182. 



Thomas Hick. 



York SAV. 



On the primary structure of The Stem of Calamites [communicated 

by F. E. Weiss ; observations based upon an exquisite series of sections 
prepared by Mr. James Binns, of Halif*i>^]' Mom. and Proc. Manch. Lit. 
and Phil. Soc, 1893-4, ^oL 8, No. 3, pp. 158-170, plate. 



T. Hick. 



York S.W. 



On Calamostachys Binneyana^ Schimp. [reviews the structure and 

affinities of this coal-measure plant in the ligfht of more complete 
specimens (query, collected from the Halifax neig-hbourhood) placed at 
the author's disposal by W. Cash]. Proc, Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. 
Soc, 1894, Vol. 12, pt. 4, pp. 279-293, and two plates of sections. 

Thomas Hick and James Lomax. Lanc. S. 

On a New Sporiferous Spike from the Lancashire Coal Measures 

[from the Upper Foot Coal of the Lower Coal Measures at Moor Side, 
near Oldham^a bed practically identical with the Halifax Hard Bed ; 
the specimen is referred to the Cala?narie<e\, Mem. and Proc. Manch. 
Lit. and Phil. Soc, 1S93-4, Vol. 8, No. i, pp. 22-29, 4 figures. 

NORTHIMB,, LaNCS., YORK MiD W., 

Wheelton HrxD, * Derbyshire, Notts. 

A Monograph on Carbon icola, Anthracomya, and Naiadites. 

Part I, pp. 1-80, pi. i.-xi. [describing- and fis^uring' species of Ccirboti icola 
from various localities, the new species including- C. ob/usa from Oldham 
and C, 7iucularis from Wig-an]. Pala?ontog;raph. Soc, 1894, Vol. 48. 

G, J. H[ixdeJ. ' York S.E. 

[Review of J Ueber die (jliederung der Flotzformationen Helgolands. 

Von W. Dames. SItzuni*:sber. der k. preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Berlin, 
1893, pp. 1019-1039. (On the Divisions of the Stratified Formations of 
Helig-oland. By Prof. Dr. W. Dames.) [Rocks of Lower Cretaceous age 
contain fossils similar to those of the Speeton Clay of Yorkshire, etc.]. 
Geol. Mag:., Feb, 1894, pp. 84-85, 

C. P. H[obkirk]. 



York Mid W. 
Nidderdale and its Natural History. [Being a Review of 

Nidderdale | and the | Garden of the Nidd ; ] . . • by | Harry Speight 
• - , London. • . . 1894. . . .] Nat., Nov. 1894, pp. 2,3'\'33^' 

J. H. Howarth. York N.W. 

The Yorkshire Naturalists' Union^at Sedbergh [Geology]. Nat.^ 

July 1894, pp. 222-224, 

Henry H, Howorth. York S.E. 

The Most Recent Changes of Level and their Teaching. Part L 

The Raised Beaches [sn^gfesting- that the Norweg-ian boulders on the 
Holderness coast may have been brougfht as ballast from Norway], 
Geol. Mai^,, June 1894, pp. 257-263. 

Henry H. Howorth. Isle of Man, York S.E., Lanc. S. 

The Most Recent Changes of Level and their Teaching. The 

Rapid Collapse of some Districts at the Close of the Mammoth Age 
[the 'Irish Deer' remahis in the Isle of Man, and the 'submerged 
forests' off the Yorkshire Coasts etc., briefly referred to]. Geol. Ma^^.j 
Sept. 1894, pp. 405-413. 

. Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, iSg^. gi 



Henry H. Howorth. 



York S.E 



The Primitive Boulders of the Yorkshire Coast and their 

Lessons. A Reply to Two Critics [maintaining- his su,e;-gestion of the 
artificial transport of the Norwegian boulders in Holderness and 
expressing- doubt of their identity]. Geol. Mag*., Aug. 1894, pp. 371-375. 

York S.E. 

+ 

Mr. Harker and Mr. Deeley on the Scandinavian Ice-Sheet 

[continuing the same discussion]. Geol. Mag*., Nov. 1894, pp. 496-499. 



Henry Howorth. 



Henry H. Howorth, 



Lanc. S. 



An Erect Tree in the Coal-Measures [a Siglllaria in the Lower 

Coal-measures in the valley oi the Roach near Rochdale, with illustration]. 
Geol. Mag., Nov. 1894, pp. 527-538. 

Henry H. Howorth. York N.E. and S.E., Lino. N. 



The North Sea Ice Sheet [and explanation of occurrence of 

Norwegian boulders on the coasts of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire; 
sui:;^gests they have been transported as anchors by the Vikings]. 
Nature, 24th May 1894, p. 79. 

Wilfrid H. Hudleston. Linc. N. and S., York N.E. 

A Monograph of the Inferior Oolite Gasteropoda: Part 7, pp. 325- 

390, PL 27-32 [describings and hg-urinj^ numerous species, including' 
new species as follows : — Xeriiopsis incisay Tnrho lindecoUnnSj Delphinula 
alia~hicari7iata J D. aUa-acanihica, Trochus squamosior, and T» subluviensis, 
var., all from Lincoln, Ataphrus ohtorlus from the Yorkshire Dog^ger, 
Delphinula santonis from Santon, and Trochus vicinus from Weldon], 
Pal^eontogrraph. Soc, 1894, Vol. 48. 

W. H. Hl'dleston. Derbysfhre, Lake District. 

On Some Recent Work of the Geological Society. Part IK 

[a continuation o^ the subject of the preceding- Anniversary Address; 
a summary oi the work done by the Society]- Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
May 1894, Vol. 50, Part 2, pp. 58-104, 

\VlLFRlD H. HL'DLESTON. YORK N.E., LiNC. N. AND S. 

A Monograph of the British Jurassic Gasteropoda. Part L No. 7. 

Gasteropoda of the Inferior Oolite [continued; describing- and fit^uringf 
species and varieties (some new) of OnustuSj Nerita, Pileolus, Neritopsis,. 
Ataphrus, Turbo, Monodonta, Delphinula,^ and Trochus from the Scar- 
borough Limestone, the Dog-g-er of Blue Wick, the Lincolnshire Limestone 
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T. M. Hughes. 



LiN'C. N. AND S. 



''On Some Sources of Error in the Study of Drift *' [points out 

that the boulders lying about on the surface oX a district need not 
necessarily have been derived from the underlying beds, and, as an 
instance, states that a ship from Christiansund to Boston (Lincoln- 
shire) was recently wrecked at Hunstanton, and the ballast, consistmg ot 
Norwegian porplivries, gneiss, etc., w^as strewn about on the beach]. 
Nature, 3rd May i'894, Vol. 50, pp. 5-6.' 

T. McKennv Hughes. ^^^^ M^i> W. 

Caves and Cave Deposits [includes details of the Ingleborough 

Caves]. proc. Chester Soc. Nat. Sci., No. 4, 1894, pp. 141 et seq.; 
reviewed in Nat., 1894, p. 241-2. 

Edward Hulu Lanc. S., Cheshire, etc. 

The Qreat Submergence [during the Glacial Period, defending this 

>n reply to Mr. Lomas], Glac. Mag., Feb. 1894, pp. 167-169, and April 
^894, p. 208. 



g2 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, i8g4. 



W 



York S.E. 



The Genesis of the Chalk [dealing principally with the Chalk of 

the South of Eng-land ; on p. 219 are fig^ured 'Sections representnig- the 
variations in thickness of the Upper Cretaceous Zones for some of 
the principal locaHties in the British Isles' : the Yorkshire chalk is here 
divided as under: — Marsupites zone, 320 ft,; JMicraster zones, 120 ft.; 
Barren zone, HoL planus zone of Barrois, 50 ft.; Te reh rat idlna gracilis 
and I noceramus labiaf us '/.on^s^ 200 ft. ; Holaster suhglohosiis zone, 100 feet; 
total 790 ft.]. Proc. Geol. Assn., 1894, Vol. 13, Part 7, pp. 211-246. 

W. Maynard Hltchings. Cumberland, Westmorland. 

Notes on the Composition of Clays, Slates, etc., and on some 

points in their Contact-Metamorphism [discussing* especially the nature of 
the Coal-Measure clays from a boring- at Aspatria, with six analyses; 
confirming- the abundant formation of metamorphic felspar in the Coniston 
Flag's near the Shap g-ranite, and r e c og-n i si n g; the imperfect crj'stals in 
the * spots' there as cordierite, not andalusite]. Geol. Mag*., Jan. -Feb. 
1894, pp. 36-45, 64-75. 

W. Maynard Hutchlngs. Lake District. 

Note on Sediments Dredged from the English Lakes [identifying 

the varions mineral fragments found, which are mainly such as would be 
expected from the degradation of the old volcanic rocks ; the deposit in 
Bassenthwaite, how^ever, is chiefly derived from the Skiddaw Slates]. 
Geol. Mag., July 1894, p. 300-302. 



A. Irving. 



Nottinghamshire. 



Twenty Years' Work at the Younger Red Rocks [noting the 

unconformity of Upper Permian on Coal-Measures at Kimberley (with 
section), and contending- for the origin of the Bunter pebble-beds as 
Triassic sand-banks formed in tidal seas]. Geol. Mag-., Aug^. 1894, 

PP- ?i^:S-2i^^' 

H. M. James. Cumberland, 

Description of Whitehaven Collieries. Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. Eng-., 

Vol. 7, 1894, pp. 64T et seq. 



Osmund W. Jeffs. 



Cheshire. 



On some Forms of Saurian Footprints from the Cheshire Trias 

[describing- some impressions which the author considers should be 
accurately determined, and not included under the general term of 
* Cheirotherian *]. Rep. Brit. Assn., 1894, publ. 1895, pp. 658-659. 

Osmund W. Jeffs. Lancashire, Cheshire. 

Notes on the Geology of Hilbre Island [a brief description of 

the Triassic rocks exposed on this island ; accompanied by a woodcut 
'Section at Middle Eye, Hilbre Island'; the paper was read at a Field 



West 



Birkenhead Advertiser, 



Cheshire- 



m^ _^ V ^ » .^^ 

4th June 1894 [also reprinted in pamphlet form]. 

Osmund W, Jeffs. 
Notes on the Storeton Series of Footprints [description of slabs of 

Lower Keuper sandstone, with impressions o^ footprints of Cheirotherium 
stortonensis^ Rhj'ficosaitrus^ etc. ; ilhistrated b}' 63 photos and Meissenbach 

plate]. Journ. Liverp. Geol. Assn., 1893-4, pp. 10-21 ; also reprinted in 
pamphlet form, ii pp., under the title of * Notes on a series of Fossil 
Footprints from Storeton, in Cheshire ' — origfinal pagination not indicated. 

Osmund \V. Jeffs, Secretary. North of England. 

The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of 

Photog^raphs oi Geological Interest in the United Kingdom. — Fourth 
Report of the Committee . < . [recording" the addition of 140 
photog;raphs, of which 35 are from the North of Engfland : particulars 
given]. Rep. Brit. Assn. for 1893, publ. 1894, pp. 473-482. 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palc^ontolog}^, 18^4, 93 

Cumberland, Westmorland, Northumberland, 
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The Collection, Preservation, and Systematic Registration of 

Phofog;raphs of Geolog'ical Interest in the United King-dom. Fifth 
Report of the Committee . . . [Records the addition of 215 photo- 
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1894, P^l"*!- i%5» PP- 274-283. 



Osmund W. Jeffs. 



Cheshire. 



On a Series of Saurian Footprints from the Cheshire Trias (with 

a Note on Cheirotherium) [describing- a number of specimens from the 
well-known Storeton quarries]. Geol. Mag-., Oct. 1894, pp. 451-454. 

Edward Jones. York N,\V\ 

The Investigation of the Cave at Elbolton, — Report of the 

Committee - . , [summarising: the results : the floor has been examined 
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E. Jones [Secretary]. York Mid W. 

Exploration of the Calf Hole Cave at the Heights, Skyrethorns, 

near Skipton, Report of the Committee , , , [the upper layers 
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bison, reindeer, roebuck, horse, and grizzly bear]. Rep. Brit. Assn. 
for 1S94, publ. 1S95, pp. 272-273. 

T. Rupert Jones. Lake District. 

The Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks.— Tenth Report of 

the Committee . . • [The table of ^eolog^ical distribution of the 
Peltate Phyllopods gives Aptychopsis anatina from Ulveriiton ; A, lap- 
-ii^orthi from the Skolg-ill Shales; A, an^iilata from the Brathay Flails (?) ; 
Peltoraris )narrli, P.patula, Discuiocaris hrozvniana, and D. gigas from the 
Skel^ill Shales ; and Pinnocaris Japivorihi from Kendal], Rep, Brit. 
Assn. for 1893, pnbL 1894, pp. 465-470, 

T. Rupert Jones [Secretar>'], Laxc. S. 

Fossil Phyllopoda of the Palaeozoic Rocks. Eleventh Report of 

tne Committee, consisting of Professor T- Wiltshire (Chairman), Dr. H. 
Woodward, and Professor T. Rupert Jones (Secretary). [Reference is 
made to some very 'swv^X^ Esthcria from the Lower Coal Measures near 
Colne]. Rep, Brit. Assn., 1894, publ. 1895, pp. 271-272, and GcoL Mag., 
Dec. 1894, pp. 560-561. 

T, Rupert Jones. York N.E. 

On the Rhgetic and some Liassic Ostracoda of Britain [Yorkshire 

specimens briefly referred to]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc May 1894, 
Vol. 50, Part 2, pp. 1 56- J 69. 

A. J. Jikks-Erowxe. York S.E. 

The Microscopic Structure of the Zones of the Chalk [a careful 

description of the various zones of the Chalk and their contents; and 
the irbearing- on the origin of the deposits; the paper principally has 
reference to the Chalk of the South of Eni;-land, * The Chalk of York- 
shire * not having- yet * been sufficiently studied either in its zonal or 
structural aspects ;'' gives, p. 395, 'a diagram of the zones o^ the chalk 
as developed in the Isle of Wight 1- Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, 
Vol. 12, Part 5, 1894, pp. 385-395- 



J- D. Kendall. 



FURNLSS 



A Short Description of the Hematite Deposit worked by the 

Salter, Eskett, and Winder Gill Mines, and the iMethod ot Working it. 
Trans. X. Engl. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 43, pp. 444 et seq.; also Trans. Fed. 
Inst. Min, Eng., Vol. 7, pp. 650 et seq. 

March 1899. 



94 Bibliography : Geology arid Palceontology , i8g4. 

P. F. Kendall. North of England. 

Geological Observations upon some Alpine Glaciers [comparing the 

Alpine g*lacial phenomena with the relics oi the ancient g-laciers of Britain]. 
Glac. Mag;., Oct. 1894, pp. 43-50; Nov., pp. 63-68; Dec, pp. 83-90. 

P. F. Kendall. Lanc, S., Cheshire, Isle of Man, 

The Levenshulme Section [etc.; and glacial sections exposed 

during; the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal ; fully described]. 
* Appendix A' to the late Carvill Lewis* * Glacial Geologfy of Great Britain 
and Ireland,' 1894, pp. 394-434. 

Percy F, Kendall. Isle of Man. 

On the Glacial Geology of the Isle of Man [divided into thirteen 

chapters, viz. : — Introductory ; Bibliog-raphy ; Physical Geog^raphy and 
Geology; Transport of Local Stones; 'Aspect of the Crag's'; Surface- 
features of the Drift-Deposits; the Glacial Striae; the Orig-In of the 
Foreign Boulders; the Drift Deposits; Paleontology; Theories; Post- 
Glacial History; and Summary ; illustrated by map and plates]. Yn 
Lioar Manninag^h, Oct. 1894, pp. 397-438, with lar^e foldings map, plate 
of moUusca, and folding- plate of sections. 



P. F. Kendall. 



York Mid W. 



*'Man and the Glacial Period** [abstract of lecture to the Hull 

Geological Society; the Victoria Cave at Settle referred to and its 
evidence discussed]. Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, Yol, i, T893-4, pp. 13-15. 



P. F. Kendall. 



All Yorkshire. 



The Glaciation of Yorkshire [The ice from the Lake District 

down Teesdale to the North Sea was diverted southwards aloni>- the 



East Coast by the Scandinavian Ice-Sheet ; a lobe of ice from Teesdale 

passed into the Vale of York and near York deposited two crescentic 

mounds — terminal moraines — upon one of which York is built ; there is 

-evidence that the Vale of York glacier overrode its own moraines ; the 

outlines of those moraines are well shown on the coloured map which 

accompanies the paper]. Proc. Yorks. Geol, and Polyt. Soc, 1S94, 
Vol. 12, Part 4, pp. 306-318. 

Cheshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire, 
P. F. Kendall [Secretar}']. Isle of Man, Yokkshi 



Erratic Blocks of England^ Wales, and Ireland* Twenty-first 

Report of the Committee [with particulars o^ numerous erratics, 

especially from the Macclesfield district and the Dee estuary]. Rep. Brit. 
Assn. for 1893, publ. 1894, pp. 514-523. 



Percy F. Kendall. See *J. W. Gray.' Cheshire. 

P. F. K[endall]. ^ York N.E. and S.E. 

IReview of] The Jurassic Rocks of Britain. Vol- 1., by C. Fox- 

Strang^vays [summarises that part of the work (Chapter 17) which refers 
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to th 

and the Vale of Pickering"]. Glac. IVIag\, June 1894, pp. 249-250 

ROKERT KiDSTON. 



Lanc. S. 



Notes on some Fossil Plants from the Lancashire Coal Measures " 

[specimens from Okiham, Bolton, Ashton-under-Lyne, etc., described 
and some fig'ured ; particulars of the * Oldliam Fossil Forest' section, 
prepared by George Wild, are included on p. 637]. Trans. Manch- 
Geol, Soc, 1894, Vol. 22, Part 2f, pp. 632-652. 

R. KiDSTON. Northern Counties, etc. 

On the Various Divisions of the British Carboniferous Rocks as 

determined by their Fossil Flora. Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., Vol. t2, 

1894, pp. 183 et seq. 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceonlologyf iSg^, 95 

G. W. Lamplugh. North of England. 

Notes upon the Snowfall of the Glacial Period [The amount of 

snowfall has more effect upon the g^rowth of an ice-^hcet than the severity 
of the cold ; and It Is sug^g^ested that the chanties In the intensity and 
direction of flow of the ice Avhich formerly covered parts of Britain may 
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W 



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G. W, Lamplugh. North of England. 

Review [of] Papers and Notes on the Glacial Geology of Great 

Britain and Ireland, ^^y the late Henr}- Carvill Lewis. . - . London. 
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G. A. Lebour. 



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Frost-Cracks and *' Fossils" [notes of an observation made at 

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G. A. Lebour. 



Northumberland S, 



On certain Surface-Features of the Glacial Deposits of the Tyne 

Valley [pointing; out that certain hollows resembling * Kettle-holes ' are 
being formed at the present time in g-lacial gravels between Riding Mill 
and Corbridg-e, by underg"round erosion (streams), and suggests that 
these cwm-shaped depressions do not afford positive proof of g-lacial 
action ; also suggesting- that arch-bedding in drift gravels may be 
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Hexrv Carvill Lewis. Northern Counthis. 

Papers and Notes on the | Glacial Geology ] of \ Great Britain and 

Ireland | by the late | Henry Carvill Lewis, M.A,, F.G.S, 
• - . I Edited from his unpublished MSS. | with an introduction \ By 
Henr}- \V. Crosskey, LL.D., F.G.S. | . . . | London ' 
1894. [Several papers, hitherto published only in abstract, on the 
comparison of the glacial phenomena of Britain and America, the terminal 
moraines in the North of England, the evidence of 'extra-morainic ' 
lakes in central England, etc. ; together with extracts from the note- 
books of the late H. C. Lewis ; there are also notes by the editor, 
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Joseph Lomas. Cheshire, 

An Ancient Glacial Shore [combating fAr. Reade's view that the 

rolled clay-balls are a x>voo^ o^ shore conditions]. Geo!. Mag., May 1894, 
pp. 222-223. 

Joseph Lomas. Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, etc. 

The Great Submergence [discussing a paper by Prof. Hull which 

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J- Lomas. Lancashire, Cheshire, etc. 

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extensive submergence in the Glacial Period]. Glac. Mag., March 1894, 
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J. Lomas. ' Westmorland. 

Clay-balls in Drift Deposits [among gravel, in the banks of Hoff 

Beck, near Appleby], Glac. Mag., April 1894, pp. 20S-209. 
James Lomax. See 'Thomas Hick.' Lanc. S. 

March 1899. 



g6 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, i8g4~ 

y 

Arnold Lupton. Linc. N., York S.W. 

Some Notes on the Yorkshire Coalfield and its Eastwardly 

Extension [g-'iving- particulars of deep boring's at Scarle, Carlton, and 
Haxey respectively ; at the latter place a seam of coal, supposed to be 
the Barnsley Bed, was met with at the depth of i,ioo yards; thinks 
that before the present Yorkshire Coalfield is exhausted ^ Gxcry seam of 
coal over 4 inches in thickness will be worked, and in many districts 

, the old wastes will be worked over ag^ain for the sake of the 
slack, the pillars, and beds of inferior coal that have not been considered 
g-ood enou«fh for the market (with plan and sections showing* positions and 
depth of the different beds). Proc. Yorks. Geo!, and Polyt. Soc, 
Vol. 12, Part 5, 1894, pp. 432-436- 

A. Lupton. York Mid W. 

Geology of the West Yorkshire Coalfield. Trans. Fed. Inst. Min. 
Eng-., Vol. 7, 1894, pp. 137 et seq. ; also Proc. Midi. Inst. Min. Eng., 
Vol. 13, 1894, pp. 2(5 et seq. ' 

J. M. Main. Cumberland. 

The Working of Haematite in the Whitehaven District. Trans. 

Fed. Inst. Min. Eng., \'ol. 8, 1894, pp. 31 et seq. 



J. E. Marr 



Cumberland. 



Notes on the Skiddaw Slates [with special reference to the Zones 

of graptolites ; the following- are recognised, in descending order : — 
Miiburn Beds ( = Uppermost Arenig or Lower Llandeilo) ; Ellerg-Ill Beds ; 
Tetnigrapfus Beds (Upper, with Didymograpius nanus, and Lower); 
Dichograpius^Gds; a.nd Bryograpt us Beds ( =Tremadoc)]. Geol. Mag., 
March 1894, pp. 122-130, with woodcut. 



J. E. Marr. 



Lake District. 



Physiographical Studies in Lakeland, i. Church Beck, Coniston 

[notini^ the occurrence of frai^ments of g;raptolite-bearin<^ Skelgfill Beds 
in gravel at Gill Head Brid^^^e, considerably above the altitude of their 
outcrop in place, and offering- an explanation ; the Church Beck valley 
is supposed to have been converted into a lake by the barrier formed by 
the lary-e Yewdale g-lacier]. Geol. Mag., Nov. 1894, pp. 489-492, with 
woodcut map. 



J. E. Marr. 



Lake District. 



Physiographical Studies in Lakeland. 2. Swindale [giving: 

evidence that Mosedale once formed part of Wet Sleddale, and not, as 
no\\% of Swindale ; the remarkable flat watershed now dividing- Mosedale 
from Wet Sleddale was formed in a lake produced by the damming- of the 
latter valley by ice, and the diversion of the Mosedale stream into Swindale 
was a result of the same cause], Geol. Mag-., Dec. 1894, pp. 539-5-f5T 
with two woodcuts. 



W. Mawbv. 



Cheshire. 



On the Occurrence of Phosphate of Iron coating Sand Grains at 

Tranmere [noting Triassic sandstones locally coated with the rich blue 
vivianite]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1894, pp. 162-164. 

Hugh Robert Mill. Lakp: District. 

On a Bathymetrical Survey of the English Lakes [describing the 

types of lakes, and j^ives the leng-th, breadth, depth, area, and volume 
of the principal Lake District waters]. Rep. Brit. Assn., 1S94, pub!. 
*^5» P- 7'3; ^^^o in Joum. Roy. Geo^, Soc, Vol. 4, No. 3; Abstract in 
Glac. Mag-., Sept. 1894, p. 40; Abstract also in Nature, 21st June 1894, 
p. 184. 



Horace W. Monckton. 



Durham. 



[Note on Specimen of a Dyke from Croxdale Colliery, probably 

the Ilett Dyke]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Feb. 1894, p. 3 of Proc. 



Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceoutology, iSg^. 97 



Horace \V. Monckton. 



York \.E. 



On a Variety of Ammonites {Stephanoceras) subarmatus, Young, 

from the Upper Lias of Whitby [shewing; a peculiar arrang;enient of the 
costse ; abstract only]. Quart, Journ. Geol. Soc, Feb. 1894, p. 4 of 
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J. NlCHOLSON- 



YORK S.E. 



[Boulders at] Swine [in The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and its 

Eio;hth Year's Work]. Nat., Oct. 1894. pp. 302-303; and fuller particulars 
in Trans. Hull Geol. vSoc. Yol. i, 1893-4, P- ^-' 

Otto Nordenskjold. Lakk District. 

** Ueber archfeische Ergussgesteine aus Smaland " [comparing 

(pp. 146-7) Smaland specimens with the rocks" of the En^^lish Lake 
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W. S. Parrish. 



York S.E. 



[Boulders observed on] the Yorkshire Wolds [a few igneous rocks 

only, which were very small and apparently not in situ]. Trans. Hull 
Geol. Soc, V^ol. T, T893-4, p. 6. 

H. M. Platnauer. York N.E., N.W., ktc. 

Appendix to the List of Figured Specimens in the Museum of 

the Yorkshire Philosophical -Society [supplyint^ omissions in the former 
list and recording some new type specimens], Ann. Kep. "S'orks. Phil. 
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H, ]\L Platnackr. 



York S.E. 



Borings made in the Neighbourhood of York [at Huby Burn Farm, 

at Huby, and near Raskelf Station ; details .^^iven]. Ami. Rep, Yorks. 
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Charlks Pottkr, 



Cheshikk. 



The So-called Forest Beds of Leasowe** [bringing evidence to 

prove that these beds do not contain remains oi forest trees, etc.» in 
situ], JovuTi. Liverp. Geol. Assn., 1893-4, pp. 5-7. 

Andrew C. Ramsay. Xorthkrn Cocntiks. 

The Physical Geology and Geography of Great Britain, 6th ed. b 

Horace B. Woodward, 8vo., pp. xv 4- 421 , with colotired map and 
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\ 



T. Mellaku Rkaue. 



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The High and Low Level Shelly Drifts around Dublin and Bray 

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I 



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T. Mellard Reade. 
The Dublin and WIcklow Shelly-Drift [briefly compared with 

the drifts of X. Enj^landj. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, 1894, \ ol. 7, 
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T, Mei.lard Readk. 



Chkshirk. 



An Ancient Glacial Shore [a deposit of shelly sand with rolled 

balls of clav, seen in a cutting oi' the Seacombe Branch of the Wirral 
Railway]. Geol. Mag., Feb. i'894, pp. 76-77. 

F. R, CowPFR Rekd. Lake District. 

Woodwardian Museum Notes [describing a new species of 

trilobite, Phacops (Chasfnops) marri, from the Coniston Limestone of 
Applethwaite Common, near Windermere]. Geol. Mag., June 181)4. 
pp. 241-246. 

April 180Q. 



^S B/blioffraphy : Geology and Palceontology, i8g4, 

I 

A. VON Rkinach and W, A. E. Ussiier. ?Cottinghamshirk. 

On the Occurrence of Fossils in the Magnesian Limestone of 

Bulvvell, near Nottingham [including; Schizodus, Aucella liausmanni, and 
probably other forms from the Upper Magnesian Limestone]. Kep. Brit. 
Assn. for 1S93, publ, 1894, pp. 768-769. 

R. Reynolds. York Mid W. and S.W. 

IQbituary of] Thomas WiHiam Embleton [who was one of the 

founders oi ' The Geolog-ical Society o( the West Ridinjj- of Yorkshire/ 
and took an active part in the furtherance of g'eoloj^y — especially in 
reference to coal and coal-mining;]. Pjoc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, 

Vol. 12, Part4» '^94* PP- 335-339- 



Sidney H. Reynolds. 



York N.W. 



Woodwardian Museum Notes. Certain Fossils from the :Lower 

Palaeozoic rocks of Yorkshire [g'ivini*; additions to the fossil lists from 
the PJiacops elegans zone (Stockdale Shales) of Wharfe and the Coniston 
Limestone oi Xorber Brow and Wharfe, with descriptions of a new 
trilobite {Dindymene hitgheslce) and a new cystidean, Ateleocystites {?)]. 
Geol. Mag;., March 1894, pp. 108-111, pi. 4 [also pi. 7, fig-. 4, in Juno 
number]. 



J. F. Robinson. 



York S.E. 



IBoulders at] Sutton on Hull [in The Yorkshire Boulder Committee 

and its Eiti^hth Year's Work]. Nat., Oct. 1894, p. 303; and fuller par- 
ticulars in Trans.. Hull Geol. Soc, V^ol. i, 1893-4, P- 7* 



Frank Rutlev. 



Derbyshire. 



On the Origin of certain Novaculites and Quartzites [Sections of 

a Magnesian Limestone, occurring in the Carboniferovis Limestone Series; 
Cumberland Cavern, Matlock Batii, figured in illustration]. Quart. Journ., 
Geol. Soc, Aug. 1894, Vol. 50. 



Frank Rutley. 



Wkstmorland. 



On the Sequence of Perlitic and Spherulitic Structures : a 

Rt^joi rider to Criticism [maintaining the author's opinion that in the 
old rhyolite of Long Sleddale the spherulitic structure is o^ secondary 
i>rigin and posterior to the perlitic cracks]. Quart, Jonrn. Geol. Soc, 
Feb. 1894, pp. 10-14, pi. I. 

G. ScorL.VR. Ci mbkkland. 

Description of the St. Helen's Colliery, Workington. Trans. 

X. Engl. Inst. Min. Eng., 1894, Vol. 43, pp. 437 et seq. ; also Trans. Fed. 
Inst. Min. Eng,, 1894, V'ol. 7, pp. 643 et seq. 



A. C. Seward. 



Lanc. S. 



On Rachiopteris Williamsoni, sp. nov., a New Fern from the 

Coal-Measures [described and identified as allied to llie Marnl/iaccce], 
Ann, Bot., June 1894, Vol. 8, pp. 207-218, pi. 13. 



A. C. Seward. 



DCRHAM. 



A New British Carboniferous Fossil [found by George Best in the 

Lower Carboniferous Measures Sandstone of Stainton Quarries, [Barnard 
Castle; described and figured, its relationships discussed, and referred 
to Fayolia denfata R.&Z.j. Nat., Aui^ust 1894, pp. 233-340, anil plate. 



A. C. Seward. 



York N.K. 



Notes on the Bunbury Collection of Fossil Plants, with a list of 

type specimens in the Cambridge Botanical Museum [figuring Pecopicris 
\Kiukia) exilis Phill. from the Jurassic of the Yorkshire coast]. Proc 
Camb. Phil. Soc, 1894, Vol. 8, Part 3, pp. 188-199. 



W. Shone. 



Cheshire. 



Subterranean Erosion and some of its Effects [discussing the 

phenomena of erosion carried on beneath a cover of boulder-clay]. 
Proc Chester Soc Xat. Sci., 1894, Xo. 4. pp. 252 et seq. 



.Naturalist, 



Bibliogrnphy : Geology and Pahcontology^ T8g4. 99 



W. Shone. 



Lanc. S 



The Cause of Crateriform Sand Dunes and Cwms [see 1893 listj. 

Proc. Chester Soc. Nat. Sci., i%4j No. 4, pp. 263 et seq. 

William Shonk. Cheshire, Yorkshire, Lancs., Dekbvshire. 

Post-Glacial Man in Britain [discussing the relative position of 

Pcst-Glacial Man to Post-Glacial Geolog^y, on the streni^th ^:ii evidence 
in Yorkshire, Cheshire, etc.]. Geol. Mag;., Feh. 1894, pp. 78-80. 

William Simpson. Lancs,, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire. 

F 

Notes on the Strata and Deposition of the Millstone Grit [classifying 

the beds as under: — i, Rough Rock or Topmost Rock, 2, Shales, 3, Middle 
Grits, 4, Shales, 5, Kinderscont or Lowest Grits; sng-gfesting- that a]] the 
beds of the series below the Kinderscout should be included amonirst 



the Yoredales, and those above the Rough Rock with the Coal Measu 
has reference to the Derbyshire, Lancashire, and Yorkshire areas only ; 
refers to the probable orig-in of the materials composing' the beds ; 
ilUistrated by i\ ' Diagrammatic Section of the Millstone Grit of Derby- 
shire and the West Riding- of Yorkshire'], Proc. Yorks. (^eo\, and 
Polyt. Soc, Vol. 12, Part 5, 1S94, pp. 407-420. 

G. Slater. York Mid W. and S.W. 

Impressions of the Science of Geology [refers chiefly to Yorkshire 

geology, and describes in a general way the flagstones around Leeds, the 

Carboniferous Limestone of the West of Yorkshire, etc.]. The White 
Rose, the Mag-azine of the past and present students of St. John's 
College, York, Vol. 3, No. 3, April 1S94, pp. 43-46. 



E. E. Speight. 



York Mid W. 



Upper Wharfedale Exploration Committee. First Annual Report 

{1893) [gives lists of the articles discovered during the excavations of 
mounds, etc., near Grasslng^ton ; these include xwwne^rows relics oi British 
and Roman workmanship]. Proc. Yorks. Get^l. and Polyt, Soc., \\>L 12, 
Part 5, 1894, PP- 374-.1''^4- 

James Spencer. 



York S.W. 
On the Geology of Calderdale [describing the sections in the 

Mountain Limestone, Yoredale Rocks, Millstone Grit and Coal Measures; 
and referring to the physical geography oS the district ; illustrated by 
a ' Diagram of the Strata of Calderdale']. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. 
Soc, Vol. 12, Part 5, 1894, pp. 3^-373- 

J. W, Stather [Secretary; not sig-nedj. York S.E. 

Report of the East Riding Boulder Committee, 1893-4 [details of 

boulders observed in different parts oi the Ridings by its members]. 
Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, Vol. i, 1893-4, PP' ^• 



J. W. Stather. 



York S.E. 



(Boulders at] North Cave (etc.; in] the Yorkshire Boulder Com- 
mittee and Its Eij^hth Year s Work, Nat., Oct. 1894, p. 302 ; a«ti fuller 
particulars in Trans, Hull Geol. Soc, Vol. i, 1893-4, p, 6. 

J. W. Stather, '^''^^RK ^-E. 

(Geological Observations made by the] Yorkshire Naturalists' 

Union at Pockrmg:ton [6lh Sept, 1893]. Nat., March 1S94, pp. (>6-67. 

J. W, Stather. York S.E. 

The Geology (of Hornsea, briefly describing the Glacial deposits 

■ and giving some particulars respecting the encroachment of the sea 
upon" the coast^line ; pp. 59-64 of] IlUistrated Guide to Hornsea, Svo., 
65 pp., with map, etc; Hull, no date [1894]. 

D. S. Stel-art. Derbyshire. 

The Geology of Miller's Dale [Derby shire]. Brit. Nat., 15th Jan. and 

^S^^t^b. 1894, pp. 3-5 and 36-38. 

April i8ij9. 



loo Bibliography : Geology and Palaeontology, i8g4. 



William Stevenson. 



York S.E. 



Ancient Forest Bed under the Town of Hull [a description of the 

photograph of the ' Ancient Forest Bed, Chalk Lane, Hull," which 
appears as frontispiece to the vohinic]. Trans. Hull Geo!. Soc.> \o\. i. 



Mark Stirrip. 



York S.E. 



A reply to Sir H» Howorth's Paper on '* Recent Changes of Level " 

[combating the hypothesis of rapid subsidence in the case of the sub- 
merg-ed forests at Hull]. Geol. Mag-., Nov. 1894, pp. 502-505. 



C. Fox Strang WAYS, 



York N.E. 



The Valleys of North-East Yorkshire and their Mode of Formation 

[a general sketch of the physical geography of the district, here divided 
into four areas, pointing out the mode of establishment of the drainage 
system and the causes by which this has since been modified, by tliick 
masses of boulder clay, etc. ; numerous cases of diversion of streams 
are pointed out and discussed]. Trans. Leicest. Lit. Phil. Soc, Vol. 3, 
Part 7, 1894, pp. 333-344, and large folding map. 



C. Fox Strangvvtays. 



York N.E. 



Dr. Alex. Brown on Solenopora [pointing out that the S. Jurassica 

found at Malton comes from the Coralliaii], Geol. Mag., May 1894, p. 236. 
Robert M. Tate. Northumberland S. 

On the Erosion and Destruction of the Coast Line from the Low 

Lights to Tynemouth and Cullercoats during the last Fifty Years [at 
Percy Square, on the Tynemouth Coast, the cliffs have receded 180 feet, 
between 1827 and 1892; figures are given for other parts of the cliff, and 
suggestions made for protecting the coast]. Nat. Hist. Trans, Northumb. 
Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Vo!. 11, Part 2, 1894, pp. i87-i9[. 

Thomas Tate. York S.W., N.W., N.E., S.E. 

The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and Its Eighth Year's Work 

[includes reports by W, Hemingway, Thomas Tate, W. Gregson, J. W. 
Stather, F. F. Walton, Thomas Thelwall, W. H. Crofts, J. Nicholson, and 
J, F. Robinson]. Nat., Oct. 1894. pp. 297-303, 



Tiios. Thelwall. 



York S.E. 



Moulders at] Skidby and Little Weighton district [in] the Yorkshire 

Boulder Committee and Its Eighth Year's Work. Nat., Oct. 1894, p. 302, 
and fuller particulars in Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, Vol. i, 1S93-4, p. 7. 



R. H, TlODEMAN. 



YoKiv Mid W. 



The Occurrence of Limestone Conglomerates on the North Side of 

the Craven Faults [bringing evidence forward In support of a proposition 
which he had previously made that the 'Knowl Reefs* in the Carboniferous 
Limestone had been deposited in shallow water ; this evidence is in tlie 
form o( a limestone conglomerate recently seen at Dibbles Gill, near 
Grassington ; points out that other proof may be brought to light in the 
excavations under Greenhovv Hill, then being carried on for the Bradford 
Waterworks]. Proc, Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, Vol. 12, Part 5, 



894 



vv- 437-44O' 

Warren L'pham. 



York Mid W, 

I 

The Quaternary Epoch, and its division in the Lafayette, Qtacial, 

and Recent Periods [the amount of denudation of limestone rocks on 
which drift boulders lie, in Yorkshire {? at Norber), referred to ; and com- 
pared with similar evidence in other parts of the globe, from which the 
author estimates that the ice-sheets disappeared only 6,000 to ro,ooo years 
ago];. Comptc-rendu du Congres G^ologique International, 6*^ Session 
(Zurich), 1894, pp. 238-251. 

— ■ * 

>j.itnralist. 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceoulologyy i8g^. loi 

Warren Upham. North of England, 

Quaternary Time divisible in Three Periods, the Lafayette, Glacial 

and Recent [abstract ; apparently a summary of the paper referred to 
above]. Proc. American Assoc, for the Advancement of Science, Vol. 43, 
J 894 (5 PP' reprint). 

\V. A, E. UsSHKR. See 'A. \o\\ Reinach.' 

F. F. Walton. York S.E. 

[Boulders at] Newbald, South Cave [etc.; in] The Yorkshire Boulder 

Committee and Its Eig-hth Year's Work. Nat., Oct. 1894, p. 302; and 
fuller details in Trans. Hull. GeoJ. Soc, Vol, i, J893-4, p. 6. 



F. Fielder Walton. 



York S.E. 



Some New Sections in the Hessle Gravels [describing a series of 

ang^ular g-ravels and blown sands banked up against the Pre-Glacial 
Chalk Cliff of Holderness Bay; both chalk and g-ravel are capped by 
a bed of Boulder Clay containing- Scandinavian and other erratics ; 
bones of horse and ox have been obtained from the gravels ; illustrated 
by plan and section (p. 407)]. Proc. Yorks. Gcol. and Polyt. Soc, 
Vol. 12, Part 5, 1894, pp. 396-406. 



C. J, Watson. 



Nottinghamshire. 



The Hemlock Stone. Journ, Rirm. N. H. Phil. Soc, Vol. i, 1^94, p. 29 



\\'iLLLVM Watts. 



Lanc S. 



On Waterworks Construction and the use of Concrete and 

^ Earthwork informing Embankments [reference is made in the discussion 
which followed this paper to the suitabllily oi local rocks for making- 
concrete, etc.]. Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, Vol. 23, Part >, 1894, pp. 
42-63, 

Whlllvm [sic] Watts, Lanc. S., York S.W, 

** Septanan Nodules'* [Notes on a septarian nodule exhibited at 

a meetings of the Manchester Geolog-ical Society, obtained ivoxri the 
Boulder Clay of the Piethorn Valley]. Trans. Mancli. Geol. Soc, Vol. 22, 
Part 21, 1894, PP- 5^9-59'^- 



VV. W. Watts, 



York S.E. 



Appendix on Some Boulders collected by Mr. Cameron'* 

[comparing some specimens from Old Hurst, Hunts., with examples 
found at Bridlington by Lamplugh, and in Holderness by Harker, 
which are supposed to have been derived from the neighbourhood of 
Christiania], Proc, Geol. Assn., Vol. 13, Part 9, 1894, pp. 359-360. 



Lanc. S. 



George Wild, 
Presentation of Fossils [to the Manchester Museum, by Mr. Robert 

Cairns, of Hurst, Ashton-under-Lyne ; including a larg-e series of iish- 
scales, teeth, etc, and other fossfis, from the Ashton Moss, Dukinfield, 
and Bardsley Collieries, and other places]. Trans. Manch. Geo!. Soc, 
Vol, 13, Part 22, 1894, pp. 447-45^- 



T. R, WlLLL\MS. 



York S.W, 



Wales 



delivered to the Hull Geological Society; analyses of Barnsley Coal and 
Anthracite given and compared]. Trans. Hull. Geol. Soc,' Vol. i, 1893-4, 



p. 17. 

T. R. Williams. 



York S,E. 



[Boulders at] Walkington [Micaceous Shale, Millstone Orit, and 

Shap Granite]. Trans. Hull Geol. Soc, Vol, i, 1893-4, p. 7. 

Willlvm Crawford Willlvmson, Lanc S., York S.W. 

General, Morphological, and Histological index to the Author's 

Collective Memoirs on the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures, Part m. 

April i8r>9. 



I02 Bibliography : Geology^ and Palceontology, iSg^, 

[Prefaced by a list of works on the org-anisation of the Fossil Plants of 
the Coal Measures and General Index to their contents ; deals principally 
with the fossil ferns]. Mem. and Proc. Manch. Lit, and Phil. Soc, 
1893-4, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 54-74. 



W. C. Williamson. 



Lanc. S. 



Lanc. S. 



On the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures. 

Part xix. {Oldhamhi, etc.]. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, Vol. 184B., 1894, 
pp. 1-38, pi. 1-9. 

W, C. Williamson. 

Correction of an Error of Observation in Part xix. of the Author's 

Memoirs on the orgfanisation of the Fossil Plants of the Cocil Measures. 

Proc. Roy. Soc, Vol. 55, 1894, p. 422. 

W. C. Williamson and D. H. Scott. Lanc. S. 

The Root of Lyglnodendron Oldhamium^ Will. Proc Roy. Soc 

London, VoL 51, 1894, p. 128. 



Albert Wilmore. 



Lanc. S. 



Correspondence [a letter to the Editor of the Qlacialists' Magazine 

recording" some boulders in the district S.E. of Colne, and sug'g'ests that 
they may have been dispersed by small berg-s in an extra-morainlc lake]. 
Glac. Mag-., Dec. 1S94, pp. 105-106. 



R. H. Wilson. 



Lixc. S. 



The Composition of the Fen Soils of South Lincolnshire. Chem. 

News, 28th Sept. 1894, Vol. 70, pp. 153-154. 



N. H. WiNCHELL. 



Cheshire. 



Pebbles of Clay in Stratified Grave! and Sand [refers to a paper 

by T. M. Reade in the Geol. Mag-, for February 1S94; in which it is 
pointed out that boulders or pebbles of clay were found in a bed of sand 
in a railway cutting- in the Wirral ; from evidence of similar finds in 
America Prof. W"inchell adds: — ^ The conclusion to be drawn .... is 
to admit that clay balls .... may be produced and embedded in 
gravel and sand which were the direct result of the wastag;e of the 
g^lacier, and that they are not unquestionable evidence of the former 
action of an oceanic shore line']. Glac Mag-., March 1894, pp. 171-174. 

Lanc. S., etc. 

The Flora of the Carboniferous Period [a general summary with 

but little definite local application]. Rep. and Trans. Manch. Field Xat. 
Soc. for 1S93, publ. 1894, pp. 75-80. 



Thomas Wise. 



A. Smith Woooward. 



York S.K. 



On a Second British Species of the Jurassic Fish Eurycormus 

[from Peterboroug*h ; the first specimen, described by Sir Philip Egferton, 
under the name of Macropoma egertoni, is said to have been obtained from 
the * Gault, Speeton ']. Geol, Mag,, May 1894, pp. 214-216. 

A. Smith Woodw^vrd. York S.E., Linc. N. and S. 

Notes on the Sharks' Teeth from British Cretaceous Formations 

[though no specimens from the North of England are referred to in this 
paper, the descriptions and illustrations of the Sharks* teeth are of 
considerable value to workers amongst the Cretaceous rocks of Yorkshire 
and Lincolnshire], Proc. Geol. Assn., Vol. 13, Part 6, 1894, pp. 190-200, 
and Plates 5 and 6. 



Henry Woodward. 



York Mid W. 



Contributions to our knowledge of the Genus CyduSy from the 

Carboniferous Formation of various British Localities [with woodcut of 
C wood^van/i Reed, from Settle]. Geol. Mag., Dec. 1894, PP' 53^-539- 



Naturalist^ 



A'ofcs—Oniifholo^y and Botanw lo 



x> 



Henry Woodward. 



Lanc. S» 

Note on a Collection of Carboniferous Trilobites from the Banks of 

the Hodder, near Stonyhurst, Lancashire [preceded by some remarks on 
the geolog-ical horizon of these fossils; two new species of Phniipsuiy 
named P. %tan-der-grachili and P, polleni^ are described and fjLrured]. 
Geol. Mag:., Nov. 1894, pp. 481-489, Plate 14. 

Horace B. Woodward. Yorkshire. 

Geology in the Field and in the Study [Yorkshire Geology briefly 

referred to]. Proc. GeoJ. Assn., Vol. 13, Part 7, 1894, pp. 247^273. 

Horace B. Woodward. Lincolnshire. 

The Jurassic Rocks of Britain, Vol. IV, The Lower Oolitic Rocks 

of England (Yorkshire excepted) [treating- the various subdivisions and 
their local v^ariations as traced through England, with chapters on Scenery 
and Agriculture, Economic Products and Springs and Water supply, and 
an Appendix giving a Cat^tlogue of Fossils]. Mem. Geol. Surv. England 
and Wales, pp. xiv. + 628, Plate 2, and 137 Pigs, in text; London, 1894. 
[For review^ sec Geol. Mag., Nov. 1894, pp. 520-525.] 

Horace B. Woodward. See 'Andrew C. Ramsay.' 




NO TE—ORNITHOLOG Y. 



Is the Missel Thrush Decreasing? — During the last few years this 
bird ( Turdiis visdvorus) seems to have become much less common at 
Garstang than was formerly the case, and I should like to ascertain if this 
IS local or general. Some fifteen years ago every small plantation and every 
old orchard had one of the rather untidy nests o^ this bird placed in it, 



but now one rarely sees a bird and very few nests. — J. Arthtr Jackson*, 
Elm Tree Road, Lymm Cheshire, 20th March 1899. 




NOTE^BOTANY. 

r 

Lobelia Dortmanna in Lakeland. — In 'The Naturalist' '^ov January, 

page 4, imder the betiding ot ^Lobelia Dortmanna^ Mr. Wni. Hodgson, of 
Workington, says : — * With reference to the Blea Tarn mentioned in 
Mr. Baker's *' Flora of the Lake District," pp. 142-3, 1 believe I am correct 
in referring it to a tarn of that name which lies in t\ secluded hollow under 
High Street, in Westmoreland.' 

On reference to the mai-*, I find that there is a Blea Tarn in Little 
Langdale where I have seen Lobelia Dortmanna growing in August 1891, 
and again in August 1895; a Blea Tarn, WatendJath ; and a Blea Water 
(«/?/ Blea Tarn) under High Street. There is a point here that I should like 
to have cleared up. Mr. Baker, in his * Flora oi the Lake District,' 
mentions an Upper and Lower Tarn at Watendlath. 

I iudo^trv riVhtK- m- wrtMi<Hv' fhaf \\\^ T.ower Tarn, in which Lobelia Dort- 



manna grows (see Baker's ' Flora,' p. 142, at the bottom of the page), is 
the tarn at Watendkith that goes by the name of the Watendlath Tarn. 

Ls the L^pper Tarn the same as Blea Tarn, Watendlath, and \^ not, where 
IS the Upper Tarn, Watendlath. 




of the ' Flora*) ; also at p. 175, under Littorella lacustrisy frequent up to 500 
yards, among others, Blea Tarn, Watendlath. I have never been to Blea 
Water, Pligh Street, nor to Blea Tarn, Watendlath, but I have been to 
^loa Tarn, Little Langdale, several times, and each time have seen Lobelia 
-Ooz-Z/wa/i/zCT jrrowing there." Charles Watkrfall, ro, DeGrey Street, Hull, 
9th February 1899. 



Soq 



104 



NOTES— MAMMAL/A. 



r 

Cross between Hare and Rabbit.— Mr. Hawley has a stuffed .specimen 

of this hybrid, between Hare {Lepiis europteus) and Rabbit {L. cuniculus), 
and I have also one. As I spoke of this hybrid last year (1897), I need not 
say more now than that it was thought at first that the Hare and Rabbit, 
being- so different in their habits, would not interbreed. On inquiry, how- 
ever, I found that, not only were there several well-known sing^le cases of 
their having; interbred, but that the production o{ this cross had been carried 
on, rather extensively, for trading" purposes, in France, I have shot five 
specimens of this cross on Kirkby Moor, and one has been seen there recently. 
J. CONWAV Walter, Lan^ton Rectory, Horncastle, iSth Aus^ust 1S98. 

Fox and Dog Hybrids near Horncastle. — I exhibited, when the 

Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union met ^lt Holbeck and Tetford, in August 1897, 
a case containing: two stuffed specimens oi a cross between a fox and dog", 
bred by Mr. Stafford Walker, of Horncastle, the sire being: a male Fox 
( Vulpes viilpcs) and the mother a half-bred bitch betw^een Shepherd Dog" 
and Whippet ; of a litter of six only one survived. The mother was boug"ht 
by the French savant, M. M. Suchetet, with a view to further experiments. 
Since then several similar hybrids have been produced in this neig"hbour- 
hood. In one case, at Ashby Puerorum, a farm bailiff, named Cross, tied 
his Shepherd bitch near a fox-earth ; and the one pnp reared is no^ in the 
possession of Mr. Frank Dynioke, of Scrivelsby Park. In another case, 
a g-amekeeper near Louth tied a bitch in a wood, in the nutting- season, to 
g-ive warning- of trespassers, and subsequently the bitch had pups, evidently 
a cross with Fox. Oi\^ of these is now in the possession of Mr. Waltham, 
dealer in china, Hig:h Street, Horncastle. Another is in the possession of 
Mr. E, Walter, farmer, of Hatton, a cousin of Mr. Stafford Walter, who 
bred the orig^inal hybrids, which I exhibited in 1S97. 

I mentioned that year that almost invariably in the case of hybrids the 
produce takes externally after the male parent. For instance, the progvn}' 
of a pure bred white Lincolnshire boar, from a black Berkshire sow, will 
all be white, or mainly so. A larg-e breeder of Ducks in my own parish 
teJls me that she last year reared more than 170 duckling's from three white 
ducks, by a Rouen drake, and that all were of the colo\u- of the drake. 

I have recently heard that a cross between a Merino ewe and a South- 
down ram yields lambs with black points like the sire, though with the finer 
wool o{ the Merino, as a sort of con)proniise between the two. 

Speaking: of crosses, I may say that there is a living: specimen at Horn- 
castle oi a cross between a tame Rabbit and a Guinea Pig: ; and I have 
recently heard of a supposed cross between Black Game and Grouse in 
Scotland, and also a cross between Black Game and Capercailzie. 

And here I may mention a case, not exactly oi cross, but of a curious 
mixture, which perhaps Mr. Hawley, or someone else, may be able to 
confirm. On one occasion, when shooting: o" Kirkby Moor, near Woodhall 
Spa, I shot a couple of the Common Brown Partridg:es {PenUx pcnUx)^ aiKl 
a couple of the French Red-leg'g:ed Partridg-es {Caccabis rufa\ all in the 

covey, and evidently consorting- tog-ether as having: been reared 
together. I happened to mention this to the late Mr. Stafford Hotchkin, of 
Woodhall, and he told me that he had known several cases — or at any 
rate more than one case — where the eg"g:s of the two kinds had been found 
laid in the same nest. The cg:g:s of the two birds are, of course, easily dis- 
t.in>^uishable, the Common Partridg:e eg-g- being- a g:reenish-drab and that 
of the Red-leg: cream colour, with reddish-brown spots. Only nig^ht before 
last I saw the egrg" — a sing:Ie one — of a Red-leg- lying: ^y ^ hedg-e bank, 
rather faded, but still spotted with pale brown. It had evidently been 
dropped here alone by the bird, and was doubtless addled, (i am told also 
by an authority that eg"g:s of the Red-leg- are sometimes found in the ■"'ests 
of outlying Pheasant. Confessions of an old poacher with whom I O'^ca- 
sionally fraternise.) — J. Conway Walter, Lang-ton Rectory, Hornca- Me, 
T6th Au.i^ust 1898. 

Xrxturai ^, 



'05 



LINCOLNSHIRE COAST BOULDERS. 



F. M. BURTON, F.L.S., F.G.S.. 

Ifighfield, Gainsho rough, Liiicolnshh 



In my former paper on this subject in 'The Naturalist* for 
May 1898, p. 133, I invited information and discussion as to 
the possibihty of these boulders being brouy:ht to the Lincohi- 
shire coast from that of Holderness by what Mr, Harker— who 
seems partially, at all events, to entertain the view — calls 'the 
powerful tidal scour from N. to S. ' In answer to this I have 
had two letters: ono: from Mr, W. H. Wheeler, M.Inst.C.E., of 
Boston, the other from Mr. A. Atkinson, A.M.Inst.C-E., of 
Brigor, both strongly ag-ainst this view; and there has been 
a communication approving it from the Rev. H. E. Maddock, 
Patrington Rectory, which appeared on p. 245 of the current 
volume of 'The Naturalist-' To this note I need not specially 
allude, as all who take an interest in the subject can read it for 
themselves. 

Before quoting from the letters referred to I will briefly give 
my own views for considering the theory of tidal action as 
being, not partially only, but altogether inadequate to account 
tor the presence on the flat, sandy Lincolnshire coast of the 
boulders in question. 

I have already in my previous paper shown that the boulder 
clay (from which deposit the stones are admittedly derived) lies 
all along this coast, and is exposed in various places on the land 
adjoining it near to where the stones occur; a fact which does 
account for their being found where they are ; but besides this 
1 would take ordinary reasonable grounds and ask how is it 
possible that the tidal current could carry heavy material with it 
down the shallow Lincolnshire coast against all the obstacles 
that oppose it? To begin with, starting from the northeast 
corner of the county, we have the large volume of water 
brought down by the Humber — which, at the least, would 
divert the action of the * scour' for a considerable distance, 
and how can the boulders get— first across the strong rush of 
water flowing from the river, and then turn towards the land 
and hug the shore again? Surely great difficulties present 



themselves in the way of this hypothesis! Then, coming 



southwards down the coast, we have, successively, the rivers 
at Tetney Haven, Saltfleet, Wainfleet, with the VVitham at 
Boston and the Fossdyke Wash, besides many mmor streams 



io6 Burton: Lincolnshire Coast Boulders. 



and outflows; all of which deposit in the ag-g-regate vast tracts 
of mud and sand, covering- up the shallow sea-bed and extending 
in places, as at Saltfleet, a mile or more out from the land; and 
in all this I fail to see any evidence of a * powerful tidal scour' 
along the coast, which, if it existed, and was capable of trans- 
porting boulders along the shore, would surely be able to sweep 
away the soft deposits of mud and sand which encumber it. 

It Is not, however, with the present day only that we have 
to deal; we must go back to the time when the powerful stream 
of the Trent swept through the Lincoln Gap, where the Witham 
now flows, spreading the drainage of the Midlands over the 
shallow sea-bed, and irresistibly opposing any tidal cvu*rent that 
could, on such a flat coast as that of Lincolnshire, be brought 
against it; and if It could be proved that this river was diverted 
from its course through the Gap before the Glacial period, when 
the boulder clay was deposited, It would make no diff"erence, for, , 
long after the Trent was captured and diverted It maintained Its 
old course ; indeed, it may fairly be said that it has not yet 
abandoned it, but — like the fitful outbursts of a dylng-out 
volcano — it still, when recruited by rainfall in its upper reaches, 
overwhelms its banks, and once more asserts for a time a little 
of Its old force and power, as the winter flood of two years ago 
testified when the land to the east of Lincoln resembled more an 



inland lake, or the bay of a sea, than a river's flood. 

Let us turn now to the two letters I have referred to. 
Mr. Atkinson writes (i8th July 1898): — 

* Mn Marker's theory that these erratics may have been 
brought from the Holderness coast by the tidal scour is scarcely 
tenable. No doubt the action of the tidal drift is a very 
important on^y but he has overlooked the existence of the wide 
and deep embouchure of the Humber. The Humber currents 
are tranverse to the general direction of the littoral drift, and 
probably Interrupt Its continuity for "some distance from the 
shore.* 

Mr. Wheeler, who, It Is well known, has made tidal action 
his special study, deals more fully with the subject, and writes 
as follows (Sth July 1898); 

* I have recently, in pursuit of my investigations Into the 
matter of littoral drift, inspected the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire 
coast from Hornsea to Sutton. I was at Sutton soon after the 

X 

great storm in March, which had in several places between 
Mablethorpe and Sutton bared the clay. • I found several 
patches and small beds of stones. The conclusion I arrived 



-^— - 



Naturalist. 



Burt07i : Lincolnshire Coast Boulders. 107 



at was that these had been displaced from the boulder clay 
which underlies the sand. This bed of boulder clay extends 
over a large area of this part of the country. It underlies all 
the alluvial deposit at the mouth of the Witham and forms 
the bed of a gfreat part of the east side of the Wash. I have 
frequenti}' had to excavate into it, and when constructing^ the 
duct and outfall works had plenty of opportunity of making its 
acquaintance. It is full of fragments of rocks similar to those 
on the exposed beach at Sutton and Mablethorpe. I gave 
a description of it and of the rocks represented in my ' History 
of the Fens,' p. 456. 

' I quite agree with you in rejecting the theory as to ballast. 
I am also of opinion that these stones have not come from the 



Holderness coast. There is no drift across the Humber. As to 



the ** powerful tidal scour" sug^gested by Mr. Harker I do not 
know what this means. The only currents along this coast are 
those due to the tides, about two to three knots, and these 
currents are oscillating, and running for six hours one way 
and as many the other. There is, so far as I know, no regular 
current from N. to S. There is a drift of material along the 
beach from N. to S. , but this all takes place landward of the 
point where the waves beat on the beach, and is due to wave 
action and not to currents. This drift collects at Spurn Point.' 

Now, on referring to the chapter in Mr. Wheeler's valuable 
work, which he calls attention to, I find the following : — 

' The base or substratum of nearly the whole of the Fenland 
consists of Oxford and Kimmeridge clay. . . . Overlying 
this clay, throughout a considerable area, Is a deposit known as 
the '* boulder clay." This is an unstratified mass of lead- 
coloured clay, interspersed with fragments of chalk and lime- 
stone, and also with basalt, granite, sandstone, and other 
formations quite foreign to this part of the country. Many of 
these pieces of rock are polished and scratched, or striated, in 
a manner peculiar to stones which have been subject to glacial 
action. The following specimens of rocks were found by the 
author amongst the clay excavated for the new outfall of the 



river Witham and for the Boston Dock : red granite with large 
quartz crystals, grey granite, volcanic ash, amygdaloid, felstone, 
felspar, and quart;^, porphyry, five different kinds of quartz rock, 
jasper, several different flints, ferruginous and argillaceous sand- 
stones, mountain limestone, dark blue silicious limestone with 
quartz veins, silicious, argillaceous, and carboniferous limestones, 
great oolite, iron ore, greensand, chalk; also ammonites oi large 

April 1899. 



io8 Burton: Lincolnshire Coast Boulders. 



size, some havinjj^ a diameter of more than a foot. In the 



excavation for deepening the upper Witham, some boulders of 
Lias limestone and sandstone were found, the largest 'of which 
was about 6 feet x 4 feet and 2 feet 6 inches deep, containing 
about 57 cubic feet. 

* Many of the fragments of rock found in the boulder clay 
must have travelled very long distances, some from the North 
of England and Scotland, wiiilst some have been recognised as 
belonguig to Norway; the rocks being thus pioneers of the 
Scandinavians who followed and settled here. The surface of 
the underlying strata, on which the boulder clay rests, is very 
uneven, and gives evidence of valleys, river-beds, and other 
depressions having been filled up by it. Large pot-holes, filled 
with gravel and sand, are frequently rnet with, and in many 
places this boulder clay rises up above the general level in the 



shape of mounds or hills, as at Sibsey, and at Beacon Hill, near 
Sleaford.' 

This has a strong bearing on the point ; but in a paper 
on 'The Action of Waves and Tides on the Movement of 
Material on the Sea Coast,' read by Mr. Wheeler — who is an 
acknowledged authority on the subject — at the late meeting of 
the British Association at Bristol— which paper has since received 
very favourable mention in the pages of 'Nature' — we find much 
that IS more directly applicable to the cjuestion, and from this 
paper I must quote at some length : — 

*'Wave action.— Vs\t\\ regard to wave action, whether due to 
winds or tides, although this is transmitted to the shore from 
the open ocean, the motion is only one of undulation, the 
particles of water rising and falling vertically, and having no 
forward motion beyond that which they perform in the orbit 
of the wave. When, however, the wave motion approaches the 
shallow water of the shore, and the depth is no longer sufficient 
for the free formation of the undulation, the lower particles 
being retarded by their contact with the shore, and the upper 
particles being also unable to complete their orbital course, are 
projected forward, and the motion becomes horizontal. The 
wave in this condition is capable of carryiiig forward any 
substance with which it comes in contact, and which is within 
the range of its energy, oi\ to the beach and up its slope.' 

* On a flat, sandy shore the water of the breaking wave is. 
distributed over a wider horizontal range, and it comes in 
contact with the beach at a much greater angle than on 
a shingle bank. The force of the impact is therefore less, and 

Naturalist. 



Biirtiii : Lincolnshire Coast Boulders. 109 

its effect o\\ the beach less mordant. In this case nearly the 



whole of the energy of the wave is absorbed by the friction.' 

* On flat, sand}' shores, the waves first break seaward of the 
low water line, a succession of smaller waves following" up to 
the marg-in of the water.' 

■ From the seaward side of the breaking- point of the wave 
no material is carried shore wards on to the beach, the motion of 
the water continuing- as an undulation.' 

* It is stated that stones lying o\\ the sea-bed are moved and 
displaced during heavy gales by the waves to depths of six or 
seven fathoms and even more. So long as these waves remain 
undulations, the movement cannot extend beyond the orbit of 
wave formation, and there cannot, therefore, be any translation 
of the stones shorewards.' 

' In the formation of waves, besides the vertical movement 
of the particles of water which places the crest above the trough, 
there is an oscillating, horizontal movement, alternately towards 
and away from the shore. Any material susceptible of move- 
ment, lying on the bed of the sea, actuated by the waves, is 
moved alternately backwards and forwards, the mass of the sub- 
stance and the distance over which it is moved depending o\\ the 
height and on the length of the waves. As the places on which 
these waves act incline from the shore seaward, owing to the 



laws of gravity, the retrograde action of the wave must be most 
effective in the movement of material, and the tendency be rather 
to drag the material away from,, than to push it towards the shore.' 
'Action of gravity. As alread\ pointed out, the slope of 
a beach is seaward.' 

* By the law of gravitation, all material in movement has 
a natural tendency to work downwards unless prevented by 
some stronger opposing cause. Breaking waves no doubt have 
sufficient force, under certain conditions, to counteract this 
downward movement, but their general tendency is to aid the 
seaward movement by their undertow.' 

'It is due to the seaward action of the undertow of the waves 
that bays and indents along the coast are kept open and free 
from accumulation of deposit.' 

* It is true that stones and other substances of considerable 
size and weight, which have been buried hi the sand for longer 
or shorter periods, are occasionally, in heavy gales causing high 
waves, lifted up, carried forward, and left stranded on the 
beach. These, however, are only rare and isolated events which 
occur durinsjf verv heavy ";^ales/ 

Apni 1899. 



no Burton: Lincolnshire Coast Boulders. 



^Material of littoral drift. The material may be classed 
rock frag'nients, boiilders, shingle, sand, and alluvial 
deposit.' 

' Sand. The material nc^it in si;ie, or that generally known 
as sand^ becomes distributed by the waves on the shore, where 
it is rolled backwards and forwards by the action of the tides ; 
but, under the action of g:ravity, having* a continuous downward 
movement until the shore assumes a slope of from i in 30 to 
I in 100, at which it attains a state of equilibrium.' 

r 

'Where there are no cliffs to supply fresh material, sand- 
beaches are not subject to littoral drift, and, except to the 
extent already mentioned, little or no change takes place in 
their condition. They generally extend out from the line of 
high water of spring-tides to that of low water at a very flat 
slope, beyond which the slope becomes steeper.' 

*Thus, for example, on the east coast of England the drift 
from the material derived from the waste oi the Yorkshire cliffs 
stops on the north side of the H umber, Ff'om the south side of 



that river to the Wash there extends for 25 miles a low tract of 
flat country, bordered by hills of blown sand. The beach 
consists oi sand which extends out at a slope of about i in 30 
to low^ water. On this beach there is no appreciable littoral 
drift or alteration in form. Sand does not accumulate against 
the piers or groynes which extend across the shore ; and the 
general outline of the beach remains as it always has been so 
far as any record exists.' 

' Shingle, The supply and movement of this material is oi 
much greater interest than either that of sand or alluvial matter. 
Inasmuch as where it is forthcomlni^ shinirle forms ^n^ of the 
most important aids to coast protection.' 

*The supply of shingle is obtained from the destruction oi 
cliflfs consisting of granite and similar rocks or the hard, car- 
boniferous shale, flints from the chalk cliffs, or boulders lnom 
the Glacial Drift/ 

* Shingle, unlike sand, becomes heaped up in banks on the 
shore, and is found, with very few exceptions, accumulated 
in a ^one lying between low water of neap-tides and high water 
of spring-tides. The exceptions to this rule are where the 
accumulation has become so great, as for example at Dungeness 
and the Chesll Bank, that the bank has been forced beyond the 
shore limits.' 

The banking up of the shingle and also the travel along the 
shore is due entirely to tidal action. 

Naturalist. 



Notes and News. 1 1 1 

' Frequently the shing-le travels directly across a shallow 
bay, and several instances can be g-iven where by so doing the 
shiny^le has formed a natural embankment. 

As one example Mr. Wheeler gives ' that of Spurn Point, 
which consists of a spit of shingle, which extends southwards 
three miles, across the entrance to the Humber, the width of 

about 500 feet.' 

* In some cases the shingle bank continues its course across 
the mouth of the river, causing the flood tide to take a con- 
siderable turn round the end of the shingle bank before it can 
enter the river. The case of the Humber, already referred to, 
affords an example of a spur or natural groyne being thu 
projected out from ihe coast.' 

Space forbids my making further extracts, and it is difficult 
to make the argument plain by a selection of paragraphs. To 
be thoroughly understood and appreciated the paper itself 
should be read. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

We are indebted to our okl coUeai^ue, Mr. Edj;;;ar R. Waite, F.L.S., for 
various copies of Reports on the Trawling operations which were carried 
on off the coast of New South Wales about tliis time last year at the 
instance of the Colonial Government. The object of the Expedition was 
to find a j^ood and cheap source of suppK^ of food-fish for the colony, and 
our friend, Mr, Waite, was attached to the staff of H.M.C.S. 'Thetis* as 
a scientific investig-ator. ^Ir. F^rank Farnell, the member of the Colonial 
I-e3ti;"islature at whose instig^atlon the operations were inidcrt;iken, seems to 
be confident oi' its success from an economical point of view, but however 
this may be, there can be no doubt that Mr. Waite's share of the results wull 
be of ^reat value to science. His appendix to the Report includes a valuable 
and useful ' Descriptive List of Fislies,* with fi<,nires of many of them. 




Naturalists who appreciate the g-reat vahie of bibliography to all real 
workers will be g^lad to learn that Mr. W. Ruskin Butterfield, of St. 
Leouards-on-Sea, the son of one of our most esteemed Yorkshire 
naturalists, has been entrusted by Dr. Elliott Coues, of Washing-ton, with 
the task of completing his 'List of Fauna! Publications relating to British 
Birds,' which was published in the second volume of the Proceedings of ihe 
U.S. National Museum, at pp. 359-482. Mr. Butterfield has favoured us 
with the sight oi Dr. Coues* letters to him on the subject, and we are g^lad 
to note that he no longer wishes to draw the distinction origijially con- 
templated between the ' faunal' and tlie ' systematic ' departments of the 
bibliography, so thiit the result will be that Mr. Butterfield's work when 
completed will include the whole set of titles relating to British ornithology, 
and that these being- given in strictly chronolog-ical order will show the 
progress of British ornithology in correct historical perspective. We w^ish 
Mr. Butterfield every success in his labours, and that he will find naturalists 
as willing to support this dry department of their subject as antiq^iaries are 
to encourage the publication of matter equally dry and equally valuable, in 
the form of reprints of parish registers. May we express one hope, that 
Mr. Butterfield will add to the value of his" work by giving a concise 
>^"mmary of the scope of each paper, and even where needful give the 
names of the species mentioned. 

April 1899. 



I 12 



NO TE— ORNITHOL OGY. 

■K 

Unusual Nesting-Places of the Moorhen. — Durint<^ my rambles in 

the past week I have come across the following- curious (to me) places for 
nests of the Moorhen ( Galli)iuhi chloropus). 

(i) The top of a small fir tree about seven feet high and about loo yards 
from any water. This contains two e^^g^s only, w^hich the birds are sitting'. 

{2) In the xk^xy middle of a thick hawthorn bush overhang"in;^ n pond, 
about six feet from the water- This contained eigfht es^j^-s, 

{3) At the top of a '^v tree, quite 14 feet from the i^round and 20 yards 
away from any water ; this containing nine eg^gfs. 

I do not know if this information will be of interest or not, but I have 
never found them in such positions before. — E. BANKS, Sahmarshe, 

Howden, 5lh May 1898. 




/VO TB—A NTHROPOL OGY. 

Lake Dwellings at Pickering. — The recently issued Journal o^ the 

Anthropolog-ical Institute (for Aug-ust and November 1898) contains an 
interesting- paper on ' Evidence of Lake Dwelling's on the Ranks of the 
Costa, near Pickeruig^, North Riding \:^^ Yorkshire, ' b}' Captain the Hon. 
Cecil Duncombe, F.G.S. It appears that whilst a stream was being- cleared 
out in the spring- of 1893, Mr. Mitchelson, of the Hall, Pickering-, noticed 
some pieces of rude pottery had been thrown out. Other finds were made, and 
subsequently four rows of piles were discovered in the vicinity, crossing the 
Costa, at a distance of about 100 yards from each other. These rows of 
piles seem to converge upon a point forming the centre of a quasi island, 
which it is thought represents the site of a group of I^ake Dwellings similar 
to those met with in Sw^tzerhind. Excavations were made near the piles, 
and after penetrating 8 to 10 inches of soil, 2 feet 6 inches of stifl'blue cki}', 
and 6 feet of peat, an immense accumulation of bones, broken potter}', etc., 
was met with, resting on the Kimmeridge Clay, which evidently formed the 
bed oi the ancient hikes. Seeing; that in o\\^ excavation enough bones were 
obtained to fill a cart, it would seem that a find of no mean importance has 
been made. The bones include those of man, deer (3 species), horse, 
Bos longifrons^ sheep, goal, pig, wolf, fox, otter, beaver, voles ('different 
kinds'), and birds. The human bones consist of the remains of at least four 
individuals, and show that they were a short but muscular set of peojile. 
Neither stone nor metal instruments o^ any kind y<G.re xwc'i with, and the 
pottery is very thick and of a rude type. The dwellings are considered 
to he o^ very great anti(|uity (earlier than the Crannogs of Ireland and 
Scotland) and are referable to the same age as the Ulrome Lake Dwellings 
in Holderness; certainly in each case the remains are covered by an 
enormous accumulation of peat. The author discusses the probalile origin 
and antiquity oi these ancient Pickering- settlers to some leng'th. Unfor- 
tunately, however, there seems at present hardly sufficient data to work 
upon ; nevertheless, it is remarkable that the human remains should 
resemble each other in having belonged to exceptionally small individuals. 
The skeleton of an adult female shows that she could not have exceeded 
4 feet 6 inches in height when alive, 'and the owner of the largest thigh 
bone would not have exceeded 5 feet/ VVe should like to see the result of 
an examination of some human skulls from this place, and amongst future 
finds it is to be hoped some perfect ones may be secured. The paper is 
accompanied by a plate showing ' Fragments of coarse Pottery, and of 
antlers and limb-bones of Deer ( Cennts) ; also perforated tines of antlers of 
Red Deer/ The finds are of great interest and we hope that Mr. Mitchelson 
and his friends will continue their investigations, especially towards the 
* island' — -the discoveries already made certainly warrant it. It should be 
stated th 




with the 

' Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geolog-ical and Polyt 

^pp. 21-24). — T"* SHi:Pr.\KD, HulL 9th January 1S99 



Naturalist 



1^5 



LEPIDOPTERA NOTICED 
IN KfLTON WOODS AND VICINITY DURING 1898. 



T. ASHTON LOFTHOLSE 

Middlesb t-o ugh . 



The following- notes were made on the occasion of two or three 
visits paid to Kilton Woods in company with Mr. Sachse, of 
Middlesbroug^h. 

Kilton Woods are situate In N.E. Yorkshire, near Loftus, 
and consist of richly-wooded valleys running" from Skiimlng-rove 
upward, and branching out at the upper part into three or four 
smaller valleys. The principal trees are Oak, Ash, and Wych 
Elm, interspersed with Mountain Ash and Bird Cherry, and cl 



by the stream at the bottom of the valley Alders grow pretty 
freely; there are also some young" plantations of Scotch Fir, 
Larch, Spruce, interspersed with Birch, etc. 

Sug-aring was only tried on two occasions and with very 
little success, the most of the collecting being- done during the 
day time. Sugaring, I think, to be successful requires to be 
done for a few days consecutively, and this we had not the 
opportunity of doing. 

The district not having been worked by Yorkshire Icpidop- 
terists, as far as we know, we have thought it advisable to give 
a list of all the species noticed. 

I ith June 1898. —Spfhsoma mcndica^ $ taken ; Cilix glancata ; 
Tephrosia biuuditlaria^ a single specimen taken at rest on tree 
trunk ; Ntimeria pulveraria^ ? taken which laid ova, which 
hatched out on 26th June ; Hybemia defoliaria^ Iar\^£e ; Cheirna- 
fobia bruniafa^ larvae very abundant, stripping a great variet}- of 
trees, Maple especially suffering; Abraxas sylvafa {==nlnuita)j 



plentiful and fresh out, sitting about on low plants underneath 
Wych Elm ; some of the specimens were dark and nicely 
marked, but none so blue or suffused as specimens I have seen 
from the York district ; this species was out in this locality for 
a great length of time, being noticed on the occasion of every 
visit up to and including loth September; on the latter date 
larvai were also abundant on Wych Elm in all stages of growth; 
Melanthia alhicillaia, single specimen taken, fresh out ; also one 
or two full grown larvc-e off Wild Rasp in September ; Corcmia 

designata {^ propugnata), 

30th July-ist August. — Vanessa arlicce; Eplnephcle jauira\ 
Ccenonympha pamphilus\ Lyccena ican(s\ Smerinthus popnli, 

April 1899. H 



114 Cordemix : Enormous Skate, 

larvae; Hepialns hectus\ Orgy la luitiqua^ larvae ow bramble, 
perfect insect dashing about in sun on loth Sept. ; Xylophasia 
rnonoglypha, also at sugar on loth September, when some of the 
specimens seemed to be quite fresh; Agrotis exclamaiionis, flying 
about in svm; Trip/iceiin pronnha\ Aplecfa nebulosa, one worn 
specimen taken off tree trunk ; Plusia chrysitis\ Pliisia lota^ at 
X\^\\t\ Zanclognatha grisealis, beaten out of spruce; Hypena 
proboscidalis\ Rimtia luteolata\ Metrocampa margcxritaria^ Urop- 
teryx sambucaria, sparingly; Amphidasys betuluria var. double- 
dayaria, a crippled $ taken which laid a large number oi ova, 
which hatched out on the 17th August; Boarmia repajidafa\ 
Asthcna luteata,, worn ; Asthena blonieri, single specimen in 
good condition; Enpisteria obliterata ( = heparata), worn; 
Acidalfa bisefata\ Acidah'a aversata\ Cabera piisana\ Abraxas 
grossulariata ; Loniaspilis niarginata ; Larentia didyinata^ very 
abundant ; Larentia viridaria ; Larentia olivafa, several speci- 
mens, but mostly worn ; Emmelesia affinitata and var. ttirbaria ; 
Emnielesia alchemUlata, sparlngl}' ; Eitpithecia teuuiafa ; Thera 
variata, also on loth September; Ilypsipetes sordidata, several, 
some very dark vars. ; Melanippe sociata ; Melanippe montanafa\ 



Campiograinma bilineata ; Cidaria truncata^ a few fresh out, 
common and variable in September, hut much worn ; Cidaria 
populata; C\ /u/vata; C. dotata ; Enbolia limitata^ common ; 
Anaitis plagiata, on^ or two flying about In sun ; Tanagra 
atrafa ; Tortrix viridana, 

13th August. ^ — Pieris rapce \ P. napi \ Polyonimatus phUvas \ 
Apaniea didyma ; Triphcena jantJiina ; Plusia gannna ; also 
larva* of Acronycta rnniicis. 

loth September. — Pieris brassicu:; Vanessa atala)if a \ Phalera 
bucephala, took a batch of larvae off alder, very small for this 
late date, being barely half-an-inch long ; Hydrcecia nicfitans ; 
Xoctua glareosa, at sugar; Triphcena conies \ Anchocelis Litura\ 
Calyninia trapesinay caught; Polia chi\ Phlogophora nieticnlosa\ 
Melanthia bicolorata\ Ilypolepia sequella, two or three specimens. 




NOTE- FISHES. 

Enormous Skate. In Mes.srs. Clarke & Roebuck's " Handbook ot 
Yorkshire V^ertebrata," p. 102, mention is made, on my aulliority, o'[ an 
<?normoiJS Skate {t^ffju batis L.), measurin^t^ 7 feet 2 inches in lenj^th and 
5 feet S inches in breadth. 

These dimensions are now j^^reatly exceeded by one (a Blue Skate as 
the fishermen call them) brouj^^ht into Grimsby thts week by one ot the 
boats fishings off Iceland. The length over all of this monster is 9 feet 
4 inches and the breadth 6 feet 7 inches. I am told it is the larj<est ever 
seen on the pontoon,- J. CoRDEAix, Great Cotes House, R.S.O., Lincoln, 
17th February 1899. ^_______ 

Naturalist, 



n 



:> 



FLORA OF CUMBERLAND. 



Flora of Cumberland | containing- a full list of the floAverin^ [ plants 
and ferns to be found in the | county, accordinef to the latest and most 
reliable authorities, by | William HodgSOn | oC Workington | Associate 
ot t!ie Linn^an Society of London | and late Botanical Recorder to the 
Cumberland and VV^estmorland | Association for the Advancement of 
Literature and Science | with an Introductory Chapter | on the Soils 

of Cumberland, by | J* Q. Goodchild | H.M. Geoloij:icaI Survey | of the 

Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgch | with a Map of the County | 
Carlisle | W. Meals and Company | 75 Scotch Street | 1898 [8vo. cloth, 
pp. xxxvi 4-398 + folding- map, price 7s. 6d.]. 

The venerable author of the Flora o( Cumberland is to be con- 
g^ratulated on at last seeiny;* his volutne throuijh the press. It has 
been long and anxiously awaited, and I may add that six years 
ago 1 denied myself the pleasure of publishing a similar work 
because it was understood that ev^ervthln*^ which was of value 
for the historical portions of such an undertaking^ were in the 
possession of, or had been specially utilised by, Mr. Hodg-son. It 
is therefore with minMed feelinjjs that I take the volume In hand. 
No one more competent for the task cc>uld possibly be found, and 
the Av^ork has been a labour of love. It is impossible, however, 
to resist the feelintr that, with such resources at his command, 
the author miirht have iriven us much more information. There 
is little or nothintr in the volume to indicate that access had 
been obtained to special sources of information, and no attempt 
has been made to trace the history of botany in the county in 
a systematic and scientific way, or to supply a key to the dates 
at w^hich first records were made respectin;^ the more interesting 
plants. The list of plants and habitats is no doubt as full and 
perfect as present knowledg-e could make it, and certainly the 
author has been most careful to verify the records. My own 
copy of Baker's * Flora of the Lake District/ which has been 
my constant companion for the last twelve years, and is pro- 
fusely annotated with records for every part of the county, has 
been utilised by Mr. Hodgson to the full, and his tribute to the 
same is more than ample. But it would have been an immense 
boon to the student had the author, out of the mass of earlier 
material at his disposal, indicated when the species first came 
under notice. Some few records are quite modem, but many 
date back to the time of Bp. Nicolson and Thomas Lawson. 
Mr. Hodi^-son has prepared some excellent papers which have 
appeared from time to time in the * Transactions ol^ the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Association,' but we do not 
think he has embodied all the results of those productions in 

April 1899. 



r 

1 16 Review: Hodg'son's Flora of Cnmberland. 

the best possible way in his ' Flora,* He has disarmed criticism 
by allusion to the fact that the ' waifs ' for which Silloth, 
Maryport, Workington, and other places are so famous, are 
incorporated under their proper orders in the text; but all 
students wovdd have been g-lad if he had also printed one of his 
many valuable essays on the subject, with a full list of the 
* waifs ' which have been recorded, with indications of their 
native land, the explanation of their casual appearance in 
Cumberland, and notes on those which have temporarily or 
permanently g'ained a footing* there. In the case of those 
plants at least which have not the ^lig^htest claim to be regarded 
as natives this would have been a decided advantage. 

The Introduction and the very imperfect chapter on Deceased 
Botanists do not call for special remark. They add practically 
nothing to what Baker had already supplied, except that we 
have a short and welcome appreciation of Dr. Leitch, of Silloth, 
all too early removed from our midst, and the Rev. F. A. 
Malleson, who had nearly completed his fourscore years. For 
the Map, the essay on the soils of Cumberland by Mr. Goodchild, 
and its accompanying chart, we are very grateful. After all, the 
value of a work like this depends, not so much on the accuracy 
of the list of plants which a given district yields, as upon the 
helps it gives the student in solving the problenis of distribution. 
Why is such a plant plentiful here and missing yonder? What 
light does this or that fact throw on the great problems of plant 
life? Such are the questions we want to answer. The days of 
the mere collector are numbered ; records abound, but problems 

J 

press for solution, and everything that helps towards their 
solution is welcome. 

We cannot fail to regret that so competent an authority has 
not supplied us with at least an attempt at a bibliography of 
the Cumberland flora. No one has a fuller knowledge of the 
subject, and the nucleus was already to be found in the Lake- 
land Flora of Baker. Perhaps it is not too late to ask the 
veteran botanist to publish in 'The Naturalist' or elsewhere as 

L 

complete a list as he can compile, as a starting point for the 
workers of the coming century. The volume covers 39<S printed 
pages in addition to xxxvi. pages of introductory matter ; is 
well printed and neatly bound, and betokens on every page 
honest and devoted toil. No price is anywhere affixed, and 
while the title page bears date 1898, we find 1899 on the cover. 
The book is one which it is in every way a pleasure to handle, 
OcKKR Hill, Tiptox. Htlderic Friend. 

1 .. 

Naturalist* 



IT7 

MOSSES OF TADCASTER AND IMMEDIATE DISTRICT. 



WILLIAM INGHAM, B.A., 

r 

Oi'ganiahig Inspector of Schools, ^7, Hiuxhy RomU Vork. 



I SEND this List, as it may prove useful to those botanists 
who attend the forthconiinir Tadcaster Excursion of the York- 
shire Naturalists* Union, 

The most interesting^ spot in this district is the Jackdaw 
Crag" Quarry, close by Tadcaster. This is a very larg-e and very 
old quarry on the magnesian limestone, with undulating; bed 
and perpendicular cliffs. 

I have visited this quarry six times during* the last two years 
d I have found it a most interesting* spot for bryologists 
to work, as the larg^e number of Mosses in this List, from this 
quarry alone, will testify. 

Near the entrance of the quarry the Deadly Nightshade 
{Afropa Belladonna) luxuriates. 

Conchologists will also find this quarry interesting, for I saw 
here : — 

Helix nemoralis. Of very large form. 

Helix aspersa. In abundance. 

Helix hortensis v. arenicola. 
Clausilia bidentata. Plentiful. 
Clausilia laminata. Oi large form. 

On the face of the quarry, in the deep shady parts, the 
Hepatic, 
Jungermania turbinata Raddi., fruits well, and covers the 

cliffs like a carpet- 
I am much indebted to Mr. H. N. Dixon, ALA., F.L.S,, for 

kindly verifying all doubtful Mosses in this List. 

DICRANACE.E. 

Ditrichum flexicaule var. densum Braithw. j, C. Quarry, 

Tadcaster, June 1898. 
Ceratodon purpureas Brid. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, June 

1 898. 
Dicranelta heteromalla Schp., the male plant. Church 

Fenton, May 1898, 
Dicranelta varia Schp. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Boston Spa, April 1897. Sherburn-in-Elmet, April 1897. 
Dicranoweisia cirrata Lindb. Thorp Arch, April 1897. 

April 1S99. 



I 

ii8 - Ingham: Mosses of Tadcusfer. 

FISSIDEXTACE^, 

i 

Fissideas bryoides Hedw. Church Fenton, February 1897. 

Sherburn-in-Elmet, December 1898. 
Fissidens declpiens DeNot. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 

1897. Sherburn-in-Elmet, January 1898. 

Fissidens taxifolius Hedw- Sherburn, January 1898. 

GRIMMIACE^. 

Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. Sherburn, December 1897. 
Qrimmia pulvinata Sm. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, June 1898. 

TORTULACE.^. 

Ptiascum cuspidatum Schreb. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 
1897 Boston Spa, April 1897. Sherburn, January 1898. 

Phascum curvicolle Ehrh. Sherburn, April 1897. 

Pottia recta Mitt. Sherburn, January 1898. 

Pottia bryoides Mitt. Sherburn, January 1898. J. C. Quarry, 
Tadcaster, January 1898. 

Pottia Heimii Furnn Thorp Arch, April 1897. 

Pottia trunCatula Lindb. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, January 

1898. Appleton Roebuck, December 1S98. 

Pottia intermedia Fiirnr. Intermediate between this species 
and P. tnincatula. Sherburn, January 1898, 

Pottia minutula Fiirnr. Sherburn, January 1898. J. C. 
Quarry, Tadcaster^ January* 1898. 

Pottia lanceoiata CM. J- C. Quarry, Tadcaster, January 
1897. 

Tortula pusilla Mitt. Barkstone, February 1897, Sherburn, 

April 1897. 

Tortula lametlata Lindb. Sherburn, January 1897. 

Tortula brevirostris H.&Grev» Sherburn, April 1897. 

Tortula rigida Schrad. Sherburn, April 1897. 

Tortula ambigua Angstr. Barkstone, February 1897. Sher- 
burn, January 1898. 

Tortula aloides OeNot. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, January 
1 898. 

Tortula marginata Spr. Sherburn, September 1897, 

Tortula muralis Hedw. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Tortula subulata Hedw, J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, January 
1 898. 

Tortula intermedia Berk. J, C. Ouarr>% Tadcaster, April 



1897. 



Naturalists 



■ 

Ingham: Mosses of Tadcaster. 119 

Barbula lurida Lindb. Boston Spa, April 1897. • 

Barbula rubella Mitt. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, January 1898. 
Bramham, June 1897. Sherburn, January 1898. 

Barbula fallax Hedw. Sherburn, January 1898. J. C. 
Quarry, Tadcaster, January 1898. 

Barbula fallax v. brevifolia Schultz., c.fr. Sherburn. April 
1897, 

Barbula rigidula Mitt- J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Barbula cylindrica Schp. J. C, Quarry, Tadcaster, January 
1898. 

Barbula revoluta Brid. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, June 1898. 

Sherburn, January 1898. 

Barbula convoluta Hedw. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, June 

1898. Sherburn, Januar}' 1898. 

Barbula unguiculata Hedw. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 



1897. Sherburn, April 1897. 



Weisia 



J 



Mr. Dixon. 



Weisia microstoma CM. Aberford, June 1897. Sherburn, 

January 1898. J. C- Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 
Weisia viridula Hedw. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Weisia tenuis CM. Boston Spa, April 1897. 

Trichostomum crispulum Bruch. J. C Quarry, Tadcaster, 
January 1898. 

Trichostomum crispulum v. viridulum. J. C Quarry, 
Tadcaster, September 1897. 

Trichostomum mutabile Bruch, J. C Quarry, Tadcaster, 

January 1898. 

Trichostomum tortuosum Dixon. A very tall and hijjhly 
tomentose form, J. C Quarry, Tadcaster, September 1897. 

ENCALYPTACE.^. 

Bncalypta streptocarpa Hedw. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, 



April 1897. 



ORTHOTRICHACE.^, 



^ygodon viridissimus R.Br. J. C Quarry, Tadcaster, June 
1898, 

Orthotrichum anomalum v. saxatile Milde, Barkstone, 

May 1898. J. C Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897 (abundant 
in this quarr}-). 

April 1899. 



120 Inghmn: Mosses of Tadcaster. 

O rthotrichum cupulatum Hoffm. v. nudum Braith. Boston 
Spa, April 1897. 

Orthotrichum leiocarpum B.&S. Barkstone, May 1898. 

Orthotrichum affine Schrad. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 

1897. Barkstone, December 1896. 

Orthotrichum diaphanum Schrad, Boston Spa, April 1897. 

Barkstone, December 1896, J. C, Quarry, Tadcaster, 



April 1897, 



FUNARIACE^. 



Funaria hygrometrica Sibth. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, 
January 1898. Barkstone, May 1898, a very tall form. 
Thorp Arch, April 1897, 

BRYACE^. 

Webera carnea Schp. Boston Spa, April 1897. 

Bryum pendulum Schp. J. C, Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Bryum pallens Sw, Boston Spa, April 1897. 

Bryum Intermedium Brid. Sherburn, January 1898. J. C. 
Quarry, Tadcaster, September 1897. 

Bryum csespiticium L. Aberford, June 1897. 

Bryum capillare L. Barkstone, May 1898. Bramham, June 

1897. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, September 1897. 



7n 



J 



January 1898. J. C. Q 



Mnium undulatum L. J. C* Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897- 
Mnium cuspidatum Hedw, Sherburn, April 1897. 
Mnium rostratum Schrad. Sherburn, c.fr., April 1897. 
Mnium serratum Schrad. Boston Spa, c.fr., April 1897. 

* 

FONTINALACE^. 

Fontinalis antipyretica L. Saxton, May 1897. 

Fontinalis antipyretica v. gigantea SulL Saxton, May 1897. 

t 

XECKERACE^. 

Neckera crispa Hedw, J. C- Quarry, Tadcaster, January 1898. 
Neckera crispa v. falcata Boul. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, 

January 1898. 

Neckera complanata Hiibn. Sherburn, December 1897. 

J- C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897, 

LESKEACE.«. 

Leskea polycarpa Ehrh, J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Naturalist, 



Ingham: Alosses of Tadcuster. 121 

Anomodon viticulosus H.&T. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 

1897, 

Thuidium tamarisclnum B.&S. Sherburn, December 1897. 

J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, September 1897. 

HYPXACE.^. 

Pleuropus sericeus Dixon. J. C- Quarry, Tadcaster, September 
1897. 

Brachythecium rutabulum B.&S. Sherburn, December 1897. 
J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. Barkstone, May 1898. 

Brachythecium velatinum B,&S. Sherburn, January 1898. 
J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Brachythecium purum Dixon. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, 

January 1898. 

Eurhynchium piliferum. Sherburn, January 1898, Bolton 
Percy, March 1898. 

Eurhynchium speciosum Schp. Ulleskelf, December 1897. 

Eurhynchium prselongum. Barkstone, May 1898. J. C. 



Quarry, Tadcaster, a very robust form, Apr 
keif. May 1898. Sherburn, December 1897. 



Ulles- 



^ If 

Eurhynchium Swartzii Hobk. Boston Spa, a larg-e form, 

April 1897. UUeskelf, a brown form, December 1897. 
Bramham, a yellow form, December 1897. Barkstone, 
May 1898. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, June 1898, a very 



ghssy form, and another, a very unusual large form. 
Sherburn, January 1898. 

Eurhynchium tenellum Milde. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, 
September 1897, 

Eurhynchium striatum B.&S. Sherburn, December 1897. 
J- C. Quarry, Tadcaster, June 1898. 

Eurhynchium rusciforme Milde. Saxton, May 1897. 

Eurhynchium mutate Milde. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 

1897, Sherburn, September 1897, a form very near 
M.julacetnn Schp. J. C. Quarry, June 1898. 

Eurhynchium confertum Milde. Boston Spa, April 1897, 
Barkstone, December 1897. Sherburn, Dec. 1898. J. C. 
Quarry, Tadcaster, January 1898. 

Amblystegium serpens B.&S. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 

1897. Sherburn, January 1898. Church Fenton, May 

1898. Barkstone, May 1898. 



899 



I 

122 Archer: Little Gull on the Tyne. 

t 

Amblystegium Juratzkas Schp. Sherburn, c.fr,, May 1898, 

J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, c.fr. , June i8g8. Appleton 
Roebuck, c.fr., May 1898. All these have been confirmed 
by Mr. Dixon. 

Amblystegium varium Lindb. Ulleskelf, June 1897. 

Amblystegium filicinum DeNot. Saxton, May 1897. J. C. 

Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. Barkstone, May 1898. 

Amblystegium Kochii B.&S. Sherburn, c-fr., May 1898. 

J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, June 1898. 
Hypnum riparium L, Saxton, 1897. J, C. Quarry, Tadcaster^ 

April 1897. 

Hypnum stellatum Schreb. J. C, Quarry, Tadcaster, September 

1897. 
Hypnum stellatum v. protensum B.&S. Sherburn, September 

1897. J- ^' Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897, abundant. 
Hypnum chrysophyllum Brid. Bramham, December 1897. 
J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Hypnum Sommerfeltii Myr. Thorp Arch, April 1897. 
Hypnum cupressiforme L. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 

1897. Sherburn, December 1897, 

Hypnum cupressiforme v. resupinatum Schp, Sherburn, 
December 1897, 

Hypnum molluscum Hedw. Bramham, December 1897. 
Sherburn, September 1897. J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, 
September 1897. 

Hypnum palustre L. Sherburn, December 1897. J- C. 
Quarry, Tadcaster, January 1898. Boston Spa, April 
1897. 

Hypnum cuspidatum L. Bramham, December 1897. J. C. 
Quarry, Tadcaster, c.fr., June 1898. Sherburn, January 

1 898. 

Hylocomium splendens B.&S. J, C. Quarry, Tadcaster, 

April 1897. 

Hylocomium squarrosum B.&S. Sherburn, December 1897- 

J. C. Quarry, Tadcaster, April 1897. 

Hylocomium ttiquetrum B.&S. J. C Quarry, Tadcaster^ 

January 1898. 




NOTE— ORNITHOLOGY. 



Little Gull on the Tyne.— One of these rare birds (Z///'/av jnlnufus) 
was shot here on 26th January. It is curious to note that whenever they 
have occurred here during recent years it has always been during' the 
month of January. — H. T. Archer, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 28th Feb. 1899- 



Naturalist, 



123 



PLANT-NAMES IN USE AT WEST AYTON, YORK N.E. 



Rev. W. C. HEY. M.A., 

West Ayton, Vork. 



Some months ago I sent a few notes to *The Naturalist* on the 
bird-names in use at West Ayton, and they elicited several very 
interesting- communications from observ^ers in other parts of the 
country. I now contribute some notes on the plant-names in 
use at the same vlllag*e. 

To begin with the trees, the Ash is called * Esh/ the Alder 
' Eller/ and the Oak ' Yak.' There is, however, in Forge Valley 
a very conspicuous ancient Alder which is widely known 
*Jack o' Lamb's Plane.' It is handed down to posterity that 
this tree grew from the walking stick of the above-named 
individual, and it must be admitted that the perfect straightness 
of its trunk distino-uishes it in the most marked manner from 
every other Alder in the neighbourhood. Perhaps some 
etymologist can say whether the name Ayton means Oaktoua. 
I suppose that such is no doubt the derivation of Aysgarth. 
Elder is called 'Bottery.' You seldom hear the word used 
alone. The people speak of a ' Bottery-bush ' or a * Bottery- 
beof.' Is the word a corruption of Bower-tree, because the tree 
was often used to form arbours? The Mountain Ash is called 
* Witch-wood/ and its value as an antidote to witchcraft Is still 
well remembered, if no longer put to actual test. I asked 
a village lad the other day if he could tell me anything about 
witches. He replied, ' You want to get Witch-wood, and put 
salt on the lintels of the windows.' Then he added in a very 
diffident tone, *But there aren't such things, are there?' 

Very few flowering plants have obtained local names. Wood 
Anemones, which carpet the valleys here in spring, are called 
'Gammy Nightcaps.* The Ragwort {Se/iccw /acobcpft) goes by 
the name of 'Segrams.' The people say that a field in which 
horses are pastured will soon be overrun with it, but that sheep 
rapidly eradicate it. Biiuium flexiiosum is called *Yennuts' 
(Earth-nuts). The children dig up the bulbous root and eat it. 
AH the tall white UmbeUiferae are dubbed ' Humlocks,' and 
regarded with aversion. Allium ursimim is called *Rams.' 

r 

Pastures near woods are not liked for cows, as this herb is said 
to spoil the milk. Wild Cabbage is called ' Brassies/ which can 
hardly be a very old name. Wild Plums are ' Bullaces/ A well- 
polished boot or fire-grate is said to be ' As breet as a Bullace/ 

April 1809. 



124 Notes^Omifhology and Geology. 

Mr. Blakeboroug'h, in his new book on North Yorkshh'e, hiforms 
us in the jjlossary under 'Bullace' that the Bullace is a * Wild 



Plum of a green colour when ripe.' To me they appear to be 
purple-black. The same author informs us that * Wicks' are 
* seedlings of the Whitethorn,' I never heard the term 

applied to anything but the long running roots of grasses 



which cause such trouble in arable land. 



Pteris aquilina is called * Breckans/ and is not considered to 
be a fern. I have heard people say, * Them's not ferns, they're 
only Breckans.' The Hart's Tongue fern is invariably called 
* Hartstone,' and is the only fern that appears to be specifically 
recognised. Rushes are * Seaves.' They are mown in the carrs 
in August to make rough bedding for cattle. 

It is singular that some of the most conspicuous trees of the 
district (e.g., the Wych Elm) and some of the brightest and 
most abundant flowers (e.g., the male Orchis) are undistinguished 
by the people, who are unable to give them any name- 




NOTE— ORNITHOLOGY. 

Bird-names in South Westmorland.— In connection with Miss 

Mary L. Armitt's notes on Lakeland Bird-names in the last jiuniber of 'The 
Naturalist/ may be added two or three other names current in South West- 
morland : — 'Bottle Tit ■ for Long^-tailcd Tit, ' Bessie ' for Yellow Hammer 
(our centenarian, Mrs* Ann Gibson, calls it 'Bessie Blakeling" '), 'Bessie 
Biack-cap' for Black-headed Bunting", 'Skell-drake ' for Shell-drake, ' Doup 
Craw' for Carrion Crow, ' Ullet ' for Ovvi, 'Mountain Thrush' for Missel 
Thrush, 'Jammie Lani^-Iet^s ' for Heron, 'Sea Maw ' for Sea Gull, 'Willy 
Wag-tail' for Wag-tail. G. Stablkr, Levens, Milnthorpe, Westmorland, 
15th February 1899. 




NO TES~GEOLOG V. 

Shap Fell Granite Boulder in Upper Teesdale.— I have found 

a large boulder in the London Lead Company's Park, Middleton-in-Teesdale, 
of Shap ¥e\\ Granite, size, 3 ft. 6 in. x 5 ft. x 3 ft., originally found in the 
river Lune, but carried to Middleton-in-Teesdale Park. — Wm. HerdmaN, 
Lanehead V^illa, Middleton-in-Teesdale, 7th Jan. 1899. 

Preservation of the Royston Shap Granite Boulder,— The 

Barnslcy Naturalists' Society has recently brought to a successful 
termination its long-cherished desire of placing in a position of safety 
the Royston Shap ^Boulder, No. 48 in thb Eighth Year s Report of the 
Y.N.U, Boulder Committee. Mr. F. W. T. V. Wentworth, on whose 



property the erratic lay, consented, at the Society's request, io give it to 
the Town Council conditjonally upon that body providing a site for its 
display and preservation. The condition being readily acceded to, this 
important boulder, recently threatened with destruction, is now suitably 
placed in Locke Park, Rarnsley, and, at the time of writing", a descriptive 
tablet is being prepared. It should also be placed on record that the 
dimensions g-iven in the report abov^e referred to, prove to be not quite 
accurate ; the act of removing showed the boulder to be partially buried, 
and the published figures should be altered to 36 x 36 x 34 inches. — Wm. E. 
Brady, 5, Victoria Road, Barnsley, 22nd March 1899, 

Naturalist, 



12 



^ 



THE BURSTING OF THE BUDS IN SPRING, 



p. Q. KEEGAX. LL.P., 

Patteydaie., I'ihtvafer. 



'Soivitur acris inems g^rata vice veris et Favoni.* — HoRACK. 

* Crabbed winter dissolves itself in the joyful alternation of 
spring- and the west wind.' It is hoped that this translation is 
sufficiently poetical, and will also serve to rivet attention on 



what mig-ht be termed a counterpart phenomenon presented b) 
science, that is to say, the fact that the unfolding of the buds in 
the merry spring-time is preceded by a physiological or chemical 
dissolving and alternation of a very interesting description. 
Confining our attention to what specially concerns us here, viz., 
the bark of our forest trees, it is known that this in all cases is 
practically devoid of starch during the dreary winter months, its 
place being occupied chiefly by a fatty oil and glucose. As 
soon, however, as the lengthening days and not-so-chilly nights 
return again soon after the opening of the year, a very serious 
change is brought about in that part of the tree which upholds, 
feeds, and ministers to the timely necessities of those incipient 
organs known as the buds. The barky envelope of every twig 
and bough that has survived the chilly storm and ic} blast 
Wakes up, so to speak, from wintry sleep. The dormant 
energies of its living tissues are aroused into activity at the 
imperious summons of the organic needs o( what has been 
called * the hereditary periodicity of certain properties of the 
protoplasm/ which is stimulated but not caused by the current 
condition of the environment. The respiratory process, subdued, 
if not quite stagnant, during the winter months, is now sup- 
plemented by another vigorous physiological process akin to 
assimilation- The warm raiment of the winter oil vanishes from 
every twig and bough, and about the ist of March a quantity of 
starch steps into its place, beginning in the youngest branchlets 
and marching gradually but surely into the crown and central 
shaft of the tree. But all this represents what may be termed 
^i general preparation which is by no means sufficient as a basis 
for the operations that are to follow. Other requisites and 
perquisites are indispensable in the spring-time. For instance, 
sometimes the pith of the up-to-tcn-year-old branches contains 
at the nodes a sort of diaphragm structure consisting of a kind 
of *albumen' (like as in seeds) destined for future nutrition; 
and again, at the base of the buds themselves a special tissue 
is detected wholly made up of nucleated cells provided with 

■^ 'Will 

April iR9(j. 



126 Keegiui: The Bursting of the Buds in Spring. 

protein and hydrocarbons, and attended by a host of other cells 
contHining" crystals. In fact, one of the most notable features 
in this connection is the wide distribution, concentrated accumu- 
lation and persistence of lime (as oxalate of calcium) in the 
young- shoots, pith, bud-scales, and buds duriuij the whole of 
the winter season. 

But do the buds themselves participate in the important 
transformations that come to pass in their immediate vicinity ? 
Yes, they do, but perhaps noi quite so completely. In October, 



or at the time of the fall of the leaf, each bud is enriched with 
starch, albumenoids, tannin, and a little fatty oil; but it is very 
remarkable that at this period they are bereft of gflucose or 
other respirable material, and hence they cannot then be arti- 
ficially made to g'row. During* the winter this starch disappears, 
a portion of it migrating^ apparently in a modified form into the 

J 

embryonal orgfans at the base of the buds, while the other 
portion undergoes some unknown decomposition. There is 
little doubt that the ijreater quantity of the starch stored up in 
the autumn buds undergoes transformations similar to what we 
have already described in the case of the bark, viz., it is 
reabsorbed, and tiny droplets of fat are deposited in the fixed 
and stationary protoplasm, and, meanwhile, glucose or other 
carbohydrate gradually enters in increasing quantity into 
solution in the cell sap. Now, need we insist that no better 
provision than this could be effected as a safeguard and 
resistance against the wintry chill? The easily coagulable 
protoplasm, or the passive or active proteid matter, is liberally 
enriched w^ith non-freezable fatty oil, which is encompassed by 
a readily-combustible carbohydrate, physiolog-ically influential 
as a source of heat. In addition to this, moreover, the tannin 
present in October persistently remains over unaffected in 
quantity during the winter, and occupies chiefly the cells which 
do not contain much oil. In cases like those of the horse- 



chestnut and our fruit trees, where, even already in the autunui, 
not only the end of the young shoot, but a branch-system with 
flower buds and more or less developed leaves are already so far 
formed, it is evident that a still further resisting coverlet must 
be provided. This is done, in fact, by the formation of what are 
called leaf-scales, which are incrusted with a waxy, resinous, or 
gummy exudation, and lined inside by a felt of cellulosic down 
or wool; and our poetical evolutionists are always much pleased 
to trace the gradual transition in form between the scale and the 
tolerably fully-formed young leaflet. 

Naturalist, 



Kcegiin: The Bursting of the Buds in Spring, 127 

What, then, is a bud? The text-book definition is, that it is 
*the young condition of a shoot ; either the whole young shoot, 
or the young- portion at the free end of a shoot already further 
developed'; or it is 'the growing point of a shoot surrounded by 
its leaves.' Its forniation depends on the under side of a foliar 
organ growing more strongly than the upper side thereof. 
Then again, buds have been regarded as one of the chief 
reservoirs of reserve material, viz., essentially only of proteids, 
carbohydrates, and fats; but this description is correct only 
under the limitations which we have already alluded to. When 
the bud unfolds, growth in length commences to become 
stronger on the upper side of the embryonic -leaf, i.e., the blade 
extends in surface by intercalation of new substances by means 
of water between its base and its apex, both of which points 
remain as they were before. Strictly speaking, then, it may 
be concluded that in most cases the principal structural and 
functional portions of the mature leaf were non-existent in the 
bud out of which they were produced. Tn fact, with certain 
exceptioits, only a small portion of the skeleton of the leaf, i.e., 
'ts base and apex, actually existed In the bud (or 'gem/ as 
l^ryden calls it) ; the whole of the lamina or blade is formed 
subsequently. In other words, in a rigid scientific point of 
view, a bud may be defined as a very rudimentary skeletal 
structure placed in the immediate vicinity of a magazine of 
^'ells, some of which are essentially reproductive, i.e., have 
a clearly defined nucleus and abundant white, translucent 



protoplasm, while others are essentially vegetative, i.e., have 
large vacuoles full of meat or mineral matter, around which the 
protoplasm may be readily transformed into a vehicle of nutritive 
^iubstances. At the commencement of their <rermInation there is 



l^ut little respiration, according to some observers, but its 
quantity increases with the progressive development of the 
young leaf. The intensity of the transpiration in the young bud 
is very great, but this also seems to diminish after a certain 
time, Tn fact, the phenomena attending the development of the 
leaf-bud is very similar to those which are observable on the 

development of the flower-bud. 

We need not dwell upon the beauties of the opening woods. 
' The tops of the horse-chestnut boughs look as if they glowed 



into the air with life,' says Hunt. And * each young spray , 
^ rosy flush receives,' exclaims another poet. \or need we 
travel as far as the tropical West Indies, where, as has been 
■•^^id, 'at the beginning of the rainy season in April and May 

April 1899. 



128 Keeg^a)i: The Bursting of the Buds in Spring, 

numerous tree^ assume entirely a red appearance by the red 
colouration of the freshly developing* twigs : the colour is so 
intense that the landscape acquires thereby a positive coloura- 
tion.' It will only be necessary to offer a few remarks relative 
to the similar or analogous phenomena presented by our forest 
trees. A cross section through the winter buds revealed the 



presence of tannin in all cases under the form of a hyaline, 
strongly opalescent, and refractiv^e mass occup3'ing a great 
portion of the mesophyll and the vascular sheaths as well as the 
epidermis in beech, oak, hazel, ro^^^ etc.; in the epidermis and 
sub-epidermis of elm, chestnut, walnut, elder, hawthorn, wild 
cherry, sycamore, and horse-chestnut ; while in poplars and 
willows it is chiefly sub-epidermal. Some of the leaflets just 
bursting from the buds and the young shoots as well assume 
a decidedly brilliant and beautiful rosy flush of colour, while 
otliers, such as those of the horse-chestnut and lilac, are only 
feebly, or not at all reddened under precisely similar circum- 
stances. It is In the unfolding leaflets of the oak, chestnut, 
walnut, and of certain species of poplar, willow, and maple, that 
the very pretty pinkish or crimson colouration is most eminently 
exhibited. The young shoots, leaf-scales, or leaf-stalks of 
beech, lime, sycamore, aspen, field maple, etc., are much given 
to blushing very deeply and conspicuously just when, instinct 
with the fresh vitality of the bursting season, they newly enter 
into life. The case of our common beech is especially remark- 



able. No sooner has its young shoot broken through the bud 
than it is immediately coloured red, the leaf-scales which do not 
fall off" are also capped with red on their upper surface, white 
a little later the stalks of the tiny leaflets join in the general 
blushing, especially on the side facing the light ; and all this 
while the babv leaflets themselves burst forth as clearest emeralds. 
Now, w^hat do those leaflets contain which are specially dis- 



tinguished for a pinky red, as contrasted with those which are 



brightly, brilliantly, perfectly pure green? Thus, as has been 
remarked about the oak, 'a constant succession of pink and 



brown-tinted glories of the young leafage Is kept up in our 
moist summers till late in the autumn/ These speciall}' roseate 
organisms contain apparently all along and from the first 
moment of their existence a certain quantity of tannic chro- 
mogen ready formed; all other leaflets contain merely the 
tannoid quercetin, or one of its allies, whose presence may 



possibly influence to some extent the tint of its infantile 
drapery. The deep brown of the opening cherry, etc., leaf is 
due apparently to a decomposition product of albumen called 

tyrosine. 



129 



THE AVIFAUNA OF 



STAITHES AND LOFTUS-IN-CLEVELAND, YORKSHIRE. 



KENXETH McLEAN, 
Harrogate \ Joint Secretary of the Vertebrate Section of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Ujiion 



Perhaps no more interesting" district for the ornithologist can 
be found than the bit of Cleveland coast extendingr from Staithes 
to SkinningTOve, and inland for about five miles. 

This piece of ground is cleft at the coast by two deep valleys, 
one at Staithes, the other at Skinningrove. These valleys as 
they go inland are divided and subdivided into many thickly- 
wooded gorges stretching for miles, the sides of which are in 
many places very precipitous, and along the bottom of which 
clear, sparkling streams leap over mossy rocks or ripple over 
sandv bottoms : followin"- these streams to their sources we 
find them springing away up on the heather-clad moors of 
Easington, Waupley, and Liverton. 

Thus we have in so short a distance the beach with its 
stretches of weed-clad rocks exposed at low tide, amongst 
which we may find hundreds of miniature lakes fringed with the 
most beautiful marine vegetation, rich feeding* places for the 
Gulls, Herons, Ducks, etc., and here and there little sand}- 
coves where the Sandpiper and other waders find their winter's 
home and food. The coast cliff's, commanding and rugged, 
broken into by the huge quarries which have been worked out 
in connection with alum making, where the autunui migrants, 
exhausted with their long flight and battles with the wind and 
storms they have encountered as they crossed the wild North Sea, 
land in large quantities, where the Jackdaws, Gulls, Starlings, 
Rock Pigeons, Cormorants, Kestrels, Martins, Swifts, and many 
others have their breeding corners. 

And leading up from the coast the valleys, with sides wooded 
with oak, ash, beech, birch, larch, etc., draped with luxuriant 
undergrowth of hazel and briar, interwoven with festoons of 
ivy and honeysuckle; and underneath all a rich carpet of 
ferns, mosses, and a thousand other beautiful vegetable 
growths, and swarming with feathered inhabitants. Between 
these valleys stretch rich tracts of agricultural land abounding 
with birds belonging to the Fringilline, Sylvine, and Saxicoline 
families ; and beyond these we find the moorland rising to 

May 1899. ^ 



130 McLean: Avifatma of Staithes and Lofhis-in-Cleveland, 

about a thousand feet above sea level, with its Grouse, Wild 
Duck, Snipe, Curlew, and many other moorland birds. Surely, 
for the ornithologist a richer or more varied field could scarcely 

be found in so small a compass. 

There are, however, some drawbacks from an ornithologist's 
point of view. There is a want of marshy ground and of mud 
banks. There are certainly some pieces of ground with growths 

1 

of rushes and such like coarse vegetation, providing nesting 
places for a few of the birds which love that kind of home, and 
so we have a sprinkling of such birds as the Sedge Warbler, 
Reed Warbler, Reed Bunting, etc., breeding, but only in very 
limited numbers. The mud banks, however, are altogether 



wanting, and we find many of the waders here only when they 
are driven by severe weather from their usual haunts or making 
this coast a resting-place, a sort of wayside inn, as they pass 
backwards and forwards during: their mi2:rations. 

Another cause of discomfort to the birds, especially the 
migrants, has sprung up during the last thirty years in some 
parts of the district. 

Skinningrove was once a pretty little quiet village nestling 
between the hills. It has now become a town. The banks to 
the west were once covered with a thick pine wood, and bramble 
and gorse bushes stretched nearly down to the sea edge ; these 
have been swept away, and the hillside is now a network of 
railroads; and at the top stand a number of black furnaces 
continually belching forth smoke and flame. Up the valley, too, 
a transformation scene has taken place; the valley, once beautiful, 
is now filled with mines, engine shops, pit props, and smoke. 
Sights and sounds are seen and heard day and night, pleasant 
no doubt from a financial point of view, but not by any means 
pleasant to the delicate senses of the migrants wishing to land 
there. 

Again, a little higher up the valley the calcining kilns con- 
nected with the Liverton Mines are pouring out sulphurous 
fumes w^hich have played havoc with the vegetation in the 
adjoining woods. 

The whole of the timber in what is called the West Wood was 
so much injured by the smoke that it had to be cut down. This 
wild, precipitous gorge has, however, again become filled with 
young trees matted together with tangled undergrowth, and the 
stream at the bottom, which had become sadly polluted with 
sewerage, is again comparatively clear, and the home of many 
a lusty trout. 

Naturalist. 



McLean: Avifauna of Sfaithes and Loftiis~in-Cleveland, 131 

Inland, however, the woods retain their pristine beauty- 
There are many quiet corners where the homes of beast, birJ^ 
or fish are rarely intruded upon by human being-s. 

Ox\ the south-east of our district the valleys of Grinkle and 
Roxby running- up from Staithes have been very little interfered 
with. They are full of beautiful scenery, and teem with bird life. 

In many places the north and north-east winds of early spring- 
are completely shut out by the many twists and turns of the 
valleys, and on these wooded slopes facing the south we may 
find the primrose and other spring- flowers blooming", and the 
Blackbird, Thrush, etc., nesting" very early. 

Like the wooded valleys on the west of our district we may 
find here many beautiful retired nooks, where the flowers bloom 
unseen, and the birds sing* their sweetest song-s, heard only by 
their patient sitting mates, or busy feathered neighbours. 

TURDID^. 

Tardus visclvoras^ Missel-Thrush. Pretty common; breed- 
ing in most parts of the district, and the numbers increased 
b}' autumn visitors. 

Tardus musicus. Song Thrush. Common. 
Tardus iliacus. Redwing. A regular winter visitor, coming 
in large quantities, sometimes as early as September. 

Tardus pilaris. Fieldfare. Like the Redwing, coming 
reg-ularl}- in the autumn months. 

Turdus varius. White's Thrush. Not seen nearer than 
Danby (Eskdale) by Rev, J. C. Atkinson, 

Turdus merala. Blackbird. Resident and abundant. 

F 

Hundreds of migrants to be seen in the autumn amongst 
the turnips, potatoes, etc., near tlie coast. 

Turdus torquatus. Ring-Ouzel. Numbers breed on the high 
moors. 1 have seen them on the banks facing the 
in December, probabi}' some migrants passing southwards. 

Saxicola cenanthe. Wheatear. One of the earliest to make 

its appearance as a spring visitor ; breeds freely, especially 

near the moors. 
Pratincola ruhetra. Whinchat Spring visitor, coming in 

April and nesting in most parts of the district. 
Pratincola rubicola. Stonechat. More common than I have 

known it in any other district. 
Ruticilla phcenicurus. Redstart. Fairly common; generally 

distributed as a summer breeder. 

^ U i„ „ 

May 1899. 



I 



32 McLean: Avifauna of Staithes and Loftus-in-Cleveland, 



Ruticilla titys. Black Redstart. Occasional visitor ; I have 

seen it twice, once in mid-winter and once in spring. 

Erithacus rubecula. Redbreast- Common ; many near the 
coast among-st the bean fields, etc, in the autumn. 

Daufias luscinta. Nightingale. No evidence to be depended 
upon of its having* been heard or seen. 

SYLVIIX.^. 

+ 

Sylvia sylvia. Whitethroat. A reg-ular visitor, breeding 
plentifully throug-hout the district, 

Sylvia curruca. Lesser Whitethroat. Not nearlv so 

A 

common as the preceding*, but g^enerally distributed. 
Sylvia atricapilla. Blackcap. Not by any means common, 
but a few breed every season. Frequently met with in the 
autumn, most likely those which have bred further to the 

r 

north. 

Sylvia hortensis. Garden Warbler. Not common. More 

frequently seen in spring- and autumn than in summer. 

Regulus regulus. Qoldcrest. Pretty common as a breeder, 
and abundant in the autumn. 

Ptiylloscopus rufus. Chiffchaff. As plentiful as any of the 

summer visitors. 

Phylloscopus trochiius. Willow Warbler. Very numerous. 
Phylloscopus sibilatrix. Wood Warbler. Breeds regularly 

in the district, but is not very numerous. 

Acrocephalus streperus. Reed Warbler. Breeds very 

sparing^ly in the district, but is frequently seen in spring 
and autumn. 

Acrocephalus phragmitis. Sedge Warbler. Fairly abundant, 

chiefly in autumn and spring*. Does not breed very freely 
in the neighbourhood. 

Locustella na^via. Grasshopper Warbler. Of rare occur- 



rence as a breeder. 



ACCEXTORIX.E. 



Accentor modularis. Hedg^e-Sparrow. Abundant ; numbers 



increased in autumn. 



SITTID.^. 



Pi 

Sitta cassia. Nuthatch. Very rarely seen ; not known to 
have bred in the district. 



TROGLODVTID^, 



Troglodytes parvulus. Wren. Very common, numbers 



arriving- in the autumn. 



Naturalist, 



of Sfaithes a^id Loft, 



m 



PARID-^. 



Acredala rosea. 



British Longf-tailed Titmouse. Generally 
distributed over the district, and common. 

Parus major. Great Titmouse. Resident, common. 

Parus britannicus. British Coal Titmouse. Plentiful, some- 
times very numerous in the winter. 

Parus palustris. Marsh Titmouse. 

others of the family, but frequently seen. 

Parus cwruleus. Blue Titmouse. Common 



Not 



so common as 




A retired nook by the side of the stream in the Loilus Woods, where the Dipper 
breeds year ai'ter year : nest shown at the rif^ht of sketch. 

CIN'CLID.^. 

Cinclus aquaticus. Dipper. Breeds reguhirly on all the small 
streams that come down the valleys. In severe weather 



I have seen it on the beach amongst the 

MOTACILLID.^. 



I 



ocks. 



Motacilla lugubris. Pied Wagtail. Resident ; abundant ; 
breeduig by the side of all the streams, also among the 
rocks near the beach. 

May 1899. 



134 McLean: Avifauna of Staithes and Lofius-hi-Clevelmid, 

Motacilla melanope. Grey Wagtail. Fairly abundant, 

coming in the early spring", and breeding throughout the 
district. 

Motacilla rail. Yellow Wagtail. Pretty common; breeding 

freely; comes in March and April and leaves in September 
or October. 

Anthus pratensis. Meadow Pipit. Freely distributed ; 

resident ; large numbers seen in the autumn, many no 
doubt passing to the south. 

Anthus trivialis. Tree Pipit, Summer visitor ; breeding, and 

disappearing in September. 

Anthus obscurus. Rock Pipit. Frequently seen, both winter 
and summer ; no doubt breeds in the district, but I have 



not seen its nest. 



ORIOLID.^. 



Oriolus galbula. Golden Oriole. One shot by Sanderson, 

keeper for Lord Downe, in woods near to Kilton Castle. 



LANIID/E. 



Lanius excubitor. Great Grey Shrike. Occurs frequently 
from September to December ; also in March and April. 

Lanius collurio. Red-backed Shrike. A very rare visitor. 



AMPELID.^. 



Ampelis garrutus. Waxwing. Many specimens both caught 
and shot in neighbourhood; have seen them feeding' on 



ha 



ws. 



MUSCICAPID.E. 



Muscicapa grisola. Spotted Flycatcher. A regular summer 

visitor, arriving late and avc^ay again in September. 

Muscicapa atricapilla. Pied Flycatcher. Has nested occa- 
sionally in the district. Is often seen in spring and autumn. 



HIRUNDINID.^. 



Hirundo rustica. Swallow. Arrives in April and leaves 
September and October. 

Chelidon urbica. Martin. Abundant, breeding under the 



cliff-ledges facing the sea. 



Cotile riparia. Sand Martin. Breeds freelv in most of the 



sand quarries round. 



Naturalist, 



McLean : Avifauna of Staithes and Loftics-in-Cleveland, 135 



CERTHIID.^. 



famlliaris 



than I have seen them elsewhere. 

FRINGILLIX.E. 

Carduelis cardaelis. Goldfinch. Frequently seen, especially 
in the autumn, but rarely ever breeds in the district. 

Chrysomitris spinas. Siskin. Fairly common ui the autumn 
and whiter, and one or two nests have been seen. 

Ligunnus chloris. Greenfinch. Very common, breeding 
freely, and numbers coming* as migrants. 

Coccothraustes coccothraustes. Hawfinch. Occasionally 
seen ; breeds, if not in the district, very near. 

r 

Passer domesticus. House Sparrow. Very common. 

Passer montanus. Tree Sparrow. Breeds reg-ularly, but not 
in large numbers ; many come as visitors. 

FringiUa ccelebs. Chaffinch, Very plentiful. 

Frittgilla montlfringiUa. Brambling*. Comes in larg^e 
quantities as a winter visitant. I have known them in 
severe winters almost as common as sparrows. 



Linota cannabina. Linnet. Breeds freely on banks facing- 
sea, and on the hig*h ground near the moors. 

Linota tinaria. Mealy Redpoll. Only known as a winter 

visitor, making their appearance every year, more or less. 

Linota rufescens* Lesser Redpoll. Breeds regularly near 

the moors- The numbers are larg^ely increased by migrants, 
which I have seen landing as early as the end of August 
and September. 

Linota fiavirostris. Twite. Breeds sparingly on the moors, 

Waupley and Grinkle. Numbers come along with the 
Linnets, Redpolls, etc., in the autumn, and may be found in 
flocks on the stubble and near the farm-houses ; generally 
called *Grey Linnet' by the people of the district to dis- 
ting-uish it from the Brown Linnet. 

LOXIIN^. 

Pyrrhuia pyrrliula. Bullfinch. Fairly numerous, breeding^ 
regularly in the district ; more plentiful in the autumn. 

Loxia curvirostra. Crossbill. A winter visitor of frequent 
occurrence- Large numbers often seen in the Grinkle 
Woods and other parts of the district Has not been 
known to breed in the neighbourhood. 

May 1899, 



136 McLean: Avifauna of Staithes and Loftus-in- Cleveland, 

EMBERIZIN.^. 

Emberiza miliaria. Corn Bunting. Very common ; numbers 

come in the autumn and winter. 

Emberiza citrinetla. Yellowhammer. Resident, abundant. 
Emberiza scticenidus. Reed Bunting. Very few breed in 

the district, but a gfood many come from the north in the 
autumn and leave in the spring. 

Ptectrophanes nivalis. Snow Bunting. A winter visitant, 

large numbers coming in October and later if the winter is 
severe ; generally in parties of half-a-dozen or so, but 
occasionally in large flocks. 

STURNID.^. 

Sturnus vulgaris. Starling, The crevices in the face of the 

towering cliffs afford famous nesting places for these birds, 
which breed there by hundreds. ^ 

Pastor roseus. Rose-coloured Pastor. Rare visitor ; several 

shot at Skinningrove in the winter of 1862. 

CORVID.E. 

Pyrrhocorax graculus. Chough, Some of the old men, 

many years ago, have told me of Red-legged Daws which 
used to be seen, and most likely bred in the cliffs; there 
is no doubt the bird referred to was the Chough. 

Garralus glandarius. Jay. At one time common, but getting 

scarce. A good many come as autumn migrants. 

Pica pica. Magpie. Still pretty common, notwithstanding 
the number of its enemies. 

Corvus monedula. Jackdaw. Very numerous ; hundreds 
breeding in the cliffs overhanging the sea. 

Corvus corone. Carrion Crow. Getting scarce, but still a few 
pairs breed in the neighbovirhood every year. 

Corvus comix* Hooded Crow. Comes in large quantities in 
the autumn. Have seen scores of them landing in the 
course of an hour. 

Corvus frugHegus. Rook. Plentiful, but there is only one 
rookery (Loftus Hall) in the district. 

Corvus corax. Raven. Occasionally seen in the cliffs, where 
it once bred, but not within the last 60 years. Tw^o once 



seen (one mostly white) perched on a human corpse washed 



up on the beach. 



Naturalist, 



McLean : Avifauna of Staithes and Lofhis-in-Cleveland. 137 

ALAUDID.^. 

Alauda arvensis. Sky Lark. Abundant ; large numbers come 
in the autumn from the northern parts of the Continent. 

Alauda arborea. Wood Lark. Not plentiful, but some breed 

in the district every year. 

Otocorys alpestris. Shore Lark. A regular winter visitor ; 

have seen scores after severe weather. 

CYPSELID.^. 

w 

Cypselus apus. Swift. A good many breed in the cliffs ; 



plentiful. 



CAPRIMULGID.^ 



Caprimulgus europseus. Nightjar. Fairly common, many 

■ places in the district beuig visited year after year. 

PICID.^. 

Dendrocopus major. Great Spotted Woodpecker. Seen 

occasionally as an autumn migrant, but has not been known 
to breed. ; 

Dendrocopus minor. Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. Very 

doubtful. I knew of a stuffed specimen in Loftus which 
was supposed to have been killed in the district, but after- 
wards heard that it had come from near Castle Howard. 

Gecinus viridis. Green Woodpecker. Resident, but not bv 



any means numerous. 



lYNGIXyE. 



lynx torquitla. Wryneck. Rarely seen, only spring and 



autumn visitors having been noticed. 

ALCEDIXID.E. 

Alcedo ispida. Kingfisher. Quite a rare bird. It is very 

doubtful whether any breed in the district. I have seen it 
Oil the beach in very severe weather. 

UPUPID^. 

Vpupa epops. Hoopoe. A good many have been ^ot in the 
district ; one shot by Mr. Atkinson, Golden Lion Inn, 
Loftus, 1872, and one by ^Tr. C, Spink, gardener,. Loftus 
Hall, the following year. 

' CORACIID.E. 

Coracias garrula. Roller. I cannot hear of its having been 
seen, but it has been obtained just outside the district, viz.^ 
near Skelton. 

May 1899. 



138 McLean: Avifauna of Staithes and Loftiis-zfi-Cleveland. 

r 

CUCULID.'E. 

Cuculus canorus. Cuckoo. Very plentiful ; breeding freely, 

especially near the inoors. 

STRIGID.^. 

Strix flammea. Barn Owl. Not common. Have seen a 

pair nesting in the cliflFs on the coast. 
Asio otus. Long-eared Owl. Breeding occasionally in the 

woods, Grinkle and Liverton ; a good many arriving in the 

autumn from the Continent. 
Asio brachyotusu Short-eared Owl. Breeds rarely ; large 

numbers coming from the north in the autumn ; after 

a north-east storm I have counted twenty In a walk of 

a mile's length along the cliffs. 

Syrnium aluco. Tawny Owl. Common. Seen and heard 

in the woods throughout the district. 

Bubo bubo» Eagle Owl. One shot by myself on 5th Nov, 

1875 ^^ ^^^ banks near Hummersea, now in my possession, 
is represented in the accompanying illustration. 




Eagle Owl, taken from stufTed specimen m my possession ; shot on vhe sea banks 
between Skinningrove and Hummersea, 5th November 1875. 



Naturalist, 



McLean : Avifauna of Staithes and Loftiis-in-Cleveland, 139 

Nyctala tengmalmL Tengmalm's Owl. An owl shot by 

Thos. Metcalf, keeper, Highfields, January 1S72, in the 
Handale Woods, seems to have been this species. 

FALCON I D.^, 

Circus asruginosus. Marsh Harrier. One shot on Waupley 
Moors, i859. Has been several times seen. 

Circus cyaneus. Hen Harrier. Occasionally seen. Known 
to the g^amekeepers as ' Ring-tails.' Have seen specimens 
nailed to w^alls. 

Circus cineraceus. Montagu's Harrier. Uncertain, but 
several birds answering^ the description have been seen. 

Buteo buteo. Buzzard. At one time frequently seen; has 

been known to breed on the hig-h ridg"e of moor between 
Waupley and Danby. 

Archibuteo lagopus. Rough-legged Buzzard. Frequently 

got in the autumn. Saw one last November in the window 
of Mr. Eddis, barber, Loftus, which had been shot at the 
moor end of Grinkle Woods. 

Aquila chrysaetus. Golden Eagle- One seen several times 
in the woods near Handale Abbey — * about 1856.-' 

Hatiaetus albicilla. White-tailed Eagle. Several seen. One 

■ shot by G. AUinson, Skinningrove, on banks between 
Skinningrove and Cattersty, autumn of i860. 

Milvus milvus. Kite. Several seen and obtained in the district. 
One shot by William Latty, gamekeeper for Lord Zetland, 
1868, in the woods, Highfields. 

Accipiter nisus. Sparrow-Hawk. Fairly common; numbe 
increased in the autumn. 

PaJco peregrinus. Peregrine Falcon. Was once of frequent 
occurrence. I have seen several specimens shot. One now 




in my possession was obtained on the Highfields Farm. 

Faico subbuteo. Hobby. Has been frequently seen and shot. 
Several hung on trees and gamekeepers' houses, Highfields, 
Liverton, etc. 

Hierofaico isiandus. Iceland or Jer Falcon. I followed 

a bird for some hours in the winter, 1870, but could not get 
within range ; from the colour and flight of the bird I am 
pretty certain it was a Jer Falcon. 
Tinnunculus vespertinus. Red-legged Falcon. Have heard 

Sanderson, keeper for Lord Downe, describe a Hawk he shot 

May 1899. 



J 

140 McLean : Avifauna of Staithes and Loftns-in-Cleveland. 

in 1873, near the moor, as having- red leg-s and very dark on 
back. Unfortunately the specimen was not preserved, 

Faico sGsalon. Merlin. At one time nested regularly in the 
district on the higher part of the Waupley Moors ; is now 
only occasionally seen, 

Tinnunculus tinnunculus. Kestrel. Very common, breeding 

both in the cliffs on the coast and in the woods. 

Pandion haliaetus. Osprey. Several obtained in the neigh- 
bourhood some years ago, but I can onl}^ learn of one within 
the last thirty years, which was shot by Mr. R. Stonehouse, 
of Sklnningrove, October 1870. 




Nonr to the highest point on the coast of" Eny^land, amongst a heap of hucre rocks 
which have fallen from tlie face of the cllft'-. the Cormorants breed. Alonpf the shelves 
higher up amongst the shale anj stunted K^^^s roots, the Herring" Gulls nest in enor- 
mous cjuantities, and the many crevices are the homes oi Starling's, Jackdaws, Kock 
Piy:i.'oas, Swifts, and Kestrels. The House Martins also find suitable places for t^eir 
mud nests under the overhanging: ledges. 

PELECAXID^. 

\ 

Phalacrocorax carbo. Cormorant. To be seen in some 
numbers breeding regularly in the cliffs near to Rockcliff. 

KatnraUst, 



McLean : Avifainia of Staithcs and LoffuS'in-Cleveland. 141 

Phalacrocorax graculus. Shag", Visiting- the coast every 
spring and autumn ; sometimes a good many are seen. 

Sula bassana, Gannet- More or less seen every year, 
especially at the end of August, in September and October. 

AKUEIDJE. 

i 

Ardea cinerea. Heron. Pretty common ; on the moors, in 

the streams, and generally to be found on the beach at low 
tide. It has not been known to breed in the district. 

Nycticorax griseus. Nig'ht Heron. One seen several times 
on some ponds and marshy ground, Waupley Moors, in the 
autumn of t86o or 1861 ; was shot at by Thomas Metcalf 
but not obtained. 

Ardetta winuta. Little Bittern. Has been seen several 
times, once by myself in January 1870 on the banks facing 
the sea near Loftus Alum Works. 

Botaurus stellaris. Bittern. One seen on the shore in October 
1865 ; also in Cattersty, November 1865, most likely the 
same bird ; it was shot by a man named Bousfield and 
placed in the hand of a miner, who made some attempt to 
preserve it. The effort was so clumsy it could scarcely be 
recognised, and the preserving material used had been so 
poor the specimen soon went to deca\-. The men called it 
a ' Speckled Heronsue/ 

CrCOXIID.-E. 

Ciconia alba. White Stork. A bird seen several times in 

February 1858 on some boggy ground near the source of 
Crinkle Beck, must have been the White Stork. The man 
I heard speak of it, Mr. Lawson, Waupley Inn, would 
know the Common Heron quite well, as there are many in 
the neighbourhood ; he described it as being larger and 
whiter except for the black wings* 

AXATID.E. 

Anser anser. Grey Lag Goose. Has occasionally been got ; 



is seen passing over in the autumn and sprhn 



r 



Anser segetum. Bean Goose. Some have been shot on the 

beach ; stQn passing over. 

Anser brachyrhynchus. Pink-footed Goose. Frequently 

seen in the winter time ; flocks occasionally on the moors, 
sometimes visiting the autumn stubbles. 

Anser albifrons. White-fronted Goose, Has been seen on 
the beach in very severe weather. 

May 1899. 



142 McLean : Avifauna of Staithes and Loftus-in-ClevclancL 

Bernicla bernicla. Brent Goose. Frequently seen in the 

autumn near the coast, 

L 

Bernicia leucopsis. Barnacle Goose. One shot by Mr. R. 

Stonehouse, Skinningrove, in 1859, out of a flock of about 

a dozen. 

Cygnus cygnus. Whooper Swan. Seen in severe winters 
amongst the rocks at low tide. 

Cygnus bewickL Bewick's Swan. Several seen in the 
Skinningrove Beck, 1864. Sometimes seen passing over- 
head g'oing south in the autumn and north in spring. 

Tadorna tadorna. Common Sheldrake- Occasionally seen ; 

was at one time said to breed on the banks near Cattersty. 

Dafila acuta. Pintail. Seen occasionally as a visitor. 

Mareca penelope. Wigeon. A good many seen on the coast 
in severe weather. 

Anas boschas* Wild Duck. Fairly numerous in the winter on 
the beach at low tide and in the streams ; it also breeds 
on the Waupley Moors, and in autumn and spring visits 
the ponds on the moors in large quantities, 

Quetquedula crecca. Common Teal. Breeds on the moors, 
sparingly. A good many come in the autumn and winter. 

Spatula clypeata. Shoveller. Not often seen ; several have 
been got. One in my possession, a drake, got in 1873; 
more were seen at the time. 

Fuligula fuligula. Tufted Duck. A winter visitor of not very 
frequent occurrenc;:;. 

Fuligula marita. Scaup. Frequently off the coast, 
Fuligula ferina. Pochard. Pretty common as a winter 

visitor; is not known to breed in the district. 

Clangula glaucion. Goldeneye. With the exception of the 

Mallard is the most common of the Ducks, especially on 
the coast in severe weatlier. 

Harelda glacialis. Long-tailed Duck. Young birds frequently 

seen off the coast, and occasionally old birds have been seen 
on the beach during violent storms. 

Somateria mollissima. Eider Duck. I have not seen it on the 
beach, but several times about a mile out from Hummersea. 

(Edetnia fusca. Velvet Scoter. Seen occasionallv out at 
sea, sometimes near the coast. 



1;,- 



Naturaiist, 



McLean : Avifauna of Staithes and LoftHs-in-ClcvehincL 143. 

(Edemia nigra. Common Scoter, Seen every year off the 
coastj occasionally also on the moors. 

Mergus merganser. Qoosander. I have seen them from the 
beach, close in to the rocks. 

Mergus albellus. Smew. Occasionally met with near the 
coast. I remember once after a storm in March seeintr 
several in the beck near Skinnlng-rove. 

COLUMBID.^. 

Columba palumbus. Ring Dove. Abundant; numbers hirg^ely 
increased in the autumn and winter, immense flocks coming* 
in severe weather, 

Columba oenas. Stock Dove. Fairly numerous, breeding" in 

most parts of the district. 

Columba livia. Rock Dove. Common ; large numbers breed 
in the cliffs. The pigeons from the cotes round about pair 
and breed with them amongst the rocks. I have frequently 
seen their nests with several colours of birds in them. 

Turtar turtun Turtle Dove. I cannot hear of its having 

been seen except in the autumn and occasionally in spring, 

PHASIAXID.^. 

Phasianus colchicus. Pheasant. Abundant. 

Caccabis rufa. Red-legged Partridge. Has occasionallv 



been shot early in September, and has most probably bred 
in the district. 

Perdix perdix. Partridge. Numerous. 

Coturnix cotarnix. Quail. Has been known to breed, but 



not for some vears. 



TETRAOXID.^. 



Lagopus scoticus. Red Grouse. Plentiful ; I have sqqvx 
packs leave the moors in very severe weather, and go 
on to the beach. 

Tetrao tetrix. Black Grouse. Very rarely seen. One 

durlnir the autumn and winter of 1864 took up its a'>ode 
in a rabbit warren facing* the sea, but disappeared in the 
spring. It was a male bird. 

RALLID.E. 

Ranus agaaticus. Water-Rail. Occasionally seen in the 

summer, and no doubt breeds in the district. The numbers 
are increased in the autumn. 

— 

May 1899. 



144 McLeayt: Avifauna of Staithes and Loftas-hi-Cleveland. 

Porzana porzana. Spotted Crake. Occasionally seen, chiefly 
in the autumn ; I cannot hear of its having nested in the 



district. 



Crex crex* Corn Crake. I have known them sometimes 

come In March and shelter in the plantations until the 
g^rass, etc., outside is sufficiently grown to cover them. 

GalUnula chloropus. Moor-hen. Common. 

Fulica atra. Coot, Only occasionally seen, not by any means 

common. 

CEDICNEMiD^. 

(Edicnemus cedicnemus. Stone-Curlew. Rarely seen, once 

or twice in the spring, but has not been know^n to breed. 

CHARADRIID.^. 

Charadrius pluvialis. Golden Plover. Plentiful, breeding 

on the moors, and large flocks comting in the autumn. 

Squatarola helvetica. Grey Plover. Nothing like so 

numerou.s as the Golden Plover, but fairly plentiful in the 
winter. 

jEgialitis hiaticuls. Ringed Plover. I have seen it on the 
banks facing the sea in May ; most likely it nested there, 
but I never found a nest. A good many come In the winter, 

Eudromias morinellus. Dotterel. Seen occasionally in the 

spring and autumn, 

Vanellus vanellus. Lapwing. Common ; immense flocks In 

the autumn, generally going south if the weather Is very 

severe. 

Strepsilas inlerpres. Turnstone. Seen every year, generally 
in the autumn. 

1 

Hsematopus ostralegus. Oyster-catcher. Only a few have 
been seen on the coast. 



SCOLOPACID.^. 

r 

Phalaropus fulicarius. Grey Phalarope. Has been seen on 
several occasions. 

Scolopax rasticola. Woodcock. Has been known to breed 
at least once at the top cud of the Handale Woods, near 
Handale Abbey. The coast here is a favourite place for it 
landiniT in the autumn, the hi*rh cliff's attractlnp- it, I have 
seen them come early in September. 

Qaltinago gailinago. Common Snipe. Breeds on the moors; 

large quantities come in the autumn. 



Naturalist, 



McLean : Avifainia of Staithes and Loftus-in-Cleveland. 145 

Limnocryptes galUnula. Jack Snipe. A reg-ular visitor ; 
pretty common all throug'h the winter. 

L 

Trtnga alpina. Dunlin. Only known as a winter visitor. 

Tringa minuta. Little Stint. Not ati uncommon visitor in 
the autumn. 

Trtnga subarqaata. Curlew Sandpiper. 

Tringa striata. Purple Sandpiper- 

These two species are frequently seen in the pools left 
among-st the rocks at low tide. 

Tringa canutus. Knot. Seen most winters, but not in larg-e 
quantities. 

Catidris arenaria, Sanderling. To be seen almost any time 
in the winter on the sands at Skinningrove and Hummersea ; 
also in sev^eral sandy coves under the clilTs betwixt Hum- 
mersea and Staithes. 

Tringoides hypoleucos. Common Sandpiper. Only seen in 

the springs and autumn ; does not breed in the neig-hbour- 
hood. 

Helodromas ochropus. Green Sandpiper. Occasionally seen 
in the autumn. 

Totanus calidris. Redshank. Fairly common in the autumn ; 

sometimes seen in considerable numbers, 

Totanus canescens. Greenshank. To be seen frequently on 

the beach in the autumn. 
Limosa lapponica. Bar-tailed Qodwit. Not at all common, 

but occasionally seen as a passing visitor. 

Limosa wgocephala. Black-tailed Qodv^^it. I saw one 

amongfst the shing-le round Snilah ponds (two large 
reservoirs close to Hummersea) in November 1870, 

Numenius phs^opus. Whimbrel. Occasionally seen in the 
fields near the coast ; generally called ' Little Curlew.' 

Numenius arquata. Common Curlew. Pretty common on 
the beach and in the fields. It does not breed in the 
district, but just outside. 

LARID.^. 

Sterna macrura. Arctic Tern. Frequents the coast in 

numbers in spring and autumn. 
Sterna fluviatilis. Common Tern. Plentiful in autumn and 

spring, going up the streams at Staithes and Skinningrove 



in severe weather. 



May 1S99. 



K 



146 McLean : Avifauna of Staithes and Loftus-tn-Cleveland, 
Sterna minuta. Little Tern. A good many callers as they 

pass by ; does not breed in the district. 

/ 

Sterna cantiaca. Sandwich Tern. Occasionally seen some 
distance off the coast. 

Hydrochelidon nigra. Black Tern. An occasional visitor. 

Two were seen during a storm vip the stream as far as 
Waup Mill, near Staithes ; one was shot by a man called 
Shedrack. 

Pagophila eburnea. Ivory Gull. One seen at Sklnningrove, 

or near to Huntcliffe, November 1871. 

Larus glaucus. Glaucous QuIL I saw several at Staithes in 



November 1S78, some of which were shot, 

Rissa tridactyla* Kittiwake. Has occasionally bred In the 
cliffs near the haunts of the Herring* Gulls. Very common 
in the autumn and spring. 

Larus argentatus. Herring: Gull. Large numbers breed in 

the cliffs, especially Rockcliffe and Huntcliffe. 

F , 

Larus fuscus. Lesser Black-backed Gull. Quantities come 
in the autumn. 

Larus marinus. Greater Black-backed QulL Very common ; 

seen with the Herring- Gulls on the land following* the 
ploughman. 

Larus canus. Common GulL Numbers may be seen all 

throug^h the winter. 

Larus ridibundus. BJack-headed Gull- Common, especially 
in spring and autumn. 

Larus minutus. Little Gull. I have seen odd ones several 
times both at Hummersea and Skinninirrove, 

Stercorarius catarractes. Common Skua* Occasionally seen 

H 

near the coast. 

Stercorarius pomarinus. Pomarine Skua. Not by any 

means common, but occasionally seen a mile or so off the 
coast. I saw a man, Jno, AUinson, of Skinningrove, brings 
two immature specimens on to the beach which he had shot 
whilst out in a boat. 

Stercorarius crepidatus. Richardson's Skua. Saw one old 

bird about four miles inhmd, either 1879 ^^ 1880; occa- 
sionallv seen at sea. 

Stercorarius parasiticus. Buffon's Skua. A few have been 



seen on the sea near the coast. 



Naturalist, 



McLeafi : Avifatma of Staithes and Loftus-in-Clevelajid. 147 

PROCELLARIID.E. 

Procellarla pelagica. Storm Petrel. Frequently seen off 
the coast. I have picked one up dead after a severe storm^ 
and have known others got. 

PuffJnus angJorunu Manx Shearwater. Pretty common, 

especially In the autumn. 

Puffinus griseus. Sooty Shearwater. Some reported, but 
doubtful, 

Fulmarus glacialis. Fulmar. I have seen them out at sea 
withhi a half-a-mile of the coast. 



COLYMBID.E. 

■ 

Colymbus glacialis. Great Northern Diver. Frequently 
seen a short distance off the coast. 

r 

Colymbus arlc]ticus. Black-throated Diver. Occasionally 

seen. Saw one landed at Staithes which had been cauirht 
in a fishing net- 

Colymbus septentrionalis. Red-throated Diver. The most 
common of the Divers ; often seen and frequently shot 



off the coast. 



PODICIPID.E. 



Podiceps cristatus. Great Crested Grebe. An occasional 
visitor in winter on the const^ also on ponds inland. 

Podiceps grisegena. Red-necked Grebe. One or two speci- 



mens have been obtained ; one was goi on ponds at Waupley. 



Podiceps auritus. Sclavonian Grebe. Is seen occasionally 

in the autumn on the coast, 

Tachybaptes fluviatilis. Little Grebe. Frequently seen ; 
have seen several on Snilah ponds near the beach. 

ALCID.^, 

Alca torda. Razorbill. Pretty common in the sprhig, but 
does not breed in the district. 

Lomvia troile. Common Guillemot. Frequently seen off 

the coast, especially in the autumn. 
Vria grylle. Black Guillemot. Occasionally seen off the coast. 

Mergulus alle. Little Auk. Often seen off the coast ; I have 

seen as many as a dozen washed up dead on the beach after 

continued stormv weather. 
Fratercuta arctica. Puffin. Seen occasionally off the coast. 

Like the Mergulus alle, it has been at least twice picked up 

dead on the beach. 

May 1899. 



148 



NOTES AND NEWS. 



Throug-h the recent death of Mr. T, J. H. Brogdeiij Solicitor, of 
Spalding-, the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union have lost a g:ood and vakied 
member. Mr. Brog-den was liot only a quick and reliable observer^ but 
he was a keen sportsman, and there was no one in South Lincolnshire 
who possessed such a thorough knowledge of the topography of the 
Fenlands and their natural history. His favourite shooting and fishing 
grounds were in the fitties and marshes bordering the Lincolnshire Wash, 
and here, In the course of years, he became thoroughly acquainted with the 
birds and fish of a district which includes in its features much that is 
wildest and most remote in the county. Fortunately, Mr, Brogden has 
left copious notes in connection with the avifauna and marine and fresh- 
water fish, and these notes have now kindly been placed at my disposal by 
his family. It is, therefore, my intention to arrange them in order, and 
forward, as occasion will permit, to the Editors of ' The Naturalist ' for 
publication, and, in doing this, I feel sure they will prove a valuable 
addition to the natural history of Lincolnshire, for of the southern parts of 

the county our knowledge is yet scant. — John Cordeaux, Great Cotes 
House, R.S.O., Lincoln, nth April 2899. 




N0TE—MAA1MAL/A. 

Otters in Lincolnshire,— ^I am sorry to say that two of these animals, 
%vhich are now becoming rare among our foras naturse in this neighbour- 
hood, have been recentl}- killed. I mean the Otter {Lutra Intra). Ow^ 
was killed at Thimbleby Mill, on the river Bain, about 1 % niiles from 
Horncastle, on nth April 1898, Easter Bank Holiday, and another was 
shot in July by Mr. J. Wright, Mrs. Otter's keeper, of Ranby, a few miles 
higher up the same river, in the parish of Goulceby. This latter one was 
a, female, and the mate is still alive and has been seen about the same 
place. I think we should— if the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union has any 
influence — raise our voice against the general destruction of these animals. 
I believe they do 7iot, really, do the amount of harm with which they are 
credited. They seldom kill the trout, but live chiefly upon the coarser kinds 
of fish—the chub, roach, and eels. I have seen the skin of the Otter killed 
at Thimbleby Mill, lent to me by the owner, Mr. Joseph WilL^on, of 
Horncastle- It was caught in the wheel of the water-mill and killed, 
because they thought it would attack the ducks in the mill-pool. 

Mr. Oswald Crawford, in his book, 'A Year of Sport' (published in 
1895), says 20 lbs. is a ^ood weight fov an Otter. The Goulceby specimen, 
however, was a very large one, as It turned the scale at 31 lbs. The 
Thimbleby Otter was a young one, and only weighed 13 lbs. The skin of 
the Thimbleby specimen — possibly stretched in the curing — though a young 
one, is 50 inches in length from snout to tip of tail. The Goulceby one, 
though older, was said to be 47 inches long. Mrs. Floyer, of Clarence 
House, Horncastle, has ia stuffed Otter, also shot in the Bain some years 
ago, between Martin and Scrivelsby. I measured it a few days ago, and 
found it to be 42 inches long. I may say that in the North of Scotland, 
where Otters are still numerous, they do a good deal of damage among the 
salmon. They are rather dainty, and, as a rule, only eat a slice out of tlie 
shoulder of the fish, in its thickest and fattest part. I have frequently 
seen a dead salmon lying on the bank of a river which I fish in Sutherland- 
shire, with just this slice eaten out of the shoulder; and T once hooked 
B, salmon, and, after a very hard fight, landed it, of which part of the 
shoulder had been eaten away. It had probably been caught by an Otter, 
which had, at once, eaten its meal of fresh salmon, and then left it for 
dead ; but the fish had jerked itself back into the water; and, having been 
thus caught once, it fought the harder with me against being caught again. 
J. Conway Walter, Langton Rectory, Horncastle, iSth^Augu'st 1898. 

Naturalist, 



149 



CHEMICAL NOTES ON LAKE DISTRICT ROCKS 

IK— INTRUSIVE AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. 



ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S.. 

S/* Johns College, Cambridge. 



In the former part of this paper I have collected the available 
chemical data relative to the ' contemporaneous \ or bedded 
volcanic rocks, lavas and tuffs, of the Borrowdale Series. 
I proceed now to perform a like office for the intrusive rocks 
of the district, though here I have but little to add to the 
information already published. 

While some of the intrusions are probably of Ordovlcian age 
and connected with the same period of igneous activity as the 
volcanic series which they often traverse, others certainly belong 
to later dates. The granites and the lamprophyres, for instance, 
must be referred to the Old Red Sandstone period, or at least to 
the interval between the Silurian and the Old Red Sandstone, 
while the Carrock Fell rocks, and perhaps certain others, may 
be still younger. In the case of many of the minor intrusions 
It is scarcely possible to obtain any direct evidence as to their 
precise age* 

Beginning with the granites and allied rocks, we have five 
complete analyses by Mr. J. Hughes of the principal masses of 
acid intrusive rocks in the districts. The silica-percentages, 
quoted from Clifton Ward's papers,* are given under the 
numbers (6i), (62), (71), (72), and (80). Of the Shap granite 
Ward gave no analysis, but three complete analyses by Dr. J. B. 
Cohen, (67) to (69), and two silica-percentages by Mr. E. J. 
Garwood, (66) and (70), are given in a paper on that rock by 
Harker and Marr.f Nos. (63) to (65) and (73) to (79) are from 
a paper by the present writer on the Carrock Fell granophyre 
and the Grainsgill greisen.+ Of these, (65) and (73) are from 



J 



Barrow, 



respectively, while the rest are silica-determinations only. 



W. A. Brend 



and E. H. Cunningham Craig; (64) in the laboratory of Owens 



* guart, }o\irn. GeoU Soc, vol. xxxi., p. 597, J^75; vol. xn.xii., pp. 5, 7, 
22-24, iS;6. 

tibid, vol. xlvii., pp. 275, 276, 278, 280, i8gi. 

tibid, vol. li,, pp. 125-147, 1S95. 
May 1899. 



150 Harker: Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks. 

College, Manchester, under Dr. Harden; (77) and (78) at the 
Yorkshire Colleo^e of Science, under Dr. Cohen. 



(61). 73*573- Eskdale granite, S. of Great How. 

(62). 75-223. Skiddaw granite, White Gill. A specimen from 

near here gave sp.gr. 2*624. 
(63). 77 "26. Skiddaw granite, bed of Caldew, 300 yards above 

Grainsgill; sp.gr. 2*604. 
(64). 78*13. Greisen, near foot of Brandy Gill; sp.gr. 2*646. 
(65). 80*36. Greisen, Combe Height, 250 yards S. of Grainsgill; 

sp.gr. 2*684. 
{66). 69*78. Shap granite, sp.gr. 2*687. 
(67). 68*55. Shap granite, bulk analysis. 
(68). 65*41, Large porphyritic felspars of the same, 
{69). 68*89. Ground-mass of the same. 
{70). 56*95. Dark patch in Shap granite; sp.gr. 2*769. 

H 

(71), 71*442. Buttermere granophyre, Scale Force. 

(72). 69*044. Carrock Fell granophyre, summit of Carrock Fell. 

A specimen from here gave sp.gr. 2*657. ' 
{73)- 71 '60. Carrock Fell granophyre, 100 yards E. of summit; 

sp.gr. 2*670. 
(74). 6779. Plagioclase felspar of the same; calculated from 

analysis (65). 
(75). 49"47. Augite of the same; calculated from {65). 
(76)- 77 '38. Carrock Fell granophyre, below Scurth and 500 

yards W.N.W. of Stone Ends; sp.gr. 2*607. 
(77). 75*3. Carrock Fell granophyre, in peat-moss S. of 

Drygtll Head; sp.gr, 2*530. 
(78). 6o*o. Carrock Fell granophyre, close to gabbro and 

modified by gabbro material, Furthergill Sike ; 

sp.gr. 2'8o5- 
(79). 58*26. Another specimen of the same. 
(80). 67*180. St, John's quartz-felsite (microgranite), Threlkeld. 

A specimen from here gave sp.gr, 2*63. 
By a loosely-worded sentence in the Survey Memoir this last 
analysis {80) is attached to the Armboth and Helvellyn dykes, 
and some confusion has arisen in consequence (e.g., in Teall's 
' British Petrography,' p. 343). The rock analysed was from 
Threlkeld, as I have verified from Ward's original specimen in 
the Keswick Museum. 

Of the basic intrusions Ward gave an analysis by Hughes 
of the Carrock Fell gabbro only (loc. cit. p. 24). A silica- 
percentage of this rock was sent me by the late Mr. Tate, but 
the want of a precise locality makes this of little value, for 

Naturalist, 



Harker: Chernical Notes on Lake District Rocks. 



151 



I have shown that this rock varies in a very remarkable degree 
in different parts of the mass.'- Hug-hes' silica-percentage is 
given here under (81) and Tate's under (82). My paper contains 
two analyses by Mr. G. Barrow {Si,) and (92), and eight deter- 
minations of silica-percentages, (84) to (91). Of these Nos. (85) 
to (89) were made by Brend and Cunningham Craig; (84), (90), 
and {91) by students of the Yorkshire College oi Science. As 
regards analysis (92), it may be observed that, as published in 



The 



missing 



con- 



the Quarterly Journal, it is incomplete, 
stituents are alumina 20*64 (probably too high), lime 4*30, soda 
3' 18, potash traces, ignition (sulphur) 3'oo. To the gabbro 
I append two of the small dykes and veins which intersect both 
that rock and the adjacent granophyre. Of these (93) is from 
a complete analysis by Mr. R. H. Adie,t and (94) is a silica- 
percentage from the Yorkshire College. | 



(81) 
(82) 

(83) 



{84) 
(85) 

(86) 



(87) 



(SS) 



(89) 



<9o) 



{91) 



(92) 



(93) 



(94) 



56 '656. Carrock Fell gabbro, White Crags. 



53'9 



Carrock Fell gabbro. 



53*50. Carrock Fell gabbro, roadside, 150 yards N.N.W. 



50-0 



of Chapel Stone ; sp.gr. 2'8oo, 
Carrock Fell gabbro, same locality. 



59'46. Carrock Fell gabbro, White Crags; sp.gr. 2*804. 
57*7. Carrock Fell gabbro, 350 yards S. of White 

Crags; sp.gr. 2'8jj. 
5o'22. Carrock Fell gabbro, 600 yards S, W, by S. of 

White Crags ; sp.gr. 2*939. 
47 "I I. Carrock Fell gabbro, 120 yards N. of summit of 



44-14 



43 '4 



33 '4 



White Crags; sp.gr. 2"848. 
Carrock Fell gabbro, top of cliff above Mosedale, 

S. edge of mass; sp.gr. 3"io3. 
Carrock Fell gabbro, gill ^ mile N.W. of Swine- 

sidcy S. edge of mass; sp.gr, 2*952. 
Carrock Fell gabbro, lower part of Furthergill, 



N. edge of mi 



sp.gr. 3 "200. 



3253 



Carrock Fell gabbro, upper part of Furthergill, 
N. edge of mass; sp.gr. 3*265. 
53-63. Spherulitic tachylyte vein cutting Carrock Fell 



9 -8. 



gabbro; sp.gr. 2-99. 
Variolitic andesite dyke 
granophyre; sp-gr, 2763. 



cuttmg 



Carrock Fell 



* Quart. Journ. Geol. Sue, vol. I., pp. 311-336, 1894. 
tGroom, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. xlv., p. 298, 1SS9. 

:J: Harker, Geol. Mag. for 1894, p. 553. 



May 1899. 



152 Marker: Chemical Notes 07t Lake District Rocks, 

Of the diabases of the Lake District and adjoining" country 
we have the following; analyses: — No. (95) Is by Dr. R. Hellon;* 
(96) to (98), of a much decomposed rock of doubtful relations at 
Gleaston-in-Furness, by Sir H. Roscoe ; t (99) by Mr. Hutching^s, % 
silica-percentag^e only. 

F 

(95). 48'42. Diabase, Robin Hood, Bassenthwaite. 

(96). 45*54- Diabase, Gleaston, Low Furness. 

(97). 50*96. Another specimen of the same. 

(98). 51 '10. Another specimen of the same. The rock where 

freshest gave sp.gr. 2*92. 
(99). 45 '65- Diabase, above Easedale Tarn, towards Langdale; 

sp.gr. 2-95. 

In the paper just cited Mn Hutchings also gives silica- 
percentages of two rocks of intermediate composition (pp. 537, 
544). No. (100) seems to be an example of the less acid quartz- 
porphyries or quartz-porphyrites common as small intrusions in 
some parts of the district; (loi) is a less usual type of rock. 
(100). 60*45. * Quartz-andesite or dacite ' (quartz-porphyrite), 

Between Greenburn and Wythburn ; sp.gr. 274. 
(loi). 61-15. 'Trachyte' (porphyry), Shap Wells Plantation. 

Eight analyses (by F. T. S, Houghton) are given In a paper by 
Prof. Bonney and Mr. Houghton * On Some Mica-traps from the 
Kendal and Sedbergh Districts.' § The silica-percentages are 
cited below in numerical order, (102) to (109). It is to be 
noted that most of these rocks have suffered considerably from 
decomposition. Under (110) to (113) I give some figures from 
four analyses communicated to me by the late Mr. Thos. Tate. 
These, too, are lamprophyre dykes. Nos. (no), (iii) are 
duplicate analyses of a dyke at Helm Gill; (103) is from another 
specimen of the same; and (104) Is from * Phillips' dyke' at 



i=> 



w 



(102). 61 '12. Mica-lamprophyre, Kendal road, 250 yards from 

third milestone. 
(103). 58-34. Mica-lamprophyre, S. of Haygarth, Docker Fell. 
(104). 49'52. Hornblende-lamprophyre, Stile End Farm, 5 miles 

N. of Staveley. 
(105). 48*57. Mica-lamprophyre, railway, W- of Docker Garth. 
(106). 47-88. Mica-lamprophyre, Docker Fell ; probably a 

different dyke from No. (103). 
(107). 46-17. Hornblende-lamprophyre, Gill Bank, i^ miles 

N.N.E. of Staveley. 



* Postlethwaite, Quart. Journ. Geol, Soc., vol. xHx., p. 533, 1893. 
t Binney, Mem. Lit. Phil. Soc. Manch. {3), vol. iv., p. 93, 1871. 
X Geol. Mag^. for 1S91, p. 538. 
§ Quart. Journ, Geo]. Soc, vol. xxxv., pp. 165-179, 1S79. 



Naturalist, 



Marker: Cheinical Notes on Lake District Rocks, 



153 



{108). 44-44. Mica-lamprophyre, railway-cutting, ^A mile from 



(109). 



Z^'Z^ 



Windermere Station. 
Mica-lamprophyre, Helm Gill, near Sedbergh, 
lowest dyke; a much decomposed rock. 



Gill, 



th 



most 



(no). 47 '2. Mica-lamprophyre, Helm 

southerly dyke,' 
(.^^^)- 47'^* The same, duplicate analysis. 
(112), 46'34. The same, another specimen, 

(113)- 58'99- Mica-lamprophyre, E, bank of Doe, Storrs, 

Ingleton. 

These last four analyses have not been published, and are 
accordingly given in full below. Since Mr. Tate's chemical 
work on the Yorkshire lamprophyres seems otherwise to be 
lost,''' I am glad to be able to preserve a portion of it here. He 
had further made analyses or partial analyses of a variety of 
rocks from the Lake District proper, and Intended t to give the 
results In this journal, but that design was never carried into 
effect. In analyses (no) to (112) the ' difference ' represents 
water and carbonic acid. Since these constituents are not likely 
to be negligeable in a rock of this group, it is probable that 
analysis (113) was made on material already ignited. 



Silica 

Alumina ... 

Ferric oxide 

Ferrous oxide .. 

Manganous oxide 

Magnesia... 

Lime 

Soda 

Potash 



% t 



(no) 
Helm Gill 

47'2 



• * 



2' 



5 



4 • 



» V « 



t * « 



Diffe 



rence 



57 
ii'i 

3-8 

2*2 

7 '9 



(iti) 

Helm Gill. 

47-1 

2'2 



# ■ 



4 * fr 



Hc-lm Gill. 

46-34 
16-47 

4 -08 



* • 



« tf « 



i t 



» 4 



5 '9 

II "2 

4-0 
2-3 

7-6 



M * 



« 4 



t » 



Q'2 

3 "54 

12-13 

4'53 

4"35 
8-31 



« • 



("3) 

58-99 

979 
10-07 

4-96 

0-20 
2-30 

6-74 

3-81 



+ * 4 



lOO'O 



lOO'O 



1 00 '00 



1 00 '64 



There remain only a few analyses of sedimentary rocks and 
their metamorphosed representatives. The numerous analyses 
of metalliferous ores scattered through mining literature are 
regarded as outside the scope oi our subject, and analyses of 
minerals are excluded for the same reason. Six complete 
analyses of rocks from the Skiddaw Slate group have been 

u 

published, and their silica-percentages are reproduced below for 



May ,899. 



Proc. Yorks. GeoU Pol. Soc. (N.S.), vol. xiii., p. 352, 1898. 

t Naturalist for 1S92, p. 240. 



154 Harker: Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks. 



reference. 
Ward's d 



J 



J 



Kendall's * Mineral Veins of the Lake District,'*'^' where it is 
g-iven without any precise locality; and (119), by Dr. Hellon, is 
published by Mr. Postlethwaite (loc. cit.). 

(114). 54'48o. Altered Skiddaw slate, summit of Red Pike, near 

the Buttermere Granophyre. 
(115). 65 '725. Chiastolite-slate, How Gill, Skiddaw. 
(116). 54*448. Spotted schist, Skiddaw Forest. 
(117), 53"i74, Mica-schist, close to Skiddaw g^ranite, Sinen Gill. 
(118), 5676. Skiddaw slates, 'the argillaceous beds'; sp.gr. 

2*64. 
(119), 79'92. Grit in Skiddaw slates, Robin Hood, Bassen- 

thwaite. 
Finally we have two analyses of Coniston Flags by Mr. 
Hutchings-t 

(120). 58*55. Coniston flags, Wasdale Beck, near Shap Wells. 
{121). 61*05. Coniston flags, highly metamorphosed, Wasdale 

Beck, ^ mile above Shap Wells. 

I append a few specific gravity determinations of Lake 
District rocks not yet examined chemically. 
2*638. Quartz-felsite, intrusive, N. of Wansfell. 
2-615. Spherulitic granophyre, Armboth dyke, W. of Middle- 
steads. 
2-598. Felsite dyke, Tod Gill, Caldbeck Fells. 

■j 

2-675. Mica-lamprophyre, the most easterly dyke, Cronkley, 



Teesdale. 



^•712. 



W 



Crag; the most southerly of four dykes near sheepfold. 
2732. Mica-lamprophyre, the most northerly of the same group. 
2-581. Felsite enclosed in preceding. 
2*706. Coniston limestone, E. of Spring Wood, Dalton-in- 

Furness. 
2*732. Calcareous breccia in Coniston limestone, Waterblain 

Quarry, Millom* 
2 '709. Coniston limestone, bed next above preceding. 



Corrigcndinn : p, 56^ line i^ for 74*88 read 74*58. 
Addendum: p, 55, last line of text, add A specimen from the 
Mosedale Quarry gave sp.gr. 2'7ii. 



Trans. Manch. Geo!. Soc, vol. xvii., p. 295, 1884. 

t Geol, Mag-, for 1894, p. 42, 



Naturalist, 



o;) 



THE SOUTHWARD MOVEMENT OF BEACH-MATERIAL 

ACROSS THE HUMBER GAP. 



ALFRED MARKER, M.A., F.G-S., 

St, John^s College^ Cambridge. 



Some time ag-o, in correspondence with Mr. F* M. Burton, 
I ventured to point out that much greater caution Is needed 
in dealing- with boulders on the Luicolnshire than on the 
Yorkshire coast ; and I expressed the opinion that the south- 



ward movement of the beach-material is here an important 
factor, the Lincohishire boulders being probably derived to 
a large extent from Holderness. In a paper published in 

*The Naturalist' for last year (pp. 13Z''^3^) ^^^' Burton quoted 
this opinion, but dissented from it. He now, in the April 
number, returns to the subject, fortified by the support of two 



engineer authorities, Mr. W. H. Wheeler and Mr. A. Atkinson. 
To the facts adduced by these gentlemen I do not take 
any exception, but in the conclusions drawn from those facts 
certain essential considerations seem to be left out of account. 
The beach movement is admitted. Mr. Wheeler, indeed, objects 
to my expression ' powerful tidal scour,' and here I am willing 
to accept emendation; but as he tells us that 'there is a drift of 
material along the beach from N. to S.,' and again that 'the 
banking up of the shingle and also the travel along the shore is 
due entirely to tidal action,' our diiference is evidently one of 
words only. That there is such a travel, not only of sand but 
of coarse shingle and boulders, is a fact patent to the most 
casual observer. It is also certain that the amount of such 
transport was much greater formerly than it has been during 
the last thirty or forty years, when groynes have been erected 



at numerous points and the artificial removal of shingle 
prohibited. 

w 

Now, I have not, as Mr. Atkinson suggests, 'overlooked the 
existence of the wide and deep embouchure of the Huniber' ; 
but, as Mr. Burton remarks in another connection, it is not with 
the present day only that we have to deal. * There is no drift 
across the Humber,' says Mr. Wheeler. 'This drift collects at 
Spurn Point.' True, but it is manifest that this process cannot 
go on indefinitely, Mr. Clement Reid, in the Geological Survey 
Memoir, 'The Geoloq-v of Holderness,' estimates the average 



growth of Spurn Point during the last 200 years at 13)^ yards 
per annum ; less under the present artificial conditions, but 

M^y 1S99. 



156 Harker : Lake District Rocks. 

formerly more- It is a matter of history that this spit of 
shingle, now more than three miles long-, is the growth of the 
last three centuries. In 1586, the date of Camden's * Magna 
Britannia/ it did not exist. What, then, has become of the 
millions of tons of material swept southward along the Holder- 
ness coast prior to that time? There is only one possible 
answer : it is distributed along the coast south of the 
H umber. 

I 

The cycle of events which must have recurred many times 

1 ■ 

since the Glacial Period, when this district was formed, is easily 
deduced from Mr. Wheeler's own observations, and has been 
clearly set forth by the geologist quoted above. * A beach 
begins to form at Spurn, as it did in Camden's time, the point 
lengthens more and more, the neck becomes thin, the sea 
breaks through, and a bank of shingle becomes detached. Then 
the north channel becomes wider and wider, as the sea and 
wind drive the island southward, like any other part of the 
beach, till at last the bank is transferred from Yorkshire to 
Lincolnshire, and the process recommences.' 

Clement Reid points to the existence of a very large shingle 
beach near Donna Nook, on the south side of the Humber 
TTiouth, which can only have been derived from the other side of 



the estuary ; but there are many vanished Spurn Points to 
account for, and it cannot be doubted that the material from 
them is scattered along the coast from the Humber to the Wash 
at least. Hence, while not denying the possibility that some of 
the boulders on the Lincolnshire coast mav have a different 



source, I adhere to the view that many, and probably the large 
majority, of them are derived from the waste of the Holderness 
cliffs. 



NOTE— GEOLOGY. 

Lake District Rocks: Additional Note.— The follov.in^ specific 

g^ravities of rocks in the Ordovician Volcanic Series are additional to 
those given in my papers on the Chemistry of Lake District Rocks (Nut., 
Feb. 1899, pp. 53-58, and May 1899, pp. 149-154). 

2-746. Gatherstone Head, Black Sail Pass : porphyritic basalt, felspars 

partly epidotized. 

2744. Evcott Hill : basalt, appnrontly No. 16 of Ward's section. 

2'7j8. Mirk Gill : lava. 

^735- Brund Gill, Helvellyn, N.E. of sheep-fold : lava. 

2715. Greenup Gill, above 600 feet contour-line: garnctlferous lava. 

2'672, Rosgill Moor, overlooking Svvindale, Shap: andesite. 

2-671. E. of Grange Bridi^e, Borrowdale : andesite. 

2*616. Summit of KIdsty Pike : nodule in rhyoUte. 

2*565. About % m. N.E. of xVpplethwaite Common ; rhyolite. 

— Alfred Harker, Cambridge, ist April 1899. 

Naturalist, 



157 



5it /IDcinonam* 



HENRY THOMAS SOPPITT. 

0\ the first day of April, while the sing-ing- birds cheered us 
and the bursting- buds gladdened our eyes, proclaiming- present 
spring, there passed from us one to whom all the sights and 
sounds of Nature were dear and familiar — one who was (alas, 




slas, that the tense must be a past one !) himself familiar and 
dear to manv of the naturalist brotherhood in Yorkshire and 
elsewhere- 

Henry Thomas Soppitt died on that day at Halifax in his 
4^^t year, and his too early death is mourned not by personal 
friends only, for his labours had made him widely known among 
mycoIoi>-ical botanists everywhere, and there are probably few 

May 1899. 



158 hi Memoriam — Henry Thomas Soppitt, 



who are competent to resume and continue the work w^hich has 

thus fallen from his hand. 

Mr. Soppitt's short Ufe has not been an ev^entful one. He 
was born in Bradford on 21st June 1858. His father was an 
estimable man and a philanthropist, but not very prosperous in 
business. In his father's trade and afterwards in a drysalter's 
establishment at Halifax, Soppitt's days were spdnt in earning 
his livelihood. One of his friends writes that ^ his life was only 
one long- struggle with adverse circumstances' — that 'he had 
a hard life of uncongenial toil for his daily bread.' In some 
respects this is, no doubt, too sadly true ; yet who can measure 
the happiness which he found in his chosen pursuits? 



He early became a naturalist. In fact, all the manifestations 
of Nature were equally congenial to him,, and it was circum- 
stances, rather than any especial preference, which made him 
chiefly a botanist. The Lepidoptera were his first love, and he 
was a' most diligent collector and student of all the moths and 
butterflies which the neighbourhood of Bradford could yield, 
until, finding his' energies too limited, he turned to botany and 
speedily became thoroughly acquainted with British flowering- 
plants. Compelled by his business to be at work during the 
daytime, he would rise early on the summer mornings and so 
get an hour or two in the fields (often in the company of the 
present President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Mr. W. 
West) before the day's labour began. In 1876 Soppitt joined 
the Bradford Naturalists' Society ; in iSSo he became its 
botanical recorder, and in 1886 its President. He was for many 
years one of the executive of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. 
As an instance of his thoroughness it may here be recorded 
that, discovering and justly appreciating the difficulty of the 



grasses and the sedges, he gave up one entire summer to them, 
studying them only in his rambles, and not meddling with other 
herbs. Then, encouraged by the persuasion of his friend, 
Mr. West, by the ex cathedrA exhortations of another President 
of the Naturalists' Union, the late Dr, Williamson, and by the 
open, almost unoccupied, field, he was led to the study of the 
fungi, for which his great powers of observation and his 
wonderful patience and perseverance alike fitted him, 

Soppitt did not, however, confine his diligence to the 
vegetable kingdom, for (to parody the words of Bacon) he 
may be said to have taken all natural history to be his province. 
He was well acquainted with our native shells. 'The Land and 
Freshwater Mollusca of Upper Airedale/ written in collaboration 
with his friend, Mr. J. W. Carter, was published in this journal^ 
and among his contributions to the Bradford Press, for whicMie 

Naturalists 



In Memoruim — Henry Thomas SoppilL 159 

was in the habit of writing frequent articles on nature topics, 
are 'A List of the Mammals of the Bradford District' and 
* Our Local Reptiles/ He was a true lover of birds, and knew 
those that came within his ken as one knows one's friends. 
To the writer's knowledge he recently made two, if not three, 
inconvenient journeys (involving" in his much-occupied life very 
early starting and very late returning, besides the night vigil 
in the open air) in order to hear the Nightingale and the 
Grasshopper- Warbler sing, and he would talk of their notes 



with rapture as though he had listened to the songs of the 
blessed souls. 

But Soppltt's true vocation was recognised when he began 



the study of the parasitic fungi. It was to the minute rusts and 
moulds which appear on many of our native plants that he 
turned his attention — with what success a great authority, 
Dr, Plowright, shall speak: 

. 'Some ten or twelve years ago Soppitt began the biological 
study of the Uredineas and it is from his experimental 
researches that we know the life-history of several species 
which had previously either been shrouded in mystery or 
wrongly interpreted. For instance, prior to his work the 
Pnccinia and jEcidiiun on Adoxa moschatcUina were regarded 
as being- of the same species, but he demonstrated that the 
Pnccinia is a Mucipuccinia, and has no relation to Pnccinia 
albescens, which is an Anteupuccinia with jEcidium, Vredo and 
teleutospores ow the same plant. Then he cleared up the 
life-history of ^cidiiini leucospcrminfi, showing it to be an 
EndophyUiim.. He found its spores germinated as those of 
Endophylluni do, and that, while they were without effect upon 
adult plants, yet seedling Anemones became affected with the 
^cidium after infection, and that the fungus had nothing what- 
ever to do with the Pnccinia fusca which occurs on tlie same 
host-plant. It fell to his lot to be the first person to demonstrate 
a heteroecious which has its aecidiospores on a Dicotyledon; this 
he did in working out the life-history of P. bisiortce, by proving 
that its jecidiospores occur on Conopodium denudation. He 
attacked that complicated problem, the life history of the 
Puccineae on Phalaris urundinacea, proving that the Ailcidium 
o\\ Lily of the Valley belonged to one of them, which he named 
P^ digrap/iidis, thereby opening a discussion amongst Con- 
tinental botanists as to the relative value of these specific k^vms 
which has hardly yet been concluded. His communicatior.s to 
*The Gardeners' Chronicle' were mostly upon plant diseases, 
the last being an account of his repetition and confirmation of 
Klebahn's cultures of P, Prinsrsheimiana o\\ the t>"ardea 

May 1899. 



i> 



t> 



i6o In Memoriam — -He?iry Thomas SoppitL 

Gooseberry, Lactarhts involutiis Sopp. is figured in Cookers 
illustrations,' t. 1194. Dasycypha Soppittia Mass, is named 
after him, as also is the g^enus Sopplttella, one of the Thele- 
phorea?. His last paper, in conjunction with Mr. Crossland, 
appeared in the January number of ^ The Naturalist,' and con- 
tained descriptions oi several new species of Discomycetes.' 

For two or three years before his death Soppitt worked on 
the fungi of the Halifax district with Mr. Chas. Crossland, and 
some of the results of this joint labour are yet to be published. 

It is to be regretted in the interests of science that Soppitt 
was not left at leisure to prosecute his investigations. Men of 
his perception, and of like industry and enthusiasm, are not so 
common among us that they can be neglected with impunity, 
and our indifference to them is likely to cost us dear. We see 
a fungus threaten our forests and imperil our timber supply; 
the phylloxera beggars a province, and microscopic organisms 
decimate our large cities ; yet we will not learn to value those 
whose work might save us from such disasters, 

Mr. Soppitt was a man of a thoroughl}' human and amiable 
disposition, and had that keen sense of* humour which Is often 
the inheritance of Yorkshiremen, and which not seldom enables 
them to ride merrilv over manv a wave of ill-luck. * Devoid of 
personal jealousy, and ever free to impart the information he 
possessed to others,* says a fellow worker, ' no wonder he made 
many friends.' In truth, to be In the open field witli him under 
the blue sky was to a nature-lover a liberal education. The 
glorious sun itself did not beam more brightly than did his face 
as he noted each herb and tree and flower, each bird, beast, and 
insect, and poured out of his full brain words of wisdom about 
them all. He was a naturalist alike in head and in heart. On 
the hills, and in the meadows and w^oods, he was in full 
sympathy with his surroundings. Nothing was strange to him. 
He had made them all his own by his love of them. They were 
his by the peaceful right of intellectual conquest. The joys of 
Nature were his to the full. A few short weeks passed with him 
in the Alps will ever be green and pleasant in the writer's 
remembrance. So fitted was he by disposition and culture for 
such scenes that this foreign mountain-land seemed to belong to 
him by right rather than to its natural inhabitants. 



Thus this erstwhile joyous springtide opens but sadly for 
some of us. The summer, indeed, is coming, the birds and the 
bees and the flowers ; the days will be long and the heavens 
will be bright ; we doubt not that wood and field and fell will 

F 

again be as lovely and as fragrant as heretofore ; but shall we 
find them so, wanting our friend? A. H. P- 

Xaturalist, 



i6i 



FLORA OF CUMBERLAND. 



ARTHUR BENNETT, F.L.S., 

Croydott, Stirrey. 
■ /■■■. 

In the * Journal of Botany' for May 1899 (P- ^25), I called 
attention to a few omissions in Mr. Hodg-son's interesting: 
book; here it will, perhaps, be allowable to enter more fully into 
particulars, as many may not have access to the authorities. 

Astragalus glycyphyttus. Culgaith Pike, Keswick; Winch, 
Contributions to the Flora of Cumberland, 1833. This is 
one of Hutchinson's History of Cumberland localities ; but 



Westmorland 



likely to occur. 



w 

Potentilla verna* Bank Wood, Contrib. Ic, also from 



Hutchinson. 



Wat 



the British Museum, says Mr. Watson gives * Hill between 
Borrowdale and Newlands/ adding- later * P, alpestris?' In 
Top. Botany he still g-ives Cumberland under P. vema; and 
under P. alpcstris has * Cumberland ! * In the New Botanist's 
Guide, p, 313 (1835), he records it from 'Rocks between 
Newlands and Borrowdale, facing to the former (doubtful 
whether this or the next),' i.e., P, vema. The later work thus 



g'lving' it definitely as P. alpcstris. Whether P. vema as well 



Stalice bahusiensis. 



ascerta 
•. Wats 



gives It for 'Cumberland, Heysham sp/ I have seen a speci- 
men in Dr. Boswell-Syme*s herbarium, now in Mr. Hanbury's 
possession. 

Rumex domesticus. Also Hutchinson's History. Given 
in Top. Botany with a ? Not an unlikely species to occur, 
as it is found in the neighbouring counties. 

Goodyera repens. ' Fir plantation near the Eden at 
Armathwaite, possibly introduced with seedling fir trees. On 
the Borders,'' it is spreading with the plantations.' F. A- 



Lees in Record Club Report for 1879, p. 72 (1880). This plant 
has been found in Yorkshire, J. of Botany, p. 379, 1888 (J. J. 
Marshall), Naturalist, p. 312, 1888 (Messrs. West and Slater). 
In Norfolk in two seemingly wild stations, but whether acci- 
dentally or intentionally introduced or not, it is difficult to 
believe it a native there. Recorded in Trans. Norwich and 
Norfolk Society, p. 720, 1889, by Mr. Geldart. It Is also 
reported for Northumberland. , 

June 1899. 



1 62 Notes — Botany. 



\ 



Epipactis violacea. Cumberland. Bab. MS. Top. Botany, 
p. 385. The records in Top. Botany must nearly all be verified 
again, as to what was intended. Mr. Watson makes the name 
violacea a synonym of E. media Bab. But how many of the 
counties produce the E, violacea Boreau it is impossible to say ; 
in fact our forms of Epipactis need a careful revision. I quite 
agree with the remarks of the Rev. W. H. Purchas in the 
Journal of Botany, p. 201, 1885, where he expresses doubts of 
the Herefordshire plant being the same as the Yorkshire.* Of 
this I possess an original specimen, and one can quite see why 
Prof. Babington named it E. ovalis (English Botany Supp, 
t. 2884). But to my eyes a large nvimber of the specimens so 
named are only varieties of either violacea or latifolia. They 
require special care to dry the flowers separate, and with not 
too much pressure. 

Potamogeton Zizii Roth, No doubt the Derwentwater 
record of P. lucens refers to this, as, I believe, Mr. Bailey so 
named the specimens when he gathered them ; but it is given 
as Zizii in Top. Botany, ed. 2. 

Lastrea rigida. Mr, Hodgson mentions this, and numbers 
it, but gives no locality and no remarks as to its introduction 
into the * Flora.* 

K 

There are some other species reported for Cumberland not 
given by Mr. Hodgson ; but as Mr. Watson does not admit 
them in Top. Botany only in the * doubtful' plants, they may 
well be left. 



NOTES—BOTANY. 

Lobelia Dortmanna in Lakeland.— As the habitat of this beautiful 

flower is being; discussed, 1 should like to say that I saw many specimens 
growing in Lake Windermere, between Bowood Hotel and Ambleside, in 
the shallows. This was in July 1894, — W. A. ShufFREY, Arncliffe Vicarage, 
Skipton, ist April J899, 

Vernacular Plant-names : Bullace. — Mr. Hey, in his very interesting^ 
paper on ' I'lant-names in use at West Ayton,' says: — * Mr. Blakeborougfh, 
in his new book on North Yorkshire, informs us in the glossary under 
*' Bullace " that the Bullace is a wald Plum of a ij^reen colour when ripe. 
To me they appear to be purple black.' It will interest Mr. Hey to know 
that the * Bullace * here is as described by Mr. Blakeborough, i.e., green in 
colour when ripe. Several of these trees grow at Arncliffe Cote, between 
here and KJlnsey. The Rul laces make a ver}' ^ood |ireserve when ripe. 
I have seen a 'purple black ' variety in Langstrothdale, but the tree was 
probably Pnmiis frutivans of Mr. F. Arnold Lees* ' Flora oi West 
Yorkshire,' ist cd., p. 785.— W. A, Shl'ffrey, Arncliffe Vicarage, Skipton, 
1st April 1899. 



* See also Flora of Herefordshire, p. 298 (with plate), 1SS9. 



Naturali-st. 



163 



VERNACULAR NAMES IN NORTH YORKSHIRE. 



J. J. BURTON. , 

RosecKoJt, Nunthovpe, R^S.O.^ Vorkahire, 
\ 

I HAVE been greatly interested in the articles and notes which 
have recently appeared on local bird and plant names, and I am 
exceeding-ly glad that there is a movement for permanently 
putting these on record, as my own observation leads me to 
believe that in another generation many of them will have 

r 

become obsolete. The schoolmaster is abroad, and the whole 
country is being planed down scholastically to the dead level of 
Whitehall requirements, and many names expressive of charac- 
teristics are from some mistaken notion of vulgarity being" 
rapidly eliminated from the country schoolboy's vocabulary. 
The migratory instinct recently developed in the countryman, 
fostered by the improved means of inter-communlcation between 
town and country as well as between different rural districts, is 
also slowly but surely destroying that distinctly local flavour in 
the manners, customs, and language of the last generation of 
country folk. 

To aid in the preservation of such local names as still exist 
I would like to add a few to those which have already appeared, 
as well as Hve some variants of the same. 

In the Rev. W. C, Hey's list he says he has not found any 
name for the Elm. In some parts near York this tree is always 

h 

called ' 0am,' with a full round sound. The Bramble is known 
as 'Bummelkite/ The Cow Parsnip Is in its young, leafy state 
called * Kelks/ and when in flower ^Humlocks.' It is very 
curious how widespread is the practice of using the common 
name of the Elder adjectively. The wood, flower, and fruit are 
used for many purposes, but I cannot recall ever having heard 
the word *Bottery' used alone. 

The fruit of the Hawthorn is * Cathaw,' and that of the Dog 
Rose, *Chub.' Acorns are 'Yakruns.' Ommis arvens/s is 
only known as 'Cat-Whin,' islwA Cardamine pratemis as 'Bird 
Eye/ Anihcmis cotula and Matricaria chamomilla are called 
' Dog-finkle, ' Papaver Rhceas is ' Cockrose/ and Lychnis Giiha;ro 
is * Popple.' Tlie Meadow Orchis is ' Crowsfoot/ Lotus comi- 
C7/A//wi' * Bird's-foot,' and Tnssilago Farfara 'Calfs-foot* — else- 
where * Colt's-foot.' The Arum is known only as 'Cows and 
Calves,' and the Yellow Iris as ' Segs.' Brassica sinapis is 
' Ketlock' near York and ' Runch' in Cle%^eland. The fruit of 

d 

June 1899. 



164 Corbeft: Ramtncnlns Lenormandi in the Trent Basin, 

Malva rotundifolia is ' Cheese-cakes/ the plant itself being" 
apparently without a name. Tares are 'Lints/ The Bunium 
Jlexiiosum g-iven as Yennets by Mr. Hey is near York *Jack 
Jennets/ and as a boy I have dug up and eaten the tuberous 
root scores of times. Why, I do not know, unless it was that 
they were not ordinary articles of diet ; but I must have seen 
others do it. Erica Tetralix is known only as * Crow-ling.' 
Mountain Ash is, besides * Witchwood/ mentioned by Mr. Hey, 
also 'Touchwood.' Potatoes are * Taties/ and often * Spuds.' 
Rye with many of the old folk is ' Mazlishun/ and in my young 
days it was seldom called by any other name ; but both in 
cultivation and name it is now getting into disuse. 

Mr. Blakeborough is quite right about 'Wicks/ but 'Wick- 
wood' is the commoner term. The troublesome running roots 
of grass are also called 'Wicks/ but more generally 'Wickens.' 
The Dandelion is ' Pisimire Flower/ and the Wild Chicory is 
*■ Swine Thistle.' The Briza is ' Doddering Jocks/ or * Dodder- 
ing Grass/ and the Chrysa)ithemum Leucantheniinn is ' Dog 
Daisy.' Another plant, common in some places, which, if my 
memory serves me right is one of the Polygonums, is called 
' Red Shanks,' and has this interesting tradition attached to 
it, that when Abel was slain by his brother, some drops of 
his blood fell upon the leaves of this plant, hence the dark 
spots now seen thereon. 

I would like to add one or two variants on the bird- and 
other names given. Blackbeeraway is often * Batbeeraway.' 
Goldie is always * Gowlie ' in some places, where also the Black- 
bird is always called ' Blackie,' and the Moorhen * Waterhen/ 
The Woodpigeon is indifferently called 'Woodie/ 'Cushat,' and 
* Stockdove' ; a generation ago it was, frequently called 'Cow- 
scot,^ and there are places near Loftus-in-Cleveland still bearing 
the old names of ' Cowscot Gill' and ' Cowscot Wood.' * Gyp 
Starnel' is shortened to ' Gyp,' which is doubtless only a North 
Riding form of the West Riding ' Shep/ allowing for the 
differences of pronunciation of the same dialect words observ- 
able in places even near to each other. The Weasel is called 



'Clubster' in some parts oi Cleveland. 




NOTE^FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Ranunculus Lenormandi in the Trent Basin near Doncaster. 

Last year I recorded A\ Lenormandi from Martin Beck Wood, a station in 
the Trent drainage area and just within the York County boundarv\ To- 
day I g:athered the plant in another locality about five and a half niiles 
S.W. of Doncaster, and at 50 (eet abo\e sea leveL~H. H. CORBETT, 
9, Priory Place, Doncaster, ist May 1899, "n^^^^Si^. 



1 65 



HYMENOPTERA SESSILIVENTRES 



OF THE COUNTIES OF 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE AND LINCOLNSHIRE 

A PRELIMINARY LIST. 



Rev. ALFRED THORXLEY. M.A., F.L.S., F,E,S., 

Vicar of South Leverion, Notts. 



The following short hut interesting list of Saw-flies taken in 
the counties of Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire will, it Is 
hoped, direct the attention of entomologists once more to this 
exceedingly interesting group. The combined lists contain an 
aggregate of about 56 species, some of which may prove new to 
science and some new^ to Great Britain. Further, this list would 
have been quite Impossible but for the great pains and trouble 
taken over the specimens by the Rev. F* D. Morice, of Woking, 
a well-known student of the Order, Not only has Mr. Morice 
seen the bulk of the specimens recorded, but has sent away all 
doubtful examples to Pastor Konow, of Teschendorf, Mecklen- 
burg, an expert of European fame. To these two workers 
entomologists in our counties owe a very great debt of grati- 
tude. As Saw-flies are commonly taken in the sweeping-net, 
I should be glad if our naturalists would let me have any speci- 
mens to look at, thus taken. Nor, because a species occurs 
abundantly in a certain locality, let them think that therefore it 
is a common one. There is no need to set out these insects. 
Larger species may be stuck on tall pins, near the top ; and 
small species on very fine ones, which may then be inserted on 
a tiny slip of card, through which a larger pin passes, A llltle 
judicious blowing after the insect is set on the pin will cause the 
wdngs to separate a little, thus exposing these latter organs and 
the body better. The larvae, which are very like caterpillars, 



mostly feed exposed on various plants and shrubs, and can 
easily be reared. The phenomenon of parthenogenesis is of 
very common occurrence in this group, and of many species only 
the females are known. As a rule, they are very pretty insects, 
and many species occur commonly almost everywhere ; and as 
they do not possess a sting, in spite of their menacing appear- 



ance, they may be freely handled, I need hardly say, that any 
specimens collected should have a neat and accurate label 
attached, giving place and date of capture. 

June 1899. 



1 66 Thornley: Hymenoptera Sesstlivenfres of Notts, and Lines. 

m 

J 

In the following lists, thirty species are to be credited to 
Nottinghamshire ; and fifty to Lincolnshire- This is due to the 
greater number of workers in the latter county ; and in some 
measure to the more varied character of the collecting errounds. 



£> fc> 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 



Sirex gigss L. Worksop, ^ where It occurs regularly ' 
(E. G. Alderson, Ent,, Oct., 1893, p. 303). Chilwell, 
* common there' (Douglas H. Pearson, Ent., Nov. 1892, 
p. 291). Grove, one <J (Rev. G. Shipton). South 
Leverton, one $ in my' greenhouse, about 1887; two $s 
.brought to me 28th June and 22nd July 1898 (Thornley). 

Sirex juvencus L. - Worksop, twice (E, G. Alderson, Ent., 
Oct. i8gi, p. 248). Chilwell, 8th October 1892 (Douglas 
H. Pearson, Ent., Nov. 1892, p. 291). 

Trichiosoma lucorum L. South Leverton, one (J, 1895 
(Thornley). 

Trichiosoma tibialis Steph, (==betuleti Cam,). South Lever- 
ton, two ^ s, May 1896 (Thornley). 

Pamphilius depressus Vill. South Leverton, one (J , about 

1895 (Thornley). 

Pamphilius sylvaticus L. South Leverton, two $ s, 1896 

(Thornley). 

Tenthredo atra L. South Leverton, one $ , van dispar 



Klug, 



May 1896 (Thornley). 



Tenthredopsis campestris L, Treswell Wood, one $ (var.), 
27th June 1898 (Thornley). 
NoTE.^This species is the scutellaris of Panzer. 

Teathredopsis spec. .nov. South Leverton, two examples, 

Ma}' and June 1897 (Thornley). 
Tenthredopsis litterata Geoff. South Leverton, one $, July 

1898 (Thornley). 
Note. — Mr. Morice remarks that this is the true male of 
cordata, microcephala, etc. ; see Ent. Mo. Mag., Sept. 1897. 

Tenthredopsis tilias Pz. { = raddatzi Konow). South Lever- 
ton, May 1897. Retford, July 1896 (Thornley). 

Pachyprotasis rapse L. South Leverton, May, July, Aug. 

1896 (Thornley). 

Macrophya ribis Schr. South Leverton, one ? , July 1S97 

(Thornley). 
Allantus arcuatus Forst, South Leverton, very common on 

UmhellifercB, Treswell Wood, with var. nitidior, 21st July 

1897 (Thornley). 

Xnturalist, 



¥ 

Thorn fey: Hymenoptera Sessilivcntres of Notts, and Lines. 167 

AUantus vespa Retz. Treswell Wood, two ^ s, 21st and 30th 
July 1897 (Thornley). 

Rhogogastera aucuparlw Klug. Nuthall, one ($ , 1898 (Free- 
stone), Broxstowe, one $ , 1898 (Freestone). 

Rhogogastera lateralis F. South Leverton, two $ s, May and 



J 



Lamble}^, 1898 (Freestone). 



Selandria serva F. South Leverton, 2 ? s, May 1S96 

(Thornley). 

Poecilosoma tridens Knw. South Leverton, one example, 

7th May 1898 (Thornley), 
Emphytus cinctus L. South Leverton, one c? » May; 1$, 

June 1897 (Thornley). Not uncommon this year, 1S98 

(Thornley). 

Athalia rosee L. South Leverton, June 1897 (Thornley). 
Treswell (Thornley). Retford (Thornley). 

Priophorus padi L, South Leverton, two examples, ^ s, May 

and Jvme 1896; one 5j 1897 (Thornley). 
Monophadnus albipes Gm. South Leverton, one $ , June 

1897 (Thornley). Treswell Wood, one ? , 27th June 1898 

(Thornley). 
Do/eras seneas L. Common, South Leverton (Thornley). 



Retford (Peg-ler). 



& 



(J 



Dolerus gonager F. South Leverton, one $, May 1896; one 

cJ, May 1897 (Thornley). Notting-ham, 21st May 1898 
(J. W. Carr). 
Dolerus lateritius Klug. Retford, one example, 1896 (Peg^ler). 



Dolerus pratensis Thoms. Sutton (Retford), one example, 

1896 (Thornley). 

Pachynematus caprese Pz. South Leverton, one ? , May 1896 

(Thornley). 
Pachynematus sp. nov. (or incog-.). South Leverton, one 9j 

F 

June 1896 (Thornley). 
Holocnemc tucida Vz. South Leverton, four $ s, May and 
June 1896 and 1897 (Thornley). 

LINCOLNSHIRE. 

Sirex gigas L. Kirton^u-Lhidsey (C. F. Georije, Science 
Gossip, Nov. i886, p. 259). Gauisboroug-h, ^ Ow^ just 
cmerg-ed from pupa,' 5th July 1859 (E. Tearle, Ent. Wkly. 
IntelL, i6th July 1859, p. 273), Lincolnshire, in the year 
1887, an unusual number oi S, gig-as occurred in the county 
(H. B. Wilson, in 'The Naturalist,' March 1896, p. 60). 

June iScjg. 



1 68 Thornley: Hymenoptera Sessiliventres of Notts, and Lines, 

Belton (Grantham), three examples, all $ s, July and Sept, 
1896 (Miss F. Woolvvard). Market Rasen, two 9 s, i8g8 
(Peacock). Ashby, two $ s and one $ (Dr. Cassal). Brig-g, 
iL2tKJuly 1898, one ? (Peacock). 

Sirex juvencus L. Kirton-in-Lindsey (C. F. George, Science 
Gossip, Nov. 1886, p. 259). Tothlll near Alford, one $, 
i8th Sept, 1889 (J. E. Mason)- Belton near Grantham, 
one $, 9th Sept. 1896 (Miss F. Woolward). 

Tenthredo atra L. Torksey, on^ ^ ^ June 1897 (S. Pegler). 

Tenthredo livida L. Cadney, four examples, 1898 (Peacock 
and Thornley). Ashby, three examples, 1898 (Dr. Cassal). 

Tenthredo mandibularis Pz. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 

* onQ ? , 13th July 1898 (Thornley). 
Tenthredo mesomelsena L. Ashby, one example, 1S98 

(Dr. Cassal). Cadney, seven examples, 1898 (Peacock and 

Thornley). 
Tenthredopsis campestris L. = [scutellaris Pz.). Scotton 

Common, one <;J , 1898 (Peacock). Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 

Epworth, 14th July 1898 (Thornley). Torksey, June 1897^ 

one ? (Thornley). 
Tenthredopsis coqueberti Klug. Great Cotes, 21st June 1S98, 

one example (Thornley). Cadney, one $ , 1898 (Peacock). 

Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, one example, 13th July 1898 

(Thornley).'' Mablethorpe, three 5 s, June 1897 (Thornley). 

Torksey, one c?, June 1896 (Thornley). 

Tenthredopsis dorsalis Lep, Mablethorpe, one ? , June 1897 

(Thornley). 

Tenthredopsis dorsivittata Cam. Great Cotes, 21st June 1898 

(Thornley)- 

Tenthredopsis litterata Geoff. Theddlethorpe, two <? s, June 
1896 (Thornley). Ashby, one van * caliginosa, ' 1898 
(Dr. Cassal). Cadney, two van ^ cordata/ 1898 (Peacock 
and Thornley). See earlier note about this species, A. T. 

Tenthredopsis tilise Pz. {^raddatzi Knw. =sagmaria Knw.). 

Mablethorpe, June 1897 (Thornley). Torksey, June 1897 
(Thornley). Great Cotes, 21st June 1898 (Thornley). 

Tenthredopsis sp. nov. Theddlethorpe, June 1896 (Thornley). 
Mablethorpe, June 1897 (Thornley). These examples are 
in the hands of Pastor Konow\ 

Rhogogastera aucaparise Klug {=gibbosa Cam.); Louth. 

Recorded as Tenthredo aiicuparic^ by H. Wallis Kew, in 



'The Naturalist,' Sept. 1886, p. 276. 



N aturaltst 



Thornley: Hymienoptera Sessiliventres of Notts, a?id Lhics. i6g 

ri 

Rhogogastera lateralis Fab. Linwood Warren, one ^, 1S98 
(Peacock). Cadney, one example, 1898 (Peacock). 

Rhogogastera punctulata King, Great Cotes, one example, 
2 1 St June 1898 (Thornley). Cadney, two examples, 1898 
(Peacock). 

Rhogogastera viridis L. Scotton Common, four examples, 
22nd June 1898 (Thornley). 

Altantus arcuatus Fost. Torksey, common as early as May 

(Thornley). Cadney, 1S98 (Peacock). Great Cotes and 
Freshney Bogs, 21st Jvme 1898 (Thornley). 

Allantus tenulus Scop. Cadney, one ^ + two ? s, 1898 (Peacock 
and Thornley). 

Allantus vespa Retz. Ashby, one example, 1898 (Dr. Cassal). 

Athalta rosw L. Grimsby, June 1896 (Thornley). Mable- 
thorpej June 1896 and 1897 (Thornley). Theddlethorpe, 
June 1896 and 1897 (Thornley). Linwood Warren, one ? , 
189S (Peacock). 

Blennocampa tenulcornis Kl. Cadney, one example, var. 
humeralis^alchetnillct Cam., March 189S (Peacock). 

Cephas pallipes Htg. ( = phtbisicus Fab.). Great Cotes, 
2ist June 1898, one $ (Thornley). 

Cephas pygmseas L, Mablethorpe, several spechuens picked 



up half drowned on the shore, June 1897 (Thornley). 
Cadney, common, both ^ and $, June 1898 (Peacock and 
Thornley). Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 13th July 1898 
(Thornley). 
Dolerus gonager Fab. Theddlethorpe, June 1896 (Thornley). 
Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). Linwood Warren, 1898 (Peacock). 
Great Cotes and Freshney Bogs, 21st June 1898 (Thornley). 
Louth (H. Wallis Kew, Nat., Sept. 1886, p. 276). 

Dolerus seneus L. Torksey, May 1896 (Thornley). Theddle- 

thorpe, June 1896 (Thornley). 

Dolerus hasmatodes Schr. Cadney, one example (Peacock). 
Dolerus lateritius Klug, Theddlethorpe, June 1896 (Thornley). 
Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). Linwood Warren, 1898 (Peacock). 

Dolerus pratensis L. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, one 9 , 

13th July 189S (Thornley), Cadney, one (J, March 1898 
(Peacock). South Kelsey, 1898 (Peacock). Epworth, 14th 
July 1898, two examples (Peacock and Thornley). 

Dineara nigricans C h r. ( viridedorsata Cam.). Scotton 

Common, one ?, 22nd June 1S98 (Thornley). 

June 1899. 



170 Thoruley: Hymenoptera Sessilivcjitrcs of Notts, and Lines. 

Emphytus cingutatus Scop. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 
Emphytus rufocinctus Retz. Cadney, two c^ s, 1898 (Peacock). 

I 

Emphytus serotinus Klug. (var. tarsatus Zett.). Somerby, 
and Oct. 1897, one example (Peacock). 

Monophadnus albipes Gmel. Hibaldstow, one $ , 1898 

(Peacock). 

Pachynematus caprese Pz. Theddlethorpe, one $ , June 1896 

(Thornley). 

Pachynematus sp. nov. (allied to above). Theddlethorpe, 
three examples, June 1896 (Thornley), 

Pachyprotasis rap^e L. Torksey, one $ , Aug. 1897 (Thornley). 

Pwcilosoma longicornis Thoms. Lhiwood Warren, one ■,$ , 

1898 (Peacock). 

Pristiphora (Nematus pars) paltidiventris Fall. Theddle- 
thorpe, one ^ , June 1896 (Thornley). 

L 

Pteronus {Nematus) myosotidis F. Cadney, one c? , 1898 
(Peacock), 

Pteronus (Nematus) ribesii Scop. Cadney, one ($ and one 

$ , 1898 (Peacock). 

Selandria interstitialis Th. { = sixii Cam.). Theddlethorpe, 
both (^ s and 5 s, common, June 1896 (Thornley), 

Selandria serva F. Mablethorpe, common \n June (Thornley). 

Theddlethorpe, common in June (Thornley), Torksey, not 
uncommon (Thornley). 

Taxonus glabratus Fall. Mablethorpe, two <? s, June 1897 
(Thornley). Theddlethorpe, one (^ , June 1896 (Thornley). 
Torksey, one c? , May 1896 (Thornley), 

Tomostethus fuliginosus Schr. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 
one ? , 14th July 1898 (Thornley). 

Tomostethus gagaihinus Kl. Great Cotes, 21st June i8g8, 

one cj (Thornley). 

Tomostethus luteiventris Kl. ( = fuscipennis Fall.). Great 
Cotes, one ? , 21st June 1898 (Thornley), Scotton Common, 
one ? , 1898 (Peacock). 

Tomostethus nigritus Fab. Theddlethorpe, one 5, June 1896* 

(Thornley). 

Amauronematus vittatus Lep. Scotton Common, one ? » 

(Peacock). 

Macrophya ribis Schr, Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 



171 



NOTE—BOTANY. 



Bortree or Bottery-Bush^the Elder.— In reply to Rev. W. C. 

Hey, the name Bortree or Bortree-bush is common enoug^h in the north of 
England and in Scotland, in various spellings. Without going- into the 
bibliography of the matter, a icw references may be of interest. HalHwell 
(Diet. Archaic and Provincial Words, ed. i., 1847, p. 321) gives a reference 
to the *Fromptorium Parvuloruih,* p. 137, an English-Latin dictionary, 
compiled, I believe, in 1440 by owe of the Dominicans, or Black Friars, of 
Bishops Lynn, Norfolk, and also a quotation from 'MS. Lincoln Med.,' 
f. 286. Here it is Bur-tree. In the abridgment of Jamieson's 'Scottish 
Dictionary,' 1S46, p, 80, coL 2, ' Borral Tree supposed the Bourtree,' and 
on 84, * Bourtree Bush, Boretree, Bountree, N. of Eng. Burtree,' and states 
it is so called because boys bore it, or in some manner extract the pith for 
their pop-guns. Napier, * Folklore of West Scotland,' 1S79, gives the name 
as * Bourtree.' I lately lived in a house named from the Elder, Bortree 
Stile, just outside Ulverston. I do not know what trust is to be placed in 
the following, but give it as a curiosity: — 1640. Parkinson, 'Theatre of 
Plants,' p. 209. He says, 'In Latin Sambucus, of Sambix as it is thought 
the first thereof; but Onintus Serenus calleth it Snbucus in his verses, and 
thought to be derived from Sabucus or Sambucus as Hermolaus saith, 
which is an hollow instrument of music, called also Peetis, etc., Magadis.' 
This is, I suppose, a ^pipe'? The local pronunciation in N. Lancashire 
and Cumberland is Bur-tree, hence Bottery = Bortree. I have no access to 
the 'Oxford Eng. Diet.' or Bretton and Holland's * Plant Names,* but no 
doubt the question is thrashed out there. — S. L. Petty, Ulverston, ist 
April 1899. 




NOTE— MAMMALIA. 

Badgers in Lincolnshire. — I exhibited to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' 
Union at Woodhall Spa the skin of a Badger {Meles tneles), killed at Wood- 
hall. They used to be common on the Kirkby Moor, near Woodhall Spa, 
but are now quite extinct there. I do not know whether Mr. Hawle}* has 
any in his woods, but they still survive (I think Mr. Skipworth could tell us) 
in the rocks at Holbeck. This one was caught by some boys in a large 
rabbit hole on my land, within a hundred yards of the blacksmith's shop at 
Woodhall Spa. I have another specimen stuffed, which Mas killed at some 
rabbit holes on the Horncastle Canal bank, between Martin and Scrivelsby, 
It is, again I would say, a great pity that these last representatives of wild 
nature should be killed off wherever they are seen. The badger especially 
—the only representative of the bear family in England — is quite harmless. 
Though found sometimes in rabbit holes, it is not there to eat the rabbits ; its 
usual diet being mice, frogs, beetles, snails, an occasional hedgehog, and 
vegetable roots. As I mentioned in 1897 at Hoibeck, the badger is very 
cleanly in its habits ; and although it is not an uncommon thing for a fox 
to harbour in a badger's burrow, it is to the advantage of the fox, which is 
an\'thing but a tidy creature, and brings dead chickens and all sorts of 
carrion to his den, and leaves them there to rot, whereby he sometimes gets 
mangy ; but the badger sweeps out the home like a tidy housemaid, and so 
cotUributes to its healthiness. It was only yesterday that I read in^ an 
interesting book, published this year (1898/, *'Hunting Reminiscences,' by 
Alfred E. Pease, M.P., in a chapter on Badger Hunting, the following 
remarks: — * Apart from shaving brushes, the Badger has his uses. He is 
a destroyer of wasps and small vermin, and an excellent maker ot fox- 
earths. In countries where mange in foxes has become a scourge, the 
preservation of badgers would do much to remox'e this plague, for they are 
wonderful cleansers of earths.' The skin is 2 feet to inches in length, and 
niy stuflfed specimen is about the same-— J. Conway Walter, Langton 
Rectory, Horncastle, 1 8th Aug. 1898. 

June 1899 



172 



IMO TES—MA M MALI A. 



Badger near Tadcaster. — 1 have in my possession a living- example 

of Meles meles which was caught in my grounds at the Castle Hill, ow 14th 
Feb. ; it is a female, weighing 12 lbs., and apparently about 2)^ years old ; 
the day before its capture a dog badger was shot about iwelve or fourteen 
miles further up the river Wharfe, after a fight with a keeper's ^^%' 
W. Callum, Grammar School, Tadcaster, nth May, 1899. 

White (Albino) ffares near Horncastle.— I presented a white Hare 

[Lepiis eiiropceus) and two Leverets to our museum in Lincoln Castle two 
years ago. Specimens of these albinos have been seen in this neighbour- 
hood, to ni}- knowledge, for many years. It would be some time in the 
* fifties' that there was One in my parish of Langton. As a boy I tried to 
get it, but it was shot in the next parish, Thimbleby. On Kirkby Moor 
I once shot a brace, right and left, which got up together, with white face, 
breast, and forelegs. One of these I have stuffed. Of late years they 
have increased in number and have been found over a much extended area. 
Our friend, Mr. Fieldsend, has taken umch interest In this subject, and 
made extensive inquiries in various directions. He sent a letter on 
the subject to the ' Field ' new^spaper, but the columns of that paper were 
so crowded with reports of cricket matches, etc., that they very much cut 
down his interesting communication. He has, however, kindly lent to me 
some of the letters which he received, and the substance of them may be 
briefly stated thus : — 

An albino Hare w^as shot by the Rev, R. W. Otter, in Ranby, on 19th 
October 1860; Mr, Otter also reports that two were seen in the parish of 
Clayvv'orth, near Bawtry, in 1896. 

Major Egerton, shooting with Mr. Vyner's party, in Baumber, 17th 
September 1896, shot one. 

One was shot by Mr. Charles Leslie Melville, in Rranston, in September 
1895 5 ^"^ *^'"^^ ^^ ^'wo were shot in Bracebridge abottt the same time. 

M}- own specimen was shot in Woodhall in 1896; and one was shot by 
Captain Mason, of Mr. Edmund Tumor's shooting parly, in Wispington, in 
the same year. 

One was shot at Thorpe Tinley, in the parish of Timberland, on Mr. 
J. D. Bowlings shooting, of Thorpe Tinley Hall, on 19th October 1897 
(with slight tinge of brown on the tips of the ears) ; and in May of this 
year (1898) there was still one frequtmtly to be seen in the same place, and 
one was shot In Timberland parish in 1895, 

I have not heard oi any being seen in my o\xx\ neighbourhood this year, 
but the poaching has been so excessive that, though hares were fairly 
plentiful last year, we have now hardly a hare left. In fact, it has been said 
that the only hare in my parish is a tame one which I have in a cage 
with two rabbits : as I am trying myself to get a hybrid between the two. 

Q{ course we all hear of isolated cases of albinos of various kinds ; 
and I may here say that n\\ friend, the well-known Nottinghamshire 
naturalist, Mr. J. Whitaker, of Raiusworth Lodge, Mansfield, has a large 
collection of albinos, which he has made his special study. We hear of 
white Rooks, white Sparrows, etc. White Partridges were sliot last year 
not far from Louth ; and a friend o^ mine, Colonel Fenton, a great Indian 
sportsman, who was selected some years ago to act as shikari to the 
Prince o^ Wales on His Royal Highnoss's visit to India, last 3-ear shot 
a white Blackhuck, in Kattiwar, in the western province of Bombay. 

I have here a bufi' F^Iackblrd (Tunfus merula) caught in my own g'^i^den 
at Woodludl Spa_; buff broods were produced two years in succession by, 
I suppose, the same brown hen. Two years ago a buff Hare was siiot 
near Bourne, in this coimty. 

The above data will show, however, that the Albino Hare is not so great 
a rarity as has been supposed, and that it is found over a large area in 
this neighbourhood. — J. CONWAV Walter, Langton Rectory, Fiorncastle, 
1 6th August 1898. 

H ' — ' — 4^ 

Naturalist, 



173 



BIRD-NOTES FROM THE HUMBER DISTRICT. 



\ 



JOHN CORDEAUX, J.P., F.R.G.S., M.B.O.U,, 

Great Cotes House, R.S.O., Lincohi\ Ex-President of the Yorkshire Hnd Lincolnshire 

Naturalists^ Unio7is, 



(Contjjiued Uon-i 'The Naturalist' for February 1S99, p. 35.) 



Pugnacity of Redbreast. Recently, when writing, I observ^ed 
two cock Robins on the lawn desperately fighting*, their feet 
locked and rolling about. When I next looked one had 
flown, the other remained, a little pufFed-out ball of feathers, 
on the grass, I found it was quite dead ; smoothing its 
feathers, I placed it in quite a natural position on some moss 
of a rockery near the window, intending to instruct my 
little granddaughter in the art of putting salt on a bird's 
tail. The dead Robin, however, had not been long in 
this position before it was furiously attacked by another, 
presumably the victor ; feathers were struck from its head 
and the body thrown to the ground, and the determined 
small assailant executing a sort of war dance in the air 
or flutter above the body. We are so accustomed to 
associate the * messenger of calm-decay' with Christmas 



cards and ' peace on earth,' that this exhibition of vindic- 
tiveness towards a possible rival was a proof that there is 



more than one side to the Redbreast's character. 



Coccothruustes vulgaris Pallas, Hawfinch. Pyrrhula 
europwa Vieillot. Bullfinch. On 28th January I saw 

a Hawfinch and Bullfinch on the same curved shoot of the 
wild rose regaling themselves with hips. 

On nth February, wlien rabbit-shooting with Mr. Haigh 
in one of his covers, I noticed during the day scores of 
Bullfinches, also several Hawfinches ; the latter were 
quickly on the wing, collecting near the top of some high 
ash, otherwise they did not seem greatly disturbed by the 
noise. The cover was just such a haunt as the Hawfinch 
loves, old hawthorns arid much thick blackthorn and 
gor^e, with here and there a solitary forest tree. 

Grey Geese. loth and nth February. Mr. Haigh says the 
coastguard of North Cotes saw many pass over at this date* 

Sturnus vulgaris L. Starling. 12th March. A very ^fvann, 
summer-like day. There were about a score of Starlings 
on the wing over the house from 12.30 to 2 p.m. taking 
flies. The air was full of these insects, which appeared to 
be about the size of the hawthorn fly. 

June 1899. ^ 



174 Cordeanx: Bird-Notes frorn the Himiber District. 

Anas boscas L. Wild Duck, isfc April. I saw twelve pair 

to-day, male and female together, dabbling in the tide edge 
of the Humber. 

Rallus aquaticus L. Water, Rail. 4th April. One struck 

Flamborough light soon after midnight and was killed. 
On the same night, and about the same hour, two Golden- 

w 

crested Wrens. A remarkably fine Woodcock also killed 
against one of the wires near Filey Station on night of 4th. 

Saxicola oenanthe (L.). Wheatear. ist to 4th April. 

First arrivals on Yorkshire coast. A very considerable 
immigration at the Spurn, Flamborough, Filey Brigg, and 
Scarborough Castle Hill; at the two latter observed by 
Mr. W. J. Clarke. 

On 3rd May, at Great Cotes, I saw tw^o pair, males and 
females, of the handsome large tree-perching race, which 
each year in May pass northward through this district, 
presumably en route for Iceland and Greenland, 

Regulus cristatus K. L. Koch. Golden-crested Wren. In 

the last week of March and early in April quite a number 
about in the coast districts on their spring migration. On 
I St April I saw one caught in the main street of Grimsby. 

On 2 1st April there was a swarm of Golden-crested Wrens 
at Flamborough, filling the hedges, and on the i8th and 
subsequently many also at Easington, in the Spurn district, 
some being picked up dead, suggestive of an unfavourable 
passage of the North Sea. The w^ind N.E., and hazy during 
the period. This is the first time I have had to record an 
immigration of these little wanderers in the spring. 

Uria troile (L.). Guillemot. Mr. Bailey told me (4th April), 
that a pure w^hite Guillemot had been picked up at sea off 
Flamborough, but too much decayed to make anything ot. 
Another recently seen by the fishermen had w^hite wings. 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus Pallas. Sand-grouse. A flight ot 

thirty, or about that number, continued to frequent a retired 
and lonely locality on the Lincolnshire North Wolds from 
the last w^eek in February to the 23rd or 25th of March. 
Here they were frequently seen by competent observers 
who were well acquainted with the birds in 1S88. On the 
present occasion their chief haunt was a sandy field on 



the same farm where they were first seen in 1888, and it 



w^as here I picked up some of their body feathers at one of 
the dusting places. The birds got much tamer during the 




Cordeattx: Bird-Xofes from the Humber District, 17 ^ 



severe arctic weather in March, resorting to the vicinity of 
a row of wheat stacks on the slope of the wold. They 
were not seen after the break-up of the storm. 

I have fairly reliable evidence from a man who shot some 
in 1888 that a small flig-ht were seen at Flamboroug-h in 
March. The probability is that the}- have left the country 
altog*ether, none having- been so far recorded in any other 
part of Great Britain. Since writing- this a friend sends 
word that ow 19th May he saw a single Sand-grouse on his 
property; this is the adjoining parish ow the Lincohishlre 



Wold 



A small flight 



'h f 



also near Easington on 13th May, as Mr. Loten informs me. 

■ 

Charadrius pluvialis L. Golden Plover. 25th March, Some 

large flocks in summer plumage on grass and wheat lands 
in the middle marsh ; they left before April came in. 

Numenius arquata (L.). Curlew, Very abundant in flocks, 
both inland and on the coast in the last week in March ; 

20 to ICO. 

Upupa epops L. Hoopoe. 18th April, One seen at Kllnsea 
near the Spurn. 

Eudromias morinellus (L. ). Dotterel. i st May. Thi 

beautiful spring visitor appears to become scarcer every 
. year. At this date one was killed against the road-side 
telegraph wire at Skeffling, near Easington, and taken to 
Mr. Philip Loten. This bird has a melancholy interest, for 
it is mentioned in the very last note sent me by the late 
Mr. H. B. Hewetson, as dictated by him to his nurse a few 
days before his death, 

Plectropbeaax nivalis (L.). Snow Bunting. 3rd May. 

Mr. Bailey saw one at Flamboroug^h. This is a very late 
occurrence. 

Arrival of Summer Migrants. — 8th April, Cuckow (Flam- 
borough), 1 2th April (Easington), seen; 1st April, Wheatear; 



3oth April, Swallow (Great Cotes); 21st April, Common 
Whitethroat and Redstart (Flamborough); 29th April, 
House Martin and Wiiinchat (Great Cotes) ; 3rd Ma} , Yellow 
Wagtail; 4th May, Lesser Whitethroat; 6th May, Spotted 
Flycatcher; nth May, Sand Martin, In great numbers; 
13th May, Reed and Sedge Warblers, most abundant in 
willow holts; 14th May, Swifts; 19th May, Garden Warbler ; 
all these latter at Great Cotes. 



June 1899. 



1 76 Notes — Orniihology, 

FuUguta marila (L). Scaup. 20th May. I noticed one adult 

male and female off the sluice in this parish this morning, 
also some small flocks of the Common Scoter, male and 
female, all adult. ■ Further out in the river some other 
ducks, probably — from their size, colour, and pose on the 
water — Fuligula crisiata. 

\ 

Limosa lapponica (L.). Bar-tailed Qodwit. 20th May. 
A small flock boring the muds along the tide edge ; no 
red-breasted birds amongst them. 

I 

Muscicapa atricapllla L. Pied Flycatcher. Mr. Philip Loten 

says — in litt,— a considerable number the last fortnight and 
up to the 19th May near and about Easington. 




NOTES— ORNITHOLOGY. 

Kingfisher within City-limits, Lincoln. — In the year 1897 a pair of 

Kingfishers (Alcedo ispida L.) bred in the rockery overhanging^ an artificial 
pool containing- Trout (Salmo fario L.) in the i^arden of Mr. C. J. Fox, 
Lindum Terrace, in the city of Lincohi. They reared a brood of four and 
left in the autumn of that year. Nothing- was seen of them in 1898, but in 
January of this year a pair again appeared at the same place. This is 
interesting to note, inasmuch as the house, though surrounded by a walled 
garden, is well within the city limits, and passers by are frequent. I had 
the inform;Ltion from i\Ir. Fox himself, and have myself seen the spot. — 

J AS. Eardley Mason, Kenmare, Ireland, April 1899. 

Nidification of Woodpeckers near Harrogate. ^Last year (1S9S) 

I found the Greater Spotted VV'oodpecker [Deudrocopus major) nesting in 
Haverah Park, and near to it, not more than thirty yards away, the 
Green Woodpecker (Gecinus viridis) also had its nest. 

This year, near to Woodhall Bridge, I found the nest of the Lesser 
Spotted Woodpecker {Dendroajpus muwr) and that of the Green Wood- 
pecker in different limbs of the same tree. The Pirns minor I have not 
found nesting- in this neighbourhood before. I watched it for at least half 
an hour, and saw it several times enter its nesting hole. 

I think the breeding of the Lesser Spotted Woodpecker in this neigh- 
bourhood Is worth recording. — Kenneth McLean, Pennine View, Harro- 
gate, ist May 1899. 

Horncastle Bird-notes. — In walkint^ to Tumby a fortnight aj^o, along 
the Horncastle Canal, I put up a Green Sandpiper (Helodromas ochropus)^ 
the only one I have seen this year. A few of those birds and some other 
birds seem to pass over us and stay a few days with us on their course ui 
migrating' early in Aug-ust. Most years lately I have seen two or three of 
them, putting them up at solitary ponds. 

The next day after seeing^ the Green Sandpiper, I put up a Smpe 
(Gallinago gallinagi^ from a pond in one of my fiehis in Lang'ton. I uid 
not see a single Snipe last winter, but this was evidently on its passnsre, 
and probably only stayed a day, as I have not seen it as^ain. 

A flight of Wild Ducks [Anas bnschns) also passed over a few days ago, 
and a larg-e flock of Green Plover ( Vanellns vancllus). The Wild Duck, 
I may say, occasionally nests in the ling: on Kirkby Moor, away from all 
water, and I once knew T OtiXXQucrqucduIa crccca) do so also. — J. CosW.W 
Walter, Lang:ton Rectory, Horncastle, iSth Aug-ust 1S9S. 

Naturalist 



177 



NOTES SUPPLEMENTARY TO 

THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE, 

INCLUDING THE MOSSES. 



Rev. W. H. PAINTER, 

Siifchhy Jieciory, near Shi/nal, Coyretpondittg Member of the Birmingham Xatural 

History ttnd Philosophical Society, and of the l^itiningham ^ficroscopists* 

attd JVatiira/is/s* Cftiott. 



SixxE the publication, in 1889, of my * Contribution to the 
Flora of Derbyshire,' sev^eral plants have been discovered in the 
county, and additional habitats have been obtained through the 
dilig-ence of resident botanists ; hence the time has come for the 
publication of these supplementary notes. 

The arrangement and nomenclature of the plants in the 
following" pag-es are the same as those of my book above 
mentioned, and to facilitate reference I have quoted the number 
of each plant recorded, as well as the page of the book on which 
it occurs. I have also given, where necessary, as synonyms, the 
names which have appeared in the ninth edition of the London 
Catalogue of British Plants, where they differ from those given 
above. These synonyms are printed in italics. 

I am indebted to the Rev. R. C. Bindley, Vicar of Mickleover, 
for some additional plants and habitats, to the Rev. Hllderic 
Friend, of Tipton, Staffordshire, and Mr. Thomas Fox, of 
Sheffield, for much information respecting plants growing in the 
eastern part of the county. The names of these three botanists 
are placed against the plants recorded ol^ their authority. 

The reports of ' The Exchange Club for the British Isles ' for 
the years 1890-6 have been examined for Derb3'shire plants 
mentioned in them, and are quoted under the letters B.E.C. 
The names of the Revs. E, F. and W. R. Linton frequently 
appear in connection with these reports. When Linton only is 
given, the latter gentleman is intended, as his name occurs very 
often, and to him I am indebted for many specimens, especially 
o{ the Rubi. I am also indebted to Dr. Focke, of Bremen, 
and to the Rev. W, Moyle Rogers for reporting on the Rubi. 



In my book several plants w^re quoted from the * Topo- 
graphical Botany' of Mr. H. C. Watson, without any authority 
being given ; but latterly I have been able to trace the authorities 
upon which that author relied, and these are now given. 

The following books are added to those mentioned in my 
' Contribution ' in connection with the Bibliography of the 
botany of this county : 

June 189P. 



178 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 

1640. Theatrum Botanicum ; J. Parkinson. 
1650. Phytolog^la Britannica ; W. How. 

1666. Pinax Rerum Natnralium Britannicarum ; C. Merrett. 
1855. Wilson's Bryolog^ia Britannica. 
1882-96. Braithwaite's British Moss Flora. 
1886. Handbook to the Peak of Derbyshire, by W. H. 

Robertson, M. D. , with a Botanical Commen- 
tary, etc., by Miss Hawkins. 
Correspondence with some of the friends who co-operated 
with me in compilation has broug^ht to lig"ht various errors, some 
of them my own. The more important of these are corrected in 
the following- pages. Here I seize the opportunity of expressing 
my regret that the name of my friend, the late Mr. J. Whittaker, 
of Morley, was not included amongst those who assisted me in 
compiling my book. 

Since the publication of my * Flora,' I have had to deplore the 
decease of five of the botanists who took an active part with me 
in compiling it, viz. : — 

Mr, J. Hagger, F.L.S., Repton, deceased March ist, 1895, 

whose Herbarium is now at University College, 
Nottingham. 

Mr. J. T. Harris, Burton-on-Trent, deceased Oct. 3rd, 1893. 
Rev. J. C. Hasse, Ockbrook, deceased December 12th, 1894. 
Mr. J. Whitehead, Oldham, deceased May 6th, 1S96. 
Mr. J. Whittaker, Morley, deceased March 3nd, 1894, whose 

Herbarium is now in the Museum, Derby. 



With three of them, Mr. Hagger, the Rev. J. C. Hass*^, and 
Mr. Whittaker, I was more intimately associated than with the 
others, and the memory of the pleasant intercourse that I had 



with them will be always fresh with me. Thus the stream of 
time flows on ; thus one labourer follows another ; but happy 
are those who exchange earthly for heavenly service in the 
presence of God ! 

In my ^Contribution' no mention was made of the Mosses 
growing in Derbyshire. This defect is now remedied. These 
' Supplementary Notes ' include not only those found by 
Mr. Whitehead in the northern part of the county, but the 
Rev. A. Ley has placed at my disposal notes upon those he met 
with in the neighbourhood of Buxton, etc., between the years 
1871-86, whilst the Rev. R. C. Bindley above-mentioned has 
handed me a list of those observed bv him chiefly in the neigh- 
bourhood of Derby. To these I have added a few found by mysen 
in various parts of Derbyshire, all of which have been submitted 
to Mr. Whitehead. Against these the above names have been 
placed, whilst the usual sign ! appears against those seen by me. 

Naturalist. 



Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 



^79 



The Census of Plants for Derbyshire now stands thus : 



TYPES OF DISTRIBCTrON 



British 
Eng-lish ... 
Germanic... 

Hig^hland... 
Scottish ... 

Atlantic .,. 

Intermediate 
Local 



t 9- 



* » » 



\ ■- 



4 * 



P 4 



* ^ 



* • ■ 



# ^ fr 



» d- 



* ■ # 



4 # 



^ « « 



486 
222 

9 

29 

3 

16 



3 

-7S2 



Specimens of nearly all the plants recorded in my ' Contribu- 
tion/ and in the following- ' Notes/ have been placed in the 
Derby Museum, and my own collection will now be presented to 
the British Museum. 



PHANEROGAMIA. 



I- Clematis Vitalha I 



Page 



II. III. Mug'gington 



f 



II. Ranunculus circinatus S\hih, Page 12. 

IL Spinkhill, near Chesterfield, C. Waterfall. 
III. Between Stanton-by-Dale and Dale Abbey ! 

II. Ranunculus fluitans Lam. Page 12- 

L Bradwell, Fox. IIL Brailsford, Linton^ E. C. Report, 



p. 398. Between Chellaston and Swarkestone! 



12. 



Page 13. 



Page I 'X. 



Ranunculus Lenormandl F. 

in. Mickleover, Bindley, 

13. Ranunculus hederaceus L. 

I. Brad well, Fox. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

16. Ranunculus Lingua L. Page 13. 

I. Cottage Pond, Chatsworth, Gem of the Pet 
IL South Normanton, Coke'wi Pilkington, 



Hist 



Tutbury. 

i^. Ranunculus auricomus L. 



Pa£re 13 



£> 



IL Hague Lane, Renishaw, Waterfall 
IIL Near Sudbury! 

Ranunculus sceleratus L. Page 13. 

IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

25. Ranunculus arvensis L. Page 14. 

IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

26. Caltha palustris L. Page 14. 
New, Var. Guerangerii (Boreau). 



IIL Bradley, Linton, B. E. C. Report, pp. 244 and 399. 



June 1899. 



i8o 



ofD. 



4 

J 

29. Helleborus viridis L. Page 15. 

I. Dovedale, C, T. Green. Near Ashbourne, Bindley. 
Delphinium Ajacis Reich b. Page 15. 

III. Repton, Hagger, 

35. Berberis vulgaris L. Page 15. 

II. Millhouses, near Sheffield, Fox. 

41. Papaver dubium L. Page 16. V ar. Lamottei (Bor.). 



III. Findern, Bindley. Swarkestone ! 

42. Papaver Rhosas L. Page 16. 

III. Repton, Hagger ; Wxckleover, Bindley. 
45. Ciielidonium ma/us L. Page 16. 

III. Mickleover, Etwall, Bindley. 
48. Corydalis (Nec/ieria) claviculata DC. (N.E.Br.). Page 16. 

I. Grindleford, Fox. Ill, Near Muggington ! 

51. Fumaria officinalis L. Page 16. 

I. Norton, near Sheffield, Fox. 
II. Near Chesterfield, Fox. III. Repton, Hagger. 
58. Coronopus Ruellii Gaertn. (All). Page 17. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 
60. Thlaspi arvense L. Page 17. III. Stapenhill, Harris, 
o. Lepidium campestre L. fR.Br.^. 



/ 



I. Matlock Bath ! 



Page 18. 



72. Cochlearia officinalis L. Page 18, 

Var. alpina Wats. 



I. Pindale, near Castleton ; Bradwell Dale, Fox. 

78. Draba mu rails L. Page 19. I. Dovedale, Bindley. 

79. Draba verna L. {Erophila vulgaris TiC.). 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

84. Cardamine amara L. Page 19. 

I. Haddon ; Cromford, Bindley. 
II. Canal Bank, Renishaw, Waterfall. 

III. Mackworth! Between Duffield and Ireton! Repton, 

Bindley. 

86b. Cardamine sylvatica Link. {C. flexuosa With.). Page 19. 

III. Breadsall! 

87. Cardamine impatiens L. Page 20. I. Monsal Dale. 



88. 



J 



I. Cromford ; Dovedale, Bindley. Matlock B'ath ! 
III. Anchor Church, Bindley. 
Arabis petrxa. I. Middleton Dale, Mr. Coke in Bot. Guide. 
[Arabis albida Stew. Rocks opposite High Tor, Matlock 

Bath, Hind,/. B. High Tor ; well established !j 

Naturalist, 



* 

Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. i8i 

98. Nasturtium officinale R,Br. Page 20, 

I. Brad\veII,7^(7;c* III. Mickleover; Radbourne,^/??^^/^^^'. 
Chellaston ! Near Breadsall Priory ! 

99. Nasturtium terrestre R.Br. {N. palustre DC). Page 21. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley, 
roo. Nasturtium sylvestre R.Br. Page 21. 

11. Between Renishaw and Eckington, Waterfall. 

loi. Nasturtium amphibium R.Br. Page 21. 

III. Canal, Findern, Bindley, 

106. Erysimum ctieiranthoides L. Page 21, 

III. Cultivated ground, Mickleover, Bindley. 

123. Raplianus Raptianistrum L. Page 22. 

IIL Between Etwall and Willington, Hagger. Not 

Repton, as in Flora, 

125. Reseda Luteola L. Page 22. 

II. Stretley, near Shireoaks, Fox, 

133. Viola odorata L. Page 23. 

II. Renishaw; Staveley,etc., VValerfalL Nr, Norton, Fox. 
f. allfa (Lange) non Besser, II. Near Norton, Fox. 

^35- Viola sylvatica Fries, var. Riviana R. ( V. Riviana 

Reich.). Page 23. III. Quarndon ! Morley ! 

Viola Riviniana Rchb. x sylvestris Rchb. 
III. Hollington, near Shirley, Linton^ B, E. C. Rep., p. 325, 



Viola canina Auct. Markeaton Wood, Glover s History. 

137- Viola lutea Huds. Page 24. 

' L Bradwell Hills; Bradwell Edge; Castleton, Fox. 
Var, amoena Syme. (Symons). L Matlock Bath, Stnith, 

Drosera longi folia L. {a7iglica Huds.). 

I. Abney Moor ; East Moor ; Moors near Buxton, 

Getn of the Peak. 
141. Poly gala vulgaris h. Page 24. 

L Grindleford; Bradwell, /y-V. 
141. Polygala depressa Wender (serpyllucea Weihe). Page 25. 



Hi 



146. Dianthus Armeria L. Page 25. 



Waterfall 



152. Silene inflata Smith {S. Cncubalus Wibel). Page 25. 

IL Cresswell, Fox. HI. Mickleover, Bindley. 

156, Silene nutans L. Page 25, 

I. Flag Dale, near Buxton, C. T. Green. 
165. Lychnis Githago Scop. Page 26- 



I. Brough. IL Norton, Fox. IIL ISlicklQCx^r, Bindley. 



June 1899. 



i82 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 



171. Sagina nodosa E. Meyer (FinzL). Page 26. 



Wat erf I 



172- Spergula arvensis L. Page 27. 

i 

III. xA.bout Repton, Hago'er\ Mickleover, Bindley. 

1 78, Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Page 27. 

III. Turnditch ! Mickleover^ Biiid/ey, 



Wall 



179. Arenaria tenuifolia L. Page 27. 



Whittak 



should read, ' Whitehead' and the other record, 
* Heights of Abraham, Matlock Bath,' was an 

error of the recorder. 

180. Arenaria verna L. Page 27. 

I. Bradwell, Fox ; Wirksworth, Bindley. 

184. Stellaria nemorum L. Page 28. 

;on, Waterfall, 

1S5. Stellaria umbrosa Opiz. Page 28, III. Near Sudbury! 
191. Cerastium aquaticum L, {Stellaria aquatica Scop.). P. 29. 



III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

Linum ansrustifolium Hi 



Page 29. 
, Waterfall 



204. Malva moschata L. P. 29. III. Near Ashbourne, Bindley. 

205. Malva sylvestris L. Page 30. 

I. Bradwell, Fox. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

206. Malva rotundifolia L. Page 30. 

III. Milton, Haffger\ Mickleover, Bindley. 

211. Tilia parvifolia Ehrh. [T, cordafa 'SVxW). Page 30. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

213. Tilia grandiflora Ehrh. {T. platyphyllos Scoi^.). 

I. High Tor, Matlock Bath,/. H. A. Stewart, B. E. C. 

Report, p. 404. IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

Tilia intermedia DC. {T. vulgaris Hayne). Page 30. 
IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

215. Hypericum perforatum L. Page 30. 

L Bradwell, Fox. 
II. Renishaw, Scarcliffe Woods, Waterfall. 
III. Mickleover, Bindley; Breadsall ! Near Muggington I 

216. Hypericum dubium Leers. Page 31. 

L Matlock, Ch. Babington in New Bot. Guide. 

217. Hyp. quadranguium L. {H. quadra tuni Stokes). Page 3X. 

I. Bradwell, Fox. 



IIL Mickleover, Bindley; near Muggington ! 



Naturalist, 



Painter: .Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 183 

218. Hypericum humifusum L. Page 31. 

L Bradwell, Fox. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

220. Hypericum pulctirum L. Page 31. 

L Bradwell, Fox. III. Between Etwall and Barnaston, 

Hagger\ Mickleover, Bindley. 

221. Hypericum hirsutum L. Page 31. 

III. Mickleover, Bi/idley. 

222. Hypericum montanum L. Page 31. 



225 



I. Near Hartington, Bindley. 

?r catnpestre L. Pae^e ^^ 



o 

II. Stanton-by-Dale ! About Renishaw ; Clinker Wood, 

Waterfall. 

230. Geranium sylvaticum L. Page 1^2. 

L Zig-zag Walk, Matlock, Glover's History. 

231. Geranium pratense L. Page 32. III. Swarkestone ! 

232. Geranium pyrenaicum L. Page 1,1,. 

III. Markeaton Road, Derby, Glover's History. 

245. Euonymus europa^us L. 11. Stretley, Fox. 

246. Rliamnus catliarticus L. Page 34. 

I. High Tor, Matlock Bath ! Ill, Mickleover, Bindley. 

Between Stanton-by-Dale and Dale Abbey ! 

248. Sarotttamnus scoparius Koch (Cytisas seoparius Lk. ). P. 35. 

I. Edale, Fox. II. Between Renishaw and Staveley, 

Waterfall. III. Willington! 

■ 

250, Ulex Gailii Planch. Page 35. I. Bradwell, Fox. 

III. Near Muer^rineton ! Near Breadsall Moor! 

251, Genista tinctoria L. Page 35. 

I. High Tor, Matlock Bath ! Bradwell, Fox. 
II. Stanton-by-Dale! Hawthorn Mill, between Eckington 

and Staveley, Waterfall. III. Mickleover, Bi?idley, 

254. Ononis arvensis L. {O. repens L.). Page 35. 

I. Wormhill ! 11. Cresswell, Fox. 
HI. Repton and Milton, Hagger. 

257. Anthyilis Vuineraria L, Page 36. L Matlock Bath ! 

IL Cresswell, Fox. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 
New. Medicago denticulata Willd. III. .Mickleover, Bindley. 
264. Metilotus officinalis Willd. (Lam,). Page 36. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

Meliiotus arvensis Wallr. Alien, Pai^e 36. 



II L Repton, //agger. 



New. Meliiotus indica All. Alien. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

June i!^> 



184 Painter: Stipplejnent to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

i I 

272. Tri folium medium L. Pag^e 37. 

III. Mickleover, Biiidley \ Canal bank, Willing-ton ! 

75. Trifolium arvense L. Page 37. III. Flndern, Bindley^ 

284. Lotus major Scop. (Z. nliginosus Schkuhr). 

III. Findern, Bindley, Willington I 

291. Ornithopus perpusitlus L. Page 38. 

III. Findern ; Eggington, Bindley. 

297. Vicia Cracca L. Page 38. 

I. Brough, Fox. III. Turnditch ! 

298. Vicia angustifolia L, Page 39. 

I 

III. Turnditch ! Morley ! 

303. Vicia hirsuta Gray. Page 39, III, Mickleover, Bindley. 

304. Vicia tetrasperma Moench. (V. ^emella Crantz), Page 39. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 
312. Orobus tuberosus L. {Lathy rus monianus Bernh.). Page 40. 

I. Near Bradwell, Fox. 
II. West Hallam, Bindley \ Totley, near Sheffield, Fox. 
III. Mickleover; Repton Shrubs, Bindley, 

314. Prunus spinosa L. Page 40. 

II. Near Holmesfield, Fox. III. Near Derby ! 
314. Prunus insititia Huds. Page 40. 

IL Stanley, Hasse (not Hanley, as in ' Flora'). 
III. Derby! 
Prunus domestica L. Page 40. 1 1. Staveley, IValerfalL 
316. Prunus Avium L. Page 41. Ill, Duffield ! 
318. Spirsea Filipendula L. P. 41. I. Youlgreave, C. T. Green. 

[Spiraea opulifoHa W. ? 



Hedges, H ass op, planted, Bailey.] 

322. Geum rivaie L. Page 41. 

I. Haddon and Cromford, ^/Mi//^ ; near Bradwell, i^tJ-^v, 
III. Hognaston, Bindhy. 

322B. Geum intermedium Ehrh. [G. rivaled tirhanuni). P. 41. 

I. Chee Dale ! 

322. PotentiUa procumbens Sibth. Page 42. 

III. Bradley, Linton^ B, E. C. Report, p- 259, 
334. Comarum palustris L. {P. palnstris Scop.). Page 42. 

I. Hogshaw Lane, Buxton, C. T. Green. 

Z29'^''R^bus Idseus L. Page 43, 

New. Var. Leesii Bab. III. Shirley, Linton, B. E. C. Report, 

page 284; Hulland Ward, Linton^ I.e., p. 326. 



* I have arranged this genus according- to Lond. Cat., Ed. ix. The 
numbers prefixed to the species are those of my book. _ 

Naturalist, 



Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 185 



Wood 



340. 4- Rubus fissus Lindl. Pag^e 43. 

III. Osmaston Park, Z/w/o"/; ; Gunn'i 

340. 5. Rubus plicatus W.&N. Pag^e 43. 

III. Bradley, Linfoiiy B. E. C. Report, p. 285, 
New. Rubus Rogersii Linton. 

Ill, Shirley, Linton. This plant was formerly considered 

to be R, opacus Focke (B. E. C. Report, p. 285), 



W 



W 



III. The Holt, Edlaston, and Brailsford, Lin fan, B. E. C. 

Report, p. 285. 

340. 6. Rubus affinis W.&N. Pag^e 43. 

I. New Mills, east of R, Govt, Rev. JV. Moyle Rogers. 

340. 18. Rubus carpinifolius W.&N. Pagfe 45. 

III. Shirley Brook ; Bradley Wood, Linton, 

340. 9. Rubus incurvatus Bab. Pag^e 44. 

Ill, Yeldersley, Linton^ B. E. C. Report, p. 288. 

340. 7, Rubus Lindleianus Lees. Page 44. 

L Matlock Bath! III. VViUing-ton ! 

Now. Rubus duresccns \V. R. Linton. 

II. Pondarns Wood; Belper, £, F. Linton. 
III. Near Cross o' th' Hands, E. F. Li?ito?i ; near Shirley ; 

near Brailsford ; near Bradley (as R. septorum Miill, 
9th September 1887, 21st Aug^ust 18SS), W. R, 
Linton. For these plants the Rev. W, Moyle 
Rog-ers has referred me to J. of Bot., 1892, 

T 

pp. 70-71. 

340. 8. Rubus rhamnifolius W.&N, Page 44. 

No additional habitats. 

340. 20. Rubus pulcherrimus Neum. Page 45. 

This is the plant which was formerly placed under 
R. nenwralis Mull., R. Maasii Focke, R. inaero- 
ptiyllus var. nmbrosns Bab. 
IIL Hulland Moss; Brailsford, Linton, B. E. C. Report, 

p. 290. 

.New. Rubus damnoniensis Bab. 

III. Near Long Lane, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 288. 

Rubus villicaulis Koehl. 
New. Var. Selmeti Lindb. 

I. Bugworth and New Mills, Rev. IV. Moyle Rogers, 

B. E. C. Report, p. 406. 

11. Ashopton, Linton. 



J line 189*^, 



t86 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

Var, calvatus Blox. (^. Salteri Buh. var, caivatus Blox., 

P- 45-) 

III. Shirley, Purchas, B. E. C. Report, p. 251 ; Ednaston 

and Brailsford, Linton, p. 289; Repton, Hagger, 

340. 19. Rubus gratus Focke. 

Ill, Shirlev, Linton, Passed bv Dr. Focke. 

Rubus ramosus Bloxam. P. 44. No additional habitat. 

New. Rubus argentatus P. J, Muell. 

Var. robustus (P. J. Muell.). 
III. Yeaveley, Stydd, Linton. 



n 



This plant was issued throug-h * the Exchangee 
Club for the British Isles,' by Rev. W. R. Linton as 
J^. inacroacanthus Blox., but has been named as 
above by Mr. Rogers. Perhaps the plant named 
macroacanthus Blox., and found by him at White 
Lees and Broadstone, Tickenhall, should come here. 

340. 12. Rubus rusticanus Merc. Page 44. 

Ill, Muggington ! Stanton-by-Bridge ! 

40. 13. Rubus pubescens Weihe. Page 44. 



No additional habitats. 

Rubus thyrsoideus Wimm. Page 44. 

Ill, Stanton-by-Bridge ! Repton ! 

A specimen of this bramble was sent me by 
Mr. Hagger from Repton, and named as such by 
Mr. Purchas. Since then I have submitted speci- 
mens, obtained at Stanton-by-Bridge and Repton by 
myself, to Dr. Focke, w^ho said respecting them, 
* Indeed thyrsoideus.'* Whether I gathered my speci- 
mens at Mr. Purchases and Mr. Hagger's habitats 
I cannot say. 
340. 20. Rubus macrophyllus W.&N. Page 45. 

Var. amplificatas (Lees). 

IL Pincham's Hill, Belper, Linton, 
III. Shirley, Linton, B. E. C. Report^ p. 364, 
340. 22, Rubus Sprengelii Weihe. Page 46. 

HI. Gunn's Hill, Muggington ! 
340. 14. Rubus leucostachys Schleich. 

L High Tor, Matlock Bath ! 
IIL Osmaston - by - Ashbourne ; near Shirley, Linton, 

B. E. C- Report, p. 328. 

Rubus anglosaxonicus Gelert. Page 46. 

Var. radutoides Rogers (P, radula Weihe, p. 4^)- 



1 

Painier: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 187 

III. A curious form, Aldercar, near Bradley; Osmaston- 

by-Ashbourne, Ltntou, B. E. C. Report, p. 328. 
Rubus Leyanus Rogers (7?. Drejcri ]Qns,). Pajje 46. 
III. Brailsford, fide Dr. Focke, Linton. 

Rubus radula Weihe. Var. echinatoides Rojjers. 

Ill, Shirley, Li?iton ; Rev, W. Moyle Rogers, 



New. 



J 



1894, p, 24. 



J 



Rubus echinatus LindU Page 46. No additional habitat. 

340. 28. Rubus rudis W.&N. 

L Near New Bath Hotel, Matlock Bath ! 
Rubus melanodentjis Focke {R, melanoxylon P. J. 

Muell.). Page 47. 
III. Brailsford, Linton\ Shirley, Purchas^ B. E. C- 

Report, p. 251 ; Ednaston, Linton^ I.e., p. 289. 

Rubus scaber W.&N. 

II. Near Belper, £. F. Liyiton^ B. E. C. Report, p. 366. 
III. Cross o' th' Hands, E. F. Linton^ B. p]. C. Report, 

p. 440. 
Rubus fuscus W.&N. Fide Dr. Focke. (R. hetero- 

clitus Blox,, fide Prof. Babington.) 
III. Ilulland, Linton^ B. E. C. Report, pp. 331, 409. 

Rubus foUosus W.&N. 

I. Charles worth, Linton y B. E. C. Report, p. 409. 
Rubus rosaceus W.&N. 

Var. hystrix (W.&N.). No additional habitat. 
New, Var. infecundus Rogers. 

III. Shirley, Linton^ B. E. C. Report, p. 366. 

340- 30. Rubus Koehleri W.&N. 

Var. pallidus Bab. HI. Breadsall Moor! 
Rubus fusco-ater Weihe. 

III. Shirley, Linton^ B- E. C. Report, p. 367. 

New, Rubus saxicolus P. J. Muell. 

III. Willington and Repton ! Dr. Focke, 

New. Rubus dumetorum W.&N. 



Var. ferox Weihe. 
III. Shirley, Linton^ B. E. C Report, p. ^368. 

Var. diversiflorus (Lindl.). 

III. Muggington, Linton; Mackworth, Bindley, R, dumc- 

toi'iint W.&N. var. intensus Blox. should be placed 
here. Page 47. 



June iSqq. 



1 88 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

Var. rubi floras Purchas. 
III. Osmaston-by-Ashbourne; Shirley; Yeaveley; Edlas- 

ton ; Brailsford ; Hullaiid, etc., Purchas^ J- B., 



1894 ; Bradley, Linton. 



340 



J 



III. Breadsall Moor! 

Var- concinnus Warren. 
L Near Whaley Bridge Station, Bailey, B, E. C. Report, 

p. 258. 

340. 40. Rubus corylifolius Sm. 

Var. sublustris Lees. Page 48. 

III. Mugglng-ton ! Chellaston ! 

Var. cyclophyllus Lindeb. (var. conjungens Bab.). 
Page 48. No additional habitats. 



Rubus althseifolius Bab, 



W 



indeterminate a character to claim a place in our 
list of Pubi at present, while the name P. deltoidetis 
MiilL, Dr. Focke has assured Mr. Rogers, belongs 
to a hybrid, R, ccesius x to??ie)itosns, which we cannot 
expect to find in Britain, where R. tomentosiis is un- 
known. 

340. 43. Rubus csesius L. Page 48. 

I. Bradwell, Pox> III. Mackworth, Bindley, 

Vau. aquaticus W.SzN. {mn b ros u s Rq\c\\. Page 48). 
No additional habitat. 
338.^ Rubus saxatitis L. Page 43. 

337. Rubus Chamsemorus L. Page 43. 

No additional information has been received 

respecting these two Rubi. 

Rubus Idasus x cseslus (R, ccesins var. Pseudo-Idceus), 

No additional habitat. 

Rubus Lindleyanus x radula. 
III. Shirley, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 368. 

Rubus calvatus X pubescens. 

III. Shirley, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 328. 

Rubus leucostachys x rusticanus, 

L Matlock Bath, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 412. 

Rubus leucostachys x SprengeliL 

III. Shirley, Linton, B. E. C. Report, 412. 



Rubus anglosaxonlcus x rudis. 

I. Matlock Bath ! fide Rev. W. Moyle Roi 



Naturalist, 



Painter: Supplemenf to the Flora of Derbyshire, 189 

F 

343. --/?Osa involuta Sm. Pag:e 49. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

344. Ilosa mollis Sm. Page 49. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

Var. cserulea Woods. 

III. A form with white flowers, dense aciculation of stem 

and fruit. Brailsford, Linton, B. E. C. Report, 
p, 259. 

345. Rosa tomentosa Smith. Page 49, 

III. Brailsford; near Manshull Park; near Shirley, Z/;^^«, 

B. E, C. Report, p. 334. 
New. Ilosa septum Thuill. III. Near Repton ! 

Rosa obtusifolia Desv. 

Var. tomentella (Leman). Page 51. 
III. Longford, Linton^ B, E. C. Report, p. 29S. 
f- decipiens (Dum.). Shirley, Linton, B. E. C Report, 

F 

p. 414. 

351. Rosa canina L. Page 50. 

Var. lutetiana (Leman). Page 50. 
f- andevagensis (Bast.). Page 51. 

III. With glandular sepals, Atlow, Linton^ B, E. C. 

Report, p. 297. 

Var. senticosa (Ach.). 
IIL Atlow, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 260, 

Var. dumalis (Bechst,). Page 50. 

IIL Bradle}^ Linton. B. E. C. Report, p. 260. 

Rosa glauca Vill. Page 51. 



L Whaley Bridge, Bailey, B. E 

IIL HuUand, Linton, B. E. C. Rt 

Var. corii folia (Fr.). Page 51. 



260. 



60 



IIL Bradley; Atlow, Linton, B. E, C. Report, pp. 261 

and 298. 

353. Rosa arvensis L. Page 52. 

IIL Atlow; Hollington, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 261. 

Var- galiicoides Baker. 

IIL Ashbourne; Bradley; Hollington, Linton, B. E. C. 

Report, p. 261, 

354- Agrimonia Eupatoria L, Page 52. 

IL The Hague, Renishaw, WaterfalL IIL Chellaston ! 



#. 



Page 52. 
L Bradwell, Fox, 



rfall 



This genus I have arranged according- to the London Catalogue 



June 1899. 



I go Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

355- Poterium Sanguisorba L, Page 52. 

L Miller's Dale, Hannan\ Matlock Bath, Bindley. 
IL Markland Grips, Clowne, WaterfalL [College 

Meadow, etc, Waterfall, is an error.] 
New. Poterium polygamum Waldst & Kit. Casual. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

356. Alchemilta arvensis Scop. Page 53. 

I. Haddon, Bindley, III. Repton Rocks, Hagorr\ 

Mickleover and Findern, Bindley, 

363. Pyrus Malus L. Page 53. 

Var. mitis Wallr. III. Breadsall Moor! 

Var. acerba DC. III. Ireton ; Qruandon ! 

365. Pyrus Aria Sm. Page 54. 

I. Blackwell Dale ! High Tor, Matlock Bath ! 

367. Epilobiutn angustifoliutn L. Page 54. 

III. Mickleover ; R.3.dho\\mQy Bindley ; Muggington ! 

368. Epilobium tiirsutum L. Page 54. 

I. Bradwell, Fox. III. Willington ; Hazlewood ! 

369. Epilobium parvifiorum Schreb. Page 54. 

I. Bradwell, Fox. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 
X obscurum. IIL Brailsford Brook and Bradley, Linton^ 

B. E. C. Report, p. 262. 
Epilobium montanum x obscurum. Page 55. 

Bradley Wood and Edlaston, Linton, B. E. C. 
Report, p. 262. 
371. Epilobium roseum Schreb. P. 55. III. Winshill, Harris. 

^^y 3/'' Epilobium obscurum Schreb. Page 55. 

L Miller's Dale, Searle. IIL Muggington ! 
377. Circa^a lutetiana L. Page 56. 

L Brough, Fox. III. Repton, Hagger\ Mickleover; 

Radbourne, Bindley ; Muggington ! 

381. MyrioptiyHum spicatum L. Page 56. 

II. Renishaw Canal, WaterfalL 

384. Callitricfie platycarpaKuiz. {C.stagnalis Scop.). Page 57 

IIL Breadsall! 

390. Lythrum Saiicaria L. Page 57. III. Repton, Bindley- 
393, Bryonia dioica Jacq. Page 58, 

IIL Swarkestone ! Findern, Bindley. 

404, /?/6es rubrum L. Page 58. 

III. Mickleover; Radbourne, Bindley. 
406. Ribes Grossularia L. Page 59. 

I. Stoney Middleton, Fox. IIL Radbourne, Bindlev. 

Naturalist, 



Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire, 191 

427. Saxifraga granulata L. Page 60, 

I. Cbarlesworth, Whitehead; near Strines, Sunderland \ 

Corbar Wood, Mrs. Loosmore ; near Bakewell, 
Friend] Hopton ; Edensor, Bindley] Bradwell and 
Hathersage, Fox. 
IIL Mickleover; Repton, Bindley. 

430. Saxifraga tridactylttes L. Page 60. 

IIL Repton, Hagger, 

431. Saxifraga fjypnoides L. Page 60, 

I. Near Bakewell, Friend; Miller's Dale! Bradwell, 

Fox. 

F 

434. Ctirysosplenium oppositifoiium L, Page 61. 

I. Lee Hill, Cromford ! Bradwell, Fox. 
IIL Ashbourne ; Kirk Langley, Bindley. 

435. Ctirysosplenium aiternifo/ium L. Page 61. 

I. Stirrup Wood, Cbarlesworth, Whitelegge. 

436. Parnassia palustris L. Page 61. 

L Cressbrook, Fox. II. Shireoaks, Friend. 

437. Adoxa Moschatellina L. Page 61, 

L Hathersage, Fox; Dovedale, Bindley. 
IL Totley, Fox. IIL Dalbury, Bindley, 
439. Cornus sanguinea L. Page 61. 

I. High Tor, Matlock Bath ! IL Cresswell, Fox. 

441. Hydrocotyle vulgaris L, Page 62. 

I. Near Bradwell, Fox. IIL Repton Rocks! 

442. Sanicula europwa L. Page 62. 

IL Totley, Fox. III. Mickleover; Mackwovth, Bindley. 



macalatum L. Pa^re 62. 



'A 



IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 



454. Helosciadum nodifiorum Koch. {Apium nodiflomm Reich. 

Jil.) Page 62. L Miller\s Dale ! Bradwell, Fox. 

462. Pimpinella saxifraga L, Page 63. 

IL Norton, near Sheffield, Fox. 

463. Pimpinella major Huds. Page 63. 

III. Mickleover ; Radbourne, Bindley. 

465. Slum angustifolium L. (S. erectum Hudii.). Page 64, 

IIL Findern, Bindley. 

470, CEnanthe fistulosa L. Page 64. IIL Twyford, Bindley. 
479. Silaus pratensis Bess. {S. Jlavescefts Bernh.). Page 64. 

IIL Mickleover, Bindley, 

482. Angelica sylvestris L. Page 64. IIL WiIlington,Z?/«^Aj. 

June- 1899. 



? 



192 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 

Pastinaca sativa L. {^PeueedaiuiinsnttviunHenth.^yi^ook, 

fil,). Page 65. 
III. Railway Bank, Mickleover, Bindley. 
489. Daucus Carota L. Page 65. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

495. Torilis nodosa Ga^rtn. (Caucalis nodosa Scop.). Page 65. 

I. Dovedale, Nat. Hist, Tutbury, 
III. Breadsall, Whittaker. 

496. Scandix Pecten- Veneris L. Page 65. 

II. Norton, near Sheffield, Pox. 
III. Cornfields, Mickleover, Bindley. 

501. Myrrhis odorata Scop. Page 66. I. Blackwell Dale ! 

506. Viburnum Opulus L. Page 66. 

II. Clinker Wood, Renishaw, Waterfall. 
Ill, Mickleover, Bindley. 

515. Galium palustre L. Var. Witheringii (Sm.). 

L Axe Edge ! 

III. Morley! Canal at Chaddesden ! Willington! Repton 

519. Galium Mollugo L. Page 68. 

III. Railway Bank, Mickleover, Bindley. 

520. Galium sylvestre Poll. Page 68. 

L High Tor, Matlock Bath ! 

526. Slierardia aryensis L, Page 68. 

l{. Norton, near Sheffield, /t^jc. III. Mickleover, ^/;/r//0'- 

^2y, Asperula odorata L. Page 68. 

I. Hathcrsage, Fox. Via Gellia, Bindley. 

531. Valeriana dioica L, Page 69. 

L Near Bake well, Friend. 

II. ScarcUffe Woods, Waterfall. 

532. Valeriana officinalis L. Page 69. 

Var. sambucifolia Atict. Ang. (Willd.), 

I. Brad well, /7?;c. Ill, Mickleover, ^/;/^/A'j' ; Repton! 

Valerianella carinata Lois. Page 69. 

Not a Casual, as stated in my Flora. 
I. Deepdale, etc., Buxton, Pev. A. Ley, Journal of 

Botany, 1884; near Lover's I-eap, Ashwood Dale! 

539. Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. Page 69. 

III. Mickleover; Radbourne, /?///^//y. 

540. Dipsacus pilosus L. Page 70. 

III. R. Dove, Uttoxeter, Friend. 

541. Scabiosa succisa L. Page 70. 

L Bradwell, /i^(9/)^. 11. Norton, near Sheffield, /"^^v. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

542. Scabiosa Columbaria L, P. 70. I. Hartington, Bindley^ 

Naturalist, 



■k 

Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 193 

544. Tragopogon pratensG L. Page 70.. 

Var. minus (Mill.). 

L Blackwell Dale ! IL Norton, near Sheffield, /b,v. 
III. Mickleover ; Ymd^rn^ Bindley \ Chaddesden ! 

547. Picris hwracioides L, Page 71. 

L Matlock Bath ! 

I 

III. Mansfield Road, Breadsall ! Chellaston ! 

548. Leontodon hirtus L, Page 71. 

III. Between Swarkestone and Chellaston ! 

553- Hypochosris radicata L. Page 71. 

IL Grindleford; Norton, near Sheffield, Fox, 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

554. Lactuca virosa L. Page 71. III. Radbourne, Bindley. 

Lactuca Scariola. 

I. Peak's Hole, Martyn^ Phil. Trans, of Royal Society. 
557. Lactuca muralis Fresen. Page 71. 

III. Anchor Church ; Radbourne, Bindley. 

559. Sonchus atvensis L. Page 72. 

L Bradwell. II . Totley, Fox. 
IIL Mickleover, _(9/;/^//ty'; Breadsall Moor ! nr. Mugguig- 

ton ! 

560. Sonchus asper Hoff. Page 72. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

561. Sonchus oleraceus L. Page 72, 

- I. Bradley. IL Holmesfield, Fox. 
IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

New. Crepis taraxacifolia ThuiII, IIL Yeldersley, Linton. 

Crepis nica^ensis Balb. Page 72. 

IIL Yeldersley, Linton^ B. E, C. Report, 18S9, p. 262. 

New. Crepis biennis L. 

IIL Burnaston, Bindley. 

t New. ///erac/u/n briiannicum F.J.H. I. Chee Dale ! Ash- 
wood Dale, Buxton ; Monks Ghyll, Millcrdale, 
Waterfall. 

572. Hieracium murorum L. pt. Page 73. 

L High Tor, Matlock Bath ! 

\^\R, ciliatum Almq. 

I. Rock between Buxton and Miller's Date, Linton^ 
J. of B., 1893, p. 179. 



1 1 have arrang-ed this g-enus according to the last (.^dition o( the London 



Catalogue, the 9th. 

July 1899. 



i 



a 



194 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

New. Hleracium rubiginosum F. J. Hanb. 

I. Blackwell Dale ! 

575. Hieracium pallidum Fries. Page 73. 

L Blackwell Dale ! 

575^. Hieracium argenteum Fries, is //. vulgatum Fries, fide 

Rev. W, R, Linton, Before submitting- this plant to 
Mr. Hanbury I called it H. vulgatum. 

New. Hieracium tiolophyllum W. R. Linton, 

L Dovedale, Linton^ B. E. C. Report, p. 304. 

New. Hieracium Orarium Lindb. 

I. Dov^edale, E, F. Linton, J. of B., 1891, p. 273. 

573". Hieracium vulgatum Fr, Pag^e 73. 

III. Dalbury ; Mickleover, -5?V^r//^'. 

New, Hieracium diaphanoides Lindeb. 

I. Chee Tor, near Woanhill, Rev. A. Ley^ B. E. C. 

Report, p. 264; Ballidon, Linton^ B. E, C. Report, 

P- 305- 
New. Hieracium sciapfiilum Uechtritz. 

I. Charlesworth, Linton, B. E, C. Report, p. 456; wood 

near the Aqueduct, Buxton, Waterfall \ Dovedale, 



Purchas, J. of B., 1893, p, 197. 

Ill, Brailsford; Shirley; Yeldersley ;, Ballidon; Atlow, 

LintoUy B. E, C. Report, p. 304. 

584. Hieracium boreale Fr. Pag^e 74. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. Mug-ij-ing^ton ! 



581. Hieracium umbellatum L. Pag^e 74. 

TIL Mickleover, Bindley ; Atlow, Linton, B. E. C, Report, 

p. 306. 
Arctium majus Bernh. Topographical Botany, Kirk MS. 
[Arctium lappa. Pilkington's History ; no habitat given.] 

Arctium intermedium Lange. Page 75. 

(Not included in A. nemorosiim Lange, as in my book, 
. Topographical Botany.) 

r 

594. Serratula tinctoria L. Page 75. 

11. Park Hall Woods, Spinkhill, Chesterfield, rrWt'r////; 

Norton, near Sheffield, Fox. 
111. Mickleover; Barnaston, Bindley. 

New. Cnicus pratensis Willd. 

HI. Findern and Radbourne, Bindley. 

Carduus Mariaaus L. {Mariana lactea Hill). Page 76. 



IH. Mickleover, on cultivated ground, Bindlev. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire* 195 

613. Centaurea Scabiosa L. Pag^e 76. 11. Cresswell, Fox. 

6ig. Eupatorium cannabinum L. Page 77. 

I. Haddon, Bindley. IL Steetley, near Shireoaks, Fox. 
III. Mugg-ington ! 

626- Artemisia vulgaris L, P. 77. III. Mlckleovevy Bindley, 

630. Gnaphalium sylvaticam L. Page 77. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley', Muggington ! 

632. Gnaplialiam uliginosum L. Page 77. 

III. Mickleover and Long Lane, Bindley I 

635. Filago germanica L. Page 78, L Tideswell, Bindley.' 

642. Solidago Virgaurea L. Page 78, IL Holmesfield, Fox^ 

644. Senecio sylvaticas L. Page 78. 

IIL Mickleover and Findern, Bindley, 

X 

647. Senecio erucifolius L. Page 79. 

IL Haythorne Hill, between Eckington and Staveley, 

Waterfall. IIL Mickleover, Bi?idley. 

Doronicum Pardaliancties L. Page 79. 

L Haddon Hall, C. T, Green ; Bindley. 

656. Inula Conyza DC, Page 79. H. Steetley, Fox. 

658. Pulicaria dysenterica Gaertn, Page 79. 

IL Holmesfield, Fox. IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

661. Ciirysantfiemuni segetum L. Page 79. 

III. Mickleover; Swarkestone, Bindley. 

66T^J'Tanacetum vutgare L. Page 80. 

IL Banks of R. Rother, Renishaw, Waterfall. 

664. Pyretlirum inodorum Sm. {Matricaria inodora L.). P. 80. 

IIL Mickleover, 5;";//^//^' ; Swarkestone! 

665. Matricaria Ctiamomilia L. Page 80, 

IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

669. Anthemis Cotula L. Page 80. IIL Mickleover, i^/W/^^'. 

670. Achiliea Ptarmica L, Page So. L Near Brough, Fox, 

IL Norton, Fox. IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

678, Campanula tatifolia L, Page 81 • L Matlock Bath ! 

IL Woods and Hedges, Renishaw, Waterfall, 
HL Ashbourne, Bindley \ near Cubley, Frie7id\ near 

Muggington ! Chaddcsden, probably a garden 
escape ! 

680. Campanula Traclietium L. Page 81, 

L Cressbrook, Fox. IL Pleasley Vale, Friend. 

687. Jasione montana L. Page 82. IIL Findern, Bindley I 

July 1899. 



196 Painter: Supple?nent to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

■ 

691. Erica cinerea L. Page 82, 

L Bradwell ; Ringinglowe (borders of Yorkshire), Fox. 

699. Andromeda Polifolia L. Page 83. 

II. Coombes Moss, Waterfall. 

705. Vaccinia m Vitis-idsea L. Page 83. 

I. Wirksworth, Bindley ; Ringlnglowe, Fox. 

713. Ilex Aquifolium L. Page 84. 

III. In flower ist May 1893 at Ireton ! 

714. Ligustrum vulgare L. Page 84. II. Steetley, Fox, 
716. Vinca minor L. Page 84. III. Radbourne, Bindley. 

719. Gentiana Pneumonantlie L. Page 84. 

III. Eggington Heath, Pilkingtons History. 

721. Gentiana Amarella L. I, Crich ! 

\ 

724. Brythrada Centaurium Pers. Page 85. 

I. Near Dore, Fox. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

r 

25. Ctilora (Blaclcstonia) perfoliata L, (Huds.). Page 85. 



/^D 



II. Near Clowne, WaterfalL 



728. Polemonium caeruleam L. Page 85. 

I. Winnatts ! Hogshaw Lane, Buxton, C. T. Green. 

737. Solanum nigrum L. Page 86. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

739. Atropa Belladonna L. Page 86. 

L 

I. Haddon Hall, C. T. Green. 

740, Verbascum Thapsus L. Page 86. 

II. Cresswell and Steetley, Fox, 
^ew. Verbascum virgatum Stokes. 



Hassi, 



754. Veronica Anagallis L. Page 87. 

II. Cresswell, Fox. 



756. Veronica officinalis L. Page 87. 

L Matlock, Bindley. 
III. Mickleover; Radbourne; Knowl Hills, -^///^//O'- 

757. Veronica montana L. Page 87. 

I. Haddon, Bindley \ Chee Dale ! 
III. Kirk Langley, Bindley. 

759. Veronica hederaefolia T.. Page 88. 

III. Repton, Hagger\ Mickleover, Bindley. 

761. Veronica polita Fr. Page 88. 

II. Between Cresswell and Clowne by roadside, Watef'- 



falL 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 



Naturalist 



PatJiter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 197 

Veronica Buxbaumii Pen, {Veronica Tourncfortii Qm^X,). 

Pag-e 88. 
III. Ockbrook ! Mlckleover, Bindley. 

765. Bartsia Odontites Htfds. Page 88. 

I. Bradwell ; Hope^ Fox, IL Holmesfield, i^^^tr. 
III. Ockbrook ! Mickleover, Bindley. 

■ 

773. Pedicularis sylvatica L. Page 89- 

I. Bradwell, Fox. IL Norton, Fox, 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

770. Melampyrum pratense L. Page 88. 

III. Morley! 

Var. lati folium Bab. 
I. Raven's Dale, Searle. 

775. Scrophularia Balbisii Horn {S. aqnatica L.). Page 89. 

L Matlock Bath ! 



Ha 



stone ! 



1 

782. Liaaria Cymbalaria Mill, Page 89. 

I. Near Hathersage, Fox. III. Stanton-by-Brldge ! 



783. Linaria Elatine Mill. Page 89. 

III. Boozwood, near Holbrook, Pilkington. 

785. Linaria vulgaris Mill. Page 89. 

I. Bradwell Dale, F^ox. IL Banks of R. Rother, 

Renishaw, WaterfalL HI. Breadsall ! 

787. Linaria minor Desf. (Z. viscida Mcench). Page 90, 



Waterfall 



MJmutus luteus L. Page 90. 



I. Hathersage and Bradwell, Fox, IL Cresswell, Fox. 



801. Lycopus europseus L, Page 91. 



ffall. 



III. Burnaston ; Findern, Bindley. 

805. Mentlia Piperita Huds. Page 91. 

IL Belper and Snelstone, Linton, B. EX. Report, p. 382 

806. Mentlia hirsuta L. Page 91. 

IIL Mickleover, ^/V/^//i?;' ; Willington ! 



807. Mentha sativa L. Page 92. 

Var. paludosa (Sole), 

IIL Atlow, Linton, B, E. C. Report, p. 307* 

Var. rubra Sm. (J/, rubra Sm.). 
IIL Shirley, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 307. 

808. Mentha arvensis L. P^^ge 92. 



IIL Veldersley, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. ^oS. 



July 1899. 



198 ^Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

Var. Nummularia (Schreb.). 

III. Yeldersley, Linton^ B. E. C. Report, p. 308. 

Mentha arvensis x sativa. 

III. Shirley, Linton^ B. E. C, Report, p. 267. 

809. Mentha Pulegium L. Page 92. 

III. Ockbrook ; Radbourne and Lani^^ley Commons, 

Pilkington's History. 

810. Thymus Serpyllum Fr. Page 92. 

I. Turnditch ! Bradvvell Common, Fox, 

811. Origanum vulgare L. Page 92. 

L Bradwell, Fox. 

812. Calamintha Acinos Clairv. (C arz^eTisis hRtn,), Page 92. 

L Miller^s Dale ! 

814. Calamintha officinalis Moench, Page 93. 

II. Cresswell Crags, Friend, 

815. Calamintha Clinopodium Spenn. Page 93. 



I. Bradwell, Fox. II L Mickleover, Bindley 



} 



822. Ajuga reptans L. Page g^ 



O' 



I. Hathersage, Fox, 11. Omit, Waterfall. 
III. Mickleover; Radbourne, Bindley. 

825, Ballota nigra L. Page 93. 

III. Mickleover; Burnaston, ^/;/r//f^ ; Swarkestone ! 

827. Lamium Galeobdolon Crantz, Page 93. 

L Via Gellia, Bindley; Grindleford, Fox. 
II. Clinker Wood, Waterfall] Totley, /t^x. 
III. Anchor Church; Dale Abbey; Kirk Langleyj^/V/^^^O'- 

S2^2. Galeopsis Ladanum L. Page 94. II. Totley, Fox. 

834. Galeopsis Tetrahit L, Page 94. I. Bradvvell, Fox. 

835. Galeopsis versicolor Curt, Page 94, L Bradwell, ^ox. 

II. Near Renishaw, Waterfall. III. Eggington, j5/;/^/t:r- 

Galeopsis intermedium Vill. (Not in Lond. Cat.), 

II. Bolsover, Lintonyjonrn. of Botany, 1895, pp. i55"^^^' 

836. Stachys Betonica Benth. Page 94. 

I. Bradwell, Fox. III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

837. Stachys palustris L. Page 95. 

L Near Brough, Fox. 
III. Findern ; MsicViworihy Bindley. 

ambigua Sm, ( x sylvatica). 
III. Muggington ! 

840. Stachys arvensis L. Page 95. 



III. Eggington, Bindley. 



Naturalist 



Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. igg 

w 

Nepeta Cataria L. Page 95. 
II L Tickenhall Lime Quarries, Rev, l]\ //. Purchas, 

J. of B., 1887, p. 141, Accidentally omitted in 
' Flora of Derbyshire.' 

845. Scutellaria galericulata L. Pag^e 96. 

II. Canal bank, Reni^haw, WaterfalL 
III. Canal, Findern, Bindley \ Canal, Willing'ton ! near 

Mug-g-ington ! 

847, Myosotis palustris Relh. Page 96. 

I. Via Gellia ! Hathersage and Bradvvell, Pox. 
III. Findern, Bindley. 

r. 

Var. strigulosa Alert. Si Koch. 
Ill, Canal Side, WilUngton ! Breadsall ! 

848, Myosotis repens G. Don. Page 96. 

III. Between Chellaston and Swarkestone ! Repton ! 

849, Myosotis casspitosa F. Schultz. Page 96. 

III. Near Breadsall Priory ! 

851. Myosotis sylvatica Hoffm. Page 97. 

I. Ashford Dale ! Blackwell Dale ! near Cromford ! 
III. MIckleover and Radbourne, Bindley ; near Mugging- 
ton ! 

853* Myosotis collina Hoffm. Page 97. 

I. Blackwell Dale ! III. B'wd^^rrove, Smith MSS. 

S54. Myosotis versicolor Reichb. Page 97. 

II L Mickleover, Bindley. 

855. Littiospermum officinale L- Page 97. 

II, Steetlev, Fox. 

ml ' 

^59- Symphytum officinale L. Page 97. 

I. Bradwell, Fox. 

866. Cynoglossum officinale L. Page 98. 

II. Cresswell, Fox. 

869. Echium vulgare L. Page 98. 

II. Cresswell, Fox. 

872. Pinguicula vulgaris L. Pag'^e 99. 

I. Foot of Axe Edge, C. T. Green ; Asbwood Dale ! near 

Bradwell, Fox. 

886, Lysimachia vulgaris L. Page 99. 

I. The entry for Dovedale in Flora is an error on my 

part. 

July 1899. 



1 

200 Painter: Supplemejit to the Flora of Derbyshire. 

\ 

888. Lysimachia Nummularia L. Pag:e 99. 

IL The Hague habitat has been destroyed ; near the 

Ball Inn, Renlshaw, Waterfall. 
III. Findern ; Knowl Hills, Bindley, 

m 

889. Lysimachia nervorum L. Page 99. 

I. Bradwell, Fox ; Whatstandwell, Bindley. 
II- Park Hall Woods, near Spinkhill, Waterfall. 

890. Anagallis arvensis L. Pag-e 100. 1 1. Totley, Fox. 

Var. cwrulea Schreb. (A. ccerulea Schreb.). 
IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

891. Anagallis tenella L. Page 100, L Near Bradwell, Fox. 
893. Samolus Valerandi L. Page 100. 

IL Shireoaks, Friend, 

r 

901. Plantago major L, Page 100. 
New. Var. intermedia (Gilib.). 

IIL Shirley, Linton'^ Muggington ! 

902. Plantago media L. Page 100. 

L Matlock Bath! IIL Chellaston ! 

909. Chenopodium polyspermum L. Page loi. 



IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 
911. Chenopodium rubrum L. Page loi. 

IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

917. Chenopodium Bonus-Henricus L. Page loi. 

IL Holmesfield, Fox. 

922. Atriplex hastata L. Page 102. 

1 1. Totley ; Norton, Fox. * 

I 

923B. Atriplex erecta Huds. [A. pafula L. var. erecta Huds.] 

Page 102, IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

933" Polygonum amphibium L. Page 102. 

L Bradwell, Fox. IIL Repton Park Pond, Hagger, 

934. Polygonum lapathifolium L. Page 102. 

IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

934. Polygonum aviculare L. Page 103. 

New. Vak. vulgatum Synie. 

IL The Hague, Renishaw, near Chesterfield, Waterfall 

941. Polygonum Convolvulus L. Page 103. 

IL Totley and Norton, Fox, 

943. Rum ex Hydrolapathum Huds. Page 103. 



t 



IIL Findern, Bindley. 



Naturaiisit 



Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derby sfiire. ' 201 

L 

947. Ramex obtusifolius L. Pag^e 103. 

I. Buxton! III. About Derby! 

948, Rumex nemorosus Schrad. (7?. sanguineus L.). Page 103. 

Var. viridis (Sibth.), III. Mugging-ton ! 

Rumex crispus x obtusifolius. 

III. Edlaston, near Shirley, Linton. 

960. Empetrum nigrum L. Page 104. 

I. Coomb's Moss, Buxton, Waterfall. 

w 

962. Euphorbia Heiioscopia L. and 
971. Euphorbia exigua L. Page 105. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley, 
974. Euphorbia amygdaloides L. Page 105. 

II. Omit, Waterfall, 

978. Urtica urens L. Page 105. 

III. Mickleover, ^/W/^j/ ; Willingtou ! 



II. Cresswell, Fox. 



officinalis L,). Page io6 



983. Humulus Lupulus L, Page 106. 



rf< 



9SS. Quercus Robur L. Page 106. 

Var. intermedia (D. Don). 

III. Hulland, Linton. 

989. Fagus sylvatica L. Page 106. 

L Lee Hill, Cromford ! 
Castanea vulgaris Lam. (C. saliva IMull.). Page 107. 
III. Robin's Cross, Repton, Nagger. 

995. Populus alba L. Page 107. 

IL Field near Renishaw, Waterfall. 

Populus nigra L. Page 108. 
IIL Swarkestone ! 

1 00 1. Salix tragi lis L. Page roS. 

Var. britannica F. B. White. 

L Ashwood Dale ! 
IIL Mickleover! Swarkestone! Xormanlon ! 

1002. Salix alba L. Page 108. 

III. Markeaton! Littleover ! Willington ! Chellaston ! 

Mui*"irinL^ton ! 
1006. Salix rubra Huds. {S. purpurea L. xvifuinalis). P. 109. 

L Dovedale, Linton. 



Var. Forbyana Sm. 

IIL Near the General Cemetry, Derby ! 



July 1899. 



202 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

1007. Salix viminalis L. Pag^e log. 

I. Ashwood Dale ! 

1008. Salix Smithiana Wllld, {S. vitninalisx Caprea). P. 109. 

IL Ashover, Bailey. 

ioo8"'^ Salix rugosa Leefe. Page 109. 

III. Bradley, Linton. 

1 010. Salix cinerea L. Paq*e no. 

III. Ireton Wood ! 

loii. Salix aurita L. Pag^e no. 

L Mellor, Hannan, 
III. Bradley; Yeldersley ; Shirley, Z/;//(?«. 

>: cinerea L, (lutescens A. Kern), 
HI. Shirley; Atlow, Zz;//^;/, B, E.G. Report, pp. 310-31 1. 

X Caprea. 

III. Atknv; Edlaston ; Shirley, Linton, B. E. C- Report, 

pp. 311, 423. 

X Smithiana. 

Ill- Shirley, Linton., B. E. C- Report, p. 310* 

10 1 2. Salix Caprea L. Page no. 

L Lee Hill, Cromford ! Chee Dale ! 

1029, Pinus sylvestris L. Page no. 

I. Lee Hill, Crornford ! 

1038. Listera ovata Br. Page ni- 

I. Haddon, Bindley. 1 1. Cresswell, Fox. 
III. Mickleover ; Radbourne, Z?/y/c//ey. 

1039. Epipactis latifolia AIL Pa^^e nr* 



L High Tor, Matlock Bath ! Bradwell, Fox, 
IL Near Holmesfield, Fox. 
1041. Cephalanthera grandiflora Bab. {C. pallens Rich.). 

Page 111. 
Newton Wood, Mr. Coke in Pilkington. 

w 

1045. Orchis Morio L. Page 112. 

IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 

1046. Orchis mascula L, Page 112. 

L Lathkill Dale! Cromford, Bindley; Bradwell, Fox. 
IIL Radbovirne, Bindley. 

1051, Orchis pyramidalis L. Page 112. 

IL Cresswell, Fox. 
1054. Gymnadenia conopsea Br, (Babenaria conopsea Benth,)- 

Page 112. 
L Bradwell, Fox. 



• Natunilist. 



Painter: Supplement to the Ftora of Derbyshire, 20 -> 



o 



1056. tfabenaria viridis R.Br, Page 113. 

I. Whatstandwell, Friend, 

1 060. Ophrys apifera Huds. Page 113. 

IL Shireoaks, Friend, 

1061. Ophrys muscifera Huds. Page 113. 

1 1. Shireoaks, Friend, 
1067. /r/§ Pseudacorus L. Page 113. 

III. Findern, Bindley. 

1072. Narcissus Pseudo- narcissus L. Page 114 

1 1. Scarcliffe Woods, WaterfalL 
III. Spondon, Bindley, 

1086. Allium ursinum L, Page 115. 

L Grindleford and Hathersage, Fox. 



IL 



^falL 



1099. ConvalJaria majalis L. Page 115. 

I. Bakewell, Friend; High Tor, Matlock Bath! 
II. Cress well, Fox, 
iioi. Polygonatum multiflorum All. Page 115. 

II. Pleasley Vale, Friend. Most likely Howitt's habitat. 

Vide Top. Botany. 

1103. Paris quadrifolia L. Page 115. 

IL Onill, WaterfalL 

1 104, Tamus communis L. Page 116. 

IL CressAvell; Norton and Totley, Fox, 

III. Mickleover, Bindley, 

Etodea canadensis Mich. 

IIL Flndern ; Markeaton^ Bindley. 
X109. Alisma Plantago L. [A. Plantago-aquatical^.]. Page 116. 

IL About Renishaw, WaterfalL 

IIL Repton, Hagger; Mickleover, Bindley. 
II 10. Alisma ranunculoides L. Page 117. 

IL Shireoaks, Friend. 

1x16. Triglochin palastre L. Page 117. 

1 1. Near Clowne, Waterfall; Shireoaks, Friend. 

1119. Potamogeton pectinatus L. Page 117. 

IL R. Rother, near Renlshuw, WaterfalL 

IIL Canal, Borrowash ! 
112;^.^' Potamogeton zosterasfoUus Schum. Page 117. 

IIL Canal, Borrowash ! 
1 124, Potamogeton crispus L. Pai^e 118. 



IL Between Stanton-by-Dale and Dale Abbey ! 
IIL Canal, Findern, Bindley; Canal, Borrowash! 



July 1899. 



H ■ 

204 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 

1125. Potamogeton perfoliatus L. Page 118. 

II- Canal between Staveley and Renishaw, WaterfalL 
II L Canals, Willington and Borrowash ! 

1 132. Potamogeton natans L. Pag^e 118. 

L Bradwell, Fox, 

1 1 36. Zannichellia palustris L. Pag:e 119. 

II. Shireoaks, Friend, 
III. Repton Brook,, Hagger. 

1 140. Lemna trisutca L. Page iig. 

III. Pools, Stanton-by-Bridge ! 

1 145. Sparganium simplex Huds. Page 119. 

II. R. Rother, near Rcnishaw, WaterfalL 

1 146. Sparganium ramosum Huds. Page 120. 

II. Renishaw Canal, WaterfalL, 
III. Mickleover, Bindley, 

New. Var. microcarpum Neum. 

L Dovedale ! named by W. H. Beeby, A.L.S. 

1 151. Juncus conglomeratus L. Page 120. 

III. Willington, Bindley. 

1156. Juncus acutiflorus Ehrh. Page 121. 

III. Breadsall ! Repton Rocks ! 

1162. Juncus bufonius L. Page 121. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley, 

1 163. Juncus squarrosus L. Page 121. 

III. Wirks worth, Bindley, 

1 169. Luzuta sylvatica Bich. {maxima V>C.), Page 121. 

I. Dovedale, Bindley \ near Coombs Moss, Water- 
falL 
II. Quarry Dam, Park Hall Woods, Waterfall, 
III. Anchor Church ; Dale Abbey Woods, i^/V/^Z/O'- 

1170. Luzula pilosa Willd, (Z. vernalis DC). Page 122. 



I. 



Wh 



1200. Eriophorum vaginatum L. Page 123. 



I. Derwent Edge, Fox, 



1 20 1. 



Page 123, 
i. Stanage Edge^ Fox, 

1211. Carex ovalis Good. Page 124. 



■tifoli 



I. Breadsall Moor! Mickleover; Burnaston, /^//"//^J'- 



Naturalist. 



Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 20 



5 



1 2 14. Carex retnota L. Page 124. 

11. Quarry Dam, Park Hall Woods, Spink 

Canal bank, Renlshaw, Waterfall. 
III. Mickleov^er ; Radbourne, Biudley, 

\2i^, Carex intermedia Good. (C disticha Hudi 

III. Mickleov'er, Bindley. 

1220. Carex muricata L. Pag^e 125. 

I. Haddon, Bindley. 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

1222. Carex vulpina L. Page 125. 

IIL Mickleover^ Bindley \ Canal, Derby ! 

1224. Carex paniculata L. Page 125. 



iterfall 



Page 124. 



rf 



J- Gay). Page 125. 



I. Haddon^ Bindley. 

1236. Carex pallescens L. Page 126. 

III. Mickleover, Bi/idley. 

1247, Carex sylvatica Huds. Page 127. 

IIL Radbourne; Repton Shrubs, Bindley. 

1249. Carex Pseudo-cyperas L. Page 127. 

III. Findern, Bindley, 

1250. Carex glauca Scop. (C. facca Schreb.). Page 127. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

1251. Carex prsecox Jacq. (C. verna Chaix. ) Page 128. 

III. Turnditch ! Mickleover, ^/>/^//n'. 

1257. Carex tiirta L. Page 12S. 

III. Mickleover; B\xrn^.ston, Bindley, 

1258. Carex amputlacea Good. {C. rostrata Stokes). P. 128. 

I. Buxton, Bindley ; Chee Dale ! 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

1259. Carex vesicaria L. Page 129. 

II. Quarry Dam, Park Hall Woods, Spinkhill, Waterfall. 

1260. Carex paludosa Good. [C. acutifonnis Ehrh.). Page 129. 

I. Haddon, Bindley. 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

1 26 1. Carex riparia Curt. Page 129. 

III. Mickleover; Findern; Radbourne, /:^/>/^//^j. 

Phalaris canariensis L. Page 129. 
III. Mickleover, roadsides, Bindley. 

New. Setaria viridis Beauv. 



* 

IIL Mickleover, railway banks, Bindley 



July likyg. 



2o6 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire, 

Agrostis vulgaris With, 
New. Var. mutica DoelL 

I. Snake Inn, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 427. 

1294. Arundo Phragmites L, {Phragmites communis Trin.). 

Page 131. 
Ill, Mickleover ; Radbourne, ^/«^//^_y. 

1302. Aira flexuosa L. {Deschampsia Jlexuosa Trm.). P. 13I" 

II L Mickleover, Bindley, 

X309. Avena pratensis L. Page 132. 

L Chee Dale ! 

1 310* Avena pubescens L. Page 132. 

Ill, Mickleover, Bindley. 

131 1. Avena flavescens L. {Trisetum pratense Vers.). Page 132. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley \ Swarkestone ! 

13 16. Koeleria cristata Pers. Page 133, 

I. Matlock Bath, Bindley. 

1317- Melica uniflora Retz. Page 133. 

I. Via Gellia, WaterfalL 

IL About Chesterfield, Omit an error, IVuterfalL 
III. Repton, Bindley] Repton Shrubs! 

r^rS. Melica nutans L. Pacre i^^. 



&^ 'O^ 



L Via Gellia, Waterfall\ Cromford, Bindley \ High 

Tor, Matlock Bath! 

1320. Catabrosa aquatica Presl. (Beauv.). Page 133. 

Ill, Swarkestone ! 

1 32 1. Glyceria aquatica Sm, Page 133. 

I. Cromford, Bailey, 
III. Spondon ! Findern, Bindley. 

^i,22B.GIyceria plicata Fries. Page 134. 

Mickleover, Bindley, 

r 
J- 

1 331, Poa pratensis L. Page 134, 

L High Tor, Matlock Bath ! 
Ill, Mickleover, Bindley, 

1333. Poa compressa L, Page 135. 

in, Stanton-by-Bridge ! Yeldersley, Linton^ B. E. C 

Report, p. 275. 

Poa nemoralis L, Page 135. 
Var. angustifolia Parnell. 



L Chee Dale! named by C. Bailey, P\L.S- 



Naturalist, 



Painter: Stipple^nent to the Flora of Derbyshire, 207 

1342, Festuca ovina L. Page 136, 

III- Mickleover, Bindley, 

1343. Festuca duriuscula L. {F. rubra L.), Pajje 136. 

L Blackwell Dale! 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

1346. Festuca elatior Auct. (L.). Page 136. 

III. Mickleov^er, Bindley. 

1348. Bromus giganteus L. Page 137. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

1349. Bromus asper L. [B. ramosus Huds.). Page 137. 

I. Hio^h Tor, Matlock Bath ! 



III. Mickleover; Radbourne, Bindley \ Muggington ! 
1350. Bromus sterilis L. Page 137, 

III. Mickleover, Bindley \ Markeaton ! 

'357- Brachypodium sylvaticum Beauv, {B, gracile Beauv.). 

Page 128. 
III. Mickleov^er, Bindley. 

I 

^358- Brachypodium plnnatum Beauv. Page 138. 

II. Bolsov^er, Linton, B. E. C. Report, p. 4:^9. 

1366. Hordeum sylvaticum Huds. Page 138. 

I. Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, Hannan^ not White- 
head. 

1367. Hordeum prate nsG Huds. {II. secalinum Schreb.). P. 139. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. Between . Chellaston and 

Swarkestone ! 

1368. Hordeum murinum L. Page 139. 

I. Chapel-en-Ie-Fnth, Ilannan. 

1370- Nardus stricta L. Page 139. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

1378. Allosorus crispus Bernh. {Cryptogramnie crispa R.Br.). 

Page 140. 
I. Chinley Hills, near Chapel-en-le-Frith, Mr. Z. 

Howard in Bot. Guide. 

^179- Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. Page 140. 

L Via Gellia, Waterfall. 
n. About Chesterfield, Omit, Waterfall. 

^Z^l* Polystichum aculeatum Nevvm. Page 140. 

Var. lobatum Sw. {P. lobatum Presl. var. genuinnm 

Syme). 



I. Blackwell Dale ! 
HI. Trusley, Bindley. 



July 1809. 



2o8 Painter: Supplement to the Flora of Derbyshire. 

1386. Lastrea Oreopteris Presl. Page 140. Horsley Car ! 
T391. Lastrea dilatata Presl, Page 141. Horsley Car ! 

1395, Asplenium viride Huds. Page 141. 

I. Wormhill, C. T. Green. 

1396. Asplenium Trichomanes L. Page 141. 

I. Bradwell and Froggatt Edge, Fox. 

1399. Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum L. Page 141. 

L Near Eyam, Fox. 

T400- Asplenium Ruta-muraria L. Page 141. 

L Cressbrook, Fox^ 

1402. Scolopendrium vulgare Symons. Page' 141. 

L Via GelHa, Waterfall 
11. About Chesterfield an error, WaterfalL 
III. Alickleov'er, Bindley. 

1410- Botrycfiium Lunaria S\v. Page 142. 

L Cromford, Bindley. 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

141 T. Ophioglossum vulgatum L. Page 142. 

I. Monsal Dale ! 
IL About Renishaw, WaterfalL 
III. Mickleover; Radbourne, Bindley. 

1420. Equisetum maximum Lam. Page 143. 

III. jMuiri:'ii"i^ton ! 

1421. EquisetumMmbrosumWil\d,{E.pratenseEhvh.). P. 143- 

It is feared that both the entries for this plant 
in my Flora are errors, as it has been searched for 
at Ashbourne in vain. 

1422. Equisetum arvense L. Page 143. 

IL Near Holmesfield, Fox. 

1423. Equisetum sylvaticum L. Page 143, 

L Near Bakewell, Friend % Cromford, Bindley. 
IIL Kirk Langley, Bindley. 

1424. Equisetum palustre L, Page 143. 

IIL Repton ! Markeaton ! Mickleover and Radbourne, 

Bindley. 

1425. Equisetum limosum L. (Sm.). Page 144. 

Var. fluviatile (L.). 

IIL Radbourne, Bijtdley \ Morley! Repton! 

Chara vulgaris L. Page 144. 
IIL Ponds, Tickenhall Lime Works, Bloxaml See 



. Flora, p. 57. 



Naturalist, 



209 



INTEGRATION IN SCIENCE 



•* ^ 



(Presidential Address to the Yorkshire Naturalists* Union, delivered 

T 

Hth December 1898). 



SIR MICHAEL FOSTER, K.C.B,, M.A,, etc., 

Secretary of the Royal Socieiy, Professor of Physiology in the University of Cambridge^ 

President of the Yorkshire Xaturalisfs' Union for i8gS. 



We 



and the whole 



earth was of one hing-uage and one speech, men journeying from 
the East and coming to a plain in the land of Shinar^ made 
bricks, burning them thoroughly, and with these strove to build 
there a city and a tower whose top might reach unto heaven. 
We are also told that as they wrought, raising their handiwork 
higher and higher, their language was confounded, so that they 
might not understand one another's speech, and hence could not 
carry out their work. They left off to build the city- 

During the long years which have passed away since those 
early days, generations of men, still journeying from the East, 
have been making bricks of another kind, burning them more 
or less thoroughly, and with them have gone on building a city 
which they call the city of Natural Knowledge, have gone on 
raising higher and still higher a tower which they call the tower 
of Science. During these latter times, during the last two or 
three centuries, especially during this last century, the tower has 
risen rapidly, storey has been added to storey; and, indeed, some 
have thought, or have seemed to think, that its top was reach- 
ing unto heaven. But as the tower has been rising higher and 
higher, especially as the newer stories have been a-building, 
something of the fate of the old tower of Babel has fallen on the 
builders ; their language is showing signs of being confounded ; 
year by year they are becoming less and less able to under- 
stand each other^s speech. The old example of the plain of 
Shinar bids every thoughtful man ask himself the question, is 
not this confusion of languages hindering and spoiling the work, 
even If it will not, as it did of old, stop it altogether ? Cannot 
something be done to check this development of tongues, or at 
least to provide adequate interpreters ? 

Let me make use of the opportunity you have to-day offered 
me, by attempting to illustrate the reality of the danger which 
threatens us, and possibly to suggest some means to avoid or 
at least lessen it. 

July 1899. 



2IO Foster: Integration in Science. 

The Journal Book of the Royal Society of London for the 
Advancement of Natural Knowledge, contains the following 
record of the ordinary meeting of 

t^^^^'l Septemb : y« lo^*^ : 1662. 

-^ 

Mersennus his account of the tenacity of Cylindrlcall bodies 
was read by Mr. Croone, to whonie the prosecution of that matter 
by consulting Galikto was referred, when the translation of that 
Italian treatise, wherein he handleth of this Subject, shall be 
printed. 

It was ordered, that, at the next meeting, Experiments should 
bee made with wires of severall matters of y^ same size, silver, 
copper, iron, &:c. to see, what weight will breake them ; the 
Curatour is M"" Croone, 

The reading of the french Manuscript brought in by S^ Robert 
Moray about taking heights & distances by Catoptricks was 
differred, till the description of the instrument should come. 

D^ Goddard made an Experiment concerning the force that 



presseth the aire into lesse dimensions ; and it was found, that 
twelve ounces did contract i^ part of Aire. The quantity of Aire is 
wanting. 

My Lord Brouncker was desired to send his Glasse to 
D"^ Goddard, to make further experiments about the force of 
pressing the aire into lesse dimensions. 

D' Wren was put in mind to prosecute M*" Rook's observa- 
tions concerning the motions of the Satellites of Jupiter. 

D' Charleton read an Essay of his, concerning the velocity 
of sounds, direct and reflexe, and was desired to prosecute this 
matter; and to bring \\\s discourse again next day to be entered. 

D"" Goddard made the Experiment to shew how much aire 
a man's lungs may hold, by sucking up water into a separating 
glasse after the lungs have been well emptied of Aire. Severall 



persons of the Society trying It, some sucked up in one suction 
about three pintes of water, one six, another eight pintes and 



three-quarters, &c. Here was observed the variety of whistles or 
tones, which y*^ water made at the severall hights, in falling out of 
the glasse again. 

M' Evelyn's Experiment was brought in of Animal engraft- 
iiigs, and in particular of making a Cock spur grow on a Cock's 
head. 

It was discoursed wliether there be any such thing as sexes in 



trees and other plants; some Instances were brought of Palme- 
trees, plum-trees, hollies, Ash trees, Quintt's, pionies, &c. : wherein 
a difference was said to be found, either in their bearing of fruit, 
or in their hardnesse and softness, or in their medicall operations: 



some said that the difference, which is in trees as to fertility or 
sterility, may bee made by ingrafting. 

Naturalist, 



Foster: I^itegration in Scieitce. 211 

Mention was made by S'' Rob. Moray of a French Gentleman 
who having been some while since in England, and present at 
a meeting of the Society, discoursed that the nature of all trees 

r 

was to run altogether to wood: which was changed by a certain 
way of cutting them, whereby they were made against their nature 
to beare fruit, and that according as this cutting was done w'*" 
more or lesse skill, the more or lesse fruitfuli the tree would bee. 

A proposition was offered by S"^ Robert Moray about the 
planting of Timber in England, and the preserving of what Is now 
growing, 

M' Boyle shew''^ a Puppey in a certaine liquour, wherein it had 
been preserved during all the hott months of the Summer, though 
in a broken and unsealed glasse. 

We learn from the entries of the Society that there were 
present at that meeting men of very different callings and 
stations in life, noblemen, men of fashion, doctors, lawyers, 
soldiers, divines, and men of business as well as professors. 
They all seem to have appreciated all the diverse topics, and 
many to have given their opinions upon them. They each 
understood each other's speech. The tower had risen to a very 
little height in those days. 

The Journal Book of the same Society In its record of the 
meeting of i6th June 1897, gives the following list of titles of 
papers read : — ^ 



Cerebro-cortical Afferent and Efferent Tracts, 

H and K lines of the Spectrum of Calcium. 

Enhanced Lines. 

Stars of the 5 Cephei Class. 

Cleveite and other New Gas Lines, 

Stress and other effects in Resin. 

Lunar and Solar Periodicities.. 

A Maya Calender Inscription. 

Morphology of Spore-producing Members. 

Vector Properties of Alternating Currents. 

Magneto-optic Phenomena of Iron. 

The Chemistry of the Contents of the Alimentary Canal. 

Discontinuous Variation in Biscutella laevigata. 

Change of Absorption produced by Fluorescence. 

The Elcctrotonic Currents of Medullated Nerves. 

Variation and Correlation of Barometric Heights. 

Openings in the Wall of the Body Cavity of Vertebrates. 

Electrification of Air. 
Meclianical Equivalent of Heat. 



I make bold to say that neither the President of the Society, 
nor any other oi the Officers nor any one of the Fellows, could, 
of his own knowledge, state what was the exact meaning of 

July ,899. 



212 Foster: Integratio)i in Science. 

4 

each of all those titles. If you asked such a one to do it, he 
would tell you that he did not understand the speech of most 
of them. To-day, as of old, the Royal Society at each of 
its ordinary meetingfs listens to communications on diverse 
branches of natural knowledge ; but not, as of old, are all 
the Fellows present, ready to offer opinions on most of the 
topics dealt with. A strangfer at any of the meetings will often 
observe that, at the conclusion of the reading of a paper, or 
of the discussion sequent upon it, a number of those present 
will rise up and walk away. If he ask the reason, he will be 
told that these are physicists or chemists, and that the next 
paper is on a biological subject; or he may observe that while a 
paper is being read, some are paying no heed to it, but are 
reading or writing, or It may be slumbering or whispering. 
And if the stranger, fearing that such listlessness may be due 
to the worthlessness of the communication, and being unable 
to judge of its value, since he himself cannot understand it, 
should venture to ask one of these what the paper is about, 
he would probably receive as an answer, ' I have not the 
slightest Idea.* 

One day, when a botanical author was expounding, with 
the help of a projection lantern, certain remarkable results 
which he had obtained concerning the entrance of the pollen 
tube into the ovary, an eminent physicist, who was staying in 
the room to hear a physical paper later on, leaning over to an 
eminent biologist in front of him, whispered, ^ Is it a disease?' 

The tower has risen to a considerable height since the Royal 



Society was founded, and its Fellows are no longer able to 
understand one another's speech. 

Nor is it merely the case that the votaries of one science 
speak a tongue strange to the followers of another science. 
Within what may be called ohe and the selfsame science, the 
builders often fail to understand one another. 

The knowledge of living things stands sharply apart from all 
other kinds of know^ledge ; it constitutes a distinct science, 
which we sometimes speak of as 'biology,' though exception 



might be taken to the term, since Bios means * the course of 
life,* * the span of life,' rather than that which is at the bottom 
of the phenomena presented by living beings. This one science, 
the knowledge of living things, may be at once divided into the 
knowledge of plants, which we call botany, and the knowledge 
of animals, which w^e call zoology, using both these terms in 
their wider sense. Time was when the same intellectual 

Naturalist. 



Foster: Integration in Science* 213 

tendency which led a man to study plants, led him also to stvidy 
animals, and It was at least the case that the man who busied 
himself about the one could readily hold converse upon their 
labours with his brother who was at work upon the other. 
Nowadays, when the eminent botanist or zoologist is led by 
circumstances over which he has no control to listen to a com- 
munication from his eminent brother in zoolog-y or botany, he is, 
save in the rarest instance, fain to say, *It is all Greek to 
me.' This mutual unintellig-ibility may in part be due to the 
increasing use of technical terms. Every year, almost every 
day, our language is, shall I say enriched or burdened? with 
new words, some quarried out of the Latin tongue, some out 
of the Greek, and some, to the great pain of the classical 
ear, made of bits of each stuck together ; and the meaning 
of these new words becomes known only to those who 
make frequent use of them. But the real discordance goes far 
deeper than this. New terms are forced even upon those most 
unwilling to use them by the necessity of expressing new ideas ; 
for each new idea must have its new sign, otherwise confusion 
also comes, though in a different way from that on which we 
are dwelling. The botanist and the zoologist fail to understand 
each other, not because they use different terms for the same 
idea, but because each one is gaining new ideas unknown to the 
other, and is doing that more and more as each science 
progresses. 

Moreover, even within each of these two great divisions 
of botany and zooXogy^ further sub-division has split up, and 
is unceasingly splitting up, the followers of biology into camps, 
each camp speaking its own tongue and understanding that 
alone. Both these branches of biolog>' have, in this process of 
differentiation, followed lines of development more or less 
parallel, and the changes which have taken place in the on^ 
are analogous to those which have taken place in the other; 
what can be said of the one can also be largely said of the other. 
If w^e take zooXogy in its wide sense, as the study of animals, 
we find that it naturally divides itself into three lines of investi- 
gation. 

In the case oi any animal we want to know its form and 
structure, of what parts it is made up, and how it is put 
together ; we thus enter upon the study of anatomy or 
morphology. We also want to know how it lives, how it gets 
along, how- it does what it does, and are thus led to the study 
of physiology. We further want io know how far it is like or 

July 1899. 



:i 



214 Foster: Integration in Science, 

r 

unlike to other animals, what are its relations, its affinities to 
other animals, and are thus brought to the study of taxonomy 
or of zoologfy in the narrower sense in which that word is 
sometimes used. 

In the old time the student was in respect to anatomy 



content with a knowledge of the outward form and of such of 
the grosser details of structure as could be learnt by simple 
dissection, aided at most by nothing more than a simple lens. 
This gave him all which he at that time wanted for the determi- 
nation of the relation of this or that animal to other animals for 
fixing its position in the animal world ; it also supplied him 
with all the data which he supposed he needed for solving the 
problem as to how the animal performed this or that act. The 
same student was at once anatomist, zoologist, and physiologist. 
His physiology explained his anatomy as much as his anatomy 
explained his physiology, and his zoology was the outcome of 
the two. He readily passed from the one to the other, and was 
equally or nearly so at home in all three. 

Nowadays we have changed all this. 

The anatomist has pushed his analysis of animal structure to 
almost its farthest limit. Replacing the simple lens with an 
elaborate microscope, he has carried his inquiry well nigh 
to the bounds imposed by optical possibilities. His work can 
lio longer be even largely carried on 'in the field'; the animal 
can no longer be anatomised on the spot where it is found, or in a 
natural condition; it has to be treated in special ways by special 
methods ; the examination has to be conducted in a laboratory 
fitted up with special means. 

He replaces the normal hues furnished by the red blood and 
by natural pigments with the stains of artificial dyes, purpling 
with gold, blackening with silver, and ransacking .the colour 
shops to gain some new diff'erential tint. He dips, and soaks, 
and washes, and soaks again, now in this fluid and now In that, 
having built up for him an art far exceeding in intricacy that 
of any fuller. He disintegrates with solvents, he hardens with 
corrosives, he supports the frail fragments of the tissues In beds 
of cunningly-contrived material, now hard as rock, now melting 
into fluidity, and calling in to his aid intricate Instruments of 
precision which will cut with an accuracy defined by a small 






fraction of a millimetre, he prepares for study by displayin 
what was once an animal in the form of a riband, of a series of 
many hundred slices, each of vanishing thinness, and tinted 
with the colours of the rainbow. 

Naturalist, 



Foster: Integration in Science, 215 

One result is, that his conclusions can rarely be criticised or 
even appreciated and understood save by those who have passed 
through a trauiing^ in his elaborate technique* 

Moreover, the progress of his study has carried him on to 
problems essentially his own. He has left far behind the 
position in which he was content with physiological explanations, 
in which the question why a part or an organ had a certain form 
or structure, seemed to be answered by the fact of its being 
put to such and such a use. The anatomist now explains the 
phenomena of animal form and structure by referring them to 
what he calls morphological laws, laws deduced from the obser- 
vation of a multitude of facts in different animals and in the 
same animal at different periods of its growth. In the deter- 
mination of these morphological laws physiology appears to 
take no part, and the anatomist as morphologist becomes or 
seems to become more and more estranged from the physiologist. 

Further, as the anatomist stretches forth his hand to lay 
hold of laws more and more general, of laws holding good over 
a larger and larger part of the animal kingdom, the little 
differences between this and that animal seem to him to be 
less and less worthy of his attention. The morphological 
comparison of extinct with living forms, of embryonic with 
adult forms, lead him, it is true, to construct phylogenles 
which, in his view, correctly define the relations and affinities 
of animals ; and so far he still has to do with zoolog}', that 
is, with taxonomy. But in these phylogenic speculations he 
deals with the larger groups of animals only ; he rarely, if 
ever, touches, still less weighs, the importance of those 
likenesses or unlikenesses, which are all in all to what we may 
call the zoologist proper who is busied with such small things 
as genera and species, and even worries himself about mere 
varieties. Thus the anatomist gets farther and farther apart 
from the zoologist, each of them less and less able to under- 
stand and appreciate the other. 

In like manner the phyiologist who, in times of old, looked 
mainly to the facts of anatomy to help him in the solution of the 
problems how and why such and such action took place in the 
living body, has by the progress of his science been led to seek 
the solution of the new problems opening up before him, not so 
much in visible features of structure, whether large and seen by 
the eye, or minute and revealed only by the microscope, as in the 
hidden properties of matter common to non-living and living 
things, properties which men call physical and chemical. He, too, 

July 1899. 



2i6 Foster: Integration in Science. 

f 

I 

has been broug-ht to use methods all his own, and carries out his 
researches, not as larg"ely of old by simple observation and 
reasoning-, but by means of elaborate apparatus. He, too, can 
no long-er work in the field. To pursue his inquiries he needs 
to be installed in a laboratory, which, in the complexity and 
variety of its fittings, rivals, if it does not excel, that of the 
physicist or the chemist. He looks upon all animals as mere 
material for experimental investigation. He has no Interest in 
the affinities of this or that animal, for these are of little or no 
help to him, either by suggfesting or guiding an experiment. The 
morphological laws of the anatomist are of no concern to him, and 
the only morphological facts which seem of any use to him, 
are those which suggest to him, that, in this or. that animal the 
dispositions of this or that tissue or organ may off'er him special 
facilities for the application of his experimental method. So 
far from being familiar with the language of the anatomist and 
the zoologist, the physiologist feels himself more and more at 
home in company with the physicist and the chemist. 

Hence the zoologist, deserted alike by the anatomist and the 
physiologist, goes also his own gait. He is led more and more 
to make his own selection of the features of form and structure 
which he finds useful to him in the determination of affinities 
and in the laying down of systems of classification, regardless 
alike of the morphological or physiological significance of the 
facts with which he deals. 

Anatomists, zoologists, physiologists, have thus from being 
brothers closely bound together become, through the very 
progress of their respective sciences, more and more estranged 
from each other. Instead of working hand in hand to build 
together the common tower of biology, each has been con- 
structing his own chambers, not only without reference to, but 
in more or less complete ignorance of^ what the others are 
doing. And now they are so far apart, that even when they 
wish to call to each other, they can rarely be understood. 

This estrangement of those who ought to be closest com- 
panions has, moreover, been nursed into exaggeration by our 
present systems of education. The exigencies of modern life 
have, by the very necessity of things, given to the training of 
the young, whether at school or college, an increasingly formal 
character. The growing need that what is taught should directly 
aid the learner in the struggle for existence awaiting him in the 
future, and the corresponding wish to ascertain from time to 
time during the period of instruction whether the teaching has 

Naturalist, 



Foster: Integration in Scieiice. 21'j 

been effective, has led to the present complicated system of 
formal examinations. These, instituted in the first instance at 
all events as mere aids and servants of teaching*, have, by the 
mere force of circumstances, become its masters. The growth 
of the empire of examinations in these modern times is indeed 
a striking example of the power of machinery, of the triumph 
of the letter over the spirit. 

Acknowledging that the object of teaching any branch of 
know^ledge is to nurse the young mind in that branch so that it 
ma)' not only learn the results already gained by inquiry, but be 
imbued with the spirit ruling that branch, the spirit w^hich has 
gained much but promises more, it might seem ngt only 
unobjectionable but even salutary to test from time to time 
the progress of the learner. And were the test used simply to 



mark the adv^ance of the learner, and not loaded with indirect 
consequences, its application might be of benefit and of benefit 
only. The test, however, is in nearly all cases so loaded ; it is 
used, not merely as a guide to further instruction, but on its 
results are made to hang success or the reverse, rew^ards, or the 
withholding of rewards. And this has almost inevitably Jed to 
the teaching being directed, not so much to developing the 
learning within the pupil, as to fitting the pupil to meet the test. 
Hence, instead of the teaching determining the examination, it 
is the examination which to a greater and greater extent rules 
the teaching. Now the examination, even in the wisest and 
most skilful hands, is limited In its powers ; moreover, it always 
tends to take on the characters of a machine. Certain things 
can with ease and fairness be tested by an examination; other 
things slip altogether through the examination net, or are 
judged insecurely and at times even wrongly. Hence, it has 
come about that the examination system, with its increasingly 
tremendous power, has placed a high premium on knowledge 
gained In what may be called a mechanical manner, and has 
tended to drive out of the schools all knowledge which does not 
fit the examination machine. 

Hence In biology it has come about that the student is 
encouraged not only to study anatomy apart from physiology, but 
to devote himself to the study oi the one to the exclusion of that 
of the other. For not only does the machine provide, or even 
insist upon, an examination in each, of such a kind that the other 
is wholly ignored, but also the rewards which attend success In 
the test, tempt or even compel the student to narrow his efforts 
to one alone, lest by attempting both he should fail In each. 

L^ 

July 1899. 



2i8 Foster: Integration in Science. 

Moreover, in each study the machine heavily handicaps all 
knowledge which is not of a formal mechanical nature; it gives 
the prize to that kind of knowledge which best suits a pointed 
question and a succinct answer ; for it works easily and exactly 
when it deals with the letter, but gets entangled and clogged 



when it tries to touch the spirit. Hence the student in anatomy, 
guided by the desire to come well out of the machine, spends his 
energies on the things of morphology, which can be swiftly 
learnt In the laboratory, with help of the microscope and the 
microtome, and afterwards deftly put down on paper ; or busies 
himself with the formal questions of the school, in which the 
argumejits for and against this or that view can be repeated with 
formal precision. In like manner the student of physiology, 
gviided by a like desire, has his horizon likewise bounded by the 
laboratory and the discussions which arise out of laboratory 
work. 

And what can I say of the study of zoology ? That is either 
pushed out altogether, or made a mere appendage to anatomy, 
a something to illustrate morphological laws and phylogenic 
speculations, or, if it is allowed to have an independent existence 
at all, becomes a gathering of the dry bones of formal schemes 
of classification. 

As the twig is bent so grows the. tree. The influence of our 
modern teaching Is to intensify the differentiation, and with the 
differentiation the narrowness and formal character of the 
biologic learning of our day. 

There is a good old word, * naturalist,' which, though It 
originally had to do with the nature of all things which exist, 
has in course of time been narrowed to the things which are 
alive. In this sense the naturalist was a man who busied 
himself with 'Nature' as manifested in living creatures, who 
sought to soK'e all the problems which life presents. Form, 



structure, function, habits, history, all and each of these supplied 
him with facts from which he wrested his conclusions. Obser- 
vation was his chief tool, and the field his main workshop. To 
him invidious distinctions between different parts of biologic 
learning were unknown. He had not learnt to exalt either 
form or structure or function to the ne^r'ect of the rest. Every- 
thing which he could learn came to him as a help towards 
answering the questions which pressed on him for an answer. 



A naturalist of this kind, however — a whole-minded inquirer 
into the nature of living beings— is for the most part a thing of 
the past. He has well nigh disappeared through that process of 

Naturalist, 



Foster: Integration in Science. 219 

differentiation of which I have spoken. He has, as we have 



n, been cut up into little bits, and while the bits have 

flourished and g^rown great, the whole has vanished from sight. 

Not only so^ but in the partition something has been lost. If 

you attempt to put the pieces together, you will find that they 

do not piece into a whole ; gaps are left where fragments have 
fallen away. 

Looking at the matter more closely, you will find that the on^ 
thing which is. missing is just that upon observing which the old 
naturalist was chiefly beat. Watch the work of the modern 
morphologist, physiologist, systematist, whether he labours 
among plants or animals,' be by his side in the laboratory or 
the museum, read what he has written ; it is only in com- 
paratively rare instances you shall find that in his discussions 
and speculations, in working out the morphological, physio- 
logical, taxonomic, systematic, conclusions to which he comes, 
he makes much use of, or even takes much count of, that which 
was the chief occupation of the naturalist of old, the study of 
the habits and ways of living things, such as can only be carried 
out in the field. 

This is not a wholesome state of things. But how shall it be 
mended ? 

It is no use kicking against the pricks, it Is no use attempt- 
ing to go backwards, it is no use trying to stop the tide of 
diflferentiation on which I have dwelt ; that will go on^ must go 

... - ^ ^ ^ 



on 



, swelling as it goes. We 



forwards, not backwards. And we may do so with hope, confi- 
dent that the full development of diff'erence will end by opening 
up the path to unity. We may indeed even now see signs that 
there is a goal before us toward which we may stretch. 

The morphologist, when, having satisfied himself touching 
his lesser morphologic laws, he attempts to go beyond these, 
finds himself grappling with problems, to solve which he has to 
join hands with the physiologist from whom he has been parted 
so long. Along one line of inquiry he has already reached this 
point. Among the researches of the past few years, none are 
more pregnant than those in which the morphologist, studying 
the problems of embryology, has left the beaten track of tracing 



out the phases through which the developing animal successivel} 
pusses in the normal course of events when left to itself, and lias 
tried to see what happens when the ovum or the embryo Is 
interfered with on its road. In doing so he has been putting his 
hand to the physiologist's chief aid in inquiry, the experimental 



July 1899. 



i 



220 Foster: Integration in Science. 

method ; he will not use. that method long before he finds that 
he Is struggling- with questions which belong to the physiologist 
as well as to himself. In like manner, the physiologist is finding 
that the problems presented by the actions of the individual 
being, when these are pushed beyond a certain limit, carry him, 
as he seeks their solution, beyond the individual to the race, 
and land him in the same questions as those with which the 
morphologlst has met. And the taxonomist is finding, or rather 
has found these many years past, that the affinities of animals or 
of plants, as they are determined by, so are they to be judged 
by a knowledge of, things which it is the province of the 
morphologlst and the physiologist to make clear* 

One, and perhaps not the least part of the many-sided good 
which Charles Darwin brought to biologic science was that the 
views which he made known have already served and promise to 
serve still more In the future as a chain, a golden chain, binding 
together the several branches of biologic study. The three 
great divisions of biology — morphology, physiology, and 

r 

taxonomy — however divergent they may have been during 



the past, and may still seem to be, give promise of uniting 



again when they near their ultimate goal ; for that is one and 
the same for each of them. Whether you busy yourself with 
questions of form and structure, or of action and function, or of 

r 

affinities and relationships, your inquiries all tend to the ultimate 
question how and In what way have all the phenomena of life 
come about? How did life originate? How is it renewed? 
And how in its origin and its renewal has it embodied itself 
in the long series of living beings, presenting differences of 
form and differences of function, and yet arranged in an order 
marshalled by some influences or other? It Is one, I say, 
of the many merits of Darwin's work, that he anticipated, 
in a way, the final union of the three chief biologic studies. 
The origin of species is, by its very enunciation, a zoological 
problem, but the appearance of a variation is essentially a 
morphological problem, while the influence of the struggle for 
existence on the variation is no less a problem of physiology; 
a problem of physiology, however, in the wide sense of that 
word, not a problem merely of the limited mechanical physiology 
of the schools- In that wider sense physiology means the 
influence of circumstances of the surrounding world on the 
organism as well as the influence of the organism on the sur- 
rounding world- Whether we seek for confirmation or for 
refutation of the particular thesis put forward by Darwin, we 

Naturalist, 



Foster: hitegration in Science, 221 

are led, whichever oi the two be our motive, to consider a 
zoological problem from points of view which are at once 
morphological and physiological, and further, we are bid to 
pass beyond the museum and the laboratory, even though we 
may make full use of all that can be learned there, and go out 
into the field and watch Nature at work in her own way. It 
is not the least of the results of the direction which the theory 
of natural selection has given to biologic study, that it has led 
the biologist back to his earlier methods, and bid him scrutinise 
with care the ways of living things, how they tell upon and are 
told upon by the world around them. The outcome of the 
deepest, most far-reaching biologic inquiry has been the rehabi- 
litation of the naturalist of old. 

On the whole, then, we need not despond. We may boldly 
encourage the divergences of modern study in the sure hope 
that union will come in the end. We may bear with the con- 
fusion of tongues while the middle stories of the tower are 
a-building, feeling confident that the workers will once again 
understand each other's speech, and that the more clearly the 
nearer they reach to the top. 

Meanwhile we may do what in us lies to help things onward 
towards the good end. So far as inquiry is concerned, it is as 
I have said, not by deprecating and attempting to check, but 
rather by encouraging and furthering specialisation and differen- 
tiation that we can hope to hasten the ultimate integration. 
As regards teaching, however, it might be wished that the paths 
along which young minds are led were not so narrow and not 
so bounded by high walls which shut in the view. It is a matter 
of regret that the enthusiasm of the young learner should be 
spent wholly on the museum and the laboratory, that he should 
be pushed by compulsion and drawn by rewards into morpho- 
logical and physiological studies of the more formal and 



mechanical kind, while no encouragement is given to him to 
look Nature face to face in the field, and to catch direct from her 
lips tlie catholic teaching which she alone can give. But so 
long as all our teaching is made to pass beneath the heavy 
roller of a rigid examination system which flattens out every- 
thing over which It is dragged, I see no hope of change. 
SomQ kinds of learning may, perhaps, be consolidated by the 
pressure of the roller, but that of the naturalist will be squeezed 
out of him altogether. Such naturalists as we may hope to 
rear must be raised apart from, and indeed in spite of, the 
schools. 

July 1899. 



222 Foster: Integration in Science. 

Learning, of one kind and another, from the times of old, 

has been encouraged and supported by societies instituted for 

that purpose, and general biologic learning, the studies which 

keep in view the fundamental unity of the knowledge of living 

things, may be greatly aided by such societies, and that in very 

different ways. 

On the one hand, such an encouragement of general in- 



tegrating biologic studies, as indeed of like studies in other fields 
of science, is, I venture to think, one and not the least important 
of the functions of the Royal Society of London. At its origin 
it was the only scientific society in England, and as we have 
seen took all the sciences in charge. Since that time, and 
especially in these latter days, societies have been formed in 
respect to most of the several sciences for the purpose of doing 
for each what the Royal Society desired to do for all. In great 
measure these children have taken up the work of their mother, 
and relieved her hands. But none of them is in a position to do 
what she alone can fitly do, none can bring to bear upon a general 
question, involving more than one science or more than one 
branch of a science, the energies of minds trained in wholly or 
greatly differing studies. The Royal Society possesses an in- 



tegrating power absent from other special societies, and, wield- 
ing this power aright, may greatly aid the consummation oi 
that unity of biologic studies which we so much desire. 

On the other hand, societies such as the one to which I now 
have the honour of speaking, have a no less important function. 
Your society, if I judge its aims and work aright, is also an in- 
tegrating machine of no small power. By your very circumstances 
you are precluded from devoting yourselves to any narrow end, 

r 

from making yourselves the slaves of any school. You are not 
'cabinned and cribbed' in any building, you are not trammelled by 
any traditions, you are not confined to any special line of study. 
The field is your laboratory. Nature herself is your teacher, and 
you can roam at your will over all the pastures of biology, 
without the let and hindrance of prescribed study and academic 
ordinance. You are the complement of the University and ot 
the Special Society, and it is your privilege, and in the interests 
of science your duty, to nurse and cherish that which they, 
willingly or unwillingly, neglect. It is for you to see that the 
naturalist of old does not die out ; and indeed, as elsewhere, 
learning goes on its way differentiating and narrowing more and 
more, your work is more and more called for. It is for you, and 
such as you, to gather and preserve the bits of knowledge which 

Naturalist, 






Havoorth- Booth: Autumnal hnmigration of Goldcrest. 223 

help to bind together diverging: inquiries carried on in other 
places, it is for you to keep free from the rust of disuse the 
simpler way of asking questions of Nature, without the com- 
plicated machinery which others use; the simpler way, which 
often brings answ^ers of no little moment in their right place; 
the simpler way, which others may be apt to overlook. 

One little bit of advice, perhaps, I may be so bold as to offer 
you ; if it is needless you will forgive me. Your main work is 
to preserve and keep intact from the destructive influences which 
are w^ithering him, the good old naturalist of old, and so to serve 
as an integrator of biologic studies. To carry on this work 
efficiently, you must, so far as you can, keep yourselves in touch 
with the modern developments of our science. Should your 
ranks be joined by an academic neophyte, trained exclusively In 
the newest morphologic school, accustomed to view an animal 
form only through the long vista of a lengthy ribbon of gorgeously 
-stained microtome-cut sections of exquisite thinness, and should 
you find that In the field, with only homely objects of observa- 
tion before him, he is, literally speaking, 'all abroad,* do not 
thereby.be tempted to look down on his attainments and his 
methods. Seek rather to bring his results into line with those 
of your simpler ways. So far as you can, work the one in the 
other. And in like manner with the gains and the manners of 
other schools of Inquiry. Strive so far as you can, to fit the 
results of these various methods into those of your own more 
straightforward ways. Doing so, you will enlarge the power 
of the naturalist without spoiling his character, and will increase 
manifold your office of integration. 

Such advice, however, I feel sure is needless. One sure token 
of this is that you have entrusted to me, an academic person, 
a man moving in a narrow^ groove, with no claim w'hatever to 
the grand old name of naturalist, the honourable duty of 
addressing you on this occasion as your President. 



NOTE—ORNITHOLOGY. 

Autumnal Immigration of the Qoldcrest as observed in 

Holderness,— The Golden-crested Wren [Regnlus rrgulus), the smallest 
of British, and indeed of European, birds, appears to be very fond of 
making its departure to and arrival from iVorway and Sweden in ceniral 
Ho!dcrness. Last October, on their return mig-ration, himdreds were seen 
in the hedg-erows and bushes near the cliff at Kowlston and Mappleton, 
near Hornsea. In the latter part of April this year a great departure in 
similar larg-e numbers was made from Aldborou^h, a few miles further south. 
B. B. Haworth-Booth, Hullbank Hall, Hull, yd May 1899. 

July 1899. 



224 



NOTES— BOTANY. 



Ray's and Nicolson's Early Cumberland Plant-Lists,— In a most 

readable notice of ' James Petiver and his Collections,' in the * Antiquary ' 
for April 1899, p. 112 andseq., Mr. G. L. Apperson tells us that the year 1695 
marked Petiver's first appearance as an author, as in that year was issued 
Gibson's Edition of Camden, to which Petiver contributed the list of Middlesex 
plants. Says Mr. Apperson : — ' Ray contributed these lists in every case 
save one,' i.e., Middlesex. This is almost correct, for Archdeacon Nicolson, 
of Carlisle, supplemented Ray's short contribution to Cumberland, and his 
list is in most part his own, while of Ray's five species four were due to 
others, i.e., two to Willisel and one each to Lawson and Newton. This is 
not said to discount in the least this first attempt towards topographical 
botany, but as a sample of south country treatment of a north country 
matter. — S. L. Petty, Ulverston, 3rd April 1899. 

Parable of the Mustard Seed. — I have received a reprint from the 
'Thirsk and District News ' (no date) of a lecture bv Mr. William Fog-g-itt, 
J. P., of Thirsk, on 'The Natural History of the Bible.' With the main 
matters our journal has no business, but with some portions Yorkshire 
botanists may be interested. Speaking of the parable of the mustard seed, 
he says that in his young days he had never seen the plant more than two 
or tw^o and a half feet high, but a few years ago, in a field of Mr. Rooke's, 
one mile south of Thirsk, he saw a number of plants, with stout stems and 
strong, spreading branches, which he recorded as four and a half feet high, 
and two years subsequently he saw some taller still, in any of which the so- 
called 'fowls of heaven' could have lodged. It must have been a good 
lecture, judging from the range of topics and the known ability of the 
lecturer. ^ It is a far cry to ' — well from pre-Adamite man to the Unicorn, 
with 'pigeon's milk' on the way, for we are told that ornifhagalum bears 
that interpretation. — S. L. Petty, Ulverston, 3rd April 1899. 

Blea and Watendlath Tarns in Baker's * Flora of the Lake 

District/— In the April number of 'The Naturalist* Mr. Waterfall calls 
attention to some uncertainty in the naming of these tarns in the 'Flora' 
as the habitats of certain plants. 

Mr, Baker speaks of ' Blea Tarn' (p. 24), 'Blea Tarn, 500 yds.' (p. 142), 
'Little Langdale Blea Tarn' (pp. 173 and 215), 'Blea Tarn, Watendlath" 
(P ^75)> ^"^ ^1*^*^ ^^ HVatendlath Tarn' (pp. 197 and 247), * Upper Watend- 
lath Tarn' (pp. 24, 95, and 217). He also mentions ' Bleawater' (p. 182). 

There are three Blea Tarns in the Lake Country: one in Little Langdale 
(6r2 ft.), another in Eskdale above Boot (700 ft.), and a third at the head of 
the Watendlath Valley (1,562 ft.). There is also Blea Water (1,584 ft*) in 
Mardale under High Street. This is likely to be the ' Blea Tarn, 500 yds.,' 
because the Watendlath Blea Tarn is distinguished elsewhere by name, but 
it is probable that both contain Littorella, 

There is only one Watendlath Tarn (847 ft.) : this is certainly Baker's 
'Lower Watendlath Tarn.' By the 'Upper Tarn' I feel sure that Dock 
Tarn (1,322 ft.) is meant. This is usually reached from Watendlath Tarn 
and hamlet, to which place, although draining into another valley, it lies 
much nearer than does Watendlath's own mother tarn Blea. Mr. Baker 
especially mentions (p. 24) that the White Waterlily is very fine in the 
* Upper Watendlath Tarn/ and T have never seen this noble plant in greater 
perfection than in Dock Tarn, where it occupies a great part of the centre 
of the water, growing in a beautiful crescent-shaped mass. It is worth 
a long journey to visit it in July, when it is in bloom. Dock Tarn is 
unusually sheltered in its high position, lying deep amongst heathery knolls. 
Watendlath Blea Tarn (which can be the only other competitor for the 
name 'Upper Tarn') lies, on the other hand, bleak and bare. The Water- 
lily certainly does not flourish there, for few plants brave the wuid above its 
waters, although under their shallower margins Subnlaria and Isoetes lacustris 
take refuge in great abundance, and probably also Lobelia Dortmanna and 
LittoreUa, which are pretty common throughout the district, — A. H. PaWSON, 
Farnley, Leeds, 17th April 1899, ,, — -^ — ■ 

Naturalist, 



225 



WATER-PLANTS AS LAND-WINNERS. 



ALBERT HENRY PAWSON, F.L.S.. 

Farnley'y Leed^ 



The strug-gle for life which seems to be the ruling- power of the 
animal and vegetable world, to which our biologists refer all 
the modifications and varieties of the objects of their study, is 
not confined to organic things alone. The solid crust of the 
earth is engaged in like warfare ; land and water are in per- 
petual conflict. This is a true war of the Titans : it is like 
a battle among the gods. All the four elements are drawn into 



the struggle. Fire takes the side of the Land, and Air joins 
itself to Water ; but these last are in their nature fickle and 
uncertain, and they do not always prove themselves trustworthy 
allies. The sea wastes the shores and crumbles the cliffs on one 
coast, at another point he is driven back by shoals and sand- 
banks. Rains and frost and wind wear down the mountains, 
but the routed battalions rally again on the lower ground, filling 
up lakes and forming deltas. In one place the land sinks, in 



another it is thrown up. So the war rages unceasingly with 
varying fortunes. 

Neither are the citizens of the animal and vegetable kingdom 
altogether neutral in this strife. It is the land which really 
nourishes all of them, and they have thrown in their lot with it, 
and in building up coral islands and in filling up swamps and 
fens they greatly further the cause which they have espoused. 
The old proverb, ' It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good/ 
will serxQ us in this case also. In the erosion and redistribution 
of the land which is continually taking place it must be allowed 
thiit the balance of advantai^e lies with man. If we lose some- 



thing ow one shore line we gain it on another, and in the rich 
deltas about the mouths of our rivers and in our fertile valleys 
and deep alluvial plains we find our chief wealth. It is certainly 
to our profit that the hard rocks are ground up into cornfields, 
that the soil is removed from bleak heights where it will not 
reward the tillage and that it is spread out In the warmth of 
a lower level, that the whole country is being flattened, however 

gradually, for the plough. 

It is to the part which phmts play in increasing the land 
surface that I wish to refer — plants which grow everywhere in 
our own country and which come under our own observation, 
as Reeds, Sedges, Rushes, and floating water-plants. There are 

Aug^itst 1899, P 



226 Pawson : Watcr-Plants as Lcnid-Wlnners^ 

X 

several Avays in which these plants tend to diminish the water- 
space and to increase the dry land. By their own deca}' they 
form vast masses of vegetable soil in shallow waters and on 
water margins ; by occupying- running streams they moderate 
the flow of the current and give it time to deposit its silt ; by 
their creeping rhizomes and spreading roots they fix the bed of 
a stream and prevent it from being scoured and deepened by 
floods, and again in times of flood they serve as a sieve or 
strainer, arresting all floating and much suspended solid matter. 

In England we have not to do with mangrove swamps and 
the jungle shrubs of tropical deltas, aiid yet even on the sea- 
shore there are plants which are helping the land to fight the 
waves. Many srriall herbs flourish on the brackish mud-flats 
where the shore is gaining on the sea, and by fixing the soil 
with their xoot^ and by retaining the mud which every high tide 
throws over them they aid in securing the conquest. These are 
chiefly Choiopodiaccce^ with some Grasses and Rushes, and their 
work may be well seen on the northern shores of Morecambe 
Bay. Where the wind blows the sea-sand into hillocks and dunes 
it is the Marram-grass which renders them firm and stationary, so 
that in many places a penalty is enforced on those who disturb it. 

But it is our freshwater plants that we must chiefly consider, 
and these are nearly all herbs and for the most part Grasses and 
Sedges and their allies. The margin of the water seems to 
nourish vegetation better than the land; it is noteworthy that 
the various species which choose shallow water or the edge of 
the water for their home are nearly all the most robust of their 
family. The common Reed is by far the largest of our grasses, 
taking bulk as well as height into consideration, and next to 
it, and at a long interval from those of the land, come other 
water-grasses, as Digmphis and Glycerin aquaiica. The same 
rule holds good of the Sedges and other Cyperacem. The Club- 



F T 



W 



W 



and yellow), the Hemp Agrimony, the Flowering Rush, the 
Great Spcarwort and the Arrow-Head, the Fen Ragworts (now, 
alas, all but extinct !), and the Marsh Umbellifers, Cicuta, 
Slum, (Bnanlhe, and Peticedannm are amonsr the stoutest of 
our native herbs. 

It is, no doubt, the necessity of preserving themselves 
from being overwhelmed that has made these water-plants so 
vigorous, but the consequence is that their annual rise and 
decay soon accumulates an enormous amount of vegetable 

Naturalist, 



Pawson: Water-Plants as LancUWinners. 227 

matter among-st which they flourish yet more luxuriantly, until 
at length the water Is altogether excluded. 

The Norfolk Broads are a network of fens and shallow meres 
formed along the lower course of several sluggish streams which 
drain an almost level country. They were formerly much deeper 
and more extensive than at present, and the city of Norwich — 
which is now almost in the middle of the county, twenty miles 
from the coast — was a sea-port in the time of the Plantagenets. 
Slowly but surely the marsh-plants are turning these fens into 
dry land. Some of them, although waist-deep, are almost 
grown up by the common Reed ; only a narrow water-way 
shows the course of the stream, and the rest of the mere is a 
forest of this gigantic grass, which rises from the water on 
either side like a wall. In other broads, as Hickling, the smaller 
Bulrush takes the place of the Reed, and entirely overgrows the 
shallow water. In the opener and deeper places the Stratiotcs^ all 
submerg'ed except its flowering spike, makes a thick subaqueous 
tang'le, preparing a place for the Reeds and Rushes, as they in 
their turn will make ready for the plants of more solid ground. 
Where a river enters a lake there is usually a wide stretch of 

w 

Sedge and Flag", which forms a natural filter-bed. This is well 
seen in several of the Westmorland and Cumberland lakes, and 
notably at the head of Derwentwater. Here the stream, which 
in ordinary times flows in a well-cut channel, spreads, when 
in flood, its thick and turbid waters over a square mile of Rushes 
and Reeds before reaching the lake, and leaves behind it a thick 
deposit of mud and wreckage. Thus little by little the marshy 



delta advances and the meadows and pastures steal after it. 
If it were not for these filtering tracts of rank vegetation the 
swollen river would carry Its solid freight far into the deep water 
and the process of lake filling up would be much slower. 

The form of these water-plants is nicely adapted to this 
purpose. Firmly anchored by their tough, matted or creeping, 
roots In the soft ooz^ of the bottom, they rear aloft tall, 
uprig-ht, slender stems ranged in endless succession like 
a fine screen. They bow to the current but they do not break; 
they take their toll of the water and yield it free passage. 
Their leaves are all narrow and pointing upwards, so as 
to oflfer no unnecessary obstacle. In quieter water floating 

o 



and submerged plants, generally with mesh-like foliage (as 

Ceratophyllum, Hippuris, Hoitonia, Utricularia, 
Anacharis, the water Raiiuncvli, Callifriche, Chara, Nitellay 
and others), are very busy strainers and mud-gatherers, and 

.Aujjust 1S99. 



228 Pawso7i : Water-Playits as Land -Winners, 



some of them, as the Pondweeds, are often unpleasant to handle 
on this account. There are water Mosses, too, which show like 
lumps of solid earth coated with black or green velvet, so much 
soil have these tiny plants contrived to amass. 

Not many thing's in Nature are more beautiful than these fen 
plants as we may see them in the summer time in the marshes of 



our eastern counties or elsewhere. They court the full sunshine 

for they fear no drought. They stand safe and out of reach, 
like the old lake dwellers; neither man nor beast can harm them. 
Untouched, the Reed waves its silver plume, and the Sedges swing 
their jewelled tassels; indifferent to the greed of the passer-by 
the Great Spearwort displays its cups of polished gold, and the 
Sweet Flag unfolds its scented leaves; secure the w^hite Water- 
Lily, though a treasure which a king might covet, floats on the 
still water. The common Reed, and the two Typht^ and Scirpus 
lactistris (which share among them the name of Bulrush) venture 
furthest into the water. With nodding plumes and banners flying, 
brandishing their tall clubs and maces, they stand waist-deep and 
yield no ground, well stayed by their branching root stocks which 
are fully as thick as their sturdy stems. In the open spaces 
between them, trusting in their shelter, many floating plants lie 
at anchor, some of them half submerged and unsuspected during 
a great part of the year, the Water Lilies, yellow and white, the 
prickly Water Soldier, the delicate Frogbit, and the lovely 
Water Violet ; here, too, the hitherto unnoticed Utricularuiy 
suddenly rivalling a tropical orchis, displays its splendid spike 
of bloom, and claims our homage for evermore* As the water 
grows shallower the scene is even more gay, for the purple 
Loosestrife is abundant, though the yellow one is less common, 
and here the fern-like foliage of the Marsh Umbellifers, Water 
Hemlock, and Hogs' Fennel grows about gay clumps of lilac 
Hemp Agrimony, and Yellow Iris, and rosy Flowering Rush. 
Water Plantains, Marsh Speedwells, and Stitchwort, and floating 
grasses bring us to the Mints and the smaller Rushes, and the 
dry land. Inch by inch as the result of this accumulation and 
decay, the land creeps in upon the mere; more and' more solid 
grows the edge ; the aqueous plants retreat from the too shallow 
margin, the terrestrial plants advance, finding firmer footing; the 
Sedges and Reeds crowd on their floating neighbours which need 
space, and cannot endure their shade; these, too, press forward 
and the open water grows less and less ; it is invested on every 
side, and it is plain that its complete subjugation is now only a 
matter of time, 

+ 

Naturalist, 



229 



PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 



TO THE LINCOLNSHIRE NATURALISTS' UNION: 

DELIVERED AT LINCOLN, 24th NOVEMBER 1898. 



Rev. WILLIAM FOWLER, M.A., 

+ 

Vitaf of Live^-scdge, Vorksh/re ; President of the Lincohishh-e Xufuralists' Union^ jS^^ 



If I take Lincolnshire Botany as my subject for to-day, it is not 
that I either undervalue or am uninterested in other branches of 
natural history. In a union such as ours, some are specially 
interested in the geolog'v, others in the zoology, others again in 
the botany of our county ; and it is well that it is so, for (even 
if we could give up all our time to the study of nature) so vast 
is the subject that we should be utterly unable to master it. 
Most of us, however, if not all, have daily work to do In con- 
nection with our profession, or trade, as the case may be, and 
it is only as a relaxation that we can either study natural history 
at our homes or collect objects for study on those excursions 
into the country, which are so health-giving, so instructive, and 
so enjoyable. There are very few^ who can devote more than 
a small portion of time to any one branch of natural history, to 
sav nothin"- o^ other branches. Still, it is not always those who 
have the most leisure who do the greatest amount of work. 
Perhaps the very opposite is nearer the truth. In my experience 
excellent work has been done by many before or after business 
hours. Without any neglect of the duties pertaining to their 
daily occupation, they have found interest and pleasure in 
natural history studies, and have, in addition, greatly Increased 
the stock of knowledge, both in their own department and in 
those of others. It is one of the great advantages of a union 
such as ours that, whatever branch it be to which we give our 
chief attention, we can receive help from, and give help to, 
those whose special interest is in other branches. If the 
geologists disinter from the rocks remains of vegetable and 
animal life, botanists and zoologists are helpful to them in 
deciding to what class, or order, or genus those remains belong. 
If the botanists find that certain plants will only grow on 
particular soils, the g-eologists are of assistance to them in 
telllnir them what are the constituents of those soils. If the 
entomologists are in search of insects wiiich feed on special 
plants, the botanists can be of service to them in pointing out 
to them those plants, or informing them where they may be 

August 1899. 



230 Fowler: Presidential Address to Lines, Aki turn lists* Union. 

found ; while, on the other hand, if the botanist meets with 
a plant infested by galls, or denuded of its leaves, he can learn 
from the entomologist what the insects or larvae are which have 
been the cause. We are field-naturalists, but we are a nnion of 
field-naturalists, ready to receive or give help as occasion may 
arise ; chiefly interested, no doubt, in our favourite study, but 
not so absorbed in it as to work only for ourselves and to be 
indifferent with regard to all knowledge which is not directly 
connected with geology, botany, or zooXo^y as the case may be. 
We are collectors of natural history objects, but we are not 
collectors only. The tim.es at which, the circumstances under 
which, the places In which, they occur are rioted by us, and 
their mutual relations are studied by us- We collect, not in 
order to be able to say we have a larger number of specimens 
than others, but in order to draw conclusions as to the distribu- 
tion of animal and vegetable life. In time and space, or to enable 
others to draw them. Hewett Cottrell Watson was a collector 
of plants, and the head of a band of collectors, but those who 
are acquainted with his works know what valviable service he 
rendered by his topographical division of Britain, by his demar- 
cation of climatic zones, by his grouping of species under six 



types of distribution. It is only when collection of specimens 
is regarded as an end, and not as a means to an end, that it can 
be said to be of little value. It was once said to me, * any fool 
can collect/ but my reply was, 'Yes, but it is not any fool who 
can see the significance of what is collected.' 

Now our work, I take it, as Lincolnshire field naturalists is, 
to find and record what our county contains in the first instance, 
and from the results and comparison with those obtained in 
other counties, to draw what conclusions w-e can In the second. 
Of the Fauna I do not feel competent to speak, though 
I frequently hear of the discovery of species not before known 
to occur in the county, and of observations which are of great 
value to those interested in distribution. This Is certainly the 
case with regard to the Flora. Of late years our enthusiastic 
Secretary has not only made several additions to it himself, but 
has stirred up many others to search for and send to him 
records and specimens, which have taught us much as to their 
distribution and as to the soils on which they grow, and which 
have formed valuable additions to the County Herbarium, 
itself a proof of his Interest, skill, and industry. Whenever 
a flora of Lincolnshire is written, his systematic and exhaustive 
method of recording will immensely lighten the labour of the 

Naturalist. 



Fooler: Presidential Address to Lines, Naturalists* Union. 231 

1 

author, whoever he may be. Not many years ago compara- 
tiv^ely little was known of Lincolnshire botany, but that is not 
the case now; at any rate with reg-ard to flowering- plants. 
Now and then a species n^w to the county may be discovered, 
but it is becoming- more difficult every year to make any 
addition. The woods, the limestone quarries, the sandy 
warrens, the peat bogs, the drains, the gravelly and clay soils, 



and the sea-shore have been so well investigated that we know, 
practically, the species proper to each ; so that, knowing the 
habitat, we can predict what is the nature of the soil, or con- 
versely, knowing the nature of the soil, we can predict, to 
a g^reat extent, what plants will be found on it. In Lincolnshire 
climate and altitude have little or nothing to d^o with distribu- 
tion, so far as I can see. North or south, on hills or on phiins, 
certain plants occur, if the soils suitable occur ; if not, they are 
absent. It is a well-established fact that some plants require 
more lime, others more silica, others more salt, others more 
decaying- veg-etable matter, others more water than the averag"e 
plantj and will not flourish unless they get it. Let me gfive you 
a single illustration. A friend of mine in Yorkshire has the 
wild Clematis (a southern species) growing in his garden. 
A few years ag'o be told me that, though it was to all appearance 
healthy, it never flowered. Knowing it to be a lime-loving- 
plant (though in this instance growing* on clay), I suggested 
that lime should be artificially supplied in the autumn. This 
was done, with the result that it flowered freely ; but now, when 
the lime is exhausted, the Clematis has ceased to flower- Surely 
this is a proof that it was not northern air which prevented it 
from flowering', but the absence of food convenient for it. 

Many similar instances might be adduced. In the same 
g'arden (and therefore in the same climate and the same alti- 
tude), hig-hJand and lowland, northern and southern plants are 
seen to flourish, if soil suitable to each be supplied. In a limited 
area, like that of Lincolnshire, the distribution of plants depends 
mainly, at all events, on the nature of the soil. A farmer once 
told me that, on removing from a limestone to a -andy neigh- 
bourhood, he had quite a diff'erent set of weeds to contend with, 
and the same would no doubt be the case were he to take 
a farm on clay or warp land, though in the same county. From 
this point of view even common plants are not without interest, 
showing, as they do, that they flourish best in soil congenial to 
them, and are much more dependent qx\ it, than on climate or 
height above sea-level, 

Aug-ust 1S99. 



I 



2;^2 Fowler: Presidential Address to Lines. Niituralists Union, 



But I must now hasten to g-ive some idea of the richness 



of our flora. 



Through drauiage and cultivation we have, I 



fear, altogether lost Drosera a)iglica, Cicuta virosa, FeucedaniiTn 
palustre, Senecio paludosiis, S, pahistris, Statice reticulata , Carex 
filiformis, and Lycopodinm alpinnm, and are on the way to losing 
other rarities, such as Lathyrus palustris, Selinum Carvifolia, 
Senecio cornpestris, Afidromeda polifolia, Lysimachia fhyrs (flora, 

Melapipyrum crisfatnm, Iris fwtidissirna, Maianthemtini Conval- 
laria, Acorns Calamus ^ Lastnea T/ielypteris, Osmunda regal is ^ 
and Selaginella selaginoides. When a plant only occurs in one 
station, the clearing of a wood, the filling up of a quarry, the 
digging of a drain, the cultivation of waste land, may at any 
time put an end to its existence, and as in a county like ours 
these works must needs ^o on, we shall have to reconcile our- 
selves to the loss of some of our rarest plants from time to time. 
But, though some plants which once occurred in the county are 
extinct, and some others seem not unlikely \o become so, we 
can yet produce a list of species, which, though by no means 
common, are likely to continue with us and those who come 
after us. It would be tedious (at least to those who are not 
botanists) to enumerate all species occurring in the county, 
many of which are universally distributed. I shall therefore 
content myself with giving a list of those which, having only 
a limited distribution \n Britain, are of special interest. Taking 
into consideration the fact that, as a rule, none but lowland 
species can be expected to occur in Lincolnshire, we have, 
I think, a fair share of uncommon plants, in addition to the very 
rare ones already mentioned. No flora can well be considered 
an uninteresting ouq^ which contains such species as the follow- 
ing, to say nothing of many others, which (owing to their wide, 

^ 

if not universal, distribution in Britain) I shall not include. 



Thalictrum dunense. 
Thalictruiii collinum. 
Anemone Pulsatilla, 
Myosurus minimus. 
Papaver hybridunj. 
Funuiria Vaillantli. 
Erophila pra^cox. 
Cochlearia anglica. 
Erysimum chelranthoides. 

Reseda lutea, 

Viola stai^nina. 
Silene ani^lica. 
Sllene noctiflora. 
Stellaria aquallca. 



Stellana nemorum. 
Stellaria palustns, 
Hypericum niontanum. 
Althaea officinalis. 
Linum perenne. 
Geranium rotundifolhun. 
Ulex nanus. 
Medicag^o sylvestris. 
Trit'olium subterraneum. 



Tritblium ochroleucon. 
Trifolium scabruni. 
Trifolium filiforme. 
Astrag-alus danicus. 
Vicia lathyroides. 



/ 



Naturalist, 



Fo%der: Presidential Address to Lines. Naturalists Union. 233 



Lathyrus NissoHa. 
Potentilla arg^entea. 
Drosera intermedia. 
Myriophyllum verticillatum. 
Callitriche obtusang-ula. 
Epilobiuir. roseum. 
Bnpleunwn tenuissimuin. 
Canim se|^etum, 
Sium latifoliuni. 
Pimpinella major. 
CEnanthe fluvlatilis, 
Caiicalis arvensis, 
Asperiila cynanchica. 
Senecio viscosus. 
Arctium majus. 
Arctium intermedium. 
Cnicus eriophorus. 
Cnicus pratensis. 
Cnicus acaulis, 

i 

Crepis taraxacifulia. 
Crepis biennis. 
Lactuca virosa. 
Specularia hybrida. 
Statice occidentalis. 

Anag-aJlis cserulea. 
Centuncuhis minimus. 
Erythrsea pulchelia. 
Gentiana Pneumonaiithe. 
Symplu'tum tuberosum. 
Mvosotis svlvatica. 
Volvulus Soldanella. 
Linaria Elatine. 
Linaria spuria. 
Antirrhinum Orontium. 
Rhinanthus major. 
Orobanche major. 
Orobanche elatlor. 
Teucrium Scordium. 
Herniaria glabra. 
Chenopodium polyspermum. 
Chenopodium murale. 
Atriplex pedunculata. 
Salii^ornia appressa, 
Polyg^onuin Rail. 
Rumex maritimus. 
Rumex iirnosus. 
Daphne Laureola. 
Hippophae rhamnoides. 
Thesium humifusum. 
Euphorbia amygfdaloides. 
Euphorbia portlandica. 
Popular canescens. 



Hydrocharis Morsus-ran^e. 
Stratiotes aloides. 
Epipactis media- 
Orchis ustuL'ita. 
Ophrys apifera. 
Ophrys muscitera. 
Asparag:u4i officinales. 
Colchicum autumnale. 
Juncus compressus. 
Juncus maritimus. 
Juncus obtusiflorus. 
Sparg'amum mmimum. 
Lemna g;ibba. 
Lemna polyrrhiza. 
Sat^ittaria sag-ittifolia. 
Butdmus umbellatus. 
Potamogfeton coloratus. 
Potamogeton nitens, 
Potamo^eton decipiens. 
Potamo^eton ano^ustifolius. 
Potamog;eton pra^longfus. 
Potamog-eton zosterxfolius. 
Potamogeton acutifolius. 
Potamog^eton obtusifolius. 
Potamog'eton Friesii. 
Potamogfeton interruptus. 
Ruppia spiralis. 
Zanichellia peduru-ulata. 
Zostera marina. 
Zostera nana, 
Scirpus caricis. 
Scirpus rufus, 
Cladium jamaicense. 
Carex divisa. 
Carex divulsa. 
Carex elong-ata. 
Carex HudsonJi, 
Carex distans. 

Carex extensa. 

Carex Pseudo-cyperus. 

Spartina stricta. 
Alopecurus bulbosus. 
Calamat^rostis lanceolata. 
Apera Spica-venti. 
Deschampsia discolor, 
Fe-stuca Rottbaellioides. 
Festuca Myurus. 
Bromus erectus. 
Brachypodium pinnatum. 
A^voipymm pungens. 
Hordeum marinum. 
Elvmus arenarius. 



Au^wst 1899. 



234 Fowler: Presidential Address to Lines, Natnralists' Union, 

Very few of these occur in more than half of the 1 12 counties 
and vice-counties into which Britain was divided by Watson. 
As I have said, it is not probable that there will be rhore than 
a small addition in future to the list of Lincolnshire flowering 
plants, so well has the county of late years been worked. New 
stations will be found, perhaps, for species already recorded, 
but the day for recording- species new to the county has well 

r 

nig-h gfone by. 

It must not, however, be concluded that there is nothing left 
for botanists to do. The non-flowering plants are full of 
interest, and though more difficult of determination than flower- 
ing plants, may be made out, by the exercise of patience. 



perseverance, and care. The Mosses and Hepatics, the Lichens, 
the Fungi, and the Alga; of Lincolnshire have been only partially 
recorded, and there is plenty of scope for useful work, if only 
those willing to give attention to them can be found. The 
flowering plants (on account of the size and beauty of many of 
them) are no doubt attractive objects for study, but the lowlier 
ones have their advantages. Many of them can be found at 
seasons of the year when flowering plants are few and far 
between, and have a beauty of their own when examined by the 
help of the microscope. They are, moreover, full of instruction 

L 

for those botanists who are interested in the physiology and 
development of plant life, since the larger and most highly 
organised forms can only rightly be understood, when a know- 
ledge has been gained of the smaller and lower forms. We 
have a few members in our union who have shown an interest in 
cryptogams, and I feel sure there would be more, if some were 
mot frightened by imaginary difficulties. Minute organisms 
require, no doubt, more exact examination than large ones, 
but where one can see difi'erences and resemblances another 



can, if equally patient and persevering. I hope we shall soon 
have more students of what are sometimes called ' the neglected 



orders.' I can assure any such that they will be rewarded by 
the sight of many beautiful and curious objects, and by a con- 
sequently fuller knowledge of plant life. They will also have 
the satisfaction of feeling that, instead of recording what has 
been already recorded again and again, they are adding fresh 
records, and so increasing the knowledge of the botany of the 
county. To such intending students I would recommend 'The 
Collector's Handy-book of Algae, Desmids, Fungi, Lichens. 
Mosses, etc.,' by Nave, translated and edited by the Rev. W. W- 
Spicer, M.A., which gives instructions as to where these lower 

Naturalist, 



Foivler: Presidential Address to Lines. Nattiridists Union, 235 

plants may be found, and as to how they can best be obtahied 
and preserved. It is published by Gibbing-s & Co,, and though 
quite a small book, contains much interesting- and valuable 
information. Every plant, whether flowering or non-flowering, 
is full of interest, when not only looked at, but examined.. It is 
sometimes said of us botanists that the beauty of plants is lost 
upon us, and that our only pleasure seems to consist in pulling 
them to pieces. For myself, and I think for many others, I beg 
X-o decline accepting this view, jj.nd hold that our admiration Is 
greatly increased, rather than diminished, by our knowledge of 
their structure, of their nourishment, of their habitats, and 
of the marvellous means taken for ensuring their reproduction, 
I have yet to meet with the botanist who is insensible to the 
beauty of the Pasque-flower, the Meadow Geranium, the Drop- 
wort, and the Bee Orchis in our pastures ; of the Marigold, the 
Blue Bottle, the Greater Yellow Rattle, and the Larger Hemp- 
nettle in our cultivated fields; of the Marsh Gentian, Grass of 



Parnassus, Bog Pimpernel, Buck-bean, Asphodel, and Andro- 
meda on our boggy heaths; of the Wood and Tufted Vetch, the 
Rose, the Broad-leaved Campanula, the Yellow Loosestrife, ^nd 
the White Convolvulus in our woods and hedges ; of the White 
Water Lily, the Purple Loosestrife, the Yellow Iris, the Arrow- 
head, and the Flowering Rush in our drains and pools ; of the 
Viper's Bugloss, Broom, Gorse, and Rest-harrow in our waste 
places. These, and many other smaller plants Avhich I have not 
time to mention, are beautiful to behold, but the unscientific 
have not a monopoly of their beauty, as they sometimes seem to 
think. We, who study them, see all that they see, but much 
more in addition ; and the more we know of them the greater is 
our admiration of them, and our reverence for their Maker. 
An interesting subject for those botanists who are favourably 
situated is that of the extension of maritime plants inland, by 
way of tidal rivers. Most of them seem unable to exist far 



beyond the Humber mouth, but a iQ\x oi them not only live but 
seem at home on the Trent banks for a considerable distance, 
Scirpus maritimiiSy Runtex muritimns. Aster TripoliiaUy /uncus 
Gerardi, and Glaux maritima to wit. The seeds of many others 
must often be carried up by the Humber, but not developed, 
probably because they require more salt than the plants above- 
mentioned. I shall be glad if any members finding maritime 
plants Inland will send me their names and stations, that they 
may be added to those I already have. \Mth a better collection 
of data and comparison with those from other counties into 

Aug-ust 1899- 



236 Fowler: Presidential Address lo Lines. Naturalists' U?tion. 

r 

which tidal rivers run, we may be able at some future time to 
draw some interesting- conclusions. 

In conclusion, may I be allowed to urg^e upon all collectors 
of natural history objects the necessity of making notes in 
writing ^s to the time and place of collection? It is possible to 
forg-et these particulars in a few years ; or the specimens may 
pass into other hands, and without such notes become almost 
valueless. I myself know of collections of fossils, oi insects, of 
plants, which, in consequence of not beings labelled, are all but 
worthless. If we have no information as to where and when 



a specimen is g^athered, its chief interest for us is gone. I hope 
yet to see a County Museum, in which natural history objects 
may be safely stored and arranged, and so made useful to the 
■many instead of to the few. I am convinced that, if such 
a museum were provided, interesting^ objects in every branch of 
natural history would be forthcoming", which at present are held 
back, and without it may eventually pass out of the county in 
which they have been gathered, and for which, consequently, 
they have the greatest interest. Till then, and in view of it, 
contemporaneous notes are 'of the utmost value, ' litera scripta 

^ 

manet.' In bringing my presidential year to an end, allow me 
to thank my fellow-members of the Union, for their readiness to 
give me information and to send me specimens, as also for their 
kind hospitality, without which it would have been difiicult for 
me to attend all the meeting's during the year. Though my 
lot is cast in another county, I was born in Lincolnshire, and 
botanised in it between forty and fifty years ago. Since then, 
I have generally spent my holiday in It, and always been 
interested in hearing of fresh discoveries and additions to our 
knowledge of its natural history. So I hope I shall continue to 
be. And if, in consequence of parochial and other engagements, 
I am unable to attend some of the meetings of the Union, I look 
forward to being present with you at others, and to keep alive 
friendships which I so highly value. With advancing years, 
bodily activity must needs decrease, but this should not be the 
case with the mental and spiritual part of our nature. To know 
more, and to be more, should be our aim, not thinking we know 
all because we know something, and not thinking ourselves 
perfect because we have made some advance. * We know 
nothing yet, as we ought to know,' but we live in the hope 
that, hereafter, our partial knowledge will become complete, 
when ' that which is perfect is come, and that which is in part 
shall be done aw'ay.' 

Naturalist, 



237 



3n /llbciiioriam. 



HENRY BENDELACK HEWETSON. 

The death of Mr. H. Bendelack Hewetson, at the comparatively 
early ag-e of forty-nine, has caused a wide-spread feeling" of 
regret amongst a large circle of friends and acquaintances, 




* 




k 
^ 




\ 





■■%► 




p^ 




many of whom have benefited by his skill as a surgeon. His 
loss, however, will especiall}- be felt by his scientific friends and 
naturalists, members of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union and 

August 1899. 



238 In Menioriam — Henry Bendelack Hewetson. 

the Leeds Naturalists' Club, of which hitter he was four 
times President. It is not now our purpose to write of his 
disting-uished position in the medical world, and his skill as 
a surgeon in all cranial diseases, but rather of his place among*st 
us as a naturalist, for Mr. Hewetson was much more than 
a doctor; in Natural History and other kindred sciences he was 
an enthusiast, and when off his regular work every spare hour 
of his life was given to the pursuit of his favourite studies. No 
one ever saw him idle. Whatever at the time was his special 
pursuit, that he did with his might. 

Our first acquaintance with Mr. Hewetson commenced many 
years since in that corner of Holderness — the Spurn district — 
which he loved, so well, and where subsequently he became 
a regular resident ; a pleasant retreat at the end of every week's 
work in Leeds, and in holiday times of the year- 
Mr. Hew^etson was a keen archaeologist, and in the last 
fifteen years of his life brought together a very interesting 
collection of prehistoric stone Implements and pottery, also 
extinct animal remains from tumuli along the coast and search- 
in<2-s in the ancient forest bed, at low w^ater mark. These relics 
of ancient miln and beast were as they were got deposited and 
arranged by him in a small museum attached to his house, at 
Easlngton, best known to his friends as Mount Pleasant. Alas ! 
how now memories crowd in of gatherings of naturalists at that 
hospitable board, of the Nodes ^ Ambrosiance there, or In the 
parlour of the little village inn, or the home of the two Lotens, 
father and son. 

3Ir. Hewetson 's finds In his previous exploration of the 
'kitchen middens,* exposed by the action of the sea along the 
coast of Holderness, were placed by him some years since in 
the Museum of the Hull Institution In George Street. Amongst 
many other things he collected some hundreds of coins, ranging 
over a wnde period, found on the beach, washed out of those 
fast-vanishing clay cliffs by the united action of frost, rain, and 
sea- In fact, anything found In the neighbourhood was certain 
to find its way to 'the doctor,' for he had a host of friends and 
neighbours on the outlook who were, In a way, educated by him 
to take interest In these things. 

Hewetson was a man of the quickest perception, and always 
took the greatest possible Interest in noting, during the periods 
of migration, the \arious species of migrants which found 
a temporary resting-place in the district, and he assisted in 
adding several new birds to the avifauna! list of the county. 



Naturalist, 



Memoriam — Henry Bcndclack I-Ieivefso}i. 239 

His notes, too, sent from time to time, to the writer, on the 
migration of insects, were of great and marvellous interest. 

A cetacean of any sort, a seal, or any rare and curious fish or 
marine object cast up by the sea was certain to receive attention, 
photog-raphed and described ; nothin^^ being* overlooked or con- 
sidered valueless or unimportant. No man was more capable 
of inditing- the chronicles oi a sea-side village. 

During- all the useful and busy period oi his medical career 
in Leeds he found time for foreign travel, and in the course of 
years made two visits to Egypt, two to Morocco, also to Algiers 
and the Sahara. He had also spent holidays in the south of 
France and Italy^ the Canaries and Cape de Verde Islands, and 
shorter visits to Norway, Sweden, and Holland. His last 
holiday, of any extent, was made under failing health to South 
America. 

In all the places he visited he was unwearied in collecting 
and bringing home objects of interest, amongst these a large 
collection of bird skins from Northern Africa. Recently he 
presented a valuable collection of Egyptian antiquities to the 
Museum of the Philosophical Society of Leeds ; also a fair col- 
lection of orchids from South America to the Hull Park gardens. 

During these travels he also took hundreds of views with 
a hand camera, subsequently to be utilised as illustrations in 
his lectures. But he did not depend upon photography, he was 
an excellent artist and colourist, and nothing could exceed in 



fidelity of execution his water-colour sketches of nature, like 
those famous sketches of the Houbara Bustard shot at Kilnsea 
on i8th October 1896, pictures which were afterwards exhibited 
at Leeds. 

Mr. Hewetson was a brilliant lecturer and a telling platform 
speaker ; we were never more struck by this than when listening* 
to his excellent remarks after our reading of Mr. Wm. Eagle 
Clarke's Report on Migration in the theatre of the Victoria 
University at the meeting o^ the British Association at Liverpool. 
His lang-uage was always g'ood, and his ideas clearly and con- 
cisely expressed. 

Mr. Hewetson was a Fellow of the Linnean Society and 
also o? the Zoological Society, and more recently a Fellow of 
the Royal deog^raphical Society and a member of the British 
Ornithologists' Union, besides several local societies. 

As a personal friend and a regular correspondent of more 
than twenty years, we are in a position to speak highly of his 
abilities and the versatility of his genius. His fault, if any, 

Auj^ust 1899. 



240 Prior: Water Shrew in Dentdale, Yorkshire. 

■ A 

\ 

was In not concentrating* on one or two studies instead of 
taking* up so many various matters which by the very nature 
of things could not be worked out in a busy professional life. 

We well recollect, before failings health incapacitated him 
from exercise, our last visit to the coast together ; this was 
early one morning; in the autumn when the tide w^as low, and 
near the old warehouse on the Humber side. Immense flocks 
of various waders were gyrating wildly over the muds, from 
every side came the cries of birds, the shrill klee-e-eep of Grey 
Plover, louey-louey of the Godwits, the more distant kleep-kleep 
of Oystercatchers along the tide ^^^^^ shrieks of the angry 
Curlew. On the land side of the protective embankment Lap- 
wings were all on the wing, careering and tumbling in an 
agitated fashion. What did it all mean this mighty disturbance 
of the bird population along leagues of shore ? It was- 
.Hewetson who w^as quick to divine the cause. Pointing aloft 
he drew our attention to three mag^nificent Pere^^rines, barely 



j^.....v.v...v * ^'*-t, 



out of gunshot, passing down the coast, their presence sufficient 
to disturb the various fowl and throw them into ecstacies of 
alarm. 

Mr, Hewetson will be a much missed man in the Easington 
and Spurn districts, and memories of the 'good doctor' will 
linger amongst the fisher-folk and farmers when all present 
voices have become silent. His cheery manner and pleasant 
smile have comforted and buoyed-up many an old village worthy 
in his passage down the valley of shadows. Always anxious 
and willing to do a kind action to those he liked and who loved 
and respected him in turn. 

An arm of aid to the weak, 

A frieadiy hand to the friendless, 
Kind words, so short to speak, 

But whose echo is endless;' 
The world is wide — these things are small. 
They may be nothing;, but they are All.' 



J, c. 





NOTE—lViAMMAUA. 



Water 



I forward yow one o{ the 



mice which are in this valley, which I do not recollect seeing: elsewhere. 
They are to be found along- the mountain streams or brooks, and ahvays 
near the water. It may be thoug-ht incredible, but is nevertheless a fact, 
that I have seen them run (not swim) along the bottom of the water, and 
run very fast too. — W. Prior, Gamekeeper to Lord Henry Bentinck, 
Deeside, Dent, Sedbergh, R.S.O., 3rd May 1899, 

[The example sfent was the Water Shrew, Crossopus fodiens. — \V. D. K-i 

Naturalist. 



241 



LIST OF DERBYSHIRE MOSSES. 



Rev. W. H. PAINTER, 

4 

Siitchley Rectory, near Shifnal, Corresponding Member of the Birmingham Natural 

History and Pliilosophical Society, and of the Birminghafn Microscopists* 

and Natii ralists' I ^nion. 



The only published list of South Derbyshire Mosses known 
is that which is Included In * The Flora and Fauna of Repton/ 
the joint work of the late Mr. W. Garneys, surg-eon, of Repton, 
and of the late Mr, J. Hag-ger, F.L.S., one of the masters 



in Repton School. 



MUSCI. 
Section I.— ACROCARPI 



SPHAGNACE^. 



I. Sphagnum acutifolium Ehrh. 

I. Frequent on Kinder Scout, Charlesworth Coombs, 

and near Buxton, Whitehead, 

III. Repton Rocks, Repton F, & K 

Var. deftexum Schpr. 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead's Derbyshire List. 

Var. lastevirens Braith. 
I. Kinder Scout, Holt In Whitehead. 

r 

Var. patulum Schpr. 
I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. 

2, Sphagnum fimbriatum Wils. 

I. Kinder Scout, WhiteheacL 

3. Sphagnum strictum Lindb. 



I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. 

4. Sphagnum sguarrosum Pers. 

I. Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder Scout, /J7///tV/£Y/^, 

III. Repton Rocks, Hag-g-er ; Breadsall Moor, Brickfield, 

in fruit ! 

5. Sphagnum intermedium Hoffm. 



I. Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 



August 1899. 



tf 



242 



Painter : List of Derbyshire Mosses. 



6. Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh* 

I. Kinder Scout ; Axe Edge, Whitehead. 
III. Repton Rocks, Repton^ F. &" F, 

7. Sphagnum rigidum Schpr. 

Var. compactum Brid. 

I. Kinder Scout, Whitehead, 

I 

Var. squarrulosum Russ. 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. 

8. Sphagnum subsecundum Nees. 

I. Kinder Scout ; Charlesworth, Whitehead, 

Var. contortum Schultz. 

L Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder Scout, near Wood- 
head, Whitehead, 

Var. auriculatum Schpr. 

L Kinder Scout, Whitehead, 

9. Sphagnum papillosum Lindb. 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. 

■ n 

10- Sphagnum cymbifolium Dill. 

I I. Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

III. Repton Rocks, Hagger, 

> 

Var. squarrulosum Nees. 

L Near Buxton, Z^j', '1869; Kinder Scout, Holt in 

Whitehead. 



AXDRE^ACE^. 



11. Andreasa petrophila Ehrh. 

L Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder Scout ; Edale, White- 
head, 

12. Andreasa crassJnervia Bruch. 

I. Kinder Scout, West; near Woodhead, WtiiteJiead, 



WEISSIACE^. 



13, Gymnostomum rupestre Schw<^. 

I. (Weissia rupestris Schwgf. Deep Dale, Buxton, Ley 9 

1886). Fernilee and Miller's Dale, Barker in 
Whitehey.d. 

Var. ramosissimum Br.&Sch, 

L Castleton, Rogers, 1881 ; Miller's Dale, 1882, Holt in 

Whitehead. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 243 

14. Gymnostomum calcareum Nees et Hornsch. (In ex- 

cluded species, Lond. Cat.). Mollia calcarea (Nees et 
Hornsch*) Lindb., Braithwaite, Moss Flora, 

I- On toadstone at Dale End, near Buxton ; Monk*s 

Dale, near Worm Hill, 1886; Miller's Dale, 1887, 
Ley; Chee Dale, Holmes^ 1S74 ; Monsal Dale, 
Raven's Dale, and Ashwood Dale, 1883, /lott in 
Whitehead, 

r 

15. Gymnostomum curvirostrum Elirh. 

L Wet rocks, Castleton, Lfolt m Whitehead. 

16. Gymnostomum commutatum Mitt. 

L Raven's Dale, Holt, 18S3, In Whitehead. 

I 

17. Gymnostomum microstomum Hedw. 

I. (Weissia microstomia Weiss. Buxton, i85y, Le\^, 

Castleton ; Monsal Dale ; Miller's Dale and Lath- 
kill Dale, Whitehead, 

18. Gymnostomum squarrosum N.&H. 

I. Banks at Mellor, 186S, Scholefieldln Whitehead. 

r 

19' Gymnostomum tortile Schwg. 

I. {IVeissia tortilis Schwgf. Miller's Dale, WilJ, Ley), 

Lathkill Dale, 1838, JlYlsofi ; Ashwood Dale, 

JiViire/iead, 

^ 

20. Weissfa viridula Brid. 

I. Banks at Edale ; Whaley Bridg:e ; Mellor and Cress- 

brook Dale, Whitehead. 
III. Milton and Foremark, Nagger; Mickleover and 

Radbourne, Bindley. 

21. Weissia mucronata Bruch. 

HI. Mickleover, Bindley. 

r 

r 

22. Weissia cirrhata Hedw. 

I. Buxton, 1S69, Ley; rocks and walls, Charlesworth ; 

Mellor and Whaley Bridge, Whitehead. 
III. Repton, //agger; Mickleover and Findern, Bindley, 

2^. Cynodontium Bruntoni B.itS. 

I. Matlock, Cash In Whitehead. 

24, Dichodontium pellucidum L. 

I. Buxton, 1874, fruit, Ley. Wet rocks, Charlesworth ; 

Kinder Scout ; and Chapel-en-le-Frith, Whitehead. 



\ 



August 1899. 



244 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 

i 

Var. serratum Schpr, 

L {D, JIavesee?is Dicks.) Matlock and ^owsX^y ^Wilson, 

1834 ; Castleton, WhiteJicad, 

25. Dicranella Schreberi Hedw. 

w 

Var. elata Schpr. 

I. Clay bank, Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, fruiting, 

Whitehead. 

H 

1 

26. Dicranella squarrosa Schrad. 

I. Edale Head, 1881, Ley; Charlesworth Coombs and 

■ 

Kinder Scout, Whitehead, 

I 

27. Dicranella cerviculata Hedw. 

I. Charlesworth Coombs and Kinder Scout, Whitehead, 
HI. Repton Rocks, Hagger. 

28. Dicranella varia Hedw. 

I. Youlgreave, 1876, Ley; frequent on clay banks, 

Whitehead, 

Var. callistoma Dicks. 

I. Ashwood Dale, Holt in Whitehead. 

29. Dicranella rufescens Turn. 

I. Clay banks, Charlesworth ; Mellor, Hayfield, Edale, 

and Coombs Moss, Whitehead. 

30. Dicranella heteromalla Hedw. 

I. Rowsley, 1876, Ley \ common. Whitehead. 
HI. Common in the district ! 

u 

31. Dicranum fuscescens Turn. 

I 

L Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

Var, falcifolium Braith. 
1. Charlesworth Coombs; Kinder Scout, Schote^etd in 

I 

Whitehead. 

' w 

32. Dicranum scoparium L. 

I. Frequent ; Charlesworth Coombs and near Buxton, 

in fruit, Whitehead; Lea Hill; Cromford ! Dove- 
dale, Bindley. 

Var. orthophyllum Schpr. 

I. Carmeadow, near Hayfield, Holt in Whitehead. 

Var.' paludosum Schpr. 
Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 245 

^iZ' Dicranum ma jus Turn. 

I. Ashwood Dale, 1S70, Ley; frequent, Fernilee, near 

Buxton, Gordon in Whitehead. 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

34. Dicranum palustre Bry. Brit. 

L Charlesworth and Kinder Scout, Wtiite/iead; near 

Erwood, Buxton, 1874, Ley, 



[^Dicranum Bonjeani DeNot.] 

Charlesworth and Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

35. Dicradontlum longirostrum Web. & Mohn 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt] Stirrup and Whitebottom 

Woods, Charlesworth, Whitehead. 

36. Campylopus atrovlrens DeNot. 

L Kinder Scout, Gordon in Whitehead. 

\ 

37. Campylopus flexuosus Brid. 

L Charlesworth Coombs, Kinder Scout, and Cromford, 

Wliitehead. 
III. Repton Rocks, Repton F. & F. 

J 

38. Campylopus paradoxus Wils. 

L Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

39. Campylopus setifolius Wils. 

L Monk's Dale, fruit, Barker in Whitehead. 

40. Campylopus fragilis B.&S. 

I. Chee Tor, .Alutlock Bath; Miller's Dale, JJolt\ 

Mellor, Whitehead ; Dovedale and Matlock, 

Bifid ley. 

41. Campylopus pyriformis Brid. 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt'm Whitehead. 

LEUCOBRYACEiE. 

42. Leucobryum glaucum h. 

I. Moorlands near Buxton ; Coomb's Moss, fruit, r886, 

Ley\ Charlesworth Coombs, Kinder Scout, and 
near Glossop, Whitehead ; Whatstandwell, Bindley. 



BRUCIIIACE.^:. 



43. Pleuridium 



I. Clav banks, Charlesworth and Chapel-cn-le-Frith, 

Whitehead, 
IIL Mickleover, Bindley. 



August 1899^ 



246 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 

V 

$ 

44. Pleundium subulatum L. 

I. Buxton, 1870, Ley] Mellor, Whitehead, 
III. Milton, Hagger\ Mickleover, Bindley, 

45. PJeuridium alterni folium B.&S. 

III. Ing^leby, near Repton, Hagger \ Mickleover, Bindlej 



SELIGERIACE.^, 

46. Seligeria Doniana Sm, 

L Lathkill Dale, 1886, Ley; Ashvvood Dale; Raven's 

Dale and Monsal Dale, Holt; shady limestone 

i 

rocks, Ca:stleton, Whitehead. 

47. Seligeria pusilla Hedw. 

I. Lover's Leap, Buxton, 1S86; Monk's Dale, 1886; 

Lathkill Dale, 1890; Dovedale', \S(^i,Ley; Castle- 
ton, Whitehead, 

48. Seligeria acutifolia Lindb. 

'L Tideswell Dale, 1886; Litton Dale, 1887, Ley. 

Var. longiseta Lindb. 

L Raven's Dale and Monsal Dale, Holt; Lover's Leap, 

Buxton, Wilson^ 1831 ; Tideswell Dale; Miller's 
Dale and Chee Dale, Whitehead, 

49. Seligeria calcarea Dicks. 

L Taddington Dale, Holt in Whitehead; on Travertin, 

Via Gellia, 1887, Ley, 

50. Seligeria tristicha Brid, 

L Miller's Dale, P. Ciinliffe; Castleton, Rogers and 

Cnnliffe in Whitehead. 

51. Seligeria recurvata Hedw- 

L Kinder Scout and Monsal Dale, Whitehead, 

52. Campy losteiium saxicola Web. & Mohr. 

L Near Crich and Rowsley, JVilson in Whitehead. 

53. Blindia acuta Hedw. 

L Kinder Scout and Edale, /Lolt in Whitehead. 



POTTIACE^ 

54. Sphmrangiutn muticum Schreb. 

L Charlesworth, Whitehead, 



Naturalist, 



■T' 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 247 

55. Phascum cuspidatum Schreb. 

I. Miller's Dale ; Tideswell Dale and Chapel-en-le- 

Frith, Whitehead, 

III. Milton, Hugger \ MIckleover, Bindley, 

56. Phascum bry aides Dicks. 

L Wormhill,/. Nowell, 1845; Miller's Dale, R. Scho/e- 
field \ Buxton, JFt^c'r/; Monsal T)'sX^y Ashton\ Chee 
Dale, Whitehead. 

SI' Phascum rectum Sm. 

I. Miller's Dcile and Monsal Dale, Whitehead. 

58. Pottia cavifolia Ehrh. 

I. (Tortula cavifolia Ehrh* Between Tideswell and 

Miller's Dale, Ley), Miller's Dale, Ciinliffe in 
Whitehead. 

59. Pottia minutula Schwg^. 

I. Miller's Dale, Whitehead. 
11 L Mickleover, Bindley. 

60. Pottia truncata L. 

I. Frequent, Whitehead. 
III. Foremark, Hagger\ Mickleover, Bindley. 



61. Pottia intermedia Turn. 

I. Miller's Dale, Tetlow m Whitehead. 

62. Pottia Starkeana Hedw. 

I. Buxton, Hufity 1872, in Whitehead. 

63. Pottia lanceoiata Dicks, 

I, Tadding-ton Dale; Monsal Dale; and Miller's Dale, 

Whitehead. 

64. Didymodon rube Has B,&S. 

I. Frequent on walls, W7i//d7/rar/; Dox^&A^, Bindley. 
\\\. Shobnall, Repton F. & F. 

\*AK. dentatus Schpr. 

> 

L (Trie has to mum riibellum B.&S. var. densunu Ash- 
wood Dale, 1887, Ley), Miller's Dale, West in 
Whitehead. 

65. Didymodon ftexifolius Dicks. 

I. Moorland near Stanton, 18S0, Ley; near Buxton, 

August 1899, 



248 Painier : List of Derbyshire Mosses. 

Dr. Greville; Kinder Scout, HoU; Charlesworth 
Coombs, Whitehead \ moors north of Manchester 
Road, Buxton, West, 

66. Didymodon cylindricus Bruch. 

I. ( Trie has tomtan cylindricus Hedw. Brown Head, 

near Chapel-en-le-Frith, Ley), Kinder Scout, Holt 
in Whitehead, * 

67. Didymodon sinuosus Wils. 

I- {Tortula sinuosa Wils. Lathkill Dale, Youlgreave, 

Ley), Monsal and Miller's Dales, Holt, 1883; Chee 
Dale, Whitehead, 

68. Eucladium verticillatum L. 

I. Monk's Dale, fruit, 1887, Ley\ Peak Forest and Chee 

Dale, Whitehead. 

69. Ditrichum homomaltum Hedw. 

I. {Leptotf'ichuTn homomalliim Hampe. Wildmoor 

Clough, Buxton, 1874, Ley). Castleton, Holt; 
Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder 
Scout, Whitehead. 
HI. Repton Rocks, Piirchas, Braithvvaite. 

70. Ditrichum flexicaule Schwg. 

I. {L. Jiexicaiite Schwg, Common, Ley), Common on 

limestone, Whitehead, 

Var. densum Schpr. 
I, Monk's Dale, fine; Deep Dale, Buxton, 1886, Ley; 

Miller's Dale, Holt ; Lathkill Dale, Whitehead. 

71. Trichostomum tophaceum Brid, 

L Kinder Scout and Miller's Dale, Whitehead, 

HI. Mickleover, Bindley. 

72. Trichostomum mutabile Bruch. 

I. Dovedale, Wilson^ 1867 ; Lathkill and Taddin^^ton 
^ Dales, Whitehead. 

Ill, Repton, Hagger, 

Var. cophocarpum Schpr. 

L Litton Dale, 1889, Ley; Chee Dale; Cave Dale, 

Castleton, fr. ; Tideswell and Taddington Dales, 
Whitehead. 

73. Trichostomum crispulum Bruch. 

L Monk's Dale, 1881 ; Raven's Dale, 1881 ; Dovedale, 

Naturalist, 






Pamter : List of Derbyshire Mosses, 249 

1875, Ley\ Cave Dale, Castleton, West; Chee 
Dale, Holt in Whitehead. 

Var. nigro-viride Braith. 

L Monk's Dale, 1886, ^^// In Whitehead. 

74. Trichostomum nitidum Lindb. 

I. Dovedale, Holmes, 1875, in Whitehead. ' 

75. Barbula brevirostris B.&S. 

I. Ashwood Dale, George^ ^873, in Whitehead* 

76. Barbula rigida Schultz. 

I- {Tortula rigida Schultz. Topley Pike, 1869- 1886, 

Miller's Dale, Ley), Walls at Peak Forest and 
Topley Pike, Wliitehead, 

77- Barbula ambigua B.&S. 

I. {Torttila ambigua B.&S. Topley Pike, 1876, Ley), 
III. Repton, Hagger, 

1 

78. Barbula aloides Koch. 

I. Topley Pike, 1870, Ley\ frequent on walls In the 

limestone dales, Whitehead. 

79- Barbula lamellata Lindb. 

I. Near Miller's Dale Station, 1889, Ley. 

80. Barbula muralis L. 

I. Common on walls, Whitehead ] Matlock Bath ! 
III. Repton, Hagger ; Mickleover, Bindley ; common 

about Derby ! 

Var. rupesiris Schultz. 
L Raven's Dale, 1881 ; Lathkill Dale, 1S86, Liy ; 

frequent on the rocks and walls in the limestone 
districts, Whitehead. 

III- Dovedale, Bimiley. 

* 

81. Barbula unguiculata Dill. 

I. Frequent on the limestone ; abundant at Matlock, 

Whitehead, 
III. M\ck\^o\-cv, Bindley; Repton, Hagger. 

Var. obtusifolla Schultz. 
h Miller's Dale, I/olt, 1882, in Whitehead. 

82. Barbula fallax Hedw. 

L Frequent in Ashwood and Miller's Dales, Whitehead, 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

*-4 L ■- - - — 

August 1899. 



w 



250 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 

t 

I 
\ 

Var. brevifoUa Wils. 

I. Buxton and Miller's Dale, Holt, 1883 ; Chapel-en-le- 

Frith, Whitehead. 

83. Barbula recurvifolia Schpr. 

L Abundant in the limestone dales near Buxton, 1874 ; 

Ashwood Dale, fr., 1874, Ley. {Barbula rejlexa 
Brid.) Walls, Chapel-en-le-Frith ; Buxton and 
Miller's Dale ; Matlock ; Castleton, WJiiteliead. 

84. Barbula rigidula Dicks. 

L Buxton, Wilson, 1864; Raven's Dale, 1881, Ley; 

Castleton, Holt\ Whaley Bridge ; Ashwood Dale, 
Whitehead, 

r 

85. Barbula spadicea Mitt. 

I. Buxton, Wilson, 186^; Dovedsile, Holmes; Castleton, 

Whitehead. 

86. Barbula cylindrica TayL 

L Buxton, Matlock, and Castleton, Whitehead. 

r 

87. Barbula tiornschachiana Schultz. 

I. Topley Pike, i88r, Ley, Cromford, Hunt, 1863; 

Miller's Dale, Holt in Whitehead. 

III. Shopnall, Replo7i F. & F. 

88. Barbula revoluta Schwg. 

I. Monsal Dale, 1881, Ley; walls, Buxton; Miller's 

Dale ; Chapel-en-le-Frith, Whitehead. 

89. Barbula convoluta Hed\y. 

L Ashwood Dale and Topley Pike, 1874, Ley'] frequent 

on banks and walls, Whitehead. 

90. Barbula Inclinata Schwg. {Mo Ilia inclinata Lindb.) 

I. Staddon Heights, Holmes, 1867, in Braithwaite. 

91. Barbula tortuosa L. 

I. Very abundant on limestone, Buxton, 1869, Ley] 

Ashford, fr., Niehi and Ashton In Whitehead; 
Matlock Bath ; Dovedale, Bindley. 

92. Barbula squarrosa Brid. 

L Lathkili Dale, Whitehead. 

93. Barbula subulata L. 

L Abundant, Buxton, i86g, Ley; Miller's Dale, Bagger; 



frequent in limestone dales. Whitehead. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 251 

r 

II L Repton, Hagger, 

94. Barbula Issvipila Brid. 

I. Monsal Dale, Holt\ trees, Dovedale ; Chapel-en-le- 

Frith, Whitehead, 

i 

95. Barbula ru rails L, 

L Buxton, on limestone, Ley; Ashwood Dale; Worm- 
hill ; Dovedale ; Castleton, WhiteheacL 

III. Foremark, near Repton, Hagger, 

96. Barbula intermedia Brid. 

w 

I. Common on limestone, Buxton, 1869, Ley] walls in 

limestone dales, Whitehead. 

r 

-. 

J 

97. Barbula princeps DeNot. 

I. Near Buxton, S, Ashton ; near Miller's Dale, Cash in 



Whitehead, 

98. Trichodon cyllndricus Hedw. 

L Matlock, Wiisoft in Whitehead. 

99. Ceratodon purpureus L. 

I. Common on walls and banks. 
III. Common on walls and banks. 

4 

100. Distlchum capillaceum L. 

I. Ashwood Dale, Holt in Whitehead 
HI. Gunn's Hills ! 



CALYMPERACE.-E. 

loi. Encalypta vulgaris Hedw. 

I. Miller's Dale, 1871 ; Dovedale, 1875, Ley\ Harting-- 

ton ; Dovedale, Whitehead. 

HI. Repton, Hagger, 

Var. pilifera Funck. 

I. Castleton, Miller's Dale, and Lathkill Dale, White- 
head. 

Var. obtusifolia Funck. 

L Miller's Dale and Lathkill Dale, Whitehead; Dove- 
dale, Bindley. 

102, Encalypta streptocarpa Hedw, 

L Rather abundant on the limestone, Ley; Youlgreave^ 



fr,, Bownian in Wilson, Whitehead. 



Aug^ust Z899. 



252 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 

GRIMMIACE^. 

103. Grimmia apocarpa L. 

1 

I. Walls, Ashwood Dale ; Kinder Scout ; Whaley 

Bridg-e, Whitehead; Dovedale, Bindley \ Matlock 
Bath! 

Var. pumila Schpr. 
I. Miller's Dale, Holt, 1879, i" Whitehead. 

104. Grimmia pulvinata Dill. 

F 

L Frequent, Whitehead. 

Ill, Repton, Hagger\ Mickleover, Bindley \ Belper and 

Duffield ! 

Var. obtusa Hiibn. 

I. Tickwall, Hunt^ 1863, in Braithwaite. 

T05. Grimmia tricoptiytla Grev. 

I. Sandstone walls, Stanton, 1886, Ley \ Rowsley, 

Boswell] Chee Dale, Holt, 1885; Kinder, near 
Hayfield, White/iead, 

106. Grimmia Doniana Sm. 

L Wall, Coomb's Moss, 1880, Ley; Axe Edge, Holmes, 

1874 ; Charlesworth, Tinker ; walls, Kinder Scout ; 
Castleton ; Fernilee, near Buxton, Whitehead. 

J 07. Rhacomitrium aciculare L. 

L Moorland streams near Buxton, 1870, Ley \ Charles- 
worth Coombs and Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

Var. denticuiatum Wils* 

I. Kinder Scout and Stenior Clough, Whitehead, 

108. Rliacomitrium heterosticlium Hedw. 

I. Stenior Cloug-h, and near Buxton, Whitehead. 

Var. gracilesceas Bry. Eur. (Rhacomitrium obtusum Sm.). 

Kinder Scovit, Whitehead. 

109. Rliacomitrium fasciculate Schrad. 

Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder Scout ; Stenior 
Clough, and near Buxton, Whitehead. 

no. Rhacomitrium lanuginosum Hedw. 

I. Raven's Dale, 1881 ; Deep Dale, 1880; Lathkill Dale, 

1886, Ley; Kinder Scout; Charlesworth Coombs 



and Chee Dale, Whitehead. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 253 



\v. 



111. Rhacomitriutn canescens Hed 

I- Lathklll Dale, 1886, Ley \ Fernilee, near Buxton^ 

Whitehead. 

Var. ericoides Bry. Eur. 

I. Fernilee ; Chee Dale ; Kinder Scout ; Chapel-en*Ie- 

Frith, Whitehead, 

m 

112. Ptycbomitrium polyphyllum Dicks. 

I. Abundant on the Millstone Grit, near Buxton, 1869- 

1881, Ley\ walls, Ashwood Dale; Furnilee, near 
Buxton ; Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

113. Amphoridium Aioageotii B.&S. 

I. Edale Head, 1881, L^y; near Woodhead ; Stenior 

Cloug"h ; Kinder Scout ; and Ashwood Dale, 
Whitehead, 

114. Zygodon viridissimus Dicks. 

I. Abundant on limestone, Buxton, Ley; on trees, 

Monsal Dale, Ifott ; Matlock and Chapel-en-le- 
Frith, Whitehead, 

Var. rupestris Lindb. 

I. Ashwood Dale, 1867, //"«?//; Castleton, Chee Dale, 

and Miller's Dale, 1886, Hott m Whitehead. 

I 

115. Vlota Drummondii Grev. 

I. On trees near Whaley Bridg^e, Scholefield in 

Whitehead. 

116. IJlota Bruchii Hornsch. 

L On trees, Monsal Dale, Holt\ Dovedale and Castle- 
ton, Barker in Whitehead. 

J 1 7. Orthotrlchum anomalum B.&S. 

Var. cylindricum Schpr. 

L On limestone rocks and walls, rather frequent, 

Whiteliead, 
III. Trees and rocks, Repton, Repton F, & /^ 

118. Orthotrichum saxatile Brid, 

L Very abundant on limestone near Buxton, Ley ; 

Dovedale, Bindley. 

119. Orthotrichum cuputatum HofTni. 



I. Dovedale, 1SS6, Ley, frequent on limestone rocks 

and walls, Whitehead. 



August 1899, 



254 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 

Var. nudum Dicks. 

I. Miller's Dale and Monsal Dale, 1884, Holt', Chee 

Dale, Whitehead. 

120. Orthotrichum affine Schrad. 

L Very scarce near Buxton ; hawthorn stems, Ash- 



wood Dale, 1870, Ley \ on walls, Chapel-en-le- 
Frith, and near Whaley Bridge ; on trees, Topley 
Pike, Whitehead'; Dovedale, Bi^idley. 

Var. rival g Wilson. 

L R. Wye, Cheedale, Whitehead, 1878; Miller's Dale, 

Holt, 1884, m Braithwaite. 

121. Orthotrichum stramineum Hornsch. 

L Matlock Bridge, Spruce ; Monsal Dale, Holt in 

L 

Whitehead. 

122. Orthotrichum tenellum Bruch. 

I. Matlock Bridge, 1844, Spruce in Whitehead. 

123. Orthotrichum diaphanum Schrad. 

I. Miller's Dale ; Matlock Bath ; Fernilee, near Buxton, 

Whitehead. 
Ill- Mickleover; Findern, 5/;^^/^'. 

124. Orthotrichum Lye t Hi H.&T. 

I- On a tree, Ashwood Dale, Whitehead. 

125. Orthotrichum Sprucei Mont. 

I. On trees by the Derwent, Matlock, Spruce i.n White- 

head. 

r 

126. Orthotrichum rivulare Turn. 

I. By the Wye, Chee Dale, 1878, Whifehead. 

SPLACHXACE.'E. 

127. Splachnum sphsericum L. fil. 

I. Kinder Scout, y. W. in Whitehead. 

FUNARIACE.E. 

128. Discelium nudum Dicks. 

I. Milton Reservoir, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Barker; clay 



banks, Charlesworth, Whitehead. 

1^9. Epherum serratum Schreb. 

I. Hedge bank, Charlesworth, Whitehead. 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 255 

130. Physcomitrella patens Hedw. 

I. Milton Reservoir, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Barker in 

Whitehead. 

Var. Lucasiana Schp. 

I. With the foregoingf, 1887, Barker \n Whitehead. 

131- Phy scorn itrium sphsericum Schwpf. 



L With the foreg"oing-, 1893, Barker in Whitehead. 

132. Physcomltrium pi ri for me L. 

L Mud of a pond, Buxton, 1890, Ley \ Charlesworth, 
' and Chapel-en-le-Frith, Whitehead. 

III. Spurs Bottom, Repton, Hagger\ moist bank, Mickle- 

over, Bindley. 

^2>Z^ Funaria calcarea Wahh 

I. Deep Dale, 1870; Miller's Dale, 1872; Dovedale, 

18S6, Ley; Matlock and Miller's Dale, Wilson; 
Castleton ; Wormhill and Tadding-ton Dale, While- 
head, 

134. Funaria hygrometrica L. 

I. Common on banks and walls, Whitehead. 
III. Repton Shrubs, Hagger \ walls, Mickleover, Bindley. 

BARTRAMIACE.^. 

135. Bartramia pomiformis L. 

■ 

I. Goyt's Bridg-e, Buxton, 1869 ; HolHng-s Cloug^h, 1870, 

Ley; Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth; Charlesworth 
Coombs; Kinder Scout, JVhitchead. 

III. Bank, Egg*ington, Bindley; Repton, Hagger. 

136. Bartramia CEderi Gunn. 

L Lover's Leap, Buxton, 1870; Dovedale, 1881-18S6, 
Ley ; limestone rocks, Castleton and Ashwood 
Dale, Whitehead. 

137. Philonotis fontana L. 

L {Bartramia fontana Brid. Edale Head, 1881, L^ey). 

Charlesworth Coombs and Khider Scout ; Castle- 
ton ; Fernilee, near Buxton, Whitehead. 

138. Philonotis calcarea B.&S. 

L {Bartramia calcarea B.&S, Monk's Dale, iSSi, Ley). 

Kinder Scout and Chee Dale, male plants on!\, 

IJliitehead. 



Aug-tist 1809. 



-■ri 



256 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 

r 

139. Breutelia arcuata Dicks. 

L {Bartraniia arcuata Brid. Raven's Dale, 1881, Ley) 

Chee Dale and Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 



BRYACE-^. 

140. Leptobryum pyriforme L. 

I. Shady limestone rocks, Castleton, Whitehead. 
III. Newton Solney, Hagger\ stonework, Mickleover, 

Bindley. 

i 

141. Webera cucuHata Schp, Not in Lend. Cat. 

1. Kinder Scout, Whitehead, 

142. Webera nutans Schreb. 

I. Not uncommon on the Millstone Grit and Coal 

Measures, Whitehead. 



III. Repton Rocks, Hugger, 

V 

143. Webera cruda Schreb. 

{Bryum crudum Schreb. Near Hollinscloug"h, fruit, 
1881 ; Raven's Dale, 1881, Ley). Miller's Dale, 
Holt \ Castleton, Whitehead. 

\ 

144. Webera annotina Hedw. 

p 

L Kinder, near Hayfield ; Charlesworth, Whitehead. 
III. Tickenhall, Hagger, 

Var. angustifolia Schpr. 

L Castleton, West in Whitehead. 

145. Webera carnea L. 

I. Clay banks at Charlesworth, Whitehead, 
III. Damp railway bank, Mickleover, Bindley. 

146. Webera albicans Wahl. 

1. (Bryum albicans Wahl. Fruiting^ at Dale End, 

near Alstonefield, 1879, Ley). Banks at Castleton ; 
Stenior Clough ; Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth ; 
and Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

147. Zieria julacea Schpr. 

I. {Bryum Zierii Dicks. Cave Dale, Castleton, 1881 ; 



Raven's Dale, 1881, Ley). Cressbrook T>'Ae, Holt\ 
Cave Dale, Castleton, West in Whitehead. 

148, Bryum pendulum Hornsch. 

I. Wall near Chapel-en-le-Frith, Whitehead. 
III. Foremark and Repton Rocks, Repton F. & F. 

Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 257 

149. Bryum inclinatum Swartz, 

I. Wall in Miller's Dale, Whitehead \ Cromford ! 

150. Bryum intermGdium W.&M. 

I. Walls, Miller's Dale and Charlesworth, Whitehead. 
III. Newton Solney, Hagger, 

151. Bryum bitnutn Schreb. 

III. Boggy place, Findern, Bindley. 

r 

Var. cuspidatum Bry. Eur. 

L {Bryum affine Bruch). Buxton, Hunf^ ^871, in 

Whitehead. 

152. Bryum pallescens Schleich. 

I- Monsal Dale, //olt, 1879, in Whitehead. 

153. Bryum murale Wils. 

L Wall top at Cressbrook Mills, 1877, teste H. Boswell, 

Ley. 

z 

154. Bryum atropurpureum W.&M. 

I. Ashwood Dale, Whitehead. 
III. Willington, Hagger, 



Var. gracUentum Tayl. 

I. Near Castlcton, ff'T^^/ in Whitehead. 

r 

155. Bryum cgespiticium L. 

I. Walls near Tideswell and Bakewell, IMiitchead. 

Ill, Ingleby, /?^/7^^^r ; Mickleover, Bindley) common 

about Derby ! 

156. Bryum argenteum L. 

L Common, Whitehead \ Matlock Bath ! 
III. Willington and Repton,j7"^/^^^r; Mickleover,^/W/^. 

157. Bryum capiltare L, 

I. Frequent on walls, Whitehead. 

III. Knowle Hills and Repton, Hagger] Mickleover, 

Bindley ; Quarndon and Duffield. 

Var. macrocarpum Hueben. 
I. Wall at Castleton, Whitehead. 

Var, Ferchelii B.&S. 

I- Buxton, Prof. Barker in Whitehead ; Litton Dale, 

WhiteJiead. 



7th Sept. 1S99, 



258 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 

L 

158. Bryutn pallens Swartz. 

L Via Gellia, Matlock, 1887, Ley) Ashwood, Miller's 

and Monsal Dales ; Chapel-en-le-Frith and Matlock, 
Whitehead. 

III. Willington, Hugger, 

159. Bryum pseado-triquetrum Hedw. 

I. Monk's Dale, 1881, Ley \ wet bank near Castleton ; 

nr. Woodhead, male pi.; Charlesworth, Whitehead. 

160. Bryum roseum Schreb. 

L Cressbrook, Holt; Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth ; 

Castleton ; Chee Dale, Whitehead. 

161. Bryum filiforme Dicks. 

I. Edale, Holt In Whitehead. 



MNIACE^. 



162. Mnium cuspidatum Hedw. 

1. Chee Dale and Matlock, Whitehead. 
Ill, Anchor Church, Hagger, 

163. Mnium affine Bland. 

L Monsal Dale and Matlock, IMiitehead. 

Var. rugicum Laur. 

I. Monsal Dale, Holt in Whitehead. 

164. Mnium undutatum Hedw. 

L Common. Ashwood and Monsal Dales ; Matlock, 

Whitehead. 

III. Bretby, H agger \ Mickleover, Bindley. 

t6^. Mnium rostratrum Schrad. 

I. Stirrup Wood and Whitebottom Wood, Charles- 
worth ; Lover's Leap, Ashwood Dale, Whitehead. 

III. Foremark, Hagger. 



166. Mnium hornum L. 

I. Frequent In fruit, fF////Md^</^/; Lea Wood, Cromford! 

III. Foremark, Hagger; Dale Woods, Bindley] Ock- 

brook ! 

167. Mnium serratum Schrad. 

L Fernilee Wood, near Buxton, Gordon\ Matlock, 



Whitehead. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 259 

168. Mnium stellate Hedw, 

I. Raven's Dale, 1881, Ley; Odin Mine, Castleton, fr., 
• 1S84, Holt; Ashwood and Tadding^ton Dales ; 
Edale, etc., Whitehead. 

169. Mnium punctata m Hedw. 

■ 

I. Rather common in woods and shady places, White- 

head; Death o' Lumb, near Belper ! 

III. Knowle Hills, Hagger; Dale Wood and Mickleover, 

Bindley, 

170. Mnium subglobosum B.&S. 

I. Carmeadow, near Hayfield, 1SS2, Ifolt ; Kuider 

Scout and Charlesworth Coombs, Whitehead, , 

171. Aulacomnium androgynum L. 

L Plare Wood, Youlgreave, 1877, Ley, 
HI. Mickleover, Bijidley, 

17^. Aulacomnium palustre L. 

I. Whatford Wood, Buxton, 1S74, Ley; Charlesworth 

Coombs ; Kinder Scout ; Coombs Moss, White- 
head, 

HI. Repton Rocks, Repton F, & F. 



TETRAPHIDACE.'E 



173. Tetraphis pellucida L. 

I. Near Rowsley, 18S0, Ley. Rather frequent. Stirrup 

Wood, Charlesworth, and Whitebottom Wood, 



fr,, Whitehead, 
III, Repton Rocks, Repton F, & F, 

174. Tetradontium Brownianum Dicks. 

L Wooded Gritstone rocks, between Rowsley and 

Stanton, 1880, Ley; Kinder Scout, Holt in White- 



head. 



POLYTRICHACE^. 



175. Oligotrichum hercynicum Ehrh. 

L Near Goyt's Bridge, 1874; Brown Head, near 

Chapel-en-le-Frith, 1881, Ley; Kinder Scout and 
Edale, Whitehead. 

176. Atrichum undulatum L. 

L Common in woods and shady banks, WhiteJiead* 



7th Sept. 1899. 



; 



26o Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 

IIL Foremark, Hagger\ Mickleover, Bindlej. 

177. Pogonatam nanum Neck. 

I. Clay bank at Charlesworth, Clongh in Whitehead. 

IIL Repton, Hagger, 

178. Pogonatam aloides Hedw. 

I. Near Buxton, very common, 1869, 1874, Ley'.^ rather 

frequent on clay banks, Whitehead. 

w 

IIL Repton' Rocks, Haggcr, 

179. Pogonatam urnigerum L. 

I 

I. Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder Scout ; Chapel-en-le- 

Frlth ; Buxton ; and near Whaley Bridg-e, White- 
head. 

IIL Repton Rocks, Hagger, 

180. Pogonatam alpinam L. 

L Kinder Scout, Clongh in Whitehead. 

181. Polytrichum gracile Menz. 

I. Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth ; Ernicroft Wood, 

r 

Mellor, Whitehead. 

182. Polytrichum formosum Hedw. 

L Monsal Dale, Whitehead. 

III, Foremark. I/agger. 

183. Polytrichum piliferum Schreb. 

L Whatford Wood, Buxton, etc., 1869, 1870, Ley, 

Charlesworth Coombs ; Raworth ; Kinder Scout ; 
Stenior Clough, Whitehead. 

III. Repton Rocks, Hagger. 

184. Polytrichum juniperinum Willd. 

I. Charlesworth Coombs, Schofieldm Whitehead. 
III. Tickenhall, Hagger\ Findern, Bindley. 

w 

185. Polytrichum strictum Banks. 

I. Kinder Scout, //olt in Whitehead. 

186. Polytrichum commune L. 

I. Abundant on the moorlands, Whitehead; Cromford ! 
III. Repton Rocks, Hagger. 

187. Diphyscium foliosum L. 



I. Goyt's Lane, near Buxton, iSSr, Ley 



Natu rail's 



\ 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 261 

Section II.— AMPHOCARPL 

FISSIDENTACE^. 

1 88. Fissidens bryoides Hedw. 

I. Grin Wood, Buxton, 1870, Ley \ Stirrup and White* 

bottom Woods, etc., Whitehead. 

III. Repton, Hagger\ Mickleover, Bindley \ Quamdon ! 
i8g. Fissidens exilis Hedw, 

I- Clay banks, Charlesworth, Whitehead. 
Ill, Mickleover, Bindley. 

190. Fissidens incurvus W.&M. 

I. Clay banks, Charlesworth, and near Whaley Bridg-e, 

J'lVjitchead. 

r 

191 - Fissidens viridulus Wils. 

I. Monk's Dale, 1887, Ley \ banks at Mellor, Schofield 

in Whitehead. 

192. Fissidens pusillus Wils. 

I. Lover's Leap, Buxton, Hunt; Chee Dale; Monk's 

Dale, Barker m Whitehead. 

Var. madidus Spruce. {Fissidc??s rninutulus Sull.). 
I. Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, Gordon, Afield, Ashton, 



and Tcllow in \^'hitehead. 

193. Fissidens crassipes Wils. 

■m 

L Via Gellia, Matlock, 1887, Ley; Monsal Dale and 

Raven's Dale, I/oll in Whitehead. 

194. Fissidens osmundoides Hedw. 

L Edale Head, iSSi^Ley ; abundantly in fruit at Kinder 

Scout, Whiteheads 

195. Fissidens decipiens DeNot. 

I. Buxton ; Deep Dale ; Raven's Dale ; Lathkill Dale, 

1869-1886, Ley; frequent in Ashwood and Miller's 
Dale and Stenlor Clouij-h, Whitehead. 

w 

196. Fissidens adiantoides Hedw. 

L Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth; Kinder Scout; Fernilee, 

near Buxton, Whitehead, 

197. Fissidens taxifolius L. 

L Clay banks, Charlesworth, and near Whaley Bridije, 

Whitehead. 

III. yWXtoWj Hagger; Mickleover y Bindlty. 



■_ 114^ 



7th Sept. 1S99. 



262 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 

SCHISTOSTEGACE.^. 

h 

198. Schistostega osmundacea Dicks. 

h Rocks near Stanton, 1880, Ley ; Cratcliff Tor, near 

Youlg-reave, Pullinger\ shady rocks, Charlesworth 
Coombs; and in an old coal drift near New Mills, 
Whitehead. 

III. Repton Rocks, Hagger, 



Section III.— CLADOCARPL 

RIPARIACE^. 

r 
F 

/ 

199. Cinclidotus fontinaloides Hedw, 

L On stones in the Wye at Chee Dale and Miller's 

Dale, and in the river at Dovedale, Whitehead. 

r 

200. Pontinalis antipyretica L. 

I. Not uncommon in the streams on the limestone, 

such as the Wye, Dove, and Lathkill rivers, 
Whitehead. 
III. Ponds, Mickleover, Bindley, 

Var. gigantea Schpr. 
I. Miller's Dale, Holt In Whitehead. 

F I 

Var. gracilis Lindb. 
I. Carmeadow, near Hayfield, Holt ; Charlesworth 

Coombs, Whitehead. 

\ 

201. Fontinalis squamosa L. 

I. Edale Head, 1881, Ley; In the Goyt, near Fernilee, 

fr., C lough \ Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 



CRYPH^ACE^, 



202. liedwigia ciliata Dicks. 

I. Kinder Scout ; Fernilee, near Buxton, Wliitehead. 



Section IV.— PLEUROCARPL 

LEUCODONTACE^, 

20-?- Leucodon sciuroides L. 

L Limestone wall, Harting-ton, In Dovedale ; with abortive 

set^, near Matlock and Bakewell, Wilson In White- 
head, 



III. Tree, Mickleover, Bindley. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses 



263 



NECKERACE.^. 



204. Neckera pumila Hedw. 

L Derbyshire, Wilson in Whitehead. 

205. Neckera crispa L. 

I. Abundant on the limestone, Buxton, Dovedale, etc, 
Zey ; on rocks in the limestone dales, mostly Chee 

■ 

Dale, Whitehead \ Dovedale and Matlock Bath, 
Bindley, 

Var. falcata Boulay. 

L Castleton, JVhitehead. 

206. Neckera complanata L, 

I. Rare on the Coal Measures ; common on walls in the 



limestone dales. 



Holt in White 



head ; on a tree, Matlock Bath, Bindley. 
III. Shobnal, Repton F. & F. 

207. Homalia trichomanoides Schreb. 

I. Fernilee, near Buxton ; Matlock Bath, Whitehead. 
III. Mickleover, Bifidley, 



HOOKERIACE.^. 

208. Pterygophyllum lucens Sm. 

I. {Hookera lucens Sm. Fruiting in Wildmoor Clough, 

Buxton, 1870, Ley). Stirrup Wood; woods at 
Mellor ; Fernilee, near Buxton ; Lover*s Leap ; 
Kinder Scout, JVhitehead. 

III. Repton Rocks, Repton F. & F. 



LESKEACE^. 

2og, Leskea polycarpa Ehrh. 

I. On stones by the Wye, Chee Dale ; on tree by the 
. Wye, Miller's Dale, Cressbrook Dale, and Monsal 
Dale ; by the Derwent in Chatsworth Park, White- 
head; Dovedale, Bifidley. 

III. Tree by water, Anchor Church, Mickleover, Bt7idley. 
210. Anomodon viticulosus L. 

I. Abundant on the limestone, Buxton ; Dovedale, I^y ; 

Miller's Dale, fr., Whitehead. 



7th Sept. 1899. 



264 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 

211, Heterocladiam heteropterum Bruch, 

I. Wet rocks, Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, Mellor, and 

Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

212. Thuidium tamariscinum Hedw. 



White 



head. 



III. Bretby, Hagger \ Mickleover, Bindley \ Quarndon 

and Duffield ! 

213. Thuidiuni recognitum Hedw. 

I. Romantic Rocks at Matlock Bath, 1790; and again 

in 1820 with perfect fruit, Sir J. E. Smith (Herb. 
Smith) ; Wilson^s Bryologfia. In the above place 
in 1884, Whitehead', Monsal Dale, Holt In White- 
head : Dovedale. Bindlev : Miller's Dale. Ha^'^er. 



HYPNACE-^. 

214. Cylindrothecium conclnnum DeNot. 

III. Tickenhall, Hagger. 

215. Thamniam alopecurum L. 

I. Dirnin Dale, near Ashford, 1869, Ley; wet rocks at 

I 

Charlesworth and Mellor ; rather plentiful on wet 
rocks in the limestone dales, but the fruit is rather 
rarely produced, Whitehead ; Dovedale, Biiidley, 

216. Thamnlum angustifolium Holt, Jour, of Bot., 1886; not 

in Lond. Cat. 

I. Wet rocks, Raven's Dale, Holt in Whitehead. The 

only British habitat. 

217. Ctimacium dendtoides L. 

I. Buxton, 1869, Ley \ marshy meadow, Charlesworth, 

with abundance of fruit, Scholefield; Matlock 
Bath; Caves Dale, Castleton, and Kinder Scout, 
Whitehead. 

III. Repton Rocks. Reptou F. & F. 

218. Pylalsia polyantha Schreb. 

I. On trees, Matlock Bath, Whitehead, 

219. Jsothecium myurum Poll. 

I. Stanton, 1SS6, Ley\ on trees, Fernilee, near Buxton, 

Lathkill Dale, Whitehead. 



III. Burton Road, Repton, Repton F. & F. 



Naturalist, 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 265 

220. Orthothecium intricatum Hartm, 

L Deep Dale, Buxton; Lathkill Dale, i886, Ley; 

Chapel-en-le-Frith, Barrat; Castleton, West; Chee 
Dale, Whitehead, 

221. tiomalothecium sericeum L. 

I. Rare on the Coal Measures ; plentiful on limestone 

walls and rocks, Whitehead] Rowsley, Hugger, 

III. Common; Mickleover, ^/;/^/(?)^. 

222. Camptothecium lutescens Huds. 

I. Rather frequent on limestone rocks and walls ; Ash- 
wood Dale, fr., Schojield; near Wormhlll, WJiite- 
head. 

III. Wood, near Repton Rocks, Hagger, 

r 

223. Scleropodium cwspitosum Wils, 

I. Shady places on limestone; Lathkill Dale, 1886, Ley; 

Cressbrook Dale, Holt; Miller's Dale, Whitehead. 

22^, Brachythecium glareosum B.&S. 

I, On banks, Ashwood Dale and Fernilee, near Buxton; 

Over Haddon ; Chapel-en-le-Frith, Whitehead. 

22^. Brachythecium velutinum L. 

I. Raven's Dale, iSSi, Ley; frequent, !Mellor ; Whaley 



Bridgfe ; Miller's Dale, and Ashwood Dale, White- 
head. 

III. Mickleover, j9/>//^/^ ; Quarndon ! 

226. Brachythecium rutabulum L. 

L Rather common throughout the district, Whitehead; 

Matlock Bath ! 
III. Tickenhall and Repton, Hagger; Mickleover, Bind- 

\ 

ley; Gunn's Hills; Mackworth; Ireton and Ock- 
brook ! 

r 

227. Brachythecium rivalare B.&S, 

L Wet rocks, Kinder Scout and Castleton, WhiteJiead. 
III. Ireton ! 

228. Brachythecium populeum Hedw. 

I. Raven's Dale, 1S81, Ley; Whitebottom Wood, 

Charlesworth ; Mellor; Fernilee, near Buxton, 

W/iitehead. 
III. Knowle Hills, Hanger; Breadsall Moor! 



7th Sept. 1899. 



266 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses, 

229. Brachythecium plumosum Swartz. 

I. Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth ; near Glossop ; Kinder, 

near Hayfield, IVhitehead, 

230. Eurhynchium myosuroides L, 

•A 

I. Wood at Fernilee, near Buxton ; Whitebottom 

Wood, Charlesworth; Edale, Whitehead] Dove- 

I 

dale, Bindley. 
III. Repton, Hagger. 

231. Eurhynchium circinstum Brid, 

I. Lathkill Dale, 1886, Ley. 

232. Eurhynchium striatuium Spruce. 

I. Wormhill, West in Whitehead, 

233. Eurhynchium striatum Schreb. 

L Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth; hedge bank, Mellor ; 

and near Whaley Bridge, Whitehead. 

IL Common, Scarcliffe, 1870, Ley. 

r 

III. Duffield! 

234. Eurhynchium crassinervium Tayl. 

1 

L Dovedale, 1877; Rowsley, 1880; Lathkill Dale, fn, 

1876, Ley; Matlock, Wilso?t ; by the Wye in Chee 
Dale and Miller's Dale ; limestone rocks, Castleton, 
Whitehead. 

235. Eurhynchium piliferum Schreb. 

L Whitebottom Wood, Charlesworth;. Fernilee, near 

Buxton ; Cressbrook Dale , Over Haddon and 

J 

Castleton, Whitehead, 

236. Eurhynchium Swartzii Turn, 

I. Raven's Dale, 1881 ; Lover's Leap, Buxton, 1886^ 

Ley ; Stirrup and Whitebottom Woods, Charles- 
worth ; Dell at Mellor, and Castleton, Whitehead. 

r 

III. Bretby, Hagger; Mickleover, Bindley. 

237. Eurhynchium prwtongum Dilh 

L Frequent in woods on the Coal Measures, White- 
bottom Wood and Whaley Bridge, h,, Whitehead. 

IIL Near ^v^thy^ Hagger; Mickleover, Bindley; Little 



Eaton ! 



Naturalist, 



p 

Painter : List of Derbyshire Mosses. 267 

2i^?>. Eurhynchium pumilum Wils. 

I, Cressbrook, Holt '^ "Wormhill, West\ Stirrup Wood, 

Charlesworth, Whitehead. 

239. Eurhynchium Teesdalii Sm. 

I. {Rhynchostegium Teesdalii Sm. Mill wheel, Crom- 

ford, 1887, Ley.) Chee Dale and Miller's Dale, 
Holt in Whitehead. ' 

240. Hyocomium flagellate Dicks. 

I. On rocks by streams, Kinder Scout, Charlesworth 

Coombs, and Stenior Clough,/", TF. in Whitehead. 

241. Rhynchostegium tenellum Dicks. 

I. Raven's Dale, 1881, Ley \ shady wall at Meilor ; 

shady rocks in the limestone dales, Whitehead. 

r 

h 

242. Rhynchostegium depressum Bruch. 

I. Raven's Dale, 1881 ; Lathkill Dale, 1886, Ley; 

Cressbrook, Holt; Matlock Bath and Chee Dale, 
Whitehead. 

243. Rhynchostegium confertum Dicks. 

I, Frequent on walls through the district, Whitehead. 



* 



III. Mickleover, Bitidley. 



244. Rhynchostegium murale Hedw. 

I. Very abundant on the limestone near Buxton, Ley; 

on walls and rocks in the limestone dales ; a form 
near the var. jiilaceum Schpr. occurs near Whalev 



Bridg-e and Buxton, Whitehead \ Matlock, Hap^o-er. 



III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

Var, julaceum Schpr. (Teste H. BoswelL) 

I. On the Lathkill near Youlgreave, 1877, teste 

H. Boswell, Ley. 

245. Rhynchostegium ruscifolium Neck. 

L On stones in streams near Whaley Bridg^e ; Stirrup 

Wood, Charlesworth ; and Meilor, Whitehead. 

III. Foremark, //^/^^T^'r ; Mickleover, ^/;/r//rv, 

246. Plagiothecium latebricola Wils. 

I. Charlesworth Coombs, Whitehead; Dovedale, Bind- 
ley. 

2^'j. Plagiothecium pulchellum Hedw. 

L Miller's Dale. HoUin Whitehead. 



7th Sept. 1899. 



268 Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 

248. Plagiotbecium denticu/atum L. 

I. Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, Whitehead. 

\ 

III. Repton ; near Eggington, Hagger\ Mickleover, 

Bindley ; Dale Woods ! 

Var. sulcatum Spruce. 
I. Castleton and Miller's Dale, Whitehead. 

249. Plagiothecium Borrerianum Spruce. 

I. {P. elegans Hook. Edale, 1870 ; Stanton, 1886 ; 

Whatford. Wood, Buxton, 1874, Ley). Common 
in woods at Charlesvvorth and other places on the 
Coal Measures ; Ernicroft Wood, Mellor, Nield 



and Ashton^ c.fr, in Whitehead. 

250. Plagiothecium sylvaiicum L. 

r 

L Wood at Mellor, Whitehead. 
III. Dale Woods ! 

251. Plagiothecium undulatum L. 

I. Whatford Wood, Buxton, 1869; Stanton, 1886, Ley] 

common in the hilly districts ; Fernllee Wood, 
near Buxton, fr.; Ernicroft Wood, Buxton, White- 
head] Dovedale and Matlock Bath, Bindley] Lea 
Kill, Cromford ! 

III. Wood near Repton Rocks, Hagger. 

252. Amblystegium confervoides Brid. ! 

I. {Hypnu7n confervoides Brid. Raven's Dale, 1S81, 

teste Rev. C. H. Binstead, Ley). Cressbrook Dale, 
Holt in Whitehead ; Dovedale, Dr. Frazer, Braith- 
waite. 

^hZ' Amblystegium serpens L. 

I. Common, Whitehead. 

III. Mickleover, Bindley] Gunn's Hills, Mackworth and 

Ockbrook ! 

254. Amblystegium radicale P.Beauv, 

I. Milton Reservoir, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Barker in 

Whitehead. 

255. Amblystegium Irriguum Wils. 

I. {H. irriguinn Wils, In the Wye, Blackwell, 1870; 

and in the Dove, Dovedale, 18S7, Ley). By a 
rivulet and by the Goyt at Mellor, Holt in White- 
head ; Matlock Bath ! 



Naturalist, 



Painter : List of Derbyshire Mosses. 269 

256. Amblystegium fluviatile Swartz. 

I. {H. fluviatile Swartz. In the Wye, Miller's Dale, 

1881 ; in the Dove, Dovedale, 1887, Ley^. By 
the Wye, Chee Dale ; by the Derwent, Matlock 
Bath, Whitehead, 

257. Amblystegium npartum L. 

L Whaley Bndg*e and Chapel-en-le-Frith, Barker ; 

Mellor, Whitehead'^ Dovedale, Bindley. 
Ill, Mickleov^er, Bi?idlev. 

w 

258. Mypnum aduncum Hedw. 

I, Miller's Dale, Ha^srer, 



259. Hypnum exannulatum Gumb. 

I. Bog^s on Kinder Scout and Charlesworth Coombs, 

Whitehead, 

260. Hypnum vernicosum Lindb. 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. 

I 

261. Hypnum Cossoni Schpr. 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. - 

262. Hypnum Sendtneri Schpr. 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. 

r 

263. Hypnum revolvens Sw^artz. 

L Whatford Wood, Buxton, 1874, Ley, Kinder Scout, 

Ultitehead, 

264. Hypnum flultans L. 

L Kinder Scout, Edale, and Axe Edge, W/iitehead, 

Var. submersum. 

Brownhead, Chapel-en-le-Frith, 1881, teste Rev. C. H. 
Binstead, Ley, 

265. Hypnum uncinatum Hedw. 

I. Ashwood Dale, Castleton, Chariesworth Coombs, 



and Stirrup Wood, Chariesworth, Whitehead. 



Hyp 



I. Not uncommon on the limestone, as at Castleton and 

Tideswell, Whitehead ] Miller's Dale, Hagg-er. 
III. Mickleover, Bindley, 

Var. vallisclausse Brld. 

I. Miller's Dale, Holt in Whitehead. 

267. Hypnum commutatum Hedw* 

I. Buxton, 1869; Monk's Dale, 1S81, Ley; frequenf, 

Kinder Scout; Whitebottom Wood, Chariesworth, 
Whitehead, 



7th Sept. 1809, 



270 Painter: List of Dej'byshire Mosses. 

268. Hypnum virescens Boulay. 

I 

I. Monsal Dale, HoUxw Whitehead. 

s 

269. Hypnum falcatum Brid. 

I. Buxton, 1869, teste Rev. C. H. Binstead, Ley \ Ash- 

wood and Monsal Dales, Barker \ bog- on Kinder 
Scovit, Whitehead. 

270. Hypnum rugosum Ehrh. 

L Dovedale ; Tideswell Dale; Raven's Dale, 1881, 

very luxuriant, Ley; rather frequent amongst lime- 
stone rubble; Chee Dale; Miller's Dale and Dove- 
dale, Whitehead, 

I 

271. Hypnum incurvatum Brid. 

I. Monk's Dale, Barker] Duke's Drive, Buxton, White- 
head. 

272. Hypnum cupressiforme L. 

I. Frequent on rocks and walls ; on a tree, Stirrup 

Wood, Charlesworth, Whitehead. 
III. Repton, Hagger \ Mickleover, Bindley. 

Var. tectorum Schpr. 

L Ashwood, Chee, and Miller's Dales ; Cressbrook, 

Whitehead. 

Var. ericetorum Bry.Eur. 

L Among heather, Charlesworth Coombs, Whitehead, 

273- Hypnum resupinatum Wils. 

I. Dovedale, 1869, Ley ; Carmeadow, near Hayfield, 

^ 

Holt ; near Whaley Bridge, J'l^itehead. 

274. Hypnum patientsse Lindb. 

I. Near Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth ; Chelmortcn, 

Whitehead, 

275. Hypnum moHuscum Hedw, 

I. Very common ; Ashwood Dale, 1869; Raven's Dale, 



\ 



1881, Ley) rather rare on the Millstone Grit; 
abundant on limestone, Whitehead; Buxton, IVest; 
Miller's Dale, I/agger, 
III. Mickleover, Bindley. 

Var. condensatum Schpr. 

I. Kinder Scout, Holt in Whitehead. 

276. Hypnum palustre L. 

I. Chapel-en-le-Frith ; Fernilee, near Buxton ; Castle- 
ton ; Miller's Dale and Mellor, Whiie/iead. 



Naturalist^ 



Painter: List of Derbyshire Mosses. 271 

r 

277. tiypnum ochraceum Turn. 

I. Hayfield, fr., Holt; Kinder Scout, Stirrup Wood, 

and Charlesworth Coombs, Whitehead, 

278. Hypnum polymorphum Hedw, {Som/72er/etti Myr.) 

L Ravensdale, iSSi, Ley; wall near Ashford, Ashton 

and Nieldm Whitehead. 

279. Hypnum chrysophyllum Brid. 

L Miller's Dale ; Lathkill Dale and Castleton, White- 
head, 

280. Hypnum stellatum Schreb. 

I. Monk's Dale, Ley; frequent on limestone rocks and 

walls ; rather rare on the coal measures, White- 
head. 

Var. protensum Brid. 

Miller's Dale, //olt in Whitehead. 

281. Hypnum cordifolium Hedw, 

IIL Old brickfield, Breadsall Moor! 

282. Hypnum cuspldatum L. 

I. Buxton, fr., 1870, Ley; common in marshy places, 

Whitehead. 

IIL Willing-ton, Hagger ; Mickleover, Bindley ; Little 

Eaton; Mackworth and Ockbrook ! 

283. Hypnum Schreberi Ehrh. 

L Buxton, 1870, Ley ; Charlesworth Coombs ; Kinder 

Scout and Chee Dale, Whitehead; Whatstandwell, 
Bindley. Lea Hill ! 

IIL Tickenhall Lime Quarry, Hagger; Quarndon ! 

V 

284. Hypnum purum L. 

L Rather frequent, Wfiitehead. 

IIL MWton^ Hagger; MicklQover^ Bindley, 

285. Hypnum stramineum Dicks- 

L Charlesworth Coombs and Kinder Scout, Whitehead. 

286. Hypnum scorpioides L, 

I. Fairbagfe Moor, near Glossop, Whitehead. 

287. Hylocomium splendens Dill. 

L Rather plentiful on banks in the limestone dales, 

Whitehead; Whatstandwell, Bindley. 

III. Tickenhall, Hagger. 



7th Sept. 1899. 



272 Painter: Ltst of Derbyshire Mosses, 

288. Hyiocomium brevirostrum Ehrh. 

I. Charlesworth Coombs; Chee Dale, fr,, Whitehead, 

289. Hyiocomium squarrosum L. 

I. [Hypnum, Pigf Tor, Buxton, fr.,' 1870, Ley). 

Common ; Fairbage Moor, near Glossop ; Miller*s 
Dale and Charlesworth Coombs, fr. , White- 
head, 
III. Repton, Hagger\ Mickleover, Bindley\ Little Eaton! 

Var. calvesceas Wils, 

L Near Whaley Bridge and Mellor, Whitehead, 

290. Hyiocomium loreum L. 

I. Charlesworth Coombs and Kinder Scout; wood near 

Whaley Bridge, fr. , Whitehead. 

291. Hyiocomium triquetrum L. 

* 

I. Rather frequent in the limestone dales, Whitehead; 

Dovedale, Bindley, 

III. Repton, Hagger, 



ADDENDA. 



In Bibliography add 



Science Gossip, 1873, P- T^j ^^3j ^^^ 



*>• 



Add Hosa obtusifolia Desv. 

Var. tomentella (Lenian). 

Repton ! 

Rosa glauca Vill. 
Var. inflexa (Gren.). 



Repton ! 



CORRIGENDA. 



J 



W 



be Rubus Bloxamlanus 

ja sepium Thuill. Supp. 
This is an error. 



81 • For Myriophylluni spicaiuni L,, p. 190 of Sup., read 

382 Myriophyllum alternifolium DC. 

382. This entry should be omitted : it is an error. 

575- Hieracium argenteum Fries. 

I. Matlock Bath ! An error. There has been some 

confusion here ! 



Naturalist, 



273 ■ 



BOULDERS NEAR HORNCASTLE. 



Rev. J. CONWAY WALTER, 

Rector of La?iglon, Horncastle, Lincolnshire. 



Ix the parish of Langton by Horncastle we have at least five 
larg-e boulders within a distance of some five hundred yards : 
and several smaller ones. They He — or rather did lie, for one 
has been removed to my own garden at the Rectory — along the 
road which runs through the village. The road is probably 
a very ancient one, for, like a Devonshire lane, traffic or some 
other cause has worn it down to a depth of from four to five 
feet below the level of the land on either side of it. These 
boulders are found, one (a) tilted up, doubtless artificially, 



against the bank slightly above the road level ; another (b) on 
the road level ; a third (c) about a foot below the road, in the 
bank oi the ditch ; and a fourth (d) is low down in a ditch, two 
feet or more below the road level. The fifth (e), now in my own 
garden, used to be close to the road-side, within a couple of 
yards of (a) the one tilted up. It was nearly three hundred 
yards from my garden ; but it, with another one still in situ, 
had been bought of the parish by my father many years ago ; 
and in the year 1S90 I determined, if possible, to transfer it to 
the Rectory garden. I made a very strongly-constructed sledge, 
and, with the help of two men, I got it levered on the sledge ; 
and it took five good cart horses to move it, and some chains 
were broken in the process ; for the five horses could only drag 
it a hundred yards or so at a time, and at each fresh start there 
was a very severe strain on their gear. Arrived in the garden, 
with the aid oi^ two more men, five of us m all, we managed to 
lever it on to a flower bed, and worked it round to form a 
prominent wing of a rockery, which I had constructed. There 
it was seen last year by Mr. John Cordeaux, when he paid me 
a visit from Woodhall Spa, and was pronounced by him to be 
'one of the finest boulders in the county/ We had one, how- 
ever, very much larger in this neighbourhood, in the parish of 
Edlington, on the farm of Mr. Robert Searby, ' as big as a hay- 
stack,' but that was destroyed by dynamite some two years ago. 
The dimensions of the one in my garden are: length about 
4 ft. 5 in., height 3 ft. 5 in., and thickness about 2 ft. The one 
down the village (a) tilted up is less than this, being about 3ft. 
by 2 ft. 6 in., thickness not known; the one. (b) on the road 



^ 

level, also bought by my father, but not yet removed, is about 



7th Sept. 1899. 



274 Notes — Orn ithology, 

' y 

the same size as my own. The third (c) in the ditch about 
a foot below road level is partly buried in the bank, and its size 
cannot be accurately ascertained ; but it is thicker than my own, 
say some*2^ ft., shorter than my. own, about 3 ft., but how far 
it is embedded in the bank we cannot say. Of the remaining 
boulder (d) which is in the ditch, two feet below road level, only 
one side is visible, which is between 2 ft. and 3 ft. long", thick- 
ness and other dimensions not known. The boulder (c), one 
foot below road level, is remarkable for having on its surface 
the matrix of an ammonite, about 10 In. in diameter and 2 in. 
or so deep. This locally is supposed to be the impression of 
a horse's hoof, surmised to have been left by the steed of a local 
St. George fighting his dragon. 

]Mr. T. Sheppard, of the Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 
Club, visiting me on the 3rd of this month (July 1899) inspected 
these boulders ; we scraped the soil away from the surface of this 
particular boulder (c), and he agreed that there was no doubt 
that the impression was that of an ammonite of large size. He 



chipped fragments from the different boulders, and pronounced 
them all to be ' Spilsby sandstone (Neocomian).' They are very 



hardfc from the presence of carbonate of lime. 

We have many smaller boulders in the parish ; and in the 
adjoining parishes of Woodhall and Thimbleby some large ones. 




NO TES— ORNITHOLOG V. 

Unusual Nesting-place of a Spotted Flycatcher.— We have at the 

present time a pair of Flycatchers [Muscicapa gnsola) bring^ing- up four young" 
ones in a Swallow's nest. The nest is about seven feet from the g^round, and 
is situated under the roof that overhang-s the drivers seat of an old van, 
now used as a dark-room. Swallows have built there for several years; this 



season they repaired and re-luied one of the two old nests, tut were evidently 
disturbed, as they then forsook the nest, which was later on taken possession 
of by the Flycatchers, Avho used the nest just as it was. — S, C. Stow^ Court 
Leys, Brandon, Grantham, i6th August 1899. 

J} 

, Large Number of Eggs of the Blue Titmouse.— I lately saw in a Hol- 

derness Vicarage garden (Mappleton, near Hornsea) a nest of this bird {Pctrits 
C€eruleus) in a disused pump, with 14 eggs. The hen was constantly seen 
during the last month, going to its nest by the hole under the pump handle. 
When the lid on the top of the pump was occasionally lifted up the bird was 
seen sitting on six or seven eggs, hissing like a regular Billy-biter. She 
sat on these eggs, hopefully we trust, for a long time. At lengfth the Vicar 
took out one or two eggs and found them addled. They had never been 
fertilised, because no cock bird had been seen for many weeks in the 
garden, w^hlch is a mile from the nearest shrubbery and plantation at 
Rowlston Hall, where there are generally two or three nests every year. 
Tlie poor bird continued afterwards laying eg-gs until there are now aS 
above stated 14 eg-g-s.— B. B. Haworth-Booth, Hullbank Hall, Hull, 
loth July 1899. 

Naturalii^t^ 



275 



NOTE BOTANY. 



Hodgson's 'Flora of Cumberland. '—In the June issue of 'The 

NaturaHst,' p, i6i, I observe that Mr. A. Bennett has offered a few kindly 
criticisms on my recently published ' Flora of Cumberland/ Serious illness 
has prevented me from replying to his strictures until to-day* Mr. Bennett 
rather complains of omission from the work of species which, in his opinion 
— for which, by the way, I entertain the hig-hest respect — ought to have 
found a place. Let me take these plants in the order adopted by my 
friendly critic as follows : — 

Astragalus glycyphyllus. Culg-aith Pike, Keswick (Winch, Contributions 
to the Flora of Cumberland). This is one of Hutchinson's History of 
Cumberland localities. Shortly after I first commenced to take preparatory 
notes, about twenty-five years agfo, I discovered that Hutchinson's authority 
as to stations was extremely unreHable, and I therefore declined, for 
the most part, to accept them, unless supported by modern confirmation. 
In addition to this, the localities indicated, thoug^-h divided only by a comma, 
are in reality thirty miles apart, and this fact added to my mistrust. I may 
have erred by carrying- my doubts a little too far. 

Potentilla verna. Bank Wood. Contributed also from Hutchinson. 
Here, ag:ain, uncertainty was accentuated by diverg-ence of the views enter- 
tained by more recent and competent authorities. Bank Woods there are 
many in our county, and which is the right one I never found out. To Mr. 
Bennett's concluding sentence I heartily say Amen, and must leave the 
matter there, as the infirmities incident to old age forbid any further rock 
climbing- on my part. 

Statice hahusiensis, * In Top. Botany, p. 341, ^Ir. Watson gives it for 
Cumberland, Heysham sp.' Here the question arises which Heysham is 
meant, the old doctor, or his son, T. C. Heysham, subsequently Mayor of 
Carlisle, some of whose notes, written on tiny slips of paper, are in my 
possession. Where was the specimen referred to gathered? In this con- 
nection I happen to know where a collection of plants of the Statice family 
exists, not gathered in Cumberland, but on the Scotch side o{ the Solway, 
in the county of Kirkcudbright, which have not so far been named. 

Rumex (fojvesticus, Hutchinson again. Three years ago I found* 
examples of Rufncx fnarifimns (Golden Dock) at Maryport, and I found 
another at the same station i\ fortnight ago, which I failed to identify to my 
own satisfaction. It was, perhaps, a little too young. The motto, *Try 
again/ must be put in practice. 

Goodyera repens. This species will have to be accepted on the high 
authority of Mr. Lees, though I cannot make out that it has been noted by 
any of the contributors who have furnished me with local notes from time to 
time. 

Epipactis violacea. * Cumberland, Bab. MS. Top. Botany, p. 3S5.* 
Here is another illustration of discrepant doctores, whose difficulties I am 
Httle prepared to solve. I have chosen to treat only of the two species 
mentioned in the volume, inasnmch as, apart from E. palustris,-A\\ the other 
helleborines I have noticed, with a solitary exception, may be referred to 
E, latifolia, 

Potamoget07i 2tzii Roth. With regard to this species, I accept with 
thanks Mr. Bennett's explanation, confirmed as it is by the naming of 
Mr. Bailey. 

Lasin 
After w 

tioned, * .vrL,,,v. k^ ...^r ^..,j^..^^ j ^ .^ j ^. 

VV^estmorland, but I 'neglected to run my pen through what I had inad- 

vertentlv written. 

I am sincerely grateful to Mr. Bennett for the pains he has been at in 
pointing out to me the 'better way/— Wm. Hodgson, A.L.S., Workington, 



■^^ 



2ist July 1899. 
7th Sept. 1899. 



276 



NOTE— FUNGI, 



Mitrophora gigas at Burwell, Lincolnshire. — I found last Saturday 

at Bunvell (N. Lines., Div. 8 S.), in a plantation, one of the Morells. 
Mr. Robinson, our great authority here, says it is Mitrophora gigcfs, — 
Benjn. Crow, Louth, 9th May 1S99. 




NOTE—LEPIDOPTERA. 

Hummingbird Hawkmoth near Horncastle.— I have twice within 

the last few days seen a Humming-bird Hawkmoth {Alacroglossa stellatariini) 
in my garden here. I also saw one in the adjoining- parish of Thornton, and 
I hear that two or three have been seen at uoodhall Spa. They were first 
seen there by myself about fifteen years agfo. We have not seen any here, 
nor have 1 heard of their being- seen in this neig:hbourhood, for the last six 
years, I suppose the long spell o^ abnormally hot weatlier must have 
"broug-ht them out. — J, Conway Walter, Langton Rectory, Horncastle, 
29th August 1899. * 




NO TE—PRO TOZOA . 

Food of Hydra viridiS, — On 3rd June I made an excursion to 

Swillington, and brought home Hydra viridis. I put them into a basin with 
tap whaler and the little sediment which was at the bottom of my bottle. The 
basin was put into my greenhouse, and next morning I put in a few bread 
crumbs, which were of no use. I then put the green fly Aphis, oi the 
young- shoots of the rose trees, and found they soon devoured them. In 
fact I allowed them to eat all the Aphides I could ^ei. The Hydra would 
thus be very serviceable in a greenhouse it they could live on plants. — ED^^'IN 
Whitehocse, 89, Clarendon Road, Leeds, loth June 1S99, 




NOTE—ENTOMOLOGY. 
South American Insects in England.— The occurrence of insects 

in the neighbom-hood o^ our important seaports, imported from South 
America, or any part o^ the globe from which live sheep and cattle are 
shipped, to me seems ahnost a certainty. On a voyag^e I am just com- 
pleting from the La Plata to the Thames, I have had the matter forcibl}' 
brought to my notice by the quantity of insect life in the Alfalfa, Anglice 
Lucerne [Medlcago sativa L.) which is shipped in Buenos Ayres for cattle 
food. The Alfalfa hay literally swarmed with life, butterflies, moths, 
beetles, flies, and other forms of insect life unknown to me. A swallow-tailed 
butterfly oi large dimensions crawled out of the last consignment of fodder 
that I took up out of the hold just before we entered the Thames, as also 
did beetles and flies and a small sort of bee. When passing the Lsle of 
Wight the same thing happened on a lovely June morning*, with everything 
to tempt these rare visitors to fly ashore. After I have g-iven up charge ot 
the stock and left the ship, some oi this Alfalfa hay will be landed to feed 
the cattle in the Deptford lairage, and some of these insects must escape 
and w^end their way to fields and pastures new, just as foreign wood-borers 
are found round the neighbourhood of wood-yards. On my next trip home 
I shall collect all the insects I can that have survived to reach the English 
coast, and shall send them to your worthy contributor, the Rev. A. Thornley, 
of South Leverton, Notts. Perhaps it would be as well to mention here, 
that birds, snakes, lizards, and thousands oi locusts are to be found in the 
bales of Alfalfa hay at times. These are crushed and dead, of course, in 
every case, but are found in a wonderful state of preservation from the 
great compression of the hydraulic press. I conclude that the insect life 
crawls into the bales after they have left the press and are stocked in the 
yard ready for exportation. The same kind oi foreign arrivals must be 
taking place at Liverpool and wherever foreign live stock Is landed for the 
British market,— Max Peacock, S.S. Xyassa, River Thames, 3rd June 1899. 

Naturalist, 



277 



5n /IDemoriam^ 



JOHN CORDEAUX. 

By the death of John Cordeaux this jourzial loses one of its oldest 
and most valued contributors; Yorkshire and Lincolnshirej a 
distinguished naturalist ; and British ornitholog-y, a leading- 
authority. 

He was born in the year 183 1 at Foston Rectory, Leicester- 
shire ; and was the eldest son of the Rev. John Cordeaux, M.A., 
rector of Hooton Roberts, Yorkshire. He died in his 69th year 
at his residence, Great Cotes House, on the ist Aug-ust 1899, 
after a short but painful illness. 

As a young man he went to live at Great Cotes, on the 
Lincolnshire bank of the H umber Estuary, and here he made* 
for half-a-century those interesting and valuable observations 
on birds and their migratory movements which have not only 
made his name familiar to all British ornithologists, but also to 
those of Europe and /\merica. These records were contributed 
to the pages of the 'Zoologist,' 'Naturalist,' 'Field,' and other 
natural history publications and Transactions. In the year 1873, 
Mr. Cordeaux published his * Birds of the Humber District' — 
a book teeming with original observations on the birds resident 
and migratory of the district which he had made so pre- 
eminently his own. Quite recently — indeed it was his very last 
published work. — he issued 'A List of British Birds belonging 
to the Humber District,' in which he brought the information 
relating to this remarkable region down to date, and wherein no 
less than 322 species are enumerated, with brief particulars of 

their occurrence. 

It is, perhaps, in connection with the interesting phenomenon 
of the mip-rations of our British birds that Mr. Cordeaux has 
come most into prominence. He was practically the founder of 
that elaborate and exhaustive enquiry which was undertaken by 
the British Association in 1880, in which year a committee of 

I 

experts was appointed to investigate the subject of bird migra- 
tion as observed on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. To 
this end the various light-houses and light-vessels were supplied 
with schedules on which the various movements and occurrences 
of birds were recorded by the light-keepers. This work of 
collecting data (as well as of reporting annually on the results 
obtained) was carried on for a period of eight years, and the 
mass of information thus obtained was so vast that much of 
the material obtained is still under consideration, although the 

7th Sept. 1899. 



278 



In Memorimn — John Cordeanx. 



main facts derived from the inquiry have been made public. 



During all this period — now well 



nig'h 



on to twenty years 



Mr, Cordeaux acted as Secretary to the Committee, a post 






^ t^*^ 



{^ 




^ 



a-u-^ 12 s 



o 



«^^- ^4 




which was no sinecure, 



especially during the 



years of the 



Committee*s active existence, 1 880-1 887 ; and it is not too much 
to say that he was the life and soul of the enquiry, while in later 



Naturalist, 



Notes — Ornithology, 279 

years he has been the valued adviser of him who undertook to 
prepare the results of the investig-ation as a whole, 

^ Mr, Cordeaux had a competent knowledge in several other 
branches of natural history, pspecially as reg*ards botany, 
mammals, and fishes. He filled, with distinction, the important 
o^ce of President of the Yorkshire Naturah"sts' Union, and, 
on its formation In 1890, he was elected to the chief post of honour 
in the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union as its first President. He 
was gifted with a graceful pen and a poetical imagination, and 
these contributed to make his writing peculiarly attractive- 

As a friend and a man it is impossible to speak in terms too 
high. He possessed a singularly charming personality, and was 
beloved by all who knew him, while his sterling worth and lofty 
principles won for him universal esteem. 

By his death a wide circle has lost a true and very dear 
friend, and British natural history an enthusiastic and accom- 
plished devotee. W. Eagle Clarke. 



NOTES— ORNITHOLOGY. 

Wryneck on the Coast of Holderness.— A female Wryneck (/i>«.r 

forqiulla) was caug:ht by a dog; near the cllfF at Rowlston on the 11th Ma}-. 
It was hi very poor condhion. I have never before heard o( this species \i\ 
Holderness. Mr. Darley. the bird stuflfer in Hull, told me it was 37 years 
since he had seen a specimen.— B. B. Haworth-Booth, Hultbank Hall, 
Hull, 13th May 1899. 

Red-legged Partridge in Huddersfieid. — I saw last evening a Ked- 

leg-g-ed or French Partridge {Caixabis riifa) which had just been caught in 
a small field in almost the centre of Huddersfield ; it has been turned out 
ag-ain to-day. I think these Partridges must be coming gradually farther 
north, as I find, on reference to my collection, of having had one given to 
me on 30th April 1895 which was caught in the centre of Milnsbridge, 
a small manufacturing town about two miles from here. The plumage 
of both birds is much dirtier than those met with in Norfolk or Essex, 

—Johnson Wilkinson, Huddersfield, 5th June 1899. 

Nightingales near Horncastle. — One rara avis of these parts is the 
Nightingale (Daullasluscinia). \A'"hether Mr. Hawley is now favoured with 
visits of this bird I do not know, but the first time I ever heard it In 
Lincolnshire was as I was walking past Tumby Lawn, very early in the 
morning, on my way to fish at Dogdyke. This would be before Mr. Hawley 
lived here, and when Major Smart occupied the house — sometime in the 
* fifties.' I had heard the Nightingale before, at Cambridge, and in S 
for I was then living at Brighton, and I at once recognised the note. The 
Nighthigale was first heard at Woodhall Spa — three of them in my own 
garden, when I lived there in 1876. Since then it has been common there 
every year in the season, ^rom April to June. It has been said that the 
Nightingale Is not heard north of the river Trent, but this is a mistake, as 
it is a regular visitant in the neighbourhood of Doncaster, and has, within 
recent years, been reported at Weibeck Wath in Yorkshire, It also bred in 
Northumberland in 1895. In Lincolnshire it has been heard, within the last 
two or three years, in the woods at Rigsby and Ailby, near Alford ; at 
Brackenborough, near Louth; and I see that, in 'The Naturalist,* Mr. 
Cordeaux reports it as being numerous in the Humber district. ^ — ^J. CONWAV 
Walter, Langton Rectory, Horncastle, 18th August 189S. 



7 th Sept. 1899. 



28o 



3n /IDemoriam 



JOHN CORDEAUX, J. P., F.R.G.S., M.B.O.U. 

Worthier hands than mine will record my good friend's 

r 

contributions to ornithology ; for me it will be sufficient to 
sketch in rough outline the events of his life, and to attempt 
to draw a short word picture of the man himself. 

John Cordeaux, the eldest son of the Rev. John Cordeaux, 
M.A,, Rector of Hooton Roberts, Yorkshire, was born at 
Foston Rectory, Leicestershire, on 27th February 1831. At an 
early age he was sent from home to Liverpool Collegiate School, 
where he obtained a thoroughly sound education. His vacations 
were verj* frequently spent with his maternal grandfather, 
Christopher Taylor, at Tothill, near Louth. There, or at 

I 

Gayton-le-Marsh, close by, wandering over *the clays' or true 
^ marsh' of the Lincolnshire coast, the love of natural history 



first began to assert itself, along w^ith a keen desire for sport 

■m 

which such a bird-infested coast fostered. Still quite a young 
man, Mr. Cordeaux settled as a farmer at Great Cotes, near 
Grimsby, and resided there up to the time of his death, which 
occurred on the ist of August, with the exception some years 
ago of a short residence at Eaton Hall, near Retford. He was 
ever a keen sportsman, at one time regularly hunting with the 
Yarborough hounds, and to the day of his death was an exceed- 
ingly fine shot, and yet found time to take an active part in 
estate management and in local affairs. The youngest daughter 
of Dr. W. Wilson, bf Horton Hall, Cheshire, was wooed and 
W'on in i860; and a widow, with two sons who hold Her 
Majesty's commissions, are left behind to mourn his loss. 

The tastes and inclinations of Mr. Cordeaux were singu- 
larly wide ; few men have his grasp or range of interests^ 
but those who knew him most intimately will never think 
of him only as ornithologist, zoologist, entomologist, botanist, 
geologist, anthropologist, antiquary, or lover of dialect and 
folk-lore ; all-round student of nature and mankind, he was still 
something more; the man himself overshadowed his interests 
and his works- If this is rarely true of the majority of us, it was 
certainly the case with the first President of the Lincolnshire 
Naturalists' Union. The * Migration Reports,' 'Birds of the 
Humber District,' Anseres in Frohawk's * Illustrations of British 
Birds,' or his still later pamphlet on * The Humber District 
Ornis,' give no idea of the kind, wide-hearted, sympathetic 
student, ever ready to lend a willing ear or helping hand to 
a brother worker in difficulty. Few people knew that the care- 
ful recorder and catalogue maker had a pen at command which 

Naturalist, 



In Memoriatn — John Cordeaux, 



281 



could recall the dead past in graphic flashes, and with equal 
felicity throw off sketches and verse, which his modesty 
generally kept from the world. 

Above the average height^ and of upright and good, if fairly 
full figure, Mr. Cordeaux was a striking man anywhere with his 
keen face and soldierly bearing. It is reported that when the 
King of the Belgians nicknamed him * My Cousin Cambridge,' 
Mr. Cordeaux was ready at once with the reply, ^ Hardly a 
compliment. Ten years older, and not half so ^00^ looking.' 




X4a^ 






John Cordeaux. Claude Ieatham. Kenneth MacLean. 

Hatfield West Moor, 30th May 1898. 

Photogrraph taken by Mr. R. A. Bellamy, of Doncaster. at a Yorkshire Naturalists' 

Union Excursion. ' 

The Norfolk shooting dress he always wore in the field might 
have been designed specially for his use, so well was it adapted 
to the figure and character of the man and his pursuits. His 
slightly stooping walk when busily engaged in observing, with 
hands ever ready to bring his field-glass to his eyes, or to take 
up anything for gentle, if searching, examination, were quite as 
characteristic of the man as another pose more difficult to 
describe. When studying out the solution of some difficult 

"7 th Sept. 1899. 



282 ■ hi Memortant—John Cordeaux. 

problem or thoug-htfuUy reflecting, the two first fingers and 
thvmib of his left hand had a way of seeking* the upper part 
of his nose or forehead, as if to aid cogitation. 

Never shall I find another such untiring companion for 
wandering by shore and mud flat, upland common, or tree 
shaded beck. He w^as so genial, and yet so full of varied 
information, as apt in teaching as he was ready to impart, and, 
withal, as willing and eager to learn himself, as if life were only 
just unrolling the variegated phantasmagoria of modern know- 
ledge to his gaze. If ever a man's mental characteristic was 
* universal inquisitiveness into things which should be generally 
and fully known,' as he said, it was Mr. Cordeaux's. 

' Forty years ago/ he cried, throwing himself back against 



the sea-bank we were lunching under, a merry twinkle playing 
in his eyes, *I was considered a good-natured lunatic by every- 
body round Cotes, running about with a field-glass and gun to 
study birds instead of doing what every other young farmer 
considered **the thing." There were only two other scientific 
workers known to me in the county then — tor the Boggs were 
rather out of my line. I had not, at that time, taken much 
interest In geology or botany. The two workers were the Rev. 
R. P. Alington, of Swinhope, and your kind friend Sir Charles 
Anderson. Both were good men as far as their opportunities 
went. Sir Charles told me the last eggs of the Great Bustard 
ever known in England were taken in '35 or '36 on his father's 
property at Haywold, near Drlfiield, on the Yorkshire Wolds. 
In these days we can form a Naturalists' Union without being 
laughed at, and the man who has other interests besides the 
prize ring and racing is not considered an ass.' Then, perhaps, 
would follow racy tales, with all Mr. Cordeaux's picturesque 



gift and memory for detail to give them point, now of the 
parson, who, *in his sermon, gave the little Syrian Bear all the 
potentialities of the Grisly, till his mystified congregation were 
fairly kept awake through the summer afternoon's heat, and 
worked up into mildly wondering, *'How David ever escaped, 
and what was coming next!" You want to put fire and 
animation into what you do or say in the pulpit as everywhere 
else, but there must be something else besides manner. The 
sparrow that sitteth "alone upon the house top" will give some 
men occasion to talk undiluted rubbish for half-an-hour, and 
then they will say nothing whatever — not even where *'the 
sparrow hath found an house," or that human beings '*are of 
more value than many sparrows," or that the Palestinian 
sparrow is the Blue or Solitary Thrush {Petrocincla cyanea)^ 
common enough In Southern Europe,' He would end this 

Naturalist, 



In Meinoriam — -John Cordeaiix. 2^2 

discourse on natural history preaching- in response to the loud 
laughter of his audience, with merry, sparkling eyes, and. a 
short, chuckling- laug-h which was ever infectious. Standing- on 
the same sea-bank later ui the year, he pointed out the spots in 
the famous North Cotes thorn hedge where he had first viewed 
some of the rarest visitors to our coast, or where his friend, 
Mr. G. H. Caton-Haig-h, had added the Greenish Willow- 
Warbler and Rodde's Bush- Warbler to the British List. 

Walking over what to other people would have been an 
endless succession of uninteresting fields, he was ever ready 
with innumerable questions to add to his own store of know- 
ledge or draw out his companion's gift for observation. 'Why 
does the Bog Rhubarb {Peiasites officinalis) grow here and 
nowhere else for miles ? Why does it always grow in clumps, 
rapidly spreading, unless prevented, wherever it is found?' On 
Aylesby Beck, on another occasion, he was peering through 
a bush, to ^et a view over the bank, with all the circumspection 
of a master in woodcraft, searching the feeding-ground of the 



Summer Snipe {Totmms ochropus) w^ith the fieldglass * to find out 
if the young have yet appeared/ Later on he was advancing 
theory after theory why the nest was never found, though they 
seemed to * remain with us all the year round. I have had boys 
climbing the trees and looking into every old nest and likely 
place, but it is no good. We cannot spot it — and they must 
breed here, for I have seen the young,' Later in the day he 
was pointing out the place where the Grass of Parnassus still 
grows in all its beauty, but from w^iich the more lovely Marsh 
Helleborine had departed for ever. 'You have a specimen from 
this very spot,' he finally added, 'gathered by the Rev. M. G. 
Watkins and myself. Your problem is, Why has it gone ? 
Now find the true solution ; no other will do ! ' Space fails me 
to tell half the thronging memories which come crowding on 
the mind of his observations, happy suggestions, and general 
mental position of — ' Why, would you kindly help me to under- 
stand, and explain !* 

In reality birds had no greater interest specially for Mr. 
Cordeaux than many other natural objects and phenomena that 
surrounded him. The circumstances of his life had given him 
unusual opportunities for observing them, and he had made the 
most of his time, and prepared himself for taking full advantage 
of any chance that offered by studying the literature of orni- 
thology, visiting Heligoland, Norway, and Vadso, and forming 
a long and close friendship with Herr Gatke and many other 
masters. His mind, however, was wider than any one science. 
Chipped flints, burial mounds, ancient camps, or the forest beds 

7th Sept. 1899. 



■ 

284 In Memorimn — John Cordeaux, 

F 

With the remains of man, ox, deer, and smaller feral units of 
geological or prehistoric time, found a diligent student and 
thoughtful exponent in the ever-watchful master of Great Cotes 
House. He showed me the maps, drawhigs, and notes from 
old records by which he had demonstrated that the lost villages 
of the H umber shore of the East Riding were long ago buried 
beneath the waters of the North Sea ; Spurn Head being slowly 
but surely pushed westward into the embouchure of the river, 
as the Boulder Clay of the east coast of Yorkshire gives way 
before the action of frost and waves, and is dispersed over the 
sea floor. His arguments as he explained everything were so 
concise, clear, and suitable that it seemed as if one were listen- 
ing to a learned professor of geology demonstrating the action 
of tidal currents and oceanic scour. Truly did a recent writer 
in * The Field' say of him, * Few country gentlemen have done 
more than he has done to foster a love of natural history in the 
county in which he resided, and to add to the common store of 
knowledge by the patient collection of observed facts and the 
subsequent publication of them,' 

The moral and intellectual atmosphere of that home, where 
all true workers were made hospitably welcome, and the only 
self-seeking was a desire for further and fuller knowledge, made 
it a rallying place for many a jaded worker, and a starting 
place for fresh efforts and exertions. ' In this age in which 
men value one another for what they have rather than for what 
they, are, John Cordeaux stood forth as a sturdy and noble 
protest. 

The characteristic words spoken within two months of his 
own departure of his friend the late Mr. Hewetson, ^ I tell you 
what it is, I shall soon have to follow him ; I miss his friend- 
ship and his letters so. When my time comes I should like to 
be buried on the top of the wolds, where the cry of the Pink- 
footed Goose can be heard as it flies over in spring or returns in 
autumn ; ' or his last message to the members of the Lincoln- 
shire Naturalists' Union, concerning their meeting at Frieston 
Shore, dictated from his deathbed, * I cannot possibly come, but 
I shall be with them in spirit if not in person,* show the true 



man in all he was. The ' Humber ornithologist* was a man, 
but the least part of the man was given to the world by his pen 
his personality outshone his works. He lies at rest in Louth 
Cemetery, * on the top of the wolds,' and no more fitting motto 
could be found for his tomb than 

He prayeth best who loveth best 
All things, both great and small. 

E, A. Woodruffe-Peacock 

Naturalist, 



285 



LINCOLNSHIRE NATURALISTS AT HARTSHOLME. 



Rev. EDWARD ADRIAN VVOODRUFFE-PEACOCK. L.Th.. F.L.S., F.G.S., 

Vicar of Cadney; Or^afiisin^ and Botanical Secretary, Lincolnshire Naturalists Union ; 

Curator of the Lincolnshire County Herbarium. 



On the 15th of September, i8g8, there was a joint meeting of the 
Lincohishire Naturalists' Union and the Lincohashire Scientific 
Society at Hartshoime Hall, near Lincoln, the seat oi Mr. 
Nathaniel Clayton-Cockburn, J. P., situate in the parish of 
Skelling-thorpe, in Div\ 13. This was the twentieth meeting of 
the Union for field-work. A lovely summer day made every- 
thing pass oflF very well indeed, under careful supervision of the 
two presidents, Rev. W. Fowler, M.A., and Dr. G. M. Lowe, 
M.C- The members of the Societies turned out very well, 
considering* the lateness of the season. Amongst others present 
were the Revs. A. Thornley, A. Hunt, J. Conway Walter, 
J. Gurnhili, E. R. Walker, and E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock, 
Messrs. F. H. Harrison, A, Fieldsend, J. Cordeaux, G. A. 
Grierson, W. Scorer, W. Lewington, M, Peacock, Musham, 



Greaves, and Dr. Cassall ; also an unusually large number of 
ladies, amongst whom were the Misses Stowe and Miss Harrison. 

The geology of this neighbourhood is not very interesting, 
except to the specialist in river-drift deposits. Tlie rock, which 
consists of Lower Lias, is almost wholly covered with the 
ancient gravels and sands oi the river Trent, deposited while 
it still flowed through the Lincoln Gap, or the much more 
recent gravels and sands the same river accumulated while 
passing off some of its flood waters along its old course after 
its present bed had been finally taken. The pond at Hartshoime 
is of modern artificial construction, made by deepening the 
outfall of a natural brook now called the Prial Drain, which 
formerly emptied into the Catch Water Drain ; precisely in the 
same way as the lake at Boultham, the next parish on the east, 
has been made by the waters of modernly-named Pike Drain, 
the Swallow Beck of more ancient days, which has handed on 
its name to the hamlet close by on its bank. 

Of the Duck Pond, Mr. X. Clayton-Cockburn writes: — * As 
a rule, about October, :^oo or 400 Mallard come here to stay till 
the spring, when they leave the place to nest, I suppose, only 
a very few remaining here for that purpose. A few Teal and 
Widgeon come, too. I have never seen any Sheld-duck, but in 
the spring a few Pochards regularly make their appearance, but 
do not stay any length of time. A Goosander once arrived 

7lh Sept. 1899. 



f 



286 



Peacock: Lincolnshire Naturalists at Hartshobne 



in the spring and stayed for two months, becoming so tame 
that I hoped it would finally remahi. It would allow me to get 
within twenty yards of it, but it eventually vanished. I should 
have said that it was an immature bird. In January 1892 a 
beautiful specimen of the Bittern was picked up from under the 
ice of the lake at the end of the long frost. Kingfishers are 
fairly common. We once had a black duck, which I imagined 
to be a Scoter, here for three seasons. I have never seen wild 
geese, but in 1892, I think, about Christmas, four Wild S\\ans 
settled on the lake, but they soon left. Herons are common, for 
there is a small Heronry at Doddington, about three miles 
away. Waterhens are becoming quite a nuisance, but I very 
rarely see a Coot.* 

About 120 species of plants were noted, the four best being 
Ranunculus hedcraceu^, Lythriim sa/icdria, which is rather local 
than rare, Riiniex palustris, and Scirpus setaceus. 

Five fungi only were seen, reported on by Rev. W. Fowler 

as follows : — 



Amanita rubescens. 
Amanita muscaria. 
Psalliota arvensis. 



Marasmius oreades. 
Calocera carnea. 



The mosses were just as disappointing, the following being 



named by Rev. W. Fowler : 

Dicranella heteromalla. 
Fnnaria hygrometrica. 



Hylocomiam squarroj^uni 



The following is a list of lepidoptera seen and taken by 



Mr. W. Lewington and friepds : 

Pieris brassicae. 
Pieris rapse. 
Pieris napi. 
Pararg-e megaera. 



Polyommatus phloeas. 



Triph^na pronuba, 
Xanthia flavag'o. 
Thera variata. 



They met with the following larvai : 



Dasychira pudlbunda. 
Notodonta dictseoides 



Acronycta meg'acephala. 
Hadena oleracea. 



We were a little more lucky with our other insect captures 
The following is the Rev. A, Thornley's list : — 



COLEOPTERA. 

Loricera pilicornis, 

Philonthus fimetarius. 

Stilbus consimilis. Common. 

Aphodius contaminatus. 

Ag-elastica halensis. 

Cassida nobilis. 0\\^ example, 

Cassida flaveola. One example. 

Cassida vlridis. Ono^ example. 
The thorax of this specimen 
has evidently been ' nibbled ' 



in mistake for a green seed 
by some larva or other. 
Long-itarsus suturellus Duft. 

Common. 

CoccinoIIa dccempunctata. 

Common. 

ft 

Coccinella septenipunctata 

Common. 
Adalia bipunctata. Common. 
Exochomus quadnpustulatus. 

Common. 

Naturalist. 



Peacock : Lincolnshire Naturalists at Hartsholme, 



287 



Strophosomus cor\4i. 
XanthoHiius linearis. 
Stenus similis. Common. 

Stenus pnbescens. One ex- 
ample. 



Stenus picipes. One example. 

Hymenoptera. 

Bombiis agronim. A few ex- 
amples. 



The long* period of dry weather had made insects rather scarce. 
By very careful sweeping- I added the following* : — 



COLEOPTERA. 

Anaitis ocellata. Two* 
Serinvla halensis. Four. 
Adalia bipunctata. One var,, 

one type. 
Exochomus 4-pustulatus. Six. 
Halyzia 14-g-uttata. Two. 
Coccinella lo-punctata. One. 



Telephoi'us lituratus. One. 
Malachius bipustulatus. Owe. 
Staphylinus stercorarivis. One. 

Hemiptera. 

Acanthosoma dentatum. Two. 
Acanthosoma interstinctimi. 

Two. 
Scolopostethus decoratus. One. 



Our most indefatigable of workers, Mr. J. Eardley Mason, 
got together the following list: — 

Gerris g:ibbiferaSchum. Several. 
Gerris lacustris L. Several. 



Hemiptera-Heteroptera. 

Acanthosoma interstinctum L. 



OwQ (A. Thornley). 
Peritrechus lunig-er SchllL 

Twcntj'-ei^ht. 
Drvmus svlvaticus Fab. 



Ploiaria vag'abnnda L. 



One. 



One. 
Piesma cupitata WoIfT. One. 



Nabis lativentris Boh. One c? ■ 
Nabis limbatus Dahlb. One 
(W, Lewing'ton). 

- ^ 

Tetraphleps vittata Fieb. Or\e^ 

Many Corixae also from the lakes not yet examined. The extra- 
ordinary abundance o^ Perit?'cchus hinigcry which swarmed under 
bark of an old felled Spruce-fir and in the cracks of the bark 
of the numerous Willows, was notable; also the absence of 
Capsidte, the most numerous family of the order. They feed on 
the sap, and many plants have species peculiar to themselves 
alone, but none were taken after diligent search save the first 
on the list. The rest find their food in other insects. 

The Spiders taken on this occasion were not very numerous 
in spec 



or rare 



Clnbiona brevlpes Bl. 
Dictvna anindinacea L. 



Ep 



comxiiix C.L. K. 



Epeira cucurbitina C.L.K, 
Epeira diademata Bl. 
Linyphia triang^ularis C.L.K. 
Meta seg"mentata C.L.K. 
Ocy ale mirabilis C.L.K. 



Pachygnatha de^feerii Simd, 
PrJvata hygrophllus Thor. 
Theridion sisyphium C.L.K. 
Thendion varians Hahn, 
Xysticus cristatus C.L.K, 
Zilla atrica Koch. 
Zilla x-notata C.L.K. 



The two Societies joined at a convivial high-tea at the 
Saracen^s Head Hotel After the usual reports on the day's 



work, and fitting speeches from the leading members, the party 
broke up into chatty groups, comparing notes or reviving old 
memories of happy days in the field. 

7th Sept. 1899. 



288 



NO TE— MAMMALIA. 

Putorius putorius near Louth. —Yesterday I received from Mr. 
Chowler, of this town, a male Polecat [Pttforius putorius) in the flesh and 
quite fresh. He had received it the same day from near Louth. The 
specimen \veig"hed 21 oz. and was 14 in. in leng-th from nose to root of tall, 
the tail itself being* 7 in. in leng:th.— H. H. CorbetTj 9, Priory Place, 
Doncaster, 25th April 1S99. 




NOTE—COLEOPTERA. 

Betnbldlum schuppeli in Cumberland. — On 6th May this year, my 

friend, Mr. F. H. Day, and I worked the river Irthin^ below Lanercost for 
Bembidia. The species taken were Benihidium punctidatum ^ B. iittomie, 
B. atrocceruJeum, B. tihiale, and B. decorum — all common. Of B. monticola 
we §;ot several, and two specimens of B, schuppeli Dej. They were running 
on the sandy flats which abound along^ the river-side. On 3rd June we paid 
another visit to this locality, and on this occasion five specimens found their 
way into my collecting bottle. This is the locality w^here B. schiippeli was 
disco\'ered by Bold more than half a century ag-o, and Mr. E. A. Newbery, 
to whom specimens were sent for verification, informs us that it has not 
been taken in Britain for a g-ood many years. — Jas. Ml'RRAY, 11, Close 
Street^ Carlisle, 13th Julj- 1899. 




NOTES AND NEWS. 

* 

The 'First Supplement' to Messrs. Britten and Boulger's 'Biographical 
Index of British and Irish Botanists ' has lately appeared. It follows the 
method of, and its pagination runs on from the end of, the parent volume. 
Only a limited number of copies have been done, presumably in consequence 
of the poor sale of the * Index.' It is the only work on the subject, and it is 
no credit to workers in English botany that the compilers should have to 
bear a loss after years of careful and thankless labour. The book fills its 
gap In biographical literature. The present writer can add nothing, except 
praise, where it is undoubtedly due. The price is eighteenpence for thirty 
pages and w^rappers, a by no means exorbitant figure, 



0-^-^ 

By the recent death of Edward Woodthorpe, of A]ford, Lincolnshire, 

r _^-_.^ _r _i_ii_' • . j.i_ _ j._- i_ _ _ 1 _ t _ __ _ i .__,_• • _ _ . *. .^Kc-f 



§ry 



a collection showing- the life history of each speci 
considerable taste in arrangement, while his data " 
always to be relied on as accurate. " ' 



. He aimed at forming 
5. In this he displayed 

to time and place were 

He became a skilful preparer of larvae, 



and was a bright example of what a youth in humble life can do with the 
necessarily limited time at his disposal. He was the first to take the Purple 



Welton 
the opportunity of seeing. — J. E. M-, 17th May 1899. 



His captures I had 



Lepidopterists will be sorry to hear of the death of an old member of the 
Yorkshire Naturalists Union, Mr, George Jackson, of Nunnery Lane, 
York, at the age of 63, which took place on the 30th June, after a long and 
lingering illness. He was a hard-working entomologist and a thorough 
field naturalist of the old type, and he possessed a large and varied 
experience in the branch (Lepidoptera) in which he was interested. He 
was very successful in breeding the York variety of Arcfia lubriripeda, 
many of the cabinets in the country being enriched by series from his 
results. He has also bred at different times very fine varieties of Arcii(^ 
Cixja and Abraxas grossulariata, and his collection '{as a local one) might be 
considered the best in the district. He was one of the founders of the York 
and District Field Naturalists' Society, and was ever ready to impart any 
information to its members belonging to that section to' which he was 

devoutly attached.— R. Dutton. 

Naturalist, 



289 



AIR BLASTS BELOW GROUND. 



HENRY PRESTON, RG.S., 

Haivthorftden Villa, Granikam ; Geological Secretaty to the Lincolnshire 

Naiurulisis* Union, 



In relation to soil and rock-air, bacteriolog*y, and a whole class 
of facts especially interesting- to naturalists at the preseiit time, 
I send you a few particulars of an air-blast in a well recently 
sunk at Boothby Pagnell, Lincolnshire, by the Hon. Maurice R. 
Gifford. On 23rd January 1899, ^^^' GifiFord wrote to me 
respecting- this well, which was then beings sunk: — *At the 
106 feet bed there is a most tremendous blast of fresh air from 



a fissure In the rock, 
beine S.W.. it blew 



J 



W 



near the fissure it draws the flaine out, and when I was down 
this morning- the wind was roaring in the fissure as it escaped 
like blowingf a hurricane.' 

Now the 106 feet bed of rock above mentioned is 68 feet in 
the Lincolnshire Oolite, which is overlaid at Boothby Pagnell by 
38 feet of clays and limestones o^ the Great Oolite and Upper 
Estuarine series. On Thursday, 26th January, I went down the 
well and saw the fissures. There are three openings, varying in 
size. Into the principal one a man could easily insert his arm 
and shoulder, but I did not measure it. The blast at that time 
from this larg-est fissure would blow out a candle held six inches 
from the opening into the well. The air was quite 'fresh,' and 
so cold that the men had to work with jackets and scarv-es on* 
On 23rd February the blast was still blowing into the well ; on 
the 24th there w^as a slight draw from the well into the fissure ; 
in fact, the * blowing' and * drawing' varied very often, as was 
noticed by the smoke from the blasting shots. Water was first 
reached at 131 feet, or 25 feet below the fissures. The theory 
of explanation drawn up at the time when all the facts were 
before me I give here; it is as follows: — The underground 
waters having risen in consequence of the heavy rains during 
the past few weeks, the air in the rocks and that which \vas 
drawn down entangled in the descending water, had become 
compressed, and would even be pushed before the water m its 
easterly and downwards course, if no sufficient outlet was found, 
and this compressed air would not have the same opportunity to 
escape during a continuance of wet weather such as was the 
case at the time. Therefore as soon as the fissure was opened 

October i%9. 



290 Neale : Short-eared Ozvl at AckivortJu 

there would be a strong" rush of air. The intensity and leng-th 
of time it continued to flow would be dependent upon the extent 
of the compression, i.e., upon the rainfall, the size of the 
fissures, and the means of escape which the air had elsewhere- 
After the excess was blown off, the water level would become 
normal, but as the water slowly sank after the rain ceased by 
escaping- in springs, etc., at a lower level, air would be drawn 
from the nearest point of access, for a flow of underground 
water cannot take place without a corresponding air movement, 
hence a back draught would occur into the fissures, which 
might or might not continue. The fall of the water level might 
be stopped by more rain, or less violently by a fall In barometric 
pressure. In the case of this fissure, while under observation, 
barometric pressure did not seem to explain matters much. 

w 

I have seen no reason to alter this opinion, although when 
writing on the matter, as I hope to do in a paper on ' The 
underground water supply from the Lincolnshire Oolite,' I may 
enlarge upon it. I have made numerous inquiries, but can only 
obtain the following confirmatory facts : — Mr. J. E. Noble, well- 
borer, of Thurlby, writes me, ' I had a similar experience at 
Stamford this winter (1898-g). At a depth of 40 feet, with a 
bore of seven inches, the draught of air would blow out 
a lighted candle at the ground level. The bore was then quite 
dry, and by dropping some lighted waste soaked in paraffin 
into it, we learned that it would carry the waste close to the 
opposite side of the bore.' 

If readers of * The Naturalist ' have any further facts about 
underground air blasts, I should be glad if they would com- 
municate with me on the point, or publish them in its pages ; 
for, as my friend Mr. Woodruff'e Peacock has pointed out to me, 
every fact of this kind is most invaluable in showing how soils 
are aerated by a downward and upward draught of air as the 
rain falls or ceases, or even as the barometer changes. It is 

I 

only by noting such facts as they come under observation 
that the presence of fresh air in the soil, which the oerobic 
micro-organisms must have to enable them to break up and 
re-form the soluble particles of org-anic matter^ can be fully 
demonstrated. 




NOTE— ORNITHOLOGY. 

Short-eared Owl at Ackworth.— The Ackworth School Boys' Natural 

Historj' Society have to note with regret that a specimen of the Short -eared 
Owl {Aszo acclpibri/i us) wa.s shot on Ackworth School estate, Saturday, i6th 
September inst.— Jos, Neale, Ackworth School, 19th Sept. 1899. ^ 

r 

Nntiirnli<it, 



29 1 



INTERESTING BOTANICAL FINDS IN CUMBERLAND. 



WILLIAM HODGSON, A.L.S.. 

PVo rk iftgfo 71 f Ciimhe rla n d. 



■ 

L\ the course of the last few weeks several finds of plants not of 
common or everyday occurrence have taken place, chiefly in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Carlisle. These finds are due to 
the persevering efforts of Mr. Wm. Thomson, of i6,' Cavendish 
■Place, in that city, who has collected the following amongst 
other and commoner species which have been forwarded to me 
for inspection and corroboration or otherwise of the finder's own 
ideas as to their identity. I am glad to report that these ideas 
have in the main proved quite accurate. One of the most 
productive stations examined by Mr, Thomson appears to have 
been a gravel bed by the river Eden, opposite the village of 
Grinsdale, and on the right bank of the river. This gravel bed 
was mentioned to me some years ago by Mn W. Duckworth, of 
Ulverston, during his abode in Carlisle, as a favourite hunting 
ground in his time, and Mr. Thomson's recent forays go to verify 
Mr. Duckworth's high opinion of its attractiveness in the eyes 
of a student of botany. The following, with other species, have 
been gathered there recently, y'xzr.—Raphmius safiviis, Asperula 
arvcnsis, Sap07iaria Vaccaria, Scandix Pccteii-veneris, Caiicalis 
laiifolia, Caucalis nodosa, Silmis prafensis, this last at King 
Garth, a fishery station belonging to the Carlisle Corporation, 
where also he gathered specimens of Thalicti^um viinus var. 
tnontajinm, a lakeland species which I had met with long years 
ago, growing at the foot of the cliff's of Catchedicam in the 
Ullswater district of Westmorland.. It is a 'far cry,' surely, 
from the latter station to King Garth. Mr. Thomson further 
noted the occurrence of the Knotted Hedge Parsley on the 
opposite bank of the river, near the Caledonian railway bridge. 
Erigeron acre and Arabis sagittata were found on a garden wall 
near the Gelt Woods, between Carlisle and Brampton; Pulicaria 
dyscnterica on the Eden banks nearly opposite to the village of 
Kirkandrews. This plant was formeriy reported from Etterby 
Scar, nearly opposite to Carlisle city, but it is questionable, in 
the estimation of the Rev. H. Friend, whether it any longer 
grows there. On King Moor, to the north of the city, Mn 
Thomson succeeded in gathering specimens of Cartim vcrtt- 
cillatu?)i, which is also a confirmation of previous records by 
Mr. Duckworth and Mr. T. C. Heysham, at one time Mayor 

October 1899. 



292 Notes — Ornithology. 

of the dity^ and a naturalist of more than averag-e ability. 
Centunculus minimus, heretofore little known to the county, 
was found both at King^ Moor and by the edge of Thurstonfield 
Lough, a sheet of water a few miles from Carlisle to the w^est. 
From this station also came specimens of Radiola millegrana, 
Sparganium simplex^ and Bidens tripartita, and from the rail^ 
way edges between Drumburgh and Port Carlisle, Fagopyrunt 
esculentum, Lysimachia vulgaris, and Scirpus marittmiis] Sedunt 
album, from a garden wall at Burgh-by-Sands ; Peplis portula 
and CEnanthe fistulosa, from Monkhill Lough ; Origanum 
vulgare, from Cargo and Rockcliffe, etc. 

In connection with the above records we may note, as 
interesting, the similarity in the finds on the river Eden gravel 
beds by Mr. Thomson, and those from the same class oi 
stations on the river Derwent as described by myself in 1896- 
Mr. Thomson has since, reported the occurrence of CE7ianthe 

m 

Lachenalii from the vicinity of Bowness-on-Solway, and of 
a considerable patch oi Melissa officinalis from the upper portion 
of the Green at Dalston, towards Hawksdale. This last, of 
course, is a garden escape. ^^^^ September i8gg. 




NO TES~ORNITHOLOG Y. 

Nightingale at Doncaster. — A Nig-htingale [Daidlas luscinia) has 
been constantly sing'ing' in a grarden in Reg^ent Square In this town duringT 
the present spring-. — H. H. Corbett, Doncaster, 5th July 1899. 

Colour-variety of Chaffinch at Stixwould, Lincolnshire*— The 

son of a farmer, young Gibbins, of the Abbey Farm, Stixwould, recently 
shot a Chaffinch {Fringilla ccelebs) with the foUow^ing- plumage : — Head, 
white and slate colour ; breast, lig'ht chocolate ; wing's, white, black, and 
sage-g-reen ; tail, slate colour. Another was seen with it, with more white 
about it. They were feedings with Sparrows in the stackyard. I saw this 
stuffed by Mr. Fieldsend, of Lincoln, on 7th June. — J. Conway Walter, 
Langton Rectory, Horncastle, 12th June 1899, 

F 

Cleverly -constructed Thrush's Nest in Lancashire.— I wish to 

note a Song- Thrush's nest in a g^arden near here. It is in a small fir and 
supported by tw^o dry stems of the nettle wound round side branches of the 
fir and fastened into the nest. On the other side dry grasses are also 
wound round the main trunk and fastened into the nest. The gfardener 
says he has known Thrushes* nests blown down In the j^arden, but this nest 
wa.s not in an exposed place and seemed sufficiently supported by the fir* 
branch on which it rested. The nearest similar contrivance I have seen 
was in the nest of a Garden Warbler (Sylvia horiensis) in my garden here, 
in the top of a small birch, and between seven and eight feet from the 
ground. The bird had used some stems, six inches \ong or more, and 
twined them round the small twigs on an adjoining little branch of the tree, 
thus giving the nest support against the wind, to which it was much exposed. 
—John I\ Thomasson, Woodside, Bolton. 3rd April 1899, 

[A couple of photographs sent for editorial inspection by Mr. Thomasson, 
showed the nests from two different pointis of view.— Ed.] 

N'alurr-ih'st, 



c - 



293 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE DIPTERA : 



ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO MR. PERCY H. GRIMSHAW'S 

PRELIMINARY LIST OF MARCH AND APRIL 1898. 



\ 



Kev. a. THORNLEY, M.A., F.E.S.. F.L.S., 

Vica?- of South Leverton, Notts, 



Owing to pressure of work, Mr. Grimshaw has asked me to 
continue his preliminary lists of the Diptera of the counties of 
Notting^ham and Lincoln, The naming and verification has, 
however, been done very largely by him, and he has earned the 
gratitude of the entomologists of these two counties for the 
great trouble he has taken over local collections of this neglected 
order of insects. In the county of Nottingham we have not yet 
many workers, but I am indebted to Professor J, W. Carr, of 
the University College, and some few other members of our 
Naturalists' Society, for several good records. I have also 
recently received great assistance from our veteran dipterist, 
Dr. R. H. Meade, of Bradford, whose great kindness I would 



here publicly acknowledge. There are 45 new records for the 
county of Nottingham, thus bringing up the number of species 
recorded to 279. There is one serious error to correct. The 
examples recorded in the previous list as ArcfopJiila mussitans 
were not that species, and are now correctly named in the 
present list. New records are marked with an asterisk. Other 
species previously recorded are inserted again, because they 
have been found in new localities, or the discovery of some 
peculiarity of habit, etc, calls for further remark. It might 
seem of but small importance to record the date of the capture 
of a specimen, 3'et this is often a matter of the utmost moment ; 
for example, the dates of the appearance of pests, such as 



Hessian Fly, The asterisk ''^ signifies a species new to the 



county, 

Fam. MYCETOPHILID.iE:. 

■ 

^Mycetophila cingvlum Mg. On^ $ ? South Lev erton, October 

1897 (Thornley). 

'''Mycetophila punctata Mg. One (J , 20th January 1898; one 



? , gth February 1898 ; both South Leverton (Thornley). 



* 



Scatopse notata L. Two (J s, South Leverton, 13th March 
1898 (Thornley). 



October 1899. 



294 Thornley : Notiinghamshire Dtptera* 

I* 

Fam. BIBIONID^. 

Bibio marci L. Gedling^, J and $ , 22nd May 1898 (J. W. 
Carr). I once saw a fine dance of this species by a sheltered 
hedg^e-side, loth May 1897. 

Fam. CULICID^, 

^Calex annulatus Schrk. Three ? s, 26th January, 30th March^ 

i 

4th May 1898, South Leverton (Thornley). 

Calex nemorosus Mg. South Leverton, three $ s, 12th and 
26th January, loth February 1898 (Thornley). 

"^Anopheles maculipennis Mg. South Leverton, one ? , 7th 

April 1898; one ? , loth February 1898 (Thornley). 

Fam, PTYCHOPTERID^. 

^Ptychoptera paludosa Mg. South Leverton, one ? , June 



1897 (Thornley). 



Fam. LIMNOBID^. 



"^Limnobia quadrinotata Mg. Treswell Wood, one ? , 27th 
June 1898 (Thornley). 

^'^Trichocera hiemalis DeG. South Leverton, abundant in 

T 

winter (Thornley). 



''Pcscilostoma punctata Schrk. South Leverton, one (^ , 7th 

May 1898 (Thornley). 

Fam. TIPULID^. 

"Pachyrrhina quadrifaria Mg. South Leverton, one 9 , July 
1898 (Thornley). 

-Pachyrrhina histrio Fab. South Leverton, two ^ s and one ? , 

July 1898 (Thornley). 

Pachyrrhina maculosa Mg. Nottingham, a pair, i6th July 

1898 (J. W. Carr). 

Fam STRATIOMYID^. 

^Oxycera pygmasa Fin. Misterton, one (J, 7th July 1898 

(Thornley), 

Beris fuscipes Mg. Treswell Woodj one ?, 27th June 189S 
(Thornley). 

Sargus cuprarius L. var. nubeculosus Ztt. Nottingham 



(Ryles). 



Fam. LEPTID^. 



Leptis tringaria L. South Leverton, one 5, 7th July 1898 



(Thornley) 



Naturalist* 



Thornley: Nottinghamshire Diptera, 295 



ASILID^ 






■ 

Leptogaster cylindrica DeG. South Leverton, ^ and $ , 9th 



J 



crabroniformis L. Bulwell Forest, Nottingham, taken 
le years ago (see J. W. Carr, * Naturalist,' June 1898, 



p- 170). 



Fam. BOMBYLID.E. 



^Bombylius major L. Winkburn Woods, Notts, several 

specimens in April 1898 (J. W. Carr ; see 'The Naturalist,' 
June 1898, p. 170). Treswell Wood, one example, 6th May 



1899 (Thornley). 



Fam. EMPID^. 



"^Empis pennipes L. Treswell Wood, one <$ and four $ s, 27th 

June 1898 (Thornley). 

"^'Cyrtoma spuria Fin. Treswell Wood, one ?, 27th June 

1898 (Thornley). 

Fam. DOLICHOPODID.E. 

^Dolichopus griseipennis Stan, Treswell Wood, one (? , 27th 
June 1898 (Thornley), 

^'Dolichopas trivialis Hal. Treswell Wood, two $s, 27th June 



1898 (Thornley), 
Scellus notatus Fab. 



July 1898 (Thornley) 
Wood, one $ , 27th J 



J 



Fam. LONCHOPTERID.^. 



Lonchoptera /acustris Mg-. South Leverton, one ?, 7th May 



1898 (Thornley). 



Fam. SYRPHIDvE. 



■^ 



n 

Pipizella virens F. One example from Notts, locality label 



lost (Thornley, 1898). 



grossa 



Winkburn. one r^ . nth 



(J.W 



(J 



flavimana Mg. Gcdling, one ? , 22nd May 1898 



Platychirus albimanus Fab. Nottingham, one <? and three 
? s, 27th July 1898 (J. W. Carr). 

Platychirus manicatus Mg. Gedling, three (?s, 22nd May 
1898 (Carr); Nuthall, two $s, 26th May 1898 (Carr); 



898 



J 



899 



X 



^9^ Thornley: Nottinglianishire Diptera. 

I ■- 

Platychirus scutatus Mg. Nottingham, one c? > 27th July 
1898 (J. W. Carr). 

Syrphus balteatus DeG. Nottinghanij one (?, 24th July; 
one $ , 5th October 1898 (J. W. Carr). 

Syrphus luniger Mg. Nottingham, two 5 s, 24th and 28th 
July 1898(1. W. Carr). 

Syrphus corollas F. Notting^ham, three ^ s, 24th and 27th 



July 1898 (J. W. 

(J. W. Carr). 

Syrphus ribesii L. 



J 



Nottingham, three ^ s, 24th Ju 
(J. W. Carr) ; Gedling, one $ , 22nd May 1898 (J. W 



July 1898 (J. W 



Catabomba 

Carr). 



July 1898 (J. W 



bombylans L. Teversall, one $ (red-tipped form), 
r4th July 1898 (J. W. Carr). 

[Arctophila mussitans F. Must be removed from the List. 
The examples so named were species of Criorrhina^ viz. :] 

^Criorrhina floccosa Mg. South Leverton, one ? , June 1896 ; 

one (J, May 1897 (Thornley). 

^Criorrhlna oxyacanthss Mg. South Leverton, onQ (J, June 

1896 (Thornley). 

Eristalis tenax L. Nottingham, several specimens, 24th July 

1898, with a very red variety of the ^\ and 8th to 12th 
October 1898 (J. W. Carr). 

Eristalis arbustorum L, Gedling, i8th July 1898 (J. VV. Carr). 

m 

Eristalis pertinax Scop. Nottingham, 9th October 1898 
(J. W. Carr) ; Gedling, 24th April 1898 (J. W. Carr) ; Roe 

Woods, Winkburn, 8th and nth May 1898 (J. W. Carr); 
Broxtowe, April 1898 (Freestone). 

Syritta pipiens L. Nottingham, ^ and $ , 8th October 1898 
(J, W. Carr). 

^Chrysotoxum arcuatum. South Leverton, one?, June 1898 
(Thornley). 

Through the kindness of Dr. Meade I am able to add 

Chilosia intonsa Lw. South Leverton, four $ s, May and July 

1897 (Thornley). 

Pipiza (Cnemodon) vitripennis Mg. South Leverton, oneS j 



May 1897 (Thornley). 



Naturalist, 



Thorftley: Nottinghamshire Diptera. 297 



Fam. CONOPID^. 



^Conops fJavipes L, South Leverton, one example, August 

1897 (Thornley), 

Myopa festacea L. Rainworth, one $ , 28th Ma}^ 1898 (J. W. 
Carr). 

Fam. CESTRID.^. 

^OEstrus ovis L. South Leverton, July 1898 (Gent.). 

Fam. ANTHOMYID.'^. 

Hyetodesia lucorurn Fin. Roe Woods, Winkburn, oue ^, 
nth May 1898 (J. W. Carr). 

^Hyetodesia basalis Ztt. Treswell Wood, several, July 1897 
and 1898 (Thornley). 

Fam. HELOMYZID^. 

Tephrochlamys rufiventrls Mg. South Leverton, common 



Wood 



5th March 1898 (Thornley). 



^Blepharoptera serrata L, Soiifh Leverton, common in the 

house and stable on 31st January and 9th February 1898 
(Thornley) ; Roe Woods, Winkburn, 2nd April 1898 ; 
, Notthigham, loth March 1898 (J. W. Carr). 

Fam. SCIOMYZID.E. 

^ 

^Tetanocera elata F. Treswell Wood, one S^ 27th June 1898 
(Thornley). 
Tetanocera punctulata Scop. Treswell Wood, 27th June 1898 

(Thornley). 
Limnia unguicornls Scop. Treswell Wood, onec? , 27th June 

1898 (Thornley). 
Blgiva albiseta Scop. Linby, 7th April 1898 (J. W. Carr). 
"^Sepedon sphegeus F. South Leverton, two examples, Sep- 
tember 1898 (Thornley), 

Fam. ORTALID-E. 

Ptilonota centralis F. Treswell Wood, two examples, 2gth 
May 1899 (Thornley), 

Fam. TRYPETID.*:. 

"^Teptiritis miliaria Schrk. Treswell Wood, one $ , 27th June 




1898 (Thornley). 



Fam. LOXClL«ID.-E. 



^Lonclisea vaginalis Fin. South Leverton, two^s, May 1897 

(Thornley). 



October 1S99. 



298 Notes— Lepidoptera. 



BORBORID^ 



"^Borborus genicutatus Mcq. South Leverton, two examples, 

7th April 1898 (Thornley). 

Borborus equinus Fin. South Leverton, 29th 



J 



(Thornley). 



* 



Borborus niger Mg*. South Leverton, September 1897 and 

17th April 1898 (Thornley). 
^Phora rufipes Mg, South Leverton, abundant, taken on the 
following dates : — 30th January, loth February, 2nd and 
17th March, 7th May i8g8 (Thornley). 

Fam. PHYTOMYZID^. 

Phytomyza obscurella Fin, ' South Leverton, common 

(Thornley). The larvae of this little fly feed between the 
upper and lower surface on the parenchyma of holly leaves; 
sometimes quite disfiguring the trees by giving the leaves 
a blistered appearance. The fly appears in May. According 
to Dr. Meade there seems yet to be some difficulty about 
the specific name. — A. T. 




NOTES— LEPIDOPTERA. 

Vanessa antiopa at Scarborough.— A specimen of the Camberwell 

Beauty { Vanessa anfiopa) was seen on Oliver's Mount on the loth September 
inst. — J, H. RowNTREE, Scarborough, 15th September 1899. 

Pyralis flmbrlalls at Doncaster.— This mornings I had a female of 
the above species broug-ht to me. It was found dead in this house in the 
centre of Doncaster, The only records for the county in Porritt's List are 
from York.~H. H. Corbett, Doncaster, 5th July 1899. 

Abundance of Qrammesia trlgrammlca at Doncaster.— During' 

the past ten years I have only seen two specimens of this species at 
Doncaster; but this year it is one of the commonest insects at 'sugar. — 
H. H. Corbett, Doncaster, 5th July 1899, 

Hummingbird Hawkmoth at Ackworth.— The Ackworth School 

Boys' Natural History Society have to note that Humming-bird Hawkmoths 
{Macroglossa stellatariim) have been frequent all the autumn in many gardens 
in our neighbourhood. — Jos. Neale, Ackworth School, 19th Sept. 1899. 

Abundance of tlie Hummingbird Hawkmoth.— On 31st August 

I found a freshly-emerged specimen of the Hummingbird Hawkmoth {Macro- 
glossa sfellatarum) at rest in a chink of a wall in the railway station at 
Afderley Edge. When staying at Wisbech St. Mary, Cambridgeshire, 
during the first fortnight hi September, I had many opportunities of watching 
this interesting species, which has been unusually abundant there, as it has 
in other parts of the country, during the past hot summer. The moths 
frequently visited jasmine and honeysuckle in the garden, and some beds ot 
geraniums proved specially attractive. From early morning until seven 
o'clock in the evening I could always count on seeing one or two of the 
moths poised above the flowers, or passing with a swift horizontal move- 
ment from one truss of bloom to another ; the hum of their rapidly-vlbratuig 
wings being audible at a distance of several feet. On one occasion five of the 
moths were in view at one time. During flight the long proboscis appeared 
to be always fully extended. Rain seemed to aifect them but slightly, for o\\ 
two wet days I watched the insects busily probing the geraniums for nectar 
during sharp showers. — Chas. Oldham, Alderley Edge, 22nd Sept. 1899 

>,'aturalist^ 



299 



THE FLORULA OF BARE, WEST LANCASTER 



F. ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S., 



Except Walney and the limestone south of Silverdale, the vice- 
county of West Lancaster has been sadly neglected since the 
Rev. E, F. Linton resided at Preston, from which it follows that 
the observations of a few days in early September (1899) made 
on the beach of the Morecambe estuary, strictly confined to the 
shore and a mile inland between Bare and Hest Bank, have 
some little value from the definite parochial limit, and the 
thoroughness with which the small field was investigated by 
the writer. The appended asterisk indicates the species that 
are adventive although naturalised; and the letters *N.C.R.' 
stand for a new vice-county record for tlie Watsonian area 60 of 
Topographical Botany, 

Clematis Vitalba."^ Several fine plants about Bare, crowning 
and festooning Yews amongst other trees, but, of course, 
originally sown or planted. 

Adonis autumnalisJ' Waste arable where building opei'ations 

• m 

at Bare have broken the ground ; and with it 

Meconopsis cambrica"^ about poultry-runs in rough field- 
corners : probably garden ground originally — the stations 
being doomed of bricks and mortar both species must soon 
disappear, as well as their companions, Figwort, Mugwort, 
Agrimony, and Burdock. 

Silene maritima. Several pebble banks between Bare and 
Hest Bank, accompanied by 

ffonlceneya peploides, locally termed by rustic children ' Fat- 
grass ' — a term not in Britten and Holland's classic Plant- 

^ 

Name Dictionary. 
Geranium purpureum Forster. N.C.R. This or a deep-red, 

divaricate and prostrate form of the ubiquitous ' Stinking 
Bob,' modified by environment, was noticed on a pebbly 
spit of foreshore north of Bare, growing with the 'Fat- 
grassland succulent great-headed Matricaria salina, hard 



by several spray-washed boulders medalled over with 
Parmelia parietina and other lichens. 

Ononis repens {inermis Lange). Here and there on the beach 

banks, with 
Lotus cYassifolius Pers., but neither abundant nor continuously. 

October i&gg. 



300 Lees : The Florula of Bare, West Lancaster. 

Prunus /raft'ca/JS Weihe, NX.R, (Perhaps this equals var. 
b» ynacrocarpa Walln), The larg-e-fruited yellow-green leaved 
Sloe- One or two bushes in thicket near canal south of 
Hest Bank. This might pass for Prunus insititia^ the wild 
Bullace, but it was only In plum very sparingly, 

Rubus rusticanus Merc, was the vastly preponderant Bramble 

in the hedges of the narrow field * slypes ' or lanes through 

the pastures, but now and then by dikes or on earth-banks 

the writer noticed Rubus rhamnifolius^ R. radula, R. coryli- 

folhis^ and R. ccestus, 

Spirsea Ultnaria var. denudata Hayne, N.C.R. This nude 
form of the white under-leaf Queen of the Meadow was 
noted to occur at intervals for over half a mile on the west 
bank of the Lancaster Canal north of Bare. It is a less- 
robust plant than the silver leaved type, and flowered here 
as elsewhere only sparingly. It usually grows in the water 
not in peat-wet soil, and may be more frequent than the 
sparing records (eight or nine counties) would indicate. 
The early leaves of the type even, springing up through the 
standing fluid of a springtime ditch are unfelted I have 
noticed. 

ffippuris vulgaris. N.C.R. In several plashes and muddy 
hedge bottoms about Bare. I was told a curiously-distorted 
notion about this by a farmer-like man, who watched me 
gazing at the serried ranks in the water. He gravely 
informed me that it was called Marestails, because it only 
grew in water wherein * mares, but I think horses, too, had 
staled '^that is, made water! I objected that there were 
* Horsetails ' as well. ' Yes,* he admitted, * and some on 
'em calls it that, I've heard, tew,' or a saving phrase to 
similar effect. 

Lythrum Salicaria, Frequent by drains, and the Lancaster 
Canal south of Hest Bank. 

Cornus sanguinea. In hedge, Hest Bank. 
Sium erectum. Brook, Bare Lane. 
Tragopogon minor^ Sea banks. 
Carduus tenvitlorus^ with 

Carlina vulgaris very sparingly on the sandier banks of the 

beach. 
Filago germanica. N.C.R. A form approaching spathulata 

sparingly on a hen-run near Bare, where the earth had 

been much scratched up. 




Naturalist, 



Lees: The Florula of Bare, West Lancaster. 301 

Intita dysenterica. Hedofe-bank of one lane off Bare towards 
Poulton. 

Matricaria salina Bab. ^ N.C.R. This handsomest of the 
*Agathas' or 'False Marguerites/ with neat foliage and 
disproportionately large anthodes, grew In clumps on the 
pebble beyond Scalestones Point; with a bold condensed 
form of Linaria vulgaris almost meriting the term ' speciosa^ 
but that its * fat ' leaves were only one-nerved. The salinity 
of the air seems to dwarf the fodder and enlarge the 
blossoms of many plants, so that, weedy inland, they 
become posy-worth by the sea. 

Achillea Ptarmica, with full rosy blossom heads, grew by a 
ditch in one spot inland, and on a bank near it the common 
Yarrow was of a fine red also. The Eyebright of the turf 
showed a disposition to empurpling of the corolla as well. 
This may be an exceptional seasonal influence, for the 
Convolvulus Septum of the hedges was pinked, too, in places; 
and thedykeful Mints were purple-bronze of leaf everywhere; 
likewise the Black Bryony and Bindweed foliage. Nowhere 
■ in the district, either, did the writer notice an albino, a w^hite 
Harebell, Bugle, Betony Basil, or Self-heal, such as are 
some years so very frequent. 

Oentiana Amarella. On sea bank turf north of Bare, sparingly* 
with Scabiosa Cohitnbaria, rayed Centaurea nigrUy Erythrcea 
Cenfauriunty and Lycopsis arvensis, Bare, one plant only. 

Calamintha Clinopodium Spenn., N.C. R-, although rather a 

common (go vice-counties) high-census species. This w^as 
noted on dry, bushy banks in three other spots. 

Verbascum Blattaria."^ Moth Mullein. N.C.R. Three plants 
in bloom of this fine biennial grew in a poultry-run on a 
waste strip of ground near the Elms Hotel at Bare- 
Possibly alien, but harder than usual to decide, as Verbascum 
Thapsus grew near it, and in several other places, even on 
the shingles by the sea a little to the north. The Verbascums, 
too, are everywhere uncertain visitors, and their seeds are 
amongst those which can lie, viable yet ungerminating, in 
soil for considerable periods. This Moth Mullein, too, has, 
I see from Petty's Lake Lancashire Flora, turned up occa- 
sionally in gravelly places in Furness and Cartmel, at least 
since 1S43, the date of the first record. In the north at 
any rate — and now seldomer than ever — are these biennial 
Mulleins o-rown in gardens as border flowers- 

October 1899. 



s 



302 Lees : The Florula of Bare, West Lancaster, 

Veronica Anagallis. Brook, Bare. 

-T 

Linaria Cymbalana.^ Old walls, Bare. 

1, ^ 

Mentha sativa var. rivalis. N.C.R. By the Lancaster Canal, 

I 

south of Hest Bank, with a bushier, taller, red-stemmed 

4 

muit of the sativa section, which most probably is M, rubra 
Sm., but as it was on the further bank of the canal I could 
not get to it. On the tow-path side, where the herbag-e 
was much trodden and beaten down, I found only a red- 
stemmed subg^labrous form, with longf runners. At the 
w^ater-edg-e grew also, fine and handsome, the Eng-lish 
Pickerel Weed, Polygomim amphibhim, and Myosotis palus- 
tris ; but although by their juxta-contrast they made a 
lovely picture, both are on record already for the vice- 
county. 

Lycopus europseus. Gipsywort, In several places. 

Iris Pseudacorus L. Yellow Flag. Marshes and pool-sides, 

frequent. Mentioned here only for its extraordinary rustic 
name. The seed clubs, at this date opening lip-like and 
revealing the (as yet) ivorine seed squares within, are 
called (so the urchins told me) thereabout * Eyeteeth ' or 
^Teatheads.' Boys gather the full-grown green but hard 
triangulate pods and pit one against another in a war game, 

I, 

• like unto that lads play with Ribwort Plantain or Horse- 
chestnuts perforated and slung on a piece of whipcord. 

Sparganium simplex. Bare brook. 

Sparganium ramosum. Frequent. The caltropsian burr-fruits 

oi both these are styled *Wiskers,' or * Whiskers' by the Bare 

-boys, and a similar game-use is made of them. I never 

heard either of these names in any other county, and 

Britten has neither in his book, before alluded to. 

Elodea canadensis."^ In the canal south of Hest Bank, * less 
common than it used to be, ' I was told. Is this aquarium 
outcast now again on the decline in this country? 

Juncus diffusus Hoppe. N.C.R. Three or four clumps of this 
hybrid in a marsy pasture near a turkey-run, south of Hest 
Bank ; J. cjjfiisiis near but not J. glaucus. 

Juncus obtusiflorus Ehrh. N.C.R. In a bed of Arundo Phrag- 
mites, by a brook, near the L. & N.-W. Rail, line, north of 
Bare. A few luxuriant stems (3 feet high) only. 

Scirpus lacastris L. N.C.R. Noted in one place only, by the 
Marestail duck-pool at the back of Bare village. With it 



grows Eteocharis palnstris. 



Naturalist, 



Notes — Coleoptera and Flowering Plants. 



303 



Carex ampullacea {rostrataStokQs), N.CR. A small form of 
this, not — me jtidice — the elatior BIytt, but too advanced in 
its shedden catkhis to be sure it is znvolufa, though its wiry 
leaves were rolled and narrow, grew" in tufts by a ditch 
bordering- the reed-bed mentioned above in connection with 



Jtincjis obtusifi. 



The type was seen on Torrisholme 



moss. To make an end to these excursive remarks the onl} 
Gramen of any note seen besides Aruiido was 
Triticum littorale Reichb. N.CR. The squary glaucus-eared 
grass formerly regarded as a variety of T, repejts, but now 
allocated to T. pungens. I am not sure (with Watson, 
Top. Bot., p. 503), however, that there is not a bloomy- 
blue glumed state oi both ^species,' since the piingens of 
the southern and eastern coasts Is a plant of sandhills, and 
this grew on a steep hedge-bank facing the bay above 
Sca.lestoaes Point ; and the ' sea change ' fades of plants at 
the sheltered head of Morecambe Bav is much less marked 
than even on Walnev. not to sav the Cumberland seaboard. 



Explicit. 

gfh September /Sc^g. 




NO TE—COL EOPTERA. 



Rhipipborus paradoxus and Carabus granulatus near Ackworth. 

— The Ackworth School Boys* Natural History Society have to record that 
this September two specimens were taken from separate Wasps' nests of 
^hlpiphorus {Aletcectis) paradoxus^ female; and that at Ferrvbridgfe, climbing- 
in osiers as if in search of larvse for food, were found two specimens of 
Cambus granidaius. These finds are new records for us.^Jos. Xeale, 
Ackworth School, 19th September 1899. 




NOTES-^FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Ferrybrjdg:e Plant Records.— The AckM-orth School Boys' Natural 

History Society have to nott^ that hi June were g^athered near Ferrvbrid<^e 
Allium Scorodoprasum and Scirpiis sylvaticus. They were identified by 
iMr. John Farrah, and are both new records for us.—Jos. N'EALE, Ackworth 
School, 19th Sept. 1S99. 

Double Ling: at Ullswaten— A few specimens o{ Calluna vulgaris 

Jiore pleno (Double Ling-) were found growing- near to Ullswater Lake in the 

last week of Aug-ust. I sent one to the Rev. W. Fowler, w^ho said he had 

not previously seen it. In an old Flora it is said to have been observed in 

Cornwall only.— Benj. Crow, Louth, 15th Sept. 1S99. 

Sedum anglicum in Littondale, Mid West Yorkshire.— Yesterday 

I found Sedrnn anglicum g-rowing; and in bloom between Anicliffe and 
Hawkswick. It was in a 6rv, s:^r\dy, and stony position, which is sometimes 
flooded, far from the public road, and about'a mile frotn any house. The 
plants were numerous and were evidently suffering from the drougfht. This 
is, 1 believe, the first record for this part of Yorkshire. IMr. F. A. Lees 
speaks of it as *very rare on Silurian slate;' he has seen it on Howg-ill 
Fells. Littondale is'on the limestone. The seeds must have been carried 
by a bird to the place mentioned above, or it is possiblv a ' g-arden escape/ 
but it may now be said to be firmly established here. [Name correct, J. G. 
Baker,]— W. A. ShiffreV, Arnclfffe \'icarage, Skipton, 12th Aug-ust tSgg. 

bcr 1899. 



3^4 



NOTE— MOSSES. 



Hypnum ochraceum in Wharfedale, — Within the last few weeks 

I have found Hypmim ochraceum Turn, in two small patches, not far apart, 
on Ilkley ^loor. This is I believe a new record for the district. The only 
reference in the Flora of West Yorkshire (F. Arnold Lees, 1888) is a doubt- 
ful one in brackets, viz., at p. 592, ' [Beamsley rocks; L. C. Miall (vide 
Naturalist, 1866, p. 266)]/ This refers to a record in Miall and Carrington's 
Flora of the West Riding, 1862, p. %^^ viz. : — ^ Hypmirn scorpioides L. near 
Beamsley rocks, L. C. Miall,' which was corrected by Professor Miall in 
the Naturalist, 1866, p. 266, in a paper on the Botany of Malham, under 
H, scorpioides — *I believe the Beamsley rocks, cited as a station in *'The 
Flora of the West Ridingf " with my name is erroneous. The moss I found 
there was Limnohium [Hypnum) ochraceunu Has there been any record for 
Wharfedale since the above?— C. P. Hobkirk, Ilkley, 20th July 1899. 




NOTES— FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Stratiotes aloidea near Doncaster.— -This plant is now flowering freely 
in a ditch by the side of the Great Northern Railway between Doncaster 
and RossIngton.^H. H. Corbett, Doncaster, 5th July 1899. 

Ranunculus arvensis and Epilobium hirsutum at 750 feet in 

Wharfedale* — The former of these plants has appeared in a border in my 
garden. This may be worthy of record, as there is no notice of it in 
Wharfedale other than a record near Wetherby in Mr. Arnold Lees* Tlora 
of West Yorkshire.' The latter plant has appeared for the first time in this 
dale, under a Holly tree in the same garden. Mr. Lees says it is 'rare in 
the dales above 450 feet.' I have never seen it before this above Kilnsey. 
W. A. Shuffrey, Arncliffe Vicarage, loth August 1899. 

Blea Tarn and Lobelia Dortwanaa.—S'mce some comments of mine 

regarding the identity of the sheet of water so named appeared in your 
issue for January last, several of the correspondents of * The Naturalist* 
have from time to time attempted to clear up the doubt as to which of the 
Lakeland tarns was meant in Mr. J. G, Baker's 'Flora of the English Lake 
District/ pp. 142-3. A few weeks have elapsed since, in the course of a 
correspondence with Mr. Baker on other botanical matters, I suggrested 
that he should clear up the mystery by stating^ what tarn was meant. His 
reply was to the effect that he had himself forg-otten utterly in which sheet 
of water he had observed the Lobelia, but sug-g-ested that the altitude 
assigTied by him, viz., 500 yards, might be sufficient to determine the 
dispute. I had mentioned my behef that Blea Tarn, under High Street, in 
Westmorland, was the locality meant by Mr. Baker, a view which has 
hitherto failed to meet with general acceptance. Among the objectors is 
Mr. Charles Waterfall, of Hull, who in the April number of * The Naturalist' 
states that the particular sheet of water selected by me is not Blea Tar?i at 
all, but Blea Wafer, Mr. Waterfall may not have had an experience of 
Lakeland sufficient to prove to him that the terms Tarn and Wafer are in 
numberless instances synonymous, as I can personally vouch for after 
twenty years' residence in the most picturesque portion of the Lake 
Country. Moreover, in the 'Golden Penny,' for 3rd June of this year, 
appears a vignette over the heading, 'Blea Tarn at Sunrise/ while in the 
descriptive letterpress in the same column lower down the page it is styled 
Blea Water. The altitude of this tarn is given in ' Jenkinson's Gviide ' as 
1,584 feet. Mr. Waterfall rightly judges that the Upper Tarn, Watendlath, 
is the same as Blea Tarn, which is situated about two miles above the 
Lower Tarn, and at an elevation of 1,562 feet. These two are the only 
Blea Tarns which at all correspond with Mr, Bakers given altitude of 1,500 
feet. 1 have not visited personally the shore of either the Cumberland^ or 
Westmorland mere, but have repeatedly looked down upon both from a loftier 
standpoint on the surrounding fells, and should not be surprised to learn 
that the Water Lobeha is a tenant of both sheets of water,— Wm. Hodgson, 



Workington, iSth August, 1899. 



Naturalist, 



305 



BIBLIOGRAPHY : 



^ 

Papers and records published with respect to the Natural History 

and Physical Features of the North of England. 



GEOLOGY AND PAL/CONTOLOQY, 1895. 
The present . instalment has been compiled and edited by 

THOMAS SHEPPARD, 

Previous instalments of the Bibliography of Geology and 
Palaeontology have appeared as follows : — 

For 1884, in 'Naturalist,' Dec. 1885, pp- 394-406. 
M 1885, ,, Nov, 18S6, pp. 349-362. 

,, 1886, „ June 18SS, pp. 178-1SS. 



j> 



1887, ,, Feb. i88g, pp. 61-77. 



,, 1888, ,, April-May 1890, pp. 121-138. 

1889, ,, Nov. i8go, pp. 339-350- 

1890, ,, Oct.-Nov. 1891, pp. 313-330- 

1891, ,, July-Aug. 1892, pp. 219-234. 

1892, ,, Sept. 1893, pp. 265-279. 

1893, ,, Sept.-Oct. i8g8, pp. 273-296. 

1894, ,, March-April 1S99, pp. 81-103. 



' } 



> J 



ij 



} 5 



p 



I have to thank Mr, W. Denison Roebuck, F.L.S., and 
Mr. Alfred Harker, M.A., F.G.S., for assistance. 

Particulars of papers, etc., omitted from the following list 
will be gladly received and included at the commencement of 
the 1896 Bibliography. Every effort w^ill be made, however, to 
ensure these lists being as complete as possible. 

The lists for 1896-1899 w^ill be published as soon as possible, 
and it would render them more complete if editors of periodicals, 
secretaries of societies, and especially authors of papers In local 
journals, etc., would send copies to the editor of this journal at 
259, Hyde Park Road, Leeds. Reprints and authors' separate 
copies should bear the name of the publication, the number of 
the volume or part, the original paging and the actual date 
of publication. 

We would here refer to the difficulty of ascertaining the date 
of publication of certain Transactions and Proceedings, such as, 
for instance, those of the Manchester Geological Society; the 
date of the meeting reported does not afford any real clue, and 
we venture \o suggest that the actual date of publication should 
always be indicated on the cover of each part 

The Watsonian vice-counties are adopted throughout these 
bibliographies as more convenient and uniform in extent than 

Tl"i m^^m^^m - "iii i_ m, M^^^^^^fci 

October 1899. U 



3o6 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology , i8gj-^. 

the political counties ; those comprised within the North of 
England are the following : — 

53, Lincoln S.; 54, Lincoln N.; 56, Notts.; 57, Derby; 58, 



60, Lancashire W. ; 61, 
W. : 6-1. York Mid W 



W 



Westmorl 



and 71, Lsle of Man; with their adjoining seas. 



1893. 

[W.] BovD Dawkins. Lanc, S., Derbyshire. 

he Coalfields of New South Wales [under * comparison with the 

British Carboniferous Rocks ' compares with the beds oi Lancashire and 
Derbyshire]. Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, Vol. 22j pt. 5, 1893 (9 pp. of 
reprint). 



1895- 



Anon, [not signed]. 



Derbyshire. 
A Field Meeting [at Matlock Bath; Report of Excursion of 

Liverpool Geol. Assn.]. Journ. LIv. Geol. Assn., Vol. 25, 1894-5, pp. 17-1^* 
Anon, [not signed], York Mid W. 

A Field Meeting [held at Clapham ; Report of Excursion of 

Liverpool Geol. Assn. to higleborough Caves, etc.]. Journ. Liv. Geol. 
Assn., Vol. 25, 1894-5, p. 19. 

Anon, [not signed], Lanc. S., Cheshire. 

The Field Meeting [of the Liverpool Geol. Assn. to the Birkenhead 

neighbourhood ; cores from local bores, and slabs, with footprints, from 
the Storeton Quarries, examined], Journ, Liv. Geol. Assn., Vol. 25, 

IS94-55 PP- 3^'Z^' 

Anon, [not signed], - ' IsLE OF Man. 

An Auriferous Quartz-vein . . [near Douglas^ Isle of Man ; first 

record of gold from the island]. Nature, 24th Jan. 1895, p. 299. 

Anon, [not signed], York S.E, 

East Riding Antiquarian Society. The Danes' Graves [Report of 

Meeting at Driffield], N. and E. Yorks. Science Notes, Dec. 1S95, pp. 
65-66. 

York Mid W. 

Gaping Qhyll" [note of Martel's Exploration]. Nat. Journ., Sep. 
1895, p, 202. 

Anon, [not signed], York N.E. 

Geological Excursion to Saltersgate and Winny Nab [Brief Notes 

on an Excursion organised and conducted by the Rev. E. M. Cole]. 
Naturalist Notes, Vol. i, 1S94-5, p. 27. 

Anon, [not signed]. All the Northern Counties. 

Geological Literature i added to the | Geological Society's Library 

1 during the ] half year ended December 1894 | . . . I - • -I 
London | 1895 | . . . -. [58 pp. Contains numerous references to 
papers bearing on the geology of the northern counties]. 



Anon, [not signed], 

41 



Anon, [not signed]. 



Isle of Man. 



Gold in the Isle of Man [a paying vein found at Douglas]* Nat. 

Journ., Feb. 1895, p. :^S, 



Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palaeontology, i8g$, 307 

Anon, [not sig-ned], York N.E. and S.E. 

Historical Note on Malton Spa [shows that the Chalybeate waters 

of Malton have been known for a considerable time ; brief g-eolog-ical 
notes]. Naturalist Notes, Vol. 1, 1894-5, PP* 4^-49- 



Anon. [not sig-ned], York N.E. and S.E. 



Important Excavations at Malton [in connection with the North 

Eastern Railway extensions; several British tumuli unearthed, etc.]. 
Naturalist Notes, Vol. i, 1894-5, PP- ^'^-^h* 

Anon, [not signed]. York N.E., Lanc. S., etc. 

In Memoriam. William Crawford Williamson, LL.D., F.R.S.,&c. 

Born 24th Nov. i8i6. Died 23rd June 1896 [should be 23rd June 1895; 
contains numerous references to Prof. Williamson's geolog^ical work in 
the north of Eng-land ; and a list of 'Memoirs and Papers by the late 
Dr. W. Crawford Williamson, F.R.S., etc.']. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and 
Polytec. Soc, 1895, pp. 95-1 11, with portrait plate. 

Anon, [not signed]. York N.E. and S.E. 

-Malton Naturalists' Society. Presentation to Mr. S. Chadwick 

[on his departure to New Zealand; references made to the geological 
vspecimens got together by Mr. Chadwick in the Malton Museum]. N. 
and E. Yorks. Science Notes, Sept. 1895, pp. 25-29. 

Anon, [not signed], Cheshire. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club [visiting Marston Mine 

and the Cheshire Salt-beds, 4th May 1895, led by C. E. De Ranee; 
detailed account of the district], Scl. Goss,, June 1895, p. iir. 

Anon, [not signed]. York N.E., Lanc. S. and S.VJ^ 

Professor William C. Williamson, LL.D,, F.R.S, [Obituary notice; 

his work in Yorkshire aud Lancashire referred to], Gool. Mag., Aug. 
^^95^ PP- 383-384- ^ 

Anon, [not signed]. York Mid'W., N.E., S.E., N.W., S.W. 

Reports of Field Excursions [of the Leeds Geological Association ; 

to Ripon, on ist July 1S93, New Red Sandstone, Ma^nesian Limestone, 
etc., and Glacial beds ; to Marsh Lane Cutting-, Leeds, on 8th July, sec- 
tions in the Coal Measures; to Kirkbj Moorside, on loth July, with the 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, sections in the Oolites, Glacial beds, etc. j 
to Bolton and Eastby, on 15th July, Carboiiiferous Limestone, Millstone 
Grit, etc.; to Gisburn and SawJey Abbey, with Y.N.U,, on 7th Aug-ust, 
Carboniferous Limestone, Millstone Grit, etc.; to Wetherby, on I2th 
Aug-ust, Carboniferous and Maj^nesian Limestones, Glacial beds, etc.; to 
Rombald's Moor, on 2nd September, Millstone Grit and Glacials; to 
Pocklington, with Y.N.U., on 7th September, Chalk and Lias; Marsh 
Lane Cutting-, on 21st April 1894, Coal Measures; to Sedbergh, with 
Y.N.U., on ^I4th May, Carboniferous basement beds, etc.; to Ferry- 
bridge, with Y.N.U., on i6th June, Maijnesian Limestone and Millstone 
Grit]. Trans. Leeds Geol. Assn., Part 9, 1S93-94, publ. 1895, pp. 65-83. 

Anon, [not signed]. Yorkshirf, Lsle of "Slxs. 

Review. The Geological Survey [Report for 1894; briefly refers 

to the work done by the Survey in the Lsle of Man, Yorkshire, etc.]. 
Geol. Ma^-., Dec. 1895, pp. 567-569. 

Anon, [not signed]. York S.E. and N.E. 

The Inhabitants of Yorkshire in Pre-Roman Times [Jescribing: 

various weapons, etc., from the tumuli on the Wolds]. Naturalist Notes, 
\o\, I, 1894-5, PP- 5^"6o. 

Anon, [not signed]. Lanc. S. 

The Lancashire Coalfield. Coll. Guard., Vol. 69, 1895, pp. 592 et seq. 

October 1899. 



3o8 Bibliography : Geology and Palccontology , i8g^. 

Anon, [not sig-ned], York Mid W. and S.W. 

The Yorkshire Coalfield. Coll. Guard., Vol. 69, 1895, pp. 17, 64, "113, 
159, 207, 255, 304, 353, 400, 448, 1029 et seq. 



Anon, [not signed]. 



York S.E. 



Yorkshire Naturalists' Union [at Flambro*; geological notes]. 

North and East Yorks. Science Notes, July 1895, pp. 11-12. 

Anon, [not signed; query P. F. Kendall, Editor], Lancs., CHESHIRE, 

Current Glacial Bibliography. Geological Magazine, New Series,, 

Decade iv., Vol. i, January-December 1894 [suinmarislng" papers bearing" 
on Glacial Geology ; some of which refer to the northern counties]. 
Glac. Mag.j Jan. 1895, pp. 123-126, and Feb., pp. 134-139. 

Anon, [not signed ; query P. F. Kendall, Editor]. Lake District, etc. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. Geological Magazine, Decade IV., 

Vol. II,, January-December, 1895 [includes abstract of a paper on 

* Physiographical Studies in Lakeland,* by J. E. Marr, etc.]. Glac. Mag., 
Dec. 1895, PP- 152-159- 

Anon, [not signed; query P. F. Kendall, Editor]. Lanc. S., Cheshire. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. Proceedings of the Liverpool 

Geological Society- Session 1894-95, Part 3, Vol. VIL [Gives abstracts 
of numerous papers bearing on the geology of the Liverpool neighbour- 
hood]. Glac. Mag., Dec. 1895, pp. 159-162, 

Anon, [not signed ; query P. F. Kendall, Editor], York S.E. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. Proc, Yorkshire Geol. and 

Polytechnic Soc. N.S., Vol. III., Part 5, pp. 347-475, 1894 [gives 
abstract of paper on * Some New Sections in the Hessle Gravels,' by 
F. Fielder Walton]. Glac. Mag., Dec. 1895, pp. 162-3, 

Lake District, 

Anon, [not signed ; query P, F. Kendall, Editor], Isle of Man. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. Quarterly Journal of the Geological 

Society, Vol. LL, part 3, Avigust ist, 1895 [contains abstracts of papers on 

* An Experiment to Illustrate the Mode of Flow of a Viscous Fluid,' by 
Prof, W. J. Sollas (refers to the Isle of Man) ; ' Notes on some Railway 
Cuttings near Keswick,' by J. Postlethwaite, etc.]. Glac. Mag., Sept. 

1^95) PP- 99-104- 

Anon, [not signed ; query P. F. Kendall, Editor]. Lake District. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. The Geographical Journal, VoL vL, 

No. 2, August 1895. [Contains a lengthy summary of Dr. Hugh Robert 
Mill's paper on a ' Bathymetrical Survey of the English Lakes/ Wast- 
water, Coniston Water, Hawes Water, Ullswater and Windermere]. 
Glac. Mag., Sept. 1895, pp. 105-106, 

Anon, [not signed ; query P. F. Kendall, Editor]. Lanc. S., etc. 

Glacial Geology at the British Association [abstracts of papers 

given, some of which very briefly refer to the northern counties]. Glac. 
Mag., Sep. 1895, pp. 94-99- 



Anon, [not signed ; query P. F. Kendall, Editor]. * YoRK." 




J. B. Atkinson. All the Northern Counties. 



Home Department. Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom of 

Great Britain and Ireland, with the Isle of Man, for the year 1S94. 

London. 1895 [not seen]. 



Naturalist^ 



Bibliography : Geology and P alee ontology^ -^^PJ- 309 

J. B. Atkinson, All the Northern Cocnties. 

Alines. List of Mines in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 

Ireland, and the Isle of Man, for the year 1894, prepared by Her Majesty's 
Inspectors of Mines. London. 1895 [not seenj- 

J. F. Blake. All the Northern Counties. 

Annals of British Geology, 1893. A digest of the Books and 

Papers published during- the year; with an Introductory- Review; pp. 
xxiv, -{-2^^^ (illustrations). London. 1895. 



Herbert Bolton. 



Lanc. S. 



Note on some Fossil Trees at Doulton's Delf, St. Helens, Lancashire 

[describes several erect tree trunks and the remains of veg^etation, which 
occur In a bed of Coal Measure shale ; discussion by various g-entlemen 
also printed]. Trans. Manch. Geo], Soc, Vol. 23, pt. 3, 1895, pp. 73-80. 

H. Bolton. Cumberland, Isle of Man, 

On the Metamorphism of Coal [briefly refers (p, 129) to the graphite 

from Borrowdale, Cumberland, and Beary, Isle of Man ; dascusslon by 
, various g-entlemen also printed]. Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, Vol. Z"^, 



44. 



Herbert Bolton. 



Lanc. S. and VV. 



The Geology of North-East Lancashire in its relation to the Physical 

Geography [describes in some detail the various beds exposed in North- 
East Lancashire, and refers to the various changes in the physical features 
of the district as shown by a careful study of the structure and contents 
of the beds]. Trans. Manch. GeoL Soc, Vol. 24, pts. 3 and 4, 1S95, pp. 
56-67. 

T. G. BoNNEv. ' York S.E., Linc. N. and S, 

Supplementary Note on the Narborough District (Leicestershire) 

[thinks that the pebbles of chalk and flint in the boulder clay at Narborough 
probably came from Yorkshire or Lincolnshire; but in a footnote adds 
that the chalk is not from the northern part of Yorkshire (i.e. Flam- 
borough)]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, Vol. 51, pt. i, Feb. 1895, pp. 24-34. 



Harwood Brierley. 



York S.E. 



The Yorkshire Gypsey-Springs [at Wold Newton ; described at 

length]. Nature, 26th Dec 1893, p. 177. 

A. J. Jukes-Browne. See under 'Jukes-Browne.' 

Montagu Browne. Xotts, 

Preliminary Notice of an Exposure of Rheetic Beds, near East 

Leake, Notting-hamshire (Fourth Contribution to Rha^tic Geolog:y) 
[describing a section exposed during- the construction oi the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway; list of fossils given]. Rep. Brit. 
Assn., 1895, pp. 688-690. 

Linc. N, and S, 



F. M. Bl'rton. 



The Story of the Lincoln Gap Igives a detailed account of the 

g-eological features of the district, and points out the former courses 
of the Trent, Witham, etc]- Nat., Sept. 1S95, pp. 273-280, 

F. M. Burton. Llncolnshire. 

Lincolnshire Naturalists at Sleaford [Geology]. Nat., Nov. 1895, 



PP- 3^3-3^4- 



Ltnc. N. and S. 



F. M. Burton, 
Lincolnshire Geology [contains a list of papers relating to the 

geology of the county pubhshcd between 1819 and 1893], Trans, Linc. 
Nat. Union, Vol. 1, 1895* PP- *9-23- 

October 1H99, 



310 Bibliography : Geology arid Palceontology , iSg^. 



F. M. Burton. 



LiNC. N. 



Address to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, Grimsby, 1894. 

How the land between Gainsborough and Lincohi was formed [describes 
the various strata, and points out the probable conditions under which 
they were deposited, etc.]. Trans. Line. Nat, Union, Vol. i, pp. 33-44 
[not numbered]. 



J, Burton. 



York S.W 



[Boulders at] Millwood, Todmorden [Mirfield ; and Horbury ; in 

*The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and its Ninth Year's Work']. Nat., 
Dec. 1895, pp. 340-341. 

F. T. P. VAN Calker. North Eastern Counties. 

A Scheme for Perfecting the Determination of Boulders [suggests 

the formation of an International Committee to examine and report upon 
the petrolo^^ical characters of the erratics, etc., the result to be published 
. in a monthly mag^azine]. Glac. Mag^., Dec. 1895, pp. 132-138. 

Fredk, O. Pickard-Cambridge, Lake District. 

[Geology of Lake District briefly summarised in the introduction 

to] A List of the Araneidea of Cumberland and the Lake District. Nat., 
Jan. 1895, p. 32. 

T. Crosbee Cantrill. Cumberland, York Mid W. and S.W. 

On the Occurrence of Spirorbis-limestone and thin Coals in the 

so-called Permian Rocks of Wyre Forest ; with Considerations as to the 
Systematic Position of the * Permians ' of Salopian Type [compared 
with the rocks of the Cumberland and Yorkshire Coalfields]. Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc, Vol. 51, Part 3, Aug-. 1895, pp. 528-548. 

John T. Carrington. Cumberland, York S.W, 

Mineralogy [describing a visit to Thomas D. Russell's collection, 

and mentioning some Calcites and other minerals from Cumberland, 
Cleator Moor, etc., and 'peacock' coal from Barnsley]. Sci. Goss., 
Sept. 1S95, p. 176. 



W. L. Carter. 



York S.W. 



[Geology observed by the] Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Ferry- 

bridg-e. Nat., April 1895, p. iii. 

W. Lower Carter, York Mid W., N.E., S.E. 

** A Peep into Nature's Sculpture Gallery** [briefly refers to the 

plane oi marine denudation in North- West Yorkshire, and the erosion of 
the Yorkshire coast]. Trans. Leeds Geol. Assn., Part 9, 1893-94, pubL 
1895, pp. 12-17. 



D. Clague. 



Isle of Man* 



Further Notes on the Geology of the Isle of Man [gives a detailed 

account under the heads of Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Cainozoic]. Journ. 
Llverp. Geol. Assn., Vol. 15, 1S94-5, pp. 19-29, 



Edward Clodd. 



York S.E,, etc 



The Story of ( *• Primitive Man" | by | Edward Clodd 

. -I - -I - • I London • . | . . | 1895. [206 pp. Several East 
Yorkshire implements, etc., fij^ured and described.] 

C. T. Clocgh. See 'VV, Gunn,' 

E. Maule Cole. York N.E. 

The Vprkshire Naturalists' Union at the Hole of Horcum [Geology]- 

Nat,, July 1895, pp. 211-212. 

E. B. CoLLiNSON [not signed]. York N.E. 

A Natural History Excursion to Coxwold I6th Sept. 1895 ; notes 

on the occurrence of Terebrafulcey Rhy7iconella thtirmanni, Belemnites, 
Trigfonias, Encrinites, and Gryphcea incurva in quarries at the top end of 
the village]. Nat. Hist. Journ., 15th Oct. 1895, p, 103. 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology, i8g^. 311 

T, R. CONNELL. LaNC. S., CHESHIRE. 

Our Work [a Review of the work done at the Meetings and 

Excursions of the Liverpool Geolog-ical Association, Session 1894-5]. 
Journ. Liverpool Geol. Assn., Vol. 25, 1S94-5, pp. 5-8. 

John Cordeaux. Linc. N. and S. 

Address to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, Delivered at 

Lincoloj May 24th, 1894 [refers to the g^cology of the county at some 
leng^th, and sug-gests the formation of a Boulder Committee]. Trans. 
Linc. Nat. Union, Vol. i, 1895, pp, 1-12. 

G. C. Crick. York Mid W,, Isle of Man. 

On a New Species of Prolecanites from the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone of Haw Bank Tunnel, Skipton, Yorkshire [describes and fig'ures 
a new species of^ Prolecanites, dcsigfnated P, similis, found and presented 
to the i\ranchester IMuseum by Rev. E. Jones ; compared with P. cerati- 
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IManch. Geol. Soc, \qL 23, Part 3, 1S95, pp. S0-8S, 

Elizabeth Dale. / 



/ Derrvshire. 

Further Notes on the QIaciation of the Neighbourhood of Buxton 

[describes the boulders in the Govt Valleys etc., some of which have 
come from the Lake District]. Glac. Maj^., Dec. 1895, PP' 122-124. 

T. W. Davies and T. Mellard Reade. Cheshire. 

Description of the Strata exposed during the construction of the 

Seacombe branch of the Wirral Railway [Sections in the Trias and 
Glacial beds exposed, surfaces o^ the former being- frequently striated ; 
lists of shells and foraminifera given]. Proc. Liverp, Geol. Soc, Vol. 7, 
Part 3, 1894-5, PP' 326-3485 and 2 plates ; abstract in Giac, Mag*, lyec, 
^%5» PP* 161-162. 

W, M. Davis. Linc. N, and S., York S.W. and S.E. 

On the Development of Certain English Rivers [refers to the 

Trent, Hunibcr, etc.]. Geog. lowvxx,^ Feb. 1895, pp. 127 et seq. [not 

seen]. 

[W.] BovD Dawkins. Isle of Man. 

The Geology of the Isle of Man- Part II. [dealt with under the 

heads of (i) Introductory; (2) the Continuation of the Boring at Ballaw- 
hane ; (3) the Triassic Sandstones ; (4) the Upper Permians of the Stack 
Series; (5) the Carboniferous Limestone; (6) the Evidence of a Fault; 
(7) the Dip of the Rocks and the Two Geological Breaks ; and (S) the 
Practical Results of the Borings ; discussion by various gentlemen also 
printed]. Trans, Manch. Geol. Soc, Vol- 23, Part 6, 1895, pp. 147*^^9. 
■with Section v. ' Lhen Moar— Point of Ayre ' ; also Coll. Guard., Vol, 69, 

^^95? PP- 4^6 et seq. 

C. E. DeRance [Secretary], All the Northern Counties. 

The Rate of Erosion of the Sea-Coasts of England and Wales, 

and the Intliience of the Artificial Al^straction of Shingle or other material 

in that action. Fourth Report of the Committee [Includes 

particulars of the erosion in the 'Estuary oi the Huniber* (p. 377)» ^7 
C, Fox-Strangwavs ; ' Northumberland, Durham, Cumberland, and 
Westmorland* (p. 377), by Lieut.-Col. Melville; ' Hoylake to Birkenhead, 
Cheshire,* ' Liverpool to Lvtham,' and * Lytham to Fleetwood' (pp« 37^" 
Z^i)y by C, E. DeRance; 'Erosion of the Yorkshire Coast,' by Captain 
A. H. Kenney ; 'Erosion of Coast of Lancashire since 6-inch Survey, 
2.2S^ July 1892/ by Captain A- D. Meeres; also (Appendix iv.) Second 
Chronolos^ical List of Works on the Coast-Changes and Shore-Deposits 
of Eng-land and Wales, by W. Whitakor (pp. 388-392)]. Rep. Brit. Assn., 

^%5> PP > 352-392- 

October 1899. 



-^12 Bibliography : Geology and Palieofitology, i8^^. 



o 



Chas. E. DeRanxe. 



On Qlacial Theories, Past and Present, and their Application to 

Staffordshire [not seen]. Ann. Rep. and Trans. N. Staffs. N.F. Club, 
Vol, 29, for i^94-95> publ. 1895, pp. 107-128, 

Joseph Dickenson [not sig^ned]. Lanx. S. 

The Permian Mairls [Mr, Dickenson exhibited and described 

a piece of Permian Marl obtained in situ from the corner of Egferton 
Street, Manchester, which proved that the Permian Marls ' extended 
about a mile further south than had been mapped by the Geolog"ical 
Survey]. Trans. Manch. Geol. Soc, Vol. 23, Part 8, 1895, pp. 189-190- 



E, Dickson. 



Lanc. S. 



Notes on the Geology of the Country between Preston and 

Blackburn [describes the Glacial, Triassic, Permian, and Carboniferous 
beds at some leng^th j and also refers to the numerous faults which pass 
through the district; with plate showing- the 'present and Pre-Glacial 
channels of the river Darwen']. Proc. Liverpool Geol. Soc, Vol. 7, 
Part 3, 1894-5, pp. 276-28S. 

E. Dickson, . Lanc. S. 

Further Notes on the Section at Skillaw dough, near Parbold [the 

rocks met with are Mag:nesian limestone, red-purple marls and shales, 
soft red and brown sandstone, and grey and purple shales and grits 
(Millstone Grit)]. Proc. Liverp. Geol. Soc, Vol. 7, pt. 3, 1894-5, PP* 3'4" 
320 (sections). 

E. Dickson [not signed]. Lanc. S., Cheshire. 

President's Address. Chemistry as an Aid to Geology [the 

chemical constituents of some of the local rocks referred to]. Proc 
Liverp. Geol. Soc, Vol. 7, pt. 3, 1894-5, PP* 243-270. 

Northumberland, York Mid W., Cumberland, 
Miss Jane Donald. Westmorland, Lanc. S. 

Notes on the Genus Murchisonia and its Allies ; with a Revision 

of the British Carboniferous Species, and Descriptions of some New 
Forms [describing and figuring' M. dispar from Lowick, M» fusiform is 
from Bolland, AI. ttiarrl (sp. n.) from Shap, M, fastigiata (sp. n.) from 
Clattering Ford, Cumberland, M, 7ncoyi (sp. n.) from Widdale Fell, 
Wensleydale, M. on^eni (sp. n.) from Todmorden, and M* tahidata from 
Slaidburn and Kendal ; all from the Carboniferous]. Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc, May 1895, pp. 210-234, plates 8-10; abstract in Geol. Mag,, 1895, 
pp. 1 85- 1 86. 

W. L. H. Duckworth and F. E. Swainson, Nottinghamshire. 

A New Ossiferous Fissure in Cresswell Crags [abstract only ; at 

the top is a white earth with human and other remains, and this passes 
down into a red sand with remains of fox, badger, roe-deer, etc]. Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc, May 1895, p. 237 ; abstract in Geol. Mag., April 1895, 
p. 186. 

A. R. D[\verryhouse]. North-Eastern Counties, etc. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. Nature, Vol. LX. [abstracts the 

papers and notes bearing upon Glacial Geology ; some of which refer to 
the northern counties]. Glac Mag., March 1895, pp. 159-162. 

A, R. D[vverryhouse]. Lake District. 

Current Glacial Bibliography. The Geographical Journal, Vol. IV. 

[contains summary of Hugh Robert Mill's paper on *A Survey of the 
English Lakes,' etc-]. Glac Mag,, June 1895, p. 29-33. 

Arthur R. Dwerryhocse. Cheshire. 

Notes on the Qlacial Deposits on the Cheshire Shore of the Dee 

Estuar>' [describes the glacial beds exposed in the Cliff sections, etc, 

Naturalist, 



Bibliography : Geology a7id Palaeontology, i8g^. 313 

and their contents ; the boulder tlays are attributed to the direct action 
of an ice-sheet, and the gravels and sands to the sub-glacial drainage 
system]. Giac. Mag., March 1895, pp. 150-157 (and plate). 

Fi 

A. R, DWERRYHOUSE. CHESHIRE. 

Note on a Striated Surface at Little Mollington, Cheshire [describes 

striae running from 5°- 10" W. of N. (true) on the Pebble Bedn]. Glac. 
Mag., Feb. 1895, p. 146. 

Lancashire, Cheshire, 

A. R. DVVERRYHOUSE, LAKE DISTRICT, ISLE OF MaN. 

On the Glacial Deposits in the Neighbourhood of the Wrekin 

[briefly refers to the drifts and boulders of the counties bordering the 
Irish Sea], Glac. Mag., June 1895, pp. 49-66. 

A. R. DWERRYHOCSE. ^ ISLE OF MAN. 

On a Terminal Curvature in the Isle of Man [in the Ordovician 

Slates on the Clitfs above Bulghan Bay ; attributed to ice-movement from 
the north]. Glac, Mag., March iS95/pp, 164-165. 

[Misses] G. L. Elles and E. M. R. Wood. Cvsibeklasd, 

Supplementary Notes on the Drygill Shales [near Carrock Fell; 

giving an enlarged list of fossils, concerning the correlation of the group 
with the Coniston Limestone, and dividing it into two parts, an upper 
with abundant Trlnudeus and a lower with abundant Ampyx and Orthis 
t€studinaria\ Geol. Mag,, June 1895, pp. 246-249. 



Arthur H. Foord, 



York N.E. 



A Short Account of the Ammonites and their Allies, as Exhibited 

in the Cephalopod Gallery of the British Museum (Natural History) [refers 
to the well-preserved ammonites in the ' Serpcntinus zone/ or Jet Rock, of 
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C. Le Neve Foster. Isle of Man, etc. 

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E. J, Garwood and J. E. Mark. Northern Counties. 

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Edmund J. Garwood. Cheviotland. 

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W. Hill and A. J. Jukes-Browne. York S.E., Linc. N. 

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K. A. Hinde and G. L. Pepler, York N.E. 

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Bernard Hobson. , Lanc. S., Durham. 

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H. H. Howortfi. York S.E. 

Mn Deeley and Mr. Marker: *'Two Birds with One Stone" 

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Wilfrid H. Hudleston. Linc. N. and S., York N.W. 

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Edward Hull, Lanc, S. and W., Cheshire, etc 

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W. Maynard IIutchings. Lake District. 

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I 

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— -^ ^ 

October 1899^ 



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'A 

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E. Adrian Woodruffe Peacock. Linc. N. and S. 

The Natural History Divisions of Lincolnshire [Geology referred 

to]. Nat., Oct. 1S95, pp. 289-30T ; with coloured map of the soils, etc-, 
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G. L. Pepler. See K. A. Hinde. 

Fredk. O. Pickard-Cambridge. See under 'Canibrid^re * 

Naturalist 



V 

Bibliography : Geology mid Palceo?ifology, i8g^. 321 

S. Sydney Platt. Lanc, S. 

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S. Sydney Platt. Lanc. S. 

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J. POSTLETHWAITE, 



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m 

Joseph Prestwich. York N.E. and S.E. 

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M 

C. E, DeRaxce* See under ' DeRance.' 

John Randall. 

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British Geology in relation to Earth-Folding and Faulting 

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PP- 557-565- 



T. Mellard Reade. 



Lanc. S. 



Note of further Olaci.-il Striae at the Quarry, Little Crosby [records 

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w 

T. Mellard Reade. See 'T, W. Davies,* 

_ ^- R. CowPER Reed. Lake District. 

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R. Russell. 



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iVorthward under the St, Bees Sandstone. Trans. N. Engl. Inst, Min. 
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Thomas Saltonst-all. 



York S.W. 



IBoulders at} Luddenden Foot, Sowerby, etc. [in *The Yorkshire 

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Novem!)er 1S99. 



W 



;^22 Bibliography : Geology and Paleontology, iSg^i 

C. E. Salvesen. York N.E. and S.E. 
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D. H. Scott. Lanc. S., York S.W. 

Williamson's Researches on the Carboniferous Flora, Sci. Progr., 
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Yorkshire ?• 



■ 

On a Pyritous Concretion. Ann. Rep. Yorks. Phil, Soc. (York), 1895. . 

A. C. S[eward]. York S.W., Lanc. S. 

William Crawford Williamson. Born November 24, 1816, Died 

June 23, 1895 [Obituary notice; contains particulars of his work amongst 
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Aug. 1895, pp. 141-143. 



Thomas Sheppard. 



York S.E. 



On another Section in the So-called Inter-glacial Gravels of 

Holderness [decribes a pit at Burstwick, and gives lists of boulders, 
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a warm inter-glacial period, and suggests that the gravels form part 
of a moraine laid down by the North Sea Ice-Sheet]. Froc. Yorks. Geol. 
and Polyt. Soc, 1895, pp. 1-14, wuth section. 

Thomas Sheppard. York N.E. and S.E. and Linc. N. and S^ 



On the Occurrence of Scandinavian Boulders in England [criticises. 

Sir H. H. Howorth's hypothesis that the Scandinavian boulders found in 
England had been brought over as anchors by the Vikings ; gives full list 
of records of Scandinavian erratics found in England, some being from 
great depths in the ground several miles from the sea], Glac. Mag., 
Dec. 1895, pp. 129-132 (and two tables), 

T, Sheppard. York S.E. 

[Boulders at] Burstwick [In * The Yorkshire Boulder Committee 

and its Ninth Year's Work']. Nat., Dec. 1895, p. 343. 

J. Shipman. Notts, 

The Coal Measures of the Leen Valley. Ann. Rep. and Trans. 

Nottingham Nat. Soc, 1894 (see Nat., 1895, P* o^S), 

J, Shipman. 
The Leen Valley Coal Measures. Colliery Guardian, Vol. 69, 1895, 

pp. 82 et seq. 

J, Smith. Lanc S, 

Pigmy Flints [note suggesting that the minute flakings on the 

flints described by the Rev. R. A. Gatty in a previous issue are the results 
of the usage of the flints; see 'Reginald A. Gatty']. Sci. Goss., May 
1895, p. 82. 

\V. J. SoLLAS. IsLK OP Man. 

An Experiment to Illustrate the Mode of Flow of a Viscous Fluid 

[confirms by experiment the suggestion made by P. F. Kendall that the 
ice sheet which covered the Isle of Man lifted boulders from Granite 
Mountain (679 feet) on to the flanks of South Barrule up to 100 feet below 
its summit, which is f,588 feet above sea level]. Quart. Journ. GeoL Soc, 
Vol. 51, Part 3, Aug. 1895, pp. 361-368 (sections). 

J- Spink. York N.E. 

Lake-Dwellings in the Vale of Pickering [describes a series of 

objects unearthed irom the bed of the Costa; several upris,-ht piles were 
also found]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, T ^ » ^ 



^95' PP- 21-24. 



Naturalist^ 



Bibliography: Geolog}\and Palaeontology, i8g^. 323 



W 



York N.E. and S.E. 



[Boulders at] AleltOn and Bessingby [in ' The Yorkshire Boulder 

Committee and its Ninth Year's Work']. Nat., Dec. 1895, pp. 343-344. 

C. Fox-Straxgwavs. 'Vale of York.' 

Glacial Phenomena near York [describes the various glacial beds in 

the Vale of York, with especial reference to the niorainic mounds upon 
which York stands ; gfives criticisms on certain points contained in 
a paper by P, F. Kendall in a previous volume]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and 
Polyt. Soc, 1895, pp. 15-20, with larg-e folding map. 

C. Fox-Strangwavs. Linc. N. 

Estuary of the Humber [erosion of the shores of; in the Brit. 

Assn. Report on the Rate of Erosion of the Sea-coasts of England and 
Wales; between Ferriby Sluice and Ferriby Hall 150 and 80 yards 
respectively have disappeared since Ordnance: Map sheet 86 was made]. 
Rep. Brit, Assn., 1895, p. 377, 



John Steaks. 



York S.E. 



Particulars of Strata at Ganstead^ in Holderness [boulder clay and 

grravel, and finally chalk marl]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and Polvt. Soc, 
1895, p. 88. ■ ■ . 

F. E. Swainson. See W, L. H. Duckworth. 

M. SwENY. Lanc. S., Cheshire. 

The Sea Approaches to the Mersey. 1S95, 8vo, three plates [not 
seen]. 

Thomas Tate. ' York N.VV., Mid W., S.W., N.E., and S.E. 



\H>rkshire Boulder Committee and its Ninth Year's Work 

[gives piirticulars o{ boulders observed in various parts of the county, 
and table of over 2,000 boulders observed on the Holderness coast by the 
East Riding Boulder Committee]. Nat., Dec. 1895, pp. 339-345. 



Thomas Tate. 



York Mid W. 



The Malham Dry River Bed [refers to previous literature on the 

subject to some length ; the author's views are also briefly given ; illus- 
trated by map and nine excellent photos by Godfrey Bingley], Proc. 
Yorks. Geol. and Polyt. Soc, 1895, pp. ^^-61,^ 



Thomas Tate. 



York Mid W. 



fOeological observations made with the] Yorkshire Naturalists at 

Knaresborough. Nat., May 1895^ pp. 148-9. 

Warren Upham. All the Northern Counties. 

View of the Ice Age as Two Epochs, the Glacial and the Champlain 

[correlates the glacial series of north-western Europe with those of North 
America]. Glac. Mag., Dec, 1895, pp. 113-122 (two plates). 



York X.E. 



W. Y. Veitch, 

Geological Notes of an Excursion made by the [Cleveland 

N 

etc 



naturalists'] Field Club to Runswick Bay [describes the beds in the lias, 
tc, then examined]. Proc. Cleveland Nat. Field Club, 1895, pp. 12-13. 



W. W. Watts. 



Isle of Man. 



Petrographical Notes on the ' Crush-Conglomerates ' of the Isle of 

Man [appendix to Mr. Lampluj^h's paper]. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 
Vol. 5i, Part 4, Nov. 1895, pp. 588-599 (plates). 



E, B. Wetiiered. 



Okrbvshire. 



The Formation of Oolite [pointing out the importance of Qirvanella 

and other tubular organisms in the formation of oolitic structure: two 
grrains from the carboniferous limestone of Buxton fibred]. Quart. 

Journ. Geol. Soc, May 1895, pp. 196-205, plate 7. 

Noveniber 1899, 



324 Bibliography : Geology and Palceontology , i8g^. 



W. Whitaker. 



LiNC. S, 



Underground in Suffolk and its Borders: Address to the Geological 

Section [of the British Association j refers (p. 469) to a boring", 1,500 feet 
in depth, which penetrates into the Carboniferous rocks, at Scarle, south- 
west of Lincohi], Geol. Mag"., Oct. 1895, pp. 461-471. 

. W. Whitaker, All the Northern Counties. 

Second Chronological List of Works referring to Underground 

Water, England and Wales [being- Appendix to the Brit. Assn. Report on 
the Circulation of Underground \Vators; contains numerous references of 
value to north of Eng^Iand g^eologfists]. Rep. Brit. Assn., 1S95, pp. 394-402, * 

W. Whitaker. All the Northern Counties. 

Second Chronological List of Works on the Coast-changes and 

Shore-deposits of England and Wales [beings Appendix IV. to the Report 
on the Rate of Erosion of the Sea Coasts of Eng-land and Wales ; con- 
tains references to several papers dealing- with the coasts of the northern 
counties]. Rep. Brit. Assn., 1895, pp. 3S8-392. 

W. C. Williamson. Lang, S., York S.W. 

On the light thrown upon the Question of the Growth and 

Development of the Carboniferous Arborescent Lcpidodendra by the 
Study of the Details of their Org:anisation. Mem. Manch, Lit. and Phil. 
Soc, 1895, Sec, 4, Vol. 9, pp. 31 et seq. [not seen]. 

W. C. Williamson and D. H. Scott. Lanc. S., York S.W. 

Further Observations on the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of 

the Coal Measures. — Part I. CaJamites^ Calaynostachys, and Sphemr- 
pliyllum. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London (B), Vol. 185, 1895, pp. 863 

et seq. [not seen], 
W. C. Williamson and D. H. Scott, Lanc S,, York S.W. 

Further Observations on the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of 

the Coal Measures. — Part IL The Roots of Calamites, Proc. Roy, Soc. 
London, Vol. 57, 1895, pp. i et seq. [not seen]. 

W. C. Williamson and D. H. Scott. Lanc S., York S.W. 

Further Observations on the Organisation of the Fossil Plants of 

the Coal Measures. — Part IIL Lyginodendron and Jleteragium, Proc. 

Roy. Soc. London, Vol. 58, 1895, pp. 195 et seq. [not seen]. 



W. C. Williamson and D. H. Scott. York S.W., Lanc. S. 

On Lyginodendron and Heterangium [giving lengthy abstract of 

paper in Phil. Trans. ; Lyg, oldhamianum^ one of the commonest 
Lancashire and Yorkshire coal-measure fossils, and Heferanglum grievii 
in the coal-measures of Dulesgate, Lanes., and H, tillceoldes from Halifax 



coal-measures]. Ann. of Bot., Sept. 1895, pp. 525-535. 

R. Winstanley. Isle of Man, Lake District, etc. 

A Few Thoughts on Geology [being the Presidential Address to 

the Manchester Geological Society; various g-eolog-ical- features in the 
north of England briefly referred to]. Tr^ns. Manch. Geol. Soc, Yol. 24, 
Part 2, 1895, pp. 38-52- 

Arthur S.^ith Woodward [not sigrned]. ■ York N.E. and S.E. 
Malton Naturalists' Society. Presidential Address [by Arthur 

Smith Woodward; conUun.s brief notes on the geolog-y of the district]. 
N. and E. Vorks. Science Notes, Nov. 1895, PP- 54-56. 



Woodward 



York N.E. 

. Part I. 



01 tne Upper Lias of Whitby. 

Leptohpis saltviciensis, Emrnathus fasciculatus, 

U 



Pholidophorus germamcus, and Piycholepis bollensis, from the Whitby 
all of which are m the British Museum]. Proc. Yorks. Geol. and : 



Soc, 1895, pp. 25-42, and 3 plates. 

Henry Woodward. See 'T. Rupert Jones.' 



Polyt. 



Naturalist, 



325 



LINCOLNSHIRE COAST BOULDERS. 



F. M. BURTON. F.L.S., F.G.S., 
Highfield, Gat'nshorot^gh, Lincohishire. 



In dealing- with this subject Mr. Harker, in his recent article in 



The Naturalist/ on ^ The Southward Movement of Beach- 
material across the Humber Gap^' giv^es an explanation in favour 
of his view which requires attention and consideration. He 
abandons * the powerful tidal scour/ and, * while not denying- 
the possibility that some of the boulders on the Lincolnshire 
coast may have a different source/ he still adheres * to the view 
that many, and probably the large majority, of them are derived 
from the waste of the Holderness cliffs.' 

As I understand it, he allows that the material from the 
Vorkshire coast cannot pass the Humber current at the present 
day (and of this the existence of the narrow bank of shingle at 
Spurn Point is a sufficient proof), but he raises the hypothesis 
that this shingle bank, now some three miles long and only 
some 300 years old (for it did not exist, he says, when Camden 
described the locality in 1586), is merely a repetition of other 
banks of a similar nature, which have been formed from time to 



time m the same situation, and which have been successively 
breached by the river, near the point of their junction with the 
land (the neck as he terms it), allowing the current to rfesume^ 
Its former course, and thus transferring the material collected in 
the north to the south of the river Humber. 

Now what proof there is of this ever having occurred he does 
not say; but, supposing it to be an authenticated fact, would 
the material so situated ever be able to reach the Lincolnshire 
shore? Certainly not, I think, unless the coast in question in 
former days differed altogether from its present character. 

It is difficult, of course, to speak with any precision as to 
what has taken place on land surfaces during long-past periods, 
as such surfaces are necessarily continually changing; but, to 
all appearance, the contour, depth, and nature of the Lincoln- 
shire coast has (speaking generally and allowing for denudation) 
continued the same as it is at the present time for ages past ; 
ever since the Trent flowed in its old course into or over what is 
now the Wash ; before the time when the dominant Humber 
captured it : a time which takes us back to the far off Glacial 
period. 

As regards Mr. Harker's reference to Camden I hav^e not the 



November 1899. 



.326 Burton: Lincolnshire Coast Boulders, 

Avork before me, but mig"ht not the author have treated the bank 
as part and parcel of the land without taking notice of the 
diflFerence in composition? If not, and if there was no shingle 
bank in existence when he described the locality, then that must 
have been one of the periods referred to when the spit had been 
breached at the neck and the material swept away by the river 
current. And, surely, had this been the case, there would have 
been some existing record at the time of the event ; for unlike 
the building up of the bank, which would be of comparatively 
slow growth, the sudden breaching of the structure would, 
i should imagine, be more or less of a catastrophic nature. 

Then supposing again the theory to be true, would not the 
river, in resuming its old course, be more likely to carry the 

shingle by its broad current out to sea instead of banking it up 
on the south ? * 

Mr. Clement Reid, as Mr, Harker reminds us, ' points to the 
existence of a very large shingle beach near Donna Nook, on 
the south side of the Humber mouth,' which he, Mr. Harker, 
says 'can only have been derived from the other side of the 
estuary ; * and he adds, ' there are many vanished Spurn points 
to account for, and it cannot be doubted that the material from 

the coast from the Humber to the Wash 



t> 



at least.' To my mind, however, there is a great deal of doubt 
as to this. 

Why should not this large shingle beach have been derived 
from the Lincolnshire coast? Why rely on a 'Deus ex machina' 
for the existence of Lincolnshire boulders on the Lincolnshire 



coast when the material itself is found there? No one can deny 
the existence of boulder deposits all over the land bordering 
this coast to the east of the wolds, w^here they lie under the 
post-glacial deposits and are exposed in many places; and no 
one can doubt that cliffs like those at Holderness once skirted 
the shore, of which the cut-down cliff at Cleethorpes is the only 
remnant. And is it not more likely that this bank at Donna 
Nook is the result of the wearing away of these cliffs by the 
current on the Lincolnshire side than of its being derived from 
the Yorkshire clilTs on the other side of the river? Its position, 
too, would confirm this, for it lies just where one would expect 
to find it, if brought down by the river on the Lincolnshire side ; 
as the land at Donna Nook forms a sort of promontory, beyond 
which the coast line takes a more southerly course. 

Mr. Harker further asks what has become of the millions of 
tons of material swept southwards along the Holderness coast 

Naturalist, 



Burton: Lincolnshire Coast Boulders. 327 

prior to 1586— the date of Camden's work— and he says, *There 
is only one possible answer : it is distributed along- the coast 
south of the Humber.' This is entirely beg-g-ing the question, 
for it assumes that the material, from whatever source it comes, 
once on the south side of the river, would be able to reach the 
coast and be carried down it by currents ; a fact which, after 



t> 



Wheel 



g:enerally, and of that of the district in question in particular, 
seems to me impossible- 

On the other hand, I would ask what has become of all the 
material which has been denuded from the boulder cliffs of the 
Lincolnshire coast? And, ag-ain, which is the most likely to be 
the case, that the material now found there should have been 
derived from the northern side of the Humber current, which 
would prevent its crossing: to the south ; or, from the southern 
Lincolnshire side, where it would hav^e no current to oppose it, 
and where the material lies ready to hand? 

In connection with the question of currents, Mr. Marker In 
his paper quotes two clauses from the extracts I made from 
Mr. Wheeler's pamphlet, as bearing* on his view of the subject : 
one that ' there is a drift of material along- the beach from north 
to south,' and the other that * the banking" up of the shing-le and 
also the travel along- the shore is due entirely to tidal action;' 
but the 'drift' Mr. Wheeler alludes to in the first quotation is 
that which collects at Spurn Point, as he distinctly states, and 
as the context shows ; and with regfard to the second, a reference 

^ Wheeler is speaking oi 

*shing-Ie* proper, quoting the bank off Spurn Point as an ex- 
ample ; and on the Lincolnshire coast we have no element of 
that kind ; all is sand and mud ; and the boulders, which lie 
hidden under it, are only occasionally revealed when storms 
have swept the covering of sand and mud from off them. With 
reference to this latter coast Mr. Wheeler says: — * On this 
beach there is no appreciable littoral drift or alteration in form. 
Sand does not accumulate against the piers or groynes which 
extend across the shore ; and the general outline of the beach 
remains as it always has been so far as any record exists/ 
That this is so, surely the large bank of shingle at Donna Nook 



is a proof, for if any strong drift existed would not this bank be 



carried down the shore instead of remaining heaped up as 
Mr. Clement Reid describes it? 

The whole of the evidence, as well as the facts, seem to me 
to point conclusively to the erratics on the Lincolnshire coast 

■r 

November 1899. 



% 



3 28 Burton: Lincolnshire Coast Boulders, 

being- derived from the cliffs and boulder deposits south of the 
Humber ; and if any came from the Yorkshire coast it must 
have been before the Hvmiber gap was formed : a time so dis- 
tant that to speak about it with , authority w^ould be impossible^ 
and speculation Idle. 

Since w riting th e a have I have rece ived a lette r fro ni 
Mr* Wheeler t and send the following extracts from it: 

* I cannot follow Mr. Harker as to what happened in remote 
times* My gfeolog'y is only that relating- to what is going on 
now, and Is of use to eng^ineers in sea coast protection and other 
works. I do not accept his theory as to Spurn Point* To quote 
Camden as an authority on such a matter counts for nothing. 
He was a very good gfeneral observer, but, like the old chart 
and map makers, ''de minimis non curant," to use an adapted 
leg^al term. Spurn Point was worse to g-et at then than it is 
now, and I cannot conceive that he would have devoted his 
time and energies to a few yards of shingle beach. 

* Of one thing I am as certain as one can be about anything of 
the sort, that there is no travel of stone from the north to the south 
side of the Humber now. The millions of tons of material that 
must have washed, according to Mr. Harker, from the York- 
shire cliffs show no trace of their existence along the Lincolnshire 
coast. It is one mass of sand resting on soft clay, under which 
is a layer of peat and trees, and then the boulder clay with stones* 

'As regards the "millions of tons," this is surely an. 
exagg-'eration. The Yorkshire cliffs consist of boulder clay ; 
the stones do not form, probably, one-tenth of the mass. Many 
of them, in being" rolled about, get ground to sand; and the 
bulk of the material goes away in suspension, and is deposited 
ov\ the bed of the sea. 

* I made a purpose journey to Sutton and Mablethorpe a few 
days ago to have another look at the beach. The stones 

4 

are few and far between. Here and there a small packet is 
gathered, and this principally at low water, or say the line of 
three-quarter ebb. They are not buried in the sand, as, for 
a large area between low water and high water, the beach has 
been denuded and the soft clay exposed. 

' If the stones had travelled in number from the Yorkshire 
cliffs, they would have been aggfregated in a mound at or about 
the level of high water, like all other shingle banks; instead of 
which, such few as there are are not in this position, and are 
only collected in small heaps near the groynes, or in holes in the 
clay. 



Naturalist^ 



Notes — Ornithology, 3 29 

I 

^ * If they had travelled the thirty or forty miles from York- 
shire they would be rounded and waterworn, and be like 
shingfle. The bulk of the stones have their edges rounded, 
but not sufficiently to indicate any long journey (the stones 
along- the Yorkshire coast itself are more worn), and there are 
rci^ny, especially the flints and some of the granite, which have 

j_1 • t ' 



their edges as sharp as the day they were, born, and every 



appearance of only having been released from the drift in which 
they had been bedded very recently. 

' They are of the same character as those I have found in the 
boulder clay in other parts of this coast, except that I did not 
come across any Oolite stones^ but I found several fragments of 
Septaria, similar to those found in the excavations here/ 



J 



'(Signed) W, H, Wheeler 




NOTES— ORNITHOLOGY. 



Wryneck at Beverley • — The Wryneck (lynx iorquiUa) has occurred 
tn the East Riding- this summer, *as I had the g"ood hick to see one perched 
on a thorn bush near Beverley on the evening of 20th Autrust, and obtained 
^n excellent view of it. — J. R. Lowther, Crane Hill, Beverley, 9th 
September 1899. 

Herons in Northumberland* — I was In some very larg:e and dense 

"Woods in Northumberland a fortni^fht ae-o and suddenly came across fuUv 
a dozen Herons [Arcfra ctnerea). I think they were prospecting- for a 
heronry, as no one in tlie district .seemed to have any Idea they were there* 
H, T. Archer, 3, Burnside Terrace, Nevvcastle-on-Tyne, 26th April 1899. 

Late Singing of Nightingale,— On the 8th July I heard a Xig:htingale 

[Daulias luscinia) in full son<>" in a wood near here, where there are always 



several pairs. These birds usually give up singfln^ about the middle of 
June, and the latest record I had before this was onlhe 18th of that months 
in a wood near Grantham. No doubt the bird in question had either 
been robbed o( its nest or had lost its mate and was nesting again. — 
F. M. Burton, HIghfield, Gainsborough, 2Sth July, 1S99. 

Early Arrival of Migrants near Horncastle,— On the loth October 

I observed in this parish a Snipe {Gallinago gall in ago) and a Woodcock 
{Scolopux rusiicola). This is remarkable in view of the fact that the first 
flight of Woodcocks is generally observed from the 15th to the 20th of 
October, whilst the visit of the Snipe is considerably later. The Missel- 
Thrush (Turdus vi'scivorus), the harbinger of winter, has also arrived. — 
J. Cv:)NWAY Walter, Langton Rectory, Horncastle, 13th October 1899. 

Relics of the Storm, —On Friday afternoon, 22iid September, as. 
Mr. H. Preston, F.G.S., was cycling home from the Waterworks, he noticed 
a strange bird fluttering on the North Road, near Saltersford Lane, 
Grantham. Upon capturing the bird it proved to be a Stormy Petrel 
{Thalassidroma pelagka), or ^Mother Carey's Chicken— a bird met with far 
out at sea, and frequently seen ridin^jf on the waves in the more stormy 
weather. No doubt the pretty little creature had drifted inland with the 
recent boisterous weather, and had at last fallen exhausted. Mr, Rin^er^ 
taxidermist, of Waterg:ate, is preserving- the bird ^or the Grantham Museum. 

Mr. Norman Brown shot another hovering over a small patch of turnip in 
Leicestershire between the 22nd and 30th September. — E. A. W OOP klfp E- 
Peacock, Cadney, Bri^^rg, 4th October 1899. 

November 1899. 



330 



NOTES— FLOWERING. PLANTS. 



Walney Island in V.C. 60!— See ante, p. 299. May I ask on what 
authority Mr. F. Arnold Lees places Walney in the same Watsonian vice- 
county as the 'limestone south of Silverdale?' In the map accompanying 
'Topographical Botany/ ed. 2, Walney is coloured the same tint as V.C. 69. 
Westmorland and North Lancashire, and so far as I can see there is nothing- 
in the text of the book to justify such a claim for V.C, 60. Further, 
Mr. Lees placed his own finds on Walney in the Record Club's issue in the 
V.C. 69. Possibly there is some other means of explaining- the apparent 
diverg-ence, but except some printer's jumble it is not easy to see what way 
remains. — S. L, Petty, Ulverston, 4lh October 1899. 

Qaleopsis versicolor in mass near Gainsborough.- So far as my 

experience goes, this very local plant is usually met with singly, or only a 
few together at a time, in cornfields and by the side of woods and coppices, 
where it does not attain a height of more than a foot or so. On the 21st of 
this month, however, as I was walking on the bank of the Trent between 
Gainsborough and Walkerith, I found it growing in considerable quantity, 
in tall clumps 2 feet to 3 feet high, pushing large trusses of its splendid 
yellow and purple flowers, here and there, out from the top of a cut-down 
hedge which skirted the bank ; and forming one of the most beautiful plant- 
objects I ever remembernieeting with in this country. I shall be glad to 
know whether this is of common occurrence in other localities or not.— 

F. M. Burton, Highfield, Gainsborough, 28th July, 1899. 

Blea Tarn.— If your readers have not had sufficient of this subject, 
may I reiterate the necessity of a wandering botanist carrying a small 
ordnance map and marking his route on it, and the date at end of each 
day. His note-book and map will then show him, at any future time, the 
exact line traversed and what he saw on the way. It is what I should do if 
over the borders ot the neighbouring counties"! In Lancashire I do not 
date the map ; that is not necessary, as the 6-inch to mile is used, and on 
these every house, or to be more correct, building, is marked and named, 
as are the culverts, etc. ; besides I know somewhat of the area. 
' The terms 'Tarn' and * Water' are interchangeable, e.g., Esthwaite 
Water or Tarn. No reliance can be placed on such, but I believe only to 
the large ones is the term water applied, as the instance above and, too. 
Levers Water. Of Elterwater, Mr. H. S. Cowper in his recently-issued 
'Hawkshead, its Histor>^ and Archaeology,' p. 9, says 'The tarn or 
'' water'* is somewhat featureless.'— S. L. Petty, Ulverston, 4th Oct. 1899. 

[This note will serve to conclude the discussion, but the whole series of 
notes shows that a little mitial care and accuracv in making- observations 
saves much subsequent trouble.— Ed. Nat,] ' 

Botanical Waifs in Lakeland- During a recent visit to Keswi(?k 

(August 1899) I found a number of wa!fs by the railway station at Braith- 
w-aite which perhaps desei-A^e to be recorded. Mr. S. T. Dunn, B. A., F.L.S., 

^^ ^^^^ 9.^'*^''"^' '"^ ^* present engaged on working out the aliens which 
occur m difTerent parts of the country, and the list is taken from his report, 
the plants being sent direct to him. They had evidently grown up where 
the seed had fallen from the grain wagons and trucks rshunted on to the 
goods -,idmg. 1 ho}' incUided :— 

Fwniciihtnt offichtale All, 
Saponaria vaccaria L. 

Plialaris minor L. 
MelilolHS parviflora Lam. 
MelUotus ari'ensis Wallr. 

Polygonum Convolvulus var. pseudodumetoruju. 
Atriplex patula forma. 
Trifoliuffi resupinafum L. 
Linum usitatissimum L. 
Polygonum lapathi folium L. 

HiLDERic Friend, Chichester, 4th October 1899, 



Naturalist, 



33^ 



LINCOLNSHIRE 
HARVESTMEN OR PHALANGIDEA 



Rev. EDWARD ADRIAN WOODRUFFE-PEACOCK, L.Th., F.L.S.. F.G.S., 

Vicar oj Cadney, Or-gatitshi^ and Botanical Secreiary, Lincolnshire XatuyalLsis Vnion 



The present list of Phalangidea, or Harvestmen^ has been been 
made up from species taken this season (1898), by the men on 
whose authority they are now published, while hunting- for 
Araneidea, or Spiders, to complete our Lincolnshire list. They 
have all been submitted to the Rev' O. Pickard-Cambridg-e, 
Bloxworth Rectory, Wareham, for identification ; to whom our 
very best thanks are due. The order followed is that of his 
monoi^raph O71 the Briiish Species of Phalungidea or Harvestmen 
m the Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History ajid Antiquarian 
Field Club^ Vol. 11, pp. 163-216, with five plates, published in 
1890. Of the 24 recorded British species 11 have been taken 
this season in Lincolnshire. 



Our workers have been the Rev, H. C. Brewster, South 
Kelsey Rectory, Lincoln ; W. Hunter Gandy, Wellingore Hall, 
Lincoln ; W. Lewini^'-ton, Kinsj Street, Market Rasen ; A. Smith, 



24, Peaksfield Avenue, Grimsby; W. Worsdale, Grantham ; 
and myself. No records appear to have been published before. 

The numbers prefixed to the records denote the districts in 
which the localities are situate; and * N/ and '5/ stand for 
North and South Lincolnshire respectively. 



Liobunum rotunda m Latr, N. 10, Tumby Wood, Peacock, 

Liobunum blackwallii Meade. S. 13,' Hartsholme, Lewinyfton. 

Phalangium opilio Linn. N. 3, Cadney, Peacock, N. 5, Kirton 
and Gainsborough, Peacock. N. 7, South Kelsey, Brewster. 
N. 10, Tumby Wood,- Peacock. S, 15, Grantham, Worsdale. 

Phalangium parietinum DeGeer. N. 7, Market Rasen, 
Lewing:ton. 

Phalangium saxatUe C, L. Koch, N. 5, Cleatham, Gandy 
and Peacock. N. 7, Market Rasen, Lewington, S, 15, 
Grantham, Worsdale. 

Platybunus corniger Herm. N, 3, Cadney, Peacock. 

Platybunus triangularis Herbst, N. 3, Cadney, Peacock. 

November 1899. 



332 ' Various Short Notes', 

Oligolophus morio Fabr. N. 4, Ravendale, Smith. N- 7, 

Market Rasen, Lewington. N. 10, Tumby Wood^ Peacock. 
S. 13, Hartsholme, Lewington and Peacock, 

Oligolophus agrestis Meade. N. 7, Market Rasen, Lewington; 
South Kelsey, Brewster. N. 10, Tumby Wood, Peacock. 
S. 13, Hartsholme, Peacock. 

+ 

J ■ 

Oligolophus spinosus Bosc. S. 15, Grantham, June and Sep- 
tember, Worsdale. 

* 

Nemastoma lugubre O. F, Mullen N. 3, Cadney, Peacock. 

S. 15, Grantham, Worsdale. 

2nd Dec, i8g8. 




NOTE—MYDROZOA. 

Early Records for Cumberland Hydrozoa, etc. — The earliest 

record that I have found so far for this class is in Ellis' * An Essay towards 
a Natural History of the Corallines,' 1755, p. 23 : — * Coralltna ra7nosa^ ramis 
sin^dis equisttiform ibuSj in summis cap ilia men lis C07itortis et verticellatim 
dispQsitis vesiculas campanifonnes gerens. This curious Coralline was 
collected on the sea coast near Whitehaven, in Cumberland, by that learned 
and eminent physician, Dr. William Brownriggf, F.R.S.' This species is 
Campanularia verticillata L. Can any reader assist me to an earlier 
record of this or any other species of Polyzoa or Hydrozoa in Cvimberland ? 
S. L. Petty, Ulverston, ijtli October 1899. 




7V0 TE—COLEOPTERA. 

Qaterita bicolor at Doncaster. — Some time a^i^o, in looking- throug^h 

the collection of Mr. Paterson, I noticed a Carabid which appeared to me to 
be something* new. Its owner kindly permitted me to take it away for a 
more detailed examination. Failing- to fix It myself, I submitted it to 
Mr. J. J. Walker, of Sheerness, who has just returned it named Galerifa 
bicolor Drury, and adds * it is a native of North America, of course it has 
no claim whatever to be reg-arded as a British beetle, but its occurrence in 
Doncaster, is, to say the least, curious, and I thougfht it of sufficient interest 
to exhibit on your behalf at the Entomolog-ical Society's meeting; last 
Wednesday.' — E. G- Bavford, 2, Rockingfham Street, Barnsley, 15th Oct. 
1S99. 




NO TES^LEPIDOPTERA. 

Death*s-Head Moth at Wakefield.— Two fine larvse of Acheronfia 
atropos were picked up when crossing a path in our public park, one on 
3Qth Aug:ust, the other znd September; rather singular both were gathered 
at one place,— G. W, Parkix, 15, York Street, Wakefield, 3rd Sept. 1899; 

Hummingbird Hawkmoth in Lake Lancashire.— Xot being an 

active entomologist, it is only occasionally that an Insect attracts my 
attention, unless there happens io be something strange about it. In my 
garden, on the second Sunday In August (f3th) a Hummingbird Hawkmoth 
was busy on the flowers of Weigelia coccinea. It staved about ten minutes 
and did not return so far as my children could see, and they wanted it. 
S. L. Petty, Ulverston, 4th October 1899. 

Naturalist, 



333 



THE THREE GRACES. 



F. ARNOLD LEES, M.R.C.S., 



Flora of Cumberland. B>' Wm. Hodgson, 1899. 

^ Flora of Cheshire. By the late Lord De Tabley (Hon. J. B. Leicester 

Warren). Edited by Spencer Moore. With a Biographical Notice of the 
Author by Sir M. E. Grant Duff, Bvo.y cL, pp. cxiv,, 399. Port., Map. 
1899. Long-mans. Price ids. 6d. net 

* 

Flora of Kent: being- an account of the Flowering; Plants, Ferns, etc., 
with notes on the Topog-raphy, Geolog-y, and Meteorology, and a History 
of the Botanical Investig-ation of the County. By F. J, Hanbury, F.L.S., 
and E. S. Marshall, M.A., F.L.S. 8vo., pp. hcxxiv., 444. Two Maps. 
1899. Hanbury, 37, Lombard Street. 12s. 6d. 

■ * 

Here are three Graces, Indeed ! arrayed in all pride by their 
begetters, charming- as ' the three maids of Lee/ yet differing^ 
from one another in their respective complexions as blonde from 
brunette, yet of course somewhat alike, as fair sisters should 
be, in their general features. Yet they differ in consistency and 
character as Kentish chalk from Cheshire cheese. The Cum- 
brian one is the poorest, maybe in part because least worked ; 
Lord Tabley's florqg^raph is like his own rich buttercupped fields 
and well-preserved woods, utilitarian from cover to cover, but 
a picturesque product for all that, with the smack of a natural 
sub-acid ^ g-reen fade' through its every part; whilst Messrs. 
Hanbury and Marshall's flower-picture is opulent with parti- 
coloured detail, stippled in with a painstaken technic — the 
completest phyto-historically and most up to date of the three. 

With the Cumbrian work it is not necessary to go into 
detail here. Certain vital omissions have been made which will 
doubtless form the subject of a special enumeration else- 
where. I would just say, here, only, that it is rather a skeleton 
than a full-built body, not up-to-day in its nomenclature, and 
badly proof-read. The neglected species already on record for 
the county (teste H. C. Watson's * Topographical Botany*) are 
ten in number, viz. ; Myosunis fuiuinius, Anibis petnra, Asiragalus 
Siycyphyllos, Lathyms palustris, Pole fit ilia alpestris, Stat ice rari* 
flora, Rumex aquaticus, Goodycra repens (Hutton's old authority 
confirmed by an Armathwaite specimen !), Epipactis violacea 
(Prof. Babington's authority), and Potamogeton Zizii, Some of 
these may have become extinct through that Ichabodic change 
in the sum total of locality-environment which is subtly affecting 
the Items in the flora of areas all over this country; but all 

November 1899, 



334 Lees: The Three Graces. ^ 

^ 

have occurred ; whilst at least two species-names have been 
admitted into the book for which no station of g^rowth is or can 
be given. 

The county of Kent comes not within our purview, but it 
may be worth the pointing- out that Kent shares with Lincoln- 
shire the distinction of furnishing* a naturalising^ field ior Falcaria 
vulgaris Bernh. {Rivini)^ No. 688 in the 9th edition of London 
Catalogue. This handsome-leaved plant, tenacious of life 
through tough quitch-like roots, has established itself near the 
Barracks at Lincoln, just as it persists In arable ground at 
Wingham, five miles east of Canterbviry. Once introduced, 

r 

with grain-seed probably, no ploughshare furrows deeply enough 
to eradicate it. Kent, too, has a few north-country indigens, 
witness Draba mtiralis, Pyrola ?mnor, Eriophorum vaginafum^ 
and others. 

Lord De Tabley's posthumous Flora of Cheshire demands a 
fuller examination at our hands. The author was both scientist 
and poet, plus a classic scholar and an antiquarian. From such 
a conjunction of capacities we should expect something out-of- 
the-way, perhaps even great — ^and we get it ! The Grant-DufF 
sympathetic memoir shows us what to look for ; Spencer Moore's 
judicious editing, how to find it ; and, again, with such excellent 
guides we see it at once — a grand picture, broadly pre-explained 
and framed- The unfortunate omission of two common ditch 
and hedge plants, Arenaria trinervia and Myosotis ctBspitosa^ 
noted at once by Mr. W. Whitwell's customary acumen, do not 
mar the picture to which they are but as a few strokes in 
a corner of the foreground. 

This Flora is charming in style as well as great in character. 
There is a felicity of phrase and allusion in the notes and 
descriptive observations, the essentials without the immaterial 
being subtly arrayed for the reader, which will enable him at 
near view to understand a chine, or glen, or hollow lane much 
better than might be thoiight possible ; for Tabley understood, 
like Kingsley, how many and close are the inter-dependencies 
between soil, configuration, and investiture with apparently 
haphazard kinds and hues of vegetation. It cannot be too often 
repeated that just as gcolog>' is the groundwork of scenery, so 
topographic botany enables one to look with enlightenment on 
the coat of many colours worn by Flora in the passing season^ ; 
for just as Lord De Tabley could not help carrying his botany into 
his verse, so he could not avoid infusing his science description 
with the poetic aroma, thereby conferring on both a distinctive 

Naturalist, 



Lees: The Three Graces, 335 

vraisemblance carrying- a kind of conviction with it, somewhat 
after the nature-studied method of the late Lord Tennyson. He 
saw, we would repeat, so clearly how one things in this world 
hang's on some other thing*, how nothing really stands absolutely 
alone. The late Archer-Briggs' Flora of Plymouth is the only 
work that can compare with it in this conjunction of qualities. 
The dominant note is a fearless, unbiassed accuracy, and it is 
struck in the very first paragraph, where, dealing with the 
Clematis^ Traveller's Joy, we read: 'Its garden origin with us 
(in Cheshire) is always obvious, A good test species of Mr. 
Watson's infer-agrarian zone, its initial absence from our county 



shows that we have not a. Southern Flora to deal with. The 

r 

plant fails at the bordering counties, Stafford and Salop, and 
occurs no higher in Britain as a native.' Ov-er and over again, ^ 
praiseworthy is the restraint shown; never an attempt to strain 
a point in favour of a claim to Indigenity, or inclusion, so that 
the words * without comment,' often appended to pre-existent 
records, acquire a peculiar force. 

An enthusiast (as the writer admits, while claiming to be 

I 

something judicial also) might expatiate over many pages on 
the vividity and convincing character of the botanical picture 
wrought in with many strokes of true genius, coupled — rarest 
conjuncture of all— with a sure flair for the most striking way of 
throwing the light on the fact. 

As a letter writer, Lord De Tabley was, in a way, inimitable. 
He called field-collectors of Rubi * bramblers,' suspecting a 
dying-out, seemingly degraded form of the raspberry, Rubus 
Leesii, to be the original and primordial typus — the opinion of a 
young Swedish rubologist, Areschoug- — and added as his version 
of the Latin tag, 'Life is short and brambles interminable/ 

■ One or two evidences we have that the Flora is not quite up 
to date; and these incompletions point the time when ill-health 
and increasing responsibilities made the hand loose its hold on 
the reins of detail, held up to then In so sure a grip. Certain 
points with reg^ard to suggestive varieties, with a significant 
distribution, appear to have been neglected. Those widely 
diverging forms of the Spurrey {sativa and vulgaris) in which 
we have, as it were, Evolution * caught in the act,' though both 
in evidence in Chester fields, lack the elucidation one looked for 
at such hands. 

As for Changes, as one would expect from the proximity of 
Birkenhead, chcmic Runcorn, and octopoid hives qf industry, 
' Ichabod ' is the epitaph with regard to many dozens of species 

November iSpg. 



33^ Lees: The Three Graces. 

m 

and localities along- the littoral and nparial county borders ; but, 
as was grandiloquently yet not untruly said by Leo Grindon 
nigh half a century ago, 'the right-onward furrow of a g'enerous 
utility' must outweigh the natural rights to existence of a 
thousand wild-flowers ! 

Interspersed in the book are some quaint economic informa- 
tions laid to the door of empiric fancy or superstition : Ragwort, 
we read (p. 182), *is supposed by Farmer Old-Style to be a test 
plant of good-cheese-producing^ pasturage,' This is true enough, 
as the milk off old, fine mushroom turf proves the reverse in its 
tough, not readily greening Svangby,* that is, poor cheese. 
The aromatic quality in the Senecio Jacobcea, another one of the 
genus, beings esteemed in the milk-fever of cattle, g^ives a peculiar 
ethery smack to cheese, and It is by no means so unsavoury 
as it is untidy in its weedy, chrysanthemoid appearance. Like 
several other herbs, it affects milk not only in flavour, but 

F 

* renneting,' curding it sooner than fattier samples off clean lush 
pasture. 

Of the Bilberry {Vaccinium Myrtilliis) our author (p, 198) 
quotes Watson — I think too hastily — in his assertion that it is 
one of the species that, if allowed, would overrun Britain and 
form with Heather and Crowberry much of the phytognoniic 
character of its vegetation. Here an apprehension of the 
gradual natural change coming over the surface, due to varying 
environments in different areas, has not been sufficiently taken 
into account. Bilberry is a tenacious, * strong* species; but its 
mig'rating powers are obviously limited, and its seeds are not 
everywhere in the soil beyond the coal-measure grit areas, or 
the Silurians, and the influence of their disinteg^rations ; and 
after a long experience in Lincolnshire, one's doubt of the entire 
truth of Watson's dictum is deepened, for it is on the whole 
disappearing" in England (off Dartmoor and the wolds in part) 
south of the Mersey and Humber. In Lincoln g^reat tracts 
covered with Erica cinerea and Golden Rod {Solidago) lack 
a trace of it^ and historic evidence of its ever having had a 
marketable quantitative existence are also wanting. 

These microscopic flaws, and some few others of omission 
hardly detract at all, however, from the pleasure to be derived 
from a perusal of this most captivating^ book. 

The work Is well bound, has a good map, and a fine electro- 
type portrait of Lord De Tabley ; but the Blackberry spray in 
gold leaf on the cover is not, alas, with certainty referable to 
Riibus Warrenii or any other aberrant form known to science. 



Naturalist, 



337 



THE MODERN TENDENCY OF MYCOLOGICAL STUDY. 



AN ADDRESS 



DELIVERED AT THE YORKSHIRE FUNGUS FORAY OF 1899 



GEORGE MASSEE, F.L.S., 

J^oynl Herhai'ium, Keu\ 



The morpholog-ical method of research, rendered possible by 
the perfection of the microscope, combined with the insight 
derived from pure culturesj initiated by DeBar}', have within tlie 
past twenty-five years completely revolutionised the study of 
Fung-i. Old schemes of classification have been ruthlessly — 
perhaps too precipitately — swept away and new arrang*ements 
substituted. Those who first commenced the study of Fungfi 
under the new dispensation indicated above have no qualms of 
conscience ; on the other hand, those who entered the field 
under the old reg'ime, and who consequently absorbed the 
Friesian scheme of classification so thoroughly that it became 
an integral part of their being, perhaps naturally resent all 
innovations, and depending on their temperament and stock of 
knowledge, challenge such departures from the old love on 
every possible occasion, Nevertheless, all who desire to know 
more about Fungfi than is conveved bv a bald name — and such 
as do not are not mycologists in any sense of the term — must 
of necessity admit thot all additions to our knowledge have 
been made by those who have utilised both modes of research, 
and I can only suggest that if still greater pleasure is to be 
gained from the study, it can only be secured by accepting the 
inevitable, which means the revelations made and to be made 
by morphological and culture methods, as compared with 
deductions derived from naked-e3'e or pocket-lens observations. 

That modern ideas are being accepted by all classes of 
mycologists is proved by the fact that hetercecism is generally 
accepted ; the old supposed genera Uredo, 

gone for ever, their departure being in several instances precipi- 
tated by the researches of one the loss of whom from our midst 
\ve all deplore. 

In the Hymenomycetes, a group perhaps the least disturbed 
by modern research, the microscope has proved of value in the 



^cidih 



discrimination of species ; having in several instances shown 
that forms considered as entities by the old authors include 
more than one species universally acknowledged by systematists 
at the present day, as In the well-known Instances oi Agaric us 
rimosus Fries, and Clavaria imcqualk Fl. Dan,, each of which 

;mbcr 1899, 



33^ Massee: The Modern Tendency of Mycological Study. 

embodies two distinct species characterised entirely by micro- 
scopic features. The presence or absence of cystidia, form of 
basidia, also the number of sterigmata they bear are also 
microscopic features of systematic value in the same g^roup of 
fung-i. 

From a broad point of view modern research has not very 
materially affected species, in most instances the additional 
microscopic characters going to confirm the opinion of old 
authors, especially in the Basidiomycetes, w^hich received most 
attention at their hands. This statement, w^hich is true of 
thousands of species, points to a condition of things which is 
much to be deplored, namely, the comparative neglect of naked- 
eye characters by members of the new school, who frequently 
boast that a mere fragment examined microscopically is sufficient 
for the determination of a species. This may in many instances 
be true, but evidence is by no means lacking to prove that such 
determinations have frequently resulted in disaster. Perhaps 
nowhere in the vegetable kingdom are species more clearly 
defined than In the Agaricineai, or even In the fungi as a whole, 
but as in other groups of organisms there is no royal road to 
this knowledge, which can only be acquired by long-continued 
macroscopic and microscopic observation. As a rv)le morpho- 
logists and biologists lack this power, sometimes even essaying 
to scorn it, consequently the material they investigate is usually 
considered as new to science, and inadequately described, or if 
an old species, is too frequently incorrectly determined, as 
indicated by such names as PeBiza Wilkommiiy Tranietes 
radiciperda, etc. ' 

When morphologists and systematists are more in touch and 
sympathy with each other there will be less literature, but what 
is written will be of more value, as everyone then will be certain 
as to. the exact species discussed, which unfortunately is by no 
means the case at the present day. 

As already stated, species are not disturbed to any extent by 
morphological investigations, but when w^e come to the affinities 
of species and groups, everything is topsy-turvy, compared with 
old arrangements, which in many instances have little more 
than antiquity and prejudice as their sheet-anchon Qi\ the other 
hand, the latest schemes of affinity can only be considered as 



tentative, numerous brilliant modern discoveries from repeated 
confirmation must be accepted as facts of great importance ; the 
interpretation of these facts is as yet mostly a personal opinion, 



which will undoubtedly be modified from time to time as our 
knowledge increases. On one point, however, all are agreed 
that no natural scheme of classification can possibly be forniu- 

Naturalist, 



Stock: Gcdsier hryantii at Dinsdale. 339 

lated from the sum of characters derived from an examination of 
fully developed and mature org*ani^ms. 

Quite recently it has been shown that in Still}iim vulgare, a 
species hitherto considered as a typical Hyphomycete, the spore- 
bearing- bodies resemble in structure the basidia characteristic 
of a section of the Basidiomycetes, hence 6". vulgare has been 
placed by the author of this discovery among^st the last named 
foup. Still later it has been found that another Stilbum, called 
S, fasciculatum, has also basidta-like structures bearing^ the 
spores, and it is quite probable, from analogy, that all the 
hundred and odd species known throug-hout the world agree in 
this point of structure, and hence, according to Juel, should be 
ranked amongst the Protobasidiomycetes. Now it is known 
that StUbiun fascicJilatiim is a form-species only, and is in reality 
the conidial form of a species oi' Nectria, an ascigerous fungus, 
hence, if Juel's idea is correct, we are face to face with an 
entirely new revelation, proving that an ascigerous fungus has 
a basidiomycete as its conidial condition. Further research is 
necessary before this point can be considered as settled. 

Again, Brefeld sees in the organs bearing the spores in the 
Ustilagineas, the * smut ' and 'bunt' of our cereals, structures 
resembling in appearance the basidia of the Protobasidiomycetes, 
hence in his scheme of classification the Basidiomvcetes as a 
group are considered as having much affinity in common with 
the ' smuts.' 

These ideas may prove eventually to be correct or otherwise; 
but it must be distinctly understood that in the event of their 
being shown to be wrong, and that in certain instances analogy 
has been mistaken for homology, this Ao^s not invalidate the 
principle, but only means that certain facts have been mis- 
interpreted. 




NO TE— FUNGI. 



Oeaster bryantii at Dinsdale.— On the 13th of December 1898 I sent 

to Mr. Manson some * Starfish P'ungus.' The specimens were found growing- 
on a box containing, as far as I knew, only ordinary soil, and situate in the 
greenJiouse at Dinsdale Recturj . The specimens were forwarded per the 
afcrency of Mr. Best and Mr. Roebuck to the Secretary of the Yorkshire 
Mycologicai Committee, Mr. Charles Crossland, F.L.S., of H ah fax, who 
promptly reported that he was \cvy pleased to see the Earth Stars, which 



b 



elonj^ed to the Gastromycete ^roup of the Basidlumycetes. ' 
Ge^ster bryafttii Berk- (Berk. Eng^l. Flora, Vol. 5, p. 300; OutH,.^.,, p. ^v^ , 
Cooke, Handbook, No, J073 ; Massee, Monograph of British Gastromycetes, 
n ^- fi«. -K\ T-u:., :.. „ — „ .^ :„* ^r.,.^ .,„.... :^., . there are about three or 



The name is 
nes, p. 300 ; 



890, 



r 

340 . Notes — Mollusca and Mammalia. 

CLEVELAND NATURAL HISTORY. 

Cleveland Naturalists' | Field Club, | ^ \ Record of Proceedings, 

1896, 1897, 1898. I = I Price One Shilling-. | = | Middlesbrough: 
Jordison & Co., Ld., Printers and Publishers | — | 1899. [Demy 8vo., 
52 pao;es, in paper covers]. v 

' This is a record oi admirable work by the members of a club 
that has never failed to recoo-nise the hi<rh value of local investi- 
gation, and which does not yield to any temptation to stray beyond 
the limits of its own district so far as publication is concerned. 
The archa^ologfical side of the Club's work is represented by 
a beautiful photograph of * Whorlton (Holy Cross)' and a con- 
tinuation of Mr. R. Lofthouse's account of the Remains of 
Norman Architecture in Cleveland Churches, which the photo- 
graph illustrates. There is a valuable paper by Mr. W. Y. 
Veitch on * Prehistoric Middlesbrough,' illustrated by photographs 
of skulls found in the iieighbourhood. The Rev. John Hawell, 
M'A., F.G.S., gives a list of the Mollusca of the " Cleveland 
district, including the results of the work of many collectors, both 
of marine and of land and freshwater species, Mr. T, AshtoiT 
Lofthouse then follows with a narrative account of Lepidoptera 
noticed in Cleveland during 1896, and Mr. M. L. Thompson gives 
a report on the Coleoptera observed in Cleveland in the years 

1896, 1897, and 1898. Then follow Ornithological notes for i8c,6, 

1897, and 1898 by Mr, R. G, Clayton and Mr. R. Lofthouse, and 
similar notes on Mammalia and Fishes by Mr. Clayton. The 
whoje forms a series of most valuable papers and records which 
will always be indispensable for reference, and the Cleveland 
Field Club and its active body of members are to be most 
heartily congratulated on the results thev have achieved. 




NOTE— MOLLUSCA. 

Limax cinereo-niger in Cheshire.— In Cheshire this slug appears to 

be restricted to the hilly region in the east of the county, and is not 
uncommon in several places in the Govt Valley between Marple and 
Errwood Hall. In May last I took it in a'^new locality, the Dane Valley at 
Wincle, where I found young examples beneath the bark of fallen ash trees 
in the woods.— Chas. Oldham, Alderley Edge, 22nd September 1899. 




NO TB— MAMMA LI A. 

Lepus earopseus in Lakeland.— Are black Mares ing;eneral conimon? 
The ordinary .Hare is not common hereabouts, accordint^- to my experience 
and the gamekeeper's statement; hut on 6th July I had the^ pleasure of 
■watching four tog-ether. The^' were feeding*: in a small upland pasture that 
is beloved of wild ercatures, for it is almost enclosed by sheltering wood- 
lands. It was about 5.30 p.m. of a hot day, and they were eng-rossing in 
nibbling, resting the body on the ground as they ate, or chailging ground 
with quick, light springs. Two were entirely hiaek but for the thin ears, 
through which the light shone, and naturally were quite conspicuous ; the 
others, a full-grown and a young one. would^iot have caught my attention 
from the distance at which I was but for their black companions.— MarV L. 
Armitt, Rydal, 23rd September 1899. 

Naturalist, 



341 



LINCOLNSHIRE * DIPTERA: 



ADDITIONS TO MR. PERCY H, QRIMSHAW'S PRELIMINARY LIST 

IN *THE NATURALIST' FOR MAY AND JUNE 1898, 



Rev. a. THORNLEY, M.A., F.E,S., F.L.S., 

Vicar of South Leverion, Notis^ 



The remarks with which I prefaced the Notts List of Diptera 
will apply here aliio. I should like, however, to acknowledg-e 
the g-reat help I have received from the Rev. E. A. WoodruflFe 
Peacock, F.L.S., Vicar of Cadney, Lincolnshire, and his brother. 
The number of new records for the county is 60 ; this will bring 
the total records up to 255. I hope that many more workers 
will turn up, and this list be rapidly increased. 

Fani. BIBIONIDM. 

r 

^Dilophus febrilis L. Lin wood Warren, 1898 (Peacock). 
Hibaldstow, 1898 (Peacock). Cadney, one ? , 1898 (Peacock), 

Dilophus femoratus Mg. Lin wood Warren, one $ , 1898 

(Peacock). • 

* 

Bibio venosus Mg, Linwood Warren, one ? , 1898 (Peacock). 

Fam. CULICID^E. 

4 

Culex piplens L. Epworth, one J , 14th July 1898 (L.N.U.). 

Fam, PTYCHOPTERID,^. 

Ptychoptera albimana Fab. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 
one $ , 2 1 st June 1898 (Thornley). 

^Ptychoptera contaminata L. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 

Fam. LIMXOBID.^. 

Limnobia nubeculosa Mg. Ashby, 1898 (Dr. Cassal), 
Limnobta tripunctata F. Cadney, one $, 1898 (Peacock). 
Limnophila lineola Mg. Scotton Common, one ? , 22nd June 



1898 (Thornley). 



Limnophila lineolella V^err. Epworth district, one example, 
14th July 1898 (Peacock). [Marked (?) by Mr. Grimshaw.] 

"^Limnophila ferruginea Mg. Scotton Common, one <J, 22nd 
June 1898 (Thornley). 

^Pedicia rivosa L. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, one $♦ 21st 

June 1898 (Thornley). 

' ™ "^ ■ b 1— ^ ^^^"^^^i^l^A^ 

November 1899. 



342 TJiornley: Lincolnshire Diptera. 



Fam. TIPULTD.E. 

Pachyrrhina histrio F. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, one $ , 
13th July 1898 (Thornley). Epworth district, one ? , 14th 

July 1898 (L.N. U.). 
"^Pachyrrhina maculosa Mg*. Torksey, one ? , June 1897 

(Thornley). " Cadney, one ? , 1898 (Peacock). 

"^Tipula nigra L, Freshney Bog^s, Great Cotes, two c?«j 21st 
June 1898 (Thornley). 

■ * 

Tipula lunata L. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, two *? s, 

2ist June 1898 (Thornley). ■ ' 

Tipula gigan tea Schrk. Grantham, 1898 (Peacock). Freshney 
. Bogs, one ? , 21st June 189S (Thornley). 

"^Tipula oleracea L. " Epworth, 14th July 1898 (L.N. U.). 

Tipula ochracea Mg. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). Epworth, 
one $ , T4th July 1898 (Thornley). . 

Tipula lutescens F. ,' Ashby, 1898 (Dr. Cassal). 

Fam. STRATIOMYID.E. 

"^Nemotelus pantherinus L. Freshney Bog^s, Great Cotes, 
^ ■ one (^ , 13th July 1898 (Thornley). 

*NemotGlus nigrinus Fin. Freshney Bogs, one ^ and one 9 > 

July 1898 (Thornley). 

"^Oxycera trilineata F. Grimsby,Jn garden, 1897 (A. Smith). 

Sargus nubeculosus Ztt. (Var. of S. cupmrius L.). Cadney, 
1898 (Peacock). 

Chloromyia formosa Scop. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). Ashby, 
' i.8g8 (Cassall). South Kelsey, 9th July 1898 (Peacock). 
Freshney Bogs, one ^ and two ? s, I3tb July 1898 
(Thornley). 

Microchrysa polita L. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 
"^Beris vallata Forst/ Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, common, 

on 2ist June 1898 (Thornley). 

Fam, TABAXID^. 

Hwmatopota pluvialis L. (The Clegg). Freshney Bogs, 
one ?, 13th July 1898 (Thornley). Epworth, 14th July 
, 1898 (L,N.U.). ^ ' 

Chrysops cwcutiens L. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, one J 

and two 5 s, 13th July 1898 (Thornley). 
Leptis scolopacea L. Grantham, two ? s, 1898 (Peacock). 

Scotton Common, one ? , 1898 (Thornley).- Freshney Bogs, 



13th July 1898 (Thornley), 



Naturalist. 



Thornley: Lincolnshire Diptera. 343 

Leptis tringaria L. Ashby, 1898 (Dn Cassal). Freshney 
Bogs, one $, 13th July 1898 (Thornley), 

Leptis conspicua Mg. Freshney Bog's, Great Cotes, one J , 
13th July 189S (Thornley). 

Chrysopilus aureus Mg. Freshney Bogs, common, 13th July 



1898 (Thornley). 



Fam. ASILID^E. 



r 

Dioctria atricapilla Mg. Epworth, one ? , 14th July 1898 

(Peacock). 

Dioctria rufipes DeG, Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 



Fam. THEREVTD^. 



Ther^va nobititata F. Epworth, one $, 14th July 1898 
. (Peacock)* 

^'Thereva bipunctata Mg. Epworth, one ? , 14th July 1S98 



(Peacock), 



Fam. CYRtlD.^. 



^ 



Paracrocera globulus Pz. Scotton Common, one cj.^nd two 
? s, from bJrcH trees, 22nd June 1898 (Thornley). 

Fam. EMPID.^. 

''Ramphomyia sulcata Fin. Linwobd Warren, one cj , 1898 

(Peacock). ' 

*RampJiomyia geniculata Mg. Scotton Common, <? and $ , 
22nd June 1898 (Peacock). • 

Empis tessetata F. Freshney Bogs, 1898 (Thornley). Lin- 
wood Warren and Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 

Empis livida L. Freshney Bogs, 1898 (Thornley). Cadney 
■ and South Kelsey, 1898 (Peacock). 

Empis trigramma Mg. Cadney, i8g8 (Peacock). 
tEmpis opaca F. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). Linwood Warren, 

1898 (Peacock). ' "... 

fiilara maura F. Scotton Common, 1898 (Thornley). 
Tachydromia ftavipes Fab. Cadney, one ^y 1S98 (Peacock). 

■ r 

Fam. DOLICIIOPODID.E. 

DoJictiopus picipes Mg. Freshney Bogs, one (^ , 13th July 
1898 (Thornley). (This species is marked by Mr. Grimshaw 
with a ! .) 

Doiichopus asneus DeG. Grantham and Cadney, 1898 

(Peacock). 






November 1899. 



'it 



34^ Thoniley .' Lincolnshire Diptera. 

r 

"^Oymnopternus cupreus Fin. . Scotton Common, one <?, 1898 

(Peacock). 

'^Porphyrops elegantulus Mgf. Scotton Common, one c?, 1S98 

(Peacock). 
^Scellus notatus F. Cadney, one $, 1898 (Peacock). 

Fam. SYRPHID.^. 

Chrysogaster hirtella Lw. {^macquarti Lw.). Freshney 
Bogs, 13th July 1898, very common (Thornley). 

'''Chilosia chloris Mg, Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, one ? , 
2ist June 1898 (Thornley), 

Chilosia flavimana Mg. Cadney* 1898 (Peacock). 

Chilosia cestracea L. Cadney, one (^ , 1898 (Peacock). 

Chilosia proxima Ztt. Cadney, one c? j 1898 (Peacock). 
[Marked by Mr. Grimshaw with a ! .] 

Melanostoma mellinum L. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 

Platychirus manicatus Mg, Cadney and Linwood Warren, 
1898 (Peacock).. Ashby, i8g8 (Dr. Cassal). 

Platychirus peltatus Mg. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 
two ? s, 2ist June 1898 (Thornley). 

Platychirus scutatus Mg. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 

Platychirus scambus Stoeg. Freshney Bogs, 13th July 1898 
(Thornley). 

Syrphus maculicornis Ztt. { = auricoUis Mg.), Ashby, 1898 
(Dr. Cassal). 

Syrphus bifasciatus F. Cadney and Hibaldstow, 1898 
(Peacock). 

Syrphus luniger Mg. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). Ashby 
(Dr. Cassal). 

Syrphus ribesii L. Hibaldstow, 1898 (Peacock). Ashby, 
189S (Dr. Cassal). Grimsby, 1897 (A. Smith). 

^Syrphus tuttulatus Mg. Hibaldstow, one $ ^ 1898 (Peacock). 

Sphserophoria scripta L. Linwood Warren, 1898 (Peacock)* 

Sphwrophoria picta Mg. Scotton Common, three cJs, 1898 
(Thornley). 

Rhingia rostrata L. Cadney and Linwood Warren, 1898 
(Peacock). 

Volucella bombylans L. Cadney (Peacock). • 

Eristalis tenax L. Cadney, 1S98 (Peacock). 

Naturalist, 



Thornley : Li7tcolnsh ire Diptera. 345 

Evistalis arbustorum L. Cadney and Hibaldstow, 1898 
(Peacock). Ashby, 1898 (Dr. Cassal). Grimsby, 1897 
(A. Smith). 

Eristalis pertinax Scop. Cadney and Hibaldstow, 1898 
(Peacock). 

'^Myiatropa florea Rnd. Torksey, one $ , loth September 
1898 (Thornley). 

Tropidia milesJformls Fhi. Freshney Bogfs, Great Cotes, 
T3th July iSg8 (Thornley). 

Xylota segnis L- Freshney Bog's, Great Cotes, one $ , 



13th July 1898 (Thornley), 

Sytitta pipiens L. Scotton Common, 1898. Freshney Bogs, 
1898 (Thornley). 

Chrysotoxvm arcuatum L. Cadney, one $, 1898 (Peacock). 

Chrysotoxum bicinctum L. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 
one ?, 13th July 1898 (Thornley). 

Leucozona lucorum L. Cadney, two examples, 1898 (Peacock). 

h 

Fam. CONOPID.^, 

Sicus ferrugineus L. Ashby, one example, 1898 (Dr. Cassal). 

■ 

Fam. TACHINID.E. 

^Exorista chelonise Rnd. Ashby, 1898 (Dr. Cassal). [Several 
specimens which Dr. Cassal bred from Chelonia caja larvae ; 
and which agree very well w^ith the description of the above 
in Dr. Meade's synopsis of the Tachinidse. Alfred Thornley.] 

^Tachina rustica Mg. Cadney, September 1897 (Peacock). 
Somerby, 1897, otiQ ^^ , October (Peacock). Freshney Bogs, 

Great Cotes, r3th July 1898 (Thornley), 

In the list received from Mr. Grimshaw this species 

is marked (!) ; but they agree perfectly well with a speci- 
men I sent to Dr. Meade, taken in the New Forest, and 
returned by him as T, rustica. 

*TachIna brevipennis Mg. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 2rst 
June 1898 (Thornley). 

This appears to be a very rare species, and is not men- 
tioned in Mr. VerralFs List ; but Is described bv Dr. Meade 
in the Ent. M. Mag., Vol. 2S, p. 38- 

Fam. DKXID^. 

Thelaira leucozona Pz. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, one 9 , 
13th July 1898 (Thornley). 



November 1899. 



^ 



46 Thornley: Lmcolnshire Diptera. 



Fam. SARCOPHAGID.^. 



Sarcophaga carnaria L. Cadney, i8g8 (Peacock), Freshney 

w 

Bogs, 2ist June 1898 (Thornley). Grimsby, in garden 
(A. Smith).' 

Sarcophaga melanura Mg*. Cadney, one ?, i8g8 (Peacock). 

■J 

Marked (!) by Mr. Grimshaw. 



Fam. MUSCID^. 



LuciJia cmsar L. 



July 



Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). Ashby, 1898 (Cassal). 

> 

Calliphora erythrocephala Mg. Freshney Bogs (Thornley). 



Cadney (Peacock), 



^ c 



■* 



, " I . ■■ f 

Calliphora vomitoria L. Ashby, 1898 (Dr. Cassal). 
Mesembrina meridiana L. Hibaldstow, 1898 (Peacock). 
Graphomyia maculata Scop, Torksey, ^Js common on ] 



September 1898 (Thornley). 



Moreliia 



(Thornley).' Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 



June and J 



Stomoxys calcitrans L. Freshney Bogs, June and July i8g8 

(Thornley). Cadney, 1898 (Peacock).* South Kelsey, 9th 



July 1898 (Peacock) 



ID^ 



1 

^Policies lardaria F. Freshney Bogs, June and July 1898 
(Thornley). 



J * 



Hyetodesia incana W. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 
Hyetodesia lucorum Fin. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 



Myd. 



J 



Hydrotwa irritans Fin. Freshney Bogs, June arid J 

■ (Thornley)* ^ '■ . 

Ophyra leucostoma W. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 



hamata 






W. Ashby 1898 (Dr. Cassal). 



>£. 



My/emyia strigosa F. Cadney, one (? , 1898 (Peacock). 
South Kelsey, 9th July 1898 (Peacock). 

ffylemyia variata Fin. ^ Cadney, 6th October 1898 (Peacock). 

ffomalomyia hamata Mcq. Cadney, one ^ , 1898 (Peacock). 

"^Homalomyia scalaris F, Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). Freshney 
Bogs, 13th July 1898 (Thornley). 

Cwnosia elegantula Rnd. Epworth district, 14th July 1898 
(L. N. U.). 

Natiifnlist, 



-;$• 



Thornley: Lincolnshire Diptera. ' 347 



Fcim. CORDYLURID.^. 



Scatopbaga stercoraaa L. Great Cotes^ 1898 (Cordeaux and 

Peacock). Ashby (Dr. Cassal). 
"^Hydromyza livens F. Mablethorpe, June 1897 (Thornley). 



Fam. SCIOiMYZID^. 

Sciomyza schcenherri Fin. Great Cotes, one S , 1898 (Cordeaux 
and Peacock). 

t 

Tetanocera elata F. Grantham, one S^ 1898 (Peacock). 

Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, four ^^s, 21st June and 13th 
July 1898 (Thornley). 

Tetanocera sylvatica Mg. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 
one (J, 2ist June 1898 (Thornley). South Kelsey, 9th July 
1898, one example (Peacock). 

Tetanocera reticulata h. /Freshney '^ogs^ Great Cotes, pne 

5, 2ist June i%S (Thornley), 



u 



"k 



Limnia rufifrons F. Scotton Coriimon, one 9, 22nd June 
1898 (Thornley). "■ ^ ' ' ' 

E/giva dorsalis F. Great Cotes, one (^, 1898 (Cordeaux and 
Peacock). >•■,-- 

^Sepedon spinipes Scop. Hartsholme, Lincoln, Sept. 1898 



* 



(Thornley). 



Fam. PSILID^. 



* 



PsiJa fimetaria L. Lhnvood Warren, 1898 (Peacock). 



^Psi/a nigricornis Mg. Cadney, one example, 1898 (Peacock). 



■- 4 



* 



, . Fam. ORTALID.^. . . . ^ 

■ ■ ' ■ » 

Ptilonota centralis Fab. Linwood Warren, 1898 (Peacock). 
Pteropwctria frondescentise L. Freshney Bogs^ Great Cotes, 

r ■ 

ver}^ common, 21st June 1898 (Thornley). 

^Pteropsectria nigrina Mg. Cadney, one ^ , September 1S97 
(Peacock). • : . ' 

Ceroxys crassipennis F. Freshney Bogs, Great Cotes, 
13th July 1898 (Thornley). 

Platystoma seminationis ¥. Cadney, 1898, common (Pea-- 
cock, and Thornley). Grantham, 1S98 (Peacock).. 

Seoptera vibrans L. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 



^ 



Fam. TRYPETID.^. 



Tephritis bardanse Schrk. Cadney, one S, 189S (Peacock) 

November 1899. 



48 - '* ' Book Notices, 

F 

, Fam. LONCILEID.E. 

Palloptera arcuata Fin. Linwood Warren, i8g8 (Peacock). 

Fam. SAPROMYZID^. 

r 

Laaxanla aenea Fin, Cadney, September 1897 (Thornley). 
'''Sapromyza apicaiis Lw. Mablethorpe, June 1897 (Thornley). 



Fam. OPOMYZID.^. 



J 



omyza get 

(Thornley). 



July 



Fam. SEPSID.-E. 



Sepsis cynipsea L. Cadney, July 1898 (Peacock). 



Fam. PHORID.^. 



r 

^''Phora opaca Mg*. Great Cotes, one $, 1898 (Cordeaux and 



Peacock). 



Fam, MICROPEZID^. 



Micropeza corrigiotata L. Cadney, 1898 (Peacock). 




BOOK NOTICES. 

We have received from Messrs. R, Friedlander & Sohn, of Berlin, 
the bound volumes of their * NatUFie Novitates ' for 1897 and for 1898. 
No words of ours are needed to commend to workers in all branches of 
science this exhaustive and indispensable account of the Hterature of their 
subjects for the years specified. Each year's volume, in paper, is priced 4s. 




* Sweet-Briar i Sprays | being- j Posies Pluckt in a Random Walk j 
throug:h this still beautiful | Eng-Iand of Ours. | By | Harry Lowerisoil 

. . ! . - t . . ! . . I . I . . I Francis Riddell Henderson [ . . | London' is a 
little book of irregular size, dated * Hay-Harvest, 1899,' and running: to 
over 150 pa^^es. It is a series of Jeffreysian essays arranged according* 
to the months in which they were written. The localities referred to are 
diverse, and one or two of the chapters are of interest to North-Country 
naturalists, as, for example, that localised at ThirKvall, in Northumberland, 
and another by the Trent at Gainsboroug-h. The price is is, 6d. net. 




Everyone's | Handbook of British Breeding Birds. | — 1 When 

and Where their Nests are built: | what they are composed of: | the Number 
and Colour of their Eg-gs: | the Food they eat; | the Nature of their Vocal 
Powers; [ and some Local and old-fashioned names, 1 by [ W. Percival— 
Westell I Author of] **all about Birds," etc. | With a Preface by the late 
Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, and an | Introduction by Claupe St. John. | 
Illustrated. [ London ( Henry J. Drane. | Salisbury House, Salisbury 
Square, Fleet Street, E.G. 

This is a little square book of 188 pages, in which the author disclaims 
any attempt to cater for any but those who wish to acquire rudimentary 
knowledge of birds. Its scope is sufficiently denoted in the extended title- 
page, and w^e may but briefly add that the order adopted is the alphabetical 
one of English names. 

Naturalist, 



349 



THE CHEMISTRY OF THE LAKELAND TREES. 

P. Q. KEEGAX, LL.D., 

Pattcrdale^ iVestmorland, 



In View of the eminent interest and importance of the subject, 
and of the considerable attention now bestowed In this country 
on the science and art of Forestry, I have deemed it advisable to 
supplement the account given in *The NaturaHst' for June 1898, 
pp. 181-S7, of the chemistry of the Lakeland trees by a further- 
notice oi a few other trees frequently to be met with in that 
enchanting region. Commencing as before with the Gymno- 
sperms, I will now consider the 

Scotch Fir, Pinus sylvestris. This is a true and sturdy 
native of the district. * Formerly the whole country/ says 
Wordsworth, *must have been covered with wood to a great 
height up the mountains ; where native Scotch Firs must have 
grown in great profusion.' Unfortunately the profvision is not 
quite so great to-day ; but still there do exist some spots where 
* a sombre cloud of pine-tree foliage ' is tolerably forcibly 
suggested. ■ In fact, this Pine is relieved very conspicuously 
indeed m several places by its dark and lofty aspect, its 'massy 
dome of sombre foliage' in contrast with and against the back- 
ground of the lighter and more vividly-tinted Spruce, Larch, 
Birch, etc., which zone the mountain sides. The great economic 
value of the tree as a source of resin, turpentine, and timber has 
stimulated chemical research on the part of several German 



investigators. The more interesting facts brought to light are 
that in winter there is no starch at all in the wood, pith, bark, 
or leaves ; in March there is much starch, especially in the older 
wood and in the leaves; and during the summer the wood is par- 
ticularly poor in fatty matter. The largest amount of resin occurs 
in the wood of the root, and the smallest in the bark. The latter 
contains about 7 per cent, of a highly oxygenated tannin and 
its phlobaphene ; also wax, quinovic acid, sugar, and a yellow 
bitter matter called pinipicrin. According to Kawalier, * the 
wood contains resin, turpentine, and mucilage, but has no 
tannin, bitter principle, starch, wax, or citric acid.' A little free 
phloroghicin is found in the pith and medullary rays. I have 
not succeeded in isolating coniferin from this tree, although 
accordinir to macro-chemical reactions it certainly exists there. 



The leaves contain little or no carotin, but have large quantities 
of a yellow fat, wax, and resin (the whole, with the chlorophyll, 
contributing to impart the . very sombre shade), also rutin, 
mucilage, sugar, quinovic acid, with small quantities of tannin 



and citric acid ; the volatile oil (6r-wool oil) is not the same as 



November 1899, 



350 Keegaii: T/ie Chemistry of the Lakeland Trees, 

turpentine, h is of a greenish-yellow colour and exhales an 
odour recalling" that of a mixture of lavender and lemon. 

Aspen. Populus tremula. It seems rather difficult to 
believe that this species is truly native and prehistoric, yet there 
is no doubt whatever about the fact, its occurrence being 



recorded as ^frequent up to 900 feet in woods and hedges.' It 
is extremely hardy and adaptable, although rather light-needing 
on account of its sparse leafage. The most remarkable feature 
about the Poplars is that they are fat-trees, whereas the Willows 
are starch-trees, i.e., while in the former the starch almost 
entirely disappears from all parts during the winter months, in 
the latter the starch remains at all times In the wood and pith, 
but it vacates the bark in winter. The Aspen is especially 
distinguished by the presence in its bark and leaves of a gluco- 
side called populin C''^H■^^0^ which is allied to salicin (found in 
numerous WilloW's), but it contains the benzoyl radicle (i.e., it 
yields benzoic acid as well as saligenin on decomposition by 
dilute acids), has a sweet taste, decomposes with far greater 
facility, and is much less soluble in water and alcohol. In other 
respects the chemical composition of the two genera of the sub- 
order Salicacese Is pretty similar. The * golden perch of Aspen 
spray' in October is explained by the larg^e amount of carotin 
which the leaves contain. 

Oak. Quercus robur. This grand national tree flourishes 
in sturdy and stately grandeur in the woods and among the 
crags, the mountain winds contributing to impart a peculiar 
character of picturesque intricacy to the curiously tortuous 
branchlets, twisting zigzagedly hereabouts even more than is 
their wont. As might be expected, this tree has been the 
subject of a vast amount of chemical research ; but it is only 



recently that its power as a starch-producer has been* fully 
recognised, and this is the reason of its special liability to be 
struck by lightning-. It will hardly be necessary to give a full 
recital of the numerous and interesting constituents of so well- 
known a tree. The tannin of the wood is different from that in 
the bark and leaves, and approaches more decidedly that in the 
galls and acorns ; it is what is called a digallic-niethyl ester or 
a derivative of pyrogallol, whereas that of the bark and leav^es 
is phlobaphenic and a derivative of pyrocatechin. The bark 
contains from 6 to about 15 per cent, soluble and insoluble 
tannin, the parenchyma of the bast and the primary cortex being 



especially rich ; in the wood it occurs sparingly up to about 



5 per cent- A trace of free gallic acid sometime occurs in the 
bark, which also contains phlobaphene, wax, pectin, levulin, 
quercite, starch, oxalate of calcium, and about 2 per cent, ash 

Naturalist. 



Keegan: The Chemistry of the Lakeland Trees. 351 

rich in lime (and mang-anese In the best barks), but poor in 
potass and silica. The leaves,. are extremely interesting:, beini 



r 



rich in tannin (even in the bud), carotin, wax, nitrogenous 
matters, and silica, but rather poor in ff^t, fibre, and ash ; the 
actual amount of starch on analysis seems moderate, but the 
storing- capacity of the tree for this" substance is, in certain 
circumstances, altogether extraordinary. In this connection a 
casual mention miglit be made of the Beech, but as this tree is a 
decisiv^e alien in Lakeland, and a by no means contented or pros- 
perous one either, although decidedly vigorous locally, it must 
suffice to observe that it is much richer in oil and much poorer in 
tannin than the Oak, its grey, smooth bark is mailed with silica 
and charged with lime, and theredundantdevelopmeutof its foliage 
IS attended with physiological consequences altogether unique. 

Hazel. Corylus avellana* This true native is one of our 
commonest truly wild trees, or rather shrubs or bushes, flourish- 
mg in a characteristic tufted or 'concentrated' manner on banks, 
edging the wood-side,' or in damp hollows overhanging some 
murmuring beck. The chemical analysis recalls somewhat that 
of the Alder, but the constituents are not developed in anything 



like the same strength. The bark contains a considerable quantity 
of a tannin like that in other Amentaceae, and is associated with 
much phlobaphene and 'humus* matter. The very tough and 
close-grained wood is richlycharged with starch, phloroglucin, and 
coniferin, together with a small amount of a tannin which is not 
the same as that in the bark. The leaves are rich in albumenoids, 
and have a full share of carbohydrates, also Inoslte, etc., but < 



rather poor in fibre and ash (which contains much silica, especially 
in the autumn) ; rutin and tannin amount to about 5 per cent., 
and the easy resolution of the latfer into high, nut-brown anh3'- 
drides (recalling^ the case of the Alder) forbids any brilliancy of 
autumnal livery on the part of the foliage. The tremendous activity 
of the chlorophylHan protoplasm of this bush is manifested notonly 
by the richness of the wood in starch at all seasons, but by the 
very high, 67, percentage of oil contained in the nut, wherein it 
is intimately associated with a large quantity of albumenoids 



existing in three different states ; sugars and a volatile aromatic 
substance also occur in this favourite comestible; the oil is 
pale yellow, drying, and consists mostly oi olein, with a little 
palmitin, and is coloured greenish by nitric acid. 

Sycamore, Acer pseudo-platanus. This tree is pronounced 

to be an alien in our district, and again It Is said to be * doubt- 
fully a true native,' but at all events it is here both common and 



luxviriantly developed in plantations and about farmhouses up 
to 1,500 feet. As Wordsworth says, * it has long been the 

November 1899. 



35^ Kccgan : The Chemistry of the Lakeland Trees, 



favourite of the cottag*ers, and with the Fir has been chosen 
to screen their dwellings.' In fact, the 'massy Sycamore that 
spreads in gfcntle pomp its honied shade' has claims upon the 
attention of the scientist no less than upon that of the poet ; 
and I may add that it is a special favourite of my own, my 
earliest studies in plant analysis beings devoted chiefly to this 
tree. It is often self-sown, and the seed has about 30 per cent. 
oil and 76 per cent, albumenoid, but no starch ; these facts, 

however, do not indicate that it is a fat-tree, they only sug*g*est 



that the attractive force and storage capacity for starch is 
locally deficient. The yellow flowers contain no carotin, but 
have abundant rutin and saccharine matter. The bark contains 
^ considerable amount of waxy and fatty matter, and it is 
encrusted with silica ; the phelloderm, collenchyma, and the 
bast parenchyma are rich in tannin, which is identical with 



that of the Horse-chestnut, and is conjoined with its phloba- 
phene and a small quantity of free phloroglucin ; but the 
most remarkable constituent is a kind of saponin-glucoside 
w^hich occurs about September apparently in some quantity, it 
dissolves in sulphiu*ic acid with a dark red colour passing to 
violet red, with ultimately a deep blue granular deposit ; with 
alcoholic HCl it yields a bright permanent pink solution ; and 
with a solution of bromine in chloroform a brip-ht red colour in 
a few minutes. The wood contains much coniferin and starch. 
The leaves are enriched with an abundance of carotin, wax, Tat, 
and resin, and in the autumn the epidermis is encrusted with 
silica ; in May a large quantity of quercitrin can be extracted 
from them, together with tannin and erythrophyll ; mannite, 
cane-sugar, and about 4 per cent, starch are also to be found 
among the constituents of one of the most remarkable foliar 
organs of our woodlands. 

Linden. Tilia intermedia. No chemical account of the trees 

m 

of any British region would be complete if this one were passed 
over. It is frequently to be seen in the Lakeland parks and hedge- 
rows, and although certainly not a native, it suits itself very con- 
formably to the circumstances of its immigration, tt is mentioned 



here only incidentally as a sort of foil or contrast chieflA' in regard 



to the fact that, except the Walnut, it is the most fat-producing 
tree in our svlva. For about nine months of the vear its wood 
teems with oil, and during winter there is no starch at all in the 
wood, pith, or bark. The quantity of mucilage in bark and leaves 
IS exceedingly great; while the combination of volatile oil, §ugar, 
mucilage, and carotin in the flowers constitutes a feast t)f delight 
sumptuous enough to account for the phenomenon of; 



* The Lime, a summer home of murmurous wings.' 



Naturalist 



'I " '> 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF CHESHIRE 



IRTHUR BENNETT. F.L.S., 

Croydon, Surrey, 



The publication of Lord De Tabley's F'lora has added another 
to the list of Floras that are gradually giving the base on which 
to build future Floras of Britain, which will not be quite in the 

^ 

same groove as those gone by. Already the idea that is being 
-so strongly worked out in America, v^ith regard to what Hackel 
called the oecological conditions of a Flora, may perhaps be 
looked for in Britain before long; and the Cheshire Flora is one, 
among many now, that will contribute its quota to that Flora. 
The only thing one misses is the 'touch of the vanished hand' 
in its completion in this, like Mr. Prior's ' Flora of Hertford- 
■shire,' the two botanists being in many respects much alike: 
careful as to what they admitted, and with good '.ideals' as 
to what a Flora should be. 

In looking through the Cheshire Flora a few things 
occurred to me as perhaps worth noting, and as they make 
OVLQ or two additions to the Flora, they may be w^orth recording. 
And I have also noted some omissions, w^hich would have 
been no doubt explained had the author lived to complete 
his work. These are taken from the second edition of Watson's 
* Topographical Botany' (1883). 

Thalictum minus L. 4* I think the Little Eye specimens 

must be referred to Dumatier's T. diiJiense. But I am quite 

inclined to think we may have two forms on our coasts, 

especially in Scotland, 

Naphar pumilum DC. The Salopian plant is undoubted!)- 

the true plant. I submitted specimens of it to the late 
Dr. Caspany, of Konisberg, who affirmed the name. One 
of these I then sent to Mr. Watson, and in a letter 
acknowledging its receipt, he remarks: — 'Thanks for the 
specimen of Nuphar pmnilurn from Shropshire— a desirable 
one for my herbarium, having myself raised a query as to 



the certainty about the species there. Jt is curious that 
this species of the Highland lakes should occur in Shrop- 
shire and apparently not in an}- of the Welsh lakes.' 
19, II, ^79. Since this date it has been found in Merioneth 
by the Rev. Ley. 

Stellaria nemorum L. i. Woods on the banks of the 

Etharrow at Mottram, W. I. Harman sp. 
Spergula arvensis. P. sativa Boenn. Field, Little Sutton, 

A. C. Lomax. 



354 Bennett: Notes on the Flora of Cheshire. 

Vicia tetrasperma Moench. Roadside between Frankby and 
West Derby, Cheshire, W. Whitwell sp. Is West Kirby 
meant? 

Agrimonia odorata Mill. 2. Wood, Rostherne Afere, Sep* 

tember 1880, H. Searle sp. 
Potentilla procumbens Sibth. 5. Chester Racecourse, Dr. 
N. L. Britton, sp., 7, 1888. 

Cicuta virosa L. Near Dunham - on - the - Hill, Eddisburv 
Hundred, R. Brown sp. 

Mentha arvensis L. Van nummularia (Schreb.). 2. Ros- 
therne Mere, 8, 1884, H. Searle sp. 
Senecio vulgaris L. Var. radiatus. 4. Sandhills between 

Wallasey and Leasowe, S. Slater In * Science Gossip,'" 
p, 188, 1884. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos L. 3. Moss near Delamere, 23, 8^ 
1879, J. C. Melvill sp. 

Monotropa Hypopitys. ^Chester,' Top. Botany. 

Erythrsea pulchella Fries, 4. The Horles, Seacombe, 9, 1869,, 
J. H. Lewis sp. 

Statice ^ auriculwfolla VahL' S. binervosa, G. E. Smith. 
The var. tnterynedia Syme g-row^s on Hilbre Island, Augfust 
1873, R. Brown sp., August 1873. 

Statice bahusiensis Fr. Muddy shore of the river Mersey,, 
between Eastham and Bromborough Pool, September 1876^ 
R. Brown sp. The specimen, though not so typical as- 
one of the original specimens from Hants, gathered by 
Mr. Notcutt, that I possess, is to be referred to the 
S. rariflora of Drejer, rather than to S. Ltmojimm. 

Chenopodium rubrum L. 4. Seacombe, C. A. Lomax. 

Utricularia neglecta Lehm. 3. Characteristic specimens, In 
good flower, from ' Bolesw^orth, Cheshire, July 1857, 
A, Croall,' are in my herbarium. 6. I have a specimen 
under the name of * U, 7najor, Wybunbury Bog, September 
1875, Dr. J. Fraser/ 

Utricularia mi no r L. 6. Wy b un b u ry Bog, 26, 8, 1873, 
Dr. J. Eraser sp. Although not named at p. '242 in the 
Flora, this is recorded under Mr. Spark's name (in Garner's 
* Staffordshire') at p. Ixxxix. 

Atriplex hastata L. 4. Bromborourgh, A, E. Lomax. 

Atriplex deltoidea Bab. Field, Rock Ferry, A. E. Lomax. 

Euphorbia portlandica L. 'Chester,' J. L. Warren, cat. Top. 
Botany. No note or remark in Flora. 

Potamogeton densus L. 3. Delamere, August 1884, H. Searle, 
sp. Recorded in the * Journal of Botany,' p. 140, 1886. 

Naturalists 



Bennett: Notes on the Flora of Cheshire, 355 

Not recorded in the Flora, at p. 286; the probability of its 
occurrence is noted. It is recorded for South Lancashire, 
Yorkshire, Derby, and Stafford ; but neither for Salop, 
Denbigh, or Flint. The note in the Flora on this must be 
read in conjunction with the remarks in the preliminary 
explanations. If Potamogelons are distributed by birds 
this stands a much less chance than P. crispns^ as its fruits 
are much more delicate, and do not survive so long- to 
exposure, etc. 

Potamogeton zosterifolius Schum. 5. River Dee, near Shoc- 
lack, Major WoIIey Dod sp. , August 1899- A good 
addition to the county Flora, it occurs in Derby!, Stafford!, 
Salop !, and in Yorkshire!, though not in the part adjoinifig 
Cheshire. I have seen no Welsh specimens, but It may 
perhaps be found in the Dee watershed. 

Potamogeton Friesii Rupr. {'P. mucronatus Schrad.'). There 

is a Cheshire specimen of this in the herbarium of Mr. 
Charles Bailey, of Manchester. 
Potamogeton pectinatus L. The remark on Mr. Hunt's 
September gathered specimens, as contrasted against 
September gathered oiies of van scoparius from Sussex, is 
instructive, as Mr. Fryer would place scoparius under 
flabellatiis, and in this I agree. 

Potamogeton flabellatus Bab. 4. ^In stagnis salsis, Wallasey,* 

A. E, Lomax sp. 
Ruppia rostellata Koch. 4. Shallow pit on Bidston Marsh, 

Hundred of Wirral, 7, '75, R. Brown sp. Most certainly 
the R. rostellata of Syme's * English Botany,* and not 
spiralis. The remarks on Rnppia in the Flora are not very 
clear as to what is meant. 

Epipactis latifolia AlK 3* Bolesworth, 9, .i860, A. Croall sp. 
Of the four specimens, one has very much narrower leaves 
than the others. 

Juncus lamprocarpus Ehrh, The /. nigriiellus of Don was 
probably really /. alpinus Vill. (see Beeby in ' Scottish 
Naturalist,* p. 92, 1887-8). The specimens usually named 
nigritellus in Britain are called by Dr. Buchanan ' forms in 
some instances approaching the van pauciflorus of lampro- 
carpus.'* In others they are simply dw^xi lamprocarpus. 

Juncus obtusifiorus Ehrh. 5. Near Chowley, 7, 1857, A, 
Croall sp. This was long before Mr. Webb gathered it, 
at or near the same spot. The author's remarks on the 
distribution of this plant are true in many counties ; in 
Surrey ^ I have only once gathered it, but in Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire it sometimes occurs by the 



December 1899. 



3:^6 Bennett: Notes on the Flora of Cheshire^ 

acre, the veg-etation of the * Broad* country in Norfolk 
especially being comprised of few species comparatively, 
while the numbers in some cases are immense. 
Scheuchzeria palustris L. 6. This is one of our decreasing 

species. Some notes on its occurrence will be found in the 
* Journal, of Botany,' p. 380, i, 1898. It seems to be 
entirely extinct in its Perthshire locality ; and Mr. F. A. Lees 

to regard it as quite, or nearly so, in Yorkshire. 
The latest gathering I am aware of (other than Mr. 
Marshall's (1896)) is that of the late Mr, Beckwith in 

w 

Salop in a new locality, whence he sent me specimens. 

As Mr. Sims (* Phytologist,' 2, 576, 1858) acknowledges to 

. having gathered * over 300 specimens in one day ' in Perth, 

it must have been abundant there. 

Carex teretiuscula Ehrh. The remarks on this Carex and its 

amply borne out by Mr, J. Bagnell's 
Ickshire ; and on this point the remarks 



var., p. 321-2, are amply borne out b} 

experience in Warwickshire ; and on this 

of Mr. Watson (Cyb. Britt., Vol. 3, 107, 1852) are very 

pertinent : — * If I rightly know that variety it occurred on 

Wimbledon Common, in Surrey, some few years ago, in 

a drying tip swimtp.^ 

Carex limosa L. 6. Wvbunburv Moss, Herb. E. S. Marshall. 

Carex strigosa Huds. 2, I have a specimen gathered by Dr. 
Wood in ' Cotteril Clough, May 1841.' 

Carex fulva Good. Fields near Stump (?) Wood, 27, 8, 1881, 
H. Searle. I cannot read the word, it may be ' Stirrup?' 

Carex riparia Curtis. 2, Rostherne Mere, 8, iSS^^ H. Searle 
sp. This is a variety that is probably the same as I;ries 
named 'C 7intans^^ but afterwards as C riparia var, 
obesa Fr. =var. deformis Beml. It has much the habit and 
look of C 7i7itans Host, 

Calamagrostis Epigejos Roth. 3. Hedge near Bolesworth, 
9, i860, A. Croall sp, 

Aira ullginosa Weihe. Chester, Miss Potts. Top, Botany. 

Festuca unigtumis Soland. The description of the growth 
(p. 356) is very like that of F. ambfffua Le Gall, and the 
date is early for it to turn brown. In St. Helen's Spit, in the 
Isle of Wight, they both grow tv'tgether, and have been 
gathered mixed, and named uniglumis^ but iinigluniis is 
green ! in the middle of June, when ainhigua is quite a rich 
yellow-brown. In Norfolk amhigua can be seen for some 
distance by this colouring and its gregarious growth. 

Nephrodium cristatum Rich. 6, I have a specimen gathered 



and in 1875 by Dr. Fraser. 



J 



Naturalist, 



367 



FISH OF THE LINCOLNSHIRE WASH AND FENLAND 



The Late T. J. H. BROGDEN, 

Spalding. 



The following* notes have been transcribed and arrang-ed In 



order from Mr. Broi^den's manuscripts] they are a list of such 
marine and freshwater fish as have come under his notice in the 



8th Division (Spalding and Holbeach) of the Natural History 
Map of Lincolnshire (the Rev. E. Adrian Woodruffe-Peacock's). 

John Cordeaux. 
Oaleus cants Bonap, Common. Tope. Frequently to be found 

dead on the Holbeach out-marshes, havings been left b}' the 
tide. 

Mastelus vulgaris Mull. & Henle. Smooth Hound. The 

same remark applies. 

Acanthias vulgaris Risso. Picked Dogfish. The only specimen 

I have cautrht is now in the Leicester Museum, but I believe 



it is frequently taken in the nets set for flounders. 

Raja clavata L. Thornback Ray. Frequently taken in the 

shrimp and flounder nets. 

Raja batis L. Common or Blue Skate. Frequently taken 

in the shrimp nets at the Welland mouth. 

Acipenser sturio L. Sturgeon- Frequently ascends the 
Welland. One was taken exactly in front of my gate 
a few years ago by a blow from a boathook. The same 
man who took it caught one in the same year at the mouth 
of the river, weighing eighteen stone. They have also 
been taken in the New river in Cowbit Wash and in 

Vernatt's drain. 

Pcrca fluviatilis L. Perch. Unfortunately, although very 

slightly decreasing in number is certainly doing so in size. 
The largest on record taken in our Spalding Club waters 
was 45^ lbs. My own record for weight in one day is four 
fish, weighing collectively 9 lbs. 6 oz. 

Acerina cernua (L.). Pope or Ruffe. To be found in the 

Spalding Fishing Club waters, but not common. 

Mullus barbatus L. Red Mullet. Very occasionally ascends 

the Welland. 
Lampris luna (Gm.)- Opah. King-fish. I have only seen 

one specimen of this fish, caught about 1879, ^"^ weighing 
63 lbs. I believe it has also "been taken at the lower part 
of the Welland brushwork. 

December 1899. 



358 Brogden : Fish of the Lincolnshire Wash and Fenland, 

Scomber scomber L. Mackerel. Only caught when driven 
out of Its course by storms. 

Trachinus draco L, Great Weever. Occasionally met with 
at the mouth of the Welland. 

Lophtus piscatoHus L. Angler. Odd specimens taken after 
. rough weather in the estuary of the Wash, Last seen 
personally in September 1892, at Fossdyke. 

Cottus gobio L. River Bullhead. The Miller's Thumb is 

not uncommon in both the Welland and Glen, especially 
after a long- drougrht. 



W «1W^V»S. 



w 

Cottus scorpius L. Short-spined Sea Bullhead. Plentiful 
in the Wash. 

Trigla cuculus L. Red Gurnard. 

r 

Trigla gurnardus L. Grey Gurnard. 

Trigla pwciloptera Cuvier. Little Gurnard. 

The Red and Little very rare; have only seen one 
specimen of the former (caught by myself) and two of 
the latter, taken at Fossdyke. The Grey is very common. 

Agonus cataphractus (h,), Pogge or Armed Bullhead. One 

of the commonest fishes in the Wash. Has a nasty habit 
when taken by the tail of striking round and inflicting 
a painful wound with its armoured head. 

Cyclopterus lumpus L. Lumpsucker, Very common during 

the spring months. 

Anarrhichas lupus L. Wolf-fish. Frequently taken by the 
trawlers. I sent a fine specimen a few years ago to the 
Leicester Museum (1894), which I saw killed with a boat 
sprit at the mouth of the Welland. When struck it bit 
nearly through the shaft of the sprit. 

Blennius pholis L. Shanny. Very plentiful in the Wash, 
and taken hi great numbers by the shrimpers. Shrimps 
appear to be its favourite food. 

Centronotus gunnellus L. Butterfish. Very plentiful in the 
Wash in the warm months (May to September). Is more 
slippery than any eel. 

Zoarces vlviparus L. Viviparous Bienny. Very common 

in summer in the Wash. Twenty to thirty may often be 
taken in one lift of the shrimp trawl. 

Atherina presbyter Cuv. Atherine. Sand-Smelt. Of 

annual occurrence ; occasionally caught in shrimp trawls 



in the Wash. 



Naturalist, 



Brogden : .Fish of the Lincolnshire Wash and Fen land, 359 

n 

r 

Mugil capita Cuv, Grey Mullet. As a rule very common in 
the early autumn in the lower reaches of the Welland. 

Gastrosteus aculeatus L. Three-spined Stickleback, Not 

at all as plentiful as mig^ht be expected, conslderuigf the 
number of ditches in the district. 

Gastrosteus pungitius L. Ten-spined Stickleback. Fre- 
quently found in the drains and ponds in the neighbour- 
hood, but not so plentiful as the former, 

Gadus morrhua L. Common Cod. Codliup^s are destroyed 

in immense quantities by the shrimp trawlers in the Wash. 
The pressure of the water in the net no doubt kills the 
majority before trawling- in. 

Gadus seglefinus L. Haddock. Small Haddocks are killed 

in large quantities by the shrimp trawler. 

Gadus merlangus L. Whiting*. Small ones are taken in 
large quantities at times in the shrimp trawls at the mouth 
of the Welland. 

Gadus virens L. Coal-fish. Occasionally found stranded on 

the sandbanks at the mouth of the Welland. 

Mcrluccius vulgaris Flem. Hake. Occasionally washed on 
shore after a heavy storm. 

Molva vulgaris Flem. Ling. Only taken after heavy storms 
by which it has been stranded on the sandbanks. 

* 

Ammodytes lanceolatus Lesauv. Greater Sand-Launce. 

Plentiful in the Wash and the mouth oi the Welland. 

Ammodytes tobianus L. Lesser Sand-Launce. Occasionally 

taken in the shrimp trawls in the Wash. 

Fam. Pleuronectid^. — Brill, Dabs, Flounders, Fluke, Hali- 

but, Plaice, Soles, and Turbots are all found In more or 
less quantities according to season, but with the exception 
of the Common Sole (So/ea vulgaris) are usually small. 



I have taken the Common Sole in the Wash up to 3^ lbs. 
the pair. 

Cyprinus carpio L. Common Carp. Only an introduction 
into the district, and not at all plentiful anywhere. 

Cyprinus casruleus Jenyns. Azurine. Believed to have been 

taken in the Glen river by more than one angler, 

r 

Cyprinus auratus (L.). Qold-carp. Imported into local ponds. 
Cyprinus fluviatilis (Flem.). Gudgeon. Common in Welland 

and Glen, in which latter river it attains an unusual size. 



December 1899. 



360 Brogden : Fish of the Lincolnshire Wash and Fenland, 

w 

Lguciscus rutilus (L,). Roach. Very plentiful; the largest 
specimen from Spalding* Club waters, 2 lbs. 10 ozs. 
(preserved). 

Leuciscus cephalus (L.). Chub. To be found in the upper 
reaches of the Wetland and Glen, but not plentiful; has also 
been taken in the Vernatt's drain. 

Leuciscus vulgaris Flem. Dace. Common in the rivers and 
drains of the district and attaining large dimensions. 

Leuciscus erythrophthalmus (L.). Rudd. Plentiful in all the 
large drains ; also in the Welland and Glen. " A stuffed 
specimen, belonging to the Spalding Fishing Club, sup- 
posed to be a cross between a Roach and a Rudd, was 



taken in 1896 in the Vernatt's, and weighed 2 lbs. 10 ozs. 



some time after being caught. 



Leuciscus plioxinus (L.). Minnow. Only to be found in the 
Glen and the upper portion of the Welland. 

Tinea vulgaris Cuv. Tench. Common in all the drains and 
in many ponds. Runs up to 5 lbs. in weight, 

Abramis brama (L.). Bream. Has in the last few years* 

become plentiful in the river Glen. I sent a specimen 
I caught in the Glen at Surfleet, weighing 5^ lbs., to the 
South Kensington Museum. 

Alburnus lucidus Heck.&Kner, Bleak. To be found in 
sparse numbers in the upper parts of Welland and Glen. 

Cobitis tsenia L. Spinous Loach. Have only caught one 

example and in river Glen. 

Betone vulgaris Flem. Gar-fish. Occasionally taken in the 
'Butt' nets. 

Esox lucius L. Pike. Very plentiful ; the record fish for the 
Spalding Fishing Club waters Is 22 lbs,; 12 lbs. to 16 lbs. 
used frequently to be taken, but now (probably to over- 
stocking) a 12 lbs. fish is considered very good. 

Salmo salar L. Salmon. Taken in odd numbers ahnost 
annually in the Flounder nets at the mouth of the Welland. 

Salmo trutta Flem. Sea-Trout. Frequently taken in the 

Flounder nets in the Welland. 

Salmo farlo L, Common Trout. OccasionalU taken in the 
Welland, Glen, and Vernatt's. The specimen belonging to 
the Spalding Fishing Club measured 29 inches ; it was 
caught in the Glen, but was In bad condition, having lost 
the sight of one eye and many teeth. 

Natur.ilistp. 



Cole: Little A?ik at Wetwa7ig-on-the-\Volds. 361 

Osmerus eperlanus (L.). Smelt. Taken In large quantities. 
Three years since I assisted in drawing: a net throug-h 
a deep hole in the Welland, when in one haul we caug^ht 

751- 

Clupea harengas L. Herring:. Very plentiful in certain 
seasons. 

Clupea sprattus L. Sprat. Frequently taken in tons at the 

mouth of the Welland; also often left on shore in g-reat 
quantiti 

Clupea alosa L. Allis Shad. Occasionally taken at the mouth 
of the Welland. 

Clupea pilchardus Walb. Pilchard. Have only seen three 

specimens, taken In the 'Butt' nets at Fossdyke, 1895. 

Anguilla vulgaris Flem. Sharp-nosed Eel. 
Anguilla latirostris Risso. Broad-nosed Eel. 
Anguilla mediorostris Yarrell. Snig Eel. 

r 

All plentiful, but the broad-nosed undoubtedly attains the 
g'reatest weiijht — locally called 'Browits.' There is also an 
Eel which attains a g'reat size, but Aveig'hs very Hi^htly, 
locally called ' Frog--mouthed Eel.' One day in Aug-ust of 



1897 I cauirht five, weig-hing- 11 3/ lbs., in the Spalding- 



Club waters, when out with the keeper. 
Conger vulgaris Cuv. Conger. A few are annually taken. 

i 

The larg-est I have caugfht was 6 ft. 6 in. long* and weighed 
38^ lbs. This was in 1S94 at Holbeach ^larsh. 

Syngnathus acus L. Great Pipe-fish. 
Neropiiis lumbriciformis (L.). Lesser Pipe-fish. 

Syngnathus ophidion Conch. Snake Pipe-fish. 

The former of these is undoubtedly the most uncommon 
of the three, and owin<>- to chances of observation I am npt 
certain the second has not been overlooked. 

Petromyzon marinus L. Sea-lamprey. Fairly plentiful ; my 
specimen I caught at Surfleet in 1884 measures 2 h. 9 in. 

Petromyzon fluviatilis L. Lampern or River Lamprey. 

To be found both in the Welland and Glen. 




NOTE— ORNITHOLOGY. 

Little Auk at Wetwang-on-the-WoIds, -A Little Auk (Mergulus aile) 

has just been picked up here in an exhausted condition. We have had 
several heavy ^ales, but all from the west, none from the east, so I do not 
see how the poor wanderer could have found its way here except from the 
west coast. Anyhow the fact Is worth recording-. — E. Mailk Cole, Wet- 
wang-, 14th November 1S99. 

December 1899. 



362 A^oics — Mosses and Flowering Plants. 

NOTE^ MOSSES. 

Oymnostomum fragile Ibbotson. — By the kindness of the family of 
my late friend Mr. Sylvanus Thompson, of York and Settle, I have become 
possessed of his collection of mosses. In this I have found one sheet 
bearings several tufts (not fruiting;), with a g-eneral label to them in Henry 
Ibbotson's o,\vn characteristic writing;, thoug^h not sig-ned by him, as 
foWows:—' Gy/nnosf. fragile Ibb. MSS. BoUon Woods, 1842.* This 
sngf.i^ests an inquiry whether any other specimens of the supposed species 
were distributed, whether Ibbotson described and named an}' other mosses 
as new, whether his descriptions and names were ever published and where, 
and if his manuscripts are iti existence. 

Forg-etting the man's later faults, of which the hurt and disgrace w*ere 
to himself alone, Ibbotson's name should still be honoured by Yorkshire 
botanists. But it must be added that if no moss-species have been published 
in his name, it is probably better so. Dr. Braithwaite has favoured me by 
examining; the specimens in the present case, and he finds them to be 
Barhtda curvirostris Lindb. Even as such, however, the locality is w^orth 
recording. In Mr. F. Arnold Lees' 'Flora of West Yorkshire' this species 
ts described (under Gymnostomiim) as very rare, and only one station, 
Arncliffe, is given for Wharfedale. — William Whitwell, Balham, London, 
S.W., Sth November 1899, 




NOTES FLOWERING PLANTS. 

Oaleopsis versicolor in mass near Stickney. — Some years ago, in 

a peaty field near Stickney, I saw^ an a'bundance of this beautiful plant 
{Galeopsis versicolor Curt.) In full flower, and well remember the pleasure 
which the sight gave to me. Judging from the height and branching of 
the individual plants, they were similar to those seen by Mr. Burton on the 
bank of the Trent. It is always more luxuriant in potato or turnip fields 
than in cornfields, so far as my experience goes, but I never before or since 
saw it in such quantity as in the field above-mentioned. It is thus described 
by Ray: — ' Lamium cannablno folio, flore amplo hiteo, labio purpureo.' 
W. FowLKR, Liversedge Vicarage, i6th November 1S99. 

Galeopsis versicolor in mass.— Apropos of Mr. Burton's interesting 
note in the November 'Naturalist' (ante, page 330), I may record that in 
my experience Galeopsis versicolor Curt, has been what Colias ednsa and 
Macroghssa stellatarum are to the lepidopterist, a species of singularly 
irregular occurrence. I remember a field above Valle Crucis Abbey, near 
Llangollen, being pointed out to me In 1863 as a locality for it, but it was 
considered a rare plant, and I did not meet with it anywhere else in a wide 
district of which my then residence, Oswestry, in Salop, w^as the centre. But 
in 1865 it sprang up everywhere in profusion in cultivated fields and on road- 
side rubbish heaps, in tens of thousands. The plants ran usually about two 
feet high — or that might be their average — and the flowers were magnificent 
in size and colouring. During 1866 the species was still abundant, though 
less so than in 1S65. In the following years it returned' to its original 
scarcity; indeed, I do not recollect seeing it again while I remained in 
Oswestry, which was till the summer of 1869. But in J875, during a visit, 
I again found it in plenty in the neighbourhood of Trevor Hall, near 
Ruabon, and have no record or memory o^ tlien seeing it elsewhere. 

During my residence at York, 1877-1882, I was familiar with a consider- 
able circuit of country round that city, hut met with C. versicolor once only. 
That was in October 1878, in an apparently neglected beanfield near 
Riccall, which contained several hundreds of plants still in flower, but 
with blossoms less finely developed than those at Oswestry in 1865- 
During the twenty -one years which have since elapsed, I have not 
again observed the species, or at any rate fail to remember having done so. 
William Whitvi'ELL, Balham, London, S.W., 8th November 1899. 

jS'aturalist. 



s 



36 

EXTRACTS FROM A CONCHOLOQIST'S NOTEBOOK. 



WILLIAM NELSON, Hon.M.C.S.. 
Cross^aies, Leeds ; Ex-President of Leeds Conchological Club. 



5-— TO WHINMOOR IN SEARCH OF LIMN/EA GLABRA. 

At the latter end of April 1899 I started after dinner with 
my friend Mr, G. Walker, of Stanks : we went aloi 



<r 



rass-gfrown lane leading to Whinmoor, and after proceeding 
along this most rugged of roads for some little distance, we 
turned along a footpath to the right across some fields. As we 
went slowly along we disturbed a weasel, which crossed an 
angle of the field and disappeared in a dry dyke by the hedge-side. 
We then reached the historic Cock Beck, which we crossed by a 
small wooden bridge ; here we stopped some time, and, examin- 
ing some small stones where the beck runs swiftly, found a 
number of Ancyhis JIuviatilis. 

Leaving here we entered an old lane, each side of which is 
lined by honey-suckle plants and rose-bushes, both of which 
were putting forth their foliage for the coming season ; the 
wayside was further enlivened and beautified by a number of 
bushes of gorse with their golden-coloured flowers. Having 
arrived close to the railwav brid*jfe, we looked around for some 
signs of a pond, and at the far side of the field towards Morwick 
Hall we saw indlcatiorts of on^ ; my companion being the most 
^gile crossed to examine and signalled me to follow. We found 
the pond a rather small one; evidently it had been dug for cattle, 
^or though full of water there seemed to be no apparent source 
from which it was supplied. The shallow end had a quantity oi 
long grass growing In it which lay along the surface and at the 
deeper end, water-cress aijd other aquatic plants. The first dip 
of the net fished up a number of Phinorbis cantor lus^ the next 
brought in addition Limn<ra peregra and one specimen of Limtuea 
jrldlyni ; this at once whetted my. appetite for more, but after a 



niost diligent search only three examples were secured. The 
deeper end of the pond produced Planorhis umbilicatus and 
Lhmicea peregra ; here Planorbis confortiis was almost absent, 
being nearly confined to the grassy shallow end. The associa- 
tioii of species here is in my experience unique, Physa hypnorum 
and Planorbis spirorbis being both absent. 

The clouds had been for some time gathering in a threatening 
manner, so we deemed it best to return to the lane again, where 
we secured our first flowers of Anemone ncmorosa. My com- 

Oecember j8ch>. 



364 Noies — Mollusca, 

panion seemed to have an innate faculty for findings bird's nests, 
and was continually pointing them out to me, and before leavintr 
me in the old lane leading from the Barwick road to Manston 
he pointed out to me a robin's nest built beside this busy road ; 
standing a few yards away we watched the parent bird sitting" 
on its eggs, and left hoping that no marauding youngster would 
discover its snug home. 




NOTES— MOLLUSCA. 

Planorbis corneas at Skipton. — When in Skipton on Tuesday, 
14th March 1899, my friend, Mr. J. J. Wilkinson, and myself went down 
the Skipton Beck, which has been straig"htened by the local authorities to 
prevent the floodinij of the lands which adjoin it, to study the lateral 
corrosion of its banks by the water. Amongst other peculiarities, we 
noticed a hig-h and wide line of flood debris, amongst which we found 
a gfreat number of Planorbis corneus L,, in various stages of growth, con- 
taining^ the contracted bodies of the animals. Many of the shells were 
broken, as if by birds in search of the contained animals, and we noticed 
several jackdaws in the fields through w^hich the beck runs. 

We suspected that these molluscs had been washed out of some still 
water by a flood which happened some ten days previous to our visit. The 
record, even as it stands, is of interest. — Henry Crowther, The Museum, 
Leeds, nth x\pril 1S99. 

[It would be of great interest if Mr. Wilkinson, or some local naturalist, 
would ascertain the source whence the shells in this flood-refuse were 
derived, i.e., where^ibout near Skipton the species occur, and wliether 
the species is a true native of the district. — Eu. Nat.] 

With the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union at Stutton Carrs.— On 

the loth of June 1899 I arrived cit Stutton Station, and taking the road to the 

right just touching the end of the village, I was soon beside the old mill, 

at)d found that I was very fortunate in the dry weather, two previous visits 

to this locality having jointly yielded three small examples oi Linuuea pcrcgra 
only. 

Ox\ the present occasion, crossing the osier-beds which are here cut 
down, I was enabled to reach the water that supplied the mill, and was at 
once gladdened by the sight of very fine examples of Limntea peregriu 
I did not search long before Z. auricularla appeared amongst them. They 
were rather small, but characteristic specimens. Numerous Z. pahistris 
were lying scattered about on the drying- but yet rather soft mud. Con- 
tinuing my search along the almost 'dry bed "of the water-course, and 
sweeping the net amongst the Equiseta where it was possible to do so, 
I obtained Planorbis alhiis very sparingly, and Physa fonfinaJis rather more 
commonly. In the oozy mud at the bottom myriads of Valvuta piscinftUs^ 
of various sizes have their home ; here also I obtained examples of 
Pisidlum fan finale. 

Turning back again and getting to the other side of the mill I found 
Byihinia tentandata. Searching: the margin of the Cock Beck at this 
point yielded nothing, which is soon fully explained when a few ducks came 
gruilng along the water. 

Having now spent from two to three hours here in the hot sunshine 
I was glad to seek shelter under the dense foliag^e oi a horse chestnut tree, 
which by-the-by was in full bloom, here while in the cool shade I sat ami 
atched the erratic flight of the white butterflies intermixed with the more 
steady flight of the beautifully-coloured male Orange-tip. When cleaning 
the shells on arrival at home I was pleased to find attached to the shell of 
L, auricidaria ti single example oi Ancylus lacustris, — Wm. NklsoN, Cross- 
gates, 12th June 1899. 

Natiir;ilist, 



3% 



THE SOURCE OF 

r 

THE LINCOLNSHIRE COAST BOULDERS. 



ALFKEO HAKKER. M.A., F.G.S.. 

St, John'^ College, Camht'idge. 



It appears from Mr, Burton's communication In the Xovember 
number of * The Naturalist' that he and Mr. Wheeler still 
reject the idea that boulders hav^e been transported coastwise 
across the Humber mouth. As I think they have not quite 
appreciated the cog-ency of the argument, I will venture to 
re-state it more pointedly. 

It is admitted that the Holderness coast is, and always 
has been, rapidly wasting. Mr. Wheeler thinks that I have 
exag-g-erated the amount of this waste, but It is easy to make 
a rough calculation from approximate data. Taking the 
average loss at one yard, the average height of the cliffs at ten 
feet, and the length of coast-line from Bridlington to Kilnsea at 
thirty-five miles— all well within the mark — I find the amount of 
boulder-clay removed in a century to be more than two millions 
of tons. If we further suppose 10,000 years to have elapsed 
smce the Glacial Period, and estimate the boulders at one- 
twentieth of the whole mass, we have ten millions of tons oi 
boulders to account for. 

While the fine material is rapidly washed away, the boulders 
travel slowly southward along the coast. The}' can be traced 
as far as Spurn Point, where, under existing conditions, they 
accumulate. The headland is composed essentially of material 



thus collected, and is steadily extending southward. On this 
point there is no need to call Camden Into court, for w^e have at 
least four official surve^^s from 1684 onward, and these prove an 
extension oi more than a mile-and-a-half in two hundred years. 
Now it is manifest that this process cannot ^o on for long in 



the future, and cannot have gone on for long in the past. Spurn 
Point must be only a temporar}' resting-place for the boulders: 
what then becomes of them ultimately? Mr. Wheeler suggests 
that 'many of them, in being rolled about, get ground to sand' ; 
but, if this occurs to any extent, it must be while the boulders 
are on their journey to Spurn, not after they have reached 
that resting-place, and so it cannot help to solve the problem* 
Mr. Reid's explanation, which I quoted in my former note, 
seems Xo be the only possible deduction from the^ facts. 

December 1899. 



366 Petty: Early Notices of Yorkshire Hydrozoa. 

Further, the cycle of events as pictured by Mr, Reid, explanis 
not only where the Yorkshire coast boulders go to, but also 
where those on the Lincolnshire coast come from ; and in reject- 
ing it, Mr. Burton is bound to furnish alternative answers to 
both questions. To show that similar boulders occur embedded 
in the boulder-clays of Lincolnshire is not enough. It must also 
be shown that such clays are found in places w^here they are 
exposed to marine erosion. The distribution of the boulders 

L 

along the Lincolnshire coast is also a point of importance, and 
here the large shingle beach of Donna Nook is a crucial test. 
The stones there cannot have come from the warp-covered shore 
of the Humber, and any accumulation of boulders derived from 
the Lincolnshire coast itself must be sought southward, not 
in the extreme north. 

There is one more significant point which has been over- 
looked. The Lincolnshire coast boulders, according to Mr. 
Burton, are mostly of small size : of the twenty specimens 

■ 

which he has described, none measured more than five inches. 
This accords with the supposition that they have travelled far. 
The boulders embedded in the Lincolnshire boulder-clay, as 
described by Mr. Wheeler, include some of large dimensions: he 
records one six feet in length, besides ammonites more than 
a foot In diameter. A collection of boulders on the shore, if 
derived from an immediately local source, ought to have a fair 
proportion, and indeed more than a fair proportion, of the large 
ones. This Is the case on the Yorkshire coast; but, so far as 
our information goes, it does not seem to be the case in 
Lincolnshire. 



NO TE-H YDROZOA . 

Early Notices of Yorkshire Hydrozoa.^I do not know how many 

references there are in 'The Naturahst ' to Scarborough Hydrozoa, and 
the following may have already been entered as old records for that place. 
The modern name is g-iven first : 

Sertularia filicida E.&S. 'It is commonly found on the coast of Scar- 
boroug-h, in Yorkshire.' Ellis & Solander, Nat. Hist, of . . . Zoophytes, 
1786, p. 57. Same name, Hincks' H, Z., 265, * Common . . . Scar- 
borong^h, P'iley, etc' 

Sertularia cupressina L. * The * Sea-Cypress ' [Ellis's name] is chiefly 
found in deep water on the coast of Yorkshire . . . ' etc., Ellis & Solander, 
p. 39. Hincks, p. 272, says, 'Common on Yorkshire coast.* 

Thuiariu thuja L, 'They are found on the coast of Scotland and in the 
North of Eng-land, particularly about Scarborouj^h, wherfe the fishermen 
have given them the name of Bottle-brushes/ Ellis, Corallines, 1755» p- ^^• 
*A prevalent northern form/ Hincks' H. Z., 276. 

Phinndaria fndescens E,&S. *This Coralline was found at Scarboroug^h, 
Ellis & Solander, 1786, p. 55, as Sertularia /. Hincks' H. Z., 308, says, 
' Rare on Yorkshire Coast, Air. Bean has dredg^ed it at Scarborough. 
S. L. Petty, Ulverston, 3rd November 1899. 



Naturalijit, 



367 



FUNGUS FORAY AT SUTTON, NEAR ASKERN 

25th, 26th, and 27th SEPTEMBER 1899. 



CHARLES CROSSLAND. F.L.S.. 
Halifax; Hon. Sec. Voykshire Mycologtial Committee. 



The Annual Fung-us Foray was held at Sutton, near Askern. 
The selection of the district, under the advice of Mr, W. Denison 
Roebuck, F.L.S., was a most happy one. To further ensure the 
success of the meeting-, Mr, Roebuck recommended that the 
headquarters be at Sutton village, situated in the heart of 
the district to be worked, and by arrangement the house of Miss 
Sorby was placed at the disposal of the Mycological Committee 
and friends. The committee turned up in good force. The 
gathering included Messrs. G. Massee, F.L.S., of the Herba- 
rium, Royal Gardens, Kew ; Harold Wagfer, F.L,S., Leeds; 
U. Bairstow, Halifax ; W- N. Cheeseman, Selby ; A. Clarke, 
Huddersfield ; Thos. Gibbs, Sheffield ; Thos. Hev, Derby ; 



J 



*_-F 



J 



and C. Crossland, F^L.S,, Halifax, Secretary. Letters express- 
mg- regret at their inability to be present were received from the 

Rev. W. Fowler, M.A., Liversedge; Mr. Thos. Birks, Yarm- 
on-Tees, and Mr. M. B. Slater, J.P,, Maltom 

Permission was obtained from Mr. F. Bacon Frank, Camp- 
sail; Mr. C. E. Charlesworth, Owston; Mr. G. B. C. Yarborough, 
Camps Mount ; Mr. P. S. Neville, Shelbrook, and other land- 
owners, to visit their woods and parks. 

Mr. A* Clarke and the writer spent the previous week-end in 
Surveying- the district in preparation for the general foray, so 
that the work should be carried on with as little loss of time as 
possible. 

With all these excellent woods, parks, and pastures to 
explore, and all close at hand, this would have been one of the 
choicest districts ever visited by this section of the Union, had 
not the preceding^ dry season kept back its undoubtedly rich 
. fungus flora. In many places, both in woods and bare pastures, 
the ground was parched and cracked ; crev^ices one to two 
inches wide were common. In the drier parts of woods the 
dead leaves and twig's crackled under one's feet with a dis- 
appointing crispness. The light rains of the previous week had 

ft 

improved matters a little in the moister places. 

Five of the members, including Mr, Massee, arrived on the 
scene on the 23rd, the remainder on the 25th. Monday's pro- 
ceedings commenced, after the arrival of the 10,12 train at 

December tSgo. 



368 Crossland : Fungus Foray at Sutton, near Askern. 

Askern, by the investig^ation of Campsall woods. The game- 
keeper's son acted as guide and pointed out a few special places 
where three, at any rate, of the chief combinations favouring 
the growth of fungi prevailed, viz., plenty of fallen trunks and 
branches, ground moisture, and shade. Here a few choice 
things were picked up, including one of the earth-stars, Gcaster 
Tnichelianus W. G. Sm. ; this occurred in quantity, specimens In 
all stages of development being collected. There were also 
micro-species in abundance about, and a few Agarics. ■ Parks 
and pastures, however, were found to be almost destitute of 
fungi ; ev^en the ubiquitous Stropharia seniiglobata Batsch was 
somewhat scarce. Species o^ Hygrophoriis^ Leptonia, EntolomUy 
and pasture-land lovers of several other genera were con- 
spicuous by their absence. Not a single Hygrophorns was 
collected. The moist places in the woods had to be relied upon, 
as was the case last year at Harewood and East Keswick. 

Mr. Clarke was fortunate in picking up in a wood near 
Sutton a peculiar Hyphomycete resembling a large Stilbiint ; 
the genus {Symphosira) to which it belongs is new to Britain, 
and the species new to science. There was plenty of it, and 
good specimens were gathered ; its life-history is in process of 



being worked out, and will be duly reported upon at some 
future time. 

The woods were not so well stocked with Agarics as 
one could have wished, but a few choice places were come 
across which yielded very well. The bright-looking Lactarius, 
Z. volemiis Fr., was met with abundantly in one part of Owston. 
These woods were visited on Tuesday, Quite a number of 
interesting species were discovered in an old quarry ; here 
Helotium faghieum (Pers.) on beech-mast was much in evidence. 
Xylaria carpophila Fn, strange to most of the party, was also 
found plentifully on the same matrix. In one place Clavaria 
cinerea^ in the best of condition, was so plentiful that ox\^ could 
scarcely put a foot down without crushing- a tuft. This being 
a delicious edible species advantage was taken of its abundance, 
4nd a good dish gathered. It was nicely prepared by the 
hostess, and fully came up to expectation. Nectria aj/inis, 
a new Yorkshire species, was found at Sutton. 

The unsightly Sycamore Leaf-Blotch, Rhytisjna acerinuni 
(Pers.), was exceedingly common in many places. Young 
Sycamores were noticed having their leaves so covered with big 
black blotches that the trees appeared at a distance as if they 
naturally bore black leaves. This fungus does not mature on 
the fallen leaves until the following spring, thus there is ample 
opportunity in the meantime to collect and burn diseased leaves, 

Naturalist, 



Crossland : Fungus Foray at Sutton^ near Askcf'ii, 369 

and so arrest its recurrence. The rarer Rhytisrna punctatum 
was also present on sycamore leaves. 

A field of clover near Campsall was noticed to be badly 



infected with the Clover Leaf-Spot, Psendo-pezisa irifolii Fckl. 
Most of the leaves were more or less scabbed with this fiing-al 
parasite. The disease greatly reduces the quality of this 
valuable forage plant. Both these plant scourges are referred to 
in Massee's recent * Text Book of Plant Diseases ' (Duckworth 



and Co.). This most valuable, practical book ought to be in 
the hands of every forester, farmer, and gardener in the country. 
It deals with the various plant diseases in language free from 
unnecessary technicalities, and, in most cases, figures are given 
of the parasite. In all cases methods of prevention are added. 

On Wednesday a portion of Burghwallis woods was looked 
through with fairly satisfactory results. On the same day a 
second visit was paid to a good corner of Owston Woods, when 
Helvetia epliippinm L^v. and a few others were added to the list. 
In all z'^S species were collected. 

On the Monday evening Mr. Massee gave a paper on ' The 
Modern Tendency of Mycological Study,' which has already- 
been printed in 'The Naturalist' (November 1S99, pp. 337-339). 

On the Tuesday evening Mr. Wager spoke on * Fertilisation 
in the Fungi,' in which he pointed out that in the Alga-like 
fungi such as Peronospora and Cystopus there is a very 
distinct sexual differentiation of male and female organs, and 
the phenomena of fertilisation are in every way comparable In 
their essential characteristics to those which occur in the higher 
plants. In some of the simpler forms of fungi there is a much 
less complete sexual differentiation ; and in the higher forms, 
such as the Hymenomycetes, Ascomjcetes, etc., there is what 
may be termed a pseudo-fertilisation, which replaces physio- 
logically the true sexual process, and may have been derived 
from it. The study of fertilisation processes in the fungi offers 
a viide field of research for the investigation of the problems 
connected with sexual processes. Mr. Clarke exhibited a fine 
series of stereoscopic photographs of fungi, some of which he 



has prepared from photographs taken at previous Y.N.U. 
Fungus Forays. The Secretary had a collection of water-colour 
drawings, accompanied by descriptions and notes oi micro-fungi. 



On the Wednesday evening the committee was nominated for 
re-election for the ensuing year, with Mn Massee as President 
and Mr. C. Crossland as Secretary. It was decided to recom- 
mend Mulgrave Woods, near Whitby, as the place for next 
year's meeting. Thanks to the local landowners concluded 
a very pleasant and successful meeting. 

y 

December 1899. ^ 






Crossland : Fungus Foray at Stitfon, near Askern 



111 the following" list of species collected the Hymenomycetes 
are arranged according- to Fries' system, but the names are as in 
Massee's British Fungus Flora, 

In all cases the initial B. indicates Burghwallis ; C, Camp- 
sail ; O. Owston ; S. Sutton, 

BASIDIOM YCETES. 

MYMENOM YCETES. 



A GA RICA CEA CEJE. 

Lepiota rachodes Vitt- O. & C. 
Lepiota acutesquaniosa Wein. 
Lepiota cristata Alb.&Schw, C. 
Armillaria mellea Flo. Dan. O. 
Trlcholonia rutilans Scha^ff. S. 
Tricholoma carnea Bull. S. 
Clitocybe hirneola Fr. O. 
Clitocybe odora Bull. S, 
Laccaria laccata Fr. O. 
Collvbia radicata Bull. C. 
Collybia foedens Kalch. S, 
Collvbia velutipes Curt. O. & B. 
Collybia confluens Pers. C. 
Collybia conig-ena Pers. 
Collybia cirrhata Schum. 
Collybia nummularia Fr. 



C. 



Collybia dryophila Bull. 
Mycena elegfans Pers. O. 
Mycena pura Pors. O. 



S. 
S. 

S, 

s. 



Mycena gypsea Fr. S. 
Mycena rug-osa Fr, S. & O. 
Mycena g-alericwlata Scop. 

S., C, O. & B 

Also the terrestial form. S., C, & O 

Mycena atrocyanea Batj^ch. S, 

Mycena alcalina Fr. S. 

Mycena stannea Fn O. 

Mycena filopes Bull. S. 

Mycena h^eniatopoda Fr. S. & O. 
Myce 



sanguinolenta Fr. 



C. 



Mycena galopoda Fr. S. &: O. 
Mycena stylobates Pers. C. 



Mycena discopoda Lev. S. 
Mycena setosa Sow. C, 
Ompfialia campanelia Batsch. 
Oniphalla fibula Bull. S. 
Pleurotus clrcinatus Fr. O. 



S. 



Pleurotus septicus Fr. B. 
Pluteus cervinus Schseff. 
Pluteus ephebius Fr. O. 
Clitopllus prunulus Scop. 
Clitopilus cancrinus Fr. O. 



S. &0. 



o. 



H 

Leptonia forniosa Fr. C. 
Nolanea plsciodora Ces. C. 
Claudopus variabilis Pers. C. ' 
Pholiota togfularis Bull. O. 
Pholiota comosa Fr. C. 
Pholiota spectabilis Fr. S. & O. 
Inocvbe cincinnata Fr. S. 
Inocybe pyriodora Pers. C. 
Inocvbe incarnata Bres. C. 
Inocybe echinata Roth. C. 
Inocybe g'eophylla Sow, C. 
Hebeloma crustiilineforme Bull. 



c. & o. 



Flammula picrea Fr. O. 
Galera tener Schasff. C. & O. 
Ciaiera antipa Lasch. S. 



Galera hypnorum Batsch. 
Tubaria furt'uracea Pers. 



S. k O, 



C. 



O. 



S. 



Ag-aricus elvensis B. &. Br. 

Ag^ancus arvensis SchsefF. O. 

Agaricus campestris Linn, S. 

Ag-aricus silvaticus Schieff, S, 

Stropharia oeruginosa Curt. S. & C. 

Stropharia semiglobiita Batsch. 

S., C, O. & B. 

Hypholoma sublateritia Scha^ff. 

S., C.&O. 

Hypholoma fascicularis Huds. 

S., C. O.&B. 

Hypholoma velutina Pers. S. & O- 

H}'pholoma appendiculala Bull* 

Psiloeybe ericea Pers. B. 
Psilocybe semilanceata Fr, S. 

Psiloeybe spadicea Fr. B. 
Psilocybe faenisecii Pers, S. 
Psathyra elata Massee, O. 
Psathyra mastigor B.^^Br. O. 
Psathyra spadiceo-grisoa Schaiff, S. 
Psathyra semivestita B.i.S;Br. B. 
Annellaria seperata (Linn.) Karst, 

S. & O. 

Paneolus retlrugis Fr. S. 
Paneolus campanulatus Linn. S. 
Psathyrella gracilis Fr. S. & O. 
Psathyrella disseminata Pers. O. 
Psathyrella atoniata Fr. C-_^^^__ 

Naturalist, 



Crossland : Fiuigus Foray at Sutton, near Askern. 



371 



Copnnus comatus Fr. S. & O. 
Coprinus atrameiitarius Fr. S. & C, 
Coprinus soboliferus Fr. O, 
Coprinus niveus Pers. S. 
Coprinus micaceus Bull. S. & O. 
Coprinus radiatus Bolton. S.,C. & B. 
Copnnus stercorarius Bull. C. 
Copnnus plicatilis Curt. 

S., C, O. & B, 

Cortinarius saturninus Fr. C. 
Paxillus involutus Batsch. S. & C. 
Lactarius pyro^alus Bull. O. 
Lactarius quietus Fr, O. 
Lactarius volemus Fr. O. 

I 

Lactarius mitissimus Fr. S, 
Lactarius subdulcis Bull. S. 
Lactarius subuinbonatus Lind. O. 
Russula nigricans Bull. C. & O. 
Russula adusta Pers. O. 
Russula rosacea Fr. S. 
Russula cyanoxantha Schseff. O. 
Russula fellea Fr. S. 
Russula emetica Fr. O. 
Russula g^ranulata Cooke. C. 
Russula frag-ilis Pers. O. 
Russula lutea Huds. O. 
Cantharellus aurantiacus Wulf. S. 
Marasmius urens Bull. S. 
Marasmius peronatus Bolton. S. • 
Marasmius oreades Yr. S. tS: O. 
Marasmius candidus Bolton. C. 



Marasmius rotula Scop. O. & B. 
Marasmius androsaceus Linn. C. 

POLYPORACEM. 

Boletus badius Fr, S. & O. 
Boletus chrysenteron Fr. S. 
Boletus subtomentosus Linn. S. 

Boletus edulis Bull. S. 
Fistulina hepatica Fr. S. 
Polyporus rufescens Fr. O. 
Polyporus squamosus Fr, S. <SL O- 
Polyporus varius Fr. S. 



Polyporus s^i^^anteus Fr. S. 
Polyporus hispidus Fr. S, 
Polyporus nidulans Fr. S. 
Polyporus betulinus Fr. S. 
Polyporus adustus Fr. C, 
Polyporus chioneus Fr. S. & C. 
Fomes fomentarius Fr. S. 
Fomes annosus Fr. S. & C. 
Femes ferrug^inosus (Fr.) Massee. 



Polystictus versicolor Fr. S. 
Poria vaporaria Fr. S., C, O. 
Poria vulg-aris Fr. O, 
Poria medulla-panis Fr. S. 
Dfedalea quercina Pers, S. 
Merulius corium Yv, S. 

tiVDNACEJE. 

Hydnum viride Fr. S. & O. 
Hydnum nodulosum Fr. C. 
Hydnum niveuni Pers. S. »!v C. 
Hvdnum arirutum Fr. C. 
Grandinla o-ranuJosa Fr. S. <\: O, 

THBL EPHORA CE^, 
Coniophora putoana Mass, O. 
Stereum hirsutuni Fr. S. 
Stereuni purpureum Pers. S. 
Stereum sang^uinolentuni Fr. O. 
Stereum spadiceum Fr, S. & C. 
Corticium calceuni Fr. S. & C, 



& B. 



Corticium sebaceum (Berk.) Mass. 

S.&O. 

Corticium arachnoideum Berk. S. 
Corticium sauibuci Fr. O. i\: C. 



Corticium polyg:onium Fr. S. 
Corticium carlylei Mass. S. 
Corticium comedens Fr. S. & O. 
Peniophora ochracea (Fr.) Mass, S. 
Peniophora cinerea (Berk.) Cooke. 

S. .S: C. 

CLAVARiACBjE, 

Clavaria cinerea Bull. O. 
Clavaria cristata Bull. O. 
Clavaria insequalis Flo. Dan. O. 
Odontia fimbriata Pers, S. & C. 

TREMEL U^ACE^. 

Exidia recisa Fr. C. 
Tremella lutescens Pers. C. 
Dacrvomyces deliquescens Duby. 



C. 



o. 



Dacryomyces stillatus Sees. S 
Calocera viscosa Fr, S. v^ C. 
Calocera cornea Fr. S. & C. 

QASTEROM VCETES. 

Scleroderma vuli^aro Fr. 

S., C. .1 o. 

Sphserobolus stellatus Tode. 

S.,C.& B. 

Lycoperdon pyriforme Scha^fF. 

S. & O. 

Geastcr michelianus W.G.Sm. C. 
Ithvphallus impudicus Fiscb. S.&C. 



r>ecember 1899. 



372 



Crossland : Fungus Foray at Sutton, near Askern. 



HEMl-BASIDfOM YCETES. 

Hirneola auncula-juda,* Berk. S. l^ C 

UREDINA CEJB. 



Uromyces fabse (Pers.). S. 
l^uccinia violfe (Schum.). S, <S: C. 
Puccinia menthae Pers. O. 
Puccinla sanicula^ Grev. C. 
Puccinia poariim Xeilijoii. S. 
Puccinia suaveolens (Pers.)- C. 
Puccinia hieracii (Schum.)- S. ^ 
Puccinia sonchi Rob. S. 
Phrag:midium violaceum (Schultz). 

S. vS: C, 

- ASCOMYCETES. 

DISCO M YCETA CEJE. 

Helvella ephipplum Lev. O. 
Peziza subrepanda Ck. & Phlll. C* 
Humaria granulosa Bull. S. tJi: C. 
Dasyscypha nivea (Hedw.). S- 
Dasyscypha hyalina (Pers.), O, 
Dasyscypha calycina (Schiuii.). B. 



Eryslphe umbelliferarum De Bary. 

C.,S.,0. & B. 

Eryslphe cichoracearum DC. 

C, S., O. & B. 
Microsphseria g;rossulariae (\A"allr.). 

C. 
HYPOCRtACBJE. 

Hypomyces roselUis Tul. O. 

Hypomyces aurantius Tul. S. 

Hypocrea rufa (Pers.). O. & S. 

Nectria cinnabarina (Tode). 

S.,0. c^ C. 

Nectria episphseria (Tode). O. & C. 

Nectria affinis Cke. S. 



Lasiosphaeria ovina (Pers.). S. 
Eutypella prunastri (Pers.). S, 
Eutypa lata (Pers.), S., C. & O. 
Xylaria polymorpha (Pers.). S.&O. 
Xylaria carpophila (Pers.). O. 
Xylaria hypoxylon Linn. S. 8c O. 
Sphairia pulvis-pyrius (Pers.). C- 



Cnlorosplenuun a„^ru"inosum (Oed.). /-^ i -v i • * /c ^ c <?. r 

^ Q Ophibolus acuminata (Sow). S. cV L. 



Helotium pailescens Fr. O. 
Helutiuin lutescens (Hedwi^). C, 
Helotium virg-ultorum var. fructi- 
gcnum (Bull.). O. 

HeIotiumcyathoideum(Bull.). S,tK:C. 
Helotium scutulum (Pers.). O. 
Helotium epiphyllum (Pers.). C. 
Helotium fa^jineum (Pers.)^ O. 
Belonidium puUum Phill. e\: Keith. S. 
Mollisia cinerea (Batsch), C. & O. 
Mollisia li^nicola Phill. S. 
Mollisia failax (Desm.). C. 
Pseudopeziza trifolii Fckl. C. 
Ascobolus furfuraceus Pers. S. 
Ascophaniis g^ranuliformis (Crouan), 

O. 



Diatrj'pella discoidea 



(Cooke & Phill.). B, 

DOTHIDEACa,^. 

Dicha.*na quercina (Vers,), S. & O- 

PHYCOMYCETES. 

Pilobolus crystallinus Tode. S. & C. 
Sporodinia asperg^illus Schroet. B. 

H YPHOM YCE TA CEJB. 

Stilbum fimetarium B.& Br. S. 
Tubercularia zesculi Opiz. C. 



^g;erita Candida Pens. 



S. 



Ascophanus carneus (Pers.). S. 
Orbilia auricolur (Blox.). . O. .1 C. 



Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.). 



S., C, O. & B. 



MYXOGASTRES. 

Stemonitls friesiana DeBary. C 
Perichaena depressa Lib. O. 

Pers. S. 



Rhytisma punctc'itum (Pers.). 



S., C. & O. 



P YRENOM YCE TA CEJE. 

PERISPORIACBJB, 

Sph^erotheca pannosa (Wallr.). 



S. .S: C 



Arcyria puhic 

Arcyria uicarnata (Pers.) Rost. O. 

Trichia varia Rost. S. 
Trichia scabra Rost. C. 
Didymium microcarpon (Fr.) Rost. 

van ni^vvpes, O. 
Leocarpus fragilis (Dicks.). O. 

Fuligo varians Rost. S. 

Naturalist, 



CLASSIFIED INDEX. 



373 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Archer, H. T., 20, 76, 122, 329. 
Armitt, Miss Mary L., 5, 36, 340. 

Backhouse Jas.,F.L.S.,F.2.s.,M. B.C. u,, 3. 
Banks, Ernest, 112. 

Bayford, E. a, 32, 332. 

Bennett Arthur, f.l,s., 161, 3S3^ 
Brady, W. E., 124. 

Brog-den, late T. J, H,, 357, 

Burton, F. M.,f.l,s.,F-G.s., 105,325, 329, 

330- 
Burton, John, 15. 
^^^^ton, J. J., 163. 

Butterfield, W. Ruskin, 75. 

CalKim, W., 172. 

Clarke, Wm. Ea^le, f.l.s.,m.b,O.U., 277, 
Clayton-Cockburn, N., J. P., D.L., 285. 
Cole, Rev. E. Maule, M.A., F.G.S., 361. 
Coombe, J. Newton, 49. 

Corbett, H. H., M.R.c.s,, 164, 2SS, 298, 
298, 304. 

Bordeaux, John, J. P., f.r.g.s., M.B.o.r., 

n ^r' H\75» 80, T14, 14S, 173, 237. 
Crofts, W. II., 15. 

Crossland, Charles, F.L.S., 27, 367. 

Crow, Benjamin, 276, 303- 

Crowther, Henry, F.R.M.S., 364. 
Curtis, J., 4. 

Dutton, Robert, 288. 

Foster, Prof. Sir Michael, K.CB., M.A., 

D.C,L,, LL.D., etc., 209. 

Fowler, Rev. WilHam.M. A., 229, 286,362, 
Fowler, Rev. Canon W. W., M.A., F.L.s,, 

Fnt-nd, Rev. Hilderic, 1x5, 330. 

Grabham, Oxley, M.A.. 20, 69. 
Gregson, Wni,,V.G.s., 15. 

Handby, J. Walling:, 32. 
Harker, Alfred, m.a., F.G.S., 

^^=55^157. 365- 
Hawkins, John, 48. 

Hawley, H. M., 67. 

Haworth-Booth, Lieut-Coh B. B., J. p., 
D.i„, 223, 274, 279, 

Herdman, Wm., F,G,s,, 124. 

December tS^c. 



53> M9f 






Hey, Rev. W. C, m.a., 123, 

Hobkirk, Charles P., F. L.S., 304. 
Hodg-son, William, A.L.s,, i, 4, 275, 291, 

304- 
Howarth, James H., f.g.s,, 13. 

Ingham, William, B.A., 61, 64, 117, 

Jackson, J. Arthur, 103. 

Kee^an, P. Q., LUD., 125, 349. 
Kendall, Percy P., f.g.s., 13. 

Lawton, Fred, 20. 

Lees, F. Arnold, M.R.cs., 299, 333, 

Lewing-ton, W., 52, 67, 286. 
Lofthouse, T. Ashton, 113. 
Lowther, J. R., 329. 

McLean, Kenneth, 129, 176. 
Martindale, Joseph A., 79* 
Mason, James Eardley, 68, 176, 287, 288, 
Massee, George, f. l.s., 337. 
Murray, James, 288. 



B.A., 290, 298, 303, 303. 

N.M.C.S., 45, 77, 363, 



Neale, Joseph, 
Nelson, Wm., 



Oldham, Charles, M,c.s., 51, 298, 340. 



Painter, Rev. W. H., 177, 241. 

Parkin, G. W., 332. 

Pawson, Albert Henry, F.l.s., 




J 57' ^-'4 



Peacock, Rev. E. Adrian Woodruffe, 

WriUt F.L.S., F.G.S,, 65, 280, 285, 329, 
331. 

Peacock, Max, 276. 

Petty, S. Lister, 52, 52, 59, 171, 224, 224, 

33<>^ 330^ 332. 332' 366. 
Porritt, George T,, F.L.S., F.K.S., 19, 

32. 32. 48^ 5 f^ 5^^^76. 
Preston, Henry, F.G.s., 65, 289. 

Prior, W., 240. 






Ralfe, P., 76. 
Robinson, J. F., 15. 
Roebuck, W. Denison, f.l.s., 
Rowntree, James Henry, 298. 



240. 



374 



Classified Index, 



CONTRIBUTORS— ^:o«/mwt'^. 



Sales, Harold, 15. 
Shepjiard, Thomas, 16, 81, 305. 
Shulitreyj Rev. W. A., M.A., 162, 303, 304 
Soppitt, H. T., 27. 

Speig-ht, Harry, 15. 
Stabler, Georgfe, 124, 
Stiles, M. H,, 49. 
Stock, \V. F. Keating-, 339. 
Stow, Miss S. C, 274. 

Thomasson, John P., 293. 



Thornley, Rev. Alfred, M.A., f.l.s., 
F.E.S., 67, 165, 286, 293, 341. 

Walter, Rev. J. Conway, m.a., 66, 6j, 104, 
104, 148, 171, 172, 176, 273, 275, 279, 
292, 329. 

Waterfall, Charles, 103, 

Wellburn, David, 20. 

Whitehouse, Edwin, 276, 

Whit well, William, 362, iJQi, 

Wilkinson, Johnson, M.B.O.r., 279. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



Britten and Boulgfer. — First Supplement 

to Bioo;raphical Index of British and 

Irish Botanists, 288, 
Carring'ton, Edith. — The Farmer and 

the Birds, 47, 
Cleveland Nat. Field Club. — Record of 

Proceeding's for 1896-7-8, 340. 
De Tabley, Lord. — Flora of Cheshire, 

333; 

Flemings, Georg-e. — The Wanton Mutila- 
tion oi Animals, 47. 

Friedlander&Sohn. — NaturasNovitates 
for 1897 and 1898, 348. 

Hanbury and Marshall. — Flora of Kent, 

333- 
Hett, C. L. — Dictionary of Bird-Notes, 

60. 



Hodg-.son, Wm, — Flora of Cumberland, 

115, '^2iZ' 
Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' 

Society. — Transactions, No. j, 52. 
Lowerlson, Harry. — Sweet Briar Sprays, 

Manchester Museum. — Report for 1097- 

98, 12. 

Monckman, J.— Skertchly\s Geology, 

47- 

Norman, A. M.— Museum Xormanianum, 

47- 
Percival-Westell, W.— Everyone s 

Handbook of British Breeding: Birds, 

Simpson, Edward. — Insect Lives as tola 
by themselves, 60. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Eag-Ie Owl, shot at Skinningrove, 138. 
Nesting- Oak of Pied Flycatchers, phot. 
J. R. White, 10. 

Nesting-places of Cormorant, Boulby 
Cliff, 140. 

Nesting--place of Dipper in Loftus 

Woods, \2iZ' 

New British Fungi, del. C. Crossland, 

3^- 



Oak, Hollies, and Rowan, phot. J. R* 

White, 8. 
Portrait of late John Cordeaux, 278. 
Portrait-g^roup of J. Cordeaux, Claude 

Leatham, and K. McLean, 281. 
Portrait of late H. Bendelack Hewetson, 

237- 
Portrait of late H. T. Soppitt, 157. 



SPECIES NEW TO BRITAIN DESCRIBED IN THIS VOLUME. 

- - 

Barlaea modesta (Karst.), 27. 

Humaria rubens Boud., 27. 

Humaria deerata Sacc, 28 and fig;.s. 1-8, 

MoIIIsia pteriUina Karst, 28 and figs, 
18-21. 



Ascobolus Leveillei Boud., 29- 
Ascobolus (Spha^ridiobolus) Crosslandi 

Boud., 29 and fi^s. 9-13. 



SPECIES NEW TO SCIENCE DFLSCRIBED IN THIS VOLUME. 

Saccobolus g-ranulospermus sp. n., Soppitt and Crossland, 30 and fig's. 14-17" 

Naturalist, 



Classified Index, 



375 



CHESHIRE. 



Birds : Mag-pies as Foster-Parents of 
Game-Fowls, a Query, C. Oldham, 51. 

Flowering Plants: Critical Review of 

Lord De Tabley's Flora of Cheshire, 
F. Arnold Lees, 333-336 ; Notes on the 
Flora of Cheshire, A. Bennett^ 353-35^* 

Geology : Bibliog-raphy of Geology and 
Palaeontology for 1894, ^' Sheppard, 



81-102; for 1895, T. Sheppard, 305- 

3^4- 

Lepidoptera : Abundance of the Hum- 
ming-bird Hawkmothat AlderleyEd^e 
and in Cambridgeshire, C, Oidluim, 
298. 

Mollusca : Limax cinereo-niijer in 
Cheshire, C. Oldham, 340. 



CUMBERLAND. 



Birds: Lakeland Bird-Names, M. L, 

Armit, 36. 

Coleoptera : Bembidium schuppeli and 
other Bembidia near Lanercost, J. 

Murray, 288. 

FloweringPIantS: OccurrenceofRare 
Plants in Cumberland, \Vm. Hodgfson, 
1^3; Lobelia and Vac cinium in the Lake 
Country, Wm. Hod>^^on, 4 ; Lobelia 
Dortmanna in Lakeland, C. Waterfall. 
103; Review of Hodgson*s Flora of 
Cumberland, H. Friend, 115-116; the 
Bursting of the Buds in Sprinc,^^ p. Q. 



Kee 



Cl- 



an, 125-128; Flora o'l: Cumber- 



land, A. Bennett, 161-162 ; Bortree or 
Bottery-btish = Elder, S. L. Petty, 
iji ; Ray's and Nicholson's Early 
Cumberland Plant-Lists, S. L. Petty, 
224; Blea and Watendlath Tarns 'in 
Baker's Flora of the Lake District, 
A. H. Pawson, 224 ; Water-Piants as 
Land-Winners, A. H. Pawson, 225- 
22S ; Notes on Hodgson's Flora of 
Cumberland, W. Hoderson, 275; In- 
teresting- Botanical Finds in Cumber- 
land, W. Hodgson, 291-292 ; Double 
Ling at Ullswater, B. Crow, 303 ; 






Blea Tarn and Lobelia Dortmanna, 
W. Hodgson, 304 ; Blea Tarn, S, L. 
Petty, 330 ; Botanical \A'aifs at Braith- 
waite, near Keswick, H. Friend, 330; 
Review of Hodsrson's Flora of Cum- 
berland, F. Arnold Lees, ^3;^ ; The 
Chemistry of the Lakeland Trees, 
P. Q. Keegan, 349-352< 

Fungi : Squirrels feeding on Fungi, 
S. L. Petty, 52. 

Geology : Bibliograj^hy of Geology* and 
Palaeontology for 1894, T. Sheppard, 
81-98; for 1S95, T. Sheppard, 305- 
324; Chemical Notes on Lake District 
Rocks, I, The Ordovician Volcanic 
Series, A, Harker, 53-58; 2, Intrusive 
and Sedimentary Rocks, A. Harker, 
149-154 ; Lake District Rocks, addi- 
tional note, A. Harker, 156- 

Hydrozoa: Early Records for Cum- 
berland Hydrozoa, etc., S. L. Pett}^ 

-1 -> ^ 

Mammals : Squirrels and Fungi, S. L. 
Petty, 52. 

Persona! Notices: Death of Prof. H. 

Allevne Nicholson, 51. 



DERBYSHIRE. 



Characeae : Chara vulgaris in Derby- 
shire, W. H. Painter. 208. 

Ferns and Fern Allies: Notes Sup- 

plementary to the Flora of Derby- 
shire, W. H. Pauiter, 207-208. | 

Flowering Plants: Notes Supple- 
mentary to the Flora of Derbyshire, 
W, H. Painter, 177-208; Addenda and 
Corrigenda, \\\ H. Painter, 272. I 



Geology : Bibliography of Geo\o^' and 
Palaeontology for 1894, T. Sheppard, 
82-99 ; for 1895, T. Sheppard, 305-324. 

Mosses and Hepatics: Hypnum mol- 

luscum van fastigiatun) in Derbyshire, 
W- Ingham, 64; List of Derbyshire 
Mosses, W. H. Painter, 241-272. 

ichoptera: Halesus guttatipennls at 

.athkikiale, G. T. Porritt, 51. 



Trich 
L 



DURHAM. 



Birds: Little Gull on the Tyne, H. T. 
Archer, 122, 

Fungi: Geaster Bryant Ji at Dinsdale, 
W. F. K. Stock, 339. 

Geology : Bibliography of Geology and 

Pecemher 1899. 



PaI;eontoIog%' for 1894, T. Sheppard, 
81-98; for 1895, "T- Sheppard, 305- 
324; Chemical Notes on Lake District 
Rocks, I, The Ordovician Volcanic 
Series, A. Harker, 53-58, 



376 



Classified Index. 



LANCASHIRE 



Birds: Barred Warbler in Lancashire, 
W. R. Butterfield, 75 ; Is the Missel 
Thrush decreasing near Garstang, 
J. A. Jackson, 103 ; Cleverly-con- 
structed Thrush's Nest \\\ Lancashire, 
J. P. Thomassoji, 292. 

Flowerin?: Plants: The Florula of 

Bare, West Lancashire, F. Arnold 
Lees, 299-303. 



Qeology : Bibliography of Geolog"y and 
Palaeontology for 1894, T. Sheppard, 
81-103; for 1895, T. Sheppard, 305- 
324; Chemical Notes on Boulder at 
Manchester, A, Harker, 54, 

Museums: Notice of Report of Man- 
chester Museum for 1897-8, 12. 



LINCOLNSHIRE. 



Birds: Blrd-Xotes from the Humbyer 

District, J. Cordeaux, 21-26, Z'^Z^y 
173-176; Birds noted on Excursions 
of L.N.U., W. W. Fowler, 38, 39; 
Birds noted at Woodhall Spa, H. M. 
Hawley, 67 ; Perdix and Caccabis 
occunins^ together near Woodhall Spa, 
J. C. Walter, 104; Albino Birds near 
Horncastle, J. C. Walter, 172 ; King- 
fisher within City limits, Lincoln, 
J. Eardlev Mason, 176; Horncastle 
Bird-XotJs, J. C. Walter, 176; Un- 
usual Nesting-place of Spotted Fly- 
catcher near Grantham, Miss S. C. 
Stow, 274 ; Nightingales near Horn- 
astie, J. C. Walter, 279; Greenish 
Willow Warbler, Radde's Bush- 
Warbler and Green Sandpiper in 
Lincolnshire, E. A. W. Peacock, 283; 
Birds noted at Hartsholme, N. Clay- 
ton-Cockburn, 2S5 ; Colour-variety of 
Chaffinch at Stixwould, J. C. Walter, 
292 ; Late Singing of Nightingale 
near Gainsborough, F, M. Burton, 
329 ; Early Arrival of Migrants near 
Horncastle, J. C, Wcilter, 329 ; Relics 
of the Storm, Petrels near Grantham 
and in Leicestershire, E. A. W. 
Peacock, 329. 

Coleoptera : Monochammus sartor at 
Grimsby Docks, J. Curtis, 4; and at 
Lincoln, W, W. Fowler, 39; Beetles 
collected near Woodhall Spa, A. 
Thornley, 68; Beetles noted at Harts- 
holme, A. Thornley, 286. 

Diptera : Ravages of Dipterous pests 
in 1897, W. W, Fowler, 40; Diptera 
collected near Woodhall Spa, A. 
Thornley, 68 ; Lincolnshire Diptera, 
additions to Mr. Grimshaws Pre- 
liminary List of May and June 1898, 
A. T h o r n 1 ey , 34 1 -348. 

Ferns and Fern-Allies : Extinctions 

and Impending Extinctions of Lin- 
colnshire Ferns, W. Fowier, 232. 



Fishes: Fishes noted near Woodhall 
Spa and Tumby, J. C. Walter, 67; 
Enormous Skate brought into 
Grimsby, J. Cordeaux, 114; Fish of 
the Lincolnshire Wash and Fenland, 
T. J. H. Brogden, 357-36i- 

V 

Flowering Plants: Plants noted in 

1897 in Lincolnshire, W. W. Fowler, 
39; Plants noted at Woodhall Spa, 
E. A. W. Peacock, (^; Notes oi\ the 
Flora of Lincolnshire, W. Fow^ler, 
232-236 ; Lincolnshire Extinctions, 
E, A. W, Peacock, 283; Plants noted 
at Hartsholme, E. A. W, Peacock, 
286; Galeopsis versicolor in mass 
near Gainsborough, F. M* Burton, 
330; Non-Presence of Bilberry in 
the County, F. Arnold Lees, '^^^ ' 
Galeopsis versicolor in mass nea r 
Stickney, W. Fowler, 362. 

Fungi: Mitrophora gigas at Burvvell, 
Benj. Crow, 276 ; Fungi noted at 
Hartsholme, W, Fowler, 286. 

Geology : BibUogrjiphy of Geology and 
Palaeontology for 1894, T. Sheppard, 
S2-103; for'" 1895, T. Sheppard, 305- 
324; Geological Notes at Woodhall 
Spa, H, Preston, 65-66; Lincolnshire 
Coast Boulders, F. M. Burton, 105- 
1 1 1 ; the Southward Movement of 
Beach-Material across the H umber 
Gap, A. Harker, 155-156; Boulders 
near Horncastle, J. C. Walter, 273- 
274 ; Geological Observations of 
L.N.U. at Hartsholme, E, A. vV- 
Peacock, 285 ; Air-Blasts below 
Ground at Boothby-Pao^ncH, H. 
Preston, 289 ; Lincolnshire Coast 
Boulders, F. M. Burton, 325-329; ^he 
Source of the Lincolnshire Coast 
Boulders, A, Harker, 365-366. 



Hemiptera: Ravages in 1897 of Com 
Aphis, W. W, Fowler, 40; Hemiptera- 
Heteroptera collected in Fulsby and 
Tumby Woods, j. Eardlev^^I^son, 

Naturalist, 



Classified Index. 



377 



LI NCOLXSH I'R.'E— continued. 



68; Hemiptera noted at Hartsholine, 
A. Thornley and J. E. Mason, 287. 

Hymenoptera: Absence in 1897 of 

Cephas pyg:maius in Lincolnshire, 
W. W, Fowler, 40 ; Hymenoptera 
noted near Woodhall Spa, A. Thorn- 
ley, 67 ; Hymenoptera Sessiliventres 
of Notts, and Uncolnshire, a Pre- 
Hminary Libt, A. Thornley, 165-170; 
Bombus agrorum at Hartshohne, A. 
Thornley, 287. 

Lepidoptera: Epinephcle tlthonus in 

Lincolnshire, W. \V, Fowler, 39 ; 
Lepidoptera noted near Woodhall 
Spa, W. Lewington, 67; Humming- 
bird Hawkmoth, near Horncastle, 
J. C. Walter, 276; Lepidoptera noted 
at Hartsholme, W. Lewing^ton, 286. 

Mammals: Otter near Market Rasen, 
W. Lewing-ton, (^2; Mammals noted 
at Woodhall Spa, J. C. Waker, 66; 
Cross between Hare and Rabbit near 
Horncastle. J. C. Walter, 104; Fox 
and Dog: Hybrids near Horncastle, 
J. C. Walter, 104; Otters in Lincoln- 
shire, J. C. Walter, 148; Badgers in 
Lincolnshire, J. C. Walter, 171; 
White (Albino) Hares near Horn- 
castle, J. C. Walter, 172; Polecat 
near Louth, H. W, Corbctt, 28S. 



Mosses: Mosses noted at Hartsholme, 
E. A. W. Peacock, 286. 

Neuroptera : Neuroptera collected 
near Woodhall Spa, A, Thornley, 167. 

Personal Notices: Death of T. J. H. 

Brog'den, J, Cordeaux, 148; Obituary 
Notice of John Cordeaux, W. Eag-Ie 
Clarke, 277-279; E. A. W. Peacock, 
2S0-284 ,■ death of E. Woodthorpe, 
288. 

Societies: Presidential Address to the 
Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union, 9th 
Nov. 1897, W. W- Fowler, 37-44; 
Lincolnshire Naturalists* Union at 
Woodhall Spa and Tmnby Woods, 
E. A. W, Peacock, 65-68; Presi- 
dential Address to the Lincolnshire 
Naturalists' Union, 24th November 
1898, W. Fowler, 229-236; Lincoln- 
shire Naturalists* LTnion at Harts- 
holme, E, A. W. Peacock, 2S5-287. 

Spiders: Spiders collected near Wood- 
hall Spa, E. A. W. Peacock, 68; and 
near Hartsholme, E, A. W- Peacock, 
287 ; List of Lincolnshire Harvestmen 
or Phalangidea, E. A. W\ Peacock, 

Trichoptera : Halesus g^ntlatipennis at 

Alford, G. T. Porritt,5T. 



LSLE OF MAN. 

Oeology: Biblioi>-raphy of Geolog'\' and Palaeontolog'v for 1S94, T. Shcppard, 
^--94; 'iov 1895, '^. Sheppard, 305-324. 



NORTHUMBERLAND. 



Birds: St. Marys Island Lighthouse 
Attractive to Birds, H. T. Archer, 
20 ; Nesting of Nightingale in 
Northumberland, W. W. Fowler, 38; 
Magpies and Sparrowhauks as 
Foster-Parents of Game-Fowl, H. T. 
Archer, 76; Little Gull on the Tyne, 
H- T. Archer, 122; Breeding oi 
Nightingale in Norlluunberland, J. 



C. Walter, 279; Herons in Northum- 
berland, H. T. Archer, '329. 

Flowering Plants: Astragalus gly- 
cyphyllos and Goodyera repens in 
Northumberland, A. Bennett, 161. 

Geology: Bibliographyof Geology and 
Paleontology ior 1894, T. Sheppard, 

81-10Q; for 1895, T. Sheppard, 305-324. 



NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 



DIptera: Nottinghamshire Diptera, 

Additions and Corrections to Mr. 

Grimshaw's Preliminary List of 

March and April 1898, A, Thornley, 
293-298. 

Geology : Bibliography oi Geology and 
Palaeontology for 1894, T. Sheppard, 






82-1 oj; for 1895, T. Sheppard, 305- 
324- 

Hymenoptera: Hymenoptera Sessili- 

veatres o'i the Counties of Notts- and 
Lincolnshire, a Preliminary List, A. 
Thornley, 165- 17a 






Classified Index 



WESTMORI 



AND LAKE LANCASHIRE. 



Birds: Trees and Tree-Nesters, M. L. 

Armitt, 5-r2; Curlew*s Nest wilh 
Nine Es^g-s, David Wellburn, 20; 
Lakeland Bird-Names, M. L. Armitt, 
36; Vernacular Bird-Names at Stave- 
ley, Westmorland, J. A. Martlndale, 
79-80 ; Bird-Names near Milnthoriio, 
G. Stabler, 1 24. 

Ferns : Lastra^a rii^ida in Westmor- 
land, W. Hodgson, 275. 

Flowering Plants: Lobelia and Vac- 

cinium in the Lake Country, Wm. 
Hodg-son,4; Trees and Tree-Nesters, 
M.L. Armitt, 5-12 ; Lobelia Dortmanna 
in Lakeland, C. Waterfall, 103; Astra- 
g-alus glyc}'phyIlos in Westmorland, 
A. Bennett, 161 ; Lobelia Dortmanna 
at Winderftiere, W. A, Shuffrey, 162; 
Butree or Bottery Bush = Elder, S. L. 
Petty, 171; Biea and Watendlath 
Tarns in Baker's Flora of the Lake 
District, A, H, Pawson, 224; Water- 
Plants as Land - Winners, A. H. 
Pawson, 225-228; Blea Tarn and 
Lobelia Dortmanna, W, Hodgfson, 
304; Walney Lsland in V.C. 60! S. L. 



Petty, 330; Blea Tarn, S. L. Petty, 
330; 'fhe Chemistry o\^ the Lakeland 
Trees, P. Q. Kees^an, 349-35^- 



Geology : Bibliog-raphy of Geolog-y and 

Pal:^ontolo>^y for 1894, T. Sheppard, 
82-98; for 1895, T. Sheppard, 305-324; 
Chemical Notes on Lake District 
Rocks, I, The Ordovician Volcanic 
Series, A. Harker, 53-58; 2, Intrusive 
and Sedimentary Rocks, A. Harker, 
T49-154; Lake District Rocks, addi- 
tional note, A. Harker, 156. 

Lepidoptera: Humming-bird Hawk- 
moth in Lake Lancashire, S. L. Petty, 

332. 

Mammals: Squirrel Storing- Nuts near 
Ambleside, M. L. Armitt, 9; Dormouse 
in Lake Lancashire, S. L. Petty, 52; 
Lepus europjeus in Lakeland, M. L. 
Armitt, 340. 

Polyzoa: Some Polyzoa, etc., from 
Walney and Bardsea, North Lanca- 
shire, S. L. Petty, 59-60. 

Sponges: Spong-es noted at Walney 
and Bardsea, S. L. Petty, 59-60. 



YORKSHIRI 



Algse: Diatoms obser\-ed at Hatfield 
West Moor, near Doncaster, J. N. 
Coombe, with List of Species found, 
J. Newton Coombe and v\L H. Stil 
49-5^ ; iiiiJ a few Desmids noted, 50. 

Anthropology : Lake Dwellings at 



Pick 



ering, T. Sheppard, 112. 



Birds : Spotted Crake and Albino Sand 
Martin near Harrogate, J. Backhouse, 
3; Sclavonian Grebe in the East 
Riding, O. Grabhani, 20; Vernacular 

Names of Birds at Skelmanthorpe, 
Fred Lawton, 20; Bird-Notes from 
the Humber District, J. Cordeaux, 
21-26, 33-35, ^73-176; Waxwings near 
Scarborough, J. Cordeaux, 75; King- 
fisher in the Huddersfield 'District, 
G. T, Porritt, 76; Linota exilipes at 
Skeffling, Holderness, J. Cordeaux, 

80 ; Unusual Nesting- Places of the 
Moorhen, E. Banks, \iz\ the Avifauna 
of Staithes and Loftus-in-C!eveland, 
K. McLean, 129-147; Vernacular 
Bird-Names in North Yorkshire, J.J. 
Burton, 164; Nidification of Wood- 
peckers near Harrogate, K. McLean, 
176; Autumnal Immigration of the 
Goldcrest as observed in Holderness, 
B. B. Haworth-Booth, 223 ; Large 



Number of Eggs of Blue Tit in 
Holderness, B. B. Haworth-Booth, 
274; Wryneck on Coast of Holder- 
ness, B. B. Haworth-Booth, 279; 
Red-legged Partridge in Hudders- 
field, J. Wilkinson, 279; Breeding 
of Nightingale in Yorkshire, J. _C. 
Walter, 279; Date of last Yorkshire 
Eggs of Great Bustard, J. Cordeaux, 
282; Short-eared Owl at Ackworth, 
J. Neale, B.A., 290; Nightingale at 
Doncaster, H. H. Corbett, 292 ; Wry- 
neck at Beverley, J. R. Lowther, 
329 ; Little Auk at Wetwang-on-the- 
Wolds, E. M. Cole, 361 ; Robin^s Nest 
near Manston, W. Nelson, 364. 

Coleoptera: Rhipiphorus paradoxus 
and Carabus granulatus near Ack- 
worth, J. Neale, 303; Galerlta bicolor 
at Doncaster, E. G. Bayford, 2:^2, 

Ferns, etc.: Vernacular Names in 
Use at West Ay ton, W. C. Hoy, i24- 

Fishes : Eel-Skeletons on Mud of dried- 
up Canal at Wislow, W, Nelson, 46- 

Flowering Plants : Hottonia and 

Primula vulgaris at Bishop Wood, 
W. Nelson, 45; last-named and 
Anemone and Oxalis at Gascoigne 

Naturalist, 



Classified Index. 



379 



YOK¥.S>ll\KY.~continucd. 



303 ; 



Wood, W, Nelson, 47; Food as 
influencing- Variation in Helices near 
York, J. Hawkins, 48; Potamogeton 
natans at Carleton, W. Nelson, 78 ; 
Plant-Names in Use at West Ayton, 
W. C- Hey, 123-124 ; Yorkshire 
Occurrence of Goodyera repens and 
Epipactis violacea, A. Bennett, 161- 

162; Vernacular Plant-Names, Bullace, 
W. A. Shuffrey, 162 ; Vernacular Plant- 
names in North Yorkshire, J.J. Burton, 
T63-164; Ranunculus Lenormandi in 
the Trent Basin, near Doncaster, H. 
H. Corbett, 164; Parable of the 
Mustard-Seed and Large Growth of 
Mustard near Thirsk, S. L. Petty, 224; 
Ferrybrldgre Plant-Records, J. Neale, 
Sedum ang-Iicum in Littondale, 
Mid West Yorkshire, W. A. Shuffrey, 
303 ; Stratiotes aloides near Don- 
caster, H. H. Corbett, 304; Ranun- 
culus arvensis and Epilobium hirsutum 
at 750 feet in Wharfedale, W. A. 
Shuffrey, 304 ; Yorkshire Potamogfe- 
tons, A. Bennett, 355 ; Galeopsis 
versicolor in mass at Ricoall, W. 
Whitwell, 2t^2 ; ^Ltxeraone near Whin- 
moor, W, Nelson, 363. 

Fungi: New British Fun^^-i found In 
VV^est Yorkshire, H. T. Soppitt and 
C, Crossland, 27-31 ; Obituary of 
H. T, Soppitt, and his work on the 
Uredlnes, A. H. Pawson, 150; Functus 
Foray at Sutton, near Askern, and list 
of species found, C. Crossland, 367-372. 

Geology : Bibliography of Geolog}^ and 
Palaeontology for 1S94, T, Sheppard, 
81-103; for iS95, T. Sheppard, 303- 
324; the Yorkshire Boulder Com- 
mittee and its Twelfth Year's Work, 
1897-S, R F. Kendall and J. H. 
Ho\varth,T3-i9; Cave Finds in Ribbies- 
dale,J. Walling Handby, 32; Chemical 
Notes on Lake District Rocks, i, 
The Ordovician Volcanic Series, A. 
Harker, 53-5S; Shap Fell Granite 
Boulder in Upper Teesdale, W. 
Herdman, 124: Preservation of the 
Royston Shap Granite Boulder, W. 
E. Brady, 124; Chemical Notes on 
Lake District Rocks, 2, Intrusive and 
Sedimentary Rocks, A. Harker, 140- 
134 ; the Southward Movement oi 
Beach-Material across the Humber 
Gap, A. Harker, 155-156; Lincohi- 
shire Coast Boulders, F. M. Burton, 
325-329; the Source of the Lincoln- 
shire Coast Boulders, A. Harker, 

I>ecember 1899, 



Hydrozoa ; Early notices oi Yorkshire 
Hydrozoa, S, L. Petty, i^^d. 

Lepidoptera: OrthotaMIa spar^aniella, 
new to West Yorkshire, near Hudders- 
field, G. T. Porritt, 19, 32; Xylophasia 
scolopacina at Hnddersfield, G. T. 
Porritt, 32; Vanessa urtic^and Pieris 
rapK at Bishop Wood, W. Xelson, 
45; Ephestia kuhniella in Yorkshire, 
G. T, Porritt, 51 ; Arctia lubricipeda 
var. radiata at Kirby Moorside, G. T. 
Porritt, 68; Lepidoptera noted in 
Kilton Woods and Vicinity during- 
1898, T. A. Lofthouse, 1 13-r 14 ; 
Vanessa antiopa at Scarboroug-h, 
J. H. Rowntree, 298; Pyralis tim- 
brialis at Doncaster, H. H. Corbett, 
298; Abundance of Grammesia tri- 
g^rammica at Doncaster, H. H. Cor- 
bett, 298; Hummingbird Hawkmothat 
Ackworth, J. Neale, 298; Death's- 
Head Moth at Wakefield, G. A\\ 
Parkin, 332. 

Mammals: Curious Malformation in 
Teeth of Rabbit near Barnsley, E. G. 
'B'<xy^Q)\-d^ ^z\ Cave Finds in Ribbles- 
dale, J. Walling- Handby, 32; York- 
shire Bats, O. Grabham, 69-75 ; 
Mammalian Remains in Lake-Dwell- 
ings at Pickering, T. Sheppard, 112; 
Vernacular Names Used in North 
Yorkshire, J, J. Burton, 164; Badi^er 
near Tadcaster, W. Galium, 
Water Shrew in Dentdale, W. Prior, 
240 ; Weasel at Whinmoor, W. Nel- 
son, 363. 

Mollusca: Extracts from a Concholo- 
g^st's Note-Book, 3, to Wistow and 
Cawood for Limna^a glabra, Wm. 
Nelson, 45-47 ; 4, from Selby to 
CamblesforthandGowdallforLimnaia 
glabra, W. Nelson, 77-7^; 5, to 
Whinmoor in search of Limnsea 
gflabra, W. Nelson, 363-364 ; Food i 
influencing- Variation in Helices near 
York, J. Hawkins, 48; with the York- 
shire Naturalists' Union at Stutton 
Carrs, W. Nelson, 364 ; Planorbis 
corneus at Skipton, H. Crowther, 36^. 

and 



J 7^ 



Mosses and Hepatics: M 

Hepatics of Strensall Common, W. 
Ing-ham, 61-63; Mosses New to York- 
shire, and Additional Records of Rare 
Mosses, W. Ingham, 64; Mosses of 
Tadcaster and Immediate District, 
W. Ing-ham, 117-122; Hypnum ochra- 
ceum in Wharfedale, C. P, Hobkirk, 
304; Gymnostomum frag^ile Ibbotson, 
W. Whitwell, 362. 



o 



80 



■ 

Classijied Index, 



YORKSHIRE— ro«//V///£^J. 



Orthoptera : Periplaneta australasise 
at Halifeix, G. T. Porritt, 48. 

Personal Notices: Edg:ar R. Waite 

and Deep-Sea Trawling' Expedition 
off the Coast of New South Wales, 
III; W. Ruskin Butterfield's con- 
tinuation of Coues' Ornitholog-jcal 
Bibliography, 1 1 1 ; Obitnary Notice 
of H. T. Soppitt, A, H. Pawson, 157- 
160; Obituary Notice of H. Bendelack 
Hevvetson, J. Cordeaux, 237-240 ; 
Obituary Notices of John Cordeaux, 
W. Eagle Clarke, 277-279» E. A. W. 
Peacock, 280-28.^ ; Death of Georg^e 
Jackson, 288. 

Protozoa: Food of Hydra viridis at 
Swillin^ton, E. Whitehouse, 276. 



) 



Societies: Review of No. i of Trans- 
actions of Hull Scientific and Field 
Naturalists' Club, 52 ; Integ-ration in 
Science, Presidential Address to 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, Dec. 
1898, Michael Foster, 209-223 ; Address 
on the Modern Tendency of Myco- 
logical Study, delivered at the York- 
shire Fung-US Foray, G. Massee, 337- 
339; Review of Cleveland Naturalists' 
Field Club's Record of Proceedings 
for 1896, 1897, 1898, 340. 

Trichoptera: ColpotauUus inclsus, 

new to Yorkshire, and Limnophilus 
stigma near Huddersfield and York, 
G, T. Porritt, 19; Halesus guttati- 
pennis at Pickering, G. T. Porritt, 

I. 



MISCELLANEA. 

r 

Entomology : South American Insects in England, Max Peacock, 276. 

Cambridgeshire Lepidoptera: Abundance of Hummingbird Hawkmoth 
Wisbech St. Mary, 1899, ^- Oldham, 298, 



at 



i' 



Printed by Chorley and Pickersgill, The Electric Press, Leeds, 



^^ 







^^ 









■^ 





Trt 

/ 



HENRY THOMAS SOPPITT 




Hcnr\? Thomas Soppitt 



Born June 2ist, 1858. 



Died April tst, 1899. 




Y the death of H. T. Soppitt which took place on April 



1st, at his residence, 12, Glen View, Halifax, botanical 
science loses one of its most devoted adherents. He suc- 
cumbed, after a short illness of about a fortnight, through 
complete nervous prostration, the result of an acute attack of 
pneumonia. 



J 



1858. His father, 



by trade a grocer, was a mucJi respecfled man, well-known as 
a temperance advocate and a philanthropic visitor to prisoners 
at the Bradford Town Hall. Mr. Soppitt was brought up in 
his father's business* In his early manhood he began to show 
a strong liking for natural history. Soon after the formation 
of the Bradford Naturalists' Society in August, 1875, Mr, 
Soppitt became one of its members and so remained until his 
death. In 1885 he was vice-president, and in 1886, president. 

His attention was at first given to butterflies and moths, 
and being possessed of untiring energy and perseverance he 
soon got together a good collection of local species. Finding 
his study of Entomology required some knowledge of plant 
life he joined a botany class at the Church Institute under 



Mr, C. Pocklington. 

mM 



J 



? 



an old 



4 

naturalist friend of his says :— " After successfully going 
through a course of elementary botany he joined, with other 
members of the NaturaHst Society, in real practical field-work, 
to him the most enjoyable part of natural history." 

Mr. Soppitt, along with Mr. W. West, F.L.S., Mr. Car- 
ter, and others, investigated and catalogued in a very short 
time the flowering plants of the Bradford district so com- 
pletely that comparatively few additions have since been made. 
Mr. Carter continues — 

•* At this time Mr. Soppitt and Mr. West had often long walks before 
breakfast in search of nature's treasures. For a few years he worked in- 
defatigably at our British flowering plants, walking long distances in the 
search thereof, until the majority of our native species were as familiar to 
him as the common daisy is to an ordinary observer. He did not stop 
here. ' Onward' was his motto, and, after making an acquaintance with the 
Phanerogams, he commenced the study of fungi, both large and small, 
through the instrumentality of Mr West, who strongly urged him to take 
up this neglected branch of science. Here was a wide field open for origi- 
nal research, and one which Mr. Soppitt at once took advantage of, with 
results which are known to Mycologists throughout the world." 

As one instance of the thoroughness of his method of 
working, we may here state that he devoted one whole season, 
. scarcely including anything else, to the tedious study of 
grasses and sedges. 

Being so ardent a lover of nature all her works were full 
of interest for him ; birds, inseds, flowers, ferns, moths, or 
fungi were equally his delight. He knew the birds as inti- 
mately as one knows his closest friends. The notes of each 
one were familiar to him. He would stand and listen with 
rapture to their songs and calls. He often went many miles 
on purpose to hear the songs of the Nightingale and the 
Grass-hopper Warbler and would talk with ecstasy of their 
charming notes. For fifteen years he contributed weekly, 
often jointly with Mr. Carter, to the Naturalists' Column of 
the Bradford Weekly Telegraph. Among the joint articles were 
** Rural Walks Round Bradford,*' '' The Flora of the Bradford 
Distri(5t " being a list of 550 species of flowering plants and 
ferns found within a radius of six miles round Bradford ; *' A 
List of the Mammalia of the Bradford Distridl:/' " Our Local 
Reptiles," etc, Mr. Soppitt and Mr. Carter prepared a list of 
*' Land and Freshwater MoUusca of Upper Airedale,'* which 
appeared in the Naturalist for March and April, 1888. Ninety- 
three species were enumerated. Not more than two species 
have been added since its publication. This list also appeared 



5 

in pamphlet form. Anxious to encourage others in the study^ 
of nature, he in i886 conducfted a series of free botanical classes 
at Saltaire. At the close of the series he was presented by 
the students with a valuable collection of books in recognition 
of his services. 

Ten or twelve years ago he turned hi^ attention more 
especially to working out the life histories of those troublesome' 
fungal parasites known as Uredines, which prey so disas- 
trously upon many of our flowering plants, both wild an3' 
economic. Most of this class of fungi have two or three 
stages in their complete life-cycles. Sometimes all the stages 
are developed on the same host-plant, whilst in other cases 
the fungus requires a couple of hosts for its full development 
and often the two hosts are plants of totally different char- 
adlers. The respecftive stages were formerly considered to be 
distindl: species of fungi having no direcft: relationship with 
each other. Again, two species of fungi may affecft one plantj- 
even grow on the same leaf, thus making their investigation 
more complicated. His wide knowledge of flowering plants 
helped him materially in his biological studies of these fungi. 
His experimental researches have made known the life-his- 
tories of sev^eral species * which had previously been shrouded 
in mystery or wrongly interpreted.' Dr. Plowright, of King's 
Lynn, one of our best British authorities on this class of fungi 
says : *' Prior to his work the ^cidiam and Pitcrinia on Adoxa 
MoscJkitcllina were regarded as being of the same species, but 
he demonstrated that . . . they had no relation.'* He 
next cleared up the life history of ^cidinm leucospermum which 
occurs on the wood-anemone, Ananone ?uinorosa, showing it by 
careful experimental cultures, to be an Endophyllum '*and that 
the fungus had nothing whatever to do with the Puccinia fusca 
which occurs on the same host-plant." Dr. Plowright further 



says : '' He attacked that complicated problem, the life-history 
of the PucciniiB on Phalaris arundinacca^ proving that the jfEcidium 
on Lily-of-the- Valley belonged to one of them, which he named 
P> digvaphidis^ thereby opening a discussion amongst con- 
tinental botanists as to the relative value of these specific 
forms, which has hardly yet been concluded. His commimir 
cations to the Gavdcncrs' Chronicle were mostly upon plant 
diseases, the last being an account of his repetition and con- 
firmation of Klebahn's (a Hamburgh botanist) cultures of 
P. Pringsheimiana on the garden gooseberry *' and Carex 
vulgaris. The ^cidmmws.s^rocnved from the wild gooseberry 



6 



at Windermere, with which material Mr. Soppitt produced the 
Pticcinia by infecflion on Carex^ vulgaris growing in his own gar- 
den at Halifax. He contributed occasionally to the Jouynal of 
Botany, and a paper on "Bermerkungen liber Pticcinia digraphidts 
Sopp." in Zeitschrift fur PJlanzenkrankheiten, 1897, vol. 
viii, p. 8. Mr, Soppitt was the first to demonstrate the con- 
nedlion of an yEcidtuni on the earthnut, ConopodUun denudatimty 
with a Puccinia on sweet dock, Polygonum Bistovta, In 1892 
while on a visit to Hardcastle Crags with the writer, Mr. 
Needham of Hebden Bridge told him that he and Mr. H. 
Pickles had often noticed on their botanical rambles a yellow 
fungus on earthnut, and that wherever this occurred the sur- 
rounding sweet dock plants were soon after affedled with a 
brown one ; also, that in places where the earthnut was free 
from disease the sweet dock remained the same. This 
information led Mr. Soppitt to undertake a series of experimental 
cultures, with a view to testing whether any relationship 
existed between the two. Eventually he succeeded in proving 
they were but two separate stages in the life history of one 
fungus. The experiments are detailed in full in Grevillea^ 
vol. xxii, no. 102, 1893, ^"^ a lucid description of the whole 
life-history was given under the title of ** A Remarkable 
Parasite," in the Halifax Natuyalisty vol. ii, pp. 108-113. 

Though he paid special attention to the Uredines, no other 
branch of mycology was neglecfted, Mr. Soppitt contributed 
very largely to the list of fungi in Lee's Flora of West York- 
shire, His only regret in connecflion with this, expressed 
many a time, was its premature appearance and consequent 
almost out-of-date classification. 

He discovered a.Ladiantcs at Bolton Wood, new to science, 
which he named L. invohitns ; this is fif;ured in Cook's 



lUustrations, t. 1194. Mr. Massee of the Royal Herb- 
arium named a genus of Thelephoreae, Soppittiella^ and a 
species of Dasysoypha^ D. Soppitii in his honour. The generic 
name has been adopted by continental botanists. 

Since first coming to Halifax five years ago, he has stead- 

fastly worked with the writer at the cryptogamic flora of the 
parish, more especially the fungi. In this department many 
of the rarer discoveries are due to his diligent investigations ; 
many species nev/ to science have been added. By his aid 
this branch of botany has been more thoroughly worked at 
Halifax than at any period since the time of Bolton ( 1 761 - 1 795) 
a pioneer of British Mycology. At intervals during the last 



7 

three winters many local mosses, collected by Mr. Needham, 
about Hebden Bridge, and by Mr. Soppi'tt in other parts of the 
parish have been determinedj and several old records confirmed. 

We well remember his eagerness to visit the birth-place and 
local hunting grounds of that famous Todmorden botanist — 
that Prince of British artisan moss gatherers — John Nowell. 
With his strong kindred natural history tastes he appeared as 
if he could adore the very house where Nowell and his friends, 
four or five decades ago, used to look over and discuss their 
moss treasures. He stood long, reverently gazing at 
Nowell's monument in Todmorden old Church-yard. In 
1894 ^^^ ^^ft Bradford and settled in Halifax, where he was 
employed in the order department in the wholesale druggist 
business of Mr. W. C. Hebden. He became a member 
of the Halifax Scientific Societv, and was a much valued 
contributor to the Halifax Naturalist. For many years he had 
been a member of the Executive of the Yorkshire Naturalist 
Union. He was an original member of the ** British 
Mycological Society,'* and was present at the last meeting, 
held in Dublin, October, iSgS. His last paper was in con- 
juncT:ion with myself and appeared in the Naturalist for 
January, 1899. It contained a description of five species of 
Discomycetes new to Britain and two new to science. All 
were found in the Halifax distrid except one of the latter. 
This, Saccoholus granutosperrmts, Sopp. and CrossL, was dis- 
covered at Harewood, near Leeds, during the Yorkshire 
Fungus Foray held at East Keswick, September, 1898. 

He had great powers of observation. He seemed to know 

exacTily where to look for the thuigs he went in search of. He 
was alwti}'^-ar-wtrlcomeadditton to any of the naturalist excur- 
sions, and will be missed by naturalists in every part of the 
country, and especially by those of his native county. His 
memory will long be cherished by many who had the good 
fortune to work with him. Our district was dear to him, as 
here he could, during his leisure hours, roam the fields, woods, 
and moorlands to his heart's content without any hindrance. 
One friend says of him, ** It was impossible to know Mr. Sop- 
pitt and not to respect his siniple honest life and his whole- 
hearted devotion to science." 

In the Naturalist for May, Mr. A. H, Pawson, of Farn- 
ley, with whom, and Mr. Stansfield, of Southport, Mr. Soppitt 
visited S^vitzerland, says 

" Mr. Soppitt was a man of a thoroughly human and amiable disposi- 



8 



tion, and had that keen sense of humour which is often the inheritance 
of Yorkshiremen, and which not seldom enables them to ride merrily 
over many a wave of ill-luck. In truth, to be in the open field with him 
was to a nature-lover a liberal education. The glorious sun itself did not 
beam more brightly than did his face as he noted each herb and tree and 
flower, each bird, beast, and insect, and poured out of his full brain 
words of wisdom about them all. He was a naturalist alike in head and 
in heart. On the hills, and in the meadows and woods, he was in full 
sympathy with his surroundings. Nothing was strange to him. He had 
made them all his own by his love of them. . . . The joys of Nature 
weie his to the full. A few short weeks passed with him in the Alps 
will ever be green in our remembrance. So fitted was he by disposition 
and culture for such scenes that this foreign mountain-land seemed to 
belong to him by right rather than to its natural inhabitants." 

His remains were interred at Eccleshill, on the 4th of April. 
A large number of Yorkshire naturalists attended at the 
Church to pay their last tribute of respect. He leaves a wife 
and four children to mourn his loss. C. Crossland, 







:■/--< '."'.- 



JANUARY 1899. 




^^^^ 



No. 504. 

(No. 282 of current senes) 




MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND 



EDITED BY 



WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

259. Hyde Park Road, Leeds; 

Willi THK ASSIS'IANCH IN SPECIAL DHFARTMHNTS OF 



J. GILBERT BAKER. F.R.S., F.L.S.. 
W. EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., 
ALFRED HARKER, M.A., F.G.S., 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK. F.L.S.. 
GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
W. B. TURNER, F.R.M.S. 



Contents : 

Occurrence of Rare Plants in Cumberland — William Hodgsou, A.LS 

Trees and Tree-Nesters— it//.vjf Maty L, Ar?mtt (Illustrated) 

The Yorkshire Boulder Committee and Its Twelfth Year's Work, 1897-98- 

Percy I'\ Kendall, F.G,^,, and J, //. Hmvarfh, F,G.S. 

Bird-Notes from the Humber District -A^//« Cordraax, JJ\, F.R,GS.. M.B.O.V. 

New British Fungi found in West Yorkshire—//. 7\ Sof>pitl and C. Crossland 

(Illustrated) . . - . 

Notes: Ornithology :— Spotted Crake and Albino Sand Martin near FLirrogate — 

J. Backhouse, F,L.S,, F.ZS., M.B.O.C, j; Sclavonian Grebe in the East 
RiJing— O-v/rv Grahham. M.A.. M.B.O.C., 20; St. Mar>-*s Island L!grhthoust^- 
//. T. Archer, 20 \ Curlews Nest with Nine ^^^—David Melbarn. 2Ci\ 
Vernaciilar Names of Birds at Skelmanthorpe— /^rci/. Laivton, -30. 

Note : Coleoptera :— Monochammus sartor at Grimsby—:/. Curtis, 4. 

Note: Flowering: Plants:— Lobelia and Vaccinium in the Lake Coiintr>-— fr/V/;Viwr 

Hodgaon. A.L.S., 4. 
Note : Trichoptera:— Colpotauiius indsus in Yorkshire— <?. T, Porriii, F.L.S\, F.E.S., 

Notes: Lcpldoptera:— Orthotielia sparganiella near HucUlersfield— ^. 7'. Forriff, 

F,/..S., F.E.S., J2; Xylophasia scolopadna at Huddersfield— &o. T. Porrttt. 

Notes: Mammalia:— Curious Malformation in Teeth of Vi:ivhh\x—E.G,Bayf0rd,32% 

Cave Finds in Ribblesdale— /. Walling Handhy, j2. 

Notes and News, 12. 

Illustrations;— Old Oak, containing two Hollies and a Rowan, .V; Nesting Oak of PtVJ 

Flyeatcher, io\ New British Fung^i, .;/. "^- 



PAGES. 



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CAPITALISATION OF SPECIFIC NAMES.— Hitherto the rule of * The Naturalist' has 
been the Zoological one, that specific names shall invariably commence with a small 
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will conform in this respect to the standard catalogue or monograph in each branch 
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BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Zoolog-ical Record.— Vol. 34, for year 1S97, 8vo, pub. 1898. [Zoologfical Soc, Loncl. 
Philadelphia Acad, of Nat. Sci. — Proceeding's, 1898, Part 2, Ap.-Sept, [Academy- 
Geog^raphy : Notes of Manchester GeogfL Soc. — No. 26, July 1898. [The Soc. 

Ornitholog-'isches Jahrbuch. — Jahrg^. 9, Heft 6, Nov.-Dec, 1898. [Zu Schmidhoffen. 
The Halifax Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 17, for Dec. 1898. [Halifax Scientific Society. 
Bucher-Verzeichnlss von R. Friedlaender & Sohn. — No. 433, Anthropolog:ia et 

Ethnolog-ia, 2, Homo europaeus, received Nov. 1898, [Pubhshers. 

American Monthly Micro. Journ., No. 227, November 1898. [C. W. Smiley, Publ. 
Yn Lioar Manninagh, Vol. 3, Part 8, received i6th Oct, 1S98, [Isle of Man N.H.S. 
The Museum, Vol. 5, No. i, November 1898. [Walter F. Webb, Ed., Albion, N.Y. 
La Naturaieza, Tomo 9, Num. 31-33, Noviembre 1898. [El Redactor Jefe, Madrid. 
Natm-ae Novitates, 1898, Nos. i'8-20, Sept. -Oct. [Friedlander & Sohn, Publishers. 
Knowledg-e.— Vol. 21, No. 158, December 1898. [H. F.Witherby, Editor, London. 
Natural History Journal, Vol. 22, No. 198, 15th December 1898. " [Editors, York. 
Manchester Geogf. Soc. — Journ,, VoL 14, Nos. 4-6, April-June 1898, [The Society. 
Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc. — Mem. and Proc, Vol. 42, Pt. 4, Sept. 1898. [Soc. 
Naturalists' Chronicle, Vol. 4, No. 47, 20th December 1898. [A. H, Waters, Editor. 
LaFeuilledes JeunesNaturalistes,No. 338, i^"^ Decembre 1898. [M. Adrien Dollfuss. 
Psyche: Journ. of Entom., No. 272, December 1898. [Cambridg-e Ent. Club, U.S.A. 
Naturalists' Journal, Vol. 7, No. 78, for December 1898. [S, L. Mosley, Editor. 

The Nautilus, Vol. 12, No. 8, for December 1S98. [H. A. Pilsbry, etc., Editors'. 

Entomologists' Record, Vol. 10, No. 12, 15th December 1898. [J. W. Tutt, Editor. 
Natural Science, Vol. 12, No. 82, December 1898. [J. M, Dent & Co., Publishers. 
The Irish Naturalist, Vol. 7, No. 12, for December 1898. [The Editors, Dublin. 

TheZooIogist, 4th Series, Vol. 2, No. 690, 15th Dec. 1898. [West, Newman & Co., Fubl. 
Nature Notes, Vol. 9, No. 108, December 1S98. [The Selborne Society, London. 
Natur und Haus, Jahrgang 7, Hefte 4-5, November 1898. [Gustav Schmidt, Berlin. 
Hobbies, Vol. 6, Nos. 160-3, Novembers, 12, 19, 26, 189S. [The Publishers. 

HuddersfieldNat. & Phot. Soc— Monthly Circ.,No. 106, December 1S9S. [Society. 
Essex Naturalist, VoL 10, Nos. 16-18, April-June 1898. [Essex Field Club- 

Entomological Society of London, — Transactions, 1898, Part 3, 30th Sept. [Society. 
Birmingham N.H. and Phil. Soc. — Journal, Vol. 2, No. 10, JulV-Aug. 1897. [Society. 
Geologists' Association. — Proc, Vol. 15, Part lo, November 1898. 
Ernest Berry Smith. — Common Freshwater Shells, 8vo. reprint, July 1897. 

[Mr. Stephen E. Smith. 
J. Bnrtt Daw. — Stapfia, a New Genus of Meliceas, and other Noteworthy Grasses, 

8vo. reprint, Nov. 1898. [The Author. 

• J, Backhouse.^ — Occurrence of Natterer's Bat in North Wales, Svo. reprint, Dec. 

1898. [The Author. 

Trans. Hull Scient. and F. Nat. Club for 189S, Vol. i, No. i, 14th Dec 1898. [Soc 
R. Bowdier Sharpe. — Sketch-book of British Birds, 4to. cloth, 1898. 

[Soc. for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Publishers. 



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Birds of Staithes and Loftus District.— Kenneth McLean. 

Presidential Address to Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union.— Rev. W. W. Fowler, M.A., F.L-S 
Lincolnshire Naturalists at Woodhall and Tumby.— Rev. E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock. 
Lincolnshire Natural History Notes.— Rev. J. Conway Walter. 

Diatoms at Hatfield West Moor, near Doncaster.— J. Newton Coombe and M. H. Stiles. 
Mosses of Strensall Common.— W. Ingham, B.A. 
North Lancashire Polyzoa, etc.— S. L. Petty. 

Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks, I., The Ordovician Volcanic 
IL, Intrusive and Sedimentary Rocks. —Alfred Harker, M.A., F.G.S. 

Bibliography: Geology and Palaeontology for 1894.— Thomas Sheppard. 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Boston Spa. 

Food influencing Variation in Helices.— John Hawkins. 

Extracts from a Conchologist's Note-Book.— \Vm. Nelson, M.C.S. 

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FEBRUARY 1899. 



(Nc- 2S3 of citnent scncs) 







MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 

EDITED BY 

WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 

259, IIvDE Park Road, Leeds; 

WITH THE ASvSlSTANCE IN SPECIAL DEPARTMEVI ^4 OF 



J. GILBERT BAKER, F.R.S., F.L.S.. 

W, EAGLE CLARKE, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., 
ALFRED MARKER. M.A-, F.G,S., 



CHAS. P. HOBKIRK, F.L.S., 

GEO, T, PORRrrr, fx.s., f.e.s.. 

W. B. TURNER, F.R,M.S. 



Contents : 



Bird-Notes from the Humber District— M// Con/r.r.'.v, JJl, KK\aS., M.B,O.U 
Lakeland Bird-Names— ./J/mj Mary L. Armitt . 

I 

Presidential Address to the Lincolnshire Naturalists' Union— /f*.*^'. Canon 

W. U: Foivler, M,A„ KL.X, /./^.v 

Extracts from a Conchologist*s Note-Book - /r7///Vf'« Xt/soH. Af.C.S. 



PAGES. 

JJ'JS 

36 



+ p 



4 « 



Food as Influencing Variation in Helices John //itzik/ffs 
. Diatoms Observed at Hatfield West Moor, near D«mcaster y. NezvMu Coomhe 

and M. //. Stiles 

. Review: Hull Natural History 

Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks : I., The OrdovJctan Volcanic Series- 

Alfred Marker, M.A,, F.O.S, 

Some Polyzoa, etc., from Walney and Bardsea, North Lancashire—X. /. Pef/y 

Mosses and Hepatics of Strensall Comman— William Ingham, B. A. 

Mosses New to Yorkshire, and Additional Records of Rare Mosses— rfV/Z/aw 

Ingham, B.A, 
Note: Orthoptera:— PcnpL'ineta nustralasiK at Halifiix- 6'iY>. T. Pur ''■', F,L.S., 

/*\ R. S, f 4S. 

Notes: MammaIia:~Otter in LincoInsMre— ?r. I.eunngkm,sn Squirrels nnd Fungri— 

S. L. Peify,52\ Dormouse 'u\ Lake-Lancashire — S. L. Petiy^S^^ 

Note: Ornithology:— Maj^pics as Foster-Parents of Game-Fowl: A i^uery C7m-v. 

Oldham^ 5/. 

Note: Lepidoptera:-'Ephestia kuhmVlIa in Vork.sKIrc— 6^<?o. T, Porj-ifi, F.L.S,, 

I\E.S., j/. 
Note; Trichoptera:— TI.-tK-^.K gutt-^'ponnis in Derbyshire— C^d. T. Porriit, F.LS., 

FF,S\,SJ' 
Book Notices, 4^, 60. 

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COPYRIGHTS, etc. Articles and notes sent for publication In *The Naturalist' are 
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- as far as possible— in accordance with the latest standard list or monograph, with such 
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priority. 

CAPITALISATION OF SPECIFIC NAMES.— Hitherto the rule of 'The Naturalist' has 
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but in deference to the wishes of our botanical contributors the specific names oi plants 
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BOOKS RECEIVED. 

.' } ■ - ■ ■ , ■ 

Xat. Hist. Soc. Glas>^o\v. — Transactions, Vol. 5, Part 2, 1897-98. [The Society. 
Journal of Malacology, Vol, 7, No. i, 2nd December 1898. [W. E.Collinge, Editor, 
Xuova Notarisia, Serie X, pp. 1-46, Gennaio 1S99. [Dr. G. B. de Toni, Padova- 

Saunders'IUus. Man. of Brit, Birds, Part 13, November 1898- [Gurney & Jackson, Publ. 
Annals of Scottish Xat. Hist., No, 29, for January 1899. [The Editors/Edinburgh. 
Journal of Concholo>^y, Vol. 9, No. 5, for Jan. 1899, |The Concholog-ical Society. 
.Museo Xacional de Montevideo. — A"nales,tomo 3, fasc. io,Diciembrei898. [Museo. 
Revue Bryologiqne, 26^ Anne, 1899, No. r, 23™*^ Janvier. [M. T. Husnot, Cahan. 
Science Gossip, X.S., Vol. 4, Xo. 55, Dec. 1898. [John T. Carrington, Editor. 

Bvichcr-Verzeichniss von R. Friedla^nder & Sohn.^ — No. 434, Anthropologia et 
Ethnologia, 3, Homo extra-europa^us, received Nov. 1898. [Publishers. 

American Monthly Micro. Journ., No. 228, December 1898. fC. W. Sujiley, Publ. 
The Museum, Vol. 5, No. 2, December 1^, [Walter F. Webb, Ed., Albion, N.Y. 
Kivowledge, — Vol, 22, No. 159, January 1899. [H. P. Witherby, Editor, London, 

Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc— Mem. and Proc, Vol. 42, Pt- 5, Dec. 1898. [Soc. 
Naturalists' Chronicle, Vol. 4, No. 48, 20th January 1899. [A. H, Waters, Editor. 
LaFeuilledes JeunesNaturalistes,No. 339, i^^ Janvier 1899. [M. Adrian Dollfuss. 
Psyche: Journ. of Entom., No. 273, January X899. [Cambridge Ent, Club, U.S.A. 
Nrtturalists' Journal, \'ol. 7, No, 79, for January 1899. [S, L. Mosley, Editor. 

The Nautilus, VoU 12, No. 9, for January 1899. [H. A. PiLsbry, etc., Editors. 

Entomologists' Record, Vol, 11, Ko, i, 15th January 1899. [J. W, Tutt, Editor, 
Nat\ual Science, Vol. 14, No. 83, January 1899. [Young J, Pentland, Publisher. 
Tiie Irish Naturalist, Vol. 8, No. i, for January 1899. [The Editors, Dublin. 

TheZoologist, 4th Series, V^ol. 3, No, 691, 15th Jan. 1899. [West,Ne\vman&Co.,Pvibl. 
Nature Notes, Vol, 10, No. 109, January 1899. [The Selborne Society, Londoiu 

Natur und ILius, Jahrgang 7, Hefle 6-7, December 1898. [Gustav Schmidt, Berlin. 
Hobbies, Vol, 6, Nos. 164-8, December 3, ro, 17, 24, 31, 1898. [The Publishers. 
Entomological Society of Li)ndon. — Transactions, 1898, Part 4, 30th Dec. [Society. 
Birmingham xN.H, and Phil. Soc— Journal, Vol. 2, No. 11, Sept.-Oct, 1897. (Society. 
Report oi' the Secretary of Agriculture, 1898. [Tlic Secretary, Washington, U.S.A. 
Dr. Heim. The Biologic Relations between Plants and Ants, 8vo ref)rint, 1898,' 

[Smithsonian Institute. 

Theodore Gill.— Some Ouostions of Nomenclature, 8vo reprint, 1898. 

[Smithsonian Institute. 

Harold Wager,— The Nucleus o( the Yeast Plant, 8vo rei>rint, Dec. 1898- [Author. 

T. Mallard Reade.— The Gvpsum Boulder of Great Crosby, 8vo reprint, i8<^. 

-^ ^ [Author. 

William Hodgson. Flora of Cumberland, 8vo, cloth, 1898. [Author. 




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During the next month or two it is hoped to insert the foKou/ing articles :-' 
Supplementary Notes to the Flora of Derbyshire.— Rev. \V. Ulnt Painter. 
Birds of Staithes and Loftus District.— Kknneth McLkan. 

Lincolnshire Naturalists at WoodhaU and Tumby.— Rev. E. A. Woopruffe-Peacock. 
Lincolnshire Natural History Notes.— Rev. J. Conway Wat.trr. 
Bibliography: Geology and Palaeontology for 1894.— Thomas Shipyard. 
Yorkshire Naturalists at Boston Spa. 
Lincolnshire Boulders. —F. M. Burton, F.L.S., F.G.S. 
Yorkshire Bats.— Oxt.ey Grabham, M.A., M.B. O.U, 
Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks, 2, Intrusive and Sedimentary Rocks. —Ar.rRiiD 

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No. 506. 

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MONTHLY JOURXAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



EDITED BV 



WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, F.L.S., 



259. Hydk Park Road, Leeps ; 



Willi IHK A>SIS'1ANCK IN SF'FClAL DKPAKlMHNiS Ot 



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CHAS. P. HOBKIRK. F.L.S. . 

GEO. T. PORRJTT. F.L.S., F.E.S., 
W, B. TURNER, F.R.M.S. 



Contents:— 

Lincolnshire Naturalists at Woodhall 5pa and Tumby Woods -A*<;. /{. A. 

lVo<Mi ruffe -Pea cock, L. 7h,, /'.L.S,, /\G.S. 

Yorkshire Bats— Oa7o' Orahham. M.A., M.B.O. ('. . ■ 

Extracts from a Conchologtst^s SotebooK- If 't7//tz/fj Xchvft, M.C\S... 
Vernacular Names of Birds at Staveley, Westmorland y. A. MaHnidah' 
Bibliography: Geology and Palaeontology, \S^4-~Thotr.as Shcpfiard 

Note: Lepidoptera: — Arctia lubricipcda var. racliata at Kirhy MoorsxdG—Geo, T. 

Porritt, F,L,S,, F.E.S., 6S\ 

Notes: Ornithology: — Waxwing^s near Scarborough— /o/zw Cordrau.v, J.P.^F.R.G.S., 

M.B.O. U..7S% Barred Warbler in Lancashire— /f. Ruskt'n BuiterJieid,M.B.O.r., 
75 ; Mag-pies and Sparrow HawksasFostcr-ParcntsoFGame-Fow!— >/. T.Archer, 
76; Alaprpies, etc., as Foster- Parents oi Game-Fowl—/*, RaUe, 76 \ The 
Kingfisher in the HuddersficU DJstrict-^^eyj, T. PorHtt, F.L.S., F,F,S„-;6\ 
Linota exilipcs at SktfHiiii^, Holderness-^oA;; Cordeaux, J. P., F.R,G,S.^ 

M.R.OA/., So. 



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British Association.— Report of 68th Meeting, at Bristol, Sept. 1898. [Association. 
Manchester Museum Handbooks. — Marine MoIIusca of Madras, Falkland, etc., 

by J. Cosmo Melvill and R. Standen, 8vo., 1898. [The Museum. 

II Naturalista Siciliano — -Anno 2, N. 9-12, 30 Settembre 1898. [Soc, Nat. Sicil. 

Termeszetrajzi Fuzetek,VoL 22, 1899, Pars i, 25th Jan. 1S99. [Hung. Nat. Mus. 

AnnotationesZooiog-icaeJaponenses,Vol.2,pars4, ^istDec. i898.[Zool.Soc.ofTokyo. 
The Halifax Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 18, for Feb. 1899, [Halifax Scientific Society. 
Naturae Novitates, 1S98, Nos. 21-24, Nov. -Dec. [Friedlander & Sohn, Publishers. 
HuddersfieldNat. & Phot. Soc. — Monthly Circ.,No. 107, January 1899. [Society. 
Saundcrs'IlUis.]\ran. of Brit. Birds, Part 14, December 1898. [G urney&. Jackson, Publ. 
Science Gossip, N.S., Vol. 4, No. 57, Feb. J899. [John T. Carrington, Editor. 

Biicher-Verzeichniss von R. Friedlaender & Sohn. — No, 431, Pathok^gia et 

Teratok\gia Plantarum, Cecidia, received Nov. 189S. [Publishers. 

The Museum, Vol. 5, No. 3, January 1S99. [Walter F. Webb, Ed., Albion, N.V. 
Naturalists' Chronicle, Vol. 4, No. 49, 30th January 1899. [A. H. Waters, Editor. 
La Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes,No. 340, i" F^vrier 1899. [M. Adrien Dollfuss. 
Psyche: Journ. of Entom., No. 274, February 1899. [Cambridge Ent. Club, U.S.A. 
Naturalists' Journal, Vol. 7, No. 80, for February 1899. [S. L. Mosley, Editor. 

The Nautilus, Vok 12, No. 10, for February 1S99. [H. A. Pilsbry, etc.. Editors. 
Entomologists' Record, V^ol. tt, No. 2, 15th F'ebruary 1899. [J. W. Tutt, Editor. 
The Irish Naturalist, Vol. 8, No. 2, for February 1899. [The Editors, Dublin. 

TheZoologist,4thSeries, V^ol. 3,No. 692, 15th Feb. 1899. [ West, Newman &, Co., Publ. 
Nature Notes, Vol. 10, No. no, February 1899. [The Selborne Society, London. 
Natur und Haus, Jahrgang 7, Hefte S-9, Januar 1899. [Gustav Schmidt, Berlin. 

Hobbies, Vol. 6, Nos. 169-172, Jan. 7, 14, 2T. 28, 1899. [The Pubhshers. 

Entomological S<-»cietv of London. — Transactions, i8c^. Part 5, 9th Feb. 1899- [Soc. 
Birmingham N.H. and Phik Soc.—Jourual, Vol. 2, No. 12, Nov.-Dec.,i897.fSociety. 
U.S. Department of Agriculture.— Farmers' Bulletin No. 86, 1898 (V. K. Chesnut 

on Thirty Poisonous Plants). [The Department. 

Tlie Wombat, Vok 4, No. i, Nov. 189S. [Ciordon Technical College, Geelong. 

Science Work. Vok i, No. i (Second Edition), December 1898. IR. Aikman & Co- 
Catalogue of Minerals, Rocks, and Fossils, etc. [Thos. D. Russell. 

Catalogue of Microscopic Objects. [Thos. D. Russell, London. 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society. — 34th Annual Report for 1898. jThe Society. 
Wisconsin Geol. and Nat. Hist. Survey.— Bulletin No. i fFilibert Roth on the 

Forestry Conditions of Northern Wisconsin.) [E. A. Birge. Director. 

Charles Oldham.— Whiskered Bat (Myotis fNvsfachiUs) in Captivity, 8vo reprint, 

Feb. 1899. ' ' [Author. 

John Duncan.—Birds of the British Lsles, 8vo, cloth, 1S98. [Waker Scott, Ltd. 

Trans. Wisconsin Academy o^ Science, etc., Vol. 11, 1896-97, 8vo. [The Academy. 

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Notv reody\ Svo. cloth, price 6s,, fostfree. 

LIST OF 

YORKSHIRE LEPIDOPTERA. 

By G. T. PORRITT, F.L.S. 

Contiu'ns citpious records oi the localities, etc., 
of the 1,340 species of macro- and micriv 
lepidoptera known to inhabit the county ; par- 
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WM. DENISON ROEBUCK, 
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During the next month or two it is hoped to insert the follou/ing articles ;— 

Supplementary Notes to the Flora of Derbyshire.— Rev. W. Hunt Patntkr. 

Birds of Staithes and Loftus District.— Kexneth McLean. 

Lincolnshire Natural History Notes.— Rev. J. Conway Walter. 

Bibliography: Geology and Palaeontology for 1894. —Thomas SHKPPARn. 

Yorkshire Naturalists at Boston Spa. 

Lincolnshire Coast Boulders.— F. ^L Ri rtox, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

Chemical Notes on Lake District Rocks, 2, Intrusive and Sedimentary Rocks 
IL-vRKER, M.A., F.G.S. 

Integration in Science.— Prof. Michakl Foster, M.A., Sec.R.S. 

Mosses of Tadcaster district. —VVm. TN'GnA:vi, B.A. 

Plant-Names used at West Ayton,— Rev. \V. C. Hkv. M,A. 

Lepsdoptera noted at Everingham.— John Slmner. 

Review of Hodgson's Flora of Cumberland.— Rev. IfiLnrRic FRrKxn. 

Lepidoptera noted in Kilton Woods. — T. A. Loftholsk. 

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APRIL 1899 



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No. 507. 

iNo. 285 of current series). 







MONTHLY JOURNAL OF 

NATURAL HISTORY FOR THE NORTH OF ENGLAND. 



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CHAS, P. HOBKIRK. F.L.S,, 

GEO. T. PORRITT, F.L.S.» F.E.S.. 
W. B. TURNER, F.R.M.S. 



Contents : 



Bibliography: Geology and Palaeontology, \%^4— Thomas Sheppai-d 
Lincolnshire Coast Boulders—/", ^f. Bui-Jon, F.L.S., F.O.S. 



t « 



rAtifcs. 



97-'<Vt 

los-rii 



Lepidoptera noticed in Kilton Woods and Vicinity during 1898 

L,ofthoiise . . 
Review: Flora of Cumberland— AV^'. Hi/denc Friend 



T. Ash ton 



Mosses of Tadcaster and Immediate District,— rr7///«w Ingham, B. A. 
Plant-Names in use at West Ayton, York N.E.— A'ct'. U\ C. Hey.M.A. 



Note 



The Bursting of the Buds in Spring-/*. Q. Keegan, LL.D. 

Notes: Ornithology :~-Is the Missel Thrush Decreasing-?— y. Arthur J acks-an, /q?; 

Utiusual Nesting--PIai:es of the Moorhen— £". Banka, ii2\ Little Gull ou the 
Tyne — H, T. Archer, 122\ Bird-names in South Westmorland— f?. Siahiv^, 124. 

Note: Botany:— Lobeha Dortmanna in Lakeland— C^/r^/i's Water/all, roj. 

: Mammalia: — Cross between Hare and Rabbit— ^r?'. y. Coinvay Walter, 1041 
Fox and Dog- Hybrids near Horncastle— ^(?^'. J, Conzvay Walter. 104. 

Note: Anthropology:— Lake Dwellings at Piekering— 7". SheJ*fard, 112. 

Note : Fishes :— Enormous Skate— 7. Cordeaux, J.R, F.R.G.S., M.B.O. ( ., ///. 

Notes; Geology :—Shap Fell Granite Boulder in Ljpper Teesdale— ff w. Herdman. 

F.G.S., 124; Preservation of the Royston Shap Granite Boulder— ffw. E. 
Brady, 124. 

Notes and News, ///. 



r/J-rr4 

ns-u6 
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BOOKS RECEIVED. 

C. G. Barrett. — Lep. Brit. Islands, Vol. 5, Heterocera, Nocture, 1899. [L. Reeve Sl Co. 
Bristol Nat. Society. — Proceeding-s, New Series, Vol. 8, Pt. 3, for 1897, [The Soc. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Eat. Soc— 22nd Annual Report for 1898. [The Society, 
Leeds Geolog-ical Association. — Trans., Part it, 1897-98. [The Association. 

Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Society.— Trans., Vol. 3, Part 3, 1897-98. [The Society. 

Ornitholog^isches Jahrbuch, — Jahrg-. 10, Heft i, Jan.-Feb. 1899. [Zu Schmidhoffen- 
Geolog-ists' Association. — Proc, Vol. 16, Parti, Feb. 1899. [The Association. 

Revue Bryologique, 26^ Anne, 1899, No. 2, 8'"^ Mars. [M. T. Husnot, Cahan. 

Knowledge.— Vol. 22, Nos, 160, 161, Feb., Mar. 1S99. [H. F.Witherby, Ed., London. 
Naturae Novitates, 1899, Nos. 1-4, Jan.-Februar. [Friedtander & Sohn, Publishers. 
HuddersfieldNat. & Phot. Soc— Monthly Circ,Nos. 108-9, Feb.-March 1S99. [Soc 




La Feuilfedes Jeunes NaturalisteSjNo. 341, i" Mars 1899. [M.Adrien DoUfuss. 

Psyche: Journ. of Entom., No. 275, March 1899. [Cambridge Ent. Club, U.S.A. 

Naturalists* Journal, Vol. 7, No. 81, for March 1899. [S. L. Mosley, Editor. 

The Nautilus, Vol. 12, No. 11, for March 1899. [H. A. Pilsbry, etc/. Editors. 

Entomologists' Record, Vol. 11, No. 3, 15th March 1899. [J. W. Tutt, Editor. 

The Irish Naturalist, Vol. 8, No. 3, for March 1899. [The Editors, Dubhn. 

TheZoologist,4thSenes,Vol.3,No.693, 15th Mar. 1899, [West, Newman & Co., Publ. 

Nature Notes, Vol. 10, No, iii, March 1899, [The Selborne Society, London. 

Naturund Haus, Jahrg^an^ 7, Hefte lo-ii, Februar 1899. [Gustav Schmidt, Berlin. 

Science Work, Vol. i, No. 2, 20th March 1S99. [R. Aikman & Co., Manchester. 

Wisconsin GeoL and Nat, Hist. Survey.— Bulletin No. 2 (George W. Peckham 
and Elizabeth G. Peckham on the Instincts and Habits of the Solitary 
Wasps), 1S9S. [E. A. Birge, Director. 

Nottingham Naturalists' Societv.— 45th Annual Report, for 1896-7. [The Society. 

The Naturalists' Directory, 1S99, [L. Upcott Gill, publisher, London. 

Moss Exchange Club,— Reports, etc, fov 1896, 7, and 8. [The Club. 

NaturhisL Tnstitut von Hermann Rolle, Berlin. -List of Land Shells, March 1S99. 

[H. Rolie. 

Bristol Museum and Reference Library, — Report of Museum Committee tor 
2 years, ist Oct. 1896, to 30th Sept. 1898. [The Curator. 

Thomas Sheppard. — Notes on a Large Pair of Antlers of Red Deer from the Peat 
at Hornsea, 1898, S\o, reprint. * [The Author. 

Le Mois Scientifique> No. 2, Fevrier 1899. [J. R. Baiilii^re & Fils, Pans. 

J. A. Harvie Brown,~On a Correct Colour Code, or Sortation Code in Colours, 
roy. Svo. reprint, 1898. [The Author. 

J. Newton Coombe. — The Reproduction of Diatoms, 8vo. reprint, 1899. [Author. 

Insekten-Borse,— Jahrgang 16, No. 10, 9 Marz 1899. [The Editor. 

Herbert Goss. — The Preservation of Wicken Fen, reprint, Mar. 1899. [The Author. 

W. C, Mcintosh. -The Resources of the Sea, 8vo., cloth, 1899. [The Author. 

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