(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Natural history of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island"

THE NATURAL HISTORY 
OF JUAN FERNANDEZ 
AND EASTER ISLAND 

EDITED BY DR. CARL SKOTTSBERG 



VOL. II 

BOTANY 



WITH ii6 PLATES 




UPPSALA 1 9 20-195 3 

ALMQVIST & WIKSELLS BOKTRYCKERI AB 



LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 

GARDEN 



Utgivet med understod 
av Langmanska kulturfonden 



UPPSALA 1953 
ALMQVIST & WIKSELLS BOKTRYCKERI AB 



Table of Contents. 



Christensen, Carl and Skottsberg, Carl. 
The Pteridophyta of the Juan Fernandez 
Islands i 

Christensen, Carl and Skottsberg, Carl. 
The Ferns of Easter Island 47 

Fries, Rob. E. Die Myxomyceten der Juan 
Fernandez-Inseln 55 

Fries, Thore C. E. Die Gasteromyceten der 
Juan Fernandez- und Osterinseln 59 

Skottsberg, Carl. The Phanerogams of 
Easter Island 61 

Munster Strom, K. Freshwater Algae from 
Juan Fernandez and Easter Island .... 85 

Skottsberg, Carl. The Phanerogams of the 
Juan Fernandez Islands 95 

Brotherus, V. F. Musci Insulae-Paschalis 241 

Borgesen, F. Marine Algae from Easter 
Island 247 

SjosTEDT, L. Gunnar. Ein neues Sargassum 
von der Osterinsel 311 

Zahlbruckner, a. Die Flechten der Juan 
Fernandez-Inseln 315 

Brotherus, V. F. The Musci of the Juan 
Fernandez Islands 409 

Zahlbruckner, A. Die Flechten der Oster- 
insel nebst einem Beitrag zur Flechten- 
flora von Juan Fernandez 449 

BoYE Petersen, Johs. Marine Cyano- 
phyceae from Easter Island 461 

Romell, L. Bacidiomycetes from Juan Fer- 
nandez 465 

Keissler, Karl. Ascomyceten, Fungi im- 



perfecti und Uredineen von Juan Fer- 
nandez 473 

Skottsberg, Carl. The Vegetation of Easter 
Island 487 

Skottsberg, Carl. Pollinationsbiologie und 
Samenverbreitung auf den Juan Fernan- 
dez-Inseln 503 

Keissler, K. Nachtrag zur Pilzfjora von 
Juan Fernandez 549 

Evans, Alexander W. The thallose Hepa- 
ticae of the Juan Fernandez Islands . . 551 

Setchell, William Albert. The Codiums 
of the Juan Fernandez Islands 587 

Levring, Tore. Die Meeresalgen der Juan 
Fernandez-Inseln 601 

Skottsberg, C. Marine Algal Communities 
of the Juan Fernandez Islands, with re- 
marks on the Composition of the Flora 672 

Herzog, Th. Die foliosen Lebermoose der 
Juan Fernandez-Inseln und der Osterinsel 697 

Levring, Tore. Die Corallinaceen der Juan 
Fernandez-Inseln 753 

Levring, Tore. Einige Corallinaceen von 
der Oster-Insel 759 

Skottsberg, C. Additional Remarks to 
"Marine Algal Communities of the Juan 
Fernandez Islands" 761 

Skottsberg, C. A Supplement to the Pte- 
ridophytes and Phanerogams of Juan 
Fernandez and Easter Island 763 

Skottsberg, C. The Vegetation of the Juan 
Fernandez Islands 793 



-A I 



THE NATURAL HISTORY 
OF JUAN FERNANDEZ 
AND EASTER ISLAND 

EDITED BY DR. CARL SKOTTSBERG 



VOL. II 

BOTANY 

PART I 



I. C. Christensen & C. SKOTTSBERG: The Pteridophyta 

of the Juan Fernandez Islands, 

2. C. Christensen & C. SKOTTSBERG: The Fems of Easter Island. 

3. Rob. E. Fries: Die Myxomyceten der Juan Fernandez-Inseln. 




UPPSALA 1920 

ALMQVIST & WIKSELLS BOKTRYCKERI-A.-B. 



I. The Pteridophyta of the Juan Fernandez Islands. 

By 
CARL CHRISTENSKN and CARL SKOTTSBERG. 

Witli 7 text figures and 5 plates. 

This paper is based on material collected by the undersigned, assisted by 
Mrs, Skottsberg, 19 16— 17. The study of the collection was begun in Sant- 
iago, where, thanks to the kindness of Mr. F. FuENTES, I had ample oppor- 
tunity to see the important herbaria in the Museo Nacional and also, with the 
kind permission of Professor F. JOHOW, could study his herbarium in the In- 
stituto Pedagojico. In order to solve some important questions and to classify 
some species which remained doubtful, I asked the prominent pteridologist, Dr. 
C. ChriSTENSEN, for assistance, and he willingly offered himself to make a 
thorough study of the entire collection. I have the great pleasure herewith to 
thank him for all the trouble he has taken in preparing the descriptions of the 
new species, in adding numerous critical notes on the systematic position and 
affinity and in making the fine and very exact drawings. 

The localities in Masatierra are enumerated from E to W along the north 
and south sides of the island, respectively; for Masafuera, the localities are 
enumerated from N to S along the east coast and then round to the west 
coast, followed by the observations made in the high mountain region. The 
Spanish names are used, with the following abbrevations: B. = Bahi'a, bay; 
C. = Cordon, mountain ridge; Co = Cerro, mountain; Pta = Punta, cape; 
Pto = Puerto, cove; Q. = Quebrada, valley with steep sides, gorge, canyon; 
V. = Valle, valley. — Maps will accompany Vol. L 

Unless otherwise stated, all species have been observed by myself in all 
the places quoted. The numbers in brackets refer to our collection, of which 
specimens are kept in Stockholm (Riksmuseum), Gothenburg, Upsala etc., and 
in several foreign herbaria. 

A ! after the name of a collector signifies that I have seen the original 
specimen. 

An * before a latin name indicates a new addition to the flora of the 
group; if put before the name of one. of the islands, it s gnifies that the species 
was found for the first time in the island in question. 

The altitudes are in meters above sea level. 
I — 80206, The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easier Isl. .Vol. II. 



CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 



The remarks on fertility refer to my observations in 1908' and 1916— 17; 
where I have reason to beheve that a species occurs with ripe sporangia also 
at other seasons, these remarks are put in brackets. 

We have adopted the nomenclature followed by CHRISTENSEN in his 
» Index Filicum», where also explanations of the abbreviated book titles will 
be found. 

C. Skottsberz. 



Hymenophyllaceae, 
Trichoiiianes L. 

I. T. Philippianum : Smrm, Enum. pi. cr. vase. chil. 38 (1858); v. d. 
Bosch, Syn. Hymen, ed. Goddijn, Meded. Rijk's Herb. Leiden no. 17: 24 f. 13 
(191 3); C. Chr. Ind. 647. — Syn. 7. dichotoinuni Philippi Anal. Univ. 1856: 
169, Bot. Zeit. 1856: 650, Ann. sc. nat. II. 7: no; Hemsl. 69; Johow 1893:44, 
1896: 173; non Kze 1847. 

Fig. I. 

Damp montane forests above 500 m., epiphytic on trunks of treeferns. 
(Fertile Jan. — April.) 

Masatierra: the high ridge between Q.^ Laura and Q. Piedra agujeriada, 
on Dicksonia, c. 650 m (no. 594); C. Centinela, on trunks of ferns, 580 m (no. 
616); NE. slope of La Damajuana, on Blechmim cycadifolium c, 500 m (no. 
351); C. Salsipuedes, Q. Helechos, on Dicksonia, 660 m (no. 283). 

T. dicJiotomiiDi Phil, was described from specimens collected by GERMAIN (!). 
No locality except >.Juan Fernandez» was stated. In Herb. Kew is a specimen 
collected by Reed(!) and labelled »Valdivia», probably in PHlUPPl's hand-writing 
(Hemsley, 1. c). It is possible that this locality is false: Reed made ex- 
tensive collections in both places and the localities may have been confounded. 
Until further investigations can be made, the species should be listed as 
endemic. 

T. Piiilippianuui is one of the most distinct species of the genus. It has 
been described and figured in details by VAN DEN BosCH, but his description 
and figure were not published until lately by GODDIJN. The numerous spe- 
cimens at hand correspond fairly well with this description, but the species 
grows much larger than his figure shows. The largest leaves are over 7 cm 
long including the 2 cm long stipe. 

The filiform, wide-creeping rhizome and the basal part of the stipes are 
sparsely furnished with reddish hairs, the plant otherwise being perfectly 
glabrous. The leaves are either scattered or fasciculate in small tufts of 2 — 7 
on short branches from the rhizome. The lamina is exceedingly thin, yellowish 
green, the cells larger than in any other species of the genus, clearly seen 



* Botan. Ergebii. der Schwed. Exp. nach Pa'tagonien und deni Fcuerlande. IV. K. Svenska 
Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd 51, Xo. 9 (1913). 

* For abbreviations, see p. i. 



THE PTERIDOPHYTA OF THE JUAX FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 3 

through a weak lens. In shape and division the leaf varies considerably; 
generally it is oblanceolate, broadening upwards from the cuneate, shortly 
decurrent base; subdeltoid, deeply pinnatifid fronds, leaving a broad even wing 
to the midrib are, however, not uncommon. Segments erect, 2—2,; mm broad, 
obtuse or emarginate or deeply furcate at apex, very unequal in length, the 
larger ones often producing a secondary segment on the upper side near the 
base. Margins even, not at all thickened. Veins not regularly pinnatifid but 
rather repetitiously dichotomous, not atrofuscous as says BosCH, terminating in 
the emargination; spurious veins none. Sori rarely terminal on the main branches 




Fig. I. Trichomanes Philip/^ianutH Sturm. Plants showing different tvpes of furcation, na: 

size, and enlarged sorus. 

of the veins but generally confined to the basal secondar\- segments, deeply 
immersed; indusium turbinate with a widened entire mouth; receptacle long 
exserted but easily broken ott. 

Van den Bosch placed the species in his genus Goiiocormis, but it may 
be seriously doubted whether this position is natural. It looks ver\- much 
different from all other species of that group, all of which belong to the Old 
World. In general habit and size it resembles the Polynesian T. huniile Forst., 
but it is certainly not nearly related to it. B\- its cellular structure it is 
quite unique. 

Area of distribution: Probably endemic in Masatierra. 



2. T. Ingae C. Chr. nov. spec. 

Syn. T. pyxidifenan L., Hemsl. 69; Johow 1893: 45, 1896: 173. 
EutricJioiuayies e grege T, pyxidiferi L., rhizomate intricato. filiformi; 



4 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

foliis atroviridibus, planis, glabris, lanceolatis, maximis vix 5 cm longis et i cm 
latis, stipite i — 1,5 cm longo, e medio sursum anguste alato, rhachide tota 
alis sub 0,5 mm latis utrinque alata. Lamina bipinnatifida, pinnis 5 — 6-jugis, 
alternis, suberectis, infimis paulo abbreviatis, mediis 5 — 8 mm longis, inaequi- 
lateralibus, basi superiore segmentum soriferum gerentibus, parte exteriore in 
2 — 4 segmenta sterilia contigua subtruncata vel leviter emarginata divisis. Mar- 
ginibus, praesertim versus apicem, minutissime et irregulariter crenato-dentatis. 
Venis distinctis, spuriis nullis. Cellulis parenchymaticis parvis, irregularibus, 
4 — 6-angulatis, fere isodiametricis parietibus crassis, In'alinis. Soris singulis 
axillaribus, rarissime binis in pinna, tubo c\"lindrico anguste marginato, ore in- 
tegro vel levissime emarginato, paulo expanse; receptaculo exserto. 

Fig. 2. 

In moss mats on stones and on the ground, in dense forests, rare. (Fertile 
Aug.— Dec.) 




Fig. 2. Tricho))iaties Ingae C. Chr. a two fronds, nat. size; b fragment, X 2'/?, f sorus and 

d tip of sterile pinna, more enlarged. 



Masatierra, central part: \'. Anson, XK. slope of El Vunque, 300 m 
(no. 162), in the same place \\here it was found in 1908; XE. slope of La 
Damajuana, c. 450 m; V. Colonial, O Gutierrez (no. 68). — Found before only 
by MoSELEV and by Skottsberg, 1908. 

This new species, named in honour of Mrs. IXGA Skottsrerg, belongs 
to a number of closely related species which by most authors are united under 
the name T. pyxidiferum L. Convinced of this being a collective species that 
includes several valid ones, a number of which have already been described 
by VAN DEN Bosch, we have tried, but without success, to identify the Juan 
Fernandez form with one or other of the forms from the American continent. 
Our new species differs greatly from the true West Indian T. pyxidiferujii b}' 
its much less divided lamina and by its dark colour; in these characters it 
approaches some South Brazilian forms, especially T. cmarginatum Pr., but it 
differs from these as well as from all other forms known to us by its cellular 
structure and its uneven margins. The cells are proportionally very small, 
very unequal in size and seldom longer than broad; by this structure the leaf 
becomes much firmer than in all other forms without spurious veins. Seen 



TRE PTERIDOPHYTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 5 

through a strong lens, the margins of the outer parts of the segments are 
irregularly toothed or crenate by outwards vaulted marginal cells, the external 
wall being thick and hyaline. A similar feature was not found in a large 
number of specimens of T. pyxidifeniui sens. lat. examined. The numerous 
specimens collected have all the same characteristic habit, with the outer seg- 
ments of the pinnae very close. The diagnosis above was based on the larger 
fronds; most of them are considerably smaller. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

3. T. cxsectum Kunze, Anal. 47 tab, 29 f. 2 (1837); Hemsl. 69; Johow 
1893: 44 f. 32, 1896: 173. — Syn. Hyntcnopliylluui fucifoniic Colla 1836: 33 
tab. 63. 

In dense humid forests, epiphytic on trees and trunks of arboreous ferns, 
and in damp recesses of the narrow gorges, among moss, hanging down from 
the rocks. (Fertile Jan. — April.) 

Masatierra: C. Chifladores, above the innermost part of the Frances 
Valley, c. 500 m; ridge between Q. Laura and Q. Piedra agujeriada, on Dick- 
sonia 650 m (no. 595); C Centinela, on fern trees 560 m; El Pangal, wet forest 
in the gorge (no. 1130); B. Cumberland, in Cave VI, forming a beautiful pure 
carpet on the vertical walls (no. 598; also JoHOW); Q. Juanango, under fallen 
trunks (no. 608); Q. Villagra, mountain spur W. of El Yunque, c. 500 m. 

Masafuera: Q. del Mono, c. 475 m; Q. de las Casas, under overhanging 
rocks in the canyon (no. 450, also JOHOw); Q. del Blindado, 440 m; O. de 
las Vacas (Jo how). 

The nearest ally of this pretty species, that reaches 40 cm in length, is 
T. teneriiDi Spr., widely spread through tropical America. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Chiloe; Juan Fernandez. 



Serpyllopsis v. d. Bosch 

4. S. caespitosa (Gaud.) C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 29 c. fig. (1910). — 
Syn. Hymenophylhan caespitosum Gaud. Ann. sc. nat. 5: 99 (1825); Freyc. Voy. 
Bot. 374 tab. 5 f. 2 (mala); TricJwvianes caespitosum Hook. Sp. Fil. i: 132 tab. 
40 B; C. Chr. Ind. 637; Serpyllopsis antarctica v. d. Bosch Ned. Kr. Arch. 

4: 377 (1859)- 

Var. fernandeziana C. Chr. et Skottsb. nov. var. 

This interesting moss-like fern was first detected in the islands by Skotts- 
BERG, 1908. In 1910 C. Christensen referred the specimens of the 1908 
collection to var. densifolia (Phil.) C. Chr. 1. c. 30 [Hyin. densifoliiim Phil. 
Linn. 29: 108, 1857), which was collected in the Guaitecas Islands and presum- 
ably is not rare in the humid forests of the Chilean Archipelago. The specimens 
from Juan Fernandez were sterile; now we have a beautiful lot of specimens, 
some of which are fertile, and an examination of the sori has proved that we 



O CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

have to do with a form different from dcnsifolia. It may be described as 
follows. 

Lamina lutco-viridis, pinnis plerumque ovatis secus costam parcissime 
pilosis, ut in var densifoHa; differt soris profunde immersis utrinque late foliaceo- 
alatis, fere ad medium bipartitis, labiis rotundatis, distincte dentatis, extus 2 — 4 
cristis iongitudinalibus dentatis instructis, receptaculo ad maturitatem exserto. 

In the moss carpets on trunks and branches of trees, in the elevated 
forests of Masatierra, where it has not been found below 450 m; on Masafuera 
also in the heath of the 'highland, among rocks. (Fertile in Jan.) 

Masatierra: C. Chifladores, in the innermost part of the Frances valley, 
on Drhiiys Winteri c. 500 m (no. 1128); ridge between Q. Laura and Q. Piedra 
agujeriada c. 650 m (no. 1129); on the main crest of the island, above Pangal, 
on Dnuiys c. 800 m (no. 1127); V. Colonial, along the road to Portezuelo, on 
Dninys c. 450 m (no. 136); C. Salsipuedes, brushwood on the ridge, 615 m, 
and in O. Helechos, on Drintys, 660 m (no. 284). 

Masafuera: Heath above O. del Mono, c. 850 m (no. 421); rocks at Las 
Torres, 1350 -1370 m (no. 421 b — see below); S. slope of Los Inocentes, in 
Dicksoiiia-iorest on the trunks, c. 950 m; also near the highest summit, 1450 m 
in moss mats (no. 381); Q. Loberi'a, between blocks in the stream. 

Var. dcnsifolia has 1 — 8 sori terminal on the pinnae, the lips obscurely 
toothed and faintly crested, the wings on both sides much narrower. The 
typical form of the species, from the F"alkland Islands, has terminal sori with 
very short lips; it turns brown when dried and is much more hairy, with more 
oblong pinnae. Var, fernandeziana is generally small with only 2—5 pairs of 
pinnae which are close, often imbricated and clasped along the midrib. There 
is, however, also a form with more distant and more oblong pinnae (no. 421 b), 
a form corresponding to var. elongata Hook, of the type; the special characters 
are due to external conditions (moisture and shade). 

Area of distribution: South Chile to Fuegia, Falkland Islands; the var. 
fernandesiana endemic in Juan Fernandez. 



Hymenoglossum Presl 

5. H. cruentum (Cav.) Pr., Hymenoph. 35 (1843); v. d. Bosch, Ned. Kr. 
Arch. 4: 385. — Syn. HymenopJiylltim cruentjuii Cav. Descr. 275 (1802) et auctt., 
Hemsl. 6-]-^ Johow 1893: 40 f 26, 1896: 169; C. Chr. Ind. 359. 

Plate I F"ig. i. 

In the montane forest belt, with moss on the soil or on trunks of trees, 
scarce. (Fertile Dec— Jan.) 

Masatierra, not rare in the central parts: V. Anson, NPl slope of La 
Damajuana c. 430 m (no. 353); slopes of El Yuncjue, 480 m; V. Colonial, C. 
Central 535 m; along the road to Portezuelo, c. 500 m (no. C)"]); north wall of 
Co Piramide, a narrow ledge 600 m; O. Villagra, mountain spur VV. of El 
Yunque, c. 500 m and SW. face of Co Piramide, among bruslnvood, 590 m. 



THE PTERIDOPH\TA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 7 

*Masafiiera: O. de las Casas, humid moss mats in the inner canyon, 
scarce (no. 473); C. del Barril, in moss on rocks, c. 750 m (no. 407). — New 
for this island. The specimens are small and sterile. 

In restoring the genus Hynicnoglossimi we follow VAX DEN Bo.SCH, the 
monographer of the famih-, contrary to all other pteridologists. Our reasons 
for doing so are not only the unique habit of the plant, but are based upon a 
very essential character, overlooked by Presl and all later authors. The 
margins of the frond, not the sterile parts alone, but also the valves of the 
indusium, are bordered by a thick cbeneous line. The veins terminate in the 
parenchyma within this line. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Chiloc and Western 
Patagonia to 49°; Juan Fernandez. 



Hymenoph villi 111 Sm. 

6. II. cuncatum Kze. Anal. 50 (1837); C. Chr. Ind. 359, Arkiv for Bot. 
10: 21 (1910). — Syn. H. raruvi auctt. quoad plant, amer.; Hemsl. 6%\ Johow 
1893: 42 f. 30, 1896: 171. H. polyanthos auctt. quoad plant, fernand.; Hemsl. 
6t\ Johow 1S93: 42 (pro pa tc.- non f. 29), 1S96: 172 (pro parte.-). H. dichoto- 
iiium. Johow 1893: 44 (pro parte.-) f. 27, 1896: 173 (pro parte.-). 

Fig- 3- 

Probably fertile at any time of the year. 

Under this name whe unite all the smaller glabrous Hymenophylla of the 
islands, being convinced that they all belong to one species, although the ex- 
treme forms look very different. All forms agree in cellular structure and in 
shape of the indusium, which is broad, flat with a broad subtruncate or 
broadly cuneate base and with rounded or sometimes subacute valves. The 
indusium varies, as our figures show, in the same degree in the largest and 
smallest forms. 

KUNZE described the stipe as unwinged. We find among the very ex- 
tensive material several individuals which correspond perfectly to his description 
(no. 396); they have ovate or subdeltoid, middle-sized, yellowish-green fronds 
with wingless stipe and broad, semiorbicular indusia. Other plants agree with 
these in all respects but have the stipe winged to the base (no. 1145). ^^ e 
suppose that these are younger plants, while fronds without wings are older, 
having lost the wings. Large or small fronds occur with or without a winged 
stipe. If no. 396 is considered to be a typical, middle-sized form, the other 
specimens may be arranged as follows. 

l) Large plants, over 15 cm long incl. stipes, more decompound, with 
narrower, ovate-lanceolate lamina, often of a deeper green (no. 285\ Such 
plants have been referred to H. polyanthos Sw. by all authors, and probably 
also the more typical form was brought to this species by some. It is very 
difficult to find a single constant character by which the larger forms may be 
known from the variable H. polyanthos; the lobes are generally broader, the 



8 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

valves of the indusium more rounded and flat, but certain forms of H. poly- 
antJios show essentially the same characters. The best mark is, perhaps, the 
glabrous base of the stipes in //. cunealum^ while most forms of //. polyaiitJios 
have the stipes pilose below. 

2) Smaller plants, often much reduced and approaching //. ravuni R. Br. 
(nos. 146, 1 143), and referred to that species by all authors. The leaves are 
yellowish green, i — 3 cm long, the pinnae often more or less imbricate (no. 
146). It must be admitted that some of these dwarf forms closely resemble 
H. rarum in most characters, but we find leaves with and without a winged 
stipe which otherwise are identical, and //. raniin has the stipe unwinged; 
further, all possible transitions between these dwarf forms and the larger ones 
are found. None of the specimens show the brownish colour of the typical 
H. rarum. 

Summarizing what has been said above, we find it convenient to distin- 
guish two types. 

1. typicum. (//. cuncatuni Kze, H. poly ant Jios auctt.) — Fig. 3 a — d. 

One of the commonest ferns, found in all the forests in moss carpets on 
the soil, on stones or on trunks of trees, in the eastern and central parts of 
Masatierra, where it ranges from about 200 m above sea level to the highest 
parts reached, viz. the main ridge above Pangal, 795 m. It is also common 
among the brushwood on the rocky ridges and, of course, on Dicksonia. — 
Probably fertile at all seasons (Dec. — April, Aug.). 

Masatierra: numerous localities from Pto P'rances to Pto Ingles (nos. 46, 
66, 70, 285, 300, 591, 1 144, 1 1 77; nos. 66 c and 70 form a transition to the 
following; both collected on rocks). 

Masafiiera: Q. del Mono, in forest 570 m (no. 1146); O. del B indado in 
forest (no. 440); subalpine and alpine heath, 850 — 1370 m (nos. 396,429, 1146, 
1147); Q- Loberia, in moss on boulders in the woods, c. 300 m (no. 1145). 

2. var. rarifornie C. Chr. et Skottsb. — Fig. 3 e — g. 

This is exactly the 77. rariwi of JOHO\v(!), often found on old trunks 
of Blechnuin cycadifolium, but also forming dense, almost moss- like patches 
on exposed ground. Leaves often i cm long only, generally deltoid in outline. 

Masatierra: At the road to Portezuelo, c. 450 m (no. 1143); on the sharp 
crest separating V. Anson from Q. Damajuana, on the peak, 365 m (no. 146). 
— f. imbricata; Fig. 3 h: Pto Ingles, the crest of the central ridge (no. 1178). 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Western Patagonia; Juan 
Fernandez. Tasmania? New Zealand.' South Africa? 

7. H. caudiciilatum Mart. Ic. Crypt. Bras. 102 tab. 6-] (1834); Johow 
1893: 41, 1896: 170; C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 23 (1910). 

In the the elevated forests of the foggy region of Masatierra, very rare; 
apparently more frequent in Masafuera, found both in the woods and in the 
bottom of the deepest canj-ons. — (Fertile Dec. — Febr.) 



THE PTERIDOPIIVTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISF.ANDS g 

Masaticrra: Just below the gap between l'",l Wituiuc and La Dama- 
jiiana, c. 500 m (no, 160); North face of Co Piraniidc, narrow ledge, c. 




Fig. 3. Hyiiienopliylhiiii aaieaiinn (Cav.) Pr. a typical ctineatiun (no. 596), with enlarged sori, 
indusium acute or rounded; in one are two sori; i^ large /i9/)'a«//ii:v-like frond with enlarged tip, 
showing acute indusia (no. 285); c blunt sorus from a plain like the former (no. 66); d fioly- 
a7ithos\\Vt frond with winged stipe (no. 1145); e—f rariforme with stipe and indusiam of dif- 
ferent types (no. 1143); g small rariforme (no. 146); h i. imbrkata (no. 1178). 

All plants nat. size. 



lO CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

600 111 (no. 360). — Only collected once before in Masatierra: Rkf,I)(!) without 
locality. 

*Masafuera: Q. del Mono, dense forest, 475 ni (no. 388); Q. de las 
Cliozas, in the forest; O. de las Casas, innermost part of the canyon, under 
stones below the cascade, 215 m (no. 465); 0. Loberia, under stones and in 
moss between huge blocks, 180—300 m (no. 481). — New for Masafuera, where 
fine, richly fertile specimens were collected in O. de las Casas. 

The specimens belong to the typical form. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Western Patagonia (49° 
S. L.); Juan Fernandez. South Brazil. 

8. II. fuciforme Sw. Syn. 148 (1806) et auctt.; C. Chr. Ind, 361 (where 
for » China austr.» read » Chile austr.»); Hemsl. 6-]\ Johow 1893: 41, f. 28, 1896: 
170; C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 24 (1910). — Syn. H. scinitcrcs Colla 1836: 
32, tab. 61. 

Humid montane forests in rich soil or on decaying trunks, not observed 
below 480 m. (Fertile Dec. — ^Jan.) 

Masatierra: Slope of C. Chifladores, above the Frances valley, c. 500 m; 
V. Anson, slopes of El Yunque, 480 m; near the road to Portezuelo, c. 500 m 
(no. 138); north face of Co Piramide, with the preceding; Q- Villagra, mountain 
spur W. of El Yunque, c. 500 m and at the road-side in the highest part of 
the Villagra valley below the pass, c. 500 m (also JoHOW). 

This species, the largest of the genus, varies in cutting from tri- to quadri- 
pinnatifid. The less divided form is not, as we supposed in 1910, the only 
one found in the island. Specimens in the present collection are quite as much 
divided as specimens from Chile. 

Area of distribution: South Chile to Western Patagonia; Masatierra. 

9. H. ferrugineum Colla 1836: 30; C. Chr. Ind. 361. — Syn. H. sub- 
iilisshmun Kze. Anal. 49 (1837); Hemsl. 6'^\ Johow 1893: 43 f. 31. 1896: 172; 
H. Bcrteroi Hook. Sp. fil. i: 93 tab. -^^^ C (1844); Gay 6: 534. 

Damp, shady forests of the highest mountain slopes, not found below 
480 m; characteristic of the darkest corners in the fern groves. (Fertile in Jan.) 

Masatierra: C. Chifladores, woods in the highest part of the Frances 
valley, on Dicksonia c. 500 m; the ridge between Q. Laura ;ind O. Piedra 
agujeriada, c. 600 m and high up in this valley, 650 m; C. Centinela, under 
old stumps, 530—560 m; V. Anson, slopes of El Yunque, 480 m (no. 159, also 
P. Arredondo in Herb. JOHOWl); V. Colonial, north face of Co Piramide, 
with the preceding; C. Salsiquedes, Q. Helechos, on Dicksonia 660 m (no. -jG); 
Q. Villagra, high up near the pass, rare. 

*Masafiiera: O. de las Chozas, dark fern grove under Dicksonia, c. 700 ni 
(no. 535). — New for this island. 

With this characteristic species most authors unite //. Fraukliniac Colenso 
from New Zealand, to which it is so closely related that it is not unnatural to 



THE PTERIDOPHYTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS T I 

unite them into one species. Specimens from Chile are scarcely to be distin- 
guished from others from New Zealand, often having distant pinnae, the lower 
ones being much abbreviated. All specimens from Juan Fernandez, the type 
localit}-, have closer segments and an ovate lanceolate lamina, with the lower 
pinnae not or very slightly shortened. //. acrug'uwsuui (Thouars) Carm. from 
Tristan d'Acunha is another near relative, but much smaller than either (see 
liemsl. Chall. Rep. Hot. I. 2, tab. 38). A fourth related form grows in the caves 
of Amsterdam Island in the Southern Indian Ocean. It was, we believe without 
sufficient reason, referred to //. obtusum Hook, et Am. b}' Hkmslev (1. c. 271), 
a Hawaiian species; more properly it might be reduced to H. acnighwsnui as 
a variety. 

It is an interesting fact that four so closely related forms are scattered 
in remote localities over such a large area of the Southern Hemisphere. They 
are, we should guess, daughter forms of a single .species that in old times 
was widely dispersed over the Antarctic continent. It must not be forgotten, 
however, that some of the forais ma}- be derixates of the common tropical H. 
cilia turn. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Fuegia; Juan Fernandez. 
Xew Zealand. 

*io. H. falklandiciim Baker, Syn. fil. 68 (1867); C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 
10: 25 f. 3 (1910). 

Fig. 4 g— h- 

A new addition to the flora, growing both in the moss carpets of the 
forest floor and on trees, as well as in the alpine heath. (Fertile Feb. — March.) 

Masafuera: O. del Mono, in forest, 570 m (no. 389); 0. del Blindado, in 
forest, 440 m (no. 398); 0- de las Casas, far into the canyon, with Hepatics, 
c. 200 m (no. 474); alpine heath near the Correspondencia Camp and at Las 
Torres, 1 100 — 1370 in (nos. 1142, 1 176). 

Widely distributed through Subantarctic America and very likely not dif- 
ferent from H. Menziesii Pr. Hym. 51 from Staaten Island. Still Presl de- 
scribed his species as having obovate, subglobose, pedicellate sori, while H. 
falklandiciim has ovate-lanceolate valves of the indusium. 

The specimens from Masafuera are, as could be expected, larger than 
those from the heaths of Fuegia and the Falkland Islands and also of a more 
vivid colour, but in essential characters they do not differ. The largest fronds 
measure nearly 10 cm in length and are of the narrow lanceolate shape shown 
in fig. 3 a — b quoted above. The distinctly unilateral pinnae bear from i to 
4 toothed segments on the upper side. The sori are single, or, in larger fronds 
2 to each pinna, distincth" stipitate, with ovate-lanceolate, obtuse and quite 
entire valves, which turn blackish brown with age. By its narrow lanceolate 
fronds and especially by the long dark brown valves very difterent from all 
forms of H. peltatiaii. 

A specimen of the 1908 collection from Masafuera was 1. c. referred to 
H. pcltatinn. This is incorrect; probably the bad specimen should be referred 
to the next species rather than to H. falklandiciivi. 



12 CARL CHRISTIiNSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Area of distribution: Southern West Patagonia, Fuegia, Falkland Islands; 
South Georgia; Masafuera. 

*ii. H. riigosuni C. Chr. et Skottsb. nov. spec. 

Syn. H. Uinbyidgensc of Gay and Phil.? Hemsl. 6g; Johow 1893: 44, 1896: 172. 
Fig. 4 a-f. 

Leptocionmm rhizomate filiformi, longe repente; foliis remotis, stipitibus 
erectis, filiformibus, glabris, omnino e.xalatis, saepe flexuosis, 3 — 4 cm longis. 




Fig. 4. a—f Hyi/ietiopkyllitin rugosum C. Chr. et Skottsb. a well developed frond (no. 630); 

b leaf recalling H. tunbridgense (no. 423); c f. lanceolata (no. 1175); d fragment of a, X 4; 

e sorus, X lo; f piima of c, X 4; g — /' H. falklandictiin Bak.; g two pinnae (no. 389), X4; 

h sorus, X 10. All entire fronds in nat. size. 



Lamina formae typicae ovato-deltoidea vel ovato-lanceolata, 5 — 6 cm longa, 
3 — 4 cm lata, brunnescente, perfecte plana, saepe curvata, subtus papillis bre- 
vissimis ad rachidem venasque rugosa, tripinnatifida; rhachide flexuosa, alata, 
alis denticulatis. Pinnis alternis, circ. 10-jugis, infimis plus minusve abbreviatis 
vel subaequalibus, aequaliter pinnatifidis vel basi inferiore paulo excisis, supre- 
mis minoribus distinctius inaequilateralibus. Pinnulis obliquis, inaequilateralibus, 
in segmenta 3 — 4 divisis, marginibus ubique acute denticulatis. Venis distinc- 
tissimis, nigriscentibus. Soris i — 8 pro pinna, praesertim in segmentis lateris 
superioris pinnarum insidentibus. Indusiis liberis nee immersis nee stipitatis, 



THE PTERIDOPHYTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 1 3 

fere ad basin in valvas diias ovato-elongatas, brunncas vel nigrescentes, apice 
distincte et acute dentatas divisis; receptaculo incliiso. 

In the higher woods and humid heaths of the highlands, apparently not 
ver}- rare. (Fertile Feb. — April.) 

Masaticrra: I'"Je\ated slopes of O. Piedra agujeriada, on fern-trees, 650 ni 
(no, 592); C. Centinela, dark humid forests, c. 560 m (no. 1140); the longitud. 
ridge, above Pangal, on fern trees, c. 800 m; Q. Villagra, mountain spur \V. of 
El Yunque, c. 500 m (no. 630). 

Masafiiera: Woods on tlie Sanchez plain, 515 m (no, 1137); heath of 
the Correspondencia Camp, in the ravines, 1 100 — 1200 m (nos. 423, 1 139); C. 
del Barril, c. 750 m; O, del Blindado, in the forest, on ferns, 440 m (no. 397); 
near the summit of Los Inocentes, c. 1400 m (no. 1138). 

f. lanceolaia: minor, lamina lanceolata, 3 — 5 cm longa, raro supra i cm 
lata, alis rachidis vix denticulatis; habitu, magnitudine et pinnis omnibus inae- 
quilateralibus H. falklandico sat similis, sed differt et cum f. t)-pica congruit 
soris non stipitatis nee non valvis distincte denticulatis. — Fig. 4 c. 

Masafuera, at the Correspondencia Camp, in the ravine, with the type, 
1 160 m (no. 1 175). 

This new species is to H. tunbridgcnsc what H. fcxlklaudicuvi is to H. 
peltaUivi. It is very variable in size and shape of the lamina, but all forms 
have the same characteristic brown or dark brown indusia with elongated, 
toothed valves, similar in outline to those of //./<:7//^/^?;/^//V/cw, but never stipitate 
and alwa\-s dentate (comp. Fig. e and //). The larger, ovate-deltoid fronds 
recall H. dicJiotovium, but they are quite plane and the stipe is wingless; the 
sori are very different, the mature sporangia never exserted. Middle-sized 
leaves with short, ovate-oblong lamina with all pinnae unequal-sided (Fig. b) 
can scarcely be distinguished from // tunbridgense when sterile, but leaves with 
mature sori at once show the difference; true H. tiDibridgoisc never has so 
elongated valves, which never are brown. There is little doubt of such forms 
having been referred to H. tunbridgense, a species scarcely occurring in the 
islands. The f. la}iceolata is very similar to H. Jalklajidicuin in general habit, 
but is easily known by its sessile indusia and toothed valves. The collection 
contains many intermediate forms between the extremes. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

12. H. pectinatum Cav, Descr. 275 (1802); Johow 1S93: 42, 1896: 170. 

(Fertile, March.) 

Masatierra: Reed (IHerb. Kew) without exact locality. 

*Masafuera: In the highest part of the island, under rocks etc. in the 
alpine heath; the Correspondencia Camp, in the ravine, ii6om (no. 1141); Las 
Torres, in wet moss under rocks, rare, 1370 m (no, 476); S. slope of Los Ino- 
centes, in a fern grove, 950 m, on Dicksonia, and in the heath near the summit, 
c. 1400 m (no. 378). — New for this island. 

The specimens are very poorly fructiferous; the largest ones have most 
of the secondary segments deeply cleft, thus somewhat resembling H. secundum. 



14 CARL CHRISTENSHN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Fuegia; Juan Fernandez. 
*I3. H. secundum Hook et Grev. Ic. Fil. tab. 133 (1S29); C. Chr. Ind. 367. 
(Poorly fertile, Feb.) 

Masafuera: Las Torres, edge of the western iirecipice, 1370 m (no. 475). 
New to the islands. The specimens are small but otherwise typical. By 
the entire valves of the indusium surely to be distinguished from //. rugosmn. 
Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Fuegia; Masafuera. 

14. H. dichotomum Cav. Descr. 276 (1802); Hook. Sp. P'il. i: 98 tab. 
36 A et auctt.; Hemsl, Gy, Johow 1893: 40 (pro parte?, certe non f. 27), 1896: 
169 (pro parte); C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 27 (1910). — Syn. H. nigricans 
Colla 1836: 32 tab. 62. H. polycmtJios Johow 1893: 42 (pro parte.?) f. 29, 1896; 
171 (pro parte.'') 

Probably fertile at almost any season. One of the commonest species, 
found on the low, dry slopes of western Masatierra as well as in the central 
and eastern parts, where it is frequently ir^et with in the wooded region from 
its lower limit to the highest ridges; also common in Masafuera. It grows on 
the soil, on stones or on trees, both fallen and living ones. 

Masatierra: eastern and central parts, common (nos. 45, 218, 571, 593, 
1 133, 1 134); the dry western part: ridge SW of Co Tres Puntas, 300-350 m, 
under stones (no. 1132), and in the bottom of dried-up ravines (no. 1 132 b). 

Masafuera: Q. del Mono, on trees, 475 m (no. 390); Q, de las Casas, in 
the canyon (no. 451); Q. del Blindado, common in the forest 440 m; Z>/r/'j>-6';/M- 
grove on the lower slope of Los Inocentes, above O. del Varadero, c. 950 m; 
Q. Loberia, between blocks in the streem, 180 m (no. 480). 

This common species varies considerably in size and shape of the frond, 
measuring from 2 — 3 to 20 cm in len^^th, in shape broadly ovate to lanceo- 
late, but all forms have the very characteristic plicate frond of a dark green 
colour. Young leaves have distinct brown, crisped wings along the stipe, much 
narrower, however, than those of H. tortuostaii; these wings are shed early so 
that older leaves have an unwinged stipe. The marginal teeth are much 
shorter than in H. toi/nosum. The sori are confined to the upper third of the 
frond (which is often more or less contracted), where they are numerous. The 
ovate-subacute, frequently apiculate valves of the indusium are entire and 
faintly or not at all spinose on their back, as described and figured by HoOKER. 
The large brown sporangia are exserted in the mature sorus. The smaller 
forms have the leaves very much contorted and look peculiar when compared 
with the larger ones. 

We think that H. mgricans Colla is this species; at least Bertero's spe- 
cimens in Herb. Kew(!) under this name clearly belong here and not to H. 
tortuositm to which Gay referred Colla's species. 

Evidently this species has been largely confounded with others. It is 
perhaps the most common of the genus in the islands, but, nevertheless, JOHOW 
only quotes other collectors and not himself, this because he misunderstood 
the species, for his fig. 29, 1893, is not »H. polyanthos», but //. dicJiotoiiiuDi, 



THE rrr.RinopiiYTA of rnv. juan fkrnanoez islands 15 

while, on the other hand, his fl<,^ 27 »II. (Hchotonuim* illustrates a form of 
//. ciincatmn. 

Area of distribution: South Cliile, Vaiciivia to Western Patagonia; Juan 
I'Y'rnandez. 

15. II. tortiiosum Hook, et Grev. Ic. Fil. tab. 129 (1829); Henisl. 69; 
Johow 1893: 43, 1896: 172. 

Apparent!)' rare, but easily confounded with the former. (I'^erlile Feb.) 

Masaticrra: Reki)(!) in Herb. Kew. 

*Masafuera: Q. del Blindado, in woods, 440 m (no. 1136); heath at the 
upper course of Q. del Mono, c. 850 m (no. 1135). — New for this island. 

To this species we refer two sets of specimens from Masafuera. They 
differ from the common //. dichotonnim in the rather persistent, broad, crisp, 
brown wings of the stipe, the non-plicate lamina, which is more or less undulate 
with much larger marginal teeth. The segments are closer and the larger 
l)iiinae have the pendent tips found in most specimens from the continent. The 
valves of the indusium are rather acute and nearly entire, thus approaching H. 
ih'c/ioioiniiJH. 

H. tortuosiim was also collected in Masatierra by Philippi and DowN'iON, 
t. Hemslev. We have not seen the former; the latter (Herb. Kew!) belongs to 
dicliotoDiinn. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Fuegia, Falkland Islands; 
Juan Fernandez. 

\H. renifonne Hook, is mentioned by PllILlPPl (Anal. Univ. 1856: 160, 
Bot. Zeit. 1856: 631) who undoubtedly based his statement on Gay 6: 535. It 
has not been found by any of the known collectors, and Gay does not tell 
where lie got his information as to its occurrence in Juan Fernandez. As far 
as we know there are no specimens in any herbarium from this place, so that 
it must be excluded from the list. 

H. dicranotridnnn (Pr.) Sadeb. (Syn. H. chiloense Hook,)- is listed by 
JoilOW 1893: 44 and 1896: 172, as gathered by Reed in Masatierra. The 
determination is probably incorrect. 

In Herb. Kew.(!) are specimens of H. dentatuin Cav. (Syn. H. Bridgesii 
Hook.) labelled (by PuiLlPPl) Juan P^ernandez oct. 1872 Reed. As no author 
lists this species, the locality remains doubtful.] 



Cyatheaceae. 

Thyrsopteris Kunze 

16. T. elegans Kze Linnaea 9: 507 (1834), Farrnkr. tab. i, et auctt.; 
Hemsl. 66\ Johow 1893: 22 f. 4, 1896: 155. — Syn. Panicularia Berteri Colla 
1836: 35 tab. 64. 

Characteristic of the upper montane forests in Masatierra, generally not 
descending below 400 m; belonging to the highland heath in Masafuera, where 



1 6 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

it is rather poorly developed. The fertile pinnae are developed during the 
summer; in the beginning of December we collected fronds with very young 
sori and still in the end of January no ripe ones were observed; in the later 
half of March the sporangia were ripe and the spores disseminated. 

Masatierra, not rare in the central part: C. Centinela c. 530 m; V. 
Anson, slopes of El Yunque, 480 m; C. Central, c. 500 m; along the road to 
Portezuelo in several places (lowest station observed 208 m, at a small stream), 
especially near the pass, c. 500 m (no. 14); C. Salsipuedes, open brushwood 
on the narrow ridge, 615, 625 m; Q. Salsipuedes, hght woods, c. 500 m, 
numerous; Q. Helechos, not rare in Z)/V/^j^i?///V?-groves; Pto Ingles, on the cential 
ridge, 470 m; Q. Villagra, frequent in the humid woods below the pass (no. 
277), but also seen on a low ridge just below the lower limit of trees, c. 200 m. 

Masafuera: Q. de las Casas (Jonow); subalpine heath, in the shallow 
fern-clad beds of the streams, not rare from the Sanchez plain to the Corres- 
pondencia ravine, 1000 — iioo m (no. 542); C. del Barril, 900 — 1000 m, not 
rare; on the ridge forming the south wall of Q. de las Vacas, not rare above 
1000 m, Dickso?iia groves on the lower S. slope of Los Inocentes, etc. etc. 

The specimens from the two islands are fully identical. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Lophosoria Presl 

17. L. quadripiniiata (Gmel.) C. Chr. — Syn. Alsophila quadripinnata 
(Gmel.) C. Chr. Ind. 47 cum syn.; A. pruinata (Sw.) Klf. et auctt.; Hemsl. 6&^ 
Johow 1893: 20 f. 2, 1896: 154. 

One of the most common ferns, growing in widely different stations, and 
ranging from the ravines of the treeless basal region to the highest woods and 
heaths. Found with ripe sori in the autumn and winter. 

Masatierra: In all the quebradas between Pto Frances and Pto Ingles, 
common both in forested and in treeless tracts; numerous ravines near the 
colony, representing the last trace of indigenous vegetation; also on the elevated 
ridges separating V. Colonial from Villagra, 500—625 m (no. 590). 

Masafuera: Forming extensive beds in the subalpine and alpine region, 
ranging nearly to the highest summits (1350 — 1400 m), also on the highest 
parts of the great western precipice; not uncommon in the forests and along the 
streams of the canyons etc., e. g. in Q. de las Casas (no. 458). 

This interesting species which, as BowER has proved, is generically distinct 
from Alsophila, is widely spread through tropical and subtropical America, in 
several rather distinct forms. The insular form has been identified with the 
one from South Chile (Polypodium cinereum Cav.). Still it seems to differ from 
this in its dense cover of wool on the lower surface of the midrib, the Chilean 
form being decidedly less woolly. Further, the specimens from the two islands 
differ from each other in pubescence; if this character be constant, each island 
is inhabited by its special form. The form from Masafuera differs from other 
ones especially by the very dense rusty brown wool on the midribs of the 



THE PTI':R1D0P1I\ TA OT Till: JUAN I'l; RNANDi;/. ISLANDS \ -j 

secondary and tertiary pinnules. Besides the woolly hairs, the form from Masa- 
tierra shows numerous rather ri<j;id, cylindrical, atropurpureous hairs. We have 
met with similar tiichomes only in the Mexican form described as Tricliosorus 
i^iauciscois Liebm., but in this they are very few while in the form from Masa- 
ticrra the}- are so numerous as to give the lower surface of the frond a quite 
peculiar appearance. 

Area of distribution: Mexico, Central and South America to Western 
Patagonia, 49° S. L. Juan Fernandez. 



Dicksonia L'Her, 

18. D. Berteriana (Colla) Hook. Sp. Fil. i: 67 tab. 23 A et auctt.; 
Hemsl. 66\ Johow 1893: 21 f. 3, 1896: 154 tab. 16—17. — Syn. Davalha Ber- 
teriana Colla 1836: 37 tab. 65; Balantinm Berteroavinn Kze Anal. 40 (1837). 

In the humid and protected gorges found as low as 2 — 300 m; on the 
forested slopes and ridges generally not seen below 400 m, becoming much 
more numerous higher up. In the region of the frequent fogs this stately fern 
forms very dense groves. Fertile in the autumn and winter. 

• Masatierra: C. Chifladores, plentiful above 500 m; Q. Laura and Q. 
Piedra agujeriada, from 400 m upwards; higher parts of Rabanal, common, 
solitary specimens as low as 450 m; C. Centinela, stray specimens in the 
brushwood, numerous in the woods above 500 m (no. 574); Pangal, in the gorge, 
fine trees observed as low as at 220 m; on the crest above the Pangal canyon, 
c. 800 m; V. Anson, fine trees on the slopes of La Damajuana (common from 
500 m upwards) and of El Yunque (large specimens from 385 m, but now be- 
coming rare;^ C. Central, from 390 m and upwards, rare; V. Colonial, Q. seca, 
one tree seen at 435 m; C. Salsipuedes, filling the uppermost part of Q. He- 
lechos, 660 — 450 m, with an almost pure and exceedingly beautiful stand; Pto 
Ingles, high up on the western slope (Skottsberg 1908); Q. Villagra, mountain 
spur W. of El Yunque, c. 500 m, frequent ;■ below the Portezuelo pass, not un- 
common above 500 m; Q. de la Choza, solitary specimens at the altitude of 
300 m, higher up more common. 

The typical form of this endemic' species seems to be confined to Masa- 
tierra. It is so closely related to D. lanata Col. from New Zealand that a person 
working with dried material only might be inclined to unite them. 

var. virgata C. Chr. et Skottsb. nov. var. — Johow 1896 tab. 17. 

Major, robustior, ad 6V2 m (vel ultra?) alta et i m diam. supra basin et 
infra ramos, saepe virgata, ramis 1—5 irregulariter dispositis. Pinnae soriferae 
ad 40 cm et ultra longae (in typo rarius ultra 20 cm), minus villosae. Sori 
conspicue majores, 2 mm diam. (in typo i — 1,2 mm). 

Plate 2. 



* Not few plants are dug out every N'ear and sold to be transplanted in tlie gardens of 
Chile, where thev do not tlirive. 

2 — 20206. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



I 8 CARL CHRISTIANSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

According to observations on living specimens and from a comparison 
of the material at hand we conclude that the Dicksonia which inhabits Masa- 
fuera differs from the type and deserves a special name. It is found growing 
in the higher forests, where it may form dense, stands along the streams, and 
many groves are seen above the upper limit of the forest and on the grassy 
slopes of the ridges, though rarely below 500 m. On the slopes of Los Ino- 
centes there is a contiguous belt of Dicksonia, forming an extensive, low, but 
exceedingly dense forest which offers considerable difficulties to the explorer; 
it may, however, be crossed along the Vacas ridge where it has been accident- 
ally burnt in places. It reaches the altitude of about 1200 m. North of the 
Casas canyon, in the heath, scattered specimens are found; the last were met 
with at 1 1 70 m. It is scarce in the northern and less humid parts of the is- 
land and was not seen by us at the tributaries to Q Sanchez. We gathered 
fruiting specimens in August, 1908, but no ripe ones were found before our 
departure in 1917, March 15. 

Masafuera: Q. del Mono, in the woods from 475 m; in the AntJioxan- 
tJmm meadow on the higher slopes, from 530 to 1170 m; C. del Barril, not 
uncommon above 750 m; Q. del Blindado, forest ravine, 440 m (no. 515); Los 
Inocentes, scattered clumps below 750 m, thence forming closed groves, which 
dissolve at an altitude of ii — 1200 m. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Polypodiaceae. 

Cystopteris Bernh. 

19. C, fragilis (L.) Bernh.: C. Chr. Ind. 203. — C. fragilis var. canari- 
ensis (Willd.) Milde Fil. Eur. 152 sec. C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 5 (1910). 

Wet, shaded and sheltered corners in the deep canyons. (Fertile Aug., 
Feb.) 

Masafuera: Q. de las Casas, under overhanging rocks (no. 508); Q. Lo- 
beria, exterior part of the gorge, under large stones. 

Detected by SlCOTTSBERG in the Casas valley, 1908. The present speci- 
mens are identical with those from 1908 which were referred to var. cajiari- 
ensis^ and they certainly fall under this variety as circumscribed by Milde. 
Still the variety comprises many rather different forms, and the form from 
Masafuera cannot very well be associated with the one from the Atlantic is- 
lands under the same name. It is a large, very thin-leaved form with fronds 
up to 30 cm long and with large sori; the lower side is rather glandulose- 
pubescent. Probably it is almost the same as var. fiwiarioides (Pr.) {Athyriuin 
fiimavioidcs Presl, Rel. Haenck. i: 39 tab. 6 f. 2), based on Peruvian plants. 

Since MiLDE revised the numerous forms no pteridologist has tried 
to unravel the taxonomy- of the species with due regard to geographical 
distribution. 



THE PTERIDOPHVTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS ig 

Area of distribution: The species is the most cosmopolitan of all ferns, 
ranging from S^° lat. N. to South Georgia in the South Atlantic. 



Dryopteris Adans. emend. C. Chr. 

20. D. iiuiequalifolia (Colla) C. Chr. K. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. VIII. 
6: 73 (1920). — Syn. Polypodium inaequalifoliitvi Colla 1836: 49; P. Bcrtero- 
auion Hook. Sp. Fil. 4: 269 (1862); NepJiyodiiim villosuvi Hemsl. 75; Johow 
1893: 35, pro parte sed non f. 19, 1896: 65 pro parte; Polypodium piinctatum, 
Johow 1893: 36 f. 21, 1896: 166 (pro parte?); P. vestitiiui Johow 1893: 37 f. 22 
{non Philippi); Dryopteris villosa cum var. Berferoana C. Chr. Arkiv f. Bot. 
10: 13 (1910). 

Plate 3. 

One of the most common ferns, especially in all parts of the forest belt, 
but also in the devastated areas, in suitable stations. In the elevated montane 
forests and in well-watered gorges specimens with a short (up to i m high) 
straight stem are not uncommon. Fertile specimens will probably be encoun- 
tered at any season. 

Masatierra: In the woods of the valleys from Pto Frances to Juanango, 
ranging from 250 m (or less) to at least 650 m (nos. 65, i6r, 275, 339. 604, 
1 151); equally common in the wooded part of the south side (no. 274). Also 
in the old caves, no. II (rare) and no. VI (no. 1152), situated near the landing- 
place in B. Cumberland. 

Masafuera: We are unable to tell whether all the specimens observed in 
this island belong to f. glabrior (see below) as from many localities no speci- 
mens were preserved. Q. de las Chozas, in the forest, 570 m; Q. del Mono, 
475 "^; Q- <^s l^s Casas, under rocks (no. 466); Q. del Blindado, in forest 440 m; 
Q. de las Vacas (no. 448); Q. Inocentes, in Dicksonia-forest; Q. Angosta, 1 
km from the entrance, at the waterfall; Q. Loberia; SE slope of Los Inocentes, 
c. 950 m (highest altitude observed). 

The present species which is dealt with in details by Christensen 
(Monogr. Dryopteris Pt. II) was confounded by JOHOW with Hypolepis rugo- 
sula which is proved from his figures and also from his herbarium. It belongs 
to a group of closely allied species distributed through tropical America. The 
south Andine D. spcctabilis (Klf.) (Syn. Polypodium vestitum Phil.), to which 
Johow referred a form of D. inaeqiialifolia, is more remotely related to our 
species than are several of the other members of the group. 

The typical form is probably confined to Masatierra; the Masafueran form 
has been named f. glabrior by Christensen and Skottsberg, 1. c. C. 
Chr. 1920. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Polystichuni Roth emend. Schott 

21. P. Berterianuni (Colla) C. Chr. Ind. 579; Arkiv for Bot. 10: 19 
(1910). — Syn. Aspidiinn Bcrterimmui Colla 1836: 42 tab. 70; A. flexiivi Kze 
Anal. 44 (1837); Hemsl. 75; Johow 1893: 34 f. 18, 1896; 164. A. capoise 
Hemsl., Johow 11. cc. 

This is the most wide-spread fern in the islands, growing from near the 
sea level to the highest ridges in Masatierra and reaching the subalpine heath 
in Masafuera. In habit it varies a great deal according to external conditions; 
the form of the sunny places is easily mistaken for P. adiantifornie Forst. In 
sheltered places it grows larger, with a plane, less rigid frond. — Fertile at 
any season, principally in late summer and autumn. 

Masatierra: Common in all the valleys and on the dividing ridges (in 
the devastated areas mostly confined to the shallow ravines), from Pto Frances 
to Juanango, and, on the south side, as far west as B. Chupones (Tierra Ama- 
rilla). Also noted in Cave X near the landing-place in B. Cumberland. (Nos. 
54, 149, 281, 588, 612.) 

Masafuera: In the canyons and on the dividing ridges and plains, from 
B. Token round the island to Q. Loberia; also among rocks in the subalpine- 
alpine heath, at least to iioo m. Small specimens on C. Atravesado, c. 1350 m. 
(Nos. 449, 552, 554.) 

We are absolutely convinced that only one species of the group of P. 
adiantifonne (Aspidium capense) occurs in the islands. The single specimen 
referred to the last mentioned by Hem.SLEY has turned out to be only P. Ber- 
terianuin. On the other hand we cannot agree with JOHOW who proposed to 
reduce P. Berterianinn to a variety or form of adiantifonne. In Arkiv for Bot. 
1. c. the differences are pointed out, and the characters mentioned there hold 
good with one exception: the pinnae are often alternate. Most specimens show 
the brown drops of gum on both surfaces never observed in adiantifonne. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

22. P. vestitum (Forst.) Pr. Tent. 83 (1836); C. Chr. Ind. 588. — Syn. 
Polypodiuvi vestitum Forst. Prodr. 82 (1786); Aspidium vestitum Sw.; Mett. Aspid. 
no. loi var. b; A. aculeatuni Hemsl. 74; Johow 1893: 33 f. 17, 1896: 164; 
PolysticJiunt orbiculatuni C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 18 (1910). 

Fairly common in well-watered ravines and in the woods, from a few 
hundred m to the elevated ridges, in Masafuera also in the alpine region. 
Fertile specimens may be seen at any time, but are fjrobably commoner during 
the summer and autumn. 

Masatierra: C. Chifladores, slopes above Pto Frances, c. 500 m, common 
in the forest; C. Centinela, from 530 m upwards; Q. Damajuana, waterfall at 
250 m (no. 53); C. Central, in clearings, c. 400 m; quebradas in the bottom 
of V. Colonial (nos. 48, 152, 334), also in thickets of Aristotelia viaqui near 
the road to Portezuelo (no. 1174); C. Salsipuedes, brushwood on the ridge, 



THE PIKRIDOPHYTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 2 1 

615 m and in O. Helechos, 660 m; 0. Juanango, c. 200 m; Q. Villagra; Q. de 
la Choza, in forest 250 m. 

Masafucra: O. del Mono, in the woods, 4 — 500 m; Q. del Blindado, 
forest, 440 m; O. de las Casas, in the canyon (no. 555); Q. Angosta, c. i km 
from the entrance, at the waterfall; the Corres{)ondencia Camp in the ravine, 
1 160 m; edge of the western precipice, at Las Torres, 1370 m; summit of Co 
Correspondencia, 1420 m. 

It may be doubted whether the aculcatum-ioxva of Juan Fernandez really 
is identical with P. vcstitimi. In most characters it certainly agrees with speci- 
mens from Australia while, on the other hand, it differs much from the more 
common form of New Zealand [P. venustuin Hombr. et Jacq.). It is dark green 
above, rather soft in texture, the basal scales black with pale borders, the scales 
of the rhachis reddish, thin, tapering from the broad lacerate base into a long, 
contorted, hairlike apex but always lacking the black scales of P. venustum 
(= P. vestitnin Christ Arkiv for Bot. 4: 5). The upper basal pinnules are often 
much lengthened and fully pinnate. The reference in 1910 to P. oybiculatum 
was due to the misinterpretation of the latter by CllRlST. 

Area. of distribution: Taken in a wide sense, the species inhabits Sub- 
antarctic America, Juan Fernandez, Australia and New Zealand. 



Arthropteris J. Sm. 

23. A. altescandeiis (Colla) J. Sm. Hist. P'il. 225; C. Chr. Ind. 62. — 
Syn. Polypodiuui altcscLnidms Colla 1836: 48; NepJwolcpis altcscmidens Baker, 
Hemsl. ']6\ Johow 1893: 35 f. 20, 1896: 165. Polypoditiiii procurrens Kze 
Anal. 17. 

Only found in the lower parts of the forest region, trailing over stones 
and fallen stems or climbing to a considerable height in the trees. (Fertile 
Aug., Dec. — April.) 

Masatierra: Pto Frances (JoiIOW); Pangal, common from one hundred m 
upwards; Q. Damajuana, c. 250 m, very common on the trees (no. 60); V. 
Anson, in the woods surrounding the Plazoleta del Yunque; C. Central, c. 
400 m, numerous; V. Colonial, quebradas in the interior, not uncommon 250 — 
350 m (no. 44); Q. Juanango. 

Masafuera, rare: Q. de las Casas (detected 1908), in the canyon; in 1917 
only seen on a tree fallen down from the steep wall (no. 507). 

This endemic fern is a pronounced Polynesian element in the flora. No 
American species is known to which it might be compared, while, on the other 
hand, some Polynesian forms, especially from Samoa, which have been referred 
to the collective species A. obliterata (R. Br.) J. Sm. are intimately related to 
our species. Other very close relatives grow in Queensland (see DOAIIN, Bibl. 
Bot. Heft 85: 60-64 c. figs.). The African ^. ;v^;//^JY^, generally but incorrectly 
united with the eastern Polynesian forms, and the Australian A. teiiella are 
both more remotely related to it. The main difference between A. altcscaiidejis 
and the Samoan form mentioned, which are both green when dried and appar- 



/ 



2 2 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

ently exindusiate, lies in the base of the lamina. The Samoan plant has a 
gradually narrowed base leaving only a very short stipe free of pinnae; A. 
altescande}7s has the stipe 3 — 5 cm long and the lamina scarcely narrowed 
downwards, although frequently a single shortened basal pinna is present. The 
midribs of the pinnae are softly villous with articulate hairs in A. altcscandcns; 
such hairs occur only sparingly in the Polynesian species. 
Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Asplenium L. 

24, A. obliquuni F'orst. 80 (1786) var. chondrophylhim (Bert.) Mett. 
Aspl. 137 no. 21. — Syn. A. cJiondyopJiylluin Bertero ex Colla 1836: 40 tab. 
68; A. obtusatuni Hemsl. 74; Johow 1893: 31 f. 14, 1896: 162; C. Chr. Ind. 124 
pro parte. 

Along the sea shore, in crevices and under overhanging rocks. Probably 
fertile the year round. 

Masatierra: B. Cumberland (JoHOW); Puerto Ingles, not uncommon (no. 
313, also listed by JoHOW), 

Santa Clara: Johow. 

Masafuera: Not uncommon on the cliffs from O. del Ovalo along the 
coast to Pta Negra and probably also in other places (no. 511); also in the 
interior of Q. de las Casas. 

The differences between the two species of FORSTER, A, obtusatuni and 
A. obllquuvi, were clearly explained by Mettenius, and we do not doubt that 
they are both good species, distinguished besides by the number and shape of 
pinnae especially by the different scales on the lower side of the lamina. In A. obtu- 
satnin these scales are minute, dilacerate, in A. obliquuui ovate, entire, acuminate. 
The Juan Fernandez form agrees with A. obliquum in its scales, but the more 
common, smaller form, figured by COLLA, has much the aspect of A. obtusa- 
tuni; still forms have been collected that scarcely differ in size from A. obli- 
quuni, so that it seems quite natural to refer it to that species as a variety. 
From both the Australian species the variety differs by the colour of the basal 
scales, which are reddish brown and not dirty ferrugineous as in the others. 

Similar forms from Chile were described as A. spJienoidcs Kze and A. 
consimile Gay; they have the dirty brown basal scales of typical obliquuni, and 
their rather numerous pinnae are shortly acuminate, the margins duplicato- 
serrate with rather acute teeth, while var. cliondrophyllum sometimes has nearly 
entire, sometimes obtusely serrate, obtuse pinnae. 

Area of distribution: South Chile; Juan Fernandez; Australia, New Zea- 
land. Typical cJioitdropJiylluni only known from Juan Fernandez. 

25. A. niacrosoruni Bertero ex Colla 1836: 39 tab. 6"] (bona); Kunze, 
Anal. 2[ (1837); Hemsl. 74; Johow 1893: 32 f. 16, 1896: 162. 

Plate I, Fig. 2. 



THE PTERIDOPUVTA OF lUE JUAN FBRNANDUZ ISLANDS 23 

Apparently not at all so rare as Joiiow believed; characteristic of rich 
humous soil in the montane woods within the foggy region. (Fertile Dec. — 
March.) 

Masaticrra: C. Chifladores, woods in the highest part of the Frances 
valley, c. 500 m, rare; dense forest on the ridge between Q. Laura and Q. 
I'iedra agujeriada, c. Coo n), and in the last-mentioned quebrada, 650 m; Ra- 
banal, in the upper part; C. Centinela, 560 m (no. 1179); V. Anson just below 
the gap between La Damajuana and El Yunque, in rich woods, c. 500 m (no. 
157; also P. Arreuondo in herb JoHOwl); C. Central, 390 m, small and very 
rare, scattered at 500 — 550 m (no. 302); C. Salsipuedes., Q. Helechos, c. 650 rn, 
one tuft under a stone in the Dhksonm-^oi-est (no. 94); Q. Villagra, mountain 
ridge W. of El Yunque, c. 500 m, rare. 

*Masafucra: Q. de las Chozas, rich woods above 500 m (no. 364); C. 
del Barril. fissures in the rocks, c. 750 m (no. 406); SE. slope of Los Inoccntes, 
Dicksofiia-^ovQst, 840 m (no. 533). — New for this island. 

A very distinct species with doubtful relationship: several species partly 
resembling it are found in many regions of both hemispheres, still it is prob- 
able that it might be placed next to A. obtiisifolinm L. and seinicordaiuin 
Raddi, both widely dispersed through tropical America. It differs from both 
by its shining, dark castaneous stipe and rhachis, its few pinnae and large sori. 
The texture cannot be called subcoriaceous as stated in Syn. Fil , but is rather 
thin although firm, pellucid. It varies in the number of pinnae; generally there 
are 1—2 to each side of the terminal large one; they are equally cuneate or 
sometimes unequal with the lower side more arcuate, quite as in the two spe- 
cies mentioned above. In the larger specimens from Masatierra the base of 
the terminal pinna often has one side arcuately excised. The indusium, which 
is greyish, entire and often a little arcuate, covers the young sorus; in the 
mature ones, V2 — 2V2 cm long and 2^2 mm wide, the indusium is quite hidden 
by the reddish brown sporangia. 

Among the specimens from Masatierra there is a luxuriant form, with 
3—4 lateral pinnae on each side, the basal ones with a nearly free secondary 
pinnule on the lower side. 

The plants from the two islands are as a whole similar, still those from 
Masafuera are smaller than those from Masatierra with narrower pinnae, the 
terminal one equal-sided. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

26. A. stellatiim Colla 1836: 41 tab. 69; C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 5 
(1910). — Syn. A. fcrnandcrJaniuii Kunze, Anal. 22 (1837); A. Innulatum 
Hemsl. Ti: Johow 1893: 32 f. 15, 1896: 162; C. Chr. Ind. 119 pro parte 
{lion Sw.). 

Not uncommon in the montane forests from Pto Frances to Vaqueria, also 
found in more open places at a lower altitude; less common in Masafuera. 
(Fertile Aug., Dec— April.) 

Masatierra: Pto Frances, brushwood on Loma Incienso, c. 350 m, for- 
ming a carpet on earth-covered stones (no. 128); on the slope of C. Chifla- 
dores, rocky soil in the forest, c 500 m; La Damajuana, c. 450 m; NE. slope 



24 CARL CHRISTENSEN A\D CARL SKOTTSBERG 

of El Yunque (no. 1149); C. Central, c. 470 m (no. 309); just below the Porte- 
ZLielo pass, c 500 ni (no. 133); north face of Co Pirainide, c. 580 ni; Vaquen'a, 
c. 250 m. 

Masafuera: Q. de las Chozas, in dense forests, 5—600 m (no. 545); C. 
del Barril, among rocks, 985 m (no. 532); O. de las Casas, under overhanging 
rocks in the bottom of the canyon (no. 509). 

A considerable number of specimens show that this is a variable species, 
varying in size, and in shape and cutting of the {)innae. Colla's figure is 
not good as it does not show the shortened lower pinnae, which are more or 
less fanshaped with flabellate venation. The leaves often produce new plants 
at their tips, whose leaves are again proliferous. The stipe is some times 
winged with the wing broadest below, sometimes unwinged. Lamina more or 
less thin, dark green (yellowish in open places), the rhachis narrowly alate 
throughout. In some specimens the pinnae resemble Colla's plate, but they 
are often shorter and broader, with a rounded or obtuse ape.\', commonly with 
a lobed auricle at the upper base, more or less excised at the lower, the large 
lobes entire or cleft. 

A. stcllatHiJi belong to the A. ///';////<r?/////^assemblage, spread through the 
tropics in many varieties. Recently MiERONVMUS (Hedwigia 60, 1919) de- 
scribed or restored a series of species of this group. Under the new species 
A. tabinciise he mentions A. fcnuDidczianuiii Kze, a younger name for A. Stel- 
la tuvi. 

A. stellatnin seems to combine several characters, of which one or more 
are found now in one, now in another of the allied species. In general habit 
it mostly resembles the South African A. crcctum Bory, in its winged rhachis 
and stipe A. pteropiis Klf., common in tropical America. From the latter, which 
may be considered as its nearest relative, it differs in the coal black, rigid 
basal scales. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

27. A. niagellanicuni Klf. Enum. 175 (1824); Hemsl. 74; Johow 1893: 
32, 1896: 163. 

Found in several distant stations, but not common; chiefly in the woods 
or in wet moss near running water. Probably fertile at any season. 

Masatierra: C. Chifladores, dense forest on the slope towards Pto Fran- 
ces, c. 500 m; Pangal, at the cascade, in wet moss; Q. Damajuana, at the foot 
of a small waterfall (no. 61); in the woods on both sides of Portezuelo: along 
the stream, on the ground and on trees. 

Masafuera: Forest on the Sanchez plain, 515 m; 0, de las Chozas, dark 
ravine under DkksoJiia; O. del Mono, dry bed of the strean), 570 m (no. 461); 
O. de las Casas, in the canyon (no. 452); O. del Blindado, on the ground and 
on trees and arboreous ferns, 440 m; O. Angosta, about i km from the en- 
trance, at the waterfall; O. Loberia, along the stream and in the forest patch 
at 200 m; the Correspondencia Camp, in the Lophosoria-hedii, and in moss 
mats at the foot of Las Torres, 1370 m. 

The island specimens do not quite agree with continental ones. The}' are 



THE PrERIDOPHVTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 25 

a little larger with an ovate oblong lamina (sometimes even broadly lanceolate), 
rarely deltoid as the common form from southern Chile; the lobes are broader 
and more distinctl)' toothed at the outer edge and the texture thinner. In 
general outline, the type recalls yi. nita muiaiia, the island form rather A. 
adiantin)! uigiuui. Some specimens are seen on Plate i Fig. i. 

Area of distribution: Southern Chile to Fuegia and Falkland Islands; 
Juan Fernandez. 



Blechnum L. 

28. H. auriculatiim Cav. Descr. 262 (1802); C. Chr. Ind. 151. -- Syn. 
B. liastiUuDi Klf. Enum. 16 1 ; Lomaria hastata Kze Farrnkr. tab. 55 f. 2; B. 
ivistialc Hemsl. ^i; Johow 1893: 26 f. 9, 1896: 158. 

Fertile at any time of the year. 

Masatierra: Never wanting on the low, treeless slopes, sometimes very 
common on the loose tufas, where few other species grow, so in V. Colonial 
etc. etc. In inhabits the dry regions between Villagra and Pta Larga. It is 
al.so found in all the forests (no. 55) and on the high ridges among shrubs. It 
grows in almost all the caves near the landing-place in B. Cumberland (no. 
586, from cave II is a large luxuriant form). 

Santa Clara: JOHOW. 

Masafuera: Very common (no. 493). 

According to our opinion this species is not conspecific with the South 
African B. australc L. It varies considerably in the islands and JOHOW di- 
stinguished three varietis. The present collection contains the following forms. 

i) A large form, like the continental one, fronds up to 70 cm long (stipe 
20 cm) and 8 cm broad, lower reduced pinnae distant, sori often interrupted. 
This is JOHOW's var. i, fig. 9 a (well illustrated by KuNZE, 1. c). JOHOw's 
var. 2, fig. 9 b is only a slender form of the same. 

2) rcinotum (Presl). — Syn. B. reniotum Pr. Tent. 103 (1836, nomen); 
Mcsotliciiia yemohiin Pr. Enum. iii (1849); B. pubescens Hook. Ic. plant, tab. 
97 (1^37). Gay 6: 478 (non Desv.); Loviaria pubescens Kze Farrnkr. i: 122 tab. 

55 fig- 3 (1843)- 

Prominent pteridologists have regarded this as a distinct species. A com- 
parative examination of a large material shows that no definite limit can be 
drawn between this and typical B. annadatuui. B. reuiotniii is smaller and has 
a much shorter stipe, further it is densely pubescent on stipe and rhachis, 
characters which undergo great changes according to the external conditions. 
B. rcinotuui is the form of more open situations. On the arid slopes and higher, 
stony ridges another reduced form is found, which might be called f. parvnla 
(Phil.). — Syn. B. parvnlum Phil. Anal. Univ. 1873: 580 (t. spec. Mus. Nac. 
Santiago!); C. Chr. Ind. 158. This has been mistaken for B, penna marina 
(Poir.) Kuhn (= Lomaria alpina Spr.), by Hemsl. 72; Johow 1893: 31, 1896: 
161 doubted its existance. In the present collection there are specimens of 
typical pavvula from Masatierra, C. Salsipuedes, 750 m (no. 92); it was 



26 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

also observed on arid slopes in B. Chupones and on Masafuera; C. del Bar- 
ril, 740 m. 

Area of distribution: Temperate South America. Juan Fernandez. 

29. B. valdiviense C. Chr. Ind. 160 (1905). -- Syn. Lojnaria blechnoides 
Bory 1825 et aucit., Hemsl. 71; Johow 1893: 30 f. 13, 1896: 160; L. lanccolata 
Spr.?, Colla 1836: 45; L. F Herminieri, Hemsl. 72, Johow 1893: 30, 1896: 161 
(pro parte); B. araiatiwi Phil. Anal Univ. 94: 352 (1896), 7ion Remy; B. aiistrale 
var. payvulnm, Johow (spec, e Masafuera). 

Generally confined to the forest and preferring the shadiest parts, seldom 
seen in more open situations. Fertile fronds develop during the summer and 
ripen Feb. — April. 

Masatierra : C. Chifladores, slope above the innermost part of Pto Fran- 
ces, c. 500 m; ridge between Q. Laura and Q. Piedra agujeriada, 650 m; 
Pangal (JOHOW); N. slope of La Damajuana, c. 450 m; the crest separating 
the Q. Damajuana from V. Anson, on rocks, 150 m; along the road to Porte- 
zuelo, in the woods (nos. 153, 589); Q. Gutierrez (no. 49); C. Salsipuedes, O. 
Helechos, 660 m, rather common and also epiphytic; Pto Ingles (JOHOW); O. 
Juanango, very large plants (no. 611); Q. Villagra, here and there near the 
path; Q. de la Choza, dense forest, 250—300 m, very numerous. 

Masafuera: O. de las Chozas, dry bed of a stream; Q. del Mono, dark 
ravine, 570 m; Q. de las Casas, humid sheltered corners (no. 510); Q. del 
Varadero, dark fissures below the waterfall; Q. Angosta, at the waterfall; Q. 
Loberia, forest patch, 280 m. In the alpine region: C. del Barril (no. 531); 
edge of western precipice at the foot of Las Torres, 1370 m (no. 422). 

A fairly constant species, varying mainly in size. The rhizome is com- 
monly described as creeping. This is not quite correct. It is erect from the 
first, but soon produces underground runners, from which new plants arise; 
with age these give rise to new runners with fasciculate leaves. The scales of 
the rhizome are entire. 

B. valdiviense is certainly related to B. leDiceolatum (R. Br.) from Australia 
and New Zealand but well characterized. Small plants resemble B. pemia 
niarijia, and young plants of B. Schottii may be confounded with B. valdivi- 
ense, but will be recognized by the dentate scales of the rhizome, which is long 
and slender, by the scattered leaves and the prominent hydathodes on their 
upper surface just within the margin. 

We have little doubt that L. lanceolata Colla and L. I Herviinieri Hemsl. 
(not Bory) quoted above must be referred to B. valdiviense. Hemsley quoted 
specimens collected by Bertero and by MoSELEY: the former is beyond doubt 
the L. lanceolata, which according to Colla's few remarks seems to be ordi- 
nary B. valdiviense, and the latter is perhaps a large form of the same. JoHOW 
reprinted Hemslev's remarks with the addition that he had collected it in 
Masatierra and that it might be united with L. attenuata (= B. Schottii). This 
is no wonder for JOHOW's specimens (!) are B. Schottii. The genuine B. 
I'Herminieri Bory, a West Indian species, does not occur in Juan Fernandez. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia and Clijloe; Juan Fernandez. 



THE PTERIDOPHYTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 2^ 

30. B. Schottii (Colla) C. Chr. Atkiv for Hot. 10: 7 (1910); Skottsberg 
K. Sv. Vet. Akad. Ilandl. Hd. 51 no. 9 tab. 7 f. 3. — Syn. Lomaria Schottii 
Colla 1S36: 44 tab. 72; L. attcmiata Hemsl. 71; Johovv 1893: 29 f. 12, 1896: 
160; L. r Herininicri, Joliow 1. c. pro parte; L. fernandcziana Phil. Anal. Univ. 
43: 105 (1873); L. bclla Phil. Linnaea 29: 105 (1857). 

Not uncommon in the forests, often climbing on trees and arboreous ferns. 
The fertile fronds are developed in late summer and ripen in March — April. 

Masatierra: From Pto P"'rances to Juanango, ranging from about 200 m 
to 6 or 700 m (nos. 286, 564, 1180); also on the south side, in the quebradas 
of Villagra. 

Masafuera: O. de las Chozas, in forest 475 m (no. 517); Q. dc las Casas, 
not rare in the canyon. 

In 1910 the reasons were given why this should be considered a distinct 
species, and the differences between it and the closely allied B. attenuatuni 
(Willd.) and B. nieridoise (Kl.) C. Chr. were explained. We can add that the 
basal scales are more distinctly toothed and frequently concolorous in B. Schottii, 
subentire and black in the centre in B. inen'dejise. 

No. 1 1 80 is an anomalous form with the sterile pinnae deeply pinnatifid 
in the external half, with subfalcate, acute segments. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

31. B. chilense (Klf) Mett. Fil. Lechl. i: 14 (1856); C. Chr. Ind. 152. 
— Syn. Lomaria cliilensis Kaulf. Enum. 154 (1824); L. capensis Hemsl. 73; 
Johow 1893: 28 f. II, 1896: 159; L. Reedii Phil. Anal. Univ. 43: 581 (1873). 

Fairly common in the woods, preferring open glades and stony ground 
near running water; also in the drier tracts. Fertile fronds develop during the 
summer and ripen Feb.— March. 

Masatierra: Pto PVances, scattered in the forest, c. 500 m; C. Centinela, 
in the woods; Pangal, west branch on dry open ground; main gorge, at the 
waterfall; O. Damajuana, small waterfall, c. 250 m; V. Colonial, in all the que- 
bradas, common along the road to Portezuelo (no. 565, no. 331 f. anomala); 
C. Salsipuedes, up to 670 m; Q. Juanango, along the brook, c. 200 m; Villagra 
common in the large quebrada; S. slope of Co Chumacera, in the Boehmena- 
grove; B. Chupones, 2—300 m. 

Masafuera: Q. de las Chozas, dry bed of a stream, 570 m (no. 437); 
Q. de las Casas, common along the course of the stream; Q. Angosta, at the 
waterfall; Q. del Varadero, waterfall; the Correspondencia Camp, in the ravine 
1 160 m; heath near Las Torres, 1350 m (dwarf specim.). 

B. chilense belongs to a group of closely allied species which by some 
authors are united under the name B. capense (Thunb.) Schlecht. This group 
has never been critically revised. For the present it cannot be decided which 
of the numerous species described should be regarded as valid. Here we prefer 
to deal with B. chilense as a separate species, although we are not prepared 
to give good distinctive characters. 

According to JoHOW L. Reedii is a form with fronds partly fertile, partly 
.sterile. Such anomalous forms are occasionally met with in other members of 
the group. No. 331 of the present collection is such a form, with all the pinnae 



28 CARL CHRISJENSliN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

on one side fertile, and sterile on the other, corresponding to B. procerum 
figured by Labillardiere, Nov. Holl. PI. Spec. tab. 247. 

Area of distribution: Central Chile to West Patagonia, Falkland Islands; 
Juan Fernandez. 

32. B. cycadifolium (Colla) Sturm, Enuin. pi. cr. vase. chil. 23 (1858); 
C. Chr. Ind. 152. — Syn. Loviaria cycadifolia Colla 1836: 43 tab. 71; Johow 
1896: 158; L. lanuginosa Kze Anal. 19 (1837), Gay 6: 479; L. Boryana Hemsl. 
72; Johow 1893: 27 f. 10; B. uiagellaniciiDi var. cycadifolia C. Chr. Arkiv for 
Bot. 10: 9 (19 10). 

Plate 4. 

Fertile in March — April. 

Masatierra: Characteristic of all the high ridges in the eastern and 
central parts, forming very dense growths above 4— 500 m (no. 580) and reach- 
ing the summit of El Yunque (940 m) where stout specimens may be seen 
with field glasses. In the dense forest it is scarce, but on open, drier mountain 
ridges with scattered trees it is again common. It is also encountered in the 
treeless basal region, from Pto Frances to Pto Ingles, descending to 30 m 
above sea level. On the south side of the island, small specimens were found 
as far west as in B, Chupones. 

Masafuera: On the ridges, in the alpine heath etc., smaller than in Masa- 
tierra buth otherwise typical; O. del Mono, one small plant at the roadside; 
C. del Barril, 700-1200 m; alpine heath near the Correspondencia Camp, 1130 
— 1350 m (no. 405); Western precipice of C. Atravesado, well developed; slopes 
of Los Inocentes, scattered in the Dicksonia-hQ!i\., important in the typical alpine 
heath 1350 — 1450 m. 

This, the »Cycas-fern», is certainly closely related to B. magellanicum 
(Desv.) Mett., to which it has been referred as a variety. P'rom examination 
of dried material alone it is difficult to find good distinctive characters, but 
collectors apologize for its validity as a species (see Joiiow I. c). It is a true 
tree-fern with a stout, often slightly curved stem and very rigid, shining leaves. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

33. B. longicauda C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 10 tab. i (1910). — Syn. 
Lomaria sp..', Johow in sched. herb!; Asplcniuin longissii/iuni, Johow 1893: 33, 
1896: 163, non Bl. 

Fig. 5. — Plate 5. 

In the quebradas, on stony or rocky soil, along running water, at the 
waterfalls etc., often pending from the rocks and forming fine carpets on the 
walls of the canyons. Not uncommon. Almost ripe fertile fronds were gathered 
in P'ebruary. 

Masafuera: O de las Chozas, 450-500 m, dry bed of a stream (no. 
365); Q- del Mono, 570 m; O. de las Casas, in the canyon, luxuriant (no. 420); 
Q. del Blindado, 440 m, in the bottom of a wooded ravine; 0. Angosta, i km 
from the entrance, at the waterfall; Q. del Varadero, at the waterfall: Q. Lo- 
berfa, waterfall in the gorge, 190 m. 



THE PTERIDOl'llYTA OF THF. JUAN' Fl-RNANUl-Z ISLANDS 



29 



lliis liit^lily remarkable fern was discovered by JoilOW in Q. de las Casas, 
and again found in the same locality by Skottsbekg, 1908. A beautiful lot 




Fig 5. Blechnum longicaiida C. Chr. a sterile pinna, nat. size, and enlarged fragment; ^ two 
fertile pinnae, nat. size, and enlarged fragment; c palea form the stipe, X 5- 



of specimens, including fertile fronds, enable us to complete the original de- 
scription. 

The rhizome is short, more or less erect, the fronds densely fasciculate. 
When growing between stones along the water, the species has much the habit 



30 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

of B. chilense. Rhizome and stipe are covered with thick, entire, lanceolate, 
castaneous scales, 1,5 cm long by 3 mm broad. The upper part of the stipe 
and the rhachis have similar but smaller scales. Stipe short, rarely 10 cm long, 
angular as is also the rhachis, compressed, over V2 cm broad, deeply furrowed 
above. The numerous almost sessile, horizontal pinnae of the sterile frond are 
more or less subcordate at base with lateral lobes overlapping the rhachis. 
The lower pinnae are dwindling downwards, the lowest nearly semicircular. Not 
all the sterile leaves are proliferous, the fertile never so. Fertile fronds have 
very numerous, very long and narrow linear pinnae, 12 — 16 cm long by 2 — 3 
mm wide only. Indusium coriaceous, nearly black, very closel}- imbricated and 
first opening at full maturity, the edges entire or faintly and repandly toothed. 
Lower reduced pinnae sterile and similar to those of the sterile frond, fertile 
pinnae in some specimens with a basal leafy obovate segment, corresponding 
to the basal lobes of the sterile pinnae; in others these sterile lobes are totally 
missing. 

B. longicaiida differs widely from all other species except from B. Sprucei 
C. Chr. (Lomaria caudata Bak.) from Ecuador, to which it is closely related. 
We have seen the original specimens of the latter in Herb. Kew; if they are 
of an average size, what we do not know, this is a much smaller species. It 
differs mainly in the shape of the sterile pinnae, which are much shorter and 
suddenly contracted into a subobtuse apex, rather unlike the long narrow one 
in our species. The fertile pinnae are also shorter and narrower. The rhachis 
is perhaps more densely pubescent. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Pellaea Link. 

34. P. chilensis Fee, Gen. 129 (1852); C. Chr. Ind. 479. — Syn. Cin- 
cin7talis chilensis Fee, Gay 6: 447; NotJiocJdaeiia cJiilensis Sturm 1858; Hemsl. 
']']\ Johow 1893: 40 f. 25, 1896: 169. 

Dry sunny cliffs, generally near the sea, very local. Probably fertile at 
any time. 

Masatierra: near Pto Frances (SCHREIBER t. JOHOW); Q. Piedra aguje- 
riada, 30—40 m (Backstrom); Pangal, far into the gorge, rocky wall 210 m; 
near the road from the colony to Pangal, on steep rocks above the sea, 45 m 
(no. I go). 

Masafuera: Germain! without locality; cliffs near the landing-place at 
Q. de las Casas, c. 20 m (no. 410). 

Very near, or too near the Andine P. nivea (Poir.) Prantl, differing from 
it mainly in its sessile pinnules and generally more oblong segments. 
Area of distribution: Endemic. 



THE PTERIDOrHVI'A OI' TllH JUAN FERNANDliZ ISLANDS 3 I 

ITypolepis Hernh. 

35. II. rugosulu (Labill.) J. Sin. H(jt. Mag. 72, Coinp. .S, 1846 (»iugu- 
losa»). — S)'n. Polypoditim rugosu/uin Labill. Nov. Holl. V\. Spec. 2: 92 tab. 
241 (1806); l^yyoptLiis punctata subsp. lugosula C. Chr. Ind. 287. 

var. Foeppigii (Kze). — Syn. Polypodiniii Poeppigil Kunze, Linnaea 9: 50 
(1834); Pliegopteris Poeppigil Fee, Gay 6: 506; Mett. Pheg. no. 13; Polypodium 
nigulosiDn Klf. Enum. 122 et auctt.; P. pinictaitini Hemsl. 76 (excl. syn. Pliego- 
pteris spectabilis)\ Johow 1893: 36 pro parte [non fig. 21), 1896: 166 pro parte; 
NepJirodium villosum Johow 1893: 35 pro parte, fig. 19, 1896: 165 (t. spec, in 
Herb JoHOW! non auctt.); Ilypolepis Poeppigiana Mett. Fil. Lechl. i: 18(1856); 
Dryoptcris punctata C. Chr. Ind. 555. 

Seems to thrive under very different conditions, in dense or open forests, 
on barren slopes at the roadsides etc. Probably fertile at all seasons. 

Masatierra: O. Piedra agujeriada, c. 650 m (no. 596); V. Colonial, barren 
slopes (no. 120) and in the caves no. IV and V (common, no. 587); Q. Vil- 
lagra, just below the Portezuelo pass (no. 276). 

Masafuera: Near the abandoned Chozas village, roadside, 400 m (no. 
439)j Q- ^^^ Blindado, forest, c. 440 m; C. del Barril, 985 m; Q. de las Vacas; 
Q. Angosta, at the waterfall. 

The many specimens collected clearly belong to the Chilean Pol. Poep- 
pigil, and this cannot be separated from H. rugosula as a distinct species. 
KUNZE found that the essential differences between his Poeppigii and rugosu- 
lum of Labillardiere (the specific name erroneously written »rugulosum» 
by all authors) were the lax texture and the obtuse, approximate secondary 
pinnules of the former. It is true that most specimens show these characters, 
which, however, vary with difference in shade and humidity. The shade form 
(e. g. no. 587) belongs to typical Poeppigii, but specimens from open soil are 
scarcely distinguishable from typical P. rugosuluni from Australia, where the 
texture in the less humid climate becomes more thick, and the pinnules are 
more distant and more acuminate. In all other characters specimens from the 
two regions closely agree, and it is, therefore, impossible to deal with Poep- 
pigii as a species, perhaps even as a distinct variety. The specimens from 
Juan Fernandez are also very similar to Polypodium viscidum Roxb. (= Hypo- 
lepis helenensis Fee) from St. Helena, and there is little doubt that P. villoso- 
viscidum Thouars from Tristan d'Acunha is the same. All these names are 
quoted as synonyms of P. rugosulum Labill.; the name of Thouars was pub- 
lished in 1804 and consequently has priority, but having seen no specimens, 
we shall not venture to create a new combination. 

H. rugosula is frequently referred, as a variety or subspecies, to Pol. 
punctattim Thunb., the type of which is from Japan. A comparative study of 
specimens from different regions will show, we believe, that H. rugosula is a 
distinct species of more southern distribution. Both certainly belong to Hypo- 
lepis, not to Dryopteris. 

In 1856 Metteniu.S described some specimens from Chile, previously 
referred to Pol. Poeppigii, as Hypolepis Poeppigiana, while he retained the spe- 



3 2 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

cies of KUNZE under Phegoptcris. Having examined specimens determined by 
MettENIUS himself we must confess that we do not understand how this keen 
observer has arrived at such an unnatural conclusion. The only difference 
between the two species accepted by Mettenius (and under two different 
genera!) is that H. Porppigiana has the fertile lobe somewhat protruding and 
finally recurved, covering the sori, while, in Ph. Poeppigii, the fertile and sterile 
lobes are alike, the fertile ones recurved with age. A study of more compre- 
hensive material will show whether this difference is sufficient for the maintaining 
of two species; as a character of genera it is absolutely artificial. In this place 
it is sufficient to state that all specimens from Juan Fernandez belong to PJi. 
Pocppigii of MettExNUUS. 

The present species was greatly misunderstood by JOHOW, which is proved 
by his figures and remarks as well as by his specimens. His Polypodiuni punc- 
tat2im is for the greater part Diyoptcris inaequalifolia, while Hypolepis was 
figured as Nephrodhini villosiini; but his remarks on the latter clearly refer 
not to Hypolepis. by but to D. inaequalifolia. While this has an erect, some- 
times subarborescent caudex, Hypolepis has a widely creeping, slender rhizome, 
which character alone, not to speak of the numerous others, will at one serve 
to distinguish the two plants. 

The specimens collected look rather difterent, diverging in size, cutting, 
and texture. The largest ones, which could be named H. ntgosula typica, have 
a firm, broadly ovate lainina, 35 cm long by 25 wide, fully tripinnate-quadri- 
pinnatifid, the tertiary pinnules being deeply pinnatifid. Others, corresponding 
to NepJirodium villosum of JOHOW, are of the same length and texture, but with 
a narrower lamina (T2 — 16 cm), the basal pinnae considerably reduced, bi- 
pinnate-tripinnatifid, with obtuse secondary pinnules. This form corresponds 
very well to Pol. Pocppigii of KuNZE. There is a thinner shade-form of the 
same. Finally we have the fine form growing in the caves (no. 587). This 
has a thin, bright green lamina, lanceolate in outline (25 by lO cm), barely 
pinnatifid with lobed secondary pinnulae. A specimen from Masafuera is 
smaller still (no. 439) the fully fertile leaves, of a rather firm texture, are only 
12 by 4 cm, lanceolate, bipinnatifid. Such specimens approach very much H. 
obtusata (Pr.) Kuhn (syn. Polypodiinn fiilvescens Hook et Grev., t. spec. orig. 
in Herb. Kew), a high Andine species, referred to H. nigosula by HoOKER, 
Sp. Fil. 4: 272. 

Area of distribution: Taken in a wider sense, the species inhabits 
Australia, Chile, Juan Fernandez and probably also Tristan d'Acunha. 



Adiantum L. 

36. A. cliilense Kif. Enum. 207 (1824); C. Chr. Ind. 24; Arkiv for Bot. 
10: 4 (1910)." — Syn. A. aetJiiopieum, Hemsl. 70; Johow 1893: 23 f. 5 a— c, 
1896: 156 non L. 

A very common plant, ranging from the sea coast to the highest ridges, 
found both in the forest region and on the open, barren slopes near the sea. 
With ripe sporangia in the autumn and winter. 



THE PTKRIDOPHYTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 33 

Masaticrra: In all the valleys froiii Pto Frances to Juanango (nos. 59, 
59 b. 572). 

Santa Clara: Joiiow. 

Masafucra: Common along the shore from B. I'oltcn round the IC. and 
S. coasts to Q. Loberia, especially unde-- overhanging rocks (no. 446); also in 
the forest (no. 518) and in the alpine heath, to 1400 m. 

All specimens examined belong to the genuine .-i. chi/ensc, characteri/.ed 
by perfectly glabrous fronds. JoiKnv described and figured three forms. Of 
these, the first (fig. 5 a) is a robust one, with a strong stipe, and the third a 
smaller one (fig. 5 c) with a slender stipe; surely they represent two local 
forms differing from humidity and shade. Both are rejjresented in our collection. 

The second variety of Joiiow (fig. 5 b) is remarkable by the pinnae being 
more or less striped with white, forming white sections of tissue without chloro- 
phyll. Suggesting that they were due to some pathologic cause. Dr. H. E. 
Petersen on our request made microtome sections through such leaves and 
found that the cells of the white parenchyma were filled with an entangled 
mass of hyphae of a parasitic fungus that destroys the chlorophyll. 

Area of distribution: Peru to Patagonia, P'alkland Islands; Juan Fer- 
nandez. 

Pteris L. 

37. P. chilensis Desv. Berl. Mag. 5: 325 (181 1); Hook. Sp. Fil. 2: 176 
tab. 120 A; Hemsl. 70; C. Chr. Ind. 594; )ioJi Johow 1893 fig. 7 nee 1896: 
156, saltem pro j)arte. — Syn. P. tencra Klf. 1 824; Gay 6: 488 [non Bertero); 
P. fcrnandeziana Phil. Linnaea 29: 105 (1857), t. spec. orig. Herb. Mus. Nac. 
Santiago! 

In humid forests, on soil rich in humus; not observed at a greater altitude 
than 500 m in Masatierra. (Fertile Dec. — April.) 

Masatierra, not uncommon in the central part: C. Centinela, c. 400 m 
(no. 609); V. Anson, lower slopes of La Damajuana, 345 m (no. 216); V. Co- 
lonial, at the road to Portezuelo, in the maqui-thickets, 200 m (no. 566); Q. del 
Monte Maderugo, c. 500 m (no. 337); C. Salsipuedes, forest patch c. 4(X) m; 
Pto Ingles, on the central ridge (no. 324); south side of the island, slope of 
Co Chumacera (no. 252). 

Masafuera: in the forest of the Sanchez plain, 515 m (no. 401); Q. de 
las Chozas, in the forest (no. 544); Q. de las Casas, under a large stone in the 
outer section of the gorge, rare. 

The present species is nearly related to the South Brazilian P. leptopJiylla 
Sw., but still very distinct. Its rhizome is short creeping, rather stout, denseK" 
covered with dark brown, rigid, lanceolate scales, as is the larger part of the 
stipes, which rise close together. P. fernandeziana Phil, cannot stand even as 
a variety; the type of P. cJiihiisis is quadripinnatifid, but some specimens, 
growing in deep shade, are barely tripinnate at base, and the lamina more open 
and thin, and they represent the true P. feniayideziaiia. 

Joiiow's P. c/nlefisis, as proved by his figures, description and specimens, 

^ — 2020B. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



34 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

is = Histiopteris. Thus it is impossible to understand why he identified P. 
ferna7idef:;iana with his cJiilensis. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Prov. Maule to Valdivia; Juan Fer- 
nandez. 

38. P. semiadnata Phil I.innaea 29: 106 (1857); C. Chr. Ind. 607. — 
Syn. P. flexuosa Mett. Fil. Lechl. i: 12 (1856) non Klf. 1830; P. inarattiaefolia 
Hook. Sp. Fil. 2: 177 tab. 122 B (1858); Plemsl. 7i;Joho\v 1893: 25, 1896: 197. 

Characteristic of the foggy region above 5C0 m, in Masafuera also in the 
alpine heath, very local. (Fertile Jan. — April.) 

Masatierra: Densely wooded, damp quebradas on the highest part of 
C. Centinela, c. 660 m (no. 613); C. Salsipuedes, Q. Helechos in Driniys- 
Dicksoiiia-ioresX., c 600 m, a beautiful stand (no. 280). — Germain without 
locality. 

*Masafuera: Q. del Mono, c. 400 m (no. 543), forest ravine; Q. del Blin- 
dado, forest, 440 m; C. del Barril, rock crevices above 800 m; Q. Inocentes, 
under Dicksonia near the stream; the Correspondencia Camp, in the ravine 
1 160 m; edge of western precipice, at the foot of Las Torres among rocks, 
1370 m (no. 438). — New for Masafuera. 

The occurrence in the islands of this pretty, distinct species, recorded by 
Hemsley from specimens collected by GERMAIN, was doubted by JOHOW, who 
suspected the locality to be false. The question is now settled by the redisco- 
very of the species. The specimens are identical with those previously collected 
by Skottsberg in the island of Huafo, perhaps with the sterile tips of the 
pinnules more grossly serrate, at least much more deeply and broadly serrate 
than shown in Hooker's figure. The fertile edges are regularly crenate, often 
prolonged beyond the brownish green, continuous indusium, which generally 
is crenate with the crenae covering the nearly globose, rarely confluent sori, 
that arise from the tips of the veins. In the sori the species resembles Casse- 
beera, but the whole habit is that of Ptcris. It is a very large plant. The 
base of the stipe is clothed with dark brown, opaque, lanceolate and entire scales. 

We do not know any species of Eupfen's nearly related to P. semiadnata. 
We cannot agree with Mettenius in considering it »ex affinitate P. chilensis*, 
but it resembles some large Andine species of LitobrocJda, especially the 
Mexican P. pidchra Schlecht. We are of the opinion that the subgenera of 
Pteris, based solely upon the venation, are very unnatural, and that it is quite 
natural to associate the free-veined P. semiadnata with P. ////fZf/v? and its allies, 
which have anastomosing veins. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Isla Huafo; Juan Fer- 
nandez. 

39. P. Berteroana Agardh, Rec. Gen. Pteridis 66 (1839); C. Chr. Arkiv 
for Bot. 10: 20 (1910). — Syn. P. tenera Bertero ex Colla 1836: 38 (t. Ag. no7i 
Kaulf.); Litobrochia deairrens Gay 6: 491 (ex. descr., non Presl); Pteris comajis 
Hemsl. 70; Johow 1893: 25 f. 8, 1896: 257; P. incisa Johow 1893: 24 f. 6 (t. 
spec. orig.!). 



THE PTERIDOPnYTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



35 



Common in the forest belt from Pto Frances to Juanango, and ranging 
vertically from 200 to 640 m or more, in dense groves or in open glades alon<^ 
streams and cascades. (Fertile Dec. — March.) 

Masaticrrii: C. Chifladores, quebrada in the interior of Pto Frances, c. 
500 m, not uncommon; Q. Picdra agujeriada, c. 650 m; Pangal; Q. de la Da- 
majiiana, frequent at the small waterfalls, 250 — 350 m (no. 64, 217); near Pla- 
zoleta del Yunque, ca. 250 m (no. 64 B); V. Colonial, Q. del Monte Maderugo, 
235 m; Cave no. V, rare; C. Salsipuedes, fern grove, 600 m; Q. Villagra, below 
the pass, c. 500 m, scarce; Q. de la Choza, in forest c. 250 m; S. slope of Co 
Chumacera, in a Boeh)ncj-ia-^:\.tc\\. 

Masafuera: Forest on the Sanchez plain, 515 m; fissures in the coast 
cliffs N. of Q. de las Casas, rare; more common in the canyon (no. 464); Q. 
del Blindado, in the forest, 440 m; Q. de las Vacas, in the gorge; Q. Loberia, 
at the stream and in the forest, c. 290 m. 

This species cannot be united with P. comans Forst., but it is undoubtedly 
closely related to P. Endlicheriaiia Ag. from Norfolk Island, with which the 
older /'. Zahlbmckneriana Endl. is probably identical. We know this species 
from Hooker's Icon. Plant, tab. 973 only, and the specimens from Juan Fer- 
nandez are different in habit. The venation is as described by Agardh; above 
the row of regular costal areoles the veins are free or form an irregular second 
row of smaller areoles, while, in P. Endliclieriana, there are four rows of areoles. 
The ultimate segments are also different in shape, longer and more lanceolate 
in P. Bcrteroaiia. In any case, this belongs to the Polynesian element in 
the flora. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Histiopteris (Ag.) J. Sm. 

40. H. incisa (Thbg) J. Sm. Hist. Fil. 295; C. Chr. Ind. 352. — Syn. 
Pteris incisa Thbg 1800; Hemsl. 70; Johow 1893: 24 (pro parte, 7i07i f. 6), 1896: 
156 pro parte.?; P. flavcscens Colla 1836: 37 tab. 6'j\ P. patens Kze Anal. 2^ 
(1837); Litobrochia patens Gay 6: 490; P. vespertilionis Lab. \2ir. flavescens Ag. 
Rec. 80; H. incisa var. flavescens C. Chr. Arkiv for Hot. 10: 14 (1910); P. chi- 
lensis Johow 1893: 24 f. 7, 1896: 156 (excl. syn.). 

A characteristic fern of the open forests and clearings, also occurring in 
the barren tracts and forming extensive mats in burnt places. (Fertile Jan. — 
April.) 

Masatierra : Ridge between the Laura and Piedra valleys, 500—600 m, 
along the edge of the forest; Pangal, in the dry outer sections of the gorges; 
clearing near Plazoleta del Yunque, copious; V. Colonial, lower slopes, in the 
small ravines (nos. 187, 583); Q. del Monte Maderugo (no. 333); Caves nos. I 
and X; Villagra, along the road from Portezuelo, very numerous in cleared 
spaces; S. slope of Co Chumacera; B. Chupones, rocky places, ravines, scarce. 

Masafuera: Q. del Mono, c. 475 m (no. 519); Q. del Blindado, 440 m; 
Q. Loberia, near the stream, c. 190 m; highlands north of Q. Casas, seaward 



36 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

face of Las Torres, among rocks, 1370 m; slopes of Los Inocentes, along the 
edge of the Dzcksomaforest, 950 — 1200 m; on the summit, 1350 — 1400 m. 

A detailed comparison of our specimens with others from different regions 
has proved that the plant from Juan Fernandez cannot be distinguished from 
the South African type or from the Australian P. vespertilionis Labill. even as 
a variety. Gay distinguished two species, but it seems that his descriptions 
are abbreviated reprints from older works and not written after autopsy of 
specimens. Agardh referred P. flavesceiis to P. vespertilionis Labill. as a 
variety, with the following differential characters: »fronde subtus glaucescente, 
stipite flavo» but specimens from Tasmania are also glaucous and the stipe of 
P. flavescens is not always yellow but frequently light castaneous and very 
glossy; nor do the differences between this and patois or iiicisa hold good. 

The species varies in colour of stipe and rhachis, in the degree of cutting, 
bipinnate-tripinnatifid to tripinnate-quadripinnatifid, the more divided form well 
figured by COLLA. The lower side is pale green or subglaucous, the sori reach- 
ing from the base to near the obtuse tips of the segments or interrupted. The 
veins generally form a single row of costal areoles, but in one specimen we 
found them nearly free. As all these variations are also found in the South 
African or Australian plant we conclude that it is the typical form of P. zjicisa 
that has found its way to this isolated locality. The South American variety 
[P. elegans Sw.) looks rather difterent, and the Polynesian form {L. sinnata 
Brack.) is still more remotely related to it. In a single character some speci- 
mens recall L. sinuata, for the lower side is finely glandulose, quite as in spe- 
cimens from New Caledonia, but this character is not a constant one, and, 
moreover, some few glands may be found also in typical incisa. 

JOHOW has misunderstood the present species, as well as the species of 
Ptevis, which is proved from his figures and also from the specimens in his 
herbarium. 

LitobrocJiia appendiculata Gay 6: 491 war referred to P. incisa hy Hemsley, 
and JOHOW states that a specimen so named in the Herb. Mus. Nac. Santiago 
no doubt belongs to P. cJiilcnsis. Now, P. cJiilcnsis Joh. is Histiopteris. We 
believe that this opinion is right. 

Area of distribution: South Africa, Australia, Tasmania; Juan Fernandez. 



Polypodium L. 

*4i. P. Billardieri (Willd.) C. Chr, Ind. 513. var. magellanicum (Desv.) 
C. Chr. Arkiv for Bot. 10: 15 (1910). — Syn. Graniniitis viagellajiica Desv. 
Berl. Mag. 5: 313 (181 1); G. nana Brack. U. S. Expl. Exp. 16: i (1854). 

Rare. Fertile fronds occur at all seasons. 

Masatierra, only in the humid elevated parts and only found growing 
on Driniys Winteri: high ridge between Q. Laura and O. Piedra agujeriada, in 
dense forest 650 m (no. 597); on the main crest of the island, above Pangal, 
c. 800 m; mountain spur VV. of el Yunque, c. 500 m, very scarce (no. 632). 

Masafuera: C. del Barril, in moss-carj^cts on rocks, 985 m (no. 537)- 



TIIH KII'KIDOrHYTA OI' THK Jb'AN MiRNANDIi Z ISLANDS 37 

The specimens of this species, for the first time collected in Juan Fer- 
nandez, agree perfectly well with the small form from Fuegia described as G. 
Hivia Brack., which is nothing" but a dwarf form of G. niagcllmiica Desv. In 
1910 (1. c.) were pointed out the differences between the South American form 
and the typical G. Billardieii [Pol. australc R. Br.) from Australia, New Zea- 
land etc., and it is a matter of convenience whether the two forms ought to 
be regarded as two separate species or as forms of a single one. We prefer 
the latter as the American plant is intimately related to the typical form, while, 
on the other hand, it has no near relative in South America. In any case it 
is an Antarctic element in the South American flora. 

Area of distribution: Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Lord Howe's 
Island, Norfolk Island, Auckland and Campbell's Islands. South Chile; Valdivia 
to Fuegia; Juan Fernandez (var. uiagcllanuuiii). 

P. intermedium Colla 1836: 51 tab. 74. — Syn. P. traiisbiccns Kunze, 
Anal, pteridol. 16 (1837); Hemsl. 76 tab. 13; Johow 1893: 39 f. 23, 1896: 166 
tab. 18; GoniopJilcbium trmisliiccns P'ee, Gay 6: 509. 

Colla's name must be preferred to KuNZE's, being one year older; it is 
not invalidated by an earlier P. inteniiediuDi "VVilld. as erroneously stated in 
Ind. Fil. 570. In Willd. Spec. 5: 262 P. mternicdiiuii Miihlb. is quoted as a 
M.S. name only for Aspidiuui interincdiuiii Willd. 

This species is endemic, although Gay etc. also quoted Chile as its native 
country, for the specimens in Chilean herbaria belong to P. synaniniia (Fee). 
As mentioned by HemsLEY and JOHOW it is very variable. The collection 
includes a series of varieties, of which three correspond to those figured by 
Hemsley. The extreme forms are so different that they can be mistaken for 
separate species, but they all have the essential characters in common, and a 
similar degree of variation is known in several species, e. g. in P. vulgare, 
the forms of which correspond in a remarkable way to those of the present 
species. 

All forms have the same thick rhizome, densely covered with imbricate, 
peltate, ovate-lanceolate scales, which are dark reddish brown and thicker in 
the centre, paler and thinner at the margins and apex. The stipe is rather 
pale, glabrous, and distinctly articulated just above the base. Lamina deltoid, 
the pinnae connected by a narrow wing to the pale rhachis, the basal ones a 
little decurrent; surface glabrous, texture generally thin, margins hyaline or 
cartilagineous, veins very visible in their lower course, where they are dark- 
coloured, but becoming nearly invisible towards their tips. Costal areoles di- 
stinct, outside each areole 2—4 free veins, that do not reach the margin; for 
exceptions, see below. The areole includes a free veinlet, which bears a sorus 
at its apex; sometimes it is furcate. The receptacles are distinctly linear but 
short, the young sori oblong, a little immersed, the mature globose and 
superficial. 

All forms show these characters: they differe in size, texture and degree 
of division. 

Smallest leaves are 6 cm long and wide (stipe excluded), largest 24 cm 
long and wide; sometimes the lamina is broader than long. Typically it is 



38 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

thinly herbaceous, but specimens growing on rocks (nos. 318, i 148) have a 
nearly coriaceous leaf with thick cartilagineous edges and the sori more di- 
stinctely immersed. 

As stated above the species varies extraordinarily in the degree of cutting. 
The type, first described under the name inteyniediuui (or translucens), is con- 
fined to Masatierra. Only once, an aberrant form was found growing on rocks 
(no. 318); this corresponds rather to var. basicomposituni from Masafuera. When 
JOHOW states that in Masatierra the species shows »lamina pinada-tripinada», 
he must have drawn his conclusions from Hemsley's plate, for he never col- 
lected a much divided form in Masatierra. The plants figured by Hemsley 
fig. 2, 3 were collected by Mr. DOWNTON in »Juan Fernandez ». They represent 
two Masafueran varieties and were undoubtedly collected in Masafuera, this 
island also having been visited by DovVNTON, and not in Masatierra, where 
they do not occur. Masafuera is inhabited by a number of forms connected 
by transitions. As they grow side by side, sometimes two widely distant ones 
on the same branch, it is impossible to regard them as merely results of local 
influences. Either, the species is composed of a number of units, elementary 
species, giving the impression of a more or less continuous series, or we have 
a few subspecies and their hybridogenous offspring. From taxonomic point of 
view we have found it advisable to distinguish the following phaenotypes. 

1. typicuin. 

Endemic in Masatierra, not uncommon as an epiphyte on trees, generally 
high up above the ground. Fertile during the summer and autumn. 

Masatierra: generally found on Drivms Wiiiteri, but rarely below 400 m, 
e. g. on the ridge between Q. Laura and Q. Piedra agujeriada, c. 650 ra; 
Rabanal, c. 450 m; Q. Damajuana, c. 250 m (rare), above 460 m fairly com- 
mon; NE. slope of El Yunque (no. 154); C. Central, above 400 m; V. Colonial, 
the slope below the Portezuelo pass (no. 33); Q. Seca, c. 435 m; C. Salsipuedes, 
670 m, and in Q. Helechos, 660 m; Pto Ingles (JOHOW). 

Confined to Masatierra and well illustrated by Hemsley, tab. 63 fig. i. 
Simply pinnate with pinnae connected by a narrow wing to the rhachis, their 
margins subentire or obscurely serrulate. Veins always forming regular costal 
areoles, often dark. In general habit resembling large forms of the Mediter- 
ranean P. viilgare subsp. serratujii. 

An aberrant rock form corresponds to var. basicomposituni described 
below: minor, coriacea, pinnis basalibus pinnatis. — Fig. 6 d. 

Masatierra: Pto Ingles, two small specimens grew on the outside of the 
» Robinson grotto* (no. 318). We are not sure if this form is to be considered 
as a variety of typicuin, growing on rocks, but we find it more probably that 
it ought to be referred to var. basicomposituni of the Masafueran subspecies; 
in Masafuera, also another variety was found growing on rocks. It very likely 
offers an example of occasional dispersal of spores from Masafuera to Masa- 
tierra, where no forms of subsp. viasafueranuvi occur. 

2. subsp. masafueran uin C. Chr. et Skottsb. nov. subsp. 
Fig. 6. 



THE PTERIDOPHYTA OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



39 




Fig. 6. Polypodiicm intermediian CoUa subsp. masafuefanutn C. Chr. et Skottsb. a var. obiu- 

seserrahnn (no. 431); b var. basicompostiutn lorma, with regular areoles (no. 1181): c var. basi- 

coynpositum forma, with free veins (no. 11 86); d form from Masatierra, corresponding to basi- 

compositum (no. 518); e var. cai?ib?-tcoides (no. 432) with areoles or free veins. — 

All plants half nat. size. 



40 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

A typo diftert pinnis basi magis angustatis, margine distincte dentato- 
serratis vel grosse obtuse-serratis, interdum pinnis plus minus i)innatifidis, basa- 
libus compositis, rhachide angustissime alata. 

Fig. 6. 

*Endemic in Masafuera. All forms seem to differ from the type by their 
pinnae being more narrowed towards the base, and by the nearly unwinged 
rhachis. We distinguish the following varieties. All of them are epiphytic on 
trees, mostly on Myrccugenia ScJiulzei, only once a form has been observed 
growing on rocks. All forms were seen with ripe sporangia (Feb. — March). 

var. obtuseserratum C. Chr. et Skottsb. nov. var. 

Frons plerumque haud magis quam in typo divisa, sed pinnae multo 
distinctius serratae vel lobulatae, serraturis vel lobis sat irregulariter dentatis; 
pinnae basales breviores, rarius basipinnatae. — I^lg. 6 a\ Hemsley Fig. 2. 

Masafuera: Forest on the Sanchez plain, 515 m, growing in company 
with the following forms (no. 527). Q. del Mono, 450—570 m (no. 1 182); Q. 
del Blindado; Q. Loberia, 280 m, in forest (no. 431) and below the forest, in 
the gorge, on rocks (f. coriacea, no. 1148). 

Generally not more divided than the type, but the pinnae, often consi- 
derably narrowed towards the base, are much more deeply serrate, the ser- 
ratures again irregularly dentate, or cut more than halfway down to the midrib 
into oblique, repand or serrate lobes, the basal ones shorter or obsolete; some- 
times the basal pair of pinnae produces one or two longer lobes on the lower 
side, or, more rarely, on the upper side, thus forming a transition to the follow- 
ing variety. Veins of the lobes often free but not seldom forming one or 
two areoles. 

var. basicompositum C. Chr. et Skottsb. nov. var. 

Pinnae basales regulariter et profunde pinnatifidae segmentis elongatis; 
pinnae superiores ut in praecedenti vel interdum suprabasales segmentis 2 — 3 
longis instructae. 

Fig. 6 b, c\ Hemsley Fig. 3. 

Masafuera: Forest on the Sanchez plain, 515 m (no. 1181); Q. del Mono, 
570 m (no. 1 186); Q. de las Casas, on a tree fallen down from the wall of the 
canyon (no. 529). 

Basal pinnae regularly and deeply pinnatifid with lengthened segments on 
both sides; upper pinnae as in the preceding form, but sometimes the second 
pair of pinnae produces two or ihree long segments. The basal upper segment 
of basal pinnae short or often quite rudimentary. 

var. canibricoides C. Chr. et Skottsb. nov. spec. 

Plerumque maxima, tripinnatifida. Frons flaccida textura tenuis. Pinnae 
usque ad costam alatam incisae, pinnulis basalibus superioribus ad dentem 
axillarem reductis. Pinnulae pinnarum superiorum profunde et distanter obtuse- 
serratae, illae inferiorum pinnatifidae segmentis tertiis repandis vel obtuse 
serratis. 

Fig 6 e. 



THE PTERIDOPHVTA OH THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 41 

Masafucra: Forest on the Sanchez plain, 515 m (no. 540); Q. del Mono, 
430 — 570 ni (no. 432); Q. del Hlindado. 

Generally large, bipinnatifid. All pinnae incised to a narrow \\in<^ into 
long secondary pinnules, the upper basal ones being reduced to a tootli in the 
a.vil of the costa. Pinnules of upper pinnae deeply and distinctly serrate, 
resembling the upper pinnae of var. odtuseserratum, those of the lower pinnae 
again pinnatifid with repand or obtusely serrate tertiary segments. Veins in 
ultimate lobes free or also forming a single areole, rarely dark. Texture mo.stly 
very thin, the lamina flaccid. This form corresponds to the var. camb) icinn of 
/''. vulgarc, although somewhat more divided. 

Area of distribution of P. inteniiediu))i : Endemic. 

43. P. pycnocarpum C. Chr. Ind. 557. — Syn. P. inacrocarpiun Presl, 
Rel. Haenck. i: 23 tab. i f. 24 (1825), non Bory; Johow 1896: 167. P. viasa- 
fucrac Phil. Linnaea 29: 107 (1857); Hemsl. 'j']\ Johow 1893: 38; P. sqtiamatiiin 
Phil., P. ata came use Bak. 

Masafuera: Germ.mx! 

Only a single, badly dried specimen is known, now in the Mus. Xac. 
in Santiago; it was collected in Masafuera by GERMAIN and was described 
by PniLlPl'l as a new species. The impossibility of refinding it made it 
rather improbable that it should be an endemic species. After an examina- 
tion of the original plant we ha\-e arrived at the conclusion that JOHOW was 
right in naming it P. viacrocarpuni, an Andine species. The single plant 
found perhaps grew from a spore brought from the Andes with a strong 
northerl}' wind, just as the curious occurrence of Elaphoglossum, mentioned 
below, may be explained. JOHOW suggested that P. ataca)nense Bak. (= sqiia- 
matian Phil.) from the Atacama desert would be a more xerophilous form of 
the sam.e species; thanks to Dr. O. Stapf, who sent us a leaf of the type, 
we are able to confirm J(>»HOW's opinion. It is not nearly related to P. pie- 
bejtiin Ch. et Schl., as thought Hemsley. 

Area of distribution: Mexico to Chile and Argentina; Masafuera. 

44. P. lanceolatum L. Spec. PI. 2: 1082 (1753); Hemsl. 'j6\ Johow 
1893: 36; C. Chr. Ind. 537. — Syn. P. peltatuuir Colla 1836: 52 non Cav.; 
Drynaria elongata Fee, Gay 6: 512; Gynuiogranwie elongata (Hemsl. 77-')i 
Johow 1893: 38 f. 24, 1896: 168. 

A rather common epiphyte, also in the thin woods, generally found on 
Driviys Winteri and often in company with P. intennedhun: rarely terrestrial. 
(Fertile Dec. — April.) 

Masatierra: Pto Frances, c. 250 m (no. 129); ridge between 0. Laura 
and O. Piedra agujeriada, c. 650 m; Rabanal, frequent in the interior; C. Cen- 
tinela, on the ground in a shallow depression of the ridge not far south of the 
Radio station; higher up a common epiphyte (no. 1150); Pangal (JOHO\v); O- 
de la Damajuana, c. 250 m (no. 62): V. x-\nson, on the slopes of La Damajuana 
(no, 215) and of El Yunque, common above 400 m; V. Colonial, along the road 
to Portezuelo (no. 32); O. Seca, c. 435 m; C. Salsipuedes, O. Helechos, 660 m. 

Masafuera: Forest on the Sanchez plain, 515 m; 0. del Mono, 475 m 



42 



CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 



(no. 1 183); Q. de las Casas, growing on the rocky wall not far from the en- 
trance; and also found in the canyon on a fallen tree (no. 546). 

All the numerous specimens collected belong to the genuine P. lanceola- 
tinn and no form seen can with any right be placed under Gymnogramme 
elongata (Sw.) Hook. HEmsley says that the subspecies had been collected 
once but that he had not seen specimens. Jonow had two species in 1893; 
in 1896 he merges P. lanccolatu)>i into Gr. elongata, evidently unaware of the 
differences between the two types. It seems certain that only one form occurs 
in the islands, and, therefore, G. elongata must be excluded form the list. 

Some of the specimens are very large (leaves 25 cm long by 2^/2 cm 
wide) and several have the edges of the upper part sinuate. No. 32 includes 
several frond with the tips once or twice furcate or cleft into three lobes. 

Area of distribution: Pantropical; also in Chile. 



Elaphoglossum Schott 

*45. E. Lindenii (Bory) Moore. C. Chr. Ind. 310. — Syn. Acrostichnni 
IJndenii Bory; Fee Acrost. 48 tab. 18 f. 3. 

Masatierra: north precipice of Co Piramide, c. 600 m, among mosses on 
a narrow ledge; very few specimens seen (no. 193). 

A most interesting addition to the flora of the islands. The few plants 
found agree in all details with the Mexican' form described as AcrosticJinin ve- 
nustum Liebm. A possible explanation of the occurrence of this species in the 
islands is given under Polypodi^ini pyc?iocaypnni above; the mountain wall where 
it was found faces the North and will be struck by the rare but strong north- 
erly storms. 

Area of distribution: Tropical America; Masatierra. Not in Chile. 



Gleicheniaceae. 



Gleichenia Smith 



While Hemslev listed two species of Gleichenia, G. oyptocarpa Hook, 
and G. revolnta H. B. K., evidently overlooking that HoOKER in Syn. Fil. 13 
quoted the locality »Juan Fernandez, Bertero», for G. pedalis (Klf.) Spr., JoHOW's 
list contains only G. pedalis, as he believed that both species listed by HEMS- 
LEY were incorrectly named and only represented G. pedalis. In this he is 
quite right: G. cryptocarpa, quoted on the authority of Philippi (Bot. Zeit. 
1856: 631) is shown by the specimens in Mus. Nac, Santiago to be G. pedalis 
(they were thus labelled by Philippi himself), and Mr. Wrigth kindly informs 
us that Downton's specimen of G. revolnta in the Kew Herbarium is G. peda- 
lis and that Moseley's fragmentary plant also belongs to the same species. 
Thus, only one species of the genus was hitherto known from the islands. 



THE PTERIDOPHYTA OK THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



43 



•■'•■46. (i. quadripartita (Poir.) Moore, Ind. 382 (1862); C. Chr. Ind. 324. 

Only in the Al|)ine region, in sheltered places. Rare. (Fertile Feb.- - 
March.) 

Masafucra, in the highest parts: The Correspondencia Camp, in the ravine, 
1 160 m (no. 409); Las Torres, 1370 m; C. del Barril, 1290 m; Los Inocentcs, 
1375 m. — New for Juan Fernandez. 

The specimens agree closely with an authentical specimen leg. COMMER- 
.SON, Herb. Haun. The primary branches are sometimes once, sometimes twice 
furcate. Younger leaves decidedly glandulose, especially beneath. 

This species is often confounded with G. ciyptocarpa Hook., but it is not 
proliferous although having a scaly bud in the primary furcation; the costae 
and costules are rather densely chaffy with rufous scales and flaccid hairs, the 
edges revolute but not covering the sporangia, and the slender, branched rhi- 
zome is very sparingly paleaceous with ovate, peltate, appressed, very deciduous 
scales, while the rhizome of G. ciyptocarpa is stronger and more densely and 
permanently paleaceous. 

Area of distribution: Llanquihue to Fuegia; Masafuera. 

47. G. pedalis (Kaulf) Spr. Syst. 4: 26 (1827); Johow 1893: 20 f. i, 
1896: 153. — Syn. Mertensia pedalis Kaulf. Enum. 39 (1824). 

Rocky ridges in dry, sunny places, very local. (Fertile in March.) 
Masatierra: V. Colonial, near the road to Portezuelo, 3 — 400 m, forming 
small beds in places (no, 563); C. Central, on the narrow crest, 570 m; C. Sal- 
sipuedes, narrow ridge between O. Salsipuedes and Q. Helechos, c. 500 m, O. 
Villagra, low ridge near the camping place, c. 200 m. 

The specimens are rather typical, still the costa and costules are per- 
fectly destitute of scales; both surfaces are finely glandulose by minute, glist- 
ening glands. 

Area of distribution: Cordilleras of Southern Chile; maritime provinces 
from Valdivia to the Chonos Islands; Masatierra. 

=•=48. G. cf. litoralis (Phil.) C. Chr. Ind. 322. 

Masafuera: The Correspondencia Camp, in the ravine, very scarce (no. 403.) 
Sterile specimens from Masafuera that resemble G. pedalis in colour, veins, 
structure of scales and growth, but differ in its palaceous costae and costules; 
the scale are rufous, paler with age, ciliate, those of the costules lacerate, 
small, all leaving small red spots when falling; it also differs in the shape of 
the segments, which are broader below, gradually tapering toward the apex 
and finally in the primary branches being twice furcate, carrying segments 
above quite to the base, naked outwards from the first to the second furcation. 
Typical G. pedalis, as a rule, has the primary branches prolonged without seg- 
ments on both sides save for a larger one close to the furcation. After 
inspection. Prof. HiERONYMUS informs as that it stands near litoralis of Phi- 
lippi, which has narrower scales on the midrib. 



44 



CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Ophioglossaceae. 



Ophioglossum L. 

*49. O. fernandezianuni C. Chr. nov. spec. 

Rhizoma parvum, 3 — 4 mm latum, hypogaeum, radiculas numerosas brun- 
neas emittens. Folia saepc bina. Petiolus communis hypogaeus, tenuis, palli- 
dus, compressus, rarius ad 2 cm longus. Lamina sterilis petiolo hypogaeo 
0,5 — 1,5 cm longo, pallido, complanato, ovata, 1,5 — 2,5 cm longa, paulo supra 
basin rotundatam 10 — 14 mm lata, apiculata, carnosula. Vena mediana in- 




Fig. 7. Ophioglossian feniandeziiunun C. Chr. a, b two plants, X 2; 

soil; c leat, X 4, showing venation. 



marks the surface of 



distincta, quam laterales vix crassior, interdum subnuUa; areolae magnae. 
Vitta deest. Pedunculus spicae lamina sterili brevior vel subaequans, fere ad 
apicem hypogaeus et pallidus. Sporangia 7 — lo-juga, apice sterili spicae 
ovato-acuto. 

Masatierra: In the western part, slopes towards B. Tierras Blancas, c. 
50 m (Backstrom; no. 11 26). — Fertile. 

In the summer, no trace of this plant was seen; in the spring, when Mr. 
Backstrom returned to Masatierra, he found this species (Aug., 1917). 

This new little species certainly falls within the aggregation of forms 
called 0. midicaide by Baker, but it cannot be referred to any species de- 
scribed by Prantl in his monograph of the genus. It mostly resembles O. 
ypanense Mart, from Brazil and Columbia, but it lacks the » vitta », the pale 



THE PfERlDOPHYTA OF TUli JUAN FliRNANDEZ ISLANDS 45 

stripe along the middle of the sterile lamina. From all species known to us 
it seems very well marked by the long shaft of the sterile lamina and by the 
short peduncle, which scarcely and rarely overtops the sterile lamina. The 
whole common stalk as well as the sti[)e of the sterile lamina and nearly the 
whole peduncle of the spike are, at least in all specimens collected, hypogaeus 
and without chlorophyll. The venation is seen in fig. 7 r, drawn by Mag. 
Mai niiKSEN. 

Area of distribution: I'^ndemic in Masaticrra. 



Lycopodiaceae. 
Lycopodiuin L. 

*50. L. magellanicum Sw. Syn, Fil. 180 (1806). 
Only in the alpine heath, rare. Fertile in the autumn. 
Masafuera: In the higher parts of the Alpine region, Las Torres, c. 
1350 m, scarce (no. 482). — New for Juan Fernandez. 

A very robust form, with deeply subterraneous rhizome, larger than any 
form we have seen from Subantarctic districts. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to Fuegia and Patagonia; 
Atl. subantarctic islands; Masafuera. New Zealand and subantarctic islands. 

51. L. Gayanuni Remy; Gay 6: 545. 

Subalpine and alpine heaths. Fertile in the autumn and winter. 

Masafuera: Stony heath in the highlands above the Mono and Pasto val- 
leys, 1 100 — 1300 m, not uncommon (no. 416); C. del Barril, 740 m (no. 534). 
— Discovered by Skottsberg 1908, at the Correspondencia Camp. 

Baker, Fern Allies 29 regards L. Gayamini as intermediate between the 
typical L. scariosiim Forst. from New Zealand and its var. Jussiaei Desv. from 
tropical America. We prefer to regard it as specifically distinct from. both. 

Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to the Guaitecas Islands; 
Masafuera. 



Before the investigations of SKOTT.SBERG, the known vascular cryptogams 
of Juan Fernandez numbered 39 species; in 1908 3 species were added, and in 
1916 — 17 9 more, giving 51 species as a total. Of these 36 species are com- 
mon to Masatierra and Masafuera, 6 only found in Masatierra and 9 only in 
Masafuera. Of the 51 species 17 are endemic in the islands (3 of these confined 
to Masatierra and i to Masafuera). Two species are known elsewhere, but 
represented by endemic varieties. Of the genera only one, Thyrsopteiis, in 
endemic. The percentage of endemic species is high, amounting to 33,3 %. 



46 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Explanation of the Plates. 

All figures reproduced after photographs taken by C. Skottsberg. 

Plate I. I. Hytne?ioglossum c?-uentuin (Cav.) Presl on the slope of La Damajuana, Masatierra. 

Aspleniiim viagellaniaim Klf. in the centre and on the left side. 2. Asplenium niaa-o- 

sorum Bert, in Q.. de las Chozas, Masafuera. 
Plate 2. Dicksonia Berteromia (Colla) Hook. var. virgata C. Clir. et Skottsb. in Q.. del Blin- 

dado, Masafuera. Mrs. S. at the foot of the tree. 
Plate 3. Dryopteris inaeqiialifoUa (Colla) C. Chr. near Portezuelo, Masatierra. 
Plate 4. BlecJmtiui cycadifoimm (Colla) Sturm near ilie road to Portezuelo, Masatierra. Mrs. S. 

in the foreground. 
Plate 5. Bleduiiini longicaudn C. Chr. in Q.. de las Casas, Masafuera. 



Pr ATF 1, 




-iirc.iJS & Westphal. Stocidiolm 



Xnf. ffis/. yito)i Foiunidcz nud Foster I si. J'c/. II. 



IM.A'IF. 2. 




Ljiisir. A. B. LagTeliu< -t Wcslph.il. Stockholm 



A^nf. Ih'sf. jfiKUi FcriKDidfz avd Foster hi. \'ol. II. 



I'l All-; 3. 




Ljuslr A. B. Lagrelius & VCesipli.il, Stockholm 



\<7/. Hist, y 11(1)1 FcritiDidcz avii F.astcr I si. \'cl. //. 



Platk 4. 




Ljustr A. B. Ijgrelius & Westphal. Stockholm 



iVrt/. Hist, yuan Fernandez ami Easter hi. \'oL U. 



Pi. A 11. 5. 




LjuMr \. B. Lagrelius S: WVslph.il. Slockholm 



2. The Ferns of Easter Island. 

CARL CIIRISTKNSI':N and CARL SKOTTSHKRG. 

Witli 3 text ligurcs. 

The present collection was made by the undersigned, assisted by Mrs. 
Skottsberg, during the Swedish Expedition to the Pacific, 1916— 17. We 
spent the later half of June, 1917, on Easter Island (Isla de Pascua). Before 
our visit, only one representative collection^ seems to have been made on the 
island, by Mr. F. P'UENTES of the Museo Nacional in Santiago, 191 1; this was 
kindly put to my disposal in the said Museum. A list of Mr. FuENTES' ferns 
was published by C. M. HiCKEN: Contribucion al h^studio de las Pteridofitas 
de la Isla de Pascua i descripcion de dos nuevas especies (Bol. Mus. Nac. 
Chile V: i, 1913); also in Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. XVII (1913). The ferns were 
also included in FuENTES' Resena botanica sobre la Isla de Pascua (Inst. Centr. 
Meteor, y Geofis. de Chile no. 4, 191 3 and Bol. Mus. Nac. Chile V: 2, 191 3). 
FUENTES' list contains three species, not mentioned by HiCKEN, Aspleniuni 
obtusatuui, Dryopteris parasitica and PoIysticJiiini aculeatum; Mr. HiCKEN, con- 
sequently, did not receive specimens of these. We did not find P. ac7ilcatuiu 
or any allied species, nor were there any specimens of it in the collection 
shown to me by Mr. P"'UENTES, 

In the short list of plants communicated by Hemsley (Report Challeng. 
Bot. I: 15) no fern figures. 

Dr. Christensen kindly undertook to revise our collection and the new- 
forms described are due to him. 

A map, of the island, showing the localities quoted, is published in Vol. 
I, No. I. — Altitudes in meters above sea level. 

An* before a name signifies an addition to the flora. 

The numbers in brackets refer to our collection, 

C. Skottsberg. 

Polypodiaceae. 
Asplenium L. 
*i. A. adiantoides (L.) C. Chr. Ind. 99 var. sqiianiulosum nov. var. 

A forma typica diftert: foliis utrinque ad rachidem venasque dense 
paleaceis; paleis rhachidis fuscis, venarum minutis, e basi lata fimbriata subito 
in apicem subulatum angustissimum contractis. 

' Nothing has been publislied on the )'Albatross» collection (Agassiz a. o.). 



48 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Hab. in the crater lake of Rano Kao, c. no m., growing on the firm 
moss peat (no. 6"]"]; also Agassiz!). — Fertile. — Not recorded before. 

Area of distribution: Asia, trop. Australia, New Zealand, Polynesia, 
Afr. orient, and adj. islands. 

2. A. obtusatuni For.st. — FuENTES, Bol. 327. 

Rocks near the sea shore, probably not uncommon. 

Hab. Estern headland, humid fissures on the steep slopes of Vaintu 
Rova, c. 275 m; Hanga Ho Orno, coast cliffs (no. 633); between Hanga Piko 
and Pta Baquedano, not uncommon, well developed. — Fertile. 

Area of distribution: West coast of South America to Chiloe; Austra- 
lia, New Zealand, Oceanic Islands. 

Doodia R. Br. 

*3. D. paschalis nov. spec. Fig. i. 

Rhizomate obliquo, brevi, paleis nigris, filiformibus cum parte basali stipitis 
subdense onusto. Stipitibus fasciculatis, strictis, parce scabris vel sublaevibus, 
a basi ad medium atris vel nigrescentibus, sursum pallide stramineis vel fuscis, 
basi paleis filiformibus crinitis, sursum glabris, superne late sulcatis in.structis, 
ad 15 cm longis. Lamina pinnatifida, oblanceolata vel rarius subgradatim 
attenuata, versus basin subito contracta, ima basi saepe hastata, versus apicem 
breve caudata, usque ad 30 cm. longa, supra medium 6 — 10 cm lata, papyracea 
vel subcoriacea, obscure viridi; rhachide et costa mediana straminea, minuto 
glanduloso-pubescente, superne compressa, late canaliculata; pagina superiore 
glabra, inferiore minuto glanduloso-pubescente, postea glabra. Segmentis usque 
ad 30-jugis, approximatis, basi confluentibus, oblongis, obtusis, maximis 3,5 — 5 
cm longis, 6 — 8 mm latis, marginibus inaequaliter argute serratis, inferioribus 
3 — SJngis subito contractis, semiorbicularibus vel triangularibus sub i cm. 
longis, infimis frondium perplurimum elongatis, 2 — 2.5 cm longis. Venulis extus 
seriem areolarum costalium plerumque furcatis, in dentes abeuntibus. Soris 
nervo mediano valde approximatis, brevissimis (i — 15 mm longis), plus minusve 
lunatis, utroque latere costs uniseriatis; rarius secunda series interrupta primae 
approximata adest. Indusiis integris, angustis. 

Hab. Eastern headland, humid fissures on the steep slopes of Vaintu 
Rova and Tea-tea (no. 655); Rano Aroi, rocks inside the crater, c. 420 m, 
rare. — Fertile. — A new addition to the flora. 

This new species is closely allied to D. blccJinoidcs A. Cunn. from Austra- 
lia, at least the plant cultivated under that name and accurately figured by 
Mettenius (Fil. Lips. tab. 6 fig. 3-4), but Baker (Syn. Fil.) says that the 
genuine D. blechnoides does not show the reduced lower pinnae of our species. 
Mettenius' description covers our plant very well with the exception that young 
D. paschalis is rather densely glandulose beneath, and that, in larger leaves, 
there are traces of a secord series of sori. Remarkable is the pair of leng- 
thened basal pinnae which make the whole lamina hastate; sometimes only one 
of the two pinnae is long, rarely both are abbreviated. From the common 
Polynesian D. media R. Br. and its numerous forms D. paschalis differs in its 
pinnae being contiguous at base, in the sori being placed close to the midrib, 
and in the furcate veins outside the costular areoles. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



49 




Fiar. i- 



Fig. 



Fi 
cime 



g. 1. Doodia paschalis C. Chr.; entire frond, halt natural size; a 2 pinnae from different spe- 
mens, nat. size; b pinna with partly double rows of sori, nat. size; c fragment of pmna, X 2. 
Fig. 2. Elaphoglossum taJiitense Brack.; entire plant, half natural size; « fragment of frond 
nat. size; b—d paleae, b from the rhizome, c from the stipe, ^ from lower side of leaf, all 



enlarged. 
4 — 2020G. The yat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II 



50 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Dryopteris Adans. 

4. D. Espinosai Hicken, Bol. 135, tab. XXVII, Rev. 94, tab. 9. — Fig. 3. 

Hab. Only found in the crater of Rano Aroi, c. 420 m, between large 
boulders (no. 690). — Fertile. 

This species, recently described and figured by HlCKEN after specimens 
collected by FUENTES, is a very remarkable one, belonging to the subgenus 
Eudryopteris which is very weakly represented in Central Polynesia but rather 
rich in species in the Hawaiian Islands. D. Espinosai, however, differs greatly 
from all Polynesian and Asiatic species of that subgenus known to us, while, 
on the other hand, it is closely related to a group of Tropical American spe- 
cies {D. pattila, ciimanioinea and inexicana). In most features it agres very 
well with D. mexicana (Pr.) C. Chr. (syn. Aspidium flaccidum), being, however, 
much larger, and with certain forms of the Brazilian D. pattila (Sw.) Underw. 
It differs from these especially in the glandulose-ciliate basal scales and in the 
very glandulose lamina. As the original description was published in two perio- 
dicals rather rare in Europe, a full description is given below. 

Rhizomate obliquo cum parte basali stipitum paleis lutescentibus vel pallide 
rubro-brunneis tenuissimis, lanceolatis, apice longe filiformibus, marginibus glan- 
dulosis, dense obtecto. Stipitibus fasciculatis, stramineis, ad 15 cm longis. 
Lamina textura tenuissima, laete virescente, ubique dense glandulosa, deltoidea 
— ovata vel ovatolanceolata, circiter 20 cm longa, maxima 20 cm. lata, tri- 
quadripinnatifida. Pinnis saepe fere oppositis, distantibus, ovatis vel ovato- 
lanceolatis, maximis 10 cm longis, breve stipitatis, acuminatis vel subobtusis, 
infimis parum inaequilateralibus, latere basiscopico vix aucto. Pinnulis secundi 
ordinis inferioribus liberis, superioribus decurrenti-confluentibus, fere ad basin 
pinnatifidis, segmentis tertiariis decurrentibus, integris, crenatodentatis vel 
maximis subpinnatifidis. Venis medianis basi decurrentibus, ultimis indivisis 
vel interdum furcatis. Soris majusculis, saepe uno pro lobo ultimo, nervo 
mediano approximatis. Indusiis reniformibus, subpersistentibus. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

*5. D. gongylodes (Schkuhr) OK. 

Hab. Rano Aroi, c. 400 m, edge of the crater lake with Polygonnni 
acuuiinahnn, very scarce; Rano Kao, bottom of crater, c. no m, in the Scir- 
petum, and among the large boulders a little higher up (no. C78). — Fertile. — 
Not recorded before. 

Area of distribution: Pantropical. 

6. D. parasitica (L.) OK. — P\'ENTES, Bol. 327. 

Hab. Crater of Rano Aroi, c. 420 m, and also crater of Rano Kao, c. 
125 m (no. 666], among boulders. — Fertile. 

This is taken in a wide sense; probably D. parasitica includes several 
distinct species. 

Area of distribution: Tropical and subtropical regions. 

7. Elaphoglossum tahitense Brack. — Syn. E. Gayamivi, Hicken Bol. 
137, Rev. 96. non Moore. — Fig. 2. 

Hab. Fissures in the rocks in Rano Aroi, c. 420 m (no. 691), — Fertile. 



THK FERNS OF EASTKK ISLAND 



51 



The specimens coUecled a^iee in all essential characters witii the descrip- 
tion of Brackicnridgk; previously, it was known only ffom Tahiti. It is a 
nuich larger species than /:'. Gaya)U(in (Fee) Moore, to which the specimens 
in the FuENTES collection were referred by HiCKEN; moreover, it is well 
marked by the scattered minute scales on the underside. 

Area of distribution: Tahiti; Easter Island. 




Fig. 3. Dryopteris Espinosai Hicken; basal pinna, natural size; a pinnule of i. order, X 2, 

b of 2. order, X 4- 

Microlepia Presl 

8. M. strigosa (Thbg) Presl. — Hicken Bol.- 132, Rev. 90. 

The only common fern, probably growing all over the island in scattered 
specimens, generally among rocks and stones. 

Hab. Eastern headland, Vaintu Rova and Tea-tea; plains near Hanga 
Ho Orno, not rare (no. 647); Rano Aroi, fairly common; between Hanga Roa 
village and Mataveri, scattered; Rano Kao, in the crater, not rare (no. 1125). — 
Fertile. 

Area of distribution: SE. Asia, Polynesia. 

Polypodiiim L. 

9. P. phymatodes L. — Syn. P. phymatodes et P. Ftientesii Hicken, 
Bol. 132 tab. XXVI, Rev. 91 tab. 8. 



5 2 CARL CHRISTENSEN AND CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Hab. Eastern headland, Vaintu Rova and Tea-tea, humid fissures, not 
rare (no. 654); Rano Aroi, fairly common; Rano Kao, stone-heaps near the 
lake, c. 125 m (no. 673), but also seen higher up. — Fertile. 

This common Polynesian fern varies in the island as in most other loca- 
lities greatly in size and division, the leaves now being entire, now trifid or 
pinnatifid with several pair of segments, which are longer or shorter, acute or 
obtuse. P. Fuentesii is one of the larger forms, but certainly not distinguish- 
able even as variety. Typical Fuentesii is in the collection. 

Area of distribution: The tropics of the Old World, including Austra- 
lia and Polynesia. 

Vittaria J. Sm. 

10. V. elongata Sw. — Syn. V. costata Hicken Bol. 137, Rev. 96, 
non Kunze. 

Hab. In fissures between blocks, with moss, in the craters of Rano Aroi, 
c. 420 m and Rano Kao, c. 125 m, (no. 672), in the last mentioned also in 
the moss peat of the crater lake. — Fertile. 

This very common Polynesian species is totally different from the Ame- 
rican V. costata Kze, to which HiCKEN referred specimens from the island. 

Area of distribution: Tropical Asia, Polynesia, N. S. Wales. 



Ophioglossaceae. 
Ophioglossuin L. 

*ii. O. reticulatum L. 

Probably not uncommon in short grass on the plains and slopes. 

Hab. West slope of Mt Katiki (no. 1184); near the landing-place in 
Hanga Ho Orno (no. 648); near Mataveri; also seen in the centre of the 
island. — Fertile. — Not recorded before. 

Area of distribution: Tropical Africa and America; Polynesia. 
*I2. O. coriaceuni A. Cunn. 

Hab. With the preceding, slope of Mt Katiki (no. 651), and at Hanga 
Ho Orno. — Fertile. — Not recorded before. 

We have some doubt of this being the true 0. coriaceiun A. Cunn.; 
it certainly belongs to 0. coriaceiun Prantl, Mon. Ophiogl. 314 tab. 7 fig. 9, 
10, 15; on the other hand, it falls under 0. rulgatuvi var. australasictun Luerss. 
Mus. 'Godeffr. 3: 246, corresponding closely to his fig. 73. Prantl refers 
Luerssen's variety to O. pcdunculosnni; to this species our specimens certainly 
do not belong. 

Area of distribution: Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand; Easter Island ; 
Bolivia. 



THE P^RKNS OF EASTER ISLAND 



53 



If we exclude Uie dubious record of Polysticliuin aciilcatiDii, Mr. FuENTEb' 
list comprises 7 species (Polyi^odium I'^ueiitesii was reduced to P. phyma- 
todes), which were all found by us with addition of 5 species not recorded 
before, making a total of 12 ferns known in Kaster Island. Two of these 
are eiuiemic. 



^5- 



3 Die Myxoniycctcn der Juan Fcrnandcz-Inscln. 

Von 
ROB. E. FRIES. 

Die von Dr. C. Skotisherg 1916 — 17 auf den Juan Fcrnandcz-Inseln 
zusammengebrachte Myxoniycetensammlung, die mir giitigst zu Bearbeitung 
anvertraut worden ist, umfasst insgesammt 16 Arten. Alle diese sind fiir die 
Inselgruppe neu, niit Ausnahme von zvvei Arten, die laut JoHOW (P'lora de las 
Islas de Juan Fernandez (1S96) S. 195) schon dort angetroffen sind. Noch 
zwei, von Skottsberg nicht gesammelt, werden daselbst angefiihrt. Insge- 
sammt sind also 18 Arten von der Inselgruppe bekannt, eine {Licea Schoeiilebni; 
siehe unten) jedoch sehr unsicher. Alle diese sind von der Insel Masatierra 
bekannt, nur drei derselben ausserdem von Masafuera. 

Diese von Juan Fernandez bisher bekannten Myxomyceten, iiber weiche 
ein Verzeichnis hier mitgeteilt wird, bilden sicheriich nur einen kleineren Teil 
der dort vorkommenden Arten. Sie bieten allerdings ein grosses Interesse dar, 
weil sie deutlich zeigen, dass die Myxomycetenflora gar nicht denselben Reich- 
turn endemischer Arten wie die der hoheren Pflanzen aufweist. Ini Gegensatz 
sind, vvenn man von der sehr unsicheren, JOHOWschen Licea-hxx. absieht, alle 
ausgepragte Kosmopoliten. Um dies zu beleuchten durfte es geniigen zu er- 
wahnen, dass von den 17 guten Arten nicht vveniger als 13 sowohl aus Europa, 
Asien, Afrika, Australien als Nord- und Siidamerika schon bekannt sind, die 
iibrigen 4 aus wenigstens Europa, Asien und Nordamerika. 



Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa (Muell.) Macbr. 

Von Joiiow unter dem Namen Ceratium hydnoidcs Alb. & Schw. fiir 
Masatierra angegeben. 



Physarum cinereum (Batsch) Pers. 

Masatierra: Siidwestseite von Portezuelo, im Wald ungef. 500 m ii. M. 
(10. Jan. 1917). 






ROB. E. FRIES 



Die Exemplare gehoren der Form an, die von G. LiSTER (Monograph of 
the Mycetozoa. Ed. 11. S. 73. 1911) als cinereuni in beschranktem Umfang 
aufgefasst wird. Die Sporen sind namlich hell braun, glatt, grosstenteils 8 — 9 [a 
Diam. Sie variieren jedoch sehr und erreichen sogar Dimensionen bis zu 
18 {i; diese Riesensporen sind oft ellipsoidisch, ei- oder nierenforniig und diirf- 
ten wohl von ungunstigen Entvvicklungsverhaltnissen bedingt sein. 



Physarum sinuosum (Bull.) Weinm. ex Fr. 

Masatierra: Quebrada de la Damajuana (30. Dez. 1916); Wald bei Pla- 
zoleta del Yunque (28. Dez, 191 6), — Gut entwickeltes und typisches Material. 



Fuligo septica (L.) Gmel. 

Masatierra: Cordon del Centinela (11. Apr. 1917). — Die Exemplare ge- 
horen der var. flava (Pers.) an, die iibrigens schon von Bertero und JoHOW 
auf Masatierra gesamnielt vvurde. 



Diachaea leucopoda (Bull.) Rost. 

Masatierra: Wald in der Nahe von Plazoleta del Yunque (28. Dez. 1916); 
Quebrada de la Damajuana (30. Dez. 1916). — Typisch, auf trockenen Zweigen 
und Blattern (von Aristotelia, Farnen u. a.) reichlich vvachsend. 



Didymium melanospermum (Pers.) Macbr. var. ininns List. 

Masatierra: Quebrada de la Damajuana (30. Dez. 1916); Cordon del 
Centinela (11. Apr. 1917). 



Didymium nigripes (Link) Fr. 

Masatierra: Quebrada de la Damajuana (30. Dez. 1916); Pangal (i.Jan. 
1917); Pico Central (18. Jan. 1917). Alle sind zur Hauptart mit dunkel orange-, 
farbigen Stielen zu rechnen, die E.xemplare von Pangal sind jedoch auffallend 
grob sebaut. 



Stemonites splendens Rost. 

Masatierra: La Damajuana, im Wald ungef. 500 m ii. M. (29. Jan. 1917). 
— Gehort zur Hauptart. Das oberflachliche Netzwerk des Kapillitiums hat 
kleine Maschen (15—40 (i Diam.); die Sporen sind glatt und zeigen sogar bei 
1200 mal Vergrosserung keine deutlichen Warzen. 



DIE MYXOMVCETKN UliR JUAN I-UKNANDIiZ-INSKLN 57 

Comatricha nij^ra (I'crs ) Schroet. 

Masaticrra: La Dam.ijuana, ca. 500 m ii. M. (29. Jan. 1917); Wald bci 
Yunque (Aug. 191 /). — Alle Exeniplare habcn zylinciii.sclie (ca. 2 nini langc) 
Sporangien, die iin Ban dcs Kai)illitiuni.s mit der vai . laxa (Rost.) R. K. l-'r. 
[Syn. Comatricha laxa Rost.] ubereinstiniiucn. 

(]ribraria aurantiaca Schrad. 
Masaticrra: Quebrada de la Uamajuana (9. A[n'. 191 7). 

Licea flexuosa Pers.? 

Die von Joiiow auf Ma.satierra gesammelte iind unter dem Namen Licca 
ScJiocnlci)iii beschriebene Art ist der kurzen Beschrcibung nach zu urteilen wahr- 
scheinlichst mA fcxiiosa zu identifizieren (vgl. Lister, Monogr. ed. II. S. 189). 

Lycogala Epidendnim (L ) Fr. 

Masaticrra: Juanango (9. Apr. 19 17). 

Trichia verrucosa Berk. 

Masaticrra: ohne naher angegebenen Fundort. Masafuera: Las Chozas 
(26. Febr. 1917). 

Die Elateren beider Kollektionen sind auffallend dick, ungef. 7,5 [J. in 
Diameter. Die Exemplare von Masafuera sind im iibrigen ganz typisch, die 
von Masaticrra bieten ein besonderes Interesse dar, weil sie teilsweise Uber- 
gangsformen zu Trichia affinis De Bary aufweisen. Die Sporangien sind nani- 
lich tails fast ganz stiellos, teils kurz, teils typisch lang gestielt. Sie sind jedoch 
im allgemeinen, wie bei der echten verrucosa, gruppenweise vereinigt. 

Trichia decipiens (Pers.) Macbr. 

Masaticrra: Quebrada de la Damajuana, ungef. 500 m ii. M. (29. Jan. 
'917)- — Nur ein paar kleine Sporangiumbruchstiicke, dank dem charakterist- 
ischen Bau des Kapillitiums und der Sporen allerdings gut erkennbar. 

Trichia Botrytis Pers. 

Masaticrra: Valle Colonial, Pico Central 350 m ii. M. (18. Jan. 191 7). 
Die Exemplare gehoren der var. lateritia (Lev.) List, an, die zuerst aus 
Chile — als Art ~ beschrieben vvorden ist. Nach LiSTER (Monogr. ed. II. 

4* — 2020G. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



58 ROB. E. FRIES 

S. 218) haben diese Exemplare »neaily black sporangia*. Das Material von 
Juan Fernandez hat audi schwarze Sporangien, die einzeln sitzen und von langen, 
helleren Stielen getragen werden. Das Kapillitium ist typisch. 



Hemitrichia clavata (Pers.) Rost. 

Masatierra: im VVald auf dem Gebirgsriicken zwischen den Piedra agu- 
jeriada und Laura-Talern, ca. 500 m ii. M. (4. Apr. 1917). — Wohl entwickelte, 
typische Exemplare niit gestielten Sporangien; das Kapillitium mit wenigen 
Verzvveigungen. Von JOHOW ist diese Art sowohl fiir Masatierra als fiir Masa- 
fuera angegeben worden. 



Arcyria denudata (L.) Macbr. 

Masatierra: Plazoleta del Yunque (28. Dez. 1916); Valle Colonial, Pico 
Central, ca. 350 m ii. M. (18. Jan. 1917); Quebrada del Juanango (3 Apr. 1917). 
Masafuera : Quebrada de las Casas (ii. Febr. 1917). 



Arcyria insignis Kalchbr. & Cooke> 
Masatierra: Quebrada de la Damajuana (30. Dez. 191 7). 



THE NATURAL HISTORY 
OF JUAN FERNANDEZ 
AND EASTER ISLAND 

EDITED BY DR. CARL SKOTTSBERG 



VOL. II 

BOTANY 

PART II 

4. Thore C, E. Fries: Die Gasteromyceten der Juan Fernandez- 

und Osterinseln. 

5. Carl Skottsberg: The Phanerogams of Easter Island. 

6. K. MCnster Strom: Freshwater Algae from Juan Fernandez 

and Easter Island. 

7. Carl Skottsberg: The Phanerogams of the Juan Fernandez 

Islands, 




UPPSALA 1922 

ALMQVIST & WIKSELLS BOKTRYCKERI-A.-B. 



4 Die Gasteroniyceteii der Juan Fernandez- und 

Osterinseln. 

Von 

THORE C. E. FRIES. 

Dr. C. Skottsberg hatte die Giite, mir das von ihm wahrend seiner 
Reise 1916 — 1917 gesammelte Gasteromycetenmaterial zur Bestimmung zu iiber- 
geben. Die Sammlung ist unbedeutend und enthalt nur drei Arlen. Doch 
sind samtliche neu fiir die in Frage kommenden Inseln. 

Vorher hat JOHOW (Flora de las Islas de Juan Fernandez (1896) p. 188) 
zwei Gasteromycetenarten von Juan F'ernandez angegeben. Mit Riicksicht dar- 
auf, dass die Kenntnis der Gasteromycetenflora sowohl auf Juan Fernandez 
als auf der Osterinsel noch inimer als sehr mangelhaft angesehen werden 
muss, bietet die fragliche Pilzgruppe wenig pflanzengeographisches Interesse. 
Samtliche nach Art bestimmbare Kollektionen gehoren doch bekannten Arten 
aus Australien und Amerika an. — Es diirfte deshalb mit grosser Wahrschein- 
lichkeit angenommen werden konnen, dass die Gasterom\cetenflora der Juan 
Fernandez- und Osterinseln eine grossere Anzahl endemischer Arten nicht auf- 
zuweisen haben. 



Ileodictyoii gracile Berk. 

Von JOHOW angegeben aus Masatierra. Mit Riicksicht auf die ziemlich 
schwebende Artbegrenzung innerhalb der Genus Ileodictyon diirfte /. cibarhnn 
Tul. als mehr Kollektiv vorzuziehen sein. — Ausbreitung: Australien, Xeu- 
seeland, Siidamerika und Siidafrika. 



Calvatia sp. 

JOHOW nimmt in seine Liste ein Lycoperdon sp. {an novar) aus Masa- 
tierra und S:ta Clara auf. Aus der Beschreibung geht mit voller Deutlich- 
keit hervor, dass eine Art von der Gattung Calvatia (Fr.) Morg. gemeint vvird. 
Ohne Zuganglichkeit des JOHOW'schen Materiales ist indessen eine Artbestim- 
mung unmogiich. 

4** — 2otoo. The nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and East. Isl. ]'ol. II. 



6o THORE C. E. FRIES 

Ly coper don (?) sp. 

Ein einziges unreifes Exemplar. Artbestimmung unmoglich; ist indessen 
nicht identisch mit JOHOW's Lycoperdoii sp. [an novar). — Masafuera: Los 
Inocentes, ca. iioo m ii. M. ^/s 1917. C. Skottsberg. 



Bovistella pusilla Lloyd (in Myc. Not. N:o 34. 1910). 

Drei gute Exemplare. — Osterinsel: Cerro Katiki ^"/c 1917. C. SKOTTS- 
BERG. Ausbreitung: Australien. 



Geaster Ohiensis (Cooke) Lloyd. (Syn. Cycloderma OJiiensis Cooke und 

Geaster veliitinus Morg.). 

Zwei ungeoffnete Exemplare. — Masatiera: Siidabhang des Yunque ^*/4 
1917. C. Skottsberg. — Ausbreitung: Nordamerika, Samoa-Inseln. 



5 The Phanerogams of Easter Island. 

By 

CARL SK0TT5BERG. 

With Plates 6—9 and 2 text-figures. 

In no. 2 of this volume I have published, together with Dr. Christensen, 
a Ust of the ferns reported from Easter Island. While reading the proofs I 
received from Professor B. L. ROBIN'SON of Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass., a complete set of the collection made by Aga.ssiz and his comrades 
during the Albatross Expedition (1904). It was then impossible to take into 
due consideration the ferns contained in this collection. It does not extend 
our knowledge of the fern flora; still I And it better to enumerate the species 
found by Aga.SSIZ with the remarks written on his labels as an appendix to 
this paper, especially as his collection was made before that of FUENTES. 

The latest and most complete enumeration of the flowering plants is to 
be found in FuENTES' >- Resena botanica sobre la Isia de Pascua. (Inst. Centr. 
Meteor, y Geofis. de Chile no. 4, 19 13 and Bol. Mus. Xac. de Chile \': 2, 
191 3). The earliest collection seems to have been made by G. FoRSTER du- 
ring Cook's second voyage: most of the plants found by FORSTER v.ere 
enumerated in his »Florulae insularum australium prodromus», Gottingen 1786. 
Some species mentioned by FORSTER in his narrative (A voyage round the 
world, London 1771 vol. I) do not figure in the Prodromus, as for example 
such an important plant as 5(9/'//(9/v7 (the Mimosa of FoRSTER). xA. v. Chamisso, 
during the voyage of KOTZEBUE (see xReise um die Welt, 4. Aufl., Berlin 
1856) also collected plants on Easter Island, and has been quoted as collector 
in a few cases. In 1836, S. Endlicher included all statements related to 
Easter Island plants in his »Bemerkungen iiber die Flora der Siidseeinseln 
(Ann. des Wiener Museums der Xaturgeschichte I). Hemslev's list in iReport 
on the present state of knowledge of various Insular Floras* (Report Chall- 
enger, Bot. I p. 15, 1885) is based on Endlicher, but Sophora tetraptera and 
Scsjivium portulacasfniin are added. 

FuENTES confined himself to an enumeration of what he had collected 
on the island in 191 1; his list contains 40 indigenous or naturalized species. 
Many of these had been found by the Albatross expedition seven years earlier, 
4*** — 20100. The nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and East. Isl. Vol. II. 



02 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

together with several species not found by FuENTES. On the request of Pro- 
fessor Robinson I have determined the » Albatross* collection. All the deter- 
minations, together with the notes on the labels^, as well as all previous re- 
cords known to me, are included in my list. 

Finally, it should not be forgotten that the cultivated plants were treated 
by FuENTES (1. c.) and lately by W. Knoche in »Ueber die Kulturpflanzen 
der Osterinsel» (Zeitschr. des Deutsch. wiss. Ver. zur Kultur- und Landeskunde 
Argentiniens, Buenos Aires 1919). In some cases we cannot tell whether a 
plant used by the natives as a food plant or for other practical purpose was 
a member of the flora when the first settlers arrived or if it was introduced by 
the natives on that occasion or later (but in any case before the discovery ot 
the island in 1722). When I made my remarks on the cultivated plants (Notes 
on a visit to Easter Island, Vol. I of this work), the news of Knoche's paper 
had not yet reached this country. According to him, the sweet potato existed 
in Easter Island already before the visit of ROGGEVEEN, the discoverer; for 
Behrens, who accompanied ROGGEVEEN, enumerates »Bataten, die wie Brot 
schmeckten». RoGGEVEEN himself did not mention this plant, unless it was 
included under »aardgewasch». However, as Behrens expressly states that 
sweet potatoes were plentiful, they must have existed long before the Europ- 
eans landed on the island. 

In the determination of my plants I was assisted by Prof. Dr. R. Pilger 
(Gramineae), Superintendent Dr. G. KUKENTHAL (Cyperaceae, see Fedde's 
Repertorium XVI, 1920), Mr, J. HUTCHINSSON (Sisyrinchium, Polycarpon), Mr. 
O. E. SCHULZ (a Nasturtium) and Prof. Dr. G. BiTTER (a Solanum). I hereby 
cordially thank them for their kind assistance. My thanks are also due to Dr. 
O. Staff and other members of the staff at the Kew Herbarium for great 
help in various matters during my visit to that establishment. 



An'" before a latin name signifies that the species has not been recorded 
before. 

The specimens collected by the Albatross Expedition are quoted thus: 
Albatross no. — ! All other numbers refer to the collection made by the 
writer and Mrs. Skottsberg. The zoologist, Mr. BACKSTROM, brought me a 
few plants from Motu Nui, the small rock near the southwestern promontory 
of Easter Island. A map, showing the localities mentioned below, was pub- 
lished in Vol. I, No. I. 



^ »Rana Koa» and »Rana Roka» on the labels have been corrected to Rano Kao and R. 
Rarakii. 



THE PHANKROGAMS OF EASTER ISLAND 63 

Catalogue of Easter Island Phanerogams. 
I. Species undoubted!}' or probably indigenous. 

Gramineae. 

Paspalum L. 

*i. P. Forsterianum Fliigge. — Plate 6, fig. i. 

Albatross no. 7! Hanga Ho Orno, near the sea (no. 641); rocky beach 
north of Hanga Piko (no. 665); Islet Motu Nui. 

Dr. PiLGER remarks: »Mir lag ein ziemlich unvollkommenes Exemplar aus 
dem Hb. Sl'RENGEL vor (Nova Caledonia: P^ORSTER): die unteren Halmteile 
fehlen an dem Exemplar. Doch erscheint die Zugehorigkeit der Exemplare 
von der Oster-Insel zur selben Art sicher.» 

Area of distribution: New Caledonia, Easter Island. 

2. P. scrobiculatuni L. var. orbicidare (Forst.) Doniin. 
FoRSTER ; FUEXTES. — Between Hanga Ho Orno and Puhi; not uncom- 
mon round Mataveri; Rano Kao (no. 694). 

Area of distribution: Austral., N. Caled., N. Guinea, Polyn. 

Axonopus Beauv. 

3. A. paschalis Pilger nov. spec. — Syn. P. scoparhwi P'liigge var. 
nov. oligostachytun HACK, ex FUENTES, 1. c, P. paschale Stapf, nomen, ibid. 
— Plate 6, fig. 2. 

Culmus erectus, vaginatus, apice breviter cum panicula exsertus, vel usque 
ad basin paniculae vaginis vestitus, vaginis ad basin culmi distiche sese tegenti- 
bus compressis, vagina suprema sub panicula elongata, ad 20 cm longa; culmus 
cum panicula 30 — 50 cm altus, e vagina suprema nonnumquam florifero-ramosus, 
nodis dense albido-pilosus, innovationes extravaginales erectae; fohorum lamina 
linearis, secus medianum plicata vel demum subplana, apice ipso brevissime 
contracta et acuta, apicem versus scaberula, ceterum ± hinsuto-pubescens vel 
fere glabrescens, basi longe hirsuta, ligula margo brevissimus ciliolulatus; pani- 
cula spicis paucis erectis composita, rhachis communis brevis; spicae ad 9—10 
cm longae strictae, rhachis angulata, triquetra, marginibus scaberula; spiculae 
singulae, biseriatae, ovales, apice parum attenuatae, compressae, 3 mm longae, 
gluma infera et gluma florifera anticae; gluma vacua infera dorso applanata, 
marginibus inflexa, membranacea, ovata, subobtusa, nervus medianus nullus, 
laterales ± conspicui utroque latere 3 — 4; gluma supera ovata, magis angus- 
tata, dorso hand applanata, medianus tenuis, nervi laterales utroque latere 2— 3; 
glumae dorso ad nervos pubescentes ; gluma florifera indurata straminea, glumis 



64 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

vacuis paulo brevior, extus visa ovalis, expansa rotundato-elliptica, apice minute 
puberula. 

Apparently widely dispersed over the island. — FUENTES; »comnion 
throughout the islands, summit of Rano Kao (Albatross no. 49!); Mt. Katiki, 
in the crater, 412 m (no. 1191); Hanga Ho Orno (no. 644); between Mataveri 
and Rano Raraku; slopes of Rano Kao, scarce; crater lake of Rano Kao, on 
the moss peat, no m (no. 1189). 

Dr. PiLGER remarks: >^Die Gattung Axonopiis ist hier im Sinne der ameri- 
kanischen Agrostologen gefasst, mit A. compresstis (Sw.) Beauv. (Paspalum 
platycaulon Poir.) als typische Art (vergl. uber die Gattung A. Chase, Notes 
on Genera of Panicum IV, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington XXIV (191O 129 fif.). 
Die Art ist wohl dieselbe, die in der Arbeit von FUENTES als Paspalum sco- 
pariuui Fliigge var. oligostacJiyjiin Hack, oder P. /^j-^/zrt'/f Stapf nov. spec, ohne 
Beschreibung aufgefuhrt wird. Eine Beschreibung ist mir nicht bekannt ge- 
worden. Axonopiis pasclialis ist mit Paspahnn scopariiim, welche Art auch zu 
Axonopus zu stellen ist, verwandt, aber gut unterschieden, neben anderen Merk- 
malen schon durch den Blutenstand.» 

Area of distribution : Endemic. 



Stipa L. 

*4. S. horridula Pilger nov. spec. — Plate 6, fig, 3; text fig. i a. 

Perennis caespitosa, innovationibus intravaginalibus dense aggregatis; folio- 
rum innovationum lamina stricta, angustissima, filiformis, subtereti-convoluta, 
brevissime hirto-scabra, ad 30 cm longa, ligula brevis bilabiata, vagina brevis 
striata, margine superne breviter ciliolata, ad 4—6 cm longa; culmus caespitem 
innovationum valde superans, erectus, cum panicula 80—90 cm altus, 3— 4-nodus, 
vaginatus, vaginis internodia parum longitudine superantibus, nodis glabris, la- 
mina foliorum culmi ad 2 cm longa; internodium supremum elongatum, panicula 
basi vagina circumdata; panicula 30—40 cm longa angusta laxiflora, rami a 
basi pluries divisi, ramuli igitur ad nodos subfasciculati breves erecti, infimi ad 
7 cm longi, internodia inferiora paniculae 3 — 5 cm longa; spiculae angustae; 
glumae vacuae tenues angustae nitidulae, longe tenuiter angustatae acutissimae, 
subaequales, 13 — 14 mm longae, scaberulae; gluma florifera angusta, 4 mm 
longa, callo elongato acutissimo, albido- vel flavidulo-hirsuto, circ. 2 mm longo 
instructa, satis parce albido-hirsuta, coronula nulla, arista tenuis 5—6,5 mm 
longa, parte infra geniculum parum torta circ. i cm tantum longa, parce hir- 
tula, parte supra geniculum scaberula. 

Mt Katiki, stray patches on the western slope (no. 660). 

Dr. Pilger remarks: »Die neue Art gehort zur Gruppe der Stipen mit 
unbefiederter Granne und fehlendem Kronchen, die Granne ist gegen die Deck- 
spelze nur einfach abgegliedert. Verwandte Arten kommen sowohl in Siid- 
amerika wie in Australien vor (etwa 5. scabra Lindl., etc.). Ein naherer geo- 
graphischer Anschluss der schonen neuen Spezies ist somit nicht sicher an- 
zugeben. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF EASTER ISLAND 



Sporobolus R Hr. 

5. S. indiciis \h } R. Br. 

One of the most important grasses, covering considerable areas. — 
Flen TES. » Common throughout the island* (Albatross nos. 9! 23 1). Observed 
in great quantities along the north coast and on Mt. Katiki (no. 639) up to the 
top, 412 ni (no. 1 190); also conmion round Mataveri (no. 702) and along the 
west coast as well as on Rano Kao and from here to Rano Raraku, which is 
covered by this species (also Albatross no. 48!). 

Area of distribution: S. Asia to Australia and Polynesia. 



Agrostis L. 

6. A. tiliformis (Forst.) Spreng. ¥\. Hal. Mant. Prima (1807) p. 32. — 
Text fig. I b, c. 

Dr. PiLGER remarks on this species: »FORSTER beschrieb die Art zuerst 
in Florul. Ins. Austr. Prodr. (1786) 9 als Avena filifcnnis (panicula erecta 
tenuissima, calycibus unifloris, aristis calyce duplo longioribus. F. Nova Zee- 
landia et insula Paschatis). SPRENGEL, der die Art zu Agrostis brachte, giebt 
als Standort nur Insula Paschatis an. Die Art liegt in der Sammlung in zwei 
Formen vor, die beide nicht genau dem Original von FOR.STER entsprechen, 
das mir aus dem Herb. Sl'RENGEL vorlag. Dieses hat eine ziemlich dichte 
Rispe, die Hiillspelzen sind 3 V 2 bis fast 4 mm lang, die Deckspelze ist fast 2 
mm lang, ihre Behaarung ist sparlicb, die Granne ist verhaltnismassig kraftig, 
etwas gekniet, bis 6 mm lang; der Achsenfortsatz ist sehr kurz. Das Ex. no. 
6S7, das der Originalform naher steht (Textfig. i b) hat 4^ 1—5 mm lange 
Hiillspelzen; die Deckspelze ist 2^ 2 mm lang, ziemlich reichlich weisslich be- 
haart, 4-spitzig, die Granne ist ^^'.i mm lang; die lanzettlich eiformige Vor- 
spelze erreicht fast die Lange der Deckspelze, der Achsenfortsatz ist i mm lang, 
lang behaart; Staubblatter 3 mit ^4 mm langen Antheren; die Rispe ist sehr 
locker, mit stark abspreizenden Asten. Die zweite Form entspricht mit ihren 
kleineren Ahrchen der Form, die WiLLDENOW als A. retrofrada beschrieben hat 
(Textfig. icj; die HuUspelzen sind 2V2 bis 3 mm lang, die Deckspelze 1V2 
mm, ihre Granne 3'/2 mm. 

Agrostis filiformis ist unter vielerlei Xamen beschrieben worden, die DoMlN 
in Bibl. Bot. 85 (1915) 351 — 52 zusammengestellt (unter Deycuxia filiformis). 
Bei den neueren Autoren geht die Art gewohnlich unter Deyeiixia (D. Forsteri 
Kunth, Bextham, F1. Austral. VH. 579; Cheeseman, Manual Xew Zeal. Fl. 
868; D. filiformis Petrie in Chiltox, Subant. Islands Xew Zeal. 11(1909)474; 
DOMIN 1. c). Trotz des deutlichen Achsenfortsatzes muss aber die Art zu 
Agrostis gestellt werden, da sie sich von Deyeuxia (welche Gattung mit Cala- 
magrostis zu vereinigen ist) durch die kurze, breite, oben stark abgestutzte und 
gezahnelte Deckspelze unterscheidet; die Callushaare am Grunde der Deckspelze 
sind sehr kurz. Sie ist in Australien, auf XeuSeeland und Tasmanien ver- 
breitet und kommt auch auf Hawaii vor. A. filiformis variiert sehr stark inbe- 

j _ ,o;,x). The nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and East. Isl. Vol. II. 



66 



CARL SKOTTSBEKG 




Fig. I. a Spikelet oi Stipa horridulaY\\otx, X 2V2; b oi Agrostis fiHformis{^oxsX^^^x^v\^.,Y. 10 
and c o{ A. retro fracta Willd., X 10. d—h Datitkotiia pasc/ia/is Pilger, X 5; «' spikelet, e 
flowering glume, back view; / flower, front view ; g, h paleae, outer and inner surface. — 

Drawn by C. Skottsberg. 



zug auf die Grosse der iVhrchen, Behaarung der Deckspelze, Lange der Granne 
und des Achsenfort.satzes 11. s. w.; Cheeseman besonders fiihrt von Neu-See- 
land eine Anzahl von Varietaten an, doch ist bisher keine befriedigende weitere 
Gliederung der Art erreicht worden.» 

The more typical form with the larger spikelets (Fig. i b) was found once 
only, in the swamp of the crater lake of Rano Aroi, c. 400 m, rather abundant 



THE PHANliROGAMS OF EASTER ISLAND 67 

(no. 687). A. reirofacta (fig. i c) is in the Albatross collection: no. 26! 27! 
»sunimit of Rano Kao, probably abundant*: no. 53! I foiuid it in the small 
crater of Mt. Katiki, 412 m (no. 661) and also in Kano Kao. 

Area of distribution: Austral., Tasman., N. Zeal., Hawaii, Easter I. 
A. rctrofractiX was described from Australia. 

In Kndi.ICIIER 1. c. p. 158 Dcycuxia CJiainissonis (Trin.) Kunth is quoted 
from Easter Island. To judge from the description in Enum. plant. I p. 242 
this must be another form of A. filijormis, with a shorter awn. Further, End- 
LICHER lists Anindo conspicua Forst. = Agrostis conspicua (Forst.) Roem. et 
Schult. from New Zealand and Easter Island, leg. FoR.STER. The latter locality 
must be a mistake, FoRSTER does not mention Easter Island, where the species 
in question does not occur. It is endemic in New Zealand and a very con- 
spicuous grass. 



Dichelachne Endl. 

7. D. sciiirea (R. Br.) Hook. fil. — Syn. D. crinita and D. sciurea var. 
nova monandra Hack,, FuENTES 1. c. 

Not uncommon. — »Common throughout island, scattered tussocks, 6-- 7,5 
dm» (Albatross nos. 4! 28!); top of Rano Kao (Albatross no. 46!, f. ad D. cri- 
nitam); Mt. Katiki. on the slopes (no. 659, f. ad D. crinitam) and edge of 
crater, 412 m (no. 1187); Hanga Ho Orno, scattered; Rano Aroi, stony ground 
in the crater, c. 400 m (no. 688). 

Dr. PiLGER remarks to this species: »Die langbegrannte Form (no. 659) 
steht der D. crinita (L.) Hook. fil. sehr nahe; die Hiillspelzen sind fein und 
lang gespitzt und fast gleich, die Granne ist tief auf dem Riicken der Deck- 
spelze eingefiigt, wahrend bei der typischen D. sciurea die Hiillspelzen kiirzer 
gespitzt sind und das freie Ende der Deckspelze nur kurz ist (nos. 688, 1187). 
Auch Cheeseman (Manual New Zeal. Fl. (1906) 874) erwahnt bei D. crinita 
eine Uebergangsform zu D. sciurea, die var. intermedia Hack. Die Bliite iiat 
nur ein Staubblatt, wie es auch schon R. Brown fiir seine Agrostis sciurea 
und A. rara angiebt (Prodr. 171). DOMIN setzt fur D. sciurea den Namen D. 
uiicrantha (Cav.) Domin wegen Stipa viicrantha Cav. Icon. V (1799) 42 t. 467. 
Wie schon Bentham in Fl. Austral. VII. 566 hervorhebt, ist die dem schlechten 
Habitusbild beigegebene Figur B. ganzlich mit Dichelachne unvereinbar; auch 
die Beschreibung stimmt nicht fiir diese Gattung.» 

Area of distribution: Austral., N. Zeal., Easter I. 



Danthonia DC. 

*8. D. paschalis Pilger nov. spec. — Text fig. i d— h. 

Dense caespitosa, innovationibus permultis extravaginalibus, basi squamis 
rigidis instructis, ± erectis et aggregatis, rarius parte inferiore decumbentibus, 
brevibus, internodis perbrevibus, vaginis magna pro parte sese tegentibus, folio- 



68 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

rum lamina angustissima, filiformi-involuta, sulcato-striata, parum vel vix hir- 
sutulo-inspersa, ad 7—8 cm longa, vagina dense sulcato-striata, ore albido-pilosa; 
culmi graciles tenues caespitem valde superantes ad 35 cm alti, erecti vel 
parum geniculati, laeves, nodi glabri; inflorescentia e vagina suprema longe 
cxserta, vagina suprema 3 — 5 cm longa, lamina ad 3 cm longa; internodium 
sequens ad 10 cm longum, vagina pluries brevior; inflorescentia depauperata 
2_7 cm longa simpliciter racemosa, spiculis paucis brexiter pedicellatis com- 
posita, vel ad basin inflorescentiae ramulus bispiculatus; spiculae ad 6-florae 
(flore supremo parum evoluto), glumis vacuis circumdatae; glumae vacuae lan- 
ceolatae, apice acutiusculae vel obtusiusculae, 9 — 10 mm longae, inferior superi- 
orem basi amplectens, parum vel vix longior, glumae medio tantum nervosae, 
margo latus enervius, nervi 5, in inferiore et 7, virides, prominentes, approxi- 
mati; gluma florifera expansa elliptica, cum callo (internodio rhachillae) albido- 
barbato, i — 1,5 mm longo decidua, sine lobis lateralibus 4 mm longa, lobi 
laterales lanceolati, sensim sat aequaliter angustati et aristiformi producti, arista 
inter lobos 3 mm supra basin glumae orta, pars inferior brunnea, 2 — 3 mm 
longa, cum lobis lateralibus ± connata et vix vel non torta, pars superior ad 
6 — 7 mm longa, obscure viridis; nervi laterales utroque latere 3, virides, pro- 
minentes, in lobos laterales excurrentes, gluma basi longe albido-pilosa, praeterea 
ad marginem utroque latere fasciculo pilorum albidorum insertionem aristae 
parum superantium instructa; palea brevis, ovalis, apice truncata et leviter bilo- 
bata, 2,5 — 3 mm longa, nervi marginales; caryopsis ambitu ovalis, crassa, com- 
pressa, latere hili applanata ad parum concava, 2 mm longa. 

Only seen once, very scarce on the slope of Mt. Katiki near the summit 
(no. 658). There is more material in the Albatross collection; the label runs: 
»summit of Rano Kao»; »common throughout the island* (no. 51!) I do not 
think the latter statement is quite correct: even if the season was rather un- 
favorable during our visit, this grass is too conspicuous to be overlooked, and 
it was not observed by FUENTES. 

Dr. PiLGER remarks on the affinity: »Die neue Art ist verwandt mit der 
chilenischen D. cJdlensis Desv., aber doch durch charakteristische Merkmale 
unterschieden: bei D. cJiilensis ist die Vorspelze verhaltnismass'g langer und 
nach der Spitze zu verschmalert, die Seitenlappen der Deckspelze sind nach 
aussen zu breiter, fast geflugelt, die Nerven treten nur schwach hervor und die 
Rander der Deckspelze sind gleichmassig behaart, wahrend bei der neuen Art 
2 HaarbiJschel hervortreten, die mit ihren Spitzen etvvas iiber die Einsatzstelle 
der Granne hervorragen.» 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Eragrostis Host. 

9. E. elongata Jacq. — Syn. E. diandra Steud., FUENTE.S 1. c. 

Albatross nos. 81 24! Slope of Mt. Katiki; round Hanga Ho Orno, on 
lava fields (no. 645); between the north coast and Puhi, frequent on small red 
tufa hillocks. 

Area of distribution: East India, Polynesia. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF EASIER ISLAND 69 

(Lcptunis repens R. Hr. (Australia, Polynesia) is listed b>- Endlichkr 1. c. 
(»teste Trin,»). TkiNIUS must have based his statement on material collected 
by Cha.MISSO, whose specimens probably belong to one of the l^etersburg her- 
baria. Nobody has seen the plant later and the statement cannot be verified ) 



Cyperaceae. 

Cyperiis L. 

lo. C. vegctus Willd. 

Moist places, edges of crater lakes, etc. — FUENTES. »Enclosurc for 
banana tree (Albatross no. 1 1 !) Mt. Vaintu Rova, humid cave; Rano Aroi, 
vigorous plants in the crater; crater of Rano Kao (no. 1170); ^scattered patches 
about edge of marsh, also in wet places about the island», (Albatross no. 54!); 
west slope of Rano Kao; Rano Raraku (Albatross nos. 31! 32!). 

Area of distribution: Temp. S. Amer., Juan Fernandez, Easter I, 

*ii. C. polystachyus Rottb. 

Rano Aroi, in the crater, c. 400 m, one specimen seen (no. 686). 

Area of distribution: Subcosmop. trop.-subtrop. 

12. C. cyperoides (L.) Kiikenth. — Syn. C. (Mariscus) SiebeiianusYAh., 
FUENTE-S 1. c. 

X. slope of Rano Kao, scattered (no. 675); between INIataveii and the 
lepra colony, common in wet patches. 

Area of distribution: Widely dispersed trop.-subtrop. 



Kyllinga Rottb. 

13. K. brevi folia Rottb. 

Scattered over the island, more frequent on higher ground. — FUENTES. 
Mt. Katiki, quite common, copious in the crater, 412 m; Hanga Ho Orno, in 
crevices between lava boulders (no. 643); -common on plains/> (Albatross no. 
10!); Rano Aroi, frequent along the pond, c. 400 m; Rano Kao, common (also 
Albatross no. 52! » abundant throughout the island»); between Mataveri and 
Rano Raraku; Rano Raraku (Albatross no. 34!). 

Area of distribution: Widely dispersed within the tropics. 



Scirpus L. 

14. S. riparius Presl var. paschalis Kiikenth. 1. c. — Plate 7. 
»Culmus 3-4 metralis subteres ad 2 cm crassus, basi vaginis hand reti- 
culatim fissis obtectus. Anthela decomposita ampla spiculis innumerosis ornata». 
»S. esp. gigante.sca»; ^en los crateres» (FUENTE.sl); Rano Aroi, smaller; 



70 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Rano Kao, forming an extensive association along the edge of the lake (no. 
6'j6\ » common rush of the marsh growing 2,5 m high», Albatross no. 55!); 
Rano Raraku, few, small -stands (also Albatross no. 33!). 

The variety differs from the ordinary form mainly in its greater size and 
more compound panicle. The largest plants grow in Rano Kao. Tiie plant 
from Rano Aroi was called S. riparius by FuENTES, who regarded the large 
form ■ from Rano Kao, which he collected sterile, as another species. The 
smaller rush was seen by us in a small stream with almost stagnant water, 
flowing from Rano Aroi, but was not collected, as we intended to return to 
the same place; from this we were prevented by the sudden departure of the 
vessel. I do not think that more than one species grows in the island: if 
FuENTES vS. riparius is of the same size and habit as the ordinary plant, var. 
paschalis may be a local form of the sheltered crater lakes, best developed 
in the deepest crater, that of Rano Kao. KuKENTHAL does not indicate any 
characters in the spikelets or flowers to distinguish it from the type. 

Area of distribution: Calif, and Texas to Fuegia and Falkl., Hawaii, 
Easter I. 



Juncaceae. 
Juncus L. 

"^15. J. plebeius R. Br. 

Western edge of Rano Kao (no. 680), c. 300 m. — New for Easter Island. 

The specimens are typical. According to BucilENAU in Pflanzenreich, 
June. p. 115, the flowers probably always are cleistogamous. This is also the 
case with the majority of the flowers in my material; they have three stamens 
with anthers coherent with the very small stigmas. Only in very few cases 
normal open flowers were seen, with six fully developed stamens and long 
stigmas. 

Area of distribution: Austral., Tasman., N. Zeal., Easter I. 



Polygonaceae. 
Polygonum L. 

16. P. acuminatum H. B. K, — Plate 8, fig. i. 

Common in the three large craters. — »Comun en los 3 crateres» (FUEN- 
TES!); Rano Aroi, few and small patches; Rano Kao, abundant along the lake 
(no. 679; »very abundant in marsh», Albatross no. 56!); Rano Raraku (also 
Albatross nos. 35 1 36!, specimens with narrower leaves). 

FUENTES remarks 1. c: »Aunque difiere un poco de la forma ti'pica sud- 
americana, respeto la opinion de los eminentes botanicos doctores Engler i 
Staff sobre su identificacion.>/ 



IHE PHANEROGAMS OF EASTER ISLAND 71 

I have compared my specimens with the rich material of this highly poly- 
morphic species in Kew; they difter a little from most other plants in the shorter 
internodes, often completely covered by the vaginae, whose marginal bristles 
or setae are very long; the nut seems to be a trifle larger than in most other 
specimens. Still, plants from Uruguay, collected by E. GiJjPZRT, are very like 
the insular ones. 

On the whole, my specimens agree with a Humboldtii Meisn. Fl. Brasil. 
\': I p. 14, tab. 4 fig. i: only, the leaves are more acuminate and the setae 
of the ochrea considerably longer. To judge from the description, o sctigeruin 
Meisn. 1. c. p. 15 (P. setigerum Wedd.) must be very similar. The anthers are 
described as included in ot and exserted in 0, but this is of little consequence, 
as the species, to judge from my specimens, is heterostylous. 

Area of distribution: S. Amer., Columb. -Uruguay (not in Chile). S. 
Afr. (an aberrant form?). — FuENTES remarks: sAmer. trop. S. de Australia*, 
but Australia must be a misprint for Africa. 



Chenopodiaceae. 
Chenopodium L. 

17. Ch. ambiguutn R. Br. — Cli. glauann, FoRSTER 1. c; var. /^.f^r/z^/r 
FuENTES 1. c. Comp. J. MuRR in Allg. bot. Zeitschr. 12 (1906) p. III. 

On the sea shore. Hanga Ho Orno (no. 662); rocky beach near Hanga 
Piko; Islet Motu Xui (no. 1194). 

My specimens were compared with the material in Herb. Kew and Upsala. 
Some authors regard Ch. ambiguum as identical with C. glauaim L., while 
others retain it as a variety. I prefer to keep it as a species, mainly on ac- 
count of its geographical distribution, but also because I ha\'e not seen inter- 
mediate forms. FUENTES probably had but a scanty material of Ch. glaucum 
for comparison, for he does not give any character serving to distinguish his 
insular form from this. I do not understand what he means by > spiculas race- 
mosas muy flojas>, for all the specimens I have seen have short and more or 
less dense inflorescence. 

Area of distribution: Austral, Tasman., X. Zeal., Easter I. 



Nyctaginiaceae. 
Boerhaavia L. 

*i8. B. diffusa L. forma. 

Tongariki, near the sea shore (no. 698). . — New for the island. 

The Easter Island Boerhaavia is decumbent, nearh- glabrous, with linear- 
lanceolate or almost ovate leaves, obtuse and minutely apiculate, and whitish 
below. The inflorescence is mostly a simple axillary umbel of 3 — 4 flowers, with 



72 



CARL SKOTTSBEKG 



a peduncle shorter or longer than the supporting leaf, rarely a poorly devel- 
oped panicle. It is probably the same form as understood by Trlmen, F1. 
Ceylon III p. 390, Drake del Castillo, Fiore Polyn. Franc, p. 158, etc. 
under B. diffusa. But according to Choisy in DC. Prodr. XIII: 2 p. 452 this 
has the leaves green on both sides, and my plants agree better with his de- 
scription of B. repens L., but typical repens has only been reported from Africa. 
Heimerl in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflzfam., regards B. dffusa as a col- 
lective species, of which B. repens is one of many forms. Typical B. difftisa 
is a large plant v.'ith a well developed panicle, but there are specimens in 
herbaria recognized as diffusa but with single axillary umbels and also inter- 
mediate forms. The leaves are sometimes conspicuously glaucous beneath. 
The long peduncles in my form remove it from typical B. repens. 
Area of distribution: Tropical Asia, Austral., Polyn., Afr. 



Aizoaceae. 

Tetragonia L. 

^19. T. expansa Murr. 

On the coast near Tongariki (no. 700). — First record for Easter Island. 
Area of distribution: Japan, Austral., N. Zeal., Polyn., Juan Fern., 
extratrop. S. Amer. 

(Sesiiviuvi portulacastnun L. is reported, without any indication of the 
source, for Easter Island by Hemsley 1. c. Mr. HUTCillNSON kindly informs me 
that there is no specimen from this place in the Kew Herbarium, nor has it 
been quoted by any other author. Its occurrence is, of course, quite possible, 
but requires further evidence.) 



Cruciferae. 

Nasturtium R. Br. 

*20. N. sarnientosuni (Sol.) O. E. Schulz. 

Mt. Vaintu Rova, moist floor of a small cave; scanty and sterile material 
in winter state (no. 652). — New for Easter Island. 

Area of distribution: Austral., Polynesia, Hawaii. 

Leguminosae. 

Caesalpinia L. 

21. C. bonduc (L.) Roxb. 

»Encontre dos ejemplares en el centro de la isla»: FUENTES 1. c. — 
Crater of Rano Kao, rare (no. 696). 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF EASIK.R ISLAND 73 

It is of course not at all certain, tiiat this belongs to the oiit^inal flora 
of the island, the more as tiie tradition, also (juoted by FUENTES, tells that it 
was intioduced by the first settlers, long before the discovery of the island by 
the Dutch. However, its faculty for dispersal with the ocean currents is a well 
known fact, so that nothing prevents us from believing that it reached I^aslcr 
Island without human aid. Accc^ding to Gui'r\', Observations of a naturalist 
in the Pacific II, the seeds of inland stations have lost their buoyancy. FuEN- 
Tics states that C. boiidiic is o\\ the verge of extinction in the island; I can 
neither confirm nor deny this. It is not in cultivation -- if it ever was — , 
and no plants were found along the sea shore. 

GUPPV (I. c. p. 185) gives a good summary of the two generally re- 
cognized species C. bonduc and boininccl/a] he has found intermediate forms and 
comes to the conclusion that all may belong to one complex taxonomic unity. 
The Easter Island plant is no » typical » bonduc. In the size of its flowers it 
agrees with this and it has no trace of stipules. But the leaflets are not un- 
equal at the base, as has been stated for C. bonduc (com p. Griseejach, Flora 
Brit. W. Ind. Isl. p. 204), but equal as in bonducella. According to Hellek, 
Plants of the Hawaiian Islands (Minn. Bot. Stud. 1897, p 831), C. bonduc is 
glabrous and has broader, blunt leaflets, while C. bonducella is pubescent, with 
comparatively narrow and acute leaflets. The leaflets in my plant answer 
better to Heller's C. bonduc, but they are clearly pubescent. Bracts are 
totally absent, even with the young buds. The colour of the seed is greyish 
as in bonducella, not yellowish as in bo?iduc, but GUPPY shows that this char- 
acter is not a reliable one, and TklMEN, Fl. Ceylon II p. 98 calls the seeds 
of C. bonduc greyish green, which answers well to the observations of the pre- 
sent writer. 

Area of distribution: Trop. Asia, Austral., Polyn. 



Sophora L. 

22. S. (Edwardsia) toroiniro (R. A. Phil.) Skottsb. — Edzvardsia toro- 
niiro R. A. Philippi, Bot. Zeit. 1873 p. 'JZ7\ ^- tetvaptera auctt. non J. Mill, nee 
Ait. — Plate 9; Text fig. 2 a-c. 

Crater of Rano Kao, very rare on the steep slope, only one small tree 
seen by us, growing between large boulders (no. 688; also reported from this 
locality by FuENTES 1. c). 

Edzvardsia toroniiio of PliiLIPPi is hardly more than a name, as no de- 
scription ever appeared; it was characterized by Philippi as possessing a wood 
different from that of the Chilean species, which generally goes under the name 
5. tetraptera. FuENTES did not consider the Easter Island plant to be a separate 
species. A description follows. 

Arbor pumila (specimen unicum ab auctore visum 190 cm altum), tor- 
tuosa; cortex junior saltern rufobrunneus, longitudinaliter sulcatus. Folia ver- 
sus apices ramulorum conferta, plerumque 40—55 mm longa, 8 — 9- (rarius 
ad 12) paria, rhachide tenui dense albosericea; foliola brevissime stipitata, 
stipite albo-sericeo, ovato-elliptica (sed foliolum terminate plerumque subobo- 



74. 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



vatum), basi cuneatorotundata, apice truncata et minutissime emarginata, peni- 
cillo brevi albo ornata, textura tenui, supra laete viridia, parce pilosa, 
subtus glaucescentia, pilis albis piaecipue secu3 rnedianum densius vestita. 
Legumeii longe pedicellatum, ad lO cm longum, ad 7locellatum, pro sectione 
typicum quadrialatum alls angustis circ. 1,5 mm altis transverse striatis, parie- 
tibus sat tenuibus, dilute brunneis. Semina sat parva, 4,2 — 5 mm longa et 
3,5 — 4 mm lata, ovoideo-globosa, basi et interdum apice apiculata, fulva, um- 
bilico obscuro notata. 

As far as I can understand, this is a very good species. It differs in 
several respects from both Chilean and New Zealand specimens of 5. tetra- 
ptera. The pubescence is whitish even in the youngest parts, the leaflets are 




XZ^ 



Fig. 2 a — c SopJiora ioromiro (R. A. Phil) Skottsb. a leaf, nat. size; b leaflet, lower surface, 
X 2; 6^ four seeds, nat. size; d Lvciuin sanduicensc A. Gray, flower. X 5- — Drawn by C. 

Skottsberg. 



of a yellowish or otherwise bright green colour above, and very thin, papy- 
raceous; they are also less numerous to the midrib. Finally the seeds are 
smaller, more globose and yellow. All the forms from Juan Fernandez have 
quite unwinged pods and larger, oblong obtuse seeds of a dark castaneous 
colour, very different from those of the Easter Island species, which is one of 
the more interesting endemic plants. 

S. torojuiro will probably soon be extinct. Already at the time ofCoOK 
and FoRSTER this tree, called Mimosa by the latter (Voyage I p. 568) was 
scarce, though he observed small shrubberies in some places (1. c. 578, 592)- 
Concerning the supposed forests, see my paper in Vol. I (No. i) of this work. 
Although, to judge from the famous wood-carvings of the islanders, the stem 
formerly attained a thickness of a couple of dm at least, only small stunted 
specimens were left in 1870 (see Philippi, 1. c. p. 744). FUENTES calls the 
tree »muy escasa», and I have not the slightest doubt that the interesting 
toromiro is on the verge of extinction, which means the disappearance of a 
species, important from geographical as well as from ethnological point of view. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF EASTER ISLAND 



75 



Eiipliorbiaceae. 

Euphorbia L. 

•23. E. hirta L. 

Slope of Mt. Katiki (no. 653). »Abundant, rocky places, near La Pcrousc 
Bay (= Hanga Ho Orno), Albatross no. 16! 

Area of distribution: Trop. Amer., Polyn,, etc.; trop. subcosmop. A 
common tropical weed, perhaps not truly indigenous in Easter I. 

24. E. serpens H. B. K. — E. oval/folia Engelm., FuENTES 1. c. 

Conimon on rocky and stony ground all over the island, near the sea 
(no. 1 196) or inland (no. 638). »0n rocks and barren places, abundant* (Alba- 
tross nos. 14! 15!). 

Area of distribution; Trop. America, Polyn., also reported from the 
Indo-Malayan region. A widespread weed, possibly not indigenous in Easter I. 



Umbelli ferae. 
Apium L. 

25. A. prostratuni Labill. — Syn. A. graveolens L., FoRSTER, De 
Plantis esculentis insularum oceani australis commentatio botanica. Berlin 
1786, p. 67. 

Rocky beach and caves near Hanga Piko (no. 697). — My specimens 
agree very well with A. aiistrale Thouars, which, with the material at hand, I 
cannot distinguish from A, prostratiim: in fact, I believe they are identical. 

Area of distribution: Magellan coasts, Falkl., Tristan d'Ac, Austral., 
N. Zeal, and outlying islands, Easter I. 



Primulaceae. 
Samolus L. 

26. S. repens (Forst.) Pers. 

On the sea shore: FoRSTER, FUENTES. — N. of Hanga Piko, not un- 
common (no. 701); near Tongariki (no. 699). 

Area of distribution: Coasts of temp. S. Amer., Austral., Tasman., 
N. Zeal., Easter I. 



7 6 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Gentianaceae. 
Erjlhraea Borkli. 

*27. E. australis R. Br. 

» Abundant, rocky plains, La Perouse Bay (i. e. Hanga Ho Orno); Alba- 
tross Dec. i6 (no. 19!) — Had disappeared long before our visit, but seedlings, 
apparently belonging to this species, were observed. 

Area of distribution: Australia; Easter I. 

Convolvulaceae. 
Calystegia R. Br. 

^28. C. sepiuni (L.) R. Br. forma. 

In the crater of Rano Aroi, c. 400, among large boulders. — A rather 
narrow-leaved form, probably belonging to this species; only sterile specimens. 

Area of distribution: Widely dispersed in temperate regions, also in 
Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, etc. 

Ipomaea L. 

29. I. pes caprae (L.) Roth. 

Apparently rare. Near Vaihu (»I. affinis pes caprae», FuENTES 1. c); 
Hanga Ho Orno, stony beach on the water's edge (no. 634). 

Area of distribution: Widely dispersed on tropical shores. 

Solanaceae. 
Lycium L. 

*30. L. sandvicense A. Gray. — Plate 8 fig. 2; text fig. 2 d. 

Rocky shore below the western slope of Rano Kao (no. 644). — Rather 
an interesting discovery. The specimens are exactly like Hawaiian ones in 
the Kew Herb., and also agree very well with the description in Proc. Amer. 
Acad. VI (1863) p. 44. The leaves show numerous whitish pustules, irregular 
vesicles in the mesophyll, filled with salt. 

Area of distribution: Hawaii, Easter I. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF EASTER ISLAND 



77 



2. Plants Il()^v occurring in a \\ ild or semi-wild state but reported to 
have been intentionally introduced by the first native immigrants. 

There is a tradition that all the plants of economic importance were in- 
troduced and brought into cultivation by the party of the chief Ilotu Matua, 
who was the first to reach Easter Island. Of the few plants mentioned below 
this ma}' be true, although proofs are wanting, but, on the other hand, it is 
not altogether impossible that species such as Cordyline tcnninalis, Triumfetta 
seinitriloba or TJivspcsia populnca belonged to the original flora, and that the 
immigrants were acquainted with their useful qualities and started to propagate 
them. KnochE (1. c. p. lO) regards all the plants used for industrial or 
medicinal purposes as only naturalized and not wild, but when he includes 
SopJiora toroiiiiro among these he is wrong, for we have seen that it is an 
endemic species, and its nearest relatives, the Chilean and New Zealand 
species of this genus, do not belong to the widely dispersed oceanic plants, 
but have a very restricted geographical range; nor have they ever been in 
cultivation as far as I am aware. It is of course not quite impossible that 
the islanders, seeing that the precious toroiniro was rapidly vanishing, tried to 
propagate it, but there is no reliable evidence that they did so. 



Liliaceae. 
Cordyline Comm. 

C. terminalis Kunth. 

In the crater of Rano Kao, on the south side between large stones, c. 
125 m, scarce (no. 693); see also FuENTES 1. c. 

Area of distribution: Indo-Mal. region, N. Guinea, Austral., Polyn., N. 
Zeal., formerly cultivated by the Maoris. 

Moraceae. 
Broussonetia Vent. 

B. papyrifera V^ent. 

»Crater of Rano Kao, abundant, but mature trees not numerous*: Alba- 
tross no. 58! — We found a number of trees on the stony slope near the pond 
(no. 670); they agree with the ordinary plant as represented in the Kew Herb. 

F. foliis subtrilobis grosseserralis magis scabris: with the former (no. 
1 147). In the Kew Herb, there is the same or closely allied forms from Oahu 
(Seem AN, Macrae), Fiji (Herald), Nagasaki (Oldham) and Siam. Inter- 
mediate forms occur also in Easter Island. 

Fuente.S calls the mahute »B. aff. papyracea Vent.» adding: »su clasi- 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



ficacion es dudosa, difieie algo de la forma ti'pica , but this applies only to 
the aberrant form mentioned above. 

Area of distribution: S. E. Asia, Polynesia. Drake del Castillo 
says 1. c. p. 193 that Broussonetia is »sans doute originaire dans la Chine*. 



Tiliaceae. 

Triumfetta L. 

T. semitriloba L. 

Rano Kao, with Broussonetia, rare (no. 671). 

Listed by FuENTES with a query. His plants, which I have seen, as 
well as mine, are sterile, but I think the determination is correct. This is the 
jaujau of the islanders, used for making cordage; it was pointed out to us as 
the true plant for this purpose and we obtained large pieces of string freshly 
prepared. 

Area of distribution: Trop. Asia, Polyn. and Amer. 



Sapindaceae. 
Sapindus L. 



S. saponaria L. 

FORSTER and FUENTES. 



Malvaceae. 
Thespesia Carr. 

T. populnea (L.) Carr. 

FORSTER, Prodr., reports Hibiscus baccifenis, which is considered to be 
identical with Thespesia populnea, from Easter Island. No later collector ever 
observed it there, so it may have disappeared from the island. 



Solanaceae. 
Solanum L. 

S. (Morella) insulae-paschalis Bitter nov. spec. [S. nigrum L. coll.). 

xHerbaceum, maleolens; partes novellae non jam satis evolutae albide 
subcanescentes; rami superiores diam. 3—4 mm, obtuse angulati, lineis decur- 
rentibus manifeste prominentibus instruct!, pilis simplicibus pluricellularibus (mem- 
branis tenuibus in statu sicco ±ve coUabentibus) apice in glandulam minutam 
subglobosam vel ellipsoideam vel rarius in cellulam diaphanam ceteris similem 
subacutam exeuntibus patentibus sordide albidis 1-1,5 nim longis densis ob- 



TUT, PHANEROGAMS OF EASTER ISLAND 79 

tecti; internodia 2,5 — 8 cm longa; folia supcrioia i^artini false gcminata, tunc 
inaequalia; petioli 0,6 — 2 cm lon^i, ad laminas versus sensim latius alati, eodem 
indiimento denso quo rami vestiti; laminae oblique ovatiellipticae vel ovatae, 
infra medium latissimae, basi rolundatae vel ± vc late cuneatim in petiolum 
alatum abeuntes, ad apicem versus niagis sensim angustatae, apice ipso obtusae 
vel obtusiusculae, cr. 4, 5: 2,5, 5, 5: 3,7. 8: 4,5 cm, margine leviter et obtuse 
repandi dentato, dentibus in utroque latere i — 3 parum prominentibus obtusis, 
plerumque infimis tantum unicis in utroque latere distinctioribus; laminae mem- 
branaceae, utrinque sordide virides, utrinque pilis simplicibus pluricellularibus 
inaequilongis (in venis majoribus utrinque longioribus densioribusque, in meso 
phyllo brevioribus sparsioribusque tamen hie quoque satis crebris) apice acutius- 
culis partimque subglandulosis partim eglandulosis patenlibus praeditae; vena 
media, venae later, prim, in utroque latere 5 — 6 curvatim ascendentes et venae 
later, secund. complures subtus prominentes; inflorescentiae laterales, a foliis 
remotae, simplices, 4— 5-florae; pedunculus cr. 8 — (in statu fructifero) 17 mm 
longus, rhachis brevis, 2— (tandem) 4 mm longa; flores ultimi dense subum- 
bellatim secuti; pedicelli 6 — 7 mm longi, in statu florifero erecti, in statu 
fructifero vix longiores, deflexi; calyx campanulatus, 2—2,5 mm longus, apice 
3 mm diam., profunde in lobos ovati-ellipticos 1—1,5: 0,6 mm obtusiusculos 
partitus, extus sicut pedunculus, rhachis et pedicelli pilis simplicibus pluricellu- 
laribus apice subglandulosis vel eglandulosis crebris obsitus, intus glandulis 
minutis breviter stipitatis crebris praeditus; corolla stellata, diam. 11 mm, pro- 
funde in lobos 5 late lanceolatos vel ovatilanceolatos 4 — 5: (basi) 2 mm acuti- 
usculos extus et in margine pilis simplicibus brevibus paucicellularibus acutis 
crebris obsitos intus praeter apicem subcucullatum pilis brevibus densiusculis 
instructum glabros partita; stamina i — 1,2 mm supra corollae basim inserta; 
filamenta pro floris parvitate longiuscula, i — (tandem) 1,8 mm longa, 
intus pilis longiusculis simplicibus pluricellularibus apice acutis vel partim sub- 
glandulosis densis obtecta; antherae breviusculae, late ellipsoideae, cr. 
1,5: 0,8—1 mm, basi cordatae, apice emarginatae, poris introrsis apicalibus obli- 
quis; ovarium subglobosum, i mm diam., glabrum; stylus stamina paulum 
superans vel illis fere aequilongus, 3 mm longus, rectus, gracilis, paulo supra 
basim glabram cr. | -f longitudinis pilis simplicibus pluricellularibus acutis 
vel apice partim anguste subglandulosis patentibus densis obtectus, apice glaber; 
stigma styli apice manifeste crassius, capitatum, obtusum; calyx fructifer paulum 
auctus (explanatus diam. 7 mm), ejus lobi 2: (basi) 1,5 mm; bacca globosa, 
diam. 7—8 mm, ut videtur pallide lutea; granula sclerotica desunt; semina 
oblique reniformia, lenticulariter applanata, 1,5: i: 0,3 mm, minute reticulata. » 

Hanga Ho Orno, in an old, dry well (no. 663); in the crater of Rano 
Kao, c. 125 m (no. 695). 

»Eine Kleinart aus der Vervvandtschaft des .S. nigrum L... deren vvichtigste 
Merkmale auf der Behaarung (ungleich lange, einfache, mehrzellige Haare, die 
zum grossen Teil in oft undeutliche schmale, seltener kugelige, winzige Dru- 
senkopfchen endigen, sovvie auf den schliesslich ziemlich langen Staubfaden 
und den kurzen Staubbeuteln beruhen. Der uble Geruch riihrt ofifenbar von 
der driisigen Behaarung her.» 

FORSTER tells that he found Solanuni in the plantations (Voy. I p. 578); 



8o CARL SKOTTSBERG 

according to Langle, a member of La Pekouse's party, it was cultivated as a 
medicinal herb (see Knoche 1. c. p. 13). Fuentes lists ySolanian sp. (P)?. 
adding »solo conozco por referencias». I have no doubt that all these state- 
ments refer to the species found by us and described above by Professor 
Bitter. This well known expert on the genus Solanum has described a num- 
ber of Morellae of S. nignim type, endemic in the southern seas; in a letter to 
the writer he points out that >;die meisten Morellen sind Menschenbegleiter 
und dnrchgangig in der Nachbarschaft des Menschen ansassig». 



3. Species unintentionally introduced with the human traffic after 
the discovery by the Europeans in 1722. 

SorgJiuni Jialepense (L.) Pers. var. effusn})i (Hack.) Pilger. — Common in 
enclosures protected from sheep and cattle: Hanga Ho Orno (no. 656); fre- 
quently seen between Rano Aroi and Mataveri and between the latter place 
and Rano Raraku. Introduced from Tahiti ace. to FuENTES 1. c. p. 5; brought 
from Tahiti, not very long ago and possibly on purpose, all ace. to Mr. ED- 
MUNDS, the manager in the island. 

*Dizitana Jiorizoiitalis Willd. — Hanga Ho Orno, in crevices between 
stones (no. 649, also Albatross no. 6!); Rano Kao, not uncommon (no. 667); 
islet Motu Nui (no. 1200). 

Digitaria sauguinalis (L.) Scop. — FuENTES 1. c. — Widely dispersed 
over the island (nos. 646, 1192). 

[Paniciiin filiforuie in P'ORSl\ Prodr. no. 38 is called Paspalum filifonne 
Sw. by Endlicher 1. c. p. 157. These two names correspond to quite 
dififerent plants, ace. to Prof. Pjlger; the latter is a West Indian species, the 
former is now called Digitaria fiiiforniis Ell. and found in N. and S. America. 
Possibly the Easter Island plant is only a form of D. sanguinalis.] 

Ccnchrus ecJiinatus L. — FUENTES 1. c. — »0n hill side, about 15 — 60 
m alt.» (Albatross no. 3!); Hanga Ho Orno (no. 640). 

Broinus nnioloides H. B. K. — FuENTES 1. c. — » Foot of cave just inside 
Rano Kao» (Albatross no. 50!); Rano Kao, here and there in the crater (no. 
674); islet Motu Nui (no. 1107). 

Cyiwdon dactylon (L.) Pers. — FUENTES 1. c — » Abundant everywhere, 
the common grass» (Albatross no. 5!); Hanga Ho Orno (no. 650); Mataveri; 
Rano Kao; islet Motu Nui (no. 1188). 

Eleiisine indica (L.) Gaertn. — FuENTES 1. c. — Mataveri (no. 985). 

'^■Hordeuin nmriruun L. — » Inside of Rano Kao, no other example seen* 
(Albatross no. 47!) 

""Sisyjinchiuiii micranthnui Cav. — »Abundant in rocky plains of low eleva- 
tions* (Albatross nos. 12! 30!) — A Peruvian species, also introduced into 
Australia and New Zealand ace. to CheESEMAN. 

'^■Portulaca oleracea L. — Growing near beach, not abundant* (Albatross 
no. 17!); Hanga Ho Orno, not uncommon (no. 636); Mataveri (no. 1 198). This 
may equally well be regarded as indigenous; still, GUPI'V thinks it has been 
introduced into several places in the Pacific, f. inst. to Hawaii (1. c. p. 552). 



TUF. PHANEROGAMS OF EASTER ISLAND 



*Ccrastiit)n glotneratuui Thuill. — Very minute specimens. Mt. Vaintu 
Rova (no. 1 199). 

^^Polycarpon tetrapJiylluui L. — » Growing on rocks, abundant* (Albatross 
no. 13!). 

'^CoroHopus didy))i!is (L.) Sm. — Hanga Ho Orno, caves in the coast 
rocks (no. 635). 

Crotalaria Saltiana Andr. — > Abundant near village* (Albatross no. 65!); 
along the road from Hanga Roa to Mataveri (no. 681; also FuENTES 1. c). 

Trijoliuui spec. — Sterile. Hanga Roa. 

Phascolus spec, »affinis vulgaris L.> — Rano Kao, Fuentes 1. c. 

Oxalis corniculata L. — Dispersed over the entire island in stony places. 
— » Abundant about rocky walls etc.» (Albatross no. 18!); Hanga Ho Orno 
(no. dl')', Mataveri; Rano Kao. 

MahastniDi coiotJiandcliamivi (L.) Garcke (scoromandelicum»). — FUENTES 
1. c. s. n. M. tricuspidahim A. Gray. — »Crater of Rano Kao, scattered patches 
(Albatross no. 61!); Mataveri (no. 692). 

*Malva spec. — A weed in the garden of Mataveri. 

Sida paniculata L. — A weed in the garden of Mataveri (FUENTES, 1. c). 

Verbena litoralis H. B. K. — FuENTES 1. c. — *0n hill side, 60 m alt. 
La Perouse Bay* (= Hanga Ho Orno): Albatross no. 20! Very common 
along the shore, but also inland in scattered specimens, in the craters and in 
the cultivated fields (no. 682). 

Plantago major L. — FUENTE.S 1. c. — »Common near landing, Cook Bay 
(= Hanga Roa, Albatross no. 64!): 

Plantago lanceolata L. — Mataveri (also FuEXTES 1. c). 

''■Momordica charantia L. — Mataveri (no. 683). Possibly escaped from 
old cultivations. 

Centaurea nielitensis L. — ChamisSO ace. to ExDLICHER 1. c. p. 107, 
s. n. C. aptda Lam. Not found by later collectors. 

^Agerattim conyzoides L. — In the crater of Rano Kao (no. 669). A 
common tropical weed. 

Erigeron liyiifoHus Willd. — Hanga Roa, »only example seen (Albatross 
no. 63!) Common on stony ground, f. inst. Hanga Ho Orno (no. 642). — 
FUEXTES s. n. E. canadensis L., which it is not; ViERHAPPER confirms the 
determination of my specimen. 

Bidens pilosa L. — FUENTES 1. c. »0n hilltop, 60-90 m alt., sparse* 
(Albatross no. 21!); Hanga Ho Orno (no. l^-iY Mataveri, in the garden (no. 

1193)- 

Galinsoga parviflora L. — FUENTES 1. c. — Mataveri (no. 684). 

^Hypochoeris radicata L. — Rano Aroi. 

SoncJms oleraceus L. - FuEXTES 1. c. — »Summit of Rano Kao, but 
scattered examples everywhere on island* (Albatross no. 62!); Mt. Teatea; 
Rano Aroi; Mataveri (no. 1195); Rano Kao. 



6 _ 20400. T)xe Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easier Isl. Vol. II. 



82 CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Appendix. 

Ferns collected by the Albatross Expedition. 

Aspleniuni adiantoides (L.) C. Chr. var squanmlosuniQ. Chr. — » Crater 
oi Reno Kao, near foot, scarce* (no. 41!). 

Aspleniuni obtusatum Forst. — »Scattering, near shore, on rocks» (no. 
i!); »crater of Rano Kao, not abundant* (no. 45!) 

Dryopteris parasitica (L.) OK. — »About inside of crater of Rano 
Kao» (no. 37!); »in cave at summit of Rano Kao» (no. 38!). 

Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) Presl. — » About rocks in all places where 
moisture is available* (no. 2!); »from crater of Rano Kao, abundant, the com- 
mon fern of the island* (nos. 39! 42!). 

Polypodiuni phyniatodes L. — no. 22! »summit of Rano Kao* (no. 43!); 
» along large rocks near bottom of crater of Rano Kao* (no. 44!). 

Vittaria elongata S\v. — »Summit of Rano Kao, scarce* (no. 40!). 



The flora of Easter Island is very poor. As in similar cases, it is some- 
times difficult to tell if a certain plant is indigenous or not. If the old authors 
are trustworthy, cultivation once extended over a large part of the ground, so 
that several species, members of the original flora, may have become extermin- 
ated, and we have seen that Sophora toromiro probably goes to share their 
fate. The small copses said to have existed in the time of CoOK may have 
sheltered some herbs that disappeared later. Unfortunately, there are no high 
mountains, but the host of weeds is able to sweep over the entire area. Many 
introduced species play an important part in the plant associations of the island, 
which I shall describe briefly in another paper. Later, I shall also discuss the 
affinities and probable origin of the flora; this time I find it proper to confine 
myself to the following remarks. 

Of wild phanerogams, 30 have been reported, out of these 12 for the 
first time. Four are considered to be endemic (Axonopus paschalis, Stipa horri- 
dula, Danthonia paschalis, Sophora toromiro); three (Cyperus vegeUis, Scirpus 
riparius, Polygotmni aaiviinatum) are common to Easter Island and America 
but (with the exception of Scirpus, reported from Hawaii) not found in other 
parts of the Pacific; the majority or 23 species are Australian and Polynesian, 
many of them wide-spread tropical or subtropical plants. If we add the 12 
ferns, of which 2 are endemic and 10 Polynesian or pantropical, the total 
number of indigenous vascular plants amounts to 42, of which 6 are endemic, 



THK PHANEROGAMS OF EASTKR ISLAND 83 

3 American and ^^ Polynesian, pantropical etc. Of tiie endemic species, 
DryoptcHs Espinosai, Axonopiis paschalis and Danthonia paschalis are consid- 
ered to have their nearest relatives in South America. Thus, it is of interest 
to find that there is a small » American element* in the flora of Raster Island, 
distant some 2,000 miles from the American shores. 



84 CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Explanation of plates. 

Plate 6. I. Paspaluni Forsteriaman Fltigge, floAvering shoot (right) and innovation 

(left). 2. Axo7iopus paschalis Pilger. 3. Stipa Jwrridula Pilger. — 

About Vs nat. size. 
Plate 7. Scirpus riparius Presl var. paschalis Kukenth., top of large plant, V^ riat. 

size. 
Plate 8. I. Polygotium aaimwaium H. B. K. 2. Lychiin sandvicense A. Gray 

(base upwards). — '/^ ^^'^- size. 
Plate 9. Sophora toromiro (R. A. Phil.) Skottsb., fruiting branch, 73 nat. size. 



\(i'/. I list. Juan luyjiaitdcz aiid liashr I si. I 'al . II. 



ri.ATK 6. 




Photo l<v C. Skoftsh-rk 



•I. Paspalum Forsterianum Fliigge. 

2. Axonopus paschalis Pilger. 

3. Stipa horridula Pilger. 



Xat. Hist, "^iicxn Fernandez and Easter I si. J^ol. II. 



Plate 7. 




14 



riioto /-y C. Skottsie?-^ 



Scirpus riparius Presl var. paschalis Kiikcnth. 



.\(f/. I list, litivi h I Dtaiiili'^. a>i({ liasUr hi. I W. //. 



Pi. ATI-; S. 





/ 



/'/wf,i hy C. S/cntts/'crg 



I. Polygonum acuminatum H. B. K. 
2. Lycium sandvicence A. Gray. 



Nat. Hist, "^uan Fcrnandcs and Easter Is/. Vol. IT. 



Plate 9. 




Photo l>y C. Skottsberg 



Sophora toromiro (R. A. Phil.) Skottsb. 



6. Freshwater Algae from Juan Fernandez and 

Easter Island. 

By 
K. MiJNSTER STROM. 

With I textfigure. 

The material, upon which the present contribution to the flora of Juan 
Fernandez and Easter Island is based, was collected by Professor Dr. C. Skotts- 
BERG during the Swedish Expedition to the Pacific 1916 — 1917. 

Numerous samples were collected; partially they were preserved in bottles, 
partially they were dried up. 

On the whole, I have examined 28 samples preserved in chemicals and 
about 25 dried ones. Only very few came from Easter Island. The collection 
was very kindly submitted for my inspection by Prof. Skottsberg and for- 
warded to Christiania. 

Very little is previously known concerning the freshwater flora of these is- 
lands, but unfortunately the present collections were so poor that only twenty- 
five species were observed, among them only two Desmids. 

I therefore very much regret being unable to give any account of the 
geographical relationship of the freshwater microflora to that of other coun- 
tries. A thorough examination of the Freshwater Alg^e of these Islands would 
no doubt be of interest, as it may help to supply the phyto- and zoogeographical 
results, made out from the examination of the higher plants and of the fauna. 

Probably, the extreme poverty of the samples is partly due to the fact 
that they were collected by a non-specialist, but there are reasons to believe 
that the Islands are not very rich in Freshwater Algae. This may be due to 
many causes (there does not exist a single lake or pond in Juan Fernandez); 
perhaps the lonely position of the islands is of some significance. 

I am, however, inclined to believe that at least a greater number of sub- 
aerial Algae may be found by future explorers as the climate of the higher 
parts of Juan Fernandez is very damp. 

The majority of the Algae are wholly ubiquitous species, even the two 
Desmids are widely distributed forms. I have, however, mentioned the area of 



86 K. MUNSTER STROM 

distribution when dealing with each species in the following account, in con- 
formity with the other contributions to this work. 

Only in a few cases I have mentioned the names of the collecting-places 
proper, as they are of very little interest when such scarce material is investiga- 
ted, but often I have made use of Prof. SkottsbERG's notes on the conditions 
under which the Algae grew. 

The number of species may be apportioned as follows. 

Chlorophyceae 12. Pkotococcales i. 

Conjugate 5. Myxophycese 13. 

OeDOGONIALES I. COCCOGONE^ 2. 

ClADOPHORALES 3. HORMOGONE^ II. 

Ch^tophorales 2. Total 25. 

As to be seen from this, the number of species in the Myxophyceae was 
relatively large. The ecological groups of Algae, which were best represented 
were the Algae of wet and dripping rocks, and a few strictly subaerial ones. 

Finally I wish to express my best thanks to Professor Dr. N. WiLLE for 
kindly giving me his opinion on some critical species. 



Systematic account of the species observed. 
Class Chlorophyceae. 

Order Conjugatae. 
Family Desniidiacese. 
Genus Cosmariura Corda. 
I. Cosmariura subspeciosum Nordst. 
Nordstedt: Desm. Arctoae. W. &: G. S. Wesi: British Desmidiacese Vol. III. 

After due consideration I have referred the specimens observed to this 
species. Many of them closely resemble Cosniarium bimim, but in no case 
could I observe the characteristic and indispensable markings. The nature of 
the central tumour furnished with the vertical granulate ridges in Cosmarium 
binuni must be regarded as the essential distinguishing feature. 

Moreover, the measurements and the number of crenations on each semi- 
cell are in accordance with the typical form of Cosmarium subspeciosum. The 
crenations are by no means regularly binate granulated. All these characters 
serve to distinguish the species. 

However, the specimens observed at a first glance so much resemble cer- 
tain forms of Cosmarium binum that the two species may be easily confused, 
when dealing with such forms as the present. 



FRKSHWATKR AI.G.K KROM JUAN I'KRNANDKZ AND EASTKR ISLAND 87 

S/si-: long. 41 — 46 [x; lat. 29 — 33 [x; lat. isthm. 12-15 [J-l crass. 24 [j,. 
Masatierra: among mosses on wet rocks in Pangal. 

Area of distribtition: probably ubiquitous, known from Europe, Arctic 
Countries, Asia, Africa, North and South America. 

2. Cosmarium humile var. striatum (Boldt) Schmidlc. 

Schmidle: Beitr. Alpin. Algen; Cosmarium striatum Boi.dt: Siber. Chloroph.; 
W. & G. S. West: British Desmid. Vol. III. 

This Desmid is represented with a few specimens in the same sample as 
the preceding. The forms are typical of the variety. 

Size: long. 15 [j.; lat. 12 [j.; lat. isthm. 4 [x. 

JSIasaticrra . 

Area of distribution: Europe, Asia, North and South America, but pro- 
bably even more widely distributed. 



Family Zygneiiiaceae. 

Genus Zygnema Ag. 
3. Zygnema sp. 

Sterile specimens of Zygnema are present in a couple of samples. 
Masatierra: in a brook. Masafuera: in a brook with slowly running water. 

Distribution of the genus: ubiquitous. 

Genus Spirogyra Link. 
4 & 5. Spirogyra sp. 

At least two sterile species of Spirogyra were observed. The one was 
a large form 70 — 80 [J. broad, the other a slender species. 

Masatierra: Colonial Valley; Masafuera; Easter Island. 
Distribution of the genus: world-wide. 

Order Oedogoniales. 

Family Oedogoniaceae. 

Genus Oedogonium Link. 
6. Oedogonium sp. 

Specimens of Oedogonium are widely distributed in all the islands, but 
invariabily they were sterile. 

Masatierra ; Masafuera; Easter Island. 
Distribution of genus: world-wide. 



88 K. MUNSTER STROM 

Order Cladophorales. 
Family Cladophoraceae. 
Genus Cladophora Knetz. 

7. Cladophora fracta (Dillw.) Kuetz, 

Kuetzing: Phycol. German.; Conferva fracta Dillvvyn: British confervae. 

Some of the samples examined consist of this species, which together with 
Cladophora glouierata is among the most widely distributed Algse in the world. 
Between the branches of some specimens there is a rich vegetation of Diatoms. 

Masatici-ra. 

Area of distribution: ubiquitous. 

8. Cladophora sp. 

Masaiierra. Undeterminable Cladophora-specxes are present in a couple 
of collections. 

.Distribution of the genus: ubiquitous, both freshwater and marine. 

Genus Rhizoclonium Kuetz. 

9. Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum (Ag.) Kuetz. 

Kuetzing: Phyc. Gener.; Conferva hieroglyphica Agardh in Flora 1827. 

Masatierra: This common species occurred in a {q\^ samples. 
Area of distribution: ubiquitous. 



Order Chaetophorales. 
Family Trentepohliaceae. 

Genus Trentepohlia Martius. 

10. Trentepohlia aurea L. 

Linne: Systema Naturae (Byssi/s aureus). 

Masatierra : The typical form of this species, which is among the most 
widely distributed Algae in the world, was common in caves. 
Area of distribution: world-wide. 



KRKSHWA'IKR Al.G.K FROM JUAN KEKNANDEZ AND EASTKR ISLAND 8g 

11. Trentepohlia aurea ? forma. 

Forma in Primz: Siilxierial Alga; from vSouih Africa. Det Kgl. Norske Viden- 
skabers Selskabs Skrifter 1920. Trondhjem 1921. 

The form observed very much resembled the forma recorded by PklNTZ 
from South Africa. The filaments were a little broader (breadth from 10 to 
15 [J,) but he also mentions specimens up to 17 {j,. 

I quite agree with Dr, Print/, in regarding the difference between Trc7ite- 
pohlia aurca and Trentepohlia abietina as insufficient for specific separation. 
The reasons for this, put forward in his paper seem very convincing. Pre- 
viously a couple of Troitepohlia species are known to occur in Juan Fernandez 
and Easter Island, such as Trentepohlia polycarpa and the doubtful Trente- 
pohlia Tucker nianiiiana. 

Masatierra: in caves, Cumberland Bay. 

Area of distributioji: previously only known from South Africa. 

Order Protococcales. 

Family Protococcaceae. 

Genus Chlorella Beijerinck. 

12. Chlorella ellipsoidea Gern. 
Gerneck: Z. Kenntn. nied. Chlorophyceen. 

The specimens, which occurred in considerable quantities, were all very 
badly preserved and the cytological structure could not be observed with accur- 
acy. To judge from their size, however, they seem to belong to Chlorella 
ellipsoidea Gerneck and certainly they come nearer to this than to any other 
species of the genus. 

Masatierra: forming green, slimy masses on rocks in cave. 

Area of distribution: hitherto only reported from a few countries, mostly 
from cultures in laboratories, but undoubtedly of wide distribution. 



Class Myxophyceae. 

Order Coccogoneae. 

Family Chroococcaceae. 

Genus Chroococcus NAEGELf. 

13. Chroococcus minor (Kuetz.) Naeg. 

Naegeli: Gatt. Einz. Alg. ; Protococcus i/iitior Kuetzing: Species Algarum. 

The specimens observed were few and in no good state of preservation. 
I have compared them with the original ones in the herbarium of Naegeli 



pO K. MUNSTER STROM 

and there can be no doubt about the identification. They were quite similar 
to the forms of the species so frequently found throughout Europe. 

Masaticii-a: in caves. 

Aj-ea of distribution: world-wide. 



Genus Gloeocapsa Kuetz. em. Naegeh. 

14. Gloeocapsa montana Kuetz. 

Kuetzing: Phycol. generalis, incl. Gl. polydermatica and GI. qiiaternata. 

Masaticrra: This common species occurred in a single sample, scattered 
among specimens of Nostoc spJicericuin. 
Area of distribution: ubiquitous. 

Order Hormogoneae. 
Family Stigoneniaceae. 

Genus Stigonema Agardh. 

15. Stigonema turfaceum (Berk.) Cooke. 

Cooke: British Freshwater Algas; Berkeley in English Botany tab. 2826. 

Masatierra: The typical form of this characteristic species occurred in one 
sample, collected on rocks and forming a nigro-pulvinate stratum. 
Size: Crass. 25 — 38 p.; Crass, horm. 12 [j.; Long. horm. 45 [j,. 
Area of distribution: ubiquitous. 

16. Stigonema tomentosum (Kuetz.) Hieron, 

HiERONYMUS in Hedwigia 1895; SirosipJwn tomeutosus Kuetzing in Bot. Zeit. 
1847; Rabenhorst: Exsicc, No. 694, etc. 

Masafuera: on rocks. This distinct species is represented with its typical 
form in a single sample. 

Area of distributiojt: probably ubiquitous. 

Genus Diplonema Borzi. 

17. Diplonema rupicolum Borzi. 
BoRZi: Studie suUe Mixoficee II. 

I am in some doubt if the species observed is quite identical with BoRZl's 
species. 



FKESIIWATKU AIA-.K 1-KOM JUAN I'KRNANDEZ AND KASTKK ISLAND 9 1 

The specimens, however, very much resemble his figures of Diploneiiia 
iKpicohmi, and the false branches are exactly like those. The dimensions, 
moreover, are quite the same as recorded by him, and I have observed the 
curious chroococcoVd stage which occurred interiorly in the frond. 

To judge from his drawings the species presents a considerable range of 
variation and certainly the Myxophycca observed comes nearer to Diplonciiia 
nipicoliini than to any other species. 

Masaticrra: on rocks in cave. 

Area of distribution: previously only known from Italy. 



Family Nostocaceae. 
Genus Nostoc Vaucher. 

18. Nostoc sphsericura Vaucher. 
Vaucher: Hist. Conferves d'eau douce. 

The determination is not perfectly sure as neither heterocysts nor spores 
could be found. However, the macroscopical appearence and the characters 
of the vegetative cells are facts so strongly supporting the determination that 
there can be very little doubt concerning the identification of the specimens. 

Masatierra. 

Area of distribution: world-wide. 

19. Nostoc ellipsosporum (Desmaz.) Rabh. 

Rabenhorst: Flora Europ. Alg.; Hormosipho7i ellipsosporus Desmazieres: PI. 
crypt, de France; Wittrock. & Nordstedt: Exsicc. 1329. 

Masafuera: The typical form of this species was observed in a single 
sample, collected on damp soil between Hepaticae. 

Size: Long. cell. 7 — 12 [x; lat. cell. 4 [j.; lat. heterocyst. G — 'j |x; long, 
heterocyst. 7 — 13 [j. ; long. spor. 12 — 19 ^\ '^^- spor. 6—8 [j.. 

Area of distribution: probably ubiquitous. 



Family Oscillatoriaceae. 
Genus Lyngbya Ag. 



20. Lyngbya sp. 



Masatierra: among other Algse. The species was undeterminable as only 
a couple of filaments were observed. 

Distribution of the ^eiius: world-wide. 



92 K. MUNSTER STROM 

Genus Phormidium Kuetz. 

21. Phormidium Retzii (Ag.) Gom. 

Go.MONT in Journ. de Botanique IV; Agardh: Disp. Alg. Suec. 

The form observed no doubt belongs to this species, but presents some 
likeness to PJionnidiiini anibigiiiini. 
Size: lat. fil. 6—'] |j,. 

Masafuera: forming a stratum in waterfall. 
Area of distribiitioii: ubiquitous. 

22. Phormidium uncinatum (Ag.) Gom. 

GoMONT in Journ. de Botanique IV; Oscillatoria uuciiiata Agardh in Flora X; 
WiTTROCK & Nordstedt: Exsicc. No. 96, »Phormidium membranaceum». 

Masatierra: The typical form was observed in a single sample. 
Area of distributioii: world-wide. 

Genus^Oscillatoria Vaucher. 

23. Oscillatoria tenuis Ag. 

Agardh: Alg. Dec, 

Masatierra: This common species was present in one sample, from wet 
rocks in Pangal. 

Area of distribution: one of the most generally distributed Algae in the world. 

24. Oscillatoria sp. 

? Oscillatoria tcrcbriformis forma tenuis ^V^ & G. S. West: Freshwater Algae. 
British Antarctic Expedition 1907 — 9. 

In one sample there was an Oscillatoria, which presented a striking simil- 
arity to the forma tenuis described by Messrs. West from the Antarctic. The 




Fig. I. Ca. 1,000 X- 

dimensions were just the same, and also the cytological structure as far as it 
could be observed (the specimens were preserved in formaline solution), but the 
filaments were very little, if at all, terebriform. However, if to judge from 
Messrs. West's figures, this character is not very striking in the specimens 



FRESHWATER ALG.'E FROM JUAN FERNANDEZ AND EASTER ISLAND Q3 

they observed from the Antarctic, and certainl)- my specimens come very near 
to this form. 

^/!cr; lat. fil. 3 a. 

Masatierni: On freshwater sponges. 

Area of distribution: The above-mentioned form is previously known from 
Cape Royds, Victoria Land. 



Addenda. 

25. Nostoc punctiforme (Kuetz.) Hariot. 

Hariot in Journ. de Bot. 1891; Polycocais punctiformis Kuetzing Phyc. gen. 

This Xostoc occurred in the intercellular spaces of three GioDiera-ST^tclts. 
The specimens are quite like those collected by Lagerheim in Equador and 
issued in WiTTROCK, NoRDSTEDT & Lagerheim: Algae exsiccatae 1338. 

Masatierra: in Gumiera peltata Phil, and Gunnera bracteata Steud. 

Masafuera: in Gunnera Masafuen^ Skottsb. 

Area of distribution: World-wide. 

Christiania, The Botanic Museum of the Royal Fredericks University. 

April 2jth, ig2i. 



7- The Phanerogams of the Juan Fernandez Islands. 

By 
CARL SKOTTSBERG. 

Willi II plates (nos. lo — 20) and 39 text figures. 

The compilation of a phanerogamic flora of Juan Fernandez has required 
more time and labour than could be anticipated. The general belief was, I 
dare say, that the higher flora of the group was very well known. That the 
writer did not share this opinion is evident from the fact that floristic investiga- 
tion was one of the principal objects of the voyage in 1916 — 17. My short 
visit in 1908 made me believe that the remote island of Masafuera was a 
promising field of research. The results communicated below will show, I think, 
that I was not disappointed. Masatierra, where quite a number of botanists 
have been, had more in store for us than we expected. There were many 
places of difficult access only visited by Bertero, eighty years ago. Our 
knowledge of the distribution of the species in the islands was, in many cases 
at least, quite vague, as the earlier collectors seldom recorded the exact localities 
on their herbarium labels. Several species had been found once or twice only 
and remained little known. 

The starting point for my studies was of course the well known work of 
F. JOHOW. But I had not advanced verj^ far when I found that a reexamina- 
tion of many of the types was urgently needed. The majority of these had 
been discovered by Bertero, and the discrepance between the writer and 
JOHOW concerning several of the species is partly due to the fact that JoHOW 
had no occasion to study Bertero's specimens. In other instances his species 
conception is a little too wide. I found it necessary to examine practically 
every type of the endemic plants. The collections of Santiago (GERMAIN, 
Philippi, Reed a. o. in the herbarium of Museo Nacional, and JOHOW's private 
collection) and Kew (DoUGLAS, SCOULER, BERTERO, DoWNTOX, MoselEY a. o.) 
were studied during longer visits to these places; other material was kindly 
sent for inspection from Berlin, Kew, Paris, Lund, Stockholm and Upsala. 

As usual, several coUegues have assisted me in the determination of my 
plants. Dr. R. PiLGER, Berlin-Dahlem, revised the Gramineae in collaboration 
with the writer, Dr. C. Lindman, Stockholm, determined some Poae, Rev. Dr. 



96 



CARL SK.OTTSBERG 



G. KUKENTHAL, Coburg, revised the Cyperaceae, Dr. G. BiTTER, Bremen, made 
a special study of Solatium, Acaena and Margyricarpus, Mr. O. E. ScHULZ, 
Berlin, gave me his opinion on Cardamine, Dr. F VlERHAPPER communicated 
some notes on my collection of Erigeron, and Dr. H. Dahlstedt, Stockholm, 
described a new form of Taraxacum. To all these gentlemen I wish to express 
my heartiest thanks for their generous assistance. I also thank Mr. A. Karnell, 
Gothenburg, for the help he gave me when preparing the negatives of Plates 
10, II, 15 and 17. 

Finally, I use this occasion to thank my wife, Mrs. INGA SKOTT.SBERG, 
for her never failing enthusiasm and her self-sacrifice during a voyage that was 
a great strain on body and mind alike. She was a most skilful, active and 
cheerful companion, and contributed largely to the good results of our survey. 

The localities in Masatierra are enumerated from E. to W. along the north 
and south sides of the island, respectively; in the case of Masafuera, they are 
enumerated from N. to S. along the east coast and thence round to the west 
coast, and followed by the observations in the high mountainous region. Spanish 
names are used, with the following abbreviations: B. = Bahia, bay; C. = Cordon, 
mountain ridge; 'Co = Cerro, mountain, peak; Pta = Punta, cape; Pto = Puerto, 
cove, harbour; Q. = Quebrada, valley with steep sides, gorge, canyon; V. = Valle, 
valley. Maps will accompany vol. I. 

Where a collector's or observer's name is not mentioned, the species has 
been observed by us in all the places quoted. The numbers in brackets refer 
to our collection, of which sets are kept in Stockholm (Riksmuseum), Gothen- 
burg (Botanical Garden), Upsala (Museum of the University), and in several 
foreign herbaria. 

A ! after the name of a collector signifies that I have examined the speci- 
men referred to. 

An * before a latin name indicates a new addition to the flora of Juan 
Fernandez; if before the name of one of the islands, it signifies that the species 
was observed for the first time in the island in question. 

The altitudes are in meters above sea level. 

It has been found advisable to indicate the state in which the specimens 
were collected: fl. = in flower, fr. = with fruit. Other abbreviations will be 
understood without further explanation. 

All the illustrations in the text are reproduced after drawings made by 
the writer. 

C. Skottsberg. 

I. Indigenous species. 

Gramineae. 
Stipa L. 

I. S. fernandeziana Phil. Anal. Univ. XLIII.560. — Syn. S. bicolor in 
JOHOW, Estud. 134 non Vahl; S. Skottsbergii Pilger ex SKOTTSBERG, Stud. 22. — 
Fig. I a — d. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 97 

On dry treeless slopes, also in many places along the high rocky ridges; 
an important grass in the western half of Masatierra and in the basal region 
of Masafuera, 

Masatierra: Gkrmain! PillLirn! — High peak between the colony and 
Pangal, 365 m; V. Colonial, not uncommon {i\. ^/la 16, no. 19); Portczuelo de 
Villagra, 590 m (fl. ^/i2 16, no. 28); C. Salsipuedes (fl. — fr. V12 16, no. 90, ^°/i2 
16, no. 170); Q. Juanango; between Villagra and Pta Larga, in many places, 
but not abundant (fr. Vi 17, no. 244). 

Masafuera: Probably in all the valleys; Q. Seca, abundant; Q. de las 
Casas, very common to a couple of hundred m inland; Q. de las Vacas, abun- 
dant in the outer parts (fr. ^"/2 17, no. 447). 

Leaves to 4 or 5 mm broad, generally convolute, densely pubescent below, 
glabrous or with few hairs above, Rays of the panicle about 6-flowered. Empty 
glumes very acute, outer 3-, inner 5-nerved, brownish purple with translucent 
margins and point, 14 — 15 mm long in my specimens. Pedicel of flower 
3—3,5 mm, densely silky with longer hairs on the ventral side. Floral glume 
7 mm long, with 5 prominent nerves, dorsal line pubescent to about ^/s of its 
length, thence glabrous; external face covered with acute papillae; collar i mm 
high, brownish purple, the edge with a crown of white hairs about i mm long, 
but shorter on the ventral side; awn to 70 mm, slightly geniculate or almost 
straight, laxly twisted and pilose in the lower half, thence scabrous. Lodicules 
about 1,1 mm, ovate-truncate. Palea nearly 2 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, acutate, 
nerveless. Stamens dimorphous, the anterior with normal anther, i mm long, 
linear, fertile, the others with more ovoid, Vs — V^ "^n^ ^o^g' almost entirely 
sterile anthers. Anthers sometimes aristulate. Ovary about i mm long, fusi- 
form, stigmas short pedicellate. Flowers cleistogamous. 

This species was listed as S. manicata Desv. by Philippi, Bot. Zeit. XIV. 630, 
but distinguished as var. Jiirsiita on the label of Germain's specimen in Herb. 
Santiago, collected Oct. 1854 in Masatierra. Later Philippi, who collected the 
same species in Nov. 1864, described it as 5. /rr;zfl«^^.^m«« Phil. A comparison 
with the type showed that all my material must be referred to Philippi's 
species; his plants, however, differ from mine in the empty glumes reaching a 
length of 21 mm while the awn is as much as 90 mm long. 

It is not at all remarkable that Philippi at first regarded the island Stipa 
as a variety of S. mariicata. I have not seen authentic material of the latter, 
but to judge from the detailed description in Gay, Bot. VI. 288, it must come 
very near this. i)". manicata differs by the shorter leaves, which are hairy on 
the inside and glabrous on the outside, the longer ligule, the shorter glumes, 
described as green below, the shorter pedicel of the flower, shorter awn etc. 
The anthers seem to be alike in both. 

As only one Stipa has been collected in the islands by all visitors known 
to me, it seems natural to identify S. NeesianaM2,x.fe7'nandeziaiiaTx\x\.^\.^\x^x. 
with S. fernandesiana Phil., but the description »foliis planiusculis cum nodis 
glabris ligula 1 V2lineali» does not answer to any form seen by me in the islands 
or in herbaria. My specimens of 5. Neesiana from Central Chile (no. 1017), 
determined by Prof. PiLGER, are glabrous and have smaller spikelets than S. 
fernandeziana. Prof. PiLGER was inclined to regard the latter as identical with 
7 — 20100. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



98 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

vS". longijlora Steud Syn. I. 124, of which there is a sheet in Berlin (Bertero 
no. 800). But the description of Steudel clearly forbids the identification. 
The leaves are i mm wide only, the rays of the panicle bear i — 3 flowers, the 
glumes are 5-nerved and only 6 to 8 mm long, the »floscule» is described as 
pilose all over. I collected a Stipa near Valparaiso (no. 1019), that answers 
very well to Steudel's description, and this is not S. feniandesiana. I have 
no reason to doubt that 5". fe7-nandeziana is the same as .S". longifloj-a Herb. 
Berlin, for Steudel quotes Bertero no. 800 ex parte for his species. Prof. 
PilGER thinks that 6". macrathera Phil. Anal. Univ. XCIII.720 is another name for 
vS. fernandesiana. The description is incomplete, and I have no authentic spe- 
cimen at hand. 

S. fernandeziana Steud. 1. c. was shown by PiLGER ex SKOTTSBERG, Stud. 
22 to be = Piptochaetiuni bicolor. 

My identification of S. Skottsbergii Pilger 1. c. with vS. feniandesiana Phil, 
was approved by the author of the former. There is a certain variation in the 
leaves, probably due to external conditions. The same kind of variation is 
found in Piptochacthim hicolor. 

Area of distribution: Central Chile; Juan Fernandez. 



Piptochaetiuni Presl. 

2. P. bicolor (Vahl) Presl. — JOHOW, Estud. 125. — Syn. Oryzopsis 
hicolor Speg., Skott.SBERG, Stud. 22; Stipa bicolor NzhX, non JOHOW nee Hemsley; 
S. fcrnajideziaiia Steud. non Phil. 

Masatierra: Open ground in the centre of the island, not common. V. 
Colonial, near the colony (fl.-fr. ^/la 16, no. 18) and also higher up (fr. ^^/i2 16, 
no. 1 201); Pto Ingles (fr. ^^/i 17, no. 315); grassy slopes of Villagra, rather 
abundant (fr. ^/i 17, no. 243). 

Area of distribution: South Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Masatierra. 

3. P. laevissimum Phil. — JOHOW, Estud. 135. 

In the lower treeless parts of the valleys, abundant in the western half of 
Masatierra and in the basal region of Masafuera. 

Masatierra: V. Colonial, east part, dry soil near the sea (fr. 'Via 16, 
no. no); C. Salsipuedes, here and there up to about 600 m; Pto Ingles, com- 
mon (fr. '^/i 17, no. 316); Q. Juanango, very common; between Villagra and 
Pta Larga, abundant, quite dominating over considerable areas (fr. ^j\ 17, no. 240). 

Masafuera: Jonow. — Forming extensive mats in the ba.sal region from 
Tolten to Vacas, south of this valley not so common. It covers the bottom of 
the outer part of the valleys, as well as the ridges between them, alternating 
with the forest patches (fr. '^/2 17, no. 553). 

This grass was first found in Masatierra by Philippi in 1864 and re- 
discovered in 1908 by the writer. It is, perhaps, the most common of all grasses 
considered to be indigenous. 

Area of distribution: Central Chile (quoted by JOHOW from the Cordil- 
lera of Santiago and Colchagua, collected by me near Valparaiso); Juan Fernandez. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



99 




Fig. I. a — d Stipa feriiandesia7ia : a spikelet, X 2|-; b flowering glume, X S; c flower with 
palea and two lodicules, X 20; d anthers, X 10. e— i FoIypog07i imberbis, spikelets, flowering 
ghime and palea: e leg. Reed, f Skottsberg no. 298, g no. 491, h no. 471, i f. aristata no. 1109. 
k P. criftitus, spikelet, flowering glume and palea. 1 Agrostis masafnerana, spikelet. — e — 1 X 10. 



Podophoius Phil. 

4. P. bronioides Phil. — Joiiow, Estud. 135. 

Masatierra: Germain! 

Discovered by GERMAIN in the latter half of October, 1854. Philippi 



lOO CARL SKOTTSBERG 

states (Bot. Zeit. XIV. 649) that it is »frequens in insula Juan Fernandez*, but it 
has never been found a second time. All the material consists of the two 
sheets in Santiago and a third one in Kew. I need not tell that we made a 
careful search after this most interesting grass, but unfortunately without result. 
I must believe that it is a very rare plant. As it was in flower and fruit in 
October, it may have remained sterile during our permanence (Dec. i — April 30), 
and was perhaps confounded with Bronius (Megalachne). Still, every suspected 
grass tuft was examined. 

Area of distribution: Monotypic and endemic in Masatierra. 

Polypogon Desf. 

5. P. imberbis (Phil.) Johow, Estud. 136. — Syn. Nozvochvorskya imber- 
bis Phil. Anal. Univ. XLIII.562. — Fig. i e— i. 

Masatierra: Reed! (fig. i e). — Dry soil near the sea, in the western 
section, rare; Pto Ingles (PhiuppiI); B. del Padre (fl. ^Vi 17, no. 298, fig. i f). 

*Masafuera: near the sea in several places. B. Tolten (fl. ^/2 17, no. 471, 
fig. I h); Tierras Blancas, not uncommon (fl.-fr. ^'^ U 17, no. 491, fig. i g). — 
New for Masafuera. 

f. aristata n. f. A typo differt gluma florali longe aristata. Masafuera: 
Playa Ancha (fl.-fr. ^^/a 17, no. 1109, fig. i i). 

A careful comparison with Philippi's material in Herb. Santiago was made. 
The following notes may be added. Empty glumes 2,7 — 3 '^^"^ long, not 
counting the awn, the inner generally a little shorter, entire, very acute, scabrous 
on the back, awn terminal, 0,5 — 2 mm long; floral glume about 2 mm long, 
exaristate, sparingly scabrid on the back, 5-nerved with 3 stronger and 2 weaker 
nerves, each prolonged into a scabrid point; palea about i mm, hyaline, ovate, 
± truncate and generally 2-pointed. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

6. P. chilensis (Kunth) Pilger, Uber einige Gram. 386. — Chaetotropis 
chilejisis Kunth; JOHOW, Estud. 136. 

Masatierra: on open ground in some of the valleys, also in the dry western 
section. V. Colonial (begin, fl. ^^/i2 16, no. 206); Pto Ingles (fl. ^^i 17, no. 317); 
Q. Juanango (fl. — fr. % 17, no. 605); Villagra, not uncommon (fl. ^i 17, no. 239). 

Area of distribution: Central provinces of Chile and Masatierra ace. to 
JOHOW, but apparently also in other parts of South America, for PlLGER quotes 
as synonyms Jllfa viuricata Presl from Peru and Agrostis pecii)iata Hackel et 
Arechavaleta from Uruguay. It was perhaps introduced to Masatierra with the 
traffic of the i8th century. 

Agrostis L. 

*7. A. niasafuerana Pilger, Uber einige Gram. 388. — Fig. i 1. 
Masafuera: in the alpine fell-fields, very local; Las Torres, 1370 m (past 
fl. ^*/2 17, no. 424); C. del Barril, 1290 m. — An addition to the magellanic element. 
Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



Trisetum Pers. 

8. T. chromostacliyum Desv. — JoiiOW, Estud. 137. 

Masaticrra: Germain! Rked! — In my previous paper on the islands I 
excluded this from the list of indigenous species. There are, however, no si)ecial 
reasons to regard it as introduced. It must be rare, and we never found it. 

Area of distribution: Central and South Chile; Masatierra. 



Danthonia DC. 

9. D. collina Phil. — JoiIOW, Estud. 138. — Fig. 2 a. 

Masatierra: PlIILIPPl! — Dry rocky ridges and sunny arid slopes; the 
peak between Pangal and V. Colonial, 365 m (past fl. ^'/i2 16, no. 148); Q. Dama- 
juana (fl. ^/i2 16, no. 52); C, Salsipuedes, dry, wind-exposed rocks, not uncom- 
mon; Pto Ingles (fr. dispersed, ^^/i 17, no. 328); Villagra, frequent on the dry 
slopes (Skottsberg 1908; fl.-fr. ^i I7. no- 247). 

First found by PlIILIPPl and rediscovered (sterile) by the writer in 1908. 
As there are so many American species of this genus I have thought it better 
to add a few figures for comparison. 

Area of distribution: South Chile (Valdivia); Masatierra. 



Koeleria Pers. 

10. K. micrathera (Desv.) Griseb. Symb. Fl. Argent. 292. — Syn. Trise- 
tum niicrathenan Desv. ex Gay, Bot. VI.352; T. laxum Phil. Anal. Univ. 
XLIII.568, JOHOW, Estud. 137; PiLGER, Uber einige Gram. 387. — Fig. 2 b— h. 

Masatierra: Philippi! — Rocky places near Portezuelo de \"illagra, in 
brushwood c. 590 m, very scarce (fl. ^"/i 17, no. 279). 

I have not seen the type of Trisetiini micratJicriivi, to which T. laxum is 
referred on the authority of Prof. Pilger; according to the description the 
former has much shorter leaves (only 2 — 3 inches), pubescent sheaths, outer 
glume ^/s as long as the inner, etc., but these differences disappear, it seems, 
at a closer look, for Pilger writes 1. c. 388: »Die Skottsbergschen Exemplare 
stimmen mit denen von Valdivia durchaus iiberein». If the plant from Argentina 
belongs here is an open question. 

In his monograph of Koeleria, Bibl. Bot. 65, DOMIN calls K. micrathera 
a *mixtum compositum». He had seen Philippi's specimens from Valdivia and 
concludes that they must belong to some other genus. His reason for excluding 
it from Koeleria evidently is that, as it is perennial and caespitose, it belongs 
to the subgenus Airochloa, but all the Airochloas have much larger anthers. 
The annual LopJwchloa species have smaller anthers. Thus, it takes an inter- 
mediate position. There is no other genus where we could find a suitable 
place for it, and a new genus could not very well be based only on the small 
size of the anthers. 



1X)2 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

A short description of the insular plant will perhaps be welcome. 

Densely caespitose but slender, dull green. Leaves to 30 cm long, only 
1,5 — 1,7 mm wide, plicate; sheath glabrous, blade nearly glabrous, with few, 
long and thin hairs; ligule almost wanting, transition between sheath and blade 
pilose. Culm with few leaves. Panicle 5 — 10 cm long, multiradiate, contracted; 
spikelets numerous, short pedicellate, with two complete flowers and a third, 
terminal, rudimentary one, pilose as the rhachis. Empty glumes acute, very 
unequal, lower c. 2 mm long, narrow lanceolate, i-nerved, upper about twice 
as long, broad lanceolate, 3-nerved, floral glume 5 — 6 mm long with broad 
hyaline margin, shortly bifid with oblique triangular lobes, 3-nerved, with scabrid 
keel; awn subterminal, 1 — 1,5 mm; palea 3 mm long, oblanceolate, acutely 
bidentate, 2-keeled with scabrid keels. Anthers 0,5—0,75 mm long. 

Area of distribution: South Chile (Valdivia); Masatierra. 

Bromus L. 

Megalachne, hitherto one of the monotypic insular genera, was reduced 
to Bromus by PiLGER, tJber einige Gram. 386. The long awns of the empty 
glumes give a quite characteristic appearance to Megalachne, but, as PiLGER 
emphasizes, this character alone is not sufficient to separate the two genera. 
Hemsley, Chall. Rep. Bot. I; 3.63 found that Megalachne might be distinguished 
by the glabrous ovary and the three styles. But while the young ovary is 
glabrous or nearly so, older stages show rigid hairs covering its apex and 
surrounding the styles. And the new species, discovered by the writer, has 
tivo subapical styles, so that little can be advanced against PilgER's view. On 
the other hand, three styles are reported to occur in the section Cei-atocliloa. 
On account of the heavily awned empty glumes, Megalachne should be retained 
as a special section of Bromus. 

II. B. (Megalachne) feriiandezianus (Phil.) Skottsb. — Syn. M. Bertero- 
niana Steud. Syn. I. 237, JOHOW, Estud. 140; Pantathera fernandeziana Phil. 
Bot. Zeit. XIV. 649; B. megalachne Pilger 1. c. — Fig. 2 i. 

Masatierra: Not uncommon in the eastern and central parts, along the 
ridges in the montane region, in open glades of the woods, among brushwood 
etc., hanging down from the rocks and forming quite ornamental patches. — 
Pto Frances, Loma del Incienso, 360 m, common; El Pangal, on the steep 
slopes from 250—300 m, also in wet moss by the waterfall; in the gap between 
Damajuana and Yunque, 580 m (fl. ^^jn 16, no. 155); V. Colonial, C. Central, 
c. 570 m; Q. del Monte Maderugo, steep wall, 390 m; Portezuelo de Villagra, 
common on the ridges, 5—600 m (fl. ^/i2 16, no. 30); C. Salsipuedes, 400— 600 m, 
common; Q. Juanango, by the stream, 215 m; B. Villagra, low hill near the 
camp, c. 200 m. 

Masafuera: in the same kind of places as in Masatierra, but less frequent. 
Q. de las Casas (JOHOW), not uncommon on the walls of the gorge, (past fl. 
"/a 17, no. 456); Q. de las Vacas (JOHOw); Q. Angosta, at the waterfall; Q. del 
Varadero; Q. de la Loberia, along the stream in the forest, 170 m; Las Torres, 
wet moss mats on the rocks, 1370 m (forma! past fl. ^V^ i/i no- 4^S)\ C. del 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



103 




Fig. 2. a Danthonia coUina, flowering glume with palea and caryopsis, X 5. b— h Koeleria 
micrathera: b spikelet, c rhachis with rudimentary flower, d tips of two flowering glumes, 
e palea, f anthers, g pistil, all X 10, h ligule, X 12^. i B7-omus fernandezianus, pistil and 
lodicules, X 10. k— r B. masafuernniis : k spikelet, X 2f, 1 palea, m pollination, n anther, all 
X 5; o lodicules, p flower, r pistil from the side, all X 10. 



Barril, 985 m; lower slopes of Los Inocentes, open space in fern forest, c. 950 m. 
— No. 425 differs from the ordinary form in having more scabrid glumes; the 
spikelets are unusually large, about 6flo\vered. 



I04 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

PiLGER made the new name B. niegalacJuie in order to avoid confusion 
between B. Bcrteronianus and B. Bcrterianns Colla. But there is no reason why 
we should not use Philtppi's specific name. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

*I2. B. (Megalachne) masafueranus Skottsb. et Pilger ex PiLGER, tJber 
einige Gram. 385. — Fig. 2 k — r. 

Masafuera: Las Torres, on rocks, 1370 m (fl.-fr. ^^/2 17, no. 415). 

An interesting addition to the flora. The description 1. c. is supplied here 
with some illustrations. The flowers are cleistogamous (see fig. 2 m). 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Chusquea Kunth. 

13. Ch. fernandeziana Phil. — JOHOW, Estud. 141. 

Masatierra: in the forest belt, rare below 400 m, more common higher 
up, but never abundant nor forming thickets comparable with the famous Chilean 
»colihuales»; also in dense brushwood on the high peaks and crests. — C. 
Chifladores, slope of the Frances Valley, c. 500 m (no. 621); main ridge above 
Pangal, 795 m; north side of Damajuana, 530 m and in the quebrada below, 
west side, 345 m (no. 212); V. Anson, slopes of Co Yunque; Co Piramide, on 
rock ledges, 550 — 600 m; V. Colonial, Q. Gutierrez, c. 450 m, in dense forest; 
Pto Ingles, in higher ground; Co Alto (P. GuTlERREZ); mountain spur west of 
Co Yunque, 415 m; Q. Villagra, just below Portezuelo, and by the stream farther 
down, 160 m; Q. de la Choza, c. 300 m, not uncommon. 

The colihue did not flower during our permanence, nor was it fertile in 
1908. Flowers are known from the type material only (coll. Nov. 1864, Philippi!) 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



Cyperaceae. 

Cyperus L. 

14. C. vegetus Willd. — Johow, Estud. 142. 
Moist places, generally near the sea. 

Masatierra, only reported from the central and western sections: El Pangal 
(JOHOw); V. Colonial (past fl. ^^12 16, no. 202); Pto Ingles, by the stream near 
the sea; B. Chupones. 

Masafuera: Germain. — Rocky coast between Casas and Vacas (fl.-fr. 
^^/2 17, no. 426); near Las Chozas; Loben'a vieja, on the beach. 

Area of distribution: Chile; Juan Fernandez; Easter Island. 

15. C. reflexus Vahl. — JOHOW, Estud. 142. 

Masatierra: reported by ScouLER, Bertero, Germain, Reed, Moseley 
and JoHOW, by the last mentioned from B. Cumberland. We did not see it. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS I05 

JOHOW united C. fernandczianus Colla with C. njlexus. CLARKE retained it as 
a species under Pycrcus, because the stigma was described as bifid, but he had 
not seen specimens. It is a very dubious species. 

Area of distribution: Mexico and Texas to extratropical South America; 
Chile; Masatierra. 



Scirpus L. 

16. S. nodosus Rottb. — JoiIOW, Estud. 142. 

Masatierra: In some places near the sea, but more often seen on open, 
devastated ground or on the high ridges, always local and only collected before 
by Philippi, Moseley and the writer (1908). — El Pangal, west branch, on 
barren slopes; V. Colonial, near the road to Portezuelo, 325 m; C. Salsipuedes, 
edge of the forest c. 600 m (fl. -^la 16, no. 174); Pto Ingles, on the beach and 
on the central ridge; Q. Juanango; Q. Mllagra, not uncommon (past fl. ^/i 17, 
no. 238), and westward to B. Chupones. 

Masafuera: Cuming! Johow. — Abundant along the east coast from 
Tolten to Playa Ancha (past fl. Feb. 1917, no. 513). 

Area of distribution: Widely dispersed in the south temperate zone, 
circumpolar. 

17. S. cernuus Vahl. — Skottsberg, Stud. 23. 

Masatierra: Wet places along the coast, first found be the writer in 
B. del Padre, 1908, — Outer part of El Pangal, mats in the stream (fl. ^^12 16, 
no. 98) and at the waterfall in the bottom of the gorge (fl. — fr. ^117, no. 222); 
B. Cumberland, wet grassy swamps near the sea (fl. — fr. ^^12 16, no. 99, fr. ~^/i2 16, 
no. 1171); O- Juanango, in the stream; B. del Padre, on the beach; outlet of a 
small stream near the foot of Co Xegro; small stream west of El Yunque; 
B. Chupones, dry stream bed. 

*Masafuera: Q. de la Loberi'a (fl.-fr. '^2 17, no. 522). — New for ]\Iasafuera. 

Very variable in size; no. 222 reaches a length of 40 cm, probably the 
largest form ever recorded (»culmi 3 — 18 cm-) ace. to Clarke, Cyper. chil. 28). 

Area of distribution: Subcosmopolitan. 



Heleocharis R. Br. 

18. H. maculosa (Vahl) R. Br. subsp. fuscopurpurea (Steud.) Kiikenth. 
Cyp. Nov. V, 432. — Syn. Isohpis fuscopurpurea Steud., H. vincentina Clarke 
1. c; H. vicla7iocephala, JoHOW, Estud. 143.' — Fig. 3 a. 

Masatierra: B. Cumberland, grassy swamp along a small stream (fl.-fr. 
^Vi2 16, no. 97). 

I think Reed's specimens, cited under H. melanocepJiala by JOHOW, belong 
here. CLARKE quotes Philippi no. 51 for Juan F"ernandez, but Philippi is not 
listed as collector by Johow, and Clarke quotes the same number for speci- 
mens from Talca in Chile. 



Io6 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

var. irritans Kiikenth. 1. c. 

Masatierra, outlet of a small stream near the foot of Co Negro, abundant 
(fl.-fr. Vi I/, no. 231). 

Larger, with light yellowish brown spikes. I dare say this is what JOHOW 
1. c. calls H. maculosa, first found by Reed and later by JOHOW in B. del Padre, 
where I have sought for it in vain. 

Area of distribution: Suhs]i. fitscopnrpiirea is known from South Chile 
and Masatierra, but H. maculosa is quoted for the Antilles, Brazil and Chile. 



Oreobolus R. Br, 

*I9. O. obtusangulus Gaud. 

Masafuera: Los Inocentes, forming large compact cushions, 1375 — i5CX)m 
(fr. ^^/a 17, no. 384). — An important addition to the magellanic element. 

Area of distribution: Andes of New Granada and Ecuador to Cape Horn; 
Falkland Islands; Masafuera. 



Cladium P. Br. 

20. C. scirpoideum (Steud.) Benth. et Hook. f. — JOHOW, Estud. 143. 

Masatierra: Streams, waterfalls and other moist places in the forest belt, 
not at all so rare as indicated by JOHOW, but found in many places in the 
central parts of the island. — El Pangal, by the waterfall, c. 200 m (fl. ^/i 17, 
no. 224; also JOHOW); north-east precipice of Co Damajuana, 500 — 550 m; the 
gap between Damajuana and Yunque, abundant on wet rocks, c. 600 m (fl. 
^^/i2 16, no. 163); Plazoleta del Yunque (JOHOW); Portezuelo de Vilagra, one 
specimen just behind the Selkirk tablet, with Guiwera bracteata (past. fl. ^^/i 17, 
no- 359)! C. Salsipuedes, edge of the forest, rare,. 630 m (past fl. ®/i2 16, no. 72); 
Pto Ingles, central ridge, c. 470 m; Q. Juanango, at the brook, 215 m (fl.-past 
fl. ^/4 17, no. 602); Q. Villagra, wet rocks in the stream, 240 m, 160 m; Q. de la 
Choza, wet rock in the forest, c. 400 m. 

According to KiJKENTH.^L, in letter to the writer, this species is nearest 
related to C. angustifolium (Gaud.) Benth. et Hook. f. from Hawaii and Tahiti. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



Uncinia Pers. 

*2i. U. brevicaulis Thouars. 

Masafuera: Alpine fell-fields in the northern half of the highland; the 
Correspondencia Camp, 1130 m (^3 17, no. 269 b), and a few hundred m north 
of this place (^% 17, no. 369c); Las Torres, on rocks, 1370 m (^^/^ 17, no. 
369). Everywhere with unripe achenes. — Another addition to the magellanic 
element. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



107 



Area of distribution: South Chile, Valdivia to West Patagonia and 
Fuegia; Masafuera; Andine Patagonia (very rare); P'alkland Islands; Tristan da 
Cunha; St. Paul's and Amsterdam Islands. 

22. U. Douglasii Boott. — JOHOW, Estud. 144. 

Masatierra: Common in the forest belt, in all the valleys from Pto 
Frances to Q. Juanango, but rarely seen below 200 m; also on the south side 
of the island; in dense forests or in open glades (fl.-fr. Dec. 1916, nos. 47, 
56, 189). 

Masafuera: Common in the forest patches and in the damp gorges, 200 
— 500 m, from Q. Sanchez to Q. de la Loberia (unripe fr. Feb. 1917, nos. 

463, 487)- 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 












\ ' ^' 




Fig. 5. a Heleocharis *fuscopiirpurea, bract, X 6, flower and fruit, X 12. b Uncinia costata, 

utricle, bract and pistil, X 6. 

*23. U. costata Kiikenth. Cyp. nov. V. 433. — Fig. 3 b. 
Masafuera: O. Loberia, stony ground in forest, 280 m, with the preceding. 
A very distinct species, well separated from U. Douglasii, to which it is 
related. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 

*24. U. phleoides Pers. 

Masafuera: in the fern beds at the Correspondencia Camp, 1130 m, rare 
(fr. ^^/-2, " 3 17, no. 370). — Xew for Juan Fernandez. 

Dr. KuKENTHAL brought my specimens to var. 7iux nigra C. B. Clarke; 
this is not a very distinct variety, and part of my material might equally well 
be classed with the typical form. 

Area of distribution: The Andes from Columbia to Patagonia; Chile; 
Masafuera. 



*25. U. tenuis Poepp. f. firiuula Kiikenth. Cyp. nov. V. 433. 
3Iasafuera: In the alpine fell fields, probabh' not uncommon. — Las 
Torres, 1370 m (fr. disp. ^"'/o 17, no. 1173U C. del Barril, 925—1290 m (fr. ^'3 17, 



io8 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



no. 561); Los Inocentes, on the summit, c. 1500 m (fr. ^/a 17, no. 382) and on 
lower slopes, 900 m (fr. ^^/2 17, no. 1172). — New for Juan Fernandez. 

Area of distribution: Costa Rica; Masafuera; South Chilean Andes to 
Cape Horn; the new form only on Masafuera. 

Carex L. 

*26. C. Banksii Boott. 

Masafuera: Alpine fell-fields near Las Torres, 1350 — 1370 m (fr. ■'*^2 17, 
no. 393). — New for Juan Fernandez. 

Area of distribution: Andes of Santiago; Mendoza; South Chile to Fuegia. 

27. C. Berteroniana Steud. — Syn. C. paleata Boott; JOHOW, Estud. 144. 

Masatierra, in the eastern half of the island, not uncommon in the forest 
belt; Pto Frances (Joiiow), Loma del Incienso, in brushwood, 360 m; C. Centi- 
nela, forest patch, c. 300 m; El Pangal, near the waterfall, 200 m; Portezuelo 
de Villagra, scattered along the ridges (JoHow; fl.-fr. Dec. 1916, nos. 5, 37); 
C. Salsipuedes, in thickets (fr. ®/i2 16, no. 85); O. Juanango, edge of forest; 
Q. Villagra (fl. ^/i 17, no, 37 b). — Variable in size: 37 and 37 b are slender 
forms, 5 and 85 very large ones with unusually large female spikes. 

Masafuera: Germain! — Q. de las Casas, not uncommon in the canyon 
(fr. ^V^ 17, no. 453); Q. del Blindado, 440 m in the forest; Q. Angosta; Q. de la 
Loben'a, open forest, 280 m. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

Palmae. 



Juania Drude. 

28. J. australis (Mart.) Drude. — JOHOW, Estud. 145. — Fig. 4. 
Masatierra: Through the whole of the forested region, not seen by us 
at a lower altitude than 190 m but reaching the highest crests. As was stated 




Fig. 4. Juania australis: a cf fl. and one stamen, b inside of same, anthers removed, c out- 
side of same, d $ fl., all X 4; e fruit, V- nat. size; f seed, X i '/.j. 

by JOHOW, Juaiiia is not at all on the verge of extinction, but it is true that 
it has become very rare in places of easy access. So great is the interest 
taken in this palm that I find it worth while to enumerate the localities where 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS I OQ 

it was observed by us: Pto Frances, c. 360 m, several trees, c. 500 ni, rather 
common; C. Chifladores, on the ridge; ridge between Q. de la Piedra Agujereada 
and Q. Laura, 600 — 650 m, numerous trees; C. Centinela, not uncommon; in 
the depression between Damajuana and Yunque, c. 600 m, some trees; Q. Dama- 
juana, c. 250 m, rare; slopes of El Yunque; V. Colonial, Q. Gutierrez, c. 300 m, 
one tree (no. 50); Q. del Monte Maderugo, rare; Q. Seca, 435 m, one tree; 
northwest slope of Co Piramide, 600 m, a few trees; on the inaccessible crests 
round Portezuelo, 600-650 m, many groups; C. Salsipuedes, solitary specimens 
600 — 650 m; Pto Ingles, west quebrada, several groups from 190 m and upwards 
(fl.-fr. ^°/i ^7' "O- 3^0 cT, 314 5); south side of the island, high cliffs east of 
Yunque, scattered in the altitude of 7 — 800 m (fr. March 1917); B. Villagra, 
Q. de la Choza, 3 — 400 m, numerous trees. 

Drude placed Juania in the subtribe Iriarteae, but the male flowers, first 
found by JOHOW, are symmetrical and the stigma almost apical. It comes 
nearer to Morenieae, but it differs from both in being strictly dioecious. It 
seems better to make it the type of a separate subtribe. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra; monotypic. 



Bromeliaceae. 
Greigia Kegel. 

29. G. Berteroi nov. spec. — Syn. Tillandsia spec, Bertero in Ann. 
sc. nat. XXI.348. 

Truncus lignosus inferne longe repens nee non radicans, dein curvato- 
adscendens et erectus, ad metrum et ultra longus, circ. 3 cm crassus, vaginis 
foliorum castaneis dense vestitus, apice rosulam sat niagnam foliorum gerens. 
Folia linearia, membranacea, 75—90 cm longa, basi in vaginam ad 25 mm latam 
sensim dilatata, supra basin 10 — 12 mm lata, dein sensim latiora, medio ad 
18 mm lata, dein sensim angustata, acutissima, longissime aculeata et apice 
debiliter pungentia, margine a basi ad ^\i, long, inermia, versus apicem aculeis 
unguiformibus minutis circ. '/s "im longis parce munita, supra glaberrima, laete 
viridi-lactea, subtus argenteo-paleacea. Cetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Bertero! — Gorge above Pangal, c. 660 m, on humid soil 
in dark Dicksonia-^ores,\.\ one specimen growing on a fallen trunk. According 
to some of the islanders, the same plant has been observed on the high crest 
south of Pto Ingles. 

After a diligent search in many places, we rediscovered this extremely 
rare plant in a very remote corner. Unfortunately, none of the few specimens 
observed were fertile, nor did they show any sign of ever having produced 
flowers. Possibly the inflorescence is terminal, and the plant attains a great 
age before it flowers. The stem is simple, or perhaps branched at an early 
date, the branches becoming separated. The shoot is perhaps monocarpic. 

On Bertero's specimen in Kew is written: » Folia maxime sxvn'xWa. Gregia 
Pearcei Mez, vide Bromel. 47 », very likely written by Mez, who quotes the 
Kew specimen. The vagina is broader in G. Berteroi, and it differs from other 



no CARL SKOTTSBERG 

species in its caulescent habit; it is of the same morphological type as the 
rosulate dwarf trees of which there are so many in these islands. 

In spite of being unable to give a full description of this peculiar plant, 
I have thought it better to give it a name: it is certainly not identical with 
any other, and I do not think it will have to be transferred to another genus, 
if not to a new one. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



Ochagavia Phil. 

30. O. elegans Phil. — JoHOW, Estud. 149. — Fig. 5 a. 

Masatierra: On rocky ridges from near sea level to the highest crests, 
not seldom covering the steep cliffs in warm, sunny situations. Pto Frances 

(JOHOW); El Pangal, on the walls of 
the canyon, c. 200 m; between Pangal 
and V. Anson, slope near the sea, 
c. 50 m (a form with longer leaves); 
the Damajuana ridge, c. 500 m; be- 
tween Damajuana and Yunque, 580 m ; 
Co Piramide, 550 — 650 m, abundant 
in places (fl. Dec. 1916, no. 21); V. 
Colonial, Q. del Monte Maderugo, 
steep rocks, 390 m; C. Salsipuedes, 
465 m, large patch; ridge between 
Vaqueria and Juanango, c. 300 m; 
Morro Juanango (JOHOW), abundant; 
north slope of Co Tres Puntas, very 
abundant (also JOHOW). 

Fig. 5. a Ochagavia elegans, flower, nat. size. MeZ, DC. Monogr. Phanerog. 

b— e Ursula ''i?tsiilaris : h flower in fruit, c outer IX.366, reduced Ochagavia to RJlodo- 

(with stamen) and inner tepal, d capsule and seed, ^ , .,. • ^^ c^ ^ -c 

e bract all X 10. stacliys. It is a matter of taste it we 

follow him or not. Ochagavia was 

described in Bot. Zeitung 1856, RJiodostacJiys in Linnaea 1857; the difference 

between them is slight, the epigynous tube being more than twice as long in 

the former, reaching a length of 12 — 15 mm. The stem is much more elongated, 

clothed with leaves, the stamens shorter or as long as the petals, which are of 

a deep violet-crimson. The inflorescence is a short compact spike. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra; monotypic. 




Juncaceae. 
Luzula DC. 

31. L. raceniosa Desv. (sp. coll.) subsp. insularis nov. subsp. — Syn. 
L. cfr. alopecimis, SKOTTSBERG, Stud. 24. — Fig. 5 b— e. 

Dense caespitosa, ad 50 cm alta, erecta robusta. P^olia ad 15 cm longa. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS I I I 

plana, pleiumque 5—8 mm lata, margine dense ac lonj^issime albo villosa, apice 
acuta sub[)ungentia. Inflorescentia erecta, adulta subnutans, ovoidea — cylindrica, 
sat compacta, foliis 2 — 3 sat longis et latis instructa, interdum spicula infima 
remota ct longius pcdunculata; spiculae com[)Ositae ovoideo-cylindricae vel 
conicae, bracteis bracteolisque pallidis subhyalinis longe ciliatis. Flores ad 
3 mm longi, tepalis integris, externis ovato-lanceolatis, ± convolutis, apice mani- 
feste aristato-acuminatis, 2,8—3 "''"i longis, castaneis margine pallido, internis 
2,5 — 2,6 mm longis acute acuminatis. Stamina 3 perigonio multo breviora, 
antherae oblongae 0,4 — 0,5 mm, filamentis duplo breviores. Stylus brevis, 0,3 mm 
longus, stigmata longa. Capsula nigro-castanea, trigono-sphaeroidea, apiculata, 
perigonio multo brevior. Semina minuta oblique fusiformia, ferruginea, basi et 
apice luteola, 0,8 — i mm longa. 

Masafuera: In the alpine region, rare. — The high ridges north of the 
Casas valley, from lOOO m upwards; more common at Las Torres, 1350 — 1370 m 
(fr. ^*/2 — ^72 17. no- 408); west wall of the island; C. del Barril, 1290 m. 

L. raccinosa was established on specimens from the high volcanic peaks of 

Mexico, collected by Hu^]BOLDT and by Schiede, see KuNTH Enum. PI. III. 313. 

L. vulcanica Liebm., of which I have seen authentic material (Herb. Upsal.) 

seems to be the same and was also referred to L. racemosa by Buchenau. 

These plants agree very well with the description, so I conclude that the 

Mexican species is the true raccDiosa. KuNTH did not know this from Peru 

or Chile, nor was it included in Gay's Hot. VI. Buchenau, in Pflanzenreich, 

Juncac. 75 gave as area of distribution Mexico — Chile, and there are specimens 

from Fuegia in Herb. Upsal. under the name of Z. racemosa, determined by him. 

The position assigned to the insular form is entirely provisional. I am 

sure it has little or nothing to do with the Mexican plant, which has very narrow 

leaves, a slender, almost filiform culm, long ciliated tepals, very short stamens 

(less than half the length of the perigone) and a light brown capsule with very 

thin, papyraceous walls. If we had only the Mexican plant to consider, the 

form from Masafuera would never have been classed as a subspecies of Z. n/r^-- 

mosa. But according to BuCHENAU this is also a Chilean plant, occurring in 

several forms down to Fuegia, all, however, unlike the Mexican one in habit. 

Many authors and collectors have followed BlCHENAU in bringing specimens 

from the southern Andes to L. racemosa. In 1908 I collected such forms in 

West Patagonia and in Skyring Water. L. '^insularis differs from them as 

well as from all other forms from the continent, that I have seen, in the broader 

leaves, the more compact panicle, the longer tepals etc. On the other hand, 

the forms of Chilean racemosa diiler from each other in several respects, such 

as the length of the filaments and size of the anthers, which are twice as large 

in the form from West Patagonia as in the Skyring plant. Again, one plant 

collected in Fuegia by DlSEN (no. 584) and determined by BuCHENAU has 

the tepals hardly longer than the capsule, thus recalling L. chilensis. I have 

not seen authentic material of the latter species. It differs from L. racemosa 

in possessing 6 stamens, larger anthers (as long as the filaments), and larger 

seeds (i — 2 mm). 

It is probable that the Chilean L. racemosa differs from the Mexican; it 
is evident that it includes more than one subspecies or species. When bringing 



112 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

the island type to this, I have followed BUCHENAU, for it has 3 stamens and 
a long perigone. I cannot undertake to revise the whole group, for which very 
extensive material is necessary; I can only express the opinion that, when a 
revision is made, L. raccmosa in BuctlENAU's sense will not stand. 

Area of distribution: Typical form only in Mexico; other forms (or spe- 
cies?) along the Andes to Fuegia; Masafuera. 



Junciis L. 

32. J. imbricatus Laharpe. — Syn. J. CJiauiissonis, JoHOW, Estud. 151. 

Masatierra: V. Colonial (JoilOW), grassy slopes near the sea (fr. '^/la 16, 
no. 108; ^7i2 16, no. 108 b); B. Villagra; B. Chupones, stony ground (fr. ^/i 17, 
no. 245). 

The specimens correspond to var. Chamissonis (Kth) Buch., which is hardly 
separable even as a variety, as ill-defined transitions occur. The flowers show 
the size of the typical species, as described by Buchenau. The habit is 
variable; no. 108 has culms 15 — 25 cm high and a dense inflorescence, no. 108 b 
reaches a hight of 55 cm and has a rather lax inflorescence. 

Area of distribution: Ecuador to South Chile; Masatierra; Argentina; 
Uruguay. 

*33- J* capillaceus Lam. 

Masatierra: East side of V. Colonial, swampy ground near the sea (fl.-fr. 
^^/i2 16, no. 201). — Perhaps a recent introduction and not truly indigenous. 

Area of distribution: Ecuador; Central Chile; Masatierra; Argentina; 
Uruguay. 

34. J. acutus L. — JOHOW, Estud. 150. 

Masatierra: Scouler! — Pto Ingles, central ridge (fl. ^'^/i 17, no. 312; 
f. laxior, no. 312 b); La Vaquen'a, open ground (fr. ^/4 17, no. 598); stream west 
of Co Yunque; B. Chupones, on a slope covered with Riiiiiex acetosclla. 

JOHOW believed that this species had been accidentally introduced and 
that it disappeared from the island soon after, as nobody except ScoULER had 
seen it. As we have seen, it is distributed over a large part of the island, and 
nothing enforces us to suppose that it came there with the human traffic. 

Area of distribution: West and South Europe; Atlantic Islands; North 
Africa; the Cape; California; Central Chile; Masatierra; South Brazil; Uruguay; 
Argentina. 

35. J. Dombeyanus Gay. — JOHOW, Estud. 151. — Syn. J./ernandezi- 
amts Steud. Syn. plant, glum. II. 302. 

Masatierra; Germain! Philippi! — B. Tierras Amarillas, rare (fl.-fr. 
^/i 17, no. 242). — Belongs to a typicus Buch. 

According to JOHOW, J. viicrocepJialus Kunth is also found, coll. by 
Scouler, Douglas, Bertero, Reed and Moseley, but he had only seen 
Reed's specimens, so that I suppose he followed Hemsley in bringing all to 



'IHF, PHANEROGAMS OF I HK JUAN KKRNANDKZ ISLANDS II3 

microccplialiis. Hemsley was of the opinion that this hardly differs from Dom- 
beyaiiits. The main difference lies in the size of the head. FUENTES, Revis. 
Fl. Chil. June. 27 speaks of transitional forms between the two among the 
material from Juan Fernandez. I do not think typical microcvpJialus has been 
collected in the islands. 

Area of distribution: Peru; Chile; Masatierra; Uruguay. 

*36. J. planifolius R. Hr. 

Masatierra: V. Colonial, small stream at the foot of the chapel hill (past 
fl. '7i2 16, no. 185). 

Probably of recent introduction, perhaps with water-birds occasionally 
visiting Juan Fernandez; belongs to gcniiuiiis Buch., a broad-leaved form of this 
with sheath to 12 and blade to 9 mm wide. 

Area of distribution: Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand; South Chile; 
Masatierra. 

Iridaceae. 

Libertia Spreng. 

37. L. forniosa Grah. — Syn.: ^tvc. grandiflora (Phil.), Joiiow, Estud. 150. 
Masatierra: barren slopes and rocky ridges, not uncommon. — Co Dama- 
juana, on the north side, c. 500 m; V. Colonial, common from 200 m to Porte- 
zuelo (beg. fl. ^/i2 16, no. 13), more local at a lower altitude; C. Central, 
c, 570 m; Q. Seca, c. 400 m; C. Salsipuedes, frequent; Villagra; B. Chupones. 
Masafuera: on the cliffs near the sea and also in the canyons, common; 
here and there in the alpine region. — Q. del Pasto; Q. de las Casas; Q. del 
las Vacas (fr. ^^/2 17, no. 427); Q. Angosta; Q. del Varadero; Tierras Blancas; 
Q. de la Loberia (also in the open forest); scattered in the highlands; greatest 
altitude observed, c. 1400 m. 

Philippi argued that his L. grandiflcva diftered ko\x\ formosa in the denser 
fascicles and the much larger flowers, and in the not cordate or refuse petals. 
I cannot find any difference between them. The flowers of the island plant 
are about 22 mm across, the sepals 8 mm long, the petals 16,5 X 14 mm, but 
smaller in many cases, the filaments 8 — 8,6 mm, their tube about 2,5 mm long, 
the anthers 3 mm. In most cases I found the petals distinctly emarginate and 
with a broad rounded, sometimes subcordate base. Plants grown from seeds, 
collected in the islands, have smaller flowers than the largest wild ones, but 
are otherwise quite typical, 

L. fonnosa is very near L. elegans Poepp. Cultivated specimens of the 
latter flowered at the same time in the Gothenburg Garden; the most notable 
difference lies in the sepals, which are white, almost translucent at the base 
and crowned by a long, convolute, brown apex, while they are green, more or 
less pale at the base, obtusate and without acumen in L. forniosa. The petals 
are not emarginate in elegans, the filaments measure 10 and the anthers 4 mm. 
The pollen is dark yellow in this, but sulphureous in formosa. 
Area of distribution: South Chile; Juan Fernandez. 

8 — 20100. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



114 CARL SKOTTSBERO 

Piperaceae. 
Peperomia Ruiz et Pavon. 

38. P. Berteroana Miq. — JOHOW, Estud. 121. 

Masatierra: Moist, shady woods, more numerous in altitudes above 300 m. 
North slope of Co Damajuana, c. 500 m; V. Colonial, C. Central, c. 500 m; 
Poriezuelo de Villagra (JOHOW), on the rocks near the pass and in the woods 
on both sides (fl. Dec. 1916, no. 38); Q. del Monte Maderugo, rocks in the 
forest, 390 m; Q. Salsipuedes, Dicksonia-{ox&%\, c. 650 m (fl.— fr. ®/i2 16, no. 96); 
Pto Ingles (JOHOw), central ridge, c. 380 m (fl.-fr. ^"/i i/- "O- 32i); Q. Juanango, 
at the foot of the high waterfall; mountain ridge west of Co Yunque, c. 500m 
(fl. ^^4 17, no. 628); Q. Villagra, low hill near the camp, c. 200 m (f. hirsiita, 
no. 261); O. de la Choza, wet rock in the forest, c. 400 m. 

Masafuera: Q. de las Vacas (no. 394, also JoHOw); Q. Angosta, in the 
gorge by a waterfall; Q. del Varadero; Q. de la Loberia. — Specimens from 
this island, all found on rock ledges in the canyons, are small and have smaller, 
less obovate, almost rhomboidal leaves. My material is sterile, and I do not know 
if the differences are of systematic importance. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

39. P. niargaritifera Bert, ex Hook. Icon. Plant. I, t. 91. — JOHOW, 
Estud. 122. 

Masatierra: Bertero! Germain! — El Pangal, in the bottom of the 
gorge c. 210 m, in wet soil on a rock wall, where water trickles down (fl. '/i 17, 
no. 220); Q. Juanango, at the foot of the high waterfall, wet soil between stones, 
c. 225 m (fl. ^/4 17, no. 615). 

Discovered by Bertero »en las pendientes sombrias de los cerros mas 
elevados* and found again by GERMAIN. It probably grows in the foggy region 
and descends into some of the damp gorges. The specimens from Juanango 
have pilose leaves, with long stift" hairs spread over the entire lower surface, 
denser along the midrib; on the upper surface there are a few hairs scattered 
along the nerves. The margin is lined with hairs except near the base. These 
plants agree with the type as described and figured by HooKER. The Pangal 
specimens are larger with longer spikes and glabrous leaves, the margin often 
pilose toward the tip. The leaves are conspicuousl}- thinner. This I regard as 
a form of extreme shade and moisture. 

Area of distribution: Pandemic in Masatierra. 

40. P. Skottsbergii C. DC. in Skottsberg, Stud. 20. — Syn. P. inarga- 
ritifera, JOHOW ex p., Estud. 122. — Plate 10. 

Masafuera: in the canyon of Q. de las Casas, moist ledges, caves and 
overhanging rocks, rare (fl. ^7- I7> "O- 477)- Also collected by JoHOW and by 
the writer in 1908; the only locality known. 

Area of distribution: Pandemic in Masafuera. 



THE I'HAN'EROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



115 



41. P. fernandcziaiia Miq. — Joiiow, Estud. 122. 

Masaticrra: In the forested region, not uncommon, but not observed at 
a lower altitude than 400 m. — The ridge between Q. Laura and Q. dc la 
Piedra Agujereada, c. 500 m; small valley above K\ Pangal, c. 660 m; slopes 
of Co Damajuana, c. 500 m; Q. Damajuana, 345 m (fl. ^^'a 16, no. 211); slopes 
of El Yunque (also Joiiow); V. Colonial, C. Central, c. 400 m, epiphytic; Q. 
del Monte Maderugo, c. 500 m; northeast side of Co Piramide, 580 m, on the 
ground and on trees (fl. 'Vi-' 16, no. 140); Portezuelo de Villagra, on both sides; 
Q. Salsipuedes (also Reed), c. 650 m (fl. ^^/iz 16, no. 169); Pto Ingles, on the 
central ridge, 470 m, epiphytic. An aberrant form with leaves almost inter- 
mediate in shape between this and P. uiargaritifera was found below Portezuelo 
(sterile, no. 1202). 

Masafucra: In the forest near Las Chozas; Q. del Mono, in forest, 475 m; 
Q. de las Casas (Joiiow), under overhanging rocks (fl. ^^2 17, no. 418); Q. de 
las Vacas; Q. del Blindado, rocks in the forest 440 m; C. del Barril c. 750 m, 
under rocks; east slope of Los Inocentes, 840 m, in fern forest. 

Area of distribution: Chile, Frai Jorge and Valdivia; Juan Fernandez. 

(Of P. mimmulariaefolia Griseb. there is a specimen in Herb. Santiago 
labelled Juan P'ernandez, but without locality, date or collector. See JOHOW, 
Estud. 122. I exclude it from the list.) 



Urticaceae. 
Urtica L. 

42. U. Masafuerae Phil. — JoHOW, Estud. 123. 

Masafuera: Germain! Oct. 1854, very common in some places according 
to a communication from the discoverer to JoHOW. 

A small annual, very like U. Bcrteroana (= U. echinata Benth. ace. to 
Index Kewensis), but glabrous except for the calyx and a sparse and coarse 
indument on the leaves. We did not see a trace of this plant; probably it is 
a spring herb of short duration. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 

43. U. fernandeziana (Rich.) Ross; Skottsberg, Stud. 20. — Syn. U. 
glomenilaejiora Steud., JOHOW, Estud. 123. 

Masatierra, rare: Bertero! Germain! — V. Colonial, small quebrada 
on the west side (SkOTTSBERG 1908); south side of Portezuelo de Villagra, 
550 m, two specimens observed near the road (fl.-fr. ^"/i 17, no. 229). 

Masafuera: first found by the writer in 1908. — Q. de las Chozas, Dick- 
sonia-grov&\ Q. del Mono, in the forest, 475 m (fl.-fr. ^^U 17, no. 478); near 
the road to Las Chozas, c. 450 m; Q. del Blindado, in forest, 370 m, 440 m (fl.-fr. 
^^/2 17, no. 1203); Las Torres, fern bed among rocks, 1370 m; C. del Barril, under 
rocks, 985 m; east slope of Los Inocentes, burnt place in fern thicket, c. 800 m. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Il6 CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Boehmeria Jacq. 

44. B. excelsa (Bert, ex Steud.) Wedd. — JOHOW, Estud. 124. 

Masatierra: The characteristic tree of the river beds, in groups along 
the streams in the valleys; forms the westernmost forest patch in the island. — 
Pto Frances (JOHOw); El Rabanal; El Pangal, common near the entrance 
(fl. ^Vi2 16' "o- 105 ?» 106 J*); Q. Damajuana, c. 200 m, scattered trees (fl. ^/i2 16, 
no. 58 5); Plazoleta del Yunque, not uncommon (also JoHOW); V. Colonial, 
slopes of C. Central, c. 400 m; Q. Seca, stray specimens, 300 m; Pto Ingles, 
west branch, fine groups by the stream in the flat part of the valley; Q.Juanango, 
215 ni; Q- Villagra, some small trees, c. 400 m; Q. de la Choza, solitary trees 
in dense forest, c. 250 m; foot of Co Chumacera, small pure stand. 

Monoecious; generally the branchlets are either J* or ^ ! male flowers 
were not observed in female glomerules, but in male ones, which seem to be 
much rarer, single female flowers occurred. 

Unfortunately, I have not found ripe fruits. Habitually, it is very like 
B. dcalhata Cheesem. from the Kermadec Islands, as well as other Pacific spe- 
cies, to which B. excelsa probably is nearly related. It has also the appearance 
of Pipturns albidiis Gray from Hawaii, but as far as can be judged from flowers 
only it is a true Boehmeria. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in iMasatierra. 



Parietaria L. 

45. P. debilis Forst. — Syn. P. Jmmifnsa, Rich., JOHOW, Estud. 124. 

Masatierra: B. del Padre, stony beach, faded (^°/i 17, no. 297). 

Masafuera: on the beach between Casas and Mono (^^/a 17, no. 1208; 
JOHOW collected it near this place); Q. de las Casas, walls of the canyon, scarce 
(fl. ^/3 17, no. 368); Q. Angosta, in the gorge by a small waterfall. 

Area of distribution: Subcosmopolitan. 



Loranthaceae. 
Phrygilanthiis Eichl. 

46. P. Berteroi (Hook, et Arn.) Reiche. — Syn. LoraiitJms Berteroi Hook, 
et Arn., JoiiOW, Estud. 126. 

Masatierra: Bertero! Bridges! Parasitic, according to the former, on 
Myrccugenia, the commonest forest tree. 

We greatly regret having been unable to rediscover this interesting plant. 
It is certainly very rare. I hardly think that any of the islanders, of which many 
spend a great deal of their time in the woods, had ever seen this, and only 
very few had heard of its existence, while all of them were very familiar with 
other species of the same genus, known as »quintral» on the mainland. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS II7 

Santalaceae. 
Saiitaluni L. 

47. S. fcrnandczianuni F. Pliil. — Joiiow, Kstud. 127. 
Masatierra: last seen in Pto Ingles, August 1908, by the writer. 

In 1882 D. Sepui.VEDA rediscovered the sandal wood, long thought extinct, 
in Pto Ingles, where, according to what he told me, he cut two trees at a low 
altitude above sea level. Shortly afterwards another person is said to have 
found one tree near Portezuelo. I do not know who destroyed this. Later 
(1892?) P. Arredondo found another tree in Pto Ingles about 300 m above sea 
level, and in January or February 1892 he brought JoiiOW to the spot. There 
are specimens in his herbarium from the same tree gathered by SOHRENS 1895. 
In August, 1908, Arrendondo's son GuiLLERMO accompanied me to the locality. 
From 1892 to 1908 no second specimen had been discovered. I gave an account 
of this last tree in Svensk Bot. Tidskr., 1910. When we arrived in Masatierra in 
1916, we were met by the sad news that the tree had died and become cut up, 
so that nothing remained. Numerous pieces of the wood were offered for sale. 

Masafuera: Pieces of semi-fossil wood have been found in Q. del Sandalo 
(P. Gutierrez, G. Arredondo), O. del Sandalito and Q. del Varadero 
(Gutierrez). 

We do not know if the Santalmn once growing in Masafuera was conspe- 
cific with .S". feiiiaiidtziamim, for nobody has seen leaves or flowers. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. Apparently extinct. 

Chenopodiaceae. 
Chenopodium L. 

48. Ch. Sanctae Clarae Joh.; JOHOW, Estud. 119. — Fig. 6 a, 7 a— e. 
Santa Clara: Almost confined to a small rock, called Morro del Spartan 

by JOHOW, M. de los Alelies by the fishermen from Masatierra, separated from 
the island by a narrow channel which is nearly dry at low tide (Bertero; 
JOHOW, fl. '% 1895 1 fr. -71 17, no. 344). 

As JOHOW's description of the flower is very short and as I have discovered 
two new species of the same insular type, I have found it necessary to add 
the following observations. 

Arborescens, humile. Folia triangulari-ovata vel ovata, apice late rotun- 
data, obtusa — obtusissima, margine irregulariter et grosse sinuato-dentata dentibus 
rotundato-obtusis; folia ramorum juvenilium majora, lamina 50 — 90 X 30 — 60 mm, 
petiolo 30 — 45 mm longo. Panicula gynomonoeca; floribus $ circ. 1,6 mm diam. 
tepalis suborbicularibus circ. i mm longis, margine late hyalino sacpe irregula- 
riter dentato, dorso eximie calloso-costatis, praecipue ad basin pilis vesiculosis 
vestitis. Stamina maturitate breviter exserta, antheris 0,4 mm longis. Ovarium 
subglobosum, stylis 2 ad basin perfecte liberis. Flores ^ minores tepalis 
0,6 — 0,7 mm solum longis (dein paulo auctis); staminodia 5 minuta. Fructus 



ii8 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 




Fig. 6. l^eaves of a Choiopodiian Sanctae Clarae, b Oi. Ci'usoeaniim, c Cli. fiesodendfo/i, \ nat. size. 



crasse lenticularis, apice subplano-convexus stylis patentibus. Semen horizon- 
tale, lenticulare margine obtiiso, nitidum, nigro-castaneum, minute punctulato- 
striatum, 1,2 mm latum et 0,5 mm crassum. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Santa Clara. 



THK PHANEROGAMS OF THK JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS II9 

*49. Ch. Crusoeanum nov. spec. — Fig. 6 b, 7 f — k. Plate 11. 

Frutescens, ad 50 cm vel paulo ultra altum, lignosum. Truncus in fissuris 
rupium absconditus baud accessus, paulo supra basin ramosus, ramis crassiori- 
bus ad 9 mm diam.; cortex griseoviridis vel brunncscens, in ramis junioribus 
etiam viridis, laevis. Folia versus apicem ramorum subconferta, inferiora mox 
caduca, longe petiolata, 40—80 mm longa ct 20—45 mrri lata, petiolo 15—30 mm 
longo, ovato-triangularia, basi subtruncata vel late rhomboidea, apice rotundata — 
rotundato-acuminata, sat obtusa, subintegra vel praecipue basin versus irregula- 
riter dentata usque serrata denticulis brevibus acutis, supra viridia, subtus 
glaucescentia pilis vesiculosis dense vestita; textura tenuis; nervi flavescentes 
subtus prominuli. Inflorescentia gynomonoeca paniculata, in ramis terminalis, 
aphylla, pyramidata, valde laxa ramis patentibus; flores subsolitarii; bracteae 
minutae. Flores $ 1,5—1,7 mm diam., tepalis late ovatis 1 — 1,2 mm longis 
cucullatis basi concretis, vesiculoso-pilosis, valde viridi-callosis, margine hyalino 
sat irregulari. Stamina primo inclusa dein breviter exserta, filamentis tepalis 
paulo longioribus vel aequilongis, thecis ovoideis 0,7 — 0,8 mm longis. Ovarium 
ovoideo-subglobosum vel ovoideoconicum, 0,6 mm altum, apice subiter contrac- 
tum stylobasin formans; styli 2 liberi erecto-patentes, e basi incrassata filifor- 
mes. Flores $ tepalis aliquantum minoribus baud i mm longis (dein auctis), 
staminodiis 5 minutis. Fructus lenticularis, 1,5 — 1,6 mm diam., stylopodio 
distincto stylisque erectis, pericarpio opaco punctulato. Semen fere ut in prae- 
cedente. 

Masatierra: on a rather inaccessible mountain wall in the bottom of the 
Pangal gorge, in fissures c. 220 m, rare (fl.-fr. ^/i 17, no. 227). 

Differs from Ch. Sanctae Clarae in the more slender habit, the shape of 
the leaves and fruit etc., as seen from my description and figures. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

■"■'50. Ch. nesodendron nov. sp. — Fig. 6 c, 7 1— o. 

Arbor vera quamquam pumila, ad 2,8 m alta visa; truncus primarius cras- 
sus, paulo supra basin ad 12 cm diam., usque ad apicem ± distinctus, tota 
longitudine ramis vestitus, inferioribus mortuis; cortex viridis — viridi-stramineus. 
Folia versus apicem ramorum conferta, inferiora mox caduca, triangularia, basi 
truncata vel angustata, breviter decurrentia, ± longe et saepe permanifeste acumi- 
nata, acuta, margine ± profunde, grosse et irregulariter dentato-serrata sed 
versus apicem saepius subintegra, dentibus acutis triangularibus, majoribus inter- 
dum denticulis i — 2 instructis; lamina supra viridi-flavescens, subtus viridi- 
glauca vesiculoso-pilosa nervis pallidis prominulis; textura sat tenuis; lamina in 
ramis florigeris (num. 550) circ. 30— 40 X 20 — 25 mm, petiolo 15 — 50 mm longo, 
in innovationibus (num. 523) majuscula, ad 80 — 95 """n^ longa et 45—65 mm lata, 
petiolo 34 — 45 mm longo. Panicula in ramis terminalis, pyramidata, 4 — 6 cm 
alta, sat densa, gynomonoeca. Flores ? 1,3 — 1,5 mm diam., tepalis ovato- 
lanceolatis obtusis valde cucullatis dorso crasse callosis margine late hyalinis ± 
denticulato-ciliatis. Stamina perigonio paulo longiora breviter exserta. Ovarium 
ovoideoconicum 1,5 mm altum in rostrum longum productum; styli 2 basi sub- 
incrassati valde patentes liberi. Flores $ tepalis minoribus, staminodiis 5 minutis. 
Fructus longe rostratus, 2—2,5 mni longus, 1,5 mm diam., rostro 1—1,4 mm 



120 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 




Fig. 7. a — e Chenopodium Sa/tctae Clarae: a ^ fl., (pistil removed), and one tepal, b $ fl. and 

one tepal, c 9 A- showing staminodes, d pistil, e fruit, f-k Ch. Crusocanum: f $ fl. and one 

^^?^, g ? fl-i h 9 fl- showing staminodes, i pistil, k fruit and tepal. 1 — o Ck. nesodendron : 

1 5 fl. and one tepal, m 9 fl- showing staminodes, n pistil, o fruits. — 

d, i, n, X 50, all others X 15. 



longo, pericarpio tenui opaco punctulato. Semen fere tit in praecedentibus, 
horizontale vel leviter obliquum, circ. 1,3 mni diam. et 0,7 mm crassum. 

Masafuera: Slope near Las Chozas, c. 500 ni (fr. '"'/s 17, tio. 550); lower 
slopes of Los Inocentes, in the grass and fern beds, c. 500 m; Q. de la Loberia, 



THE I'HANEROGAMS OK THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 121 

one \avge specimen in the gorge among rocks (no. 523). The species is every- 
where persecuted by the indefatigable goats. 

Differs from the other species in the much greater size, the shape of the 
leaves and fruit, etc. Seeds from no. 550 were sown in the Gothenburg Garden 
in 1918, the plants are quite typical, but have not yet produced flowers. Their 
habit is truly arborescent. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 

The three Juan Fernandez species of Cliciiopodmiii, each confined to a 
single island, are related to Cli. paiiiculatuni Hook, from North America, Peru 
and Chile, ranging from 49° X. to 32° S. This is a polymorphic species that 
was treated by J. Ml RR in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr., it is herbaceous or -halb- 
strauchartig)^ and the leaves mostly entire. The island species are probably 
also related to Cli. sandwicheum Moq. from Hawaii. 



Salicornia L. 

51. S, peruviana Kunth. — JOHOW, Estud. 120. 

Masatierra: here and there along the east and north sides of the island, 
forming patches above the highwater line (fl. *^/i 17, no. 299). 

Santa Clara (also observed by JOHOw). 

Masafuera: Germ.\in; near entrance to Q. del Varadero and Q. Angosta; 
Playa Ancha; Tierras Blancas (no. 433); Loberia Vieja (JoHOW). 

Area of distribution: West coast of South America; Juan Fernandez. 

Aizoaceae. 
Tetragonia L. 

52. T. expansa Murr. — JoHOW, Estud. 116. 
Stony beaches, rather uncommon. 

Masatierra: Pta San Carlos, scattered (fl.-fr. '-/12 16, no. 126, also observed 
by JOHOW); B. del Padre (JoHOw). 

Santa Clara: Morro de los Alelies (unr. fr. "*'/i 17, no. 347; also observed 
by JoHOw). 

*Masafuera: between Casas and Vacas (fl.-unr. fr. ^'^^ 17, no. 512); Playa 
Ancha (fr. -^/2 17, no. 1206). — Xew for this island. 

Area of distribution: Coasts and islands of the Pacific. 



Caryophyllaceae. 

Spergularia Presl. 

53. S. confertiflora Steud. Flora 1856,425. — 5. rubra, JOHOW, Estud. iiS. 

Steudel based his species (erroneously called confertifolia by JOHOW) on 

Bertero no. 143 1 from Masatierra: »floribus versus apicem ramorum axillaribus 



122 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

et terminalibus non paniculatis sed ob folia magis approximata confertioribus», 
thus a form with a contracted, leafy inflorescence. But Bertero's material 
includes, under the same number (Herb. Kew!) another form with long, rather 
lax, terminal cymes, and there are numerous transitions between these two 
types. A similar form was described by Philitpi as Arenaria rubra \2.x. poly- 
phylla (Masafuera, Germain!). Rohrbach, Linnaea XXXVII. 232 considered this 
to be a good species and called it Spergjilaria polyphylla (Phil.) Rohrb.: »hab. in 
insulis Juan Fernandez et Masafuera (Philippi)», but the specimens from Masa- 
fuera were certainly not collected by Philippi, who never visited this island, 
so the statement probably refers to Germain's plant. In Herb. Santiago are 
specimens collected in Masatierra by Philippi (1861) and by Reed (1872), but 
I do not know which of these were considered by ROHRBACH to belong to 
vS. polyphylla. The species was characterized by the structure of the seed 
test, the papillae were described as one-sided, flattened, often slightly curved. 
Reiche, Flora I. 197 retained this as Tissa polyphylla (»Syn. S. confertiflora 
Steud.»), but quoted plants from Masafuera only. 

Another species to be considered here is .S". rcnwtijlora Steud. 1. c. 424 
from Chile. According to the description this must be exactly like the lax form 
of confertiflora. Reiche, however, brought it to Tissa media, without having 
seen the type. As I have no means to revise the whole genus, I have retained 
the island species as 5. confertiflora. This is a correct name, given to a Juan 
Fernandez plant collected by Bertero; I have seen the type material and my 
plants as well as those collected by PHILIPPI, JOHOW etc. belong to the same 
species. Hemsley and JOHOW were of the opinion that all the forms found on 
Juan Fernandez were varieties of S. rubra Presl (S. campestris [T] Aschers.), 
which has become introduced into South America. But vS". confertiflora is a 
perennial, stout, lignified, almost shrubby species; in the axils are dense glomerules 
of small leaves, giving to the stem the appearance of being clothed with leaves; 
the stipules of two opposite leaves are entirely united into one interpetiolar 
stipule on each side; the pedicels are never reflexed. I find it impossible to 
regard the island species as only a form of ^. campestris, but believe that it is 
indigenous in Central Chile. 

Habitually, 5. confertiflora varies a great deal. It is contracted or lax, 
nearly glabrous or glandulose, the leaves long and narrow or short and broad, 
the petals white or rosa. Undoubtedly it includes an aggregation of forms, 
that ought to be cultivated in order to get an idea of their systematic value. 
Two will be listed here under separate names, var. polyphylla in the sense of 
RoHRBACH, with oblique seed papillae, and var. glabcrj^ima, a perfectly glabrous, 
yellowish green form from Masafuera. I have sown seeds of one form from 
Masatierra, and of polyphylla and glaberrima from Masafuera. The plants are 
young and have not flowered (August, 1921); they are perfectly distinguishable 
from each other. 

KiNDBERG, in his monograph, does not mention S. confertiflora or poly- 
phylla, and Reiche does not quote the monograph, where several Chilean spe- 
cies were described and figured. 

Masatierra: lava beds of the sea coast, one of the very few plants thriving 
on the dry, barren cliffs. Pta San Carlos (fl.-fr. ^^i-' 16, ^i ^7. "o. 123; also 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 1 23 

observed by JOHOW); Pto Ingles; Trcs Puntas (JOHOW); B. del Padre (fl.-fr. 
^'"/i 17, no. 296); Co Negro (fl.fr. Vi 17, nos. 262, 266); Pta Larga; Tierras 
Blancas (fi. "^/s 17, B.\.CKSTRO.M no. 1208). 

Santa Clara, also observed by JOHOW; Morro de los Alelies (fi. ^"/i 17, 
no. 349). 

var. polyphylla (Phil.) Skottsb. 

Masatierra: Philipi'i! Reed! 

Masafuera: Germain! — Scattered along the coast from B. Tolten (fr. 
^/2 17, no. 470) to Playa Ancha; common at the Casas entrance (fl.-fr. ^^/i 17, 
no. 387); Q. del Varadero (fl. ^Va 17, no. 569). — Variable in habit, but generally 
densely pubescent. 

var. glaberriina nov. var. — Humilis, luteoviridis tota glaberrima, folia 
carnosa sat lata, mucronata, subpungentia, stipulis interpetiolaribus late triangu- 
latis apice ± laceratis; inflorescentia compacta foliosa; petala alba; capsula 
interdum sepalis paulo longior; semina parce tuberculata — sublaevia. 

Masafuera: entrance to the Casas V^alley (fl.-fr. ^^2 17 no. 41 ij. 

Area of distribution of ^. confertiflora : Central Chile; Juan Fernandez. 



Paronychia L. 

54. P. chilensis DC. — JoHOW, Estud. 118. 

Masatierra: barren slopes in the west part of V. Colonial, rare (fr. Dec. 
1916, no. 15); the treeless western slopes of the island (SOHREXS). 

Remarkably enough this plant escaped the attention of all earlier visitors 
except one; still, it may not be of recent introduction. 

Area of distribution: Chile, Coquimbo to Valdivia; Masatierra. 



*Ranunculaceae. 
Ranunculus L. 

*55. R. caprarum nov. spec. — Fig. 8. 

Erectus, villosus, ad 0,75 m altus. Rhizoma sat breve, crassum, ramosum. 
Folia basalia latissime vaginantia, longissime petiolata; lamina crasse chartacea, 
obscure viridis, supra adpresse pilosa, subtus praecipue secus nervos longius 
sericeo-villosa, nervis reticulato-palmatis subtus versus basin valde incrassatis, 
ambitu cordato- vel reniformi-orbicularis, subpeltata, fere ad basin tripartita; 
lacinia centralis late cuneatooblonga vel suborbicularis, ± distincte lateque 
petiolulata, ima basi cuneata, ad \ 4 — ^/s trilobata, lobis ± profunde lobulatis, 
lobulis dentato-serratis; laciniae laterales rectangulato-semiorbiculares, subses- 
siles, basi late cuneatae et integrae, ceterum inciso-lobatae, lobulatae nee non 
dentatae; petiolus costato-striatus, patente, longe nee non sat dense villosus, 
crassus; vagina subglabra vel extus ± adpresse pilosa. Folia majora visa petiolo 
(cum vagina) 29 — 46 cm longo et circ. 5 mm crasso; vagina circ. 6 — 9 cm 



124 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



longa basi 3,5 — 4 cm lata; lamina 14 — 19 cm longa et 17 — 23 cm lata. Caulis 
sulcato-striatus, inferne villosus, superne minus hirsutus, repetiter ramosus. Folia 
caulina inferiora pauca, basalibus ± similia, sessilia sed longe vaginantia, pro- 
fundius divisa; summa ornithopodioidea, brevissime vaginantia, profunde tripartita, 
lobis subintegris. Floras sat numerosi, inflorescentiam subracemosam sat expansam 
laxam foliosam formantes, pedunculo usque ad 5 — 6 cm longo, sub flore densius 
villoso sufifulti. Sepala .... Petala .... Stamina .... Receptaculum ovoideo- 




Fig. 8. a-e Rantinciehis caprarian : a plant after a rough sketch from nature, much reduced; 

b basal leaf, c cauline leaves, ^ nat. size; d receptacle, X 4; e three carpels, X 4, a»d cross 

sections through carpel, X 6. f carpel of /^. hmvaiettsis, g of R. Haastii, X 4- 



conicum, 4 — 6 mm longum, parce pilosum. Achaenia triangularia, valde com- 
pressa, 6 — 7 mm longa et 3 — 4 mm lata, glabra; nux cuneato-lenticularis, versus 
apicem late alato-marginata; ala in stylum apice filiformi-recurvum stigmati- 
ferum attenuata. 

Masafuera: near the goat track along the western precipice, north of the 
Casas gorge, c. 1200 — 1300 m, rare (ripe fr. ^ '^/s 17, no. 366). 

I deeply regret having to describe this on incomplete material. The 
anatomical structure of the achene shows that it belongs to Raiiuiiciilus, and 
there is no doubt that it is a new species. All the plants found were in fruit, 
but most of them had not even the receptacles left, as the flower stalks had 



THK PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



125 



been bitten off by tlie goats; in fact, not one intact specimen was seen and 
most of them were badly damaged, so that the existence of the species seems 
to be seriously threatened. As far as I can find, R. caprarum has no relative 
in America. Habitually, it belongs to the type of R. Lyallii Hook, fil., in- 
signis Hook. fil. and 7iivicola Hook., all from New Zealand; it is remarkably 
like the last mentioned, which differs in the less deeply cleft basal leaves and 
in the unvvinged achenes. But in another New Zealand species, R. Haastii Hook, 
fil. (Fig. 8 g), which has a different habit, we find the same flat, winged achenes. 
It is possible that R. Jiazvaiensis A. Gray (Fig. 8 f) and R. maniensis A. Gray 
from Hawaii belong to the same group; their leaves are more divided with 
stalked segments and the nut is barely winged, but there is a distinct trace of a 
wing on the style. I regard R. caprarum as another addition to the old Pacific 
element in the flora. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Berberidaceae. 
Berber is L. 

56. B. corymbosa Hook, et Arn. — JOHOW, Estud. 115. — Fig. 9 c— d. 

Masatierra: not uncommon along the high ridges but never occurring in 
considerable number nor forming thickets; sometimes also found in the open 
forest. — Co Centinela, c. 400 m; El Pangal, near the entrance and on the walls 
of the gorge, c. 200 m; Q. Daraajuana, open forest on steep slope, 345 m; in 
the gap between Damajuana and Yunque, 550— 6cxd m (unr. fr. ^^[m 16, no. 158); 
high peak between Pangal and V. Colonial, 365 m; V. Colonial, C. Central, 
570 m (also observed by JOHOW); Portezuelo de Villagra, a few small shrubs 
near the Selkirk tablet, c. 600 m (fl. ^/i2 16, no. 36); Q. del Monte Maderugo, 
steep rocks; Q. Seca, open forest, c. 500 m; C. Salsipuedes (also observed by 
JOHOW), 400 — 600 m, in brushwood and forest, on the ridge and on both slopes; 
Pto Ingles, central ridge, 470 m; Q. Vaqueria, in open forest, c. 250 m; mountain 
spur W of El Yunque, in forest, 530 m; Q. Villagra, higher parts, scattered. 

B. paniculata Phil, was retained as a species by Hemsley but reduced to 
B. corymbosa by Reiche and JOHOW. After having examined the type in 
Herb. Santiago I can only subscribe to the opinion of the latter. P'rom the 
description of Philippi (narrow leaves!) one would perhaps conclude that B. 
paniculata is the same form that I have described below from Masafuera. This 
is not the case; the leaves vary in B. corymbosa, but B. patiiculaia falls 
within the limits if this. Bracts in the panicle are found in otherwise typical 
corymbosa. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

"^'57. B. niasafuerana nov. spec. — Fig. 9 a— b. 

Frutex metralis et ultra, ramis tenuibus cortice obscure rubro — atro-violaceo, 
leviter sulcato in junioribus saltem lucido sicut vernicoso, ramellis distantibus. 



126 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Folia primaria plantulae juvenilis suborbicularia, grosse et irregulariter sinuata, 
interdum dentibus nonnuUis pungentibus munita, lamina ad 2 cm longa et lata, 
petiolo circ. 2 cm longo apice vel paulo infra distincte articulate. Spinae sat 
mites, nondum pungentes, plerumque simplices, rarissime segmentis i — 2 laterali- 
bus munitae, 3—5 mm longae. Ramelli foliigeri brevissimi, distantes. Folia 
secundaria anguste obovato-elliptica — elliptico-lanceolata, coriacea, discoloria sub- 
tus pallida, obtusa, basi manifeste angustata, reticulato-nervosa; lamina 2 — 3,5 cm 
longa et 0,6 — 1,3 cm lata; petiolus tenuis vulgo 2 — 3, rarius ad 6 mm longus, 
paulo supra basin articulatus. Cetera ignota. 




Fig. 9. a— b Berberis masafuerana : a part of branch and one small leaf, b largest leaves seen. 
° c— d B. corymbosa: c ordinary leaves, d exceptionally narrow leaves. All natural size. 



Masafuera: Q. de las Casas, one seedling by the side of a waterfall, 
215 m; larger .shrubs seen on the wall of the canyon in an utterly inaccessible 
place, but some branches were obtained by means of a lasso (no. 503); O. de 
la Loben'a, one shrub on a steep rock in the stream. 

Unfortunately, all specimens observed were sterile. B. niasafuerana comes 
very near B. corymbosa, but differs in the colour of the cortex, in the much 
narrower and more coriaceous leaves and in the slender habit. I have never 
seen anything like this form in Masatierra, so 1 am confident that the flower 
and fruit will offer structural differences. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 1 27 

Magnoliaceae. 
Drimys Forst. 

58. D. Winteri Forst. var. confertifolia (Phil.) Joh.; JOHOW, Estud. 113. 

Masatierra: One of the commonest forest trees, ranging from 200 or 
300 m to the highest ridges and forming the edge of the forest in wind-swept 
places, where few other trees thrive. In the foggy region very old and large 
trees were observed, with a thickness at the base hardly reached by any other 
tree in the islands. Drimys inhabits the whole forested belt of Masatierra from 
Pto Frances to Co Chumacera. Coll. fl. ^/]2 16, no. 6, ^12 16, no. 88, fr. ^^/4 17, 
no. 88 b. 

Masafuera: in the higher parts of the montane region, generally forming 
the limit of the forest; not seen at a much lower altitude than 500 m; Pasto, 
Chozas and Mono valleys, 475 — iioo m; one tree at the Correspondencia Camp, 
1 1 30 m; ravine north of this place, c. 1200 m, greatest altitude observed; on 
the western precipice, solitary trees above Buque Varado; C. del Barril, to 
iiio m (fr. '/s 17, no. 371); east slope of Los Inocentes, 740 — 1000 m. 

The oldest name for the island Drimys seems to be D. confertifolia Phil. 
Anal. Univ. Chile 1856 (May), 163; in July the same year Steudel pubHshed 
his D. fermimierJami. Reiche, Flora I. 27, used the combination D. Winteri 
\2.x. fernandeziana Steud., for he quoted Bot. Zeit. 1856 (Sept.!) for Z>. r^/z/^/Yz- 
folia Phil. Steudel did not, however, describe it as a variety, but as a species, 
and thus we may use the name confertifolia (Phil.) Johow. According to Steudel 
the island form differs from continental ones in the narrower leaves, which are 
blunt or hardly acute, rufescent above, pale below and more aggregated, and 
in the dioecious flowers. Philippt advanced that the leaves are densely aggreg- 
ated, smaller, less whitish below and much shorter petiolate. MiERS, Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist. 1858, 48, described it as D. fermmdezianus Miers (without 
quoting other authors); the description was reprinted and an unsatisfactory figure 
added in Contr. to Botany I (1861) 137, PI. 27 B. The differences between 
Miers' species and D. cJiilensis DC. are not at all better defined by him than 
by other authors. JOHOW, who regards D. confertifolia as a variety, stated 
that it differs in the smaller and more densely clustered leaves, and says that 
the trees in Masafuera have more polished leaves than those from the other 
island. Reiche 1. c. 27 described the leaves as sangostamente oblongas, casi 
lineares, muy cortamente pecioladas». 

I shall not enter upon the question whether the continental forms all 
belong to one species or not; but I cannot separate D. cJiilensis DC. or pani- 
culata Steud. from D. Winteri, and I cannot regard the Juan Fernandez plant 
as specifically distinct. It is true that many of the herbarium specimens studied 
by Steudel, Miers, etc. have the leaves of the flowering branches comparatively 
small and narrow, but if we study the living plant, we shall find that there is 
a considerable variation in the size of the leaves, which often attain 12—13 X 
3—4 cm, quite normal figures in continental forms. I need not tell that the 
rufescent upper surface of the leaves spoken of by Steudel is due to desicca- 



128 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

tion. The colour of the lower surface shows the same considerable variation 
as in other forms. The flowers are not dioecious, but bisexual and quite typical, 
and do not differ in size or shape from Chilean specimens. The only character 
remaining is the clustered leaves, but even in this case there is a considerable 
variation between different trees and also between different branches of the 
same tree. Generally, the short internodes give to the island Dyiinys a somewhat 
different habit, but cultivation alone will decide upon the value of this character. 
A distinct tendency to the development of a form with shorter internodes was 
observed in the introduced Aristotelia inaqui, both by JOHOW (1. c. io8) and by 
the writer. 

Area of distribution: Xot counting the tropical forms, D. Wiiiteri in- 
habits Chile from Frai Jorge (an isolated locality) to Cape Horn, and Juan 
Fernandez. 

Lactoridaceae. 
Lactoris Phil. 

59. L. fernandeziana Phil. — JOHOW, Estud. 114. — Plate 12, fig. i. 

Masatierra: in the damp montane region, confined to the dense and humid 
forests above 500 m, rare. — C. Chifladores, steep slope above Pto Frances, 
c. 500 m, about a dozen plants (past fl. ^'/^ 17, no. 622); forests of El Yunque 
(JOHOw); V. Colonial, C. Central, one plant 510 m, several 520 m (fl. ^Vi 17, 
no. 303); Portezuelo de Villagra (also observed by JOHOW), one small specimen, 
570 m; mountains at the back of Pto Ingles (JOHOW); mountain ridge west of 
El Yunque, c. 500 m, very rare (fr. "^^U 17, no. 629); highest part of the Villagra 
Valley below Portezuelo, some fine shrubs at the roadside, 510 m (fl. ^/i 17, no. 230). 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



Cruciferae. 
Cardaniine L. 

60. C. chenopodiifolia Pers. — Syn. C. fernnndezinna [?\v\^|]o\\.•^]Q)Y\Q)ys , 
Estud. no. 

Masatierra: Germain; Reed! 

Unfortunately, no trace was seen of this interesting plant. GERMAIN col- 
lected it in October, 1854, Reed in September, 1872; it is an annual, developed 
in the spring and probably of short duration, and this explains that we did not 
find it. Perhaps it did not appear at all in 1916 on account of the very dry 
spring. It is also possible that it has become very rare or that it has disap- 
peared altogether. As it is unknown in Peru and Chile, we have no good 
reason to regard it as accidentally introduced. 

I am convinced that SCHULZ (Engler's Jahrb. XXXII. 443) was right in bringing 
Heterocarpus fernandeziamts Phil, to Cardaniine clieiiopodiif olia ; when comparing 
the former with material of the latter from Uruguay, Brazil and Bolivia, I came 



IHF. PHANKROGAMS OF IHK JUAN FERNANDF.Z ISLANDS I 29 

to the same conclusion. Certainly, the distribution is quite puzzling and dif- 
ferent from that of all other species indigenous in the islands, which led me to 
the conclusion (Stud. 19) that it had become introduced with the human traffic. 
Area of distribution: Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay. 

61. C. flaccida Cham, et Schlecht. — Syn. C. alsophila Phil , JOHOW, 
Estud. III. 

Masatierra: streams and other wet places, local. Pto Frances (JOHOW); 
El Pangal, moss mats in the stream near the entrance; wet moss cushions by the 
waterfall, 215 m (f. pilosa O. E. Sch., fl.-fr. ^i ^7, "O- 219 — »nonnulla speci- 
mina interdum ad subspeciem alsophila spectant», scr. O. E. ScHULZ in sched.); 
O. Damajuana, moss mats at a small waterfall, 250 m, common (prol. depressa 
O. E. Sch., fl. 7i2 16, no. 57); Q. Juanango, by the stream [^.pilosa, fl.-fr. V4 17, 
no. 603); south side of Portezuelo (JOHOw); Co Chumacera, shady corner in wet 
soil at the small waterfall in the Boe/unejia^orest (f. vitegra O. E. Sch., fl.-fr. 
'7i 17, no. 251). 

Area of distribution: Widely dispersed in the warm and temperate parts 
of South America, in Chile in the southern provinces. Prol. depressa was col- 
lected near Talcahuano, var. pilosa near Valparaiso and in Masatierra, f. in- 
tegra in »Chile» (leg. Bertero). What SCHULZ calls typical alsophila has not 
been reported from Juan Fernandez. 

62. C. Kriisselii Joh., JOHOW, Estud, 112. 

Masafuera: Forest northwest of Q. de las Casas (JOHOwl); Q. de la Lo- 
beria, by the stream (fr. ■^'^/2 17, no. 479). 

We made a diligent search for this species in all the forest patches north- 
west of the Casas Valley, but without result. The plants collected in the new 
locality ditler from the type in being almost glabrous, and were distinguished 
by O. E. SCHULZ as f. glabrescens. According to the same authority, C. Kriis- 
selii is related to the Chilean C. vulgaris Phil. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Saxifragaceae. 
Escallonia Mutis 

63. E. Callcottiae Hook, et Arn. — Syn. E. fernande:;ia Phil. — JOHOW, 
Estud. 100. 

Masatierra: One of the commoner plants, rather abundant on all the 
ridges from Pto Frances to O. Juanango, but also found on the lower barren 
slopes down to the sea level. Scattered on the south side from Villagra to 
Pta Larga. Fl. Dec. — April (nos. 2, 95, 257). fr. in April. 

Very variable in size, a small tree or, on dry stony ground, a trailing 
shrub. Leaves small or large, flowers generally paniculate, but sometimes 
racemose, colour of corolla a more or less deep rosa to crimson. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

9 — saioo. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



130 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Rosaceae. 
Rubus L. 

64. R. geoides Sni. — Skottsberg, Stud. 10. 

Masafuera: Not uncommon in the alpine region, but not observed at a 
lower altitude than looo m. Highland north of Casas, 1130— 1370 m (fr. Feb. 
1917, no. 404); C. del Barril, 1290 m (no. 538); Los Inocentes, from 1375 m 
to the top; ridge between Q. Inocentes and Q. Angosta, c. lOOO m. — Dis- 
covered by the writer in 1908. 

Area of distribution: Patagonian Andes (two localities; one far north, 38°, 
needing confirmation); West Patagonia; Fuegia; Falkland Islands; Masafuera. 

Margyrlcarpus Ruiz et Pav. 

65. M. setosus Ruiz et Pav. subsp. digynus Bitter, SKOTTSBERG, Stud. 9. 
— JOHOW, Estud. 91. 

Masatierra: on the low, dry slopes below the forest region, also in the 
western half of the island and on the high ridges' above the forest. — Between 
Pto Frances and V. Colonial, on the slopes of the valleys and on the ridges, 
common on the slopes of El Centinela (also observed by JOHOw); V. Colonial, 
not uncommon (also observed by JOHOW); C. Salsipuedes, ascending to 500 m 
(fl.-unr. fr. ^/i2 16, no. 71); La Vaqueria, dry slopes; between Villagra and Pta 
Larga, scattered in the steppe-like vegetation (fl.-unr. fr. '/i 17, no. 233). 

Area of distribution: Peru; Central and South Chile; Argentina (Prov. 
Buenos Aires); Patagonia. The subsp. digynus endemic in Masatierra. 

Acaena L. 

66. A. masafuerana Bitter Bibl. Bot. 74 (191 1) 45. — Fig. 10. 
Masafuera: Scattered in the fell fields, forming small dense mats together 

with mosses and lichens. Between the Correspondencia Camp and Las Torres, 
1 130 — 1370 m (fl.-fr. ^^/2 17, no. 395); edge of west precipice above Buque 
Varado, c. 1230 m; C. del Barril, iiio— 1360 m (fr. Vs 17, no. 539); Los Ino- 
centes, from 1 125 m to near the summit (fr. ^/s 17, no. 380). 

Sterile specimens were brought by the writer in 1908 and described by 
Professor Bitter. The new material was again studied by him, and he gives 
the following account of it. 

»Procumbens vel parum ascendens, caespitosa, caudex cr. 2 — 4 mm crassus, 
in radicem sat longam ramosam exiens, in ramos complures ± ve divaricantes 
partitus; rami inter muscos et gramina repentes, breves, ± ve congesti vel 
longiores cr. 4 — ir cm longi, infra vaginis fuscescentibus subnitidis foliorum 
emortuorum densiusculis obtecti, apice foliis adhuc vigentibus subrosulantibus 
instructi; folia parva, cr. 1,2 — 4 cm longa; vaginae rufo-fuscescentes, nitidae, 



THE PHANF.ROGAMS OF THE lUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



131 



usque ad 10:3 mm, utrinque glabrae (etiam in margine); stipulae frondosae, 
lanceolatae, acutae, simplices vel vix dentatae, rarius manifeste i-dentatae, cr. 
1—2:0,5 — 1 mm, glabrae vel prope apicem pilis parvis tenuibus marginalibus 
nonnullis instructae; petiolus plerumque brevissimus, cr. 2 — 3 mm, rarius ad 8 mm 
longus, glaber; costa mediana subtus glabra vel parce pilosa; lamina 6 — 24 '.4 — 12 
mm, plerumque 7 ^rarius 9)-foliolata; foliola obovata, obtusa (inferiora non- 
numquam acutiuscula), plana vel margine paulum revoluta, crenati-dentata, supra 
sordide viridia, fere glabra, ad dentium apices versus tantum in venis ordinis 





Fig. 10. Acaena masafuerana : leaves, a upper side, X ^, b lower side X 3, 
c nat. size; d, e achenes, X 18. 



secundi manifeste albide pilosa, subtus paulum glaucescentia, in venis primariis 
secundariisque dense pilosa vel solum in vena media appresse sericeo-pilosa, 
dentes margine et apice dense breviter pilosi; stipulae et foliolorum dentes in 
pagina superiore in hydathodam rubescentem exeuntes; paris supremi foliola 
sessilia, 2,5:1,2 usque ad 7 : 4 mm, 5— 8 dentata; foliolum terminale breviter 
petiolulatum (cr. 0,5 — 1,5, rarius — 3 mm), cr. 2:2 usque ad 6 : 5 mm, 5 — 9- 
dentatum, dens apicalis lateralibus manifeste minor, quam ob rem foliolum ter- 
minale lateralibus obtusius; scapus in parte inferiore foliis 1 — 2 approximatis 
reductis instructus, ceterum nudus, vel rarius fere medio vel paulum infra capi- 
tulum folio valde reducto praeditus, in statu fructifero 6,5—11,5 cm longus, 
gracilis, in parte basilari ascendens, ceterum rectus, viridis vel purpurei-suffusus, 



132 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

glaber; capitulum terminale parvum, cr. 3 — (tandem) 5 mm diam.; bracteae 
oblanceolatae, ad basim versus angustatae, apice obtusae, basi glabrae vel pilis 
acutis perpaucis et capillo pluricellulari uno alterove praeditae, fere a medio in 
margine pilis tenuibus unicellularibus acutis sensim densioribus instructae, capilli 
pluricellulares (articulati), aurei-rufescentes vel partim purpurascentes praecipue 
inter bracteas cupulasque dense aggregati; cupula obovoidei-obconica, turbinati- 
subtetragona, cr. i mm longa, 0,5 mm diam., fere glabra, capillo pluricellulari 
aurei-rufescente uno alterove valde sparso obsita, infra calycem in aculeos 4 
breves prinio fere i mm longos apice glochidibus 4—6 parvis paulum inaequi- 
longis armatos exiens; sepala 4, cr. 0,8:0,3 — 0,4 mm, late elliptica, obtusa, apice 
intus dense breviter papillosa, ceterum glabra; stamina 2, parva, sepalis breviora; 
filamenta gracilia, 0,4 — 0,5 mm longa; antherae reniformes, utrinque emarginatae, 
cr. 0,17 mm longae, 0,3 mm latae; stylus cr. 0,5 mm longus, stigma purpureum, 
subpatelliforme, plumosi-flabellatum, diam. 0,8 mm; cupula in statu fructifero 1,5 
mm longa, i mm diam., aculeis porrectis purpurascenter suffusis 1^1,5 mm longis. 

Die Belege unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich der Farbe und Behaarung der 
Blattchen-Unterseite etvvas von einander: Nr. 380 ist unterseits kaum grau, mehr 
blassgriin, die Behaarung ist unterseits fast ausschliesslich auf die Mittelader 
beschrankt, Nr. 395 ist ahnlich, zeigt aber auch auf den Seitenadern I. Ordnung 
unterseits meist ziemlich deutliche Behaarung, Nr. 539 dagegen ist unterseits 
ausgepragt graugriin (ob infolge der bei dieser Form starker als bei den andern 
beiden Nummern ausgepragten Papillositat der Unterseite.^), ausserdem sind 
Mitteladern und Seitenadern I. Ordn., teilweise sogar die II. Ordn. dicht mit 
anliegenden spitzen Haaren bedeckt. 

Diese Art, von der Skottsrerg von seiner ersten Reise nach Juan Fer- 
nandez nur bluten- und fruchtlose Zweige heimgebracht hatte, wurde von mir 
in meiner Gesamtschrift iiber die Gattung (Biblioth. botan. Heft 74, S. 75) 
zweifelnd zur Sect. Ill Siihtuspapillosae Bitt. gestellt, zu der die siidchilenische 
A. puniila Vahl und die nur auf den beiden havvaiischen Inseln Maui und Kauai 
vorkommende A. exigtia A. Gray gehort. Dass sich A. niasafuerana von diesen 
beiden Arten erheblich unterscheide, betonte ich schon damals und wies auch 
auf ihre Ubereinstimmung in Tracht und Behaarung mit verschiedenen Ange- 
horigen der Section V Acroby ssinoideae hin. Die schonen, voUstandigen Belege 
von Skottsberg's zweiter Reise liessen leicht feststellen, dass diese auf Masa- 
fuera endemische Art besonders an den Bluten- und Fruchtorganen samtliche 
fiir die Section Acrobyssinoideae bezeichnenden Merkmale besitzt: Bliiten in 
einem endstandigen kugeligen Kopfchen vereinigt; mehrzellige (gegliederte) 
goldbraune bis purpurne Haare reichlich zwischen den Brakteen und am Grunde 
der Cupulae; Cupula 4-kantig-kreiselformig mit nur 4 in einer Ebene nahe unter 
dem Kelche stehenden Stacheln, die nur an der Spitze mit einigen (4 — 6) Wider- 
haken (Glochiden) ausgeriistet sind. 

A. niasafuerana steht der A. antarctica Hook. f. (Feuerland und westl. 
Magellansgebiet) und A. microcephala Schlchtdl. (Siid-Chile) nahe, sie unter- 
scheidet sich von der ersteren durch die viel schwachere, niemals gelbliche 
Behaarung der Blatter und durch das Vorhandensein von i — 2 kleinen Biattern 
am Bliitenstandstiel (scapus), von A. niicrocephala durch erheblich kleinere 
Blattchen mit weniger Randzahnen. 



1 HE PHANEROGAMS OK THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 1 ^^ 

Im Mesophyll der Blattscheiden von A. inasafuera7ia sind die reihenformig 
angeordneten Drusen aus Calciuinoxalat, wie sie in meiner Gesanitdarstellung: 
Bibliolh. botan. Heft 74, S. 62, Fig. 10 fiir A. litcida Vahl abgebildet sind, be- 
sonders schon zu sehen.s 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 

6"]. A. ovalifolia Ruiz et Pav. subsp. australis Bitt. 1. c. 239; Skotts- 
JJERG, Stud. 9. 

Masatierra : On both sides of the Portezuelo ridge, on the north side 
from 250 m in the maqui-thickets (fl. ■^/i2 16, no. 35), on the south side scattered 
from near the pass (fl.-fr. ^^/i2 16, no. 35 b) down to Villagra, in the forest 
near the road. 

The var. microphylla Phil, in sched. Herb. Santiago (and Berlin, see BiT'iEK 
1. c. 238) is most likely the same that I have collected. Philippi's plants were 
sterile. Professor Bitter remarks to ray specimens that he cannot distinguish 
them from subsp. australis Bitt. 

var. insulae-exterioris Bitt. 1. c. 245. 

Masafuera: O. del Mono, in the forest c. 450 m (fl.-fr. '"/2 17, no. 460); 
Q. de las Casas, in the gorge (fr. 'V2 17, no. 440); Q. de las Vacas. outer part; 
Q. de la Loberia; near the Correspondencia Camp, iioo m (fl. ^,3 17, no. 372); 
Las Torres, 1370 m (if the same form as no. 373.^); C. del Barril, 985 m; ridge 
between Q. Inocentes and O. Angosta, c. iioo m; near Las Torres, 1350 m 
(^/a 17, no. 373, a compact form, apparently not the same as the rest, see below). 

Professor BiTTER kindly remarks to \w\ collection: »Der var. insulac- 
exterioris Bitt. entspricht n. 400. Xicht nennenswert verschieden ist n. 460 (das 
eine Exemplar zeigt an den Nebenblattern hie und da ein undeutliches Seiten- 
zahnchen, also Ubergang zu den verbreiteteren Eormen dieser Art). Die Hoch- 
landsform n. 372 unterscheidet sich von den beiden vorhergenannten Belegen 
durch auch an den alteren Blattern bleibende dichtere seidig glanzende Be- 
haarung der Blattunterseite und kompakteren Wuchs der aufrechten, die Bltiten- 
stande entwickelnden Triebe. Die am hochsten wachsende F"orm, n. 373, ent- 
spricht der von SkottSBERG 1908 zusammen mit A. niasafuerana gesammelten 
Pflanze.mit dicht rasigem gestautem Wuchs, kleinen Blattern mit wenigen Blattchen 
und weniger Zahnchen daran, die bei BriTER I. c. 245 ebenfalls ohne Bliiten 
und Friichten dargestellt worden ist. Auf Grund der abweichenden Form ihrer 
Nebenblatter: meist jederseits mit einem Zahn sowie umgekehrt der erheblich 
geringen Zahl der Blattchenzahne (nur 13-15) ist sie von der var. insulae- 
exterioris zu unterscheiden, aber wegen Mangel an Bliiten und Friichten von 
ahnlichen Formen ausserhalb der Inseln nicht sicher zu sondern.» 

Area of distribution: Subsp. australis from S. Chile to Fuegia and the 
Falkland Islands; the variety only known from Masafuera. 

Acaena argentea Ruiz et Pav. X Margyricarpus setosus Ruiz et Pav. 
subsp. digynus Bitter. — Plate 13, fig. i. 

On the open slopes of Masatierra I found a curious plant, which, in general 
habit as well as in morphological features seemed to stand between Margyri- 



134 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



carpus and Acaena argentea. The material was sent to Prof. BiTTEK, who, after 
a careful inspection, confirmed my view. He has established the new bastard 
genus Margyracaena, described below with full details. 

Masatierra: El Pangal, west branch, dry ridge leading to C. Centinela, 
c. 250 m, rare (no. 579); V. Colonial, barren ground along the road to Porte- 
zuelo before it enters the macal, one small patch mixed with A. argentea 
(no. 562; here the photograph on Plate 13 was taken); between the foot of 
Yunque and Villagra, 190 m (fl. 7i ^Z. "O- 241 b); B. Villagra, rocky and 
sandy ridge near the camping place, c. 200 m, several specimens (fl. ^i 17, 
no. 241). 

Area of distribution: Originated in Masatierra, as a result of natural 
crosses between the native Margyricarpiis and the introduced Acaena argentea. 

Professor BiTTER kindly communicated the following description: 

»Margyracaena Skottsbergii Bitter nov. gen. et spec. hybr. 

Suffruticosa; rami vegetativi robusti, 4 — 5 mm diam., decumbentes vel ± ve 
horizontaliter explanati, in partibus vetustioribus lignosis reliquiis foliorum emor- 
tuorum, praecipue vaginis sordide fuscescentibus, ± ve dense involuti, laxiuscule 
irregulariter ramosi; internodia brevia, plerumque 4 — 8 mm, rarius i cm longa, 
in statu novello pilis tenuibus longis crebris obsita, serius ± ve glabrescentia, 
cortice rubri-fusco tandem defoliante obtecta; foliorum vaginae cr. 6—10 mm 
longae, 7 — 8 mm latae, subamplexicaules, viridi- vel tandem rubri-fuscescentes, 
extus pilis longis tenuibus densis subsericei-strigosae, intus flavi-fuscescentes et 
parcius pilis longis obsitae, apice in stipulas anguste lineari-lanceolatas longe 
acuminatas acutas simplices vel 2-fidas 7 — 8 mm longas 2 — 3 mm latas frondosas 
in vaginarum marginibus decurrentes exeuntes; petiolus fere nullus; lamina 
imparipinnata, 5 — (plerumque)7-juga; interstitia brevia, i — 3 mm longa, rhachis 
ergo 15 — 20 mm tantum longa, utrinque dense subsericei-pilosa; foliola inferiora 
linearilanceolata, longe acuminata, simplicia vel dentibus paucis incisa, 6—9 : i — 2 
mm, superiora sensim majora, lanceolata, lateralia basi obliqua, sessilia, infra 
medium latissima, ad apicem versus sensim acuminata, acuta, 18 — 20:3 — 4 mm, 
dentibus in utroque latere 2 — 3 acutis incisa, foliolum terminale petiolulo 2 mm 
longo suffultum utrinque sensim angustatum fere medio latissimum cr. 18:3 mm, 
dentibus utrinque 2—3 (raro 4); inter foliola majora praecipue in rhachidis 
parte superiore foliola minuta nonnulla (3 — 4) interjecta (i — 2,5 mm longa, 
0,5 — 0,7 mm lata) adsunt; foliola omnia subcoriacea, margine revoluta, supra 
nitida, praeter glandulas minutas breviter stipitatas (microscopice tantum per- 
spiciendas) valde sparsas (densiores in venae mediae parte inferiore tantum) 
glabra, subtus pilis tenuibus longis albidis densiuscule sericei villosa, venis supra 
impressis, subtus fere solum vena media prominente; rami floriferi erecti, breves, 
cr. 5 — 8 cm longi, foliis sensim minoribus; inflorescentiae minores pauciflorae in 
foliorum superiorum axillis, terminalis globosa, diam. cr. 12 mm, in Acaenae 
modum e floribus densis congestis composita, in scapum brevem 1 — 2 cm tan- 
tum longum evecta; bracteae lineares, 2—4 mm longae, acutae, in marginibus 
pilis tenuibus longis densis instructae, minores 1—2 mm tantum longae, ceterum 
similes; cupula obconica, dense villosa, immatura a me visa cr. 3:2 mm, infra 
calycem in aculeos 4(— 5) breves inaequilongos 2 — 4 mm, glabros (etiam apice!. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS I ^- 

glochidibus ergo omnino destitutos) vel rarius pilis tenuibus longis paucis prope 
basim (sicut cupula) obsitos rubri-suftusos exiens; sepala 4 — 5, lanceolata, 
utrinque angustata, acuta, 2 — 3 : i mm, extus dense sericei-villosa, intus viridia, 
glabra, subnitida; stamina 3, filamenta gracilia, 4 — 6 mm longa; anlherae reni- 
formes, utrinque emargioatae, 0,8 — i mm longae et latae, purpureae; carpellum i, 
rarius 2; styli fere 1,5 mm longi, graciles; stigmata 2 — 2,5 mm longa, 1,5 mm 
diam., bilateraliter plumosi flabelliformia, verisiiniliter albida. 

Es ist bemerkenswert, dass Skottsberg diese Pflanze an vier verschiedenen 
Oertlichkeiten auf Masatierra und zwar stets in Geseliscbaft von Acacna argentea 
und Margyricaypiis gefunden hat. Danach scheint sich dieser Bastard leicht 
zu bilden, wozu die ausgesprochene Windbestaubung der beiden mit einander 
vergesellschafteten Eltern reichlich Gelegenheit bieten mag.^ 

Der Beschreibung liegt hauptsachlich Xr. 241 zu Grunde, da nur an ihr 
Bliitenstande gefunden worden sind; bei Xr. 562 und 579 traf SKOTTSBERG 
nur vegetative Triebe an, so dass die Bliitenorgane der einzelnen gesondert 
entstandenen Kreuzungen nicht verglichen werden konnten. In der Ausbiidung 
der vegetativen Organe bestehen kaum nennenswerte Unterschiede: die Zahl 
der Fiederpaare scheint bei Nr. 241 haufiger 7 zu sein als bei den andern 
beiden hauptsachlich mit 5 — 6-jochigen Blattern versehenen Xummern, doch 
habe ich auch bei ihnen 7-jochige Spreiten gesehen. Die Blattchen sind bei 
241 wohl durchgangig etwas grosser und breiter als bei 562 und 579 (bei 
letzteren messen die obersten Blattchen nur 14 — 16:3 mm), doch konnte dieser 
geringe Unterschied auch durch Standorts- und Ernahrungsverhaltnisse hervor- 
gerufen worden sein. 

In der Form und Grosse der Blatter und ihrer Teilung nimmt Margyra- 
caena deutlich die Mitte zwischen Acaena und Margyricarpits ein: Verhaltnis 
der Lange der Blattspreiten zu ihrer Breite bei 

Acaena (4 — ); — 8,5 : 3,5 — 4 (seltener 4,5) cm; Margyracaena 2,5 — 4,5 : 1,5 — 2,5 
cm; JMaygyricavpus i — 1,7 : i — 1,5 cm. 

Lange : Breite der Endblattchen bei: Acaena (1,8 — )2,5 — 3 : 0,8 — i cm; Mar- 
gyracaena 1,1 — 1,8:0,2 — 0,3 cm; Margyricarpiis 0,8:0,05 cm. 

Die Blattchen von Margyracaoia sind am Rande deutlicher umgerollt als 
bei der Acaena und weniger stark umgerollt als bei Margyricarpiis. 

Zahl der Zahne an den Endblattchen bei Acaena 21 — 29, Margyracaena 
5 — 7, Margyricarpiis o. 

Die unterseitige Bekleidung der Blattchen ist bei fast alien Varietaten der 

^ In meiner y4ta^//a-Monographie, Biblioth. botan. Heft 74, S. 296—321, habe ich einge- 
hend die leichte spontane Kreuzung unter den Acaenen in den botanischen Garten beleuchtet: 
man beachte besonders die Bastarde zwischen in der Tracht und im Fruchtbau einander femer 
stehenden Arten wie A. glabra und A. sauguisorbae sowie zwischen A. glabra und A. Hiero- 
nyvii. Meine seit Jahren bestehende Absicht, Kreuzung der Acaenen mit andern Sanguisorbeen- 
Gattungen, z. B. mit Poteriian spinosum, Polylepis, Bencoinia herbeizufuhren, hat sich bislang 
hauptsachlich wegen der Ungleichzeitigkeit der Blutenentwicklung nicht verwirklichen lassen. 
Hoffenthcli gelingt es mir, zwischen einer vom chilenischen Festlande stammenden Form der 
Acaena argentea und der (im Gegensatze zu der zweikarpelligen subsp. digynus von Masatierra) 
mit nur einem Fruchtblatte in jeder Cupula versehenen festlandischen Unterart des Majgyri- 
carpus setosus, die ich beide lebend in Pflege habe. eine der 'S{^s3iX\Qxra.-Marg}'racaefia ahnliche 
Kreuzuncr zu erzielen. 



136 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Acaena argentea (auch bei den auf Juan Fernandez vorkommenden Formen) 
dicht anliegend silberig seidenhaarig (mit sehr langen, diinnen, einzelligen Haaren), 
Margyracaena ist unterseits ebenfalls reichlich mit feinen, langen, anliegenden 
Haaren bedeckt, aber dieses Haarkleid ist sichtlich etwas lockerer: neben die 
weiss-siiberige Unterseite von Acaena argentea gehalten zeigt die zwar immerhin 
noch etwas siiberige Unterseite von Margyracaena einen deutlichen Stich ins 
Griinliche. 

Die Blattchen von Margyricarpns sind unterseits frei von einfachen, diinnen 
Langhaaren und daselbst auf der Mittelader mit winzigen gestielten Driisen- 
kopfchen versehen, die bei Margyracaena zerstreut an derselben Stelle ebenfalls 
vorkommen. 

In der Tracht, besonders in der Form der Blatter erinnert Margyracaena 
mehr an die Gattung Acaena; in der Ausbildung der Bliitenorgane sind jedoch 
einige auffallige Merkmale hervorzuheben, die sich mit der Acaena-'^^Vxxoxi 
Ancistrum, zu der sie ihrem Aussern nach gehoren miisste, nicht in Einklang 
bringen lassen, zunachst das vollige Fehlen von Glochiden, iiberhaupt jeglicher 
Behaarung an der Spitze der Cupularstacheln, ferner das wenn auch seltene 
Vorkommen von 2 Carpellen in einer Cupula. Auch durch das fast ganzliche 
Fehlen eines eigentlichen, gestreckten, das endstandige Bliitenkopfchen tragenden 
Schaftes weicht Margyracaoia von den Ancistren ab. 

Trotzdem dass reife Friichte von dieser merkwiirdigen Pflanze nicht vor- 
lagen, Hess sich doch bereits aus der Untersuchung der an den Belegstiicken 
vorhandenen verbluhten Cupulae mit geniigender Sicherheit ermitteln, dass hier 
tatsachlich, wie SKOTTSBERG bereits beim Sammeln der Pflanze vermutet hatte, 
eine offenbar durch Kreuzung entstandene Zwischenform zwischen den beiden, 
am Fundorte mit einander vergesellschafteten Sanguisorbeen Acaena argentea 
R. et P. und Margyricarpns setosus R. et P. subsp. digynns Bitt. vorliegt: zu 
beachten ist besonders, dass die an Acaena gemahnenden, bei Margyricarpns 
fehlenden Cupularstacheln bei Margyracaena von ungleicher Lange sind, offen- 
bar stets kurz (nur 2 — 4 mm lang) bleiben und voUig der endstandigen Wider- 
haken (Glochiden) ermangeln, wahrend die Cupularstacheln von Acaena argentea 
6 — 7 mm lang vverden und an der Spitze stets mit 4—6 kraftigen Glochiden 
ausgeriastet sind. 

Besondere Beachtung verdient iibrigens, dass auch Margyricarpns setosns 
langs verlaufende hervortretende Kanten an den noch unreifen Friichten besitzt, 
die jede mit einigen niedrigen Hockern versehen sind; im reifen Zustande ver- 
schwinden jedoch diese Kanten mit ihren Hockern ausserlich vollstandig, da 
die Cupula beerenahnlich fleischig wird und zu einem fast kugeligen Gebilde 
anschwillt; erst beim Trocknen treten die hockerigen Kanten infolge des starken 
Einschrumpfens der weicheren Cupularteile wieder deutlicher hervor. 

Man wird vielleicht an der Cupula von Margyracaena Andeutungen von 
der im reifen Zustande etwas beerig saftigen, kugeligen Ausbildung der Cupula 
von Margyricarpns vermissen; ich betone jedoch, dass ich an lebenden Exem- 
plaren von Margyricarpns setosus erst kurz vor der volligen Reife die schein- 
beerenahnliche Entwicklung der Cupula habe bemerken konnen. Da hier nur 
unreife, vielleicht wegen der aus zwei einander sehr fern stehenden Arten 
entstandenen Kreuzung niemals zu voller Entwicklung gelangende Friichte vor- 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS I 37 

liegen, so uird man nichL notgedrungen etwas von einer Annaherung an den 
Margyricaypus-V>^\\ zu beobachten brauchen.^ 

Als Abweichinig der Margyracaena von den beiden Eltern sind zu nennen 
i) die oft etwas grossere Zahl der Fiederpaare an den Laubblattern: bei Mar- 
gyricarpus 4 — 5, bei A'caena 5, seltener 6, bei Margyracama 5— (meistens)7; 
2) die tieferen Blattchenzahne der Margyracaena an alien Blattchen; Acaena 
arge?itca besitzt dagegen nur an den unteren l^lattchen jeder Spreite etwas 
tiefere Sagezahne, an den oberen, voll ausgebildeten Blattchen ist sie nur kerbig- 
gesagt, die Blattchen von Margyricarpus sind vollig ganzrandig. Offenbar 
hangt das starkere Hervortreten der Sagezahne an den M argyracaenaVi\^\.\.c\\&\\ 
aber mit der ini Vergleich zu Acacjia argentea starkeren Umrollung des Blatt- 
randes zusanimen, die als Erbstiick von Margyricarpus herriihrt: die Rand- 
umrollung ist bei Margyracaena allerdings bedeutend schwacher als bei Margyri- 
carpus; da sie aber an jedem Zahn von beiden Seiten her erfolgt, so erscheinen 
die Zahne bei ihr etwas schmaler, langer und spitzer als bei der kaum oder 
gar nicht umgeroUten A. argentea. — Ob die im Vergleich zu Acaena etwas gros- 
sere Zahl der Seitenfiedern der Margyracaena auf Rechnung des bei Bastarden 
oft zu beobachtenden uppigeren VVachstums der vegetativen Teile zuriickzu- 
fiihren ist, muss dahin gestellt bleiben. 

Je langer ich mich mit dem Vergleiche der Margyracaoia mit den beiden 
Elternarten beschaftigt habe, um so mehr sind meine anfangiichen Zweifel an 
ihrer Entstehung behoben worden. Gerade in den er tscheidenden Punkten, 
der Ausbildung der Fruktifikationsorgane, diirfte der Margyricarpus-E\nsch\2ig 
bei dem Gattungsbastard unverkennbar sein.» 



Leguminosae. 
Sophora L. 

In Bot. Zeitung XIV (1856) 642 Philippi described a Sophora, collected 
by Germain in Masatierra, as Edwardsia fernandeziayia. In the same journal 
for 1S73, 743, he added E. Reedeana from Masatierra and E. niasafuerana from 
Masafuera. Of this he had only sterile material, the flowers, but not the fruit, 
being known in the other two. 

HemslEY, 1. c. 32, and JOHOW, Estud. 88, reduced all to .V. tetraptera 
J. Mill., Ait.; still, Philippi had indicated a difference worthy of some attention, 

^ Ubrigens sei bei dieser Gelegenheit bezuglich der bei Margyracaena trotz der wahr- 
scheinlich stets tauben Fiuchte vorhandenen, zwar kleinen, aber doch deutlich ausgebildeten 
Cupularstacheln bemerkt, dass sich diese Organe nach meinen Erfahrungen bei rein weiblichen 
AcaefiaPAanztn audi dann gut ausbilden, wenn die Bliiien wegen Fehlens mannlicher Exem- 
plare unbefruchtet bleiben und nachweislich taub sind, wovon ich mich seit Jahren an einer im 
botanischen Garten befindlichen, reich wuchernden und sich durch unterirdische Auslaufer ver- 
mehrenden weiblichen Pflanze von A. macrostemon subsp. pachystigma Bitt. (in AcaevalAono- 
graphie, Biblioth. botan. Heft 74, S. 192) uberzeugt habe. Auch rein weibliche, von mannlichen 
und monoezischen Exemplaren vollig abgesonderte Pflanzen der Sanguisotbee Bencomta caudata 
bilden ihre kugeligen Fruchtcupulae gerade so aus als ob sie reife Samen enthielteu. (Weitere 
Beispiele zu der in den letzten Jahrzehnten an verschiedeuen Pflanzen nachgewiesenen Erscheinung 
der Parthenocarpie!) 



138 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

for the petals in the species from Masatierra were described and figured with 
a distinctly longer nail than in the species from the continent or from New 
Zealand. In 1908 I only got scanty material, but the Masafueran SopJiora was 
found with pods. As these were smooth and entirely unvvinged, I separated 
the island forms as subsp. fernajidezmna (Phil.) from the ordinary 5. tetraptera. 
This time I have a large material at hand, having also studied the collections 
in Santiago and Kew. 

All plants from Juan Fernandez differ from Chilean or New Zealand Sophoras 
in the smaller number of leaflets, the smaller flowers, the longer nails of the 
petals, and in the unwinged pod. It is noteworthy that there is, in New Zea- 
land, a species with small flowers, narrow-winged pod and only 2 — 4 pairs of 
leaflets, S. prostrata Buchan. In some respects, this comes nearer to the Juan 
Fernandez forms, but is, of course, quite distinct. 

Of Philifpi's species, Ediv. masafnerana is easily distinguished, as seen 
from my description and figures. All specimens collected in Masafuera (GUA- 
jARDo! — the type — , JoHOw! and the writer) are exactly like each other 
and rather unlike all forms from Masatierra. The difference between Ediv. 
Reedeana and femandeziana appears to be slight. My figures were prepared 
from Philippi's type material; they show a certain difference in the shape of 
the petals. Philippi described the leaflets of /^rwwc/r.s/Vwtf as spathulate, but 
his figure (pi. VIII B) shows an almost elliptical leaflet; comp. also my fig. 12 a,/. 
Unfortunately, none of my specimens are in flower, what makes the identifica- 
tion with Philippi's forms uncertain. No, 322 from Pto Ingles has 8— 14 pairs 
of narrow elliptical leaflets, densely villous with reddish or silvery hairs, indicating 
that they were not fully developed. The same form was collected by BerterO 
(no. 1 5 16! Herb. Kew); here the leaflets have attained full size and show a 
tendency to become slightly spathulate. I believe I am right in bringing these 
to femandeziana. 

No. 599 from Vaqueria, also found in Q. Juanango, where mature pods were 
gathered, is a robust form with 8 — 10 pairs of large leaflets (13 — 14 X 5 — 8 mm). 
I bring this to Reedeana. Seeds were sown in the Gothenburg Garden in 191 8, 
but the plants are still (Sept. 192 1) rather weak and differ from the parents in 
being nearly glabrous, probably a direct result of greenhouse life. Nos. 63 and 
especially 214 differ from the former by their very slender twigs; the leaflets 
are broader, perfectly glabrous above and with few hairs below; there are 8—10 
pairs in no. 63 (size 8 — 10 X 5 mm) and 6 — 8 pairs in no. 214 (size 6 — 8x 4 — 5 mm). 
Both are sterile. I distinguish these plants as f. gracilior. With regard to the 
marked variation in the Masatierran Sophoras, I for the present comprise all 
forms under the specific name femandeziana. S. Reedeaiia is retained as a 
variety, so that it be not forgotten. A definite arrangement can be made only 
after an examination of a larger material, with flowers and pods of all the forms. 

F'inally, I shall say a few words about the Sophoras of Chile and of New 
Zealand. S. tetraptera occurs in the latter place in two distinct forms or 
species, S. grandiflora (Salisb.) and microphylla Ait. No specimen from Chile 
that I have come across matches S. micropJiylla, but all are very like S. grandi- 
flora in most respects. As a rule, the leaflets number 10—20 pairs in both, 
they may be a trifle broader and more oval in the Chilean plant, but this is 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



139 



hardly a reliable character. The standard is more orbicular in the latter, if 
always, I cannot tell, and the flower smaller. Philippi tried to find some 
difference in the calyx, but without much success (comp. my figures 12 d, e and g). 
The seeds of the Chilean plant are ellipsoidal, slightly compressed from the 
sides, castaneous, 6 — 7 mm long and 4—4,5 mm broad. I have not seen the 
seeds of 5. grandijlora ; in micropkylla I found them dirty yellow or yellowish 
brown, see plate 20, fig. 3 — 4. P'or comparison also the seeds of S. toroniiro 
(Phil.) Skottsb. were figured, differing from those of all the others in colour, 
size and shape. 





Fig. u. a— c Sofihora fernandeziana: a leaf of no. 63, lower side, b of no. 214 (f. graci/ior), 
nat. size: c mature pod of no. 599, \ nat. size, d— g S. juasufuerana : d upper, e lower side ot 
leaf, nat. size, f lower side of leaflet, X 2; g mature pods, I' nat. size, h dehiscence oi Sophora 

pod, schematic cross section. 



We cannot, 1 think, simply use the name S. tctraptera for the Chilean 
plant. Philippi called it Edzu. ^nacnabiana Grab. Edinb. New Phil. Journ. 26 
(1839) 196 (figured in Bot. Magaz. 66, pi. 3735). Graham's description was 
based on a tree cultivated in the botanic garden of Edinburgh; it is not stated 
where the seeds came from. The main difference between this and the New 
Zealand plant was that the former »flowered when in fulljeaf» and was more 
hardy. I have seen Sophora in flower in some places in south Chile. The 
leaves are generally, but not always, shed before the flowers open, and the 
new foliage gets developed with the fruit. — I cannot find that Edtv. cassioides 
Phil, is different. 

The pod o{ Sophora has an interesting structure. Cheese.max, Manual 122, 



I40 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

writes under Sophora: »pod . . . indehiscent or 2-valved, each seed enclosed in 
a separate celU, and, under S. tetraptera: »valves hardly dehiscent». I have seen 
opened pods in several species; a diagrammatic section is given in fig. ii, h. 

68. S. fernandeziana (Phil.) Skottsb. — Fig. 12 a. 

Arbor plurimetralis robusta, cortice obscuro cinereo-fusco sat tenui parum 
striato, vetusto quasi squamoso. Folia 6 — 8 cm longa, rhachide sat dense rufo- 
vel cinereohirsuta paulo complanata et sulcatula; foliola 8— 12( — 14) paria, ellip- 
tica vel elliptico lanceolata, basi et apice obtusa, interdum minute emarginata, 
8 — 12( — 15) mm longa et 3.5 — 4( — 6) lata, obscure viridia, subtus pallidiora, 
supra pilis brevibus cinereis vel rufescentibus inspersa, subtus magis sericea, 
serins utrinque glabrata. Flores quam in S. tetraptera e Novozelandia orta 
minores, sec. "specimina Philippiana a cl. Germain lecta infra depicti. Calyx 
obliquus, 10 mm diam. et ad 13 mm longus, dense rufosericeus. Vexillum late 
ovatum, acutatum, limbo 27 mm longo et 20 lato, ungue cochleato et incras- 
sato, 8 mm longo; alae leviter curvatae limbo ad 25 mm longo et 6 mm lato, 
ungue 7 mm longo. Carinae petala falcata, limbo 30 mm longo et 5 ^/2 mm 
lato, ungue ad 9 mm. Stamina ad 30 mm longa, antheris linearibus, 2 mm 
longis. Ovarium sericeum circ. 2 cm longum leviter curvatum; stylus i cm, 
glaber recurvus. Legumen immaturum in specim. nostris num. 322 2 — 6-locel- 
latum, exalatum. Philippi folia mox caduca solum vidit et ilia glabriuscula 
dixit, sed in ejusdem typo foliola satis villosa sunt. 

Masatierra: Bertero no. 15 16! Germain! Scattered in the forest belt 
from near the sea level to a few hundred meters. — Pto Frances (JOHOW); Pto 
Ingles, central ridge, 380 m (unr. fr. ^^/i 17, no. 322). The following localities 
belong to this or to one of its forms: NE. slope of Damajuana, c. 450 m; V. 
Colonial, O. del Monte Maderugo, steep rocks, 390 m. 

var. Reedeana (Phil.) Skottsb. — Plate 20, fig. i; text fig. 11 c, 12 b, 13 b. 

Foliola 8 — ii-paria, elliptica, obtusa, vulgo 10—12 X 5 — 6 mm, sed usque 
ad 17x8 mm visa, utrinque, subtus praesertim, dense villosa. Flores sec. speci- 
men Philippianum a cl. Reed lectum solum descripti. Calyx ut in typo sed 
minus obliquus, ad ii mm longus et 10--11 mm diam. Vexillum limbo sub- 
orbiculato, obtusissimo, 20 mm longo et 19 lato, ungue crasso lineari 6 mm 
longo. Alae limbo oblique lanceolato, basi subcordato, 21 X 6,5 mm, ungue 
7 mm longo. Carinae petala minus falcata, limbo 24 X 7,5 mm, ungue 7 mm. 
Stamina ad 28 mm longa, antheris anguste ovatis 2,5 mm longis. Ovarium ut 
in typo. Legumen maturum in specim. nostris 599 nee non 1238 inventum, 
magnum, durum, fuscum nee non pilosiusculum, ad 19.5 cm longum (pedicello 
2,5 cm), locellis ellipticis 9 — 10 mm longis compressis, alls destitutum sed anguste 
4-limbatum. Semina pro genere magna, elliptica, compressa, 8 mm longa, 4 — 5 
lata et 3—4 crassa, castanea, nitidula. 

Masatierra: Reed! — La Vaqueria, c. 250 m, many large trees in the 
bottom of the valley in dry open forest (fr. ''/i 17, no. 599); Q. del Juanango, 
c. 200 m (fr. ^/4 17, no. 1238). 

f. graciliov n. f. ad int. — Fig. 11 a — b, 13 a. Specimina sterilia foliis 
adultis solum visa; a ceteris differunt ramulis gracillimis nee non rhachide 



IHK PHANRROGAMS OF IHE ILAN rEKNAN'OF.;^ I.sLANDS 



141 




Fig. 12. Analysis of Sophofa flowers: a S. fernandeziana orig. Germain"; b S. Reedeana orig. 
Reed; c S. masafuerana leg. JoHOW (standard missing); d S. ntetrapiera* from Chiloe leg. 
Skottsberg; e S. t,j)iacnabianai> from Valdivia, leg. Philippi; f S. microphylla znd g S. grandi- 
florn from New Zealand. All nat. size. — k keel, w wing, s standard, c calvx, / leaflet, lower side. 



folioruni tenui; foliola minora, pro longitudine latiora, glabriuscula. Folia 4 — 7 
cm longa; foliola 6 — 8( — io)-paria, siiborbiculata— late eliiptica obtusissima et 
emarginata, supra glabra, subtus hirsutula, 6 — 9 X 3,5—6 mm. Masatierra: O. 
Damajuana, one tree near the stream, 250 m (no. 63) and higher up on the 
slope, 345 m, a few trees (no. 214). 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



142 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



69. S. masafuerana (Phil.) Skottsb. — Plate 20, fig. 2; text fig. 11 d — g, 
12 c, 13 c. 

Arbor pumila paucimetralis ramis longis tenuibus subflexuosis cortice nigre- 
scente. P'olia 5 — 7 cm longa rhachide dense ac longe albo-villosa; foliola 6— 10 
paria, elliptica-subobovata, obtusissima saepe paulo emarginata, margine ± revo- 
luto, 8 — 12 X 5 — 6 mm, obscure viridia, subtus pallidiora, supra glabra, subtus 
inferne et secus medianum pilis albis longis patentibus dense vestita, ceterum 
parce pilosa et glabrescentia. Flores sec. specimen a cl. JOHOW lectum descripti. 
Calyx late campanulatus, 9 mm longus, ad 13 mm diam., obsolete 5-dentatus, 
fulvosericeus. Vexillum non visum. Alae ovato-lanceolatae, limbo 24 X 8 mm, 
ungue 6 mm; carinae petala anguste ovata, subobliqua, limbo 28 X 10, ungue 
7 mm. Stamina ad 26 mm longa, antheris anguste ovatis 1,5 mm longis. Ova- 
rium dense albolanatum ad 22 mm longum; stylus subrectus glaber, 8 mm 
longus. Legumen maturum 8 — ii cm solum longum, irregulariter 3—7 locel- 




Fig. 13. Hairs from leaves of a Sophora fernandesiana [no. 214), b var. Reedenna {no. 599), 

c S. 7nasnfiiera7ta; much enlarged. 



latum, locellis 8 — 10 mm diam., obscure fuscum, albopilosum, omnino exalatum, 
marginibus laevibus vel paulo tuberculatis. Semina baud compressa, obscure 
castanea — flavescentia, 6 — 7 mm longa et 4 — 6 mm crassa. 

Masafuera: GUAJARDo! JOHOw! — Q. de las Casas, on shelves along the 
walls of the gorge (fr. ^72 17, no. 504); Q. de las Vacas (JOHOW); O. Angosta; 
Q. del Varadero. 

This differs from all other forms in the pubescence of the leaflets, illust- 
rated above; part of the hairs are longer and more crisp than in S.feniaiideziana, 
as Fig. 13 shows. There is also considerable difference in the flower and, still 
more so, in the pod. Besides the characters given the smooth surface of the 
pod and the thinness of its walls are to be remembered. The wings, of which 
there is a vestige in the former, are quite wanting or, at most, represented 
by an irregular row of tubercles. The variation in the colour of the seed should 
be noted. 

JOHOW says that he found a form of SopJiora in Masafuera differing from 
Philippi's species, but his material certainly belongs to the latter. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF 1 HE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



M3 



Rutaceae. 
Fagara L. 

70. F. iiiayu (Bert., Hook, et Arn.) PZngler. — JOHOW, Estud. 105. — 
F\^. 14 a— d. 

Masatierra: The largest forest tree and one of the commonest, ranging 
from Pto Frances to 0. Juanango and Co Chumacera and from about 2CO m 
(or less) to more than 600 m (unr. fr. Dec. 1916, no. 194; buds ^V4 17, no. 617; 
male fl. ^% 17, no. 617 b, leg. K. B.vckstrom). 




Fig. 14. a— d Fagara niayii: a cT flower with gynaeceum, b 9 flower (one petal removed) 

with staminode, c $ in fruit, lateral and apical view, and one carpel, all X S; d three leaflets, 

the central from the lower surface; e F. externa, two leaflets, d — e nat. size. 

Leaves to 16 cm long, 3 — 7 paired; leaflets 25 — 43 X 11 — 13 mm, ellipt- 
ical — lanceolate, faintly or not acuminate, base cuneate, short petiolate; glands 
between the marginal teeth distinct but otherwise few or at least few pellucid 
ones. Margin of leaflet forming a regular arch; the teeth only 7 to 9 on each 
side and mostly all of the same width. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



*7i. F. externa nov. spec. — Fig. 14 e. 

A F. mayu insulae Masatierrae incola praecipue diftert foliorum fabrica. 
Folia ad 19 cm longa, 5 — 8 paria; foliola subsessilia, ovato-elliptica, basi late 
rotundata, sat longe et distincte acuminata, 25 — 48 X 13 — 15 nim, margine 
dentibus inaequalibus utroque latere ad 20 vel ultra sat irregulariter undulato- 
serrata, punctis pellucidis creberrimis conspersa. Planta foeminea fructifera 
solum lecta. Fructus maturus irregulariter tuberculato-rugosus; carpella omnia 
quinque saepe fertilia. Semina subglobosa, nitida, atropurpurea. 



144 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Masafuera: Forest on the Sanchez plain, 515 m; Q. del Mono, c. 475 m 
(fr. '"/2 17, no. 521); Q. del Blindado, 440 ni, not uncommon; Q. de la Loben'a, 
280 m, solitary trees. 

Unfortunately, I did not pay sufficient attention to this form while in Masa- 
fuera. Back again in Masatierra, I began to realize that the »mayu» in the 
other island was different. I do not remember having seen any very large 
trees in Masafuera. 0( F. mayti I have seen the specimens collected by Bertero, 
Cuming, Moseley and Philippi, and all agree perfectly well with each other. 
In JOHOW's herbarium specimens from Masafuera were missing. This is much 
to be regretted, as a comparison would have been quite useful. I have figured 
the flowers of F. mayu; those of F. externa are unknown, but there is little or 
no difference in the fruit and seeds. Still, the leaves are so different that I 
have ventured to create a new species. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Euphorbiaceae. 
Dysopsis Bail!. 

']2. D. glechomoides (Rich.) Miill. Arg. subsp. hirsuta Miill. Arg. — 
JOHOW, Estud. 103. 

Masatierra: The commonest herb of the dark, humid forests, thriving in 
very shady corners where few other species grow and sometimes carpeting the 
soil for many square meters. Pto Frances (also observed by JOHOW), primeval 
forest, c. 500 m; forests of the Yunque, very common about 500 m; V. Colonial, 
Q. Gutierrez, c. 350 m (fl.-fr. "/12 16, no. 42); steep slopes near Portezuelo (also 
JOHOW), 450-600 m, common (fl.fr. ''^^/i2 16 — ^^li 17, no. 42b); Q. Seca, 435 m, 
common; C. Salsipuedes, common in Z>/r/^i-<7;/?rt-rich forest c. 600 m; Q. Villagra, 
in many places; Q. de la Choza, 3 — 400 m, not unfrequent. 

The island form, which was the type of a species in Herb. Bertero, 
but not described by him, seems to be very constant. It differs from the two 
continental forms in the dense pubescence, the more oblong leaves and the 
smaller seeds. MULLER Arg. distinguished the Chilean form as the type and 
called the island plant var. hirsuta. I have been inclined to regard the latter 
as a species. Gruning, in »Pflanzenreich» Vol. IV, Pt 147: 8, p. 286, retains 
the forms as varieties; I prefer to regard them as geographical subspecies, as 
they inhabit Vv'idely separated areas and transitions are unknown. Subsp. genuina 
ranges from Chilian to Fuegia, hirsuta is endemic in Masatierra and paitciden- 
tata only known from the Andes of Ecuador. D. ''''hirsuta is perennial and not, 
as says GrOning, annual or perennial; the stamens are mostly six and not 
three; the petiole often measures 2 cm. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra: see above. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE jLAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 1 45 

Empetraceae. 

Empctriim L. 

*73. E. riihrum Vahl. 

Masafuera: On the top of I,os Inocentes, c. 1500 m (no. 379). 

An important addition to the magellanic element. Only one large and 
very old shrub had been discovered when the impenetrable mountain fog closed 
upon us and forced us to abandon the summit. The specimen was without 
flower or fruit, but the leaves are quite like those of E. rubrum. such as I have 
collected it in many places in the south. 

Area of distrihuti(m: Cordillera of \'aldivia to Fuegia and the Falkland 
Islands. 

Rhamnaceae. 
CoUetia Comni. 

74. C. spartioidcs Bert, ex Colla. — JoHOW, Estud. 104. 

Masatierra: Bertero! — Rocky places in the forest region, rare. Pto 
Frances (ace. to Gav); El Pangal, east wall of the gorge, not far from the 
waterfall, c. 220 m (fr. ^i 17, no. 226, also found by JOHOW); XE. precipice 
of Co Damajuana, 500 — 550 m: \'. Colonial, O. del Monte Maderugo, 390 m 
(fr. '^l\ 17, no. 336); Pto Ingles, on the central ridge in a very steep place on 
the west slope (fr. '^ 1 17, no. 320). 

Seeds ovoid, slightly keeled on their ventral side, i^:: mm long, very dark 
brown to almost black, highly polished. JOHOW describes the leaves as lesca- 
sisimas, pequenas i rudimentarias?, but in the young shoots they are numerous 
and of regular size. The branches soon become leafless. 

On Bertero's label is written: >in sylvaticis petrosis montium editiorum-. 
Gav, Bot. II. 35, quotes ColUtia from Pto Frances and says that it flowers in 
March. JOHOW lists as collectors only Bertero and JOHOW, but, as seen 
above, the species is not quite so rare as has been supposed. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



Flacourtiaceae. 
Azara Ruiz et Pav. 

75. A. fernandeziana Gay. — A. serraia Ruiz et Pav. \-3s. ferjiaiideziana 
(Gay) Reiche, Fl. de Chile I. 134; JOHOW, Estud. 109. — Fig. 15 a. 

Masatierra: In the montane forest, supposed by JOHOW to be limited to 

a single locality, but found in many places by the writer. Only a single or 

some few trees were observed in each place. — C. Chifladores, small valley 

facing the Frances Valley, solitary, c. 500 m; on the ridge separating Q. Laura 

10— 20100. The Xat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



146 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



from Q. Piedra Agujereada, c. 500 m, rare; V. Colonial, below Portezuelo, 
c. 450 m, one large tree in dense forest (fl. V12 16, no. 8) and 570 m, two 
small plants; C. Central, c. 400 m; Q. Gutierrez, 350-450 m, rare (fl. V12 16, 
no. 41); Q. Seca, c. 500 m; C. Salsipuedes; mountain ridge west of Co Yunque, 
530 m; O. Villagra, 500-550 m, scattered (unr. fr. Apr. 17, no. 584); Q. de la 
Choza, several trees, c. 300 m. 

In Stud. 18 I restored Gay's species, saying that it differs quite as much 
from senata as this from lanceolata. This statement is not correct, for the 

island species is very near ser- 
rata. Of the latter I have seen 
ample material in Santiago and 
Kew. We learn from the original 
description (Bot. I. 196), that A. 
fer7iamieziana has membranous 
leaves and a fruit twice as long 
as the calyx, while A. serrata 
has coriaceous leaves and the 
fruit three to four times as long 
as the calyx. The only notable 
difference in Steudel's descrip- 
tion (Flora 1856, 421) is the 
glabrous calyx in the former, 
but the calyx is hairy in both. 
Reiche tried to distinguish the 
island form by the broad, thin 
leaves; JOHOW adds that the berries are pure white, while, in A. serrata, they 
are blue and glaucous. I have not seen any quite ripe fruits oi A. femanderAana, 
but all I have are very dark, and I doubt they would have turned white, had 
they been left to ripen. 

The species is upheld with hesitation. Certainly there are differences (see 
fig. 15); the leaves are thinner (but not broader, nor are the stipules larger), 
the pubescence of the stem, and peduncles is denser, the sepals 2,5 — 3 mm long 
against 1,5—2 in serrata, the anthers a trifle larger, the style shorter, 3,5 mm 
against 4—5 in the other. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 




Fig. 15. Flower and sepals of a Azarn fernandeziana 
b A. serrata. X 5. 



Myrtaceae. 
Ugiii Turcz. 

^6. U. Selkirkii (Hook, et Arn.) Berg. — Joiiow, Estud. 91. 

Masatierra: Common on the highest ridges above the forest, associated 
with Pernettya rigida but much more scarce than this. C. Centinela, 500—800 m; 
ridges of Co Damajuana, large shrubs (fl. "Vi 17. "o. 352); V. Colonial, C. Central, 
450—570 m; Portezuelo de Villagra, the steep slope of Co Piramide, 575—600 m 
(buds -^^ 17, fl. ^Vi 17, no. 329); C. Salsipuedes, 500—700 m. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OK 1 flE JLAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 147 



Myrteola Herg. 

'^'J'] . M. minumilariii (Poir.) Berg. 

Masafucra, in tlie alpine region: near the Correspondencia Camp, 1130m 
(fr. V3 17, no. 376); C. del Barril, foot of C. Atravcsado, 1350 m (past fl.-fr. 
V3 17, no. 548); east slope of Los Inocentes, c. 1200 m, and below the summit, 
1350 — 1400 m (fl.-fr. '-"/a 17, no. 377). 

Another interesting addition to the subantarctic group. The specimens 
from Inocentes have almost orbicular leaves, being more »typical», while, in 
the rest, they are more ovate. 

Area of distrihution: Chile, Cordillera of Xahuelbuta and \'aldivia to 
Fuecia and the Falkland Islands. 



Myrceugenia Berg. 

'j'^. M. fernandeziana fHook. et Arn.) Berg. — JOHOW, Estud. 94. 

Masatierra: The leading forest tree, common from near the sea level to 
the high ridges and ranging from Pto Frances to the westernmost forest patches 
of O. Juanango and Co Chumacera. Fl. Dec. 1916 (nos. 39, 75); unr. fr. 
March — Apr. 1917 (no. 575). 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

79. M. Schulzei Johow, Estud. 96 (as ScJiuhii. but named in honour of 
Mr. J. Schulze). 

Masafuera: The principal forest tree, forming a belt in the valleys between 
200 and 800 m, more or less. P^l. Feb. 1917 (no. 505). 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Gunneraceae. 
Gunnera L. 

80. G. peltata Phil. — Johow, Estud. 98; Skottsberg, Stud. 12, Fig. 2. 
Syn. G. insularis Schindl. non Phil. — Fig. 16 a. 

Masatierra: Common in the forested parts, preferring humid ravines, 
where the stem and leaves attain a very great size. Not seen at a lower 
altitude than 160 m. It reaches the foot of the high ridges, where intermediate 
forms between this and G. bracteata are found. To the west of Villagra, on 
the south side of the island, G. peltata descends into the ravines below the 
limit of the forest, reaching its farthest west at the foot of Co Tres Puntas. 
Fl. 2-stage Dec. 1916 (nos. %- , 139); fr. Jan. 1917 (no. 139b). 

I have not much to add to m\- earlier account of this species. This time 
young plants were found in plenty; they are more or less coarsely villous. The 
lamina of the first leaves is reniform and not peltate, while the leaves of the 



148 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

adult plant nearh' always are peltate. Inflorescences collected Dec. 1916 had 
lost their petals and stamens. The stigmas were white in these specimens, not 
crimson as stated for the plants examined before. 
Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

81. G. bracteata Steud. — Johow, Estud. 99; SKOTTSiUiRG, Stud. 10, 
Fig. I. Syn. G. insularis Phil, non Schindl. — Fig. 16 b. 

Masatierra: In the central parts of the island, much more rare than the 
former and belonging to the region of dwarf trees and shrubs along the ridges. 
Seldom found below 500 m. — El Rabanal (JoHOW); Pico Central (JoHOw); 
Portezuelo de Villagra, common in the vicinity of the pass, c. 550—600 m 
(unr.-fr. ^/i2 16, no. I ; also observed by JOHOW); C. Salsipuedes, scattered in 
the thickets on the crest, c. 600 m; highest part of O. Villagra, c. 500 m, with 
an unusually large stem but otherwise typical. — Forma foliis plcmvique pel- 
tatis: C. Centinela, 700 — 800 m, common (fr. 'V4 17, no. 610). A remarkable 
form, found in considerable quantities on the high ridge east of Co Yunque. 
The leaves generally are peltate; this is, as will be shown below, not uncommon 
in intermediate forms, explained as hybrids, but no. 610 is a typical bracieala 
as to all other vegetative characters. Still, it may not be quite pure. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

\G. insularis Phil, (see Skott.SBERG, Stud. 14). Young plants of G. brac- 
teata, collected by the writer, are identical with PlllLlPPl's type of insularis in 
Herb. Santiago, leg. Germain 1854! 

G. pyraniidalis Schindl. (see SKOTTSBERG, Stud. 14). 1 have tried in vain 
to get hold of the type; I am convinced that it is not a separate species. The 
type consists of a piece of an old spike of Bertero no. 1463, without leaves 
or ligules. It differs in the very small bracts, considerably smaller than in the 
top region even, of the other species. I don't know if the bracts in the type 
are intact; I have seen old spikes where the\' have disappeared, leaving a 
stump standing. In Herb. Kew I saw such a piece of Bertero 1463 (this 
number embraces all the forms of Gunnera from Masatierra); it belongs to G. 
bracteata.] 

G. bracteata Steud. X peltata Phil. ~ Plate 13, 2; text fig. 16 c- i. 

Near Portezuelo JOHOW found a Gujinera with rugose leaves and entire 
scales, regarded by him as a bastard between the two species. I have found 
numerous intermediate forms in several places; as hardly one is like the other, 
I believe they are hybrids and also that the F i-generation is fertile so that 
we get an F 2 and following generations. As the two species dififer in many 
characters and as there are so many possibilities to combine these, the theoretical 
result will be a long series of forms uniting the two extremes, and this is 
exactly what we find. 

The main differences between peltata and bracteata may be summarized 
as follows. 

G. peltata: Leaves orbicular, reniform of generally peltate, rugose, petiole 
and lower surface of the blade with scattered tubercles on the larger veins, 



IHF. PHANKROCiAMS OF THK TUAN FF.UNANDEZ ISLANDS 



140 



upjjtr surface very rugose. Scales crimson, long and narrow, with thick flesh\- 
niichib, densely and deeply lacerate, very hirsute on back. Scape more or less 
pilose, bracts linear, oblanceolate-acute. Budding i)arts not very slimy. 




Fig. 16. Scales of Gimnerae: a G. peltata, b G. bracteata, e — i intermediate forms 

All ^ nat. size. 



see text! 



G. bracteata: Adult leaves orbicular-reniform, smooth, glabrous and lustrous, 
petiole smooth. Scales green or brownish green, thin, entire, broad ovate, very 
blunt but sometimes apiculate. Scape glabrous, bracts spathulate. Budding 
parts embedded in thick mucilage. 

Intermediate forms were observed in Masatierra: Portezuelo de \'illagra, 
near the road, c. 300 m (no. 1230) and one fine specimen c. 500 m (Plate 13, 2); 
close to the pass, c. 575 m (fr. Vi 17, "o. 585, ^^U 17, no. 624); C. Salsipuedes. 



15° 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



600—650 m, common together with the supposed parents (fr. ^/i2 16, no. 80, 
^Vi 17, no. 80 a, b); Pto Ingles, central ridge, 575 ni (fr. ^Vi I7> "o- 323); 
Q. Villagra, c. 500 m (fr. ^Vi i/, no. 1218). 

The following notes on the leaves and scales of these specimens will give 
an idea of the range of variation. 

No. 62/j.. Fig. 16 c. — Adult leaves all peltate, very rugose below, larger 
tubercles on veins and petiole few, small; blade almost smooth above. Scales 
linear — triangular, slightly pilose on back, reddish brown; margins short lacerate. 
Scape glabrous, bracts mostly gone, remaining ones ± intermediate in shape. 

No. I2J0. Fig. 16 d. — Leaves peltate, petiole aculeate and pilose, nerves 
with few tubercles, lower surface rugulose, upper very rough, thus leaves like 
those of pcltata, but the lobes more blunt. Scales entire to short lacerate, 
ovate to linear-triangulate, reddish brown, pilose on back. 

No. §8§. Fig. 16 e. — Leaves only slightly peltate, otherwise as in pd- 
tata; scales narrow Hnear to triangular, reddish brown, shortly lacerate, densely 
pilose on back. Scape pilose, bracts as in peltata. Spike less dense than in 
this. Budding parts more slimy than in peltata. 

No. ^23. Fig. 16 f. — Leaves not peltate, with acute, serrate lobes, pil- 
ose on the nerves below, with few and low tubercles. Scales ovate— triangulate, 
acute, entire or slightly dentate, brownish green with reddish centre, a little 
pilose on back. Scape glabrous; no intact bracts left. 

No. 80 a. Fig. 16 g. — Leaves .slightly or incompletely peltate, slightly 
rugose below and almost smooth above, petiole strongly aculeate. Scales ovate — 
triangulate, acute, entire or dentate, greenish brown with reddish centre, glabrous. 
Scape glabrous, bracts as in bracteata. 

No. 80 b. — Like the former, but leaves peltate and nearly smooth on 
both sides. Scales narrower, rarely dentate, slightly pilose on back. Bracts a 
little narrower. 

No. 80. Fig. 16 h. — Leaves peltate, smooth, slightly pilose on the nerves; 
petiole with scattered low emergences. Scales greenish brown with reddish 
centre, broad linear— triangular, acute, entire or lacerate in the upper half, almost 
glabrous. Scape nearly glabrous, bracts of peltata type. 

No. 1218. Fig. 16 i. — Leaves not peltate, nearly smooth above, slightly 
rugose and aculeate below. Scales green, ovate— triangular, acute, entire or 
lacerate, a little pilose on back. Scape glabrous. No intact bracts left. 

82. G. Masafuerae Skottsb. — Stud. 14, Fig. 3; Taf. 3—4. 

Masafuera: known before only from Q. de las Casas, now found in many 
places and not at all confined to the canyons, but quite common higher up on 
the mountain slopes or in the shallow ravines in the alpine region. — Along the 
road to Las Chozas, open spaces in the forest belt; in the higher treeless tracts 
between 700 and iioo m, extensive patches in some places; O. de las Casas, 
between stones by the stream and on the rock walls of the canyon (unr.-fr. 
^^^U 17, no. 400); Q. de las Vacas, reaching farther down owing to the greater 
.supply of water; O. del Blindado, in the forest, 440 m; Q. Angosta, by the 
waterfall; O. de la Loberia, 280 m, in open forest. Also in the alpine region: 



THE i>haner(k;ams ok the jlan keunandez islands 



'5' 



on the western wall of the island, not uncommon; near Las Torres, 1350 m; 
top of Co Correspondencia, c. 1400 m. 

To my description of 1914 the followingr notes sliould be added. Old 
trunks sometimes as much as V2 ni high and 2 dm across; petiole to i V2 m 
long, occasionally as much as 12 cm wide at base; largest lamina measured 
2,87 m across. Scales densly pilose on back, as in G. peltata. Largest scapes 
measured 1,67 and 1,75 m, respectivel}', very heavy, drooping, as much as 26 cm 
across at base. 

This species has larger leaves than the other Juan Fernandez species. 
Besides by other characters, it is distinguished by the branches of the spike 
becoming conspicuoush- incrassate in the fruiting state. The fruit is bright 
orange red turning crimson when ripe. 

In Xo. 400 transitions were found between normal leaves and the so called 
»ligules», showing that the latter are not ligular structures, but reduced leaves, 
homologous with the large green leaves as well as with the reduced bracts. 
I shall return to these organs in another paper. 

The young petioles of G. Masafiierae have a more agreeable, less acid 
taste than those of G. peltata; they are quite refreshing, a fact well known to 
the islanders, who distinguished G. Masafiierae as a special sort of »nalca» 
(native name for the petioles) long before it was described by the writer. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Halorrhagidaceae. 
Halorrhagis Forst. 

A species of HalorrJiagis was first collected in Masatierra by Mrs. Gkaham 
in 1823 and later by SCOULER, Bertero, Cuming, Germ.MN, Philippi, Reed, 
MoSELEY and JOHOAV, also by me in 1908. I have seen specimens brought 
by all these collectors. SCHIMDLER, Pflanzenreich, also quotes J. D. HoOKER, 
who never visited Juan Fernandez. All the specimens were referred to one 
species and identified with Cercodia crecta^wxx. Comment. Goetting. II (1780) 3 
tab. I = H. alata Jacq. = //. erecta (Murr.) Schindler, 1. c. IV. 225 (1905) 49, 
fig. 14. The plant from Masatierra goes under one of these names in all 
publications and herbaria, also in the monograph of SCHINDLER. In 1908, the 
same name was used by me, on the authority of SCHINDLER. At that time I 
had no reason to doubt his statements, with one exception, viz. that he quotes 
H. erecta as a native of Chile (Germain); it does not occur on the continent, 
and GER^[AIX's specimens came from Juan Fernandez. 

After I had discovered a number of forms in Masafuera, I began to study 
H. erecta from New Zealand and found that the plant from Masatierra was a 
distinct species. It is evident that SCHINDLER based his description on speci- 
mens from both Xew Zealand and Juan Fernandez (Masatierra). 

Before my visit in 1908 Halorrhagis had been brought from Masafuera 
only by GERMAIN. No distinction was made between this and the form in 
Masatierra. Both are quite smooth, but otherwise very different from each 



152 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



other. I have seen Germain's plant and I have collected the same species in 
several places in 191 7. The form I found in 1908 was, however, not this, but 
a very scabrous one, more like the true H. erecta; it was mentioned in my 
account as var. scabra. I have found it in many places in 1917, in flower and 
fruit. It stands very near erecta, but must be kept separate. 

Thus, H. erecta does not occur in Juan Fernandez, but is replaced by 
three different species. On the other hand, it seems that //. erecta of New 




X 




Fig. 17. a— e Halorrhagis erecta, cuh. : a leaves, nat. size, b bud, X 6,6, c sepal and d petal, 

X 20, e fruits, X 6,6. f— g H. erecta leg. Cheesemair. f leaf, nat. size; g fruits, X 6,6. h fruits 

ot H. Colensoi and i of H. caj-tilagiitcn, X 6,6. 



Zealand comprises two distinct plants. MuRK.W described a scabrid plant with 
alate fruits (see fig. 17 a — g). In Herb. Kew I saw specimens of this kind col- 
lected by FORSTER, CUNNINGH.VM, BUCHANAN, J. D. HoOKER, ChEESEMAN a. o. 
FoRSTER's specimens are less scabrous than the rest. But under the same 
name was a smooth form collected by CoLENSO, with small, barely alate fruits, 
recalling my H. niasatierraiia in habitus, but differing in the shape and size of 
the fruit (see fig. 17 h). I have called this H. Colensoi. 

H. cartilaginea Cheesem., later reduced to a variety of H. erecta (Man. 
N. Z. Flora 148) was justly reestablished by SCHINDLER. It seems to be 



IHK l>HANF.ROOAMS OK IHK JUAN KKRNANDKZ ISLANDS 1 53 

a ver\' distinct species (fig. 17 i). To the same subsection Cercodia (Murr.) 
Schindl. also belong //. laivis. cxalata ami pcdiccllata. all natives of l'~asteiii 
Australia. 

Key to Subsect. Ceicodia. 

I. Sepals tridentate //. pidiccllata Schindl. 

IT. Sepals entire. 

A. Whole plant more or less scabrid. 

1. Densel}' scabro \elutinous. Leaves thick, broadly ovate. 

H. cartilagima Cheeseni. 

2. Coarsch' scabrid. Leaves thin. 

a. Stem with large, scattered hooks. Teeth of leaves pungent. 

H. exalata F. Miill. 

b. Stem with minute prickles, teeth of leaves not pungent. 

a. Leaves barely scabrous. Stigma papillae few celled. Fruit 
more than 3 mm long. H. crecta (Murr.) Schindl. 

|j. Leaves very scabrous. Papillae multicellular. Fruit hardly 
3 mm long. H. aspen-ima Skottsb. 

B. Whole plant perfectly smooth. 

1. Leaves large, narrow lanceolate H. lacvis Schindl. 

2. Leaves ovate or broad lanceolate. 

a. Fruit large, generally over 4 mm. 

a. Narrow ovoid, distincly costate. H. niasatierrana Skottsb. 
,3. Broad ovoid, not costate. H. inasafucrana Skottsb. 

b. Fruit small, c. 3 mm long. H. Colensoi Skottsb. 

^83. H. asperrinia nov. spec. — Syn. H. erecta var. scabra, Skotts- 
BERG, Stud. — Fig. 18. 

Suffrutex semimetralis, glaber sed scaberrimus, fere a basi opposite ramo- 
sus. Rami tetragoni longitudinaliter ac conspicue 4-lineati, lineis elev^atis valde 
scabris. Folia opposita, superiora saepe alternantia, internodiis sat longis sepa- 
rata, tenuia, laete — obscure viridia subtus paulo pallidiora, ubique asperrima, 
ovata vel ovato-lanceolata, basi cuneato-rotundata, longe (10 — 18 mm vel inter- 
dum ultra) petiolata, lamina argute serrata dentibus distincte apiculatis utrinque 
12 — 14, 30—50 mm longa et 10 — 22 mm lata, superiora sensim minora, pro 
magnitudine longe petiolata, anguste lanceolata — ovato-rhomboidea, parcius 
dentata — subintegra. Inflorescentia spicata foliosa, e dichasiis bracteolatis 3 — 7- 
floris composita. Flores brevissime pedicellati (\'2 miiii, omnino scabri. Ovarium 
tetragono-ovoideum, interdum raox alatum, 1,2 — 1,5 mm longum et i mm latum. 
Sepala 4 acute triangulata, minute denticulata, 0,8—09 mm longa. Petala 4 
navicularia, carinata et in carina scabra, breviter unguiculata, 2 — 2,5 mm longa, 
viridia— alborosea. Stamina 8 hiamentis tenuissimis c. 1,5 mm longis, antheris flavis 
dorso ± rubescentibus, i — 1,5 nun longis. Styli 4, ad 0,8 mm longi, stigmata alba 
vel rosea papillis longis multicellularibus. Fructusscaber, viridis— obscure violaceus 
tetragono ovoideus pyriformis exalatus vel 4-alatus, cum sepalis persistentibus 
2,7—3 n^'^'' longus et 2 mni latus, inter margines alarum autem ad 4 mm metiens. 



154 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Masafuera: Skottsbekg 1908, ster. — Q. de las Casas, quite common 
(fl.-fr. ^72 17, no. 457 — f. fructibus alatis); Q. de las Vacas (fl.-fr. ^^^2 17, 
no. 442 — f. non alata); Q. del Blindado, in the forest c. 440 m; Q. del Vara- 
dero; on the precipice above Buque Varado, c, 1200 ni. 




Fig. 18. HalorrJiagis aspcrriina; a—f from no. 457: a two lower and b three upper leaves, 
nat. size; c flower (petals and anthers removed), X 6,6; d sepal and e petal, X 20; f Iruits, X 6,6. 
g— p from no. 442: g two lower, h tliree upper leaves, nat. size; i flower on male and k on 
temale stage, X 6,6; 1 sepal and m petal, X 20; n typical fruits, o with trace of wings, pone 

of these seen from the top, all X 6,6. 



No. 457 and 442 are so unlike each other that I have been inclined to 
bring them to different species. No. 457 is wholly green, the leaves are broader, 
especially in the floral region, the branches thinner, the fruit mostly alate with 
low, broad wings, see fig. 18 a — f. No. 442 is more or less tinged with antho- 



HIE I'HANEROGAMS OK IHK JUAN Ff.RNANDEZ ISLANDS 



'55 



cyaniii — though never so bright red as //. crccta , the leaves arc narrower, 
the fruit only shghtly tetragonous and mostly without a trace of wings, see 
^g- 1 8 g — P- I'luits from both numbers were sown in the Gothenburg Garden 
and yielded numerous plants; at {n^esent I have 13 specimens of no. 457 and 
32 of no. 442 in cultivation. The latter are exactly like the mother plant, but 
the former are unlike no. 457 and habituall}' very like no. 442. Still, small 
wings develop in man\- fruits as in the mother plant, but not so regularly. I 
suppose the difterence in vegetative characters is due to external conditions, 
but it is less probable that these should influence the development of wings. 

//. aspcrrima is very near H. erecta, but this is less scabrous and the 
leaves are nearly smooth, especially the margin, which, in H. aspcnuna, is 
thickly beset with microscopic aculei. The stigma-papillae are mostly 2-celled 
and the fruit 3,5 — 4 mm long in erecta. 

Area of distribution: luidemic in Masafuera. 

84. II. niasatierraiia nov. spec. — //. alata (erecta), JoHOW, Estud. 97, 
SkoTTSBERG, Stud. 10, 71011 Murr. nee Jacq.; SCHINDLER in Pflanzenreich p. p. 




Fig. 19. Haloi-yJiagis masatierrana : a two lower, b three upper leaves, nat. size; c rtower on 
male and d on female stage, X 6,6; e sepal and f petal, X 20; g fruits of no. 504, h of JoHow 

no. 6, all X 6,6. 



SufFrutex 2 — 5 dm altus, glaber, laevissimus, fere a basi opposite ramosus. 
Rami cylindraceo-tetragoni, longitudinaliter 4-lineati, cortice ± rufescente. Folia 
omnia opposita vel superiora florigera alternantia, discoloria, supra laete 
viridia, subtus glaucescentia, inferiorum lamina ovata, acuta, basi late cuneata, 
petiolo 3—8 mm longo suffulta, plerumque 15—30 mm longa et 9 — 14 mm lata, 



156 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

regulariter serrata dentibus utrinque 6-9, superiora multo minora, paucidentata- 
subintegra, basi longe cuneata, suprema bracteiformia. Inflorescentia densa 
vel laxa, foliosa, e dichasiis bracteolatis plerumque 3-flori.s composita. Flores 
brevissime (i mm) pedicellati, omnino laeves. Ovarium subtetragonum et sat 
distincte 8-lineatum, 0,9—1 mm longum et fere latum, cum pedicello ± rufescens. 
Sepala 4 late ovato-triangularia, suberecta, 0,9 mm longa. Petala 4 navicularia 
alborosea carinata, 3 — 3,5 mm longa, manifeste unguiculata. Stamina 8 fila- 
mentis c. i mm longis, antheris flavo-roseis 2 — 2,3 mm. Styli 4, 0,8 mm longi, 
stigmata rosea papillis pauci-(i — 3)cellularibus. Fructus anguste tetragono- 
ovoideus, in specim. num. 304 cum sepalis 4 — 4,5 mm longus et 1,7 — 1,9 mm 
latus, non alatus sed lineis paulo elevatis 8 notatus, fusco-viridis. 

Masatierra: Not rare on the dry, rocky ridges, also on open, stony 
ground in the forest belt. Rabanal (JOHOw); El Pangal, on the western slope; 
C. Centinela (Joiiow); V. Colonial, C. Central (also Johow), 570 m (fl.-fr. ^Vi 17, 
no. 304), Q. del Monte Maderugo, road-side in the macal, 240 m, and rocky 
wall, 390 m; C. Salsipuedes, frequent, 350—650 m (fl. ^^/i2 16, no. 172); Porte- 
zuelo de Villagra, not rare on both sides (fl. ^/i2 16, no. 34 — also observed 
by JoHOW); ridge between Vaqueria and Q. Juanango, 300 m; O. Juanango, 
outer part. South side of the island, Q. Villagra, rare in the forest c. 500 m; 
east side of B. Chupones, barren slopes. 

This differs widely from the typical scabrous H. erecta, but it is more like 
what I have called H. Colensoi, especially the more stunted form of H. inasa- 
tierrana, growing on the sunny ridges (no. 34, 172). Of this I got no fruits. 
JOHOW collected fruiting specimens of exactly the same habitus (no. 6). The 
fruits of these, only 3,5 — 4 mm long (but hardly quite ripe) come very near 
H. Colensoi, where, however, they are transversely rugose. Both have traces 
of wings (see fig. 19 h and 17 h). Still, I believe there is only one species in 
Masatierra and that H. Colensoi is different. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

*85. H. niasafiieraiia nov. spec. — Syn. H. alata, Johow, Estud. 98 
quoad plantam e Masafuera. — Fig. 20. 

Suffrutex semimetralis patente opposite ramosus glaber laevissimus. Rami 
cylindracei — obscure tetragoni 4-lineati. Folia subcarnosula laete viridia, inferiora 
petiolo 8 — 10 mm longo suffulta, lamina ovato-lanceolata, basi late cuneata, 
margine incrassata, grosse serrata dentibus utrinque 9 — 11, c. 45 mm longa et 
20 mm lata, superiora sensim minora et brevius petiolata, suprema subrhomboidea 
subintegra. Inflorescentia laxa foliosa, e dichasiis bracteolatis i — 3 (rarius ad 5)- 
floris composita. Flores brevissime (V2 — i mm) pedicellati, omnino laeves. 
Ovarium ovoideum 1,5 mm longum et i,a latum. Sepala 4 triangulata margine 
integro, i — 1,2 mm longa. Petala 4 viridia fusconotata, navicularia, carinata, 
manifeste unguiculata, 2,5 — 3 mm longa. Stamina 8 filamentis ad 1,5 mm longis, 
antheris ad 1,6 mm. Styli sepalis aequilongi, stigmata alba, papillis longis sed 
paucicellularibus. Fructus pyriformis quam in ceteris major, cum sepalis 4,2 — 4,6 
mm longus, basi 3—3,2 mm latus, fere semper alls omnino destitutus, maturus 
± violascens, in sicco obscure 4-sulcatus. Adsunt specimina fructibus tubercu- 
latis nee non alia fructibus irrepulariter alulatis. 



IHK I'HANF.ROCA.MS OF IMF. JUAN FFRNANDEZ ISLANDS 



'57 



Masafiiera: Germain oct. 1854 (Herb. Santiago!); Q. de las Vacas, on 
the walls in the outer section (fr. '"/^ 17, no. 441 — f. tuberculata); stony beach 
near V'aradero (IV. -"-/o 17, no. 12 16); Q. de la Loberi'a, near the shore (fr. '^'2 17, 
no. 485 — f. alulata). 

//. masafuc)a)ia differs from all others in the size and shape of the fruit 
and in the smooth, shiny stems, leaves etc. I have sown seeds of all the 
different numbers; of no. 12 16 I have numerous, of 441 a few plants in cultiva- 
tion. The difference between them is slight, and the tubercles on the fruit of 




Fig. 20. Halorrhagis masafiierona; a- f from no. 1216: a lower, b upper leaves, nat. size; 

c flower on male and d on female stage, X 6,6; e sepal, X 20; f fruits X 6,6. g— h from no. 

441: g petal, X 20; h fruits, X 6,6; i fruits of no. 485, X 6,6. 

the latter become pronounced only with desiccation, but are quite wanting even 
in the dry fruits of no. 12 16. More material is needed to decide whether 
no. 441 represents a distinct variety. Of no. 485, the seeds did not germinate. 
Fruits of all the forms are figured. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Umbelliferae. 

Erynglum L. 

86. E. bupleuroides Hook et Arn. — Joiiow, Estud. 100; Skottsjserg, 
Stud. 16, Taf. 5, Fig. 4. — Fig. 21 a— g. 



158 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Masatierra: Not uncommon near the limit of the forest, along the higher 
ridges etc., rarely seen below 400 m. — C. Centinela, rather common on the 
ridge (also observed by JOHOW); El Pangal, west branch, on the slopes from 
400 m; in the gap between Co Damajuana and Co Yunque, c. 580 m; V. Colonial, 
C. Central, 400—570 m, scattered; Q. del Monte Maderugo, steep slopes 390 — 
500 m (fl. ^Vi I7» "o. 335); Portezuelo de Villagra, on both sides (fl.-fr. Dec. 
1916, no. 4, also observed by JoHOw); Pto Ingles, central ridge, c. 470 m; the 
ridge between Vaqueria and Q. Juanango, c. 300 m; forest on a mountain spur 
west of Co Yunque, 550 m; Q. de la Choza, foot of the steep ridge, 400 — 450 m; 
south wall of Co Chumacera. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

^Sy. E. inaccessuin nov. spec. — Plate 12. Text fig. 21 h — p. 

Arbuscula glaberrima saltem ad V2 m alta, parce pseudodichotome ramosa. 
Radix primaria profunde infossa parce ramosa. Truncus primarius ad 25 mm 
diam., cortice fusco leviter longitudinaliter striato et passim trans\erse rimoso; 
rami ultimi cicatricibus foliorum densissime annulati. Folia ad apices ramorum 
densissime rosulata, semiamplexicaulia, sessilia, valde firma, crassiuscula, obscure 
viridia et subnitida nervis perplurimis parallelis (circ, 5 — 7 crassioribus) percursa, 
late lineari-lanceolata, acutissima, apice pungentia, 10 — 15 cm longa et 1,8—2,7 cm 
lata, basi 1,6 — 2 cm; maxima visa 17,5 — 23 cm longa et 2,8 — 3,8 cm lata, basi 
1,8 — 2,6 cm; margine angustissime scariosa, infra apicem dentibus acutissimis 
pungentibus utroque latere i — 4 (plerumque 2 — 3) munita, rarissime integerrima. 
Inflorescentia terminalis monocephala, scapo complanato 6 — 1 1 cm longo circ. 
5x7 mm diam., cavo, viridi-violaceo. Involucrum ad 23-piiyllum phyjlis crassis 
durisque, acutis, pungentibus, basi incrassatis, supra obscure violaceis, subtus 
viridibus, anguste triangulatis, margine paulo incrassatis, 20 — 25 mm longis et 
4 — 5 """^""^ latis. Capitulum magnum atroviolaceum depresso-hemisphaericum, 
21 — 27 mm altum et 27 — 37 mm latum; receptaculum vaginis bractearum pro 
funde alveolatum, intus cavum, caverna ad 17 mm lata et 13 mm alta, pariete 
2 mm solum crasso. Bracteae anguste rectangulato-subspathulatae, firmae, sub- 
carnosae, basi incrassatae albae, amplexiflorae, apice truncatae et obscure 
violaceae, margine angustissime albonotatae, ad 7 — 8 mm longae et basi 2 — 3 mm 
latae. Flores numerosissimi, jam deflorati solum visi, staminibus exceptis 7 mm 
longi. Sepala rectangulata, cochleata, apice truncata et ± emarginata, sat crassa, 
alboviridia apice obscure violacea, 3 — 3,5 mm longa et 1,5—2 mm lata. Petala 
ex albo violascentia, duplicato-inflexa, apice subdentata, 2 — 2,1 mm longa et 
0,7 mm lata, mox decidua. Stamina violacea filamentis 5 mm longis apice in- 
curvis, antheris ovatis 1,5 mm longis. Stylopodium crateriforme viride; styli 
3 — 4 mm longi, atroviolacei. Mericarpium fuscum subnitidum. 4—? mm longum 
et 2,5 mm latum, ambitu truncatoovale, late et obtuse carinatum, dorso laeve 
vel inconspicue tuberculatum, sub apice appendicibus calycinis sat magnis or- 
natum, margine anguste alatum nee non dentatum. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra, on the precipitous walls facing SW. 
and SE., c. 620 m, about a dozen specimens seen (past fl. ^^12 16, no. 196). 

A very distinct and conspicuous species of the well known insular type 
of rosulate dwarf-trees; in spite of growing close to the most frequented spot 



rilK I'llANEROGAMS OK IHK JUAN KERNANDKZ ISLANDS 



159 




Fig. 21. a— g Ervngiiim biiplciiroiiles : a leaves, J nat. size; b involucral leaves, outside aiui 
inside, nat. size; c bracts, outside and inside; d flower; e id. in fruit; f sepal (inside); g petal; 
c— g X )■ h-p E. inaLcessian: h leaves, | nat. size; i involucral leaf (inside), nat. size; k bracts, 
inside and outside; 1 fruit, m mericarp from the back, n sepals, o petal, p stamen; k— p X 5. 
q — u }■:. femandezianiiiii : q leaves, \ nat. size; r involucral leaves, inside and outside, nat size; 

s flower, t bract, u sepal; s— u X 5- 



in the island it seems to have escaped the attention of all earlier visitors. The 
place where it was found is a perfectly perpendicular and thoroughly inaccessible 



l6o CARL SKOTTSBERG 

rock wall, and it cost us considerable trouble to obtain sufficient material. 
The photograph on Plate 12 is of a complete specimen that had been lowered 
down from the cliff. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

88. E. fernandezianum Skottsb. Stud. \'] , Fig. 5. — Fig. 21 q— u. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra, c. 600 m, two specimens at the foot 
of the crest west of the pass (past fl. ^*/i2 16, no. 188). 

Described from a fragment without flowers or fruit, collected by me in 
1908, as far as I can understand taken from one of the two bushes seen in 1917. 
They bore flower heads, but petals and stamens were gone. No ripe fruits 
were encountered. A complete description is given below. 

Arbuscula glaberrima 0,75 m saltem alta, erecta, pseudodichotome ramosa, 
ramis 5 — lO mm crassis, junioribus creberrime annulatis. Folia ad apices ramo- 
rum confertissime rosulata, firma et crassiuscula, basi tenuiora subamplexicaulia, 
nervis perplurimis parallelis percursa, nervo centrali magis conspicuo et in pagina 
inferiore leviter incrassato, linearia, subspathulata, acuta, margine in parte 
dimidia vel tertia superiore serratodentata dentibus mitibus utroque latere 5—9 
(plerumque 6 vel 7), 6—12,3 cm longa et 11 — 25 mm lata, basi 9 — 12 mm. 
Inflorescentia terminalis monocephala, scapo 5 — 6 cm longo et 3 mm crasso 
superne cavo. Involucrum circ. 18 phyllum phyllis longissime triangulatis acutis 
basi incrassatis, margine inferne scariosis, supra colore fuscoviridi in violaceum 
spectante, subtus viridibus, ad 20 mm longis et 5 mm latis. Capitulum circ. 
17 mm altum et 20 latum, viridi-violascens. Receptaculum cavum caverna 
6 — 9 mm alta et 8 — 12 mm diam. Bracteae lineari-subspathulatae, apice trun- 
cato-rotundatae, basi incrassatae, 5 mm longae et 1,5 — 2 latae, hyalino-albidae, 
apice violaceae. Flores confertissimi omnes jam deflorati, 6 mm longi et 3 mm 
diam. Sepala ovata, rotundato-acutata, margine scariosa, viridia, apice viola- 
scentia, 2,5 — 3 mm longa et 1,5 — 1,7 mm lata. Petala . . . Stamina . . . Stylo- 
podium crateriforme obscure viride. Styli 4,5 — 5 mm longi virides. Mericarpium 
immaturum 3,5 mm longum, viride, sectione triangulare, apice circumcirca appen- 
diculatum, dorso et margine appendiculis humilioribus ornatum. 

I am strongly inclined to regard this as a bastard between E. bupUiiroidcs 
and E. inaccessurn. This idea did not occur to me when describing the species, 
as one of the supposed parents was unknown at that time. In most characteis 
it is intermediate between the two. The cortex is more as in E. inaccessiiui, 
but the internodes sometimes slightly longer. The leaves are exactly inter- 
mediate in shape and size (see fig. 21), and so are the marginal teeth in shape 
and number; they are not pungent. The midrib is more conspicuous than in 
E. inaccessiivi, where all the principal veins are of the same strength, but less 
prominent than in E. bupleitroidcs. The scape and receptacle are hollow as in 
the former. The involucral leaves are intermediate in shape, size and number, 
being green in E. bupleiiroides. The head stands between the two in shape 
and size and so do the sepals. The fruit is more like that in E. bjiphuroides. 
No ripe seeds were found. In anatomical structure the fruit takes an inter- 
mediate position. Both the supposed parents grow close to the place where 
E. fe7-7iandezianiii)i was found, and its great scarcity speaks rather in favour of 



THK PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS l6l 

a Inbiid orij^in. It is certainly one of tlie very rarest plants in the island. 
Still, no proofs that it is a bastard can be given at present. 
The following figures illustrate the intermediate position: 



VT I r I Number oi/.t ui i ' r .1 

Number of ^j- j,^. involucral Size of bracts,' Size of sep.nls, V"]^'^' 

^f^^'^'" Ivoiucrnl leaves, | ,„,,, ,„„, ' ot style, 

leaves , ' ' """ '"'" mm 



leaves nim 



E. biipleiiroides 
E .fernandezianum 
E. inaccessiim 



8—18(10 — 11) 10—12 10—20X3 3,5—4X1,5—2 2—2,5X1 — 1,2 6 

5—9 (6—7) , 16—18 ^ 20X4—5 5X1,5—22,5—3 Xi,5— 1,7 4,5—5 ' 

1—4 (2—3)! 18-^3 I20— 25x4-5 7—8X2-3 3—3,5x1,5-2 3—4 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

89. E. sarcophyllum Hook et Arn. — Joiiow, Estud. loi; Skottsrerg, 
Stud. 16, Fig. 4, Taf. 5 Fig. 5. 

Masafuera: coast cliffs, very local: Cuming! Johow! — Between Vara- 
dero and Tierras Blancas (fr. ^V2 17, no. 402); Rodado del Sandalo. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Apiuni L. 

90. A. fernandezianum Joh.; Johow, Estud. loi ; Skott.sberg, Stud. 17, 
Taf. 5 Fig. 6. 

Masatierra: Tres Puntas (JOHOW); barren cliffs in B. del Padre (fr. ^^/i 17, 
no. 291; beg. fl. *^/8 17, BaCKSTROM no. 291b; also observed by JoilOW and 
by the writer, 1908); Tierras Blancas (fl. Vs 17, Backstrom no. 1219). 

Cultivated in a temperate house this species develops exceedingly well 
and flowers and fruits freely. The branches, which are decumbent and root at 
the node.s, attain a length of one meter. The fruit is typical of the genus and 
agrees with that of A. graveolens in structure. A. fernandeziamun is related to 
A. prostratum Labill., widely dispersed in the Southern Hemisphere; it difters 
above all in the shape and cutting of the leaves. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



Ericaceae. 
Pernettya Gaud. 

91. P. rigida (Bert.) DC. — JOHOW, Estud. 87. 

Masatierra: Generally outside the forest but rare below the wooded 
region; one of the most important shrubs on the rocky ridges, where it forms 
low thickets. It does not, however, thrive well in the dry western section. We 
found it on all the ridges to the highest altitude reached (c. 800 m), and I am 
sure it is a leading species on the top of the Yunque. — Fl. /12 16, no. 27; 
II —20400. The Nai. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. 11. 



I 62 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

^/i2 i6, no. 89; ^/i 17, no. 259; fr. 'V4 17, no. 623. — A form with larger and 
thinner leaves was collected at the edge of the Dkkso7/ui-lor:est on C. Salsi- 
puedes (buds */i2 16, no. yy), another with exceptionally narrow leaves among 
rocks near this place (fl. ^/i2 16, no. 86). 

Masafuera: Scattered in the higher parts, locally abundant. Ridges and 
plains above the Chozas village, 600—1350 m (fl. ^'"/-j 17, no. 490); slopes of 
Los Inocentes, 480—1400 m, not uncommon. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Convolvulaceae. 
Dichondra Forst. 

*92. D. repens F'orst. 

Masatierra: Pto Frances, by the stream, c. 40 m, 

Masafuera: Outer part of O. de las Casas, among grass (fr. ^^/2 17, 
no. 551). 

Xew for Juan Fernandez. A rather typical D. repeats; the young leaves 
are sericeous, the older sparingly pubescent below and glabrous above, the 
peduncles 2 cm long or even longer. Compare Hallier in Engler's Jahrb. 
XVIII (1892) 83. Reiche, Fl. de Chile V. 173 includes all forms under D. re- 
pens Forst. 

I suspect this to have been collected by Bertero, for MoNTAGNE, Prodr. 
Fl. Fern. 356 enumerates »Uredo Hydrocotyles Bert. Hab. ad folia Hydrocotyles.''* 
No Hydrocotyle has ever been reported from the islands; sterile Dichondra may 
perhaps be mistaken for a species of that genus. 

Area of distribution: Subcosmopolitan (Eastern Asia, India, Africa, 
Mascarene Islands, Australia, Xew Zealand, Xorth and Central America, South 
America to Patagonia and Chile, Juan Fernandez). 



Calystegia R. Br. 

93. C. tuguriorum R. Br. — Syn. C. Hantehnanni Phil., JOHOW, Estud. 85. 

Masafuera: Q. de las Casas (no. 412, also observed by JOHOW); Q. de 
las Vacas, abundant in the outer part; O. del Varadero. Forming dense carpets 
on the canyon walls. 

Both J. D. Hooker and Hemslev united C. Hantehnantii \\\\.h C.tugurio- 
rjivi, but JoHOW kept them separate, declaring that the latter is a small herb, 
not attaining the size of C. scpiiivi. However, Cheeseman, Man. N. Z. Flora 
476 states that the stem is slender, prostrate or climbing, often clothing trees 
and shrubs to a considerable height. During his monographical studies Hal- 
LIER carne to the conclusion that the two species are identical [Engi.ER's Jahrb. 
XVI (1893) 5481, and I have found it better to follow him. 

Area of distribution: New Zealand; Chatham Islands; South Chile (Val- 
divia); Masafuera. 



THK PIIANF-ROOAMS OK THF. JUAN FERXANDK;^ ISLANDS 163 

Boraginaceae. 
Sclkirkia Hemsl. 

94. S. Berterii (Colla) Hemsl. — Joiiow, Estud. 85. 

Masatierra: On the steep rock)' slopes above the forests in the centre 
of the island, rare. Co Damajuana, 500—^550 m, very rare; the gap between 
Daniajuana and Co Yunque, 580 m, few specimens (past fl. ^^/i2 16, no. 132); 
northwest face of Co Piramide, narrow rock ledge, c. 600 m, few shrubs; Porte- 
zuelo de Villagra, near the pass (also observed by JoHOW), a couple of speci- 
mens, 570 m; O. del Monte Maderugo, rock wall 390 m, rare (past fl. ^*/i 17, 
no. 341). 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra; monotypic. 

Verbenaceae. 
Rhaphithamnus Miers. 

95. Rh. venustus (Phil.) Skottsb. — Syn. Citharexylon venustHvi Phil. 
Anal. Univ. 1856; Rh. longiflonts Miers, Trans. Linn. Soc. XXVII (1870) 98; 
Jo MOW, Estud. 78. 

Masatierra: in the wooded region, extending from Pto Frances to the 
south slope of Co Chumacera, hardly ever seen below 200 m and much more 
common higher up; also in the shrubberies on the ridges. Fl. ^/i2 16, no, 11; 
'/i3 16, no. 40; "Via 16, no. 198; fr. -^4 17, no. 625, ^7^ ^Z. "O- i ^ b. — A 
form with red flowers was found near Plazoleta del Yunque, c. 250 m. 

Masafiiera: Guajardo without locality. — In the forests, much more 
scarce than in Masatierra; on the Sanchez plain, 515 m; Q. del Mono, 475 m; 
O. del Blindado, 440 m (fl.-fr. ^"^U 17, no. 516). 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Labiatae. 
Cuminia Colla. 

While Hemslev, Challenger Report 51 lists three species, eriantha, fer- 
iiandezia and brevidens, JOHOW reduces brcvideiis to feriiaiidezia. I have seen 
the material on which C. brevidens was based by Benthaini, and I think that 
JOHOW is right. The length of the calyx lobes is submitted to some variation; 
I admit that they are very short in C. brevidens, but otherwise no perceptible 
difterence is found. 

Hemsley ascribed unisexual flowers to Ctiniiiiia, JOHOW denied the cor- 
rectness of this statement and suggested that Hemsley was misled by the 
pronounced dichogamy of the flowers. My examination of numerous living 



164 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



specimens shows that there are two kinds of flowers, differing in size and in 
development of tlie anthers. Female flowers have shorter corolla, exserted style 
and small staminodes, bisexual flowers have a larger corolla, included style and 
normal stamens. I believe there are specimens with one kind only, but others 
exhibit both kinds in the same inflorescence. Flowers with perfect anthers 
were called male by Hemsley. There does not, however, seem to be any 
difference in the style or stigma between them and the female flowers. Still 
I have observed cases where the former were shed soon after they had opened. 
In a few cases female flowers with one or two fertile stamens were met with. 
JOHOVv's statement that Cuminia absolutely lacks »esencias etereas» is not 
in accordance with my experience, for C. criantha at least, has a weak but 
unmistakable labiatoid smell. 



96, C. fernandezia CoUa. — JOHOW, Estud. 81. — Fig. 22. 
Masatierra: In the open forests of the ridges and along the rocky crests, 
never abundant and only once observed below 300 m. — Between Q. de la 





Fig. 22. Ciiiiiinia fernandezia: a male or bisexual, b female flower, with limbs slit open to 

show stamens and staminodes. X 4- 

Piedra Agujereada and Q- Laura (f. magis pilosa); in the higher parts of El 
Rabanal (also quoted by JoHOw; fl. -^^/s 17, no. 576, f. magis pilosa); slopes 
of Co Damajuana, 350— 530 m; V. Colonial, C. Central (fl. ^^/i 17, no. 307); 
Portezuelo de Villagra (also observed by JOHOw), 540 — 590 m, scarce (beg. fl. 
^Vi2 16, no. 192, fr. ^^3 17, no. 192 b); O. del Monte Maderugo, rocky ridge, 
390 — 500 m; C. Salsipuedes (also observed byjoiiow) 400—625 m, not uncom- 
mon (beg. fl. 2712 16, no. 165); Pto Ingles, central ridge, 570 m; between La 
Vaqueria and Q. Juanango, c. 300 m; ridge west of Co Yunque, c. 550 m; low 
hill near the camping place in B. Villagra, c. 200 m (fl. "^/i 17, no. 234); Co 
Chumacera, south slope (fl. ^'i 17, no, 356). 



? 



calj'x 

6 

4.5 



Length in mm of 
coroHa anthers 



style 



12 

7-7,5 



I 
0,3 



/- 

7,5- 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 165 

Generally perfectly glabrous save for the corolla and some hairs on the 
calyx lobes. The young leaves are, however, more or less pubescent. No. 576 
difters from ordinary fcmanderjia in the persistent indumentum on petiole, 
nerves and pedicels, a character otherwise attributed to eriiDitha only. This 
species has larger and broader leaves of a more dull green colour, light violet 
to nearly white corolla with almost white lobes and filaments, while the flowers 
oi fcniaiidezia are of a bright blue lilac colour. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra ; the genus is endemic. 

97. C. criantlia Benth. — JOHOW, Estud. 82. 

Masatierra: with the former, but much more scarce. Between 0. de la 
Piedra Agujereada and Q. Laura, c. 500; El Rabanal (Joiiow); V. Colonial, 
C. Central, c. 500 m; Portezuelo, on the Villagra side in forest (also observed 
by JoHOW), c. 500 m, rare (fl. ^"^/i 17, no. 278); C. Salsipuedes (also Joilow), 
in D/ckso)iia-gvo\'e, 660 m, rare (fl. '^/i 17, no. 282). 

Lengtli in mm of 
calyx corolla anthers style 

^ 7 12—13 0,75 7-9 

? 5 8—9 0,3 7-8,5 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



Solanaceae. 
Solanum L. 

98. S. fernandezianuni Phil. — JoHOW, Estud. 82. 

Masatierra: Bertero! Germain! — In the wooded region, in moist 
huiTius, very local. Pto Frances (JOHOW); C. Chifladores, near the P"rances 
Valley; El Rabanal, in the valley; Northeast slope of Co Damajuana, c. 500 m; 
V. Colonial, Q. del Monte Maderugo, 235 m (fl.-unr. fr. ^^/i 17, no. 340); forest 
on the east slope of C. Salsipuedes, c. 350 m; Pto Ingles (also quoted by JoilOW), 
central ridge, 470 m; O. Villagra, near the road just below the pass, c. 550 m 
(fl. ^Iv2, "V12 16, no. 12, fr. April 1917; beg. fl. ^^jj 17, BACKSTROM no. 12 b). 

The species was described as lacking tubers, but on Bertero's label is 
written »tubercula gustu amaro». This is very puzzling, for JOHOW could not 
find the tubers, nor were we able to discover any. In order to find out if they 
develop during the whiter, I told Mr. BACKSTROM to dig for them, but he could 
not find them. I have raised several specitnens from seeds; they have flowered 
and fruited, but behave like annuals and do not form any tubers. I have 
pro{>agated them from cuttings, using the basal axillary shoots. In a wild state 
the plant branches profusely and seems to be perennial. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

99. S. Robinsonianum Bitter in Fedde's Repert. XI (1912), 7. — Syn. 
6'. fiircatiim, JoHOW, Estud. 83. 



1 66 CARL SKOTJ'SBERG 

Masatierra: Philippi 1864! — El Rabanal (Joiiow); Pto Ingles, west 
branch, 190 m (fl.-fr. ~^/\ 17, no. 311); B. Villagra, ravine near the camping- 
place, c. 180 m (fl.-fr. ''/i 17, no. 260). 

Santa Clara: JOHOW. — Morro de los Alelies, rare (fl.-fr. ^"/i 17, no. 343). 

^Masafuera: near the Chozas village (fl. ^^/2 17, no. 506); Q. del Vara- 
dero (fl.-fr. '^/s 17, no. 508). — New for this island. 

Professor BlT'PER kindly examined my dried material as well as living 
plants raised from my seeds and communicates the following new description: 

» Addenda ad descriptionem: 

Herbaceum, rectum, ca. 40 — 60 cm altum, divaricatim ramosum; rami ca. 
4 mm diam., obtuse angulati, lineis decurrentibus parum prominentibus instruct!, 
pilis simplicibus pluricellularibus acutis curvatim accumbentibus primo crebris 
serius sparsioribus obsiti; internodia in ramis florentibus 5- — 8 cm longa; folia 
superiora false geminata, inaequalia; petioli 1,5 — 2 cm longi, jam a basi vel fere 
a medio sensim latins alati; laminae ovatae vel late ovati-lanceolatae, majores 
8,5:5,9—9,5:5,5-6 usque ad 14:8,5 cm, minores 5 : 3, 6 : 3,7, 7 : 4,7, 5 : 4,5 cm, 
basi late cuneatim vel subrotundatim in petiolum alatum abeuntes, infra medium 
latissimae, ad apicem versus magis sensim angustatae, subacutae vel obtusius- 
culae, dentibus grossis late triangularibus in utroque latere ca. 5 — 7 obtusis vel 
obtusissimis instructae, membranaceae, utrinque virides, subtus vix pallidiores 
nitidioresque, utrinque praecipue in venis, sparsius in mesophyllo pilis simpli- 
cibus acutis pluricellularibus curvatim accumbentibus crebris obsitae; vena media 
et venae later, prim, in utroque latere 7 — 8 (raro 9—11) curvatim ascendentes 
subtus prominentes; inflorescentiae laterales, a foliis remotae, 7 — ii-florae; pedun- 
culus 12 — 25 mm (tandem — 27 mm), longus, semel furcatus; rhachides cr. 
6 — (tandem)9 mm longae, flores plerumque densiuscule in rhachidum apicibus 
secuti; pedicelli 5 — 11 mm longi, in statu florifero erecti; calyx campanulatus, 
cr. 4 : 3 mm, profunde in lobos lineari-lanceolatos acutos inaequilongos (exteriore 
ceteris longiore) 2 — 3 : 0,8 mm partitus, extus sicut pedunculus, rhachides et 
pedicelli pilis brevibus simplicibus pluricellularibus acutis accumbentibus prae- 
ditus, intus praecipue in parte connata glandulis minutis breviter stipitatis crebris 
obsitus; corolla stellata, diam. 15 — 17 mm, extus violacei-suffusa, ceterum albida, 
in parte interiore Stella flavescente striis tenuibus obscuris (fusci-violaceis) radianti- 
bus insignata, profunde in lobos lanceolatos acutos 8 : 2,5 mm extus pilis simpli- 
cibus acutis brevibus crebris obsitos intus pilis brevibus similibus in vena media 
tantum sparsis, in parte apicali crebris praeditos partita; filamenta paulum inaequi- 
longa, 1,5 — 2 mm longa, gracilia, intus pilis pluricellularibus simplicibus vel 
rarius semel ramosis acutis densis instructa; antherae anguste ellipsoideae, 
3:0,8 mm, utrinque emarginatae, poris introrsis subapicalibus obliquis; ovarium 
subglobosum, i mm diam., glabrum; stylus stamina manifeste superans, 6 mm 
longus, fere a basi cr. ^/s longitudinis pilis densis simplicibus pluricellularibus 
acutis sensim minoribus patentibus obsitus; stigma styli apice paulum crassius, 
obtusum, subbilobum; calyx in statu fructifero auctus, diam. 7 — 8 mm, lobis 
latius lanceolatis cr. 3 — 4 : 2 mm subacutis vel obtusiusculis baccae accumbenti- 
bus; baccae maturae globosae, non satis magnae, ca. 5 — 8 mm diam., parum 
nitidae, tandem nigerrimae, succo intense purpurei-violaceo implctae; granula 



IHK I'HANEUOGA.M.S OF IHE JUAN I'tUNAMiF.Z ISLANDS 167 

sclerotica duo subapicalia subglobosa parva, ca. 0,6 mm diam.; semina ca. 15 — 16, 
oblique reniformia, valde applanata, 1,6-1,8:1—1,3:0,5 mm, manifeste minute 
reticulata, in baccis maturis extus succo violaceo intense tincta.» 
Area of distribution: Endemic. 

'•'100. S. ^Mori'l/oj iiiasafueranum Bitter et Skottsb. nov. spec. — Plate 14. 

The following description was written by Professor Bl'l'I EK. 

Herbaceum, ad 1,75 m altum; rami robusti, ± ve flexuosi, 4 — 6 mm diam., 
subteretes vel paulum obtuse angulati, lineis decurrentibus parum prominentibus 
instructi, pilis simplicibus pluricellularibus acutis parvis diaphanis curvatim accum- 
bentibus plerumque sparsis obsiti, tandem subglabrescentes; internodia in rnmis 
majoribus elongatioribus 9 — 14 cm longa; folia solitaria vel superiora saepe 
false geminata, tunc inaequalia; petioli 1,5 — 4 cm longi, ad laminam versus scn- 
sim magis alati, pilis simplicibus pluricellularibus acutis parvis crebris obsiti; 
laminae late oblique lanceolatae vel oblongi-lanceolatae, infra medium latissimae, 
basi oblique cuneatim vel rotundatim in petiolum alatum abeuntes, ad apicem 
versus magis sensim angustatae, acutae vel fere sensim acuminatae, integrae, 
majores cr. 12:5, 15:6 usque ad 17,5 : 7 cm (an etiam majores.-), minores 9 : 3.3 
usque ad 12:4,5 cm, laminae omnes herbaceae, utrinque sordide virides, subtus 
paulum pallidiores nitidioresque, utrinque in venis et in mesophyllo pilis simpli- 
cibus pluricellularibus acutis sparsis, in margine paulo densioribus obsitae; vena 
media, venae later, prim. 6 curvatim ascendentes et venae later, secund. illas 
reticulatim conjungentes albide fla\escentes subtus prominentes; venae majores 
subtus sicut petioli et rami in statu sicco striolis brevissimis parum prominenti- 
bus densis praeditae (cellulae arena crystallina impletae!); inflorescentiae laterales, 
extraaxillares, fere semper paulum infra nodos ortae, simplices vel semel bre- 
viter furcatae, 5 — Sflorae; pedunculus 1,5— (tandem in statu fructifero!)3 cm 
longus, rhachides 4 — 6 mm tantum longae, fioribus ergo densiuscule secutis; 
pedicelli in statu florifero erecti, 6 mm longi, in statu fructifero basi deflexi, 
10 — II mm longi; calyx campanulatus, 3 mm longus, apice fere 3 mm diam., 
in dentes 5 ovati-lanceolatos obtusiusculos i mm longos 0,5 mm latos basi 
membranis diaphanis conjunctos partitus, extus sicut pedunculus, rhachis et 
pedicelli pilis paucicellularibus acutis curvatim accumbentibus densiusculis ob- 
tectus, intus glandulis minutis breviter stipitatis crebris obsitus; corolla alba, 
stellata, diam. 10— 14 mm, in iobos 5 lanceolatos acutiusculos cr. 5 : 3 mm extus 
pilis simplicibus paucicellularibus acutis accumbentibus crebris in parte apicali 
densis et partim subramosis obtectos, intus in venae mediae parte superiore et 
in mesophylli parte apicali pilis simplicibus paucicellularibus obsitos partita; 
coroUae tubus infra staminum insertiones cr. 1,5 mm longus, glaber; filamenta 
1,5 — (tandem)2 mm longa, intus (praecipue prope basim) pilis simplicibus pluri- 
cellularibus acutis densis ad apicem versus sensim sparsioribus praedita; antherae 
flavescentes, ellipsoideae, utrinque emarginatae, cr. 2,2 : 0,8 — i mm, poris introrsis 
apicalibus obliquis tandem paulum longitudinaliter dehiscentibus; ovarium sub- 
globosum, I mm diam., glabrum; stylus 5,5 — 6 mm longus, in parte apicali 
subgeniculatim incurvatus, paulo supra basim glabram cr. -/a longitudinis pilis 
tenuibus patentibus fere omnibus simplicibus (perpaucis semel subramosis) pluri- 
cellularibus acutis densis sensim minoribus obtectus, in parte apicali glaber; 



I 68 " CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Stigma subglobosum, styli apice manifeste crassius; calyces fructiferi parum aucti, 
diam. cr. 5 mm, lobis magis triangularibus baccae submalurae accumbentibus; 
baccae submaturae globosae, 6 — 8 nmi diam.; semina oblique reniformia, valde 
applanata, 2: 1,5:0,5 mm, minute reticulata; granula sclerotica in bacca non 
reperi. 

Masafuera: In forests. On the Sanchez plain, 515 m (fl. ^72 I7> no. 526); 
near the Chozas village (fl.-unr. fr. ^/a 17, no. 363). 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Nicotiana L. 

lOi. N. cordifolia Phil. — JOHOW, Est. 83; SkottSBERG, Stud. 7, 
Taf. 6 Fig. 4. 

Masafuera: Coast cliffs close to the landing place near O. de las Casas 
(fl. ^^1^ 17 i no. 1220); O. de las Vacas, on the can\-on wall, not far from the 
entrance, scattered specimens (also observed by JOHOW and by the writer in 
1908, only locality known hitherto; fl.-fr. ^^ji 17, no. 392); Q. Angosta, in the 
gorge; O. del Varadero, numerous fine shrubs near the entrance; along the 
shore of Tierras Blancas, not uncommon (fl.-fr. ^'/s ^7) no. 399). 

Area of distribution: Pandemic in Masafuera. 



Scrophulariaceae. 
Mimulus L. 

102. M. parviflorus Lindl. — JOHOW, Estud. 82. 

var. externa nov. var. — A plantis in Chile lectis dift'ert foliis omnibus 
petiolatis (superioribus brevius sed semper distincte), margine sat grosse et 
irregulariter serratis, nee non pedunculis petiolum aequantibus sed foliis multum 
brevioribus. Planta perennis pilosa. 

Masafuera: Germain! — O. de las Casas (also observed by JOHOw), wet 
places under overhanging rocks etc.; Q. de las Vacas (fr. ^^J2 17, no. 497); 
O. Angosta, at the waterfall; 0. de la Loberia (fl.-fr. ^^2 17, no. 486). 

It is hardly possible to ascertain the right position of the insular form 
unless all the material from the continent is revised. Germain's specimens 
were labelled M. parvifloTUS var. by PHILIPPI, and JoHOW remarks that the 
Masafueran plant differs from the continental one in the short pedicels and in 
the pubescence. As all specimens collected in Masafuera are of the same kind, 
while there is no similar form in the collections from Chile, I have described 
the former as a variety. It is not impossible that M. pilosiusculus Kunth from 
Peru is the same, but as I have not seen authentic material and the descrip- 
tion is very brief, I must leave this question open. 

Area of distribution: M. parviflorus is common in central and south 
Chile. 



THK PHANKROGAMS OK THK JUAN 1KI<NAN1>KZ ISLANDS 160 



Juiphiasia L. 

■•'103. E. foriiiosissima nov. spec, — Plate 15, fig. i, Plate 20, fig. 6— 7; 
text fig. 23. 

Eueuphrasia pluriennis ligno.sa, plerLinu]ue 15-20, interduni usque ad ;o cm 
alta, ad radices Pernettyac rigidae parasitica. Truncus primarius cylindrico- 
tetragonus, ad 6 mm crassus, cortice obscure fusco inferne glabrato, fere a basi 
opposite ramosus, ramis ramulosis ramulis iterum ramosis, junioribus distinctius 
tetragonis bifariam hirsutis, pilis cra.ssis plerumque bicellularibus. Folia carno- 
sula late — anguste ovata, 8—18 (rarius ad 20 et ultra) mm longa et 5—8 mm lata, 
basi in petiolum 2 — 3 mm longum subiter vel sensim angustata, margine leviter 
revoluta dentibus humilibus latissime truncatis utrinque 3—5 (plerumque 4) 
instructa, supra subglabra, parcissime glandulosa sed secus nervos pilosiuscula, 
subtus in parte inferiore ad nervos parce pilosa vel subglabra, infra marginem 
et inter nervos incrassatos reticulo glandularum liumilium capite ferrugineo 
pulchre notata. Bracteae quam folia caulina minores ac latiores. Flores ad 
apicem caulis ramorumque breviter sed densiuscule spicati, sessiles. Calyx pro 
genere sat typicus, lobis lineari-subspatbulatis apice incrassatis, extus nervis 
exceptis subglaber, intus secus nervos pilosus pilis unicellularibus et glandulis 
ferrugineis commixtis, 5 — 6 ram longus, profunde partitus. Corolla alba 10— 13 
mm longa, tubo 4—5 mm longo ad finem anthesis baud elongato, subglabro, 
intus inferne obscure luteo; labium superius extus pilosum, 6 — 7 mm longum 
et 5—6 latum, bifidum lobulis reflexis; labium inferius glabrum 'J—'^ mm longum 
et ad 10 — II mm latum, in centro macula magna flavo aurantiaca distincte cir- 
cumscripta notatum. Filamenta staminum posticorum sub 3 mm, anticorum circ. 
3,5 mm longa, inferne lutea, dein viridescentia, antherae ad 1,4 mm longae, 
ferrugineae, subglabrae-glabrae, duorum staminum posticorum loculus unus paulo 
longius calcaratus. Stylus ad 9 mm longus, dilute viridis, parce pilosus, exsertus; 
stigma alboviride capitatum. Capsula matura valvis obovatis minute emarginatis 
et abrupte apiculatis, superne setulosa, 2,8 — 3 mm longa et 2 — 2,1 mm lata. 
Semina oblique fusiformia I — 1,1 mm longa straminea, testa longitudinaliter 
sulcata et inter juga transverse sculpta. 

Masafuera: in the higher parts, not uncommon in the alpine region. 
Ridges above O. Sanchez (fl. "^/2 17, no. 386 b); north of the Casas gorge from 
800 to 1400 m (fl.-fr. '*/2 — Va i?, no. 386); C. Atravesado, common; C. del 
Barril, from 750 m (fl. S's 17, no. 547). 

A rather interesting discovery. Two types of Euphrasia are known from 
the southern hemisphere, sect. Trifidae from Chile and sect. Eiieup/irasia sub- 
sect. Aiistralcs from Australia and New Zealand. The new species has nothing 
to do with the South American species, and as far as I can see, it is not 
nearly related to the Australes, but belongs to the Seviicakaratae, known before 
only from the northern hemisphere. Within this section E. forniosissima is the 
only perennial species. Among boreal ones it might be compared with E. 
grandiflora Hochst. (Azores), or with species from Eastern Asia. It lies near 
at hand to regard it as one of the older endemics in the islands, as it differs 



I/O 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



from all other species in its mode of growth (see below) and as it stands so 
far apart from all the congeners on the south hemisphere. 

The arrangement of the glands on the lower leaf surface is illustrated in 
fig. 23 b. These glands are of two kinds, smaller with a short, narrow, uni- 
cellular stalk and a globose two-celled head with dark brown contents and 
larger (much less numerous), sessile, like a seniiglobose papilla, divided by a 
radial wall and with yellowish contents. Both kinds were described by Wett- 
STEIN in his monograph of the genus, p. 18 — 19. ^^^^ long pedicellate glands 
so common in many other species seem to be wanting. The smaller kind also 
occurs on the upper side of the leaf and on the calyx. 




Fig. 23. Euphrasia formosissiina: a leaves, showing general outline, b lower side ot leat, 
c bracts, d lower side of bract, a— d X 2; e two calyx lobes, inside, X 4; f stamens, X 12 A; 

g capsule, X 6,6; h seed, X 20. 



The growth of other perennial Euphyasiac was explained by Wettstein 
1. c. 14. The shoots die off after hawing produced flowers, while lateral 
branches, which are sterile the first season, become floriferous the next year, 
and so forth. E. formosissima represents another type. To some extent it is 
like many others, for the primary stem and a number of side branches may 
produce flowers simultaneously, sometimes even a few shoots of a third genera- 
tion flower at the same time. It occurs that a branch dies after having 
flowered, but very often this is not the case: the branch survives, the top 
continues to grow above the floral region and produces a new set of flowers, 
and this may be repeated again; thus, the new species differs from all others. 
If, as Wettstein thinks, the perennial species are genetically older than the 
annual, E. forniosissinia seems to exhibit the most primitive ly^& o{ EupJirasia 
known. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



THK PHANEROGAMS OF IHK JUAN KtKNANI^EZ I.sr.ANUS 171 

Plantaginaceae. 
Plantaj^o L. 

104. P. fernundezia Bert. — JoHOW, Kstud. ";■] . 

Masatierra: In the shrubberies along the high ridges in the centre of the 
island, rare. North face of Co Damajuana, 530 m, few specimens; the depres- 
sion between this peak and Co Vunque, 580 ni, rare; V. Colonial, C. Central, 
570 m, very few plants; Portezuelo de Villagra, c. 550 m, near the path in two 
jilaces, perhaps twenty specimens altogether (fl. ^ '"/12 16, no. 7; only locality 
known before. JoHOW etc.) rock ledges on the perpendicular wall of Co Piramide, 
c. 575 m. 

Professor Pii.GER sent me the following notes on this species: 

»P. fernandezia ist mit P. princeps Cham, ct Schlecht. von den Hawaii- 
Inseln verwandt: sie ist dieser Art nicht nur habituell ahnlich, sondern zeigt 
audi grosse Ubereinstimmung im BRitenbau. Fiir eine entferntere \^erwandt- 
schaft konnten auf dem amerikanischen Festland hochstens einige Arten der 
Cleistantha-Gruppe (P. Candollei, oreades, Sodiroana) in Betracht kommen. 

Zwei Bliitenstande der E.xemplare von P. fernandezia zeigen eine mehr 
oder weniger weitgehende Verkiimmerung der Staubblatter. Die normale Form 
hat Bliiten mit lang herausragenden Antheren. Zu dieser Form sind Uber- 
gange vorhanden, indem die Antheren etwas zw^schen den dauernd aufrechten 
Corollenzipfeln sich hervordrangen und ± reichlich Pollen entwickeln. In anderen 
Bliiten bleiben die Antheren von den aufrechten Zipfeln umschlossen, sie sind 
ziemlich gross, entwickeln aber keinen Pollen. Der Griftel ragt aus der Bliite 
hervor. Man konnte an einen \'ergleich mit dem Dimorphismus bei der 
Cleistantha-Gruppe denken, doch ist der Fruchtknoten in den Bliiten mit redu- 
zierten Staubblattern nicht stark entwickelt wie dort bei den geschlossenen 
Bliiten, sondern bleibt klein und von der Rohre frei.» 

Area of distribution: Endemic in ?\Iasatierra. 

105. P. triincata Cham, subsp. Skottsbergii Pilger. — P. Skottsbergii 
Pilger in Skottsberg, Stud. 6. 

Masatierra: B. del Padre (Skottsberg 1908). 

'•'Santa Clara: scattered on the table-land (fr. ^^/i 17, no. 350). 

Professor PiLGER remarks to this species: >P. Skottsbergii ist eine charak- 
teristische Form, die allerdings der P. truncata subsp. firma sehr nahe steht. 
Am besten wird man sie neben P. firma auch als subspecies zu P. truncata stellen». 

Area of distribution: P. tniiicata is known from Central and South Chile, 
the subspecies is endemic in Masatierra and Santa Clara. 

Rubiaceae. 

Oldenlandia L. 

*io6. O. thesiifolia K. Schum. — Syn. 0. unijfora Ruiz, et Pav. iiofi L. 
Masatierra: V. Colonial, in the small stream at the foot of the chapel hill. 



172 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Rather like Schumann's illustration in Flora Brasil. VI; 6, tab. 127, Agrees 
very well with specimens from Chile. Glabrous with few hairs on the ovary. 

Undoubtedly of recent introduction, as it has not been recorded by previous 
visitors in spite of growing in Cumberland Bay. There is perhaps no reason 
to regard it as introduced with the human traffic; the valley is sometimes visited 
by stray birds from the continent, and they very likely brought seeds of this 
and some other species in mud adhering to their feet. 

Area of distribution: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile from 
Valparaiso to Chiloe, Masatierra. 



Nertera Banks et Sol. 

107. N. depressa Banks et Sol. — Skottsberg, Stud. 6. 
Masafuera: almost confined to the subalpine and alpine districts, where 

it occurs in moist places, round large stones, in small depressions in the ground 
etc., generally associated with mosses. — Q. de las Casas, in wet moss at the 
waterfall, 215 m; high land north of Casas, not uncommon from 750 to about 
1 100 m (fr. ^^/2 17, no. 413, ^^/2 17, no. 413 c); among rocks at Las Torres, 
1370 m (fl.-fr. no. 413 b); C. del Barril, 650 — 750 m. 

Area of distribution: Mexico to Fuegia; subantarctic — circumpolar; 
Hawaii; Masafuera. 

Coprosnia Forst. 

108. C. trifloruni (Hook, et Arn.) Benth. et Hook. f. — JoHuw, Est. ^i. — 
Fig. 24 a — c. 

Masatierra: in the open forest and in the shrubberies along the ridges, 
not uncommon from 3—400 m, ascending to the highest peaks and ranging 
from Pto Frances to Co Chumacera. Fl. ^ ^*/i2 16, no. 26, ^''/i2 16, no. 150; 
fl. ? ^^/i2 16, no. 151 (a few fruits from 1916 still on the trees); past fl. $ 
•^/i 17, no. 235; fr. ^% 17, no. 570, ^V'l ^Z. "O- ^n. 

Mistaken for Hippotis trijiora Ruiz, et Pav. by Bertero, Ann. sc. nat. 
XXI. 347; called Psycliotria? triflora Hook, et Arn., Bot. Misc. III. 359, P. Hookcri 
G. Don Gen. Syst. Gard. III. 585. The flowers have not been described, but 
BENrHAM and HoOKER FiL. recognized it as a member of the genus (Ti^/r^jrwrt', 
Gen. plant. II. 139. 

Generally strictly dioecious. Corolla of J" 6 — 7 mm long, fleshy, greenish 
brown, as a rule 4-cleft; 4 stamens with thin filaments, 6 — 7 mm long, anthers 
4,5 — 5 mm with thick, brown connective. Female flowers with 2,5 mm long 
ovary; corolla dark lilac brown with narrow tube measuring 2 — 3 mm and four 
strongly revolute narrow linear segments, 2 — 2,5 mm long. Styles white, 9 mm long. 

In one case a number of bisexual flowers were found on a branch of a 
female tree. They have a large, normal ovary with the usual long styles. The 
corolla is more as in the male flower, but only 4—5 mm long; there are 4 
stamens with 2,5 mm long anthers but very short filaments. The pollen contained 
numerous sterile grains. 



THF, PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



173 



Very like C foliosuDi A. Gray froiii Oahu (Hawaii), w hich differs in the 
narrower leaves and in the shape of corolla and stamens. 
Area of distribution: ICndcmic in Masatierra. 

109. C. pyrifoliiiin (Hook, ct Arn.) Skottsb. — Syn. Psycltoiria pyri- 
folia Hook, ct Arn., Joiiow, Estud. 74. — Fig. 24 d. 

Masatierra: An important forest tree, extending over the entire wooded 
region from Pto Frances to Co Chumacera and ranging from 200 m, or perhaps 
less, to 650 m at least. We did not find flowering specimens (sterile, ^^/i2 16, 
no. 161, '7i2 16, no. 1222, ^7i ^7' "O- 3°^); ^'^'t ■''P^ fruits were gathered % 17. 
no. 600. 

Masafuera: Scattered through the forested region; lowest altitude observed 
280 m (fr. '^/o 17, no. 435); not uncommon up to 950 m. One small tree was 




<<^ 




Fig. 24. a— c Coprosma trijloj-mu, a male, b apparently bisexual, c female flower; d C. pyri- 

foUinii, male flower. All X 3- 



found in the alpine fern-beds, c. 1200 m, not far from the Correspondencia 
Camp (fl. cf ^/s 17, no. 501); also in some of the deep gorges, by the stream, 
not much above sea level, f. i. in Q. de las Casas (past fl. $ '^/s 17, no. 499). — 
Specimens from open and sunny stations (nos. 499 and 501) differ from others 
by the firmer, bright green leaves. 

The removal of Psychotria pyrifolia to Coprosma is quite welcome from a 
geographical point of view. Bertero 1. c. suggested that it was a mere form 
of his Piippotis; HoOKER and Arnott, 1. c. 360, called it Psychotria?, while 
Hemsley and JoHOW dropped the question mark. It is dioecious and the 
structure of the flower is the same as in C. trifloruvi; accordingly, it differs 
widely from Psychotria. The male flower has not been described before; it is 
brovi^nish green with yellow anthers. The corolla measures 8 — 9 mm and is 
deeply cleft with linear, acute, reflexed lobes; the stamens are inserted at the 
base of the corolla tube; the filaments measure 8 — 9, the anthers 5 — 6 mm. 

C. pyrifoliiim, sometimes rather like the preceding, is a much larger tree 
with thinner and broader, more pyriform leaves, indistinctly serrulate in the 
upper half and with narrower meshes in the net of venules. As was pointed 



174 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



out by JoHOW, it is also distinguished by the presence of domatia on the leaves. 
It also differs in the somewhat larger and more obovoid fruit as well as in the 
shape of the male flower, as seen from my figures. 

C. pvrifolhun is related to C. laevigatnvi Cheesem. from Rarotonga and to 
other species from the same region, and probably more nearly allied to these 
than to its congener in Masatierra. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Galium L 



■'•'■'no. G. masafueramim nov. spec. — Fig. 25. 

Perenne, sat pusillum, ± decumbens. Radix primaria tenuis persistens, 

multiceps. Caules numerosi, tenuissimi, fragiles, inferne ramosi, repentes, ad 

nodos radicantes, saltem ad 2 dm longi, 

manifeste 4-lineati et secus lineas dense 

patente-retrorse setoso-hispidi. Folia qua- 

ternaria, subsessilia vel brevissime petiolata, 

elliptica, plerumque manifeste mucronata 

sed non pungentia, secus marginem revo- 

luturri nee non in nervo mediano subtus 

longe setosa, ceterum pilis nonnullis in- 

spersa vel subglabra, 4 — 9 mm longa et 

2 — 5 mm lata (plerumque 6x4 mm), in- 

feriora jam emarcida conspicue minora. 

Inflorescentiae laterales breves foliis sub- 

aequilongae - dupio longiores; pedunculus 

setosus, ± curvatus, denique apice recur- 

vus, ad 13 mm lotigus, apice 2 — 4-foliatus, 

plerumque i — 3-florus, floribus brevissime 

pedicellatis. Calyx nullus. Corolla luteo- 

viridis, 2,5 — 3 mm diam., lobis mucronu- 

latis 1,2^1,3 mm longis et 0,8—0,9 latis 

quattuor rarissime quinque, passim setosis. 

Stamina 0,5 mm longa. Stylus fere ad 

basin bifidus, ad 0,6 mm longus. Discus 

viridis incrassatus. Ovarium longe hispi- 

dum. Fructus 2,5 mm latus et 2 mm altus, 

cum setis ad 3,5 X 3 mm metiens. Meri- 

carpia reniformia, dense setoso-hispida, 

setis rectis vel paulo curvatis nunquam 

uncinatis; superne interdum appendicibus 

longiusculis (ad 2 mm) apice nudis ceterum 

Fig. 25. Galitan masafueramim: a branch, setOsis instructa. 
nat. size; b lower side of leaf, X 




c in- 
florescence and d flowers, X 5; e normal, Masafuera: In the alpine region, 
unripe fruit; f ripe fruit with appendages; trailing m the moss mats, probably not 
g mencarp ironi ventral side with do.; h Iruit " 1 
with appendage on pedicel, e— h X 10. uncommon. Western precipice, a short 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS I 75 

distance north of l^iique V'arado, c. 1230 m fl.-fr. ' 3 17, no. 367 b); fell-fields 
near the Correspondencia Camp, c. 1200 m; in moss among the rocks of Las 
Torres, 1370 m (fl.-fr. ^*'!-i 17, no. 367); C. del Barril, iiio m (fr. Vs 17, no. 530); 
Los Inocentes, 1375 m. 

The curious appendages do not appear to have been found in any other 
species. Their nature is problematic. In the cases where each carpel ends in 
such a tail like process it would lie near at hand to regard them as enlarged, 
persistent styles, but this explanation is impossible, as they are situated outside 
the disc; inside this the traces of the styles will be found. In several instances 
as many as three were found on one carpel (fig. 25 g): in two cases such an 
appendage was found attached to the pedicel (fig. 25 h). Finally, man\- plants 
did not have any at all. 

G. inasafiteyanuni is related to a number of Andine species, such as G. 
fuegiayium Hook fil., iincinulatuvi DC, cancscens Kunth and andicola Krause. 
The latter three are larger plants with many-flowered inflorescences and with 
much longer hairs on the fruits and leaves; G. fi(igiannm has larger leaves, 
long pedicellate flowers and a glabrou.-^ stem, and all of them have barbed 
setae om the fruit. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Campanulaceae. 
Wahlcnbersiia .Schrad. 

In Monogr. Camp. (1830) 160 Alphoxse Decandolle described ]\'.fenmji- 
deziana A. DC. Four years later CoLLA (Mem. Accad. Torino XXXVIII. 118, 
tab. 35j described Campanula Lai'raiJii Bert. ined. Colla stated that, to judge 
from Decaxdolle's diagnose, C. Larraini was different. The material quoted 
by Decandolle and collected by Mrs. Graham, Douglas and SCOULER 
shows that his species comprised several forms, for Mrs. Graham collected 
W. Grahamae Hemsl. and what I call W. fcruajidesiana s. str. and DOUGLAS 
and ScoULER collected W. Larraiyii. This explains why A. P. Decandolle, 
Prodr. VIII. 438 referred W. Larraini to fernandeziana as a synonym. 

The question of nomenclature becomes complicated by the fact that there 
are two t}-pes among Bertero's plants, both under no, 1443. I do not know 
if COLLA did see both, anyhow, his description and plate answer very well to 
one of them, and this I have retained here as IF. Larraini. DC. Prodr,, 
HemslEY and JOHOW write Wahlenbcrgia Larraini Bert., Colla, but COLLA did 
not admit the genus Wahlenbcrgia, but brought his species to Canipamila. 

Hemsley, Challenger Report 45 rejects Larraini, but describes the new 
species Grahamae, based upon a part of Mrs. Grahams material. JOHOW 
admits one species only, W. fernandeziajia A. DC. For some reason he compares 
the narrow-leaved species (my Larraini) with W. Berteroi, which is a quite 
different thing; he declares that he found all sorts of transitions between Lar- 
raini and GraJiamae. It is true that there are forms apparently intermediate 
between GraJiamae and fernandeziayia s. str., but nobody who has seen these 



176 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



species growing wild should propose to unite Artrr^zV// with GraJiaiitae. JoiIOW 
believes that the size and shape of leaves and flowers undergo so great changes 
with the external conditions that all difterences will be explained in this way. 
He writes p. 75: »En los terrenos humedos i sombrios se encuentran ejemplares 
robustos con hojas muy anchas que convienen con la descripcion de la W. 
Grahamae Hemsl.» — but this species is at home on the steep rocky ridges 
and grows exposed to full sunlight; nor is it true that the \.y^\c^\ fcrnandcziana 
grows »en los lugares menos fertiles». 

All the species are small shrubs with strong, persistent root. The in- 
florescence is terminal, and the flowering branches die in the autumn, at least 
the upper, floral part, while innovations are developed from their lower leafy 
part or from older branches. 

Key to the species formerly united under W. fernaitdeziana. 

I. Corolla campanulate, white, with narrow contracted lobes; calyx segments 
narrow, entire; leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, ± acuminate. 

W. Larraini. 
II. Corolla ± broad campanulate to funnel-shaped with dark purplish veins; 
calyx segments dentate. Leaves lanceolate-ovate. 

A. Leaves glabrous or nearly so, narrower toward the base: corolla campa- 
nulate with ± erect lobes. . - W. fernanderAajia. 

B, Leaves pubescent, with broad base, semiamplexicaul; corolla very 
broad with broad, revolute lobes - W. Grahamae. 

III. W. Larraini (Bert., Colla) Skottsb. — Syn. Campanula Larraini 
Bert, ined., CoLLA 1. c; JOHOW, Estud. 75, sub W.fcrnandeziana.-- Fig. 26 a— e. 

Masatierra: Bertero^ no. 1443 ex p.! Scouler! Douglas! — On the 
low, dry ridges between the valleys; Pto Frances, Loma Incienso, in shrubberies, 
360 m; Q. de la Pesca de los Viejos, c. 225 m, in a small ravine (fl. ^^/i2 16, 
no. 127); C. Salsipuedes, one plant in the height of c. 75 m, several higher 
up, c. 465 m (beg. fl. V12 16, no. 51 — f. parce pilosa); between Q. Juanango 
and La Vaqueria, c. 300 m. — A form with spread hairs on the leaves was 
also collected by ScoULER and DoUGLAs! 

Suffrutex erectus plerumque glaberrimus, dense ramosus, ramis suberectis 
sat dense foliosis. Caulis glaber. Folia coriacea, lanceolata vel lineari-lanceo- 
lata, 20—30 mm longa, 4 — 8 mm lata, basi angustata, apice acuminatim pro- 
ducta, argute serrata, supra glabra vel secus medianum pilosa, subtus glabra 
vel rarius pilosiuscula. Flores contracte paniculati. Calyx glaber lobis angustis- 
simis acutis, integris vel rarissime denticulo glandulaeformi uno vel altero 
munitis. Corolla ± anguste campanulata, glabra vel secus marginem loborum 
pilosiuscula, alba, 14 — 15 mm longa, fauce 6 mm diam., expansa ad 15 mm lata, 
lobis angustis erecto-patentibus apice convolutis, 6—"] mm longis et basi 4 mm 



^ Bertero named the plant in honour of a certain Mr. Larkain, who seems to liave 
communicated some species from Juan Fernandez. This gentleman is not included in tlie list 
of collectors compiled bv JoHow, and I have not seen herbarium labels with his name. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OB' THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



177 



latis. Stamina 3,2 — 3,5 mm lontja, filamentis triangulato-linearibus ad 1,5 mm 
longis, basi setis nonnuUis instructis, antlieris ad 1,8 mm. Stylus 4 mm longus, 
sub a[)ice incrassatus et [larce pilosus. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

112. W. fernandcziaiia (A. DC. ex p.) Skottsb. — JOHOW, T^stud. 75. — 
Plate 20, fig. 9; text fig. 26 i — 1. 

Masatierra: Mrs. Graham! Bertero no. 1443 ex p.! Gay! Skotts- 
BERG 1908 no. 417! — On the higher ridges in the centre of the island, or in 
open stations below the forest. North face of Co Damajuana, 530 m; Co Pira- 
mide, near Portezuelo, abundant in one place; V. Colonial, C. Central, 570 m, 




Fig. 26. a — e IVahlenbergia La7-7-aini : a leaves (no. 51), lower and upper surface; b same of 
no. 127, upper and lower surface; c flower, d stamen, e pistil; a — c nat. size, d — e X 5- 
f — 1 W. fernajtdesiana: f leaf of no. 267 (upper surface), g no. 325 (lower surface), h 305 (do.), 
i flower, k stamen, 1 pistil; f — i nat. size, k — 1 X 5- m— q W. Grahaf/iae: m — n leaves, upper 
and lower surface, o flower, p stamen, q pistil; m — o nat. size, p — q X 5- 



with the following (beg. fl. ^^/i 17, no. 305); Pta San Carlos, near the sea, rare 
(fl. ^/i 17, no. 267); Pto Ingles, central ridge (fl. '^/i 17, no. 325); ridge between 
Co Yunque and Villagra, c. 200 m (fl. '^/i 17, no. 264). A f, elata with long, 
thin, less densely foliate branches and very lax inflorescence was collected near 
Portezuelo (fl. ^% 17, no. 1223). 

Sufl"rutex erectus subglaber, rainis curvato-erectis dense foliosis, caule ple- 
rumque glabro. Folia subcoriacea, lanceolata vel lanceolato-ovata, sessilia, basi 
et apice sensim angustata, dense et argute serrata, reticulatim nervosa, glabra 
vel supra secus medianum puberula, 15 — 30 mm longa et 5—9 mm lata. In- 
florescentia ± laxe paniculata, floribus longe pedicellatis, pedicellis glaberrimis, 
bracteis foliosis ovato-triangularibus. Calyx glaber apice violaceus lobis triangu- 
latis 5 — 6 mm longis basi 2-2,5 ^^^^ latis, margine parce glanduloso-denticu- 
latis. Corolla ampla campanulata, extus puberula, 15 — 16 mm longa, aperta 
12 — 20400. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



lyS CARL SKOTTSBERG 

usque ad 20 mm diam., fauce 9 mm diam., alba, inferne pulchre purpureo- 
venosa, lobis 6 — 7 mm longis basi 4 — 4,5 mm latis, paulo reflexis, planis, mar- 
gine puberulis. Stamina filamentis 3 mm longis a basi lata subiter angustatis, 
valde setosis; antherae 2 mm longae. Stylus ad 5,5 mm longus, versus apicem 
incrassatus nee non dense setosus, lobis stigmatiferis margine et subtus pilosis. 
Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

113. W. Grahaniae Hemsl. — JOHOW, Estud. 75 suh feniande.:;iajia. — 
Plate 15, fig. i; Plate 20, fig. 10; text fig. 26 m— q. 

Masatierra: Mrs. Graham! Mo.SELEy! — Mountain ridges in the centre 
of the island. V. Colonial, C. Central, 570 m (fl. ^^/i 17, no. 306); Portezuelo 
de Villagra, near the pass and abundant in places, 550 — 600 m (fl. '°/i2 16, 
no. 1226; fl. ^^/i2 16, no. 1224, f. minus scabra ad praecedentem vergens; fl. 
^°/i 17, no. 1225, f. laxior); B. Villagra, rock wall at the back of Q. de la Choza, 
c. 400 m. 

No. 1226 is the most extreme Grahamae that I have seen. Of the others 
nos. 1224 and 1225 have smaller flowers, measuring only 20 mm across. The 
possibility of bastards occurring between this and the former should be considered. 

Suffrutex efifusus, vage ramosus ramis prostratoadscendentibus longis sub- 
fle.xuosis, pubescenti-setosis foliosi.ssimis. Folia chartacea, sessilia, ovato-lanceo- 
lata vel ovata, acutiuscula, basi lata fere semiamplexicaulia, dense sed interdum 
indistincte denticulata, utrinque pubescentiscabra, subtus in nervis dense pilosa, 
20 — 35 mm longa et 10 — 16 mm lata. Inflorescentia pseudo-umbellata, foliis 
triangulatoovatis instructa, hand multiflora sed ob magnitudine florum valde 
conspicua. Caly.x glaber lobis triangulatis 5 — 7X2—3 mm, inferne dentatis. 
Corolla late campanulata vel sub fauce leviter constricta fere globoso-campa- 
nulata, extus puberula, alba, eximie purpureo-venosa, cum lobis 13 — 15 mm 
longa, expansa ad 25 mm lata, fauce 16 — 17 mm diam., lobis revolutis late 
triangularibus 7 — 8 mm longis et 8 — 10 mm latis, margine puberulis. Stamina 
filamentis 3 — 4 mm longis a basi lata valde angustatis; antherae 1,5 — 2 mm 
longae. Stylus 6,5 — 8 mm, versus apicem incrassatus et cum pagina inferiore 
stigmatorum setosus. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

114. W. Masafuerae (Phil.) Skottsb, Stud. 6. — Syn. W. hiberosa Wook. 
fil., JoHOW, Estud. 78. 

Masafuera: Germain! Guajardo! — coast cliffs from B. Tolten to Vara- 
dero and Loberi'a, rather common; also in the outer part of the canyons, on 
rock ledges and in crevices. Only once observed in the highlands, north of 
Casas, c. 1200 m. P"l.-past fl. Feb. 1917, no. 428. 

f. rosea: A typo differt corolla praecipue basin versus pulchre rosea. — 
Masafuera: O. de la Loberfa, one large specimen found among the typical 
plants (fl. ^72 17, no. 489). 

When describing Euphorbia Masafuerae (Bot. Zeit. XIV. 647) PHlLirpi 
felt sure of the generic position, but later he began to doubt the correctness, 
as shown by GuAjARDO's specimen, labelled in PniLlPPl's handwriting: »Eu- 
phorbia? Masafuerae Ph. (nonne potius Wahlenbergia.^) Masafuera 1869 Leybold». 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS I 79 

In Stud. 6 I quoted this species from Masatierra also. There were two 
sheets of a Wahlenbcrgia in Herb. Lund; the\' had no labels, but on the sheets 
was written in J. G. Agardii's handwriting: »Juan T^rnandez, D. DolgI-A.S 
no. 48 ». As D. never visited Masafuera, 1 concluded that they came from 
Masatierra. They did not belong to the s[)ecies known before from Masatierra; 
thus, only W. Masafmrae remained, or a new species. Habitually they hjoked 
like the former, but differed in the closer serrature of the leaves; that were 
glabrous and had a somewhat different venation. The basal parts of the speci- 
mens were missing. 

Comparing these specimens a second time with the ricii material of \V. 
Masafiierae now at hand, I found that the differences quite forbid an identifica- 
tion. I further found that, apart from these s[)ecimens, nothing like them had 
ever been collected in Juan Fernandez, nor did such a species exist among 
Douglas's plants in Herb. Kew. During my visit to that herbarium last year 
I had a look at the Walilcnbergiae from Saint Helena, and was at once struck 
by the great likeness between W. linifolia A. DC. and the plants in Herb. 
Lund. Some time ago I sent for both and was able to establish their identity. 
The examination of a capsule of the alleged DOUGLAS plant revealed that it 
is 2-valvous as in all the St. Helena species, while all Juan Fernandez species 
have 3-vaivous capsule. Certainly we can draw no other conclusion than that 
the statement on the Lund specimens is quite false. And if we go back to 
Douglas's journal, only lately published, we read under no. 48: »Campanula(r) 
leaves alternate, sessile, lanceolate, serrate, smooth above, slightly pubescent 
underneath » etc. DoUGLAS no. 48 is W. Larraini. The person who distributed 
the plants in question to Lund has made a rather dangerous mistake. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 

115. W. Berteroi Hook, et Arn. — JOHOW, Estud. 75. — Syn. Campa- 
nula gracilis var. revolnta Colla 1. c. 119. — Plate 20, fig. 8. 

Masatierra: Bertero no. 1440! »ad rupium fissuris in montibus editiori- 
bus et in Goats island ». Rediscovered in Masatierra by us, but not in the 
»higher mountains^: B. Cumberland, Pta San Carlos, two small specimens 
(fl. ^/i 17, no. 265); in the sand outside the caves, one large and beautiful plant 
(fl. ^/i2 16, no. 43). Both localities near the sea. 

Santa Clara: Bertero (»Goats island*); Johow! — Morro de los Alelies 
(also observed by JOHOW), fr., some few fl. left, '^/i 17, no. 345. 

\V. Berteroi has (just as W. Masafiterae) a large, lactiferous subterranean 
bulb, formed by the base of the primary stem together with the primary root. 
From the surface of this bulb spring the vegetative-floral shoots, each ajipar- 
ently of one year's duration. The shape of the corolla is unlike that in other 
species. Its colour is a deep rosa, the base crimson. Style and stamens are 
rose-coloured, anthers golden yellow. The style is much longer than in other 
species, the stigma visible in the mouth of the corolla. As the figure of 
Hooker and Arnott in Hooker's Journ. i (1834) plate 137 is incorrect as 
to the flower, another was prepared. The flower figured here was trimerous 
throughout with 6 sepals etc., an anomality sometimes observed. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra and Santa Clara. 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Lobelia L. 



ii6. L. anceps Thunb. — JoHOW, Estud. n^. — Syn. L. rupicola Colla, 
Mem. Accad. Torino XXXIX (1834) 120. 

Masatierra: El Pangal, wet rocks near the waterfall, 215 m (fl. Vi 17, 
no. 221); Pto Ingles, moist rocks near the sea (fl.-unr. fr. "^^U 17, no. 314; also 
found by BertERO and by JOHOW). 

Masafuera: coast rocks near Q. de las Casas, where water trickles down 
(also observed by JOHOw); in the Casas canyon, humid rock wall; in the 
interior of Q. de las Vacas (fl.-past fl. ^"^U 17, no. 496); O. del Varadero, at the 
waterfall in the small branch of the canyon. 

A variable species that ought to be studied on material from different 
countries. In Juan Fernandez, the colour of the flower ranges from a deep lilac 
blue to almost white. Reiciie, Fl. Chil. V. 87 writes »planta anual.^», but the 
Juan Fernandez plant is perennial, as usually stated. 

Area of distribution: South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Chile from 
prov. Maule to Valdivia; Juan Fernandez. 



Compositae. 
Lagenophora Forst. 



117. L. Harioti Franch. 
Fig. 27 f— i, 28 f— g. 



Syn. L. Jursiita, SKOTTSBERG, Stud. 5. 




Fig. 27. a— b Lagenophora hirsiita, orig. Poepfig: a involucral scales, b ray floret, c— e L. 
nudicaiilis from Falkland IsL, leg. Skottsberg : c, d involucral scales, e ray floret, f— i L. Harioti 
from Masafuera: f involucral scales, g rav floret, h expanded ligule, i disc floret. — All X 10. 



Masafuera: Alpine fell-fields, scarce. Highland north of Casas, from 
1 130 m to the top of Las Torres, 1370 m (fl.-fr. ^^U 17, no. 484); C. del Barril, 
c. 830 m, rare, 925 m more common (fl.-fr. Vs 17, no. 536); Los Inocentes, c. 1375 m. 



THK PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



l8l 



The insular plant is certainly identical with L. Hariofi Franch. Miss. sci. 
Cap Horn V. 344, of which I have seen type material from Herb. Mus. d'hist. 
nat. in Paris. Another question is if this is different from A. ;//////tv?////> (Comm.) 
P. Dus. (tig. 27 c - e, 28 a — b). L. Hariod (fig. 28 c— e) is larger and more 
slender, the leaves less crowded, more distinctly dentate and always pubescent. 
The involucral scales are larger, c. 4 mm, rarely exceeding 3 mm in iiudicaulis. 
The flowers are slightly larger, but the achenes look very much the same in 
both. There may be as much reason to regard L. Harioti as a form of the 
other, in which case the name var. i^?-adlis (Alboff) should be used. Alboff, 
Contr. Fl. Terra de Feu II. 27 placed his variety under L. hirsuta Less. It has 




Fig. 28. Achene.s of Lagenophora. a, b L. 7iiidicaulis, a orig. Co.m.mersox, b ex herb. Link 
(Berlin), c — g L. Harioti: c Cord. Rio Manso leg. Reiche, d Cord. Linares le^. Reiche, e Fuegia 
leg. Skottsberg no. 151, f Masafuera, g Masafuera, dorsal view, h— m L. hirsuta: h orig. 
PoEPPiG, i Cord. Rio Manso leg. Reiche, k— 1 Cord. Valdivia leg. Xeger, from both sides and 
from the back, m Cord. Nahuelbuta leg. Reiche. n— o L. pimiila: n leg. Basti.w, o leg. 
Cockayne no. 79. p — q L. petiolata, p leg. Colenso, q leg. Haast. — All x 16. 



nothing to do with this. L. Jiirstita (fig. 27 a-b, 28 h— m) is known by the 
.shape of the leaves, that are larger and more deeply crenate, and especially 
by the long beak of the achene, which also has strong lateral nerves absent in 
the others, as seen from fig. 28 h— m; these nerves are also visible in the figure of 
PoEPPIG and EXDLICHER, Nov. gen. et spec, plant. II tab. 26, though not mentioned 
in the descriptions. I have figured one achene of the original material (fig. 28 h). 
L. Harioti has been mistaken for hirsuta on account of the hairy leaves, also 
by the writer (Zur Flora des Feuerlandes, Wiss. Erg. Schwed. Siidpolar-Exp. 
IV: I : probably all the specimens quoted belong to L. Harioti). Franchet 
regarded his species as »bien difterente de L. Commcrsoiiii (= nudicaulis) et 
voisine de L. Forsteri (=pumila)»: comp. fig. 28 n — o. Still, it is much nearer 
to the former. L. puinila differs in the shape of the leaves and bracts and also 



I 82 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

in the smaller achenes with their very short beak. The achene of L. Harioti 
is more like that in L. petiolata Hook f. (fig. 28 p-q). Both pumila and petio- 
lata come from New Zealand. All the species in question form one small 
natural group. 

The type material of L. Harioti was out of flower: Alhoff describes 
these as light rose-coloured. In the plant from Masafuera the colour varies 
from white to rose, turning ± crimson with age. 

I have seen L. Harioti (determined as hirsuta or sometimes nudicaulis) 
from the following stations: Fuegia, He Clarence, Sholl Bay, Hariot '^/s 1883 
(type); Ushuaia, in pratis alpinis "/s 1902, Skottsberg no. 151 ; Chile, Cord. 
Linares, 2200 m, Jan. 1897, Reiciie; Cord, of Rio Manso, 900— 1 400 m, Feb. 
1896, Reiche; Cord, of Chilian, 2000 m, Jan 1895, Reiche. 

Area of distribution: Andes of South Chile to Fuegia; Masafuera. 



Erigeron L. 

In the large collections of Santiago, Kew etc. I have not met with any near 
relatives of the island species. It is noteworthy that not one of the numerous 
alpine species, described from Chile by Philippi, seems to be related to the 
new forms from the mountains of Masafuera. In order to get the opinion of a 
specialist, I asked Professor VlERHAPPER to examine my material and to compare 
my new species with the collections in the Vienna museums, what he most 
willingly did. He thinks, and here I quite agree with him, that all the island 
species, in spite of their different habit, are related to each other; E. rupicola 
is very unlike the rest, but the principles of its morphology are the same as 
in the others. Professor VlERHAPPER mentions the following species as more or 
less related to the insular forms: E. Icpidotiis Less. (Hawaii), spiculosus Hook, 
et Arn. (Chile), iiliginosus Benth. (Columbia) and lieteromorpJins Rob. (Mexico). 
Hemsley compared E. friiticosus (Juan Fernandez) with E. Darrellianus Hemsl. 
(Bermuda). Prof. VlERHAPPER adds: »Als besonders wichtiges gemeinsames 
Merkmal erscheint mir die ± tiefe Serratur der Blatter, die z. B. bei spiculosus 
genau so ist, bei lepidotus allerdings nicht, der aber dafijr sonst d^nx fruti casus 
sehr nahe zu stehen scheint». 

118. E. friiticosus DC. — JoHOW, Estud. 51; Skottsberg, Stud. 4. — 
Fig. 29 a— c. 

Masatierra: Rocky and stony ground on the high ridges or near the sea, 
also in the dry western parts of the island, but not reported from the eastern 
section. North-east corner of El Yunque, c. 580 m; V. Colonial, C. Central on 
the crest, 570 m (also JOHOw); Cave no. 6, one specimen; Portezuelo de Vil- 
lagra (also observed by JOHOW), 500—600 m, not uncommon (fl. ^/i2 16, no. 9); 
Q. del Monte Maderugo. road-side in the macal, 240 m, two specimens; C. 
Salsipuedes, c. 600 m (fl. ^/i2 16, no. 73); between La Vaquerfa and O. Juanango, 
rather abundant; south slope of Co Tres Puntas; C. de las Cabras, 380 m; 13. 
Chupones, among rocks in the grass (fl. ^/i 17, no. 255). 



•]HK. rHANKKOGAMS OI'" THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



183 



Masafucra: Scattered on the ridges and in the canyons; Q. de las Chozas, 
Diikso?!iagvowe\ Q. de las Casas (also observed byjoiiow), rare; Q. Inocentes, 
c. 500 m, abundant; O. Angosta; Q. del Varadero, rare; slopes above Las 
Cho/.as, 700—750 m, in the grass (fl. ^^/2, "^"/s, no. 524); C. del Barril, c. 750 m. 

f. majiiscula n. f. — Fig. 29 d— e. — A typo diifert statura majorc et 
magnitudine omnium partium. Rami ad 70 cm longi et 6,5 mm crassi, dense 
foliosi. Folia ad 18 cm longa et 2 cm lata, sat profunde lacerata. Fanicula 
amplissima. Flores $ ad 7 nmi longi, tubo 3, limbo 4 mm. Achaenia ut in 
typo. Masafucra: Q. de las Casas, one specimen in the bottom of the gorge 
in a shady corner (fl. ^,'3 17, no. 375). — Looks like a »gigas-rorm». Aster 
chgeroides Hook, et Arn. (= E. fruticosus) p proliferus Comp. Hot. Mag. II. 48 
is a large-leaved form, but nothing is said about the size of the heads etc.; it 
is described »corymbis quasi )ateralibus», an expression difficult to understand. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 





Fig. 29. a-e Erige^'on fruiuosus : a outer and inner scales, b ray and c disc floret; d— e f. nia- 
juscLila, ray floret and achene. f— i E. htteoviridis, f outer and inner scales, g— h ray and disc 

floret, i achene. — All X 6. 



*ii9. E. luteoviridis nov. spec. ■ — F^ig. 29 f — i. 

Euerigeron suffruticosus polycephalus subglaber luteoviridis. Radix pri- 
maria persistens lignosa longissima (ad 58 cm longa visa), valde ramosa, multi- 
ceps. Caulis lignosus plerumque a basi ramosus; innovationes basales internodiis 
inferioribus elongatis, ceteris brevissimis folia rosulatim conferta gerentibus. 
Rami florigeri 20 — 30 cm longi, rigidi, glabri, striati. Folia inferiora dense rosu- 
lata, anguste spathulata vel lineari-lanceolata, acuta, in petiolum semiamplexi- 
caulem longissime attenuata, plerumque 5—8 cm longa et 4 — 6 mm lata, versus 
apicem dentibus acutis parvis incrassatis utrinque circ. 5 munita, reticulatim 
nervosa nervo mediano permanifesto, pallida, lutescenti-viridia, subglabra (pilis 
nonnullis marginalibus) vel glaberrima, valde firma quasi coriacea; folia caulina 
inferiora similia, superiora linearia, Integra, 2 — 4 cm longa et 2—3 mm lata. 
Capitula ex axillis supremis orta, subumbellatim disposita, pauca — sat nume- 
rosa, circ. 8 mm diam., inferiora pedunculis elongatis 3 — 5 cm longis, bracteo- 
latis, simplicibus vel infimis parce ramosis, glabris vel parce pilosis suffulta. 
Involucrum 5 — 5,5 mm altum, 4,5 — 5 mm diam., subglabrum. Squamae lancco- 



184 CARL SKOTTSEERG 

latae, acutae, hyalino-marginatae, minute laceratae nee non parce piligerae, 
paucae exteriores breviores 2,5 — 3 X i mm, intermediae numerosae 4,5—5 v 1,2 
mm, inlimae angustiores glaberrimae. Floras radii omnes $ ligulati albi glaber- 
rimi, tubo circ. 2 mm longo, ligula angusta suberecta apice indistincte lobulata 
circ. 3 mm longa; flores disci ? corolla 3 — 3,5 mm longa lutea. Achaenia 
ovata compressa subglabra, 1,5 mm longa et 0,6 — 0,7 mm lata. Pappus circ. 
2,5 mm longus. 

Masafuera: In the alpine region; edge of western precipice, above Buque 
Varado, c. 1200 m (fl.-fr. ^/s 17, no. 558); C. Atravesado, c. 1350 m (fl ^^U 17, 
no. 500). No. 558 differs from the type (no. 500) in the broader, more coarsely 
serrate leaves. 

Near E. fniticosus, but undoubtedly quite distinct. The light colour and 
the thick leaves characterize the new species; E. fruticosus is pure green, much 
more villous, and has much thinner leaves, generally also a distinct trunk, which 
attains the height of a few feet. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 

*I20. E. Ingae nov. spec. — Plate 16, fig. i; text fig. 30 a— d. 

Euerigeron perennis basi suffruticosus hirsutus oligocephalus. Caudex sat 
profunde infossus lignosus di- polychotome ramosus, radicibus numerosis chordi- 
formibus; innovationes basales longi subrosulatim foliosi. Caules florigeri ad 
30 cm vel ultra alti, sat robusti, adscendentes — erecti, sulcato-striati, pilis longis 
albis pluricellularibus ± dense villosi. Folia basalia rosulata, infima tempore 
floris jam emortua, spalhulata, in petiolum basi dilatatum longe angustata, acuta 
vel obtusata et mucronata, superne grosse serrato-dentata dentibus late triangu- 
latis mucronulatis utrinque i — 3( — 4), sat obscure viridia, undique sparse et 
longe villosa, 4 — 7 cm longa, 8 — 12 mm lata; caulina sensim minora, spathu- 
lato-linearia, breviter petiolata, margine dente uno vel altero instructa, suprema 
sublinearia, 2 — 4 cm longa et 3 — 5 mm lata, Integra. Caulis sub capitulo ter- 
minal! leviter incrassatus. Capitula terminalia et ex axillis supremis i — 3 (rarius 
ad 5) lateralia, pedunculis tenuibus villosis ad 9 — 12 cm longis caulem superanti- 
bus suffulta, 16—18 mm diam. Involucrum 7—8 mm altum et 10 mm crassum. 
Squamae, exterioribus paucis brevibus exceptis, 6.5 — 7,5 mm longae et i — 1,2 
latae, lanceolatae, acutatae, margine et dorso villosae, intimae margine irregula- 
riter hyalino-laceratae, parce pilosae — glabriusculae. Flores $ ad 9 mm longae, 
albae, corolla 7 — 8 mm longa, tubo perparce villoso. Flores $ 5,5 mm longi 
lutei. Achaenia valde compressa, margine incrassato setoso, in latere basi et 
apice pilis nonnullis inspersa, 2 — 2,3 mm longa et i mm lata, pappo circ. 
2 mm longo. 

Masafuera: Las Torres, on rock ledges, 1370 m (fl. ^^/2 17, no. 391); 
Los Inocentes, c. 1350 m (fl.-fr, ^3 17, no. 556). — Named in honour of Mrs. 
Inga Skottsberg. 

var. Iiinocentiuin nov. var. — P^ig. 30 e — h. — A typo differt foliis con- 
spicue latioribus, basalibus spathulatis 4—7 cm longis et i — 2 cm latis, late 
rotundato obtusis, mucronulatis, margine grosse sinuato-dentatis, caulinis ovato- 
lanceolatis subintegris vel integris, 2 — 2,5 cm longis et 7 — 12 mm latis. Inflore- 



THE PHANKROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



'B5 



scenlia magis contracta. Involucri squamae 5—6 mm longae; flores $ 7 mm, 
$ 4 mm longi. Achaenia 1,5 mm solum longa, pappo aequiloiigo. — Masa- 
fucra: Los Inocentes, c. 1400 m (fl.-fr. '•',3 17, no. 557). — Only very few 
specimens observed; habitually somewhat different on account of the broader 
leaves and also notable for the smaller flowers, but more material is required 
in order to decide whether it deserves the rank of a species. 
Area of distribution: Kndemic in Masafuera. 




Fig. 30. a— d Ertgetvn Ingae: a largest outer, and inner scales, b ray and c disc floret, 
d achenes; e— h var. Innocentiinn, e outer and inner scales, f ray and g disc floret, h achene. 

All X 6. 



*I2I. E. tiirricola nov. spec. — Plate 16, fig. 2; text fig. 31 a— g. 

Euerigeron perennis caespitosus parvulus monocephalus. Rhizoma adscen- 
dens, radicibus numerosis fibrosis, multiceps. Folia carnosula firma, dense rosu- 
lata, spathulata, petiolo laminam aequante usque ad duplo superante, obtusato- 
rotundata et apiculata, dentibus utrinque 1—2 sat manifeste mucronatis ornata, 
3—4 cm longa et 3—7 mm lata, saltem secus marginem pilosa vel undique 
hirsuta, pilis longis pluricellularibus. Scapus 5—12 cm altus, sulcatoangulatus, 
strictus vel leviter curvatus, subglaber— hirsutus, monocephalus vel rarissime ex 
axillo supremo capitulum alterum producens, perparce foliosus superne nudus, 
folia caulina 3—7 linearia acutiuscula 1 — 2,5 cm longa, summa vel interdum 
omnia valde reducta bracteiformia. Capitulum circ. 15 mm diam. Involucrum 
5X6 mm. Squamae una vel altera brevis, triangulata 2,5 X i mm solum 



i86 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



metiens, ceterae 4 — 5 X i — 1,2 mm, lanceolatae, acutae, denticulatae, dorso dense 
hirsutae; intimae subglabrae, margine solum dense ciliatae nee non scariosae 
et denticulatae. Flores $ albi, circ. 9 mm longi, limbo angusto ± distincte 
tridentato patente, 4,3 — 5 mm longo, tubo extus pilis nonnuUis insperso. Flores 
$ flavi, 4,5 — 5 mm longi. Achaenia ± oblique ovata, compressa, margine in- 
crassato hirsuto ceterum subglabra vel sub apice pilis paucis bifurcatis inspersa, 






Fig. 31. a — f Efigeron tiirricola: a outer and inner scales, b bilabiate and c normal ray floret, 
all from f. glabrior; d scales from haiiy specim., e disc floret, f achene, g top of style, h— k E. 
rupicola: h one outer and two inner scales, i ray and disc floret, k achene. 1— m Gnaphnliiim 
spictfonne, outer and inner scales, 1 of LECHLER'^no. 1250 ex p., m from Masafuera. n G. spi- 
catiim no. 118, scales. — g X 50, all others X 6. 

1,5 — 2 mm longa et 0,8 mm lata, pappo ad 2,5 mm longo. Adsunt interdum 
flores $ bilabiati (fig. 31 b). 

Masafuera: alpine fell-fields near Las Torres, 1350 — 1370 m (disp. fr. 
^^/o 17, no. 483 b, c; — f. glabrior); humid moss-mats (fl. ^^2 17, no. 483); C. 
del Barril, 1290 m (f. glabrior); Los Inocentes, 1350 — 1400 m. 

Another characteristic species of the well known salpine* habit. The 
leaves are variable as to shape and degree of pubescence, but I think all the 
specimens collected belong to the same species. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



rUE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 187 

122. E. rupicola Phil. — JoHOW, Estud. 51. — Fig. 31 h— k. 

Masafuera: Germ.vjn! without locahty. — Common on the coast rocks: 
between Q. del (3valo and Q. del Pasto; entrance to Q. del Mono (beg. fl. ^"/2 
17, no. 417 b); between Q. de las Casas and Q. de las Vacas (beg. fl. '" '^/a 17, 
no. 417); Q. Angosta, in the canyon; Q. del Varadero (fl. ^^/a 17, no. 514b); 
Rodado del Sandalo, abundant in places (fl. ''/2 17, no. 514); Q. de la Loberia, 
not uncommon. Seen once only in the alpine region, west of Q. Sanchez, 
1 100 m, one specimen (fl. ^^/^ 17, no. 541). 

Of this peculiar plant only one small and incomplete specimen existed 
before, viz. the type in Herb. Santiago, so JOHOW believed that it was a very 
rare species, while in reality it is quite common in many places on the coast 
cliffs. As the description of PillLlPPi is incomplete, I shall add the following 
notes. 

The morphology is the same as in the other species without a trunk; 
there is a stout, woody primary root of the multiceps type; the stems are 
woody, profusely branched, more or less prostrate, forming dense mats. The 
upper part of the flowering shoots dies in the autumn, while te base persists 
and carries innovations. The leaves are mainly basal but seldom so densely 
rosulate as in the others; they are long spathulate, entire, very obtuse, fleshy 
and perfectly glabrous, but otherwise rather variable in outline, 3— 7 mm broad 
and about 2 — 4 cm long, of which about one half belongs to the petiole. The 
upper leaves are reduced to bracts. The branches end in a terminal head; 
numerous lateral ones are developed in the axils of the upper leaves, borne on 
very long, filiform pedicels with some leaves below and bracts above; sometimes 
these leaves support a third generation of heads. As a rule, the pedicels are 
glabrous; the upper part, however, slightly pilose in no. 541. Often enough all 
the branches are abbreviated; if elongated, they are prostrate — ascending and 
rise a few cm only above the ground. The head measures 7 mm across, the 
involucre is 4,5 mm high and 5 mm wide, the scales 4 — 4,5 mm long, glabrous, 
the outer setulose near the tip, the others quite glabrous with scariose denticu- 
late margin. The $ flower measures 7, the $ 5 mm. The achenes are typical, 
1,5 mm long, hispid along the thickened margin and on the flat surface. Pappus 
2 — 2,5 mm. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Giiaphalium L. 

123. G. spiciforme Sch. Bip. — Syn. G. spicatum Lam. var., Skotts- 
BERG, Stud. 5. — Fig. 31 1 — m. 

Masafuera: In the alpine region, apparently rare; first found by the 
writer in 1908. Co Correspondencia, c. 1350 m (past fl.-fr. ^Va — Va 17, no. 414); 
C. del Barril, 1290 m. 

The determination of this plant remains uncertain. Anybody familiar 
with the present state of confusion in the genus will understand the difficulty 
of classifying a species belonging to the piirpiireum assemblage. It is not G. 
spicatum; this wide-spread species has been introduced to Juan Fernandez and 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



is easily known from the alpine GnapJialmni of Masafuera. This is strictly 
perennial with numerous rosulate innovations; the scape is simple or very little 
branched and has few leaves. The leaves are greenish grey above, snowy 
white with long, dense wool below, and the same kind of long, crisp wool 
thickly envelops the scape and heads. The latter form a dense, short almost 
globular spike, surrounded by leaves; sometimes there are some lateral glomerules, 
sessile or pedunculate. The compact globose spikes and the long crisp wool 
give to this form an appearance different from that of all forms of piirpureuni 
or spicatwn that I have seen. 

The involucral scales number 15 to 20, all the outer are short and broad, 
3 X I — 1,2 mm, acute, greenish hyaline with dark brown apex; the inner are 
larger, 4X i — 1,5 mm, obtusely apiculate to square, denticulate, green in the 
centre with broad hyaline edges and a dark brown or reddish brown tip. The 
head measures 4 X 2,5 mm. In G. spicatuni the head is smaller and narrower 
(3 X 1,5 — 2 mm), and not so dark, with all the scales acuminate or acute 

(fig- 31 n)- 

The species was brought to G. spicifoyme after a detailed comparison 

with the type, LechlER no. 1250, of which I have seen material in Upsala, 

Kew and Marburg. It includes two forms, one very like my plant, another 

with a leafy stem, grey wool and sessile clusters of heads in all the upper 

axils. The latter is = G. mucronatum Phil, in Herb. Santiago; Reiche brought 

this to spicifornie, but I think it is better to regard iimcronatnm as distinct and 

to bring a part of Lechler no. 1250 to this. 

I have seen the following specimens of G. spicifornie, as limited above: 
Sandy Point, Lechler no. 1250 ex p. (type), fig. 31 1; Port Famine, KiNG 
(s. n. G. falcatuvi, very like the plant from Masafuera); Orange Harbour, WiLKE.S 
(s. n. G. consanguineum)\ Bay San Nicolas (CUNNINGHAM). Dusen's G.spicatum 
from Lake Argentino in Patagonia (no. 5742) is similar in most respects. To 
judge from our present knowledge of G. spicifornie, this is a magellanic species 
with an outpost on Masafuera. 

The sterile specimens of 1908 were compared with G. consangnineiini Gaud. 
The fresh material clearly shows the difference between them, and consa7iguineiini 
is brought to spicatuni by most authors. 

Area of distribution: South Patagonia; Fuegia; Masafuera. 



Abrotanella Cass. 

*I24. A. crassipes nov. spec. — Fig. 32 a — h. 

Pulvinatim caespitosa, caespite rotundato — subplano, denso nee non sat 
magno. Folia creberrime rosulata, linearia, haud marginata, curvato-patula, 
glabra, plerumque 10—15 mm longa, infra apicem 1,5 — 2 mm lata; lamina car- 
nosa, supra punctulis depressis inspersa, apice rotundato-subconica, minutissime 
apiculata, versus basin leviter angustata deinde in vaginam subhyalinam ner- 
vosam intus glandulosam dilatata. Glandulae ferrugineae stipitatae clavatae 
multicellulares. Scapus in ramis terminalis, i — 2foliatus, primo inter folia 
± absconditus, statu fructifero elongatus nee non incrassatus et carnosus, ad 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 



189 



10—15 mm longus et 1,5 — 2,5 mm crassus, basi semper tenuis, leviter angulatus, 
monocephalus. Capitulum circ. 3 mm diam. Involucrum 6 — 8-phyllum squamis 
ovatis— latissime obovatis, obtusis, ± truncatis, viridibus apice ± roseo, margine 
hyalinis, uninerviis, basi praesertim glandulis (supra depictis) munitis, 2 — 2,2 mm 
longis. Flores obscure rubri, pauci — sat numerosi (ad 16 visi), circ. 3 mm longi: 
2 perpauci, ? magis numerosi, omnes fertiles, stylus floris $ distincte bifido 
fere ut in S. Calyx nuUus. Achaenia ovoideofusiformia, obscure tetragona, 




Fig. 32. Abroianella; a— h A. crassipes : a branch, nat. size, b leaves, X 5, c scales, X 17, 

d scape with head, X 2,5, e 9 and f § flower, X 10, g achenes, X 17, h gland, X 150. i — k A. 

lineaj-ifolia, i scale and k achene, X 17. 1— m A. Moseleyi, 1 scales, m achenes, X 17- 



apice leviter concava et margine humili circunn'allata, glabra, 2 — 2,5 mm longa, 
pappo plane destituta. 

Masafuera: Only found on the top of Los Inocentes, 1325 — 1400 m, 
abundant in places (past fl.-fr. ®;'3 17, no. 502). 

A. crassipes is nearly related to A. linearis Berggr. (New Zealand) and to 
A. li^iearifolia A. Gray (West Patagonia, Fuegia). It differs from the former in 
the shape of the flov.ers and achenes and especially in the leaves, which have 
a long pilose sheath in A. U)iearis. I have not seen type material af .-/. lineari- 
folia, but specimens from Pto Churucca in Herb. Kew are rightly named and 



I go CARL SKOTTSBERG 

agree very well with the type; only, the involucral scales are said to be »sub 
2 — 3-nervatae» (Proc. Amer. Acad. V. 137) and I find them i-nerved (fig. 32 i). 
The achenes have a corona of 4 — 5 long bristles (fig. 32 k). These bristles are 
present in all the achenes, while there is no trace of them in A. crassipes. On 
the other hand, the glands described above seem to be absent. The plant 
found by the writer in Tierra del Fuego and named linearifolia (K. Sv. Vet.- 
Akad. Handl. LVI [1916], 318, Taf. 23, Fig. 27) differs from the ordinary one 
in its much more compact growth and in the much shorter, more canaliculate 
leaves. Perhaps it ought to be separated from linearifolia, but the coroniform 
pappus is the same. 

It is, however, possible that A. crassipes is not confined to Masafuera. 
In Herb. Kew I found an unnamed specimen, labelled »Otway Harbour, Gulf 
of Penas, Patagonia. Coll. Mr. MOSELEY Jan. 1876. Reed June i876». It is 
very like my plant; the leaves are a trifle narrower, the scape not at all in- 
crassate, in spite of the achenes being ripe, but some scapes in crassipes are 
less elongated and incrassate than the rest. The scales (fig. 32 1) have the 
same general outline and there are a few glands of the same kind. The achenes 
are more distinctly clavate, without any beak at all (fig. 32 m). At present, I 
distinguish this as A. Moselcyi nov. spec. Further material is required to decide 
whether it is better to bring it to A. crassipes. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Robinsonia DC. 

Decandolle, Prodr, VI, established three sections: Symphyochaeta (^7?. 
juacrocephala), Eleutherochaeta (R. Gayana and thurifera) and Eleuthero- 
lepis (R. gracilis). In several respects R. viacrocephala differs so much from 
the other species that the most modern taxonomists would reserve the name 
Robinsonia for this species alone. According to my opinion, we loose more 
than we gain by splitting up an isolated genus like this, the species of which 
are, without the slightest doubt, genetically related to each other but lacking 
closer connection with all other genera. That, in many orders, apparently 
small characters must be, and have always been, used to distinguish the genera, 
is one thing; but to make this a rule is wrong: this mechanical and spiritless 
splitting-up process may, perhaps, satisfy the ambition of the authors of all 
these »new genera» but it has become a burden to all other botanists. Thus, 
I retain Robinsonia in its old sense, distinguishing two subgenera, Symphyo- 
chaeta, comprising R. rnacrocephala, and Eleutherochaeta to receive all the 
other species, which have free pappus setae and deciduous corolla. I propose 
to subdivide the latter subgenus into two sections, Symphyolepis with soldered 
(R. Gayana and thurifera) and Eleutherolepis with free involucral scales 
(R. evenia, Masafuerae, gracilis). There are some other differences between 
these sections. In Symphyolepis the base of the pappus forms a conspicuous 
coronula and the style of the cT flowers is shortly bifid with acute penicillate 
branches; in Eleutherolepis the pappus setae are free almost to their very base, 
and the style is deeply bifid with linear-truncate branches. Of the three species 



THE PHANKROOAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS IQI 

of this section A', ^i^racilis differs from the others by its small, narrow leaves 
and less constricted involucre with obsolete calyculus. Habitually, it is equally 
distant from all the other species. 



Key to the genus Robinsonia. 

I. Pappus of ? flower forming a tube, including the persistent corolla. Leaves 
with a very dense net of small pellucid venules between the nerves. 

Subg. I. Synipliyochaeta (DC.) Skottsb. R. inacrocephala Dene. 
IT. Pappus bristles free, caducous as also the corolla. Leaves with a much 

coarser net of veins Subg. II. Eleuthcrochaeta (DC ) Skottsb. 

A. Involucral scales soldered. Leaves distinctly acuminate. 

Sect. I. Symphyolepis Skottsb. 

1. Scales cohaerent almost to their tips. Inflorescence rounded- flat. 
Leaves c. 12 cm long, with numerous lateral veins almost parallel 
with the midrib -^ R. Gayana Dene. 

2. Scales cohaerent to ^/s. Inflorescence pyramidal. Leaves c. 20 cm 
long with lateral veins forming a conspicuous net with large meshes. 

R. tJiurifera Dene. 
V>. Scales free. Leaves acute, but not distinctly acuminate. 

Sect. 2. Eleutherolepis DC. 

1. Calyculus conspicuous. Leaves 8 — 15 cm long. 

a. Leaves fleshy with thick base, leaving semilunar, flat scars. 

R. evenia Phil. 

b. Leaves coriaceous with less thickened base, leaving linear, 
prominent scars - R. Masafuerae Skottsb. 

2. Calyculus indistinct. Leaves about 3 cm long. R. gracilis Dene. 

125. R. macrocephala Dene. — JOHOW, Estud. 57. — Fig. 33 a— c. 

Masatierra: Pto Frances, Loma Incienso (called thus after the Robin- 
sonia), c. 360 m, scattered specimens (past fl.-fr. '^/i2 16, no. 131, also observed 
by JoHOW); hills between Pto Frances and Rabanal (JoHOW); Co Centinela, 
steep slope near the entrance to El Pangal, some few shrubs c. 300 m (fr. "^/s 17, 
no. 573). 

The pappus of this species is quite unique, forming a closed, tough and 
firm tube with a wrinkled surface. The achenes, glabrous in other species, are 
setose in this. The calyculus consists of few, minute bracts. The involucre 
in the ? measures 10—12 mm in length by 8—9 across; the head is about 
15 mm long and 10 mm broad. The scales number 17 or 18 and are firmly 
soldered. The ray florets are 5 to 8, but sometimes only 2 or 3, sometimes 
none at all, according to JoHOW. They are about 10 mm long; the ligule is 
atropurpureous, boat-shaped, 2 X i mm, not smaller than in other species in 
contrary to older statements. The disc florets are yellow with reddish lobes, 
8—8,5 mm long including the ovary. When the fruit is ripe, the involucre 
bursts open in a quite irregular fashion. The achenes are much larger than in 
other species, 7 — 8 mm. 



192 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Unfortunately, the flowers of the few male plants seen were all gone already 
on the 13th of. December, so they remain unknown. There were only few 
female heads still in flower and even these fairly advanced. Decaisne, Ann. 
sc. nat. I. 28 writes: »Vidi specim. unicum in herb, Mus. Paris, a Claudio Gay 
relatum. Floret Januario. Fructum perfecit Februario». Gay visited Masatierra 
in February (JoHOW 1. c. 38). His specimens are in fruit, and I do not think 
they flowered in January, as every specimen seen by us must have flowered 
already in November. According to JOHOW, only Gay and himself ever col- 
lected this species, but in DC. Prodr. VI. 448 we find the following statement: 
»leg. cl. Larrain et Claud. Gay»; comp. above, foot-note on p. 176. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

126. R. Gayana Dene. — JOHOW, Estud. 58; Skottsberg, Stud. Taf. 5, 
Fig. I. — Fig. 33 h— k, 35 d— e. 

Masatierra: Common on all the ridges from Pto Frances to Co Chuma- 
cera; abundant in the higher parts where it forms a conspicuous feature in the 
vegetation of the rocky crests; occasionally found at lower altitudes (280 m on 
the north, 190 on the south side of the island). — ¥\. Dec, 1916, nos. 22 and 
1232 (j", 23, 84 and 137 $; fr. April 1917, no. 23 b. 

Male plant: Heads less numerous than in $, 8 — 9 mm high, with fully 
expanded rays up to 12 mm across (larger than the female, contrary to the 
statement of JOHOW); involucre 5 — 6X4,5 — 5 mm; flowers yellow, ray florets 
generally 8, 6 — 7 mm long, ligules almost plane, 3,5 — 4 X 2 — 2,5 mm, style 
slightly bifid with short triangulate, acute lobes; disc florets G — y mm long, 
lobes of style incrassate, conical, abruptly narrowed with apiculate tips. 

Female plant: Heads as many as 100 in the corymb, 5 — 6 mm high by 
4,5 — 5 across; involucre 4 — 4,5 mm in length and width; flowers greenish yellow, 
7 — 8 ray florets 5 mm long, ligule ± erect, boat-shaped, ± bifid; disc florets 4 mm 
long not counting the e.xserted style, which is thick with small lobes. Achenes 
2 — 2,5 mm long, those of the ray florets shorter and more curved. Both sexes 
with very few and small calycular bracts. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

127. R. thurifera Dene. — JOHOW, Estud. 59. — Fig. 33 d — g, 35 a, f, g. 
Masatierra: Bertero! Sohrens! — On the ridges, among shrubs and 

small trees, rare. C. Chifladores, one specimen 350 m, numerous about 450 m 
(past fl. ^''/i 17, no. 619 $, 620 cf). Portezuelo de Villagra (also observed by 
Sohrens), south-west slope of Co Piramide, 575 — 600 m, about 20 trees seen 
(fl. ^^/i 17, no. 358 $, 367 c^): one plant epiphytic on Blcc]inuiii cycadifolium. 

Decai.SNE's description refers to the female plant only, and the specimen 
brought by SOHRENS is also female. Apparently the male plant is described 
below for the first time. 

Heads less numerous than in $, where there are several hundred in one 
panicle, 7 mm high, 10 mm across; involucre 4,5 — 5 by 3,5-4 mm, cylindric- 
cam{)anulate, of about 13 scales, united to above the middle, glabrous with 
rather abrupt, penicillate apex. Ray florets generally 5 (sometimes 6), 7 mm 
long, ligule dirty yellow, 4x2 mm, tridentate, a little fleshy; style long exserted, 



THF. I'HANEUOGAMS OF THF, JUAN FEKNANDKZ ISLANDS 19^ 

lobes ovate with penicillate apex. Disc florets 5 mm long, not counting the 
exserted stamens, yellowish green; stamens distinctly thickened below the anther, 
style a little exserted with orbicular-triangulate, slightly divergent stigmas, their 
tips penicillate. Pappus composed of very few bristles. 

The following notes complete the earlier short descriptions of the female 
plant. Head 4 mm high and 4,5 across, involucre only 3X3 mm, smaller than 
in all the other species, with few inconspicuous calycular bracts. Ray florets 
generally 8, sometimes as few as 5, yellowish green, only 3 — 3,2 mm long with 
a small (1,5 X 0,7 mm), boat-shaped ligule; style thick with short lobes, yellowish 
green; disc florets of the same colour, 3 mm long, not counting the exserted 
style; stigmas short, divergent. Achenes lo-costate ace. to Decaisne, 5 — 10- 
costate ace. to Joiiow; I found them 5'— 8-costate, ribs little prominent and not 
equidistant. The achene is crowned by a narrow ring much less consj)icuous 
than in /v. Gaya>ia. On most of the achenes examined there are one or more 
thick, white stripes, which proved to be composed of the resin exuded on the 
stem of this and other Robinsonias, but not met with on the achene in any 
other species. These clumps of resin were observed by Decaisne, 1. c. 24: 
»le R. tliurifera a ses fruits munis de cotes tres saillantes et formees par une 
substance medullaire blanchatre». The marginal achenes are shorter (1,5 mm 
long) and more curved than those of the centre, where they are 2 mm long, a 
difference also noted in R. Gayana. There are only 5 to 10 bristles, while, in 
all the congeners, they are much more numerous. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

128. R. evenia Phil. — JOHOW, Estud. 60. — Fig. 33 I— o, 34 b, 35 b. 

Masatierra: Germain! Reed! Downton! Mo.seley!, all without locality. 
— Not uncommon in the eastern and central parts, along the higher ridges, 
at the limit of the forest among brushwood, or in the humid, Dickso7iia-x\ch. 
woods. — C. Chifladores, one large, apparently not epiphytic specimen at 350 m, 
many in the forest 500 m, all epiphytic; between Q. de la Piedra Agujereada 
and Q. Laura, c. 500 m, on Dicksonia, abundant; C. Centinela, 560 m, on Dick- 
sonia, abundant; the depression between Co Damajuana and Co Yunque, 580 m, 
on Thyrsopteris: V. Colonial, C. Central, 570 m, on Dicksonia; Portezuelo de 
Villagra, among shrubs c. 600 m, several trees, all growing on tree-ferns (fl. $ 
^/■2 16, no. 25); C. Salsipuedes, in Dicksoriia-grovQ, 670 m, seedlings (no. 74) 
and adult plants, all epiphytic (fl. '^/i 17, no. 82 ?, 83 J"); dense forest on a 
mountan spur west of Co Yunque, c. 500 m, epiphytic; 0. Villagra, c. 500 m, 
on Dicksonia. 

Curiously enough it is nowhere stated that R. evenia is an epiphyte. It 
grows on the trunks of tree-ferns; only in one single case a large and old speci- 
men was found growing on the ground, but I am inclined to believe that also 
this had germinated on the base of a fern tree, sending, as it often does, roots 
into' the soil, and that the original substratum had disappeared. The seedling 
has fleshy, densly pilose, coarsely serrate leaves. Even the old, perfectly 
glabrous leaves are much more fleshy than in other species, a circumstance 
perhaps connected with the epiphytic life; they are as much as i mm thick 
(not counting the midrib), and the veins are hardly visible. 

1 5 — 20400. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



194 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 




io. ^55. Flowers of Robinsonia. a-c A', macrocephnla 9: a ray, b disc floret, c achene. 

— g R thiirifera: d rav, e disc floret of cT, f rav, g disc floret of 5. h-k R. Gayaua: h ray 

«nd i disc floret of cf," j ray, k disc floret of ?.' l-o R. evetim: 1 ray, m disc floret of </, 

n rav, o disc floret o\ 9. p— s R. Masafiierac: p ray, q disc floret of cT, r ray, s disc floret 

of 9. t— X R. gracilis: t rav, u disc floret of cf, v ray, x disc floret ot 9. — All X 8. 



F 
d 
and 



'JHF-: I'HANEROGAMS OK THK JL'AN FKRNAKDIZ ISLANDS 



195 



Male plant: Head 8 niiii high, 10 12, rarely as nuich as 15 mm across. 
Involucre of about 13 scales, G—-] X 4—4,5 mm, campanulate, with 5 or 6 small 
calycular bracts. Ray florets S, pure yellow, 8—10 mm long; ligule tridentate, 
3,3— 4 X 2,5 mm; style hardly e.\serted, bifid; pappus rays numerous (25 — 30) 
in all kinds of flowers. Disc florets greenish jellow, 6 — 7 mm long; style deeply 
bifid with truncate branches. 

Female plant: Mead about 10 mm high, 7—8 across; involucre cylindrical, 
7 — 8 X 5 mm; ray florets 8, yellow, 7—8 mm long; ligule 2,5 X 2 mm; style 
greenish, deeply bifid; disc florets 6 mm long, yellow with greenish, barely 
e.Kserted style. Young achencs slightly costate with pilose costae. 

Area of di.stribiiti()n: l.ndemic in Masatierra. 





•■•'129. R. Masafucrac nov. spec. — Plate 17, fig i; te.xt fig, 33 p — s, 
34 a, 35 c, k, i. 

Arbuscula diocca ad 2 m alta, trunco primario certe ad 7 cm crasso, pseudo- 
dichotome-subumbellatim ramosa, ramis junioribus viridibus, cicatricibus lineari- 
bus foliorum manifeste notatis. Folia ad 
apicem ramorum more generis conferta, cras- 
siuscula.subcoriacea, dilute viridia, glaberrima, 
lanceolata — anguste obovato-lanceolata, in 
apicem acutum sensim angustata, versus basin 
valde contracta, margine in parte dimidia 
superiore minute denticulata, nervo mediano 
utrinque conspicuo, basi latissimo, secun- 
dariis indistinctis, angulo acuto exeuntibus, 
plerumque 7 — 12 cm longa et 1,5 — 2 cm lata, 
sed magnitudo summopere variabilis (folia 
ad 18,2 X 4,7 cm visa, in specimine s3'lvicola 
unico invento ad 22 X 3,5 cm). Inflorescentia 
terminalis valde ramosa corymbosa, bracteis 
sat parvis instructa; pedicelli capitulorum 
I — 2 cm longi, superne pilosi. Capitula c 

7 mm alta et 10 mm crassa; involucrum 
campanulatum, 5 mm altum et 4 mm latum, 
addito calyculo a bracteis perpaucis angustis 
ad 2 mm longis formato. Squamae circ. 12. 
5 mm longae et 1,5 mm latae, glabrae vel 
dorso pilis nonnullis inspersae, apice penicil- 
latae, crassae, margine scariosae, liberae sed 
manifeste imbricatae. Flores ligulati 8, flavi, 

8 mm longi, ligula 3 — 3,5 X 2 mm, irregula- 
riter tridentata, in tubum abrupte angustata, 
stylo breviter bifido paulo exserto. Flores 
disci 6 mm longi, viridi-lutei, antheris flavis; stylus inclusus apice bifidus ramis 
truncatis penicillatis. Pappus multiradiatus. Capitula S magis numerosa certe 
ad 75, 8 mm alta et 7 mm lata; involucrum cylindrico-campanulatum, sub apice 
constrictum, basi truncatum et pilosiusculum, G—'] mm altum basi 4 — 5 mm 





54. Leaves of a Robinsonia Masa- 
fuerae, b R. evenia. Nat. size. 



196 CARI. SKOTTSBERG 

latum, calyculo conspicuo e bracteis 5—6 (vel ultra) ad 4 mm longis formato. 
Squamae ad 14, ut in J", sed magis adpressae et conspicue longiores. Flores 
ligulati 8, flavi, 8 mm longi, ligula 2,2 — 2,5 mm longa et 1,5 — 2 mm lata, sub- 
tridentata; stylus exsertus ramis patentibus. Flores disci viridescentes, 6 mm 
longi, staminodiis minutis, st3'lo exserto ut in praecedetite. Achaenia fusiformia, 
fusca, 9 — lO-costata, c. 2,2 mm longa; pappus setis circ. 25 basi annulum minutum 
formantibus. 

Masafuera: On the high ridges, generally growing in the fernbeds, often 
much damaged by the goats, which had killed a great many specimens. — 
Edge of western precipice, above Buque Varado, c. 1250 m; near the Corre- 
spondencia camp, 1130 m (fl.-past fl. ^",2 17, no. 434 2, no. 1233 cT); Las Torres, 
1370 m, rare; C. Atravesado, 1350 m, one small tree; C. del Barril, c. 750 m; 
Los Inocentes, 740 — 950 m, among Dickscmia, also seen growing on the trunk' 
of this; slopes of O. Varadero, c. 650 m. One aberrant sterile plant was observed 
in O. de las Chozas in dense forest, with long, thin leaves (no. 374); one 
seedling was found in the Casas canyon. 

Of special interest as the first Robinsonia reported from Masafuera. It is 
very near R. cvctiia, but as a rule not epiphytic and differing in many respects. 
The leaves (fig. 34) have a broader midrib and are more narrowed towards the 
base, the base is less inctassate and the scars left linear, not triangular or 
semilunar as in cvenia. The female head is a trifle smaller and has a more 
conspicuous calyculus. The details of the flowers show some differences, as 
seen from my illustrations. 

Area of distribution: I£ndemic in Masafuera. 

130. R. gracilis Dene. — JOHOW, Estud. 61. — Fig. 33 t- x, 35 h. 

Masatierra: In the shrubberies of the ridges, not seen at a lower altitude 
than 530 m, scarce. Between Q. de la Piedra Agujereada and O. Laura, robust 
specimens; C. Centinela (also observed by JOHOW), 530 m, forming small 
thickets and exceptionally well developed (fr. ^^/a 17, no. 577); crest of the 
island above Pangal, c. 800 m, very scarce; V. Colonial, C. Central, c. 570 m, 
solitary; Portezuelo de Villagra, one ^ plant near the SELKIRK memorial (buds 
^/i2, beg. fl. ''^12 16, no. 24), and a few 2 plants, one of which grew on BlecJi- 
niun cycadifoliuiii (fl. ^'^/iq 16, no. 195), C. Salsipuedes, 730 — 750 m, solitary 
(beg. fl. V12 16, no. 78 c^, 81 ?). 

JOHOW writes 1. c. »ligulas numerosas i mucho mas largas que en las demas 
especies>. Hemsley's figure of a male plant shows 8—10 ligules (pi. 55). My 
observations, made on abundant living material, are not in accordance with 
JOHOW's Statements. 

Inflorescence comparatively small, only containing 20—25 heads. Caly- 
culus of few, minute bracts. Involucre 4 mm high and 4 mm across, little 
exceeded by the florets, of about 12 scales, firmly pressed together in 2, much 
less so in cT. The male head is ^—^ mm across, the ray florets generally 8, 
bright yellow, 5 mm long; ligules 2,5 X 2 mm, 2 — 3-dentate. Style slightly 
bifid with erect branches. Disc florets yellow, 4 mm long, style deeply bifid 
with truncate branches, hardly reaching the full length of the stamens. 



THK rilANEKOUAMS (JK llIK JLAN FEKNANDEZ ISLAN'DS jqy 

The female head is 4 mm across; ray florets 8, yellow, 4 mm loii<4 with 
small ligiile (c. 1x0,9 mm), 2 -3dentate. Disc florets cylindric, yellowish 
green, 3,3 mm long, with cxserted bifid-truncate style and minute staminodes. 
The achenes are i,a mm long, costate, glabrous according to Joiiow, but 
minutely scabrid. 

Area of distribution: luidemic in Masatierra. 




Fig 3). a — b tip of style in male disc florets, a of R. thtaifera, b of A', evenia, X 50. c 9 
liead of R. Masafuerae, X 5- d— i achenes: d— e R. Gayana, ray (d) and disc (e); i—%R.tJiiiri- 
fera, ray (f) and disc (g); h R. gracilis (disc); k — i 7?. Masafuerae, disc (k) and ray (i). d — i X 17. 



Rhetinodendron Meisn. 

131. R. Berterii (Dene) Hems!. — JOHOW, Estud. 55. — Fig. 36. 

Masatierra: in the high parts of the central section, generally in open, 
low forest, rarely observed below 500 m, scarce. — El Rabanal (JOHOW); the 
depression between Co Damajuana and Co Yunque, 540 m; V. Colonial, C. 
Central (also observed by JOHOW), on both sides of the crest, 535—570 m, 
many specimens (past fl. $ ^^/i 17, no. 301); Portezuelo de Villagra, a few trees 
on a rock ledge, c. 600 m (beg. fl. ^^12 16, no. 134 J", I35 ?); Q. Seca, in 
the forest, one seedling; C. Sahipuedes (also observed by Jonow); highest 
part of O. Salsipuedes, rare (fl. <^ ^"/i2 16, no. 173) ridge west of Co Yunque, 
c. 530 m; O. Villagra, in the forest c. 500 m, solitary (also observed by JOHOW); 
south slope of Co Chumacera (fl. $ ''/i 17, no. 253). 

According to JOHOW, Rhetitiodendron generally is an epiphyte, and later 



198 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



authors have repeated this statement, adding their own reflections. I shall 
return to this question when dealing with my ecological observations: at present 
it suffices to tell that, in spite of the very special attention paid to this plant, 
of which I have seen much more than earlier visitors, I have been unable to 
discover a single case where an adult specimen was epiphytic. Once, two 
seedlings were observed on Thyrsopteris, but seedlings of Robinsonias as well 
as of Dcndroseris viiciantha are often found growing on the trunks of ar- 
boreous ferns. 

The structure of the head in RJiefniodciidnni is interesting and will be 
described with full details later; this time I only refer to my figures. The pap- 




Fig. 36. Rlietinodoidroii Berterii: a 9 head, b cT head, c cf flower, d achene — All X 8. 

pus is peculiar, for it forms four different portions, two larger lateral and two 
smaller, dorsal and ventral; the achene is flattened in tangential direction. 
Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra; monotypic. 



Centaiirodendron Johow. 

132. C. dracaenoides Joh., Estud. 6y, Skottsberg, Stud. 5, Taf. 5, 
Fig. 2-3. 

Masatierra: only on the high ridges encircling Cumberland Bay, very 
rare. Forest on the very steep slope of Co Damajuana, one specimen seen; 
Portezuelo de Villagra, three specimens near the path just below the pass, 
c. 550 m, three more seen on the slope of Co Piramide close to the pass, 580 m 
(no. 1234); northwest face of the same mountain, on rock ledges, several trees. 



IHK PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 1 QQ 

The first who collected Coitaiirodendroii was not JoHow, but HEkTKRo; 
still, B. did not discover it. Under the name of Dciidyosiris mioaniha, Bkr- 
TEko no. 1602! (Herb. Kew) there is one sheet with pieces of an old inflore- 
scence of the latter together witli a leaf of Ccntanrodendro)!. 

JOHOW discovered this in July, 1892, and found it again in June, 1895; to 
judge from a specimen in his herbarium it was also gathered b\' SOHkP:NS, 
probably in April, 1895, on the same occasion when S. found Robiiisonia tliiiri- 
fera. for it lies together with this under the same name. 1 rediscovered it in 
August, 1908, and found the old inflorescence, just as JoilOW did, but there 
was no trace of new ones. From this I concluded that it flowers late in the 
summer or even in the autumn, and I expected to get flowers this time, but 
was cruelly deceived. For all I could do was to state that in certain years 
not a single specimen produces flowers, and that the year 1916 — 17 was one 
of them. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra; monotypic. 



Dendroseris D. Don. 

The type of the genus is D. uiacropliylla D. Don, Phil. Mag. XI (1832)388, 
collected in Masafuera by CUMING (Herb. KewlV One year later Decaisne, 
in Arch, de Bot. I (1S33) 513, described the genus Rea Bert, ms., with the 
following species: R. uiacrantha Bert, et Dene (Masatierra), Berteriana Dene 
(Masatierra), pinnata Bert, et Dene (Masatierra), neriifolia Dene (Masatierra), 
viicrantJia Bert, et Dene (Masatierra), Diarginata Bert, et Dene (Masatierra: 
Portezuelo), viollis Bert, et Dene (Masatierra: Portezuelo). In Comp. Bot. Mag. 
I. 32 Hooker and Arnott reduced Rea to Dendrosei-is, listing the following 
species: D. uiacropJiylla (with R. macrantha as syn.), Berteriana, pinnata, nerii- 
folia, inicrantha, marginata and mollis. 

JOHOW, Estud., reduced these seven species to four, declaring D. Ber- 
teriajia identical with pi?inata and marginata with macrophylla and rejecting 
D. mollis altogether. Of this, only the leaves, described as »subincano-velu- 
tinas — glabrous in all the others — are known. There is no specimen in 
Kew, nor in Paris, and I have not been able to discover the type. JOHOW 
guessed that a stout specimen of Gnaphalium citrinum (= cheiranthifolium) or 
some other similar plant was mistaken for Dendroseris. This is hardly probable. 
In the locality given, Portezuelo, nothing like it is found, unless a young Robin- 
sonia or Rhetijiodcndron was mistaken for a Dendroseris. With regard to Ber- 
TERO's ability as an observer, this is difticult to believe. 

The treatment of Dendroseris in JOHOw's flora is not quite satisfactory; 
still, he is not to blame. He had no opportunity to see Bertero's types, his 
own material was scarce; further, when HooKER and Arnott reduced Rea 
maerantlia to D. niaeropJiylla they indicated the wrong course later followed by 
Gay and JoilOW. Hemsley pointed out the validity of D. marginata, but 
JOHONV brought this to macrophylla. He was equally critical against his own 
discoveries, for the peculiar micrantha from the coast rocks was only with hesita- 
tion classified even as a variety, v. pruinata. In the case of D. Bertenana, 



CARI. SKOTTSBERG 



JOHOW based his opinion on Bertero himself, who was inclined to regard it 
as a noticeable form of pinnata. While I regard pndnata as a species, I follow 
JOHOW with respect to Bcyterimia. Finally, JOHOW added one new species, 
D. gigaiitea, which has remained very little known until now. 

Returning to D. macropJiylla, it is evident that Rea Diacvantha is different 
from this. Both have incised leaves, but their shape is not the same and there 
are many differences in the flower and fruit. D. inacropJiylla is endemic in 
Masafuera, niacnintJui in Masatierra. Rea inarginata is certainly distinct from 
both, not only in the leaves, which are entire, but also in flower and fruit, 
described here for the first time. Finally, var. iiiarginata of JoHOW, at home 
on the coast rocks, is distinct from the true inarginata and will receive the 
new name D. litoralis. Thus, D. ntacropJiylla in JOHOW's sense includes four 
species, one from Masafuera, two confined to Masatierra and one to a rock off 
Masatierra and to Santa Clara. 

These four species differ from the rest in many respects. The stem is 
branched, hollow with numerous diaphragms, the receptacle is al.so hollow, its 
surface plane, with numerous fibrils round the points of insertion of the achenes. 
The head is very large, the flowers bright orange, the achenes distinctly 
winged, the pappus formed by short, irregular, ± rufous bristles. I am pretty 
sure that the »splitting-up school » would reserve the name Z>r;/^;-(?.sr;7> for these 
four species. My reasons for not doing so were explained under Robinsoma. 
The remaining species have creamy white flowers and unvinged, obovoid, 
slightly compressed achenes; here the accordance between them ends, and they 
belong to two rather different types. In D. pinnata and D. regia (nov. spec.) 
the stem is simple, but otherwise as in D. macropJiylla; the receptacle (unknown 
in D. regia) is hollow, but concave and only slightly fibrillose. The remaining 
species (D. micrantha, pruinata, neriifolia and gigantea) have a branched and 
solid stem, and a solid, concave and naked receptacle. D. pinnata and regia 
are intermediate between the jnacrophylla-iype and the inicratit/ia-iypQ. Either, 
we should retain Dendroseris in the old sense, or three genera must be 
recognized. Further, D. gigantea differs from all its congeners in the shape of 
the corolla. In view of these circumstances I propose to subdivide the genus 
.in the following manner. 

I. Stem branched, hollow. Head 3 — 5 cm wide; receptacle fibrillose; flowers 

orange yellow; achenes winged... Subgen. I. Eudendroseris Skottsb. 

A. Leaves chartaceous, grossly dentate-lobate. 

1. Leaves oblong-ovate, ± regularly lobate. Anthers dark. Achenes 
mostly broader than long. Cotyledons entire. 

D. niacrantha (Bert, et Dene) Skottsb. 

2. Leaves often as broad as long, irregularly lobate-serrate. Anthers 
yellow. Achenes twice as long as broad. Cotyledons trilobate. 

D. macropJiylla D. Don. 
B. Leaves coriaceous, entire. 

1. Anthers dark. Achenes thick. 

D. marginata (Bert, et Dene) Hook, et Arn. 

2. Anthers yellow. Achenes very flat D. litoralis Skottsb. 



rilK I'HANEROGAMS UF THE JUAN KERNANDK/ ISF.ANlJ.S 20 I 

II. Head smaller. Flowers \vhiti.sh. Achenes not winged. 

A. Stem simple, hollow. Receptacle fibrillose. Leaves pinnate. 

Subgen. II. Phocnicoscris Skottsb. 

1. I'innae deeply bifurcate with linear segments. 

D. pi)inata (Bert, ct Dene) Hook, et i\rn. 

2. Pinnae ± ovate, dentate. 

a. Petiole winged, but not auriculate. 

D. pimiaUi var. insignis (Hert.). 

b. Petiole auriculate. Jh rei^/a Skottsb. 

1). Stem branched, solid. Receptacle naked. Leaves entire. 

Subgen. III. Rea (Bert, ex p.) Skottsb. 

1. Leaf- margin minutely denticulate or entire. Ligulc 5 -dentate. 

Sect. I. Jiitrca Skottsb. 

a. Leaves petiolate. Involucre funnel-shaped, c. 5 mm high. 

4 . Leaves coriaceous, narrow lanceolate. 

D. ueriifolia (Dene) Hook, ct Am. 
-f + . Leaves chartaceous, ovate-lanceolate. 

D. micyantJia (Bert, et Dene) Hook, et Arn. 

b. Leaves sessile. Involucre campanulate, c. 10 mm high. 

D. prnmata (Joh.) Skottsb. 

2. Leaves densely dentate-serrate, very thin. Ligules deeply 5-cleft. 

Sect. 2. ScIiizoglossuDi Skottsb. D. gigantea Joh. 

Bentiiam and HoOKER Fll,., Gen. plant. II. 219, describe the achene of 
the Dendroseriidae in the following terms: »Achaenia a dorso compressa sub- 
trigona v. 2 — 3-alata». This description fits the genus Fitchia, a genus not 
very near Doidroscris. The achene of Thantnoscris is unknown. The marginal 
achenes of Deiidroscris are more or less compressed from the back, triangular 
in section, with two lateral and sometimes also with a ventral wing in Lii- 
dendroseris. But all the other achaenia in the head are compressed from the 
sides, and their wings in Eudcndroscris are dorsal and ventral only. This 
dimorphism clearly stands in relation with the different position in the head. 
It is illustrated below, fig. 37. 

133. D. macrophylla D. Don. — JoHOW, Estud. 70 p. p. min. -- Fig. 

37 a, m. 

Masafuera: Cuming! Downton! — On the walls of the canyons, also 
higher up on the ridges and on the top of the lofty coast cliffs in some places, 
scattered. Ravines above Q. Sanchez, solitary specimens; Q. de las Casas, rock 
ledges (fl. ^Va i/. no. 362; also observed by JOHOw); Q. de las Vacas (also 
JoHOW); Q. Inocentes, some large trees on the cliffs c. 500 m; Q. Ango.sta, in 
the narrow gorge; Rodado del Sandalo, on the top of the cliff; Q. de la 
Loberia, some fine trees, c. 250 m. 

There is a good illustration of this species in CuRTis, Bot. Mag. t. 6353. 
The specimens growing in the fissures on the canyon walls are small and 
seldom more than 2 or 3 m high; in more suitable places there are much larger 
ones, at least 5 or 6 m high and with a trunk 15 or perhaps 20 cm thick, so 



202 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

that D. macyopJtylla surpasses all the other species o'i Elide ndioseris m ^\z^ 2a\A 
beauty. It differs from tliese in several respects. The leaves are thinner, 
papyraceous when dry, pure dark green. Their shape is variable. The large 
rosulate leaves measure about 30 — 35 X 26 — 28 cm; they are broad ovate with 
cordate base, ± acuminate, grossly and irregularly dentate with triangular, cal- 
lose teeth. The petiole attains a length of 20 cm; it is canaliculate, winged, 
but comparatively slender. Other rosette leaves are orbicular in outline or even 
broader than long (18 cm long and 23 cm broad in one of my specimens), 
cordate, deeply inciso-lobate, at least in their lower half, with linear-triangular 
segments. The inflorescence is composed of few but very large heads on long 
pedicels; the lower supporting leaves are petiolate, subpinnate or sinuate, the 
uppermost sessile, entire, auriculate. The corolla is c. 45 mm long, the ligule 
3,5 mm across. The anthers are yellow. The style is yellow, with 3 mm long 
branches. The achenes (onl\' few mature ones seen) are 5 — 6 mm long, brown, 
striate, the base narrow. In the marginal ones only the ventral wing is distinct, 
the lateral wings being poorly developed. Embryo with very short radicle and 
trilobate cotyledons. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 

134. D. macrantha (Bert, et Dene) Skottsb. — JOHOW, Estud. 70 sub 
D. macrophylla. — Eig. 37 b — d, n. 

Masatierra: Bektero no. 1600! — Portezuelo de Villagra, on the south- 
west side of the pass (also observed by JOHO\v), c. 580 m, two small specimens 
seen (beg. fl. ^^i ^7' "o- 33°)- 

Bertero describes this as a tree 8 to 15 feet high and found in the 
shady woods of the high mountains. His specimens probably came from Porte- 
zuelo, as they bear no. 1600, for no. 1601, D. inarginata, is collected in this 
locality. To judge from Bertero's words, it seems he saw D. macra^itha in 
more than one locality. In spite of a diligent search, we only found the two 
dwarf trees mentioned above, growing almost concealed among dense shrubs 
of Pernettya, etc. 

D. macrantha differs from viacrophylla in many respects. The leaves are 
oblong, about twice as long as broad (large blades 25—30 cm long by 13 — 14 
wide), firmer than in the latter, shorter petiolate (6 — 7 cm), narrow cordate at 
base but hardly decurrent, coarsely and regularly dentate-lobate; upper leaves 
decurrent on the petiole, subentire or entire, uppermost sessile, auriculate. 
Heads more numerous than in macrophylla. Flowers numerous, corollas as in 
D. macrophylla, 35 — 40 mm long; anthers lilac brown; connective tip yellow 
with numerous low, dark papillae, not found in other species. Style darker than 
in macrophylla. Achenes quite different, broader than long (3,5 — 4 by 4,5 — 6 
mm), obscurely wrinkled, with narrow but distinct wings. Embryo 3 — 3,5 mm 
long; cotyledons entire, broader than long. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

135. D. marginata (Bert, et Dene) Hook, et Arn. — Joiiuw, Estud. 70 
sub D. macrophylla; var. marginata Joh. ex Reiche, Flora de Chile V. 5. — 
Plate 18; Plate 20, fig. 11; text fig. 37 e— i, o. 



THK I'HANKkOGAMS OF THE JUAN FKKNANDKZ ISLANDS 203 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra (Hkrieko no. 1601 !), on the north- 
east precipice of Co Piramide, rock ledge, c. 625 in (fl.-fr. ^/i2 16, no. 3). Most 
like!}' the plants observed on the face of Co Damajuana, c. 530 in, and at the 
back of O. de la Choza, c. 450 m, in both places quite out of reach, belonged 
to this species. 

JoiIOW wanted to explain 1). uiarghiata as a local form of Diacrophylla, 
due to external conditions. Both, however, grow in the same place and do not 




Fig. ^7. Aclienes (a — 1) and embryos (m — p) of Deiidroseris subgen. Eudenih-oseiis. a D. via- 
crophylla, two achenes from the side; b— d D. macratttha: b marginal achene, ventral view, 
c— d central achenes, side view; e— i D. marginata: e — f marginal aclienes, e ventral and 
f lateral view; g— i central achenes, g — h lateral, i ventral view; k— 1 D. litoralis: k central 
achene, lateral view and 1 marginal achenes, dorsal view, m embryos of D. niacrophylla, n of 
D. inacrantha, o of D. Jiiarginata and p of D. litoralis. — All X 5- 



only differ in the leaves. Bertero's specimens were sterile, but another 
collector, not quoted until now, found the inflorescence (in fruit). A specimen 
in Herb. Kew labelled »Rea longifolia Phil., Reed oct. i872», consists of a leaf 
of D. micrantha and a piece of an old inflorescence of D. Diarginata. 

The leaves are coriaceous, broad ovate with rounded or acuminate tip and 
cordate base. They are quite entire, but the edge shows scattered warts, 
vi.sible on the leaf near the rock in plate 18. The petiole is broadly alate. 
The upper leaves are sessile as in the former. The (hitherto undescribed) 



2 04 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

inflorescence is rather large, more condensed, with numerous heads; these are 
smaller than in the former and the involucre much more urceolate. The open 
head in full bloom measures 3,5 cm across; it only contains about 50 florets. 
The corolla attains a length of 40—42 mm; the whitish tube is soft papillose 
in the middle part, the deep orange coloured ligule is 3—3,5 mm across. Anthers 
dark lilac brown with tails considerably longer than the gland of the filament. 
Style yellowish white below, upwards covered with brown papillae, also on the 
back and sides of the branches, while their upper surface is clothed with low, 
light yellow stigma papillae. Branches of the style 4,5 mm long. Achenes 
larger than in any other species, 7 or even 8 mm, brown, thick, with longitudinal 
furrows; marginal ones curved with distinct lateral wings and a ventral keel, 
the others with thick dorsal and ventral wings. Embryo very large, 5—6 mm 
long, with entire, orbicular cotyledons. Pappus turning dark rufous with age. 
Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

*I36. D. litoralis nov. spec. — Syn. D. Diacrophylla Joh. ex p. — Plate 
19; plate 20, fig. 12; text fig. 37 k — 1, p. 

Arbuscula 1,5^2 m alta habitu praecedentis sed truncus primarius crassior. 
Folia ad apicem ramorum pauca dense rosulata; lamina obscure viridis sub- 
glaucescens subtus pallidior, coriacea-carnosula, valde nervosa nervis crassis 
albidis, late ovata, obtusa, cordata, margine laevi ± undulato, ad 25 cm longa 
et 18 cm lata; petiolus sectione triangularis crassus inferne saltern canaliculatus 
et marginatus, ad 12 cm longus. Inflorescentia terminalis late paniculata mul- 
ticeps, foliosa foliis sessilibus amplexicaulibus. Pedunculi 2 — 4 cm longi. Capi- 
tula magna, florida ad 5 cm diam. Involucrum campanatourceolatum, squamais 
externis viridi-glaucis ovato-triangulatis acutis, interioribus linearibus subhyalinis 
penicillatis. Receptaculum fibrillis laceratis usque ad i cm longis munitum. 
Flores numerosi certe ad 100; corolla ad 35n'm longa, tubo angusto albido basi 
excepta molliter papilloso, ligula crocea 3 — 3,5 mm lata stylo aequilonga vel 
brevior. Antherae dilute flavae, caudae glandula paulo longiores. Stylus flave- 
scens viridi-papillosus, ramis ad 4 mm longis. Achaenia sordide straminea, ilia 
florum marginalium lateribus alatis ventroque carinato, cetera tenuia lateraliter 
valde compressa, 5—6 mm longa, basi vaide angusta, sat late alata, alis dense 
ac longitudinaliter striatis. Embryo 3,5 — 4 mm longus, cotyledonibus integris 
suborbiculatis radicula paulo longioribus. Pappus sordide stramineus. 

Morro Vifiillo, a small rock off the south coast of Masatierra (P. Arre- 
DONDO a. o.); cultivated specimens, raised from seeds gathered in Vinillo seen 
in some of the gardens in Masatierra (plate 19). 

Santa Clara: Crevices in the coast cliffs of the main island, and on 
Morro de los Alelies (fl.-fr. ^^i I7. "O- 342)- Also observed by JOHOW. 

Very near D. niarginata, but distinct. The leaves are thicker, with smooth 
edge, the heads larger with twice as man}- flowers, the anthers and style yellow, 
the tails of the anthers shorter. The achenes are very different and the embryo 
considerably smaller. These achenes are mature, for I have raised numerous 
specimens from the portion collected b}- me in Santa Clara as well as from 
others of absolutely identical appearance gathered in the garden of ArredoNDO, 
who introduced the species from Morro Vinillo. My plants are all of the same 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JL AN FERNANDEZ ISf-ANDS 



205 



type and agree perfectly well with the herbarium specimens as to the leaves. 
They are 3 — 4 years old but have not yet flowered. 

Area <»f Ji-^tribution: I'ndemic in Santa Clara and Morro \iiiillo. 

137. I), pinnata Bert, et Dene) Hook, et .Arn. — JoHOW, Estud. 71. 

Masatierra: On the higher ridges, at the limit of the forest, among shrubs 
and small trees, not uncommon. — Between Q. Laura and Q. de la Piedra 
Agujereada, c. 600 m, large trees; El Pangal, west branch, c. 400 m, and on 
the narrow crest above Pangal, c. 800 m; north face of Co Damajuana, 500 — 
530 m; V. Colonial, C. Central (JoHOW). solitary in the forest down to 350 m; 
Portezuelo de Villagra (JOHOW), scattered on both sides, 5 — 6co m, one 
specimen (no. 1235) growing on BlecJoium cycadifolium: C. Salsipuedes (JOHOW). 
600—750 m, scattered in the shrubberies (beg. fl. */i2 16, no. 79 — one single tree, 
all others sterile); O. de los Helechos, on Dicksonia: between O. Salsipuedes 
and Pto Ingles; Pto Ingles, central ridge c. 470 m. 

var. insignis Bert, ms., Johow. — Syn. Rea Bertcritvia Dene. — Masa- 
tierra: r>. de la Piedra Agujereada, in wet forest c. 600 m; in the gap between 
Damajuana and Vunque, c. 580 m. in the humid forest, no. 164 (Bertero no. 
1505! type labelled >El Yunque Majo 18301; the Kew sheet consists of two 
leaves and one 'complete.-.- inflorescence, the latter very small). 

Regarding D. Birteriana insignis . the material collected hitherto is ver\- 
scarce. Bertero alone has found the flowers, and very late in the season 
(May). The very few plants seen by us suggested a pintiata-ioxvcv of extreme 
shade and moisture. A seedling, quite like that of typical pinnata, was found 
with them. The primary leaves are simple but denticulate and reniform. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 



^138. D. regia nov. spec. — Plate 17, fig. 2; text fig. 38. 

Phoenicoseris D. pinnatae affinis. Truncus simplex rec- 
tus ad 180 cm altus et 13 cm diam. visus, cicatricibus foliorum 
manifeste notatus, apice rosulam. giganteam foliorum circ. 30 cm 
altam et i m latam gerens. Folia plantae juvenilis maxima, 
ad 150 cm longa et 57 cm lata a me visa, plantae adultae minora. 
30—65 cm longa. Lamina crassiuscula, 3— 6-pinnata. ambitu 
late vel latissime ovata, discolor subtus glaucescens, 24— 36 cm 
longa et 16 — 31 cm lata, praecipue subtus secus nervos ± ir- 
regulariter pulverulentopubescens mox glabra: pinnae laterales 
sinuato-dentatae, versus basin irregulariter et profunde dentato- 
laciniatae. fiabeliatim nervosae: terminalis triangulato-semiorbi- 
cularis basi totam latitudinem folii fere occupans, plicata, ± pro- 
funde divisa et margine irregulariter dentata, pedato-nervosa; 
pinnae baud raro valde approximatae sese tegentes; petiolus 
ad 20 cm longus, crasse carnosus, inferne auriculis membra- 
naceis pulchre reticulato venosis, versus basin angustatis, apice 
rotundatis et approximatis, 6 — 11 cm longis et 0,.= — 2.5 cm 
latis ornatus. Cetera ignota. 




Fig. 38. Dendro- 
seris regia. base of 
leaf showing auric- 
les. V» nat. size. 



2o6 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Masafuera: on the high ridges and in the alpine region, scattered and 
often associated with ferns. — Edge of western precipice above Biique Varado, 
c. 1230 m; Las Torres, 1370 m, rare; near the Correspondencia Camp 850 — 
1 130 m, stray specimens (no. 570); C. Atravesado, c. 1300 m, rare; C. del Barril, 
925 m, many specimens on the steep slope of the Vacas gorge; east slope of 
Los Inocentes, 740—950, also observed growing on Dicksonia. 

A most noticeable plant, the second species of the hitherto monotypic 
subgen. PJioenicoscris, not so tall as pinnata, but more robust than this and 
with different leaves. In a way these resemble the leaves of var. insignis, as 
the pinnae lack the basal segment characteristic o\ pinnata proper, but otherwise 
they are, of course, easy to distinguish from the variety and are known by 
their size, laciniated margins and auricles. Unfortunately, not a single specimen 
flowered or was going to bloom, and not one dead tree with an old inflore- 
scence was ever seen, so that the species cannot have flowered recently. The 
seedling has simple, cordate-reniform leaves, just as in D. pinnata. 

Area of distribution: Kndemic in Masafuera. 

139. D. neriifolia (Dene) Hook, et Arn. — JOHOW. Estud. 69. 

Masatierra: Bektero no. 1499! Herb. Kew; leg. 1830, mart, flor.; val- 
leys between Pto Frances and El Pangal, especially south of El Rabanal 
(JOHOw!). 

According to JOHOW this occurs »con bastante frecuencia» south of Raba- 
nal. Much to our regret we never found it, in spite of a regular hunt in all 
directions over the tract indicated by JOHOW; undoubtedly it is very local and 
JoilOW had good luck when he discovered it. We saw nothing but D. niicrantJia 
in these parts; it occurs here below the forest line in a stunted, narrow-leaved 
form, sometimes recalling neriifolia, but the leaves are thinner and the venation 
is difi'erent. The head is of about the same appearance in both, but with very 
few (7 — 8) scales in neriifolia. The flowers are very much the same. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra. 

140. D. micrantha (Bert, et Dene) Hook, et Arn. — JOHOW, Estud. 68. 

— Fig- 39 a— c. 

Masatierra: Common in the east and central parts, from Pto P'rances to 
Co Chumacera, in forests and thickets, especially higher up on the slopes of 
the valleys and on the dividing ridges, 400 — 600 m; also in the denser forests 
on steep slopes, but never seen in the high forest along the bottom of the 
valleys. In the eastern section, from Pto Frances to Pangal, it forms a conspi- 
cuous feature in the shubberies below the lower limit of the woods, where also 
the maqui is common. Here the trees are smaller, the leaves smaller and 
more firm and their edge generally quite entire; the inflorescence too, is smaller, 
but otherwise there seems to be no material difterence, so I think we may 
explain this lowland form as a local adaption to the dry, sunny stations. — 
Small buds Vi 17. "»• 1236; fl. ^^ i?. "O- 5^7; fr. ^^^ I7» "O- S^i, 'V* I7. 
no. 1237, ^^/4 17, no. 618. 

The head is about 9 mm high and 10 mm across, the funnel-shaped in- 
volucre 5 mm high and 4 mm across, composed of c. 11 scales. The flower 



Till', I'HANF.ROr.AMS OF THK JUAN FF.RNANDK/ ISLANDS 207 

luitnber 25, more or less. The corolla is 7 mm lonj; with comparatively short 
and broad lij^ulc, abriiptl)' contracted into the narrow tube. The broad, sessile, 
auriculate bracts are not caducous as in the next species but remain during 
the time of flower. 

D. )tuiyautlia as is the largest of the genus, a middle-sized tree with a well 
de\ eloped main trunk 2 3 dm thick. 

Area of distribution: hjidemic in Masatierra. 

141. D. pruinata (Joh.) Skottsb. — D. niicraniha \7\.x . priiiiiata,y)\\i~\\\ ^ 
Kstud. 68. Fig. 39 d — f. 

D. mici-a)ithac arete affinis sed multis notis dispar. Arbor pumila rarius 
ultra bi- vcl tiimetralis, parce subdichotome ramosa. Folia sessilia amplexicaulia, 
oblanceolata, obtusiuscula, integerrima, subcoriacea, subtus ut cortex pedicellique 
pruinata. Panicula sat parva et cum ilia praecedentis comparata paucicapitata, 
bracteis magnis auriculatis mox caducis. Capitula quam in D. niicrantha con- 
spicue majora, ad 14 mm lata et alta; involucrum campanulatum, 10 mm altum 
et medio 7 mm latum dein leviter constrictum, pruinatum, squamis circ. 14, 
carnosis apice puberulis. Flores circ. 75, lactei. Corolla ii mm longa, ligula 
6x3,5 mm; stamina lutea; stylus albidus ramis viridescentibus applanatis. 
Achaenia obovata 2,5 mm longa, glabra, vage costata nee non transverse rugosa, 
pappo 2—2,5 mm longo'. Floret mense Januario. 

Masatierra: In the dry barren coastal region, scattered; seen by us only 
on the south side of the island. — C. Salsipuedes (JOHOW); Pta San Carlos 
(JOHOW); Pto Ingles, coast rocks (JOHOW); between the foot of Co Yunque and 
Villagra, fine specimens in the ravines opening into the sea (fl. ''i 17, no. 232); 
B. Chupones, coast rocks. 

Santa Clara: Ravines of the coast cliff; Morro de los Aleh'es (fr. ^7i ^7)- 
Also observed by JOHOW. 

It is evident that the »micrantha» from the sea coast is different from the 
ordinary one, and at first JOHOW was inclined to regard it as a species. But 
as he found that plants of both, cultivated in Santiago, were too like each 
other, he gave up this idea and wanted to explain the special characters of 
pruinata as resulting from external conditions. It must not be forgotten that 
almost sessile leaves, more or less coated with wax, occur in young viicrantha 
in open stations, and it is true that by the characters of the leaf D. pruinata 
is well adapted to the conditions prevailing on the sea coast, but there are 
differences not readily explained in this manner. D. pruinata bore flowers in 
December — ^January, even in places facing S., while not a single specimen of 
niicrantha, even in the most favorable northerly exposition, flowered before the 
end of February. Further, the head is much larger, the flowers much more 
numerous, the bracts caducous etc. The achenes are a trifle smaller in niicrantJia 
and perhaps more regularly costate. 

According to JOHOW both forms were found growing together on Salsi- 
puedes, and this, if correct, hardly speaks in favour of his opinion. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masatierra and Santa Clara. 



2Qg CARL SKOTTSBERG 

142. D. gigantea Job., Estud. 69; Skottsberg, Stud. 6. — Fig. sgg—k. 

Masafuera: On the walls of the canyons and on the slopes of the val- 
leys, in the forest region, not uncommon. Q. Sanchez, 800 — 880 m, scattered; 
Las Chozas, in the forest near the abandoned village, 650 m (no. 549); Q. del 
Mono, c. 600 m; Q. de las Casas, on the canyon walls, generally out of reach 
(JOHOW; Skottsberg 1908); Q. del Blindado, 370-460 m, on steep slopes 
with Mj'jc^ug-ema (fl. 'V2 17, no. 436); Q. Inocentes, c. 500 m; Q. del Vara- 
dero, not uncommon in the smaller branch and on the slopes higher up, 650 m. 

Known before only from the Casas Valley, where JollOW obtained a few 
pieces by aid of a gun; by throwing stones I got hold of some leaves in the 
same place in 1908. It is, however, much more common in other stations and 
much better developed. 










Fig. 39. a-c Dendroseris inicrantha : a head, X i ' ;•!, b scales, X i V^, c floret, X 3 '/:'• 

d— f D. pridnata: d head, X i \i, e scales, X i V-'^ f floret, X 3 '/s- g— k D. gigantea: g head, 

X I \:!, h floret, X 3 '/-, i lobe of ligule, X 24, k unripe achene, X 6^3. 



Larger than most of its congeners, reaching a height of 8— 10 m; the 
thickest stem measured was 28,5 cm in diameter i m above the ground. The 
leaves not rarely attain V2 m, tho.se of young trees which have not yet flowered 
reaching enormous dimensions (largest measured 85 cm long, including the 
4 cm long petiole, and 26 cm broad). Only old dry pieces of the inflorescence 
were known before. The panicles are broad ovoid and over i m high, and 
contain many thousand heads. The branches of the first and second order are 
supported by subsessile, ovate acuminate foliaceous bracts; those of the last 
order are more rigid than the others, 4 — 6 cm long, and exit under an angle 
of 45 to 60°; they bear a pseudo-corymb of 10 to 20 heads, each supported 
by a bract. The pedicels are short, with 1 — 3 small bracteoles. Head narrow 
campanulate, 12 — 13 mm long and about 8 mm across; involucre green and 
purple, 9 — 10 mm high, 4 — 5 mm wide above the funnel-shaped base, composed 
of c. 13 scales, the outer linear-triangulate with pubescent tip, the inner almost 
linear, 8 mm long. Flowers about 25; corolla 10 mm long, creamy white, 
purplish when old; ligule split almost to its base into five narrow segments 
with convolute, slightly penicillate tips; stamens yellow; style hardly darker 



THE PHANKROOAMS OF THE JUAN KEKNANOKZ ISLANDS 209 

than the stamens, less exseited than in other species. Paj^pus very long, 6 — 7 mm, 
white, later rufescent. Ovary paucicostate; ripe achenes not seen. 

While the ve<^etative organs seem to indicate a close affinity between 
]). gii^aiitca and D. iiiicrantha. the flowers show that the former occupies a 
rather independent jjosition in the subgenus Rca: \w fact, it differs so much 
from the other species, not only of this subgenus, but of the genus as a whole, 
that it well deserves to from a special section. The corolla is peculiar, and 
the pappus longer than in other species. The seedling, too, is remarkable, for 
the leaves are deeply incised, recalling those of the common oak. 

Area of distribution: Endemic in Masafuera. 



Addendum. 

Since my description of Euphrasia forniosissinia was printed, Professor 
R. Wett.STEIN kindly sent me the following remarks on this species: 

i>E?iphrasia foruiosissima ist eine sehr aufifallende und leicht kenntliche 
Art; sie unterscheidet sich von alien andern Arten schon auf den ersten Blick 
durch den kraftigen Wuchs, die iippige Beblatterung und die starke Ver- 
zweigung. 

Sie steht der siidamerikanischen Section Trifidae Benth. seJir feme und 
gehort zweifellos der Section Eueuphrasia Wettst. an, welche die europaischen, 
asiatischen, nordamerikanischen, australischen und neuseeliindischen Arten der 
Gattung, ferner E. i:;randi flora Hochst.- auf den Azoren umfasst. (Vergl. R, 
WirrT.STElN, Monographic der Gattung Euphrasia, 1896.) 

Die Arten der Section Eueuphrasia wurden bisher auf die beiden Subsec- 
tionen Seniicalcaratae Benth. und Ansirales Benth. verteilt, von denen die ers- 
tere die nordlich-extropischen Arten und E. grand/flora umschliesst, wahrend 
der letzteren die in Australien und Neuseeland vorkommenden Arten angehoren. 
Die beiden Subsectionen lassen sich im Allgemeinen gut trennen, wenn auch 
Beziehungen zwischen einzelnen Arten der beiden Gruppen bestehen. So zeigt 
E. insignis Wettst. (Monogr. S. 246) aus Japan, welche zur Subsectio Senii- 
calcaratae gehort, nicht zu verkennende Beziehungen zur neuseelandischen E. 
cmieata Forst. aus der Subsectio Australes. In neuerer Zeit sind aus Japan 
mehrere Arten der Subsect. Semicalcaratae bekannt geworden, welche eine 
ahnliche Stellung wie E. insignis einnehmen, so z. B. E. Matsannirae Nakai 
(in Fedde Repert. Spec. nov. fasc. XI p. 33, 1912) und (nach der Beschreibung) 
wohl auch E. Yaheana Nakai (1. c.) und E. niinimularia Nakai (I. c. p. 34). 
Es scheint also in Japan eine reicher gegliederte Artengruppe zu existieren, 
welche zur Subsectio Australes hinneigt. 

Dieser japanischen Gruppe von Zwischenformen zwischen den Arten der 
Subsectio Seniicalcaratae und denen der Subsectio Australes reiht sich nun in 
sehr bemerkenswerter Art E. formosissinia an. Sie steht einerseits der japa- 
nischen E. insignis Wettst., andererseits der neuseelandischen E. cuneata Forst. 
relativ am Nachsten. 

14 — 30100. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



CARL SKOTTSRERO 



Von E. insignis ist sie verschieden durch den kraftigen Wuchs, die stum- 
pfen und stumpfzahnigen, am Grunde weniger verschmalerten Blatter und Brac- 
teen, durch die grossere Zahl der Blattzahne, durch die kiirzeren und stumpfen 
Kelchzahne, die abgerundeten Kelchbuchten und die fast gleichlangen Spitzen 
der Antherenhalften. — Von E. aineata ist ii./<?;7>'/^5/j-j-/;;/(i' starker verschieden, 
besonders durch die sitzenden Bliiten und die breiteren, am Grunde nicht so 
stark verschmalerten Blatter. 

Es ist pflanzengeographisch und florengeschichtlich gewiss hochst beachtens- 
wert, dass E. formosissima niorphologisch nicht den geographisch relativ nahen 
siidamerikanischen Arten sich anschliesst, sondern die Verbindung zwischen 
japanischen und neuseelandischen Formen herstellt.» 



Some remarks on the composition and character of the 

indigenous flora. 

My list contains 142 species considered to be indigenous in Juan Fernandez. 
Some are questionable in this respect; but, on the other hand, a few of those 
enumerated below as introduced might, perhaps, equally well be classed as 
members of the wild flora. 

There are 40 natural orders (families) and 81 genera represented; the 
relation between genera and species is 1:1,75, a proportion to be expected in 
a remote insular flora, all the same if we regard it as a remnant of an old 
flora or brought into existence by occasional transoceanic migrations. 

Of the species known before to occur in the islands seven have not been 
found again by us, viz. PodopJioriis bromoides, Trisehim cJironiostachywn, Cypcrits 
rcjiexus, Urtica Masafuerae, PhrygHantJuis Berteroi, Cardamine chenopodiifolia 
and Doidroseris neriifolia. In the case of Urtica and Cardamine, the season 
was not the proper one. On the other hand, our survey has revealed the 
existence in the islands of many species not found before. In 1908, 10 were 
added, and here 31 more are listed, so that the total increase amounts to about 
40%. It is greater still if we compare with JOHOW's flora, as a few older spe- 
cies have been taken up again by the writer (Wahlenbergia, Dendroseris). 
Some species classified as indigenous by JOHOW (some, however, with hesita- 
tion) were transferred to the introduced ones. 

A great deficiency in the older floras was the scarcity of exact localities. 
As the jDhysical conditions are so difterent in different parts of these islands, 
in spite of their small size, it is of course quite necessary to register the stations 
of all the plants; further, only in this way we get an idea of the frequency of 
the different species. We have done our best to supply this need. 

Above, 24 species and one subspecies were described as new, or were 
established by other authors from my material {Unciuia costata Kiik-enth., Agrostis 
viasafiierana Pilger, Bromus iiiasafucranus Skottsb. et Pilger). 

Only five of the new species were described from Masatierra (one, Dendro- 
seris litoralis, also occurring in Santa Clara), the remainder all came from Masa- 



IMK I'HANF.ROGAMS OF THK JUAN FEUNANDF./ ISr.ANDS 211 

fuera. As was foreseen, not many species in Masatierra expected their discovery: 
two were added in 1908 and six more in 1916 — 17, not counting such as were 
known before but have obtained their proper position in this paper (Greigia 
Bcrtcroi, Halorrhagis jnasatierra)ia, Dendroscris pniinata). The meagre flora 
of Santa Clara was enriched by one species only (Plautago '^'Skottsbcrgii). But 
my high expectations as to Masafuera were quite fulfilled. Of the 72 species 
now recorded from this island, 8 were discovered in 1908 and 28 in 1916 — 17, 
which means an increase of 100 %. 1 he high mountains yielded many new 
and interesting things. I do not flatter myself that we have come across 
everything, even if I am confident that future explorations will not alter the 
present picture of the flora very much. 

In this place I wish to draw attention to certain gaps in our knowledge 
of some interesting plants. Of Greigia l>ertcroi flower and fruit are unknown; 
Ccntaiirodcndron has only been found with a few old achenes, and it is of 
considerable importance that the flowers be found. The earlier floral stages of 
the Guniiera hybrids are not known. Further, nobody has seen the male flcjwers 
of Robijisoiiia DiacrocepJiala. and our knowledge of the flowers of Dendroseris 
neriifolia and D. piiniata var. insigJiis is too imperfect. All these species belong- 
to Masatierra. 01 the new species from Masafuera, Berbcris viasafucrana and 
Dendroscris regia were described from sterile specimens, and Ramnicidns capra- 
nmi and Fagara exter7ia have only been found with fruit. 

The distribution of the phanerogams within the Juan Fernandez group is 
made clear in the table below. 



% of the flora . 


Masatierra 


Santa 


Clara 


Masa 


uera 


In all three 
islands 


In Masatierra 
and Santa 

(Mara, not in 
Masafuera 


In Masatierra 

and Masa- 
fuera, not in 
Santa Clara 


Total 

C^onlined 
to 


Total 


l) 

(£ 

5 
U 




H 


-a 

c 

"^ s 


96 j 65 

, - Of 

.... 4) /o 


9 


I 

0,7 ?o 


72 


45 
31,7% 


4 
2,8% 


4 
2,8% 


23 
i6ro 



We learn from these figures that there is a considerable difference between 
the islands. Of 142 species, only 27, or 19 %, are common to INIasatierra and 
Masafuera. The more fertile valleys of the former ofter better conditions to a 
forest flora, while the alpine species of the latter are wanting: Masatierra is 
c. 950, Masafuera c. 1500 m high. The poorness of the flora of Santa Clara 
no doubt results from very unfavorable climatic conditions; we must not forget 
that also the western part of Masatierra is very poor in species compared with 
the central and eastern parts. 

The Juan Fernandez Islands are famous for their numerous and peculiar 
endemic types. Of the genera, 81 in number, only 10 are endemic, but, with 
the exception of Ochagavia, all of them are strongly marked; Lactoris is the 
type of a separate order, and all the others occupy a very independent position 
and have no very near relatives. Further, the species of Broi/iiis (formerly 
known as Megalachne) and Eryngiuiii (once described under the name Lessonia) 
form separate sections. Of 142 species not less than 98 or 69% are endemic; 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



1 have counted the subspecies Ltizula '^insiilaris, Margyricarpus ^dtgyiius, Dysop- 
sis '^hirsiita and Plantago '^Skoitsbergii among the species, while the less marked 
endemic forms or varieties of some species were left out of consideration. 
The endemism in the different islands is illustrated below. 



Masatierra 


Santa 


Clara 


Masafuera 


OJ 


S «•- rt 


















In Masatie 
and Sant 

(Mara, not 
Ma.sat'ner 


'-> ;i- J-. r:. 


.0 


1) 

c 
U 


"7^ 


1! 


Q 


OJ 


In Masati 

and Ma 

fuera, no 

Santa CI 


6) 


49 


6 


I 


44 


52 


I 


4 


II 




50% 




1% 




33% 


7 0^ 
I /O 


4% 


11% 


68% 




66% 




61% 











Number of end. spec. . . 
% of all J. F. endemics 
% of the flora of the island 

in question 68 % 

As seen above, 50 % of the endemic species are found only in Masatierra, 33 % 
only in Masafuera, and i "\, (Chenopodiuni Sanctac Claracj only in Santa Clara; 
only 12 species (12 "o) are common to INIasatierra and Masafuera. Thus, the 
floristic difference between the islands appears still more pronounced when it 
comes to the endemic species. And it may be added that of the 10 endemic 
genera 8 are found exclusively in Masatierra and 2 in both islands, so that 
Masafuera does not possess any special endemic genus. These questions will 
be dealt with further in another paper. 

Finally, I wish to draw attention to the fact that so many of the endemic 
types are very scarce; I am sure that all the existing specimens of some of 
the rarest plants ma}' be counted without much labour. Of species from Masa- 
tierra, Podophorus broiJioidcs and PJirygilantluis Bericroi have not been found 
by later collectors and no exact locality is known. Greigia Berteroi, CJieno- 
poducDi Crusoeanuin, Eryngimn inaccesstnn, E. fcniandczian2iin and Dendroseris 
uiacrantiia were reported from one locality each: of the latter two only 2 speci- 
mens could be found, and all are very scarce. Other very rare plants are 
Peperomia margaritifera, Sclkirkia, Plantago fernajidczia, Rolmisimia tluirifera 
and Centaurodcndro7t. One or more of these will probably share the fate of 
Santalinn fernandeziamim, which seeins to be extinct. In one or two cases 
I could not secure as much material as I wanted for fear of destroying the 
species altogether. 

At present the wild flora is more or less protected, as cutting of wood 
for fuel is very limited and the supply mainly filled b}- the worst enemy of the 
wild flora, Aristotclia Diaqni; still, the consumption is far from sufficient to 
check the progress of the latter. To judge from Chilean newspapers, a new 
peril now seems to be imminent. It is reported that Masatierra will become 
converted into a pleasure resort with large hotels etc. P'ortunately enough, 
there is no good bathing beach, and much money is needed to build roads 
comfortable enough for the average tourist, so that there is some hope that 
little will be done during the present financial crisis. 

In Masafuera, also some species seem to be rare. Peperomia Skotlsbcrgii, 
Rannncithis capraniui and Cardauiine Kriissclii were found in one locality each; 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN KERNANUEZ ISLANDS 2 I 3 

Chenopodiuui lusodiiidyon, Robinso)ua Masafucrac and Doidroseiis rcgia are 
very scarce, and their recovery is checked by the too numerous wild goats. 
Many of the non-endemic species are also rare. Since this island was abandoned 
by the penal settlement in 1914, it has remained uninhabited. Fortunately 
enough, the landing difficulties are very great. 

The preservation of the original nature in these islands is a question of 
general importance to the scientific world and ought to be a matter of honour 
with the Chilean nation. However, many Chileans, in s[Mte of their ardent 
love for their country, do not understand the necessity of the modern nature- 
protecting movement. In the case of Juan Fernandez, the matter, often so 
complicated, is much simplified, for no conflict is likely to arise between the 
» unpractical idealists), and the men of industry and business. It will be 
general!}' admitted that little or nothing is gained by destroying the primeval 
vegetation in these islands. The source of income i.s not agriculture but 
fishing, and the fishing colon}- will thrive even if the terrestrial fauna and flora 
are protected. It is true that the presence of human dwellings is undesirable, 
but as it is now, colonisation is limited to one valle}- and cannot be expected 
to extend much more. Certain!}' we cannot very well propose to remove the 
inhabitants. 

Regarding the present international relations and other unfavorable cir- 
cumstances it is probably hopeless to ask the leading scientific circles of the 
world to join in an action for the protection of Juan Fernandez. This is very 
unfortunate, for I hardl}' think the Chilean Government would meet an applica- 
tion from such institutions with complete refusal.^ 

My program is summarized as follows. 

Protection of animal and plant life; licence to collect scientific specimens 
ma}' be obtained from the Chilean Government on the recommendation of 
Museo Xacional in Santiago. — The rights of the colonists should be regulated 
and the regulations enforced. — All arrangements likely to direct a tourist 
traffic to the islands should be prohibited. — A Government representative with 
sufficient scientific training should be appointed as supervisor and provided 
with suitable means to fight the maqui and other noxious weeds. — The 
actual prohibition to kill the wild goats should be rescinded (or suspended 
for some years only, if it be found desirable to preserve a small stock of 
these animals, introduced several centuries ago and oftering some historic 
interest). Further, the following additional measures should be taken regarding 
Masafuera : 

Prohibition to erect permanent settlements. — The stock of goats should 
be cut down and not allowed to increase again, or destroyed altogether (in order 
to supply fresh meat in case of emergency, some other less harmful animal 
might be introduced). 

^ Since this was written I have read in a German newspaper that the Chilean Government 
proposes to convert the islands into a »national park». Let us hope that the newspaper in 
question speaks true! 



2 14 



CAUL SKOTTSBKRG 



II. Introduced species. 

Everybody knows that it is often hard to tell if a certain species is 
indicrenous or not in a certain place. Many circumstances have to be considered; 
still there are instances where a definite result cannot be obtained. In Masa- 
tierra large pieces of ground have become spoilt by man during the last three 
hundred years. It seems probable that species, even if they are true members 
of the Chilean flora, that only inhabit such parts or have been found only in 
places often visited by the inhabitants, should by classed as introduced. On 
the other hand, wide-spread species not belonging to the anthropochorous 
assemblage may be regarded as truly indigenous also in Juan Fernandez and 
were listed among the wild species in this paper. If we can rely upon the 
older accounts of the vegetation of Masafuera, also this island was more densely 
wooded in bygone times, and the removal of the forest opened a vast field 
for all sorts of immigrants. 

Nearly all the species enumerated below were introduced unintentionally. 
A few useful plants brought on purpose and which have run wild, were 
also included. 

1. Paspaluni distichum L. — JOHOW, Estud. 133. — Syn. P. fcnimidc- 
zianum Colla. — Masatierra: Bertero. — Pto Frances, B. Cumberland, Pto 
Ingles (JOHOw). Not seen by us. — Also in Chile. 

2. Setaria geiiiculata Roem. et Schult. — Joiiow 1. c. 133. — Masa- 
tierra: B. Cumberland (JOHOW). Not seen by us. — Also in Chile. 

3. Setaria iinberbis Roem. et Schult. — Masatierra: Douglas! — 
V. Colonial (no. 17); Q. Juanango (no. 606). — Also in Chile. 

4. Phalaris intermedia Bosc. — Jonow 1. c. 134. — Masatierra: 

Pto Ingles (Skottsberg 1908). — Also in Chile. 

5. Anthoxaiithuni odoratuni L. — JOHOW 1. c. 134. — Masatierra: 
Rather common in the basal region, frequent in the outer parts of the valleys 
and extending up on the ridges (nos. 205, 246). Ace. to JoHOW probably 
introduced during the last 50 years, as it is not in earlier collections. — 
Masafuera: Very common, from the coast to the highest mountains, perhaps 
the most abundant species in the island (no. 560). — Also in Chile. 

6. Polypogon crinitiis Trin. — JoilOW 1. c. 136. — Wet places, not 
imcommon. Masatierra: Pangal, wet moss mats in the waterfall (no. 225); 
B. Cumberland (JOHOW), east side of V. Colonial (no. 207); Pto Ingles, wet 
rocks near landing place (no. 326); Q. Juanango, in the stream; stream near 
the foot of Co Negro. — Masafuera: O. de las Casas, common by the small 
waterfalls in the gorge (no. 472); O. Angosta and O. del Varadero, in the 
same kind of station; Playa Ancha, on the flat beach (no. 1185); Q. de la 



rut; rilANKUOGAMS OK THE JUAN FERNAXDKZ ISLANDS 21 5 

Lobelia, characteristic of tlie waterfalls (no. 495). Agrees verj- well with European 
specimens, as shown by Fig. 1 k. — Also in Chile. 

'■7. Agrostis stolonifcra L. — Masafuera: Q. Angosta, at the waterfall 
in the gorge (no. 559). — Also in Chile.' 

8. Gastridium lendigerum (L.) Gaud. — Skottsberg, Stud. 23. — 
Masatierra: Douglas! — Coninion in Chile. 

9. Aira caryophyllea L. — Jcniow, 1. c. 137. — Masatierra: Rather 
common in the basal region, more so in the western part (Joiiow; Skottsb. 
no. 31, 31 b). — Masafuera: Germain; B. Token; Q. de las Casas (no. iiii). — 
Also in Chile. 

10. Aira praccox L. — JoHOW 1. c. 136. — Masatierra: MoSELEY. 
'•'Masafuera: O. de las Casas (no. no). — Not in Chile ace. to JOHOW. 

11. Aveiia barbata Brot. — A. Jiirsuta Roth, JoHOW 1. c. 138. — 
Masatierra: Very common in the basal region, abundant in the dry western 
parts (JOHOW; Skottsb. no. 130). — Santa Clara: JOHOW; Morro de los 
Alelies. — Masafuera: East coast (JOHOW); B. Tolten. — Also in Chile. 

12. Briza minor L. — Joiiow 1. c. 138. — Masatierra: V. Colonial 
(JOHOw), hills west of B. Villagra (no. 256). — Also in Chile. 

13. Poa annua L. — Jonow 1. c. 138. — Masatierra: MoSELEV. — 
*Masafuera: On the top of Los Inocentes, c. 1500 m (no. 303). — Also 
in Chile. 

*I4. Poa pratensis L. — Masafuera: In several places on the south 
side, large tufts on the shore (no. 494). — Also in Chile. 

15. Festuca dertonensis (All.) Aschers. et Graebn. — F. muralisYjCa., 
JoHOW 1. c. 139. — Masatierra: B. Cumberland, not uncommon (nos. 107, 
109, 147); Portezuelo de Villagra (no. 29); B, del Padre (JOHOw); scattered 
from Villagra to Pta Larga (no. 248). — Also in Chile. 

16. F. sciuroides Roth. — JOHOW 1. c. 139. — Masatierra: MoSELEV. — 
Masafuera: in the higher parts (JoHOW). — Common in Chile. 

17. Bromus unioloides Kth. —Jonow 1. c. 139. {B. cebadilla Steud.) — 
Masatierra: B. Cumberland (JOHOW), on the cemetery (no. 182); Pto Ingles; 
0. Juanango (no. 607); B. del Padre (JOHOw); Plan del Yunque; Villagra 
(no. 237). — *Masafuera: B. Tolten (no. 467); Q. de las Casas (no. 445); on 
the shore from Casas to Vacas; common in the Vacas canyon; Loberi'a Vieja ; 
near Las Chozas, c. 650 m (no. 1 108). — Also in Chile. Prof. PiLGER remarks 
in a letter to the writer: »i?. cebadilla Steud. ist eine Form von B. unioloides, 
bei der die Behaarung der unteren Scheiden dicht und w'eich ist (SteudeL: 
vaginis inferioribus dense retrorsum villoso-tomentosis). Diese Form ist in 
Chile verbreitet». 



2i6 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

i8 Loliuni miiltiflorum Poii. — JOHOW 1. c. 140. — Masatierra: 

B. Cumberland (JOHOW); in the colony (no. 177); Pto Ingles; Plan del Yunque; 
B. Villagra, not uncommon (no. 249). — * Mas a f 11 era: Loben'a Vieja. — 
Common in Chile. 

19. Hordeum imirinum L. — Joiiow 1. c. 141. - Masatierra: 

Douglas! V. Colonial (Johow, Skottsi;.); Q. Juanango; B. del Padre 
(JOHOW, Skottsb.); Plan del Yunque; Villagra (no. 236). — Santa Clara 
(JOHOW, Skottsb.). — Masafuera: coast and mountains (JOHOW, SK0TTS15. 
no. 492). — Also in Chile. 

20. Hordeum nodosum L. — JoHOW 1. c. 141. — Masatierra: Cuming, 
JoHOW. — Common in Chile. 

'21. Phrygilanthus tetrandrus (Ruiz et Pav.) Eichl. — Masatierra: 

Unintentionally introduced into a garden together with plants of Olca ciiropaca. 
(fl. ^% ^7' "o- 626). ■ — Common in Chile. 

22. Rumex crispus L. — JoHOW 1. c. [21. - Masatierra: V. Colonial 
(JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 204); Pto Ingles; Q. Juanango; B. del Padre (JoilOW, 
Skottsb.); Villagra. — Santa Clara (Johow, Skottsb.). — Masafuera: 
B. Token; Q. de las Casas (JOHOW, Skottsb.). — Also in Chile. 

23. Rumex conglomeratus Murr. — Skottsb. Stud. 19. — ^''Masatierra: 
El Pangal (no. 223); V. Colonial (no. 1205); Q. Juanango. — Masafuera: Q. 
de las Casas (no. 455); Loberia Vieja, abundant. — Also in Chile? 

24. Rumex pulcher L. — JoHOW 1. c. 121. — Masatierra: V. Colonial 
(no. 20); Pto Ingles, common; south-west part (JOHOW, Skottsb.). — Santa 
Clara: Johow, Skottsb. — Masafuera: Hills north of Casas (JoHow); Q. 
de las Casas, abundant near entrance; Q. de la Loben'a, forest, 175 m. — 
Also in Chile. 

25. Rumex acetosella L. — JoHOW 1. c. 121. — Masatierra: Very 
abundant in the barren parts, also seen on some of the high ridges. JOHOW, 
Skottsb. no. 184. — Masafuera: Very abundant on the upper plains and 
hills (JOHOW, Skottsb.), frequent in the alpine region f. i. on Las Torres, 
1370 m. — Also in Chile. 

26. Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx var. virgat/iin (Cham, et 
Schlecht.) Meisn. — JOHOW 1, c. 120. — Masatierra: JOHOW; small stream 
below the chapel hill (no. 124). — Common in South Chile. 

27. Polygonum aviculare L. — JoHOW 1. c. 120. — Masatierra: V. 

Colonial (Johow, Skottsb. no. 209). — Common in Chile. 

28. Chenopodium murale L. — JOHOW 1. c. 118. — Masatierra: Pto 

Frances (JoHOW); B. Cumberland (JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 286); Pto Ingles; B. 
del Padre (nos. 287, 288). — Santa Clara: JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 348. — 
Masafuera: (JOHOw); B. Token. — Also in Chile. 



THK I'HANK.KOGAMS OF IIIK JUAN FKRNANDtZ ISLANDS 21 7 

29. Chenopodiiiiii inultiHduin L. — Roubieva, Juuow 1. c. 119. — 
Masaticrra: 1>krter(); V. Colonial (Joiiow; Skottsh. no. 208); B. del Padre, 
especially on Ml Puente (no. 294). — Masafuera: scattered alon^j; the coast 
rocks, B. Toitcn, O. del Pasto, Q. de las Casas (Jt)liow), Playa Ancha, Loberia 
Vieja. — Also in Chile. 

30. Cheiiopodiuni anibrosioidcs L. — Listed for Juan I-'ernande/C by 
Reiche, Flora de Chile VI: i. 150. — Masafuera: The colony in Q. de las 
Casas (no. 361). — My specimens belong to Ch. chilciise Schrad. as described 
by Reiciie 1. c, a more hairy form than anibrosioides. I have compared with 
the material in Herb. Kew, which shows considerable variation in this respect; 
there arc specimens from Australia, that should be brought to chilotsc. 

•31. Amaranthus chlorostachys Willd. — Masatierra: V. Colonial 
(no. 355). — Not quoted from Chile, 

■■^■32. Amaranthus deflexus L. — Masatierra, on roads in the colony 
(no. 145). — Also in Chile. 

33. Monocosmia iiionandra (Ruiz et Pav.) Pax. — JOHOW 1. c. 116. — 
Masafuera: Germain 1854. Never found again. — Not rare in waste places 
in Chile. 

34. Stellaria media (L.) Cyr. — JoHOW 1. c. 117. — Masatierra: Pto 
P'rances (JoiiOW); B. Cumberland (MosELEY, Skottsb.). — Masafuera: forest 
near Casas (JOHOW), in the canyon; Las Torres, 1370 m. — Common 
in Chile. 

35. Stellaria cuspidata Willd. — JoHOW 1. c. 117. — Masatierra: 
El Rabanal (JOHOW). Also collected by Bertero a. o.; B. indicated this as 
found in the moist woods of the higher mountains, but we have never seen a 
trace of it, and JOHOW found it under circumstances that make it most probable 
that it was introduced. — ■ Chile. 

36. Cerastium caespitosum Gilib. — C. vulgatuiii L., JoHOW 1. c. 
117? — Masafuera: 0- de las Casas (JoHOW.? Skottsh. no. 385); Las Torres, 
1370 m. — Also in Chile. 

'^'l']. Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. — Masatierra: Portezuelo, below 
the pass (no. 332). — Masafuera: O. de las Casas (no. 1207). — Also in 
Chile. — Reiche calls this C. vulgatum L.; thus it is possible that JOHOW 
meant this species and not the preceding. 

38. Sagina chilensis Naud. — JOHOW 1. c. 117. — Masafuera: Germain. 
Never found again. — Centr. Chile. 

39. Silene gallica L. — JoHOW 1. c. 116. — Masatierra: V. Colonial 
(JOHOW, Skottsb.); Pto Ingles; west part (JOHOW). — Santa Clara: JOHOW, 
Skottsb. — Masafuera: O. de las Casas (JoHOW); B. Tolten. — Also 
in Chile. 



2ig CARL SKOTTSBERG 

40. Anemone decapetala L. — JoHOW 1. c. 113. — Masatierra: Reed 
ace. to JoHOW. Never found again. — Widespread in Chile. 

41. Ranunculus muricatus L, — JOHOW 1. c. 113. — Masatierra: 

Douglas etc.; V. Colonial (no. 117); B. Villagra. — Also in Chile. 

42. Lardizabala biternata Ruiz et Pav. — JoHOW 1. c. 115. — Masa- 
tierra: Plazoleta del Yunque (JOHOW, Skottsb, no. 482 ?). — Occurs in 
great quantity on a very small area, forming an entangled mass resting on 
the trees and shrubs like a heavy net and almost killing them. It was first 
recorded by JoHOW who says it grows in the forest at the foot of the Yunque, 
especially in the Plazoleta. As far as I have been able to ascertain, the latter 
place is the only locality known to the inhabitants, and I think it is limited 
to this spot. At first it appeared strange that a plant so admirably adopted 
to the mild climate of Masatierra should not have spread through the forests, 
but the explanation was soon found. The islanders are very familiar with the 
edible fruit of this on the continent, and they told me that the plant never 
produces any fruit in Juan F'ernandez. In the end of March I found the flowers: 
all were female and not a single male one could be discovered; Lardizabala 
is dioecious, and there are only female plants in the island. This makes 
JOHOW's theory that it has been introduced quite probable, if on purpose or 
not; the former possibility has to be considered, as A. VON RoDT planted 
trees (Eucalypts etc.) on the Plazoleta. In any case, the Lardizabala in 
Masatierra comes from few seeds, all female (or perhaps from a single one?). 
I hope that the male plant will never be introduced. — Chile. 

43. Sisymbrium ofticinale (L.) Scop. — JoiiOW 1. c. no. — Masa- 
tierra: B. Cumberland (JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 203). — Common in Chile. 

44. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. — JOHOW 1. c. 109. ~ Masatierra: 
B. Cumberland, »la maleza mas comun» (JOHOW). Seems to have disap- 
peared. — Chile. 

45. Brassica napus L. — JOHOW 1. c. no. — Masatierra; El Rabanal 
(Jonow); B. del Padre (JOHOW), common on the Puente (BaCKSTROM no. 12 10); 
Villagra, Q. de la Chozas, wet rocks in the forest (no. 249) and a similar place 
on the slope of Co Chumacera (no. 249 b). — Santa Clara (JOHOw). — 
'^•Masafuera: Loberia Vieja, abundant and of enormous size. 

^'•46. Brassica rapa L. — Masatierra: B. del Padre (no. 121 1). 

47. Raphanus sativus L. — JOHOW 1. c. no. — Masatierra: Has 

almost disappeared since the visit of JOHOW; seen by us only in B. del Padre. — 
*Masafuera: Q. de las Casas, in the colony; Loberia Vieja. 

•48. Nasturtium aquaticum (L.) Wg. — Masatierra: V. Colonial, 
abundant in the streams (no. 156). Introduced on purpose; common in Chile. 

=•=49. Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br. — Masatierra: Intentionally intro- 
duced; has run wild round B. del Padre, going very strong in the sand on the 



THE 1'HANKROGAMS of the JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 219 

Puente (no. 289); also Santa Clara (no. 12 12) and Morro de los Alelies, which 
derives its name from it. Possibly sown by the fishermen in all these places. — 
Masafuera: O. de las Casas, the colony. 

50. Fragaria cliilensis Khrh. — Joiiow 1. c. 92. — Masaticrra: Mrs. 
Graiia.M etc.; V. Colonial (Joilow) and Villagra (Joilow); found by us in 
Portezuelo by the path (no. 10). — *Masafuera: in the interior of Q. de las 
Casas. Introduced with the convicts in 1909; cultivated in the gardens of the 
abandoned Chozas Village. — Chile. 

51. Acaeiia argcntea Ruiz et Pav. — JoiKJW 1. c. 92. — Masaticrra: 

One of the most widespread and noxious weeds, in the basal region and on 
the ridges, covering the ground for large stretches (no. 113, 113 b, ^. grandiceps 
Bitter; no. 113 c, 171, 1239). In Masatierra, it has hybridized with Margyri- 
caipus, see above p. 133. — '••Masafuera: Las Chozas; Q, de las Casas, behind 
the colony (no. 459, near f. plui-ibracicata Bitter). 

Professor BiTTER remarks to this species: »Sowohl bei Pflanzen von 
Masatierra (Nr. 113, 113 c) als auch von Masafuera (Nr. 459) habe ich bis 
6 jochige Blatter angetroffen; die untersten Blattchen waren aber meist winzig, 
schmal lineal, viel kleiner als die wohl ausgebildeten Nebenblatter. Die beiden 
auf Juan Fernandez gefundenen Formen der A. argcntca (f. grandiceps Bitt. in 
Bibl. Bot. 74, S. 217 als var.) und f. plurihractcata (ibid. S. 216) weichen nur 
wenig von den festlandischen Formen der in Chile weit verbreiteten Art ab, 
wahrscheinlich gehen sie auch in einander iiber; ich habe jedoch vom Festland 
weder so grosskopfige noch mit so auffallig zu mehreren am Schaft verteilten 
reducierten Blattern versehene Exemplare gesehen.» 

52. Medicago sativa L. — Johow 1. c. 89. — Masatierra: Common 
near the colony ace. to JOHOW; not seen by us. — *Masafiiera: O. de las 
Casas, the abandoned settlement. — Common in Chile. 

53. Medicago denticulata Willd. — Jonow 1. c. 89. — Masatierra: 

Douglas etc.; V. Colonial (no. 200); El Puente (no. 1213); Q. Juanango; B. 
Chupones. — *Santa Clara. — *Masafuera: Las Casas, in the settlement. — 
Also in Chile. 

54. Medicago maculata Willd. — Joiiow 1. c. 89. — Masatierra: B. 

Cumberland (JOHOW). — Also in Chile. 

*55. Medicago lupulina L. — Masatierra: V. Colonial (no. 116). — 
Also in Chile. 

56. Melilotus indicus (L.) All. — J/, parviflorus Desf., JoHOW 1. c. 
89. — Masatierra: D0UGLA.S etc.; V. Colonial (Joiiow, Skottsb. no. loi); 
B. del Padre and Puente (JOHOW, SkottSB no. 12 14); Plan del Yunque, Co 
Negro etc. -- Santa Clara, common (JoHOW, Skottsb.). — *Masafiiera: 

O. de las Casas, at the settlement; Loberia Vieja. — Also common in Chile. 

57. Trifolium pratense L. — Johow 1. c. 88. - Masatierra: B. Cum- 
berland (JOHOW). — F^scaped from cultivation. Also in Chile. 



2 20 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

*58. Trifolium repens L. — Masafuera: Q. de las Casas. — Also 
in Chile. 

59. Geranium core-core Steud. Flora XXXIX (1856) — .- G. piisiliinu, 
JOHONY 1. c. 107. — Masatierra: Bertero, Moseley; V. Colonial (no. 112); 
Pto Ingles; Q. Juanango; Q. Villagra; B. Chupones. — In Herb. Kew, (col- 
lected by Moseley) as G. ? patagonkum; Hemsley^ called it G. dissectum in 
Chall. Rep. It is neither of these. Unfortunately, I have not seen Ber'IERO's 
specimens, from which Steudel's description was prepared; they came from 
Central Chile and Juan Fernandez. My plants agree with the short descrip- 
tion. Knuth's monograph in Pflanzenreich IV: 120 is, in this case, of little 
or no use. It is not impossible that this Geranium is indigenous in Masa- 
tierra. A G. sp. (the same.') was found b}- us in Masafuera, but I have no 
material of it. 

60. Geranium robertianum L. — JoHow 1. c 107. — Masatierra: 

Mo.SELEY. — Also in Chile. 

61. Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Herit. — Joiiow 1. c. 107. — Masa- 
tierra: West part (JOHO\v). — Santa Clara (Johonv). — Masafuera (JoHO^Y). — 
Common in Chile. 

62. Oxalis laxa Hook, et Arn. var. micrantJia (Bert.). — JOHOW I. c. 
106. — Masatierra: Moist mountain wall in the forest of Q. de la Choza, 
with some other weeds (no. 258). — Chile. — This is 0. laxa, leg. M0.SELEY, 
Herb. Kew. JOHOW lists both laxa (Germain) and niicraiitha (Bertero). — 
Chile. 

63. Oxalis corniculata L. — Jonow 1. c. 105. — *Masatierra: V. 

Colonial (no. 1 19). — Masafuera: B. Token (no. 463); O. de las Casas, common 
(JOHONY, Skott.SD.). — Widespread in Chile. 

64. Ruta chalepensis L. var. bracteosa (DC.) Engler. — JOHOW 1. c. 
104. — Masatierra: B. Cumberland, along the path to Pangal (no. 104; Pta 
San Carlos (JOHOY^O; Tres Puntas (JOHOW); O. Juanango; B. del Padre 
(Joho\y). ^- Masafuera: the shore near Las Casas (JOHOW, Skottsb.). — In 
Chile; probabU' intentionally introduced, as also in Juan Fernandez. 

65. Euphorbia lathyris L. — Skottsb. Stud. 18. — Masatierra: 
Douglas! — Also in Chile. 

-'^66. Euphorbia peplus L. — Masatierra: Common round the colony 
(no. 142); Pto Ingles. — Also in Chile. 

6^ . Callitriche stagnalis Scop. — .- C. vcnia L., JOHOW 1. c. 103. — 
Masatierra: B. Cumberland, small stream in the colony (no. 1215, det G. 
Samuelsson). — C. verna L., quoted from Chile, where it is not considered 
to be indigenous, probably includes more than one species. 

68. Aristotelia niaqui L'Her. — JOHOW 1. c. 108. — Masatierra: 
Forming e.vtensive shrubberies in the outer parts of the valleys, penetrating 



THE rilANEROGAMS OV THP: Jl'AN FERNANDEZ ISF.ANDS 22 1 

far into the j)riineval forests ancl reachinj^ the hij^h iiioiintains in several places, 
(no. i86). — "'Masafucra: Near the road to Las Chozas, c. 460 m, one shrub 
seen; Q. del Blindado, c. 440 m, many specimens in the woods. As some 
specimens were quite stout, it is possible that the ma{[ui was introduced before 
1909, when the convict settlements were established, having escaped the atten- 
tion of jDHcnv and the writer. But the growth is extreme)}' rapid. — Chile. 

69. Modiola caroliniaiia (L.) Moench. — Joiiow 1. c. 107. — Masa- 
tierra: V. Colonial (Douglas; Johow; Skottsb. no. 115). — Masafiiera: 
Near the shore on the east side (JoilOW, SK0TTSJ5.). — Also in Chile. 

70. Anoda hastata Cav. — Syn. J. /rr//am/£'rjmna Steud. iv] ¥\ora 1856, 
p. 437, ace. to Reiciie 1. c. I, 239. — Masatierra: Bertkro. Never found 
again. — Also in Chile (indigenous?). 

71. Malva parviflora L. — JOHOW 1. c. 118. — Masatierra: Pto 
Ingles; O. Juanango; Tres Puntas. — Santa Clara (JoilOW; Skott.SB. no. 346). — 
Also in Chile. 

72. Malva nicacensis All. — JOHOW 1. c. 108. — Masatierra: V. 
Colonial (JoHOW; Skottsb. no. 181). — Also in Chile. 

yT,. Ly thrum hyssopifolia L. — Johow I. c. 97. — Masatierra: 

MosELEV; V. Colonial (Johow; Skottsb. no. 121); south side of island from 
Plan del Yunque to Pta Larga, scattered. — Also in Chile. 

74. Ugni Molinae Turcz. — JOHOW 1. c. 94. — Masatierra: V. Colonial 
(Johow); especially on the lower slopes of C. Central (no. 190), and along the 
path to Portezuelo, to about 200 m; two small shrubs near the SELKIRK 
memorial, 590 m; Q. Villagra, rare. Probably introduced on purpose, as the 
fruits are much appreciated in Chile, where the species is indigenous. 

75. Oenothera mollissima L. — O. propinqiia Spach, JOHOW 1. c. 99. — 
Masatierra: B. Cumberland, common in the east part of the colony (JOHOW, 
Skottsb. no. 141). — *Masafiiera: Q. de las Casas. — Indigenous in Chile. 
I know no better name for this; after Reiche's Flora it ought to be called 
0. stricta var. propii/qna, but the stricta I have seen in herbaria seems 
different and is not at all so pubescent. I am afraid that Reiche's classifica- 
tion, based on the length of the perianth tube, does not hold good. 

^6. Sanicula liberta Cham, et Schlecht. — JoHOW 1. c. loi. — Masa- 
tierra: Reed, Moseley! On the slope of C. Salsipuedes, some specimens 
in forest at the road-side, c. 350 m (no. 91). — Most likely introduced, as the 
barbed fruits cling to the clothes. — Peru and Chile. 

yy. Torilis nodosa Gaertn. — Skottsb. Stud. 17. — Masatierra: 
Douglas! — Also in Chile. 

'•■78. Apiuni cfr. chilense Hook, et Arn. ■ — Masatierra: Pta San Carlos 
(no. 273). — One very imperfect specimen. Reiche brought A. chilense to 



2 22 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

australe, probably because there are specimens of this in Herb. Santiago 
named A. chilense by PHlLIPri. But the type of the latter in Herb. Kew 
clearly represents a distinct species. Possibly Ligusticiim^)fernandcrAanum Phil, 
(see ReiCHE, Flora III. Ii6) is the same as m>' no. 273. 

*79. Apiuni graveolens L. — Masatierra: \\ Colonial, on the beach 
(no. 144), an escape from the gardens. 

80. Apium laciniatum DC. — Skott.sb. Stud. 17. — Masatierra: 
V. Colonial (no. 114); B. del Padre (Skottsts. 1908). — Chile. May have 
reached Juan Fernandez without the aid of man. 

81. Petroselium sativum (L.) Hoftm. — Joiiow 1. c. 102. — Masatierra: 
Graham etc.; formerly found as an escape, not seen lately. — *Masafiiera: 
O. Angosta, by the waterfall in the gorge. 

*82. Anethuni graveolens L. — Masafuera: O. de las Casas, near the 
settlement; Loberia Vieja; escaped from cultivations. 

*83. Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam. — Masatierra: V. Colonial (no. 178). — 
Also in Chile. 

84. Dauciis australis Poepp. — JOHOW 1. c. 103. — Masatierra: Ger- 
main, Philippi. Seems to have disappeared. — Chile. 

85. Anagallis arvensis L. — JOHOW 1. c. 87. — Masafuera: On the 
shore near Casas and Vacas (JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 498); Playa Ancha; Loberia 
Vieja. • — Also in Chile. 

86. Centunculus pentandrus R. Br. — Johow 1. c 86. — Masafuera: 
Germain. Never found again. — Also in Chile. 

87. Erythraea chilensis Pers. — JoHOW 1. c. 86. — Masatierra: 
Common in El Rabanal and in the west part of the island ace. to JOMOW. 
Must have disappeared, as no trace of it was seen at any time of the year, 
in spite of being especially searched for. — Common in Chile. 

88. Convolvulus arvensis L. — JOHOW 1. c. 86. — Masatierra: V. 
Colonial (JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 228). — '-'Masafuera: the abandoned village 
of Las Chozas. — Also in Chile. 

89. Collomia gracilis Dougl. — JOHOW 1. c. 85. — F"ound in Piii- 
LIPPl's list of 1856, without other indications — collected by GERMAIN? ■ — 
California — Chile. 

90. Gilia valdiviensis Griseb. — Masafuera: Herb. Santiago! ded. 
Leybold (coll. by Guajardo). Never found again. ■ — Chile. 

*9i. Cynoglossuni pictuni Ait. — Masatierra: \ . Anson, V. Colonial 
(no. 270), Pto Ingles, Q. Villagra. — Also in Chile. 



THE PHANEROGAMS OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 223 

92. Verbena litoralis Kth. — Joiiow 1. c. 79. - Masatierra: Douglas 
etc. In the colony (Joiiow; Skottsh. no. 180); Tto In^^les (JoilOW, SKOTTSI5.); 
Q. Juanango; Villagra; B. Chupones. -- *Masafiicra: O. de las Casas near 
the settlement; Q. de la Loben'a, 190 m. — Coniinon in ("hile. 

93. Marnibiuiii viilgare L. — Joiiow I. c. 80. — Masatierra: aUmg 
the path fioin the colony to Pangal (JoiIow, Sko'ITSH. no. 103); Pto 
Ingles. — Masafiicra: H. Tolten; O. de las Casas (Joilow, Skottsi).). — Also 
in Chile. 

94. Melissa ofticinalis L. - Joiiow I. c. 80. — An escape from 
gardens. — Masatierra: in the colony (Joilow, Skottsu. no. 338). — Masa- 
fiiera: O. de las Casas (JoilOW, Skott.SB.). 

95. Mentha aqiiatica L. — JOHOW 1. c. 79. — Masatierra: in the 
colony (JoHOw), Plazoleta del Yunque, abundant (JoilOW). Seems to have 
disappeared; at least there was no trace of it in the places indicated. — Also 
in Chile. 

*g6, Mentha pulegiiini L. — Masafuera: round the settlement in Las 
Casas (no. 462). — Also in Chile. 

97. Physalis peruviana L. — P/i. p7tbescens R. & P., JoHOW 1. c. 84. — 
Masatierra: V. Colonial (JoHOW, SK0TT.SB. no. 166); Pto Ingles (JoHOW); Q. 
Juanango. — Masafuera, widely spread: B. Tolten> Las Casas, near Las Chozas, 
Papal (JoHOW, Skottsb.), Loben'a Vieja. — Also in Chile. 

98. Cestruni parqui L'Her. — JoHOW 1. c. 84. — Escaped from gardens. — 
Masatierra: Streets of the village (Joilow, Skottsb. no. 69); Pto Ingles. — 
Masafuera: O. de las Casas (Joiiow, Skottsb.). — Chile. 

'•'99. Solanum argenteuni Dun. — Escaped from gardens. — Masatierra: 
V. Colonial (Skottsb. 1908). — Masafuera: near the settlement in O. de las 
Casas. — Not reported from Chile. 

*ioo. Verbascuni virgatuni Stokes ex With. — Masafuera: near the 
settlement in Q de las Casas (no. 1221) and by the road to Las Chozas. — 
Also in Chile. 

*ioi. A'eronica persica Poir. — Masatierra: V. Colonial, Q. Seca, one 
plant seen (no. 12 17). — Also in Chile. 

102. Plantago major L. — JOHOW 1. c. 78. — Masatierra: in the 
colony (no. 210); EI Pangal (JOHOW); south slope of Co Chumacera, in forest. — 
Also in Chile. 

^'103. Plantago lanceolata L. — Masatierra: V. Colonial (no. 179). — 
Masafuera: the abandoned village of Las Chozas. — Also in Chile. 

*I04. Galium aparine L. — Masafuera: the abandoned village of Las 
Chozas. — • Also in Chile. 



224 



CART, SKOTTSBERG 



105. Dipsacus silvestris Huds. — Joi-lOW 1. c. 72, as D.fullonuin L. — 
Masatierra: B. Cumberland (JoHOW, Skottsb. no. 269); Pto Ingles (Joiiow); 
Q. Juanango; Q. Villagra. ^ Also in Chile. My specimens agree better with 
D. silvestris, but the paleae are recurved almost as in what generally goes as 

D. fulloinmi. 

106. Lobelia tupa L. — JoHOW 1, c. j6. — Masatierra: V. Colonial, 
near the cemetery (JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 183); between Pico Central and 
Pangal, many groups (J(^HO\V, Skottsb.). — Chile. 

107. Micropsis nana DC. — Joiiow 1. c. 52. — Masatierra: Germain 
ace. to JOHOW; V. Colonial, rare (no. 16). — On Gekmain's label is indicated: 
»Masafuera y Juan Fernandez oct. i854». JoilOW lists Micropsis among the 
introduced species. — Chile. 

108. Gnaphalium cheiranthifolium Lam. — JoHOW I.e. 61. — Masa- 
tierra: In the dry basal region, from Pto Frances to B. Cumberland, not 
uncommon (Scoulek! Bertero! etc.; nos. 272, 354); C Salsipuedes, to 750 m 
(no. 1227); Pto Ingles (JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 327); La Vaquena; B. del Padre 
(JoHOW); Villagra (no. 263). — Santa Clara (Joiiow), Morro de los Alelies 
(Skottsb.). — *Masafuera: On the higher ridges, from the Chozas Village, 
c. 650 m (no. 430), to C, Atravesado, 1360 m. Recently introduced, probably 
since 1909, — Chile. 

109. Gnaphalium aldunateoides Remy. — JOHOW 1. c. 62. — Masa- 

fiiera: Germain, Johow, near the landing place. — Chile. 

no. Gnaphalium stachydifolium Lam. — Johow 1. c. 62. — Masa- 
tierra: Co Piramide, c, 600 m (no. 191); Pta San Carlos (JOHOW); C. Salsipuedes, 
c. 730 m (no. 93); Pto Ingles (JOHOW); Villagra (no. 254). — Santa Clara 
(JoHOW). — Masafuera: Q. de las Casas (no. 444). — Chile. My specimens 
are quite like G. Bertcrianiiui DC. (Bertero no. 1029, Herb. Kew!), a species 
generally reduced to stachvdifoliinii. JoHOW's material under this name belongs 
in part to the next. 

'in. Gnaphalium spicatum Lam. — Masatierra: V. Colonial (no. 
118, 1229). Masafuera: O. de las Casas (no. 454), in the alpine region, 
700—1200 m, only few seen (no. 1228). — There are at least three forms in 
my collection. — Also in Chile. 

112. Erigeron canadensis L. — Skottsb. Stud. 5. — Masatierra: 
Q. Juanango; B. del Padre (SkottSB. 1908). — Santa Clara and Morro de 
los Alelies (no. 1230, leg. Backstrom). — Masafuera: Q. de las Casas. — 
Also in Chile. 

*ii3. Erigeron linifolius Willd. — Masatierra: B. del Padre (no. 291 : 
»typi.sches Ex. von E. linifolius», V . Vierhapper in sched.). — Also in Chile? 

E. strictns Hook, et Arn., a dubious species ace. to Reiche, was quoted for 
Juan Fernandez, leg. SCOULER, by HoOKER and Arnott, Conip. Bot. Mag. 
II. 50. Most likely this refers to a specimen in Herb. Kew. named Conyza 



TIIK IMIANKROCAMS OK TUF, .U^AN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 225 

aiiibio^iia DC, ami collected b)- SCOULKR; C. aiiibitrna is a synonym of Ji. 
li)iifoliiis. 

"114. Xanthiiini spinosiini L. Masaticrra: On a road in the 

colony (no. 627). Also in Chile. 

115. Hidcns Iciicantha (L.) VVilld. — Joiiow 1. c. 52. — Masaticrra: 
Rked; Pto I'Vances (OuKNSKr, 1908); V. Colonial (Skottsb. 1908). — 
Centr. Chile. 

116 (ialinsoga parviflora Cav. — JoiKAV 1. c. 53. — Masaticrra: 
Gkrm.mn. — *Masafiicra: H. Token, a small hispid specimen (no. 469). — 
Also in Chile. 

117. Aniblyopappus pusillus Hook, et Arn, — JOHOV; 1. c. 53. — 
Masaticrra: B, del Padre, especially on the Puente (no. 290); west parts of 
the island (JOHOW). — Santa Clara: Jonow; Morro de los Alelies (JoHOW, 
Skottsb.). — Peru — Chile. In Stud. 29 I listed this among the indigenous 
species. JoilOW supposed that it had been accidentally introduced, and I now 
agree with him. It is hardly probable that a plant, so numerous in places and 
quite conspicuous on account of the barren soil, should not have been collected 
before JOHOW. Known in Chile for its medicinal properties, and perhaps inten- 
tionally introduced to the islands. 

118. Bahia anibrosioides Lag. — JoHOW 1. c. 52. — Masafiiera: 
Entrance to Q. de las Casas, extending a few hundred meters to the north and 
a little to the south of this place (GUAJARDO, JOHOW, Skottsb. no. 443). 
The hmited distribution of this species, confined to a place where almost every 
visitor lands (if he is able to), makes me believe that it was introduced with 
the traffic. It is also noteworthy that Bahia is not in Germain's collection. 
Still, there is perhaps as much reason to call it indigenous. — N. and Centr. Chile, 

*ri9, Anthemis cotula L. — Masaticrra: B. Cumberland, between 
stones on the shore (no. 143). — Masafuera.^ no material preserved. — Also 
in Chile. 

*I20. Cotula australis Hook. fil. — Masaticrra: B. Cumberland 
(FUENTES, April 191 1, Herb. Santiago!). — Masafuera: Q. de las Casas 
(no. 1231). — Widespread, also in Chile. 

^■=121. Scnccio vulgaris L. — Masaticrra: Q. Salsipuedes (no. 631). — 
Masafuera: Q. de las Casas, in the settlement (no, 419). — Also in Chile. 

*I22. Cirsium lanccolatum (L.) Scop. — Masafuera: El Papal, near 
the old huts. — Also in Chile. 

=•=123. Cynara cardunculus L, — Masafuera: the abandoned village of 
Las Chozas. — Also in Chile. 

124. Silybum Marianum Gaertn. — JOHOW 1. c. 64. — Masaticrra: 

Douglas etc. Very abundant in the bottom of valleys from Pto Frances to 
] 5 — 20400. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter J si. Vol. II. 



2 26 CAUL SKOTTSBERG 

El Puente and also on the south side of the island; one of the dangerous 
weeds (no. 197). — Masafuera: O. de las Casas (Joiiow, Skottsu.), Papal, 
Loberia Vieja. — Also common in Chile. 

125. Centaurea melitensis L. — JOHOW 1. c. 64. — Masatierra: 
Douglas etc. Pta San Carlos (no. 271); Pto Ingles; B. del Padre (JoiIOW, 
SkottSB. no. 292). — Santa Clara and Morro de los Alelies. — Masafuera: 
Q. de las Casas; O. de las Vacas (JoilOW). — Also in Chile. 

*I26. Cichoriiim intybus L. — Masatierra: In the colony (no. 176). — 
Masafuera: Settlement of Las Casas. — Also in Chile. 

■■''127. Lapsaiia communis L. — Masafuera: Village of Las Chozas 
(no. 520). — Also in Chile. 

128. Hypochoeris glabra L. — JOHOW 1. c. 65. — Masatierra: V. 

Colonial (no. in); B. del Padre (JoHOW); Pta Larga. — Also in Chile. 

*I29. Taraxacum (officinale) fernandezianum Dahlstedt nov. spec. — 
»Folia (basalia) oblonga — obovato-oblonga lobis latiscurvatis unguiformibus ap- 
proximatis praedita, lobis lateralibus in superiore margine valde convexis integris 
vel subintegris vel parce et minute — crebre et longius dentatis, acutis, lobo 
terminali in foliis exterioribus parvo triangulari vel sagittate, acutiusculo, in 
interioribus majore ovatosagittato marginibus convexis integris vel subintegris, 
supra glabra — • subglabra, subtus araneoso-pilosa. Petioli alati pallide rubro- 
violacei. Nervus medianus inferne rubroviolaceus superne pallidus. Pedunculi 
inferne rubroviolacei superne pallidiores, erecti vel decumbentes, toti vel superne 
araneoso-pilosi. Involucrum parvum — mediocre, saepe sat latum, obscure olivaceo- 
viride. Squamae involucri exteriores sat numerosae angustae e basi paulo 
latiore lineari-lanceolatae, saepius supra squamas interiores attingentes, quam 
eae pallidiores, vulgo cupreo-coloratae in margine saepe araneosae, laxe adpressae 
vel erecto-patentes apicibus recurvis, ecorniculatae, interiores linearcs magis 
obscurae saepe (praesertim in margine) araneoso-pilosae. Calathium parvum, 
ut videtur laete luteum. Ligulae marginales extus stria badio-violacea notatae. 
Antherae polliniferae vel poUine fere carentes. Stylus luteus, stigmata obscura. 
Achaenium sordide stramineum inferne late spinulosum, spinulis apice dentatis 
squamiformibus, vel fere laeve, superne acutius spinulosum, 3 — 3,5 mm longum, 
I — 1,7 mm latum, pyramide i mm longo, rostro 7 — 7,5 mm longo.» — Masa- 
tierra: in the colony (no. 122). — Masafuera: Settlement of Las Casas 
(no. 528). — Remarkably enough no Taraxacum has been reported before 
from the islands. In a letter to the writer Dr. Dahlstedt remarks that the 
new species is not nearly related to any of the numerous Scandinavian forms. 
As the group Vulgaria, to which it belongs, is a Kurasiatic group without 
indigenous representatives in other parts of the world, it is clear that the 
species has been introduceci to the islands. It should be mentioned that the 
shape of the leaves is somewhat different in the two islands. Probably the 
form comes from South I'>urope, very likely via Chile. The Taraxaca of these 
parts of the world have not been studied very well. 



Till' I'll AN'F.ROr.AMS OK THF. JIAN FF.RNANDF.Z ISLANDS 227 

130. Soncliiis olcraccus L. — Joiiow 1. c. 65. — Masatierra: V. 

Colonial (no. 167); I'to Ingles; Q. Juanango; H. del Padre (no. 293); Plan del 
Yunque; O. de la Clioza, wet rock wall in the forest, witii other weeds (no. 
250). — Santa Ciara and Morro dc los Alelies. — Masafiicra: B. Toltcn; 
Las Casas; Playa Ancha; Loberia Vieja. — Joiinw quotes MOSEI.EV as the 
onl}' collector, J. referred the common Sonc/iiis of the islands to .S". f all ax 
Wallr., most likely b}' a mistake, for it is hardly probable that this has dis- 
ap[)earcd and become replaced by the other. — Also in Chile. 



We learn from this list that the number of weeds is great in the islands, 
even if some seem to have disappeared and others are scarce. Many play a 
very important part in the vegetation, such as AntJioxanthum odoraiuvi, Avcna 
harbata, Runicx acctosclla, Acaoia argaitca, Aristotelia maqui, GnapJialiuni 
chi'iraiitkifoliiijii, Auiblyopappns pusillus and Silybum JMariantiiii. The western 
half of Masatierra and Santa Clara are completely stocked with weeds. Also 
in Masafuera, some species are of great importance, as Avena barbata along 
the shore end Aiithoxanthiiui and Riimex acetosella in the subalpine and alpine 
tracts. It is with little enthusiasm that I have had to report numerous species 
new to the islands. I cannot help putting this in relation to the erection of 
the penal colony in 1909. The traffic increased, some new weeds were brought 
to Masatierra and many more to Masafuera. Certainly, this island was abandoned 
after some \ears, but the weeds did not leave with the convicts. 



2 2$ CARL SKOT'ISBERG 



List of literature. 

This list does not at all contain all the books and j)apers where plants from 
Juan Fernandez are mentioned. It is limited to works of greater importance for 
our knowledge of the flora, and also includes such papers where species from the 
islands are mentioned for the iirst time. Well-known handbooks etc. are not 
enumerated here. 

Barneoud, M.: Monographic generale de la famille des Plantaginees. Paris 1857. — 

P. fernandezia. 
Bentham, G.: in DC, Prodr. XII (1848). — Cuminia. 
(Bertero, C): Notice sur I'Histoire naturelle de Tile Juan Fernandez, extraite dime 

lettre de M. Bertero. — Ann. sci. nat. i. ser., J". XXI. Paris 1830. — 

Letter to Mr. Guillemin. 
Bitter, G.: Die Gattung Acaena. — Bibl. Botan. 74 (1910 — 11). 

Weitere Untersuchungen iiber die Gattung Acaena. Fedde's Repert. X (191 2). 

Solana nova vel minus cognita V. Ibid. XI (1912). 

BooTT, F. : Caricis species novae vel minus cognitae. — Trans. Linn. Soc. XX 

( I 846). 

Uncinia Douglasii Boott, in J. D. Hooker, Flora Antarctica II fi847). 

De Candolle, A.: Monographie des Campanulacees. Paris 1830. 

Genres nouveaux appartenant a la famille des Compnsees ou Synantherees. — 

Arch, de Botanique II. Paris 1833. 
De Candolle, A. P.: In DC. Prodr. VII (1838). — Pernettya rigida. 
Clarke, C. B.: Cyperaceae (praeter Caricinas) Chilenses. — Engler's Jahrb. XXX 

(1901). 
Colla, a.: Plantae rariores in regionibus chilensibus a cl. M. D. Bertero nuper 

detectae. — Mem. della R. Accad. d. scienze di Torino XXXVII (1834), 

XXXVIII (1835), XXXIX (1836). 
Decaisne, J.: Note sur un nouveau genre de Cichoriacees, recueilli par M. Bertero 

dans rile Juan Fernandez. — Arch, de Botanique I. Paris 1833. 
Monographie des genres Balbisia et Robinsonia, de la famille des Compo?ees. 

— Ann. Sci. nat. 2. Ser., T. I. Paris 1834. 
Do.v, D.: Descriptive Catalogue of the Compositae contained in the herbarium of 

Dr. Gillies; with some additions from other sources. — The Philos. Magazine, 

or Ann. of Chemistry etc., Vol. XI. London 1832. — Dendroseris. 
Don, G.: A general history of the Dichlamydeous plants III. London 1834. — 

Coprosma. 
Douglas, D.: A sketch of the journey to the north-western i)arts of North America, 

during the years 1824, 5, 6, and 7. — Comj). to the Botan. Magazine, by 

W. J.' Hooker. Vol. II. London 1836. 
( ) Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels. . . . Publ. under the direc- 
tion of the R. Hortic. Soc. London 1914. 
Drude, O.: Juania australis in J. D. Hooker, Progr. and Cond. of the R. Bot. 

Gardens Kew. i 884. 



THK I'HANI-ROCAMS OF IHK JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 229 

FuENTES, ¥.: Revisiones en la Flora Chilena. Familia Jiincaceas. Bolet. del Miiseo 

Nacional, Santiago njiy. 
Gav, C: Historia fi'sii a i poiitit a de Chile. Botanic a, 8 vols. Paris 1845 — 5-- 
(tkaha.m, Maria: Lihertia formosa (irah. in The Kdinh. New Philos. loiirn., Oct. i^s^- 
He.msi.kv, \V. B.: Rej^ort on the Botany of Juan Fernandez, the Southeastern Moluccas, 

and the Admiralty Islands. Rep. Scicnt. Results... H. M. S. Challenger*. 

London 1885. 
Hooker, J. D.: Wahlenbergia tuberosa Hook. til. — Curtis's Bot. Mag. CK1875), 

tab. 6153. 

Dendroseris macrophylla Don. — Ibid. CIV (1878), tab. 6353. 

Hooker, W. ].: Peperoniia margarititera Bert. — I(-on Plant. I, tab. 91. London 

1837- 
Hooker, W. J. and ARKorr, G. A. W. : Contributions towards a Hora of South 

America and the islands of the Pacific. Hooker's Bot. Misc. II (1833), Journ. 

of Bot. I (1834), Comp. Bot. Mag. I U835), ^ (^836), Journ. of Bot. Ill 

(1841). 
loHow, F.: Las plantas de cultivo en juan Fernandez. — Anal, de la Univ. de 

Chile LXXXIV (1893). 
Estudios sobre la Flora de las Islas de juan Fernandez. — Santiago de Chile 

1896. 
JcssiEU, A. de: Rapport sur la partie botanique du voyage de M. Gay au Chili. — 

Arch, de Botanique II. Paris 1833. 
IvtJKENTHAL. (r : Cyperaccae novae V. — Fedde's Re[jert. XVI (1920). 
Martius, K. von: Historia Naturalis Palmarum. Miinchen 1823 — 50. 
Meisner, K. F.: Plantarum vascularium genera secundum ordines naturales digesta 

etc. Leipzig 1836 — 43. — Rhetinodendron. 
MiERS, T-: On three new genera of Verbenaceae from Chile and its adjacent regions. 

— Trans. Linn. Soc. XXVII (1871). 
MiQUEL. F. A. W.: Systema Piperacearum. Rotterdam 1843 — 44- 
lUustrationes Piperacearum. — Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. XIX Suppl. 

1846. 
MoNTAGNE, C. : Prodromus Florae Fernandezianae. Pars prima. — Ann. sci. nat. 

2. ser. T. II — IV. Paris 1835. 
MuLLER Argov.. K.: In DC. Prodr. XV: 2 (1866;. — Dyso])sis. 
Oliver, D. : Santalum fernandezianum F. Phil. — Icon. Plant. 4, ser. V (1896), 

tab. 2430. 
Pfeiffer, H.: Conspectus Cyperacearum in America meridionali nascentium. I. Heleo- 

charis. — Herbarium 56 (1921). 
Pii.GER, R. : Uber einige Gramineae der Skottsbergschen Sammlung von Juan Fer- 
nandez. — Fedde's Repert. XVI (1920). 
Philippi, F. : El arbol de sandalo de la isla de Juan Fernandez. — Anal. ]\Ius. Nac. 

de Chile. 2. seccion. Bot. I. Santiago 1S97. 
Philippi, R. A.: Observaciones sobre la Flora de Juan Fernandez. — Anal, de la 

Univ. de Chile 1856. German edition in Bot. Zeitung XIV (1856). 
Plantarum novarum chilensium centuriae. — Linnaea XXIX (1857 — 58), XXX 

(1859—60), XXXIII (1865—66). 
Descripci6n de algunas plantas chilenas. — Anal, de la Univ. de Chile XXVI 

(1865). 
— • — Lactoris fernandeziana Ph. — Verhandl. K. K. Zool.-bot. Ges. in Wien. XV. 

1865. 
Descripci6n de las plantas nuevas incorooradas ultimamente en el herbario 

chileno. — Anal, de la Univ. XLI (1872), XLIII (1873). 
Bemerkungen iiber die chilenischen Arten von Edwardsia. — Bot. Zeitung 

XXXI (1873). 
El sandalo de la isla de Ti-ian Fernandez. — Anal, de la Univ. de Chile 

XLVIII (1876}. 



230 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Philippi, R. a.: Plantas nuevas chilenas. — Anal, de la Univ. de Chile. LXXXI 

(1893), XC (1895), XCIII (1896). 
Reiche, C.: Flora de Chile I— VI: i. Santiago 1896 — 191 1. 
Kleistogamie und Amphicarpie in der chilenischen Flora. — Verh. d. Deutsch. 

wiss. Ver. Santiago IV (1901). — Cardamine chenopodiifolia. 
Bau und Leben der hemiparasitischen Phrygilanthus-Arten. — Flora, XCVII 

(1907). 
RoHRBACH, P.: Beitrage zur Systematik der Caryophyllineen III. — Linnaea XXXVII 

(1871 — 73). — Spergularia. 
ScHiNDLER, A.: Halorrhagaceae in »Pflanzenreich», IV: 125 (1905). 
Skottsberg, C. : Juan Fernandez-oarnas sandeltrjid. — S\ensk Bot. Tidskr. IV (1910). 
Vegetationsbilder von den Juan Fernandez-Inseln. — Karsten und Schenck, 

Vegetationsbilder, VIII. Reihe, H. 2 (191 o). 
Studien iiber die Vegetation der Juan Fernandez-Inseln. — K. Sv. Vetensk.- 

Akad. Handl. LI: 9 (1914). 
— • — La Expedici6n cientlfica sueca a las islas es[)oradicas de Chile 1916 — 17. 

Informe preliminar sobre los resultados botanicos. — Rev. de la Univ. de 

C6rdoba (Argentina) IV: 8 (1917)- 
Steudel, E. G.: Synopsis plantarum glumacearum I — II. 

Urticeae nondum descriptae. — Flora XXXIII (1850). • 

Einige Beitrage zu der Chilesischen und Peruanischen Flora, hauptsachlich 

nach den Sammlungen von Beriero und Lechler. — Flora XXXIV ^^1856). 
Weddell, H. a.: Revue de la famille des Urticees. — Ann. sci. nat. 4. ser. T. 1. 

Paris 1854. 



■IMl'. PIIANKROOAMS OF 'IHK JUAN FKRN AN'DEZ ISLANDS 23 I 



Index. 

Sviioiu'iiis in italics. 

Abrolanella crassipcs Skottsb 188 

Acaena argentea R. & P 219 

— niasatuerana Bitter 130 

— ovalifolia R. & P 133 

Agrostis masaluerana Pilger 100 

— stolonitera L 215 

Aira caryopliyllea L 215 

— praecox L 215 

Amaranthus chlorostachvs W'illd 217 

— deflexus L 217 

Amblyopappus pusilius H. & A 225 

Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam 222 

Anagallis arvensis L 222 

Anemone decapetala L. 218 

Anethum graveolens L 222 

knodi-x fernandesiana Steiui 221 

— hastata Cav 221 

Anthemis cotula L 225 

Anthoxanthum odoratuui L 214 

Apium ctV. chilense H. & A 221 

— fernandezianum Joliow 161 

— graveolens L 222 

— laciniatum DC 222 

Aristotelia rnaqui L'HtT 220 

Avena barbata Brot 215 

— hirsiita Rotli • 215 

Azara fernandeziana Gav 145 

Bahia ambrosioides Lag 225 

Berberis corymbosa H. & A 125 

— masafuerana Skottsb 125 

— paniciilata Phil 125 

Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd 225 

Boehmeria excelsa Wedd 116 

Brassica napus L 218 

— nigra (L.) Koch 218 

— rapa L 218 

Briza minor L 215 

Bromus cebadilla Steud 215 

— fernandezianus (Phil.j Skottsb 102 

— masafueranus Skottsb. & Pilger 104 

— niegaladine Pilger 102 

— unioloides Kth 215 



232 CARL SKOTTSliERG 

Callitriche venui L 220 

Calystegia Hantehnanni Pliil 162 

— tuguriorum R. Br 162 

Campanula gracilis var 179 

— Lairaini Colla 176 

Cardamine alsopJiila Phil 129 

— chenopodiifolia Pers 128 

— fernandesiana (Phil.) Johow 128 

— rtaccida Ch. & Schl 129 

— Kriisselii Johow 129 

Carex Banksii Booit 108 

— Berteroniana Steud 108 

— paleata Boott loS 

Centaurea melitensis L 226 

Centaurodendron dracaeiioides Johow 198 

CentuncLilus pentandrus R. Br. 222 

Ceiastium caespitosum Gilib 217 

— glomeratum Thuill 217 

— viilgatiim L 217 

Gestrum parqui L'Her 223 

Chaetotropis chihiisis Kth 100 

Chenopodium ambrosioides L 217 

— chileiise Schrad 217 

— Ci'Lisoeanum Skottsb 119 

— multifidum L ; 217 

— murale L 216 

— nesodendron Skottsb • 119 

— Sanctae Clarae Johow , 117 

Ciuisquea fernandeziana Phil 104 

Cichorium intybus L 226 

Cirsiuni lanceolatum (L.) Scop 225 

Citharexy/on venustuin Phil 165 

Cladium scirpoideum (Steud.) B. & H 106 

Colletia spartioides Bert I4) 

CoUomia gracilis Dougl • 222 

Convolvulus arvensis L 222 

Cofiysa aiiibigua DC ..225 

Coprosma pyrifolium (H. & A.) Skottsb 173 

— triflorum (H. & A.) B. & H 172 

Cotula austratis Hook. f. • 225 

Cuminia brevidens Benth 163 

— eriantha Benth U-i) 

— fernandezia Colla 164 

Cynara cardunculus L 223 

Cynoglossum pictum Ait 222 

(Zyytrus fernatideziafttts Colla 105 

— reflexus Vahl 104 

— vegetus Willd 104 

Danthonia collina Phil loi 

Daucus australis Poepp 222 

Dendroseris gigantea Johow 208 

— litoralis Skottsb 20^ 

— macrophylla D. Don 201 

— niacrantha (Bert.) Skottsb 202 

— marginata (Bert.) H. & A 202 



IHE I'HANEROGA.MS OF THK JLAN FKKNANUi:/ ISLANDS 233 

Dciuiroscris micrantha (Ben.) H. iV A 206 

— mollis (Bert.) H. & A u/; 

— neriifolia (Dene) 11. \ A 206 

— pinnata (Bert ) 11. & A 2u; 

— pruinata (Joh.) Skott.sb 207 

— regia Skottsb 205 

Dicliondra repens Horst 162 

Dipsacus iulloiuim L • 22 1 

— silvestris Huds 22.4 

Drinivs amfertifolia Phil. ... J 27 

— t'ernaiideziana Steiid 127 

— fenianilezianus Miers 127 

— Winteri Forst. var 127 

Dvsopsis *hirsuta Miill. Arg M4 

Edivardsia Jernandeziaiia Phil 137, 140 

— niasafueiana Phil j 57, 142 

— Recdeana Phil 137. i-K> 

luupetrum rubriim ^'ahl I4S 

Erigeroii canadensis L 224 

— tVuticosus DC 1X2 

— Ingae Skottsb 184 

— linifolius Willd 224 

— luteoviridis Skottsb it^5 

— rupicola Phil 187 

— turricola Skottsb 18) 

l-"rodiiim cicutarium (L.) L'Her 220 

Ervngiuni bupleuroides H. & A 1)7 

— fernandezianiim Skottsb J 60 

— inaccessuni Skottsb 138 

— sarcophyllum H. & A 161 

Ervthraea chilensis Pers 222 

j-scallonia Callcottiae H. & A 129 

— fernandezia Phil • J 29 

Jluphorbia lathvris L 220 

— peplus L -2o 

Euphrasia formosissinia Skottsb 169, 209 

Fagara externa Skottsb '45 

— niayu (Bert.) Engl '43 

Festuca dertonensis (All.) A. & G • 215 

— inuralis Kth -i) 

— sciuroides Roth 213 

Fragaria chilensis Ehrh 219 

Galinsoga parvitlora Cav 225 

Galium aparine L 223 

— masafueranuni Skottsb J 74 

Gastridium lendigerum (L.) Gaud 215 

Geranium core core Steud 220 

— dissectiimi-' 220 

— ypusillui/i > 220 

— Robertianum L 220 

Giha valdiviensis Griseb 222 

Gnaphalium aldunateoides Reniy 224 

— Berterianum DC 224 



234 



CARL SKOTTSBEkG 



Gnaphaliuni cheirantliifoliuni Lam 224 

— spicatum Lam 188, 224 

— spiciforme Sch. Bip 187 

— stachjdifolium Lam 224 

Greigia Berteroi Skottsb 109 

Gunnera bracteata Steud 148 

— insulaiis Phil 148 

— instilaris, Schixdlkr 147 

— Masafuerae Skottsb. 150 

— peltata Phil 147 

— pyj-aiiiidalis Schindl 148 

Halorrhagis aspenima Skottsb 153 

— erecta auctt 151 

— masafuerana Skottsb 156 

— masatierrana Skottsb 135 

Heleocharis maculosa (Vahl) R. Br 103 

— melanocephala, Johow 105 

— uincentina Clarke lOS 

Heterocai-pus fe7-nandeziamis Phil 128 

Hordeum murinum L 216 

— nodosum I .216 

Hvpochoeris glabra L 226 



Isolepis fuscopitrpurea Steud. 10 



Juania australis (Mart.) Dr .108 

Juncus acutus L 112 

— capillaceus Lam 112 

— Chainissonis Kth 112 

— Dombeyanus Gav 112 

— fertiandeziamis Steud 112 

— imbricatus Lah 112 

— planifolius R. Br 113 

Koeleria micrathera (Desv.) Gris 101 

Lactoris iernandeziana Phil . . 128 

Lagenophora Harioti Franch ... 180 

— hirstcta, auctt 180 

Lapsana communis L 226 

Lardizabala biternata R. is; P 218 

Libertia formosa Grab 113 

— graiidifloi'a Phil 113 

Ligusticum ferna7idezia)ium Phil 222 

Lobelia anceps Thunb. 180 

— rupincola Colhi 180 

— lupa L 224 

Lolium multiflorum L 2ib 

Loratithics Berteroi H. & A 116 

Luzula cfr. alopecurt/s no 

— *insularis Skottsb no 

Ly thrum hyssopifolia L 221 

Malva nicaeensis All 221 

— parviflora L 221 

Margyracaena Skottsbergii Bitter 134 

Margyricarpus *digynus Bitter 150 



IIIK I'llANKROCAMS OF IHK JUAN FKRNANDKZ ISLANDS 2.:;5 

Manuhiuiu viilgaic L 223 

Mattliiohi incana (L.) R. 15r 2icS 

Medicago denticiilata W'illd 219 

— hipulina 1 219 

— iiiaculata Wilki 219 

— sativa 1 219 

Megalachne Bertcroniana Stcud. '1^2 

Melilotus indiciis (L.) All 219 

— pari'ijlorits DesI 219 

Melissa otiicinalis L 223 

Mentha aquatica 1 223 

— }nilegiuni L 223 

Micropsis nana DC 224 

Minuilus parviflorus Lindl. var '68 

Modiola caroliniana (L.) Moench 221 

Monocosniia nioiiandra (R. & P.) Pax 217 

Mvrceiigenia fernandeziana (H. & A.) Ik-rg i47 

— Schul/.ei Johow ' )7 

Mvrteola numniularia (i'oir.) Berg H7 

Nasturtium aquaticuni (L.) \Vg 218 

Nertera depressa B. & S ' '72 

Nicotiana cordifolia Phil 'o" 

Xowodivorskya imberbis Phil 'oo 

Ochagavia elegans Phil "O 

Oenothera mollissima L 221 

— propinqua Spach 221 

Oldenlandia thesiifolia K. Schum '7' 

Oreobolus obtusangulus Gaud '"" 

Orysopsis bicoloi- (Vahl) Speg 9^ 

Oxahs corniculata L 220 

— laxa H. & A 220 

— inicraniha Bert 220 

Paittathera ferfiatidezia?ta Phil "^2 

Parietaria debilis Forst "" 

— huniifusa Rich "" 

Paronychia chilensis DC '23 

Paspalum distichum L 214 

— ferna?ideziamim Colla 2:4 

Peperomia Berteroana Miq "4 

— fernandeziana Miq "5 

— margaritifera Bert "4 

( — nummulariaefolia Griseb "5) 

— Skottsbergi C. DC "4 

Pernettya rigida DC '6' 

Petroselinum sativum (L.) Hoftm 222 

Phalaris intermedia Bosc 214 

Phrygilanthus Berteroi (H. & A.) Reiche "6 

— tetrandrus (R. & P.) Eichl 216 

Physalis peruviana L 223 

— ptibescens R. & P 223 

Piptochaetium bicolor (Vahl) Presl 9*^ 

— laevissimum Phil 9*^ 

Poa annua L ^'> 



236 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Poa pratensis L 215 

Plantago fernandezia Bert 171 

— lanceolata L 223 

— niajor_^L 223 

— *SlvOttsbergii Pilger 171 

Podophorus bromoides Phil 99 

Polygonum aviculare L 216 

— hydropiperoides Michx 216 

Polypogon chilensis (Kth) Pilger . . 100 

— crinitus Triii 214 

— imberbis (Phil.) Johow 100 

Psychotria pyi-ifolia H. & A 175 

Ranunculus caprarum Skottsb 123 

— muricatus L 218 

Raphanus sativus L 2i<S 

Rea Berteriana Dene 20^ 

Rhaphithamnus lo/igijiorus Miers 163 

— venustus (Phil.) Skottsb 163 

Rhetinodendron Berterii (Dene) Hemsl 197 

Rhodostachys elegans (Phil.) Mez no 

Robinsonia evenia Phil 19^ 

— Gayana Dene 192 

— gracilis Dene 196 

■ — macroeephala Dene 191 

— Masafuerae Skottsb 195 

— thurifera Dene 192 

Roubieva viultifida (L.) Moq 217 

Rubus geoides Sm 1 30 

Runiex aeetosella L 216 

— eonglomeratus Murr 216 

— erispus L 216 

— pulcher L 216 

Ruta bracteosa DC 220 

— chalepensis 1 220 

Sagina chilensis Naud 217 

Salicornia peruviana Kth 121 

Sanicula liberta Ch. & Schl , 221 

Santalum fernandezianum F. Phil 117 

Scirpus cernuus Vahl 103 

— nodosus Rottb 103 

Selkirkia Berterii (CoUa) Hemsl 163 

Senecio vulgaris L 225 

Setaria geniculata R. & S 214 

— imberbis R. & S 214 

Silene gallica L. . . 217 

Silybum Marianum Gaertn 225 

Sisymbrium officinale (L ) Scop 218 

Solanum argenteum Dun 223 

— fernandezianum Pliil 165 

— furcatinn, JoHOW 163 

— masafueranum Bitter & Skottsb 167 

— Robinsonianum Bitter 165 

Sonchus fiiUax, Johow 227 

— oleraceus L 227 



THF. PHANEROGAMS OF THF, ITAN KF.KNANI'EZ ISLANDS 237 

Sopliora fernandeziana (Pliil.) Skottsb 140 

— masafuerana (Phil.) Skottsl-' i,j2 

Spergularia confertiflora vSteiul 121 

— polyphylla (Phil.) Rohrb 122 

— rubra, JoHow ;2i 

Steilaria cuspidata Willd 217 

— media (L.) Cyr 217 

Stipa bicolor, JoHOW g6 

— bicolor Vahl 98 

— fernandeziana Phil ^6 

— ferna?t(ieziatia Steud ^8 

— Skottsben^ii Pilger ^6 

'I'araxacuni lernandcziaiumi Dahlst 226 

Tetragonia expansa Miirr 121 

Tillandsia spec 109 

Torilis nodosa Gaertn 221 

Trifolimn pratense L 219 

— repens L 220 

Trisetum chroniostachvuni Desv loi 

— laxitrii Phil loi 

— micrathentin Desv ]Oi 

L'gni Molinae Turcz 221 

— Selkirkii (H. & A.) Berg 146 

Uncinia brevicaulis Thenars 106 

— costata Kiikentli 107 

— Douglasii Boott • 107 

— phleoides Pers 107 

— tenuis Poepp 107 

Urtica fernandeziana (Rich.) Ross 113 

— glonieriilaeflora Steud 115 

— Masafuerae Phil 115 

Verbascuni virgatuni Stokes 223 

Verbena litoralis Kth 223 

Veronica persica Poir 223 

Wahlenbergia Berteroi H. >.\: A 179 

— fernandeziana (A. DC.) Skottsb 177 

— Grahamae Hemsl 178 

— Larraini (Colla) Skottsb 176 

— Masafuerae (Phil.) Skottsb 178 

— fi/bejvsa Hook. f. . . . , 178 



Xanthium spinosum L 22 



Index of species not belonging to the island flora, but mentioned (and in 
some cases figured) in connection with the systematic analysis. 

Abrotanella linearifolia A. Grav 189 

— Moseleyi Skottsb 190 

Agrostis pectinata Hack. & Arech 100 

Azara serrata R. iV P. 146 

Drinivs chilensis DC 127 



238 



CARL SKOTTSBERG 



Drimys paniculata Steud 

Edwardsia cassioides Phil 

— Macnabiana Grab 

Gnaphalium mucronatum Phil 

Halorrhagis cartilaginea Cheeseni 

— Colensoi Skottsb 

— erecta (Murr.) Schindl 

Jiincus microcephalus Kth. 

Lagenophora hirsuta Less. 

— nudicaulis (Comm.) P. Dus 

— petiolata Hook. f. 

— pumila (Forst.) Cheesem 

Libertia elegans Poepp 

Luzula chilensis Desv 1 1 1 

— racemosa Desv I'o 

— vulcanica Liebm 

Sophora grandiflora (Salisb.) 158 

— niicrophylla Ait ij*^ 

— prostrata Buchan. i3>S 

— tetraptera J. Mill 157 

— toromiro (Phil.) Skottsb 139 

Spergularia remotiflora Steud 121 

Stipa longiflora Steud 98 

— macrathera Phil 98 

— manicata Desv 97 

— Neesiana Trin 97 

Vilfa muricata Presl 100 

Wahlenbergia linifolia A. DC 179 



IHr. PHANRROCAMS OF iUK U'AN KI'KNANI^K/ ISLANDS 2:;9 



Explanation of the Plates. 

Nos. 12, 13, ij, 17 — ]9 rcproiUiccd Iroiii pluitograplis taken by C. Sko'i tsui-rg in tlic 
ishnuls; nos. 10, 11, i |, 16 from pliotograplis alter dried specimens b\- A. Karnf.i.i.; no. 20 alter 
pictures Iron) natiue bv C. Skottsheiu;. 

Plate 10. 

rejicrovtia Skottshevf^ii C. D(". — ^/r,. 

Plate 11, 

Clieiin/tfldiuju Ciiisocaiunu Skottsb. — 7''- 

Plate 12. 

I iMiioris fernanderjiaiKi Phil, be]o^\• Portezuelo, Masatierra. 2 Jirvi/<^ii//// itutcccssiiiii 
Skottsb. at Portezuelo, Masatierra. 

Plate 13. 

I Margyraiijc/ia Skotlsberii/i Bitter (centre and right), Araena argcnicc^ Ruiz et Pav. (left), 
Valle Colonial, Masatierra. 2 Gunncra bractcata Steud. X peltata Phil., near the road to Porte- 
zuelo, Masatierra. 

Plate 14. 

Solaniiin masafiieraiuint Bitter et Skottsb. — V"- 

Plate 15. 

I Eitp/ifasia fonuosissiiiia Skottsb., Masafuera. 2 M'aJtkiiberoia ilrnJiainac Hcmsl., near 
Portezuelo, Masatierra. 

Plate 16. 

I Eiigeron Ingae Skottsb. 2 lijigeron fi/rruo/d Skottsb. — '■^j:,. 

Plate 17. 

I Robinsonia Masafiicrac Skottsb. and 2 Dcndroscn's regia Skottsb , near the Correspon- 
dencia Camp, Masafuera. 

Plate 18. 

Deiidroseiis inargiuata (Bert.) Hook, et Arn. at Portezuelo, Masatierra. 



240 CARL SKOTTSBERG 

Plate 19. 

Dendroseris Jitornlis Skottsb. from Morro Vinillo, in a garden in the colonv, Masatierra. 

Plate 20. 

I — 5 Seeds of Sophora : i S. fe/ytatidesiatta (Phil.) Skottsb. var. AV^^/^'*?;;*? (Phil.) Skottsb.; 
2 .S'. )>iasaftierana (Phil.) Skottsb.; 3 i>S. Mncnabiaiia Grah.» iVom Chile; 4 S. viicrophylla Ait. 
from New Zealand; 5 .S". /^;w///;-<5i (Phil.) Skottsb. from Easter Island. All nat. size, b—'] EupJira- 
sia formosissimn Skottsb., X 3- i^ Wahlenberoja Berferoi Hook, et Arn., X 2. 9 IVa/ilenbergin 
fernandeziatia (A. DC.) Skottsb., X 2. 10 Wahlenbergui Grahamae HenisL, X 2. 11 Dendro- 
sen's nim-ginatn (Bert.) Hook, et Arn, X 5. 12 Dendroseji's Utoi-nlis Skottsb., X 5. 



Xaf. Hist. Juan Fernandez and Easter I si. Vol. II. PLATE lO. 




A- at. Hist. Juan Fernandez and Easter I si. Vol. II. 



Plate ii, 




X(7t. Hist. Juan Fernandez a?id luxster hi. Vol. II. 



Plate 12. 





^n w5v-;j 



Xa/. Hist. Juan Ferimudcz and F.astcr hi. Vol. II. 



Plate 13. 



£'^ iS*>}^lS, 



1^^ 









Nat. Hist. Jiuvi FerniDidcz and Easter hi. Vol. II. 



Plate 14. 




X(it. Hist, yuan Fernandez and Easter Is/. VoL II. 



Plate 15. 





X(7f. Hist. Juan Fernandez and Raster Is/. Vol. If. 



Pi. ATE i6. 




Xat. Hist. Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



Plate 17. 











Xtr/. Hist. Juan Fcriiaudcz and Easter hi. Vol. II. 



Pr.ATE 1 8. 




Xat. Hist. Juan Fernandez and Easter hi. I'ol. II. 



Plate 19. 




Nat. Hist. Juan Fernandez and Easter hi. Vol. II. 



Plate 20. 



m 





%% t • I 

• • • • • • 





Proofs of this plate, pritiied by John. &' Krostel in Leip- 
zig, were very satisfactory , but in the final print t/te 
yellow colour in figs, ll and 12 is too dull. 



C. Skottsherg ninx. 



■^ r/. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY 
OF JUAN FERNANDEZ 
AND EASTER ISLAND 

EDITED BY DR. CARL SKOTTSBEKC 



VOL H 

BOTANY 

PART III 



8. V. F. BroTHERUS: Musci Insulae-Paschalis. 

^9. F. BORGESEN: Marine Algae from Easter Island. 

10. L. GunnaR SjostedT: Ein neues Sargassum von der Osterinsel. 

-II. A. Zahlbruckner: Die Flechten der Juan Fernandez-Inseln. 

•12. V. F. BROTHERUS : The Musci of the Juan Fernandez Islands. 




UPPSALA 1924 

ALMQVIST & WIKSELLS BOKTRYCKERI-A.-B. 



8 Musci Insulae-Paschalis. 

Auctore 
V. F. HROTHERUS. 

Cum 3 tabulis (21 — 23). 

Ex Insula Paschalis (Isla de Pascua, Kaster Island) solum ut videtur duae 
species muscorum adhuc cognitae sunt, Cavipylopns sp. e cratere Rano Aroi et 
Papillaria pascuana Ther. n. sp. in sched., quarum cl. F. FUENTES in opusculo 
»Resena Botanica sobre la Isla de Pascua» (Institute Central meteorologico y 
geofisico de Chile. Publicaciones. N° 4, Santiago de Chile 191 3), pag. 144 
mentionem fecit. In itinere 1917 a cl. C. Skottsberg una cum domina Inga 
Skottsberg 14 species lectae mihi communicatae fuerunt, quarum 7 novas 
{Papillaria ilia addita) infra descripsi. 



Dicranaceae. 
Canipylopus Brid. 

1. C. introflexiis (Hedw.) Mitt. 

Hanga Ho Orno^ in cryptis rupium planitiei (542). 
Area: In zona temperata late distributa. 

2. C. (Trichophylli) turficola Broth, n. sp. — Tab. 21, Fig. i a — i. 
Dioicus; gracillimus, caespitosus, caespitibus densis, late extensis, dila- 

bentibus, fuscescentiviridibus, opacis. Caulis erectus, 4 — 8 cm altus, baud tomen- 
tosus, dense foliosus, apice curvatulus et breviter attenuatus, simplex vel parce 
ramosus. Folia sicca arete imbricata, humida erecto-patentia, canaliculato con- 
cava, e basi breviter oblonga lanceolata, mutica, singula hyalino-apiculata, 
c. 3 mm longa et c. 0,6 mm lata, marginibus superne subconniventibus, integris 
vel subintegris, comalia breviora et latiora; nervo basi tertiam partem folii 



^ = La Perouse Bay. 
1 6 — 2391. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



242 



BROTHERUS 



occupante, dorso laevi, in sectione transversa cellulis ventralibus laxis, inanibus; 
cellulis laminalibus rhomboideis, basilaribus internis laxe rectangularibus, hya- 
linis, externis multo angustioribus, alaribus numerosis, subrotundato-hexagonis, 
teneris, fuscis, in ventrem dispositis, fuscis. Caetera ignota. 

Rano Kao, in turfosis lacus crateris copiosissime, no m. s. m. (520, 521). 

Species statura gracillima foliisque niuticis dignoscenda. 



3. C, (Trichophylli) hygrophiliis Broth, n. sp. — Tab. 21, Fig. 2 a— f. 

Dioicus; gracillimus, caespitosus, caespitibus densiusculis, dilabentibus, late 
extensis.laete viridibus, intus fuscescentibus, nitidiusculis. Cauliserectus, 10—13 cm 
altus, parce fusco tomentosus, dense foliosus, innovationibus proliferis, similibus, 
supremis i — 4, caudatis, usque ad 2 cm longis. Folia sicca imbricata, humida 
erectopatentia vel patentia, rarius falcatula, canaliculato-concava, e basi oblonga 
sensim lanceolato-subulata, mutica vel brevissime pilifera, ad 5 mm longa et ad 
0,7 mm lata, marginibus superne subconniventibus, integris; nervo basi lertiam 
partem folii occupante, dorso laevi, in sectione transversa cellulis ventralibus 
ducibus magnitudine aequalibus; cellulis laminalibus anguste rhomboideis, basi- 
laribus internis laxe rectangularibus, hyalinis, externis multo angustioribus, alari- 
bus numerosis, subrotundato-hexagonis, teneris, in ventrem dispositis, fuscis. 
Caetera ignota. 

Rano Kao, in turfosis lacus crateris, in aqua copiose, no m. s m. 

(516-519)- 

Species praecedenti affinis, sed foliorum forma et nervi structura digno- 
scenda. 



4. C. (Trichophylli) dicranodontioides Broth, n. sp. — Tab. 22, Fig. i a— h. 

Dioicus; gracilis, caespitosus, caespitibus densis, late extensis, lutescenti- 
viridibus, intus fuscescentibus, nitidis. Caulis erectus, 3 — 5 cm altus, hand tomen- 
tosus, dense foliosus, simplex vel innovando ramosus. Folia plerumque ± distincte 
falcata, canaliculato-concava, lanceolato subulata, singula ± longe pilifera, pilo 
erecto, subintegro vel serrulate, 4—5 mm longa, marginibus superne subconni- 
ventibus, integris vel superne minutissime serrulatis; nervo basi tertiam partem 
folii occupante, dorso laevi, in sectione transversa cellulis ventralibus ducibus 
magnitudine aequalibus; cellulis laminalibus rhomboideis, incrassatis, lumine 
angusto, basilaribus internis laxe rectangularibus, hyalinis, externis multo angusti- 
oribus, alaribus numerosis, subrotundato hexagonis, teneris, fuscis, in ventrem 
dispositis. Setae solitariae vel binae ex eodem perichaetio, cygneae, c. 7 mm 
altae, stramineae. Theca regularis, breviter oblonga, sicca plicata, pallida, ore 
rubro. Operculum oblique rostratum. Calyptra fimbriata. 

Rano Kao, locis lapidosis in cratere, circ. 125 m. s. m. (545, 548 — 55o)> 
cum f:a perfalcata (544). — Rano Aroi, ad moles, circ. 400 m. s. m. (547). — 
Etiam ab Exp. »Albatros» 21 Dec. 1904 a cl. A. AgaSSIZ lectus [66, f:a per- 
falcata). 

Species a praecedentibus foliis ± distincte falcatis oculo nudo jam digno- 
scenda, habitu Dicraitodontii. 



MUSCI INSULAE-PASCHALIS 



24.3 



5. C. (Trichophylli) saxicohi Broth, n. sp. — Tab. 22, Fig. 2 a — h. 

Dioicus; gracilis, cacspitosus, caespitibus densis, viridibus, intus fuscescenti- 
bus, opacis. Caulis erectus, vix ultra 3 cm altus, baud tomentosus, dense 
foliosus, simplex vol parce ramosus. Folia ± distincte falcata, canaliculatocon- 
cava, e basi lanceolata sensim longe subulata, breviter vel longius stride pilifera, 
3 — 4 mm longa, marginibus superne subconniventibus, apice minutissime serru- 
latis; nervo basi tertiam partem folii occupante, dorso laevi, in sectione trans- 
versa cellulis ventralibus laxis, inanibus, dorsalibus substereideis; cellulis lami- 
nalibus rhomboideis, basilaribus internis laxe rectangularibus, hyalinis externis 
multo angustioribus, alaribus numerosis, ovali-hexagonis, teneris, in ventrem 
dispositis, fuscis. Seta solitaria, c. 7 mm alta, sicca flexuoso erecta, humida 
cygnea, lutea, laevis. Theca irregularis, oblonga, sicca plicatula. Caetera 
ignota. 

Rano Kao, locis lapidosis, circ. 125 m. s. m. (522, 526 — 529). — Rano 
Aroi, ad moles, circ. 400 m. s. m. (525). — Hanga Ho Orno, in fissuris 
rupium planitiei (523, 524). — Vaintu Rova, in fissuris humidiusculis, circ. 
300 m. s. m. (530). 

Species a praecedente statura minore, nervi structura nee non theca irre- 
gulari dignoscenda. Habitu Dicrano longifolio Ehrh. similis. 



Fissidentaceae. 
Fissidens Hedvv. 

6. F. (Amblyothallia) pascuamis Broth, n. sp. — Tab. 22, Fig. 3 a — e. 
Dioicus; tenellus, gregarie crescens, viridis, aetate fuscoruber opacus. Caulis 

2 — 5 mm altus, infima basi fusco-radiculosus, dense foliosus, simplex. Folia 
pauci-multijuga, erecto-patentia, stricta, infima minuta, superiora raptim multo 
majora, lanceolato-linearia, breviter acuminata, acuta, ad i mm vel paulum ultra 
longa et ad 0,15 mm lata, elimbata, integerrima, lamina vera paulum ultra medium 
folii producta, lamina dorsali ad basin nervi enata ibidemque angustata; nervo 
lutescente, aetate rufescente, subcontinuo; cellulis subrotundis, minutissimis, 
minutissime papillosis. Caetera ignota. 

Hanga Ho Orno, ad moles (532). — Vaintu Rova, in caverna humida, 
circ. 300 m. s. m. (531). 

Pottiaceae. 
Weisia Hedw. 

7. W. flavipes Hook. fil. et Wils. 

Rano Kao, ad rupes circ. 300 m. s. m. (534). 
Area: Australia orientalis, Tasmania, Nova Zelandia. 

8. W. sp. 

Hanga Ho Orno, in pascuis (534b). 



244 ^- ^- BROTHERUS 

Orthotrichaceae. 

Macromitrium Brid. 

9. M. sp. 

Rano Kao, in lapidosis in cratere, circ. 125 m. s. m. (536). 

Bryaceae. 
Bryuin Dill. 

10. B. argenteum L, var. lanatuni (Palis.) Bryol. eur. 
Hanga Ho Orno, in pascuis frequens (507, f:a gracilis). 
Area: In terris calidioribus late distributa. 

Bartramiaceae. 
Philonotis Brid. 

11. Ph. laxissima (C. Miill.) Bryol. jav. 
Rano Kao, circ. 300 m. s. m. (552). 
Area: India orientalis, Madagascar. 

Meteoriaceae. 
Papillaria C. Miill. 

12. P. pascuana Ther. ap. FuENTES 1. c. sine descriptione. — Tab. 23, 
Fig. I a — f. 

Dioica; gracilescens, caespitosa, caespitibus plerumque densis, rigidis, su- 
perne laete viridibus, intus lutescenti-fuscescentibus. Caulis priinarius elongatus, 
repens, dense ramosus. Caules secundarii procumbentes vel penduli, flexuosi, 
ad 16 cm longi, dense foliosi, laxiuscule pinnatim ramosi, ramis patulis, vix 
ultra 2 cm longis, simplicibus, attenuatis vel obtusis. Folia decurrentia, sicca 
arete imbricata, humida erecto-patentia, e basi cordata subsen?im in laminam 
elongatam, lanceolato-ligulatam, acumine longiusculo, subulato instructam atte- 
nuata, c. 1,9 mm longa et c. 0,75 mm lata, marginibus integerrimis, basi ± undu- 
latis et minutissime denticulatis; nervo lutescente, infra apicem folii evanido; 
cellulis rhomboideis, incrassatis, lumine angusto, papillosis, subobscuris, mar- 
ginalibus laevibus, pellucidis, basilaribus internis elongatis, angustis, laevibus, 
pellucidis, infimis aureis. Caetera ignota. 

Rano Kao, locis lapidosis in cratere, circ. 125 m. s. m. {554— 557)- — 
Rano Aroi, in cratere, c. 400 m. s. m. (558). — Vaintu Rova, in crypta 
humidiuscula, circ. 300 m. s. m. (553). 

Species P. aispidiferae (Tayl.) Jaeg. valde affinis, sed foliorum forma 
dignoscenda. 



MUSCl INSULAE-PASCHALIS 245 

Fabroniaceae. 
Fabronia Raddi. 

13. F. iiiacroblepharioides Broth, n. sp. — Tab. 23, Fig. 2 a — g. 
Autoica; tenella, caespitosa, caespitibus plerumque densiusciilis, late exten- 

sis, laete viridibus, sericeo-nitidis. Caulis elongatus, repens, ± radiculosus, dense 
ramosus, ramis brevibus, densiuscule foliosis, simplicibus, obtusis. Folia sicca 
plerumque homomalla, humida erecto-patentia, ovato-ianceolata, pilo ± elongato, 
integro terminata, marginibus erectis, fere e basi jam dense serratis, dentibus 
± distincte ciliiformibus, patulis; nervo tenuissimo, ad medium foiii evanido; 
cellulis elongate rhomboideis vel elongate hexagonis, alaribus subquadratis. 
Seta 5 mm vel paulum ultra alta, tenuissima, straminea. Theca e collo distincto 
cylindrica, fusca. Peristomium normale. Operculum oblique rostratum. 

In cratere Rano Kao, locis lapidosis; 120 m. s. m. (559/563). 

Species F. niacroblcpharidi Schwaegr. affinis, sed foliis brevius ciliatis, 
laxius areolatis nee non theca majore dignoscenda. 

Rhacopilaceae. 
Rhacopilum Palis. 

14. Rh. cuspidigerum Schwaegr. 

Rano Kao, locis lapidosis, c. 125 m. s. m. (566, 567). 
Area: Ins. Sandwicenses, Samoa, Norfolk, Xova Caledonia. 



246 V. F. BROTHERUS 



Explicatio tabularum. 

Tab. 21. 

Fig. I a — i Canipyloptis turficola n. sp.; a planta sterilis ('/'); b—d folia ('^/i); e — ^apices 
('■''"/i); h pars basilaris (^'"/Ol ^ sectio transversa partis inf. ('™/i). Fig. 2 a— f Cantpylopiis hygro- 
philiis n. sp.: a planta sterilis (\'i); b, c folia ('Vi); '^ apex ('"'VO; ^ P^''^ basilaris ('"70; 7" sectio 
transversa partis inf. (''"/')■ 

Tab. 22. 

Fig. I a— h Campyloptis dici-miodo7itioides n. sp. : « planta fertilis (^/i); ^ — ^ folia ('^/i); 
I? apex C-'"/!); y P^rs basilaris ('""/i); ^ sectio transversa partis inf. (^™/i); ^ theca ('*/')• — ^i&- 
2 a— h Campylopiis saxicola n. sp.: a planta fertilis ('/i); ^— a' folia (*-/i); e apex (**"/0; /pars 
basilaris (^™/i); ^sectio transversa partis inf. (""/i)i ^ theca (^-/«). — Fig. 3 a — e Fissidens pascuanus 
n. sp.: « planta sterilis ('/O; "^ eadem ('71); ^^ '^ fo^i^ (^°/0; ^ P^''^ apicalis ('^"/O- 

Tab. 23. 

Fig. I a — f Papillaria pascumta Ther. nomen: a planta sterilis ('/•); b — d folia (^'/i); 
^ apex (^™/i); y" pars basilaris (^'"/i). — Fig. 2 a — g Fab?vnia niacroblephai-oidcs n. sp. : a planta 
fertilis ('/i); /!' eadem O^/i); c, d folia C'^, 1); ^ pars apicalis (^""/i); / ^ thecae (^"/O- 



Nat. Hist. yua7i Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



Plate 21, 




Thirese Ekblom del. 



Nat. Hist. Juan Fernandez and Easter hi. Vol. II. 



Plate 22. 



w^mwwA 




TMrese Ekblom del. 



Nat. Hist. Juan Fernandez a7id Easter IsL Vol. II. 



Plate 23. 



\lb Ir 








le 



pi 

wmm 



15KS'|i(;(irf\l/,i;p(^\ 



|(^|)if|,'l»5c: 



li^iviiliinuiiii 



)nn( 



1 mm 










Thir'ese Ekblo7n del. 



9 Marine Algae from Easter Island. 

By 
F. BORGESEN. 

Witli 50 text figures. 

When Professor Skottsberg asked me to work out his collection of algae 
from Easter Island I undertook with pleasure this task, as the isolated situa- 
tion of this island made its algal flora of a special interest. 

The collection consisted of about 20 glasses, a few stones with crustaceous 
algae and some dried specimens, mostly the same as contained in the glasses. 
All the material brought home was collected at low tide between high and 
low water mark and in one locality, Hanga Piko, on the west coast of the 
island; sublitoral algae were only collected in tide-pools. 

As is understood from this, it is a small collection only, and as several 
of the glasses contain the same large species, it was to be expected that the 
number of species could not be great. 

At the examination of the glasses, however, fragments of other larger 
species were found upon and among the larger algae, and also some smaller 
epiphytic and endophytic species. AUtogether 68 species have been listed. 
Regarding several of these species the material is so scarce that there was 
hardly enough for microscopic preparation, while it was quite insufficient for a 
more detailed examination, a circumstance likely to have an influence upon the 
exactness of the determination. 

At all events, the present incomplete list of species shows that this very 
isolated island possesses a both rich and varied marine flora of which a more 
thorough investigation, including the sublitoral vegetation, is highly desirable. 

If I would try to give my opinion on the more characteristic features of 
the algal flora, judging from the present material, I might say that many of 
the species are small creeping ones which by means of strong hapteres or 
rhizoids are able to fasten themselves to the substratum; such species are f. i. 
Gelidium pusilhim, PtilotJiaiiinioti Plunia, Latirencia claviforniis, CJiondria repens, 
Gymnogongrus aequicrassus, Hypnea Esperi, HerposipJionia tenella, Dictyopteris 
repens etc. I have also come across proportionally many species of crustaceous 
algae. On the whole most of the species are small, the largest one found is 
Sargassiim spec. Many species form low tufts and have a cartilaginous 



248 



F. EORGESEN 



thallus. These different types of the thallus are most certainly adjustments to 
the very strong surf that continually beats the shores of this extremely exposed 
island. 

As could be expected from the situation of the island, 27° s. Lat., the 
algal flora has a subtropical character with a few pronounced tropical forms 
f. i. Halinieda Opuntia, Valonia ventricosa and Chnoospora fastigiata. No Caii- 
lerpa was collected. 

It is of a special interest to note that some species hitherto known only 
from the West Indies or adjacent parts of the Atlantic are found at the shores 
of Easter Island, thus contributing to the remarkable correspondance between 
the floras of the Pacific and of the West Indies. Regarding this question compare 
my remarks in »The marine Algae of the Danish West Indies*, vol. II, p. 491 etc. 

Finally I want to express my best thanks to the specialists who kindly 
assisted me with the determination of certain groups. I am much indebted to 
Mme. Dr. A. Weber van Bosse and Mme. Paul Lemoine for having determined 
respectively the Squamariaceae and the Lithothamniaces found in the collec- 
tion, and to Dr. H. E. PETERSEN who took the trouble to name the small 
fragments found of Ceraniium. 

The drawings are for the most part made by mag. scient. O. ROSTRUP 
under my inspection. 



ChloTophyceae. 
Fam. Ulvaceae. 

Ulva L. 
U. Lactuca L. 

LiNNE, Spec. Plant. II, 1753, p. X163. 

The specimens are small, some few cm high only, forming low tufts, the 
thallus being folded, crisped and entangled as is often the case with this species 
on exposed localities. 

Area of distribution. Seems to occur in all seas. 



Fam. Chaetophoraceae. 
Endoderma Lagerh. 

E. viride (Reinke) Lagerh. — Fig. i. 

Lagerheim, G., Bidrag till Sveriges algflora (Ofvers. af K. Vetensk. Akad. Forh., 
1883, p. 75). I. HuBER, Chaetophorees epiphyt. et endophyt. (Ann. Sc. Nat., 7. ser., 
Bot., torn. 16, 1892, p. 326). BoRGESEN, F., The Mar. Alg. of the D. W. I., vol. I, 
p. 10, II, p. 416. — Entocladia viridis Reinke, in Bot. Zeit., 1879, P- 4/6, tab. 6, figs. 6 — 9. 

In the thick walls of Lauvencia claviforniis an Endodenna was present, 
most likely referable to E. viride, which according to my concepcion of species 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 249 

(1. c.) is a rather variable plant. Quite as in the West Indian plants the present 
one formed a reticular tissue, the endopiij-te utilising the larger place left above 
the walls of the perij^heral cells in the host plant. 

The cells are 8 -15 u, long and 7 — 8[x broad, of a rather irregular shape, 
often about oval, mostly as long as broad, but shorter ones are common too. 




Fig. I. Endodei'ina viride (Rke) Lagerh. Irom Laurencia claviformis. In one of the cells zoo- 
spores are seen. C. ''""/i- 

The cells contain much starch. The shape of the chromatophore could 
not be determined, probably because the material had been kept too long in 
formaline. 

Cells with zoospores were found now and then. 

Area of distribution: Atlantic coasts of Europe and N. America, West 
Indies, Easter Island. 



Fam. Cladophoraceae. 

Cladophora Kiitz. 

C. spec. 

Together with Gelidmni pusilhwi a small CladopJiora was found upon a 
shell. It had vigorous rhizoids deeply immersed in the substratum. 

The basal cells were 2 — 3 mm long and 150 — 175 [j. thick, the upper cells 
shorter, but a few cells only were developed. The cell walls were thick and 
stratified. 

The largest plant found was 5 mm long. 

C. (Aegagropila) socialis Kiitz. — Fig. 2. 

KuTziNG, Spec. Alg., p. 416. Tabulae Phycologicse, vol. IV, tab. 71. Rein- 
bold in A. Weber van Bosse^ Liste des Algues da Siboga, I Myxophyceae, Chloro- 
phyceae, Phaeophyceae, p. 82. 

To this species, originally described by KiJTZING from Tahiti, I refer a 
plant forming extensive, soft, Vaucheria-XxVo. tufts. On the upper side of these 
tufts the filaments are not much branched, often being quite simple for a 
considerable distance. The ramification is subdichotomous, the side branches 



250 



F. BORGESEN 



growing out at acute angles from the mother filaments and soon attaining the 
same strength as these. 

In the upper part of the thallus the cells are of much variable length, 
5 — 10 — 20 times as long as broad or even more. The diameter of the cells 
varies from $0 — 100 [i being mostly 70 — 80 [x. 

The basal parts of the thallus have a different appearance. Here the cells 
are much shorter, the filaments (Fig. 2 a) are irregularly bent and curved, and 
much less regularly ramified; and furthermore we find here a great number of 
rhizoids. These rhizoids serve for the most part to attach the plant to the 
substratum but also to keep the whole thallus together as many of them fasten 




Fig. 2. Cladopho7-a socialis Kiitz. Parts of plants showing ramification and formation of 

rhizoides. a c. *7'> t>, c c. ^'^]\. 



themselves to other filaments. The rhizoids are sometimes long, sometimes 
short; in the long one cross walls are often present while the short ones have 
no cross walls. They generally end in a small coralliform disc. There is no 
cross wall separating the rhizoid from its mother cell. 

The wall of the filaments is thin in the young parts of the thallus, thick 
and stratified in the older parts. 

By its ramification and mode of growth as well as by the fact that the 
rhizoids are not cut off from their mother cells by cross walls this plant at the 
first glance reminds rather much of CladopJioropsis, but it is of course easily 
distinguished by the presence of cross walls at the base of the branches. 
Furthermore it must be remembered that the formation of cross walls in the 
filaments of Aegagropila takes place in the same way as f. i. in CladopJiora^ 



MAfilNE ALGAK FROM KASTKK ISI.AN'I) 25 1 

while cell division in CladopJioropsis (as far I have been able to observe on 
preserved material of CI. tiutiibt anacca) is realised in the peculiar way I have 
called segregative cell division. 

The species, originally found at Tahiti, has been collected at the Luci[)ara 
Islands by Mme. Wkhkk. 

Area of distribution: Pacific Ocean, Malay Archipelago. 



Fain. Valoniaceae. 

Valonia Ginn. 
V. ventricosa J. Ag. 

Specimens as large as dove's eggs are found. They were fastened to 
other algai and were also themselves very much utilized by epiphytes. 

The specimens seem to agree very well with others collected by me in 
the West Indies (1. c, vol. I, p. 27). In both cases they were fastened to the 
substratum by means of rhizoids growing out from the small lentiform cells in 
the basal end of the large cell. 

In some of the specimens a good number of small roundish cells were 
found enclosed in the large mother cell, as described by MURRAY.^ On the 
base of my West Indian material I arrived at the conclusion that these bodies 
owed their origin to abnormal conditions, but after I have seen the Pacific 
specimens I agree with MURRAY in considering them as quite normal organs 
of vegetative reproduction formed by a kind of free cell division — segregative 
as I have called this peculiar division modus found in so many related tropical forms. 

Another sample of algae contained some few specimens of more elongated 
shape about 2 cm long and "^U — i cm broad. I dare not say, if these specimens 
more rightly ought to be referred to V. Forbesii Harv. but had they come 
from the West Indies I would without doubt have considered them as forms 
of V. ventricosa. As is the case in this species they were covered by epiphytes, 
especially Melobesiacece, while V. Forbesii, according to Mme. Weber^, is less 
used as substratum. 

Area of distribution: West Indies, Malayan Archipelago, Tahiti, Easter 
Island. 

Rhipidiphyllon Heydr. 

Rh. reticulatuni (Asken.) Heydr. — Fig. 3, 4. 

Heydrich, F., Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Algenflora von Ost-Asien besonders 
der Insel Formosa, Molukken- und Liu-kiu-Inseln. Hedwigia, t,2>- ^d., 1894, p. 281. 
— Anadyomene reticulata Askenasy, Forschungsreise S. M. S. »Gazelle» IV. Theil, 
Botanik (Algen), p. 5. 

The thallus (Fig. 3) forms small, 2—4 mm broad, cristate and excentric 
bodies fixed by means of vigorous rhizoids to the host plant (Galaxaiira). 

^ Murray, G., On Halicystis and Valonia, in Murray, Phycological Memoirs, Part II, 
1893, p. 50-1. 

* Weber-van Bosse, A., Liste des algues du Siboga, I, Myxophyceae, Chiorophyceae, 
Phaeophvceae, p. 59. 



252 



F. BORGESEN 



Fi 



The rhizoids grow out from the lower- 
most ends of the cells in the basal part of 
the plant (Fig. 4 b). They are irregularly 
bent and have thick walls. They grow down- 
wards along the wall of the main cells and 
contribute highly to the strengthening of these. 
Reaching the host plant they become divided 
in several thinner filaments which are termin- 
ated by irregular coralliform lobes. I have 
not seen any cross walls in these rhizoids. 
From the base of the main cells even high 
up in the thallus such rhizoids are formed. 

The growth of the plant is acropetal. 
The young cells are at first seen as small 
outgrowths upon the end of the mother-cell. 
These outgrowths are often rather large before 
they become separated by a wall (comp. 
Fig. 3). The ramification always takes place 
in the same plane. 

When the apex of a cell touches the 
neighbour branch it becomes fastened to it 
by a thick cellulose ring, formed in the same 
way as in Microdictyo7i timbilicatmn (Fig. 4 a). 

The large cells are about 200 [i wide 
and as much as 600 {a long. The cells contain 
a wall plasma with numerous chromatophores 
g. ,. Xo\xng ^\^n\ oi Rhipidiphylloti forming a dense network. Numerous pyrenoids 
retiailatiDn (Asken.) Heydr., c. ""/'• are regularly distributed in the chromatophores. 





Fig. 4. Rhipidiphylloti retiailattim (Asken.) Hej'dr. a summit of plant, c. ""/i; b base of small 

specimen, c. ^"/i- 



MARINE AT.GAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



253 



The flabelliform mode of ramification reminds very much of Anadyomoie, 
but in Rhipidipliyllon the space between the large cells remains open no small 
cells being formed here. ASKENASV described the plant as an Anadyoificiw, 
but I think Hevdrich was right in making it the type of a new genus. 

R/iipidip/iylloii differs from Microdiciyon mainly by its acropetal, fanshaped 
ramification resulting from the fact that the new cells are produced from the 
upper end of the mothercell, all being directed upwards under acute angles 
and all lying in the same plane. It also differs in the less regular and less 
frequent junction of the cells. Rhipidipliyllon is also a much smaller plant; the 
largest specimens I have seen are about 5 — 6 mm in diameter, as stated by 
ASKENASY. 

It seems to me rather doubtful if the plant so beautifully figured by 
Okamura in his »Illustrations of the Marine Algui of Japan*, Vol. i, no. 6, 
pi. 30 really belongs to this genus. I am much more inclined to consider this 
a Microdictyon. The shape of the thallus, the mode of ramification, the shorter 
and less marked main cells, the more spreading branches, not distinctly gathered 
at the end of the main cells with much larger angles between them, and the 
lowermost being directed downwards, all suggests Microdictyon. 

Area of distribution: West Australia, Formosa, Easter Island. 



Microdictyon Dene. 



M. umbilicatuni (Veil.) 
Zanard. — Fig. 5. 

Zanardini, Iconographia, 
Phycologica Adriatica, vol. I, 
p. 79, tab. XIX, i860. 

Some few small frag- 
ments were found growing 
on Hypnea. 

Regarding the limita- 
tion of species in Alicyodictyon 
there still is some uncertainty, 
as pointed out by Reinbold.^ 
In the treatise quoted below 
he points out that the net- 
work arises in three different 
ways, namely by means of 
a simple anastomosis (»Ver- 
dickungsring». Bitter) as is 
the case in M. nmbilicatum, 
by pseudohapters, the attach- 

^ REi\BOLD,TH.,in A.Weber 
VAN BossE, Liste Algues Siboga, 
I, p. 66. 




Fig. 5. Micyodictyon umbilicatuni (Veil.) Zanard., part of 
specimen, c. '7'- 



254 



F. BORGESEN 



nient points being crenulated cell-ends as is the case in M. pseudoJiapteron Gepp 
and finally by means of true tenacula as found in M. Montagnei Dene. 

Regarding the mode of net formation the present plant quite agreed with 
M. wnbilicatum and therefore 1 do not hesitate to refer it to this species. It 
agrees very well with my West Indian specimens and specimens from Cadiz. 

Area of distribution: Mediterranean Sea, West Indies, Red Sea, Australia, 
Sandwich Islands etc. 



Fam. Codiaceae. 
Haliiiieda Lamx. 

H. Opuntia Lamx. forma Reinschii (Hauck) Barton. 

Barton, E. S., The genus Halimeda, p 21. Okamura, K., Icones, vol. Ill, 
pi. 148. — Halijneda Reinschii Hauck, Ueber einige von I. M. Hildebrandt im Rothen 
Meere und Indischen Ocean gesammelte Algen. (Hedwigia, 1886, p. 167.) 

The specimens gathered seem to agree very well with the description of 
Hauck and the figures of Mrs. Gepf (Miss Barton). It is a rather small 
plant forming compact tufts ca. 5~6 cm high. The base consists of a short 
stem from which branches are issued in all directions. The lowermost joints 
are often broader than long and very thick, followed by a few ones nearly 
cylindrical and longer than broad, but soon the joints again become shorter, 
broader than long and tnlobed. Higher up again the joint grow smaller, 
thinner, nearly roundish or ovate and sometimes Hightly trilobed, sometimes not. 
The midrib is very indistinct. The joints in the lower part are mostly about 
2 — 3 mm long and 3—4 mm broad, higher up 5—6 mm long and 4—5 mm 
broad; the uppermost are about 4 mm high and 3 mm broad. 

Area of distribution: Indian Sea, Easter Island. 



Fam. Phyllosiphonaceae. 
. Ostreobium Born, et Flah. 

O. Quekettii Born, et Flah. 

BoRNET, E. et Ch. Flahault, Sur quelques plantes vivant dans le teste calc. 
des MoUusques (Bull. Soc. hot. Fr., T. 36, 1889). 

This species was found in a small Spirorbis, the shell being quite green- 
coloured by the occurrence of the alga. 

Area of distribution: Europe, North America etc. most likely cosmo- 
politan. 



MARTNF, AI.GAF, FKOM EASTFR IS1,AND 



255 



Phaeophyceae. 

Fain. Kctocarpaceae. 

Ectocarpus Lyngb. 

E. Chnoosporac nov. spec. — Fig. 6. 

Thallus pulvinulos parvos ca. i V2 mm latos foimans, e filis repentibus et 
fills etcctis constructus, Fila repentia irregularitcr ramosa et plus minus cohe- 
rentia e cellulis oblongis ca. 15 — 20[j, latis et 24 — 28 [j. longis composita. F^ila 




Fig. 6. Ectocarpus Chuoosporae nov. spec, parts of plants, c. ^"7'- 



erecta ca. i mm alta, in parte basali e cellulis 8 — 10 jj. latis et 25^ — 30 [j. longis 
in superiori parte e longioribus formata, simplicia aut in inferiori parte ramosa; 
rami aut longi, erecti, aut breves sporangia plurilocularia gerunt. Sporangia 
subfusiformia, ca. 100 ^. longa et 25 [x lata. 

On the thallus of Chnoospora fastigiata J. Ag. var. pacifica J. Ag. a small 
brown alga was found which seems to me most naturally to come near the 
crustshaped Ectocarpi quoted by OltmaNNS, Morphologic u. Biologic der Meeres- 
algen, 2. edition, p. 10, mentioned from the posthumous manuscript of KUCKUCK. 
As examples of the gradual reduction of the thallus of Ectocarpus he men- 
tions two species, Ectocarpus faerdensis and speciosus, originally described 
by me under Myrionema in accordance with the at that time recent work of 
Sauvageau on the Myrionemaceae. Later, these species were referred to 
various genera by various investigators; now KuCKUCK simply has included 
them in Ectocarpus. 



256 F. BORGESEN 

The basal part of the plant consists of a monostromatic tissue composed 
of irregularly curved and ramified creeping filaments growing gradually more 
or less tightly together. The cells of the basal layer are about 15 — 20 {j. thick 
and 24—28 [A long. From these cells erect filaments arise. These are mostly 
simple having a zone of growth somewhat above their base. Here the cells 
are short with intercalary divisions. Upwards they gradually increase in length, 
the chromatophores become less developed and the ends of the filaments become 
hairlike, gradually dying off. 

These assimilating filaments measure about 8 — 10 [j- at their base, the 
length of the cells being 25 — 30 jj,. In the zone of divisions the cells are about 
16 [X wide and mostly shorter than long. Keeping about the same width the 
upper cells attain length of about 65 \x. The filaments are up to i mm long. 
Most of the assimilating filaments are simple but sometimes carry a single 
equally developed branch near their base; in the upper part they are always 
undivided. Near the base they also carry short filaments bearing terminal 
plurilocular sporangia. These filaments consist mostly of a single or of two 
cells. Now and then, too, a plurilocular sporangium is borne on a short filament 
arising directly from the basal filaments. 

In one specimen (Fig. 6 b) two small sessile gametangia were observed at 
some distance from the base and one sporangium on each of the filaments, 
somewhat recalling the genus Gononeina Kuck. und Skottsb.^ The plurilocular 
sporangia are ovate-spindleshaped, about 100 [x long and 25 [x broad. In the 
fresh divided cells, the chromatophores form several roundish discs, in the 
older cells oblong bodies or short stafts. 

This new Ectocarpiis evidently comes near Compsonenia fasciculatinn and 
C. conifevuni, described by Setchell and Gardner in Phycological Contribu- 
tions II to IV (University of California Publications, vol. 7, 1922), but the present 
plant is much larger and also shows several differences in the shape of sporangia, 
assimilatory filaments etc. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



E. breviarticulatus J. Ag. — Fig. 7. 

I. Agardh, Nya alger fran Mexico (Ofversigt af K. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 
1847, P- ?)• BoRGESEN, F., Marine Algae of the D. W. I, vol. I, p. 173. — Ecto- 
carpiis Jiamatus Cr. in Maze et Schramm, Essai de classification des algues de la 
Guadeloupe, 2^ Edit. 1870 — 77, p. 11 i; Vickers, A., Phycologia Barbadensis, part 
1 1, pi. 2q. 

The specimens found quite agree with the West Indian plant. 

The filaments are about 30 [j, thick. The length of the cells is rather 
variable. Near the summit of the filaments and generally in the periphery of 
the tufts the cells mostly are about as long as broad, while in the main fila- 
ments in the interior of the tufts the cells are often more than twice as long 
as broad. 



* Skottsberg, C, Bot. Ergebnisse d. scliwed. Exp. nacli Patagonien uiui dem Feuerlande. 
VIII. Marine Algae, i. PJiaeophyceae, p. 9. 



MARINF. AI.GAK FROM F-ASTKR ISLANO 



257 



The j)Iui ilocular sporangia (I'ig. 7 b) are roundish (juadrangular or obovate. 
Commonly they are about 40 [j. long and 35 |j- broad as is also the case in the 
West Indian form, the measure given by me (1. c.) drawn from a rather large 
sporangium. 

So far one is able to judge from material kept so long in formahne, there 
appears to be several shorter or longer ribbon like chromatophorcs, irregularly 
bent and with branches of different length in the young parts of the filaments, 
while in the older ones the chromatophorcs are more like small roundish or 
somewhat irregularly shaped discs. 

From Mrs. GKi'r's description and figures' o{ Ectocarpns spongiosusT)\c\oe^ 
I feel convinced that this species is the same as /f. hriviarticulatiis, originally 
described by I. Agardii in 1847 on specimens collected by LiEHMANN at St. 
Augustin, Mexico. 

Area of di.stribution: Pacific coast of Mexico, West Indies, Indian Ocean, 
Kaster Island. 





Fig. 7. Ectocarpus hreviariictilaius J. Ag. 

a 'sterile filaments, c. ■**/!; b (c. ''*"/') '''"'•^ 

c (c. ^""/') pliiiiocular sporangia. 



Fig. 8. Ectocarpus sp. a filament with pluril- 

ocular sporangium, c, ''^i; b tiie sporangium, 

c. -«7i. 



E. spec. — Fig. 8. 

The figure represents all the material found, and I would not have men- 
tioned the plant if it had not shown so much likeness to another ■>-> Ectocarpus 
spec.» mentioned by Mme. Weber in the »Phaeophyceae of the Siboga»,p. 131. 



' Barton, Ethel S., List of Marine Algae collected at the Maldive and Laccadive Islands 
bv I. S. Gardiner (Journ. Linn. Soc.-Bot., vol. 35, p. 479)- 

2 Dickie, G., On the Algae of Mauritius (Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot., vol. 14, 1875, p. 191). 
jy — 2.!9i. r/!« Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



255 



F. BORGESEN 



The plant was attached to Nitophylhim spec. From the decumbent short 
filament, the long erect one arises. At the base the filament was 12 ;j. thick, 
somewhat higher up 19 [j., a litle above the sporangium 24 [j,. Along the 
intercalary growth-zone the width is about 23 a; from here the filament evenly 
tapers into a pseudo-hair like prolongation with cells about 15 a thick and 
80 [J. long. 

The plurilocular sporangium is ovate fusiform, 80 |j, long and 24 [j, broad. 
It was placed upon the basal cell of a short branch. In the plant of Mme. 
Weber the sporangia are sometimes sessile, sometimes placed upon a short 
pedicel. 

Fam. Ralfsiaceae. 
Mesospora Weber van Bosse. 

M. Vaii-Bosseae nov. spec' — Fig. 9. 

Thallus 2 — 3 cm et ultra altus e disco basali et filis erectis constructus. 
Discus basalis e filis repentibus coherentibus subdichotomo divisis compositus 
unde fila erecta oriuntur. Fila erecta in parte basali e cellulis latioribus quam 
altis et plus minus cohaerentibus stratum subparenchymaticum formantibus, in 
parte superior! libera, subclavata e cellulis cylindricis ca. 24 jj, longis et 8 — ii ;j. 
latis, ad apicem versus cellulis gradatim latioribus ad 16 [j. latas composita. 

Sporangia plurilocularia in superior! parte filorum formata. 

Through the great kindness of Mme. Weber I have been able to compare 
my plant with original material from the Siboga Expedition. 

By means of this and the detailed description of Mme. VVeber I have 
convinced myself that the plant from Easter Island, even if it agrees with 
the Malayan one in many respects, nevertheless differs essentially in others, 
making it necessary to regard it as a new species. 

The plant grows on stones to which it adheres firm!}- w ith its wholelower 
surface. It forms dark brown or nearly black crusts as much as 2 — 3 cm in 
diameter or even more. 

The basal part of our plant is formed of several brown layers of old 
decayed tissue, often including blue green algae, in transverse section presenting 
a picture very like that found in fig. 43 of Mme. Weber. 

I have succeeded in finding a small marginal portion, represented in 
fig. 9 b. It is composed of creeping,, congenital filaments growing in length by 
means of a top cell. By transverse walls these filaments are divided into more 
or less isodiametric cells. The filaments are about 10—15 [j. thick, the top-cell 
often 20 [JL or more. The filaments are radiant to all sides and by and by, as 
the disc expands and the width of the outermost ends of the filaments increases 
the cells show longitudinal walls, the filaments thus becoming dichotomously 
divided. 

At a very early stage erect filaments arise from every cell of the basal 
stratum. These erect filament grow- vertically, standing quite close together. 

^ I have the great plea.sure to name this species in honour of Mme. Dr. A. Weber v.w 
BossE, the indefatigable explorer of tiie algal flora of the, Malavan Ar.cliipelago. 



MARINE AI.C.AE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



259 



In the basal part the cells are broader than long and more or less coherent, 
forming a nearly parenchymatic tissue (Fig. 9 a). While this horizontal layer 
in Mme. Weher's plant is composed only of i — 4 layers of cells, ten or even 
more are not uncommon in my plant. The cells are considerably broader than 
long, ca. 18 |x broad and only 7 a high. The filaments composed of these cells 
are now and then dichotomously divided; generally they are vertical, but now 
and then parts of the tissue occur with curved filaments. 

Above this tissue the filaments become thinner and at the same time 
mutually free in their whole length. In this respect our plant difters essentially 




Fig. 9. Mesosfiora VanBosseae uov. spec, a transverse section of thallus, c. -^^\i\ b part of 
margin seen from above, c. '^/i; c assimilating filaments and hairs, c. ^^/i; d formation of 

plurilocular sporangia, c. -'"' 1. 



from that of Mme. W'eber, who describes her plant in the following way: »Les 
filaments verticaux, claviformes qui la composent ont de 10 — 20 cellules, ils 
sont libres dans la partie basale et mediane, mais adherent fortement entr'eux 
au sommet, convert d'une couche mucilagineuse assez epaisse». In our plant 
as explained above the basal parts of the filaments adhere rather firmly while 
upwards the filaments become quite free, only imbedded in mucilage. 

At the base of the free part of the filaments the cells are cylindrical and 
as much as 24 a long and 8 — 11 a wide; higher up the cells grow shorter, 
mostly broader than long, the width of the filaments being about 16 ;j.. 
The filaments consist of about 20—30 cells. Thus, they are a good deal 
longer than in Mcsospora ScJwiidtii: furthermore the shape of the cells is 



2 6o F. BORGESEN 

different, being nearly cylindrical with thin walls in our plant, while, in Mme. 
Weber's plant, they are barrelshaped and thickvvalled. 

Now and then groups of hairs occur (Fig, 9 c); the hairs are about 10 [i 
thick at the base and composed of cells longer than broad; their growth-zone 
lies a little below the surface of the thallus and consists of quite short cells, 
densely filled with protoplasm and chromatophores; thence the cells quickly 
become long and colourless. At their base the hairs are covered by a single 
or some few sheaths. 

Unilocular sporangia were not present. 

On the other hand I have found some structures (Fig. 9 d) in the upper 
end of the filaments, similar to those observed by Mme. Weber who regards 
them to be plurilocular sporangia. In my material they were not so regularly 
divided as in the Indian plant. They very much reminded of those found by 
me in Ralfsia expansa} In spite of a diligent search I have not succeeded 
in finding emptied plurilocular sporangia, but nevertheless I feel convinced that 
we have to do with such organs. 

By reason of the thick walls in Mesospora ScJunidtii a bursting of the 
wall takes place at the formation of the plurilocular sporangia as is easily seen 
in the drawings of Mme. Weber, in our plant with its thin walls such a 
bursting is not visible. 

The cells contain an irregularly lobed and bent plate-like chromatophore 
in which a single or two refractive pyrenoid-like bodies are present. In one 
of the specimens, sometimes in almost every filament, a cell with homogeneous, 
yellow brown contents was found. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Ralfsia Berk. 
R. expansa J. Ag. 

Agardh, J-, Spec. Alg., vol. i, p. 63. Borgesen, F., Two crustaceous brown 
algae from the Danish West Indies (Nuova Notarisia, Serie 23, 191 2, p. 123). 

The specimens found are not quite typically developed and I have hesitated 
to decide whether they are most naturally referable to R. verrucosa or to R. expansa. 
It must be remembered that Reinke, in »Algenflora» p. 48, mentions that he 
has found a marked bilaterality in specimens of R. verrucosa from Cherbourg. 

Now, a transverse section of one of the specimens found mostly showed 
no bilaterality at all while in the other specimen contained in the collection 
this character vas better developed, being often in good accordance with the 
figure of Mme. Weber. As compared with my West Indian specimens the 
Pacific ones had upon the whole a much thinner thallus. 

In one of the specimens unilocular sporangia were present; they were 
about 24 [J. broad and 65 [i long, in shape and size approaching those I have 
found in specimens from St. Thomas (1. c. fig. 2 a). At the base of the spo- 
rangia a small cell was present just as in the West Indian plant; as I have 



* Compare my figure 148 c in »Marine Algae of the D. W. !.», vol. I, p 191. 



MARINK AI.GAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



26 I 



pointed out (I. c.) this pedicel is not mentioned in the description of KUCKUCK ' 
nor figured in Rkinkk's Atlas, pi. 5 — 6; but it is present in IIakvev's figure 
in »Phycologia Brit.», pi. 98; this character is, perhaps, not a reliable one. 

Area of distribution: West Indies, Malayan Archipelago, Easter Island. 



Fani. Elachistaceae. 

Elachista(?) spec. — Fig. 10. 

On an old basal part of a Sargassum{>) a small brown alga was found 
which might perhaps be referred to the genus ElacJiisia as it shows a good 




Fig. 10. E/achistaQ) spec. Fragments wiili assimilatorv filaments, mature and eniptv pluri- 
locular sporangia; in b the basal part of a hair. C. ^^''/i. 



deal of likeness to Elachista rosarioides and E. pusilla described by Skotts- 
BERG in Bot. Ergebn. d. schvved. Exp. nach Patagonien und dem Feuerland, 
1907—9, VIII. Marine Algae, i. Phaeophyceae, p. 21—23. 

The plant forms small tufts. The basal part is endophytic, consisting of 
thin-walled, more or less barrel-shaped cells, about 15 [j. wide and of almost 
the same length. 

From the basal part arise hairs, long assimilating filaments, and shorter 
fertile branches. 

The assimilating filaments are rather thin at their base, about 4 — 7 a, 
with cells up to 30 {i long. Upwards the thickness increases to about 12 — 18 [x; 
at the same time the cells are proportionally shorter as they mostly keep the 

^ KucKUCK, P., Bemerkiingen zur marinen Algenvegetation von Helgoland, I, p. 244. 



262 F. BORGESEN 

same length as found in the thinner part of the filament. In the young yet 
growing filaments the zone of cell division lies a little above their base, where 
shorter cells with rich contents are observed. The cells contain a number of 
roundish, oval, discformed chromatophores. The length of the vegetative fila- 
ments is about 300 jx. 

The fructiferous filaments are branched from their base and composed of very 
irregular thin-walled cells. These cells are more or less pear shaped, thin below 
and broadly rounded above, where often several branches are given off. The 
cells are about 8 — 12 [x broad and 20 |j. long. F'rom the uppermost of these 
cells the plurilocular sporangia arise. The sporangia are almost cylindrical, 
uniseriate, about 8 ix thick and up to 200, generally 150 [i- long. The remains 
of empty sporangia are long preserved. When a sporangium is emptied a new 
one is formed at the side of the other one, and one cell may often bear 5 — 6 
or more emptied sporangia besides a sporiferous one. 

Unilocular sporangia were not observed. Hairs occur, but were not common. 

As mentioned above the present plant seems to show some likeness to the 
Elac/ns/a-iovms, described by Skottsberg.^ Also the Easter Island plant is 
more or less endophytic and shows no difference between assimilating filaments 
and paraphyses, contrary to E. fucicola. Particularly it seems to agree with a 
plant from Station 17 b of SkottsberG (fig. 10 c) but differs by the narrower 
sporangia and the more cylindrical vegetative cells. Further, the assimilating 
filaments in the plant from the Easter Island are shorter. 

It cannot be denied that the present plant shows a striking likeness to 
Myriactis moniliformis (Fosl.) Kylin, and highly favours the supposition of 
Skottsberg that all these forms, even if they do not belong to one genus, 
must be regarded as nearly related to each other. 



Fam. Encoeliaceae. 
Colpomenia Derb. et Sol. 

C. sinuosa (Roth) Derb. et Sol. 

Derbes, a., and A. I. I. Solier, Memoire sur quelques points de la Physio- 
logie des Algues, p. 11 (here incorrectly called sinuata)\ Borgesen, Mar. Algae of 
the D. W. I., vol. I, p. 176. — Ulva sinuosa Roth. Catalecta Botanica, III, p. 327, 
tab. XII. 

Some few large specimens were present in the collection. They were 
fertile with plurilocular sporangia in irregular groups scattered over the surface 
of the thallus, as in the West Indian specimens. Still, there are some points 
of difference. For instance, I have not been able to find any club-shaped para- 
physes so nicely developed in the West Indian form (comp. my fig. 138) and 
described by MlTCllELL in Murray's Phycological Memoirs, p. 53. 

Further, according to MiTCIIELL and my own observations the plurilocular 
sporangia are formed round the cryptostomata, while in the material from 

''■ Professor SKorrsBERG kindly sent nie some slides of these species so I have been able 
to compare mv plant with tlie authentic material. 



MARINE AI.GAK KkCJM EASIKR ISLAN'I) 



263 



lOaster Island the sori do not seem to be lestriclcd to the vicinity of these but 
are formed everywhere on the surface of the thallus. Otherwise, the Pacific 
specimens agree very well with West Indian ones. 

Area of distribution: Widely spread in all warmer seas. 



Ilydroclathrus Hory 



II. canccllatiis Bory 



Bury, Diet, class. VIII, p. 419. Harvk\, Phycologia Australica, pi. 98; Nereis, 
p. 120, tab. IX A. Thurkt et Bornkt, fitudes phycologiqiies, 1878, p. 12. Mit- 
CHELi,, M. in Ml RRAV, Phycol. Memoirs, p. 53. 

The specimens found agree very well with West Indian plants. The 
thallus consists of a medulla of large roundish-polygonal cells, and a small- 
celled cortex. Where two strings of the network come into contact the epider- 
mal cells grow out in a rhizoid-like fashion, uniting in this way different parts 
of the net work of the thallus. Compare my fig. 139, 1. c. The material was 
sterile. 

Area of distribution: Seems to occur in all warm seas. 



Chnoospora J. Ag. 



C. fastigiata J. 

I'ig. II, 12. 



Ag. var. pacifica J. Ag. 



Agardh, J., Spec. Alg., vol. i, 1848, p. 171. — 
Chnoospora pacijica J. Ag., Nya alger fran Mexico (Ofvers. 
K. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh., 1847, P- ?)• 

Some small specimens of a brown alga, richly 
provided with cryptostomata, from which long hairs 
protrude giving the plant a nearly moniliform appea- 
rance, seem to be referable to the genus Chnoospoia 
as a small form of CJin. fastigiata var. pacijica. 

The largest specimen was about 6 cm high, 
the others 4 to 5. The plant is fastened to the 
substratum by means of a rather large irregularly 
shaped disc from which the erect shoots arise. 

The ramification is mostly dichotomous, some- 
times tri-polychotomous but rather irregular, with 
the whole branch system more or less fastigiate, 
even if a tendency to lie in the same plane is rather 
obvious. 

In the basal part the branches are about i mm 
thick, rarely more, higher up thinner. The thallus is a pj^ 




1 1 . Chnoospora fastigiata 



little compressed, the transverse section being oval. J. Ag. Part of a plant, c. -/i 



264 



F. BORGESEN 



Scattered over tlie whole surface there are cryptostomata, generally rather 
shallow depressions, from the bottom of which hairs grow out to form rather 
long and dense, brushlike tufts. The blunt summit of the thallus has no hair- 
groups contrary to Skottsberg's Cladochroa. 

A transverse section of the thallus (Fig. 12 d) exhibits a cortical layer of 
oblong or short cylindrical cells, having nearly the same aspect on a longitudinal 
section; the parenchymatic tissue inside consists of rather thickwalled cells, 
oblong to subcylindrical in longitudinal, more sphaerical in transverse sections. 




Fig. 12. Chnoospoia fastigiata J. Ag. a Transverse section of the thallus with plLirilociUar 

sporangia and hairs, c. ■*°"/i5 ^ longitudinal section of apex of a branch, c. ^"^"/i; c longitudinal 

section of thallus, c. '*" 1; d transverse section of thallus, c. ""/'■ 



In the growth-point no marked top cell is present. As figure 12 b shows, 
the longitudinal growth takes place by means of a series of cells at the apex 
of the filaments, the lower part of these cells being gradually cut off. 

The figure of the growth point in our plant is very like those of Scyto- 
thammis australis and Coilodesine bulligera (comp. Oltmanns, Morphologie und 
Biologie der Algen, vol. II, 1922, p. 62) as drawn by KUCKUCK and found 
among his posthumous prepatory notes to the great work on the Phaeophyceae 
that was never completed, much to the regret of all ajgologists. According 
to Oltmanns the notes of Kuckuck regarding this matter are quite frag- 
mentary. 



MAUINK ALGAE FKOM EASTER ISLAND 



26 = 



As to the fructification this has been cleared up long ago by the late 
Mrs. Gepp.' The plurilocular sporangia (Fig. 12 a) are formed around the 
trichostomata; the surface cells grow out to cylindrical or somewhat clavate 
bodies which are divided by transverse walls into small cells in which the 
gametes are formed. 

Area of distribution: C/inoospoia fastigiata has been found in several 
localities in the Pacific and on the coast of Venezuela in the Atlantic Ocean. 



F'am. Sphacelariaceae. 

Sphacelaria spec. 

Only some few sterile filaments, even without propagula, were observed; 
thev cannot be determined. 



Fam. Dictyotaceae. 
Dictyopteris Lamx. 

D. repens (Okamura). — Fig. 13. 

Haliseris repe/is Okamura, List of Marine Algae collected in Caroline and 
Marianne Islands, 1915 '^Bot. Magaz., vol. 30, 1916, p. 8, pi. i, figs. 7 — 18). 

This pretty little plant was found creeping upon the base of Galaxaiira 
paschalis and other algae. The specimens found seem to correspond very well 
with the description of Oka- 
.MURA. The thallus consists 
of two layers of cells except 
in the midrib (Fig. 13 a); a 
sclerenchymatic rib along the 
margin of the thallus, as found 
in D. delicatula, is not present 
here. Besides this difference 
it further differs from the West 
Indian plant, to which it other- 
wise shows a great resem- 
blance, by the fact that the 
hair-groups, well developed 
and regularly scattered in the West Indian plant, are mostly wanting in the 
Pacific one or, when present, poorly developed and placed without order. 

Rhizoids like those in the W. I. plant are frequent; they grow out from 
the midrib and from the margin of the thallus. The rhizoids have a long stalk 
composed of cells about 100 a long and 33 [x broad being somewhat narrowed 
at the cross walls. They end in a small coralliform disc. 

Unfortunately all the material was sterile. 

Area of distribution: Pacific Ocean 




Fig. 13. Dictyopteris repens (Okam.) Cro.ss sections of 
thallus, a through the midrib, b through margin, c. ^""/i- 



1 Bartox, Ethel S., On the fruit of Chnoospora fastigiata J. Ag. (Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. 
vol. 53, 1897/8, p. 507, pi. 28). 



266 



F. BORGESEN 



Zonaria Drapern. 

Z. variegata (Lamx.) Mert. — Fig. 14. 

Mertens in Martius, Icones plant, cryptog , p. 6, tab. 11, fig. 11. Richards, 
H. M., Notes on Zonaria variegata Lamx. (Proc. of the Amer. Acad, of Arts and 
Sciences, 1890). Sauvageau, C, Observations sur quelques Dictyot. et sur iin 
Aglaozonia nouveaii (Bull, de la Station biol. d'Arcachon, 8 annee, 1904 — 05). 
BoRGESEN, F., Marine Alg. D. W. I., \ol. I, p. 197. — Dictyota voriegafa Lamx., 
Essai, p. 57, tab. V, figs. 7 — 9. Gymnosorus variegatus (Lamx.) J. Ag., Analecta 
algol., cont. I, p. II, 1894. 

The specimens collected agree very well with those from the West Indies. 
They are 7 — 8 cm in diameter or even more; when dried they have a dark 
nearly black-brown colour and their consistency is tough and rather stiff. 




n 






^^S 




Fig. 14. Zonaria yarzifoa/a (Lamx.) Mert. a, b transverse sections, c. '"/i : a radial, b tangential; 
c npper surface of tliallus, seen from above, c. ^""/i. 



The thallus is about 150 — 200 jx thick. When examined from above the 
epidermal cells are seen to be arranged very regularly in rows (Fig. 14 c). The 
marginal rows consist of rather long rectangular cells, but these cells become 
soon divided by longitudinal and transverse walls into smaller cells, each row 
gradually getting composed of from two to four rows of small cells. These 
cells have rounded corners and are filled with chromatophores. 



MARINK ALGAK FROM KASTKR ISLAND 267 

The epidermal layer on the lower side of the thallus is also composed of 
long rows of cells, but here the cells mostly remain undivided or they become 
divided now and then by a longitudinal wall into two cells, and many of the 
cells are not divided at all. The rows of rectanf;ular cells, longer than broad, 
are upon the whole much more distinct here than on the upper side. 

Fig. 14 a shows a radial transverse section of the thallus. The large cells 
in the centre are about 60 (j, high and 80 (j. broad. On the upper side 3—4 
or even more flat cells are cut of. The uppermost of these cells are divided 
into smaller cells, forming the epidermal layer. From the lower side of the 
large cells also 3—4 cells are cut off; the lowermost, especially the epidermal 
ones, are again divided into smaller cells though fewer than in the epidermal 
layer above. 

A tangential section of the thallus (Fig. 14 b) shows that the width of the 
cells in each layer is only about half of that found in the radial section, and 
the vertical walls are seen to be more or less distinctly undulated. 

From the epidermal cells below numerous rhizoids grow out having the 
same moniliform appearance as those in the West Indian plant, and terminated 
by a coralliform disc. Scattered hairs occur in small groups on the upper side. 

The specimens are sterile, 

Ralfsia ceylanica Harv., described and figured by Mrs. Gepp^ was later 
regarded by Mrs. and Mr. Gepp^ as a creeping form of Zonaria variegata. 
After having seen the rather thick form from Easter Island, I feel inclined to 
adopt this view. In an earlier paper ^ I referred it to Aglaozonia canariensis 
Sauvag , which is, in several respects, very similar. 

Area of distribution: Seems to occur in all warmer seas. 

Z. crenata J. Ag. 

J. Agardh, Till Algernes Systematik (Lunds Univers. Arsskr., T. IX, 1872, p. 48). 

- ' A single large specimen is contained in the collection. As expressed by 
J. Agardh (I. c.) this species takes an intermediar position between Zonana 
flava and Z. Turneriana, a view confirmed by the Easter Island specimen. 

The specimen was sterile. 

Area of distribution: West Austraha, Malayan Archipelago etc. 

Earn. Fucaceae. 

Sargassutn Ag. 

S. nov. spec, to be described by L. G. SjOSTEDT in a separate paper. 
Very common, forming extensive associations in the lower litoral region. 
Area of distribution: Endemic. 



1 B.-VRTON, E. S., List of Marine Algae collected at the Maldive and Laccadive Islands by 
f. S. Gardiner (Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot., vol. 5s). 

\6 ,- 2 Marine Algae and Marine Phanerogams of the >>Sealark» Expedition (Transactions ot 
the Linnean Soc. of London, 2. Ser., Zool , vol. XII, part 4, 1909). 

.,u ;■ » BoRGESEN, F., Two crustaceous brown algae from the Danish West Indies (Nuova 
Notarisia, Serie 23, 1912). 



2 68 F. BORGESEN 

Rhodophyceae. 

Fani. Bangiaceae. 

Goniotrichuin Kiitz. 

G. elegans (Chauv.) Le Jolis. 

Le Joijs, Alg. mar. Cherb., p. 103. Rosenvinge, L. Kolderup, 'I'he marine 
of Algae of Denmark, Part 1. 1909, p. 75, where literature, synonyms etc. are also quoted. 

Of this species some smaller specimens are found growing epiphytic upon 
Herposip]io)iia tcnella. 

The specimens seem to agree very well with the description and figures 
of Rosenvinge. In a few of the filaments several rows of cells occurred quite 
in accordance with the figures D. and E. of this author. 

Area of distribution: Europe, Mediterranean Sea, Maroc, West Indies, 
Peru, Easter Island. 

Erythrotrichia Areschoug. 

E. carnea (Dillw.) J. Ag. 

J. Agardh, Till Algernes Systematik, VI, Ulvaceae (Lunds Univ. Arsskrift, vol. 
XIX, 1883, P- ^5)- Rosenvinge, Mar. Algae of Denmark, part i, 1909, p. 67. — 
Cojiferva carnea Dillwyn, Brit. Conf., 1809, j)l. 84. Conferva ceramicola- Lyngb , 
Hydrophytol., 1819, p. 144, pi. 48 D. Bangia ceramicola Chauvin, Recherch. sur 
Torg. de plus. genr. d'Algues, Caen 1842, p. 29 — 30; Harvey, Phycol. Brit., pi. 317. 
ErytJirotricJiia ceramicola Aresch., Phyc. Scand., 1850, p. 210; Le Jolis, Alg. mar. 
Cherb., 1880, p 103, pi. 3, figs, i — 2; Berthold, G, Die Bangiaceen des Golfes 
von Neapel, 1882, p. 25. 

Some small specimens are found epiphytic on Jania tenella and CaUitham- 
nion pascJiale. The plants seem to be in good accordance with the description 
of Ro.SENViNGE, 1. c. The filaments are about 24 [x thick. Their base was 
quite like the figure of Ro.SENVlNGE (1. c. fig. 8). The cells were mostly rather 
short, rarely longer than wide. 

The spore-formation takes place in the well-known manner by means of 
an oblique wall at the upper end of the cells. 

Area of distribution: Atlantic coast of Europe and North America, 
Mediterranean Sea, Maroc, West Indies, West coast of North America etc. 

Erythrocladia Rosenv. 

E. subintegra Rosenv. 

Rosenvinge, L. Kolderup, The marine Algae of Denmark, Part I, 1909. p. 73. 

Specimens quite like RoSENVlNGE's figure of older plants and young ones 
like those I have figured (Marine Algae of D. VV. I., vol. II, p. 7—9, fig. 3 a, b) 
were found on CladopJiora spec, mentioned above, p. 249. 

Area of distribution: Denmark, West Indies, etc. Most probably widely 
spread. 



MAKINK ALGAK KROM EASTER ISLAND 



269 



E. vagans nov. spec. — Fig. 15. 

Thallus divaricatiis in sii[)erficie corticis hospitis [Cyuoriclla spec.) vage 
circumrepens. e filamentis inegulariter ramosis composilus. 

Ramificatio aut alterna aut sccunda, longa parte filamentoruni nuda. 

Cellulis aut cylindricis, ca. 4— ; latis ct 30 a vel ultra longis, aut magis 
iiregulariter formatis, curvatis sinu- 
osis, raro furcatis. 

Chroniatophora parietalia lo- 
bata. 

Sporangia fere rotundata, ca. 
4 [I, lata. 

The plant (Fig. 15) described 
here was found on a sterile crust of 
a Ciiioriclla. It creeps divaricately 
in the thick epidermal walls of the 
host forming, when systems ot 
branches from different plants meet, 
a more or less dense network above 
the cells of the host. 

The filaments are irregularly 
ramified sending out a side branch 
now and then at both sides (Fig. 
1 5 c). The branches are sometimes 
alternate, sometimes more secund; 
often a branch is borne by ever\- 
cell in the filament, often, too, long 
series of cells are destitute of 
branches. The filaments have apical 
growth; when the apical cell has 
reached some length it is divided 
by a transverse wall into two cells. 

The cells sometimes are quite 
or almost cylindrical, about 4 — 5 u. 
broad and often more than 30 u. 
long, but oftener very irregular in 
shape, curved, sinuated, even sub- 
furcate. In the cells a well developed 
parietal, lobed chromatophore is 

present, now and then leaving a space free; no pyrenoids were observed with 
certaint}-. 

The sporangia (Fig. 15 c, d, e) are cut off from the vegetative cells by 
means of an oblique curved wall, in accordance with the description of RoSEN- 
VINGE. As the figure shows, the formation of the sporangia takes place both 
in the apical cell and in the intercalary cells; in one case the outgrowth of a 
sinuated cell had become transformed into a sporangium (Fig. 15 d). The 
spores are roundish, or somewhat flattened on one side and measure about 4 a 




Fig. 15. Erythrocladia vagans nov. spec, a and b 
parts of the thallus, c.-'^7>; c, d and e parts of fila- 
ments witli sporangia, c. ■*•'*'/]. 



270 F. P.ORGESEN 

in diameter; the colour is denser and more deeply red than in the sterile cells, 
and no chromatophore could be distinguished. 

The dried plant has a fine rose colour. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

E. Laurenciae no v. spec. — Fig. 16. 

Thallus suborbicularis, e filamentis irregulariter radiantibus et ramosis 
compositus, in circuitu thalli inter se liberis, in media parte plus minus con- 
natis. Ramificatio aut alterna, aut secunda sat irregularis. 

Cellulae oblongae-subcylindricae, 4 — 5 jx latae et 8 — 10—12 \i. longae. 




Fig. 16. Ervthrocladia Laiireticiae nov. spec. Parts of tliallus; in a the tissue of the host is 

visible. C. ^«7). 

In the thick epidermal walls o{ Laii rendu claviforniis another representative 
of the genus ErytJirocladia was found. 

The plant has long ramose filaments with apical growth and these fila- 
ments radiate from the centre in all directions covering a more or less extensive 
area, probably as much as i mm across. 

The ramification is rather irregular, lateral or alternate. In some specimens 
it happens that the alternate branching is so regular that the branch with its 
branchlets gets a pennate appearance. In the centre of the plant the filaments 
gradually combine to form a more or less coherent layer (Fig. 16 a). 

The cells are oblong-subcylindrical, often a little curved so that the fila- 
ments get sinuated; cells 4 — 5 ;j. wide and generally 2 — 2^/2 times as long. 
In the older parts of the thallus the cells get proportionally shorter and thicker, 
8 — 10 jj. wide and about as long or a little more. They contain an irregularly 
lobed parietal chromatophore with one or sometimes two pyrenoids. 

In some instances a roundish cell were found cut off from mother cell 
by an oblique wall. Such cells having more dense and homogeneous contents 



MAUINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 27 I 

than the vegetative cells I regard them as asexual sporangia. They are about 
5 jj. in diameter. 

E. Laurcuciac comes near the preceding one but differs by its shorter and 
proportionally thicker cells, by its richer ramification and by the development 
of a coherent layer in the centre of the thallus. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Fani . 1 1 e 1 m i n t h o c 1 a d i a c e a e. 

Acrochaetiuni Naeg. 

A. (Chaiitransia) monilifornie Rosenv. — Fig. 17 a. 
R0SF.NVINGK, L. KoLDERUP, Mar. Algae of Denmark, Part I, ]>. gg. 

The enormous distance between Easter Island and the original locality 
certainl)' aroused some doubt as to the identity; still, the few specimens observed 
seem to answer so well to the description and figures of RoSENVlNGK that it 
seems natural to bring them to his species. 

From the basal spore, that does not differ much from other cells, several 
filaments arise. The cells are swollen in their middle, about 10 — ii \}. long and 
8-9 |i wide. In one of the plants a long hair was found. The cell contents 
was very dense; the pyrenoids situated a little above the centre of the cells 
suggest a stellate chromatophore. 

The plants are epiphytic on Dktyopteris repens. 

Regarding the affinities between this species and Acrochaetiuin cateimlatuni 
Howe^ or A. crassipes Borgs.^, compare Howe's and my own remarks 11. cc. 

Area of distribution: Denmark, Easter Island. 

A. discoideuni nov. spec. — Fig. 17 b — d. 

Thallus epiphyticus, caespitosus, usque ad 300 {j, altus. Pars basalis disci- 
formis, uni.stratosa substrato (d: foliis Sargassi) firme adhaerens, e fills repentibus 
ramosis, initio inter se discretis, postea plus minus confluentibus constructa. 

Cellulae filorum repentium irregulariter curvatae aut plus minus tumidae, 
lat. 3— 4 [x, long. 9— I2[j<, diametro triplo fere longiores. 

Fila erecta, e disco basali orta, simplicia, stricta, usque ad 200 — 300 [x et 
ultra alta, superne gradatim in pseudopila transformata, e cellulis cylidricis ca. 
6—8 [i latis et (in parte basali) ca. 15 (X longis composita. 

Sporangia oblonge-ovata aut in disco sessilia aut pedicellata, ca. 11 — i3[j. 
longa et 6 — 8 [x lata. 

This species was found on a leaf of a dried specimen of Sargassiim, whose 
surface it nearly covers. The basal layer spreads widely over the surface of 
the substratum to which it is firmly attached. A single plant may reach more 



' Howe, M. A., Mar. Algae of Peru, p. 84. 

« BoRGESEN, P., Marine Algae of the D. W. I., vol. II, p. 20. 



272 



F. BORGESEN 



than ^!i mm in diameter, perhaps even more, but it is difficult to tell the exact 
size as the plants gradually get fused together. 

The basal layer is composed of irregularly ramose filaments which are 
free at the margin, otherwise forming a monostroniatic disc. The disc cells 
measure 3 — 4 [x across and 9-12 [j, in length; often they are curved and bent. 

From this basal layer erect long assimilating filaments and sporangia 

arise. 

The assimilating filaments are simple, straight and composed of cells about 
6 — 8 [J- wide and 15 ^ long in the lower part; upwards the cells grow longer 




Fig. 17. a Acrochaetium moiiiliforme Rosenv., a single plant with sporangia (two emptied) and 

a hair, c. *"°/i. b — d A. discoideiim nov. spec: b, c sections through plants, in c the superficial 

cells of the host; d part of horizontal disc; all c. ^"7'- 



and become almost, colourless. The assimilating filaments attain a length of 
about 200 — 300 |j.. 

The sporangia are sometimes sessile, sometimes pedicellate. They are 
oblong ovate, about 11 — 13 ^ lo"g ^""^ 6—'^ [a across. 

Regarding the cell contents this was in a bad condition, the material 
having been dried, but the chromatophore seems to be parietal with a parietal 
pyrenoid. 

This species must be compared with Chantransia Icptonctiia and Ch. rc- 
ducta of ROSENVINGE, both exhibiting about the same mode of growth but 
differing materially in other respects from A. discoidcuiii. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



MARINE AI.GAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



273 



A. Ralfsiae nov. spec. — Fig. 18, 19. 

Thalius caespitulosus, V2 — i mm altus, e fills endophyticis robustioribus 
iiioniliformibus et fills erectis liberls tenuiorlbus compositus. 

Flla endophytlca Inter assimilatores hospltls (Ralfsiae expansae) immersa, 
ramosa, plus minus aggregata, e celhills subgloboslsovallbus, long. 20 — 22 »j., 
lat. 16 — 20 \i. composlta. 

Fila libera erecta versus apicem gradatim attenuata, e cellulls cylindricis, 
7 [X latis et 18 — 20 — 27 \i. longis composlta, statim a basi sparse et irregulariter 
ramosa. Rami aut longiores pluricellulares, aut unicellulares sporangiferl. 

Sporangia oblonge-lanceolata, 9— i2;j- lata et 17 — 20 jx longa. 




Hg. 18. Acrochaetiitm Ralfsiae nov. spec. Basal parts, in a immersed into the tissue of the 

host. C. »«°,i. 



On a dried specimen of Ralfsia expansa this AcrocJiaetiiun was growing 
in great numbers, having a vigorously developed basal part of the thalius im- 
bedded in the tissue of the host plant. 

This endophytic basal part (Fig. 18 a and 19 a) consists of large cells 
mostly as long as broad or a little longer; their diameter is 20 [J.; they are 
often swollen in the middle, the endophytic filaments thereby getting a monill- 
form appearance. The cell wall is very thick. The filaments are as a rule 
vertically arranged, the branches growing out at acute angles and more or less 
parallel with each other, but often also somewhat bent, finally forming a bundle 
in the tissue of the host. Arrived at the surface or a little above the fila- 
ments quickly decrease in size at the same time generally developing a few 
side branches. 

The filaments in the free part of the plant are about 7 u. thick and the 

cells 20—27 a long. The filaments now and then carry a side-branch, but as 

a rule they are not much branched. The branches are sometimes seriate but 

mostly without any order. Some of the branches may grow out to long filaments 

iS — 2J91. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



274 



F. BORGESEN 




Fig. 19. Acrochaethan Ralfsiae nov. spec, a plants 
wiih sporangia, c. "°/i; b a branch, c. ^""/i. 



like the mother filament, but mo.st 
of them remain short consisting 
of a single cell with a terminal 
sporangium. 

The sporangia are oblong- 
lanceolate, 9—12 |j. thick and 
17 — 20 |j. long. 

The filaments taper a little 
toward their summit; most of 
them end in a broadly rounded 
cell, but some are narrowed 
into a pseudo-hair-like cell, 
which is 40 — 50 [J. long or even 
longer and only i a thick near 
the tip. 

The length of the whole 
plant is about '/g — i mm. 

The cells contain a well de- 
veloped parietal chromatophore 
with a large parietal pyrenoid. 

By its more or less den- 
sely clustered endophytic fila- 
ments the West Indian Acr. pJia- 
celorhizjwi reminds somewhat of 
this species, but in all other 
respects it differs widely. 

Area of distribution: En- 
demic. 



Fam. Chaetangiaceae. 



Galaxaura J. Ag. 



Sectio I. Rhodura Kjellm. 

G. collabens J. Ag. — Fig. 20, 

J. Ag.-\rdh, Till Algernes Systematik, VII, p. 74. Kjellmax, F. R., Om Floride- 
Slagtet Galaxaura, p. 46. 

Some rather large specimens (Fig. 20 a), 6—7 cm high, densely covered 
with short assimilating filaments are referable to this species as being in good 
accordance with the description of KjELLMAN. 

The assimilating filaments are evenly distributed over the surface of the 
thallus. The plant is irregularly subdichotomously ramified, the joints being 
of rather variable length, i — I V2 cm long or more, sometimes as much as 
3 cm long ace. to KjELLMAN. The thallus is terete, often a little thickened 
toward the apex, the uppermost joints becoming slightly clavate. 



MARINK ALGAE FROM EASTKR ISLAND 



275 



The plant is richl\- incrusted with lime; in the dried specimens the branch 
ends collapse. 

The colour of the dried plant is a dark red-brown. 

The short assimilating filaments usually consist of 3 cells, but 4 cells are 
not uncommon: compare h'ig. 20b, a character to which KjEL.LMAX attaches 
much importance. Ihe basal cells in the filaments are spherical, about 50 a 
across, or a little longer than broad; the following cells gradually decrease to 
about 20 [A. 

In the long assimilating filaments the basal cells have nearly the same 
size as those in the short filaments; in the cylindrical part the cells are about 
16 [i thick and i ^/2 — 2 times as long, and slightly constricted at the cross walls. 





Fig. 20. GalaxaiiJ'a collabens J. Ag. a part of specimen, c. ^/i; b assimilating filaments with 

tetrasporangia, c. ^^''/i- 

The plant is tetrasporic. The tetrasporangia (Fig. 20 bj are mostly terminal 
on the long assimilating filaments; but now and then lateral occur, developed 
from the subterminal cells. The tetrasporangium is nearly spherical in shape, 
its diameter being 32 a. 

Most likely this plant is tJie tetrasporic form of the follozK.iitg one. 

Area of distribution: West Australia, Easter Island, 



Sectio II. Microthoe Dene, J. Ag. 



G. spec. — Fig. 21, 22. 

A rather large form, about 10 cm high, forming a rounded, but rather 
open bush. 

F>om the broad basal disc a great number of branches arise. They are 
irregularly subdichotomously divided with joints of very variable length. The 



276 



F. BORGESEN 




Fig. 21. Galaxmn-a spec, part of specimen, c. l-s/i. 



plant is strongly incrusted with lime. The thallus is terete and the surface is in 

parts nearly glabrous, but mostly covered by short stiff reddish assimilating 

filaments scattered evenly and densely over the surface, no annulation being visible. 

The colour of the dried plant is when denudate a greyish-green while the 

parts covered with assimilating fila- 
ments have a sordid red-brown tinge.. 
In the spirit material the whole thallus 
is, as said above, terete while in the 
dried material the youngest parts col- 
lapse. 

The transverse section shows that 
the medullary tissue consists of thick- 
walled filaments more or less subdicho- 
tomously branched and woven together. 
Their diameter varies round 12 \x, but 
thinner and thicker ones are present. 
Innermost the peripheric tissue 
(Fig. 22) is composed of large roundish 
or irregularly lobed cells, carrying quite 
short, often dichotomously branched 
filaments of 2 — 3 cells. The lower cells 
of these branches are larger and about 




Fig. 22. Galaxaw-a spec, (same as in fig. 21). 
Cross section of thallus showing short assimilat- 
ing filaments, c. 2*71. 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



277 



spherical, while the peripheric ones are short, more or less triangular in trans- 
verse section, seen from above 5 — 7-angled and densely united. Now and then 
short assimilating filaments grow out from the peripheral cells. These filaments 
reach a length of about 250 [j.; they are composed of 7 — 10—15 cells, 25 — 30(j. 
long and about 16 — 18 \). thick. 

In one of the dried specimens cystocarps were present, what agrees with 
Howe's statement that all forms belonging to the group Microtho'c are either 
antheridial or cystocarpic, while the corresponding tetrasporic plant is to be 
found in the group Rliodiira. 

Therefore it is highly probable tJiat this plant is iwthing else than the 
sexual form of the preceding species. 



Sectio III. Brachycladia Sonder. 



G. paschalis nov. spec. — Fig. 23 — 25, 

Galaxaura frutescens, 56 cm alta e ra- 
mis erectis, teretibusque a disco basali ortis 
composita. Raini in parte basali subnudi dein 
fills assimilatoribus longis distincte in verti- 
cillas ca. 5 mm latas dispositis instructi, su- 
perne subglabri, subdichotome ramosi, arti- 
culati, articulis longitudine variabili 5 — 8 mm 
longis. 

In parte basali ramorum axis centralis 
e filamentis irregulariter ramosis et inter se 
contextis composita exstat; tela peripherica e 
filis aut longis aut brevibus constructa; fila 
longa cylindrica e cellulis 24 [j. crassis et 80 [j. 
longis composita, fila brevia e 3—6 cellulis 
basalibus majoribus oblongis versus apicem 
minoribus et subsphaericis constructa; in su- 
periori parte ramorum tela peripherica e cel- 
lulis oblongo-subcylindricis formata est. 

This plant belongs to the group Brachy- 
cladia of KjELLMAN. Fig. 23 represents part 
of the thallus. 

The erect shoots arise from a broad basal 
disc and reach a heigth of about 5 — 6 cm. 
Just as in the other species of this group, the 
lower and upper parts of the thallus are 
different as regards both outer appearance 
and anatomical structure. 

The lower stemlike portion is i*/2 — 2 cm 
high in our species; it is ornated with long 
hairs nicely arranged in discriminate whorls; 




Fig. 23. Galaxaura paschalis nov. spec 
part of specimen, c. 7'- 



278 



F. BORGESEN 



the upper, well developed whorls are often more than 5 mm broad; downwards 
the hairs gradually die away and fall off. 

This basal part, always unbranched it appears, bears the glabrous repeatedly 
subdichotomous upper part of the thallus. It is terete and jointed, with joints 
of varying length, from 5 to 8 mm. At the summit and also at the ends of 
the joints now and then a more or less well developed whorl of hairs is present. 




Fig. 24. Galaxaura paschalis nov. spec, a— b fragments of thallus with short (a, c. ''"^/i) ami 
long (b, c. ^''Vi) assimilating filaments; c cross section in the upper part of a branch, c. ''*7'- 



The anatomy of the basal part (Fig. 24 a, b) reminds very much of what 
we find in the group Rhodura. The whorls consist of long assimilating fila- 
ments with shorter ones intermingled. The short assimilating filaments (Figs. 
24 a, 25) are composed of 3 — 4 or more roundish oval cells; the uppermost are 
smallest, almost spherical or a little longer than broad, about 20 — 25 ji thick, 
the lowermost oblong and much larger, up to 60 tj. thick. The long assimilating 
filaments (Fig. 24 b) have basal cells of nearly the same shape as those found 
in the short ones; the cylindrical part consists of cells about 24 jjl thick and 
80 (J. long. They have rather thick walls and are only very little narrowed at 
the cross walls. 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



!79 



The stem portions between the hair whorls consist of short assimilating 
filaments only. In the uppermost glabrous part of the thallus the structure of 
the peripheric tissue is quite different (Fig. 24 c). It is composed of oblong- 
subcylindrical cells, about 60 (x long and 24 [i broad and closely packed together. 
The tissue in the interior of the whole thallus is composed of long irregularly 
bent subdichotomous filaments woven together. 

0( species with terete thallus only one, G. Icnta. is listed by KjELLMAN 
in his work of Galaxaum. The present species is quite different. With regard 
to the basal part our plant looks rather like G. arborca Kjellm., but in other 
respects this species differs greatly from the present one. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 




Fio-. 25. Galaxaiira paschalis nov. spec. Short and long assimilating filaments, c. ''"/i. 



Fam. Gelidiaceae. 



Gelidium Lamour. 



G. pusilluiii (Stackh.) Le Jolis. — F'ig. 26. 

Le Jolis, Liste, p. 139. — Gelidium repens Okanuira in Bot. Mag., vol. 13, 
1S99, p. 7, pi. II, figs. 5 — 8. 

This small plant, well known from the coast of Europe, has been found 
by Okamura at the coasts of Japan and Australia and was at first regarded 
by him as a new species. But in a later paper: List of marine Algae collected 
in Caroline Islands and Australia (Bot. Mag., vol. 18, 1904, p. 86-87) Okamura 
rightly referred his species to G. piisillum. 

Quite as is the case with the plant of Okamura the plant from the Easter 



K. BORGESEN 



'^ '^^ /^ Island is most like the form called 

Acrocarpus piisillus by KUTZING in 
his »Tabulae», vol. i8, pi. 37, and not 
Acrocarpus pnlvinatus. The Easter 
Island specimen grew on a small shell 
and was two — three mm high. The 
creeping rhizome-like part ofthe thallus 
was terete and about 1 1 ti thick. Is was 
firmly attached to the substratum by 
means of vigorous rhizoids deeply sunk 
into the shell. Opposite the rhizoids, 
from the upper side ofthe rhizome, erect 
leaf-like shoots grow out, at first single, 
later often more or less cespitose. 

Tetrasporangia are formed in the 
tips of the leaf like branches. 
The Easter Island plant certainly comes very near var. concJiicola Piccone 

and Grunow, Algol. Eritrea (N. Giorn. Bot. Ital., vol. 16, 1884, p. 316); comp. 

Okamura, List of Mar. Algae collected in the Caroline and Marianne Islands 

(Bot. Mag., vol. 30, 1916, p. 9, fig. 6). It also resembles var. minuscula Weber 

van Bosse, Alg, Siboga, p. 226. 

Area of distribution: Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Europe, Maroc, 

Japan, Australia, Easter Island. 




Fig. 26. Gelidium pi/sillicm{SX3.ck\).)'Lt]o\. Part 
of a plant; most of the rhizoids are broken, c. '-/i. 



Caulacanthus Kiitz. 



C. spinellus (Hook. f. et Harv.) Kiitz. — Figs. 27, 28, 

KuTZiNG, Species Alg., p. 753. — Rhodomelat spincUa Hook. f. et Harv.; 
Hooker, J. D. and W. H. Harvey, Algae Novae Zelandiae (The London Journal 
of Botany, vol. IV, 1845, p. 534). 

A few sterile fragments of an irregularly ramified filamentous alga belong 
I think to this species. The branches, arranged without any order at all are 
sometimes short, spine-like, sometimes prolonged. 

The thallus grows by means of an oblique top cell from which a tissue 
is formed consisting of a central row of cylindrical cells, encircled by some 
smaller ones which again gradually pass into a cortical layer of small cells. 
On a longitudinal section the cells of the central tube measure about 25— 40|x 
across and 100— 150(1 in length, according to the strength of the axis. These 
large cells contain bundles of raphides. The cells next to these are also rather 
long about twice their own width; the following are shorter and shorter, as we 
proceed toward the surface. 

The thallus is from i50[jl — 200{i thick. It is fixed to the substratum by 
means of small discs growing out everywhere from the surface of the thallus 
and composed of a bundle of rhizoids. By means of such discs also branches 
of the same individual get united. In this respect it quite agrees with Wnrdc- 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASIER ISLAND 



281 





Fig. 27. Cai/lacanf/it/s spineUiis 

(Hook. f. et Harv.) Kiitz. Part of 

specimen, c. ^V'- 



Fig. 28. Caulacanthiis spinelhis (Hook. f. et Harv.) Kiitz. 

a longitudinal (c. ^""/O and b transverse section of thallus 

(c. ■''"/i); c apex, c. *^"/i. 



mannia setacca to which it bears a considerable external resemblance; the 
anatomy is, however, essentially different.' 

Cajilacantlius indicus Weber v. Bosse is a much larger plant, the thallus 
being i — 2 mm broad; in its outer habit it seems quite to agree with the 
present plant, having the same antler-like ramification and the same discs by 
means of which it attaches itself to other algae etc. 

Area of distribution: New Zealand, Easter Island. 



Fam. Rhizophyllidaceae. 



Rhizophyllis Kiitz. 



Rh. pacifica nov. spec. — Fig. 29 — 31. 

Thallus crustaeformis, membranaceo-corneus, margine irregulariter lobato, 
lobis anastomosantibus, rhizoideis perlongis numerosis ex parte thalli deorsum 
vergente natis adfixus. 

Thallus dorsiventralis, e stratis duobus compositus, stratum superius corti- 
cale e cellulis 2 — 3 minoribus constat in filamenta ordinatis; inter ea glandulae 
majores sparsae sunt. 



Compare mv figures in Mar. Alg. D. W. I., vol. II, p. 369. 



282 



F. BORGESEN 




Fig. 29. RhizophylUs pacifica no 
spec, part of plant, c. ''/i- 



Stratum inferius crassius parenchyniaticum 
e cellulis rotundatis majoribus et niinoribus inter 
se mixtis formatum est; hie iilic cellulae majores 
in series ordinatae occurrunt. 

Tetrasporangia in nemathecia explanata e 
cellulis corticalibus orta, irregulariter zonatim 
divisa. 

On a piece of a LitJiotJiamnion a small frag- 
ment (scarcely more than V2 square cm) of a 
crustaceous alga was found, which I refer with 
some hesitation to the genus RhirjopJiyllis. 

It forms an irregularly lobed crust about 
250 (X thick, the lobes overlapping each other. The surface is uneven, some- 
what crispate (Fig. 29). It is easily detached from the substratum, to which it 
is fastened by means of numerous rhizoids; these rhizoids grow out everywhere, 
not only from the lower surface, but also from the margin. 

The concistency of the thallus is fleshy-cartilaginous. No incrustation of 
lime is found. 

Fig. 29 shows a piece of the thallus with the margin; the numerous small 
lobes more or less overlapping each other and at last fused together are 
clearly shown. 

The thallus has a distinct dorsiventral structure (Fig. 30, 31). It seems 
to increase in size by marginal divisions, performed by all the cells of the 
margin (Fig. 31 d); in any case no distinct top-cell was observed in the material 
at hand. Fig. 31 d illustrates the margin. It is seen that the cells near the 
margin are mostly arranged in rows; sometimes these rows are nearly parallel, 
sometimes diverging. The cells are smallest at the periphery. Generally they 
are cut off by cross walls parallel to the periphery, but sometimes, too, by 
oblique walls. All the cells are ^^_^ 



rather uniformly developed and 
have tick walls, giving the impres- 
sion that the growth has ceased 
for the present. 

A transverse section of the 
thallus (Fig. 30) shows a cortical 
layer above and a thick paren- 
chymatic tissue below. The latter 
consists of roundish cells of very 
different size, up to c. 40 [j. or 
more in diameter; the cells are 
largest in the middle, smaller up- 
wards and downwards, they have 
thick walls and contain much 
starch, especially in the upper 
part of the tissue. 

In the parenchymatic tissue 
in the central part of the thallus with a tetrasporangium sorus and a gland-cell. C. ^^•'/i 




Fig. ;o. Rhisophyllis pacifica nov. spec. Cross section 



MARINF. AI.GAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



= 83 



long rows of large cells are present (Fig. 31 a); they are bent here and there 
and their occurrence seems upon the whole to be rather accidental, parts of the 
thallus being quite destitute of such cell-rows. They are formed by large, 
subcylindrical to barrelshaped, thick-walled cells, about lOO |j, long and 65 [j, 
across. In the scarce material I have not been able to follow them to the 
margin or to explain how they are formed. In the description of Rhizophyllis 
in Engler & Prantl, Xaturl. Pflanzenfam., I. Teil, VI. Abt., p. 531, the mid-rib 
is described as follows: >;der Hauchseite genahert verlauft in der Thallusmitte 
eine gegliederte Centralachse, 2 zeilig alternierend in die Zahne und Lappen 
des Thallusrandes hinein verzweigt*. If we compare this description with that 




Fig. 31. Rhizophyllis pact fica nov. spec, a— c transverse sections of thallus; d marginal portion 
e cross section of margin, a c. 8° 1, b, c ^/i, d ^^7'. e "'"A- 



given above, there is a considerable difterence, as I ha\e not observed any 
branches from the tube of the long cells, nor is it arranged in such a way 
that it can be called a »Centralachse». 

The parenchymatic tissue gradually passes into the cortical layer above. 
The latter is composed of small rounded cells arranged close together in short 
rows of 2—3 cells which become smaller toward the surface. Seen from above 
they form a very dense epidermal layer composed of quite small cells, only 
4 — 5 a in diameter and with very thick walls. The epidermal cells of the 
lower surface are larger, polygonal and c. 40—50 a across. 

Scattered in the cortical layer we finally come across the large characteristic 
gland-cells (Fig. 30). They are oval-pyriform, often even somewhat lageniform, 
c. 35 a wide and 75 a long, with their broadly rounded base sunk deep down 
into the parenchymatic tissue, penetrating with their attenuated summit between 
the cortical cells to just below the upper surface of thallus, leaving a small 



284 F. BORGESEN 

poms open above their mouth-like upper end. When the thalkis is seen from 
above the gland cells are easily observable as clear bodies between the dark 
cortical cells. They are uniformly scattered over the thallus, and contain a clear 
mucilage. 

The tetrasporangia (Figs. 30, 31) are formed in large sori on the surface 
of the thallus. The sporangia are elongate ovoid, often slightly tapering toward 
the base, and transversly divided by oblique, often somewhat curved walls into 
four spores. The sporangia measure c. 40 X 17 [x. 

As the plant was preserved in alcohol, nothing is known about the colour 
in a fresh stete. 

Neither cystocarps nor antheridia were found. 

According to the descriptions of SCHMlTZ, Hauck and De TONI and to 
my observations on dried material, RJi. Squat)iariaehQ^x'& considerable resemblance 
to the new species in its anatomical structure. On the other hand, characters 
like the irregular crust-shaped thallus, the (presumably) marginal growth etc. 
remove Rh. pacifica from the Mediterranean species. The generic position of 
the former remains uncertain as long as we have not seen a more complete 
material, including sexual plants. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Fam. Squamariaceae. 

By Mme. Dr. A. Weber van Bo.sse. 

Cruoriopsis Duf. 

C. de Zvvaaiiii Web. v. B. 

Weber van Bosse, Liste des Algues du Siboga, Rhodophyceae, prem. partie 
1921, p. 267. 

In all essential points the alga of Easter Island resembles Cr. de Zivaanii, 
but I have seen only tetrasporic plants. It may be that plants bearing cystocarps 
are different from Cr. de Zwaanii. 

Area of distribution: Island Nias, west coast of Sumatra, Easter Island. 

Ethella W\ v. B. 
E. pacifica nov. spec. 

Thallo substrato affixo, ± 300 {x crasso, constante e mesothallo et peri- 
thallo superiore et inferiore. Mesothallo constante e filamentis ramosis, flabelli- 
formibus. Perithallo superiore constante e filamentis obliquis in parte basali, 
terminatis in partem superiorem satis latam erectam. Perithallo inferiore solum 
filamentis obliquis munito, quorum pluria exeunt in rhizoidea. 

Cellulis perithalli superioris ± 3— 6 {x latis et 8 — 9 [x altis, cellulis perithalli 
inferioris 5— 9 [x latis et 18 [x altis. Organis fructificationis non visis. 



MARINE AI.GAF, FROM EASTER ISLAND 



285 



Thallus adhering firml)- to the substratum ± 300 [j. thick', consisting of a 
mesothallus and a perithaUus superior and inferior. Mesolhallus consisting of 
flabella-like branched filaments. PerithaUus superior consisting of oblique fila- 
ments in the basal part, ending in a {)retty broad straight upper part. 

PerithaUus inferior having only oblique filaments, many of these running 
out in rhizoids. 

Cells of perithaUus superior ± 3-6 (a broad and 8 — g [j. high. Cells of 
perithaUus inferior 5 — 9 [j, broad and 18 (j, high. 

Organs of fructification not observed. 

As long as the organs of fructification are unknown it will remain doubtful 
whether an alga, with a midlayer of cells giving off ascending and descending 
filaments, is a representative of the genus Ethclia (the type of which is .£". Fos- 
liei) or a representative of the genera Cruoriclla or Peyssonnclia and differing 
from the types of these genera no more than Ralfsia dcitsta dififers from Ralfsia 
clavata} Ethelia Foslici has a mesothallus with an extremely well defined 
perithaUus superior and inferior and nemathecia with paraphyses that have top- 
cells adhering together and covering almost the tetrasporangium in a young 
state. The new alga from Easter Island does not give any light on this matter 
as none of my many slides showed signs of fructification. Its anatomical 
structure mostly resembles EtJiclia (Peyssonnclia) bii-adiata from the Indian Ocean. 
It differs from this alga by its mode of growth, for E. pacifica adheres firmly 
to the substratum whereas E. biradiata may be very easily detached and seems 
even here and there to lie loose on the substratum while growing. The thallus 
of E. pacifica adheres so firmly that I found it impossible to make a good 
slide through the thallus, unless I cut the substratum at the same time. The 
decalcifying of the substratum, consisting mostly of worm tubes, required much 
time as the tubes were of different consistence. The use of various acids had also a 
destructive influence on the contents of the cells and propitiated the swelling of the 
membranes, circumstances that were unfavourable to the making of good slides. 

Another difference between the two algae lies in the size of the filaments. 
The ascending filaments of E, bij'adiata are ± 8 [x broad and are 2 — 3 times 
as high as broad. Those of E. pacifica are broad 3 — 6 fx and 8 — 9 {j. high. 
The filaments of the perithaUus inferior are in both algae longer and broader 
than the ascending filaments. The colour was gone in the specimens of E. 
pacifica that I had for examination. E. biradiata has a bright red colour. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Fam. Corallinaceae. 

Melobesieae, par Mme PAUL Lemoine. 

M. Skottsberg a recueilli quelques especes interessantes dans cette ile 
isolee d'ou jusqu'ici non ne connaissait que deux especes: Porolitlion onkodes 
(Heyd.) Fosl. et Porolitlion praetextatiun FosL; il a d'ailleurs retrouve la premiere 
de ces deux especes, associee a d'autres especes pacifiques littorales. 

^ conf. Reixke, Algenflora der Westl. Ostsee deutscheii Anteils, 1889, p. 48. 



2 86 F- BORGESEN 

Lithothamnion (Phil.) Fosl. 

L. siamense P'osl. — Fig. 32 a. 

M. FosLiE in Flora of Koh Chang (Bot. Tidsskr. XXIV, igor, p. 19 (non 
f. simulans))\ Id. in Weber et Foslie, The Corallinaceae of Siboga Expedition, Siboga 
Expeditie LXI, 1904, p. 10, fig. 3, PI. I, fig. i — 9. 

N'ayant jamais vu d'echantilion de L. siamense j'ai quelque hesitation a 
rapporter a cette espece un echantilion de Tile de Paques dont les caractcres 
paraissent cependant coincider parfaitement avec la description de M. FoSLlE; 
cependant les figures i, 2 qui representent le type de I'espcce en donnent une 
idee confuse. 

L'echantillon de I'lle de Paques mesure 2 a 3 cm; il est forme de lamelles 
extremement minces (50 a 70 |j. d'epaisseur apres decalcification) et fragiles, de 
taille variable, irregulierement superposees et imbriquees de maniere a constituer 
un complexe de croutes d'une epaisseur de 2 a 5 mm; ces lamelles, finement 
striees sur leur face inferieure, sont hsses sur leur face superieure; la plupart 
sont plus ou moins horizontales, mais souvent aussi elles sont contournees ou 
recourbces, ou s'enroulent en forme de tiges creuses; elles donnent egalement 
naissance a de petites excroissances; enfin on remarque aussi des lamelles 
disposees verticalement. 

Cet echantilion parait correspondre a une variete plus resistance que ceux 
decrits par AI. FoSLlE; cet auteur a en efitet observe des croutes de 30 a 60 a 
d'epaisseur seulement qui, en se superposant n'atteignaient que 300 |j. d'epaisseur. 
Pour les autres caracteres sa description s'applique a l'echantillon en question, 
et les divergences qu'on pent relever sont de faible importance. 

Chacune des feuilles qui constitue lechantillon, de I'lle de Paques est 
constituee par I'hypothalle et le perithalle; dans les lamelles disposees horizontale- 
ment le perithalle est plus developpe que I'hypothalle; I'inverse se produit dans 
les parties ou les lamelles sont recourbees et presque libres (fig. 32 a). L'hypo- 
thalle est forme de cellules courtes de 5 a 15 tj, de long et 5 a 8 |j. de large; 
dans certaines lamelles les cellules ne depassent pas 7 \i. de longueur; les 
cellules hypothalliennes sont rectangulaires a angles arrondis. Le perithalle 
est forme de files laches dont les cellules mesurent 3 a 9 a X 3 a 7 [j.. 

Je crois avoir observe les deux sortes de conceptacles: les conceptacles a 
sporanges ont un toit legerement bombe, leur diametre est de 280 a 480 ;j.; 
je n'ai vu ni les pores du toit du conceptacle, ni les spores. 

Les conceptacles a cystocarpes ont un toit de forme convexe perce dun 
pore au sonmiet; leur diametre varie de 300 a 500 [J.. 

L. siamense se rapproche par sa structure et la fragilite de ses croutes de 
LithotJiamnium mesomorpJium Fosl. de I'Atlantique (Bahamas, Bermudes, Antilles). 

Repartition geograpiiique: L. siamense a ete decouvert dans le Golfe 
de Siam, puis retrouve ensuite en difterentes regions du Pacifique: Sumbawa 
(Est de Java), Archipel Sulu, He Nusa-Laut, He Kei; il a ete recueilli a des 
profondeurs variant de 5 a 69 metres. A I'lle de Paques il a ete recueilli dans 
la zone littorale a Hanga Piko. 



MARINK ALGAK FROM EASTER ISLAND 287 



Lithophylluiii (Pliil.) losl. 

Deux des espcces de LitJiophylliun de I'lle de Paques n'ont aucunement 
la structure typique de ce genre, telle que je I'ai caracterisce au point de vue 
anatoniique, mais elles en posscdent les organes reproducteurs; aussi je les 
laisse provisoirement dans ce genre, dans Icquel elles constituent une section 
speciale, ainsi que quelques autres espcces dcj.i signalces dans diffcrentes regions 
du globe. 

L.(?) sanioeiise Fosl. — Pig. 32 b. 

M. Foslie; Algologiske notiser II, D. K. N. Vid. Selsk. Skrifter, 1906, no. 2, p. 20. 

M. Foslie n'a jamais figure cette espcce, qu'il avait tout d'abord reunie 
au L. decipiens P^osl. P^n comparaison de rechantillon de Pile de Paques, j'ai 
etudie un echantillon de I'Herbier KoRNET, provenant de Tahiti, dont M. Fo.SLIE 
fait d'ailleurs mention loc. cit. 

L. sanioense montre en coupe verticale un hypothalle peu developpe, forme 
de files horizontales dont les cellules mesurent 6 a 17 jx de longueur et 3 a 7 tj- 
de large, quelquefois 9 [a. Le perithalle est forme de tres petites cellules carrees 
ou rectangulaires de 3 a 5 [j., atteignant 7 et 8 [x de longueur et 3 a 7 tj^ de 
large. L'espece forme souvent plusieurs thalles superposes. J'ai note, pour 
les conceptacles les dimensions de 125 a 280, apres decalcification, tandis que 
P'OSLIE indique lOO a 200 [j,; ces conceptacles convexes deviennent ensuite 
deprimes ainsi que le montre I'echantillon de I'Herbier BoRNET. L. saiuoeiisc 
a ete recueilli sur un caillon, associe a Por. onkodes et LithopJiylluin rasile, et 
il recouvre Melobesia (Litlwlepis) accola; \\ forme une croute a surface granuleux 
avec une bordure liseree de blanc; la liniite de chacune des croutes qui vit sur 
le meme support est marquee par un rebord crenele. 

Repartition geographique: Tahiti (Herbier BoRNET, Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Paris); Samoa, He Savaii (RechinGER ex P'oSLIE). 

L.(.^) niyriocarpuin (Fosl.) — Fig. 32 c. 

LitJiothaimiion niyriocarpuin Foslie, On some Lithoth. in Det K. Norske Vidensk. 
Selsk. Skr., Trondhjem 1897, no. 1, p. 19. Goniolithon myriocarpuni Forslie, Siboga 
Expeditie 1904, p. 45, PI. IX fig. 6, 7; Idem in Alg. Not. Ill, Det K. Norske Vidensk. 
Selsk, Skr. 1906, no. 8 (1907), p. 14 [i. confragosd)\ Idem Alg. Not. VI, Ibid. 1909 
no. 2, p. 9. Non Melobesia myriocarpa Crouan, = M. (Pliostroma) zonalis (Crouan) Fosl. 

L. niyriocaypnni forme des croutes d'aspect peu caracteristique, assez 
frequentes, semble-t-il dans le Pacifique. 

En coupe I'hypothalle montre des cellules plus ou moins rectangulaires de 
7 a 15 |x de longueur et 3 a 7 (j. de largeur; le perithalle est forme de cellules 
de forme assez variable; les cellules d'une meme file communiquent entre elles 
par un pore brillant, et souvent par une partie retrecie en forme de petit canal; 
le meme caractere s'observe dans le LitJiotJianiniwii calcareum d'Europe. 

Repartition geographique: Mer Rouge, Indes, Celebes, lies Chagos, 
Seychelles, N"® Guinee, Lucipara, Dammer, Mangareva, Tahiti etc. 



F. BORGESEN 









."DO"^?^ 



C3c<CO^<^^23Ct^^^^fiS? 




coupe verticale du thalle de Lithothamnium siamense; h hypothalle, p perithalle; 
lu thalle de Lithophvl/uiiiU) samoense; c coupe d'un fragment de croiite de Z.(?) 



Fig- 32- 

b coupe du thalle de Lithophyl/uvi{)) samoense: c coupe 

myriocarpum : d Lithophylhan (Derm.) rasile recouvrant Melobesia (L.j accola doiu les cellules 

sent en grise; e cellules de Melobesia (Litholepis) accola, a de Tahiti, b de I'lle de Paques; 

f coupe d'un thalle de Melobesia paschalis; g cellules de Melobesia paschalis vues de dessus. 



L. (Dcrniatolithon) rasile Fosl. — Fig. 32 d. 

M. Foslie: Alg. Not. Ill, Det K. Norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., Trondhjem 1906, 
no. 8 (1907), p. 34 et Alg. Not. VI, Ibid. 1909, no. 2, p. 57. 

Cette petite espece est representee dans la collection de I'lle de Paques par 
un petit thalle d'un rose vif, de 10 mm X 12 mm qui recouvre Melobesia (Litho- 
lepis) accola; sa bordure, liseree de blanc, montre quelques stries concentriques 
peu marquees; a la surface de LithopJiyllinn'ii) samoense on observe egalement 
quelques tres petits thalles tres jeunes qui appartiennent a la meme espece. 

M. Foslie indique pour cette espece une variation assez considerable dans 
la longueur des cellules hypothalliennes (14 a 54 [i). En effet dans une coupe 
dans laquelle I'hypothalle etait seulement recouvert par une rangee de cellules 
corticales, les cellules hypothalliennes mesuraient 20 a 60 a; au contraire dans 
d'autres coupes (fig. 32 d) j'ai observe I'hypothalle Ji, forme de cellules de 15 a 
environ de hauteur, mais il etait surmonte de 3 a 4 rangees perithalliennes; 
cellesci sont formees de cellules de 8 a 12 a de hauteur; la derniere rangee 
est recouverte de cellules corticales; d'apres la description de i\I. FOSLIE, les 
cellules perithalliennes peuvent egalement subir une assez grande variation de 
taille et pourraient atteindre 36 jj.. 

Repartition geographique: Ocean Indien: Laquedives; Pacifique: Timor 
(echantillon recolte par M""^ Weber VAN BoS.SE, nomme L. papillosum f.? par 
Foslie in Siboga Expeditie 1904, p. 63); Tahiti (leg. Seurat, Herbier du 
Museum de Paris). 



MARINE AI.GAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 289 



Melobesia (Lamx.) Fosl. 

M. (LitJiolcpis) accola (Fosl.) Lem, — Fig. 32 e. 

On sait que M. FosLlE a cree LitJiolcpis pour des Melobesia dont le thalle 
est forme d'une seule rangee de cellules, et dans lesquelles les thalles se 
superposent de telle sorte qu'en coupe on observe souvent plusieurs rangees. 
Dans rechantillon de I'lle de Paques j'ai observe jusqu'a 5 a 6 rangees super- 
posees, toutes semblables (fig. 32 e, b); les cellules sont soit rectangulaires, soit 
allongees verticalement, souvent aussi de forme assez irreguliere; cependant 
leur dimension ne varic que de 5 a 10 jj. pour la hauteur et 5 a 12 [j. pour la 
largeur. 

M. FosLlE avait indique la dimension de 14 a 30 |A pour les cellules de 
M. accola; mais j'ai etudie un echantillon de Tahiti qui fait partie de la collec- 
tion du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle et qui a ete determine par lui, et dans la 
coupe obtenue j'ai observe une rangee de cellules de 5 a 12 ^. de hauteur et 
7 a 10 tj. de largeur (fig. 32 e, a); I'espece de Tahiti est done bien semblable a 
celle de File de Paques. 

L'aspect de cette petite espece est curieux: les croutes sont tres minces 
et sont discontinues; elles sont pourvues de tres nombreux conceptacles de 
100 a 180 [J, environ, perces d'un pore. Lorsqu'on observe le thalle de dessus, 
les cellules, rectangulaires-arrondies, mesurent 7 a 10 |j. X 5 a 7 [x, disposees 
en files. 

L'un des echantillons de I'lle de Paques provient de Hanga Piko, region 
littorale; I'autre sans indication precise partage le meme support que les autres 
especes etudiees, et est reconvert en certains points par L. rasile et L. sa- 
inoense. 

Repartition geographique: Tahiti, Hao (leg. Seurat, Herbier du Museum 
d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris), He de Paques. 



M. paschalis nov. sp. — Fig. 32 f, g. 

La seule espece epiphyte recueillie par M. SkottsberG me parait etre 
une espece nouvelle; elle forme sur Zonaria variegata une croijte extremement 
mince, a peine calcifiee, de 3 cm environ, de couleur grise sans aucune bordure. 
A la loupe on remarque que les conceptacles se trouvent au centre de petits 
epaississements qui forment coinme de minuscules croutes secondaires qui se 
detachent facilement. 

En coupe on constate que la partie la plus mince du thalle est formee 
d'une seule rangee de cellules; celles-ci ont une forme assez variable et souvent 
elles ne se touchent pas; leur hauteur est d'environ 5 a 9 [i, leur largeur 5^15 [J- 
Ces cellules, vues de dessus, sont encore plus irregulieres dans leur forme; et 
variables dans leur taille; certaines sont transformees en heterocystes (fig. 32 g). 

Si on fait une coupe dans une region fructifiee du thalle, on pent suivre 
le processus de I'epaississement du thalle; j'ai figure (fig. 32 f) l'aspect de la 

19 — 2391. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter I si. Vol. II. 



290 



F. BORGESEN 



coupe telle que je I'ai obtenue; on remarquera rirregularitc de forme des cellules, 
leur manque de cohesion; dans les parties formees de 2 rangees il y a souvent 
un espace entre les deux rangees qui paraissent alors independantes I'une de 
I'autre. Dans les parties les plus epaisses, j'ai observe 5 cellules superposees, 
toutes de taille a peu pres semblable, 3 a 6 [j. de hauteur; I'epaisseur maximum 
du thalle est de 20 a 25 [x. 

Les conceptacles, de tres petite taille, mesurent environ 160 [j. de diametre; 
I'un d'eux paraissait contenir des bispores de 30 a 39 |J- X 15 a 20 |a, et une 
tetraspore de 50 \x X 30 jx. 

Melobesia farinosa etait jusqu'ici la seule espece pourvue d'heterocystes; 
mais le thalle vu de dessus est bien different de celui de Melobesia paschalis, 
les cellules sont de forme beaucoup plus constante et elles sont alignees en 
files regulieres, meme dans la var. Sob)isia)ia ou le tissu est beaucoup plus 
lache et lacuneux que dans le type. 

Des differences fondamentales existent aussi dans la dimension des con- 
ceptacles, et la structure de I'espece vue en coupe. 



Porolithon Fosl. 

P. onkodes (Hey dr.) Fosl. 

Voir la bibliographie dans M"'^ P. Lemoine, Annales Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco, 
t. II, fasc. 1 (1911), p. 160. 

Cette espece forme des croutes assez epaisses, qui ainsi qu'on le salt, 
jouent un role important dans la construction et la consolidation des recifs 
coralliens du Pacifique, ou elle est I'une des especes les plus abondantes. 

La croute etudiee a montre le tissu caracteristique de P. onkodes avec les 
groupes de grosses cellules disseminees au milieu du tissu; mais celles ci sont 
de taille plus faible que la normale: 12 a 18 [j- au lieu de 16 a 25 [x; peut etre 
d'autres coupes dans d'autres croutes donneraient-elles des resultats differents; 
les autres cellules du thalle mesurent 5 a 10 [j. et sont semblables a celles qui 
ont ete decrites dans les autres echantillons de cette espece. 

Dans I'echantillon etudie, la croute est formee par la superposition de quatre 
thalles, chacun d'eux constitue par un hypothalle tres peu developpe, forme de 
I a 3 files, et par un perithalle. 

Cette espece est fixee sur un caillou ou elle voisine avec Lithophylluin[}) 
samoense, L. rasile et Melobesia (L.) accola. 

Repartition geographique: Ocean Indien; Ocean Pacifique: Sumatra, 
Ambon, He Tami au N. E. de la N^^^® Guinee, Funafuti (lies Ellice), Marutea 
(archipel des Paumotu), Mangareva, Rikitea; He de Paques; San Diego (Cali- 
fornie). 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASIER ISLAND 



291 



C o I" a 1 1 i n e a c. 
Amphiroa Lamx. 

A. fragilissinia (L.) Lamx. 

Lamouroux, I. V. F., Hist. Polyp, flex.. Caen 1816, p. 298. Areschoug, J. E. 
in J. Agardh, Spec. Alg , vol. 2, j)ars i, p. 531. Weber van Bosse, A. and M. 
Fosi.iE, Corallin. of the Siboga-Exped., p. 89, pi. 16, figs, i, 2, 5. — CoraUifia fragi- 
Ussiiiia L, S3'stem. nat., ed. 12, vol. i, p. 1305. 

f. fragilissinia (Lamx.) Weber-van Bosse, I. c. A slender form in which 
the nodes are not much swollen. In the central strand are mostly 3, sometimes 
only two rows of long cells between each row of short cells. The long cells 
measure about 55 [j.. 

Area of distribution: West Indies, Pacific and Indian Oceans. 



A. Yendoi nov. spec. — Fig. 33. 

Thallus caespitosus e disco basali piano et filis erectis compositus. Discus 
basalis expansus substrato adhaerens. 

E disco surgunt fila erecta, teretia, 250 — 300 jj. lata, simplicia (raro subdi- 
chotomo) et leviter regulariter constricta, articulata. 

Singuli articuli plerunique ternas interdum plures constrictiones amplec- 
tuntur. 

Articuli strato corticali tecti, nodi nudi; cortex e cellulis subrotundis in 
series breves ex parte interior! ortus. 

Stratum thalli inerioris e cellulis diversae longitudinis compositum est, 
i) brevibus, 2) sublongis, 3) longis; hae in zonas transversales ordinatae regu- 
lariter alternant. 





Fig. 33. Amphiroa Yendoi nov. spec, a Habit of plant, 7'; b part of thallus, c. '"1; c length 

section, c. ^^"/i. 



29: 



F. BORGESEN 



On a shell a small tuft of a tiny Ainphiroa was found which I am unable 
to refer to any known species. I name it A. Yendoi in memory of my regretted 
Japanese colleague, who has published so many valuable papers on the Corallinaceae. 

The plant was not much more than i cm high; its thallus is terete, rather 
stiff, erect, much calcified, about 250 — 300 [i in diameter. It is regularly 
constricted, broader portions, about twice as wide as high, regularly alternating 
with slight annular constrictions (comp. Fig. 33 b). Generally every third 
constriction represents a node (Fig. 33 b), but sometimes the joint is composed 
of more than three segments, 4— 5 or even more having been found. 

A longitudinal section of the thallus (Fig. 33 c) shows that the central 
strand is rather regularly stratified, a sheet of long cells being followed by 
another of short ones, this again by intermediate ones, then a second layer of 
long cells and so forth. 

This central strand is densely covered by a thick cortical layer formed 
by small cells. The nodes correspond to a layer of long cells (Fig. 33 c); the 
cortical layer splits along the middle of this layer and the cells get a more 
corneous consistence. Within the joints, the constrictions are, too, found just 
above the row of long cells. The long cells measure c. 80 [i, the medium 
c. 35 [i. and the short c. 15 |j.. 

Regarding the ramification I can only state that nearly all the shoots were 
simple. Only a few of the longest had divided subdichotomously. The plant 
was quite sterile. 

Yendo and especially Mme. Weber have shown that the anatomical 
structure of the central strand is of great systematic importance in the Coral- 
linaceae, the genus Ainphiroa being characterised by i, 2, 3 or more rows of 
long cells alternating with a row of short ones. Further, the number of cell rows 
in the node is of systematic value. 

As stated above the present species has one cell row only in the nodes 
and according to the analytical key found in Mme. VVeber's work on the 
Corallinaceae of the Siboga, p. 99, this is the case only in one species, viz. 
Ainphiroa valonioides Yendo. This species is described by Yendo in his paper: 
»Corallinae verae Japonicae» (Journal of the College of Science, vol. 16, Tokyo 
1902). To judge from his description and figures this resembles the present 
species in size and general appearance but seems to be more branched (as 
mentioned above, the specimen of A. Yendoi is mostly unbranched), the regular 
constrictions in the latter are wanting and, in the central strand, there are 
according to fig. 3, pi. i of Yendo four rows of different length regularly 
alternating, while only three rows of cells are found in our plant as described above. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 

Jaiiia Lamx. 
J. tenella Kiitz. 

KtJTZiNG, Tab. Phycol., p. 41, tab. 85, fig. II. Weber, A. and M. Foslie, The 
Corallinaceae of the Siboga Expedition, p. 108. 

I have referred some small, 4~5 mm high repeatedly dichotomous plants 
to this species. The joints are about 100 [x broad and 2 — 3 times as long in 



MARINE AI.GAE FROM EASTF.R ISLAND 



293 



the basal part. Higher up they are longer and thinner. The uppermost joint 
is 46 [J. broad only. 

The conceptacles are about 240 a broad. 

Area of distribution: Australia, Malay Archipelago. Easter Island. Also 
Mediterranean.^ 

Fani. Ceramiaceae. 
Ptilothamnioii Hun. 



P. Plunia (Dilhv.) Thur. — Fig. 34. 

Thuret, G., in I.e Joi.is, Liste Alg. Cherb., p. 118. Bornet at Thurkt, Notes 
algologiques, p. Xll et 179, pi. 46. — Conferva Pluma Dilhv., Intr. n. 1 19, tab. F. 
— Callithamuion Fhiina Ag., Spec. II, p. 162. Harvey, Man., p. 115; Phycol. Brit., 
pi. 296, Hauck, Meeresalgen, p. 75, tig. 27. 

Growing upon a stone among several other algae some small specimens 
were found which I have referred to P. Pliiiiia. A safe determination is hardly 
possible, the material being ste- 
rile with the exception of a few 
tetrasporangia. Should the de- 
termination prove correct, the 
occurrence of a species hitherto 
known only from the Mediter- 
ranean Sea and adjacent parts 
of the Atlantic, in the Pacific 
Ocean, is very remarkable. 

Below I want to give a 
short description and some 
figures of the plant to show 
how well it accords with the 
descriptions of P. Plunia, f. i. 
with that of Hauck, 1. c. 

The horizontal creeping 
and ramified filaments (Fig. 34 a) 
are fixed to the substratum by 
means of vigorous rhizoids 
ending in a broad disc and 
composed of cylindrical cells 
about 16 [1 broad and as much 
as 70 [1 long. The erect fila- 
ments (Fig. 34 b) are unbranched 
below; thence every cell car- 
ries two opposite branchlets, all 
lying in the same plane. The 

branchlets are directed upwards, Fig. 34. Piilotham/iwn Pluma (Dilhv.) Thur. a part of 

, 1 r u t .,^0 creeping filament with rhizoid and erect branches, c. -^"/i; 

under an angle of about 30 . ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ >.„,^. ^ ^.^^^ ^f jj^^^H^^^ ,,.;,!, tetraspo- 

They are composed of mostly rangia, c. ''^''/i. 




294 



F. BORGESEN 



4 (3 "7) cells and are about 12 — 13 [j. thick. The cells in the main axis are 
c. 20 [J. thick and have a length of c. 40 [x in the middle of the axis. 

The tetrasporangia (Fig. 34 c) are terminal on the pinnules. They measure 
35 X 27 [J.. Thus, the tetrasporic plant seems to agree well with the Mediter- 
ranean species, but for an exact determination sexual plants are essential. 

While our plant seems to have occurred in a very similar locality as 
Ptilothainnion hicifiignni Cotton, the Irish plant differs from the present one by 
its bifid branchlets, agreeing in this respect with the Canarian PtilotJiavinioii 
inicropteruni. (Mont.) Born. Also Ptilothauinion hipinnatiiui (Collins and Hervey) 
Howe differs much from the present plant among others by the ramose pin- 
nules. 

Area of distribution: Mediterranean and adjacent parts of the Atlantic; 
Easter Island. 

Callithamiiion Lyngb. 

C. paschale nov. spec. — Fig. 35. 

C. caespitosum, ca. 4 mm altum. Rami erecti in parte basali nudi, deinde 
subdistiche ramosi. Rami alterni in plantis ^- et © simplices, in $ superne pinnati. 

Cellulae majores in parte basali ca. 90 \x latae, in parte superiore gradatim 
tenuiores et 15 [i latis, apice ramorum late rotundato. 

Tetrasporangia obovata, ca. 58 [x longa et 47 [i lata, et antheridia utraque 
in interiore latere pinnularum posita. 

Cystocarpia gemina rotundata in pinnis subterminalibus sita. 

The height of the few plants I have seen only reaches about 4 mm. The 
basal part consists of irregularly ramified decumbent filaments originating from 
the lowermost cells of the erect filaments. These filaments are fastened to 
the substratum by means of vigorous rhizoids (Fig. 35 d). 

From this basal system the erect branches grow up forming small tufts. 
They are bare in their lower half, ramose in the upper. The branching is very 
regularly distichous with alternating branches growing out from the upper end 
of each cell. In the male and tetrasporic plants all the branches are simple. 

In the more vigorous female plant (Fig. 35 a) the branches in the upper 
part of the plant repeat the ramification of the main axis. These branch- 
systems of second order turn their edges against the mother branch, the whole 
system lying in the same plane. 

In the main filaments the lowermost cells measure c. 90 \y across gradually 
decreasing upwards, so that the tip is rarely more than about 15 [x thick. 
The cells are rather short, generally only i — i V2 times their length. The top 
cells are obtuse. Hairs do not occur. The cell wall is thick, attaining c. 4 [x 
in the larger cells of the main filaments. 

As is usually the case in Callithani7iion the tetrasporangia (Fig. 35 c) 
occur on the inner side of the pinnules; they are obovate, c. 58 X 47 (x. The 
antheridial stands (Fig. -^6 b) occupy corresponding places, gradually covering 
almost the entire upper side of the pinnules. 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



295 



The female plant (Fig. 35 a) is more robust. The binate cystocarps are 
developed near the top; in the largest ones observed the halves were almost 
spherical, measuring c. 130 a. Young stages were not observed. No trace of 
a cortical laver could be found. 




Fig. 3). Callithaiimion paschah nov. spec, a part of 9 specimen, c. •'"/i; b of cf specimen, 
c. '®7i; c of tetrasporic plant, c. ^*"/ij ^ ^^^^ °f ^ plant, c. ^"/i. 



C. pascJiale recalls siopnlornui as described by the author in » Botany of 
the Faeroes», Part. II, p. I'j'j. But C. scopuloniui differs, among other things, 
in being often bitripinate, the cells in the main stem are proportionally much 
longer, the branches taper much more against their apex, the tetrasporangia 
are more spherical, etc. 

C. Pcnnula Grunow from St. Paul's Island, Novara-Exp, p. 60, pi. 6 fig. i, 
with which our new species might perhaps also be compared, is a much larger 
and more branched plant with a dense nest of basal rhizoids. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



296 



F. BORGESEN 



Crouania J. Ag. 

C. attenuata (Bonnem.) J. Ag. 
Agardh, J., Algae mediterr., 1842, p. 83. 

Some fragments of a very small form were found. Grunow in »Alg. 
Novara», p. 62 mentions having found a very delicate form at Tahiti. 

Area of distribution: Mediterranean Sea, warmer shores of the Atlantic 
and Pacific Oceans. 



Carpoblepharis Kiitz. 

C. Schmitziana (Reinb.) Okamura. — Fig. 36. 

Ok.amura, K., On Microcladia and Carpoblephari.s (Bot. Mag., vol. XIV, 1900, 
p. 8, pi. I, figs. 14— 17. Icones of Jap. Alg., vol. I, pi. II, figs. 5 — 18). — Gloio- 
thamtiion Schmitzia7mm Reinbold, Hedwigia, 1895, Bd. 34, p. 205, pi. III. — Rein- 
holdicUa Sc/nintziaf?a (Reinb.) De-Toni, Syllog. Alg., vol. IV, sect. Ill, p. 1498. 

On a stone with several other small algae some few bits of a very delicate 
species were found, which I feel convinced belongs to C. Schmitziana, first 

described by Reinbold, even if the Easter Island 
plant seems to be much smaller and differs a little 
in its habit from Reinbold's figure. 

The plant grew on a Cnioriella to which it is 
fixed by means of numerous rhizoids growing out 
mostly in bundles from cortical cells. 

The decumbent rhizome-like parts of the thallus 

are about 60 {x thick. From this now and then 

branches are given off; some of these soon stop their 

growth, become more or less vertical, and reach a 

length of up to 200 — 300 [i; but most branches 

Fxo.T^b. Carpoblepharis Schmitz- show an indefinite growth like the mother filament, 

/W (Reinb.) Okam., fragments fixing them.selves to the substratum. 

of plants c ^"/i 

' " The erect branches become more or less flattened 

with a broad obtuse tip; they sometimes are as much as 50 jj, wide, but often 
only half that size. Longitudinal growth is performed by a broad top-cell. 
The segments cut off often remain distinct long after they have become divided 
into smaller cells. 

The main shoots are covered with a dense, untransparent cortex. 

The material is sterile. 

I have followed Okamura in referring this species to Carpoblepharis. It 
seems to be a highly variable plant, more so if the small reduced forms, referred 
here with some doubt by Mme. Weber ^, really belong to the same species. 
The Malayan plant has the creeping rhizome-like base reduced to a mono- 
siphonous filament, a rather remarkable fact. 

Area of distribution: Japan, Malayan Archip., Easter Island. 




' Liste des Algues du Siboga III, Rhodophyceae II, p. 336, figs. 126—7. 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



297 



Ceramothamnion Richards. 
C. Codii Richards. 

Richards, Ceramothamnion Codii, A new rhodophyceous alga (Bull. Torrey 
hot. Club, vol. 28, p. 57). 

Some few small loose-lyinf^ fragments have been found only which I think 
are referable to this plant. What species the host plant has been I can not 
say; no Codiuni was among the material handed over to me. 

Dr. H. E. Petp:rsen kindly inspected the material and confirmed the 
determination. 

Area of distribution: Bermuda, Easter Island. 



Ceramiuin (Roth) Lyngb. 

By Dr. H. E. Petersen. 

C cruciatum Collins & Hervey. — Fig. '^'j . 

Collins & Hervey, The algae of Bermuda, 191 7, p. 144. 

In referring the specimens from Easter Island to this species I base this 
upon the figures of Mme. Weber, Liste des algues du Siboga, III, Rhodo- 
phyceae, p. 331. 





Fig. 57. Ceramium cn/da/uni Collins & Hervey. a top of filament, c. «7i; b part of filament 
lower down, c. ^*7i; ctetrasporangia, c. '■*'*/i. 



According to CoLLIN.S & Heryey Ceraniiuvi cniciatum has »cortication 
consisting of cells elongate in the direction of the filament». Mme. Weber 
having seen an original specimen of this species now gives a figure of a cortical 
belt, in which the cells are not arranged in longitudinal rows as in the figures 



298 



F. BORGESEN 



of Collins and Hervey. As the specimens from Easter Island (Fig. 37 b) 
reo-ardino- the shape of the cortical cells agree with the statement of Mme. 
Weber I think T need not lay stress upon the remarks of COLLINS and Hervey 
as to his point. 

Specimens with cystocarps and tetraspores (Fig. '}^'] c) were present. In 
the tetrasporic specimens the tips of the filaments were flattened in a peculiar 
way (Fig. 37 a). 

Area of distribution: Bermuda, Celebes, Easter Island. 

C. Skottsbergii H. E. Petersen, nov. spec. — Fig. 38. 

In the material a small Ceramiinn is found characterized by very narrow 
cortical belts in which several pluricellular spinelike hairs are present. I consider 
this plant to be a new species. Here the diagnosis: 




Fig. 38. Cei'avihDH Skottsbergii nov. spec. 
Part of filament, showing spinose cortical belts, c. ^*"/i. 

Fronde repente, irregulariter ramosa; zonis semper discretis, paucis cellulis 
constantibus, altitudine zonarum 15 — 25 [i, saepe duobus cellulis formata. Cellulis 
axialibus usque ad 80 [i altis; 70—75 ji latis. Pilis verticillatis e cellulis zonarutii 
formatis, articulatis, ex 3 cellulis compositis, c. 30—35 [J. longis, c. 8 [x latis, obtusis. 

Organa fructificationis non visa. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Fam. Rhodomelaceae. 
Laiirencia Lamour. 

L. claviformis nov. spec. — Fig. 39. 

Planta caespitosa, ca. i V2 —2 cm alta, e ramis basalibus repentibus et 
ramis erectis composita. Rami basales rhizoideis robustis saxo adfixi. Rami 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



299 



erecti, teretes, clavati, in inferiori parte ca. i mm lati, in superiori ca. 2 mm, 
apice late rotundato, aiit simplices, aut ramosi, raniulis clavatis, sparsis, paucis, 
irregulariter exeuntibus, interdum ramosis, ramellos in superiore parte gerentibus. 
Tetrasporangia sparsa in superiore parte ramoruni orta. 



To judge from the specimens collected the plant forms low dense tufts, 
ca. 1V2— 2 cm high, on rocks between tide 
marks. 

The decumbent creeping filaments, about 
I — I V2 mm thick, are fastened to the substra- 
tum by means of short, thick, vigorous hapters 
(Fig. 39 a). From these prostrate filaments 
erect ones grow up. These measure at their 
base about i mm in diam., gradually thickened 
upwards, attaining twice their basal diameter 
and slightly clavate. 

Of the erect filaments the more robust 
ones are branched in their upper half. They 
carry some few lateral branches, especially near 
their upper end, where several may be clustered 
together. The branches grow out to all sides 
without any order, they are clavate like the 
primary branch and sometimes carry sub- 
terminal branchlets. 

Tetrasporic plants only were gathered. 
The tetraspores are found in the cortical 
layer, scattered over the surface, especially 
in the upper end of the branches. 

As to the limitation of the species in this troublesome genus I refer to 
my remarks in »The marine Algae of the D. W. I», vol. II, p. 244. I regret 
that, in describing a new species, I add to the difficulties. Nevertheless I think 
this is the best way to take until the very desirable revision of the whole 
genus has been undertaken. 

The present plant surely comes near a group of species (f. i. L. perforata, 
radicans, vaga, decnmbms etc., comp. KUTZIXG, Tab. Phycol., vol. XV, pi. 49 — 51) 
about which J. Agardh, in »Epicri5is», p. 649 says: »nec mihi patet quomodo 
distinguantur». 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 




Fig. S9- Laurencia daviformis nov. spec. 
Parts of plants, a c. */i, b c. ^/i. 



Chondria Ag. 



Subgenus Coelochondria Falkenb. 

Ch. repeiis nov. spec. — Figs. 40, 41. 

Thallus teres, minutus, ca. 1 — 2 mm altus et 200— 400 |x latus, in aliis algis 
epiphyticus, partim e ramis repentibus, rhizoideis brevibus robustis adfixis, par- 
tim e ramis curtis, erectis constructus. 



300 



F. BORGESEN 




Fig. 40. Chotidria 7-epens nov. spec, part of specimen, c. "/i. 

Rami repentes ramosi, ramis aut decumbentibus, repentibus, axi primario 
similibus, aut erectis, curtis, obovatis, simplicibus, ca. ^/s— i mm altis et 300 — 
350 [J, latis, tetrasporangiis instruct!. 

Tetrasporangia in superiori parte ramorum sparsa, ca. 80—90 a lata. 

Of this little plant some very few fragments are found only, the longest 

specimen being about i cm long. 

The terete thallus has creeping basal filaments fixed to other algae by means 

of short thick hapters formed by a bundle of rhizoids. From this basal part 

shorter or longer branches are given off. Some of these branches may grow 

out to long shoots like the mother branch fixing themselves to the substratum 

in a similar way but mo.st of the branches remain short, erect and become fertile. 

Gradually they become more or less distinctly clavate and produce tetrasporangia 

in their upper end. The ripe tetrasporangia are about 80 — 90 ]x in diameter. 

The cortical layer is rather thick and the central 

strand generally not visible. Seen from above the 

surface cells are roundish to polygonal with rather 

thick walls. 

A transverse section (Fig. 41) shows that the 

thallus is composed of a parenchymatic tissue, the 

central axis not being especially distinct. 

In ?>Algues du Siboga», III Rhodophyceae, p. 349 

Mme. Weber has described a small species Choiidria 

niiniitula, of nearly the same size and habit, but 

otherwise widely different, belonging as it does to 
Fig. 41. Chond7'ia refiens nov. .1 t- 1 ^ : Tr„ii „„u 

ction of thallus. ^he group Luchondna Falkenb 




spec. Cross sectic 
c. '"/i. 



Area of distribution: Endemic. 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



301 



Polysiphonia Grev. 

P. spec. 

A small antheridial plant with four pericentral cells. From a decumbent 
filament fixed to the substratum by means of rhizoids erect filaments arise. 
The filaments are about 50 [i thick and the length of the cells about 80 [J.. 

The specimen bears considerable likeness to Askenasy's^ figure of an 
antheridial plant of Polysiphonia mollis Hook f. et Harv. 



Herposiphonia Xaeg. 

H. tenella (C. Ag.) Naeg. — Figs. 42, 43. 

Nageli, C, Herposiphonia (in Schleidex und Nagelt, Zeitschr. f. wiss. Bot., 
3 — 4 Heft, 1846, p. 238, tab. VIII). Falkenberg, P., Rhodomelaceen, p. 304. 
BoRGESEX, F., Marine Algae D. W. I., vol. II, pp. 286 and 472. 

In referring the plant from Easter Island to this species it must be pointed 
out that before we know the male plant no exact determination can be made; 
cfr. my remarks 1. c, p. 470. 




Fig. 42. Herposiphonia tenella (C. Ag.) Naeg., part of specimen growing on Valonia. C. ^"/i. 



Sterile specimens were found on Valonia ventricosa. They had 5— 8 peri- 
central cells. The creeping, prostrate main filaments are fixed to the wall of 
the host by means of vigorous rhizoids quite in the same way as found in the 
West Indian plant. 

^ AsKENASY, E., Ueber einige australische Meeresalgen. Flora, 1894, p. 13, pi. 4, fig- 22. 



302 



F. BORGESEN 



The mutual arrangement of the branchlets and branches is seen in Fig. 42. 
This shows that the branchlets are, as a rule, developed from every fourth 
segment; the next has a branch and the branches alternate on the right and 
left side of the thallus. But it happens that the branchlets are developed 
from every third or rarely from every second segment. The branchlets are of 
rather variable length; in some specimens I have counted up to 50 segments. 
The segments are longest in the middle of the branchlets, shorter near the 
base and summit. The diameter of the branchlets is about 50 [j.. The tricho- 
blasts are as a rule poorly developed. 

On Zonaria variegata I found some few fragments of an other form, both 
cystocarpic and tetrasporic, but unfortunately no male plant. 

Of the female plant Fig. 43 gives an illustration; it is much more robust 
than the sterile one from Valojiia. It also difters from this by the scarce 
development of branches, which generally are arranged without any order. 




Fig. 43. HerposipJionia tenella{C. Ag.) Naeg. 9- a part of creeping plant, c. ""/i; b growing apex 
ot same, c. ^^°/j; c voting cysiocarp, c. '■^°/i- 

The trichoblasts are well developed in the female plant. The cystocarps are 
formed in the second segment of the trichoblast, the lowermost becoming 
polysiphonous. The form of the young cystocarp (Fig. 43 c) very much resembles 
what I have found in LopliosipJionia cristata (comp. my fig. 432 1. c). The 
trichogyne is thick and comparatively short. The ripe cystocarp is urn-shaped 
with a short broad neck; it is about 550 p. long and 460 [j. broad. 

The tetrasporic specimens have longer and much more slender branchlets 
than the female plant; in the mutual arrangement of the branchlets and branches 
they agreed with the plant found on Valoiia. The tetrasporic branchlets are 
about 60 (1 thick and 1,5 mm long. 

Area of distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Morocco, West Indies, Malayan 
Archipelago, Easter Island. 

A small piece of a plant with 1 1 pericentral cells may perhaps belong to 
H. subdisticha Okamura (Bot. Mag. XII, 1899, p. ii, pi. I figs. 12—14). It 
resembles the figures quoted, but being sterile and lacking growth points it is 
insufficient for a safe determination. 



MARINE ALGAE FROM EASTER ISLAND 



303 



Dipterosiphonia Schmitz. & Falkenb, 



D. dendritica (Ag.) Falkenb. — Fig. 44. 

Falkenberg, p., Rhodomelaceen, p. 324. 
RoRGESEN, F., Mar. Alg. 1). W. I., p. 302. — 
lltdihinsia dcfidritica Ag., Systema, p. 146; Spec- 
ies Alg., vol. II, p. 104. — Folysiphonia dendri- 
tica J. Ag., Spec. Alg., vol. II, pars 3, p. 916. 

Some small sterile fragments were found 
on Latirencia claviformis. In one respect it 
differs essentially from the West Indian plant, 
as described by me I.e.; in this, the branchlets 
with definite growth are always undivided, 
while, in the Easter Island form, they often 
bear a few spine like side branches. These 
are mostly situated above the middle of the 
branchlets and their number rarely surpasses 
two or three. They form acute angles with 
the main branch. 

Otherwise, the Easter Island plant seems 

to agree perfectly with the West Indian one. 

Like this it has five pericentral cells, three 

on the upper side, two below, and it is attached 

to the host plant by meams of vigorous hapters, „. □ » r • r n-^,/ 

I J ^ i ' Fig. 44. Part of a specimen ot Diptero- 

which pierce the sides of the host plant like siphonia denaritica{k%)Y^\V^rvh. C.^'^ji. 
claws. 

Area of distribution: Brazil, West Indies, Australia, Easter Island. 




Dasya C. Ag. 
D. villosa Harv. 

Harvey, W. H., Algae of Tasmania, London Journal of Botany, vol. Ill, 1844, 
P- 433- 

The specimens had been preserved in formaline and were in a state of 
dissolution, falling to pieces at the least touch. Nevertheless I think the 
determination is right, the plants being in good accordance with the descrip- 
tion of Harvey and with Kutzing's Figure; I have also been able to compare 
them with a specimen of Harvey's Australian Algae, No. 218 from Van 
Diemen's Land. 

When young the stichidia are rather short and thick, ovate to lanceolate, 
when older they become longer and subcylindrical with attenuated summit, 
but perhaps the great length is due to the bad preservation, all the tetraspores 
having fallen out and the cells getting more or less separated. 

Area of distribution: Tasmania, Easter Island. 



3°4 



F. BORGESEN 



Falkenbergia Schmitz. 

F. rufolanosa (Harv.) Schmitz. in Engler u. Prantl, Xatiirl. Pflanzen- 
familien, p. 479. 

Falkenberg, P , Rhodomelaceen, p. 690. — Folysiphonia nifolanosa Harvey, 
Marine Botany of W. Austr., no. 87 in Trans. Acad. vol. XXII; Kutzixg, Tab., 
Phycol., vol. 14, pi. 54. 

Only a few small pieces of this plant were found, too small in fact for a 
safe determination. In their general appearance the specimens resemble the 
figure of Kutzing; this is, however, as pointed out by Falkenberg, not very 
accurate. The thallus was about 40 [x thick and the length of the cells amounts 

to 30 IX. 

On the other hand, it cannot be denied that this plant seems to concord 
with the form of Falkenbergia Hildebrandii which I discovered in the West 
Indies (1. c, p. 331). According to my note, these species most probably are 
mere forms of the same species, a conclusion to which Yendo ^ also has arrived, 
havmg been able to compare his plant with the original specimen in Herb. 
Harvey in DubUn and referring to my figures and description of the West 
Indian plant. 

Area of distribution: Australia, Japan, Malayan Archipelago, and most 
probably, West Indies etc. 



Fam. Delesseriaceae. 
Nitophyllum Grev. 

~, N. spec. — Fig. 45. 

A small antheridial plant of a Nitophyllum 
was found mixed up in a Galaxaiira tuft. The 
height of the whole plant found was 6 mm 
only. It has no veins, is monostromatic and 
belongs to the group Leptostrovia of J. AgardH. 
The growth takes place by means of a well 
developed top-cell. 

The antheridial sori are situated in the 
middle of leaf-like thallus-segments. They are 
found on both sides of the thallus. 

The cells of the thallus are polygonal 
with thick walls; their diameter is about 40 {j.. 

To the group Lcptostronia J. Agardh 
refers 3 species and in »Sylloge Algarum» 
De-Toni mentions a few additional species, 





Fig. 45. Nitophyllum spec, cf spe- ' Vexdo, Notes on Algae new to Japan, IV (Bot. 

cimen. C. '^/i. Mag., vol. XXX, 1916, p. 63). 



MARINE Al.GAF. FROM EASTER ISLAND 



305 



all from the European Atlantic coast and the Mediterranean Sea. Most likely 
therefore the present plant is the representative of a new species. In order to 
describe it we must know at least also the tetrasporic plant, as the male plant 
in NiiophylluiH is often very much reduced in size. 



Gymnogongrus Mart. 



G. aequicrassus nov. spec. ■ — Figs. 46, 47. 

Frons caespitosa, e fills decumbentibus, repentibus et fills erectis composita. 

Fila decumbentia irregulariter ramosa, aggregata et inter se contexta. 

Fila erecta teretiuscula, interdum simplicia saepe di- vel trichotoma, ad 
apicem versus non attenuata, apex late rotundatus. 

Cystocarpia singulas apicibus frondis immersa, rotundata, superne in partem 
sterilem attenuatam exeuntia. 





Fig. 46. G\'jnnogongn/s aeqiiicmssiis nov. spec. 
C. "/i. 



Fig. 47. Gymnogongrus aeqtii- 
ci'assus nov. spec. Length sec- 
tion of thallus, c. ■•""/i- 



The plant grows gregariously in dense tufts about 2 — 3 cm high upon 
rocks between tide marks. 

The tuftlike growth originates from the numerous erect filaments growing 
out from the prostrate creeping ones. The latter filaments are irregularly bent 
and branched, gradually more or less united into an irregularly lobed disc. The 
erect filaments are nearly terete or somewhat compressed, the transverse section 
being mostly oval. The filaments are a few times dichotomously, rarely tri- 
chotomously forked, but quite simple ones also occur. The surface of the 

20 — 2391. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



3o6 



F. BORGESEX 



thallus is uneven and irregularly waved. The tips of the shoots are broadly 
rounded. The angle between the branches approaches 90°. 

A few cystocarps occur; these are found near the end of the branches 
and are almost globular. Above the cystocarp a short sterile narrow prolonga- 
tion is observed. 

The plant is of a rigid cartilaginous or corneous texture. 

On a longitudinal section of the thallus (Fig. 47) we find that the sub- 
cylindrical cells in the centre are arranged more or less in rows; outwards the 
cells grow shorter with very thick walls and gradually pass into the cortical 
layer, composed of short rows of small oval cells — upon the whole a picture 
quite like that of Chondriis crispus as given by Kyltn in Studien iiber die 
Entvvicklungsgeschichte der Florideen (K. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handlingar. 
Bd. 63, 1923). 

The new species appears to be most nearly related to the small species 
G. densus and G. pygmaeus. 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Fam. Sphaerococcaceae. 
Hypnea Lamx. 

H. Esperi Bory. — Fig. 48. 

BoRY, Voyage de la Coquille, p. 157. KDtzixg, Spec. Alg., p. 759; Tabul. 
Phycol., vol. 18, pi. 26, a, b, c. 

The thallus forms small entangled 
masses among other algae. The filaments 
are irregularly ramified, often antlerlike 
in shape, the summit of the filaments 
often being somewhat curved with short, 
spine like side-branches gradually growing 
out from the convex side. The branches 
are sometimes short, spinelike, sometimes 
long and of indefinite growth. The tetra- 
sporangia are formed in the branchlets. 

When a branch comes near a fa- 
vourable substratum short thick discoid 
hapters are formed by means of which 
the plant is fastened to other algae. In 
the same way the branches frequently 
anastomose. 

The terete thallus is 400 — 500 tj. thick. 

The specimens found seem to be in 
good accordance with the fig. of KUTZING 
in Tab. Phycologicae (1. c). 

Fig. 48. Hypnea Espert ^ory. Part of sped- '^^'^ P^^"^ '^ ^lo^^l^ '^^^^^^ t° ^^^ 

men with a tetrasporangium sorus. C. -'/i. form I called Hypnea spinclla in my West 




MARINE ALGAK FROM F.ASTRR ISLAND 



307 



Indian work (p, 384, fig. 369). The form figured is somewhat more densely 
branched and the thalius slightly coarser (500 — 600 [x), but otherwise they seem 
to agree so well with each other that I am inclined to regard them as forms 
of the same species. 

//. Esperi differs from H. pannosa J. Ag., collected on the Pacific coast 
of Mexico (San Augustin, Liebmann) by its more slender and less ramose 
thalius, H. pannosa being described as »densissime intricato decomposito- 
ramosissima». 

Area of distribution: Brazil, Chile, Australia, Easter Island. 



Fam. Rhodymeniaceae. 
Chrysymenia J. Ag. 

C. Skottsbergii nov. spec. — Figs. 49, 50. 

E callo radicali expanse frondes erectae, plerumque 1 — 2 cm altae, oriuntur, 
caespitem densum et expansum formantes. 

Caules crassius filiformes, in parte basali robustiores (ca. i mm lati) su- 
perne gradatim tenuiores et ramosi, 5 — 6 vel plures ramos vesicaeformes gerentes. 

Vesiculae subglobosae-pyriformes, 4 — 5 mm latae et 5—6 mm longae. 




Fig. 49. Chrysymenia Skottsbergii nov. spec, parts of specimens. C. 2,5/r. 



This fine plant forms low, ca. i — 2 cm high, dense tufts on LitliotJiauinion 
to which it is fastened by means a large irregular disc. From this the erect 
main filaments (stems) arise. These are mostly undivided in their lower half, 
irregularly ramified to all sides in the upper, the branches and, if these are 
branched again, the branchlets all ending in a vesicle. In this way each main 
branch may carry up to ten or even more vesicles. 

The stem is thickest, c. i mm, in the basal part, tapering gradually 
upwards. 

The vesicles are spherical-pyriform, about 4—5 mm broad and 5 — 6 mm long. 

The stem is solid. A transverse section (Fig. 50 a) shows a cortical layer 
consisting of quite smal roundish thick-walled cells arranged in more or less 



3o8 



F. BORGESEN 



distinct rows; inwards the cells gradually increase in size forming an even transi- 
tion to the medullary tissue. On the cross section this is composed of 
roundish cells. 

A longitudinal section (Fig. 56 b) of the stem shows that the cells of the 
cortical layer are of nearly the same shape: roundish to oval. The cells of 
the medullary tissue on the other hand are long, subcylindrical with oblique 
cross walls. Between the long cells short ones, often arranged in rows, are 
interposed here and there. 




roo 



Fig. 50. Chrysymenia Skottsbers^ii noM.s'^&c. a cross, b length section of stipes; c cross section 
tlirough wall of vesicle; d inner surface of wall of vesicle with a cluster of glands; e two- 
celled gland. All c. "^i. 



A cross section of the vesicles (Fig. 50 c) shows that the wall consists of 
a single layer (rarely two) of large rounded-rectangular cells, which are covered 
by a cortical layer of small cells. Opposite the centre of the large cells one 
or two cortical layers are present, while opposite the cross walls separating 
the large cells, where more space is left, we find this space occupied by a 
cell larger than the cortical ones. 

Seen from above the large cells in the wall of the bladder are polygonal 
with rounded corners (Fig. 50 d). The cavity is filled with mucilage. On the 
inner side of the wall, facing the cavity, we find the glands characteristic of 
Chrysymenia. These occur in groups (Fig. 50 d), but not in great number. 



MAKINK ALGAK FROM EASTER ISLAND 309 

On the other hand the glands themselves are rather large and each group 
mostl}' consists of a good number of glands (10 — 20 or more). They are 
gathered upon a smaller cell situated among the large wall cells; sometimes, 
too, this small cell carries another smaller one upon which the glands are borne. 
The glands are oblong, about 20 ij, broad and 40 [j, long. 

In a few cases I have found the glands divided into two cells (Fig. 50 e). 

All the material was sterile. 

Of the known species of Chrysyvicnia, the present one is most closely 
related to C. Uvaria (L.) J. Ag. (esp. the Mediterranean {oxm), pyrifonnis Borgs. 
and ))iicropJiysa Hauck. It differs from C. Uvaria in growing less high, by the 
much smaller number of vesicles on each main stem, by the larger, shortly 
pedicellate vesicles, further by the gland-cells being larger and arranged in 
dense groups, while in C. Uvaria these cells are small, rounded and scattered 
singly over the wall (comp. my fig. 388 in Mar. Algae D. W. I., vol. II, p. 403). 

From C. pyrifonnis it also differs in the lower, more condensed habit, in the 
irregular branching and shortly pedicellate vesicles, while, in the former, generally 
also in C. Uvaria, the sessile vesicles form a raceme along the main stem and 
branches. C. pyriforniis has larger and more pyriform vesicles. The cortical 
layer in the vesicles is thicker and more firmly built in C. Skottsbergii. The 
glands are grouped in the same manner in both, but they are larger in the 
latter and more numerous to each group. The quite robust stem is also more 
strongly built in the new species. It should be remembered, that this was 
collected in tide-pools, while C. pyrifonnis is a sublitoral species. For more 
details I refer to my description of the latter. 

Finally, C. viicropJiysa is a much smaller plant, mostly with a single 
terminal vesicle, less often with one or two lateral branches in addition. For 
a detailed description see P. KUCKUCK, Beitr. zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen. 13 
(Wiss. Meeresuntersuchungen, N. F. Bd. V, Abt. Helgoland, 191 2). 

Area of distribution: Endemic. 



Champia Desv. 
Ch. sp. 

In a glass tube with various algae a small fragment of a CJiampia was 
found. Had it come from the West Indies I would have named it Ch. parvida 
without hesitation, but as this species has not been reported from the Pacific 
with certainty, I prefer to leave it unnamed, the more as it is sterile, the 
arrangement of the tetrasporangia remaining unknown. 



10. 



Ein neues Sargassum von der Ostcrinsel. 



Von 

L. GUNNAR SJOSTEDT. 

Mit ) Textfiguren. 

Von einem Sargassiivi, der auf der Osterinsel (Isla de Pascua) (»Litoral, 
unvveit Hango Pico, nicht ganz trocken gelassen») von Professor Dr. C. Skotts- 
BERG am 26. Juni 191 7 erbeutet wurde, hat der Verfasser Exemplare zur Be- 
stimmung bekommen. Das fragliche Sargassum hat sich bei vorgenommener 
Untersuchung als eine neue Art erwiesen, deren Diagnose ich unten gebe. 



Sargassum Skottsbergii nov. spec. Fig. 1 — 5. 

Planta dioica. Thallus ca. 30 cm altus. Stratum basilare caules princi- 
pales breves, longitudine 2 — 3 cm, teretiusculos ferens, ramis primariis numerosis, 
longis, erectis, inermibus. Folia plerumque 9 — i2:plo longiora quam latiora. FoHa 
plantae masculae superiora anguste lanceolata, acuta, indivisa, minute et obsolete 




Fig. 1 — 3. Sargassum Skottsbergii. Fig. 1—2. Miinnliches Receptaculum. Fig. 5. Weibliches 

Receptaculum. Vergr. 3 X i- 



3T2 



L. GUNNAR SJOSTEDT 



denticulata (vel hinc inde integerrima), longitudine 20 — 30 mm, latitudine 2 — 3 
mm. Cryptostomata pauca, parum conspicua (folia nonnulla eglandulosa), per 




Fig. 4. Sargassuin Skottsbergii. Stiicke mannliclier Pflanzen. C. V*. 

singulam seriem utroque latere costae folii disposita. Folia superiora plantae 
femineae breviora, marginibus magis conspicue et acute denticulata crypto- 
stomatibus magis conspicuis numerosioribus. Folia basalia et inferiora amborum 
generum breviora, longitudine 20 — 50 mm, latitudine 4—5 ( — 7) mm, crypto- 



EIN NEUES SARGASSUM VON DER OSTERINSEL 



3^3 



stomatibus parum conspicuis, margine denticulis parcis instructa. Vesiculae 
sphaericac, muticae, petiolo vesiculam ipsam subaequante sufifultae (fig. 2) 
glandulis nuUis vel paucis (1—2). Receptacula mascula subdichotomo-cymosa, 
longa, angusta, verruculosa, inermia, evoluta usque ad 10-12 mm longa. 
Rami receptaculi masculi petiolo parum distincto instructi, nonnumquam omnino 
fertiles (fig. 1—2). Receptacula feminea verruculosa, inermia, breviora, latiora, 
conica, subdichotomo-cymosa densius disposita quam receptacula mascula et 
parcissime divisa. Rami singuli receptaculi feminci conici petiolo distincto brevi 
angusto teretiusculo sterili suffulti (fig. 3). 




Fig. 5. Sargassuiii Skottsbergii. Weibliche Plianze. C. ^[2. 

Hab. in mare Pacifico ad Insulam Paschalem in litore saxoso loco Hanga 
Piko dicto. 



Vorliegende Sargassiim-^'^&QX&s,, die hinsichtlich den iibrigen Arten dieser 
Gattung die Gruppe cymosiun (Ag.) J. Ag. — Benmideyise Grun. [lendigenim sec. 
J. Ag.). — trichocaypum J. Ag. am nachsten kommt, ist, wie aus der Diagnose 
hervorgeht, dioezisch mit mannlichen and weiblichen Indiwiduen unter sich nicht 
nur geschlechtlich, sondern audi riicksichtlich Form, Grosse und Verzweigung 
der Receptakeln, wie auch die Form des Blattes, die Menge und verschiedene 
Deutlichkeit der Cryptostomata betreffend, abweichend. 

Dioezie ist von KuTZING (Tab. phyc. X, 89, i) fiir Sarg. Horneri, von 
Harvey fiir Sarg. paradoxwn angegeben. In dem grossen Sargassum-Werk 
von J. G. Agardh (Species Sargassorum Australiae, K. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. 



3^4 



L. GUNNAR SJOSTEDT 



23 (1889)) scheint die Frage des Verhaltnisses der Receptakeln in geschlechtlicher 
Hinsicht und damit zusammenhangende eventuelle morphologische Unterschiede 
cranz zur Seite gelassen zu sein. Zwar beriihrt Grunow (Additamenta ad 
cognitionem Sargassorum, Verb. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 1913— 16) diese Verhalt- 
nisse hier und dort, die Angaben sind aber im Ganzen sehr unvollstandig. Doch 
wild Dioezie fur die beiden genannten und ausserdem auch fiir folgende fiinf 
Arten angegeben: S. heviipJiylluvi (Turn.) Ag., myriocystuni J. Ag., polycystum 
Ac-., Vaysieramim (Mont.) var. Assabiensis Grun. und siliquosum J. Ag. 

Die sparlichen Angaben sowohl von Agardh, Grunow wie auch von 
anderen Verfassern diese Verhaltnisse betreffend werden vvahrscheinlich nur 
darin ihren Grund haben, dass die Untersuchungen auf trockenem, den Ver- 
fassern zugesandtem Material gegriindet sind. Nach den Exsiccatenexemplaren 
der grossen Saygassinn-'i2s\\m\\mg Agardh's in Lund wie auch nach den zahl- 
reichen Bildern KCtzing's (Tab. phyc.) zu urteilen, durften gewiss von mehreren 
Species vom Sargassum die verschiedenen Geschlechtspflanzen als getrennte 
Species beschrieben sein, ein Verhaltnis, das ja in systematischer Hinsicht 
sehr lastig ist. Fiir eine ordentliche Aufklarung dieser Frage sind aber Unter- 
suchungen und Studien der jeweiHgen Algen draussen in der Natur eine dringende 
Notwendigkeit. Nur durch solche Felduntersuchungen ist eine Aufklarung dieser 
Sache und damit auch ein solider Grund fiir eine bessere Kenntnis der Sar- 
gassuniQ-dXXxm^ zu erreichen. 

Die Sammlung enthalt eine zweite Sargassum- P^xt. Da das Material steril 
ist, war eine sichere Bestimmung nicht moglich. 

Lund, Dot. Laboratorium, September 1923- 



II Die Fkchten der Juan Fcrnandez-Inseln. 

Von 
Dr. A. ZAHLBRUCKXER. 

Mit 2 Tafeln (24 — 25). 

Im Jahre 1835 erhielten wir die erste Nachricht iiber die Flechten von 
Juan Fernandez. C. MoNTAGNE (7), damals der beste Kenner aussereuropaischer 
Lichenen, veroffentlichte die Liste derjenigen Arten, welche von C. I. Bertero 
aufgesammelt warden. Er zahlt 49 Flechtenarten auf, darunter einige neue. 
In C. Gay's gro.ssem Werke iiber Chile (2) wiederholt Moxtagne diese An- 
gaben und erweitert sie durch erganzende. In der Beschreibung neuer Flechten, 
welche er hauptsachlich dem Herbare Sir William J. Hooker's entnahm, be- 
schreibt Th. Taylor (ii) auch einige wenige Arten von Juan Fernandez. 
Diese wurden spater von MULLER Arg. einer Revision unterzogen (8). Nun 
ruhte die lichenologische Erforschung der Inselgruppe langere Zeit und erst 
die Challenger-Ex{)edition brachte eine kleine Aufsammlung von Flechten mit. 
Das Material wurde von I. C. Crombie (i) bearbeitet, erschien zunachst als 
eigene Arbeit, welche dann dem Sammelwerk iiber die wissenschaftlichen Ergeb- 
nisse der genannten Expedition (10) einverleibt wurde. Im Jahre 1896 erschien 
F. JOHOw's Flora von Juan Fernandez. Sie enthalt eine Zusammenfassung 
aller Angaben iiber Flechten und enthalt auch einige neue des Verfassers. So 
sehr eine gute Ubersicht erwiinscht gewesen ware, so kann die Zusammen- 
fassung JOHOW's keinen Anspruch darauf erheben, eine solche zu sein. Es 
wurde der Aufzahlung nicht eines der damals gebrauchlichen Flechtensysteme 
zugrunde gelegt, sondern es sind die Arten unter Beibehaltung der Nomen- 
klatur der alteren Autoren aufgezahlt. Es kommen daher dieselben Spezies 
unter verschiedenen Namen bei verschiedenen Gattungen vor und diese be- 
hielten eine, damals langst nicht mehr mogliche, Umgrenzung. 

Die letzten Angaben in der Literatur beziehen sich auf jenes Material, 
welches C. Skottsberg gelegentlich des Schwedischen Expedition nach Pata- 
gonien und dem Feuerland in den Jahren 1907 — 1909, von den Inseln mit- 
brachte. Nebst in diesen sich direkt auf Juan Fernandez beziehenden Arbeiten 
finden wir noch zerstreute Angaben in monographischen Studien (3, 4, 5) und 
in einer allgemeinen Flechtenflora (9). 

Die Gelegenheit zu einer grossziigigen Aufsammlung auf den Inseln bot 
der zweite Aufenthalt C. Skottsberg's daselbst. An zahlreichen Stellen der 



316 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



drei Inseln sammelten Prof, und Frau Skottsberg, gleichmassig an Rinden, 
Holz, dem oft schwer zu bearbeitenden harten Basalt, und auf dem Erdboden. 
Die Kollektion enthalt dnrchwegs instruktive Stiicke, die auch vielfach iiber 
die Vergesellschaftung der Arten Aufschluss geben. Die Etikettierung der Stiicke 
ist o-ewissenhaft durchgefiihrt, sie gewahrt Einblick iiber die vertikale und 
horizontale Verbreitung der Arten. Sie ist die reichste, die je dort aufge- 
bracht wurde, und der Grundstock der vorliegenden Flora. In dieser Flora habe 
ich mich nicht auf die Bearbeitung des SKOTTSBERG'schen Materials beschrankt, 
sie soil vielmehr cine einheitliche Zusammenfassung dessen sein, was uns iiber 
die Flechtenflora der Robinsoninseln bisher bekannt geworden. Als syste- 
matische Grundlage diente meine Bearbeitung der Flechten in Engler-Prantl's 
»Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien» mit einer einzigen Ausnahme betreffend die 
Stellung der CyanopJiili (im Sinne Reixke's), ein Yorgang, der in der zweiten 
Auflage des genannten Werkes naher begriindet warden soil. 

Insgesamt konnte bisher das Vorkommen von i86 Flechtenarten festgestellt 
werden, doch ist damit die Zahl durchaus nicht erschopft. Infolge der Unmog- 
lichkeit zur Zeit, als die Bearbeitung der Flechten erfolgte, Originalien zu er- 
halten, konnte ich nicht alle Bucllien sicher bestimmen; von diesen allein kom- 
men noch einige Arten hinzu. Ferner werden sicherlich an Mikrolichenen noch 
einige Entdeckungen gemacht werden konnen. 



Nach Familien und einigen hoheren Gruppen verteilen sich die 185 Arten 



Verrucariaceae 2 Arten 

Dermatocarpaceae i >^ 

Pyrenulaceae 10 » 

Astrotheliaceae i » 

Sphaerophoraceae i » 

Arthoniaceae 4 

Graphidaceae 3 » 

Chiodectonaceae i > 

Dirinaceae . . ' i » 

Lecanactidaceae i •> 

Byssocaulon i » 

Thelotremaceae 2 » 

Diploschistaceae 2 » 

Gyalectaceae 3 » 

Coenogoniaceae 2 » 

Colleniaceae 8 

Pannariaceae 13 

Stictaceae 18 => f"^^ 

Peltigeraceae 6 >- i 

Lecideaceae 25 » | 

Phyllopsoraceae i ■ (4i 

Cladoniaceae 15 ^> j 

Acarosporaceae 2 » 

Pertusariaceae 5 " 

Lecanoraceae 15 1 „ 

Parmeliaceae 23 >' | -^ 

Caloplacaceae 10 ' \ 

Theloschistaceae i >' f 



14 Arten 



DIE FLECIITEN DER JUAN FERNAXDEZINSELN 317 

Buelliaceae 5 Arten 1 , 

Physciaceae 3 » j ^"^ ^^^^" 

Hymenolichencs i » 

Nach der systematischen Zugehorigkeit des Algenkomponenten ergibt sich 
folgende Gruppierung: 

a.) Flechten mit Pleurococcustypus 109 Arten, rund 60 % 

b.) Flechten mit blaiien Gonidien, beziehungsweise deren 

phylogenetische Deszendenten 48 Arten, rund 25 % 

c.) Flechten mit Trentepohh'agonidien 28 Arten, rund 15% 

Ein Vergleicli dieser Zahlen mit denjenigen, welche ich fiir die Samoa- 
inseln gab\ zeigt uns, dass die perzentuelle Beteiligung der Cyanophili fast 
dieselbe ist, dass hingegen die Arten mit Trentepohliagonidien den Archi- 
lichenen gegeniiber stark abfallen. Ich glaube diesen Umstand damit begriin- 
den zu konnen, dass die Samoainsein ihrer geographischen Lage nach den 
tropischem Gebiete angehoren, dessen Klima das Auftreten von Flechten mit 
Trentepohliagonidien begiinstigt. Bemerkenswert bleibt der hohe Perzentsatz 
der Cyanophili, welcher eine Eigentumlichkeit vulkanischer Inzeln zu sein 
scheint. 

An der Zusammensetzung der Flechtenflora von Juan Fernandez nehmen 
Teil Elemente des chilenischen Festlandes und der subantarktischen Region 
Amerikas, hinzu kommen dann Arten, welche im Tropicum oder Subtropicum 
weiter verbreitet sind, und auch Elemente der kalteren und gemassigten Gebiete, 
welche namentlich in den hoheren Bergen Masafueras auftreten. Verhaltnis- 
massig gross ist die Zahl der Endemismen, doch ist dabei zu bedenken, dass 
bei einer besseren Hchenologischen Erforschung der Nachbargebiete, insbe- 
sondere des chilenischen Festlandes, fiir manche der bisher endemisch ange- 
sehenen Arten eine weitere geographische Verbreitung festgestellt sein wird. 

Die fiir Juan Fernandez bisher noch nicht verzeichneten Flechten sind 
durch ein Sternchen (*) kennthch gemacht. 



Literatur. 

1. Crombie, I. C, The Lichens of the »Challenger» Expedition. — Juan Fernan- 

dez. (Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., vol. XVI, 1877, p. 223 — 224.) 

2. Gay, C, Historia fisica y politica de Chile. (Botan., vol. VIII, 1852, Lichenes 

p. 53 — 228.) 

3. Hue, a. M., Lichenes extra-europaei a pluribus collectoribus ad Museum Pa- 

risiense missi. (Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 3, vol. X, 1898, p. 213 — 
280, ser. 4, vol. I, 1899, p. 27 — 220, tab. I — VI; ser. 4, vol. II, 1900, p. 
49 — 122, tab. I — V et ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1901, p. 21 — 108, tab. I — VI.) 
4. , Lichenes morphologice et anatomice descripsit. (Nouv. Archiv. du Mu- 
seum, ser. 4, vol. VIII, 1907, p. 237 — 272; ser, 4, vol. X, 1908, p. 169 — 
224; ser. 5, vol. I, 1909, p. Ill — 166; ser. 5, vol. II, 1910, p. i — 128 et 
ser. 5, vol. IV, 1912, p. i — 52.) 



1 Die Flechten der Samoa-Inseln. (Denkschrift. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-naturw. Klasse, 
Band CXXXI, 1907, p. 2.) 



3'8 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



5. Hue, a. M., Lichenuni generis Crocynia Mass. plerasque species jutxa arche- 

typa specierum morphologice et anatomice descripsit. (Memoir. Soc. Nation. 
Scienc. Nat. Cherbourg, vol. XXXVII, 1909, p. 223 — 254.) 

6. JoHow, F., Estudios sobre la Flora de las Islas de Juan Fernandez. (Santjago 

de Chile, 1896, Lichenes p. 196 — 203.) 

7. MoNTAGNE, C, Prodromus Florae Fernandezianae, sistens enumerationem plan- 

tarum cellularum, quas in insula Juan Fernandez a CI. Eertero collectas 
describi edique curavit. (Annal. Scienc. Nat., Botan., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835 
Lichenes p. 86 — 94.) 

8. MiJLLER, I. (Arc), Lichenologische Beitrage. XXVII. ^Flora, vol. CXXI 

1888.) 

9. Nylander, \V., Synopsis methodica Lichenum (Parisiis. Vol. I, 1859 — 60, vol 

II, 1863.) 

10. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger. Botan 

vol. I (1885, Lichenes p. 19 — 21.) 

11. Taylor, Th., New Lichens, principally from the Herbarium of Sir William I 

Hooker. (London Journ. of Botan., vol. VI, 1847, P- 148 — 197-) 

12. Zahlbruckner, a., Flechten in »Botanische Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Ex 

pedition nach Patagonien und dem Feuerland 19 17 — t9I9». (Kgl. Svensk 
Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., Vol. LVII, ser. 6, 1917, p. i— 81.) 



Verrucariaceae. 
Verrucaria (Wigg.) A. Zahlbr. 

*V. niicrospora Nyl. 

Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1855, p. 175 et Expos. 
Synopt. Pyrenocarp., 1858, p. 29; A. Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univers., vol. I, 1921, 
p. 67. 

Das Lager der vorliegenden Stiicke ist sehr dunkel, ziimeist braunlich- 
schwarz; die Apothezien sind zahlreich und dicht gedrangt; die Sporen 9 — 11 [x 
lang und 6—7 [x breit. 

Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, auf Strandfelsen (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Microglaena Korb. 

'^'M. fernandeziana A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus crustaceus, uniformis, maculas sat parvas, usque 12 mm latas 
formans, substratum obducens, tenuis, vix 0,2 mm crassus, sordidulenti-alutaceus, 
opacus, KHO et Ca CI2O2 non tinctus, minute areolatus, areolis ad 0,2 mm 
latis, subangulosis, planis, fissuris tenuissimis separatis, in margine linea 
obscuriore non cinctus, sorediis et isidiis non praeditus, superne strato cor- 
ticali, ex hyphis intricatis formate obductus; stratum gonidiale sat angustum, 
gonidiis cystococcoideis, globosis, glomeratis, laete viridibus, usque 10 (j. latis; 
medulla alba, I — . 

Apothecia dispersa, sessilia, semigloboso-obconica, ad 0,5 mm lata et 
totidem alta, thallo extus concoloria, vertice nigro, leviter deplanato vel modice 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZIXSELN 3IQ 

convexo, poro tenui peitusa; excipulum subglobosum, angustum, pallidum, molle, 
ex hyphis tangentialibus et conglutinatis formatum, involucrello non cinctum, 
extus a thallo vestitum; hymenium decolor, nee inspersum nee guttulatum, 
hymenogonidiis nullis, I lutescens; paraphyses persistentes, capillares, ramosae 
et subintricatae, eseptatae, ad apicem non latiores; asci eonvergentes, oblongi 
vel oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et ibidem membrana paulum crassiore 
cincti, 8 spori; sperae in ascis bi- vel subuniseriales, verticales vel obliquae, 
primum decolores, mox autem dilute olivaceae vel olivaceo-fumosae, denum 
fuscae, ovales vel ovali-ellipsoideae, crebre murali-divisae, cellulis minutis, sub- 
cubicis, 34 — 38 |x longae et 13 — 16 jj, latae, halone non circumdatae, I subau- 
rantiaco-lutescentes. 

Pyenoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, auf Strandklippen (C. und I. Skottsrerg). 

Santa Clara: Morro de los Alelies, auf hartem Gestein (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

Dermatocarpaceae. 
Normandina (Nyl.) Wain. 

*N. pulchella Nyl. 

Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., scr. 4. vol. XV, 1861, p. 382; A. Zahlbr.. 
Catal. Lich. Univers., vol. I, 1921, p. 198. — Verrucaria puJcheUa Borr. apiid 
Hook, et Sowerb., Suppl. Engl. Bot., vol. I, 1831, tab. 2602, fig. 1. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo, 400 — 500 m, liber Flechten und Moosen, steril 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Pyrenulaceae. 

Arthopyrenia Mass. 
Conspectus specierum: 

A. Sporae persistenter biloculares. 

a. I.oculi sporarum distincte inaequales A. achiexa var. leptospirina. 

b. Loculi sporarum aequales A. cincJwnae. 

B. Sporae demum 4 loculares, ad latera lyrato-incisae A. planorhis. 

*A. cinchonae Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXVI, 1883, p. 287 et in Memoir. Sue. Phys. et 
Hist. Nat. Geneve, vol. XXX, no. 3, 1888, p. 26; Wain., fitud. Lich. Bresil, vol. 
II, i8go, p. 233; A. Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univers., vol. 1, i92i,p, 302. — Verru- 
caria cinchojiae Ach., Synops. Lich., 1814, p. 90. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, bei 615 m, zxx'i Dendroseris-7.\\€\%&n{Q,. 
und I. Skottsberg). 



J20 A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

'•'A. adnexa Miill. Arg, 

Mull. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXVI, 1883, p. 304; A. Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. 
Univers., vol. I, 1921, P- 312. 

var. leptosperma A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Sporae angustiores ut in typo brasiliensi, 20—22 jj. longae et 7 — 9 ji 
latae. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de la Loberia, bei 300 m, auf alter Lumaborke 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

A. planorbis Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Memoir. Soc. Phys. et Hist. Nat. Geneve, voll. XXX, no. 3, 
1888, p. 27; A. Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univers., vol. I, 1921, p. 310. — Verru- 
caria pla7iorbis Ach., Synops. Lich., 1814, p. 92; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., 
Bot. ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 93. 

Masatierra : Auf glatten Rinden in schattigen Bergwaldern (Bertero 
no. 1618). 

Coccotrema Miill. Arg. 

C. Cucurbitula Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Mission Scientif. Cap Horn, vol. V, 1889, p. 1 71; A. Zahlbr., 
Catal. Lich. Univers., vol. I, 1922, p. 359. — Pcrtiisaria Cucurbitula Mont, apud 
Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polite Chile, Botan., vol. VIII, 1S52, p. 200. 

var. laevigata A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univers., vol. I, 1922, p. 360. — Pertusaria Cucur- 
bitula var. laevigata Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1855, p. ^^o. 

Auf glatten Rinden, ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Herbar. Paris). 

Porina Mull. Arg. 
Conspectus specierum: 

A. Apothecia a thallo libera 

a. Apothecia nigra, 0,2 — 0,3 mm lata P. fernandeziaiia. 

b. Apothecia rufofusca, vix 0,1 mm lata P. rufocarpella. 

B. Apothecia a thallo crasse obducta P. depressula. 

■•'P. fernandeziana A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, substrate arete adnatus, eftusus, 
tenuis, ad 0,1 mm crassus, bene limitatus, sed linea obscuriore non cinctus, 
versus partem marginalem thalli tamen hinc inde lineis obscuris parce decus- 
satus, cervinus, fere opacus, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , continuis et inaequalis, passim, 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 32 1 

sed rarius, valde tenuiter subareolato-riiiiosus, areolis minutis, sorediis et isidiis 
nullis; fere homoeomericus, hyphae thalli latiusculae, toruloso-iiiaequales et 
septatae, leptoderniaticae, subiiitncatae; gonidia chroolepoidea, cellulis breviter 
concatenatis, rotundatis, 7 — 12 ;j- latis, coiitenlu viridiluteo, membrana tenui 
cinctis. 

Apothecia sat crebra, dispersa, rarius ap[jroximata, parva, 0.2 — 0,3 mm 
lata, iiiijra, opaca, madcfacta nitidula, a thallo non vestita, plus minus convexa, 
semiglobosa vel etiam paulum deplanata, poro demum valde tenui pertusa; 
excipulum angustum, pallidum, fusco-lutescens, ex hyphis tenuissimis, tangen- 
tialibus et dense congluiinatis formatum, 35 — 50 {i crassum, involucrello fuli- 
gineo, semigloboso, ad basin truncate, usque ad basin excipuli producto et 
ibidem passim parum inflcxo, arete adhatrente obductum; nucleus conico- 
globosus, ad basin plus minus deplanatus; hymenium decolor, purum, I lu- 
tescens, imprimis asci; paraphyses capillares, strictmsculae, simplices, eseptatae, 
ad apicem non crassiores; asci anguste rapiformes, versus apicem angustata, in 
ipso vertice utplurimum retusuli, recti vel leviter curvuli, 8 spori, 80—85 V- 
longi et 8—9 [X lati; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, subcylindrico-fusifor- 
mes, ad spices rotundatae, rectae, 4 loculares, ad septa valde tenuia non con- 
strictae, membrana tenui cinctae, 22 — 28 [x longae et ± 3.5 ;x latae. 

Conceptacula p3'cnoconidioruni minuta, vix o.i mm lata, nigra, convexa; 
perifulerium fuligineum, dimidiatum; fulcra exobasidialia; pycnoconidia oblonga, 
parva 3,5 — 4 \l longa et ad i ;j, lata. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, bei 465 m. auf vulkanischem Gestein 
(C. und I. SkOTTSBEKG). 

Gehort in den Formenkreis der P. chlorotica (Ach.) Miill. Arg. und unter- 
scheidet sich von den iibrigen Arten desselben durch das dickliche, glatte 
Lager, grossere Apothezien und schmalere Sporen. 

*P. rufocarpella A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, tenuissimus, effusus, cervinus vel 
umbrino cervinus, opacus, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , continuus, laevigatus, in mar- 
gine linea obscuriore non limitatus, sorediis et isidiis destitutus, fere homoeo- 
mericus. gonidiis chroolepoideis, cellulis concatenatis, rotundatis vel subirre- 
gularibus, 8 — 10 a latis, contentu viridi-lutescente, membrana crassiuscula cinctis. 

Apothecia dispersa, exigua, vix 0,1 mm lata, convexa vel fere semiglobosa, 
rufescentia, opaca, poro haud conspicuo, a thallo omnino libera; excipulum 
integrum, globosum, angustum et decolor, involucrello sub lente subaurantiaco, 
KHO rufescente, filamentoso-subcelluloso, molli, dimidiato, excipulo adhaerenti 
praeditum; hymenium decolor, purum, I lutescens; paraphyses capillares, li- 
berae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem non latiores; asci fusiformes, recti vel 
curvuli, ad apicem angustati et in ipso apice rotundato-retusi, 75-/8 u, longi 
et 8—10 |i lati, 8 spori; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, oblongo-fusiformes 
vel oblongo dactyloideae, rectae, triseptatae, cellulis aequalibus, septis tenuibus, 
membrana tenui cinctae, 19 — 22 [j. longae et d: 3,5 u- latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, 465 m, auf einem etwas iiberhangenden 
vulkanischen Block (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

21 — 2391. The Xal. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter I si. Vol. II. 



322 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Habituell der vorigen, mit ihr an demselben Standort lebenden Art sehr 
ahnlich, aber mit ihr durch die kleinen, nicht schwarzen Apothezien nicht zu 
vervvechseln. Ahnliche Convergenzerscheinungen lassen sich auch bei anderen 
Gattungen (z. B, Buellia) auf Juan Fernandez beobachten. 

*P. depressula A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, subtartareus, tenuis, 0,12 — 0,18 {j. 
crassus, argillaceo cinerascens, madefactus argillaceus, opacus, KHO sanguineo- 
sordidescens, Ca CI2O2 non tinctus, effusus, subcontinuus vel irregulariter, mi- 
nute et tenuiter rimulosus, parum inaequalis, sorediis et isidiis nullis prae- 
ditus, linea obscuriore non cinctus, superne strato corticali tenui, subdecolore, 
ex hyphis intricatis formato obductus, caeterum fere homoeomericus; gonidia 
chroolepoidea, crebra. 

Apothecia verruciformia, dispersa vel approximata, sessilia, placentiformia, 
ad basin bene constricta, ad verticem deplanata, sessilia, thallo concolora, 
usque I mm lata, a thallo crassiuscule cincta (ibidem KHO sanguinea), in parte 
verticali excipuli partem apicalem e piano convexam, sordide fuscescentem et 
± pruinosulam, madefactam rufam vel rufo-nigricantem, usque 0,5 mm latam 
denudentia; excipulum integrum, inferne paulum angustius, rufescenti-ochraceum 
vel rufescenti-lutescens, KHO rufescens, circa ostiolun plus minus nigricans, ex 
hyphis tangentialibus, tenuibus et dense contextis formatum, globosum, superne 
in collum breve, sat abrupte angustatatum abiens; hymenium decolor, purum, I 
vix lutescens; paraphyses capillares, densae, strictae, liberae, simplices, escep- 
tatae, ad apicem non latiores; periphyses filiformes, tenuies, densae, strictae, 
collum intus obducentes; asci convergentes, oblongo- vel subcylindrico clavati, 
rectiusculi, ad apicem rotundati et membrana passim bene incressata cincti, 
8 spori; sporae in ascis biseriales, rarius subuniseriales, decolores, fusiformes 
vel dactyloideo-fusiformes, utrinque acutatae, rectae vel subrectae, 10 — 12 locu- 
lares, septis tenuibus et membrana tenui, 52 — 64 [x longae et 7,5—9 [J' latae. 

Pycnoconidia ignota. 

Masatierra : Quebrada Monte Maderugo, 390 m, auf einer Felswand (C. 
et I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas, auf einer feuchten, schattigen Fels- 
wand (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Was die aussere Erscheinung betrifft, so herrscht zuischen der obigen 
Art und der in Brasilien vorkommenden Porina exserta Miill. Arg. eine ge- 
wisse tJbereinstimmung, es ist mir wahrscheinlich, dass beide Arten in verwandt- 
schaftlicher Beziehung stehen. Indes ist die Gestaltung der Fruchtwarzen und 
der Sporen nicht in Einklang zu bringen. 



P3^renula Ach, 

Conspectus specierum: 

A. Apothecia extus a thallo obducta et tautum vertice libera 

P. as pis tea. 



DIE FLFXHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 323 

B- Apothecia nuda, nigra 

a. Sporae 16 — 18 X 6 — 8 [x P. maniillana. 

b. Sporae 19 — 23x8 — 11 [i P. Ktinthu. 

P. aspistca Ach. 

AcH. in Gesellsch. Naturf. Freund. Berlin. Magazin, vol. VI, 1814, p. 17, tab. 
II, fig. 8; A. Zahlbr., Catai. Lich. Univers., vol. I, 1922, p. 423. — Vernicaria 
aspistea Afz. apud Ach., Method. Lich., 1803, p. 121; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. 
Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- 93- 

Masaticrra: Auf Baumrinden, ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Bertero 
no. 411); Cordon Salsipuedes, auf Z?/7;;/jj'.y-Z\veigen (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*P. maniillana Trevis. 

Trevis., Conspect. Verruc, i860, p. 13; A. Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univers., 
vol. I, 1922, p. 436. — J'crriicaria viamillana Ach., Method. Lich., 1803, p. 279. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf Zweigen der Robinsoiiia thu- 
rifera; am Fusse eines Abhanges von El Yunque, bei 400 m, z.\x{ Myrceugciiia- 
Zvveigen; Portezuelo, bei 600 m, auf Stammen der Robinsonia tJmrtftra; Que- 
brada seca, 435 m, auf Dendroseris^\yi6.Q.\ Cordon Salsipuedes, 615 m, auf 
Dendroseris-Km^e (C. et I. Skottsberg). 

*P. Kunthii Fee. 

Fee, Suppl. Essai Crypt. Ecorc. Offic, 1837, p. 80, tab. XLI, fig. 18; A. 
Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univers., vol. I, 1922, p. 434. — Verrucaria Kiniihit Fee, 
Essai Crypt, ficorc. Offic, 1824, p. 88, tab. XXXIV, fig. 4. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, d^w'i Myrceugenia-'^\xi^&\ Portezuelo, beim 
SELKIRK-Denkmal 590 m, auf ^^r^^'r/V-Zweigen (C. et I. SKOTTSBERG). 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Mono, auf der Rinde der Myrceugenia Schulzei 
{C. et L Skottsberg). 



Astrotheliaceae. 
Pyrenastruni Eschw. 



P. chilense Mont. 

Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 204: 
JoHow, Estud. Flor. Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 201. — Pyretiastnim a?nericanum Mont, 
in Annal. Scienc. Nat., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- 94 ("O" Sprgl.). 

Masatierra: auf Fagava-^\vi<^&, ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Bertero 
no. 1622). 



5 24 ^' ZAHLBRUCKNER 

Sphaerophoraceae. 
Sphaerophorus Pers. 

S. melanocarpus DC. 

DC. apud Lam. et DC, Flor. Fran^-., edit. 2, vol. VI, 1805, p. 178; A. 
Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Univers., vol. I, 1922, p. 693. — Lichen melanocarpus Sw., 
Nova Gener. et Spec. Plant., 1788, p. 147. — Sphaerophoron comspressum Ach., 
Method. Lich., 1803, p. 135. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumstammen, ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Bertero), 
auf dem Riicken zwischen Quebrada Piedra agujereada und Quebrada Laura, 
625 m, am Fusse eines Driniys Stammes; Portezuelo, bei 500 m, auf Baum- 
stammen; Felskamm unw. Tres Puntas, 300-350 m (C. et L Skottsrerg). 

Masafuera: Las Torres, bei 1,200 m; Los Inocentes, siidoslliche Ab- 
hange, 950 m, im Z>/7wj'j'-Wald, am Fuss der Baumstamme (C. et L Skotts- 
BERG). 

Arthoniaceae. 

Arthonia Ach. 

Conspectus specierum: 

A. Apothecia lirellina, elongata. 

a. Sporae biloculares; loculi sporarum subaequales 

A. cytisi var. vieridionalis. 

b. Sporae triloculares; loculorum apicalis loculis reliquis latior et 
major 

L Sporae 11 — 15 <j. longae et 4 — 6 ij. latae A. subnebulosa. 

II. Sporae 15 — 17 ;j. longae et 5 — 6 [j. latae A. berberina. 

B. Apotheria rotundata vel angulosa; sporae 4 — 6 loculares, loculus spo- 
rarum supremus maxlmus A. coniplanata. 

*A. cytisi Mass. — Taf. 24, Fig. i. 

Mass. in Nuov. Annal. Sc. Nat. Bologna, vol. VII, 1835, p. 216; A. Zahlbr., 
Catal. Lich. Univ., vol. II, 1922, p. 36. — Arthonia excipicnda Nyl., Lich. Scandin, 
1861, p. 261. 

var meridionalis A. Zahlbr. nov. var. — Taf. 24, Fig. 3 — 4. 

Lirellae tenuiores et praesertim magis ramosae et plus minus radiatae. 
Caeterum cum planta europaea congruens. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra, 590 m, auf den Zweigen der Bci- 
beris coryvibosa (C. et I. Skottsberg). 

*A. subnebulosa A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epiphloeodes, tenuissimus, substratum arete obducens, effusus, in 
margine late ochraceo lutescens et nitidulus, in parte central! magis albescens, 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 325 

subnitidiis vel fere opacus, KHO — , Ca CljOj — , lacvigatus, continiiiis, in 
anibitii linea tenui et nij^iicante cinctus, molliusculus, sorediis et isidiis desti- 
tiitiis, homoeoniericus; goiiidia chroolepoidea, celkilis concatenatis, plus minus 
rotundatis, 6 — lO [>. latis, contentu dilute viridi-lutesccnte impletis. 

A[)c)thecia sessilia, depressa, niaculifornii substellata, raniis brcvibus, ut- 
plurimuni confluentibus, i — 1,3 mm latis et paulum lonj^icjribus, obscure fusca, 
epruinosa, emart^iiiata, denium clabeiitia; hymenium angustum, superne rufo- 
fuscum et KMO paulum in olivaceum ver<;cns, caeterum decolor et purum, I 
cupreum; hypotliecium decolor; [)araphyses tenues, eseptatae, intricatae; asci 
pyriformi subglobosae, ad basin abrupte cuneati, 28—30 (j. longi et 18 — 20 [j. 
lati, 8 spori; sporae in ascis 3— 4 seriales, ex incolore mox fuscidulae et demum 
fusco-obscuratae, solaeformes, rectae vel curvulae, triloculares, loculus apicalis 
reliquis latior et major, membrana tenui cinctae, 11 — 15 [j, longae et 4—6 ;j, 
latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Gutierrez, auf yuama-R'mde (C. et I. SkottS- 
BERG). 

Die neue Art gehort zu jenen Arthonien, welche konstant dreizellige Spo- 
ren besitzen. Die Sporen der bisher bekannten Arten dieses Formenkreises 
sind durchwegs grosser. Benachbarte Arten diirften Arthonia epJiclodes Nyl. 
und Arthonia sciUila Krph. sein. 

*A. berberina A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. — Taf. 24, Fig. 2. 

Thallus epiphloeodes, tenuis, uniformis, flavido-albescens, nitidulus et laevi- 
gatus, circa apothecia albidior, opacus et leviter verruculoso-inaequalis, KHO — , 
Ca CI2O2 — , effusus, continuus, sorediis et isidiis destitutus, in margine passim 
linea nigricante et tenui cinctus; gonidia chroolepoidea. 

Apothecia sessilia, immarginata, fusco-nigricantia, epruinosa, madefacte 
plus minus in sanguineo-fuscum vergentia, irregulariter stellato-radiata, ramis 
sat brevibus, angustis, ad apicem rotundatis vel retusatis, convexiusculis, usque 
I mm longis; hymenium superne rufo-fuscum, KHO nigricans, non inspersum, 
caeterum decolor, purum, 70—80 jj. altum, I e coeruleo cupreo-sordidescens; 
hypothecium tenue, pallidum, flavescens, molle, ex hyphis intricatis formatum; 
paraphyses tenuies, ramosae et intricatae, parum distinctae, eseptatae; asci 
late pyri formes, ovali- vel subgloboso-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana 
crassa cincti, 40—48 [i longi et 16 — 18 [x lati, 8 spori; sporae in ascis triseriales, 
decolores, ellipsoideae vel oblongo-subcuneatae, utrinque rotundatae, rectae, 
triseptatae, loculus apicalis reliquis multum major et paulum latior, septis te- 
nuibus, ad septa non constrictae, 15 — 17 \\. longae et 5 — 6 [i latae, I cupreae. 

Conceptacula pycnoconidiorum minuta, punctiformia, vertice nigro, vix 
prominulo; perifulcrium dimidiatum, sub lente obscure fuscum; fulcra exo- 
basidialia; pycnoconidia bacillaria, recta vel subrecta, 3,5 — 4 \\. longa at ad 
0,6 [J. lata, 

Masatierra: Portezuelo, beim SELRIRK-Denkmal, 590 m, auf Berberis- 
Zvveiglein (C. et I. Skottsberg). 

Die Art gehort in den Artenkreis der Arthonia varia (Ach.) Nyl. und 



326 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



vveicht durch die Gesamtheit der Merkmale von den ubrigen Gliedern der 
Gruppe ab. 

*A. complanata Fee. 

Fee, Essai Crypt, ficorc. Officin., 1824, p. 54; A. Zahlbr., Catal. Lich. Uni- 
vers., vol. II, 1922, p. 32 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, auf Drimys-Z\\Q\gt\\ (C. und I. Skotts- 
BERG). 

Graphidaceae. 

Graphis (Adans.) Ach. 
•G. iiitricata Fee. 

Fee, Essai Crypt, ficorc. Officin., 1824, p. 42, tab. IX, fig. 3; A. Zahlbr.' 
Catal. Lich. Univ., vol. II, 1923, p. 313. 

Masatierra: Quebrada seca, 435 m, 2i\xi Fagara-lWnde (C. und I. Skotts- 
berg). 

Die Stiicke von Juan Fernandez zeigen nur seltener sternformige Lirellen, 
diese sind zumeist einfach oder sparlich verzweigt, doch bildet FEE auch solche 
ab. Die Sporen fand ich 8 — 9-zellig, 36—40 [j. lang und 8,5 — 9 V- breit. Das 
ExcipLilum ist kohlig, geschlossen, am Grunde abgestutzt und nur etvvas dicker; 
die Lippen sind zugespitzt und neigen gegen einander. 

*G. Duniastii Sprgl. 

Sprgl., Syst. Veget., vol. IV, pars i, 1827, p. 254; A. Zahlbr, Catal. Lich. 
Univers., vol. II, 1923, p. 302. — Fisstirina Dumastii Fee, Essai Crypt, ficorc. 
Officin., 1824, p. XC, tab. I, fig. 7 et p. 59, tab. XVI, fig. 4. 

Masatierra: Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf der Rinde der Dendroseris 
micrantha (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Lirellae labiis thallinis integris, superne conniventibus, strato corticali an- 
gusto, 12 — 16 [x crasso, decolore, subchondroideo, ex hyphis dense conglutinatis 
longitudinalibus formato obductae, gonidia pauca et meduUam subcineream 
includentes; excipulum rudimentarium, anguste flabellatum, sordide fuscidulum, 
parti superiori hymenii adnatum; hypothecium valde angustum, decolor; hy- 
menium decolor, purum, superne non obscuratum, I vix lutescens; paraphyses 
strictae, filiformes, contextae, simplices, eseptatae; asci anguste clavati, 8 spori; 
sporae in ascis subuniseriales, decolores, late ellipsoideae, apicibus obtuse rotun- 
datis, rectae, 4 loculares, loculis lentiformibus, 21 — 24 |j. longae et 10 — 13 jj. 
latae, I pallide aurantiaco-cupreae. 



MontaGNE gibt fur Masatierra als auf Rinden lebend noch G^-'-rt/Z/w j-fr/^/rt 
(L.) Ach. an. Mir ist diese Flechte in der SKOTTSBERG'schen Aufsammlung 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ- INSELN 327 

nicht aufgefallen. Ich halte ihr Vorkommen nicht fiir wahrscheinlich, obwohl 
sie auch fiir Chili angegeben wird. Die alteren Angaben dieser Flechte beziehen 
sicli vielfach auf andere Arten der Gattung Graphis, 



Phaeographina Miill. Arg. 

P. sculpturata Mull. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXV, 1882, p. 399 et in Memoir. Soc. Phys. et 
Hist. Nat. Geneve, vol. XXIX, no. 8, 1887, p. 48; A. Zahlbr. in Sitzungsber. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.naturw. KL, vol. CXI, Abt. i, 1902, p. 388, tab. II, fig. 
15 — 16. — Graphis scalpturata Ach., Synops. Lich., i8i4, p. 86; Mont, in Annal. 
Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 93. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden, ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Berteko 
no. 1612). 

Ich fand diese in den subtropischen und tropischen Regionen lebende 
Flechte in der SKOTTSBERG'schen Aufsammlung nicht. Die Angabe ware zu 
liberpriifen. 

Chiodectonaceae. 

Enterostigma. 

E. Skottsbergii A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 1917, p. 9. 

Masafuera: auf dem Hochplateau, 1,100—1,200 m, auf Lava (C. et I. 
Skottsberg). 

Dirinaceae. 

Dirina Fr. 
*D. limitata Xyl. 

Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1855, p. 158. 
Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, auf Strandfelsen (C. et I. Skottsberg). 

Lecanactidaceae. 
Schismatomma Fw. et Korb. 

*S. accedens A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Lecidea accede7is Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1855, p. 163 
et vol. XI, 1869, p. 225, not. — Toni7iia accedens A. Zahlbr. in Beiheft. zum Bot. 
Centralbl., vol. XIX, 2. Abt., 1905, p. 77. 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Thallus epilithicus, crassiusculus, bullatus, buUato-verrucosus vel subcere- 
brinus, veirucae ad ambitum thalli subdispersae, mox autem confluentes et 
thallum expansuni formantes, rufescenti-fuscescens vel badius, rarius primum 
testaceo-fuscescens, fere opacus, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , in superficie laevigatus 
vel toruloso-subplicatus, subtiis niger vel nigrescens, sorediis et isidiis nullis, 
hypothallo nigricante, ex hyphis formato laxiuscule retiformi-contextis, fuscis 
vel nigricantibus, usque 3,5 [J. crassis, raniosis; superne et ad latere verrucarum 
distincte, subtus minus distincte corticatus; cortex ad ambitum rufo-fuscus, 
caeterum decolor, chondroideus, 44— 90 [x crassus, ex hyphis intricatis et dense 
contextis formatur, non inspersus; medulla crassa, solida, tartarea, alba vel 
dilute flavescenti-albida, KHO, Ca CI2O2 et KHO + Ca CI2O2 non tingitur, I 
lutescit, ex hyphis inspersis, intricatis, ad 2 [j, crassis, sat leptodermaticitis for- 
mata; stratum gonidiale infra corticem superiorem situm, continuum, gonidiis 
chroolepoideis, cellulis rotundatis vel irregularibus, increbre concatenatis, con- 
tentu pallide viridescente, membrana tenui cinctis, 8 — 16 \x longis. 

Apothecia e verrucis erumpentia, mox alte sessilia vel subpodicellata, 
dispersa, lecanorina, rotunda vel rotundata, demum sinuoso flexuosa, ad basin 
bene constricta, usque 2 5 mm lata; receptaculum extus Jaevigatum, corticatum, 
medullam sat amplam et gonidia includens; discus dense caesio-pruinosus, albus, 
opacus, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , planus vel convexiusculus, demum (ut videtur 
morbose) pruina destitutus et niger; margo tenuis, integer vel subinteger, thallo 
concolor vel paulum pallidior, leviter prominulus, persistens; hypothecium 
obscure rufo-fuscum vel nigricans, ad latera sat tenue, infra hymenium crassiu- 
sculum, ex hyphis plus minus perpendicularibus, versus hymenium non bene 
limitatis et passim in cum penetrantibus formatum; hymenium superne crassius- 
cule pulverulento-inspersum, sordidum, caeterum fere decolor vel dilute fuscescens, 
spumoso-inspersum, 170 — 190 [x altum, I vinose cupreum vel pro parte aeru- 
ginoso-obscuratum; paraphyses filiformes, 1,5—1,8 [x crassae, leviter flexuosae, 
ramosae et subintricatim connexae, eseptatae, ad apicem non latiores; asci 
hymenio subaequilongi, facile liberi, clavati, ad basin caudato angustati, ad 
apicem rotundati et membrana incrassata cincti, 8 spori; sporae in ascis biseriales, 
subdigitiformes, ellipsoideo-oblongae vel oblongo-fusi formes, utrinque rotundati, 
rectae, triseptatae, septis tenuibus, 20 — 25 jj- longae et 5,5 — 8 ;j, latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Ohne ein Urstiick der NvLANDER'schen Art gesehen zu haben, bin ich 
bei den augenfalligen habituellen Merkmalen dieser Flechte sicher, sie richtig 
gedeutet zu haben. Nylander steilte die Flechte zu den Toninicji, in welcher 
Aufifassung ich ihm friiher folgte, da ich keine Gelegenheit hatte, sie naher zu 
studieren. Ubrigens sagt NvLANDER selbst, dass er seine Beschreibung nach 
einem kiimmerlichen Exemplar entwarf, sonst ware ihm der Gonidientypus 
sicherlich nicht fremd geblieben. Von den Paraphysen wird ferner gesagt, 
dass sie »graciles» waren, was die Frage, ob in einfach oder verzweigt, ein- 
fach, wie bei Tonmia, oder verastelt und mehr weniger netzartig-verbunden, 
wir bei Schisviatomma seien, ofifen lasst. Audi das bei den Schismatomnien 
und Lecanactis-AxtQn so oft zu beobachtendeleichte Loslosen der Schlauche von 



DIE FLECHTEN DEK JUAN FICRNANDEZINSELN 329 

den Paraphysen wird nicht crwrihnt. Alle dicse Mcrkmale aber sind fur die 
ijenerische Einreihmig dcr Meclite massgebend. 

Habituell ahnlich ist die ebenfalls auf Juan Fernandez: vorkommende 
Tojiinia hullata, sie kann aber mit dieser Flechte wegen des glanzenden 
Tliallus und dcr schwarzen Apotiiezien schon ausserlich nicht verwechselt wer- 
den; bei mikroskopischer Untersuchung tretcn die trennendcn Merkmale noch 
mehr hervor. 

[C h r y s ot h ri c a c e a e. 

CJirysothrix noli iangcrc Mont, in Annal. Scicnc. Nat., Bot., ser. 3, vol. XVIII, 
1852, p. 313 et apud Gav, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Clule, Bot., vol. VIII, 1S52, p. 213; 
Mass. in I. R. Istit. Veneto, ser. 3, vol. V, i860, p. 499, tab. Ill; Senft in Ber. 
Deutsch. Bot. Gesellsch., vol. XXXIV, 1916, p. 592, tab. XVII. — Cilicia noli 
tangcre .Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. II, 1834, p. 375, tab. XVI, 
tig. 2 et vol. IV, 1835, P- 94- 

Zweifelhaft. Montagne schreibt, Prodr., 1835 p. 94: Crescit ad ramulos ar- 
borum et in Usnea ceratina: Sterilis lecta. Specimina chilensia sola friictifera vidi. — 
Hertero coll. n. 176. — In Anna!. 1834 werden nur Bertero's Exemplare aiis 
Chile erwiihnt: diese sind fertil, die insularen sollen aber steril sein. Wahrscheinlich 
stammen aber auch die sterilen Stiicke aus Chile, je den falls die auf Usnca wach- 
senden, aber wohl anch die anderen. Niiheres bei Ramalitia und Usnea\ 



Byssocaulon Mont. 

B. niveum Mont. — Taf. 25, Fig. 2. 

Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot , ser. 2, vol. Ill, 1835, p. 355; Born in 
Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 5, vol. XVII, 1873, p. 60, tab. VII, fig. 5; Bonnier 
in Journ. de Bot., vol. I, 1887, p. 3, fig. 6; Nyl., Lich. Japon., 1890. p. 59. — 
Parinelia gossypina var. jilamcntosa Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 3, vol. 
XVI, 1 85 1, p^ 50 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 
144; JoHow, Estud. Flor. Juan Fernandez, 1896, p. 201. — Byssocaulon jilamcn- 
tosum Nyl. in Memoir. Soc. Scienc. Natur. Cherbourg, vol. V, 1857, p. 119. — Cro- 
cynia nivea Hue in Memoir. Soc. Nation. Scienc. Natur. Cherbourg, vol. XXXVII, 
1909, p. 244. 

Masatierra: auf Baumrinden in schattigen Waldern der hochsten Berge 
(Bertero); Cordon Central, 500 m, auf feuchten Felsen iiber verwitterten 
Moosen (C. und I. Skottsberg); Pangal, bei 600 m, iiber Moosen (C. und I. 
Skottsberg); am Wege bei Portezuelo, auf Baumrinden (C. und L Skottsberg). 



Thelotremaceae. 
Ocellularia Sprgl. 

*0. (sect. Ascidiwn) subdenticiilata A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. — Taf. 24, 
Fig. 6. 

Thallus substratum obducens, tenuis, submembranaceus, albus, opacus, 
KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , continuus, plus minus aequalis, sorediis et isidiis destitutus, 
baud bene limitatus et linea obscuriore non cinctus. 



33° 



ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Apothecia dispersa vel approximata, sessilia, depresso-subglobosa, ad basin 
distincte constricta, 0,6—0,8 mm lata et fere totidem alta; discus immersus, 
pallide fusco-rufescenticarneus, opacus, epruinosus, angustus et demum hymenio 
elapso dilatatus; receptaculum rufescenti-albidum, circa discum album, marginem 
annulatum, demum crenulatum vel subdenticulatum formans; excipulum duplex, 
interius decolor, angustum, ex hyphis tangentialibus, tenuibus et dense conglu- 
tinatis formatum, exterius sat crassum, obscure rufofuscum, KHO sanguineo- 
rufescens; hymenium decolor, purum, I lutescens, non columellatum; paraphyses 
capillares, densae, strictae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem non latiores; asci 
saccato-clavati, recti, ad apicem rotundati et membrana incrassata cincti, 4 — 8 
spori, I cuprei; sporae in ascis 2 — 3 seriales, decolores, fusiformes, plus minus 
vermiculares, 16—20 loculares, loculis depresso-lentiformibus, centralibus re- 
liquis paulum latioribus, 50—80 [j. longae et 7—9 [J. latae, I violascentes. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masafiiera: Nordlicher Teil der hohen Kammes, auf bemoosten Dkk- 
soma-SVammen (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Thelotrema (Ach.) Mull. Arg. 

*T. lepadinum Ach. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, auf Baumrinden (C. et I Skottsberg); 
Quebrada Gutierrez, auf Jua^t/aRmde (C. et I. SKOTTSBERG); Quebrada seca, 
435 m, auf der Rinde von Coprosnia und Fagaj-a (C. et I. SKOTTSBERG). 

Masafiiera: Quebrada de la Loberia, im Walde auf Z^w/rt-'Rinde, 800 m 
(C. et I. Skottsberg). 

Stimmt mit der europaischen Pflanze vollig uberein. Auf diese Flechte 
diirfte sich jenes Thclostyevia beziehen, welche Crombie (Journ. Linn. Soc. 
London, Bot., vol. XVI, p. 223) ohne nahere Bestimmung der Art fiir Juan 
Fernandez angibt. 

Diploschistaceae. " 
Diphloschistes Norm. 

A. Apothecia pyrenocarpoidea, disco minuto et margine radiato plicato; 
thallus KHO D. actbiostomus. 

B. Apothecia lecanorina, disco lato; thallus KHO lutescens 

D. scruposus var. arenarius. 

D. actinostonius A. Zahlbr, 

A. Zahlbr. in Hedwigia, vol. XXXI, 1892, p. 34; A. L. Smith, Monogr. Brit. 
Lich., vol. I, 1918, p. 384; Wain, in Acta Acad. Sclent. Fennic , ser. A, vol. VI, 
no. 7, 1915, p. 132. — Urceolaria acti7iostoma Pers. apud Ach., Lichenogr. Univ., 
18 ID, p. 288. — Verrucaria acimostoma Ach., Lichenogr. Univ., 1810, p. 28S; 
Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 93. 

Masatierra: Auf Felsen in den Bergen (Bertero no. 374). 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 33 1 

D. scruposus Norm. 

Norm, in Nyt Magaz. for Naturv., vol. VII, 1853, p. 232. — Urceolaria 
scrtiposa Ach., Method. Lich., 1803, p. 147; Cromb. in Journ. Linn. Soc. London, 
Bot., vol. XVI, 1877, p. 223; JoHow, Estud. Flor. Juan Fernandez, 1896, p. 200. 

Masaticrra: ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Moseley). 

var. arenarius Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Hedwigia, vol. XXXIII, 1892, p. 196; Stnr. in Verhandl. 
zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, vol. LXI, 191 1, P- 45- — Urceolaria scruposa v2iV. arenaria 
Schaer., Lich. Helvet. Spicil., sect. 2, 1826, p. 75. 

Masatierra: Puerto Frances, auf der Erde (C. und L Skottsberg); Cor- 
don Centinela, auf losem Tuff (C. und L Skottsberg); Strandgebiet zvvischen 
der Kolonie und Pangal, auf der Erde (C. und I, SKOTTSBERG). 



Gyalectaceae. 
Microphiale (Stzbg.) A. Zahlbr. 

*M. liitea A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-naturw. Classe, vol. 
CXI, I. Abt., 1902, p. 393. — Liche7i liiteus Dicks., Fasc. Plant. Crypt. Brit., vol. I, 
1785, p. II, tab. II, fig. 6. 

Receptaculum crassiuscule corticatum, cortice chondroideo, extus anguste 
ochraceo-flavescente, intus hyalino, ex hyphis radiantibus, tenuibus et intricatis 
formate, meduUam et gonidia increbra, in parte inferiore sita includente; 
hypothecium lutescens, molle, ex hyphis intricatis forraatur; hymenium superne 
anguste dilute sordidescens, caeterum decolor et purum, 70 — 80 [i. altum, I e 
coeruleo aeruginoso sordidulum; paraphyses strictae, filiformes, simplices, esep- 
tatae, ad apicem non latiores; asci oblongo clavati, hymenio subaequilongi, ad 
apicem angustato rotundati et membrana vix crassiore praediti, 8 spori; sporae 
in ascis plus minus biseriales, decolores, fusiformi-oblongae, ad apices rotun- 
datae, rectae, uniseptatae, septo et membrana tenui, cellulis acqualibus, 10 — 13 \i. 
longae et 3.5 — 4 [j, latae. 

Masatierra: auf dem Riicken oberhalb Pangal, 400 m, auf Coprosma py- 
rifoliuDi und Ouebrada seca, 435 m, auf Coprosma trifloniui (C. und I. SKOTTS- 
BERG). 

Masafuera; Ouebrada del Mono, 475 m, auf Myrceugenia Sclmlzei (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

Gyalecta Ach. 

*G. jenensis A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Lichen jenensis Batsch, Elench. Fungor., Cent, prima, 1786, p. 219, fig. 153. 
— Lichen cupularis Hedw., Descript. et Adumbr. Muscor. Frondos., vol. II, 17895 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



p. 58, tab. XX, fig. B. — Gyalecta aipularis Schaer., Lich. Helvet. Spicil., sect. 2^ 
1826, p. 79. 

Masatierra: Bahi'a del Padre, auf Strandklippen und auf der Steilwand 
siidlich von Tres Puntas, 380 m (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Pachyphiale Lonnr. 

P. cornea Poetsch et Schiederm. 

PoETSCH und Schiederm., Aufzahl. samenl. Pflanzen., 1872, p. 222. — LicJien 
Cornells With., A Botan. Arrang. Brit. Plants, vol. II, 1776, p. 712. — Lecidea car- 
neola Ach., Lichenogr. Univ., 1810, p. 194, tab. II, fig. 7. — Biatora car?ieola Fr. 
in Kgl. Vetensk -Akad. Nya Handl., 1822, p. 267; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., 
Bot,, ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. q,^ et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., 
vol. VIII, 1852, p. 174; JoHow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernandez, i8g6, p. 201. 

Masatierra: auf Baumrinden (Bertero no. 29). 

Unter den von Skottsberg gesammelten Flechten fand ich diese Art nicht. 



Coenogoniaceae. 
Coenogonium Ehrbg. 

*C. velutinuni A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus glauco-cinerascens, opacus, substrate omnius adnotus, aequaliter 
velutino-pannosus, pulvinulos deplanatos, rotundatos, usque 4 cm latos et demum 
plus minus confluentes, caeterum bene limitatos formans; filamenta 7,5—9,5 (x 
crassa, septata, cellulis cylindricis, 18—25 {i longis, ad septa non constrictis, 
membrana et septo mediocri cinctis, increbre ramosa, extus hyphis verti- 
calibus. 

Apothecia biatorina, sessilia, dispersa vel approximata, usque 1,2 mm lata, 
ceraceo aurantiaca, epruinosa, e concaviusculo subplana vel vix convexa; margo 
disco pallidior, albldellus, tenuis, integer, persistens; excipulum integrum ad 
latera hymenii angustius quam infra hypothecium, ex hyphis radiantibus, dense 
conglutinatis et crebre septatis formatum, paraplectenchymaticum, I dilute 
coerulescens; hypothecium pallidum, flavescens, ex hyphis valde tenuibus et 
intricatis contextum; hymenium fere decolor, tantum superne dilute flavens, 
puruin, 100 -110 [i. altum, I e coeruleo mox rufescenti-obscuratum; paraphyses 
graciles, strictae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem baud latiores; asci copiosi, 
angusti, subcylindrici et paulum clavati, hymenio subaequilongi, 8 spori; sporae 
in ascis subuniseriales, decolores, ellipsoideae vel ellipsoideo-fusi formes, versus 
apices angustatae, uniseptatae, membrana et septo tenui, ad septa non con- 
strictae, rectae, 9,5 — 11 jx longae et 3 — 3,5 ^ longae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: an den siidlichen Abhangen des El Yunque, 500 m, auf 
Z)77>;y/J--Stammen (C. und I. SKOTTSBERG). 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 333 

Die Lagerfaden, Gestalt und Grosse der Sporen sind vvie bei Coenogoniiim 
complexuin Nyl., aber die Paraphysenende sind nie kopfformig, ausserdem ist 
das Lager gleichmassig ausgebreitet und tragt keine zottigen Hiischel. 



Racodiiiin Ft. 
R. riipestre Pers. 

Cvstocolcus ri/pcsfris Thw.; Joiiow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, ]). 203. 

Masatierra : ohne nahcren Standort, auf vulkanischem Gestein (Joiiow.) 

Collemaceae. 
Lemmopsis (Wain.) A. Zahlbr. 

*L. polychidioides A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. — Taf. 25, Fig. 7. 

Thallus minute filarnentose et irregulariter ramosus, ramis densi.s, fijifor- 
mibus, cylindricis, vix 0,1 mm latis, sat brevibus/decumbentibus, rigidiU-sculis 
ct iniple.Kis, luride fuscescentibus, madefactis obscurioribus, homoeomericus, 
omnim paraplectenchymaticus, cellulis marginalibus angulosis, internis magis 
rotundatis, omnibus valde leptodermaticis, 6 — ii (x latis, ad ambitum thalii extus 
strato tenui, amorpho, lutescente passim tectis; gonidia nostocacea, concatenata, 
catenis ut plurimum abbrevialis, cellulis rotundis, 5~^ \^' latis. 

Apothecia biatorina, sessilia, 1 — 1,5 nim lata, rufa, opaca, e concaviusculo 
demum convexa; margo disco paulum dilutior, tenuis, integer; receptaculum ex 
hyphis radiantibus, septatis (cellulis cylindricis) et leptodermaticis formatum; 
excipulum dimidiatum, tantum ad latera hymenii evolutum et leviter infra hy- 
menium productum, ex hyphis tangentialibus, tenuibus, dense contextis com- 
positum; hypothecium sat crassum, fere hymenio subaequilatum, subdecolor 
(pallide lutescens), ex hyphis intricatis formatum; hymenium superne anguste 
rufofuscum, caeterum decolor et purum, 100 — no [i altum, I e coeruleo cupreo- 
luridum; paraphyses filiformes, conglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem 
clavatae; asci cylindrico-clavati, hymenio subaequilongi, ad apicem rotundati et 
membrana modice incrassata cincti, 8 spori; sporae in ascis uni- vel subbiseriales, 
simplices, decolores, ovales vel late ellipsoideae, utrinque acutatae, membrana 
tenui cinctae, 12 — 15 [^ longae et 7,5 — 8 ]x latae. 

Pycnoconidia. ignota. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, auf morschen Baumzvveigen (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

Im Habitus gleicht die neue Art sehr dem PolycJiidiuvi uiuscicolinn, nur die 
Apothezien sind heller und zeigen das Rotbraun der Pannaria- h.\iO\\\&z\Q.x\. Das 
Lager ist anatomisch gebaut wie die Arten der Sekzion Hovwdium der Gattung 
Leptogiian. Lemmopsis Armtldiana (Hepp) A. Zahlbr. besitzt eine obere und 
untere Rinde aus eckigen Zellen gebildet, das Innere ist homoemerisch, wie 
bei Colleina; diese Art entspricht demnach in ihrem anatomische Bau der 
Sekzion Euleptogium. Somit sehen wir derzeit bei Lemmopsis zwei anato- 



334 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



mische Typen inbezug des Lagers und es lassen sich darauf in analoger Weise 
zwei Sekzionen: Enlemmopsis A. Zahlbr. nov. sect, und Homodiopsis A. Zahlbr. 
nov. sect, begriinden. 



Physma Mass. 

*P. chilense Hue. — Taf. 25, Fig. 4. 

Hue in Bull. Soc. Linn. Normand., ser. 5, vol. IX, igo6, p. 126. — Physvia 
tricolor A. Zahlbr. in Annal. Mycolog., vol. VI, 1908, p. 132. — Lechler, Plant. 
Chilens. exsicc. no. 637! 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra, bei 500 m, auf Astchen der Fagara 
Mayu, fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Leptogium (Ach.) S. Gray. 

A. Thallus subtus nudus, rhizinis nullis. 

a. Apothecia pustulis thalli inflatis, excavatis imniersa; margo thal- 
linus plicato-rugosus L. pJiyllocarpiim. 

b. Apothecia peltato sessilia, lecanorina; margo ± integer. 

a. Thallus tenuiter isidiosus L. caesium. 

p. Thallus nudus, isidiis destitutus. 

L Stratum medullare tenue, haud distincte mucosum. 

1. Thallus plumbens vel coerulescens L. molbiccanum. 

2. Thallus atroviridis L. mohiccamnn f. niariamun. 
II. Stratum medullare bene evolutum et bene mucosum 

L. tremelloides. 

B. Thallus subtus dense albo-rhizinosus L. Menziesii. 

C. Thallus utrinque tomentosus L. callitham7iium . 

*L. moluccanuni Wain. 

Wain., Ltud. Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 1890 p. 223; A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. 
Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 19 17, p. 12. — Collema inoliiccanu7n Pers. 
apud Gaudich., Voy. Uranie, Bot., 1826, p. 203. 

Haufig auf Juan Fernandez. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Damajuana, 248 m, auf Baumrinden im Walde, 
fruchtend; Bahia Cumberland, Cordon Central, 530 m, auf Dendroseris, fruch- 
tend, Valle Colonial, Quebrada del Portezuelo, 349 m, im Walde auf Rinden, 
fruchtend; Quebrada seca, auf Dendroseris micrantha; Quebrada Monte Ma- 
derugo, auf Rinden; Cordon Salsipuedes, 2,u^ Margyricarpus, fruchtend; Riicken 
zwischen Quebrada Laura und Quebrada Piedra agujereada, 625 m, auf Rin- 
den, fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Quebrada de la Loberia, 250 — 300 m, auf Baumrinden und 
Steinen im Walde, fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 335 

f. niarianuni Wain. 

Wain., fitud. Lich. Bresil, vol. I, i8qo, p. 224. ■ — CoUema mariaman Pers. 
apud Gaudich., Voy. Uranie, Bot., 1826, p. 203; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., 
Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 93. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden (Bertero no. 1645). — Vielleicht nur dcr 
Typus der Art. 

L. tremelloidcs S. Gray. 

S. Gray, A Natur. Arrang. Brit. Plants, vol. I, 182 1, \^. 400; Wain., fitud. 
Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 1890, p. 224 et in Annal. Acad. Scient. Fennic, ser. A, vol. 
VI, no. 7, 191 5, p. 107. — Lichen tremelloidcs Linn, f., Suppl. Spec. Plant., 1781, 
P- 450- 

Masatierra: Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf Myrceugenia-KxwdiQ:^ fruchtend 
(C. und L Skottsberg). 

var. azureum Nyl. 

Nyl. Synops. Lich., vol. L 1858, p. 125. — Lichen aznreus Sw. apud Ach., 
Lichenogr. Suec. Prodr., 1798, p. 137. — Collcma a?,ureum Ach., Lichenogr. Uni- 
vers., iSio, p. 664; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 
93. — Leptogium azureum Mont, apud Webb, Hist. Natur. lies Canar., vol. Ill, 2 
part., 1840, p. 129; Cromb. in Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., vol. XVI, 1877, p. 
223 et in Rep. Voy. Challenger, Bot., 1835, P- ^9- 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden, ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Bertero 
no. 1640; Moseley). 

*L. caesium Wain. 

Wain., fitud. Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 1890, p. 225. — CoUema tremelloidcs var. 
caesiu?n Ach., Lichenogr. Univers., 1810, p. 656. 

Masatierra: Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf Rinden, steril und Quebrada 
Juanango, 250 in, auf Rinden, fruchtend (C. und L SkoTTSRERG). 

Masafuera: Quebrada de la Loberia, 280 m, auf glatten Baumrinden, 

steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

L. phyllocarpuni Mont. 

Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 3, vol. X, 1848, p. 134; Wain., Etud. 
Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 1890, p. 230. — Callcma phyllocarpum Pers. apud Gaudich., 
Voy. Uranie, Bot., 1826, p. 204; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. 
IV, 1835, P- 93- 

Masatierra: Auf Baumzweigen in den feuchteren und kiihleren Gebirgs- 
waldern (Bertero no. 1644). Cordon Centinela, 530-600 m, auf Baumasten, 
fruchtend und Portezuelo de Villagra, bei 500 m, auf Fagara'k?>iQX\, fruchtend 
(C. und L Skottsberg). 



^^6 A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

*L. Menziesii Mont. 

Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 3, vol. XVIII, 1852, "p. 313 et apud 
Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 223, tab. XIII, fig. 5; 
Nyi.., Synops. Lich., vol. I, 1858, p. 128; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 
3, vol. X, 1898, p. 229. — LicJmi Menziesii Sm. apud Ach., Method. Lich., 1803, 
p. 221. 

Masafuera: im Hochlande, bei 1,200 m, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

L. callithaiiiniuni Nyl. 

Nyl. Synops. Lich., vol. I, 1858, p. 126; Wain, in Annal. Acad. Scient. 
Fennic , ser. A, vol. VI, 191 5, p. 105. — Sticia callithamnia Tayl. in Hook., Lon- 
don Journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, P- 183. — Sticti?7a callithairmia Miill. Arg. in 
Flora, vol. LXXl, 1888, ]i- 164; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, p. 137. 

Masatierra: ohne Standortsangabe (Bertero no. 1639!); Cordon Cen- 
tinela, 530 m, auf Baumrinden, steril und Ouebrada seca, 435 m, auf Baum- 
rinde, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Den anatomischen Bau des Lagers fand ich mit der Beschreibung VVainio's 
vollig ubereinstimmend; dieser und die Gestalt der Sporen sind fur die gene- 
riche Zuvveisung ausschlaggebend. 



Pannariaceae. 
Parmeliella Mijll. Arg. 

A. Thallus caespitosopolyphylius ut in Dermatocarpone aquatico, livido- 
fuscescens, species saxicola P. syniptycliia- 

B. Thallus subcrustoso-squamulosus, squamis planis et adpressis, pallidus; 
species corticola P. nigrocincta. 

P. nigrocincta Miill. Arg. 

MxJLL. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXIV, 1881, p. 86. — Parvielia 7iigrocincta Mont. 
in Annal. Scienc, Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 91 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. 
y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 142; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernandez, 
1896, p. 200. — Pannaria nigrocincta Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. 
Ill, 1855, p. 182 et Synops. Lich., vol. II, 1863, P- 39i Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du 
Museum, ser. 4, vol. X, (1908) 1909, p. 204. 

Masatierra: ohne Standortsangabe, aufRindcn (Bertero); Cordon Chifla- 
dores, 350 m, auf Robinsonia thiirifei-a, auf dem Rucken iiber Pangal, 4C0 m, 
und Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf Coprosma (C. und L SKOTTSBERG). 

Masafuera: Quebrada Loberia, 300 m, auf Baumrinden (C. und L SKOTTS- 
BERG). 

Parmeliella (.^) syniptychia A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Pannaria syniptychia Tuck, in Proceed. Americ. Acad. Acts and Scienc, vol. 
XII, 1877, p. 168 et Synops. North Americ. Lich., vol. II, 1888, p. 144. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 337 

Auf Felsen, ohne nahere Standortsan<jabe (Hill). 

Ich sah diese Flechte nicht und bin iibor ihrc Gattungszugehorigkeit nicht 
sicher. 

Pannaria Del. 

A. Thallus omnino paraplectenchymaticus P. fuegicnsis. 

B. Thallus stratosus. 

a. Thallus laciniato— incisus; apothecia rufa, sporae 17 — 30 (i- longae 

/-*. rubiginosa. 

b. Thallus fere crustaceus, in margine minute lobulatus; apolhecia 
alutacea; sporae usque 14 p. longae P. Jiilaris. 

*P. fuegiensis A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Hand!., vol. LVII, no. 6. 1917, p. 13. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Juanango, auf abgestorbenen Baumstammen (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

*P. hilaris A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus in hypothallo nigro, tenui primum rosulas parvas, plus minus ro- 
tundatas, subplacodiformes, hypothallo arete adpressas format, rosulae demum 
confluent et in thallum subcrustaceum, usque 5 cm latum abeunt, thallus valde 
tenuis, 0,5 — 0,8 mm crassus, cinereo-caesius, opacus, KHO — , Ca CljOj — , in 
centro utplurimum pulverulento-granulosus, subareolatim rimosus, (areolis parvis) 
et in ambitu effiguratus, lobi marginales rotundati, incisi vel inciso-crenati, 
arete adpressi, ab hypothallo cincti; soredia et isidia desunt; subtus non rhizi- 
nosus; superne corticatus, cortex decolor, 24—28 [j. crassus, grosse paraplecten- 
chymaticus, cellulis 1-3 superpositis, 6 — 18 (X latis, valde leptodermaticis, su- 
perne strato tenui amorpho tectis; stratum gonidiale latum, gonidiis olivaceis 
vel olivaceo-aeruginosis, rotundatis, 3,5 — 4 ^^ latis, hyphis intricatis, leptoder- 
maticis, usque 1,8 {X crassis; stratum medullare ex hyphis plus minus horizon- 
talibus, densis format ur. 

Apothecia lecanorina, adpressa, parva, usque 0,8 mm lata, rotunda, plus 
minus approximata; discus alutaceus, opacus, epruinosus, subplanus; margo 
thallinus tenuis, thallo concolor, leviter prominulus, primum subgranulosus, 
demum integer, paraplectenchymaticus, hyphis flabellatim dispositis, leptoder- 
maticis, stratum gonidiale includens; hymenium decolor, purum, 120 — 145 (J. 
altum, I e coeruleo aeruginoso-sordidum; hypothecium angustum, decolor, ex 
hyphis intricatis formatum; paraphyses fili formes, conglutinatae, simplices, esep- 
tatae, ad apicem non latiores; asci anguste clavati, ad apicem rotundati et 
membrana modice incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis subbiseriales, de- 
colores, simplices, ovali-ellipsoideae, membrana tenui et laevi cinctae, 9—14 [J- 
longae et 6- 7.5 [j. latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

22 — 2591. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



338 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Masatierra: Portezuelo, bcim SELKlRK-Denkmal, 6co m, auf der Rinde 
einer Robinsonia (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Habltuell kommt diese neue Art noch am meisten dcr Pannaria nebjilosa 
(Hoffin.) nahe, aber die iibrigen Merkmale sprechen gegen eine nahere Ver- 
wandtschaft. 

P. rubiginosa Del. 

Del. in Dictionn. Class. Hist. Nat., vol. XIII, 1828, p. 20; Nyl., Synops. 
Lich., vol. II; 1863, p. 29, tab. IX, fig. 15. — Licheti rubigi7iosiis Thunbg. apud 
AcH., Lichenogr. Suec. Prodrom,- 1798, p. og. — Par/neliarnbigmosa Ach., yieihod. 
Lich., 1803, p. 212; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat, Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, i!^'35, p. 
90 et apud Gay, Hist. P'isic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 141; Johow, 
Estiid. Flora Juan Fernandez, i8g6, p. 199. 

Masatierra: Auf Rinde der Myrceugenia, ohne nahere Standortsangabe 
(Bertero no. 1632, 3008); Plazoleta del Yunque, iiber Moosen (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

*var vulcaiiica A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Thallo microphyllino et sporis brevioribus dififert a typo. 

Squamulae thalli minutae, incisae, in centre thalli plus minus congestae, 
ad ambitum thalli dispersae, in h3'pothalIo atro sedentes; sporae 13—16 [j, 
longae et 8 — 9 [j. latae. 

Vielleicht handelt es sich um eine eigene Art, doch war das mir vorlie- 
gende Material zur F^ntscheidung der Frage nicht ausreichend. 

Masatierra: Cerro Damajuana, auf losen Steinen im Wald (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

Massalongia Korb. 

*M. carnosa Korb. 

Korb. Syst. Lich. German., 1855, P- i°9i ^- L. Smith, Handb. Brit. Lich., 
vol. I, 19 18, p. 88, tab 30. — Lichen carnosi/s Dicks., Fasc. Plant. Crypt. Brit., 
vol. II, 1790, p. 2 1, tab. VI, fig. 7. 

Masafuera: auf Blocken beim Campo Correspondencia, 11 50 m (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

Psoroma Nyl. 

A. Species saxicola, thallus sorediis instructus P. vtilcaniaim. 

B. Species ad cortices, ligna vel muscos vigentes; thallus esored'osus. 

a. Thallus cephalodiis praeditus P. cephalodinimi. 

b. Thallus cephalodiis destitutus. 
I. Thallus squamosus. 

I. Thallus luteo-pallens. 

a. Squamae thalli substrate adpressae P. pliolidotuui. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 339 

p. Squamae thalli ± erectiusculae P. dasycladiint. 

2. Thallus luridocervinus P. sphmcirmtwi. 

II. Thallus ramoso-divisis /'. a7igtistiscctuni. 

*P. vulcaiiicum A, Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, maculatim efifusus, subtartareus, alutaceus vel pallide 
cervinus, opacus, KHO vix mutatus, Ca CI2O2 — , versus ambitum squamulosus, 
squamulis parvis, 0.3 — 0,8 mm latis, rotundatis, planis, integris vel incisis, plus 
minus dlspersis et hy[)othallo atro insidentibus, centrum versus granulosus vel 
subgranulosus, granulis congestis, demum subareolatim fissis, passim sorediosus, 
sorediis leprosis, depressis, canis, rotundatis, planiusculis, thallum non superan- 
tibus; superne corticatus, cortice 24 — 28 [x alto, paraplectenchymatico, cellulis 
rotundatis, luminibiis 5 — 9 ;jl latis praeditis, membrana mediocri cinctis, superne 
strato angusio, fuscescente tecto; caeterum fere homoeomericus, cellulis goni- 
diorum plus minus globosis, usque 15 (x latis, contentu laete viridi, membrana 
mediocri cincti, subtus anguste nigricantifuscus et ex hyphis intricatis formatus. 

Apothecia lecanorina, sessilia, ad basin breviter constricta, rotundata et 
dispersa, vel approximata et dein pressione mutua subangulosa, i — 1,2 mm 
lata; discus rufus, opacus, planiusculus; margo thallinus integer, primum bene 
prominulus et crassiusculus, demum plus minus depressus et subcrenulatus, 
extus corticatus, cortice paraplectenchymatico, superne angustiore, e seriebus 
cellularum i — 4, rotundatis formato, gonidia copiosa includens; excipulum infra 
hymenium bene evolutum, ad latere hymenii angustatum, sordide fuscescens, 
ex hyphis intricatis formatum et maculis minutis rotundatisque praeditum; hy- 
pothecium decolor, sat tenue, ex hyphis tenuissimis et intricatis formatum, hy- 
nenium superne dilute fuscescens, caeterum decolor et purum, usque 180 a 
altum, I e sordide coerulescente cupreo-rufescens; paraphyses filiformes, dense 
contextae, strictae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem non latiores; asci anguste 
clavati, hymenio subaequilongi, ad apicem rotundati et ibidem membrana paulum 
incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis subuniseriales, decolores, simplices, 
ovah-ellipsoideae vel ellipsoideae, in uno apice vel utrinque acutatae, membrana 
leviter granulosa cinctae, 17 — 21 [x longae et 7,5 — 8,5 \s. latae. 

Pycnoconidia ignota. 

Masafuera: Heide auf dem Hochland, 1 100— 1300 m, auf vulkartischem 
Gestein (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Die charakteristischen Merkmale liegen in dem mehr weniger kornigen 
Lager, dem Vorhandensein der Soredien und in der Farbe und Berandung der 
Apothezien. 

*P. cephalodimim A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. — Taf. 24, Fig. 7. 

Thallus placodinus, substrato adpressus, plagas usque 3,5 cm latas for- 
mans, lutescenti-pallidus passim albidus, opacus, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , tenuis, 
usque 0,2 mm crassus, lobi marginales continui vel subimbricati, distanter di- 
visi, in apice paulum latiores, in margine incisi et amguste pallidiores, usque 
2 mm lati, planiusculi vel subcanaliculati, superne nudi, in centro lobulis mi- 
noribus vel hinc inde subsquamulosus, subtus nigrescens, sorediis et isidiis nullis, 



340 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



sed in superficie cephalodiis dispersis obsitus, superne corticatus, cortice an- 
gusto, 18—24 [A crasso, paraplectenchymatico, cellnlis superpositis 2 — 3, lumine 
plus minus rotundo, parietibus crassiusculis; stratum gonidiale infra corticem 
situm et eo paulum latins, continuum, cellulis laete viridibns, globosis, 9 — 12 \}. 
latis, membrana distincta cinctis; medulla alba, ex liyphis intricatis, non inspersis 
formata, hyphis ad 3 [x crassis, leptodermalicis, inferne in stratum angustum 
nigricantem abeuntibus; cephalodia i — 1,8 mm lata, depressa, in ambitu rotun- 
data vel irregularia, in superficie paulum inaequalia, subfarinosa vel granulosa, 
coerulescenti-cinerea vel plumbea, ex hyphis dense intricatis, 1,7 — 1,8 |J- latis, 
leptodermaticis, increbre septatis formata, gonidia concatenata et hinc inde glo- 
merulosa, pallide olivacea, rotundata vel oblonga, rarius subirregularia, 5— 8 [j. 
lata, membrana tenuissima cincta includentia. 

Apothecia lecanorina, sessilia, usque 2 mm lata, ad basin bene constricta, 
copiosa et approximata, rotunda vel rotundata; discus in juventute pruinosus, 
demuni nudus, alutaceus vel alutaceo rufescens, opacus; margo thaliinus cras- 
siusculus, crenulatus, prominulus et plus minus inflexus, extus strato corticali, 
ex hyphis intricatis et inspersis formato, usque 20 \l crasso, ad basin latiore 
abductus, gonidia copiosa, usque ad verticem marginis penetrantibiis includens; 
excipulum dimidiatum, decolor, ex hyphis tangentialibus et dense conglutinatis 
formatum; hymenium decolor, tantum superne anguste fuscescens et inspersum, 
caeterum purum, I e coeruleo lutescenti-obscuratum; hypothecium lutescens, 
molie, inferne substipitato-productum et strato meduUari thalli superpositum; 
paraphyses filiformes, ad 2 [x latae, conglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apices 
haud latiores; asci oblongo- vel ellipsoideo-clavati, hymenio paulum breviores, 
ad apicem rotundati et membrana bene incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in 
ascis biseriales, decolores, simplices, ellipsoideae vel ovali-ellipsoideae, mem- 
brana tenui et sublaevi (subindistincte granulosa) cinctae, 11 — 15,5 [i longae et 
8,5 — 9 l^ latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf Dr///iys-Rinde (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

Das plakodiale Wachstum des Lagers und das Vorhandensein von Zephalo- 
dien kennzeichnen die Art gut. 

P. pholidotum Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXXI, 1888, p. 45 (excl. syn.). — Fannelia p/ioli- 
dota Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. qi et a])ud Gay, 
Hist Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 146; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan 
Fernandez, i8g6, p. 200. — Pannaria pholidoia Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., 
ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1855, p. 182, Synops. Lich., vol. II, 1863, p. 30; Hue in Nouv. 
Archiv., du Museum, ser. 4, vol. X, (1908) 19^9, p. 171. 

Masatierra: Auf Z)/7;;/j^.y-Rinde, ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Bertero 
no. 1623, 1626), Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf Stammen der Robinsonia thti- 
rifera; Rabanal, auf Robinsonia gracilis; Valle Colonial, Quebrada seca, 435 m, 
auf Dendroseris micrantJia ; Portezuelo, beim SELKIRK-Denkmal, 590 m, auf 
Robinsonia gracilis; Cordon Salsipuedes, 625 m, auf Margyricarpus (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAX FERNANDEZ-INSELX 34 1 

P. sphinctriniini Nyl. 

NvL. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4. vol. Ill, 1855, p. i8i et Synops. 
Lich., vol. II, 1863, p 24; Reinke in Pringsh., Jahrb. fiir wiss. Bot., vol. XXVIII, 
i8g5, p. 446, fig. 165 et 166. — Parmdia sphincirina Mont, in Annal. Scienc. 
Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. go et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit Chile, 
Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 139; JoHow, Kstud. Flora Juan Fernandez, i8l,6, p. igg. 
— Panriaria sphinctrina Hue in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, vol. XLVIII, (1901) 1902, 
p. LVI et in Nouv. Archiv. der .Museum, ser. 4, vol. VIII, 1907, p. 265. 

Masatierra: auf Rinden, ohne nabere Standortsangabe (Bertero no. 1625, 
1630); Cordon Cbifladores, 350 ni, auf der Rinde der Robinsonia tliurifcra und 
auf Driinys; Cordon Centinela, 530 ni, auf Dendroseris micrantha; Portezuelo, 
auf Rinden beim SELKIRK Denkmal, 590 m, auf Rohinsoiiia gracilis; Quebrada 
seca, 435 m, auf Dcndroseris viicraiitha; Cordon Salsipuedes, auf Driviys; 
Quebrada Juanango, 250 m, auf Baumrinden (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Cordon del Barril, auf Z^/Vw/j'-Stammen (C. und I. SKOTTS- 
BERG). 

var. leproloniuni Xyl. 

Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zeland., 188S, p. 52. — Lecanora spJiinctrina var. leprolovm 
Nyl. in Compt.-Rend. Seanc. Acad. Paris, vol. LXXXIII, 1876, p. 89. — Pannaria 
sphinctrina var. leprolonia Hue in Bull. Soc. Bot. france, vol. XLVIII, 1901, p. LVI 
et in Nnuv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. VIII, 1907, p. 269. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, auf Baumrinden (C. und L Skotts- 
berg). 

var. crispellum Xyl. 

Nyl. Synops. Lich., vol. II, 1863, p. 25 et Lich. Nov. Zeland., 1888, p. 52. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo, c. 600 m, auf der Rinde einer Robinsonia thu- 
rifera (C. und L Skottsberg). 



*P. dasycladuni A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus squamulosus, squamulis dense contextis, sat parvis, i — 1,8 mm 
latis, erectiusculis et plus minus imbricatis, in ambitu thalli rotundato-flabellatis, 
incisis et crenatis, centralibus magis rotundatis, omnibus tenuibus (0,25- 0.4 mm 
crassis), cervinis vel cervino-fuscidulis, opacis, KHO et CaCi202 non tinctis, 
epruinosis, in margine passim subplumbeo-cinerascentibus, subtus albidis et 
nudis, versus insertionem rhizinis nigricanlibus obsitis; sorediis et isidiis nullis; 
superne corticatus, cortice strato amorpho tenui supertecto, decolore, paraplecten- 
chymatico, cellulis minutis, lumine ad 2 "j. lato, rotundatis vel subangulosis, 
membrana mediocri cinctis, in seriebus superpositis 4—10; stratum gonidiale 
infra corticem dispositum, subcontinuum, e.K hyphis in parte superiore plus minus 
verticalibus, in parte basali magis intricatis formatum, gonidiis globosis, laete 
viridibus, 10—24 [J- latis; cortex hinc inde etiam latera squamulorum obducit; 
stratum meduUare ex hyphis praesertim longitudinalibus, 3 — 5 a latis, fasciatim- 



342 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



subintricatis formata, ad basin squamorum in hyphas coerulescenti-nigricantes, 
usque 9 [X crassas, sat pachydermaticas et increbre septatas abientibus. 

Apotliecia lecanorina, inter squamulas sessilia, primum cupuiiformia, demum 
plus minus explanata, ad basin bene constricta, usque 3 mm lata, rotunda vel 
demum subsinuata; discus obscure rufo-fuscus, opacus, epruinosus, e conca- 
viusculo subplanus vel convexulus, superne inaequalis; margo thallo concolor, 
sat crassus, prominulus et leviter inflexus, crenulatus vel lobulis parvis incisis- 
que obsitus, corticatus, meduUam et gonidia includens; excipulum dimidiatum, 
ad latera hymenii flabellatum. ad verticem dilatatum, ex hyphis tangentialibus, 
1,6 — 1,8 {A crassis, pachydermaticis et increbre septatis formatum, superne 
fuscescens, caeterum decolor, moUe; hypothecium decolor, ex hyphis intricatis, 
sat crassis formatum; hymenium superne rufescenti-fuscescens et strato sat an- 
gusto, amorpho et decolore obductum. caeterum decolor, purum, I e coerulescente 
cupreo sordidulum; paraphyses filiformes, 2 — 3 \s. crassae, conglutinatae (im- 
primis in parte superiore), simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem baud latiores; asci 
cylindrico-clavati, ad apicem rotundati, 8-spori; sporae in ascis uniseriales, de- 
colores, simplices, oblongae vel late ellipsoideae, utrinque breviter acutatae, mem- 
brana tenui, extus inaequali cinctae, 14 — 18 [l longae et 8 — 11 [x latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: Felskamm unweit Tres Puntas, 350 m, auf Humuserde (C. 
und I. SkoTTSBERG). 

Durch die Wachstumsweise des Lagers gegeniiber den anderen Arten der 
Gattung gut gekennzeichnet. 

*P. angustisectuni A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. — Taf. 25, Fig. 3. 

Thallus substrato latiuscule adhaerens, depressus, fusco- vel lurido-fla- 
vescens, nitidulus, KHO et Ca CljOj non tinctus, ex initiis verruculosis mox 
iteratim dichotome et sympodialiter ramosus, ramis angustis et elongatis, usque 
3 mm longis, 0,16—0,25 mm latis, 0,15 —0,17 mm crassis, subtoruloso-inaequalibus, 
planiusculis vel convexulis, hinc inde minulis, subcorallinis, ramis ultimis ad 
apicem rotundatis vel subretusis, omnibus superne laevigatis, inferne paulum 
pallidioribus, erhizinosis; sorediis et isidiis destitutus; protothallus obscuratus 
nuUus; superne corticatus, cortex paraplectenchymaticus, e seriebus cellularum 
superpositarum 3 — 5, subangulosarum vel rotundarum, 8 — 14 |i latarum, mem- 
brana tenui cinctarum formatus; pars caetera thalli etiam paraplectenchyma- 
ticus, sed cellulae multum minores, in strato gonidiali ex hyphis perpendicula- 
ribus, in parte inferiore thalli ex hyphis longitudinalibus, leptodermaticis et 
crebre septatis formatus; stratum gonidiale infra corticem dispositum, continuum, 
circa dimidium crassitudinis thalli occupans, gonidiis laete viridibus, globosis, 
5 — 6 jx latis. 

Apothecia lecanorina, sessilia, majuscula, usque 5 mm lata, ad basin bre- 
viter constricta; discus rufus, opacus, epruinosus, e concavo subplanus; margo 
thallinus primum verruculosus, mox ramis thallinis corallinoideis, brevibus plus 
minus obsitus; receptaculum extus laeve, corticatum, cortice crasso, paraplecten- 
chymatico, luminibus cellularum oblongis vel rotundatis, cellulis sat pachyder- 
maticis, in margine crenulato-erosum et ad basin rhizinosum, rhizinis decolo- 
ribus, simplicibus, breviusculis, medullam et gonidia includens; excipulum an- 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 34? 

gustum, bene limitatuni, usque ad verticem hymenii assurgens, decolor, ex 
hyphis tangentialibus et conglutinatis formatum; hypothccium angustum, fusce- 
scenti lutescens, moUe, ex hyphis intricatis formatum; hymenuim superne rufum, 
caeierum decolor, purum, 140 — 150 [x altum, I e coeruleo cupreo-obscuratum; 
paraphyses filiformes, strictae, conglutinatae (imprimis in parte superiore hy- 
menii), simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem vix crassiores; asci hymenio parum 
breviores, clavati, recti vel subrecti, ad apicem rotundati et membrana parum 
incrassata cincti, Sspori; sporae in ascis uni- vel subbiseriales, decolores, sim- 
plices, ovaies vel ellipsoideo-subfusiformes, membrana tenui, verruculosoinae- 
quali cinctae, contentu oleoso, 22—38 [x longae et 8—15 [h latae. 

Pycnoconidia ignota. 

Masatierra: Ouebrada Piedra agujereada, bei 650 m, iiber Moosen, und 
auf dem Riicken oberhalb Pangal, 795 m, iiber Moosen und auf dem Erdboden 
(C. und I. SKOTTSBERG). 

Die ersten Thallusanfange erinnern an das Lager des Psoroma Jiypnorinn 
(Hoffm.); die fertige Flechte hat indes mit disser nichts zu tun, so dass man 
die Annahme, als lage ein abnorm ausgebildetes Lager derselben vor [etwa 
vvie die var. thelepJioroides Th. Fr. der OchrolecJiia tartarea (L.)] zuriickvveisen 
muss, denn die anatomischen Verhaltnisse und auch andere Merkmale stellen 
sich einer solchen Annahme entgegen. 

Coccocarpia Pers. 
*C. Gayaiia (Mont.) Nyl. var. subdivisa A. Zahlbr. nov. var. — Tab. 24, 

Thallus superne glaucus, opacus, lobatus, lobis substrato adpressis vel 
imprimis in ramulis arborum plus minus liberis et adscendentibus; lobi adpressi 
rotundato-incisi, in margine crenulati, concentrice non striati; lobi liberi ± 
elongati, in margine incisi et crenulati; rhizinae paginis inferioris ad ambitum 
thalli albae, in centro aeruginosonigricantes. 

Apothecia habitu iis plantae typicae similia, Receptaculum gonidia nulla 
includens, extus corticatum, cortice decolore, paraplectenchymatico, e .'^eriebus 
pluribus cellularum superpositarum formato, cellulis rotundis vel subrotundatis, 
inferne majoribus, ad 12 [x latis, versus ambitum cubicis sensim minoribus, mem- 
brana mediocri cinctis; excipulum integrum, in margine flabellatum, infra hy- 
menium saepe angustius, decolor, ex hyphis tangentialibus, dense contextis for- 
matum; hypothecium dilute luteo-ochraceum, molle, ex hyphis tenuissimis et 
intricatis formatum; hymenium superne strato tenui et amorpho tectum, decolor, 
purum, I cupreo-rufum; paraphyses filiformes, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem 
non incrassatae, conglutinatae; asci hymenio breviores, clavati, 4spori; spori 
in ascis biseriales, decolores, simplices, ovaies vel ellipsoideo-ovales, membrana 
tenui laevique cinctae, contentu oleoso pellucido, 12 — 14 [x longae et 7—7,5 [J- 
latae. 

Masatierra: auf dem Abhange iiber Pangal, bei 795 m, auf Baumzweig- 
lein (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



-.. A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

Stictaceae. 

Lobaria Schreb. 
L. crenulata Trevis. 

Trevis. Lichenoth. Veneta, i86q, no. 75; Wain., fitud. Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 
1890, p. 197; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1901, p. 35. — 
Parmelia crenulata Hook, apud Kunth, Synops. Plant. Aequin. Orb. Novi, vol. I, 
1822, p. 23; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot , ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- <^° ^^ 
apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 130; Johow, Estud. 
Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 199. — Sticta cremilata Del., Hist. Lich. Siicta, 1822, 
p. 128, tab. XIV, fig. 53. — Ricasolia cretudata Nyl. in Memoir. Soc. Scienc. Nat. 
Cherbourg, vol. V, 1857, p. 104 et Synops. Lich., vol. I, 1800, p. 372. 

Masatierra: auf Rinden in den Waldern der hoheren Berge (Bertero 
no. 1633); Quebrada Juanango, 250 m, auf Baumstamnien, reichlich fruchtend 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Sticta Schreb. 
Conspectus specierum: 

A. Gonidia nostocacea (Stictma). 

a. Thallus subtus cyphellis veris praeditus. 

\. Thallus monophyllus, saepe lobatus, lobis latis et rotundatis, 

in margine non isidiosis St. ftdiginosa. 

II. Thallus laciniatus vel lobato-laciniatus, lobis angustioribus et 

in magrine plus minus coralloidco isidiosis St. Weigelii. 

b. Thallus subtus pseudocyphellis praeditus. 

I. Pseudocyphellae albae. 

1. Thallus superne maculis vel sorediis albis cinereisve or- 
natu.s. 

a. Thalli lobi in margine nudi, esorediosi St. argyracea. 
p. Thalli lobi in margine albosorediati St. intricata. 

2. Thallus superne sorediis destitutus. 

a. Lobi thalli angusti, in margine integri, canaliculati 

St. fragillinia. 
p. Lobi thalli latiores, in margine rotundato-inci.si, f)lani 
vel subplani, nunquam canaliculati St. ciimainoviea. 
II. Pseudocyphellae citrinae vel luteae. 

1. Thallus superne aequaliter reticulato-lacunosus 

St. Berieroana. 

2. Thallus superne plus minus laevigatus, nunquam lacunosus. 
a. Thallus superne plus minus hirsutus vel puberulus. 

§. Thallus superne hirsutus, cervinus vel rufescens, 

subtus concolor St. Jiirsnta. 

§§. Thallus superne puberulus, murinus, .'^ubtus cer- 

vino-pallidus St. Ginllemini. 

p. Thallus superne nudus. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 345 

§. Sporae biloculares S^. carpoloma. 

§§. Sporae quadnloculares St. Mougeotiatia. 

B. Gonidia palmellacea vel c>-stococcoidea (Eusticta). 

a. Thallus subtus c\-phellis veris praeditus. 

I. Thallus stipitalus; medulla KHO non tincta. 

1. Lobi thalli plus minus lineares .SV. lineariloba. 

2. Lobi thalli rotundali et laliores .SV. latifrons. 
II. Thallus non stipitatus; medulla KHO sanguineo-rubens 

St. laciniata var. doiiidata. 

b. Thallus subtus pseudocj'phellis praeditus. 

I. Pseudocyphellae albae. 

1. Receptaculum apotheciorum gonidia includens 

St. Frcycinctii. 

2. Receptaculum gonidiis nullis St. Richardi. 
II. Pseudoc\"phellae luteae vel flavae. 

1. Receptaculum gonidiis destitutum; sporae incolores 

St. nitida. 

2. Receptaculum gonidia includens; sporae plus minus obscu- 
ratae, rarius decolores. 

a. Apothecia marginalia St. aurata. 

ji. Apothecia superficialia St. oryginaea. 



A. Sect. Stictina (Nyi.) Hue. 



S. argyracea Del. 

Del. Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. 91, tab. VII, fig. 3; Moxt. apud Gav, Hist. 
Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot, vol. VIII. 1852, p. ii6-, Hellb. in Bihang till Kgl. 
Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. XXI, afd. Ill, no. 13, 1896, p. 29; Hue in 
Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1901, p. 87. — Lichen argyraaus Bory 
apud Del., 1. s. c. — Stictina argyracea Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 334. 
— Pseudocyp/iellaria argyracea Wain, in Hedwigia, vol. XXXVII, 1898, p. (34). 

Masatierra; Auf Baumrinden, ohne Standortsangabe (Bertero) Porte- 
zuelo, 590—600 m, steril (C. und I. SkottsBERG). 

Masafuera: auf dem zentralen Hochplateau, bei i,2C0 m, in einer Form 
mit etwas breiteren Lagerabschnitten (C. und I. Skottskerg). 

var. *sorediifera Del. 

Del. Hist. Lich Sticta, 1S22, p. 92, tab. VII, fig. 31. — Stictina argyracea 
var. sorediifera Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i86c, p. 334. — Fseudocyphellaria argy- 
racea var. sorediifera Hellb. in Bihang till Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. 
XXV, afd. Ill, no. 6, 1899, P- 24. 

Masatierra: Puerto Frances, 500 m, fruchtend (C. und L Skottsberg). 



,a6 A- ZAHLBRUCKNER 

var. verrucosa Mont. 



Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 116; 
JoHOW, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. iqS. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden in den holier gelegenen Waldern (Bertero). 
Ich sah diese Form nicht; wahrscheinlich diirfte es sich nur um eine 
krankhafte Bildung handeln. 



S. iiitricata Del. 

Del. Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. 96, tab. VII, fig. ;^^. — Stictiria intricaia 
Nyl., Synops. Lich,, vol. I, i860, p. 334. — Fseudocyphellaria intricata Wain, in 
Hedwigia, vol. XXXVII, 1898, p. (36). 

Ohne nahere Standortsangabe, in einer Form mit schvvarzlicher Lager- 
unterseite (nach Nylander a. a. O.) 

*S. fragillima Bab. 

Bab. apud Hook., Flora Nov.-Zeland., vol. II, 1855, P- 279. — Sfictifia fra- 
oillima Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 335; Reinke in Pringsh. Jahrb. fiir 
wiss. Bot., vol. XXVIII, 1895, P- 44°> ^S- ^S^i II i Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 
1895, p. 128. 

Masatierra: auf dem Bergriicken zwischen Quebrada Piedra agujereada 
und Quebrada Laura, 625 m, iiber Moosen, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Quebrada Loberia, 280 m, auf Baumstammen im Walde (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

var. ''linearis A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Stidma fragillima var. linearis Miill. Arg.l in Flora, vol. LXXI, 1888, p. 23; 
Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, P- '29. 

Masatierra: auf dem Bergriicken zwischen Quebrada Piedra agujereada 
und Quebrada Laura, 625 m, auf Baumzvveigen; Cordon Central, 450 m, iiber 
Moosen, steril; Portezuelo, 600 m, auf Siammen der Robinsonia thnrifera; Cor- 
don Salsipuedes, 500 m, auf Driuiys, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

[Sticta subvariabilis Nyl. 

Cromb. in Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Eot., vol. XVI, 1877, p. 223 et apud 
Hemol , Rep. Challenger, p. 90; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 199. 

Masatierra: auf moosigen Baumstammen (MoSELEY). Habituell gleicht 
die Sticta subvariabilis Nyl. sehr der vorher genannten Art, der einzig greif- 
bare Unterschied liegt in den Gonidien, vvelche bei der Ersteren dem Pal- 
mellaceentypus angehoren (vergl. Stzbgr. in Floia, vol. LXXXI, 1895, p. 114). 
Ich fand in der reichen Ausbeute Skottsberg's auch nicht ein Exemplar der 
NYLANDER'schen Art und bezweifle, ob die Pflanze Moseley's dazu gehort; 
ich halte sie eher fiir Sticta fragillima var. linearis. Jedenfalls miisste die von 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 347 

MOSELEV gesammelte Flechte auf ihre Goiiidien gepriift werden, bevor man 
Sticta subvariahilis als Burger der Flechtenflora von Juan Fernandez aufnimmt.] 

'•'S. cinnaniomea A. Rich. 

A. Rich., Voyage de Decouv. de I'Astrolabe, Bot., vol. I, 1852, p. 28, tab. 
VIII, fig. 3; Hellb. in Bihang till Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. XXI, 
afd. Ill, no. 13, 1896, p. 32. — Stictitia ciiwamomea Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. 
LXVI, 1S83, p 22. — rscudocyphellaria f///-'/^ww//(^'<7 Wain, in Philipp Journ. Scienc, 
sect. C, vol. VIII, 19 1 3, ]). 120. — Stictina fragilliina var. dissimilis Nyl., Synops. 
Lich., vol. I, 1S60, p. 336; Stzbgr, in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, P- '29. 

Masatierra: Bahia Cumberland, auf Baumrinde, .steril; Portezuelo, 350 — 
550 m, aufBaumstammen, steril; Quebrada Juanango, 250, auf Baumrinden, steril; 
.am Fusse des Barges El Yunque, 2-300 in (C. und I. SkotT-SBEKG). 

Masafuera: Auf dem Zentralplateau und nordlich des Hohenkammes, auf 
Dickso7iia; Cordon Atravesado und Cordon del Barril, bei 1300 m, steril (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

S. Berteroana Mont. — Taf. 24, Fig. i. 

Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- 9° ^'^ apud Gay, 
Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot, vol. VIII, 1852, p. 125; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan 
Fernand., 1896, p. 199; A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. 
LVII, no. 6, 1917, p. 16 — Stictina Bertcroafia Nyl. apud Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. 
LXXXI, 1895, p. 128; Nyl. in Acta Soc. Sclent. Fennic, vol. XXVI, 1900, no. 10, 
p. 8, not. 

Apothecia versus centrum thalli sparsa vel appro.ximata, subpedicellata, 
ad basin parum constricta, rotunda, primum cupuliformia, margine inflexo, 
crassiusculo, lurido, opaco, subintegro, demum dilatata, usque 3 mm lata, plana 
vel modice convexa, margine angustiore, tenui et crenulato, demum fere eva- 
nido; discus in juventute caesio-pruinosulus, demum nudus, fusco niger, opacus; 
receptacnlum extus ochraceo-pallidum, parum inaequale, corticatum, cortice 
paraplectenchymatico, cellulis rotundis, sat pachydermaticis, pedicellum obdu- 
cente et in corticem thalli paginae superioris abeunte, superne in ambitu 
timbriato-eroso, in parte basali inaequali et ibidem ciliis increbris, obfuscatis 
munito, medullam angustam, ex hyphis laxiusculis, sublongitudinalibus et 
ramosis formatam includens, gonidiis destitutum; hypothecium ochraceo-fuscum, 
ex hyphis intricatis formatum; hymenium 80 — 100 [j. altum, purum, incolor 
(excepta parte suprema), I e coeruleo rufo- vel cupreo-fuscescens; paraphyses 
gelatinose conglutinatae, filiformes, simplices, ad apicem clavatae, capite 5— 6 ;j. 
crasso, strato tenui, amorpho supertectae; asci h3-menio paulum breviores, cla- 
vati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana paulum incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae 
in ascis biseriale.s, fuscae, oblongo-ellipsoideae vel subfusiformes, uniseptatae, 
septo tenui, membrana parum crassiore, 22 — 29 [x longae et 7 — 8 [J. latae. 

Meine friihere Angabe iiber die Pseudozyphellen muss ich dahin richtig- 
stellen, dass dieselben von gelber Farbe sind. Sie sind sehr klein, etwas er- 
haben und ausserst sparlich. 



348 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Masatierra; Auf Baumrinden in der Bergregion (Bertero no. 1662); 
Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf Robinsonia tJmnfera; Cordon Centinela, 530 m, 
auf Dendroseris micrantha; Quebrada Damajuana, auf losen Steinen im Walde; 
auf deni Sattel iiber Pangal, 795 m, auf Coprosma pyrifoliiivi, besonders reich 
fruchtend; im Walde der Bahia Cumberland; auf Baumrinden; Quebrada seca, 
435 m, auf Dendroseris micrantha; Cordon Saisipuedes, 615 m, ^\x{ Dendroseris 
pinnata und Margyricarpus; Quebrada Juanango, 250 m, auf Baumen und 
Strauchern, schon fruchtend (C. und I; Skottsherg). 

S. hirsuta Mont. 

Mont, in Annal Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 88 et apud Gay, 
Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 106; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan 
Fernand.. 1896, p. 198. — Stictina hirsuta Nyl. in Atmal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, 
vol. XV. 1 86 1, p 41: Stztbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, P- ^Z"^' — Pseudo- 
cyphellaria hirsuta Wain, in Hedwigia, vol. XXXVill, 1899, P- ('87); Malme in 
Bihang till Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. XXV, afd. Ill, no. 6, 1899, 
p. 18. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden (Bertero). Skottsberg hat diese Art 
nicht gesammelt; vitlleicht bezieht sich die Angabe Montagne's auf die 
nachste Art. 

S. Guillemini Mont. 

Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat, Bot, ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 87. — Sticta 
hirsuta var. Guillevimi Mont. ai)ud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 
1852, p. 107. — Stictina Guillemini Nyl apud Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, 
ser. 3, vol. II, 1890, p. 297; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, P- ^Z^- 

Receptaculum apotheciorum extus pulverulentum, non hirsutum; hypothe- 
cium ochraceo lutescens, ex hyphis intricatis formatum; hymenium 90 — lOO (j. 
altum, purum, I e coeruleo aeruginascens; paraphyses filiformes, gelatinoso- 
conglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem clavato-incrassatae; asci ellip- 
soideo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana mediocri cincti, 8-spori; sporae 
in ascis bi- vel subtriseriales, obliquae, flavescentes, ellipsoideae vel elongato- 
ellipsoideae, ad apices angustato-rotundatae, rectae, triseptatae, 20 — 25 [j. longae 
et 7,5 9 [J. latae. 

Von Sticta hirsuta durch die Behaarung der Lageroberseite, der helleren 
Thallusunterseite und die etwas kiirzeren Sporen verschieden. Stizenberger 
(a. o O.) irrt, wenn er fiir Sticta Giiilleiniiii die langeren Sporen angibt, in 
Wirklichkeit ist das Gegenteil der Fall; die Sporen der letzten Art werden 
bis 36 [J. lang und sind beiderseits mehr zugespitzt. 

Masatierra: Auf [baumrinden, ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Bertero); 
Cordon Chifladores, auf dem Stanime einer Robinsonia tinirifcra, fruchtend (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

*var. stictica A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Thallus superne marginem versus tenuiter pubescens, caeterum subnudus 
vel passim omnino nudus, punctis parvis, cyphelliformibus, emergentibus, luteis 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 349 

obsitus; receptaculuni apotheciorum extus tenuiter pubescens et punctis luteis 
munituni. 

Masaticrru: Ouebrada Jiianango, 250 m, auf Baumrinde, fruchtend (C. 
und I. SKOTTSHERG). 

Das jT^elegentliche Vorkonimen von pseudozyphellenartigen, gelben Punkten 
auf der Thallusoberseite bei Stkta hirsuta erwiilint Nylander. 



S. carpolonia Del. 

Del., Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. 159; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., 
ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 88 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. 
VIII, 1852, p. Ill; JoHow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand,, 1896, p. 198. — Stictina 
larpoloma Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 339; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 
1895, p. 130. — Pseudocyphellaria carpolomaV^am. in Hedwigia, vol. XXXVII, 1898, 
p. 34; Malme in Bihang till Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. XXV, afd. 
Ill, no. 6, 1899, P- 2)2,' 

Die Pseudozyphellen sind an den meisten Stiicken hellgelb, mitunter fast 
weiss, aber mit unverkennbarem Stich ins Gelbe. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden (Bertero); an Steilhangen bei Portezuelo, 
400 — 625 m, auf Baumzvveigen fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Las Torres, bei 1200 m, steril (C. und L Skottsberg). 

*f. ornata A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 

Thalli lobi in tnargine in lobulis linearibus, simplicibus vel ramosis dis- 
secti. Pseudocyphellae luteoalbidae; medulla alba. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo, bei 600 m, auf Baumrinden, steril und Cordon 
Salsipuedes, auf Strauchern, fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

S. Mougeotiana Del. 

Del., Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. 62, tab. V, tig. 13; Mont in Annal. Scienc. 
Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 183s, p. 88 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, 
Bot., vol VIII, 1852, p. I ro; Johow^, Estud, Flora Juan Fernand., i8g6, p. 198; 
Hue in Nouv. Archiv, du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1901, p. 84. — Sticta erythro- 
scypha Tayl. apud Hook in London Journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, P- i^i- — Stict- 
ina Mou!^eotiana Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 340. — Pseiidocyphellaria 
Mougeotiana Wain, in Hedwigia, vol. XXXVII, 1898, p. (36). 

Masatierra: in der Bergregion auf dem Erdboden und Baumrinden (Ber- 
TERO no. 1657, 1659. 1661); Cordon Centinela, 530 m, auf der Erde; Pico 
Central, 360 m, auf Blocken, steril; Tres Puntas, 2—300 m, steril (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Cerro Correspondencia, bei 1350 (C. und L Skottsberg). 

*var. xantholoma Del. 

Del. Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. ^2,^ tab. V, fig. 14; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. 
du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1890, p. 85. — Stictina Mougeotiana var. xant/ioloma 
Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 340; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXX,, 1895, 
p. 131. 



i,Q A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, 625 m, auf dem Erdboden, in einer 
mehr kontrakten Form (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: haufig im unteren Teil der Heide, oberhalb der Quebrada 
del Mono, bei 800 m (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

var. aurigera Nyl. 

Nyl. in Annal. Scienc Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. XI, 1859, p. 254; Hue in 
Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1901, p. 85. — Sticta aurigera Del., 
Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. 54, tab. Ill, fig. 8; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., 
ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 88. 

Masatierra: Auf Felsen in den Waldern (Bertero). 

*S. Weigelii Isert. 

IsERT apud AcH., Lichenogr. Univers , 1810, p. 446; Wain., fitud. Lich. 
Bresil, vol. I, i8qo, p. 189; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 
1901, p 94. — Stktina quetcizans Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 344. — 
Stidina Weigelii Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, P- ^33- 

Masatierra: Tres Puntas, 2 — 300 m, steril (C. und L SKOTTSBERG). 

In dein obigen Stuck sind die Zyphellen sehr klein, gleichen auf den 
ersten Blick Pseudozyphellen, aber bei naherer Untersuchung findet man an 
einigen Stellen deutliche echte Zyphellen. 



Sect. Eusticta Hue. 
*S. nitida Tayl. 

Tayl. in Hook., London. Journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, P-i?^; Nyl., Synops. 
Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 359; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, p. i'6; A Zahlbr. 
in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 19 17, p. 19. — Pseiido- 
cyphcllaria nitida Malme in Bihang till Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. 
XXV, afd. Ill, no. 6, 1899, p. 26. 

Masafuera: El Barril, bei 1200 m, auf Z'/7;//rj--Stammen, fruchtend (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

S. aurata Ach. 

AcH., Method. Lich., 1803, p. 279; Del., Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. 49, tab. 
II, fig. 5; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- ^8; Stzbgr. 
in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1805, p. 118; A. Zahlbr. in Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 
math.-naturw. CI., vol. CXI, Abt. i, p. 495. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden in den BergwalHern (Bertero no. 1658); 
Puerto P>ances, auf Baumzvveigen; Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf Baumrin- 
den; Cordon Centinela, 530 m, auf Dendroscris viicrantha; Quebrada Dama- 
juana, auf losen Steinen im Walde; Plazoleta del Yunque; Portezuelo, 600 m, 
auf dem Stamme einer Rohinsonia tJmrifera; Quebrada seca, 455 m, auf 



DIE FLliCIITEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 351 

Dendroscris inicra7itha; Ouebrada Juanango, 250 m, auf Baumstammen; alle 
Stiicke nur steril (C. und I. Skottsbkrc;). 



S. orygniaca Ach. 

AcH., Metliod. Lich., 1803, p. 276. — Fseudocyphellaria orygmaea Malme in 
I5ihang till Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. XXV, afd. Ill, no. 6, 1899, 
|). 28. 

Der Formenkreis der Sticta orygmaea ist schwierig und diirchaus niclit 
geklart. In der neueren Zeit haben HuE und Mai, ME versucht, die Arten, 
bzw. Varietaten besser zu unterscheiden. 

Hue (Nouv. Arch, du Museum, ser. 4, vol III, 1901, p. 48) unterscbeidet 
zwei Arten: Sticta cndocJirysea und Sticta orygmaea und findet, dass das wich- 
tigste Unterscheidungsmerkmal der anatomische Bau der Rinde sei. Bei Sticta 
orygmaea soli die Rinde der Lageroberseite und das Rezeptakulums aus per- 
pendicular verlaufenden, mit Seitenasten, welche anastoinisieren und ein Netz- 
werk bilden, versehenen eingeschniirten und septierten Hyphen gebildet wer- 
den; bei Sticta eiidochrysea soil diese Rinde paraplektenchymatisch sein und 
mehr wenig eckige diinnwandige Zellen aufweisen, doch vvird eine eingehendere 
Beschreibung der Rinde nur flir die zu Sticta endochrysea gestellten Varietaten: 
Urvillei, Jlavicans, riibescens und orygmaeoides gebracht, fur den Typus selbst 
als vvelchen die von Delise (Hist. Lich. Sticta) auf Tafel I unter Figur i ge- 
brachte Abbildung zitiert, wird die Rinde nicht beschrieben. Ich habe an den 
in Juan Fernandez gesammelten Arten stets nur eine paraplektenchymatische 
Rinde mit eckigen und diinnwandigen Zellen gesehen, dadurch ergibt sich ein 
Widerspruch, den ich derzeit noch nicht aufzuklaren vermag. 

Malme (a. o. O.) fiihrt Sticta orygmaea mit den Varietaten Urvillei und 
Jlavicans 2.w\ zum Typus wird als Synouyva Sticta endochrysea \zx. orygmaeoides 
Nyl. gestellt, aber Sticta endochrysea Del. wird nicht erwahnt. Ich bin daher 
dariiber nicht ganz sicher, ob Malme zur Ganze Sticta endochrysea mit Sticta 
orygmaea vereinigt, halte dies aber fiir wahrscheinlich, und dann muss der Spe- 
ziesname des ACHARIUS als alterer zur Bezeichnung der Art Verwendung fin- 
den. Ich halte mich vorlaufig daran, betone jedoch, dass iiber diesen Punkt 
die Akten noch nicht geschlossen sind und dass erst eine eingehende, auf dem 
Studium der Urstiicke beruhende Behandlung der Frage Klarung zu bringen 
vermag. 

Ich gliedere provisorisch die Art folgendermassen. 

Sticta orygmaea. 

Lobi thalli majores, superne laevigati var. endochrysea. 

Lobi thalli minores, superne scrobiculato-inaequales vel reticulati 

typiLS speciei. 
Lobi magis divisi, in margine nudi var. Durvillei. 

Lobi in margine minute dissecta var. jlavicans. 



352 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



var. endochrysea A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 



Sticia endochrysea Del., Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. 43, tab. I, fig. i; Mont. 
in Annal. Scienc Nat. Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 87 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. 
y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 104; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 
i8q6, p. 198; Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i8bo, p. 358; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. 
LXXXI, i8g5, p. 116; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1901, 
p. 48; A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 19 17, p. 19. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden (Bertero no. 1631); El Yunque, 500 m, 
in den Waldern des Siidhanges, Uber Moosen fruchtend (C. und I. Skott.S- 
berg). 

Masafuera: im Hochlande, bei 1200 m und Heide bei Campo Correspon- 
dencia, 1,150 m, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

var. Diirvillei A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Sticta Durvillei Del., Hist. Lich. Sticta, 1822, p. 170. — Sticta UrviUei Bab. 
apud Hook., Flor. Nov. Zeland., vol. II, 1855, P- 275; Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, 
i860, p. 360; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, P- ^'V- — Sticta imbricatula 
Tayl. in Hook., London. Journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, P- ^8o. — Pseudocyphellaria 
oryg7fiaea var. UrviUei Malme in Bihang till Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 
vol. XXV, afd. Ill, no. 6, 1899, p. 30. 

Masatierra: In den hoher gelegenen Waldern, auf Baumrinden (BER- 
TERO no. 1662). Cordon Salsipuede.s, 615 — 625 m, auf Z'/vV/zj'.y Stammen, steril; 
Puerto Ingles, auf Rinden, fruchtend; Villagra, 250 m, fruchtend (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

var. flavicans A. Zahlbr. nov comb. 

Sticta flavicans Hook. f. et Tayl. in London. Journ. of Bot., vol. Ill, 1844, p. 
648. — Sticta ejidochrysea var. flavicans Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1888, p. 
136. — Pseudocyphellaria orygmaea var. flavicans Malme in Bihang till Kgl. Svensk. 
Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol.^XXV, afd. Ill, no. 6, 1899, p. 29. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Salsipuedes, bei 500 m, auf Dritnys-^mde, steril 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

S. lineariloba Xyl. 

Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 355; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 
1895, P- ^24. — Sticta filicina Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 
1835, p. 89 (non alior.); Cromb. in Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., vol. XVI, 1877, 
p. 223. — Sticta filicina var. lineariloba Mont, apud Gay, Hist, Fisic. y Polit. Chile, 
Bot., vol. VIII, 1852^ p. 122; JoHOM^, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 199. 

Masatierra: ohne nahere Standort.'^angabe, auf Baumstammen (Bertero 
no. 1660; MoSELEY); Puerto Frances, bei 500 m, fruchtend; Bergriicken zwi- 
schen Quebrada Piedra agujereada und Quebrada Laura, 625 m, fruchtend; 
Portezuelo, 590 m, auf Baumrinden fruchtend; Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf Z'r;^ 
droseris uiicrantlia, fruchtend; Cordon Salsipuedes, 625 m, auf Rinden fruchtend 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 353 

var. hypopsila Nyl. 

Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 355; Cromb. in Joiirn. Linn. Soc. Lon- 
don, Bot., vol. XVI, ^877, p. 223; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, p. 124; 
JOHOW, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., i8q6, p. 199. — Sticta filicitia var. Ihuariloba 
f. hvpopsila Mont, in Annal. S( icnc. Nat., Bot., ser. 3, vol. XVIII, 1852, p. 308. — 
Sticta [filicina var. lincariloba Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. 
VIII, 1852, p. 125. 

Masaticrra: an niclit nalier bezeichnetem Standorte (Bkrtero; Moseley); 
auf deni Bergriicken zvvischen Ouebrada Laura und Quebrada Piedra agujereada, 
625 m, auf Rindcn fiuchtend; Cordon Central, 390 m, in den VValdern auf 
Baunien, fruchtend; Abhiinge bei Portezuelo, 500 m, fruchtend; Cordon Saisi- 
puedes, 500 m, fruchtend; am Fusse des Berges El Yunque, auf Baumrinden 
fruchtend (C. und I. Skott.sherg). 

Uer Zuschnitt der Thalluslappen i?t recht wechselnd. Ausser Individiien 
mit nur linearen, denmach der Beschreibung entsprechenden Lagerabschnitten, 
finden sich Stiicke, bei denen sich neben den normalen auch verkiirzte und ge- 
drangte Lappen vorfinden. Dadurch andert sich das habituelle Bild dieser 
Stiicke besonders dann, wenn die normalen Lappen nur vereinzelt auftreten, 
doch ist der Zusammenhang klar. Leicht ist nach dem Ausseren allein die 
Varietal mit Sticta laciniata var. dcnudata Nyl. zu verwechseln, vornehmlich 
wenn an den eingesammelten Exemplaren der Thailusstiel abgebrochen ist, 
indes ist es nicht schwer, beide aus einander zu halten, da bei der letzteren 
Art die Markschicht durch Kalilauge blutrot gefarbt wird. 



*S. latifrons A. Rich. 

A. Rich., Voyage de Decouv. de I'Astrolabe, Bot., vol. I, 1832, p. 27, tab. 
VIII, fig. 2; Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zeland., 1888, p. Ti},\ Reinke in Pringsh., Jahrbiich. 
fiir wiss., Bot., vol. XXVIII, 1895, p. 441, fig. 157, li et 158; Stzbgr. in Flora, 
vol. LXXXI, 1895, p. 125; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 
1901, p. 80. 

Masatierra: auf dem Bergriicken zwischen Quebrada Laura und Que- 
brada Piedra agujereada, bei 625 m, fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 
War bisher nur aus Neuseeland bekannt. 



*S. laciniata (Huds.) A. Zahlbr. var. demidata Nyl. 

Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 354; Krniph. in Linnaea, vol. XLI, 1877, 
p. 138; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, P- ^^2. 

Masatierra: auf dem Bergriicken zwischen Quebrada Laura und Que- 
brada Piedra agujereada, 625 m, auf Baumrinden fruchtend; Cordon Centinela, 
530 m, auf Baumstamnien steril; auf dem Bergriicken iiber Pangal, 775- 795 f". 
auf Rinden fruchtend; Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf Coprosma triflonun, fruchtend 
(C. und L Skottsberg). 

23 — 2391. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



1-4 A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

S. Freycinetii Del. 

Del., Hist. Lich. Sticta. 1822, p. 124, tab. XIV, fig. 51; Mont, apud Gay, 
Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. i 20; Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, 
i860, p. 365; Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, P- i^5i Johow, Estud. Flora 
Juan Fernand., 1896, p, 199. 

Masatierra: ohne Angabe des Standortes (JoHOw). 

Masafuera: auf der Hochebene, 9 — 1000 m, steril (C. und I. Skott.s- 
BERG), 

var. fimbriata Mont. 

Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 121. — 
Sticta variabilis Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 8g. 

Masatierra (Bertero): Eine zvveifelhafte Form, die erst geklart war- 
den muss. 

var. lactucaefolia Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Mission Scient. Cap Horn, vol. V, 1889, p. 157; A. Zahlbr. 
in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 1907, p. 18. — laruidia 
lactucaefolia Pers. apud Gaudich., Voyage Uranie, Bot., 18^6, p. 199. 

Masatierra: ohne nahere Standortsangabe (C. SkOTTSBERG). 

S. Richardi Mont. 

Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 89 et apud Gay, 
Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. ik; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan 
Fernand., i8g6, p. 198; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1901, 
p. 55. — Sticta fossulata var. Richardi Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 364. 

Masatierra: in den Bergwaldern auf Baumrinden (Bertero); Portezuelo, 
590 m, auf Rinden fruchtend; Cordon Salsipuedes, 500-625 m, ^\\{ Driinys 
(C. und L Skottsberg). 

var. divulsa Hue. 

Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. Ill, igoi, p. 56, tab. II, fig. 
I — 2. — Sticta divulsa Tayl. in London Journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, p. 182. — 
Sticta fossulata f. divulsa Stzbgr. in Flora, vol. LXXXI, 1895, p. 114. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, 615 ni, auf Gestrauchen (C. und L 
Skott.sberg). 

Peltigeraceae. 

Nephroma Ach. 

A. Gonidia palmellacea vel cystococcoidea; thallus plus minus stramineus. 
a. Thallus major, superne foveolatus et lacunosus, inferne bullatus 

N. antarcticuin. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 355 

b. Thalliis minor, utrinciue laevis A^. atistralc 

B. Gonidia nostocacea; thallus obscurus. 

a. Thallus plumbeus, subtus fuscescens et plus minus tomentellus 

N. pliimbeiun. 

b. Thallus castanco-fuscus, subtus albidus et glaber N. cellulosum. 



Sect. Nephromium (Nyl.) Stzbgr. 
N. plunibeuin Mont. 



Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 100; 
Joiiow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., i8q6, p. 197. — Pelfii:;era phwibca Mont, in 
Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot, ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 87. — Nephromium plumbeum 
Nyl. in Memoir. Soc. Scienc. Nat. Cherbourg, vol. V, 1857, p. loi et Synops. Lich., 
vol. I, i860, p. 321. — Opisteria plunibca Wain, in Arkiv for Bot., vol. VIII, no. 4, 

1909. P- 93- 

Masatierra: auf Baumzweigen in den Bergwaldern (Bertp:ro no. 1656). 

N. cellulosum Ach. 

AcH., Lichenogr. Univers., 1810, p. 523; Bab. et Mitt, apud Hook., Flora 
Tasman., vol. II, i860, p. 345, tab. CXCIX, fig. A. — Lichen cellidosus Sm. apud 
Ach., Method. Lich., 1803, p. 289. — ISephromium cellulosum Nyl. in Memoir. Soc. 
Scienc. Nat. Cherbourg, vol. V, 1857, p. 101 et Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 
321. — • Opisteria cellulosa Wain, in Arkiv for Bot., vol. VIII, no. 4, 1909, p. 93. 

Ohne nahere Standortsangabe (nach Nyl. a. o. O). 

Masatierra: siidliche Abhange des Portezuelo, 600 m; Quebrada Juanango, 
250 m, auf Baumstammen und auf Zweigen, fruchtend (C. und I. SkottsbERG). 

Sect. Eunephroma Stzbgr. 

N. antarcticuni Nyl. 

Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. 1, 1860, p. 317, tab. VIII, fig. 27; Hue in Nouv. 
Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. II, 1900, p. 106. — Lichen aniarcticus Wulf. in 
Jacq., Miscell. Bot. Austr., vol. II, 1781, p. 370, tab. X, fig. i. — Opisteria ant- 
arctica Wain, in Arkiv for Bot., vol., VIII, no. 4, 1909, p. 93. — Nephroma arc- 
tica Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 11 i 
(non alior.). 

Masatierra: auf Baumzweigen (Bertero). 

Masafuera: Cordon del Barril, 1,200, auf Drimys und auf dem Siidost- 
abhange des Berges Los Inocentes, 900 m, auf Drimys im Dicksonia-W ?L\d (C. 
und I. Skottsberg) 

Es unterliegt keinem Zvveifel, dass sich die Angabe MontaGNE's nicht 
auf Nephroma arcticwn bezieht. Beide Arten wurden vielfach verwech.selt, sie 
sind habituell sehr ahnlich, HuE und Nylander (an den oben angetiihrten 



356 



A. ZAHLBRUCKXER 



Stellen) haben die Unterschiede auseinandergesetzt und legen dabei ein grosses 
Gevvicht auf die Farbe der Lagerunterseite. Indes ist dieses Merkmal nur 
unter einer gewissen Einschrankung und mit Vorsicht zu benutzen. Bei 
Nephroma arctiaun ist, von einem schmalen, hellen Rande abgesehen die La- 
gerunterseite dunkel; bei Nephroma antarcticnvi liingegen ist die Lagerunter- 
seite zum grossten Teil hell, iin Zentrum jedoch ebenfalls niehr oder weniger 
dunkel, nur fehlen an diesen dunklen Stellen die Rhizinen. Ich betrachte beide 
als geographische Rassen. 

N. australe A. Rich. 

A. Rich., Voyage de Decouv. de 1" Astrolabe, Bot., vol. I, 1832, p. 3r, tab. 
IX, fig. 2; Nyl.. Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 318; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du 
Museum, ser. 4, vol. II, igoo, p. 106. — Peltij^era ausiralis Wow\.'\x\ hx\r\3\. Scienc. 
Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 86. — Nephromitwi antarcticiwi var. /em/e 'Ny]., 
Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 317. — Opistcria auslralis Wain, in Arkiv for Bot., 
vol. VIII, no. 4, 1909, p. 93. 

Masatierra: In den Bergwaldern auf Baumrinden (Bertero no. 1653, 
1655). 

Peltigera Pers. 

*P. rufescens (Neck.) Humb. 

Masatierra: Valle de Anson am Fusse des Cordon Damajuana, aufdem 
Erdboden, steril; niedriger Riicken bei der Kolonie, 147 m, auf der Erde, steril 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

P. polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm. 

Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- ^7 ^'^ apud Gay, 
Hist. Fisic y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 96; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan 
Fernand., 1896, p. 198. 

Masatierra: auf der Erde, auf Baumwurzeln und am Fusse der Baum- 
stamme (Bertero no. 1650). 

f. pellucida Dietr. 

DiETR., Lichenogr. German., 1832 — 37, p. 27, tab. 128. — Lichen caninus, 
pellucidus Web., Spicil. Flor. Getting., 1778, p. 270. — Pdtidea polydactyla var. 
pellucida Ach., Method. Lich., 1803, p. 287. 

Masafuera: im Hochland, bei 1,200 m, auf der Erde fruchtend (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

*var. dolichorrhiza Nyl. 

Nyl. Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 327; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, 
ser. 4, vol. II, 1900, p. 99. — Peltigera dolichorrhiza Nyl., Lich. Nov. Zeland., 
1888, p. 43. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ- INSELN 357 

Masatierra: Bahia Cumberland bei 200 m, auf moosigen Steinen; Puerto 
Ingles, an felsigen Absliirzen, 575 m, fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Lecideaceae. 
Lecidea (Ach.) Th. Fr. 

A. Thallus crustaceus, uniformis. 

a. i\pothecia biatorina; species corticola L. mutabilis. 

b. Apothecia lecideina; species saxicolae. 

I. Hypotheciuni incolor vel pallidum, 

1. Apothecia in margine primum distincte albo-cincta 

L. leucozonata. 

2. Apothecia semper nigro-marginata. 
a. Paraphyses facile liberae. 

*. Epithecium coerulescens L. enterolciica. 

**. Epithecium fuscescens. 

§. Thallus cinerascens, Ca CI2O2 — , L. latypea. 
§§. Thallus flavo-viridescens, Ca CI2O2 rubens 

L. viridajis. 

p. Paraphyses conglutinatae L. leucopJiaca. 

II. Hypothecium obscurum, plus minus nigrum et carbonaceum. 

1. Thallus flavidus, discus nudus. 

a. Thallus Ca CI2O2 rubens, pulvinatus L. cya^wsarca. 
,3. Thallus Ca CI2O2 — , crustaceus L. inactiva. 

2. Thallus cinereus vel albidus; discus apotheciorum prui- 
nosus L. avium. 

B. Thallus squamulosus, hepatico-luteus L. icterica. 



Sect. Eulecidea Th. Fr. 

L. avium A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, tenuis. 0,2 — 0,3 mm crassus, 
cinerascenti-, plumbeo- vel fulvo-cinerascens, KHO e luteo demum sordide 
aurantiacus vel sordide rubens, Ca CI2O2 — , opacus, effusus, areolatus, areolis 
fissuris tenuissimis limitatis, parvis 0,3—0.6 (0,8) mm latis, angulosis, planis, 
superne laevigatis, sorediis et isidiis nullis, in margine thalli protothallo nigri- 
cante cinctus; medulla alba, 1 — , KHO lutescens, CaCl202 — , ex hyphis dense 
inspersis formata. 

Apothecia lecideina, adpresso-sessilia, dispersa, usque i mm lata, sed nor- 
maliter minora, rotunda, demum in margine leviter sinuoso-flexuosa; discus 
livido-, subsulphurascenti- vel caesio-[)ruino.sus, opacus, planus vel convexiu- 
sculus; margo proprius niger, valde tenuis, persistens, parum prominulus, disco 
madefacto bene distinctus; excipulum sat angustum, extus nigrum, intus 



358. 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



cinereus (hyphis dense inspersis), infra hymenium leviter inflexum; hypothecium 
crassiusculum, decolor, ex hyphis intricatis formatum, inolle; hymenium su- 
perne sordide fuscescens et pulverulentum, NO5 non tinctum, KHO particulae 
pulveraceae dissolvuntur, caeteruni decolor, purutn, I intense violaceo-coeruleum, 
demum aeruginoso-sordidescens, 70-85 [j. altum; paraphyses filiformes, strictae, 
simphces, eseptatae, ad apicem vix latiores, conglutinatae; asci oblongo-clavati, 
hymenio subaequilongi, recti, ad apicem rotundati et membrana primum bene 
incrassata cincti, Sspori; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, simphces, elh- 
psoideae vel ovah eUipsoideae, rectae, parvae, 8,5—9 JJ- longae et phis minus 4 jj, 
Iktae, membrana tenui cinctae. 

Conceptacula pycnoconidiorum minuta, vertice convexo, nigro, nitidulo 
prominula; perifulcrium dimidiatum, fusco-nigrescens; fulcra exobasidiaha; pycno- 
conidia fihformi-baciliaria, arcuata, rarius hamata, utrinque retusata, 14 — 17 [j, 
longa et ad i [J. lata. 

Masatierra: niedriger Felsriicken am Siidabhang von Tres Puntas und 
auf dem unweit davon gelegenen »Vogelgipfel», 380 m, an Felswanden (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

Der chilenischen Lccidea aeruginosa Nyl. ziemlich nahe stehend unter- 
scheidet sie sich von dieser schon durch die Farbe des Lagers. 



'•X. inactiva A, Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, sat late expansus, versus am- 
bitum attenuatus, in centro crassior et ibidem usque i mm crassus; stramineo- 
vel isabellino-pallescens vel cremicolor, opacus, KHO e flavo subaurantiacus, 
Ca CI2O2 non tinctus, KHO + Ca CI2O2 sordide subaurantiacus, minute verru- 
culosoareolatus et praeterea irrugulariter rimosus, areolis 0,2 — 0,5 (0,7) mm latis, 
in centro thalli continuis et convexis, in ambitu thalli paulum dispersis et hypo- 
thallo tenuissimo, albido insidentibus, ad ipsum ambitum linea nigra tenuique 
cinctus, sorediis et isidiis destitutus; medulla alba, tartarea, I — . 

Apothecia lecideina, primum thallo arete adpressa, demum sessilia, dispersa 
vel hinc inde approximata et dein subirregularia, parva, 0.3 — 0,6 (0,7) mm lata, 
planiuscula vel demum convexiuscula, nigra, opaca; discus niger, epruinosus; 
margo proprius primum valde tenuis, baud prominulus, integer, demum de- 
pressus et indistinctus; excipulum integrum, fusconigrum. infra hymenium crasse 
productum; hymenium superne anguste aeruginoso-nigricans vel nigricans, non 
inspersum, KHO — , NO5 obscure coeruleum, caeterum pallide coerulescens et 
purum. 90 — 100 [J. altum, I coeruleum; paraphyses filiformes, strictae, contextae, 
simplices et eseptatae, ad apicem davato-capitatae et obscuratae; asci hymenio 
subaequilongi, oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana incrassata 
cincti, Sspori; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, simplices, oblongo-ellipsoideae 
vel ellipsoideo-ovales, rectae, membrana tenui cinctae, minutae, 8,5 — 10,5 ;jl 
longae et 4,5-5,5 [>• latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: an Felswanden, Pico Central, 365 m; beim SELKIRK-Denk- 
mal, 590 m; Cordon Salsipuedes, 465 m und Puerto Ingles (C. und I. Skotts- 
berg). 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 359 

*L. cyanosarca A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceiis, uniforniis, crassiusculiis, usque 2,5 mm 
altus, pulviuulos leviter convexos vel plus minus deplanatos, demum confluentes 
formans, isabellinus vel pallide ochraceo-stramineus, opacus, KHO flavens, 
Ca CI2O2 lateritio-ruber, sat irregulariter vel subareolatim rimosus, fissuris altis 
et angustis vel paulum hiantibus, in centre plus minus verruculosus, ad am- 
bitum passim subradians, breviter longitudinaiiter torulosus, bene delerminatus, 
sed linea obscuriore non cinctus, sorediis et isidiis destitutus; stratum corticale 
supcrficiem tlialli et latera fissurarum obducens, angustum, 30— 40 [i. crassum, 
ex hypliis intricatis et inspersis formatum; medulla alba, crassa, KHO sordide 
flavens, Ca CI2O2 lateritio-rubens, ex hyphis non amylaceis, inspersis et intri- 
catis formata; stratum gonidiale infra corticem situm, sat crassum, continuum, 
gonidiis laete viridibus, globosis vel subglobosis, usque 15 [j, latis. 

Apothecia lecideina, immersa vel adpressa, sed superficiem thalli non 
superantia, dispersa vel approximata, e rotundo subangulosa, nigra, opaca, 
parva, usque i mm lata, e piano convexiuscula; margo niger, valde tenuis et 
parum conspicuus, non prominulus; excipulum integrum, sat crassum, fusco- 
nigrum; hypothecium tenue, pallidum; hymenium superne late aeruginoso- 
coerulescens, NO5 magis coeruleum, caeterum decolor, non inspersum, 120 — 
140 {X altum, I intense coeruleum; paraphyses conglutinatae, filiformns, eseptatae, 
ad apicem clavatae; asci hymenio subaequilongi, oblongo-clavati, ad apicem 
rotundati et membrana paulum incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis bi- vel 
triseriales, decolores, simplices, ovales vel ovali-ellipsoideae, rectae, membrana 
tenui cinctae, 8,5 — 10 jx longae et 3,5 — 5 {x latae. 

Conceptacula pycnoconidiorum minuta, vertice convexo, nigro, nitidulo 
thallum paulum superantia; perifulcrium dimidiatum, nigrescens; fulcra exobasi- 
dialia; basidia subfiliformia, densa, pycnoconidiis vix longiora; pycnoconidia 
filiformia, bacillaria, recta vel subrecta, ad apices retusa, 8— 9 [x longa et 
I — 1,5 [X lata. 

Masatierra: steinige, trockene Heide bei Tres Puntas (C. und I. Skotts- 
i;erg). 

Masafuera: Cordon del Barril, bei 100 m (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*f. superfusa A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 

Apothecia tenuiter glauco- vel subsulphureo-suffusa. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo del Villagra, beim SELKIRK-Denkmal, 590 m, auf 
Felsen (C und I. Skottsberg). 

*L. leucoplaca Miill. Arg. 

MiJLL. Arg. in Hedwigia, vol. XXXI, 1892, p. 281. 

Thallus crustaceus, uniformis, tartareus, tenuis, lacteus vel cinerascenti- 
albidus, opacus, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , continuus, laevigatus, in margine linea 
obscuriore non cinctus, sorediis et isidiis destitutus; hyphae medullares non 
amylaceae. 



360 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Apothecia lecideina, sessilia, dispersa vel approximata, rotunda, atra, 
opaca, usque 1,5 mm lata, e concaviusciilo demum convexula vel inaequalia, 
margo proprius crassus, integer, prominulus, demum depressus; excipulum 
integrum, in feme (sub hymenio) fere decolor, ex hypbis tangentialibus for- 
matum, in parte marginali crassum, extus anguste nigricans, intus decolor, ex 
hyphis radiantibus, dense contextis, non septatis formatum; hypothecium an- 
gustum, decolor; hymenium superne obscure olivaceum, KHO — , NO5 — , 
caeterum decolor et purum; paraphyses filiformes. strictae, simplices, eseptatae, 
ad apicem vix latiores, dense contextae, in KHO autem facile liberae; asci 
hymenio paulum breviores, oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membr?na 
primum bene incrassata cincti, 8;-pori; sporae in ascis subbiseriales, decolores, 
simplices, ellipsoideae vel ovali-ellipsoideae, membrana tenui cinctae, rectae, 
12 — 14,5 [}^ longae et 5-5-5 'J- latae. 

Masatierra: an Felsen im obersten Telle des Villagratales (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

* L. leucozonata A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, tenuis, tartareus, cinereus, opacus, 
KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , areolatus, areolis confertis, versus ambitum thalli tantum 
plus minus dispersis, angulosis, 0,5—1 mm latis, fissuris tenuibus limitatis, planis 
vel planiusculis, sorediis et isidiis nullis, hypoihallus distinctus non evolutus; 
medulla alba, KHO — , Ca CljOj — , hyphis non amyloideis. 

Apothecia lecideina, sessilia, rotunda, usque 1,5 mm lata, dispersa vel 
approximata; discus niger, fere opacus, epruinosus, e concaviusculo planus, 
demum convexiusculus vel leviter gibbosus; margo primum leviter prominulus, 
integer, tenuis, albus, demum obscuratus et depressus; excipulum dimidiatum, 
crassiusculum, extus fusconigrum, intus pallidum, cinereum vel cinereo-fuscescens; 
hypothecium angustum, pallide lutescens, molle, ex hyphis intricatis, non 
inspersis formatum; hymenium superne umbrino nigricans, KHO — , NO5 • — , 
non in-^persum, caeterum fere decolor et in parte inferiore pallide aeruginoso- 
coerulescens, 60 — 80 \i. altum, I intense coeruleum; paraphyses filiformes, 
strictae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem clavatae et obscuratae, conglutinatae; 
asci oblongo-clavati, hymenio subaequilongi, Sspori; sporae in ascis biseriales, 
decolores, simplices, late ellipsoideae vel ovales, rectae, membrana tenui cmctae, 
minutae, 8.5 — 11 u. longae et 4 — 6 a latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masafuera: Cerro Correspondencia, bei 1,400 m, auf vulkanischem Ge- 
stein (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

* L. enteroleuca Nyl. 

Nyl. in Flora, vol. LXIV, i88r, p. 187; Arn. in Flora, vol. LXVII, 1884, p. 
558 et Zur Lich., Flora Miinchen in Bericht Bayr. Bot. Gesellsch., vol. I, Anhang, 
1891, p. 80. — Hepp, Flecht. Europ., no. 129. 

Masatierra: Pangal, auf Strandfelsen, und Steilwand unweit des Porte- 
zuelopasses, 600 m (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 36 I 

Masafiiera: im untersten Teil der Quebrada de las Casas, auf vulka- 
nischem Gestein (C. und I. Sko'I'ISBERG). 

*L. latypca Ach. 

AcH., Method. Lich., 1803, suppL, p. 10; Arn. in Flora, vol. LXXVII, 1884, 
p. 562; Wain, in Arkiv for Bot., vol. VIII, no, 4, 1909, p. 133. 

Masaticrra: auf Blocken zwischen der Kolonie und Pangal (C. und I. 
Skottsherg). 

An den gesammelten Siiicken sind die Apothezien etwas kleiner und 
etwas mehr gewolbt als in den europaischen Exemplaren, iibrigens aber ganz, 
ubereinstimniend. 



*L. viridans Lamy. 

L.\MY in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, vol. XXV, 1878, p. 446; Arn. in Flora, vol. 
LXXVII, 1884, p 559; A. L. Smith, Monogr. Brit. Lich., vol. II, 1 9 1 1 , p. 55. — 
Lccidella viridans Korb., Syst. Lich. German., 1855, p. 242 et Parerg. Lich., 1861, 
p. 213. — Biatore viridans Hepp, Flecht. Europ. no. 726. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra, 590 m, auf vulkanischem Gestein 
(C. und L Skottsberg). 



Sect. Biatora (Ach.) Br. et Rostr. 

L. niutabilis Fee. 

Fee, Suppl. Essai Crypt, ficorc. Officin., 1837, p. 105; tab. XLIL fig. 16; 
Nyl. in Acta Soc. Scient. Fennic, vol. VII, 1863, p. 495; Fink in Contrib U. S. 
Nation. Herbarium, vol. XIV, 1910, p. 71; A. L. Smith, Monogr. Brit. Lich., vol. 
II, 191 I, p. 43. — Biatora vernalis var. varians Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., 
ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- ^l- — Biatora mutabilis Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y 
Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1S52, p. 171; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 
1896, p. 201. 

Masatierra: auf Baumrinden (Bertero no. 161 5). 



Sect. Psora (Hofifm.) Schaer. 

*L. icterica Tayl. 

Tayl. in Hook., London Journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, P- 15°; ^^'^ in Annal. 
Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. XV, 186 1, p. 360. — Biatora icterica Mont, in 
Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. II, 1834, p. 373 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y 
Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 170, tab. XII, fig. 4. — Lecidea endochlora 
Tayl. in Hook., London Journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, p 151. — Lecanora 
Urightii Tuck, im Anieric. Journ. Arts and Scienc, ser. 2, vol. XXV, 1858, p. 
425. — Biatora Wrightii Tuck., Lich. Californ., r866, p. 31, not. — Psora icterica 
Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXXI, 1888, p. 45; Fink in Contrib. U. N. Nation. Her- 
bar., vol. XIV, 1910, p. 103. 



n^2 A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

Masafuera: Playa Ancha, am Meeresstrand auf humoser Erde (C. und 1. 
Skottsberg). 

Catillaria (Ach.) Th. Fr. 

A. Apothecia pallide marginata, habitu lecanarino. 

a. Apothecia nigra; sporae oblongae vel subfu si formes, 14—30 {j. 
■ longae et 5 — 7 jj. latae C. endoclirotna. 

b. Apothecia pallida, ceracea, ]i\'ida vel livido-nigricantia; sporae 
ovales vel ovali-ellipsoideae, 17 — 20 [j, longae et 8—9 [j. latae — 

C. leitcochlora. 

B. Apothecia nigro-marginata, typice lecideina. 

a. Hypothecium obscuratum; apothecia mediocria. 

I. Hypothecium rubrofuscum; sporae 15— 19 jj, longae et 6—8,5 [J- 

latae C. i7iterimxta. 

II. Hypothecium coerulescenti-nigricans, in parte margjnali strato 

albo praeditum; sporae 25 — 30 [j. longae et 12 — 16 [j, crassae 

C. nielastegia f. Diesolencodes. 

b. H\'pothecium decolor; apothecia minuta, convexa et immarginata 

C. tlieobromina. 

*C. interniixta Arn. 

Arx. apud GfcowACKi in Verhandl. zool.-bot. Gesellsch., Wien, vol. XX, 1870, 
p. 455. — Lecidea itifermixta Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. Ill, 
J855, p. 161 et Lich. Scandin , 1861, p. 194; Harm in Bull. See. Scienc. Nancy, 
ser. 2, vol. XXXIII, (i8c,8) 1899, P- 59' tab. XXII, fig. 54. — Cetillaria Laureri 
Hepp apud Arn., Lich. exsicc. no. 353 (1867); Th. Fr., Lichenogr. Scand., vol. I, 
1874, p. 582. — Biaforina in^ermixta Kieffer in Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Metz, 1895, 
p. 84; A. L. Smith, Monogr. Brit. Lich., vol. II, 191 i, p. 125. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf der Rinde einer Robivsonia 
tJnirifera; Cordon Centinela, 530, auf Stammen der Dendroseris micrantha; 
Valle Colonial, Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf Dendroseris micrantha und Fagara 
(C. und L Skottsberg). 

*C. nielastegia (Nyl.) A. Zahlbr. f. niesoleucodes A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Lccidca nielastegia f. mesohiicodes Nyl., Lich. Fueg. et Patagon., i8?8, p. 15. — 
Catillaria grossa var. mesohiuodes A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 
vol. LVII, no. 6, 19 1 7. p. 22. 

Masatierra: auf dem Bergriicken iiber Pangal, 400 m, auf Coprosma py- 
rifoliuvi (C. und I. SKOTTSBERG). 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Blindado, 446 m, auf der Rinde der Z>r«^/-<?j-r/7.y 
giganiea und Quebrada de la Loberi'a, 300 m, auf alterer Lumarinde (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

Excipulum crassiusculum, integrum, coeruleo nigrum, in parte marginali 
intus anguste decolor; hymenium superne anguste coeruleo nigrum, caeterum 
decolor, aquoso-pellucidum, purum, 180 — 200 'j. altum, I e coerulescente mox 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 363 

CLipreo rufidulum; paraphyses capillares, strictae, simplices, eseptatae, conglu- 
tinatae; asci hymenio subaequilongi, oblongo-clavati, superne rotundati et mem- 
brana incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, ovales vel 
ovali-ellipsoideae, utrinque rotundatae, rectae, uniseptatae, septo et niembrana 
tenui, ad septum non constrictae, 26 — 30 [J. longae et 12—15 {'■ latae. 



'•'C. endochronia A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zaiilbr. in Englerr-Prantl, Natiirl. Pflan/.enfam., r. Teil, Abt. 1'", 1935, 
p. 134. — Lecanora cndochroma Fee, Essai Crypt. Ticort;. Officin., 1824, p. 114, 
tab. XXIX, fig. I. — Lccidea cndochrovia Nyl. in Flora, vol. XLI, 1858, p. 380 et 
in Bull. Soc. Einn. Normand., ser. 2, vol. Ill, 1869, p. 271. — Psorothecium endo- 
ihromum Mass. in Atli I. R. Istit. Veneto, ser. 3, vol. V, i860, p. 261; Mull. Arg. 
in Revue Mycol., vol. IX, 1S87, p. 89. — Heterotheciuvi endochromum Fw. in Bot. 
Zeitung, vol. VIII, 1850, p. 555; Tuck., Synops. North Americ. Lich., vol. II, 
1S88, p. 55. 

Masatierra: Quebrada de la Choza, 250 m, auf Baumrinden im Waldo 
(C. und I. Skottsbekg). 

C. leucochlora A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Parmelia leucochlora Mont.l in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot. ser. 3, vol. XVIII, 
1852, p. 310 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 
152. — Parmelia varia Fr. var. leucochlora Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2. vol. 
IV, 1835, p. 91. — Bcrcjigeria leucochlora Trevis., Spighe e Paglie, 1853, p. 5. — 
Lecldea leucochlora Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1855, p. 184; 
Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 3, vol. Ill, 1891, p. 107. — Boyrhofferia 
leucochlora Trevis. in Rivist. Period. Lavori Accad. Padova, vol. V, 1857, p. 69. 

Thallus epiphloeodes, crustaceus, uniformis, sat expansus, tenuis, albidus 
vel dilute alutaceus, fere opacus, KHO flavens, Ca CI2O2 — , continuus vel sub- 
strate rupto passim irregulariter fissus, utplurimum sat laevigatus vel subpul- 
veraceo-inaequalis, rarius minute granulosus, .sorediis et isidiis non praeditus, 
in margine hinc inde linea tenui nigricante cinctus. 

Apothecia pseudolecanorina, sessilia, ad basin leviter constricta, dispersa 
vel plus minus approximata, rotunda vel rotundata, usque 2 mm lata, e con- 
cave convexiu.scula vel convexa, cerina ve! livida, demum nigricantia, caesie- 
pruinosa vel subnuda; margo proprius primum bene prominens, integer, disco 
pallidior, dein flexuosus et demum depressus; excipulum crassum, chondroideum, 
dimidiatum, in sectione late obtriangulare. decolor vel in margine tenuiter in- 
fuscatum, ex hyphis radiantibus, strictis, tenuibus, arete conglutinatis, eseptatis 
formatum, I vix lutescens, gonidia nulla includens; hypethecium sat crassum, 
fere decolor, ex hyphis dense intricatis formatum, I e coerulee aeruginoso- 
obscuratum; hymenium superne anguste sordide fuscidulum et pulverulento- 
inspersum, caeterum decolor et purum, 120- 130 {x altum, I primum intense 
coeruleum, demum in sordide cupreum vergens; paraphyses filiformes. con- 
glutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem non latieres; asci hymenio subae- 
quilongi, ovali-clavati, superne rotundati et membrana sat bene incrassata cincti, 
8-spori; sporae in ascis bi- vel triseriales, decolores, ovali ellipsoideae, curvulae. 



364 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



uniseptatae, septo tenui, ad septum non constrictae, membrana tenui cinctae, 
17—20 |x longae et 8—9 [i latae. 
Pycnoconidia non visa. 

f. typica A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 
Tliallus granulosus, alutaceo-cinerascens. 
Masatierra: auf Rinde (Bertero no, 1616). 

Masafuera: Hochplateau zwischen Quebrada Sanchez und Ensenada 
Token, 515 m, auf Baumrinden (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Diese Form entspricht dem MONTAGNE'schen Urstiick. 

f. laevigata A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 

Thallus laevigatus, granulis nullis, albidus. 

Masatierra: auf dem Riicken des Pangal, 400 m, auf Co/>rosjnaR\nde; 
Portezuelo, beim SELKIRK-Denkmal, 590 m, auf Robijisonia-Kxnde] Quebrada 
Salsipuedes, 625 m, auf Rinden (C. und I. SkottSBERG). 

*C. theobroniina A. Zahlbr, nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, substratum tenuissime obducens, 
late expansus, theobrominus vel passim theobromino cinerascens, opacus, KHO — , 
Ca CI2O2 — , continuus, leviter inaequalis, sotediis ct isidiis nullis, in margine 
linea obscuriore non cinctus. 

Apothecia sat copiosa, plus minus dispersa, nigra, opaca, lecideina, ses- 
silia, rotunda, mox convexa et demum fere semiglobosa, parva, 0,3 — 0.4 (—0,5) 
mm lata; margo proprius in juventute apotheciorum valde tenuis, integer et vix 
prominulus, mox depressus; excipulum dimidiatum, fusconigrum, ad basin ver- 
sus hymenium productum, 18 — 28 [x crassum; hypothecium fere decolor, molle, 
ex hyphis intricatis formatuni; hymenium superne coceruleo nigricans, NO5 in- 
tense coeruleum, non inspersum, in centro et in parte marginali dihite coeru- 
lescens, caeterum decolor, purum, 34—40 [j, altum; paraphyses filiformi capillares, 
strictae, conglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem capitatae et obscuratae; 
asci hymenio subaequilongi, oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana 
primum bene incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, 
oblongae vel ellipsoideo-oblongae, utrinque rotundatae, rectae, uniseptatae, septo 
et membrana tenui, parvae, 7—8 |j, longae et ad 2 ij, latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra, 590 m, auf vulkanischem Gestein (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 



Megalospora Mey. et Fw. 
*M. versicolor A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Engler Prantl, Naturl. Pflanzenfamil., i Tail, Aht. i*, 1905, 
p. 134; Riddle in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, vol. XLIV, 19 i 7, p. 327, tab. XXI, fig. 9. — 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ- INSELN 365 

Lccanora versicolor Fee, Essai Crypt, ficorc. Officin., 1824, p. 115, tab. XXVIII, 
tig. 4. — Lecidca versicolor Nyl, in Acta Soc. Scient. Fennic, vol. VII, 186;;, j). 
461. — Hetcrothcciiiin versicolor Fw. in Bot. Zeiiung. vol. VIII, 1850, p. 555; Tuck., 
Synops. North Americ Lich., vol. II, 1888, p. 54. — Patellaria versicolor Miill. 
Arg. in Flora, vol. LXV, 1882, p. 3.30. — Biatorina versicolor Hellb. in Eihang 
till Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.Akad. Handl., vol. XXI, afd. Ill, no. 13, 1896, p. 109. 

var. niicrocarpa A. Zahlbr. nov, var. 

Thallus tenuis, albidus, continuus vel imprimis versus ambitum discon- 
tinuus et hypothallo cinerascente vel umbrino insidens. 

Apoihecia nigra, nuda, minuta. 0.2 — 0,3 mm lata, mox convexa, margine 
haud coiispicuo; sporae 27 — 38 {j, longae et 17—20 |x latae, in ascis binae. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Salsipuedes, 615 m, auf Baumzweigen (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

Bacidia (De Not.) A. Zahlbr. 

A. Apothecia saltern piimum distincte pallide marginata. 

I. Hypothallus distinctus deest B. delapsans. 

II. Hypothallus distinctus, niger B. subluteola. 

B. Margo apotheciorum disco concolor. 

I. Apothecia nigra B. endoleuca. 
II. Apothecia plus minus fusca. 

a. Sporae crassiores; hymenium superne olivaceocoerulescens 
vel nigro-violaceum B. endoleuca var. laiirocerasi. 

b. Sporae graciles, subfiliformes; hymenium superne fuscescens 
vel subdecolor B. arccutina var. liyposcotina 

'•'B. endoleuca Kickx. 

KicKz, Flore Crypt. FUindr., vol. I, 1857, p. 261; Th. Fr., Lichenogr. Scand., 
vol. I, 1874, p. 347; Wain, in Acta Soc. Scient. Fennic, vol. LIII, no. i, 1922, 
p. 14S et 177. — Biatora hdeola f. endoleuca Nyl. in Bot. Notiser, 1853, p. 98. 

Masatierra: Plazoleta del Yunque, 235 m, auf ^;7'j-/^/^//^-Rinde (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Quebrada Blindado, 440 m, auf der glatten Rinde von Den- 
droseris gigaiitea (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*var. laurocerasi Arn. 

Arn. in Flora, vol. LIII, 1870, p. 472; Oliv., Expos. Lich. Quest France, 
vol. II, 1900, p. 19. — Patellaria laurocerasi Del. apud Duby, Botanic, Gallic, 
vol. II, 1830, p. 652. — Bacidia laurocerasi Wain, in Acta Soc. Scient. Fennic, 
vol. LIII, no. I, 1922, p. 147 et 175. 

Masatierra: Plazoleta del Yunque, 235 m, auf Aristotelia-'K\vi^& (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 



366 



ZAHLBRUCKXER 



Masafuera: Hochebene zwischen Quebrada Sanchez und Ensenada Tolten, 
515 m, auf Lumarinde (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*B. arceutina (Ach.) Arn. var. hyposcotina A. Zahlbr. nov. \ar. 

Apothecia usque I mm lata, primum rubricoso-fusca, demum obscurata, 
nigricantia; hypothecium crassiusculum, rufofuscum; hymenium superne dilute 
fuscescens vel fere decolor, non inspersum, caeterum decolor, 50—70 [i altum, 
I praecedente coerulescentia mox cupreo fuscum; paraphyses filiformes, sim- 
plices, eseptatae, ad apicem paulum latiores, conglutinatae; asci hymenio subae- 
quilongi, anguste clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana inodice incrassata 
cincti, Sspori; sporae decolores, filiformi-capillares, subrectae, in uno apice le- 
viter latiores, subindistincte pluriseptatae, 42— 50 a longae et ad i [j, latae. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf dem Stamme einer Robin- 
sonia thurifera (C. und I. SkottSBERG). 

Habit uell gleicht diese neue V'arietat der Bacidia fuscoruhclla (Hoffm.), 
wie sie bei Hf.pp unter no. 520 ausgegeben ist; die grazilen Sporen zeigen 
indes, dass sie mit ihr nichts zu tun hat. Das Hypothezium ist schon in den 
jungsten Friichten dunkel gefarbt und kraftig entwickelt. 

*B. delapsans A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epiphloeodes, tenuissimus, substratum arete obducens, maculas 
formans irregulares, sat extenuatas, margine linea nigra cinctas et demum plus 
minus confluentes, lutoso cinerascens, opacus, KHO lutescens, Ca CI2O2 — , pri- 
mum pulverulento-leprosulus, demum leprosus, continuus, sorediis et isidiis non 
praeditus. 

Apothecia lecideina, sessilia, mox elabentia et foveolas rotundas relin- 
quentia, normaliter dispersa, rotunda, ir.inuta, O5 — 8 mm lata, e piano mox 
convexa. umbrino nigricantia, opaca, madefacta magis umbrina; margo proprius 
primum valde tenuis, integer, cinerascens, mox depressus; excipulum ad am- 
bitum nigricans, intus pallidum, ex hj-phis dense intricatis, elementa substrati 
includentibus formatum, I — ; hypothecium crassum, fusconigrum, versus am- 
bitum rufescens, KHO vix mutatum; hymenium angustum, 45 — 55 [J- altum, 
superne anguste umbrino-fuscum, KHO violaceum, caeterum maculatim dilute 
fuscescens vel decolor, purum, I e coeruleo mox aeruginoso-obscuratum,; pa- 
raph3'ses filiformes, simplices, eseptatae. ad apicem non latiores; asci crebri, 
oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana bene incrassata cincti, 8- 
spori; sporae in ascis subtriseriales, verticales, decolores, aciculari fusiformes, 
subrectae vel curvulae, in uno apice rotundatae vel acutatae, in altero apice 
normaliter fusiformii-acutatae, subindistincte pluriseptatae, 28 — 45 a longae et 
1,5 — 1.8 'J. latae. 

Cunceptacula pycnoconidiorum punctiformia, nigra, concavo-emersa; peri- 
fulcrium superne obscuratum, caeterum pallidum; fulcra exobasidialia; pycno- 
conidia oblonga, minuta, is — 2 a longa. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Gutierrez, und Quebrada seca, auf Rinde von 
Jiiajiia aiistralis, 435 m (C. und I. Skott.SBERG). 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNAXDEZINSELX 367 

Das Excipulum ist eigentlich dem anatoniischen Bau nach lekanorinisch, 
indem es aus verwebten Ilyj)hen, welclie jcnen der Markschicht ahnlich sind, 
gebildet wird. Es scheint sich auch unter das Hypolhezium zu erstrecken, 
docli ist die Begrenzung schwer w ahrzunehnicn, da die Hyphen beider Schichten 
wenig verschieden sind. Der Fruclitrand ist demnach hier ahnlich gcbaut, wie 
bei manchen Aiten der Gattung Lecidea sect. Eulecidea, z. B. bei Lecidca po- 
lycarpa Flk., wo das Verhaltnis nur insoferne dcutlicher hervortritt, als alle 
Markhyphen durch Kalilauge blutrot gefarbt werden und diese Farbung sich 
auch auf die Hyphen des Excipulums erstreckt. 



*B. subliiteola A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Sitzungsl)er. Akad. Wiss. Wien, niath.-nalurw, CI., vol. CXI, 
Abt. I, 1902, p. 395 at in Denkschrift. math.-naturw CI. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 
LXXXIII, 1909, p. 129. — Lecidea subluteola Nyl. in Flora, vol. LII, 1869, p. 122. 

— I'atellaria subluteola Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXIV, 1881, p. 522. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de la Loberia, 300 m, auf Lumarinde (C. und I. 
Skott^berg). 

Toninia Th. Fr. 

*T. (sect. Eiitoninid) bullata A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Beihefte zuni Bot. Centralbl., vol. XIX, Abt. II, 1905, p. -^o. 

— Lecidea bullata jSiey. et Fw. in Nova Acta. Acad. Caes. Leopold. Carolin., vol. 
XIX, suppl. I, 1843, P- 227. 

Apothecia primum subpedicellata, cupularia, demum applanata, usque 3 
mm lata, rotunda; discus niger, nudus; margo primum crassiusculus, obtusus, 
inflexus, niger, demum angustatus, minus prominulus et leviter crenulatus; 
receptaculum subtus primum nigricans et verruculosum, evoluium pallide ru- 
fescens, verruculosum, sed verruculae minus prominentes, extus et inferne cras- 
siuscule corticatum, cortice chondroideo, lutescente, ex hyphis ramosis et dense 
contextis format© ; hypothecium angustum, obscure fuscum vel fere nigrum, 
ex hyphis perpendicularibus formatum; hymenium 70- 90 a crassum, superne 
anguste nigricans, non inspersum, KHO — , caeterum decolor et purum, I pri- 
iHum coerulescens, tandem sordide aeruginosum; paraphyses filiformes, ad 2 a 
crassae, strictae, simplices, primum facile liberae, ad apicem clavatae et obscu- 
ratae, clavo 3,5^4 p- lato; asci clavati, ad apicem rotundati, hymenio subae- 
quilongi. recti, membrana in parte apicali primum valde incrassata cincti, 8- 
spori; .sporae in ascis 3 — 4 seriales, decolores, verticales, subcylindricae, in uno 
apice paulum latiores, utrinque rotundatae, subrectae vel curvulae, 8 — lolocu- 
lares, septis pertenuibus, 38 — 52 |j, longae et 3,5 — 4 a latae. 

Masafuera: iiber abgestorbenen Moosen beim Correspondencialager, 
1,150 m (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Ich hatte bisher die Flechte bevor ich die Apothezien kennen lernte \vegen 
der Gestalt des Lagers bei der sect. Thalloidinm untergebracht; nunmehr 



368 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



unterliegt es keinem Zweifel, dass sie zur sect. Eutonmia gehort. Der Tliallus 
wurde von Mever und Fl,OTOW zutreffend beschrieben, ich fiige erganzungs- 
weise nur hinzu, dass die Lagervvarzen bis 3 mm breit werden, bald zerstreut 
stehen, bald aneinander geriickt sind. 

Lopadium Korb. 

*L. leiicoxanthum A, Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-naturw. CI., vol. CXI, 
Abt. I, 1902, p. 3g8. — Lccidca leucvxantha Sprgl. in Kgl. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., 
1820, p. 45. 

var. albidius A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Thallus lacteus vel albus. Apothecia usque 2 mm lata, ad basin constricta, 
basi angusta elato-sessilia; discus croceus vel vitellino-subcroceus; margo proprius 
crassiusculus, integer, albus vel lutescenti-albidus. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf Robinsonien; Quebrada seca, 
435 m, auf der Rinde einer Dcndroseris micrantlia; Quebrada Salsipuedes, auf 
Rinden; Quebrada de la Choza, 250 m, auf Baumrinden (C. und I. Skotts- 
berg). 

Rhizocarpoii DC. 

A. Thallus flavus R. geographiaivt. 

B. Thallus cinereus vel albidus. 

Sporae 13 — 16 {i longae et 8,5-9 [J- latae R. microspernjim. 

Sporae 22 — 30 [i longae et 10— 14 [x latae R. obscuratiim var. deviinutuvi. 

*R. geographicum (L.) DC. f. contiguum (Schaer.) Mass. 

Masafuera: auf einem vulkanischen Block im oberen Teil der Quebrada 
de las Vacas und Strandfelsen in der Quebrada del Mono (C. und I. Skotts- 
berg). 

*R. (sect. EurJiizocarpon) microspermiini A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, tenuis, crustaceus, uniformis, tartareus, plumbeo- vel 
cinereo-albidus, opacus, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , rinioso-areolatus, areolis parvis, 
0.2 — I mm latis, subangulosis, contiguis, planis, fissuris angustis et plus minus 
flexuosis separatis, superne laevigatus, sorediis et isidiis destitutus, in margine 
linea obscuriore distincta non cinctus; medulla alba, ex hyphis non amyloideis 
format a. 

Apothecia lecideina, primum inter areolas thalli sedentia, mox elavata et 
adpresse sessilia, nigra, opaca, rotunda, usque i mm lata, dispersa vel approxi- 
mata, e piano leviter convexa, non umbonata; margo primum leviter promi- 
nulus, integer angustusque, demuni depressus; excipulum nigrum, integrum, 
olivaceo-fuscum, infra hymenium sat crassum, ad latera hymenii nigrum; hyme- 



DIE FLECHTIiN DEK JUAN KERNANDEZ-INSELN 369 

nium superne obscure fuscurn, KHO liaiid imitatum, non pulverulentum, cae- 
teruin decolor, piiruiii, 130-150 (J. altum, I intense coiruleum; paraphyses 
strictiusculae, subsiniplices, gelatinose conglutinaiae, eseplaiae; asci li)minio 
subaequiloiigi, oblont;o-cla\ati, ad apiceni rotiindati, 8-spori; sporae in ascis 
2—3 seriales, deccjlores, cllipsoideae vel ovales, depauperato-murales, septis hori- 
zontalibus 3 — 4, septo veriicali iit[)lurinuini unico, halone non circumdatae, 
parvae, 13 — 16 \i. longae et 8,5—9 [-•' latae. 
P\'cn')conidia non visa. 

Masafiiera: Heide des I lochplateaus, 1000 — 1200 m, auf vulkan'schem 
Gestein (C. und I. Skottshekg). 

Gehort in den Formenkreis des Rhizocarpon obscuraium (Ach.) Mass.; die 
kleinen Sporen und die flachen Aieolen des hellen Thallus kennzeiclinen die 
neue Ait. 



*Rh. obscuratuni (Ach.) Mass. var. deminiituni A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 
Thallus cinereocaesius, niinute areolatus, areoli.s ad 0.15 mm latis. Apoihecia 
minuta, 02—0,3 mm lata, mox convexiuscula; sporae ut in typo. 

Masafuera: Cordon del Barril, auf vulkanischem Gestein (C. und I. 
Skottsberu). 

Phy 1 lopsoraceae. 
Phyllopsora Miill. Arg. 

Ph. parvifolia Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Bull. Herbier Boissier, vol. II, 1894, p. 90. — LeciJea parvi- 
folia Pers. apud Gaudich., Voyage Uranic, Bot., 1826. p. 192 — Parmelia parvi- 
folia Mont, apud Sagra, Hist, de d'lle Cuba, Botan., 1838 — 42, p. 214, tab. X, 
fig. 3 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VllI, 18-2, p. 145; 
JoHOW, Es'ud. Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 200. — Biator a parvifolia Mont, in 
Annal. Si. ienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 92. — Lecatiora bibula Tayl. in 
Hook., London Journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, p. 160. 

Masatierra; auf Baumrinden in den hoher gelegenen Bergwaldern (Ber- 
TERO no. 1648). 

Cladoni aceae. 

Baeoniyces Pers. 

B. chilensis Cromb. 

Cromb. in Journ. Linn. Soc London, Bot., vol. XVI, 1876, p. 223; Johow, 
Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 201. - — Biatora byssoides var. chilensis Mont, 
apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 173. — Baeoinyces 
rufus var. chilensis Nyl., Synops. Lich., \ol. I, i860, p. 177. 

Masatierra: ohne nahere Standortsangabe (MoSELEY). 

24 — 2391. The Nal. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easier Isl. Vol. II. 



37° 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Masafuera: an Steinen und Felsen an einem Bache unvveit des Correspon- 
dencialagers bei iioo m (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Cladonia (Hill.) Wain. 

C. alpestris (L.) Rabh. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. I, 1887, p. 41. — Cladonia rangiferina var. al- 
pestris Schaer.: Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Rot., vol. VIII, 1852, 
p. 166; JoHow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., i8g6, p. iq6. 

Masatierra: zwischen Moosen auf den hoheren Bergen (Bertero no. 

1605). 

*C. pycnoclada (Gaud.) Nyl. var. flavida Wain. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. I, 1887, p. 38. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, 625, an sonnigen und steinigen Stellen, 
steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: unter dem Gipfel von Los Inocentes, steril (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 



C. bacillaris (S. Gray) Nyl. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. I, 1887, p. 88; A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Ve- 
tensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 1917, p. 24. 

Masatierra: Bahia Cumberland, auf morschen Baumstriinken (C. Skotts- 
berg). 



*C. didynia Wain. var. vulcanica (Zoll.) Wain. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. I, 1887, p. 145. 

Masatierra: auf dem Bergriicken iiber Pangal, 795 m, auf dem Erdboden, 
fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

C. cocci fera (L.) Willd. var. stemniatina Ach. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. I, 1887, p. 158; A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. 
Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 1917, p. 24. — Cladojjia cornucopioidcs 
Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 163; Johow, 
Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 197. 

Ohne nahere Standortsangabe (CUMiNG). 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, 500 — 600 m, auf der Erde, fruchtend 
(C. und L Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Heide oberhalb Ouebrada del Mono, 850 m, schon fruchtend, 
darunter einige Podezien mit Bechern, welche in ihrer Mitte proliferieren (= f. 



DIE FLECHTEN DEU JUAN EERNANDEZ-INSELN 37 I 

asotea Acli.); auf clem Hochplateau, bei I2CK) m; Heide unweit des Canipo 
Correspondcncia, 1130 ni, auf der Eide, fruchtend (C. iind I. SK(jTTSHERG). 

C. aggregata (Sw.) Acli. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. I, 1887, j). 224; Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. 
y Polit. Chile, Kot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 167; Johow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 
1896, p. ig6; A. Zahlur. in Kgl. Svensk.-Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 
191 7, p. 25. — Cladia ag}:;rei^ata Nyl.; Cromb. in Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., 
vol. XVI, 1877, p. 223. 

Masatierra: ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Hertero, Moseley); Puerto 
Frances, Loma del Incienso; Portezuelo del Villagra, auf losem Tuff und auf 
der Erde, steril (C. und L Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: oberhalb Quebrada del Mono, 850 m, auf dem Hochplateau, 
1000 — 1350 m und beim Campo Correspondcncia, 1130 m, steril (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

var. straniinea Miill. Arg. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. I, 1887, p. 230. 

Masatierra: Am Weg nach Portezuelo, 200 m, auf dem Erdboden, steril 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*C1. furcata (Huds.) Schrad. f. foliosa Del. 

Wain., Monogr, Cladon., vol. I, 1887, p. 333. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes, 615 m, in Buschwerk zwischen Moosen 
auf der Erde (C. und L Skottsberg). 

CL gracilis (L.) WiUd. 

var. chordalis (Flk.) Schaer. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. II, 1894, p. 97. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo, bei 600 m, zwischen Moosen auf der Erde (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: auf dem Hochplateau, 750—1200 m, auf dem Erdboden, 
fruchtend (C. und L Skottsberg). 

var. tenera Nyl. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. II, 1894, p. 109. 

Ohne nahere Standortsangabe (Bertero). 

var. aspera Flk. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. II, 1894, p. iio. 



M- 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Masafuera: Heide unweit des Campo Correspondencia, iioo— 1350 m, 
auf dem Erdboden (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

var. elongata (Jacqu.) Flk. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. II. 1894, p. 116; Mont, in Anna!. Scienc, Nat., 
Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 92. 

Ohne Standortsangabe (CuMiNG). 

Masatierra: Portezuelo, auf den hoheren Bergen auf der Erde (Bertero 
no. 1606). 

CI. pyxidata (L ) Fr. var chlorophaea Flk. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. 11, 1894, p. 232. 

Ohne Standortsangabe (CuMING). 

Ma.safuera: Heide unweit Correspondencia, bei 1350 m, auf der Erde, 
fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

C. fimbriata (L ) Fr. var. prolifera (Retz.) Mass. 

Wain, Monogr. Cladon., vol. II, 1894, p. 271. — Cladonia fimbriata var. ra- 
diata Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 92 (?j. 

Masatierra: Auf steinigen Hugeln (Bertero no. 1607). 

var. Balfourii (Crb.) Wain. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. II, 1894, p. 339. 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Mono, an der Basis eines Z>/V/('j'(7;^/«-Stammes 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

CI. pityrea (Flk.) Fr. 

I. Zwackhii f. scyphifera (Del.) Wain. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. II, 1894, p. 354. 

Masatierra; Valle Colonial, auf der Erde, fruchtend (C. und I. Skotts- 
BERG). 

Masafuera: Heide oberhalb des Monotals, 850 m (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

f. subacuta Wain. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. II, 1894, p. 355. 

Masatierra: am Wege zwischen Portezuelo und Villagra, bei 400 m, auf 
der Erde (C, und I. Skottsberg). 



DIE FLFXHTEN DER JUAN FKUNANDEZINSELN 373 

f. sqiianiulifcru Wain. 

Wain., Monogr. Cladon., vol. II, 1894, P- 355- 

Masaticrra: Ct)rd6n Centinela, auf Baumstrunl<cn; CJuebrada Monte Ma- 
deruoo, auf abgestorbenen Baumstammen (C. und I. SkottSBERG). 

f. sored iosa Wain. 

Wain, apud A. Zaiilbk. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, 
no. 6, 1917, p. 27. 

Ohne Standortsangabe (C. Skottsrerg). 



Stereocaulon Schteb. 

A. Phyllocladia lincaria, simplicia vel divisa; cephalodia plus minus pe- 
dicellata. 

a. Cephalodia gonidiis nostocaceis 6^ raimilosuni. 

b. Cephalodia gonidiis scytonemaceis vS". proxiumvi. 

B. Phyllocladia granuliformia; cephalodia sessilia 

^. paschale var. magcllaniaim. 

S. paschale (L.) Ach. var. magellanicum Nyl. 

Nyl. in Memoir. Soc. Scienc. Nat. Cherbourg, vol. V, 1857, p. 96 et Synops. 
Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 243. — Stercocaulo7i fotnentossum var. fnagel/anicum Th. Fr., 
De Stereoc. et Piloph. Comment., 1857, p. 31. — Stereocaulon magella7iicum'Y\\.Y\. 
in Nova Acta Soc. Scient. Upsal., ser. 3, vol. II, pars i, 1858, p. 359. 

Masatierra: auf Felsen in den Bergen (Bertero no. 29). 
Masafuera: auf dem Hochplateau 1200 m und beim Campo Correspon- 
dencia, 1130 m, fruchtend (C. und 1. SkottsberG). 

*S. proximuni Nyl. 

Nyl. in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. XI, 1859, p. 210 et Synops. 
Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 237, tab. VII, fig. 14; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, 
ser. 2, vol. X, 1898, p 154. — Stereocaulon raiimlosKin f. proximuni Tuck, in Pro- 
ceed. Americ. Acad. Arts and Scienc, vol. VII, 1S68, p. 228; Wain, in Annal. 
Acad. Scient Fennic, ser. A, vol. VI, no. 7, 1915, p. 25. 

Masatierra: Puerto Frances, Loma del Incienso; Cordon Escarpado, 
365 m; Portezuelo, auf Felsklippen, 590—600; am Wege zwi.schen Portezuelo 
und Villagra, 420 m, auf dem Erdboden; Quebrada Villagra 380 m, auf Fels- 
spalten und Cordon Salsipuedes, 625 m; iiberall fruchtend (C. und I. Skotts- 
BERG). 

var. compactius A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Thalius substrato arete adhaerens, fastigiato-conglomeratus. Podetia usque 
3,5 cm alta, 1 — 1,5 mm lata, stricta, rigida, in parte inferiore phyllocladis fill- 



374 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



formibus obsita, in parte superiore phyllocladiis verruculoso-inaequalibus, ver- 
rucis thallum fere omnino obducentibus et quasi corticem formantibus. 

Masafuera: Las Torres, c. 1350 m, auf Gestein, fruchtend und auf der 
Heide unweit Correspondencia, 1200 m, fruchtend (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Durch das kompakte Wachstum und durch das Fehlen typhischer Phyllo- 
kladien im oberen Teile der Podezien von den iibrigen Varietaten leicht zu 
unterscheiden. 



S. ramulosum Raenschel, 

Raenschel., Nomencl. Bot., edit. 3, 1797, p. 328; Mont, in Annal. Scienc. 
Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- 9^ et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, 
Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 154; Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 235; Cromb. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. London, Bot., vol. XVI, 1877, P- 223; Hue in Nouv, Archiv. 
du Museum, ser. 3, vol. X, 1898, p. 243; Reinke in Pringsh,, Jahrbiich. fiir wiss. 
Bot., vol. XXVIII, 1895, p. 115, fig. 48, III — IV. — Lichen ratmdosus Sw., Nova 
Gener. et Spec. Plant., 1788, p, 147. 

Masatierra : auf der Erde und auf Felsen in den Bergen (Bertero no. 
1652; Moseley); Klippen bei Portezuelo, 590 m; Cordon Salsipuedes, 615 m; 
zwischen Villagra und Tres Puntas, 2 — 300 m (C. und I. Skottsherg). 

Masafuera: Las Torres, 1350 m, auf der Erde, fruchtend (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

var. iniplexuni Nyl. 

Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 236, tab. VII, fig. 11; MiJLL. Arg. in 
Mission. Scient. Cap. Horn, vol. V, 1889, p. 150. — Stefeocaulofi iniplexum Th. ¥r., 
De Stereoc. et Piloph. Comment., 1857, p. 23; Wain., fitnd. Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 
1890, p. 68. — Stereocaidon coralUnum Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat, Bot., ser. 2, 
vol. IV, 1835. P- 92 et apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 
1852, p. 155; JoHow, Estud. Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 197. 

Masatierra: Bahia Cumberland, in Waidern (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Heide oberhalb des Monotales, bei 850 m, fruchtend (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

Acarosporaceae. 

Acarospora Mass. 

A. Thallus fuscus A. smaragdula. 

B. Thallus flavus A. citrina. 

*A. smaragdula Mass. 

Mass., Ricerch. Auton. Lich., 1852, p. 29, fig. 47; A. L. Smith, Monogr. 
Brit. Lich., vol. I, 1898, p. 336. — Endocarpon sniaragdidum Wahlbg. apud Ach., 
Method. Lich., 1803, p. 29. — • Lecanora smaragdida Nyl. in Flora, vol. LV, 1872, 
p. 429. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN EERNANDEZ-INSELN 375 

Masafuera: im untersten Teil der Quebrada de las Casas, auf vulka- 
nischem Gestcin haiifig (C. und I. SKOTTSBIiRG). 

*A. citrina A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. apud Rechinger in Deiiksclirft. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-naturw. 
C1-, vol. LXXXVIll, 191 1, p 26. — Urccolaria citrina Tayl. in Hook., London 
journ. of Bot., vol. VI, 1847, p. 158. — Lecanora xafif/iop/iojia Nyl. in Anna). 
Scienc. Nat., Eot , ser. 4. vol. XV, 1861, p. 379. — Acarospora xatitliopliana Jatta 
in Malpighia, vol. XX, 1906, p. 10; Hue in Nouv, Archiv. du Museum, ser. 5, 
vol. I, 1909, p. 170. 

Santa Clara: Mono de los Alelies, auf vulkanischem Gestein (C. und 
I. SKOTTS15ERG). 

Pertusariaceae. 

Pertusaria DC. 

A. Sporae demuni nigricantes, I violascentes; thallus lutescens, CaCl202 
rubens; species saxicola P. inelanospora. 

B. Sporae persistenter decolores. 

a. Apothecia lecanorina, disco dilatato P. Skottsbergii. 

b. Apothecia pertusarioidea, disco punctiformi. 

I. Verrucae apotheciigerae bene evolutae. 

1. Verrucae apotheciigerae bullato-plicatae; species saxicola 

P. hadrocarpa. 

2. Verrucae apotheciigerae depresso-semiglobosae vel fere 
semiglobosae; species corticola P. leioplaca var. iurgida. 

II. Verrucae apotheciigerae subindistinctae; species corticola 

P. polycarpa var. monospora. 

*P. leioplaca (Ach.) Schaer. var. turgida Miill. Arg, 

Mull. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXVII, 18S4. p. 305; Wain., fitud. Lich. Bresil, 
vol. I, 1890, p. 109. 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Blindado, 440 m, auf Lumarinde (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

*P. polycarpa Krph. 

Krph. in Flora, vol. LIX, 1876, p. 174; Mull. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXVII, 
1884, p. 463; A. Zahlbr. in Denkschrift. math.-naturw. CI. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. 
LXXXIII, 1909, p. 154. 

var. monospora A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Thallus substratum quasi membi-anaceum obducens, demum desquamans, 
tenuis, usque 0,2 mm altus, subtartareus, sat late effusus, pallide stramineus, 
nitidulus, KHO magis flavens, Ca CljOj — , toruloso- vel verruculoso-inacqualis, 



376 



A. ZAHLBRUCKKER 



continuus, sorediis et isidiis destitutus, in ambitu nee bene limitatus nee linea 
obseiinore cinctus. 

Verruc le apotheciigerae passim e^/olutae et deplanatae, in ambitu irregu- 
lares, passim oninmo indisiinciae; ostiola apotheciorum pluria. minuta. puneti- 
formia, pallide vel ob-^eurius einerca, thalluni non superantia, annulo thalio 
paulum pallidiore. ut[)luriniuin depresso circumdata; excipulum indi-tiiictum; 
hymenium globosum, purum; pnraplnses sat increbrae, fiiiformes, ramosae et 
connexae, ese[)tatae; asei ovali- vel ellipsoideo-clavati, recti vel subreeii, ad 
apicem rotundati et membrana primuin cras-a cincti, monospoii; sporae de- 
colore-^, simpliees, elHpsoideae vel subo\ale5, membrana dupliei cinctae, mem- 
brana exteriore crassa et sublaevi, interna angusta et laevi, eontentu olcoso, 
90 — 100 a longae et 40 — 44 a latae. 

Masafuera: Hochebene zwischen Quebrada Sanehez and Ensenada Token, 
515 m, auf Bamustriinken (C. und I. SKcrrTSBERG; 

Als grundlegend fur die Be^timmung wurde ein Urstiick KrkmpelhUHERS, 
welches im Herbar des Naturhistorischen Museums in W'ien aufbewahrt wird, 
angenommen. Die Beschreibung, welche MULLER A kg. a. a. O. von der 
Flechte gibt, stimmt gut, mit Ausnahme der Sporenzahl, welche indes bei 
Pertusarien haufig wechselt und fur den Typus der Art nicht sicher ge- 
stelit ist. 

'=-P. hadrocarpa A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, subtariarcus. tenuis. u.<^que o,s mm crassus, sat late 
expansu-^, pallide siramineus, nitidulu'^, KHO flavens, Ca CI2O2 — . KHO -^ 
Ca CI2O2 — , verruculoso inaequalis vel \ertuculoso~sub.'~quamulosus, veriuculis 
convcxis, passim plus minus de[)lanatis, par\is, 0.2 — I mm latis, continuis vel 
hinc inde etiam dispersis, in ambitu thaili subiiregularibus, snrediis et isidiis 
destitutus, protothallo distincio nullo; stratum corticale tenue, 7 — 9 ;j. crassum, 
decolor; medulla alba, KHO tliavens, Ca CI2O2 non tmcta, ex hyphis dense 
intricaiis formata. 

Verrucae apotheciigerae sessiles, dispersae vel hinc inde apjjroximatae, de- 
pres.so-subglobosae, I— 2 mm latae, ad basin constrictae, in ambitu sat irre- 
gulariter buUato-plicatae, ad verticem impressae et fusceseentes, 2 — 5 hymenia 
includentes, extus laeses; disci par\i, rcjtundati, demum confluentes, conca\o~ 
depres^i, obscure et sordide fusci \el ni^ricantes, opaci; excipulum tenue, fere 
decolor, ex hyphis formatum tangentialibus, tenuibus et conolutinatis, integrum, 
passim versus centrum nuclei paulum assurgens, columellam et apothecia 
pseudoeomposita formans; hymenium subglobosum omnino inspersum, superne 
sordide fuscescens, KHO dilute umbrino~violascens, usque 0.5 mm in diam., I 
solum asei intense violaceo coerulei; paraphyses sat densae, filifoimes, ramosae 
et eonvexae, eseptatae; asei oblongo-clavati, hymenio paulum breviores, recti, 
6-spori; sporae in ascis subuniseriales, deeolores. simpliees, oblongo-ellipsoideae, 
rectae, membrana crassiu^cula cincta, membrana exteriore et interiore laevi, 
KHO mm tinetae, lOO iio jj. longae et 40 — 45 a latae. 

Conceptacula pycnoeonidiorum immersa, extu-^ vertice punctiformi, nigri- 
cante indicata, plus minus globosa; perifulerium pallidum; fulcra exobasidialia, 



DIE KLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 37 7 

ampullaceo filiformes; pycnoconidia filiformi bacillana, ulriiuiue retusa, recta vel 
subrecta, lO - 12(— i6) [i lon^a et ad 0,7 \k lata. 

Auf den vulk;iiii.sclien Ffl.sen liauh^. 

Miisatierra: Pico Central; niederer Riicken ostlich von der Kolonie, 147 
m; Poitt'ziK. lo de Villagra, 590 ni; Felswand beini Ski. KIRK Dcnkmal, 590 m; 
Cordon Salsifiuedes, 465 m, Siidhang der Ties I'untas (C. nnd I. Skottshp:rg). 

Masatuera: Quebrada de las Casas; Hochplaieau bis aiif den hochstcn 
Gipfein; La Lobeiia, 280 m (C. und I. Skoi rsisERc;). 

Nahert sich der Pcrtiisaria cercbrimila A. Z-ihlbr., besitzt indes ein j^ut 
enlwickeltes Lager, welches anders j4erarbt ist, anders gestaltete Fruchtuarzen 
und grossere Sporen. 

P. nielanospora Nyl. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 191 7, 
p. 30 (ubi descriptio ampla). 

Vielleicht die haufigste der steinbewohnenden Krustenflechten von Juan 
Fernandez. 

Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, auf Strandklippen und auf Lava; niederer 
Riicken am Siidabhang der Tres Puntas und auf dem » Vogelgipfel», 380 m 
(C. und I. SKOTTSBliRG). 

Masafiiera: Slrandfelsen unvveit des Monotals; im oberen Teil der Que- 
brada de las Vacas; Quebrada de las Casas, an Slrandfelsen, meist oberhalb 
der Stunnzone (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Santa Clara: Morro de los Alelies (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*P. ('^ect. Lecanorastrum) Skottsbergii A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epiphloeodes, substrato aicte adiiaerens, tenuis, 0,18 — 0,25 rnm 
crassus, subtartareus, albus vel albidus. KHO iion del vix tinctus, Ca CI2O2 — , 
KHO rCaCl202 fugaciter quidem, sed distiticte kennesino-rubens, late eft'usus, 
verrucolosus, toruloso-inaequalis, in ambiiu longitudinaliter [>licatus, hiiic inde 
irregulariter fissus, sorediis et isidiis non praedilus, in niargine linea obscuriore 
non cinctus, hand bene liniitatus; stratum corticale angustum, ex hyphis intri- 
catis forniatum; stratum gonidiale angu^tuni, continuum; medulla alba, ex 
hyphis intricaiis et inspersis formaia, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 cinnabarina. 

Apothecia lecanorina, sessilia, 05 09 mm lata, rotunda, dispersa, rarius 
approximata; discus carneo- vel rufo-fusceilus, primum albo-pruinosus, dtmum 
nudus, concaviusculus vel planus; margo albus, parum prominulus, tenuis, 
subinteger vel sublaceratus, Ca CI2O2 rubens, extus corticatus, corlice tenui, ex 
hyphis dense intricatis et inspersus formato, gonidia increbta includens; ex- 
cipulum distinctum haud evolutum; hymenium supeine (et passim inter a.scos) 
pulvere ochraceo fusco, Ca CI2O2 rubente inspersum, caeterum decolor, 240 — 
260 [A ahum, I intense coeruieo-violaceum; paraphyses sat increbrae et parum 
conspicuae, capillart s. ramosae et plus minus connexae. eseptatae; asci hymenio 
.subaequilongi, clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana primum incrassata 
cincti, recti vel curvuli, monospori; sporae decolores, anguste ellipsoideae, reciae, 



T^-jS A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

rarius subrectae, simplices, contentu bene oleoso, membrana duplici cinctae, 
membrana externa laevi et membrana interna scalpturata, 170 — 220 \x longae 
et 45 — 80 [J- latae, 

Masatierra: Quebrada Gutierrez, auf glatter Baumrinde (C. und I. Skotts- 
berg). 

Santa Clara: (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Habituell einer Lecanora chlarona ahnlich. Die Fruchtwarzen gleichen 
jenen der Pcrtusaria protobcrans vollkommen, doch ist die neue Art von dieser 
durch den dicken, weissen Tliallus, die einsporigen Schlauche und durch die 
grossen Sporen wesentlich verschieden. Durch diese Merkmal wird sie auch 
von der nicht unahnlicher chilenischen Pcrtusaria plilyctaomla Nyl. getrennt. 



Lecanoraceae. 

Lecanora Ach. 

Sect. Aspicilia (Mass.) Th. Fr, 

*L. masafuerensis A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, effusus, tartareus, substratum arete obducens, tenuis, 
albidus, pallide sulphureo- vel isabellino-albescens, opacus, KHO lutescens, 
Ca Ci202 — , laevigatas, subareolato-rimosus, rimis valde tenuibus, areolis mi- 
nutis, planis, ad ambitum bene limitatus et linea obscuriore, tenui cinctus, 
sorediis et isidiis non praeditus. 

Apothecia immersa, dispersa, rarius hinc inde approximata, rotunda vel 
rotundato-subirregularia, parva, 0,5 — 0,9 mm lata, e concavo planiuscula vel 
leviter convexa; margo thallinus distinctus nullus, a thallo circumscisse rupto 
hymenium circumdatur; discus ochraceo-fuscus vel fuscus, rarius aeruginascens, 
opacus, epruinosus; excipulum indistinctum; hymenium superne umbrino-fuscum, 
caeterum decolor et purum, usque 140 |J- altum, I e coeruleo vinose obscuratum 
(ascis imprimis tinctis); paraphyses fih formes, conglutinatae, ad 1,5 |j. crassae, 
simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem haud latiores; hypothecium crassiusculum, fere 
decolor, moUe; asci clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana primum bene 
incrassata praediti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis bi-triseriales. decolores, simplices, 
ovales vel ovali-ellipsoideae, rectae, membrana tenui cinctae, 10 — 18 \i. longae 
et 6 — 8 [J. latae. 

Conceptacula pycnoconidiorum punctiformia, vertice nigro et convexiusculo, 
globosa; perifulcrium dimidiatum, superne obscuratum; fulcra exobasidialia; 
pycnoconidia bacillaria, recta, rarius subrecta, 8.5—13 [j. longa et vix i [j, lata. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas, bei 450 m, auf vulkanischem Gestein 
{C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Nahe verwandt der Lecanora subinimersa (Fee) Wain., aber durch die 
grosseren und blasseren Apothezien, grossere Sporen und geraden Pykno- 
konidien von dieser zu unterscheiden. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERXANDEZ-IXSELN 379 



Sect. Eulecaiiora Wain. 

A. Apothecia persitenter lecanoriiia; thallus Ca CIjOj — . 

a. Hynienium violaceo-cinnaniomeum L. atra. 

b. Hynienium decolor, 

I. Thallus bene evolutus. 

1. Sporae minores, 8,6 — 10,5 [j. longae L. Ingae. 

2. Sporae majores, 18 — 22 [). longae 

L. isabellina var. validior. 
II. Thallus evanescens vel subnullus. 

1. Margo apotheciorum albidus, crenulatus, persistens 

L. dispersa. 

2. Margo apotheciorum flavus, primum tenuis et integer, 
demum depressus L. polytropa var. illiisoria. 

B. Apothecia demum biatorina; thallus Ca CljOj rubens L. coarctata. 

*L. coarctata (Sm.) Ach. 

Masafuera: Heide des Hochplateaus, 1000-1200 m, auf vulkanischem 
Gestein (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*L. atra (Huds.) Ach. 

Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, an Strandfelsen, und Siidhang der Tres 
Puntas, auf vulkanischem Gestein (C. und I. SkottSBERG). 

Masafuera: Ouebrada del Mono, an Strandfelsen; Quebrada de las Vacas, 
auf Blocken, Heide auf dem Hochplateau, 1335 1350 m, auf vulkanischem 
Gestein, und Heide unweit Las Torres, auf Felsen (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

'•'L. Ingae A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, tenuis, albidus, opacus, KHO 
flavens, Ca CI2O2 — , maculatim effusus, subgranulatus, areolato-rimosus, areolis 
minutis, 0,2 — 0.3 mm latis, planiusculis vel leviter convexis, hinc inde, imprimis 
versus ambitum thalli, subsquamiformibus, sorediis et isidiis non praeditus, 
protolhallo obscuriore non cinctus; superne strato corticali, ex hyphis dense 
intricatis et inspersfs formato obductus; pagina inferior thalli infuscata vel fere 
nigrescens; stratum gonidiale continuum, partem superiorem thalli occupans; 
medulla alba, KHO — , Ca CljOj — , angusta. 

Apothecia lecanorina, sessilia, ad basin leviter constricta, rotunda vel 
rotundato subangulosa, dispersa vel approximata, usque i mm lata, sed nor- 
maliter minora; discus caesio-pruinosus, madefactus plus minus fuscus vel rufo- 
fuscus, e concavo subplanus, margo thallinus primum bene prominulus, integer, 
demum subinteger, crassiusculus, thallo concolor, extus corticatus, cortice ex 
hyphis intricatis, inspersis formato, ad ambitum fuscescente, 33 — 37 <j. crasso, 
gonidia copiosa includens; excipulum integrum, ad basin subpedicellato-productum. 



38o 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



usque ad verticem hymenii assurgens, subdecolor et fere pellucidum, ex hyphis 
tangentialibus. tenuissimis et leviter intricatis fonnatuni, 30—35 ;j- crassum, 
I — ; hypothecium angustuni, subdecolor (dilute lutesceiis), niolle; hymeiiium 
superne dilute umbrino fuscescens et insptr^um, caeteruni decolor et purum, 
80-90 [X altum, I e coeruleo aeruginoso-sordidescens (imprimis asci); paraphyses 
filiformes, coiiglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem baud crassiores; asci 
oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati, hymenio subaequilongi, Sspori; sporae 
in ascis plus minus biseriales, decolores, siiDplices, eliipsoideae, membrana tenui 
laevique cinctae, 8.6 — 10,5 [j. longae et 3,5 - 4 jj, latae. 

Conceptacula pycnoconidiorum semiemersa, vertice punctifotmi. nigro, a 
thallo annulatim cincto, plus minus globosa; perifulcrium in dimidio superiore 
sordide fuscuin; fulcra exobasidialia, pycnoconidiis paulum breviora; pycnoconidia 
filiformia, utrinque retusa, curvata vel haniata, 15—18 ij. longa et vix I \i. lata. 

Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, an Strandfelsen (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas, auf Blocken (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*L. albellina Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Mission. Scient. Cap Horn, vol. V, 1889, p. 162. 

var. validior A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Apotheciis majoribus et margine thallino apotheciorum primum distincte 
crenulato a typo differt. 

Apothecia sessilia, rotunda, primum distincte lecanorina, dein u>:que 1,2 
mm lata et margine depresso habitum biatorinum praebentia, leviter convexa; 
discus fuscidulo-carneus vel alutaceus, non pruinosus; margo thallinus primum 
bene prominulus, angustus, obtusiusculus, primum crenulatus, tliallo concolor, 
extus strato corticali obductus, medullam et gonidia includens; excipulum 
integrum, ad latera hymenii crassius, decolor, ex hyphis tangentialibus et con- 
glutinatis formatum; hypotheciuni crassiusculuiii, dilute lutescens. ex h3'[)his 
intricatis formatum; hymenium superne rufescenti-fuscescens, non inspersum, 
caeterum decolor et purum, aquoso pellucidum, 150 — 175 [J. altum, I intense 
coeruleum et demum sordide obscuratum; paraphyses filiformts, dense con- 
glutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem vix latiores; asci clavati, superne 
rotundati et membrana incrassata cincti, 8 spori; sporae in ascis bi- vel 
subuniseriales, decolores, simplices, late ellipsoidt-ae vel ovales, membrana 
tenui, sed bene distincta cinctae, 18-22 a longae et 10—13 1^- '^tae. 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Blindado, 440 m, auf Doidroseris gigantca (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

*L. di.spersa (Pers.) P^lk. 

Masatierra: Bahi'a del Padre, auf losem TufF; Siidseite der Insel, Gipfel 
des Cerro Negro, 190 m, auf vulkanischem Gestein (C. und I Skottsherg). 

Masafuera: Strandfelsen, Quebrada de las Casas (C. und I Skott.SBEKG). 



DIE FLECHTEX DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 38 1 

*L. polytropa (Ehrli.) Acli. f. illusoriu Ach. 

Masafuera: Heide unueit Las Torres, 1350 m, auf vulkanischem Gestein 
und unueit des Correspondencialagers, IIOO— 1200 m, auf Sieinen (C. und I. 
Skottsherg). 

Sect. Placodium (Hill.) Th. Fr. 

A. Thallus plus minus peltatus; apothecia nigra vel nigricantia 

L. chrysfllcuca var. melaitophthahna. 

B. Thallus lata adpressus, apothecia pallescentia L. saxicola. 

*L. chrysoleuca (Sm.) Ach. var. melanopthalma (Ram.) Th. Fr. 

Masatierra: Felsblocke Quebrada Juanan^^o, bei 500 m, auf vulkanischem 
Gestein (C. und I. Skottsherg). 

*L. saxicola (Poll.) Ach. 

Masatierra: Puerto Ingles, an der Aussenwand der s. g. »Robinson- 
hohle», auf vulkanischem Gestein (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Sect. Placopsis Xyl. 

A. Apothecia non ro^ea; pycnoconidia 20 — 24 a longa. 

a. Apothecia carneo- vel rufo-fusca; cephalodia granuloso-verrucosa, 
rufofusca vel sordide fuscescentia L gelida. 

b. Apoihecia cerasino-fusca; cephalodia radiatim divisa, lutoso-auran- 
tiaca L. patagonica. 

B. Apothecia rosea; pycnoconidia 25 — 28 ij. longa 

L. argillacea var. rhodophthalma. 

L. gelida (L.) Ach. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 1Q17, 
]). 35. — Farinelia gelida Fr., Nov. Sched. Critic, 1S27, p. i: Mont, apud Gay, 
Hist Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot.. vol. VIII, 1852. p 147; Johow, Esiud. Flora Juan 
Fernand., i8g6, p. 200. — Biatora placophylla Mont, in Anna!. Scienc. Nat. Bot., 
ser. 2, vol. IV, 1825, p. 92 '^non Fr.j. 

*f. nuda A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 

Thallus non sorediosus. 

Masatierra: auf Felsen und auf der Erde, ohne nahere Standortsangabe 
(Bertero); auf Lavasteinen in dem Grasboden bei X'illagra (C. und I. 
Skott.sberg). 



382 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Masafuera: Bachravin unweit des Campo Correspondencia, iioo m, auf 
Steinen (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*f. leprosula A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 

Thallus plus minus impresse leproso-sorediosus. 

Masatierra: an Blocken im unteren Teil von Valle Colonial und an stei- 
nigen Abhangen siidlich von Tres Puntas (C. und I. SkottSBERG). 

*L. argillacea Nyl. f. rhodophthalnia A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Hand)., vol. LVII, no. 6, 191 7, 
p. 34. — Lecatwra rhodop/ithalma Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXII, 1879, P- 1^64. 

Masatierra: auf stark erodiertem Boden im unteren Teil von Valle Co- 
lonial (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

L. patagonica A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Hand!., vol. LVII, no. 6, 1917, 
P- 35- 

*r. sorediosula A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 

Thallus passim impresse leproso-sorediosus. 

Masafuera: Hochplateau nordlich des Casastales, 1000 — 1400 m, auf 
Steinen haufig, und auf einer Felswand bei Las Torres, 1370 m (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 



Candelariella Mull. Arg. 

*C. vitellina Mull. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Bull. Herb. Boiss., vol. II, append. 1, 1894, p. 47. — Lichen 
vitellmus Ehrh., Plant. Crypt. Exsicc. no. 155 (1785). 

Masatierra: Quebrada de la Pesca de los Viejos, auf harten Blocken (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: im untersten Teil der Quebrada de las Casas, auf vul- 
kanischem Gestein (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Myxodictyon Mass. 

A. Schlauche einsporig, auf Rinden lebende Art M. chrysostichtvi. 

B. Schlauche 8-sporig, auf lederigen Baumblattern lebende Art 

M. lopadioidcs. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 383 

M. chrysostictum Mass. 

Mass. in Atti I. R. Istit. Venet., ser. 3, vol. V, i860, p. 245. — Lccaiwra 
chrysostkta Tayl. in London Joiirn. of Bot., vol. Ill, 1844, p. 642. — Heterothccium 
Berteroatmm Mont, apud Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 
176, tab. XII, fig. 5; Joiiow, Estud. Flora Juan Fcrnand., 1896, p. 201. 

Masaticrra : auf Rinden (Bertkro). 

*M. lopadioidcs A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epiphyllus, crustaceus, uniformis, tenuis, 0,5-0,6 mm altus, glau- 
cescenti albidus, nilidulus, KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , contmuus vel fissuris sub- 
stratum sequentibus passim interruptus, leviter inaequalis vel marginem versus 
granuloso-inaequalis, sorediis et isidiis destitutus, passim linea tenui nigra cinctus, 
superne strato corticali tenui, subamorpho tectus, caeterum fere homoeomericus; 
gonidia cystococcoidea, globosa, laete viridia, 5 — 8 (i in diam. 

Apothecia sessilia, parva, usque i mm lata, rotunda, ad basin leviter 
constricta, dispersa vel approximata; discus e concaviusculo subplanus, cinna- 
momeo-fuscus vel rufescens, epruinosus; margo disco obscurior, superne fere 
nigricans, tenuis, acutiusculus, prominulus et leviter inflexus; receptacu- 
lum extus pallidum, albidum, opacum, corticatum, cortice crasso, decolore, 
chondroideo, ex hypliis radiantibus, parum distinctis et septatis formate, pa- 
raplectenchymatico, meduilam et gonidia includens; excipulum integrum, fere 
decolor, in latere hymenii flabellatum, ex hyphis dense conglutinatis, tangentia- 
libus formatum; hypothecium pallidum, molle, ex hyphis intricatis formatum; 
epithecium chondroideum, rufescens vel ochracto rufescens, KHO baud mutatum; 
hymenium decolor, pulverulento-inspersum, I asci coerulei; paraphyses ca- 
pillares, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem vix crassiores, contextae; asci numerosi, 
hymenio subaequilongi, ellipsoideo-clavati, superne rotundati et ibidem mem- 
brana bene incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae decolores, ellipsoideae oblongo- 
vel ovali-ellipsoideae, rectae, versus centrum nonnihil leviter angustatae, murali- 
divisae, cellulis numerosis, minutis, subcubicis, membrana tenui cinctis, halone 
non praeditae, 80—98 |x longae et 28 — 35 [x latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masatierra: auf lederigen Blattern (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Die Apothezien besitzen einen typischen lekanorinischen Bau, obwohl sie 
ausserlich wegen des nicht hellen Randes den Eindruck eines biatorinischen 
Apotheziums machen. 



Parmeliaceae. 
Parmelia (Ach.) DNotrs. 

A. Thallus subtus rhizinis omnino destitutus, pertusus P. pertusa. 

B. Thallus subtus plus minus rhizinosus. 
a. Thallus flavus vel stramineus. 



384 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

I. Thallus inferne ad ambituai late nudus, centrum versus plus 
minus rhizino>us. 

1. Medulla Ca CI2O2 — ; soredia superficialia P. caperata. 

2. Medulla Ca CI2O2 optime rubens; soredia marginalia 

P. soredica. 
II. Thallus usque ad ambitum dense rhizinosus. 

1. Margo apotheciorum conceptaculis pycnoconidiorum nigris 
obsitus; thallus tenuissime isidiosulus P. abstnisa. 

2. Margo apotheciotum conceptaculis pycnoconidiorum de- 
stitutus; thallus noii isidiosulus. 

a. Thallus rugulosus et sorediosus 

P conspersa var. rugulosa. 
p. Thallus non rugulosus, sorediosus 

P. conspersa var. obtecta. 
b. Thallus albidus, cinereus vel subochraceo cinereus. 
I. Thallus subtus ad ambitum late nudus. 

°. Thai us superne punctis albis obsitus. 

1. Thallus scrobiculatus vel scrobiculato inaequalis; puncta 
alba prominuia E. niicrosticta. 

2. Thallus laevigatus; puncta alba impressa P. cetrarioidts. 

°°. Thallus ^uperne punctis albis non ornatus. 

1. Thallus in superficic plus minus isidiosus, isidia cilias 
nigras, rigidulas intermixtas gerentia P. pilosclla. 

2. Thallus in superficie non isidiosus. 

a. Thallus ad niarginem loborum sorediosus vel isidioso- 

sorediosus; medulla KHO flavens. 

§. Thallus superne versus marginem passim ciliis 

nigris, arete adpressis obsitus P. piloselloides. 

§§. Thallus superne non ciliigerus P. perlata. 

(j. Lobi thalii ad marginem non sorediosi; medulla 

KHO non tincta P. nilgJierrensis. 

II. Thallus subtus usque ad ambitum dense rhizinosus. 

1. Lobi thalii lincares vel sublineares. 

a. Thallus superne dense isidio-us P. laevigatida. 

p. Thallus superne non isidiosus, sed sorediosus. 

§. Lobi terminales revoluti P. revoluta. 

§§. Lobi thalii onmes substrato adpressi 

P. laevigata. 

2. Lobi thalii rf)tundati. 

a. Medulla KHO non tincta P. tiliacea. 

(3. Medulla KHO sanguinea. 

§. Thallus superne tenuiter albo-reticulatus 

P. cetrata. 
'^. Thallus non albo-reticulatus P. saxatilis. 



niE FI-ErnXEN per JUAN FERNANDEZ INSELN 385 

Sect. Ilypotrachyna W ain. 

*P, laevigata Ach. 

AcH. Synops. Lich., 1S14, p. 212; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4. 
vol. I, 1899, p. 146 et in Journ. de Botan., vol. VI, 1892, p. 490; A. Zahlbr. in 
Denkschrift. math.-naturw. CI. Akad. Wis.s. Wien, vol. LXXXIII, 1909, p. 166; 
A. L. Smith, Monogr. Brit. Lich., vol. I, 19 18, j). 137; Wain, in Annal. Acad. 
Scient. Fennic, ser. A, vol. VI, no. 7, 1915, p. 23 — Lichen laevigatiis Sm. apud 
Sm. et SowERB., Engl. Bot., vol. XXV, r8o8, tab. 1852. 

Masatierra: Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf Co/>ros))ia fnjlo) iivi, s\tn\ [C und 
I. Skottsherg). 

*P. laevigatula Nyl. 

Xyl. in Flora, vol. LXVIII. 1885, p. 614, Lich. Japon., 1890, p. 27; Hue 
in Xouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 3, vol. II, 1890, p. 286 et vol. IV, 1892, p. 
144; A. Zahlbr. in Denkschr. math.-naturw. CI. Akad. Wiss. Wien. vol. LXXXIII, 
1909, p. 165. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf Driviys, und Portezuelo, bei 
600 m, iiber Moosen, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Im sterilen Zustande ganz mit der brasilianischen Flechte iibereinstim- 
mend. Ob beziiglich der Sporen und Pyknokonidien Unterschiede vorhanden 
sind, muss dahingestellt bleiben. 

P. tiliacea Ach. 

Ohne Standortsangabe (nach Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 383), 
Ich sah diese Flechte in dem SKOTT.SBERG'schen Material nicht und 
mochte ihr Vorkommen auf Juan Fernandez bezweifeln. 

*P. revoluta Flk. 

Flk. apud Sprgl., Syst. Veget., vol. IV, pars i, 1827, p. 284; Wain., fitud. 
Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 1890, p. 51; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol.1, 
1899, p. 143; A. L. Smith, Monogr. Brit. Lich., vol. I, 191S, p. 138. 

Masafuera: El Barril und Los Inocentes, bei 900 m, auf /)/7wri--Z\veigen, 
steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

•■p. cetrata Ach. f. sorediifcra Wain. 

Wain., fitud. Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 1890, p. 40 et in Annal. Acad. Scient. 
Fennic, ser. A, vol. VI, no. 7, 19x5, p. 16; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, 
ser. 4, vol. I, 1899, p. 174; Harm., Lich. de France, vol. IV, (1909) 1910, p. 569. 

Masatierra: Cordon Chifladores, 350 m, auf Z^r/wjjr-Rinde, steril und auf 
dem niedrigen Riicken ostlich der Kolonie, 147 m, auf Pflanzenresten, losen 
Steinen und auf dem Erdboden, steril (C. und L Skottsberg). 

25 — 2391. The Xat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



386 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Santa Clara: Morro de los Alelies, auf Steinen steril (C. und I. Skotts- 

BERG). 

Masafiiera: auf dem Bergriicken El Barril, auf Steinen, steril, und Que- 
brada de la Loberia, 300 m, auf alter /.//w^/Rinde, steril (C. und I. Skotts- 
berg). 

*P. saxatilis (L.) Ach. 

Masatierra: niedriger Riicken ostlich von der Kolonie, 147 m, auf losen 
Steinen (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

f. furfuracea Schaer. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Hand!., \ol. T,VII, no. 6, 191 7, 
{). 41. 

Masafuera: Campo Correspondencia, 1130 m, auf Gestein, steril; Las 
Torres, 1350 m, auf dem Erdboden, steril; Cordon del Barril, ini obersten 
Telle der Heide, auf Steinen, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

P. conspersa (Erh.) Ach. 

var. rugulosa Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Miss. Scient. Cap Horn, vol. V, 1889, p. 158; A. Zahlbr. in 
Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 191 7, p. 43- 

An manchen Stiicken findet man neben den normal gestalteten auch tief 
eingeschnittene Randlappen; diese Stiicke weichen dann habituell etwas ab. 

Masatierra: auf einem Felsblock zwischen der Kolonie und Pangal, steril; 
Bahia del Padre, auf Strandfelsen, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Santa Clara: Morro de los Alelies, auf Strandfelsen (C. und I. Skott.S- 
berg). 

*var. obtecta A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Thallus sorediosus, sorediis subrotundatis, sessilibus, pulviniformibus, 
subisidioso-pulverulentis, thallo concoloribus; medulla KHO sanguinea. 

Die Gestalt der Soredien weicht von denen der Parinelia conspersa var. 
soredians Nyl. ab, auch sind sie anders gefarbt; von Parinelia conspersa var. 
rugulosa Miill. Arg. weicht unsere Varietat durch das nicht faltige Lager und 
die Farbung der Markschicht durch Kalilauge (bei der var. rugulosa wird sie 
orangegelb gefarbt) ab. 

Masafuera: Ouebrada de las Casas, auf Strandfelsen, und Cordon del 
Barril, im obersten Telle der Heide, auf Steinen liaufig, doch slets steril (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

■■■'P. abstrusa Wain. 

Waix., filud. Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 1S90, p. 64; A. Zahlbr. in Denkschrift. 
math.-naturw. CI. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. LXXXIII, 1909, i). x66; Lvnge in Arkiv 



• DIK FLF.CHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ- INSELN 387 

for Bot., vol. XIII, no. 13, 1914, p. 145, tab. V, fig. 8 — g. — Pan/ielia limhata f. 
isidiosa Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXX, 1887, p. 59. 

Masafuera: alpine Heide der Hochebene, 1000 — 1300 ni, auf Felsen, 
steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



Sect. Amphigyiiinia Wain. 

•p. perlata Acli. 

AcH., Method. Lich., 1S03. p. 216 (\)x. p.); Wain, £tud. Lich. Bresil, \ol. I, 
1890, p. 28 et in Pliilipp. Journ. nf Scienc, vol. IV, 1909, p. 657. 

Masaticrra: Puerto Frances, Loma Incienso, auf Felsen, steril und bei 
Villagra, 380 111, auf Felsen, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

'1*. nilghcrrciisis X\l. 

Nvi.. in Flora, vol. Lll, 1S69, p. 29: el Lich. Pyren. Orient, 1891, p. 40; 
Hue in Journ. de Bot., vol. XII, 1898, p. 244; Wain, in Hedwigia, vol. XXXVIl, 
1898, p. (37): Harm., Lich. de France, fasc. IV, (1909) 19 10, p. 578. — Imbri- 
caria mlgherrensis Arn. in Verhandl. zool.-bot. Gesellsch. Wien, vol. XXV, 1875, p. 
472 et in Flora, vol. LXVII. 1884, P- i5Q- 

Masafuera: Ouebrada del Blindado, 440 m, auf Z;////(?-Z\veigen, steril (C. 
und L Skott.sberg). 

*P. pilosella Hue. 

Hue in Journ. de Bot., vol. XII, 1898, p. 247; Harm., Lich. de France, fasc. 
IV, (1909) 1910, p. 583; B. de Lesd., Lich. Mexique, 1914, p. 7. 

Masatierra: Abhange bei Portezuelo, 575 m, auf der Erde, steril (C. und 
L Skottsberg). 

'•'var. cxcrescens Hue. 

Hue in Journ. de Bot., vol. XII. 1898, p. 249; Harm., Lich. de France, fasc. 
IV, (1909) 1910, p. 583; Letxau in Hedwigia, vol. LV, 1914, p. 48. — Imbricaria 
perlata var. excrescens Arn. in Flora, vol. LXV, 1882, p. 130 et Zur Lich. -Flora 
Munchen, 1892, p. 5. — Parmclia perlata var. excreseens Lamy in Bull. Soc. Bot. 
France, vol. XXV, 1878, p. 367. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo, bei 600 m, auf Baunistammen, steril; am Wege 
von Portezuelo nach Villagra, 420 m, an lichten Stellen im Gebiisch, steril; 
El Pico, 365 m, auf Blocken, steril (C. und I. SKOTTSBERG). 

Masafuera: auf der Hochebene liber Chozas, 900 — lOOO m, steril und 
Cordon del Barril, auf Z>rmj.s--Stammen, steril (C. und L SKOTTSBERG). 

P. piloselloides A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 191 7, 
P- 431- 

Masatierra: Bahi'a Cumberland, auf Felsen (C. SKOTTSBERG). 



^88 A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

*P. cetrarioides Del. 

Dfx. apud Duby, Botanic. Gallic, vol. II, 1830, p. 601; Hue in Nouv. Archiv. 
du Museum, ser. 4, vol. I, 1899, p. 196; Harm, in Bull. Soc. Scienc. Nancy, sen 2, 
vol. XXXI, 1897, p. 322, tab. XI, fig. 17 et Lich. de France, fasc. IV, (1909) 
1910, p. 530. 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Blindado, 440 m, auf A/zwrt-Zweigen, steril (C. 
iind I. Skottsberg). 

*P. microsticta Miill. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXII, 1879, p. 164; A. Zahlbr. in Bull. Herb. 
Boissier, ser. 2, vol. VIII, 1908, p. 463 et in Denkschrift. math.-naturw. CI. Akad. 
Wiss. Wien, vol. LXXXIII, 1909, p. 160 et 177, tab. I, fig. 3; Lynge in Arkiv for 
Bot., vol. XIII, no. 13, 1 9 14, p- 24 et 32. — Parmelia Barren \zx. idophylla ¥^x^\\. 
in Flora, vol. LXI, 1878, p. 433. 

Masatierra: auf losen Steinen und auf der Erde ostlich von der Kolonie, 
147 m, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*f. divisa A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 

Thalli lobi, imprimis centrales, ad marginem microphyllino-dissecti. 

Masatierra: Quebrada seca, 435 m, auf Coprosnia trifloruvi, steril (C. 
und I. Skottsberg). 

*P. caperata (L.) Ach. 

Masatierra: Pangal, auf Felsen, steril; Valle Anson, auf Felsen des son- 
nigen Riickens, 149 m, steril; niedriger Riicken ostlich der Kolonie, 147 m, 
steril; Puerto Ingles, Aussenwand der Robinsonhohle, steril; Portezuelo del 
Villagra, 590 m, auf Gestein, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas, auf Felsen am Bache, steril (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

AUe Stiicke zeigen ein lebhaft gelb gefarbtes Lager, vvahrend bei den 
europaischen Exemplaren das Gelb einen Slich ins Grunliche besitzt. Ganz ahn- 
lich gefarbt sah ich die zahlreichen Exemplare dieser Flechte, welche von 
Faurie und Rock auf den hawaiischen Inseln gesammelt wurden. Ich meine, 
dass diese intensivere Farbung lediglich ein Ausfluss der starkeren Beson- 
nung ist. 

P. sored ica Nyl. 

Nyl. in Bull. Soc. Linn. Normand., ser. 2, vol. VI, 1872, p. 316, not, in 
Flora, vol. LXVIII, 1885, p. 605 et vol. LXIX, 1886, p. loi; Herre in Proceed. 
Washingt. Acad. Scienc, vol. VII, 1906, p. 358; B. de Lesd., Lich. Mexique, 
1914, p. 6. 

Exsicc: Krypt. Exsicc. Mus. Palat. Vindob. no. 1250. 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZINSELN 389 

Masafiicra: Ouebrada dc las Chozas, auf A//;//rt-Rinde, steril (C. und I. 
Skottseekg). 

Stimnit niit den kalifornischen Stiickcn vollkommen ubcrein. Das Vor- 
konimen in Mexico und auf Juan Fernandez weist auf einc weitere Verbreitung 
dieser Flechte in Anierika bin. 



Sect. Menegazzia (Mass.) A. Zahlbr. 

•''P. pcrtiisa (Scbrank.) Schaer. 

Masatierra: Ouebrada seca, 435 m, auf cincr Jiiania, steril und Oue- 
brada Juanango, auf Baumstammcn und Zweigen, steril (C. und I. Skotts- 
BKRC;). 

Masafuera: Cordon del Barril, auf /^;7///;'.y-Stammen, steril (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

Cetraria Ach. 

*C. antarctica A. Zahlbr. — Taf. 25, Fig. 5. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Hand!., vol. LVII. no. 6, 191 7, 
P- 43- 

Conceptacula pycnoconidiorum marginalia, sessilia, globosa, nigra, nitida, 
0,3 — 0,5 mm lata, dispersa vel passim confluentia; perifulcrium tenue, carbona- 
ceum; pycnoconidia oblonga, utrinque rotundata, in medio leviter angustata, 
recta, 3,4 — 3,6 a longa et 1,5—1,6 a lata. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo, 600 m und zwischen Portezuelo und X'illagra, 
420 m, an lichten Stellen auf dem Erdboden, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Cordon del Barril, auf Moosen und zwischen anderen Flechten 
auf Gestein und Las Torres, 1350 m, iiber Moosen, steril (C. und I. SKOTTS- 
BERG). 



Ramalina Ach. 



R. linearis Ach. 



AcH., Lichenogr. Univ., iSio, p. 598 et Synops. Lich., 1S14, p. 294; Xvl. 
in Bull. Soc. Linn. Normand., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1870, p. 129; Tuck., Synops. North 
Americ. Lich., vol. I, 1882, p. 23; Howe jr. in Bryologist, vol. XVK, 1914, P- 25, fig. 6 
et tab. VI, fig. 4. — Lichen linearis Sw., Method. Muscor.. 1781, p. 36, tab. II, 
fig. 3. — Ramalina pilulifera Tayl. in London Journ. of Bot., vol. IV, 1847, P- 
190; Mull. Arg. in Flora, vol LXXI, 1888, p. 135. — Ramalina scopulorum var. 
linearis Mont, in Annal. Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, p. 86. — Rama- 
lina snbulata Mont, in Annal Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 3, vol. XVIII, 1852, p. 304 
et apud Gay. Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 82; Johow, Estud. 
Flora Juan Fernand., 1896, p. 197. 

Thallus gompho rotundato vel rotundato-oblongo substrato arete affixus, 
caespitose crescens, pallidus, stramineo-glaucescens vel supra basin plus minus 



39° 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



fuscescens, nitidulus, rigidus, primum e basi ramosus, rami erecti, complanati, 
leviter canaliculati, lineares, i — 2 mm lati, usque lo cm alti, simplices vel in- 
crebre dichotome et sympodialiter divisi, rami secundarii plus minus filiformes, 
utplurimum flabellati et magis patentes, rami ultimi flexuosi et hamati, plus 
minus divaricantes, omnes striis brevibus obsiti vel longitudinaliter striato- 
nervosi, rami primarii vel partim etiam secundarii demum decumbentes vel 
subintricati, dilatati, 5 — 22 mm lati, ramis filiformibus evanescentibus et dein 
habitum alienum praebentes, sorediis et isidiis nuUis; KHO extus et intus non 
tingitur; circumcirca corticatus, cortex chondroideus, angustus, 8,5 — ii ;j, crassus, 
dense fuscescenti-inspersus, ex hyphis subintricatis, extus plus minus perpen- 
dicularibus, sat pachydermaticis, increbre ramosis formatus, luminibus hyphorum 
subindistinctis; stratum chondroideum medullare simplex (non fasciato-divisum), 
crassum; hinc inde fere totam latidudinem tlialli occupans; decolor, ex hyphis 
longitudinalibus, subflexuosis, dense conglutinatis, non inspersis et pellucidis 
formatum; medulla angusta, versus marginem thalli ramos breves et angustos, 
corticem interrumpentes et usque ad superficiem thalli productos format, hyphae 
medullares laxe contextae, ramosae, sat leptodermaticae, ad 3,5 [j. crassae; 
gonidia cystococcoidea, globosa, laete viridia, 6 — 12 ;j- lata, plus minus glo- 
merata. 

Apothecia sat crebra, normaliter marginalia, rare superficialia, subpedi- 
cellata, primum concaviuscula, margine integro et paulum prominulo cincta, 
demum convexa, i — 2 mm lata, rarius fere semiglobosa, vetusta et morbosa 
prolificantia, botryoso-congesta, subglobosa, ad 4 mm lata; discus pallide ceraceo- 
testaceus, in juventute prominulus; receptaculum extus thallo concolor, nudum, 
laeve, late corticatum, cortice chondroideo, ad ambitum anguste fuscescente et 
insperso, caeterum decolore, intus medullam et infra hymenium stratum goni- 
diale includens; excipulum integrum, decolor, ex hyphis tenuibus, tangentia- 
libus, dense contextis formatum, sat crassum, I — ; hypothecium angustum, ex 
hyphis intricatis formatum, decolor; hymenium superne anguste et leviter sor- 
dide inspersum, caeterum decolor et purum, 70 — 80 [x altum, I intense coeruleum, 
demum aeruginoso-obscuratum; paraphyses filiformes, strictae, conglutinatae, 
simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem non latiores; asci hymenio subaequilongi, cla- 
vati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in 
ascis± biseriales, decolores, ellipsoideae vel subovali-ellipsoideae, rectae, rarius 
spurie curvulae, uniseptatae, ad septum nonnihil levissime constrictae, 6 — 15 [jl 
longae et 5 — 6 \x latae. 

Masatierra: auf Felsen in den hoheren Bergen (Bertero no. 1642); 
Portezuelo, beim SELKIRK-Denkmal, 590 m; Cordon Salsipuedes, 465 — 600 m; 
auf dem Riicken zwischen Villagra und Chupones, 386 m, ausserst haufig; 
Bahi'a del Padre, auf Strandfelsen (C. und I. SkottsbERG). 

Eine fliichtige Durchsicht des umfangreichen SlvOTTSBERGschen Mate- 
rials' dieser Art macht den Eindruck, als ob zvvei Arten oder Varietaten, eine 
mit schmalen, die andere mit bisweilen sehr breiten Lappen gesellig neben- 
und durcheinander wachsen wiirden. Ein genaues Zusehen und der anato- 
mische V^ergleich der Lappen zeigt indes, dass es sich hier nur um Alters- 
oder Entwicklungsstufen einer und derselben Art handelt. So verschiedenartig 
auch die Individuen aussehen, so ist es doch nicht moglich, die beiden VVachs- 



DIE FLECHTEN DEK JUAN EERNAXDEZ IXSELN 39 1 

tuinartcn als verschicdene Formen zii bezeichnen und zu trennen, denn es gibt 
Individucn, welche bcide Lappenformen zei^^en. Die Bcschieibung, welche die 
Autoren bisher von der Flechte geben, passt nur auf die schmalen Lappen. 
Das geht klar hervor aus eineni P^xemplar, welches von Ber'I'ERO gesamnielt, 
von MONTAGNE als ■»Rani(7l/ua scopit/onufi var. li)icayis-b bestimmt, im Herbar 
des botanischen Museums in Upsala liegt und das ich dort zu studieren Ge- 
legenheit hatte. Die Verhaltnisse liegen hier gerade so als bei Rauialhia 
fraxi)ua, dessen breitlappige Formen als f. ampliata bezeichnet werden, obwohl 
sie keine eigentliche Abanderung der Art darstellen. 

*R. Usnea Howe jr. 

Howe jr. in Bryologist, vol. XVII, 19 14, p. 81, fig. i, tab. XII, fig. i — 2. 
— Lichen L'snea Linn., Mantissa I, 1767, p. 131. — Paniielia usneoides Ach., Me- 
thod. Lich., 1803, p. 270. — Ramalifia usneoides Mont, apud Gaudich., Voyage 
Bonite, 1S44 — 4*^. P- 156; Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 291. 

Masafuera: Hochplateau zwischen Sanchez und Tolten, 515 m, auf 
Baumen, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



[Folgende x'\rten sind zu streichen: 

A', ceriichis De Not. [Usnea ceruchis Mont, in Annal. Sci. Nat., Bot., vol. 
II, 1834, tab. XVI, fig. i; ser. 2, Vol, IV, 1835, p. 86). »Crescit ad ramos 
Adesniia; viicropJiyllcB in consortio U . ceraiincs et Ravialince fraxinece; MoNT. 
1. c. p. 86. Bertero no. 1783. 

R. fraxinea! var. uienibranacea? MoNT. 1. c. p. 86: 

»Crescit ad ramos Adesmics inicrophyllcu confinis Usneis ceratmce et 
Cerudm. In Gay, Hist. Fisic. y Polit. Chile, Bot. vol. VIII, 1852, p. 81 zitiert 
MONTAGNE dasselbe Exemplar unter R. fraxinea (Mont. non. Ach.; nach Ny- 
lander, Bull. Soc. Linn. Xormand., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1870, p. 139 == R. subfraxinea 
Nyl.). In Estud. Flora J. Fern., 1896, p. 197 zitiert JOHOW R. calicaris v. 
fraxinea als gesammelt von Bertero und JoHOW; Bertero's Exemplare sind 
zu streichen; JOHOW's gehoren hochstwahrscheinlich zu R. lijtearis. 

Obschon oben ervvahnte Arten in Montagne's »Prodomus Florae Fer- 
nandezianae» aufgenommen wurden, ja in Gay 1. c. eben fiir Juan Fernandez 
angegeben werden, hat sie Bertero aber, wie mir Prof. Skottsberg mitteilt, 
nicht auf Juan Fernandez gesammelt. Sie sollen namlich auf Adesmia inicro- 
phylla gewachsen haben, und weder diese noch eine andere Adesmia-Axt 
kommt auf den Inseln vor. Dagegen ist die fragliche Adesmia in Zentral- 
Chile, wo wohl jene Flechten gesammelt wurden, gar nicht selten.] 



392 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Usnea VVigg. 



A. Thalli rami teretes, 

a. Axis solida ^ji — ^/s crassitudinis ramorum occupans 

[/. Steincri var. torulosa. 

b. Axis solida ± Vs crassitudinis thalli occupans. 

I. Thallus erectus, fruticulosus U. florida var. cJirysopoga. 

II. Thallus pendulus, elongatus 

U. dasypoga var. plicata, f. dasypogoides. 

B, Thalli rami angulosi U. angulata. 

U. dasypoga (Ach.) Nyl. var. plicata (Hofifm.) Hue f. dasypogoides 

A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Denkschrift. math.-natiirw. CI. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. LXXXIII, 
igog, p. 185. — Usnea dasypogoides Nyl. apud Cromb. in Journ. of Bot., vol. XIV, 
1876, p. 263. — Usnea straminea Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXII, 1879, p. 162. — 
Usnea Schadenhergiana Goepp. et Stein in 60. Jahresb. Schlesisch. Gesellsch, fiir 
vaterl. Kultur, 1883, P- 229. — Usnea dasypoga f. dasypogoides Hue in Nouv. Archiv. 
du Museum, ser. 4, vol. I, 1899, p. 47; A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. 
Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 1917, p. 44. 

Masatierra: Puerto Frances, ^u{ Myrceugenia fcrnaiidcziana, steril; Cordon 
Chifladores, 350 m, ^ccS. Driviys, steril; Valle Colonial, Cordon Central, 577 m, 
auf Rinden, steril; Portezuelo, 575 m, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Mono, 700 m, auf Myrceugenia Schulzei, steril 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

U. florida (L.) Hoffm. var. chrysopoga Hue. 

Hue in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 4, vol. I, 1899, p. 41; A. Zahlbr. 
in Denkschrift. math.-naturw. CI. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. LXXXIII, 1909, p. 184. 

Masafuera; Cordon del Barril, auf Felsen, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*U. Steineri A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Denkschrift. math.-naturw. CI. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. LXXXIII, 
1909, p. 183 et 186, tab. Ill, fig. I — 4; Howe jr. in Bryologist, vol. XVIII, 1915, 
p. 60. 

'•'var. subtorulosa A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Thallus pallide stramineus, erectus, fruticulosus, in specimine viso usque 
7 cm altus, e basi iteratim dichotome et sympodialiter ramosus, rami primarii 
usque 1,6 mm crassi, hinc inde annulatim fissi, scabrisculi, sorediis albis, mi- 
nutis, vix prominulis increbre obsiti, fibrillis biformibus, vel subulato-filiformibus, 
acutis ut in planta typica, plus minus incurvis, vel latioribus, subcylindricis et 
subtorulosis, acutatis vel obtusiusculis, minus dense sorediosis, sorediis minutis, 



nil: FUCCIITEN DER JUAN KKKNANDEZ-INSELN 393 

parum prominulis, dcmum plus minus confluentibus; medulla KIIO c flavo 
sanguinca, Caeterum ut in typo. 

Masafuera: im Hochlande, bei looo m, auf Rinden, fruchtend (C. und 
I, Skoti'Sberg). 

U. angiilata Ach. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akud. Hand!., vol. LVII, no. 6, igiy, 
p. 44. 

Masafuera: auf Baumzweigen, fruchtend (C. Skott.sherc;). 



[[/. barbata Fr., von Joiiow flir Masafuera angegeben (Estud. Flora Juan 
Fernandez, 1896, p. 197), bezieht sich hochst wahrscheinlich nicht auf diese 
Art. JOHOW fiihrt audi Bertero als Sammler auf (Masatierra). MoNTAGNE 
hat in seiner ersten Bearbeitung, Annal. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, 
p. 86 nur U. barbata var. Iccvis Mont. (Bertero 1641); dasselbe Ex. nennt er 
aber in Gay, Hist, fisic. y polit. Chile, Bot., vol. VIII, 1852, p. 60 U. plicata 
Hoffm.; die Angabe bleibt fraglich. 

U. ccratina Ach., Montagne in Annal. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 
1835, p. 86: »crescit in ramos Adcsmice microphyllce Hook, et Arn.» (Bertero 
no. 1783) ist zu streichen — siehe oben unter Ramalinal Bei Gay 1. c. erwahnt 
Montagne nicht Juan Fernandez; dagegen fiihrt er hier, ebenfalls unter no. 
1783 U. florida Hoffm. auf. No. 1783 umfasst mehrere Arten, alle auf dem 
Festlande gesammelt.] 



Galop lacaceae. 
Blasteiiia (Mass.) Th. Fr. 

B. ferdinaiideziana A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 191 7, 
p. 46. 

Apothecia demum convexa, margine depresso. 
Scheint auf vulkanischem Gestein haufig zu sein. 

Masatierra: Felswand beim SELKIRK-Denkmal, 590 m; Portezuelo de Vil- 
lagra, 590 m; Bahia del Padre, auf Strandfelsen; Siidabhang des Tres Puntas- 
Riickens (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Sancta Clara (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

B. ferruginea (Huds.) Mass. 

Mass. Pariuclia fern/gitiea Fr. ; Mont. Annal. So. Nat. Bot. ser. 2, vol. IV. 
1835, P- 92. 

Masatierra: Auf Baumrinden (Bertero no. 1628). 



394 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Bombyliospora De Not, 



B. dolichospora A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Lecidca dolichospora Nyl. in Anna). Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 4, vol. Ill, 1855, 
p. 162. — Bacidia dolichospora Trevis. in Linnaea, vol. XXVIII, 1856, p. 293. 

»Aiif Xanthoxyltmi-'K\x\d^^*> (Herb. Delessert). 



Caloplaca Th. Fr. 

A. Sporae simpliciter septatae, membrana aequali cinctae, thallus isidio- 
phorus C. isidioclada. 

B. Sporae polari-bi- vel triloculares; thallus non isidiophorus. 

I. Thallus crustaceus, uniformis. 

1. Sporae polari-biloculares. 

a. Species corticola; apothecia minuta, 0,2 — 0,3 (0,4) mm lata, 
pallida, vix conspicua C. clandestina. 

|j. Species saxicolae; apothecia distincte majora; apothecia 
laete colorata. 

§. Thallus, late expansus, tenuiter rimulosus, granularis 

vel granulari-leprosus C. Selkirki. 

§§. Thallus ex areolis formatus rotundatis, planis, superne 

laevigatis, plus minus dispersis C. rubina. 

2. Sporae polari-triloculares C. subcerina. 
II. Thallus effiguratus. 

1. Laciniae marginales elongatae, lineares et rectae C. orthoclada. 

2. Laciniae marginales breves et dilatatae 

C. elczc^fis var. austialis. 



Sect Eucaloplaca Th. Fr. 

"^C. clandestina A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epiphloeodes, substratum arete obducens, tenuis, subochraceo- 
albidus, opacus, KHO magis flavescens, continuus, laevis, sorediis et isidiis non 
praeditus. 

Apothecia lecanorina, parva, 0,3 — 0,4 mm lata, dispersa vel approximata, 
sessilia, tenuia; discus thallo fere concolor, vix magis lutescens, e concavo sub- 
planus, madefactus turgidus;. margo thallinus disco concolor, tenuis, integer, 
haud prominulus; hymenium superne anguste fuscescenti-lutescens, non in- 
spersum, KHO aurantiacum, caeterum aquoso-pellucidum, decolor; paraphyses 
tenues, 0,2—0,3 ;j. crassae, conglutinatae, simplices, inferne eseptatae, in parte 
superiore submoniliformes, tenuiter septatae, in ipso apice rotundato-clavatae; 
asci oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana sat bene incrassata 



DIE FLFXHTKN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 395 

cincti, S-spori; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, late ellipsoideae vel ovales, 
polari-diblastae, luminibus apicalibus parvis, circa Vi longitudineni sporarum 
inetientes, istlimo tenui junctis, 10,5 — 12,5 [i longae et 8 — 9 jj. latac. 
Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masaticrra: Zuischen anderen Rindenflechten eingesprcngt fand ich nur 
cinen ciir/.igcn Thallus dieser durch das diinne, fast liautige Lager, klcincn 
und hellen Apothezieii sehr charakteristischen Flechte (C. und I. SkottsbeRG). 

*C. Selkirk! A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus epilithicus, crustaceus, uniformis, expansus vel raaculas minores 
formans, tenuis, vix 0,2 mm crassus, substratum obducens, citrino-aurantiacus 
vel rarius pallide ochraceo-citrinus, KHO rubens, tenuiter areolato-rimosus, 
areolis 0,3—0,3 mm latis, subplanis, in superficic passim paulum inaequalibus, 
subangulosis, fissuris tenuissimis separatis hinc inde in granulis minutis abientibus, 
granulans, rare leprosus, hypothallus tenuissimus, flavido-albidus, sorediis et 
isidiis non instructus, in margine bene limitatus, sed linea obscuriore non 
cinctus, superne strato corticali tenui, ex hyphis tenuibus et intricatis formato 
obductus; gonidia cystococcoidea; hyphae medullares non amylaceae; subtus 
albidus. 

Apothecia lecanorina, dispersa vel approximata, sessilia, rotunda vel 
passim angulata, primum planiuscula et margine tenui, parum prominulo, in- 
tegro vel subintegro cincta, mox convexa et fere semiglobosa, margine depresso, 
thallo intensius colorata, aurantiaca, subopaca, 0,5— 0,7 (— l) mm lata; margo thallo 
paulum dilutior, extus strato corticali, tenui, 20 — 25 (jl crasso, ex hyphis intri- 
catis et inspersis, formato, KHO rubente obductus, gonidia crebra et meduUam 
inciudens; excipulum decolor, I — , integrum, fere usque ad verticem hymenii 
assurgens, crassiusculum, subcartilagineum; hymenium superne sordide fuscescens, 
modice inspersum, KHO purpureum, caeterum decolor et purum, 80—90 [x 
altum, I intense coeruleum, demum obscuratum; paraphyses filiformes, strictae, 
conglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem parum latiores vel paulum capi- 
tatae; asci hymenio subaequilongi, oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et mem- 
brana bene incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, 
ellipsoideo-ovales vel ovales, polari-diblastae, luminibus primum ^(3, demum ^/i 
longitudinis sporarum metientibus, isthmo angusto, sed distincto junctis, 10 — 12 {j. 
longae et 8 — 8,5 [i latae. 

Die Art scheint auf Juan Fernandez sehr haufig zu sein, sie bewohnt 
vulkanisches Gestein, C. und I. Skottsberg haben sie an folgenden Lokali- 
taten gesammelt: 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra, an mehreren Stellen, 590 m; Cordon 
Salsipuedes, 465 m; Bahia del Padre, an Strandfelsen; niedriger Feisriicken am 
Siidhange von Tres Puntas. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas, in der Sturmregion am Meere; Strand- 
felsen unweit des Monotals und Cordon del Barril, 800 — 1200. 

Erinnert einigermassen an Caloplaca flavoviresceiis (Wulf), doch ist der 
Thallus heller und dunner, die Sporen anders gestaltet und kleiner. 



^qQ A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

*C. rubina A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus ex areolis parvis, 0,i — 0,3 mm latis, rotundatis vel irregularibus, 
rarius paulum elongatis vel squamuliformibus, tenuissimis, planiusculis, sub- 
striato arete adpressis, plus minus dispersis vel hinc inde etiam approximatis, 
nunquam crustam continuam foimantibus compositus, aurantiacus, opacus, KHO 
purpureus, areolae marginales non radiantes, sorediis et isidiis non praeditus, 
superne strato corticali tenui obductus; stratum gonidiale continuum, gonidiis 
cystococcoideis, usque 18 [j. latis. 

Apothecia inter areolas thalli sessilia, lecanorina, cinnabarino-aurantiaca, 
opaca, parva, 0,2 — 0,4 mm lata, e concavo leviter convexa, KHO purpurea; 
margo thallinus primum tenuis, integer, parum prominulus, demum depressus, 
disco parum dilutior vel concolor, extus strato corticali, ex hyphis formato 
tenuibus et intricatis, in ambitu aurantiaco-fuscescente obductus, gonidia et 
medullam includens; excipulum baud distinctum; hypothecium decolor, molle, ex 
hyphis intricatis formatur, sublentiforme, strato gonidiali crassiusculo super- 
positum, I coeruleum; hymenium superne dense inspersum, aurantiaco-fuscum, 
KHO purpureum, caeterum decolor et purum, 75 — 80 [i altum, I violaceo- 
coeruleum; paraphyses filiformes, strictae, conglutinatae, simplices, in parte in- 
feriore eseptatae, versus apicem sensim crassiores et depauperato-moniliformes, 
in ipso apice clavatae; asci ovali-clavati, hymenio subaequilongi, ad apicem 
rotundati et membrana calyptriformi-incrassato cincti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis 
subtriseriales, decolores, ovali- vel late ellipsoideae, rectae, polari-diblastae, loculi 
circa ^3 longitudinis sporarum metientibus, isthmo tenui junctis, 9 — ii [i. 
longae et 5 — 6 [x latae. 

Masatierra: Siidabhang des Riickens der Tres Puntas, auf vulkanischem 
Gestein (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Santa Clara: Morro de los Alelies (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: unterster Teil der Quebrada de las Casas, auf Felsen (C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

Die Merkmale dieser neuen Art sind die kleinen, flachen, mitunter fast 
schuppenformigen und mehr weniger zerstreut stehenden Lagerfelderchen, fer- 
ner die kleinen und lebhaft gefarbten Apothezien. 

*var. evolutior A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

Thalli squamae paulum majores, usque 1 mm latae, incisae vel crenulatae, 
magis approximatae et centrum versus maculas thallinas fere areolatas formans. 

Masafuera: im aussersten Telle der Quebrada de las Casas, auf Gestein 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

*C. isidioclada A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus crustam formans sat expansam, demum irregulariter et sat late 
areolato-fissus, ex ramulis valde brevibus, 0,1 — 0,2 mm longis, subcoralloideis 
vel fere isidiomorphis, teretiusculis et ramosis, primum subverruculosis et de- 



DTE FLF.CHTEN DF.R JUAN FKRNANDFZINSF.LN 397 

pressis, dense contextis forniatus, aurantiacus, opacus, KHO purpureus, sorediis 
destitutus, liypothallus distiiictus nullus. 

Apothecia lecanotina, basi lata adpresso-sessilia, rotunda, sat tenuia, 
usque 1,2 mm lata; discus rufescenti-aurantiacus, opacus, epiuinosus, planiusculus 
vel convexiusculus; marge thallinus tenuis, paulum prominulus, subcrenulatus, fla- 
vescens, persistens, subnitidus. extus strato corticali sat tenui, obscure ochraceo- 
fusco, ins[)erso, KliO purpureo obductus, medulla incolore et pura, glomerulos 
gonidiorum includente; excipulum integrum, angustum, i8 — 20 [j. crassum, decolor, 
pellucidum, ex hyphis tangentialibus, sat pachydermaticis et dense contextis for- 
matum, maculas rotundas vel oblongas ofFerens, basi strato medullari, gonidia 
includenti superpositum; hypothecium fere decolor, molle, ex hyphis intricatis 
formatum, excipulo paulum crassius; hymenium superne aurantiaco-fuscum, 
pulverulentum, KHO purpureum, caeterum incolor, purum, 80 — 90 ;j, altum, 1 
intense coeruleum; asci hymenio subaequilongi, oblongo- vel ellipsoideo-clavati, 
ad apicem membrana calyptratim incrassata instructi, 8-spori; paraphyses sub- 
gelatinose conglutinatae, filiformes, simplices, versus apicem sensim crassiores, 
superne moniliformiter septatae et in ipso apice clavatae; sporae in ascis bi- 
triseriales, decolores, ellipsoideae vel fere ovales, utrinque rotundatae vel paulum 
angustatae, uniseptatae, septo primum sat tenui, mox crassiore, ad septum non 
vel leviter constrictae, rectae, membrana primum aequali, demum subinaequali 
cinctae et loculis demum parvis, distantibus, sed isthmo distincto non junctis, 
8 — 12 [L longae et 5 — 7 [x latae. 

Masafuera: auf der Erde und iiber durch Algen verunreinigten Moosen 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Erinnert habituell an die chilenische Caloplaca inicrophylla (Hue) A. 
Zahlbr., besitzt aber ganz anders gestaltete Sporen und ist mit jener nicht 
naher verwandt. 



Sect. Triophthalmidium (Mull. Arg.) A. Zahlbr. 

'■'C. subcerina A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Lecanora erythroleiica var. subcerbta Nyl. in Flora, vol. LII, 1869, p. 119. — 
CaUopts?na australe Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXIV, 1881, p. 100. — Placodiuin 
siihcerimim Wain., Etud. Lich. Bresil, vol. I, 1890, p. 123. — Lecidea subcerina 1A\\& 
in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, vol. LVIII, 191 x, sess. extraord., p. LXXXVI, tab. Ill, 
fig. 15 et in Nouv. Archiv. du Museum, ser. 5, vol. IV, (1910) 1914, p. 5, fig. 63. 

var. aurantiaca A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Callopisma australe var. aurdntiacu)ii Miill. Arg. in Flora, vol. LXIV, 1881, p. 
100. — Lecanora erythrokuca var. aurantiaca Stzbgr. in Bericht iiber die Thiitigk. 
St. Gallisch. naturw. Gesellsch. 1888— 8g, 1890, p. 206. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de la Loberia, bei 300 m, auf alteren Z?w/^-Borken 
(C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Hierbei gehort vielleicht auch noch ein auf einer F'elswand des Cordon 
Salsipuedes, 465 m, gesammeltes Stiick, dessen Sporen gut ubereinstimmen, 



^gg A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 

Fruchtscheibe indes diinkel ist und dadurch an die van crc7iulata (Miill. Arg.) 
herantritt, von dieser aber durch den nicht krenulierten Fruchtrand abweicht. 
Das es sich nur um ein einziges und durftiges Exemplar handelt, kann ich 
nicht feststellen, ob die Kombination der beiden Merkmale konstant und von 
taxonomischem Wert ist. 



Sect. Gasparrinia (Tornab.) Th, Fr. 

C elegaiis (Link.) Th. Fr. var. australis A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Xafit/ioiia parietina var. australis A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. 
Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 191 7, P- 49- 

Thallus miniatus, aurantiacus, vel rutilus, rare vitellino-variegatus, iteratim 
lobatus, lobis varie formatis, lobi marginales in parte substrati horizontali at 
laeviore tenues, lineares, convexae, arete substrato affixi ut in var. teind 
(Wahlbg.), in locis aliis latiores, inaequaliter dilatati, subgyrosi, usque 5 mm 
longi et 1 — 1,2 mm lati, in superficie inaequales, subcanaliculati vel foveolato- 
excavati, in partibus thalli verticaliter sitis usque 2 mm longi, continui, appla- 
nati, adpressi, lobis Xanthoriac parietinae angustioribus similes. Stratum cor- 
ticale paginae superioris thalli hinc inde interruptum et maculas parvas, rotundas, 
albas et concavas ofifert meduUae denudatae. 

Die Durcharbeitung eines reichen Materials hat mich zur Uberzeugung 
gebracht, dass es sich um eine Abanderung der Caloplaca elegans und nicht 
um eine kleinlappige Form der XantJioria parietina handelt. Der Bau der 
Rinde des Lagers, den ich nunmehr an vielen Stiicken zu studieren Gelegenheit 
hatte, weist auf Caloplaca elegans. 

Masatierra: Puerto Frances, bei 50 m; Puerto Ingles unweit der Robinson- 
hohle und Bahia del Padre, auf Strandfelsen (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Santa Clara: Morro de los Alelies, auf hartem Gestein (C. und L 
Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Ouebrada del Mono und an Strandfelsen in der Quebrada 
de las Casas (C. und I. SKOTTSBERG). 

'■'C. orthoclada A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus placodiomorphus, centrifugus, plagas usque 6 cm latas formans, 
plagis plus minus confluentibiis, tartareus, aurantiacus, subopacus, vel fere ce- 
rinus, KHO kermesinus, in centro primum verruculoso-areolatus et apothecia 
crebra et approximata gerens et ab eis fere omnino obtectus, ibidem mox 
emoriens et albidus, lobi marginales elongati, usque 1,5 cm longi, angusti, 
0,3 — 0,5 mm lati, stricti, recti vel subrecti, contigui, convex!, dichotome vel 
sympodialiter ramosi, in apice paulum latiores, integri, retusi vel minute cre- 
nulati, substrato arete adnati, subtus albi, rhizinis destituti, passim inaequaliter 
dilatati et subtorulosi, hinc inde, sed rare, tenuiter transversim rupti, sorediis 
et isidiis destitutus; superne strato corticali 16-19 [J- crasso, pulverulento- 



DIE FLKCHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 399 

insperso, KHO purpureo, sordide aurantiaco, ex hyphis densissime intricatis 
formato obductus; medulla alba, ex hyphis subhorizontalibus et leviter intri- 
catis composita, I — ; gonidia glomerata, glomerulis subcontiguis, cellulis laete 
viridibus, 13 — 16 a latis. 

Apothecia lecanorina (primum habitu gyalectoideo), et in centre thalli, et 
in lobis marginalibus superficialia, alte sessilia, rotunda, parva, usque 0,5 mm 
lata; discus croceus, opacus, KHO purpureus, epruinosus, e concavo subplanus; 
margo thallinus crassiusculus, integer, persistenter bene prominulus, thallo con- 
color, strato corticali angusto obductus, medullam et gonidia includens; exci- 
pulum haud distinctum; hypothecium pallide lutescens, molle, ex h}-phis intri- 
catis formatum; hymenium superne anguste aurantiacofuscum, inspersum, 
caeterum decolor, purum, 80 — 90 a altum, I coeruleum; paraphyses filiformes, 
strictae, conglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem capitato-clavatae; asci 
hymenio subaequilongi, oblongo-clavati, ad apicem rotundati et membrana mo- 
dice incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae in ascis biseriales, decolores, ellipsoideae 
vel subovales, rectae, polari-diblastae, luminibus circa Vs longitudinis sporarum 
mebtientibus, isthmo tenui junctis, 8,5—10 ;j. longae et 5 — 5.5 a latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 

Masafuera: Strandfelsen in der Ouebrada del Mono (C. und I. Skotts- 
BERG). 

Eine ausserordentlich zierliche Flechte, charakterisiert durch die schmalen, 
verhaltnismassig langen Randlappen, welche auch Apothezien tragen; sie nahert 
sich der Caloplaca Felip07iei A. Zahlbr. und gehort nach der Gestalt der Sporen 
in die Gruppe der Caloplaca muroruui. 

Theloschistaceae. 

Theloschistes Norm. 

'•■'Th. flavicans (S\v.) Miill. Arg. 

f. glabra Wain. 

Wain., £tud. Lich. Bresil. vol. I, 1890, p. 114. 

Masatierra: Puerto Frances; Portezuelo, 600—625 m, zwischen anderen 
Flechten auf Baumrinden und uber Moosen, steril (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Buelliaceae. 

Buellia De Not. 

A. Thallus flavidus vel stramineus, Ca CI2O2 optime lateritius 

B. concimia var. occanica. 

B. Thallus albidus vel cinerascens. 

a. Apothecia immersa vel subimmersa B. stellulata. 

b. Apothecia sessilia vel adpressa. 



400 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



I. Sporae siphoniatae B. sipJioniaUda. 
II. Sporae simpliciter uniseptatae. 

1. Thallus KHO sanguineus B. femandcziana. 

2. Thallus KHO — B. halophila. 



'•'B. concinna Th. Fr. 

Th. Fr. in Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Scient. Upsal., ser. 3, vol. Ill, 1861, p. 332 

et Lichenogr. Scand., vol. I, 1874, p. 600. — Lecidea condnna Stzbgr. in Bericht. 

iiber die Thiitigk. St. Gallisch. natunv. Gesellsch. 1874 — 1875, i^?*^, P- 236; Nyl., 
Lich. Pvren. Orient., 1891. p. 36. 



*var. oceanica A. Zahlbr. nov. var. 

A planta europaea differt in eo, quod medullae hyphae pro majore vel 
pro minore parte lodo violaceo tinguntur et sporis paulum minoribus. 

Thallus crustaceus, uniformis, tartareus, cervino-ochroleucus, nitidulus, 
KHO flaveus, CaCl202 bene lateritius, substrata laxiuscule adhaerens, maculas 
irregulares formans, verruculoso-areolatus, areolis alte convexis, 0,3 — 0,5 mm 
latis, confertis, subangulosis vel rotundatis, marginalibus paulum longioribus et 
angustioribus, in margine linea obscuriore non cinctus, sorediis et isidiis de- 
stitutus. 

Apothecia in superficie verrucarum thalii sessilia, solitaria \el rarius bina, 
nigra, opaca, minuta, 0,25 — 0,45 mm lata, mox convexa, margine baud conspicuo; 
excipulum crassum, fuligineum, versus hymenium fuscum et NO5 fusconigrum; 
hymenium purum, superne anguste obscure fuscum, inferne dilute aeruginoso- 
fuscescens, lOO — no ;j- altum; paraphyses simplices, eseptatae; sporae in ascls 
subuniseriales, fuscae, uniseptatae, late ellipsoideae vel ovales, rectae, ad septum 
non constrictae, 8,5 — 10,5 a longae et 5 — 5,5 |j. latae. 

Santa Clara: Morro de los Aleli'es, auf hartem Gestein (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

*B. siphoniatula A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus crustaceus, uniformis, tenuissimus, ochraceo-cinerascens, opacus, 
KHO — , CaCl202 — , KHO + Ca CI2O2 — , fere continuus, siccus minute sub- 
areolatus vel subleprosus, madefactus subverruculoso-inaequalis, in margine 
linea tenui nigricante cinctus, sorediis et isidiis destitutus; superne strato cor- 
ticali pertenui obductus; medulla albida, ex hyphis non amylaceis formata; 
stratum gonidiale continuum vel subcontinuum, cellulis globosis, dilute et laete 
viridibus, 7,5 — 9 a latis. 

Apothecia lecidcina, adpresse sessilia, parva, 0,5 — 0,8 mm lata, nigra, 
nitidula, primum concava, margine proprio tenui et integro cincta, demum le- 
viter convexa margine paulum depresso; excipulum integrum, carbonaceum, 
infra hymenium angustatum; hypothecium tenue, fuscum; hymenium superne 
nigricanti-fuscum, KHO — , NO5 — , non inspersum, caeterum decolor et purum, 
80 — 90 \i. altum, I intense violaceocoeruleum; paraphyses filiformes, gelatinoso- 



DIK FI.ECHTF.X DICR JUAX FERN ANDKZ- INSELN 4OI 

conglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem clavatae et calyptratim obscuratae; 
asci hymenio snbaequiloni^i, oblongo- vel ellipsoideo-clavati, supeine rotundati 
et nienibrana incrassata cincti, 8-.spori; sporac in ascis plus minus biseriales, e 
fumoso fuscae, ovales vel late elli[)soideae, rarius subrhoniboidales, rectae, ver- 
sus apicem angustatac, sed in ipso apice rotundatae, luminibus cellularum pri- 
mum apicalibus, circa Vs longutidinis sporarum mcntientibus, isthmo tenui, sed 
distincto junctis. demum magis approximatis, anguloso rotundatis vel subcor- 
datis, parvae, i6 — 20(— 22) ;j. longae et 8 — 9 [j. latae. 

Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, an Strandfelsen (C. und I. Skottshekg). 

Zum Vergleich konnen lincllia posthabita (Nyl.) A. Zahlbr. und Biicllia 
falklandica Darb. herangezogen werden. Das nicht areolirte Lager, die ange- 
presst-sitzenden, angefeuchtet nicht durchscheinden Apothezien und das nicht 
ausgesprochen herzformige Sporoblast der Sporen unterscheiden sie von der 
ersteren, das am Grunde nicht fussformig verlangerte Gehause und die nicht 
breit abegerundeten Sporen von der letzteren Art. 

==^B. stelliilata Mudd. 

MuDD, Man. Brit. Lich., 1861, p. 216; Th. Fr., Lichenogr. Scand., vol. I, 
1874, p. 603; Wain, hi Arkiv for Bot., vol. VIII, no. 4, 1909, p. 80. — Lecidea 
stellulata Tayl. apud Mack., Flore Hibern., vol. II, 1836, p. 118. 

Scheint auf vulkanischen Gestein eine haufige Art zu sein. 

Masatierra: Gipfel des Cerro Negro, 190 m; Bahia del Padre, an Strand- 
felsen; Sudabhang des Tres Puntasriickens (C. und I. SkottsbERG). 

Santa Clara: Morro de los Alelies (C. und I. Skottsberg). 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Mono, an Strandfelsen; Quebrada de las Casas 
und im unteren Teil der Quebrada de las Vacas (C. und I. SKOTTSBERG). 

*B. halophila MiiU. Arg. 

Mull. Arg. in Bull. Herb. Eoissier, vol. I, 1893, p. 52. 

Thallus KHO--, Ca CI2O2 , in margine linea tenui fumosa cinctus. 

Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, bei 50 m, auf losen Blocken (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

B. feriiaiidcziana A. Zahlbr. 

A. Zahlbr. in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. LVII, no. 6, 1917, 
P- 53- 

Masatierra: Bahia del Padre, auf Lava (C. Skottsberg). 



Die Zahl der auf Juan P'ernandez vorkommenden Buellien ist durch die 
angefiihrten Arten nicht erschopft. Indes konnten mehrere Arten nicht sicher 

26 — 2391. The Nat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Isl. Vol. II. 



402 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



bestimmt werden, da es mir unter den gegebenen Umstanden nicht moglich 
war, mehrere Urstiicke, deren Beschreibung nicht ausreichte, urn die schwie- 
ricren Arten der Gattung Buellia von einem einheitlichen Standpunkt zu be- 
handeln, fehlten und unter den obwaltenden Verhaltnissen bestand keine Aus- 
sicht, sie zu erhalten. Ich hoffe. bei einer spateren Gelegenheit auf diese 
Ruellien zuriickzukommen. 



Ph ysciaceae. 
Pyxine (Fr.) Nyl. 

*P. curvatula A. Zahlbr. nov. spec. 

Thallus substrate adhaerens, sed non arete adpressus, membranaceus, 
tenuis, ad 0,2 mm crassus, rosulas usque 4,5 cm latas formans, albus, made- 
factus glaucescens, fere opacus, KHO superne flavens, Ca 0302 — , iteratim et 
sat irregulariter divisus, laciniis primariis usque i mm latis, convexiusculis, su- 
perne laevigatis, hinc inde subimbricatis vel subcomplicatis, utplurimum versus 
apicem laciniarum, sed etiam in centre thalli, interruptim isidiis brevibus, 
0,3 — 0,5 mm longis, cylindricis, valde tenuibus, rectis, utplurimum angustis prae- 
ditis, subtus pallidus (albidus vel dilute fuscescens), rhizinis increbris, validius- 
culis et sat brevibus obsitus, sorediis destitutus; utrinque corticatus; cortex superior 
20 — 26 a crassus, non inspersus, paraplectenchymaticus, ex hyphis perpen- 
dicularibus septatisque formatus, cellulis leptodermaticis, subanguloso-rotundatis, 
4 — 6 [J- in diam., in seriebus superpositis utplurimum 4, superne strato valde 
tenui, amorpho supertectus; cortex inferior versus medullam inaequaliter in- 
crassatus, ex hyphis 3,5—4 ;j- crassis, subhorizontalibus et modice intricatis 
formatus; stratum gonidiale infra corticem superiorem dispositum, tenue, haud 
continuum, gonidiis globosis, dilute viridibus, 5 — 8 jj. latis; medulla alba, 
KHO — , Ca CI2O2 — , ex hyphis laxiusculis, non inspersis, ramosis et sat lepto- 
dermaticis formata; rhizinae validiusculae, 50 — 100 \i. crassae, e basi breviter et 
increbre ramosae, dilute fuscescentes vel passim fere decolores, ex hyphis longi- 
tudinalibus, tenuibus et dense contextis formatae. 

Apothecia superficialia, sessilia, lecideina, parva, 0,2 — 0,3 mm lata, nigra, 
opaca, mox leviter convexa, immarginata; excipulum integrum, fuscum, cum 
hypothecio confluens, gonidia nulla includens; hypothecium ochraceo-fuscum, 
KHO haud mutatum, ex hyphis intricatis formatum; hymenium superne non 
inspersum, fuscum, KHO — , caeterum decolor et purum, 75 — 85 u. altum, I 
coeruleum; paraphyses filiformes, conglutinatae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem 
capitato-clavatae et obscuratae; asci hymenio subaequilongi, ovali-clavati, su- 
perne rotundati et membrana bene incrassata cincti, recti, 8-spori; sporae in 
ascis biseriales,fuscae,ellipsoideo-oblongae,oblongae vel etiam cylindrico-oblongae, 
utrinque rotundatae, normalitcr curvulae vel leviter arcuatae, septo tenui, ad 
septum non constrictae, membrana tenui et aequali cinctae 15 — 20 [i longae et 
4,5 — 6 a latae. 

Pycnoconidia non visa. 



DIE FLKCHTEN DER JUAN FKRNAXDEZINSELN 4©;^ 

Masaticrra: Puerto Ingles, 550 m, ini Wald auf Raumstammen (C. und 
I. Skottshkrc;). 

Die kleinen Apothezien, die <^ekruniinten Sporen und die kurzen Isidien 
sind die Mcrkniale der neuen Art. 



Physcia (Schreb.) Wain. 



*Ph. picta Nyl. 



Nyl. in Memoir, Soc. Imp. Scienc. Natur. Cherbourg, vol. Ill, 1855, p. 175 
et Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 430, tab. VIII, fig. 53; Wain., £tud. Lich. Bresil, 
vol. I, 1890, p. 150. — Lichen pictiis Sw., Nova Gener. et Spec. Plant., 1788, 
p. 146. 

Mastatierra: auf dem Bergriicken zwischen der Quebrada Villagra und 
Bahia Chupones, 386 m, auf Gestein, steril (C. und I. Skott.SBERG). 



Anaptychia Korb. 

A. Laciniae thalli in margine tibrillis nigricantibu.s, demum squarroso- 
ramosissimis, i — 2 ij. longis obsitus A. hypoletica. 

B. Laciniae thalli in margine fibrillis pallidis, simplicibus, 0,5 — 0,8( — i) 
mm longis ornati A. dactyliza f. peciinaia. 

*A. hypoleuca (Muhlb.) Mass. 

var. colorata A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Pseudophyscia hypoletica var. colorata A. Zahlbr. in Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien, niath.-naturw. CI., vol. CXI, i Abb., 1902, p. 413. — Pseudophyscia hypoleuca 
f. caesiocrocata Cord, in Broteria, ser, bot., vol. XII, 1914- P- i79- 

Masatierra: steinige Heide siidlich von Tres Puntas steril (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

*A. dactyliza A. Zahlbr. nov. comb. 

Physcia speciosa var. dactyliza Nyl., Synops. Lich., vol. I, i860, p. 417. — 
Pseudophyscia speciosa var. dactyliza Miill. Arg. in Ekgler, Rot. Jahrbuch., vol. XX, 
1894, p. 260. 

*f. pcctinata A. Zahlbr. nov. f. 

Thallus substrato adpressus, radiatim crescens, rosulas rotundas (in spe- 
cimine viso 6 cm latas) formans, subcartilagineus, albidus vel albus, nitidulus, 
KHO superne lutescens, Ca CljOj — , laevigatus, sorediis et isidiis non prae- 
ditus, iteratim et dichotome et trichotome laciniatus, laciniae elongatae, lineares 
(0,6) — I — 1,2 mm latae, subplanae, utplurimum contiguae, rare laxiusculae, plus 



404 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



minus divaricatae, ad apicem paulum latiores, rotundato-retiisatae vel emargi- 
natae in margine ciliis albis vel albidis (rare dilute fuscescentibus), rigidiusculis, 
simplicibus, normaliter 0,3 mm longis, sat densis, plus minus patentibus, leviter 
recurvis vel arcuatis obsitae, subtus lacteus, rhizinis nullis; superne tantum 
corticatus, cortex extus leviter fuscescens, non inspersus, caeterum albidus, ex 
hyphis subhorizontalibus, modice intricatis et conglutinatis formatus, subcartila- 
o-ineus, inaequalis, 60 — 100 [j, crassus; stratum gonidiale sat angustum, non 
continuum, gonidiis glomeratis, glomerulis vel majoribus vel minoribus, cellulis 
laete viridibus, globosis, 8 — 10 ii latis; medulla alba, KHO — , CaCl202— ,in- 
ferne nuda, a cortice non obducta, ex hyphis 5 — 8 [x crassis, increbre ra- 
mosis, non inspersis, in parte infera meduUae plus minus liberis. 

Apothecia in centro thalli copiosa, superficialia, sessilia, in basi angustata, 
congesta, cupuliformia, usque 5 mm lata; discus concavus, obscure fuscus, le- 
vissime pruinosus vel fere nudus; margo thallinus parum inflexus, primum 
subinteger, demum in lobulos parvos angustos abiens, cilia nulla gerens; recep- 
taculum extus glabrum et nudum, pallidum, corticatum, cortice chondroideo, 
usque 140 ij- crasso, ex hyphis tenuibus et dense intricatis formato, extus 
fuscescente, infra corticem medullam et gonidia includens; hymenium superne 
sordide fuscum, dense pulverulentum, caeterum decolor et purum, usque 200 [x 
altum, I obscure coeruleum; hypothecium angustum, dilute lutescens, molle, ex 
hyphis intricatis formatum; paraphyses filiformes, strictae, gelatinose congluti- 
natae, simplices, eseptatae, ad apicem vix latiores; asci oblongo-clavati, ad 
apicem rotundati et membrana primum bene incrassata cincti, 8-spori; sporae 
in ascis biseriales, e fumoso fuscae, late ellipsoideae, rectae, ad apices rotun- 
datae, in margine hinc inde leviter emarginatae, luminibus rhomboideo-ova- 
libus vel subcordatis, approximatis, 35 — 40 |j, longae et 17 — 20 |j. latae. 

Conceptacula pycnoconidiorum immersa, vertice punctiformi et nigro pro- 
minula, globosa; perifulcrium pallidum, tantum circa ostiolum obscuratum; fulcra 
endobasidialia; pycnoconidia recta vel subrecta, breviter bacillaria, ad 3,5 [J- 
longa. 

Masatierra : Quebrada Damajuana, ad truncos Aristoteliae /uaqui {C. und 
I. Skottsberg). 

Wegen der unberindeten Thallusunterseite muss man Aiiaphtychia dactyliza 
von Anaptychia speciosa als eigene Art abtrennen. Die Varietat unterscheidet 
sich vom Typus durch die hellen und kurzen Marginalzilien des Lagers. 



\A. lencomelaena (L.) Wain, — Parmelia leticomelas hz\\.\ MoNT. in Annal. 
Scienc. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, vol. IV, 1835, P- 9°; »Crescit ad ramos Adesmice 
mkrophyllcs» (Bertero no. 1783) — ist zu streichen; vgl. oben bei Rajiialina] 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN FERNANDEZ-INSELN 405 

I lymenol ic hcnes. 

Cora Fr. 

C. pavonia (VVcb.) Fr. 

Mont, in Annul. Scienc. Nat., Eot., ser. 2, vol. lY, 1835, I^- '95i A. Zauuik. 
in Kgl. Svensk. Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., vol. l.VIl, no. 6, 1917, p. 56. 

Masaticrra: Auf Felsen, Baumrinden und auf dem Erdboden (Bertero 
no. 1649); haufig in der Regenregion, auf Baumzweigen, auf der Erde auf 
zerbrockelnden vulkanischem Gestein (C. Skottsberg); Puerto P'rances, Loma 
Incienso; Cordon Chifladores, 200 ni; Valle Anson, 149 m, auf Heideboden; 
Cordon Escarpado, El Pico, 365 m ; niedriger Rucken ostlich von der Kolonie, 
147 m; ostlich von Villagra, auf losein Tuff und auf der Erde (C. und I. 
Skottsberg). 

Masafiiera: Heide obcrhalb der Ouebrada del Mono, 850 m; Los Ino- 
centes, im Dickso?na-\Nvi\d, bei 950 ni (C. und I. Skottsberg). 



4o6 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNER 



Erkliirung der Abbildungeii. 

Tafel 24, 

I'ig. I. Arthonia cytisi Mass. 

Fig. 2. Arthoftia befberina A. Zahlbr. 

Fig. 3—4. Arthonia cytisi var. vieridianaiis A. Zahlbr. 

Fig. 5. Coccocnrpia Gayatia var. subdivisa A. Zalilbr. 

Fig. 6. Ocelliilaria siibdenticulata A. Zahlbr. 

Fig. 7. Psflfoiiia ccplinlfldi)uiiii A. Zahlbr. 



Tafel 25. 



Fig. 


I. 


Fig. 


2 


Fig, 


3- 


Fig. 


4 


Fig. 


5- 


[Fig 


6. 


Fig. 


7- 



Sticta Bertefoana Mont. 

Byssocaidon 7tii>eui)i Mont. 

Psoroma angustisecttan A. Zahlbr. 

Physma chi/ef7se Hue. 

Cetraria antarctica A. Zahlbr. 

Siphitla potyschistes f. sorediostila A. Zahlbr. 

Lenimopsis polychidioides A. Zahlbr. 



In Cliile gesamnielt.] 



Register 

der neuen Arten, Varietiiten, Formen und Kombinationen. 

Seite. 

Anaptychia dactyliza 403 

» » f. pectinata 403 

» hypoleuca var. colorata 405 

Arthonia berberina . 325 

» cytisi var. meridionalis 324 

» subnebulosa 324 

Arthopyrenia adnexa var. leptospernia 320 

Bacidia arceutina var. hyposcotina 366 

j> delapsans 366 

Bombyliospora dolichospora 394 

Buellia concinna var. oceanica 400 

» siphoniatula 400 

Caloplaca clandestina 394 

» elegans var. australis 398 

» isidioclada 396 

» orthoclada 398 

» rubina 396 

» » V. evolutior 396 

» Selkirkii 39c 

» subcerina 397 

» » V. aurantiaca 397 



DIE FLECHTEN DER JUAN EERNANDEZ-INSELN 407 

Se ite. 

Catilhiria Iciicochlora f. typica 365 

j> " i. laevigata 364 

» melastegia t. mesoleucodes 361 

» theobromina 364 

Coccocarpia Gavana var. siibdivisa 545 

Coenogoniuni velutinum 332 

Gvalecta jenensis 531 

Lecanora albellina var. validior 380 

gelida f. leprosula 582 

» » f. nuda 581 

Ingae 379 

» masafuerensis 378 

» patagonica i. sorediosula 382 

Lecidea avium 357 

» cvanosarca 359 

» » f. superfusa 359 

» inactiva 35^ 

•: leucozonata 560 

Lenimopsis polychidioides 333 

Lopadiuni leucoxanthum var. albidius 3^^ 

Megalospora versicolor var. niicrocarpa 565 

Microglaena fernandeziana 5^^ 

My.xodictyon lopadioides 3^3 

Ocellularia subdenticulata 5-9 

Pannaria hilaris 557 

rubiginosa var. vulcanica 55^ 

Parmelia conspersa var. obtecta 3^^ 

microsticta f. divisa 3^8 

Parnieliella sympiychia 33^ 

Pertusaria hadrocarpa . 37^ 

» polvcarpa var. monospora 375 

» Skottsbergii 377 

Porina depressula j22 

> fernandeziana 3^0 

;> rufocarpella 321 

Psoroma angustisectum 34^ 

» cephalodinum 339 

» dasycladum 54i 

» vulcanicum 559 

Py.Kine curvatula 402 

Rhizocarpon microspermum 3^^ 

> obscuratum var. deminutum 3^9 

Schismatomma accedens 3-7 

Stereocaulon prosimum var. compactius 373 

Sticta carpoloma f. ornata 349 

» fragillima var. linearis 34^ 

» Guillemini var. stictica 34" 

s or\-gmaea var. Durvillei 55^ 

» » i> endochrysea 35- 

» » » fla%'icans .. • 35^ 

Usnea Steineri var. subtorulosa 39- 



4o8 



A. ZAHLBRUCKNEU 



Anhang. 

Flechtenparasiten, 

bearbeitet von Dr. K. Keissleu. 

Sphaerulina spec. 

Auf dem Thallus von L'snea dasypoga var. dasypogoides Xyl- Masatierra, Puerto 
Frances. — Wahrscheinlich eine neue Art, doch das Hvmenium etwas mangelliaft eniwickelt, 
so dass eine Neubeschreibung nicht moglich ist. 

:- Leptosphaeria galligera Keissl. in Beili. Bot. Centralbl. 2. Abt. Bd. 37 (1920) p. 274. 

Auf dem Thallus von Pafjneh'n cetrata f. sorediijera Wain. Masatierra, Masafuera, 
Quebr. Loben'a. — Bildet braune Gallen ganz ahnlich die ich fiir Pannelia cetrata Zahlbr. be- 
schrieb (Sandvvichs-Inseln, leg. Rock). Da die Gebilde steril sind, ist leider eine sichere Bestim- 
mung nicht moglich. 

Pharcidia Schaereri \x\\. in \'erh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Bd 21 (1871; p. 1145; 
VoUAUX in Bull. soc. mvc. France, vol. 28 (191 2) p. 229. 

Auf dem Thallus und den Apothecien von Caloplaca Selkii'ki Zahlbr., Masatierra, 
Bahia del Padre. — Sporen 12— 1 5x5 ;'., meist mit 2 Scheidewanden. Auch Volaux 1. c. gibt 
bereits an, dass gelegentlich 2 — 3 Scheidewiinde vorkommen. Es ist daher zu fragen, ob die 
Art nicht besser bei Sphaeru/ina untergebracht ware. 

Capnodiuni spec. 

Auf dem Thallus und den Apothecien von Fsorotna saccatmn (R. Br.); Masatierra, 
Salsipuedes. — Bin auf den betreftenden Zvveigen nur in Form eines sterilen To7-ula-y[yzt\ 
entwickeltes Capnodiinn greift auch auf die Flechte iiber. 

Mycobilimbia (ex. aft', ano/uea Sacc). 

Auf Sticta carpoloma Del., Masatierra, Salsipuedes. — Auf dem Thallus hnden sich 
schwarze Kliimpchen, welche aus in einander fliessenden, meist lirellenformigen Apothecien 
bestehen. Es durfte eine neue Art aus der Verwandtschaft von M. anomea Sacc. vorliegen, 
doch konnte dieselbe nicht beschrieben werden, da nur weniges und zudem schlecht ent- 
wickeltes Material zur Hand war. Schlauche c^dindrisch-keuhg, mit kurzem aber deutlichem 
Stiel, namenthch an der Spitze stark verdickt, c. 70— 90 X 15—18 ja, I+ (erst gelb, dann griui- 
lich, schliesslich blau), K— ; Sporen 8, annahernd 2-reihig, iarblos, liinglich, mit 3 Wanden und 
tingefahr quadratischen Zellen, ca. 21—25X8 ix. Paraphysen farblos, etwas langer als die 
Schlauche, verastelt, etwas gebogen, aber kein eigentliches Epithecium bildend (vielleicht zu- 
riickgebheben). 

Printed 73 ^924. 



No/. I list, jfiuin J'l'niandir. and luxstcr I si. I 'ol. II. 



Plate 24. 




7. l-'Ui Sill III aim ml nat . f-in.x 



j\'(7f. Hist. Jiuvi Fernandez and liasier IsL I'o/. II. 



Pi. A IK 2;. 



\ 



\ 




y. /■'ItiSi/iniann ad nat. fiinx. 



12. The Miisci of the Juan Fernandez Islands. 

By 
V. F. BROTHERUS. 

With 2 plates (26 — 27). 

Dr. C. Bertero, well known for his important collection of vascular 
plants made during several months' residence in Masaticrra in 1830, was also the 
first who contributed to our knowledge of the Juan Fernandez mosses, of which 
MONTAGNE enumerates 17 species.^ So far as I have been able to identify 
these without having access to the original specimens, they have been included 
in my list. Mr. E. C. Reed later collected a few species which were deter- 
mined by Mitten (Reed is not mentioned, but is identical with »Mr. Saun- 
DER's collector*) together with the collection made by Mr. MOSELEY during 
the Challenger expedition, and published by Hemsley in the Challenger 
Report, vol. I. Finally, JoilOW compiled a list of all species quoted for Juan 
Fernandez.^ A revised copy of this is found at the end of my paper. 

In August 1908, Professor Skottsberg spent 8 days in the i-slands; after 
his return, the small collection of mosses was handed over, together with 
ample material from Chile, Fuegia etc., to M. JULES Cardot. The preliminary 
list of Cardot contained 38 species, of which 19 were labelled as new. Un- 
fortunately, M. Cardot did not get an opportunity to publish his report before 
the War, and during the occupation of Charleville by the German army a part 
of his herbarium was lost, including the mosses from Juan Fernandez, of which 
no descriptions had been prepared. This loss is the more to be regretted as 
Skottsberg, in his sketch of the vegetation, had inserted the names of the 
mosses.^ Undoubtedly the greater part of these was found again in 1916 — 17, 
and many of the species described below must have been among Cardot's 
material, but as it is of course quite impossible to arrive at any safe conclusion 
in this matter, the following names, written by Cardot on the labels and 
published by Skottsberg, will always remain nomina nuda and have 
to disappear: Anoectangiuni fevnandeziamnn, Bartramia leptopJiylla, Brymn fer- 
iiaiidezianuiH, Campylopns fernandezianus, C. fuscoluteiis, Didyinodon oligodontus. 



^ Prodromus Florae Fernandezianae. Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 3, vol. 4. 
- Estudios sobre la Flora de las Islas de Juan Fernandez. Santiago 1896. 
^ Studien iiber die Vegetation der Juan Fernandez-Inseln. K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
Bd. 51, No. 9. 



4IO 



V. F. BROTHERUS 



Fissideus brachyloma, F. curvinervis, F. fernandezimms, Isopterygmin fernan- 
deziamun, PhiloJiotis liiorea, Rhaphidostegitim prostratiivi, RliyncJiostegiella lep- 
toneura, Rhynchostegium concavifolium, Rh. planiramemn, Rigodium aauninatum, 
R. elegantiduDi, Streptocalypta fernandeziana, Trichostointini fernaiidcmaniim. 

The species in the 1908 collection identified by Cardot with species 
known before but not found again in 1916 — 17 are quoted in my list and 
designated »Skottsberg 1908 s. 

During their expedition in 1916 — 17 Professor and Mrs. Skottsberg spent 
five months on Masatierra and Masafuera and brought back a considerable 
moss collection studied by the author. The result is published here. The col- 
lectors are in all cases where no other name appears, C. and I. SKOTTSBERG. 

Up to now 128 species have been reported from the island, of which 
47 so far are endemic. 

Ditrichaceae. 

Pleuridiuni Brid. 
P. Robinsonii (Mont.) Mitt. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero). 
Area: Chile. 

Ditrichum Timm. 

D. affine (C. Mull.) Hamp. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra; ad marginem viae. c. 575 m. s. m. 
(79). Ad terram humidam secus viam ad Portezuelo; c. 450 m. s. m. (33) et 
c. 550 m. s. m. (78). Portezuelo, Co. Piramide; 600 m. s. m. (34). 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Mono; ad rupem in silva (32). Correspon- 
dencia; iioo m. s. m. (80). 

Area: Chile, Patagonia, East Australia, New Zealand. 

D. longisetuni (Hamp.) Jaeg. 

Masafuera: Prope Las Torres; ad terram siccam, apertam; c. 1360 
m. s. m. (81). Las Torres; ad rupem humidam; 1370 m. s. m. (82). Correspon- 
dencia; ad moles; c. 1350 m. s. m. (83). Prope Las Torres; ad rupes; c. 1370 
m. s. m. (84, fo. microcarpa). 

Area: Chile, W. Patagonia, Fuegia. 



Ceratodoii Brid. 

C. purpureus (L.) Brid. 

Masatierra: Puerto Frances; ad saxa (35, fo. foliis nervo crassiore in- 
structis). 



THE MUSCI OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 4II 

Masafiicra: Quebrada del Blindado; ad terram siccam (36). Ouebrada 
Casas; ad moles (99) et ad saxa (100). 
Area: Cosmopolitan. 



Pottiaceae. 
Hymenostomuin R. Ik. 

H. Kunzcanuni (C. Mull.) Broth. 

Masatierra: Secus viam ad Portezuelo; c. 475 m. s. m. (102). 
Area: Chile. 

Gymnostomum Hedw. 

G. calcareuiii Bryol. germ. 
Masatierra: Valle Colonial (372). 
Masafuera: Ouebrada de las Vacas (373). 

Area: Europe, Azores, Xorth Africa, Caucasus, Himalaya, Sibiria, Xorth 
America, Ecuador, Chile, East Australia, Tasmania, Xew Zealand. 

Trichostomuni Hedw. 

T. brachydontiuiii Bruch. 

Masafuera: Ouebrada de las Casas; ad moles (103). 

Area: Europe, Caucasus, Algier, Marocco, Madeira, Canary Isl., Bourbon, 
Japan, Xew Zealand. 

Dicranaceae. 
Amphidium Xees; Bryol. eur. 

A. cyathicarpuni (Mont.) Broth. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designate (Moseley); Portezuelo de X'illagra; c. 
450 m. s. m. Salsipuedes; ad rupes, 464 m. s. m. {58). Ouebrada Danajuana; 
ad rupes: 345 m. s. m. {77). 

Masafuera: secus viam inter Quebrada de las Casas et Papal; ad rupes; 
200 m. s. m. (57j. Ouebrada del Blindado; 440 m. s. m. (478). 

Area: East and South Africa, Cameroons, Ecuador, Chile, East Australia, 
Tasmania, Xew Zealand. 



AJ2 V. F. BROTHERUS 

Dicranella Schimp. 

D. costata Broth, n, sp. 

Dioica; tenella, caespitosa, caespitibus laxis, laete viridibus, vix nitidius- 
culis. Caulis erectus, vix ultra 2 mm altus, infima basi fusco-radiculosus, dense 
foliosus, simplex. Folia infima minuta, superiora multo majora, sicca flexuosula, 
humida e basi semivaginante, oblonga sensim in laminam patentem, canaliculato- 
concavam, lanceolato-subulatam, obtusiusculam vel obtusam attenuata, c. 2,5 
mm longa et usque ad 0,3 mm lata, marginibus erectis, superne dense serrulatis; 
nervo viridi, basi bene limitato ibidemque c. 0,75 mm lato, usque ad apicem 
a lamina distincto, continuo vel subcontinuo; cellulis laminalibus minutis, sub- 
quadratis vel breviter rectangularibus, chlorophyllosis, basilaribus raptim multo 
majoribus, rectangularibus, teneris, hyalinis. Bracteae perichaetii foliis similes, 
sed altius vaginantes, lamina longiore. Seta 5—7 mm alta, stricta, tenuissima, 
straminea. Theca erecta, regularis, e collo brevi, crassiusculo ovalis, i mm vel 
paulum ultra longa et c. 0,5 mm crassa, sicca 8 costata, urnacea, fusca, nitidiuscula; 
cellulis exothecii parenchymaticis, laxis, leptodermibus, ad orificium minoribus. 
Exostomii dentes ultra medium divisi, cruribus inaequalibus, rubri, longitudi- 
naliter striati. Spori 20 — 22 ij., fusci, papillosi. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: ad terram humidam, humosam secus viam ad Portezuelo de 
Villagra, una cum Ditricho affini; c. 450 m. s. m. (i). Portezuelo de Villagra; 
ad marginem viae; c. 575 m. s. m. 

Masafuera: Cerro Correspondencia; ad ligna putrida parce; c. 1140 
m. s. m. (2). 

Species ob thecam regularem, costatam cum D. crispa (Ehrh.) Schimp. 
comparanda, sed notis caeteris diversissima. 



Oncophorus Brid. 

O. fuegianus Card. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas, ad rivulos sat frequenter (477). 
Area: Patagonia, Fuegia. 



Dicranoloma (Ren.) Ren. 

D. fernandeziamini Broth, n. sp. 

Robustiusculum, caespitosum, caespitibus densiusculis, pallide glauco-viri- 
dibus, dein lutescenti-viridibus, nitidis. Caulis erectus vel adscendens, usque 
ad 5 cm altus, basi fusco-tomentosus, inferne plerumque foliis destructis, dein 
dense foliosus, dichotome ramosus vel simplex. Folia falcatula, carinato-con- 
cava, e basi oblonga sensim lanceolato-subulata, c. 8 mm longa et c. 0,9 mm 
lata, superne argute serrata, limbata, limbo hyalino, inferne c. 0,5 mm lata, 
superne sensim angustiore; nervo tenui, in aristam plus minusve longam, argute 



THE MUSCI OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 413 

serratam excedente, dorso superne serrato; cellulis laminalibus linearibus, in- 
crassatis, inter se porosis, basilaribus internis abbreviatis, luteis, alaribus nume- 
rosis, rotundatohexagonis et quadratis, fusco aureis. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: inter valles Piedra agujereada et Laura, 650 m. s. m, ad 
truncos et ad terram (3). Salsipuedes; ad truncos; c. 960 m. s. m. {27). 

S{)ecies 7). /^//.sv;/// (Broth.) Broth, affinis, sed fohis hand fragihbus, superne 
argute .serratis jam dignoscenda. 

D. capillifolium (Broth.) Broth, comb. nov. 

Lencolo7)ia capillifoliuni Broth, in Arkiv for Botanik Bd. 4. N:o i, p. 35 
(1905). 

Masatierra: In jugo Centinela; ad truncos (45). Co. Piramide; ad truncos 
putridos; c. 600 m. s. m. (44). Salsipuedes; ad truncos putridos Dicksoniae: 
660 m. s. m. (43). 

Area: \V. Patagonia, Chile. 

D. capillifolioides Broth, n. sp. 

Gracilescens, caespitosum, caespitibus densis, lutescenti-viridibus, hie illic 
inferne rubescentibus, nitidis. Caulis usque ad 3 cm altus, adscendens, parce 
radiculosus, dense foliosus, simplex vel ramosus. Folia falcata, canaliculato- 
concava, subconvolutacea, e basi breviter decurrente, lanceolata vel oblonga 
sensim longissime angustata, capillaria, usque ad 1,5 mm longa; nervo tenui, 
in aristam serrulatum longe excedente; cellulis laminalibus linearibus, inter se 
porosis, marginalibus inferioribus in pluribus seriebus angustissimis, limbum intus 
haud bene limitatum efformantibus; alaribus numerosis, magnis, subquadratis, 
saepe decoloratis. Caetera ignota. 

Masafiiera: Los Inocentes; ad truncum Driniydis in Dicksonieto; 950 — 
loco m. s. m. (46). 

Species praecedenti affinis, sed foliis cellulis ubique linearibus nee superne 
abbreviatis dignoscenda. 

D. Menziesii (Tayl.) Par. 

Masatierra: El Yunque, ad truncos; 4 — 500 m. s. m. (508). 
Area: Chile, East Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Auckland and 
Norfolk Isl. 

vzx. fernandezia)iuui Card, in Soc. Havr. p. 4 (1921). 

Folia longiora (10 mm), marginibus validius denticulatis, cellulis quadratis, 
majoribus (mediis 15 |i longis et 10 ;j. latis). 
Masatierra: (Bertero). 

D. Billardieri (Schvvaegr.) Par. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero); In jugo prope Pangal et 
Centinela; 795 m. s. m. (42). In silva secus viam ad Portezuelo (4). Portezuelo 



414 



V. F. BROTHERUS 



de Villagra; ad rupes, 575 — 590 m. s. m. (5, 38, 39). Salsipuedes; in silva (6). 
Salsipuedes; in fruticeto jugi lapidosi; 615 m. s. m. (41); 625 m. s. m. 
(7. 40). 

Masafuera: c. 1000 m. s. m. (Skottsberg 1908). 

Area: Peru, Ciiile, W. Patagonia, Fuegia, Falkland Isl., Australia, Tas- 
mania, New Zealand, Auckland and Campbell Isl. 

D. nigricaule (Aongstr.) Par. 

Masafuera: Cerro Correspondencia; 11 50 m. s. m. (43). 

Area: Chile, W. Patagonia, Fuegia. 



Campylopus Brid. 

C. introflexus (Hedw.) Mitt. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero); ad terram ± apertam secus 
viam ad Portezuelo (8, 9). Portezuelo de Villagra; ad rupem praeruptam; c. 600 
m. s. m. (10). Puerto Ingles; in jugo; 575 m. s. m. (56). 

Area: Alabama, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, Ascencion, St. Helena, Tristan 
da Cunha, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Auckland, Campbell, Marion Isl. 

C. truncatiis C. Miill. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero). 
Masafuera: c. 1000 m. s. m. (Skottsberg 1908). 
Area: Chile. 

C. polytrichoides De Not. 

Masatierra: Cordon escarpado. El Pico, ad moles. 
Area: West and south Europe, Algier, Madeira, Azores. 

C. (Palinocraspis) abcrrans Broth, n. sp. 

Dioicus; gracilescens, caespitosus, caespitibus densis, rigidis, superne 
lutescentibus vel rubescentibus, inferne nigrescentibus, opacis. Caulis erectus, 

2 — 3 cm altus, fusco-tomentosus, dense et aequaliter foliosus, simplex vel ra- 
mosus, ramis fastigiatis. P'olia sicca arete imbricata, humida erecto-patentia, 
canaliculato-concava, e basi linear! sensim lanceolato-acuminata, mutica, obtusa 
vel pilo brevissimo, comalia pilo brevi, stricto, hyalino, serrulato terminata, 

3 — 5 mm longa et usque ad 0,7 mm lata, marginibus integris; nervo basi 
tertiam partem vel paulum ultra folii occupante, continuo, dorso laevi, fascicule 
stereidarum dorsali et ventrali instructo; cellulis laminalibus ultra medium folii 
rhombeis. incrassatis, lumine elliptico, inferioribus elongate rectangularibus, 



THE MUSCI OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 415 

teneris, hyalinis, secus matgines alte adscendentibus, alaribus teneris, hyalinis 
vel fuscis, in ventrem dispositis. Sporogonia plura ex eodem peiichaetio. Seta 
c. 3 mm alta, cygnea lutea, sicca demum flexuoso-erecta, fusca, superne scabe- 
rula. Theca erecta, regularis, breviter oblonga, atrofusca, plicata. Calyptra 
cucullata, basi fimbriata. 

Masatierra: In jugo Centinela; 530 m. s. m. (14). In jugo inter Pangal 
et vallem Anson, inter moles; 360 m. s. m. (51). Ad terram subapertam reg. 
silv. secus viam ad Portezuelo (11, 12). Salsipuedes, in campo 500 m. s. m. 
(53), in fissuris rupium, c. 600 m. s. m. (50) nee non in fruticeto jugi lapidosi, 
625 m. s. m. (13). Villagra, ad terram c. 200 m. s. m. (52). Tres Puntas (15, 
f. depauperata). 

Masafuera : ad saxa et rupes in valle Casas {16). Loberia, in litore ma- 
rine (47). In campo supra Chozas, c. 850 m. s. m. (49, forma). Los Inocentes, 
loco aperto Dicksonieti, 8 — 950 m. s. m. (48). 

var. viridis Broth, n. var. 

Caespites laete virides, nitidiusculi. Folia sicca suberecta, baud imbricata, 
longius et angustius acuminata, nervo angustiore. Sterilis. 

Masatierra: Cordon de los Chifladores; in silva sat aperta; c. 350 
m. s. m. (17). 

Species valde peculiaris, nervo stereideis ventralibus instructo jam digno- 
scenda. 



C. areodictyon (C. Miill.) Mitt. 

Masafuera: Cerro Correspondencia; ad ligna putrida; iioo m. s. m. (18). 
Area: Guatemala, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Bolivia. 



C. (Atrichi) subareodictyon Broth, sp. nov. 

Dioicus; gracilis, caespitosus, caespitibus laxis, laete viridibus, nitidiusculis. 
Caulis erectus, vix ultra 2 mm altus, fusco-tomentosus, dense foliosus, simplex. 
Folia patentia, sicca erectiora, canaliculato-concava, e basi oblonga sensim 
elongate lanceolato-subulata, c. 3 mm vel paulum ultra longa et usque ad 0,3 
mm lata, marginibus superne subconniventibus ibidemque serrulatis; nervo basi 
dimidiam partem folii occupante, breviter excedente, cellulis dorsalibus sterei- 
deis, ventralibus laxis, inanibus; cellulis laminalibus minutis, quadratis, chloro- 
phyllosis, dein breviter rectangularibus, basilaribus rectangularibus, teneris, hya- 
linis, marginalibus angustioribus, alaribus paucis, teneris, fragilibus. Caetera 
ignota. 

Masafuera: ad truncos + putridos in silva inter Sanchez et Tolten; 515 
m. s. m. (19). 

Species praecedenti valde affinis, sed foliis angustioribus, superne serru- 
latis, nervo angustiore cellulisque laminalibus superioribus quadratis dignoscenda. 



4i6 



V. F. BROTHEKUS 



C. (Atrichi) blindioides Broth, n. sp'. 

Gracilis, caespitosus, caespitibus densis, viridibus, opacis. Caulis erectus, 
usque ad 2 cm altus, parce fusco-radiculosus, dense et aequaliter foiiosus, sim- 
plex. Folia sicca suberecta, humida erecto-patentia, canaliculato-concava. e basi 
ovata vel breviter oblonga sensim lanceolata-subulata, usque ad 4 mm longa, 
superne minute serrulatis; nervo basi tertiam partem folii occupante con- 
tinuo, cellulis dorsalibus stereideis, ventralibus laxis, inanibus; cellulis lamina- 
libus rhombeis, baud incrassatis, superioribus minoribus, dein sensim majoribus, 
basilaribus multo majoribus, laxe rectangularibus, teneris, hyalinis, alaribus 
laxis, teneris, hyalinis, in ventrem dispositis. Caetera ignota. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Vacas; ad saxa cataractae (60). 

Species habitu Blindiis nonnullis similis. 



Thysauomitriiim Schwaegr. 

Th. Richard i Schwaegr. 

Masatierra: In trajectu Villagra; ad rupes praerliptas; c. 600 m. s. m. 
(20, 21, 22). Ad rupem secus viam ad Portezuelo; c. 475 m (23). Ad antrum 
Robinsonii dictum (forma). 

Masafuera: Correspondencia ; ad terram; 1 100 m. s. m. (24). Supra 
Chozas; ad terram; c. 850 m. s. m. (26). Cordon del Barril; ad terram lapi- 
dosam (25). Quebrada de las Casas (203 p. p.). 

Area: Costarica, Guadaloupe, Brazil, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, 
Chile. 

Th. leptodus (Mitt.). 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Moseley). 
Masafuera: C. 1000 m (Srottsberg 1908). 
Area: Chile, New Zealand. 



Dicnemonaceae. 

Eucamptodoii Mont. 

E. perichaetialis Mont. 

Masafuera: Cordon del Barril; ad truncum Driuiydis (31). 
Area: Chile. 

Fissidentaceae. 

F. (Bryoideum) fernandezianus Broth, n. sp. — Plate 26, fig. 1 — 4. 

Gracilis, caespitosus, caespitibus densis, rigidis, viridissimis, opacis. Caulis 
procumbens, vix ultra i cm altus, cum foliis usque ad 2 mm latus, basi fusco- 



THi: MUSCI OF THF. Jl'AN FF.RXANnEZ ISLANDS 417 

radiculosus, densa foliosus, plerumque simplex. Folia nuiltijuga. sicca homo- 
mallula, huinida stricta, erecto-patentia, infima minuta, dein raptim multo ma- 
joria, aequalia, lanceolato-ligulata, apiculata, integra, ubique limbata, limbo an- 
gustissimo, hyalino, lamina vera ultra medium folii producta, lamina dorsali ad 
basin nervi enata ibidemque rotundata; nerve albido, subcontinuo; cellulis 
minutissimis; rotundatis, chlorophyllosis, laevissimis. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Valle de Anson prope Plazoleta; ad saxum humo obtectum; 
c. 250 m. s. m. (86). 

Masafuera; Quebrada de la Loberia; ad terram et saxa; c. 280 m. s. m. (85). 
Species valde peculiaris, habitu amblyothallioideo oculo nudo jam digno- 
scenda. 

F. (Pachylomidium) crassicuspes Broth, sp. nov. — Plate 26, fig. 5 — 8. 

Tenellus, gregarie crescens, mollis, laete viridis, opacus. Caulis vix ultra 
3 mm aitus, cum foliis c. 2 mm latus, infima basi fusco-radiculosus, dense 
foliosus, simplex. Folia c. 7 juga, sicca vix mutata, erecto-patentia, stricta, 
intima minuta, dein raptim multo majora, iiiferiora late lanceolata, comalia 
longiora, lineari-lanceolata, omnia in aristam contracta, ubique limbata, limbo 
crasso, continue; lamina vera ultra medium folii producta, lamina dorsalis ad 
basin nervi enata ibidemque angustata; nervo albido, excedente unacum limbo 
confluente aristam crassam eftbrmante; cellulis laminalibus angulato-rotundatis, 
basilaribus internis oblongis, omnibus laevissimis. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: \\ Colonial, Quebrada seca; ad terram; 435 m. s. m. (26). 
Species F. crassipcdi Wils. affinis, sed foliis aristatis jam dignoscenda. 

F. rigidiilus i^ook. fil. et Wils. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Damajuana; ad saxa cataractae (63). Pangal; ad 
saxa cataractae; 205 m. s. m. (64). Quebrada Juanango; ad cataractam (375). 
Cerro Chumacera; ad rupem humidam (65), 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas (27). Quebrada de las Vacas; ad 
saxa cataractae (28). Quebrada de la Loberia; in rivulo (99). 

Area: F^cuador, Chile, W. Patagonia, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand. 

F. leptochaete P. Dus. 

Masatierra: Valle Colonial, Quebrada seca; ad terram unacum F. eras- 
siaispide parcissime (26 p. p.). 
Area: Chile. 

F. maschalanthus Mont. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Damajuana; 345 m. s. m. (374). Valle de Anson 
pr. Plazoleta; ad saxum humo obtectum; c. 250 m. s. m. (91). Cumberland Bay; 

27 — 2391. The Xat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easier Id. Vol. II. 



41 8 V. F. BROTHERUS 

ad parietem cavernae (27, 28, 66/68, 92/98). Ad terram humidam, humosam 
secus viam ad Portezuelo; c. 450 m. s. m. (30). Portezuelo de Villagra; ad 
rupem praeruptam; 570 m. s. m. (70). 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Mono; ad terram in angustiis; 570 m. s. m. 
(29). Quebrada da las Casas; ad rupem (73). Quebrada del Blindado; ad terram 
et ad saxa; 440 m. s. m. (72). Correspondencia; 1150 m. s. m. (71). 

Area: Chile, W. Patagonia. 

F. (Amblyothallia) pycnotylus Broth, sp. nov. — Plate 26, fig. 9-12. 

Gracilescens, caespitosus, caespitibus rigidis, densis, late extensis, fusce- 
scenti-viridibus, opacis. Caulis erectus, vix ultra i cm altus, cum foliis c. 3 
mm latus, infima basi fusco-radiculosus, dense foliosus, plerumque simplex. Folia 
c. 12 juga, erecto-patentia, sicca homomalla, infima minuta, dein raptim multo 
majora, ligulata, obtusissima, crenulata, elimbata; lamina vera ultra medium 
folii enata; lamina dorsalis paulum ultra basin nervi enata; nervo crassissimo, 
rufescente, infra apicem folii evanido; cellulis laminalibus angulato-rotundatis, 
basilaribus externis angustis, omnibus pellucidis, laevissimis. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Ad rapes praeruptus in trajectu Villagra; c. 600 m. s. m. 
(30, 69). 

Species praecedenti valde affinis, sed foliis nervo multo crassiore digno- 
scenda. 

F. asplenioides (S\v.) Hedvv. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero, E. C. Reed). 
Area: Costarica, Jamaica, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Brasilia, Madeira, 
Canary Isl., W. Africa, Sumatra, Java, Lombok, Queensland. 



Leptodontium Hamp. 

L. fernandezianuin Broth, n. sp. — Plate 26, fig. 13 — 15. 

Robustiusculum, caespitosum, caespitibus densis, mollibus, late extensis, 
ochraceis. Caulis erectus, usque ad 1 1 cm altus, flexuosus, vix radiculosus, 
dense foliosus, dichotome ramosus. Folia sicca adpressa, crispata, humida 
carinato-concava, e basi brevi, erecta, superne dilatata sensim in laminam pa- 
tentem, lanceolatam attenuata, c. 5 mm longa, marginibus ultra medium folii 
late revolutis, dein erectis, minute et irregulariter serrulatis; nervo luteo, infra 
summum apicem folii evanido, dorso papilloso; cellulis laminalibus minutis, 
rotundatis, incrassatis, verrucosis, pellucidis, basilaribus angustissime linearibus, 
superioribus seriatim papillosis, inferioribus luteis, laevissimis. Caetera ignota. 

Masafuera: Correspondencia; in campo; c. 1400 m. s. m. (105). 

Species L. luteo (Tayl.) Mitt, affinis, sed foliis superne minute et irregula- 
riter serrulatis, pellucidis dignoscenda. 



TIIR MfSCI OF THK JTAX FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 419 

Didymodon Hedw. 

D. (Erythrophyllum) caiynipcridictyon Broth, n. sp. — Plate 26, fig. 
16—20. 

Tenellus, caespitosus, caespitibus laxiusculis, glaucoviridibus. Caulis 
erectus, vix ultra 2 mm altus, basi fusco-radiculosus, dense foliosu.s, simplex. 
Folia sicca crispatula, luunida patentia, subcarinato-concava, infima minuta, dein 
sensim majora, linearia, obtusiuscula, mucronata, usciue ad 1,4 mm longa et c. 
0,25 mm lata, marginibus erectis, apice dentibus paucis aculeiformibus instructis; 
nervo rufescente, infra summum apicem folii evanido, dorso siiperne scabro; 
cellulis laminalibus angulato-rotundatis, chlorophyliosis, dense verrucosis, sub- 
obscuris, basilaribus internis laxis, teneris, oblongo-hexagonis, hyalinis, externis 
linearibus, limbum brevem 3 — 4 seriatum, lutescentem efiformantibus. Caetera 
ignota. 

Masatierra: Ouebrada Damajuana; ad terram; 345 m. s. m. (107). 

Species distinctissima, foliorum forma et areolatione dignoscenda. 

D. (Erythroph}'llum) linearis Broth, n. sp. 

Gracilis, caespitosus, caespitibus densis, rufescentibus. Caulis erectus, usque 
ad I cm altus, inferne fusco-tomentosus, dense foliosus, simplex. Folia sicca 
crispula, humida erecto-patentia, carinato-concava, linearia, acutiuscula, mucro- 
nata, usque ad 2 mm longa et c. 0,3 mm lata, marginibus erectis, apice den- 
tatis; nervo rufescente, infra summum apicem folii evanido, dorso superne 
scabro; cellulis laminalibus minutis, quadratis, verrucosis, subobscursis, basila- 
ribus internis laxis, teneris, breviter rectangularibus, externis in seriebus non- 
nuUis linearibus, laevissimis. Caetera ignota. 

Masafuera: Ad rivulum prope Correspondencia; iioo m. s. m. (380). 

Species distinctissima, cum D. nibcllo (Hoffm.) Bryol. eur. et D. alpigenae 
Vent, comparanda, sed foliis linearibus, marginibus erectis jam dignoscenda. 

Tortula Hedw. 

T. scabrinervis (C. Mull.) Mitt. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra; ad rupes; 590 m. s. m. (121). 

Area: Chile. 

T, flagellaris (Schimp.) Mont. 
Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero). 
Area: Chile. 

Grimmiaceae. 
Grimmla Ehrh. 

G. phyllorhizans Broth, n. sp. — Plate 26, fig. 21 — 24. 

Dioica? tenella, pulvinata, pulvinulis parvis, griseis. Caulis erectus, vix 
ultra 3 mm altus, infima basi parce fusco-radiculosus, dense foliosus, ramosus. 



420 



F. BROTHERUS 



Folia sicca laxe imbricata, humida suberecta, unistratosa, superne filis nume- 
rosis, dense ramosis, fuscis instructa, oblonga vel oblongo-lanceolata, obtusa, 
infima minuta, mutica, superiora multo majora, usque ad i mm vel paulum 
ultra longa, pilo longissimo, serrulato terminata, marginibus erectis, integris; 
nervo tenui, continuo; celkilis laminalibus minutissimis, quadratis, baud sinuosis, 
chlorophyllosis, laevissimis, basilaribus multo majoribus, internis breviter rectan- 
CTularibus, marginalibus in pluribus seriebus quadratis, pellucidis. Bracteae 
perichaetii foliis similes. Seta cygnea, 2,5 mm vel paulum ultra alta, tenuis, 
lutea. Theca minutissima, ovalis, sicca indistincte costata, fuscidula. Operculum 
alte convexum, obtusum. Calyptra ignota. 

Masatierra: Villagra; ad saxa (129). 

Species pulchella, minutie omnium partium oculo nudo jam dignoscenda, 
Gr. Donianae Sm. habitu similis. 



Rhacomitrium Brid. 

R. subnigritum (C. Mull.) Par. 

Masatierra: Quebrada de las Vacas; ad moles rivuli (130, 131). 
Masafiiera: Correspondencia; ad moles rivuli; iioo m. s. m. (132). 

Area: \\\ Patagonia, Fuegia. 

R. syniphyodontum (C. Miill.) Jaeg. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra, ad rupes praeruptas; 575 m. s. m. 
(133) et c. 600 m. s. m. (134). Salsipuedes; in jugo lapidoso; 625 m. s. m. (144). 

Masafuera: Cerro Correspondencia; ad moles campestres; c. 1400 m. s. m. 
(^35' 136). Correspondencia; ad moles campestres; c. 1200 m. s. m. (146), c. 
1350 m. s. m. (137), 1360 m. s. m. (138) et c. 1400 m. s, m. (139). Correspon- 
dencia; ad rivulum; c. iiOO m. s. m. (140). In terra substerili prope Las 
Torres; c. 1360 m. s. m. (141). 

Area: Chile, W. Patagonia, Fuegia, Falkland Isl., Tasmania, New Zealand. 

R. striatipilum Card. 

Masafuera: In jugo supra Quebrada del Pasto; ad moles; c. 1250 m. s. m. 
(142). Prope Las Torres; ad rupes; c. 1370 m. s. m. (143). 

Area: Chile, Fuegia, South Georgia. 

R. lanuginosuni (Hedw.) Brid. 

Masafuera: In cacumine montis Tnocentes; in campo; c. 1500 m. s. m. 
(145). Correspondencia; in campo; c. 1400 m. s. m. (146) et 1360 m. s. m. (285). 

Area: Cosmopolitan. 



THE MUSCl or THE JUAX FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 42 1 

R. lorifornie Dus. 

Masafucra: Correspondencia; in campo; c. 1350 m. s. ni. (147). Pasco 
de las Cabras; in cam[)o; 11 — 1200 m. s. m. (148). 

Area: W. Patagonia. 

K. convolutuiii Mont. 

Masafucra: c. 1000 ni. s. m. (Skottsbekg 1908). 

Area: Chile. 

Ptychomi triaceae. 
Ptychomitrium (Bruch.) Furnr. 

P. t'ernandezianuni (Mitt.) Jaeg. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (BerTERO, MoSELEV). Salsipuedes; ad 
rupes; c. 500 m. s. m. (122). Villagra; ad moles (123). 

Masafucra: Ad rupes litoreas inter Casas et Mono (127). Ensenada 
Token; ad moles (128). 

var. majus Broth, n. var. 

Folia longiora (c. 3 mm), angustius acuminata. Seta c. 5 mm alta. 
Theca major. 

Masatierra: Quebrada Damajuana; 345 m. s. m. Quebrada del IMonte 
Maderugo; ad rupem praeruptam (124). 

Masafucra: In valle Casas; ad saxa et rupes (125, 126). 

Area: Endemic. 

Orthotrichaceae. 

Zj^godon Hook, et Tayl. 

Z. obovalis Mitt, in Hemsley, Challenger Rep. Bot. I, p. 79. 
Masatierra: (E. C. Reed). 

Z. Menziesii (Schwaegr.) W'.-Arn. 

Masatierra: Valle Anson, prope Plazoleta; ad truncos putridos; 260 
m. s. m. (371). 

Area: Chile, East Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand. 



422 



V. F. BROTHERUS 



Steiiomitrium (Mitt.) Broth. 



S. pentastichuni (Mont.) Broth. 

Masafuera: Las Torres; ad rupes; 1350 m. s. m. (156). In campo prope 
Correspondencia; c. iioo m. s. m. (152) et c. 1400 m. s. m. (157). Cordon del 
Barril; ad rupes; 900—1000 m. s. m, (153) et ad truncos (154). In cacumine 
montis Inocentes; 1480 m. s. m. (155, 159). In jugo in viciniis montis Ino- 
centes; ad truncos Driniydis: c. 1000 m. s. m. (158). 

Area: Chile und W. Patagonia. 



Ulota Mohr. 

U. rufula (Mitt.) Jaeg. 

Masafuera: Cordon de Barril; ad truncos Driuiydis (165). 
Area: Chile. 

Macromitrium Brid. 

M. hynienostomuni Mont. 

Masatierra: In jugo prope Tres Puntas (159). 
Area: Chile. 



M. saxatile Mitt. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designate (Bertero); ad truncos Driviydis secus 
viam ad Portezuelo (160). Portezuelo de Villagra; ad truncos Driniydis; 575 
m. s. m. (161). Salsipuedes; in fruticeto; 625 m. s. m. (162). 

Masafuera: In monte Inocentes; ad truncos Driniydis. In jugo in viciniis 
montis Inocentes; ad truncos Driniydis; c. 950 m. s. m. (163, 164). 
Area: Endemic. 

M. (Goniostoma) fernandezianuni Broth, n. sp. — Plate 26, fig. 25—28. 

Gracilescens, caespitosum, caespitibus densis, rigidis, late extensis, viri- 
dibus, aetate fuscescentibus, opacis. Caulis elongatus, repens, dense ramosus, 
ramis 5 — 10 mm longis, erectis vel adscendentibus, dense foliosis, simplicibus 
vel parce ramulosis, obtusis. Folia ramea sicca ± distincte spiraliter contorta, 
humida erecto-patentia, carinato-concava, anguste lanceolata, acutiuscula vel 
obtusiuscula, 2—2,5 mm longa, integerrima; nervo crassiusculo, infra sumniam 
apicem folii evanido; cellulis laminalibus rotundatis, haud incrassatis, c. 0,010 
mm, pellucidis, laevissimis, basilaribus internis ovalibus, marginalibus in seriebus 



THE MUSCI OF THE JUAN I'EKNANDICZ ISLANDS 423 

nonnullis linearibus, ad plicas papillis altis instructis. Bracteae perichaetii foliis 
similes. Seta c. 3 mm alta, tenuis, rubra, laevissima. Theca minuta, ovalis, 
fusco-rubra, laevissima, microstoma, ore laevi. Peristomium O. Calyptra nuda. 

Masaticrra: Puerto f ranees, Loma Incienso; ad truncum Myrceiigcniac 
(172). In jugo inter valles Piedra agujereada et Laura; 650 m. s. m. (171). 
In declivi septemtrionali montis Yunquc; ad truncos arborum silvae; 4 — 500 
m. s. m. (166). Valle Colonial, Quebrada seca; ad truncos arborum; 435 
m. s. m. (167). Portezuelo de Villagra; ad Bcrberideni; c. 600 m. s. m. (170). 
Salsipuedes; ad JSIyrceugeniain (169). Puerto Ingles; in silva sicca jugi lapidosi; 
c. 550 m. s. m. (168). 

Species yl/. aspcntlo Mitt, affinis, sed foliis celluiis laminalibus pellucidis, 
laevissimis, basilaribus internis ovalibus nee non theca multo minore, ore laevi 
dignoscenda. 

M. (Goniostoma) Masafuerae Broth, n. sp. — Plate 26, fig. 29, 32. 

Gracile, caespitosum, caespitibus densiusculis, viridibus, opacis. Caulis 
elongatus, repens, dense ramosus, ramis erectis, vix ultra 2 mm longis, dense 
foliosis, simplicibus, obtusis. Folia sicca indistincte spiraliter contorta, humida 
erecto-patentia, carinato-concava, lineari-lanceolata, obtusa, mucronata, c. 1,7 
mm longa, integerrima; nervo crassiusculo, infra summum apicem folii evanido; 
celluiis laminalibus quadratis, 0,005 — 0,007 nim, haud incrassatis, laevissimis, 
basilaribus internis ovalibus, marginalibus in seriebus nonnullis linearibus, ad 
plicas sublaevibus. Bracteae perichaetii foliis similes. Seta 3 — 4 mm alta, 
tenuis, rubra, laevissima. Theca minuta, ovalis, fusco-rubra, laevissima, micro- 
stoma, ore laevi. Peristomium simplex. Exostomii dentes pallidi, papillosi. 
Calyptra subnuda. 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Mono; ad truncos Myvceugeniae : 475 m. s. m. 

(173). 

Species praecedenti affinis, sed foliorum forma, celluiis laminalibus mino- 
ribus, basilaribus ad plicas sublaevibus peristomioque facillime dignoscenda. 



Funariaceae. 
Funaria Schreb. 

F. hygronietrica (L.) Sibth. 

Masatierra: Cordon Centinela; loco deusto (174). Valle Colonial. Puerto 
Ingles. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas; ad saxa (226, 231). 
Area: Cosmopolitan. 



424 '^'- ^''- 13ROTHERUS 

BryaceaQ. 
Mielichhoferia Hornscb, 

M. longiseta C. Miill. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designate (MoSELEV in Memsley, Challenger Re- 
l)ort Bot. I.). 

Area: Ecuador. 



Bryum Dill. 



B. Lechleri C. Mull. 



Masafuera: Ouebrada de las Casas (Skottsberg 1908). 
Area: Chile. 



B. (Apalodictyuni) feriiandezianuni Broth, n. sp. 

Dioicum; tenellum, caespitosum, caespitibus densis, late extensis, laete viri- 
dibus, nitidiusculis. Caulis erectus, vix ultra i cm altus, inferne fusco-tomentosus, 
dense foliosus, innovando ramosus, innovationibus brevibus, erectis, aequaliter 
foliosis. Folia caulina sicca imbricata, humida erecto-patentia, carinato-concava, 
infima minuta, superiora sensim majora, oblonga, breviter acuminata, aristata, 
lamina usque ad 1,3 mm longa et usque ad 0,5 mm lata, marginibus erectis, 
integerrimis; nervo crassiusculo, rufescente, in aristam longiusculam, integram 
excedente; cellulis oblongo-hexagonis, teneris, basilaribus rectangularibus, mar- 
ginalibus angustis, limbum indistinctum eftbrmantibus. Folia innovationum 
minora, brevius aristata. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Puerto Ingles, in declivi litorali humido (189). 

Masafuera: In caverna litorali pr. vallem Casas {183). Quebrada de las 
Vacas; ad terram (187). 

Species Br. Crilgeri Hamp. affinis, sed foliis nervo crassiusculo in aristam 
excedente instructis dignoscenda. 



Leptostomaceae. 
Leptostomuin R. Br. 

L. Meuziesii (Hook.) R. Br. 

Masafuera: Cordon del Barril; ad truncos Diimydis Wintcri (196). 
Area: Patagonia, Fuegia. 



TIU: MUSCI Ol" TUli JUAN l-JCKNANDKZ ISLANDS 425 

l^ustichiaccac. 
Eustichia (Hrid.) Mitt. 

E. Pocppigii (C. Miill.) Par. 

Masatierra: Puerto Ingles; ad rupes j)raeruptas; c. ^50 in. s. ni. (149). 
Portcziielo de Villagra; ad rupcs in silva; c. 575 m. s. ni. (150, 367). 

Masafuera: Oiiebrada de las Vacas; ad rupes humidas (151). Ouebrada 
de las Casas; ad rupes et ad saxa (194). 
Area: Chile, W. Patagonia. 

Rhizogoniaceae. 
Rhizogonium Brid. 

Kh. Novae HoUandiae Brid. var. patagonicum Card. et. Broth. 

Masatierra: Cordon Salsipuedes; raro; 660 m. s. m. (190). 
Area: Patagonia. 

Rh. mnioides (Hook.) Schimp. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas; c. 200 m. s. ni. (192). Campo Cor- 
respondencia; 1150 m. s. m. (191). Cordon del Barril; ad truncos Dicksoiiiae; 
900—1000 m. s. m. (193). 

Area: New Granada, Chile, Patagonia, Fuegia, Australia, Tasmania, New 
Zealand. 

Bartramiaceae. 
Anacolia Schimp. 

A. subsessilis (Tayl.) Broth. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra; ad rupes; 590 m. s. m. (210). 
Area: New Granada, Ecuador. 

var. brevifolia Broth, n. var. 

A typo foliis brevioribus, siccis adpressis diftert. Sporogonia ignota. 
Masatierra: Inter Villagra et Tres Puntas (358). 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas; ad moles (201, 203 p. p.). Inter 
Casas et Papal; ad rupes; c. 200 m. s. m. (202). 



_|2 6 V. F. BROIHKRUS 

Bartramia Hedw. 
B. aristata Schimp. 
Masatierra: Puerto Ingles; ad rupes; c. 450 m. s. m. (198). 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Klindado; ad rupes; 440 m. s, m (197). Las 
Torres; 1380 m. s. m. (206). Campo Correspondencia; iioom. s. m. (204, 205, 
208, 209). 

Area: Chile. 

B. patens Brid. 

Masafuera: Las Torres; ad rupes; 1370 m. s. m. (198, 207). 
Area: Patagonia, Fuegia, P'alkland Isl., South Georgia, Kerguelen. 

B. fernandeziana Card, in Soc. Havr. p. 7 (1921). 
Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero). 
Area: Endemic. 

Philonotis Brid. 

Ph. Krauseana (C. Mull.) Jaeg. 

Masatierra: Valle Colonial; ad parietes cavernae huniidas (212, 364). 

Masafuera: Quebrada de la Loberia; in rivulo (99 p. p.). 

Area: Chile. 

var. longinervis Broth, n. var. 

A typo foliis angustius reticulatis, nervo excedente differt. 

Masatiera: Pangal; ad cataractam; 205 m. s. m. (214). 

Ph. glabrata Broth, n. sp. 

Dioica. Gracilis, caespitosa, caespitibus densis, mollibus, late extensis, 
laete viridibus. Caulis erectus, usque ad 3 cm altus, fusco-tomentosus, dense 
foliosus, ± ramosus vel simplex. P'olia erecto-patentia, sicca erectiora, ovato- 
lanceolata, cristata, marginibus erectis, superne simpliciter serrulatis; nervo 
crasso, in aristam elongatam, rigidam, serrulatam excedente, dorso superne 
serrulato; cellulis superioribus anguste rectangularibus, basin versus laxioribus, 
omnibus laevibus. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Pangal; ad rupes (363). 

Species praecedenti affinis, sed foliis nervo crasso longe aristatis cellulis- 
que laevibus dignoscenda. 

Ph. scabrifolia (Hook. t^l. et Wils.) Broth. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra; 450 — 500 m. 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Mono. Campo Correspondencia; 1 100 m. s. m. 



THE MUSCI OF THE JUAN EEKNANnKZ ISLANDS 427 

(362). In rupibus ad viam inter Quebrada de las Casas et Papal; c. 200 
m. s. m. (217). 

Area: Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Patagonia, Fuegia, Falkland Isl., South 
Africa, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Auckland, Marion, Kerguelen, South 
Georgia. 

Ph. vagaiis (Hook. fil. et Wils.) Mitt. 

\ar. evanidinervis Broth, n. var. 

A typo foliis la.xius areolatis, nervo infra apicem folii evanido differt. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de la Loben'a; ad rivulos (215). 

Area of typical P/i. vagiDis: Chile, South Georgia. 



Breutelia Schimp. 

B. Masafuerae Broth, n. sp. 

Gracilescens, rigida, lutescens, nitida, aliis muscis immixta. Caulis erectus 
vel adscendens, usque ad 8 cm altus, haud tomentosus, densiuscule foliosus, 
vage ramosus, superne simplex vel ramis paucis, subfloralibus instructus. Folia 
e basi brevi, superne dilatata, plicata in laminam patulam, strictam, plicatam, 
anguste lanceolato-subulatam, c. 4 mm longam attenuata, marginibus basi 
anguste revolutis, superne minutissime serrulatis; nervo sat tenui, ± longe ex- 
cedente; cellulis linearibus, incrassatis, lumine angustissimo, laevibus, basila- 
ribus externis in seriebus paucis breviter rectangularibus, hyalinis, basilaribus 
infimis fuscoaureis. Caetera ignota. 

Masafuera: Correspondencia, in campo; 1350 m. s. m. (366). 
Species foliis minutissime serrulatis, cellulis incrassatis, lumine angustissimo, 
laevibus dignoscenda. 



Hedwigi aceae. 
Rhacocarpus Lindb. 

Rh. Humboldtii (Hook.) Lindb. 

Masafuera: Las Torres; ad rupes praeruptas (236) et ad rupes humidas 
(231); c. 1370 m. s. m. 

Area: W. South America from New Granada to Fuegia, E. Africa, Re- 
union, Madagascar. 



428 



V. F. BROXHERUS 

Cryphaeaceae. 
Dendrocryphaea Par. et Schimp. 

D. cuspidata (Sull.) Broth. 

Masafiiera : Quebrada de las Casas (SK0TTSi3ERG 1908). 
Area: Chile. 



Cyptodon Par. et Schimp. 

C. crassinervis Broth, n. sp. 

Autoicus; gracilescens, caespitosus, caespitibus densis, rigidiusculis, fusce- 
scentibus, superne lutescentibus, vix nitidiusculis. Caulis fluitans, usque ad 8 
cm longus, dense foliosus, ± regulariter pinnatim ramosus, ramis patentibus, 
brevibus, simplicibus, singulis longioribus, ± ramulosis. Folia sicca imbricata, 
humida erecto-patentia, ovata, breviter acuminata, acuta, c. 2 mm longa, mar- 
ginibus erectis, apice minutissime serrulatis; nervo crasso, infra apicem folii 
evanido; cellulis laminalibus paulum incrassatis, lumine ovali, basilaribus internis 
linearibus, externis quadratis et transverse latioribus. Bracteae perichaetii 
erectae, sensim acuminatae, integrae, nervo crasso, longe excedente aristatae. 
Theca immersa, ovali. Peristomium luteum, minute papillosum; exostomii 
dentes lanceolati; endostomium exostomii longitudinis, processibus angustis. 
Caetera ignota. 

Masafiiera: In valle Casas, ad cataractas (341). 

Species C. dilatato (Hook.) fil. et Wils. valde affinis, sed foliis angustio- 
ribus, acutis, nervo crassiore distinguenda. 



Lepyrodontaceae. 
Lepyrodon Hamp. 



L. parvulus Mitt. 



Masatierra: Sine loco designato (E. C. Reed); Cordon Chifladores; ad 
truncos; 3 — 400 m. s. m. (338). Quebrada de la Damajuana; in silva (233, 
forma). Infra trajectum Portezuelo; ad rhizomata Polypodii intermedii (248). 
Puerto Ingles; ad truncos in silva sicca; c. 550 m. s. m. (232). 

Masafuera: Sine loco designato (CuMiNG). Quebrada del Mono; ad 
truncum; 457 m. s. m. (505 p. p.). Quebrada de las Chozas; ad truncos (336). 
Inter Sanchez et Tolten; ad truncos et ramos arborum; 515 m. s. m. (335< 337)- 

Area: Chile. 



THK MllSn or TIIK JUAN KICRNAN'DF.Z ISLANDS 42g 

L. tomentosus (Hook.) Mitt. 

Masaticrra: In jugo inter valles Piedra agujereada et Laura; 650 m. s. m. 
(339). El Vunque, in declivi meridionali; ad Iriincos in silva; 4 — 500 m. s. m. (234). 
Area: New Granada, I^cuador, Peru, Argentina, ]5razil. 

L. implexus (Kun/,.) Par. 

Masaticrra: El Yunquc, in declivi meridionali; ad truncuni ])ri))iydis; c. 
450 ni. s. m. (248 bi.s). 

fo. flagcllifera. 

Rami partim in flagellum ± elongatum, simplex vol ramosum attenuati. 

Masaticrra: Cerro Piramide, in declivi boreali; 600 m. s. m. (250). Salsi- 
puedes; in Dicksonieto parce; 660 m. s. m. (249). 
Area: Chile, W. Patagonia, P'uegia. 

Ptychomniaceae. 
Ptychomnium Hook. fit. et Wils. 

P. subacicularc Besch. 

Masaticrra: In declivi meridionali supra Pangal; 795 m. s. m. (243). 
Cordon Centinela; in fruticeto; 530 m. s. m. (354). Salsipuedes; in fruticeto 
lapidoso jugi; 625 m. s. m. (242, 244, 353) et in silva (355). 

Area: Chile, Patagonia, Fuegia. 

P. falcatulum Broth, n. sp. — Plate 26, fig. 33—35. 

Robustiusculum, caespitosum, caespitibus densiusculis, lutescentibus niti- 
diusculis. Caulis adscendens vel flexuosus, dense foliosus, vage ramosus. Folia 
patentia, superiora ± distincte falcatula, basi pluries plicata, ovalia, subsensim 
in acumen lanceolato-subulatum, inaequaliter serratum attenuata; nervis in- 
distinctis; cellulis laminalibus incrassatis, inter se porosis, lumine lineari, basila- 
ribus infimis abbreviatis, fusco-aureis. Seta c. 1,5 cm alta tenuis, nigrescens. 
Theca inclinata vel subhorizontalis, oblongo-cylindrica, subarcuata, profunda pli- 
cata. Operculum e basi cupulata aciculare. 

Masaticrra: In jugo inter valles Piedra agujereada et Laura; 650 
m. s. m. (356). 

Species praecedenti affinis, sed foliis erectioribus, superioribus falcatulis 
nee non seta breviore dignoscenda. 

var. gracilcsccns Broth, n. var. 

Gracilescens. Folia vix vel indistincte falcatula, ovalia, raptim in acumen 
plerumque minutius serrulatum attenuata. Sporogonia ut in typo. 



43 o 



V. F. BROTHERUS 



Masatierra: In jugo inter Qnebrada de la Piedra agujereada et Ouebrada 
Laura; 650 m. s. ni. (245). 

P. ptychocarpum (Schwaegr.) Mitt. 

Masafuera: Correspondencia; in campo; c. 1200, 1350 m. s. ni. (246, 
335). In cacumine mentis Inocentes; in campo; 1480 m. s. m. (247). 
Area: Chile, W. Patagonia. 



Neckeraceae. 
Weymouthia Broth. 

W. mollis (Hedw.) Broth. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designate (Bertero); Portezuelo de Villagra; ad 
rupes praeruptas; c. 600 m. s. m. (327) et c. 450 m. s. m. Cordon Salsipiiedes; 
625 m. s. m. (253). 

Masafuera: Ouebrada del Varadero; c. 950 m. s. m. (251). Inter San- 
chez et Token; ad truncos et ramos arborum; 515 m. s. m. (328, 329). 
Area: Chile, East Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand. 

Leptodon Mohr. 

L. Smithii (Dicks.). Mohr. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designate (E. C. Reed). 

Masafuera: In planitie inter Sanchez et Tolten, ad truncos et ramulos, 
515 m. s. m. (382). 

Area: Europe, Caucasus, Canary Isl., Africa, Kilimandscharo, Chile, Ar- 
gentina, East Australia, New Zealand. 

Neckera Hedw. 

N. rotundata Broth, n. sp. — Plate 27, fig. 11 — 13. 

Dioica; gracilescens, lutescenti-viridis, nitidiuscula. Caules secundarii 3 
cm vel paulum ultra alti, dense foliosi, complanati, cum foliis 4 — 5 mm lati, 
pinnatim ramosi, ramis patentibus, vix ultra i cm longis, vix attenuatis. Folia 
undulata, lateralia e basi oblonga ligulata, rotundato-obtusa, c. 3 mm longa et 
usque ad 0,95 mm lata, subintegra; nervis binis, brevissimis; cellulis lamina- 
libus breviter linearibus, apicalibus rhombeis, alaribus minutis, ovalibus, aureis. 
Caetera ignota. 



THE MtlSCI OF THE JUAN FERNANnEZ ISLANUS 43 I 

Masafucra: Quebrada del Mono; in silva ad basin arborum parce; 440 
m. s. m. (275). 

Species distinctissiiiia, foiiis rotundato-obtusis jam di<ijnoscenda. 



Porotluiinniuiii lleisch. 

1*. fasciculatuni (Sw.) Fleisch. 

Masafucra: Quebrada de las Casas; ad terram sub BlecJinuni loiii^icninia : 
c. 200 m. s. m. (270); ad rupem humidam (352) et ad niargines cataractarum 
(35 0- Quebrada del Blindado; ad terram et ad saxa; 440 m. s. m. (272). 
Quebrada del Mono; in silva (267 p. p.). 

Area: Jamaica, Portorico, Venezuela, New Granada, Peru, Brazil. 

P. arbusculans (C. Miill. sub Hypno). 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas (Skottsberg 1908). 

Area: Chile, Patagonia. 



Thamnium Bryol. eur. 

Th. rigidum (Mitt.) Broth. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero, E. C. Reed, Moseley). 

Area: Endemic. 

Th. latinerve (Mitt.). [Porotndiuin latinervc Mitt, in Hemsley, Challenger 
Rep. Bot. I.). 

Masatierra: (Bertero, Moseley). 
Area: Endemic. 

Th. Caroli Broth, n. sp. 

' Robustum, rigidum, pallide viride, aetate lutescenti-viride vel pallide 
fuscescens, vix nitidiusculum. Caules secundarii 8 — 13 cm alti, stipitati, stipite 
3 — 5 cm longo, foiiis squamaeformibus, adpressis dense vestito, dein pinnatim 
ramosi, dense et cornplanate foliosi, cum foiiis 4 mm vel paulum ultra lati, 
obtusi vel sensim attenuati, ramis infimis usque ad 9 cm longis, ± dense pin- 
natim ramulosis, superioribus multo brevioribus, simplicibus. Folia caulina 
erecto-patentia, concava, ovato-lanceolata, acuta vel acumine breviter ligulato, 
aculiusculo terminata, 3,5 — 4 mm longa, subintegra; nervo basi crassiusculo, 
dein sensim angustiore, infra apicem folii evanido; cellulis laminaUbus incras- 
satis, apicalibus rhombeis, lumine elliptico, basilaribus linearibus, inter se porosis, 
lumine angustissimo. Folia ramea minora, apice dentibus singulis instructa. 



432 



V. F. BROTHERUS 



Seta c. 7 mm alta, tenuis, rubra. Theca minuta, inclinata, oblonga, deopercu- 
lata atrofusca. Operculum ignotum. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo de Villagra; ad terram; c. 600 m. s. m. (344). 
El Yunque; c. 450 m. s. m. (254); ad truncos. 

Species Th. rigido (Mitt.) Broth, affinis, sed statura multo robustiore, caule 
remotius pinnato ramisque complanatis nee non foliis longius acuminalis, nervo 
superne sensim tenuiore dignoscenda. 

Th. Ingae Broth, n. sp. 

Robustiusculum, rigidum, pallide viride, nitidiusculum. Caules secundarii 
6—10 cm alti, stipitati, stipite i — 3 cm longo, foliis squamaeformibus dense 
vestito, dein pinnatim ramosi, dense foliosi, valde complanati, cum foliis c. 3 
mm lati, plerumque obtusi, ramis usque ad 3 cm vel paulum ultra longis, sim- 
plicibus vel subsimplicibus. Folia caulina erecto-patentia, concaviuscula, ovato- 
oblonga, angulo acutiusculo terminata, c. 2 mm longa, Integra vel apice ± 
serrata; nervo basi crassiusculo, dein sensim angustiore, infra apicem folii eva- 
nido; cellulis laminalibus apicalibus incrassatis, rhombeis, caeteris hand incras- 
satis, basilaribus breviter linearibus. Folia ramea minora. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Puerto F'rances; ad terram et saxa silvae; c. 500 m. s. m. 
(345) et ad pedem arborum (347). Quebrada de la Damajuana; ad truncos; 
(346). V. Colonial, Quebrada Gutierrez; ad arbores silvae; c. 500 m. s. m. 
(348). Quebrada Juanango; ad terram; c. 250 m. s. m. (255). Villagra, Que- 
brada Choza; ad truncos in silva; c. 250 m. s. m. (268). V. Colonial, Quebrada 
seca; ad saxa et ad pedem arborum; 435 m. s. m. (269, 349, fo. procerior, 
ramis infimis longioribus, pinnatim ramulosis). 

Species praecedenti valde affinis, sed caule ramisque valde complanatis 
foliisque ovato-oblongis, angulo acutiusculo terminatis, cellulis superioribus tantum 
incrassatis dignoscenda. 



Th. crassinerviuni Broth, in Engl.-Prantl Bryal. p. 862. Porotrichuvi 
crassinerviun Mitt, in Herb. 

Gracilescens, fuscescenti-viride, vix nitidiusculum. Caules secundarii c. 10 
cm alti, stipitati, stipite c. 6 cm longo, foliis squamaeformibus dense vestito, 
dein pinnatim ramosi, dense foliosi vix complanati, ramis usque ad 2,5 cm 
longis, simplicibus. Folia erecto-patentia, concava, lanceolata, raptim in acumen 
breve, anguste serratum contracta, c. 2 mm longa; nervo crassissimo, ubique 
aequilato vel superne paulum latiore, infra summum apicem folii evanido; cel- 
lulis baud incrassatis, acuminis irregularibus, ovalibus vel triangularibus, cae- 
teris hexagono-oblongis, basin versus sensim longioribus, infimis linearibus. 
Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (Bertero); Quebrada Damajuana; ad 
cataractam; 248 m. s. m. (376, fo. foliis plurimis destructis). Portezuelo; c. 450 
m. s. m. 

Area: Endemic. 



THK MfSCI OF THE JIWN FKRNANDKZ ISLANDS 433 

Til. proboscideum Broth, n. sp. 

Gracilescens, sordide viridissinium, opacuin. Caulcs scciindarii usque ad 
7 cm alti, stipitati. stipite us(iue ad 3 cm longo, foliis squamaeformibus dense 
vestito, dein pinnatiin raniosi, ramis usque ad 3 cm longis, simplicibus vel in- 
fimis subpinnatim raniulosis. Folia erecto-patentia, concaviuscula, lanceolata, 
apice pleruinque excisa ibidemque minute serrulata, nervo longe excedente 
terminata, c. 2 mm longa; nervo crassissimo, ubique aequilato, longe excedente; 
cellulis haud incrassatis, acuminis irregularibus, ovalibus vel triangularibus, cae- 
teris hexagono-oblongis, basin versus sensim longioribus, infimis linearibus. 
Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Pangal; ad rupem praeruptam in cataracta; 205 m. s. m. 
(256). 

Species praecedenti affinis, sed foliis acumine exciso, nervo crassiore, 
longe excedente dignoscendn. 

Th. assiniile Broth, n. sp. 

Praecedenti gracilius, atroviride, opacum. Caules secundarii usque ad 8 
cm alti, stipitati, stipite 2 — 5 cm longo, foliis squamaeformibus dense vestito, 
dein pinnatim ramosi, densiuscule foliosi, complanati, ramis usque ad 6 cm 
longis, infimis pinnatim ramulosis. Folia erecto-patentia, concaviuscula, lanceo- 
lata, raptim in acumen breve, argute serratum contracta, c. 2 mm longa; nervo 
crassissimo, ubique aequilato, infra summum apicem folii evanido; cellulis 
haud incrassatis, superioribus ovalibus, caeteris hexagono-oblongis, basilaribus 
linearibus. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Ouebrada Damajuana; ad marginem cataractae (350); 250 
m. s. m. 

Species praecedenti valde affinis, sed foliis in acumen breve, argute ser- 
ratum contractis dignoscenda. 

Th. confertum (Mitt, sub Porotricho in Hemsley Challenger Rep. Bot. I.). 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (MOSELEY). 
Area: Endemic. 

Pinnatella (C. Mull.) Fleisch. 

P. (Eupinnatella) macrosticta Broth, n. sp. — Plate 27, fig. 14 — 15. 

Tenella, laxe caespitosa, fuscescenti-viridis. Caulis primarius elongatus, 
repens; caules secundarii vix ultra 5 mm alti, ± distincte pinnatim ramosi, ramis 
patentibus brevibus, laxiuscule et complanate foliosis, simplicibus, obtusis. 
Folia patula, breviter oblonga, acumine brevi, acutiusculo terminata, c. 0,75 mm 
longa et c. 0,2 mm lata, apice minute denticulata; nervo infra apicem folii 
evanido; cellulis rotundato-hexagonis, papilla medi^i distinctissima instructis, 
inferioribus sensim longioribus. Caetera ignota. 

28 — 2391. The Xat. Hist, of Juan Fernandez and Easter Id. I'd. II. 



434 



V. F. BROTHERUS 



Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas; ad corticem (271, 273). 
Species distinctissima, foliis cellulis papilla media elevata instructis a con- 
generibus raptim dignoscenda. 



Hookeriaceae. 
Distichophyllum Doz. et Molk. 

D. (Discophyllum) subelimbatiini Broth, n. sp. — Plate 27, fig. 9—10. 

Dioicum; gracile caespitosiim, caespitibus densiusculis, mollibiis, depressis, 
glauco-viridibus, aetate lutescenti-viridibus, opacis, Caulis fragilis, repens, hie 
illic rhizoideis fuscis instructus, densiuscule et complanate foliosus, cum foliis 
2—3 mm latus, lamosus. Folia sicca vix miitata, planiiiscula, lateralia patentia, 
e basi anguste et breviter spathulata obovata, obtusa, mutira vel apiculata, 
marginibus minutissime crenulatis; nervo tenuissimo, ad vel paulum ultra me- 
dium folii evanido; cellulis laminalibus superioribus angulato-rotundatis, 0,015—0,020 
mm, dein sensim majoribus, ovali-hexagonis, basilaribus oblongohexagonis, 
marginalibus inferioribus elongatis, angustis, limbum uniseriatum, hyalinum, vix 
ad medium folii productum efformantibus. Folia intermedia subconformia, media 
multo minora, ovalia, nervo breviore. Bracteae perichaetii erectae, minutae, e 
basi oblonga breviter ligulatae, acutae, apice crenulatae, enerves. Seta c. 8 
mm alta, tenuis, rubra, laevissima. Calyptra superne scabra, basi pilis longis 
instructa. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: In jugo inter valles Piedra agujereada et Laura; ad ligna 
putrida; 650 m. s. m. (306, 309). Valle Colonial; ad parietes cavernae plus 
minusve humidas (304, 305, 308, 310, 312, 313, 316, 317). In jugo Centinela; 
ad truncos Filicum (311). Salsipuedes; ad ligna putrida in Dicksonieto; 660 
m. s. m. (314, 315). 

Species distinctissima, ob folia subelimbata cum nulla alia commutanda. 

D. (Discophyllum) assiniile Broth, n. sp. 

Dioicum. r gracilescens, caespitosum, caespitibus densiusculis, mollibus, 
glauco-viridibus, opacis. Caulis procumbens, inferne fusco-radiculosus, densiuscule 
et complanate foliosus, cum foliis c. 3 mm latus, ramosus. Folia sicca vix 
mutata, planiuscula, e basi anguste et breviter spathulata obovata, obtusa, api- 
culata, limbata, superne minutissime serrulata; nervo tenuissimo, ultra medium 
folii evanido; cellulis laminalibus superioribus angulato-rotundatis, 0,015 — 0,020 
mm, dein sensim majoribus, ovali-hexagonis, basilaribus oblongo-hexagonis, 
marginalibus elongatis, angustis, limbum biseriatum, lutescentem, usque ad 
apicem productum efformantibus. Folia intermedia subconformia, media multo 
minora, ovalia. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: Portezuelo; ad ligna putrida in Dicksonieto; c. 550 m. s. m. 
{307). 



THE MUSCT OF Tin: J IT AX FKRNAXDEZ ISLANDS 435 

Species praecedcnti habitu pcrsiiiiilis, seel (oliis limbo usque atl .'ipiceni 
producto dignoscenda. 



D. (Discoph}lluiu) fcrnandczianiiiii Broth, a, sp. — Plate 27, fig. 7 — 8. 

Gracile, caespitosuni, caespitibus densis, mollibus, viiidissimis, opacis. 
Caulis erectus, usque ad 2,5 cm altus, per totam longitudinem parce fusco- 
radiculosus, dense et vix complanatc foliosus, superne dense fasciculatim ra- 
mosus. Folia sicca vix mutata, inferiora limbo excepto plerumque destructa, 
planiuscula, lateralia crecto-patentia, ovalia, raptim in apiculum contracta, c. 
1,1 mm longa et c. 0,57 mm lata, limbata, e medio ad apicem serrulata; nervo 
tenuiusculo, lutcscente, ultra medium folii evanido; ccUulis laminalibus angulato- 
rotundatis, 0,007 — 0,010 mm, basilaribus raptim multo majoribus, oblongo-hexa- 
gonis, marginalibus elongatis, angustis, limbum lutescentem, 3 seriatum eftbr- 
mantibus. Folia ventralia et dorsalia minora. Caetera ignota. 

Masafiiera: In alpinis prope campos »Correspondencia» dictos; ad saxa 
humida rivuli; 1100 m. s. m. (303). 

Species D. rohnidifolio (Hook. fil. et Wils.) Broth, forsan affinis, sed foliis 
densius areolatis, latius limbatis jam dignoscenda. 



Pterygophylluiii Brid. 

P. anomalum (Schwaegr.) Mitt. 

Masatierra: Pangal; ad marginem cataractae; 205 m. s. m. (290). 
Area: Fuesia. 



P. obsciirum (Mont.) Mitt. 

Masafiiera: Quebrada Loberia; in rivulo una cum Pliilonotidc vagautc {2<^\). 
Area: Chile, W. Patagonia, Falkland Isl., Tasmania. 

P. teniiinerve Broth, n. sp. — Plate 27, fig. 5 — 6. 

Dioicum; gracilescens, caespitosum, caespitibus laxiusculis, niollissimis, 
sordide glauco-viridibus, opacis. Caulis arcuato-procumbens, vix ultra i cm 
longus, basi fusco-radiculosus, laxe et complanate foliosus, simplex. Folia 
facillime emoUita, sicca vix mutata, planiuscula, lateralia patula, e basi bre- 
vissime spathulata oblonga, obtusa, usque ad 4 mm longa et usque ad 1,7 mm 
lata, e medio ad apicem grosse serrata; nervo tenui, brevi vel brevissimo; 
cellulis laminalibus valde pellucidis, rotundatis, superioribus 0,05 — 0,06 mm, basin 
versus sensim majoribus. Folia ventralia et dorsalia erectiora, minora. Bracteae 
perichaetii erectae, e basi oblonga anguste lanceolatae, integrae. Seta c. 12 
mm alta, tenuis, nigrescens, laevissima. Theca nutans, minuta, breviter oblonga, 
sicca deoperculata sub ore constricta, atrofusca. Caetera ignota. 



436 



F. BROTHERUS 



Masatierra: Cumberland, Bay, Pico Central; ad ligna putrida; 390 m. 
s. m. (386 fo. major). Salsipuedes; ad vegetabilia putrescentia in Dicksonieto 
parce; 660 m. s. m. (330). In jugo inter valles Piedra agujereada et Laura; 
ad ligna putrida; 650 m. s. m. (287, 288, 289 fo. major). 

Species praecedenti valde affinis, sed foliis glauco-viridibus, facillime emol- 
litis, grosse serratis, nervi tenui, brevissimo instructis dignoscenda. 

P. denticulatiim (Hook. fil. et Wils.) Mitt. 

Masatierra: Sine loco designato (E. C. Reed). 

Area: Fuegia, Falkland Isl., East Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, 
Auckland und Campbell Isl. 



Eriopus (Brid.) C. iMiill. 

E. leptoloma Broth, n. sp. — Plate 27, fig. i — 2. 

Autoicus; robustiusculus, caespitosus, caespitibus laxiusculis, laete viri- 
dibus, aelate lutescentibus, vernicoso-nitidis. Caulis erectus vel adscendens, i 
cm vel paulum ultra altus, cum foliis usque ad 5 mm latus, basi fusco-radicu- 
losus, laxiuscule foliosus, simplex. Folia sicca vix mutata, planiuscula, lateralia 
patentia, paulum asymmetrica, e basi brevissime spathulata ovalia, acuta, lim- 
bata, e medio ad apicem serrata; nervo brevissimo, furcato; cellulis ovali-hexa- 
gonis, basin versus sensim longioribus, marginalibus elongatis, angustis, lim- 
bum 2 — 3 seriatum efformantibus. Folia ventralia et dorsalia minora. Seta c. 
4 mm alta, lutea, mamillis humilibus, latis, hyalinis instructa. Caetera ignota. 

Masatierra: V. Colonial, Quebrada Gutierrez; ad ligna putrida silvae; c. 
300 m. s. m. (302). 

Masafuera: Quebrada del Blindado; ad ligna putrida silvae; c. 440 m. 
s. m. (301). 

Species E. apiadato (Hook. fil. et Wils.) Mitt, affinis, sed inflorescentia 
autoica, foliis acutis nee cuspidatis, argutius serratis, angustius limbatis nee non 
seta breviore dignoscenda. 



E. graiidiretis Broth, n. sp. — Plate 27, fig. 3 — 4. 

Robustus, mollis, glaucoviridis, opacus. Caulis usque ad 6 cm altus, cum 
foliis usque ad 8 mm latus, inferne fusco-radiculosus, densiuscule foliosus, atte- 
nuatus, simplex vel parce ramosus. Folia inferiora remota, dein magis con- 
ferta, sensim majora, lateralia patentia, oblonga, raptim in acumen breve, acu- 
tum attenuata, usque ad 4 mm longa et 1,9 mm lata, marginibus e medio ad 
apicem argute serratis; nervo e basi fere bifurco, cruribus inaequalibus, longiore 
ad medium folii evanido; cellulis laxis, valde pellucidis, oblongo- vel ovali- 
hexagonis, marginalibus angustis, limbum uniseriatum, hyalinum efformantibus. 
Caetera ignota. 



THE MUSCr OF THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ISLANDS 437 

Masafucra: In parte intima faucis Casas; ad truncum {265). 
Species pulclienima, praecedenti affinis, sed statura robustiore foliisquc 
laxe areolatis, limbo uniseriato longe diveisa. 



LaiiiprophylluiH Schimp. 

L. splendidissiinuiii (Mont.) Schimp. 

Masaticrra: Sine loco designate (Bertero, Moselev). Quebrada Gu- 
tierrez; ad ramulos arborum in silva; c. 300 m. s. m. (300). Ad rupes humidas 
in silva secus viam ad Portezuelo (298). Portezuelo; ad ligna putrescentia 
Dicksonieti; c. 550 m. s. m. (297 p. p., 299). Salsipuedes; ad truncos Drimydis 
in Dicksonieto; 660 m. s. m. (292, 293). Villagra, Quebrada Choza; ad truncos 
in silva; c. 250 m. s. m. (295, 298 p. p.). 

Masafuera: Quebrada dc las Casas; ad rupem praeruptam (294). Que- 
brada del Rlindado; ad truncum; 440 m. s. m. (296). 
Area: Chile, VV. Patagonia. 



Hypopterygiaceae. 

Lopidium Hook. fil. et Wils, 
L. coiicinnuni (Hook.) Fleisch. 

Masatierra: In declivi mentis Yunque; ad truncos; c. 450 m. s. m. (331, 
ly^- I" jugo inter Quebrada Piedra Agujereada et Quebrada Laura; 650 m. 
s. m. (332). 

Area: Chile, W. Patagonia, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Auck- 
land, Isl. 

Hypopterygiuni Brid. 

H. Thouini (Schwaegr.) Mont. 

Masafuera: Quebrada de las Casas raro; c. 200 m. s. m. (334). 

Area: Chile, W. Patagonia, Fuegia. 

Rhacopilaceae. 

Rhacopilum Palis. 

Rh. fernandeziaiiiim Card, in Soc. Havr. p. 7 (192 1) {Rh. fernandezianum 
Broth, in sched.). 

Dioicum; gracilescens, caespitosum, caespitibus densis, depressis, late 
extensis, viridibus vel lutescentibus, caulibus intertextis. Caulis elongatus, repens, 



438 



V. F. BROTHERUS 



per totam longitudinem fusco-tomentosus, dense foliosus, pinnatim ramosus, 
ramis patulis, simplicibus, vix ultra 5 mm longis, cum foliis c. 2 mm vel paulum 
ultra latis, singulis longioribus, pinnatim ramulosis. Folia postica siccitate in 
series duas reflexas, aristatas disposita, madore applanata, ovato-oblonga, ob- 
tusiuscula, aristata, apice tantum minute serrulata; n